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Full text of "The Japan Christian year-book"

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THE JAPAN 

CHRISTIAN YEARBOOK 

1968 



CO-EDITORS 

HALLAM C. SHORROCK, JR. 
JOSEPH J. SPAE 



THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY OF JAPAN 

(Kyo Bun Kwan) 
Tokyo, Japan 



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Japan Japan 

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The Japan Christian Yearbook 
for 1968 is a continuation 

of the Japan Mission Yearbook (1903-1910), 

EMMANUEL 

the Christian Movement in Japan, 

Formosa and Korea (1911-1932), and 
the Japan Christian Yearbook (1950-1967) 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE 

Co-Chairmen: Tadayoshi Tamura and Chuzo Yamada 

James Gittings Kenichiro Mochizuki 

Ryozo Kara Harriett Parker 

Stanley Manierre Paul Pfister 

James McElwain Hallam Shorrock 

Gene McRae Joseph Spae 



(71703 

This Japan Christian Yearbook for 1968 
is issued under the joint auspices of the 
Japan National Christian Council and 
the National Catholic Committee of 
Japan 

Japan National National Catholic 

Christian Council Committee of Japan 
2, Ginza 4-chome, 10-1, Rokubancho, 

Chuo-ku, Tokyo Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 

Japan Japan 

Tel. (03)-567-7566 Tel. (03)-262-3691 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Preface 



PART I 

ROLE OF CHRISTIANITY 
IN JAPANESE THOUGHT FROM 1868 TO 1968 

A review and analysis of two recent 
volumes by outstanding scholars, edited 

by Yasushi Kuyama: 

Kindai NiJwn to Kirisutokyo 

(Modern Japan and Christianity) 

and 

Gendai Nihon no Kirisutokyo 
(Christianity of Present-Day Japan) 

Yasuo Furuya 

1. The Meiji Restoration and Christianity 8 

2. The People s Rights Movement and Christianity .... 9 

3. Westernization and Christianity 10 

4. Christianity in the Period of Rising Nationalism . . 12 

5. Christianity in the Third Decade of Meiji 13 

6. Christianity at the End of Meiji 15 

7. Christianity in the Taisho Period 17 

8. Christianity in the Showa Period 22 

9. General Situation of Post-War Christianity 27 

10. The Problem of the United Church 

of Christ (Kyodan) 2& 



11 



11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 

17. 
18. 



Christianity and Communism 29 

The Formation of Shiina Literature 30 

The Peace Movement and Christianity 31 

The Character and Activity of Christian Schools .... 31 

The Problem of the Missionaries 32 

Theologians and Evangelists from Europe 

and America 

The Problem of the Minister and the Laymen 

The Problem of the Indigenization of Christianity . . 38 



PART II 

THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN JAPAN: 
PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 

James McElwain and Kenichiro Mochizuki 

Chapter 1. A Historical Analysis of the Christian Movement 
in Japan 

Section 1. A Review of Christian History 

Hallam Shorrock 41 

Section 2. The Development of the Catholic Church 
(1868-1968) 
James McElwain 53 

1. Western Christian Influences Penetrate 

Japan (1854-1856) 54 

2. Christian Ideal Welcomed (1874-1914) . . 55 

3. Christian Penetration Wanes 

(1915-1945) 61 

4. Revival of Full Missionary Effort 

(1946-1966) 62 

5. The Church Comes of Age (1967) 63 

6. Development of Catholic Educational, 

Social, Welfare, and other Institutions 64 



Ill 

Section 3. The Protestant Christian Movement in Japan 

Hallam Shorrock 71 

1. Internal and External Forces Shaping 

the Protestant Christian Movement 
During the Meiji Period 71 

2. A Profile of the Protestant Christian 

Movement in Japan 77 

Background Concerning the post-1945 

Period 78 

Return of Missionaries Following the 

End of World War II 80 

3. Present Period of Protestant Missions 

and the Christian Movement in Japan: 
A Profile Analysis of North Amer 
ican Mission Boards and Missionaries, 
and their Related Church, Educational, 
and Social Work Activities 82 

Chapter 2. Speaking to the New Era: Religious and 
Intellectual Leaders Look at Christianity 

1. Twelve Scholars Comment on 

Christianity 
. Collated by Joseph Spae 101 

2. A Buddhist Philosopher Looks at the" 

Future of Christianity 

Keiji Nishitani 108 

3. My View of Christianity: A Leader of 

One of the ""New Religions" Looks at 

Christianity 

Nikkyo Niwano 112 

Chapter 3. Speaking to the New Era: Christians 
Examine the Future 

1. Christianity and Nationalism 

Delmer Brown .116 



IV 



2. The Churches New Concern With the 

Scientific Revolution 

Kazuo Miyake 124 

3. Rapid Urbanization and Christian 

Responsibility 

Kentaro Shiozuki I 31 

4. Japan s Moral Dilemma and 

Christian Identity 

Hideo Oki 14 

5. Theology Tomorrow in Japan 

Toshio Sato 149 

6. Japan, Laity, and Christianity 

Shin Anzai 15o 

7. The Future of Christianity: From the 

Point of View of a "Non-church" 

Christian Professor 

Koki Nakazawa 164 



Chapter 4. Areas of Immediate Collaboration 

1. The Present Situation and the Future 

of Christian Arts in Japan 

Tadao Tanaka I 69 

2. Towards a Common Bible 

Thomas Miyauchi and 

Bemardin Schneider 175 

3. Ecumenism and the Future of 

Christianity in Japan 

Ryozo Hara and Paul Pfister 183 

4. The Image of the Church: 

An Ecumenical Responsibility 

Joseph Spae 189 



PART III 
DIARY OF 1967 

James Gittings and James McElwain 
Diary of 1967 198 

Epilogue 214 

PART IV 



James McElwain and Harriett Parker 

Section 1. Japanese Protestant Church Headquarters . . 215 
Section 2. Headquarters of Protestant and 

other Religious Agencies 231 

Section 3. Headquarters of Protestant Mission Boards 

and Societies in Japan 239 

Section 4. Listing of Names and Addresses of Protestant 

Missionaries in Japan 263 

Section 5. Directory of Catholic Organizations and 

Institutions and National and Local Offices. . 394 



PART V 
IN MEMORIAM 

A. J. Stir e wait 
Obituaries 404 

Contributors to the 1968 Japan Christian Yearbook .... 410 

Acknowledgements 413 

Index of Advertisements 414 



VI 



Design on dust jacket: 



Mr. Sadao Watanabe, world-renowned Christian wood-cut 
artist, portrays in a symbolic manner the Church in Japan 
standing in the midst of a rapidly urbanizing society. Facing 
their common task of serving mankind, Christians carry the 
burden of mission and unity. 



PREFACE 



As Sadao Watanabe s special jacket for this 1968 Japan 
Christian Yearbook indicates, this is a "special" issue. It is a 
special issue for two reasons: 1) It commemorates the 
Centennial observance of the Meiji Restoration of 1868; 2) 
It is the first Japan Christian Yearbook to be prepared and 
issued under joint Protestant and Roman Catholic auspices. 

In connection with the Centennial observance of the Meiji 
Restoration, which "restored" Japan as a strong and united 
nation within the world s community of nations, an attempt 
has been made by the Editors and Editorial Committee of 
the 1968 Japan Christian Yearbook to: 1) review and analyze 
the planting and development of Christianity in Japan; 2) 
show the role which Christianity has played in Japan s 
modernization ; and, 3) evaluate the place of Christianity in 
both present and future Japanese thought and culture. 

In reference to the second special and unique character of 
this issue of the Yearbook its being a product of joint Pro 
testant and Roman Catholic efforts the Editorial Committee 
has from the very beginning rejected any idea of speaking 
about "Protestant" or "Catholic" points of view, no matter 
how legitimate such a distinction might be theologically or 
ecclesiastically. In other words, we have resolved to approach 
our common tasks simply as "Christians." This stance has 
been strengthened by the participation of some outstanding 
non-Christians in the ecumenical dialogue which is repre 
sented in these pages. 

Thus this 1968 Japan Christian Yearbook is one major 
expression of the progressive state of ecumenical relations in 
Japan. As is well known, the Yearbook has been for more 
than half a century a distinguished and useful publication for 



and by Protestants, without comparison on the Catholic side. 
During recent years, however, Catholic missionaries and 
scholars have contributed regularly to the Yearbook, and also 
have developed several English journals and other publications 
of a very high quality. 

Therefore, on the occasion of the Meiji Centennial Year, 
plans for a joint production of the Yearbook were enthusiasti 
cally received on all sides of the real, but now crumbling wall 
which has separated us Christians. Our work together in this 
project, the joint authorship of several articles, including this 
Preface, has strengthened our impatient waiting for the 
spiritual unity which is necessary if the Christian "credibili 
ty gap" in Japan is to be reduced and hopefully closed. 

As has already been noted, the jacket for this Yearbook, 
produced especially for this issue by the renowned Christian 
wood-cut artist, Sadao Watanabe, provides a kind of "new 
look," and is a sign that a new era in Christian mission in 
Japan is dawning. But, as is evident, the basic format and 
other features of the Yearbook have been kept more or less 
intact. It is only fair to note that while many of the Pro 
testant members of the Editorial Board were in favor of 
certain major changes to more adequately reflect its joint 
sponsorship and production, most of the Catholic members 
strongly urged that no major changes be made in order to 
assure continuity, and as a witness to the important role 
which the Yearbook has played as a reporter of the Pro 
testant Christian Movement in Japan to the world Christian 
community. 

No one knows what the future will hold. But it seems 
very clear that in today s divided world of conflict, there is 
no longer room for "Catholic" or "Protestant" faith, hope, 
and love: there is is only room for "Christian" faith, hope, 
and love. If we really believe this, we must act accordingly. 

In the name of all of the contributors, who alone are 
responsible for their opinions, we would like to express our 
gratitude to God for the fellowship, courtesy, and Christian 



charity which has been experienced through the preparation 
of this 1968 Japan Christian Yearbook. 



Hallam C. Shorrock, Jr. 
Joseph J. Spae 



PART I 

A REVIEW OF THE ROLE OF 
CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

Yasuo Furuya 

About a decade ago, Dr. Yasushi Kuyama, Professor of 
Philosophy at Kwansei Gakuin University, in Kobe, and a 
founding member of the Kirisutokyo Gakuto Kyodaidan 
(Brotherhood of Christian Scholars), made two profound 
statements which are of great significance to the world 
Christian community. The first was to the effect that while 
there are many studies on modern Japan from the point of 
view of social science, as well as other academic disciplines, 
as yet practically non-existent are such studies from the 
religious point of view, without which it is impossible to 
discern the direction of Japan s future. The second state 
ment made by Editor Kuyama was, to use his own words, 
"There are few books that present Japan correctly to foreign 
countries, and particularly, none that tell the true reality of 
of Japan and Japanese Christianity to the many foreign 
missionaries who dedicate their lives to the evangelizing of 
Japan." 

Motivated by these twin concerns, Professor Kuyama has 
undertaken the task of filling these crucial gaps by editing 
two books: the first, Kindai Nihon to Kirisiitokyo (Modern 
Japan and Christianity) in two volumes, (1956) ; and the 
second, Gendai Nihon no Kirisutokyo (Christiantiy of Pre 
sent-Day Japan), (1961). The first work covers the period 
that began with the Meiji Restoration, Volume I dealing with 
the Meiji era, and Volume II with the Taisho and Showa 



6 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

eras up to the end of World War II in 1945. The second 
work deals with the post-war Showa period. 

In these books, Professor Kuyama undertakes to dis 
cern the direction of Japan s future, especially from the 
point of view of Christianity. At the same time, he tries to 
deal with Christianity as it has been and as it is Japan. 
For example, one of the basic underlying questions dealt with 
in these studies is the familiar question, "Why is Christianity 
in this country still weak and powerless in spite of its one 
hundred years of history?" Thus Professor Kuyama sets out 
to examine the course of Christianity in the context of the 
whole history of modern Japan. 

In order to accomplish these objectives, Professor Kuyama s 
basic methodology was to invite a number of scholars and 
writers to participate in discussions dealing with key issues 
and topics. Most of the participants were Christian, but some 
were not. Thus the basic content of these books consists of 
records of these discussions, plus supplemental information 
and historical background which were added by the Editor, 
Professor Kuyama. 

The Christian scholars who contributed in this way to the 
first book, Modern Japan and Christianity, and their positions 
at the time of publication were as follows: 



Kiyoko Takeda Cho Professor of History of Thought, In 
ternational Christian University. 

Kazo Kitamori Professor of Systematic Theology, To 

kyo Union Theological Seminary. 

Tsutomu Oshio Pastor of Igusa Church, Director of 

the Institute for the Study of the Bible, 
Lecturer in New Testament at various 
seminaries. 

Rinzo Shiina Novelist, who became a Christian after 

World War II, and one of the well- 
known figures in post-war literature. 



REVIEW < 

Mikio Suwiya Professor of Economics, Tokyo Univer- 

versity. 

Shogo Yamaya Formerly Pastor of Shinanomachi 

Church and Professor of New Testa 
ment, Tokyo Union Theological Semi 
nary. 

Participants in the first work from outside of Christianity 
were : 

Masamichi Inoki Professor of Economics, Kyoto Univer 

sity. 

Katsuichiro Kamei Buddhist, literary critic, and leading 
writer on religious and spiritual thought. 

Masaaki Kosaka Former Professor of Philosophy, and 

Professor of Pedagogy, Kyoto Univer 
sity. 

With the exceptions of Reverend Yamaya and Reverend 
Oshio, the same scholars contributed to the discussions which 
formed the basic content of the second book, Christianity of 
Present-Day Japan. Replacing Reverend Yamaya and Rev 
erend Oshio were Kazuo Muto, Professor of Christian Studies 
at Kyoto University, and Professor Keiji Nishitani, a Bud 
dhist scholar, who is Professor of Philosophy of Religion, also 
at Kyoto University, and who writes in this Yearbook con 
cerning the future of Christianity in Japan (see pages 108- 

111). 

In terms of methodology, I would like to make the follow 
ing points clear. First of all, in trying to summarize and 
evaluate the very wide range of material in these volumes, I 
have tried to concentrate on what the world outside of Japan 
and the Christian missionary community in Japan would find 
most worthwhile and helpful. Secondly, neither I nor the 
Editors of this Yearbook are responsible for the accuracy 
of facts and dates, and the interpretation of the various 



8 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

historical events which were mentioned in the discussions and 
in these volumes. Thirdly, I have not attempted to up-date 
the material presented beyond the time when the discussions 
on which these books are based took place and the present. 
Fourthly, it should be noted that the headings under which 
this review and analysis are made are the chapter titles in 
Professor Kuyama s two volumes. 

1. The Meiji Restoration and Christianity 

It is well-known that most of the Japanese who became 
Christian through encounter with the first missionaries from 
America were young men of the samurai class, which was 
also the intellectual class. These young men, however, were 
from a certain kind of samurai. Most of them were from 
outside of the Satsuma and Choshu clans which had been 
instrumental in the achievement of the restoration of direct 
imperial rule and the bringing to birth of a new regime. In 
other words, those who became Christian were mainly from 
either the clans closely related to the old Tokugawa regime, 
or from clans opposing both the Satsuma and Choshu. This 
meant that they were excluded from the route which was 
leading people to the status of "the elite," so to speak. 
Politically and socially they were already "anti-establish 
ment." When they met with missionaries, they found 
that Christianity had a spiritual basis which was quite dif 
ferent from that of the Meiji government, and they were 
convinced that a new Japan, in the true sense of the word, 
should be based upon Christianity. This provided one charac 
teristic of the early Meiji period Christians, for whom belief 
in Christianity and the construction of a new nation were 
inseparably related. 

Another characteristic derived from their Confucianist 
background. They did not seem to experience "conversion" in 
a drastic sense in their transition from Confucianism to 
Christianity. They regarded Christianity not as a radical 



REVIEW 9 

transformation or as a revolutionary change from their in 
herited religion. At best it was for them a further develop 
ment and a completion of Confucianism. Consequently, their 
understanding of Christianity was in the ethical realm, for 
Confucianism itself was a very ethical religion. They saw in 
Christianity an extension of Confucian ethics, a deepened 
ethical system. It took about fifteen or twenty years until 
they realized that in Christianity there were something op 
posed to Confucianism. 

This raises a very interesting series of questions. Did 
the early missionaries know that the Japanese Christians 
understood Christianity as an extension of Confucianism? If 
they knew it, and admitted it as a step and a process of 
evangelism, was not the early missionaries understanding 
of Christian a rather liberal one? What kind of Christianity 
did they bring to Japan with them? Was it not a kind of 
puritanical orthodox Christianity, which was losing its vitality 
at home? Even a "dead" orthodoxy could apparently become 
revitalized when it touched "fresh" air previously unexposed 
to Christianity. Whether it was liberal or orthodox that 
needs to be studied and clarified the faith of the early mis 
sionaries was sincere and inspiring, and these missionaries 
were people of excellent personality, character and ability. 

2. The People s Rights Movement and Christianity 

In view of the social background of the first Japanese 
Christians, it is not surprising to find them allied with the 
leaders and supporters of the People s Rights Movement, 
which urged the early drafting of a democratic constitution 
and promoted the cause of democracy in opposition to the 
oligarchs in power. This movement lasted only a few years 
(1881-1884), but it was during and around this period that 
the Christians began to show signs of maturity. Some 
pastors and laymen took a conspicuous part in local politics. 
Hiromichi Kozaki s Seikyo Shinron (New View of Religion 



10 



CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 



and Politics) was published in 1886. This book is to be remem 
bered as a first criticism of Confucianism from the Christian 
point of view. It showed that Japanese Christians had 
come to see in Christianity something different from and 
opposed to their heritage of Confucianism. Another boo 
which was perhaps more important, and which showed a much 
deeper understanding and comprehension of Christianity was 
Masahisa Uemura s Shinri Ippan (On Truth), published in 
1884 This was the first apologetic work by a Japanese 
Christian over against the anti-Christian philosophies and 
thoughts that were imported from the West, such as evolu 
tion, atheism, agnosticism, etc., that were taught by : 
missionary foreigners. 

As a part of this maturing process, it is pointed out that 
the "revival" which began at prayer meetings in Yokohama 
in 1883, spreading to Tokyo and reaching Doshisha College 
in Kyoto in 1884, was the important turning point in 1 
understanding and the grasping of the truth of the Gospel 
among Japanese Christians. These spiritual experiences are 
explained as indicating a turning away from a Confuciamst 
ethical-political understanding of Christianity to a "revivahs- 
tic"-perhaps better called "evangelical-understanding 
the Gospel, in which such concepts as "sin" and "personal- 
self before a personal God" became their concern for the first 
time It was also in 1883 that the idea of self-support of the 
churches was first discussed by both missionaries and Japa 



nese. 



3. Westernization and Christianity 

For four or five years in the latter 1880 s there was an 
intensive Westernization movement, symbolized by the dance 
parties which were held at the Rokumei-kan, a foreign-style 
social club established by the government. It was during this 
period that many of the upper class became Christian, and 
the number of churches and their membership rapidly in- 



REVIEW 11 

creased by two and three times. This growth is often cri 
ticized as a superficial acceptance of Christianity. However, 
it was around and after this time that a kind of spiritual 
revolution was taking place among the people. If the political 
revolution of the Meiji Restoration is called the "first re 
volution" of Meiji, the spiritual revolution two decades later 
may be called the "second revolution" of Meiji. Politically 
this period was quite reactionary and conservative. But 
looking at it in the wide context of the total history of 
modern Japan, it may be called a period of "renaissance." 
For the self-consciousness of both individual persons and a 
race was being awakened. This was due partly to the recovery 
of Japanese classical literature as a reaction to a rather 
superficial Westernization. Basically, however, it was the 
springtime of a young nation s life, in which Christianity 
played a prominent role. This was particularly clear in the 
field of literature. This history of Meiji literature cannot be 
written apart from Christianity. Beside three other literary 
works, the translation of the Bible and the hymns (especially 
Shinsen Sanbika, 1890) are pointed out by Kamei, the literary 
critic, as having exerted the most influence on the Meiji 
spiritual revolution. The hymns influenced an emotional rev 
olution in the field of literature, and their flexibility of 
translation into very simple words had a revolutionary effect 
on the Japanese language itself. Christianity also taught 
Japanese literati to write confessional novels. The freedom of 
confession, which people learned from Christianity, led to the 
freedom of love, and further to guilt-consciousness, and finally 
to apostasy. 

There were many novelists who once became Christian, 
but who later left the Christian faith, such as, Tokoku 
Kitamura, Toson Shimazaki, Doppo Kunikida, Hakucho Masa- 
mune, and Roka Tokutomi. With the possible exception of 
Masamune, it appeared as if none of these novelists had any 
real confrontation with the Christian faith. In their works 
one cannot see any inner struggle or spiritual sufferings 



12 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

caused by an encounter with Christianity. Nevertheless, the 
fact remains that Meiji literature was under the noteworthy 
influence of Christianity. 

4. Christianity in the Period of Rising Nationalism 

With the pixmiulgation of the national Constitution (1889) 
and the Imperial Rescript on Education (1890), Japan began 
to take a definite course toward absolutist nationalism. The 
Christians apparently did not know, however, that they were 
headed for a period of trial. Because the new Constitution 
recognized the freedom of religious belief, though it was with 
a condition, a grave condition of not "being antagonistic to 
their duties as subjects," they thought that they and their 
faith were being given an official and legitimate place in so 
ciety. However, the Kanzo Uchimura incident in 1891, when 
this Christian s failure to bow before the Imperial Rescript 
scroll sparked a national controversy, was a portent of the 
conflicts between Emperor-centered nationalism and Christi 
anity which lasted until 1945. 

From the moment that Christianity gained Constitutional 
recognition the churches suffered pressures and even persecu 
tions. During the decade from 1891 to 1900, there was almost 
no increase in church membership, but rather a decline. 
Besides the pressure from outside, a shaking of the faith 
within the church caused by the importation of the so-called 
"New Theology" is pointed out as one reason for the decline. 
Introduced by missionaries of the German Evangelical Mis 
sionary Society, this was a liberal theology which reflected 
the historical criticism of the Bible. It was a great shock to 
the native Japanese, who had as yet been unable to ac 
cumulate any real church tradition and theological education. 
Some of the leading pastors repudiated the orthodox faith and 
left the church. They felt as though they had been deceived 
by the American missionaries. It was among Congregational- 
ists, particularly of Doshisha, that this "New Theology" pene- 



REVIEW 13 

trated. Strangely, this theology attempted to form a new type 
of Christianity, a "Japanese" Christianity, which would reflect 
not Western, but Japanese traditions. By rejecting orthodox 
theology, it made its adherents so free as to attach themselves 
to nationalistic trends. The theological controversy between 
Danjo Ebina and Masahisa Uemura in 1901 showed how sus 
ceptible a young church could be to a disturbance over a new 
theology, while it also was in a sense a sign of that young 
church s growing up. This controversy, which centered on the 
issues of Christology and the Atonement pitted two champions 
of liberal and orthodox theology. "Orthodox" Uemura, the 
leader of the Presbyterian Church, criticized "Liberal" Ebina, 
the leader of Congregational Church, who tended to combine 
Christianity and Shinto. 

But even the Presbyterian Church was not completely free 
from the nationalism which was fashionable at that time. For 
example, Uemura s church was more severe than the secular 
newspapers in rebuking Naomi Tamura, a Presbyterian minis 
ter, who in 1892 published a controversial book in English 
entitled, Japanese Bride. Tamura criticized Japanese morality 
for its low regard of womanhood. His own church accused 
him of having brought disgrace to the nation, and finally 
expelled him. However, Editor Kuyama comments here that 
Tamura was a kind of irresponsible person who was imbued 
with foreign culture. Kiyoko Takeda Cho, the only woman 
participant in the discussions, regarded Tamura very highly 
elsewhere. (See Kiyoko Takeda, Ningen no Sokoku (Conflict 
About the Images of Man), 1959, pp. 281 ff.) 

5. Christianity in the Third Decade of Meiji 

The war with China (1894-95) was a springboard for the 
development of capitalism. The third decade of the Meiji 
period (1897-1906} is characterized by disintegration and 
division. In the field of thought, the distinctions between 
nationalism, individualism, and socialism became clear. Even 



14 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

within nationalism, the division between power and thought 
appeared, and the former began to develop into imperialism. 

Within society, for the first time a proletariat class in the 
modern sense appeared, and social problems became of im 
portant concern. It was Christians who took the initiative in 
the socialist movement. Five out of the six founders of 
first Socialist Party, organized in 1901, were Christians. 
is noteworthy that people like Isoo Abe and Sen Katayama, 
who were leaders of the movement, became socialists while 
they were studying theology and sociology in America. Al 
though it is true that many Unitarians were active in the 
early stage of socialism, in the later stage, Christians, includ 
ing clergymen of many denominations were supporters of 
this movement. There is no question that Japan s early socialis 
tic movements were strongly propelled by Christians. 

However, division gradually appeared both within socialism 
and Christianity. Within Christianity the division was be 
tween "Evangelical" Christianity and "Social" Christianity. 
The theological controversy between Uemura and Ebina was 
one of the beginnings of this division. Those Christians whose 
theology was liberal and who were concerned about social 
problems tended to leave the church. Those Christians who 
believed in the more orthodox theology tended to be church- 
centered and indifferent to social problems. 

Uemura himself was not indifferent to social problems. 
But having seen many liberal, social-minded Christians leave 
the church and the faith, he felt the need of establishing 
evangelical churches with a "pure gospel" theology. While 
doing so, however, it seems that the church was losing its 
power of transforming society and of participating in the 
history that was being made. At that time, there was emer 
ging a new type of social class in the cities, made up of 
students, intellectuals and white collar workers. This new 
middle class was free of old traditions and social relations, 
and its people found a spiritual resting place in Christianity. 
Having found a new object of evangelism among those people, 



REVIEW 15 

the church increased its membership. From 1900 to 1910, the 
number almost doubled, i.e., from 37,000 to 70,000. It is not 
surprising that a church consisting of such a middle-class 
membership was becoming socially and politically more and 
more conservative. Since evangelical Christians were less 
critical in regard to social problems, and liberal Christians 
were less critical toward nationalism, most of the Christians 
were ardent supporters of the war with Russia (1904-05). 

But not all of the Christians were war supporters. A 
well-known critic of the war was Kanzo Uchimura, the founder 
of Mukyokai, the Non-church (Christian) Movement. It will 
be remembered that it had been Uchimura who had refused to 
bow before the Imperial Rescript scroll in 1891. It is also 
pointed out that there were several unknown pastors in local 
churches who were not afraid to criticize the government in 
the cause of social justice, for example, Gien Kashiwagi, 
Congregational minister of Annaka, and Kinosuke Shiraishi, 
Methodist minister of Hamamatsu, are mentioned. The posi 
tions which these persons took have been discovered only re 
cently, and there are indications that they were not standing 
alone. 

6. Christianity at the End of Meiji 

Around the time of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) 
the main stream of the socialist movement changed from a 
Christian orientation to a bent toward atheistic materialism. 
It is noted that a similar shift occurred in European countries 
which were dominated by the Greek Orthodox and Roman 
Catholic Churches, such as France, Italy and Russia, where 
revolutionary and socialistic movements assumed the charac 
teristics of materialistic and militant atheism. Parenthetically, 
it has been observed that in Protestant countries, however, :.io 
such shift has been evident. Thus, if it had not been for the 
reactionary authoritarian system centered on the Emperor, the 
socialist movement in this country might well have become a 



16 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

democratic socialism like that in Great Britain. As the turning 
point, the war strengthened the police-control system in reac 
tion to which socialism shifted to the path of materialism. 

After the Russo-Japanese War there arose a "nationalistic" 
trend in the field of literature, which greatly changed the way 
of thinking and feeling of Japanese people. The victory of 
Asian arms over a Western nation inspired a sense of self- 
confidence and a feeling of relaxation among a people which 
had been working hard since the Meiji Restoration to become 
a strong modern nation. It seemed as if persons began to think 
of themselves rather than simply of their nation. They began 
to pay attention to the problem of "self" or "individuality," 
which is the spiritual basis of modernization. During this 
period the writings of Jean Jacques Rousseau were especially 
influential. There were not a few novelists of naturalism who 
were once Christian, such as Toson, Doppo, Hakucho, Homei, 
etc. From both Christianity and Rousseau they learned some 
thing about the concept of "confession." But, as they lost their 
Christian faith, their "confession" lacked the religious ele 
ment, and their works became the so-called "Shishosetsu" 
(I-novel) which developed remarkably and has flourished in 
Japan until the present time. It is noteworthy that these 
novelists who left Christianity lacked any "apostate conscious 
ness." They do not seem to have suffered very much. They 
do not seem to have struggled with God and sin. This is as 
cribed to the lack of Christian tradition in this country, and 
also to the lack of a power of confrontation in Japanese think 
ing. 

The year 1909 was the fiftieth anniversary of the begin 
ning of Protestant missionary activity, and a large week-long 
interdenominational meeting was held in Tokyo. In 1912, the 
last year of Meiji, Christians were invited, along with repre 
sentatives of Shinto and Buddhism, to a "Three Religions 
Conference" sponsored by the government. This seemed a 
reward for Christianity s long, hard work and it pleased 
Christians to think that their religion was finally being given 



REVIEW 17 

official recognition by the government. But it is pointed out 
that this occasion was the beginning of a period of compro 
mise by Christianity with the Japanese political and social 
establishment. On this ominous note the first volume of 
Modern Japan and Christianity ends. 

The second volume of Editor Kuyama s first work, Modern 
Japan and Christianity, covers the Taisho and the first twenty 
years of the Showa periods (1912-1945). Christianity in 
these years was no longer in the main-stream of thought or 
close to the center of the religious and spiritual life of the 
nation. This volume is basically concerned with: 1) why 
Christianity moved away from the main-stream of Japanese 
thought, and 2) the problems and defects of the other 
thought-movements which were in the main-stream during 
this period. In trying to deal with these questions, the dis 
cussions cover many things that appear to have nothing to 
do with Christianity. Thus it turns out to be a volume on the 
modern history of the Japanese spirit rather than on the 
history of Christianity. The volume is divided into two chap 
ters which are subdivided into nine or ten subjects, of which 
only the most pertinent are included in this review. 

7. Christianity in the Taisho Period 

The Taisho period is characterized by two factors: a 
feeling of superiority toward the Chinese, and a superficial 
imitation of America. Combined reactions to these two factors 
became the core of the crisis which was felt in the early 
Showa period and from which various religious movements, 
communism, and ultra-nationalism arose. 

Among the religious movements, Kanzo Uchimura s 
"Parousia Movement" with Nakada and Kimura (1918-1920) 
is mentioned as a parallel to Earth s eschatological "Theology 
of Crisis." Immediately after the movement, Uchimura began 
public lectures on Paul s Epistle to the Romans. As it was 
for Barth, World War I was for Uchimura decisive in his 



18 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

consciousness of crisis. Besides the war itself, though, there 
was another significant factor for Uchimura, and that was 
America s entry into the war. Uchimura had put his last 
hope for world peace in America, and America s war entry 
so disappointed him that he came to believe the only remaining 
hope for peace was in Christ s second coming. 

Next to Uchimura, Toyohiko Kagawa s slum evangelism is 
discussed. The question was raised as to why Kagawa is not 
appreciated in Japanese Christian circles while he is regarded 
abroad as one of the great saints of Christianity. Some of the 
participants in the discussions expressed the opinion that it is 
necessary to re-evaluate Kagawa in the whole context of the 
history of Japanese Christianity instead of treating him with 
an air of indifference. It was the first time that such a posi 
tive view on Kagawa has been expressed by Christian scholars 
(cf. Y. Furuya s article "Toyohiko Kagawa" in Sons of the 
Prophets, ed. by H. T. Kerr, 1963). 

In literature, a group called "Sliirakaba" (White Birch) 
was dominant. Tolstoy was most influential in the new ideal 
ism and the new humanism of this group. The most famous 
members of this group were Saneatsu Mushakoji, Naoya Shiga 
and Takeo Arishima, who all had once been brushed by Chris 
tianity. Arishima, especially, had been a baptized Christian 
and a disciple of Uchimura. He wrote a biography of David 
Livingstone. But he lost his Christian faith during three years 
of study in America. This was attributed to the doubts which 
were raised concerning a transcendent God, sin, atonement, 
and eternal life. However, he was sincere and continued to 
struggle with a guilt consciousness about his own sensuality. 
He had a love affair with a married woman, which ended in 
double suicide. Although the public was rather sympathetic 
toward him, Christians, particularly his former teacher, Uchi 
mura, were indignant against this public reaction. It is pointed 
out that not only Uchimura, but Japanese Christians in general 
throughout the Meiji, Taisho and Showa periods maintained a 
Confucianist puritanical attitude, and failed to consider prob- 



REVIEW 19 

lems of romantic love and sex except by giving them a cate 
gorical "no." This might be one of the reasons why Christianity 
lost a point of contact with youth. 

The youth of this period were attracted by Hyakuzo Kurata 
whose books were best-sellers not only then, but have con 
tinued through today to be popular among young Japanese. 
In Shukke to Sono Deshi (The Priest and His Disciples, 
1916) and Ai to Ninshiki no Shuppatsu (The Beginning of 
Love and Understanding, 1921), he discusses all of the prob 
lems with which youth are concerned, i.e., religion, socialism, 
decadence, sex, love, nihilism, etc. Kurata himself was a fel 
low traveler with three religions: Christianity, Buddhism and 

Shinto. 

Another person who attracted youth and intellectuals was 
Kitaro Nishida, whose philosophy has been regarded as the 
most original in modern Japan. Based upon Buddhism, es 
pecially Zen, and absorbing Western philosophy, Nishida s 
thinking was accompanied by his own soul struggle at the 
depth of the contradictions that agonize modern men. Nishida 
himself was very much concerned with Christianity. The 
Nishida philosophy first came into print with Zen no Kenkyu 
(Study of Good, 1911) and it was a most influential philoso 
phy until the end of the last war. Since there were no Chris 
tian thinkers in Japan who could match up to these men 
mentioned above, young people began to seek the answer to 
their serious problems through such foreign Christian thinkers 
as Kierkegaard, Pascal, Dostoevsky, etc. 

The first study of Kierkegaard in Japan was made by a 
non-Christian: it is noteworthy that Tetsuro Watsuji s Kierke 
gaard appeared as early as 1915, more than twenty years 
earlier than Walter Lawrie s Kierkegaard in America. Watsuji 
was one of many brilliant younger scholars who were called 
"Kyoyojin" (cultured men). Such men were full of intellectual 
curiosity and well educated in both Eastern and Western 
cultures. "Kyoyo" (culture-education) was the most dominant 
thought of the Taisho period. For making Taisho the age of 



20 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

culture, the contribution of the Iwanami Publishing Company 
should not be overlooked. Iwanami, a "Harper" or "Scribner" 
of Japan, published first-rate books and made a great contribu 
tion to the enrichment of cultural thinking. For the Japanese 
intellectuals, the so-called "Iwanami Culture" has been a 
powerful influence which is still felt today. It is pointed out 
that most of the Iwanami scholars were students of Dr. 
Raphael Kroeber, a German-Russian who taught philosophy 
and classics at Tokyo University from 1893 to 1914. His 
influence in the formulating of academism and culture was 
decisive. A Christian converted from Protestantism to Roman 
Catholicism, he recommended Christian writings to his stu 
dents. Scholars like Soichi Iwashita and Seiichi Hatano, who 
became the founders of Christian studies in Catholic and Pro 
testant circles respectively, were students of Kroeber. 

As "Iwanami Culture" flourished, people in the Taisho 
period were not so much interested in religion as they were 
in culture. They read and studied Kierkegaard, for instance, 
but they themselves would not make a decision as Kierkegaard 
had taught. Such culture-thought apart from religion was a 
decisive factor in the course of the spiritual history of Japan 
that was to follow. The Christian Church also became very 
cultural, and liberal faith became dominant. 

The idea of democracy was rather popular among intel 
lectuals. Because Japan sided with America against Ger 
many in World War I, Wilsonian democracy was introduced 
and welcomed. Dr. Sakuzo Yoshino was a leading advocate of 
democracy. This Tokyo University professor was a member 
of Danjo Ebina s church, where many theological and social 
and political liberals gathered. It is pointed out that it was 
Yoshino who proposed the establishment of party politics (in 
1918 the first party cabinet was formed) , and who formulated 
the political thought of the "Old Liberalism" of today. 

The democratic movement, however, was taken over by 
socialism, which gained strength from the Russian Revolution 
of 1917 and the Rice Riots of 1918. In 1922 the Communist 



REVIEW 21 

Party was organized for the first time. Under the leadership 
of Communists, the socialist and labor movements became more 
militant. Christian socialists either left the movement or were 
pushed into the background. At the same time, as the govern 
ment applied pressure against socialism, the main stream of 
the church withdrew from social involvement and became oc 
cupied with itself. Thus the church in the Taisho period 
became no longer active in social and cultural areas as it had 
been in the Meiji period. (Among the Christian participants 
of this discussion, there was some disagreement in evaluation 
here. The older generation was more sympathetic toward the 
church in that difficult period, while the younger generation 
was more critical.) 

On the other hand, it was a period of serious reflection 
concerning the problem of the individual and of the struggle 
with the problem of ego among intellectuals, particularly 
Christians. Among Christians two groups were especially men 
tioned. One was composed of the disciples of Kanzo Uchimura, 
the Mukyokai (Non-church) group. They are credited with 
deepening the understanding of personality and thus contribut 
ing to the establishment of individualism in Japan. Many of 
them were also influenced by Inazo Nitobe, who was Uchi- 
mura s classmate at Sapporo, and who later became a member 
of the Society of Friends (Quakers). Most of them were 
students at both the First Higher School and Tokyo Univer 
sity, the educational route of the elite. Takeshi Fujii, 
Kokichi Kurosaki, Toraji Tsukamoto, Banri Ebara, Takamasa 
Mitani, Yasaka Takagi, Tadao Yanaibara, and Shigeru Nam- 
bara are well-known persons of this group. As Bible com 
mentators, educators, scholars, and thinkers, these men 
had a deep and wide influence which extended far beyond 
Christian circles. (Both Nambara and Yanaibara served as 
President of Tokyo University after the war, for twelve 
years altogether. It is pointed out that many other post-war 
democratization leaders in cultural and educational fields 
were students of the Uchimura-Nitobe school.) The other 



22 CHRISTIANITY IX JAPAXESE THOUGHT 

group of Christians mentioned was made up of the dis 
ciples of Uemura. the leader of the Japanese Presbyterian 
Church. A majority of them were pastors and theologians, 
who were not known outside the church, but who became in 
fluential leaders within the church and theological circles. The 
outstanding person among them was Tokutaro Takakura, the 
successor of Uemura at Tokyo Theological Seminary, and the 
pastor of Shinanomachi Church, which is still one of the lead 
ing churches in Japan, having produced many leading pastors, 
theologians, scholars and Christian publishers. (Ken Ishihara 
and Takeshi Saito are among them. Both are not only elders 
in the church but are patriarchs of their respective academic 
fields. Ishihara of Christian studies and Saito of English 
literature. Both also served as President of Tokyo Christian 
Women s College following the war.) 

In regard to relations with America, Christian reaction 
to the notorious anti-Japanese Immigration Act of 1924 was 
quite strong. This Act aroused great indignation among the 
Japanese public generally, and the Christians were notably 
vehement. As a secular newspaper commented, "the divided 
Christians, who had been fighting among themselves like dogs 
and monkeys for years, united together in order to publicly 
protest this American action." It is pointed out also that the 
reactions of Japanese Christians to the Immigration Act 
greatly encouraged the movements in the Japanese churches 
toward financial independence from America, a policy that the 
Methodist Church began to practice soon thereafter. 

8. Christianity in the Shoica Period 

The influence of both Russian and Chinese Communism was 
a decisive factor in determining the destiny of Japan in the 
Showa period. Fear of this movement made Japan anti- 
Communist, on the one hand strengthening militarism, and 
on the other hand greatly encouraging the Emperor-centered 
right-wing forces, which finally led Japan into the war with 



REVIEW 

China and eventually to the war with America. 

Marxism as an ideology, and Communism as a social-politi 
cal movement, spread among intellectuals and students. Dur 
ing the first decade of Showa, police arrested more than 4,500 
students as Communists. Among Christians, the Social Chris 
tian Movement (SCM) was most influenced by Communism at 
that time. This movement started in the Student YMCA, and 
its theoreticians were scholars like Enkichi Kan, Shigeru 
Nakajima and Tsugimaro Imanaka. Being influenced by both 
Marxism and the Social Gospel, these professors advocated 
social Christianity over against individualistic Christianity. 
Although these leaders held reservations about Marxism and 
made some criticisms of it, many of their inspired students 
followed a radical path which left their teacher-leaders far 
behind. The summer school of the Student YMCA at Gotemba 
in 1932 marked the tragic end of this movement. Many of the 
students who gathered at Gotemba in that year were arrested 
by police and the movement was actually dissolved. It is 
pointed out that the leaders of the movement were rather 
heedless and thoughtless of the ultimate directions in which the 
movement was headed so that their students became isolated 
from them, and finally excluded from the church. (See Kenji 
Nakahara, Kirisutosha Gakusei Undoshi The History of the 
Christian Student Movement The Struggle of SCM in Early 
Showa, 1962.) At the same time, neither the Christian 
teachers nor their students could awaken and renew the church 
as they had originally intended, but rather they actually 
encouraged the church to become less and less concerned 
about social and political issues. The summer school of the 
Student YMCA in 1933, the following year, was led by 
Hidenobu Kuwada, one of the "Theology of Crisis" leaders, 
and from that time Christian students took another direction. 
Before the importation of the "Theology of Crisis," the 
ground for its acceptance was prepared by the academic 
theology of Germany. Seiichi Hatano had first imported the 
German theology at a time when the theology of the American 



24 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

missionaries or America-trained Japanese was predominant. 
Hatano had been a student of philosophy under Kroeber at 
Tokyo University, became a Christian, and was baptized by 
Uemura. He studied for two years in Germany under liberal 
theologians such as Harnack, Weiss, Troeltsch and Deismann, 
and he returned to Japan in 1906. After teaching at Waseda 
University and Tokyo University, he became Professor of 
Philosophy of Religion at Kyoto University in 1917. Because 
of his effort, a lectureship in Christianity was established at 
Kyoto University, the only such lectureship in any state 
university. Although he did not teach theology as such, his 
scholarship in the philosophy of religion set a high academic 
standard of theological scholarship in this country. 

Next to Hatano, there were several state university-trained 
Christian scholars who were influenced by both Uemura and 
Hatano and, who, in the German tradition, raised theological 
scholarship to a high level. Outstanding among these scholars 
were Ken Ishihara in church history, Shigehiko Sato in the 
study of Luther, and Shogo Yamaya in New Testament. 

With this academic background, the "Theology of Crisis" 
was able to gain a strong foot-hold, to spread, and to become 
the main-stream of a theology which profoundly affected the 
churches in Japan. 

It is said that Barth and Brunner were mentioned as early 
as around 1924 by Tokutaro Takakura, who returned from 
studying in Scotland and England. Tokyo Theological Semi 
nary (Presbyterian), led by Takakura, became the hot-bed of 
a theology which was called either "Crisis" or "Dialectic." His 
best-selling Fukuin-teki Kirisutokyo (Evangelical Christian 
ity, 1927) was most influential in spreading this theology, 
though Takakura s own theology was more influenced by P. T. 
Forsyth than by the theologians of crisis. At any rate, his 
evangelical theology was a clear negation of liberal Christian 
ity, including social Christianity. 

"Dialectic Theology" was introduced, in printed form, by 
two professors at Tokyo Theological Seminary: Yoshitaka 



REVIEW 25 

Kumano with his Outline of Dialectic Theology (1932), and 
Hidenobu Kuwada with his Dialectic Theology (1933). Even 
the Doshisha School of Theology, the home of liberal theology, 
showed an interest in "Dialectic Theology" as early as 1927, 
and some of its professors, such as Keiji Ashida and Setsuji 
Otsuka, became advocates of this new theological movement. 
Many of Earth s and Brunner s books were translated, not only 
by Christians, but by others too, and not a few philosophers 
such as Nishida were very much interested in the European 
dialectic theologians. It was Nishida who recommended to 
Katsumi Takizawa, the first Japanese who ever studied under 
Earth, to choose him instead of Heidegger. 

One section of the second volume of Modern Japan and 
Christianity is devoted to a brief view of Roman Catholicism 
in Japan during the Taisho and Showa periods. It is noted 
that compared with the Protestants, the Catholics had closer 
foreign ties, and were less independent and self-governing 
than were most Protestants. Therefore, almost no relationship 
or confrontation with the main-stream of Japanese thought is 
evident among Catholics. This may be due partly to the fact 
that Catholicism was not spread among the urban middle- 
class and intellectuals, who were the most progressive and 
modern in their thinking. Catholics founded not a few educa 
tional institutions, including Jochi (Sophia) University, and 
Seishin (Sacred Heart) College. Although both became well- 
known, they were not as popular as Protestant institutions. 
This is due, on the one hand, to the fact that they were in 
ferior in the teaching of English, which was the instrument 
for learning Western culture, dating from the efforts of a small 
number of Anglo-American missionaries in the Meiji period. 
On the other hand, it is also due to the fact that the Catholic 
teachings concerning womanhood were rather akin to tradi 
tional Japanese concepts and did not fit into the prevailing 
movements looking toward the social liberation of women. Yet 
Catholic education, especially at the various girls schools, 
attracted certain groups of people because of their general 



26 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

character of noble refinement. Catholic institutions tended to 
provide aristocratic education for the upper classes and 
charitable education for the lower classes, while Protestant 
schools tended to be for the middle and intellectual classes. 

Another point worthy of attention is that there are very 
few writings by Japanese Catholics, and in fact many of the 
great Catholic figures in Christian history, such as St. 
Augustine, St. Francis of Assisi, Alighieri Dante, Thomas 
a Kempis, etc. were introduced to Japan through the writings 
and translations of Protestant scholars. 

The last section of this volume, entitled, "Christianity I 
ing the War," deals with the darkest period of the Christian 
church in Japan. Two points may be singled out. One is the 
missionary activity of Japanese Christians among certain 
groups of Chinese people under Japanese rule. This mission 
work was totally unconnected with the government. 
Christians went to Mongolia as an expression of non-coopera 
tion in the war policy of Japan, and to redeem the sin of 
Japan. The names of such clergymen and laymen as Jiro 
Fukui, Tadashi Wada, and Kenzo Sawazaki are mentioned 
here. [Only quite recently have their works become known. 
See Jiro linuma, ed., Nekka Senkyo no Kiroku (Record of the 
Mongolian Mission, 1965) ; Areno wo Yuku (Going into the 
Desert History of Missions in Mongolia, 1967)] 

Another point worthy of note is that it was the Mukyokai 
(Non-church) groups that produced Christians who bravely 
stood up against the war. Besides Yanaibara and Nambara, 
two professors of Tokyo University, there were a number of 
unknown people who resisted militarism. Both Yanaibara and 
Nambara were strong and vocal in their criticism of ultra- 
nationalism, which resulted in Yanaibara s being forced to 
resign from Tokyo University in 1937. Nambara was able to 
remain, however, and he published Nation and Religion (1942) 
in which he thoroughly criticized the ideology of German 
Nazism. It was no wonder that after the war both professors 
were elected successively to the Presidency of Tokyo Uni- 



REVIEW 27 

versity. 

There was not a lack of real Christian witness during the 
war. Yet no one can deny that the Japanese Church as a 
whole was unable to stand against the ultra-nationalistic 
stream, and in fact, was washed away with it. This clearly 
revealed the fact that in spite of eighty or ninety years of 
history, the Gospel of Christ had not really become rooted 
among the Japanese people. 

After publishing the two-volume Modern Japan and 
Christianity, Editor Kuyama planned to publish a third deal 
ing with Christianity in post-war and contemporary Japan, 
using the same method as before. But as the discussions 
proceeded, he realized it was almost impossible to follow the 
pattern of the previous volumes, that is, to discuss Christian 
ity in relation to the general trend of thought. This was be 
cause the role actually played by Christianity during this 
period was so small in the general area of thought that 
Christianity occupied only one-third of the work. Accordingly, 
Editor Kuyama decided to split it into two volumes, which 
were published under the titles, Post-War Japanese Spiritual 
History (1961), and Christianity of Present-Day Japan 
(1961). The latter volume is the one that falls within our 
scope here; therefore the rest of this review will be focussed 
on the ten chapters of this third volume. 

9. General Situation of Post-War Christianity 

Some of the reactions of Japanese Christians to the war 
defeat are described by breaking them down into five types: 

1. Christians who loved and respected the Emperor: 
These people, most of whom were born in the Meiji period, 
had almost no conflict between their Christian faith and Em 
peror veneration. Accordingly, when they learned about the 
defeat, they shed tears and had very complicated feelings. 

2. Progressive rationalistic Christians: Most of these 
were born in the Taisho period. They did not have much 



28 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

of a feeling of veneration toward the Emperor, and in fact, 
many had been rather critical of pseudo-religious Emperor 
worship. During the war, however, they did not really resist 
the war but tried to avoid the conflict of the individual with 
the nation. Like other progressive rationalists, they welcome* 

the defeat. . 

3 Eschatological Christians: Those "progressive ration 
alistic Christians," who had a strong theological background, 
tended to take an "eschatological" position. That is, they were 
prone to transcend the realm of historical reality and to be 
indifferent to the problem of the nation. Like the second 
type they took the way of self-protection; however, unlike 
the second type they had a theological justification and 
rationale for their position. Thus they were rather apathet 
toward the defeat of their nation. 

4 Resistant Christians: Some of Holiness Church and 
Non-church people belonged to this type, but the number 
was not very large. All of the "resistant Christians" were 
persecuted, and some of them died under great suffering. 
The reasons for their resistance to the militaristic nationalism 
were not the same. Some came into conflict with the govern 
ment because of their rather naive faith, and others resist* 
out of a profound and prophetic conviction. After the war, 
some of them, notably from the Holiness group, did not join 
with the progressive rationalists in opposition to the 

system. 

5 Intercessory Christians: Finally there were those who 
felt during the war that they could neither obey nor resist; 
their attitude was intercessory. The Biblical foundation for 
this attitude was not in Romans 13 nor Revelation 13, but in 
I Timothy 2, which urges intercessions for kings. These Cnrif 
tians shared with those of the first category a feeling of 
respect toward the Emperor. At the same time, they saw 
problems with the Emperor, while not going to the extent of 
identifying him with men like Hitler. Although these people 
were usually regarded as identical with the first type, it is 



REVIEW 29 

pointed out that there was a distinction. Their reaction to 
the defeat was, however, very complicated. 

As regards the relationship between MacArthur s Occupa 
tion and Christianity, it is noted that during the first two 
years, the general public s attitude toward Christianity was 
very favorable because of the rather progressive Occupation 
policies which seemed to encourage Christianity. But after 
certain Occupation policies began to change, reflecting the 
cold war, and other tensions, anti-American feeling arose, and 
anti-Christian sentiment increased. From the Occupation ex 
perience, the Japanese people developed a picture in their 
minds which projected an image of America as a "Christian" 
nation. Thus it was that many people automatically tended to 
identify Christianity with America. 

10. The Problem, of the United Church of Christ (Kyodan) 

As the founding of the Kyodan during the war was in part 
due to the pressure of the government, when the war ended, 
some of the denominations withdrew. The year 1950 saw the 
peak of crisis for the Kyodan, whose future seemed very much 
in question. It was the theology of Kazo Kitamori, the author 
of Theology of the Pain of God, that provided the theological 
foundation for the survival of the Kyodan. His Lutheran 
background is mentioned as a reason for this. If he had 
been from the theologically strong Presbyterian group, he 
would not have gained support from the former Congrega- 
tionalists and Methodists. 

11. Christianity and Communism 

One of the important problems for the post-war Church 
was the issue of Communism, and this confrontation was 
focused on Sakae Akaiwa, a Kyodan pastor. Akaiwa declared 
his decision to join the Communist Party in 1949. As a result, 
his own church split, with some members organizing an- 



30 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

other church. Although he did not actually become a member 
of the Communist Party, Akaiwa s declaration had the 
effect of arousing some Christians to show concern for social 
and political problems. It is pointed out that the establish 
ment of the Social Problems Committee of the Kyodan was 
partly a result of this concern. Akaiwa s dualistic thinking, 
which separated faith and social action as completely dif 
ferent dimensions, was criticized. However, his sincerity, and 
sensitivity were highly praised. One of the great fruits of his 
work as an evangelist was the conversion of Rinzo Shiina. 

12. The Formation of Shiina Literature 

Shiina is probably the first really Christian novelist pro 
duced in Japan. Unlike many "Christian-in-name" novelists 
who appeared from the Meiji period on, he is a Christian of 
the faith clearly based upon the Gospel of the Cross and the 
Resurrection. This ex-Communist appeared on the post-war 
literature scene as a nihilistic existentialist, one for whom 
life had no meaning. He met Akaiwa at a Dostoevsky study 
meeting and began to attend church. As he had up until that 
time not been able to find any meaning in life, he decided to 
become Christian to see if by doing so it would make any dif 
ference in his outlook on life. He was baptized by Akaiwa 
in 1950. It was sometime after his baptism that he was able 
to recognize the real freedom in the Risen Christ, the Christ 
who really died, and at the same time the Christ who really 
lives. The contemporaneousness of "at the same time" showed 
him God and eternity beyond the contradiction of life and 
death. This understanding gave him the freedom to be truly 
subjective, being honestly concerned with personal problems, 
and at the same time to be truly social, being joyfully engaged 
in social activities. In Christ he found himself being saved, 
and at the same being not saved, being accepted as he was, 
but at the same time being changed by Christ s deep love. 
This understanding is the ground of the humor that made 



REVIEW 31 

Shiina s novels unique: "Christian," and "secular" at the 
same time. 

13. The Peace Movement and Christianity 

It was with the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 that 
the peace movement spread among the Japanese people. 
Corresponding to it, several groups were organized among the 
Christians. However, the peace movement has never been 
supported by the majority of Christians. Why? To begin 
with, the church did not really repent before God for what 
it had done during and before the war. It was rather unfor 
tunate that immediately after the war the church was so soon 
protected by an American-oriented society that it had no time 
to reflect on its past. Furthermore, the attitude of the 
leaders of the church was this time again directed to pro 
tecting the church from political involvement. Accordingly, the 
church did not positively participate in the peace movement. 
Even those Christians who were active in the peace movement 
were originally motivated not by faith deepened through the 
war-time experience, but rather by intellectual discussions led 
by secular progressive intellectuals. Their movement has, 
therefore, lacked the vital power of a dynamic faith. Instead, 
it has tended to be intellectual, idealistic, and abstract. 

14. The Character and Activity of Christian Schools 

As of 1959, there were about 170,000 students studying 
in Protestant-related schools, while Protestant church mem 
bers totaled some 370,000. Until about 1887, Christian 
schools were very creative and excellent in quality. After 
ward, however, they became rather inferior to the govern 
ment schools which the top students entered. Exceptions 
were the Christian schools for girls. This was due to the 
fact that the government was little concerned about the 
education of girls, and for the most part Christian schools 



32 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

had a creative and advanced image of womanhood. Hence 
many of the women who are today very active in society are 
graduates of Christian schools. 

As for presently existing Christian universities, three 
types are mentioned. First is the university that has a 
strong social consciousness. Probably Doshisha in Kyoto is 
only one of this type. Second is the university that produces 
good and decent citizens. Kwansei and Aoyama Gakuin be 
long to this type. Third is the university with a strong 
international character, like International Christian Uni 
versity. It is pointed out, however, that Christian univer 
sities as a whole are not clearly aware of what the mission 
of Christianity is in the modern age. Without a doubt, 
one of the greatest needs of the Christian academic com 
munity today is for some kind of creative concept of what 
a Christian university is. But this will only come when Japa 
nese Christians themselves bear the burdens and directly par 
ticipate in the dialogue and debate in the context of the 
realities of Japan, instead of borrowing some ready-made 
answers from abroad. 

15. The Problem of the Missionaries 

Generally speaking, the missionaries have changed since 
early Meiji, due mainly to historical changes in the American 
backgrounds out of which most of them come, namely a shift 
from Puritanism to Americanism. Many of the missionaries 
before the war still had a Puritan piety and personality, 
which left a deep influence upon the Japanese. However many 
of the young missionaries who came after the war are quite 
different. One of the things that distinguished early mis 
sionaries in the Meiji period from the later missionaries in 
the Taisho period was the strong urge of the former to under 
stand and study Japan and the Japanese, in order to evangelize 
them. As a matter of fact, some of them left good studies, 
with sharp insights, on Japan and the Japanese. There are 



REVIEW 33 

rather few such studies after the Meiji period. For instance, 
so far we have only one book on Japanese Church history 
written in a foreign language, A History of Christianity in 
Japan, written by Otis Gary in 1909. Since then, no mis 
sionary has written on subsequent developments showing how 
little later missionaries are interested in such studies. (Editor 
ial note : See pages 52-53 of this Yearbook for authors, titles, 
and publishers of several outstanding books which have been 
recently authored by missionary scholars.) 

It is pointed out, however, that there are excellent people 
among the very young generation of missionaries who came 
after the war. They realize the problems self-critically, and 
they have tried hard to identify themselves with the Japanese 
people, having learned the language well and lived with the 
people. But on the Japanese side, there are handicaps. Though 
the missionaries came after the war as fraternal workers and 
are supposed to work under the direction of the church to 
which they are sent, the Japanese churches are not well enough 
prepared to let them work effectively in the most needed areas. 
Thus many of them, especially young missionaries who came 
with a positive attitude, have become bitterly disillusioned, 
and some have returned to their home countries. Both the 
churches and schools that receive the missionaries must seri 
ously consider how the missionaries can be utilized in the 
most effective way. The problem, of course, is mutual. What 
do the missionaries expect? What is the nature of their faith 
and their basic motivation in wanting to come to Japan? On 
the Japanese side much more thought must be given to the 
kind of work that should be given to what kind of missionary. 
The Japanese church must plan much more carefully. One 
of the very difficult problems of cooperation is the gap in 
living standards between the missionaries and Japanese. It is 
not merely a material matter, but rather a spiritual and 
personal problem, which cannot be solved merely by lowering 
the missionaries living standard. This would, in fact be 
almost impossible. The real question is whether the mis- 



34 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

sionaries are aware of and conscientiously concerned about 
this kind of problem. If not, and if we cannot discuss it 
frankly and concretely, the missionaries are separated from 
the Japanese. The important thing is to have personal 
fellowship among the missionaries and Japanese. It is pointed 
out that it seems missionaries have a far richer personal and 
spiritual life than most Japanese Christians; therefore Japa 
nese must learn from them. Out of their own personal ex 
periences, missionaries can teach us what lies at the founda 
tion beneath the intellectual and theological bases of the 
Christian faith. 

16. Theologians and Evangelists from Europe and America 

After the war, thanks to the new speed and convenience of 
air travel, Japan became more open to visitors from Europe 
and America. Many famous theologians and evangelists visited 
Japan one after another and left influences on Christianity 
in this country. The experience of each, especially how they 
were received, is summarized. 

Em.il Brunner: His first visit was in 1949, for just two 
months, sponsored by the YMCA. Four years later he came 
again as a professor at the newly-founded International Chris 
tian University, and stayed for two years. As Brunner s name 
was already quite well known even outside of the church, 
on his first visit he was widely welcomed and he attracted 
many people. But his second and longer stay was less suc 
cessful; it was not satisfying for either Brunner or the 
Japanese. On the Japanese side there were two reasons for 
this. One was that the theologically-minded Japanese Chris 
tians were too Barthian. The other reason was the rather 
tolerant attitude of the Japanese toward Communism. On 
Brunner s side, he over-reacted to these two tendencies. He 
was probably too reactionary, as his strong anti-Commu 
nist preaching indicated. He avoided discussing theological 
questions, especially those dealing with his basic controver- 



REVIEW 35 

sies with Earth, saying that he came to Japan not as a 
"theologian" but as a "missionary." In other words, there were 
none of the "points of contact" or encounter that Brunner 
himself had emphasized so greatly in his own theology. Thus 
Brunner s second experience in Japan was a rather disap 
pointing one. However, it is admitted that his missionary 
activities should be more appreciated than they are. His 
encounter with those people who were not Barthian was 
fortunate and most fruitful. One thinks of the ICU students, 
to whom he imparted great influence. In Bible study groups, 
small discussions, and other meetings, students had personal 
contact with Brunner as he stood before Jesus, and many 
of them had decisive experiences. Another area of contact 
was with the people of the Non-church groups. Brunner 
found more truth in these groups than Japanese "Church" 
Christians had previously been able to recognize, and he 
tried to be and make a bridge between them and those in the 
organized churches. 

John C. Bennett: His visit in 1950 served to enlighten 
Japanese church leaders, especially theologians, on the mis 
sion of the church in society. Though it may be an exag 
geration to say that President Kuwada of Tokyo Union 
Theological Seminary had a "conversion" experience due to 
Bennett, it is true that Kuwada, and other theologians as 
well, became from that time on more concerned with social 
problems. 

Eduard Heimann: Eight years after Bennett, that is, 
in 1958, this German-born social scientist came from New 
York, where he taught at the New School of Social Work. 
Though he was already known from before the war among 
Japanese scholars, his reception in general academic circles 
was rather unfavorable just as Brunner s had been. This 
was because the Japanese scholars were then dealing with 
problems that Heimann had already dealt with several de 
cades previously, and it seemed that he was no longer in 
terested in them. But it was different for the church people. 



36 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

They received him warmly, and learned from him what may 
be called "Social Theology." 

Paul Tillich: He came in 1960 by invitation of a cultural 
program and stayed for a few months. Tillich had a pro 
found desire to understand Japan from within. He was 
received both inside and outside of the church with great 
respect for his humble personality and his profound think 
ing. He was successful in having exceptional dialogue with 
non-Christians, particularly with Buddhists. Unlike Brun- 
ner, Tillich was a good listener and he honestly tried to under 
stand the heart and mind of the Japanese people. On the 
other hand, he gave non-watered down lectures without any 
modification to meet possible objections of Asian scholars. 
He spoke to the Japanese with all the sincerity and with all 
the strength of his mind. 

Stanley Jones: His first post-war visit was in 1949, and 
during the ten years which followed he came back six times 
for evangelistic campaigns. On his first visit, his encourage 
ment was very inspiring for those who were in a state of 
anxiety immediately after the war, and because of his 
campaign churches got together and learned how to co 
operate. His goodwill and rich example of living faith were 
especially influential among laymen of middle age and older. 
Lacour Evangelism,: Mr. and Mrs. Laurence Lacour 
came to Japan first in 1950, partly as an expression of 
contrition for the atomic bomb. Their self-criticism and at 
titude of service to Japan appealed to the people. They 
brought musical instruments at a time when people were 
thirsty for music. That would probably be difficult now be 
cause of a surfeit of music. Later they sent teams of pastors 
and their wives to Japan during the summer period to help 
Japan s churches. The sacrificial attitude of these pastors 
appealed to the Japanese people too. As results of their 
work which extended over a period of six years, not a few 
churches were founded, and many people became Christian 
and were baptized. 



REVIEW 37 

Osaka Crusade: This was a mass evangelistic effort in 
1959, led by Bob Pierce and sponsored by World Vision. It 
was the largest such event that Japan had seen up to that 
time. About 100,000 attended and 7,500 made decisions dur 
ing three weeks. Besides the usual critical comments made 
of this kind of evangelism, there was the criticism that it 
contained anti-Communist propaganda. It is pointed out, 
however, that many Christians who helped the Crusade, 
especially as counselors, had good training and experienced 
a strengthening of their own faith. It is noted too that the 
majority of the people who supported the Crusade were 
laymen, and especially active were businessmen in Osaka. 
Thus the Osaka Crusade brought out this energy of laymen 
which up until that time the churches had not been able 
to harness to any marked degree. 

The Christian Academy: Mr. Alfred Schmidt came to 
Japan in 1957, having been sent by the German Evangelical 
Academy to start this movement. Dr. E. Miiller, the founder 
of the parent organization, visited also and aroused some 
interest among some circles in the churches. The academy 
movement is expected to be a noteworthy Christian activity. 

17. The Problem of the Minister and the Layman 

It is not clear whether the quality of preaching has been 
growing poor, or whether the cultural standard of the con 
gregations has been rising, but at any rate, laymen do not 
feel that the present-day ministers are exerting strong 
leadership. In early Meiji, since the ministers were from 
the samurai class, and the laymen were from the common 
people, the ministers naturally were able to exert strong 
leadership, even in the cultural areas. From the later Meiji 
period, however, the situation changed. Following on the 
industrialization and urbanization movements, the middle- 
class and intellectual class of people in the cities became the 
main constituency of the Protestant population. Since these 



38 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

laymen were rather well educated intellectuals, and able to 
understand theological questions, the ministers preaching 
became very intellectual and theological. Thus what one 
would call culturalism, or academism, became the prevailing 
pattern in the churches. Many of the ministers who are the 
most highly respected by the laymen are those who are 
serving at the same time as professors at seminaries or 
universities. This dual role is expected both by the laymen 
public and by the seminary students. This is partly due to the 
very low salaries that go with ministerial posts. The average 
monthly salary of a minister with three children, according 
to statistics in 1960, was only 12,315 yen or about $34 U.S. 
What is the matter with laymen? How can they talk about 
brotherhood? This is a big problem of the churches today. 
Yet, it falls as well to the ministers themselves, who are 
supposed to discipline laymen. Theological emphasis plus 
culturalism makes preaching and the whole church atmosphere 
spiritually poor. How can the church become spiritual with 
out becoming fanatical, and at the same time, how can theo 
logy be pursued without becoming too abstract this defines 
the problem, and suggests the necessity for a re-examination 
of the education of seminary students. 

18. The Problem of the Indigenization of Christianity 

After the war it became clear that Japanese Christians 
needed to study the problem of the indigenization of Christi 
anity, that is, of Christianity s confrontation with the Japa 
nese spiritual soil. In the past there were two opposing posi 
tions vis-a-vis Japanese tradition. One position was that of 
"isolated purity," that is, refusing Japanese tradition, not 
even letting the plant of the Gospel have any soil in which 
to take root, trying to maintain the purity of Christianity 
outside the soil of Japanese society. The other position was 
that of "burying" the plant of Christianity so deeply in the 
ground that it can never take root and grow, that is, refusing 



REVIEW 39 

to recognize any unique essence of Christianity, abandoning 
any sense of confrontation with Japanese culture, seeking 
peace with society, and trying to Japanize Christianity itself. 
Thus the new task of the Christian community is to find a 
way of confronting Japanese culture and thought, and of 
making Christianity take root in Japanese soil without taking 
a position of "isolated purity" or of using the "burying" tech 
nique. It appears that in the process of considering the in- 
digenization of the Christian Gospel, the problems are 
two-fold. First of all, there is the problem of Japanese 
Christianity itself. Perhaps there are core characteristics of 
Christianity itself that make it impossible for it to enter into 
the heart of the Japanese people and their culture. Secondly, 
there is the problem of Japanese traditional culture and way 
of thinking. Maybe there are aspects of this culture which 
stubbornly reject Christianity, in other words, what one 
might call a unique Japanese atheism or Japanese pluralism. 
Thus we must discern more objectively what the essence of 
these hindrances to the indigenization of Christianity are; 
then, we must discover the spiritual language and logic by 
which we can communicate with one another. That kind of 
communication would be possible when Christianity becomes 
able to grasp the problems of Japanese people in their depth. 
Otherwise it will be impossible to redeem the soul of the 
Japanese people. For redemption, incarnation is necessary. 
It means that in order to make Japan Christian, we Chris 
tians must first become Japanese. The problem of indigeniza 
tion lies not only at the level of thought, but of life, of 
actual living. Probably what one may call the actualization 
of faith in life is needed. Christianity in the form of 
thought is not enough. Living Christianity, which is wit 
nessed through life is important. Among Japanese Christians 
there are many who know about the logic or the history of 
Christianity, and who have a good knowledge of the Bible. 
But there are very few who live by faith. There are very 
few Christians whose way of living make others know just 



40 CHRISTIANITY IN JAPANESE THOUGHT 

at a glance what the Christian faith is all about. What 
Christianity has to save in Japan is not only those outside 
the circle of Japanese Christians, but Christianity must begin 
to save the inner selves of those of us who call ourselves 
"Christian." Without realizing our own need of salvation 
through Christ, we cannot share the burden of our fellow 
people in Japan. 

There is no summary or conclusion to these three volumes. 
What I have described here is not a consensus of all the 
participants either. As I mentioned in the beginning, I have 
picked out some points that I thought might be of interest 
to the Christian world outside of Japan and to missionaries 
in Japan. The participants views and interpretations are 
of course not necessarily representative of those held by all 
Japanese. Unavoidably Editor Kuyama s own views are re 
flected at many points. There were not a few criticisms of 
these discussions. Some people thought the participants 
views were one-sided or prejudiced, and not based on a good 
command of the historical events and facts. However, there is 
no question that these discussions were extremely valua- 
able. It is helpful, at least, to know that there are some people 
such as these participants among influential scholars and 
thinkers both within and outside of Christian circles, and 
that they have freely discussed these problems as they saw 
them, for the enlightenment of all who are concerned about 
Christianity in Japan, past, present and future. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 43 

the first four phases of Christianity in Japan, the fourth of 
which covers the immediate pre-Meiji as well as the early 
years of the post-Meiji period. 

Phase One 38 year period from 1549 to 1587 

The warm reception accorded Christianity during this 
initial period of its life in Japan may be traced to a number 
of factors among which two seem to stand out: one was that 
after long years of clan and warrior struggles, Japanese cul 
ture, especially Buddhism, was at a low ebb; the other was 
that the leading Daimyo, Nobunaga Oda, who was the first 
of several leaders to try to unify the Japanese nation, was 
greatly interested in one of the main commodities which 
came in the ships of the missionaries, the musket, and wel 
comed the Christian missionaries and the cargoes of the 
Portuguese ships as supports against the increasing power 
of some of his bitter enemies, the militant Buddhist priests.i 

This phase came to an end in 1587 when Nobunaga s suc 
cessor, Hideyoshi Toyotomi, came out with an edict against 
Christianity. 2 

Phase Two 24 year period from 1588 to 1612 

The edict against Christianity, the threats of persecution, 

and the active persecutions which were carried out during 

this phase by Hideyoshi and his vassal successor, leyasu 

^okugawa, seemed closely related to the growing concern 

who had won power that since political conquests 

European powers in Asia seemed to follow the 

coining of the foreign missionaries, Japan might be the 

next prize on the list of the European empire-builders. Other 

f ** Expansion of Ch *. Vol. 

44-45 rry> A Hi8t0ry f Modern 

2. Latourette, op. cit., p. 326. 



44 REVIEW OF CHRISTIAN HISTORY 

related factors contributing to the escalating anti-Christian 
attitudes and actions were the growing nationalism and the 
strengthening of the native Shinto. For example, Hideyoshi s 
edict of 1587 against Christianity declared that Japan was 
the land of the gods and so "could not tolerate a religion 
which denounced its national dieties as false." 3 

There was, however, during the latter part of this phase, 
following the death of Hideyoshi in 1598, a flourishing of 
Christianity at a level unreached to ttfat time. There were 
expanded missionary efforts not only by the Jesuits, but also 
by the Augustinians, Franciscans, and Dominicans. Chris 
tians numbered between 200,000750,000 which may have 
represented from 1% 5% of the total population at that 
time. An elaborate structure of elementary, higher, and 
normal schools for the training of teachers and preparation 
of secular clergy was developed, and Western medicine was 
introduced. Financial support for these activities came from 
within Japan, from private donations by Europeans, from 
the Portuguese and Spanish Governments, and from the 
Pope. Such enthusiasm for Christianity as was shown by 
some Daimyo seemed **ek=arelated to their foreign trade 
interests with Portugal, Spain, and Mexico.* This phase of 
Christian history in Japan ended in 1612, when leyasu Toku- 
gawa began a thorough and persistent effort to stamp out 
Christianity, an exercise which was unmatched in any other 
country in that century. 

Phase Three 240 year-long "dark night" of 
bitter persecutions from 1613 to 1853 

Following the major effectuation of the Christian per 
secutions in 1612, leyasu, in spite of the fact that the anti- 
Christian edicts of Hideyoshi had never been repealed, issued 



3. Latourette, op. cit., Vol. Ill, p. 326. 

4. Latourette, op. cit., Vol. Ill, p. 329. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 45 

a special decree against Christianity in 1614. In this 
decree he declared that Christians "have come to Japan . . 
longing to disseminate an evil law, to overthrow right doc 
trine, so that they may change the government of the coun 
try and obtain possession of the land. This is the germ of 
great disaster and must be crushed."5 

Professor Kenneth Scott Latourette, the eminent his 
torian of Christian missions, summarizes this third phase 
of Christian history in Japan by stating that the Tokugawa 
rulers "closed the country to all trade with Roman Catholic 
lands, enforced a strict censorship of the importation of 
Chinese books by which translations of Christian works in 
Chinese might enter the country, instituted and continued 
the death penalty for all who held to their Christian faith, 
with tests to ensure that none should become Christians, 
placarded the land with anti-Christian edict-boards, and 
drove Christianity underground." 

In the course of the stiff persecutions which ensued dur 
ing these two centuries or more, many Christians apostatized 
by following their leaders who decided to change their re 
ligious allegiance and loyalty; however, thousands of Chris 
tians were put to horrible and tragic deaths because they 
refused to renounce their faith. Others were exiled to the 
Philippines or sought refuge in what is now Vietnam, two 
countries which were both important Roman Catholic mission 
lands.? Still other Christians sought refuge in the mountains 
of southern Japan and the Goto Islands, becoming hidden 
Christians (Kakure Kirishitan), who secretly handed down 
their beliefs to their children, and who were discovered by 
the missionaries when they returned after the reopening of 
Japan. 

Thus, the Tokugawa effort to exclude Christianity from 

5. Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vol. VI., pp. 46 ff. quoted 
in Latourette, op. cit., Vol. III., p. 331. 

6. Latourette, op. cit., Vol. III., p. 330. 

7. Latourette, op. cit., Vol. III., p. 332. 



46 



REVIEW OF CHRISTIAN HISTORY 



Japan in one of the most comprehensive and thorough at 
tempts in history to eliminate Christian influences resulted 
in Japan s being sealed off against foreign commerce and 
intercourse, and the establishment of a policy of isolation 
(except for a small Dutch port right in Nagasaki) which 
lasted for more than eight generations. This policy was 
finally broken when U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry, 
with his four naval vessels, arrived not far from Tokyo in 
July of 1853 and requested the Tokugawa rulers to open 
Japan s doors. 

Phase Four 19 year period from 185/ t to 1873 

It took several years for the representatives of the United 
States to work out with a surprised and shocked Edo Gov 
ernment the first United States-Japan treaty of amity and 
friendship, which finally authorized the sending to Japan 
of the first U.S. diplomatic representative, the Honorable 
Townsend Harris, in 1856. Within two years he had nego 
tiated a full commercial treaty, which was followed by similar 
treaties being concluded between Japan and the European 
powers. 8 

A caricature of the national "moods" that existed in 
America and Japan at this time America, a nation which 
at that time was a new-comer to the Asian scene, and Japan, 
a country which was emerging out of more than two centuries 
of isolation is illustrated by the next four paragraphs. 

The Honorable George Eobertson, Chief Justice of the 
Kentucky Court of Appeals, and Congressman, speaking on 
July 4, 1843 is quoted as saying that "the seminal principles 
of sound philosophy, true liberty, and pure religion . . . were 
imported by our pilgrim ancestors to a land which seems to 
have been prepared by Providence for their successful de 
velopment . . . North America already exhibits many signs 



in O. Reischauer, Japan Past and Present, Tokyo, 1964, p. 111. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 47 

that it is the promised land of civil liberty, and institutions 
destined to liberate and exalt the human race . . . Christi 
anity, rational philosophy, and constitutional liberty, like an 
ocean of light, are rolling their united and resistless tides 
over the earth. . . ." 9 

The Honorable Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri, spoke 
these words in the United States Senate in May of 1846: "I 
know of no human event, past or present, which promises a 
greater and more beneficent change upon the earth than the 
arrival of the van of the Caucasian race (the Celtic- Anglo- 
Saxon division) upon the border of sea which washes the 
shore of eastern Asia. ..." Senator Benton then went 
on to talk about how Ihe moral and intellectual superiority 
of the White Race "must wake up and reanimate the torpid 
body of Asia," and "thus the youngest people, and the newest 
land, will become the reviver and the regenerator of the 
oldest/ 

On the Japanese side, a class of government-employed 
scholars, including Buddhist priests, taught the evils of 
Christianity. For example, one of these Buddhist priests, 
Sokken Yasui, in his book, Exposure of Falsehood, written 
in 1873, expressed his fear that Christianity would upset 
the Japanese social and ethical order, as he wrote, "People 
who profess Christianity would rather desert their lord or 
father than be untrue to their religion."** Other scholars 
wrote: "Japan is the- land of the gods and Buddha: the land 
which reveres its gods, reverences the Buddha, and follows 
only the Confucian way of humanity and justice."i2 

Considering this national mood of the Japanese in a period 
of great social turmoil and uncertainty, it is not surprising 
to read that Mr. Donker Curtius, the Dutch envoy to Japan, 



9. Ralph H. Gabriel, The Course of American Democratic Thought, p. 23. 

10. Gabriel, op. cit., pp. 343-344. 

11. Hideo Kishimoto and John F. Howes, Japanese Religion in the Meiji 
Era, p. 184. 

12. Kishimoto and Howes, op. cit., pp. 184-185. 



48 REVIEW OF CHRISTIAN HISTORY 

told the American missionary, Samuel Wells Williams, who 
served as an interpreter with the Perry Expedition to Japan, 
"that the Japanese officials . . . were willing to allow for 
eigners all trading privileges if a way could be found to 
keep opium and Christianity out of the country." 13 

The extension of the American dream in Japan, however, 
was not thwarted, even though President Filmore, knowing 
of the Japanese hatred for Christianity, instructed Com 
modore Perry to state that "the United States was not like 
other Christian countries, since it did not interfere in re 
ligion at home, much less abroad." 14 Yet the official United 
States hope that Christian missionary work in Japan might 
be eventually possible is revealed in the official instructions 
which were given by the U.S. Government to Mr. Harris, 
who was himself a deeply religious man (holding Christian 
services in his residence and in the temple assigned him 
in Shimoda, with several Christian Japanese in attendance), 
and who negotiated the first of the treaties by which for 
eigners were permitted to reside in Japan. 15 These instruc 
tions read in part: 

"The intolerance of the Japanese in regard to the 
Christian religion forbids us to hope that they would 
consent to any stipulation by which missionaries would 
be allowed to enter that empire, or Christian worship 
accorded to the form of any sect would be permitted." 16 

Another reason that the extension of the American dream 
was not thwarted was because individual Christians who 
were attached to the American political and military groups 



13. Japan Christian Yearbook 1959, p. 88, quoting Cary, A History of 
Christianity in Japan, p. 133. 

14. Sir George Sansom, The Western World and Japan, p. 488. 

15. Latourette, op. cit., Vol. VI., p. 382. 

16. Latourette, op. cit., Vol., p. 382. Japan Christian Yearbook 1959, 
op. cit., p. 88. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 49 

took their "Christian" responsibilities, as they understood 
them, seriously. Mention has already been made of mis 
sionary Samuel Wells Williams, and Mr. Harris himself. 
Note should also be made of a marine with the Perry ex 
pedition, Jonathan Goble, who enlisted with the specific pur 
pose of gaining a knowledge of Japan which would enable 
him later to become a missionary. 17 The Perry expedition, 
of course, had a Christian chaplain. 18 

Thus it was that before the 1858 Treaty (in which the 
Japanese authorities recognized the religious needs of the 
foreign personnel living in Japan and made allowances re 
specting the freedom of worship and the establishment of 
chapels and cemetaries for foreigners in their concessions) 
came into effect on July 4, 1959, Mr. S. Wells Williams, a 
U.S. Chaplain, and another clergyman met in Nagasaki, and 
agreed to write to the Episcopal, Dutch Reformed, and 
Presbyterian mission boards in the United States, urging 
them to send missionaries. 19 Therefore, a month or so after 
the arrival of Father Prudence Girard in September of 
1859, who came as the interpreter for the French Consul 
General and as the first Catholic chaplain of the foreign 
community, the three Protestant mission boards mentioned 
above had their first missionaries in Japan: J. Liggins and 
Channing Williams of the Protestant Episcopal Church; 
J. C. Hepburn and his wife of the Presbyterian Church; and 
S. R. Brown, D. B. Simmons, and G. F. Verbeck of the 
Dutch Reformed Church. These first arrivals were soon 
followed by missionaries from other Protestant and Roman 
Catholic bodies in North America and Europe. 20 Jonathan 
Goble, the Perry expedition marine actually did become a 



17. Latourette, op. cit., Vol. VI., p. 382, quoting Gary, A History of 
Christianity, Vol. II., p. 12. 

18. Ibid. 

19. Japan Christian Yearbook 1959, pp. 88-89. 

20. Joseph Kitagawa, Religion in Japanese History, p. 237; See also Win- 
burn T. Thomas, Protestant Beginnings in Japan, pp. 76-79. 



5Q REVIEW OF CHRISTIAN HISTORY 

professional missionary, arriving in Japan in 1860 as a 
representative of the Northern Baptist Missionary SOCK 
However once in Japan, Goble resigned from the boar, 
which sent him, supported himself as a cobbler, ana as 
sociated himself with the Free Baptists. Though Goble 
enterprise was short-lived, he appears to have been the : 
ventor of the jinrikisha, the use of which spread through 
Japan and China. 21 

Though the religious activities of the Christian mission 
aries were supposed to be confined to ministering 1 
foreign residents, most of them had come to Japan dete 
mined to spread the faith, and thus spent most of their time 
learning Japanese. Some worked on the translation of 
Bible Thus it was only natural that the missionaries came 
into contact with Japanese as teachers, and with Japanes 
youth who were eager to study English and other foreign 
languages. Converts to the Christian faith followed even 
though the Tokugawa edict against Christianity was still 

effect. 

Therefore, at least from a hindsight point of view, it 
was *not surprising that the post-1859 influx of Christian 
missionaries to the foreign compounds, and their activities 
mentioned above, as well as the events leading up to t 
establishment of a Protestant Church in Yokohama in 187: 
and a Catholic Church in the historic city of Nagasaki in 
1865, seen in the context of the decline of the Edo Govern 
ment and of the attempt of the early Meiji Government 
undergird a strong nationalism by the exaltation of Shinto 
and the Restoration of the Emperor, (" Revere the Emperor 
expel the Barbarians") led to a continuation of the Chris 
tian persecutions, especially against Japanese Christians, and 
particularly against Roman Catholics. 

The foreign reaction in Japan, and the response in North 

2lT G F Verbeck, Proceedings of the General Conference of Protestant 
Missionaries in Japan, 1883, p. 26; Latourette, op. cit., Vol. VI., p. 405. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 51 

America and Europe to these continued persecutions, were 
highly unfavorable to Japan s image abroad. Japanese au 
thorities, on the other hand, were smarting under some of 
the terms of the treaties which they felt were unfavorable 
to Japan. As Shinto became stronger as a bulwark for the 
loyalty to the Emperor, there were many Buddhists who felt 
that more flexibility in the area of religious liberty would 
benefit them. Therefore, under combined outside and inside 
pressure, the Meiji Government in 1873 removed the edicts 
against Christianity, though in a strictly legalistic sense, 
official recognition of Christianity did not take place until 
the principle of the freedom of religion was explicitly pro 
vided by the Constitution of 1889.22 

Therefore, with this recalling of the pre-Meiji period, and 
the various phases of Christian history as a background, it 
is the purpose and intent of the authors of this section of the 
1968 Japan Christian Yearbook, to attempt to analyze the 
development of the two major expressions of the Christian 
movement in Japan, Roman Catholic and Protestant, from 
the Meiji period to the present. 

Lack of space, however, does not permit a thorough 

coverage of the period. Therefore, those who are interested 

the history of the Roman Catholic Church in Japan, and 

m knowing about the challenges which it faces, are urged to 

read: 

The Catholic Church in Japan Since 1859, by Father 
Joseph Van Hecken, Enderle, Tokyo, 1963; 

Catholicism in Japan, by Father Joseph J. Spae, ISR 
Press (International Institute for the Study of Reli 
gions), Tokyo, 1964; 

Christianity Encounters Japan, by Father Joseph J. Spae 
>iens Institute for Religious Research, Tokyo, 1968; 

The Catechetical Problem in Japan, by Father George A! 



22. Kitagawa, op. cit., p. 239. 



52 REVIEW OF CHRISTIAN HISTORY 

Mueller, Oriens Institute for Religious Research, To 
kyo, 1967. 

At the same time, those who are interested in the history 
of the Protestant Christian Movement in Japan are urged 
to read: 

A History of Christianity in Japan, 2 Volumes, by Otis 

Gary, F.H. Revell, 1909; 
History of Christianity in Japan, by Frank Gary, Kyo 

Bun Kwan, Tokyo, 1960; 
A Century of Protestant Christianity in Japan, by 

Charles W. Iglehart, Charles E. Tuttle, Tokyo, 1959; 
Protestant Theologies in Modern Japan, by Charles H. 

Germany, International Institute for the Study of 

Religions, Tokyo, 1965. 

Especially valuable in gaining a "feel" for the post-Meiji 
development of Protestant missions and Christianity is the 
Historical Section of the 1959 Japan Christian Yearbook, 
which was the Special Centenary Issue in commemoration 
of the completion of 100 years of Protestant Christian 
witness in Japan. 



SECTION 2 
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH 

James McElwain 

The crushing of the Shimabara rebellion and the final 
dispersal of the remaining Christians in 1638 brought to a 
close the first phase of Christian evangelization in Japan. 
Sporadic attempts to penetrate the country were unavailing. 
Frequent appeals from the Congregation for the Propaga 
tion of the Faith, the Roman curial office charged with 
the responsibility of missionary work, fell on deaf ears or 
were totally unrealizable. The pioneering Orders Jesuits, 
Franciscans, Dominicans, and Augustinians turned their at 
tention and efforts elsewhere. At this juncture, a new 
missionary society of Priests, the Paris Foreign Mission 
Society (La Societe des Missions Etrangeres de Paris, 
known by the initials of "MEP"), which had been formally 
founded in France in 1663, began evangelical work in the 
Far East. Japan was assigned to them as part of their 
field of endeavor. The Japanese region was variously at 
tached to already existing missions in Siam, then China, 
then Korea, and finally to the Ryukuan mission. In 1844 
Father Theodore A. Forcade of the MEP arrived in Oki 
nawa. Joined by some confreres he set about the enormous 
task of penetrating Japan proper. Father Forcade and his 
colleagues came to feel, however, that their mission was 
not successful, and they returned to Hongkong. 

Meanwhile political events were rapidly threatening the 
security of Japan. Commodore Perry appeared off Tokyo 
Bay in 1853, treaties of commerce were signed with the 
major powers, ministers of religion were allowed to enter 
the country and build residences in open ports. Fr. Pru- 



54 CATHOLIC MISSIONS 

dence S. Girard of the MEP, accompanying the French 
consul, arrived at Edo on September 6, 1859. 

Banished since the edict of 1614 the Kirishitan religion 
once more became legally established. 

1. Western Christian Influences Penetrate Japan 
(1854-1856) 

Catholic missionary efforts generally evolve on a terri 
torial basis. A specific area is assigned to a bishop, as 
sisted by priests and sisters, who serve the Christians and 
people of the area. The various titles of these areas vicariate, 
diocese, national hierarchy, bishops conference-reflect the 
degree of progress in evangelization. In Japan this patt< 
was followed and evolved in the course of the century 
under review. 

Vicariate of Japan (1859-1876) 

The return of the bateren (padres) did not go unnoticed 
in Nagasaki. In 1865 the first of the Hidden Christians, 
submerged for two centuries, acknowledged their existen. 
to Fr. B. Petitjean, stationed at the Concession in Oura. 
Several thousand soon joined them. Such an outpouring 
of faith stung the government to retaliation. The edicts of 
April 7 and May 25, 1868 banned the Christian religion 
and persecutions followed. Almost all the Christians of 
Urakami, some 3,404 souls, were banished to various dis 
tant provinces. The edicts were revoked, however, in 1873, 
and many of the exiles returned. 

The second center of Catholic penetration was Hakodate, 
where Frs. E. Mermet, Mounicou, and Armbruster founded 
a mission that had a tenuous existence until the building 
of a church in 1878. Less successful was Fr. Evrard who 
lived for three years in Niigata. 

Yokohama was an older center, proud of its first Ten- 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 55 

shudo (House of the Lord), built in 1862. Foreign workers 
employed at a naval arsenal at Yokosuka were provided 
with a chapel and with a resident priest. 

Fr. Armbruster was appointed to Tokyo in 1871, not as 
a missionary, but as a director of a school. A chapel soon 
followed at Tsukiji from whence the priests could contact 
people in the neighborhood. 

In Central Japan, Fr. Mounicou entered Kobe in 1868 
and built a church in the Foreign Concession. Fr. Jules 
Cousin settled in Kawaguchi (Osaka) in 1869. His early 
ministry was limited to pastoral work among the Christians 
who had been banished to Wakayama and Shikoku. After 
their return, he began a series of travels that covered a 
large area of Central Honshu. 

2. Christian Ideal Welcomed (1874-1914) 

The tiny Christian communities scattered throughout the 
land gradually grew in numbers, requiring greater service 
from the church. In 1876 the country was divided into two: 
north and south of Lake Biwa. Bishop Osouf became Vicar 
of Northern Japan, with five missions and 1,235 Christians, 
while Bishop Petitjean assumed responsibility in the south 
with four centers and 17,200 Catholics. 

Two Vicariates (1876-1891) 

The greater freedom to move about Japan allowed the 
missionaries the opportunity to develop new centers in 
more distant places. The few priests available, 27 in 1876, 
made it difficult to evangelize the rural population while 
tending to the communities already set up. Two teams 
of missionaries developed: the "residents" and the "itiner 
ants." Resident priests worked with and through the 
Christian groups already in existence, preached to the 
people in their areas, and initiated works of service. Itiner- 



56 



CATHOLIC MISSIONS 



ant priests travelled extensively, assembled a crowd at 
every town they passed through, baptized a few, and 
many small communities in their wake. In the Northern 
Vicariate, Frs. Vigroux and Cadilhac founded communities 
in Chiba, . Saitama, Ibaraki, Fukushima, Tochigi, and 
Gumma prefectures. Fr. Testevuide evangelized in Kana- 
gawa, southern Saitama, Shizuoka, and Gifu prefectures, 
Frs. Evrard and Tulpin worked in Aichi, Gifu, and Kana- 
zawa, while Fr. Clement covered Yamanashi, Nagano, To- 
yama, Fukui, and Ishikawa. Fr. Urbain Faurie is famous 
as the missionary of Aomori, Miyagi, and Iwate, and as the 
pioneer itinerant of Hokkaido. 

Within the cities progress was steadier. Six flourishing 
parishes sprang up in Tokyo, which by 1890 had 3,H 
Christians. Under various guises, missionaries entered 
other cities: Sendai (1877), Morioka (1879), and even Sado 
Island off Niigata. Statistics for 1890 show 9,441 Catholics 
in the Northern Vicariate. A further division was neces 
sary. In 1891 Hakodate Vicariate was set up as an in 
dependent mission with Monsignor Berlioz as bishop. Arch 
bishop Osouf remained as bishop of Tokyo. 

In the south, the first efforts, not always successful, 
were directed at the Kakure Kirishitan (Hidden Christians). 
Living isolated lives in hermetically sealed communities, 
the Hidden Christians built their lives around a chokata 
(keeper of the Christian calendar) and mizukata (official 
baptizer). The end of the persecution in 1873 allowed some 
25,000 Hidden Christians to publicly acknowledge their faith. 
Others, however, rejected the overtures of the priests, 
fearing that any such acknowledgement would mean further 
persecution. By 1889 any hope of reconciliation with these 
Hanare Kirishitan had dimmed. Kyushu today has an 
estimated 33,000 such Hanare Kirishitan. 

The Christians who rallied to the priests formed 
flourishing communities in Urakami, Kurosaki and Shittsu. 
The islands of Nagasaki Bay, almost exclusively Christian, 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 



57 



were visited by Bishop Petitjean, Frs. Raguet, Boehrei- and 
Fr. A. Bourelle first travelled the Goto Islands 
where 15,000 old Catholics lived. In Amakusa Fr. Gamier 
developed three outstanding centers. The pastoral care of 
so many scattered villages taxed the energy of the per- 
serving the area. As new helpers arrived from 
Vance, the need to preach in non-Christian areas became 
evident. In Oura in 1875 Fr. Alfred Renaut began direct 
missionary work among those who had not previously been 
reached by the Gospel. Other missionaries soon followed: 
Fr. Sauret at Kurume, Frs. Fraineau and Fukahori (who 
was the first Japanese priest) at Oita, Fr. Boehrer at 
Nakatsu and Usuki, and Fr. Raguet at Fukuoka. 

A different method was worked out by the missionaries 
m the western provinces. Operating in an environment 
had not yet been touched by Christian teaching, 
to start by making contact with people without 
stian background. Fr. Aime Villion based himself 
Kyoto and worked his way out to Tsu, Obama and Mai- 
. Vasselon came to Okayama at the invitation of the 
, who also invited Sisters to found a school in the 
From here communities grew in Hiroshima and Ma- 
:suyama, on the island of Shikoku. From Osaka centers 
were founded in southern Shikoku and the Kii peninsula 
Eventually all the present prefectures had some small 
communities set up. Statistics show that in 1888-89 western 
Honshu had 2,946 Catholics. 

Four Dioceses (1895-1904) 

In 1888 the southern area of Japan was divided. Bishop 
J. Cousin became Vicar of Nagasaki, embracing all Kyushu 
and Bishop Felix Midon became Vicar of Western Honshu 
and Shikoku. Finally in 1891 a hierarchy was established 
with four dioceses-Hakodate, Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagasaki. 
Catholic population of 44,505 the Catholic Church 



58 CATHOLIC MISSIONS 

could look forward to steady expansion. 

The Meiji Constitution of Feb. 11, 1889 stated in Article 
28 that "Japanese subjects shall, within the limits not pre 
judicial to law and order, and not antagonistic to their 
duties as subjects, enjoy freedom of religious belief." To 
Catholics this meant complete freedom of worship. To the 
framers of the Constitution the interpretation was different. 
Such freedom as was allowed could only be applied in the 
sense of the cult of the Imperial Ancestors and the norms of 
Shintoism. 

The rapid growth of nationalistic fervor culminating in 
the Meiji Rescript on Education in 1890 adversely affected 
evangelization. Hostility to ideologies not consonant with 
the spirit of Yamato, the revision of the treaties of com 
merce, and a fast expanding military establishment hindered 
the free dissemination of religion. The crucial years of 
1889-1904 saw conversions sink to a new low. Church 
development turned within itself, seeking to find solid roots 
on which future growth could build. 

Means to combat the attacks of other religions and to 
explain and defend the Christian faith were sought. Pub 
lication of newspapers and books was one means. The first 
Catholic newspaper the Kokyo Banpo (Universal Church 
Monitor) was published in 1881. A later editor, Fr. 
Ligneul, gave the paper a more polemical cast. Leading 
articles on theology and Christian beliefs, rather than news, 
became a feature of the paper. It was followed by the Nippon 
Kokyo Zasshi, a cultural magazine. In Osaka, Koe (The 
Voice) was published to combat "the invasions and influence 
of the heretics." "Tenchijin" (Universe) was edited to 
touch on all problems of metaphysics and morals. The prom 
ising start made in explaining the faith was of short 
duration. An effort at attracting the influential was made 
with the opening of the "Sansaisha" bookshop in Tokyo in 
1898. 

Despite the difficulties encountered, missionary activity 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 59 

did continue. In Kyushu the existing communities provided 
a springboard for a penetration of the masses. In Naga 
saki Fr. Yosuke Shimauchi purchased a site at Omura and 
built a new parish there. Fr. S. Ariyasu entered Kokura in 
1895. Miners flocking to the area from Nagasaki gave him 
a start. 

In the other dioceses, progress was much slower. In 
Osaka a system of founding mission stations was continued. 
As they grew, a permanent priest was assigned to each. 

The Tokyo diocese was hardest hit by the reactions of 
the nationalists from 1890 onward. The number of Catho 
lics (9,600) remained stationary for twenty years. A fur 
ther evolution in missionary method was imperative. Fr. 
Noel Peri particularly was convinced that Catholicism must 
be given new direction, by books and newspapers, by higher 
institutes of learning, by the better formation of mission 
aries, through a more adequate knowledge of the history, 
culture and religions of Japan. One group of priests with 
drew from the Paris Mission Society to pursue these goals. 
The other group continued with the old methods until the 
arrival of new mission societies. 

Hakodate was the most difficult mission. Hokkaido had 
only recently been opened for development. For twenty 
years Fr. Faurie covered this vast area, opening several 
stations. In 1893 Fr. H. Lafon settled in Sapporo and 
Fr. Jules Rousseau in Muroran. Fr. Cornier developed an 
other station of Fr. Faurie s, that of Otaru, while Asahi- 
kawa became a permanent parish in 1904. One remarkable 
achievement of this period was the founding of a monastery 
of contemplative Cisterians at Tobetsu in 1897. The Trap- 
pistines (Cistercian Sisters) made an establishment at 
Yunokawa in 1898. 

Northern Honshu gradually assumed greater preponder 
ance in the apostolate. The six districts in this area 
Niigata, Akita, Yamagata, Miyagi, Iwate, and Aomori 
developed at a faster rate so that in 1902 Bishop Berlioz 



60 



CATHOLIC MISSIONS 



transferred his see to Sendai. 

Despite the difficulties of the period, the Catholic pop 
ulation in 1904 exceeded 58,000, an increase of 16,000 since 
1890. Considering that the crypto-Christians had all sur 
faced before 1890, that era of endeavor was fruitful. 

Arrival of New Mission Groups (1905-1914) 

The political events of the last years of the century 
. the abolition of Concessions and the regime of travel 
permits, and the introduction of parliamentary democracy 
into Japan . . . created a favorable climate for missionary 
work. The opportunities were many and obvious. But in order 
to take advantage of them new missionaries were needed to 
carry the burden, which since the beginning had been borne by 
the Paris Foreign Mission Society alone. During the ten years 
from 1904 fifteen orders of men and thirty of women arrived 
to aid in the apostolate. From this time on, the principle of 
assigning a particular territory to each society was adopted. 
Headed by a Vicar who was responsible for furthering 
the mission in his territory, the new system necessitated 
frequent divisions of the four old dioceses. Each new area 
became the kernel around which the present dioceses were 

erected. 

The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) returned to Japai 
in 1904 and undertook the evangelization of Shikoku. Three 
parishes, those of Kochi, Matsuyama, and Tokushima, and 
two stations were already in existence. The Dominicans 
built eight more parishes in the prewar years. 

The Society of the Divine Word (SVD), a German mis 
sionary institute, came to Japan in 1907, and assumed the 
task of preaching in Niigata; Canadian Dominicans began 
work in Sendai; the Franciscans in Sapporo; and the Jesuits 
in Hiroshima. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 61 

3. Christian Penetration Wanes (1915-1945; 

Church Consolidates 

Over the next two decades Vicariates were carved out 
of the original dioceses: Sapporo (1915), Nagoya (1922), 
Hiroshima (1927), Kagoshima (1927), Miyazaki (1935), 
Kyoto (1937), Karafuto (1938), and Urawa (1939). 

The erection of new dioceses also continued. The first 
Japanese bishop, Kyunosuke Hayasaka, took over the direc 
tion of Nagasaki diocese in 1927, assisted entirely by an 
indigenous clergy. Simultaneously the new diocese of Fu- 
kuoka was detached from Nagasaki, and embraced all north 
Kyushu. Northern Honshu became the autonomous diocese 
of Sendai. The archdiocese of Tokyo was ceded to the local 
clergy on November 9, 1937, and Monsignor Tatsuo Doi became 
archbishop. Monsignor Chambon vacated the see and as 
sumed responsibility for the new diocese of Yokohama. The 
extensive diocese of Osaka underwent three subdivisions 
during these years, finally achieving its present limits of 
Osaka-fu, Hyogo and Wakayama prefectures in 1939. The 
Foreign Mission Society of America (Maryknoll) came in 
1935. 

The 119,224 Catholics were plunged, with the rest of the 
nation, into the crises following the China Incident of 1937. 
State patronage of the cult of Shinto was for many Chris 
tians a grave question of conscience. Acts of homage at 
Shinto Shrines were required as proofs of patriotism. A 
new Religious Act of 1940 made the State the master of 
Religious Associations, and conferred on the Ministry of 
Education a right to inspect and control doctrine and ac 
tivities. It required every association to name a Kyodan- 
Torisha, or head, who was to become the official respon 
sible for the activities of the cult. Foreign bishops deemed 
it impossible to hold any longer a leading position in the 
Church. They unanimously tendered their resignations and 



62 



CATHOLIC MISSIONS 



were replaced by Japanese who assumed full authority in 

every diocese. 

The Pacific War involved the whole nation. General 
mobilization, rationing, and outright want successively in 
flicted the people. Catholic victims of the war were estimated 
at 13,097 and 15 priests. Missionary work came to a halt 
with the repatriation or imprisonment of all the foreigners 
and the call-up of the younger priests. 

4. Revival of Full Missionary Effort (1940-1966) 

With the coming of peace Christians once more began the 
task of rebuilding. Material damage was easily repaired, 
but the big question was how to take advantage of the new 
opportunities which were offered in the way of spiritual 
renewal. The last legal roadblock to total freedom of wor 
ship was removed in 1946 with the promulgation of the 
new Constitution. 

The work of evangelization was begun in November of 1945 
when the bishops of Japan assembled to assess the damage 
done and to devise new ways of dealing with the expected 
flood of conversions. Appeals were made to the entire 
Catholic world for missionaries and aid. Australia sent 
fourteen priests in 1947 for a five-year period, ten missionary 
institutes sent the first of many priests and sisters in 1948, 
and the apostolate of conversion once more began. The 
advent of Communism in China meant the expulsion of all 
missionaries from that country. Great numbers of them 
came to Japan. The flowering of missionary endeavor after 
the war, and the growing sense of Christian responsibility 
in rehabilitation, gave new impetus to missionary work. 

The arrival of so many mission societies gave rise to 
new problems of administration. Until the nomination of 
Japanese bishops in 1940, each religious institute had its 
own territory and vicar. This system was no longer viable 
since all bishops now belonged to the diocesan clergy. A 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 



63 



new modus vivendi had to be adopted. A statute of coopera 
tion was drawn up. Henceforth each institute had to deter 
mine its relation with the bishops by a bilateral contract 
the missionaries would receive their jurisdiction from 1 
bishops, but would be directed by their own superiors, who 
had to assure their sustenance and development. The first 
such contract was signed in 1947, and all other mission 
societies concluded similar contracts and were assigned spe 
cified areas within each diocese in which to work. 

Ten new dioceses have been erected in Japan since 1950, 
all o-overned by native bishops and all entrusted to the 
diocesan clergy. By the terms of the contracts signed with 
mission societies, large areas within each diocese are staff* 
exclusively by missionaries. The diocesan clergy are gen 
erally found working in the larger cities, while missionaries 
are assigned outlying prefectures. The rapid increase in 
the number of Japanese priests means that more and more 
parishes are handed over to them. Mission stations are 
multiplying rapidly and permanent pastors are being as 
signed to them. 

The years since the war have been fruitful ones. In 
June 1967, Catholics numbered 338,977, a twofold increase 
since 1945. The increase in vocations has been even more 
striking. Japanese priests have increased fivefold to ( 
sisters fourfold to 5,775 and brothers now total 417. Mis 
sionary priests still continue to flow into Japan, and offer 
their services in pioneering work in remote prefectures or in 
other forms of specialized work. 

5. The Church Comes of Age (1967) 

The Japanese Catholic Church reached final maturity on 
January 28, 1967 with the formal inauguration of the Catho 
lic Bishops Conference. Composed of the fifteen diocesan 
bishops, this conference is charged with full authority to 
direct all Catholic evangelical, educational and social endeav- 



64 CATHOLIC MISSIONS 

ors. The cohesion and unity this gives the Catholic Church 
affords us hope that the efforts of the one hundred years 
since the accession of Emperor Meiji are but a prelude to 
deeper development and a richer Christian witness. 

6. Development of Catholic Educational, Social Welfare and 
other Institutions 

Education 

Early educational efforts were necessarily limited to the 
individual endeavors of the missionaries. The first schools 
were organized for the children of those victimized by the 
persecutions at the end of the Shogunate. By 1873 seven 
such schools were in operation in the Nagasaki area, six 
for boys and one for girls, with some 200 pupils. The 
following thirty years saw a flood of expansion, mainly 
directed toward the provision of education for girls. 

These years of growth featured the efforts of three Reli 
gious Sisterhoods, all French, and all devoted primarily to the 
Christian education of youth. In 1872 the Sisters of the 
Holy Infant Jesus (St. Maur) arrived in Yokohama, where 
they founded an orphanage and school. Foundations follow 
ed in Tokyo (1875), and in Shizuoka (1903). 

The Congregation of the Infant Jesus of Chauffailles 
reached Kobe in 1877 and founded a school there. Others 
followed in quick succession Osaka (1879), Nagasaki 
(1880), Okayama (1886), Kyoto (1886), Kumamoto (1889), 
and Urakami (1890). 

The third great branch of Catholic education, the Sisters 
of St. Paul de Chartres, made their first foundation in 
Hakodate in 1878, followed by establishments at Tokyo 
(1881), Sendai (1891), Morioka (1892), and Yatsushiro 
in Kumamoto Prefecture (1910). 

The religious tolerance manifested by the government 
contributed appreciably to the growth of Mission schools. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 65 

In 1880 Catholic-sponsored schools numbered 67, with 3,159 
pupils. This number increased to 93 schools and 4,718 stu 
dents by 1887. 

The foundation of schools for boys created greater prob 
lems. The need for trained Religious to direct any such 
schools was evident. Bishop Osouf of Tokyo appealed to the 
Society of Mary, a renowned French Order of priests and 
brothers. Responding to the call, the Marianists arrived in 
Tokyo in 1888 and founded Gyosei School. 

The extensive reform of primary education, carried out 
by the Ministry of Education, and culminating in the Meiji 
Rescript on Education of 1890, severely curtailed private 
educational institutions, especially in regard to their free 
dom of religious instruction, as elements of Shintoism were 
integrated into the education pattern, and all schools were 
required to conform to specific standards of staff and peda 
gogy. Furthermore, official recognition of all private schools 
became necessary. These measures led to the gradual dimi 
nution of Catholic influence at the primary level. 

Mission grade schools, because of too hasty expansion, 
lack of funds to prepare or employ qualified teachers, and 
some misconceptions of the future course of education in 
Japan, had to undergo severe retrenchment. By 1909 the 
once-promising Catholic effort was reduced to 26 schools 
and 5,522 students, mostly on the secondary (and non- 
compulsory) level. The better-established schools survived 
and even consolidated. Outstanding approved girls schools 
included St. Maur (Yokohama), Shin ai (Osaka), Seishin 
(Okayama), and Shin ai (Kumamoto). Flourishing boys 
schools operated by the Marianists were Gyosei, approved 
in 1898, Meisei (Osaka) in 1899, St. Joseph s (Yokohama) 
in 1901, and Kaisei (Nagasaki) in 1911. 

At this juncture, several new religious congregations of 
teachers arrived to infuse new and much needed direction -co 
the education apostolate. Foremost among these was the 
Society of Jesus, which founded Sophia (Jochi) University 



66 CATHOLIC MISSIONS 

in 1908. This university has developed into an outstanding 
center of education. A comparable effort for the higher 
education of girls also -began the same year with the first 
foundation of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart (Seishin) in 
Tokyo, and of the Sister Servants of the Holy Spirit at 
Akita. 

The years following World War I were fruitful ones. 
The institutions already in Japan laid solid foundations. 
Candidates and membership in religious orders increased 
rapidly so that such groups lost their alien appearance. New 
congregations of teaching religious orders arrived, seven 
during the 1920 s. Hopes rose that this blending of new 
and old would benefit all education in Japan. But then came 
the holocaust. The Pacific War practically wiped out all 
the efforts of seventy years. 

The enormous task of rebuilding began in 1946. The 
first to arise, predictably, were the Orders rich in Japanese 
vocations. Helped with finance from abroad, the "old" 
schools once more resumed their task. With some compro 
mises worked into the new Education Act of April 1, 1948, 
private Christian education again began to serve the com 
munity. 

Progress in the post-war years has been spectacular. 
Seishin University opened in Tokyo in 1948, and Nanzan 
University (Nagoya) in 1949. In 1947 there were two 
universities, eight junior colleges, twenty-four high schools, 
forty-four middle schools, seventeen primary schools, and 
fifty-eight kindergartens under Catholic auspices. In each 
of the following decades the numbers doubled and doubled 
again. In 1967 there are eleven universities, twenty-five 
junior colleges, 122 high schools, ninety-eight middle schools, 
fifty-three primary schools, and 559 kindergartens, with a 
total enrollment of 244,123 students. 

To maintain liaison and coordination with the many 
schools involved, an Education Department was established 
within the National Catholic Committee. A "Catholic Edu- 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 67 

cation Council," set up in 1956 to promote effectively the 
activities of the department, is responsible for research in 
educational matters, for the publication of suitable text 
books and the monthly "Catholic Education" newspaper, and 
for charting the future course of the education apostolate. 

Social Welfare 

The Social and Welfare Commission of the Japan Catho 
lic Bishops Conference to-day supervises all the charitable 
institutions of the Catholic Church. Within the competency 
of this Commission fall thirty-five hospitals, nineteen dis 
pensaries, sixty-one orphanages, 107 day-nurseries, seven 
institutions for handicapped children, and twenty-two old 
folks homes. These varied works, operated and staffed al 
most entirely by Japanese, are probably the most enduring 
monuments of one hundred years of evangelization. 

Early efforts at serving the needy came up against many 
prejudices. Only in times of great catastrophe could the 
ministrations of the missionaries be accepted. In fact, the 
earliest efforts were directed at the Christians who returned 
from exile in 1871. Other priests offered what rudiments 
of Western medicine they knew to people in their im 
mediate vicinity. Gradually these first works developed into 
dispensaries which were soon staffed by newly-arriving 
Sisters. By 1901 seventeen such dispensaries were in opera 
tion. Meanwhile Father G. Testevuide decided in 1887 to 
erect a leprosarium at Koyama, near Mt. Fuji. In the 
south Father J. M. Corre, following the example of Miss 
Hannah Riddle, founded Tairo-in in Kumamoto with the co 
operation of the Sisters Franciscan Missionaries of Mary. 
From these early Christian beginnings sprang the present 
regional leper asylums built by the government. 

Although the sick were not neglected, it was not until 
1912 that the first general hospital was built. Called Tenshi- 
byoin (Hospital of the Angels) it was founded in Sapporo 



(58 CATHOLIC MISSIONS 

by the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary. Other Sisterhoods 
soon joined in the work, notably the Sisters of the Visitation 
(3 hospitals, 1 sanatorium), the Servants of the Holy Spirit 
(2 hospitals), and the Sisters Lovers of the Cross in Naga 
saki. 

Efforts to eradicate tuberculosis long attracted the at 
tention of health authorities. Positive efforts to cure victims 
of the disease were first undertaken by the Salvation Army 
in 1916. Government sanatoria followed rapidly. Catholic 
participation in this service did not come about until 1929 
when Father J. Flaujac founded the Bethany Institute in 
Tokyo. During the next twenty-five years he built ten related 
facilities schools for the children of tubercular parents, 
after-care centers for patients, either in Tokyo or Nasu, and 
a Religious Congregation, the Sisters of St. Bernadette, to 
ensure their continuation. 

The initiative of Father Flaujac pointed out the need to 
other Catholics. The Sisters of the Visitation founded sana 
toria in Kamakura (1930), Shindenbaru (1933), and Kusatsu 
(1942). Sisters of the Aishikai opened one in Xiigata (1931) 
and another in Akita (1935). 

The first old folks home was built in Oemachi, Amakusa, 
in 1889. Other foundations followed: at Biwasaki (Kuma- 
moto) in 1916, Akita in 1920, Tokyo in 1930, and the Goto 
Islands in 1942. 

In the early post-war years the scope for service was 
vast. Missionaries came in great numbers, cooperation was 
extended on a large scale and untold misery was gradually 
alleviated. In many instances groups of Christians on a 
parochial or even city level undertook some charitable work, 
saw it grow, and handed the management of such institutions 
over to trained Sisters. New hospitals and sanatoria, in many 
cases fully supported by Japanese Christians, were opened. 
Orphanages had a special popularity. In the post-war 
years several works of this kind took the name "Boys Town." 
Such were the Boys Towns of Kobe, Fukuoka, Yokohama, 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 69 

Sendai, Nagasaki, and Kumamoto. The twenty-two or 
phanages to-day offer homes to 2,344 boys and 1,977 girls. 

The specialized services for mentally and physically 
handicapped children have enjoyed considerable success in 
recent years. The enormous capital and the cost of training 
proper personnel make it essential to have the help of civil 
authorities. Several joint undertakings, in Tokyo, Kobe, 
Wakayama and elsewhere, minister to the needs of the handi 
capped. 

The Formation of Local Leaders 

One of the outstanding characteristics of the Paris For 
eign Mission Society has been the efforts which the MEP 
missionaries made to form an indigenous church. Even be 
fore the lifting of the edict against Christianity, the first 
missionaries had gathered some youthful followers. Sharing 
their homes and life, sometimes even living a hidden ex 
istence in attics, these youths slowly assimilated the spirit 
and zeal of the Fathers. In 1868 the first seminary opened 
in Nagasaki. The elements of Christian doctrine, philosophy, 
and theology for those who persevered, and Latin, formed 
the basis for study. Renewed persecutions forced the stu 
dents to flee, first to Penang, then to Hongkong. The students 
finally returned to Yokohama in 1871, but the seminary 
eventually moved to Tokyo. 

The seminary at Nagasaki reopened in 1875. The stu 
dents of that area were recalled from Tokyo. Thirty-one 
seminarians formed the first group there, and this number 
gradually increased to forty, then to seventy. Finally, in 
1882, Bishop Petitjean ordained the first Japanese priests 
Tatsuemon Fukahori, Hidenoshin Ariyasu, and Gentaro 
Takaki. In fifty years 288 students entered the seminary, 
sixty-three of whom were ordained. In 1953 the regional 
seminary for Kyushu was built in Fukuoka, and all major 
seminarians now study there. 



70 CATHOLIC MISSIONS 

In Tokyo aspirants to the priesthood remained few. It 
was not until 1894 that the first men trained there became 
priests. Even after that date numbers stayed small so that 
the student who persevered was trained abroad. In 1929 
a regional seminary, for Honshu and Hokkaido, was erected 
in Shakujii, under Father S. Candau. 

The increase in vocations has been spectacular. Japa 
nese priests have rapidly moved into a position of leadership 
in the church. In 1927 Bishop Kyunosuke Hayasaka assumed 
leadership of the diocese of Nagasaki. In 1937 Monsignor 
Tatsuo Doi was appointed archbishop of Tokyo. 

The coming of war hastened the transfer of leadership 
to Japanese priests. In 1942 all dioceses were directed by 
Japanese bishops. There are now fifteen sees in Japan, all 
under the leadership of their own bishops, who form the 
Japan Bishops Conference, which is responsible for the 
direction of all church activities. They are assisted by 664 
Japanese and 1,275 missionary priests. 

The emphasis on founding a hierarchical church ad 
versely affected the training of lay leaders. The thinking 
of the times certainly did not favor a more democratic or 
lay-centered church. The necessity of founding a cultic 
leadership, and the uncertainty of a continuing missionary 
effort during some upheavals, contributed to the uneven 
progress made in the past. Efforts to correct this situation 
are going ahead rapidly. Lay-oriented seminars, special 
spiritual retreats for lay people and diocesan-sponsored Lay 
Apostolate Councils, will eventually redress the balance of 
influence. 

One outstanding contribution to local leadership has been 
offered by Religious Orders. Japanese vocations have reach 
ed the point where many of these groups are now directed 
by native-born priests and Sisters, to the infinite betterment 
of their purpose and work. 



SECTION 3 

THE PROTESTANT CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 
IN JAPAN 



Hallam Shorrock 

1. Some Internal and External Forces Which Were Shaping 
the Protestant Christian Movement During the Meiji 
Period 

As has already been noted either explicitly or implicity 
in Dr. Yasuo Furuya s review of Prof. Kuyama s Modern 
Japan and Christianity (See pages 8-15 of this Yearbook), 
some of the major internal and ambivalent forces which were 
shaping the Protestant Christian Movement during the early 
and middle Meiji Period (and which were also affecting the 
Roman Catholic side) may be summarized as follows: 

1. Inspite of the adoption of Sunday as a holiday and 
of the popularization of Christmas, most Japanese could 
not easily forget the fact that Christianity and Christians 
had been the object of persecution for the previous eight 
or more generations, and tended to treat Christianity as 
a foreign religion. 1 

2. Contributing to this very negative feeling towards 
Christianity was the growing nationalism and the reem- 
phasis of the place of the Emperor at the top of the national 
structure, a process which was cultivated by historians, 
Shinto authorities, and persons of influence who were sur 
rounding the throne of Japan. Thus scholars and politicians 
alike "stressed that the Christian doctrine of universal love 



1. Hideo Kishimoto and John F. Howes, Japanese Religion in the Meiji 
Era, pp. 197-99. 



72 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

was incompatible with the national virtues of loyalty and 
filial piety taught explicitly in the Imperial Rescript on 
Education."- 

3. Notwithstanding the above-mentioned forces, however, 
there were many Japanese who became Christians. For the 
most part such converts came from those groups which had 
felt the impact of the West most keenly, i.e. from the samu 
rai, the military men who had enjoyed special privileges and 
status under the feudal regimes of the Tokugawa rulers, and 
who for the most part were opposing those who were as 
suming power in the reopened Japan. Other converts were 
from professions which were developing as a result of con 
tacts with the West, such as doctors, teachers, engineers, spe 
cialists in business and finance, etc. Thus from the begin 
ning, Christians, especially Protestant Christians, have been 
found most noticeably among the middle and upper-middle 
classes of people. 

Some of the major external, and at the same time am 
bivalent forces which were shaping the Protestant Christian 
Movement during the Meiji Period are noted below: 

1. There was the influence of the Second Great Awaken 
ing during the early 1800 s in the United States and Eng 
land. This influence is reflected in the main agenda topics 
for the two great conferences of American and British mis 
sion societies which were opened in New York and London 
in 1854. These topics were: "How to save the millions of 
our race perishing for the lack of knowledge;" and "How 
to heartily cooperate in the great work of preaching the 
gospel to the heathen." 3 

2. There was the impact of German liberalism, with the 
arrival in 1885 of the first missionary of the Evangelical 



2. Joseph Kitagawa, Religion in Japanese History, p. 246. 

3. Conference on Missions Held in 1860 at Liverpool, Edited by the Secre 
taries to the Conference, London, 1860, pp. 367-8. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 73 

Missionary Society (Allgem,einer Evangelisch Protestant- 
ische Missionsverein) , through a Japanese student who studied 
in Berlin, and also through the Japanese Minister to Ger 
many. 4 

3. About the same time, there were the influences of 
Western rationalism and scientific modernism which came to 
Japan through the newly-established universities, and which 
challenged intellectuals with the writings of such men as 
Charles Darwin and Henry Huxley (origin of the species and 
theory of evolution) ; Thomas Carlyle, Jeremy Bentham, and 
John Stuart Mill (philosophy of utilitarianism) ; Herbert 
Spencer (social evolution and survival of the fittest) ; etc. 

4. The above-mentioned influences were bolstered by the 
arrival in 1887 of the first representative of the American 
Unitarians, Rev. A. M. Knapp, who preferred not to be called 
a "missionary," but sought friendly relations with non- 
Christian religions, especially Buddhism. 5 Knapp looked on 
Unitarianism as "that form of Christianity in which the 
essential Christianity is free from supernaturalism," and 
affirmed that the only faith for the intellectual was Unitarian- 
ism which "absolutely denied that Christ was the son of God 
in any sense other than that all men are the sons of God." 6 

5. It was partly as a product of the Evangelical Awaken 
ings, and partly as a reaction against the influences noted 
above that the Evangelical Alliance was formed in England 
in 1846 and in the United States in 1867 to draw together 
in fellowship "all those in the stream of the Protestant 
Reformation who held to the authority of the Bible, the in 
carnation, the atonement, salvation through faith, and the 
work of the Holy Spirit." 7 



4. Kenneth S. Latourette, A History of the Expansion of Christianity, Vol. 

VI, p. 392; and Charles Germany, Protestant Theologies in Modern 
Japan, p. 9. 

5. Gary, History of Christianity in Japan, Vol. II, pp. 199-201. 

6. Germany, op. cit., p. 10 and Kishimoto and Howes, op. cit., p. 270. 

7. Latourette, op. cit., Vol. IV, pp. 42, 438. 



74 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

6. At the close of the Meiji Period there appeared still 
another influence, the rise of the "social gospel" movement in 
America, which was championed by the American Baptist 
clergyman, Dr. Walter Rauschenbusch, who published his 
Christianity and the Social Crisis in 1907. Thus it was at the 
World Missionary Conference at Edinburgh in 1910 where 
the strands of the social gospel cultural synthesis began to 
be detected in missionary thinking. For example, the Con 
ference reported: "The conviction has grown that their (non- 
Christian religions) confused cloud world will be found to 
be shot through and through with broken lights of a hidden 
sun . . . Christianity, the religion of the Light of the World, 
can ignore no lights, however broken. It must take them all 
into account and absorb them into its central glow. 8 

The end result of these ambivalent internal and external 
forces which were shaping the early Protestant Christian 
movement, are reflected in certain characteristics of early 
Japanese Protestanism. That is to say, that early Protestant 
ism in Japan : 

1. Was essentially non-theological; 

2. Emphasized ethics and personal morality; 

3. Exhibited a strong strain of personal evangelism and 
revivalism which was both a reflection of and a re 
action against some of the influences mentioned in 
the preceding pages; 

4. Laid a great stress on personal piety, which tended 
to make the Christian faith subjective and indivi 
dualistic, often with little emphasis upon the theo 
logical traditions of historic Christendom. 

The ramifications of these characteristics of Meiji Pro 
testantism in terms of Protestant Christianity s relation to 

8. Edinburgh, 1910, An Account and Interpretation of the World Missionary 
Conference, 1910, p. 137. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 75 

Japanese society and culture have already been mentioned in 
Dr. Yasuo Furuya s review of Modern Japan and Christianity 
in the first part of this Yearbook. However, for the purposes 
of summary, it should be mentioned that these characteristics 
led to two general tendencies in the Protestant Christian 
movement in Japan: one a liberal "social-concerned" stance, 
and the other, a "non-liberal," more principle-oriented stance. 

The Christians in the liberal "socially-concerned" camp 
were instrumental in bringing about the revolutionizing im 
pact which Christianity had on Japanese society, i.e. educa 
tion, elevation of women, the struggle against prostitution, the 
strengthening of the home through emphasis upon monogamy, 
prison reform, social work such as care of the blind, 
lepers, and aged and played key roles in the socialist move 
ment, rural cooperatives, etc. However, as has been pointed 
out by Prof. Kuyama in his works referred to previously, and 
as Dr. Charles Germany, has noted in his book, Protestant 
Theologies in Modern Japan, many of those Christians who 
were known as "liberals" and "socially-concerned" people 
"demonstrated a weakening tendency to attempt a com 
promise between elements of Christian faith and the new 
nationalism." 9 Dr. Germany has gone on to observe that 
"influence toward compromise arose partly from without, in 
the pressure of the state against the church, and partly from 
within, in the theological rationale for the closer approxima 
tion of Christianity and culture." 10 

On the other hand, as Dr. Germany and other Christian 
scholars have pointed out, the strongest resistance against 
some of the most crucial national issues, i.e. nationalism and 
the Emperor system, the Imperial Eescript on Education, 
etc., was exerted by the "non-liberal" Christians, who offered 
the most consistent opposition to oppose some of the forces 
then at work in the national life which were contrary to what 



9. Germany, op. cit., p. 15, 
10. Ibid, 



76 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

they understood to be the heart of Christianity. 

In summarizing the impact of early Protestantism on the 
national life, Dr. Charles Germany s observations are signr 
cant: 

"While recognizing the better resistance record of the 
non-liberal leaders, it is necessary in completing the 
picture to say that whereas the more traditional and 
orthodox Christians of the period demonstrated in in 
stances greater vitality and insight in the defense of 
Christian values in national life, in the long run the mo; 
sustained concern with the issues of life in society came 

from the liberal groups Thus liberalism securec 

for itself a place in the thought life of the church from 
mid-Meiji in the 1890 s, a position consistently alive in 
wide sections of the church into the 1930 s at which time 
liberalism was actively challenged by a renaissance and 
restoration of the non-liberal potential which may be 
described as the theology of the reformers, interpreted 
by the European dialectical thinkers." 11 

Therefore, returning to the framework of the various 
phases of the Christian Movement in Japan which were men 
tioned at the beginning of this chapter, and having surveyed 
the character of Protestant Christianity through Phase Four 
and Phase Five of the life of the Christian Movement in 
Japan, let us review some of the major theological influences 
which affected the character of the Protestant Christian 
Movement through Phase Six, that is, up to the end of 
World War II, and then go on to look in some detail at the 
profile of the Protestant Christian Movement during Phase 
Seven, i.e. from 1945 to the present. Some of these major 
theological influences were: 

1. The rise of groups of Biblical fundamentalists that 



11. Germany, op. cit., p. 18. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 77 

originated primarily in the United States during the years 
following World War I, mostly within the traditional 
churches and denominations; 

2. The development of a Biblical evangelicalism strongly 
flavored by the writings and influence of some of the early 
leaders of the Protestant Reformation, and led by such leaders 
as Dr. Tokutaro Takakura; 

3. The impact of the "Theology of Crisis" and "Dialectic 
Theology," as well as of the "Neo-orthodox" theologians; 

4. The post-World War II influence of such theologians 
as Reinhold Niebuhr, Paul Tillich, and of new understandings 
of Karl Earth and Emil Brunner. 

With the background afforded by Dr. Yasuo Furuya s re 
view in Part I, and the material presented so far in this 
chapter, let us now look at a profile of the Protestant Chris 
tian Movement in Japan, especially in its present form. 

2. A Profile of the Protestant Christian Movement in Japan 

Since the Protestant Christian Movement in Japan has, 
from its earliest beginnings, been so greatly influenced by 
the preponderance of Christian missionaries from the United 
States, this profile will confine itself mainly to a look at 
North American Protestant missions in Japan, which means 
predominantly United States Protestant missions. This 
strong American flavor has been due on the one hand to 
America s overtaking of Britain as a world power and as a 
major source of missionary support in the twentieth century, 
and on the other hand, to the dominant role which America 
has played in the Far East, and especially in Japan since 
Japan was opened to the West in 1853, particularly at such 
crucial periods in Japan s modern history as the Meiji Re 
storation, the post- World War II Occupation, and the widely- 
felt and continuing U.S. political, military, economic, and 
cultural presence. 



?8 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

By Way of Background Concerning 
The Post-1945 Period 

The dominant pre-1945 characteristics of the mission move 
ment in Japan continued into the post-war period, and to a 
certain degree were a "repeat" of what happened before. In 
the first place, Japan was again forcibly opened up to the 
West under predominantly American pressure, and many of 
the first returning and newly-appointed missionaries had been 
associated with the American military. In fact, it was due 
in large part to the personal interest of the Supreme Com 
mander ol the Allied Powers, General of the Army Douglas 
MacArthur, who challenged the American churches to send 
"1,000 missionaries," and to "place the Bible at the disposal 
of the Japanese people," that just two months after his land 
ing, four American mission board secretaries, traveling on 
official U.S. Army orders, landed in a U.S. military plane at 
Haneda Airport. *- 

Secondly, because of the special role that America was 
called on to play in the immediate post-war Japan; because 
of the readily available funds which most American mission 
boards had, which was not the case with the mission boards 
from the European and other countries which had suffered 
directly from the war; because of the rather sizeable pro 
liferation of new missionary groups and agencies especially 
in the United States many rather well-financed; and due 
to the "China fall-out" of missionaries after the change of 
government there in 1949, American missionaries in Japan 
increased greatly, both number and percentage-wise, as com 
pared to the pre-war period. 

Thirdly, those persons most attracted to Christianity con 
tinued to be students, intellectuals, and those from the middle 
and upper-middle classes. The reason for their attraction was 

12. The Japan Christian Yearbook 1953, Tokyo, p. 258; and, The Return to 
Japan, Report of the Christian Deputation to Japan, 1946, p. 37. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 79 

due to a certain extent to the tremendous interest in American 
culture, the study of English, etc., but there were also many 
evidences of deep spiritual groping and searching which re 
sulted from the disallusionment of the war and the collapse 
of certain aspects of Japan s religious and social structures. 

Fourthly, something ought to be mentioned at this point 
concerning the general administrative policies that Pro 
testant mission boards have tried to follow in Japan. The 
common policy of most Protestant mission boards functioning 
in Japan has been, from almost the beginning, the es 
tablishment of self -supporting, self -determining, and self- 
propagating national churches. This policy went back to the 
1860 Conference of Christian Missions held in Liverpool, 
England, where missionaries returning from the fields, 
maintained that this was the policy that must be followed 
if the Christian church was to be firmly rooted in foreign 
countries. 13 

Prior to their post World War II work, it was also a 
common policy of most Protestant mission boards to center 
their work on the field within their own "missions," which 
was composed of the missionaries of their denomination on 
the field. Parallel with each denominational "mission" was 
a Japanese church organization which consisted of pastors 
and lay leaders whose support at one time or another had 
come at least partially from that particular "mission." 
During the earliest days of missionary work in Japan, the 
annual meeting of the "mission" was the final authority on 
the field; however, by 1920, most "missions" and Japanese 
church organizations met more or less on an equal basis 
through what was usually called a "joint committee." 

Besides the responsibilities for housing, salary, health, 
language training, and other personal aspects of the life and 
work of their missionaries, most "missions" maintained the 

13. Conference on Missions Held in 1860 at Liverpool, Edited by the Secre 
taries to the Conference, London, 1860, p. 310. 



80 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

policy adopted by the Congregationalists, namely that "mis 
sionaries are responsible for the disbursement of mission 
funds, and should neither commit the responsibility to natives 
nor seek the control of the funds of the native churches." 14 
Gradually, however, by the late 1930 s most "missions" agreed 
that the time had come when a large measure of respon 
sibility in the administration of funds should be given to 
the affiliated churches, and this change-over was almost com 
pletely effected by the time of the large scale missionary exit 
in the early 1940 s. It should be mentioned also that during 
the years prior to the war, some of the "missions" tended to 
exert considerable influence in the policies and programs of 
many Christian-related educational, social work, and medical 
institutions. This was mainly because such institutions had, 
to a large extent, been started by missionaries, because large 
amounts of "mission" funds had been involved in them, and 
because the Japanese churches tended not to be related to 
them except as individual church members happened to work 
in them. 

Prior to the 1940 s, it was generally thought by most 
"missions" and boards that "missionaries can be utilized best 
according to the wishes of their fellow missionaries, and that 
they should never be at the mercy of even their best Japa 
nese friends." 15 This practice was altered in the 1930 s, how 
ever, so that the Japanese churches were consulted con 
cerning the placement of missionaries, though actually most 
boards acted quite independently in determining the number 
and type of missionaries to be sent to the field. 

Return of the Missionaries Following 
the End of World War II 

The procedures to accomplish the return of the mis 
sionaries to Japan after the war were worked out by a "Com- 



14. The Japan Christian Quarterly, Vol. Ill, January 1926, No. 1, p. 22. 

15. The Japan Christian Quarterly, Vol. Ill, January 1926, No. 1, pp. 26-27. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 81 

mission of Six" experienced Japan missionaries, representing 
certain North American boards, who, following the previous 
ly-mentioned visit of the four American mission board 
secretaries, came to Japan in 1946 to act as a liaison group 
between the Japanese Christian Movement, the American 
Occupational authorities, and the North American boards of 
missions. 10 Soon after the arrival of the "Commission of 
Six," standard procedures were set up for the return of 
missionaries of all denominations, and it was not long before 
the influx of missionaries began. The first wave (1946-1947) 
consisted mainly of the experienced missionaries of the pre 
war period. The second wave (1947-1949) was made up of 
both new short and long-term appointees of the boards which 
had maintained "missions" in Japan prior to the war, as well 
as many new appointees from a number of the newly-formed 
American missionary groups which had not been repre 
sented in pre-war Japan, but which were anxious to begin 
work in Japan, especially after the General MacArthur s 
plea for a thousand missionaries. The third wave (1950- 
1954) of missionaries came primarily as a result of the 
exodus of missionaries from China and Korea. Thus Japan 
became the haven for many "refugee" missionaries, both 
experienced and inexperienced, from both well-established 
and newly-established mission groups. Therefore by the end 
of 1950, the number of Protestant mission boards and their 
missionaries operating in Japan was as follows: 17 



Year: 1950 No, of Mission Boards Missionaries 
No. % of total No. % of total 


From North America 
From Europe 


58 
16 


77% 
25% 


955 
120 


89% 
11% 


Total 


74 


100% 


1,075 


100% 





16. Mimeographed Report of the Interboard Committee for Christian Work 
in Japan, New York, March 15, 1949. 

17. Japan Christian Yearbook, 1950, pp. 167-175. 



g PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

This number of missionaries does not include some 89 
missionaries who were supported independently of any mis 
sion board or group. Most of these "independent" missionaries 
were Americans. 

It should be noted that more. than half of the American 
missionaries in Japan at that time represented mission boards 
or societies which- had been unknown in Japan before the 
war. 

3. Present Period of Protestant Missions and the Christian 
Movement in Japan 

Thus we come to the present period of Protestant missions 
and the Christian Movement in Japan. 

What follows is an attempt to analyze the types of Pro 
testant missions that are represented in Japan, and to de 
scribe in a general way their philosophy of mission and what 
they are trying to accomplish in Japan, in relationship to 
Japanese culture and society. 

The major source material for this profile-analysis is 
first of all, the 1964 Japan Christian Yearbook, which con 
tains the most recent listing of Christian schools and social 
work activities being sponsored and supported by the 
various Protestant groups in Japan. The analysis of the 
mission boards and types of Protestant missionaries working 
in Japan are also based upon the information contained in 
the 1964 Japan Christian Yearbook. However the statistics 
concerning the number of churches, pastors, and church mem 
bers are taken from the 1906 Japan Christian Yearbook. 

Let us begin with the total number of Protestant mis 
sion boards and societies and their missionaries working in 
Japan as of 1964, which was as follows: 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 83 



Year: 1964 No. of Missions Boards Missionaries 

No. % of total No. % of total 


From North America 
From Europe 
and elsewhere 


96 
56 


63% 

37% 


1,355 

306 


82% 
18% 


Total 


152 


100% 


1,661 


100% 



The number of missionaries noted above does not include 
some 133 missionaries who were supported independently of 
any mission board. A large number of the "independent" 
missionaries continued to be Americans. 

At any rate, the important point to note, in comparing 
1964 to 1950, is that though the number of North American 
boards and missionaries had increased considerably in the 
fifteen year period, the number of European mission boards 
and related missionaries had nearly tripled, bringing the 
proportion of the North American missionary presence down 
to some extent as compared to immediately after the end of 
World War II. 

Hov/ever, as mentioned above, because the bulk of the 
Protestant missionary presence in Japan is still "North 
American," and mainly from the United States, the profile 
analysis which follows covers only the North American 
ivhich means primarily the United States mission boards 
and missionaries actually working in Japan as of 1964. 

A Pro file- Analysis 

of North American Mission Boards and 

Missionaries, and their Related Church, 

Educational, and Social Work Activities 

As of 1964 

After carefully examining the statements of aims, pur 
poses, and policies of representative North American boards 
of missions presently operating in Japan, and surveying 



g4 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

their methods of operation, it seems possible to divide them 
into five main types, which, for the lack of better labels, 
might be described as: Type A, Type B, Type C, Type D, 
and Type E. 

Each of these types will be looked at from these perspec 
tives : 

a) Number of Boards and related missionaries; 

b) Geographical areas of work; 

c) Number of Japanese ministers, churches, and church 
members historically-related to the various churches 
under each type; 

d) Involvement of each type in society, i.e. educational 
and social work, etc. 

In regard to perspectives (c) and (d) above, it should 
be pointed out that some of the persons and institutions which 
are noted as being related to the various missions and boards 
of each type, may also be related to non-North American 
boards or mission societies to which their church or denomi 
nation or institution has also been historically related. 

TYPE A 

This type includes those boards and societies which 
cut across traditional denominational boundaries, and in 
principle draw their personnel from among those who are 
basically committed to the philosophies of the Biblical funda 
mentalists, which may be described as maintaining the in 
fallibility of the Bible, denouncing the evolutionary hypothesis, 
holding to the authenticity of all of the miracles recorded 
in the scriptures, including the virgin birth and the physical 
resurrection of Jesus, and teaching the substitutionary theory 
of the atonement, and the visible second coming of Christ. 18 



IS. K. S. Latourette, op. cit., Vol. VII, pp. 34, 153. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 85 

Boards and societies classified under Type A number more 
than 40, with some 373 missionaries, thus composing 45% of 
the total number of North American mission boards and so 
cieties, and approximately 27% of the total Protestant mis 
sionary force from North America. Included under this 
classification would be such boards and societies as the Far 
Eastern Gospel Crusade, The Navigators, New Life League, 
Next Towns Crusade, The Evangelical Alliance Mission, 
World Missions to Children, New Tribes Mission, Oriental 
Missionary Society, etc. 

With the exception of such older boards and societies, 
as the Evangelical Alliance Mission and the Oriental Mis 
sionary Society, and others which are well known, most of the 
groups typed under this category have been formed within 
the past several decades and entered Japan for the first time 
during the post-war years. A number of the newly-arrived 
post-war missionaries in this category had been stationed in 
Japan with the United States armed forces during the early 
days of the Occupation. 

In the literature of some of the groups in this category, 
one finds many elements of military terminology used in 
planning their missionary outreach, i.e., "prayer warriors,^ 
"capturing the children for Christ," "missionary boot-camps," 
"advance training units," and "beachheads for Christ," etc. 

Missionaries who are considered for appointment by most 
of these boards are expected to show that they are "called by 
God" and can adhere to the fundamental doctrines as men 
tioned above. Thus as a general rule, candidates from any 
church or denomination who meet these two requirements, 
and who have at least a Bible college education can usually 
qualify for appointment. 

The training of missionary candidates of these boards 
and groups is varied; however, in most cases important 
factors in appointment seem to be a thorough grounding in 
fundamental doctrine, and in some instances a guarantee to 
the sponsoring board or group that the missionary candidate 



86 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

has enough money pledged from churches or individuals to 
maintain his support on the field. 

The basic policy for most of the boards and societies under 
this category is that the gospel must be preached "to every 
creature," and that the ultimate objective is the gradual 
withdrawal of the foreign missionary once the "native" 
church is established on a self-supporting basis, and once a 
"sanctified" trained ministry is established. Thus most of 
the missionaries involve themselves in the training of Japa 
nese pastors in their thirty or more Bible Schools, and in 
direct preaching. There is almost no organizational or 
institutional involvement in other educational or social wel 
fare work. Most of the support for the Bible Schools comes 
from the related mission boards. 

Thus, in summary, the major work of the missionaries 
in this category may be described as follows: direct 
evangelism; training of indigeneous national leadership; pro 
duction of evangelical literature (mainly translations of Eng 
lish language tracts, etc.) ; and weekday Bible Schools and 
Bible Classes. 

The geographic distribution of the missionary personnel 
of these boards and societies classified under Type A is as 
follows : 

Tokyo- Yokohama and surrounding areas 44% 

Central Japan 9% 

Kansai Area (Kobe-Osaka-Kyoto-Nara) 14% 

Shikoku and Kyushu 11% 

Northern Honshu and Hokkaido 22% 

Ministers, churches and preaching points, and church 
members related to this type are: 

Ministers 930 

Churches 660 

Church members 53,000 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS g7 

Some 35 educational and social welfare projects are related 
to this grouping. This includes about 30 Bible Schools and 
training institutes for Christian workers. 

In regard to administrative policies of these boards and 
societies in Japan, most of these are determined primarily 
by the missionaries in consultation with their home offices. 

Concerning their attitudes towards Japanese culture and 
religion, most missionaries seem to be close to the philosophies 
as expressed by the Conferences on Missions which were 
opened in New York and London in 1854. (See page 72). 
In this connection, it should be noted that a valuable example 
of the thinking being done in this area by a representative 
missionary of this grouping may be found in the recently- 
published book, Biblical Encounter with Japanese Culture, 
by Dr. Charles Corwin of the Tokyo Evangelistic Center. 

TYPE B 

The mission boards and societies which are included in 
this classification are those which in general base their 
theology on the same "fundamental" doctrines as the pre 
viously-mentioned group, but which stress certain specific de 
nominational emphases, such as the means of baptism, non- 
instrumental music, predestination, etc. 

Boards and societies classified under this type number 
more than 25, with nearly 200 missionaries, thus comprising 
27% of the total number of North American mission boards 
and societies, and approximately 15% of the total Protestant 
missionary force from North America. 

Included under this Type B would be such boards and so 
cieties as the Conservative Baptist Missionary Society, Baptist 
General Conference of America, Church of Christ, Baptist 
Bible Fellowship, Pveformed Presbyterian Mission, etc. 

Although most of these boards are relative new-comers 
to post-war Japan, as compared to the boards in the previous 
category there seems to be a larger nucleus of boards which 



88 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

were represented in Japan before the war. Although a num 
ber of the missionaries appointed by these boards after the 
war had served with the U.S. military services in Japan early 
in the Occupation, the bulk of new post-war appointees were 
young people who decided to come to Japan to answer the 
challenge of the "wide open doors" and to help fill the 
"spiritual vacuum." 

Like the Type A boards and societies, most of these Type B 
boards usually require "twice-born" Christians who have had 
at least a Bible School training. However, unlike the boards 
in the first category, these boards stress the allegiance of 
the missionary candidate to the beliefs and doctrines of his 
own church or denomination. 

Most of the Type B boards and societies maintain that it 
is their fundamental policy to establish "New Testament" 
churches, placing them under national leadership as soon as 
possible, and then to withdraw their missionaries as soon as 
practicable. Or as a statement of one of the boards put it: 
"Foreign missions are only a scaffold. A scaffold is needed 
when building a house. However, when the house is finished, 
the scaffold is taken down and moved to some other job. The 
house then stands by itself. A scaffold would be unsightly 
and unnecessary." 

Although the primary emphasis of these boards is that 
of direct evangelism, there is also a recognition that 
evangelism goes further than "saving men s souls," and the 
involvement of some of these boards in educational and other 
related work is indicative of this. Thus, the major work of 
the missionaries of these boards may be summarized as fol 
lows: direct evangelism through preaching and other methods; 
training of Japanese pastors and church workers; production 
of evangelistic literature; Bible Classes, etc.; and Christian 
education. 

The geographic distribution of the missionary personnel of 
these boards and societies is as follows: 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 89 

Tokyo- Yokohama and surrounding areas 36% 

Central Japan 2% 

Kansai Area (Kobe-Osaka-Kyoto-Nara) 27% 

Shikoku and Kyushu 12% 

Northern Honshu and Hokkaido 23% 

Ministers, churches and preaching points, and church mem 
bers related to this grouping are: 

Ministers 573 

Churches 410 

Church members 29 900 

Most of the institutional involvement of this group is in 
the educational area, with 11 of the 19 schools supported 
being Bible Schools and training institutes for Christian 
workers. 

As far as the administrative policies of these boards and 
societies in Japan are concerned, there are indications that 
there is somewhat more freedom and independent control 
exercised by Japanese leaders than was apparent in the 
Type A groups, although in general the home and field coun 
cils of these boards seem to maintain the major control of 
their work in Japan. 

Regarding the attitude of these mission groups towards 
Japanese culture and religion, it seems somewhat evident in 
examining their literature that there is more of an ap 
preciation than might be detected in most of the previous 
groups. 

From the standpoint of "ecumenical relations" most of the 
churches and missions which are associated with the boards 
and societies in these first two types are usually related to 
one another through the Interdenominational Foreign Missions 
Association (IFMA) ; The National Association of Evangeli 
cals (NAE) and its related world organization, the World 
Evangelical Fellowship (WEF) ; and in some instances the 



90 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS 



American Council of Churches (ACC) and its world counter 
part, the International Council of Christian Churches 
(ICCC). A recently organized agency of cooperation and 
common purpose in the Asian area is the Fellowship of Asian 
Evangelicals, which is represented in Japan by the Japan 
Evangelical Council of this Fellowship. All of these associa 
tion tend to be American-organized and financed, with some 
participation and support from churches and individuals in 
other areas of the world. 

TYPE C 

The mission boards and societies categorized under this 
type generally represent a rather traditional Protestant 
"middle of the road" theology which stands rather at mid 
point between most of the Type B groups mentioned pre 
viously, and the Type D groups which will be mentioned as 
the next category. 

There are about a dozen boards and societies which might 
be classified under this type, with nearly 250 missionaries, 
thus composing about 13% of the total number of North 
American mission boards and societies, and approximately 18% 
of the total Protestant missionary force from North America. 

Included under this type would be such boards and societies 
as the Church of the Nazarene, Christian Reformed Mission, 
General Conference Mennonite Mission, Seventh Day Ad- 
ventists, Southern Baptist Mission, and the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States. However, it should be em 
phasized that some of these groups could well be put in the 
Type B or the Type D categories. One thinks especially of 
the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. Mission which has re 
cently affiliated with the Interboard Committee, and which 
has a number of missionaries serving in churches of the United 
Church in Japan (Kyodan.) 

With only several exceptions, most of these Type C 
boards were not new on the post-war scene, but had a long 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 91 

and distinguished history of mission work in Japan. Some 
of the pre-war missionaries of this group served during the 
war as "old Japan hands" in church, government, and other 
posts. A few became U.S. military chaplains. Some of the 
missionaries served in the U.S. Occupation forces during the 
immediate post-war years. 

Among these mission groups, the Great Commission re 
quires that the missionaries "preach Christ and Him crucified 
to all non-evangelized people." The theology of most of these 
boards and societies reflects, however, the concepts of "social 
salvation" as well as of "personal salvation." 

On the whole these boards tend to require a somewhat 
higher degree of academic training for missionary candidates 
than do most of the boards in the Type A and Type B catego 
ries. A glance at the missionary roster of the Japan Christian 
Year Books reveals that a number of missionaries in this 
group have graduate degrees. 

Almost without exception, it is the fundamental policy of 
these boards "to establish indigeneous, self-supporting, 
autonomous national churches," and through the years this 
has been done. Before the war, many of the churches in 
these denominations were practically self-supporting, and were 
more or less autonomous. When the war came, and the Kyodan 
was formed, the chui ches which existed at that time became 
a part of it. With the ending of the war, however, and the 
return of the missionaries, the Japanese churches historically 
related to the Assemblies of God, Presbyterian U.S., Southern 
Baptist, Free Methodist, Church of the Nazarene, and 
Wesleyan Methodist soon withdrew. There was the charge 
made by some missionaries that the Kyodan was still gov 
erned by nationalistic and wartime leaders, and therefore was 
unfit to carry on in the "new democratic" Japan. Others 
affirmed that they could not maintain their doctrinal beliefs 
within the framework of the Kyodan: the Presbyterians were 
uncomfortable about the lack of a definite and clear-cut creed 
of faith, while the Baptists were concerned about the lack of 



92 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

freedom for local congregations, and the fact that there was 
no "Biblical doctrine or policy in the Kyodan." Still others, 
leaning quite heavily towards very fundamental and con 
servative theological beliefs, were hesitant to be in the same 
church with so many "liberals and modernists." Then, in 
addition to these criticisms, there were certain economic ele 
ments to be considered. For example, some of the boards in 
cluded in Type C had large financial resources ready to be 
sent to Japan for reconstruction and restoration purposes, and 
were not too happy about the prospects of going through 
the red-tape and delay of the Kyodan machinery or co 
operative committees in New York. From the point of 
view of a Japanese pastor whose church and home had been 
destroyed in the war, and whose family was living at that 
time on a less-than-subsistence level, the prospect of immediate 
economic relief by accepting the direct aid from American 
boards and missionaries was enticing indeed, even if it meant 
withdrawing from the Kyodan. Thus it was that soon after the 
end of the war, the large majority of those churches under 
this grouping which had joined the Kyodan earlier withdrew, 
and, for theological or financial reasons, or both, resumed 
their former direct connections and associations with the 
North American mission boards to which they had formerly 

been related. 

The geographic distribution of the missionary personnel of 
these Type C boards and societies is as follows: 

Tokyo-Yokohama and surrounding area 41% 

Central Japan 

Kansai Area (Kobe-Osaka-Kyoto-Nara) 14% 

Shikoku and Kyushu 

Northern Honshu and Hokkaido 

Ministers, churches, and church members related to this 
grouping are: 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 93 

Ministers 

Churches 362 

Church members 36,840 

Though there is a very strong emphasis upon direct 
evangelism among these boards, there is also a noticeable 
stress on educational and social welfare work. The education 
al activities are not, as is the case of the boards in the first 
two categories, more or less limited to Bible Schools for the 
rapid training of Japanese leadership, but stress the im 
portance of Christian middle schools, high schools, colleges, 
and seminaries. In the social welfare field, the Seventh Day 
Adventists, Southern Baptists, and Southern Presbyterians 
are, of course, well known for their excellent hospitals. 

Thus, in summary, the major work of these Type C mission 
groups may be described as follows: direct evangelistic work 
by preaching and other methods of mass appeal; literature, 
produced in several instances by their own presses, and to an 
increasing extent written by Japanese leaders in Japan; sec 
ondary and higher education; youth and student work; social 
service and rural work; and industrial and rural outreach. 

In terms of specific types of educational and social welfare 
institutions in which groups in this category are involved, 
these are as follows: 

Accredited schools: 

Universities 2 

Colleges 2 

Junior colleges 4 

Senior high schools 5 

Junior high schools 4 

Primary schools 1 

Special schools: 

Bible schools and seminaries 5 

Language schools 1 



94 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

Social welfare institutions: 

Neighborhood centers 1 

Hospitals and sanitoria 4 

In regard to the administrative policies of the boards on 
the field, it appears that decisions seem to be made through 
much more of a cooperative process between the missionaries 
and their Japanese colleagues than is apparent among boards 
of the first two categories. 

As an indication of the "middle ground" on which most 
of these groups stand theologically, it is of interest to note 
that some of the churches in this category are affiliated with 
the IFMA or NAE-WEF, while others cooperate with or are 
affiliated with the Japan National Christian Council (JNCC), 
and World Council of Churches (WCC). 

Kegarding the attitudes of these mission groups towards 
Japanese culture and religion, there are many indications that 
among the missionaries there is a general attitude of real 
understanding towards and appreciation for Japanese culture 
and religion. In this connection, it should be noted that the 
studies and publications of Dr. Tucker Callaway and Dr. 
George Hays of the Southern Baptist Board, and Dr. Clark 
Offner of the Christian Catholic Church are of great value 
to the Christian community outside of Japan, and especially 
to the missionary community in Japan. 19 

TYPE D 

Included in this category are mission boards or societies 
representing theological positions which owe much to higher 
criticism, the social gospel, the neo-orthodox movement, 
dialectical and crisis theology, etc., and churches which 



19. Tucker N. Callaway, Japanese Buddhism and Christianity, 1957; George 
H. Hays, "The Problem of Developing the Christian Ethic in the 
Japanese Culture," Missionary Research Bulletin, Jan. 15, 1951: Clark 
B. Offner and Henry van Straelen, Modern Japanese Religions, 1963. 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 95 

are joined together in the World Council of Churches on the 
basis of the following affirmation: "The World Council of 
Churches is a fellowship of Churches which confess the Lord 
Jesus Christ as God and Saviour according to the Scriptures 
and therefore seek to fulfil together their common calling to 
the glory of the one God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit."- 

Thus the mission boards and societies included in this 
category are all represented in the World Council of Churches, 
and all belong to one of the four families: Interboard Com- 
mittee-Kyodun, American Baptists, Lutherans, or Episco 
palians. 

As is well known, the Episcopal, Lutheran, and most of 
the Baptist churches had been members of the Kyodan during 
the war, but withdrew sooner or later after the war, mainly 
for theological reasons. It is this group of four churches 
which forms the backbone of the Japan National Christian 
Council, though there are several associated churches listed 
under the previous category, Type C. Most of these groups 
cooperate in the Asian area through the East Asia Christian 
Conference (EACC). 

Boards and societies classified under this Type D number 
about a dozen, and include the American Baptist Foreign 
Missionary Society; The American Lutheran Church; the Pro 
testant Episcopal Church; and the Interboard Committee 
Boards: Evangelical and United Brethren, Methodist Church 
(now united to form the United Methodist Church) ; Reformed 
Church in America; United Church of Christ; United Chris 
tian Missionary Society of the Disciples of Christ; United 
Presbyterian Church; and the United Church of Canada. 

Under these boards and societies there are about 400 mis 
sionaries, or "fraternal workers" as some are called. Thus 
the boards and societies of this category comprise about 11% 
of the total number of North American mission boards and 
societies, and approximately 29% of the total Protestant mis- 



20. WCC New Delhi Report, 1961, p. 37. 



96 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

sionary force from North America. 

As has already been noted, most of these boards have the 
longest history of Christian work in Japan. Also, as men 
tioned previously, it was the board secretaries and missionaries 
from several of these boards who first reestablished the con 
tact between the churches of the United States and Japan 
after World War II. Like some of their Type C colleagues, 
a number of the pre-war missionaries of this group worked 
for church and U.S. government agencies during the war as 
"old Japan hands," others were service chaplains, and some 
returned to Japan immediately after World War II with spe 
cialized and professional duties in the U.S. Occupation forces. 

In the statements of these mission boards dealing with the 
aims of missions, the commanding power of the Great Com 
mission is put into direct relation to the necessity of bringing 
the transforming power of Christ to bear upon individuals 
and their society. The Interboard Committee Manual, early in 
the IBC noted the primary tasks of the missionary as follows: 

a) To be a colleague and friendly helper in the up 
building of the life of the younger church; 

b) To carry the Christian Gospel into the many areas of 
life where Christ is not known or where no churches 
exist; 

c) To witness against all the varied forms of secularized 
and materialistic life in the society in which he lives, 
particularly that which derives from his own country; 

d) To embody and transmit the experience of the Univer 
sal Church; 

e) To help build the bridges of Christian understanding 
and cooperation between classes, races, and nations, 
and thus assist the peaceful development and adjust 
ment of their relationships in an ordered society. 

The main policies of the these North American mission 
boards are basically one in the affirmation that the boards and 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 97 

their missionaries should work with and under the authority 
of Japanese church leadership. For instance the Episcopal 
Board affirms that though it is ready to lend every possible 
assistance in missionary personnel and funds, "it should be 
made clear that the policy and program in Japan must be of 
Japanese origin and that upon the Japanese Church must rest 
ultimate responsibility for the success or failure of its mis 
sion."^ 1 The fundamental policy of the boards cooperating in 
the Intel-board Committee is that of "complete cooperation with 
the Kyodan in evangelistic, educational, social, medical, and 
and other work among the people in Japan as may be mutually 
agreed upon."- 

The standards of missionary selection and training by these 
boards are as a rule extremely high. Generally speaking, a 
missionary candidate must have at least a master s or bachelor 
of divinity degree from a graduate school or seminary, and 
many boards are making it increasingly possible for their 
missionaries to take the necessary time to earn their doctorate 
degrees. Thus the number of missionaries with doctorates is 
increasing to a marked degree. Most boards require their mis 
sionary candidates to pass rigid psychiatric examinations. 

The major involvement of the Type D mission boards and 
their missionaries is in institutional work, especially in educa 
tion. This is clearly seen in the number of accredited educa 
tional institutions which are historically related to this 
group of boards and societies: 

Universities 

Post-graduate schools ? 

Colleges 9 

Junior colleges 

Senior high schools 67 



21. "The Seikokai," Mimeographed Report of Church Missions House, New 
York, 1951. 

22. IBC Manual, p. 1. 



98 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

Commercial high schools 2 

Junior high schools . 13 

Special Schools 

Bible schools 7 

Language schools 5 

Rural training centers 3 

Social welfare work and project involvement are shown by 
these types of welfare institutions which are being supported 
to some degree or other by the Type D boards and missions: 

Old people s homes 8 

Centers for the physically and mentally handicapped 12 

Orphanages, widow s homes, nurseries, etc 52 

Neighborhood centers 17 

Hospitals, clinics, sanatoria 12 

Homes for delinquents and prostitutes 5 

Rehabilitation of ex-convicts 1 

Employment centers 1 

Ministers, churches, and church members related to this 
grouping are: 

Ministers 2,440 

Churches 1,772 

Church members 270,485 

The geographic distribution of the missionary personnel 
of these boards and societies is as follows: 

Tokyo- Yokohama and surrounding areas 34% 

Central Japan 12% 

Kansai Area (Kobe-Osaka-Kyoto-Nara) 21% 

Shikoku and Kyushu 20% 

Northern Honshu and Hokkaido 13% 



HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 99 

The general attitude of these boards and their missionaries 
toward Japanese culture and religion tends to be that of deep 
understanding and sympathy, although there are of course 
some exceptions. This general stance of non-hostility and 
sympathetic appreciation for Japanese religious and cultural 
values has, in some instances, meant a close contact with 
other religious groups. In fact, it is significant that an IBC 
missionary-scholar, Mr. William Woodard, was until his recent 
retirement, supported by his mission board to serve as the 
Director of the Institute for the Study of Religion. 

TYPE E 

The two two main groups classified under this category 
are the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) and the 
YMCA-YWCA. These groups have a long and distinguished 
record of work in Japan. They are not however, involved 
in the establishment of churches, though the Friends Meetings 
function as a kind of "congregation." 

These organizations purpose to foster, through the sharing 
of spiritual, intellectual, and material gifts, the development 
of spiritual insight concerning the knowledge and love of Jesus 
Christ; understanding between people of the various cultures; 
and the strengthening of the total Christian witness. 

Personnel for these groups are in principle recruited ac 
cording to procedures mentioned previously in the preceding 
section. 

Main program emphases of these organizations are: 

a) Youth and student work; 

b) Education; 

c) Neighborhood and family centers; 

d) Relief and social work; 

e) Bible study; 

f ) Civic affairs and concerns. 



100 PROTESTANT MISSIONS 

The general attitude of the American personnel of these 
groups towards Japanese culture and religion may be said to 
reflect deep sympathy and understanding. 

Conclusion 

No attempt will be made to draw any conclusions from this 
historical analysis of the Christian missionary movement in 
Japan, Catholic and Protestant. But it is hoped that the 
material which has been presented will stimulate those who 
represent Christianity in Japan to draw their own conclusions 
as they look at themselves and their related churches and in 
stitutions as they really are, and ask themselves such questions 
as: What is Christianity s major task during the next century 
in Japan? How can those who live and work in His name 
cooperate together in sinking the roots of the Gospel deep 
enough in the soil of Japan so that neither typhoons from the 
East, nor violent storms from the West will uproot the tree 
of Christianity in Japan? 

Seen in the perspective of the past strengths and weak 
nesses of Christianity in Japan, it is hoped that the articles 
that follow will provide us with a challenge and real sense 
of direction as we Christians and the people of Japan move 
into the next phase of Christianity in Japan, which begins in 
this Meiji Centennial Year of 1968. 



PART II 



CHAPTER 2 

SPEAKING TO THE NEW ERA: RELIGIOUS 

AND INTELLECTUAL LEADERS LOOK 

AT CHRISTIANITY 

1. TWELVE SCHOLARS COMMENT ON CHRISTIANITY 
Collated by Joseph J. Spae 

In 1966, the Oriens Institute for Religious Research spon 
sored an inquiry into Japanese attitudes toward Christianity. 
The research team consisted of Professor Norihisa Suzuki, of 
St. Paul s Rikkyo) University, and of Joseph J. Spae, of the 
Oriens Institute, and their associates. The results of their 
inquiry were serialized in The Japan Missionary Bulletin and 
later published in book form in two different versions, one in 
Japanese (Suzuki and Spae, Nihonjin no Mita Kirisuto- 
kyo (Christianity Seen Through Japanese Eyes), and one in 
English (Spae, Christianity Encounters Japan), both pub 
lished by the Oriens Institute, 1968. 

Part of this inquiry consisted of interviews with twelve 
outstanding Japanese scholars, all of whom were non-Chris 
tians. An account of these interviews is presented here in 
reference to "the future of Christianity in Japan." Further 
details will be found in the above publications. 

The following scholars were interviewed: Kazuo Kasahara 
(Tokyo University), Tomio Fujita (St. Paul s University), 
Chie Nakane (Tokyo University), Shigeyoshi Murakami (To 
kyo Metropolitan University), Ichiro Hori (Tokyo University), 
Shigeki Nishihira (Institute of Statistical Mathematics), Toru 
Yasumoto (Hosei University), Keiichi Yanagawa (Tokyo Uni- 



102 



RELIGIOUS AND INTELLECTUAL LEADERS 



versity), Hajime Nakamura (Tokyo University), Yoshio Toda 
(Kokugakuin Daigaku), Eiho Kawahara (Waseda Univer 
sity), and Jiro Kamishima (St. Paul s University). 

These scholars answered the following questions: 1) Have 
you had any contact with Christianity as yet? 2) How do you 
see the role of Christianity in Japan? 3) What to your mind 
is the cause of Christianity s slow progress in Japan? 4) How 
do you feel about Christianity s future in this country? 

The outline below indicates something of the Japanese 
critique of Christianity, and of some responses which Chris 
tians shall want to adopt and foster. As is shown in the first 
column, the Japanese critique of Christianity seems to cluster 
around four main themes: emotions, ethics, culture, and re 
ligion. There follows, in the second column, a synthetic value 
judgment derived from an appraisal of one or several aspects 
of Christian life, corresponding to each of the four themes. 
The third column outlines certain aspects of these themes and 
value judgments which are most often the focus of criticism 
in Japan. Some remedial attitudes, suggested by our friendly 
critics, form some suggested responses which are mentioned 
in the fourth column. 



The Japanese Critique and the Christian Response 



Theme Value judgment 
1. Emotions affectedness 



Aspect criticized Response 

Christians, as naturalness 

people, are 

inhuman 



2. 


Ethics 


exclusiveness 


Christians are togetherness 
too self-conscious 


3. 


Culture 


foreignness 


Christianity is acculturation 
an alien system 


4. 


Religion 


transcendence 


Christianity incarnation 
poses as an ab 
solute religion 



To begin with, it is important to note that, seen through 



SPEAKING TO THE NEW ERA 103 

Japanese eyes, Protestant-Catholic differences are abstruse, 
obnoxious, and hardly to the point. In fact, most Japanese 
refuse to take them seriously, and it is impossible, on the basis 
of the interviews (with some exceptions) to sort them out and 
"mail them to their respective addresses." Christians must 
"hang together." 

These interviews also show that the Japanese criticism of 
Christianity is riddled with stereotypes which were in vogue 
half a century ago. The fact, however, that these stereotypes 
still linger in the popular and scholarly imagination of the 
Japanese people does not admit complacency. Hence, there 
now follows short quotations of what these scholars had to 
say, without commentary or identification. 

1. "Christianity, I think, is nothing else but a place where 
people can shop free of charge for American and European 
culture. It serves the purpose of those who want to study 
foreign languages and mix with persons of the opposite sex. 
What Christianity should do is this: it should support people 
in their troubles and worries. Those who have been thus 
strengthened will naturally become ambassadors of the good 
news. The absence of Christian evangelism in this country (I 
always wished to know more about Christianity but I was 
never approached from the Christian side) points to the fact 
that Christians themselves are poor btlievers. This could 
hardly be otherwise, considering the utilitarian motives for 
which they converted." 

2. "There is a church in my neighborhood. Until the 
building was completed, something was done to bring the peo 
ple in. Once the building was up, those in charge seemed to 
be sitting on their hands. Priests and ministers with a 
salaryman mentality are a disaster to their faith. New con 
verts are not easily absorbed, and beneath the externals of 
heavy-handed kindness often lurks a cold and double-faced in- 
group consciousness." 

"Organizationally, a uniform and foreign system is im 
posed upon Japanese society from above, rather than permit- 



104 RELIGIOUS AND INTELLECTUAL LEADERS 

ting it to grow from the local community as circumstances 
indicate. The result is that many Christians contentedly bask 
in the shadow of a big organization, while those who are 
dissatisfied with the prevailing lethargy leave their Church." 
"The ecumenical movement is making progress. Yet the 
differences among the Churches, due to historical factors, need 
not disappear. Ecumenism, if it is imposed from above, could 
lead to a Church unity marked by bigotry and self-adulation." 

3. "The situation of Christianity in this country would 
improve if Christians did away with their minority complex 
and washed off their Christian smell. They could be of great 
service to society if they would undertake those works of 
charity for which only people imbued with a particular spirit 
of sacrifice can qualify." 

4. "I find no trace in this country of the lively ferment 
which is agitating the Catholic Church in other countries. In 
the mind of many Japanese, here is a mystery: the real 
strength of Catholicism in this country, which it owes to 
international backing, is not reflected in the scale of its ac 
tivities." 

"As for Protestantism, it has attracted those who wanted 
to distance themselves from the traditional religious struc 
tures. Meanwhile things have changed, and a quantitative 
and qualitative Protestant progress is unlikely. This neces 
sitates a renewed theology and a determined effort to meet the 
masses. Protestantism s traditional cultural role should be re- 
examined and re-asserted; it should be adapted to the needs 
of the times." 

5. "The style of life of many Christians reflects a noble 
soul. But one misses in their social relations a certain human 
warmth and understanding, suppressed, it would seem, by their 
ethical fastidiousness and doctrinal severity. Perhaps this at 
titude points to the basic opposition between the Christian view 
of man as creature and the Japanese view of man as being. 
But whatever view one holds, we could all agree on what it 
takes to help our fellow men. And here is precisely the com- 



SPEAKING TO THE NEW ERA 105 

mon ground on which Christianity can enter into a fruitful 
dialogue with Japan." 

6. "The present state of Christian stagnation in this coun 
try can only be remedied when Christians do away with the 
self-imposed ghettoism of their city churches. Christianity 
should shake off its caste consciousness and its traditional 
mood of contradiction with which it traditionally faces the 
world. To this effect, the presence of non-Christians within the 
community of the elect is a constant necessity. Unfortunately, 
once the physical buildings are up, priests and ministers often 
lose much of their missionary ardor. They feel satisfied with 
a little group of like-minded devotees, who, for the sake of 
inner cohesion, draw a taut line between themselves and the 
outside world. Hence one wonders whether, in their inner 
most heart, they really care to admit outsiders and grow, and 
whether this is not the reason why the spiritual drifters who 
come to the cities stay away from the churches." 

7. "Christian individualism has universal value, and I 
think that the ideological system from which it derives has 
a contribution to make to Japan. But that should not lead to 
the criticism that a Japanese Christian does no longer look 
like a Japanese, or to the identification of Christianity with 
Europe and America. I do not imply that foreigners are not 
good men. But I mean to say that, among Japanese Christians, 
there are some who look more foreign than foreigners." 

8. "While I travelled in America and Europe and visited 
many churches, I always felt how little consideration was 
shown to the people gathered for the occasion. Christianity 
teaches that man stands strictly alone before God, a fact 
which explains the severity inherent in that religion. Yet, this 
should only entertain in man the feeling of loneliness, but it 
need not lead him to despair. Quite different from Christian 
religious happenings are Shinto matsuri which enwrap all 
participants in a common atmosphere of joy. I feel that you 
should give more thought to the correct religious expression 
of a healthy way of life in Christianity." 



106 RELIGIOUS AND INTELLECTUAL LEADERS 

9. "I believe that Christianity has made little effort to 
adapt itself to the feelings of the Japanese and that it has 
not sufficiently studied those feelings. The Japanese prefer 
the roadless road to a set of dogmas. With Natsume Soseki 
their expression is to model oneself on heaven and forsake 
attachment to the self. They remember how centuries ago 
Basho and others advocated a natural peace of mind. That 
is the kind of religious feeling in which the Japanese delight, 
a fact which Christianity has failed to grasp." 

10. "As Kotaro Tanaka, a Catholic, writes, Japanese 
Christianity is not Christianity, it only smells of Christianity. 
By this I mean that the Christian smell which pervades the 
works of authors of the Taisho era, which was a period of 
dogmatism, wafted over onto the intellectual milieu. . . . 
Times are now back to normal, and an irreligious mood pre 
vails. To shake off its present lethargy, a reassessment of 
Christian missionary methods is absolutely necessary. This 
high mobility of today s society, among other things, calls for 
a new vision of man which it is for religion to communicate. 

Church unity is a definite asset. The division of the 
Churches loses sight of the religious task ahead, and is a 
foolish thing. If Christianity had a correct grasp of the Japa 
nese situation, it would overcome its divisions and units." 

11. "The real Buddhism, to me, is the Buddhism of a 
Shinran and of a Dogen; the real Christianity is that of a 
Kanzo Uchimura. The problem facing Buddhism in Japan is 
whether it can produce a second and a third Shinran and 
Dogen. The problem of Christianity is whether it can bring 
forth another Uchimura." 

12. "In the matter of Church unity, several formulas 
could be tried. It is evident, however, that the appearance 
of what might be called Christian New Religions, many of 
them of questionable nature, is inviting misunderstanding 
about Christianity in general and that something should be 
done about them." 

Of the twelve scholars who answered our questions, three 



SPEAKING TO THE NEW ERA 107 

went to Sunday school, four attended Mukyokai (Christian 
"Non-church") meetings, several felt attracted to Christianity 
but, for a variety of reasons, none of them made the final step. 
All are hazy on the matter of ecumenism. In general it is 
clear that religion is not their main concern, but a side issue 
one discusses over a cup of tea. 

More favorable things were said by these men about 
Christianity than our texts report. Seven of those interviewed 
mentioned Christianity s contribution to Japan s moderniza 
tion. Education, social welfare, public morality, politics, so 
cialism, agrarian reform, woman s emancipation, peace move 
ments in all these departments Christians have left their 
mark. 

For all that, our interviewees told us repetitiously that 
Christianity is foreign, strange, on the margin of everyday 
life, gregarious, stubborn, cold, unappealing to the Japanese 
kimochi (feeling), dogmatic, sin-conscious and complex-ridden, 
authoritarian, conformist, sour, unnatural, uninteresting and, 
in short, absolutely in need of a radical shake-up. 

The scholars interviewed did not they could not look at 
Christianity from the inside. They saw it, as best they could, 
with their eyes; they did not probe it with their hearts. Yet 
we listen gratefully to what they have to say because they 
serve us with an eloquent reminder of the ecumenical task 
we face. 



108 RELIGIOUS AND INTELLECTUAL LEADERS 



2. A BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHER LOOKS AT THE 
FUTURE OF CHRISTIANITY 

Keiji Nishitani 

Like all other religions, Christianity seems to be involved 
in a Crucial difficulty which originates in its own inner nature. 
That is to say that I think a question-mark looms greater and 
greater in regard to the fundamental concepts of Christianity, 
which include "faith," "revelation," "Jesus Christ, 7 and "God," 
as well as with the fundamental mental attitudes of its fol 
lowers. Therefore, I believe that the future of Christianity 
depends really on whether and how it can realize and afford 
an appropriate solution to its own inner problems, and whether 
or not it can within itself open up some new paths toward a 
decisive evolution which would bring about a new epoch in its 
history. 

In order that I may not be misunderstood by what fol 
lows, I would like to distinguish between the two meanings of 
the word, "concept," which is mentioned above. On the one 
hand, "concept" simply indicates a universal "something;" on 
the other hand, "concept" refers to an idea, interpretation, 
or expression of that universal "something." Actually these 
two meanings cannot be separated as long as one takes a long- 
accepted conception of a universal "something" and the es 
tablished interpretation of the expression of that "something" 
as the concept itself. But in case the necessity arises of search 
ing out after some completely new interpretation of a uni 
versal idea, a universal "something," we are forced to dis 
tinguish between the two sides of the meaning. 

At this point, I do not intend to maintain that the entities 
indicated by the above-mentioned concepts, i.e., "faith," "reve 
lation," "Jesus Christ," and "God," have become problemati 
cal today. In my opinion, all of these concepts make up the 
indispensable components of religion in general. In other 



SPEAKING TO THE NEW ERA 109 

words, concepts such as "faith" or "belief" in the religious 
sense, and the "Divine" as the object of belief, are in some 
form or another, basic elements in all religions, even in 
Buddhism, which is commonly thought to be atheistic. The 
same can be said of the concept of "revelation." Also, the 
figure of a man consecrated as an incarnation of the "Divine," 
as the "Savior," or as the so-called "God-man," is not a rarity 
in the society of religions. Thus I wish to state clearly that 
I do not think that such concepts have lost their validity. 
However, I do think that the traditional conceptions and inter 
pretations of them and in connection with them, as well as 
man s traditional attitudes toward them, are today pressed by 
the necessity of a radical re-examination. 

Let us take, for example, the concept of faith. Am I wrong 
in concluding that there has long prevailed in Christian 
tradition a firm conviction that a position of unwavering 
supremacy of faith can be ensured only by excluding all other 
standpoints from faith itself, especially that of knowledge? 
If this conclusion is valid, then one must conclude that the 
domain of faith has become like the court of a despotic 
monarch: open in the upward direction to the Absolute One, 
but closed in the downward direction to the common men, for 
whom it is really untouchable. Therefore the most serious 
question raised by this prohibitive character having been given 
to faith is that it has become contradictory to the freedom of 
thought, or rather, contradictory to the freedom which should 
be inherent in the act of thinking. There is no need to mention 
that the strife between faith and free thinking in European 
history is an old story. I believe that it was only when 
philosophy was emancipated from the domination of theology 
that the freedom of thinking was truly restored. But today 
the strife has ceased. Theology is on one side, and philosophy 
and the sciences are on the other: both are on two parallel 
tracks; each is going its way; both see the other as irrelevant, 
as if there were no mutual need of dialogue. 

This present situation brings to light how complete a dis- 



HO RELIGIOUS AND INTELLECTUAL LEADERS 

ruption has taken place within man s whole spirit, and if we 
take man seriously we must consider his spirit as a whole. 

Therefore, it seems to me that one of the most important 
problems facing Christianity today is to look within itself and 
to seek for a new interpretation of the concept of faith, in 
which the standpoint of faith can be brought into a living 
encounter and integration with the process of free thinking so 
that man may be restored to a wholeness and spiritual maturi 
ty. In order to accomplish this, it would above all be neces 
sary to re-establish the position of a faith which one holds as 
supreme upon a new foundation that somehow reflects a free 
openness to other standpoints. 

In conclusion, may I mention some negative and positive 
contributions which Christianity has made in relation to the 
concepts of "faith" and "God." Since we have been discussing 
faith, let us take this first. As mentioned previously, Christi 
anity s faith in an Absolute God has given the believer 
tremendous strength and power. But at the same time, it has 
made him extremely intolerant toward standpoints which are 
different than his, and has made Christianity seem to be an 
"exclusive" religion. 

Secondly, in regard to the concept of God, a distinct nega 
tive contribution of Christianity has been the over-personaliza 
tion and consequently the anthropomorphism of God. This has 
resulted in the negation of the ontological quality of God as 
the Ultimate Being. But on the positive side, it must be 
admitted that in Japan, Christianity has given the concept of 
"kami" a new dimension, that of God as a personal "I-ness" 
which overcomes the primitive mythological and anthropomor 
phic concepts. Nevertheless, this positive contribution raises 
still further questions of a negative nature. For example, 
within the realm of both traditional Oriental and Greek phi 
losophical thinking, as well as some current trends in Western 
philosophy, the concept of a "personal" God itself is very 
ambiguous, i.e., is God personal, is God a personal Being? 
Does not the concept of a personal God indicate particularities 



SPEAKING TO THE NEW ERA 111 

which may be contrary to universal qualities of the Ultimate 
Being? 

To me, the ultimate challenge to Christianity is the degree 
to which it can be tolerant of other philosophical and religious 
standpoints and recognize a Universal God, the Ultimate 
Being of all beings. Unless the Christian God is universal, He 
is only one god among many gods. 

I must admit that I am greatly encouraged by what is 
going on now within some parts of Christendom in terms of 
meeting this challenge. I think of such theologians as the late 
Paul Tillich, the late Dietrich Bonhoeffer, John Robinson, and 
some of the so-called "Death of God" theologians who are 
trying to break down the walls which Christianity has built 
up between itself and the rest of the world: walls of in 
tolerance; walls of exclusiveness ; walls of over-emphasis on 
the particularistic nature and personalization of God and 
walls that tend to imprison a Divine "I-Thou" relationship 
which is supposed to be for all men. 



112 RELIGIOUS AND INTELLECTUAL LEADERS 

3. MY VIEW OF CHRISTIANITY 
Nikkyo Niwano 

Let me say immediately that I cannot do justice to Christi 
anity by interpreting it in my own light because I have only a 
superficial knowledge of its nature. 

Whenever an individual belonging to a religious organiza 
tion makes a statement of dubious quality about another or 
ganization, this leads the public to question the soundness of 
the religion to which that individual belongs. This fact puts 
a particular responsibility upon religious leaders who in some 
way bear the burden of their followers, and should set the 
pace for them in righteous living. Yet, it is equally true that 
words and deeds of a single outstanding Christian or Bud 
dhist may bring praise to the whole of Christianity or of Bud 
dhism. 

As for me, my acquaintance with many outstanding 
Christians has made me hold Christianity in high esteem. 
Another cause of my esteem for Christianity is the result of 
my having been invited to the Second Vatican Council as a 
special guest. Thus I was able to see with my own eyes how 
Catholicism has dared to shatter its age-old exclusiveness and 
engage itself with other religions in a common front for the 
welfare of all people on earth. That the Vatican permitted a 
non-Christian to attend its highest council is proof and symbol 
of the fact that all religions are finding through mutual co 
operation a way open towards world peace and the happiness 
of mankind. 

The words which I heard from the Pope s lips, "Christians 
pray for Buddhists and Buddhists pray for Christians," re 
main imprinted upon my mind, and they echo an ideal which 
I have cherished for many years: the cooperation between 
the religions of the world. 



SPEAKING TO THE NEW ERA H3 



There Is But One Truth 

In the past, my religious beliefs have been criticized as 
non-committal and fence-straddling. As a religious leader I 
have been criticized for lacking in firm conviction because I 
have quoted not only passages from Sakyamuni s sutras, but 
because I have also culled sayings from St. Nichiren, Dogen, 
Honen and Shinran, and have used them in my sermons. 

The basis of my belief is the Lotus Sutra. The chapter on 
"Tactfulness" in the Lotus Sutra has this passage: 

In the Buddha-lands of the universe, 

there is only the One-Vehicle Law; 
Neither a second, nor a third, 

except the tactful teachings of the Buddha. 
But by provisional expressions 

he has led all living creatures 

revealing the Buddha-Wisdom. 

In all the world there is but One Truth. There may be 
numerous teachings to enlighten the byways, but the ultimate 
wisdom of Buddha is One. Numerous teachings have been pro 
pounded because of the individuality of environment and intel 
ligence, and to conform to the trends of the time in order to 
reveal the wisdom of the enlightenment of Sakyamuni. 

I have inferred from this that all religions, though dif 
ferent in rites, rituals and forms of worship, must be One 
in their basic truth. 

Some of the Buddhist doctrines are sometimes simply 
stated in the Bible and some of the Christian doctrines are 
most easily explained by Buddhism. To those whose lives are 
dedicated to the saving of people from suffering, what matters 
most is not the religion by which people are saved. I recall 
what Dr. Arnold J. Toynbee, the great living historian, wrote 
in a letter which he addressed to me: 



114 RELIGIOUS AND INTELLECTUAL LEADERS 

"Like you, I believe that the great historic religions 
and philosophies all declare the same truth and give the 
same advice and help. The truth is that every human 
being is, by nature, self-centered and that this self- 
centeredness is disastrous for himself and for his fellow 
human beings. The advice is: Overcome your self- 
centeredness ; transfer your devotion from yourself to the 
universe of which you are a part. . . ." 

We religionists have only One Truth, but when one con 
siders his own as the only Way to Truth, he falls into bigotry 
and dogmatism. He who wakes up to his divinity as a human 
being must also recognize the divinity of human beings in 
others. 

This is the Time for Religious Cooperation 

The "Great Dialogue," the mutual discussion which is 
being held among different religions in order to better under 
stand each other, is paving the way to religious cooperation 
and is impeding the spread of bigotry and of aggressiveness. 
This new trend of our time is not a casual event; it is a real 
demand of our time. The usefulness of religion consists in 
bringing happiness to mankind, not in modes of worship, 
ritual, doctrine, nor in the way these things are preached. 
Religion is for the people, and not people for religion. A 
religion which holds that people are for religion will become 
extinct, while leaders who propound religion for the people 
will be honored. 

The improvement of transportation and communication 
makes the world become smaller. People of one nation cannot 
isolate themselves from influences coming from other nations. 
The reality of this time in history binds all people on earth 
together into one human family. 

If we vainly hope for blessings to ourselves while closing 
our eyes to the suffering of others, we shall never achieve 



SPEAKING TO THE NEW ERA 115 

what we hope for. Religion will be a stumbling block to 
progress if any one religion seeks its own welfare to the 
exclusion of the others. 

The world is harassed by human degeneration through 
mechanization and false hopes for happiness raised by science. 
The world is losing interest in spiritual values because of 
internecine religious campaigns. 

The peoples of the world must open their eyes, since mutual 
happiness and prosperity will be gained only by mutual under 
standing and cooperation. The beginnings of such an under 
standing have been initiated in the ecumenical movement and 
in the attitude of the Vatican Council ; but its implementation 
is still a matter of the future. There are still religious or 
ganizations in the world which refuse to extend their hand 
for the good of all. 

Japan is known as a land of syncretistic religions. Pure 
Christianity may find it difficult to propagate. But this very 
fact may be seen as a challenge to Christianity to revitalize 
itself. I should like to state my conviction that Christianity in 
Japan, in the sense that it identifies itself as a Christianity 
for a new human race, should qualify itself as a pilot and a 
pioneer. 

Christianity in Japan is entering into a new period of its 
activities. I for one, from the heart, pray that it may suc 
ceed, grow and prosper. 



PART II 

CHAPTER 3 

SPEAKING TO THE NEW ERA: 
CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 

1. CHRISTIANITY AND NATIONALISM 

Dclmer M. Brown 

The history of Christianity in Japan during the last one 
hundred years raises a number of difficult questions about the 
response of Japanese people to the Christian message. But 
thoughtful Christian workers are consistently raising these 
two: (1) why, in spite of the efforts of thousands of ded 
icated Christian missionaries, do less than one percent of 
the Japanese identify themselves as Christians? And (2) why, 
in the recent upsurge of religious movements in Japan, has 
Christianity not made a comparable advance? 

The most serious considerations of the first question have 
been written down by that great missionary-scholar, Dr. D. C. 
Holtom. Because his studies were based on the theory that 
the spread of Christianity was impeded by Shinto-rooted feel 
ings of nationalism, one is forced to ask whether nationalism 
is still the main barrier to the spread of the Christian faith. 
Consequently this paper will take up, first, the current rel 
evance of nationalism to the above two questions and then 
discuss briefly two additional points that seem to be im 
portant: that is, the difficulty caused by the character of 
Japanese society, and the disadvantages of the "intellectual" 
nature of Christianity in Japan. 

In these prosperous times, when Japan does not feel itself 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 117 

seriously threatened by foreign enemies, her people are show 
ing a remarkably deep and widespread interest in any and 
all techniques, ideas, and movements that come from the out 
side world. Even the casual visitor is amazed to find how well 
informed most people in Japan are about recent developments 
in other countries whether in commerce and industry, phi 
losophy and learning, art and entertainment, or food and 
clothing. Even Christian philosophy, Christian history, and 
Christian worship are subjects of study and debate in many 
circles. Christmas is celebrated by almost everyone. Neverthe 
less, the acceptance of Christian teachings has not become a 
popular movement. Some observers attribute this lack of 
popular enthusiasm to a secular mood engendered by economic 
prosperity. But since the country is experiencing one of the 
most significant religious movements in history, this argument 
is not very convincing. Thus we are forced to consider, once 
more, the theory and views presented by Dr. Holtom. 

Anyone familiar with the emotionalism and fanaticism of 
pre-World War II feelings about the Japanese nation is 
tempted to conclude that nationalism no longer exists in Japan. 
But if we think of nationalism as essentially an attachment 
to, or identification, with the nation, we have to admit that 
the phenomenon although now expressed in calm and rational 
ways is still an important ingredient of the intellectual and 
cultural life of the Japanese people. The Christian missionary 
is no longer confronted with emotional outbursts of resentment 
and hatred, but he soon realizes that Japanese symbols, Japa 
nese traditions, and Japanese values are powerful forces that 
must be faced when attempting to gain conversions to a faith 
that, in the minds of the people he approaches, is not really 
Japanese. 

Since the Emperor is no longer the focal point of govern 
ment-sponsored education and propaganda, the head of a great 
State-supported shrine system, or the Constitutional source of 
political authority, both Japanese and Western writers are 
inclined to conclude that the Emperor institution is now no 



118 CHRISTIANITY AND NATIONALISM 

more than a historical oddity. But it still retains tremendous 
symbolic power. Few Japanese are unaffected by the historic 
fact that the Emperor in an "unbroken line of descent" from 
prehistoric ancestors has stood at the top of the Japanese 
state structure ever since it came into existence more than 1500 
years ago. Most people in Japan are not unaware that all 
major political movements throughout history have revolved 
about, and under, the Imperial throne, and that much of the 
religious and cultural life of the country has emphasized the 
uniqueness and glory of the Imperial throne. Understandably, 
feelings of special attachment to the throne feelings gen 
erated and repeatedly recharged by the depth and strength of 
the Imperial tradition have not been completely eliminated 
by the cessation of educational and propaganda efforts to 
strengthen loyalty to the Emperor, or by legal measures that 
have relegated the Emperor to a position of symbolic headship. 
Several students and scholars have attempted to explain the 
widespread interest in the activities of the Imperial family as 
idle curiosity, and to devalue popular participation in the 
festivals of national shrines as holiday activity without emo 
tional content. But it is difficult to escape the conclusion that 
the Emperor represents, for vast numbers of persons, all that 
is lasting, true, and unique about Japan. Although such feel 
ings are not often concretely expressed, and therefore cannot 
be easily measured, to the extent that they do affect the 
thoughts and beliefs of people they must surely impede the 
acceptance of belief in one universal God that stands above 
all symbols, values, and traditions which have meaning only 
for the people of one nation. 

While much more could and should be said about the dif 
ficulties a Japanese person would logically have, even today, 
in squaring Christian conversion with emotional involvement 
in particularistic symbols and values that are uniquely Japa 
nese, I would like to move on to a brief discussion of another 
condition that has complicated, and still complicates, the mis 
sionary endeavor: the importance of what Professor Hajime 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 119 

Nakamura calls the "limited social nexus." Foreign visitors 
have long sensed the importance of group life in Japan, but 
recently a number of Japanese social scientists have made 
analyses that help us to see, far more clearly, that Japanese 
are affected, more deeply than people in most other countries, 
by involvement in a particular, clearly defined, limited social 
group. Such involvement not only requires commitment to 
the values and goals of that particular group, but sets a very 
high premium on group acceptance and group approval. 

Beginning with the assumption that groups may be or 
ganized around persons who play some common social role, or 
around those brought together by common circumstances, Pro 
fessor Chie Nakane develops the thesis that circumstances, 
not the qualifications or roles of individuals, constitute the 
most important force for group formation and operation in 
Japanese society. She points out, for example, that an em 
ployee of a company is far more likely to identify himself as 
a member of that company than to say that he is an engineer 
or a manager. The emphasis upon group affiliation, rather 
than upon the individual role, is further revealed, she says, in 
the use of the word uchi (my house) which refers to the 
group to which one has a primary attachment: the factory, 
bank, school, union, or place where one makes a living. Even 
the word kaisha seems to mean much more than a "company," 
since it signifies not only a corporate enterprise, but a com 
munity which is all-important to the individuals in it. 

The ie (house) is, however, the archetype of the solid, "in- 
group" structure of Japanese society. Although Westerners 
are inclined to think of an ie as a family household made up 
of persons related to each other by blood ties, the sociologists 
remind us as is shown by the adoption practices and by the 
way relatives are treated who leave the ie that this group 
is primarily a "managing body" where relationships between 
members of the ie are valued above blood ties. Not only are 
persons without blood connections brought into an ie by mar 
riage, but clerks and servants are also treated as members of 



120 CHRISTIANITY AND NATIONALISM 

the ie. The placing of ie above kinship helps to explain why 
the Japanese can still take pride in "direct" Imperial descent 
from prehistoric ancestors, even though the Imperial family 
line has a number of adoptive links. In short, the circum 
stances of management and location circumstances of con 
crete and pressing importance to each person in the group 
has long been the main force for moulding people into a solid 
group that absorbs a very large portion of their energies, con 
cerns, and loyalties. 

But group solidarity is due also to an age-old stress on the 
importance of hierarchy, a type of relationship in which one s 
dealings with his superiors and inferiors are more important 
than those with equals. And since it appears that there are 
no true equals within the primary group, the emphasis upon 
hierarchy makes the group even more important. The up-and- 
down relationships called "vertical" relationships by Profes 
sor Nakane have deep historical roots. Feudalism and Con 
fucianism have certainly added strength to their growth, but 
the effect of the Meiji civil code, the special conditions of 
rapid industrialization, and the pre-war propaganda about 
one s proper place in the "State family" should not be over 
looked. In spite of post-war legal reforms which were in con 
formity with the principle of social equality, the preoccupation 
with rank is still of overwhelming importance. In fact, it 
has been argued that the hiring and firing practices of modern 
industries have not only preserved, but possibly increased, the 
importance of rank. As a result of such practices and em 
phases, Professor Ezra Vogel sees special significance in re 
ferences to Japan s "salary-man" as a modern samurai. Even 
labor unions and political parties seem to have done little to 
weaken those "vertical" ties that bind a person to his group. 

Social scientists, in various fields, are studying the way 
group solidarity affects different areas of Japanese life. Pro 
fessor Nakamura, in his thoughtful book on Ways of Thinking 
of Eastern Peoples, demonstrates that the phenomenon forced 
the Japanese to make and preserve fundamental revisions in 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 121 

Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist thought. Professor Herbert 
Passin has shown how group identity, and preoccupations with 
status, complicates the problems of a Japanese student who 
undertakes to study in a foreign country. Historians outside of 
Japan see the tendency of Japanese historians to isolate them 
selves in particular gakubatsu (academic cliques) as a product 
of their strong identification with a particular university. 
Political scientists give special attention to the power of 
group solidarity and hierarchal relationships when taking up 
such problems as party structure and decision-making. Con 
sequently, it should not come as a surprise to us when a 
missionary-sociologist comes to produce (if he has not al 
ready done so) a well-documented study of the way Japanese 
tend to shy away from conversion to Christianity even 
though personally desirous of taking such a step because of 
the requirements of group identity and group approval. I 
am told that even if a Japanese develops the courage to 
make the break, he often lacks the strength to continue facing 
the coolness of superiors and inferiors in his primary group 
whether it be family, village, school or company. It is 
undoubtedly because of an appreciation of such realities in 
Japanese social life that has led most of Japan s new reli 
gions to be careful to involve their members in some group 
activity. 

A third barrier to the development of Christianity as a 
mass-based religion was succinctly identified recently by Pro 
fessor Otis Gary, who says that Christianity is too intellec 
tual. The comment not only carries implications about the 
nature of the new religious movements, but points to the 
rather special character of Christianity in Japan. The first 
important Christian advances after the Meiji Restoration 
were made by "bands" of samurai intellectuals who lived and 
worked in large urban areas. From that day to this, Chris 
tians have been congregated principally in big cities and have 
been persons who were, for the most part, "intellectuals." 
Furthermore, the Christian movement has been closely con- 



[22 CHRISTIANITY AND NATIONALISM 

nected with the building and operation of schools. Many of 
the great Japanese Christians have been well-educated men 
who wrote books. Even Dr. Toyohiko Kagawa, who made a 
strenuous effort to generate a popular Christian movement, 
delivered some sermons that were so filled with learning 
and erudition that the common man found them difficult to 
understand. Many scholars are inclined to feel that nothing 
in the history and character of Christianity in Japan has 
equipped it to complete with movements whose special ap 
peal has been made, essentially, in terms of the this-worldly 
fears, hopes, and needs of people who are alienated, lonely, 
and sick. 

To summarize, Christian missionaries continue to find it 
difficult to generate a truly popular Christian movement. If 
they are to remain true to some of the most fundamental 
teachings of Christ, they cannot compromise with certain 
powerful requirements of Japanese life. Christianity is es 
sentially a universal religion, whereas Japanese nationalism 
and the Japanese social structure draw the hearts and minds 
of Japanese people to that which is Japanese and that which 
helps them to solve the problems of group acceptance and 
group approval. Christianity is directed primarily to the 
human individual, and it has a message of spiritual salvation 
that attempts to raise the individual above that which is 
immediate and material. Finally, Christianity in Japan has 
its foundations and its strength among those who esteem 
rational thought and learning, while huge numbers of people 
apparently can be reached only by an emotional appeal. And 
yet the ideal of Christian love forces all Christians to be 
deeply disturbed by those human needs and frustrations 
that have allowed the new religions to accumulate such 
numerical strength. So the problem of joining Christian 
teachings with the realities of Japanese life leaves the mis 
sionary with tremendous problems. If his goal is to generate 
a truly popular Christian movement, it would seem that he 
must support changes which would: (1) give Christian 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 123 

activity a predominantly Japanese flavor; (2) involve Chris 
tian worship with group activity that would assure the be 
liever group participation and group approval; and (3) give 
the Christian message x an immediate, emotional appeal. But 
can a Christian worker favor such changes and be true to 
the teachings of Christ? 



124 



2 THE CHURCHES NEW CONCERN WITH THE 
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 

Kazuo P. Miyake 

One hundred years have passed since Japan ended her 
300 year policy of closure and isolation and launched the new 
Meiji Era. Probably the most significant events during these 
hundred years were Japan s absorption of Western civiliza 
tion and her transformation into a modern nation, 
article is concerned with two important aspects of thes 
events: namely, Japan s acceptance of Christianity, and the 
establishment of modern scientific technology in Japan. 

In terms of general usage, the term, "scientific revolu 
tion" may be used in the following two senses: first, it 
refers to a unique incident in world history which took place 
in Western civilization during the course of the past several 
centuries, i.e., the construction of modern science; secondly, it 
refers to the rapid progress of scientific technology during 
recent times, particularly as symbolized by the development 
of atomic energy and Sputnik. It goes without saying that 
the rapid progress of scientific technology is causing rather 
drastic changes in contemporary society. 

The major focus of this article is on the second sense in 
which the term "scientific revolution" is understood: the 
rapid progress of scientific technology during recent times. 
However, since this issue of the Yearbook commemorates the 
hundred year anniversary of the beginning of the Meiji Era, 
naturally the discussion should start with how Japan ac 
cepted the modern science that originated in Europe. 

As a first step in this discussion, the question must be 
raised as to what kind of philosophy of nature the Japanese 
had before the Meiji Era, and what relationship this philo 
sophy had to the acceptance of modern science. 

As has been previously pointed out by many others, 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 12$ 

Oriental people, including the Japanese, have tended not to 
consider nature as a contrasting object to be controlled and 
transformed by man himself. 1 Rather, their mental attitude 
has been that of trying to unify the self with nature, and 
by so doing to approach the essentials of nature. Therefore, 
the feeling of Japanese people towards nature has been sym 
pathetic rather than aggressive. Thus, while on the one hand 
this feeling of sympathy towards nature has had a beneficial 
effect on the development of the traditional arts and litera 
ture in Japan, on the other hand, this view has prevented 
the establishment of natural science along the lines which 
were followed by the Western world. But, in the process of 
Japan s accepting of modern science, the Japanese view of 
nature as such is disappearing. Nevertheless the Japanese 
view of nature still remains in the Japanese way of thinking 
as an essential part of their spiritual foundations and 
structure. It should be noted, in passing, that since it is 
open to question as to whether Western culture should have 
a monopoly on worldwide popularity, it is important that the 
Japanese view of nature should be evaluated on the basis of 
its positive as well as its negative aspects. 

Despite the Japanese view of nature as mentioned above, 
the rapid development of scientific technology in Japan s 
post-Meiji Restoration period was truly remarkable. There 
were three main reasons for this phenomenon. First of all, 
the Meiji Government in pursuit of a policy of national 
enrichment and the strengthening of military power strongly 
pushed the whole process of scientific development. Secondly, 
it must be pointed out that the 300 year period of closure 
and isolation from Western arts and sciences was uniquely 
preparing Japan for the acceptance of such advanced scien 
tific technology as was being developed in the West. As is 
well known, Japan, throughout her history, has imported 



1. For example, M. Sumiya: "Japanese Traditional View of Nature and 
Christian Attitude," The University Christian, Vol. 19, p. 2, 1964. 



126 SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 

knowledge and techniques, mainly from China. Then, after 
a period of digestion, Japan has created her own unique 
culture. For example, Japanese interpretations have con 
tributed toward significant developments in such areas as 
mathematics, pharmacology, and calendar-making. Unfor 
tunately, however, because of the historical and social iso 
lation and restrictions which extended over three centuries, 
it was not possible for Japan to transfer these accomplish 
ments to modern science and technology. Thus it can be said 
that Japan s true foundation for the acceptance of Western 
science, which is the strict attitude of cultivating and train 
ing the self in the methods of study and the pursuit of 
absolute truth, came as a result of the digestion of the Con 
fucianism of China. Thirdly, the Japanese seem to have 
the capacity to readily accept things which are modern and 
better than their own. This is a strong point of the Japanese 
character, but also it is a weakness. The weak point is that 
there has been the tendency to treat science and technology 
as isolated from the spirit and ideology behind them. For 
example, in the process of importing science and technology 
after the re-opening of the country during the Meiji period, 
the idea which prevailed in Japanese society was "wakon 
yosai" (Japanese spirit, Western skills). In other words, the 
Japanese recognized the efficiency of Western science and 
technology, and realized the need to accept these; however, 
Christianity, which had been the spiritual foundation of 
science and technology in the Western world, was not par 
ticularly considered as necessary for Japan. This trend still 
exists in Japanese society, and is one reason that "natural 
scientism" (shizenkagaku-shugi) , which may be explained as 
the attempt to be completely objective in science by the 
separation of human factors from scientific truth, is sup 
ported by the natural scientists in Japan. 

Turning now to a brief look at Christianity in Japan, 
we remember that more than 400 years have passed since 
Catholicism was introduced, and 100 years since Protestant 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 127 

Christianity first began its missionary work in Japan. As is 
well known, the number of Christians remains rather stable, 
not increasing beyond a certain level, and Christianity seems 
to have won acceptance only among middle and upper-middle 
class people, most of whom are quite well-educated. This 
problem is not the major concern of the current article since 
it is discussed by others in this Yearbook. At any rate, it is 
a recognized fact that the churches in Japan have always 
represented a very small minority in Japanese society. This 
situation has meant that the Christian community has been 
very busily occupied in missionary work and in the formation 
of churches, which has prevented it from assuming much 
responsibility towards the general development of Japanese 
culture. Thus considering these circumstances in which 
Christianity has found itself, it may not be hard to under 
stand why it has been difficult for the Christian community 
in Japan to devote itself very much to pursuing the meaning 
of the scientific revolution in modern society and to keeping 
up with the rapid development of science and technology. 

Fortunately, however, in recent years, the situation has 
gradually improved. Some of the interdenominational Pro 
testant university Christian movements, and Catholic intel 
ligentsia and student organizations, such as the Chris 
tian Scholars Association in Japan, and the Catholic Gradu 
ates Association in Japan, are trying to face up to these 
problems. In the hope that the situation will continue to 
improve, the author would suggest that the Christian com 
munity, especially its leaders and the intellectuals in its 
midst, enlarge the areas of debate and discussion concerning 
the relevance and role of Christianity in the scientific revolu 
tion. Perhaps the following points of summary and emphasis 
will be helpful in this regard. 

It should be remembered that in the past, discussions con 
cerning the relationship between science and technology and 
the Christian faith have exhibited two characteristics: 

1. On the one hand, science and technology have been 



128 SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 

accepted by the Japanese on the pragmatic basis of being 
"effective" and scholastically strict; but on the other hand, 
Christianity has hardly been taken seriously and has not been 
accepted because of its identification as a "foreign" religion. 
This situation has been disheartening indeed. But on the 
other hand the "foreign" and "minority" status of Christianity 
has resulted in what might be called a self-defense me 
chanism which has produced among some individual Christian 
scientists a way of thinking that Christian faith and science 
are not inconsistent, and that actually, the progress of sci 
entific knowledge proves that faith and science are, in fact 
transmittable through man, who in the Christian faith 
achieves a new image. Thus, discussions on the relation be 
tween science and religion must necessarily be based on 
human life and experience. Up to the present, such discus 
sions in the Japanese Christian community have been rather 
exclusively on a personal level. Therefore, as we face the 
future it is imperative that the Japanese Christian community 
grapple with the science and religion issue on more than a 
personal level so that some kind of unified opinion within the 
Christian community can be developed which will contribute 
to a responsible confrontation with the "natural scientism" 
trend referred to above. 

2. This leads us to the second characteristic of past dis 
cussions that have dealt with the relationship between sci 
ence and technology and the Christian faith, namely, the 
tendency of the churches and Christian leaders to over 
emphasize the negative aspects of science and technology. 
It is therefore necessary to correct this attitude and to assume 
a stance of positively evaluating science and technology. In 
this regard, note should be made of the fact that among 
the Japanese, including some Christians, certain aspects of 
their culture and experience are contributing both positively 
and negatively to the future of science and technology in 
Japan. On the positive side, the traditional Japanese way of 
looking at the world, that is, as based on the harmony of 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 129 

nature and man, has enabled them to maintain a very critical 
attitude towards dehumanization, and the isolation of the 
individual within the mass society, which have tended to be 
by-products of the development of modern science and tech 
nology. Also, on the negative side, which has some posi 
tive aspects, it should be remembered that because the Japa 
nese are the only people in the world who have experienced 
the full effects of the atomic bomb, they have tended to 
"over-react" against the use of nuclear energy as a tool of 
warfare. The overwhelming sentiment of the Japanese people 
is well illustrated by the term, "nuclear-alergy." In other, 
words, Japanese people, while recognizing that nuclear energy 
must occupy a very important role in the solving of the 
world s needs for energy, are highly sensitive and suspicious 
in regard to the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Certainly 
this attitude can be positively used in the pursuit of world 
peace. At any rate, what the Japanese people must realize 
is that modern science and technology are so closely and 
tightly fused with human society that the existence and pro 
gress of modern science and technology simply cannot be 
denied. 

Therefore, as is evident from the presentation thus far, 
this writer is in solid agreement with the British authors 
Snow 2 and Coulson 3 that modern science and technology must 
be evaluated positively, and that modern science and tech 
nology must be harnessed in helping to solve the problems 
that now confront modern man. It should be recognized that 
discussions along these lines in Japan are not yet active, 
especially above the personal and individual level. Snow and 
Coulson demand the application of science and technology 
to the problems of the population explosion, food production, 
and to the further development of energy. These are, of 
course, urgent problems for Japan, which only has a small 



2. C. P. Snow: The Two Cultures and A Second Look, 1964. 

3. C. A. Coulson: Science, Technology and the Christian, 1960. 



130 SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 

amount of land and lacks natural resources, and they com 
mand the attention of the whole scientific community, especial 
ly those who are Christian. 

With her rapid progress in science and technology, Japan 
seems to have joined the ranks of the advanced countries of 
the world, and probably is the only nation in Asia which has 
succeeded in accomplishing this. Therefore Japan does have a 
responsibility to assist the developing nations through the 
means of science and technology. 

Therefore the churches and the Christian Movement in 
Japan, in light of the past and present situations, are chal 
lenged to keep a healthy dialogue and contact going with 
science and technology to help assure that they are always 
seen in the context of a realistic understanding of humanity 
and directed toward the benefit of man and not his destruc 
tion. 



3. RAPID URBANIZATION AND CHRISTIAN 
RESPONSIBILITY 

Kentaro Shiozuki 

Introduction 

Urbanization usually follows industrialization; therefore 
rapid urbanization in Japan is taking place in the context 
of equally rapid industrial expansion. During the past forty 
years the percentage of the total population living in city 
areas containing more than 20,000 inhabitants has climbed 
as follows: 192025%; 193033%; 194041%; 195054%; 
and 1960 67%. Also, the degree of concentration of the 
population in the large cities is very high, to the point that 
today about a quarter of the total population lives in the 
large urban areas, and it is said that by the end of the cen 
tury, the large urban areas will contain more than 90% of 
Japan s population. 

The one important measure of the degree of industrial 
development in a given nation is the rate of labour distribu 
tion among the primary, secondary and third industries of 
that nation. A comparative look at the percentage of the 
labour distribution in 1920 and 1960 is as follows: 

1920 1960 

Primary industries 53.6% 32.8% 

Secondary industries 20.7% 29.1% 

Third industries 23.8% 38.0% 

Thus the past scale and pace of urbanization in this coun 
try is notable, but recent developments are even more im 
pressive. For example, in 1967, the growth rate of Japan s 
national production was 19.4% over the previous year; the 
proportion of the agricultural workers to the total labour 



132 RAPID URBANIZATION 

force has become less than 20%, is expected to be 14.0% by 
1975, and only 8.6% by 1985. A continual high rate of eco 
nomic growth is expected during the next several decades. 
In fact, many economists foresee that in the course of the 
next twenty years or so, the GNP per capita of this nation 
may come close to that of the United States today. Thus, 
rapid industrialization and economic expansion has meant an 
intensive urban concentration, and the acceleration of this 
trend is expected during the years that lie ahead. 

Urbanization Towards a Post-industrial Society 

However, the most important point that should be borne in 
mind, especially in regard to our Christian responsibility, is 
the fact that this rapid urbanization, together with a rapid 
increase of national income and the fast development of mass 
education, is creating a socio-cultural matrix of a new so 
cial revolution. It must be expected that this revolution will 
change the present industrial structure and what we know 
today as an advanced industrial society into a post-industrial 
society. This is because the strong urban concentrations pro 
vide a continuous sensitivity to novelty and innovation in 
customs, styles and technology, and create a widespread 
communication network which allows for the rapid diffusion 
of new ideas. 

Professor Daniel Bell of Columbia University sees three 
sociological criteria which are necessary conditions for facil 
itating the rapid social development from the industrial to 
the post-industrial society. These criteria are: 1) strong 
urban concentrations of populations; 2) a comprehensive and 
effective system of mass education; and, 3) a status system 
which provides high prestige and pecuniary rewards for 
scientific and technologically-oriented work. He thinks that 
these three criteria are eminently present in the United States 
and in Japan. 

Some Japanese futurologists predict that in the next ten 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 133 

years or so, Japan will continue the pattern of increasing 
industrialization tempo, with escalating productivity. But the 
important thing to note during the transitory period of the 
next twenty years from an advanced industrial society to a 
post-industrial society is that intellectual technology will tend 
to become more and more important, as the popularization of 
electronic devices continue, and as the information and ad 
vertising revolution rolls on. This point is emphasized by 
Professor Bell, who tells us that a post-industrial society is 
characterized by two distinguishing marks: first, the major 
ity of its population will no longer be concerned with agri 
culture or with manufacturing, but with the service in 
dustries, such as trade, finance, transport, health, recreation, 
research, teaching, government administration, etc. ; secondly, 
because there will be such a sharp growth in professional 
and technical jobs, the post-industrial society will revolve 
more and more around expert knowledge, all of which will 
give rise to new social relationships and structures that take 
on political significance. For example, Tokyo, the capital 
city, now with more than eleven million inhabitants, used 
to be called a gigantic village, or a conglomeration of villages, 
with no single central area, and with no definite effective 
city planning to cope with the rapid population increase. 
However at the present time it is undergoing radical reor 
ganization in most aspects of its life. It has almost been 
transformed from a great "town" into a great "technopolis," 
to use Harvey Cox s famous term. This reorganization of 
Tokyo, of course, involves much more than this one huge 
city; the great metropolitan plan covers almost the entire 
area of the Kanto plain, extending outward from central 
Tokyo in a 100 kilometer radius, which includes a total popu 
lation of about 25 million people. Thus the massive Tokyo 
metropolitan area embraces nearly one quarter of the total na 
tional population and involves about 100 suburban cities in 
seven adjoining and nearby prefectures. 

No imagination is needed to realize what a vast amount of 



134 RAPID URBANIZATION 

funds and political reorganization is required in this process 
of transformation which is taking place. But the end is far 
from sight, because this Tokyo "technopolis" will gradually 
become a part of a larger Tokaido "megalopolis" which will 
include 70% of the total national population along a 600 
kilometer corridor linking the nation s six largest cities: 
Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka, and Kobe. 

As far as the rest of Japan is concerned, it is expected 
that it will develop around several regional city centers 
that will, by means of the fast and modern transportation, 
mass communication, and rapidly growing computerized ad 
ministrative systems, eventually be incorporated into one 
giant network of communications, production, consumption, 
and information. 

In economic terms all of this is expected to bring about 
an equalization and standardization of family income level 
and style of living. For example, although the present per 
capita income of Tokyo is about 1.8 times higher than the 
national average, it is expected that by 1985 this will be 
reduced to approximately 1.5 times. 

Certainly there is no questioning the fact that city, 
urban, and regional planning occupies the center of the na 
tion s development plans during the decades that lie ahead. 

Christian Responsibility 

Whatever our responsibility towards this situation may be, 
t must begin with a full understanding of the nature and 
the scope of the radical social transformation which has been 
all too inadequately described above. The point is that until 
recent years, we have been accustomed to evaluate the degree 
or extent of "modernization" of this country by comparing it 
with the developmental status of various western countries. 
But, now that Japan s Gross National Product (GNP) has 
risen to the point where it ranks just below that of the two 
giant nations of the world the United States and the Soviet 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 135 

Union and as we see the implications of our very rapid 
industrialization and urbanization, as mentioned above, we 
realize that the course of our future development demands a 
great deal of creative thinking and imagination on our part. 
Such thinking and imagination must reflect the many distinc 
tive factors, both negative and positive, in the history and 
culture of this country rather than simply the experience of 
Western countries. 

One of the most important factors in determining the 
direction in which our nation will move is that of social 
planning, which has, of course, many ramifications. On the 
economic side, we realize that the radical transformation of 
urban society will only be possible when national and local 
budgetary provisions become available. In fact, it is es 
timated that in the next 20 years, about 500 billion dollars 
(U.S.) in public and private funds, are expected to be invested 
in the greater Tokyo region for housing, highways, rapid 
transportation systems, schools, factories, etc. Such projects 
will certainly affect the lives of millions of people. Thus 
another important ramification of social planning in that of 
the actual administration of policies, funds, and people. 
Whoever holds power will have awesome responsibilities in 
making decisions as to how funds are to be spent, how power 
is to be exercised, and how priorities are to be worked out, 
especially in light of the fact that every development plan 
inevitably creates new social victims. Therefore it is en 
couraging to note that an increasing number of intellectuals, 
such as economists, sociologists, scientists, technologists, and 
members of various research institutes are now being mobiliz 
ed to help shape the future plans for urban expansion and 
renewal. It goes without saying that the heart of social 
planning is the human factor, which is directly related to 
the crucial area of value judgements and moral decisions. 
Therefore, among those who are engaged in this vast urban 
planning there is a growing awareness and realization of 
the necessity to include religious leaders in the various com- 



136 RAPID URBANIZATION 

missions which are being formed to advise government of 
ficials concerning long-range urban planning. There seems 
to be a general consensus among the urban planners that 
whatever policies and plans as are adopted will have broad 
and deep consequences upon human life, and that it is there 
fore impossible to plan simply on an empirical basis. Certain 
ly in working out the goals of urban planning, some general 
agreement is required about the meaning of such values and 
concepts such as life and happiness. 

In terms of the specific role of Christians in this whole 
area of urban planning, it is heartening that there are a 
number of Christians already active in these planning com 
missions. However, in addition to the direct role of such 
Christians, theologians and ministers should be encouraged 
to engage in a meaningful dialogue with those who are in 
volved in urban planning concerning the humanizing and 
dehumanizing factors inherent in rapid social change, and to 
learn as much as possible from the insights of the urban 
planners. 

In short, can it not be stated that the Christian respon 
sibility towards this new situation is two-fold: 1) to be 
directly or indirectly involved in the shaping of the new 
society by sharing basic insights as to human nature and its 
destiny, processes of dehumanization, etc.; 2) showing con 
crete concern for those people who become the victims of the 
social reorganization processes. 

Christian Participation in 
Shaping a New Society 

As was mentioned earlier, the major leadership in the 
coming post-industrial society will be in the hands of the 
intellectuals, just as the leadership of the present industrial 
society is now in the hands of the businessmen and entre 
preneurs. However, it seems very clear that the social 
responsibility of the leaders of the post-industrial society will 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 137 

be even greater than the responsibility which the industrial 
leaders presently hold. Therefore, Christian participation in 
shaping the future must include a new sense of "mission" to 
the intellectuals and to the "technocrats." Not only so, but 
since the post-industrial society will have fresh political 
meaning, in the sense that people will be responsible for 
building up* a new "polis," the individual Christian must be 
provided with a clear theological basis on which he can re 
sponsibly participate in politics at every level. 

The point is that the churches can no longer be content 
with their Sunday morning ministrations to their predomin 
antly white-collar middle class urban congregations. Some 
fresh new approaches are required. For example, it is sug 
gested that an ecumenical urban study center be established 
in connection with one or two Christian universities. The 
purpose of this center would be to promote interdisciplinary 
approaches to the various aspects of the newly emerging 
urban life. The creation of several core groups of Christian 
intellectuals who are active in various fields of study, re 
search, and practice, to develop and discover new ideas, both 
for society as a whole and for the Christian community, will 
be very meaningful. 

The industrial mission is still young in our overall urban 
ministry, but must be radically reviewed in the context of the 
structural changes in industry itself. In 1985, it is expected 
that the proportion of blue-collar workers in Tokyo will be 
25%, as compared to 40% in 1965. But not only are indus 
trial workers as w r e know them today expected to decrease, 
but the types of the actual production work in which they 
will be engaged will probably be very similar to that done 
by white-collar workers. 

In addition to these suggestions, we must all be aware of 
the emergence of many new kinds of service, information, and 
other industries which, in addition to the great changes 
expected in existing structures, will in terms of numbers of 
workers involved, kind of work to be performed, etc. form 



j^gg RAPID URBANIZATION 

the nucleus of a massive post-industrial complex. Certainly 
the meaning of work and leisure is affirming great im 
portance for both individuals and society as a whole. 

Concrete Manifestations of Christian 

Concern for Victims of the 

Social Reorganization Process 

Needless to say, this process of massive urbanization 
causes various kinds of painful experiences for the entire 
population. In the first place, the whole urbanization process 
contains a built-in element of dehumanization, as many people 
are forced to leave their homes or familiar jobs for new 
and unfamiliar jobs in the newly urbanized areas which 
constitute the "technopolis" or future "megalopolis." The 
churches must help these people to turn these painful depar 
tures from the familiar past into a promise for the future. 
In this sense, the Japanese churches will continue to be one 
of the havens for young people leaving the provinces and 
coming to the cities for further studies or jobs, though 
unfortunately many of them usually do not remain in the 
churches very long. But the churches responsibility to 
those young people who find it too difficult to make a basic 
adjustment to the new urban environment and situation can 
not begin and end simply with a nice spiritual pat on the 
head. The churches must positively encourage them morally 
and spiritually to enter into the urban life with a zest and a 
dedication to encourage the humanizing elements of urbaniza 
tion, but at the same time to fight against the negative, 
dehumanizing factors. If the churches can accomplish this, 
they may encourage the young people to make the churches 
their new "homes." Certainly a simple anti-urban stance, 
which seems to be typical of many churches today, will not 
make very much of an impact upon the younger generation. 
But, perhaps the real social victims of this rapid social 
revolution is the generation of older people, whose value sys- 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 139 

terns are very confused and often rejected, whose human rela 
tionships in the family 01- in society are greatly disturbed. 
The Japanese churches, especially the Protestant churches, 
are somewhat ignoring the ministry to above middle-age 
groups and to elderly people, who actually need such a min 
istry no less than any other age group. This may be an in 
dication that the churches in this country are not yet really 
deeply rooted in our society, and accordingly are not sharing 
the deep concerns and the burdens of society. 

One traditional strength of the churches, especially of 
the Protestant churches, has been the emphasis upon the 
individual. But in this politically oriented age, when organi 
zation means a great deal, this strength is being disclosed 
also as a weakness. Thus we Christians are now being chal 
lenged to rediscover, and to manifest what community really 
means in a Christian context, with a specific relevance to the 
present urbanizing process. 



140 



4. JAPAN S MORAL DILEMMA 

and 
CHRISTIAN IDENTITY 

Hideo Oki 

Japan s economic development during the past twenty 
years is a miracle, to be sure. Starting from a state of 
bankruptcy at the end of World War II, Japan has developed 
into one of the great industrial nations of the world. For 
example, Japan ranks first in shipbuilding, second in the 
production of cars and trucks, and following the United 
States and the U.S.S.R., ranks third in iron and steel produc 
tion. In terms of total national production Japan stands 
fourth in the world, following the United States, Russia, and 
West Germany, thus now surpassing England and France, 
and far exceeding the national production of Italy and the 
People s Republic of China. 

To most people abroad, this rapid progress and develop 
ment of post-war Japan is highly respected as a marvel. 
But, for many Japanese it is an embarrassment rather than a 
source of pride. Why is this so? In this short analysis I 
wish to deal with this question; however, first of all I would 
like to review how the average foreigner interprets this post 
war development of Japan. 

Foreign visitors to Japan invariably praise the Japanese 
achievements in industrialization and the whole process of 
modernization which has taken place here. In fact, many 
scholars from overseas have shown a deep interest in in 
vestigating the reason for this rapid development. Professor 
Edwin O. Reischauer, formerly Ambassador to Japan, himself 
an authority on Japanese history, has tried to explain Japan s 
rapid modern development in terms of the feudalistic history 
and structure of our society. His interpretation has prompted 
a good deal of discussion among Japan historians, most of 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 141 

whom have tended to take a rather negative view of Japan s 
pre-war history. At any rate, it seems clear that from the 
American point of view, Japan s rate and degree of post-war 
development has been warmly welcomed and appreciated. Not 
only so, but Japan is being looked upon by many westerners 
as a "model" for Asian and African nations in their efforts to 
modernize and develop. The other "model" for the developing 
nations of Asia and Africa is the People s Republic of China. 
What seems most encouraging and welcome to the West is 
that Japan, in contrast to China, has been able to achieve this 
high rate of development without recourse to revolution or 
to socialism. 

However, while recognizing the significance of our post 
war development, it is nevertheless true that most Japanese 
cannot accept this with a great sense of national pride or 
glory. Had China achieved a similar level of development, 
she would naturally boast of it as a direct result of her 
national revolution. But to be perfectly frank, in spite of the 
very positive analysis of Professor Reischauer referred to 
above, the majority of the Japanese people cannot really 
appreciate what has happened as a great climax of a hun 
dred years efforts to modernize. For example, a Japanese 
historian has recently criticized Professor Reischauer s inter 
pretations because they seemed to intentionally disregard the 
"serious problem of Japanese militarism," which is today 
fundamentally related to the delicate and dangerous prob 
lems of Japan-United States relations, i.e., Security Treaty 
rearmament, Vietnam, Okinawa, etc. 

The Japanese experience of defeat in World War II, the 
first defeat in the more than two thousand year history of 
the Japanese nation, goes far deeper than the victor nation 
and people can possibly surmise. Therefore, the main reason 
that this post-war development is not proudly appreciated by 
the Japanese people is because underneath it represents the 
reality of serious national humiliation and frustration. No one 
can say that this prosperity is a product of national self-con- 



142 MORAL DILEMMA 

fidence. We did not acquire freedom and democracy by our 
own efforts through a national revolution; on the contrary, 
these ideas and their institutions were introduced into Japan 
through the power of a victor nation. Thus freedom and 
democracy represent the ideology of the "enemy," so to speak, 
against which the Japanese fought so hard during the 
war. Our post-war prosperity is nothing but a harvest which 
has grown in the fields of the former enemy s ideologies. 
Perhaps I should not use the word, "enemy," for there is no 
doubting the fact that most Japanese people today do not 
think about freedom and democracy in a hostile sense, and 
certainly do not see them simply as representing a former 
enemy s ideology. Actually the word is used to help describe 
the change from the pre-war to the post-war situation. There 
is no question but that today the Japanese people enjoy free 
dom and democracy, and judge them as far better than the 
pre-war ideology which centered on the absolutism of the 
Emperor and militaristic nationalism. 

However, the main point is that a moral problem has not 
yet been overcome. The problem is that our post-war ideology 
and development have not been acquired by our own efforts, 
by national revolution. They have been acquired through na 
tional defeat, and therefore do not elicit national pride and 
feelings of real self-confidence. That is the real problem and 
dilemma. 

In order to maintain peace in Asia, the establishment of 
peaceful co-existence between Japan and the People s Re 
public of China is indispensable. But since there is such a 
great ideological difference between Japan and China, some 
kind of ideological competition seems unavoidable. In such a 
situation, we Japanese, as we compare ourselves with the 
people of China, must admit that our national spirit is very 
weak indeed. To put this in another way, we must say that 
the spiritual competing power of Japan is much weaker than 
that of China. Setting aside the moral judgments of the 
situation, there is no disputing the fact that the great Cul- 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 143 

tural Revolution in China has represented a tremendous at 
tempt to consolidate the moral and ideological foundations for 
building a new nation. It must be admitted that Japan has 
never experienced this kind of cultural revolution to con 
solidate the moral and ideological foundations for herself in 
her task of nation-building. 

But, as anyone will admit, the economic development of 
our nation has been tremendous, despite this basic weakness 
in our moral and ideological post-war foundations and in our 
lack of national spirit. Though it is not possible at this point 
to probe into this problem, what does attract our attention 
is the contrast between our spiritual weakness and economic 
strength. Post-war Japan is proof to the world that solid 
economic development is not wholly impossible where there 
is no solid moral background or basis of society. This is an 
eloquent refutation to Max Weber s thesis in his famous writ 
ings on the Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism, 
which have had a great influence on Japanese intellectuals. 

What then, is the relationship between Japan s economic 
growth and development and her basic moral condition? It 
is quite certain that on the one hand Protestantism in Japan 
has not contributed anything to this economic growth and 
development, and that on the other hand this economic growth 
and development cannot be said to have any such moral back 
ground and foundation as the Protestant ethic provided in 
the West. On the contrary, it seems quite clear that our 
moral weaknesses are actually supported by the economic pros 
perity which we have. To make myself clear, may I state 
it in this way: rather than the nation s moral convictions 
providing the foundations and support for our economic pros 
perity, our nation s moral weaknesses seem to be buttressed 
by our economic development and power. Thus the situation 
in which our nation now finds itself is similar to that faced 
by a person with a "slipped disc," who cannot stand straight 
alone without some kind of support. In other words, Japan 
cannot today stand alone by her own moral strength; she 



144 MORAL DILEMMA 

must wear a corset or support which is made of economic pros 
perity. 

The depth and reality of Japan s moral problem will not 
appear to those outside until the economic corset or brace is 
removed for one reason or another. Therefore when an econo 
mic or political crisis comes which weakens the corset, and 
tests the strength of Japan s moral backbone, the real weak 
ness of our nation will soon become apparent. In fact even an 
imagined crisis discloses the moral weakness of our nation. 
Let us take, for example, the recent discussion concerning 
national defense. The necessity for defending one s nation 
presupposes some kind of national crisis. But the problem is 
that how to meet a national crisis situation is not simply a 
military matter. Thus Prime Minister Sato has been em 
phasizing the nation s "spirit" for defense. But the key ques 
tion is: how can the national spirit be strengthened for de-- 
fense? Will the Japanese people defend freedom and demo 
cracy even at the sacrifice of their own lives? Before and 
during World War II the Japanese people and nation were 
well known for their patriotic fervor, and, as is well remem 
bered, many a young man died in a suicide dive for his nation 
and for his Emperor. But, it must also be remembered that 
such young men as died for the sake of their country and 
Emperor were fighting against freedom and democracy. Will 
Japanese people now turn around and give their lives for the 
sake of defending freedom and democracy? It is certainly 
worthy of note that Prime Minister Sato, in talking about the 
nation s "spirit" of defense, has never mentioned the defense 
of "freedom" and "democracy" per se, but instead he always 
stresses the defense of Japan s territory ("Kokudo boei"). 
Thus the object of Japan s defense is not an idea or ideology 
by which the nation lives, but the territory in which the na 
tion lives. Such an emphasis may well be understandable to 
the common man, because it may be correct to say that the 
Japanese people can hardly be expected to fight for such an 
abstract cause as "freedom." However, do we not have to 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 145 

ask whether Prime Minister Sato s emphasis on the defense 
of Japan s territory tends to lead the people of Japan back 
to a return to a narrow Japanese nationalism? 

Here is the heart of Japan s moral dilemma. The Japa 
nese people are consumers, but not producers of democracy. 
Through the debates on the problem of national defense, the 
present Sato administration has begun to indicate its rightist 
tendencies. Therefore the moral dilemma, and the moral 
danger is this: that is seeking a moral foundation for na 
tional defense, the rightist tendencies and pressures may in 
vite a revival of Japanese nationalism of the pre-war type, 
ivhich will seriously undermine the post-icar democracy. This 
is a serious moral dilemma, particularly as we realize that 
the ideas of freedom and democracy which carry with them 
a remembrance of national humiliation can hardly be ex 
pected to elicit patriotic dedication to a national cause. 

It is in the midst of this serious moral dilemma in which 
Christianity finds itself. In exploring this problem, let us 
look at this moral dilemma facing the Japanese nation from 
the standpoint of a Christian Japanese. We might say that 
there are two ways to strengthen the nation s self confidence 
and national will. One way would be to look back over Japa 
nese history, emphasize our strong points, not take our de 
feat and humiliation following the war too seriously, and 
regard our economic prosperity and national development a? 
a testimony to the superiority of our nation and its glorious 
heritage. This way might strengthen our national morale. 
This has been the approach of Professor Reischauer, which 
has without doubt, encouraged the Sato Government to look 
in a similar direction. Indeed this is the spirit in which 
Japan of 1968 will, under the lead of the government, cele 
brate the Meiji Centennial. But the other way to strengthen 
the nation s self confidence and national will might be to 
take the fact of our national defeat very seriously, and to 
overcome the experience of national humiliation with moral 
power. In following this way, Japan would not take the ex- 



146 MORAL DILEMMA 

perience of national defeat as an unfortunate "slipped disc" of 
her national anatomy, but as an experience similar to Jacob s 
at the ford of the Jabbok (Genesis 32:22-28) when out of a 
severe and painful experience of dislocation God blessed the 
changing of his name from Jacob to Israel. This would be 
the way of national repentance and national rebirth. 

Many conscientious Japanese Christians feel that the lat 
ter way is most valid, and are alluding to it in their expres 
sions and actions for peace. Personally, I believe that the 
latter way offers the only hope to bring about a responsible 
Christian identity in Japan. Certainly, if we Christians were 
to follow the former way, Japanese Christianity would be 
brought back to a position similar to where it found itself 
before the end of the war. During those days Christianity 
could not have any socially creative role, and the moderniza 
tion of Japan went along without the aid of Christianity. In 
the case of the present economic prosperity which seems, as 
we have seen, to have no real moral background or underpin 
ning, in the vacuum the way is left wide open for a real con 
test between various moral forces for the spiritual leadership 
of the future Japan. 

However in pursuing the second way mentioned above, 
Christianity can not only provide the spiritual and moral 
basis for national repentance, but can also furnish the re 
sources which are necessary to guide the way of the new 
Japan. But it must be admitted, that for Japanese Chris 
tianity to really assume any kind of leadership in the nation- 
building process is not at all easy. The difficulties are of a 
dual nature. The first difficulty is a situational one, which is 
related to Japan s serious polarization of politics, to the point 
of the breaking up of any kind of national consensus. For 
example, since many of us Christians cannot accept the 
rightist direction of the present administration, in the ever- 
widening political polarization the intellectual side of the 
Christian faith tends to identify itself with the opposition 
party and its leftist tendencies. The end result is that Chris- 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 147 

tianity simply becomes one of the reflections or expressions 
of the Japanese political dilemma rather than being in a posi 
tion to bridge the gaps and perform a mediatory role. The 
second difficulty is a theological one. Contemporary Christian 
theology in Japan is very uncertain as to the relationship 
between the Christian faith and such values as freedom 
and democracy, not to mention basic Japanese cultural 
values. At any rate, it seems clear that Christianity and 
democracy cannot be categorically equated, and we are all 
shy of discussing democracy simply in relation to the Chris 
tian faith. 

The new demand which is placed upon Christians in 
Japan is to venture out anew in an exploration concerning 
the relation between the Christian faith and certain cultural 
values. What is needed is a careful and discriminating in 
vestigation dealing with the subtle dimensions between the 
ultimate and the penultimate. The emphasis of the dialectic 
theologians of the past was on "diastasis." From now on a 
new and fresh effort must be made toward "synthesis." 

Of course the uncertainty as to the relationship between 
the Christian faith and cultural values makes it very dif 
ficult, if not impossible, to concretely define any guidelines for 
policy-making and action ; and where there are no commonly- 
accepted guide lines, no consensus is available for joint ac 
tion. Thus in terms of political and social responsibility, 
Japanese Christianity suffers an inner split. This is one rea 
son for Christianity s loss of leadership in the present situa 
tion. 

Thus in view of the moral dilemma which Japan faces 
as a nation, and the nature of Christianity at the present 
time, Christian action based simply on contextualism will 
mean a surrender of potential leadership in the ideological 
conflict, which will make it very hard, if not impossible for 
Christians to grapple with reality. 

Therefore, can it be said that realistic Christian identity 
in Japan can be achieved only through Christianity s as- 



148 MORAL DILEMMA 

suming new leadership in the nation? In the first instance 
this is a theological task. Japanese Christianity needs to 
have more inner coherence and vitality in order to grapple 
with the problems facing Japan. In the second instance, 
however, it is a matter of joint action, a joining together of 
fellow Christians, and a joining together of Christians with 
their fellow citizens. Somehow new Christian identity must 
include a new type of nationalism and patriotism distin 
guished completely from the pre-war types. There may be 
a possibility to bring the concepts of democracy and patriot 
ism together. Perhaps this is the path by which the new 
post-war Constitution, which replaced the pre-war Meiji Con 
stitution, can be made really indigeneous to Japan. Speaking 
very specifically, perhaps the most effective act of Christian 
identity in Japan today is for Christians to make a funda 
mental commitment to guard and uphold the new Constitu 
tion. Such a commitment and movement cannot be identified 
with either socialism or communism, and in a very unique 
and key way deals in depth with the problem of Japan s moral 
dilemma. The movement to guard and uphold the Constitu 
tion is not merely a political movement, but it is an ethical 
movement. Since Christian identity in Japan may be achieved 
through overcoming the moral dilemma in Japan, this dedica 
tion to Japan s new Constitution offers a specific and con 
crete challenge to all Christians in Japan. 



149 



5. THEOLOGY TOMORROW IN JAPAN 

by Tosltio Sato 

The situation in which Christianity finds itself in Japan 
is, in some aspects, similar to the situation in which it finds 
itself in Europe and North America. That is to say that 
the situation of a modern and rapidly-changing society with 
its industrialization, urbanization, and problems of a mass 
society is common to North America, Europe, and Japan. 
Thus the impact of this situation on Christianity in Japan 
is to a certain extent similar to the impact on Christianiy 
in the Western countries. 

At the same time, it is important to recognize that the 
situation in which Christianity finds itself in Japan is a great 
deal different from that in the West. For example, the break 
up and fall of Christendom, while being profoundly felt in 
the Western world, is something of which Japan is hardly 
conscious. This is because Japan, both past and present, is 
a non-Christian nation, a "mission" land. The churches in 
Japan are "missionary" churches, whose theologies reflect this 
character. 

Therefore, it must be recognized that theology in Japan, 
on the one hand, is faced with problems that are common to 
the Western world; however, on the other hand theology in 
Japan faces certain specific problems that are unique to 
Japan. This simple fact has important implications when 
one considers theology in Japan s tomorrow. 

A major problem which must be dealt with is that of 
"secularization," which seemed to have its rise in the post- 
World War II "Christian" world. In this context, the issue 
of "demythologizing" the Gospel can be understood as a part 
of the theory and process of secularization. But if one under 
stands secularization as a product of the break-up and fall 
of Christendom, the issues which are related to seculariza- 



150 THEOLOGY TOMORROW 

tion as understood in Japan must be seen from another point 
of view, because Christendom was never established in Japan 
and, therefore, it can neither be disturbed nor destroyed. 
Thus in Japan, secularization must be approached from a 
different standpoint, more in line with such scholars as Pro 
fessor Cornells A. Van Peursen and Professor Harvey Cox, 
who interpret the secularization process as a delivery from 
religious and metaphysical control, and as a stage in the de 
velopment of the so-called "technopolis." In such a broad 
perspective, the fall of Christendom may be understood more 
as a part of a general process which will unavoidably take 
place in any society, whether Christian, or Buddhist, or 
otherwise. It is in this sense that secularization becomes an 
urgent theological issue in a country like Japan where the 
urbanized and "technopolis" society has developed so much 
more rapidly than other nations in Asia, and where Christi 
anity has never really been firmly established. 

This leads us into a discussion of so-called "religionless 
Christianity." In Japan, the problem of this so-called "re- 
ligionless Christianity is very delicate and ambiguous. It is 
true that this idea is not meaningless here, but it must be 
pointed out that the words "religionless Christianity" mean 
something different in Japan than in the Western world, for 
the simple reason that in the West, underlying the idea of 
"religionless Christianity" is the long existence of Christi 
anity as a traditional religion. Certainly this is not the case 
in Japan, and whether Christianity has actually become 
indigenized in Japan as a "religion" is already questionable. 
At any rate, the "de-religionization" of Christianity in Japan 
is not a simple problem. This is because on the one hand we 
cannot say that Christianity in Japan does not need to be 
de-religionized since it began here simply by the transferring 
of traditional Western Christianity to this country. But, on 
the other hand, we can say that Japanese Christianity is not 
burdened with strong traditions; it is a movable and flexible 
Christianity. Moreover, in Japanese Christianity, at least in 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 151 

its Protestant form, for various reasons, a tendency toward 
de-religionization can be detected from its beginning. For 
example, one thinks especially of the Mukyokai (Non-church) 
traditions which grew out of early Protestant Christianity. 
Not only so, but the Japanese churches have seen their task 
as that of correctly taking over historical Christian tradi 
tions of the Western churches, although at the same time 
being critical of those traditions in order to form their own. 
It is therefore quite clear that the application of the idea of 
"religionless Christianity" in Japan requires very careful 
consideration, without which there will always be the risk of 
merely rationalizing the traditions which have been received 
from abroad. 

From a similar point of view, it is possible to point out 
specific problems of theology in Japan. As is well known, 
modern theology in the Western world since the Enlighten 
ment has formed and developed itself in tension with the 
orthodox traditions of the Christian Church. At certain points 
theological thinking has sought to be liberated from tradi 
tional orthodoxy, and at other points it has sought to return 
to orthodoxy. Regardless of which direction theological 
thinking has taken, what is noteworthy is that the whole 
process of theologizing has functioned effectively in close rela 
tionship to the trends of philosophy and thought prevalent at 
certain periods of history. But, in the case of the develop 
ment of theology in Japan, such development has not been 
in tension with the traditional patterns of orthodoxy, since 
there never has been the formation of orthodoxy, especially 
of the continental Protestant type. This is one major dif 
ference between the development of theology in Japan as 
compared with the Western world. The major thrust of 
theology in Japan has been for the purpose of nurturing in 
dividual Christians, and forming them into churches. Thus 
the churches in Japan have leaned more towards a formation 
(Gestaltung) theology rather than a critique (kritik) theo 
logy. Certainly one of the most important tasks of theology 



152 THEOLOGY TOMORROW 

is to contribute to the formation of the Church and its mis 
sionary responsibility. This is why Professor Karl Earth s 
theology, with its formative (gestalten) function has been 
so highly evaluated and appreciated in Japan, and why with 
its critical function, it has played an important role in 
Western theology. It seems clear that this special character 
of Japanese theology should be maintained, and in fact, de 
veloped even further. 

However, on the other side, it should be realized that 
theological thinking in Japan has had a tendency to make a 
closed society of Christians. This is not surprising when we 
recognize that the Church itself has tended to be a closed entity 
in Japanese society. Under the influence of Karl Earth, Japa 
nese theology has come to emphasize the uniqueness and in 
dependence of theology, which as such has become a rather 
compartmentalized academic discipline. The net result has 
been that Japanese theology has lost the opportunity to com 
municate with other academic disciplines. Thus this lack of 
communication and dialogue with other academic subjects and 
disciplines is a very weak point of theology in Japan. 

However, in spite of this historical tendency for Japan s 
theology to be more of a dogmatic theology rather than a theo 
logy of culture or a theology of society, it is indeed satisfying 
to recognize that great changes have been taking place in the 
theological world during the twenty-year post-World War II 
period. That is to say, that within this background of dogmatic 
theology, there are those who are calling for the development 
of a theology of culture and of society. Certainly Japan may 
be in a unique position to develop a theology of social change, 
since she is caught in the midst of the rapid process of in 
dustrialization and urbanization. 

The place and importance of both dogmatic theology and a 
theology of culture in Japan is related to the place and im 
portance of two key concepts of Japanese thought: truth and 
relevance. It must be recognized that the churches in Japan 
have been more interested in the truth of Christianity than 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 153 

they have in the relevance of Christianity to their society. 
That this has been true seems unavoidable in light of the 
predominantly non-Christian society which has such a high 
level of intelligence. It may be that this emphasis on truth 
over relevance is one of the marked differences between 
Christianity in Japan and in the United States. This emphasis 
is another reason why Earth s as well as Forsyth s theology 
have been so well accepted in Japan. Thus it is expected that 
the interest in dogmatic theology in Japan will remain strong. 

However, as mentioned above, the interest on the part of 
many churchmen as to how Christianity can be more relevant 
to Japanese society is increasing. This is true for two reasons: 
1) Japan s Christianity is maturing; 2) industrialization and 
urbanization are putting more and more pressure on Christi 
anity to be relevant to the situation in which it finds itself. 
Another factor pointing theology in this direction is the 
emphasis of pragmatic thought. Therefore it is expected that 
the interest of Japanese Christians in such areas as cultural- 
social ethics, education, communications, etc. will be greatly 
increased, or at least ought to be. 

Other characteristics of present-day theology in Japan bear 
upon tomorrow s theology. That is to say that there are two 
main schools of theology: 1) the theology of the Church 
(kirchliche Theologie) ; and, 2) academic theology (wissen- 
schaftliche Theologie). In Japan both schools are equally well 
accepted. This is in contrast to Germany, where popularity 
deviates towards only one of the schools. Therefore this trend 
of Japan s theological development in which both schools are 
recognized is sound, and should be maintained. 

However, not only should Japan s theology sensitively re 
flect various theological trends in the Western world, but at 
the same time we must take the responsibility to face our own 
problems in our own way. Thus it is hoped that the world of 
theological thought in Japan will not simply be branches of 
American or German theological thought. There are indeed 
many problems which are unique to our own country and which 



154 THEOLOGY TOMORROW 

must be faced by the churches. In a word, it can be said that 
Japan s unique problems and social situation must be a stimu 
lus to the development of her own theology, and that the 
churches should be places of experiment in developing a truly 
relevant theology for the world. 



155 



6. JAPAN, LAITY, AND CHRISTIANITY 

Shin Anzai 

Since the Second Vatican Council, the promulgation of the 
Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity, and with the coming 
of the "aggiornamento" of the Church, there has been a stead 
fast avidity for modernization and reformation among the lay 
people in the Catholic Church. Indeed, the Decree, reflecting 
only the official viewpoint of the Church, needs to be expressed 
in the deepening of the layman s role in the Church and in the 
world. Until recently, lay people have not had an opportunity 
to express their views; however, the Third World Congress 
of the Apostolate of the Laity, held in Rome last October, 1967, 
put an end to this poignant situation. In an open-minded, 
enthusiastic, and lively atmosphere, the assembly discussed the 
journey of God s People through mankind s history present 
and future. 

In order to accomplish a role which is held to be necessary 
for the People of God, the laity has a status established and 
recognized by the Church. Thus we must inquire as to the 
role which the Christian community, in particular the Japa 
nese Christian community, demands that the layman fulfill. 
Perhaps this can be carried out most effectively by comparing 
the conclusions of the Third World Congress of the Apostolate 
of the Laity with the conditions of the Church in Japan. 

It goes without saying that Christians are faced with 
numerous and urgent problems in a rapidly changing world. 
Since the mission of the Church can be identified with that of 
mankind, we may say that the Church should not seek after 
"power," but, on the contrary, that she ought to be determined 
to serve man. In this perspective there should be no opposition 
between clergy and laity; lay people should be accepted like 
collaborators, and considered to be indispensable in the 
Church s service to mankind. Consequently, both clergy and 



156 THE LAITY 

laymen should change their mental attitudes towards the 
world before they can live for service of and in the world. 
The first task is to find a way of cooperation between the 
clergy and the laity, a way which might lead to a breakdown 
of the clericalism and anti-clericalism on which we now lose so 
much energy. Collegiality should not be applied only on the 
horizontal level between bishops but also on the vertical 
level between bishops and priests, between the hierarchy and 
God s People. In the past, too many Christians have felt 
alienated because they have been faced with a pre-fabricated 
concept whereby their roles and functions were completely 
spelled out by clerics. Thus, first of all, the layman of today 
needs to have the freedom of an adult and responsible person. 
The second requisite is that of the laity s adaptation to the 
new situation in the Church. Lay people should make a seri 
ous effort to ensure that their religious culture be on a par 
with their secular formation. As Thorn Kerstiens said at the 
Roman Congress, "all too often they appear like dressed-up 
gorillas in God s earthly Paradise." 

Up to the present time, the Catholic Church in Japan has 
been too clerical. The structure has been one of over-emphasis 
on vertical lines God, Pope, priest, religious, laity. This has 
been due, at least in part, to the clerical formation received 
by priests, which has hardly prepared them to let the laity 
play their full role in the Church. As a result, horizontal 
relations of friendship and fellowship between priests and re 
ligious were not encouraged, especially in the case of relations 
between different communities. Considering the condition of 
the Japan mission, horizontal relations are most important. 

In parishes, the obedience and reverence of parishioners 
towards the parish were emphasized over a relationship of 
fellowship between Christians. It can even be said that hori 
zontal relations which were supposed to result in positive ac 
tion or effects were often looked upon as a danger to the 
authority of the pastor. Therefore, the negative Christian who 
did what he was told, and did nothing unless he was told, was 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 157 

preferred to the one who tried to act without prior prodding. 
It is no wonder, then, in financial matters, too, that Christians 
took a "stand-offish" attitude. The "New Religions" in Japan, 
for instance, are completely supported by their organizations, 
while Catholic Churches have been built by foreign mission 
aries without the support of local Catholics. Thus they now 
lack the initiative to take over their own financial responsibili 
ties. As for the laity, the lay apostolate movement is now 
beginning to move, but it will take a long time to overcome 
the "sheep syndrome." 

We have said that Christians are faced with numerous and 
urgent problems in the world. For example, in the cultural 
domain we have the democratization of education, the eman 
cipation of women, the problems of modern youth, racism and 
nationalism; in the socio-economic field there are the problems 
of under-development, overpopulation, and the social instability 
of developing countries; in the political domain we meet such 
problems as the rise of new nations, and the growth of world 
organizations, the decline of religious belief, the process of 
secularization, and of ever-growing atheism, and the pheno 
menon of ecumenism. 

The Church in Japan has been a model of fidelity not only 
to Rome but to "romanita." Canon Law was never honored 
more as the priests have dutifully recited their breviary in 
Latin, and led the faithful in observing to an unreasonable 
degree Friday abstinence. Obedience and order have always 
been the strong points in the Church in Japan, even in re 
ligious communities where superiors have been known to obey 
their superiors in Europe and America over the wishes of local 
ordinaries. In other words, if anything, the Church in Japan 
has been a "clean church." It has taken all of the necessary 
steps to ward off dangers of evil and disobedience. There is 
a saying in Japanese about people who are overly cautious. It 
says, "tap the pavement of a stone bridge to make sure it is 
safe before crossing." Thus it might be said that the Church 
in Japan has been tapping the pavement of a stone bridge 



158 THE LAITY 

to make sure it is safe, and then not crossing it because it 
might possibly be unsafe after all! 

The Constitution of Japan guarantees the separation of 
Church and State. But the Catholic Church in Japan has 
^een so afraid to touch anything that even indirectly borders 
on politics that it has positively avoided making statements 
even when such statements should have been made. For ex 
ample, have the bishops as a body ever made a public state 
ment about the abortion problem in Japan? It is unthinkable 
for the Church in Japan to make statements such as Pope 
John or Pope Paul have made on peace, on support of the 
United Nations, on Christmas truces in Vietnam, etc. The 
Church has become a closed corporation; it has retreated into 
a little ghetto. It has not gone out to the people enough to 
move their hearts to choose Christ. This church of the past 
has been reaching for the clouds without first planting its feet 
on the ground. 

As a result, Christianity has been stagnant in Japan. 
Though there are scoies of Christian churches Protestant, 
Catholic, and Orthodox alike at work in this country, and 
notwithstanding the fact that missionaries have come to Japan 
from around the whole world, the number of Japanese who 
have come to believe and be baptized is very small. 

Almost a century has gone by since Japan opened its doors 
to foreign commerce and to the missionaries. But inspite of 
the time, money and energy expended, Christians do not yet 
number 1 percent of the population (the actual figure is 0.7 
percent). Catholics form less than one-half of this total. 
Compared to the speedy growth of the "New Religions," es 
pecially that of Sokagakkai, the growth rate of Christianity is 
a sad phenomenon. In the year ending June 30, 1966 Catholics 
increased in number by the grand total of 7,608. During the 
same period Japanese diocesan priests increased by only 5. 

In pondering this question of why Christianity has made 
such slow numerical progress in Japan, there are two elements 
which must be examined: 1) those who are propagating the 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 159 

faith; and, 2) their relation to the Japanese people (both to 
those people who have already been baptized, and to the people 
in the nation as a whole). Religion, in mathematical terms, is 
like an ellipse with two centers of gravity, not a circle with 
one center of gravity. Thus, in the case of Christianity, we 
can liken these centers of gravity to God and man. From the 
pastoral viewpoint we might say that one center of gravity is 
the one who leads, while the other center of gravity is the one 
who is led. At the same time, from the standpoint of the prop 
agation of the faith, we might say that one center of gravity 
is the propagating church, and the other center consists of 
those being evangelized. Thus it must be said that the Church 
in Japan seems to have forgotten that there are two centers, 
and has concentrated only on the one : the church evangelizing. 
As long as only the one side is stressed, evangelization be 
comes separated from reality, and seems to be purely hypothe 
tical. 

It must be affirmed that God and His teachings are univer 
sal, that human nature and man s basic appetites are universal, 
but that the expression of God and His revelation are some 
thing particular to each country, to each period in its history 
and not something manifested as the same for all men for all 
time. If one takes God and His revelation as universal absolute 
realities, clothes them in absolute terms that have meaning 
only in the context of one culture, and presents them as such 
to the people of Japan, some people will accept them and 
follow them as duties, but the majority cannot possibly accept 
the teaching because the particular guise under which this 
teaching is presented has no relationship to them or to their 
culture. Is it not possible, therefore, for us to understand one 
of the fundamental reasons why Christianity is not making 
any remarkable headway here in Japan? 

If there is any field in which the layman s contribution 
may be necessary in presenting the Christian Gospel within the 
context of Japanese culture, it is in the adaptation or the 
"democratization" of theology. Lay people must put some 



160 THE LAITY 

basic questions to the theologians questions which are not 
necessarily the same as those raised by the clerics, nor put 
in the same form or seen from the same aspect as the clerics. 
Christianity, the religion of God, the Creator, is for all of 
mankind. Japanese are men created by God. Like all other 
men the Japanese participate in humanity and enter into the 
same religious relationship with God, the Creator. But the 
Christianity presented to Japan is a religion wrapped up 
in a Western cultural package. For the Japanese who have 
for centuries been wrapping their religious mentality, feelings, 
etc., in different packages, this new religion is too much. For 
example, Westerners tend to speak in absolutes, in universals, 
in dualistic terms, i.e., creator vs. creature; absolute vs. rela 
tive; supernatural vs. natural; infinite vs. finite; sacred vs. 
profane. At the same time, Japanese tend to think in syn 
thetic terms; therefore such concepts as absolute vs. relative; 
sacred vs. profane have no meaning. For example, let us take 
the concept of sin. Western thinking would express sin as an 
offense against an absolute God, thus something intrinsically 
evil. Japanese, however, think of sin in terms of being an 
esthetic matter, as something unclean or deformed. In other 
words, a Westerner can think of a sin as an offense against 
God, but which does not, as in the Japanese concept of the 
word, directly cause some kind of trouble or discomfort to 
his neighbor. Therefore, for anyone to speak in Japanese, to 
Japanese, with Western concepts, is like beating the air or 
spinning his tires on ice. 

It must be said that the Church has forgotten to dis 
tinguish, even in its own Western terms, the essential from 
the non-essential. It took many centuries for Western 
Christianity to fashion a beautiful square peg, and she has 
been trying to drive it into a round hole in Japan; the peg 
will not fit. 

Of course, Japanese Christians very much appreciate and 
admire the missionaries who have come from so many different 
countries to bring the faith to Japan. I cannot agree with 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 161 

those who assert that the reason why the Church does not 
grow is that there are foreigners directing things, and that 
once the Japanese completely "take over," evangelization ef 
forts will unfailingly succeed. On the one hand, there have 
been, and there are now foreign missionaries who direct mis 
sionary endeavors very satisfactorily; on the other hand, 
there have been, and there are Japanese clergy who lose 
touch with reality. For example, many of those who opposed 
the change in the liturgy from Latin to the mother tongue 
were not foreign priests, but they were Japanese! This leads 
me to think that much thought will have to be given to the 
proper training of Japanese seminarians. Naturally it is 
essential that native sons should become priests, but it must 
be admitted that principles and realities do not always coin 
cide. To the extent that cooperation between clergy and 
Japanese laymen can be established on a vertical level, and 
that Japanese lay people are willing to take up their own 
responsibilities they can make a valuable contribution to 
wards the adaptation of theology to the Japanese mind. 

Adaptation, however, should not be restricted to the field 
of theology and ethics, but should also be extended to pastoral 
care. The Church all over the world is divided into parishes 
and dioceses. In Japan, many parishes have been set up by 
simply looking at a map. As a result, some people, to get 
to their parish church, even in large urban centers, must 
travel an hour by bus or train, whereas there might be a 
church much nearer to their place of residence. Or, in large 
cities, is it right to force husbands whose lives, except 
for returning home to sleep, are spent in a downtown 
parish territory, to belong to and support the parish where 
their homes are located? Or, are workers and students who 
have reduced commuter fare coupons for travel back and 
forth to their work or school to be expected to pay extra 
fares to go to their "proper parish" every week? In short, 
people whose lives and hearts are directed towards the inner 
city should not be forced to patronize suburban parishes. Why 



162 THE LAITY 

should a system that grew out of a rural Europe be forced 
to fit into an urbanizing Japan? 

Without pressing, however, for the immediate abolition of 
the parish system now in existence, it must be emphasized 
that pastors need not try to force Catholics in their territory 
to confine themselves to parish activities, but should encourage 
the formation of vocational groupings across parochial lines. 
Here too, we would like to see Japanese laymen speak up and 
out in an open-minded dialogue with the clergy. 

Should we be astonished then to realize that a new view 
point is needed in terms of the role and function of the laity 
in the Church and in the world? Since Vatican II the Catholic 
Church in Japan has been reflecting on all these points, and 
it is beginning to do something about them. The desire to 
really enter the modern world, and to have an effective role 
in the reforming of mankind is rising from different quarters 
within the Church. 

The training of priests is the most important and im 
mediate problem which faces the Church. However, the 
problem is that the image of the future priest in Japan has 
not yet been formed. How does one explain the fact that up 
to now, after eight years of intensive training and seminary 
life, our seminarians tend to become bureaucrats rather than 
prophets administrators content to look after a few hun 
dred Catholics, rather than apostles filled with the desire to 
bring Christ s message to the masses around them? No one 
can deny that the study of philosophy and theology, and 
spiritual training is necessary. But the problem is that now, 
though we are getting priests who can preach magnificent 
sermons from their seminary theology notebooks, we are not 
producing priests who fervently inspire their congregations 
with confidence and courage to go out and face the world 
with love. Naturally, fervor alone does not suffice, but doc 
trine without fervor cannot capture men s hearts. How to 
produce such priests, how priests are to conduct their lives in 
the context of modern society these questions need our com- 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 163 

pelling study. 

Japan needs priests who can forget the narrow confines 
of a parish, of their religious community, of their diocese, 
and think of the good of Japan, indeed of the world. Such a 
viewpoint will enable them to work with a deep understanding 
of the modern world and its culture. It is absolutely necessary 
that seminary education be such that it develops this view 
point deeply in the minds of the new priests. 

Dioceses in Japan must cease working in isolation, and 
unite their endeavors in one gigantic effort for the Church of 
all Japan. This is the purpose of the Bishops Conference of 
Japan and its secretariat, the National Catholic Committee of 
Japan. The associations of major superiors of missionary 
societies are now determined to work with the Bishops Con 
ference. However, more inter-society efforts are still neces 
sary. 

Lay organizations, too, are beginning to change. But such 
changes must reflect a shift from personal inclinations for 
activities which merely brush Japanese society, to such activi 
ties as will contribute to the formation of Japanese society in 
a Christian way. 

We must admit that the Church in Japan has been holding 
the treasure of salvation tightly to its breast. It has just 
awakened, and" is beginning to show that treasure to the 
world. We hope, with a deep Christian hope, that our fellow 
citizens will ask us to share that treasure with them. 



164 

7. THE FUTURE OF CHRISTIANITY: 
A NON-CHURCH POINT OF VIEW 

Koki Nakazawa 

As the Meiji Centennial is being observed here in Japan, 
many observers, both within and outside the churches, are 
asking some basic questions relative to "the indigenization of 
Christianity in Japanese soil." For example, they ask: "Is 
Christianity still considered by most Japanese to be a foreign 
religion ?" "Do most people in Japan feel that Christianity, 
or at least the churches, contain alien elements?" If the 
answers to those two questions are in the affirmative, the ob 
servers then ask a series of additional questions, such as: 
"Why has the planting of Christianity in the soil of Japan 
been so difficult?" "To what degree should these feelings 
about the foreign and alien nature of Christianity be eras 
ed?" "How?" 

It must be affirmed, however, that the Mukyokai (Non- 
church) people, are little concerned with such questions. The 
reason for this lack of concern is that they believe that faith 
is, in fact, indigeneous, and that it has already become rooted 
in the soil of Japan. 

Nevertheless, because the problem of the rooting of Chris 
tianity in Japan is important, let us cite a number of factors 
which have been considered as major obstacles to the indigeni 
zation of Christianity in Japan. 

The first factor that comes to mind is the Japanese mental 
attitude which runs contrary to any type of exclusivism. A 
second factor is the peculiar structure of Japanese society, 
especially in rural communities, etc. There are a number of 
other factors, but among them I would point out two charac 
teristics of Christian churches in Japan which are especially 
disturbing: one characteristic is that Western forms of wor 
ship and evangelism have been used concomitantly with finan 
cial dependence on foreign mission boards; the other charac- 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 165 

teristic is that there seems to have been an unreasonable divi 
sion of the Church into many denominations and sects. For 
example, if one examines in this Japan Christian Yearbook 
the list of mission boards and societies represented in Japan, 
(See Part IV, Section 3) it is astonishing to find that there 
are over 100 foreign mission boards and societies now working 
in Japan. But in spite of all of the activities which are made 
possible by these boards and societies, it must be admitted 
that many "sensible" Japanese find it hard to follow them. 
By "sensible" is meant ordinary Japanese with bon sens, who 
have no prejudice against Christianity itself. Such "sensible" 
people say, "the church s threshold is too high for me," which 
means that they feel awkward in entering a church. As it 
seems to the writer, this expression deserves careful attention, 
because it points to a double aspect of the mental attitude 
which most ordinary Japanese have toward Christianity, i.e. 
on the one hand, it seems to point to an inferiority complex in 
themselves; on the other hand the expression betrays a covert 
sense of alienation from Christianity in its Western form. 

Still another factor which must be considered as an ob 
stacle to the indigenization of Christianity in Japan, is the 
allegation that there is a growing deterioration within the 
Japanese churches. A most deplorable phenomenon seems to 
be the noticeable loss of a sense of "mission" among some 
seminary students as well as among some pastors. No wonder 
the churches cannot rightly perform their task when they 
have an increasing number of pastors or would-be-pastors 
who have no true commitment. No less deplorable is a tenden 
cy within some denominations, at the top level, to consider 
the church as some kind of secular enterprise. The develop 
ing bureaucratic system with an emphasis upon centralization 
tends to restrain the freedom of local churches and pastors, 
which results in the further hampering of evangelism. The 
annual increase of the quotas of giving to the church or 
denominational headquarters, to say nothing of the increase 
of local church expenses, tends to kill the members spontane- 



166 A NON-CHURCH POINT OF VIEW 

ous activity to a great extent. 

Fortunately, the Mukyokai, is largely free of these dis 
advantages. From the days of its founder, Kanzo Uchimura, it 
has insisted on following the principles of "independence" and 
"non-institutionalism." Of course it must be admitted that 
many other churches besides the Mukyokai have placed great 
emphasis on this principle of "independence," at least nominal 
ly. Not only so, but at this point, some of them would say 
in this age of ecumenism, that what matters much more than 
"independence" is "interdependence." But, can it be claimed 
by those who have depended so largely on foreign support 
that "one-way dependence" may be in any way called "inter 
dependence?" The answer is obviously in the negative. Real 
interdependence is possible only when Japanese churches be 
come financially as well as spiritually independent. 

At the same time, however, our goal must be toward the 
unity of all of the denominations, the renewal of the Church. 
Diversity or multiplicity may not be evil as such, but division 
and dissension are not good; they are actually sinful. Thus it 
is quite natural that the World Council of Churches is push 
ing the unity and the renewal of the churches throughout the 
world. No matter how convenient denominational evangelism 
may be, or no matter how justifiable it might be historically, 
it cannot continue on in the same patterns as before. If the 
churches in Japan fail to attain unity on an ecumenical basis, 
they can hardly be expected to break the present stalement in 
which Christianity finds itself in trying to meet the current 
needs both inside and outside the Church. 

However, it must, of course, be admitted that the prob 
lem of indigenization is not so simple as to be solved merely 
by some external surgery or rearrangements on the surface. 
Even when outer impediments are removed, there will remain 
the "stumbling block" which, as history shows, is inherent to 
Christianity. It is the faith in God the Creator, and in Christ 
the Lord of redemption, resurrection, and of the last judg 
ment. Truly, from its beginning, Christianity has been a 



CHRISTIANS EXAMINE THE FUTURE 167 

"stumbling block" not only to the Jew, but also to the Greek. 
But must we not affirm that a "stumbling blockless" Christian 
ity would cease to be real Christianity? Such a Christianity, 
if it did exist, would be just like a body without a soul. The 
indigenization of a body without a soul would be nonsense. 

In this connection, the main motif of a recent problem- 
matical novel entitled, Ckimmoku (Silence), by the Catholic 
author, Shusaku Endo, is worthy of note. It deals with the 
painful renegation of a Jesuit father in the earliest period 
of Christianity in Japan during the 17th century, commonly 
referred to as "the Kirishitan period." The author s covert 
intention is to try to replace the stern faith of non-compro 
mising martyrdom by meek trust in a merciful Christ. In the 
author s opinion, the latter pattern alone will prove to be the 
most fitting to the Japanese common people who have been 
nurtured by a long tradition of the merciful Buddha. It 
must be admitted that such an opinion is quite understand 
able. Nevertheless, the present writer wonders whether 
Christianity mitigated in this way could really be a genuine 
and wholesome Christianity. Thus the basic question boils 
down to whether and how Christianity can be indigenized 
and planted firmly into the Japanese soil without losing its 
inherent character. If we are not concerned about quantity, 
the answer is affirmative. 

Since the Kirishitan period there have been a number of 
genuine Japanese Christians all over the country. Their ex 
istence, though small is size, is too significant to be neglected, 
and no one can deny that Kanzo Uchimura and his followers 
are included among them. Uchimura s conflict between his 
well-known thesis, "Two J s" (i.e. "Jesus" and "Japan"), or 
his tombstone inscription, "I for Japan, Japan for the World, 
the World for Christ, and All for God," suggests a difficult 
situation from which every Japanese Christian, even today, 
cannot escape. In Uchimura s value system the two J s may 
seem to be equal, but properly "Jesus" is always superior to 
"Japan." At a crucial moment like Fukei Jiken (failure to 



168 A NON-CHURCH POINT OF VIEW 

pay the Emperor proper respect lese majeste) Uchimura 
did not err in his judgment in properly ranking the two. 
"Christo-national" was his motto, not something like "na 
tionalist Christian." 

During the Pacific War, the Japanese churches as a whole 
could not stand up against government pressure. Therefore, 
since most of the churches had so largely lost the confidence 
of the bulk of Japanese and other Asian peoples, it was 
right, though admittedly late, that the Kyodan (United 
Church of Japan) recently issued a public confession con 
cerning its responsibility for the past war. 

At the present time, Japan seems to be confronted with a 
recurring nationalism on the one hand, and with an expand 
ing communism on the other. I believe that the churches 
should remain neutral as they are now, and they should never 
again fall into the same error, as they did prior to and 
during the last war. However, it goes without saying that 
they should become strong enough to take joint action 
against all kinds of social evils, especially that of war. 

In summary, I would say that the future of Christianity 
in Japan seems to depend upon the degree to which the 
churches: 1) can achieve independence and at the same time 
exhibit a real sense of unity, without an over-emphasis upon 
organization; 2) can maintain the "stumbling-block" nature 
of Christianity while at the same time engage in a continuous 
dialogue with other religions; 3) can maintain a "Christo- 
national" stance without necessarily identifying themselves 
with national policies; and 4) can be indigenized and planted 
firmly into the Japanese soil without losing their inherent 
Christian character. 



PART II 

CHAPTER 4 

AREAS OF IMMEDIATE 
COLLABORATION 



1. THE PRESENT SITUATION AND THE 
FUTURE OF CHRISTIAN ARTS IN JAPAN 

Tadao Tanaka 

In 1955, the United Church of Christ s (Kyodan s) Com 
mittee for Christian Music decided to publish a periodical, 
Worship and Music. The purpose of this magazine was to 
study church music and arts in relation to the problems of 
Christian worship, and to publish the findings and opinions 
concerning such studies. This was the first time that Pro 
testant Christianity in Japan had seriously considered the 
arts as a part of Christian culture. Worship and Music 
struggled for a lack of subscriptions, but in spite of diffi 
culties in financing and management, somehow managed to 
continue publication. It introduced to its readers the Christian 
arts of Europe and America, and also featured examples of 
church architecture, painting, and sculpture by Christian 
artists in Japan. Now in its twelfth year, the number of 
subscriptions to this periodical has doubled, and commencing 
April 1, 1968, the contents will be broadened and upgraded 
to meet the demands of the church schools. Thus the sub 
scription rate is expected to increase by another 50% in the 
near future. 

Also, it is necessary to mention the annual summer 
seminar on audio-visual education which is sponsored by the 



170 CHRISTIAN ARTS 

Audio-Visual Aids Commission (AVACO) of the Japan Na 
tional Christian Council (JNCC). Each year several hun 
dred persons participate in this seminar, which always in 
cludes a special lecture on Christian arts in an effort to 
deepen the interest and understanding of church people in 
religious arts. In addition AVACO provides financial sup 
port for the Contemporary Japanese Christian Art Exhibi 
tion which is held every autumn. 

Such programs and support by the United Church of 
Christ in Japan and the JNCC have greatly stimulated the 
activities of Christian artists in Japan. Following three suc 
cessful annual exhibitions, the "Christian Artists Organiza 
tion" is in the process of formation. These exhibitions have 
been made possible through a joint cooperative endeavor by the 
Waseda Kyodan Church, and by the Waseda Student Chris 
tian Center (Waseda Hoshien). In the 1967 Exhibition ten 
artists participated. This is admittedly a very small number, 
but at this point, in order to maintain the current high level 
of artistic standard, it is felt that it would be undesirable 
to increase the number of artists. All ten of the Christian 
artist-participants in the exhibitions are given free passes 
to, or are judges at, the other top-level art exhibitions in 
Japan. Some of the painters have been introduced abroad, 
especially in the United States. However the number of top- 
ranking Christian artists is expected to gradually increase, 
especially as some who are now studying abroad return to 
Japan, and as other new artists are discovered in the course 
of each exhibition. 

The special unique feature of the annual "Contemporary 
Japan Christian Art Exhibition" is that through the display 
of their works, the artists are playing a very important role 
in the communication of the Christian gospel in Japan. As 
a matter of fact, in the review and evaluation discussions 
following each exhibition, it has been pointed out that the 
exhibition itself plays a very important role in the total 
Christian mission in Japan, even though there have never 



IMMEDIATE COLLABORATION 171 

been any restrictions as to whether the subjects found their 
origin in biblical themes or in the personal faith of the 
artist involved. Thus it is recognized that as Christianity 
moves into its second century after the Meiji Restoration, 
the role of the Christian artists in Japan is most important in 
clarifying the Christian basis of the art work which is ex 
hibited. This is because in actuality, there is often very little 
difference between the materials which are presented by the 
Christian and non-Christian artists. This is due to the fact 
that the arts in Japan, especially those of Western painting 
and sculpture, were after the nineteenth century strongly 
affected by the French schools, some of which were very 
much influenced by Christian concepts. At any rate, there 
have been a few Christian artists who, for the first time, have 
been able to express in an authentic and a very personal way 
the relation between Christian faith and work. 

One of the exceptional Christian painters was Takeji Ha- 
yashi of Sapporo. He was a middle school teacher who drew 
and painted in a nineteenth century atmosphere, and who 
attempted to interpret his own life of faith in his artistic 
works. Though Hayashi was never well known except in 
the Sapporo area, his oil painting called Morning Prayer is 
well remembered as expressing in a simple but profound way 
faithful family life in the Meiji era. 

One of the mid-Taisho period Christian painters whose 
works were small, but highly evaluated today, was Shoji 
Sekine, who painted The Sorrow of Faith. Though Sekine s 
active period was very short because of his early death, 
he is looked upon as a genius who was influenced by Gothic 
painting, which at that time had been barely introduced in 
Japan. He passed through a popular trend, then emphasized 
the naturalistic atmosphere, and tried to present through a 
very expressive manner his adoration of God and faith in Him. 

In the field of sculpture, Morie Ogiwara s works have 
been outstanding. Ogiwara studied under Rodin in France, 
from whom he learned Gothic sculpture. He was able to move 



172 CHRISTIAN ARTS 

from a general trend of copying external forms into the por 
trayal of spiritual activities, to the point of approaching a 
sense of religious strictness. 

Even though these Christian artists made some progress 
during the Meiji and Taisho periods, Christian arts were in 
a rather unorganized state. This was due on the one hand 
to the unwillingness of Christian artists to organize them 
selves or to be organized, and on the other hand to the indif 
ference of the Protestant churches in Japan. A kind of move 
ment did gradually emerge early in the Showa era, as some 
of the Christian artists voluntarily established an organiza 
tion which included artists who were involved in both Japa 
nese and Western paintings, sculpture, and industrial arts. 
This organization held several Tokyo exhibitions which were 
sponsored by the Tokyo YMCA. With the coming of World 
War II the organization was dissolved because of its unpro 
ductive nature and the general feeling that it had value only 
in a peace-time society. The calling-back together of the 
Christian artists immediately after the War was not pos 
sible because they had scattered during the War. Also the lack 
of opportunities for regular exhibitions, a feeling of uncer 
tainty as to the essential meaning for the existence of an 
association of Christian artists, and the lack of agreed-upon 
skill standards were other elements which contributed toward 
a long period of non-organization following the end of World 
War II. 

These unfortunate experiences of the past were well 
utilized, however, in the organization of the First Contem 
porary Japan Christian Art Exhibition. As was mentioned 
earlier, this Exhibition has been supported almost entirely 
by the Waseda Church and Waseda Student Christian Center. 
But the organization is being gradually strengthened by an 
annual increase in the number of participants. It is anti 
cipated that in the near future the Exhibition will be held 
not only in Tokyo, but will travel to other areas, thereby 
stimulating other Christian artists locally, and affording op- 



IMMEDIATE COLLABORATION 173 

portunities to find additional Christian artists or prospec 
tive artists. 

At the present time, the Christian artists are cooperating 
with the churches and their related organizations in the 
interior designing and decorating of buildings and facilities 
for Christian groups. For example, most of the artists who 
participated in the Waseda Exhibition made paintings avail 
able for hanging in the common rooms of the Kansai Academy 
House, which was completed and opened in the autumn of 
1967. Financial remuneration to the artists was on an equal 
basis, regardless of the cost of each work, and symbolized 
the spirit of goodwill and cooperation which exists among 
the Christian artists. It is not necessary to say how much 
the visitors to the Kansai Academy House appreciate the art 
gallery atmosphere of the House. 

Before concluding this article, I would like to mention the 
matter of cooperation between Catholics and Protestants. It 
is not necessary to explain that the Catholic Church from 
the earliest times has utilized the arts for the praise of God 
and as a means of communicating and expressing the Chris 
tian Gospel. Church architecture in Japan was one of the 
first expressions of this. Since the earliest periods of free 
religious expression in Japan, Catholic artists have con 
tributed a great deal to expressing the truths of the Christian 
faith through art to an extent far surpassing Protestant 
Christian artists. The Catholic Art Association was estab 
lished several years following the end of World War II, 
and holds an annual exhibition in a downtown Tokyo de 
partment store. A collection of art materials through the 
means of a nation-wide application system, makes it possible 
for maximum participation by Catholic artists. One of the 
most well-known Catholic painters was the late Luke Hase- 
gawa, who passed away in 1967. Yasutake Funakoshi is a 
famous sculptor who is known for his Statues of the Twenty- 
six Saints of Nagasaki. Kenji Imai is noted for his architec 
ture and designs of many Catholic churches. 



174 CHRISTIAN ARTS 

It is indeed significant that these Catholic artists have 
extended an invitation to the Protestant artists to participate 
in the Catholic Art Association s Sixteenth Exhibition in To 
kyo. There is no questioning the fact that this is the most 
significant event to date in the process of the development of 
Christian arts in Japan. In line with the call for ecumenical 
cooperation by His Holiness Pope Paul, the Protestant artists 
plan to cooperate actively with the Catholic artists in their 
Exhibition. As a next step, certainly a joint exhibition by 
both Protestant and Catholic artists would strengthen the 
cause of Christian art in Japan as well as express the unity 
of Christianity as it seeks to find identity in the culture 
of Japan. The day of our intention is expected to come in 
the near future. 



2. TOWARDS A COMMON BIBLE 

Thomas Shunzo Miyauchi 

and 
Bernardin Schneider 

Historical Note: Thomas S. Miyauchi 

The co-operation of the Roman Catholic Church and the 
Bible Societies in the translation, publication and distribution 
of the Scriptures, is due, to the best of my knowledge, to 
recent initiatives taken by the Roman Catholic Church. 

With the publication of the Encyclical Divino Afflante 
Spiritu in 1943, a biblical renewal movement within 
Catholicism became evident. The Bible Societies reacted 
favorably and positively to this movement, which had con 
siderable missionary implications. In other words, the Bible 
was not to remain a book reserved to those "belonging to the 
faith," but was to be distributed to non-Christians as well. 
At this point the goals established by the Bible Societies met 
the intentions which were announced by the Catholic Church, 
that is: 1) to distribute the Scriptures to all people; 2) to 
translate them in the languages of all people; 3) to make 
them available at the lowest possible price. Thus it is no 
exaggeration to state that this common goal-setting is proof 
of a twentieth century "New Reformation." 

As the United Bible Societies responded favorably to the 
moves of the Catholic Church, the possibilities for collabora 
tion were examined in common deliberations. A new field 
was opened to the Bible Societies which they were eager to 
enter, even though obstacles had to be cleared away. 

A step forward was made by "The Conference of the 
Church Leaders," held at Driebergen, Holland, in June of 
1964. From this conference came a series of suggestions to 
Churches and the Bible Societies which read in part: "The 
Conference encourages the preparation, in collaboration with 



176 TOWARDS A COMMON BIBLE 

all churches, including the Roman Catholic Church, of a 
common text in the original languages, to be the one source 
of translation for all Christians, and expresses the convic 
tion that by means of honest scholarship, this is now a pos 
sibility. The Conference also encourages a common transla 
tion of the Bible that may be published either in common 
or separately as the circumstances require." 

Another conference on the same matter was held at 
Cret Berard in Switzerland, in November of 1964. It produced 
a memorandum entitled, "Outline of Proposed Guiding Prin 
ciples For Possible Cooperation by Roman Catholic and Prot 
estant Translators of the Bible." 

It was in this climate that the United Bible Societies 
Council of May 1966 was held in Buck Hill Falls, Pennsyl 
vania. The Council earnestly took up the matter of a com 
mon translation of the Bible, and suggested ways of Pro 
testant-Catholic cooperation, especially in areas where 
Christianity is a minority movement, such as in most parts 
of Asia. One of the participants was the Rev. Walter M. 
Abbott, S.J., assistant to His Eminence Cardinal Bea. It was 
decided to hold the Asia South Pacific Regional Conference 
at Swanganivas near Bangkok, Thailand. This conference 
was held in November of 1967. I would like to quote here 
some passages from the "Recommendation to all the Churches," 
issued by this recent Asia South Pacific Regional Confer 
ence: 

"The churches should recognize that the Bible Socie 
ties are unable to fulfill the responsibility committed to 
them without the full support of all the churches. If 
the two billion people in Asia and the South Pacific are 
to be confronted with the Gospel, present methods of 
distribution must be expanded, and this Conference be 
lieves this to be possible only if the churches encourage 
Christians to take the book to the people adding their 
personal commendation and testimony." 



IMMEDIATE COLLABORATION 177 

One of the most urgent needs of our time is for Scriptures 
that are easily understood by ordinary people and especially 
by youth. 

May I conclude this historical note with this passage from 
the Message of the Conference: 

"We were pleased to hear four representatives from 
the Vatican and the Roman Catholic Church in Asia ex 
plain the declarations of the Vatican Council which 
open the way to co-operation between the Roman Catho 
lic Church and the Bible Societies in making the Scrip 
tures available to all." 

Towards a Common Bible in Japan: 
Thomas S. Miyauchi and Benardin Schneider 

In today s Japan, both Protestants and Catholics have 
complete translations of their Bibles in both classical and 
colloquial styles. The Orthodox have a classical translation 
of the New Testament. Also, a number of other translations 
of the New Testament and of portions of the Old and New 
Testaments exist in various styles, including widely circulated 
translations made by Mukyokai (Non-church) Christian 
scholars. One other Protestant and one other Catholic version 
of the whole Bible are in the process of translation. The 
Episcopal Church has a classical translation of the Apo 
crypha (which correspond in general to the Deuterocanonical 
Books included in Catholic Bibles) ; it also has a colloquial 
version of the same in preparation. However, so far no com 
mon Bible or portion of one has been published in Japanese. 1 

The first general contacts opening the way towards a com- 



1. A private joint Protestant-Catholic translation of the Minor Prophets 
was begun by the Rev. Eiji Suganuma and the Rev. Karl Walkenhorst, 
S.J., of Sophia University, but has been interrupted by the former s de 
parture for studies in Edinburgh. This venture can rightly be considered a 
first blossoming of the fellowship experienced at the Translators Seminar 
to be mentioned later in this article. 



178 TOWARDS A COMMON BIBLE 

mon Bible in Japan took place July 20, 1964, on the occasion 
of a day of conferences and discussions on modern transla 
tions and translating by Dr. Eugene A. Nida and others 
sponsored by the Japan Bible Society, to which both Pro 
testant and Catholic scripture scholars were invited. This 
was followed by an invitation on the part of the Studium 
Biblicum Franciscanum to representatives of the Japan 
Bible Society and to Catholic representatives to meet for a 
discussion of common translation problems. This meeting 
was held on January 18, 1965. The next initiative came from 
two separate Episcopal Committees of the Catholic Hierarchy 
of Japan: the Committee for Ecumenism, and the Committee 
for Christian Terminology. 

It was at the first official session of the Episcopal Com 
mittee for Ecumenism, held on June 9, 1965, when the sug 
gestion was made that, since the Japan Bible Society was 
then considering a revision of its current colloquial version, a 
presentation and subsequent consideration of observations 
from the Catholic side along with those being presented for 
consideration by the Japan Bible Society constituencies- 
would no doubt pave the way for a public formal approval 
of this colloquial version for use by Catholics. Consequently, 
a total of some fourteen or so observations, prepared by the 
Studium Biblicum, were presented at the next Board meeting 
of the Japan Bible Society, which was held June 24, 1965. 
On July 9, 1965, a joint meeting of members and consultants 
of the Translation Department of the Japan Bible Society, 
and the staff of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, was 
held to further clarify and discuss these observations. The 
immediate result of these meetings, however, in spite of a 
most valuable sharing of insights and opinion, was a general 
decision that a revision of the colloquial version of the Bible 
at just that time was not opportune. But at this point it 
is of special interest to note that the observations which were 
received from the Catholic side during the course of these 
meetings were much less numerous and much less far-reach- 



IMMEDIATE COLLABORATION 179 

ing then many that had been received from the various con 
stituencies of the Japan Bible Society! 

The Episcopal Committee for Christian Terminology has 
included among its concerns the problem of biblical proper 
name?. The Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, in preparing 
the scripture texts for the revised Catholic catechism publish 
ed in 1960 had, with the approval of the hierarchy, adopted 
a new policy for the transcription of proper names. This 
policy stated that where more than one transcription for the 
name of one and the same person or place are now in use 
in Japan, that form is selected which prevails in the general 
Japanese usage. In the majority of cases this prevailing 
form is that used in the Bible Society version rather than 
the foim in traditional Catholic use. However, some reser 
vations were made where the Protestant form is less in keep 
ing with modern transcription usages in Japan than is the 
corresponding Catholic form. 

An opportunity to study some of these common translation 
problems in depth was furnished by an international and 
interdenominational Bible Translators Seminar which was 
conducted in Japan from August 15th to September 2nd, 
1966. This Seminar was held under the auspices of the Unit 
ed Bible Societies with the Japan Bible Society acting as 
sponsor and host. A recent general report of the Japan Bible 
Society contains the following details of this Seminar which 
are of interest here: 

The three-week Bible Translators Seminar in the 
summer of 1966 at Hachioji near Tokyo was really an 
epoch-making event for the J.B.S. We had fifty-five 
ardent participants, 30 from Japan and 25 from the 
other Asian countries. . . Eleven of the fifty-five parti 
cipants were scholars of the Roman Catholic Church, 
and through this experience we had the opportunity for 
study and close fellowship with them. We are sure this 
will prove to be the introduction to deeper cooperation 



180 TOWARDS A COMMON BIBLE 

in translation with them. This has been followed by 
further talks with the participants at the Franciscan 
Biblical Studium of the Catholic Church. 2 

The "further talks" referred to in this report took place 
on April 10, 1967. At the invitation and under the auspices 
of the Japan Bible Society, twenty-five of the Hachioji 
seminar participants from Japan, including guest lecturers 
and observers, met to discuss the situation of Bible transla 
tions now in use in Japan, and the feasibility of Protestant- 
Catholic cooperation in future translation work. One con 
crete result of these discussions was the request made to the 
Japan Bible Society to launch a specialized periodical in 
which to exchange ideas and to present and discuss transla 
tion problems in Japan. This would be similar to the Bible 
Translator which is published by the United Bible Societies 
to exchange ideas and discuss translation problems on a 
worldwide scale. 

In summary and conclusion, it can be said that progress 
towards a common Bible in Japan involves the solution of 
three basic problems: 1) that of differing forms of proper 
names and/or terminology; 2) that of the exclusion/inclusion 
of the apocryphal/deuterocanonical books of the Old Testa 
ment; 3) that of the adjoining or the non-adjoining of ex 
planatory notes. 

The first question has been sufficiently touched on above. 
In due time common agreement will surely come. 

A workable solution to the second problem already en 
visaged in other common Bible projects is to publish two 
separate editions of the Bible: one with, and one without 
the apocryphal-deuterocanonical books. These would then be 
grouped together at the end of the Old Testament instead of 
being dispersed through it, as is the case in most Catholic 



2. T. S. Miyauchi, 1967 Report of the Japan Bible Society, presented 
at the United Bible Societies Asia-South Pacific Regional Conference held 
in Bangkok, Thailand, November 7-15, 1967, pp. 16-17. 



IMMEDIATE COLLABORATION 181 

Bibles at the present time. Such is the arrangement followed 
by the supplementary editions of the Protestant Revised 
Standard Version and An American Translation (Smith- 
Goodspeed). The former is entitled, The Holy Bible and the 
Apocrypha; the latter is simply called The Complete Bible. 
Perhaps a common term for these books might be "The 
Intertestamental Books." 

The last of the three basic problems to be faced on the 
way towards a common Bible concerns the adjoining or the 
non-adjoining of explanatory notes. The Catholic observance 
in this regard has been to adjoin at least a minimum of ex 
planatory notes to modern versions of the Scriptures. The 
observance of most Bible Societies, on the other hand, has 
been to produce Bibles without note or comment. More and 
more, however, the Bible Societies are recognizing the need 
for "Help for Readers," especially for new readers in cul 
tures that are not predominantly Christian, such as is cer 
tainly the case in Japan. The needs of all concerned can be 
satisfied, it would seem, with annotations limited to the fol 
lowing types: 1) alternative readings and renderings; 2) an 
explanation of proper names and plays on words; 3) his 
torical backgrounds and cultural differences; and 4) section 
headings and cross references. In the same category would 
come such supplementary features as maps, glossaries, in 
dices, tables of weight, measures, etc., and possibly illustra 
tions for certain types of editions. 

In this connection, one thinks of the line drawings, sec 
tion headings, synoptic gospel references, word list, and 
index contained in Today s English Version of the New 
Testament, Good News for Modern Man, which was produced 
and published by the American Bible Society in September 
of 1966. Approximately eight million copies have been sold in 
a little more than one year. The great appeal of this ver 
sion, as was the appeal of its predecessor in Spanish, La 
Version Popular, is its breakthrough in the basic translation 
principle followed: that of dynamic equivalence in idiomatic 



TOWARDS A COMMON BIBLE 

language rather than that of formal correspondence in lexicon 
and grammar. 

A suggestion seems to rise here almost spontaneously: 
would not such a venture in Japan but here a jointly-made 
translation intended primarily not for official use by Pro 
testants or Catholics or other Christians but, for the more 
than 99 % other Japanese in this extremely literate country, 
be the logical common Bible project with which to begin? 
Of course all Christians would, or should be directly in 
volved. For the wise and effective distribution of such a 
translation would be precisely their duty and privilege. Ex 
ploratory discussions along these lines have already taken 
place. 

Finally we are happy to be able to mention that other 
exploratory discussions have been inaugurated to sound out 
the possibility of a commonly sponsored publication of a 
Shorter Bible, giving the mainstream of salvation history 
from Genesis to Revelation, similarly intended for the over 
whelming majority of Japanese, non-Christian and Christian, 
who have neither the time nor patience nor initial zest for 
the reading of the whole Bible but who do have the time 
and interest and zest for such a grand introductory tour 
through the whole of "the wonderful works of God." 

If other countries have done such things, why cannot 
Japan? 



3. ECUMENISM AND THE FUTURE OF 
CHRISTIANITY IN JAPAN 

Ryozo Hara and Paul Pfister 

It is important to remember that ecumenism has, from its 
beginnings, been closely connected with the missionary ac 
tivity of the churches. The modern ecumenical movement, 
which received its real start at the World Missionary Con 
ference of Edinburgh in 1910, led finally to the establish 
ment of the World Council of Churches at Amsterdam in 
1948. It was, therefore, quite natural that the World Coun 
cil of Churches and the International Missionary Council 
were fully integrated in 1961 at the Third Assembly of the 
WCC, which took place, significantly, in India. Since that 
time the work which had been carried by the IMC has been 
the responsibility of the WCC s Division of World Mission 
and Evangelism. 

On the Catholic side, the Decree on Ecumenism- which 
was promulgated during the Second Vatican Council has 
pointed out that the missionary activity of the Church and 
its ecumenical efforts are closely connected because, "the divi 
sion among Christians damages the holy cause of preaching 
the gospel to every creature, and by the same mandate which 
makes missions necessary, all the baptized are called to be 
gathered into one flock." 

Consequently, it has been due in large part to the ecu 
menical movement that there is a growing consciousness 
among all Christians that they share a common responsibility 
of witness and service towards the human family. Happily 
we see developing between the various Christian bodies a 
koinonia, a union of prayer, witness and service which is of 
the greatest value for the spiritual benefit of mankind, and 
for promoting unity among Christians themselves. 

All of this promises well for the future of Christianity 



184 ECUMENISM 

in Japan. While the Japanese nation this year is celebrating 
the centennial of Emperor Meiji, the Christian churches are 
recalling the beginning of a new era of evangelization. 
With gratitude and veneration, they remember the pioneers 
of missionary work, who, with strong faith but belonging 
to various churches and denominations laid the foundations 
for a new growth of Christianity in this country. God has 
visibly blessed their patient labours. Although the numerical 
strength of the Christian churches is modest, the Bible is 
read and esteemed by millions, and it is no exaggeration to 
say that Christian ideas and ideals have penetrated deeply 
into the life of the Japanese nation. 

Nevertheless, the churches must acknowledge the fact that 
the main task of evangelization has yet to be fulfilled, and 
that for this purpose an ecumenical attitude and stance is 
imperative for Christian bodies in their common task of 
witness and service. 

Fortunately, since the end of the war ecumenism has 
made substantial progress in Japan: among the Protestant 
churches, particularly through the strengthening of the Unit 
ed Church of Christ in Japan (Nihon Kirisutokyo Kyodan), 
the reorganization of the Japan National Christian Council 
together with its various instrumentalities, and the relation 
ship of various churches in Japan to the World Council of 
Churches; and, among Protestants and Catholics together, 
from the opening of the Second Vatican Council at which 
Protestant observers from Japan were present. Since then, 
ecumenical contacts and activities have spread rapidly 
throughout the country, as is exemplified by the joint pub 
lication of this Yearbook. 

As we face the future, two principles should guide the 
Christians of the various denominations in their efforts for 
common witness and service in Japan: 1) that which 
unites us is greater than that which separates us; and 2) 
we should do everything together unless theological conscience 
forces us to act separately. 



IMMEDIATE COLLABORATION 185 

These principles, although valid everywhere, have their 
special significance in a country such as Japan in which 
Christianity is still so small a minority. As Bishop Ito ex 
pressed it at a recent ecumenical prayer service in Tokyo, 
"all Christians through combined efforts should make the 
people of Japan familiar with the great ideas of God s Father 
hood, of His merciful plan of salvation for all mankind 
through Christ, His Son, who called all men to live in a 
brotherhood of love, and gave them a hope which does not 
disappoint. Ecumenical dialogue will help Christians to bet 
ter acknowledge their common patrimony of doctrine, faith 
and piety, and to dispense the riches of the Gospel to the 
people of Japan." 

The Bible is a sacred bond uniting all Christians, since 
all of them are living on the Word of God. It is, therefore, 
the primary means in their common effort of evangelization. 
For many years already, Protestant and Catholic scholars 
in various countries have been, in the spirit of humble serv 
ice, collaborating in the translation of the Word of God. 

Vatican Council II has especially recommended coopera 
tion among Christians for the purpose of common transla 
tions of the Scriptures, so that Christians of all churches 
might use the same text of the Bible. It was, therefore, an 
ecumenical event of great importance when, in January of 
1967, representatives of the Protestant United Bible Societies 
ment in Rome with Roman Catholic scholars invited by the 
Secretariate for Promoting Christian Unity, and worked out 
with them a set of recommended guidelines for the future 
efforts towards common translations of the Bible. (Please 
refer to pages 175-182 of this Yearbook.) While Cardinal Bea 
emphasized that these efforts concern a work which is basic 
and vital to the future of Christianity, the Chairman of the 
Executive Committee of the United Bible Societies, Dr. L. E. 
Holmgren, who was a missionary to Japan for several years 
after World War II, said that this work will hasten the day 
when we can proclaim to the world that there is one faith, 



186 ECUMENISM 

one Gospel, one Lord. It is easy to see that this applies in a 
special way to Japan. Happily, for some time now, fraternal 
cooperation has been going on in this field of Bible transla 
tion between Protestants and Catholics, particularly between 
the Japanese Bible Society and the Studium Biblicum of the 
Franciscan Fathers in Tokyo. The wonderful success of 
the French ecumenical translation gives great encourage 
ment for us to strive for the same goal in Japan. 

In the vast field of evangelization and pastoral work, the 
Christian churches in this country face many common prob 
lems. The great changes in the structure of the post-war 
society in Japan, the rapid urbanization and the migration 
of so many young people from the rural districts to the 
cities, the new living conditions in urban centers, etc., de 
mand from all churches a thorough adaptation of their 
pastoral methods, and, as far as possible, a coordination of 
all Christian forces. With regard to the matter of rural- 
urban migration, the Catholic Church is especially hard hit 
because of the exodus of many thousands of young Catholics 
from the region of Nagasaki; however, Protestant churches 
are also experiencing this same phenomenon. 

Great pastoral care is needed to help these young migrants 
preserve their faith and find in their new environment con 
tact with their Church. Fraternal cooperation among the 
churches in an ecumenical spirit will facilitate this care for 
the migrant Christians. 

In preaching the Gospel throughout the country, the 
churches must avoid the appearance of rivalry, and must 
foster fruitful cooperation for the common cause of evange 
lization. For this same purpose, fraternal contacts among 
the agencies of public information and mass media seem 
desirable. 

Ecumenism is also of great importance in the field of 
education. To a great extent Christianity in Japan owes 
much of its influence to its educational institutions which are 
located throughout the country. These institutions have many 



IMMEDIATE COLLABORATION 187 

common tasks and face many common challenges. Through 
combined efforts they can make a most valuable contribution 
to education in the whole country, especially with regard to 
social ethics, and thereby challenge the Christian youth in 
Japan. Both within and outside of these educational institu 
tions, the pastoral work of the churches among the youth 
of Japan should as far as possible be carried out on a 
united basis. This is necessary in order to save young people 
from materialism and hedonism, and to enrich them with the 
ideals of the Christian faith. Thus it should be emphasized 
that the manifold Christian youth associations which exist 
in this country should work together in a true ecumenical 
spirit for a common purpose. 

The same principle applies to Christian work and ac 
tivities in the sphere of social welfare. The numerous social 
work projects and organizations belonging to the various 
churches are all supported by the spirit of the Gospel and 
announce the Christian doctrine of the dignity and funda 
mental rights of all men as children of God. Here, too the 
Christian churches are facing common tasks and problems 
and by their coordinate action they can deeply influence Japa 
nese society. They can do much not only to promote institu 
tions of social welfare, but furthermore, and more basically, to 
improve social legislation, labor conditions, etc. 

Through the spirit of ecumenism, Christians all over the 
world have gained a deeper consciousness of their common 
duties toward human society. The Second Vatican Council 
has expressed this in its Pastoral Constitution on the Church 
in the Modern World, as has the World Council of Churches- 
sponsored 1966 Church and Society Conference in Geneva. 
But more recently, the Joint Working Group of the Roman 
Catholic Church and the WCC at its fifth meeting in May, 
1967, in addition to theological matters, discussed the role 
of the churches in the life of the world, their obligation of 
cooperation in the fields of social justice, economic and cul 
tural progress, international order and world peace. 



188 ECUMENISM 

All these matters and particularly the problem of peace 
are subjects of the greatest interest to the people in Japan 
and the combined efforts of Christians will be given great 
attention by the Japanese public and carefully considered. 

Since 1966 several Round Table Conferences have been 
held between representatives of the Roman Catholic Church 
and representatives of the United Church of Christ in Japan 
and of the Japan National Christian Council. At these confer 
ences, the common problems of Christians in Japan have 
been discussed in a fraternal spirit, and some ways of co 
operation have been examined. These contacts on an official 
level do not limit in any way the ecumenical work and con 
tacts on the private level, but rather encourage and help 
them. 

An important step on the road of ecumenism in Japan 
was surely the decision of Protestants and Catholics to jointly 
erect a Christian Pavilion at the Osaka World Exposition in 
1970. With God s help this Pavilion will provide a witness 
of the Christian message to millions of visitors, and at the 
same time be a symbol of what ecumenism means in Japan. 



4. THE IMAGE OF THE CHURCH: 
AN ECUMENICAL RESPONSIBILITY 

Joseph J. Spae 

The title of this contribution is its conclusion. Its basic 
materials are found in an inquiry related to "the acceptance 
or rejection of Christianity in Japan," partly summarized 
on pages 101-107 of this Yearbook. It is not my purpose here 
either to defend the accuracy of the image of Christianity 
in this country, or to refute it. I simply take it as I find it. 
The image is composite; all Christians and their organiza 
tions have contributed to its formation. To improve it is 
their joint responsibility. Their willingness to accept the 
criticism which it implies is proof of the earnestness with 
which they intend to be the light of this world, and the salt 
of this earth. 

1. "Christians are unnatural" 

One of the most emotion-laden words which the Japanese 
apply to Christianity is "katai," meaning "hard" and 
"harsh." What is implied is that Christians lack "joie de 
vire." Some of them (like Catholic priests and sisters) do 
not marry; many of them do not drink nor smoke. As Pro 
fessor Robert Lee has written, "Christianity seems to erect 
a barrier in setting such high ethical ideals and moral 
norms that many Japanese fear they cannot possibly attain 
to it." (R. Lee, Stranger in the Land, p. 161.) 

Yukio Mishima is said to have remarked: "Christianity 
should leave Japan alone. We Japanese are close to nature 
and we love its freedom. Christianity is unnatural and would 
take that freedom away." Japanese often believe that Chris 
tian asceticism stunts the normal growth of the human per 
sonality. Shinto and Buddhist currents of thought have 
combined to create the deep-seated impression that what is 



190 IMAGE OF THE CHURCH 

"natural" is wholesome and that human nature is "essential 
ly good." As the popular saying goes, "sei wa sei nari," 
"nature (the same character is used for the word for sex) 
is holy." 

There are germinal truths in the Japanese concept of 
"nature." Christians will use them as stepping stones toward 
a theology of the natural and the humane which captures 
Japan s traditional currents of cosmic spirituality and inte 
grates them with the latest Christian thinking on man s 
"original nature" made to God s own likeness. As the human 
nexus is at the core of Japanese value judgments on religion, 
priority must be given to a projection of "the gentleness and 
sympathy of Christ." (// Cor. 10:1) Professor Joseph Kita- 
gawa (a Christian himself) has written this indictment of 
our present attitudes: 

"One of the greatest problems for contemporary Christi 
anity (in Japan) seems to be its lack of capacity to take 
seriously the analysis of human existence and religious in 
sight gained by the historic cultures of Japan, as well as a 
lack of willingness to enter into the spiritual struggle of the 
present-day Japanese people." (Religion in Japanese History, 
p. 338) 

Christians could accurately assess their own worth and 
missionary efficacy to the degree to which they propagate 
"the fruits of the Spirit in human life," as Paul says, and 
make them acceptable to Japanese society. 

2. "Christians are too self-conscious" 

This charge implicates both Christian doctrine and Chris 
tian living patterns. Japanese literature sees Christian 
doctrine as "dogmatic," "intellectual," "severe," and "anti- 
cultural." Christian living patterns are said to be "con 
ceited," "exclusive," and "cliquish." 

Precisely, what does Japanese sensibility refuse to ac 
cept in the Christian view of life? I wonder whether the 
answer to this question is not to be found in a type of 



IMMEDIATE COLLABORATION 191 

Christian assertiveness which claims to capture all divine 
realities in exact, verbal, formulations. Or also, I wonder 
whether the answer to this question is not to be found in a 
kind of historical fundamentalism which pays attention to 
time and place, chapter and verse, and thereby tends to 
overlook the deeper meaning of salvation as an intimate 
event in which a loving God is perceived and accepted by 
an intuitive thrust of the mind. 

Christians are also said to be "class-conscious" and 
"ghetto-minded." De facto, 95% of Japan s Christians (with 
the exception of those living in Kyushu) belong to the middle- 
class, a situation which has always been viewed with con 
siderable alarm, but for which no remedy could be found. 
The question must then be asked: How does a single-class 
membership affect the perception and the practice of the 
Christian faith? No satisfactory answer exists. But if Max 
Weber s hypothesis on the relation between social stratifica 
tion and affinity for religious doctrines is correct, then it 
would follow that the type of membership we find in Japan 
would produce Christians whose lives are characterized by a 
high degree of formalism and a low degree of religious af- 
fectivity. They will, in words used by our critics, project an 
image of sternness and suffer from lack of human warmth. 
They will put great stock on orthodoxy, ethical conformity 
and the sacramental cult. In such an atmosphere, charis 
matic gifts, personal insights, and daring initiatives will not 
easily come into their own. 

What sort of relationship is there, if any, between the 
educational level of Japanese Christians and their type of 
faith? Sociologists generally admit that a higher education 
tends to develop a mind which is critical of final and ab 
solute values such as Christianity proposes. Education, they 
say, easily becomes an inhibiting factor in establishing 
intimate personal relations; it makes people sceptical to 
wards structured authority and resentful of moral pressure 
such as is obtained in a non-selective convictional milieu. 



192 IMAGE OF THE CHURCH 

There is no way of knowing to what degree sociological 
research done in other countries would find confirmation in 
Japan. But I suspect that it would help us establish a ty 
pology of creedal differences and emphases among Catholics 
and Protestants, and that this could lead to a better under 
standing of the important Japanese-Christian phenomenon 
of "Non-church-ism" (Mukyokai-shugi) . At present no one 
can tell what portion of impulse toward Non-church-ism 
should be assigned to charismatic leadership, to the high 
educational level of its members, or to the general Japanese 
religious background and milieu. This much, however, is 
certain, as several of the university professors who answered 
our questions have pointed out: Non-church-ism is seen by 
them as a corrective to what, many feel, are obvious Christian 
shortcomings. 

3. "Christian intellectualism" 

The Christian faith is said to be abstract, ideological, 
conceptual and formalistic: in one word, "rikutsuppoi." 
There is no doubt that the current presentation of the Chris 
tian message, both by Protestants and Catholics, is much too 
complicated, too theoretical, and too distanced from daily 
concerns. Its thought patterns are too intricate; it uses too 
much theological jargon. As Lee states, "All too frequently 
Christianity seems to be primarily an affair of the mind, 
something rarefied, disembodied, disincarnate and perhaps 
akin to the ethos cultivated by the tradition of Zen Buddhism. 
Not a few, therefore, are turned away by the seemingly 
intellectual demands of the Gospel." (Stranger in the Land, 
p. 162-3) 

It has been suggested that the corrective of "Christian 
intellectualism" is "intuitionism." The Japanese, it is well 
known, revel in the supra-rational, the non-verbal. They 
trust their "taste," and the pendular or seasonal flow of 
their feelings. 

The true corrective in this case is in a middle course. "In- 



IMMEDIATE COLLABORATION 193 

tellectualism" and "intuitionism" are essentially the same: 
both are a one-sided denial of Christian objectivism; and both 
have the same effect (as our inquiry has shown), that is, 
they keep people away from the Church. By Christian ob 
jectivism I mean that dynamic awareness of the substance 
of the faith and the corresponding effort to preserve that 
substance and to pass it on, untarnished by time or clime, 
uncompromised by human weaknesses, to future generations. 
To reach this goal, particularly in the relativistic atmosphere 
of Japan, "intellectualism," if it means the pursuit of truth 
by a vigorous thrust of the mind, based on logic and on 
reason, can and must be a help. And so can and must 
"intuitionism," because it is, with faith and legitimate au 
thority, a valid way of apprehending the truth. Christian 
objectivism is an exercise in spiritual balance, a quality 
which Japan much admires and which would purge both 
our "intellectualism" and our "intuitionism" of that conceit 
(unubore ga tsuyoi) which, our critics intimate, has kept 
many a good pagan away from the faith. 

4. "Christianity is foreign to Japan" 

No charge against Christianity in Japan is so complicat 
ed, so painful to the missionary, and so frustratingly dif 
ficult to answer as the allegation that "Christianity is for 
eign to Japan." The cliche is old. "Foreignness" has lost 
its cutting edge. It has become a grab bag for all those 
ill-defined emotions which, subconsciously, react against the 
Christian presence. It accuses Christianity of intransigence 
embedded in its institutional and moral patterns, of divisive- 
ness in regard to family and social loyalties, of superior 
attitudes towards the traditional faiths, and of intellectual 
ism which obfuscates the evangelical ideal with Western 
conceptualizations. 

Thus Rinzo Shiina, a Protestant convert and former com 
munist writer, feels that "Christianity in Japan has had no 
language by which it could speak directly to the Japanese 



194 IMAGE OF THE CHURCH 

laborers and masses; it has been the property of a few intel 
ligent people. ... It has not been willing to get rid of that 
stigma. ... It is only understood by a few, all members of 
the privileged classes." (Japanese Religions, Vol. 1, No. 2, 
1960, p. 14-17) Yet, Shiina does not want Christianity to 
abandon its uniqueness but only the exotic. "The foreignness 
of Christianity to the Japanese people," he concludes, "is re 
lated to the basic foreignness of Christ to every man. I firmly 
believe that, from the encounter of Christianity with Japan, 
words and deeds will spring forth which can appeal to our 
people and which will be thoroughly Japanese." (Ibid) 

The "foreignness" of Christianity is not the same as that 
of Buddhism. And the reaction to it is not mere xenophobia. 
The Japanese extreme receptivity to foreign ideas does not 
easily fasten upon the people or the countries which import 
them. As yet, Christ, "the stranger," is being sought more 
for his gifts than for himself. We find in this fact the 
ultimate poles of all spiritual tension : there is a "xenopho 
bia" at the heart of Japan s "xenophilia" for Christ, for the 
Bible, and for the Church in which Christ manifests him 
self. 

5. "Christianity is an American religion" 

This charge is superficial and unfair, but it is under 
standable. The Japanese reaction to this impression has 
often been latent, sometimes favorable, but always concerned 
with "independence," spiritual, organizational and financial. 
It is perhaps not free of a certain "anti-missionary spirit" 
which showed up repeatedly in our inquiries and which 
serves notice that foreign missionaries are guests of this 
nation and on temporary assignment. American and Western 
Christianity has sometimes been seen as defeating the work 
of its missionaries. Few countries demand higher qualities 
in Christ s ambassadors than does Japan. 

The charge is also a compliment paid to American efforts 
and generosity. For reasons which I cannot theologically 



IMMEDIATE COLLABORATION 195 

explain, the curve of Christian expansion in this country, 
both Protestant and Catholic, shows striking parallels with 
the degree of American-Japanese friendship during the last 
century. The influence of missionaries upon that friendship 
is generally recognized and gratefully accepted by the people 
of Japan. 

6. "Modernization is Christianization" 

The confusion expressed by this facet of the Christian 
image in Japan is understandable in the light of history. 
More surprising is the fact that this confusion still persists, 
and that sometimes missionaries have abetted its survival. 
The consequences of this fact are, to say the least, ambivalent. 
The state of Christianity (and the attitude of its own faith 
ful toward their religion) has too often been conditioned in 
the light of its "usefulness" to the secular purposes of 
Japan. Christianity appeared at times as a tool of foreign 
control and the government did not hesitate to invoke 
Christianity s help to influence foreign opinion. 

Missionaries were sometimes victims of an illusion 
which they had helped create, namely, that "Western 
science" and "cultural norms" were inseparable, and identi 
fiable values with "the West" and "Christianity." Their 
Christian hope and optimism were sometimes strengthened 
by the awareness that "a new Japan" was being born from 
the acceptance of democracy, liberalism and internationalism. 
This attitude provided them with little incentive for accom 
modation. When the Japanese people perceived the difference 
between modernization and westernization/Christianization, 
and became more critical of Christianity s contribution, the 
demythologization of its cultural role was not welcomed by 
a type of missionary who saw in it primarily the rebuttal, 
not so much of his faulty evangelistic methods, as of his 
country s policies. Actually, it was a blessing in disguise, 
and it led to a needed purification of missionary motivation. 
More important, it opened the road for Japan s acceptance 



!96 IMAGE OF THE CHURCH 

of Christianity on its own, strictly religious, merits. 

It was my privilege to research the gamut of Japanese- 
Christian attitudes with a young sociologist, Professor 
Suzuki Norihisa, a Christian of Kyodan affiliation, of St. 
Paul s University. In an independent study, published in 
The Japan Missionary Bulletin, and in our jointly-authored 
book, Nihonjin no Mita Kirisuto-kyo (Christianity Seen 
Through Japanese Eyes), Professor Suzuki has some insights 
of his own which, due to his personal qualifications, are of 
particular interest to our theme. 

Professor Suzuki thinks that in the Christian churches 
of Japan the laity have not been sufficiently involved in the 
missionary effort. He is under the impression that pater 
nalism is rampant in the relations between clergy and laity, 
and that Christian ministers would be wise to look for the 
causes of stagnation in themselves. He deprecates provin 
cialism and factionalism among the clergy. Sectarian 
terests, he thinks, often take precedence over general interests 
involving the destiny of the whole Church. 

Professor Suzuki makes a comparison between some "New 
Religions" and Christianity from the point of view of their 
mutual missionary efforts. He does not find in Christianity 
that "go-getting" spirit which, to his mind, explains 
the success of the "New Religions." He even thinks that 
Christianity in Japan does not carry out a positive evange 
lizing movement, and he points out that such a movement 
must be a lay movement, not a preserve of the clergy. 

It is obviously easier to love Christ than to love that im 
perfect replica of him which is the Christian. But the Japa 
nese image of Christ, as well as that of the Christian, needs 
considerable retouching. Professor Suzuki would put the em 
phasis upon a new approach which brings out "the natural, 
human qualities of the faith." The Japanese value highly 
what they call a "ningensei no shizen naru koto" which 
could be translated by "being Japanese with the Japanese," 
and which refers to the theological incarnation of divine 



IMMEDIATE COLLABORATION 197 

realities within the human context of this country. The 
failure of Christians to achieve a balance between commit 
ment to their faith and sociability, Professor Suzuki thinks, 
is the chief reason that they are accused of hypocrisy, by 
which is meant unconcern for their fellowmen. 

The "foreign" element in Christianity is an ambivalent 
missionary quantity. Some feel repulsed by it; others have 
come to Christianity exactly because it is "different." This 
type of convert wants no association with anything which 
reminds him of the traditional religious structures in which 
he was educated. Such a fact increases the Christian s alien 
ation from Japan s cultural background and threatens to 
make of him an exile in his home. 

Our inquiry has borne out that, for all the changes 
which engulf Japan, her particularism has hardly been touch 
ed. It remains a tacit standard of reference, subconsciously 
nourished by Japan s traditional ideological insularity. It 
surfaces, not in the rejection of Christianity as such, but in 
the rejection of the new human nexus which Christianity 
imposes and which man s sinfulness opposes. 

Japan, nevertheless, moves on toward anti-particularism, 
i.e., universalism and individualism which are the pillars of 
cultural catholicity. It is precisely this move which is Christi 
anity s anonymous ally. The day will surely come and per 
haps sooner than we think for Japan to look in the mirror of 
her recent history and find her new countenance. 

What Japan will then decide to do, she will decide in 
dialogue with Christianity. At this point in history, this 
decision would be premature: Christianity is not yet present 
to this nation in that effective form which no longer permits 
emotional neutrality but forces one to a decision. It is 
supremely important that the image of Christianity in this 
country be sharp, correct, attractive. Christianity means one 
Lord, one baptism, one faith, one community. 

I consider the image-creating task of the Church in this 
country a prime concern of all. Until we seriously ecum- 



198 IMAGE OF THE CHURCH 

enically address ourselves to this task, Christianity in Japan 
can hardly hope for more than Paul received in Athens a 
mixed reception. 



PART III 
DIARY OF 1967 

James Gittings and James McElwain 

An early example of cooperation affecting Catholic- 
Protestant relationships in Japan took place on the Shima- 
bara Peninsula in the year 1637-38. On that occasion, Dutch 
Protestant warships assisted the Shogun lemitsu s forces in 
their struggle to level the last remaining fortress held by 
Roman Catholic lords of Kyushu. 

In the year 1967 a more happy series of cooperative steps 
were taken by Roman Catholic and Protestant churchmen of 
Japan in an effort to face together some of the opportunities 
and problems created by Japan s secular society. To say the 
least, the new Catholic-Protestant conversations are an im 
provement on enmities of 300 years ago. They may indicate 
that a new era in Christian mission in Japan is about to 
dawn. 

In the following diary for 1967, activities involving both 
Catholic and Protestant churches are rendered in italics. 

JANUARY 

Statistics released by the Kyodan (United Church of 
Christ in Japan) reveal that membership in the largest Pro 
testant communion reached 198,437 at the close of 1966, an 
increase of approximately 4000 over totals for the preceding 
year. There were 1,931 clergy serving the Kyodan at the 
close of the year (the 1 clergyman to approximately 100 
members being the highest ratio of Protestant clergy to 
church members in the world), and 1,654 Sunday schools. 

Following requests from two Japanese newspapers, Pope 



200 DIARY OF 1967 

Paul VI sends New Year s greetings to "Modern Japan, 
illustrious member of the great family of those people who 
desire to promote international community life in the spirit 
of brotherhood, collaboration and justice," urging the nation 
"to carry out in the world a mission of progress and peace." 

Catholics and Protestants mark the Week of Prayer for 
Christian Unity with an ecumenical worship service at St. 
Alban s Episcopal Church, Tokyo, on January 18. The his 
toric service was followed on January 20 by a meeting at 
Alaska Restaurant between leaders of the Japan Catholic 
Church and the Kyodan. 

The foreign community in Japan also holds a joint ecumen 
ical service at Tokyo Union Church. Preachers at the cere 
mony were Dr. Masatoshi Doi and Father Joseph Spae. 

Kyodan forms committee to study Church structure. 

The Japan Catholic Bishops Conference is formally in 
augurated Jan. 28. The statutes of the Conference call for 
the election of a new President and other officers, all posts 
to be held for three years. The National Catholic Committee 
of Japan (NCCJ) becomes the secretariat of the new Con 
ference. 

FEBRUARY 

Dr. E. Stanley Jones, noted Methodist evangelist, arrives 
in Japan to conduct his ninth evangelistic campaign in this 
country. The 83 year-old evangelist is assisted by Professor 
Shuichi Ozaki of Seinan Gakuin, Professor Boko Tsuchiyama 
of Kunei Junior College and Dr. Saburo Yasumura, a prom 
inent translator, in a series of meetings on the subject, "The 
Church As Mission." 

Archibishop Bruno Wiistenberg, the New Vatican Aposto 
lic Pro-Nuncio, (Ambassador) arrives in Yokohama. 

Group of Osaka Christians form "Christian Laborers 
Council." 

The directives of the Second Vatican Council on full par 
ticipation in Church life are implemented in Osaka diocese. 



DIARY OF 1967 201 

Three new groups priests, lay people and pastoral are 
formed to advise the bishop, Yoshigoro Taguchi, on evangeli 
zation. 

Eleventh annual Reformed Theological Conference is held 
on February 14-15 at Osaka Christian Center. Studies led 
by Dr. John Barksdale, Rev. John Trimmer and Miss Mary 
McCrimmon center on role of Old Testament in the Christian 
Faith. 

Offerings collected at World Day of Prayer meetings are 
given to the Nepal Project of the Women of the International 
Christian University Church. Japanese donors designate 
their gift for the support of a Japanese social worker, Mrs. 
Tomoko Tsukada, attached to the United Mission in the moun 
tain nation. 

Billy Graham committee sets $100,000 (Yen 36 million) 
as target for financing the Billy Graham autumn campaign 
in Tokyo. 

"Dialogue with the new church, the Catholic Church" 
sets the theme of a two-day meeting between Protestant and 
CatJiolic clergymen at Yugawara, Kanagawa-ken. The meet 
ing, the fifth Seminar of the Southern Section Ministers of 
the United Church of Christ, discussed the recent Vatican 
Council and the "new" Church. 

Seventeen Christians are elected to the Diet in February 
elections. 

Kyodan Moderator Masahisa Suzuki asserts that Japanese 
Christians bear a special responsibility for the welfare of 
co-religionists and fellow citizens on American-held Okinawa. 
Initial talks looking forward to union between Okinawa 
Kyodan and United Church of Christ in Japan are held on 
February 25. 

MARCH 

Regular conversations continue between Catholic and 
Protestant leaderslnp. Japan National Christian Council 
(JNCC) General Secretary Chuzo Yamada asks whether 



202 



DIARY OF 1967 



Catholics and Protestants can operate a joint pavilion at the 
1970 Osaka Exposition. 

Deluge of 730,000 applicants for admission hits Japanese 
universities. Privately operated schools (including Christian 
universities) find themselves expected to accept the majority 
of the prospective students. 

International Christian University plagued by student 
strike. Though less than ten per cent of enrollment partici 
pates in the struggle, picket lines are respected by the ma 
jority of students. 

The Franciscan Bible Foundation publishes a new critical 
Japanese translation of the Gospel of St. Luke. 

Kyodan (United Church of Christ) officials meet at a 
lodge near Mount Fuji on February 27-March 1 to draft 
new plans for relationships with overseas churches. The 
Kyodan executives decide to move from status as a "receiv 
ing" church to one which initiates and administers coopera 
tive Christian mission in Japan. The church will henceforth 
insist that aid from overseas to Kyodan-related schools and 
social service groups be channeled through its bureaus. 

JNCC elects a Tokyo German-speaking congregation, Der 
Evangelischen Gemeinde Deutscher Sprache, to associate 
membership in the Council. 

Leaders of JNCC gather with delegates from ecumenical 
agencies at Gotemba on March 6 to draw up a program of 
Joint Action for Mission. Observers from Japanese churches 
not affiliated with JNCC also attend, including Catholic 
representatives. Plans are laid for joint Protestant partici 
pation in mission to urban and industrial sectors, mass com 
munications, university people, theological education, and 
overseas Japanese. Joint activity also is slated in the fields 
of surveys and studies, Bible translation and hymnal revi 



sion. 



The first preparatory meeting of the Third World Con 
gress of the Lay Apostolate opens in Tokyo, with Miss 
Rosemary Goldie, Secretary General, as featured speaker. It 



DIARY OF 1967 203 

is decided to send a Japanese delegation to the Congress, to 
be held in Rome Oct. 11-18. 

Figures released for 1966 by JNCC further underscore 
the divided nature of Japanese Protestantism. Sixty-two 
church groups (of 87 reporting) have memberships of under 
1000 persons, and nine "denominations" claim less than 100 
adherents. The "Big Six" of Japanese Protestantism again 
are the Kyodan, Spirit of Jesus Organization, Anglican 
Church, Baptist Convention, Evangelical Lutheran Church 
and Presbyterian Reformed Church, which share 332,664 
members in 2,873 congregations. 

In response to a request from the Ministry of Education, 
Catholic and Protestant scholars meet to discuss ways of 
achieving a common Christian terminology. 

Japan Bible Christian Council, a conservative evangelical 
group, dissolves on March 16 because of "decline in active 
membership" and "lack of interest." 

Dr. Isamu Omura, known for pioneering work in re 
establishing relationships with Korean Christians, leads a 
slate of new officers elected at the JNCC s organizational 
meeting at Tokyo on March 16. Vice-chairmen are the Rt. 
Rev. David Makoto Goto of the Nippon Seikokai and the 
Rev. Atsumi Tasaka, a Lutheran. Appointed to secretary 
ships are Rev. Yoshikazu Nakajima of the Japan Baptist 
Church and Rev. In Ha Lee of the Korean Presbyterian 
Church in Japan. 

On Easter, March 26, Moderator Masahisa Suzuki of the 
Kyodan issues a "Confession On The Responsibility Of The 
United Church of Christ in Japan During World War II." 
The Confession, which begs "the mercy of our Lord and the 
forgiveness of our fellow men" for the way in which the 
Japanese Church "sinned with" the nation during World 
War II, was drafted by the Standing Committee of the 
denomination and approved by its executive committee. 



204 DIARY OF 1967 

APRIL 

Tokyo police enter the campus of International Christian 
University to enforce obedience of an injunction issued by 
Tokyo District Court calling for removal of records from a 
hall the students had seized. When students refuse to stand 
aside to permit transfer of the records, the police swarm 
to the site. Thereupon students "voluntarily leave through 
one of the windows." 

Delegates to the United Nations Economic Commission 
for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) receive copies of the 
new papal encyclical "On the Development of Peoples" dur 
ing their conference in Japan. 

A Credit Union League affiliated with Sophia University 
Economic Research Council unveils plans for activity outside 
the church, among the poor and young workers in small 
and medium-sized enterprises. 

May Day call to Japanese workers is issued by Kyodan s 
Occupational Evangelism Committee. The Kyodan asks the 
workers to view both leisure and work activities as part of 
an integrated attempt to achieve human dignity and the 
better life. 

Reaction against the Kyodan s Easter "Confession" builds 
up in Tokyo. 

Christian opinion in the April municipal election divides 
between supporters of Dr. Masatoshi Matsushita, a Christian 
who is the Tokyo mayoralty candidate of the center and 
right, and those who back Professor Ryokichi Minobe, the 
Socialist-Communist candidate. Much of Dr. Matsushita s 
Christian opposition derived from irritation at his support 
of February 11 (once the militaristically-tinged "Kigensetsu" 
festival) as the date for the proposed new "National Founda 
tion Day." Later, Profesor Minobe won the contest. 

Seicho no le and Catholic leaders meet to discuss the 
problem of abortion in Japan and map out ways to tighten 
the Eugenics Law. 

The Osaka Prayer Band, a breakfast prayer group that 



DIARY OF 1967 205 

meets once a week, celebrates its tenth anniversary. Since 
the beginning of the Osaka prayer breakfast the idea has 
spread throughout Japan and Okinawa, resulting in the 
founding of such groups in 50 cities. 

The Catholic Medical Association decides at the annual 
convention to host the Fourth Asian Congress of Catholic 
Doctors in Tokyo in the fall of 1968. 

MAY 

Japan Baptist Union holds its annual convention at 
Shodoshima, the island in the Inland Sea where missionary 
skipper Luke W. Bickel made his first port of call in 1899 
aboard the Gospel ship "Fukuin Maru." In a highpoint of the 
festivities, the latest in the series of Gospel ships the 
"Fukuin Maru IV" sends a landing party ashore at the 
convention site dressed in costumes of 1899. 

Japan s tiny but energetic Holiness Church (Nippon 
Holiness Kyodan Kurumada-ha) announces a drive to in 
crease its membership by 50 per cent in the next three 
years. The 20 year-old Holiness group now consists of 117 
congregations with a membership of 4,982 (1966). Approxi 
mately 230 missionaries maintain loose affiliation with Nip 
pon Holiness Kyodan. 

Dr. Gordon K. Chapman, former editor of the Japan 
Christian Yearbook and a missionary to Japan since 1921, 
retires on May 24. A United Presbyterian, Dr. Chapman 
devoted wartime years to caring for Japanese-Americans 
who had been interned under difficult conditions in the USA. 

Nihon Lutheran Church and members of the Missouri 
Synod s (USA) Japan Mission meet at Tokyo for their 
annual general conference. Representatives and clergy of 
the 2,738-member denomination hear reports on progress of 
their medical mission to India, the first attempt of the Japa 
nese Lutheran church group to engage in overseas mission 
work. 

Cardinal Doi is chosen as President of the newly con- 



206 DIARY OF 1967 

stituted Japan Bishops Conference, with Bishop Taguchi of 
Osaka as vice-president. The eight-day meeting announces 
several changes in Church discipline. The "Fish on Friday" 
penitential law is abolished. In liturgical matters the Con 
ference gives approval to new rites at crematories and os 
suaries, seeks a definitive list of scripture readings for daily 
use and sets in motion the translation of all ceremonies into 
Japanese. A new committee will study missionary methods 
and seek to foster missionary activity. 

Christian Social Work League convenes in Fukui-ken to 
discuss the relationship of the League to the Church. 

Bungei Shunju, a monthly magazine, polls Japanese on 
what book they would take along for a 3-month journey into 
space. Eleven out of every 100 interviewed indicated they 
would carry a Bible a percentage that reflects the high 
esteem for the Book in Japan, where 600,000 Bibles and 
Testaments are sold annually. 

Masatoshi Doi of Doshisha Theological Seminary releases 
figures showing that Japanese Protestant groups charac 
terized by "charismatic piety" the Pentecostals and similar 
organizations have increased their numbers of members by 
320 per cent in the last fourteen years, compared with 
Catholic growth figures of 90 per cent over the same period 
and figures of 70 per cent for churches related to the Japan 
National Christian Council. "How come?" asks Dr. Doi. 

Conference of Kyodan Women draws three thousand to 
Aoyama Gakuin, in Tokyo, on May 5-6. Theme of the con 
ference is, "Here am I; send me." 

JUNE 

The Kyoto Christian Council, composed of 80 Protestant 
churches, votes to approve the membership application of the 
Kyoto Catholic diocese. 

Billy Graham Crusade Committee announces that the 
budget for the autumn evangelistic effort has been upped 
to Yen 50 million (from Yen 36 million announced earlier 



DIARY OF 1967 207 

in the year). 

The Kyodan publishes an official history. Entitled, Nthon 
Kirisuto Kyodan Shi, the work is largely the accomplish 
ment of Dr. Shogo Yamaya, chairman of the history editorial 
committee of the United Church of Christ in Japan board of 
publications. Almost concurrently, an unauthorized but 
scholarly history is produced and published by Dr. Ken 
Ishiwara, a Kyodan layman who is a former president of 
Tokyo Women s Christian College. 

Bishop Yoshigoro Taguchi of Osaka will attend the fall 
Synod of Bishops in Rome as delegate of the Japan Bishops 
Conference. Called by Pope Paul VI the Synod will be ad 
visory in capacity and will devote itself to 5 major topics- 
reform of Church law; inter-confessional marriages; atheism 
and dangers to the faith; liturgy; and seminary education 
and training. 

Controversy continues over the Easter statement of war 
guilt issued by the Kyodan. On June 19 a group of pastors 
call at Kyodan headquarters to deliver a letter protesting 
the statement. 

A new Catholic daily radio programme "Music of the 
Spring" opens in the Kanto area. Described as a miniature 
Bible Service, the format calls for Schubert s "Ave Maria" 
as its theme, followed by a brief reading from scripture and 
closing with religious music. 

Kansai Labor Evangelism Fellowship gathers at Osaka 
Christian Center on June 1 to hear a report by Dr. Masao 
Takenaka on his recent trip to the China mainland. At the 
conference, Rev. Satoshi Hirata also speaks on "The En 
counter with Labor." 

June was "Convention Month" for several Catholic Wel 
fare agencies: Child Welfare at Kochi, Shikoku; Social Work 
for the Aged at Kumamoto, Kyushu; and Hospital Adminis 
trators at Tokyo. 

Lutheran Information Service office opened in Tokyo 
June 1. 



208 DIARY OF 1967 

JULY 

A call to witness through a deeply Christian life forms 
the central theme of a pastoral letter issued by the bishops 
to commemorate the "Year of Faith" the 1900th anniver 
sary of the martyrdom of SS. Peter and Paul. 

Nippon Christian Academy sponsors "targung" on the 
situation of minority groups in Japan on July 3-4. Parti 
cular attention given to status of Koreans. The meeting is 
a direct result of call for such study made at Gotemba JNCC 
consultation in March. 

Kyodan conference on "Structure of the Church" takes 
place on July 4-6 with 70 in attendance. 

Fifty representatives of denominations related to Japan 
National Christian Council assemble at Gotemba to discuss 
how to change the JNCC into a Council of Churches. 

A ten-member delegation will represent Japanese Catho 
lics at the Third World Congress of the Lay Apostolate in 
Rome. Study of the agenda and preparation of reports on 
missionary activity, family life and education highlight a 
ten-day seminar of delegates in Tokyo in August. 

JNCC General Secretary Chuzo Yamada departs from 
Tokyo to attend meetings of the Central Committee of the 
World Council of Churches and of the WCC Division on 
World Mission and Evangelism. Included in his itinerary 
are meetings with German church and mission societies. 

Ulysses Grant Murphy, retired Methodist missionary who 
won official recognition in Japan for work in women s wel 
fare and abolition of prostitution, dies at age of 97. 

Second annual JNCC missionary orientation conference 
is held on July 11-14 at KEEP agricultural experiment 
center in Yamanashi Prefecture. Eighty-five missionaries 
assigned to 5 Japanese churches attend the conference. 

The week-long meeting of the Catholic Students Federa 
tion discusses the ways and means of the educational aposto- 
late according to the theme: "The Apostle in the Modern 
World." An ecumenical meeting on the next to last day 



DIARY OF 1967 209 

features a lecture by Professor Hiroshi Shinmi of Aoyama 
Gakuin University. 

Top officials of three Korean chui^ches and of the United 
Church of Christ emerge from five day meeting with a docu 
ment of agreement covering future cooperation in the cause 
of mission. The articles of agreement establish procedures 
for exchange of personnel, correspondence and action, as well 
as the sharing of materials and resources. 

AUGUST 

Conferences, seminars and retreats discuss such topics as 
"The Place of Music in Evangelism," "Liturgy and In- 
digenization of Christianity," the "Theory and Practice of 
Mass Communications in the Kyodan," and so forth. Japan 
Church World Service sponsors youth retreats at Okunaka- 
yama and elsewhere. 

A special three-day meeting of the Japan Bishops Con 
ference opens in Tokyo. Present for the first time is Mon- 
signor Felix Ley, administrator of the Ryukyu Islands. The 
5 major topics of the forthcoming Synod in Rome form the 
basis for discussion. Adaptations and changes in Church 
law as applicable to Japan form the report to be submitted 
by Bishop Taguchi, the Conference delegate. 

SEPTEMBER 

Yoshitaka Funato, 31-year-old Kyodan pastor and youth 
worker, leaves Japan to work with Asia Christian Service 
in Saigon. 

Children of Japanese Sunday schools collect funds to send 
kindergarten teacher to Bolivia. 

Catholics in Japan number 338,977, according to figures 
released by the National Committee. Adult baptisms total 
7,196 and infants 6,503 during the previous year. There 
are now 16 Japanese bishops and 664 Japanese priests, with 
1,275 missionary priests serving the Church. Enrolled in 
Church-operated schools are 131,000 students. In welfare 



210 DIARY OF 1967 

work Catholics sponsor 35 hospitals, 19 dispensaries, 61 
orphanages and 22 homes for the aged. 

Bishop Juvenaly, a delegate from the Moscow patri 
archate, visits Japan in connection with the dedication of a 
new Russian Orthodox Church in the Magome districts of 
Tokyo. 

Students from fourteen nations enroll at International 
Christian University. The university s student body totals 
1,300, with non-Japanese accounting for about 15 per cent of 
the figure. 

Nihon Lutheran Church holds tenth annual graduation 
exercise at its Theological Training Center. 

Japan Baptist Convention designates American-held Oki 
nawa a home mission field for Japanese congregations. 

OCTOBER 

Three Lutheran bodies of Japan celebrate first exchange 
of Pulpit and Altar Fellowship on 450th anniversary of 
Luther s break with Catholicism. 

Kyodan evangelistic team travels to Formosa for the first 
time since the Pacific War of 1941-45. 

Billy Graham Crusade draws estimated 200,000 to Budokan 
and a Tokyo stadium for nine days of evangelistic meetings. 
More than 4000 Japanese counsellors and a 1000-voice choir 
assist American evangelist. 

Bishop Taguchi is chosen as a member of the 12-man 
committee to prepare the report of the Synod of Bishops on 
atheism and dangers to the faith. The report presented by 
the Roman Curia is judged as too negative by the assembled 
bishops and a pastoral, rather than dogmatic, treatment of 
the problem is requested. 

Paul Moore, suffragan bishop of Washington, D.C. 
(Anglican) visits Japan. 

Japanese Lutherans establish bureau to arrange mar 
riages. The bureau operates under the direction of Mrs. Shun 
Shimada. 



DIARY OF 1967 211 

Funeral services are offered at Tokyo Cathedral for 
Shigeru Yoshida, famed post-war Premier. 

Japan Church World Service director Kentaro Buma re 
turns from South Asian tour to issue call for Japanese 
Christian contribution of technical skills and experience to 
Vietnam and India. Call is seconded by the dean of the 
South-East Asia Rural Institute at Tsurukawa, Mr. Tom 

Takami. 

Nagasaki celebrates the 100th anniversary of the beati 
fication of the 205 Japanese Martyrs. Archbishop Yama- 
guchi summons present-day Christians to emulate the faith 
of their forefathers. 

NOVEMBER 

Japan Christian Yearbook becomes a joint Catholic/Pro 
testant project, according to a simultaneous announcement 
issued on November 8 from offices of the Japan Catholic 
Church and the Japan National Christian Council Co-editors 
Mr. Hallam C. Shorrock (vice-president, International Chris 
tian University) and Fr. Dr. Joseph J. Spae, CICM, Ph.D. 
(Oriens Institute for Religious Research) pass out assign 
ments to a variety of churchmen and writers. 

International Seminar on Peace in Asia convenes at Oiso 
Academy House on October 25. Delegates attend from 
Europe, India and the United States. The Japan Christian 
Peace Conference, which functions as the Asia Regional Com 
mittee for the Prague Christian Peace Conference, sponsors 
the seminar. The Russian Orthodox delegation conducts the 
closing worship service. 

Five Scripture scholars from Japan attend the First 
Asian-South Pacific Regional Conference of the United Bible 
Societies in Bangkok. Rev. Shinzo Miyauchi and Mr. Moto- 
aki Tanabe of the Japan Bible Society, Rev. Isamu Ukai 
(JNCC) and Rev. W. Yamasaki of the Japan Evangelical 
Fellowship were joined by Catholic fraternal delegate, Rev. 
Bernardine Schneider of the Tokyo Franciscan Bible Founda- 



212 DIARY OF 1967 

tion. 

Statistics released on Billy Graham Crusade reveal the 
evangelist drew 207,250 persons to the Nippon Budokan Hall 
and Korakuen Stadium. Approximately 15,854 signified "de 
cisions for Christ" by answering altar calls at the conclusion 
of the services. 

New Kansai Seminar House is opened at Kyoto to pro 
mote dialogue between persons of different professions, re 
ligions and nations. One hundred fifty church and business 
leaders attend the opening ceremonies, held in the new 
building at the foot of Mount Hiei in the Shugakuin area 
adjacent to Kyoto. Sponsor of Kansai Seminar House is 
Nippon Christian Academy, related to the Association of 
Evangelical Academies in Germany. 

Christian Audio Visual Center (AVACO) markets film- 
strip and record sets featuring Japanese Christian artists 
and their work. Each set includes two color filmstrips, a 
12-inch LP record with original music, and English and 
Japanese scripts. 

Regular conversations continue between Catholic and 
Protestant leadership, with discussions centering on proposal 
to cooperate in operation of a pavilion at 1970 Osaka Ex 
position. Parties to the consultations are Catholic Commis 
sion on Ecumenicity, National Catholic Committee, Japan 
National Christian Council, and United Church of Christ in 
Japan. Single version of Lord s Prayer under preparation 
for Catholics and Protestants. 

On November 6 representatives of 69 Christian schools 
discuss financial and other problems posed by booming en 
rollments and limited fee income. 

New hymnal published by Kyodan. 

DECEMBER 

Foreign -missionaries (Protestant and Catholic) and 
students attend one day study and prayer session on Vietnam 
at Seabury chapel of International Christian University. 



DIARY OF 1967 213 

(Dec. 3). 

Archbishop Bruno Wiistenberg visits International Chris 
tian University and Tokyo Union Theological Seminary for 
a get-to-know -you session with the professors of both facul 
ties. 

Joint worship service for Protestants and Catholics is 
scheduled for January 21, 1968 at St. Ignatius Church, Tokyo. 
The joint version of the Lord s Prayer will be used for the 
first time at the service. Kyushu Christians announce they 
will hold joint Catholic /Protestant Christmas services for 
residents of Kitakyushu City. 

Japanese surgeon Toshi Saito and wife close their clinic 
for several months and go to do volunteer work among 
lepers at Chiengmai, Thailand. 

Christian Education Committee of Kyodan appeals for 
two million Yen to be sent as Chi-istmas gift from the 
children of Japan to the children of Okinawa. 

Plans completed for the merger of Okinawa United 
Church and the Kyodan in the autumn of 1968. 

National television program portrays life and work of 
pioneer Lutheran missionary Dr. J. M. T. Winther, first sent 
to Japan in 1898 and still here! 

The response among religious leaders to Pope Paul s 
plea to celebrate New Year s Day as a "Day of Prayer for 
Peace" is most heartening. Plans call for an inter-faith 
prayer service to be held at Tokyo Cathedral. Leaders of 
Buddhist and Shintoist groups agree to join Christians in 
the service. 



EPILOGUE 



". . . the Church can only be Christ s Body in the world to the 
extent that Jesus Christ takes human form in the world . . . 
Jesus Christ takes human form in the world both through 
the celebration and remembrance of that one oblation of him 
self once offered once and for all, and whenever and wherever 
the patterns and structures of society, the motives, values, and 
hope of men are dislodged from their de-humanizing opera 
tions and displaced by patterns and structures, by motives, 
values, and hopes which make room for what is truly human 
to become human again." 



Dr. Paul L. Lehman, "Ideology and Incarnation," 
the Seventh Annual John Knox House Lecture, 
June 15, 1962, John Knox House, Geneva, Switzer 
land 



214A 




The Colleges of Arts, Economics, Social Relations, 
Law & Politics and Science 




RIKKYO UNIVERSITY 



Nishi Ikebukuro, Toshima-Ku, Tokyo 



214B 




Founded in 1918 
President : Dr. Kenjiro Kimura 



College of Arts and 
Sciences : 



Philosophy, Japanese Literature, 
English and American Literature, 
History, Sociology, Psychology, 
Mathematics 

Junior College : English, Liberal Education 

Tokyo Joshi Daigaku is a church-related college 
founded upon the principles of Christianity. The 
aim and mission of the College, both in its 
academic and its spiritual life, are shown in its 
motto QUAECUNQUE SUNT VERA (Philippians 
iv : 8) and its badge, a cross-shaped SS standing 
for Sacrifice and Service. 

Junior College Campus: 

Mure 4-chome, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan 
Telephone : 0422-45-4145 

TOKYO WOMAN S CHRISTIAN COLLEGE 

(Tokyo Joshi Daigaku) 

Zempukuji 2-chome, Tokyo, Japan 
Telephone: 399-1151 



214C 

MIYAGI GAKUIN WOMEN S COLLEGE 

President: Shinshi Oda, LL. D. 

Miyagi Cakuin was founded on September 18, 1886 by missionaries of 
the Reformed Church in America (now United Church of Christ). The 
purpose of the school: To introduce Christian ideas and to lift the 
level of women s education in the Tohoku so that these two things will 
work to improve the total society as well as the total individual. 

Senior College : English Literature 

(pioneer in English language teaching for women) 
Music (long the only music school north of Tokyo) 
Japanese Literature 

(leader in the study of modern Japanese literature) 
Home Economics(vital to the women of the Tohoku) 

Junior College : Home Economics 
Cultural Training 
Kindergarten Teacher s Training 
(chief source of teachers for Tohoku church 
kindergartens) 

Senior High School Junior High School Kindergarten 

166, Higashi 3 ban-cho, Sendai Tel.: (21) 6211-5 



(NORTH JAPAN COLLEGE) 

Since its founding in 1 886, Tohoku Gakuin University has based its tradition on Christian 
precepts. During the past 81 years, Tohoku Gakuin has had over 30,000 graduates, 
many of Whom have played active parts in varied fields of society. 
Today the school includes a Kindergarten, Junior and Senior High schools. The present 
enrollment of the University is over 8,000. The School of Liberal Arts has a long 
history; the School of Technology, which was opened in 1963, aims at training 
engineers and technicians with Christian spirit as well as academic excellence. 

FACULTIES AND DEPARTMENTS Tadao Oda, L.L.D 

Graduate School 

M. A. & Ph. D English Language 

and Literature 
M. A Economics 
M. S.... Applied Physics 
Undergraduate School 
Arts and Letters 

Department of English Language 
and Literature 
Department of Religion 
Department of History 
Economics 

Department of Economics 
Department of Commerce 



Law 
Technology 

Department of Applied Physics 
Department of Electrical Engineering 
Department of Mechanical Engineering 
Department of Civil Engineering 

Evening Courses 

Department of English Language & 

Literature 

Department of Economics 

Doctor Course 

Department of Economics 
Department of Engineering 



1 Minami Rokkencho, Sendai City 



214D 




Seiwa Gakuin 



Kindergarten 
Primary School 
Junior High School 
Senior High School 



President Ko Muto 

*,*-**.*"*-***,.**.<*;...*,,**-.**,.*.,#,*"* -*** 

1-2, 2-chome Hisagi Zushi 

Kanagawa pref. 
Tel (0468) (71) 2670, 2752 



SHOKEI JOGAKUIN 

(Girls School Founded in 1892) 
Sendai, Japan 

Principal: Rev. Hisayoshi Saito 

Junior College 

Courses : 
Home Economics 
Kindergarten Teachers 

Training 

English Literature 
Senior High School 
Junior High School 

& 
Kindergarten 

2 Nakajima-cho, Sendai, Japan 
Telephone: Sendai 25-8746 




KYUSHU JOGAKUIN 

Lutheran School for Girls 

300 Murozono, Shimizu-machi, Kumamoto 
Tel. (66) 3246, 3247, 3248 

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
KINDERGARTEN 

Principal : Rev. Yasuzumi Eto 



214E 



JOSHI GAKUIN 

Founded in 1870 by the Northern Presbyterian Church in 
United States of America 

Girls Junior and Senior 
HIGH SCHOOL 




Chairman of Board 
of Trustees: 

Hikaru Watanabe 
Honorary Principal: Tsuchi Yamamoto 
Principal: Koiti Oosima 

10-22 Ichibancho, Ciiiyotia-ku, Tokyo Tel: (03) 263-1711 



NIPPON ROWA GAKKO 

-A Center for Children with Impaired Hearing 

Nozuta-machi, Machida-shi, Tokyo 
Tel. (0427) (23) 2221 

Founded in 1 920, by Dr. & Mrs. A. K. Reischauer, 
the parents of the former U. S. Ambassador 
Reischauer, and Miss Lois F. Kramer, an EUB 
missionary. 

Intensive Auditory Training. 

Early Education . . . from under 6 month old 

High Academic Standard . . . same level as the hearing 



Rev. Michio Kozaki, 
Oosima-Isao, 



Board Chairman, 
Principal 



214 F 



TOKYO UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

(Tokyo Shingaku Daigaku) 
10-30, Osawa 3-Chome, Mitaka, Tokyo 
Phone Musashino (0422) 45-4185 

Established in 1943 by the UNITED CHURCH OF 

CHRIST IN JAPAN to prepare men and women for city, 

rural, and overseas ministry. 

A four-year Liberal Arts College majoring in theology 

with a two-year graduate theology course for B. D. ; also 

courses leading to the doctor s degree, fully accredited by 

the Ministry of Education. 

The new Campus is located next to the ICU campus. 

774 graduates in active service today as ministers or teachers 



JAPAN CHRISTIAN JUNIOR COLLEGE 

90-3 Kobuke-cho, Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken Tel. Chiba (0472) 82-2234, 2428 

Department of English Department of Religion 

Junior High Teacher s Seminary Preparation 

Credential or Preparation Course and Christian Worker s 

for Business Training 

An Educational Institution of the Church of the Nazarene 

A Balanced International Faculty 

An Evangelical Christian Environment 




Hearken to My Word 



214G 

A Training Center for Christian Rural Workers 
in Asia 

TSURUKAWA RURAL INSTITUTE 

United Church of Christ in Japan 

A Christian Community consisting of 5 departments: 

- Rural Seminary 

- Kindergarten Teachers Training 
- Agricultural Training 
- Research Laboratory 

- South East Asian Leaders Training 
(instruction in English language) 

(School Farm provides educational experience and self-help) 

Write to: Tsurukawa Rural Institute Phone: (0427) 35-2430 
2024 Nozuta, Machida Shi (0427) 32-8775 

Tokyo, Japan Cable : 

SEACOURSE MACHIDA 



KEISEN JOGAKUEN 

Founded by MICHI KAWAI 
} President: JIRO SHIMIZU 



JUNIOR COLLEGE -English Department 
\ Horticulture Department 

\ Senior High School Junior High School 

. Separate Dormitories for High School and Junior College 



For further information, write to 

1090 Funabashi-machi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. (303) 2111 



214H 



MEIJI GAKUIN 

Chancellor: Rev. Tomio Muto 




Graduate School 

Course for Doctor s Degree : English Literature 
Courses for Master s Degrees: English Literature, Economics, 
Social Work and Sociology 

Undergraduate Courses 

College of Liberal Arts : English Literature and French Literature 
College of Economics: Economics and Commerce 
College of Social Work and Sociology : Social Work and Sociology 
College of Law: Law 

Senior High School 

Higashi-Murayama Senior High School 

Junior High School 

Meiji Gakuin owes its inception to the United Presbyterian 

Church in the U. S. A. and the Reformed Church in America. It 

was founded in 1877, and its long history has displayed the Christian 

purposes of its founders, Dr. James C. Hepburn, Dr. S. R. Brown 

and Dr. G. Verbeck. 



Shirokane, Tokyo 



Phone: (443) 8231 



2141 




AOYAMA GAKIJIN UNIVERSITY 

the university division of Aoyama Gakuin, a Christian institution 
for all levels of education : Graduate School, University, Woman s 
Junior College, Senior High School, Junior High School, Elementary 
School, Kindergarten 

Founded in 1874 by US Methodist Missionaries 

Dr. Kinjiro Ohki: Chancellor, Aoyama Gakuin 
President, Aoyama Gakuin University 

Organization of the University 
Graduate School 

Courses for Master s and Doctor s Degrees : 

Biblical Theology, Education, Psychology, English and American 
Literature, French Language and Literature, Economics, Economic 
Policy, Commerce, Private Law, Public Law. 
Undergraduate School 

College of Literature (day) College of Literature (night) 

College of Economics (day) College of Economics (night) 

College of Law (day) College of Business Administration 

College of Business Administration (day) (night) 

College of Science and Engineering (day) 

Shibuya-ku, Tokyo Tel. (409) 8111 



214 J 



SEI GAKUIN 

Kiyoshi Ishikawa 

Chairman of Board of Trustees 
President of Set Gakuin 
257 Nakazato-cho, Kita-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. (917) 1121 

Founded by the Disciples of Christ in 1905 



Joshi Sei Gakuin Junior College 
Sei Gakuin Senior High School 
Sei Gakuin Junior High School 
Joshi Sei Gakuin Senior High School 
(Margaret K. Long Girls School) 
Joshi Sei Gakuin Junior High School 
Sei Gakuin Primary School 
Sei Gakuin Kindergarten 



(0486) 43-1234 
917-1121 



Nobuto Oda Principal 
Jiro Unno, Principlal 



917-2277 Ayako Obana, Principal 



917-1555 MomokaMurata, Principal 
917-2725 // 



KORAN JOGAKKO 

(St. Hilda s School for Girls) 

Junior High School 
Senior High School 
Special English Course 

21-22 6chome, Hatanodai 
Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan 

(782) 0227 




Anglican Mission School founded by Bishop 
Bickersteth in 1888. On the staff there are 
always several English teachers sent by 
the U. S.P.G. in England. To keep the 
number small is a special feature. Whole 
school attend morning and evening pray 
ers in the hall. 



TAMAGAWA 
SEIGAKUIN 

JUNIOR AND SENIOR 
HIGH SCHOOL 

OF THE 
CHURCH OF GOD 

Day School for Girls 



100 - 3 chome, Okusawa-machi, 
Tamagawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 702-4141 



214K 




( ( TAMAGAWA GAKUEN ] 



President : 




Founded in 1929 
Dr. KUNIYOSHI OBARA 

TAMAGAWA UNIVERSITY 



School of Technology 

Course of Mechanical Engineering for 

Master s Degree 
Course of Electronics for 

Master s Degree 
Department of Literature 
Faculty of Education 

Faculty of English and American Literature 
Faculty of Arts 
Department of Agriculture 
Faculty of Agriculture 
Faculty of Agricultural 

Chemistry 

Department of Technology 
Faculty of Mechanical 

Engineering 
Faculty of Electronics 
Faculty of Industrial 

Administration 
Woman s Junior College 
Correspondence Education 
Senior High School 
Junior High School 
Elementary School 
Kindergarten 

Machida City, Tokyo, Japan 
Tel. (0427-32) 9111 




214L 



YOKOHAMA KYORITSU GAKUEN 

(Doremus Memorial School) 

Founded in 1871 by The Woman s Union Missionary 
Society of America 



Girl s Junior High School 
Girl s Senior High School 

Principal : Mr. KATSUYO JIMBO 
Address: 212 Bluff, Naka-ku, Yokohama 
Telephone: (641) 3785^7 



YOKOHAMA SCHOOL OF THE JAPANESE 
LANGUAGE 

Principal: Mr. Hisato Niwa 

CLASSES: SMALL CLASSES ONLY 

MORNING MON. FRI. 9:0012:00 

AFTERNOON MON. FRI. 1 : 30 3 : 30 

COURSES: FALL, WINTER, SPRING AND 
SUMMER COURSES 

TEXTS: NAGANUMA S JAPANESE LANGUAGE 

BOOKS 

Yokohama Y. M. C. A. 

Tokiwa-cho, Naka-Ku, Yokohama Tel. (681) 7061 



214M 




Founded in 1879 



President: Elizabeth J. Clarke 

Christian Education for Girls 
JUNIOR COLLEGE -^English 
i^Home Economics (Home Management and 

Dietetics) 

fcMusic (Voice and Piano) 
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 

Higashi Yamate Nagasaki Tel. (22) 41O7 




KYORITSU BIBLE SCHOOL 
FOR WOMEN 

Offers training in : 

Study of the Word 
Teaching methods 
Evangelism 
Organ and choir 



ST. MICHAEL S SCHOOL 

920, Nikaido, Kamakura-shi, 
Kanagawa Pref, Japan 

An Institute under The South Tokyo Diocese 
of THE NIPPON SEIKOKAI 
(The Episcopal Church) 



Woman s Union 
Missionary Society 

221 Yamate-cho, Naka-ku 

Yokohama 
Tel. 641-3993 




HIGH SCHOOL 
MIDDLE SCHOOL 

Chairman of Directors : 

Rt. Rev. M. H. Yashiro, D. D. 
Chancellor: Mr. Francis T. Mitsui 
Principal: Takeo Kurisawa 



214N 




The educational task of ICU is the formulation of 
a person who is an integrated man of scholarly 
perception and inquiry, a free man, a social man, 
and a world-minded man. 




College of Liberal Arts/Graduate Schools of Education & Public 
Administration /Institutes of Educational Research and Service, 
Social Science Research, Asian Cultural Studies, & Christianity 
and Culture 



10-2, Osawa 3-chome, Mitaka-Shi, Tokyo Tel. 0422-43-3131 



214O 



KWANSEI GAKUIN 



FOUNDED IN 1889 




GRADUATE 
UNIVERSITY, UNDERGRADUATE 

THEOLOGY 

LIBERAL ARTS 

SOCIOLOGY 

JURISPRUDENCE 

ECONOMICS 

COMMERCE 

NATURAL SCIENCE 

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 



NISHINOMIYA, JAPAN Phone 0798-51-0912 



214P 



POOLE GAKUIN 

(Founded in 1879) 
Principal The Rt. Rev. Toshio Koike 

Junior College (English Department) 

Dean Eleanor M. Foss 

Senior High School Junior High School 

Head Master Tsunekichi Goto 
OSAKA 



TfT 



R 7 3 1 JS 3 1 9 

741 m 7005-7006 



(Founded in 1884) 



JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
S. H. EVENING SCHOOL 
POST GRADUATE COURSE 
JUNIOR COLLEGE 
EVE. ENG. CONVERSATION 
SCHOOL 



200 2-chome Shinonome-cho, 

Higashi-ku, Osaka, (540) 

JAPAN 

TEL. (761) 4113~5 



BAIKA GAKUEN 

106 6-chome, Honmachi. 
Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan 

Kindergarten 
Junior & Senior High 
Institutions : School 

Junior College 
4 -Year College 

The President is Mr. Tadashi 
Funahashi. 

History 

Established in 1878 by the Rev. 
Paul Sawayama with the co-opera 
tion of two Congregational 
Churches as the first Christian 
high school for girls in Osaka 
area. Now it has 3600 students. 

The United Church Board for 
World Ministries has sent missio 
naries to the school, among whom 
are Miss Judith Newton and Miss 
Constance Kimos. Other Missio 
naries also help the school. 




MOMOYAMA GAKUIN 

Founded in 1884 by Rev. J. Dunn of the Church 
Missionary Society. Affiliated with Nippon Seiko 
Kai (The Protestant Episcopal Church in Japan) 

Chairman of Board of Trustees : 

The Most Rev. Hinsuke Michael Yashiro, D. D. 

ST. ANDREW S UNIVERSITY 

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS 
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY 

MOMOYAMA GAKUIN HIGH SCHOOL 
MOMOYAMA GAKUIN MIDDLE SCHOOL 
THE INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES 

Address : Showa-cho, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan 



214R 



FUKUOKA JO GAKUIN 

35 Kamiosa, Fukuoka Tel. (58) 14925 

JUNIOR COLLEGE English Department 

Home Economics Department 

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Regular Course & Music Course 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
KINDERGARTEN 



Chairman of the Board of Directors Bunroku Arakawa 

Chancellor of Gakuin, and 

Principal, Junior-Senior High School Miss Aiko Enomoto 

Kindergarten 
President of Junior College Miss Aiko Enomoto 



SEINAN GAKUIN 

UNIVERSITY 



II 

H " 

ii :: 

T TA.TT T r T7T> C< T Ti AT" 



Departments Courses 

Theology Theology 

Literature English Literature 

Foreign Languages 

Commerce Commerce 

Business Management 

Economics Economics 

Law Law 

Junior College Infant Education 

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
SEINAN BIBLE SCHOOL MAIZURU KINDERGARTEN 
SAMIDORI NURSERY SCHOOL 

798, Nishijin-machi, Fukuoka-Shi Tel. 092 (82) 0031 

ii M 



214S 



SEIWA WOMAN S COLLEGE 
FOR CHRISTIAN WORKERS 

Senior College : Christian Education 

Kindergarten Teacher Education 
Junior College : Kindergarten Teacher Education 

88 years of service to the Church in Japan 
President : Miss Michiko Yamakawa 



1-OKADAYAMA 

NISHINOMIYA 

CITY 



TEL. No. 51~0724 




HIROSHIMA JOGAKUIN 

Founded in 1886 

Founder 

Miss N. B. Gaines 

Rev. Teikichi Sunamoto 
President 

Dr. Hamako Hirose 

College : Faculty of Literature (Japanese Lit, 

English & American Lit.) 
Junior College : Domestic Science 
Kindergarten 

720 Ushita-machi, Hiroshima-City Tel. (0822) 28-0386 




High Schools: Senior and Junior 
11-32 Kaminobori-cho (S) 
12-39 Kaminobori-cho (J) 

Tel. (0822) 28-4131 



Hiroshima-City 



214T 



THE DOSHISHA 

KYOTO, JAPAN 

(founded 1875) 



UNIVERSITY 



Graduate 
Undergraduate 

Theology, Letters, 
Law, Economics, 

Commerce, Technology 

WOMEN S COLLEGE 
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
KINDERGARTEN 



(St. Paul s Upper Secondary School) 

President : Yasushi Agata 

Our school has a brilliant tradition of 
over 90 years. 

The educational polity aims at the 
character building based on the Christian 
principle " for the sake of the God s 
Kingdom ". 

The school is the shortest way to Rikkyo 
University and constitutes one link in 
the chain from primary school to uni 
versity. 

A dormitory with the capacity of about 
300 is provided. 

There the students enjoy autonomy 
and corporate living. 

Nobidome, Niiza-machi, Saitama-ken, Japan Tel. Shiki (0484) 71-2323 




214U 




KOBE COLLEGE 

Kobe Jogakuin 

Established in 1875 by two American Board missionaries, Eliza 
Talcott and Julia Duddley, Kobe College has always enjoyed a 
high reputation as a pioneering educational institution for women 
in modern Japan. 

President: the Rev. Tetsutaro Ariga, Th. D. 
JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 

COLLEGE: 

English Literature 
Sociology 
Home Economics 
Music 

Graduate courses toward M. A. in English Literature 
or Sociology 

65 Okadayama, Nishinomiya City 
Tel.: 0798-51-0955 



214V 



PALMORE INSTITUTE 

8 Kitanagasa-dori 4-chome, Ikuta-ku, Kobe 
Tel : Kobe 078 33-2961, 2949 

Bible, English, Typewriting, and Shorthand 



~1 




Morse T. Sai-to 

Chairman 
Board of Trustees 

Bunroku Takeda 
Principal 



SHOIN JOSH! GAKUIN 

Shoin Junior College 
Shoin High School 
Shoin Middle School 

Chairman Board of 
Trustees & Director : 

Hinsuke Yashiro 
President : Kazuo Ota 
Principal : Akio Yasui 

Aotani-cho 3-chome, Nada-ku, 

Kobe 

Tel: (86) 11056 

(22) 5980 (Junior College) 



r College) ) 

I X^ ^XX^-x 



KOBE SCHOOL 

OF 

THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 

10 Kotobuki Takaha Nada-ko, Kobe 
TEL: 85-1044 

Principal Rev. Y. Hyakumoto 



Course Fall, Winter, Spring 

and Summer Course 

Class Morning Mon.-Fri. 900-1210 
Afternoon Mon.-Fri. 110- 300 



214W 




ST. MICHAEL S 
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL 

5, Nakayamate-dori 3 CJwme, Ikuta-ku, Kobe 
For boys & girls ages 5 to 1 5 
Prepares for Senior High School 
(TEL 23-8985) 

ST. MICHAEL S ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL 

4 classes for adults . . . mornings 
The Advanced Class specializes in preparing 

men & women for going abroad 
Founder : Bishop M. H. Yashiro, D. D. 
Headmistress : Miss L. E. Lea, B. A. 



HEIAN JOGAKUIN 

(ST. AGNES SCHOOL) 

Karasumaru Nishi Iru, Shimotachiuri Dori 
Komikyo-ku, Kyoto 



Principal : Kenzo Sakai 

Junior College : Home Economics, 
English Literature, Kindergarten 
Teachers Training and Theology 

Senior High School Junior High School 
Kindergarten 



I. 



In 1 875 founded by Rt. Rev. Channing M. 
Williams, US Protestant Episcopal Bishop 
and the first Protestant missionary to 
Japan, and since then in close connec 
tion with the US Protestant Episcopal 
Church and her organizations. 



T T T DOSHISHA 
KORI 

HIGH SCHOOL 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 

Principal : Hiromasa Ohashi 



328 Mii, Neyagawa-shi, 

Osaka-fu 

TEL. 0720-31-0285-9 



214X 



A SCHOOL FOR SPOKEN ENGLISH AND JAPANESE IN TOKYO 

H-Mf ^Sv Srp. ^ [^ 
^F ^ RP ^ IVC 

THE JAPANESE AMERICAN CONVERSATION INSTITUTE 

(A Division of the International Education Center) 



TEACHING METHOD : 
LENGTH OF STUDY: 
REGISTRATION : 



Oral approach method 
Six months to two years 
In March and September 



The Japanese American Conversation Institute was established 
in 1945 for the purpose of training young public servants in 
spoken English as well as in democratizing their thinking and 
broadening their viewpoints. Now the Institute is open to the 
general public. The Center has established a spoken Japanese 
Language Institute in 1967. 

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE WRITE TO: 

21 Yotsuya 1-chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Tel.: 359-96215) 




Chairman of the Board : Rev. Y. Manabe 
Dean of the college : Rev. T. Nakajima 

IZUMI JUNIOR COLLEGE 

< Child Welfare Department) 
Cherfly train " House Mothers " in 
children s institution, founded and 
supported by C. C. F. in U. S. A 

2-21 Nakamachi Tamagawa 

Setagaya Tokyo 
PHONE [701] 3616 [702] 9309 



SOEN GAKUEN (Incorporated) 

3-17-11 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. (953) 4016, 5278 
President and Chairman : Hatsue Sato 

Soen High Nursery School 

Training of Christian educators of 

children (night school) 
Qualification for admission : Graduate 

of high school 
School terms : 2 years 
License issued : No. 2 ordinary license 

of kindergarten teacher 
Further information on request at : 
3-17-11 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. (953) 4016, 5278 
Soen Kindergarten 

Superintendent : Namie Miyoshi 

Farther information on request at : 
3-17-11 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. (953) 1401 



214Y 



I E L S 

English Language is the Short Way for Success 

Lessons are given by many able American Instructors. 
1.5 hours lesson a day. 

Interpreter Course 

Conversation Course 

General Course 

Language Laboratory is Equiped 

(Brand New Typewriters : Triumph) 

English Typewriting Course 

Admission is in order of application. 

Quick graduation 

Job-finding after graduation is guaranteed. 

Examination fee 

private instruction fee 

Small group instruction fee 

School regulations is available 
at 60 per copy. 

INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL (licensed) 

The acceptance of admission application started. 
8-story school building in front of Yoyogi Station 
(National Railways) Tel: 37O-0571 

KOKUSAI KIRISUTO KYODAN (juridical person) 

1-29 Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo Tel: 370-4346 
Representative: Tosen Yoshimoto 
Managing Director: Yoshie Yoshimoto 



214Z 




KIRISUTO SHIMBUN 



(The Christ Weekly in Japanese) 

This is only one Christian News Paper of Protestants 
in Japan. Price 20 a copy, 1,000 a year, post paid. 

In America $6.00 a year, post paid. 
Founder: Dr. Kagawa President: T. Muto 



[^> The Christian Year Book in Japanese 1969 ; List of 
churches, pastors, missionaries and perfect statistics of 
Christian Works in Japan. H> New Dictionary of the 
Bible (one volume in Japanese) will be published in 
spring of 1969. The work of more than 100 skilled 
writers. ( 182mm x257nm 1.350 pages, Price CA; 10.000) 
For the minister it is a ready all-purpose resource 
work for every biblical inquiry. For Church and 
Sunday-School teachers it will quicken the study and 
use of the Bible. For educators and students it is a 
comprehensive reference. 

KIRISUTO SHIMBUNSHA 

3-1, Shin-Ogawa-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 260-6445, 6455 Postal Transfer : Tokyo 196016 



CATHOLIC PRESS CENTER 

Yotsuya 1-2, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 
(At the corner of Yotsuya-mitsuke) 
Tel : 351-6173 (Furikae) Tokyo-62233 

Publishes in Japanese : 

THE CATHOLIC WEEKLY 

1 year subscription 800 
SEIKI (monthly for intellectuals) 
1 year subscription 1,000 

KATEI NO TOMO (monthly for families) 

1 year subscription 780 (Furikae) Tokyo-101420 

Holy Bible, Prayer Books, Catechism- Apologetic, Theology- 
Philosophy, Moral-Meditation-Spiritual Education, Agio- 
graphy-History, Sociology, Christian Literature, Juvenile 
Literature, Religious Articles and Church Goods. 



214A 



Bible Study Text 

ENGLISH-JAPANESE 



I The Lord s Prayer by Mrs. G. Wilson 100 

II The Parables of Jesus by Rev. R. B. Norton 100 
IE The Christian s Faith by Rev. K. J. Dale 100 

IV The Sermon on the Mount by Miss A. E. Gwinn 100 

V Living in the Present Age by Rev. T. Jaeckel 150 

VI The Christ A Self-Portrait by Rev. E. R. Pilcher 100 
W Life and the Christian Faith by Miss A. E. Gwinn 150 

The University Christian (" Daigaku Kurisutosha ") 

A quarterly magazine, single copies: 100 plus postage 



6th Fir., Daini Kosuga Bldg. 30, Ryogoku, 
Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 
Furikae. Tokyo-68869 




PUBLISHING DEPT - OF JAPAN MISSION OF 

THE LUTHERAN CHURCH - MISSOURI SYNOD 



CONCORDIA C. S. QUARTERLY 

*SEISHO MONOG ATARI (leaflet), 35. 
*SEISHO NO BENKYO (booklet), 50. 
*KYOSHI NO TEBIKI (teacher s guide), 150 

<FREE SAMPLES AVAILABLE> 



Published by the CONCORDIA SHA 

2-32, 1 chome, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 

Distributed by the SEIBUN SHA 

3-16, Shin-ogawa-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 



214B 



w Holding forth the word 

of life ..." Phil. 2 : 16 




4 



JAPANESE PUBLISHERS OF : 

: * Christian Books, Tracts & Hymnbooks 
** " The Gospel for the Millions " 

(Monthly magazine for evangelism) 
** "The Christian" 

(New, weekly newspaper for Christians) 
** The New Japanese Bible, New Testament 

(Standard, pocketsize and Japanese-English editions) 

Word of Life Press 

160 Headquarters: 6 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-Ku, Tokyo (353-9345) 
Branch Stores : 1 50 Tokyo Life Center 3-18, 3-Chome, Shibuya, 

Tokyo (400-0231) 
530 Osaka Life Center 29, 3-Chome, Doshima Ue, 

Kita-Ku, Osaka Shi (344-3948) 



YOUR BOOK STORE IN JAPAN 



for ALL FOREIGN BOOKS and MAGAZINES 

from all countries of the world 

for ALL JAPANESE PUBLICATIONS from 

all publishers, including those from our 

own large PUBLISHING SECTION 

and for RELIGIOUS ARTICLES 

ENDERLE BOOKSTORE (HERDER AGENCY) 



Nr. 3 Kojimach 6-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. (263) 4251-2 



214C 

ffi AIKO PRINTING AIKO PRINTING AIKO PRINTING AIKO PRINTING ffl 
g I 

p European Language Printing 

English Monthly } 

. Weekly Newspapers g 

Daily 

o German Report > 

i? w 

Russian Linotype 

Spanish Monotype Documents 

5 

< o 



4-12 2-chome Misaki-cho Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 

2 



Aiko Printing Co*, Ltd* 

z 
TEL. (263) 2571-3 



< 

gg AIKO PRINTING AIKO PRINTING AIKO PRINTING AIKO PRINTING 



TYPE PRINTING, 

OFFSET PRINTING 



Accurate, Speedy 

& 
Superb Craftsmenship 

SHINKO PRINTING CO., LTD. 

6 1 Chome, Suido, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 
TEL. (814) 2731-3 



2MD 



THE BOARD OF PUBLICATIONS 

THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 

publishes for churches in Japan 

The Layman s Bible Commentary, 
Bible Dictionaries, Theological 
Books, Devotional Books, Biographic 
Books, A Series for Ladies, A Series 
for Youth, A Series of Biblical 
Studies, and Christian Educational 
Books. 

KOKORO NO TOMO 

No doubt in usefulness 
for evangelism 

Price 10 per copy 
360 a year 

SHINTO NO TOMO 

Most widely read 

among Christian lay people 

Price 70 per copy 
950 a year 

KYODAN SHIMPO 

The Kyodan Times 

For the misistry and deaconry 
News, Comment, Review. 



Our catalog will be sent on request. 

GINZA 4-2, CHUO-KU, TOKYO 

TEL 561-6131 



214 E 



The name and symbol that stand for quality 
in Christian literature : 




C.P.O. Box 66 



Sendai 



si:uu\sii A 

Publishers and Booksellers 

Layman s Bible Commentary 
Luther s Works 
Evangelistic Tracts 
Gospel News 
Daily Devotion 



Our Catalog will be sent on request 

Bookroom 

9 a. m. 5 p. m. Monday to Friday 

9 a. m. Noon Saturday at Shin-Ogawamachi Shinjuku-ku Tokyo 
Noon 4 p. m. Sunday 

10 a. m. 6 p. m. Monday to Friday at Lutheran Center in Tokyo 

Lutheran Literature Society in Japan 

lG/3-chome Shin-Ogawamachi Shinjuku-ku Tokyo Tel. (O3) 269-7751 



Now ... FOUR SALES CENTERS 

OVER JAPAN 

ft TOKYO Tel. 361-6829 
ft KYOTO Tel. 21 1-6675 

ft KITA-KYUSHU w.**Mi 

^VFUKUOKA Te, .82-9914 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SERVICE 



JORDAN 



PRE SS 



2-350 NISHIOKUBO SHINJUKU-KU, TOKYO 
Telephone : 351-2166 




COVENANTER 
BOOK ROOM 

39, 1-chome, Nakayamate- 
dori, Ikuta-ku, Kobe 
Furikae: Kobe 25708 
Tel. 22-8386 



Machen : ORIGIN OF PAUL S 

RELIGION 700 n 

Thayer : GREEK-ENGLISH 

LEXICON 3,900 FT 

Luther: GENESIS, 2 vols. 

4,280 p] 
Standen : SCIENCE IS A 

SACRED COW 490 R 

Merrill : HISTORICAL SURVEY 

OF THE OLD TESTAMENT 

1.620R 

Pinnock: DEFENSE OF 

BIBLICAL INFALLIBILITY 
270 H 



To place your 

ADVERTISEMENT 

in 

THE JAPAN CHRISTIAN 
YEAR BOOK 

and 

THE JAPAN CHRISTIAN 
QUARTERLY 

. . . Widely Circulated 
English Publications . . . 
Please request an Appli 
cation form from our 
office and send it back 
with the needed informa 
tion. 

KYO BUN KWAN JIGYOSHA 



No. 2, 4-CHOME, GINZA, CHUO-KU, 
TOKYO Tel: (561) 9691 ~ 4 
BRANCH OSAKA: 
NO. 29, 3 CHOME, DOJIMA UE 
KTTA-KU, OSAKASHI 

Tel : (344) 8309 



214G 





World s Greatest Bookstore 

MARUZEN 

Established in 1869 

Booksellers, Subscription Agency, 
Publishers, Office Machine Dealers, 
Stationers, Haberdashers. 



HEAD OFFICE: 6 TORI-NICHOME, NIHON- 
BASHI, TOKYO. TEL. 272-721 1 

BRANCHES : TOKYO NAGOYA KYOTO OSAKA KOBE 
HIMEJI OKAYAMA HIROSHIMA-FUKUOKA- NAGASAKI 
KANAZAWA SENDAI SAPPORO NEW YORK 



SHINKYO SHUPPANSHA 

PROTESTANT PUBLISHING Co., LTD. 

WORKS OF JOHN CALVIN 

INSTITUTES OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION 7 VOLS. 

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WORKS OF KARL BARTH 18 VOLS. 

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WORKS OF JOHN WESLEY 10 VOLS. 
MONTHLY JOURNAL : FUKUIN TO SEKAI (GOSPEL & WORLD) 

1, 3-CHOME, SHIN-OGAWA-MACHI 
SHINJUKU-KU, TOKYO, JAPAN 
TEL. 03-260-6148 



214H ; 







STORE 

IN THE ORIENT 



MAIN STORE : 1 -7 MUROMACHI 

c 

| NIHONBASHI, CHUO-KU, TOKYO 

I BRANCHES : SHINJUKU, GINZA 

I IKEBUKURO, (TOKYO), OSAKA, KOBE 

| TAKAMATSU, MATSUYAMA, SENDAI, SAPPORO 

4ct-&i.i*iK,i fc ..l.. a i,iCr J K 




MITSUKOSHI 

DEPARTMENT STORE 



World-Wide BanKing Services 
THE 

SUMITOMO 
BANK 

LTD. 

HEAD OFFICE 
OSAKA, JAPAN 

175 Branches in Key Cities throughout Japan 

OVERSEAS OFFICES 

New York Agency Hong Kong Branch 
London Branch Karachi Representative Ofiice 




214 r 



the JAPAN . thought 

CHRISTIAN QUARTERLY 

opinion 




fact 
poetry 
translations 
book reviews 



An independent ecumenical journal 

Sponsored by 
THE FELLOWSHIP OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES 

Beverley Tucker, editor 

1-year rate : Order from : 

1,700 in Japan Kyobunkwan 

$6.00 abroad 2, 4-chome, Ginza 

Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104, Japan 
Furikae Tokyo 11357 



214 r 




PUT A MAN-ON-THE-SPOT 
TO WORK FOR YOUR FIRM . . . 

Here at home and around the world Bank of America 
men-on-the-spot can help you do business more effectively. 
Locally we provide a broad range of banking services for 
business - financing for importers and exporters, foreign 
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business abroad. We invite you to discuss your banking 
needs with us. 

BANK OF AMERICA 

NATIONAL TRUST & SAVINGS ASSOCIATION 

TOKYO BRANCH 4, 1 -CHOME MARUNOUCHI, CHIYODA-KU 



PART IV 
DIRECTORIES 

James McElwain 
Harriett Parker 

SECTION 1 

Japanese Protestant Church Headquarters 



Advent Christian Association, 
Japan 

(Nippon Adobento Kirisuto 
Kyodan) 

2276 Higashi Iwakura- 

machi, Kurayoshi-shi, 

Tottori-ken 

Supt.: Rev. Floyd Powers 



2276 



F. 



Alliance Church, Japan 

(Nihon Araiansu Kyodan) 
255 Itsukaichi-machi, Saeki- 
gun, Hiroshima-ken 
Tel: 0829-21-2514 
Sept.: Rev. Suteichi Oe 



255 



American Baptist Association 

(Beikoku Baputesuto Associa 
tion) 

Box 3, Dazaifu-cho, 

Fukuoka-ken 



Supt.: Rev. Bennie J. 
McWha 



B.J. ~??77 

Anglican Episcopal Church of 
Japan 

(Nippon Seikokai) 
4-21, 1-chome, Higashi, 
Shibuya-ku Tokyo 
Tel. 03-400-2314 
Chm. of the House of 
Bishops: The Rt. Rev. M.H. 
Yashiro 



4-21 



Apostolic Christian Church of 
Japan 

(Nihon Shito Kirisuto Kyokai) 
1384 Kaneko-machi, 
Chofu-shi, Tokyo 
Tel. 0424-82-4344 
Supt.: Mr. Willis R. Ehnle 



1384 



W.R. 



216 



DIRECTORIES 



Apostolic Faith 

(Shito no Kyokai) 
1017, 1-chome, Kugahara, 
Ota-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-751-4211 
Supt.: Rev. Tokuzo Hamano 



C 1-1017 



Assemblies of God Church of 
Japan 

(Nihon Assemblies of God 
Kyodan) 

430, 3-chome, Komagome, 

Toshima-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-918-0497 

Supt.: Rev. Kiyoma 

Yumiyama 



3-430 



Association of Baptists for 
World Evangelism 

(Bankoku Baputesuto Fukuin 
Dendo Kyokai) 

26, 2-chome, Honmachi, Shi- 

nohara, Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 

Tel. 078-86-2172 

Supt.: Rev. John Sarjeant 

jjm^-77-^ 

WFmiKHMW 2 T @ 26 
J. f--^^^ h 



B 



Baptist Bible Fellowship of 
Japan 

(Nihon Seisho Baputetsuto 
Feroshippu) 



1-10-1 Matsunami-cho, 

Chiba-shi 

Tel. 0472-51-2929 

Supt.: Rev. Olson Hodges 



1-10-1 



O. ;^ i/ 



Baptist General Conference, 
Japan Mission 

(Nippon Kirisuto Baputesuto 
Rengo Senkyodan) 

2-13, Toyotama Kita, 

Nerima-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-991-2447 

Supt.: Rev. Francis B. 

Sorley 



2-13 



mm 

X 

F. B. y - \) 



Baptist Church Association, 
Japan 

(Nippon Baputesuto Kyokai 
Rengo) 

1-8, Yoshi-cho, Nihonbashi, 

Chuo-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-669-9327 

Supt.: Takeshi Yokoyama 



Baptist Conference, Japan 

(Nippon Baputesuto Senkyo 
Dan) 

175, Tsujikuru-cho, Ise-shi, 

Mie-ken 

Tel. 05963-8-4846 

Supt.: Rev. Yoshio Akasaka 



JAPANESE PROTESTANT CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



217 



175 



Baptist Convention, Japan 

(Nihon Baputesuto Renmei) 
350, 2-chome, Nishi-Okubo, 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 351-2166 
Chairman: Rev. Buntaro 
Kimura 



2-350 



Baptist Mid-Missions in Japan 

(Zen Nippon Baputesuto Mido 

Mission Senkyodan) 

17-20, Kasuga-cho, Fuku- 
shima-shi, Fukushima-ken 
Field Repr.: Dan M. Bishop 
Tel. 02452-2-8693 



17-20 



D. tfi/ 



Baptist Union, Japan 

(Nihon Baputesuto Domei) 
3-9, 1-chome, Misaki-cho, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-291-9445 
Chm.: Rev. Isamu Chiba 



3-9 

Bible Institute Mission 

(Shorisha lesu Kyodan) 
2163 Karuizawa, 
Nagano-ken 

Tel. 02674-2302, Home 3969 
Supt.: Rev. Earl F. Tygert 



2163 



E. F. 



Brethren in Christ Church 

(Kirisutokyo Keiteidan 
Kyokai) 

428, 4-chome, Nukui Mina- 

mi-cho Koganei-shi, Tokyo 

Tel. 0423-81-9975 

Repr.: Mr. John Graybill 



-228 



J. 



Central Japan Pioneer Mission 

(Chuo Nihon Fukuin Senkyo 
dan) 

16-16 Nanatsu Ike-machi, 

Koriyama-shi, Fukushima- 

ken 

Tel. 02492-7922 

Field Repr.: Mr. Arthur 

T. F. Reynolds 



16-16 



T. F. 



Christian Brotherhood Church 

(Kirisuto Kyodai Dan) 
448 Tabata-cho, Kita-ku, 
Tokyo 

Tel. 03-821-0210 
Supt.: Rev. Kiyonao 
Kobayashi 



448 



218 



DIRECTORIES 



Christian Canaan Church 

(Kirisutokyo Kanan Kyodan) 
36, 1-chome, Higashi, Kushi- 
ya-machi, Sakai-shi, 
Osaka-fu 
Tel. 0722-2-3345 
Supt.: Rev. Seibei Morita 



T g 36 



Christian Catholic Church 

(Kirisuto Kodo Kyokai) 
21-2, 2-chome, Tsukigaoka, 
Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 
Tel. 052-711-9654 
Supt.: Rev. Clark B. Offner 



2-21 
C.B. 



Christian Churches/Churches 
of Christ 

(Kirisuto no Kyokai) 
7-8, 3-chome, Higashi- 
Nakano, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-361-0533 
Repr.: Mr. Andrew Patton 

^y* ho| 

3-7-8 



A. ; h >- 

Christian Evangelistic Church 

(Kirisuto Dendo-dan) 
56, Horikawa-cho, 
Fukuoka-shi 
Tel. 092-52-8813 
Supt.: Mr. Muneo Ide 

* !) * hfcilffl 

56 



rff 



Christian Holy Convention 

Kirisutokyo Seikyodan) 
20-5, 2-chome, Tsubakimori 
Chiba-shi 
Tel. 0472-51-8510 
Supt.: Rev. Hiromi Yanaka 



2-20-5 



Christian Presbyterian Church, 
Tapan 

(Nihon Kiristo 
)horo Kyokai) 

273, 1-chome, Horinouchi, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-312-3071 
Supt.: Mr. Yuzo Kurokawa 

1-273 



Christian Reformed Japan 
Mission 

(Kirisuto Kaikakuha Nippon 
Dendokai) 

Room 304, Student Christian 

Center 

2-1, Kanda Surugadai, 

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-291-2595 

Field Sec.: Rev. Henry 

Bruinooge 



2-1 



304 - 
H. 



/ 



Christian Spiritual Church 

(Kirisuto Shinshu Kyodan) 
8602, Shimo-Yoshida Fuji- 



JAPANESE PROTESTANT CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



219 



Yoshida-shi, Yamanashi-ken 
Tel. 0555-2-0367 
Supt.: Rev. Yoshinobu 
Kawai 



8602 



Church of Christ 

(Kirisuto no Kyokai) 
Ibaraki Christian College 
Kujimachi, Hitachi-shi, 
Ibaraki-ken 
Tel. 029452-3215 
Supt.: Mr. B. M. Smith 

* V x h ogc 



Church of God (Independent 
Holiness) 

4-21, Naka Saiwai-cho, 

Kawasaki-shi 

Kanagawa-ken 

Tel. 044-51-0641/3 

Supt.: Mr. Raymond 

Shelhorn 



4-21 



Church of God, Japan 

(Nippon Church of God Kyo 
kai) 

22 Tsuoka-cho, 

Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama-shi 

Tel. 045-951-0540 

Supt.: Rev. Edward Call 



22 



E. #- 



Church of God, Missionary 
Board of the 

(Kami no Kyokai) 

66-2252, Aza Takamaru 
Kuga, Nishitarumi-cho, 
Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi 
Sept.: Mr. Arthur Eikamp 



2252-66 

A. T-Y^-Yv:? 

Church of God Renmei, Japan 

(Nihon Kami no Kyokai Ren 
mei) 

93, 3-chome, Tamagawa 
Okusawa-machi, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-701-4321 
Supt.: Rev. Shigetoshi 
Taniguchi 



-93 



Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter Day Saints 

(Matsujitsu Seito lesu Kiri 
suto Kyokai) 

8-10, 5-chome, Minami- 

Azabu, Minato-ku Tokyo 

Tel. 03-473-1613 

President : Adney 

Y. Komatsu 



T 



Church of the Nazarene, Japan 
District 

(Nihon Nazaren Kyodan) 
589, 8-chome, Kami-Meguro, 



220 



DIRECTORIES 



Meguro-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-466-2416 
Supt.: Eev. Takichi 
Funagoshi 



8-589 



Church of the Resurrected 
Christ 

(Fukkatsu no Kirisuto Kyo- 

dan) 

c/o Kantoku Gakuin, 
Ojoji-Mae, Nagano-shi 
Tel. 02622-3-3066 
Supt.: Rev. Yoshie Iwata 



Conservative Baptist 
Association of Churches 

(Hoshu Baputesuto Domei) 
c/o First Bible Baptist 
Church 

3-26, 2-chome, Higashihara- 
cho, Yamagata-shi 
Tel. 02362-2-4789 
Supt.: Rev. Shoichi 
Kakizaki 



Covenant Church, Japan 
(Nippon Seikei Kirisuto Kyo- 
dan) 

c/o Seikei Shingakko 

990, 3-chome, Naka-Meguro, 

Mekuro-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-712-8746 

Supt.: Rev. Louis F. Jensen 



-990 



L. F. v?z 



Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church 

(Kanbavando Choro Kyokai) 
14-1, 2-chome, Minami 
Rinkai, Yamato-shi, 
Kanagawa-ken 
Tel. 0462-61-4371 
Repr.: Rev. Tolbert Dill 

# ys* 7 i/ Kft^ifci* 
tt^Jlim^fPTfJltttW 2-14-1 
T. =f^jv 



E 



Evangelical Alliance 
Mission, The 

(Nihon Dornei Kirisuto Kyo- 
clan) 

15-15, 3-chome, Daisawa, 

Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-421-1059 

Supt.: Rev. Nakaichi Ando 



15-15 



Evangelical Church 
of Christ, The 

Nippon Kirisuto Senkyodan 
382-11, Mine-machi, Utsuno- 
miya-shi, Tochigi-ken 
Tel. 0721-5884 
Supt.: Mr. Birger Stenfelt 



382-n 




JAPANESE PROTESTANT CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



221 



Evangelical Free Church 
Mission, Japan 

(Nihon Fukuin Jiyu Kyokai) 
7-1-20, Kishida, Urawa-shi, 
Saitama-ken 
Repr.: Rev. Dale Halstrom 



7-1-20 



D. 



Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
Japan 

(Nihon Fukuin Ruteru Kyo 

kai) 

303, 3-chome, Hyakunin- 
cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-362-6604/6 
Supt.: Rev. Chitose Kishi 



3-303 



Evangelical Lutheran 
Church (Kinki) 

(Kinki Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai) 
c/o Minami Osaka Kyokai 
420 Kamisumiyoshi-cho, 
Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka-fu 
Tel. 06-691-4398 
Pres.: Rev. Yasuhiro 
Okugawa 



420 



Evangelical Lutheran Church 
(West Japan) 

(Nishi Nihon Fukuin Ruteru 
Kyokai) 

8, 2-chome, Nakajima-dori, 

Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 



Tel. 078-22-9706/6956 
Pres.: Rev. Gyoji Nabetani 



Evangelical Missionary Church 

(Fukuin Dendo Kyodan) 
4-4, 2-chome, Hiyoshi-cho 
Maebashi-shi, Gumma-ken 
Tel. 0272-3-8222 
Supt.: Rev. Seiichi 
Kobayashi 

W 2 T B 4-4 



Evangelical Orient Mission 

(Toyo Fukuin Senkyo Kai) 
54-2, 2-chome, Higashi, 
Yotsukura-machi, 
Iwaki-shi, Fukushima-ken 
Supt.: Rev. Robert W. Gor 
nitzka 



54-2 
R. W. 



Evangelistic Band, Japan 

(Nippon Dendo Tai) 
6-11, Sumauradori, 6-chome, 
Suma-ku, Kobe-shi 
Tel. 078-71-5651 
Acting Field Director: 
Mr. Eric W. Gosden 



6 T B 



6-11 

E.W. 



DIRECTORIES 



Evangelistic Gospel Church, 
Japan 

(Nihon Dendo Fukin 

Kyodan) 

4-3, Shimo-Nakajima-cho, 
Nagaoka-shi Niigata-ken 
Supt.: Rev. Katsushi 
Kasuga 



4-3 



Far East Apostolic Mission 

(Nippon Pentekosute Kyodan) 
Tawaraguchi, Ikoma-cho, 
Nara-ken 
Tel. 07437-3821 
Supt.: Rev. Leonard 
W. Coote 




L. W. ?- h 



Far Eastern Gospel Crusade 

(Kyokuto Fukuin Juji Gun) 
111 Hakuraku, Kanagawa- 
ku. Yokohama-shi 
Tel. 045-491-9017 
Dir.: Rev. Rollin Reasoner 



R. y-X-f- 

Fellowship of Evangelical 
Baptist Churches in Canada, 
Japan Mission 

(Nippon Fukuin Baputesuto 
Senkyo Dan) 

9-24 Nakagawa, Honmachi 



Takaoka-shi, Toyama-ken 

Tel. 0766-3-6655 

Chm.: Rev. F. L. Pickering 



Church of 



F. L. 



y 



Free Methodist 
Japan 

(Nihon Jiyu Mesojisuto 
Kyodan) 

1-81, Maruyamadori, 

Abeno-ku, Osaka-shi 

Tel. 06-652-2091 

Supt.: Rev. Takesaburo 

Uzaki 



Free Will Baptist Mission, 
Japan 

(Fukuin Baputesuto Kyodan) 
Nishi 2-jo, 3-chome, 
Tsukisappu, Sapporo-shi 
Tel. 0122-88-8601 
Supt.: Mr. Wesley Calvery 



German Alliance Mission 

(Domei Fukuin Kirisuto Kyo- 
kai) 

211 Takehana-cho, 

Hajima-shi 

Tel. 05835-4055 

Supt.: Mr. Walter Werner 



JAPANESE PROTESTANT CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



223 



^smi iipr 211 

W. y^^-f 

Gospel Church, Japan 

(Nippon Fukuin Kyodan) 
5-2209, Kemigawa-machi, 
Chiba-shi 
Tel. 0472-71-7849 
Supt.: Rev. Katsuei Yoshino 



Gospel League, Japan 

(Japan Gospel League) 
56 Itakura-cho, Koyama. 
Kita-ku, Kyoto-shi 
Supt.: Rev. Edward G. 
Hanson 

i? -Y ^ i/ ^ ^ s^-si/ ] j y 

Hr 56 



j^xm : 



1548 



E.G. /^yy 

Gospel of Christ Church, Japan 

(Nippon Fukuin Kirisuto Kyo 
dan) 

3-1-1, Fujimi-cho, Chofu-shi, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 0424-82-2457 

Supt.: Rev. Keiichi Hiraide 

3-1-1 



Gospel of Jesus Church 

(lesu Fukuin Kyodan) 

1548, Shimo Hoya, Hoya-shi, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 0424-619847 

Supt.: Rev. Yutaka Akichika 



H 



Holiness Church, Japan Ara- 
hara-ha 

(Nihon Horinesu Kyokai 
Arahara-ha) 

40, 2-chome, Tamagawa- 
Naka-machi, Setagaya-ku, 
Tokyo 

Tel. 03-701-1880 
Supt.: Rev. Takeru Arahara 



2-40 



Holiness Church, Japan 
Kurumada-ha 

(Nippon Horinesu Kyodan 
Kurumada-ha) 
1-1477, Megurita, Higashi- 
Murayama-shi, Tokyo 
Tel. 0423-91-3075 
Supt.: Rev. Akiji Kurumada 



1 Tg 1477 



Holy Jesus Society 

(Sei lesu Kai) 

880, 3-chome, Totsuka- 
machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-368-8278 
Supt.: Rev. Takeji Otsuki 



3-880 



224 



DIRECTORIES 



Holy Spirit Association for 

Unification of World 

Christianity 

( Sekai Kirisutokyo Toitsu 

Shinrei Kyodai) 

1-1-2 Shoto, Shibuya-ku, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 03-467-6161 

Repr.: Mr. Nobuo Kuboki 



ifi 2-1-1 



i 



Immanuel General Mission 

(Immanueru Sogo Dendo Dan) 
Shin Kokusai Bldg., 9th 
Floor, 3-4 Marunouchi, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-2112746 
Pres.: Rev. David Tsutada 



International Christian Body 

(Kokusai Kirisuto Kyodan) 
29, 1-chome, Yoyogi, 
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-370-0571 
Sept.: Rev. Tosen Yoshimoto 



International Church of the 
Foursquare Gospel 

(Kokusai Fosukuea Kyodan) 
733 Kume, Tokorozawa-shi 



Tel. 0429-22-7716 
Suput.: Rev. Natsumi 
Takami 



Japan Gospel Pentecostal 

Group 

(Nippon Pentekosute Fukuin 

Group) 

Konan Kirisuto Kyokai, 
Akadoji, Kochino, 
Konan-shi, Aichi-ken 
Chm.: Rev. L. M. Fast 




Jehovah s Witnesses 

(Monominoto Seisho Sasshi 
Kyokai-Ehoba no Shonin) 

5-5-8 Mita, Toyooka-cho, 

Shiba, Minato-ku. Tokyo 

Tel. 03-453-0404 

Repr.: Mr. Lloyd Barry 



L. 



Jesus Christ Church, Japan 

(Nihon lesu Kirisuto Kyodan) 
1-22, 1-chome, Takamaru, 
Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi 
Tel. 078-77-4169 
Supt.: Rev. Akira Nakajima 



JAPANESE PROTESTANT CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



225 



1-22 






Jesus Christ Society, Japan 

(Nihon Kirisuto Kai) 
25-6, 1-chome, Shoto, 
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-466-3413 
Supt.: Rev. Toyokichi Mori 



25-6 



K 



Korean Christian Church 
in Japan, The 

(Zainichi Taikan Kirisuto 
Kyokai) 

24, Wakamiya-cho, 

Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-269-2909 

Gen. Secretary: 

Rev. In Ha Lee 



24 



Liebenzeller Mission, Japan 

(Riibenzera Nippon Dendo 
Kai) 

1933, Nakanoshima, Kawa- 

saki-shi, Kanagawa-ken 

Tel. 044-91-2334 

Supt. Mr. Ernest Vatter 

y ^>--i 7 B^fclzHI^ 

Wjiimjn^m<i?a 1933 

E. 7rr~^ 



Living Water Christian Church 

(Kassui Kirisuto Kyodan) 
589 Ogikubo, Oda\vara-shi, 
Kanagawa-ken 
Tel. 0465-22-6891 
Moderator: Rev. Daisuke 
Abe 



587 



Lutheran Brethren Mission of 
Japan 

(Nippon Ruteru Dolio Senkyo 
Dan) 

8, Kami-cho, Narayama, 

Motoshin-machi, Akita-shi 

Tel. 01882-2-4949 

Supt.: Rev. David Langager 



D. 



Lutheran Church- 

Missouri Synod-The Japan 

Mission 

(Nihon Ruteru Kyodan) 
2-32, 1-chome, Fujimi-cho 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-261-5266/7 
Supt.: Rev. Richard Meyer 



E i si3T 2-32 



R. 



M 



Mennonite Brethren 
Conference, Japan 

(Nippon Menonaito Burezaren 
Kyodan) 

2-1, 1-chome, Tenjin, 



226 



DIRECTORIES 



Ikeda-shi, Osaka-fu 
Supt.: Mr. Masaru Arita 



TB 2-1 



Mennonite Christian 
Church, Kyushu 

(Kyushu Menonaito Kyokai 
Kyogikai) 

50, 3-chome, Yodogawa-cho, 

Miyazaki-shi 

Tel. 0985-2-4009 

Supt.: Rev. Verney Unruh 
iLWtSI-J 

5WrfJig;i|lr 3-50 

V. $^^- 



Mennonite Church Conference, 
Japan 

(Nippon Menonaito Kyogikai) 
6-1, Kita Odori, Kushiro-shi, 
Hokkaido 
Tel. 0154-3-0777 
Repr. : Eiichiro Hatano 



Mino Mission 

10-4 Tomidahama, 

Yokkaichi-shi, Mie-ken 

Tel. 0593-96-0096 

Supt.: Miss Elizabeth A. 

Whewell 

Hjfl ?. y i/ 3 I/ 

Hfim 
E. A. 



Missionary Baptist Association 
Japan 

(Nippon Baputesuto Rengo) 
1137 Shimonagaya-cho, 
Minami-ku, Yokohama-shi 
Tel. 045-74-2586 
Supt.: Rev. Shigeo Kanaoya 



1137 



N 



Xew Testament Church, Japan 

(Nihon Shinyaku Kyodan) 
854, 3-chome, Kamitakaido, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
Supt.: Rev. Shinpei Higuchi 



3-854 



Nihon Seiyaku Kirisuto Kyo 
dan 

(Cooperating with Mission 
Convenant Church of Sweden) 

360 Aminohama, 

Okayama-shi 

Tel. 0862-72-0004 

Supt.: Rev. Gunnar 

Kristiansson 




O 

Open Bible Church 

(Nihon Opun Baiburu 
dan) 



Kyo- 



JAPANESE PROTESTANT CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



227 



5-15-28, Koshienguchi, 
Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 
Tel. 0798-67-3896 
Supt.: Rev. Suematsu Wada 



5-15-28 



Orebro Mission 

(Oreburo Senkyo Kai) 
254-1 Hiraoka-cho, Sakai- 
shi, Osaka-fu 
Tel. 0722-7-0367 
Repr.: Rev. Helge Jansson 

-ixpC^ 

1-254 



H. vy> 

Oriental Christian Church for 
Evangelization of the Deaf 

(Toyo Rowa Kirisuto Dendo 

Kyokai) 

1132-1, Oaza Ichiba, 
Moroyama-machi, 
Iruma-gun, Saitama-ken 
Supt.: Mr. Taro Hayashi 



1132-1 



Orthodox Church, Japanese 

(Nihon Harisutosu Sei Kyo 
kai) 

1-3, 4-chome, Surugadai 
Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-291-1885 
Bishop: Vladimir Nagosky 
7. h^iE|5c^ 

Mi? 4T i 



1- 



Overseas Missionary 
ellowship 

Kokusai Fukuin Senkyodan) 
49, Sawada, Tsukurimichi, 
Aomori-shi 
Tel. 01772-4-2745 
Supt.: Mr. David E. Hayman 



49 



D. E. 



Pentecostal Church of God in 
Japan 

(Nihon Pentekosute Kami no 
Kyokai Kyodan) 

1580 Ajimashinyama, 

Kusunoki-cho, Kita-ku, 

Nagoya-shi 

Tel. 052-981-8280 

Supt.: Rev. T. V. Dawson 



158 




Philadelphia Church Mission 

(Firaderufia Kyokai) 
205, Ozato-cho, Honmoku, 
Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 
Tel. 045-621-0888 
Supt.: Rev. Harold N. 
Hestekind 




Plymouth Brethren 

(Kirisuto Shinto no Shukai) 
77, 1-chome, Narimune, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-391-6727 
Repr.: Mr. Tamezo Yama- 
naka 



228 



DIRECTORIES 



Presbyterian and Reformed 
Church in Japan 

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyokai) 
c/o Nihon Kirisuto Kyokai 
Shin-Gakko 

3-14, 3-chome, Tsurumaki, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-420-7047 
Moderator: Rev. Masao 
Hirata 



3-14 



R 



Reformed Church 
in Japan, The 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kaikakuha 
Kyokai) 

20, 5-chome, Shimo-dori, 
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-461-4616 
Repr.: Shoji Yanai 



5-20 



Reformed 
Christian 
The 

(Nippon Kirisuto 
Choro Kyokai) 

9-1, Umenoya, 

Motoyama-cho, 

nada-ku, Kobe-shi 

Tel. 078-41-3175 

Supt.: Rev. Gene W. Spear 



Presbyterian 
Church of Japan, 



Kaikaku 

Okamoto, 
Higashi- 



1-9 
G. W. 



Religious Society of Friends 

(Kirisuto Yukai Nippon Nen- 

kai) 

4-8-18, Mita Dai-Machi, 
Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-451-7002 
Clerk: Ichiro Koizumi 



4-8-19 



Rural Mission, Japan 

(Nippon Chiho Dendo Dan) 
2640 Jonan-ku, Saiki-shi, 
Oita-ken 

Tel. 09722-2-2238 
Supt.: Rev. J. P. Visser 



2640 



J.P. 



S 



Salvation Army in Japan 

(Kyusei Gun Nippon Honei) 
17, 2-chome, Jinbo-cho, 
Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-263-7311/5 
The Territorial Commander: 
Commissioner Koshi 
Hasegawa 



Sanbi Kyodan 

14-8, Kako-machi, 
Hiroshima-shi 



JAPANESE PROTESTANT CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



229 



Tel. 0822-41-8957 

Supt.: Mr. Nori Kurokawa 



Seisho Kenkyukai 
9, Shimoda-machi, Tokiwa, 
Ukyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 
Tel . 075-86-2619 
Supt.: Mr. Tazaburo 
Muraoka 



Seventh Day Adventist 

(Nippon Rengo Dendo Bukai) 
846 Kami-kawai-cho, Hodo- 
gaya-ku, Yokohama-shi 
Tel. 045-951-2421 
Supt.: Mr. C. B. Watts 

=f T 




cho, Okazaki-shi, Aichi-ken 

Tel. 0564-22-7270 

Supt.: Mr. Akeo Lonander 



A. 



Swedish Evangelical Mission 
in Japan 

(Zainichi Sueden Fukuin Sen- 
kyodan) 

273-33 Aza Raiba, 

Noboribetsu-cho, 

Horobetsu-gun, Hokkaido 

Hokkaido 

Tel. 014382-2310 

Repr.: Mr. Edvin Bohlin 



C. B. 



Spirit of Jesus Church 

(lesu no Mitama Kyokai Kyo 
dan) 

152, 3-chome, Ogikubo, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-391-5925 
Bishop,: Rev. Jun Murai 



-152 



Swedish Alliance Mission in 
Japan 

(Zainichi Sueden Kirisutokyo 
Domei Senkyo Dan) 

12-139 Aza Ikeda, Yahagi- 



273-33 

E. &- y y 

Swedish Evangelical Orient 
Mission 

(Sueden Toyo Fukuin Dendo 
Dan) 

149 Hira-machi, Numazu- 

shi, Shizuoka-ken 

Tel. 0559-63-2065 

Supt.: Rev. Erik Malm 



149 



Swedish Free Mission 

(Sueden Jiyu Dendo Dan) 
2-122, Iwama-cho, Hodoga- 
ya-ku, Yokohama-shi 
Field Repr.: Mr. B. Johnson 



-122 



B. 



230 



DIRECTORIES 



Toyo Senkyokai Kiyome Kyo- 
kai 

971, 4-chome, Kashiwagi 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-369-6646 
Chief: Rev. K. Ozaki 



4-971 



u 

Unitarian Church 

(Nihon Jiyu Shukyo Renmei) 
c/o Seisiku Koko 
24 Shiba Koen, Minato-ku, 
Tokyo 

Tel. 03-433-5501 
Supt. : Rev. Shinichiro 
Imaoka 



United Church of Christ 
in Japan 

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan) 
2, 4-chome, Ginza, 
Chuo-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-561-6131/5 
Moderator: Rev. Masahisa 
Suzuki 

4-2 



United Pentecostal Church 

(Yunaito Pentekosute Kyokai) 
365 Motoyama-cho, Kamiga- 



mo, Kita-ku, Kyoto-shi 
Tel. 075-791-4887 
Supt.: Rev. Claude 
M. Thomson 



65 



C. M. 



Universalist Church 

(Kirisutokyo Dojin Shadan) 
10-9, 3-chome, Mejirodai, 
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-943-1879 
Chairman: Mr. Chugoro Ono 

* v * immt&M 

Z 3-10-9 



Universal Evangelical Church 

(Bankoku Fukuin Kyodan) 
3-17, 2-chome, Chuo, Matsu- 
moto-shi, Nagano-ken 
Tel. 0263-2-2347 
Supt.: Rev. Hiroshi 
Nak^zawa 



w 

Worldwide Evangelization 
Crusade 

(Sekai Fukuin Dendo Dan) 
569 Kondo, Gokaso-machi, 
Kanzaki-gun, Shiga-ken 
Tel. (Ishizuka) 47 
Supt.: Mr. Kenneth S. 
Roundhill 



K. S. y 



SECTION 2 

Headquarters of Protestant and Other 
Religious Agencies 



American Friends Service 
Committee 

12-7, 4-chome, Minami Azabu, ; 
Minato-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-473-0472/444-6409 
Director: Mr. H. DeWitt 
Barnett 

r t y # 7 ixyX^ttH 
ntsfKtEJftffit 4-12-7 

31^5: H. D. s*-%*y b 

Asia Christian Anti-Commu 
nism Association 

(Asia Kurisuchian Hankyo 
Kyokai) 

Reap Center, 43, 1-chome, 

Kotake-cho, Nerima-ku, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 03-958-1581 

President : Rev. Kenny 

Joseph 



JNCC 



Association of Christian 
Publications and Sales, The 

(Nippon Kirisutokyo Shuppan 
Hanbai Kyokai) 

JNCC Bunsho Jigyobu, 

2, 4-chome, Ginza, 

Chuo-ku, Tokyo 

Chairman: Mr. Norie 

Akiyama 






Audio-Visual Activities Com 
mission of Japan National 
Christian Council (AVACO) 

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Kyogikai 
Shichiokaku Jigyobu) 

2, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo-ku, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 03-561-7566 

Gen. Secretary: Mr. 

Takihiko Yamakita 
H 
(TV* = ) 



Christian Literature 
Society of Japan, The 

(Nihon Kirisuto Bunka Kyo- 
kai-Kyobunkwan) 

Kyobunkwan Building, 2 

Ginza 4-chome, 

Chuo-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-561-8446 

Chairman: Rev. Takeshi 

Muto 

President: Mr. Kokichi Ukai 

(*Xtt) 

4-2 



232 



DIRECTORIES 



Church Education Division of 
the JXCC 

(Kyokai Kyoiku Jigyo Bu, 
JNCC 

Christian Center Building, 2 

Ginza 4-chome, Chuo-ku, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 03-561-6318 

Chairman: Rev. Yoshio 

Kim ura 

Gen. Secretary: Mr. 

Chozaburo Tonozaki 


3o?;-TO*E 4 co 2 






Council of Christian Evangel 
ism for the Blind in Japan 

(Nippon Mojin Kirisutokyo 
Dendo Kyogikai) 
c/o JNCC, 2 Ginza 4-chome, 
Chuo-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-334-3065 
Chairman: Rev. Kozo 
Kashiwai 



Council of Cooperation 

(Naigai Kyoryoku Kai) 
Kyobunkwan, Building, 2 
Ginza 4-chome, Chuo-ku, 
Tokyo 

Chairman: Dr. Masahisa 
Suzuki 
Secretaries : 

Rev. Masaharu Tadokoro 
(03-561-6131) 



Rev. Alden E. Matthews 
(03-567-2501/5) 



A. E. -7>y*-X 

Education Association of 
Christian Schools in Japan 

(Kirisutokyo Gakko Kyoiku 
Domei) 

Kyobunkwan Building, 2 

Ginza 4-chome, Chuo-ku, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 03-561-7643 

Chairman: Dr. Kinjiro Old 

Secretary: Rev. Kazuo 

Suekane 



Evangelical Booksellers 
Association 

(Fukuin Shoten Kyoryokukai) 
c/o Christian Literature 
Crusade 1-3, 2-chome, 
Kanda Surugadai, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-294-0775 
Chairman: Mr. Seiji Kawai 



1-3 



Evangelical Missionary 
Association of Japan, The 

(Nihon Fukuin Senkyoshi 
Dan) 

1-3, 2-chome, Surugadai 



PROTESTANT AND OTHER RELIGIOUS AGENCIES 



233 



Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-294-0597 

President: Rev. Paul 

McGarvey 

Secretary: Rev. Claude 

Likins 



-S 2T B 



1-3 



P. 



Evangelical Publishers and 
Dealers Fellowship 

(Fukuin Shuppan Kyoryoku- 
kai) 

c/o Inochi no Kotobasha, 6 

Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 03-353-9345 

Secretary: Rev. K. McVety 



^ cot, o 



Fellowship of Asia 
Evangelicals Japan 
Evangelical Fellowship 

(Ajia Fukuin Rengo. Nippon 
Fukuin Renmei Kokusaibu) 

Reap Center, 43, 1-chome, 

Kotake-cho, Nerima-ku, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 03-958-1581 

President: Rev. Kenny 

Joseph 



Friends of Jesus Society 

(lesu no Tomo no Kai) 
8-19, 3-chome, Kami-Kita- 
zawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-302-2855 
Chairman: Mrs. Haru 
Kagawa 



T 



8-19 



Gideons International in Japan 

(Nihon Kokusai Gideon 
Kyokai) 

Toko Building, 12 Tomoe- 

cho, Nishikubo, Shiba, 

Minato-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-434-1010 

Chairman: Mr. Hideo Shirai 



12 



Holy Land Research Center 

(Seichi Kenkyukai) 
Reap Center, 43, 1-chome, 
Kotake-cho, Nerima-ku, 
Tokyo 

Tel. 03-958-1581 
President: Rev. Kenny 
Joseph 



K. 



HOREMCO 

(Hokkaido Radio and Mass 
Avaco Hokkaido Branch) 
Kita 7-jo, Nishi 6-chome, 



234 



DIRECTORIES 



Sapporo (or Box 202, Sap 

poro) 

Tel. 0122-73-0104 

Chairman: Rev. Toshio 

Sadaie 



International Christian 
Leadership 

(Aishin Kai) 
Box 528, Tokyo Central 
Chairman: Kiyoshi Ishi- 
kawa, Esq. 
Tel. 03-433-2151/8 
Exec. Sec.: Mr. Susumu 
Nojima 
Tel. 03-270-6649 



3i 528-51- 



International Institute for the 
Study of Religions 

(Kokusai Shukyo Kenkyujo) 
c/o Sophia University, 7 
Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-263-6267 
Director: Prof. Wilhelm 
Schiffer, S.J. 



Inter- Varsity Christian 
Fellowship 

(Kirisutosha Gakusei Kai) 
1-3, 2-chome, Kanda Suru- 
gadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-294-6916 
Gen. Secretary: Mr. Hisahi 
Ariga 



y 
1-3 



2T 






Japan Bible Christian Council 

(Nippon Seisho Kirisutokyo 
Kyogikai) 

Reap Center, 43, 1-chome, 

Kotake-cho, Nerima-ku, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 03-958-1581 

President : Rev. Kenny 

Joseph 

-43 



K. i? 3 -fe 7 

Japan Bible Society 

(Nippon Seisho Kyokai) 
Bible House Building, 2 
Ginza 4-chome, Chuo-ku, 
Tokyo 

Tel. 03-567-1986 
Chairman: Dr. Shiro Mura- 
ta, Th.D. 

Gen. Secretary: Rev. Shunzo 
Miyauchi 



Japan Campus Crusade 
for Christ 

(Nihon Gakusei Dendokai) 
2-1-3, Kanda Surugadai, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-292-0791/2 
Director: Rev. Samuel Koji 
Arai 



PROTESTANT AND OTHER RELIGIOUS AGENCIES 



235 



Japan Christian Medical 
Association 

(Nihon Kirisuto-sha Ika Ren- 
mei) 

1-2-9, Misaki-cho, Chiyoda- 
ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-291-5205 
Chairman: Dr. Eiichi 
Kamiya, M.D. 
Secretary: Dr. Kunio 
Murakami, M.D. 



1-2-9 



Japan Christian Social Work 
League 

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Shokai 
Jigyo Domei) 

Room 84, Kyobunkwan 

Building, 2 Ginza 4-chome, 

Chuo-ku, Tokyo 

Chairman : Rev. Yoriichi 

Manabe 

Secretary: Rev. Masaharu 

Tadokoro 



Japan Church World Service, 
Inc. 

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Hoshi 
Dan) 

Bible House, 2 Ginza 4- 

chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-561-4774/5257 

Chairman: Rev. Yoriichi 

Manabe 

Gen. Secretary: Rev. Ken- 

taro Buma 



-2 

MffcfcJiB 

Japan Council of Evangelical 
Missions 

(Nippon Fukuin Senkyo-shi 

Renmei) 

Ochanomizu Student Cen 
ter, 1-3, 2-chome, Suruga- 
dai, Kanda, Chiyoda-ka, 
Tokyo 

Tel. 03-294-0597 
President: Rev. L. R. 
Spaulding 






2-3-1 



L. R. 



Japan Evangelical Fellowship 

(Nippon Fukuin Renmei) 
c/o Yamatoya Building, 
1-13, Kakigara-cho, Nihon- 
bashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-666-4906 
President: Rev. Takesaburo 
Uzaki 

Gen. Secretary: Rev. Eiichi 
Hoshino 



Japan Keswick Convention 

(Nippon Keswick Convention) 
Room 42, Student Christian 
Center, 1, 2-chome, Kanda, 
Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, 
Tokyo 

Tel. 03-291-1910 
Chairman : Rev. Takeshi 
Muto 



236 



DIRECTORIES 



2-1-3 



Japan Overseas Christian 
Medical Cooperative Service 

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Kaigai 
Iryo Kyoryokukai) 

c/o Misaki Building, 1-6, 

Misaki-cho, Chiyoda-ku, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 03-291-5205 

Chairman: Dr. Morizo Ishi- 

date, Pharm. D. 

Secretary: Dr. Akihiko 

Shinkai, M.D. 

y 7. h 



1-6 



Japan Protestant Conference 

(Nippon Protestant Seisho 
Shinko Domei) 

Student Christian Center, 1, 

2-chome, Kanda Surugadai, 

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-291-4304 

Chairman: Rev. Takaoki 



Yokohama-shi 

Tel. 045-701-8281/3 

Chairman: Dr. Enkichi Kan 

Adm. Director: Prof. Kano 

Yamamoto 



Japan Student Christian Cen 
ters Association 

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Gakusei 
Senta Renraku Kyogikai) 

550, 1-chome, Totsuka 

machi, Shinjuku-ku Tokyo 

Tel. 03-202-6040, 03-341- 

3687 

Chairman: Mr. Kokichi Oka- 

da 

Secretary: Mr. Namio Fuse 



Tokida 

Secretary. 

Tsutada 



Rev. Tsugio 



Japan Society of Christian 
Studies, The 

(Nippon Kirisuto Gakkai) 
c/o The Theology Dept. of 
Kanto Gakuin, Mutsu-ura, 
Kanazawa-ku, 



Japan Sunday School Union 

(Nihon Nichiyo Gakko Josei 
Kyokai ) 

Sunday School Building, 5- 
21-3 Mita, Shiba, Minato-ku, 
Tokyo 

Tel. 03-447-4871/2 
Chairman: Rev. Edwin W. 
Fisch 

Director: Dr. Hideo Aoki, 
Ph.D. 



Hpa 5-21-3 



Missionary Information Center 

Reap Center, 43, 1-chome, 



PROTESTANT AND OTHER RELIGIOUS AGENCIES 



237 



Kotake-cho, Nerima-ku, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 03-958-1581 




y 7 



National Christian 
Council, Japan (JNCC) 

(Nihon Kirisuto-kyo Kyogi- 
kai) 

Kyobunkwan Building, 2 
Ginza 4-chome, Chuo-ku, 
Tokyo 

Tel. 03-561-7566/5571 
Chairman: Dr. Isamu Omu- 
ra, Th.D. 
Gen. Secretary : 

4-2 



NCC Center for the Study of 
Japan Religions 

(Nippon Kirisutokyo Kyogi- 
kai Shukyo Kenkyusho) 

c/o School of Theology, 

Doshisha University, 

Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 

Tel. 075-211-2311 

(Ext. 322) 

Director: Rev. Prof. 

Masatoshi Doi, Th. D. 

Assoc. Director: Rev. Nor- 

bert Hans Klein 




Nippon Christian Academy 

12-9, 2-chome, Sanno, 
Ota-ku, Tokyo 



Tel. 03-771-4341 

Oiso Academy House: 2 

Koshin-shuku, Oiso-machi, 

Kanagawa-ken 

Tel. 0463-7-0693/1302 
Shugakuin Academy 

House: 23 Takenouchi, 

Ichijoji, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto- 

shi 
Tel. 075-781-5050 

Chm.: Prof. Dr. Ishidate 

Morizo, Ph.D. 

Director: Rev. Kenji Oza- 

ki 



Omi Brotherhood, The 

(Omi Kyodaisha) 
Omi-Hachiman-shi, 
Shiga-ken 
Tel. 07483-3131 
President: Mr. Toshizo Ta- 
guchi 



Pacific Broadcasting Associa 
tion 

(Taiheiyo Hoso Kyokai) 

1433, 2-chome, Setagaya, 

Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-420-3166/8 

Chairman: Rev. Akira Ha- 

tori 

Gen. Mgr.: Mr. Arthur 

Seely 



1433 



238 



DIRECTORIES 



Reap Mission Inc. 

(Zenkoku Kirisutokyo Dendo- 
kai) 

Reap Center, 43, 1-chome, 

Kotake-cho, Nerima-ku, 

Tokyo 

Tel. 03-958-1581 

President: Rev. Kenny 

Joseph 



1-43 



Sakate Christian Book Store 
5 Suehiro-cho, Nishinomiya- 
shi, Hyogo-ken 
Field Repr.: Rev. & Mrs. 
David L. Pickel 



D. L. ^ y Tfr 

Society of Historical Study 
of Christianity, The 

(Kirisutokyo Shigaku Kai) 
c/o Rikkyo University Lit. 
Dept., 3 Nishi-Ikebukuro, 
Toshima-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-983-0111 (Ext. 418) 
Chairman: Prof. Arimichi 
Ebisawa, Lit. D. 
Secretary: Asst. Prof. 
Chiyomatsu Katakozawa 



Student Christian Fellowship 

(Gakusei Kirisutokyo Yua 
Kai) 

30 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku 



ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-351-2432 

Chairman: Rev. Isamu Omu- 

ra 

Directors: Rev. Yoshiyasu 

Kami 

Rev. James Atwood 



YMCA National Committee of 
Japan 

(Ninon Kirisutokyo Seinen- 
kai Domei) 

Dai 2 Kosuga Building, 
30 Ryogoku, Nihonbashi 
Chuo-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03-866-4921 
Chairman: Mr. Kyozo 
Yuasa 

Exec. Secretary: Mr. Arata 
Ikeda 



-13-10 



YWCA of Japan 

(Nippon Kirisutokyo Joshi 

Seinenkai) 

8-8, 4-chome, Minami Ku- 

dan, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 03-261-7167 

Chairman: Dr. Teruko 

Komyo 

Gen. Secretary: Rev. Mari 

Imai 



4-8-8 



SECTION 3 

HEADQUARTERS OF PROTESTANT MISSION 
BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 



ABA American Baptist Association 

Field Repr.: Rev. Bennie J. McWha 
Box 3, Dazaifu-cho, Fukuoka-ken 

ABFMS American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 

(Nihon Baptist Domei) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Glenn G. Gano 

3-9, 1-chome, Misaki-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (03) 

291-3115/9996 

ABWE Association of Baptists for World Evangelism 

Field Repr.: Rev. Gerald Winters 
1551 Oaza Nata, Fukuoka-shi 

ACC The Apostolic Christian Church of America 

(Nihon Shito Kirisuto Kyokai) 
Field Repr.: Mr. Willis R. Ehnle 

692, Shioda, Ichimiya-cho, Higashi Yatsu- 

shiro-gun, Yamanashi-ken 

ACOP Apostolic Church of Pentecost of Canada 

(Japan Gospel Pentecostal Church) 

Field Repr.: Rev. D. G. Wallace 

Unuma, Kagamihara-shi, Gifu-ken (0583) 84- 

0650 

AGM Amazing Grace Missions 

Field Repr.: Rev. David L. Pickel 

5 Suehiro-cho, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 



240 DIRECTORIES 

AG General Council of the Assemblies of God 

(Nippon Assemblies of God Kyodan) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Harry J. Petersen 
430-1, 3-chome, Komagome, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 

(03) 915-1551 

ALC The American Lutheran Church Japan Mission 

(Nippon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Oliver Bergh 

30-10, Sengoku, 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku (03) 941- 

0835 



AWM American Wesleyan Mission in Japan 

(Immanuel Sogo Dendo Dan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Harold I. Johnson 

11 Nakamura-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (03) 955- 

5401; 957-4011 

BBF Baptist Bible Fellowship 

(Nihon Baputesuto Baiburu Fueroshippu) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Koki Sugiura 

1-3-11 Matsunami, Chiba-shi (0472) 51-2929 

BGC Baptist General Conference, Japan Mission 

(Nihon Kirisuto Baputesuto Rengo Senkyodan) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Francis B. Sorley 
832-1, Yoshihara, Minami-machi, Hidaka-gun, 
Wakayama-ken (Gobo) 2134 

BIC Brethren in Christ Mission 

(Kirisutokyo Keitei Dan Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. John Graybill 

228, 4-chome, Nukui Minami-cho, Koganei-shi 

Tokyo (0423) 81-9975 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES 241 

BIMI Baptist International Missions, Inc. 

Field Repr.: Rev. Lowell Marcum 
44-3 Kawanishi-cho, Ashiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 
(0797) 3-2915 

BMA(IND) Bethany Missionary Association 

Field Repr.: Rev. D. J. Copp 
Ikoma, Nara-ken 

BMMJ Baptist Mid-Missions in Japan 

Field Repr.: Rev. Dan Bishop 

8-3 Aza Daitoku, Minami, Koriyama-shi (02452) 

3-3523 



BPM Bible Protestant Missions 

Field Repr.: Rev. Dale Oxley 

1033 Shiromoto-machi, Hitoyoshi-shi, Kumamoto- 

ken (099662) 2-2589 

CC Church of Christ 

(Kirisuto no Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Billy M. Smith 

c/o Ibaraki Christian College, 4048 Kuji-machi, 

Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (0294) 52-2251 

CCC Christian Catholic Church 

(Kirisuto Kodo Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Clark B. Offner 

21-2, 2-chome, Tsukigaoka, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya- 

shi (052) 711-9654 

CCI Child Care, Inc. 

(Nippon Fukuin Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Paul W. Benedict 

10-37, 2-chome, Kugenuma Kaigan, Fujisawa-shi 

Kanagawa-ken (0466) 2-1507 



212 DIRECTORIES 

CCCI Campus Crusade for Christ International 

Director: Rev. Sam Aral 
2-1, Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (03) 
0791 



292- 



CEF Child Evangelism Fellowship of Japan, Inc. 

(Nihon Jido Fukuin Dendo Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Kenneth N. Attaway 

1599 Higashikubo-Kamiarai, Tokorozawa-shi 

Saitama-ken (0429) 22-4076 



CG 



Church of God, Missionary Board 

(Kami no Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Arthur Eikamp 

2252-66 Aza Takamura Kuga, Nishi Tarumi 

machi, Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi (078) 76-0552 



CJPM Central Japan Pioneer Mission 

(Chuo Nihon Fukuin Senkyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Arthur T. F. Reynolds 

16-16, Nanatsu Ike-machi, Koriyama-shi, Fuku- 

shima-ken (02492) 2-7992 

CLC Christian Literature Crusade 

(Christian Bunsho Dendo Dan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Robert Gerry 

2, 1-3, Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (03) 

294-0775 



CMA The Christian and Missionary Alliance Japan 

Mission 

(Nippon Araiansu Kyodan) 

Chairman: Rev. A. Paul McGarvey 

11-20, Kako-machi, Hiroshima-shi 

Mail: Naka Box 70, Hiroshima-shi (0822) 41- 

6450 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES 243 

CMS Church Missionary Society 

(Nippon Sei Ko Kai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. David M. Wood-Robinson 
Shoin Junior College, Nakajima-dori, 1-chome, 
Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi (078) 22-5980 

CMSJ Covenant Missionary Society of Japan 

(Nippon Seikei Kyodan) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Robert Verme 
155, 5-chome, Akitsu-machi, Higashi Murayama- 
shi, Tokyo (0423) 91-6429 

CN Church of the Nazarene, Japan Mission 

(Nippon Nazarene Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Hubert Helling 

507 Okamoto-cho, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (03) 700- 

6795 

CnC Christian Churches 

(Kirisuto no Kyokai) 

Reporter: Mr. Andrew Patton 

3-7-8 Higashinakano, Nakano,-ku, Tokyo (03) 

361-0533 

CoG Church of God (Independent Holiness) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Raymond Shelhorn 
4-21, Naka Saiwai-cho, Kawasaki-shi, Kana- 
gawa-ken (044) 51-0641, 23-3648 

CPC Cumberland Presbyterian Church 

(Kambarando Choro Kyokai) 

Field Repr. : Mr. Melvin D. Stott, Jr. 

4-5-15, Minami Rinkan, Yamato-shi, Kanagawa- 

ken 

Office: (0462) 61-4371 

Home: (0462) 61-6350 



244 
CRJM 



EFCM 



DIRECTORIES 

Christian Reformed Japan Mission 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kaikakuha Kyokai) 

Field Sec y: Rev. Henry Bruinooge 

Student Christian Center, #304, 1, 2-chome, 

Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (03) 291-2595 

Japan Evangelical Free Church Mission 

(Nihon Fukuin Jiyu Kyokai) 
Field Repr. : Rev. Stan Conrad 
1 Sakuragaoka Yatomi-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya- 
shi 



EOM Evangelical Orient Mission 

(Tokyo Fukuin Senkyo Kai) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Robert W. Gornitzka 
54-2, 2-chome, Higashi, Yotsukura-machi, Iwaki- 
shi, Fukushima-ken (024632) 2735 

EUB(IBC) The Evangelical United Brethren Church, Division 
of World Mission 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 
Field Repr.: Mrs. George Theuer 
850-31, Senriyama, Suita-shi, Osaka-fu (06) 
388-4297 

FCM Free Christian Mission 

(Jiyu Christian Dendo Dan) 

25-22, 2-chome, Tawara, Fukui-shi, Fukui-ken 

(0776) 22-6315 



FEAM Far East Apostolic Mission, Inc. 

(Nippon Pentacoste Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Leonard W. Coote 

Ikoma, Nara-ken 3821 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES 245 

FEBC Far East Broadcasting Company, Inc. 

(Kyokuto Hoso) 

Director: Mr. David M. Wilkinson 

Box 1055, C.P.O. Tokyo (03) 291-0364 

FEBCC Fellowship of Evangelical Baptist Churches in 

Canada 

(Nihon Fukuin Baputesuto Senkyo Dan) 
Field Chm.: Mr. F. L. Pickering 
9-24, Nakagawa, Honmachi, Takaoka-shi, Toya- 
ma-ken (0766) 23-6655 

FEGC Far Eastern Gospel Crusade 

(Kyokuto Fukuin Jujigun) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Rollin Reasoner 

111 Hakuraku, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi 

(045) 491-9016/7 



FKK Fukuin Koyu Kai 

(Japan Gospel Fellowship) 

Field Repr.: Miss E. C. Bower 

63-1, Showa-cho, Hamadera, Sakai-shi, Osaka-fu 

(0722) 61-0019 

FWBM Japan Free Will Baptist Mission 

(Fukuin Baputesuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Wesley Calvery 

Nishi 2-jo, 3-chome, Tsukisappu, Sapporo-shi 

(0122) 86-8601 

Home Office: Box 4, Sayama-shi, Saitama-ken 

GAM German Alliance Mission 

(Domei Fukuin Kirisuto Kyokai) 
Field Repr.: Mr. Walter Werner 
54 Shimada Nishimachi, Gifu-shi, Gifu-ken 
(0582) 52-0020 



246 DIRECTORIES 

GCMM General Conference Mennonite Mission 

(Kyushu Menonaito Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. George Janzen 

504-1 Kirishima-cho, Miyazaki-shi (0985) 2-6406 



GEAM German East Asia Mission 

(Doitsu Toa Dendokai) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Guenter Dressier 
17-37, 2-chome, Koishikawa, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 
(03) 811-2862 



GFA Japan Gospel Fellowship Association 

(Nihon Fukuin Koyu Mission) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Leslie M. Frazier 

64 Midorigaoka, Honmoku, Naka-ku, Yokohama- 

shi (045) 641-8812 



GMM German Midnight Mission 

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Kyogikai) 
Field Repr.: Miss Dora Mundinger 
Nozomi no Mon Gakuen, 1436 Futtsu-machi, 

Kimitsu-gun, Chiba-ken (04788) 7-2218 



GYF Go- Ye Fellowship 

Field Repr.: Mrs. Ferae Borgman 
3384-3 Usuku-cho, Kagoshima-shi 



HSEF High School Evangelism Fellowship, Inc. 

Field Repr.: Mr. Kenneth W. Clark 

Hi-B.A. Center, 22-16, Shibuya 2-chome, Shibuya- 

ku, Tokyo (03) 409-5072 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES 247 

IBC Interboard Committee for Christian Work in 

Japan 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Committee Sec y : Rev. Alden E. Matthews 

Protestant Christian Center, 2, Ginza 4-chome, 

Chuo-ku, Tokyo (03) 567-2501 
Interboard Field Treas.: Mr. John F. Fail-field 
(Furlough 1968-1969) (03) 567-2501 
PCUS (Associate Member) Presbyterian 

in the United States 

RCA The Reformed Church in America 

UCBWM United Church of Christ 
UCC-BWM The United Church of Canada 
UCMS The Christian Churches (Disciples 

of Christ) 

UMC The United Methodist Church 

(Union of the Evangelical United 
Brethren Church and the Meth 
odist Church April 1968) 

UPC The United Presbyterian Church 

in the United States of America 



IFG International Church of Foursquare Gospel 

(Kokusai Fosukuea Kyodan Oizumi Fukuin 

Kyokai) 

Field Repr. : Rev. Walter Mussen 

806 Higashi Oizumi, Nerima-ku, Tokyo (03) 

924-0520 



IM International Missions 

(Megumi Fukuin Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Vincent Gizzi 

Nishi P.O. Box 10 Iwakuni-shi, Yamaguchi-ken 

(0827) 8-0797 



248 DIRECTORIES 

JACM Japan Advent Christian Mission 

(Nippon Adobento Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Floyd W. Powers 

2276 Higashi Iwakura-machi, Kurayoshi-shi, 

Tottori-ken (Kurayoshi) 2-4697 

JCBM Japan Conservative Baptist Mission 

(Japan Konsabatibu Baputesuto Mission) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Ansel C. Mullins, Jr. 
14-51 Tsutsumi, Aza Asahigaoka, Sendai (0222) 
33-5253 



JCG Japan Church of God 

(Nihon Church of God Kyodan) 
Director: Rev. Edward E. Call 
22 Tsuoka-cho, Hodogaya-ku, 
(045) 951-2074 



Yokohama-shi 



JEB Japan Evangelistic Band 

(Nihon Dendo Tai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Eric W. Gosden 

11 of 6, Sumauradori, 6-chome, Suma-ku, Kobe- 

shi (078) 71-5651 

JECC The Evangelical Church of Christ 

(Nihon Kirisuto Sen Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Birger Stenfelt 

382-11 Minemachi, Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi-ken 

(0286) 4-5884 



JEF Japan Evangelical Fellowship 

Director: Rev. John H. Rhoads 

769-3, Kitahara, Minamizawa, Kurume-machi, 

Kitatama-gun, Tokyo (0424) 71-1527 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES 



249 



JEM 



JEMS 



JFM 



JFMM 



JGC 



JGL 



JIM 



Japan Evangelical Mission 

(Nihon Dendo Fukuin Kyodan) 

Field Director: Mr. Bob Spaulding 

565 Kujiranami-machi, Kashiwazaki-shi, Niigata- 

ken (0257) 22-3347 

Japanese Evangelical Missionary Society 

Field Repr.: Rev. Akira Hatori 
1433, 2-chome, Setagaya, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
(03) 420-3166/8 

Japan Faith Mission 

(Kashihara Christian Center) 
Director: Mrs. Marie Hughes 
Box 9, Kashihara-shi, Nara-ken 07442-3587 

Japan Free Methodist Mission 

(Nihon Jiyu Mesojisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Elmer E. Parsons 

10-3, 1-chome, Maruyama-dori, Abeno-ku, Osaka- 

shi (06) 661-4661 



Jesus Gospel Church, Inc. 

(lesu Fukuin Kyodan) 
Field Repr.: Yutaka Akichika 
24-15, 1-chome, Hibarigaoka, 
(0424) 61-9847 



Hoya-shi, Tokyo 



Japan Gospel League 

Field Repr.: Rev. Edward G. Hanson 

56 Koyama Itakura-cho, Kita-ku, Kyoto-shi 

Japan Inland Mission 

(Nippon Kaitaku Dendo Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Hugh Kennedy, 3 Higashimon- 

machi, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi (075) 

791-0050 



250 DIRECTORIES 

JMHE Japan Mission for Hospital Evangelism 

Field Repr.: Mr. Neil (C.J.) Verwey 

242-3, Hanyuno, Habikino-shi, Osaka-fu (0729) 

55-1348 



JMM Japan Mennonite Mission 

(Nihon Menonaito Kyokai) 
Field Chm.: Mr. Ralph Buckwalter 
Nishi 7 jo, Minami 17-chome, Obihiro-shi, Hok 
kaido (01552) 4-3282 
Field Sec.: Rev. Marvin Yoder 
2 jo, 10-chome, Hiragishi, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido 
(0122) 81-1388 

JPM Japan Christian Presbyterian Mission 

(Nippon Kirisuto Choro Dendokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Philip R. Foxwell 

8-15, 1-chome, Hikawadai, Kurume-machi, Kita- 

tama-gun, Tokyo (0424) 71-2905 

JREF Japan Rural Evangelism Fellowship 

Field Sec.: Rev. R. G. Pontius 

W-145, Tachikawa West Court, Nakagami- 

machi, Akishima-shi, Tokyo (0425) 41-0585 

JRM Japan Rural Mission 

(Nippon Chiho Dendo Dan) 
Director: Rev. J. P. Visser 
Box 16, Saiki-shi, Oita-ken 2-2238 

LB Lutheran Brethren Mission of Japan 

(Ruteru Doho Kyokai) 

Chairman: Rev. Morris Larsen 

Minami-dori, Tsukiji 1339, Akita-shi, Akita-ken 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES 251 

LCA Japan Lutheran Missionaries Association of the 

Lutheran Church in America 

(Nihon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai) 

Pres. : Rev. Kenneth Dale 

29-53, Mitsuzawa Shimo-cho, Kanagawa-ku, 

Yokohama-shi (045) 491-3252 

LCMS Japan Mission of the Lutheran Church-Missouri 

Synod 

(Nihon Ruteru Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Richard Meyer 

c/o Tokyo Lutheran Center, 2-32, 1-chome, Fu- 

jima, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (03) 261-5266/7 

LEAF Lutheran Evangelical Association of Finland 

Field Repr.: Rev. Pentti Karikoski 

2-23-2 Kobinata, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (03) 941- 

7659 

LFCN Lutheran Free Church of Norway, Japan Mission 

(Kinki Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Per Kivle 

49 Takigatani, Shioya-cho, Tarumi-ku, Kobe- 
shi (078) 77-3187 

LM Liebenzeller Mission 

(Liebenzeller Nihon Dendo Kai) 

Field Chm.: Mr. Ernst Vatter 

1933 Nakanoshima, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa- 

ken (044) 91-2334 

LMI Life Ministries, Inc. 

(Shori Sha lesu Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Earl F. Tygert 

2163 Karuizawa, Nagano-ken (02674) 2302/3969 



252 DIRECTORIES 

MAR Marburger Mission 

Field Repr.: Deaconess Karoline Steinhoff 
133-3 Aza Nishimatsumoto, Nishi Hirano, Mi- 
kage-cho, Higashi Nada-ku, Kobe-shi (078) 85- 
0146 

MBM Mennonite Brethren Mission 

(Nihon Mennonite Brethren Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Sam Krause 

6, 4-chome, Yamasaka-cho, Higashi Sumiyoshi- 

ku, Osaka (06) 692-2325 

MC(IBC) The Board of Missions of the Methodist Church, 
Division of World Missions 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Dr. John Skillman 

6-20, Higashi 4-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo (03) 

409-8204 



MCCS Mission Covenant Church of Sweden 

(Nippon Seiyaku Kirisuto Kyodan) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Josef Rojas 
88-2 Kitase, Fukuda-cho, Kuvashiki-shi, 
yama-ken (0864) 55-8783 



Oka- 



MJO Mission to Japan Inc., Orphanage 

Field Repr.: Mr. Willis R. Hoffman 

40, 5-chome, Tokugawa-cho, Higashi-ku, Nago- 

ya-shi (052) 941-4694 



MM Mino Mission 

Supt.: Miss Elizabeth A. Whewell 

Mino Mission, Tomidahama, Yokkaichi-shi, Mie- 

ken (0593) 96-0096 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES 253 

MS Missions to Seamen 

(Nippon Seikokai) 

Chaplain: Rev. John Berg 

Assistant: Mr. Carson Edwards 

194, Yamashita-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 

(045) 681-4654/5 

MSCC Missionary Society of the Anglican Church of 

Canada 

(Nippon Seiko Kai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. R. B. Mutch 

Nagoya Student Center, 260 Miyahigashi-cho, 

Showa-ku, Nagoya-shi (052) 781-0165 

MTJ Missions to Japan, Inc. 

(Kure Revival Center) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Ray Pedigo 

Box 8, Kure-shi, Hiroshima-ken 21-8904 

NAB North American Baptist General Mission in 

Japan 

(Zai Nippon Hokubei Baputesuto Sogo Senkyo- 

dan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Fred G. Moore 

7-1, 1-chome, Koda, Ikeda-shi, Osaka-fu (0727) 

51-7533 

NABA North American Baptist Association 

Field Repr.: Rev. Z. J. Rankin 

2-1405 Owada, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo (0426) 42- 

4401 

NAV The Navigators 

(Kokusai Navigators) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Robert R. Boardman 

769-6, Kitahara, Minamizawa, Kurume-machi, 

Kitatama-gun, Tokyo (0424) 71-1588 



254 DIRECTORIES 

NGM North German Mission 

(Nihon Fukuin Lutheran Kyokai) 
Field Repr.: Miss Hanna Henschel 
217, Shimorenjaku, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 
43-3914 



(0422) 



NLL New Life League 

(Shinsei Undo Kyorokukai) 

Field Repr.: Dr. Fred D. Jarvis 

1736 Katayama, Niiza-machi, Kita Adachi-gun, 

Saitama-ken (0424) 71-1625 

NLM Norwegian Lutheran Mission 

(Nishi Nippon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Kaare Boe 

8, 2-chome, Nakajima-dori, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078) 22-3601 

NMA The Norwegian Mission Alliance 

Field Repr.: Mr. Abraham Vereide 

19-20, 2-chome, Shinden-cho, Ichikawa-shi, Chiba- 

ken 

NMS Norwegian Missionary Society 

Field Repr.: Leif N. Salomonsen 
30 Takabane Teraguchi-machi, Nada-ku, Kobe- 
shi (078) 85-2878 



NTC Next Towns Crusade 

Field Repr.: Mr. Bill Williams 

Minami leki, leki Kyoku Ku Nai, Mie-ken 

OBSF The Oriental Bible Study Fellowship 

Field Repr.: Mr. Marvin L. Fieldhouse 
3704, Karuizawa-machi, Nagano-ken 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES 255 

OMF Overseas Missionary Fellowship 

(Kokusai Fukuin Senkyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. David E. Hayman 

49 Sawada, Tsukurimichi, Aomori-shi (01772) 

4-2745 

OMJ The Orebro Mission Japan 

Field Repr.: Rev. Helge Jansson 

254 Hiraoka-cho, Sakai-shi, Osaka-fu (0722) 71- 

0367 

OMS The Oriental Missionary Society 

(Nihon Horinesu Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Wesley L. Wildermuth 

1477, 1-chome, Megurita, Higashi Murayama- 

shi, Tokyo (0423) 91-3071/2 

OPC Orthodox Presbyterian Church 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kaikakuha Kyokai) 

Chairman: Rev. R. Heber Mcllwaine 

16-5 Shinhama-cho, Fukushima-shi (0245) 34- 

0587 



PCC The Presbyterian Church in Canada 

(Zainichi Daikan Kirisuto Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. J. H. Mclntosh 

200, 2-chome, Shinonome-cho, Higashi-ku, Osaka- 

(06) 761-0080 

PCGJ Pentecostal Church of God in Japan 

(Nihon Pentakosute Kami no Kyokai Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. R. A. Meenk 

P.O. Box 16, Hanno-shi, Saitama-ken (04297) 

6500 



256 DIRECTORIES 

PCM Philadelphia Church Mission 

(Fuiraderufia Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Harold N. Hestekind 

205, Ozato-cho, Honmoku, Yokohama-shi (045) 

621-0888 

PCUS Japan Mission of the Presbyterian Church in the 

United States 

Associate Member of the Interboard Committee 
for Christian Work in Japan 
(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan and Nihon Kirisuto 
Kaikakuha Kyokai) 

Mission Sec.: Miss Margaret Archibald 

Smythe Hall, Kinjo College, Omori-cho, Mori- 

yama-ku, Nagoya-shi (0560) 79-3053 

Field Repr. for IBC: Rev. Woodward Morriss 

(Furlough 1968-69) 

PEC Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A. 

(Nippon Sei Ko Kai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Kenneth E. Heim, D.D. 

24-1 Minami Aoyama 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 

(03) 408-3435/6 

PF The Pilgrim Fellowship 

(Independent Bible Church) 

Field Repr. : Rev. Wilbur Lingle 

112 Aza Obari, Oaza Takabari, Itaka-cho, Chiku- 

sa-ku, Nagoya-shi (052) 701-1072 

RCA (IBC) Board of World Missions of the Reformed Church 
in America 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Ronald Korver 

843, 1-chome, Higashi-cho, Koganei-shi Tokyo 

(0423) 81-7374 (Furlough 1968-69) 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES 

RF Revival Fellowship 

Field Repr.: Rev. Milliam E. Schubert 
2163 Karuizawa, Nagano-ken (02764) 2302 



257 



RPM The Reformed Presbyterian Mission in Japan 

(Nippon Kaikaku Choro Kyokai) 

Chairman: Rev. Gene W. Spear 

c/o R. P. Mission, Box 589, Kobe Port (078) 41- 

3175 

RSF Japan Committee of the Philadelphia Yearly 

Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends 

(Kirisuto Yukai Nippon Nenkai) Friends Center 
14, 1-chome, Mita Daimachi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 
(03) 451-0804 



SA 



The Salvation Army 

(Kyusei Gun) 

Territorial Commander: Commissioner Koshi 
Hasegawa 

17, 2-chome, Kanda Jimbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku, To 
kyo (03) 263-7311/5 



SAM Swiss Alliance Mission 

Field Repr.: Mr. Paul Schar 
Chigusa, Kanai-machi, Sado-gun, 
(025963) 2777 



Niigata-ken 



SAMJ Swedish Alliance Mission in Japan 

(Nippon Domei Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Ake Lonander 

12-139 Aza Ikeda, Yahagi-cho, Okazaki-shi, Aichi- 

ken (0564) 22-7270 



258 DIRECTORIES 

SB Southern Baptist Convention Foreign Mission 

Board 

(Nippon Baputesuto Senkyodan) 

Chairman: Dr. Curtis Askew 

Treasurer: Rev. Charles Whaley 

350, 2-chome, Nishi Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 

(03) 351-2166 

SBM Swedish Baptist Mission 

(Nihon Baputesuto Domei) 

Field Repr.: Mrs. Thora Thoong 

93-11 Shimoikeda-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, 

Kyoto-shi (075) 79-7482 

SCD Scandinavian Christian Doyukai 

(Nippon Kirisuto Doyukai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Aasulv Lande 

Yamazaki 5914-367, Fukuroi-shi, Shizuoka-ken 

(053801) 119 

SDA Japan Union Mission of Seventh-day Adventists 

(Nippon Rengo Dendo Bukai) 

President: Mr. C. B. Watts 

Box 7, Hodogaya-Nishi, Yokohama-shi ; Office: 

(045) 951-2421; Home: (045) 951-2224 

SEAM Swiss East Asia Mission 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Dr. Werner Kohler 

10 Shogoin Higashimachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (075) 

771-2347 



SEAMJ Swedish Evangelical Mission in Japan 

Field Repr.: Mr. Edvin Bohlin 

273-33, Aza Raiba, Noboribetsu-cho, Horobetsu- 

gun, Hokkaido (Horobetsu 014382) 2310 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES 



259 



SEOM 



SFM 



SSJE 



Swedish Evangelical Orient Mission 

Field Repr. : Rev. Eric Malm 

30-7 Motoshiro-cho, Fujinorniya-shi, 

ken (05442) 6-4556 



Shizuoka- 



Swedish Free Mission 

(Jun Fukuin Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Bo Johnson 

122, 2-chome, Iwama-cho, Hodogaya-ku, Yokoha- 

ma-shi (045) 331-0643 

Society of St. John the Evangelist 

(Nippon Seikokai) 

Provincial Superior: Rev. David E. Allen 
Assistant Superior: Rev. David W. H. Clayton 

7-12, 2-chome, Hikawadai, Kurume-machi, Kita- 
tama-gun, Tokyo (0424) 71-0175 



TBC Tokyo Bible Center (Baptist) 

(Tokyo Seisho Senta) 

Field Repr.: Timothy Pietsch 

9, 9-chome, Yakumo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (03) 

717-0746/5147 



TEAM 



TEC 



The Evangelical Alliance Mission 

(Nippon Domei Kirisuto Kyodan) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Verner K. Strom 
15-15, 3-chome, Daisawa, Setagaya-ku, 
(03) 421-3442 



Tokyo 



Tokyo Evangelistic Center 

(Tokyo Fukuin Senta) 

Field Repr.: Dr. Charles Corwin 

2-30, 6-chome, Higashi Fushimi, Hoya-shi, 

kyo (0424) 61-4620 



To- 



260 



DIRECTORIES 



UCBWM United Church Board for World Ministries 

(IBC) (Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. William Kroehler 

16-2, Numabukuro 4-chome, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 

(03) 386-0493 

UCC-BWM Board of World Mission of the United Church 
(IBC) of Canada 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Miss Enid M. Horning 

Ryogoku, Tomisato-mura, Imba-gun, Chiba-ken 

(047634) 55 

UCMS Division of World Mission of the United Chris- 

(IBC) tian Mission Society (Disciples of Christ) 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Miss Daisy Edgerton 

6-15, Oji Honcho 1-chome, Kita-ku, Tokyo (03) 

900-5265 (Home) ; (03) 828-2277 (School) 

UPC Commission on Ecumenical Mission & Relations 

(IBC) of the United Presbyterian Church in the United 

States of America 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Dr. James Phillips, 12-27, Osawa 

1-chome, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo (0422) 43-6194 

UPCM United Pentecostal Church Missionaries 

(Unaito Pentecosute Kyokai) 

Superintendent: Rev. Norman Zeno 

671, 5-chome, Nukui, Kita-machi, Koganei-shi, 

Tokyo 

USPG United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 

(Nippon Seikokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. David M. Chamberlain 

74, Ozato-cho, Honmoku, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 

(045) 621-0657 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES 



261 



WEC World Evangelization Crusade 

(Sekai Fukuin Dendo Dan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Kenneth S. Roundhill 

1-57, Maruyama, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyo- 

to-shi (075) 78-6524 



WELS 



Mission of Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran 
Synod 

(Ruteru Fukuin Kirisuto Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Richard A. Poetter 

4022 Ishikawa-cho, Mito-shi, Ibaraki-ken (0292) 

51-5204 



WFJCM Worldwide Fellowship with Jesus Christ Mission 

(lesu Kirisuto ni Majiwari Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Miss Susie Thomas 

4399 Noikura, Ariake-cho, Soo-gun, Kagoshima- 

ken (Ariake-cho) 33 

WGM World Gospel Mission 

Field Repr. : Rev. David A. Kuba 

20 Nakamaru-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (03) 955- 

5497 

WMC World Missions to Children 

(Kirisuto Fukuin Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Phares Huggins 

850 Tenjin-cho, Sasebo-shi, Nagasaki-ken (09562) 

2-6909 



WMF Wiedenest Missionary Fellowship 

Field Repr.: Mr. Samuel Pfeifer 
7 Ken-machi, Ibigawa, Ibi-gun, Gifu-ken (05852) 
2-0857 



262 DIRECTORIES 

WO World Outreach 

(Akashi Gospel Center) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Kinichiro James Endo 

Box 790, CPO Tokyo (03) 252-6778 

WRPL World Revival Prayer League, Inc. 

(Megumi Fukuin Kyokai) 
Director: Rev. Mrs. Margaret K. Ross 
5-7, 1-chome, Azuma-bashi, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 
(03) 622-5248 

WUMS Woman s Union Missionary Society 

Field Repr.: Mr. Keith C. Lee 

221 Yamate, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi (045) 641- 

3993 

WRBCMS Walworth Road Baptist Church Missionary 
Society 

Field Repr.: Miss Florence E. Penny 

467 Oaza Ai, Ibaraki-shi, Osaka-fu (0726) 43- 

6979 

WV World Vision International 

Field Repr.: Rev. Joe Gooden 

C.P.O. Box 405, Tokyo, or Student Center, Room 

303, 2-1, Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (03) 

292-7604/5 

YMCA International Committee National Council 

YMCA s of USA and Canada 
(Nihon YMCA Domei) 
Field Repr.: Mr. A. Delmar Wedel 
Dai 2 Kosuga Building, 30 Ryogoku, Nihon-bashi, 
Chuo-ku, Tokyo (03) 866-4921 



SECTION 4 
List of Protestant Missionaries 



2-23-2 

T h * V 



Abbott, Miss Priscilla, 1968, lAkichika, Rev. and Mrs. Yu- 



PCUS 1523, Ikano-machi, 
Zentsuji-shi, Kagawa-ken 
(08776)-2-2440 

1523 

Ttfy h 



taka, JGC 24-15-1-chome 
Hibarigaoka, Hoya-shi, To 
kyo (0424)-61-9847 



24-15 



Abrahams, Mr. and Mrs. Albertson, Dr. (M.D.) and 



Douglas J., (Olga), 1952, 
OMF 49 Sawada, Tsukuri- 
michi, Aomori-shi (01772)- 
4-2745 
W^TfJjejtiRffl 49 

~7 -f 7 ^J* 

Adams, Rev. and Mrs. Evyn, Alderson, Rev. and Mrs. 
(Joy), 1951, IBC (MC) Archie Lee, (Verna), 1957 
Leave of absence NTC Furl. 68-69 

Adams, Rev. and Mrs. Willis, ! Allen, Rev. David E., 1962, 



Mrs. Verner, (Saidie), 1966, 
SDA 17, 3-chome, Ama- 
numa, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-329-6151 

3-17 

- b V V 



(Bernadine), 1950, TEAM 
18-4, 5-chome, Sakuradai, 
Nerima-ku, Tokyo (03)-991- 
2448 

5-18-4 



SSJE St. Michael s Monas 
tery, Oyama-shi, Tochigi- 
ken (02852)-2-1062 



Ahtonen, Miss Hilda, 1962, 
LEAF 2-23-2 Kobinata, 
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
941-7659 



Allen, Miss Mary Jane, 1966, 
IBC (UCBWM JS^) Iris 
Apt. #1-6, 22-3, Minami 
Azabu, 1-chome, Minato-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-451-9464 



264 



DIRECTORIES 



1-22-3 



T-f 



Allen, Rev. and Mrs. Shelton, 
(Dorothy), 1952, FEGC 7- 
5, 1-chome, Kiyosumi-cho, 
Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi-ken 



Allen, Miss Thomasine, 1915, 
ABFMS 70-1, 5-chome, 

Kashiwazaki, Kuji-shi, Iwa- 
te-ken 

5-70-1 



Allum, Miss Iris O., 1951, IBC 
(MC) Furl. 68-69 

Almroth, Mr. and Mrs. Harald, 
(Astrid), SFM 27-3, 1-cho 
me, Morino, Machida-shi, 
Tokyo (0427)-22-4317 

l^fWEBTfiW 1-27-3 

7 AP X 

Alsdorf, Mr. Frederic W., 
1966, LCA Namiki-so, 488- 
1, Adachi Sanmon-cho, Ko- 
kura-ku, Kita Kyushu-shi 



Althouse, Miss Sue S., 1955, 
IBC (UPC) c/o Mrs. M. 
Kamei 4-6, Heiwadori, 1- 
chome, Matsuyama-shi, Ehi- 
me-ken (0899)-43-0747 

-4-6 



Amos, Rev. and Mrs. Richard, 
(Judith), 1967, QMS 1648, 
1-chome, Megurita, Higashi 
Murayama-shi, Tokyo 
(0423) -91-3072 

1-1648 



Andaas, Mr. and Mrs. Arnfinn, 
(Hildur), NLL-1736 Kata- 
yama, Niiza-machi, Kita 
Adachi-gun, Saita-ken 
(0424)-71-1625 



Anderson, Rev. and Mrs. D. 
W., (Vera), 1960, MSCC- 
Furl. 68-69 

Anderson, Mr. and Mrs. Evert, 
(Maria), 1951, SFM 339, 
Takabatake-cho, Kofu-shi, 
Yamanashi-ken ( 0552) -3- 
6335 



Anderson, Miss Hjordis, 1964, 
SBM 637, Shinzaike, Hime- 
ji-shi (0792)-23-2052 



Anderson, Miss Mildred, 1951, 
JEM Fujimi-mura, Tsuru- 
se 645-1, Irima-gun, Sai- 
tama-ken (Oi)-61-6840 



645-1 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



265 



Anderson, Miss Myrtle, 1951 



8-7, 5-chome, Hon- 
cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 
(0423)-81-2671 

5-8-7 



Anderson, Rev. and Mrs. Ro 
bert, (Priscilla), 1966, PCC 
24, Wakamiya-cho, Shin- 
juku-ku, Tokyo (03)-269- 
2909 

:/ B 24 



Andersson, Mr. and Mrs. 
Goran, (Roswita), 1967, 
JECC c/o Tygert s. 2163 
Karuizawa-machi, Nagano- 
ken (02674) -2302 
mOT 2163 

9 4 if- \-~ft ~rvif- v v 

Andersson, Miss Martha, 
JECC Furl. 68-69 

Andersson, Rev. and Mrs. 
Sven Erik, (Anita), SBM 
10, 5-chome, Yuminoki-cho, 
Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 

#Fffi8tE3/;W 5-10 

VSjf- V V 

Andersson, Miss Thali, 1951, 
SAMJ 80 Azumada-cho, 
Toyohashi-shi, Aichi-ken 
(0532)-54-8355 



Archer, Rev. and Mrs. Sam, 
(Manda), 1952, TEAM 
1603 Omiya-cho, Suginami- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-311-0204 
1603 



Archibald, Miss Margaret, 
1928, IBC (PCUS) Smythe 
Hall, Kinjo College Omori- 
cho, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya- 
shi, Aichi-ken (0560 )-79- 
3053 



Arnesen, Rev. and Mrs. Jacob, 
(Olaug), 1954, PCM 1310 
Hisaki-cho, Isogo-ku, Yoko- 
hama-shi (045)-751-2740 
^KmH^EX*BT 1310 

T - ^ -fe v 

Askew, Dr. and Mrs. D. Cur 
tis, (Mary Lee), 1947, SB 
1535, 3-chome, Asahi-machi, 
Fuchu-shi, Tokyo (0423)- 
61-9170 

3-1535 



Aspberg, Mrs. Ingrid, 1950, 
SEOM 15-141 Ohito-machi, 
Tagata-gun, Shizuoka-ken 
(0558)-72-1091 

r 15-141 



Asserhed, Miss Karin, 1964, 
MCCS-5-4-21, Ajino, Kojima 
Kurashiki-shi (0864)-72- 
2024 



DIRECTORIES 



5-4-21 



Astalos, Rev. and Mrs. Ronald, 
(Kimiko), 1962, LCMS 

Attaway, Mr. and Mrs. Ken 
neth N., (Ruth M.), 1952/ 
54, CEF-1599 Higashi-kubo- 
Kamiarai, Tokorozawa-shi, 
Saitama-ken (0429)-22- 

4076 



r 9 V x. >r 

Atteberry, Rev. and Mrs. 
Dudley, (Kathy), 1962, IND 
Box 64, Wakkanai, Hok 
kaido (Wakkanai)-3-3104 



Atwood, Rev. and Mrs. James 
E., (Roxana), 1965, IBC 
(PCUS) 3-47, Mure, 4- 
chome, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 
(0422)-43-7119 



4-3-47 
T 



K 



Auchenback, Miss E. Louise, 
1957, IBC (UCBWM) lyo- 
tetsu Nishi Building, Apt. 
501, 2-2, Minato-machi, 5- 
chome, Matsuyama-shi, Ehi- 
me-ken (0899)-41-6194 Ext. 
508 

BT 5-2-2 



Auw, Rev. and Mrs. Hugh C., 
(Helen), 1951, LCMS-4, 



Toryo-cho, Kitami-shi, Hok 
kaido (0157)-22-4887 
* 4 



Axelsson, Miss Alva, SFM 
Furl. 

Axelsson, Mr. and Mrs. Gosta, 
(Marta), SFM Gotemba 
Jun Fukuin Kyokai, Gotem- 
ba-shi, Shizuoka-ken 
(0550)-2-2872 



iii/fi 



r 



Axelsson, Miss Mary, SAMJ 
3871- Yamahigashi, Ten- 
ryu-shi, Shizuoka-ken 
(0539)-2-3570 

3871-1 



Ayabe, Rev. and Mrs. Henry, 
(Lorraine), 1955, FEGC 
133, 1-chome, Hana Koga- 
nei, Kodaira-shi, Tokyo 
1-133 



Bacon, Rev. and Mrs. Dexter, 
(Shirley), 1965, IND (Bap 
tist) Higashi-ku, Kita Koto- 
shiba, Ube-shi, Yamaguchi- 
ken 



Bahler, Miss Margrit, 1952, 
OMF Furl. 68-69 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



Baker, Miss Elsie M., 1924, 
CMS Retired-Poole Gaku- 
in, 5-chome, Katsuyama- 
dori, Ikuno-ku, Osaka-shi 
(06)-741-7005 



Baldwin, Rev. and Mrs. Wal 
ter, (Clare) 1950, IBC 
(PCUS) 1-31, Maruya-cho, 
4-chome, Showa-ku, Nagoya- 
shi Aichi-ken (052)-841- 
4170 

4-1-13 



Baldwin, Rev. and Mrs. W.W., 
(Eleanor), MSCC 882, 8- 
chome, Senda-machi, Hiro 
shima-ken (0822)-4-5775 
-882 



Ballantyne, Miss Mary, 1936, 
WUMS 221 Yamate-cho, 
Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 

(045)-641-3993 



Bandel, Miss Elizabeth, 1953, 
IBC (MC) Ochiai, Miyano- 
dai, Oyama-cho, Sunto-gun, 
Shizuoka-ken 



Banks, Captain and Mrs. Wil 
liam, (Muriel), 1957, SA 
41-8, 1-chome, Wada, Sugi- 
nami-ku, Tokyo ( 03) -263- 
7311 Furl. 68-69 



1-41-3 



Barber, Miss Desley, 1954, 
OMF c/o Takuhoku-so, Hi- 
gashi 6, Kita 22, Sapporo- 
shi, Hokkaido (0122)-71- 
3607 



Barham, Mr. and Mrs. James 
E., 1968 FEBC Box 1055, 
C.P.O. Tokyo Office (03)- 
291-0364; Home (03)-919- 
4277 

1055 



Barker, Miss Alwyn, 1968, 
JEB 11 of 6, Sumaura-dori, 
6-chomo, Suma-ku, Kobe- 
shi, (078)-71-5651 

^E^^ffi 6-11-6 



Barker, Rev. and Mrs. Ri 
chard, (Barbara), 1964, 
WGM Furl. 68-69 



Barker, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Kiyoko), 1947/54, IBC 
(UPC) Furl. 68-69 



Barksdale, Dr. and Mrs. John, 
(Virginia), 1951, IBC 
(PCUS) Furl. 68 



268 



DIRECTORIES 



Barnard, Rev. and Mrs. 
Eugene, (Doris), IBC 
(UPC Spec.) 12, Annaka, 
Annaka-shi, Gunma-ken 

(0273)-8-0721 

A--J-- K 

Barnett, Mr. and Mrs. H. De- 
witt, (Rebecca), 1965, Amer 
ican Friends Service Com 
mittee, 2-41, 1-chome, Hi- 
gashi Gotanda, Shinagawa- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-441-5903 
1-2-41 



Barnhart, Miss Esther P., 1951 
LCA 320, Kuwamizu-cho, 
Kumamoto-shi, Kumamoto- 
ken (0963)-64-1981 



/<l/s^ b 

Barns, Mr. and Mrs. A. 
Donald, (Fay), 1960/62, 
WEC 569, Kondo, Gokasho- 
cho, Kanzaki-gun, Shiga- 
ken 

569 



Bartel, Rev. and Mrs. Jona 
than H., (Alice), 1952, 
MBM 6-29 Soen, 1-chome, 
Ikeda-shi, Osaka-fu (0727) 
-6-8710 

1-6-29 



Barthold, Rev. and Mrs. Stan 
ley, (Mary), 1956 TEAM 
31, 2-chome, Kita-machi, 
Hotarugaike, Toyonaka-shi, 
Osaka-fu (068)-55-8696 

2-31 

XA- h *~/l-K 

Bartholomew, Miss Jocelyn, 
1967, IBC (UCBWM J3) 
Kobe Jogakuin, Okadayama, 
Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 
(0798)-51-0957 Ext. 45 



Bartlett, Rev. and Mrs. David, 
1967, TEAM 1199-B Karui- 
zawa-machi, Nagano-ken 



Bartram, Miss Ann, 1966, 
CCCI c/o Japan Crusade 
for Christ, 2-1, Surugadai, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
292-0791 

2-1 



Bascom, Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert, 
(Maxine), 1950, IBC (MC) 
Canadian Academy, 4-92, 
Nagamineyama, Oishi, Na- 
da-ku, Kobe-shi (078) -86- 
6630 

4-92 



Bascom, Mr. and Mrs. M.T., 
(Dorothy), 1964, SDA 11 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



269 



Nakajima-dori, 3-chome, Fu- 
kiai-ku, Kobe-shi (078)-220- 
5537 



Basinger, Mr. and Mrs. Wil 
liam, (Jean Ann), 1968, 
IBC (UPC) 7-4, Denen- 
chofu, 5-chome, Ota-ku, To 
kyo (03)-721-4897 



Baskerville, Rev. and Mrs. 
David, (Inez), 1964, LCA 
117, 2-chome, Shinoyama- 
cho, Kurume-shi, Fukuoka- 
ken (09422) -2-4972 

-H7 



Bass, Mr. David, 1967, PEC 
296 Nishino, Sakai-shi, 
Osaka-fu (0723)-7-0131 
296 



Batek, Miss Joyce, 1960, NAB 
Sakae Apt., 13-50, Ozono- 
cho, Tsu-shi, Mie-ken (8- 
6579) 

isr 13-50 



Bauer, Dr. (M.D.) and Mrs. 
C.L., (Myrna), 1966, SDA 
17, 3-chome, Amanuma, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
392-6151 Sum. Furl. 



Baum, Rev. and Mrs. Wilhelm, 
(Augusta), 1952, FEGC- 
2-9-4, Showa, Utsunomiya- 
shi, Tochigi-ken 

2-9-4 



Bauman, Rev. and Mrs. Elmer, 
(Carol), 1953/52, JEM Ka- 
shiwazaki Seisho Gakuin, 
Kujiranami-machi, Kashi- 
wazaki-shi, Niigata-ken 

(02582)-2-6329 

^-^^ 

Baynes, Rev. and Mrs. Simon 
H., (Caroline), 1963, CMS 
c/o Matsue Christ Church, 
273 Kitadono-cho, Matsue- 
shi 



Beabout, Miss Florence, 1950, 
JCBM Furl. 68-69 

Beavan, Miss Dorothy, 1959, 
OMF Furl. 68-69 

Beck, Mr. and Mrs. Carl, 
(Esther), 1949, JMM 1-18, 
2-chome, Honan, Suginami- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-311-4277 
Summer Furl. 

-1-18 



Beck, Mr. and Mrs. Gotthold, 
IND 9-11, 4-chome, Hon 
Cho Kichijoji, Musashino- 
shi, Tokyo (0422)-22-2016 



270 



DIRECTORIES 



4- 



9-11 



Becker, Miss Blanche, 1954, 
EFCM Furl. 68-69 

Beckman, Mr. and Mrs. 
George, (Ethel), 1949, CnC 
40-8, Kamizono-cho, Koyo- 
en, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo- 
ken 

@_hHBX40-8 



Beckon, Mr. and Mrs. Gifford, 
(Madge), 1949, IND 633 
Shimo Kotori, Takasaki-shi, 
Gunma-ken (027)-22-4217 



Bee, Mrs. Barbara May, 1926, 
JEB 11 of 6 Sumaura 
Dori, 6-chome, Suma-ku, 
Kobe-shi (078)-71-5651 

Beecken, Rev. and Mrs. Her 
bert, (Dorothy), 1950, IBC 
(UCBWM) Interboard Ho 
stel, 3-50, Osawa 6-chome, 
Mitaka-shi, Tokyo (0422)- 
45-3855 

iC^flEU r(5:*;K 6-3-50 



Belknap, Rev. and Mrs. Her 
bert, IND Fukuin Seisho 



Gakko, 322-1, Takagi, Kita- 
tama-gun, Yamato-machi, 
Tokyo 

*lfcfc?pBrift# 322-1 

-<^i- y -? 



Bell, Rev. and Mrs. Otis, 
(Earlene), 1957, IBC (MC) 
House 3, 4-22, Minami 
Aoyama 5-chome, Minato- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-407-1913 
MWliJ 5-4-22-3-^- 



Benedict, Mr. and Mrs. Paul, 
(Sue), 1952, CCI 10-37, 2- 
chome, Kugenuma Kaigan, 
Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa- 
ken (0466)-22-1507 

w#jmmfi.-fcmmm& 2-10- 

37 



Benner, Mr. and Mrs. Patter 
son, (Gretchen), 1958/51, 
IBC (MC) House 1, 4-22 
Minami Aoyama 5-chome, 
Minato-ku, Tokyo (03)-400- 
1201 

U] 5-4-22 



Bennett, Miss Ethylen, 1963, 
GFA Furl. 68-69 

Bennett, Mr. and Mrs. Merril, 
(Myrtlebelle), 1952, CN 
Box 4, Yotsukaido, Imba- 
gun, Chiba-ken ( 0472) -82- 
2234 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



271 



Bennett, Rev. and Mrs. Pres 
ton, (Audie), 1961, SB 
3195-12 Oaza Nasuzukuri, 
Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 

(0720)-54-0808 
ifclKJfttfcfrlJ^^fF 3195- 

12 -<^ y b 



Benson, Mr. and Mrs. Bennie, 
(Dorothy), 1953, JCBM 61- 
32, Nagakuki, Nagamachi, 
Sendai-shi 

1-32 s<y^^ 



Bentley, Mrs. James Rufus, 
1966, IBC (MC-J3V2) c/o 
Mrs. Matsuda, 7-25, Kami 
Osaki 2-chome, Shinagawa- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-473-0006 
2-7-25 



Benzinger, Miss Esther, 1952 
LM 935 Kugahara, Ota-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-751-0211 



Berentsen, Rev. Jan Martin, 
NMS 30 Teraguchi-cho, 
Takaba, Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078)-85-2878 



Berg, Rev. John, MS (USPG) 
234 Yamate-cho, Naka-ku, 
Yokohama-shi (045)-641- 
1688 

234 



Bergeld, Miss Sofia, 1950, 
SFM Furl. 

Bergh, Rev. and Mrs. Earl, 
(Nijiko), 1957, LCA Furl. 
68-69 

Bergh, Rev. and Mrs. Oliver, 
(Judith), 1951, ALC 20, 2- 
chome, Tokiwadai, Itabashi- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-960-2687 
2-20 



Berglund, Rev. and Mrs. Rune, 
(Gudrum), 1965, MCCS 
360 Aminohama, Okayama- 
shi, Okayama-ken (0862)- 
72-1829 

360 -<^/-7^K 



Bergt, Rev. and Mrs. Elmer 
J., (Elvira), 1951, LCMS 
239-A, Yamate-cho, Naka- 
ku, Yokohama-shi (045)- 
641-1296 

239-A 



Betts, Mr. and Mrs. Joe D., 
(Ruth), 1956, CC 4048 
Omika, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki- 
ken (0294) -52-4799 



Bettschen, Rev. and Mrs. Wm. 
D., (Thelma), 1959 ACOP 
31-4, Doko, Inazawa-machi, 
Inazawa-shi, Aichi-ken 

31-4 



272 



DIRECTORIES 



Bevan, Miss Judy, 1966, 
WUMS 221 Yamate-cho, 
Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 

(045)-641-3993 



Mrs. 
1958, 



Bickerton, Rev. and 

Frank, (Noeline), 
JREF Furl. 68-69 



Billings, Rev. and Mrs. Paul, 
(Virginia), 1965, IBC 
(MC) -- 12, Motodaiku-ma- 

chi, Hirosaki-shi, Aomori- 

ken (01722)-2-4842 



Billow, Rev. and Mrs. William 
D., (Doris), 1954, LCA 4- 
12-11, Kichijoji, Honmachi,- 
Musashino-shi, Tokyo (0422) 
-22-6372 



-11 



4-12 

hf P r> 



Bishop, Rev. and Mrs. Dan 
M., (Lois), 1953, BMMJ 8- 
3 Aza Daitoku, Minami, 
Koriyama-shi, Fukushima- 
ken ( 02452 )-3-3523 



Bishop, Mr. and Mrs. Harry, 
IND Furl. 

Bixel, Dr. (D.D.S.) and Mrs. 
D.A., (Judith), 1965, SDA 
15-5, Kami Igusa, 1-chome, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
390-5177 Sum. Furl. 



1-15-5 



Bixler, Mr. and Mrs. Dean, 
(Barbara), CC 2-5, Suru- 
gadai Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-291-0478 

M]^ 2-5 



Bixler, Mr. and Mrs. O.D., 

(Delilah), CC 2-5, Suruga- 
dai Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, To 
kyo (03)-291-0478 

-5 



Bjorkum, Miss Ashild, NMS 
30 Teraguchi-cho, Takaba, 
Nada-ku, Kobe-shi (078)- 
85-2878 





Blackwood, Miss Janet, JEM 
565 Kujiranami-machi, 
Kashiwazaki-shi, Niigata- 
ken (0257)-22-3347 



7 y ? V y K 

Blair, Rev. and Mrs. Howard, 
(Phebe), 1953, FEGC 392 
Nishibori, Niiza-machi, Kita 
Adachi-gun, Saitama-ken 
(0424)-71-5928 

392 



Blanton, Miss Melanie, 1965, 
IBC (PCUS) Nankoryo, 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



273 



Kinjo College, Omori-cho, 
Moriyama-ku, Nagoya-shi, 
Aichi-ken (0560)-79-3086 



Blechschmidt, Sister Edith, 
1961 c/o Rev. Yoshio Sa- 
rai, Hakuaikai Byoin, 4-25 
Miyuki-cho, Okayama-shi, 
Okayama-ken 
(0862)-72-1161 

i/a.^ y h 



Blocksom, Rev. and Mrs. 
James, 1962, EFCM 19 
Myozono Kaiden, Nagaoka- 
cho, Otokuni-gun, Kyoto-fu 

19 



Blood, Dr. and Mrs. Robert 
0. Jr., (Margaret), 104-4, 
Osawa 3-chome, Mitaka-shi, 
Tokyo (0422)-43-3131 

j^f&HJtTfj*^ 3-10-4 

ICU ft y 7 y K 

Blosser, Rev. and Mrs. 
Eugene, (Luella), 1953, 
JMM 45-23 Fukuzumi-cho, 
Sapporo-shi (0122)-86-1933 
-23 



Blough, Mr. and Mrs. Ron, 
1960, IND 227-11 Higashi 
Tsukisamu, Sapporo-shi 

(0122)-86-4751 

^Sg 227-11 

-f P - 



Boardman, Rev. and Mrs. Ro 
bert, R., (Jean), 1952, NAV 
769-6, Kitahara, Minami- 
zawa, Kurume-machi, Kita- 
tama-gun, Tokyo (0424)-71- 
1588 



JDK 769-6 



Boatwright, Rev. and Mrs. 
Bob, (Betty Faith), 1958, 
SB 11-98 Tsutsumi-dori, 
Sendai-shi (0222) -34-0039 
-97 

h 



Boaz, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Charlotte), 1967, FEGC 
111 Hakuraku, Kanagawa- 
ku, Yokohama-shi (045)- 
491-9016/7 



Bobence, Miss Bonnie, 1966, 
NAV 769-6, Kitahara, Mi- 
namizawa, Kurume-machi, 
Kitatama-gun, Tokyo (0424) 
-71-1588 



Jg 769-6 / 

Boberg, Miss Maria, 
MCCS Furl. 68-69 



1963, 



Bobo, Rev. and Mrs. Charles, 
1966, NABA 785-1, Takagi- 
cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 
785-1 



274 



DIRECTORIES 



Boe, Rev. and Mrs. Kaare, 

(Astrid), 1949, NLM 8, 

Nakajima-dori, 2-chome, 

Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi (078)- 

22-3601 



Boettcher, Rev. and Mrs. Al 
fred, (Catherine), 1967, IBC 
(UCC-BWM) 7-4, Denen- 
chofu, 5-chome, Ota-ku, To 
kyo (03)-721-3980 

5-7-4 



Boganes, Rev. and Mrs. Nils, 
(Sigfrid), 1960, NLM 2- 
chome, Ueno-cho, Tsuyama- 
shi, Okayama-ken (3975) 



Bogard, Miss Belle, 1936, IBC 
(RCA) Kobe Jogakuin, 
Okadayama Nishinomiya- 
shi, Hyogo-ken 
(0798)-51-1020 



Bohlin, Mr. and Mrs. Edvin, 
(Birgitta), 1951, SEMJ 
273-33, Aza Raiba, Nobori- 
betsu-cho, Horobetsu-gun, 
Hokkaido (014382 )-2310 

273-33 



Book, Mr. and Mrs. Doyle C., 
(Thelma), 1955, BIC 1179 
Higashi Fukagawa, Nagato- 
shi, Yamaguchi-ken (08372) 
2-2289 



H79 



Borge, Rev. and Mrs. Peter, 
(Astrid), 1953, PCM Naka 
Nishino-machi, Kagamiga- 
hara-shi, Gifu-ken (82- 
2314) 



Borgman, Mrs. Feme, 1952, 
GYE 3384-3, Usuku-cho, 
Kagoshima-shi 

ffi^ftm^fgWT 3384-3 

Boschman, Rev. and Mrs. Paul 
W., (Laverne), 1951, GCMM 
3-448, Hosono, Kobayashi- 
shi, Miyazaki-ken (2658) 
m/h7fT 3-448 

Boshoff, Miss C.M., JRM c/o 
Mr. H. Sumi, 36 Tokiwagi, 
Takaha, Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 

36 



Bost, Miss Ethel, 1949, IBC 
(MC retired) Kwassui Ga- 
kuin, Kawassui Tanki Dai- 
gaku, 16 Higashi Yamate, 
Nagasaki-shi (0958)-22- 
6955 



Bostrom, Rev. and Mrs. 
George E., 1951, IND 
Akura 118, Futamata-cho, 
Tenryu-shi Shizuoka-ken 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



275 



Bowen, Miss Virginia, 1950 
JCMB Furl. 68-69 

Bower, Miss Esther S., 1937, 
FKK 63-1, Hamadera, Sa- 
kai-shi, Osaka-fu (0722)- 
61-0019 



Bower, Miss Marian B., 1949, 
FKK Christian Academy in 
Japan, Shinkawa-cho, Ku- 
rume-machi, Kitatama-gun, 
Tokyo (0424)-71-0022 



Bowman, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Vernida), 1953, ALC 362, 
3-chome, Michizuka-cho, 

Ogaki-shi, Gifu-ken (0584)- 
78-4377 
!Wm*MTf?HBT 3-362 

Boyle, Rev. and Mrs. William, 
(Ella Banks), 1949, IBC 
(PCUS) 1478 Shironomae, 
Mikage-cho, Higashi Nada- 
ku, Kobe-shi (078)-85-2986 

1478 



Boyum, Miss Bernice C., 1950, 
ALC 30-10, Sengoku 2- 
chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 
(03) -941-0835 

2-30-10 



Bradburn, Rev. and Mrs. Clyde 
L., (Barbara), 1955, AG 
Furl. 68-69 

Bradford, Mr. and Mrs. L. 
Galen, (Arline), 1962, SB 
19-18, 2-chome, Uehara, 
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
467-2347 

2-19-18 



Bradley, Miss Lily, 1967, IBC 
(PCUS-JSVa) -- Nankoryo, 
Kinjo College, Omori-cho, 
Moriyama-ku, Nagoya-shi 



Boyles, Mr. Dale, 1959, TEAM 
Extended Furl. 



7 y y K \S - 

Bradshaw, Rev. and Mrs. Mel- 
vin, J., (Edith), 1963, SB- 
Furl. 68-69 

Brady, Mr. and Mrs. John H., 
(Annie), 1950/49, PCUS 
41, 1-chome, Kumochi-cho, 
Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi (078)- 
22-1656 



Bragg, Mr. and Mrs. George, 
(Edith), 1966, IBC (UPC- 
J3) Reiseki-so, Apt. 6, 10- 



276 



DIRECTORIES 



7 Minami Aoyama 6-chome, 
Minato-ku, Tokyo (03)-407- 
1922 

Will 6-10-7 

y 7 y ^ 

Bragg, Rev. and Mrs. Kenneth, 
(Faye), 1968, SB 1919, 3- 
chome, Kami Ishihara, Cho- 
fu-shi, Tokyo (0422)-44- 
5997 

3li^f|5|)|^!fti_h?ql^ 3-1919 

7 7 y y 

Brandt, Miss A.J.E., 1956, 
JRM W-145, Tachikawa 
West Court Nakagami-ma- 
chi, Akishima-shi, Tokyo 
(0425)-41-0585 



_ f. W-145 
7 7 



Brannen, Dr. and Mrs. Noah, 
(Ann), 1951, ABFMS 10-2- 
4, 3-chome, Osawa, Mitaka- 
shi, Tokyo (0422)-43-3131 
3-10-2-4 



Brannen, Rev. and Mrs. T.A., 
(Phyllis), 1954, TEAM 33 
Tsukimigaoka, Yatomi-cho, 
Mizuho-ku, Nagoya-shi 

(052)-831-8411 



33 



-7 7 3, 



Brannon, Mr. and Mrs. Donald, 
(Linda), CC C.P.O. Box 
290, Sapporo, Hokkaido 



290 



Branstad, Mr. Karl E., 1947, 
PEC-Retired, KEEP Kiyo- 
sato, Takane-cho, Kitakoma- 
gun, Yamanashi-ken 



Brass, Mr. and Mrs. Richard, 
(Margaret), LCMS 12-2, 5- 
chome, Shimomegtiro, Me- 
guro-ku, Tokyo (03J-712- 
2091 

^ 5-12-2 



Braun, Mr. and Mrs. Neil, 
(Mary), 1952, JACM 315- 
16, Higashi Fukuhara-cho, 
Yonago-shi, Tottori-ken 
-16 



Bray, Dr. and Mrs. William, 
(Frances), 1952, IBC (MC) 
#9 Kwansei Gakuin, Ni- 
shinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 
(0798)-51-0476 



Bremer, Rev. and Mrs. Joseph, 
(Betty), 1961, IBC (UCMS) 
41-89 Fukuzumi, Sapporo- 
shi (0122)-86-1370 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



277 



Breunsbach, Rev. and Mrs. Broman, Mr. and Mrs. David 



Daniel, (Alta), 1959, LCA 
15-9, Imagawa-machi, 1- 
chome, Fukuoka-shi (092)- 
74-0497 Sum. Furl. 



Bridgman, Mr. and Mrs. John 
F., (Beverly), 1954, PCUS 
1927 Ikano-machi, Zen- 
tsuji-shi, Kagawa-ken (Zen- 
tsuji 397) 



Bringerud, Rev. and Mrs. 
Gote, (Carol), 1951, MC CS 
Furl. 

Brink, Miss Suzanne, 1950, 
IBC (RCA) 890-1, Aza 
Kaminohara, Toroku, Oe- 
machi, Kumamoto-shi 

(0963)-64-1995 



Bristol, Mrs. Lyle 9-15, 1- 
chome, Hachiman, Sendai- 
shi (0222) -22-8791 



Broman, Mr. and Mrs. Clif 
ford, 1963, IND 62, Kariga, 
Marumori-cho, Igu-gun, Mi- 
yagi-ken 



J., 1950, IND 62 Kariga, 
Marumori-cho, Igu-gun, Mi 
yagi-ken 



Broman, Mr. and Mrs. Paul, 
(Setsuko), 1950, IND 62, 
Kariga, Marumori-cho, Igu- 
gun, Miyagi-ken 



Broman, Mr. Philip, 1954, 
IND- 62 Kariga, Marumori- 
cho, Igu-gun, Miyagi-ken 



-fv. -r y 

Brook, Rev. and Mrs. David, 
(Dorothy), 1962, TEAM 
15-15, 3-chome, Daizawa 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
421-1059 Furl, to 1/69 
3-15-15 



Brown, Dr. (M.D.) and Mrs. 
Frank A., (Ann), PCUS 
1696-21, Tarumi, Suita-shi, 
Osaka-fu (06)-384-0963 
* 1696-21 



Brown, Miss Merrill, 1952, 
IBC (UCC-BWM) Furl. 
68-69 

Brown, Miss Mildred, 1952, 
IBC (UPC) Hokusei Ga- 



278 



DIRECTORIES 



kuen, Nishi 17-chome, Mi- 
nami 5-jo, Sapporo-shi 
(0122)-56-4276 



Brown, Miss Sharon, 1964 
c/o Mr. Torigai, Ichijo- 
dori, Shin-machi, Nishi-iru 
Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 

(075)-451-3555 



77 W 

Browne, Mr. and Mrs. Mont 
gomery, (Mildred), 1950, 
IND 1410-2, Inokuchi-cho, 
Hiroshima-shi (0822)-71- 
1400 

PT 1410-2 



Browning, Rev. and Mrs. 
Neal, (Clara Jean), 1954, 
TEAM 63, Shoraiso, Ni- 
shinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 
(0798)-51-3241 

^ 63 



Brownlee, Rev. and Mrs. Wal 
lace, (Helen), 1951, IBC 
(EUB) 42-11, Fukuzumi- 
cho, Sapporo-shi (0122)- 
86-1370 

-11 



Bruce, Rev. and Mrs. R. 
Carrol, (Frances), 1961, SB 
8-143 Takinoue, Naka-ku, 
Yokohama-shi ( 045) -681- 
3069 Furl, to 1/69 



-143 



Bruggers, Rev. and Mrs. 
Glenn, (Phyllis), 1952, IBC 
(RCA) 11 of 9, Ohori, 2- 
chome, Fukuoka-shi (092)- 
74-0017 

2-9-11 



Bruinooge, Rev. and Mrs. 
Henry (Eunice), 1951, 
CRJM 732-18, Oizumi-Ga- 

kuen-cho, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-922-7582 

^BIBr 732-18 



Bruns, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Shirley), 1947/49, IBC 
(EUB) Furl. 68-69 

Brunshweiler, Rev. Walter, 
1949, IND 3-chome, 18, 
Shin-machi, Fuchu-shi, To 
kyo 



Brustad, Miss Aslaug, 1951, 
EOM 41, Hogisaku, Seki- 
fune-machi, Joban, Iwaki- 
shi, Fukushima-ken 41 



Bruun, Miss Anna, 1950, 
FCM Sono-machi, 68-4, 
Komatsu-shi, Ishikawa-ken 
22-7808 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



279 



Bryngelson, Miss Berith, 
1964, MCCS 360 Amino- 
hama, Okayama-shi, Okaya- 
ma-ken (0862)-72-1829 



Brynte, Mr. and Mrs. Torsten, 
(Inglis), 1951, SAMJ 
19796-23, Shijimizuka-cho, 
Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka- 
ken (0534)-2818 
ftffl jJj^lSrtT *1W 19796-23 

7 7 4 ^ h 

Buckland, Mrs. Jennifer, 
USPG Fujimoto Building, 
Nunobiki-cho, 2-chome, 3, 
Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 



F 



Buckwalter, Rev. and Mrs. 
Ralph, (Genevieve), 1949, 
JMM Nishi 7-jo, Minami 
17-chome, Obihiro-shi, Hok 
kaido (01552)-4-3282 



Budd, Mr. and Mrs. Howard 
G., 1948, IND 7-29, 2- 

chome, Harima-cho, Abeno- 
ku, Osaka-shi (06)-691- 
2231 

mm$ 2-7-29 

X y K 



Budd, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Alvena), 1952, JEM 191, 
Shimizu-cho, Takaoka-shi, 
Toyama-ken 

s*y F 



Buell, Mr. and Mrs. Bart, 
(Margaret), 1959, OMF 1- 
chome, Izumi-machi, Aka- 
bira-shi, Hokkaido. Furl. 
68-69 



Burchard, Mr. and Mrs. R.W., 
(Ann), 1963, SDA 17-3, 
Amanuma, 3-chome, Sugi- 
nami-ku, Tokyo (03)-392- 
6151 

3-17-3 



Burgett, Rev. and Mrs. Larry, 
(Ruth), 1959, BBF 160-40 
Fukuzumi, Sapporo-shi 

(0122)-83-7968 

-40 



Burney, Mr. and Mrs. Don, 
(Norma), 1955, CnC 21 
Nakano, Otani, Noichi-cho, 
Kami-gun, Kochi-ken 



Bush, Dr. (M.D.) and Mrs. 
Ovid B., Jr., (Florence), 
1953, PCUS Yodogawa 

Christian Hospital, Awaji- 
Honmachi, Higashi-Yodo- 



280 



DIRECTORIES 



gawa-ku, Osaka-shi 
322-2250 



(06)- 



Buse, Rev. and Mrs. Siegfried, 
(Edith), 1961, TEAM 8717 
Yabo, Kunitachi-shi, Tokyo 
(0425)-72-2134 

8717 

Butler, Rev. and Mrs. Lucius, 
(Dona), 1955 BGC 832-1 
Yoshihara, Minami-machi, 
Hidaka-gun, Wakayama- 
ken (Gobo)-2134 

folium B iiMBi^iK 832-1 

/* Y 7 

Buttray, Mr. and Mrs. Stan 
ley, (Mabel), 1950, CnC 2- 
26-4 Kamiochiai, Shinjuku- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-361-6056 

J3l$fll2& 2-26-4 

X h V -f 

Byers, Miss Florence, 1927, 
AG 1743-1, Aza Tesaki, 
Sumiyoshi-cho, Higashi- 

nada-ku, Kobe-shi (078)- 
85-3803 



1743-1 



Cain, Rev. and Mrs. Benson, 
(Coline), 1953/50, PCUS 
Furl. 68-69 



Calcote, Rev. and Mrs. Ralph, 
(Gena), 1951, SB Furl. 68- 
69 



Caldwell, Mr. and Mrs. S.L., 
(M.L.), 1950, IND 3-cho- 
me, 20-9, Hanazono, Otaru- 
shi, Hokkaido 

3-20-9 



Call, Rev. and Mrs. Edward 
E., (Betty), 1964, JCG 22 
Tsuoka-cho, Hodogaya-ku, 
Yokohama-shi 



Callaway, Dr. and Mrs. 

Tucker N., (Elizabeth), 
1947, SB Extended Furl. 

Calvery, Mr. and Mrs. Wes 
ley, (Aileen), 1954, FWBM 
Nishi 2-jo, 3-chome, 
(0122)-86-8601 



Campbell, Dr. Vera, 1950, SB 
50-798 Nishijin-machi, 
Fukuoka-shi (092)-82-4668 
-798 



Cannon, Miss Mary, 1959, SB 
Leave of Absence 

Capra, Mr. and Mrs. Philip, 
(Laura), 1966, FEGC 111 
Hakuraku, Kanagawa-ku, 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



281 



Yokohama-shi 
9016-7 



(045)-491 



Carlsen, Miss Beverly, 1966, 
EFCM 34 Sandan Naga- 
machi, Matsugasaki, Sakyo- 
ku, Kyoto-shi ( 075) -781- 
2966 



Carlson, Mr. and Mrs. Robert. 
(Betty), 1958, JEM 1-6, 
Okuda, Toyama-shi, Toya- 
ma-ken (0762)-31-7254 



Carlson, Mr. Ted, 1964, IND 
15-24, Kyodo 1-chome, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
429-3389 

^ 1-15-24 



Carlsson, Miss Astrid, 1961, 
MCCS 1-16, 1-chome, Wa- 
da, Tamano-shi, Okayama- 
ken (0863)-8-7094 



Carlsson, Rev. and Mrs. Carl 
A., (Majlis), 1958, OMJ 
Furl. 

Carr, Rev. and Mrs. J. Frank, 
IND 6 Doso-cho, Yama- 
guchi-shi, Yamaguchi-ken 



6 



Carrick, Rev. and Mrs. Mal 
colm, (Jean), 1950, IBC 
(UPC) 1, Hanayama-cho, 
1-chome, Nagata-ku, Kobe- 
shi (078)-69-9056 

1-1 



Carrico, Mr. and Mrs. Willis, 
(Doris), TEC Extended 
Furl. 

Carter, Rev. and Mrs. An 
thony, A., (Aiko), 1964, 
IBC (UCBWM) 12 Hachi- 
yama-cho, Shibuya-ku, To 
kyo (03)-461-2777 



Carter, Mr. and Mrs. Charles 
H., (Jean), 1968, PCUS 
1927, Ikuno-machi, Zentsu- 
ji-shi, Kagawa-ken (08776) 
-2-2412 

1927 



Carter, Mr. and Mrs. Ted, 
(Joyce), 1962, JCBM Furl. 
68-69 

Cary, Mr. Otis and Dr. Alice 
(M.D.), 1947, IBC (UCB 
WM) Amherst House, So- 
kokuji, Monzen-cho, Kami- 
kyo-ku, Kyoto-shi (075)- 
-231-3736 



h 



282 



DIRECTORIES 



Chamberlain, Rev. and Mrs. 
David M., (Gladys), USPG 
74 Ozato-cho, Honmoku, 
Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 

(045)-621-0657 



Chamberlain, Miss Phyllis, 
1950, TEAM Furl. 68-69 

Chandler, Miss Mary F., 
USPG 6-22-21, Hatanodai, 
Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
781-4736 



Chandler, Rev. and Mrs. 
Raymond, (Mabel), 1956, 
TEAM 1164 Nakamaru- 
mae, Minamizawa Kurume- 
machi, Kitatama-gun, To 
kyo (0424)-71-3917 



Chandler, Rev. and Mrs. Ver- 
non, (Marian), 1954, ABWE 
Port P.O. Box 393, Kobe- 
shi 

fi 393 



Chase, Rev. and Mrs. Manley, 
(Doris), 1957, TEAM 1164 
Nakamaru-mae, Minamiza 
wa, Kurume-machi, Kitata 
ma-gun Tokyo (0424)-71- 
3328 



Chase, Mr. and Mrs. R.P., 
c/o Seiko Gakuin, 3-Rokka- 
ku, Date-machi, Fukushima- 
shi, Fukushima-ken 



Chinnock, Mr. and Mrs. E.R., 
(Barbara), 1961, SDA Box 
1, Hodogaya Nishi, Yoko 
hama-shi (045)-951-2421 



Chisholm, Mr. and Mrs. John 
M. (Judy), 1958. Furl. 68- 
69 

Chrisander, Miss Greta, SFM 
648, Tsurumi-cho, Tsuru- 
mi-ku, Yokohama-shi (045)- 
581-2433 



1164 



Christensen, Rev. and Mrs. 
Ernest, (Laurabelle), 1956, 
CMSJ 152, Moto Soja-ma- 
chi, Maebashi-shi, Gunma- 
ken (0272)-51-2781 



Christman, Miss Margery, 
1965, OFM Kita 3-jo, Ni 
shi 4-chome, Kutchan-machi, 
Hokkaido 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



283 



Christopherson, Miss Lois, 
1961, JEM 565 Kujirana- 
mi-machi, Kashiwazaki-shi, 
Niigata-ken (0257)-22-3347 
565 



Claassen, Miss Virginia, 1959, 
GCMM 5330, Namiki, Ka- 
mikawa Higashi-machi, Mi- 
yakonojo-shi, Miyazaki-ken 
(0986) -2-1 188 



Clark, Dr. (M.D.) and Mrs. C. 
F., (Pauline), 1953, SB 1, 
Kami Ikeda-cho, Kitashira- 
kawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 
(075)-781-5757 



Clark, Rev. and Mrs. Gene A., 
(Dorothy), 1957, SB Furl. 
68-69 

Clark, Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth 
W., (Jane), 1950, HSEF 8, 
3-chome, Nakamura, Neri- 
ma-ku, Tokyo (03)-990-6449 



Clark, Mr. and Mrs. Martin, 
(Evelyn), 1950, CnC 31 
Nakamiya-cho, 6-chome, 

Asahi-ku, Osaka-shi (06)- 
951-5943 

6-31 



CJark, Miss Thelma, 1950, 
TEAM Furl. 68-69 

Clarke, Miss Elizabeth, 1948, 
IBC (MC) Kwassui Gaku- 
in, Tanki Daigaku, 16 Hi- 
gashi Yamate, Nagasaki- 
shi (0958)-22-3713 



Clarke, Miss Eunice G., 1950, 
JEB 590-27, Terago, Aza 
Suzu Miyazu-shi, Kyoto 
950-27 



590-27 ^ ? - V 

Classen, Miss Ann, 1953, 
FEGC - - 1355-3, 2-chome, 
Kajimachi, Yoshhvara P.O. 
Fuji-shi, Shizuoka-ken 

(0545)-2-6382 



Clemens, Rev. and Mrs. Ar 
thur, (Emma Lou), 1963, 
NTC Ikoma, Nara-ken 

p \s J V 7* 



Clench, Miss M., 1923, MSCC 
4402 Baba-cho, Ueda-shi, 
Nagano-ken (02682)-2-1361 



Clevenger, Miss Janice, 1957, 
RSF 14-16, 4-chome, Mita, 
Minato-ku, Tokyo (03)-451- 
4616 



284 



DIRECTORIES 



HH 4-14-16 



Ciift, Miss Annie Sue, 1962, 

SB 22 Kami Ikeda-cho, 

Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, ! Collins, 
Kyoto-shi (075) -781-5776 

22 



cho, Mizunami-shi, Gifu- 

ken 

-1 
y i/x 



Miss Mary, 1967, 
IBC (UCC-BWM-J3) Mu- 
tsumi 17 Oiwamiyashita- 
cho, Shizuoka-ken (0542)- 
53-0988 

17 



Cline, Brigadier and Mrs. 
Virgil, (Jean), 1966, SA 
15-19, 2-chome, Misuji, Dai- \ 
to-ku Tokyo (03) -851-1079 ! Colston, Miss Augusta B., 
^ n ^ M ^ m 2 _ 15 _ 19 1964, PCUS Furl. 68-69 

Conley, Mr. Brian J., 1966, 

Cole, Mr. and Mrs. Frank, IBC (UPC-J3)-c/o Obirin 
(Evelvn), 1952, IND-796- Gakuin, 3758 Tokiwa-cho, 
70 Nakayama-cho, Kohoku- Machida-shi, Tokyo (042 <)- 
ku, Yokohama-shi (045)- 
931-2120 iRjjCfWEBrfJ ^ilSW ^758 



Cole, Mr. and Mrs. Harold, 
(Leone), 1937, CnC 1014 
Higashiyama, Kuge-yama, 
Ono-shi, Hyogo-ken 



3 JV 

Coleman, Miss Anita, 1962, SB 
11-798 Nishijin-machi, Fu- 
kuoka-shi (092) -82-8849 



Conrad, Rev. and Mrs. Stan 

ley, 1957, EFCM 1, Saku- 

ragaoka, Yatomi-cho, Mizu- 
ho-ku, Nasrova-shi 



K 



Cook, Mr. and Mrs. Don, 
(Dorothy), 1956, OMF 4- 
344 Seijo-machi Setagaya- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-483-1934 
4-344 



-3. A- -? V 

Collins, Miss Grace, 1958, 
JPM _ 1112-1, Terakawado- 



Cook, Miss Dulcie, 1930, IBC 
(UCC-BWM) -- Interboard 
House, 16-53 Roppongi, 5- 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



285 



chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-583-3325 

5-16-53 



Cook, Mr. William L., 1962, 
IND 2252 Karuizawa-ma- 

chi, Nagano-ken (02674)- 
2094 



Cooper, Miss June, 1957, SB- 
Furl. 68-69 

Cooper, Miss Pamela, 1968, 
CMS Poole-Gakuin, 5- 
chome, Katsuyama-dori, I- 
kuno-ku Osaka-shi (06)- 
716-4700 

5 T B 



Coote, Rev. Leonard W. 1914 
FE AM Furl. 

Copp, Rev. and Mrs. David 
J., (Lana), 1966, BMA 
Ikoma-machi, Nara-ken 



Corl, Rev. and Mrs. Javan, 
(Neva), 1955, IBC (EUB) 
15-18, Hatanodai, 6-chome, 
Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
781-0869 

6-15-18 



Kamihoya, Hoya-shi, Kita- 
tama-gun, Tokyo 



Cotton, Miss Kathleen, 1965, 
JEB 15, Ishii Apt., Koe- 
mi, Arita-shi, Wakayama- 
ken 



Corwin, Dr. and Mrs. Charles, 
(Elouise), 1950, TEC 272 



7 <- h 15 



Cottrill, Lieut, Colonel and 
Mrs. W. Stan, (Kathleen), 
1964, SA 21-40, 2-chome, 
Wada, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-382-0379 

nn^mmmm 2-21-40 

3 -y b y ^ 

Courtney, Rev. and Mrs. Ri 
chard, (Yvonne), 1952, 
TEAM 32 Tsukimigaoka, 
Yatomi-cho, Mizuho-ku, Na- 
goya-shi (052)-851-7653 

i5T^ B^ 

32 r: h xf 

Cowan, Mr. and M*rs. Ray, 
1953, IND Jurinji, Osa 
Sanada-machi, Chiisagata- 
gun, Nagano-ken 



n - 7 V 

Cowdray, Miss Freda L., 1962, 
CMS c/o Tokyo Diocesan 
Office, 8 Shiba Sakae-cho, 
Minato-ku, Tokyo (03)-431- 
5642 



286 



DIRECTORIES 



m#&*mft 



Cox, Rev. and Mrs. George, \ Cullen, Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth 
(Annette), 1966, SB 26 j R. } (Beryl), 1957, CLCNi- 
Kami Minamida-cho, Jodo- j s ^j i- c home, Minami 1-jo, 
ji, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi j Sapporo-shi (0122)-26-9551 
(075)-771-2257 



Cox, Rev. and Mrs. Ralph, 
(Stella), 1952, TEAM 2- 
13, 1-chome, Saiho-cho, Ta- 
kamatsu-shi, Kagawa-ken 
(0878)-62-6548 



Cox, Rev. and Mrs. Samuel,, 
(Rima), 1961, IBC (MQ- 
Leave of absence 

Cox, Rev. and Mrs. Theodore 
O., (Patricia), 1959, SB-1- 
198 Aza Shimoyama, Shin- 
zake, Himeji-shi (0792)-24- 
6949 



Culpepper, Dr. and Mrs. Ro 
bert, (Kay), 1950, SB- 
Furl. 68-69 

Cundiff, Mr. William S., 1952, 
IBC (UCBWM) 60 Kozen- 
ji-dori, Sendai-shi, Miyagi- 
ken (0222) -22-7439 

60 *vrX7 



Cunningham, Rev. and Mrs. 
Robert E., (Eleanor), 1953, 
LCA 4-20 Oishi Nagami- 
neyama, Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078)-86-4927 



Crawford, Mr. and Mrs. Coy 
A. IND 62, Kariga, Maru- 
mori-cho, Igu-gun, Miyagi- 
ken 



^7 I/ jJs^ 1* 

Currie, Mr. Robert George, 
1966, IBC (MC-J3%) 
Hokusei Gakuen Daigaku, 
343 Nishi 22-chome, Mina 
mi 6- jo, Sapporo-shi (0122)- 
56-6896 



Crenshaw, Mr. Joseph, AG 
Associate Christian . Chil 
dren s Home, Hondo-shi, 
Kumamoto-ken (0963-3671 



Curtin, Miss Esther, IND - 
Furl, 68-69 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



287 



D 



Dale, Rev. and Mrs. Daniel, 
(Joan), 1952, TEAM 4- 
175, Oishi, Nagamineyama, 
Nada-ku, Kobe-shi (078)- 
86-8845 
WF fft itE ^5LU 4-175 



Dale, Rev. and Mrs. Kenneth, 
(Eloise), 1951, LCA 13-7, 
2-chome, Shirasagi, Naka- 
no-ku, Tokyo (03)-338-8617 
2-13-7 



Davis,. Dr. Florence, 1967, 
IBC (MC-J2) Kwassui Ga- 
kuin, Kwassui Tandai, 16, 
Higashi Yamate-machi, Na- 
gasaki-shi (0958)-22-6955 
16 S 



Davis, Rev. and Mrs. Francis 
A., (Martha), 1951, QMS 
7-31, 3-chome, Tsukigaoka, 
Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, 
(052)- 711-7289 

3-7-31 



Davidson, Rev. and Mrs. Jack, 
(Evangeline), I960, CMA 
255 Itsukaichi-machi, Saiki- 
gun, Hiroshima shigai 
(0829)-21-0589 

255 



Davis, Rev. and Mrs. H. Glen, 



(Joyce), 
68-69 



1963, PCC Furl. 



Davis, Rev. and Mrs. Harri 
son, (Doris), 1950, CN 
Box 4, Yotsukaido, Imba- 
gun, Chiba-ken (0472)-82- 
2234/2428 



Davidson, Rev. and Mrs. 
Merwyn, (Betty Lou), 1963, 
IBC (EUB) 99 Fukuzumi- I Davis, 



cho, Sapporo-shi 
99 



Rev. and Mrs. Jim, 



(Genevieve), AG 1437 Ku- 
magawa, Fussa-machi, Tok 
yo (0425)-51-0966 



Davidsson, Miss Maj. 1956, 
SAMJ 139, 5-chome, Iga- 
cho, Okazaki-shi, Aichi-ken 
r0564)-22-6760 

5-139 



Dawkins, Rev. and Mrs. 
Charles B., (Betty), 1954, 
LCA 29-1, Karasawa, Mi- 
nami-ku, Yokohama-shi 
(045)-261-4269 



Davis, Miss Carnella A., 1951, 
WEC Furl. 68-69 



288 



DIRECTORIES 



Dawson, Rev. and Mrs. T.V., 
(Myrtle), 1956, PCGJ - 
1580 Ajima Shinyama, Ku- 
sunoki-cho, Kita-ku, Na- 
goya-shi, (052)-981-8280 



Dean, Rev. Pratt J., 1966, SB 
9, Nishikojima-cho, Daito- 
kuen, Nagasaki-shi 

9 



De Berdt, Rev. and Mrs. 
Michiel, (Trudy), 1962, 
CRJM - - 1463-7, 1-chome, 
Narashino, Funabashi-shi, 
Chiba-ken (0474)-67-6606 
1-1463-7 



De Camp, Miss Grace, 1947, 
TEAM 75, 2-chome, Hatsu- 
dacho, Takayama-shi, Gifu- 
ken 



Deffner, Mr. and Mrs. Walter, 
(Virginia), 1961, LCMS 49 
3-chome, Matsunami-cho, 
Niigata-shi (0252)-66-2526 

-4912 



de Forest, Rev. and Mrs. 
Carroll, (Betty), 1959/66, 
IBC (RCA) 

Defriend, Miss Myra, 1964, 
FEGC Furl. 68-69 



Degelman, Rev. and Mrs. O.R., 
(Helen), 1947, TEAM 350, 
2-chome, Honmoku, Naka- 
ku, Yokohama-shi (045)- 
621-7543 

-350 



Degerman, Miss Bessie, 1954, 
TEAM c/o Murata, 21-6, 
4-chome, Maebara-cho, Ko- 
ganei-shi, Tokyo (0423)- 
83-6823 

-12-6 



Dehn, Mr. and Mrs. Wilfried, 
(Victoria), 1966/68, LM 
1933 Nakanoshima, Kawa- 
saki-shi, Kanagawa-ken 

(044)-91-2334 



Dehnke, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Linda), 1966, LCMS 12-2, 
5-chome, Shimomeguro, Me- 
guro-ku, Tokyo (03)-712- 
2091 

H 5-12-2 



De Jong, Miss Mary Cynthia, 
1968, IBC (UPC-J3) In- 
terboard House, 16-53, Rop- 
pongi, 5-chome, Minato-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-583-3325 
5-16-53 
* "f-^ "/ ?* 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



289 



Dellming, Rev. and Mrs. Bo, 
(Kerstin), 1966, SEOM 
22-32 Kamogawa-cho, Mi- 
shima-shi, Shizuoka-ken 
(0559)-75-4056 

22-32 



Dennis, Mr. and Mrs. Ri 
chard, IND Furl. 68-69 

Derksen, Rev. and Mrs. Peter, 
(Mary), 1954, GCMM 19 
Kumi Naka Tsuru, Oita-shi, 
Oita-ken (09752)-4-7861 

19 



DeShazer, Rev. and Mrs. 
Jacob, (Florence), 1948, 
JFMM 6-13, 1-chome, Sa- 
kuragawa-cho, Hitachi-shi 
(0294)-3-1507 

1-6-13 



Deter, Miss Virginia, 1950, 
IBC (UPC) 104-24, Kubo- 
inachi, Kanazawa-shi, Ishi- 
kawa-ken (0762)-42-2031 

104-24 



Dexter, Mr. and Mrs. Albert, 
1951, IND 88 Kusugaoka, 
Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 



deVries, Miss Gretchen, 1967, 
IBC (UCBWM)-10-2, Shoto 



1-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-467-7907 

mEf 1-10-2 

K 7 V - X 

DeYoung, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Anna Marie), 1961, ALC 
1130, Oshika, Shizuoka-shi, 
Shizuoka-ken 
|f [Sli^/hll 1130 

r-t^/ 

Dick. Miss Cornelia, 1955, 
PCUS Leave of absence 

Dick, Mr. and Mrs. R. H., IND 
Ill Oike, Yamada-cho, Hyo- 

go-ku, Kobe-shi (078)-90- 

5371 

111 



Dickerson, Miss Barbara, 1963 
IBC (MC) Furl. 68-69 

Dickinson, Rev. and Mrs. Ri 

chard, F., (Mary), 1960, IBC 

(UCMS) 104, Asukai-cho, 

Tanaka, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto- 

shi (075)-781-4407) 



Dillard, Miss Mary, 1950, 
IM 1816 Teuchi, Shimoku- 
shiki-mura, Satsuma-gun, 
Kagoshima-ken 



7- -f 



K 



250 



DIRECTORIES 



Dillon, Rev. and Mrs. Alan, 
(Myrtle), 1948, FEGC 
11-2 Sankubo-cho, Kawa- 
goe-shi, Saitama-ken 

$ asm j 1 1 smH^{&rr 11-2 



Draper, Rev. and Mrs. William 
F. (Helenora), 1953, PEC 
8-Motokaji-cho, Sendai-shi 
(0222)-22-4684 



Dixon, Miss Joan, 1958, CMS ^^FriedS, f%5 



22 Jonan-so, 697 Hannyu- 
cho, Higashi-ku, Osaka-shi 
(06)-941-2382 



Dluhy, Deaconess Eva, 1965, 
MAR 7-29, 1-chome, Higa- 
shinaruo-cho, Nishinomiya- 
shi, Hyogo-ken (0798)-41- 
1107 
^^Jftffi &rfT^RiJlBI 1-7-29 

Doeden, Mr. and Mrs. Norman 
T., (Gaye), 1966, LCA 2- 
23-11, Higashi Tamagawa- 
cho, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-720-4959 
^M tI51fi:EB ^E^5J 1 1 PT 2-23-11 

Dornon, Rev. and Mrs. Ivan, 
(Eleanor), 1950/56 IBC 
(MC) - - 69, Katahira-cho, 
Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken 
(0222)-22-6876 



Dozier, Dr. and Mrs. Edwin 
B., (Mary Ellen), 1933, SB 
421, Oaza Hoshiguma, 
Fukuoka-shi (092)-82-9446 



GEAM - - 17-37, 2-chome, 
Koishikawa, Bunkyo-ku, To 
kyo (03)-811-2862 

2-17-31 



Driskill, Rev. and Mrs. J. 
Lawrence, (Lillian), 1951, 
IBC (UPC) 1 Takezono- 
cho, Suita-shi, Osaka-fu 
(06)-384-7839 



K 



Drivstuen, Miss Dagny, 1949, 
NLM 46, Motodaiku-machi, 
Tottori-shi, (0857)-22-3265 



Ky 



Drummond, Dr. and Mrs. Ri 
chard, (Pearl), 1949, IBC 
(UPC-VOL) 843, Higashi- 
cho, 1-chome, Koganei-shi, 
Tokyo (0423)-81-7374 



K 7 A V K 

Duncan, Mr. and Mrs. William, 
(Betty), JCBM 90, Koga- 
nehara, Furukawa-shi, Mi 
yagi-ken (1177) 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



291 



E 

Eagle, Mr. and Mrs. Charles, 
(Hazel), 1950, TEAM - 
Extended Furl. 

Ebinger, Deaconess F., 1953, 
MAR 7-29, 1-chome, Higa- 
shi Naruo-cho, Nishinomi- 
ya-shi, Hyogo-ken (0798)- 
41-1107 



Dupree, Rev. and Mrs. Charles 
J., (JoAnn), 1953, QMS - 
1648, 1-chome, Megurita, 
Higashi Murayama-shi, To 
kyo (0423)-91-3072 

ff 7 y - 

^l*:^ffi s"rfi*.^^i 11 J -L- 

31 V#- 

Duran, Rev. and Mrs. Ri 
chard, (Karen), 1966, Eastman, Rev. and Mrs. Ed- 
jCBM 1 Matsuoka-so, Ma- | wa rd, (Yasuko), 1967, CC- 
tsuoka-cho, Kawamoto, Aki- Ibaraki Christian College, 
ta-shi, Akita-ken 4048 Kuji-machi, Hitachi- 

shi, Ibaraki-ken 



Dyck, Miss Anna, 1953, 
GCMM 328 Homanboo, 
Takajo-machi, Miyazaki-ken 



Dyck, Miss Susan, 1953, CMA 
2952 Aginogi-cho, Ma- 
tsue-shi, Shimane-ken 
(0852)-21-5364 

2592 



-i - ^ h -7 V 

Eddy, Rev. and Mrs. William 
D., (Elizabeth), 1951, PEC 
Hokudai Center, Nishi 5- 
chome, Kita 15-jo, Sapporo- 
shi (0122)-71-3554 



Edefors, Rev. and Mrs. Borje 
(Inger), 1965, OMJ 42, 1- 
chome, Yamashiro-cho, Yao- 
shi, Osaka-fu (0729) -2-8053 



Dyer, Rev. and Mrs. Stanley 31 $7 * X 

R., (Joanna), 1965, QMS 

1232 Minami Ohashi, Fuku- Edgerton, Miss Daisy, 1949, 
oka-shi, Fukuoka-ken IBC (UCMS) 6-15, Oji Hon- 

(092)-54-4555 cho 1-chome Kita-ku Tokyo 

(03)-900-5262 



292 



DIRECTORIES 



Edwards, Miss Lorna B., 
1953, OMF Goshogawara 
Fukuin Kirisuto Kyokai, 4-5- 
180, Chidori, Minato Gosho- 
gawara-shi, Aomori-ken 



1-6-15 

v? -V 



Edgerton, Mrs. Eleanora, 1967 
IBC (UPC-VOL) Clapbard 
Inn, Nishi Iru, Imadegawa 
Agaru, Karasuma Dori, Ka- 
mikyo-ku Kyoto- shi (075) ! 

451-0147 , , T n 

Edwards, Rev. and Mrs. O. 

Kemp, (Jean), 1966, QMS 
1190 Karuizawa-machi, Ki- 

tasaku-gun, Nagano-ken 

Ediger, Rev. and Mrs. Ferdi 
nand, (Viola), 1953, GCMM 
21-2, 1-chome, Mejirodai, 
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
947-4687 

ij* jil/rC^iiyCTKE S"n 1-21-2 

Edland, Miss Ingjerd, 1965, 
NLM 19, 4-chome, Nishi 
Akashi-cho, Akashi-shi, 
Hyogo-ken 

01 K 7 ^ K 

jr. x l> 

Edwards, Mr. and Mrs. Bruce, \ 

(Lynette), 1965, JEB 64, Eikamp, Rev. and Mrs. Arthur 



Eggen, Rev. and Mrs. Egil, 
(Dordi), 1963, NMS Furl. 
68-69 

Ehnle, Mr. and Mrs. Willis R., 
(Lois), 1954, ACC - 692 
Higashi-Shioda, Ichimiya- 
cho, Yatsushiro-gun, Yama- 
shi-ken Sum. Furl. 

ffl 692 



Kawahara-cho, Sasayama- 
machi, Taki-gun, Hyogo- 
ken 



Edwards, Mr. Carson, MS - 
194 Yamashita-cho, Naka-ku 
Yokohama-shi (045)-681- 
4654 



7 - X" 



(Norma), 1949, CG 2252- 
66 Aza Takamaru Kuga, 
Nishi Tarumi-machi, Taru- 
mi-ku, Kobe-shi (078)-76- 
0552 



Eikeland, Miss Orlaug Randi, 
1966, NMS 3-15, Tezuka- 
yama Nishi, Sumiyoshi-ku 
Osaka-shi (06)-671-6320 



293 



K 



Eimon, Rev. and Mrs. Harold, 
(Dalene), 1954, ALC 347 
Sumiyoshi-cho, Kamikanuki, 
Nuniazu-shi, Shizuoka-ken 
(0559)-31-7268 



chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-811-5516 

1-33-5 



Elzinga, Miss Alice, 1960, IBC 
(RCA) c/o Baiko Jogaku- 
in, 1854, Maruyama-cho, 
Shimonoseki-shi ( 0832) -23- 
6261 



Ejderkvist, Mr. and Mrs. John, 
(Gun), 1963, JECC Furl. 
68-69 

Elda, Sister Magdalene, PEC- 
IND Community of the 
Transfiguration, 95 Tamade 
Shimizu, Odawara, Sendai- 
shi (0222)-34-6866 



Elizabeth, Sister Grace, PEC- 
TND Community of the 
Transfiguration, 95 Tamade 
Shimizu, Odawara, Senclai 
shi (0222)-34-6866 



Emanuel, Rev. and Mrs. Bill, 
(Rebekah Sue), 1967, SB 
R-112, 2-chome, Hirahata- 
cho. Misawa-shi (017652)- 
4266 

-112 



Emanuel, Rev. and Mrs. 
Wayne, (Mary Lou), 1959, 
SB 747 Minamino, Tatsu- 
mi Kakiuchi, Itami-shi 
(0727)-72-3319 



Elliott, Mr. and Mrs. William, 
(Anna), 1960, ABFMS 
Furl. 68-69 



Ellis, Rev. and Mrs. Andrew 

B., (Masae), 1951, LCA - Emhjellen, 

Furl. 68-69 



01 -r ^ 01 ;k 

Engelmohr, Mr. and Mrs. 
Karl, (Ursula), 1964, LM 
1878 Kanai-machi, Machida- 
shi, Tokyo 



Elmer, Miss Ruth, 1949, IBC 



(EUB) 33-5 Hakusan 4- Kobe-shi 



Mr. and Mrs. 
Kjellmar, (Rag-nhild), The 
Norwegian School, 50 Taki- 
gatani, Shioya, Tarumi-ku, 



294 



DIRECTORIES 



Engeman, Rev. and Mrs. 
Harry, (Eleanor), 1950, 
CMSJ - - 2570 Minami-ma- 
chi, Shibukawa-shi, Gun- 
ma-ken (0279)-22-1080 



Engver, Miss Maria, IND 
183-2 Miyakawa-cho, Kura- 
yoshi-shi, Tottori-ken 

-2 



Enloe, Mr. and Mrs. Winton, 
(Mary), 1961, PCUS Apt. 
2 Senda Building, 5-1, Sen- 
da-machi, 2-chome, Hiro- 
shima-shi (0822)-43-0723 
JEftntK^ffiBT 2-5-1 
T EH t" /u 7 ? h :n y n 

Enns, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Ruth), 1962, MBM - 
Furl. 

Eraker, Rev. and Mrs. Anders, 
(Moyfrid), 1957, NMS - 
310, Shinga-cho, Kashiwa- 
bara-shi, Nara-ken (0744)- 
2-5205 



Ericson, Rev. and Mrs. Wil- 
bert, (Leona), 1953, LCA 
967-20, Aza Numanoue, 
Tsushima, Okayama-shi, 



Okayama-ken 
5807 



(0862)-52- 



^ffl / 967-20 



Eriksson, Miss Astrid, 1950, 
SFM -- 648, Tsurumi-cho, 
Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama-shi 
(045)-581-2433 



Eriksson, Miss 
OMJ Furl. 



Lirmea, 1951, 



Eriksson, Mr. and Mrs. Paul, 
(Maj-Britt), 1951, SEMJ 
232, 2-chome, Osa\va-cho, 
Muroran-shi, Hokkaido 
jtmWffi*2W 2-232 

x. y ^ y v 

Eskildsen, Rev. and Mrs. Ed 
ward (Marian), 1960, ALC 
222 Otowa-cho, Shizuoka- 
shi, Shizuoka-ken (0542)- 
52-9078 



Essenburg, Mr. and Mrs. Mar 
tin, (Barbara), 1959, CRJM 
Furl. 68-69 

Ettling, Mr. and Mrs. Adal 
bert, (Margot), 1953, LM 
1661 Oiso Naka-gun. Kana- 
gawa-ken (0463)-6-2007 



oiy 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



295 



Evans, Miss Karen, 1965, CG 
93, 3-chome, Okusawa-ma- 
chi, Tamagawa, Setagaya- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-703-0916 
3-93 



Everett, Miss Oreta, 1964, 
RPM Box 589, Kobe Port, 
Kobe-shi (078)-44-1277 
Furl, to 1/69 



h 



Ewing, Miss Hettie Lee, 1925, 
CC 739 Nakada, Shizuoka- 
shi 



Faber, Mr. and Mrs. Ernest, 
(Neva), 1954 CnC 3-7-8 
Higashinakano, Nakano-ku 
Tokyo (03)-361-0533 

-7 , " , , 

Fadel, Rev. and Mrs. Allen, 
(Jane), 1951, TEAM 1605 
Tokumaru-cho, Itabashi-ku 
Tokyo (03)-933-7090 



Fait, Rev. and Mrs. Harald, 
(Mildred), 1966, MCCS 17 
3, Mori Aza Kitano-machi, 
Motoyama-cho, Higashi Na- 
da-ku, Kobe-shi 



7 

Fagre, Rev. and Mrs. Ivan, 
(Pauline), 1956, ALC Furl. 
68-69 

Fairfield, Mr. and Mrs. 
John, (Betty), 1951, IBC 
(UCBWM) Furl. 68-69 



17-3 7 x. fr h 

Fanger, Mr. and Mrs. Clifford, 
(Faith), IND 62 Kariga, 
Marumori-cho, Igu-gun, Mi- 
yagi-ken 



Fanger, Mr. Richard, 1952, 
IND - - 62, Kariga Maru 
mori-cho, Igu-gun, Miyagi- 
ken 

g$m^:lr5&BT 62 

7 7 *s Jf 

Faris, Miss Eleanor, 1955, 
RPM Box 10, Tarumi, Ko 
be-shi (078)-77-2155 

ttFffi**W$* 10 

731 ]} X 

Fast, Rev. and Mrs. Marvin, 
(Eileen), 1961, ACOP - 
4385-13, Kitayama, Imba, 
Asahi-machi, Higashi Ka- 
sugai-gun, Aichi-ken 
(05615)-3-1494 



^.[Ij 4385-13 777- h 

Fasten, Mr. and Mrs. Lars, 
(Lizzi), JECC 35 Toyou- 
ra, Kuroiso-machi, Tochi- 
gi-ken (02876)-2-0669 



296 



DIRECTORIES 



Fearnehough, Mr. and Mrs. 
William, (Sheila), 1963, 
OMF 49 Sawada Tsukuri- 
michi, Aomori-shi (01772)- 
4-2745 
W^Tf^ijfK EB 49 -7 ;-_ si, ^ 3- ? 



Ferguson, Miss Helen, 1967, 
SDA - - Box 7, Hodogaya 
Nishi, Yokohama-shi (045)- 
951-1319 



Fersome, Miss Alice, JFMM 
Leave of absence 



Feely, Dr. (Rev.) Gertrude, Fha e er > Miss Gunhild, 1956, 

MCCS Furl. 



1931, IBC (MQ Christian 
Youth Center, 3-23, Mikage 
Nakamachi, 2-chome, Higa- 
shi Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078) -85-3793 



Fielder, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald, 
(Jo Beth), 1954, SB Hon- 
dori 5-chome, Nishijin-ma 
chi, Fukuoka-shi ( 092) -82- 
8426 



-7 4 )\s?~ 



Feil, Rev. and Mrs. Paul H., , Fieldhouse, Mr. and Mrs. 
(Dorothy), L954, LCA - Marvin L., (Iris), OBSF 
2-7, Tama-cho, Fuchu-shi , 3704, Karuizawa-machi, Na- 



Tokyo (0423)-62-4673 



gano-ken 



7 7 -i ^ 

Felcher, Miss Dora, 1966, 
c/o Mr. Torigai, Ichijo- 
dori, Shinmachi Nishi-iru, 
Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 
(075)-451-3555 



Finch, Rev. and Mrs. Bobby, 
(Kay), BBF P.O. Box 30 
Ota-shi, Gunma-ken (0276)- 
38-5522 



Fenner, Rev. and Mrs. Charlie 
W., (Joy), 1959/67, SB 
11-798 Nishijin-machi, Fu- 
kuoka-shi (092)-82-5014 

-798 



Finnseth, Rev. and Mrs. Per, 

(Synnove), 1952, NLM - 
145-1364 Aza Higashi-ya- 
ma, Shirakuni, Himeji-shi 
Hyogo-ken 



- I 145-1364 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



Fisch, Rev. and Mrs. Edwin, 
(Laura), 1951, TEAM 10- 
18, 6-chome, Oi Shinagawa- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-771-1953 
(c/o Sekino) 

!- 6-10-18 



Fisher, Mr. and Mrs. Hubert 
E., (Mary), 1951 OMF - 
730 Shinkotoni-machi, Sap- 
poro-shi (0122)-73-4787 



Fisher, Miss Penelope A., 
1958, MSCC 133-132, Koi- 
zumi-cho, Kitami-shi 
<r> 132 



Fisher, Mr. Ronald W., 1965, 
OMF Miharashi Tei, To- 
yama, Hanazono Koen, Ota- 
ru-shi 



Fisk, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald H., 
(Donna), 1960, BGC 6-2, 
Zenmyoji, Wakayama-shi 
(0734)-55-1320 

6-2 -7 4 7, ? 



Fittz, Mr. and Mrs. Herman, 
(Dorothy), 1950, 16, 2- 
chome, Isogo-machi, Isogo- 
ku, Yokohama-shi (045)- 
751-6510 

-16 



Flaherty, Mr. and Mrs. Theo 
dore E., (Mary), 1949/53, 
IBC (RCA) 37- A, Yama- 
te-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama- 
shi (045)-641-1183 



Fleenor, Mr. and Mrs. Julius, 
(Virginia), 1950, CnC 1-5- 
15 Nakaochiai, Shinjuku- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-951-6025 
3C5C*Br?gE*& 1-5-15 

7 !) - ^ - 

Fleischman, Miss Lorraine, 
1952, JCBM Furl. 68-69 

Fleischmann, Deaconess B., 
1951 MAR 7-29, 1-chome, 
Higashi Naruo-cho, Nishino- 
miya-shi, Hyogo-ken 
(0798)-41-1107 

1-7-29 



Fleming, Mr. J. Emery, 1952, 
Meiji Gakuin, 42 Imasato- 
cho, Shiba Shirokane, Mina- 
to-ku, Tokyo (03)-443-8231 
BT 42 



Flowers, Miss E. Maurine, 
1952 OMF 

Flynn, Rev. and Mrs. Stan, 
(Helen), 1960, BBF 6-3, 1- 
chome, Oaza Jiyugaoka, 
Munakata-machi, Fukuoka- 
ken (09403-3400) 



298 



DIRECTORIES 



7y y 

Foege, Rev. and Mrs. Richard, 
(Mary), 1964, ALC-8-2, 2- 
chome, Nunohashi, Hama- 
matsu-shi, Shizuoka-ken 
(0534)-71-1098 



Ford, Rev. and Mrs. Einar, 
1953, EFCM 1892 Moto- 
machi, Kasukabe-shi, Sai- 
tama-ken 



Forsberg, Miss Ruth, 1947, 
TEAM -- Furl. 68-69 

Forster, Mr. and Mrs. Fred, 
(June), 1964, CN 826 Kai- 
zuka-cho, Chiba-shi (0472) 
22-1226 



Foster, Dr. Mary, 1954, IBC 

(MC) Reiseki-so #5, 10-7 
Minami Aoyama, 6-chome, 
Minato-ku, Tokyo (03)-409- 
2426 

aj 6-10-7 



Foss, Miss Eleanor, M., 1936, 
CMS Poole Gakuin, 5- 
chome, Katsuyama-dori, 

Ikuno-ku, Osaka-shi (06) 
731-3190 



Foster, Mr. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Phyllis), 1964, IBC (MC) 
8-chome, Nishi 1-jo, Tsu- 
kisappu, Sapporo-shi 
(0122") -86-4578 



Foss, Miss Marit, 1951, NLM 
Oda-machi, Oda-shi, Shi- 
mane-ken 



Fox, Mr. Karl Louis, 1966 
LCA 20-7, 4-chome, Oe- 
machi, Kumamoto-shi 
(0963)-64-4658 

-20-7 



Fox, Rev. and Mrs. Roger, 
(Margaret), 1951, FEGC- 
392 Nishi Bori, Niiza-ma- 
chi, Kitaadachi-gun, Sai- 
tama-ken (0424)-71-5520 
Furl, to 12/68 



Foxwell, Rev. and Mrs. Philip 
R., (Jane), 1948, JPM 8- 
15, 1-chome, Hikawadai, 
Kurume-machi, Kitatama- 
gun, Tokyo (0424) 71-2905 



1-8-15 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



299 



Francis, Rev. Mrs. John, 
(Carolyn Sue), 1968/56, IBC 
(MC) 10-8, Minami Aoya- 
ma 6-chome, Minato-ku 
Tokyo (03)-409-2423 
SOKSffiiEWUl 6-10-8 

7 7 V > X 

Franklin, Dr. and Mrs. Sam 

H., (Dorothy) IBC (UPC) 
29 of 3, Inokashira 5-cho- 
me, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 
(0422)-43-5047 



7 



Frazier, Rev. and Mrs. 
George, (Mary Beth), IND 
1700-1, Kokubu - machi, 
Kurume-shi, Fukuoka-ken 
#BT 1700-1 



Frazier, Dr. and Mrs. Leslie, 
(Bonnie), 1964, GFA 64 
Midorigaoka, Honmoku, Na- 
ka-ku, Yokohama-shi (045) 
641-8812 



Fredlung, Miss Mabel M., 
1952, OMF-^9, Sawada, 
Tsukurimichi, Aomori-shi 
(0422)-43-5047 



7 v y K 7 v K 

Frens, Rev. and Mrs. James, 
(Ruthe), 1950, TEAM 



15-15, 3-chome, Daizawa 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
413-2345 

-15-15 



Frett, Rev. and Mrs. Calvin, 
(Dorothy), 1961, JPM - 
2957 Higashiyama, Aza 
Oazagawa, Moriyama-ku, 
Nagoya-shi 



Friesen, Mr. and Mrs. Abra 
ham, (Jacqueline), 1955, 
OMF - - 948 Sakuragawa, 
Aza Tsutsui, Aomori-shi 



Friesen, Miss Anne, 1954, 
OMF 19-7 Tomino-cho, Hi- 
rosaki-shi, Aomori-ken, 
(01722)-2-5986 



Friesen, Rev. and Mrs. Har 
ry, 1951, MBM 4-19, Naga- 
mine Yama Oishi, Nada-ku, 
Kobe-shi (078)-86-4942 

*IUj 4-19 



Friesen, Rev. and Mrs. Jacob, 
(Junko), 1955/64, TEAM 
16-20, 4-chome, Izumino- 
cho, Kanazawa-shi, Ishika- 
wa-ken (0762)-41-7588 
-16-20 
]} 



300 



DIRECTORIES 



Friesen, Miss Leonore, 1951 
GCMM Furl. 68-69 

Friesen, Rev. and Mrs. Ro 
land, (Jean), 1952, FEGC- 
2-10 5, Kaneyama-cho, Ku- 
rume-machi, Kitatama-gun, 
Tokyo (0424)-71-0810 



5-2-10 7y~fe*y 

Friesen, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam (Lois), 1953, JEM - 
Furl. 

Frivold, Rev. and Mrs. Robert 
W., (Ruth), 1952, AG 160, 
4-chome, Nagamineyama, 
Nada-ku, Kobe-shi (078)- 
86-3149 

4-160 



Fromm, Rev. and Mrs. El 
wood, (Keiko), 1953, LCMS 
14, Miyanomori, Kotoni 
Sapporo-shi (0122)-63-9567 



Fuhriman, Mr. and Mrs. Ro 
bert, 1968, CCCI c/o Japai 
Campus Crusade for Christ 
2-1, Kanda Surugadai, Chi 
voda-ku, Tokyo (03)-292- 
0791 

2-1 



Fujii, Rev. and Mrs. Danie 
T., 1962, IND Box 1, Ya 

mato-shi, Kanagawa-ken 



Fujimoto, Miss June, 1964, 
FEGC 269-4, Chizuka, Ko- 
fu-shi, Yamanashi-ken 



Fukada, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
M., (Laura), 1960, IBC- 
(MC)27 Noboriuchi-machi, 
Shugakuin, Sakyo-ku, Kyo- 
to-shi (075) 781-4682 



Fulop, Dr. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Verne), 1958, ABFMS 
4834 Mutsuura, Kanagawa- 
ku, Yokohama-shi (045)- 
701-8347 



Fultz, Miss Catherine, 1951, 
PCUS Furl. 68-69 

Fultz, Mrs. Exie, CnC 13-1, 
2-chome, Shoto-cho, Shibu- 
ya-ku, Tokyo (03) 466-9606 
P 2-13-1 



G 



Gaenzle, Mr. and Mrs. Heinz, 
(Irmgard), 1956, LM - 
Furl. 68-69 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



301 



Gaerdstrom, Miss Milda, SFM 
c/o Tygert, 2163 Karuiza- 
wa-machi, Nagano-ken 



Gainer, Mr. and Mrs. R.I., 
(Ruth), 1967, SDA Box 7, 
Hodogaya Nishi, Yokohama- 
shi (045) 951-2223 



1963, 



Galley, Miss Judith, 
TEAM Furl. 68-69 



Gamblin, Rev. and Mrs. Ar 
thur, (Haruko), 1953, IBC 
(MC) Leave of absence 

Gamlem, Miss Anna, 1949, 
NLM 633 Kawasaki, Tsuy- 
ma-shi, Okayama-ken 



Gano, Rev. and Mrs. Glenn 
G., (Mary Jean) 1954 
ABFMS - - 42-14, 1-chome 
Nishikubo, Musashino-shi 
(0422)-51-6296 

1-42-14 
f- ; 

Garlen, Rev. and Mrs. James 
E., JCG 22 Tsuoka-cho, 
Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama- 
shi 



Garner, Miss Margaret, 1949, 
IBC (UCBWM) 126 Tsu- 
chitoi, Sendai-shi (0222) 
22-6638 

i!26 



Garrott, Dr. and Mrs. W. 
Maxfield, (Dorothy), 1934, 
SB Seinan Jogakuin, Shi- 
mo Itozu, Kokura-ku, Kita- 
kyushu-shi, Fukuoka-ken 
(093) 56-5656 



Geeslin, Dr. and Mrs. Roger 
H., (Lois), 1958, IBC 
(UCMS) Leave of absence 

Gerber, Miss Mieta, 1966, 
JMHE -- 242-3, Hanyuno, 
Habikino-shi, Osaka-fu 
(0729) 55-1348 

-3 



Gerry, Mr. and Mrs. Robert 
J., (Dorothy), 1951, CLC 
5509 Kita Oizumi-machi, 
Nerima-ku, Tokyo (03) 
922-1118 

BT 3509 



Gerst, Mr. and Mrs. Wilhelm, 
(Elfriede), 1961, LM 541, 
Shimoyama 1-chome, Koga- 
shi, Ibaraki-ken ( 0280) -2- 
1983 

-541 



DIRECTORIES 



Gibson, Mr. and Mrs. Russell, 
(Jean), 1967, WMC 113 
Shiratake-cho, Sasebo-shi 
Nagasaki-ken (09562)-2- 
2434 



Gilbertson, Rev. and Mrs. 
Gaylen, (Stella), 1953, ALC 
22, 3-chome, Tokugawa- 
cho, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi 
(052) 941-3223 



Gilg, Miss Audrey, 1962, IBC 
(UCBWM) IBC House, 16- 
53, Roppongi 5-chome, Mi- 
nato-ku, Tokyo ( 03) -583- 
3325 

K;*## 5-16-53 



Gillespie, Rev. and Mrs. A.L., 

(Bee), 1946, SB 25-7, 1- 

chome, Uenosaka, Toyona- 

ka-shi, Osaka-fu (068)-53- 
3176 

1-25-7 



Gizzi, Rev. and Mrs. Vincent, 
(Virginia), 1951, IM Ka- 
washimo Nakatsu, Iwakuni- 
shi, Yamaguchi-ken 



Gish, Mr. and Mrs. George 
1958/68, IBC (MC) 6-20, 
Higashi 4-chome, Shibuya- 
ku, Tokyo (03) 409-8203 



Glass, Miss Eva, 1951, OMF 
Hokkaido Seisho Gakuin, 
632 Kitagoo, Shiroishi-ma- 
chi, Sapporo-shi (0122)-87- 
7892 



7^^ 

Glawion, Miss Esther, 1964, 
LM 935 Kugahara, Ota-ku 
Tokyo, (03)-751-0211 



Gleason, Dr. and Mrs. Alan, 
(Emily), 1956, ICU 
House 348, Osawa 3-chome, 
Tokyo (0422)-43-3131, Ext. 
436 

HC^HJtTfi^ 3-10-3 

348 ^m ?y-yi/ 

Godert, Miss Agnes, 1955, 
PCUS Apt. A-3, Sugiya- 
ma Building, 10 Meitoku- 
cho, Gifu-shi (0582)-4-6131 

tt-^-TtT0^tBT 10 ^04 tW 
7,<~Y A-3-- nV- h 

Godfrey, Dr. Merle (M.D.) 
and Dr. Margaret (M.D.), 
1967, SDA 11-5, 1-chome, 
Jingumae, Shibuya-ku, To 
kyo (03)-401-3594 

m^SPJK^E^^fJ l-H-5 

-t y K 7 y - 

Godoy, Rev. and Mrs. Rolf, 
(Petra), 1950, LFCN - 
Furl. 68-69 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



303 



Goeres, Rev. and Mrs. 
Richard, (Gloria), 1946, 
LCMS 2-go, 15, 1-chome, 
Tama-cho, Fuchu-shi, To 
kyo (0423)-61-9586 

BT 1-15-2 



Goes, Rev and Mrs. Gosta, 
1954, SEOM Furl. 

Going, Rev. and Mrs. Thomas, 
(Adrienne), 1955, LCMS - 
Kitanaka, Sanjo-shi, Niiga- 
ta-ken (02563)-3-1857 



Goldsmith, Miss Mabel, O., 
CMS (Retired), 10, Soji- 
ma-cho, Kurume-shi, Fuku- 
oka-ken (09422)-4971 



Goodall, Mr. and Mrs. A.R., 
1960, Kita 22- jo, Higashi 4- 
chome, Sapporo-shi (0122)- 
71-0522 



Gooden, Rev. and Mrs. Joe, 
(Fredda), 1950, WV 49, 
2-chome, Sakuradai, Neri- 
ma-ku, Tokyo (03)-991-4249 



Goring, Rev. and Mrs. V.I., 
(Kathleen), 1964, MSCC 
Furl. 



Gornitzka, Rev. and Mrs. Ro 
bert W., (Astri), 1954, 
EOM 54-2, 2-chome, Higa 
shi Yotsukura-machi, Iwaki- 
shi, Fukushima-ken (0246)- 
32-2735 



Gosden, Rev. and Mrs. Eric 
W., (Mary St. John), 1933/ 
39, JEB - - 6-11, 6-chome, 
Sumaura-dori, Suma-ku, Ko- 
be-shi (078)-71-5651 



Goss, Rev. and Mrs. Bonn, 
1949, TEAM 419 Eifuku- 
cho, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-321-2280 



Goto, Mr. John, 1951, IND 
62, Kariga, Marumori, Igu- 
gun, Miyagi-ken 



=f h- 



Grant, Mr. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Kyoko), 1947, IBC - 
(UCBWM) -- Muvo-machi- 
dori, Imadegavva Agaru, 
Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 
(075)-431-5940 



304 



DIRECTORIES 



Grant, Rev. and Mrs. Worth 
C., (Kathryn), 1950, SB 
7-18, Kamiyama-cho, Shibu- 
ya-ku, Tokyo (03)-467- 
6128 



Graves, Miss Alma, 1936, 
SB 195-2, Nishijin-machi, 
Fukuoka-shi (092)-82-7698 



Gravklev, Miss Sylvi, 1957, 
EOM 2-84, Sakae-cho, Ha- 
ramachi-shi, Fukushima-ken 
(024422-4227) 



Graybill, Mr. and Mrs. John 
W., (Lucille), 1957, BIG 
228, 4-chome, Nukui Mina- 
mi-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 
(0423)-81-9975 Furl, to 1/69 
-228 



Grayell, Rev. Arthur, AG 
Associate Hondo Kirisuto 
Kodomo Home, Hondo-shi, 
Kumamoto-ken 2-2091 



Green, Rev. and Mrs. H.E., 
(Jean), 1957, MSCC Nishi 
3-chome, Sakae-machi, Asa- 
hikawa-shi, Hokkaido 
(0166) 2-9395 Furl. 68-69 



>? ]) - ^ 

Green, Dr. and Mrs. William, 
M., (Ruby), 1967, CC 
Ibaraki Christian College, 
4048 Kujimachi, Hitachi-shi, 
Ibaraki-ken 



Gregory, Miss June, 1966, 
CLC 3509, Kitaoizumi-ma- 
chi, Nerima-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
922-1118 



Grellier, Rev. and Mrs. Brian, 
(Kathleen), MS -- 111-112, 
Ito-machi, Ikuta-ku, Kobe- 
shi (078)-33-1696 

fflT 111-112 



Grier, Rev. and Mrs. Louis, 
(Dorothy), 1948, IBC (UPC) 
Furl. 68-69 

Griesy, Rev. Paul, 1955, IBC 
(UCBWM) Leave of 

absence 

Griffin, Rev. and Mrs. Harry, 
Dee, (Barbara), 1962, SB- 
Furl. 68-69 

Griffiths, Mr. and Mrs. David 
R.H., (June), OMF 824 
Sakae-machi, Sapporo-shi 
(0122)-72-4974 



LIST OP PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



Grigg, Miss Pearl, 1961, IND 
21-20, Kami Ikeda-cho, 
Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, 
Kyoto-shi (075)-781-5777 



21-20 



if ]) y if 



Gronlund, Mrs. Mildred E., 
1951, GYF Furl. 68-69 

Gronning, Rev. and Mrs. Arne, 
(Elsa), 1951, NLM 1-27, 
Chimori-cho, Suma-ku, Ko- 
be-shi (078)-71-1662 



Grosjean, Miss 
USPG -- 3-5-9, 
Hamamatsu-shi, 
ken 



if 

Violet C., 

Kamoe-cho, 

Shizuoka- 

-5-9 



Grove, Mr. and Mrs. Leslie, 
(Carolyn), 1957, JEM 
Furl. 68-69 

Grove, Rev. and Mrs. William, 
(Naomi), 1966 NTC 1548 
Nishijo-cho, Suzuka-shi, 
Mie-ken 



Grube, Miss Alice, 1932, IBC 
(UPC) 10-25 Furuno-cho 
Kawachinagano-shi, Osaka- 
fu (07215)-2065 



305 
-25 



Gudeman, Miss Mary Ellen, 
TEAM 1964, c/o Shiei 
Mansion, 1-5, Takatsuka- 
cho, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyo- 
go-ken (0798)-33-5997 

W 1-5 

if 



Guenther, Rev. and Mrs. Heinz 
(Anneliese), 1954, IBC 
(UCC) Furl. 67-69 

Gullatt, Rev. and Mrs. Tom, 
(Mary), 1950, SB 10-27, 
Osawa, 6-chome, Mitaka- 
shi (0422)-43-7876 

-10-27 



Gulley, Mr. and Mrs. N. R., 
(Leona), 1962, SDA Furl. 
68-69 

Gulliksson, Miss Hjordis, 1967, 
JECC 19-21 Chuo 1-chome, 
Karasuyama-machi, Tochi- 
gi-ken (02878)-2893 

IS*m,iOlBT^* 1-19-21 

ff y ^ y >/ 

Gundersen, Miss Johanna, 
1950, FCM Furl. 

Gurganus, Mr. and Mrs. L.T., 
(Joan), 1960, CC Higashi 
2-jo, 4-chome, No. 18, Tsu- 
kisappu, Sapporo-shi 



if - 



306 



DIRECTORIES 



Gustafsson, Rev. and Mrs. 
Arne, (Rigmor), 1965, 
MCCS Furl. 

Gwinn, Miss Alice E., 1922, 
IBC (UCBWM Retired) - 
464 Umeya-cho, Hitosujime, 
Nishi-iru, Karasuma, Inia- 
degawa-segaru, Kamikyo- 
ku, Kyoto-shi (075)-451- 
9221 



-flBfl*W464 
H 



Habben, Rev. and Mrs. Ker- 
mit, 1967, WELS 620 Ten- 
jin, Komatsu Tsuchiura-shi, 
Ibaraki-ken (0298)-2-3578 



1957, 



Habbestad, Miss June, 
TEAM Furl. 68-69 



Hagen, Miss Kirsten, 1950, 
FCM 73-19, Minamiyama- 
cho, Seto-shi, Aichi-ken 
(0561)-82-6348 

-19 



Hagstrom, Miss Britta, 1957, 
OMJ Furl. 

Hain, Miss Irene, 1962, GAM 
c/o W. Werner, 54 Shima- 
da, Nishi-machi, Gifu-shi 



Halberg, Mr. and Mrs. Roland, 
(Margaret), 1957, JCBM 
Box 66, Sendai-shi 



Hale, Miss Elizabeth M., 
1962, CMS 15, Fujishiro 
Building, 77-4 Uchihama, 
Hachiman-cho, Tokushima- 
shi (0886)-54-3464 



if /L- f*j 15 



Haley, Mrs. Virginia B., 1954, 
PEC-IND St. Paul s Uni 
versity (Rikkyo Daigaku), 
3-chome, Ikebukuro, To- 
shima-ku, Tokyo (03)-983- 
2262 



Hall, Rev. and Mrs. J. Wesley, 
1967, UPCM 101, Sanno 
Tani, Hon-machi, Naka-ku, 
Yokohama-shi 



Halliday, Miss Gladys, 1961, 
JIM 3 ? Higashi Hon-ma 
chi, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, 
Kyoto-shi 



Halstrom, Rev. and Mrs. Dale, 
1952, EFCM 31-12, 2-chome, 
Nishi Bessho, Urawa-shi, 
Saitama-ken (0488)-22-3601 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



307 



-31-12 



Hamer, Rev. Heyo E., 1961, 
GEAM Furl. 

Hamilton, Miss Blanche, 1959, 
ABWE 162 Takemoto-cho, 
Ogi Hagashi, Nada-ku, Ko- 
be-shi 

162 



Hamilton, Rev. and Mrs. 
David, (Betty), 1965, 
TEAM - - 1199-A, Karuiza- 
wa-machi, Nagano-ken 



Hammond, Mr. and Mrs. Al- 
vin, (Eleanor), 1954, CnC- 
345, 3-chome, Mukodai, 
Onta, Higashi-Murayama- 
shi, Tokyo (0423)-91-1400 
3-345 



Handeland, Miss Solveig, The 
Norwegian School, 50, Taki- 
gatani, Shioya, Tarumi-ku, 
Kobe-shi 



Hancock, Mr. John W., 1962, 
OMF Nishioka Fukuin Ki- 
risuto Kyokai, 8-164, Nishi 
oka, Sapporo-shi 

8-164 



Hancock, Miss Margery, 1966, 
CLC 3509, Kita Oizumi- 
machi, Nerhna-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-992-1118 



Hansen, Miss Olaug, 1966, 
FCM 9, 4-chome, Iwaya 
Naka-machi, Nada-ku, Ko 
be-shi (078)-87-9192 



Hansen, Mr. and Mrs. 
SvenOlaf, (Ulla), 1958, 
SAMJ 24-19 Asahi-machi, 
Anjo-shi, Aichi-ken (0567)- 
6-4033 

-19 



Hanson, Rev. and Mrs. Ed 
ward G., (Pearl), 1950, 
JGL 56, Koyama-Itakura- 
cho, Kita-ku, Kyoto-shi 



Hanson, Miss Marion, 1951, 
ALC-18, Mukaiyama-Dai- 
machi, Toyohashi-shi 
(0532)-2^-9571 
18 



Haraughty, Miss Mary L., 
1950, PCUS 112, Yama- 
moto-dori 4-chome, Ikuta- 
ku, Kobe-shi 



308 



DIRECTORIES 



Harbin, Rev. and Mrs. A. Van- 
diver, (Winnie Lee), 1934/ 
40, IBC - - (MC) - #6 
Kwansei Gakuin, Nishinomi- 
ya-shi, Hyogo-ken (0798)- 
51-2070 

MM6-5- 

^ tf :/ 

Hardley, Rev. and Mrs. Ro 
bert, (Taiko), 1953, Univer 

sal Mission, c/o Fujita, 36, 
Hirakawa-machi, Kanaga- 
wa-ku, Yokohama-shi 



Hardy, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Mavis), 1953, SB 22, Ka 
mi Ikeda-cho, Kitashira- 
kawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 
(075)-781-5776 



^ ;f 4 

Harland, Mr. and Mrs. Tom, 
IND Furl. 68-69 

Harms, Rev. and Mrs. Walter, 
(Ellen), 1959, LCMS 15, 
Nakano-cho, Ichigaya, Shin- 
juku-ku, Tokyo 



Harrigan, Mr. and Mrs. Carl, 
IND 62, Kariga, Marumo- 
ri-cho, Igu-gun, Miyagi-ken 



ft 62 



** 



Harris, Miss Cora, 1949, JEM 
645-1 Fujimi-mura, Tsu- 
ruse, Iruma-gun, Saitama 
ken (Oi) 61-6840 



Harris, Miss Esma R., 1953, 
WEC Furl. 68-69 

Harris, Mr. and Mrs. Hugh, 
(Phyllis), 1958, NAV 769- 
6, Kitahara Minamizawa, 
Kurume-machi, Kitatama- 
gun, Tokyo (0424)-71-1588 



769-6 



y 



Harris, Miss Susan, 1968, SDA 
Box 7, Hodogaya Nishi 
Yokohama-shi ( 045) -951- 
1319 



Hart man, Miss (Rev.) Doris, 
1952, IBC (MC) 1637-4, 
Furuichi, Yasufuruichi-cho, 
Asa-gun, Hiroshima-ken 

(08287)-7-1028 



Hartwing, Miss Irmgard, 1954, 
GMM Bethesda Home, Ka- 
neda, Chosei-mura, Chosei- 
gun, Chiba-ken (0475)-102- 
62 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



309 



Haruyama, Rev. and Mrs. 
Justin, (Sarah), 1961, IBC 
(MC) 137, Kami Arata- 
cho, Kagoshima-shi (09922)- 
4-4774 



Harvey, Mr. H. W., IND 

13-15, Sumiyoshi-cho, Ota- 
ru-shi, Hokkaido 



Harvey Rev. and Mrs. Pharis, 
(Jane), 1964, IBC (MC) 
5-9, Minamidaira, Fukushi- 
ma-shi (02452)-2-1308 
*ITO[i 5-9 ^-^ 

Hasegawa, Mrs. Roy, IND 
3, 1-chome, Horinouchi, Su- 
ginami-ku, Tokyo (03)-311- 
5722 



Hasegawa, Mr. and Mrs. Taro, 
IND 932, Isshiki, Hayama- 
machi, Miura-gun, Kana- 
gawa-ken (0468)-751-1268 

--fertf? 

Hash, Rev. and Mrs. Orlando, 
(Herdis), 1960, ALC 246, 
Aza Kitashinkuri, Takashi- 
cho, Toyohashi-shi, Aichi- 
ken (0532)-3-0846 



^ashman, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam L., (Jeani), 1964, SB- 
Medical Furl. 

Hathaway, Rev. and Mrs. C. 
Bill, BBF Furl. 

Hatori, Rev. and Mrs. Akira, 
(Reiko), 1954, JEMS Tai- 
heiyo Hosokyokai, 1433, 2- 
chome, Setagaya, Setagaya- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-420-3166 
-1433 

^b y 

Haugen, Miss Aase, 1953, 
FCM 48 Kiyokawa-cho, 
Takefu-shi, Fukui-ken 
(0778)-22-1064 



Hausknecht, Rev. and Mrs. 
Phillip A., (Ryoko), 1963, 
LCA 7-22, Yanagi-machi, 
Kushiro-shi, Hokkaido 
(0154)-3-2026 
^^iIilI5rt!WBT 7-22 

^ *>?*>? \- 

Havlick, Miss Dorothy, 1951, 
IBC (UPC) 7-7, Kudan 
Minami 4-chome, Chiyoda- 
ku, Tokyo (03) -261-6763 

-7-7 



310 



DIRECTORIES 



Hawkinson, Miss Marian 
1952, LCA 2429-1, Higa- 
shi-Tsushimo, Ogori-machi 
Yamaguchi-ken (08397)-2- 
1096 



Hayman, Mr. and Mrs. David 
E., (Roslyn), 1952, OMF 
49 Sawada, Tsukuri-machi, 
Aomori-shi (01 772) -4-2745 
W^rfTiijl^ ffl 49 ^sf-r:/ 

Hays, Dr. and Mrs. George H., 
(Helen), 1948, SB 425 
Oaza Hoshiguma, Fukuoka- 
shi (092) -82-6543 
425 



Hays, Rev. and Mrs. Ronald, 
(Marilynn), 1965, ALC 
205 Kajiya, Yugawara- 
machi, Ashigarashimo-gun, 
Kanagawa-ken (04606-3408) 



M 205 s^4 x" 

Hegge, Rev. and Mrs. Myron, 
(Irene), 1950, TEAM 
Furl. 68-69 

Heil, Rev. and Mrs. L. E., 

JCG - - Extended Medical 
Furl. 

Heim, Rev. Kenneth E, 1953 
PEC 122, 1 chome, Ogiku- 
bo, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-398-7348 

1-122 

/vf A 



Heimvik, Miss Aud, 1959, 
NMS 15, 3-chome, Tezuka- 
yama Nishi, Sumiyoshi-ku, 
Osaka-shi (06)-671-6320 
3-15 



Heiss, Rev. and Mrs. Donald 
R., (Joyce), 1957, SB Furl. 
68-69 

Helland, Rev. and Mrs. Bruce, 
(Delna), 1951, TEAM 50- 
362, Jyoyama, Nagano-shi 
(02622)-3-1564 



Helland-Hansen, Miss Merete, 
1961 NMS Furl. 

Hellberg, Miss Gullbritt, 1952, 
SEMJ 273-33 Aza Raiba, 
Noboribetsu-cho, Horobe- 
tsu-gun (014382-2310) 



OO ,. -> ,-i- 

oo ^x/lx^N . Sj 

Heller, Miss Henny, 1961, 
GAM 2-17 Kamiota-Machi, 
Gifu-shi (0582)-63-8968 



Helling, Mr. and Mrs. Hubert, 
(Virginia), 1952, CN 507 
Okamoto-cho, Setagaya-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-700-6795 Furl. 
68-69 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



311 



Hemmingby, Mr. and Mrs. 
Arne, (Karen), 1950, FCM 
25-22, Tawara-machi, 2- 
chome, Fukui-shi (0776)- 
22-6315 



Henriksson, Miss Gunilla, 1966, 
MCCS Swedish School, 
2481 Onuma, Sagamihara- 
shi, Kanagawa-ken 



]) 



Henry, Rev. and Mrs. Ken 
neth, (Gladys), 1951, TEAM 

WA-1315, Nakagami-cho, 

Akishima-shi, Tokyo (0425) 
-41-3379 



Henschel, Miss Hanna, 1960, 
NGM 217, Shimorenjaku, 
Mitaka-shi, Tokyo (0422)- 
43-3914 



.A- 



Hereford, Miss Nannie N., 
1932, IBC (UPC) 13-2 Ha- 
chikubo, Aomi-machi, Nishi 
Kubiki-gun, Niigata-ken 
(Ohmi 563) 



13 ^]/7 * 

Herje, Rev. and Mrs. Kunt, 
(Anna), 1967, NLM Hiru- 



zen Kogen, Kami-Osada, 

Yazuka-mura, Maniwa-gun, 

Okayama-ken (Kaminagata 
76) 



Hersey, Mr. and Mrs. Fred, 
(Evelyn), 1956, FWBM 
2141 Unoki, Sayarna-shi, 
Saitama-ken 



Hessel, Rev. and Mrs. R. A. 
Egon, (Grace), IND 3-10, 
4-chome, Naka Mikunigao- 
ka, Sakai-shi, Osaka-fu 
^rn 4-3-10 

^ y -fe j\/ 

Hesselink, Dr. and Mrs. I. 
John Jr., (Etta), 1953, IBC 
(RCA) 136 Higashi-cho, 5- 
chome, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 
(0423)-81-9655 

BT 5-136 



Hestekind, Rev. and Mrs. 
Harold, (Grace), 1948/49, 
PCM 205, Ozato-cho, Hon- 
moku, Naka-ku, Yokohama- 
shi (045)-621- 



Hetcamp, Miss Ruth, 1960, 
GMM 329-5, Eifuku-cho, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
321-4794 



312 



DIRECTORIES 



Heywood, Mr. and Mrs. Ro 
nald E., (Anne P.) 1950/53, 
JEB 1 of 53, 1-chome, 
Himuro-cho, Hyogo-ku, Ko- 
be-shi Furl. 68-69 

WF rfr:ftlt[x 7R^0Jr 1-53-1 

^>T *? y K 

Hibbard, Dr. Esther L., 1929, 
IBC (UCBWM) Purl. 

Hicks, Captain Joyval, 1964, 
SA 17, 2-chome, Kanda 
Jinbo-cho, Chiyoda-ku, To 
kyo (03)-263-7311 

-17 



t y ^ ^ 

Highfill, Miss Virginia B., 
1950, SB 6-38, Minami-cho, 
Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
955-4584 

-38 



Highwood, Mr. and Mrs. 
David, C., (Dorothy), 1955, 
OMF 531 Hon-cho, Nanae- 
machi, Kameda-gun, Hok 
kaido (8301) 



K 



Hillhouse, Miss Helen, 1964, 
IBC (MC) Seiwa Woman s 
College, House #1, Okada- 
yama, Nishinomiya-shi, 
Hyogo-ken (0798)-51-0709 



Billiard, Mr. and Mrs. W. I., 
(Norma), 1949, SDA Furl. 
68-69 



Hinchman, Rev. and Mrs. B. 
L., (Nadine), 1949, ABFMS 
Furl. 

Hindal, Miss Hope, 1949, 

TEAM 1-20, Honan 2-cho 

me, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-311-6403 

-1-20 
t 



Hinton, Mr. William C., 1962, 
CC Furl. 

Hinz, Rev. and Mrs. David, 
(Jean), 1956, LCMS 1175- 
22, Aza Urayama, Aoyama, 
Niigata-shi (0252)-66-8611 
-22 

t i/X 

Hire, Miss Eleanore, 1959, 
IBC (UCBWM) Furl. 68- 
69 

Hoaglund, Rev. and Mrs. Alan, 
(Betty), 1954, LCA 118, 
Kitamochida-machi, Matsu- 
yama-shi, Ehime-ken (0899) 
-31-1435 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



313 



Hodges, Rev. and Mrs. Olson 
S., (Lelia), BBF 639, 4- 
chome, Makuhari-machi, 

Chiba-shi (0472)-3-8347 
4-639 



Hofacker, Miss Margarete, 
1967, N 906, Aza Minami- 
hara, Kamisakunobe, Kawa- 
saki-shi, Kanagawa-ken 

(044)-83-6950 



Hoffman, Mr. and Mrs. Willis 
R., (Michiko), MJO 40, 5- 
chome, Tokugawa-cho, Hi- 
gashi-ku, Nagoya-shi (052) 
-941-4694 



Hoffner Rev. and Mrs. Karl, 
(Agda), 1952, OMJ Furl. 

Hoh, Rev. and Mrs. David J., 
(Adelle), 1954, LCA 20-28, 
4-chome, Oe-machi, Kuma- 
moto-shi (0963)-64-0566 
mtttittrm 4-20-28 

,J- | _ 

Hoke, Dr. and Mrs. Donald, 
(Martha), 1952, TEAM 
8440, Yabo, Kunitachi-shi, 
Tokyo (0425)-72-6236 



Holecek, Mr. and Mrs. Frank, 
(Ruth), 1947, JCBM Wa- 
kamiya-cho, Kitakami-shi, 
Iwate-ken (019762)-4789 



Hollaway, Rev. and Mrs. 
Ernest Lee Jr., (Ida Nelle), 
1949, SB Leave of absence 

Holmgren, Mr. and Mrs. Cai l 
A., (Dorothy), 1959, 

ABFMS Kanto Gakuin, 4, 
Miharudai, Minami-ku, Yo- 
kohama-shi (045)-231-6628 
^ffiEHi^ 4 

*-&>?\sV 

Holritz, Rev. and Mrs. Ber 
nard, (Jeannette), 1950, 
TEAM Furl. 68-69 

Holte, Miss Roselyn, 1952, 
ALC 183, Otowa-cho, Shi- 
zuoka-shi, Shizuoka-ken 

(0542)-52-9079 
183 



Honaman, Mr. and Mrs. Wil 
liam F., (Eleanor), 1958, 
PEC 24-1, Minami Aoyama 
1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-408-3436/2524 

lIl 1-24-1 



Honjo, Rev. and Mrs. Ralph, 
(Irene), 1966-SB - - 11-98, 
Tsutsumi-dori, Sendai-shi 
(0222)-34-0039 



314 



DIRECTORIES 



If T S 11-98 



Hoole, Miss Averill M., 1964, 
WEC 569 Kondo, Gokano- 
sho-cho, Kanzaki-gun, Shi- 
ga-ken (Ishizuka 47) 

569 



Hoover, Miss Annie, 1949, SB 
Minami 22, Nishi 14, Sap- 
poro-shi, Hokkaido (0122)- 
56-2062 



Horgen, Miss Borghild, 1954, 
EOM 2-84, Sakae-cho, Ha- 
ranomachi-shi, Fukushima- 
ken (024422-4227) 
Pr 2-84 



Horisberger, Miss Therese, 
1967, SAM Bethel House, 
Karuizawa-machi, Nagano- 
ken 



Horn, Rev. and Mrs. Clifford, 
(Bettie), 1961, LCMS 2- 
224, Takahana-cho, Omiya- 
shi 

BT 2-224 *-i, 



Horning, Miss Enid M., 1954, 
IBC (UCC-BWM) Ryogo- 
ku, Tomisato-mura, Imba- 
gun, Chiba-ken, Half-Dial 
(047634)-55 



Horton, Miss Frances, 1952, 
SB 603-30, 2-chome, Haza- 
ma-cho, Funabashi-shi, Chi- 
ba-ken 

=f mmmm^min : m 2-603-30 



Horton, Rev. and Mrs. Frede 
rick, M., (Elvee), 1950, SB 
798-11, Nishishin-machi, 
Fukuoka-shi (092)-82-3597 

-798 



Hoshizaki, Rev. and Mrs. Rei- 
ji, (Asano), 1949, SB 36, 
3-chome, Otana-cho, Chigu- 
sa-ku, Nagoya-shi (052)- 
751-4543 

36 



Hoslett, Dr. and Mrs. Sher 
man, (Martha), 1962, ALC 
c/o I.C.U., 10-2, Osawa, 
3-chome, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 
(0422)-43-3131 
-%Ll?M=m^*:R 3-10-2 

ICU|*1 ^^IX y h 

Hosmer, Rev. and Mrs. Ro 
bert, (Katrine), 1966, LB 
336-3, Aza Higashidai, Oda- 
te-shi, Akita-ken 

336-3 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



315 



Hostettler, Mr. and Mrs. 
Rudolf (Erika), 1966, SAM 
Ryotsu-shi, Niigata-ken 



Hottenbacher, Mr. and Mrs. 
Dankmar, (Christel), 1958, 
GAM 8-3, 1-chome, Oshi- 
ba-cho, Ichinomiya-shi 

(0586)-3-1444 



Howard, Miss Ethel, 1957, 
OMF 7, Shiratori-cho, Ha- 
kodate-shi, Hokkaido 



^ r, _ | 

Howard, Rev. and Mrs. Stan 
ley P. Jr., (Patsy), 1949, SB 
537, Suwanodai, Tomino, 
Kokura-ku, Kitakyushu-shi 
(093)-52-0192 

537 



Howder, Mr. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Esther), 1964, ABWE 
814. Shimo Isshiki-cho, Ka- 
goshima-shi 



Howell, Miss Elizabeth, 1948, 
IBC (MC) Fukuoka Joga- 
kuin, 35, Kami Osa, Fuku- 
oka-shi (092) -58-2405 



Hewlett, Rev. and Mrs. Floyd 
G., (Doreen), 1951, IBC 
(UCC-BWM) Furl. 68-69 

Hovey, Miss Marian, 1963, 
TEAM 15-15, 3-chome, 
Daizawa, Setagaya-ku, To 
kyo (03) -413-2345 Furl, to 
1/69 

-15-15 



Hoyer, Rev. and Mrs. Virgil, 
(Janice), 1962, ALC 1173, 
Washizu, Kosai-cho, Hama- 
na-gun, Shizuoka-ken 
(05359) -6-0332 



Huddle, Miss Elizabeth C., 
1951, LCA Kyushu Joga- 
kuin, 300, Murozono, Shimi- 
zu-machi, Kumamoto-shi 
(0963) -64-3964 

a 300 



Huddle, Dr. and Mrs. Paul, 
(Martha), 1948, LCA 13- 
35, 2-chome, Shirasagi, Na- 
kano-ku, Tokyo ( 03) -330- 
4626 

If 2-13-35 



Hudson, Miss Betty, 1957, 
Christian Music Center, 60 
Nakaodai, Naka-ku, Yoko- 
hama-shi (045)-641-6331 



316 



DIRECTORIES 



Hudson, Miss Lenora, SB 8- 
136 Naka 2-chome, Yachi- 
yo-cho, Yahata-ku, Kitakyu- 
shu-shi, Fukuoka-ken (093)- 
6-4783 



136 y> K y ^ 

Hufnagel, Mr. and Mrs. 
Daniel, (Evelyn), 1961, OMF 
62-5, Miyuki-cho, Shizu- 
nai-machi, Hokkaido 



Huggins, Mr. and Mrs. Phares, 
(Lucile C.), 1954, WMC 
850, Tenjin-cho, Sasebo-shi, 
Nagasaki-ken (09562)-2- 
6909 



Hughes, Mrs. Marie, 1952, 
JFM Box 9, Kashiwabara- 
shi, Nara-ken (07442-3587) 

9 



Hume, Miss Doris, 1952, 
FEGC 1-18-3, Akebono- 
cho, Tachikawa-shi, Tokyo 
(0425)-23-2770 

fST 1-18-3 

t ^.-A 



Hunt, Miss Ecco, 1965, 
ABFMS 77, Kuritaya, Ka- 
nagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi 
(045)-491-3890 



Hunt, Miss Janet, 1966, BIM 
Koedi Apt. 5, Otsu 131, 
Tamachi, Komoro-shi, Naga 
no-ken 



Hunter, Miss Arlie, 1964, 
JEM Kashiwazaki Seisho 
Gakuin, Kujiranami-machi, 
Kashiwazaki-shi, Niigata- 
ken (0257)-22-3347 



,^2- 

Huttenlock, Rev. and Mrs. 
George, (Sue), 1951, JCBM 
167-3, Hakken Koji, Mina- 
mi-koizumi, Sendai-shi, Mi- 
yagi-ken (0222)-56-1980 
K 167-3 



Hyland, Rev. and Mrs. Philip, 
(Judith), 1950, ALC 29-11, 
2-chome, Hanegi, Setagaya- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-322-0445 

m^tPift ffl^EW* 2-29-n 

^4 ? v K 

Hymes, Rev. and Mrs. Robert 
A., (Janet), 1952, AG Aza- 
kami Washibetsu 26, Nobo- 
ribetsu-cho, Horobetsu-gun, 
Hokkaido 

m 26 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



317 



Hyndman, Miss Mavis J., 
1963, PCC 24, Wakamiya- 
cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-269-2909 



Ibstedt, Mr. and Mrs. Nils, 
(Bjorg), 1961/56, SFM 
565, Shimoozo, Enzan-shi, 
Yamanashi-ken (055)-333- 
3184 



Ichikawa, Mr. Ben, 1949, 
JEM Kashiwazaki Seisho 
Gakuin, Kujiranami-machi, 
Kashiwazaki-shi, Niigata- 
ken (0257)-22-3347 






Ikenouye, Rev. and Mrs. Iwao, 
(Sachiye), 1951/53, 162, 3- 
chome, Tera-machi, Takada- 
shi, Niigata-ken 



Imai, Rev. and Mrs. Gordon, 
(Joan), 1962, IBC (UCC) 
Leave of absence 

Ingebretsen, Rev. and Mrs. 
Ernst, (Gerda), 1953, NMS 
Furl. 



Ingulsrud, Rev. and Mrs. Lars, 
(Grace), 1952, ALC 31-2, 
5-chome, Kakimoto-cho, To- 
yota-shi, Aichi-ken (0565)- 
2-6567 

ffiW 5-31-2 
4 l/lf^XJl y F 



Inouye, Mr. and Mrs. Howard, 
(Betty) 1965, IND 18-15, 
1-chome, Hikawadai, Kuru- 
me-machi, Kitatama-gun, 
Tokyo 



1-18-15 4 ; v^- 

Irwin, Dr. and Mrs. Allen, L., 
(Marie), IBC (UCBWM) 
33, Uwa-cho, Komegafuku- 
ro, Sendai-shi (0222 )-23- 
3834 



Jaabaek, Miss Petra, 1949, 
NLM 121, Soto Nakabara- 
cho, Matsue-shi, Shimane- 
ken (0852)-21-5444 



Jackson, Dr. and Mrs. Ken 
neth, (Jean), 1956, IBC 
(UCBWM) Furl. 

Jackson, Dr. and Mrs. William 
H. (Doris), 1951, SB- 
House #1, 110, 1-chome, 



318 



DIRECTORIES 



Shimouma, Setagaya-ku, To 
kyo (03)-414-3893 Sum. 
Furl. 



Jacobsen, Rev. and Mrs. Mor 
ris, (Kathleen), 1949/50, 
JEM Furl. 68-69 

Jager, Mr. Siegfried, 1965, 
LM 823, Nakajima, Shimo- 
date-shi, Ibaragi-ken 
(02962)-3965 



Jakobsen, Rev. Bruno, 30, 
Teraguchi-cho, Takaba, Na- 
da-ku, Kobe-shi (078)-85- 
2878 



James, Rev. and Mrs. William, 
(Elsie), 1951, TEAM 2395, 
Sagiyama, Gifu-shi, Gifu- 
ken (0582)-64-2675 
2395 



Jamieson, Mr. and Mrs. Nor 
man, IND Furl. 68-69 

Jansson, Rev. and Mrs. Helge, 
(Gertrude), 1949, OMJ 
Sakai Evangelical Center, 
254, Hiraoka-cho, Sakai-shi, 
Osaka-fu (0722)-71-0367 



Janzen, Rev. and Mrs. George, 
(Martha), 1959/53, GCMM 
504-1, Kirishima-cho, Mi- 
yazaki-shi (0985)-2-6406 
^r 504-1 



Jarvis, Dr. and Mrs. Fred D., 
(Clara), NLL Furl. 68-69 

Jastram, Rev. and Mrs. Ro 
bert, (Phyllis), 1953, LCMS 
2-12, 3-chome, Otemachi, 
Shibata-shi, Niigata-ken 
( 025422 )-22-38 Sum. Furl. 
-12 



Jatun, Rev. 

(Herborg); 
2-chome, 
Fukiai-ku, 
22-6956 



and Mrs. Jore, 

1967, NLM 3, 

Nakajima-dori 

Kobe-shi (078)- 



Jeanes, Miss Dorothy, 1951, 
FECC Furl. 68-69 

Jenkins, Miss Jackie, 1955, 
FEGC 111, Hakuraku, Ka- 
nagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi 
(045)-491-9016-7 



Jenny, Rev. and Mrs. Rudolph 
G., (Barbara), 1961, LCA 
1306, Katano Hon-machi 4- 
chome, Kokura-ku, Kita- 
Kyushu-shi (093)-52-6925 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



319 



Jensen, Rev. and Mrs. Louis 
F., (Iris), 1957, CMSJ 
Furl. 68-69 

Jensen, Mr. and Mrs. P. L., 
(Shirley), 1967, SDA Box 
7, Hodogaya Nishi, Yoko- 
hama-shi (045)-951-2222 

T 1 



Jo, Mr. and Mrs. Hiroshi, 
(Elaine), 1968/59, IBC 
(UPC) 12, Hachiyama-cho, 
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
461-4811 



Joerneman, Miss Brita, SFM 
4344, Ogasawara, Kushi- 
gata-cho, Nakakoma-gun, 
Yamanashi-ken (05528)-2- 
0639 



4344 *?a--*T^ 

Johansson, Miss Ingegerd, 
1965, SAMJ Furl. 68-69 



Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. Bo, 
(Eivor), SFM 2-122. Iwa- 
ma-cho, Hodogaya-ku, Yo- 
kohama-shi (045)-331-0643 

2-122 



Johnson, Dr. (M.D.) and Mrs. 
C. D., (Thelma), 1956, SDA 
17-3, Amanuma 3-chome, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
392-6151 

-17-3 



Johnson, Rev. and Mrs. 
Dwight, (Sylvia), 1959, LCA 
61, Tsukimigaoka-Danchi, 
Miyazaki-shi (0985)-5-2856 



Johnson, Rev. and Mrs. Gor 
don, (Lucille), 1951, CMSJ 
7-24, Hibarigaoka, Chiga- 
saki-shi, Kanagawa-ken 

(0467)-82-7483 



24 v 5 a >- y ^ 

Johnson, Rev. and Mrs. Harold 
I., (Edna), 1952, AWM - 
Furl. 68-69 



Johansson, Miss Inger, 1958, Johnson, 
OMJ 1461-99, Noda-cho, 
Toyonaka-shi, Osaka-fu 

(06)-392-2595 

L-99 



Rev. Harriet Ann, 
1951, IBC (UPC) 2542, 
Yuki-cho, Tsu-shi, Mie-ken 
(05928)-8-5665 



320 



DIRECTORIES 



Johnson, Mr. and Mrs. John 
(Greta), SFM Furlough 

Johnson, Miss Martie, 1966 
WUMS 221, Yamate-cho 
Naka-ku, Yokohama-sh 

(045)-641-3993 



Johnson, Miss Mary, #3, !! 
16, Asahi-cho 2-chome, Aki 
shima-shi, Tokyo 

2-11-16 



Johnston, Mr. and Mrs. Bruce, 
1968, SDA Box 7, Hodo- 
gaya Nishi, Yokohama-shi 
(045)-951-0094 

rfJ{ T 7 

i/ 3 V ;*. h 

Johnston, Miss Marie A., 1965, 
OMF 5, Kamikazushi-cho, 
Hachinohe-shi, Aomori-ken 
(01872)-2-5987 



Joliff, Mr. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Virginia), 1958, CC - 
47-42, Higashi-Tsukisappu, 
Sapporo-shi (0122)-86-8563 

tLm^j&nm 47-42 

i? 3 y -7 

Jones, Miss Gladys, 1950, 
JCBM 60-7, Nagakuki, Na- 
ga-machi, Sendai-shi 



Jones, Miss Glenys, 1953, 
CJPM -- 202, Shimoizumi, 
Ishikawa-machi, Ishikawa- 
gun, Fukushima-ken 

v 5 3 i/X 

Jones, Miss Gwyneth B., 1953, 
CJPM Furl. 68-69 

Jones, Rev. and Mrs. M. Joe, 
(Doris), 1954, QMS 1648, 
1-chome, Megurita, Higashi 
Murayama-shi, Tokyo 
(0423)-91-3072 

H 1-1648 

i? a :/X 

Jonsson, Miss Eila, 1968,, OMJ 
80, Shinohara Hon-machi 
3-chome, Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 



Jonsson, Miss Sigrid, 1953, 
SEMJ Hidaka Fukuin Kyo- 
kai, 311, Hidaka-cho, Saryu- 
gun, Hokkaido 



Jorgenrud, Miss Inger-Johan- 
ne, 1959, EOM 41, Yumo- 
to-machi Sekifune, Iwaki- 
shi, Fukushima-ken 

& 41 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



321 



Jorsensen, Rev. and Mrs. 
Arne, (Reidun), 1968, 
LFCN No. 10, Teraguchi- 
cho, Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078)-82-1270 



Joseph, Rev. and Mrs. Ken 
neth, (Lila), 1951, REAP 
43, 1 chome, Kotake-cho, 
Nerima-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
958-1581 



Jossang, Rev. Lars, 1950, 
NLM Hiruzen Kogen, Ka 
mi Nagata, Yazuku-mura, 
Maniwa-gun, Okayama-ken 



Joyce, Mr. and Mrs. James A., 
(Jeannette), 1953, IBC 
(MC)-#5 Kwansei Gakuin, 
Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 
(0788)-51-3417 



Juergensen, Miss Marie, 1913, 
AG 64, 6-chome, Takino- 
gawa, Kita-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
983-2217 

lfJIl 6-64 



Junken, Rev. and Mrs. Calvin, 
(Patricia), 1954, TEAM 
402, Nagisa, Matsumoto-shi, 
Nagano-ken (02634)-2-3944 



V 5 -V :/ # 

Juten, Miss Shirley, 1952, 
IBC (EUB) 42-7, Jingu- 
mae 3-chome, Shibuya-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-401-6500 

-42-7 



K 



Kachelmyer, Mr. and Mrs. 
John, (Deana), 1963, CnC 
2001, Inariyama, Sayama- 
shi, Saitama-ken (0429)-5- 
4795 

2001 



Kallins, Miss Ruth, 1952, 
ABFMS 203, Goken-yashi- 
ki, Himeji-shi (Q792)-22- 
4185 



Kamikawa, Rev. and Mrs. 
Aigi, (Kiyo), 1949, IBC 
(UCMS) 4425, Suzumori, 
Niikura, Yamato-shi, Sai 
tama-ken (0484)-61-3039 



Kamitsuka, Rev. and Mrs. 
Arthur, (Lily), 1949, IBC 
(UPC) Nishi 6-chome, Ki- 
ta 7- jo, Sapporo-shi (0122)- 
71-6653 



322 



DIRECTORIES 



Kanagy, Rev. and Mrs. Lee, 
(Adella), 1951, JMM No. 
12, Midori-cho, Furano-shi, 
Hokkaido (01672)-3695 



Kaneshiro, Mr. and Mrs. 
Michael, (Pauline), 1968, 
CEF 1599, Higashikubo, 
Kamiarai, Tokorozawa-shi, 
Saitama-ken (0429)-22-4076 
iC;XfS: 1599 



Kataja, Miss Vappu, 1959, 
LEAF 5-472, Furusho, Shi- 
zuoka-shi (0542)-53-2701 

if th 5-472 -h?^ 



Karikoski, Rev. and Mrs. 
Pentti, (Pirkko), 1955, 
LEAF Furl. 68-69. 

Karlsen, Miss Reidun Marie, 
1966, NMS 50, Takigatani, 
Shioya-cho, Tarumi-ku, Ko- 
be-shi (078)-77-3743 



Keighley, Rev. and Mrs. Leo 
nard, (Isobel), 1952, IBC 
(UCC-BWM) 7-5, Taka- 
mine-cho 2-chome, Kokura- 
ku, Kita Kyushu-shi, Fuku- 
oka-ken (093)-56-0401 

4tA;Hirff/>;tEt;itBj 2-7-5 

^r - ^ y - 

Keith, Rev. and Mrs. Billy, 
(Mona), 1961, SB 65, Sa- 
wawatari, Kanagawa-ku, 
Yokohama-shi 
(045)-311-6600 



Karlson, Miss Florence, 1950, 
TEAM Furl. 68-69 

Karpa, Rev. and Mrs. Karl, 
(Linda), 1962, ABFMS 
Christian Servicemen s Cen 
ter, 844, 1-chome, Higashi- 
kata, Kawashimo, Kuruma, 
Iwakuni-shi, Yamaguchi-ken 
(09272)-2-3598 



Kell, Mrs. Leone, 1967, IBC 
(UCBWM-VOL) Kobe Jo- 
gakuin, 65, Okadayama, Ni- 
shinomiya-shi 

65 



Kellerman, Miss Jean, 1952, 
IBC (UCC-BWM) Minami 
2-chome, Hondori, Shintoku- 
machi, Kamikawa-gun, Hok 
kaido 



2TB 



Kelly, Miss Daphne I., 1954, 
OMF 49, Sawada, Tsukuri- 
michi, Aomori-shi 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



323 



Kelly, Mr. and Mrs. Merle I., 
(Arlene), 1957, IBC (PCUS) 
Furl. 68-69 

Kennedy, Mr. Arthur, 1952, 
OMF 344, Seijo-machi, Se- 
tagaya-ku, Tokyo (03)-483- 
1934 



Kennedy, Miss Helen, 1950, 
JEM 1-645, Tsuruma, Fuji- 
mura, Iruma-gun, Sai- 
tama-ken 

1-645 



Kennedy, Mr. and Mrs. Hugh, 
(Violet), JIM 3, Higashi 
Honmachi, Shimogamo, Sa- 
kyo-ku, Kyoto-shi (075)- 
791-0050 



Kenney, Miss Pearl, 1952, 
IND 62, Kariga, Marumo- 
ri-cho, Igu-gun, Miyagi-ken 



Kern, Rev. and Mrs. Edwin 
C., (Meraleen), 1955, NAB 
2758-706, Aza Kitayama, 
Obata, Moriyama-ku, Nago- 
ya-shi 



2758-706 T - v 

Kidder, Dr. and Mrs. J. Ed 
ward, (Cordelia), 1956, ICU 
10-3, Osawa 3-chome, 
Mitaka-shi, Tokyo (0422)- 
43-3131 

3-3-10 ICU fy 



Kilbourne, Rev. and Mrs. 
Ernest J. (Violet), 1954, 
QMS Furl. 

Kim, Dr. and Mrs. John E., 
(Susan), 1966, OMF c/o 
344, Seijo-machi, Setagaya- 
ku, Tokyo 



Kimos, Miss Constance, 1965, 
IBC (MQ Baika Gakuen, 
106, 6-chome, Honmachi, 
Toyonaka-shi, Osaka-fu 

(Week Days: (068)-52- 
0001; Nights, Sundays (068) 
-52-0002) 



King, Miss Betty, 1959, WMC 
357, Haiki-machi, Sasebo- 
shi, Nagasaki-ken 



King, Rev. and Mrs. George, 
(Ellen), 1961, BBF 996- 
138, Obanayama, Shinohara, 
Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 



324 



DIRECTORIES 



King, Mrs. Peggy, 1952, GYF 
28-16, 2-chome, Isogo, Iso- 
go-ku, Yokohama-shi, (045) 
-751-6510 



-28-16 



x 



Kinley, Rev. and Mrs. Philip, 
(Phyllis), 1955, CG 2680, 
3-chome, Hagiyama-machi, 
Higashi Murayama-shi, To 
kyo (0423)-91-6131 

3-2680 



Kirkman, Rev. and Mrs. D. V., 
(Jan Teruko), 1957, IBC 
(UPC) 96, Katsuragi-cho, 
Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken (0472) 
-22-3586 

96 



Kistler, Rev. and Mrs. Luther 
D., (Dorothy), 1964, LCA 
20-19, 1-chome, Shimoigusa, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
390^3089 

: 1-20-19 



Kitchen, Rev. and Mrs. Theo 
dore J., (Margaret), 1953/ 
54, IBC (MC) 39-5, Jingu- 
mae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, 
Tokyo (03) -401-2006 



Kivle, Rev. and Mrs. Per, 
(Torveig), 1950, LFCN 49, 
Aza Takigatani, Shioya-cho, 
Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi (078)- 
77-3187 



Klahr, Rev. and Mrs. Paul F., 
(Jean), 1959, AG - - 1437, 
Kumagawa, Fussa-machi, 
Nishitama-gun Tokyo 
(0425)-51-0966 

\ 1437 



Klassen, Miss Irene, 1961, 
JEM 565, Kujiranami-ma- 
chi, Kashiwazaki-shi, Niiga- 
ta-ken 



Klaus, Mr. and Mrs. John H., 
(Betty), 1962, ACC 1384, 
Kaneko-machi, Chofu-shi, 
Tokyo (0424) -82-4344 Sum. 
Furl. 68 

1384 



Klein, Rev. and Mrs. Norbert 
Hans, (Anke), Evangelische 
Kirche in Deutschland, 1962, 
EKD 2-12-9, Sanno, Ota- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-772-0037 
-12-9 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



325 



Kleinschmidt, Rev. and Mrs. 
Don, (Marlene), 1964, LCMS 
23-2, 4-chome, Matsubara, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
321-2298 



V -7 4 Wa 5 s/ h 

Klemensson, Miss Gudrun, 
1954:, OMJ 9-1096, Aza- 
Nakata, Nishi Tarumi-cho, 
Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi (078)- 
77-5285 

1096 ^ V ^ V y y 

Klemm, Mr. and Mrs. Leo A., 
1966, IND 3-3-14, Sengen 
cho, Kurume-machi, Kita- 
tama-gun, Tokyo 



3-3-14 ? v A 

Kliewer, Mr. and Mrs. Ray, 
(Loralee), 1967, GCMM 
5330, Namiki, Kamikawa, 
Higashi, Miyakonojo-shi, 
Miyazaki-ken (2-1188) 



Kluttz, Mr. Robert, Hokkaido 
Bible Center, Kita 18, Higa 
shi 1, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido 



-fe v ^ 



=7 y -y 



Knight, Mr. and Mrs. Allan 
H., (Shirley), 1960, OMF 
824, Sakae-machi, Sapporo- 



shi (0122)-72-4974 



Knight, Rev. and Mrs. Brant- 
ley (Helen), 1957, TEAM 
1-20, Honan-cho, 2-chome, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
313-2755 

-1-20 



Knight, Miss Margaret, 1963, 
OMF 31, Hon-cho, Nakae- 
machi, Kameda-gun, Hok 
kaido (8031) 



Knoble, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Barbara), 1962, TEAM 
Furl. 68-69 

Knoll, Miss Carol, 1961, FEGC 
Ill, Hakuraku, Kanaga- 
wa-ku, Yokohama-shi (045) 
-491-9016/7 



/-A- 

Knoll, Rev .and Mrs. James, 
(Elizabeth), 1961, TEAM 
15-15, 3-chome, Daizawa, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
413-2345 

mMimHmEfw 3-15-15 

/ /P 

Knutsen, Rev. and Mrs. Edvin 
(Gudrun), 1953, EOM 2- 
52, 2-chome, Higashi, Yotsu- 



DIRECTORIES 



kura-machi, Iwaki-shi, Fu- 
kushima-ken 

n^ifu *h$-f\m% TO 2-52-2 

* x y y >- 

Knutsen, Miss Inger Johanne, 
1964, NMS 12, Inyo-machi, 
Nara-shi (0742)-23-5574 

&mi^iiisT 12 

Knutson, Rev. and Mrs. Alton, 
(Margaretta), 1951, ALC 
74, 4-chome, Kotobuki-cho, 
Kariya-shi, Aichi-ken (0566) 
-21-1486 

4-74 



Knutson, Mrs. Helen, 1960, 
SDA Japan Missionary 
College, Sodegaura-machi, 
Kimitsu-gun, Chiba-ken 



Kobabe, Mr. and Mrs. Peter, 
(Irngard), 1959, GAM 193- 
2, Aza-Minamikawahara, 
Sobue-cho, Nakajima-gun, 
Aichi-ken (05879) -7-2833 



193-2 3X-< 

Koch, Rev. and Mrs. Dennis 
K., (Elizabeth), 1952, LCA 
Furl. 68-69 

Koedoot, Rev. and Mrs. Gerrit, 
(Ruth), 1966, CRJM 1221- 
41, Omichi, Maezawa, Kuru- 



me-machi, Kitatama-gun, 
Tokyo (0424)-71-3210 



if 1221-41 



Kohler, Dr. and Mrs. Werner, 
(Nellie), 1954, SEAM 10, 
Shogoin, Higashimachi, Sa- 
kyo-ku, Kyoto-shi (075)- 
771-2437 

f^P 10 



Kolbenson, Miss Bertha, 1950, 
IM Showa-dori, Murozumi- 
machi, Hikari-shi, Yamagu- 
chi-ken 



Kongstein, Rev. and Mrs. 
Frank, (Gudrun), 1951, 
EOM 24, Kitagawa, Taka- 
hagi-shi, Ibaragi-ken 
(02932)-3088) 

24 



Koop, Rev. and Mrs. Abe, 
(Kay), 1962, MBM Furl. 
68-69 

Koop, Mr. and Mrs. Dan, 1967, 
JEM 2163, Karuizawa-ma- 
chi, Nagano-ken 



Korver, Mr. and Mrs. Ronald 
G., (Ruby), 1948, IBC 
(RCA) Furl. 68-69 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



327 



Krause, Rev. and Mrs. Sam 
H., (Renetta), 1953, MBM 
60, Yamasaka-cho 4-chome, 
Higashi Sumiyoshi-ku, Osa- 
ka-shi (06)-692-2325 



Kress, Rev. and Mrs. Arnold 
S., (Lorraine), 1966, OPC 
W-115, Tachi Court, Naka- 
gami-machi, Akishima-shi. 
Tokyo 



W-115 W7. 

Kretlow, Rev. and Mrs. Orlo, 
(Carol), 1964, CG 296-10, 
Hannyaji, Kyomachi, Chiku- 
shino-machi, Chikushi-gun, 
Fukuoka-ken 

10-296 



Kreyling, Rev. and Mrs. Paul, 
(Carol), 1948, LCMS 15, 
Nakano-cho, Ichigaya, Shin- 
juku-ku, Tokyo (03)-351- 
1819 Sum. Furl. 68 



Krick, Dr. (M.D.) and Mrs. 
Ed, (Kay), 1962, SDA 11, 
Nakajima-dori 3-chome, 

Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 



Kristerson, Miss Ruth, 1951, 
CMSJ Furl. 68-69 



Kristiansson, Rev. and Mrs. 
Gunnar, (Marianne), 1952, 
MCCS -- Swedish School, 
2841 Onuma, Sagamihai-a- 
shi, (0427)-52-1179 



T^P ->\> ? y xT-v yw 

Kroehler, Rev. and Mrs. 
Armin (Evelyn), 1950, IBC 
(UCBWM) -- 365-1 Monju, 
Higashiko, Aizu, Takada- 
machi, Fukushima-ken 

(024254)-222 ko 

^ I? ^ ii HHTMi$3c^ i-365 

x 7 lx-7 

Kroehler, Mr. and Mrs. Wil 
liam, (LaVeme), 1959, IBC 
(UCBWM) 16-2 Numabu- 
kuro 4-chome, Nakano-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-386-0493 
4-16-2 



Kroeker, Miss Anne, IND 
503 Ichinosawa-machi, Utsu- 
nomiya-shi, Tochigi-ken (3- 
8141) 

- /> ^BT 503 



Krohn, Deaconess Rita, 1964 
MAR Wadahama, Toyoha- 
ma-cho, Mitoyo-gun, Kaga- 
wa-ken (654) 



328 



DIRECTORIES 



Krug, Mr. and Mrs. Donald, 
(Lois), 1966, LCMS 32-7, 
Fukuzumi-cho, Sapporo-shi 
(0122)-86-0239 

32-7 



Krummel, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Fusako), 1956/64, IBC- 
(MC) House #4A, 4-22, 5- 
chome, Minami Aoyama, 
Minato-ku, Tokyo (03)-407- 
1914 

5-4-22 



Kruse, Mr. and Mrs. David 
R., (Edna), 1952, IND 3- 
31 Hon-machi, 4-chome, Ya- 
tsushiro-shi, Kumamoto-ken 
(09653-7544) 

-3-31 



Kuba, Rev. and Mrs. David 
A., (Edna), 1952, WGM 
20 Nakamura-cho, Itabashi- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-955-5497 



Kuhlman, Rev. and Mrs. 
Frank, (Martha), 1962, TBC 
(MC) 8, Kitanagasa-dori, 
4-chome, Ikuta-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078) -33-5840 

fea 4-8 



Kunz, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur, 
1952, LM 1933 Nakanoshi- 
ma, Kawasaki-shi, Kanaga- 
wa-ken (044)-91-2334 

1933 



Kunz, Mr. and Mrs. Erhard, 
(Hannelore), 1952, GAM 
2-chome, Asahi-machi, Oku- 
machi, Ichinomiya-shi, Ai- 
chi-ken 



Kurtz, Miss Margaret, 1962, 
WUMS 221 Yamate-cho, 
Naka - ku, Yokohama - shi 
(045)-641-3993 

221 



Kusunoki, Miss Yasuko, 1955, 
IBC (UCBWM) lyotetsu 
Nishi Building Apt. 501, 2-2, 
Minato-machi, 5-chome, Ma- 
tsuyama-shi, Ehime - ken 
(0899)-41-6194 Ext. 508 
lffT 5-2-2 



Kuyten, Rev. and Mrs. 
Rudolph, (Trina), 1960, IBC 
(RCA) 23-chome, 5- jo, 
Asahikawa-shi, Hokkaido 
(016)-33-7979 



Labertew, Miss Dorothy A., 
1959, CoG 188 Aterazawa, 
Oemachi - Nishimurayama- 
gun, Yamagata-ken 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



329 



La Fleur, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam, (Norma), 1963, CRJM 

Furl. 68-69 

Lafoe, Miss Freda M., 1960, 
CG Furl. 68-69 

Laird, Rev. and Mrs. Lester 
R., 1966, FEBCC 3-44, 2- 
chome, Saiwai-cho, Fuchu- 
shi, Tokyo (0423) -61-3935 
PJT 2-3-44 



-9-5 



Lamb, Miss June, 1955, PCUS 
57, Awajihonmachi, 1- 
chome, Higashi, Yodogawa- 
ku, Osaka-shi (06)-322-2250 

-57 
7^ 



Lammers, Rev. and Mrs. Ri 
chard (Martha), 1948, IBC 
(UCBWM) Furl. 68-69 



Laitinen, Rev. and Mrs. Martti, ! Lancaster, Rev. and Mrs. 
(Irma), 1965, LEAF 12-8 \ Lewis H. Jr., (Virginia), 
Nishikasuga-cho, Oita-shi i 1952, IBC (PCUS) Furl. 
(09752)-2-9643 68-69 

_ ._. > Lancaster, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam (Lillian), 1953, BMMJ 

Laitinen, Miss Martta, 1952, | - 114 - 3 - ^ome, Kakunai, 

LEAF-175 Oaza Oka, Shi- | Nihonmatsu-shi, Fukushi- 

jonawate-machi, Kita Ka- | a ken (2-2102) 

wachi-gun, Osaka-fu (Daito- feAlftz:*^rtf$^l-114-J 
kyoku-0720-76-1181 



175 7*4 7~4 %"</ 

Lam, Mr. and Mrs. Phillip, 
(Violet), 1964, FEGC 82-7 
Yamashita-cho, Naka-ku, 
Yokohama-shi (045)-641- 
3877 

82-7 7 & 



Laman, Rev. and Mi s. Gordon 
D., (Evon), 1959, IBC 
(RCA) 9-5, Mizugae 4- 
chome, Saga-shi (09522)-4- 
2010 



Lande, Rev. and Mrs. Assulv, 
(Gunvor), 1965, SCD Ya- 
mazaki 5914-367, Fukuroi- 
shi, Shizuoka-ken (053801) 
101 
mm^$i#-fc&m 5914-367 

Landes, Dr. and Mrs. James 
E., (Haru), 1964, IBC 
(UCBWM) -- Reisekiso, 
Apt. 3, 10-7, Minami Aoya- 
ma 6-chome, Minato-ku, To 
kyo (03) -409-2427 



330 



DIRECTORIES 



m 6-10-7 



Landis, Miss Janell, 1953, IBC 
(UCBWM) 33B, Uwa-cho, 
Komegafukuro, Sendai-shi 
(0222)-23-3834 



Lane, Miss Dottie, 1951, SB 
6-38 Minami-cho, Itabashi- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-955-5860 



ix- V 

Langager, Rev. and Mrs. 
David, (Esther), 1952, LB 
Furl. 68-69 

Langland, Miss Violet, 1952 
IBC (UCC-BWM) Leave 

of Absence 

Lannon, Rev. and Mrs. Donald 
E., (O Neal), 1967, PCUS 
112, Yamamoto-dori, 4-cho- 
me, Ikuta - ku, Kobe - shi 
(078)-22-1887 

-112 



Lant, Miss Mary Jo, 1947, 
TEAM Extended Furl. 

Larsen, Rev. and Mrs. Morris, 
(Myrtle), 1954, LB Hikari- 
gaoka 5-chome, 8-155, Sa- 
kata-shi, Yamagata-ken 

T &. 5-8-155 

7 - V V 



Larson, Dr. and Mrs. David, 
(Margaret), 1954, IBC 
(UCBWM) Kobe Jogakuin, 
Okadayama, Nishinomiya- 
shi, Hyogo-ken (0798)-51- 
1020 



Larson, Rev. and Mrs. James, 
(Donna), 1962, PCM 205, 
Osato-cho, Honmoku, Naka- 
ku, Yokohama-shi (045)- 
621-0888 



Larson, Rev. and Mrs. Lyle, 
(Melba), 1961, ALC 44-19 
1-chome, Nishikubo, Musa- 
shino-shi, Tokyo (0422)-52- 
4702 

-19 



IND 



Larson, Miss Ruth, 
Furl, to 11. 69 



Lautz, Rev. and Mrs. William, 
(Edith), 1951, TEAM 6-15, 
Gakuen-Higashi-machi, Ko- 
daira-shi, Tokyo (0423)-41- 
6235 



Lautzenheiser, Miss Wanda, 
1952, FEGC 269-4-Chizuka 
Kofu-shi, Yamanashi-ken 
269-4 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



331 



Lauvas, Miss Ragnhild, 1967, 
FCM 9, 4-chome, Iwaya 
Naka-machi, Nada-ku, Ko- 
be-shi (078)-87-9192 



Lawrence, Mr. and Mrs. Char 
les H., IND Furl. 68-69 

Lawson, Miss Dorothy M., 
1949, TBC (UPC) 25-6, 
Komaba 1-chome, Meguro- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-466-5850 
f 1-25-6 



LV.i 



Lea, Miss Leonora E., USPG 
8-20, Nozaki-dori, Fukiai- 
ku, Kobe-shi (078)-22-6513 
8-20 

y- 

Ledden, Rev. and Mrs. George, 
(Lois), 1967, FEGC 910- 
Yamamiya-cho, Kofu-shi, 
Yamanashi-ken 



Lee, Mr. and Mrs. Keith, 1964, 
WUMS 221, Yamate-cho, 
Naka - ku, Yokohama - shi 
(045)-641-3993 

221 y - 



Lee, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Nancy), 1959, JMM Furl. 



LeFever, Miss Marlene, 1967, 
FEGC 2-14-1 Shinkawa- 
cho, Kurume-machi, Kita- 
tama-gun, Tokyo (0424)- 
71-0022 



2-14-1 ;7 X ^- 

Lehman, Mr. and Mrs. Gene 
S., (Joan), 1954, PEC 
Rikkyo Daigaku, Nishi Ike- 
bukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-983-0111/2260 



Lemmon, Miss Vivian, CnC 
506-6, Minato, Tanabe-shi, 
Wakayama-ken 

506-e 



Likins, Mr. and Mrs. Claude, 
(Evelyn), 1955, CnC 207, 
Fujie Aza Sugaki, Akashi- 
shi, Hyogo-ken (078)-913- 
3264 

$* 207 



Limb, Mr. and Mrs. Akio, 
(Shirlene), CC 215, Kita- 
machi, Nishinomiya-shi 
215 



Limbert, Miss Rosemary, 1950 
SB Leave of absence 

Lind, Mr. and Mrs. Ingemar, 
(Elsa), SFM Furl. 



332 



DIRECTORIES 



Lindberg, Rev. and Mrs. Sten 
F., (Alice), BGC 346, Shi- 
rahama-machi, Nishi Muro- 
gun, Wakayama-ken (3936) 



Linde, Mr. and Mrs. Richard, 
(Janet), 1951, IBC (MC) 

Furl. 68-70 

Lindeman, Mr. and Mrs. Ri 
chard, (Nada), 1966, CN 
235 Oyama-cho, Tamagawa 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
702-1379 

iJjBT 235 



Linden, Mr. and Mrs. Arne, 

(Emma), 1950, SAM J 56 

Wakamiya-cho, Toyokawa- 

shi, Aichi-ken (05338)-6- 
4028 



Lindgren, Miss Verna, 1967, 
EFCM 30, Ochiai, Kuru- 
me-machi, Kitatama - gun, 
Tokyo (0424) -71-0022 

mmw*- so 
y y^ixy 

Lingle, Rev. and Mrs. Wilbur, 
(Jean), PF 112 Aza Obari, 
Oaza Takabari, Itaka-cho, 
Chikusa - ku, Nagoya - shi 
(052)-701-1072 



Little, Rev. and Mrs. Lea, 
1952, EFCM 294-6, Tsubo, 
Tomoyuki, Amagasaki-shi, 
Hyogo-ken 



Livingston, Rev. and Mrs. Jer 
ry, (Janice), 1959, LCA 6, 
Shimo Dainohara, Aramaki 
Sendai-shi (0222)-34-0015 



y if ^/^ h^ 

Livingston, Rev. and Mrs. 
Theodore W., (Beth), 1952, 
ABFMS Furl. 68-69 

Ljokjell, Rev. and Mrs. 
Arnold, (Rigmor), 1962, 
NLM Furl. 68-69 

Lloyd, Dr. and Mrs. Gwilym 
G., (Jean), 1950, IBC (UPC) 
Furl. 68-69 

Lloyd, Rev. and Mrs. John J., 
(Elizabeth), 1947, PEC 
Furl. 68-70 

Lofgren, Miss Astrid, 1966, 
SEOM 22-32 Kamogawa- 
cho, Mishima-shi, Shizuoka- 
ken (0559)-75-4056 

-32 



Lonander, Mr. and Mrs. Ake, 
(Maj), 1951, SAMJ 12-139 
Aza Ikeda, Yahagi-cho, Oka- 
zaki-shi, Aichi-ken (0564)- 
22-7270 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



333 



139 



V-ir v 2" - 



Long, Miss Beatrice, 1951, 
TEAM -- Extended Furl. 

Long, Mr. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Lois), 1967, CMA 1190, 
Karuizawa-machi, Nagano- 
ken 



Lorah, Miss Louneta, 1953, 
IBC (MC) 10-2, Shoto-1- 
chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 
(03) -467-7909 House; 

Kyoaikan: (03)-617-4460-1 
1-10-2 



Loudermilk, Miss Betty, 1955, 
GFA 1-37 Tamen-cho, Sho- 
wa-ku, Nagoya-shi 

ift TOE HfflBl 1-37 



Louis, Miss Suzanne, 1960, 
SAM Gakkomae, Hamochi, 
Kongo, Hamochi-machi, Sa- 
do-gun, Niigata-ken 



Love, Rev. and Mrs. Max H., 
(Flora), 1964, SB 79, Hi- 
gashida-cho, Jodoji, Sakyo- 
ku, Kyoto-shi (075)-771- 
6727 



Lovelace, Rev. and Mrs. 
Beryle, (Elouise), 1965, SB 
1794, Musashino, Fussa- 
machi, Nishitama-gun, To 
kyo (Church: (0425)-51- 
1915) Sum. Furl. 



1794 7-fVT. 

Lowen, Miss Irene, 1955. JEM 
251, 1-chome, Hamaura- 
cho, Niigata-shi, Niigata- 
ken 

-251 



Lower, Mr. and Mrs. R. W., 
(Mildred), 1949, IND 83, 
4 Torisu-cho, Minami-ku, 
Nagoya-shi (052)-821-2328 



P-T7- 

Lueders, Rev. and Mrs. Carl, 
(Dorothy), 1963, LCMS 
14-2, 5-chome, Kamirenjaku, 
Mitaka-shi, Tokyo (0422)- 
44-8923 

5-14-2 



Luke, Rev. and Mrs. Percy T., 
(Beatrice Amy), 1932, JEB 
1 of 25, Kawada, Mino- 
shima, Arita-shi, Wakaya- 
ma-ken 

&/1 1 0325-1 



Lund, Rev. and Mrs. Norman, 
(Wenona), 1950, LCA 474 



334 



DIRECTORIES 



Yumura-machi, Kofu - shi, 
Yamanashi-ken (0552)-2- 
6749 Sum. Furl. 68 
UJ ^m JfrTffiit-W 474 /i/ y K 

Lushbough, Mr. and Mrs. 
Allen, 1967, (Contract teach 
ers), IBC 18-7, Shiroyama, 
Nagasaki-shi (0958) -45- 
0258 



nagawa-ken 
Furl. 68-69 



(046582-0046) 



Macdonald, Miss M. Jean, 
1951, IBC (UCC-BWM) 
802 Bible House 2, Ginza 4- 
chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (03) 
567-2501 



Luttio, Rev. and Mrs. Philip, 

(Margaret), 1952^ ALC MacLeo ^ Rev. and Mrs. Ian, 

(Virginia), 1950, IBC (UCC- 
BWM) 7-4, Denenchofu 5- 
chome, Ota-ku, Tokyo (03)- 



100, 4-chome, Fujimidai, 
Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Ai- 
chi-ken (052) -721-0491 

-100 

Lynn, Miss Orlena, 1951, RPM 
Covenanter Book Room, 
39 1-chome, Nakayamate- 



721-4897 



dori, Ikuta-ku, 
(078)-22-8386 



Kobe-shi 



5-7-4 



y ^ 

Lyon, Rev. and Mrs. DeWitt, 
(Elizabeth), 1960, TEAM 
7-22, 1-chome, Ose-machi, 
Hitachi - shi, Ibaraki - ken, 
(0294)-2-3731 

-7-22 



MacVicar, Miss Janet, 1967, 
IBC (UCBWM J3%) Kei- 

mei Jogakuin, 35 Nakaya- 
mate-dori, 4-chome, Ikuta- 
ku, Kobe-shi (078)-22-7230 



Magee, Rev. and Mrs. George, 
(Joyce), 1963, IBC (RCA) 
4, Nishi Yayoi-machi, 1- 
chome, Tomakomai - shi, 

Hokkaido (01442-3408) 

-4 



M 



MacDonald, Rev. Alice E., 
1951, IBC (UPC) -- 1122 
Shinshuku, Kaneko, Oi-ma- 
chi, Ashigarakami-gun, Ka- 



Magnuson, Mr. and Mrs. Hans, 
(Margot), 1964, IND 56- 
162 Ishigane Oaza, Iwasaki 
Nisshin-cho, Aichi-gun, Ai- 
chi-ken (05617)-2-1166 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



335 



56-162 






Magruder, Rev. and Mrs. 
James T., (Frances), 1952/ 
53, IBC (PCUS) 1-2, Ya- 
mada-cho, 3-chome, Nada- 
ku, Kobe-shi (078)-85-2985 
-2 



Makkonen, Miss Sarah, 1950, 
(LCA) Imachi Apt. #5, 
105, Imachi, Nagano-shi 
(02622)-6-1693 



Malm, Rev. and Mrs. Erik, 
(Ingrid), 1950, SEOM - 
30-7, Motoshiro-cho, Fuji- 
nomiya-shi, Shizuoka - ken 
(05442)-6-4556 



Malmvall, Mr. and Mrs. Filip, 
(Math), 1951, SAMJ 34-44, 
5-chome, Kamoe-cho, Hama- 
matsu - shi, Shizuoka - ken 
(0634)-3-5051 

5-34-44 



Mann, Mr. and Mrs. Helmut, 
(Hilde), 1958, LM 1518, 
Hakken Nishi, Yamada- 
machi, Mizukaido-shi, Iba- 
raki-ken (02972) -2-0952 



1518 -r :/ 

Mann, Mr. and Mrs. Tom, 
1967, JEM 2163 Karuiza- 
wa-machi, Nagano-ken 



Marcks, Miss Margaret M., 
1951, JEB 797-2, Oaza Shi- 
do, Shido-machi, Okawa- 
gun, Kagawa-ken Furl, to 
10-68 



-2 -7 ^7. 

Marcum, Rev. and Mrs. Lowell 
(Alice), 1964, BIMI Furl. 
68-69 

Mariya, Sister Margaret, PEC 
(IND) Community of the 
Transfiguration, 95 Tamade 
Shimizu, Odawara, Sendai- 
shi (0222)-34-6866 



y r 



Manierre, Rev. and Mrs. Stan- Marsden, Rev. and Mrs. Alvin, 



ley L., (Evelyn), 1954, 
ABFMS 5-66, 3-chome, 
Tsukigaoka, Chigusa - ku, 
Nagoya-shi (052)-711-9241 
-5-66 



(Clara), BBF 253, Shimo- 
zato, Kurume-machi, Kita- 
tama-gun, Tokyo (0425)-71- 
0735 

253 



336 



DIRECTORIES 



Martin, Rev. and Mrs. David 
(Jacque), 1951, TEAM- 
15-15, 3-chome, Daizawa 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
413-2345 

3-15-15 



Martin, Miss Marjovie M., 
1963, IBC (MQ c/o Towa 
Sakai, 6-51, Motomachi, To- 
yooka - shi, Hyogo - ken 

(07962)-2200 



Masaki, Rev. and Mrs. Tom, 
(Betty), 1956, SB 35-2, 
Kami Midori-cho, Shichiku, 
Kita-ku, Kyoto-shi (075)- 
451-1792 



Mason, Mr. 

(Harriet), 
1-chome, 
gaya-ku, 
3605 



and Mrs. Daryl, 

1961, NAV 28-8, 

Gotokuji, Seta 

Tokyo (03) -429- 



Masson, Mr. John F., 1951, 
WEC 17, Ohashi-cho, Hi- 
kone-shi, Shiga-ken 

17 



Matthews, Rev. and Mrs. Al- 
den, (Derrith), 1952, IBC 
(UCBWM) 10-20, Osawa 



1-chome, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 
(0422)-43-4424 Sum. Furl. 
68 



~ri/ *. X 

Mattmuller, Miss Lotte, 1960, 
OMF Kita 3-jo, Nishi 4- 
chome, Kutchan-machi, Hok 
kaido 



h 



Mattson, Rev. and Mrs. Walter 
W. (Katherine), 1953, LCA 
49-64, Oaza Shoji, Toyo- 
naka-shi, Osaka-fu (068)-52 
7614 Sum. Furl. 

49-64 
" -y h V > 

Mawhorter, Miss Dorothy, 
1964, JCBM Shinkawa-cho, 
Kurume-machi, Kitatama- 
gun, Tokyo 



* - * - # 

Maxey, Mr. and Mrs. Mark, 
(Pauline), 1950, CnC 10925 
Nishihara-cho, Kanoya-shi, 
Kagoshima-ken (2374) 

10925 



Vlayer, Miss Margery, 1949, 
IBC (MC) 3599 Tamasato- 
m a c h i, Kagoshima - shi 
(09922-3-1938) 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



337 



Mayfield, Rev. and Mrs. Kent, 
(Joanne), 1966, ABFMS 
6-23, 1-chome, Kamokoga- 
hara, Sumiyoshi-cho, Higa- 
shinada-ku, Kobe-shi (078) 
-85-8677 



6-23 



* 4 7 4 - F 



Mayforth, Rev. and Mrs. C. 
Richard, (Frances), 1963, 
NAB Furl. 68-69 

Maynard, Mr. Michael L., 
1967, LCA c/o Mr. Toshi 
ba, 25-18 2-chome, Shimizu- 
machi, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
c/o 03-390-3467) 
3iu?;M[x it 7KBJ 2-25-16 

-H: x/f*-- K 

Mayo, Miss Louise, 1963, BBF 
3-1095, Makuhari-machi, 
Chiba-shi (0472) -3-8347 
^3iTi?IS3fiiHT 3-1075 X - a - 

McAlpine, Rev. and Mrs. Do 
nald (Mary), 1950, TEAM 
Furl. 68-69 

McAlpine, Rev. and Mrs. 
James A., (Pauline), 1935, 
PCUS 33, 4-chome, Chika- 
ra-machi, Higashi-ku, Na- 
goya-shi, Aichi-ken (052)- 
941-6421 Furl. 11. 68-4. 69 



lege, House #1, Okada- 
yama, Nishinomiya - shi, 
Hyogo-ken (0798)-51-0709 



McCaleb, Mrs. Elizabeth, 1961, 
CC Furl. 68-69 

McCall, Rev. and Mrs. Loren, 
(Janice), 1954, TEAM 6-6, 
3-chome, Hon-cho, Hoya-shi, 
Tokyo (0424)-61-4921 
mSfP^@m*HJ 3-6-6 

V y H )\> 

McCalla, Mr. and Mrs. Bud, 
(Elaine), 1967, PEGC 556- 
1 Minami Sawa, Kurume- 
machi, Kitatama-gun, Tokyo 



McCart, Miss Lavinia, 1966, 
WUMS 221 Yamate-cho, 
Naka - ku, Yokohama - shi 
(045)-641-3993 



McCain, Dr. Pearle, 1951, IBC 
(MC) Seiwa Women s Col 



McClean, Rev. and Mrs. Do 
nald, (Ruth), 1963, LCMS 
6162-5, Ichino-cho, Igara- 
shi, Niigata-shi (0252)-69- 
2525 Sum. Furl. 68 

V y >} IJ > 

McCormick, Miss Jean, 1949, 
JEB 87, Shioya-machi, Ta- 
rumi-ku, Kobe-shi (078) -77 
-2126 



338 



DIRECTORIES 



McCoy, Miss Beulah M., 1947, 
ABFMS 9-15, 1-chome, Ha- 
chiman, Sendai-shi (0222)- 

22-8791 



MS TtJAtt 1-9-15 



n -i 



McDaniel, Rev. and Mrs. Chal 
mers, (Peggy), 1951, TEAM 
5210, 1-chome, Futaba- 
cho, Niigata-shi, Niigata- 
ken (0252)-28-1476 
&m TfrfflJ 1-5210 



McDaniel, Mr. and Mrs. John, 
(Adelaide), 1949, JCBM 
23-7 Kanomae, Naga- 
machi, Sendai-shi 



McDaniel, Dr. and Mrs. Tho 
mas, (Dorothy), 1956, 
ABFMS 4834 Mutsuura, 
Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama- 
shi (045)-701-9601 



McDonald, Rev. and Mrs. John 
Cameron, (Reba), 1959, IND 
Minami Eganosho 3-9-7, 
Habikino-shi, Osaka-fu 



K 



McElligott, Mr. and Mrs. 
Patrick, 1965, CLC Kinshu 



Kaikan, 18, Uchisange, Oka- 
yama-shi (0862)-24-1859 



^yjS^ffS V ,-, -V JI. I 3* >-/ S 

;?JS iprj j_->^ Mja ^ x X * y X I 

McGarvey, Rev. and Mrs. A. 
Paul, (Helen), 1952, CMA 
11-20 Kako-machi, Hiroshi- 
ma-shi, (0822)-41-6450 
-20 



McGrath, Miss Violet, 1928, 
JEB 242-3 Hanyuno, Habi- 
kuno-shi, Osaka-fu (0729)- 
55-1348 



McGuire, Rev. and Mrs. Dick, 
(Winifred), 1952, JEM 
Furl. 



Mcllwaine, Rev. and Mrs. R. 
Heber, (Eugenia), 1934, 
OPC 5-16, Shinhama-cho, 
Fukushima-shi, Fukushima- 
ken (0245)-34-0587 

-16 



Mclntosh, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Beth), 1961, PCC 200, 2- 
chome, Shinonome-cho, Hi- 
gashi-ku, Osaka-shi (06)- 
761-0080 

2-200 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



339 



McKean, Miss Earlene, 1965, 
\VEC 569 Kondo, Gokasho- 
cho, Kanzaki-gun, Shiga-ken 
(Ishizuka 47) 

H: 569 



McKim, Miss Bessie, PEC- 
Retired 2-12-12, Shinjuku 
Zushi-shi, Kanagawa-ken 
(0468)-71-6514 



McLain, Mr. and Mrs. Jim, 
(Olena), 1967, FWBM - 
Higashi 7-chome, Kita 45 jo 
Sapporo-shi 



29-30 



McMillan, Miss Mary, 1939, 
IBC (MC) 11-43, Kami 
Nobori-cho, Hiroshima-shi 
(0822)-21-6601 
11-43 



I 7 



McMullen, Mr. and Mrs. John, 
(Bobbie), 1952/58, IBC 
(MC) 7, Daiko-cho, 10- 
chome, Higashi-ku, Nagoya- 
shi (052)-721-3007 

H 10-7 



McNaughton, Rev. and Mrs. R. 
E., (Lillian J.), 1928, Oak 
land Evangelistic Associa 
tion Retired T a k u g i n 
Bldg., 9-3, #5, 15-7 Waka- 
matsu - cho, Hakodate - shi, 
(0138)-51-0150 Hokkaido 

mm TU^^PI 15-7 

y f" >^ 9-3, 5 



McLeroy, Mr. and Mrs. Robin, McNeil., Miss .Elizabeth .1950 
(WiHene), 1953, BIMI-2- | ^^Zol Mot oma- 

cho, Higashi Nada-ku, Kobe- 



McLean, Rev. and Mrs. Don- 
nell, (Venda), 1953, AG 
Ogata Shimonokae, Tosa 
Shimizu - shi, Kochi - ken 
(Tosa Shimizu 58) 



24, 3-chome, Asahi-cho, Ka- 
wagoe - shi, Saitama - ken 
(0492) -2-3894 

E 3-2-24 



shi (078)-41-2703 



1110-5 



McMahan, Rev. and Mr, Car,, !McRa. Miss Gene 1967, PEC 



, 

(Wilma), 1955, FEGC Su- 
wa Kubo, 29-30, Matoba 
Aza, Oaza, Kawagoe-shi, 
Saitama-ken 



_ 3-5-13 Ko-machi, Kama- 
kura-shi (0467)-3-0120 
> 3-5-13 



340 



DIRECTORIES 



McVety, Rev. and Mrs. Ken 
neth, (Olive), 1949, TEAM 
1-43, Honan 2-chome, Su- 
ginami-ku, Tokyo (03)-313- 
3369 

-1-43 



McWha, Rev. and Mrs. Bennie 
J., (Shelby), ABA Box 3, 
Dazaifu-cho, Fukuoka-ken 

t y 3 



McWilliams, Rev. and Mrs. R. 
W., (Margery), 1951, IBC 
(MC) Kuga-machi, Kuga- 
gun, Yamagoichi-ken (Kuga 
220) 



Mead, Miss Sharon, 1965, 
WEC 13-18 Mitsuya Mo- 
to-machi, Nagahama - shi, 
Shiga-ken (2-4445) 
mirm^TfiH 9 ^*BI 13-18 
5 - K 

Meenk, Rev. and Mrs. R. A., 
(Barbara), 1959, PCGJ 
P.O. Box 14, Hanno-shi, 
Saitama-ken (04297)-6500 

14 



Mehrenberg, Miss Lavonne 
Jean, 1966, LCA Kyushu 
Jogakuin, 300 Murozono, 
Shimizu-machi, Kumamoto- 
shi, Kumamoto-ken (0963)- 
64-0281 



300 



Meier, Rev. and Mrs. Norbert, 
(Margaret), 1965, WELS 
1134 Nakamaru mae, Mina- 
misawa, Kurume-machi, Ki- 
tatama-gun, Tokyo Sum. 
Furl. 68 



Melton, Mr. and Mrs. Charles, 
(Anita), 1961, CC Ibaraki 
Christian College, Omika, 
Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 



y 



Melton, Rev. and Mrs. Pat, 
(Wanda), 1965, GFA P-4 
Kawasaki, Hamura-machi, 
Nishitama-gun, Tokyo (045) 
-64-8812 

rafa Bill 1^ 753 



Mensendiek, Dr. and Mrs. Wil 
liam, (Barbara), 1948/64, 
IBC (UCBWM) 33-13 

Uwa - cho, Komegafukuro, 
Sendai-shi (0222) -23-3834 
to ^Tf?^^rgT 33-13 

X > -t > rV - 2 

Menzel, Mr. and Mrs. Hans, 
(Sieglinde), 1961, LM 22, 
2-chome, Futamatagawa, 
Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama-shi 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



341 



Mercer, Rev. and Mrs. Dewey 
E. (Ramona), 1955, SB 6- 
22, 1-chome, Miyawaki-cho, 
Takamatsu-shi (0878)-31- 
5926 

1-6-22 



Merrill, Miss Eloise, 1964, 
JCBM Shinkawa-cho, Ku- 
rume-machi, Kitatama-gun, 
Tokyo 



Merritt, Rev. Richard A., 
1947, PEC 5-24-27 Taishi- 
do, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (03) 
-421-7869 

. 5-24-27 



Merwin, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Margaret), 1968, QMS 
1948, 1-chome, Megurita, 
Higashi Murayama-shi, To 
kyo (0423)-91-3072 

EH 1-1648 



Messenger, Mrs. Blanche, 
1955, TEAM 1164 Naka- 
maru-mae, Minamizawa, 
Kurume-machi, Kitatama- 
gun, Tokyo (0424)-71-3917 



wara - shi, Kanagawa - ken 
(04 65) -47-3282 



^L|tj 1164 -x y -tVi> ^ 

Metcalf, Rev. and Mrs. Mel 
bourne (June), 1949, CMSJ 
382, Sakawa-machi, Oda- 



Metcalf, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen 
A., (Evelyn), 1952/54, OMF 
308 Shodai Dori, 31, 3- 
chome, Tomioka-cho, Otaru- 
shi, Hokkaido 



h 



Metzger, Mr. and Mrs. Hel 
mut, (Christel), 1963, GAM 
Shin-machi, Imao, Hirata- 
cho, Kaizu-gun, Gifu-ken 
(2382) 



Meyer, Mr. and Mrs. Hans, 
(Marianne), 1954, LM 
Furl. 68-69 

Meyer, Mr. and Mrs. John F., 
(Betty), 1952, HSEF 4-13, 
Shinkawa-cho 1-chome, Ku- 
rume-machi, Kitatama-gun, 
Tokyo (0424)-71-0648 



Meyer, Rev. and Mrs. Richard, 
(Lois), 1948, LCMS 2-go, 
15, 1-chome, Tama-cho, Fu- 
chu-shi, Tokyo ( 0423) -61- 
9900 



342 



DIRECTORIES 



Michael, Rev. and Mrs. Ger 
hard, (Jean), 1965, LCMS 
Taikawa Center, 24, Midori- 
cho, Takikawa-shi, Hokkaido 
(012522-3019) 



Michell, Mr. and Mrs. David, 
(Joan), 1960, OMF 344 
Seijo-machi, Setagaya - ku, 
Tokyo (03)-483-1934 



Miho, Miss Fumiye, RSF 3- 
15-17, Komata, Ota-ku, To 
kyo 

5-17 



Milhous, Rev. and Mrs. Ken 
neth, (Geraldine), 1965, BGC 
3-10-17, Toge, Hashimoto- 
shi, Wakayama - ken (2- 
0293) 

3-10-17 



Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Abram, 
(Audrey June), 1952, IND 
House #3069, Unoki 4688 
Irumagawa, Sayama - shi, 
Saitama-ken 



3069 -Sf *?- 

Miller, Miss Erma L., 1926, 
MM Honbaba-dori, Funa- 
machi, Ogaki-shi, Gifu-ken 
(0584)-78-3007 



< -y ~ 



Miller, Miss Florence J., 1951, 
NAB 4-13, 3-chome, Asahi- 
gaoka, Ikeda-shi, Osaka-fu 
(0727)-6-0646 



Miller, Miss Floryne, 1947, 
SB Seinan Jo Gakuin, Shi- 
mo Itozu, Kokura-ku, Kita- 
kyushu-shi (093)-56-1977 



Miller, Miss Jessie M., 1930, 
MSCC 2-24, Sugiyama-cho, 
Gifu-shi (0582)-3-5384 
2-24 



Miller, Miss Marilyn, 1959, 
JEM Wada, Nishiyama- 
machi, Kariwa-gun, Niigata- 
ken 



1951, 



Miller, 

LCA 



Miss Marjorie, 
Furl. 68-69 



Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Marvin, 
(Mary Alene), 1963, JMM 
5-7, Osawa 6-chome, Mitaka- 
shi, Tokyo 



; 7 - 

Milligan, Miss Rita, 1962, 
OMF Goshogawara Fukuin 
Kirisuto Kyokai, 4-5-180, 
Chidori, Minato Goshogawa- 
ra-shi, Aomori-ken 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 

=f. e. 4-5-180 S&ffiiTfri^IW 183 



Milner, Miss Mary, 1953, OMF 
199, Suginami-cho, Hako- 
date-shi, Hokkaido (0138)- 
51-6673 

199 



Mings, Mr. and Mrs. Donnie, 
(Charlotte), 1963, CnC 35- 
2, Suikoen, Hirakata-shi, 
Osaka-fu (0720)-41-2934 

? > y * 

Mings, Mr. and Mrs. Lonnie, 
(Coral), 1963, CnC 6-10, 7- 
chome, Korigaoka, Hiraka 
ta-shi, Osaka-fu (0720)-54- 
1393 

? >?* 

Mings, Mr. and Mrs. Ray, 
(Mattie), 1950, CnC Furl. 
68-69 

Mitchell, Mr. and Mrs. Alan 
K., (Elaine), 1957, OMF- 
824, Sakae-machi, Sapporo- 
shi, Hokkaido (0122)-72- 
4974 



343 



Mitchell, Miss Betty, 1961, 
FEGC 111 Hakuraku Ka- 
nagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi 
(045)-491-9016 



Mitchell, Miss Anna Marie, 
1950, ALC 183, Otowa-cho, 
Shizuoka-shi (0542)-52- 
9079 



Mitchell, Mr. and Mrs. Guy S., 
(Jane), 1953, PCUS Shi- 
koku Christian College, Zen- 
tsuji-shi, Kaga\va-ken (339) 

jnm^u 



Mobley, Rev. and Mrs. Marion, 
(Carolyn), 1959, SB 22-5, 
2-chome, Kamokogahara, 
Sumiyoshi, Higashinada-ku, 
Kobe-shi (078)-84-8535 



2-22-5 



-t -f l> - 



Mock, Rev. and Mrs. Darrell, 
(Norma), 1968, SB 350, _ 2- 
chome, Nishiokubo, Shin- 
juku-ku, Tokyo (03)-351- 
2166 

: 2-350 



Moe, Rev. and Mrs. Arthur, 
(Beverly), 1952, FEGC 
(PBA) 16-2 Maezawa, Ku- 
rume-machi, Kitatama-gun, 
Tokyo (0424) -71-0298 



16-2 



344 



DIRECTORIES 



Moerman, Rev. and Mrs. Cor 
nells, (Geziena), 1962, IBC 
(UCC) 4-27 Nagamineya- 
ma, Oishi, Nada-ku, Kobe- 
shi (078)-86-3942 

UJ 4-27 



Molenkamp, Rev. and Mrs. W. 
N., WO 1717 Igamibata, 
Aza Jumva Ikawadani- 
maehi, Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi 
(0789)-74-0570 



Montei. Mr. and Mrs. Douglas, 
(Dorothy), 1955, QMS 
1648, 1-chome, Megurita, 
Higashi Murayama-shi, To 
kyo (0423) -9 1-3072 

1-1648 



Montgomery, Miss Mary 
Helen, 1966, IBC (MC-J3) 
Chinzei Gakuin, Sakaeda- 
cho, Isahaya-shi, Nagasaki- 
ken ( 09572 )-2-1693 

jytmW^mfflBT 

=e > h 3- * y - 

Moore, Mr. and Mrs. Dan M., 
(Betsy), 1962, PCUS 41 ; 
Kumochi-cho, 1-chome, Fu- 
kiai-ku, Kobe-shi (078)-22- 

7257 



Moore, Rev. and Mrs. Fred G., 
(Patricia), 1957, NAB 7-1, 
1-chome, Koda, Ikeda-shi, 
Osaka-fu (0727)-51-7533 



Moore, Rev. and Mrs. James 
B., (Roberta), 1960, PCUS 
385, Fukui-cho, Kochi-shi 
(0888)-2-1040 



Moore, Rev. and Mrs. Lardner 
C., (Mollie), 1954, PCUS 
57, 1-chome, Awajihon- 
machi-Higashi Yodogawa- 
ku, Osaka-fu (06)-322-2261 
-57 



Moorhead, Rev. and Mrs. 
Marion F., (Thelma), 1946, 
SB 18-1, Kamiyama-cho, 
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo (03)-467 
-7829 



^ 7 s\ y K 

Mooris, Mr. and Mrs. Donald, 
(Winnifred), 1953, OMF 
Furl. 68-69 

Morehouse, Miss Mildred, 
1955, FEGC 484-3, Tsuru- 
gaoka Ekidori Tsuruga- 
shima-machi, Iruma - gun, 
Saitama-ken 



L-3 



^ 7 ^ V 7- 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



345 



Morey, Mr. and Mrs. Ken, 
1961, BIM 2163, Karuiza- 
wa - machi, Nagano - ken 
(02674-2302) 



Morgan, Miss Mary Neal, 
1950, SB 3-ban 9-go, Mina- 
mi-machi, Sakuragaoka, Ta- 
katsuki-shi (0726)-96-2203 



Mork, Rev. and Mrs. Marcus, 
(Marilyn), ALC 17, Kaji- 
ma-cho, Fuji-shi, Shizuoka- 
ken (0545)-61-1392 



Morrill, Mr. and Mrs. Doug 
las, (Helen), 1949, IBC 
UCBWM 4-16 Naga- 

mineyama, Oishi, Nada-ku, 
Kobe-shi (078)-86-6430 

Wp7fJltK*5lil 4-16 

* y ;!/ 

Morris, Miss Geneva, 1955, 
IBC (MC) Leave of ab 
sence 

Morris, Miss Louise, 1965, IBC 
(MC-J3%) 9, Nakakawa- 
rage-cho, Hirosaki-shi, Ao- 
mori-ken (01722)-2-3613 



Morris, Captain and Mrs. Ted., 
(Louise), 1961, SA 41-2, 
1-chome, Wada, Suginami- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-381-9837 

1-2 * J 7. 



Morriss, Rev. and Mrs. Wood 
ward D., (Mary Ann), 1958, 
IBC (PCUS) Furl. 68-69 

Moss, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Hatsumi), 1948/55, IBC 
(MC) 814, Suido-cho, 2- 
chome, Niigata-shi, (0252)- 
23-2584 

fflJ 2-814 * x 



Motoyama, Miss (Julia), 1937, 
FKK 63-1, Hamadera, Sa- 
kai-shi, Osaka-fu (0722)- 
61-0019 



Mowrer, Mr. and Mrs. Max, 
(Mildred), 1967, CC Iba- 
raki Christian College, 4048 
Omika, Kuji-machi, Hitachi- 
shi, Ibaraki-ken 

4048 



Mueller, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Ruth), 1951, TEAM 6-15, 
Higashi-machi, Gakuen Ko- 
daira-shi, Tokyo (0423)-41- 
3998 Furl, to 1/69 

-15 



Muller, Miss Emmi, 1961, 
GAM Covenant Bible Semi- 

, nary, 5-17-8, Nakameguro, 
Meguro-ku, Tokyo (03)-712 
-8746 

^ 5-17-8 






346 



DIRECTORIES 



Mullins, Rev. and Mrs. Ansel, 
(Sarah), 1960, JCBM 14- 
51 Tsutsumi Aza Asahiga- 
oka, Sendai-shi 

fllfc 7ffte.fi:jg3: 14-51 vj > X 

Mullon, Miss Marilla M., 1966, 
OMF 824, Sakae-machi, 
Sat>poiT>-shi (01 22) -72-4974 



Mundinger, Miss Dora, 1953, 
GMM Nozomi no Mon Ga- 
kuen, 1436 Futtsu-machi, 
Kimitsu - gun, Chiba - ken 
(04788)-7-2218 

1436 



Munsey, Mrs. Eva, 1965, IND 
P.O. Box 39, Itami-shi, 
Hyogo-ken (72-6254) 

39 



Munsey, Miss Frances, 1963, 
IND Box 39, Itami-shi, 
Hyogo-ken 

v >->- 

Murata, Rev. and Mrs. Her 
bert, (Mildred), 1953, FEGC 
21-6 Maehara-cho, Koga- 
nei-shi, Tokyo (0423)-83- 
6823 



Mussen, Rev. and Mrs. Walter, 
(Ina), 1964, IFG 733 Ku- 



me, Tokorozawa-shi, Saita- 
ma-ken (0429)-22-7716 



Mutch, Rev. and Mrs. Bruce, 
(Ann), 1955, MSCC Nago- 
ya Student Center, 260, Mi- 
ya-Higashi-cho, Showa-ku, 
Nagoya-shi (052)-781-0165 

mfflJ 260 



Mydland, Miss Bjorg, 1958, 
NMS 50, Takigatani, Shio- 
yacho, Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078)-77-3745 



< K 7 > K 



N 



Naundorf, Miss Helen, 1965, 
IBC ( UPC- J3) Tokyo 
Woman s Christian College, 
6, Zenpukuji-cho 2-chome, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
390-5522 



Naustdal, Miss Ingeleiv, 1965, 
NMS 50, Takigatani, Shio- 
ya-cho, Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078)-77-3743 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



347 



Naylor, Miss B. Chris, 1958, 
OMF Kita 22- jo, Nishi 6- 
chome, Sapporo-shi (0122)- 

72-1027 



Neel, Rev. and Mrs. William 
A., (Barbara), 1965, BBF 
1-7-36 Minamigaoka, Chiku- 
sa-ku, Nagoya-shi (075)- 
711-0158 

&m Fr 1-7-36 



Neiswender, Rev. and Mrs. 
Donald, (Marion), 1965, 
LCMS 4-6-32 Midori-cho, 
Koganei-shi, Tokyo (0423) 
-81-7264 

4-6-32 



Nelson, Miss Ada L., 1952, 
ABFMS 6-9, 1-chome, Koi- 
shikawa, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 
(03) -813-0935 



Nelson, Miss Audrey, 1968, 
QMS 1648, 1-chome, Megu- 
rita, Higashi Murayama-shi, 
Tokyo (0423)-91-3072 

ifcgCSB&ttUJrfJjIffl 1-1648 

% )\> V > 

Nelson, Rev. and Mrs. Richard, 
(Irene), 1952, ALC 11- 
chome, 2-jo, Hiragishi, Sap 
poro-shi, Hokkaido (0122)- 
84-1790 



Nerness, Dr. (M.D.) and Mrs. 
J. L., (Yvonne), 1964, SDA 
17, 3-chome, Amanuma, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
392-6151 

m^H5f^ME^^ 3-17 

%. /L- ^ ^ 

Netland, Rev. and Mrs. Anton, 
(Bernice), 1952, TEAM 3 
Aza Yatsuhashi, Tsutsui, 
Aomori - shi, Aomori - ken 
(01772)-5-3630 



h 



F 



Nettle, Miss Mary Ellen, 1962, 
IBC (UCBWM) - - c/o 

Ohkawara, Sakae - machi, 
Nayoro - shi, Hokkaido 

(01654)-2830 



Neufeld, Miss Bertha, 1951, 
FEGC 111 Hakuraku, Ka- 
nagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi, 
(045)-491-9016/7 



- =. - 7 01 A- K 

Neve, Rev. and Mrs. Lloyd, 
(Muriel), 1948, ALC 24-10, 
1-chome, Kyonan, Musashi- 
no-shi, Tokyo ( 0422) -44- 
6624 

f? 1-24-10 



348 



DIRECTORIES 



Newland, Eev. and Mrs. Pfaff , I Noell, Mr. and Mrs. Frank, 



(Verda), 1948, BMMJ 3-9, 
2-chome, Akasaka Dori, Na- 
da-ku, Kobe-shi 

i 2-3-9 

= a ~ 9 V K 



(Betty), 1955, JCBM 8-15, 
2-chome, Shimizu-cho Ishi- 
nomaki-shi, Miyagi-ken 
2-8-15 



Nichols, Mr. and Mrs. Robert ; Nordbo, Rev. and Mrs. Anund, 



P. (JoAnn), CC Furl. 

Nicoll, Miss Mary L., 1951, 
OMF 531 Honcho, Nanae- 
machi, Kameda-gun, Hok 
kaido (Nanae 8301) 



(Solveig), 
Furl. 



1953, NMS - 



^ 3 ;!/ 

Nielsen, Rev. and Mrs. Char 
les, (Mary), 1958, TEAM 
68 Shofu-en, Hiroji-cho, 
Showa-ku, Nagoya-shi (052) 
-831-0922 



Norden, Rev. and Mrs. Russell 
L., (Eleanor), 1953, IBC 
(RCA) 37-B, Yamate-cho, 
Naka - ku, Yokohama - shi 
(045)-641-5818 



Nielsen, Mr. and 
(Marcia), 1940, 



- ;!/ -t > 

Mrs. Paul, 
CnC Furl. 



j Nordlie-Nakazawa, Mrs. Edel, 
1950, FCM 518, Ichinomi- 
ya, Fushiki-machi, Takaoka- 
shi, Toyoma-ken 

sis 



Nilsen, Miss Inger Anna, 1967, 
NLM 3, 2-chome, Nakaji- 
ma-dori, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 



Nordstrom, Miss Elaine, 1952, 
BGC 4-13, 3-chome, Asahi- 
gaoka Ikeda-shi, Osaka-fu 
(0727)-6-0646 

-1 



- ~ ;1/ I Norman, Mr. and Mrs. Bengt, 
(Ingegard), 1961, JECC- 
Ninomiya, Miss Toshiko, 1955, j Furl. 68-69 
IND, 9-60, Kakuei Danchi , 

Iruma - shi, Saitama - ken Norman, Mr. and Mrs. Ri- 
(0429)-6-3057 chard, (Wanda), IND 62, 

Kariga, Marumori-cho, Igu- 
gun, Miyagi-ken 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



349 



Norman, Dr. and Mrs. W. H. 
H., (Gwen) 1932, IBG 
(UCC-BWM) 14-9, Daimon 
7 ban-cho, Shioziri-shi, Na 
gano-ken (02635)-0962 

14-9 



Northup, Dr. and Mrs. Robert 
(Shio), 1956, IBC (UPC) 
Leave of absence 

Norton, Rev. and Mrs. James, 
(Audrey), 1952, TEAM 
15-7, Daido-cho, Ibaraki-shi, 
Osaka-fu (0726)-24-3712 

EI 15-7 



Norton, Rev. and Mrs. Richard 
B., (Mary), 1951, IBC 
(UPC) House #1, 1728 
Nozuta, Machida-shi, Tokyo 
(0427)-32-8675 



Nyselius, Miss Marianne, 1963, 
MCCS Furl. 68-69 



O 



Oestreich, Mr. and Mrs. 
George W., (Frances), 1949, 
IND 462, 4-chome, Hama- 
dera, Showa-cho, Sakai-shi, 
Osaka-fu (0722)-61-0324 



:x~.X h 7 4 t 

Oetzel, Mr. and Mrs. Willi, 
(Elfriede), 1962, LM 975 
Kajigaya-cho, Totsuka-ku, 
Yokohama - shi (0467)-5- 
6610 

975 



Offner, Dr. and Mrs. Clark, 
(Barbara), 1951, CCC 21-2, 
2-chome, Tsukigaoka Chiku- 
sa-ku, Nagoya-shi (052)- 
711-9654 

1-21-2 



Olfert. Miss Marie, 1950, 
FEGC 111 Hakuraku, Ka- 
nagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi 
(045) -491-9016/7 



% )\> 7 7 - h 

Oliver, Rev. and Mrs. Edward 
L., (Sue), 1950, SB 1921-2, 
Kami Ishihara, 
Tokyo (0422)-43 



3-chome, 

Chofu-shi, 

-9575 



-1921-2 



Olofsson, Miss Birgit, 1950, 
SFM 3871-1, Kamiyoshida 
Fujiyoshida-shi, Yamanashi- 
ken (Fujiyoshida 2-5526) 
03 3871-1 
P 7 V > 



350 



DIRECTORIES 



Olofsson, Miss Eva, 1953, SFM 
3871-1, Kamiyoshida, Fuji- 
yoshida-shi, Yamanashi-ken 
(Fujiyoshida 25526) 

ffl 3871-1 



Olson, Rev. and Mrs. George 
L., (Miriam), 1950, LCA 
3-9 Hon Amanuma 2-chome, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
399-0545 

3Rj5ctwMi2#^vs 2-3-9 

X )\< V > 

Olson, Rev. and Mrs. James, 
(Evyln), 1954, LB Minami- 
Dori, Tsukiji 13-39, Akita- 
shi, Akita-ken (01882)-2- 
4949 

-39 *;i/v> 



Olson, Rev. and Mrs. Norman, 
(Nellie), 1951, ALC 78, 2- 
chome, Torisu-cho, Minami- 
ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 
(052)-811-5046 

78 



Olsson, Miss Laila, SFM c/o 
Tygert, 2163, Karuizawa- 
machi, Nagano-ken 



Olsson, Mr. and Mrs. Nils- 
Erik (Rut) , 1953, SFM 
Nagata-machi, Minami-ku, 
Yokohama-shi ( 045) -731- 
8890 



Olstad, Rev. and Mrs. Ray 
mond, 1958, EFCM - - 34, 
Sandan Naga-machi, Ma- 
tsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyo- 
to-shi (075)-78-2966 

HSgfflJ 34 



O Reagan, Rev. and Mrs. Dan, 
(Beverly), 1965, SB 44-16 
Fukuzumi-cho, Sapporo-shi, 
Hokkaido (0122)-86-3683 

-16 * y - tf > 



Ortman, Miss Dorothy, 1962, 
JEM Furl. 68-69 

Osborne, Mr. and Mrs. David, 
(Alice), 1955, JACM 1179 
2 Oaza, Kida, Neyagawa- 
shi, Osaka-fu (Neyagawa 
2-0545) 

H79-2 



Osborne, Rev. and Mrs. Hugh, 
(Frances), 1958, TEAM 
210-2 Nakakoji, Takatsuki- 
shi, Osaka-fu 

-2 



Osmundson, Miss Elizabeth, 
1962, LB 8 Minami Dori 
Tsukiji 13-39, Akita-shi, 
Akita-ken (01882)-2-4949 
JtkM 8-13-39 

^y > 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



351 



Otani, Mr. Bunso, 
5-chome, Kyodo, 
ku, Tokyo 



IND 5-8, 
Setagaya- 

5-5-8 



Ott, Mr. and Mrs. Paul, 1965/ 
60, WMF Muromura-cho, 
2-52, Ogaki-shi, Gifu-ken 



Overbeck, Miss Linda Marie, 
1966, LCA Kyushu Joga- 
kuin, 300, Murozono Shimi- 
zu-machi Kumamoto-shi, 
Kumamoto-ken (0963)-64- 
0281 

300 



Overland, Rev. and Mrs. Nor 
man, (Beverlee), JFMM 

Furl. 

Owen, Miss Evelyn, 1956, SB 
12-20, 5-chome, Tokiwa, 
Urawa - shi, Saitama - ken 
(0488)-31-3558 

5-12-20 



Owens, Mr. and Mrs. T. Ri 
chard, (Edna), 1965, WEC 
1-57, Maruyama, Kita- 
shirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyo- 
to-shi (075) -78-6524 



Oxley, Rev. and Mrs.H. Dale, 
(Betty), 1952, BPM 1033, 
Shiromoto-machi, Hitoyoshi- 
shi, Kumamoto-ken (09662) 
-2-2589 



Oystryk, Brigadier and Mrs. 
George (Gertrude), 1962, 
SA 21-39, 2-chome, Wada 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
263-7311 

-21-39 



Palmer, Miss Elizabeth, 1961, 
IND 33 Daizenbara, Tomi- 
oka-machi, Futaba-gun, Fu- 
kushima-ken 



Palmer, Mr. and Mrs. Roy, 
(Doris), 1952, JREF 1736 
Katayama, Niiza-machi, Ki- 
ta Adachi-gun, Saitama-ken 
(0424)-71-5999 

1736 



Palmore, Rev. and Mrs. Pey 
ton L. Ill, (Mary Lou), 
1948/54, IBC (MC) 7 Dai- 
ko-cho, 10-chome, Higashi- 
ku, Nagoya-shi (052)-711- 
7385 

fflJ 10-7 



352 



DIRECTORIES 



Pape, Rev. and Mrs. William, 
(Dorothy), 1959, TEAM 
Extended Furl. 

Parkee, Mr. Leslie R., 1955, 
CLC 3509, Kita Oizumi- 
machi, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-922-1118 

3509 



Parker, Dr. (D.D.S.) and Mrs. 
B.C., (Anne), 15-5 Kami 
Igusa 1-chome, Suginami- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-399-1233 
15-5 



Parker, Rev. and Mrs. Calvin, 
(Harriett), 1951, SB Furl. 
68-69 

Parker, Rev. and Mrs. Joe, 
(Frances), 1949, JEM 
(PBA) 1433, 2-chome, Se- 
tagaya, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
2-1433 



Parr, Miss D. A., 1927, IND 
86 Azuma-cho, Sakai-machi, 
Sawa - gun, Gunma - ken 
(0270)-74-546 



Parott, Mr. and Mrs. George, 
(Ruth), 1948/49, IBC (MC) 
6-20, Higashi, 4-chome, 
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo (03)-409 
-8203 

S 4-6-20 rt D h 



Parsons, Rev. and Mrs. Elmer, 
(Marjorie), 1949, JFMM 
10-3, 1-chome, Maruyama- 
dori, Abeno-ku, Osaka-fu 
(06)-661-4661 Furl. 6. 68- 
1. 69 

^BS/ffPRHalfK&UjiI 1-10-3 

Parsons, Miss Maud, 1951, 
IBC (MC) 9, Nakakawara- 
ge-cho, Hirosaki-shi, Aomo- 
ri-ken (01722)-2-3613 



Parsons, Rev. and Mrs. Nor 
man, (Alice), 1948, IBC 
(MC) 1041-2 Aza Meme- 
gatani, Shinohara, Nada-ku, 
Kobe-shi (078)-86-3243 



Patkau, Miss Esther, 
GCMM Furl. 68-69 

m 1-39 



1951, 



Paton, Mrs. Maurine, 1968, 
IBC (UCBWM-VOL) In- 
terboard House, 16-53, Rop- 
pongi, 5-chome, Minato-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-583-3325 
^** 5-16-53 



Paton, Mr. and Mrs. Tho 
mas, (Wenda), 1966, IBC 
(UCBWM) 6-16, Oji Hon- 
cho 1-chome, Kita-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-900-4801 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



353 



v h 



Patschke, Rev. and Mrs. Arbie, 
(Margaret), 1954, LCMS 
9-chome, 1-jo, Asahi-machi, 
Asahika\va-shi, Hokkaido 
(0166)-51-0998 



Patterson, Miss Patricia, 1957. 
IBC (MC) 10-2, Shoto, 1- 
chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 
(03) -467-7909 

1-10-2 



Patterson, Rev. and Mrs. Ro 
nald W., (Patricia May), 
1957, IND 1378, 1-chome, 
Suwa-cho, Higashi Mura- 
yama-shi, Tokyo 

1-1378 



Patton, Mr. and Mrs. Andrew, 
(Betty), 1948, CnC 3-7-8, 
Higashinakano, Nakano-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-361-0533 

SjStflTOKjRfW 3-7-8 

r* -y h > 

Payne, Miss Jane E., 1965, 
IBC (MC) Seiwa Woman s 
College, House #1, Okada- 
yama, Nishinomiya - shi, 
Hyogo-ken (0798)-51-0709 



Pearson, Miss Sonjie, 1963, 
IBC (MC) Furl. 68-69 

Pease, Miss Harriet, 1952, 
JCBM Furl. 68-69 

Pease, Rev. and Mrs. Richard 
(Eleanor), 1963, CM A 
Furl. 68-69 

Peck, Rev. and Mrs. Sheldon, 
(Cora Lee), 1968, ABWE 
26, 2-chome, Honmachi, 
Shinohara, Nada-ku, Kobe- 
shi 

-26 



Pedersen, Rev. and Mrs. Eric, 
(Miriam), 1956, ALC 45-7, 
2-chome, Tama-machi, Fu- 
chu-shi, Tokyo ( 0423) -61- 
3815 
^(W^$,m^ 2-45-7 

t - 9 - -t > 

Pedersen, Rev. and Mrs. 
Harold Bernhard, (Vivien), 
1964, NMS 625-4, Nodo- 
machi, Hirano, Higashi Su- 
miyoshi-ku, Osaka-shi (06)- 
702-4075 

*iljK 625-4 

t" - $ - -fe > 

Pedersen, Miss Lois, 1950, 
ALC 18, Mukaiyama Dai- 
machi, Toyohashi-shi, Aichi- 
ken (0532)-2-9571 



354 



DIRECTORIES 



Pedigo, Rev. and Mrs. Ray, 
(Daisy), MTJ Box 8, Kure- 
shi, Hiroshima-ken (21- 
8904) 



Peez, Mr. W. M., IND 13-15, 
Sumiyoshi-cho, Otaru-shi, 
Hokkaido 



t* X 

Pendergrass, Mrs. Edna, 1966, 
CC Furl, to Fall 68 

Penner, Mr. and Mrs. James, 
(Carol), 1958, JCBM 5-26, 
Izumigaoka, Shiogama-shi, 
Miyagi-ken (02236)-2-4611 
H W * B: 5-29 -? ) - 



Penny, Miss Florence E., 
1932, WRBCMS 467 Oaza 
Ai, Ibaraki-shi, Osaka-fu 
(0726)-43-6979 



Perkins, Rev. and Mrs. 
Rodger, (Nadine). 1962, AG 
Furl. 

Perrin, Mr. Gerald J., 1965, 
LCA 20-27, 4-chome, Moto 
Oemachi, Kumamoto - shi 
(0963)-64-4658 

4-20-27 



Peters, Miss Dorothy, 1953, 
FEGC c/o Shimizu Apt., 
Onakazato Toda, Fujino- 
miya-shi, Shizuoka-ken 



Peters, Miss Pauline, 1953, 
MBM Furl. 

Petersen, Rev. and Mrs. Har 
ry J., (Eileen), 1952, AG 
430-1, 3-chome, Komagome, 
Toshima-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
915-1551 

3-430-1 



Petersen, Rev. and Mrs. Lyle, 
(Alice), 1951, TEAM 1581 
Katayama Niiza-machi, Ki- 
ta Adachi-gun, Saitama-ken 
(0424)-71-2421 
if 3.mtt&iLffi%imWft& 1581 

t" - ^ - -fe > 

Peterson, Rev. and Mrs. Leo 
nard, (Grace), 1955, CMSJ 
7-24, Hibarigaoka, Chiga- 
saki - shi, Kanagawa - ken 
(0467)-82-7483 



24 



b - *> ~ -fe > 



Peterson, Mr. and Mrs. LeRoy, 
(Caroline), 1964, CMSJ 
Furl. 68-69 

Peterson, Rev. and Mrs. Lyle 
W., (Catherine), 1949, PC 
US Furl. 68-69 

Petersson, Miss Naemi, MCCS 
Furl. 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



355 



Petree, Dr. Ernest, 1962, IND 
58, 6 bancho, Uegahara, 
Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 
(0798)-51-2679 



Pettersson, Miss Anna, 1953, 
OMJ 2332, Shindachi, Ichi- 
ba, Sennan-cho, Sennan-gun, 
Osaka-fu (0724)-8-5251 



2332 



t - * - V > 



Pfaff, Miss Anne M., 1937, 
FKK 1-152, Bessho-cho, 
Kishiwada - shi, Osaka - fu 
(0724)-2-1961 

1-152 



Pfeifer, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel, 
(Lisa), 1955, WMF 7 Ken- 
machi, Ibigawa-cho, Ibi-gun, 
Gifu-ken (0585)-2-0857 



Pfenninger, Mr. and Mrs. 

Oskar, (Yoshimi), 1956, 

SEAM 35 Bettocho, Kita- 

shirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyo- 
to-shi (075)-781-3456 



Phillips, Rev. and Mrs. George 
(Lorraine), 1951, TEAM 
2004 Irumagawa-machi, Sa- 
yama - shi, Saitama - ken 

(0429)-5-4776 



Phillips, Dr. and Mrs. James, 
(Ruth), 1958, IBC (UPC) 
12-27, Osawa 1-chome, Mi- 
taka-shi, Tokyo ( 0422) -43- 
6194 
JtMlPHJlrtf^iR 1-12-27 

7 4 V y7X 

Phillips, Miss Noeline, 1963, 
OMF 194 Hon-cho, Mori- 
machi, Kayabe-gun, Hokkai 
do Furl. 68-69 



7 -i y y-f* 

Pickel, Rev. and Mrs. David 
L., 1956, AGM 10, Hira- 
matsu-cho, Nishinomiya-shi, 
Hyogo-ken 

^wmffi gm^^iHi 10 

t." y >T ^ 

Pickering, Rev. and Mrs. F. 
L., (Marion), FEBCC 9-24, 
Nakagawa Honmachi, Taka- 
oka-shi, Toyoma-ken (0766) 
-23-6655 



Pickett, Rev. and Mrs. Clyde, 
1952, AGM Leave of ab 
sence 

Pietsch, Rev. and Mrs. Timo 
thy, (Helen), 1935/36, TBC 
Tokyo Bible Center, 9 of 
9, 2-chome, Yakumo, Megu- 
ro-ku, Tokyo (03)-717- 
0746/5147 



356 



DIRECTORIES 



IE Ag 2-9-9 



Piirainen, Miss Kaisu, 1952, 
LEAF Nishi 12-chome, Mi- 
nami - 12-jo Sapporo - shi 
(0122)-56-0485 



Piper, Mr. and Mrs. L. A,. 
(Gwen), 1967, SDA Box 7, 
Hoclogaya Nishi, Yokohama- 
shi (045)-951-1319 

r@ 7 



Pitney, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
1965, TEAM 1197 Karui- 
zawa-machi, Nagano-ken 



Placzek, Rev. and Mrs. Frank, 
(Esther), 1953, FEGC 2- 
13-1 Shinkawa-cho, Kuru- 
me-machi, Kitatama-gun, 
Tokyo (0424)-71-3277 



2-13-1 -fJWy t 

Plenie, Mr. and Mrs. Helmut, 
(Otti), 1962, GAM Furl. 
68-69 

Poetter, Rev. and Mrs. Ri 
chard, (Ikuko), 1950, WELS 
4022, Ishikawa-cho, Mito- 
shi, Ibaraki-ken (0292)-51- 
5204 



Pohle, Mr. and Mrs. R. W., 
(Delores), 1965, SDA 1966 
Kamikawai-machi, Hodoga- 
ya-ku, Yokohama-shi (045) 
-951-1394 Sum. Furl. 68 

1966 



Pontius, Rev. and Mrs. R. 
George, (Marilyn), 1962, 
JREF. W-145, Tachikawa 
West Courts, Nakagami- 
machi, Akishima-shi, Tokyo 
(0425)-41-0585 



- h W-145 



Porteous, Mr. and Mrs. Henry 
J., (Valerie), 1960, CLC 
Furl. 68-69 

Post, Miss Helen, 1960, IBC 
(MC) Reisekiso #1, 10-7 
Minami Aoyama, 6-chome, 
Minato-ku, Tokyo ( 03) -407- 
1921 



6-10-7 



h 



Potte, Dr., and Mrs. Arthur, 
(Helen), 1967, JACM 18 
Kudegaya-cho, Nishinomiya- 
shi, Hyogo-ken (0798)-34- 
2112 



Potter, Mr. Barry, 1968, WEC 
569, Kondo Gokasho-cho, 
Kanzaki-gun, Shiga-ken, 
(Ishizuka 47) 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



357 



569 
,*- 



Powders, Rev. and Mrs. James, 
(Arada), 149, Shimoyagiri, 
Matsudo - shi, Chiba - ken 
(0473)-62-5814 

rfJT^^O 149 

^ V $ - 7: 

Powell, Miss Catherine, 1955, 
WUMS 221 Yamate-cho, 
Naka - ku, Yokohama - shi 
(045)-641-3993 



Preheim, Mr. and Mrs. Doyle, 
(LaDona), 1966, GCMM 
5330, Namiki, Kamikawa, 
Higashi-machi. Miyakonojo- 
shi, Miyazaki-ken 
^TfrJI[jgiHT 5330 
-f J - i\ 4 A 

Presson, Mr. and Mrs. C. Ad 
rian, IND 29-11, 5-chome, 
Kyodo, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-429-3389 

5-29-11 



Powers, Mr. and Mrs. Floyd, 
(Musa), 1950, JACM 2276, 
Higashi Iwakura - machi, 
Kurayoshi-shi, Tottori-ken 
(Kurayoshi 2-4697) 

f^Tf? 2276 



Powles, Rev. and Mrs. Cyril, 
(Marjorie), 1949, MSCC- 
Furl. to 9/68 

Pratt, Mr. and Mrs. Paul, 
(Kathleen), 1958, CnC 
Furl. 68-69 

Predmore, Rev. and Mrs. Lyle, 
(Carolyn), 1966, ABFMS- 
16056, Mukaishima - cho, 
Mitsuki-gun, Hiroshima- 
ken (08482)-44-2234 
16056 



Price, Rev. and Mrs. Harold 
Lee, (Victoria), 1963, SB- 
Furl. 68-69 

Price, Miss Jewel, AG As 
sociate 10-7, 1-chome, Na- 
ruo-cho, Nishinomiya-shi, 
Hyogo-ken 

1-10-7 



Price, Miss Winifred, 1951, 
FEGC Furl. 68-69 

Prins, Rev. and Mrs. Harry, 
1954, EFCM Furl. 68-69 

Privott, Miss Jeanette, 1966, 
EFCM 34 Sandan Osa- 
machi, Matsugasaki, Sakyo- 
ku, Kyoto-shi (075)-78-2966 
M]5CK&^H;Rlffr 34 
-? J ^ * v h 

Prout, Mr. and Mrs. Elmer, 
1958, CC Box 4 Kunitachi, 



358 



DIRECTORIES 



Tokyo or 1388 Nakagami, 
Akishima-shi, Tokyo (0423) 
81-8796 



Puls, Miss Patricia M., 1967, 
PEC 253 Ueno Shirono- 
shita Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 



7 fr X 



R 



Rae, Mr. and Mrs. Stewart D., 
(Gwen), 1965, CJPM 112-1 
Aza Uwano, Kubota, Kori- 
yama-shi, Fukushima-ken 



f-f 

Raen, Rev. and Mrs. Guttorn, 
(Torhild), 1967, NLM 3, 
2-chome, Nakajima dori, 
Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 



Raess, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Karen), 1964, LCMS 11- 
27 Matsunami-cho, Fuku- 
shima-shi ( 02452 )-2-8350 

-27 \s 4 * 



Rahn, Rev. and Mrs. Robert 
W., (Janet), 1953, IBC 
(MC) 3-4, Tachibana-cho, 
3-chome, Toyonaka-shi, Osa- 
ka-fu (068)-52-6422 Sum. 
Furl. 68 



-3-4 7- 



Ramseyer, Rev. and Mrs. Ro 
bert (Alice Ruth), 1954, 
GCMM Leave of absence 

Randall, Miss Mary Jo, 1959, 
SB 15-1, 2-chome, Izumi- 
gaoka, Kanazawa-shi (0762) 
-41-2402 



Randoll, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam, 1968, ABFMS 69 
Okamoto, Motoyama - cho, 
Higashi Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078)-41-0446 

Wpmjfi[x *OJBI[S1* 69 

7 > K ^ 

Randulff, Rev. and Mrs. Tho 
mas Peter, (Zorunn), 1965, 
NMS 700-9 Nakaso, Izumi- 
sano-shi, Osaka-fu (0742)- 
62-1280 



7 V K fr 7 

Rankin, Rev. and Mrs. Z. 
T., 1950, NABA 2-1405 
Owada, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 
(D426) -42-4401 

2-1405 



Rappe, Rev. and Mrs. Henrik, 
(Lillian), 1964, FCM 57-1, 
1-chome, Showa-machi, Ka- 
tsuyama-shi, Fukui-ken 

-57-1 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



359 



Rasche, Mr. John M., 1959, 
IBC (UCBWM) Hawaii 
Ryo, Doshisha University, 
Teramachi-dori, Imadegawa 
Sagaru, Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto- 
shi (075)-231-7250 Short 
Furl, in 68 



Rasmussen, Rev. and Mrs. 
Peter R., (Marian), 1954, 
LCA 389, Izumi-cho, Isa- 
haya - shi, Nagasaki - ken 
(09572)-2-OS14 



7 7, A y -fe > 

Rawlings, Miss Ruth, 1965, 
CN _ Box 4, Yotsukaido, 
Imba-gun, Chiba-ken (0472) 
-82-2234 



Reagan, Rev. and Mrs. John 
M., (Todd), 1957, IBC 
PCUS) Furl. 68-69 

Reames, Mr. and Mrs. Mark 
F., Jr., (Ruth), 1965, IBC 
(MC) 40 Nigawa Yurino- 
cho, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyo- 
go-ken (0798)-51-0491 



J - A X 

Reasoner, Rev. and Mrs. Rol- 
lin, (Esther), 1951, FEGC- 
392 Nishibori, Niiza-machi, 
Kita Adachi-gun, Saitama- 



ken (0424)-71-5520 
7-11/68 



Furl. 



Rechkemmer, Mr. and Mrs. 
Albert, (Marianne), 1959, 
LM 3944 Oyama-cho, Ma- 
chida-shi, Tokyo (0427)-72- 
2749 

MUBT 3944 

U t Jr-r 

Reddington, Rev. and Mrs. 
Kenneth, (Mae), 1956, 
FEGC 264, Tonoue, Saru- 
bashi-machi, Otsuki-shi, Ya- 
manashi-ken Furl. 12/68- 
12/69 



Reece, Rev. and Mrs. Taylor, 
(Lorraine), 1952, TEAM 
5-13, 2-chome, Oyama-cho 
Niigata-shi, Niigata - ken 
(0252)-47-7732 

OJ IT 2-5-13 y-^ 



Reed, Rev. and Mrs. Clyde A., 
(Alice), 1963, UPCM 2-11 
Kugoh-machi, Yokosuka-shi, 
Kanagawa-ken 

-11 



Reed, Mr. Kenneth, 1966, JMM 
c/o Yamaguchi, Higashi 
1-jo, 2-chome, Asahigawa- 
shi, Hokkaido (0166)-26- 
1823 



360 



DIRECTORIES 



Reeds, Miss Felice G., 1958, 
OMF Furl. 68-69 

Reedy, Mr. and Mrs. Boyd, 
(Jitsuko), 1954/64, IBC 
(MC) House #4B, 4-22, 5- 
chome, Minami Aoyama, 
Minato-ku, Tokyo (03)-407- 
2201 

3CJ5?tP?t:KFWWUj 5-4-22-4B 

Regier, Miss Evelyn, 1954, 
BMMJ 17-20, Kasuga-cho, 
Fukushima-shi (02452)-2- 
8693 



Reid, Dr. and Mrs. James 
David, (Etsu), 1950/58, IBC 
(MC) 108, Higashi-cho 5- 
cliome, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 
(0423)-81-6672 
3Mifl/J^#raisj 5-108 

j - K 

Reid, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Mary), 1953, TEAM 5-7 
Koyabe 2-chome, Yokosuka- 
shi, Kanagawa-ken (0468)- 
51-1186 Sum. Furl. 68 

2-5-7 



Reid, Miss Pearl, 1950, JFMM 
10-3, 1-chome, Maruyama- 
dori, Abeno-ku, Osaka-fu 
(06)-661-4661 

1-10-3 



Reimer, Mr. and Mrs. Cliff, 
(Eretta), 1961, NLL 1736 
Katayama, Niiza-machi, Ki- 
ta Adachigun, Saitama-ken 
(0424)-71-1625 

^m:iPir&BqVf Oj 1736 

7 -i V- 

Reimer, Rev. and Mrs. Ray 
mond, (Phyllis), 1957, 
GCMM Hon-machi, 1 No- 
beoka-shi, Miyazaki - ken 
(09823-5017) 



Reimer, Rev. and Mrs. Wil- 
lard, (Viola), 1955, FEGC 
Higashida, Onakazato, Fu- 
jinomiya-shi, Shizuoka-ken 
(0544)-2-5360 



7 -i V ~ 

Reinhardt, Mr. and Mrs. Her 
bert, (Phyllis), 1965, JCBM 
-2557 Koide, Nagai-shi, Ya- 
magata-ken 



V -i >/N h 

Reinmuth, Mr. and Mrs. Do 
nald, (Venita), 1968, QMS 
7648, 1-chome, Megurita, 
Higashi Murayama-shi, To 
kyo (0423) -91-3072 

m i-i648 



Ressler, Miss Rhoda, 1953, 
JMM 14, Naka 2-chome, 
Kitabatake, Abeno-ku, Osa- 
ka-shi 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



361 



Ressler 

14, 



IxX 7 - 

Miss Ruth, 1953, JMM 
Naka 2-chome, Kita- 



batake, Abeno-ku, Osaka-shi 



Reynolds, Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur, (Joy), 1952, CJPM 
16-16, Nanatsu Ike-machi, 
Koriyama-shi, Fukushima- 
ken (02492 )-2-7992 

16-16 



Reynolds, Miss Gay, 1966, CG 
Ibaraki Christian College 
4048 Kujimachi, Hitachi-shi, 
Ibaraki-ken 



-V V # IX y iX 

lx^ y ;1/X 



Rhoads, Rev. and Mrs. John 
H., (Lydia), 1951, JEF - 
769-3, Kitahara, Minamiza- 
wa, Kurume-machi, Kita- 
tama-gun, Tokyo (0424)-71 
-1527 

#& 

i( 769-3 



Rhoden, Mr. and Mrs. Maurice 
(Jeanette), 1957, CN Furl. 
68-69 

Rhodes, Mr. and Mrs. E. A., 
CC 30 Oimatsu-cho, Nishi- 
ku, Yokohama-shi 

30 n - X 



Ribble, Rev. and Mrs. Richard 
B., (Jean Vivian), 1963, 
IBC (PCUS) Kobe Union 
Church 34, Ikuta-cho, 4- 
chome, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 
(Church: 078-22-9150 
Manse: 078-22-4733) 



Ribi, Rev. Kurt, 1951, IND 
P.O. Box 2, Mitaka, Mitaka- 
shi, Tokyo 

2 

J fc* 

Richard, Mr. and Mrs. Wesley, 
(Sue), 1964, JMM 2- jo 10- 
chome, Hiragishi, Sapporo- 
shi, Hokkaido (0122)-81- 
1388 



Richards, Rev. and Mrs. Joe, 
(Emma), 1954, JMM Furl. 

Richardson, Miss Kathleen, 
1967, AG c/o C.A.J., Shin- 
kawa-cho, Kurume-machi, 
Kitatama-gun, Tokyo (0424) 
-71-0022 



Rider, Miss Shirley, 1950, IBC 
(UPC) 1-9, Seifukuji-cho, 
Takatsuki-shi, Osaka - fu 
(0726)-85-0750 

-9 

7 4 ? - 



362 



DIRECTORIES 



Ridley, Rev. and Mrs. Walter, 
(Margaret), 1950, IBC 
(UCC) Leave of absence 

Ridel, Miss Siegrid, 1965, JEM 
44 Shinden, Itoigawa-shi, 
Niigata-ken 



Rightmire, Major and Mrs. 
Robert, (Kathleen), 1964, 
SA 37, Tokushoji-machi, 4- 
jo, Kudaru, Tominokoji, Shi- 
mokyo-ku, Kyoto-shi (075)- 
361-0527 



JE^pfflJ 37 5 ^ [> vf * - 

Rigmark, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam, (Virginia), 1949, 
CMSJ 5-chome, 17-8, Na- 
kameguro, Meguro-ku, To 
kyo 



Riis, Miss Helene, 1950, FCM 
Sono-machi, 68-4, Koma- 
tsu-shi, Ishikawa-ken (22- 
7808) 

EX 68-4 y - X 



Ritchie, Mr. and Mrs. David, 
(Patsy), 1964, FEGC 2-14- 
1, Shinkawa-cho, Kurume- 
machi, Kitatama-gun, Tokyo 
(0424) -71-0022 

tt^mw ^ 

2-14-1 J 



Roberts, Mr. and Mrs. Geof 
frey D., 1952/57, WEC 
Motomiya - cho, Otsu-shi, 
Shiga-ken 



Robertson, Rev. and Mrs. Al 
ton, ABFMS Waseda Ho- 

shien, 550, 1-chome, Totsu- 
ka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-341-3972 

1-550 

:fHI*I px- h v x 



Robertson, Miss Grace, 1950, 
IBC (UCBWM) 1-11, Mi- 
tsukoji-machi, Kanazawa- 
shi, Ishikawa-ken (0762)- 
42-3916 



Robertson, Miss Jean, 1966, 
(Contract teacher) IBC 
Kwassui Gakuin, Kwassui 
Tanki Daigaku, 16, Higashi 
Yamate-machi, Nagasaki- 
shi (0958)-22-6955 



v A- h y x 

Robertstad, Miss Ruth, 1948, 
1948, NLM Nakajima dori, 
2-8, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078)-22-3601 



h 



K 



Robinson, Miss Clara Mae, 
1957, TEAM 1105 Aomori 
Nagano-shi, Nagano-ken 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



363 



1105 



n tT > V > 



Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. Mel- 
vin, (Alice), 1967, ALC - 
29-11 2-chome, Hanegi, Se- 
tagaya-ku, Tokyo (03)-322- 
0445 

1U?:EB^ 2-29-11 
p if" v y v 

Kodgers, Rev. and Mrs. 
Lavern, (Evelyn), 1950, BBF 
47-11, 3-chome, Kami Ishi- 
wara, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 

-47-11 



Roesgaard, Mr. and Mrs. Olaf, 
(Martha), 1963, SCD Furl. 

Roesti, Miss Magdalene, 1953, 
LM 906 Aza Minamr Hara, 
Kami Sakunobe, Kawasaki- 
shi, Kanagawa-ken (044)- 
83-6950 



Rogers, Miss Daphne, 1959, 
IBC (UCBWM) 15, Mi- 
yamae-cho, 4-chome, Kofu- 
shi, Yamanashi-ken (0522)- 
3-5451 



Rohrer, Miss Frieda, 1960, 
SAM Kotohira-cho, Ogi- 
machi, Sado-gun, Niigata- 
ken 



Rojas, Rev. and Mrs. Josef, 
(Carin), 1949, MCCS 88-2, 
Kitase, Fukuda-cho, Kura- 
shiki - shi, Okayama - ken 
(0864)-55-8783 



Ross, Rev. and Mrs. Barry L., 
(Margaret), 1967, AWM 
11 Nakamura-cho, Itabashi- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-957-4011 



Ross, Miss Elaine, 1965, IBC 
(UCBWM) - - 15, Miya- 
mae-cho 4-chome, Kofu-shi, 
Yamanashi-ken ( 0552) -3- 
5451 



Ross, Rev. and Mrs. Malcolm 
D., (Rev. Margaret), 1952, 
WRPL 5-7, 1-chome, Azu- 
mabashi, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-622-5248 

1-5-7 a x 



Ross, Rev. and Mrs. Myron, 
(Naomi), 1954, IBC 

(UCBWM) #8 Kwansei 
Gakuin, Nishinomiya-shi, 
Hyogo-ken (0798)-51-1425 



8 -t P * 

Roth, Miss Nancy K., 1966, 
ACC 692 Shioda, Ichimiya- 
cho, Higashi Yatsushiro- 
gun, Yamanashi-ken 



364 



DIRECTORIES 



ffl 692 

n X 



Roundhill, Mr. and Mrs. Ken 
S., 1951/49, WEC 1-57, 
Maruyama, Kitashirakawa, 
Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi (075)- 
781-6524 

y t> > K t: ;l/ 

Rowell, Rev. William W., 1965, 
SSJE 7-12, 2-chome, Hika- 
wadai, Kurume-machi, Kita- 
tama-gun, Tokyo (0424)- 
71-0175 

2-7-12 p - t s jv 

Rudolph, Mr. and Mrs. J. 
Willy, (Elin), 1950, FCM 
Furl. 

Rumme, Rev. and Mrs. Del- 
bert, (Sylvia), 1961, ALC 
55, 2-chome, Kirigaoka, 
Handa-shi, Aichi-ken (0569) 
-21-2189 

2-55 



Rupp, Rev. David, 1968, FEGC 
Ill Hakuraku, Kanagawa- 
ku, Yokohama-shi (045)- 
491-9016/7 

fr^mw 



Rusch, Dr. Paul, PEC-IND 
KEEP, Akashi-cho, Chuo-ka, 
Tokyo (03)-541-9084; Kiyo- 
sato Takane-cho, Kitakoma- 



gun, Yamanashi-ken (Kiyo- 
sato 111) 



Rusckow, Mr. and Mrs. Johan 
nes, IND 7-1276, Tajima, 
Fukuoka-shi (092)-82-2994 
7-1276 



Russell, Mr. and Mrs. L. 
Wayne, (Betty), 1950 CEF 
House 1220 Shimohara, 
Oaza Kurosu Musashi-ma- 
chi, Iruma-gun, Saitama-ken 
(0429)-5435 

AHSP ^?H^T 

n 1220 y ,y -fe J\, 

Rydberg, Rev. and Mrs. Arne, 
(Margot), 1961, MCCS 1- 
3-33 Tsurugata, Kurashiki- 
shi, Okayama-ken (864)- 
22-2490 

&itinm 1-3-33 

y - 



Sackett, Mr. and Mrs. Leslie 
1964/67, IBC (UCBWM) 
Furl. 68-69 

Saito, Miss Irene, 1965, IBC 
(MC-J3y 2 ) lai Joshi Koto 
Gakko, 64 Suginami-cho, 
Hakodate - shi, Hokkaido 
(School: 0138-51-0418 
House: 0138-51-5277) 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



365 



1M h- 



Saito, Mr. and Mrs. Morse T., 
(Ruth), 1949, IBC (MC) 
8, 4-chome, Kitanagasa-dori 
Ikuta-ku, Kobe-shi (078)- 
33-5940 



Sakwitz, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam, (Dee), 1954, AG 
Furl. 

Sallaway, Miss Rhonda, 1967, 
WEC 169, Kondo, Gokasho- 
cho, Kanzaki-gun, Shiga-ken 
(Ishizaki 47) 

169 



Sale, Miss Leena, 1958, LEAF 
206, Kuwamizu-cho, Ku- 
mamoto-shi 

7J<fflJ 260 



-t /u 

Salomonsen, Rev. and Mrs. 
Leif, (.Mary), 1950, NMS 
30, Teraguchi-cho, Takaba, 
Nada-ku, Kobe-shi (078)- 
85-2878 



Sams, Mr. and Mrs. Tage, 
(Inga), 1967, SCD Yama- 
zaki 5914-367, Fukuroi-shi, 
Shizuoka-ken (053801)-100 
-367 



Sand, Miss Bjorg, 1968, NMS 
30, Teraguchi-cho, Taka 
ba Nada-ku, Kobe-shi (078) 
-85-2878 

^M^^ p BT so 



Sandberg, Rev. and Mrs. Erik, 
(Hanna), 1951, OMJ Furl. 

Sanderson, Miss Rennie, 1961 
SB Sanno Palace, 2035, 7- 
13, 2-chome, Sanno, Ota-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-774-2655 
^MfP^: HE HI 5E 2-7-13 

^ * 2035 -9- > - - > 



Sandirk, Rev. and Mrs. Trygve 
1952, NMS 30, Teraguchi- 
cho, Takaba, Nada-ku, Ko 
be-shi (078)-85-2878 
p Hj 30 



Sanoden, Rev. and Mrs. Rus 
sell, (Alice), 1952, ALC - 
489 Furusho, Shizuoka-shi, 
Shizuoka-ken (0542)-53- 
5411 

iflTOl^EE489 

Sapsford, Rev. and Mrs. Leslie, 
(Carolyn), 1953, TEAM 
3949 Mutsuura-machi, Kana- 
zawa - ku, Yokohama - shi 
(054) -701-6880 Sum. Furl. 



Sarjeants, Mr. and Mrs. John 
(Pearl), 1951, ABWE 
Furl. 68-69 



366 



DIRECTORIES 



Satterwhite, Dr. (M.D.) and 
Mrs. James, (Altha), 1952, 
SB leave of absence 

Savolainen, Rev. and Mrs. 
Paavo, (Helvi), 1938, LEAF 
23, Aza Hondori, Kameda- 
machi, Kameda-gun, Hok 
kaido 



Schar, Mr. and Mrs. Paul, 
(Ruth Durig), 1953, SAM 
Chigusa Kanai-machi, Sado- 
gun, Niigata-ken (025963- 

2777) 



Scheie, Miss Anna, 1949, NLM 
Furl. 68-69 

Scherman, Dr. (D.D.S.) Fred 
C., 1948, IND Tokyo Chris 
tian Dental Clinic, 5, 2- 
chome, Surugadai Kanda, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
291-0224 

2-5 



Schiefer, Mr. and Mrs. Clif 
ford, (Marion), 1963, JCBM 
Furl. 68-69 

Schmid, Deaconess Ruth, 1953, 
MAR Furl. 

Schmidt, Miss Dorothy, 1937, 
IBC ( UPC ) 7-7, Minami- 
Kudan 4-chome, Chiyoda-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-261-6701 



4-7-7 



Schmidt, Miss Rosella, 1967, 
JEM 15-20 Daizawa-cho 3- 
chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-421-4209 

-15-20 



Schneider, Miss Doris, 1952, 
IBC (EUB) Muko Man 
sion, 7-7, Mukonosho 2- 
chome, Amagasaki-shi, Hyo- 
go-ken (06)-421-5256 

ffi 3-15-20 



Schnidrig, Miss Emmi, IND 
Nippon Baiburu Homu, Yu- 
nokoya, Minami-machi, To 
ne-gun, Gunma-ken (Mina- 
kami Yusen: 286-2-16) 



^ a. - K j ? y 

Schone, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Lucia), 1950, TEAM 1392 
Karuizawa-machi, Nagano- 
ken (02674-3426) 



Schoppa, Rev. and Mrs. Leo 
nard, (Ruth), 1963, LCMS 
96-8 Oaza, Sono-machi, 
Ebetsu-shi, Hokkaido 
(012848-8178) 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



367 



Schriever, Rev. and Mrs. 
Henry, (Dorothea), 1957, 
LCMS 4-17, 1-chome, Ko- 
binata, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-943-2028 Sum. Furl. 



Schrock, Miss Nancy, 1967, 
ACC 692, Shioda, Ichimiya- 
cho, Higashi Yatsushiro- 
gun, Yamanashi-ken 



Schroer, Dr. and Mrs. Gilbert 
W., (Cornelia), 1922, IBC 
(UCBWM) 5-26, Osawa- 
kawara 3-chome, Morioka- 
shi, Iwate-ken (0196)-22- 
3217 






C 3-5-26 

IX - -^ 



Schubert, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam, (Katherine), 1952, RF 
2163, Karuizawa-machi, 
Nagano-ken (02674)-2302 
2163 



Schuessler, Rev. and Mrs. 
Deane, (Julie), 1958, LCMS 
Hitsujigaoka Danchi, Ju- 
taku Higashi Tsukisappu, 
Sapporo-shi, (0122)-86-3836 



Schultz, Rev. and Mrs. Hel 
mut, (Norma Jean), 1955, 
QMS 1-6, 2-chome, Asahi- 
gaoka, Sendai-shi, Miyagi- 
ken (0222)-34-1559 
2-1-6 



Schumacher, Mr. and Mrs. 
Peter W., (Barbara), 1966, 
LCA 27-17, 2-chome, Shin- 
machi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-420-7459 



Schurr, Mr. and Mrs. Henry, 
(Joyce Dorothy), 1964, IBC 
(UCBWM) 605 Bo no mae, 

Kitahara, Motoyama-cho, 
Higashi Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 

(078)-43-7184 



Schwab, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Eldora), 1948, TEAM 
706, 2-chome, Narimune Su- 
ginami-ku, Tokyo (03)-312- 
5146 



> i 7 7 

Schwarz, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Mary), 1967, IBC 

(UCBWM) 7-7, Minami 
Kudan, 4-chome, Chiyoda- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-261-6763 

:-7-7 



368 



DIRECTORIES 



Schweitzer, Mr. Carl, 1952 
IBC (UCBWM) 28, Uwa- 
cho Komegafukuro, Sendai- 
shi (0222)-22-6812 



Scott, Rev. John F., 1965, 
ABFMS 3-9, 1-chome, Mi- 
saki-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 

JSMfimtfflgH^EJ 1-3-9 

X3 y h 

Seaman, Mr. and Mrs. L. B., 
(Dolores), 1967, CN 589, 
8-chome, Kamimeguro Me- 
guro-ku, Tokyo (03)-466- 
2414 



Seat, Dr. and Mrs. Leroy, 

(June), 1966, SB 11, 2- 

chome, Hirao Sanso Dori 
Fukuoka-shi 



Seely, Rev. and Mrs. Arthur, 
(Florence), 1948, TEAM 
26, 2-chome, Kotake-cho, 
Nerima-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
955-6566 



Selzer, Miss Arietta, 1959, 
JMM 8-chome, Nishi 2-jo, 
Tsukisappu, Sapporo - shi, 
(0122)-86-4233 



Setterholm, Rev. and Mrs. 
Paul, (Lois), 1952, LCA 
29-53, Mitsuzawa Shimo- 
cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yoko- 
hama-shi (045)-491-3252 
$t& rfr ttjgj 1 1 K = y ^RT BJ 29-53 

-fe $ * - A 

Shaw, Mr. and Mrs. Bernard 
(Daphne), 1950, FEGC 
Furl. 

Shaw, Mr. and Mrs. Martin, 
(Arlene), 1965, JCBM 
Shinkawa - cho, Kurume- 
machi, Kitatama-gun, Tokyo 



Sheldahl, Rev. and Mrs. 
Lowell, (Janice), 1962, ALC 
30-10, Sengoku 2-chome, 
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (03)-941 
-0835 

2-30-10 



Shelhorn, Mr. and Mrs. Ray 
mond, (Michiko), 1953, CoG 
66, Shimonamiki, Kawa 
saki - shi, Kanagawa - ken 
(044)-51-0641; 044-23-3648 



Shelton, Rev. and Mrs. Arthur 
T., (Carol), 1953, QMS 
1648, 1-chome, Megurita 
Higashi Murayama-shi, To 
kyo (0423)-91-3072 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



369 



1-1648 

is z )\> h > 



Shenk, Rev. and Mrs. Charles, 
(Ruth), 1957, JMM 10, 
Tottori, Kushiro-shi, Hok 
kaido (0154)-3-4386 



Shepard, Dr. and Mrs. John 
W., (Jean), 1950, SB 11- 
798 Nishijin-machi, Fuku- 
oka-shi (092)-82-8526 
MmiSffiBT H-798 

-.Xjt. * K 

Sheppard, Miss Alison, 1952, 
MSCC c/o Koichi Kuro- 
zawa, 229 Nishi Nagano 
Nagano-shi (2-2961) 



Shibata, Rev. and Mrs. George, 
(Sachie), 1948, LCMS 4 
12, 1-chome, Midori-cho Ko- 
ganei-shi, Tokyo (0423)-81- 
1396 



Shimer, Dr. and Mrs. Eliot R., 
(Tony), 1948/53, IBC (MC) 
#4 Kwansei Gakuin Ni- 
shinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 
(0798)-51-1343 
#JiSgrfi 

i/ -V -f v ~ 

Shore, Mr. and Mrs. Walter 
E., (Madeline), 1968, IBC 



(MC-VOL) House #2, 
1728, Nozuta, Machida-shi, 
Tokyo (0427)-32-8418 
SOiCW fflffi^ffl 1728-2 ^ 



Shorey, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam, (Laura), 1952, TEAM 
19-18, 4-chome, Asahi- 
machi, Akishima-shi, Tokyo 
(0425)-41-6352 
SljC^BS ATf!l9 BJ 4-19-18 

<> 3 - y - 

Shorrock, Mr. and Mrs. Hal- 
lam, (Helen), 1947, ICU, 
10-3 Osawa 3-chome, Mita- 
ka-shi, Tokyo (0422) -43- 
3131 

ICU ft -> 3 7 y V 

Shute, Miss Sarah, 1967, (Con 
tract teacher IBC) Kwassui 
Gakuin, Kwassui Tanki Dai- 
gaku, 16, Higashi Yamate- 
machi, Nagasaki-shi (0958) 
-22-6955 



Sides, Mrs. Norma M., 1952, 
AG Associate, 357 Kamo- 
ike, Kagoshima-shi, Kago- 
shima-ken 



Siebert, Rev. and Mrs. Johnny, 
(Anna), 1951, FEGC 111 
Hakuraku, Kanagawa-ku, 



370 



DIRECTORIES 



Yokohama-shi 
9016/7 



(045)-491- 



Simeonsson, Mr. and Mrs. 
Josef, (Olia), 1950, SAMJ 
839-2 Aza-so, Inae Shinden, 
Minato-ku, Nagoya-shi 

-> .X ;t > V > 

Simeonsson, Mr. and Mrs. 
Roland, (Sandra), 1958, 
SAMJ 6-74, Shimo Mukai- 
yama, Kaminogo-machi, Ga- 
magori-shi, Aichi-ken 
(05336)-8-6259 

SBflU If^Tj? }$/ ^Pfflj T[fU#Uj 
6-74 5/ ^ * > V > 

Simmons, Rev. and Mrs. Wes 
ley, (Irene), 1965, JEM - 
(15-20, 3-chome, Daizawa- 
cho, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

-> = > ^ 

Simmons, Miss Marian, 1930 
IBC (MC) Aikei Gakuen 
1035, Motoki-cho 1-chome, 
Adachi-ku, Tokyo ( 03) -886- 
2815 

-1035 






Simpson, Miss Lurline V., 
1967, IBC (UCBWM-VOL) 
61 Kozenji dori, Sendai- 
shi, Miyagi-ken (0222)-23- 
3256 



Sims, Mr. and Mrs. Harold, 
(Lois), 1947, CnC 1210 
Kamikasuya, Isehara-shi, 
Kanagawa-ken (0463)-95- 
1019 



Singer, Mr. and Mrs. David, 
(Wilma), 1964/51, JEM 
1-chome 3, Doai-machi, Na- 
gaoka - shi, Niigata - ken 

(02582)-2-7188 

BT 1-3 



Sisk, Rev. and Mrs. Donald, 
(Virginia), 1965, BIMI 44- 
3, Kawanishi-cho, Ashiya- 
shi, Hyogo-ken Furl. 11. 67- 
9. 68 



Skauge, Miss Olga, 1950, FCM 
22, 1-chome, Zenshoji-cho 
Suma-ku, Kobe-shi 

1-22 



7. 3 -i> 

Skillman, Dr. and Mrs. John, 
(Verlie Anne), 1951, IBC 
( MC) 6-20, Higashi 4- 
chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-409-8204 

4-6-20 



Skoglund, Rev. and Mrs. Her 
bert, (Jean), 1957, BGC - 
832-1, Yoshihara Minami- 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



371 



machi, Hidaka-gun, Waka- 
yama-ken (Gobo-2134) 

^^HCmBT 832-1 



Slaney, Rev. and Mrs. David 
G., (Elsie), 1958, FEBCC- 
6, 1-ku, Hokubu, Ou-machi, 
Toyama-shi, Toyama-ken 
(764)-31-6829 



Smeland, Miss Anne, 1960, 
IBC (MC) Reisekiso #2 
10-7, Minami Aoyama 6- 
chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-409-2424 

6-10-7 

^ > 5 > K 

Smit, Dr. and Mrs. Harvey, 
(Edna), 1959, CRJM 882- 
18, Aza Irinomae, Kamioka- 
machi, Minami-ku, Yoko- 
hama-shi, Kanagawa - ken 
(045)-741-1144 



882-18 



7* \ y h 



Smith, Miss Alice E., 1929, 
JEB c/o 11/6 Suma Ura 
Dori, 6-chome, Suma-ku, 
Kobe-shi 

H-6 



Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Billy, 
(Margaret), 1959, CC Iba- 
raki Christian College, 4048 
Omika, Kuji-machi, Hitachi- 



shi, Ibaraki-ken (029452- 
2251) 

14048 



Smith, Miss D. Jane, 1947, 
MM Tomidahama, Yokka- 
ichi-shi, Mie-ken (0593)-96- 
0096 



Smith, Rev. and Mrs. Edward, 
(Kelsey), 1967, AG 17-5, 
3-chome, Honcho, Hoya-shi, 
Kitatama-gun, Tokyo (0424) 
-61-7451 



3-17-5 7. \ X 

Smith, Miss Genevieve, 1949, 
TEAM 1433, 2-chome, Se- 
tagaya, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
-1433 



Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald, 
1959, IND 2143, 24-chome, 
Midori-machi, Asahikawa- 
shi, Hokkaido (0166)-5- 
5967 

J I Irfi iiBT 24-2143 



Smith, Rev. and Mrs. Harry 
E., IND 862-8, Ogimachi- 
ya, Iruma-shi, Saitama-ken 
(0429)-6-5049 

IrM 862-8 

7. I 7* 



372 



DIRECTORIES 



Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Jack 
Arthur, (Velma), 1962, SB 
Furl. 68-69 

Smith, Miss Joan, 1966, CLC 
3509, Kita Oizumi-machi 
Nerima-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
922-1118 



3509 



.z 



Smith, Miss Marie B., AG 
Associate 1743-1, Tesaki- 
Sumiyoshi-cho, Higashi Na- 
da-ku, Kobe-shi (078)-85- 
3803 



1743-1 



Smith, Miss Maureen R., 
1960 JEB 77-11, Tsujimido, 
Bando, Oasa-cho, Naruto- 
shi, Tokushima-ken 



Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Nathan, 
(Ann) 1951, CG Furl. 

Smith, Mr. Roy, 1903, IBC 
(MC Retired) 4, Naga- 
mineyama Oishi, Nada-ku, 
Kobe-shi (078)-87-0791 



Smith, Miss Ruth, 1948, 
TEAM 1433, 2-chome, Se- 
tagaya, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

-1433 



Snelson, Miss Irene, 1949, 
FKK Akasaka-Dori, 3-9, 2- 
chome, Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078)-86-7246 

2-3-9 



Snider, Rev. and Mrs. K. 

Lavern, (Lois), JFMM c/o 
Elmer Parsons, 10-3 1- 
chome, Maruyama - dori, 
Abeno-ku, Osaka-shi 

1-10-3 



Mrs. 
1956, 



Soderlund, Rev. and 
Anders, (Inga-Britt), 
MCCS Furl, to 9. 68 



Solly, Miss Ann, 1959, OMF 
5 Kamikazushi-cho, Hachi- 
nohe, Aomori-ken (01782) 
2-5987 



Soltau, Mr. and Mrs. Addison 
P., (Roselynne), 1953, JPM 
8-15, 1-chome, Hikawadai 
Kurume-machi, Kitatama- 
gun, Tokyo (0424) -71-2905 



Sorhus, Rev. and Mrs. Magnus, 
(Else), 1953, NLM Furl. 

Sorley, Rev. and Mrs. Francis 
B., (Marian), 1948 BGC 
832-1, Yoshihara, Mihama- 
machi, Hidaka-gun, Waka- 
yama-ken (2134) 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



373 



m 832-1 



Southerland, Rev. and Mrs. 
Lawrence Jr., (Marcella), 
1961, SB 34-7, 1-chome, 
Torikai-machi, Fukuoka-shi 
(092)-74-8650 
H^TfJjl^ HI 1-34-7 

-9- -!f - 7 > F 

Sparks, Miss Dorothy R., 
1961, IBC (MC) 10-2, Sho- 
to, 1-chome, Shibuya-ku, 
Tokyo (03) -467-7909 
1-10-2 



Spaulding, Rev. and Mrs. L. 
R., (Eleanor), 1949, JEM 
Furl. 68-69 

Spear, Rev. and Mrs. Gene W., 
(Ruth), 1955, RPM 9-1 
Aza Umenotani, Okamoto, 
Motoyama-cho, Higashi Na- 
da-ku, Kobe-shi (078)-41- 
3175 



Q X fc. 7 - 

Spencer, Rev. and Mrs. John 
E., (Suzette), 1965, CMS 
Rikkyo High School, Nobi- 
dome Niiza-machi, Kita 
Adachi-gun, Saitama-ken 
(0484)-71-2323 Summer 
Furl. 68 



Spoor, Miss Eulalia 1951, 
IND Takamori-machi, Aso- 
goin, Kumamoto-ken 



Sprange, Mr. and Mrs. G. M., 
SOM Box 417, Kobe Port, 
Kobe-shi 

417 



Springer, Rev. and Mrs. Vic 
tor, (Ann) 1949, TEAM - 
937 Koyabe-cho, Yokosuka- 
shi, Kanagawa-ken (0468)- 
51-2626 



Stanley, Miss Freda, 1956, 
JEB Furl. 

Steenberg, Rev. and Mrs. Tho 
mas, (Evelyn), 1966, ALC 
29-11, 2-chome, Hanegi, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
322-0445 

^ 

Steinhoff, Deaconess Karoline, 
1953, MAR 133-4 Aza Ni- 
shimatsumoto, Nishihirano, 
Mikage-cho, Higashi Nada- 
ku, Kobe-shi (078)-85-0146 

w^Tt? 

^^ 133-4 

Stellwagon, Rev. and Mrs. R. 
Russell, (Lori), 1951/58, 



374 



DIRECTORIES 



TEAM 8-20, 3-chome, Na- 
gisa, Matsumoto-shi, Naga 
no-ken ( 02634 )-3-288l (Yo- 
bidashi) 

.X f Jb 7 3" > 

Stenfelt, Mr. and Mrs. Birger, 
(Irene), JECC 382-11, Mi- 
nemachi, Utsunomiya-shi, 
Tochigi-ken (0286)-4-5884 
3-11 

-/u b 



Stephens, Miss Lu, 1962, NAV 
766, 2-chome, Shimoochiai 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo c/o Aki- 
yama (03)-951-3757 

2-766 



Stermer, Miss Dorothy, 1951 
TEAM 22-22, 2-chome, 
Gotokuji Setagaya-ku, To 
kyo (03)-428-0873 

i^ 2-22-22 



Stewart, Miss Delores, 1956, 
WMC Nishitashiro-machi, 
869, Saga-shi, Saga-ken 



^9^7- h 

Stirewalt, Eev. A. J., 1905, 
LCA Retired 3, 2-chome, 
Nakajimadori, Fukiai-ku, 
Kobe-shi (078)-22-6956 



7 fr h 



St. John, Miss Mary, 1967 
PEC - St. Margaret s 
School, 3-123 Kugayama, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
391-3241 

3-123 



Stob, Rev. and Mrs. William, 
(Helen), 1966, CRJM 19-4, 
2-chome, Midori-cho, Toko- 
rozawa-shi, Saitama - ken 
(0429)-22-4029 

ET 2-19-4 



Stocker, Mr. and Mrs. Chris 
tian, (Anneliese), 1954, IND 
1442, Kai uizawa-machi, 
Nagano-ken (02674-3626) 

1442 



Stolz, Mr. and Mrs. Siegfried, 
(Erna), 1960, GAM Miya- 
ura 21, Kochino, Konan-shi, 
Aichi-ken 

21 



Stoner, Mr. J. Andrew, 1967, 
BIG 228, 4-chome, Nukui 
Minami-cho, Koganei-shi, 
Tokyo (0423) -81-9975 



Stosch, Rev. Wenzel Graf-von, 
(EKD) Evangelische Kir- 
che in Deutschland, Minister 
of German Speaking Con 
gregation, 6-5-26, Kita Shi- 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



375 



nagawa, Shinagawa-ku, To 
kyo (03) -441-0673 

Jn 6-5-26 



Stott, Rev. and Mrs. Melvin 
D., Jr., (Beverly), 1964, 
CPC-4-5-15, Minami Rinkan 
Yamato-shi, Kanagawa-ken 
(0462)-61-6350 

4-5-15 

7. $ y h 

Stout, Miss Dorothy J., 1950, 
PEC St. Margaret s School, 
3-123, Kugayama Suginami- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-391-3241 
3-123 



.Strohm, Miss Elsbeth, 1953, 
GMM Furl. 

Strom, Rev. and Mrs. Verner, 
(Dorothy), 1951, TEAM 
29-23, 2-chome, Kyodo Seta- 
gaya-ku, Tokyo (03)-420- 

7777 

2-29-23 



Sugita, Mrs. Grace, 1957, 
CMSJ Furl. 68-69 

Sulley, Miss Winifred E. C., 
1951, WEC Furl. 68-69 

Summers, Miss Gertrude, 1953, 
PEC Bishamon-cho, Tono- 
dan, Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 
(075) -231-6090 



Stubbs, Rev. and Mrs. Vincent 
G. III., (Jane), 1960, PCUS 
57, 1-chome, Awajihon- 
machi, Higashi Yodogawa- 
ku, Osaka-fu (06) -322-2227 



*$y~?X 

Stutz, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel, 
(Madeleine), 1963/64, SAM 
Furl. 1. 68-2. 69 



Sundberg, Rev. and Mrs. Fred, 
(Greta), 1952, OMJ Kansai 
Fukuin Center, Uegahara, 
6-bancho, 58, Nishinomiya- 
shi, Hyogo-ken (0798)-51- 
2679 

IC6 



Sunde, Mr. and Mrs. A. Ken 
neth, 1954, WEC Ohashi, 
Ritto-cho, Kurita-gun, Shi- 
ga-ken 



Sund-Nielsen, Rev. and Mrs. 
Ib, (Edith), 1960, FCM As 
sociate Furl. 

Suttie, Miss Gwen, 1928, IBC 
(UCBWM Interboard 

House, 16-53, Roppongi, 5- 
chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 
(03) -583-3325 (Pre-retire- 
ment furlough 68-69) 
A** 5-16-53 



376 



DIRECTORIES 



Suzuki, Mr. and Mrs. Yokichi, 
(Nancy), 1967, FEGC 7-2, 
3-chome, Takeda, Kofu-shi, 
Yamanashi-ken (0552)-3- 
6880 

3-7-2 *x* 

Svendsen, Miss Anna, 1951, 
EOM Isohara-machi 593-1, 
Kitaibaraki-shi, Ibaraki-ken 

m 593-1 



Svensson, Miss Ester, 1950, 
SAMJ Konoike 16-14, Ima- 
mura-cho, Anjo-shi, Aichi- 
ken 



Swain, Rev. and Mrs. David, 
(Betty), 1953, IBC (MC) 
House #2, 4-22, Minami 
Aoyama 5-chome, Minato- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-407-2202 
5-4-22 



Swanson, Rev. and Mrs. Glen 
E. (Margaret), 1950, BGC 
Narukawa, Kiho-machi, Mi 
nami Muro-gun, Mie-ken 
(0735)-2-4085 



Swenson, Mr. and Mrs. Lynlon, 
(Gerry), 1957, JCBM 23-7 
Kanomae, Nagamachi, Sen- 
dai-shi (0222)-48-0432 Furl. 
68-69 



Swift, Miss Mildred, 1950, 
TEAM 1105 Amori, Naga- 
no-shi, Nagano-ken 

S 1105 x $ 4 7 h 



Sytsma, Rev. and Mrs. 
Richard, (Dorothy), 1952, 
CRJM 4-11-7 Tokiwadai- 
ra, Matsudo-shi, Chiba-ken 
(0473)-88-5522 

-11-7 

-^ -7-v 

Szedlak, Rev. and Mrs. Erno. 
(Doreen), 1964, LCMS 
Higashi 7-jo, Minami 1- 
chome, Bibai-shi, Hokkaido 
(01266-3530) 



K 



Taguchi, Miss Yoshiko, 1963, 
Inter- Varsity Christian Fel 
lowship, 605, 1-bancho, Na- 
gaoyama, Kirihata, Takara- 
zuka-shi, Hyogo-ken 



605 $ yj- 

Takushi, Mr. and Mrs. Ken 
neth, (Betty), 1963, FEGC 
Furl. 68-69 

Tanaka, Mr. and Mrs. Fred, 
(Jane), 1963/66, CEF Furl. 
68-69 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



377 



Tanaka, Miss Miwako, 1968, 
FEGC 111 Hakuraku, Ka- 
nagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi 
(045)-491-9016/7 



Tarr, Miss Alberta, 1932, IBC 
(MC) c/o Mr. Takeuchi, 
1711-1, Senzai, Oita - shi 
(09752)-3-1386 
; 1711-1 



Taylor, Dr. and Mrs. Arch B. 
Jr., (Margaret), 1950, PCUS 
Furl. 68-69 

Taylor, Miss Dorothy, 1950, 
IBC (UPC) Hokusei Gaku- 
en, Nishi 17-chome, Minami 
5-jo Sapporo-shi (0122)-56- 
1416 or 22-9528 



Taylor, Rev. and Mrs. Earl, 
(Nelda), 1956, AG-Furl. 

Taylor, Mr. and Mrs. Eugene, 
(Lois), 1962, FEGC 111 
Hakuraku, Kanagawa-ku, 
Yokohama-shi (045)-491- 
9016/7 



Taylor, Mr. and Mrs. Harvey, 
(Nina), 1963, JEM As 
sociate, Furl. 



Taylor, Miss Kathryn, RSF 
Friends Center, 8-19, 4- 
chome, Mita, Minato-ku, To 
kyo (03)-451-0804 
:=ffl 4-8-19 



Tazumi, Rev. and Mrs. Tho 
mas, (Mary), 1959, FEGC 
736 Chigase, Ome-shi, Tokyo 
(0428)-2-3094 



Tegnander, Rev. and Mrs. 
Oddvar (Sigrunn), 1960, 
FCM Furl. 

Tennant, Miss Elizabeth, 1948, 
IBC (MC) Kwassui Gaku- 
in, Kwassui Tanki Daigaku, 
13, Higashi Yamate-machi, 
Nagasaki-shi (09582)-22- 
1416 or 22-9528 



h 



Terhune, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Hazel), 1968, c/o Aoyama 
Gakuin Girl s Dormitory, 
578-6, Megurisawa-cho, Se- 
tagaya-ku, Tokyo (03)-309- 
7376 



T- 



Terpstra, Mr. and Mrs. Harold, 
(Mavis), 1965, CRJM 2-7, 
2-chome, Midori-cho, Tana- 
shi-shi, Tokyo 

lBj 2-7-2 



378 



DIRECTORIES 



Terry, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
1957, Christ s Bible Mission, 
Ouda Bible Church, Nishi- 



yama Ouda-cho, 
Nara-ken 



Uda-gun, 



Tetro, Rev. and Mrs. Frank 
Jr., IND P.O. Box 3, Aki- 
shima-shi, Tokyo (0425)-4- 
5842 

M|5B3I?ffi85^&*?H 3 

7~ h P 

Tewes, Mr. and Mrs. Erward 
H., (Leona), 1951, LCMS 
15, Nakano-cho, Ichigaya, 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
341-1338 



Theuer, Rev. and Mrs. George, 
(Clara), 1949, IBC (EUB) 
850, 31 Senriyama, Suita- 
shi, Osaka-fu (06)-388-4297 
Ul 850-31 



Thiessen, Rev. and Mrs. Ber 
nard, (Ruby), 1952, GCMM 
4-234 Aza, Nagamine- 
yama Oishi, Nada-ku, Kobe- 
shi 
ttF?7ff$tK^;gfeiaj 4-234 

7- -i ^ > 

Thomas, Miss Susie M., 1951, 
WFJCM 4399 Noikura, 
Ariake-cho, Soo-gun, Kago- 
shima-ken 



mm 

4399 



Thompson, Rev. and Mrs. C. 
M., (Helen), 1956, UPCM 
Furl. 



Thompson, Mr. and Mrs. Dar- 
rell, (Wendy), 1960, NAV 
Furl. 

Thompson, Mr. and Mrs. E. 
Rhodes, (Lois), 1966, IBC 
(UCMS-J4) 8, Kitanagasa- 
dori 4-chome, Ikuta-ku, 
Kobe-shi (078)-33-5840 



h > -f V > 

Thompson, Miss Judy, 1966, 
FEGC 111 Hakuraku, Ka- 
nagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi 
(045)-491-9017 



Thompson, Mr. and Mrs. Law- 
ranee, (Catherine), 1953/59, 
IBC (MC) 17 of 11, Kami 
Nobori-cho, Hiroshima-shi 
(0822)-21-6661 

-17 h>^V> 



Thomsen, Rev. and Mrs. Harry, 
(Ene Marie), SCD Furl. 
68-69 

Thomson, Mr. and Mrs. Lionel, 
(Eileen), 1954, OMF Kita 
2-jo, Nishi 4-chome, Iwami- 
zawa-shi, Hokkaido 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



379 



m 4 r s 

h > :/ V > 



Thorn, Miss Inez, 1951, OMJ, 
c/o Sakai Evangelical Cen 
ter, 254 Hiraoka-cho, Sakai- 
shi, Osaka-fu (0722)-71- 
0367 



T /u y 

Thornton, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam, (Elsie), 1954, TEAM 
Extended Furl. 

Thorsell, Miss Anna-Lisa, 1951 
SEMJ Furl. 

Thorsen, Rev. and Mrs. Leif- 
Audun, (Aagodt), 1958, 
NLM 3, Nakajima-dori, 2- 
chome, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078) -22-6956 



b /U- -fe V 

Thrasher, Mr. and Mrs. Ran 
dolph, (Junko), 1966, IBC 
(MC) #7, Kwansei Gaku- 
in, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo- 
ken (0798)-5-0776 



Tigelaar, Miss Gae, 1962, IBC 
(RCA) Furl, to 70 

Tiira, Miss Martta, 1965, 
LEAF 628, 7-chome, Uji- 
na - cho, Hiroshima - shi 

(0822)~51-2720 



-628 



Timmer, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Hazel), 1959, CRJM 1971 
Narimasu-cho, Itabashi-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-939-2126 



Todd, Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence, 
1950, IND 62 Kariga, Ma- 
rumori-cho, Igu-gun, Miya- 
gi-ken 



K 



Tokunaga, Miss Mae A., 1964, 
JEMS c/o Hokusei Gaku- 
en, Nishi 17-chome, Minami 
5-jo Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido 
(0122)-56-4276 



4bM^@F ( 3 h >? )- if 

Toner, Mr. and Mrs. Robert J., 
(Matilda), 1964, JEB Ta- 
kaike, Kozagawa-cho, Higa- 
shimuro-gun, Wakayama- 
ken 



Town, Rev. and Mrs. Harvey, 
(Joyce) , 1958, CM A 4-90 
Nagamineyama, Oishi, Na- 
da-ku, Kobe-shi (078)-86- 
4179 

-90 



380 



DIRECTORIES 



Trevor, Mr. and Mrs. Hugh, 
(Margaret), 1960/61, OMF 
26, 6-chome, Shimizu-cho, 
Chitose-shi, Hokkaido 



Trotter, Miss 
Furl. 68-69 



Bessie, IND 



Troxell, Rev. and Mrs. Delbert 
V., (Martha), 1953, IBC 
(UCMS) #1, Kwansei Ga- 
kuin Nishinomiya-shi, Hyo- 
go-ken (0798)-51-1789 



h a ^ -fe ;!/ 

Troy, Mr. J. William, 1967, 
IBC (UPC Frontier Intern) 
17-23, Wakabayashi, 2- 
chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-414-2833 

3fCBmEtt 2-17-23 

h p^ 

Trueman, Miss Margaret, 
1951, IBC (UCC) Leave of 
absence 

Tsuji, Miss Sue, 1967, JEM 
565 Kujiranami-machi, Ka- 
shiwazaki-shi, Niigata-ken 
(0257) -22-3347 



Tsujii, Rev. and Mrs. Kiheiji, 
1966, AGM Sakate, Shodo- 
shima Uchinomi-cho, Kaga- 
wa-ken 



Tucker, Rev. and Mrs. Bever- 
ley, D., (Jean), 1953, PEC 
Higashi 3-chome, Kita 19-jo, 
Sapporo-shi (0122)-71-3903 



Tuff, Miss Evelyn, 1954, ALC, 
38, 1-chome, Torisu-cho, Mi- 
nami-ku, Nagoya-shi (052) 
-811-3551 



Tunbridge, Miss Marjorie, 
1950, IBC (UCCBWM) 
83-25 Ooya, Ueda-shi, Na 
gano-ken (02682)-5-0289 
83-25 



Turnage, Rev. and Mrs. Mac 
(Anne) 1967, Pastor of To 
kyo Union Church, 44 
Hachiyama-cho Shibuya-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-461-4841 



Turner, Mr. and Mrs. Bill, 
(Betty), 1965, CnC 14, 
Nakamiya - cho, 6-chome, 
Asahi-ku, Osaka-shi (06)- 
951-5882 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



381 



Turunen, Mr. and Mrs. Martti, 
(Virpi), 1967, LEAF 3- 
1633, Ikebukuro, Toshima- 
ku, Tokyo (03) -971-9539 
3-1633 

Tveit, Miss Marie, 1958, ALC 
38, 1-chome, Torisu-cho, 
Minami - ku, Nagoya - shi 
(052)-811-3551 

1-38 



Tygert, Mr. and Mrs. Earl, 
(Emogene), 1949, BIM 
Furl. 68-69 

Tygert, Miss Faith, BIM 
5500 Ote-machi, Ueda-shi, 
Nagano-ken 



Tygert, Mr. Steven, BIM 
Furl. 68-69 



U 



Uchida, Mr. and Mrs. Akira, 
(Hisako), 1956, JEM Mui- 
ka-machi Dendosho, 2 Ban- 
chi, Kan Machi, Muika-ma- 
chi, Minami Uonuma-gun, 
Niigata-ken 



Uchida, Miss Ikuye, 1952, 
JEM 10-19, 1-chome, Ni- 



shihon-cho, Kashiwazaki-shi, 
Niigata-ken 

1-10-19 



Uhlig, Deaconess Mariane, 
MAR Student Christian 
Center, 1-3, 2-chome, Suru- 
gadai, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, 
Tokyo (03)-291-1512 

^PftfflK ttffl I^M^ 2- 
1-3 * J *5^ Hz> 



Ulmstedt, Miss Gerd, 1964, 
SBM Furl. 68-69 

Underland, Mr. and Mrs. W. 
(Anne), 1966, NLL 1736, 
Katayama, Niiza-machi, Ki- 
ta Adachi-gun, Saitama-ken 
(0424)-71-1625 



Unruh, Rev. and Mrs. Simon, 
1951, IND Furl, to 2. 69 

Unzicker, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam, (Sarah), 1963, IBC 
(RCA) 2-17, Shiomidai, 2- 
chome, Otaru-shi, Hokkaido 
(0134)-2-7542 

-2-17 



Uomoto, Rev. and Mrs. George 
Y., (Fumi), 1951, OPC 
116, Otachiba-machi, Sen- 
dai-shi, Miyagi-ken (0222)- 
56-6631 

iaj 116 <j* -t- h 



l a TJ 



382 



DIRECTORIES 



Van Baak, Rev. and Mrs. Ed 
ward, (Frances), 1951, 
CRJM 865, 2-chome, Suzu- 
ki-cho, Kodaira-shi, Tokyo 
(0423)-81-3981 

-865 



Vander Bilt, Rev. and Mrs. 
Maas, (Eloise), 1955, CRJM 
1-29-19, Aobadai, Kohoku- 
ku, Yokohama-shi 



1-29-19 



h 



Van Dyck, Rev. and Mrs. 
David (Alayne), 1956, IBC 
(UPC) Leave of absence 

Van School en, Rev. and Mrs. 
Alvin, (Janet), 1955, CMA 
c/o Naka P.O. Box 70, 
Hiroshima-shi 



70 



- a - 7- 



Van Wyk, Rev. and Mrs. 
Gordon, (Bertha), 1953, IBC 
(RCA) 10-11, Kami Osaki 
1-chome, Shinagawa-ku, To 
kyo (03)-473-3072 



-i 



Van Zante, Mr. Bob, 1967, 

NAV 28-8, 1-chome, Go- 
tokuji, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-429-3605 

1-28-8 



Varney, Miss Evelyn, 1949, 
JCBM Kyoritsu Joshi Sei- 
sho Gakuin, Yokohama-shi 



Vatter, Mr. and Mrs. Ernst, 
(Sigrid), 1952, LM Furl. 
68-69 

Vehanen, Rev. and Mrs. Eino, 
(Toshie), 1964, LCA 2126, 
Furushiro-machi, Yatsushi- 
ro - shi, Kumamoto - ken 

(09653-7548) 



Vehling, Rev. and Mrs. James, 
(Jane), LCMS 8-34, 4- 
chome, Kudan Minami, Chi- 
yoda-ku, Tokyo ( 03) -261- 
7791 

-34 



Vereide, Mr. and Mrs. Abra 
ham, (Ragna), 1950, NMA 
19-20 2-chome, Shinden-cho, 
Ichikawa-shi, Chiba-ken 

-19-20 



Verme, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Virginia), 1949, CMSJ 
155, 5-chome, Akitsu-machi, 
Higashimurayama-shi, To 
kyo (0423)-91-6249 

BJ 5-155 

/N*- A 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



383 



Verwey, Mr. and Mrs. Neil, 

(Peggy), 1951, JMHE - 

Hanyuno 242-3, Habikino- 

shi, Osaka-fu (0729)-55- 
1348 

f? 242-3 



Viall, The Rt. Rev. K. A., 
1935, SSJE 7-12, 2-chome, 
Hikawadai, Kurume-machi, 
Kitatama-gun, Tokyo (0424) 
71-0175 Furl. 5/68-12/68 



2-7-12 



^ r 4 7 )\s 



Vierhus, Miss Magdalena, 
1968, GMM 329-5, Eifuku- 
cho, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-321-4794 

fflr 329-5 



Visser, Rev. and Mrs. J. P., 
1956, JRM 2640, Jonan-ku, 
Saiki-shi, Oita-ken (2-2238) 



^ 1 y U- - 

Vist, Miss Ingrid, 1953, SAMJ 
34-44, 5-chome, Kamoe- 
cho, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizu- 
oka-ken (0534)^3-5051 

ff^m^&flfisOT 5-34-44 

b** h 

Voehringer, Deaconess Elisa 
beth, 1953, IND - - Kanita 
Fujin no Mura, 594, Oka, 
Tateyama-shi, Chiba-ken 
(04702)-2-2280 



7 3 - y 



Vogt, Dr. (M.D.) and Mrs. J. 
F., (Nancy), 1967, SDA 
17, 3-chome, Amanuma, Su 
ginami-ku, Tokyo (03)-392- 
6151 

-17 



Vogt, Miss Verna, 1952, 
TEAM 22-22, 2-chome, 
Gotokuji, Setagaya-ku, To 
kyo (03)-428-0873 

2-22-22 



Voran, Rev. and Mrs. Peter, 
(Lois), 1951, GCMM 3777 
Sonoda, Nichinan-shi, Miya- 
zaki-ken (2393) 



Vorland, Rev. and Mrs. Gehard, 
ALC 2109-257, Aza-Togoku 
Oaza Kamishidami, Mori- 
yama-ku, Nagoya-shi (0568) 
-51-2711 



W 

Waddell, Mr. James, 1967, 
IBC (MC J3%), 5 shimo, 
Shirogane-cho, Hirosaki-shi, 
Aomori-ken (01722)-2-1311/ 
3 



384 



DIRECTORIES 



Waddington, Rev. and Mrs. 
Richard, (Lois), 1952, 
ABFMS Furl. 68-69 

Waid, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert, 
(Geraldine), 1958, FWBM 
Box 4, Sayama-shi, Saitama- 
ken 



?*< K 

Walbert, Rev. and Mrs. Cle 
ment, (Florence), 1955, BGC 
Ishibashi 4-chome, 20-13, 
Ikeda-shi, Osaka-fu (0727)- 
61-8986 

KfoJftftm-ftEffi 4-20-13 

7 ;W< \- 

Walcott, Rev. and Mrs. Roger, 
(Shirley), 1964, JEM 149, 
1-chome, Nishi Shiro-cho, 
Takada - shi, Niigata - ken 
(025523-7093) 

1-149 



Waldin, Miss Margaret, 1951, 
TEAM 1-20, Honan 2- 
chome, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 
(03)-313-6798 

2-1-20 



Walfridsson, Mr. and Mrs. 
Ake, (Ruth), 1964, SAMJ 
839-2 Aza So, Inae Shin- 
den, Minato-ku, Nagoya-shi 
($52)-661-9891 



7 ;i> 7 y 



-2 
p v > 



Walker, Rev. and Mrs. John, 
(Billie), 1967, IBC (UCMS) 
6-15, Oji Honcho, 1-chome, 
Kita-ku, Tokyo ( 03) -900- 
5262 



Walker, Mr. and Mrs. Wesley, 
(Margaret), 1956, CnC 
250, Moiwa-shita, 7-jo, Sap- 
poro-shi, Hokkaido 



Walker, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam L., (Mary), 1950, SB 
979 Hamamatsubara, Mae- 
da-shi, Fukuoka-shi (092)- 
65-8421 

7-*- 



Wallace, Rev. and Mrs. D. G., 
(Grayce), 1951, ACOP 
Furl. 68-69 

Waller, Miss Marjorie, 1960, 
JEB 11 of 6, Sumaura- 
dori 6-chome, Suma-ku, Ko- 
be-shi (078)-71-5651 

ttP Tp 6-6-11 

7-9- 

Walsham, Miss Robynne, 1967, 
CJPM 16-16, Nanatsuike- 
machi, Koriyama-shi, Fuku- 
shima-ken (02492)-2-7992 

^^fflJ 16-16 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



385 



Walter, Rev. and Mrs. Donald, 
(Eileen), 1949, TEAM 1- 
38, Minami 6-chome, Chiga- 
saki - shi, Kanagawa - ken 
(0467)-82-7728 

-1-38 



1951, 



Walter, Miss Helen, 
JCBM Furl. 68-69 



Walters, Miss Doris, 1966, 
SB Seinan Jogakuin, Shi- 
mo Itozu, Kokura-ku, Kita- 
kyushu-shi 



Walters, Rev. and Mrs. Rus 
sell, (Mary), 1951, TEAM 
#4, Angel Heights, Naka- 
jima, Kodaira-shi, Tokyo 



-f 



Wang, Miss Jean, 1953, ALC 
37, Hirosawa-cho, Hama- 
matsu - shi, Shizuoka - ken 
(0534)-53-2547 



Warne, Miss Eleanor, 1948, 
IBC (MC) 108, Honmura, 
Tosa-yamada-cho, Kami- 
gun, Kochi-ken ( 08875 )-2- 
2880 



Warner, Miss Eileen M., 1962, 
JEB 11 of 6, Sumaura- 



dori, 6-chome, Suma-ku, 
Kobe-shi (078)-71-5651 
-6-11 



Warren, Mr. George, PEC- 
IND, c/o Marukiso, 4-2234, 
Kamimeguro, Meguro-ku, 
Tokyo 

HE a M 4-2234 



Warrick, Mr. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Joyce), 1964, CnC 2-14, 
Shinkawa-cho 1-chome, Ku- 
rume-machi, Kitatama-gun, 
Tokyo (0424)-71-0022 Ext. 
2720 



1-2-14 V * J y ? 

Warriner, Mr. and Mrs. 
Austin, (Dorothy), 1959, 
JACM 13-1201, Okayama, 
Shijo-Nawate-machi, Kita- 
kawachi-gun, Osaka-fu (Da- 
ito 76-0580) Sum. Furl. 68 



1201 



J 



I Watanabe, Rev. and Mrs. 
George, (Amy), 1968, SB 
350, 2-chome, Nishiokubo, 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (03)- 
341-5568 
^^fPff^ESXiS: 2-350 

Waterman, Miss Gertrude, 
1948, ABFMS 1-43-404, 4- 
chome, Hachiman, Sendai- 
shi 



386 



DIRECTORIES 



-1-43-404 



Waters, Miss 
Furl. 68-69 



June, USPG 



Watkins, Miss Elizabeth T., 
1948, SB Matsukage Sho- 
gakko-mae, Hirose 6, Yaha- 
tahama-shi, Ehime-ken (Shi- 
koku 2-3294) 



Watson, Rev. and Mrs. Leslie, 
(Hazel), 1950, SB 171-2, 
Maruyama-cho, Miyazaki- 
shi (0985)-2-6317 

^rff AUJBT 171-2 7 b y v 

Watson, Miss Marylin, 1956, 
IBC (MC) Hiroshima Jo- 
gakuin Daigaku, 720, Ushi- 
ta-machi, Hiroshima - shi 
(0822)-21-2089 



7 h v > 



Waiters, Rev. and Mrs. James 
L., (Darleene), 1963, SB- 
Furl. 68-69 

Watts, Mr. and Mrs. Carl B., 
(Lois May), 1955, SDA 
Box 7, Hodogaya Nishi, 
Yokohama-shi (045)-951- 
2224 



Webber, Rev. and Mrs. Chris 
topher L., (Margaret), 1966, 
PEC 2-10-3 Moto Azabu, 
Minato-ku, Tokyo (Church: 
03-431-8534; Home: 03-473 
-2394) 

-10-3 



7 



Wayne, Rev. and Mrs. Milton, 
(June), TEC 17, 4-chome, 
Kumano-cho, Hyogo-ku, Ko- 
be-shi, (078)-51-7556 
17 



Weber, Rev. and Mrs. James, 
(Dorothy), JCBM 17-2 
Saiwai-cho, Yokota-shi, Aki- 
ta-ken (1576) 



Webster-Smith, Miss Irene, 
1916, JEB 1-3, 2-chome, 
Surugadai, Kanda, Chiyoda- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-291-1512 

jemiP^fttBKt l EltMa 2-1-3 
V i 7" ^ ^ - * $ * 

Wedel, Mr. and Mrs. A. Del- 
mar, (Betty), 1955, YMCA 
3-52, 6-chome, Osawa, 
Mitaka-shi Tokyo (0422)- 
44-7984 
TfuCfftHJim*^ 6-3-52 

f x. ~ r fr 

Weick, Rev. and Mrs. Wilfred, 
(Jeanine), 1967, NAB 4, 
Nishisonjoin-cho, Kinugasa 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



387 



Kita-ku, 
462-2027 



Kyoto-shi (075)- 



Weippert, Mr. and Mrs. Horst, 
(Annemarie), 1962, LM 9- 
5380, Izumi-cho, Naka-Mina- 
to-shi. Ibaraki-ken (3742) 
W&^&nWz%& 9-5380 

7 xf *<;]/ h 

Weiss, Rev. and Mrs. William, 
(Georgia), 1953, IBC (UPC) 
Leave of absence 

Welbon, Rev. and Mrs. Henry 
G., (Dorothy), 1966, JPM 
Associate 8-15, 1-chome, 
Hikawadai, Kurume-machi, 
Kitatama - gun, Tokyo 
(0424)-7-6852 



Wentz, Rev. and Mrs. Edwin, 
C., (Betty), 1951, LCA 
Furl. 68-69 

Werner, Mr. and Mrs. Walter, 
(Erna), 1953, GAM 54 Shi- 
mada Nishi-machi, Gifu-shi 
(0582)-52-0020 



1-8-15 $ en ;i/ # - > 

Weller, Miss Mary E., 1952, 
OMF 531, Honcho, Nanae- 
machi, Kameda-gun, Hok 
kaido (Nanae 8301) 



Wenger, Mr. and Mrs. James, 
(Faith), 1965, JMM 1 Mi- 
nami, 17-chome, Nishi 7- 
jo, Obihiro-shi, Hokkaido 
(01552)-4-3282 



West, Mrs. 
Sakuto-cho, 
yama-ken 



Audrey, 
Aida-gun, 



1967, 
Oka- 



Westberg, Rev. and Mrs. 
Harry, (Gladys), 1952, 
CMSJ 5-chome, 17-8, Na- 
kameguro, Meguro-ku, To 
kyo 

E^g ,1 5-17-8 



Westby, Rev. and Mrs. Carl, 
(Elaine), 1961, ALC 37-8, 
1-chome, Momoi, Suginami- 
ku, Tokyo (03) -390-2584 

# s * h t" - 

Western, Rev. Blake W., 1966, 
SB Obihiro-shi, Hokkaido 



Whaley, Rev. and Mrs. Char 
les, (Lois), 1949, SB 352, 
2-chome, Nishiokubo, Shin- 
juku-ku, Tokyo (03)-341- 
0638 

-352 

3. y - 



388 



DIRECTORIES 



Wheeler, Mr. and Mrs. Do 
nald, (Judy), 1962, ABFMS 
Furl. 

Whewell, Miss Elizabeth A., 
1928, MM Tomidahama, 
Yokkaichi - shi, Mie - ken 
(0593)-96-0096 



7 



Whissom, Mr. and Mrs. Dom, 
(Margot), 1968, WEC 569, 
Kondo, Gokasho-cho, Kan- 
zaki-gun, Shiga-ken (Ishi- 
zuka 47) 



White, Miss E. Ruth., 1951, 
OMF 7, Shiratori-cho, Ha- 
kodate-shi, Hokkaido 

J 7 *7-f h 



White, Rev. and Mrs. Ron, 
(Odessa), 1965, BIMI Ichi- 
notani-cho, 2-63 Suma-ku, 
Kobe-shi (078)-71-1133 
WPrUHglx / WS 2-63 

# 5M h 

Whitman, Miss Sylvia, 1950, 
JACM Yura, Daiei-cho, 
Tohaku-gun, Tottori-ken 



Wielenga, Miss Hilda, IND 
c/o Tanahashi, 1709 Higashi 
Terao-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yo- 
kohama-shi 



Brr 1709 



Wiens, Rev. and Mrs. Roland, 
M., (Ann), 1951, MBM 
595, Saidera Suita-shi, Osa- 
ka-fu (06)-388-8472 



Wiens, Miss Ruth, 1950, MBM 
Heian Mansion, 6-3, 1- 
chome, Tenjinbashi, Ikeda- 
shi, Osaka-fu (0727)-61- 
1455 

1-6-3 



Wiese, Rev. and Mrs. James, 
(Rita), 1962, LCMS 342, 
Uenodai, Nakayama, Han- 
no-shi, Saitama-ken (04297- 
4680) Sum. Furl. 68 

& 342 



Wigglesworth, Miss Anne, 
1949, JMP 8-15, 1-chome, 
Hikawadai Kurume-machi, 
Kitatama-gun, Tokyo (0424) 
-71-6852 



1-8-15 



< 



Wildermuth, Rev. and Mrs. 

Wesley, (Margaret), 1952, 
QMS Furl. 68-69 

Wilhelmsson, Miss Thyra, 
SFM 434-4 Ogasahara, Ku- 
shigata-machi, Yamanashi- 
ken (05528)-2-0639 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



389 



Wilkinson, Mr. and Mrs. 
David, (Georgalyn), 1964, 
FEBC Furl. 

Wilkinson, Mr. and Mrs. Ted, 
1963, WMC Furl. 68-69 

Williams, Rev. and Mrs. Bill 
(Zelda), 1966, NTC Mina- 
mi leki, leki Kyoku kunai, 
Mie-ken 



\) 



X 



Williams, Dr. Jean, CN Box 
4, Yotsukaido, Imba-gun, 
Chiba-ken (0472)-82-2234/ 
2428 



Williams, Dr. and Mrs. Philip, 
(Rev. Mary), 1950, IBC 
(UCBWM) Furl. 68-69 

Williams, Mr. Roger D., 1966, 
JEB 11 of 6, Sumaura- 
dori, 6-chome, Suma-ku, Ko- 
be-shi (078)-71-5651 



Willis, Miss Carolyn J., 1959 
OMF Kita 22- jo, Nishi 6 
chome, Sapporo-shi (0122)- 
72-1027 



Mr. and Mrs. Peter 
A., (Mary), 1953, BIG Na- 
kamura, Yoshiki, Yamagu- 
chi - shi, Yamaguchi - ken 
(08392) -2-6609 



Wilson, Rev. and Mrs. Ken 
neth W., (Eleanor), 1960, 
PCUE - - 1 Takezono-cho, 
Suita-shi, Osaka-fu (06)- 
384-7839 



Wilson, Rev. and Mrs. Wesley, 
(Golda), 1956, TEAM - 
1603 Omiya-cho, Suglnami- 
ku, Tokyo (03)-313-0165 



Wimberley, Rev. and Mrs. 
Lewis, 1966, EFCM 1198-C 
Karuizawa-machi, Nagano- 
ken 

&m)^n#ni 1198-c 

$ j A ^ J - 

Wind, Miss Gisela, 1965, WEC 
569, Kondo, Gokasho-cho, 
Kanzaki - gun, Shiga - ken 
(Ishizaka 47) 

^ti^HtpaifiSfffiiaT^^ 569 

V J > K 

Wine, Mr. and Mrs. Victor K., 
(Betty J.), 1950, JFM Box 
9, Kashiwabara-shi, Nara- 
ken: 830, Mise-machi, Ka 
shiwabara-shi, Nara-ken 



390 



DIRECTORIES 



Winemiller, Rev. and Mrs. 
Paul L., (Katherine), 1960, 
LCA 42. 2-chome, Tama- 
cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 
(0423)-62-4228 



17-1" > ? 7 - 

Wingfield, Mr. and Mrs. Al 
bert, (Marjorie), 1964 ; 
LCMS Luther House, 39-2, 
1-chome, Tama-machi, Fu 
chu-shi, Tokyo (0422)-43- 
5570 

jgiflT 1-39-2 



Winn, Rev .and Mrs. Paul, 
(Anne), 1955, IBC (UPC) 
45, Asukai-cho, Tanaka, 
Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi (075)- 
781-4494 



Winsevik, Rev. and Mrs. Arne, 
(Eva), 1968, FCM 48, Ki- 
yokawa-cho, Takefu-shi, Fu- 
kui-ken (0778)-22-1064 



Winsjansen, Miss Kirsten, 
1965, FCM Box 5, Mikuni- 
machi, Fukui-ken (0776)-81 
-2915 

5^ 



Winters, Rev. and Mrs. G. J., 
(Virginia), 1952, ABWE 
1551 Oaza Nata, Fukuoka- 
shi (092)-966-2444 

1551 



Winther, Dr. J.M.T., 1898, 

Retired, 3, 2-chome, Naka- 

jima-dori, Fukiai-ku, Kobe- 
shi (078)-22-3601 



Winther, Miss Maya, 1947, 
LCA 6-15, 2-chome, Mizu- 
gae-cho, Saga-shi, Saga-ken 
( 09522 )-3-4010 

E 2-6-15 



Wipf, Miss Lucille, 1960, 

NAB 2-502, Uraguchi-cho, 
Ise-shi, Mie-ken 

-502 



Wohlgemuth, Rev. and Mrs. 
Ivan, (Jean), 1963, MBM 
32 Higashi-machi, Shimo 
Oichi, Nishinomiya - shi, 

Hyogo-ken Furl. 



Wolff, Deaconess 
IND Furl. 



Hanni, 



Wood, Rev. and Mrs. Robert 
W., (Mary), 1949, IBC 
(UCBWM) Furl. 68-69 



LIST OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



391 



Wooden, Rev. and Mrs. Floyd, 
1961, BMMJ 25, Maeyama, 
Odakura-shinden, Nishigo- 
mura, Nishihirakawa-gun, 
Fukushima-ken 



Wood-Robinson, Rev. and Mrs. 
David M., (Jane Robinett), 
1958, CMS Shoin Junior 
College, Nakajima-dori, 1- 
chome, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 
(078)-22-5980 Furl. 4/68- 
8/68 



Elaine, 1962, 
Sakae-machi, 
Hokkaido 



Woods, Miss 

OMF 824 
Sapporo-shi, 



(0122)-72-4974 



Woollett, Mr. and Mrs. John, 
( Kay ) , JCBM Kayanomi 
Hoikujo, Kujo, Kesenuma- 
shi, Miyagi-ken 



h 



Worth, Dr. and Mrs. Donald 
C., (Ardyce), 1954, UPC 
Furl. 68-69 

Wright, Mr. David, 1968, IBC 
(UCBWM J3V 2 ) 61, Ko- 
zenji-dori, Sendai-shi (0222) 
-23-3256 



Wright, Miss L. W., Kita 22- 
jo, Higashi 3-chome, Sap 
poro-shi, Hokkaido (0122)- 
71-0522 



Wright, Dr. and Mrs. Morris, 
J. Jr., (Joyce), 1950, SB 
18-6, Kamiyama-cho, Shibu- 
ya-ku, Tokyo (03)-467-6469 



7-f h 

. M., 
Senju 
To 



Wyatt, Miss Clare E 
USPG 130, Minami 
5-chome, Arakawa-ku 
kyo (03)-807-9937 

5-130 



4 7 -y h 



Yakel, Miss Ella, 1950, IND 
62, Kariga, Marumori-cho, 
Igu-gun, Miyagi-ken 



Yancey, Miss Joan L., 1967, 
IBC (UCBWM-J3%) 1-11, 
Mitsukoji-machi, Kanazawa- 
shi, Ishikawa-ken (0762)-42 
-3916 



fe V ^ 

Yarbrough, Mr. and Mrs. Ro 
bert, (Dixie), CC Ibaraki 
Christian College, Omika, 
Kuji-machi, Hitachi-shi, 

Ibaraki-ken (029452-2251) 



392 



DIRECTORIES 



7. ?- 



Yasuhara, Mr. and Mrs. Ed- 
Nishi-machi, Otori, Sakai- 
ward, IND 39-2, 1-cho, 
shi, Osaka-fu 

-39-2 



Yoder, Miss Marjorie, 1964 
JMM 8-chome, Nishi 2-jo 
Tsukisappu, Sapporo - shi, 
(0122)-8 6-4233 



Yoder, Rev. and Mrs. Marvin, 
(Neta Faye), 1961, JMM - 
2-jo, 10-chome, Hiragishi 
Sapporo-shi, (0122)-81-1388 



Yoki, Miss Inga, 1966, SEMJ 
Shoe Apt., Higashi 1- 
chome, Kita 45, Sapporo-shi 



Yokoi, Miss Tamara, 1948, 
IND 2044 Ikuta, Kawa 
saki - shi, Kanagawa - ken 
(044)-96-4564 Furl. 5/68- 
10/68 



Yonteck, Miss Barbara, 1959, 
PCUS Furl. 68-69 



Youmans, Miss Doris, 1952, 
BMMJ 17-20, Kasuga-cho, 
Fukushima-shi 

ti^TfJ^S HI 17-20 



Young, Mr. and Mrs. Clarence, 
(Marion), 1952, FEGC 
392, Nishibori, Niiza-machi, 
Kita Adachi-gun, Saitama- 



Young, Rev. John M. L., 1948, 
JPM Furl. 

Youngquist, Rev. and Mrs. 
Harris, (Judy), 1950, BGC 
832-1, Yoshihara, Minami- 
machi, Hidaka-gun, Waka- 
yama-ken (Gobo 2134) 

I^ 832-1 
1- 



Yunker, Rev. and Mrs. Robert, 
(Evelyn), 1953, TEAM 
11-1, Sakura 1-chome, Seta- 
gaya-ku, Tokyo (03)-420- 
2533 



Zander, Miss Helen R., 1928, 
IBC (RCA) 116, Kashi- 
waba Nada-ku, Yokohama- 
shi (045)-651-0470 



LIST OP PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 



393 



Zastrow, Miss Violet S., 1952, 
WEC c/o Noma, 16 Naga- 
hara-cho, Kami, Omi-Hachi- 
man-shi, Shiga-ken 



if * 



Zehnder, Rev. and Mrs. Tom, 
(Jacquelyn), 1963, LCMS 
239-B, Yamate-machi, Naka- 
ku, Yokohama-shi (045)- 
641-1296 

-te" > $ - 

Zeno, Rev. and Mrs. Norman, 
UPCM 671, 5-chome, Nu- 
kui Kita-machi, Koganei- 
shi, Tokyo 

[mW 5-671 



Zerbe, Rev. and Mrs. Ben, 
(Esther), 1950, MBM 151, 
2-chome, Yanagawa - cho, 
Tonda Takatsuki-shi, Osaka- 
fu (0726)-96-0861 

2-151 



Zimmerman, Rev. and Mrs. 
Charles, BMMJ 7-17, Fuji- 
ta, Kunimi-machi, Date-gun, 
Fukushima-ken 

iPBJUTO 037-17 



Zinke, Rev. and Mrs. Gilbert, 
(Helen), 1968, BMMJ 17- 
20, Kasuga-cho, Fukushima- 
shi 
?I?m#BiBT 17-20 &*sir 

Zollinger, Mr. and Mrs. Eugen, 
IND 18, Wakana, Yubari- 
shi, Hokkaido 



Zook, Mr. and Mrs. Marlin, 
(Ruth), 1963, BIG 228, 4- 
chome, Nukui Minami-cho, 
Koganei-shi, Tokyo (0423) 
-81-9975 



Zschiegner, Rev. and Mrs. 
Max, (Taka), 1951, LCMS 
Furl. 68-69 

Zwintscher, Rev. and Mrs. 
Victor, (Lucille), 1948, 
LCMS 4249-16, Nakazawa, 
Sunaoshi, Niitsu-shi, Niiga- 
ta-ken (578) 

-16 



Zwyghuizen, Rev. and Mrs. 
John, (Helene), 1963, IBC 
(RCA) Furl. 68-69 



SECTION 5 
CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



JAPAN BISHOPS CONFERENCE 

President: Cardinal Tatsuo Doi 

Vice-President: Bishop Yoshigoro Taguchi 
Members: Bishops of Japan 

Permanent Committee 

Chairman: Cardinal Tatsuo Doi 

Vice-Chairman: Bishop Yoshigoro Taguchi 

Members: Bishop Katsusaburo Arai, Bishop Satoshi Nagae 

Bishop Arikata Kobayashi 
Address: National Catholic Committee of Japan 

10-1 Rokubancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. 

(Tel. 03-262-3691-3) 

-/i k I } 

Episcopal Commissions 



Name 


Chairman 


Address 


Telephone 


Education 


Bishop Taguchi 


NCCJ 


(03)-262-2662 


Migration 


Bishop Taguchi 


NCCJ 


(03)-262-2663 


Liturgy 


Bishop Nagae 


NCCJ 


(03)-262-3691-3 


Doctrine of the 


Bishop 


Fukuoka 


(092)-82-4943 


Faith 


Satowaki 






Apostolate 


Bishop 


NCCJ 


(03)-262-3691-3 




Tomizawa 






Seminaries and 


Archishop 


NCCJ 


(03)-262-3691-3 


Clergy 


Yamaguchi 






Church Legis 


Bishop Taguchi 


Osaka 


(0798)-33-0921 


lation 




Chancery 




Social Research 


Bishop Arai 


NCCJ 


(03)-262-3691-3 


Social Welfare 









Name^ 

Public Infor 
mation 

Ecumenism 

Church Ad 
ministration 

Non-Christians 

Christian 
Terminology 



CATHOLIC 


CHURCH 


395 


Chairman 


Address 


Telephone 


Bishop 


NCCJ 


(03)-262-3691-3 


Kobayashi 






Bishop Ito 


NCCJ 


(03)-262-3691-3 


Archbishop 


NCCJ 


(03)-262-3691-3 


Yamaguchi 






Bishop Nagae 


NCCJ 


(03)-262-3691-3 


Bishop Hirata 


NCCJ 


(03)-262-3691-3 



National Catholic Committee of Japan (NCCJ) 

(General Secretariat for Japan Bishops Conference) 

Secretary General: Rev. Tadayoshi Tamura 
Assistants: Rev. Kuniyuki Shimizu 

Rev. James E. McElwain 



Major Superiors Conference 

President: Rev. Leon Roncin 

Vice-President: Rev. Raymond Renson 
Treasurer: Rev. Sigfrid Schneider 

Committee: Rev. Joseph Newell 

Rev. Alcide Laplante 
Address: NCC, 10-1 Rokubancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 



h ] J y 



Association of the Religious Congregations of 
Sisters in Japan 

President: Sister Marie Ste. Jeanne d Arc Brizon 

Vice- President: Sister Marie Cecile Takamine 
Secretary: Sister Bernadette Koide 

Treasurer: Sister Clara Marie Mishima 

Councillors: Sisters Mercedez Ruiz, Irene Conti, 

Anges des Anges, Veronica Suzuki. 



396 DIRECTORY 

DIOCESES OF JAPAN 

Tokyo Cardinal Tatsuo Doi 

Auxiliary Bishop Sei ichi Shirayanagi 
Address: 3-16-15, Sekiguchi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 
(Tel. 03-943-2301) 

JiCjitSIMtEBSPHTB 16-15 

# m m 



Nagasaki 



Fukuoka 



Archbishop Ajiro Yamaguchi 

Address: 1, Otsu, Minami-Yamate-cho, 

Nagasaki-shi. 

(Tel. 09582-3-2934) 



P 



Bishop Sen emon Fukahori 
Address: 39, Josui-dori, Fukuoka-shi. 
(Tel. 092-53-5323) 

39 



Hiroshima Bishop Yoshimatsu Noguchi 

Address: 4-42, Nobori-cho, Hiroshima-shi. 
(Tel. 0822-21-6017) 

lAi??fJ^BT 4-42 

IT P * & wl Ifc 



Kagoshima Bishop Asajiro Satowaki 

Address: 1685, Toso, Tagami-cho, 
Kagoshima-shi. 
(Tel. 0992-24-1670) 
1685 



CATHOLIC CHURCH 397 

Kyoto Bishop Yoshiyuki Furuya 

Address: 418 Shimo Maruya-machi, Sanjo- 
Agaru, Kawaramachi, Nakakyo-ku, 
Kyoto-shi. 
(Tel. 075-23-2756) 

418 



Nagoya Bishop Magoshiro Matsuoka 

Address: 21, Nunoike-cho, Higashi-ku, 
Nagoya-shi. 
(Tel. 052-971-2223) 

21 



Niigata Bishop Shojiro Ito 

Address: 656, Ichibancho, Higashi Ohata-dori, 
Niigata-shi. 
(Tel. 0252-22-7457) 



Oita Bishop Saburo Hirata 

Address: 7-30, 3-chome, Chuo-machi, Oita-shi. 
(Tel. 09752-2-2452) 



^ EH H flJ WJ a 

Osaka Bishop Yoshigoro Taguchi 

Address: 1-55, Nishiyama-cho, Koyoen, 
Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken. 
(Tel. 0798-33-0921) 
1-55 



S98 DIRECTORY 

Sapporo Bishop Takahiko Tomizawa 

Address: 10-7, Higashi 6-chome, Kita 1-jo, 
Sappoi-o-shi. 
(Tel. 0122-22-2731) 
TB 10-7 



Sendai Bishop Arikata Kobayashi 

Address: 5-1 Dotemae, Odawara, Harano-machi, 
Sendai-shi. 
(Tel. 0222-56-4965) 



Takamatsu Bishop Eikichi Tanaka 

Address: 8-9, 1-chome, Sakura-machi, 
Takamatsu-shi, Kagawa-ken. 
(Tel. 0878-31-6659) 

&m& BTiTg 8-9 

ffl * %. ^ ^] -% 



Urawa Bishop Satoshi Nagae 

Address: 1-30, 6-chome, Tokiwa, Urawa-shi, 
Saitama-ken. 
(Tel. 0488-22-3285) 

e-i-30 



Yokohama Bishop Katsusaburo Arai 

Address: 44, Yamate-cho, Naka-ku, 
Yokohama-shi. 
(Tel. 045-641-0901) 
44 



399 



Ryukyu Islands 

Monsignor Felix Ley, Apostolic Administrator 
Address: 377, Sobe, Naha-shi, Okinawa. 
(Tel. Naha 082-2-2020) 

il 3 377 



Apostolic Nunciature 

Archbishop Bruno Wustenberg 
Address: 9-2 Sanban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. 03-263-6851-3) 



-f ^ ; 



SEMINARIES 

Tokyo Regional Seminary 

Theological Department 

Rev. Leo Armbruster, Rector 
Address: 2-191 Seki-machi, Nerima-ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. 03-920-2121) 



Philosophical Department 

Rev. Shogo Hayashi, Rector 
Address: 4 Yonban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. 03-261-9640) 



: 



400 DIRECTORY 

Kyushu Regional Seminary 

Rev. Alcide Laplante, Rector 
Address: 1900 Shinshoen, Katae, Fukuoka-shi. 
(Tel. Fukuoka 092-82-4943) 

1900 



St. Mary s College (Sophia University Jesuit Theologate) 
Rev. John F. Clarkson, Rector 
Address: 1-710 Kamishakujii, Nerima-ku, 
Tokyo. 

(Tel. 03-929-0847-9) 
1-710 



St. Anthony Seminary (Franciscan Seminary) 
Rev. Serafinus N. Finateri, Rector 
Address: 370 Tamagawa-Setamachi, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
(Tel. 03-700-0652-3) 

370 



LAY APOSTOLATE 

Young Christian Workers National Secretariat 

Director: Rev. Minoru Sugita f^ffl 
Address: 399, 3-chome, Kashiwagi 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. 03-371-4319) 
3-399 



CATHOLIC CHURCH 401 

Catholic Students Federation 

Director: Rev. Chihiro Sato fe)i|-f-|$; 
Address: Shinsei Kaikan, 33 Shinanomachi, 

Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 

(Tel. 03-351-1685) 

33 ^ 



Catholic Graduates Association (Pax Romana) 
President: Mr. Masao Matsumoto 
Address: Shinsei Kaikan, 33 Shinanomachi, 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. 03-353-0401) 

33 (tgrt 



RESEARCH INSTITUTES 

Oriens Institute for Religious Research 

Director: Rev. Joseph Spae 
Address: 2-85-5 Matsubara, 

Setagaya-ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. 03-322-7601-2) 

;fCEB[x:ftJ!C 2-28-5 
-A- J*v*^ 



Catholic Social Research Institute 

Director: Mr. Goro Fujise Il 
Spiritual Director: Rev. Jean Murgue 
Address: 399 3-chome, Kashiwagi, 

Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 

(Tel. 03-362-4659) 

3-599 



402 DIRECTORY 

Socio-Economic Research Institute 



Address: Sophia University, 7 Kioi-cho, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. 03-265-9211) 



Institute of Religious Sociology 

Director: Mr. Shin Anzai ^^ -fifj 

Address: Shinsei Kaikan, 33 Shinanomachi, 

Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 

(Tel. 03-353-0401) 

fflT 33 



Population Research Institute 

Director: Rev. Anthony Zimmerman 
Address: NCCJ, 10-1 Rokubancho, 

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. 

(Tel. 03-262-2663) 



PUBLICATIONS 

Catholic Press Center 

Director: Rev. Guido Paganini 
Address: 1-2 Yotsuya, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. 03-351-6173-5) 

E 1-2 
9 ^ 



CATHOLIC CHURCH 403 

Salesian Press 

Director: Rev. Danilo Fortuna 
Address: 1-22 Wakaba, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. 03-351-7041) 

1-22 
K v - ,- ^ 3 St 

Good Shepherd Movement (Press and Radio) 

Director: Rev. James F. Hyatt 
Address: Sanjo-Agaru, Kawaramachi, 

Nakakyo-ku, Kyoto. 

(Tel. 075-23-2756, 8523) 



Enderle Publishers (Herder Agency) 

Manager: Mr. Rupert Enderle 
Address: 6-3 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. 03-263-4251) 



PART V 
IN MEMORIAM 

1967 Report 

Com.piled by A. J. Stirewalt 

(Note: In keeping with the tradition of the Japan Christian 
Yearbook, there follows a record of Protestant Christian 
missionary colleagues who have died during the previous 
year. This is the report which was made to the Conference 
of the Fellowship of Christian Missionaries in the summer 
of 1967. It is regretted that it has not been possible to pre 
pare a similar "In Memoriam" report of Catholic missionary 
colleagues, but it is hoped that in future issues of this Year 
book, Roman Catholic as well as Protestant missionaries who 
have died during the previous year, will be similarly reported.) 

The passing of others, especially those with whom we 
have been associated in our Lord s work, reminds us that our 
continuance on earth is limited. There is but a short step 
between each of us and death. Without our Lord s redemption 
and His revelation of truth, death would mean a sad defeat. 

But faith in our Lord s assurance makes the passing from 
this life a glorious victory. Therefore we who are left to 
abide on earth a little longer do not mourn as those who have 
no hope. We rejoice and are thankful that those whose names 
we report are now with their Lord; and not only so, we are 
thankful that those who, because of their testimony, accepted 
our Lord s salvation, and became children of God, and were 
added to His kingdom. 

It is an encouraging thought to know that as some are 



IN MEMORIAM 405 

called from the kingdom on earth to the kingdom above, others 
are raised up to continue the work here. 

We honour those who have labored here and thank our 
Lord for their witness and for the fruits of their labor. The 
results are glorious beyond man s comprehension. It is well 
for us to remember that while we work for eternal results, 
results are manifest in human society as well. The light of 
the world and the salt of the earth cannot be hidden. 

The names of those reported to us whom we remember at 
this time are: 

MRS. ROBERT CORNELL ARMSTRONG (nee Catha Winni- 
nifred Service), United Church of Canada (Methodist before 
Church union), was born February 20, 1873, in Athens, Ontario, 
and died December 6, 1966, in Peterboro, Ontario. In Japan: 
1904-1929 (Her husband died 1929 in Tokyo). Served with 
husband in Kwansei Gakuin, Kobe, and Central Tabernacle, 
Tokyo ... 25 years. 

MRS. JAMES BAKER (nee Lena Benson), Methodist Epis 
copal Church, was born in Claritan County, Missouri, and died 
July 14, 1966, in Claremont Manor, Claremont, California. 
In Japan and Korea: 1928-1932. Served with husband who 
was bishop of Japan and Korea ... 4 years. 

MR. WILLIAM BEE, Japan Evangelistic Band, was born 
January 1903 in London, and died April 18, 1967, in Kobe. 
In Japan: 1926-1967. Served: Tokyo, Wakayama, Furuichi 
in Osaka Prefecture, and Saga, in evangelistic work. Since 
1954 he was Field Director of the Japan Evangelistic Band. 
Also, he served in the J. E. B. college in Shioya, Kobe in 
which he was prominent as a lecturer. The college itself is 
largely a fruit of his labors ... 41 years. 

REV. GEORGE W. BOULDIN, D. D., Southern Baptist, died 
February 1967 in Scottsboro, Alabama. In Japan: 1906- 



406 IN MEMORIAM 

1941. Served: Principally in theological education, principal 
of Seinan Gakuin, Fukuoka, Gotemba, and during his final 
four years as pastor of the Yokohama Union Church ... 35 
years. 

MISS SYLVIA LOUISE KENDAL BUSHE, Church Mis 
sionary Society, was born June 20, 1890, in Walmer, Kent, 
England, and died August 11, 1966 in Cambridge. In Ja 
pan: 1926-1960. Served Hiroshima and Tokyo in evangelis 
tic work ... 34 years. 

MRS. WILLIAM C. BUCHANAN (nee Bessie Shafer), Presby 
terian Church U.S., was born September 4, 1892, in New 
Jersey and died March 5, 1967 in Colonial Heights, Virginia. 
In Japan: 1923-1935. She came as a missionary of the Re 
formed Church in America and in 1928 married Rev. Bucha 
nan. Served Nagasaki and Gifu in evangelistic work and as 
mission treasurer ... 12 years. 

REV. MERVIN OLIVER HOLDSWORTH DUKE, Church Mis 
sionary Society, was born October 17, 1887, in England, and 
died May 31, 1967 in England. In Japan: 1913-1921 ... 8 
years. 

MRS. MERLO K. W. HEICHER (nee Margaret Halloch), 
Methodist, was born July 12, 1881 in Steubenville, Ohio, 
and died May 31, 1966, in Pilgrim Place, Claremont, Califor 
nia. In Japan: 1906-1911. Served with husband, Chinzei Ga 
kuin, Nagasaki. After leaving Japan she aided her husband 
who served pastorates in New Jersey, Iowa, Oregon, and 
California, and taught 27 years in the Presbyterian Seminary 
in San Francisco. He survives her ... 5 years. 

REV. EDWARD TRAIL HORN, Lutheran, was born Sep 
tember 23, 1887, in Charleston, S. C. and died August 7, 1966 
in Allentown, Pa. In Japan: 1911-1941. Served Kumamoto in 



IN MBMORIAM 407 

school work, Nagoya in evangelistic work, as chaplain of 
Kyushu Gakuin, Kumamoto. Professor, and then president of 
the Lutheran Theological Seminary, Tokyo. Leaving Japan 
1941, he became pastor in Canton, Ohio. Later he taught in 
the department of religion in Muhlenberg College, Allentown, 
Pennsylvania. After retirement he became pastor of a parish 
in Tannersville, Pa. After final retirement in 1961, he resided 
in Allentown, Pennsylvania ... 30 years. 

MISS OLIVE S. HOYT, American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions, was born February 7, 1874 in Port 
land, Maine, and died July 19, 1966. In Japan: 1902-1950. 
Served Kobe College and Shinonome Gakuin in Matsuyama. 
She received B.S. and Litt. D. from Mt. Holyoke College where 
she had been instructor in chemistry three years before com 
ing to Japan. She attained the age of 92 ... 48 years. 

MRS. ESTHER BOLDERSTON JONES, Society of Friends, 
was born April 11, 1891, in Germantown, Pennsylvania and 
died April 1, 1967, in Richmond, Indiana. In Japan: 1941-1942. 
Served Friends School, Mita, Tokyo, and Mito City. After 
leaving Japan she continued work on behalf of Japanese, 
especially in assisting Japanese students in the U.S.A. She also 
served with her husband, Tom Jones who became president of 
Earlham College ... 10 years. 

MRS. PAULINE ROWLAND LANE, American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions, was born in Japan of 
missionary parents in 1893 and died July 16, 1966, in Sapporo, 
Japan. Served teacher in Doshisha Girls School before mar 
riage. 

THE RT. REV. BISHOP JOHN CHARLES MANN, D. D., 

Church Missionary Society, was born June 7, 1880, in New- 
castle-on-tyne, England and died April 29, 1967, in London. 
In Japan: 1906-1950. Served Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Hamada, 



408 IN MEMORIAM 

Matsue, Yonago, and Osaka. After leaving Japan he served 
as assistant bishop of Rochester, England ... 44 years. 

MRS. CLARENCE McCALL (nee Cora Cambell), Disciples of 
Christ (transferred to the American Board 1930), was born 
in Claremont, California and died August 3, 1966, in Pilgrim 
Place, Claremont, California. In Japan: 1908-1940. Served 
with husband in Akita Prefecture in rural evangelism, princi 
pal of Micronesian Training School on the island of Kusaie 
(then under Japanese jursidiction) . After returning to the 
U.S.A. with her husband who died a few years ago worked 
in parish work in Oregon and South Dakota ... 42 years. 

REV. BOUDE CHAMBERS MOORE, Presbyterian Church in 
U.S., and later Reformed Church in America, was born May 
13, 1897, in Kobe of missionary parents and died March 13, 
1967, in Bellflower, California (near Los Angeles). In Japan 
as missionary: 1924-1967. He retired in 1963 and lived at 
Lake Nojiri. Served Nagasaki, Kurume, Tokyo in evangelis 
tic work, and in Fukuoka as director of the Skinseikan in 
newspaper evangelism, radio evangelism, and Christian Book 
Store. Of three sons and one daughter, Lardner, James, and 
Dan are now missionaries in Japan ... 43 years. 

MRS. F. B. NICHODEMUS, United Church Board for World 
Ministries, was born August 1, 1887, in Highland, Illinois and 
died March 22, 1967, in Pilgrim Place, Claremont, California. 
In Japan: 1910-1916. Served with husband in Osaka and 
Formosa in Y.M.C.A. work. After her husband s death in 
1937, she taught in Miyagi Gakuin, Sendai until 1953 ... 22 
years. 

MRS. J. H. ROWE (nee Carrie Hooker Chiles) Southern 
Baptist, died September 9, 1966, in California. In Japan: 
1915-1932(7). Served as the first President of Seinan Jo 
Gakuin, Kokura ... 17 years. 



IN MEMORIAM 409 

MISS EVELYN WOLFE, Methodist, was born October 15, 
1888, in Short Creel, W. Va. and died January 23, 1967, in 
Wheeling, W. Va. In Japan: 1924-1954. Served Seibi Gakuin, 
Yokohama. During the war years she served in Brazil . . . 
30 years. 

The number of deaths reported is fewer than usual. The 
term of service of one is not known, but the other seventeen 
served an aggregate of 450 years, or an average of 26.5 years 
each, despite the fact that three served less than ten years 
each. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Dr. Shin Anzai, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of Sociology, Sophia 
(Jochi) University, Tokyo. 

Dr. Delmer M. Brown, Ph.D., Professor of History at Univer- 
versity of California, Berkeley; Visiting Professor of 
History at International Christian University and Director 
of University of California Program at ICU during 1967-69 
academic years. 

Rev. Yasuo Furuya, B.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor of Re 
ligion, International Christian University, and Minister of 
ICU Church, Tokyo. 

Mr. James A. Gittings, B.A., M.A., East Asian Correspondent 
for Presbyterian Life; Editor of An Asian Notebook, 
Tokyo. 

Rev. Ryozo Kara, Secretary of Research Institute, United 
Church of Christ in Japan, Tokyo. 

Rev. James E. McElwain, S.S.C., Assistant Secretary General, 
National Catholic Committee of Japan, Tokyo. 

Dr. Kazuo P. Miyake, D.Sc., Professor, Head of Division of 
Optical Instruments, Institute for Optical Research, Kyoiku 
University, Tokyo. 

Rev. Thomas Shunzo Miyauchi, General Secretary of the Japan 
Bible Society, Tokyo. 



CONTRIBUTORS 411 

Rev. Kenichiro Mochizuki, S.T.M., Until June 2, 1968, Minister 
of Waseda Church, United Church of Christ in Japan, Kyo- 
dan Missionary appointee to Thailand Theological Semi 
nary, Chiengmai, Thailand. 

Dr. Koki Nakazawa, Litt.D., Professor of Old Testament at 
St. Paul s (Rikkyo) University, Tokyo. 

Dr. Keiji Nishitani, BUNGAKU HAKUSHI, Professor of 
Philosophy, Emeritus, Kyoto University, Professor of Phi 
losophy at Otani University, Kyoto. 

Mr. Nikkyo Niwano, President of Rissho Kosei Kai, Tokyo. 

Rev. Hideo Oki, Th.D., Assistant Professor of Christian 
Ethics, Tokyo Union Theological Seminary. 

Mrs. Harriett Parker, B.A., Missionary of Southern Baptist 
Convention, Tokyo. 

Rev. Paul Pfister, S.J., Professor of Church Law, Tokyo Catho 
lic Seminary. 

Rev. Toshio Sato, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Systematic 
Theology, Tokyo Union Theological Seminary, Tokyo. 

Rev. Bernardin Schneider, S.T.D., S.S.L., Director of Studium 
Biblicum Franciscanum, Professor of Biblical Languages, 
Tokyo Catholic Seminary- 
Mr. Kentaro Shiozuki, B.D., World Christian Student Federa 
tion, Secretary for University Teacher s Work in Asia. 

Rev. Hallam C. Shorrock, Jr., B.A., B.D., Vice-president for 
Financial Affairs and Lecturer in Religion, International 
Christian University, Tokyo. 



412 CONTRIBUTORS 

Rev. Joseph J. Spae, Ph.D., C.I.C.M. Director of the Oriens 
Institute for Religious Research, and Editor of The Japan 
Missionary Bulletin. 

Rev. A. J. Stirewalt, L.C.A., Retired, Professor of Kobe 
Lutheran Seminary. 

Mr. Tadao Tanaka, Member of Kodo Bijutsu, Board of Trus 
tees of Japan Artists Association, Professor of Musashino 
Bijutsu College, Tokyo. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



The Editors wish to acknowledge with deep gratitude the 
work of the following persons, without whose skill, devotion, 
and patience this Yearbook would not have been possible. 

Miss Iku Aoyama, ICU 

Mr. Holloway Brown, ICU 

Mrs. Chiyoko Fuchie, ICU 

Miss Aiko Fujimoto, ICU 

Miss Reiko Hayashi, ICU 

Rev. Stanley Manierre, JNCC 

Miss Gene McRae, Episcopal Church 

Miss Kyoko Oda, Tokyo Baptist Church 

Miss Haruko Ohara, ICU 

Miss Emiko Terasaka, ICU 

Rev. Francis Uyttendaele, Oriens Institute 

Mr. Sadao Watanabe, Artist 

Miss Tatsuko Watanabe, Kyobunkan 

The families and colleagues of the Editors 



INDEX OF ADVERTISEMENTS 



BANKS 

The Bank of America 214J 

The Sumitomo Bank Ltd 214H 

BOOK-STORES 

Maruzen Co., Ltd 214H 

CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS 

Catholic Press Center 214Z 

Christian Literature Center Back Cover Page 

Concordia-Sha 214A 

Covenanter Bookroom 214F 

Enderle Book Store (Herder Agency) 214B 

Japan Bible Society Front Facing Page 8 

Jordan Press . 214F 

Kirisuto Shinbunsha (The Christ Weekly in Japan) . ...214Z 

Kyo Bun Kwan (The Japan Christian Quarterly) 214F 

Seibunsha 214E 

Good Book Service Center Back Facing Page 9 

Seisho Tosho Publishers 214E 

Shinkyo-Shuppansha 214G 

World of Life Press 214B 

YMCA Press 214A 

CHRISTIAN SERVICE AGENCIES 

Christian Federation of Childhood Education 

Back Facing Page 8 

Inter Mission Service Yugen Kaisha . . . Front Facing Page 3 
Church Education Department (JNCC) Back Facing Page 4 

Japan Commission on Christian Literature 214D 

Kiyosato Educational Experimental Project Front Cover Page 



INDEX OF ADVERTISEMENTS 415 

Nakatomi Restaurant Chain (YMCA Restaurant) 

Back Facing Page 3 

Women s Christian Temperance Union of Japan 

Back Facing Page 8 

World Vision, Inc Back Facing Page 4 

DEPARTMENT STORE 

Mitsukoshi 214H 

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 

Aoyama Gakuin University 2141 

Baika Gakuen 214P 

Bunka Fukuso Gakuin Front Facing Page 7 

Doshisha Kori 214W 

Doshisha University 214T 

Fukuoka Jo-Gakuin 214R 

Heian Jogakuin 214W 

Hiroshima Jogakuin 214S 

International Christian University 214N 

International English Language School 214Y 

Izumi Junior College 214X 

Japan Christian Junior College 214F 

Japan American Conversation Institute 214X 

Japan Sunday School Union Front Facing Page 4 

Joshi Gakuin 214E 

Kwassui Gakuin 214M 

Keisen Jogakuin 214G 

Kobe Lutheran Bible Institute 214S 

Kobe Jogakuin 214U 

Kobe School of the Japanese Language 214V 

Koran Jogakko 214J 

Kyoritsu Bible School for Women 214M 

Kyushu Jogakuin 214D 

Kwansei Gakuin 214O 

Meiji Gakuin 214H 

Miyagi Gakuin 214C 

Momoyama Gakuin 214Q 



416 INDEX OF ADVERTISEMENTS 

Nippon Rowa Gakko 214E 

Osaka Jogakuin 214P 

Palmore Institute 214V 

Poole Gakuin 214P 

Rikkyo Koto Gakko 214T 

Rikkyo University 214A 

Sei Gakuin 214J 

Seinan Gakuin 214R 

Sewa Gakuin 214D 

Sewa Woman s College for Christian Workers 214S 

Shoin Joshi Gakuin 

Shokei Jogakuin 214D 

Sohen Gakuen 214X 

St. Michael s International School 214W 

St. Michael s School 214M 

Tamagawa Gakuen 214K 

Tamagawa Seigakuin 214J 

Tokyo School of the Japanese Language Back Facing Page 10 

Tokyo Union Theological Seminary 214F 

Tokyo Woman s Christian College 214B 

Tsurukawa Rural Institute 214G 

Tohoku Gakuin University 214C 

Yokohama Kyoritsu Gakuen 214L 

Yokohama School of the Japanese Language 214L 

MEDICAL SERVICES 

American Pharmacy Back Facing Page 4 

Kinugasa Hospital Back Facing Page 6 

Tokyo Sanitarium Hospital Back Facing Page 7 

Dr. H. Shingai (Dentist) Back Facing Page 5 

Dr. Taro Takemi Back Facing Page 5 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Acme Service Inc Back Facing Page 6 

Lohmeyer Co., Ltd Back Facing Page 2 

Gallery Nichido Front Facing Page 5 



INDEX OF ADVERTISEMENTS 417 

Hakuyosha Co., Ltd Back Facing Page 8 

Kyo Bun Kwan Jigyosha 214F 

Naomi Dress Maker Back Facing Page 2 

Nissin Co., Ltd Back Facing Page 2 

Shinkenkai Engineer s Office Front Facing Page 9 

Tokyo Trade & Transportation Co., Ltd. Front Facing Page 2 

PRINTERS 

Aiko Printing Co., Ltd 214C 

Shinko Printing Co., Ltd 214C 

PUBLISHERS 

Asahi Shimbun Publishing Co Front Facing Page 1 

Vaccari s Language Institute Front Facing Page 6 

TRAVEL AGENCY 

Overseas Travel Service Front Facing Page 10 



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With the SAKUL1TES-1 STROKO you 
need never pass up a chance for a great 
photograph-no matter what the con 
ditions. 



Economical Type 




NISSHIN CORPORATION 

Manufactures & Exporters 



579, 8-Chome, Kamlmeguro, Meguro-Ku, 
Tokyo, Japan Tel. 460-2260 Rep. 



NAOMI 



EVERY MINISTER LOOKS 

NICE AND DIGNIFIED 

IN NAOMI S GOWN 

PULPIT GOWN, STALL CHOIR GOWN 
ROBE, ALTER CLOTH, PULPIT COVER 



NAOMI DRESS MAKER 

3-1, Ginza-Higashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. (541) 6661 

NAOMI FOUNDATION HOME 

2-44, Tamagawa-Todoroki, Setagaya, Tokyo 
Tel. (701) 3481 9813 



ANCH SHOP in Kyobunkican 

Tel. (561) 8446 Ext. 4 





THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE CENTER 

(Non Profit Foundation)