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Full text of "The Japan Christian year-book"

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THE JAPAN 

CHRISTIAN YEARBOOK 

"969-1970 



. 



CO-EDITORS 

RYOZO HARA 

JAMES COLLIGAN 

IAN MACLEOD 



THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY OF JAPAN 

(Kyo Bun Kwan) 
Tokyo, Japan 



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The Japan Christian Yearbook 
for 1969-70 is a continuation of the 
\Japan Mission Yearbook (1903-1910) 
the Christian Movement in Japan, 
Formosa and Korea (1911-1932), and 
the Japan Christian Yearbook (1950-1967). 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE 

Co-Chairmen: In Ha Lee, Tadayoshi Tamura, 

Stanley Manierre, James McElwain 

Ryozo Kara 
Francis Uyttendaele 
Helen Post 
James Colligan 
Ian MacLeod 



This Japan Christian Yearbook 
for 1969-70 is issued under the joint 
auspices of the Japan National 
Christian Council and the National 
Catholic Committee of Japan 



Japan National Christian National Catholic 

Council Committee of Japan 

5-1, Ginza 4-chome 10-1, Rokubancho 

Chuo-ku, Tokyo Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 

Japan Japan 

Tel. (03)-567-7566 Tel. (03)-262-3691 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Editorial 1 

PART I 

TODAY S ISSUES 

1. Issues Confronting the Japanese Christian Today 

(a) Toru Takakura 7 

(b) James Colligan 21 

2. Nationalization of Yasukuni Shrine and Freedom of 
Religion 

Hisashi Aizawa 34 

3. Understanding the Seventies 

Robert Epp 63 

4. Peacemakers 

Reiko Matsuoka 98 

5. Student Trends in Present Day Japan 

Keiji Kuniyasu 124 

6. Towards True Identity: An Analysis of "Christians" 
During Three Eras 

Toshikazu Takao 132 

7. The Future of the Christian University in Japan 
Peter Takashi Sakamoto 152 

8. The State of the Ecumenical Movement in Japan 
Chitose Kishi 173 

9. Present Day Okinawa and Japan s Future 

Chosei Kabira 186 

10. The Christian Pavilion at Expo 70 

Paul Pfister 218 

PART II 

PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 
I. Church Headquarters . 229 



II. Christian Schools: Universities and Junior 

Colleges 248 

III. Headquarters of Protestant Mission Boards and 

Societies in Japan 260 

IV. Christian Youth and Student Work 284 

V. Social Work 

(1) Central Organizations 295 

(2) Settlements 298 

(3) Women s and Children s Homes 303 

(4) Homes for Rehabilitation of Women 305 

(5) Medical Institutions for Tuberculosis 306 

(6) Homes for the Elderly 308 

V. Hospitals 314 

VI. Foreign Language Churches 320 

VII. Publishers 32 3 

VIII. Mass Communication Agencies 332 

IX. Others 33T 

X. Statistics 388 

Note: The Protestant Missionary Directory is not included in this 
issue of the Yearbook. Your attention is directed to the 
Protestant Missionary Directory, published by the Japan 
Evangelical Missionary Association, 1 Kanda Surugadai 2- 
chome, .Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Telephone: 294-0597. 

PART III 
CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 

1. Church Headquarters 341 

Central Administration 
Local Administration 

2. Christian Schools 345 

Seminaries 

Universities and Junior Colleges 



3. Christian Institutions 352 

4. Christian Social Institutions 355 

Hospitals 355 

Clinics 359 

Orphanages (by diocese) 361 

Homes for the Elderly 370 

Institutions for Handicapped Children 374 

Settlements 376 

5. Christian Publishers 376 

6. Mass Communications 378 

7. Mission Boards, Orders, Societies of Men 379 

8. Mission Boards, Orders, Societies of Women 386 

9. Statistics of Catholic Church in Japan 398 

Japan Catholic Directory can be ordered through the National Catholic 
Committee of Japan, 10 Rokubancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Tele 
phone: 262-3691/3. 

PART IV 
IN MEMORIAM 

Protestant Missionaries 411 

Catholic Missionaries 423 

LIST OF AUTHORS AND TRANSLATORS . . 428 



INDEX OF ADVERTISEMENTS 

BOOK-STORES 

Maruzen Co., Ltd 288B 

CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS 

Catholic Frees Center 288A 

Christian Literature Crusade 288A 

Concordia-Sha 288Y 

Covenanter Bookroom 288E 

Japan Bible Society Front Cover Page 2 

Kirisuto Shinbunsha (The Crist Weekly in Japan) 288 Y 

Kyo Bun Kwan (The Japan Christian Quartely) 

Back Cover Page 6 

Nippon Seikokai 288Z 

Seibunsha 288X 

Seisho Tosho Publishers 288W 

The United Church of Christ in Japan 288V 

CHRISTIAN SERVICE AGENCIES 

Christian Federation of Childhood Education 288D 

Inter Mission Service Yugen Kaisha .... Front Cover Page 3 

Japan Commission on Christian Literature 288V 

Japan Sunday School Union Front Cover Page 5 

Kiyosato Educational Experimental Project 

Front Cover Page 1 

Mojin Dendo Kyogikai 288K 

Nakatomi Restaurant Chain (YMCA Restaurant) 288E 

Women s Christian Temperance Union of Japan 288E 

Tokyo Union Church Front Cover Page 10 

Tozanso Back Cover Page 7 

The Korean Christian Church in Japan 288D 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 

Aoyama Gakuin University 288A 

Baika Gakuen 2880 

Bunka Fukuso Gakuin Front Page 4 

Doshisha Kori 288Q 

Fukuoka Jogakuin 288L 

Heian Jogakuin 288R 

Hiroshima Jogakuin 288M 

International Christian University 288C 

International English Language School . .Front Cover Page 6 

Izumi Junior College 288J 

Japan Christian Punior College 2881 

Japan American Conversation Institute 288T 

Joshi Gakuin 288K 

Keisen Jogakuin 288L 

Kinjo Gakuin 288O 

Kobe School of the Japanese Language 288U 

Koran Jogakko 288S 

Kyoritsu Bible School for Women 288P 

Kyushu Jogakuin 288T 

Kwansei Gakuin 288D 

Meiji Gakuin 288B 

Miyagi Gakuin 288H 

Momoyama Gakuin 288E 

Nippon Rowa Gakko 288R 

Obirin Gakuin 288H 

Osaka Jogakuin 288R 

Palmore Institute 1 288M 

Poole Gakuin 288U 

Sakura no Seibo Gakuin 288Q 

Sei Kei Shin Gakko 288S 

Sewa Woman s College for Chistian Workel-s 288J 

Shoin Joshi Gakuin 288T 

Shokei Jogakuin 288S 



IX 

Soen Gakuen 288P 

St. Michael s International School 288N 

St. Michael s School 288Q 

Tamagawa Gakuen 288G 

Tamagawa Seigakuin 2880 

Tokyo School of the Japanese Language . . Back Cover Page 1 

Tokyo Union Theological Seminary 2881 

Tokyo Woman s Christian College 288F 

Tsurukawa Rural Institute 288P 

Yokohama Kyoritsu Gakuen 288N 

Yokohama School of the Japanese Language 288U 

MEDICAL SERVICES 

American Pharmacy Back Cover Page 5 

Kinugasa Hospital Back Cover Page 4 

Omi Brotherhood, Ltd 288F 

Tokyo Sanitarium Hospital Back Cover Page 2 

Dr. H. Shingai (Dentist) Back Cover Page 3 

Dr. Taro Takemi Back Cover Page 3 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Aloha Company, Ltd Back Cover Page 5 

Gallery Nichido Front Cover Page 8 

Kyo Bun Kwan Jigyosha Back Cover Page 5 

Marsh & Mclennan Far East, Ltd Back Cover Page 4 

Shinkenkai Engineer s Office Front Cover Page 7 

PRINTERS 

Aiko Printing Co., Ltd 288C 

Shinko Printing Co., Ltd 288C 

PUBLISHERS 

Vaccari s Language Institute Front Cover Page 9 

Western Publication Distribution Agency (YOHAN) ...288B 



X 

TRAVEL AGENCY 

Overseas Travel Service Front Cover Page 11 



EDITORIAL 

For what are Japanese Christians hoping and praying as 
they face the year 1970? This question received special 
attention in the preparation of this issue of the Yearbook 
which marks the 25th year since the conclusion of World 
War II. 1970 will present the Japanese nation and people 
with numerous and perplexing international issues, notably 
the scheduled reassessment of the Japan-America Mutual 
Security Treaty and the related problem of the reversion of 
Okinawa from American to Japanese control. 

Having accomplished a remarkable postwar recovery, 
Japan today manifests a comprehensive economic maturity in 
her position as the only industrial nation in Asia. But the 
accelerated rate of economic growth has created imbalances. 
Strains and pressures have developed in all areas of civic 
and private life. The Japanese nation finds herself pulled 
by opposing forces of feverish development and restful re 
trenchment. Her citizens simultaneously experience well- 
being and weariness. 

The nation s youth, especially in the universities, are 
perplexed at existing social and political contradictions. Re 
peatedly, for more than a year, they have resorted to extra 
ordinary group action, with consequences extending even 
into their homes. The entire scope of Christian life in 
Japan is affected by the contagious spread of current critical 
problems. 

The Yearbook editors have chosen the topics of the 1970 
issue with a view to conveying candidly to the Christians of 
the world the situation which envelops Christians here. We 
have enlisted writers we consider most aware of the problems. 
Our policy aimed not at uniformity of standpoints and 
opinions. Rather, since consensus in evaluating present 
problems would fail to portray realistically the existing 



2 EDITORIAL 

situation, we chose to present views and emphases and 
interpretations expressed by a variety of Christians. Their 
views cover a broad spectrum ranging from moderate to 
radical. We believe this approach useful in informing our 
readers of the varied viewpoints within the Japanese Church. 

To this end, the contents treat numerous topics. One 
unifying theme recurs throughout: the prayer that peace may 
become a reality. Japan, an island nation, sails a sea divid 
ing East and West, on a course conveniently central to 
north and south. Her mission, she believes, is the actuali 
zation of world peace, in accord with the wording of her 
Constitution. The 1970 World Exposition (EXPO 70) has 
been planned as an opportunity to emphasize this position to 
the whole world. 

The Church in Japan continues aware of her weighty 
responsibilities. While economic prosperity is desirable in 
itself, it has had an adverse effect in increasing the material 
ism of the populace. Interest in things of the spirit has 
declined. The crime rate has risen. The Church is widely 
ignored. In their attempt to alter the undesirable aspects 
of the trend, Church leaders are reappraising their own 
organizational structures and undertaking self-reform, not 
excluding efforts to establish greater solidarity with other 
religious groups in Japan. The concept of ecumenism here 
extends beyond the familiar Western brand of inter-Christian 
relationships, to one which encompasses other religions. The 
pluralism of the Japan religious scene makes this a logical 
development for the Christian who desires to further an 
understanding of Christianity through association with those 
unacquainted with it. 

The Yearbooks Directory section was compiled in accord 
with a new policy. We have attempted to make readily 
available to our readers pertinent information and statistical 
data of both Catholic and Protestant churches. Suspecting 
the imperfection of this initial attempt, we invite criticism 



EDITORIAL 3 

and suggestions for greater thoroughness in future issues. 
We gratefully acknowledge the generous cooperation received 
from the Christ Weekly and from information channels of 
the Catholic church. Inadequacies in the Directory however, 
are in no way attributable to them. 

We have accelerated the publication of this issue with 
the intention of making it available to the reader before 
Christmas. Expecting 1970 to be an indicator of the future 
for Japan and surrounding Asian nations, we want to provide 
information which may aid in understanding developments 
as they occur. We believe strongly that this period of crisis 
necessitates a fuller awareness of the problems confronting 
all Christians. We pray it proves an occasion for attaining 
deeper mutual understanding, that we might all realize the 
abundance of our communion in Christ. 

Finally, the editors appointed to produce this issue of the 
Yearbook wish to express deep gratitude for the opportunity 
it has afforded to work together since last year, in harmony, 
mutual confidence and a sense of unity in Christ which trans 
cends distinctions of Catholic and Protestant. 

September 1969 The Editors 



PART I 
TODAY S ISSUES 



ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 
CHURCH TODAY 

by 

Torn Takakura 
General Secretary 

of 
The United Church of Christ in Japan 

Translated by 
John W. Krummel 

I. Introduction 

Almost ten years have passed since the centennial celebra 
tion of the beginning of Protestant missions in Japan. These 
ten years have brought about a complex of bewildering 
changes in our country. On the occasion of advancing into 
the second century of mission, the National Christian Council 
and various churches and denominations carried out a number 
of commemorative activities. Significant among these was 
the Fundamental Policy on Mission Consultation held during 
the years 1960-1961 by The United Church of Christ in Japan 
(Kyodan) of which the author is a member. The consulta 
tion was the Kyodan s first opportunity to investigate tho 
roughly the situation of the church and of evangelism during 
the past 100 years and especially during the period since the 
end of the Second World War. It was in this consultation 
that the Kyodan s Fundamental Policy on Mission was brought 
forth. From that time the formation of church polity has 
been pursued, and mission and service in the world have been 



8 TODAY S ISSUES 



developed, on the basis of this policy. The central concern 
of the Fundamental Policy on Mission is the renewal of the 
church. The orientation revealed in it is not unique to the 
Kyodan but expresses a concern common to all churches in 
Japan. With this policy as a guide, I will consider issues 
confronting today s church, concentrating especially on those 
related to the clergy and the laity. 

II. The Clergy 

The confusion of the post-war years and the pro-Chris 
tian policy of the Occupation brought many people to the 
weak Japanese churches which were still suffering from the 
ravages of war. Not only the city churches but also small 
churches in rural areas suddenly revived and membership in 
creased tremendously. However, with the Korean War as a 
turning point, church membership increase slowed down and 
with but few exceptions remained on a plateau. In some 
cases it even declined. In these years the church faced not 
only the quantitative problem of accomodating the sudden 
increase in membership, but more seriously, the qualitative 
problem of its inner life. It is an open question as to what 
extent the churches, constitutionally weakened before and 
during the war, were qualitatively strengthened in the period 
immediately after the war. 

Soon after the war the several obstacles to the evan 
gelization of Japan were scrutinized from various angles. 
This in itself w r as a contribution. However, the fundamental 
study of the very nucleus of evangelism, the church itself, 
was completely inadequate. Therefore, it was quite natural 
that concern for the renewal of the church developed as an 
orientation in the early years of the present decade. 

The direction in which the Fundamental Policy on Mis 
sion points is correct. However, its focus is wrong. It 
stresses, rightly, the role of the laity in mission. Certainly 



THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 9 

we cannot hope for the Gospel permeation of the masses in 
the midst of today s rapid urbanization without the partici 
pation of each lay Christian. However, what must be 
considered before this is the situation of the clergy who 
have the responsibility for training the laity for their parti 
cipation in mission. It is no exaggeration to say that the 
clergy are essential to the renewal of the church. I have 
stressed this point from the time when the Fundamental 
Policy on Mission was first formulated. However, since 
becoming directly involved in the work of the Kyodan s 
Committee on Evangelism four years ago and, as a result, 
having had increasing opportunity to visit churches all over 
Japan, I have become even more convinced of this. 

We must first improve the quality of the clergy if we 
are to have a church strong in mission and involved in true 
service to the world. The clergy are, in a broad sense, part 
of the people of God. However, they are also those especially 
called and set apart for mission. In other words, they are full 
time officers of the evangelistic corps of the laity in the 
church militant. 

Today, voices lamenting the difficulty of evangelism are 
heard continuously. However, evangelism is not necessarily 
difficult. Not to speak of war, man is endangered today by 
the public hazards accompanying rapid urbanization and the 
spectacular technological revolution, and the degeneration 
brought about by the consumption boom. Man has a deep 
thirst deep within him. He is searching for something. The 
problem is that stones are thrown at those who seek bread. 
In this kind of age, as indeed in any age, there is no more 
demanding call than that to be a proclaimer of the Gospel. 
However, we have attempted to relax the demanding nature 
of this call. We clergymen must reflect on the extent to 
which we have neglected to take seriously the almost un 
bearable burdens which are given along with the promise of 
glory to the evangelist. 



10 TODAY S ISSUES 

We often hear these days from the laity about lack of 
confidence in the clergy. Church members, being ladies and 
gentlemen, do not express this candidly, face-to-face with 
the pastor. However, at retreats of the laity this problem 
often comes to the surface in small group discussions. For 
the first time, the Kyodan held a study retreat for lay 
leaders, in Karuizawa in the summer of 1967. Church board 
members, women s society officers, youth fellowship officers, 
and church school teachers gathered from all over Japan. The 
most pressing issue which emerged there was that of the 
relationship between the clergy and the laity. It was a sur 
prising coincidence that in all four of the sub-groups, the 
difficulty of establishing solidarity between clergy and laity 
was raised as a major concern. We must frankly recognize 
that it is we clergymen who are hindering the spread of the 
Gospel today. 

There are no other men placed in as dangerous a situa 
tion, and as susceptible to corruption, as are church pastors. 
Protected from the rough seas of the present age, surrounded 
by 20 to 30 laymen filled with good will, confined to the 
dialogue of the in-group, the pastor is ruined. There are 
too many churches which lack the predisposition to nurture 
their pastors. Especially unfortunate is the fact that young 
men right out of theological school are often sent to such 
churches. It would be strange if they weren t spoiled in 
such situations. 

In order not to become trapped in the parish, the pastor 
must have opportunity for the stimulation found in group 
study with his fellow clergy. Among the clergy, authoritarian 
figures have become rare. Post-war pseudo-democracy has 
invaded the churches as well as other institutions of society. 
Especially in the case of a church like the Kyodan, which has 
but a short history as a united church, where each local 
church enjoys a large degree of autonomy, there is the danger 
that relationships will remain shallow, that fellowship will be 



THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 11 

but socializing. It is very unfortunate today that young 
pastors have no senior clergy willing or able to give them 
firm guidance. Today, emphasis on the training of the clergy 
must be given priority in any policy on evangelism. If we 
do not do this, there is danger that the renewal of the church 
will never even begin. 

The Kyodan established a ten-year plan of evangelism on 
the basis of the Fundamental Policy on Mission. In 1967, 
the first five years of the plan having come to an end, the 
Evangelism Committee carried out an evaluation. As a 
result, we realized that those places that had made evange 
listic progress (and this not simply in terms of numbers) 
were places in which the solidarity of the pastors had been 
firmly established. Power for renewal of the church is 
created out of the solidarity of the clergy, which in turn is 
born out of the fellowship they experience as they unite in 
mutually stimulating Bible study. In places where the 
solidarity of the clergy has been achieved, there are good 
leaders who serve to unify the group. It is necessary to 
think of the appointments of the clergy with this in mind. 
Although the system may be one in which the local churches 
call the clergy (as it is in the Kyodan), it is important to 
consider the development of a system which makes possible 
the mutual training of the clergy. In addition to such on 
going activities as group Bible study, special opportunities 
for training need to be provided. The pastor is exhausted in 
his isolation. It would be effective to create opportunity for 
intensive study periods of one to three months, either in a 
theological school or a research institute. Up to now the 
Kyodan has had an annual summer seminar of seven to ten 
days for its pastors. This has been effective in its own 
way. However, I believe more intensive study opportunities 
are necessary. 

Today there are too many cases in which the clergy are 
compelled by economic necessity to engage in outside work. 



12 TODAY S ISSUES 

It is necessary to establish a guaranteed minimum salary 
and pension system immediately. The Japanese church, espe 
cially since the end of the war, has received enormous amounts 
of aid from overseas churches. However, today it is nearly 
at the point of financial independence. In order to achieve 
complete financial independence, the more or less unplanned 
expansion of activities in recent years may have to be cur 
tailed, at least for the time being. However, I believe that 
the financial guarantees suggested above can be realized if 
we concentrate for a period of time on the improvement of 
the quality of the clergy, and if we impress upon the whole 
church the importance of this. 

The problem of the theological schools is related to that 
of the clergy. When we think about the church of tomorrow, 
the theological school inevitably becomes a focus of concern. 
After the war the church was so busy re-ordering its 
structure that it could not give enough attention to the 
education of those who would be the leaders of the church 
tomorrow. Trusting the theological schools, the church was 
predisposed to leave the education of its future leaders 
completely up to the schools. Because of their disillusion 
ment with the war experience, many capable young men 
entered the theological schools immediately after the war. 
It is from among these that many of the outstanding 
clergy of today have come. Their period of theological study 
was that of the materially difficult days of the immediate 
post-war era. Today they are doing good work in various 
parts of Japan. The problem appears with the generation 
which followed them. 

In spite of the sincere efforts of those who are responsible 
for the theological schools, it is questionable whether or not 
vigorous training of the kind which will give birth to the 
church of tomorrow is being carried out in today s theological 
schools. Recently a professor in the theological department 
of a certain university described the following situation. The 



THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 13 

theological department is giving passing grades to a number 
of students who, if they were enrolled in any other department 
of the university, would surely be failing on the basis of 
academic ability. High academic achievement is not the 
only requirement for an effective clergy. However, it is 
necessary for today s pastor to have a level of knowledge, 
culture, and competence in his own professional area at 
least equal to that of other university graduates. The 
problem lies, not only at the door of churches which lightly 
recommend to the theological schools students who do not 
have the ability to pass the entrance examinations of other 
departments in the universities, but also at the door of 
theological schools which admit these students simply in 
order to have full enrollments. 

Living faith is fundamental in the life of the clergy. 
However, in addition to this, leadership qualities are demanded 
of today s evangelists. It would be preferable for students 
to enter professional theological schools after completing their 
undergraduate studies. It is not likely that the student right 
out of high school, or the church which sends him forth, can 
make the right decision about his future vocation. It is not 
without reason that we find among our most outstanding 
theological students today those who have changed their 
professional objectives and entered theological schools, after 
graduating from non-theological courses of the university, or 
in mid-course. 

It is very difficult to change the present university 
system. However, the theological schools must concentrate 
more on a liberal arts or humanities type of education which 
ought to be the foundation of theological training. Dormitory 
life needs to be improved too. I believe that strict training 
in the areas of daily life, spiritual life, and academic life 
must be carried out in theological school, and that the student 
must grow into a new type of piety appropriate to life in. 
our day. 



14 TODAY S ISSUES 

The local church pastor is likely to fall prey to the 
psychology of the big fish in a little pond. In order for the 
church to realize its mission in the world today it must 
strengthen that internal unity given in its Lord. The 
solidarity of the clergy is necessary to undergird this. The 
seed for this type of fellowship ought to be planted during 
theological school. One man responsible for a certain theo 
logical school tells me that because the theological school, 
as presently constituted, cannot give satisfactory attention 
to the spiritual training of the student, this is being largely 
left up to the churches of which the students are members. 
This is a shirking of responsibility on the part of the 
theological schools. Certainly, faithful participation in the 
life of a local church is a necessary prerequisite for the 
theological student. However, there are very few local 
churches that can provide that special type of training 
necessary for the theological student. At this point the 
theological schools, because of their limited enrollments, are 
particularly fortunate. The student must have spiritual 
training as well as academic training. There is no doubt 
that the academic level of teachers in the theological schools 
is much higher than if was before the Second World War. 
However, there is a lack of those who can or will give 
pastoral guidance to the students. 

What then is the proper relation between the church and 
the theological schools which have such a great responsibility ? 
Each of the theological schools is an independent educational 
juridical person and has its own tradition. However, since 
mission in Japan is not yet fully developed, there should be 
a more intimate interaction between the schools and the 
church. We have to search for a system in which the voice 
from the field of mission is more adequately reflected in 
theological education. Moreover, as for the continuing-edu- 
cation of the clergy, it is desirable that an effective and 
appropriate policy be based upon full communication with the 



THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN j5 

responsible organs of the Kyodan and other denominations, 
rather than simply developed unilaterally by the theological 
schools. The theological schools, which take as their primary 
mission the nurturing of evangelists, cannot satisfactorily 
fulfill that mission without the support of the church. The 
deep prayer and active support of the whole church is neces 
sary for the success of the theological schools which have a 
heavy responsibility for the church of tomorrow. 



Translator s note: 

The system of theological education in Japan differs 
somewhat from that in North America. The term "theological 
school", as used here, does not indicate a three-year post 
graduate professional school. The Japanese system is a four- 
year undergraduate course in theological studies, plus a 
two-year graduate course leading to the equivalent of a 
Master of Arts degree. The orientation of his training 
throughout tends to be more toward the academic than the 
professional. 

The Japanese system of theological education can be 
understood only within the context of the larger university 
system. The Ministry of Education does not accredit any 
post-graduate schools independent of a four-year college or 
university. Specialization in all disciplines in the university 
begins early. The liberal arts, or humanities, tradition is 
relatively weak in Japanese higher education. Transferring 
from one college or department to another, either within the 
university or outside of it, is very difficult. In many cases 
it is necessary to begin again as a freshman. The entrance 
examination hell in Japan is well known. However, not only 
are some universities more easily entered than others, some 
departments within the same university are easier to enter 
than others. It is common knowledge among Christians that 
entrance requirements of the theological colleges or depart 
ments are the lowest in the whole university system. This 



16 TODAY S ISSUES 

leads to the state of affairs where a significant proportion of 
the students in a college or department of theology have no 
intention of entering a church-related vocation. This, as well 
as the fact that enrollment figures include undergraduates, 
needs to be taken into account when evaluating any statistics 
about Japanese theological schools. 

It should also be pointed out that there is only one 
theological school directly related to the Kyodan. This is 
the Tokyo Union Theological Seminary, which includes a four- 
year college and a graduate school. There are, however, 
several other theological colleges, or departments within 
larger universities, historically related to particular deno 
minations which united to form the Kyodan. A number of 
these schools are recognized by the Kyodan as places at 
which its clergy may be trained. These schools are inde 
pendent as the author points out, each having its own self- 
perpetuating board of trustees. They are not church-related 
in the strict sense of the word, and consequently are not 
directly amenable to church control. 

End of Translator s Note 



III. The Laity 

The following three points relevant to the problem of the 
laity are found in the evaluation of the first half of the 
Kyodan s Ten- Year Plan of Evangelism mentioned above. 
(1) The lay movement is becoming more active. However, it 
has not yet reached the point where the laity is the nucleus 
of evangelism. In this regard, the leadership role of the clergy 
needs more study. (2) It has not yet been adequately under 
stood that the layman s witness in his place of work and his 
role in the formation of the church are one and the same. 
(3) In order to nurture the layman for life in the world, 



THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 17 

the church must develop a theological understanding of the 
Christian s role in society and clearly express this in the 
contemporary confession of faith. 

Point 1 questions the leadership of the clergy. We have 
discussed this above. Professor Imon Fujio of Tsudajuku 
University has often pointed out that Japanese Protestantism, 
in contrast with the New Religions, has a very narrow front 
line of evangelism. If the laity who are in daily contact with 
non-Christians are not made the front line of evangelistic ad 
vance, the Gospel will be forever shut up in the small group 
of middle class intellectuals and will never penetrate the 
masses who are the victims of the various contradictions of 
today s society. We must reject the pastor-centered church of 
the past and fully realize that the bearer of the church, and 
the preaching which is its mission, is the whole people of 
God, including both laity and clergy. It is especially important 
today to stress that the church is the body of Christ, and 
that each individual called into the church is an indispensable 
part, bearing his own unique call to mission, and particularly, 
as Paul points out in I Corinthians 12:22-23, that we cannot 
get along without those parts of the body that seem weaker. 
The laity are not the hands and legs of the clergy. They 
are the indispensable limbs of Christ. No matter how weak 
the limb may appear to be, it has been called to mission by 
Christ himself. It is for the realization of this that the 
pastor must serve. 

The second point, which deals with the overcoming of the 
division between one s church life and one s life in society, 
has a deep relationship with the problem discussed above. 
The witness in one s place of work mentioned here is not 
limited simply to holding Bible study groups at the place of 
work, or visitation evangelism, or direct evangelism through 
home meetings. These ought to be understood in the cate 
gory of the layman s role in the formation of the church. The 
witness in one s place of work is to show forth through one s 



18 TODAY S ISSUES 

daily work the style of life appropriate to one who shares in 
the blessings of Christ. We must reflect on the point that 
the church has thus far tended to stress only those aspects 
which have a direct relation to church life, and within its 
own fellowship has not pursued vigorously the question of 
how the layman as Christian is to live concretely and specifi 
cally in his place of work. In the midst of struggling with 
problems which he confronts in his daily life, if he does not 
surrender to escapism, he often comes up against insurmount 
able limits. He is forced to stand in a place where he has no 
alternative but to pray. Pastoral care must be enlarged until, 
in the midst of a world of work and overflowing with con 
tradiction, faith has gained its role and love has borne fruit. 
When church life and daily life are geared together as the 
wheels of a car, then the Gospel will gradually permeate the 
rocky soil of Japan. 

In regard to point three, the witness which occurs in our 
daily life will probably involve us in political problems. On 
the basis of the peoples sovereignty set forth in the post-war 
constitution, we who are at once Christians and citizens have 
a responsibility for politics. The kind of attitude which claims 
that politics is too corrupt or too difficult for amateurs is, 
in effect, a political stance with serious implications. The 
believers being the bearers and nucleus of Christian mission 
must have correct judgment and action in their various 
places of work. Their involvement in politics will be to the 
end of promoting the kind of politics that protects mankind, 
which God so loved that He gave His only Son for it. 

The various involvements of Christians in society cannot 
be separated from what the people of God, as the nucleus of 
the proclamation of the Gospel, ought to be. Christ himself 
preached the Gospel, instructed his disciples, and served the 
people. All these works comprise the mission entrusted by 
Christ to the Church, His body. This mission which includes 
the work of service, teaching, and preaching must be taken 



THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 19 

up by the laity themselves. They are the bearers of the 
Christian mission. The contemporary confession of faith 
must be clarified for that purpose, as is pointed out in the 
last part of point three. The question of precisely what it 
means to live confessing the faith in such an age as this 
must be faced and thoroughly discussed. 

At the present time, various committees on issues related 
to mission are cooperating in work on this problem. Diffi 
cult as it is, they are aiming at an orientation by which the 
people of God can live by faith, creatively and vigorously in 
the midst of this age. 

IV. Conclusion 

I have dared to limit my discussion here to the problems 
of the clergy and the laity, realizing that it is one-sided to 
discuss issues confronting the Japanese church today without 
considering the question of church structure. Moreover, the 
issues relating to the clergy are of such a crucial nature 
that, in dealing with them in detail, I have been unable to 
treat adequately issues relating to the problem of the laity. 

I should like to conclude with a personal observation. 
When the history of the Japanese church, which has but 
recently entered its second century of mission, is set in the 
perspective of the 20 centuries of world Christian history, it 
becomes clear that the Japanese church is still in its pioneer 
period. In light of this, why is it that signs of the early 
stages of old age are already seen in the Japanese church, at 
a time when even a wild and violent spirit of evangelism is 
demanded? Once a church building is built and the local 
congregation is able to stand on its own feet, all its energies 
are poured into maintaining itself, and it ends in the estab 
lishment of a small, in-grown, self-satisfied clique. The 
church lacks that vigorous impact on society which the 
Christian pioneers of the Meiji era had. I cannot but regret 



20 TODAY S ISSUES 

the lack of a posture of dedication to the Gospel, free of self- 
concern, which would be the result of a clergy and a laity 
electrified by the formative power of the revolutionary Gospel 
hidden in the Bible. 

Daily reflective Bible reading in the midst of the problems 
of busy harried lives is neglected. When highly advanced 
Biblical interpretation is not digested but simply passed on 
in its raw state, it is easy to create distrust in the Word of 
Life itself. Simple reading of the colloquial Bible will 
suffice. We need to start a movement for daily Bible reading. 
It is fine to read the many books about Christianity but the 
most important thing for both clergy and laity is to live 
personally in intimate contact with the Bible. If we do not 
have that energy given by the water drawn directly from the 
well-springs of life we will not be able to overcome the 
paralysis of today s church, nor can we have much hope for 
the church of tomorrow. 

I repeat that I do not believe today is necessarily an 
especially difficult time for evangelism. This is an age in 
which it is difficult in every field of endeavor to find the 
trump card. In spite of the superficial splendor of our age, 
its foundations are unstable. When the clergy and the laity 
unite in forming a firm battleline and fight, being enlivened 
by the word of the Bible, they cannot help but give light to 
this confused nation. Thus the Japanese church, in spite of 
its small numbers, will advance as a church capable of con 
tributing to the renewal of the world-wide church. 



James P. Colligan 

Christian baptism does not make a Japanese less Japa 
nese. Nor does it free the individual from concern over the 
many problems facing his fellow countrymen. If anything, 
it adds new responsibilities and new issues to a list already 
long. Hopefully, it also provides new principles of action 
.and new priorities. 

Without exaggerated alarm, the year 1970 approaches 
with a foreboding of crisis not easily matched in Japan s 
recent past. The Japanese Christian senses this. His share 
in his nation s future depends greatly on what he and his 
countrymen do in resolving the issues arrayed against them. 
Political issues, pure and adulterated, stand prominently 
among these. Some have international dimensions, others 
national. 

Add to these the issues more immediately related to religion 
and belief which the responsible Christian must seriously 
consider. Some involve his church s relation to the society 
in which he lives and works. Others pertain to his own 
posture within the church, and concomitant personal loyalty 
to Jesus Christ. 

Confronted with these issues, the majority of the Japanese 
utter a prayerful and recurring theme: peace, peace, peace. 
World peace, social peace and peace of soul. But real or 
imagined injustices fester and foster continued unrest. 

The United States-Japan Security Treaty, scheduled for 
renewal, revision or rejection in 1970, is the sputtering fuse 
of the year s crises. The U.S. argues the necessity of 
adequate security measures to protect Japan and other Asian 



22 TODAY S ISSUES 

nations from agression. She maintains that Japan has the 
capacity for shouldering much of the burden. To do so, 
Japan would have to undertake a military build-up, and 
allot the required budgeting to facilitate it. 

Japan, generally speaking, shies away from the sugges 
tion. She believes a role of strict neutrality will best protect 
her and qualify her to advocate world peace emphatically. 
Her Constitution, with its anti-war clause, supports argu 
ments of this persuasion. She decries power politics and 
desires a policy of non-involvement. 

Some, not excluding Japanese citizens, consider this a 
head-in-the-sand idealism, a refusal to face geopolitical facts. 
Moreover, they somewhat cynically observe that Japan s 
phenomenal economic growth owes a nod of gratitude to both 
the Korean and the Vietnamese conflicts. Idealism did not 
forestall profit-taking, they suggest. The real explanation 
for Japan s hesitancy is the euphoria which developed with 
her high standard of living, they say. Since defense costs 
may lower this standard, Japan hopes to avoid these costs. 

In any case, the American presence in Japan, and 
especially on Okinawa which is still under U.S. control, con 
stantly reminds the Japanese that a bitter war in Vietnam 
receives logistic support from military bases on their own 
soil. 

Worse still, Japan feels the hot breath of two hulking 
neighbors who take a view of the Vietnam conflict contrary 
to that of the U.S. Russia, though harassing Japanese fishing 
boats in northern waters and while making no diplomatic 
concessions, currently smiles in friendly fashion toward Japan. 
China continues her brooding introspection. Recent border 
incidents between the two giants send tremors of apprehension 
down this island chain. North Korean rumblings intensify 
the reaction. With or without the American presence, Japan 
may have to decide whether she can afford not to take sides. 

In international trade, Japan is under fire from the West 



ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 23 

for alleged sluggishness in lowering trade barriers and in 
welcoming foreign capital investments. Often a cause of 
international friction, protectionism presents another set of 
issues for the Japanese to resolve, after weighing her own 
economic desires against her responsibilities in the commu 
nity of nations. 

Internally, the political situation reflects the concern 
over foreign affairs. The electorate appreciates the continu 
ing national affluence, and has refrained from ousting the 
incumbent Liberal-Democrats lest that trend be jeopardized. 
More importantly, voters in sufficient numbers apparently 
suspect that the opposition Socialists, Communists and Clean 
Government parties have no feasible program, foreign or 
domestic, which would prove more beneficial to the nation at 
this time. 

Yet, there has been widespread criticism of the allegedly 
high-handed manner in which some bills have been passed 
into law. In addition to those who criticize for purely 
partisan reasons, critics are of two kinds: those who see the 
incumbents as too long ensconced and swaggering with a 
confidence which dares ignore accepted norms of procedure, 
and those who are too naive to accept the existence of pressure 
and power plays within a democratic system. Sympathizers 
view legal maneuvering as justifiable, indeed as the only 
acceptable means of combating the often disruptive methods 
resorted to by the opposition factions. Japanese legislators 
and public still have adjustments to make in their own brand 
of democracy. 

Attempts to preserve democratic institutions and pro 
cedures carry over into the area of higher education. The 
past year has witnessed student demonstrations grow in 
creasingly violent in student demand for a voice in university 
affairs, and beyond that into governmental decision-making. 
Activism, not excluding violence, is the only way they can 
obtain a hearing, they explain. They want their rights 



24 TODAY S ISSUES 

protected, including the right of self-expression. 

University authorities have been patient, often sympa 
thetic, even overly permissive, some observers say. Eager 
to preserve university autonomy, fearful of government inter 
vention and its potential of dictating educational content and 
policy as in pre-World War II years, administrators and 
faculties have proven a frustrating obstacle for the govern 
ment to surmount in controlling organized radical elements 
among the students. 

Nevertheless, a controversial Law for Temporary Measures 
Concerning University Management (University Normaliza 
tion Law) was enacted recently (allegedly having been 
"rammed" through the Diet by questionable procedures), 
intended to enable the strife-torn universities to resume normal 
operation, and counteract the barricading of campuses as the 
deadline for the Security Treaty renewal approaches. But 
1970 may prove to be a blackboard on which is chalked the 
future direction of Japan s educational policies. Will the 
universities be able to regain what independence they may 
have sacrificed to the cause of order in the present crisis? 
Or will a trend develop, under whatever political incumbents, 
to impose additional restrictions on educational freedom? 
Christian educators, parents and students will be involved in 
determining this. 

Issues of special Christian concern can be arbitrarily 
classified under two headings (emphasis here is admittedly 
Roman Catholic): Church and State, and the post- Vatican 
Council II church. 

The question of public financing for Yasukuni Shrine, 
where the souls of the nation s war dead are enshrined, has 
come to the fore again with the recent proposal that it be 
discussed at the legislative level. Christians are among the 
groups and individuals who contend that subsidizing Yasu 
kuni Shrine contravenes Chapter III, Article 20 of the Con 
stitution of Japan, which reads, "Freedom of religion is 



ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 25 

guaranteed to all. No religious organization shall receive any 
privileges from the State. No person shall be compelled to 
take part in any religious acts, celebration, rite or practice. 
The State and its organs shall refrain from religious educa 
tion or any other religious activity." They view this legal 
move as an effort to restore Shrine Shinto to prominence as 
the official religion, in turn threatening religious freedom. 
Even the present arrangement whereby the Imperial House 
hold preserves official ties with Shinto invites criticism in 
view of the Emperor s position as symbol of the State, they 
maintain. On the other hand, precedents abound in other 
free nations for government support of shrines to the nation s 
heroes. 

The Yasukuni case has unique complications. The tradi 
tional association, in the minds of the Japanese, of Yasukuni 
Shrine with deceased patriotic heroes tends to obviate separat 
ing the two. At the same time, the recollection of Shrine 
Shinto s preeminence in the militaristic 30s and 40s prompts 
many to oppose anything resembling its revival under state 
auspices. Proposals offered by parties sympathetic to Yasu 
kuni proposals purported to isolate patriotic from religious 
observances at the Shrine have been received with suspicion, 
or at best, with doubt of their feasibility in practice. Japa 
nese Christians will have to decide whether the details of the 
Yasukuni Shrine subsidization proposal constitute a reason 
able, even desirable patriotic proposal in accord with Con 
stitutional provisions, or if Shintoism so pervades the 
patriotic at Yasukuni as to eliminate the Shrine from con 
sideration as the Government-sponsored location of a memorial 
to national heroes. With the issue anything less than clear- 
cut, Christians will differ in their degree of acceptance or 
opposition. 

Again in the context of religious freedom, a growing 
practice has been observed which poses a potential threat. 
For some years now, local officials have extended invitations 



26 TODAY S ISSUES 

to church organizations to build and conduct nursery schools 
and kindergartens in extensive, publicly financed housing 
developments then in the planning stage. The right to conduct 
religious services in adjacent buildings and to minister to the 
faithful has been tacitly recognized. But recently, contracts 
include a clause forbidding all religious activity for the 
initial five-year period, under threat of forfeiture of land and 
facility, after which time the moratorium on religion may be 
reconsidered. Officials maintain that social needs demand 
priority, that new residents will have little time for religion 
in the immediate future. They indicate that if the church 
group will not accept the option and its conditions, others, 
perhaps private citizens, will. 

Some observers suggest that this restriction by local 
officials is motivated less by outright anti-religious sentiment 
than by a desire to control the avid proselytizing of Soka 
Gakkai (Nichiren Shoshu), the mushrooming sect which con 
siders itself a new form of traditional Nichiren Buddhism. 
If this is true, the motivation could be political, since Soka 
Gakkai has its own political arm, Komeito (Clean Govern 
ment party). In any case, for Christians to fight the "no 
religion" clause could cause a breach in harmonious relations 
between local government and the local church. Failure to 
oppose the practice, however, could result in deterring Soka 
Gakkai s development today, and Christianity s tomorrow. 
For if stipulations like this can be effectively insisted upon 
throughout Japan in the name of social welfare and city plan 
ning, no religion is guaranteed freedom from local, or 
centralized, whims and isms. 

Soka Gakkai itself, with its growing political potential, 
eventually may prove to be the most serious challenge to 
religious freedom in Japan, some believe. Soka Gakkai 
leaders deny the possibility and claim they advocate the 
individual s right to freely choose his religion. They point 
to the banning of their own organization in Taiwan and 



ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 27 

Korea today, and their suppression in Japan during World 
War II, as reasons why they should advocate religious free 
dom. And while the sect adheres to a policy of non-coopera 
tion with other faiths, incidents indicating disdain of others, 
widely attributed to its followers a few years ago, seemingly 
seldom occur now. Kiyoaki Murata s recent book, Japan s 
New Buddhism, tends to allay the reader s fears regarding 
Soka Gakkai. Nevertheless, the notion of this zealous sect, 
with its closely aligned political party steadily increasing in 
power, remains a cause for concern to some Christians. 

Among current social problems of Catholic interest, that 
of abortion occupies a prominent place. Without reviewing 
here the moral and sociological arguments pro and con, we 
note simply that traditional Catholic teaching considers 
abortion a grave offense against humanity in the form of the 
unborn child. The estimated two million abortions performed 
here annually have given Japan a reputation as an abortion 
mill. Population planners and profiting medical interests, 
among others, have frowned on Catholic opposition to the 
practice. It now appears ironical to have governmental 
departments expressing fears of a severe labor shortage 
nationwide as a result of the low birth rate. Some officials 
have hinted at the possibility of government subsidies to 
encourage more children per family. Seen from the Catholic 
viewpoint, however, the issue remains essentially a serious 
moral one, still to be resolved. 

Of lesser importance from a Catholic standpoint, yet 
worthy in its intent, is Tokyo Governor Ryokichi Minobe s 
proposal to outlaw racetracks and racetrack gambling within 
his jurisdiction. The fact that the racetrack association 
allots a percentage of its income to subsidizing social welfare 
institutions, not excluding church-operated ones, provides an 
interesting sidelight. The institutions may have to seek their 
funding elsewhere. 

Less an issue than a current topic of conjecture is Pope 



28 TODAY S ISSUES 

Paul VI s rumored visit to Japan during 1970. Reportedly, he 
would like to come. An unambiguous, official invitation from 
the Japanese Government is a prerequisite. The Government 
apparently has entertained certain reservations about issuing 
such an invitation: problems of security due to activism related 
to the treaty matter; concern that the Pope s presence at this 
particular time will be interpreted by some as exerting 
undesirable Western influence in Japanese affairs. Never 
theless, ostensible occasions include the 25th anniversary 
celebration in Hiroshima of the atomic bombing of that city, 
a visit to the Christian Pavilion at EXPO 70 in Osaka, and 
an international meeting of religious leaders in Kyoto in the 
cause of world peace. These contain varying degrees of 
acceptability. Should the papal visit materialize, considerable 
planning and preparation await Japan s Catholics. 

A recurring opinion has latent nationalism reviving in this 
country. The nation s economic resurgence and obvious 
capabilities of leadership in Asia make national pride and 
self-respect inevitable. That this will unavoidably result in 
a renewed militaristic stance which entails a threat to other 
nations appears unlikely at this time. That it will lead to a 
policy of isolationism is also unlikely in view of Japan s 
dependence on foreign trade for her economic well-being. 
But a growing resentment toward foreigners within the 
country, and a desire to limit their movement and activity is 
indicated by recent revisions embodied in the Immigration 
Control Bill, according to some. Korean and Chinese groups 
in particular have objected strongly. While the bill reported 
ly aims at closing loopholes whereby illegal immigrants and 
others manage to remain here and participate in objectionable 
activities, or in activities not consonant with their visa status, 
some observers see in the phrasing and administrative pro 
visions of the law a lever with which the Justice Ministry 
can expel any foreigner without due process. Instead of 
ingrown nationalism, however, the more likely direction is 



ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 29 

one of cooperation with other nations and peoples, as Japan 
assumes a greater share of responsibility for peaceful plan 
ning and development. Japanese Christians should be ready 
to cooperate in such efforts. 

Issues internal to the Roman Catholic church in Japan 
subsequent to recommendations for change made by the 
Second Vatican Council differ only in local coloration from 
those experienced by Catholics in other parts of the world. 
They have, however, tended to make their appearance felt 
in a more gradual fashion, largely due perhaps to the desire 
of foreign clergy (still one-half of the total number of 
priests) to refrain from disturbing newly baptized parishion 
ers, and due to the comparatively limited channels of com 
munication through which controversial issues from abroad 
reach the Catholic reading public here. Even overseas, 
Catholic-sponsored media were often hesitant to discuss 
controversies already publicized in the secular press. Then 
too, the church in Japan had not the resources to facilitate 
prompt changes in liturgy, for example, which other nations 
of longer, and pervasively Christian history had: liturgists, 
translators, printers . . . and money. Adaptation to indige 
nous cultural values so vastly different from anything in the 
West presented its own problems. 

Consequently, the issues which early caused most dis 
turbance were minor ones, like changes in the accepted garb 
of priests and nuns. Those earliest involved were inevitably 
foreign missioners with access to literature and letters from 
their home countries, where changes were occurring at an 
accelerated pace. For the most part, the hierarchy, all of 
whom had attended the Council sessions, were aware of 
arguments for change, and showed understanding of the 
situation. But since a change of dress, at least in individual 
cases, was immediate and needed no media to publicize it, it 
took on an importance far beyond what it deserved. Seen by 
some as a denial of justifiable tradition, it posed a threat to 



30 TODAY S ISSUES 

orthodoxy in the minds of some members of the clergy and 
laity alike. Generally speaking, the groups of religious women 
which are predominantly indigenous have been slower to make 
noticeable changes than foreign societies, while neckties and 
conservatively colored suits have received acceptance in place 
of clerical black and Roman collars among both foreign and 
indigenous male religious. 

More critical are such issues as birth control, religious 
vocations, ecumenism and pluralism, parish structure, the role 
and function of the clergy, lay cooperation, the diffusion of 
Christian doctrine, continued adaptation of Christianity to 
Japanese culture and the exercise of authority. 

The birth control controversy, which drew worldwide at 
tention with the publication of Pope Paul s encyclical, 
Human Life, did not precipitate the storm in Japan which it 
caused elsewhere, again due to the hesitancy of communica 
tions media to inform the public. The secular press, largely 
because so few of its readers accept Catholic teaching on the 
matter to begin with, simply reported publication of the 
document. Catholic vernacular publications, sensing the 
inherent controversy, chose not to discuss the issue. A 
Pastoral Note of the Japan (Roman Catholic) Bishops Con 
ference encouraged obedience, meanwhile recognizing exten 
uating circumstances in individual cases. Serious public 
confrontations on the topic never materialized. Many married 
Catholics and counselling clergymen still consider the issue 
imresolved, if only in their own consciences. 

Vocations to the priesthood and the religious life, though 
they have not shown a marked decrease in Japan, are never 
theless fewer percentage-wise than for some years past. More 
noticeable has been the decrease in vocations overseas, 
resulting in fewer numbers of foreign missionaries arriving 
to supplement the personnel already here. Some observers 
anticipate a similar "vocation crisis" among Japanese Chris 
tians, who have consistently maintained a high vocation rate. 



ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 31 

Here as elsewhere, a shortage of priests could eventually 
result in the ordaining of reliable laymen to the diaconate, 
entrusting them with administrative, educational and limited 
sacramental responsibilities. 

Ecumenical efforts have shown progress. The cooperation 
of Catholics and Protestants to erect a Christian Pavilion at 
EXPO 70 deserves special mention. But other activities are 
no less important: regular meetings on the parish level and 
in private groups, whether among Christian sects alone, or 
with Buddhist and Shinto sects and the "New Religions." 
The "World Conference on Religion and Peace", scheduled 
for Kyoto in October 1970, is expected to highlight the con 
tinuing trend in inter-faith activities. Christians are gaining 
a new respect for the sincerity of believers in other religions. 
They are recognizing the necessity of cooperation in the 
attainment of common goals for the betterment of mankind, 
without finding it necessary to compromise the basic tenets of 
their own faith. 

Discussion of parish structures and the role and function 
of the clergy are likely to continue. While the celebration of 
Mass and the administration of most sacraments will remain 
priestly prerogatives, lay participation in liturgical functions 
predictably will grow. At the same time, both foreign and 
indigenous religious superiors have been assigning personnel 
to less traditional jobs in the expectation that their presence 
will more directly influence the area of society in which they 
are working. A married clergy is less an issue than a 
widespread subject of debate, if only unofficially among the 
clergy themselves. Accommodation to such a change, should 
it eventuate, will involve both economic and organizational 
complications. 

Methods of diffusing Christian teaching, as well as the 
adaptation of Christianity to Japanese manners and mores, 
are perennial issues. The relatively small but devout 
Christian segment of the population witnesses to the fact 



32 TODAY S ISSUES 

that Christianity is not so alien as to be fundamentally 
unacceptable. Yet public opinion still considers it something 
of a Western intruder. This Western image and the per 
petual " busy-ness" of the Japanese contribute greatly to the 
refusal of the populace to study it seriously. The hesitancy 
of the secular media to treat religious subjects in depth 
further complicate the problem of reaching the people with 
Christian news and information. The past year has wit 
nessed a noticeable drop in the number of catechumens. 

In the religious sphere as in the secular, authority and 
its exercise are stimulating much discussion. Some, including 
theologians, see the exercise of authority as the vortex of 
the numerous issues confronting the church today. Wide 
spread democratization in the free world s secular spheres 
inevitably exerts an influence on the religious. Dialogue and 
greater participation in decision-making represent features 
of a democratic society which the necessarily authoritarian 
church must eventually adopt, some maintain. Those not in 
authority will be expected to carry a greater share of the 
responsibility which additional freedom imposes, should 
development continue in this direction. 

Undoubtedly, the amount of time and energy expended in 
recent years by church personnel, both cleric and lay, in their 
efforts to update, to renew, to re-think approaches and issues, 
has unavoidably curtailed direct missionary and pastoral 
endeavors. Certain areas of renewal still lack a satisfactory 
solution. Some adjustments remain incomplete. Neverthe 
less, a degree of stabilization has evolved, together with an 
understanding that crisis means "decisive moment," not 
"collapse", and that change need not pose a threat. There 
is a readiness on the part of most Christians to do what needs 
doing, relying on their faith to assist and support them to 
make honest and often courageous decisions in confronting 
issues as they arise. Japan s Christians can solve the 
apparent enigma raised in Shusaku Endo s novel, Silence: 



ISSUES CONFRONTING THE JAPANESE 33 

"Why must God be silent during these trying times?" The 
answer lies in the dedication of Christians through whom the 
Spirit ultimately speaks ... in any nation, in any era, in 
any given year. 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 

and 
Freedom of Religion 

Professor of Sophia University 

Hisashi Aizawa, LL.D. 

I. The Character of Yasukuni Shrine 

"We must console the spirits of those who have met an 
untimely death, for if we do not, a curse will come upon 
us." 

This belief, originating in old folk religion, still exists 
today as a part of the Shinto faith. 

In 1868 (the first year of the Meiji era), the Shokonsha 
(literally, "place to invite souls") was built at Higashiyama, 
Kyoto, as a fundamental expression of this belief. The 
purpose of the Meiji Restoration Administration in building 
the Shokonsha was stated thus: "To console the spirits of 
those patriots of the Restoration Era and the souls of those 
who died in the Boshin War." With the removal of the 
capital to Tokyo the following year, the Shokonsha was 
moved to Kudan in Tokyo. In 1879 (twelfth year of Meiji), 
the name was changed to Yasukuni Shrine and was elevated 
in status to a special Government Shrine. 

It would be impossible to give a detailed history of Yasu 
kuni here. It can be said that Yasukuni is a product of the 
era of Shrine prosperity which began with the Meiji Restora 
tion following the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 35 

During the Tokugawa era, Buddhism occupied the position of 
a state religion, though a Buddhism already tinged with 
Shinto belief and practices. Shrine Shinto had suffered a 
decline. But this situation completely changed when the 
Restoration administration assumed power. The new admin 
istration had some of the characteristics of an absolute 
monarchy and therefore began to emphasize the legacy of 
the Imperial ancestor s loyalty to the Imperial Throne. This 
made it possible for Shrine Shinto to occupy an advantageous 
position, and resulted in the decline of the various Buddhist 
.sects. The government policy of separating Buddhism and 
Shinto resulted in widespread confusion and extremism. It 
was during this time that Minatogawa Shrine, deifying 
Masashige Kusunoki, was built. It should be noted that 
Shokonsha, the model for Yasukuni, was a product of belief 
in the supremacy of Shinto after the Meiji Restoration. 

The following is a quotation from the Yasukuni Shrine 
Magazine: "Yasukuni Shrine was built (by the Emperor) to 
express to the subjects the virtue of his unending affection 
toward those who died for him. Therefore the subjects 
should give their best for the Emperor and for their country, 
because it has been made possible by the good offices of the 
Emperor." 

From this it can be seen that Yasukuni was built not only 
for the purpose of comforting the souls of those who died 
for the nation, but also to encourage the military morale of 
the present and future officers and men of the Imperial Army. 
Also, as was natural for this period, Yasukuni was to serve 
as an object for the expression of the loyalty of all Japanese 
toward their Emperor as the supreme ruler. 

Under the old constitution, the Department of the Interior 
exercised jurisdiction over shrines, but from the first, Yasu 
kuni was an exception and was placed under the jurisdiction 
of the military. 

Originally, Yasukuni was not built as a shrine for all those 



?6 TODAY S ISSUES 

who died for the nation, since those who fought as rebels; 
in the Boshin War, the Byakkotai (White Tiger Party) of 
the Aizu clan and the Satsuma troops of the Seinan War, 
were never enshrined there. "If you win, your cause is just. 
If you lose, your cause is unjust." I think we could say 
that both the government army and the rebel army died for 
their country while holding a different view or position, and 
if Yasukuni was built for all the people, whether government 
or rebel, then all the war dead should be enshrined there. 

Yasukuni was established only as a shrine for government 
forces, loyal to their Emperor and supporting him in his 
capacity as Supreme Commander ... in a word, as a shrine 
for the military. Its advocates are now insisting on Govern 
ment support for it. 

The history of the wars in which our nation has engaged 
includes the following: 1) The Sino- Japanese War (1894), 
2) The Russo-Japanese War (1904), 3) The Manchurian In 
cident (1931), 4) The Sino- Japanese War (1937), and 5) The 
Pacific War (1941). 

The overwhelming number of Pacific War dead who have 
been enshrined at Yasukuni ("We will meet each other again 
every year in April under the cherry blossoms of Yasukuni") 
has brought about tremendous spiritual and psychological 
support for a return to the old Constitution s provisions for 
government administration of Yasukuni. 

II. The Recent Yasukuni Problem 

Article 28 of the old constitution seems to be sufficient in 
its guarantee of religious freedom, following as it does the 
examples of Western countries, "provided the religion does 
not disturb the public peace and general welfare or prevent 
citizens from carrying out their duties as subjects." How 
ever, the imperfections of this guarantee are evident in the 
special privileges which were granted to Shrine Shinto, and 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 37 

the obligation imposed on the Japanese people to worship at 
Shrines. This tendency for Shrine Shinto to be the state 
religion became stronger and stronger toward the end of the 
ra of the old constitution. Of course, there is no such thing 
as perfect freedom of religion as long as there is in existence 
a state religion. Independent believers or atheists do not 
want to worship at a shrine. In the past, such people were 
called unpatriotic and were slandered at every opportunity. 

This situation was uprooted by the terms of the Postdam 
Declaration, since all special privileges for shrines were 
abolished. The 110,000 shrines now in existence are all 
accorded the same recognition as Buddhist temples or 
Christian churches. In theory at least, the separation of 
religion and government and the guarantee of freedom of 
religion has been accomplished. 

But an effort is being made once again to accord special 
treatment to Yasukuni. The government is planning to in 
troduce a bill, called: "A Bill to Nationalize Yasukuni Shrine". 
The bill states its purpose as being: "To recognize the desire 
of the nation to express its gratitude and respect to the 
spirits of those who died for their country in war, and have 
served their nation in government affairs . . ." (Article 1). 
The problem is that of using government funds to console their 
spirits and to praise their distinguished service. 

As to developments leading up to the introduction of this 
bill, I mention the following: 

(1) At the conclusion of the state of war and the signing 
of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, a movement to re-estab 
lish the privileged position of the Yasukuni Shrine was 
started by a group called the "Urayasu Society," which was 
formed in 1955. They began laying plans eventually to in 
troduce a bill to nationalize Yasukuni. 

(2) Later the Japan Society of War Bereaved began to 
cooperate with the Urayasu Society, the former taking the 
larger share of the promotion. The J.B.S. decided in 1956 



38 TODAY S ISSUES 

to work toward the introduction of a bill for the nationalizing: 
of Yasukuni. Since about 1960 the movement has been 
gathering signatures and mounting campaigns to get the 
government to introduce the bill. 

Meanwhile, a move to oppose the bill was beginning, 
especially among Protestants. In June of 1967, a group of 
interested members of the Diet belonging to the Bereaved 
Family Council had planned to introduce the bill, but due to 
strong dissatisfaction from the shrines and the Bereaved 
Family Society, the introduction was suspended. 

In opposition to the bill, a group opposing the revision of 
the Constitution had been formed, and together with several 
Christian groups, began actively to oppose this effort. A 
volunteer group of Christians visited the Diet and questioned 
the Nationalizing Committee chairman, vigorously protesting 
his plan. In 1967 the largest organization of Protestants, the 
United Church of Christ in Japan, had established "The 
Yasukuni Shrine Problem Special Committee," and later an 
even wider and more united effort composed of the "Shrines 
Problem Special Committee of the Catholic Central Council" 
and the "Yasukuni Shrine Problem Committee of the Japan 
Baptist Convention" was initiated. 

Not only was there opposition from the above-mentioned 
groups, but from Buddhist groups also, such as Jodo Shinshu, 
Omoto Kyo of the Kyoha Shinto, Maruyama Kyo and Soka 
Gakkai, though their positions are somewhat vague. Certain 
cultural organizations and societies of the arts and sciences 
have likewise gone on record in opposition to the bill. As 
of April 1969, political parties who have definitely taken a 
stand against it are: the Socialist party, the Communist 
party, the Democratic Socialist party and the Komei party, 
the last two mentioned being rather weaker in their opposi 
tion than the others. In May of 1968, the Japan Buddhist 
Association, a nationwide organization of Buddhism (which 
does not include Soka Gakkai), decided actively to oppose 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 39 

the bill. The opinion of Japanese Buddhism as a whole seems 
to be that of opposition to the bill. The Government party 
had counted on the strong support of the Japan Bereaved 
Society as being sufficient (reportedly they gathered more 
than 22 million signatures from all over the nation by 
August 1966), and was expecting little opposition to the bill s 
passage. But it was surprised by the increasing power of 
the opposition, especially when the New Religions Associa 
tion, whose main strength comes from Rissho Kosei Kai, 
which had supported the Government forces in the Tokyo 
gubernatorial contest, announced strong opposition to the 
Shrine Bill, in the name of religious freedom. 

The result was that the government party was caught off 
balance and suddenly intensified its efforts. While professing 
to uphold the Constitution, it was putting forth illogical 
interpretations of it to achieve its aims. At any rate, it 
intends to introduce the bill in the next session of the Diet. 
This is the situation as of April 1969. 

A word concerning freedom is in order at this point. 
Essentially, freedom cannot be given us, as passive recipients, 
from without. Freedom must not only be won actively by 
the individual, but freedom can only be maintained as we 
continually strive to remain free. Article 12, Paragraph 2, 
of the Constitution states this in the following words: 
"Freedom and individual rights, which are guaranteed by 
this constitution, must be maintained by the constant efforts 
of the people." In spite of this, we Japanese, generally 
speaking, cannot say that we have "fought a good fight" in 
this respect, and as a consequence of our insufficient under 
standing concerning the essentials of freedom, we have had 
a lack of determination in maintaining it. At least this is 
true when we compare ourselves with Europeans. This is 
true in the matter of the freedom of religion. 

Accordingly, a serious consideration of the Yasukuni Shrine 
problem gives the Japanese the best opportunity to think 



40 TODAY S ISSUES 

about the meaning of religious freedom and what it means to 
actually attain it. That is to say, the problem above all is 
related to the guarantee of the freedom of religion, which 
we will take up later in this article. 

III. The Constitution of Japan and Reverence for the 
War Dead 

It is a natural duty that we should render sincerest grati 
tude and respect toward the war dead. Even though they 
sacrificed their lives due to extreme national policies, our 
duty is the same. To oppose this bill without fulfilling our 
duty to the war dead is unreasonable. 

Now the key word which appears in the bill, and which 
refers to consoling the spirits of the war dead, is a word used 
in the Shinto religion. It was carried over from the era 
when the two religions, Shinto and Buddhism, existed as one, 
and is also found in the vocabulary of Buddhism. Because 
it is strictly a religious word (Buddhist- Shinto) expressing a 
doctrine peculiar to their faith, we prefer not to use it in 
this article. The important thing is how can we most mean 
ingfully render our appreciation and gratitude. This is the 
problem. 

In this situation we are faced with the problem of how 
most rationally to obtain our objective. 

The essence of the Yasukuni problem is this: how do we 
evaluate our Constitution, how do we grasp its meaning? 
What is our understanding of what the Constitution has to 
say concerning the relationship between the Constitution and 
the war dead ? 

I would like to point out that the majority of those who 
are enshrined at Yasukuni are those who have died since the 
Showa era. 

If I may state my conclusion now, it is that only within 
the provisions of the present Constitution and only by follow- 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 41 

ing those provisions to the letter, can we render true homage 
and true gratitude to the war dead. This applies to all the 
people, but most especially to the ministers of state, the 
members of the Diet, our judges and all office holders, who 
have been entrusted with the authority of their offices. These 
must set an example of upholding and respecting the Con 
stitution. Not only should they do this because Article 99 
of the Constitution requires them to, but the fundamental 
purpose of the Constitution is to provide the basis in national 
law for protecting the life, freedoms and rights of the 
ordinary citizens against the abuse of power and selfishness of 
those in authority. As long as those in authority can use their 
authority in a selfish manner, the everyday life of the citizens 
cannot be said to be safeguarded. 

Another reason for upholding this Constitution is because 
it is, in principle, fair and just. That is to say, it is in 
accord with the laws of proper government and diplomacy 
and is also in accord with the laws of the proper development 
of history. There may be some minor defects, but since 
sovereignty rests with the people, and its underlying principle 
promotes universal peace and esteems fundamental human 
rights, it cannot be faulted. Especially do these points stand 
out when we compare it to the old Constitution. The most 
important issue concerning this Constitution is not the prob 
lem of who wrote it, but whether the contents are good or 
bad. It is often said in certain quarters that this Con 
stitution was made in America, but in 1951 General Mac- 
Arthur said that the insertion of the war renunciation clause 
(Article 9) was largely due to a suggestion by Prime Minister 
Shidehara. If the contents are good, we should give our 
approval, even though some of the work was done by foreign 
legislators, and even though the U.S. Government (I do not 
say the American people) is among those groups now trying 
to change the Constitution. 

Finally, let us consider the relationship between the war 



42 TODAY S ISSUES 

dead and the Constitution. We will then be able to see that 
the Constitution is their precious gift to their beloved country 
and to the citizens. Moreover, they sacrificed their precious 
young lives for it. More important, this Constitution contains 
their prayers for eternal peace, and in this sense it should be 
revered. Therefore, rendering honor and gratitude to them 
should be in accord with the meaning of this Constitution. 
It is primarily their experience and realization of the mean- 
inglessness and miserableness of war that is strongly reflected 
in this Constitution. Also, deeply embedded in this Constitu 
tion is the enormity of the guilt of our past war policies 
against Far East nations, especially against the Chinese, 
which they, through their suffering, experienced on the 
battlefield. 

The seriousness and the reality of their sacrifice becomes 
more apparent, since a war in any era, for whatever reasons, 
whether for self-defense or for purposes of aggression, is 
without exception evil. This is true because it is impossible 
to draw accurately a sharp line of separation between self- 
defense and aggression. A war of aggression is often waged 
under the label of self defense or in the name of justice. But 
all war violates the basic command: "Love your enemies," 
"Thou shalt not kill." In the words of Draus of Vienna, 
"War makes a fool of man, for in war, the heroic deed of an 
ally becomes a crime when committed by the enemy, and the 
one who strikes the first blow always becomes the oppo 
nent." 

Since future wars will be nuclear wars though there may 
be short-term localized conflicts they will mean the complete 
destruction of humanity and culture. Accordingly, the evil 
of war has been increased immeasurably. Pope John XXIII, 
writing in his memoirs in 1963, just before his death, said 
that in the nuclear age every war becomes evil and there are 
no longer wars of justice. This coincides with the meaning 
of Article 9 of the Constitution, and the above-mentioned 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 43 

statement is a very important one for Catholic churches, which 
have been insisting that arguments for a just war are valid. 

IV. The Meaning of Separation of Religion and State 

The problem of this bill is none other than that of the 
Government granting special privileges to one religious or 
ganization. In the first place, it plainly violates Article 20 
of the Constitution which provides that "no religious organi 
zation can be granted special privilege by the nation." Sec 
ondly, it violates Article 89 of the Constitution which forbids 
"the use of public property for the convenience of any religi 
ous organization." Briefly, this bill violates the principle of 
separation of religion and government, which is recognized 
by many constitutions of modern times. 

The great importance of this principle lies in the fact 
that it is the indispensable method of guaranteeing religious 
freedom, both in its internal and external aspects, and indeed 
fundamental human rights. Freedom of religion cannot be 
guaranteed unless a separation of religion and government 
exists. To be more specific, when a nation gives special 
treatment to an established religious organization, it becomes 
itself a kind of religious organization, making use of political 
power. Then freedom of religion cannot be assured. His 
torical facts in all ages and in many nations prove this to be 
true. 

When we speak of a reasonable separation of religion and 
the state, we do not mean a one hundred percent absolute 
separation of all worldly authority and the inner life of the 
citizenry, for this is an impossibility. It is impossible in any 
society, no matter how far advanced its techniques or 
how rationally its sciences may be developed. The teach 
ing of Soviet Russia that "religion is an opiate," which is 
itself a statement of universal religious belief, is a good 
example of the impossibility of complete separation of religion 



44 TODAY S ISSUES 

and the state. 

At the close of the era of the Meiji Constitution, although 
the government paid lip service to the principle of the freedom 
of religion, in practice it was giving Shinto an increasingly 
privileged position, so that Shinto became a kind of state 
religion. The principle of the separation of religion and the 
state was thereby denied. To select and favor one religion 
among many, in this case Shrine Shinto, is clearly unfair. 
The principle of the freedom of religion in its essential and 
logical meaning declares that all religions should be equal 
in status. 

The government at that time sought to justify its actions 
by the use of the following curious reasoning: "Since a shrine 
is a place where homage is paid to the forbears of the 
Emperor, as well as to those who have rendered service to 
their country, it is different from a religion. Therefore, there 
is no violation of the principle of the freedom of religion in 
granting special status to a shrine." This kind of inconsis 
tency is not unusual for those in authority, when their anti- 
constitution bias comes face to face with the Constitution 
itself. Their efforts to evade the Constitution are quite 
apparent in this sort of reasoning. Although the Constitution 
gives great support to the people in the protection of life and 
freedom, those in the seat of authority regard it unfavorably 
and are seeking possible ways to circumvent it. In this 
regard the essence of the modern Constitution is easily 
understood. 

In any event, neither faithful, convinced believers nor 
atheists can sincerely and joyfully worship at a shrine. 
During the time when Shrine Shinto was the state religion, 
those who refused to worship were oppressed and accused of 
being unpatriotic. This resulted not only in mental and 
spiritual pressures, but also in social and government dis 
crimination in securing employment, in marriage, and in the 
treatment of soldiers in the barracks. In the case of the 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 45 

Christian who believes the words of the First Commandment: 
"Thou shalt have no other gods before me," and "A man is 
justified by faith in Jesus Christ without the deeds of the 
law," he cannot in good conscience worship at a shrine, even 
in the name of national duty, without being inconsistent and 
illogical. The freedom of the Christian is violated. 

V. The Revival of Ultra Nationalism and the Argu 
ments on the Religious Character of Yasukuni 

As has been mentioned, after World War II, the policy of 
conferring special privileges given Shrines was abolished, and 
the separation of religion and government was established. 
Eventually, Yasukuni was recognized as an ordinary religious 
body under the provisions of the Juridical Persons Law of 
1951 and was given the status of Religious Juridical Body, 
which it has today. However, once again the attempt to 
grant special government privilege to a shrine is being made 
through the efforts to nationalize Yasukuni. The reason for 
selecting Yasukuni from among many other shrines is that, 
since the war dead and others are enshrined there, it is easier 
to appeal to the emotions of the people. In any event, it is 
the same road we have travelled before. It is not always 
true that what has happened once will happen again, but in 
this case I fear that it will, and we must always keep this 
in mind. Here is an important lesson from history, both 
remote and recent, which must be recognized. 

The argument that the problem of Yasukuni does not 
involve religion, but is only a matter of traditional customs, 
goes against all the facts. The reason for calling Yasukuni 
a "Shokonsha" (shrine sacred to the spirits of the war dead) 
is that services in honor of the war dead were held there. 
This belief has not changed. Shinto ceremonies being con 
ducted there at present include such expressions as: "Puri 
fication Rites," "Soul Inviting Ceremony," "Tamagushi Offer- 



46 TODAY S ISSUES 

ing." These cannot be termed merely traditional customs, for 
if this were the case, it would mean that they are a part of 
our daily life and observed by everyone, such as giving 
year-end presents or sending New Year s cards. 

One powerful advocate for the nationalization of Yasukuni 
insists that we must distinguish between religious activity 
aimed at gaining adherents, and religious acts, such as a 
simple ceremony or festival. He insists that Yasukuni is not 
engaged in religious activity in its usually understood mean 
ing and therefore it should be regarded only as a religious 
facility. However, in view of Article 3 of the Yasukuni 
Shrine Juridical Persons Law, which specifies Yasukuni s 
functions as: "services to honor the memory of the war 
dead," "making known divine virtue" and "indoctrination of 
believers," I think this is religious activity. It is not correct 
to call Yasukuni an ordinary religious facility when it is in 
fact a religious organization a religion. 

According to this man s argument, since Yasukuni was 
forcibly accorded the status of a religion through outside 
pressure, (that is, by the power of the Occupation), Yasu 
kuni can return to its original status only through nationaliza 
tion. 

In a word, his argument is that the union of Shrine Shinto 
and government is natural and that their separation is 
improper. This clearly violates Article 20 of the present 
Constitution. Only when the religious character of Yasukuni 
is recognized is its true function made known. 

From the viewpoint of religious thought in general, as 
well as from the scholarly point of view, Yasukuni is indeed 
a religion, and to insist otherwise is the same as saying black 
is white. It is impossible, by means of the law, to make 
something which is illegal become legal. 

But of greater importance is the use of government 
authority to hand down a momentous judgment concerning 
the religious life of the citizens. This is the same as meddling 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 4< 

in the private lives of the citizens. Nothing is more foolish 
than for government authorities, pretending to be theologians 
of the first rank, to intervene in personal religious matters. 
It is here that an even deeper meaning of the principle of 
the separation of religion and government is to be found. 

VI. The Meaning of Religious Freedom: The Freedom 
of Unbelief 

A rather widely held view on the meaning of religious 
freedom, is that of Mr. Gerhard Anschiitz who divides religi 
ous freedom into three categories: 1) The freedom to confess 
your faith, 2) The freedom to worship, 3) The freedom to 
organize a religion. Another view is that of Mr. L.A. Weigle 
who makes the following division: 1) The freedom to believe 
and be a member of a church, 2) The freedom to believe as 
a citizen of the country. I esteem highly this division 
because it places strong emphasis on the guarantee of the 
freedom of religion from the standpoint of the citizen. As 
citizens who have a religious faith and belong to a religious 
organization, we also act as citizens, who have the ultimate 
sovereignty and the power to determine our form of govern 
ment. Of course, we can use our influence in politics and 
can criticize the conduct of our government, or, if we so 
choose, can reject it. 

I would like to elaborate on the third division of the 
meaning of religious freedom. The freedom of religious 
belief has two parts: the freedom to believe and the freedom 
not to believe. True freedom of religious belief functions 
first as the freedom to believe. This freedom guarantees the 
right of the adherent to believe in a particular religion. 
But freedom also includes the right not to believe in a 
particular religion, as in the case of a Christian not to believe 
Buddhism. 

Next let us think about the freedom not to believe in any 



48 TODAY S ISSUES 

religion, that is, the freedom of an atheist. If we pursue to 
its ultimate basis the theory of freedom, it is freedom of 
thought. Freedom of thought is provided for, along with 
freedom of conscience, which in Europe often meant freedom 
of religion. In this meaning, freedom not to believe can be 
included in the freedom of thought rather than in the freedom 
of religion. We cannot deny that non-believers have some 
attitude toward religion. Understood in this sense, it is 
correct to say that the freedom of religion also includes 
freedom not to believe. 

Those who do not recognize that the freedom of unbelief 
is included in the freedom of conscience, say that in the 
constitution of Communist countries there are provisions for 
the freedom of anti-religious propaganda and the freedom of 
conscience. 

Unfortunately, this supposition is not always true in 
relation to the above-mentioned point. Generally speaking, 
from the standpoint of reason and logic, freedom of religion 
essentially includes the freedom not to believe as well as the 
freedom of atheism. The freedom of religion, in these two 
meanings of the freedom to believe and the freedom not to 
believe, is already being practised. 

Let us apply this definition of religious freedom to the 
problem of Yasukuni. The freedom of atheism should be 
guaranteed in the name of the freedom of religion because, 
strategically speaking, the struggle to solve the Yasukuni 
problem involves the formation of a united front between the 
convinced believers and the many others who profess no 
religious belief. 

I am going to take up next the close relationship between 
freedom of thought and freedom of speech, assembly and 
association. Among ordinary citizens and also among the 
members of the progressive political parties of the National 
Diet, there are many convinced atheists. For them, religious 
freedom is, first, the right not to believe in any kind of 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 49 

religion. 

VII. Religious Freedom and Other Civil Rights 

The freedom of religion as a civil right cannot really func 
tion independently in isolation. It functions with the other 
civil rights, especially the freedoms of thought, speech, 
assembly and association. This is a proven fact from past 
history. The freedom of religion, when given concrete 
expression by the believer, naturally has to be related to the 
freedom of expression. That is, the freedom of religion, 
which is guaranteed by Article 20 of the Constitution, is 
vitally related to "freedom of assembly, association, speech, 
press and all other means of expression," which are guaranteed 
by Article 21 of the Constitution. When religious freedom 
includes not only the religious freedom of the individual, but 
also a person s religious freedom as a member of a church 
and as a citizen of the country, then it is religious freedom 
in it is true meaning. 

What we call the democratic process of government has 
been formed and developed in the struggle to attain the 
various above-mentioned freedoms. If this be so, religious 
freedom was one of the fruits of the development of demo 
cracy. The facts of history, both in Europe and America, 
prove this point, especially English history since the seven 
teenth century. How severely did Fascism, the greatest 
reign of terror in the history of humanity, violate religious 
freedom! (Refer to my work: Religion and Government in 
Modern States, Chapter 4, paragraph 1.) 

The situation in Japan was not an exception. When was 
it that the road to political democracy in Japan, through 
means of national law, was opened widely to all citizens? It 
was when the status of the Emperor was changed from that 
of a divine being to that of a human being, and the duty 
to worship him was abolished. In a word, it was when true 



50 TODAY S ISSUES 

religious freedom was guaranteed by the Constitution. During 
the era of the Japanese fascists, religious freedom was 
severely restricted. 

On the surface it would appear that the only problem 
directly related to the nationalization of Yasukuni is that of 
religious freedom. But in fact, this is only a part of a larger 
problem, which is the movement toward the complete anti- 
democratization of the country. This movement includes: 
rearming Japan, a revival of military conscription, and the 
reform of the electoral system which would result in one party 
rule. In short, the effort to abolish the present Constitution. 
The plan to nationalize Yasukuni is being promoted as an 
ideological and psychological movement. 

Accordingly, it is a fearful mistake to regard this problem 
as merely another sectarian quarrel between Christianity and 
Shinto, totally unrelated to the lives of those who have no 
religious belief. Some Christians take this position. Also, 
if this bill is passed by the Diet, it will be only a matter of 
time until the problem of the nationalization of Ise, Meiji 
and many other shrines arise. In any case, we can see that 
an intimate and vital connection exists between religious 
freedom and political democracy. 

VIII. Concerning the Sincerity of the Motive for 
Introducing the Yasukuni Bill 

Was the bill prepared only for the purpose of expressing 
national sentiment and paying homage to the war dead? 
According to Article 1 (in the bill as finally presented on 
April 18, 1968), the national sentiment is described in the 
following words: "The national sentiment should publicly pay 
homage and respect toward the souls of the war dead and all 
those who died in the service of their country." 

Is it right to assign only this one meaning to expressing 
the national sentiment? Of course this is one aspect of 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 51 

"national sentiment." However, we cannot ignore the fact 
that there are national sentiments which differ from these. 

A war widow who lives in Yamanashi said, "My husband 
who died in the war is definitely not at Yasukuni." A 
Tokyo war widow said, "If the word Yasukuni sounds 
pathetically and heroically beautiful to some people, I feel 
as a surviving wife, that they are already strangers to the 
bereaved." These sentiments are also one expression of the 
national sentiment. It can also be said that these sentiments 
are very close to the spirit of the peace constitution. But 
even if this sentiment were that of a minority, which it is, 
it must not be ignored. In the final analysis, there are many 
varieties of national sentiment. To say that the sentiment 
mentioned in the law is the unified sentiment of the nation is 
unreasonable. 

If this was the true motive for introducing the bill, it 
would more appropriately have been introduced sooner. But 
this bill is being introduced at a time when the Government 
has on its hands the serious internal problem of the renewal 
of the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty. It is being introduced 
during a time when nationalism and the necessity for national 
defense is being emphasized. Behind all this, some larger, 
ulterior political intention can be seen. 

If the motive for preparing this bill is sincere, a more 
appropriate method should have been taken. For example, 
one good proposal is to erect a tomb for the unknown war 
dead, placing in it a portion of the remains of the war dead 
representing all those who died in the war. It should be free 
from all religious implications, above all religion, sectarianism, 
and denominationalism, a project in which all the citizens 
could participate. For this purpose, why not enlarge the 
Chidorigafuchi tomb in honor of the war dead, which was 
completed in 1959 with the Emperor attending the completion 
ceremonies ? 

But there is strong opposition to this idea from the shrines 



52 TODAY S ISSUES 

and from the Association of Bereaved Families, who insist 
that; Yasukuni alone should be maintained for this purpose. 

The abandoned remains of countless numbers of war dead 
are still to be found in Southeast and especially South Asia. 
The collection of their remains is both technically and 
economically a most difficult undertaking. But considering 
the problem of how completely we wish to express our homage 
to the war dead, we should first promptly and more earnestly 
solve this problem. 

IX. The Ideology of the Advocates of the Bill (1) 

The main point of the thinking of those who advocate 
nationalization of Yasukuni is, first of all, that it is possible 
to favor religious freedom without being in favor of separation 
of religion and the state. This reveals their lack of knowledge 
concerning the principle that religious freedom cannot be 
guaranteed without a separation of religion and government. 
One of the most influential advocates of nationalization says, 
"Countries in which religious freedom is provided for by the 
constitution, but have no provisions concerning the separation 
of religion and the state, are the countries where a kind of 
union of religion and the government exists." 

The already-mentioned proponent is referring to the 
article compiled by the Ministry of Education, entitled "The 
Text of National Constitutions Concerning Religious Freedom" 
(1955), which says: "There are people who claim that in 
modern states the separation of religion and government is a 
universal principle. But when we compare the constitutions 
of several countries, this is not true. To the contrary, coun 
tries having separation of religion and government are 
fewer in number. Countries with a state religion, including 
those having a semi-state religion, number 35, as compared 
with 24 having absolute separation of religion and the state. 
Because the number of countries having absolute separation 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 53 

of religion and state is fewer, it is therefore incorrect to 
say that this is a universal principle." 

I intend to show that his conclusion about the number of 
countries having separation of religion and the state being 
fewer is incorrect. Correct or incorrect, the argumentation 
of this advocate of nationalism is faulty if it is meant to 
indicate that numerical superiority determines the rightness 
or wrongness of the matter. The important thing here is not 
how many countries have this system but whether this system 
is best suited for the country and its citizens. When making 
reference to an institution of a foreign country, the first 
consideration should be a concrete examination of the rela 
tionship of the institution to the country s historical, social 
and cultural conditions. Just because a foreign country has 
such an institution, it does not follow that Japan must have 
the same system. The foreign country has the institution 
because of its own peculiar situation. In Japan the circum 
stances are different. Therefore a different approach should 
be taken. 

The arguments of the aforementioned proponent of the 
bill come from a misreading of the pamphlet completed by 
the Ministry of Education. Acutally the number of countries 
having separation of religion and government exceeds 24. 
For in the same pamphlet, just a few lines later, there is a 
list of 22 countries under the heading "Countries with Religi 
ous Freedom." These are: Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, 
India, Nationalist China, Communist China, Czechoslovakia, 
Poland, Turkey, Brazil, Ceylon and some others. In the 
constitutions of these countries, the actual wording, "separa 
tion of religion and government," is not used, but in some of 
these countries separation of religion and government is 
actually being practised. (As one example, please see my 
article on the Belgium Constitution of 1831 (Fukuin to Sekai, 
May, 1968). 

As I said before, countries which have religious freedom 



54 TODAY S ISSUES 

are at the same time countries which have separation of 
religion and government, and this freedom is guaranteed by 
the separation of religion and state. The proponent of the 
bill overlooks this self-evident truth. 

X. The Ideology of the Advocates of the Bill (2) 

The second feature of the arguments put forth by the 
proponents for the nationalizing of Yasukuni, is that they 
have decided in advance that, not only should Yasukuni be 
given special privilege, but also all other shrines as well. 

Afterwards they would give their reasoning and arguments 
to defend their actions. When from the beginning it is 
questionable to give special status, to try to rationalize it is 
much more ridiculous. 

This proponent contends that a distinction should be made 
between religious activity intended to gain adherents, and 
those of merely ceremonial significance, the former being a 
religious body and the latter a mere religious facility. 
Article 2 of the Religious Juridical Persons Law defines the 
purpose of a religious body: "The main aims of a religious 
body are: propagating a religious doctrine, holding religious 
ceremonies, and the indoctrinating and strengthening of 
believers." This advocate bases his above-mentioned opinion 
on this provision, but he misunderstands the meaning of the 
provision. "Propagating a doctrine", concretely expressed, 
means "indoctrinating and strengthening believers" and "in 
doctrinating and strengthening believers" means "holding 
religious ceremonies and events." In other words, the latter 
is usually necessary for the sake of the former. These three 
things, in a word, are all related to one another. Not only 
this, they are all inseparably united.. But this he does not 
recognize. 

Of course this same article leaves room for discussion, 
since there are in it several points which readily invite 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 55 

misinterpretation. But the important thing seems to be that 
the proponents have presumed that the nationalization of 
Yasukuni is an already accomplished fact. Then afterwards, 
from the standpoint of their presupposition, they try to win 
their argument that Yasukuni is not a religious body by 
making a distinction between religious activity and a mere 
religious facility. 

Let us assume for the moment that this distinction is 
allowable. According to the terms of the Religious Juridical 
Persons Law, many religious groups which are at present 
qualified as religious organizations, would become disqualified 
according to his interpretation. Let us consider the situation 
regarding the Buddhist temples. Except for some special 
sects and temples, they do not carry on religious activities as 
he defined that term. At present the main activity, though 
not the only activity, of Buddhists temples is conducting 
funerals and holding memorial services for the dead. 

According to the arguments of this advocate, though the 
temple is a religious facility, it cannot be called a religious 
organization. This is contrary to the facts. If funeral serv 
ices are conducted and prayers for the repose of the souls are 
offered, from the Buddhist point of view, these rituals are 
religious activities. It is also true that such rituals, from the 
standpoint of the original spirit of Buddhism, raise many 
questions, even though Gautama and his followers, including 
Honen, Shinran, Nichiren, Dogen and the founders of Kama- 
kura Buddhism, did not consider such rituals of great concern. 

Let us now consider the situation of the Shinto Shrines. 
If a Shrine exists at a specified location, then this is where 
the devout believer comes to pause before the Torii, and pass 
under the Torii and stand before the sanctuary, and quietly 
clasp his hands in prayer. He does not clasp his hands 
because of the shrine buildings, or because of the beauties of 
nature that surround them. He offers his supplication and 
his worship to God, and prays for a peaceful daily life, 



56 TODAY S ISSUES 

happiness and success. At this place, there is religious 
activity with religious effect centered in the shrine. At such 
times, it is rare that a Shinto priest would appear, especially 
for the purpose of acquiring or instructing believers. In the 
rural areas, shrines with regular, full time priests are 
numerous. 

XL The Ideology of the Advocates of the Bill (3) 

The third feature of the arguments of those who favor 
nationalization, regardless of whether they are conscious of 
it or not, is based on their praise and acceptance of the former 
Imperial regime. Instead of recognizing the separation of 
religion and government, they approve the uniting of religion 
and government. But what religion is it that they anticipate 
uniting with the state? It is not one sect of Christianity, 
nor one sect of Shinto. It is precisely Shrine Shinto itself. 
The Shrine deifies the ancestors of the Emperor and those 
who died for the nation. Accordingly it is natural that they 
should receive special protection from the nation, these 
advocates maintain. 

Underlying this is the approval of the old Constitution s 
Emperor System and special favoring of Shrine Shinto. The 
thing of highest value is closest to the Emperor this is the 
special system of moral values seen here. According to this, 
the standard for deciding what is morally good and what is 
truth, is proximity to the Emperor. So the nearer a person s 
position to the Emperor, the higher his rank as a man, and 
the further from the Emperor his position, the lower his rank 
as a man. This was the widely accepted system of values 
under the old Constitution, and it clashes head-on with the 
fundamental principle of the Sovereignty resting with the 
people, which the present Constitution upholds. 

In that system of ethical values, loving the Emperor was 
the same thing as loving the country, because the State and 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 57 

the Emperor were one and the same. In the present defense 
of the nationalization of Yasukuni, the value of the present 
Constitution is ignored. We see this same type of thinking 
in the paper published by the Ministry of Education, called 
"The Ideal Japanese." That is, "If we direct our respect 
toward the Emperor, then we direct it toward our country." 
This reveals the lack of understanding of the fundamental 
principle of the Constitution, and especially Article 99 of our 
Constitution, by those who have a special duty to respect and 
protect the Constitution. 

As I have stated before, a man may be permitted to 
demand his freedom only when he does not interfere with 
freedom of others, who also demand freedom. Briefly, we 
cannot insist on our freedom at the sacrifice of the freedom 
of another. This is applicable concerning religious freedom. 
The Shrines, from their own standpoint, insist upon religious 
freedom. In spite of this, they are indifferent toward the 
religious freedom of other believers. This is brought out 
in the following view published by the headquarters of Shrine 
Shinto: "To those precious souls enshrined at Yasukuni, who 
sacrificed their life for their country, the nation and its 
citizens should offer sincere thanks and homage. And all 
other Shinto ceremonies should be conducted according to 
the principle of religious freedom." 

Religious freedom under the old Constitution was inade 
quately guaranteed, as we have mentioned before. This 
freedom was allowed only within the framework of Shrine 
Shinto as the state religion. For those who could not approve 
of giving special status to Shrine Shinto, religious freedom 
was severely restricted. The above-rcntioned statement by 
the head of the Shrines reminds us of the mistaken view of 
religious freedom of that day. That is, a religion tied up 
with government authority is insisting that it has the pre 
rogative to define the limits of the freedom of religion. 
When it comes to the matter of paying our respects to the 



58 TODAY S ISSUES 

war dead, the spirit of the Constitution must be respected. 
Nay, especially then must the freedom of religion, as deter 
mined by the constitution, be guarded. This is because the 
constitution is a precious inheritance which the earnest desire 
of the war dead for peace and democracy made possible for 
the country. 

XII. The Advocates Views Concerning Religion and 
Education 

The supporters of the bill make statements concerning 
religious education in government schools. They point out 
that there are 40 countries which have religious education 
in the public schools, and only 15, among them Japan, where 
religious education is not taught in the public schools. On 
this point they are suggesting that, since the number of 
countries where religious education is taught in the public 
schools is large, Japan should also have religious education 
in the public schools. Again, their main consideration is not 
what is the proper course, but what course does the majority 
follow. The importance of what is called the principle of 
deciding by the majority should not be denied here, but the 
numerical consideration should not be the sole deciding factor. 

Generally, the most effective foundation for moral educa 
tion is religious education. Therefore social education, 
especially religious education, has a rather important meaning 
in our country, the reason being that religious education in 
the home is insufficient. However, the crucial problem here 
is the feasibility of effecting proper religious education 
through the schools. In the case of mission schools or other 
religious schools in which the definite educational aim is in 
accord with a particular faith, the problem is not so great. 
But difficult problems arise in the public schools, especially in 
primary and secondary schools. 

The situation in Japan is different from the countries of 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 59 

Europe in that we have so many religions, denominations and 
sects between 400 and 500. 

For reasons already explained in detail, to give instruction 
in each religion, sect or denomination in the public schools is 
extremely difficult. From an abstract point of view, religious 
education in the public schools is desirable. However, from 
a concrete point of view, it is rather impossible to accom 
plish. But what about courses in religion, in religious senti 
ment and experience, in the history of religion, and in the 
lives of great religious leaders? Of course this is not a 
simple thing, but it is not impossible and, one might even 
say, desirable. However, we can hardly say that this neces 
sarily constitutes true religious education. 

The proponents, on the one hand, denounce the separation 
of religion and state, even as they insist on the necessity of 
religious education in the public schools. On the other hand, 
they speak of Shinto thus: "It is, in religious terminology, a 
national religion (or a racial religion). It enshrines our 
Japanese ancestors who contributed to our national welfare. 
It is a religion espoused only by the Japanese." At this point 
they have already admitted that Shinto is indeed a religion 
the national religion of Japan. When we relate this to their 
theory of religious education, their aim becomes more evident. 
Although they do not openly say so, when they speak of 
religious education in the public schools, which they openly 
advocate, their intention is to make Shinto the basis of 
religious education. 

In my opinion, the religious education which these ad 
vocates of nationalization are talking about is most certainly 
not religious education based on Chritsianity. Neither can 
it be religious education based on the teachings of a parti 
cular sect of Buddhism. What they are advocating is religious 
education based upon the fundamental thought of Shinto. 

Here we are reminded of a textbook published in 1937 
(Showa 12) by the Japanese government, entitled, "The 



60 TODAY S ISSUES 

Principle of National Status." It expresses the fundamental 
idea of Shinto thought. More precisely, the idea of the 
divinity of the Emperor in its essential expression was found 
in the Imperial Rescript on Education, promulgated by the 
Imperial Constitution of 1890 (Meiji 23). It was read 
ceremonially by the principal of every public school. Under 
the present Constitution with its pillars of the sovereign 
rights of the people, respect for civil rights and peace, what 
kind of official textbooks, based on Shinto thought, would the 
government publish? 

XIII. SHINTO as a State Religion and Ultra- 
Nationalism 

When we consider the problem of this bill, it is very 
important that we reflect on the era of narrow nationalism 
which resulted in granting special status to Shrines. Gen 
erally, the advocates of the Yasukuni nationalization seem to 
be deficient when it comes to reflecting on the past. In 
former times, Shinto ideology was expressed in the spirit of 
Hakko Ichiu, (Literally, "eight worlds under one roof"), 
which was the spiritual and psychological motivation of 
national policy. Because this is absolute truth, all others 
(nations) should accept it too, its advocates believed. Through 
this teaching, a united world would be realized. However, 
mankind does not conform to a single ideology. Therefore, 
this is not in truth a global principle. This is actually 
ultra-nationalism clothed in the garb of globalism (cosmo 
politanism). Futher, this is not based on either true inter 
nationalism or true nationalism. True nationalism exists, as 
the preamble to the Constitution states: "Other countries must 
not be ignored, while considering only the problems of our 
own country." As J.G. Fichte says: "True nationalism is 
realized when the mutual well being and prosperity of all 
peoples is recognized." (cf. Frichte s Philosophy of Govern- 



NATIONALIZATION OF YASUKUNI SHRINE 61 

ment, by Nanbara Shigeru, 2nd ed. vol. 3 p. 4). 

One of the symbols of self-righteous "internationalism" at 
that time was the building of shrines, one after another, in 
countries occupied by the Japanese army. Not only Japanese, 
but also the citizens of the occupied countries were compelled 
to worship at these shrines. This was regarded by these 
countries as an example of Japanese conceit, egoism, and as 
absurdly old-fashioned. I remember one of my Chinese 
friends severely criticizing Japanese shrine policy at that 
time. Japanese policy for Asia, on this point too, indeed 
had been a complete failure. The Shrines may insist: "At 
that time, we were compelled to do this by the military 
authorities and the Government, and we did not do so will 
ingly." However, it is only natural that when a religion has 
been given a privileged position by the state it will be con 
trolled by the state s authority. No matter what kind of 
dishonesty or error the government commits, when there 
exists a real union of church and state, it is always convenient 
to favor the government. 

Accordingly it may seem severe to say that the real 
responsibility for the errors of that day belongs to the shrines. 
Rather the actual responsibility lies with the system of the 
union of government and religion, and we should say that this 
responsibility lies more with the undemocratic Emperor System 
that made this possible. 

After the war, Shinto lost its privileged position as the 
state religion, and was recognized as an ordinary religion. 
In a manner of speaking, Shinto was thrown, by one stroke, 
into the movement toward religious freedom. Especially for 
Yasukuni, which had been closely connected with military 
force and war power, this was a painful and most awkward 
position. But at the same time, the situation should have 
been a heaven sent opportunity for Shinto to learn an invalu 
able lesson. It should have taken this opportunity to make 
a recovery. Nay, it is not too late even yet for them to 



62 TODAY S ISSUES 

recover. But there is no other way to do this except by the 
inner spiritual energy of the believers, and this must be based 
on the principle of separation of religion and government. 
This is the only way for Shinto to maintain its life in our 
time. We know that there are some people in Shinto who 
are wrestling seriously with this problem. These people are 
endeavoring to relate the individual consciences of Shinto 
believers to hereditary Shinto belief. "The modernization of 
Shinto" must begin at this point. 

Though a system of religion relying upon the protection 
of government authority may seem to be a wonderful thing 
at first glance, it eventually proves to be the way to power- 
lessness and degeneration, and the way that leads to unde- 
mocratization. The history of the relationship between reli 
gion and the state shows this fact clearly. This acknowledg 
ment is needed not only for Shinto, but also especially for 
believers of all religions, including Christianity and Buddhism, 
.and by all citizens as well. 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 



Robert Epp 

No one questions the need to understand the 1970s or to 
see in clearer perspective the thought and action of the 
progressive forces. It is the Japanese Left, after all, which 
promises to cause most of the trouble during the coming 
decade. Unfortunately, too few realize that our attitudes 
create a significant barrier to understanding either the 
seventies or the Left. More precisely, Western values and 
presuppositions as to what is right create a psychological 
barrier which makes understanding difficult. This is espe 
cially true for the American who too often imagines that 
those who oppose his style of life and his political system 
are inherently evil. Perhaps the most offending aspect of 
this psychology is the tendency to think in rigid black-and- 
white absolutes and, on the basis of these "eternal verities," 
to pronounce value judgments without considering the values 
and assumptions made by the other fellow, in this case the 
progressive. If what a Japanese radical says and does fails 
to match our prearranged conceptions of what is economically 
and politically good or bad, we tend to disparage him. 

Three attitudes are especially insidious because they so 
effectively interfere with or completely frustrate honest 
attempts to understand the issues. We must face up to these 
attitudes or at least be aware of them before we can hope 
to fathom the progressive s thinking and his program. First 
is the tendency to polarize political problems. We like to 
think in terms of free/totalitarian, democratic/communist, 
good/bad. Naturally, we are the free, the democratic and 
the good. All who disagree with us are totalitarian, commu- 



64 TODAY S ISSUES 

nist and bad. This assumption is not only demonic in itself, 
it prevents us from seeing that political problems are virtu 
ally always more complex than a simple either-or analysis 
permits. Second is the inclination to be global evangelists 
trying to peddle our values among the developing nations of 
the world. Naturally, we want everyone else to share our 
freedom, democracy and goodness. But we forget that 
democracy and freedom "have never been ideologies. They 
are a way of life that has slowly evolved . . . [and they] are 
not commodities easily adaptable to foreign climes,"* espe 
cially by force of arms or economic sanctions. A way of 
life is difficult to transplant because rejection mechanisms in 
the alien system are too powerful. Third is the proclivity 
to think political change questionable and, as a result, to 
decry any ideology opposed to the status quo as unadulterated 
evil. 

Does it not seem somewhat inconsistent that a people 
famous for making revolutionary changes in economics and 
technology insist on clinging to the political status quol It is 
perhaps a greater inconsistency that Christians absolutely 
shut their ears to appeals of humanists on the Left for justice 
and for a return to ideals. They refuse to take seriously 
those who demand political change, thinking that the respon 
sibility for understanding appeals for justice rests upon the 
progressive: he must conform to Western, conservative values 
before we listen to him. He must convince us of his 
sincerity, we think, and so our misunderstanding constantly 
reaffirms and justifies itself. Perhaps the responsibility is 
the other way around. At least what follows assumes that 
it is our responsibility to reduce our ignorance of the pro 
gressive s thought and to make sense out of his psychology. 
Until we have a rudimentary insight into his values and 
attitudes, we are not likely to view the scene with any per 
spective or much wisdom. 

Those who would understand the Japanese progressive 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 65 

often find themselves in a situation which provides excellent 
material for a cartoon. One very clever attempt to capture 
the situation appeared some years ago in the Christian Science 
Monitor and gives a hint as to the nature of what confronts 
a person who would understand others. In this cartoon, two 
animals in the foreground are talking to each other about an 
elephant in the background. One is saying, "The distinguish 
ing characteristic of the elephant is its short neck." What 
kind of animal would make such an odd remark about an 
elephant? Of course, only an animal with a long neck a 
giraffe. The giraffe saw the elephant in terms of his own, 
not the elephant s, anatomy. In a sense, when we evaluate 
Japanese Marxists and progressives we are like giraffes look 
ing at an elephant, and we tend to make the same mistake 
the giraffe did as we describe the "elephant" in terms of 
our values and standards rather than in terms of his. No 
wonder our statements are distorted and inaccurate. Thus 
our first task is to realize that we project our "anatomical" 
peculiarities, in this case our ideological presuppositions, on 
those whom we judge. Our job, in a word, is to try to 
understand the Japanese progressive as he is, not as we 
prefer to look at him. 

I. The Situation 

The first requirement for those who would understand the 
progressive is to grasp the environment in which he is operat 
ing. One way to appreciate things as they stand on the eve 
of the seventies is to see the differences between the situation 
as it existed in 1960 and as it exists today. The first dif 
ference is the significant change in the Left s opposition 
tactics and, accordingly, a change in the nature of the 
progressive challenge to the seventies. In 1960, it was neces 
sary to ratify the security treaty. This necessity gave 
opponents of the government three primary targets: the 



66 TODAY S ISSUES 

process of ratification in the Diet, the site of that process 
(i.e. the physical location of the Diet), and the symbol of 
the entire process, the then Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi. 
Once the treaty had been ratified, or rather rammed through 
by the Kishi regime, and once the premier had resigned, the 
opposition lost its targets and the movement collapsed like a 
punctured balloon. "With the treaty ratified and Kishi s 
resignation plans announced, the inflamed public mood shifted 
abruptly from outrage to apathy." 2 

In 1970, by contrast, a similar collapse appears most 
unlikely. One of the main reasons we can expect sustained 
opposition is that progressive strategy is not limited to 
targets which are easily removable. To begin with, there has 
been no ratification and thus there is no parliamentary process 
to attack. After June 23, 1970, when the initial ten-year 
agreement officially ends, provisions of the treaty will go on 
indefinitely unless either party desires otherwise. The idea 
of "automatic extension" (jido encho) is expressed in Article X 
of the mutual security treaty which stipulates that the agree 
ment "shall remain in force until in the opinion of the 
Governments of the United States of America and Japan 
there shall have come into force such United Nations arrange 
ments as will satisfactorily provide for the maintenance of 
international peace and security in the Japan area." After 
1970, however, the Article stipulates that "either Party may 
give notice to the other Party of its intention to terminate 
the Treaty, in which case the Treaty shall terminate one year 
after such notice has been given." 3 

Without a parliamentary process or a building to attack, 
the opposition has been forced to choose alternate targets: 
Okinawa and American bases in Japan. Needless to say, 
Prime Minister Eisaku Sato could as easily become the butt 
of criticism as his elder brother, Kishi, was in 1960. Much 
depends on how circumspectly he handles himself, although 
in 1970 the premier has no parliamentary process during 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 67 

which he can imitate Kishi s disastrous May 19, 1960, caper 
and thus coalesce an otherwise fragmented opposition, even 
within the Liberal Democratic Party. 4 More important, 
however, is the fact that the new targets promise to have a 
good deal more staying power than those the opposition 
chose in 1960. At the moment the focus is on Okinawa. But 
Okinawa is not only a long distance away, it is remote to the 
interests of the average Japanese. It is fair to say that, 
despite considerable irredentist sentiment, there is much pre 
judice against Okinawans, who in the past have often been 
treated like second-rate citizens. 5 Moreover, the possibility 
exists that Washington will accede to Japanese demands that 
the island be returned as soon as possible without the presence 
of nuclear weapons. If so, one leg of the progressive program 
would be shorn off. 

The other leg, American bases in Japan, remains. While 
Okinawa is distant the bases are near, they are visible, and 
they are constant thorns in the side. With few exceptions, 
American installations are in or near heavily populated areas 
so that they are exposed to the public view. Their exposure 
often generates considerable local opposition, especially when 
an American plane crashes. Less spectacular reasons for 
public outcry involve noise from jet planes and various 
undesirable elements in the immediate neighborhood of bases 
where "camp followers" congregate. A recent bill to include 
zones around American military installations as "public 
nuisance" (kogai) areas was defeated in the Diet. In any 
event the bases can wait; presently the stress is on Okinawa. 
The strategy may be to move from that which is far to that 
which is near because, even if Okinawa is returned in the 
near future, it seems inevitable that some American bases in 
Japan will remain, at least for the immediate future. They 
will be handy targets for the opposition, particularly for 
rambunctious students, and issues over which public opinion 
can easily be whipped up against the government s pro- 



68 TODAY S ISSUES 

American policy. 

The second general difference between 1960 and 1970 is 
the intensity and the breadth of the mood of opposition to. 
American policy in Asia. The mood has been fanned by 
constant exposure in the mass media of incidents such as 
Okinawa Day. But perhaps the potential of a long-term 
persistence of the mood is best revealed in the way Okinawa 
is being presented to elementary school children. Teachers 
and radio broadcasts beamed to the upper grades introduce 
children to the mood of opposition and reiterate the national 
istic dimensions of the Okinawa problem. For example, a 
regular Friday morning program on current events intended 
for children of the upper grades repeatedly deals with 
Okinawa: the huge American bases there, the fact that it is 
Japanese territory and yet only American currency can be 
used, the lamentable fact that a Japanese citizen cannot visit 
the island without permission from the U.S. government, etc. 
In a different context, a scholar complained that he was 
fingerprinted like a common criminal before he could get 
permission to lecture there.c April 25, the Friday before 
Okinawa Day on the 28th, was of course a legitimate time to 
remind children that Okinawa should be returned.? Constant 
exposure confronts children regularly with the need to think 
about and deal with the problem. 

At least this particular broadcast is handled dispassionate 
ly. Other material exposing youngsters to the Okinawa 
problem is not necessarily presented in an objective manner. 
More important, blatantly anti-American material will very 
likely increase during the coming months. Many principals 
and individual teachers frankly admit that they deal with 
Okinawa in their classrooms. There is the possibility that 
not only these teachers but all belonging to the Japan Teachers 
Union (Nikkyoso) will have in their possession a book which 
is often less than dispassionate and objective. Between 
January 25 and 28, 1969, the Nikkyoso conducted a study 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 69 

meeting at Kumamoto to explore possible reading materials 
on Okinawa, and decided to recommend a supplementary 
reader written and widely used by teachers on Okinawa: 
Watashitaclii no Okinawa (Our Okinawa). In fact, Nikkyoso 
representatives adopted a resolution to put a copy of the 
book into the hands of each union member. They have 
accordingly begun a movement to purchase 600,000 copies. 8 
Whether or not the Ministry of Education approves the 
reader, it seems a foregone conclusion that the content of the 
book will filter down to the children. 

Watashitachi no Okinawa purports to be a straightforward 
presentation of the facts. Some supporters, among them the 
well-known young novelist Kenzaburo Oe, praise the book for 
its lack of bias. 9 True, the book presents objective data on 
the economy and agriculture of the island, but it also devotes 
much space to describing the missile sites, the large amount 
of land requisitioned for American bases, the ominous B-52s 
which fly to Vietnam, the nuclear submarines which frequent 
Okinawan ports, etc., highly emotionally charged issues in 
Japan. Quite apart from the incontrovertible truth of these 
facts are their implications. It is difficult not to conclude 
that the entire book is, in fact, calculated to incite children 
against the allegedly unjust and undemocratic activities of 
Americans on the island. 

A human interest story illustrates the level of objectivity 
characteristic of the book. The setting is the dawn of 
February 24, 1955, when 300 armed Americans invaded 
lejima, an island to the north of Okinawa proper. In battle 
dress, with pistols, rifles and machine guns in hand, these 
troops came to take over a village, heartlessly ignoring the 
requests of the people to make a base elsewhere. The case of 
a sixty-year-old farmer points up the people s lack of civil or 
human rights under American rule. The old man weeps as 
he pleads with the soldiers, "This land has been in my 
family for generations. It is my life. If you take it I won t 



70 TODAY S ISSUES 

be able to eat. Please ! Please, don t take my land. If you re 
going to tear it up with that bulldozer, you ll have to kill me 
first." Then he throws himself down in front of the bull 
dozer, forcing armed Americans to wrap him up in a blanket 
and take him away to Okinawa by helicopter. 10 One need 
not question that such events have happened. The issue is 
rather that the descriptions are clearly anti-American and 
that repeated exposure will have a long-range effect on the 
children who read these stories. As with fish in a stream, 
it is impossible for people to escape being swept along by 
their environment, even while being conscious of the current. 

The third difference between the situation in 1960 and that 
on the eve of the seventies is the growing intensity of 
nationalism. There can be no doubt that Watashitachi no 
Okinawa has strong nationalistic appeal, or that nationalism 
increasingly moves the "water" in which Japanese swim. 
Doubtlessly related to Japan s expanding economic power and 
her increasing wish to take a more active and positive role 
in international affairs, the rise in nationalism is by no 
means limited to progressives. At least as far back as 1961, 
conservative Japanese businessmen have advocated what one 
Japanese scholar calls "economic nationalism," "a principle 
which demands that Japan act independently in international 
economic competition. Practically speaking, it can be boiled 
down to the desire to decrease our economic dependence on 
America." 11 

One way in which this desire has manifested itself is the 
demand for structural reform in the Japanese business world. 
Nationalism sanctions radical adjustments in the name of 
strengthening the economy vis-a-vis the United States. The 
most obvious type of reform active at the moment is the 
merger. The stated aim of amalgamations, which are almost 
always concluded between large companies in order to make 
an even larger entity, is the strengthening of the Japanese 
economy against external pressures. 12 Against the leviathan 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 71 

of the West a strong position is a natural goal for business 
men whose economy so utterly depends on trade; 80% of 
Japan s industrial raw materials and 20% of her foodstuffs are 
imported. Even if she produced enough edibles to feed her 
population according to present-day dietary standards, Japan, 
existing as she does by exporting finished goods, could not 
survive long without the requisite raw materials. Structural 
reformers are therefore busy planning measures to reduce 
the vulnerability of Japan s economy and to overcome economic 
pressures from abroad, especially from America. They believe 
that merger is one such measure. 

Growing nationalism, self-confidence and desire for in 
dependence stimulate- increasing opposition to Japan s depen 
dence on America. We see here an attitude which "comprises 
two different factors operating together the factor of 
national pride, and [the factor of] aversion to involvement 
in war as a result of military alliance with the United 
States."is Structural reformers press for rationalization of 
Japanese trade patterns, which means, among other things, 
more trade with nearby nations, irrespective of political 
systems, as well as increased autonomy to adopt diplomatic 
policies directed toward Japanese rather than American 
national interests. But antipathy to the "made in Washing 
ton" label on Japanese foreign policy and fear of Japan s 
anti-China containment and isolation policy are increasing, 
perhaps in response to the rise in nationalism. Note, for 
example, the growing number of voluntary organizations 
formed among housewives and the like with the explicit pur 
pose of supporting peace. One scholar writes, "On June 15, 
1968, more than two hundred civic groups organized rallies 
in various cities to protest against the war in Vietnam, and 
thousands of persons participated in Tokyo, mobilized by a 
number of tiny civic groups."i* This reaction indicates some 
of the average citizen s intense concern over his nation s 
attitude toward peace, nuclear weapons and American policy. 



72 TODAY S ISSUES 

The growth of national pride, self-confidence, and this 
concern give rise to a new situation. The mood on the eve 
of 1970 is quite different from that on the eve of the 1960 
security treaty crisis. Given the difference, moreover, in the 
goals which the opposition has adopted for the seventies, we 
must conclude that the "outs" have the potential to motivate 
anti-American disturbances over a long term. The problem 
is not just 1970 but the 1970s because the rising mood of 
opposition and the substantive increase in nationalism inten 
sify the possibility that the Left will be able to get control of 
public opinion. Should they succeed, not only will they be 
able to generate constant tension and cause innumerable 
incidents, but (depending of course on their methods) a 
considerable portion of the population might support the 
progressive program. On the eve of the seventies we must 
indeed face the sobering fact that the gathering storm seems 
much more ominous than it did in 1960 and that small com 
promises, half-hearted gestures, and temporizing concessions 
will hardly calm the troubled seas. 

II. Principles Behind the Progressive Program 

Those who would understand what the elephant is really 
like must grasp his "mental environment" by trying to 
understand his psychology or mind-set. Needless to say, the 
most important aspect of this "environment" is the rising 
nationalism just described. If we keep that in mind, it will 
be easier to refrain from the customary temptation to 
polarize the political situation or to imagine that those who 
disapprove of U.S. policies and diplomatic activities are ipso 
facto communists or Marxists or enemies. In the case of 
many Japanese progressives, their disapproval has a single 
common denominator: nationalism. Many others may base 
objections to America s "imperialistic" posture in Asia on 
humanistic Marxist principles, but the way they state their 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 73 

opposition inevitably reflects the deep-rooted concern that 
Japan seek her own rather than American national interests. 

One way to grasp the Left s mind-set is to be aware of 
several principles underlying attempts by progressives to win 
public support for their position on the security treaty. Two 
closely related principles of radical thought are particularly 
germane to the winning of public support: Utopian idealism 
and pacifism. In one way or another, these ideals or their 
variations appeal to many Japanese, and not just to those 
on the far left. Utopian idealism probably has greater appeal 
to the young than to the old, but there is a nearly universal 
trend to pacifism in Japan. Pacifism, moreover, feeds and 
overlaps with idealistic hopes for a Utopian order. 

By Utopian idealism I mean simply the expectation the 
average radical has that his ideals will be realized in a future 
order, a Utopia free of the tensions, contradictions and 
problems affecting modern society. Certainly we might sus 
pect that the Utopian dreams of Japanese Marxists are what 
one scholar calls the reaction of "traditional societies to the 
strain placed upon [them] in the process of modernization." 15 
One aspect of modernization which provokes an irritated 
reaction is the trend toward differentiation, whether this 
manifests itself as specialization or as a balance of power 
among members of the nuclear club. Rejecting the policy of 
balance of power is a natural corollary of rejecting nearly 
every peculiarly modern feature of present day society and 
its powerful movement toward the alienation of human 
beings. One of the most sinister causes of alienation, so 
progressives believe, is attachment to the status quo. That 
is why, almost without exception, radicals become quite upset 
by those who support the status quo, whether that means 
acknowledging the balance of power between the U.S.A. and 
the U.S.S.R., or creating political stability based on demands 
to be "realistic." 

The progressive s uniform antipathy to "realism," which 



74 TODAY S ISSUES 

more properly we might call "as-it-is-ism" (genjitsushugi) , is 
rooted in a paradoxical assumption. On the one hand, the 
progressive assumes that change has been bad: the change, 
that is, from a time when men were not alienated from society, 
to the modern age when men are inevitably estranged from 
their essential humanity due to contradictions caused by 
specialization and differentiation. On the other, he assumes 
that change is good: meaning change from the alienated 
present to a future (suspiciously like the distant past) where 
there will be no alienation. It is possible to understand why 
some elements of the Utopian idealism of the Japanese Left 
appeal also to those of the Right if we keep this paradox in 
mind. Stripped of the idea of radical change and revolution, 
the Utopia the revolutionaries desire resembles certain ele 
ments characteristic of pre-modern, traditional society before 
industrialism alienated men and fragmented their culture. 
Some of the ideals those revolutionaries strive for were 
announced by Confucianists and Taoists more than two 
millenia ago they are ideas dear to the conservative heart. 
Paradoxes aside, however, realism is anathema to the radical. 
Of all realistic policies, the 19th century balance-of-power 
concept is perhaps most suspect. Some idealists believe this 
policy causes rather than prevents wars, and regard as 
anathema America s China containment policy which appears 
to be based completely on the notion of balancing power and 
maintaining the status quo. This after all, could cause 
Japan to become "the testing ground of a limited Sino- 
American nuclear war."i6 A progressive detests so-called 
"realistic policies" such as power balance and regards them 
as the most unrealistic strategy imaginable. Washington s 
China isolation policy is a case in point. Rather than 
ameliorating, it exacerbates tension in East Asia and makes 
China more frustrated, more justified in the conviction that 
America is an imperialistic monster, more dangerous, and 
hence more liable to cause trouble in Asia. 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 75 

A saner and more realistic policy would be to involve 
China in international politics by encouraging rather than 
discouraging her activities in the international arena. Pro 
gressives think that a policy which first creates tension and 
then makes every effort to preserve that tension one which, 
in short, accepts and stresses the isness of the situation is 
unrealistic and erroneous. That is why many progressive 
intellectuals prefer to stress the oughtness of the situation. 
And that is why they ask whether the realist "is honestly 
satisfied with Japan s present reality, and whether he 
conceives of this reality as an immutable absolute which man 
must accept. . . ," 17 Naturally the progressive answer is 
No, for man can and must change society. Progress and 
development toward the ideal society are thus primary 
values. 

Of course, progressives do not believe that the government 
party, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), is interested in 
ideals or committed to developing an ideal society. Out of 
their negative evaluation come various acerbic criticisms of 
Premier Sato s presumably anti-idealistic viewpoint. In 
March, during examination of the 1970 budget, for example, 
Mr. Sato was questioned on the extent of his adherence to 
the three principles governing Japan s attitude toward 
nuclear weapons (that is, not to manufacture them, not to use 
them, not to allow them in the country). He failed to 
respond satisfactorily to a question which probed his opinion 
on allowing tactical, i.e. defensive, nuclear weapons in Japan. 
The prime minister later tried to justify his equivocal answer 
by saying that the Constitution does not seem to prohibit 
the use of tactical nuclear weapons. But the damage had 
been done. His idealistic opponents interpreted his statement 
as a kind of political "Freudian slip" which disclosed a 
nefarious plan to smuggle tactical nuclear weapons into 
Okinawa, perhaps even onto the mainland. The official organ 
of the Japan Communist Party, Akahata (Red Flag), was 



76 TODAY S ISSUES 

especially vociferous,^ but even an editorial in the much more 
level-headed Asahi expressed serious doubts about Sato s 
sincerity. 19 Such is the psychology of the Utopian idealist. 

The progressives detect hypocrisy or deviousness even 
where neither exists. They are perhaps as suspicious of 
conservatives as the conservatives are of communists. No 
wonder they mistrust a government dedicated to supporting 
the status quo and opposed to development of an ideal society, 
especially when status quo regimes include Batista s of Cuba, 
Diem s of Vietnam, Park s of Korea, and Chiang s of Taiwan. 
Rather than worshiping balance of power and inadvertently 
becoming bedfellows with these "reactionary dictators," pro 
gressives prefer to work with the concept of a balance of 
virtue . . . the virtue of pacifism, the second principle underly 
ing the thinking of radicals in Japan. As we know, pacifism 
has a powerfully idealistic appeal in post-World War II 
Japan. 

The breadth of this appeal was clearly revealed in the 
widespread popular opposition to the visit of the U.S.S. 
Enterprise, a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier which visited 
the port of Sasebo in January 1968. During its visit, the 
Asahi received "8,163 letters (four times as many as ... in 
an ordinary month) . . . among which 2,516 were concerned 
with the issue of the Enterprise alone." 20 Many criticize 
their government on moral and practical grounds for per 
mitting such ships to call at Japanese ports. They think 
that Japan, of all nations, should take a moral lead in the 
anti-nuclear movement as the only nation that has suffered 
from atomic bombs. On practical grounds, they believe that 
the use of Japanese ports by such vessels constitutes a threat 
to nearby China, aggravates Sino-American friction, and, 
in the event of hostilities, could involve Japan. The same 
concern for peace has spawned innumerable voluntary organi 
zations, many formed by housewives who devote new-found 
leisure to studying peace and organizing peace demonstra- 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 77 

tions. 

The urge for peace seeks further disengagement from the 
American anticommunist treaty system. The ultimate aim of 
this urge is unarmed neutrality. Certainly a more idealistic, 
daring or novel solution to Japan s current problems would 
be hard to imagine. And this ultimate aim is a clear illustra 
tion of the close relation between the idealist s eschatological 
hopes for a Utopian society and his hopes for peace. These 
coincide in his absolute rejection of the status quo. "Neutral 
ism is orientated toward the future, whereas participation in 
the cold war means preoccupation with the past. As a way 
of thinking, neutralism emphasizes the mutability and malle 
ability of reality." 21 

Progressive scholars are not alone in urging the ideal of 
unarmed neutrality as the sanest, most realistic route for 
Japanese diplomacy to take. Letters to the editor of the 
Asahi express the logic of this approach. A typical letter, 
written by a fifty-year-old man and published on May 7, 1969, 
argues, in support of unarmed neutrality, the impossibility of 
protecting the nation by arms, and the persuasive advantage 
of an unarmed country over an armed one in convincing others 
of the need for peace. He says, "It is clear that the primary 
deterrent against the use of nuclear weapons in Vietnam was 
the existence of a worldwide commitment to peace which 
makes possible the creation of a universal peace organization. 
This has become possible thanks to the effect of the mass 
media in contemporary society." 

Belief that "unarmed neutrality is a kind of permanent 
realism which makes possible a peaceful future built on the 
noble ideal that we are universal men" 22 perfectly reflects the 
widespread aversion to war and nuclear weapons. And this 
belief asserts the spirit of the Constitution which supports the 
aversion. The preamble of the Constitution says that "We, 
the Japanese people, desire peace for all time and are . . . 
determined to preserve our security and existence, trusting 



78 TODAY S ISSUES 

in the justice and faith of the peace-loving peoples of the 
world." This assertion is powerfully supported by the blunt 
rejection of war in Article IX: "Aspiring sincerely to inter 
national peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people 
forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the na 
tion. . . ," 32 

Events occurring in East Asia only confirm the Japanese 
belief in the need for peace and the possibility that unarmed 
neutrality is a viable means to its realization. Many cringe 
every time they hear an American congressman say that 
"the United States should pressure Japan into changing its 
Constitution so that it could produce a greater military force 
to defend itself." 24 Such statements, they say, display a lack 
of sensitivity to Japanese public opinion. Because of the 
fear that China would dispatch volunteers, as she did to 
Korea in 1950, and perhaps involve Japan in the hostilities, 
many Japanese were utterly discouraged by U.S. escalation 
of the war in Vietnam, notably the bombing of North Vietnam 
which commenced in February 1965. In October 1964, a mere 
four months before this escalation, China exploded her first 
atomic device, giving notice of entry into the nuclear club and 
of potential to strike an enemy in the Far East, i.e. U.S. 
bases in Japan. 

Peking s second round of nuclear tests in May 1965, con 
tributed to the tension in Japan by reminding Japanese of 
those jittery days five years earlier when, after the U-2 
Incident, Defense Minister Malinovsky "ordered Soviet rocket 
installation commanders to strike back at bases used by 
planes that violated Soviet air space."25 As countless Japa 
nese believed that U-2 pilot Francis Powers had flown from 
.Japan, there was widespread hysteria, quite understandable 
in view of the demonstration by the Soviets, several weeks 
before, of their prowess in rocketry in the orbiting of a 4.5 
ton spaceship. Clearly they could deliver their missiles to 
;any target, and certainly to U.S. bases in Japan. 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 79 

It is difficult to speak of concepts like Utopian idealism 
and pacifism apart from the way they manifest themselves in 
action, as opposed to abstract thought. There are many 
means by which progressives articulate their ideas or transfer 
them into action. Here I shall touch on but two such means 
or principles of action: opposition and struggle. Related as 
closely as idealism and pacifism, these appear to be logical 
extensions of the two principles of thought just described. 

Opposition to the government and to the status quo is the 
primary means by which Japanese idealists hope to bring their 
ideals and their hope for peace before the public. Members 
of the Japan Socialist Party and the Japan Communist Party 
exemplify progressives who are conscious of the frustrating 
impotence of their minority status. They accordingly believe 
that effective opposition to the majority party can be carried 
on only outside parliamentary procedures. To date, at any 
rate, the government party has been able to put through 
whatever legislation it desires, often ignoring the "outs" and 
arbitrarily trying to cut off debate on sensitive issues thus 
infuriating the Left. In fact, perpetual frustration has forced 
the "outs" to imagine that they can defend democracy only 
by working outside established structures. Their logic is that 
because Tories control the structures, the institutions are no 
longer really democratic. The result is that "democracy is 
in peril if one party knows only how to govern and the others 
only how to oppose."26 Students and intellectuals become 
terribly cynical because they feel so politically impotent, 27 
and the greater their cynicism the more intense their oppo 
sition to majority rule. 

Opposition per se seems at times the very reason for 
existence of the "outs." The progressive is not a progressive 
unless he opposes the conservative forces. He feels he must 
criticize everything they do and damn everything they sug 
gest. While those of the Left feel no responsibility to offer 
concrete and workable plans in lieu of those they obliterate 



80 TODAY S ISSUES 

by their criticisms, they regard their actions by no means as 
purely negative because the principles of idealism and paci 
fism lend meaning to their opposition. Much like an evangel 
ist, the progressive is saying to the Tory, "Repent of your 
evil works, cast off the devil, change your heart and pledge 
yourself to the ideals of a new society and world peace." 
Almost every radical is convinced that conservatives are 
concerned primarily with selfish interests, and are against 
ideals, peace, and the interest and happiness of the people. 
This totally unfavorable appraisal prevents almost precludes 
the development of a consensus, even on an issue as vital 
as that of national defense. Lacking a consensus, Japan has 
a kind of spiritual vulnerability which not even the American 
nuclear umbrella can compensate for. And as long as oppo 
sition expresses itself primarily in blind and inflexible 
criticism, whether justified or not, Japan may never develop 
a concept of the loyal opposition. 

Irrational opposition for the sake of opposition appears to 
inhibit the growth of a balanced democratic process, making 
it difficult to overcome or transcend petty factional disputes. 
The primitive tribal conviction that harmony is vital in our 
ranks, but not between our camp and their camp, continues 
to interfere with attempts to achieve unified action or to 
agree on joint programs. But in this day of almost instan 
taneous communication, changes must come if the parties are 
to survive. If nothing else, perhaps nationalism may be 
strong enough to overcome the narrow-minded resistance to 
working with those outside "my tribe." Socialists and 
communists recently had occasion to experience the pull of 
nationalism when they considered holding a joint protest 
meeting in Yoyogi Park on Okinawa Day, April 28. As late 
as April 23, however, newspapers announced that the Japan 
Socialist Party and the Japan Communist Party, failing to 
reach agreement, had decided to hold separate meetings on 
the seventeenth anniversary of Japan s pro forma independ- 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 81 

ence, the day the San Francisco peace treaty went into 
effect. 

On Sunday, April 27, members of the Okinawa delegation 
attempted to break the impasse and get the progressive 
parties to cooperate. According to reports, the appeal was 
frankly nationalistic. The Okinawans said that everyone on 
the island wanted to return to the fatherland. There may be 
some exaggeration in the claim, but the appeal effectively 
accomplished its aim. Progressives had been told what they 
already knew to be true: the issue was one on which they 
must cooperate. Nevertheless, many failed to cooperate, and 
refused to show up at Yoyogi or participate in the orderly 
demonstration following the joint meeting. Among the dis 
senters were radical students who regard the progressive 
parties as part of the Establishment. These students spent 
the evening clashing with riot police and tearing up Shinbashi 
Station. But the Okinawans nationalistic plea was able to 
overcome entrenched tribal tendencies, at least for an evening. 
Another principle behind the activities of the Left is the 
idea of struggle (toso), a concept which also helps justify 
opposition. There are many kinds of struggles, personal and 
national, class and race. There are also struggles which 
assume the use of force and those which do not. Progressives 
in Japan, more often than not deeply influenced by Marxist 
philosophy, usually have class struggle in mind. At least 
the struggle between classes is somewhere in the progres 
sive s knapsack of basic assumptions. Accordingly, he 
believes that he must wage continual warfare against the 
bourgeois exploiters of other social classes. Because the 
bourgeois will never willingly surrender their base of power 
or stop exploiting others, the progressive says the struggle 
must be unrelenting and eternal. It is analogous to a 
Christian s struggle against sin or the forces of evil. No 
compromise can be made, no accommodations allowed, nor 
can one ever let down his guard completely. Just as a 



g2 TODAY S ISSUES 

Christian has outside help, however, so the progressive is 
certain that he is not alone in his struggle. The forces of 
history are on his side and eventually there will be justice 
(i.e. defeat of the bourgeois view). The "people" -will come 
out on top. But that does not mean the struggle will end. 
It will merely be shifted to preventing the selfish bourgeois 
mentality from infecting even the "elect." In a word, pro 
gressives view struggle as a condition of true manhood, as a 
state or an attitude supported by an eschatological hope. 

Struggle thus includes faith in an imminent Utopia. More 
than a mere hope, this faith appears to be a form of inten- 
tionality, an expression of free will. That is, the progressive 
believes he need not conform to social expectations or bour 
geois psychology. He can dissociate himself from them, 
criticize them, rise above them. He struggles not merely to 
win a point here and a point there, but to push the processes 
of history another step toward the final development of a 
Utopia where men do not exploit other men. This is certainly 
the ultimate expression of intentionality. Struggle therefore 
has tremendous staying power, sustained as it is by a profound 
eschatological hope. It is not easy to discourage those who 
assent to the progressive ideology and believe in the inevita 
bility of their victory. 

Nor is it easy for the bourgeois to negotiate with people 
dedicated to struggle. Those aiming at perfection are not 
apt to satisfied with halfway measures. Compromises are 
never made in order to save the status quo that is regarded 
as a cunning trick of the conservatives but to move the 
situation beyond the status quo. In a word, struggle is also 
dialectical. The struggler makes demand "A". When the 
conservative gives in on point "A", he is immediately con 
fronted with demands for "B" and "C". The process continues 
ad infinitum, ending only in Utopia where there are no 
bourgeois power holders. Viewed secularly, this attitude may 
seem completely inflexible and fanatic. Viewed religiously, 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 83 

however, there is little which surprises us. After all, how 
can one compromise with evil? 

Religious people should not find it difficult, therefore, to 
grasp the progressive s opposition-struggle syndrome, even 
perhaps to sympathize with his ultimate aim of justice and 
peace. Both the way scholars of the radical Left express 
their hopes in an "eternal revolution" aimed at creating and 
guaranteeing a society in which wars and selfishness cannot 
exist, and the way they describe the Utopia they dream of, 
remind the Christian of the prophets dreams of a time and 
place when the law of God will be written in the people s 
hearts. This dream may be articulated in language some- 
w r hat different from King James English, but substantively 
it is remarkably similar to the anti-Establishment, revolu 
tionary language of post-exilic prophets. 

This dream is shared by practically every Japanese pro 
gressive. But because we label such dreams Marxist, and 
because the Marxist philosopher likes to act as though he 
is dealing with objective, scientific, and universal verities 
the same qualities we claim for our dogma we refuse to 
listen. We forget in our counter rhetoric that, in the final 
analysis, the eschatological hopes of the Left are not subject 
to discussion or amenable to compromise. Until we realize 
this fact, we will not understand that the problems facing us 
during the 1970s are rooted in principles which are relatively 
immovable and irrevocable, and which have a broad appeal. 
Crudely put, this means that giving the noisy brat a lollipop 
will not be enough to make him shut up or go away. It is 
not that easy to deprive the progressive of his appeal. 

The radical feels he has no choice but to struggle against 
the bourgeois power holders. He wants no lollipop; he wants 
justice. He does not want to shut up and go away; he wants 
to stay around and contribute to the ultimate conservative 
defeat. Almost everything which conservatives do intensifies 
the radical s assurance that he must continually struggle 



84 TODAY S ISSUES 

against the status quo. Not only does he think his govern 
ment acts as though it is an arm of American policy, he finds 
himself a member of an impotent minority in the Diet, "unable 
to gain any results ... by parliamentary means. . . ." Pro 
gressives are accordingly tempted to "abandon parliamentary 
methods and resort to building up pressures by unparlia 
mentary means which may succeed in moving their opponents 
in the government to make some concessions."^ The frustrated 
"outs" in Japan thus have good reason to agree with Marx 
in labelling parliament "a committee of the bourgeois." They 
also believe they are justified in charging conservatives with 
operating the government for the selfish interest of preserving 
private spheres of power. 

Few frustrations are as intensely resented as those which 
American military power forces on the progressives. A 
recent experience supports the Left s constant iteration that 
the U.S. occupation of Okinawa deprives the islanders of 
their civil rights, and that there is no choice but eternal 
struggle against the unjust, arbitrary methods of a militaristic 
government. Okinawa labor unions decided on January 9, 
1969, to hold a general strike on February 4, the first 
anniversary of stationing B-52s on the island.^ These 
bombers, offensive weapons in every sense of the term, are 
capable of carrying nuclear weapons and symbolize American 
intervention in the Vietnam civil war. U.S. officials on the 
island countered the threat of a paralyzing strike in a way 
which the Left regards as showing the customary American 
disregard for the rights of others and for democratic pro 
cedure. United States officials informed Okinawans on 
January 11 that a Comprehensive Labor Ordinance would go 
into effect on January 25. Announced unilaterally (i.e., the 
Japanese civil government had not been consulted), the 
ordinance banned strikes, picketing, rallies, demonstrations, 
and "any other activities having either the object or effect 
of interfering with the operation of military bases, designated 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 85 

essential industries, or work performed on property under 
U.S. Government control. . . ." 30 

Because Okinawa is literally a floating base (some claim 
as much as one-third of the usable land on the island has been 
preempted by U.S. forces), and because practically any dis 
turbance can be interpreted as "interfering with military or 
essential industry operations," Okinawans saw the ordinance 
as a comprehensive ban on free speech and expression a 
reminder of Japan s prewar reactionary leaders who kept 
similar laws on the books. The galling difference is that the 
Japanese militarists did not claim to be democratic lovers of 
freedom, as Americans do. The ordinance successfully forced 
cancellation of the strike. After all, 33 per cent of all workers 
in the Okinawa Prefecture Labor Unions, the sponsoring 
organization, work for the military. When labor capitulated, 
teachers took over leadership of the opposition campaign. 
The Okinawa Teachers Union, some 12,000 strong, was able 
to organize a series of demonstrations on February 4, the day 
the general strike was scheduled. Teachers took the initiative 
despite the defection of the union workers, despite the ordi 
nance, and despite a steady rain. We might ascertain the 
extent of opposition and the feeling of frustration the arbi 
trary ordinance had generated by noting that an estimated 
280,000 people participated in various protest meetings across 
the island. That means some three per cent of Okinawa s 
entire population turned out, eloquent testimony of the is 
landers disgust for the ordinance and conclusive proof of their 
ardent wish to get rid of the B-52s. 31 

Gag rules like the Comprehensive Labor Ordinance force 
progressives into an opposition-struggle syndrome. Perhaps 
we can best appreciate the psychology informing the Left s 
attitude if we identify this syndrome with the concept of sin. 
By saying the bourgeois attitude that would protect its 
interests at any cost resembles sin, we get a better sense of 
what is involved. And we can also understand why it is that 



86 TODAY S ISSUES 

many bitterly cynical statements made by radical members 
of the opposition sound so very much like the prophet Elijah: 
"I, even I only, remain a prophet of the Lord" (I Kings 18:22). 
Describing the progressive in this way would not make him 
especially happy, but it may help us understand the nature of 
the passion which characterizes his opposition and struggle. 

Thus far we have glanced at two principles which support 
progressive thought and two which support progressive action. 
It remains to describe one aspect of the total mind-set in 
which these principles interact and are applied. One way to 
describe this aspect is to focus on its functional properties 
and to say that the progressive mind-set is conditioned by, 
and in turn conditions, a situational matrix. This sounds 
like a contradiction because the various principles described 
above give the impression of inflexibility while a situational 
ethic seems very flexible. Though the radical is in many 
ways unbelievably inflexible, his extremely rigid principles 
potentially can be applied in a flexible manner. On the other 
hand, the existence of this particular aspect of his mind-set 
can make his response to a given problem or situation less 
predictable than one might imagine, on the assumed basis of 
inflexible principles. 

To understand the Japanese progressive s situational 
orientation, we must first understand that it appears to be 
a manifestation of Japanese character and its spatial orienta 
tion one which at root is quite different from the Westerner s 
customary linear orientation. The American, at any rate, 
generally thinks in terms of moving along a line from one 
point to another. Notice the way street numbers are laid 
out, or the stress on processes and progress, or the usual 
plot development of a play or novel. Whenever an American 
isolates a particular point in time or space, there is a good 
chance that he will describe that point in a way w r hich 
betrays his linear orientation. For example, what we call an 
overpass or underpass is the point at which two linear ribbons 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 87 

intersect. Our interest in the linearity of that junction is 
betrayed by our calling it an underpass or an overpass. The 
terminology stresses linear movement rather than the junction 
itself and merely designates the way one ribbon intersects 
with another. 

Japanese by contrast tend to stress the junction, the point 
at which the streets intersect. An underpass or overpass 
is called a three-dimensional crossing (rittai kosa^ten ]) , 
thereby revealing the Japanese propensity to deal with the 
moment of a relationship, whether it is two highways or 
two people. And, as anyone who has ever tried to find an 
address in this country knows all too well, the community pat 
tern is anything but grid or linear. It is spatial. It is cubic. 
What is important about a machi is that it is a cubic space 
in which houses and their numbers (even in the new system) 
are laid out in a way which responds to and fills up available 
space. This orientation might be described as stress on the 
cubic moment. It is nowhere more obvious than in certain 
types of Japanese literature, in most haiku, and in the major 
ity of pre-modern plays. In none of these is there a basic 
concern for linear development of the plot or an argument. 
Many authors continue to write indeed as though they were 
describing a series of cubic moments linked together somehow 
by threads of feeling or sentiment, not by linear connectives. 

Perhaps Yasunari Kawabata s Nobel Prize acceptance 
speech is a pertinent example of this characteristic. 32 But 
the principle is stated much more positively and clearly in a 
work written by Soseki Natsume in 1907, before he left to 
study in England. Here the leading character, presumably 
Soseki, describes his interest in the cubic moment: "Because 
I am an artist I find any passage of a novel interesting even 
when it is out of context. ... It is because we read novels 
[in this way] . . . that we don t care about the plot. For 
us it is interesting to flip open the book as impartially as if 
we were drawing a sacred lot, and to read aimlessly at 



88 TODAY S ISSUES 

wherever it falls open. "33 The statement, made by an artist 
explaining why he does not get involved in linear development, 
illustrates the paradoxical flexibility/inflexibility characteristic 
of progressive thought and action. The principles informing 
his reaction to a fluid moment remain uncompromisingly rigid 
though, ironically, the very fluidity of the moment may mask 
the principles, making them appear nonexistent. 

The main implication of the cubic moment is that its ad 
hoc, situational fluidity makes action difficult to predict. There 
is a tendency for progressives, as for Japanese in general, to 
evaluate each moment and respond appropriately. Though they 
have subscribed to long-range goals, radicals often determine 
a course of action at the very last moment or delay their de 
cision until it is too late to react effectively to a given situa 
tion. Thus they often emasculate their idealism and pacifism. 
Seen in these terms, one cannot say that the principles have 
been suspended. Quite to the contrary, they are confirmed in 
the action ultimately taken. In any event, orientation to the 
cubic moment combines with these and other principles of 
thought and action to underwrite the progressive s opposition 
and struggle. His is the commitment of a well-motivated 
fighter who cannot be put off by tidbit concessions or half 
hearted compromises. 

In a nutshell, this is the shape of the elephant we giraffes 
have been observing. His deeply religious motivation com 
bines with commitment to certain principles of thought and 
action, thus conditioning him for a long struggle. Given the 
situation as it exists on the eve of the 1970s and given the 
nature of the progressive forces, it should be clear why many 
talk of a difficult decade, not just a difficult year. The most 
effective countermeasure to meet the potential trouble the Left 
will generate is to develop concrete programs which are 
radically creative, yet capable of appealing to public opinion. 
If the progressive approach is skillfully managed, it is quite 
likely that the radical s principles might influence a significant 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 89 

sector of public opinion. It may be impossible to prevent that 
from happening because of the rising mood of opposition and 
the resurgence of nationalism. One promising way to compete 
with the progressives appeal would be a course of action that 
average Japanese can regard as right and just and wise. If 
such action is backed with imaginative and visionary policies, 
the 1970s may be less violent than anticipated. 



Unfortunately the prognosis is not good, for truly creative 
plans do not seem in the making. True, the Sato regime is 
pessimistic about the possibility of avoiding widespread vio 
lence and is drawing up long-range plans to control disorder. 
Funds have been earmarked, for instance, to finance mobiliza 
tion of 800,000 police, should anticipated riots demand a force 
of that magnitude. 34 And leaders of the government party are 
considering possible use of the Self-Defense Force if the situa 
tion gets out of hand. 35 There are also positive plans afoot. 
Conservatives think the maintenance of domestic order de 
mands counter-measures which will assure public support; that 
means policies to improve the schools, control university stu 
dents, curb rising prices, alleviate popular anxieties, and 
strengthen the economy in general. These negative and posi 
tive measures to meet the possibility of violence are all right 
as they go. But they are essentially deterrents rather than 
truly creative attempts to put Japanese diplomacy "in orbit" 
as it were that is, to disengage it from Washington s apron 
strings and allow Tokyo to assume leadership in working for 
peace in East Asia. 

This suggests that perhaps what Washington does is more 
important than what Tokyo does, for to all appearances the 
latter does little more than respond to the lead of the former. 
Unfortunately, Premier Sato s foreign policy often does look 
like a carbon copy of something made in Washington, B.C., 



90 TODAY S ISSUES 

and his cabinet officials often appear to go out of their way 
to justify American policies in Asia. 30 If the puppet myth 
is to be laid to rest, however, the United States must take the 
initiative and, with decisive and precedent-breaking action, 
demonstrate her real power: the moral strength to overcome 
inertia, rectify mistaken policies of the past, and insist on 
Japanese autonomy. 

A creative approach will demand, first of all, a major over 
haul and reorientation of American foreign policy in Asia. 
To begin with, U.S. leaders will have to readjust their thinking 
and treat Japan as a bona fide ally, as an equal partner rather 
than a lackey. This would mean letting Japan act in terms 
of her national interests instead of pressuring her to act in 
terms of American interests. Even more important, perhaps, 
is the need to reexamine the primary source of tension in East 
Asia: the China containment policy. There can be no final 
solution to Okinawa or to American bases in Japan unless 
American officials come to grips with the whole question of 
U.S. power in Asia and the reasons it is there. Many scholars 
and several legislators have urged reconsideration of our China 
policy. In March 1969, Senator Edward M. Kennedy, a Demo 
crat from Massachusetts, and Senator John S. Cooper, a 
Republican from Kentucky, wrote articles suggesting that 
revaluation of Washington s anti-China policies is long over 
due. 37 More and more, responsible people are beginning to 
realize that peace in Asia is impossible without a peaceful 
China, and a peaceful China is unlikely unless she is "brought 
back into the international community and involved in such 
international agreements as the proposed nonproliferation 
treaty, which would, in any event, be meaningless without her 
participation." 38 There is no more opportune time for America 
to announce the intention to change her China policy than in 
1970 when the U.S.-Japan security treaty can be extended, 
revised, or scrapped. At the same moment, Washington must 
not only initiate a study of means to bring America s Asia 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 91 

policy into line with the realities of the area but also confront 
the problem of Okinawa and U.S. bases in Japan. 

Confrontation means making a very painful adjustment. 
We must stop thinking of Okinawa and U.S. bases in purely 
military terms and consider them in political terms. Until we 
do, long-term, effective solutions will escape us because military 
logic will only further involve the United States in its un 
popular and sterile containment policy. This is not to say that 
we should ignore military and economic problems. We must 
recognize especially the serious shock to the economy an 
American withdrawal would mean to Okinawa. 39 It is a 
matter of perspective, and the political perspective must be 
given preference. 

Once we decide to think of these problems primarily in 
political terms, we shall also be able to consider the long-range 
national interests of Japan instead of concentrating exclusively 
on our own. Asia will very soon be a place where we can no 
longer unilaterally force people to think and act in our way. 
The time is past due for us to work with Japan as an equal 
partner, though that will probably mean making gestures and 
suggesting bold alternatives to our present stagnant anti- 
Chinese paranoia. We might, for instance, unilaterally decide 
to move the preponderance of our military installations in 
Japan and Okinawa to South Korea and Taiwan, areas these 
bases are meant to defend. 40 Generals Chung Hee Park and 
Chiang Kai-shek have expressed apprehension over the loss 
of Okinawa as an American bastion in the Pacific. Let them 
provide a new bastion. Both run a police state where freedom 
of expression is limited and thus a minimum of opposition to 
the American presence would be expressed. We might also 
announce that no more nuclear-powered vessels of any kind 
will call at Japanese ports, except in an emergency or on the 
explicit invitation of the Japanese government. Washington 
could furthermore announce the intention to move reconnais 
sance flights (and other intelligence-gathering activities which 



92 TODAY S ISSUES 

approach hostile coasts) to bases outside the Japanese islands. 
These actions would go a long way toward impressing the 
Japanese people with our sincerity, thus postponing the day 
when progressives might influence public opinion sufficiently 
to support their programs. Perhaps Washington will take the 
initiative and act while there is yet time. If not, progressive 
forces will certainly be able to generate sufficient friction to 
make the 1970s very warm indeed. In fact, many believe that 
the Liberal Democratic Party may lose some of its power 
during the coming decade, perhaps even be replaced by a coali 
tion government led by the Japan Socialist Party. Should that 
occur, it is possible that Japan might unilaterally end the 
security treaty and ask American forces to leave. Paradoxical 
ly, America s attitudes could be a factor in bringing about the 
fall of a government anxious to please and ready to adapt to 
U.S. policies. How much better to take the initiative and act 
positively instead of always being forced to act defensively 
and respond to challenges. 

In the main, understanding the 1970s is a matter of gaining 
perspective on the problems and principles of the progressives. 
Prescribing remedies and countermeasures must be done on the 
basis of a perspective which only understanding can give. We 
should at least graduate from describing elephants as animals 
with short necks and see the beasts as they are. Once we 
learn to stop measuring Japanese progressives by our values, 
we may come to understand them and find they are not quite 
as bizarre as we first imagined. 



Notes 

Abbreviations used: JSPIJ for Journal of Social and Political 
Ideas in Japan, and AS for Asahi Shim- 
bun (Asahi Newspaper). 

1. Shintaro Ryu, "Japan, the United States, and the World," 
JSPIJ, Vol. IV, No. 1 (April 1966), 76-77. 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 93 

2. George R. Packard III, Protest in Tokyo: The Security 
Treaty Crisis of 1960 (Princeton: Princeton University 
Press, 1966), p. 303. Note also Masaru Ogawa, "Our 
Times Face of 1970 ," The Japan Times, March 2, 1969, 
pp. 1, 4; and see one source of Ogawa s remarks in Nori- 
yoshi Wada, "Kokumin undo no bunkyokka: Okinawa 
kichi ga yato no hyoteki [Popular movement polarizes: 
opposition parties objectives are Okinawa and the bases]," 
AS, January 28, 1969, p. 17. 

3. George R. Packard, op. cit., pp. 366-367. 

4. Note Packard, op. cit, pp. 237-242. For a detailed study 
by a radical progressive, see Rokuro Hidaka, 1960nen 
gogatsu jukunichi [May 19, 1960] (Tokyo: Iwanami Shin- 
sho, No. 39, 1960). 

5. Lawrence Olson, Dimensions of Japan (New York: Ameri 
can Universities Field Staff, 1963), p. 362, points out that, 
added to social discrimination by Japanese, U.S. grants in 
aid did not apply to Okinawa. Innumerable Japanese 
writers also acknowledge the Okinawan s second-rate 
citizenship; see, for example, Keiichiro Ichino, "Okinawa 
to kenpo [Okinawa and the Constitution]," AS, evening 
edition, May 3, 1969, p. 7. 

6. The scholar in question is Jiro Kamishima, Professor of 
Political Science, Rikkyo University, who had been invited 
to lecture at Ryukyu University on political theory; Kami 
shima, "Okinawa no kokoro [The mind of Okinawa]," AS, 
evening edition, March 6, 1969, p. 7. A journalist notes 
a similar problem: "When you arrive [in Naha] you have 
to show your identification card and entry permit . . . [To 
take] a two and a half hour trip [by jet from Tokyo to 
Naha] means waiting two weeks for a visa"; "Okinawa 
hokoku [Okinawa report]," AS, May 20, 1969, p. 2. 

7. The discussion broadcast every Friday morning at 10:15 
on NHK-2 (690 AM) and titled "Kono goro no dekigoto 
[Recent events]" is led by Teruhiko Shimizu. 



94 TODAY S ISSUES 

8. "Hondo ni mo hamon: Okinawa fukudokuhon [Reper 
cussions on the mainland: the Okinawa supplementary 
reader]," AS, evening edition, March 10, 1969, p. 7. 

9. Kentaro Oe, "Okinawa to minshu shugi e no keiki Wata- 
shitachi no Okinawa o yonde [Okinawa and the chance 
for democracy: on reading Our Okinawa]" AS, evening 
edition, March 10, 1969, p. 7. 

10. Excerpts of the book appeared in AS, February 20, 1969, 
p. 4. 

11. Yuichiro Noguchi, "Economic Nationalism," JSPIJ, Vol. 
LV, No. 2 (August 1966), 95. 

12. See Yukichiro Noguchi, "Trends in Thought Among 
Structural Reformists in Japanese Industry," JSPIJ, Vol. 
V, No. 1 (April 1967), 11-23, especially pp. 14-15. 

13. Takeshi Ishida, "Japanese Public Opinion and Foreign 
Policy: Present Aspects and Future Outlook," Annals of 
the Institute of Social Science, Tokyo University, No. 9 
(1968), p. 33. 

14. Takeshi Ishida, "Emerging or Eclipsing Citizenship? A 
Study of Changes in Political Attitudes in Postwar 
Japan," The Developing Economies, Vol. VI, No. 4 (De 
cember 1968), 421. 

15. Robert N. Bellah, "Values and Social Change in Modern 
Japan," Asian Cultural Studies 3 (Tokyo: International 
Christian University, 1962), p. 24. 

16. Hiroharu Seki, "Ajia no kincho to Okinawa henkan [Ten 
sion in Asia and the return of Okinawa]," Ekonomisuto, 
March 18, p. 67; see also Seki, "Systems of Power Balance 
and the Preservation of Peace," JSPIJ, Vol. V, No. 1 
(April 1967), 44-45. 

17. Rokuro Hidaka, "The Precepts of History and the Dictate 
of Reason," JSPIJ, Vol. LV, No. 2 (August 1966), 64. 

18. Note, for example, "Anpo Okinawa mondai Kyosanto 
giindan no katsudo [Problems of Okinawa and the 
security treaty: activities of Japan Communist Party 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 95 

Diet members]," Akahata, April 1, 1969, p. 1. 

19. Editorial, AS, March 13, 1969, p. 5. 

20. Takeshi Ishida, "Emerging or Eclipsing Citizenship?", 
loc. cit. 

21. Shuichi Kato, "Twenty Years of Neutralism," JSPIJ, Vol. 
IV, No. 1 (April 1966), 35. 

22. A letter to the editor written by a white-collar worker 
(age, 52) ; AS, May 21, 1969, p. 5. 

23. Chitose Yanaga, Japanese People and Politics (New York: 
John Wiley and Sons, 1956), pp. 383-384. 

24. Stated by Representative John M. Murphy, Democrat from 
New York; The Japan Times, May 24, 1969, p. 1. 

25. Packard, op. cit., p. 233. 

26. Robert A. Scalapino and Junnosuke Masumi, Parties and 
Politics in Contemporary Japan (Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1962), p. 152. 

27. Yasumasa Kuroda, "The Political Cynicism of Law Stu 
dents in Japan," Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. XXII, Nos. 
1-2 (1967), 147-161, especially, p. 157. 

28. Alice H. Cook, "Political Action and Trade Unions," 
Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. XXII, Nos. 1-2 (1967), 104. 

29. For historical background on the stationing of B-52s on 
Okinawa, see Moriteru Arasaki, Okinawa henkan to 70nen 
anpo [Return of Okinawa and the security treaty in 1970] 
(Tokyo: Gendai Hyoronsha, 1968), pp. 6-16. 

30. "Trends and Topics: Okinawa Turmoil," Japan Quarterly, 
Vol. XVI, No. 2 (April-June, 1969), 141. 

31. Kamijima, "Okinawa no kokoro," loc. cit. 

32. The original and Edward Seidensticker s translation ap 
pear together in Utsukushii Nihon no Watakushi [Japan 
the Beautiful and I] (Tokyo: Kodansha Shinsho, No. 180, 
1969). 

33. Natsume Soseki, The Three-Cornered World (Kusa- 
makura), trans, by Alan Turney and Peter Owen (Tokyo: 
Charles E. Tuttle, 1965), p. 124. 



96 TODAY S ISSUES 

34. "70nen no chian taisaku [Policies for keeping domestic 
order during 1970], AS, February 28, 1969, p. 2. 

35. "Jieitai no chian shutsudo [Mobilizing Self Defense 
Forces to keep domestic order]," AS, March 19, 1969, p. 2. 
The primary problem facing those who would like to use 
these forces to put down domestic disturbances is that the 
current SDF law prohibits their use except to deter direct 
or indirect aggression. Presumably, conservatives regard 
disturbances instigated by radicals as "indirect aggres 
sion." More closely related to the true function of the 
SDF are its proposals for the defense of Okinawa after 
American forces are removed from the island; this prob 
lem is discussed in "Okinawa boei keikaku no kangaekata 
[Plans for the defense of Okinawa]," AS, evening edition, 
March 31, 1969, p. 1. 

36. A complaint made by a self-employed businessman (60 
years old) in a letter to the Asahi (April 19, 1969, p. 5), 
lamented that Foreign Minister Aichi spent too much 
time trying to defend U.S. activities despite the fact that 
reconnaissance flights (of the EC-121 in this case) origi 
nate in Japan and thus endanger national security. 

37. Both essays are featured in the section, "Reassessing U.S. 
Policy on China," The New Leader, March 3, 1969, pp. 
12-16. 

38. Kiichi Miyazawa, "Proposals for Improving Japanese- 
American Relations," JSPIJ, Vol. IV, No. 2 (August 
I960), 51. 

39. The economic problem is being reviewed constantly from 
various angles; one handy and fairly exhaustive reference 
is Kaoru Inaizumi, "Okinawa keizai no genjo to shorai 
[The present situation and future outlook of Okinawa s 
economy]," in Nihon no Anzen Hosho Henshu linkai, 
ed., Okinawa fukki e no michi [Toward the reversion of 
Okinawa] (Tokyo: Kara Shobo, 1968), pp. 139-176. For 
a general overview of internal problems on the island, see 



UNDERSTANDING THE SEVENTIES 97 

"Tonai sangyo no fuan [Apprehension re island indus 
tries], in the series "Okinawa hokoku [Okinawa report]," 
AS, May 30, 1969, p. 2. 

40. David K. Willis, "U.S. Bases Pressed: Alternatives to 
Japan and Okinawa Studied as Opposition Increases," 
Christian Science Monitor, April 10, 1969, p. 1. 



PEACEMAKERS 



L August 15, 






PEACEMAKERS 99 

I could not check my freely flowing tears, I wept not because 
we had been defeated but because of the magnitude of our 
loss in the war. Japan invaded China in 1937. then rushed 
into the Pacific War as matters got out of control. I was sad 
because of the tragedy of that past history, which had no 
justification before the world. 

But as one who believed in Christ, as one who had been 
unable to utter a single word of protest against the wrongs 
committed by our government but had to confess that on the 
contrary I had compromised, I found my heart constricted 
when I saw the rejoicing of those foreign soldiers at the end 
of the war. 

There may be some who wonder why I. writing on "Chris 
tians and the Security Treaty/ should have to start with that 
day when the war ended. As Christians, when we consider 
this problem, we cannot help recalling that historic moment. 
Because of the war that we had started, two million Japanese 
men had died on the battlefield, a million more had lost their 
lives in air-raids which destroyed over three million houses. 
For or.e who has been permitted to survive in the first country 
to suffer the explosion of an atomic bomb, I must consider as 
a Christian the problem of the Security Treaty from the past 
of this bitter experience. Thus I feel I must examine the 
problem in the context of the history since 194-5. 

II. May 3, 1947 

On this day "we received a new constitution. As everybody 
knows, the Meiji Constitution was the constitution based on 
the Emperor System. The Emperor was not simply the head 
of state but was held "divine and inviolable," and had a 
prerogative that was supreme. Under the system which had 
the divine emperor at the summit, social position and family 
lineage were considered all-important and only a perpendicular 
relationship was possible. The Meiji Constitution was pro- 



100 TODAY S ISSUES 

mulgated in the early Meiji period, but ideologically it com 
pletely embodied the feudalism of the Tokugawa era. 

However the new constitution made it clear that the people 
were sovereign, that basic human rights were to be respected, 
and through its spirit of permanent peace it was to be a con 
stitution based on peace and democratic principles. 

The special feature of the new constitution was to be found 
in Article 9 which renounced war. The substance of this 
could have been expressed only by a country which had ex 
perienced the utter tragedy of war. It reads as follows: 
"Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice 
and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a 
means of settling international disputes. 

A declaration which renounced war as a sovereign right 
of the nation was indeed a courageous statement, but we dared 
to make it, and in doing so we hoped to occupy an honoured 
place in the society of nations. 

The day the constitution was promulgated, all editorials 
in the press hailed its birth with felicitations and expressed 
the earnest hope that it would be the invaluable pillar of sup 
port for the spirit of the Japanese people, rising out of the 
ashes of defeat. 

Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida proclaimed: "The ex 
ercise of the sovereign power of a nation to use, or threaten 
the use of, force is the cause of war with other countries. In 
order to renounce this, we shall not recognize the mainte 
nance of land, naval or other military forces nor the right to 
wage war as a means of settling disputes with other countries. 
This is a great fundamental principle in the revised con 
stitution. A decisive article like this has seldom been seen in 
the constitution of any country till now. 

"Thus in praying for everlasting peace, Japan has en 
trusted both its future safety and survival to the fairness and 
good faith of the peace-loving nations of the world. With 
these lofty ideals, standing in the leadership of peace-loving 



PEACEMAKERS 101 

peoples, we make clear the firm determination of the funda 
mental law of our people: to advance along the great road of 
justice." 

It is recorded that when he explained the bill for the con 
stitution in the Diet, Yoshida received thunderous applause 
from both government and opposition parties. 

Kijuro Shidehara also, who was prime minister while the 
constitution was being prepared and is said to have drafted 
Article 9, has written in his "Fifty Years of Diplomacy": 
"From the standpoint of Japan it is almost meaningless to 
maintain even a small army. The unity and cooperation of 
the people are more powerful than armaments. With this 
even an unarmed people becomes one body and if they are knit 
together in spirit, this is more powerful than an army. If all 
the citizens of our country move forward with the conviction 
that this policy is right, even though the country is unarmed, 
they have nothing to fear. Therefore it is not the way of 
armaments by which Japan must establish her true existence: 
she must tread the great road of justice and appeal to the 
people of the whole world. This, I believe, is the only way." 

At that time the Japanese people received these expressions 
of Mr. Shidehara with enthusiastic welcome. This was because 
the ideal of the renunciation of war was regarded, not as a 
dream or a vision, but as a practical reality. In other words, 
it was believed that this was the only way for the Japanese 
to live. 

For Japan, which had started the war and left a stain on 
the history of the world, there was only one way to make a 
fresh start after the war. That was by confessing to the 
whole world "Never again shall we make war." In this sense 
I myself understood the peace constitution as a sort of written 
confession. 

The Christian church, agonizing throughout the imperialis 
tic war, had produced a few resisters, but she had to confess 
honestly that she had on the whole been the slave of national 



102 TODAY S ISSUES 

authority. Consequently she displayed a determination to pre 
serve the peace constitution. The Japan YWCA, desiring to 
actualize the spirit of the constitution, stove toward the 
democratization of Japan. 

But a brief two years after its adoption, shadows began to 
fall on the constitution which was born with such lofty aims 
and lustre. This was not unrelated to the fact that America s 
anti-communist policy began to be focused on Asia in ac 
cordance with changes in the Asian situation, such as the 
establishment of the People s Republic of Korea. 

The year after the constitution was put into effect, U.S. 
Secretary of the Army Royal made a speech on January 6. 
saying that Japan should be made a totalitarian defense wall. 
He took a serious view of developments in China and said 
that the American policy towards Japan would be changed 
from the early policy against rearmament to that of strength 
ening Japan as a breakwater against communism. 

As a response to this move on the part of the United States,. 
there began to appear somewhat of a shift in the interpretation 
of the peace clause, Article 9 of the Constitution, as a basic 
renunciation of all instruments that could incite a war to one 
that suggested that, short of what actually could be called 
rearmament, armaments for the purpose of self-defense were 
incumbent. It has come to be argued in the Diet that the 
interpretation of the meaning of Article 9 could be broadened 
without violating it. 

III. June 25, 1950 

At this time I was studying in America. I was startled 
to read of the outbreak of the Korean War. 

It was on September 9, 1948 that the official proclamation 
was made dividing Korea along the 38th parallel, with com 
munism as the basic system for the country north of it. South 
Korea had proclaimed its establishment as a nation one month 



PEACEMAKERS 103 

before this. 

I could not help but feel anxious about the complicated 
situation whereby a country which had suffered from the im 
perialistic policy of Japan now had to exist, split into two 
parts. The news that fighting had broken out along the border 
excited me. My friends, knowing the shortness of the distance 
that separated Japan from Korea, felt as I did that Japan 
might become a battlefield. 

However the news from Japan, far from being filled with 
the sense of tragedy, told rather of the boom created by spe 
cial procurements. The economy received a camphor injection, 
and the Korean War fetched an income for the year of 
$800,000,000. Furthermore in the second week of the war 
another important event took place: under a directive of Gen 
eral MacArthur the Police Reserve was established with 
75,000 men, and the Maritime Security Agency was increased 
by 8,000 men. 

I have mentioned that the possibility of maintaining self- 
defence forces under Article 9 had been debated in the Diet. 
On January 1 of that year, MacArthur had said in his New 
Year message: "The Japanese constitution does not deny the 
right of self-defence." On the 24th of the same month Pre 
mier Yoshida in a policy speech in the Diet said: "To be intent 
on renouncing war does not mean renouncing the right of 
self-defence." From that time on the early lustre of Article 9 
faded! Japan had become a country with an army. 

Of course it was not called an army and it was given a 
completely different image from the pre-war army, trained as 
it was by the U.S. Army. Today what is called the Self- 
Defence Force is the successor to the former Police Reserve 
Force which came into being under the directive of General 
MacArthur. That is why the Self-Defence Force is called a 
"bastard of the Korean War." 

At that time MacArthur s purpose, as a piece of indis 
pensable strategy, was to establish a line of safety and order 



104 TODAY S ISSUES 

in the rear of the front line where the U.S. army was fighting. 
That was why the Police Reserve Force was set up under his 
directive. But then this became the National Security Force 
and then today the Self Defence Force, until at length it has 
grown into an organization with the weight of an army. All 
this time the government, in reply to criticisms that it was 
violating the constitution, continued to insist that it was all 
perfectly consistent with Article 9. "What the constitution 
forbids is waging war by military power with another country. 

Military force for the purpose of self-defence is not for 
bidden." (Prime Minister Yoshida, March 6, 1952). "To main 
tain a force not strong enough to wage war and use it as a 
defence against aggression is not contrary to the constitu 
tion." (Government statement, November 25, 1952). "Military 
power means armaments and soldiers sufficient for modern 
warfare." (Same date) 

As for the cost to the national budget, the defence item 
in the first stage was 200,000,000 for the Police Reserve 
Force. In the first plan it was increased to 4,600,000,000, in 
the second plan to 13,100,000,000, and in the third plan it 
rose sharply to 23,400,000,000. According to the first plan its 
aim was: "In accordance with the fundamental policy of de 
fence, to provide the minimum necessary national defence in 
keeping with the strength and condition of the nation." But 
by the third plan this had changed to "Defence preparations 
adequate to meet an invasion in less than a limited area 
operated by weapons hitherto used." 

However though this "national defence" or "self-defence" 
as it was called, had begun to take definite shape under the 
directive of General MacArthur, in the same year President 
Truman had started negotiations for making a peace treaty 
with Japan. 

Along with the sense of disgrace which we had felt for a 
long time was the sad feeling for us that we were not able to 
make a peace treaty with the United States and other coun- 



PEACEMAKERS 105 

tries. Therefore, when Truman began negotiations for a peace 
treaty with Japan, the joy of the Japanese people knew no 
bounds. But as to the shaping of this peace treaty, regrettably 
we could not give full support because it was a unilateral 
peace-making with the U.S. chiefly, and those who went along 
with the U.S., and not a general peace with all the countries 
that had been at war with Japan. 

It need not be said that, before the war between Japan and 
the U.S. broke out, Japan had carried on a long and aggres 
sive war with its neighbour China. But we became bogged 
down in China, with the war extending to embroilment with 
the U.S. as a result, and, in what became a world war, there 
could be no real peace unless peace was made with China. 

The Japan YWCA on the basis of its Christian faith, 
maintaining that this inconsistency could not be ignored, ap 
pealed to public opinion within Japan and beyond. 

"The peace negotiations in question at present are not a 
general peace negotiated with all the countries at war with 
Japan, but a unilateral peace involving only some of the coun 
tries. In determining the future destiny of Japan, and in 
relation to the urgent problem of peace, this is pregnant with 
problems of very great importance. We, the Japanese people, 
must, by returning to the Potsdam Declaration, reconsider the 
road a democratic Japan must take, and as we are orientated 
along this road, we must thoroughly compare and consider 
the various problems and conditions that the present unilateral 
peace-making will bring forth." (Editorial, "Women s News 
paper," Japan YWCA). 

Rev. Tamaki Uemura, president of the Japan YWCA, and 
Mrs. T. Gauntlett, president of the Japan Christian Women s 
Temperance Society, sent to Secretary of State Dulles a state 
ment "Concerning Demands of Japanese Women in Negotiat 
ing Peace for an Unarmed Japan." In it was declared in the 
strongest terms the determination to preserve the constitution 
which had decreed disarmament; it made clear that a unilater- 



106 TODAY S ISSUES 

al peace which hindered friendly relations with China could 
not be supported, and requested that there be delay until a 
general peace could be achieved. However, in spite of these 
requests, the Japanese government steadily began to advance 
along the way to a unilateral peace. 

IV. September 4, 1951 

On this day in San Francisco the Japanese peace treaty 
was signed and with it the U.S.-Japan Security Pact which 
today we hold in question. It was Russia which opposed the 
unilateral peace. Russia opposed it because during the negotia 
tions it saw the U.S. s anti-communist policies being trans 
ferred from Europe to Asia, Japan being made a pivot in the 
anti-communist web and included in the Western anti-com 
munist camp. 

Evidence for this can be found in an article written by 
George Kennan which appeared in the November 1964 "For 
eign Affairs." "Up until about 1949 MacArthur thought it 
was not necessary for the U.S. to maintain bases in Japan 
permanently; that in order to guarantee Japan s security, 
permanent neutrality would be most suitable. But in 1949 the 
thinking in Washington suddenly changed and a policy of 
making Japan a permanent U.S. military base was adopted." 

From about 1949 the occupation policy of the Allied Powers 
in the Far East, "a policy for the democratization of Japan," 
began to get under way. But the rise of the People s Republic 
of China and the outbreak of the Korean War changed the 
balance of forces, and with these changes the U.S. Far Eastern 
policy altered. 

Gradually the aim to place Allied occupation bases in Japan 
and secure them as front line bases for the U.S. became clear. 
It was with this premise that the "Peace Treaty" was linked 
with the U.S.-Japan Security Pact which recognized the sta 
tioning of U.S. forces in Japan. 



PEACEMAKERS 107 

That is, at the same time that the unilateral peace was 
signed, the Security Pact ensured that Japan would have to 
depend heavily on U.S. military power. This was the method 
chosen of obtaining our country s security; under the Pact, 
Japan was able to increase her own defense forces gradually. 

This policy was strengthened by the Mutual Security 
Agreement of 1954. The MSA Japan negotiations opened on 
July 15, 1953. In October, Prime Minister Hayato Ikeda, in 
conferring with Mr. Robertson, promised that, in order to> 
make possible the rearmament of Japan and the amendment 
of the constitution, he would by education create an atmosphere 
favorable to rearmament. A month later on November 19 
Vice-President Nixon in an official speech said: "The adoption 
of a constitution which renounces war was a mistake." 

This kind of statement encouraged the Japanese govern 
ment, and, on Dec. 19 of that year, Prime Minister Hatoyama, 
who had just succeeded Prime Minister Yoshida, said that 
the Constitution, especially Article 9, needed to be revised. 

In the midst of all this, things that were incompatible not 
only with Article 9 but also with the fundamental spirit of 
the democratic constitution arose. One of them had to do with 
education. Since the war the keynote of Japan s education had 
been a democratic spirit based on the Fundamental Law of 
Education. This was born from the reflection that until then 
militarism and nationalism had dragged Japan in the wrong 
direction, and it could be said that the new law of education 
in a certain sense was a guide-post for all the Japanese peo 
ple. But five years after the signing of the peace treaty, in 
February 1956, the Minister of Education at a meeting of the 
Education Committee and the Cabinet Committee in the Diet, 
made public the intention of amending the Fundamental Law 
of Education. "The present education system is a product of 
the occupation era and is not suitable. There are no moral 
objectives in the present law. Nothing is said about fealty to 
the Emperor or filial piety. It is necessary to reform it as 



108 TODAY S ISSUES 

soon as possible." 

The following year "The Promotion of Patriotism" was 
presented in order to energize patriotism in education. What 
concerned us Christians was that it was "patriotism" of a 
vested interest and far from what we considered to be love 
of country and mankind. It was the same nationalism which 
had led Japan astray before. 

About this time the Japan YWCA renewed the decision to 
"preserve the constitution." It was an attempt to place a 
block in the way of the government s maneuver to distort 
the spirit of the constitution. Again in 1958 when the "Bill 
for the Revision of the Police Ordinance" to broaden the 
powers of the police and suppress freedom of thought was 
presented to the Diet, the Japan YWCA, at its annual national 
convention, passed a resolution opposing it. We felt uneasy 
about the unilateral peace which might fetter the future of 
Japan or, even more, becloud the peace of the whole world. 
As we have entered the set-up under the Security Treaty, 
our anxiety has increased all the more. At the same time, 
amidst the happenings which were distorting the peace con 
stitution, we confronted the year when the Mutual Security 
Treaty was to be revised. 

V. June 19, 1960 

The situation in Japan became turbulent. Probably the 
biggest riots in the country since the end of the war took 
place. Many Christians took part in the demonstrations against 
the government which, heedless of public criticism, was seeking 
to strengthen the military alliance between the U.S. and Japan. 
For several days the area around the Diet building was thick 
with crowds; this was reported prominently in the papers. 
There was tragedy also: a girl university student lost her 
life because of police brutality. 

The former Security Pact which was signed with the U.S. 



PEACEMAKERS 109 

in 1951 read: "In order to prevent the direct invasion of Japan 
and indirect invasion which would include internal disorder, 
even after the signing of the peace treaty Japan desires that 
U.S. armed forces be stationed in Japan, and the U.S. accedes 
to this." The text of this treaty includes no stated obligation 
on the part of the U.S. to defend Japan. The treaty in es 
sence was like administrative agreements for the loan of bases, 
recognizing the stationing of American army units and offer 
ing bases in Japan. 

The maintenance of U.S. bases in Japan, along with U.S. 
bases in Okinawa ensured by Article 3 of the Peace Treaty, 
the various mutual defence treaties (U.S.-Philippines, U.S. 
Korea, U.S.-Taiwan), and the network of U.S. bases, built up 
by the collective security set-up in South East Asia, firmly 
bound the U.S.-Japan security system into the U.S. s Far 
Eastern strategy. 

As Japan s economy developed by leaps and bounds and her 
self-defence forces gradually became stronger, the Kishi 
cabinet drew attention to inequalities and unreasonable aspects 
in the old security pact. By stimulating a desire for a "new 
era between Japan and the U.S." whereby the U.S. and Japan 
might be on an equal footing, the government opened negotia 
tions in the autumn of 1958 for the revision of the treaty, 
and pressed them in Washington until the current Security 
Pact was signed in January 1960. 

In regard to the new treaty the Kishi cabinet made the 
following points: 

1. Clarification of the obligation of the U.S. to defend Japan. 

2. Prior consultations on the disposition, equipment and 
movements for combat strategy of the U.S. armed forces. 

3. Establishment of a period of 10 years for the treaty. 
Drawing attention to the imperfections and faults of the 

old treaty, it insisted that they had been improved and cor 
rected so that the independence and equality of Japan was 
guaranteed. 



lO TODAY S ISSUES 

The opposition parties opposed the new treaty, maintain 
ing that under the terms "independence" and "bilateralism" 
the set-up would harden into a military alliance between Japan 
and the U.S., and that, because of the clear obligations of 
defence on the part of Japan if U.S. forces in Japan were 
attacked, the danger of Japan s being drawn into war against 
her will was greatly increased. They therefore insisted on 
the denunciation of the treaty and neutrality for Japan. 

The arguments on both sides were taken up with increas 
ing vigor by the people, and day after day violent demon 
strations took place. However, in spite of all this, the govern 
ment, with the concurrence of only its own members, ap 
proved the new treaty in a one-sided and high-handed way. 

As a Christian and member of the YWCA, I took part in 
the demonstrations day after day. I could not but grieve over 
the loss of the very spirit of democracy, let alone the breach 
of Article 9 of the peace constitution. 

Because the defence of Japan had been entrusted to the 
U.S. forces, we vividly saw the danger of making many 
enemies in Asia. We also saw that fundamentally our con 
stitution did not permit the defence of Japan by any other 
country. By renouncing war we had deeply desired that our 
country should take an honorable place in the society of na 
tions. When we recalled the origins of it all, we could not but 
oppose those in power and pray for them. 

VI. May 31, 1966 

The increasing tension of the Vietnam conflict made the 
proximity of the tumult of war strongly felt in a Japan 
which held U.S. bases. However, until the Tonking Bay affair 
in 1964, many people believed that the Security Treaty, as its 
name indicated, was a pact which would guarantee Japan s 
security and there was nothing in it which would be the cause 
of anything untoward happening to them. But as the bombing 



PEACEMAKERS 111 

of North Vietnam increased, they learned that under the 
Security Treaty system Japan was becoming an unwilling 
participant in the war. 

When unprecedented incidents happened, such as American 
military planes crashing on a university building or on civilian 
areas, civilians were terrorized. Atomic powered submarines 
visited our ports frequently, and each time they raised ques 
tions about safety. It was only natural that we who had 
suffered from atom bombs in the past should be concerned 
and anxious. 

Even if it were assumed that the submarines themselves 
were not so dangerous, the smell of blood with which they 
were associated made us uneasy. 

The crashing of military planes, the atomic submarines 
which called at our ports, the tank trucks with oil for U.S. 
Teases which caught fire and temporarily blocked Tokyo traffic 
we were witnesses to all of these. Before the general public 
were aware of it, the influence of the Vietnam war was making 
Japan feel very insecure. 

Let me give another example. J.M., a missile engineer, 
after long service in Saigon, visited Tokyo on furlough. As 
was to be expected, he enjoyed his first night in the peaceful 
city, but the next day he suffered acute pains in the stomach 
with diarrhea accompanied by a high fever. He was hos 
pitalized; the doctors suspected cholera. When the Acute In 
fectious Disease Prevention Section of the Welfare Ministry 
was informed, the patient was hastily quarantined and his 
fellow passengers on the plane were given a second examina 
tion. Fortunately the illness did not prove to be cholera, but 
incidents like this occurred frequently. According to informa 
tion received by the Welfare Ministry from WHO, in 1965 
there were 377 proven cases of bubonic plague in Vietnam, 
with 2,067 genuine or suspected cases of cholera. 

Under these circumstances we cannot help feeling anxious. 
J.M. as a civilian is subject to control by the Immigration 



112 TODAY S ISSUES 

Bureau, but sick and wounded American soldiers are trans 
ported to bases in Japan in disregard of our Infectious Disease 
Prevention Law and later transferred to U.S. military hos 
pitals. Is it surprising that we are uneasy? 

As a result of conferring with the U.S. authorities it was 
agreed that (1) information to prevent infectious diseases 
from spreading should be exchanged, (2) cases of infectious 
disease subject to quarantine should be reported immediately. 

Though this was settled, there arose the question of com 
bat vehicles, especially tanks, with bits of human flesh ad 
hering to them. Troop carriers and tanks damaged in Viet 
nam arrive on naval vessels at Yokohama North Pier and 
are transported from there to the U.S. Army Sagamihara 
arms repair depot. In 1967 from January to the end of June 
about 450 combat vehicles were brought to Japan from Viet 
nam. Human flesh adhered to some of them and also they 
contained unexploded shells. Protests were made by the 
workers on the base to the U.S. Army about the offensive 
smell and the dangers to workers of infectious disease. Facts 
like these, things that were happening in Japan and Vietnam, 
were publicized by newspapers, journalists and magazines. 

A Christian news organ reported that a Christian institu 
tion for feeble-minded children was making sandbags for use 
by the army in Vietnam. The people who ran the institution 
had sub-contracted from a bag factory, believing that the 
work, suitable for their charges, was the manufacture of rice 
bags. Of course the institution, when it learned that the 
children were making bags for military purposes, stopped the 
work. The point is that many Japanese firms are profiting 
from special procurements for the war in Vietnam. Delight 
ing in a repeat performance of the special procurements of 
the Korean War, they are gorging on the profits of war. 

For them the Security Pact is a heaven-sent blessing. When 
they come to themselves, they should confess that they have 
been waxing fat on the blood shed in Vietnam. 



PEACEMAKERS 113 

Then there was a small enterprise in downtown Tokyo 
which contracted for the manufacture of wings for napalm 
bombs. When the members of the trade union learned this, 
they promptly objected and the proprietor had to drop it. 
According to the newspapers, when the North Vietnam Trade 
Union Federation heard of this, they sent a letter of thanks 
and a souvenir to the trade union. 

I am afraid that I have taken too much space telling about 
Japan under the shadow of the Vietnam War I could tell 
much more but I wanted to point out how all these things 
have happened because of the Security Treaty set-up. Is it 
surprising that we feel more and more convinced that it is 
nothing less than a military pact? 

Up until this time the government had explained that of 
course there was no danger involved in the pact. It had 
emphasized that we, the Japanese people, who had a peace 
constitution, would always be able to preserve our neutrality 
and live with our earnest desire for permanent peace. 

However on May 31, 1966, Foreign Minister Shiina made 
the following declaration at a meeting of the Foreign Affairs 
Committee of the House of Councillors: "In regard to the 
problem of Vietnam, our government is not altogether neutral. 
Japan has made a security treaty with the U.S. and has a 
special relationship to that country. The activities of U.S. 
forces in Vietnam are for the maintenance of the security of 
the Far East and therefore Japan has an obligation to provide 
the U.S. forces with areas for special establishments." 

Five days before this in the Foreign Affairs Committee of 
the House of Representatives, a government spokesman said 
for the first time, "The Japan-U.S. Security Treaty is a 
military pact." Thus it was openly acknowledged in the Diet 
that the pact was indeed a military pact. 



114 TODAY S ISSUES 



VII. February 6, 1968 

On January 23, 1968 the U.S.S. "Pueblo" was seized in 
Korean waters and again we were filled with dismay. We were 
oppressed by the thought, "Is the Vietnam War going to move 
to Korea?" On February 6 the Minister for Forestry and 
Agriculture, Mr. Kuraishi, expressed doubt in a Diet debate 
about the fundamental nature of the constitution and raised 
a furor. This was connected with the "Pueblo" incident, and 
arose in connection with the safe operation of Japanese fishing 
vessels in the Japan Sea. He said: "There are limits to 
diplomacy without armed power. You have to have warships 
and guns. The present constitution, with its dependence on 
the forces of others, is hopeless." Then a statement was made 
which could not be ignored. "I am a Christian, but I believe 
that being struck on the right cheek and turning the other 
is absolutely not applicable in the present circumstances." 

When I read this in the morning paper I was aghast, and 
then I felt the anger slowly rising in me. This is not com 
parable to fashions, like, for instance cutting a long skirt 
short when miniskirts come into fashion. If the truths of the 
Bible are to be modified to fit human realities, it would have 
to be re-written from generation to generation or, to put it 
extremely, from moment to moment. There would be no point 
in reading a Bible like that, and the Christian faith would 
perish from the earth. 

The question then would be, why were we baptized to be 
come Christians? Did we not enter the faith solely because 
we were convinced that God s truths are eternally unchang 
ing? Did we not become Christians because we had learned 
the meaning of true peace in the cross of Jesus? I believe 
that we must agonize over the problem of people who cannot 
turn the left cheek when they are struck on the right and also 
over the problem of a society which is in the same quandary. 



TODAY S ISSUES 115 

Not only Mr. Kuraishi but also some Christians take their 
bearings from earthly authority. Because their eyes are 
fastened only on this authority they are unable to do any 
thing but affirm existing conditions. The idea that the con 
stitution which renounces war is not suited to Japan is cognate 
with that thinking. 

To maintain armaments for defence is the commonsense 
of the world, it is the way people think, but to affirm this 
worldly commonsense means that peace in the world will never 
be found. 

Japan above all, which waged a long war and suffered the 
experience of defeat, should feel this in her very flesh and 
understand. Formerly Japan maintained an army, but not at 
least nominally in order to invade other countries. She did 
have an army, but only for defence in case of attack. When 
she engaged the U.S. in war she spurred her people on by 
calling it a "holy war." We have learned from the lessons 
of history that imperialistic states which purpose aggression 
cannot maintain armies only for defence. 

Therefore I believe that the constitution makes clear that 
we should not maintain an army which is related to war, and 
that as many people as possible should learn the lessons of 
defeat. I believe that the desire to turn in a direction which 
will remove mankind s woes which spring from war is em 
bedded in the peace constitution. 

VIII. May 3, 1969 

This is the holiday which commemorates the promulgation 
of the constitution. On this day, the Japan YWCA held its 
annual meeting for Christians to study the constitution. We 
had met on this day for seven years, and the YWCA, which 
on the basis of its faith had earlier decided to preserve the 
constitution, could not but observe that the state was moving 
in a direction indicative of its wish to bypass the constitution. 



116 TODAY S ISSUES 

Each year this holiday had been spent for a national gather 
ing to study ways and means of filling the gap created by 
those in power. 

This year s program began with a visit to the Tachikawa 
base in the outskirts of Tokyo. Tachikawa is an air and 
transport base for U.S. armed forces as provided for in the 
Security Pact. It is a huge base with an area of over a 
million square yards. Before the war it was used as a Japa 
nese military base. 

Near it is the town of Sunakawa. A majority of the 
population is rural. Japan s defeat was to bring to the in 
habitants the joy of being able at last to till their own fields; 
but then it became a U.S. base, and thus a powerful movement 
of opposition arose. The Sunakawa people were particularly 
opposed to plans for enlarging the base. Some farmers, bow 
ing to authority, quickly sold their land and moved away, 
but others resisted and held their ground, sowing their wheat 
in silence and harvesting their potatoes. There were 23 of 
these families. Others secretly supported their quiet resistance 
and from all over the country flags of encouragement were 
sent. All sorts of flags flying from bamboo poles were scattered 
through the fields. 

Two years ago a single cross was erected among the flags. 
This was the work of a young Christian who had moved to 
join the farmers in resistance to the extension of the base. 
Formerly he had worked in a Christian social service in 
stitution for women, but he had continued to have doubts about 
the shape of Japanese politics which maintained an inadequate 
social welfare system. Though a law prohibiting licensed pro 
stitution had been passed, he still saw conditions which led 
women to prostitute their bodies. He was convinced that unless 
society really lived by God s justice and unless the peace that 
Jesus Christ proclaimed was born, man could not be saved 
from his misery. Learning of Sunakawa, he had left a work 
camp to come here to erect his cross and throw himself into. 



PEACEMAKERS 117 

the resistance movement. It was from hearing about what he 
was doing that the YWCA visited Sunakawa. 

About this time AVACO, in preparation for 1970, since 
the time had come for Christians to think about the real 
shape of peace, decided to make a film which would make them 
really think about it. It happened that I was asked to write 
the script of the film. I had just met this Christian youth, 
was deeply impressed by him and decided to put him into the 
story of the drama and call the film "The Cross among the 
Flags." (There is an English version of the film; I hope 
you can all see it). 

I am not writing about the film to advertise myself. I wish 
to write only about the fate of the cross planted near the 
"base. At first the cross which he erected was only a poor 
thing two bamboo poles tied together in the shape of a cross. 
But since it would only show up like toothpicks on the film, 
all the AVACO staff decided that sturdy timbers, bound 
around with silvery aluminum foil, should be erected. In the 
midst of all this, from the other side of the wire fence, violent 
abuse filled with hatred spilled over from the American sol 
diers on the base and continued to the end. 

But the cross had been planted. . . . That night at mid 
night the young Christian heard strange noises. Taking his 
flashlight he went out and saw two or three soldiers trying to 
cut down the cross. The soldiers ran off immediately but the 
next night a rope was thrown over the cross from the other 
side of the fence and an attempt was made to pull it down. 
However, as its base was buried deep in concrete, the effort 
failed. 

Through all this the shooting of the film proceeded. Then 
a plane flew low over the cross, grazed it and broke off its 
tip. In silence the young man repaired it and did not neglect 
his morning and evening prayers. 

I thought deeply about the sorrows in the hearts of the 
young man who erected the cross and the young men who 



118 TODAY S ISSUES 

would do anything to knock it down. Of course, when the 
Japanese youth put up his cross, it was not an act of pro 
vocation, it was a prayer for peace. 

After the shooting of the film was finished, I was too 
busy to visit the place for some months, but on May 3 of this 
year I went again and saw the cross, still standing firm. The 
young man led us to the foot of the cross. "Look," he said, 
"see the marks of pistol shots. There were none until last 
year. But there is something else which did not happen last 
year. In the evening when we are at prayers, you can see black 
soldiers on the other side of the fence, their caps off at prayers. 
And there are soldiers who look up at the cross and make the 
V sign." 

He spoke with a quiet smile. Deep emotion overwhelmed 
our spirits, for the knowledge that hearts that try to build 
peace do cross national boundaries and, more than that, the 
meaning of the cross of Jesus had never made itself felt so- 
keenly within us. 

But events moved on heedless of the prayers of the young 
men seeking the peace of Japan and the U.S. Less than ten 
days after we had visited Sunakawa, a morning paper reported 
that the cross and all the flags at Sunakawa had been taken 
down. A low-flying American plane had struck the top of one 
of the flags, and, on the grounds that the plane had been 
damaged, a protest had been made to the Self-Defense Agency. 
The Agency had sent a squad to Sunakawa to cut down the- 
forest of flags, tear out the cross from the concrete and throw 
it away. 

IX. June 23, 1970 

I have already told how on June 23, 1960, In complete dis 
regard of strongly expressed public opinion, the revised Se 
curity Treaty was ratified. The treaty stipulates that, after 
it has been in effect for ten years, if either of the signatory 



PEACEMAKERS 119 

powers declares that it wishes to terminate the pact, it comes 
to an end a year later. Of course the Japanese government 
intends to continue the pact and doubtless the U.S. government 
is of the same mind. 

But when we consider the past ten years or rather Japan 
in the years before that, we feel that we have been long ex 
posed to crisis. Of course it is not that we feel that, as long 
as Japan is safe and at peace, this is all that matters. 

We Christians, who recognize the permanent principles of 
the peace constitution which we received as a hard fact of 
defeat, naturally cannot help feeling suspicious and uneasy 
about the Security Treaty. 

As I have stated repeatedly, the U.S.-Japan security ar 
rangement is clearly incompatible with Article 9 of the con 
stitution, and the same can be said in respect of the sovereign 
ty of the state and the sovereignty of the people. Apropos the 
bases, for instance, I mentioned only Sunakawa, but the en 
vironmental damage due to the 145 bases in Japan, not to 
mention the 117 bases in Okinawa is a matter of the most 
serious concern. We must see the presence of these bases in 
Japan violates in fact the principle of the sovereignty of the 
people and the state which is guaranteed by the constitution. 
To be specific, though the administrative agreements contain 
detailed rules for the use of the bases, in large there are the 
following problems. 

The whole country policy carries the possibility that, if it 
were deemed necessary for the U.S. armed forces, the whole 
of Japanese territory might become a base. 

The purposes for which bases can be used are unlimited. 

The U.S. armed forces are not limited quantitatively: i.e. 
any and all U.S. armed forces may use Japan as a base. 

A foreign country in Japan means extraterritoriality. 

Various privileges are granted the U.S. armed forces: tax 
free commodities, priorities in traffic, flying rights, meteoro 
logical administration, limitation of electric waves. 



120 TODAY S ISSUES 

When all the above points are considered, the existence of 
the bases means that Japan is in a subordinate position. Ob 
viously, in the light of the constitution, this is a violation of 
the sovereignty of state and people. 

Similarly when basic human rights are remembered, it is 
the same story. 

1. Public Safety. 

The violation of various articles in the constitution are 
carried over as they were from the occupation set-up to the 
Security Treaty set-up. I would like to point out that under 
the form of strengthening the MSA mutual security agree 
ments of 1954, measures for enforcing public security were 
taken and the activities of the Public Security Supervision 
Agency have been intensified. In August last year, in pre 
paring for "law and order" for the year 1970, the point most 
stressed was the increase of plainclothesmen and public se 
curity judges an increase of a thousand. 

2. Educational Problems. 

During the negotiations in 1953 for the MSA administra 
tive agreements at the Robertson-Ikeda conference, it was 
promised that, in order to make possible rearmament and the 
amendment of the constitution, the proper supportive at 
mosphere would be created through education. Since that time 
reactionary sentiment supporting education to strengthen the 
Security Pact system has suddenly increased. 

3. Control of Mass Communications and Freedom of Speech. 
Ten years ago at the time of the revised Security Treaty, 

media of mass communication brilliantly reported the strug 
gles against it. The reporting supplied the energy which 
helped to swell the movement. Today, ten years later, as the 
government takes steps to continue the pact, the media are 
doing a very poor job of reporting. Nor is this all. The media 
have softpedalled the opinions of people opposed to the pact, 
even if they are persons of competence, unless there are spe- 



PEACEMAKERS 121 

cial circumstances. They feel restrained because of the gov 
ernment, and at times the government has interfered openly 
because of ideological tendencies. 

In short when peace, the sovereignty of the people and 
basic human rights, the three pillars of the constitution are 
considered, it must be said that the Security Treaty is incom 
patible with them all. 

X. Epilogue 

It has been my purpose to trace the problem of the Security 
Treaty in the history of our time from the defeat till today. 
Now, within a brief year, we are facing the time of decision 
to continue the pact or to abrogate it. Christians as citizens 
are confronting the time when they must make their choice 
between continuation of the Security Treaty system and estab 
lishment of a system based on our constitution. 

Japanese Christians of course hold various opinions. Some 
say, "The pact is a military alliance and, as a Christian, I 
cannot support it." 

"Assuming, however, that it is abrogated, how would 
Japan be defended? We might be attacked by China or Russia. 
Would it be safe to be without defences? Would the Self- 
Defence Forces have arms to equal those of the U.S. army?" 

To them, I would ask, "Are you then saying that you do 
not want to guard the peace constitution?" 

"Don t be absurd. I am a Christian, you know. I believe 
that the peace constitution of all things points the way that 
our country should take. However you must remember that 
our constitution was framed after the defeat, when we had 
nothing, when chaos reigned. Aren t the times different now? 
With the growth of our economy today everything is in plenti 
ful supply. We can afford a certain degree of defence. Look 
at the countries of the world. Isn t it natural to have de 
fences?" 



122 TODAY S ISSUES 

"But do you recognize the spirit of the constitution?" 

"Naturally." 

I would like to draw attention to certain contradictions 
involved here. These contradictions, I imagine, are to be found 
not only among some Japanese Christians but also in other 
parts of the world. 

One of them is the idea of protecting ourselves from com 
munism. Peace will never be born from the sort of thinking 
that says, "Since communism is demonic, let us protect our 
selves from it by military power." Defence and war are closely 
intertwined; what we must know is how defence and peace 
are separated from each other. Through the painful experience 
of defeat we have learned this logic. 

To take a simple example, a hand that holds a pistol cannot 
give a friendly handshake. I for one am sad that inter 
course with the U.S. is being deepened by the sort of friendship 
that comes from each party holding a pistol. That is not the 
way we should be holding friendly hands with the U.S. 

In these fantastic conditions of our time when nuclear 
materials are not only possessed but have become common 
place, I believe that the key to peace will be found when 
somebody is ready to be the first to throw away his pistol. 

At present the world seems to be looking questioningly at 
the People s Republic of China. Though the way the U.S. and 
Russia regard China is somewhat different, they both seem 
to be eyeing her as a dangerous country that is not working 
for the peace of the world. But this sort of thinking is often 
prejudiced. Prejudice arises in many cases from a hostile 
attitude that existed before an attempt was made to under 
stand. 

There is the fact, of course, that China is a closed country 
and understanding cannot be achieved even though desired. 
But one should first remember what it was that made China a 
closed country. 

Unfortunately Japan has not yet reached the stage where 



PEACEMAKERS 123; 

she can make peace with China. It is strange that Japan, 
which waged an aggressive war with China, does not seem 
inclined to have a painful conscience. At present it appears 
that there is no hope that Japan, enclosed in the defence sys 
tem of the U.S., which has as its chief object the containment 
of communism, will be able to make peace with China and 
resume normal relationships with her. I visited China last 
year and found the people most friendly, with a tremendous 
determination neither to be invaded nor to invade, and a desire 
for peace. 

Once again I think of the uprooted cross at Sunakawa and 
of the difficulty of bearing witness in our day to Jesus Christ. 
And yet this is all the more reason why we must do it. It is 
we Japanese Christians of all people, we who, by our failure 
to witness and by our compromise, caused the death of our 
country, the death of countless of the world s young men and 
the loss of human values, we who must rouse ourselves, drop 
our pistols, raise high the cross in the world, and in so doing 
establish peace on earth. This is my heart s desire. 

May 30, 1969. 

References 

Reference Material on the Mutual Security Treaty: Published 

by Japan YWCA. 
These Japanese Islands: Edited by the Home News Section, 

Kyodo News Agency. 
The Mutual Security and the Self-Defence Forces: Mainichi 

Press. 
Reiko Matsuoka: dramatist, Vice-President of the Japan 

YWCA and Tokyo YMCA, member of Komazawa Church. 



Keiji Kuniyasu 



Figures cited in the "White Paper on Youth," published by 
the Prime Minister s Office, reflect some distinct tendencies in 
the Japanese student population. The "baby boom" of the 
late 1940 s had perhaps the biggest single impact on the size 
of enrollment, resulting in a record high for the postwar years 
in 1958 for elementary school, and again in 1962 for junior 
high school. By 1967, elementary school enrollment had drop 
ped by 30% to 9,450,000, while junior high schools saw a 28% 
decline and only 5,270,000 students, a total enrollment of 
14,720,000 in compulsory education. A drop occurred in high 
school enrollments also, from well over five million in 1965 to 
4,780,000 in 1967. 

The continuation rate of those going on to high school from 
junior high has been increasing annually, coming to roughly 
74% at present. That figure will most probably continue to 
rise for some years, but it does not mean that actual numbers 
in the high schools are going up; the number of junior high 
school graduates having declined, net enrollment in high school 
has levelled off. This has been a rapid development, and has 
been accompanied by another indication of the increased desire 
and possibility for more education, the enrollment in night 
schools. In 1953, 23% of all high school students, or 578,000, 
were enrolled in night school; by 1967, these students made 
up only 10% of the total, but numbered 480,000. 

What has happened, of course, is that the baby boom is 
now pushing into the colleges, having made its first big assault 



STUDENT TRENDS IN PRESENT DAY JAPAN 125 

in 1966. In that year, college students had already numbered 
more than one million; by 1967, that number was 1,160,000. 
Adding the 230,000 junior college students of 1967, the total 
was 1,380,000. It is worth noting here that 1969 enrollments 
in four-year colleges came to 1,211,068, despite the fact that 
several major universities took no new students this year on 
account of difficulties in these institutions. The percentage of 
high school students wishing to continue on to college is also 
steadily increasing. The year 1967 saw 520,000 applicants for 
four-year and junior colleges, making up 34% of the high 
school graduates of that year. If the 155,000 ronin (high 
school graduates, who having failed on the first try, have spent 
at least a year preparing for entrance exams) are added to 
other college entrance examinees, the 1967 competition clearly 
made the exams particularly difficult to pass. 

Total college applications for 1967, taking into account the 
multiple applications submitted by individuals, amounted to 
1,770,000 or 17% higher than the previous year. The rate of 
success in passing the exams was one to every 5.7, or 310,000. 
For junior colleges, out of 250,000 applicants, 120,000 passed, 
making a rough ratio of one to two. A total of 260,000 ap 
plicants failed in 1967, meaning that the numbers of ronin 
will probably increase, and that the percentage of students 
entering college will necessarily continue to rise. 

Along with the modernization of industry and progress in 
science and technology, the demand for technicians has grown 
enormously. This is reflected in the numbers enrolled in 
natural science courses, and in a rather special, very rapid 
development of five-year technical high schools. In 1962 when 
that system began, there were only 3,375 students enrolled, 
while by 1967 that number had increased to 33,998. Here also 
the signs point to a decided increase in enrollment for the 
future. For the past ten years, the technical courses in high 
school have more than doubled their size, leaving the social 
sciences and humanities behind. Similarly in universities, 



126 TODAY S ISSUES 

enrollment in humanities and social sciences has about doubled, 
but that of natural sciences has increased by 2.3 times. 

II 

The above figures show that the percentage of students 
continuing from high school to college is 34% and those going 
on to high school from junior high has reached 74%. In other 
words, one out of four college-age students is actually en 
rolled in college. It goes without saying, then, that a major 
contributing factor to the university disturbances recently has 
been increased enrollments with resulting overcrowding and 
concurrently, failure to keep up in curriculum, facilities and 
staff. There are sixty-five universities now involved in such 
disputes. 

Putting aside the long-range causes of student unrest, im 
mediate beginnings of the so-called "university problem" lie 
in the protest by the students in Tokyo Medical School, a 
reform movement which began in January, 1968. The dispute 
widened finally to include the entire university without first 
settling the problems in the Medical School. Protests began 
in the private universities when, in Nihon University, rumors 
of "bad management" by the administration gave way to 
further talk that perhaps the university was guilty of tax 
evasion. The movement gathered steam, focusing on a variety 
of causes, and reached the missionary schools last fall. Such 
institutions as Meiji Gakuin, Kwansei Gakuin, Kanto Gakuin 
and Aoyama Gakuin also had a taste of crises of their own. 
The basic question posed by students in these schools was, 
"What is a Christian university?" 

This year, in an attempt to settle the dispute, the Ministry 
of Education put before the Diet the "University Normaliza 
tion Bill" which met with almost universal opposition from 
universities, whether public or private. In fact, the submis 
sion of the bill has in itself constituted a new cause, or excuse, 



STUDENT TRENDS IN PRESENT DAY JAPAN 127 

for protest. It has merely added fuel to the fire. 

Before 1965, the student movement was concerned with 
political issues that were outside the university itself, such as 
the 1960 revision of the Mutual Security Treaty. Since 1965, 
however, the issues that have come into the center of student 
concerns are within the university; specific problems are taken 
to represent the whole, and blanket, radical reforms are de 
manded. What they are really asking, however, is what the 
university ought to be. This basic query gives rise to others: 
"What is academic freedom?" "What does university autonomy 
mean?" "What is the relation between the university and so 
ciety, between the university and the state?" "What are the 
realities of the thing we call state today?" "How, concretely, 
can the university fulfill its function as an impartial critic of 
the government?" These are the questions heard more and 
more frequently. 

Students claim that the university, if it has any social 
role at all, must be a place where man can restore his human 
ity, to step aside from the society that has alienated so many 
and try to understand it, and himself, better. It should be a 
place apart from the almost inhuman control exerted by the 
state and always under the surface of Japan s economic pros 
perity. The movement to revive the true university and re 
store its function as social and political critic has divided 
students into two main groups: the communist-led Yoyogi 
group and the Anti- Yoyogi Zengakuren and its various fac 
tions. The Yoyogi group has operated steadily through political 
strategies. The Anti- Yoyogi followers, being more radical and 
possibly more idealist, are uncompromising; they usually try 
to carry out a given plan or ideology to the bitter end rather 
than give way through compromise. 

Most Christian students belong to the latter group. Among 
them, in some Christian universities, there has been formed 
the "League of Fighting Christians" which has been involved 
in radical activities at these schools. Their movement centers 



128 TODAY S ISSUES 

on the theme, "What is the essence of true Christianity? 
What do we believe as Christians, and what are we, what are 
our professors, as Christians? Are any of us really Chris 
tians?" The dynamics of the movement in thought and action, 
however, have depended on the leadership. The divinity stu 
dents at Aoyama Gakuin, Kwansei Gakuin and Doshisha Uni 
versities have so far taken the lead in activating the protest 
on their campuses. Divinity students see the problem as part 
of the whole question of what constitutes the essence of true 
Christian belief. To them, it concerns the entire university, 
and the nature of Christian faith. How does the university 
regard Christianity, and how, they ask, can it claim to be 
Christian if it continues to operate in what they consider an 
unchristian way? 

Along with university students, young people in church 
groups and parishes are beginning to question the church 
itself as an institution. Activists in universities are protesting 
in some churches as well, often finding themselves treated as 
deviants or misfits as a result. The Japanese church, admitted 
ly conservative, is not blameless. Failure to accept radical 
students into the heart of the church communities often means 
rejection and alienation. 

The United Church, at its General Assembly, while voting 
not to participate in Expo 70 decided instead to give "moral 
support" to the event. This occasion gave church-affiliated 
students a fresh reason to revolt against the Christian estab 
lishment on the grounds that their efforts were directed to 
long-run church reform. They want to change the basic nature 
of the Japanese church so that it may become more truly 
representative of essential Christianity. The older members 
of the church look upon these activities as too sweeping, per 
haps overstated generalization. Young people, on the other 
hand, see most issues as related to the Mutual Security Treaty. 
Opposition to the nationalization of Yasukuni Shrine and to 
the University Normalization Bill, for example, are protests 



STUDENT TRENDS IN PRESENT DAY JAPAN 129 

against state power in general. Understanding their inter 
relationship makes it possible to understand the university 
problem as well. The students say to their elders that if you 
oppose one, you must oppose them all; they want to be 
thorough in living up to their fundamental ideas. 

At the regular convention of the Kyoto and Hyogo meet 
ings of the United Church, divinity students of Kwansei 
Gakuin and Doshisha, using the Yasukuni issue and Expo 70 
as a starting point, began to question the stand of the church. 
Later in two Kyoto churches, services were obstructed by 
protesting students. Such occurrences were perhaps less be 
cause of student radicalism than because of church rigidity. 
Our church does not have the flexibility needed to absorb the 
energies of the students, and ultimately, the gospel may be 
come increasingly irrelevant to students of this generation. 

Ill 

The United Church decided in 1968 to abolish its special 
committee on youth, as one result of re-structuring, and pre 
parations have been under way since last spring to hold a 
conference in October, 1969, the "National Church Youth Con 
ference on Mission." Its purpose is to consider how youth can 
become an evangelistic force, on the understanding that youth 
is no longer an object of evangelism, but should, and can be an 
agent. Since 1966 the youth committee has assembled, each 
January, representatives from all over the country for a train 
ing seminar. This year marks the fourth of these. As many 
as 150 young people were present, from many different 
parishes. In 1966-67 the subject of discussion was "The 
Church as Mover of History," and in 1968-69 it was "The 
Church Living Today." 

For the past decade it was hoped that the seminars might 
help young Christians live full and honest lives and that the 
church .might become an active force in history. Seminar 



130 TODAY S ISSUES 

participants openly agreed that to accomplish that much, our 
church must critically examine itself, expecially in relation to 
its stand during the Pacific war, and its unification. Re 
thinking and understanding ourselves were regarded as crucial 
to the confession of our faith. Such reflection is more than 
a historical glance; it must be a total reappraisal of past mis 
takes in order that they should not be repeated. Only on a 
foundation of honest awareness can the church begin to reas 
sess itself and form a true confession of its faith. 

Our youth is determined to take on the role of the light in 
the darkness, the salt of the earth. Young people want the 
responsibility, as members of a problem-riddled society, to live 
through their faith. These were the themes and the motives 
behind the seminar discussions. It was apparent that the 
young representatives had a strong desire and initiative to 
revitalize, to reform the church. The coming conference will 
be held with these facts, this awareness in mind. Plans for 
the conference were drawn up early in 1968 with preliminary 
work beginning almost immediately. Significantly, the young 
people themselves are making most of the preparations. A 
subtitle of the theme "The Church Living Today" is "How 
Should We Respond to 1970?" In addition there are two 
slogans: "To Do God s Will," and "Together We Bear the 
Cross." Christian young people are not necessarily destructive 
or completely negative in their attitudes towards the church 
today. Granted, a small number of services have been ob 
structed, but such events are probably the result of specific 
provocations rather than antipathy toward the entire church 
body. 

Youth has indicated its demand that the church be re 
formed. A great many young people, however, have also ex 
emplified in their conference preparations a very positive out 
look. They are determined to develop the United Church, to 
see it grow into a more truly Christian body, into an evangel 
ical church that embodies their faith. Our hopes are with 



STUDENT TRENDS IN PRESENT DAY JAPAN 131 

these young people. If their behavior is radical, we must 
remember that their intentions are sincere. If the church 
will take them seriously it will benefit in its efforts to become 
a "living" church. 

From the fall of this year through 1970, this country 
faces a tremendous number of problems, one of the biggest 
being the political issue posed by the Mutual Security Treaty. 
This particular issue may well determine the future of Japan. 
It is a big problem in itself, but the ramifications it will 
undoubtedly produce are unimaginable. The way the Oki 
nawa reversion issue and the American military base problem 
is being handled gives some idea of the serious difficulties 
that are going to arise in connection with the treaty. 

With the approach of 1970, youth movements are going 
to become more and more radical, heated and possibly danger 
ous. Under these circumstances, Christians have got to con 
front the dilemma of state power versus Christianity. It is a 
subject that reaches way beyond Japan to every part of the 
world. It is necessary now, more than ever, to deepen com 
munication with others in the U.S.A. and elsewhere, not just 
for the church institution, but for many aspects of social and 
political life with which the church is so closely bound. 



TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 

- An Analysis of "Christians" during Three Eras 

Toshikazu Takao 

Man s consciousness and mode of behavior are deeply con 
ditioned by the age in which he lives. Therefore the same 
consciousness or mode of existence cannot exist through all 
ages. So, too general a description presupposing such a con 
sciousness or mode is often a very serious obstacle to the true 
understanding of things. The description of "Christians" is 
one of those things. And today the univocal meanings of such 
descriptions are being questioned and the "existence" thus 
described is being examined radically. So, I would like to 
search for the necessary direction of our consciousness and 
behavior by analysing some typical descriptions that we have 
been using since the time of Meiji Era. 

"Yaso" of Meiji 

A typical description for Christians during Meiji Era 
was Yaso. (Yaso is a Japanese reading of German "Jesus.") 
The description Yaso carries a fundamentally different nuance 
from such descriptions as Kurisuchan and Kirisuto-sha (both 
meaning Christians). Historically speaking, most Yaso came 
from ill-fated lower samurai families during the last years of 
the Tokugawa Shogunate. They were looking for a new ethic 
for a new age and found it in Yaso-kyo (teachings of Jesus = 
Christianity). They saw in Yaso-kyo the very best of Con 
fucian ethics in an elevated and purified form demanding 
freedom, equality and justice. Something like an encounter 



TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 133 

took place between puritan-soldier-like missionaries and sons 
of samurai. And this laid the foundation for the influence on 
later civil-rights movements and new literature, the resistance 
against the newly rising nationalism and the inclination to 
ward socialism. Though detailed description and analysis 
must be omitted here, Yaso were leaders of the age with such 
a historically conditioned spirtual structure and they attacked 
retrogressive or anachronistic people. They committed them 
selves to an aggressive evangelism against Confucianism and 
Buddhism by preaching equality of man in the love of the 
heavenly Father and thus proclaimed their passion and zeal 
with naive confidence and resolution. Once I heard an old 
story of a Yaso who visited a Zen temple to convert the priest 
therein and was engaged in a hot debate for several hours. 
Finally the Zen priest perceived that the course of debate 
would lead nowhere. Loudly he declared, "No more debate 
necessary!" and turned to the wall to meditate. The Yaso 
immediately stood up, placing one of his hands on the bald 
head of the priest and, holding the other hand high, loudly 
prayed, "Heavenly Father, forgive this sinner," and left the 
temple. This story carries such a Meiji atmosphere that one 
must smile. 

"Kurisuchan" of the Taisho and Showa Eras 

By the time when Japanese Imperialism laid firm founda 
tions after the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars and 
further enjoyed feigned prosperity after World War I modern 
capitalism was firmly established. Decadent petit-bourgeois- 
ism expanded and the common people s life was hard. Thus 
the mood of prostration deepened. An effort to overcome 
this spiritual crisis can be seen in Uchimura s Second Ad 
vent Movement, and an immanent criticism of the prevailing 
poverty can be seen in Kagawa s Slum Evangelization. 
Trends of thought dug into an ever deepening crisis and 



134 TODAY S ISSUES 

agony. They took the directions represented by such men as 
Takeo Arishima and Hyakuzo Kurata. The age was influenced 
by such trends as Taisho democracy and Taisho culturism. 
There was no wild spirit of resistance any more. On the 
contrary the concept of the learned and refined aesthetic- 
romantic self with a strong culturistic inclination and political 
indifference extensively expanded. Christianity, too, as an 
object of such a culture, began to have strongly academic 
features. Many young members of the church became "modern" 
lovers of literature and philosophy growing into so-called "good 
Christian gentlemen and ladies." A poem of Jukichi Yagi 
criticized this kind of trend severely: 

What kind of caricature 
That a dignified professor 
In a newly tailed frockcoat 
On a platform of a class-room 
Delivers a lecture on the "Bible"!? 

If now, right now 

The fire of Elijah 

Falls here aflame, 

Perhaps 

A more fearful fire 

Falls on dressed-up ladies 

And high-hatted gentlemen 

Gathering in the church. 

Maybe 

The end of the world is here 

Yea, in this world where "doctors of theology" 

Do exist. 

Such Christians naturally could not properly respond to 
the social movements which were rising. Since they under- 



TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 135 

stood faith as an object of culture, they fled into their 
"inwardness." Content to be "building up the church", they 
could not effectively resist the ever rising trend toward na 
tionalism. Their relationship with society was nothing more 
than "charity" and self-satisfying "service-ism." Therefore 
they could not properly understand the problem raised by 
Marxism. As a result, those who became awakened to social 
problems had to leave the church. 

Those Kurisuchan could have neither power nor inclina 
tion to resist the rapidly growing nationalism and the more 
firmly established Tenno-ism and militarism in the early 
Showa Era. Particularly after (SCM) the Student Christian 
Movement was destroyed by state power in the early years 
of Showa, "crisis" was mainly turned into "inward crisis," 
and the church had to take the direction of protecting and 
prolonging its own life, always speaking of "evangelism." 
Thus the Japanese church as a whole, though some sporadic 
resistance movement and emotional or subjective resentment 
were observed, cooperated with Japanese Imperialism. This 
is evident in the fact that the Japanese church gave ideo 
logical support to the suppression of Korean people. The 
notorious "Apostolic Epistle to Christian Believers in the 
Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere" offers further evi 
dence. The church that deteriorated into a solitary island of 
personal inward meaning and consolation without realizing 
true identity, no matter how purely evangelically it grew by 
inviting non-drinking and non-smoking good-hearted believers, 
could not finally fulfill its prophetic function. It had to drop 
out of the total front of politics, thought and culture. 

Post-war "Kirisuto-sha" 

For most Kurisuchan who had been cooperating with the 
war, believing somehow in the final victory, the defeat was a 
serious shock. Yet we cannot say that this shock was deepened 



136 TODAY S ISSUES 

into a serious sense of guilt. Rather, many of them became a 
privileged group, again leading the age, making the most of 
the suddenly given American democracy. Conscious of the 
spiritual vacuum of Japanese people in the midst of prostration 
and dismay and adhering to the policies of the Occupation 
Forces, they concentrated on acquiring believers by means of 
mass conversion. This was clearly shown in the "Christian 
Movement to Construct New Japan", eager to "save three 
million souls". How many Kurisuchan pursued materialistic, 
mammonistic and colonialistic evangelism conglutinated with 
Americanism as symbolized by LARA goods? Instead of the 
propaganda during the war of "American and British demons", 
which was nothing but an unhealthy expression in a distorted 
form of the earlier sense of inferiority to Western culture, 
now naked and flattering "Praise America" filled the air. It 
was really a proud and high time for the Christian Church 
and Christian schools which have been contributing to Cau- 
casianization of the Japanese since the Meiji Era. How many 
Kurisuchan were re-converted as the champions of de 
mocracy under the overwhelming material control of Ameri 
can missionaries! Yet they were somewhat like "Pan-pan" 
(prostitutes), concealing inside them a deep sense of humilia 
tion and despising "frivolous" Americans from behind, yet 
repeating "hello" and "thank you". 

Of course, not all of them degenerated in this way. There 
were many pastors and believers who tried to respond sincerely 
to many young people who were seeking something funda 
mental to support their lives while facing serious nihilistic 
consciousness. Kierkegaard and Dostoyevski were being read 
among them with new and deep passion. This corresponded 
also to existentialism in the post-war world of thought. Out 
of this trend were born profound Christian existentialists. 



TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 137 



a. Confessional "Kirisuto-sha" 

These post-war patterns retained features that could be 
classified as "Kurisuchan" in both good and bad senses. What 
I call post-war "Kirisuto-sha" appears as a pattern that has 
different consciousness and behavior from that of "Kurisu 
chan". One of the motives for this pattern was the encounter 
with the "Church Struggle" of German Confessional Churches 
that persistently resisted the Nazi regime. The knowledge 
about German Confessional Churches which developed bold 
resistance against the arrogant myth of blood and soil born 
of their evangelical understanding of the essence of the 
church as expressed in the "Barmen Declaration", demanded 
serious reflexion and self-criticism in Japanese Churches. 
Here were born those who conscientiously sought the true 
"confession". I believe it was in those days that the descrip 
tion Kirisuto-sha became general. I do not know exactly 
when and by whom this description was first used, but I be 
lieve that the connotation of such a culturalistic and inward- 
seeking description as Kurisuchan demanded this new 
description, Kirisuto-sha. These Kirisuto-sha, in the pro 
cess of seeking for the true "confession", felt deeply guilty 
over the war upon sincere reflexion and criticism of their own 
attitudes during the war. This direction was publicly expres 
sed when Rev. Masahisa Suzuki, the late moderator of the 
Kyodan, announced the "Kyodan s confession of its guilt for 
the war." Of course, the very fact that this confession was 
not made until 20 years after the end of the war shows how 
irresponsible many of the post-war Japanese churches were 
with regard to the problem of their guilt for the war.. Furth 
ermore, the fact that this confession was made only by the 
Ky5dan, and that even within the Kyodan there was much 
opposition to it, shows clearly the nature of many churches 
in Japan. When (too late) this Confession was made public, 



138 TODAY S ISSUES 

there were many pastors who had shared a deep sense of 
guilt. At the same time, I can not forget that an old pastor 
murmured to me over the phone, "How can anybody expect us 
now to bow down before the Chinese (Chankoro) and dirty 
Koreans?" In fact a certain theologian criticized the con 
fession as infantile. As long as there are those individu 
als who have not altered their constitution even a bit, the 
words and actions of confessional Kirisuto-sha still have 
great necessity and significance for today. 

b. Resisting "Kirisuto-sha" 

However, the features of the post-war Kirisuto-sha have 
a wider range that can not be grasped in terms of the Bar 
men Declaration alone. This is symbolically shown by the 
Christian Association for Peace (Kirisuto-sha Heiwa no 
Kai) which was born in response to the rapid postwar trend 
in which radical and acute democratization assumed an anti- 
communism nature, in alignment with U.S. policies in the 
Far East. Of course, many Kirisuto-sha who joined this 
stream overlap with the above-mentioned confessional Kiri 
suto-sha. At the same time, they tried to develop their move 
ments not only from the theological-confessional view-point 
but also from that of social science. This naturally led them 
to reflexion on how great their fallacies were due to the lack 
of their social-scientific knowledge before and during the war, 
regardless of their subjective sincerity, and demanded a seri 
ous and humble response to Marxism. In this way, often 
gravely misleading socialistic Kirisuto-sha came on the stage. 
Of course, to what extent and in what form social-science 
(and Marxism) can be regulative for the consciousness and 
actions of Kirisuto-sha is a difficult problem that can not be 
answered in a simple way. The question of how confession 
and social-science can be united contained so great a difficulty 
that it led the Christian Association for Peace to a schism. 



TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 139 

This offered an occasion for the birth of a new kind of Kiri 
suto-sha, which I will describe later. At any rate, these re- 
eisting Kirisuto-sha were different in that they thought not 
only in terms of ethical-theological perspectives, but also in 
terms of social-scientific-perspectives. 

Contemporary Kirisuto-sha 

As the post-war Japanese monopolistic capital, revived by 
the Korean War, made up the structure established by the 
San Francisco Peace Treaty which seemingly assures the 
nation s independence, and, participating in the US policies of 
containing the communist bloc by means of the old US-Japan 
Security Treaty, kept following the course of re-armament 
from MSA to the new US-Japan Security Treaty, and as the 
course of making all Japan including Okinawa into bases 
against the communist bloc (corresponding to the expansion 
of the American war in Vietnam and the US strategical sys 
tem in Asia) became apparent, the essential crisis of our 
nation also became apparent. In particular the sense of defeat 
that had spread among the progressive camp after the "Ampo 
Struggle" in 1960 and the fact that progressive parties and 
labor unions became luke warm (having been woven into the 
given order along with the sense of disillusionment about the 
parliamentary democracy due to repeated one-sided votings as 
in the case of the Japan-Korean Treaty) necessitated more 
radical knowledge and actions. Education, too, in the course 
of a more and more reactionary inclination in politics, had 
steadily become rightist and has been attacked gradually on 
many counts like: "The Ideal Image of Man" prepared by the 
Central Education Commission, the authorization of text books, 
establishing the system to appoint Education Committee Mem 
bers, aptitude tests, evaluation of teachers ability and work, 
the bill to control universities, and others. On the other hand, 
industry-university cooperation is being promoted responding 



140 TODAY S ISSUES 

to the high growth rate policies and thus a reactionary re 
organization of higher education is being carried out. Besides, 
there are such ideological attacks as National Founding 
Day and the National Administration of Yasukuni Shrine. 
It is apparent that we should have more and more total knowl 
edge now that we face such widespread pressure by the state 
power. Under these circumstances, university struggles in 
evitably occurred in early 1968. 

Both at Tokyo University and Nihon University, struggles 
broke out in demand of students rights in archaic university 
structures. But the fact that the school authorities suppressed 
the students authoritatively not only made the struggles sever 
er but also led the students to interpret the nature of university 
struggles today in a larger dimension. That is to say, the 
struggles demanding students rights at individual universities 
led them to an overall interpretation of the society or regime 
that regulates universities in general, and thus all that sup 
ports such a regime became objects of their criticism, and 
finally led the students to envisage themselves as "assailants" 
who function as important elements of such a society. In this 
way, the struggles deepened and developed into a struggle 
that demands the negation of the structure of the present 
regime including all the ideologies that support it and the 
total negation of that which exists now totally and the nega 
tion of themselves radically. This is truly a radical criticism. 
"Radical" does not mean merely "acutely progressive" but 
"fundamental" "to the very root". It is, so to speak, a move 
ment that demands of all those who encounter it a radical and 
total recognition of themselves and of the reality that deter 
mines them, and a return to the true "original point" holding 
the principle of thoroughgoing self-negation. I described in 
one of my articles, how much this kind of demand exposes 
egoism in ourselves and others, how much naked self-pro 
tection and self-justification have been exposed, and how 



TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 141 

severe opposition and hatred have resulted. In any case, the 
questions raised by the Zenkyoto (All Campus Joint Strug 
gle Committee) students since January, 1968 have become un 
avoidable questions for all those who think seriously. The 
questions they raised are not concerned merely with politics 
and economy, but also with the knowledge of ourselves and 
with the very ground of our way of living, and therefore 
demand whole-personal self criticism. For example, as the 
Association of Young Doctors of Tokyo University kept deep 
ening their criticism of the present medical structure, they 
came to perceive the nature of Tokyo University itself as 
being conglutinated with the regime, and therefore came to 
question medical education at Tokyo University. They ad 
vanced further to negate their own existence, as Todai students 
realizing that they themselves belong to the group of "assai 
lants." They had to make up their minds that, without dis 
missing such a group of assailants, real recovery of true 
humanity is not possible. There such important questions as 
"What is a university, what is learning, what is freedom, 
what am I, what is life, and what is hope?," are being asked 
demanding a radical and total viewpoint. 

a. Solidarist Incognito 

It is only natural that these radical and total questions 
are asked responsibly also by Christian students. Here the 
distinction between Christians and non-Christians is no longer 
essential. For what counts most here is not some kind of 
creed; rather the essential issue is whether one meets those 
radical and total questions responsibly or not. In that sense, 
the very name All Campus United Struggle Front (Zenkyoto) 
is symbolic. For, even though they are all united at the one 
point of being anti-Yoyogi, there are various sects that severe 
ly oppose each other in their analyses and developments, and 
there are non-sectarian radicals of each department, and they 



142 TODAY S ISSUES 

are all united in their concrete struggles. There the central 
issue is not whether they have different world-views or faith, 
but whether or not one gazes into the essence of things un- 
egoistically and whether or not one concretely participates in 
the struggle. It is no wonder then that many Kirisuto-sha 
students join this struggle, and it is only natural that the 
number of Kirisuto-sha students who join the struggle is 
increasing, for the question raised by the Zenkyoto at Tokyo 
University is a universal one, particularly now that the strug 
gles have spread nation-wide and their nature has intensified 
since the police force attacked the Zenkyoto at Yasuda Audi 
torium on January, 18 and l!J, 196i). Now, it is no longer an 
important question whether one is called Kirisuto-sha or not. 
Rather, facing such fundamental questions, the very essence 
of being a Kirisuto-sha is re-examined and schism and de 
bate among Kirisuto-sha are taking place. For example, 
this is clearly observed in the situation of the SCM in the 
midst of university struggles. The SCM includes some non- 
christian stsudents. At any rate, the SCM cannot have a 
united opinion when faced with the question raised by Zen 
kyoto and therefore cannot participate in the struggle re 
sponsibly. Rather the very unity of the SCM itself was en 
dangered and debate among its members became impossible. 
Thus each individual Kirisuto-sha participates or does not 
participate in the struggle according to his own responsible 
decision. Those Kirisuto-sha students who join Zenkyoto 
reject the designation of Kirisuto-sha. At least they reject 
the peculiarity and privilege of Kirisuto-sha in the whole 
course of the struggle. They can no longer be called "con 
fessional" Kirisuto-sha or "resisting" Kirisuto-sha. I would 
rather call them "solidarists incognito." They no longer 
understand themselves as a privileged elite, but rather as 
persons commonly guilty for the maintenance of various 
powers and institutions that dehumanize and alienate humani 
ty. Therefore they understand themselves not as victims but 



TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 143 

as assailants who ought to sense their own guilt. Thus they 
seek to destroy those "evil" powers and institutions by negat 
ing themselves radically. They live in solidarity, and therefore 
see that the strong individual guilt consciousness is alive 
among those comrade students who responsibly participate in 
the struggle whether they are Christians or not. The radicality 
of their understanding is so throughgoing that they say 
"Even when 99 people are happy, as long as one unhappy man 
exists, we make him the very original point of our knowledge." 
When this kind of guilt consciousness, this form of self nega 
tion and this way of returning to the original point become 
real, why does the outward distinction of whether one is 
Christian or not become an important problem? Rather we can 
say that this sense of values is basically very Christian. So, 
when many Kurisuchan stand on the side of oppression, 
being conglutinated with the regime and only hoping to 
maintain their present positions, the guilt consciousness among 
"solidarist incognito" becomes even deeper than that of all 
others. When too much Pharisaic persecution, Sadducean re 
proach, legalistic distortion and even Pilate-like suppression 
are being practiced in the name of Christ, these solidarists 
incognito cannot lightly utter the name of Christ if they 
really cherish Christ. Rather they see the principle of Christ 
in those non-religious friends who, conscious of their guilt, 
are negating themselves radically and trying hard to return 
to the "original point." Perhaps there is no consciousness or 
intention of being incognito. If there is any consciousness 
or intention, it is derived from consciousness of guilt. As 
they sincerely try to live in solidarity, they become incognito 
without intending to do so. 

b. Struggling Kirisuto-sha 

It was inevitable that the struggles of Zenkyoto, with this 
kind of pattern of consciousness and action, should extend to 



144 TODAY S ISSUES 

more than 100 colleges and universities. For, as long as the 
universities today are organized in accordance with the pre 
sent system of order and have been changed into factories for 
producing goods called labor power, the questions Zenkyoto 
raises have a universal impact. The same thing can be 
applied to all state universities and private universities 
though peculiar phenomena in individual schools must not be 
forgotten. Old imperial universities, among which Tokyo 
University ranks at the top, can be described as factories 
producing high-class bureaucratic elite, while state and public 
universities in the smaller cities and private universities 
can be described generally as factories producing middle- 
class leaders. In the case of private universities, administra 
tors have to face financial difficulties, and conglutination with 
capital power often becomes more apparent than other cases. 
Therefore the school authorities have a stronger desire to 
maintain the present system. The whole course of struggles 
at Nihon University shows this clearly.* Furthermore when 
many private universities, by appealing to their so-called 
founding spirit, try to avoid revealing their essence as 
enterprises, the situation becomes more deceptive and some 
times very gloomy. The situation gets worse when the found 
ing spirit has the content of an anti-regime or a criticizing 
regime. This becomes especially apparent at Christian univer 
sities. 

Today the founding spirit of Christian universities has 
become skeletonized and hollow everywhere. Most of them 
became universities or colleges after the war when the new 
school system was introduced. At this time, most of them did 
not have any theory about the essence of a university, but 
rather had such vague mottoes as "cultivation of personality 



* Editor s note The administration of Nihon University 
was accused by the students of embezzlement and mis 
management. 



TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 145 

with rich sentiments" or "a society member with full culture 
and spirit of service" etc., and the real content of their educa 
tion has been production of middle-class people who conform 
to the demands of the regime. Though some resistance move 
ments were seen among them during the war, as a whole they 
have functioned like subcontractors, secondary supplementary 
organs and ideological reinforcement organs of state univer 
sities. Especially in recent years they have depended upon 
the logic of management only and followed the course of 
"industry-university cooperation" in response to the "man- 
making policy" demanded by capital. Comparatively eco 
nomical departments such as economics and departments of 
technology which match the needs of the age have been es 
tablished. But because of the difficulty of hiring good teachers 
in those fields, most faculty members are non-Christian. Thus 
in reality the founding spirit has become empty cant. Furth 
ermore, since the Christian administration do not understand 
that the Christian university is impossible in principle, they 
have an emotional block to the natural trend of secularization 
and try to maintain unreasonable structural control (e.g. re 
gulations that only Christians should occupy important posi 
tions). Therefore they cannot secure really able men and, as a 
result, hidden discord grows among office workers. Then dis 
trust spreads among students. In such cases the founding 
spirit becomes the "Imperial standard" for the status quo or 
maintenance of power, and authoritarianism and "label-ism" 
prevail on the campus. The longer and the stronger the luke 
warm tradition is, the worse the queer clique-strife gets. 
A typical case of this can be seen in the scale of importance at 
Tohoku Gakuin University:- 1. Christian Tohoku Gakuin 
graduate, 2. non-Christian Tohoku Gakuin graduate, 3. other 
Christians, 4. other non-Christians. Some people add as the 
5th rank resisting Kirisuto-sha, and if that is true, it is 
very symbolic. Furthermore love, spirit of tolerance and 
the spirit of service are overly propagandized. As a result 



146 TODAY S ISSUES 

legitimate demands for fundamental rights or justice are 
frowned upon, and in some cases even a labor union is con 
sidered to be a rebellion against the school authorities. Wor 
ship and courses of introduction to Christianity are compulsory 
while freedom of faith is propagated. Their content has fal 
len into a stress on modes of behaviour and can not bear 
scientific criticism. Thus "Christian spirit" reinforces the 
illusory community consciousness and functions to conceal 
corruption in reality. . When reality is such, no matter how 
often and loudly "Christian spirit" is preached at chapel time 
and ceremonies, and how fervently prayers are offered at 
public meetings, only resentment grows among conscientious 
people. Much more is this so when Christians holding im 
portant positions try to gain money by using their privileges. 
Such excuses as "Even Christians are nothing but ordinary 
people" are useless. As long as there are many Kurisuchan 
teachers and workers who talk beautifully of love, self-denial 
and inward peace and take a seemingly progressive pose but 
enjoy fully the stable petit-bourgeois life, avoiding concrete 
political and economic problems and never participating in 
anti-regime movements, such banter as "If you want to lose 
your faith, go to a Christian school" is no exaggeration. 

It should be unnecessary to explain in detail how great an 
impact the radical and total questions raised by Zenkyoto have 
under such circumstances. It has become apparent that, once 
these fundamental questions are raised, the struggle escalates 
to very radical confrontation. Here I see the inevitable cause 
for the birth of struggling Kirisuto-sha. The more firmly the 
school authorities bolster their self protecting authoritarian 
ism, and sometimes contrarily their conciliatory policies, with 
"Christian spirit," the more severely should so called Chris 
tianity be examined. The more seriously they take themselves 
as Kirisuto-sha, the more sternly their criticism becomes a 
categorical imperative accompanied by a deep sense of guilt. 
The more often the school authorities avoid true dialogue and 



TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 147 

reformation in the name of Christ, the more severely the 
students appeal and demand also in the name of Christ. The 
longer the Christian tradition of the school is and the less 
total and radical the knowledge of the school authorities is, 
the severer the situation gets. Therefore we see today that 
the Struggle Association of Christian Students (Kirisuto-sha 
Tokido) and theology students are taking the leadership at 
such universities as Doshisha, Meiji-Gakuin, Aoyama, Kansei- 
Gakuin that have long traditions. Therefore, if the school 
authorities define these student movements only as the agita 
tion of a few violent students, not facing the fundamental 
problems raised by them, avoiding sincere dialogue with the 
students and trying to solve the strife by the seemingly 
easy method of introducing police force, it is certain that 
they cannot solve the strife and that they only contradict 
the founding spirit which they themselves propagate. This 
is borne out by the fact that at Kansei-Gakuin and Meiji- 
Gakuin universities, where fundamental errors have been com 
mitted, buildings of the theology department and chapel build 
ings have been blockaded by those students. 

At Kanto-Gakuin University such questions as 1). the pos 
sibility of the Christian university, 2). the meaning of wor 
ship on the campus, 3). the meaning of the department of 
theology, 4). the meaning of having chaplains, 5). the mean 
ing of compulsory introduction to Christianity courses are 
being presented by the Tokido to the faculty of each de 
partment. If the school administrators of Christian universi 
ties do not try to answer them sincerely and concretely, no 
true solution is possible. Further, the Tokido students de 
mand that the faculty of the theology department make public 
its stand on the Yasukuni shrine problem, the war in Vietnam, 
our guilt for World War II and the measures taken by Meiji- 
Gakuin and Jochi University. Tokido students are now block 
ading the buildings of the theology department, claiming that 
the board of trustees and chaplains do not even try to answer 



148 TODAY S ISSUES 

the above mentioned questions, and that the faculty of the 
theology department has lost its prophetic spirit, since it does 
not criticize the profit-seeking policies of the school authori 
ties or show real concern about such important problems as 
the revision of the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty in 1970 and the 
global competition in nuclear armament. These are problems 
we cannot dodge. Thus they accuse us of our "criminality" in 
that we have been uncritically engaged in a process of educa 
tion which cannot be called education. Mere composition of a 
beautiful statement will not improve the situation. 

We have to admit honestly that we have not dealt with 
those problems seriously until we were confronted by the 
students. And we must sincerely scrutinize the real nature 
of faculty, which has a certain prestige in the present re 
gime, and effect a really necessary change toward a true uni 
versity. We must radically deepen our knowledge to realize 
that we are perpetrators and not merely sufferers in the 
present regime. And we must start anew having a total and 
radical view-point. In that sense, we must face the reality 
that such movements as Tokido had to appear in Christian 
universities, and therein hear the severe voice of God s judg 
ment. 

At the same time, I hope that Zenkyoto students and 
especially Tokido students realize that the really total and 
radical nature of the questions they have raised should de 
mand severe criticism of themselves as well. They also are 
open to the human inclination to self-justification, self-ab- 
solutization and self-rationalization. I hope that they too, nay, 
they more than anyone else, will deepen their self-criticirm 
and self-examination. Without thoroughgoing logicality and 
morality their barricades corrupt into idol worship and mere 
violence. If those who have demanded truly radical and total 
self-negation, in an effort to show the way to return to the 
"original point," sit comfortably and boast, while guilty of the 
fundamental sin of self-absolutization and self-justification, we 



TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 149 

see nothing but hollow and empty caricature. 

The Church of Today and Tomorrow 

I have so far described in somewhat too formal classifica 
tion the Yaso in Meiji, the Kurisuchan in Taisho and the 
post-war Kirisuto-sha, and I have classified Kirisutosha 
as confessional, resisting, struggling and solidarist incog 
nito. In the church today we have all these Christians 
mingled and thrown together. Therefore we see oppositions, 
debates and even schisms everywhere. And yet, at the same 
time, all these Christians sometimes live peacefully together 
in what I call evangelical abstraction. Lukewarm compro 
mise under the guise of reconciliation, vague illogicality un 
der the guise of love and self-deceiving fellowship under the 
guise of communion are being repeated. In such a situation 
everything is superficial and camouflaged. Administrators of 
big industries, organized labourers of big enterprises, man 
agers of small enterprises, unorganized labourers of poor sub 
contract factories, university professors and students some 
radical and some non-political , teachers of various kinds, 
high school students suffering in the "hell" of entrance ex 
amination, leisured and idle ladies, and widows receiving 
social welfare how can all these people, in their different 
inclinations as Yaso, Kurisuchan and Kirisuto-sha, have a 
common and uniting fellowship? And if all these peo 
ple are equally given "peace of mind" through the Gospel, 
being soaked in pious feelings for a short time on Sunday 
mornings, and propagate in the name of evangelism noth 
ing more than expansion of their kin and defense-territory, 
how can they be called "those who have turned the world 
upside down" as the early Christians were described? To 
those who escape into inwardness through private cultivation 
and are sunk in an isolated island of personal meaning and 
consolation, listening to comfortable sermons delivered by 



150 TODAY S ISSUES 

pastors who enjoy their stable petit-bourgeois life while- 
engaged in evangelism, driving privately owned cars, and 
indulging in sophisticated, academic theology and literary 
criticism, how barbarous such movements as Zenkyoto must 
appear! We should not mistake the attachment to gorgeous 
church buildings for the zeal to evangelize. We should not be 
drunk on the ecstasy of the church service suffused with 
solemn pipe-organ music, and we should not confuse the self- 
consoling fellowship of kinsmen with the recovery of our 
identity. The church today faces a serious crisis. There are 
theological confusions about the essence of the Gospel from 
within, and the waves of secularization and radical change 
are sweeping in from without. Pastors and lay members can 
not and should not ignore the impact of those radical and 
total questions raised by Zenkyoto. We should radically re- 
examine our own confession, the mode of our existence, the 
structure of our consciousness and our relationship with 
others. No church life of mere inertia is permissible. Paul 
gave us a grave warning a long time ago. (II Cor. 10:7)* 
(II Cor. 13:5)** 

The problem of church buildings, the position of pastors, 
and the form of worship all need radical and total examina 
tion and criticism. In short, the true identity of the church 
is being questioned. A certain Zenkyoto student at Kyoto 
University said something to this effect: "It is all right that 
such a place as a university exists. It is good that it is a 
quiet place. It is better if it has many good books. But 
there should never exist anyone who makes a living out of it." 
Cannot this saying be sharply applied to the church? With 
what kind of people and with what class of people do we want 



* "Look at what is before your eyes." 

** "Examine yourselves, to see whether you are hold ing to 
your faith. Test yourselves. Do you not realize that Jesus 
Christ is in you? unless indeed you fail to meet the test!" 



TOWARDS TRUE IDENTITY 151 

to identify ourselves? Can we recover our identity without 
identifying ourselves with those who are being threatened by 
famine and poverty, suppression and exploitation? The un 
committed attitude of knowledge for knowledge s sake is of 
illusory value. If the church maintains a stable condition on 
the basis of uncommitted neutrality, she will lose her true 
identity and her function as the salt of the earth and light 
of the world. A deceptive kind of unity must be broken in 
search for true freedom, just as Paul says.*** Only when 
we responsibly bear such pain, shall we be elevated unto such 
total integration as "The Lord is one, the faith is one, the 
hope is one." 

Thus, our radical and total view-point should finally de 
velop into that of eschatological perspective. We must carry 
on our participation in the pleroma (fullness) of the divine 
righteousness, life, freedom and rule with our identity and 
true solidarity founded on the hope that never leads to dis 
appointment. 



*** "for there must be factions among you in order that 
those who are genuine among you may be recognized." 
(I Cor. 11:19) 



THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 
IN JAPAN 



Peter Takashi Sakamoto 

1) Fundamental Consideration of the Problem 

It is always very difficult to foresee the future of society. 
This difficulty is caused, on the one hand, by the great com 
plexity of the innumerable factors in the concrete situation, 
and, on the other hand, by the weakness of our limited in 
telligence as creatures. However this difficulty does not mean 
impossibility. 

A human being then must try to foresee the future as 
much as he can, for the future of his society is very im 
portant for his happiness and existence. 

The university has today a significant role to play in the 
whole of society, since she has the duty to be aware of the 
needs and difficulties of modern society and to serve the 
human race as it strives to build a better world. The ex 
istence and development of human society need the true uni 
versity, which forms people capable of advancing the creative 
reform of the world and of fostering true progress and the 
advancement of culture through scientific research. It is safe 
to say that the future of the human race deeply depends 
upon the future of the university in society. 

However, we take up here the difficult question about the 
future of the Christian universities in Japan: "What will be 
the role of university in Japan?" In order to solve this prob 
lem, we must consider it from several different standpoints: 
historical, political and social, cultural, philosophical and 



THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 153 

pedagogical, and theological. 

a) Historical approach: history of the university in the 
world and in Japan : present state of the university. 

b) Political and social approach: the situation of Japan 
in Asia between the Free World and the Communist 
World. 

c) Cultural approach: Japanese traditional Asian culture 
and foreign European-American culture; older spiritual 
culture and new technological industrial culture. 

d) Philosophical and pedagogical approach: fundamental 
concept of the university in general; fundamental con 
cept of the Christian university in Japan. 

e) Theological approach: mission and Christian univer 
sity, science and Christianity, theological faculty and 
Christian university. 

Actually there are many diverse opinions about the future 
of the Christian universities in Japan according to different 
professors working and teaching in them. On the one side, 
some professors say that the Christian universities in Japan 
do not need to change their fundamental goals and structure, 
but only to strengthen the authority and control of the Chris 
tian administrators over the guidance of the university and 
the preservation of order on the campus. On the contrary, 
other professors assert that the Christian universities must, 
like other national, municipal and private universities, change 
their fundamental goals and structure because of the radical 
and rapid changes in Japanese society and because of the 
change in the mentality of students today. 

In my personal opinion, there are very few professors in 
Japan who would completely deny that changes must be made 
in the Christian universities to adapt to the radical transi 
tions in Japanese society. Considering the real changes in 
Japanese society and mentality, one cannot deny that the 



154 TODAY S ISSUES 

Christian universities must be transformed, although the 
extent of these changes may be discussed. 

The second group, those who demand the reformation of 
the Christian university, divide into two groups: radical and 
moderate. 

Prof. Toshikazu Takao of Kanto University is an in 
fluential leader of the radical group. Concerning the Christian 
universities in Japan, his sharp and censorious assertions 
were recently published in his book "Kiristokyo-shugi Dai- 
gaku no Shi to Saisei (Death and Resurrection of the Chris 
tian University)." 

In this book he seems fundamentally to deny the viability 
of the conventional concept of a Christian university in 
Japan. He explains his conclusion in the following way. 
The university as institute must be, by nature, perfectly 
universal, open, public and liberal. The fundamental ideas 
upon which a university is founded must not come from a 
particular ideology, "Weltanschauung" or religion even in 
a private university, since it also has the character of a 
public institution. Consequently it is conceptually and in 
practice impossible for a Christian university to become a 
true university. In short, there is a contradictory opposition 
between the university and its Christianity. 

As regards the mission of Christianity, Prof. Takao 
does not deny that witness to Christianity can and must be 
given in the university, but this cannot be done by the uni 
versity as a public institution. 

For these reasons Prof. Takao demands a fundamental 
change in the Christian universities as they exist today in 
Japan, because they are not true universities to his way of 
thinking. Changes must be carried out in the following 
points: 

A) Abrogation of the rule that the president of the univer 
sity must be a Christian, (p. 73) 

B) Freedom in attending community religious services (p. 



THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 155 

74). Liberty to elect the course usually entitled "Kiristokyo- 
gairon" (general Christian doctrine) (p. 75), abolition of 
the traditional theological faculty (p. 76). Moreover he ac 
cuses the Christian university of formalism and authoritarian 
ism, and thus justifies the revolutionary acts of the radical 
Christian students (pp. 37-41). 

As mentioned, Prof. Takao demands changes which are 
very fundamental and, in a certain sense, revolutionary. It 
is significant that he does not want to destroy the Christian 
university, but he is rather afraid that she will crumble 
because of her out-of-date ideas and structures. He explicitly 
declares that he does not wish the downfall of the Christian 
university, but desires her changes and growth so that she 
more truly and richly gives witness to Christ (pp. 72-73). 

While fully appreciating Prof. Takao s keenness, studi- 
ousness, and devotion for the reform of the Christian univer 
sity in Japan, we can raise the question of whether such 
radical and total change, "death and resurrection," is really 
the only solution to the difficulties of the Christian university 
in Japan? Is there no other solution promising a bright 
future to the Christian university? 

Here we must try to find a moderate way for the real 
change of the Christian university in Japan. Real change 
always implies a destruction of an existing part of the being, 
but it does not mean death, the total loss of life. 

Prof. Takao called this real, radical change of the 
Christian university death and resurrection. However, as 
mentioned, he does not deny the true and real life of Chris 
tianity in the university. He really wishes not death but 
resurrection, in which the Christian university will continue 
in new forms and with new concepts. 



156 TODAY S ISSUES 



2) The Historical Background and Present 
Situation of the University 

Many universities have existed in different ages and na 
tions in the world. Plato seems to have founded the Academy 
in the fourth century near the sanctuary of the hero 
Academus. This academy may rightly be called the first 
European university, where not only philosophy but also 
auxiliary sciences like mathematics and the physical sciences 
were taught. Plato was convinced that his Academy was 
not merely for practical training, but rather for the study 
of science for its own sake. In Plato s tradition, Aristotle 
built his school at the Lyceum, the precincts of Apollo Lyceus, 
in the city of Athens. This school was in effect a university 
or scientific institute, complete with library and professors, 
in which lectures were regularly given. These ancient uni 
versities, however, were not called by the name of univer 
sity. 

The name university goes back to the Christian uni 
versity of the Middle Ages. The Christian university system 
made one of the greatest contributions in medieval times to 
the development of European civilization and culture. In the 
twelfth century the schools of Bologna, Paris, Oxford, etc. 
formed centers of studies (universities), and received a de 
finitive charter from the pope, emperor, or later, from kings. 
These universities had considerable privileges, of which the 
two most important were those of internal jurisdiction and 
the power to grant degrees. They were largely independent 
corporations which maintained their privileges against church 
and state alike. University activity naturally found an in 
tellectual and academic expression. In the thirteenth century 
the university of Paris achieved an international character 
which, with its importance in the intellectual spheres, na 
turally made it responsible for maintaining religious ortho- 



THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 157 

doxy. 

The Christian universities of the Middle Ages maintained 
the doctrine of the Christian church as the criterion for 
their teaching. This was quite natural, because the univer 
sities in medieval times formed a part of the Christian Euro 
pean society of that era. Moreover, the universities of the 
Middle Ages were the most democratic society of that age, 
the rector being elected by professors and students who thus 
participated in the governmental arrangement of the univer 
sity. 

After the Reformation the Christian universities were 
put directly under the government of each district, and thus 
they lost, little by little, their independence and autonomy. 

The social, economical, and industrial development of 
Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries changed 
the European universities, which needed a new idea of educa 
tion. One was provided by the so-called "Humboldt doctrine" 
which reflects German idealism and is supported by an elabo 
rate theory and transcendental ethics. According to this 
doctrine of Karl Wilhelm von Humboldt, the famous German 
diplomat-scholar, the duty of the modern university consists 
principally in the research of the professors who also educate 
students in the specialized sciences which are necessary and 
useful for the state. In this activity the university has au 
tonomy and academic freedom. This idea of Humboldt 
dominates the modern universities in Germany and other 
nations and has greatly influenced modern society. 

Let us briefly consider the history of the Japanese uni 
versity. Before European influence reached the East, Japan 
had the Buddhistic schools for higher education, which could, 
in a wide sense, be called universities. 

However, after the Meiji revolution, Japanese universities 
embodied the influence and doctrines of the European-Ameri 
can civilization. Before World War II, Japanese universities 
were heavily influenced by the so-called Humboldt doctrine, 



158 TODAY S ISSUES 

which still dominated postwar Japanese universities and pro- 
fesors. This idea holds that the university is an ivory 
tower existing for the sole purpose of educating a small, 
select number of the social elite. After the war, Japan in 
troduced a new educational system in which a four-year uni 
versity carries out higher education. The introduction of the 
American university system has increased the number of 
universities (two-year junior colleges excluded) from 48 to 
377. There are now more than 1,500,000 university students 
in Japan. 

In order to say something relevant regarding the future 
of the Christian university in Japan, a short review of its 
past history will be necessary. 

When, in the beginning of the Meiji Era, Japan opened 
its door again to the Western world, Christian missions also 
could start their work afresh. In this work of the propagation 
of the Christian faith, Christian schools, especially univer 
sities, played an important part. 

Already in 1859, the first Protestant missionaries arrived 
in Japan. Although Christianity was still prohibited, they 
opened a small school to teach English and preach the Gospel. 
By 1888 there were already 14 Protestant schools of theology 
and 101 other Christian schools. All of these schools put 
worship and Bible study at the center of their curriculum 
and enforced rigid standards of Christian morality in their 
guidance of students. 

When, in 1918, the new University Law was promulgated, 
Doshisha, Rikkyo and Kansei Gakuin were recognized as 
universities. 

The first Catholic university came long after these Pro 
testant schools. In 1911 Jochi Gakuin (Sophia School of 
Higher Learning) was founded and, in 1928, elevated to the 
status of a university. After the Second World War, Nanzan, 
Seishin, Seisen, and Eichi and other Catholic universities were 
founded in quick succession. At present, in 1969, the number 



THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 159 

of Protestant universities has grown to 32, whereas that of 
Catholic universities stands at 11. 

However, can the growing number of Christian univer 
sities be a measurement of Christian progress in Japan? 

Compared to the fast expansion of Christian schools, the 
increase in number of baptized has been very modest. Chris 
tian universities were not excluded when campus struggles 
started and brought academic life to a near standstill. At 
present, 8 Protestant universities (Aoyama Gakuin, Meiji 
Gakuin, Tokyo Joshi, Kokusai Kiristokyo (ICU), Kanto 
Gakuin, Doshisha Gakuin, Momoyama Gakuin) and one 
Catholic university, Jochi university, are torn by student 
revolts. Thus, Christian universities are confronted with 
many questions of university education, and their solution 
will be the key determining their future road. 

Considering their history as well as their present state, 
the Christian universities of Japan no doubt have seen a big 
external development in both range and numbers. Whether 
this progress extends as well to their educational content, or 
whether in this respect there is retrogression rather than 
progress, is a question of utmost importance which, at this 
juncture, must be considered with deep insight and cool re 
flection in order to arrive at an objective conclusion. 

3) Political and Social Observations 

What moves modern Japanese youth and students are 
words like "PEACE" and "FREEDOM". Students of Chris 
tian universities are no exception. 

What first of all draws the attention of these Japanese 
students are apprehensions concerning the politico-social 
state of the present-day world, a profound aversion to the 
real and cruel war fought in Vietnam, and a strong assertion 
of their own political and social freedom. 

Japan became a defeated nation in the Second World War. 



160 TODAY S ISSUES 

She was the victim of the first atom bomb. As a result, she 
developed a strong hostile feeling towards all war. In addi 
tion, Japan is placed between the two super-powers, America 
and Russia, and hence is affected by the continuous tension 
between them. Further, there is Communist China, whose 
political advance has placed Japan in the center of three 
countries possessing the atom bomb. This state of affairs 
cannot but have an effect on politically sensitive youths. Japa 
nese students who are seriously concerned with politico- 
social questions must naturally become involved in such a 
state of world tension and disunion. 

If, in addition, we cast a glance at the political and social 
situation inside the country, it is clear that universities were 
called upon to play an important part in the reconstruction 
of the ruined economy by training intellectual workers and 
technicians necessary for that task. It was a task similar to 
that of the pre-war university which trained the intellectuals 
and technicians needed for Japan to catch up with the more 
advanced Western nations. There can be no doubt that such 
a politico-social situation had a somewhat deforming effect 
on the development of university education. The idea of the 
university as a place for the quest of truth and for the 
formation of personality became a mere phrase, and instead, 
the training of specialists and salarymen became the main 
objective. 

Considered from the point of view of management, this 
applied even more to the private universities than to the 
state or municipal schools. Financially, these private in 
stitutions were incomparably inferior to government-run 
schools. They received only a minimum of public assistance 
and had to rely wholly on their own resources. That is why 
they had to be run on business lines, keeping research funds 
to a bare minimum, taking in far more students than they 
were supposed to, and continually raising their fees. Faced 
with such financial difficulties, and encouraged by the rapid 



THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 161 

industrialization of Japan, private universities, through re 
organization and enlargement, more and more became places 
not for the quest of truth for truth s sake, but for the forma 
tion of efficient businessmen and technicians, according to 
the most advanced American models. 

Prof. Michio Nagai, in his book "The Japanese Univer 
sity", attributes the present turmoil to the fact that Japanese 
universities have severed their traditional ties to the spirit 
of their foundation. He thinks that this is due to the fast 
growing Japanese capitalism, which demands university 
graduates in large numbers. Private schools, in order to 
comply with this demand, have tried to elevate their status 
to university rank, increasing their number of students in a 
disproportionate manner, he believes (p. 20). In short, the 
university failed to preserve its identity in the midst of 
social change. 

Prof. Nagai, in conclusion, describes the present state 
of the Japanese university as follows: "Considering this, it 
becomes clear that the Japanese university merely adapts it 
self as best it can to the needs of society. Specialization, 
by which each university has its own way of combining 
research with professional and general education, laying 
stress either on natural sciences or literary and cultural 
achievement, is poor. In short, each individual university is 
lacking in the endeavor to construct a university of rich 
individuality" (p. 24). 

The Christian university, too, having become dissociated 
from its tradition and having lost its original spirit as a 
Christian university, is experiencing present student turmoil 
on its campus as a result. 

But why did it lose its original spirit? Among the 
principles ruling its university education, this spirit is still 
clearly stated. Has this statement become a dead letter or 
has it lost its vivid appeal to modern students? 

In order to find out this reason it is necessary to get be- 



162 TODAY S ISSUES 

hind the surface of appearances and search into the deep 
foundation of the Christian university. That is to say, while 
admitting that the phenomenal growth of the universities 
and their emphasis on professional education in the wake of 
fast expanding capitalism is one reason for the above stated 
phenomenon, the influence that modern cultural trends have 
exercised on the Japanese student must be specially considered. 

4) Some Reflections on Cultural Trends Influencing 
Japanese University Students 

Prof. Takeshi Umehara writes some philosophical ob 
servations on this point in the 1968 winter issue of the 
magazine "Ushio." He holds that the present crisis and 
collapse of Japanese university education is due to a deep- 
seated ideological malady which has its roots in the very 
civilization which formed the present type of university. 
This type of university originated from a medieval civiliza 
tion which was an amalgamation of Christian and Greek 
culture and which put reason uppermost. The civilization, 
however, which today governs Europe is a different one, 
based on natural science and technical skill, and it is this 
civilization which has gained world-wide acceptance. The 
fundamental aim of this civilization is to know nature in 
order to rule and use it. 

The European university, which had been the seat and 
domain of wisdom, thus little by little shifted its emphasis 
from theology to philosophy and from there to science and 
technical skill. The university, therefore, considered as the 
domain of reason and learning, now pursues reason and 
learning, not as a means to wisdom in the theological and 
philosophical sense, but rather as a practical way of knowing 
nature in order to master it (i.e. material civilization as 
distinguished from spiritual culture). 

What Japan imported from Europe was chiefly this 



THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 163 

material civilization based on science and technical skill, pro 
mising to enhance material wealth and national power. Thus 
Japan imported an ailing one-sided material civilization from 
Europe, and itself became a country with a civilization de 
ficient in true wisdom and spiritual values, dominated mainly 
by material instincts and desires. Prof. Umehara, after 
thus diagnosing the present university turmoil as a symptom 
of a deep-seated malady in civilization, suggests that a re 
medy is to be found, not in Christianity, which is not that 
influential here in the East, but in Buddhism, which is a 
thoroughly Eastern tradition and may better supply this 
need of a spiritual foundation. 

Considering the future of the Christian university, it 
might be good to ponder these observations of Prof. Umehara. 
If his reasoning is right, it would mean that in our country 
the Christian university, far from becoming a guiding in 
fluence in tRe rebuilding of our ailing university system, has 
no future at all. 

However, this judgment of Prof. Umehara is based 
on the clearly stated assumption that within Christianity 
there are two conflicting and mutually antagonistic elements, 
namely Greek philosophy and Jewish ideology (pp. 61-62). 
We are called upon to examine whether these assumptions 
are correct, and as present-day Christians, what are their 
implications for us. 

First of all, Christianity, by its nature, should be against 
all strife and attack. Christ warned against the spirit of 
revenge and war, and commanded absolute love. According 
to St. Matthew (5:43 f.), He said: "You have heard that it 
was said: Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and shalt hate thy 
enemy. But I say to you who are listening: Love your 
enemies, do good to those who hate you. Bless those who 
curse you, pray for those who calumniate you." According 
to St. Paul (Rom. 13:9-10; John 4:20), all other command 
ments are contained in this one: Thou shalt love thy neigh- 



164 TODAY S ISSUES 

hour as thyself. The perfection of law is love. That is, 
love constitutes the very nature of Christianity. The passion 
and death of Christ was the very execution of this immense 
absolute love. Forbidding his disciples all resistance, He let 
himself be chained and sentenced to death in the most unjust 
court proceedings. He bore his cross and was nailed to it 
without a murmur, asking forgiveness for those who crucified 
him. Thus, by unending love, He redeemed mankind and 
gave an example to his disciples in all ages. 

Prof. Umehara overlooks the fact that the Christian 
Church has striven for 2000 years to tame the unchristian, 
quarrelsome and belligerent traits in European civilization, 
and is still doing so. As far as the present-day Christian 
university is concerned, it will have to institute a strict self- 
examination as to whether it has really striven with all its 
might to put into practice Christianity as the Religion of 
Love, and whether it has been, in this sense, truly a witness 
to Christ- 
Is the present-day Christian university, as Prof. Ume 
hara asserts, really dominated by scientific and technical 
reason? Has it been wanting in showing forth the real 
nature of the Christian religion by the practice of love? Has 
it forgotten its task of building a human brotherhood on love 
and justice, and instead, in self-centered egotism, allowed itself 
to be absorbed by its own ambition? Instead of sacrificing 
itself like Christ in the cause of peace and the salvation of 
men, has it neglected the urgent cry of people suffering from 
war and hunger? 

When we look back over the history of Christianity in 
Europe and America, and when we consider the history of 
the Christian university in Japan, have we, Christians, been 
wanting in the fulfilment of this commandment of perfect 
love to such a degree that people like Prof. Umehara can 
mistakenly put the nature of the Christian religion in re 
venge and war rather than in perfect love of one s neighbor? 



THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 165 

The governing idea of a Christian university should be 
neither the intellectuality of Greek philosophy nor the spirit 
of revenge and conquest so often prevalent in the Old Testa 
ment, but it should always be conscious of what Christ taught 
by word and deed and what constitutes the essence of His 
Church true love of our neighbor. 

Together with Shintoism, Buddhism has nourished the 
spiritual culture of Japan to the present day. The Buddhist 
world-view, its religious tolerance, its nature-view, etc., could 
become a strong stimulus for the Christian university, in 
fected as it is with Greek intellectualism and the European 
scientific and technical spirit, to form a pure Christian 
idea of a Christian university. In this way, the Christian 
university, firmly rooted in the ancient Japanese cultural 
soil, could bestow its treasures on Japan and shed new light 
on the solution of the present problems of university educa 
tion. And by this it could constitute a vital link connecting 
Eastern and Western culture. 

What the Christian university should give Japan is a 
genuine Christian spirit and its realization. The Second 
Vatican Council asserted: "As the Church has always held 
and continues to hold, Christ in His boundless love freely 
underwent His passion and death because of the sins of all 
men, so that all might attain salvation. It is, therefore, the 
duty of the Church s preaching to proclaim the cross of 
Christ as the sign of God s all-embracing love and as the 
fountain from which every grace flows. We cannot in truth 
fulness call upon that God who is the Father of all, if we 
refuse to act in a brotherly way towards certain men, created 
though they be in God s image. A man s relationship with 
God the Father and his relationship with his brother men 
are so linked together that Scripture says: He who does 
not love does not know God " (1 John 4:8). 



166 TODAY S ISSUES 



5) Reflections from the Point of View of 
Educational Philosophy 

University education is part of human education. If the 
object of education consists in the formation of man, this 
naturally presupposes the existence of man and contains 
certain educational principles and techniques. 

Enquiring into the future of the Christian university, we 
have to dig down to the principles that govern its education. 
The basis of all Christian education is a Christian humanism, 
according to which it tries to form a more perfect man. 
However, university education, in so far as it completes the 
school education of the young man, is different from all other 
education in kindergarten, elementary, middle and high school. 
In what follows, a few points will be brought forward which 
would seem to be important if Christian university education 
is to contribute towards the solution of the present university 
problem. 

A) Christianity The Christian university, based upon the 
principles of Christianity, has as its foremost aim the estab 
lishment of a community of men dedicated to truth and 
justice, who in the spirit of freedom and charity engage in 
the search for truths and values and in the formation of 
man. Thereby it intends to serve the welfare of society and 
the creative progress of the human race. 

Christian principles, as applied to the university proper, 
include the recognition of all men as brothers under solidarity 
with one Father and therefore equal, which fosters a sense 
of the human family and love toward it; a striving for an 
order which reflects this solidarity and a respect for it; and 
a constant dialogue with humanity concerning its problems, 
towards whose solutions the university cooperates in its own 
unique way. 



THE FUTURE OP THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 167 

In the midst of the present rapidly changing world, all 
members of the Christian university share in the hopes and 
sufferings of the human race. Therefore, this university has 
the duty not to stand aloof, but to be keenly aware of the 
realities of the present world, and to clarify their meaning 
and complexity with an open and critical mind. We must 
realize that this university seeks not to be served but to 
serve the human race in its process of striving to build a 
better world. 

B) Study and the formation of man To fulfill its mission, 
the university requires that students, teaching staff and ad 
ministrators grow in mutual respect and in the strong sense 
of solidarity, expressed in a responsible participation, each 
according to his role. Thus, they should think, judge and act 
both as a corporate body and as individuals with all their 
strength in the spirit of responsible freedom. This is neces 
sary also to prepare the student for his later place in society. 
In this spirit, interpersonal relationships and a true dialogue 
can occur on both the individual and the group levels, bringing 
into existence a genuine community. 

Through such a dialogue, the teacher will communicate to 
the student the spiritual and intellectual treasures of the 
past, while augmenting them through his own personal re 
search. Also, in guiding his students he will take positive 
initiative in introducing present problems for cooperative 
research in a spirit of respect for objective reality and de 
tached scientific inquiry, attempting to deepen in his students 
the consciousness of these problems. 

The role of the student is not restricted to his own indi 
vidual study. With his more sensitive consciousness of pres 
ent realities, his role includes developing new insights through 
personal and cooperative effort. In so doing, he collaborates 
equally toward his own self-formation and the formation of 
, society. 



168 TODAY S ISSUES 

Thus, all will join forces in building the new and better 
world toward which all humanity is striving. 

C) Academic freedom and autonomy of the university As 
a university, the Christian university respects the plurality 
of philosophies, and indeed encourages their objective study. 
Further, respecting the intellectual freedom of its members, 
it has no intention of forcing a particular world view upon 
any student or teacher. Rather it seeks to aid its members 
in acquiring sharp discernment, mature judgment, and a 
sincere mental attitude, so as to enable them to form their 
own view of basic human problems within the widest possible 
frame of reference. This it does as a community of learning, 
and not as a center of indoctrination. 

At the same time, the Christian University in Japan affords 
to all who desire the facilities for research into the world view 
and culture of Christianity. This formation of responsible 
human persons, to be fruitful, must be carried out in an 
atmosphere of freedom. Thus, this university must enjoy 
autonomy: namely it must be free from all coercion from 
ideological, political or other forces, whether from any of its 
members or from pressures external to the university. 

6) Theological Considerations 

Stimulated by the Second Vatican Council, a new theo 
logical movement has arisen in the Catholic Church which, 
on account of the strong ecumenical trend of the time, has 
had a strong influence on Protestant and Eastern theology 
and thus on the whole Christian Church. The main effect of 
this movement was to foster dialogue inside the Church, to 
open the Church wide to the present world and to adapt the 
Church to the needs of the time. 

This kind of "dialogue and freedom", "modernization and 
progress," is exactly what present-day society demands, and 



THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 169 

the Christian university too is being shaken by this thought 
wave. Protestants and Catholics are affected in the same 
way. They both have their progressives and traditionalists 
opposing each other. In all denominations, theology students 
and others are in critical opposition to the old-style univer 
sity and its management. In this respect, Protestants are 
more advanced than Catholics. At any rate, this movement 
of adapting Christianity and its universities to modern times 
will grow in intensity and depth. 

Admitting that the essence of the Christian religion is 
unchangeable, its changeable parts have always to be inter 
preted anew and adapted by theologians to the changing de 
mands and situations of the time. Theological faculties have 
to express the unchanging essence of Christianity in ever new 
forms according to the thought and language of modern man, 
and not only to hand on a system of scholastic thought, how 
ever much that may have been fitting in its time. 

It seems that in the Protestant universities of Japan, 
theological faculties are confronted with great difficulties. A 
significant symptom of this is, for example, the fact that 
Kanto Gakuin University has closed down its theological 
faculty altogether, and that in Doshisha and Kansei Gakuin 
universities, rebelling students have occupied and closed the 
faculty buildings of the theological departments. 

The important question henceforth will be: how is the 
general aim of the university as an institution for learning, 
education and research to be combined and harmonized with 
the specific task of the Christian university to transmit 
Christian religion and culture. 

7) In Conclusion 

Surely, the way into the future will not be easy for the 
Christian university. However, a way will be opened to her 
if she really lives up to the spirit of the Gospel. In conclu- 



170 TODAY S ISSUES 

sion, a few points may be mentioned which would seem to be 
of great importance towards this end. 

A) A new, specifically Christian educational method has to 
be discovered. The success and failure of university educa 
tion will largely depend on whether the basic education has 
been good or not. The student on entering the university 
already possesses a direction in which to build his personality. 
In my opinion, herein lies a general educational problem for 
the Christian university, as for the other universities. 

The famous Catholic educator of modern times, Maria 
Montessori, has described the education of man as a single 
process from infancy to adult age. (Cf. Maria Montessori, 
Uber die Bildung des Menschen. Herder V., Freiburg 1966, 
p. 16). Man s personality and all his capabilities are basically 
determined during infancy. They cannot fundamentally be 
changed by university education. The important point of the 
Montessori educational method is: to give the infant a train 
ing which elicits and forms the bodily and spiritual potentiali 
ties hidden in the infant, so as to form his personality by 
developing his faculties of self-determination, freedom and 
sense of responsibility. In "The Discovery of the Child", 
Maria Montessori describes how the infant has been given by 
his Creator mysterious faculties varying according to each 
person. Among them are so-called "supernatural" ones which 
direct the young person towards his Creator and which are 
the reason for the innate religious sense that is to be de 
veloped by education. 

This new Catholic educational method is, Montessori as 
serts, at the same time scientific, psychological and religious. 
Given this basic education, the university will receive students 
who are capable of developing their individual faculties in 
freedom and responsible self-determination. Thus, the solu 
tion to present unviersity problems is largely a question of 
this earlier basic education. With this in mind, the Christian 
university is called upon to form its genuinely Christian 



THE FUTURE OF THE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 171 

educational policy and renew its educational system. As 
with Maria Montessori s method, it might become a worth 
while discovery. 

E. M. Standing, writing in his "The Montessori Revolu 
tion in Education", puts it as follows: "For these it repre 
sents the beginning of a great new social revolution based on 
the releasing of hitherto unknown potentialities in childhood. 
We are not thinking of children simply as individuals to be 
educated, but taken collectively as a creative force to be used 
for the re-creation of civilization a force which has hitherto 
never been fully implemented and, when it is, will usher in 
a new world for a new man" (p. 201). 

B) The problem of universal knowledge and the Christian 
spirit at the Christian university. Regarding this point, 
Prof. Takao contends that there exists in the Christian 
university an inner contradiction, which has created within 
the university an undeniably strong tension. In order to 
resolve this, it would be natural for a university to give its 
students full freedom to attend, or not to attend, Christian 
lectures and worship. This, however, demands all the more 
that the Christian university become a center for research 
and transmission of a truly Christian world-view and culture. 
It becomes of paramount importance for the Christian uni 
versity, while acknowledging perfect freedom of learning, to 
show forth the value of Christian teaching and culture. If 
this is done only in the narrow compass of a theological de 
partment, it will hardly attract students of the young genera 
tion. Christianity and the whole ambit of its cultural ramifi 
cations must become the object of intense research, from 
which will come forth a new, progressive concept of Christian 
education, which will in turn contribute positively to the 
solution of the present difficulties. 

In this way, new Christian cultural research institutes 
should be created in all Christian universities. They should 



172 TODAY S ISSUES 

keep close contact with one another. They should become 
rallying points for unity among the various Christian de 
nominations, and, above all, bring forth by their diligent 
united research the new concept of Christian education. 

C) To build up Christian universities with clear specifica 
tions and a strong individuality With regard to this point, 
Tamagawa University is of special interest. When in 1968 
the General Meeting of Christian Schools was held there, 
the president, Dr. Ohara, in setting forth the spirit of 
university education, drew the attention of his audience by 
explaining that education must comprise the whole man from 
infancy to adult age, that it must foster the harmonious 
development of mind, heart and will. The means to this end 
which he suggested learning by working, self-teaching, self- 
governing, respect for the individuality of the pupil, the 
fusion of opposites, respect for nature, international-minded- 
ness, etc. come close to what Montessori suggested. They 
are noteworthy for all Christian universities trying to build 
for the future. 

In conclusion, according to the proverb: "God helps those 
who help themselves," the building of the new Christian uni 
versity is not a thing which just happens, but requires 
the concerted effort of all concerned. The great theologian 
and philosopher at the time of the Renaissance, Nicolaus 
Cusanus, had a profound confidence in the creative power 
God has given to man. The twentieth century s great educator, 
Maria Montessori, discovered it in the child. If the Christian 
university can muster this creative power and potentiality 
hidden in man, and develop it into a new education for man, 
it can lead the way to the renewal and reform of university 
life in general. Furthermore, it can contribute to the estab 
lishment of a peaceful Japanese society, thus showing forth 
the spiritual and real worth of the Christian religion. More 
over, it would thus become a treasure to Christ Himself. 



THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL 
MOVEMENT IN JAPAN 



Chitose Kishi 

The head of the Church is Christ, and the Church is the 
body of Christ. Therefore, all that is said of Christ can also 
be said of the Church. Just as Christ is the only holy Lord, 
so the Church is the universal Church transmitted by the 
Apostles. 

In this sense, the Church of Christ cannot but be one. 
However, the Church now has a certain aspect. Namely, 
the Church, as the body of Christ, has many members. As 
Paul says: "For just as the body is one and has many 
members, and all the members of the body, though many, are 
one body, so it is with Christ" (I Cor. 12:12). Of Christ 
Himself, we can say that He will never change. But it would 
be difficult to maintain that those people who are members 
of the body of Christ, even though they participate in the 
death and resurrection of Christ, can unite themselves per 
fectly to the mind of God. In the first letter to the Corin 
thians, Paul urges harmony among the many members of 
the one body, but by this very fact it is clear that he re 
alizes the existence of some disharmony among the members. 

The history of the Church covers some two thousand 
years. During that time the Church has never forgotten that 
she is one. However, that divisions have occurred in every 
period of her history is no exaggeration. Even if we leave 
aside the separation of the Eastern and Western Churches 
and the divisions of the Reformation period which have had 
a great impact on the entire Christian world, the number of 



174 TODAY S ISSUES 

divisions within the different denominations is considerable. 

While we recognize the unity of the Church, we admit to 
divisions within the Church. However, parallel to this dis 
unity among the members of the Church, there always has 
existed a movement within the Church towards the unity 
of all her members. 

In the beginning of this century, at the instigation of 
Dr. J. R. Mott, the World Missionary Council came together 
at Edinburgh in 1910. Later it became the International 
Missionary Council, which held meetings at Jerusalem in 1928 
and at Madras in 1938, promoting the ecumenical movement. 

The ecumenical movement was stimulated by World War 
I. In 1919, the year after the end of the war, together with 
the Ecumenical Patriarch of the Orthodox Church, Archbishop 
Soderblom of Sweden appealed for the cooperation of all the 
churches of the world in matters pertaining to the social 
ethics in life and work. Their initiative stimulated the 
establishment of the World Council for Life and Work, which 
held meetings at Stockholm in 1925 and at Oxford in 1937. 

Again, Bishop C. R. Brent, greatly moved by the Edin 
burgh World Missionary Council of 1910, sought to promote 
a world church movement in relation to faith and order. His 
efforts led to the establishment of the World Council for 
Faith and Order which organized meetings at Lausanne in 
1927 and at Edinburgh in 1937. 

Since ecumenical efforts unavoidably affect race questions, 
political systems, and economical structures, arguments both 
for and against this movement were raised. Despite criticism 
and opposition, a number of inspired leaders bravely con 
tinued to promote the movement. Among them, Archbishop 
William Temple deserves mention. 

The first General Meeting of the World Council of 
Churches was held at Amsterdam after World War II in 
1948. This meeting was successfully convened through the 
cooperation of those men who, trusting in the guidance of 



THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT 175 

the Holy Spirit, moved towards the realization of their 
vision. 

The Second General Meeting was held in Evanston in 
1954, the third in New Delhi in 1961, and the fourth in 
Uppsala in 1968. 

The World Council for Faith and Order, too, worked 
vigorously and held its third meeting in Lundt in 1952, its 
fourth in Montreal in 1963 and its fifth in London in 1968. 

We cannot overlook the ecumenical movement within the 
Catholic Church which culminated in the Second Vatican 
Council. 

Just three months after his election on October 28, 1958, 
Pope John XXIII surprised the world with his decision to 
convene Vatican Council II on the following January 25. 
Visiting the Church of St. Paul, Pope John announced his 
intention to the assembled cardinals. His aim, he said, was 
to search for solutions to the many problems facing the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

"Aggiornamento" was his purpose a "self-reform" of 
the Church. It soon caused widespread repercussions both 
within and without the Church. The Second Vatican Council 
took up the problem of worldwide Christian unity, a problem 
which neither the Council of Trent nor the First Vatican 
Council had been able to consider. This required courage 
on Pope John s part, and for this reason, Christians will 
always gratefully remember his determination born out of 
love. Further, the fact that the Pope also sought improved 
relations with other religions and called for the unity of 
the whole human race, clearly indicates that Christ is the 
Lord of the universe, who teaches the fundamental attitude 
of Christians towards other religions. 

That the Catholic Church took up the problem of ecumen 
ism was an epoch-making event which greatly stimulated 
the churches of the world. This does not mean that Catholic 
Church progress in ecumenism has reached a culmination 



176 TODAY S ISSUES 

which satisfies all the churches of the world. Yet it is very 
meaningful that the Catholic Church manifested an aware 
ness of the problem and began to deal with it directly. Within 
Protestantism too, there are groups still completely closed to 
this problem. One should know that no problem is solved 
only by attacking other people. Ecumenism is based on self- 
reform through the Holy Spirit. 

The Second Vatican Council, convened by Pope John XXIII 
and continued by Pope Paul VI, knew four sessions from 
October 11, 1962, to December 8, 1965. This council will be 
well-remembered in the history of the Church. 

Since the end of World War II, the Christian churches 
of the whole world have understood the distress wrought by 
the lack of unity among the churches and have earnestly 
sought for a solution. This can be seen from what we have 
said above. It need not be stressed that this movement is 
deeply influencing the Church in Japan. 

After World War II, some of the Protestant denomina 
tions separated from the United Church of Christ in Japan. 
This phenomenon, however, was not in contradiction to the 
ecumenical spirit. Rather, the realization of this spirit looks 
for a new start in a unity of minds which is not centered 
upon organizations. Of course, among the separated de 
nominations there may be some which intended a complete 
separation of their denomination both in organization and 
in spirit. 

Dietrich Bonhoeffer, in his Life Together, wrote very clearly 
about this point: "In Christian brotherhood everything de 
pends upon its being clear right from the beginning, first, 
that Christian brotherhood is not an ideal, but a divine re 
ality. Second, that Christian brotherhood is a spiritual and 
not a psychic reality." Bonhoeffer further explains the 
presence of this reality as related to the existence of the 
individual Christian: "Christianity means community through 
Jesus Christ and in Jesus Christ. . . . We belong to one an- 



THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT 177 

other only through and in Jesus Christ. What does this 
mean? It means, first, that a Christian needs others because 
of Jesus Christ. It means, second, that a Christian comes to 
others only through Jesus Christ. It means, third, that in 
Jesus Christ we have been chosen from eternity, accepted in 
time, and united for eternity." 

Having experienced the oppression of the Church during 
the war, Japanese Christians have learned that the individual 
Christian has need of other Christians, and that he can have 
fellowship with other Christians through the mediation of 
Jesus Christ. The wartime experience fostered the realiza 
tion that the consciousness of brotherhood in Christ is 
stronger than that of denomination. The conscious and un 
conscious recollection of the wartime experience constitutes 
an important contributing factor to the ecumenical move 
ment in Japan. 

After the war, the ecumenical movement witnessed de 
velopment under several forms. A number of leaders of the 
movement have been given opportunities for special studies 
in the field of ecumenism, at Bossey and elsewhere. Suzuki 
Mitsutake s The Understanding and Realization of the 
Ecumenical Movement (Sekai Kyokai Undo no rikai to jissen) 
is one example of what the ecumenical movement in Japan 
has produced. Other materials for a deeper understanding of 
the movement are the publications of the World Council of 
Churches and of the Faith and Order Commission. Reports 
on the dialogue between denominations, and the detailed 
commentaries on the Second Vatican Council are others. 

The National Christian Council of Japan has established 
an institute for religious studies, the United Church of Christ 
in Japan an institute for missionary studies, and some de 
nominations have organized committees for Faith and Order. 
Within the Catholic Church, there are the Episcopal Com 
mission for Ecumenism and the Oriens Institute for Religious 
Research. Moreover, there are some fifty groups throughout 



178 TODAY S ISSUES 

the nation which, in different ways, foster the ecumenical 
movement. 

Positive promotion of this trend by the World Council of 
Churches and by Vatican Council II is a causal factor in the 
trend. So, too, is the awareness of difficulties facing Church 
members who desire to live as Christians in today s turbulent 
society. 

Until quite recently, the ecumenical movement functioned 
through semi-official or official agencies. Consequently, it was 
fettered in many respects by the teachings and regulations 
of the churches and denominations. For this reason too, it 
was difficult to discuss problems at the grassroots level and to 
search for truth through free discussions. As a result, a great 
many reports were published, but they did not lead to any 
substantial change. Many theorists came to the fore, but 
there have been rather few instances where theory was put 
into practice. The weakness of the ecumenical movement in 
Japan is that, from the beginning, its basic unit was not the 
individual Christian, but rather the organizations to which 
they belong. With the individual Christian as the basic unit, 
each participating Christian is united with the others, being 
united with Christ, the head of the Church, through Christ s 
mediation and the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Thus there 
is no distinction either according to one s status in the Church 
or to sex. For Christ, there are no Greeks nor Jews. Christ 
has no prejudices. 

Viewed against this background, it appears that the 
ecumenical movement in Japan must alter this basic notion. 
Instead of starting from the level of denominations or or 
ganizations as was done in the past, it should change methods 
and start from the level of individual Christians. This does 
not mean that denominations or organizations are to be 
ignored. Rather, it emphasizes that individuals are to be 
taken seriously, and that there is a fuller understanding of 
the fellowship which is the essence of the Church. The indi- 



THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT 179 

vidual Christian does not disappear in the word "Church." 
Even the most humble ones have their place as members of 
the body of Christ. Through the mediation of Christ they 
share in a dynamic bond with the other members. Here 
appears a fellowship in the Lord which excels all human 
organizations. 

In Japan, discussions were held from early 1968 on the 
possibility of implementing this new emphasis. The persons 
who met did so in a purely private capacity and could freely 
express their opinions. Scholars, ministers, missionaries and 
leaders of both the Protestant and the Catholic Church par 
ticipated actively. 

Meetings were held at the Apostolic Internuntiature, at 
the office of the Tokyo diocese of the Anglican Church, at 
! 0riens Institute for Religious Research, at St. Anthony s 
Seminary, at the Japan Bible Association and elsewhere. At 
every place the atmosphere was that of a free, informal meet 
ing of free men. 

The discussions covered subjects ranging from the prob 
lems of missionary work in Japan to Japanese Christian as 
sistance in overseas projects, such as help for the suffering 
people of Biafra. Problems of liturgy, missionary planning 
On a national scale, publications for the masses, common study 
of ecumenism, dialogue with leaders of other religions, and 
ecumenical contacts among women, youth and students were 
discussed. 

The ecumenical movement is not just another movement. 
It is a movement which aims fundamentally at the restoration 
of all men before God through the living and working gospel 
of Christ. Countless matters relevant to the movement re 
ceive attention. However, to facilitate discussing them, they 
are categorized and seriously studied by men who are spe 
cialists in their respective fields. Here, again, appear both 
the unity of the members, as united with the body of Christ, 
-and their diversity. Within the fellowship of this warm 



180 TODAY S ISSUES 

community, work is divided but frequent contact kept with 
one another. "That there may be no discord in the body, 
but that the members may have the same care for one an 
other. If one member suffers, all suffer together, if one mem 
ber is honoured, all rejoice together" (I Cor. 12:25-27). 
When these words are realized within us, the ecumenical 
movement fulfills its role of healing our disunity. 

On May 24, 1969, the opening session of the Japan 
Ecumenical Association was held at Oriens Institute for Re 
ligious Research. This Association originated with the vision 
outlined above. As the Association tries to promote a creative 
ecumenical movement, its activities call for attention. 

Since it has evoked wide interest as a new activity ex 
hibiting creative imagination within the ecumenical movement 
in Japan, I include here the prospectus and statutes published 
on the occasion of the opening session. 

The Japan Ecumenical Association 

The Church, aware that she must witness to the Gospel 
of Christ in our times of rapid change, feels the need for 
self-renewal. 

We Christians who believe in God, our Father, and in His 
Son whom He sent into this world for our salvation, are con 
scious of the issues which divide us. We hope, however, with 
the help of God, to overcome our divisions and reach that 
unity for which the Lord prayed. 

As Christians of Japan we realize that we are but few 
in the midst of a vast number of compatriots who do not 
yet know Christ. We pray that the Holy Spirit may unite 
us so that we may give better witness to God s Kingdom and 
proclaim the Good Tidings to many brethren. 

To that effect we wish to examine what divides us that 
it may be eliminated, and to investigate what unites us that 
it may be strengthened. 



THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT 181 

As Christians particularly interested in the solution of 
these problems and basing ourselves upon the common heritage 
of faith, we acutely felt the need to discuss them with one 
another and to search for their solution in fraternal col 
laboration. It seems to us that the task ahead can be 
expressed in the following points: 

1. To promote whatever might foster in this country the 
unity of the Church through contact, dialogue and co 
operation ; 

2. To study from the ecumenical point of view all prob 
lems which we face in our proclamation of Christ s 
Gospel to this nation; 

3. To promote contact, dialogue and cooperation with the 
other religions in Japan and with the leaders of Japa 
nese society; 

4. To establish contact and friendly relations with similar 
organizations here and abroad. 

These goals call for a permanent organization, such as 
does not yet exist within the Church of Japan. Hence a 
group of interested people met and decided to establish The 
Japan Ecumenical Association. 

These persons intend to participate in the work of the 
Association, not in the name of the Church to which they be 
long nor as representatives of that Church, but in a personal 
and private capacity, on their own initiative and borne by 
their sense of faith and by their desire to engage in dialogue 
and cooperation with one another. 

It is their fervent wish and prayer that this initiative 
may bring increased vigor to the Church and signal the ad 
vent of a new era of missionary proclamation in Japan. 



182 TODAY S ISSUES 

Tokyo, May 24, 1969 The Promoters, JEA 



Statutes of the Japan Ecumenical Association 



Name: 

Article 1: 

Offices : 
Article 2 : 



Purpose : 
Article 3 : 



Activities : 
Article 4 : 



The Association is called "The Japan Ecu 
menical Association" (JEA). 

At present, JEA has two offices. One is 
located in the Nihon-Seisho-Shingakko, 492, 
1-chome, Shimoochiai, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo. The 
other is at Oriens Institute for Religious Re 
search, 2-28-5, Matsubara, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo. 

JEA consists of group of Christians who, on 
the basis of their common faith and aware of 
their present divisions, intend to overcome 
them mainly through the study of whatever 
could lead to that unity for which Christ has. 
prayed. Hence they wish: 

1. To foster all contact, dialogue and co 
operation contributing to Church unity; 

2. To study, from the ecumenical point of 
view, a missionary approach to Japanese 
society ; 

3. To promote contact, dialogue and coopera 
tion with non-Christians in Japan and 
with the leading circles of Japanese so 
ciety ; 

4. To maintain liaison with similar organs 
here and abroad. 

Toward the achievement of these goals, the 
Association intends to undertake the following 
activities : 



THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT 



183 



Membership : 
Article 5 : 



1. Studies and inquiries related to ecumenism; 

2. Conferences and meetings for research and 
mutual consultation, retreats, and contact 
with branch organizations; 

3. Publication of ecumenical news and other 
material relevant to ecumenism; 

4. Liaison with similar organizations here and 
abroad ; 

5. Other activities congenial to the purpose of 
the Association. 

JEA has two kinds of members: 

1. Regular members: Those who share the 
purpose and activities of the Association; 

2. Associate members: Those who, upon re 
quest of the directorate, give assistance to 
the Association. 



Organization : 
Article 6 : 



JEA organizes a general meeting every year. 
At this meeting, reports are read on activities, 
plans and finances; officers are elected and 
business is conducted as called for by the pur 
pose of the Association. 
Article 7: JEA has the following officers: 

1. Several directors. 

2. Several executive secretaries. 

Tenure is for a period of two years; officers 
can be re-elected. 

Ar-ticle 8: The directors constitute the directorate. They 
govern the Association according to the de 
cisions of the general meeting. The president 
of the board of directors unifies and repre 
sents the Association. The executive secre 
taries carry out their duties according to the 
instructions of the directorate. 



184 TODAY S ISSUES 

Article 9: If need be, JEA may set up branches as well 

as sectional committees. 
Finances: 

Article 10: 1. JEA expenditures are defrayed by mem 
bership fees, revenue and donations. 
2. Membership fees are as follows: regular 
members: 1000 per annum; associate mem 
bers: amount determinated by the member 
himself. 
Supplementary rules: 

Article 11: The statutes of the Association may be 
changed by a two-thirds majority vote at the 
general meeting. 
Article 12: The above statutes take effect on May 24, 1969. 

In conclusion, I cite the prayer read by Rev. Isamu Omura 
at the opening session : 

"O God, Father of Our Lord Jesus Christ who is the head 
of the Church, you reign over heaven and earth and you guide 
the world of man. 

Humbly gathered here before you, and guided by the Holy 
Spirit to organize a group in the Lord working for the pro 
motion of Church unity, all of us give thanks for the estab 
lishment of the Japan Ecumenical Association. 

Shortly before our Lord Christ left this world, he prayed: 
"I in them and thou in me, that they may be perfectly one, 
so that the world may know that thou hast sent me and hast 
loved them even as thou hast loved me" (John, 17:23). 

The Church, which is the body of Christ, has long been 
divided. All parts have worked to make their respective 
histories permanent and to strengthen their individual struc 
tures. However, the Holy Spirit has not confirmed this trend, 
and has guided the right-minded servants of the Lord, giving 
them a desire for unity. 

In today s world, violent opposition and contention among 



THE STATE OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT 185 

states, races, clases and age groups continue. A sense of 
security is lacking because of heterogeneous ideologies and 
activities. Notwithstanding the development of knowledge 
and technology since the beginning of history, there is a feel 
ing of danger for the future of humanity. We Christians, 
called to give witness to the world of the Gospel of Christ, 
the Lord of the world and its light, intend to overlook our 
differences of the past. In order to show to all our brethren 
in the world the fruits of reconciliation and unity, we intend 
to work earnestly on our own reform. We give thanks to the 
Holy Spirit who gave the gift of this sign to the worldwide 
Church. 

The members of the association being organized here begin 
this undertaking in a spirit of humility. Make us able to 
answer the prayer of Our Lord: "Father, that they also 
whom thou hast given me, may be with me where I am" 
(John 17:24). 

Help us, therefore, that we may forsake all worldly glory 
and pride, that we may forget past differences, that we may 
earnestly follow the Spirit of the Lord, that we may humbly 
respect each other and live the fellowship of believers, that we 
may clearly perceive the impediments to unity and straight 
forwardly discuss them. 

May this association be blessed by the Lord, serve all 
churches in our land, promote the spirit of unity and coopera 
tion and give glory to God. 

We pray in The Holy Name of Jesus Christ. Amen". 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND 
JAPAN S FUTURE 

Chosei Kabira 

As a layman of the Okinawan church that has just be 
come one district of the United Church of Christ in Japan 
and as one involved in mass media, I consider it an honor 
and a blessing to be able to speak to you. 

First of all I want to report on Okinawa s present situa 
tion. But in speaking of the past which has brought us to the 
present, I cannot avoid speaking of the long state of aliena 
tion between Okinawa and the mainland. 1 hope to clarify 
what this alienation has been and how it has led to the 
present situation. Then I want to speak of the hopes and 
dreams we, caught in the present situation in Okinawa, hold 
for Japan s future. 

I speak of alienation, but this alienation may be deepened 
by the fact that the church does not talk about its own, does 
not speak of the church in Japan. We tend to speak of 
Calvin but not of Uchimura Kanzo, of Bonhoeffer but not of 
Japan s wartime martyrs, we speak of Luther but not of 
Uemura Masahisa (who, by the way, came to Okinawa as an 
evangelist). In this respect this union is a very meaningful 
step toward healing the postwar alienation between the United 
Church on the mainland and the United Church in Okinawa. 

Now I would like to take a look at the path Okinawa has 
travelled from its unhappy past to the present. 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 187 



The Unfortunate Past 

The Source of Prejudice Satsuma Domination 

Okinawa has a history as the monarchy of Okinawa,, 
sometimes called the monarchy of Ryukyu. From the early 
part of the fifth century it maintained itself as an inde 
pendent nation while paying homage to China, and after 
being subjugated by Shimazu of the Satsuma province in 
southern Kyushu in 1609, it existed as a dependent colonial 
state. 

Shimazu got permission from the feudal government to 
exempt the monarchy of Ryukyu from its closed door policy 
and reaped profits from its trade with China. In order to 
heighten the impression that Okinawan people were not 
Japanese but foreigners, the Satsuma government forced 
envoys from Okinawa to wear Chinese clothing as they 
travelled the Tokaido road to Edo (the seat of Japanese 
government). History tells us that this happened 17 times 
by the end of the feudal period. Of course, from the Ryu- 
kyuan side there were motives of maintaining its appearance 
as a monarchy and a sense of indebtedness to China, but it 
cannot be denied that they went along with the feudal lord s 
policy for self-protection also. 

One little-known result of this situation was that the 
Satsuma government recovered financial stability and through 
indirect contact with various foreign countries gained new 
knowledge. This financial strength and knowledge con 
tributed to the Meiji Restoration. 

Incidentally, one of the first Japanese translations (Oki 
nawan) of the Bible was done by Dr. Bettelheim, an English 
missionary to Okinawa. 

The Beginning of Discrimination Meiji Restoration 

Thus, with the profits achieved through Ryukyu, Satsuma 



188 TODAY S ISSUES 

contributed to the Restoration and gained an influential posi- 
in the central government. Although Okinawa was estab 
lished as a territorial prefecture, administration continued 
in the hands of a Kagoshima (former Satsuma) clique in 
the Okinawa prefectural government. The old ruling class 
of Okinawa emotionally rejected and resisted this administra 
tion and were reluctant to adopt new systems. The result 
of this was a deeper prejudice and discrimination against 
Okinawa. 

As shown in Figure 1, the abolition of feudal government 
and the forcible establishment of a territorial prefecture was 
eight years behind mainland Japan. The establishment of 
public education was also delayed eight years. Military con 
scription was delayed 24 years, and many people reportedly 
moved to Okinawa for that reason. Land taxation reform 
was delayed 30 years. A special city and township system 
was established 29 years after the mainland, and it was 42 
years before the mainland system was adopted. Likewise, a 
special prefectural administrative system was established 
after a 32 year lag, and the mainland system was adopted 41 
years later. There is much discussion now about participa 
tion in the National Diet, but the law originally allowing 
representatives to be elected from all of Okinawa prefecture 
the Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama island groups was 
passed in 1920, 31 years after a general election law was 
passed for the rest of the country. For this reason the U.S. 
Civil Administration officials can chide, "You complain that 
you are finally going to be allowed to send observers to the 
National Diet 24 years after the war, but you waited 31 years 
before the war, didn t you. You can wait a little longer." 

Because of this lag in the establishment of various systems 
in Okinawa, the development and training of local personnel 
was limited, and government funds expended in Okinawa 
were scarce. More was paid in taxes than was received in 
subsidy. One who takes a materialistic view of history would 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 189 

say that there has been continual exploitation. 

In education, the government established a policy of 
assimilation, which meant that primary school education 
(pre-war compulsory Japanese education of eight years) was 
extensively established. However the establishment of middle 
schools was late. And with the exception of a teachers train 
ing school, there was not one school of higher education for 
technical or professional training. 

The Battle of Okinawa Sacrificed for the Mainland 

We move to the battle of Okinawa. The attack by Amer 
ican forces began in earnest on March 23, 1945 and on June 
23 General Ushijima, the commander of the Japanese forces, 
took his own life. Organized resistance ended. For 90 days, 
fierce fighting raged in a land area just 70% that of Tokyo 
and within a distance equal to that from Tokyo to Numazu 
(about 70 miles). Okinawa was cast into the crucible to save 
the mainland from a similar fate. It is said that 12,000 
American troops, more than 90,000 Japanese troops, and 
150,000 non-combatant civilians were sacrificed, though these 
numbers still cannot be confirmed. Because of the policy of 
forced evacuation, it is said that the population was down to 
450,000 at the time of the battle. Thus about one-third of 
these civilians lost their lives. It is reported that 290,000 
civilians were killed in mainland Japan during the war (from 
a 1949 survey by the Government of Japan), but more than 
half that many were sacrificed in Okinawa prefecture alone. 
The civilians expected protection from the Japanese soldiers, 
but instead they were driven out of shelters, their food was 
taken away, and in some cases entire communities were 
forced to commit mass suicide. One survivor of such a mass 
suicide is the Rev. Shigeaki Kinjo, vice-chairman of the Oki 
nawa District of the United Church. Rev. Sadao Matsuda, 
chairman of the district, took part in the battle. I, myself,, 
was in Taiwan at that time. 



190 TODAY S ISSUES 

When defeat became inevitable, many cruel acts took 
place. Local people were shot as spies, and people who came 
to report the surrender were beheaded on the spot. \Ve have 
heard that such savage acts were not limited to Okinawa, 
of course. In this respect we were deeply moved by the con 
fession of war guilt recently made by the United Church of 
Christ in Japan. Compared to such savage acts by our own 
friendly forces, the humane acts of Americans are still talked 
about. 

Postwar Sacrifice 



American Occupation Keystone of the Pacific 

Thus Okinawa was sacrificed for the defense of the main 
land, and by the end of the war it was completely occupied by 
American forces and had become a base for launching an 
attack against the mainland. Two thousand air strikes were 
carried out against Kyushu from here. 

Then came August 15, 1945, and unconditional surrender. 
The Okinawan people did not continue to suffer the disgrace 
of becoming prisoners of war which they had feared so much. 
In many respects the Americans appeared as liberators for 
whom we were thankful. As time passed, many Okinawans 
had contact with the humanism of Americans. However, those 
men who were trying to democratize Okinawan society were 
gradually removed from Okinawa and, quite different from 
the policy of democratization in the mainland, the policy here 
became one that placed first importance on the military bases. 
In Okinawa there was no purge of public officials who had 
cooperated with the Japanese military effort. 

The reversion movement began in 1946. The leader at that 
time was Ryoko Nakayoshi, then mayor of Shuri, who led 
Prof. Antei Hiyane, who is here with us this evening, into 
Christian faith. On May 3, 1947, the Japanese Constitution 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 191 

was promulgated. For the first time, people in Okinawa knew 
of human rights, freedom, and peace. However it cannot be 
denied that the Okinawan people still placed high hopes in 
prosperous and democratic America, and had many questions 
about the democratization of Japan. I should go on to men 
tion that even though the Japanese Constitution does not 
apply to Okinawa, May 3 (Constitution Day in Japan) is a 
public holiday and celebrated as Constitution Day in Okinawa 
also. 

In September 1949, it was learned that the Soviet Union 
had the atomic bomb. In October the People s Republic of 
China was established, and the military installations in Oki 
nawa were rapidly expanded. The outbreak of the Korean 
war in June 1950 spurred expansion, and in November, with 
the elections of district governors, the governments of the 
four island groups Okinawa, Amami, Miyako, and Yaeyama 
were established. In regard to the Japan-America Peace 
Treaty, Secretary of State Dulles expressed the opinion that 
Okinawa should be administered by the U.S. until placed 
under a United Nations trusteeship, and this brought forth 
a reaction calling for affiliation with the homeland. In De 
cember 1950, the military government s name was changed to 
U.S. Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR). 
General MacArthur was the first governor. The deputy-gov 
ernor was in Okinawa with administrative responsibilities. 
At that time the elected Okinawan assembly passed its first 
resolution calling for return to Japan. A Reversion Council 
was established and 72% of the eligible voters of the Oki 
nawa Island District signed a petition addressed to Prime 
Minister Yoshida and Secretary of State Dulles. But the 
peace treaty was signed, completely ignoring the will of the 
people. 

On April 28, Okinawa was separated from the mainland. 
In April 1952, the Government of the Ryukyu Islands (GRI) 
was established. With this, the four island district governors, 



192 TODAY S ISSUES 

who had been elected to four-year terms, were removed from 
from office after serving less than a year and a half. A chief 
executive was appointed by USCAR and, at the same time, 
an elective Ryukyuan legislative body was established. 

Reversion Movement Gains Momentum 

Thus from 1952 to the present day, the political structure 
has been a Ryukyuan government under the U.S. Civil Ad 
ministration acting for the U.S. High Commissioner. These 
17 years might well be called a struggle for human rights 
revolving around the axis of the reversion movement. It can 
also be said that we have moved from the dark ages to in 
creasing self-government. 

In the area of economic development, USCAR has not just 
folded its arms. It has worked at the problem in its own 
way, though neither the authorities on the scene nor the gov 
ernment in Washington have always understood what has 
been happening. At the same time, the people of Okinawa 
gained an increased awareness that the democratization in 
Japan was genuine. In 1955 the International Commission on 
Human Rights made a study of the Okinawa situation and 
the human rights issue was raised. I think you are all aware 
that the occasion for this was an article written in 1954 for 
the Christian Century by the Rev. Otis Bell, a missionary to 
the United Church in Okinawa, criticizing the military land 
policy. 

As we went through the military land struggle in 195G, 
the conversion to U.S. dollar currency in 1958, and the U.S. 
Japan Security Pact struggle in 1960, the Okinawa Pre 
fecture Reversion Council was organized. The chairman is 
Shin-ei Kyan, who has received notice by the newspapers 
lately for his appearances before the Diet. The reversion 
struggle as an organized movement was launched, but because 
of certain steps which bordered on suppression, only 3,000 
people attended the first mass rally. Then in 1963 under the 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 193 

Kennedy policy, it was first officially admitted that Okinawa 
was a part of Japan, and we entered the era of Japan-Amer 
ica cooperation regarding Okinawa. Some people refer to 
this as the era of Japan-America joint supervision of Oki 
nawa. Then last year, in 1968, we saw the first public elec 
tion of the chief executive. Chobyo Yara was elected by a 
vote of 230,000 out of 400,000 votes cast. He ran on only one 
platform immediate, unconditional, complete reversion to 
Japan. 

In the meantime, Japan has advanced to become the third 
industrial power in the world. This has been achieved be 
cause of the low defense budget, and that low budget is at the 
expense of Okinawa. Seemingly unaware of this, Japan acts 
as if she were a completely independent, self-determining na 
tion and is even trying to become a permanent member of 
the United Nations Security Council. It is 24 years since 
the occupation of Okinawa began. It is 17 years since the 
peace treaty became effective. It is 14 years since Japan 
became a member of the United Nations. During all this 
time, Okinawa has been left out of the prosperity of the 
mainland. Because of this, many problems have arisen. Some 
desirable things have developed, but they are outnumbered 
by the undesirable. The gap between Okinawa and the main 
land has widened. 

The Current Situation in Okinawa 

The Legal System Paradox Breeds Paradox 

The legal system in Okinawa, which is the basis of the 
administrative system, is extremely complicated. The laws 
applying to Okinawa include laws of America itself, ordi 
nances and regulations laid down by USCAR, laws passed 
by GRI, old laws that existed under the pre-war Japanese 
Imperial Constitution, and laws based on the new Japanese 
Constitution. For example, one issue raised in connection 



194 TODAY S ISSUES 

with the union of our two churches was that the old pre 
war Eeligious Organizations Law is still in effect in Okinawa, 
so that legally the government can disband any religious or 
ganization. (A new Religious Bodies Law, similar to that in 
Japan, was presented to the legislature by the chief executive 
on March 10.) Also, since the old penal and civil codes are 
still in effect, a law punishing blasphemy of the Emperor, 
and adultery laws, still technically apply. 

The Presidential Executive Order of the U.S. takes the 
place of a constitution in Okinawa. True, this states that 
basic liberties must be guaranteed, including protection 
against deprivation of life, liberty and property without due 
process of law. It calls for protection against unreasonable 
search. But it does not describe in detail the legal procedures 
of search and arrest that Article 35 of the Japanese Con 
stitution stipulates when it states that search and arrest 
cannot take place without a warrant from a responsible legal 
authority. The American Civil Liberties Union has pointed 
out that allowing the high commissioner to exercise all 
authority in the name of security is even a violation of the 
American Constitution. Thus, even though he has not yet 
exercised it directly, the high commissioner has authority to 
veto any civil law or to promulgate any law he wishes. 

The greatest problem is that of human rights. The pro 
tection provided for the rights of Okinawa people regarding 
accidents and crimes by the U.S. military is very weak. For 
example, the Okinawan police have the right to arrest Amer 
ican military personnel caught in the act of committing a 
crime, but they have no authority to investigate a crime. Thus 
the hands of the Okinawan police are virtually tied as regards 
the crimes committed by soldiers returned from Vietnam. 

The Social Welfare System Government Financial Poverty 
The people of Okinawa desire to come under the Japanese 
Constitution as soon as possible. The preamble of that con- 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 195 

stitution states, "We recognize that all peoples of the world 
have the right to live in peace, free from fear and want." 
This means that social welfare is seen not as a gift but as an 
expression of the right to life itself. 

I doubt that there is any place where the constitution is 
read as avidly as in Okinawa. Interest is high because we 
experience daily what it means to live without a constitution. 
I wonder how many of you here have read the Japanese Con 
stitution in its entirety. If you have not, I invite you to 
Okinawa. You will read it then. 

Let us look at one area of social security (Figure 4). 
The Welfare Law was passed three years later than in the 
mainland. The number on the relief roles in Okinawa is 24 
per 1,000 as compared with 16 in the mainland. It is true 
that our ratio is lower than so-called comparable prefectures 
of Kochi with 43 and Kagoshima with 31. However, the 
problem is that, due to the government financial poverty, 
welfare payments are quite low. In the mainland, the amount 
is 3,450 ($9.58); in Okinawa it is 1,300 ($3.60). Laws 
covering poverty relief, child welfare, special aid for handi 
capped children, and the physically handicapped have been 
passed. However there is still no Children s Allowance Law, 
Mentally Retarded Welfare Law, Mother and Child Welfare 
Law, nor Mother and Child Protection Law. 

The number receiving welfare aid in Okinawa is gradually 
decreasing each year. Sickness of the primary wage earner 
in the family is the usual reason a family becomes a welfare 
case. This is the reason for 75% of the new welfare cases. 

Social Security Extreme Delay 

The next issue is social security. This is one of the areas 
of greatest lag. In the mainland there are 13 laws dealing 
with social security, but in Okinawa only six have been passed 
since 1958 (Diagram 5). Among these is the long-awaited 
Medical Insurance Law which was finally passed in 1965 and 



196 TODAY S ISSUES 

took effect in 1967. However, because there is no National 
Health Insurance Law, only half of the population is re 
ceiving the benefits of the law. This Medical Insurance Law 
is different from that of the mainland in that cash refunds 
are made. In other words, when a person visits a doctor and 
receives an examination or treatment, he pays the bill in full. 
Then he applies for a refund. In a month or two he receives 
a 70% refund. However, because the amount is sometimes 
small or because of the inconvenience, many people do not 
apply for refunds. Therefore, our Medical Insurance program 
is not in the red as it is in the mainland. In fact, it has a 
large balance. I hear that there are some who would like to 
see this system adopted in the mainland, but in Okinawa there 
is now a movement to adopt the system of direct medical 
benefits such as you have here. 

Public Health and Sanitation America s Strong Cooperation 
Next is the area of Public Health and Sanitation which is 
rather well established (Diagram 6). A few minutes ago the 
chairman of the Japan National Christian Council said, in 
his congratulatory message, that the shortage of doctors is a 
big problem. It is true that the ratio of doctors to population 
is less than half that of the mainland. This means that a 
doctor in Okinawa cares for about three times the number of 
patients as in the mainland. From the standpoint of income, 
it is called a doctor s paradise. If you go to Okinawa, you 
will see that most doctors have fine buildings; however, I 
think this could be called their reward for extremely heavy 
work. The mainland government is sending about 25 doctors 
per year to work in isolated areas. 

We have received much aid from the mainland for public 
health and sanitation so that the death rate from tuber 
culosis, for instance, is actually lower than that of the main 
land. However, because of the military bases and tourist 
trade, the venereal disease rate is 20 times that of the main- 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 197 

land. There is no anti-prostitution law in Okinawa (which 
is said to be one reason for the high tourism), and it is 
estimated that one in fifty women in Okinawa is engaged in 
prostitution. For this reason venereal disease has invaded 
the homes. Due to the unusual circumstances and tensions in 
Okinawan society, people suffering from mental and nervous 
diseases are 2.6% of the population, or twice the ratio of the 
mainland. Hansen s Disease is 20 times the mainland ratio. 

In public sanitation, the American military has been active 
in the program to prevent infectious diseases, as they have 
a direct interest. Particularly in providing sewage facilities, 
America has invested more than $30 million, so we have a 
sewage system that surpasses anything in the mainland. Be 
cause of the military presence, these and other public utilities 
are good and the people of Okinawa benefit thereby. 

Social Compensation An Example of Application of the 
Mainland Law 

There is only one aspect in which Japanese Law is applied 
to Okinawa that of social compensation. As I stated earlier, 
Okinawa was the only actual battleground on Japanese soil. 
Combatant and non-combatant lives lost totaled 200,000. Be 
cause of that, one-fourth of the Okinawa households lost 
family members in the battle. (Thus, in Okinawa it would 
be more effective to appeal for something to replace Yasukuni 
Shrine to the war dead rather than oppose government sup 
port of it.) 

Even though the American military administers Okinawa, 
it approved the application of Japanese law in this one in 
stance, so that compensation for war dead and wounded and 
pensions for former government employees and soldiers were 
paid. From the time this was effected in 1953 to 1967 
$102,930,000 was paid out. 41 billion ($11,390,000) enters 
Okinawa annually by this route. This is Okinawa s third 
largest source of outside income, following sugar and pine- 



198 TODAY S ISSUES 

apple. This indicates how many people were sacrificed in 
Okinawa and how many are financially dependent on such 
compensation. 

Special Characteristics of Okinawa s Education Law 

As in the mainland there is an Education Law in Oki 
nawa, passed in 1953. Let us compare it with the Japanese 
Education Law of 1947. (The underlined portions of the 
Japanese Law are replaced in Okinawa by the portion in 
parentheses.) 

"We, having established the constitution of Japan (as 
Japanese people basing our acts upon the universal 
principles of mankind), must contribute to world peace 
and to the welfare of humanity by building a democratic 
and cultural nation (state and society). The realization 
of this ideal depends fundamentally on the power of 
education. 

We shall respect individual dignity and endeavor to 
bring up people who love truth and peace, while diffusing 
an education aimed at creating a culture that is both 
general and rich in individuality. 

We hereby enact this law (legislation),* in accordance 
with the spirit of the constitution of Japan (the above 
ideal), in order to clarify the aim of education and to 
establish the basis of education for the new Japan 
(omitted in Okinawan version)." 

As you will immediately notice, Okinawa s education law 
says, "As Japanese people basing our acts on the universal 
principles of mankind," whereas the mainland law says, 



* Rather than horitsu the word rippo is used for laws 
passed in Okinawa to indicate the provisional nature of 
the GRI. 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 199 

"having established the constitution of Japan." Elsewhere 
"for the new Japan" must be deleted. In accordance with the 
saying, "The farther from Rome the deeper the patriotism," 
we who are separated from the mainland and under foreign 
administration give special emphasis to the fact that we are 
Japanese people. The strong educational desire expressed 
here is given concrete expression in an education system and 
administration thereof that is more democratic than the 
centralized system in the mainland. 

Since the economic support of our education system is 
poor, there is a wide gap between Okinawa and the mainland 
in facilities, teachers salaries, and welfare for children and 
students. This is an undesirable characteristic of our educa 
tion system. 

Comparatively speaking, school buildings and basic educa 
tional facilities come to 60% of the mainland standards. Even 
within Okinawa, as one moves south from the main island 
to far-off Miyako and Yaeyama, the situation becomes worse. 
The level of general educational equipment in Okinawa is only 
two-thirds that of Kagoshima prefecture. However, both the 
Japanese and American governments are placing emphasis on 
education in their aid programs. Three-fifths of the USCAR 
financial aid goes for education facilities, equipment, and 
teachers salaries. Furthermore, since 1962, aid from the 
mainland government has been increasing; and since 1966, 
in the spirit of the Compulsory Education National Aid Law, 
half of the teachers salaries is being borne by the Japan 
National Treasury. Therefore more than half the education 
program s expenses is being borne by aid from the Japanese 
and American governments. We say half, but in other pre 
fectures in the mainland, 70% is borne by the national 
treasury. 

Educational Administrative System Public Election Upheld 
The educational administration system is patterned after 



200 TODAY S ISSUES 

the American system of boards of education, so there is an 
independent administrative body that is not under the 
guidance and supervision of the Chief Executive. There is a 
director of the Department of Education in GRI, but he is 
appointed by the Chief Executive upon the recommendation 
of the Central Board of Education. The eleven-man Central 
Board of Education is selected by the local boards of educa 
tion in the six electoral districts of Okinawa. The local boards 
of education in turn are selected by popular vote just like 
the town and city councilmen. 

In the mainland, in accordance with the Education Com 
mittee Law of 1956, members of the Committee are appointed. 

The University of the Ryukyus was established by USCAR 
and is now under the jurisdiction of GRI, but there is a 
special committee which has responsibility for its operation. 
The Department of Education director and one member of 
the Central Board of Education are ex-officio members, and 
the other members are appointed by the chief executive with 
the consent of the legislature. This committee independently 
supervises the university, chooses the president, and decides 
the budget. This system whereby the government does not 
have direct influence on the university is quite different from 
the mainland. 

Another aspect in which Okinawa is said to be better off 
than the mainland is the system for scholastic encourage 
ment. Particularly noteworthy is the system whereby high 
school graduates enter mainland universities. The Japanese 
Ministry of Education acts as mediator so that tests are 
given in Okinawa and then students are recommended to 
government or private universities. Some students go at 
government expense and some at personal expense. Since 
1953, 1,300 students have received government scholarships. 
Besides those attending under this system, there are students 
of both extremes those who have much confidence in their 
ability and those who have little confidence in their ability 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 201 

who go to the mainland to take entrance examinations there. 
There is said to be a difference in the ability of students who 
enter Tokyo University with a government scholarship and 
recommendation, and those who enter on their own. On the 
one hand, a student enters by government recommendation 
and receives a scholarship; on the other he competes on an 
equal basis with students in the mainland. Then there is the 
student who enters by recommendation but pays his own ex 
penses. So there are three systems government recom 
mendation with scholarship, government recommendation for 
entrance without scholarship, and entrance by personal com 
petition and expense. Under these three systems, more than 
4,000 young people from Okinawa are now studying in main 
land universities. This shows how strong the thirst for educa 
tion has become. 

Besides this, 6 to 80 students are sent each year by USCAR 
to study in America. Since this program began, about 1,000 
students have studied abroad. Most of them are graduates of 
Japanese universities and have earned master s or doctor s 
degrees. This is one way in which the education level of 
teachers in Okinawa is being raised. 

So in certain respects Okinawa s educational level is good, 
but the general financial poverty and the inequality among 
different areas are serious problems. 

Vast American Military Bases Keystone of the Pacific 

Then there is the problem of the American military bases 
here. It is often said, "There are not bases in Okinawa; 
Okinawa is in the bases." There are 140 bases in all of the 
mainland, but in Okinawa prefecture alone, with an area 
comparable to Kanagawa prefecture, there are 117 bases, 
99% of which are on the main island of Okinawa. 

Bases occupy 20% of the land area of the main island of 
Okinawa. Excluding mountain land, the bases occupy an area 
equal to 48% of the residential and farm land about one 



202 TODAY S ISSUES 

half. There are 59 cities and townships in Okinawa, but only 
15 have no bases in them. Most of the bases are in Central 
Okinawa, where the famous Kadena Airbase is located, and 
occupy 42% of the actual land area there. For instance, in 
Kadena township where the airbase is located, 88% of the 
land area is taken by bases, and 15,000 people live on the 
remainder. The population density there is 8,343 persons per 
square kilometre. The average for the mainland is 1,629 per 
sons. Population density for all of Okinawa is very high, 
2,000 per square kilometre. According to a report made in 
the House of Representatives Armed Services Committee in 
September 1967, America spent $1.5 billion in building 
facilities in Okinawa to that time. It is quite properly called 
the keystone to America s commitments in Asia, which in 
clude the Philippine-America Mutual Defense Pact, the 
ANZUS Treaty, the Japan-America Mutual Security Pact, 
the Korea-America Mutual Defense Pact, SEATO, and the 
Taiwan-America Mutual Defense Pact. 

There are approximately 50,000 Army, Navy, Air Force, 
and Marine Corps personnel stationed at these bases. It is 
reported that if family members and military employees are 
included, the number becomes 75,000. If one adds to this the 
50,000 enlisted men who are usually passing through on their 
way to or from Vietnam and Southeast Asia, there are always 
approximately 120,000 military personnel, family members, 
and employees in Okinawa. 

The American bases can largely be divided into four cate 
gories training, tactical, supply and communications. They 
are said to be defensive or deterrent bases, but B-52 bombers, 
Mace-B missile, Nike-Hercules and such weapons capable of 
carrying nuclear devices are there. The American military 
neither confirms nor denies that there are nuclear weapons, 
but common sense would say that there ai e. 

The massive bases in Okinawa have had a strong influence 
on the people living here, but perhaps the strongest has been 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 203 

the complete change in the economy. When reversion takes 
pleace, this economic problem will probably be the most dif 
ficult one. 

Okinawan Economic Dependence on the Bases 

Okinawa was originally an agricultural prefecture. How 
ever, arable land is scarce, and before the war the average 
farm family s field area was 170 tsubo (approximately 680 
square yards). After the war, land was taken for bases so 
that this average has now dropped to less than 100 tsubo 
(400 square yards). Even though rent comes in from land 
in military use, it is not sufficient income. So our people 
work on the bases, with the result that we are drawn into an 
economy dependent on the bases. The working population in 
Okinawa is 400,000. Some 100,000, or one-fourth, are working 
directly or indirectly for the military. Their earnings of 
$200 million represent one fifth of the gross national product 
and 60% of the foreign income. 

Furthermore, from 1960 to 19G2 about $40 million was 
paid for land, and $22 million was paid as indemnity for the 
period from the beginning of the occupation until the peace 
treaty was signed. One High Commissioner stated, "Bases 
are Okinawa s primary product." 

Because of this situation, 70% of the working population 
is engaged in service industries. Its annual per capita income 
is $1,400 as compared to the overall average of $657. Next 
are the manufacturing industries with 16% of the population 
and a per capita income of $1,047. The primary industries of 
farming, lumbering and fishing employ 34% of the popula 
tion whose per capita annual income is $385 far less than 
the overall average of $657. 

For comparison, the number of Christians in Okinawa, 
Catholic and Protestant, is 17,300 (Far East Broadcasting 
Company figures). If we superimpose this number on the 
working population figures, it means that 70% of them, or 



204 TODAY S ISSUES 

over 10,000, are working for the military either directly or 
indirectly. 

The rural population is decreasing and people are flowing 
to the cities in Okinawa just as in the mainland. Those who 
go to the city become highly dependent on the American mili 
tary bases, and the farmers are supported by the mainland 
government s protective policies for sugar and pineapple which 
represent 70-75% of Okinawa exports. This is similar to 
rice price supports in the mainland. Okinawa sells raw sugar 
high and buys refined white sugar cheap. This is the con 
tinuing situation. However, whereas the mainland farmer s 
annual income is now over one million yen, in Okinawa it does 
not even come to one-seventh of that amount, as indicated 
above. 

Farmers producing sugar face the threat of relaxation of 
trade barriers, so we can foresee many problems in the future. 
Because sugar brought a good price, the land in rice culture 
decreased by half from 1961 to 1965. However, rice in 
Okinawa is almost a free market so that we can buy good 
quality California rice for 40-50% less than you pay for rice 
in the mainland. I think this too will become a problem 
with reversion. 

Overall economic growth in Okinawa during the past 13 
years has shown an astounding annual average increase of 
12.3% as compared to the mainland average of around 10%. 
I think the reason has been the increased income from the 
bases and the expansion of exports and capital investments. 
However, when we look at this from the perspective of na 
tional income, we see that the gap is continuing to widen. 

The per capita income in Okinawa, however, is higher than 
that in Kagoshima prefecture. In the past, Okinawa was the 
lowest of the 47 prefectures, but now Kagoshima is lowest 
and Okinawa is next above it. One reason Kagoshima is now 
lowest is that the Amami Islands, which were formerly ad 
ministered by America as part of the Ryukyus, were returned 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 205 

in 1954 and, with their very low per capita income, have 
been a burden on Kagoshima prefecture. The fear is often 
expressed that when Okinawa reverts, we may become like 
Amami. Because of Amami, Okinawa is now above Kago 
shima in per capita income. 

At the same time the cost of living in Okinawa shows a 
continual rise. Up until ten years ago, the annual rise was 
only 2-3%, but recently it averages 5%. Fresh foodstuff and 
daily necessities show a constant rise of 7-8%. 

We should take note here of our export-import relation 
ship to the mainland which influences Okinawa greatly. The 
trade balance is in favor of the mainland in the amount of 
$200 million annually. Exports to Okinawa amount to two 
per cent of the mainland s total exports. Among Southeast 
Asia purchasers, Okinawa accounts for 10% of the main 
land s exports in terms of dollar income. Economically, Oki 
nawa is contributing to the mainland. Furthermore, the 
mainland government is applying the same preferential tax 
and monetary regulations to expoi ts to Okinawa as to other 
countries. Exporters to Okinawa have the advantage of al 
ways receiving payment in cash credit so that they can 
sell a bit cheaply and still make money. On the other hand, 
when a business starts up in Okinawa that threatens to com 
pete with mainland businesses, there are immediate reactions 
by the mainland government. Some oil companies will soon 
be built in Okinawa with $77 million American capital, but 
there have been many objections from the mainland. In 
response to such, Okinawa has applied an excise tax similar 
to the import duty of an independent country to raise the 
prices of mainland manufactured goods and protect Okinawan 
made products particularly foodstuffs. I think Okinawa 
should not be criticized for this. Even though Japan itself is 
one of the advanced nations, it places import restrictions on 
121 items, including 73 food items, so Okinawa is acting as 
just a small version of the mainland. 



206 TODAY S ISSUES 

When reversion finally happens, this economic problem 
will affect the people directly, and it cannot be considered 
separately from the bases. If economic development is con 
sidered apart from the bases, naturally some new industry 
must be created to replace the base economy. Certainly in 
preparation for reversion, the mainland government s positive 
help in the economic area is necessary. Attention also should 
be given to roads, harbors, long-term loans, labor force im 
provement, price stabilization and so forth. 

Speaking of the labor force, the mainland has an appeal 
for people in Okinawa, and there was a period when group 
employment in the mainland was quite widespread. How 
ever Okinawa itself now has a labor shortage and plans for 
group employment are not easily realized. Still, young people 
feel a desire to go to the mainland, and many continue to 
leave Okinawa. 

The Government Budget 70% Borne Locally 

This economic gap means that the Ryukyu government s 
financial situation is extremely tight. Let s take a look at 
the budget for 1969. (Figure 8). 

The total of 52.43 billion is larger than that of the 
comparable prefectures of Kagawa (1968 budget, 31.7 bil 
lion) or Kochi (41.8 billion). However, Okinawa has fin 
ancial responsibilities of a national scope as well as a prefec- 
tural scope, which fact accounts in part for the large budget. 
Eight billion yen goes for these "national" operations, items 
which under ordinary circumstances would be borne by the 
mainland government. 

The problem, however, is the amount of the budget borne 
by the local residents. In the mainland, as the terms "30% 
autonomous", or "40% autonomous" indicate, the national 
treasury s share of a prefectural budget is much larger than 
the local share. In Okinawa, the local residents bear 70% 
themselves. Petitions are being made to the mainland govern- 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 207 

ment to provide the same kind of aid to Okinawa that is 
provided other prefectures. Of course in such a case, Oki 
nawa would pay taxes to the mainland government and that 
amount needs to be taken into consideration. 

If the amount of aid that should come to Okinawa is 
figured on the same basis as other prefectures, it would come 
to 45 billion. If the 30 billion that would be paid in na 
tional taxes is subtracted and the 8 billion spent on national 
operations is added, the net result is 23 billion. This means 
that aid from the mainland national treasury to Okinawa 
should be twice the present level of 11.5 billion. (In the 
Japan national budget beginning in April this year, aid for 
Okinawa is 22.7 billion with an additional 5.7 billion 
capital investment planned.) 

There is a strong opinion in Okinawa that in order to 
make up for the 23 years during which Okinawa did not 
receive its appropriate share of aid, and in order to close the 
development gap that resulted from this, there is a need for 
at least 30 billion per year, over a minimum three year 
period, in a program similar to the Hokkaido Development 
Agency. 

The Unbalance Between Commodity Tax and High Income Tax 
Under the name of the Ryukyu Government, an admin 
istrative system similar to a national government is establish 
ed, and since the amount of outside aid is small, the local 
residents bear a heavy burden. The income tax rate is 
gradually reduced yearly, but the rate of reduction lags be 
hind the mainland, so the gap continues to widen. 

I come to Tokyo and read in the papers that you are 
"gasping under heavy taxes," but if these are heavy taxes, 
Okinawa is "gasping under brutal taxes." A simple compar 
ison of income taxes can be made. An average foreign family 
with a monthly income of $250 pays no tax. The tax on this 
$250 income in the mainland would be $4.92 at present rates. 



208 TODAY S ISSUES 

On the same income, a person in Okinawa must pay $14.06 
income tax. On a $500 salary, Okinawa residents pay 
$152.38. At the mainland rates it would be $80. Foreigners 
pay $23. (One ironic thing is that if you ministers having 
mainland citizenship were to go to Okinawa, you would be 
treated as a foreigner and your tax rate would be low. In 
other words, USCAR considers foreigners living expenses 
that high. Foreigners include mainland residents, too.) 

Of course if you come to serve as a minister in Okinawa, 
we would not be able to pay you enough to be subject to taxes 
anyhow. We have to work on raising the level of ministers 
salaries in Okinawa district just as Mr. Tamotsu Hasegawa, 
chairman of the laymen s association, is doing in the main 
land. 

Getting back to taxes, there are various indirect taxes. If 
gasoline taxes, commodity taxes, amusement taxes, and so 
forth were applied to Okinawa at the same rate as in the 
mainland, the total tax burden would average out to 13% of 
the national income as compared to 18% in the mainland. 
The statistical average works out that way. However, if in 
come taxes were reduced to the mainland level, salaried work 
ers would benefit greatly. Out of consideration for foreigners 
and tourists, the commodity tax on luxury items, especially 
jewelry, imported cars, imported whiskey and such, is quite 
low. For instance among the popular tourist shopping items 
are watches and jewelry on which the commodity tax is only 
5%. If you buy the same items in the mainland, you must 
pay a 50% tax. 

So for a man who likes foreign whiskey, drives a foreign 
car and likes to play golf, Okinawa is a good place to live. 
For this reason, there are those who want to be transferred to 
their company s Okinawa branch where they can also enjoy 
the benefits of low income tax for foreigners. Whiskey is 
cheap, golf clubs are cheap and you can buy a foreign car 
with only 20% tax (I hear it is 50% in the mainland). 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 209 

Gasoline is also cheap, so in these respects Okinawa is a good 
place to live. However, taxes on foodstuffs and daily neces 
sities are not low, so the average man finds the burden very 
heavy. 

Expectations For the Future of Japan 

As stated above, there are some good features to Oki 
nawa s situation after 24 years of separation from the main 
land. However, the bad features are much greater, and the 
gap is widening and producing even more undersirable fea 
tures. I would like to make some comments on Japan s future 
from my standpoint as a journalist living in Okinawa. This 
is not a prediction but rather my expectation or hope for 
Japan. 

It is not possible to talk about the Security Pact or Japan- 
America relations without talking about Okinawa. Prime 
Minister Sato said, "Until the Okinawa issue is settled, the 
post-war period has not ended." We must ask whether Japan 
is now really a free, peace-loving nation? Can it be called a 
really independent, free nation? I think not, because it is still 
leaving Okinawa in its present situation. For that reason, I 
do not think my comments from Okinawa are arrogant or 
haughty. 

From Okinawa we look at our mother country, Japan, 
which has become the third greatest economic nation in the 
world, and feel she is strong and dependable. This is 
evidenced in the fact that Japanese government aid to Oki 
nawa since 1967 is almost twice the American amount. On 
the other hand, it is true that a feeling of distrust toward 
the mainland is growing. As seen in the present Diet debates, 
Okinawa is being treated as a "thing" or an "issue." Much 
debate is heard about nuclear weapons and the use of the 
bases, but not much is heard about returning administrative 
rights, recovery of human rights, and matters directly 
related to the 960,000 people who live there. Furthermore, 



210 TODAY S ISSUES 

debate is divided into two extremes. On the one side are 
those who follow the American line. On the other side are 
those who wave slogans about imperialism and view America 
as the enemy. Okinawa is caught in between these two sides 
and fought over like a football. Particularly in the Budgetary 
Committee of the Diet, discussion and questions about con 
crete issues like the appropriateness of the amount of aid to 
Okinawa or social welfare and social security are not heard. 

You, here in the mainland, talk about far off North Korea 
and South Korea, North Vietnam and South Vietnam, or 
East Germany and West Germany, but how keenly are you 
aware that Japan is divided into North Japan and South 
Japan by the twenty-seventh parallel? A part of your nation 
is still occupied. From Okinawa we look at our mother 
country, Japan, and it seems that she is unaware of the fact 
that she is being humiliated. There are even some who ac 
cept this situation. 

When talking about how Okinawa should be returned 
to Japan in order for her to become a really independent na 
tion, we do not talk about "restoration," but "reversion." 
(Here today we have witnessed the United Church of Christ 
in Japan and the United Church of Christ in Okinawa ex 
change an agreement of union, but when will we witness such 
a stirring scene for all of Okinawa and the mainland?) The 
ideal is "immediate, unconditional, complete reversion."* At 
the same time we recognize the need for a certain amount of 
time and certain conditions to prepare for reversion so that 
there will be a minimum of confusion in the economic, politi 
cal, and social areas. With that in mind, many voices are 
calling for the return of administrative rights as the next 
possible step and as a high priority move for the recovery of 
human rights. 



(The slogan of the reversion movement, meaning imme 
diate complete withdrawal of all bases). 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 211 

This would force us in Okinawa to make a weighty choice 
concerning the status of the American military bases. If 
worst conies to worst, we must not rule out the possibility of 
allowing continued free use of the bases and storage of 
nuclear weapons. There are positions ranging from "free use 
with nuclear weapons" to "equal status with mainland 
bases" to "abolition of the security pact and removal of all 
bases, including those on the mainland." 

Of course, most people want removal of nuclear weapons 
with bases under the same status as those on the mainland. 
The movement opposing nuclear bases is active and will con 
tinue. But if it developed that Okinawa could return to 
Japanese administration only under the condition of free use 
of nuclear bases, the people of Okinawa would probably choose 
that. I know there is opposition and fear in the mainland to 
this "Okinawanization of the mainland." From our point of 
view this looks like "mainland egoism." The people of Oki 
nawa have lived for 24 years with nuclear bases and without 
constitutional rights. People in the mainland have no posi 
tion from which to criticize us even if we should choose that 
road. 

Though the percentage is small, there are some in Okinawa 
who feel a growing danger in the manipulation of public 
opinion in the mainland toward a national defense awareness 
which might result in amendment of the Peace Constitution. 
Therefore they would continue to work with mainland groups 
in opposition to nuclear bases and wait for reversion as long 
as necessary until Okinawa can be received gladly by the 
mainland with bases at least under mainland status. They 
would accept continued sacrifice in order to protect the Jap 
anese Peace Constitution. (Some voices are calling for a 
referendum to determine the will of the mainland people in 
this respect.) 

Then there are some who would just wait until the day 
America volunteers to return Okinawa. The idea of an 



212 TODAY S ISSUES 

independent Okinawa, however, is no longer taken seriously. 

Here I would like to report briefly on how my talk was 
prepared. Under the auspices of the United Church s Oki 
nawa District Social Action Committee a "Committee to 
Study the Okinawa Issue" was organized for the purpose of 
preparing a report and appeal to the mainland. The com 
mittee met several times, and I was made chairman and 
given the responsibility of drawing up the report. I want to 
acknowledge the work of Asamu Taira, president of Okinawa 
Christian Institute Junior College, who covered the education 
field; William M. Elder, missionary of the United Church, 
and Katsusuke Takazato, director of the Christian Student 
Center, who covered the area of social welfare. 

I gave a rehearsal presentation before the district officials, 
social committee chairman, and chairman of the laymen s 
association. At that rehearsal they expressed special agree 
ment with one point in my presentation, and I would like to 
present it, in conclusion, to you of the United Church of 
Christ in Japan as our sincere desire for the future of Japan. 

Our mother country, Japan, has become the third weal 
thiest nation in the world and is strongly emphasizing re 
spect for the United Nations. We feel she should now in 
stigate measures to relieve tensions in the world, especially 
in Southeast Asia. We hope that the opportunity will be 
seized to make use of Okinawa and her 960,000 people to 
contribute to reconciliation in Asia and the world. 

Japan s prosperity is admired, and in Southeast Asia she 
is a trade rival with America. Her national interests are 
closely related to stability and peace from the Pacific to the 
Indian Ocean, from the Persian Gulf to the Straits of Ma 
lacca. 

Okinawa s existence as a military base holds a central posi 
tion in this area. Its traditional ties with China are such 
that some people in China still think it is Chinese territory. 
That being the case, would not removal of the bases, which 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA JAPAN S FUTURE 213 

are part of the Japan-America policy of containing China, 
be a step toward reconciliation with China, particularly main 
land China? Should not Japan work toward this end? 

Then with China returned to the scene of international 
diplomacy, could Japan not work for a reconciliation between 
America and China, or Russia and China, similar to the 
present America-Soviet relations? The vast China mainland 
with a population of 750 million has a national income one- 
tenth that of Japan. If Japan with its residual sovereignty 
of Okinawa would openly express its visible sovereignty and 
request the return of Okinawa from America, this 
could be an opening to reduce the threat and tensions in 
Southeast Asia. Further, it might be a chance to regain the 
trust and friendship of Southeast Asian countries that tend 
to see Japan as a nation of "economic animals" interested only 
in their own profit. In a similar way, we Christians are apt 
to forget contact with the many Christians in China, North 
Korea, North Vietnam and other communist countries. Through 
the invisible channel of relationships we are hoping that 
Japan will act not to use Asia selfishly but to eliminate the 
tension and fear in Asia. 

To that end it is our prayer that this autumn when 
Prime Minister Sato meets with President Nixon, who stated 
when visiting Okinawa, "We will hold Okinawa as long as 
tensions and threats continue," Mr. Sato will put forth the 
ideal request of immediate, unconditional, complete reversion. 

We pray, moreover, that he will begin realistic negotia 
tions, in accord with the response from the other side, 
in order that Okinawa may recover her proper status and 
that the people of Okinawa may regain their rights. 

(Editor s note: The foregoing was delivered as the main 
address on the occasion of the service of union of the United 
Church of Christ in Japan and the United Church of Christ 
in Okinawa, held at Ginza Church, Tokyo, on February 25, 
1969.) 



TODAY S ISSUES 



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PRESENT DAY OKINAWA AND JAPAN S FUTURE 215 

Fig. 3 



U.S. President 



Dept. of Defense 



GRi 



Chief Executive 



USCAR 
High Commissioner 



Civil Administrator 



Legislative Administration Judiciary 



Fig. 4 
Public Aid and Social Welfare Laws 

Years 
Mainland Okinawa Lag 



Poverty Relief Act 1950 1953 

Child Welfare Act 1947 1953 

Child Allowance Act 1961 None 

Special Child Allowance 1964 1967 

Disabled Persons Welfare 

and Protection 1949 1953 

Mentally Retarded Welfare 

and Protection I960 None 

Mother and Child Welfare 1964 None 

Mother and Child Protection 1965 None 






216 



TODAY S ISSUES 



Fig. 5 
Social Security 



Health Insurance Law 

(Medical Insurance Law) 
Day Laborer s Health Insurance 
National Health Insurance 
Unemployment Insurance 

Workmen s Accident Compensation 
Insurance 

Seamen s Insurance 

Civil Servants Mutual Benefit Assoc 

Public Works Employees Mutual 
Benefit Assoc. 

District Civil Servants Mutual 
Benefit Assoc. 
(Civil Servants Severance and 

Retirement Pay) 
(Public School Teachers Mutual 

Benefit Assoc.) 

Private School Teachers Union Act 

Farming, Lumbering, and Fishing 
Employees Mutual Benefit Assoc. 

Social Welfare Insurance 

National Old Age Pension 

(Provisional Old Age Pension) 



Mainland 
1922 


Yeai S 
Okinawa Lag 

1965 43 


1953 


None 




1958 


None 




1947 


1958 


11 


1947 


1963 


16 


1940 


None 




:. 1948 






1956 






1962 







1954 

1956 
1941 
1959 



1965 

1967 
None 

None 
None 

None 
1966 



17 
20 



Fig. 6 
Public Sanitation 



(Postwar) 
Mainland Okinawa Years Lag 



Communicable Disease Control 

Act 

Venereal Disease Control Act 
Preventive Vaccination Act 
Mental Hygiene Act 
Turberculosis Control Act 

Leprosy (Hansen s Disease) 
Control Act 

Eugenic Protection Act 



1897 
1948 
1948 
1950 
1951 

1953 
1948 



1967 
1962 
1964 
1960 
1956 

1961 
None 



22 
14 
16 
10 
5 



PRESENT DAY OKINAWA JAPAN S FUTURE 



217 



Fig. 7 

Industrial Organizations and the Income Gap 
(1966 Statistics) 

Labor 
Force 
(1,000 
unit) 



Primary Industry 
(Lumbering, 
farming, fishing) 

Secondary Industy 
( Manufacturing ) 

Tertiary Industry 
(Services) 

Total 



National 

Income 

($1 mil. 

unit) 

53.5 



Pei- 

Capita Differ- 

Income ential 

(Dollars) (Percent) 



(13.4%) 

67.0 
(16.8%) 

277.5 
(69.8%) 

398.0 
(100%) 



139 



385 



100 



(34.7%) 

64 1,047 271.9 

(16%) 

199 1,402 364.2 

(49.3%) 

402 

(100%) 

(GRI Bureau of Statistics) 



Fig. 8 
Government of the Ryukyu Islands 1969 Budget 

Government of Japan Aid $ 31,974,000 21.9% 

U.S. Government Aid 12,223,000 8.3% 

Borne locally 111,432,000 69.8% 

Total $145,629,000 100.0% 



THE CHRISTIAN PAVILION AT EXPO 70 



Paul Pfister 

Surely the most important among recent ecumenical de 
velopments in Japan was the decision of the major Christian 
churches to cooperate in erecting a Christian Pavilion at the 
World Exposition in Osaka in 1970. 

The Japan World Exposition (EXPO 70) offers the 
Christians in this country a unique occasion to witness to 
their common faith and to the mission of Christianity in 
today s society. Since this is the first time that the World 
Exposition will be held in an Asian country where Christians 
are a small minority, Japan s Christians have a special 
awareness of their common responsibility to make the best 
possible use of this occasion. 

While each World Exposition exhibits human achieve 
ment and progress in science, technology and culture, it also 
endeavors to spotlight the highest values of humanity and to 
promote mutual understanding and cooperation among all 
men of good will. 

After the long interruption caused by World War II, the 
sequnce of World Expositions was continued in Brussels in 
1958. There, the importance of the human being in the midst 
of scientific progress in the atomic age was stressed. In New 
York in 1964, "Peace Through Understanding" was the 
theme of the World Exposition. In Montreal in 1967, it was 
"Man and His World". 

"Progress and Harmony of Mankind" is the main theme 

of EXPO 70 in Osaka. Four sjib-themes further illustrate its 

S meaning: 1) "Toward Fuller Enrichment of Life", 2) 

"Toward Fuller Utilization of Nature", 3) "Toward Fuller 



THE CHRISTIAN PAVILION AT EXPO 70 219> 

Management of Our Environment" and 4) "Toward Better 
Understanding of One Another." 

Contemplating these themes in the light of the Gospel, 
Christians felt impelled to bring to the expositions the "un 
fathomable riches of Christ". Consequently, Christian 
churches erected pavilions at various expositions. But over 
the years they came to realize that, standing amid the im 
pressive display of human activity and progress, their witness 
would prove a fruitful sign of unity only if given in common 
by all of them. At the World Exposition in Montreal, this 
awareness resulted in the construction of but one Christian 
pavilion, the cooperative effort of eight churches in Canada. 

The Preparatory Committee of the Montreal pavilion, in 
a statement issued in December, 1964, explained its intentions. 

Joined together through their baptism in a same faith in 
Jesus Christ and in a same hope, the Christians of Canada, 
on the occasion of the 1967 Exhibition of Montreal, wish 
to express their love to their fellowmen throughout the 
world and to alleviate the anxieties and fulfill the expecta 
tions of our century by a common proclamation of the 
Gospel. Beyond the cleavages imposed by history, the 
Christians of the whole world will rejoice at the news of 
the following decision that we have reached as a result of 
many months of meeting and exchange of views. We will 
erect a Christian Pavilion capable of showing the world 
that God was made flesh among us and that he is present 
in all that is happening concerning "Man and His World". 
In spite of those things that separate us, we believe we can 
and must humbly bear witness together to our faith in Jesus 
Christ and to our intent to be, like him, servants to our 
fellow men. Before God we wish to carry out this work to 
gether, in order to implore the perfect Christian unity 
which his divine grace can give us." 



220 TODAY S ISSUES 

Montreal provided inspiration and encouragement to the 
Christians of Japan for a similar ecumenical project at Osa 
ka s EXPO 70. Several Japanese Christians had visited the 
Montreal Exposition and gathered valuable information con 
cerning the Christian Pavilion. Here in Japan, the Japan 
Association for the 1970 World Exposition expressed a de-ire 
that Christianity be represented at EXPO 70 and contribute 
to the development of its theme. 

In the fall of 1967, Christians of various denominations 
joined in informal discussions on the feasibility of a Christian 
Pavilion for EXPO 70. Initial contacts were made between 
the National Christian Council (NCC) and the Roman 
Catholic Church. From the start there was general agree 
ment that, if Christian churches were to participate in 
EXPO 70, the example of Montreal should be followed. One, 
not several Christian pavilions, should be erected. 

The Catholic Bishops Conference approved this project 
at its meeting in January, 1968, and the NCC gave approval 
at its general meeting in March, 1968. A Central Committee 
for the Christian Pavilion at the Japan World Exposition 
was established. Anglican Bishop Hinsuke Yashiro was 
named chairman. Roman Catholic Bishop Yoshigoro Taguchi 
of Osaka and NCC Chairman Isamu Omura were named 
vice-chairmen, along with several other Christian leaders. 

Mr. Shiro Nishimura, prominent Christian layman from 
Osaka, was appointed secretary general, with an office at the 
Christian Center in Osaka. Rev. Atsushi Hayashi of the 
Roman Catholic diocese of Osaka was appointed to assist him. 

Besides the Osaka headquarters, two branch offices were 
opened in Tokyo: one in the headquarters of the NCC at 
Ginza 4-2 under the direction of Rev. Kentaro Buma, the 
other in the headquarters of the National Catholic Commit 
tee, Chiyoda-ku 6-10, under the direction of Rev. Tadayoshi 
Tamura. 

On May 20, 1968, the Central Committee met in Tokyo to 



THE CHRISTIAN PAVILION AT EXPO 70 221 

draw up concrete plans. From the start the Committee ac 
knowledged that the Pavilion s theme must be worked out in 
harmony with the general theme of EXPO 70. A Theme 
Commission was established. It was jointly chaired by Prof. 
Kazo Kitamori of Tokyo Union Theological Seminary and 
Prof. Mutsuo Yanase of Sophia University. The Central Com 
mittee also discussed the financing of the Pavilion. Deciding 
on a budget of 100 million yen, it proposed that the Roman 
Catholic and Protestant representations should contribute 35 
million yen each. The remaining 30 million yen, the Com 
mittee decided, could be raised outside of Japan. 

The Theme Commission set to work immediately. After 
long and frequent deliberation, it submitted its proposals to 
the Central Committee, which accepted them at its general 
meeting on August 18 in Tokyo. Accordingly, the main 
theme of the Christian Pavilion became "Eye and Hand".. 
Two sub-themes are "Reconciliation" and "Creation". 

The Eye of the Christian faith discovers, amid the great 
achievements of human activity, the real dignity and destiny 
of man, and finds in Christ s work of reconciliation and new 
creation the harmony so much needed by the modern progress 
of humanity. The Hand symbolizes the Church praying for 
and serving humanity in accordance with Christ s teaching 
and example. It symbolizes the Church in Japan and the 
Church in foreign countries spiritually united and in a con 
tinuing cordial relationship. 

The architect who had been contracted to design the Chris 
tian Pavilion, Prof. Akira Inadomi, received the approved 
theme. Assisted by the Construction Commission, whose chair 
man is Prof. Tadao Tanaka, Prof. Inadomi applied himself, 
with deep understanding and great perseverance, to the faith 
ful visual expression of the theme. 

He has also the collaboration of three well-known, out 
standing Christian laymen, enlisted by the Central Commit 
tee, to act as producers in the overall conception of the 



222 TODAY S ISSUES 

Pavilion, its interior design and displays, and the programs 
to be presented during the six months of the Exposition. 
These three men are Messrs. Shusaku Endo, Simon Miura 
and Hiroo Sakada. They consented readily to the Central 
Committee s request, and have devoted much time and energy 
to the creative fulfillment of this task. 

In the meantime, a number of governments which had as 
yet made no commitment to participate in EXPO 70 received 
ofiicial invitations to do so. The Vatican was among these. 
The invitation left Vatican authorities with a new and some 
what complicated problem. There had been a pavilion of the 
"Vatican in Brussels in 1958, and again in New \ork in 1964. 
In the latter instance, thanks to an extraordinary concession 
made by Pope John XXIII to Francis Cardinal Spellman, 
Michelangelo s "Pieta" was exhibited. For EXPO 70, even 
prior to the decision of the Japanese churches to participate, 
the Holy See replied affirmatively to requests from Japan 
that it loan Raphael tapestries for display. Subsequent to 
the decision of the Japanese churches to build a common 
pavilion, the Holy See promised assistance to the Roman 
Catholic bishops of Japan in their participation. But without 
an explicit invitation from the EXPO 70 Association, the 
Vatican had made no plans for official participation. 

Upon receipt of an invitation, however, and though 
willing to comply with the wishes of the association, the 
Vatican deemed it unfitting to erect a pavilion of the Vatican 
independent of that to be erected by the Christian churches 
of Japan. Official participation by the Vatican at EXPO 70 
seemed now possible only through cooperative participation 
in the endeavor of the Christians in Japan. In December, 
1968, Pope Paul VI gave his approval to this participation. 
The ecumenical character of the pavilion was thereby 
strengthened. The Vatican, for the first time, entered actively 
into an ecumenical project of this kind. 

The Christian Pavilion is therefore sponsored jointly by 



THE CHRISTIAN PAVILION AT EXPO 70 22. 3 

the Christian churches of Japan and by the Holy See. On 
February 19, 1969, the contract with the Japan Association 
for the 1970 World Exposition was signed jointly by Bishop 
Hinsuke Yashiro, chairman of the Central Committee for the 
Christian Pavilion of the Churches in Japan, and by Papal 
Pro-Nuncio Bruno Wuestenberg, representative of the Holy 
See. Bishop Yoshigoro Taguchi of Osaka was appointed the 
Vatican s commissioner general for the exposition. 

Detailed decisions of design and of the most suitable dis 
play of the Raphael tapestries could now be worked out. 
Architect, producers and official representatives gave patient 
study and deliberation to these details. By the end of March, 
plans were finalized and received the approval of the Central 
Committee and of the Vatican. 

On AprilJB, 1969, the ground-breaking ceremony was held. 
Participants included Archbishop Wuestenberg, Bishop Yashi 
ro and other personalities involved in the pavilion s planning. 
Government representatives, local authorities and several 
hundred Christians of various denominations also attended. 
The program of the ceremony, mutually agreed upon, took 
the form of an ecumenical service of prayers, Scripture read 
ings and hymns. It was itself an impressive reminder of the 
ecumenical character and mission of the Christian Pavilion. 

Guests included Mr. John Taylor, emissary from the World 
Council of Churches headquarters in Geneva. Mr. Taylor 
offered valuable suggestions on the Pavilion displays, having 
had extensive experience in planning for the exposition at 
Montreal and elsewhere. Dr. Richard von Weizsaecker of 
Germany and other distinguished visitors gave assurance of 
the interest shown by the WCC and its member-churches, 
manifesting a readiness to cooperate in the endeavor and 
expressing a wish for its complete success. 

With the ground-breaking ceremony, the point of focus 
shifted to Osaka. On a 1,034 square meter plot on the ex 
position site in the Senri Hills, the Christian Pavilion was 



224 TODAY S ISSUES 

approaching realization. The building itself would occupy 
785 square meters. 

Upon the Pavilion s completion, the visitor will enter one 
of two descending passageways illuminated by soft, incidental 
light from hollow shafts in the ceiling. From here he enters 
the subterranean rooms where exhibits are displayed. Three 
of Raphael s tapestries two of them portraying the Savior 
with the Apostles, and the third, St. Paul preaching in 
Athens hang on a wall in the main room. Photographs, 
motion pictures and art of past and present depict the Church 
in the midst of human society, and direct the visitor s mind 
to the Pavilion s theme. 

Passage through the exhibit rooms is intended to prepare 
the visitor for his transfer from the overwhelming, manifold 
impressions received in the other pavilions to a quieter, more 
spiritual experience. The visitor may content himself with 
having seen the exhibits and leave through a broad exit. Or 
he may proceed to the main hall on the ground floor. 

In the main hall, in what Prof. Inadomi calls its "holy 
emptiness", the visitor will come to full experience of the 
pavilion s theme. The hall is a place of encounter with God, 
a place of spiritual rest. Besides a pipe organ, the room will 
contain only two symbols sacred to all Christians: one of the 
word of God and one of the sacraments. The hall is meant 
for meditation, but also for musical and dramatic perform 
ances. The producers are preparing a program of these for 
the six months of the exposition. Christian musicians, 
choruses and famous actors from Japan and abroad are 
expected to participate. The main hall will be a place of 
vivid witness to the Pavilion s theme and to its ecumenical 
mission. 

The pavilion building, a curvilinear wooden structure, will 
be modes! in appearance among the numerous gigantic and 
ultramodern buildings of EXPO 70. But it will express the 
Christian message of God s fatherly love of mankind, of 



THE CHRISTIAN PAVILION AT EXPO 70 225 

Christ s salvation and reconciliation, of human dignity, peace 
and hope. Precisely this is its contribution to EXPO 70. 

Due to political unrest and ideological strife expected to 
manifest themselves during 1970 in Japan, some criticism 
and fears were expressed, among Christians also, concerning 
first, the advisability of opening the World Exposition in 
Osaka, and secondly, the advisability of formal participation 
on the part of the Christian churches. Such have not hindered 
the EXPO 70 preparations, which are proceeding on schedule 
to meet the March 15, 1970, opening date. More than 70 
nations of differing ideologies and social structures eagerly 
anticipate a successful exposition. 

The Christian churches in Japan, relying on the under 
standing and help of their congregations throughout the 
country, are grateful in the successful realization of a truly 
ecumenical, truly Christian pavilion. They are eager that 
this project of Christian witness further the continuing efforts 
at mutual understanding. They cherish the hope that it will 
become a landmark on the road of Christian witness and 
ecumenical cooperation in Japan. They hear, as addressed to 
themselves, the words of St. Paul: "Therefore, my beloved 
brothers, stand firm and immovable, and work for the Lord 
always, work without limit, since you know that in the Lord 
your labor cannot be lost." (1 Cor., 15:58) 

(Editor s note: Events in the Japanese church since the 
writing of this article have thrown additional sidelights on 
the Christian Pavilion project. Groups of militant students 
in the Kyodan-related theological seminaries, supported by 
a number of young pastors and church members, have staged 
vehement protests in various church committees and assemblies 
against the erection of the Christian Pavilion, condemning it 
as an unjustifiable extravagance and a compromising identifi 
cation with the government sponsored Expo, of which it is a 
part, and which the students repudiate on various grounds. 
The United Church of Christ (Kyodan) is divided on this 



226 TODAY S ISSUES 

issue between those who continue to support the project, those 
who oppose it, and those who waver between the two positions. 
For an up-to-date acquaintance with the problem, the reader 
is advised to consult the various news reports appearing in 
the press and the Japan Christian Activity News, in which 
detailed accounts are given of the protest activities and the 
arguments being advanced through them.) 



PART II 



I. CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



Advent Christian Mission, Ja 
pan 

(Nippon Adobento Kirisuto 

Kyodan) 

Shijo Nawate Gakuin, 1201- 

14, Okayama, Shijo Nawate- 

cho, Kita Kawachi-gun, Osa- 

ka-ku 575 

Tel. 0720-76-0580 

Dir.: Floyd Powers 



Tel. 03-400-2314 
Chm. of the House of Bi 
shops: Hinsuke Yashiro 



(575) 

TO 1201-14 m%m&fa 

n 0720-76-0580 
ft F X 7 - X 

Amen Kyodan 

181 Higashi Mitsuda-machi, 
Kure-shi, Hiroshima-ken 737 
Tel. 0823-21-6763 
Dir.: Hachiro Itoh 



(737) EAm^rU 
n 0823-21-6763 



Anglican Episcopal Church of 
Japan 

{Nippon Seikokai) 
4-21, 1-chome, Higashi, Shi- 
buya-ku, Tokyo 150 



(150) 

4-21 



Anglican Episcopal Church of 
Okinawa 

(Okinawa Seikokai) 
238-3, Yoko-Takehara, Mi- 
natogaw^a, Urazoemura, Oki 
nawa 

Tel. Okinawa 097-3510 
Bishop: Edmond L. Brown 
ing 



233-3 



Aomoriken Fukuin Kirisuto 
Kyokai Kyogikai 

30-11, Chayamachi, Aomori- 

shi 030 

Tel. 01772-5-3710 

Mod.: Takeya Furukawa 

y ^ 

(030) 30-11 

n 01772-5-3710 



097-3510 



230 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Apostolic Christian Church of 
Japan 

(Nihon Shito Kirisuto Kyo- 
kai) 

1384, Kaneko-machi, Chofu- 

shi, Tokyo 182 

Tel. 0424-82-4344 

Dir.: Willis R. Ehnle 



1384 



Apostolic Faith Mission 

(Shito no Shinko Dendodan) 
1017-1, Kugahara-cho, Ohta- 
ku, Tokyo 145 
Tel. 03-751-4211 
Dir.: Hidehiro Ouchi 



(182) 

m 0424-82-4344 



(145) 

1017-1 

m 03-751-4211 



Assemblies of God Church of 
Japan 

(Nihon Assenburi Kyodan) 
15-20, 3-chome, Komagome, 
Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170 
Tel. 03-918-5935 
Supt.: Kiyoma Yumiyama 



-20 



(170) 

m 03-918-5935 



(277) =f ^ 

m 0471-67-6790 



Baptist Association, Japan 

(Nihon Baputesuto Rengo) 
8-34, 3-chome, Higashi, Ka 
shiwa-shi, Chiba-ken 277 
Tel. 0471-67-6790 
Chr.: Misao Amari 



3-8-34 



Baptist Bible Fellowship of 
Japan 

137-1, Tendai-cho, Chiba- 

shi 280 

Tel. 0472-52-1621 

Pres.: Koki Sugiura 

$ /\* -? f X h ^M 7 fr 7 x 

O -> -y 7 

(280) =f ^TfJ^^HT 137-1 
m 0472-52-1621 



Baptist Church Association, 
Japan 

(Nippon Baputesuto Kyokai 
Rengo) 

1-8, Yoshi-cho, Nihonbashi, 

Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103 

Tel. 03-669-9327 

Chr.: Takeshi Yokoyama 



(103) 

1-8 



CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



231 



03-669-9327 



Baptist Convention, Japan 

(Nihon Baputesuto Renmei) 
2-350, Nishi Okubo, Shinju- 
ku, Tokyo 160 
Tel. 03-351-2166 
Chr.: Noboru Arase 



(160) 
2-350 
m 03-351-2166 



Baptist General Conference 
Japan Mission 

(Nippon Kirisuto Baputesuto 
Rengo Senkyodan) 

6-11, Zenmyoji, Wakayama- 

shi 640 

Dir.: Francis B. Sorley 

* h 



(640) 



P . B 



6-11 
v - y - 



Baptist Mid-Missions in Japan 

(Zen Nippon Baputesuto Mid- 
Mission Senkyodan) 

17-20, Kasuga-cho, Fukushi- 

ma-shi 960 

Tel. 0245-34-8504 

Dir.: Dan M. Bishop 

h < K < y i> a >H 



(960) ^^rtJ 
n 0245-34-8504 



Baptist Union, Japan 

(Nihon Baputesuto Domei) 
3-9, 1-chome, Misaki-cho, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 103 
Tel. 03-291-9445 
Chr.: Takaaki Aikawa 



(103) 
1-3-9 
m 03-291-9445 



Bible Study Circle 

(Seisho Kenkyu Kai) 
9 Tokiwa Shimoda-machi, 
Ukyo-ku, Kyoto 616 
Tel. 075-861-2619 
Dir.: Tasaburo Muraoka 



(616) 
9 

m 075-861-2619 



Brethren in Christ Mission, 
Japan 

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Keiteidan) 
4-228, Nukui Minami-cho, 
Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184 
Tel. 0423-83-1086 
Dir.: John Graybill 



4-228 



(184) 



232 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



)423-83-1086j; 
t v s > ?* 



Christ Shinshu Kyodan 

6802 Shimo Yoshida, Fuji 

Yoshida-shi, Yamanashi-ken 

403 

Tel. 0555-2-0367 

Chr. : Yoshinobu Kawai 



(403) S 
m 0555-2-0367 



6802 



Christian Brotherhood Church 

(Kirisuto Kyodai Dan) 
448, Tabata-cho, Kita-ku, 
Tokyo 114 
Tel. 03-821-0210 
Dir.: Denzo Shimura 



448 



Christian Canaan Church 

(Kirisutokyo Kanan Kyodan) 
1-36 Higashi, Kushiya-ma- 
chi, Sakai-shi, Osaka 590 
Tel. 0722-2-3345 
Dir.: Seibei Morita 



1-36 



(114) 

m 03-821-0210 



Christian Evangelistic Church 

(Kirisuto Dendo-dan) 
56 Horikawa-cho, Fukuoka- 
shi 810 

Tel. 092-52-8813 
Supt.: Muneo Ide 

(810) M^TfJiBJIIfflT 56 
a 092-52-8813 



Christian Holy Convention 

(Kirisuto Seikyodan) 
20-5, 1-chome, Tsubakimori, 
Chiba-shi 280 
Tel. 0472-51-8510 
Bishop: Hiromi Yanaka 

(280) =f 1-20-5 

m 0472-51-8510 



(590) 

m, 0722-2-3345 



Christian Oriental Salvation 

(Kirisutokyo Toyo Kyureidan) 
4-27, Izumi-dori, Nada-ku, 
Kobe 657 
Tel. 078-86-2462 
Dir.: Tokushutsu Cho 



4-27 



Christian Science First Church 



(657) 

m 078-86-2462 



CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



233 



(Kirisutokyo Kagaku Daiichi 
Kyokai) 

10-2, 1-chome, Nagata-cho, 

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 

Tel. 03-581-0521 

Chr.: T. M. Hague 

(100) |CmtPWfflK7l<ffl(HT 

1-10-2 

m 03-581-0521 

gilpjl T M s\ - ? 

Church of Christ 

(Kirisuto no Kyokai) 
Ibaraki Christian College, 
Kujimachi, Hitachi-shi, Iba- 
raki-ken 319-12 
Tel. 029452-3215 
Supt.: B. M. Smith 

(319-12) 



029452-3215 
B . M ^ 



Church of Christ in Japan 

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyokai) 
14-10, 3-chome, Tsurumaki, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154 
Tel. 03-420-7047 
Mod.: Tatsuya Saito 



(154) 

3-14-10 

m 03-420-7047 



Church of God 

4-21 Naka Saiwai-cho, Ka- 

wasaki-shi, Kanagawa-ken 

210 

Tel. 044-51-0641 

Pres.: Eaymond Shelhorn 

? * - ^ - # y 3 y K 

p3j 4-21 



Kyo- 



(210) 

m 044-51-0641 

US is 4 ^ > K -> x ji 

Church of God, Japan 

(Nihon Church of God 
dan) 

22 Tsuoka-cho, Hodogaya- 

ku, Yokohama-shi 241 

Tel. 045-951-2074 

Dir.: Edward Call 



045-951-2074 






22 



Church of God Remmei 

(Nihon Kami no Kyokai Rem 
mei) 

3-93 Tamagawa Okuzawa- 

machi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

158 

Tel. 03-702-4141 

Chr.: Shigetoshi Taniguchi 



(158) 

HI 3-93 

m 03-702-4141 



234 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Church of Jesus Christ, Japan 

(Nihon lesu Kirisuto Kyodan) 
1-22, 1-chome, Takamaru, 
Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi 655 
Tel. 078-76-5689 
Chr.: Akira Nakajima 



1-1-22 



(655) 

n 078-76-5689 



Church of Jesus Christ of Lat 
ter Day Saints 

(Matsujitsu Seito lesu Kiri 
suto Kyokai) 

8-10, 5-chome, Minami Aza- 

bu, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106 

Tel. 03-442-7438 

Pres.: Adney Y. Komatsu 



5-8-10 



(106) 

m 03-442-7438 



Church of The Nazarene, Ja 
pan District 

(Nihon Nazaren Kyodan) 
589-2, 8-chome, Kami Me- 
guro-ku, Tokyo 153 
Tel. 03-466-2416 
Pres.: Takichi Funagoshi 



(153) Jf 
8-589-2 



03-466-2416 



Church of The Resurrected 
Christ 

(Fukkatsu no Kirisuto Kyo 
dan) 

c/o Kantoku Gakuin, Ojoji, 
Nagano-shi 380 
Tel. 02622-3-3066 
Dir.: Sukenori Makiuchi 



02622-3-3066 



Conservative Baptist Associa 
tion of Churches 

(Hoshu Baputesuto Domei) 
3-26, 2-chome, Higashihara- 
cho, Yamagata-shi 990 
Tel. 02362-2-4789 
Mod.: Shoichi Kakizaki 



2-3-26 



Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church 

(Kanbarando Choro Kyokai) 
14-1, 2-chome, Minamirin- 
kan, Yamato-shi, Kanagawa- 
ken 242 
Te 01. k.G,:, 
Tel. 0462-61-4371 



(990) 

m 62362-2-4789 



CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



235 



Dir.: Melvin Stott 



(242) W 

2-14-1 

0462-61-4371 



E 



Eiko No Fukuin Kirisuto Kyo- 
kai 

Uchinomaki, Asomachi, Ago- 
gun, Kumamoto-ken 869-23 
Tel. Aso 2-0303 
Dir.: Kotaro Sugita 



(869-23) 






Evangelical Alliance Mission 

(Nihon Domei Kirisuto Kyo- 
dan) 

15-15, 3-chome, Daisawa, 

Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 155 

Tel. 03-413-2345 

Dir.: Nakaichi Ando 



(155) 

3-15-15 

m 03-413-2345 



dan) 

9-24, Honcho, Nakagawa, 

Takaoka-shi, Toyama-ken 

933 

Tel. 0766-23-6655 

Dir.: F. L. Pickering 



(933) giij 

9-24 

m 0766-23-6655 

tt^f F. L. 



Evangelical Christian Church^ 
Japan 

(Nihon Fukuin Kirisuto Kyo- 

dan) 

1-1, 3-chome, Fujimi-cho, 
Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182 
Tel. 0424-83-8941 
Chr.: Keiichi Hiraide 



3-1-1 



Evangelical Covenant Church 
of Japan 

(Nihon Seikei Kirisuto Kyo- 
dan) 

17-8, 5-chome, Naka Megu- 

ro, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153 

Tel. 03-712-8746 

Chr.: Melbourne Metcalf 



(Wl 

m 0424-83-8941 



Evangelical Baptist Missions 

(Fukuin Baputesuto Senkyo- 



(153) 

5-17-8 



236 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



03-712-8746 Dir.: Rollin S. Reasoner 

^#- 7 mm^-t-^w. 

(221) :|gjft7p$)HJIIK6^ Hi 
m 045-491-9016~7 



Evangelical Free Church in 
Japan 

(Nihon Fukuin Jiyu Kyokai) 

33-2, Higashi Ohno-machi, Free Methodist Church of 

Koyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto-shi Japan 

603 (Nihon Jiyu Mesojisuto Kyo- 

Tel. 075-451-4961 dan) 

Chr.: Yosuke Furuyama 3.51, 1-chome, Maruyama- 

H^^ilf gfitfcz* dori, Abeno-ku, Osaka-shi 

(603) HilSrlJjfcK/^Uj^fcSFfflT 545 

33-2 Tel. 06-652-2091 

075-451-4961 Mod- . Takesaburo Uzaki 



Evangelical Orient Mission 

(Toyo Fukuin Senkyokai) 
2-54, Higashi, Yotsukura- 
machi, Iwaki-shi, Fukushi- 
ma-ken 979-02 
Tel. 024632-2735 
Chr.: Frank Kongstein 

KrH 2-54 



(979-02) 

m 0246-32-2735 

F a i/ 



Far Eastern Gospel Crusade 

<Kyokuto Fukuin Juji Gun) 
111, Hakuraku, Kanagawa- 
ku, Yokohama-shi 221 
Tel. 045-491-9016/7 



(545) 

1-3-61 

m 06-652-2091 



Free Religious Association, 
Japan 

(Nihon Jiyu Shukyo Renmei) 
Seisoku High School, 24 Shi- 
ba Park, Minato-ku, Tokyo 
105 

Tel. 03-431-0914 
Chr.: Shinichiro Imaoka 



(105) 



03^31-0914 



24 



Free Will Baptist Mission, 



CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



237 



Japan 

(Fukuin Baputesuto Kyodan) 
3-chome, Nishi 2-jo, Tsuki- 
sappu, Sapporo-shi 062 
Tel. 0122-88-8601 
Dir.: Wesley Calvary 



(062) 

W 

m 0122-88-8601 

ftS^t W 



Fukuin Dendo Kyodan 

4-4, 2-chome, Hiyoshi-machi, 

Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken 

371 

Tel. 0272-31-8222 

Mod.: Seiichi Kobayashi 



(371) BiJ 

m 0272-31-8222 



2-4-4 



G 



German Alliance Mission 

(Domei Fukuin Kirisuto Kyo- 
kai) 

211, Takehana-cho, Hajima- 

shi, Gifu-ken 501-62 

Tel. 0583-91-4055 

Dir.: Walter Werner 



(501-62) lK^m 

211 

m 0583-91-4055 



W- * 

Gospel Church, Japan 

(Nippon Fukuin Kyodan) 
5-2209, Kemigawa-machi, 
Chiba-shi 280 
Tel. 0472-71-7849 
Mod.: Katsuei Yoshino 



5-2209 



(280) =f 

m 0472-71-7849 



Gospel Fellowship, Japan 

(Fukuin Koyu Kai) 
1-63, Hamadera Showama- 
chi, Sakai-shi, Osaka 592 
Dir.: Mitsuo Kondo 



(592) 



Gospel Fellowship Mission, 
Japan 

(Nihon Fukuin Koyu Mission) 
3785-3364 Shimada Kuroishi, 
Tempaku-cho, Showa-ku, 
Nagoya-shi 468 
Mgr.: Leslie Frazier 



(468) 



3785-3364 



Gospel Hall Plymouth Bre 
thren 

(Kirisuto Shinto no Shukai) 



238 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(167) 

m 03-391-6727 



21-3, 1-chome, Kamiogi, Su- 
ginami-ku, Tokyo 167 
Tel. 03-391-6727 
Mgr.: Tamezo Yamanaka 



1-21-3 



Gospel League, Japan 

56 Koyama Itakura-cho, Ki- 
ta-ku, Kyoto-shi 603 
Dir.: Edward G. Hanson 
is v ? > :/;*. "? )\> J y 

(603) JscusrfcibK/huiigSHr 56 

^; x K 7 - K G . /N > y 



H 



Hokkaido Fukuin Kyokai Kyo- 
gikai 

632 Kitago, Shiraishi-cho, 

Sapporo 062 

Tel. 0122-87-7862 

Chr.: Tetsuto Hatakeyoma 

632 



(062) 

m 0122-87-^862 



Holiness Church, Japan 

^Nihon Horinesu Kyodan) 
1-1477, Mawarita-machi, Hi- 
gashi Murayama-shi, Tokyo 



189 

Tel. 0423-91-3075 

Chr.: Zenjiro Kongo 



(189) 

ft 0423-91-3075 



1-1477 



Holy Jesus Society 

(Sei lesu Kai) 

3-880, Totsuka-machi, Shin- 
juku-ku, Tokyo 160 
Tel. 03-368-8278 
Dir.: Takeji Otsuki 



(160) 

m 03-368-8278 



iHT 3-880 



I 



Immanuel General Mission 

(Imanueru Sogo Dendo Dan) 
9th Floor, Shin Kokusai 
Bldg., 3-4 Marunouchi, Chi- 
yoda-ku, Tokyo 100 
Tel. 03-211-2789 
Pres.: David Tsutada 



(100) m 

&4mmmx 

m 03-211-2789 



International Church of The 
Foursquare Gospecl 



CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



. ^239 



(Kokusai Foursquare Fukuin 

Kyodan) 

10-8, Minami Sumiyoshi, 

Tokorozawa-shi, Saitama- 

ken 359 

Tel. 0429-22-7716 

Chr.: Walter H. Mussen 



(359) 

m 0429-22-7716 



10-8 



International Christian Body 

(Kokusai Kirisuto Kyodan) 
1-29, Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, 
Tokyo 151 
Tel. 03-370-0571 
Pres.: Yoshie Yoshimoto 



1-29 



(151) 

m 03-370-0571 

*ff* g&m* 

I P3 P4 tJ ^r^^T^lf 



Japan Alliance Church 

(Nihon Araiansu Kyodan) 
255, Itsukaichi-cho, Saeki- 
gun, Hiroshima-ken 738 
Tel. 0829-21-2514 
Chr.: Suteichi Oe 



(738) 

IB 0829-21-2514 



Japan Evangelical Band 

(Nihon Dendotai) 
6-11, 6-chome, Sumaura-dori, 
Suma-ku, Kobe-shi 654 
Tel. 078-71-5651 
Dir.: E. W. Gosden 



(654) 

6-6-11 

m 078-71-5651 

=<g E W 



Japan Evangelical Lutheran 
Church 

(Nihon Fukuin Ruteru Kyo- 
kai) 

303-3, Hyakunin-cho, Shin- 

juku-ku, Tokyo 160 

Tel. 03-362-6604 

Mod.: Sueaki Uchiumi 



(160) 
3-303 
IB 03-362-6604 

ft& 

Japan Evangelical Mission 

(Nihon Dendo Fukuin Kyo 
dan) 

292-8, 1-chome, Kami Naka- 

jima, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata- 

ken 940 

Chr.: Katsuji Kasuga 



1-292-8 



(940) 



240 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Japan United Pentecostal 
Church 

(Nihon Unaito Pentecosute 
Kyodan) 

365 Kamigamo Honzan, Ki- 

ta-ku, Kyoto-shi 603 

Tel. 075-791^887 

Supt.: Norman Zeno 



(603) 

075-791-4887 



-i-ASfte^T*. iA ^r* -VL. 

iff? TOS $6 

Jiyu Christian Crusade 

(Jiyu Kurischan Dendodan) 
25-22, 11-chome, Tahara, 
Fukui-shi 910 
Tel. 0776-22-6315 
Dir.: A. J. Hemmingby 



11-25-22 




Japan Yearly Meeting of The K 

Religious Society of Friends 

(Kirisuto Tomo no Kai Nen- Kassui Christ Kyodan 
kai) 

8-19, 4-chome, Mita, Minato- 

ku, Tokyo 108 

Tel. 03-451-7002 

Mod.: Kikue Kurama 



(Kassui Kirisuto Kyodan) 
587 Ogikubo, Odawara-shi, 
Kanagawa-ken 250 
Tel. 0465-34-2525 
Dir.: Daisuke Abe 



(108) 



Hffl 4-8-19 



03-451-7002 



(250) /JNffl 

m 0465-34-2525 



Jesus Gospel Church 

(lesu Fukuin Kyodan) 
15-26, 1-chome, Hibarigaoka, 
Hoya-shi, Tokyo 188 
Tel. 0424-61-9847 
Dir.: Yutaka Akichika 



(188) 

1-15-26 

B 0424-61-9847 



587 



Kinki Evangelical Lutheran 
Church 

(Kinki Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai) 
19 Kotaro-cho, Nara-shi 630 
Tel. 0742-23-7951 
Mod.: Koji Matsumoto 



19 



(630) 

H 0742-23-7951 



CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



241 



Kiyome Church of Oriental H 0985-2-4009 
Missionary Society Sl:ft Ht.\{QljL 

(Toyo Senkyokai Kiyome Kyo- [ 
kai) M 

4-971, Kashiwagi, Shinjuku- ! 

ku, Tokyo 160 ! Mennonite Brethren Confer- 

Tel. 03-369-6646 ence, Japan 

Dir.: Kyoichi Ozaki (Nihon Menonaito Burezaren 

Kyodan) 

4-971 6-17, 1-chome, Shoen, Ikeda- 

shi, Osaka 563 
Mod.: Yu Arita 



(160) 3iJ 

n Og-369-6646 



Korean Christian Church in 
Japan 

(Zainichi Daikan Kirisuto 
Kyokai) 

24 Wakamiya-cho, Shinjuku- 

ku, Tokyo 162 

Tel. 03-269-2909 

Chr.: Oh Yun Tai 



(563) 



(162) 

m, 03-269-2909 



24 



I Mennonite Church Conference, 
Japan 

(Nihon Menonaito Kyokai 
Kyogikai) 

13 Tsurugadai, Kushiro-shi, 

Hokkaido 085 

Chr.: Takio Tanase 



(085) 



Kyushu Mennonite Christian 
Church 

(Kyushu Menonaito Kirisuto 
Kyokai Kaigi) 



13 



Mission Covenant Church in 
Japan 



(Nihon Seikei Kirisuto Kyo- 
3-50, Yodogawa-cho, Miyaza- dan) 

ki-shi 880 360 Amihama, Okayama-shi 

Tel. 0985-2-4009 700 

Mod.: Hiroshi Yanada Tel. 0862-72-0004 

)- 4 j, . 4 \) _x h tfc^^il Mod. : Takeshi Matsukuma 
(880) gi&SiriJStJIIfflr 3-50 



242 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(700) mmmfc 360 
m 0862-72-0004 



N 



(150) jp[J5C 

IB 03-466-3414 



o 



1-25-6 



Next Towns Crusade in Japan Open Bible Church, Japan 



(Nihon Next Towns Crusade) 
Fuse Fukuin Kyokai, 1-19, 
Chodo, Higashi Osaka-shi 
577 

Tel. 06-782-2765 
Dir.: Tsutomu Moritani 

-fc^V 7. 
- K 
(577) 



1-19 



IB 06-782-2765 

& 

Nihon Shinyaku Kyodan 

16-1, 3-chome, Higashi Ome, 

Ome-shi, Tokyo 198 

Tel. 0428-2-0634 

Mod.: Takashi Amemiya 



3-16-1 



(198) 

IB 0428-2-0634 



Nipppon Kirisuto Kai 

25-6, 1-chome, Shoto, 
buya-ku, Tokyo 150 
Tel. 03-466-3414 
Mod.: Toyokichi Mori 



Shi- 



15-28, 5-chome, Koshien- 
guchi, Nishinomiya-shi, 

Hyogo-ken 662 
Tel. 0798-67-3896 
Dir.: Jukei Wada 



5-15-28 



Orebro Mission 

254 Hiraoka, Sakai-shi, Osa- 

ka-fu 593 

Tel. 0722-71-0367 

Field Repr.: Helge Jansson 



(662) ffi 

IB 0798-67-3996 



(593) TON 254 
IB 0722-71-0367 



Oriental Deaf Christ Evange 

listic Church 

(Toyo Rowa Kirisuto Dendo 

Kyokai) 

1132-1, Ichiba, Moroyama- 

cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama- 

ken 350-04 

Dir.: Isamu Umezaki 



CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



243 



(350-04) 



1132-1 



Original Gospel Movement 

(Genshi Fukuin) 
5-35, Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, 
Tokyo 151 
Tel. 03-466-1558 
Dir.: Ikuo Tejima 



5-35 



(151) 

m 03^66-1558 



Pentecost Church of God In 
Japan 

(Nihon Pentecosute Kami No 
Kyokai Kyodan) 

1580, Ajimashinyama, Ku- 

sunoki-cho, Kita-ku, Nagoya 

462 

Tel. 052-901-8280 

Dir.: T. V. Dawson 

**is 

(462) 

Uj 1580 

m 052-901-8280 



Pentecost Gospel Group, Japan 

< Nihon Pentecosute Fukuin 
Group) 

4-64, Akasaki-machi, Chi- 



kusa-ku, Nagoya-shi 464 
Tel. 052-721-7831 
Gen. Sec.: M. Fast 



7. T- 

(464) ^S 

4-64 

1g 052-721-7831 

M 7 r - X h 

Pentecoste, Japan 

(Nihon Pentecosute Kyodan) 
Tawaraguchi, Ikoma-cho, 
Ikoma-gun, Nara-ken 630-02 
Tel. 07437-3-6424 
Dir.: David Copp 



(630-02) 
p 

m 0737-3-6424 



Philadephia Mission 

205, Honmoku Ozato-cho, 
Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 231 
Tel. 045-621-0888/9 
Chr.: H. N. Hestekind 



(231) 

IS 045-621-0888 



Presbyterian Church in Japan 

(Nihon Kirisuto Choro Kyo 
kai) 

1-273, Horinouchi, Sugina- 

mi-ku, Tokyo 166 



244 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Tel. 03-312-3071 
Mod.: Susumu Kobata 

(166) jffMtP^KiS ft 1-273 
m 03-312-3071 



R 



Reformed Church in Japan 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kaikakuha 
Kyodkai) 

5-20, Shimo-dori, Shibuya- 

ku, Tokyo 150 

Tel. 03-461-4614 

Mod.: Shoji Yanai 



5-20 



Reformed Presbyterian Chris 
tian Church of Japan 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kaikaku 

Choro Kyokai) 

9-1, Umenoya, Okamoto, Mo- 
toyama-cho, Higashinada- 
ku, Kobe-shi 657-01 
Tel. 078-41-3175 
Chr.: Gene W. Spear 



(150) 

m 03-461-4616 



(657-01) 

& 9-1 

078-41-3175 



Rural Mission, Japan 

(Nihon Chiho Dendodan) 
2640, Jonan-ku, Saeki-shi,. 
Oita-ken 876 
Tel. 09722-2-2238 
Dir.: J. P. Visser 



2640 



(876) 

It 09722-2-2238 

S-P-V 



Salvation Army Territorial 
Headquarters, Japan 

(Kyusei Gun Nippon Honei) 
2-17, Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chi- 
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101 
Tel. 03-263-7311/5 
Comm.: D. A. Smith 



~ > W 



(101) mM 
BJ 2-17 

m 03-263-7311-5 
D A ^ < 



Sanbi Kyodan 

14-8, Kako-machi, Hiroshl- 

ma-shi 733 

Tel. 0822-41-8957 

Pres.: Kyo Kurokawa 



14-8 



(733) m 

m 0822-41-8957 
iUII ^ 



CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



245 



Seventh-Day Adventists, Ja 
pan Union Mission of 

(Seventh-day Adventist Nip 
pon Rengo Dendo Bukai) 

846 Kami Kawai-cho, Hodo- 

gaya-ku, Yokohama-shi 241 

Tel. 045-951-2421 

Pres.: C. B. Watts 



h 




(241) 

fflT 846 

n 045-951-2421 



Spirit of Jesus Church 

(lesu no Mitama Kyokai Kyo- 
dan) 

3-152, Ogikubo, Suginami- 

ku, Tokyo 167 

Tel. 03-391-5925 

Supt.: Jun Murai 



3-152 



Swedish Alliance Mission in 
Japan 

(Zainichi Sweden Kirisutokyo 
Domei Senkyoshi Dan) 

34-44, 4-chome, Kamoe-cho, 

Hamamatsu-shi 430 

Tel. 0534-53-5051 

Field Repr.: Ake Lonander 



(167) m 

m 03-391-5925 



(430) 
m 0534-53-5051 




4-34-44 



Swedish Evangelical Mission 
in Japan 

(Zainichi Sweden Fukuin Sen- 

kyodan) 

273-33, Raiba, Noboribetsu- 
machi, Horobetsu-gun, Hok 
kaido 059-03 
Tel. 014382-2310 
Field Rep.: Paul Eriksson 



^ - T- 

(059-03) 

J 273-33 

m 014382-2310 



Swedish Evangelical Orient 
Mission 

(Sweden Toyo Fukuin Dendo- 
dan) 

149, Taira-machi, Numazu- 

shi, Shizuoka-ken 410 

Tel. 0559-63-2065 

Chr.: Eric Malm 



(410) S^TtT^HT 149 
m 0559-63-2065 

x j ^ . v ;i/ A 

Swedish Free Mission 

(Sweden Jiyu Dendodan) 



246 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



2-122, Iwama-cho, Hodoga- 
ya-ku, Yokohama-shi 240 
Tel. 045-331-0643 
Field Rep.: Bo Johnson 



(240) 
2-122 
m 045-331-0643 

ft;^^" B i/ 3 



True Church of Jesus in Japan 

(Shin lesu Kyokai Nihon So- 

kai) 

1-15, Naka Kagaya-cho, Su- 
miyoshi-ku, Osaka-shi 558 
Gen. Sec.: Seiki Suda 



(558) 
1-15 



U 



United Church of Christ in 
Japan 

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan) 
5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo- 
ku, Tokyo 104 
Tel. 03-561-6131/5 
Mod.: Kiyoshi li 

B#g(H 

& 4-5-1 



Unitarian Universalist Asso 
ciation 

(Kirisutokyo Dojin Shadan) 
10-9, 3-chome, MejirodaL. 
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112 
Tel. 03-943-1879 
Chr.: Chugoro Ono 



(112) 

3-10-9 

m 03-943-1879 



Universal Evangelical Church 

(Bankoku Fukuin Kyodan) 
3-17, 2-chome, Chuo, Matsu- 
moto-shi, Nagano-ken 390 
Tel. 02634-2-2347 
Dir.: Hiroshi Nakazawa 



(390) 

m 02634-2-2347 



Victor Jesus Church 

(Shorisha lesu Kyodan) 
2163, Karuizawa-machi, Ki- 
ta Saku-gun, Nagano-kern 
389-01 

Tel. 02674-2-2302 
Dir.: Earl F. Tygert 



03-561-6131 



CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



247 



(389-01) &mm&ti&M 
6#iRST 2163 
m 02674-2-2302 



w 

Walworth Road Baptist 
Church Missionary Society 

(Walworth Road Baputesuto 
Kyokai Dendo Kyokai) 

467, Yasutake, Ibaraki-shi, 

Osaka-fu 567 

Tel. 0726^3-6979 

Field Rep.: Florence E. 

Penny 



Barry 



(567) 

n 0726-43-6979 

ft^^t 7 

E - ^^~ 



Watch Tower Bible and Tract 
Society 

(Monomi no Toh Seisho Sas- 
shi Kyokai) 

5-8, 5-chome, Mita, Minato- 

ku, Tokyo 108 

Tel. 03-453-0404 

Branch Servant: William L. 



(108) 



:HH 5-5-8 



03-453-0404 






Lu- 



West Japan Evangelical 
theran Church 

(Nishi Nippon Fukuin Ruteru 
Kyokai) 

2-8, Nakajima-dori, Fukiai- 

ku, Kobe-shi 651 

Tel. 078-22-9706 

Mod.: Taizo Taniguchi 



2-8] 



Worldwide Evangelization 

Crusade 

(Sekai Fukuin Dendodan) 
569 Kondo, Gokasomachi, 
Kanzaki-gun, Shiga-ken 529- 
14 

Tel. Ishizuka 47 
Dir.: K. S. Roundhill 



(651) 

m 078-22-9706 



(529-14) 



569 

47 



S - 5 ! K t ^ 



II. CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 

Universities and Junior Colleges 



Aoyama Gakuin University 

4-25, 4-chome, Shibuya, Shi- 
buya-ku, Tokyo 150 
Tel. 03^09-8111 
Pres.: Zengo Ohira 



4-4-25 



6-106, Honcho, Toyonaka- 
shi, Osaka 560 
Tel. 068-52-0001 
Pres.: Iwao Kamatani 



6-106 



(560) 



(150) 



Aoyama Gakuin Woman s Ju 
nior College 

Pres.: Saburo Koda 



Baiko Jogakuin College 

Umegatoge, Soto Toyoura- 
cho, Shimonoseki-shi, Yama- 
guchi-ken 752 
Tel. Toyoura 596 
Pres.: Shinjiro Hirotsu 



(751) 



596 



Baika Women s College 

171 Yadohisasho, Toyokawa, \ Baiko Jogakuin Junior College 



Ibaragi-shi, Osaka 567 
Tel. 0726-43-6221 
Pres. : Shinichi Ono 



(567) 

171 



Baika Women s Junior College ! 



1-1, 1-chome, Koyo-cho, Shi 

monoseki-shi, Yamaguchi- 

ken 751 

Tel. 0832-23-7271 

Pres.: Shinjiro Hirotsu 



-1-1 



(751) 

0832-23-7271 



CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 



249 



Chinzei Gakuin Junior College 

1057, Sakaeda-cho, Isahaya- 

shi, Nagasaki 854 

Tel. 09572-2-2072 

Pres.: Moritaka Samejima 

(854) SflfmHWOTW 1057 
1g 09572-2-2072 



College of Dairy Agriculture 

582, Nishinotsuboro, Ebetsu- 
shi, Hokkaido 069-01 
Tel. 012848-2541 
Pres.: Mitsugu Sato 



(069-01) 

582 

n 012848-2541 

Junior College of Dairy Agri 
culture 

Pres.: Mitsugu Sato 



D 



Tel. 075-211-2311 
Pres.: Etsuji Sumiya 

IPflifetfc 

(602) m-hMK^ 
601 



Doshisha Women s College 

Genbu-cho, Teramachi Ni- 
shiiru, Imadegawadori, Ka- 
migyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 602 
Tel. 07-5211-2311 
Pres.: Fumio Ochi 
Tel. 075-211-2311 



(602) m 
HA 
075-211-2311 



Ferris College for Women 

178 Yamate-cho, Naka-ku, 
Yokohama-shi 231 
Tel. 045-641-0243 
Pres.: Hidenobu Kuwada 



178 



(231) 

m 045-641-0245 



Doshisha University 

601, Genbu-cho, Karasuma- Ferris Junior College 

ru Higashiiru, Imadegawa- Pres.: Hidenobu Kuwada 

dori, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 

602 



250 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Fukuoka Jo Gakuin Junior 
College 

35, Kamiosa, Fukuoka-shi 

816 

Tel. 092-58-1492 

Pres.: Aiko Enomoto 



35 



m 075-441-0135 

^5 m#= 

Hirosaki Gakuin Junior Col 
lege 

5 Sakamoto-cho, Hirosaki- 
shi, Aomori-ken 036 
Tel. 01722-2-8768 
Pres.: Yasushi Akagi 



(036) 

m 01722-2-8768 



(816) 

m 092-58-1492 

G 



Gifu Saibi Gakuin Jnior Col- 
Hiroshima Jogakuin 

Mukaiyama, Kurachi, Seki- , 72Q Ushidamachi 

shi, Gifu-ken 501-32 
Tel. 05752-2^211 
Pres.: Ko Katagiri 

(501-32) Hrfi 
m 05752-2^211 



Hiroshi- 



ma-shi 730 

Tel. 0822-28-0386 

Pres.: Hamako Hirose 



H 



Heian Jogakuin Junior College 

Gochome-machi, Karasuma- 

ru Nishiiru, Shimo Tachiuri- 

dori, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 

602 

Tel. 075-441-9135 

Pres.: Kenzo Sakai 



(602) 



(730) 



720 



Hiroshima Jogakuin Junior 
College 

Pres.: Takao Kuwata 



S 

Hokuriku Gakuin Junior Col 
lege 

11, 1, Koushi-machi, Kana- 

sawa-shi, Ishikawa-ken 920- 

13 

Tel. 0762-42-3990/3845 



CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 

Pres.: Tetsuo Bansho 9, 029452-3215 



251 



(920-13) 

n 0762-42-3990, 3845 

& 



11 



Hokusei Gakuen College 

828, Oyaji, Shiraishi-cho, 
Sapporo-shi 061-01 
Tel. 0122-89-2731/3 
Pres.: Sadatoshi Shukegawa 

(060) MrfJQOT^M 828 
m 0122-89-2731/3 



Hokusei Gakuen Woman s Ju 
nior College 

17-1319, Nishi, Minami Go- 
jo, Sapporo-shi 060 
Tel. 0122-56-7156 
Pres.: Torao Tejima 



(060) 

n 0122-56-7156 



Ibaraki Christian College 

4048, Kuji-machi, Hitachi- 
shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-12 
Tel. 029452-3215 
Pres.: B. M. Smith 



4048 



Ibaraki Christian Junior Col 
lege 

Pres.: Hiroshi Takiguchi 



Izumi Junior College 

2-21, Tamagawa Nakamachi,, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158 
Tel. 03-701-3616, 702-9309 
Pres.: Takeo Nakajima 



(158) 

2-21 

m 701-3616, 702-9309 



Japan Christian Junior College 

90-3, Kobuke-cho, Chiba-shi 

284 

Tel. 0472-82-2428 

Pres.: Harrison Davis 



90-3 



(284) 

m 0472-82-2428 



(319-12) 



Joshi Sei Gakuin Junior Col 
lege 

3-347, Nisshin-machi, Omi- 
ya-shi, Saitama-ken 330 



252 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Tel.: 0486-43-1234 
Prin.: Nobuto Oda 



(330) ^TUaiifflT 3-357 
n 0486-43-1234 



K 



Kanto Gakuin University 

4834 Mutsuura-cho, Kana- 
zawa-ku, Yokohama-shi 236 
Tel. 045-781-2001 
Pres.: Toshiharu Takano 

(236) ^rU^zRK^W 4834 
m 045-781-2001 



Kanto Gakuin Woman s Junior 
College 

Pres.: Juzo Hayashi 



Kagawa Nutrition College 

3-422, Komagome, Toshima- 
ku, Tokyo 170 
Tel. 03-918-6511/8 
Pres.: Aya Kagawa 



3-422 



(170) 

m 918-6511-8 

& mm m 



Kagawa Nutrition Junior Col- 



lege 

Pres.: Aya Kagawa 



Keisen Jogakuen Junior Col 
lege 

1090, Funabashi-machi, Se- 
tagaya-ku, Tokyo 156 
Tel. 03-303-2111/5 
Pres.: Jiro Shimizu 



(156) 

1090 

m 303-2111-5 



Kinjo Gakuin University 

4-2, Shirakabe-cho, Higashi- 
ku, Nagoya-shi 461 
Tel. 052-941-6236 
Pres.: Chikataro Togari 



4-2 



Kinjo Gakuin Junior College 

Pres.: Nabuchika Watanabe 



(461) 

M 052-941-6236 



Kobe College 

65 Okadayama, Nishonomi- 
ya-shi, Hyogo-ken 662 
Tel. 0798-51-0955 



CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 

Pres.: Tetsutaro Ariga 



253: 



M 



(662) 



65 



0798-51-0955 



Kushiro Women s Junior Col 
lege 

16, Midorigaoka, Kushiro- 

shi, Hokkaido 085 

Tel. 0154-4-9431 

Pres.: Nobukatsu Maruge 



16 



Matsuyama Shinonome Gakuen 
Junior College 

64 Kuwahara-cho, Matsu- 
yama-shi, Ehime-ken 790 
Tel. 0899-31-6211 
Pres.: Genbe Ninomiya 

(790) ^UjrU^JgBT 64 
m 0899-31-6211 



(085) 

1g 0154-4-9431 



Rwansei Gakuin University 

1-2, Kamigahara, Nishino- 
miya-shi, Hyogo-ken 662 
Tel. 0798-51-0912/8 
Pres.: Takeshiro Kodera 

(662) m%lti4-m 1-2 
m 0798-51-0912-S 



Meiji Gakuin University 

42, Imasato-cho, Shirogane, 
Minato-ku, Tokyo 108 
Tel. 03-^43-8231 
Pres.: Shoei Wada 



(108) 

m 03^43-5231 



Kwassui Gakuin Junior College 

13, Higashi Yamate-cho, 

Nagasaki-shi 850 

Tel. 0958-22-4107 

Pres.: Elizabeth J. Clarke 



13 



Miyagi Gakuin Women s Col 
lege 

166 Sanban-cho, Higashi, 
Sendai-shi 980 
Tel. 0222-21-6211/5 
Pres.: Shinji Oda 

(980) fln&TpjjCHgnr 166 
m 0222-21-6211-5 



(850) 

m 0958-22^107 



Miyagi Gakuin Women s Jun 
ior College 



254 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

Pres.: Katsuyo Sakata % 052-721-5271 



Momoyama Gakuin University 

(St. Andrew s University) 
1-64, 3-chome, Showa-cho, 
Abeno-ku, Osaka 545 
Tel. 06-621-1181 
Pres.: Masami Takeuchi 



(545) 

3-1-64 

n 06-621-1181 

& W3IEB 

N 

Nagasaki Junior College of 
Foreign Studies 

243, Izumi-cho, Nagasaki-shi 

852 

Tel. 0958-44-1682, 0512 

Pres.: Takeo Aoyama 

(852) Sflf If HfflJ 243 
m, 0958-44-1682-0512 



Nagoya Gakuin University 

1350 Kami Shinanomachi, 
Seto-shi, Aichi-ken 480-12 
Tel. 0561^1-1281 
Pres.: Keitaro Fukuda 

(461) $M7UJ|CK:*:W 10-7 



Obirin College 

3758, Tokiwa-machi, Machi- 
da-shi, Tokyo 194-02 
Tel. 0427-23-6661 
Pres.: Yasuzo Shimizu 



(194-02) 

3758 

1g 0427-23-6661 



Obirin Junior College 

Pres.: Yasuzo Shimizu 



Orio Woman s Junior College 
of Economics 

819, Kusunoki, Orio-machi, 

Yahata-ku, Kitakyushu-shi 

807 

Tel. 093-69-2100 

Pres.: Takashi Masuda 



(807) 

819 

093-69-2100 



Osaka Jogakuin Junior College 

2-200, Shinonome-cho, Higa- 



CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 



255 



shi-ku, Osaka 540 

Tel. 06-761-4113 

Pres.: Keiichi Okushima 



2-200 



(540) 

m 06-761-4113 



Osaka Christian Junior Col 
lege 

3-61, 1-chome, Maruyama- 
dori, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545 
Tel. 06-652-2091 
Pres.: Elmer E. Parsons 



(545) 

1-3-61 

m 06-652-2091 

^H X;l/v E 



V 



Poole Gakuin Junior College 

5-5844, Katsuyama-dori, Iku- 
no-ku, Osaka 544 
Tel. 06-731-3190 
Pres.: Eleanor M. Foss 



(544) 

5-5844 

m 06-731-3190 

^ft E. M. 7 ^ 7. 

R 

Rikkyo University 

(St. Paul s University) 



34-1, 3-chome, Nishi Ike- 

bukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 

171 

Tel. 03-983-0111 

Pres.: Kiyoshi Osuga 

tfc3*K 

(171) 

3-34-1 

m 03-983-0111 



Rikkyo Jogakuin Junior Col 
lege 

3-123, Kugayama, Sugina- 
mi-ku, Tokyo 167 
Tel. 03-398-5101/6 
Pres.: Makoto Sako 



Oj 3-123 



Ryujo Woman s Junior Col 
lege 

2-54, Myugetsu-cho, Showa- 
ku, Nagoya-shi 466 
Tel. 052-841-2635 
Pres.: Kiku Bando 



(167) 

1g 03-398-5101/6 



(466) 

2-54 

052-841-2635 



St. Luke s College of Nursing 



256 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



10-1, Akashi-cho, Chuo-ku, Pres.: Eiichi Funagoshi 
Tokyo 104 Sit^ 

Tel. 03-541-5151 (814) S(53rfJHffTO" 189-3 

Pres.: Hirotoshi Hashimoto fj 092-82-0031 

^ *&S*- 

(104) KsvSEft &KWSfflr 10-1 

541-5151 Seinan Gakuin Woman s Jun- 

!ior College 

Pres.: Hiroshi Nakamura 
Sakushin Gakuin Junior Col 
lege 

503, Ichinosawa-machi, Utsu- 

nomiya-shi, Tochigi-ken 320 Seinan Jogakuin Junior Col- 
Tel. 0286-3-8141 Ie S e 
Pres.: Naka Funada 491 Nakai, Kokura-ku, Kita- 

I kyushu-shi 803 

n o Tel. 093-56-2631 

wo 

Pres.: Shigeru Nakajima 



(320) ^H$^iU 
n 0286-3-8141 



Col 



(803) 

n 093-56-2631 



491 



Seikatsu Gakuen Junior 

lege ^:g Ffq^ gg 

77 Yajikashira, Kuriyagawa, j 

Morioka-shi, Iwate-ken 020- j Seiwa Woman s College 
Q-^ 1 Okadayama, Nishinomiya- 

Tel. 0196-47-1123 shi > Hyogo-ken 662 

Pres.: Yasuko Hosokawa Tel - 0798-51-0725 

Pres.: Michiko Yamakawa 



(02o-oi) 

0196-47-1120 



Seinan Gakuin University 

189-3, Nishi Shinmachi, Fu- 
kuoka-shi 814 
Tel. 092-82-0031 



(662) 

n 0798-51-0724 



Seiwa Woman s Junior College 

Pres.: Michiko Yamakawa 



CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 

m 078-34-2477 2865 



257 



Shikoku Gakuin University 

953 Kami Yoshidamachi, j Shokei Jogakuin Junior Col- 

Zentsuji-shi, Kagawa-ken lege 



765 

Tel. 08776-2-2111 

Pres.: Shintaro Tokunaga 



(765) J[|i 

953 

m 08776-2-2111 



2 Nakajima-cho, Sendai-shi 

980 

Tel. 0222-25-8746 

Prin.: Hisayoshi Saito 



(980) fili 

M 0222-25-8746 



Shikoku Gakuin Junior College , 

Shoin Women 



Pres.: Shintaro Tokunaga 



Shizuoka Eiwa Jogakuin Jun 
ior College 

1769 Ikeda, Shizuoka-shi 420 
Tel. 0452-85-9021 
Pres.: Chuzo Yamada 



s University, 

Hinokura, Tamon-cho, Taru- 

mi-ku, Kobe 655 

Tel. 078-76-0001 

Pres.: Yukichi Shimohodo 



3 " 4 " 47 



(657) 

m 078-86-1105-7 



(420) mm^mm 1769 
m 0452-85-9201 



Shoei Junior College 

6-36, Yamate-dori, Ikuta-ku, 
Kobe Shi 650 
Tel. 078-34-2477, 2865 
Pres.: Eizaburo Yokota 



(650) 
6-36 



Shoin Junior College 

1-10, Nakanoshima-dori, Fu- 
kuai-ku, Kobe 651 
Tel. 078-22-5980 
Pres.: Kazuo Ohta 



1-10 



Shukugawa Gakuin Junior Col 
lege 



078-22-5980 



258 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



12 Kamizono-cho, Nishino- 
miya-shi, Hyogo-ken 662 
Tel. 0798-26-5061 
Pres.: Toshizo Takagi 



12 



(662) 

m 0798-26-5061 



^M /hffl* 

Tokyo Woman s Christian Col 
lege 

6-1, 2-chome, Zenpukuji, 
Suginami-ku, Tokyo 167 
Tel. 03-399-1151 
Pres.: Takenosuke Miyamoto 



F 2-6-1 



(167) 

n 03-399-1151 



Tamagawa University 

11-1, 6-chome, Tamagawa Junior College Division 

Gakuen, Machida-shi, Tokyo 4-3, Mure, Mitaka-shi, To- 

194 kyo 181 

Tel. 0427-32-9111 Tel. 0422-45-4145 

Pres.: Kuniyoshi Obara Pres.: Teruko Komyo 



(194) 

m 0427-32-9111 



6-1-1 



(181) 

n 0422-45-4145 



Tamagawa Woman s Junior 
College 

Pres.: Kuniyoshi Obara 



Tohoku Gakuin University 

1, Minama Rokkencho, Sen- 

dai-shi 980 

Tel. 0222-21-3521 

Pres.: Tadao Oda 



4-3 



Toyo Eiwa Jogakuin Junior 
College 

14-40, 5-chome, Roppongi, 
Minato-ku, Tokyo 106 
Tel. 03-583-5478 
Pres.: Wataru Nagano 



-14-40 



(980) 

0222-21-3521 



(106) 

m 583-5478 



Yamanashi Eiwa Junior Col- 



CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 



259 



lege 

112 Atago-cho, Kofu-shi, 
Yamanashi-ken 400 
Tel. 0552-33-7890 
Pres.: Motoo Yamada 



(400) 

n 0552-33-7890 



Yashiro Gakuin College 

333 Iguchigadaira, Tamon- 

cho, Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi 

655 

Tel. 078-76-3237 

Pres.: Seiichiro Mitsube 



(655) 

333 
078-76-3237 



Yokohama Woman s Junior 
College 

4-221, Nakamura-cho, Mina- 
mi-ku, Yokohama-shi 232 
Tel. 045-251-3351 
Pres.: Wataru Hirano 



4-221 



(232) 

n 045-251-3351 



III. HEADQUARTERS OF PROTESTANT 
MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 



ABA American Baptist Association 

Field Repr.: Rev. Bonnie J. McWha 
Box 3, Dazaifu-cho, Fukuoka-ken 

ABFMS American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 

(Nihon Baptist Domei) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Glenn G. Gano 

3-9 Misaki-cho, 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101 

(03) 291-3115/9996 

ABWE Association of Baptists for World Evangelism 

Field Repr. : Rev. Gerald Winters 
1551 Oaza Nata, Fukuoka-shi 

ACC The Apostolic Christian Church of America 

(Nihon Shito Kirisuto Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Willis R. Ehnle 

692 Shioda, Ichimiya-cho, Higashi Yatsushiro- 

gun, Yamanashi-ken 409-14 (05534) 7-1177 

ACOP Apostolic Church of Pentecost of Canada 

(Japan Gospel Pentecostal Church) 

Field Repr.: Rev. D. G. Wallace 

Unuma, Kagamihara-shi, Gifu-ken 509-01 

(0583) 84-0650 

AGM Amazing Grace Missions 

Field Repr.: Rev. David L. Pickel (on furlough 

from Aug. 69-Aug. 70) 
P.O. Box 83 (mail) 
5 Suehiro-cho, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 662 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 261 

AG General Council of the Assemblies of God 

(Nippon Assemblies of God Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Harry J. Petersen 

430-1 Komagome, 3-chome, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 

170 (03) 915-1551 

ALC The American Lutheran Church Japan Mission 

(Nippon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Oliver Bergh 

30-10 Sengoku, 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112 

AWM American Wesleyan Mission in Japan 

(Immanuel Sogo Dendo Dan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Barry Loss 

11 Nakamura-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 174 

(03) 955-5401/957-4011 

BBF Baptist Bible Fellowship 

(Nihon Baputesuto Baiburu Fueroshippu) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Koki Sugiura 
1-3-11 Matsunami, Chiba-shi 280 
(0472) 51-2929 

BGC Baptist General Conference, Japan Mission 

(Nihon Kirisuto Baputesuto Rengo Senkyodan) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Francis B. Sorley 
832-1, Yoshihara, Minami-machi, Hidaka-gun, 
Wakayama-ken (07382) 2134 

BIC Brethren in Christ Mission 

(Kirisutokyo Keitei Dan Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. John Graybill 

228 Nukui Minami-cho, 4-chome, Koganei-shi, 

Tokyo 184 (0423) 81-9975 

BIMI Baptist International Missions, Inc. 



262 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

Field Repr.: Rev. Lowell David Marcum 
P.O. Box 3, Akashi 673 (0798) 74-0570 

BMA(IND) Bethany Missionary Association 

Field Repr.: Rev. D. J. Copp 
Ikoma, Nara-ken 

BMMJ Baptist Mid-Missions in Japan 

Field Repr.: 

17-20 Kasuga-cho, Fukushima-shi, Fukushima- 

ken 960 (0245) 34-8504 



cc 



Bible Protestant Missions 

Field Repr.: Rev. Dale Oxley 

1033 Shiromoto-machi, Hitoyoshi-shi, 

to-ken 868 (099662) 2-2589 



Kumamo- 



Church of Christ 

(Kirisuto no Kyokai) 

Field Repr. : Mr. Billy M. Smith 

c/o Ibaraki Christian College 

4048 Kuji-machi, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-12 

(0284) 52-2251 



CCC Christian Catholic Church 

(Kirisuto Kodo Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Clark B. Offner 

2-21 Tsukigaoka, 2-chome, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya- 

shi 464 (052) 711-9654 

CCI Child Care, Inc. 

(Nippon Fukuin Kyodan) 
Field Repr.: Mr. Paul W. Benedict 
10-37 Kugenuma Kaigan, 2-chome, Fujisawa- 
shi, Kanagawa-ken 251 (0466) 2-1507 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 



263 



CEF Child Evangelism Fellowship of Japan, Inc. 

(Nihon Jido Fukuin Dendo Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Kenneth N. Attaway 

1599 Higashikubo, Kamiarai, Tokorozawa-shi, 

Saitama-ken 359 (0429) 22-4076 

CG Church of God, Missionary Board 

(Kami no Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Arthur Eikamp 

2252-66 Aza Takamaru Kuga, Nishi Tarumi-cho, 

Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyogo-ken 655 

(078) 76-0552 

CLC Christian Literature Crusade 

(Christian Bunsho Dendo Dan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Robert Gerry 

2-1 Surugadai Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101 

(03) 294-0775/6 

C&MA The Christian and Missionary Alliance Japan 

Mission 

(Nippon Araiansu Kyodan) 
Chairman: Rev. Jack Davidson 
Naka P.O. Box 70, Hiroshima-shi 
11-20 Kako-machi, Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima- 
ken 733 (0822) 41-6450 

CMCJ Convenant Missionary Committee of Japan 

(Nihon Seikei Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Leonard M. Peterson 

17-8 Nakameguro, 5-chome, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 

153 (03) 712-8746 

CMS Church Missionary Society 

(Nippon Sei Ko Kai) 
n Field Repr.: Rev. David M. Wood-Robinson 



264 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

Shoin Junior College, 1-chome, Nakajima-dori, 
Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyogo-ken 651 
(078) 24-5980 

Church of the Nazarene, Japan Mission 

(Nippon Nazarene Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Merril Bennett 

18-3 Okamoto, 2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157 

(03) 700-6795 

CnC Churches of Christ 

(Christian Churches) 

Reporter: Mr. Andrew Patton 

7-8 Higashinakano, 3-chome, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 

164 (03) 361-0533 

CoG Church of God (Independent Holiness) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Raymond Shelhorn 
4-21, Naka Saiwai-cho, Kawasaki-shi, Kana- 
gawa-ken 210 (044) 51-0641, 23-3648 

CPC Cumberland Presbyterian Church 

(Kambarando Choro Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Tadao Yoshizaki 

4-5-15, Minami Rinkan, Yamato-shi, Kanagawa- 

ken 242 

(0464) 74-1371 (Office) 

(0462) 74-6350 (Home) 

CRJM Christian Reformed Japan Mission 

(Kirisuto Kaikakuha Nihon Dendo Kai) 
Field Sec y: Rev. Henry Bruinooge 
Student Christian Center, 304, 1, 2-chome, Suru- 
gadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101 (03) 291-2595 

EFCM Japan Evangelical Free Church Mission 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 



265 



(Nihon Fukuin Jiyu Kyokai) 

Field Repr. : Rev. Stan Conrad 

1 Sakuragaoka Yatomi-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nago- 

ya-shi 467 

EOM Evangelical Orient Mission 

(Tokyo Fukuin Senkyo Kai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Frank Kongstein 

24 Kitagawa, Takahagi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 318 

(02932) 3088 

Free Christian Mission 

(Jiyu Christian Dendo Dan) 

25-22, 2-chome, Tawara, Fukui-shi, Fukui-ken 

910 (0776) 22-6315 

Far East Apostolic Mission, Inc. 

(Nippon Pentacoste Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Leonard W. Coote 

Ikoma, Nara-ken 3821 

Far East Broadcasting Company, Inc. 

(Kyokuto Hoso) 

Director: Mr. David M. Wilkinson 
C.P.O. Box 1055, Tokyo (03) 291-0364 

Fellowship of Evangelical Baptist Churches in 
Canada 

(Nihon Fukuin Baputesuto Senkyo Dan) 

9-24 Nakagawa, Honmachi, Takaoka-shi, Toya- 

ma-ken 933 (0766) 23-6655 

FEGC Far Eastern Gospel Crusade 

(Kyokuto Fukuin Jujigun) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Rollin Reasoner 
111 Hakuraku, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi, 



FCM 



FEAM 



FEBC 



FEBCC 



266 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

Kanagawa-ken 221 (045) 491-9016/7 

FKK Fukuin Koyu Kai 

(Japan Gospel Fellowship) 

Field Repr.: Miss Esther S. Bower 

63-1 Showa-cho, Hamadera, Sakai-shi, Osaka-fu 

592 (0722) 61-0019 

FWBM Japan Free Will Baptist Mission 

(Fukuin Baputesuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Wesley Calvery 

Nishi 2-jo, 3-chome, Tsukisappu, Sapporo-shi 

062 (0122) 86-8601 

Home Office: Box 4, Sayama-shi, Saitama-ken 

GAM German Alliance Mission 

(Domei Fukuin Kirisuto Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Siegfried Stolz 

22 Miyamachi, Kochino, Konan-shi, Aichi-ken 

483 

GCMM General Conference Mennonite Mission 

(Kyushu Menonaito Kirisuto Kyodan) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Peter Derksen 
19 Kumi, Nakatsuru, Oita-shi, Oita-ken 870 
(09752) 8-7861 

GEAM German East Asia Mission 

(Doitsu Toa Dendokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Guenter Dressier 

17-37, 2-chome, Koishikawa, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 

112 (03) 811-2862 

GFM Japan Gospel Fellowship Association 

(Gospel Fellowship Mission) 
(Nihon Fukuin Koyu Mission) 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 267 

Field Repr.: Dr. Leslie M. Frazier 

3785-3364 Shimada Kuroishi, Tempaku-cho, Sho- 

\va-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 468 

GMM German Midnight Mission 

Field Repr.: Miss Dora Mundinger 
c/o Nozomi no Mon Gakuen, 1436 Kawana- 
Futtsu-machi, Kimitsu-gun, Chiba-ken 299-13 
(04788) 7-2218 

GYF Go- Ye Fellowship 

Field Repr.: Mrs. Ferae Borgman 
3384-3 Usuku-cho, Kagoshima-shi 890 

HSEF High School Evangelism Fellowship, Inc. 

Field Repr. : Mr. Kenneth W. Clark 

Hi-B.A. Center, 22-16, Shibuya 2-chome, Shibuya- 

ku, Tokyo 150 (03) 409-5072 

IBC Interboard Committee for Christian Work in 

Japan 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Committee Sec y : Rev. Alden E. Matthews 

Protestant Christian Center, 5-1 Ginza 4-chome, 

Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104 

Interboard Field Treat*.: Mr. George M. Bragg 

(03) 567-2501 
PCUS (Associate Member) Presbyterian 

in the United States 

RCA The Reformed Church in America 

UCBWM United Church of Christ 
UCC-BWM The United Church of Canada 
UCMS The Christian Churches (Disciples 

of Christ) 

UMC The United Methodist Church 

UPC The United Presbyterian Church 

in the United States of America 



268 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

IBC Independent Bible Church 

Field Repr.: Rev. Wilbur Lingle 

112 Aza Obari, Oaza Takabari, Itaka-cho, Chi- 

kusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 465 

(052) 701-1072 

IFG International Church of Foursquare Gospel 

(Kokusai Fosukuea Kyodan Oizumi Fukuin 

Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Walter Mussen 

806 Higashi Oizumi, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177 

(03) 924-0520 

IM International Missions 

(Megumi Fukuin Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Vincent Gizzi 

Nishi P.O. Box 10 Iwakuni-shi, Yamaguchi-ken 

740 (0827) 8-0797 

JACM Japan Advent Christian Mission 

(Nippon Adobento Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Supt.: Mr. David G. Osborne 

14-2 Kayashima Honmachi, Neyagawa-shi, Osa- 

ka-fu 572 (0720) 21-0545 

JCBM Japan Conservative Baptist Mission 

(Japan Konsabatibu Baputesuto Mission) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Ansel C. Mullins, Jr. 
14-51 Tsutsumi, Aza Asahigaoka, Sendai 980 
(0222) 33-5253 

JCCG Japan Campus Crusade for Christ 

Director: Rev. Sam Arai 

2-1-3, Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101 

(03) 292-0791 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 269 

JCG Japan Church of God 

(Nihon Church of God Kyodan) 

Director: Rev. Edward E. Call 

22 Tsuoka-cho, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama-shi 

241 (045) 951-2074 

JEB Japan Evangelistic Band 

(Nihon Dendo Tai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Eric W. Gosden 

11 of 6, Sumauradori, 6-chome, Suma-ku, Kobe- 

shi 654 (078) 71-5651 

JECC The Evangelical Church of Christ 

(Nihon Kirisuto Sen Kyodan) 

Field Repr. : Mr. Birger Stenf elt 

382-11 Minemachi, Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi-ken 

320 (0286) 4-5884 

JEF Japan Evangelistic Fellowship 

Director: Rev. John H. Rhoads 
Office: 1-2 Surugadai, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, To 
kyo 101 (03) 294-6319 

Home: 13-34 Honcho, 4-chome, Kurume-machi, 
Kitatama-gun, Tokyo 188 (0424) 71-1527 

JEFCM Japan Evangelical Free Church Mission 

(Nihon Fukuin Jiyu Kyokai) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Lea Little 
33-2 Higashi Ono-cho, Koyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto 

(Headquarters 603) 

294-6 Tsuboi, Tomoyuki, Amagasaki-shi, Hyogo- 

ken 661 (Home address) 

JEM Japan Evangelical Mission 

(Nihon Dendo Mission) 

Field Director: Mr. William Friesen 



270 

Oaza Kujiranami 565, Kashiwazaki-shi, Niigata- 
ken 945 (02572) 2-5843 

JEMS Japanese Evangelical Missionary Society 

Field Repr.: Rev. Akira Hatori 

10-8, 3-chome, Umegaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

154 (03) 429-2932 

JFDM Japan Fellowship Deaconry Mission 

Field Repr. : Deaconess Karoline Steinhoff 
133-4 Aza Nishi Matsumoto, Nishi-Hirano, Mi- 
kage-cho, Higashi-Nada-ku, Kobe-shi 658 
(078) 85-0146 

JFM Japan Faith Mission 

(Kashihara Christian Center) 

Director: Miss Alice Lowman 

c/o Mr. Shibazaki 

Horinouchi 3-13-4, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 166 

JGC Jesus Gospel Church, Inc. 

(lesu Fukuin Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Yutaka Akichika 

24-15, 1-chome, Hibarigaoka, Hoya-shi, Tokyo 

(0424) 61-9847 

JGL Japan Gospel League 

Field Repr.: Mrs. Edward G. Hanson 

56 Itakura-cho, Koyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto-shi 603 

JIM Japan Inland Mission 

(Nippon Kaitaku Dendo Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Hugh Kennedy 

3 Higashi Hon Machi, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, 

Kyoto-shi 606 (075) 791-0050 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 



271 



JLC Japan Lutheran Church 

(Nihon Ruteru Kyodan) 

President: Rev. Kosaku Nao 

c/o Tokyo Lutheran Center 

2-32, 1-chome, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 

(03) 261-5266/69 

JMHE Japan Mission for Hospital Evangelism 

Field Repr.: Mr. Neil (C.J.) Verwey 

242-3, Hanyuno, Habikino-shi, Osaka-fu 583 

(0729) 55-1348 

JMM Japan Mennonite Mission 

(Nihon Menonaito Kyokai) 
Field Chm,: Rev. Charles Shenk 
1-13, 8-chome, Odori, Tottori, Kushiro, Hokkai 
do 084 (0154) 51-2447 
Field Sec.: Rev. Ralph Buckwalter 
Nishi 7 jo, Minami 17-chome, Obihiro, Hokkai 
do 080 (01552) 4-3282 

JPM Japan Christian Presbyterian Mission 

(Nippon Kirisuto Choro Dendokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Philip R. Foxwell 

8-15, 1-chome, Hikawadai, Kurume-machi, Kita- 

tama-gun, Tokyo 188 (0424) 71-2905 

JREF Japan Rural Evangelism Fellowship 

Field Sec.: Rev. R. G. Pontius 
W-145, Tachikawa West Court, Nakagami- 
machi, Akishima-shi, Tokyo 196 
(0425) 41-0585 

JRM Japan Rural Mission 

(Nippon Chiho Dendo Dan) 
Director: Rev. J. P. Visser 



272 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

P.O. Box 16, Saiki-shi, Oita-ken 876 
(09722) 2-2238 

LB Lutheran Brethren Mission of Japan 

(Ruteru Doho Kyokai) 

Chairman : Rev. Morris Larsen 

Minami-dori, Tsukiji 1339, Akita-shi, Akita-ken 

LCA Japan Lutheran Missionaries Association of the 

Lutheran Church in America 

(Nihon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai) 

Pres.: Rev. Kenneth Dale 

29-53, Mitsuzawa Shimo-cho, Kanagawa-ku, 

Yokohama-shi (045) 491-3252 

LEAF Lutheran Evangelical Association of Finland 

Field Repr.: Rev. Paavo Savolainen 
2-23-2, Kobinata, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112 

LFCN Lutheran Free Church of Norway, Japan Mission 

(Kinki Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Per Kivle 

48 Takigatani, Shioya-cho, Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi 

655 (078) 77-3187 

LM Liebenzeller Mission 

(Liebenzeller Nihon Dendo Kai) 

Field Chm.: Mr. Arthur Kunz 

1933 Nakanoshima, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa- 

ken 214 (044) 91-2334 

LMI Life Ministries, Inc. 

(Shori Sha lesu Kyodan) 
Field Repr.: Rev. Kenneth P. Morey 
2163 Karuizawa-machi, Nagano-ken 389-01 
(02674) 2-2302/3969 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 273 

MBM Mennonite Brethren Mission 

(Nihon Mennonite Brethren Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Sam Krause 

60 4-chome, Yamasaka-cho, Higashi Sumiyoshi- 

ku, Osaka 546 (06) 692-2325 

MCCS Mission Covenant Church of Sweden 

(Nippon Seiyaku Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Josef Rojas 

88-2 Kitase, Fukuda-cho, Kurashiki-shi, Oka- 

yama-ken (0864) 55-8783 

MJO Mission to Japan, Inc. 

(Mission to Japan Orphanage) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Willis R. Hoffman 

40, 5-chome, Tokugawa-cho, Higashi-ku, Nago- 

ya-shi 461 (052) 941-4694 

MM Mino Mission 

Supt.: Miss Elizabeth A. Whewell 

Mino Mission, Tomidahama, Yokkaichi-shi, Mie- 

ken 512 (0593) 96-0096 

MS Missions to Seamen 

(Nippon Seikokai) 

Chaplain: Rev. John Berg 

194, Yamashita-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 231 

(045) 681-4654/5 

Missionary Society of the Anglican Church of 
Canada 

(Nippon Seiko Kai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. R. B. Mutch 

Nagoya Student Center, 260 Miyahigashi-cho, 

Showa-ku, Nagoya-shi (052) 781-0165 



274 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

MTJ Missions to Japan, Inc. 

(Kure Revival Center) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Ray Pedigo 

Box 8, Kure-shi, Hiroshima-ken 21-8904 

NAB North American Baptist General Mission in 

Japan 

(Zai Nippon Hokubei Baputesuto Sogo Senkyo- 

dan) 

Field Rcpr.: Rev. Fred G. Moore 

7-1, 1-chome, Koda, Ikeda-shi, Osaka-fu 563 

(0727) 51-7533 

NABA North American Baptist Association 

Field Repr.: Rev. Z. J. Rankin 
2-1405 Owada, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192 
(0426) 42-4401 

NAV The Navigators 

(Kokusai Navigators) 

Regional Director: Rev. Robert R. Boardman 

(Furlough to August 1970) 
Temp. Repr.: Mr. Daryl Mason 
Toshima P.O. Box 121, Tokyo (Mail) 
1-31, Higashi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 
170-91 

NGM North German Mission 

(Nihon Fukuin Lutheran Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Miss Hanna Henschel 

217, Shimorenjaku, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181 

(0422) 43-3914 

NLL New Life League 

(Shinsei Undo Kyorokukai) 
Field Repr.: Dr. Fred D. Jarvis 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 275 

1736 Katayama, Niiza-machi, Kita Adachi-gun, 
Saitama-ken (0424) 71-1625 

NLM Norwegian Lutheran Mission 

(Nishi Nippon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai) 
Field Repr. : Rev. Magnus Sorhus 
8, 2-chome, Nakajima-dori, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 
651 (078) 22-3601 

NMA The Norwegian Mission Alliance 

Field Repr.: Mr. Abraham Vereide 

19-20, 2-chome, Shinden-cho, Ichikawa-shi, Chiba- 

ken 272 

NMS Norwegian Missionary Society 

Field Repr.: Leif N. Salomonsen 
30 Takabane Teraguchi-machi, Nada-ku, Kobe- 
shi (078) 85-2878 

NTC Next Towns Crusade 

Field Repr.: Rev. Archie L. Alderson 
Minami leki, leki Kyoku Kunai, Mie-ken 

OBSF The Oriental Bible Study Fellowship 

Field Repr.: Mr. Marvin L. Fieldhouse 
3704, Karuizawa-machi, Nagano-ken 389-01 

OMF Overseas Missionary Fellowship 

(Kokusai Fukuin Senkyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. David E. Hayman 

Kita 22, Higashi 6, Sapporo, Hokkaido 065 

(0122) 71-3607 

OMJ The Orebro Mission Japan 

Field Repr.: Rev. Helge Jansson 

254 Hiraoka-cho, Sakai-shi, Osaka-fu (0722) 71- 

0367 



276 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

OMS The Oriental Missionary Society 

(Toyo Senkyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Arthur T. Shelton 

From Aug. 1970: Rev. Wesley L. Wildermuth 

1477, 1-chome, Megurita, Higashi Murayama- 

shi, Tokyo 189 (0423) 91-3071/2 

OPC Orthodox Presbyterian Church 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kaikakuha Kyokai) 
Chairman: Rev. R. Heber Mcllwaine 
5-16, Shinhama-cho, Fukushima-shi 960 
(0245) 34-0587 

PCC The Presbyterian Church in Canada 

(Zainichi Daikan Kirisuto Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. J. H. Mclntosh 

30, 8-chome, Higashi Ikaino, Ikuno-ku, Osaka 544 

PCGJ Pentecostal Church of God in Japan 

(Nihon Pentakosute Kami no Kyokai Kyodan) 
Field Repr.: Rev. R. A. Meenk 
P.O. Box 16, Hanno-shi, Saitama-ken 
(04297) 6500 

PCM Philadelphia Church Mission 

(Fuiraderufia Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. James G. Larson 

205 Osato-cho, Honmoku, Naka-ku, Yokohama- 

shi 231 (045) 621-0888 

PCUS Japan Mission of the Presbyterian Church in the 

United States 

Associate Member of the Interboard Committee 
for Christian Work in Japan 
(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan and Nihon Kirisuto 
Kaikakuha Kyokai) 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 



277 



Mission Sec.: Mr. John H. Brady, Jr. 

41 Kumochi-cho, 1-chome, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 

651 (078) 23-8563 

Field Repr. for IBC: Walter P. Baldwin, Nagoya 

1-31 Maruya-cho 4-chome, Showa-ku, Nagaya-shi 

466 (052) 841-4170 

PEC Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A. 

(Nippon Sei Ko Kai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Kenneth E. Heim, D.D. 

24-1 Minami Aoyama 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 

107 (03) 408-3435/6 

RCA (IBC) Board of World Missions of the Reformed Church 
in America 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Rev. Russell Norden 

29-53 Mitsuzawa Shimo-cho Kanagawa-ku, Yoko- 

hama-shi 221 (045) 491-3252 

RF Revival Fellowship 

Field Repr.: Rev. William E. Schubert 
2163 Karuizawa-machi, Nagano-ken 389-01 
(02674) 2-3969 

RPM The Reformed Presbyterian Mission in Japan 

(Nippon Kaikaku Choro Kyokai) 

Chairman: Rev. James C. Pennington 

R. P. Mission, P.O. Box 589, Kobe Port 651-01 

(078) 41-3175 (Home) 

(078) 22-8386 (Office) 

RSF Japan Committee of the Philadelphia Yearly 

Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends 

(Kirisuto Yukai Nippon Nenkai) 

Friends Center 8-19, 4-chome, Mita, Minato-ku, 



278 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

Tokyo 108 (03) 451-0804 

SA The Salvation Army 

(Kyusei Gun) 

Territorial Commander: being appointed in Sept/ 

69 

Territorial Counsellor: Commissioner Koshi Ha- 

segawa 17, 2-chome, Kanda Jimbo-cho, Chiyoda- 

ku, Tokyo 101 (03) 263-7311/5 

SAM Swiss Alliance Mission 

Field Repr.: Mr. Paul Schar 

Chigusa, Kanai-machi, Sado-gun, Niigata-ken 

952-12 (025963) 2777 

SAMJ Swedish Alliance Mission in Japan 

(Nippon Domei Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Ake Lonander 

12-139 Aza Ikeda, Yahagi-cho, Okazaki-shi, Aichi- 

ken (0564) 22-7270 

Southern Baptist Convention Foreign Mission 
Board 

(Nippon Baputesuto Senkyodan) 

Chairman: Dr. Curtis Askew 

Treasurer: Rev. Charles Whaley 

350, 2-chome, Nishi Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 

160 (03) 351-2166 

SBM Swedish Baptist Mission 

(Nihon Baputesuto Domei) 

Field Repr.: Mrs. Thora Thoong 

93-11 Shimoikeda-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, 

Kyoto-shi 606 (075) 791-7482 

SCD Scandinavian Christian Doyukai 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 



279 



SDA 



SEAM 



SEMJ 



SEOM 



SFM 



SSJE 



(Nippon Kirisuto Doyukai) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Aasulv Lande 

5914-367, Yamazaki, Fukuroi-shi, Shizuoka-ken 

437-13 (053801) 119 

Japan Union Mission of Seventh-day Adventists 

(Nippon Rengo Dendo Bukai) 

President: Mr. C. B. Watts 

Box 7, Hodogaya-Nishi, Yokohama-shi ; Office: 

(045) 951-2421; Home: (045) 951-2224 

Swiss East Asia Mission 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Dr. Werner Kohler 

10 Shogoin Higashimachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (075) 

771-2347 

Swedish Evangelical Mission in Japan 

Field Repr.: Mr. Paul Eriksson 

232, 2-chome, Osawa-cho, Muroran, Hokkaido 050 

(0143) 4-0634 



Swedish Evangelical Orient Mission 

Field Repr.: Rev. Eric Malm 

30-7 Motoshiro-cho, Fujinomiya-shi, 

ken 418 (05442) 6-4556 



Shizuoka- 



Swedish Free Mission 

(Jun Fukuin Kyokai) 
Field Repr.: Mr. Bo Johnson 

122, 2-chome, Iwama-cho, Hodogaya-ku, Yokoha 
ma-shi (045) 331-0643 

Society of St. John the Evangelist 

(Nippon Seikokai) 

Provincial Superior: Rev. David E. Allen 



280 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

St. Michael s Monastery 2569, Higashi Shimada, 

Oyama-shi Tochigi-ken 323 

Superior: Rt. Rev. Kenneth A. Viall 

St. John s House 7-12, 2-chome, Hikawadai, Ku- 

rume-machi, Kitatama-gun, Tokyo 188 

(0424) 71-0175 



TBC Tokyo Bible Center (Baptist) 

(Tokyo Seisho Senta) 

Field Repr.: Timothy Pietsch 

9-9, 2-chome, Yakumo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 

Meguro P.O. Box 20, Tokyo (Mail 

(03) 717-0746/5147 

TEAM The Evangelical Alliance Mission 

(Nippon Domei Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Sam Archer 

15-15, 3-chome, Daizawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 155 

(03) 413-2345 



TEC Tokyo Evangelistic Center 

(Tokyo Fukuin Senta) 
Field Repr.: Dr. Charles Corwin 
2-30, 6-chome, Higashi Fushimi, Hoya-shi, To 
kyo (0424) 61-4620 

UCBWM United Church Board for World Ministries 
(IBC) (Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Herbert J. Beecken 
Interboard hostel 3-50, Osawa 6-chome, Mitaka- 
shi, Tokyo 181 (0422) 45-3853 

UCC-BWM Board of World Mission of the United Church 
(IBC) of Canada 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 



281 



(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Miss Enid M. Horning 

Ryogoku, Tomisato-mura, Imba-gun, Chiba-ken 

286-02 (047634) 55 

UCMS Division of World Mission of the United Chris- 

(IBC) tian Mission Society (Disciples of Christ) 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Miss Daisy Edgerton 

6-15, Oji Honcho 1-chome, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114 

(03) 900-5262 (Home) 

(03) 917-2277 (School) 

UMC(IBC) The Board of Mission of the Methodist Church, 
Division of World Missions 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Field Repr.: Rev. William Elder 

96 Katsuragi-cho, Chiba-shi 280 (0472) 22-3586 

UPC Commission on Ecumenical Mission & Relations 

(IBC) of the United Presbyterian Church in the United 

States of America 

(Nippon Kirisuto Kyodan) 

Commission Correspondent: Dr. James M. Phil 
lips 

12-27, Osawa 1-chome, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181 
(0422) 43-6194 

UPCM United Pentecostal Church Missionaries 

(Unaito Pentecosute Kyokai) 

Superintendent: Rev. Norman Zeno 

671, 5-chome, Nukui, Kita-machi, Koganei-shi, 

Tokyo 

USPG United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 

(Nippon Seikokai) 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

Field Repr.: Rev. David M. Chamberlain 

206 Yamate-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi, 231 

(045) 641-4405 

WEC World Evangelization Crusade 

(Sekai Fukuin Dendo Dan) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Kenneth S. Roundhill 

1-57, Maruyama, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyo- 

to-shi 606 (075) 78-6524 

WELS Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod 

(Japan Mission) 

Field Repr.: Rev. Richard A. Poetter 
4022 Ishikawa-cho, Mito-shi, Ibaraki-ken 310 
(0292) 51-5204 

WFJCM Worldwide Fellowship with Jesus Christ Mission 

(lesu Kirisuto ni Majiwari Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Miss Susie Thomas 

4399 Noikura, Ariake-cho, Soo-gun, Kagoshima- 

ken 899-74 (Ariake-cho) 33 

WGM World Gospel Mission 

Field Repr.: Rev. Richard Barker 

20 Nakamura-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173 

(03) 955-5497 

WMC World Missions to Children 

(Kirisuto Fukuin Kyokai) 

Field Repr.: Phares Huggins 

850 Tenjin-cho, Sasebo-shi, Nagasaki-ken 857-11 

(09562) 2-6909 

WMF Wiedenest Missionary Fellowship 

Field Repr.: Mr. Samuel Pfeifer 



MISSION BOARDS AND SOCIETIES IN JAPAN 283 

7 Ken-machi, Ibi-Gawa-cho, Gifu-ken 501-06 
(05852) 2-0857 
WO World Outreach 

(Akashi Gospel Center) 

Field Repr.: Mr. Kinichiro James Endo 

Box 790, CPO Tokyo (03) 252-6778 

WRBCMS W T al worth Road Baptist Church Missionary 
Society 

Field Repr.: Miss Florence E. Penny 
467 Oaza Ai, Ibaraki-shi, Osaka-fu 567 
(0726) 43-6979 

WRPL World Revival Prayer League, Inc. 

(Megumi Fukuin Kyokai) 

Director: Rev. Mrs. Margaret K. Ross 

5-7, 1-chome, Azumabashi, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130 

(03) 622-5248 

WUMS Woman s Union Missionary Society 

Field Repr.: Miss Catherine Powell 

221 Yamate, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi 231 

(045) 641-3993 

WV World Vision International 

Field Repr.: Rev. Joe Gooden 

C.P.O. Box 405, Tokyo 

Student Center, Room 303, 2-1 Surugadai, Chiyo- 

da-ku, Tokyo 101 (03) 292-7604/5 



IV. CHRISTIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK 



Child s Evangelism Fellowship, 
Inc. 

(Nihon Jido Fukuin Dendo 

Kyokai) 

1599 Higashikubo, Kami 
Arai, Tokorozawa-shi, Sai- 
tama-ken 359 
Tel. 0429-22-4076 
Dir.: Kenneth Attaway 



1599 



(359) 

3 0429-22-4976 



Girl Scouts of Japan 

(Girl Scout Nihon Renmei) 
Seishonen Sogo Center, 346, 
Sanya-cho, Yoyogi, Shibuya- 
ku, Tokyo 151 
Tel. 03-460-0701 
Dir.; Kimiko Hamada 



(151) 



346 



fg 03-460-0701 

Japan Episcopal Church Hok 
kaido University Center 

Nishi 5-chome, Kita 15-jo, 



Sapporo-shi 060 
Tel. 0122-71-3554 
Sec.: W. D. Eddy 



(060) 

m 0122-71-3554 

irif W-D. *T-* 



Japan Evangelical Lutheran 
Church Kongo Student Center 

(Nihon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai 
Kongo Gakusei Senta) 

5-13, 6-chome, Kongo, Bun- 

kyo-ku, Tokyo 113 

Tel. 03-814-0766/7 

Sec.: Lyle Larson 



(113) 

m 03-814-0766/ 



*SP 6-5-13 



Nagoya Student Center of The 
Anglican Episcopal Church 

(Nippon Seikokai Nagoya Ga 
kusei Senta) 

260 Miyahigashi-cho, Showa- 

ku, Nagoya-shi 466 

Tel. 052-781-0165 

Dir.: Bruce Mutch 



(466) 



CHRISITIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK 285 

052-781-0165 Dir.: Ivan Dornon 



National Association of Boy 
Scouts of Nippon 

(Boy Scout Nippon Renmei) 
7-8, 5-chome, Kachidoki, 
Chuo-ku, 104 
Tel. 03-842-6051 
Chief Scout: Hidesaburo 
Kurushima 



- >f * * $ h B 

(104) ^ 

03-842-6051 



5-7-8 



Ochanomizu Student Christian 
Center 

(Ochanomizu Gakusei Kiri- 
sutokyo Kaikan) 

2-1, Kanda Surugadai, Chi- 

yoda-ku, Tokyo 101 

Tel. 03-291-1512 

Dir. : John C. Bonson 



(101) 

i?fijj- 2-1 

m 03-291-1512 



Sendai Student Center of The 
United Church of Christ 

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan Sen 
dai Gakusei Senta) 

126 Tsuchitoi, Sendai-shi 980 

Tel. 0222-22-0992 



(980) {|Ij^?ti|i 126 

H 0222-22-0992 

|f 7 -i ^ > K ^ > 

Student Christian Fellowship 

(Gakusei Kirisutokyo Yuai 
Kai) 

30 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku- 

ku, Tokyo 160 

Tel. 03-351-2432 

Dir. : Yoshiyasu Kami 



(160) 30 

n 03-351-2432 



Student Labor Seminar 

(Gakusei Rodo Zeminaru) 
3-20, Koraibashi, Higashi- 
ku, Osaka-shi 541 
Tel. 06-231-4951 
Chr.: Hiroshi Miyoshi 



(541) 

ffi 06-231-4951 

Tokyo Baptist Student Center 

(Tokyo Baputesuto Gakusei 
Senta) 

1-18, 1-chome, Otsuka, Bun- 

kyo-ku, Tokyo 112 

Tel. 03-941-4868 

Dir.: Moto Yokote 



286 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Gen. Sec.: Namio Fuse 



(112) 

m 03-941-4868 



Tokyo Student Center 

(Tokyo Gakusei Senta) 
1-1, Sadohara, Ichigaya, 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162 
Tel. 03-269-0609 
Chr.: Yoshikazu Miura 



(162) If[ 

&& 1-1 

fg 03-269-0609 

H.?P 

Tomisaka Seminar House 

17-40. 2-chome, Koishikawa, 
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112 
Tel. 03-813-8936 
Dir. ; Guenther Dressier, 
Keiji Kuniyasu 



(112) 

2-17-40 

^ 813-8936 



Waseda Hoshien Christian 
Student Center 

1-550, Totsukamachi, Shin 

juku-ku, Tokyo 160 

Tel. 03-341-3687, 03-202- 

6040 



(160) m^fPff^K^^Bj 1-550 
m 03-341-3687, 202-6040 



Xara 

2 Tsunofuri-cho, Nara-shi 
630 

Tel. 0742-22-0559 
Gen. Sec.: Kunikazu Takaya 
Sa YMCA 

(630) SUTOMfflT 2 
n 0742-22-0559 

Ohmihachiman 

12 Ishinchonaka, Omihachi- 
man-shi, Shiga-ken 523 
Tel. 07483-2-2420 
Gen. Sec.: Kazuo Nishikawa 
SaZAlf YMCA 

(523) Aif$r?m^fflT4i 12 
. m 07483-2-2420 



Okayama 

c/o Okayama Laundry, 25 
Uchiyamashita, Okayama- 
shi 700 
Chr.: Yoshio Sarai 

YMCA 
(700) ^[IjrtraajT 25 
> K J -ra 



CHRISITIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK 



287 



Okinawa 

173, Matsuo, Naha-shi, Oki 
nawa 

Gen. Sec.: Ichiro Chinen 
YMCA 

SBETfr&g 173 



Osaka 

2-12, Tosabori-dori, Nishi- 

ku, Osaka-shi 550 

Tel. 06-441-0892 

Gen. Sec.: Tsunegoro Nara 

YMCA (&m*m, Hfgu 
sun) 

(550) *BgrjmKfefflffl 2-12 
n 06-441-0892 

5S& 



Toyonaka Branch 

6-12, Sakurazuka-moto- 

machi Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 

560 

Tel. 068-52-6130 

Sec.: Kazuo Morimoto 



6-12 



Sapporo 

Nishi 11-chome, Minami 11- 

jo, Sapporo-shi 060 

Tel. 0122-56-5217 

Gen. Sec.: Yoshimichi Ebi- 

sawa 



(560) 

H 068-52-6130 



YMCA 

(060) ttia^m 11 

n 0122-56-5217 



UTI 



Sendai 

57 Motoyanagi-cho, Sendai- 
shi 980 

Tel. 0222-22-7533 
Gen. Sec.: Kazuya Atarashi 
{|ij YMCA 
(980) f[IrrtJ7n$DBr 57 
m 0222-22-7533 

Takehara 

Honkawa-ku, Takehara-cho, 
Takehara-shi 725 
Chr.: Tsuyoshi Serata 
ftm YMCA 



(725) 



[T^ttmr*;iiK 



Tokyo 

7 Kanda Mitoshiro-cho, Chi- 
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101 
Tel. 03-293-1911 
Gen. Sec.: Tatsuo Hoshino 
JiCjjC YMCA 



03-293-1911 



Tokyo Chuo Branch 

7 Kanda Mitoshiro-cho, 
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101 



Chi- 



288 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Tel. 03-293-1911 

Gen. Sec.: Koreyoshi Sato 



03-293-1911 



Tokyo Kotoh Branch 

3-15 Ishijima, Kotoh-ku, To 

kyo 135 

Tel. 03-645-7171 

Sec.: Sachio Konishi 



3-15 



(135) 

m 03-645-7171 



(152) 

n 03-718-6277 



Tokyo Meguro Center 

2-8, 2-chome, Yakumo, Me- 
guro-ku, Tokyo 152 
Tel. 03-718-6277 
Sec.: Tatsuo Honma 



g 2-8-2 



Tokyo Musashino Branch 

10-7, 3-chome, Nishikubo, 
Musashino-shi 180 
Tel. 0422-51-4786 
Sec.: Fusae Saito 



3-10-7 



(180) ^ 

m 0422-51-4786 

* 



Tokyo Setagaya Branch 

1123 Funabashi-cho, Seta- 

gaya-ku, Tokyo 156 

Tel. 03-303-2103 

Sec.: Tsuneyoshi Tsuneto 



(156) m 

1123 

03-303-2103 



Origin Electric Co. 

1-195, Takada Minami-cho, 
Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171 
Tel. 03-983-7111 
Chairman: Yasutaro Goto 
^>fB5 YMCA 



1-195 

m 03-983-7111 



Tokyo Taiwan YMCA 

c/o Ma Chao Mo, 4-17, 4- 
chome, lidabashi, Chiyoda- 
ku, Tokyo 102 
Tel. 03-261-4286 
Pres.: Ma Chao Mo 
llCm-a^ YMCA 

(102) mmfPTOHMfflfi 
4-4-17 .^I^Sc ~fi 
m 03-261-4286 

* %, 18 m 

Toyama 

2-1, Momoi-cho, Toyama-shi 
930 



288A 




AOYAMA GAKUIN UNIVERSITY 



the university division of Aoyama Gakuin, a Christian institution 
for all levels of education : Graduate School, University, Woman s 
Junior College, Senior High School, Junior High School, Elementary 
School, Kindergarten 

Founded in 1874 by US Methodist Missionaries 

Dr. Kinjiro Ohki: Chancellor, Aoyama Gakuin 
Dr. Zengo Ohhira : President, Aoyama Gakuin University 

Organization of the University 
Graduate School 

Courses for Master s and Doctor s Degrees : 

Biblical Theology, Education, Psychology, English and American 
Literature, French Language and Literature, Economics, Economic 
Policy, Commerce, Private Law, Public Law, Science and Engineering. 
Undergraduate School 

College of Literature (day) College of Literature (night) 

College of Economics (day) College of Economics (night) 

College of Law (day) College of Business Administration 

College of Business Administration (day) (night) 

College of Science and Engineering (day) 

Shibuya-ku, Tokyo Tel. (409) 8111 



288 B 



MEIJI GAKUIN 

Chancellor: Rev. Tomio Muto 




Graduate School 

Course for Doctor s Degree : English Literature 
Courses for Master s Degrees : English Literature, Economics, 
Social Work and Sociology 

Undergraduate Courses 

College of Liberal Arts : English Literature and French Literature 
College of Economics: Economics and Commerce 
College of Social Work and Sociology : Social Work and Sociology 
College of Law: Law 

Senior High School 

Higashi-Murayama Senior High School 

Junior High School 

Meiji Gakuin owes its inception to the United Presbyterian 

Church in the U. S. A. and the Reformed Church in America. It 

was founded in 1877, and its long history has displayed the Christian 

purposes of its founders, Dr. James C. Hepburn, Dr. S. R. Brown 

and Dr. G. Verbeck. 



Shirokane, Tokyo 



Phone: (443) 8231 



288 C 




The educational task of ICU is the formulation of 
a person who is an integrated man of scholarly 
perception and inquiry, a free man, a social man, 
and a world-minded man. 




College of Liberal Arts/Graduate Schools of Education & Public 
Administration/ Institutes of Educational Research and Service, 
Social Science Research, Asian Cultural Studies, & Christianity 
and Culture 

10-2, Osawa 3-chome, Mitaka-Shi, Tokyo Tel. 0422-43-3131 



288 D 



KWANSEI GAKUIN 



FOUNDED IN 1889 




GRADUATE 
UNIVERSITY, UNDERGRADUATE 




SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 



NISHINOM1YA, JAPAN Phone 0798-51-0912 



288 E 




MOMOYAMA GAKUIN 



Founded in 1884 by Rev. J. Dunn of the Church 
Missionary Society. Affiliated with Nippon Seiko 
Kai (The Protestant Episcopal Church in Japan) 

Chairman of Board of Trustees : 

The Most Rev. Hinsuke Michael Yashiro, D. D. 

ST. ANDREW S UNIVERSITY 

DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS 
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY 

MOMOYAMA GAKUIN HIGH SCHOOL 
MOMOYAMA GAKUIN MIDDLE SCHOOL 
THE INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES 

Address : Showa-cho, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan 



288 F 





Founded in 1918 
President : Dr. Takenosuke Miyamoto 



College of Arts and 
Sciences : 



Philosophy, Japanese Literature, 
English and American Literature, 
History, Sociology, Psychology, 
Mathematics 

Junior College: English, Liberal Arts 

Tokyo Joshi Daigaku is a church-related college 
founded upon the principles of Christianity. The 
aim and mission of the College, both in its 
academic and its spiritual life, are shown in its 
motto QUAECUNQUE SUNT VERA (Philippians 
iv: 8) and its badge, a cross-shaped SS standing 
for Sacrifice and Service. 

Junior College Campus: 

4-3-1 Mure, Mitaka-chi, Tokyo, Japan 
Telephone : 0422-45-4145 

TOKYO WOMAN S CHRISTIAN COLLEGE 

(Tokyo Joshi Daigaku) 

Zempukuji 2-chome, Tokyo, Japan 
Telephone: 395-1211 



288 G 




[ TAMAGAWA GAKUEN 




Founded in 1929 
President: Dr. KUNIYOSHI OBARA 

- 

TAMAGAWA UNIVERSITY 

School of Technology 

Course of Mechanical Engineering for 

Master s Degree 
Course of Electronics for 

Master s Degree 
Department of Literature 
Faculty of Education 

Faculty of English and American Literature 
Faculty of Arts 
Department of Agriculture 
Faculty of Agriculture 
Faculty of Agricultural 

Chemistry 

Department of Technology 
Faculty of Mechanical 

Engineering 
Faculty of Electronics 
Faculty of Industrial 

Administration 
Woman s Junior College 
Correspondence Education 
Senior High School 
Junior High School 
Elementary School 
Kindergarten 

Machida City, Tokyo, Japan 
Tel. (0427-32) 9111 




288 H 



OBIRIN GAKUEN 

* University: 

College of Literature 

Department of English Language and Literature 
Department of Chinese Language and Literature 

College of Economics 

* Women s Jr. College: 

Division of English Language and Literature 
Division of Home Economics 

* Hi h School: president , Dr Yasuzo Shimizu 

* Jr. High School: D - D (0bcrlin College Oberlin Ohi0 U S A) 

Chairman of the Bd. of Trustees: Dr. Michio Kozaki 

# Kindergarten : (Ex-Chairman of the United Church in Christ in Japan) 

Obirin (iakuen was founded in 1916 by Mr. and Mrs. Yasuzo Shimizu 



MIYAGI GAKUIN Chancellor Shinshi Oda LLD 
MIYAGI GAKUIN Women s College 

President: Katsuzo Sakata 

Miyagi Gakuin was founded on September 18, 1886 by missionaries of 
the Reformed Church in America (now United Church of Christ). The 
purpose of the school: To introduce Christian ideas and to lift the 
level of women s education in the Tohoku so that these two things will 
work to improve the total society as well as the total individual. 
Senior College: English Literature 

(pioneer in English language teaching for women) 
Music (long the only music school north of Tokyo) 
Japanese Literature 

(leader in the study of modern Japanese literature) 
Home Economics (vital to the women of the Tohoku) 
Junior College : Home Economics 
Cultural Training 
Kindergarten Teacher s Training 
(chief source of teachers for Tohoku church 
kindergartens) 

Senior High School Junior High School Kindergarten 
166, Higashi 3 ban-cho, Sendai Tel.: (21) 6211-5 



2881 

TOKYO UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

(Tokyo Shingaku Daigaku) 

10-30, Osawa 3-Chome, Mitaka, Tokyo 

Phone Musashino (0422) 45-4185 

Established in 1943 by the UNITED CHURCH OF 
CHRIST IN JAPAN to prepare men and women for city, 
rural, and overseas ministry. 

A four-year Liberal Arts College majoring in theology 
witha two-year graduate theology course for B. D. ; also 
courses leading to the doctor s degree, fully accredited by 
the Ministry of Education. 

The new Campus is located next to the ICU campus. 
i 

800 graduates in active service today as ministers or teachers 



JAPAN CHRISTIAN JUNIOR COLLEGE 

90-3 Kobuke-cho, Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken Tel. Chiba (0472) 82-2234, 2428 

Department of English Department of Religion 

Junior High Teacher s Seminary Preparation 

Credential or Preparation Course and Christian Worker s 

for Business Training 

An Educational Institution of the Church of the Nazarene 

A Balanced International Faculty 

An Evangelical Christian Environment 




Hearken to My Word 



288 J 



IZUMI JUNIOR COLLEGE 



This college is the sole educational institution in Japan which is engaged 
in train ng the specialists in child welfare. If receives the inter 
national support from the Christian Children s Fund in the United States. 
Brsed on rich cultural background, the students are here trained in 
theory and practice of nursing and upbring unhappy children. 

Child Welfare Department (Women) 

* 2 -year course Fully accredited by 
Ministry of education 

* Admissioy on recommendation is pos 
sible. Foreign students are also ad 
mitted. 

* The college issues certificates for day- 
nursery and kindergarten teachers. 

* The students dormitry is available. 
Ask for further information 

5-1O-17 Nakamachi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo. 
Phone: 7C 1-36 16, 7O2-93O9 




SEIWA WOMAN S COLLEGE 
FOR CHRISTIAN WORKERS 

Senior College : Christian Education 

Kindergarten Teacher Education 
Junior College : Kindergarten Teacher Education 

89 years of service to the Church in Japan 
President : Miss Michiko Yamakawa 



7_54_1 OKADAYAMA 

NISHINOMIYA 

CITY 




288 K 



JAPAN COUNCIL OF CHRISTIAN 

EVANGELISM FOR THE BLIND 

-MOfJW DENDO KYOGIKAI- 

Office: 4-18-11 Miyamae, Suginami-ku, Tokyo (^167) 

This organization was established by the cooperation of NCC, the 
United Church of Christ in Japan, etc. 



Chairman 

Rev. Kozo Kashiwai 
V ice-Chairman 

Rev. Yoshinaga Omura 
Secretary 

Rev. Stanley L. Manierre 
Executive-Secretary 

Rev. Yasushige Imakoma 




JOSHI GAKUIN 

Founded in 1870 by the Northern Presbyterian Church in 
United States of America 

Girls Junior and Senior 
HIGH SCHOOL 



Chairman of Board 
of Trustees : 

Hikaru Watanabe 
Honorary Principal : Tsuchi Yamamoto 
Principal : Koiti Oosima 

10-22 Ichibancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo Tel: (03) 263-1711 




288 L 



KEISEN JOGAKUEN \ 

Founded by MICHI KAWAI 

President: JIRO SHIMIZU 1 



JUNIOR COLLEGE English Department 

*, Horticulture Department < 

> Senior High School Junior High School <j 

Separate Dormitories for High School and Junior College c" 

i For further information, write to t 5 

;. 5-8-1 Funabashi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo < 

S Tel. (303) 2111 < 



V 



FUKUOKA JO GAKUIN 



JUNIOR COLLEGE English Department 

Home Economics Department 

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Regular Course & Music Course 

JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 

KINDERGARTEN 



Chairman of the Board of Directors Katsura Yasunaga 

Chancellor of Gakuin, and \ 

Principal, Junior-Senior High School f Miss Aiko Enomoto 

Kindergarten 

President of Junior College Miss Aiko Enomoto 

35 Kamiosa, Fukuoka Tel. (58) 1492 



288M 



HIROSHIMA JOGAKUIN 

Founded in 1886 

Founder 

Miss N. B. Gaines 

Rev. Teikichi Sunamoto 
President 

Dr. Hamako Hirose 

College : Faculty of Literature (Japanese Lit, 

English & American Lit.) 
Junior College : Domestic Science 
Kindergarten 

720 Ushita-machi, Hiroshima-City Tel. (0822) 28-0386 




High Schools: Senior and Junior 
11-32 Kaminobori-cho (S) 
12-39 Kaminobori-cho (J) 

Tel. (0822) 28-4131 



Hiroshima-City 



PALMORE INSTITUTE 



I/ 



8 Kitanagasodori 4-chome, Ikuta-ku, Kobe 
Tel : Kobe 078 33-2961, 2949 

Bible, English, Typewriting, and Shorthand 




Morse T. Saito 

Chairman 
Board of Trustees 

Bunroku Takeda 

Principal 



288 N 

ST. MICHAEL S 
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL 

5, Nakayamate-dori 3 Chome, Ikuta-ku, Kobe 
For boys & girls ages 5 to 1 5 
Prepares for Senior High School 
(TEL 23-8985) 

ST. MICHAEL S ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL 

4 classes for adults . . . mornings 
The Advanced Class specializes in preparing 

men & women for going abroad 
Founder : Bishop M. H. Yashiro, D. D. 
Headmistress : Miss L. E. Lea, B. A. 




YOKOHAMA KYORITSU GAKUEN 

(Doremus Memorial School) 

Founded in 1871 by The Woman s Union Missionary 
Society of America 



Girl s Junior High School 
Girl s Senior High School 

Principal : Mr. KATSUYO JIMBO 
Address : 212 Bluff, Naka-ku, Yokohama 
Telephone: (641) 3785^7 



KINJO GAKUIN 

Founded 1889 




UNIVERSITY 
JUNIOR COLLEGE 
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 



President: Dr. Chikalaro Togari 



HEAD OFFICE 

2 Shirakabe-cho 4-chome Higashi-ku Nagoya 
Tel. Nagoya (052) 941-6236 



TAMAGAWA 
SEIGAKUIN 

JUNIOR AND SENIOR 
HIGH SCHOOL 

OF THE 
CHURCH OF GOD 

Day School for Girls 



11-22, 7-chome, Okusawa 

Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

Tel. 702-4141 



BAIKA GAKUEN 

106 6-chome, Honmachi. 
Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan 

Kindergarten 
Junior & Senior High 
Institutions : School 

Junior College 
4-Year College 

The President is Dr. Tetsu 
Katagiri. 

History 

Established in 1878 by the Rev. 
Paul Sawayama with the co-opera 
tion of two Congregational 
Churches as the first Christian 
high school for girls in Osaka 
area. Now it has 3600 students. 

The llnited Church Board for 
World Ministries has sent missio 
naries to the school, among whom 
are Miss Judith Newton and Miss 
Constance Kimos. Other Missio 
naries also help the school. 



288 P 



, ..^-^_"v/ ","**,* *<.","v*^"v/""."v* v. "v/^-.~ 



A Training Center for Christian Rural Workers 
in Asia 

TSURUKAWA RURAL INSTITUTE 

United Church of Christ in Japan 

A Christian Community consisting of 5 departments: 

Rural Seminary 

- Kindergarten Teachers Training 
- Agricultural Training 
- Research Laboratory 

- South East Asian Leaders Training 
(instruction in English language) 

(School Farm provides educational experience and self-help) 



Write to: Tsurukawa Rural Institute 
2024 Nozuta, Machida Shi 
Tokyo, Japan 



Phone: (0427) 35-2430 
(0427) 32-8775 
Cable : 
SEACOURSE MACHIDA 



KYORITSU BIBLE SCHOOL 
FOR WOMEN 



Offers training in : 

Study of the Word 
Teaching methods 
Evangelism 
Organ and choir 

Woman s Union 
Missionary Society 

221 Yamate-cho, Naka-ku 

Yokohama 
Tel. 641-3993 



SOEN GAKUEN (Incorporated) I 

3-17-11 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo S 

Tel. (953) 4016, 5278 

President and Chairman : Hatsue Sato l ) 



Soen High Nursery School 

Training of Christian educators of 

children (night school) 
Qualification for admission : Graduate 

of high school 
School terms : 2 years 
License issued : No. 2 ordinary license 

of kindergarten teacher 
Further information on request at : 
3-17-11 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. (953) 4016, 5278 
Soen Kindergarten 

Superintendent : Namie Miyoshi 

Farther information on request at : 
3-17-11 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. (953) 1401 



288 Q 



FOUNDED by CONGREGATION DE NOTRE DAME 



SAKURA NO SEIBO GAKUIN, 



Schod INC. 



-6 HANAZONO-CHO, FUKUSHIMA-SHI 

Phone Fukushima 34- 7 1 3 7 

KINDERGARTEN phone 35-1301 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL " 35-1301 

JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL " 34-2993 

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL " 34-2993 

JUNIOR COLLEGE 34 -7 1 3 7 



Principal and President 



SISTER FRANCES KIRWAN C. N. D 



960 



34-7137 



1 ST. MICHAEL S SCHOOL 

920, Nikaido, Kamakura-shi, 
Kanagawa Pref, Japan 



An Institute under The South Tokyo Diocese 
of THE NIPPON SEIKOKAI 

(The Episcopal Church) 




HIGH SCHOOL 
MIDDLE SCHOOL 

Chairman of Directors : 
Rt. Rev. S. K. Iwai 

Principal: A. T. Aiyoshi 



DOSHISHA 
KORI 

HIGH SCHOOL 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 

Principal : Kichizo Ekusima 



328 Mii, Neyagawa-shi, 

Osaka -fu 

TEL. 0720-31-0285-9 



288 R 



"^"." ..".~""."."^,*"^"" 



NIPPON ROWA GAKKO 

A Center for Children with Impaired Hearing 

Nozuta-machi, Machida-shi, Tokyo 
Tel. (0427) (35) 2361 

Founded in 1920, by Dr. & Mrs. A. K. Reischauer, 
the parents of the former U. S. Ambassador 
Reischauer, and Miss Lois F. Kramer, an EUB 
missionary. 

Intensive Auditory Training. 

Early Education . . . from under 6 months of age 

High Academic Standard . . . same level as hearing students 



Rev. Michio Kozaki, 
Oosima-Isao 



Board Chairman, 
Principal 



(Founded in 1884) 



JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
S. H. EVENING SCHOOL 
POST GRADUATE COURSE 
JUNIOR COLLEGE 
EVE. ENG. CONVERSATION 
SCHOOL 



200 2-chome Shinonome-cho, 
Higashi-ku, Osaka, (540) 

JAPAN 
TEL. (761) 4113~5 



HEIAN JOGAKUIN 

(ST. AGNES SCHOOL) 

Karasumaru Nishi Iru, Shimotachiuri Dori 
Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto 



Principal : Kenzo Sakai 

Junior College : Nome Economics, 
English Literature, Kindergarten 
Teachers Training and Theology 

Senior High School Junior High School 
Kindergarten 



In 1 875 founded by Rt. Rev. Channing M. 
Williams, US Protestant Episcopal Bishop 
and the first Protestant missionary to 
Japan, and since then in close connec 
tion with the US Protestant Episcopal 
Church and her organizations. 



288 S 



SEI KEI SHIN GAKKO 

(COVENANT SEMINARY) 

Established in 1952 by the Covenant Missionary Society of 
Japan, now owned by the Nihon Seikei Kirisuto Kyodan 
(Japan Covenant Christian Church), and serving several 
evangelical denominations and fellowships in the training 
of pastors and evangelists. 



3 YEAR SEMINARY COURSE 
FOR UNIVERSITY GRADUATES 

(A one year pre-seminary course is also 
provided for students who have not 
completed university) 

2 YEAR BIBLE SCHOOL COURSE 




Director 
Dean. 



Leonard M. Peterson 
Taketoshi Oyama 

17-8 Nakameguro, 5-Chomc,Meguro-liu, Tokyo. 153 
(Phone) 712-8746 



SHOKEI JOGAKUIN 

(Girls School Founded in 1892) 
SENDAI, JAPAN 

Principal: Rev. Hisayoshi Saito 

JUNIOR COLLEGE 

Courses : 
Home Economics 
Kindergarten Teachers Training 
English Literature 

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
KINDERGARTEN 

2 Nakajima-cho, Sendai, Japan 
Telephone: (0222) 25-8746 



KORAN JOGAKKO 

(St. Hilda s School for Girls) 

Junior High School 
Senior High School 
Special English Course 

21-22 6 chome, Hatanodai 
Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan 

(782) 0227 




Anglican Mission School foundedby Bishop 
Bickersteth in 1888. On the staff there are 
always several English teachers sent by 
the U. S.P.G. in England. To keep the 
number small is a special feature. Whole 
school attend morning and evening pray 
ers in the hall. 



288T 



THE JAPANESE AMERICAN CONVERSATION INSTITUTE 



0- 



(A Division of the International Education Center) 



TEACHING METHOD : 
LENGTH OF STUDY: 
REGISTRATION: 



Oral approach method 
Six months to two years 
In March and September 



The Japanese American Conversation Institute was established 
in 1945 for the purpose of training young public servants in 
spoken English as well as in democratizing their thinking and 
broadening their viewpoints. Now the Institute is open to the 
general public. JACI also offers Secretarial Course, Gregg 
Shorthand Course, English Typing Course, Japanese Course and 
Simulfaneous Interpretation Course. 

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE WRITE TO: 

T160 21 Yotsuya 1-chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Tel.: 359-96215) 



SHOIN JOSHI GAKUIN 

Shoin Junior College 
Shoin High School 
Shoin Middle School 

Chairman Board of 
Trustees & Director : 

Hinsuke Yashiro 
President : Kazuo Ota 
Principal : Akio Yasui 



Aotani-cho 3-chome, Nada-ku, 

Kobe 

Tel: (86) 11056 

(22) 5980 (Junior College) 




KYUSHU JOGAKUIN 

Lutheran School for Girls 

300 Murozono, Shimizu-machi, Kumamoto 
Tel. (66) 3246, 3247, 3248 

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
KINDERGARTEN 

Principal : Rev. Yasuzumi Efo 



288 U 



YOKOHAMA SCHOOL OF THE JAPANESE 
LANGUAGE 



u- 



Principal: Mr. Hisato Niwa 



CLASSES 



SMALL CLASSES ONLY 
MORNING MON FRI. 9:0012:00 

AFTERNOON MON FRI. 1 : 30 3 : 30 
COURSES: FALL, WINTER, SPRING AND 
SUMMER COURSES 

NAGANUMA S JAPANESE LANGUAGE 
BOOKS 

Yokohama Y. M. C. A. 

Tokiwa-cho, Naka-Ku, Yokohama Tel. (681) 7061 



TEXTS: 



KOBE SCHOOL 

OF 
THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 



New Location 
16-8 Maeda-cho, Ashiya-shi 

Hyogo-Ken 
TEL: (0797) 22-0062 

Principal Rev. Y. Hyakumoto 

Class or Individual Lessons 

Monday- Friday 

Morning, Afternoon and 

Evening Lessons 



POOLE 

GAKUIN 

(Founded in 1&79) 

JUNIOR COLLEGE 

(Eng. Dept.) 

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 

5844-5-Chome, Katsuyama-dori, 
Ikuno-ku, Osaka. (544) 
Tel: College 731-3190 

School 741-7005-6 



288V 



THE BOARD OF PUBLICATIONS 

THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST IN JAPAN 

publishes for churches in Japan 

The Layman s Bible Commentary, 
Bible Dictionaries, Theological 
Books, Devotional Books, Biographic 
Books, A Series for Ladies, A Series 
for Youth, A Series of Biblical 
Studies, and Christian Educational 
Books. 

KOKORO NO TOMO 

No doubt in usefulness 
for evangelism 

Price 10 per copy 
120 a year 

SHINTO NO TOMO 

Most widely read 

among Christian lay people 

Price 90 per copy 
1,080 a year 

KYODAN SHIMPO 

The Kyodan Times (weekly) 

For the misistry and deaconry 
News, Comment, Review. 



Our catalog ( 70) will be sent on 
request. 



GINZA 4-5-1, CHUO-KU, TOKYO 
TEL 561-6131 






% Theological Texts 
& Commentaries 

# Bible Study Aids 

Correspondence School 

# Follow-up courses 

# Bible Study 

Write or call us for datails. 



Tel. (0222)23-1458 
Box 66 Sendai 



288 X 



si:nti YSIIA 

Publishers and Booksellers 

Layman s Bible Commentary 
Luther s Works 
Evangelistic Tracts 
Gospel News 
Daily Devotion 



Our Catalog will be sent on request 

Bookroom 

9 a. m. 5 p. m. Monday to Friday 

9 a. m. Noon Saturday at Shin-Ogawamachi Shinjuku-ku Tokyo 
Noon 4 p. m. Sunday 

10 a. m. 6 p. m. Monday to Friday at Lutheran Center in Tokyo 

Lutheran Literature Society in Japan 

16/3-chome Shin-Ogawamachi Shinjuku-ku Tokyo Tel. (O3) 269-7751 



THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE CENTER 

FOUNDATION 

Commission on Christian Literature of N. C. C. 

JOINT WORK CENTER ON 

STOCKING 

INFORMATION 

PROMOTION 

of all Christian Literatures 

DISTRIBUTION || over Japan 

TRAINING Editors. Writers 

Distributors, Book Sellers 



1, 3-Chome, Shinogawa-Machi, Shinjuku-Ku, Tokyo, Japan 
Tel: (260) 6520 



288Y 




KIRISUTO SHIMBUN 



(The Christ Weekly in Japanese) 

This is only one Christian News Paper of Protestants 
in Japan. Price 20 a copy, 1,000 a year, post paid. 

In America $6.00 a year, post paid. 
Founder : Dr. Kagawa President: T. Muto 



|> The Christian Year Book in Japanese 1970 ; List of 
churches, pastors, missionaries and perfect statistics of 
Christian Works in Japan. Price: 1,850 
^> New Dictionary of the Bible (one volume in 
Japanese) will be published in May, 1970. The work 
of more than 100 skilled writers. (182mm x 257mm 1.450 
pages, Price; 13,900). For the minister it is a ready 
all-purpose resource work for every biblical inquiry. 
For Church and Sunday-School teachers it will quicken 
the study and use of the Bible. For educators and 
students it is a comprehensive reference. 

KIRISUTO SHIMBUNSHA 

3-1, Shin-Ogawa-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162 
Tel. 260-6445, Postal Transfer: Tokyo 196016 



(oncordia 

\J 



PUBLISHING DEPT. OF JAPAN MISSION OF 
THE LUTHERAN CHURCH - MISSOURI SYNOD 



CONCORDIA C. S. QUARTERLY 
*SEISHO MONOGATARI (leaflet), 35. 
*SEISHO NO BENKYO (booklet), 50. 
*KYOSHI NO TEBIKI (teacher s guide), 150 

<FREE SAMPLES AVAILABLE> 



Published by the CONCORDIA SHA 

2-32, 1 chome, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 

Distributed by the SEIBUN SHA 
3-16, Shin-ogawa-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 



288 Z 



NIPPON SEIKOKAI 

Nippon Seikokai was founded in 1859 by Rev. C. M. Williams, a 
missionary of The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States. 
Then churches were established in many places by the activities of 
two missions, CMS and SPG, which started activities in Japan. 
Nippon Seikokai was formally inaugurated in 1887 by these three 
missions. The diocese system was adopted in 1968 at the 29th 
General Convention and Rev. Michael Hinsuke Yashiro was elected 
Primate. The structure of the National Council of Nippon Seikokai 
was revised to the present form. There are 10 dioceses, 321 
churches, 368 clergymen and 49,638 believes (church members). 



Primate Michael Hinsuke Yashiro 
Bishops of Diocese 

(Hokkaido) Masanao Watanabe 

(Tohoku) Masamichi Imai 

(Kita Kanto) NaohikoOkubo 

(Tokyo) Makoto Goto 

(Yokohama) Katsuhiko Iwai 

(Chubu) Shigeji Ogawawara 

(Kyoto) Yuzuru Mori 

(Osaka) Toshio Koike 

(Kobe) Hinsuke Yashiro 

(Kyushu) Toyohiko Kubobuchi 

National Council of Nippon Seikokai 
Executive Secretary Jo Yamada 

Secretary Toshiro Ono 

General Affairs: Chairman Yasuo Tazaki 
Evangelism: Chairman Jo Yamada 

External Relations: Chairman Makoto Goto 
Finance: Chairman Takeo Iwata 

Publishing: Chairman Atsushi Sasaki 

1-4-21 Higashi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03(400)2314 



288 A 



CATHOLIC PRESS CENTER 

Yotsuya 1-5, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 
Tel : 359-5427 (Furikae) Tokyo-62233 

Publishes in Japanese: 

THE CATHOLIC WEEKLY 

1 year subscription 1,000 

SEIKI (monthly for intellectuals) 
1 year subscription 12,000 

KATEI NO TOMO (monthly for families) 

1 year subscription 780 (Furikae) Tokyo-101420 

Holy Bible, Prayer Books, Catechism-Apologetic, Theology- 
Philosophy, Moral-Meditation-Spiritual Education, Agio- 
graphy-History, Sociology, Christian Literature, Juvenile 
Literature, Religious Articles and Church Goods. *) 

. : 



(nu&aae 



PUBLISHERS AND DISTRIBUTORS OF 
CHRISTIAN BOOKS AND TRACTS 



ENGLISH MAIL ORDER AND MAIN OFFICE: 
TOKYO: 2, 1-3 Surugadai. Chiyoda-Ku. Tel. 294-0776 

BRANCH STORES AND BOOKMOBILE CENTERS: 
SAPPORO: Fuji Daimaru Store, 3rd Floor 26-9551 
NAGOYA: Nagoya Station, Sout Arcade 581-1961 
KYOTO: Teramachi-Dori, Imadegawa Sagaru 231-3967 
OKAYAMA: Kinshu Kaikan, 18 Uchi-Sange 24-1859 
HIROSHIMA: 8 Otemachi, 2-chorne 47-9966 
KUMAMOTO: 391 Yamamuro, Shimizu-Cho 54-7256 



288 Z 



NIPPON SEIKOKAI 

Nippon Seikokai was founded in 1859 by Rev. C. M. Williams, a 
missionary of The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States. 
Then churches were established in many places by the activities of 
two missions, CMS and SPG, which started activities in Japan. 
Nippon Seikokai was formally inaugurated in 1887 by these three 
missions. The diocese system was adopted in 1968 at the 29th 
General Convention and Rev. Michael Hinsuke Yashiro was elected 
Primate. The structure of the National Council of Nippon Seikokai 
was revised to the present form. There are 10 dioceses, 321 
churches, 368 clergymen and 49,638 believes (church members). 



Primate Michael Hinsuke Yashiro 
Bishops of Diocese 

(Hokkaido) Masanao Watanabe 

(Tohoku) Masamichi Imai 

(Kita Kanto) NaohikoOkubo 

(Tokyo) Makoto Goto 

(Yokohama) Katsuhiko Iwai 

(Chubu) Shigeji Ogawawara 

(Kyoto) Yuzuru Mori 

(Osaka) Toshio Koike 

(Kobe) Hinsuke Yashiro 

(Kyushu) Toyohiko Kubobuchi 

National Council of Nippon Seikokai 
Executive Secretary Jo Yamada 

Secretary Toshiro Ono 

General Affairs: Chairman Yasuo Tazaki 
Evangelism : Chairman Jo Yamada 

External Relations: Chairman Makoto Goto 
Finance: Chairman Takeo Iwata 

Publishing: Chairman Atsushi Sasaki 

1-4-21 Higashi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 
Tel. 03 (400)2314 



288 A 



CATHOLIC PRESS CENTER ) 

Yotsuya 1-5, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo ) 

Tel : 359-5427 (Furikae) Tokyo-62233 ) 

Publishes in Japanese: < 

THE CATHOLIC WEEKLY 

1 year subscription 1,000 



SEIKI (monthly for intellectuals) 
1 year subscription 12,000 

KATEI NO TOMO (monthly for families) 

1 year subscription 780 (Furikae) Tokyo-101420 

Holy Bible, Prayer Books, Catechism-Apologetic, Theology- : 

Philosophy, Moral-Meditation-Spiritual Education, Agio- \ 

graphy-History, Sociology, Christian Literature, Juvenile : 

Literature, Religious Articles and Church Goods. } 



PUBLISHERS AND DISTRIBUTORS OF 
CHRISTIAN BOOKS AND TRACTS 

r|H i TH4HWH?^^ 

ENGLISH MAIL ORDER AND MAIN OFFICE: 
TOKYO: 2, 1-3 Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku. Tel. 294-0776 

BRANCH STORES AND BOOKMOBILE CENTERS: 
SAPPORO: Fuji Daimaru Store. 3rd Floor 26-9551 
NAGOYA: Nagoya Station. Sout Arcade 581-1961 
KYOTO: Teramachi-Dori. Imadegawa Sagaru 231-3967 
OKAYAMA: Kinshu Kaikan, 18 Uchi-Sange 24-1859 
HIROSHIMA: 8 Otemachi, 2-chorne 47-9966 
KUMAMOTO: 391 Yamamuro, Shimizu-Cho 54-7256 



288 B 




World s Greatest Bookstore 

MARUZEN 



Established In 1869 




Booksellers, Subscription Agency, 
Publishers, Office Machine Dealers, 
Stationers, Haberdashers. 



HEAD OFFICE : 



6 TORI-NICHOME, NIHON- 
BASHI, TOKYO. TEL. 272-721 1 



BRANCHES : TOKYO NAGOYA KYOTO OSAKA KOBE 
HIMEJI OKAYAMA HIROSHIMA-FUKUOKA* NAGASAKI 
KANAZAWA SENDAI SAPPORO NEW YORK 



Single Copies Available 



- K, 



Moden (flflj) B*IMM(ft 
International (J|-2l"l) 



Burd 



Uer Spiegel 

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Gentlemen s Quarterly (-813) 

House & Garden (>3 Hj) 

Life (m;>iw> 

Look (HdiSPJ) 
Lui (/i HJ) 
McCall s Maga 
Newsweek (JH 
19 (HfO) 
L Officiel 



(*f-6 El) 1,700 

Collection Issue (^2 It!]; 3.300 

Playboy (flTfl) 400 
Popular Photography Annual (^IIUJ) 

B^uSWJttf-J- 700 

(1161) B^MMKtt 700 



L 



380 Reader s Digest Chinese Ed. ( 

English Ed. (;lfl)) 

700 French Ed. OJ-fi]) 

500 German Ed. (rjTIJ) 

350 Italian Ed. (JJ-flJ) 

450 Spanish Ed. OMHI) 

450 Road & Track (>j|lj) 

600 Seventeen I JJ P] ) 

450 16 Magazine UJM) U ^ ,;, !., fj- 

120 Surfing < F H TU) 

250 Time OH PI) 

450 V. S. News & World Report GSTO) 

350 Vogue ( America) (^ 201"! ) 

180 Vogue ( Australia) (if ^8 I"]) 

220 Vogue ( English) O-16M) 

gue (French)(^10lL!l) 

rld Soccer (fin) 

estling Revue (JH-iJ) 



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WESTERN PUBLICATIONS DISTRIBUTION AGENCY YOHAN 



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288 C 



TYPE PRINTING, 

OFFSET PRINTING 



Accurate, Speedy 

& 
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SHINKO PRINTING CO., LTD. 

6 1 Chome, Suido, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 
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English Monthly ] 

Frpnrh Weekly Newspapers 

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g German Report > 

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Aiko Printing Co*, Ltd* 



| TEL. (263) 2571-3 g 

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m AIKO PRINTING AIKO PRINTING AIKO PRINTING AIKO PRINTING ffl 



288 D 



Forward/ Following christ into the world. 

GENERAL ASSEMBLY 


Moderator Rev. Duck Sung Kim Fukuoka 
Vice-Moderator Rev. Wenehi Kim Nishinari 
Recording Secretary Rev. Duck Sam Kiin Kumamoto 
Vice-Secretary Mr. S. J. Yu Kyoto 
Treasurar Nr. Kwang Soo Kim Nagoya 
Vice-Treasurer Mr. Hon Pil Kim Niehiarai 
Departments Chairman 
Evangelism Rev. I. S. Chong Hirano 
Christian Education Rev. K. C. Kim Kobe 
Young People s Rev. C. H. Maeng Funabashi 
Welfare Mr. C. S. Kim Kyoto 

THE KOREAN CHRIST 

General Affairs Office 
24 Wakamiya- cho. Shir 


Mission Study Rev. K. S. Cheh Mukcgawa 
Examination Dr. Yoon Tai Oh Tokyo 
Diecipline Rev. Duck Sung Kim Fukuoka 
Committees 
Christian Literature Rev. I. S. Chong Hirano 
K.C.C. Mr. C.U.Kim Kyoto 
Building Mr. S. J. Yu Kyoto 
Scholarship Mr. C. T. Kim Chikko 
Decade of Development Dr. Yoon Tai Oh Tokyo 
Finance Mr. Han Pil Kim Nishiarai 
Executive Secretary Rev. Y. P. Chun KvotolReffred) 

IAN CHURCH IN JAPAN 

Tel. 269-2909 
ijuku-ku TOKYO Japan 



CHRISTIAN FEDERATION 

OF 

CHILDHOOD EDUCATION 

President: Hatsue Sato 

Vice-President : Gertrud E. Kuecklich 
Kyoko Hirasawa 

17-11, 3 Chome, Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo Tel. (953) 5163 



NAKATOMI RESTAURANT CHAIN 

4- TOKYO YMCA RESTAURANT 

TOKYO KANDA MITOSHIRO-CHO TEL. 292-7242, 3 

* I C U GOLF COURSE DINING ROOM 

% ICU MITAKA TEL. 0422-44-3314 

+ TOZANSO DINING ROOM 

% NATIONAL YMCA TOZANSO 

SHIZUOKA PRIF. GOTEMBA TEL. 0550-2-0390 

+ OZASHIKI NAKATOMI 

SUKIYAKI OR WESTERN FOOD 
JAPANESE TATAMI ROOM 

TOKYO, SHIBUYA, NEAR AOYAMA GAKUIN UNIV. 
TEL. 400-6281 




COVENANTER 
BOOK ROOM 

39, 1-chome, Nakayamate- 
dori, Ikuta-ku, Kobe 
Furikae: Kobe 25708 
Tel. 22-8386 



* BIBLES 

* COMMENTARIES 

* THEOLOGICAL BOOKS 

* RELIGIOUS BOOKS 

* MISSIONARY BOOKS 

* S. S. SUPPLIES 
L_ 



Japan 
W C T U 

Nineteen district Unions with 
130 local Unions 

PLACE 

3-360 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, 

Tokyo 
TEL (361) 0934 

CHIEF DIRECTORS 

President : 

Mrs. Ochimi Kubushiro 
Vice President : Mrs. Kyo Sakata 
Coresponding Secretary 

Mrs. Sumi Ono 
Recording Secretary 

Mrs. Sumi Ono 
Treasurer : Miss Tame Obata 



288 F 




MENTHOLATUM / AIR- WICK JAPAN LICENSEE 

THEOMIBROTMOOD.ITG 

V 

Vw^ 



CHRISITIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK 



289 



Tel. 0764-41-6926 

Gen. Sec.: Masakazu Yama- 

shita 

OJ YMCA 

(930) g|IjrfJ$;#!HT 2-1 

S 0764-41-6926 



Yamanashi 

32-9, 2-chome, Marunouchi, 
Kofu-shi 400 
Tel. 0552-22-4738 
Gen. Sec.: Eiji Osawa 
Ujjg YMCA 

(400) EpJffTfcftOft 2-32-9 
m 0552-22-4738 



Yokohama 

1-7, Tokiwa-cho, Naka-ku, 

Yokohama-shi 231 

Tel. 045-681-7062 

Gen. Sec.: Shiro Takahashi 

m& YMCA 
(231) g$&m#Kmainr 1-7 

m 045-681-7062 



YMCA National Committee of 
Japan 

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Seinenkai 
Domei) 

2nd Kosuga Bldg., 30 Ryo- 

goku, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, 

Tokyo 103 

Tel. 03-861-7836/9 



Gen. Sec.: Arata Ikeda 
$ YMCA (B#4 V x M% 



(103) 

30 gmn ;* # f;i 

S 03-861-7836-9 



CITY YMCA 
Fukuoka 

c/o Kyushu Bible Center, 
3160 Ochaya-atomachi, Ha- 
kozaki, Fukuoka 812 
Tel. 092-64-1888 
Chr.: Baichi Kataoka 
HtPm YMCA 

mm YMCA 
(812) 

3160 

092-63-1888 



Hikone 

6 Sotobaba-cho, Hikone-shi, 
Shiga-ken 522 
Tel. 07492-2-1714 
Sec.: Isamu Nishimura 
mm YMCA 

(522) m&ftftBs, 6 
n 07492-2-17-14 



Himeji, 

440-2, Aza-Tegarayama, Ni- 
shi Nobusue, Himeji-shi 
Hyogo-ken 670 



290 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Tel. 0792-22-6515 

Gen. Sec.: Tadashi Kane- 

matsu 

YMCA 

440-2 

m 0792-22-6515 

Hiroshima 

7-11 Hacchobori, Hiroshima- 
shi 730 

Tel. 0822-28-2266 
Gen. Sec.: Kazumitsu Aihara 
i, YMCA 

(730) am A TIB 7-11 

m 0822-28-2266 
HsV ffiiCM 

Kamakura 

2-233, Yuigahama, Kama- 
kura-shi, Kanagawa-ken 248 
Tel. 0467-22-1346 
Chr.: Akira Takada 

MlH YMCA 

(248) ^JlrfJftit^ 2-233 
m 0467-22-1346 

Kitakyushu 

c/o Toyokawa Bldg., 10 
Osaka-cho, Kokura-ku, Ki- 
takyushu-shi 802 
Tel. 093-52-3869 
Gen. Sec.: Shinji Fujimoto 
YMCA 



(802) 

S/lltOi/f*] 

S 093-52-3869 



10 



Kobe 

2-75, Naka Yamate-dori, 
Ikuta-ku, Kobe-shi 650 
Tel. 078-33-0123 
Gen. Sec.: Shizuo Imai 

YMCA 

(650) ftJ5rfJffl [X 
2-75 
1g 078-33-0123 



Nishi Branch 

3-5, 1-chome, Mizukasa-dori, 
Nagata-ku, Kobe-shi 653 
Tel. 078-69-0888 
Sec.: Yoshihiro Shinohara 



-3-5 



(653) 

M 078-69-0888 

^m 



Korean YMCA in Japan 

2-4, Sarugaku-cho, Kanda, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101 
Tel. 03-291-1511 
Gen. Sec.: Oak Moon Suk 

I YMCA 
(101) J 

2-4 
03-291-1511 



CHRISITIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK 



291 



Kumamoto 

3-1, 1-chome, Shinmachi, 

Kumamoto-shi 860 

Tel. 0963-53-6391 

Gen. Sec.: Kyoji Yoshimura 

YMCA 

(860) J&iU if HI 1-3-1 
it 0963-53-6391 



Kyoto 

Yanagibaba, Sanjo, Naka- 
kyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 604 
Tel. 075-231-4388 
Gen. Sec.: Yoshiyuki Kuroda 

YMCA 

(604) MtprUif jSKHi|ii 
n 075-231-4388 



mm YMCA 

(371) MMitJ^fflT 2-2-6 
m 0272-21-8549 



Kyoto Fukuchiyama 

27 Aza-Kyomachi, Fukuchi- 
yama-shi, Kyoto 620 
Tel. 077-32-2262 
Chr.: Shigemi Sato 

Ig^flOj YMCA 

(620) JlftiajitmCHT 27 

m 077-32-2262 

g 

Maebashi 

2-6, 2-chome, Omotemachi, 

Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken 

371 

Tel. 0272-21-8549 

Sec.: Yasunaga Isobe 



Nagasaki 

7-13, Manzai-cho, Nagasaki- 

shi 852 

Tel. 09582-2-5987 

Gen. Sec.: Noboru Arimura 

YMCA 

(852) MW^W 7-13 
m 09582-2-5987 



Nagoya 

5-33, Nishi Kawabata-cho, 
Naka-ku, Nagoya-shi 460 
Tel. 052-331-3116 
Gen. Sec.: Takeji Suzuki 

YMCA 

(460) rg 

5-33 

M 052-331-3116 



1-6 YOKOHAMA 
YWCA of Japan 

(Nippon Kirisutokyo Joshi 
Seinenkai) 

8-8, 4-chome, Kudan Mina- 
mi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 
Tel. 03-264-0661 
Chr.: Teruko Komyo 

YWCA (0*4 ; 



292 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(102) m 

4-8-8 

m 03-264-0661 



CITY YWCA 
Fukuoka 

8-15, 2-chome, Maizuru, 
Fukuoka-shi 810 
Tel. 092-74-6485 
Chr.: Hoko Uzaki 
^HfPTfT YWCA 

YWCA 

TOjgfm 2-8-15 

092-74-64 



Hakodate 

1-12, Shoin, Hakodate-shi 

040 

Tel. 0138-51-5262 

Chr.: Fujiko Watanabe 

mm YWCA 
(040) mm^mm 1-12 

m 0138-51-5262 



Hiratsuka 

24-32, Yaezaki-cho, Hira- 

tsuka-shi, Kanaga\va-ken 

254 

Tel. 0463-21-1990 

Chr.: Kayoko Hotari 

-m YWCA 

(245) 5p^r|j A g[^(aj 24-32 
m 0463-21-1990 



Hiroshima 

3-10, 4-chome, Otemachi, 
Hiroshima-shi 730 
Tel. 0822-41-5313 
Chr.: Reiko Fujikawa 
Jft YWCA 

(730) KSrt^^fflJ 4-3-10 
m 0822-41-5313 



Kamakura Shonan 

c/o Koto Nishida, 11-1, 

3-chome, Inamuragasaki, Ka- 

makura-shi, Kanagawa-ken 

248 

Tel. 0467-22-5097 

Chr. : Kyoko Hashimoto 

mm YWCA 
(248) mg-fcmtt* 3-11-1 



0467-22-5097 



Kobe 

1-10, Kami Tsutsui-dori, 
Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi 651 
Tel. 078-23-6201 
.Chr.: Kimiko Ohara 

YWCA 

(651) W^rU*^ 
1-10 
m 078-23-6201 



Kofu 

c/o Yoshi Amemiya, 6-31, 



CHRISITIAN YOUTH AND STUDENT WORK 



293 



1-chome, Shiobe-cho, Kofu- 

shi 400 

Tel. 0552-2-5535 

Chr.: Yoshi Amemiya 

YWCA 
(400) TO rfJiMM 1-6-31 



0552-2-5535 



Kure 

2-1, 1-chome, Saiwai-cho 
Kure-shi, Hiroshima-ken 737 
Tel. 0823-21-2414 
Chr.: Kiyoko Yamamoto 
\ YWCA 

(737) !3TfJW 1-2-1 
m 0823-21-2414 



Kyoto 

Muromachi-dori Idemizu- 
Agaru, Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto- 
shi 602 

Tel. 075-431-0351 
Chr.: Mitsuko Urabe 
YWCA 

(602) 



075-431-0351 



Nagasaki 

c/o Nagasaki Ginyamachi 
Church, 4-5, Furukawa-cho, 

Nagasaki-shi 850 



Tel. 0958-23-0667 
Chr. : Chiyoko Tsuruta 
Ulf YWCA 
(850) SllfrfJfiJIiiilJ 4-5 



0958-23-0667 



Nagoya 

21 Shinei-cho, Naka-ku, 
Nagoya-shi 460 
Tel. 052-961-7707 
Chr.: Yoshie Yamada 

YWCA 

(460) ^SMTtJ^Kif^liiJ 21 
m 052-961-7707 



Numazu 

235 Yoshidamachi, Numazu- 
shi, Shizuoka-ken 410 
Chr.: Mitsu Asaka 

YWCA 

(410) ^rU^ffilffJ 235 



Okayama 

Okayama Daigaku Kansha, 
Tsushima, Okayama-shi 700 
Chr.: Aiko Kawaguchi 

YWCA 

(700) 



Osaka 

13 Nishi Ogimachi, Kita-ku, 



294 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Osaka-shi 530 
Tel. 06-361-0838 
Chr. : Ayako Oshita 
YWCA 

(530) ^rf^bKffiW; 13 
m 06-361-0838 



Sendai 

136, Kita Yonban-cho, Sen- 
dai-shi 980 
Tel. 0222-22-9714 
Chr.: Kaoru Mishima 
MS YWCA 

(980) fiiiSitJjbraW 136 

M 0222-22-9714 
cH H&rf^iS 

Tokyo 

8-11, 1-chome, Kanda Suru- 



gadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 

101 

Tel. 03-293-5421 

Chr.: Fumiko Sato 

st YWCA 



1-8-11 
03-293-5421 



Yokohama 

225 Yamashita-cho, Naka- 
ku, Yokohama-shi 231 
Tel. 045-681-2903 
Chr.: Shizuko Kunugi 

YWCA 

(231) ^^rljiliKlUTinj- 225 
IS 045-681-2903 



V. SOCIAL WORK 



1. Central Organizations 



American Friends Service 
Committee 

(American Friends Hoshidan) 
12-7, 4-chome, Minami Aza- 
bu, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106 
Tel. 03-473-0472 
Dir.: DeWitt Barnett 



X J il > -7 \s > X 

(106) -&&tmKmt%lB 4-12-7 
n 03-473-0472 



Anglican Episcopal Church, 
Hoiku Remmei 

c/o Heian Jogakuin Junior 

College, Shimo Tachiuri Ni- 

shi Iru, Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto 

602 

Tel. 075-441-0135 

Dir.: Koji Hori 



(602) 



075-441-0135 



Bethesda Deaconesses Home 

(Betesuda Hoshijo Haha no 



Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177 
Tel. 03-924-2238 
Mgr. : Fumio Fukatsu 



(177) 

526 

n 03-924-2238 



Christan Children s Funds 

(Kirisutokyo Jido Fukushi 

Kai) 

Shibuya Chiyoda Bldg., 13. 
Nanpeidai, Shibuya-ku, To 
kyo 150 

Tel. 03-461-0497/1292 
Bgr.: Seiji Giga 



13 



(150) 



03-461-0497, 1292 



Christian Federation of Child 
hood Education 

(Kirisutokyo Hoiku Eenmei) 
17-11, 3-chome, Mejiro, To- 
shima-ku, Tokyo 171 
Tel. 03-953-5163 



526 Oizumi Gakuen Machi, Dir.: Hatsue Sato 



296 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(171) 

S 03-953-5163 

m 



3-17-11 



(104) 

f 

03-561-0931 



4-5-1 



Haha To Gakusei No Kai 

Kita 7, 1-chome, Shimouma- Japan Friends Service Com- 
cho, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154 mittee 



Tel. 03-421-1728 

Sec.: Sei Tai, Tama Matsu- 

moto 



(154) 

i-dfc 7 

m 03-421-1728 



lesu-Dan 

5-3, Azuma-dori, Fukiai-ku, 
Kobe-shi 651 
Tel. 078-22-3627 
Mgr.: Haru Kagawa 



5-3 



(651) 

m 078-22-3627 



Japan Christian Social Work 
League 

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Shakai 
Jigyo Domei) 

c/o Naigai Kyoryoku Kai, 

5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo- 

ku, Tokyo 104 

Tel. 03-561-0931 

Sec.: Masaharu Tadokoro 



(Nihon Friends Hoshidan) 
Friends Center, 8-19, 4- 
chome, Mita, Minato-ku, To 
kyo 108 

Tel. 03-451-0804 
Dir.: Yoji Ukaji 



(108) 



03-451-0804 



Japan MTL 

(Kyurai Kyokai) 

2-232, Kashiwagi, Shinjuku- 

ku, Tokyo 160 

Tel. 03-368-8010 

Mgr.: Kenichi Sugiyama 
0* MTL (&$Jfffi) 

(160) m^^fffgK^^ 2-232 

m 03-368-8010 



Jiai-En 

320, Kamimizu-cho, Kuma- 
moto-shi 860 
Tel. 0963-64-3509 
Mgr.: Soichiro Shioya 



SOCIAL WORK 



297 



(860) 

m 0963-64-3509 



320 



Kirisutokyo Hoiku Kyokai 

4-9, 7-chome, Minami Koiwa, 
Edoga\va-ku, Tokyo 133 
Tel. 03-657-2680 
Chr.: Naotaka Araki 

(133) 

7-4-9 

S 03-657-2680 



Kirisutokyo Hoikusho Domei 

c/o Naigai Kyoryoku Kai, 
5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo- 
ku, Tokyo 104 
Tel. 03-561-0931 
Sec.: Yuzuru Imai 



4-5-1 



(104) Jgj^W 
m 03-561-0931 

3># 



Labor Traffic Welfare Center 

(Kotsu Rodo Fukushi Centa) 
112 Takahata, Hiraoka-cho, 
Kakoga\va-shi, Hyogo-ken 
675-01 

Tel. 07942-2-6768/7978 
Mgr.: Michio Imai 



(675-01) 



mm 112 

M 07942-2-6768, 7978 

3-#EWm 

Nishi Chugoku Christian So 
cial Work Association 

(Nishi Chugoku Kirisutokyo 
Shakai Jigyo-dan) 

1438 Minami Sanjomachi, 

Hiroshima-shi 733 

Tel. 0822-31-6954 

Mgr.: L. H. Thompson 



(733) E 

m 0822-31-6954 
L. H. h 



HW 1438 



Pillar of Cloud Foundation 

(Unchu-sha) 

8-19, 3-chome, Kami Kita- 
zawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
156 

Tel. 03-302-2855 
Dir.: Haru Kagawa 



(156) ^ 

3-8-19 

m 03-302-2855 

tt%% gJII^^ 

Salvation Army Headquarters 
Social Dept. 

(Nihon Kyuseigun Shakai-bu) 
2-17, Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chi- 
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101 
Tel. 03-263-7311/3 



298 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Social Sec.: Jubei Miyamoto 

Bi&t&ma^ 



2-17 

m 03-263-73113 

Sffi^- "g^m&ffi 

United Church of Christ in 
Japan. Deaconesse Kyokai 



526, Oizumi Gakuenmachi 
Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177 
Tel. 03-924-2238 
Dir.: Fumio Fukatsu 



(177) ft 
526 

m 03-924-2238 



2. Settlements 



Aikei Gakuen 

1-1035, Motogi-cho, Adachi- 
ku, Tokyo 120 
Tel. 03-886-2815 
Dir.-Mgr. : Motoichi Toyama 

(120) 

1-1035 

m 03-886-2815 



Airin-Dan 

15-3, 5-chome, Negishi, 
Daito-ku, Tokyo 110 
Tel. 03-872-4547 
Dir.-Mgr.: Ryoichi Manabe 



5-15-3 






Airin-Kai 

8-967, Kami Meguro, Megu- 



ro-ku, Tokyo 153 
Tel. 03-466-0263/4 
Mgr. : Shigeru Sato 

(153) JgjfCHSSHK-hgH 8-967 
n 03-466-0263/4 



&m m 

Bctt Memorial Home 

(Bott Hakase Kinen Homu) 
2-21, Tamagawa Naka-cho, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158 
Tel. 03-701-3676 
Mgr.: Yoshiichi Hiramoto 



(158) 
2-21 
m 03-701-3676 

*-. 

Chiba Bethany Home 

(Chiba Betania Home) 
9-13, 2-chome, Kokufu-dai, 



SOCIAL WORK 



299 



(272) 7frJ||fUHJff 
f 0473-22-6055 



Ichikawa-shi, Chiba-ken 272 
Tel. 0473-22-6055 
Mgr.: Etsuo Tomoda 



2-9-13 



Christian Yuai Community 
Center 

(Kirisutokyo Yuai Shakai 
Kan) 

21-18, Fujimi-cho, Nagasaki- 

shi 852 

Tel. 0958-44-1475 

Mgr.: Takehide Hirayama 

J|fflT 21-18 
0958-44-1475 



Fukagawa Airin Gakuen 

25-10, 2-chome, Fukagawa 

Edagawa-cho, Koto-ku, To 

kyo 135 

Tel. 03-645-9900 

Mgr.: Reiji Takahashi 

(135) JgM^ 

2-25-10 

m 03-645-9900 



Hakuho-Kai Child Counselling 
Office 

133 Heiraku, Minami-ku, 



Yokohama-shi 232 
Tel. 045-251-3351/2 
Dir.: Tsune Hirano 



(232) 

n 03-251-3351/2 

& m 



133 



(433) 

n 0534-36-1251 



Hamamatsu Deaconesses 

Home 

(Hamamatsu Deaconese Haha 
no le) 

3015, Mikatahara-cho, Ha- 

mamatsu-shi, Shizuoka-ken 

433 

Tel. 0534-36-1251 

Mgr.: Tamotsu Hasegawa 



3015 



Hiroshima Christian Social 
Center 

(Hiroshima Kirisutokyo Sha 
kai Kan) 

438, Minami Misasamachi, 

Hiroshima-shi 733 

Tel. 0822-31-6954 

Dir.: Lawrance H. Thomp 

son 

(733) jESTUmHW 1438 
m 0822-31-6954 



V > 



300 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



lesu No Tomo Rinpo-Kan 

9-14, 1-chome, Ohanajaya, 
Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 124 
Tel. 03-601-0618 
Dir.-Mgr. : Shintaro Naka- 
yama 



(124) 

1-9-14 

m 03-601-0618 



Ishii Kinen Aisen-En 

10-8, 4-chome, Nihonbashi 

Higashi, Naniwa-ku, Osaka 

556 

Tel. 06-632-5640 

Mgr. : Masako Ohara 



(556) *BSfm5 

4-10-8 

Vt 06-632-5640 



Kagawa Kinen Kan 

5-3, Azuma-dori, Fukuai-ku, 
Kobe-shi 651 
Tel. 078-22-3627 
Dir.: Haru Kagawa 

KJIIftftffi 

(651) ftprfj^K-g^il 5-3 
^ 078-22-3627 



Kobo Kan 

11-6, 1-chome, Terajima-cho, 



Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130 
Tel. 03-611-1880/1866 
Mgr.: Kazuko Nakamura 

(130) iRmfPSffllX^AfflT 

1-11-6 

m 03-611-1880, 1866 



(111) 

03-822-0058 



Koho Kai 

7-1, 2-chome, Nihonzutsumi, 
Daito-ku, Tokyo 111 
Tel. 03-872-0058 
Dir.: Shozo Endo 



2-7-1 



Kuji Social Center 

(Kuji Shakai Kan) 
70-1, 5-chome, Kashiwazaki, 
Kuji-shi, I\vate-ken 032 
Tel. 019452-4169 
Mgr.: Mitsuzo Yafuku 



5-70-1 



(032) 

m 019452-4169 



Kyoai Kan 

53-6, 3-chome, Sumida-ku, 

Tokyo 131 

Tel. 03-612^920 

Mgr.: Hideo Fuse 



SOCIAL WORK 



301 



(131) Jpi5CHKff 3-53-6 
m 03-612-4920 
Jtflrl? "ffrStg^tt 

Mead Christian Center 

(Kirisutokyo Mead Shakai 

Kan) 

1-2, Moto Imazato, Higashi 
Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532 
Tel. 06-301^4920 
Mgr.: Chiaki Okamoto 

as 

(532) ;*; 

1-2 

m 06-301-4920 



Nagoya Christian Social Work 
Center 

(Nagoya Kirisutokyo Shakai 
Kan) 

6-17, Miyoshi-cho, Minami- 

ku, Nagoya-shi 457 

Tel. 052-611-7971 

Mgr.: Tadao Ozaki 



H-gflSj 6-17 



Okayama Hakuai Kai 

4-25, Miyuki-cho, Okayama- 
shi 700 

Tel. 0862-72-1161/2 
Dir.-Ggr.: Yoshio Sarai 



(457) 

n 052-611-7971 

/> 



(700) [^[liiU^l^fflT 4-25 
B 0862-72-1161/2 

iWE^f 



Osaka Christian Social Work 
Center 

(Osaka Kirisutokyo Shakai 

Kan) 

6-14, Minamihiraki, Nishi- 
nari-ku, Osaka-shi 557 
Tel. 06-562-1450 
Dir.: Isamu Nishihara 



6-14 



(557) 

m 06-562-1450 

mjs m 



Osaka Shinai Kan 

1-15, Nishi Shijo, Nishinari- 
ku, Osaka 557 
Tel. 06-641-8472 
Mgr.: Yutaka Haneda 



1-15 



Seiwa Social Work Center 

(Seiwa Shakai Kan) 
5-18, Igaino Naka, Ikuno- 
ku, Osaka 544 
Tel. 06-718-1750 
Mgr.: Michiko Yamakawa 



(557) 

m 06-641-8472 



(544) 
5-18 



302 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



06-718-1750 

mm* 

Setagaya Neighborhood Center 

Kita 8-2, 1-chome, Shinio- 

uma, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

154 

Tel. 03^421-4016 

Mgr. : Kimi Nunokawa 

*- ~? v K -b > - 



(154) 

l-.1t 8-2 

n 06-421-4016 



Shinkanjima Yurin Kan 

6-8, Kasugade-cho, Kono- 
hana-ku, Osaka-shi 554 
Tel. 06-461-3713 
Mgr.: Shuichi Ogawa 

(554) *BgmjItraK*BtfiBr4i 

6-8 

fg 06-461-3713 

/NII3I- 

Toryo Yuaikan 

1-1, Nishi Bugyo-machi, 
Fushimi-ku, Kyoto-shi 612 
Tel. 075-611-3307 
Dir.: Haru Kagawa 

(612) gctprimjiKs^fiHr 1-1 

075-611-3307 

*tt*0 

Toyama Heights Neighbour 



hood Center 

No. 7, Toyama Heights, 

Toyama-cho, Shinjuku-ku, 

Tokyo 162 

Tel. 03-341-7245 

Mgr.: Kimi Nunokawa 

J y 3-J ^7 K -b > 



(162) 



06-341-7245 



Yokosuka Christian Social 
Center 

(Yokosuka Kirisutokyo Sha- 
kai Kan) 

2-81, Taura, Yokosuka-shi, 

Kanaga\va-ken 237 

Tel. 0468-61-4163/4 

Mgr.: Shiro Abe 

(237) mm&]mm a-si 

m 0468-61-4163/4 

H^^g|3 

Yodogawa Zenrin Kan 

2-33, Honjo Naka-dori, Oyo- 

do-ku, Osaka 531 

Tel. 06-372-1331 

Mgr.: Kanzaburo Momotani 



(531) 

2-33 

H 06-372-1331 



SOCIAL WORK 303 

3. Women s and Children s Homes 



Aiko-Kai 

Miyadani, Koge-cho, Yazu- 
gun, Tottori-ken 680-05 
Tel. 08587-2-0075 
Mgr.: Koichi Kamaya 

(680-05) H 



08587-2-0075 



Ajiro Boshi-Ryo 

250, Ajiro, Itsukaichi-machi, 

Nishitama-gun, Tokyo 190- 

01 

Tel. 0425-96-0121 

Mgr.: Iwao Sakamoto 



(190-01) 

2BiUH]WS 250 
m 0425-96-0121 



Akita-Fujin Home 

41 Furukawa Shin-machi, 
Narayama, Akita-shi 010 
Tel. 01882-2-3512 
Mgr.: Nobuko Takeda 



41 



01882-2-3512 



Asahigaoka Boshi-Ryo 



45, Higashi Asahigaoka, 
Chiba-shi 280 
Tel. 0472-22-4823 
Mgr.: Fumiko Tanabe 



45 



Bethany Home 

(Betania Home) 
4-1, 5-chome, Kotobashi, 
Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130 
Tel. 03-631-0444 
Mgr.: Sumeru Nagaune 



(280) 

m 0472-22-4823 



(130) 

m 03-631-0444 



Gyokutei-En 

489, Yorii-machi, Osato-gun, 
Saitama-ken 369-12 
Tel. 048581-203 
Dir.-Mgr.: Shoji Endo 



(369-12) 

489 

IB 048581-203 

&m% 



Eisei-Kan Boshi Home 

Sankumi, Shimonoguchi, 

Beppu-shi, Oita-ken 874 



304 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Mgr.: Kotora Nag-ami 



(874) 



Honjo Bethany Boshi-Ryo 

4-1, 5-chome, Kotobashi, Su- 

mida-ku, Tokyo 130 

Tel. 03-631-0444 

Mgr.: Sumeru Nagaaze 



Boshi No le 

2-4, Aotani-cho, 
Kobe-shi 657 
Tel. 078-86-5375 
Dir.: Kazuo Jo 



Nada-ku, 



(657) 

m 078-86-5375 

m - 



2-4 



(130) 

It 03-631-0444 



Ikoi Boshi-Ryo 

2-83, Taura, Yokosuka-shi, 

Kanagawa-ken 237 

Tel. 0468-61-3011 

Mgr.: Kanesaburo Shinkai 



Kobe Fujin Dojo Kai Daini 
fa 5-4-1 Boshi No le 

28 Konakajima, Amagasaki- 
shi, Hyogo-ken 661 
Tel. 06-491-2543 
Dir.-Mgr.: Kazuo Jo 



(661) 

m 06-491-2543 



(237) mm%.fimm 2-83 

m 0468-61-3011 

%\mm=.m 



Kamimeguro Boshi-Ryo 

8-967, Kami Meguro, Megu- 
ro-ku, Tokyo 153 
Tel. 03-466-0864 
Mgr.: Saburo Sekine 



8-967 



28 



Kori Boshi-Ryo 

Miyatani, Kogemachi, Yazu 
gun, Tottori-ken 680-04 
Tel. 085884-2-0075 
Mgr.: Koichi Kamatani 



(153) 

m 03-466-0864 

mm=^ 



Kobe Fujin Dojo Kai Daiichi 



(680-04) 



m 085884-2-0075 

HS^- 

Maebashi Boshi-Ryo 

8-24, 2-chome, Iwagami-ma- 
chi, Maebashi-shi, Gunma- 
ken 371 



SOCIAL WORK 



305 



Tel. 0727-31-9452 
Dir.: Kiyomoto Suda 

(371) itJfiTf 

m 0727-31-9452 



2-8-24 



Naomi Home 

2-44, Tamagawa Todoroki- 

machi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

158 

Tel. 03-701-3481/9813 

Mgr.: Fumiko Takizawa 



(158) 
EEJII^;W 2-44 
m 701-3481 9813 

ffiHtt 

Shin-Ai Hoiku-En Boshi No le 
Kibo-Ryo 

Saiin-cho, Maruta-cho Hi- 



gure Nishi Iru, Agaru, Ka- 
mikyo-ku, Kyoto-shi 602 
Tel. 075-841-5761 
Dir.-Mgr.: Michiko Okabe 



(602) 



075-841-5761 



Shin-Ai Home 

676 Moro Kongo, Moroya- 

mamachi, Iruma-gun, Sai- 

tama-ken 350-04 

Tel. 049294-0440 

Dir.-Mgr. : Kuroto Naka- 

mura 

ffi g fc A 

(350-04) S&B 
^g*5 676 
^ 04924-0440 



4. Homes for the Rehabilitation of Women 



Izumi-Ryo 

521 Oizumi 
Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177 
Tel. 03-924-2002 
Mgr.: Fumio Fukatsu 



(177) 

521 

m 03-924-2002 



Jiai-Ryo 

Gakuenmachi, 3-360, Hyakunin-cho, Shin- 
juku-ku, Tokyo 160 
Tel. 03-368-0553 
Mgr.: Minoru Ohno 

(160) !jtMfP$T?i 
m 03-368-0553 



306 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Kanita Fujin No Mura 

594 Oga Tateyama-shi, Chi- 

ba-ken 294 

Tel. 04702-2-2280 

Mgr.: Fumio Fukatsu 



(294) tmjrffAff 594 
m 04702-2-2280 

n 



Kobe Fujin-Ryo 

3-26, 3-chome, Tenjin-cho, 
Suma-ku, Kobe-shi 654 
Tel. 078-71-3666 
Mgr.: Haruo Nishibuchi 



(654) 

3-3-26 

m 078-71-3666 



Nozomi No Mon Gakuen 

1439, Kawana, Futtsu-machi, 

Kimitsu-gun, Chiba-ken 299- 

13 

Tel. 04788-7-2218 

Mgr.: Dora Mundinger 



(299-13) ^nm 

1439 
04788-7-2218 
K-5- 



Osaka Fujin Home 

1-13, Toyosaki Nishi-dori, 
Oyodo-ku, Osaka-shi 531 
Tel. 06-371-7661 
Mgr.: Koharu Kuwashima 



(531) A 

1-13 

m 06-371-7661 



Salvation Army, Fujin-Ryo 

41-25, 1-chome, Wada, Sugi- 
nami-ku, Tokyo 166 
Tel. 03-381-0992 
Mgr.: Kazuo Nagura 



1-41-25 



(166) 

m 03-381-OJ92 

m^- 



Salvation Army, Tokyo Shin- 
sei-Ryo 

11-13, 4-chome, Shibazaki- 

cho, Tachikawa-shi, Tokyo 

190 

Tel. 0425-22-2306 

Mgr.: Teppei Matsuda 

(190) AllllTU^l&tlHT 4-11-13 
m 0425-22-2306 



5. Medical Institutions for Tuberculosis 



Hakujuji-Kai Murayama Sana 
torium 



2-145, Suwa-machi, Higashi 
Murayama-shi, Tokyo 189 



SOCIAL WORK 



307 



Tel. 0423-91-6111 
Mgr.: Minoru Nomura 

tt \lli- h J ^A 

(189) mfcrujOTtfiBj 2-145 

m 0423-91-6111 

mtt n 

Haruna-So Hospital 

765-1, Kami Murota, Haru- 
na-machi, Gunma-gun, Gun- 
ma-ken 370-33 
Tel. 0273-74-119/255 
Mgr.: Wataru Muramatsu 

(370-33) Mmgpffflj 

gffl 765-1 

m 027374 (gffl) -119; 255 

tt& m 

Haruna-So Takasaki Hospital 

59, Shinden-machi, Taka- 
saki-shi, Gunma-ken 370 
Tel. 0273-23-5032 
Mgr.: Shinju Masaki 

(370) ^ft -rUfffflffll 59 
0273-23-5032 






Kashima Hakujuji Hospital 

5651 Okunotani, Kamisu- 
mura, Kashima-gun, Iba- 
ragi-ken 314-02 
Tel. Ogihara 3-69 
.Mgr.: Masao Nakano 



(314-02) 
H^; 5651 
l^m 36-9 



Ohmi Airin-En Imazu Hospital 

87, Minami Shinpo, Imazu- 
machi, Takashima-gun, Shi- 
ga-ken 520-16 
Tel. 07402-2-2238 
Dir.-Mgr.: Toyoji Sugihashi 



87 

07402-2-2238 



Ohmi Sanatorium 

492, Kitanosho-cho, Ohmi 

HHachiman-shi, Shiga-ken 

523 

Tel. 07483-3-3181 

Mgr.: Masao Yao 



492 



Salvation Army, Seishin Ryo- 
yo-En 

17-9, 1-chome, Takeoka, Ki- 
yose-machi, Kitatama-gun, 
Tokyo 180-04 
Tel. 0424-91-1411/3 
Mgr.: Yoshio Shimada 



(523) 

B 07483-3-3181 



308 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(180-04) 
ft\l 1-17-9 
m 0424-91-14113 
HifflH^c 

Salvation Army, Suginami 
Ryoyojo 

21-35, 2-chome, Wada, Sugi- 
nami-ku, Tokyo 166 
Tel. 03-381-7236/8, 9300 
Mgr. : Taro Nagasaki 

(166) IflMtl^^Kfclffl 2-21-35 
m 03-381-72368, 9300 



Shinai Hospital 

5-9, 2-chome, Umezono, Ki- 
yose-machi, Kitatama-gun, 



Tokyo 180-04 

Tel. 0424-91-3211 

Mgr.: Yukimasa Ichikawa 



(180-04) 

fSH 2-5-9 

n 0424-91-3211 



Shinsei Ryoyojo 

Obusemachi, Kami Takai- 

gun, Nagano-ken 381-02 

Tel. 026247-33 

Mgr. : Katanaka Mutsugu- 

ruma 



33 



(381-02) 






6. Homes for the Elderly 



Ai No Izumi Rojin Home 

15-57, 2-chome, Tsuchide, 
Kazo-shi, Saitama-ken 347 
Tel. 0480-6-1008 
Mgr. : Kiyoshi Takenouchi 



(347) JpJlTf?^ 2-15-57 
m 0480-6-1008 
ftS^ & h ^ K ^ . 
^ J . y b 



Aiyu-En 



4642, Higashihara-cho, Mi- 
to-shi, Ibaragi-ken 310 
Tel. 0292-21-6157 
Mgr.: Shin Yamaguchi 

(310) 7j<pTUi|CJIBT 4642 
m 0292-21-6157 



Akashi Airo-En 

513, Nagasaka-dera, Uo- 
zumi-cho, Akashi-shi, Hyo- 
go-ken 674 



SOCIAL WORK 



309 



Tel. 078-6-2252 

Mgr.: Fumiichiro Yada 

(674) rerU&ffiBIftig^ 513 
m 078-6-2252 



Alice Kan 

643 Maruo, Myotani-cho, 
Tarumi-ku, Kobe-shi 655 
Dir.: Hinsuke Yashiro 



7 



Hakujuji Home 

2-145, Suwa-cho, Higashi 
Murayama-shi, Tokyo 189 
Tel. 0423-92-1375/6 
Mgr.: Minoru Nomura 



2-145 



(189) 

m 0423-92-1375-6 



(655) 

643 



Bethany Home 

525 Nishi Koiso, Oiso- 
machi, Naka-gun, Kana- 
gawa-ken 255 
Tel. 0463-6-0174 
Mgr.: Shigeru Chiba 

^s $t ."!". *^7 jfc i ^ 

/ O rC \ -jrrh -f^ f [ t r ^J r-4-t 5H/ -Jr*7^^ fftT 

/JN^ 525 

m 0463-6-0174 

=^m us 

Hakuju-So 

8-967, Kami Meguro, Me- 
guro-ku, Tokyo 153 
Tel. 03-466-0265 
Dir.-Mgr. : Shigeru Sato 



Haruna Shunko-En 

756-1, Kami Murota, Haru- 

na-machi, Gunma-ken 370- 

33 

Tel. 0273-74-119 

Dir.: Masao Hara 

(370-33) Hm 
m 0273-74-119 

m 



(153) 

03-466-0265 



Jiai-En Rojin Home 

320, Kamimizu-cho, Kuma- 

moto-shi 862 

Tel. 0963-64-2648 

Mgr. : Shunzo Sugimura 



320 



Kamakura Seiyo-Kan 

543 Gokuraku-ji, Kama- 
kura-shi, Kanagawa-ken 248 



(862) 

m 0963-64-2648 



310 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Tel. 0467-2-3245 
Dir.-Mgr.: Mikizo Matsuo 



543 



(248) m 

m 0467-2-3245 

Keiai-Ryo Yogo Rojin Home 

1551 Fukuda, Yamato-shi, 
Kanagawa-ken 242 
Tel. 0462-61-1038 
Mgr.: Kotaro Miyakoda 



175 

0720-76-1181 



(242) Xfa-fcmm 1551 
m 0462-61-1038 



Kokuko Home 

3-848, Kami Takaido, Sugi- 
nami-ku, Tokyo 167 
Tel. 03-391-0165/9152 
Mgr.: Takeo Serizawa 



Maebashi Rojin Home 

12-8, 2-chome, Hiyoshi-cho, 
Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken 
371 

Tel. 0272-31-3430 
Dir.-Mgr.: Kumazo Tanabe 
Sff^^A*~A 
(371) Itf^T^S^ 
m 0272-31-3430 

Miss Upton Memorial Home 

335, Odadani, Moroyama 
cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama- 
ken 350-04 
Mgr. : Naohiko Okubo 



2-12-8. 



(350-04) 



(167) 
3-848 
m 03-391-0165, 9152 



Lutheran Home 

175 Okayama, Shijo Nawa- 

te-machi, Kita Kawachi-gun. 

Osaka 575 

Tel. 0720-76-1181 

Mgr.: Ryo Izumi 

3 5 "C Z> # - A 

(575) 



335 



Nagano Keiro-In 

2-14, Yoshino-machi, Kawa 
chi Nagano-shi, Osaka 586 
Tel. 07-215-3960 
Mgr.: Azusa Shinan 



2-14 



Urizura- 



(586) 

m 07-215-3960 

mm & 



Nazare-En 

361 Nakazato, 



SOCIAL WORK 



311 



machi, Naka-gun, Ibaragi- 

ken 319-21 

Tel. 029296-77 

Mgr. : Yukichi Kotoku 



n 029296-77 

/hflt 

Rojin Home Keisen-En 

765-1, Kami Murota, Haru- 
na-machi, Gunma-gun, Gun- 
ma-ken 370-33 
Tel. 027374-119 
Dr.-Mgr.: Masao Kara 



80 



(370-33) ffi% 
_h^ffl 765-1 
m 027374-119 



St. Hilda Yoro-In 

3-8, Miyoshi-cho, Fuchu- 
shi, Tokyo 183 
Tel. 0423-61-4461 
Mgr.: Mitsuko Sakano 



t ^ 

(183) 

m 0423-61-4461 



3-8 



Sakura-So 

1537, Oritachi, Kengun-cho, 
Kumamoto-shi 862 
Tel. 0963-68-2446 



Mgr.: Soichiro Shiotani 

1537 



(862) 

m 0963-68-2446 

*E^ $$115 

Seiai Home 

2356, Miyaji, Tsuyazaki-cho, 

Munakata-gun, Fukuoka-ken 

811-33 

Tel. 09405-36 

Mgr.: Tokuichi Nishiji 



i3 2356 
09405-36 



Seifu-En 

1412, Kanai-cho, Machida- 
shi, Tokyo 194-01 
Tel. 0427-32-8000 
Mgr.: Noboru Niwa 



1412 



(194-01) 

m 0427-32-8000 

nm & 



Seimei-En 

722, Kurosawa, Ohme-shi, 
Tokyo 198 

Tel. 0428-7-5201/5376 
Mgr.: Akio Honma 



(198) MftmK 722 
m 0428-7-5201, 5376 



312 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(020) 

m 0196-22-3947 



Seiwa-So 

3-14, 4-chome, Kagano, Mo- 
rioka-shi, Iwate-ken 020 
Tel. 0196-22-3947 
Mgr.: Kiyoko Ohara 



4-3-14 



Shijimi Aishin Home 

Misaka, Shijimi-cho, Miki- 
shi, Hyogo-ken 673-05 
Tel. 07948-7-3608 
Dr.-Mgr.: K. Okajima 



(673-05) 



Tel. 023537-0065 
Dir.-Mgr. : Tozo Sato 



(997-12) 

mWfc^fc^. 444 
m 023537-0065 



Shofu Home 

3-848, Kami Takaido, Sugi- 
nami-ku, Tokyo 167 
Tel. 03-391-0165/9152 
Mgr.: Takeo Serizawa 



(167) 

3-848 

m 03-391-0165, 9152 



07948-7-3608 



! J" 



Shinai-So 

2-687, Nagafuchi, Ohme-shi, 

Tokyo 198 

Tel. 0428-2-2283 

Mgr.: Giichi Chiba 

(198) ^m^&m 2-687 
m 0428-2-2283 

=f-mm 

Shion-En Rojin Home 

444 Hamaizumi, Yunohama, 
Tsuruoka-shi, Yamagata-ken 
997-12 



Tokubetsu Yogo Rojin Home 

Juji No Sono, 7220-11, Naka- 
gawa, Hosoemachi, Inasa- 
gun, Shizuoka-ken 431-13 
Tel. 05352-36-1251/4 
Dir.-Mgr.: Seiji Suzuki 



4iJ|| 7220-11 

m 05352-36-1251-4 



Tokyo Rojin Home 

1-3, 4-chome, Yanagisawa, 
Hoya-shi, Tokyo 188 
Tel. 0424-61-2230 
Mgr.: Chima Matsunaga 



SOCIAL WORK 



313 



(188) & &-fiWH 4-1-3 
n 0424-61-2230 



Yokufu-En 

3-848, Kami Takaido, Sugi- 

nami-ku, Tokyo 167 

Tel. 03-391-0165/9152, 398- 

6170 

Dir.: Takeo Serizawa 



(167) 
3-848 



n 03-391-0165, 9152; 
398-6170 



Yuai Home 

188, Kinuta-machi, Seta- 

gaya-ku, Tokyo 157 

Tel. 03-416-1745 

Mgr. : Yoshio Nakagawa 



188 



(157) 

m 03-416-1745 

fWI[&8t 



V. HOSPITALS 

Airinkai Hospital 

967 Kamimeguro 8-chome, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (153) 

03-466-0262, 0264 

Director: Tsunesaburo Nakasawa 
Aisenbashi Hospital 

1-14 Nipponbashi Higashi 5-chome, Naniwa-ku, Osaka- 

shi (556) 06-633-2801 

Director: Dr. Tameo Nishikawa 
Booth Memorial Hospital 

21-35 Wada 2-chome, Suginami-ku, Tokyo (166) 

03-381-7236-8 

Director: Dr. Taro Nagasaki 
Futaba Hospital 

4-1598 Kamiarai, Tokorozawa-shi, Saitama-ken (359) 

0429-22-7725 

Director: Kimitoyo Yamashita 
Hakuaisha Clinic 

65 Motoimasato Kitadori 2-chome, Higashi-Yodogawa-ku, 

Osaka-shi (532) 06-301-5428 

Director: Dr. Hashimoto 
Hakujuji Clinic 

5-2 Fujimi 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (102) 

03-261-6491 

Director: Dr. Minoru Nomura 
Hakujuji Sanatorium 

145 Suwa-machi, 2-chome, Higashimurayama-shi, Tokyo 

(189) 0423-91-6111 

Director: Dr. Minoru Nomura 
Harajuku Medical Office Tokyo Sanitarium Hospital 

11-5 Jingumae 1-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo (150) 

03-401-1282 
Marunaso Hospital 



HOSPITALS 315 

765 Kamimurota, Haruna-machi, Gunma-gun, Gunma-ken 

(370-33) Murota 119 
Harunaso Takasaki Hospital 

59 Shinden-cho, Takasaki-shi, Gunma-ken (370) 

02731-23-5032 

Director: Dr. Araki Masaki 
Japan Baptist Hospital 

47 Kitashirakawa Yamanomoto-machi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 

(606) 075-781-5191 

Director: Dr. C.F. Clark 
Jyofuen Hospital 

19-9 Egota 4-chome, Nakano-ku, Tokyo (165) 

Director: Dr. Toru Sakakibara 
Kashima Hakujuji Hospital 

Okunotani, Kamisu-mura, Kashima-gun, Ibaragi-ken (314) 

Hagihara 369 

Director: Dr. Masao Nakano 
Kinugasa Christian Hospital 

23-1 Koyabe 2-chome, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken (238) 

0468-51-1182 

Director: Dr. Takayoshi Takeda 
Kirisuto-kyo Clinic 

c/o Tokyo YMCA, 7 Mitoshiro-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo> 

(101) 03-294-0808 

Director: Dr. Takejiro Horiguchi 
Kiyosato St. Luke s Clinic 

KEEP Kiyosato, Takane-machi, Kitakoma-gun, Yama- 

nashi-ken (407-03) Kiyosato 112 

Director: Dr. Kikue Uematsu 
Kodokai Hospital 

77 Ohimasato Honcho 5-chome, Higashinari-ku, Osaka-sM 

(537) 06-976-3081 

Director: Dr. Tadashi Kitazono 
Kohakai Adachi Hospital 

1028 Kaga Saranumacho, Adachi-ku, Tokyo (121) 



316 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

03-899-3681 
Kohokai Hospital 

7-1 Nihonzutsumi 2-chome, Daito-ku, Tokyo (111) 

03-872-0058 

Director: Dr. Junichi Nagane 
Kujukuri Home Hospital 

21 likura, Youkaichib-ashi, Chiba-ken (289-21) 

04797-2-1131 

Director: Dr. Takeshi Otani 
Mead Shakaikan Clinic 

50 Motoimasato Minamidori 1-chome, Higashi-Yodogawa- 

ku, Osaka-shi (532) 06-301-4920 

Director: Dr. Hideko Miyata 
Musashino Kirisutokyo Clinic 

10-7 Kichijoji Kitamachi 3-chome, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 

(180) 0422-51-8708 

Director: Dr. Kiyoshi Kanno 
Nagano Shinsei Clinic 

6 Nishinagano, Nagano-shi, Nagano-ken (380) 

02622-3-2652 

Director: Dr. Masaya Amari 
Nakano Kumiai Hospital 

50-16 Chuo 4-chome, Nakano-ku, Tokyo (164) 

03-382-1231-6 

Director: Dr. Seiji Aoki 
Numazu Midori-cho Hospital 

898-1 Honji shita 1-chome, Numazu-shi, Shizuoka-ken 

(410) 0559-62-0392 

Director: Dr. Kimiyo Toyoura 
Ohmi Airinen Imazu Hospital 

87 Minami-niiho, Imazumachi, Takashima-gun, Shiga-ken 

(520-16) 07402-2-2238 

Director: Dr. Toyotsugu Sugihashi 
Ohmi Sanatorium 

492 Kitanosho Ohmihachiman-shi, Shiga-ken (523) 



HOSPITALS 31f 

07483-3-3181 

Director: Dr. Masao Yao 
Okayama Hakuaikai Hospital 

1-9-37 Monden-yashiki, Okayama-shi (700) 

0862-72-1108 

Director: Dr. Shikashi Katayama 
Okayama Hakuaikai Hospital Branch 

4-25 Miyuki-cho, Okayama-shi (700) 0862-72-1161 

Director Dr. Michio Nomura 
Omiya Chuo Hospital 

227 Higashinari-machi 1-chome, Omiya-shi, Saitama-ken 

(330) 0486-42-2501-5 
Osaka Gyomeikan Hospital 

4-7 Naka Kasugaide-machi, Konohana-ku, Osaka-shi (554), 

06-462-0261 

Director: Dr. Yoshiaki Nakanishi 
Osaka Kirisutokyo Shakaikan Clinic 

6-14 Minamihiraki, Nishinari-ku, Osaka-shi (557) 

06-651-7959 

Director: Dr. Jun Ozaki 
Otakebashi Hospital 

53 Senju Sakuragi-cho, Adachi-ku, Tokyo (120) 

03-881-9211 

Director: Dr. Matsuki Tsukamoto 
Palmore Hospital 

4-20 Kita-nagasa-dori, Ikuta-ku, Kobe-shi (650) 

078-33-5056 

Director: Dr. Ren Miyake 
St. Barnabas Hospital 

66 Saikudani-cho, Tennoji-ku, Osaka-shi (543) 

06-771-9236-9 

Director: Dr. Hirozo Yamamura 
St. James (Sei Yakobu Clinic) 

14-35 Nishikameari 2-chome, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo (124> 

Director: Dr. Mie Yamaguchi 



:318 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

St. Luke s International Hospital 

10-1 Akashi-cho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (104) 03-541-5151 

Director: Dr. Hirotoshi Hashimoto 
St. Paul s Hospital 

1710 Kohiki-machi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo (192) 

0426-23-3275 

Director: Dr. Kazuo Komatsu 
Sanikukai Hospital 

20-2 Ohira 3-chome, Sumida-ku, Tokyo (130) 

03-622-9191-4 

Director: Dr. Shoichi Kinoshita 
Sanikukai Tokai Hospital 

Ikeshinden, Hamaoka-machi, Ogasa-gun, Shizuoka-ken 

(437-16) Hamaoka 130 

Director: Dr. Kunio Nakajima 
Sanikukai Toyono Hospital 

Toyono, Toyono-machi, Kamiminachi-gun, Nagano-ken 

(389-11) Toyono 64 

Director: Dr. Nasao Otake 
Seirei Hamamatsu Hospital 

119 Sumiyoshi-cho, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka-ken (430) 

0534-71-3131 

Director: Dr. Kosaku Nakayama 
.Seirei Hospital 

3453 Mikatahara-machi, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka-ken 

(433) 0534-36-1251 

Director: Dr. Kazuo Sekiguchi 
;Seishin Sanatorium 

17-9 Takeoka 1-chome, Kiyose-machi, Kitatama-gun, To 
kyo (180-04) 0424-91-1411 

Director: Yoshio Shimada 
.Shinai Hospital 

5-9 Umezono 2-chome, Kiyose-machi, Kitatama-gun, To 
kyo (180-04) 0424-91-3211 

Director: Dr. Yukimasa Ichikawa 



HOSPITALS 319 

Shinsei Sanatorium 

Obuse-machi, Kamitakai-gun, Nagano-ken (381-02) 

Obuse 33 

Director: Dr. Masanaka Mukuruma 
Shiroganeyama Hospital 

6073 Otoshima, Tamashima, Kurashiki-shi (713) 

0864-2-4148 

Director: Dr. Tadasuke Kageyama 
Teine Luke Hospital 

173 Kanayama, Teine, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido (061-24) 

Director: Dr. Takashi Kamiizumi 
Tokyo Sanitarium Hospital 

17-3 Amanuma 3-chome, Suginami-ku, Tokyo (167) 

03-392-6151 

Director: Dr. C.D. Johnson 
Waseda Clinic 

51 Totsuka-cho 2-chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (160) 

03-341-3330 

Director: Dr. Masatada Tanabe 
Yodogawa Christian Hospital 

57 Awaji-Honcho 1-chome, Higashi-Yodogawa-ku, Osaka- 

shi (532) 06-322-2250-4 

Director: Dr. F.A. Brown 



VI. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROTESTANT 
CHURCHES 

Assembly of God 

Opposite Gate 6 Yokota Air Base 

Tel. (0425) 51-0966 

Pastor: Rev. Paul F. Klahr 
Atonement Evangelical Lutheran Church 

1134 Minamisaga, Kurume-machi, Kitatama-gun, Tokyo 

(188). Tel. (0424) 71-1855 

Pastor: Norbert R. Meier 
Azabu Overseas Chinese Church 

8-12 Moto- Azabu 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo (106) 

Tel. (03) 473-0136 
Calvary Baptist Church 

Near Gate 7 of Tachikawa Air Force Base 

Tel. (0425) 41-5842 

Pastor: Frank L. Tetro Jr. 
Chofu Baptist Church 

1919, 3 Kami Ishihara. Chofu-shi, Tokyo (183) 

Tel. (0422) 43-4724 

Pastor: Rev. Kenneth Brabb 
Far East Church of the Nazarene 

Tama Shunkoen, 280 Kunitachi, Kunitachi-shi, Tokyo 

(186). Tel. (0425) 35-8949 

Pastor: Merrill Bennett 
German Speaking Evangelical Church 

5-26 Kita Shinagawa 6-chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo. 141. 

Tel. (03) 441-0673 

Pastor: Rev. Wenzel Graf von Stosch 
Grace Gospel Church 

5-7 Azumabashi 1-chome, Sumida-ku, Tokyo (130) 

Tel. (03) 622-5248 



FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROTESTANT CHURCHES 321 

International Baptist Church 

60 Nakaodai, Naka-ku, Yokohama (232) 

Tel. (045) 621-6431 

Pastor: Rev. R. C. Bruce 
International Christian University Church 

10-2 Osawa 3-chome, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo (181) 

Tel. (0422) 43-3131 
Kanto Plains Baptist Church 

1181 Aza Musashino, Kawasaki, Hamura-machi, Nishi- 

tama-gun, Tokyo (190-11). Tel. (0425) 51-1915 
Korean Chapel 

c/o Kokusai Eigo Gakko, 1-29 Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 

(151). Tel. (03) 401-4048, Mrs. Kang 

Pastors: Keith C. Lee and K. D. Lee 
Kobe Union Church 

34 Ikuta-cho 4-chome, Fukiai-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyogo-ken, 

651. Tel. (078) 22-9150 

Pastor: Rev. Richard B. Ribble 
Nakagami Baptist Church 

Gate No. 7 of Tachikawa Air Base 

Tel. Kanto Mura 224-9075 

Pastors: Ryosuke Jokura and Guy Marchant 
Religious Society of Friends 

Friends Meeting House, 8-19 Mita 4-chome, Minato-ku, 

Tokyo (108). Tel. (03) 451-7002 
Saint Alban s (Anglican Episcopal) Church 

10 Shiba, Sakae-cho, Minato-ku, Tokyo. 

Tel. (03) 431-8534 

Pastor: Rev. Christopher L. Webber 
St. Paul Evangelical Lutheran Church Services at: 
Tokyo Lutheran Center 

2-32 Fumi-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. 

Tel. (03) 261-5266 

American School in Japan 

Grant Heights Chapel Annex 



322 HOSPITALS 

Pastor: Eev. Carl Westby 
Tokyo Baptist Church 

33 Hachiyama-cho, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo. 

Tel. (03) 461-8425 

Pastor: Rev. Marion F. Moorhead 
Tokyo Union Church 

7-7 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, 150. 

Tel. (03) 400-0047/1942 

Pastors: Rev. Maclyn N. Turnage, Rev. Peter Meister. 
West Tokyo Union Church 

c/o Tokyo Union Theological Seminary, 10-30 Osawa 3- 

chome, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo, 181. Tel. (0422) 45-4185 

Chairman of Steering Committee: Rev. Glenn Gano 



VII. PUBLISHERS 



Bethesda Deaconesses Home 
Publishing Dept. 

(Betesuda Hoshijo Haha no le 

Shuppan-bu) 

526 Oizumi Gakuenmachi, 
Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177 
Tel. 03-924-2238 
Dir. : Fumio Fukatsu 



Tel. 03-294-0775 
Dir.: Robert J. Garry 



(177) 

526 

m 03-923-2238 

i_. =- -+*. 

( v l< a 



Christian Audio-Visual Center 

(Kirisutokyo Shichokaku Sen- 
ta) 

4-13, 4-chome, Shibuya, Shi- 

buya-ku, Tokyo 150 

Tel. 03-400-4121 

Dir.: Seishi Ogawa 



S 4-4-13 



(150) 

a 03-400-4121 



Christian Literature Crusade 

(Kurisuchan Bunsho Dendo- 
dan) 

1-3, 2-chome, Kanda Suru- 
gadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 
101 



i^^n 1 2-1-3 
n 03-294-0775 

ft^if PX H j y; 

Church of The Nazarene Pub 
lishing Dept. 

(Nihon Nazaren Kyodan Shup 
pan-bu) 

8-589, Kami Meguro, Me- 

guro-ku, Tokyo 153 

Tel. 03-466-2416 

Dir.: Shinobu Sekiya 



8-589 



(153) 

m 03-466-2416 

mm 



Commission on Christian Lite 
rature of JNCC 

(Nihon Kirisutokyo Kyogikai 
Bunsho Jigyobu) 

3-1, Ogawa-cho, Shinjuku- 

ku, Tokyo 162 

Tel. 03-260-6520 

Dir.: Tomio Muto 


(162) mMWriK/Niifir 3-1 

n 03-260-6520 



324 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Concordia-Sha 

2-32, 1-chome, Fujimi-cho, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 
Tel. 03-261-5266/7 
Dir.: Hirotatsu Ohtaka 



(102) 

1-2-32 

m 03-261-5266/7 



Education Association of 
Christian Schools in Japan 

(Kirisutokyo Gakko Kyoiku 
Domei) 

5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo- 

ku, Tokyo 104 

Tel. 03-561-7643 

Dir.: Kinjiro Ohki 

(104) 

n 561-7643 



4-5-1 



Evangelical Publishing Depot 

(Dendo Shuppan-sha) 
1-15, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku- 
ku, Tokyo 162 
Tel. 03-260-1059 
Pres.: G. M. Speechley 



1-15 



(162) 

m 03-260-1059 

ft^^t G M 7, h 



Fujimi Shuppan-Sha 



16-4, 3-chome, Nishi Ike- 

bukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 

171 

Tel. 03-982-7089 

Pres. : Kazuho Kashiwazaki 



(171) 

3-16-4 

n 03-982-7089 



n 0272-31-8222 
/h 



Fukuin Dendo Kyodan, Pub 
lishing Dept. 

4-4, 2-chome, Hiyoshi-cho, 

Maebashi-shi, Gunma-ken 

371 

Tel. 0272-31-8222 

Dir.: Seiichi Kobayashi 



2-4-4 



Fukuinkan-Shoten 

1-9, 1-chome, Misaki-cho, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-91 
Tel. 03-292-3401 
Dir.: Tadashi Matsui 

(101-91) mmfP^ftfflKHH^firr 

1-1-9 

m 03-292-3401 

%km m 

Immanuel General Mission. 
Publishing Dept. 



PUBLISHERS 



325 



{Imanueru Sogo 

.Shuppan-bu) 

9th Fl., Shin Kokusai Bldg., 
3-4, Marunouchi, Chiyoda- 
ku, Tokyo 100 
Tel. 03-211-2746 
Dir.: Fumio Tsutada 



(100) 

flfffll 

S 03-211-2746 



Dendodan (Nihon Araiansu Kyodan 
Shuppan-bu) 

12-2, 5-chome, Sanban-cho, 

Matsuyama-shi, Ehime-ken 

790 

Tel. 0899-21-1009 

Dir.: Kazuroku Fujiie 



5-12-2 



Itoh Setsu Shobo 

1-3, 2-chome, Otowa, 
kyo-ku, Tokyo 112 
Tel. 03-941-9179 
Dir.: Kimiko Itoh 



(790) 

m 0899-21-1009 



Japan Assemblies of God Lite 
rature Dept. 

Bun- 3-430, Komagome, Toshima- 
ku, Tokyo 170 
Tel. 03-918-0497 
Dir.: Ryunosuke Kikuchi 

-fe > 7 J - X - * 7 3 , y 



(112) 

^ 03-941-9179 



(170) 

n 03-918-0497 



2-1-3 



Izumi-Sha 

2-117, Zoshigaya, Setagaya- Japan Bible Society 

ku, Tokyo 157 

Tel. 03-483-1178 

Dir.: Ichitaro Nakajima 



3-430 



(157) 
2-117 
03-483-1178 



Japan Alliance Church Pub 
lishing Dept. 



(Nihon Seisho Kyokai) 

5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo- 
ku, Tokyo 104 
Tel. 03-567-1986 
Pres.: Shiro Murata 



4-5-1 



Japan Biblical Seminary Pub- 



(104) 

m 03-567-1986 



326 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



lication Dept. fg 

(Nihon Seisho Shingakko ft 
Shuppan-bu) 

1-492, Shimo Ochiai, Shin- 

juku-ku, Tokyo 161 

Tel. 03-951-1101/3 

Dir.: Gosaku Okada 



075-441-1486 



(161) 

m 03-951-1101/3 



Japan Jesus Christ Church 
Publications Board 

(Nihon lesu Kirisuto Kyodan 
Shuppan Kyoku) 
Higashi Imakoji-cho, Kitano, 



Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto 
Tel. 075-441-1486 
Dir.: Taizo Okamoto 



602 



(602) 



1-492 



Japan Church Music Publish 
ing Society, The 

(Kirisutokyo Ongaku Shup- 
pan) 

2-193, Ogikubo, Suginami- 

ku, Tokyo 167 

Tel. 03-334-3247 

Dir.: Hidesaburo Kioka 

(167) HMP^Kra 2-193 
m 03-334-3247 



Japan Publishing House 

(Fukuin-sha) 

1960, Kami Kawai-cho r 
Hodogaya-ku. Yokohama-shl 
241 

Tel. 045-951-1385 
Pres.: R. W. Pohle 

-Jgn-E-J-L 

taeft 

JI|#ffiJ I960 
n 045-951-1385 

L^^^-^f. "D \1(T _LP 

Japan Sunday School Union 

(Nihon Nichiyo Gakko Joset 
Kyokai) 

21-3, 5-chome, Mita, Minato- 

ku, Tokyo 108 

Tel. 03-447-4781/2 

Dir.: Edwin W. Fisch 



(108) HM^KHffl 5-21-3 

n 03-447-4871/2 

ft^t x K V 4 > W 7 



Jordan Press 

(Yorudan-sha) 
2-350, Nishi Okubo, Shin 
juku-ku, Tokyo 160 
Tel. 03-351-2166 
Dir.: Toshio Kusanagi 



PUBLISHERS 



327 



(160) 
2-350 
m 351-2166 

Kirisuto Shimbun-Sha 

3-1, Shin Ogawa-cho, Shin- 
juku-ku, Tokyo 162 
Tel. 03-260-6445 
Dir.: Tomio Muto 



J 7. 

(162) 

n 03-260-6445 



Kirisutokyo Jyoshiki-Sha 

33-1, 5-chome, Chuo, Naka- 
no-ku, Tokyo 164 
Tel. 03-381-8011 
Dir.: Shigeru Saito 

4 j* hsmntfc 

5-33-1 



(164) 

m 03-381^8011 



Kirisutokyo Kyojokai Shup- 
pan-Bu 

5 Sakuragaoka, Shibuya-ku, 

Tokyo 150 

Tel. 03-461-7088 

Dir.: Naritaka Okuda 



(150) 

m 461-7088 



5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo- 
ku, Tokyo 104 
Tel. 03-561-8446 
Pres.: Kokichi Ukai 



4-5-1 



(104) 

m 03-561-8446 



Nippon Seikokai Publications 
Division, The 

(Nippon Seikokai Shuppan 
Jigyo-bu) 

4-21, 1-chome, Higashi, Shi 

buya-ku, Tokyo 150 

Tel. 03-407-2452 

Dir.: Atsushi Sasaki 



1-4-21 



Omi Brotherhood Kosei-Sha 

(Omi Kyodaisha, Kosei-sha) 
Moto, Uoyamachi, Omi 
Hachiman-shi, Shiga-ken 523 
Tel. 07483-2-3131 
Dir.: Tsuneo Nishigori 



(150) 

n 03-407-2452 



(523) 

m 07483-2-3131 



Kyo Bun Kwan 



Protestant Publishing Co., Ltd. 

(Shinkyo Shuppan-sha) 
3-1, Shin Ogawamachi, Shin- 



328 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



juku-ku, Tokyo 162 
Tel. 03-260-6148 
Pres.: Norie Akiyama 



2-17, Kanda Jinbo-cho, Chi- 
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101 
Tel. 03-263-7311/5 
Dir.: Koshi Hasegawa 



03-260-6148 






Reap 

(Reinforcing Evangelists & 
Aiding Pastors) 

Mission, Inc., 1-43, Kotake- 

cho, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 176 

Tel. 03-958-1581 

Dir.: Kenny Joseph 



(101) 

W^BT 2-17 

m 03-263-7311-5 



Seibunsha 

3-16, Shin Ogawamachi, 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162 
Tel. 03-269-7751 
Dir.: Tamiji Katsube 



(176) 



03-958-1581 



1-43 (162) 
3-16 



- - i/ a -fe 



269-7751 






Reika Tomonokai Shuppan-Bu 

9-17, 2-chome, Kita Shina- Seishi-Sha 

gawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 

160 

Tel. 03-471-4616 

Dir.: Joji Aimi 



(160) |gj5C^ 

2-9-17 

m 03-471-4616 

UK 



6-12, 5-chome, Igusa, Sugi- 
nami-ku, Tokyo 167 
Tel. 03-399-8573 
Dir.: Yoshii Yanase 



5-6-12 



(167) 

m 03-399-8573 



Salvationist Publishing and 
Supplies, Ltd. 

( Kyuseigun Shuppan Kyoyo- 
bu) 



Seisho Tosho Publishers 

116 Sakanamachi, Sendai- 

shi 980 

Tel. 0222-23-1458 

Dir.: James Penner 



PUBLISHERS 



329 



Tokyo Office: c/o Seisho 

Shingakusha, 2-565, Nari- 

mune, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 

166 

Tel. 03-313-4389 

(980) li!jTfflJ 116 
n 0222-23-1458 



-jr 



(166) 



2-565 



r 03-313-4389 



Seito-Sha 

1806, Mitamachi, Kishi- 
wada-shi, Osaka 596 
Tel. 0724-45-0813 
Dir. : Shakuhiko Naka 

(596) *S 

1806 

M 0724-45-0813 



Shin-Ai Shuppan-Sha 

76 Higashiogi, Suginami-ku, 
Tokyo 167 

Tel. 03-391-5531/7750 
Pres. : Kazuo Kaneda 



76 



Shobi Shuppan-Sha 

16-4, 1-chome, Yayoi-cho, 



(167) 

n 03-391-5531, 7750 



Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164 
Tel. 03-372-5946 
Dir.: Taro Nakada 

(164) iptM^W 

1-16-4 

m 03-372-5946 



(167) 

n 03-398-5778 



Taishindo 

1-139, Nishi Ogikubo, Sugi 

nami-ku, Tokyo 167 

Tel. 03-398-5778 

Dir.: Masahiro Ichikawa 



1-139 



Tamagawa University Press 

(Tamagawa Daigaku Shup- 

pan-bu) 

1-1, 6-chome, Tamagawa 

Gakuen, Machida-shi, To 

kyo 194 

Tel. 0427-32-9111 

Dir.: Kuniyoshi Ohara 



6-1-1 



(194) 

n 0427-32-9111 

^&m^ 



Tomoshibi-Sha 

2-86, Kita Nagao-cho, Sakai- 
shi, Osaka 591 
Tel. 0722-52-1947 



330 PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 

Dir.: Toshio Saito 7 /* j]/ &Mj& 



(591) PrfclbSMBJ 2-86 
i\l 0722-52-1947 



Tosen-Sha 

1-1477, Mawarida-cho, Hi- 

gashi Murayama-shi, Tokyo 

189 

Tel. 0423-91^3075 

Dir.: Kanji Komi 



(189) mWLlj 

m 0423-91-3075 



1-1477 



United Church of Christ in 
Japan, Board of Publications 

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan Shup- 
pan Kyoku) 

5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo- 

ku, Tokyo 104 

Tel. 03-561-6131 

Dir.: Masao Tsuboi 



4-5-1 



Upper Room 

7-5, 4-chome, Sakai Minami- 

cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 

180 

Tel. 0422-43-7006 

Editor: Kenji Ochida 



(104) 

fS 03-561-6131 



(180) nmmifimm- 4-7-5 
m 0422-43-7006 

m^^=. 

Word of Life Press 

(Inochi no Kotoba-sha) 
6 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku 
ku, Tokyo 160 
Tel. 03-353-9345 
Dir.: Kenneth McVety 



03-353-9345 



YMCA Press 

(Nihon YMCA Domei Shup- 
pan-bu) 

6th FL, 2nd Kosuga Bldg. r 

30 Ryogoku, Nihonbashi, 

Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103 

Tel. 03-861-7838 

Dir.: Arata Ikeda 
B YMCA mm&ffi.^ 

(103) atjRfB#*ix0#iiWH 

30 %*2?xtft r 6m 
m 03-861-7838 



Yamamoto Shoten 

23 Honmura-cho, Ichigaya, 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162 
Tel. 03-268-2056 
Dir.: Nanahei Yamamoto 



PUBLISHERS 



331 



(162) 



23 



03-268-2056 



VIII. MASS COMMUNICATION AGENCIES 



Audio-Visual Activities Com- 
mision of Japan National 
Christian Council 

(AVACO) 

4-13, 4-chome, Shibuya, Shi 
buya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150 
Tel. 03-400-4121 
Gen. Sec.: Seishi Ogawa 

8 

(AVACO) 

(150) mWSK8$ 4-4-13 

m 03-400-4121 

^n\mm 

Baptist Evangelical Broadcast 
ing Center 

(Baputesuto Fukuin Hoso Sen- 
ta) 

Sapporo C.P.O. Box 201, 

Sapporo-shi 060-91 

Tel. 0122-56-6990 

Sec. : Kunihiko Sugawara 



(060-91) 

201 -if 
m 0122-56-6990 

mm 

Christian Audio-Visual Center 

(Kirisutokyo Shichokaku Sen- 
ta) 

4-13, 4-chome, Shibuya, Shi 

buya-ku, Tokyo 150 



Tel. 03-400-4121/5 
Gen. Sec.: Seishi Ogawa 
jll-fMP ! -t: > 

i H -A. LTD fl*i> JTCJ **^ x 

(150) ^HSPS^^KS^S 4-4-13 
S 03-400-4121-5 



v * ^ -v 

(535) 

m 06-951-5882 



Christian Broadcasting Asso 
ciation 

(Kurischan Hoso Kyokai) 
6-14, Nakamiya-cho, Asahi- 
ku, Osaka 535 
Tel. 06-951-5882 
Chr.: Eiichi Taniyama 



6-14 



Evangelical Alliance Mission, 
Audio Visual Education Dept. 

(Team-Aved) 

10-8, 3-chome, Umegaoka, 

Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154 

Tel. 03-420-2367 

Dir.: Donn H. Goss 
? - A 7 ^ K 

(154) 

3-10-8 

m 420-2367 

ft^lf K - > 



H 



Far East Broadcasting Co. 



MASS COMMUNICATION AGENCIES 



333 



(Kyokuto Hoso) 
2-1, Kanda Surugadai, Chi- 
yoda-ku, Tokyo 101 
Tel. 03-291-0364/5 
Dir.: James Barham 



(101) 

mm-a 2-1 ^^. 

m 03-291-0364/5 



Japan Baptist Convention, 
"Baptist Hour" 

(Nihon Baputesuto Renmei) 
2-350, Nishi Okubo, Shin- 
juku-ku, Tokyo 160 
Tel. 03-361-2166 
Dir. : Fumitaro Kimura 



7 7 J 

(160) 

m 03-361-2166 



-350 



Japan Mennonite Brethren 
Conference, "A Light of The 
World" 

(Nihon Menonaito Brezaren 
Kyodan, "Yo no Hikari") 

3-4, 2-chome, Shoen, Ikeda- 

shi, Osaka 563 

Tel. 727-51-9221 

Dir.: Sam Krause 



2-3-4 



0727-51-9221 

^ -9- A H 



Japan Mennonite Church Con 
ference, "A Light of The 
World" 

(Nihon Menonaito Kyogikai, 

- Yo no Hikari") 

6-chome, Kita Odori, Kushi- 
ro-shi, Hokkaido 085 
Sec.: Hiroshi Kaneko 



(085) 



Japan Mission Broadcasting 
Evangelism 

(Nihon Mission Hoso Dendo) 
242-3, Hanyuno, Habikino- 
shi, Osaka 583 
Tel. 0729-55-1348 
Dir.: Cornelio Faber 



242-3 



(583) m 

a 0729-55-1348 

f^;g- a ;i/ 4- J 



Jiyu Christian Crusade, "Be 
yond The Sunset" 

("Yuhi no Kanatani) 
25-22, 2-chome, Tahara, 
Fukui-shi 910 
Tel. 0776-22-6315 
Dir.: Arne Hemmingby 



(563) 



334 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(910) H#tffEHfC 2-25-22 
m 0776-22-6315 

^\ > ? h* -f 



Kinki Christian Audio-Vidual 
Center 

(Kinki Kirisutokyo Shicho- 

kaku Senta) 

c/o Osaka Christian Center, 
5151 Niemon-cho, Higashi- 
ku, Osaka 540 
Tel. 06-762-7701 
Dir. : Doris Schneider 



(540) 



06-762-7701 

Lutheran Hour 

2-32, 1-chome, Fujimi-cho, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 
Tel. 03-261-2288 
Mgr.: Masaharu Harada 

ft#j]/ TJl 7? - 

(102) mM 

1-2-32 

fg 03-261-2288 



Lutheran World Federation 
Broadcasting Service Tokyo 
Office 

(Sekai Luteru Renmei "Mass 
Media" Kenkyusho Tokyo Shi- 
kyoku) 



Room No. 624, Nikkatsu 
Hotel, 1-1, Yurakucho, Chi 
yoda-ku, Tokyo 100 
Tel. 03-213-4860 
Dir.: George L. Olson 



7] 



m 03-213-4860 

]fo ft i^ 3 i? L ^ ;l/ V > 

Minami Presbyterian Church 
Radio Evangelism Dept., 
"Time for Christ" 

(Minami Choro Kyokai Rajio 
Dendobu, "Kirisuto eno Ji- 
kan") 

4-33, Chikara-cho, Higashi- 

ku, Nagoya-shi 461 

Tel. 052-941-6421 

Gen. Sec.: J. A. McAlpine 



4-33 



Missions to Japan, Inc., "Voice 
of Life" 

(Nihon Fukuin Senkyodan, 

"Inochi no Koe") 

10-6, Hamada-machi, Kure- 
shi, Hiroshima-ken 737 
Tel. 0823-21-8904 



(461) 

n 052-941-6421 

J A v # ;l/ 1? 



MASS COMMUNICATION AGENCIES 



335 



Dir.: Ray T. Pedigo 



(737) SrU^Egpjf io_6 
m 0828-21-8904 
ft^^t i"f T 1 7- n 

Nazarene Hour 

8-589, Kami Meguro, Megu- 

ro-ku, Tokyo 153 

Tel. 03-644-2414 

Chr.: Yozo Seo 

Sec.: Takashi Uematsu 



Tel. 03-400-4121/5 
Dir.: Seishi Ogawa 



(150) 

s^ 

m 03-400-4121/5 



4-4-13 



)- -tf ix > 
(153) 
03-644-2414 



8-589 



Nishi Nippon Shinseikan 

1-27, Naka Gofukumachi, 
Fukuoka-shi 812 
Tel. 092-29-0973 
Pres.: Glenn Bruggers 



1-27 



(812) 

n 092-29-0973 



New Life League Pacific Broadcasting Associa- 

(Shinsei Undo Kyoryoku Kai) tion 
1736, Katayama, Niiza- (Taiheiyo Hoso Kyokai) 
machi, Kita Adachi-gun, 
Saitama-ken 352 



Tel. 0424-71-1625 
Pres.: Cliff Reimer 



10-8, 3-chome, Umegaoka, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154 
Tel. 03-420-3166/8 
Gen. Manager: A. J. Seely 



(154) 
3-10-8 

m 03-420-3166-8 
A J - 



(352) 

1V36 
0424-71-1625 



Nihon Kirisutokyo Hoso Rem- Sweden Orebro Mission 

mei 122 Minato Aoi-cho, Waka- 

c/o AVACO, 4-13, 4-chome, yama-shi 640 
Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo Tel. 0734-23-8574/8911 
150 Dir.: B. Hagstrom 



336 



PROTESTANT CHURCH DIRECTORY 



7* X. -T > % ]/ ~f P < -y ~> 3 > 

(640) MOjTfJ^BT 122 
m 0734-23-8574, 8911 
ft&% B >\->f7. hn A 

Takaoka Baptist Church, 
"Story About The Bible" 

(Takaoka Baputesuto Kyokai, 

"Seisho no Hanashi") 

9-24, Naka Kawamoto-cho, 

Takaoka-shi, Toyama-ken 

933 

Tel. 0766-23-6655 

Dir.: F. L. Pickering 



(933) 

fg 0766-23-6655 

^^ F L t 



9-24 



United Church of Christ in 
Japan, Joint Broadcasting 
Committee 

(Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan Hoso 



Dendo Kyodo linkai) 

5-1, 4-chome, Ginza, Chuo- 
ku, Tokyo 104 
Tel. 03-561-6131/7713 
Sec. : Kiyoshi Takai 

. JBC ifcjgEil&B 
(JBC) 

(104) mMWiKM^ 4-5-1 
m 561-6131-7713 



Voice of Prophesy 

(Yogen no Koe) 
846 Kami Kawai-cho, Hodo- 
gaya-ku, Yokohama-shi 241 
Tel. 045-951-2421 
Mgr.: Masuichi Kamoda 



(241) 

846 
045-951-2421 



IX. OTHER 



Gideons International in Japan 

(Nihon Kokusai Gideon Kyo- 
kai) 

Toko Bldg., 12 Tomoe-cho, 

Shiba Nishikubo, Minato-ku, 

Tokyo 105 

Tel. 03-434-1010 

Chr.: Tomojiro Kobayashi 



(105) m35C 
12 jfOfctouft 
m 03-434-1010 



Japan Christian Medical Asso 
ciation 

(Nihon Kirisuto-sha Ika Ren- 
mei) 



3-1, Ogawa-cho, Shinjuku- 
ku, Tokyo 162 
Tel. 03-269-7247 
Chr.: Eiichi Kamiya 



(162) 

m 03-269-7247 



Osaka Christian Center 

515, Niemon-cho, Higashi 
ku, Osaka-shi 540 
Tel. 06-762-7701/3 
Dir.: Sotaro Yamazaki 



(540) 

n 06-762-7701 



X. STATISTICS 

Schools (Protestant) Statistics 

Number of Number of 

Grades Schools Students 

Graduate School 12 719 

College 32 122,296 

Junior College 49 28,477 

Senior High School 108 83,687 

Junior High School 83 28,421 

Elementary School 29 6,917 

Seminary 67 2,050 

Speciality School 71 24,949 
Others 

Total 451 297,516 

Kindergarten 976 105,188 

Sum Total 1,427 402,704 
* from Kirisutokyo Nenkan 1968. 



Other Statistics 

Nursery Schools 429 

Nurseries (Baby care) 5 

Clinics, Clinics for mothers 46 

Homes for the Handicapped 49 

Asylums 29 



PART III 
CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



1. CHURCH HEADQUARTERS: CENTRAL 
ADMINISTRATION 



Japan Bishops Conference 

Pres.: Cardinal Tatsuo Doi 
Vice-Pres.: Archbishop Yo- 
shigoro Taguchi 
Members: The Bishops of 
Japan 



(102) ^ 

10-1 

m 03-262-3691/3 



Permanent Committee 

Chr. : Cardinal Tatsuo Doi 
Vice-Chr.: Archbishop Yo- 
shigoro Taguchi 
Members: Bishop Katsusa- 
buro Arai, Bishop Satoshi 
Nagae, Bishop Arikata Ko- 
bayashi 

Address: National Catholic 
Committee of Japan, (Gen 
eral Secretariat) (NCCJ), 
10-1, Rokubancho, Chiyoda- 
ku, Tokyo 102 
Tel. 03-262-3691/3 
Sec. Gen.: Rev. Tadayoshi 
Tamura 

Assis. Sec.: Rev. James E. 
McElwain 



Episcopal Commissions 
Doctrine of the Faith 

Fukuoka 

Tel. 092-87-4943 

Chr.: Archbishop Satowaki 

Church Administration 

NCCJ 

Tel. 03-262-3691 

Chr.: Archbishop Taguchi 

Liturgy 

NCCJ 

Tel. 03-264-0875 

Chr.: Bishop Nagae 

Church Legislation 
Osaka 

Tel. 0798-33-0921 

Chr.: Archbishop Taguchi 

Seminaries and Clergy 
NCCJ 

Tel. 03-262-3691 

Chr.: Archbishop Taguchi 



342 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Lay Apostolate 

NCCJ 

Tel. 03-262-3691 

Chr.: Bishop Tomizawa 

Education 

NCCJ 

Tel. 03-262-2662 

Chr.: Archbishop Taguchi 

Social and Welfare 

Yokohama 

Tel. 045-641-0901 

Chr.: Bishop Arai 

Public Information 

NCCJ 

Tel. 03-262-3695 

Chr.: Bishop Kobayashi 

Emigration 
NCCJ 

Tel. 03-262-3695 
Chr.: Archbishop Taguchi 

Terminology 

NCCJ 

Tel. 03-262-3691 

Chr.: Bishop Hirata 

Ecumenism 
NCCJ 

Tel. 03-262-3691 
Chr.: Bishop Ito 

Non-Christians 



NCCJ 

Tel. 03-262-3691 

Chr.: Bishop Nagae 

Apostolic Nunciature 

9-2, Sanban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, 

Tokyo 102 

Tel. 03-263-6851 

Chr. : Archbishop Bruno 

Wiistenberg 

Local Administration 

Dioceses of Japan 
Tokyo 

Cardinal Tatsuo Doi 

Coadjutor Archbishop Sei- 

ichi Shirayanagi 

3-16-15, Sekiguchi, Bunkyo- 

ku, Tokyo 112 

Tel. 03-943-2301 



(112) 
16-15 
m 03-943-2301 



Nagasaki 

Archibishop Asajiro Sato- 

waki 

1, Otsu, Minami Yamate-cho, 

Nagasaki 850 

Tel. 0958-23-2934 



2-1 



(850) 

m 0958-23-2934 



CHURCH HEADQUARTERS 



343 



Osaka 

Archbishop Yoshigoro Ta- 

guchi 

1-55, Nishiyama-cho, Koyo- 

en, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo- 

ken 662 

Tel. 0798-3:5-0921 



(662) &JmSWTWRgS 

HlilfflJ 1-55 

m 0798-33-0921 

Fukuoka 

Bishop Saburo Hirata 

39, Josui-dori, Fukuoka 810 

Tel. 092-53-5323 



39 



(810) 

m 092-53-5323 



Hiroshima 

Bishop Yoshimatsu Noguchi 

4-42, Nobori-cho, Hiroshima 

730 

Tel. 0822-21-6017 



(730) ESrfrRPJ 4-42 
m 0822-21-6017 

Kagoshima 

Bishop Shinichi Itonaga 
1685, Toso, Tagami-cho, Ka 
goshima 890 
Tel. 09922-4-1670 



(890) 

1685-2 

m 09922-4-1670 



Kyoto 

Bishop Yoshiyuki Furuya 

418, Shimo Maruya-machi, 

Sanjo-Agaru, Kawara- 

machi, Nakakyo-ku, Kyoto 

604 

Tel. 075-231-2756 

(604) MrfJ^rnKMlCffiT 
H&;i>T&MT 418 
m 075-231-2756 

Nagoya 

Bishop Nobuo Soma 

21, Nunoike-cho, Higashi- 

ku, Nagoya 461 

Tel. 052-971-2223 



(461) 

m 052-971-2223 



21 



Niigata 

Bishop Shojiro Ito 
656, Ichiban-cho, Higashi 
Ohata-dori, Niigata 951 
Tel. 0252-22-7457 



(951) SfJSltK 
n 0252-22-7457 



Oita 

Bishop Takaaki Hirayama 



344 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



30-7, Chuo-machi 3-chome, 

Oita 870 

Tel. 09752-2-2452 



3-7-30 



(870) 

m 09752-2-2452 



1-30, Tokhva C-chome, Ura 

wa 336 

Tel. 0488-22-3285 



(336) 

n 0488-22-3285 



6-1-30 



Sapporo 

Yokohama 

Bishop Takahiko Tomizawa . , ,, , 

Bishop Katsusaburo Arai 

44, Yamate-cho, Naka-ku, 
Yokohama 231 



10, Higashi 6-chome, Kita 
1-jo, Sapporo 060 
Tel. 0122-24-2785 



(060) *m-ftit 

m 0122-24-2785 



10 



Sendai 

Bishop Arikata Kobayashi 

161, Moto Terakoji, Sendai 

980 

Tel. 0222-22-7371 



161 



Tel. 045-641-0901 



(231) 

m 045-641-0901 



44 



(980) ^ 

m 0222-22-7371 



Takamatsu 

Bishop Eikichi Tanaka 



Ryukyu Islands 

Bishop Felix Ley 

377, Sobe, Naha-shi, Oki 

nawa 

Tel. Naha 2-2020 



7 X 

(377) 



377 



2-2020 



Missionary Coordination: 



8-9, Sakura-machi 1-chome, } Conference of Major Religious 



Takamatsu 760 
Tel. 0878-31-6659 



(760) 

n 0878-31-6659 

Urawa 

Bishop Satoshi Nagae 



Superiors 

Pres.: Rev. Arthur Newell, 
S.A. 

l_g_g Vice-Pres.: Rev. Raymond 
Renson, C.I.C.M. 
Treasurer: Brother Maurice 
Picard, F.S.C. 
Sec.: Rev. Ward Biddle C.P. 



CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 



345 



National Catholic Commit 
tee, 10-1, Rokuban-cho, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 
Tel. 03-262-3691 

Association of Religious Con 
gregations of Sisters in Japan 

Pres.: Sister Takamine 
Vice-Pres.: Sister Takeda 
Treasurer: Sister Seki 



Sec.: Sister Ebihara 

Councillors: Sisters Keogh, 

Ruiz, Koide 

Sisters of St. Maur, 7-5, Ni- 

ban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 

102 

Tel. 03-261-4306 

(102) 

m 03-261-4306 



2. CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 
(UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES) 

Seminaries: n 03-261-9640 

Tokyo Regional Seminary ~$- 1=3 - 
Theology Department 

191, Sekimachi 2-chome, Ne- St. Sulpice Regional Seminary 

rima-ku, Tokyo 177 1900, Shinshoen, Katae, Fu- 

Tel. 03-920-2121 kuoka 814 

Rec.: Rev. Ludwig Arm- Tel. 092-87-4943 

bruster, S.J. Rec.: Rev. Yoshiyuki Takaki 



1000 



(177) 

a 03-920-2121 



2-191 



Philosophy Department 



(814) 

ft 092-87-4943 

St. Mary s College 



4, Yonbancho, Chiyoda-ku, (Jesuit Seminary) 

Tokyo 102 1-710, Kami-Shakujii, Neri- 



Tel. 03-261-9640 

Rec.: Rev. Shogo Hayashi, 

S.J. 



(102) 



ma-ku, Tokyo 177 
Tel. 03-929-0847 
Rec.: Rev. Edmundus 
mes, S.J. 



Ne- 



346 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(177) JftRfttt* 
1-710 

m 03-929-0847 



St. Bonaventure 

(Conventual Franciscan Semi 
nary) 

2-2100, Aoba-cho, Higashi 

Murayama-shi, Tokyo 189 

Tel. 0423-91-2074 

Rec.: Rev. Sunao Yamaura, 

O.F.M. Conv. 



2-2100 



(189) 

m 0423-91-2074 



Society of Divine Word 

70, Yagumo-cho, Showa-ku, 

Nagoya 466 

Tel. 052-832-2082 

Rec.: Rev. Anthony Zimmer 

man, S.V.D. 



70 



(466) 

052-832-2082 



Salesians of Don Bosco 

21-12, Fujimi-cho 3-chome, 
Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182 
Tel. 0424-82-3117 
Rec.: Rev. Carmelo Simon- 
celli, S.D.B. 



(182) H7iJrf?gJlfflT 3-21-12 
m 0424-82-3117 



St. Anthony 

(Franciscan Seminary) 
370, Tamagawa Seta-machi, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158 
Tel. 03-700-0652 
Rec.: Rev. Eugenio Pinci, 
O.F.M. 



ass) 
mmwj 370 

m 03-700-0652 

Our Lady of Hope 

(Oblate Fathers Seminary) 
287, Sekimachi 6-chome, 
Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177 
Tel. 03-920-8265 
Rec.: Rev. Joseph Hofmans, 
O.M.I. 



6-287 



(177) 

m 03-920-8265 



Redemptorist 

5-16, Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, 

Tokyo 151 

Tel. 03-466-0361 

Rec.: Rev. Noboru Yoshi- 

yama, C.Ss.R. 



(151) Jflm 

m 03-466-0361 



5-16 



Universities and Junior Col 
leges: 



CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 



347 



Eichi University and Junior 
College 

10-1, Naeda, Nakoji, Ama- 
gasaki-shi, Hyogo-ken 661 
Tel. 06-491-5083 
Pres.: Rev. Hideshi Kishi 



10-1 



06-491-5083 



Elizabeth University of Music 

4-15, Nobori-cho, Hiroshima 

730 

Tel. 0822-21-0918 

Pres.: Rev. Ernest Goossens, 

S.J. 



(730) jftrf?W 4-15 
m 0822-21-0918 

Fuji Women s College and Jun 
ior College 

Nishi 2-chome, Kita 16-jo, 

Sapporo 065 

Tel. 0122-73-0311 

Pres.: Sister M. Helena 

Makino 



(065) 

ft 0122-73-0311 



Kaisei Women s University 
and Junior College 



7-1, Aodani-cho 2-chome, 

Nada-ku, Kobe 657 

Tel. 078-86-1325 

Pres.: Sister M. Madeleine 

Guerlet 



(466) 

n 052-832-3111 



(657) flJFi7fJJ8K1fBJ 2-7-1 
m 078-86-1325 

Nanzan University 

18, Yamazato-cho, Sho\va- 

ku, Nagoya 466 

Tel. 052-832-3111 

Pres.: Rev. Kiichi Numa- 

zawa, S.V.D. 



18 



Notre Dame Seishin Women s 
College 

16-9, Ifuku-cho 2-chome, 

Okayama 700 

Tel. 0862-52-1155 

Pres.: Sister Kazuko Wata- 

nabe 



2-16-9 



Notre Dame Women s College 

Minami Nonogami-cho, Shi- 
mo-gamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 
606 



/- 
(700) 
n 0862-52-1155 



348 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Tel. 075-781-1173 

Pres.: Sister Mary Eugenia 



(606) m 



a 075-781-1173 

Sacred Heart University 

3-1, Hiroo 4-chome, Shibuya- 

ku, Tokyo 150 

Tel. 03-400-1803 

Pres.: Sister Setsuko Mi- 

yoshi 



4-3-1 



Seisen Women s College 

16-21, Higashi Gotanda 3- 

chome, Shinagawa-ku, To 

kyo 141 

Tel. 03-443-1367 

Pres.: Sister Yasuko Uchi- 

yama 



(150) UijiJvas 
fl 03-400-1803 



(141) jfiM 

3-16-21 

m 03-443-1367 



Shirayuri Women s College 

1-25, Midorigaoka, Chofu- 

shi, Tokyo 182 

Tel. 03-300-5050 

Pres.: Sister Hatsue Mi- 

shima 



(182) mttfi 
m 03-300-5050 



1-25 



Sophia University 

7, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, To 

kyo 102 

Tel. 03-265-9211 

Pres.: Professor Mikao Mo- 

riya 



(102) fM 

m 03-265-9211 



Sophia University Faculty of 
Theology 

1-710, Kamishakujii, Neri- 

ma-ku, Tokyo 177 

Tel. 03-929-0847 

Pres.: Rev. Peter Nemeshe- 

gyi, S.J. 



(177) 
1-710 
n 03-929-0847 



Ake No Hoshi Junior College 

502, Aza Namiuchi, Tsukuri- 

michi, Aomori 030 

Tel. 01772-4-0121 

Pres.: Sister Henriette Can- 

tin 



502 



(030) 



CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS 



349 



m 01772-4-0121 

Assumption Junior College 

1, Nyoidani, Minoo-shi, Osa 

ka 562 

Tel. 0727-21-7690 

Pres.: Sister Guadalupe 

(562) ^BRJflSffiTfrjHJftS 1 
m 0727-21-7690 

Caritas Junior College 

1800, Nakanoshima, Kawa- 
saki-shi, Kanagawa-ken 214 
Tel. 044-91-4656 
Pres.: Sister Rita Deschenes 



(880) 

m 0985-2-8296 



110 



1800 

m 044-91-4656 

Holy Spirit Junior College 

62-2, Aza Takano, Terauchi, 

Akita Oil 

Tel. 01882-5-4111 

Pres.: Sister Immolata Reida 



62-2 



Junshin Junior College 

2-600, Takiyama-cho, Hachi- 

oji-shi, Tokyo 192 

Tel. 0426-23-3867 

Pres.: Sister Miyako Sakai 



2-600 



Junshin Women s Junior Col 
lege 

13-15, Bunkyo-cho, Nagasaki 

852 

Tel. 0958-44-1175 

Pres.: Sister Haru Oizumi 



(192) 

m 0426-23-3867 



(on) 

m 01882-5-4111 



Hyuga Junior College 

110, Yamato-cho, Miyazaki 

880 

Tel. 0985-2-8296 

Pres.: Rev. Bautista Massa, 

S.D.B. 



(852) giTOXW 1315 
m 0958-44-1175 



Junshin Women s Junior Col 
lege 

1847, Kamoike-cho, Kago- 

shima 890 

Tel. 09922-4-4121 

Pres.: Sister Kane Hatta 



j 1847 



(890) fii^artm 
m 09922-4-4121 
AH** 



Kemmei Junior College 



350 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



68, Honmachi, Himeji-shi 

Hyogo-ken 670 

Tel. 0792-23-6455 

Pres.: Sister Kyoko Sato 



(670) gg?fJ*lHj 68 
m 0792-23-6455 



Midorigaoka Junior College 

660, Midorigaoka, Nobeoka- 

shi, Miyazaki-ken 882 

Tel. 09823-3-3203 

Pres.: Sister Claudia Cava- 

lieri 



eio 



(882) 

m 09823-3-3203 



Misono Gakuen Junior College 

1-58, Suwa-cho, Hodono, 

Akita 010 

Tel. 01882-3-1920 

Pres.: Sister Yoshiko Chono 



1-58 



(010) 

n 01882-3-1920 

run? 



Nanzan Junior College 

17, Hayato-cho, Showa-ku, 

Nagoya 466 

Tel. 052-831-1153 

Pres.: Rev. Hubert Flatten, 

S.V.D. 



(466) 

m 052-831-1153 



17 



Sakura no Seibo Junior Col 
lege 

3-6, Hanazono-cho, Fukushi- 

ma 960 

Tel. 0245-34-7137 

Pres.: Sister Frances Kir- 

wan 



-6 



(960) ^iSrfJ^^ 
m 0245-34-7137 



Seibi Junior College 

2-14, Akabanedai 4-chome, 

Kita-ku, Tokyo 115 

Tel. 03-907-1671 

Pres.: Sister Shizu Hirate 

(115) HlKtHbKMS 4-2-14 
m 03-907-1671 



Seibo Junior College of Nurs 
ing 

2-630, Shimo-Ochiai, Shin- 

juku-ku, Tokyo 161 

Tel. 03-951-9667 

Pres.: Sister Eleanor Harse 



(161) 

m 03-951-9667 



Seibo Women s Junior College 

18-10, Mii-cho, Neyagawa- 



CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS 



351 



shi, Osaka 572 

Tel. 0720-31-1381 

Pres.: Sister Mitsugu Chi- 

kasue 



(572) 
18-10 
m 0720-31-1381 



Shin ai Junior College 

(Kurume) 

2278-1, Mii-machi, Kurume- 
shi, Fukuoka-ken 830 
Tel. 0942-2-4531 
Pres.: Sister Francoise 
Matsunaga 



(830) 

2278-1 

m 0942-2-4531 



Shin ai Junior College 

(Osaka) 

5, Furuichi Kita-dori 4- 
chome, Joto-ku, Osaka 536 
Tel. 06-939-4391 
Pres.: Sister Hatsuko Mu- 
rata 



(536) 

n 06-939-4391 



Shin ai Junior College 

(Wakayama) 



(640) 

n 0734-22-2938 



9, Yakata-machi 2-chome, 

Wakayama 640 

Tel. 0734-22-2938 

Pres.: Sister Isabel Oyama 



2-9 



Shirayuri Junior College 

(Sendai) 

46, Aza Honda, Matsumori, 
Izumi-cho, Miyagi-gun, Mi- 
yagi-ken 981-31 
Tel. 022373-3254 
Pres.: Sister Ayako Noshita 



46 

m 022373-3254 
SFT*? 

St. Catherine Junior College 

660, Hojo, Hojo-shi, Ehime- 

ken 799-24 

Tel. 08999-2-0702 

Pres.: Most Rev. Eikichi 

Tanaka 



(799-24) m 

m 08999-2-0702 



Tenshi Junior College 

Higashi 3-chome, Kita 
jo, Sapporo 065 



13- 



352 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Tel. 0122-71-3780 
Pres.: Sister Gaile 



(065) 

& 0122-71-3780 



Tokyo Kindergarten and Nur 
sery Teachers Training School 

32-30, Koenji Minami 2- 
chome, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 



166 

Tel. 03-311-7014 

Pres.: Mrs.. Keiko Imai 



2-32-30 

11 03-311-7014 



3. CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS 



Action Doshikai Liaison Office 

10-1, Rokuban-cho, Chiyoda- 

ku, Tokyo 102 

Tel. 03-262-3691 

Dir.: Mr. Seijiro Yoshizawa 



(102) 

10-1 

m 03-262-3691 



Catholic Boy Scouts 

1-32-16, Yutenji, Meguro-ku, 

Tokyo 153 

Tel. 03-719-5496 

Dir.: Mr. Eiichi Yamaguchi 

-h MJ -.x^tr- f x*^7 MJtaS^- 



(153) 

1-32-16 

n 03-719-5496 



Catholic Graduates Associa 
tion of Japan 

Shinsei Kaikan, 33, Shinano- 

machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 

160 

Tel. 03-357-7022 

Pres.: Professor Masao 

Matsumoto 



33 



Catholic Physicians Guild 

10-1, Rokuban-cho, Chiyoda- 
ku, Tokyo 102 
Tel. 03-262-3691 
Pres.: Dr. Taiei Miura 



(102) 
10-1 



(160) JU 

m 03-357-7022 



CHRISTIAN INSTITUTIONS 



353 



03-262-3691 HOT 370 

ft 03-700-0652 

Catholic Medical Institutes As- Grail 

sociation (Women s Apostolate) 

Seibo Byoin, 5-1, Naka-Ochi- 5-15, Mejiro 2-chome, To- 
ai, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 161 shima-ku, Tokyo 171 

Tel. 03-971-0682 
Directress: Miss 



Tel. 03-951-1111 
Dir.: Bishop K. Arai 



(161) 

m 03-951-1111 



2-5-1 



Consilium de Laicis 

(Council of the Laity) 
Liaison Office 

10-1, Rokuban-cho, Chiyoda- 

ku, Tokyo 102 

Tel. 03-262-3691 

Pres.: Bishop T. Tomizawa 



(102) 

10-1 

m 03-262-3691 



Franciscan Bible Institute 

370, Tamagawa Setamachi, 
Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158 
Tel. 03-700-0652 
Dir.: Rev. Bernardine Sch 
neider O.F.M. 



(158) 



Donders 



(171) 



Rachel 



2-5-15 



03-971-0682 



Japan Catholic Nurses Asso 
ciation 

St. Joseph Hospital, 28, Mi- 
dorigaoka, Yokosuka-shi, 
Kanagawa-ken 238 
Tel. 0468-22-2134 
Directress: Miss Catherine 
Y. Ibuka 

J.C.N.A. 



(238) 

238 

m 0468-22-2134 



Justice and Peace Council in 
Japan 

3-16-15, Sekiguchi, Bunkyo- 

ku, Tokyo 112 

Tel. 03-943-2301 

Pres.: Archbishop S. Shira- 

yanagi 



354 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(112) 

m 03-943-2301 



Korean Catholic Center 

3, Minami Kamiai-cho, Ni 

shinokyo, Nakakyo-ku, Kyo 

to 604 

Tel. 075-841-5964 

Dir.: Rev. Thomas W. Taka 

hashi, M.M. 



P 3-16-15 Institute of 

Shinsei Kaikan, 33, Shina- 
nomachi, Shinjuku-ku, To 
kyo 160 

Tel. 03-353-0401 
Dir.: Professor Shin Anzai 



(604) 

it I: ft HI! 3 

m 075-841-5964 

iftfi n 

Legion of Mary 

Catholic Church, 1-7-8, Go- 
tenyama, Musashino-shi, To 
kyo 180 
Pres.: Mr. Samuta 

(180) u^^if lU^iJiIi 1-7-8 

Oriens Institute for Religious 
Research 

2-28-5, Matsubara, Seta- 

gaya-ku, Tokyo 156 

Tel. 03-322-7601 

Dir.: Rev. Joseph Spae 

% J ^ ^ 
(156) 
2-28-5 
m 03-322-7601 

Religious-Sociology, Japanese 



(160) 

m 03-353-0401 



t zSKT 33 



Seamen s Center 

47-1, Yamamoto-dori 2- 

chome, Ikuta-ku, Kobe 650 

Tel. 078-22-9604 

Dir.: Rev. Robert Schmeer, 

M.E.P. 



(650) ^ 

2-47-1 

m 078-22-9604 

Social Research Institute 

399, Kashiwagi 3-chome, 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160 
Tel. 03-362-4659 
Dir.: Mr. Goro Fujise 



3-399 



(160) 

S 03-362-4659 



Society of St. Vincent de Paul 
Superior Council in Japan 

1-27-40, Takanawa, Minato- 
ku, Tokyo 108 
Tel. 03-441-5410 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



355 



Pres.: Mr. Jun Sakamoto 

V -i > -fe > y * 7 /N ^ n ^ 



1-27-40 



(108) m^^mK 

a 03-441-5410 



machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 

160 

Tel. 03-351-1685 

Pres.: Mr. Masanobu Nakao 



33 



(160) 

m 03-351-1685 



Socio-Economic Institute of 
Sophia University 

(SUSEI) Credit Unions 

7, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, To- Young Christian Workers Na- 

kyo 102 tional Secretariat 

Tel. 03-265-9211 3-399, Kashnvagi, Shinjuku- 

Dir.: Rev. Jose M. De Vera, ku , Tokyo 160 

S.J. Tel. 03-371-4319 

_h? D -Jc^ Chaplain: Rev. Minoru Sugi- 

ta 



3-399 



(102) 3jt;jc 

m 03-265-9211 

Students Federation, Catholic 

Shinsei Kaikan, 33, Shinano- 



(160) mM 

m 03-371-4319 



4. CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



HOSPITALS: 
Bethlehem Hospital 

14-72, Umezono 3-chome, Christ the King Hospital 



Kiyose-machi, Kita Tama- 

gun, Tokyo 180-04 

Tel. 0424-91-2525 

Dir.: Dr. Seihei Shimokobe 



(180-04) m 
mm 3-14-72 

m 0424-91-2525 



104, Jubancho, Uegahara, 

Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken 

662 

Tel. 0798-33-1275 

Dir.: Dr. Kenji Monma 

J ^ h n 7 >^|^ 

(662) 

+mj 104 



356 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



m 0798-33-1275 
P5H& 

Gracia Hospital 

3-24, Awaza Kami-dori, 

Nishi-ku, Osaka 550 

Tel. 06-531-5984 

Dir.: Dr. Hirokazu Ishida 



(550) 
3-24 

m 06-531-5984 

Gyokokai Kitahara Hospital 

50, Shiroshima, Minoo-shi, 

Osaka 562 

Tel. 0727-21-7014 

Dir.: Rev. Robert Vallade, 

M.E.P. 



(562) *|KlffgIirfJajft 50 
m 0727-21-7014 

Holy Spirit Hospital 

56, Kawanayama-machi, 

Showa-ku, Nagoya 46(> 
Tel. 052-832-1811 
Dir.: Sister Thomas 

(466) fiB^naftK;iiii4r 

56 

m 052-832-1811 

Holy Spirit Hospital 

5-30, Naga-machi 1-chome, 
Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa-ken 
920 



Tel. 0762-31-1295 

Director: Sister Praxede Ca- 

denbach 

(920) EJIim^zRHmWr 1-5-30 
n 0762-31-1295 

Jikei Hospital 

831, Oaza Shimazaki, Shi- 
mazaki-cho, Kumamoto 860 
Tel. 0963-52-7063 
Dir.: Sister Margareta Zink 

(860) ji4:rfJSiW^ft^83i 

^ 0963-52-7063 

Jiseikai Hospital 

15-2, Egota 3-chome, Naka- 

no-ku, Tokyo 165 

Tel. 03-387-5421 

Dir.: Rev. Emilien Milcent, 

M.E.P. 



(165) 

3-15-2 

m 03-387-5421 

Jochi Kosei Hospital 

9-10, Machiya 4-chome, Ara- 

ka\va-ku, Tokyo 116 

Tel. 03-892-4514 

Dir.: Rev. Aloisius Michel, 

S.J. 



(116) 

4-9-10 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



357 



(289-25) ^ 

m 04796-2-0714 



m 03-892-4514 

Kaijoryo Sanatorium 

4017, Nonaka, Asahi-shi, 
Chiba-ken 289-25 
Tel. 04796-2-0714 
Dir.: Miss Kei Obara 



401 



Kaisei Hospital 

47, Shinohara, Kita-machi 

3-chome, Nada-ku, Kobe 657 

Tel. 078-87-5201 

Dir.: Sister Yvonne Neer- 

daels 



3-47 



Tel. 07756-2-0330 

Dir.: Sister Raku Watanabe 



(525) MmW 
m 07756-2-0330 



412 



Misono Hospital 

1436, Aoyama, Niigata 950- 

21 

Tel. 0252-66-4310 

Dir.: Sister Hildegardis 



1436 



(950-21) fr^rfm- 
m 0252-66-4310 



(657) 



078-87-5201 



Misono Hospital and Sanato 
rium 

46, Hirune, Terauchi-cho, 

Akita Oil 

Tel. 01882-3-5757 

Dir.: Sister Raphaela 



(Oil) 

m 01882-3-5757 



46 



Koyama Fukusei Hospital and 
St. Mary s Hospital 

109, Koyama, Gotemba-shi, 

Shizuoka-ken 412 

Tel. 055004-4 

Dir.: Sister Tomo Yukawa St Franci s Hospital 

9-20, Komine-machi, Naga 
saki 852 

Tel. 0958-44-1868 
Dir.: Sister Marysia Kubsda 



(412) M 
m 055004-4 



109 



Kusatsu Sanatorium 

412, Yagura-cho, Kusatsu- 
shi, Shiga-ken 525 



(852) g^iU/jN|I$fflj 9-20 
m 0958-44-1868 

St. Joseph Hospital 



358 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



28, Midorigaoka, Yokosuka- 

shi, Kanagawa-ken 238 

Tel. 0468-22-2134 

Dir.: Sister Yoshie Kame- 

zaki 



saki 



(238) n 

28 

ffi 0468-22-2134 



St. Joseph Shinryojo 

(Hospital-Dispensary) 
4-7, Yawata Honmachi, 
Shizuoka 420 
Tel. 0542-85-5921 
Dir.: Sister Paula Huot 



4-7 



(420) 

m 0542-85-5921 



St. Martin Hospital 

4-13, Tani-machi 1-chome, 

Sakaide-shi, Kagawa-ken 

762 

Tel. 08774-5-5195 

Dir. : Sister M. Isobel Sogabe 



1-4-13 



(762) 

m 08774-5-5195 



St. Mary s Hospital 

133, Matsuyama-cho, Fukue- 
shi, Nagasaki-ken 853 
Tel. 09597-2221 
Dir.: Sister Takako Hama- 



(853) 

m 09597-2221 



133 



St. Mary s Hospital 

650, Nibuno, Himeji 670 

Tel. 0792-23-2481 

Dir.: Sister de Lellis Mehl 



65 



(670) 

m 0792-23-2481 



St. Teresia Hospital 

2-26, Koshigoe 1-chome, 

Kamakura 248 

Tel. 0466-23-0900 

Dir.: Sister Marie Fukuda 



2-26 



(248) 

m 0466-23-0900 

lgffl-7 J X 



Sacred Heart of Jesus Hospi 
tal 

3-56, Kambayashi-cho, Ku- 

mamoto 860 

Tel. 0963-52-7181 

Dir.: Sister Marie Annette 

Birube 



(860) ^$m_hW5Tr 3-56 
m 0963-52-7181 

Sakuramachi Hospital 



359 



2-20, Sakura-machi 1-chome, 
Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184 
Tel. 0423-83-4111 
Dir. : Sister Fuku Okamura 



(983) 

m 0222-57-0231 



(184) /Jvfc#iff$lflJ 1-2-20 
n 0423-83-4111 

< 



Shindenbaru Sanatorium 

2843, Oaza Higashi-Toku- 

naga, Yukuhashi-shi, Fuku- 

oka-ken 824 

Tel. 09302-2-1006 

Dir.: Sister Kazuko Harada 



2343 



Catholic 



(824) 

m 0423-83-4111 



Tairo Leper Hospital 

820, Shimazaki-machi, Ku- 

mamoto 860 

Tel. 0963-54-1021 

Dir.: Sister Margareta Zink 

(860) ;||;$7f;i E [If HI 820 
m 0963-54-1021 

Tenshi Hospital 

Higashi 3-chome, Kita 12- 

jo, Sapporo 065 

Tel. 0122-71-0101 

Dir.: Sister Marie Lioba 



(065) 

m 0122-71-0101 



Seibo International 
Hospital 

5-1, Naka-Ochiai 2-chome ; CLINICS: 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 161 Catholic Dispensary 

Tel. 03-951-1111 
Dir.: Sister Eleanor Harse 

(161) JiL^tPfrflfEFt ltlln 2-5-1 
03-951-1111 



Spellman Hospital 

5, Dotemae, Odawara, Hara- 
no-machi, Sendai 983 
Tel. 0222-57-0231 
Dir.: Dr. Toshiyuki Maeda 



Boma, Tokunoshima, Oshi- 

ma-gun, Kagoshima-ken 

891-73 

Tel. Boma 17 

Dir.: Fr. Josef Mittermeier, 

C.Ss.R. 



ana* H v 

(891-73) 



Christmas Village 



360 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



149, Okino-machi, Adachi- 

ku, Tokyo 120 

Tel. 03-890-5564 

Dir.: Rev. Aloisius Michel, 

S.J. 



149 



(120) 

m 03-261-7074 



Hakuai Dispensary 

4-1, Kudan Kita 2-chome, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 
Tel. 03-261-7074 
Dir.: Sister Yuri Ebihara 



(102) 

2-4-1 

m 03-261-7074 



Hakuai Dispensary 

15-15, Moto-machi, Hako- 
date-shi, Hokkaido 040 
Tel. 0138-22-7629 
Dir.: Sister Koto Saito 



(040) SHrtJTClHT 15-15 
m 0138-22-7629 



Jiseikai Nasu Shinryojo 

3010, Otsu, Oaza Toyohara, 

Nasu-machi, Nasu-gun, To- 

chigi-ken 329-32 

Tel. 0287-72-7855 

Dir.: Sister Tomiho Mizu- 



ochi 

(329-32) m^m^ 
SSC^^Z, 3010 
m 0287-72-7855 



Konohara Clinic and Asylum 

2639, Nakano-machi, Hachi- 

oji-shi, Tokyo 192 

Tel. 0426-22-0969 

Dir.: Rev. Emilien Milcent, 

M.E.P. 



2639 



(192) 

m 0426-22-0969 



Misono Clinic 

4238, Fujisawa, Fujisawa- 
shi, Kanagawa-ken 251 
Tel. 0466-22-4069 
Dir.: Sister Mineko Saito 



4238 



Naze Catholic Clinic 

4-1, Kasuga-cho, Naze-shi, 

Kagoshima-ken 894 

Tel. Naze 309 

Dir.: Rev. Eusebius Wien- 

cko, O.F.M.Conv. 



(251) 

m 0466-22-4069 



U 



(894) 



309 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



361 



Our Lady of the Sick Dispen 
sary 

314, Asato, Naha, Okinawa 
Tel. Naha 082-2-2021 
Dir. : Sister Clarissa 

IE -7 J 7&&W\ 



314 

082-2-2021 



St. John s Clinic 

2, Okuyamabata-cho, Suma- 

ku, Kobe 654 

Tel. 078-71-0869 

Dir.: Brother Aegidius Lut- 

ter, O.K. 

* h J y *Ii3/N*^j&B>T 
(654) ^FMlffi^KHUjftBUlJ 2 
m 078-71-0869 

Sei Maria lin 

448, Okuno, Ura-machi, 

Aomori 030 

Tel. 01772-4-3917 

Dir.: Sister Tomo Uzawa 



v J 7m 
(030) Tf 
m 01772-4-3917 



448 



Sei Maria lin 

3-8, Momomidai, Koriyama- 
shi, Fukushima-ken 963 
Tel. 02492-2-2794 
Dir.: Sister L enfant Jesus 



(963) 



n 02492-2-2794 

St. Pius 

15-10, Shirasagi 1-chome, 
Nakano-ku, Tokyo 165 
Tel. 03-330-1451 
Dir.: Sister Odilia Lehmann 



1-5-10 



(165) 

S 03-330-1451 



Sacred Heart 

7-30, Shinhon-machi 1- 
chome, Kochi 780 
Tel. 0888-72-1996 
Dir.: Kuniko Kawarada 



(780) ^pm$T*fflT 1-7-30 
n 0888-72-1996 
Sfflffl? 

Seishin Dispensary 

1-58, Suwa-cho, Hodono, 

Akita 010 

Tel. 01882-3-0342 

Dir.: Sister Tae Misono 



1-58 



(010) 

m 01882-3-0342 

ORPHANAGES: 

(By Diocese) 
Tokyo: 
Bethlehem Gakuen 

14-4, Umezono 



3-chome, 



362 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Kiyose-machi, Kita Tama- 

gun, Tokyo 180-04 

Tel. 0424-91-2529 

Dir.: Sister Yasuko Hosono 



(iso-04) itzm 

3-14-4 

m 0424-91-2529 



Boy s Town 

592, Minami-cho, Josui, 
Kodaira-shi, Tokyo 187 
Tel. 0423-21-0412 
Dir.: Rev. Albinas Marge- 
vicius, S.D.B. 



592 



(187) 

m 0423-21-0412 



Nazareth Baby Home 

1-1101, Toyotama Naka, 

Nerima-ku, Tokyo 176 

Tel. 03-387-5421 

Dir.: Rev. Emilien Milcent, 

M.E.P. 



(145) 

m 03-751-1230 



882 



(176) 

1-1101 

m 03-387-5421 

St. Francis Children Home 

882, Kugahara, Ota-ku, To 

kyo 145 

Tel. 03-751-1230 

Dir.: Sister Elizabeth Hiro- 

shi 



St. Joseph Home 

10-26, Honcho 4-chome, Ho- 

ya-shi, Tokyo 181 

Tel. 0424-64-2211 

Dir.: Sister Mary Edward 

fi 3 Hz 7 * - A 

(181) ^Si1j*HTl 4-10-26 
m 0424-64-2211 

St. Odilia Home Nursery 

15-15, Shirasagi 1-chome, 
Nakano-ku, Tokyo 165 
Tel. 03-330-1451 
Dir.: Sister Odilia Lehmann 

?:* 7- i } ) 7 * - A 

(165) JUS WUKejjfc 1-15-15 
m 03-330-1451 

Sayuri no Ryo 

19-28, Igusa 4-chonie, Sugi- 

nami-ku, Tokyo 167 

Tel: 03-399-2258 

Dir.: Sister Tomie Noguchi 



4-19-28 



(167) Km 

m 03-399-2258 

^n h < x 



Seibi Home 

2-14, Akabanedai 4-chome, 
Kita-ku, Tokyo 115 
Tel. 03-907-1692 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



363 



Dir.: Sister Hana Hirate Tainoura Orphanage 



(115) ju 

n 03-907-1692 



4-2-14 



Tsubomi no Ryo 

19-28, Igusa 4-chome, Sugi- 

nami-ku, Tokyo 167 

Tel. 03-399-8049 

Dir.: Sister Bernadetta 



Hf 4-19-28 



(167) 3Kj 

m 03-399-8049 



Nagasaki: 
Maria En 

16, Minami Yamate-cho, 
Nagasaki 850 
Tel. 0958-22-1583 
Dir.: Sister Veronique 

v J 7 HI 

(850) WrfJitllj^Urr 16 
n 0958-22-1583 

Seibo no Kishi-En 

Konagai-cho, Kita Takaki- 

gun, Nagasaki-ken 859-01 

Tel. 095734152 

Dir.: Rev. Masuji Hamada, 

O.F.M.Conv. 



(859-01) 



300-3, Tainoura, Arikawa- 
machi, Minami Matsuura- 
gun, Nagasaki-ken 853-33 
Tel. Arikawa 204 
Dir.: Sister Fujino Taninaka 



(853-33) 



m 095734-152 
^ffliife 



204 



Urakami Orphanage 

341, Tsuji-machi, Nagasaki 

852 

Tel. 0958-44-4055 

Dir.: Sister Sakae Tsutsumi 

(852) ftdf IfJitffll 341 
m 0958-44-4055 



Fukuoka: 

Biwasaki Seibo Aiji-En 

837, Shimazaki-machi, Ku- 

mamoto 860 

Tel. 0963-52-4005 

Dir.: Sister Margareta Zink 



837 



Goshi-machi, 
Kumamoto- 



(860) 

m 0963-52-4005 

Boys Town 

Suya, Nishi 
Kikuchi-gun, 
ken 861-11 



364 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Tel. 0963-64-2420 
Dir.: Rev. George 

s.s.c. 



Bellas, 



(861-11) 

tarn 1710 

m 0963-64-2420 



Holy Angels 

2187, Aza Kuma, Mii-machi, 

Kurume-shi, Fukuoka-ken 

830 

Tel. 09422-3-3418 

Dir.: Sister Kinuko Yamada 



(830) 

m. 2187 

m 09422-3-3418 



Immaculate Heart 

1578-1, Oaza Kami-Taka- 
hashi, Tachiarai-machi, Mii- 
gun, Fukuoka-ken 830-12 
Tel. 094276-210 
Dir.: Mr. Kiyomasa Hirata 



(830-12) 
_h^li 1578-1 
m 094276-210 



Kumamoto Tenshi-En 

928, Oaza Toroku, Oe-machi, 
Kumamoto 862 
Tel. 0963-64-0352 



Dir.: 

naga 



Sister Makiko Fuku- 



(862) fifr 

It 0963-64-0352 



Madarajima Seibo-En 

Madarajima, Chinzei-cho, 

Higashi Matsuura-gun, Sa 

ga-ken 847-04 

Tel. 095587-9 

Dir.: Sister Dorothea M. 

Kono 

(847-04) &%mmffimmmRs 

1640 
m 095587-9 

rum 3 * 

Nazareth Baby Home and Or 
phanage 

10-32, Tori-cho, Yatsushiro- 
shi, Kumamoto-ken 866 
Tel. 09653-2926 
Dir.: Sister Sei Kawano 



10-32 



St. Kozaki Orphanage 

548, Orio Honjo, Yahata-ku, 

Kita-Kyushu 807 

Tel. 093-69-0107 

Dir.: Miss Yukiko Kito 



(866) 

m 09653-2926 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



365 



(807) 

548 

n 093-69-0107 



Tenshi Ikuji-En 

1-2, Hikari-machi, Moji-ku, 

Kita-Kyushu 800 

Tel. 093-38-0244 

Dir.: Sister Therese Chag- 

non 



1-2 



0862-22-4806 



(800) 

m 093-38-0244 



Hiroshima: 
Hikari no Sono 

1895, Jigozen, Hatsukaichi- 

cho, Saeki-gun, Hiroshima- 

ken 738 

Tel. 0829-31-2470 

Dir.: Sister Kiyoko Aoki 



(738) j 

1895 
0829-31-2470 



Misono Children s Home 

6-34, Tenjin-cho, Okayama 

700 

Tel. 0862-22-4806 

Dir.: Sister Setsu Tanaka 



6-34 



Misono Tenshi-En 

740, Hatagasaki, Yonago- 

shi, Tottori-ken 683 

Tel. 08592-2-4364 

Dir.: Sister Toshiko Honda 

(683) JUIfc&^rfJffiyra 740 
m 08592-2-4364 



Misono Tenshi-En 

287, Uchida, Okayama 700 

Tel. 0862-23-8513 

Dir.: Sister Mieko Tanaka 

(700) m\-Wm 683 
m 0862-23-8513 



Kagoshima: 
Ai no Seibo-En 

5507-2, Kami Fukumoto- 
cho, Kagoshima 891-01 
Tel. 09929-6-2045 
Dir.: Sister Mary 



(891-01) ^jl^rt] 
m 09929-6-2045 



TCfflT 5507 



(700) 



Naze Tenshi-En Baby Home 

1221, Aza Hayatsu, Nishi 
Nakakachi, Naze-shi, Kago- 
shima-ken 894-07 



366 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Tel. Naze 945 

Dir.: Sister Yae Mizuura 



(894-07) 



(894) 

25-1 



1221 

t 945 



Shirayuri no Kyo 

25-1, Komata-cho, Naze-shi, 

Kagoshima-ken 894 

Tel. Naze 1108 

Dir.: Sister Chizuko Mizuura 



1108 



Kyoto: 
Infant Jesus 

22, Sonjoin-cho, Nishi Kinu- 

gasa, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603 

Tel. 075-462-9268 

Dir.: Sister Margarita M. 

Nishimoto 



(603) M 

% h^fflj 22 

075-462-9268 



Dir.: Mr. Mitsuo Yokogawa 

(509-91) grJ=iiE|Ft-ipjjJ 1 1 ,f] -Tfi^ 

1468 

M 05736-8-2168 

mmmm 

Misono Tenshi-En 

156, Yakushiyama, Narumi- 

cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 458 

Tel. 0560-89-0236 

Dir.: Sister Electa Keiko 

Kawamura 



(458) 
156 



0560-89-0236 



Holy Spirit Hospital Nursery 
and Orphanage 

5-30, Naga-machi 1-chome, 

Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa- 

ken 920 

Tel. 0762-61-9812 

Dir.: Sister Wiebertis Rein- 

weber 



(920) 

m 0762-61-9812 



1-5-30 



Nagoya : 
Fujii Gakuen 

1468, Sendanbayashi, Naka- 
tsugawa-shi, Gifu-ken 1468 
Tel. 05736-8-2168 



Niigata: 

Misono Tenshi-En 

1436, Urayama-cho, 
yama, Niigata 950-21 
Tel. 0252-66-6253 



Ao- 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



367 



(950-21) ^?^m WOlffi til BT 1436 
m 0252-66-6253 



Dir.: Sister Sadako Noritake Hikari no Sono Shiragiku Ryo 

8-kumi, Soen-cho, Beppu- 

shi, Oita-ken 874 

Tel. 0977-3-2506 

Dir.: Elizabeth Shige Nagata 

Misono Tenshi-En 

1-58, Suwa-cho, Hodono, 

Akita 010 

Tel. 01882-3-2696 

Dir.: Sister M. Aurea 

m 01882-3-2696 

Seibo Aiji-En 

9-47, Honmachi 1-chome, 

Mitsuke-shi, Niigata-ken 954 

Tel. 02586-2-0851 

Dir.: Rev. Anton Adler, 

S.V.D. 



(874) *# 

m 0977-3-2506 



St. Joseph 

2663, Oaza Nagasoe, Naka- 

tsu-shi, Oita-ken 874 

Tel. 0979-2-2320 

Dir.: Rev. Clodoveus Tassi- 

nari, S.D.B. 

ff 3 -fe* 7 ft 

(874) Mj&f\^\i 
m 0979-2-2320 



km 266 



(954) if 

m 02586-2-0851 



1-9-47 



Oita: 

Caritas no Sono 

1543 Ko, Okinohara, Yoshi- 
mura-cho, Miyazaki 880 
Tel. 0985-2-2285 
Dir.: Sister Tone Kawabata 



(880) "gtftlti^ 

^ 1543 

m 0985-2-2285 



Sayuri Aiji En 

Gohan, Urata-ku, Beppu-shi, 

Oita-ken 874 

Tel. 0977-2-1517 

Dir.: Sister Josefina Gaz- 

zada 



(874) Xftmsm ilT?ffflKHHE 
m 0977-2-1517 

Sayuri Aiji En Bun en 

2601, Oaza Joharu, Oita-shi 

870-02 

Tel. 097501-44 



368 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Dir.: Sister Maria Motta 



(870-02) 

fg 097501-44 



2610 



Osaka: 

Kobe Boys Town and Baby 

Home 

720, Umekidani. Shioya-cho, 
Tarumi-ku, Kobe 655 
Tel. 078-76-2112 
Dir.: Rev. Tetsuji Sasaki 



(655) $)F5fcil7. 

720 
078-76-2112 



Holy Family Home 

27, Yamasaka-cho 5-chome, 

Higashi-Sumiyoshi-ku, Osa 

ka 546 

Tel. 06-699-7221 

Dir.: Sister Mary Breen 



(546) 

5-27 

H 06-699-7221 



Sapporo: 
Shirayuri-En 

15-13, Moto-machi, Hako- 
date-shi, Hokkaido 040 
Tel. 0138-22-7629 
Dir.: Sister Koto Saito 



(040) @q!trf?7GHT 15-13 
m 0138-22-7629 

3 h 

Tenshi Baby Home 

Higashi 3-chome, Kita 12- 

jo, Sapporo 065 

Tel. 0122-71-0101 

Dir.: Sister Marie Lioba 



(065) 

m 0122-71-0101 

Tenshi no Sono 

82, Aza Hiroshima, Hiro- 

shima-mura, Sapporo-gun, 

Hokkaido 061-11 

Tel. 012844-20 

Dir.: Sister Ayako Tawara 



(061-11) 

m 012844-20 



Sendai: 
Fuji Seiboen 

457, Okuno, Ura-machi, Ao- 

mori 030 

Tel. 01772-4-0489 

Dir.: Sister Elizabeth Wata- 

nabe 

(030) ff^rtJffiWHS 457 
m 01772-4-0489 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



369 



Fuji no Sono 

64, Date, Yamanome-cho, 

Ichinoseki-shi, Iwate-ken 

021 

Tel. 019122-5360 

Dir.: Sister Raingardis Ar- 

thaus 

64-2 

m 019122-5360 

La Salle Home 

18, Annai, Odawara, Hara- 

nomachi, Sendai 983 

Tel. 0222-57-3801 

Dir.: Brother Gilles Pomer- | 

leau 



7 $ - )]/ fc - A 

(983) ffl|iflSBr 
H 0222-57-3801 



18 



Sei Maria-En 

3-8, Momomidai, Koriyama- 
shi, Fukushima-ken 963 
Tel. 02492-2-2794 
Dir.: Sister L enfant Jesus 



(963) 

n 02492-2-2794 



3-8 



cott 



(983) 

m 0222-57-3898 



18 



(980) 

18 0222-22-6337 



Sayuri-En 

12, Yanagisawa, Harano- 

machi, Sendai 983 

Tel. 0222-57-3898 

Dir.: Sister Gertrude Ars- 



Tenshi-En 

2-18, Tsunogoro 2-chome, 

Sendai 980 

Tel. 0222-22-6337 

Dir.: Sister Clemencia Mu- 

ramoto 



2-2-18 



Takamatsu: 

Misono Tenshi-En Orphanage 

and Baby Home 

7-30, Shinhon-machi 1- 
chome, Kochi 780 
Tel. 0888-72-1996 



1-7-30 



Yokohama: 
Fatima Boys Town 

3753, Shimo Tsuruma, Ya- 
mato-shi, Kanagawa-ken 242 
Tel. 0462-61-0645 
Dir.: Rev. Charles Revel 

7 r T- 4 

(242) 

3753 



(780) 



0888-72-1996 



370 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



m 0462-61-0645 

Misono 

4238, Fujisawa, Fujisawa- 
shi, Kanagawa-ken 251 
Tel. 0466-22-4069 
Dir.: Sister Mineko Saito 



(251) 



0466-22-4069 



4238 



Seibi Home 

530, Nakanogo, Shimizu- 
shi, Shizuoka-ken 424 
Tel. 0543-2-2296 
Dir.: Sister Gina Cardin 



(424) 



530 



0543-2-2296 



Seibi Home 

233, Yamanakako-mura, Mi- 

nami Tsuru-gun, Yama- 

nashi-ken 401-05 

Tel. 05556--2-8625 

Dir.: Sister Francesca Broc- 

cardo 



(401-05) 

\lV\mtt 233 
7g 0556-2-8625 

Seibo Aiji-En 

68, Yamate-cho, 
Yokohama 231 



Naka-ku, 



Tel. 045-641-1309 

Dir.: Sister Kyoko Chiba 

(231) ^^rp^Kaj^ET 68 
n 045-641-1309 



Shirayuri-En 

1320, Gora, Hakone-machi, 

Ashigara-shimo-gun, Kana 

gawa-ken 250-04 

Tel. 0460-2-2853 

Dir.: Sister Kazuko Nishi- 

date 



(250-04) 



0460-2-2853 



1320 



Tenshi-En 

23, Naruko-cho, Hama- 
matsu-shi, Shizuoka-ken 430 
Tel. 0534-52-8625 
Dir.: Rev. Clement Fonte- 
neau, M.E.P. 



23 



(430) 

m 0534-52-8625 



HOMES FOR THE ELDERLY 
Caritas no Sono 

1543, Ko, Okinohara, Yoshi- 
mura-cho, Miyazaki 880 
Tel. 0985-2-2285 
Dir.: Sister Misano Urata 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



371 



j $ x <D 

(880) 

Ep 1543 

m 0985-2-2285 

ifffl % * 



Caritas St. Joseph Home 

60, Moto Konya-cho, Kofu- 
shi, Yamanashi-ken 400 
Tel. 0552-33-8955 
Dir.: Sister Misano Urata 









(400) 



0552-33-8955 



Fuji Old Folks Home 

448, Okuno, Ura-machi, Ao- 

mori 030 

Tel. 01772-4-0539 

Dir.: Sister Umeno Saito 



(030) W^rfrffiffll 
m 01772-4-0539 



448 



(562) - 

n 0727-21-7014 

Holy Family 



14-72, Umezono 3-chome, 
Kiyose-machi, Kita Tama- 
gun, Tokyo 180-04 
Dir.: Sister Haruyo Oha 



(180-04) 
3-14-72 



Gyokokai Akatsuki Old Folks 
Home 

50, Shiroshima, Minoo-shi, 

Osaka 562 

Tel. 0727-21-7014 

Dir.: Rev. Robert Vallade, 

M.E.P. 



50 



Kamakura Special Home for 
the Aged 

2-36, Koshigoe 1-chome, 

Kamakura-shi, Kanagawa- 

ken 248 

Tel. 0466-23-6156 

Dir.: Sister Sachi Yoshida 

m&mmm%A*--i> 

(248) fifi^jllS^JtTfJlJliiS 2-36 
71 0466-23-6156 

ffffl ^ 

Kotobuki So 

263, Fuki Hiyoshi, Maizuru- 

shi, Kyoto 624 

Tel. 07736-5-1333 

Dir.: Sister Rosalie Aarts 



263 



(624) HMHHT 
07736-5-1333 



Matsuzaka Catholic 

1771, Okuroda-cho, Matsu- 
zaka-shi, Mie-ken 515 
Tel. 05982-2-2852 
Dir.: Sister Mary Anna 



372 CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



m 02878-2578 

1771 

n 05982-2-2852 Momiji 

13, Hamawaki, Beppu-shi, 

Oita-ken 874 

550, Haru-Ushiroyama, Aku- Tel. 0977-2-3616 
ne-shi, Kagoshima-ken 899- Dir . : Sister Hatsu Y amazaki 

*T^yp 

Tel. 09967-2-0805 JJJv . . p,,^-, 1Q 

TV . , ( 8 <4) T^ftmSOJfif rfj^jg? is 

JJir. : Sister Calhsta Okutsu a= 0977-2-3616 



(899-16) 

$L H?l|ll 550 Our Lady s Home 

09967-2-0805 820, Shimazaki-machi, Ku- 

mamoto 860 

Tel. 0963-54-1021 
Misono . ,. , ,, 

Dir.: Sister Maria Lioba 
1-58, Suwa-cho, Hodono, 

Akita 010 

Tol H1Q80 Q O^QC (86 ^ W WulW 820 

m 0963-54-1021 
Dir.: Sister Miyoko Takeda 



A Rosary 

(010) I^HTlj^Hiff-blflT 1-58 1386-2, Oaza Kuchii, Yama- 
01882-3-2696 to-cho, Saga-gun, Saga-ken 

840-02 

Tel. 095205-303 
Misono St. Joseph n - .0-4. , , T 

Dir.: bister Sadako Iwasaki 
2806-1, Minami 1-chome, 

Karasuyama-machi, Nasu- D /8^_oSfei 

gun, Tochigi-ken 321-06 ^ftf}# 1386-2 

Tel. 02878-2578 m 095205-303 
Dir.: Sister Yukiko Kito 



(321-06) SJ7fCj^fi3|iM||Ijltr St. Francis 

ft 1-2806-1 44-1, Kozukura, Takaki- 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



373 



machi, Kita Takagi-gun, 

Nagasaki-ken 859-01 

Tel. 095732-129 

Dir.: Rev. Masuji Hamada, 

O.F.M.Conv. 




Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 161 

Tel. 03-953-4028 

Dir.: Sister Hana Matsu 

shita 



(161) 

2-5-21 

n 03-953-4028 



St. Joseph 

54-6, Toge, Gose-shi, Nara- 

ken 639 

Tel. 07456-7-0509 

Dir.: Sister Hisako Sato 



54-6 



St. Martin 

250, Okuyashiki, Nakanishi- 

uchi, Hojo-shi, Ehime-ken 

799-24 

Tel. 0573-2-0702 

Dir.: Sister Rosa Kozuma 



(639) **& 

m 07456-7-0509 



(799-24) g 

250 
^ 0573-2-0720 



St. Joseph 

2210-5, Aza Sagita, Kuma- St. Martin no Sono 

de, Yahata-ku, Kita-Kyushu 9-18, Tanimachi 
806 

Tel. 093-62-5829 
Dir.: Sister Dominica Sasa 
ki 



1-chome, 

Sakaide-shi, Kagawa-ken 
762 

Tel. 08774-6-3776 
Dir.: Sister Eiko Ueno 



1-9-18 



Sacred Heart 

St. Margaret Seibo Home 7, Tera-machi, Hitoyoshi- 

5-21, Naka Ochiai 2-chome, shi, Kumamoto-ken 868 



3 -fe" 7 (D 
(806) 

2210-5 
093-62-5829 



(762) 

m 08774-6-3776 



374 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



Tel. 09662-2-2428 

Dir.: Sister Marie de St. 

Longin 



(868) 

m 09662-2-2428 

Seibo Ryo 

37, Kami Smva, Smva-shi, 

Nagano-ken 392 

Tel. 02G65-2-22C4 

Dir.: Rev. Anthony Ville- 

neuve, C.Ss.R. 



m 045-871-0771 

MlJ4^ ft 3 

INSTITUTIONS FOR 
HANDICAPPED CHILDREN: 
Aitoku Seishi-En 

1620, Nishihama, Waka- 

yama 641 

Tel. 0734-23-1748 

Dir.: Sister Baptista Casper 



1620 



(392) 

n 02665-2-2204 



Seibo-En Imamura 

573, Oaza Ima, Tachiarai- 

machi, Mii-gun, Fukuoka- 

ken 830-12 

Tel. 094276-85 

Dir.: Rev. Hitoshi Itonaga 



573 
094276-85 



Seibo no Sono 

75, Harajuku, Totsuka-ku, 

Yokohama 244 

Tel. 045-871-0771 

Dir.: Sister Takayo Oyama 

(244) flt&ujF^KicfSHr 75 



(641) 

m 0734-23-1748 



Christmas Village 

149, Okino-machi, Adachi- 

ku, Tokyo 120 

Tel. 03-890-5564 

Dir.: Rev. Aloisius Michel, 

S.J. 



149 



(120) 

m 03-890-5564 



Kosei Gakuen 

Aza Michinoue, Oaza Toyo- 
hara, Nasu-machi, Nasu- 
gun, Tochigi-ken 329-32 
Tel. 0287-72-7825 
Dir.: Sister Teruko Fudai 






(329-32) 



0287-72-7825 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



375 



Mikumo Catholic Jido-En 

451, Nakabayashi, Mikumo- 

mura, Ichishi-gun, Mie-ken 

515-21 

Tel. Rokken 221 

Dir.: Sister Maria Jacobatti 

h J y ^ /SM 

(515-21) HMW-iSl&HStt 
ft^ 451 

m *ff 221 

Misakae no Sono 

277, Totake-myo, Konagai- 

cho, Kita Takagi-gun, 

Nagasaki-ken 859-01 

Tel. 095734-111 

Dir.: Sister Michiyo Ima- 

nishi 



277 



095734-111 



Misakae Gakuen 

8021, Masuyama, Kaseda- 
shi, Kagoshima-ken 897-11 
Tel. 09935-2860 
Dir.: Koichi Dozono 



(897-11) ^jB 

8021 

m 09935-2860 



Kibo no Hoshi Gakuen 

1537-3, Akaogi, Tatsugo- 



son, Oshima-gun, Kago 
shima-ken 894-04 
Dir.: Sister Georgette Cou 
ture 

(894-04) $Jfc&Jft*&IBlgSW 
/^M^ 1537-3 

St. Joseph Seishi-En 

6, Higashi Kobai-cho, Kita- 

no, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603 
Tel. 075-462-7621 
Dir.: Dr. Hiroshi Fukase 




Shimizuzawa Gakuen 

170, Minami Shimizuzawa, 
Yubari-shi, Hokkaido 068-05 
Tel. 012356-321 
Dir.: Rev. Christopher Mai- 
no, M.M. 



(068-os) ^m 

170 

n 012356-321 



Yuki no Seibo-En 

420, Aza Tobetsu Harano, 
Tsukigata-machi, Kabato- 
gun, Hokkaido 061-04 
Tel. 013327-105 
Dir.: Mr. Fujisaburo Kinai 



376 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(061-04) :|bi!SiI 

^$mm 420 

013327-105 



SETTLEMENTS: 
Sophia Settlement 

9-10, Machiya 4-chome, Ara- 

kawa-ku, Tokyo 116 

Tel. 03-892-4511 

Dir.: Rev. Aloisius Michel, 

S.J. 



03-644-8189 



Gyokokai Catholic Workers 
Home 

4-1, Azuma-dori 5-chome. 

Fukiai-ku, Kobe 651 

Tel. 078-22-5342 

Dir.: Rev. Robert Vallade, 

M.E.P. 



(651) 

m 0727-22-3438 



5-4-1 



(116) 



4-9-10 G y koka i Kitahara Center 



03-892-4511 



Arinko 

Shiomi 2-chome, Koto-ku, 

Tokyo 135 

Tel. 03-644-8189 

Dir.: Rev. Zengo Yoshida 



(135) 



48, Shiroshima, Minoo-shi, 

Osaka 562 

Tel. 0727-22-3438 

Dir.: Rev. Robert Vallade, 

M.E.P. 



48 



(562) 

n 0727-22-3438 



5. CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS 



Aisha Publications 

Konagai-machi, Kita-Taka- 

ki-gun, Nagasaki-ken 859-01 

Tel. 095734-228 

Dir.: Sister Kazuko Naka- 

yama 



(859-01) 



095734-228 



Catholic Press Center 

1-5, Wakaba, Shinjuku-ku, 

Tokyo 160 

Tel. 03-351-6173 



CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS 



377 



Dir.: Rev. Aldo Varaldo 



1-5 



(160) 

03-351-6173 



Knderle Publications 

3, Koji-machi 6-chome, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 
Tel. 03-263-4251 
Dir.: Mr. Rupert Enderle 



6-3 



(102) 

M 03-263-4251 



Good Shepherd Movement 

Sanjo-Agaru, Kawara-ma- 

chi, Nakakyo-ku, Kyoto 604 

Tel. 075-211-9341 

Dir.: Rev. James F. Hyatt. 

M.M. 



(604) St 

=*^ 

m 075-211-9341 



Koe-sha Publishers 

Catholic Center 31-1, Kita- 

hama 5-chome, Higashi-ku, 

Osaka 541 

Tel. 06-231-4540 

Dir.: Rev. Masao Mase 



5-31-1 



(541) 

* h J y V -fe 

m 06-231-4540 



Komyo-sha Publishers 

Higashi 2-chome, Kita 
jo, Sapporo 065 
Tel. 0122-71-2554 



11- 



(065) 

m 0122-71-2554 

Oriens Publications 

2-28-5, Matsubara, Seta- 

gaya-ku, Tokyo 156 

Tel. 03-322-7601 

Dir.: Rev. Joseph Spae 



Holy Rosary Publishers 

51, Nampeidai, Shibuya-ku, 

Tokyo 150 

Tel. 03-463-5881 

Dir.: Rev. Yoshinori Wata- Salesian Press 

nabe 



(156) 

2-28-5 

m 03-322-7601 



(150) 

m 03-463-5881 



51 



1-22, Wakaba, Shmjuku-ku, 
Tokyo 160 

Tel. 03-351-7041; 341-5416 
Dir.: Rev. Julius Manganelli 



-t* 



378 CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(160) ^biSSfflSK^r^ 1-22 Dir.: Mr. Isamu Nakano- 

n 03-351-7041; 341-5416 watari 



Seibo no Kishi Publications 

196, Hongochi-machi, Naga- .^ 012^-71-0101 

saki 852 il-iIfi^iT 1 
Tel. 0958-23-2079 

Dir.: Rev. Toyomitsu Saka- Veritas Publishing Company 

tani No. 7 Kojimachi Building, 5,. 

IBficDPf+^f- Kojimachi 4-chome, Chiyo- 

(852) ^df rf^^M 196 da ku > Tok y 102 

H 0958-23-2079 Tel. 03-263-3857 

* Dir.: Mr. Akira Mizoguchi 



Tenshi-in Printing Office (102) iPM^^ftfflKSHJ 4-5 

Higashi 3-chome, Kita 12-- .^ 7 ?5f[Hj t";l/ 
jo, Sapporo 065 ft 03-263-3857 

Tel. 0122-71-0101 fftp HH 



6. MASS COMMUNICATIONS 

Catholic Koho-shitsu (Newspaper) 

(Public Information Office) 1-5, Wakaba, Shinjuku-ku r 

10-1, Rokuban-cho, Chiyoda- Tokyo 160 
ku, Tokyo 102 Tel. 03-351-6173 

Tel. 03-262-3695 Dir.: Rev. Aldo Varaldo 

Dir.: Rev. Ikkaku Take- # h y ., ^gfHiSI^SB 
shima (160) IffMfPfffilX^H 1-5 

m 03-262-3695 



fi h J . 
(102) fl W w-riv,miA/Nj Good shepherd Movement 

S" 1 03-262-3695 ( ^ " d Televi f n ) 

Sanjo-Agaru, Ka\vara-ma- 

chi, Nakakyo-ku, Kyoto 604 
Catholic Weekly Tel. 075-211-9341 



MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF MEN 



379 



Dir.: Rev. James F. Hyatt 
(604) 



075-211-9341 



S 03-351-5135 

Tosei News 
(News Agency) 

10-1, Rokuban-cho, Chiyoda- 

ku, Tokyo 102 

Tel. 03-262-3691 

Dir.: Rev. James E. Mc- 



7, 



St. Paul Center 
(Radio and Television) 
1-5, Wakaba, Shinjuku-ku, Elwain 

Tokyo 160 l|cM-^- 
Tel. 03-351-5135 " (102 ) 

Dir.: Rev. Carlo Boano io_i 

iz I/ \> . tf - } \, & -s & - n 03-351-5135 

(160) 4lMfP:fr?t jK?ali 1~5 i 



7. MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES 
OF MEN 



Atonement, Franciscans Friars 
of the. S.A. 

1787, Higashi Terao-machi, 
Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230 
Tel. 045-581-6374 
Sup.: Rev. Arthur Newell 



(230) ^TU 

1787 

M 045-581-6374 

Augustine, Order of St. O.S.A. 

6-5, Wakakusa-cho, Naga 

saki 852 

Tel. 0958-44-9208 

Sup.: Rev. Edward Hattrick 



(852) SdgTfJ^^iHIJ 6-5 
n 0958-44-9208 

3-12, Sakae-cho, Hatano- 
shi, Kanagawa-ken 257 
Tel. 0463-81-1521 
Sup.: Rev. James Ryan 

(257) $Jlim^!iriUW 3-12 
0463-81-1521 

Benedict, Order of St. O.S.B. 

6-22, Kami-Osaki 4-chome, 
Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 
Tel. 03-491-5461 
Sup.: Rev. Hildebrand Yai- 



380 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



* T-* -f ? h ^ 

(141) m^^ 

4-6-22 

m 03-491-5461 



Bethlehem Foreign Mission 
Society. S.M.B. 

5-16, Shike-cho, Morioka- 

shi, Iwate-ken 020 

Tel. 0196-22-5270 

Sup.: Rev. Lukas Stoffel 



5-16 



(020) S^m 
m 0196-22-5270 



Burgos Foreign Mission So 
ciety. I.E.M.E. 

269, Saiwai-cho, Marugame- 
shi, Kagawa-ken 763 
Tel. 08772-22-4529 
Sup.: Rev. Cremencio Manso 



269 



(763) SJIIM^Tf 
m 08772-22-4529 



Carmelites. Order of Discal- 
ced. O.C.D. 

97, Kaminoge-cho, Tama- 

gawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

158 

Tel. 03-701-0063 

Sup.: Rev. Luciano Pertusi 



(158) H 

JiH^HT 97 
m 03-701-0063 



4-5, Taiho-cho, Atsuta-ku, 
Nagoya 456 
Tel. 052-671-1003 
Sup.: Rev. Constantius Ad- 
amini 

(456) ^]SMrtJ^fflK^^fflT4-5 
n 052-671-1003 

Christian Instruction, Brothers 
of. F.I.C. 

1, Takinoue, Naka-ku, Yoko 
hama 232 

Tel. 045-641-4578, 1974 
Sup.: Brother Jean Trudel 



(232) m 

m 045-641-4578, 1947 

Christian Schools, Brothers of. 
F.S.C. 

5795, Hino, Hino-shi, Tokyo 

191 

Tel. 0425-81-2523 

Sup.: Brother Maurice Pi- 

card 



5795 



(191) mm^B^ 
m 0425-81-2523 



Cistercians, Order of the 
Strict Observance. O.C.S.O. 

392, Mitsuishi Aza, Kami 
Iso-machi, Kami Iso-gun, 
Hokkaido 049-02 
Tel. Moheji 139 



MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF MEN 



381 



Sup.: Dom Bonaventure Mi- 
tsuno 



(167) J|CS 
n 03-396-0291 



2-35-7 



(049-02) 



392 

< 139 



mrnm* 

Columban s Foreign Mission 
Society, St. S.S.C. 

3-10, Roppongi 7-chome, 

Minato-ku, Tokyo 106 

Tel. 03-408-5677 

Sup.: Rev. Charles Moriarty 
jgn n >x>^ 

(106) jgsctp*iix7v# 7-3-10 

n 03-408-5677 

Divine Word, Society of. 
S.V.D. 

6, Gokenya-cho, Showa-ku, 

Nagoya 466 

Tel. 052-831-5726 

Sup.: Rev. Hermann Bertels- 

beck 



(466) 

m 052-831-5726 

Salesians of Don Bosco. S.D.B. 

35-7, Igusa 2-chome, Sugi- 
nami-ku, Tokyo 167 
Tel. 03-396-0291 
Sup.: Rev. Stephen Dell An 
gela 



Franciscan Friars Minor, Or 
der of. O.F.M. 

2-39, Roppongi 4-chome, Mi 

nato-ku, Tokyo 106 

Tel. 03-408-6957, 402-2634 

Sup.: Rev. Sigfrid Schnei 

der 

Sx*3 

4-2-39 

Friars Minor Capuchin, Order 
of. O.F.M.Cap. 

377, Sobe, Naha-shi, Oki 

nawa. 

Tel. 082-2-2020 

Sup.: Rev. LaSalle Parson? 

wmwmiti&si 377 

m 082-2-2020 

Friars Minor Conventual, Or 
der of. O.F.M. Conv. 

2-2100, Aoba-cho, Higashi 
Murayama-shi, Tokyo 189 
Tel. 0423-91-2074 
Sup.: Rev. Yasaku Sueyoshi 



(189) mSOJTUffllBT 2-2100 
n 0423-91-2074 



Guadalupe, Foreign Mission 



382 



Society of Our Lady of. M.G. 

1-57, Nishi Sakae-machi, 

Aizu-Wakamatsu-shi, Fuku- 

shima-ken 965 

Tel. 02422-2-1447 

Sup.: Rev. Antonio Valdes 



(965) Mm^S 

1-57 

II 02422-2-1447 

Missionary Sons of the Im 
maculate Heart of Mary. 
C.M.F. 

3-3, Imaicho, Asahi-ku, 

Osaka 535 

Tel. 06-951-5018 

Sup.: Rev. Emeterius de la 

Rosa 



3- 



(535) -A;B 

m 06-951-5018 



Immaculate Heart of Mary 
Mission Society. C.I.C.M. 

68, Honmachi, Himeji-shi, 

Hyogo-ken 670 

Tel. 0792-22-0082 

Sup.: Rev. Raymond Ren- 

son 



68 



(670) ^ju 

0792-22-0082 



Little Brothers of Jesus. P.F.J. 

1-4, Sakuramoto-cho, Kawa- 
saki-shi, Kanagawa-ken 210 



Tel. 044-26-7555 
Sup.: Rev. Andre Gay 



(210) 3ffl 
m 044-26-7555 



Jesus, Society of. S.J. 

7, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, To 

kyo 102 

Tel. 03-262-0282 

Sup.: Rev. Ildebrando Mar 

tini 



(102) 

m 03-262-0282 



John of God, Order of St. O.H. 

2, Okuyamahata-cho, Suma- 

ku, Kobe 654 

Tel. 078-71-0869 

Sup.: Brother Aegidius Lut- 

ter 



(654) 

m 078-71-0869 



Marist Brothers of the Schools. 
F.M.S. 

2-1, Senmori-cho 1-chome, 

Suma-ku, Kobe 654 

Tel. 078-71-0174 

Sup.: Brother Thomas O - 

Donnell 



1-2-1 



(654) 

* 078-71-174 



MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF MEN 



383 



Society of Mary. S.M. 

1-2-43, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, 

Tokyo 102 

Tel. 03-261-2965 

Sup.: Rev. Yoshifusa Ishi- 

waki 



(102) 

1-2-43 

m 03-261-2965 



Marist Fathers. S.M. 

(Society of Mary) 
36, Nobori-oji-cho, Nara 630 
Tel. 0742-22-2094 
Sup.: Rev. Sidney J. Nugent 



36 



(630) ^ 

m 0742-22-2094 



Oblates of Mary Immaculate. 
O.M.I. 

6-287, Sekimachi, Nerima- 

ku, Tokyo 177 

Tel. 03-920-8265 

Sup.: Rev. Bertram M. Sil 

ver 

^ 7 \> - h ^ 

(177) JUmMUKIiBT 6-287 
m 03-920-8265 

Maryknoll Catholic Foreign 
Mission Society of America. 
M.M. 

6, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, To 



kyo 102 

Tel. 03-261-7283 

Sup.: Rev. J. Joseph Mooney 

S J > -;tMif^ 

(102) m%m=F ft ffl K^/i^fBj e 

m 03-261-7283 

Pontifical Institute for Foreign 
Missions. P.I.M.E. 

12-16, Higashi 2-chome, Shi- 

buya-ku, Tokyo 150 

Tel. 03-471-3978 

Sup.: Rev. Allegrino Alle- 

grini 



(150) 
12-16 
n 03-471-3978 

Paris Foreign Mission Society. 
M.E.P. 

3-7-18, Mejirodai, Bunkyo- 

ku, Tokyo 112 

Tel. 03-941-0902 

Sup.: Rev. Emilien Milcent 



(112) 

3-7-18 

m 03-941-0902 

Congregation of the Passion. 
C.P. 

6, Tsukudo Hachiman-cho, 
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162 
Tel. 03-260-5915 
Sup.: Rev. Ward Biddle 



384 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(162) 

it 03-260-5915 

Paul, Pious Society of St. 
S.S.P. 

1-5, Wakaba, Shinjuku-ku, 

Tokyo 160 

Tel. 03-351-5135 

Sup.: Rev. Aldo Varaldo 



1-5 



(160) 

M 03-351-5135 



Pious Schools, Order of. S.P. 

5-2, Komaba 4-chome, Me- 

guro-ku, Tokyo 153 

Tel. 03-467-1871 

Sup.: Rev. Enrique Rivero 



4-5-12 



(153) ft&flSi 
m 03-467-1871 



Preachers, Order of. O.P. 

51, Nampeidai, Shibuya-ku, 

Tokyo 150 

Tel. 03-463-5881 

Sup.: Rev. Bernard-M. Tra- 

han 



si 



(150) 

m 03-463-5881 



Quebec Foreign Mission So 
ciety. M.E.Q. 

4-4-17, Motomachi, Aomori- 



shi 030 

Tel. 01772-4-3937 

Sup.: Rev. Paul Lavoie 



(030) W&TfrW 4-4-17 
M 01772-4-3937 

Redeemer, Congregation of 
the Most Holy. C.SS.R. 

624, Kami Fukumoto-cho, 

Taniyama-shi, Kagoshima- 

ken 891-01 

Tel. 09929-6-2084 

Sup.: Rev. Josef Mittermei- 

er 



(891-01) ^^ft 

624 
09929-6-2084 



5-16-1, Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, 

Tokyo 151 

Tel. 03-466-0361 

Sup.: Rev. Armand Dufour 

(151) JfCmSKtt*# 

5-16-1 

m 03-466-0361 

San no Maru 66, Maizuru- 

shi, Kyoto-fu 624 

Tel. 07736-5-2294 

Sup.: Rev. David A. Weir 

(624) &%>ffimmi$=;jL 66 

m 07736-5-2294 
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Mis- 



MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF MEN 



385 



sionaries of the. M.S.C. 

1-55, Tanabata-cho, Kita-ku, 

Nagoya 462 

Tel. 052-981-2022 

Sup.: Rev. Adrian Fitzgib- 

bon 



1-55 



(462) 

m 052-981-2022 



Sacred Hearts of Jesus and 
Mary, Congregation of the. 
SS.CC. 

1071, Ota-machi, Tomobe- 
machi, Nishi Ibaragi-gun, 
Ibaragi-ken 309-14 
Tel. 02967-7-0047 
Sup.: Rev. Cornelius Biffar 
<i .rX x -7 J T<>lg,|>^ 
(309-14) ii8;$SW 
^HEI 1071 
02967-7-0047 

Scarboro Foreign Mission So 
ciety. S.F.M. 

14-8, Takanavva 4-chome, 

Minato-ku, Tokyo 108 

Tel. 03-441-6063 

Sup.: Rev. Patrick J. Mc- 

Namara 

*##*n#SS|fc 
(108) 4-14-8 

fg 03-441-6063 

San Sulpice, Society of. S.S. 
1900, Shinshoen, Katae, Fu- 



kuoka 814 

Tel. 092-82-4943 

Sup.: Rev. Yoshiyuki Taka- 

ki 



1900 



(814) 

m 092-82-4943 



Clerics of St. Viator. C.S.V. 

33, Minami-machi, Komatsu- 
bara, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603 
Tel. 075-463-3281 
Sup.: Rev. Pierre Carriere 



33 



(603) SP 

m 075-463-3281 



Mission, Congregation of. C.M. 

1-1-16, Maikodai, Tarumi- 

ku, Kobe 655 

Tel. 078-77-9335 

Sup.: Rev. Ignatius L. Foley 

H tf j > -te > -> % ~7 A > a CD 

(51f U^h^) 
(655) ^FfTtf^M^ 
1-1-16 
% 078-77-9335 

Xaverian Missionary Fathers. 

S.X. 

9, Kagoike-dori 1-chome, 

Fukiai-ku, Kobe 651 

Tel. 078-22-2990 

Sup.: Rev. Virginio Aresi 



386 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(651) 

m 078-22-2990 



1-9 



Order of Preachers. O.P. 

4-5-5, Sanbancho, Matsuya- 
ma-shi, Ehime-ken 790 



Tel. 0899-21-1849 

Sup.; Rev. Vicente Gonzalez 



(790) 



Hsmr 4-5-5 



0899-21-1349 



MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES 
OF WOMEN 



Adorers Handmaids of the 
Blessed Sacrament and of 
Charity, Congregation of. 
A.E.S.C. 

2155, Kitami-cho, Setagaya- 

ku, Tokyo 157 

Tel. 03-489-1974 

Sup.: Sister Isabel Bohor- 

quez 



(157) 
2155 

n 03-489-1974 



Angels, Missionary Sisters of 
Our Lady of the. M.N.D.A. 

4-6, Yawata Honmachi, Shi- 

zuoka 420 

Tel. 0542-85-4956 

Sup.: Sister Madeleine Guer- 

tin 



4-6 



(420) 

m 0542-85-4956 



Assumption of the Virgin, 
Sisters of the. S.A.S.V. 

502, Namiuchi, Oaza Tsuku- 
rimichi, Aomori 030 
Tel. 017724-0122 
Sup.: Sister Ste-Zenobie 



502 



(030) ff 

n 01772-4-0122 



Assumption, Congregation of 
the. R.A. 

1, Nyoidani, Minoo-shi, Osa 

ka 562 

Tel. 0727-22-3933 

Sup.: Sister Eugenia Sole- 

dad 



(562) ^ra 
n 0727-22-3933 

Benedict, Order of St. O-S.B. 

2-13, Higashi Azabu, Mina- 
to-ku, Tokyo 106 



MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF WOMEN 



387 



Tel. 03-583-5182 

Sup.: Sister Mary Gertrude 

Maus 



2-13 



(655) 



7-4-4 



078-77-3116 



(106) 

r a 03-583-5182 



Bernardine Nuns of Esquer- 
mes, Order of. O.B.N.E. 

19775, Shijimizuka, Hama- 

matsu 430 

Tel. 0534-52-1573 

Sup.: Sister Marie Lutgarde 

Englebienne 



19775 



Charity, Daughters of. F.D. 
C.C. 

2-5-1, Sakurajosui, Seta- 

gaya-ku, Tokyo 156 

Tel. 03-302-1078 

Sup.: Sister Paola Miramon- 

ti 



(430) i 

m 0534-52-1573 



Capitanio Sisters. 

213, Honji Harayama, Seto- 

shi, Aichi-ken 489 

Tel. 0561-82-7713 

Sup.: Sister Candida Gaz- 

zaniga 



(156) 

2-5-1 

m 03-302-1078 

Charity and Christian Instruc 
tion of Nevers, Sisters of. 
S.C.I.C.N. 

3, Taya-cho, Fukakusa, Fu- 

shimi-ku, Kyoto 612 

Tel. 075-641-6602 

Sup.: Sister Bernadette 

Gauthey 



(489) 

213 

II 0561-82-7713 

Carmelite Sisters of Charity. 

4-4, Kasumigaoka 7-chome, 

Tarumi-ku, Kobe 655 

Tel. 078-77-3116 

Sup.: Sister Ramona Escu- 

dero 



x V *. - fr g $s J: t>* 

(612) MfPitT^HK 
n 075-641-6602 



U 



de 



Charity of St. Vincent 
Paul, Daughters of. 

1-16, Maikodai 1-chome, 
Tarumi-ku, Kobe 655 
Tel. 078-77-2734 
Sup.: Sister Mary Moran 

7 ? $ o (D 



388 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(655) 

1-1-16 

ft 078-77-2734 

Charity of Quebec, Sisters of. 

10-1, Wakabayashi-cho 3- 

chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 

154 

Tel. 03-414-3439 

Sup.: Sister Marie-Anna 

Chouinard 



(154) 
3-10-1 



Christ Jesus, Missionaries of. 

132-2, Shinden, Hatsuishi, 

Nagareyama-shi, Chiba-ken 

270-02 

Tel. 0471-52-1022 

Sup.: Sister Filar Perez Bo- 

billo 

4 J * h 4 ^Xx^SgrB^ 
(270-02) ^SiMOlTffTOfrffi 
132-2 
S 0471-52-1022 

Christ the King, Missionary 
Sisters of. M.C.R. 

4-10-26, Honcho, Hoya-shi, 

Tokyo 188 

Tel. 0424-64-2211 

Sup.: Sister Anne-Germaine 

Smith 



m 0424-64-2211 

Claire, Order of St. O.S.C.C. 

922, Inume-machi, Hachi- 
oji-shi, Tokyo 192 
Tel. 0426-54-4401 
Sup.: Sister Ogishima 



(192) 

m 0426-54-4401 



Immaculate, Teaching Sisters 
of Mary. 

2-15, Nomi-cho, Takatsuki- 

shi, Osaka 569 

Tel. 0726-75-1278 

Sup.: Sister Asuncion Lla- 

quet 



2-15 



(569) 

m 0726-75-1278 



Company of Mary. 

2-41-23, Izumi, Suginami- 

ku, Tokyo 166 

Tel. 03-321-1550 

Sup.: Maria Dolores Lashe- 

ras 



(166) 



2-41-28 



03-321-1550 



(188) 



4-10-26 



Divine Heart and Immaculate 
Virgin, Handmaids of. 

1-185, Ogikubo, Suginami- 
ku, Tokyo 167 



MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF WOMEN 



389 



Tel. 03-391-7142 
Sup.: Sister Pura 



(167) 

n 03-391-7142 



1-185 



Dominic, Religious Sisters of 
St. O.P. 

410, Midorigaoka, Itami-shi, 

Hyogo-ken 664 

Tel. 0727-72-2548 

Sup.: Sister Ines Takaichi 



410 



1-10-1 

m 03-700-0017 

Catholic Mission Sisters of St. 
Francis Xavier. 

1.67, Nakajima-cho, Kochi 

780 

Tel. 0888-72-0522 

Sup.: Sister Margaret Mary 

# h y -j, * -tf^ J^^ia-A^ 
(780) ?4^iU4iEfflI 167 
3-72-0522 



(664) %m 

m 0727-72-2548 



Dominican Nuns. O.P. 

74, Ezomori, Ueda, Morioka- 

shi, Iwate-ken 020 

Tel. 0196-22-3936 

Sup.: Sister Marie- Jeanne 

de Jesus Crucifie 



(020) 

74 

m 0196-22-3936 

Dominique, Congregation Ro- 
maine de Sainte. O.P. 

1-10-1, Okamato-cho, Seta- 

gaya-ku, Tokyo 157 

Tel. 03-700-0017 

Sup.: Sister Benedicta Take- 

da 



(157) 



Franciscan Missionaries of 
Mary. 

2-5-1, Naka-Ochiai, Shin- 

juku-ku, Tokyo 161 

Tel. 03-951-1111 

Sup.: Sister Francois Remi 

v J 



7 7 > -> 7* 3 

(161) ESIB 
m 03-951-1111 



Franciscan Missionary Sisters 
"Del Giglio". 

2093, Aoba-cho 2-chome, 

Higashi Murayama-shi, To 

kyo 189 

Tel. 0423-91-4127 

Sup.: Sister Lauretana Mia- 

tello 



(189) I 
2-2093 



390 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



m 0423-91-4127 

Franciscan Sisters of the Ato 
nement. S.A. 

572, Kamiyama-cho, Ko- 
hoku-ku, Yokohama 226 
Tel. 045-931-1532 
Sup.: Sister Ann Philip 
~7 h- >^ > 



572 



(226) 

m 045-931-1532 



Franciscan Nuns of the Most 
Blessed Sacrament. F.S.S.S. 

919, Shiobara, Fukuoka 810 

Tel. 092-54-3627 

Sup.: Sister Marie Bernice 



(810) mm^m& 919 

m 092-54-3627 

Franciscan Sisters of St. Geor 
ge. 

Nishi 2-chome, Kita 16-jo, 

Sapporo 065 

Tel. 0122-73-0311 

Sup.: Sister M. Paula Weil- 

ke 



7 5 > 
(065) ft 
m 0122-73-0311 

Good Samaritans, Sisters of 
the. 



746, Horen-cho, Nara 630 

Tel. 0742-22-6160 

Sup.: Sister Sheila Mary O - 

Donnell 



(630) 



746 



0742-22-6160 



Good Shepherd of Angers, 
Congregation of Our Lady of. 

3-58, Kasuga-cho, Toyonaka- 

shi, Osaka 560 

Tel. 068-52-1254 

Sup.: Sister Marie de St. 

Jacques 



3-58 



(560) 

n 068-52-1254 



Grey Sisters of the Cross. 
S.G.C. 

112, Anyoji-shita, Odawara 

Haranomachi, Sendai 983 

Tel. 0222-56-5279 

Sup.: Sister Raymonde The- 

rien 

K ^ 2 o 7 
(983) MffiiCfflT/.MBi[ 
^a^T 112 
m 0222-56-5279 

Guardian Angels, Sisters of 
the. S.A.C. 

2-22, Kotobuki-cho 2-chome, 
Ube-shi, Yamaguchi 755 



MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF WOMEN 



391 



Tel. 0836-21-0634 

Sup.: Sister Maria Accacia 



2-2-22 



(755) 

m 0836-21-0634 



Heart of Mary, Daughters of. 

6-2, Minami Motomachi, 

Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160 

Tel. 03-351-0297 

Sup.: Miss France Chevil- 

lette 



6-2 



J 

(150) 

m 03-351-0297 



Helpers of the Holy Souls. 

24-1, Tamachi 2-chome, Ichi- 

gaya, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 

162 

Tel. 03-269-3285 

Sup.: Sister Marie de Ste. 

Jeanne d Arc Brizon 



(162) jfi 

2-24-1 

m 03-269-3285 



Holy Spirit, Missionary Sis 
ters, Servants of the. C.M.S. 
Sp.S. 

1, Yagoto Honmachi, Sho- 

wa-ku, Nagoya 466 

Tel. 052-832-0434 

Sup.: Sister Margarethe Ca- 

denbach 



(466) 

n 052-832-0434 



Holy Infant Jesus, Sisters of 
the. (St. Maur) 

7-5, Niban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, 

Tokyo 102 

Tel. 03-261-4306 

Sup.: Sister Cecilia Taka- 



(102) 

m 03-261-4306 



Hospital Sisters of the Third 
Order of St. Francis. O.S.F. 

650, Nibuno, Himeji-shi, 
Hyogo-ken 760 
Tel. 0792-22-5051 
Sup.: Sister M. Elreda 



650 



(760) 

m 0792-22-5051 



Immaculate Conception, Mis 
sionary Sisters of the. 

8-13-16, Fukazawa-cho, Se- 

tagaya-ku, Tokyo 158 

Tel. 03-701-3295 

Sup.: Sister Therese Lali- 

berte 



(158) 

8-13-16 



392 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



n 03-701-3295 

Immaculate Conception, Tea 
ching Missionary Sisters of 
the. 

1-56, Sonoyama-cho, Chi- 

gusa-ku, Nagoya 464 

Tel. 052-781-1696 

Sup.: Sister Isabel Paran- 

diet 



(507) %L$VJ 
m 0572-22-3373 



38 



(464) 

156 

n 052-781-1696 



Infant Jesus of Chauffailles, 
Congregation of the. 

1-37, Nigawa Takadai 2- 

chome, Takarazuka-shi, 

Hyogo-ken 665 

Tel. 0798-51-0174 

Sup.: Sister Marie du St. 

Sacrament 



(665) &mm^. 

2-1-37 

m 0798-51-0174 



Jesus Crucified, Congregation 
of the Sisters of. 

38, Midorigaoka, Tajimi- 

shi, Gifu-ken 507 

Tel. 0572-22-3373 

Sup.: Sister Marie Asssum- 

pta Honda 



Jesus, Daughters of. 

1968, Horiuchi, Hayama- 

machi, Miura-gun, Kana- 

gawa-ken 240-01 

Tel. 0468-75-0459 

Sup.: Sister M. del Carmen 

Otamendi 



(240-01) 

Mft 1968 

m 0468-75-0459 

Jesus, Little Sisters of. 

1-11, Naito-cho, Shinjuku- 

ku, Tokyo 160 

Tel. 03-341-2981 

Sup.: Sister Johanna Misao 



1-11 



(160) iSH 

m 03-341-2981 



Joseph, Sisters of St. 

7, Higashi Kobai-cho, Kita- 
no, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603 
Tel. 075-461-0245 
Sup.: Sister M. Mark 



(603) 

n 075-461-0245 



Joseph of Carondelet, Congre 
gation of the Sisters of St. 
110, Nakagawa-machi, Shi- 



MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF WOMEN 



393 



mogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 

606 

Tel. 075-781-0669 

Sup.: Sister Mary Regis 



l: 



(606) M 
ffjllgtfflj HO 
n 075-781-0669 

Marie-Auxiliatrice, Society of. 

2509, Higashi-Fukatsu-cho, 
Fukuyama-shi, Hiroshima- 
ken 720 

Tel. 0849-22-1682 
Sup.: Sister Marie Francis 



(720) jCAJjlfliljftlKffttnr 

2509 

S 0849-22-1682 

Mary Immaculate, Congrega 
tion of the Daughters of. 

1300-1, Sasu-cho, Chofu-shi, 

Tokyo 182 

Tel. 0424-83-3525 

Sup.: Sister Isabel 



1300-1 



(182) 

S 0424-83-3525 



Korean Martyrs, Congregation 
of the Blessed. 

31-7, Ikaino Higashi 9- 
chome, Ikuno-ku. Osaka 544 
Tel. 06-757^768 
Sup.: Sister Damien Oo Rin 



Sook 



(544) 

9-31-7 

a 06-757-4768 



Maryknoll Sisters of St. Do 
minic. 

17, Ko\vaki-cho, Matsu- 

gasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606 

Tel. 075-78-3330 

Sup.: Sister Sarina Naka- 

mura 

^ U ; -* 
(606) M 
/jNJ^fflj 17 
n 075-78-3330 



Mercedarian Missionaries of 
Berriz. 

33-28, Minami Koenji 2- 

chome, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 

166 

Tel. 03-311-3466 

Sup.: Sister Juana Lasarte 



(166) 

m 2-33-28 

n 03-311-3466 

Notre Dame, Congregation de. 

590, Shimo-Ishihara, Chofu- 

shi, Tokyo 182 

Tel. 0424-82-2012 

Sup.: Sister Fernande St. 

Pierre 



394 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



3 > y u tf :> ^j- > K 

y - h;l/XA 

(182) H^rUTeJI 590 
m 0424-82-2012 

Notre Dame, School Sisters of. 

1, Sakuradani-cho, Shishi- 
gadani, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606 
Tel. 075-771-4436 
Sup.: Sister Mary John 



(606) 



n 075-771-4436 

Notre Dame of Namur, Sis 
ters of. 

26-21, Honcho 4-chome, Ki- 
chijoji, Musashino-shi, To 
kyo 180 

Tel. 0422-52-1180 
Sup.: Sister Mary Martina 
i- I * -^ ; 



4-26-21 

n 0422-52-1180 

Our Lady s Missionaries. 

346, Kamiagu, Maizuru-shi, 

Kyoto 624 

Tel. 07736-5-3222 

Sup.: Sister Catherine Peco 



(624) 

n 07736-5-3222 



Paris Foreign Mission Society, 



Sisters of the. 

Ko 9-1, Seki-machi 2-chome, 
Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177 
Tel. 03-920-9118 
Sup.: Sister Marie Andree 



(177) 
q\ 9-1 

m 03-920-9118 

Passion of Our Lord Jesus 
Christ, Religious of the Most 
Holy Cross and. 

2-278, Nagaoyama, Kiri- 

hata, Takarazuka-shi, Hyo- 

go-ken 665 

Tel. 0727-59-3742 

Sup.: Sister John Mary 



(665) 

2-278 

m 0727-59-3742 

Paul, Daughters of St. 

8-12-42, Akasaka, Minato- 

ku, Tokyo 107 

Tel. 03-408-2513 

Sup.: Sister Agnes Leto 



8-12-42 



(107) 

m 03-408-2513 



Paul de Chartres, Sisters of 
St. 

4-1, Kita 2-chome, Kudan, 
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102 



MISSION BOARDS, ORDERS, SOCIETIES OF WOMEN 



395 



Tel. 03-261-7074 

Sup.: Sister St. Luc Ebihara 

-> ^ ;l/ I 
(102) 
2-4-1 
m 03-261-7074 

Pious Disciples of the Divine 
Master. 

1-3-15, Inokashira, Mitaka- 

shi, Tokyo 181 

Tel. 0422-43-2602 

Sup.: Sister Silvana Pan- 

caro 

tf X 7- ,f 

(181) 

1-3-15 

fg 0422-43-2602 

Pious Institute of the 
Daughters of Mary. 

270, Tsukimidai, Hodogaya- 

ku, Yokohama 240 

Tel. 045-331-2952 

Sup.: Sister Maria Pilar 

Julian 



Tel. 03-429-4823 

Sup.: Sister Maria Beatriz 

Aguilar Silva 



(240) 

270 

tg 045-331-2952 

Poor Clare Missionary Sisters 
of the Blessed Sacrament. 

27-15, Sakurashin-machi 1- 
chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 
154 



(154) ^ 

1-27-15 

m 03-429-4823 

Preachers, Order of. 

33, Higashi Nagane-cho, 
Seto-shi, Aichi-ken 489 
Tel. 0561-82-6409 
Sup.: Sister Marie Josepha 

K ? -*> i3 &?&)&& 
(489) g^mUpTijmSffiW 33 
m 0561-82-6409 

Precious Blood, Sisters Ado 
rers of. 

200, Amanuma, Chigasaki- 
shi, Kanagawa-ken 253 
Tel. 0467-82-3672 
Sup.: Sister St. Paul of the 

Cross 



200 



(253) flj 

n 0467-82-3672 



Presentation of Mary, Sisters 
of the. 

6-25, Matsuzaki-cho 3- 
chome, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545 
Tel. 06-621-2110 
Sup.: Sister Marie Saint- 
Theodule Fecteau 



396 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



(545) 

3-6-25 

H 06-621-2110 



Kedeemer, Order of the Most 
Holy. 

263, Hiyoshi, Fuki, Maizuru- 

shi, Kyoto 624 

Tel. 07736-5-1413 

Sup.; Sister Eosalie Aarts 

Ixr >:/ h-Ji/ife^jgEill^ 
(624) ?& itf Hit 263 
m 07736-5-1413 

Sacred Heart of Jesus, Hand 
maids of the. 

8-3, Higashi Gotanda 3- 

chome, Shinagawa-ku, To 

kyo 141 

Tel. 03-442-6370; 441-4871; 

441-6442 

Sup.: Sister Mercedes Ruiz 



(150) 

n 03-400-1890 



4-3-1 



(141) 

3-8-3 

S 03-442-6370, 441-4871, 

441-6442 

Sacred Heart of Jesus, Socie 
ty of the. 

4-3-1, Hiroo, Shibuya-ku, 

Tokyo 150 

Tel. 03-400-1890 

Sup.: Sister Brigid Keogh 



Trinity, Eucharistic Mission 
aries of the Most Holy. 

2-10-14, Kami-Tanaka-cho, 

Shimonoseki-shi, Yamagu- 

chi-ken 751 

Tel. 0832-22-6636 

Sup.: Sister Josef a Fox 



(751) 

2-10-14 

m 0832-22-6636 



Ursuline Sisters. 

1-2, Ipponsugi-machi, 

dai 982 

Tel. 0222-56-0931 

Sup.: Sister Roland De- 

schamps 



Sen- 



(982) 

m 0222-56-0931 

Ursulines of the Sacred Heart. 

92-2, Shiobara, Fukuoka 810 

Tel. 092-54-2428 

Sup.: Sister M. Enrica Bon- 

bagna 



(810) ^i|^TtJig,fg 92-2 
m 092-54-2428 

International Catholic Auxili 
aries. 



CATHOLIC CHURCH DIRECTORY 



397 



185, Okubo-cho, Minami-ku, 
Yokohama 233 
Tel. 045-741-0259 
Sup.: Miss Marie Rose Jas 
pers 



(233) 

m 045-741-0259 



Teresian Institute. 

9-2, Yamate-dori 1-chome, 
Showa-ku, Nagoya 466 
Tel. 052-832-2473 
Sup.: Maria Josefa Sarrasin 



(466) 
1-9-2 
052-832-2473 



Mission Sisters of the Holy 
Redeemer. 

1685, Toso, Tagami-cho, 

Kagoshima 890 

Tel. 09922-5-2505 

Sup.: Sister Katarina Maria 

Gandl 



I/ 7- > 7 \> 
(890) 
m 09922-5-2505 



1685 



Mary Help of Christians, 
Daughters of. 

4-2-14, Akabanedai, Kita- 

ku, Tokyo 115 

Tel. 03-907-2036 

Sup.: Sister Giuseppina Za- 

ninetti 



4-2-14 



(115) 

m 03-907-2036 



Mary, The Missionary Society 
of. 

11-6, Kosada 3-chome, 
Hashimoto-shi, Wakayama- 
ken 648 

Tel. 07363-2-0574 
Sup.: Sister Wanda de Rosa 
-7 J 

(648) 

3-11-6 

m 07363-2-0574 



398 



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407 



STATISTICS OF THE ADMINISTRATORS APOSTOLIC 
OF THE RYUKYU ISLANDS 



Area: 

Population : 

Catholic Population: 

Catechumens : 

Baptisms: 

Marriages: 

Easter Communions: 

Bishop: 

Priests: 



Seminarians: 

Brothers : 

Sisters: 

Parishes : 

Catechists : 

Deaths: 

Educational Institutions 



2,196Sq. Kms. 

1,004,692 

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230 

Adults 180; Infants 140; At Death 14 

Catholic 23; Mixed 41 

2,420 

1 

Japanese Secular 2 

Japanese Religious 1 

Missionary Religious 16 

Major Diocesan 2; Minor Diocesan 1 

Missionary Religious 1 

Japanese 41; Missionary 4 

12; Stations 7; Centers 5 

Male 1; Female 1 

33 



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Student Residence 



1; Students: Male 135, Female 75 
2; Students: Male 462, Female 457 
10; Students: Male 706, Female 685 
14; Students: Male 346, Female 631 
1; Residents 20 
Social and Welfare Institutions 
Dispensary: 1; Consultations 7,779 

* Catholic Population Net refers to the number of Catholic 
faithful, less priests, religious, seminarians. Total refers 
to all. 



PART IV 



IN MEMORIAM 



IN MEMORIAM 

1969 REPORT 
PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 

Compiled by Howard Norman 

Hymns like "Onward Christian Soldiers" are not popular 
in some Christian circles today. We can understand this and 
do sympathize with this attitude. But was the Roman soldier 
of the first century a glamorous figure for the Jews? Yet the 
Pauline epistles have many military metaphors. 

In offering this necrology we have no hesitation in de 
scribing them as Christ s soldiers who fought the good 
fight, for they fought with Christ s weapons of love and faith 
with in most cases more courage than five soldiers. We 
honor them and list them with joy for their long battle for 
the Kingdom, in the knowledge that they are now enjoying 
rich fellowship with their Captain. 

The following are the names of those reported to us. 

MR. FREDERICK ABLE, Missionary Band of the World, 
was born June 30, 1878 in Marshall, Illinois ,U.S.A. and 
died March 23, 1968 in Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A. In 
Japan: 1913-1940. Sei-ved: Fukaya and Tokyo in evangelis 
tic work. Of his four children, Dorothy became a missionary 
to Japan, and one son a pastor in Rye, N.Y., and another 
son a pastor in Delphi, Indiana. 

MISS MARTHA AKARD, of the United Lutheran Church 
of America, died May 30, 1969 in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
In Japan 1914-1956, except for the war years. She founded 
the Kyushu Girls School and served as its president for 



412 IN MEMORIAM 

many years. She was elected president of the National 
Kindergarten Union in Japan several times. In 1955 she 
was awarded The Fourth Order of the Sacred Treasure. 

MR. ROBERT R. BASINGER, Board of World Missions of 
the Methodist Church, was born November 7, 1924 at 
Mountain Lake, Minn. U.S.A. and died October 9, 1967. In 
Japan 1950-1953. Served: Teacher of English in Rakuno 
Gakuen, Hokkaido and in Too Gijuku in Hiroshima. He 
died of leukemia. 

V MISS FLpRENCEJBIRD. of the United Church of Canada, 
was born in Marysville, New Brunswick, Canada, April 27, 
1885 and died July_9, 1968 at Fredericton, N.B., Canada. In 
Japan 1912-1920. She came to Japan under the Women s 
Missionary Society to the Methodist Church of Canada 
which later became the W.M.S. of the United Church of 
Canada. She served in direct kindergarten work and in the 
training of kindergarten teachers in Nagano, Ueda, Tokyo 
and Shizuoka. From 1922-1953, when she retired, she was 
engaged in the Japanese work of the United Church in 
Vancouver, Montreal and Toronto. 

MISS LEONA BURR, of the United Church Board for 
World Ministries, was born at Academy, South Dakota, 
U.S.A. on June 9, 1890 and died August 5, 1968 at Mitchell, 
South Dakota, U.S.A. Served in China 1919-1954. Profes 
sor of English Literature, Kobe College, Nishinomiya, 
1950-1954. 

MISS ELIZABETH LOUISE BYRD, World Mission to 
Children, was born June 11, 1916 in Tacoma, Washington, 
U.S.A. and died August 30, 1960 in Sasebo, Japan. In 
Japan: 1956-1960. 



PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 413 

MISS LOLA CLARK, came out to Japan under the Women s 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Church of Canada 
(now the United Church of Canada). Died December 17, 
1968 at Chatham^ Ontario. In Japan 1919-1925. She taught 
at the Kofu Girls High School (Yamanashi Eiwa). 



^ MABEL CLAZIE, of the United Church of Canada, 
was born in Belleville, Ontario, Canada, December 26, 1879 
and died April 5, 1968. She served from 1910-1931 in For 
mosa under the Presbyterian Church of Canada; 1932-1943 
in Japan under the United Church of Canada. For most of 
this period she served as a social worker in the Aiseikwan 
Social Service Settlement in Tokyo. From December 1941 
until her return to Canada in 1943, she was kept under 
observation and interned. 

MRS. EMMA FLEDDERJOHN COOK, Evangelical and 
Reformed Church, was born in Tolono, Illinois, U.S.A. and 
died February 14, 1967 in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. In 
Japan: 1902-1916. Served: With her husband, who died in 
1916, in North Japan College, Sendai, and in evangelistic 
work in Yamagata and Akita prefectures. She held cook 
ing and Bible study classes. Of six daughters, two later 
were short-term teachers in Miyagi Girls School in Sendai, 
Mrs. Cook s niece and grand-niece now represent the Cook 
family as missionaries in Japan. 

REVEREND LEONARD WREN COOTE, of the Far East 
Apostolic Mission, was born April 20, 1891 in Enfield, 
Middlesex, England and died in San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. 
on February 23, 1969. In Japan 1913-1959, Korea 1959- 
1968. He founded churches in Tokyo, Nara and Osaka and 
a Bible College in Ikoma, as well as the Osaka Evangelistic 
Tabernacle. He also established churches and Bible Colleges 
in the U.S.A. and Korea. 



414 IN MEMORIAM 

MISS AMY R. CROSBY, of the Woman s American Baptist 
Foreign Mission Society, was born April 25, 1885 in Center- 
ville, Mass. U.S.A. and died November 5, 1968 in Boston, 
Mass. U.S.A. In Japan 1916-1933. She taught at the Tokyo 
Kindergarten Teacher s Training School and served for 
shorter periods at Misakicho Tabernacle, the Yotsuya Stu 
dent Dormitory and at Mead Christian Center in Osaka. 
She served as hostess at Hasseltine House in Newton Cen 
ter until retirement. 

I/ REVERENDJDARLEY DOWNS, P.P., of the United Church 
Board for World Ministries, formerly American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Congregational 
Church, was born in Manitou, Colorado, April 8, 1894 and 
died in Hendersonville, North Carolina, March_ 29^1969. In 
Japan 1919-1941, 1947-1963. He served arPoshisha Mid 
dle School in Kyoto and in 1929 became director of the 
School of Japanese Language and Culture in Tokyo. On 
temporary assignment in the Philippines when the war 
broke out, he was interned and for four years he served as 
liaison between internees and Japanese authorities. After 
the war he returned to Japan and was a key figure in 
negotiating arrangements for the Council of Cooperation 
of the Nihon Kirisuto Kyodan and the Interboard Commit 
tee for Christian Missions and acted until his retirement 
as Secretary of the Interboard Field Committee. He is 
survived by his wife Lucille and three children. In October 
1968 he was awarded a decoration from the emperor, the 
Third Class Order of the Sacred Treasure. 

REVERENP EPWIN BURKE POZIER, of the Southern 
Baptist Convention, was born in Nagasaki, Japan, April 16, 
1908 and died May 10, 1969 at Fukuoka. In Japan 1932- 
1941, 1946-1969. He was engaged in both educational and 
evangelistic work, serving at various times as Pean of the 



PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 415 

English Literature Department, Professor in the Seminary, 
and Chancellor of the Seinan Gakuin Foundation. From 
1941-1945 he ministered to Japanese speaking people in the 
Hawaiian Islands. He was the first S.B.C. missionary to 
return to Japan after the war. On December 18, 1968, he 
received the Decoration of the Rising Sun of the Fourth 
Rank from the Japanese Government. 

KARL FRIEDRICH EITEL, M.D., of the Liebenzeller Mis 
sion, was born in Germany, December 15, 1889 and died at 
Calw, West-Germany, February 8, 1968. Dr. Eitel first went 
to China in 1922. He came to Japan in 1951 and engaged 
in medical work in Tokyo until his retirement in 1968. 

MRS. WILLIAM H. ERSKINE, (nee Virginia Stewart), 
of the United Christian Missionary Society, was born at 
Perry Depot, Ohio, U.S.A. and died in Silver Springs, Mary 
land, U.S.A. on November 15, 1968. In Japan 1904-1933. 
She served with her husband in Akita and Osaka in both 
educational and evangelistic work. 

MISS STELLA MARIE GRAVES, of the United Church of 
Christ, was born at Battle Creek, Michigan, U.S.A. and 
died in Long Beach, California U.S.A. December 2, 1968. 
In Japan 1922-1930. She taught music at Kobe College for 
five years and one year in Tottori. Transferred in 1930 to 
Foochow Mission, China, serving in Shanghai and at Gink- 
ing College, Nanking and West China until 1948. Active 
in the United States until 1966, teaching, acquainting 
westerners with music of the Far East and as organist at 
Grace Presbyterian Church, Los Angeles. 

MISS FLORENCE ISABELL HAMILTON, Anglican 
Church of Canada, was born June 15, 1886 in Collingwood, 
Ontario, Canada and died March 1. 1968 in Toronto, Canada. 



416 IN MEMORIAM 

In Japan: 1914-1964. Served: Matsumoto, Toyohashi and 
Ueda in evangelistic work and Kindergarten work includ 
ing the training of teachers. Before coming to Japan she 
taught at an Indian school in Fort McPherson in the Mc- 
Kenzie district in the Arctic Circle in northern Canada. 
During 1942-1951 she worked among relocated Japanese in 
British Columbia, Canada. 

MISS KATE HANSEN, Doctor of Music, Evangelical and 
Reformed Church, was born 1879 in Logan Kansas, U.S.A. 
and died January 4, 1968 in Logan, Kansas. In Japan: 
1907-1947. Served: Taught music in Miyagi Gakuen, Sen- 
dai. Dr. Hansen contributed mwch to sacred music in Japan. 

REVEREND^CHARLES W^ IGLEHART, Ph.D, D.D., of 

the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, later the Division of Foreign Mission, The Metho 
dist Church, was born in Evansville, Indiana, U.S.A. on 
April 17, 1882 and died at Dunedin, Florida, U.S.A., May 4, 
1969. In Japan 1909-1941 and 1950-1953. He worked in 
Hirosaki, and in Tokyo, in which place he served as Pro 
fessor at Tokyo Shingaku Daigaku and at Aoyama Gakuin 
Daigaku. He was also Honorary Secretary of the National 
Christian Council and Professor at International Christian 
University. He was in Japan again 1961-1963. In his home 
land he was twice Associate Secretary of his Board of Mis 
sions and also from 1944-1950, he was Associate Professor, 
and Professor of Missions, Union Theological Seminary, 
N.Y. In 1953 he received the Fourth Class Order of the 
Rising Sun. 

MISS MARY JESSE, Baptist, was born 1885 in Lancaster 
Virginia, U.S.A. and died May 12, 1968 in Alhambra, Cali 
fornia, U.S.A. In Japan: 1912-1952. Served: Shokei Joga- 
kuin, Sendai her entire time in Japan. She became the 



PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 417 

second principal of the School. In 1962 she returned for the 
70th anniversary celebration. A representative of the school 
returned her ashes which were buried in Sendai. In May 
1952, she was decorated with the Fourth Order of the 
Sacred Treasure. 

REVEREND WALTER WESLEY KRIDER, Methodist, 
was born August 23, 1894 in Portland, Indiana, U.S.A. and 
died October 12, 1967 in Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. In Japan 
1920-1964. Served: Nagasaki and Tokyo. After the war 
he also worked in Okinawa. 

MRS. ANNA THOMAS LAMPE, Evangelical and Reformed 
Church, was born 1873 and died February 11, 1965 in Phila 
delphia, Pa., U.S.A. In Japan: 1900-1907. Served in Sendai 
with her husband. 

MISS CLARA LOOMIS, of the Woman s Union Missionary 
Society, was born at San Rafael, California, U.S.A., Octo 
ber 14, 1877 and died September 5, 1968 at Claremont, 
California, U.S.A. Came to Japan at the age of three. Her 
parents were Henry Loomis of the American Bible Society, 
and Jane Herring Greene Loomis, sister of Daniel Crosby 
Greene, first American Board missionary to Japan. Re 
turned to Japan 1902 and was Principal of the Yokohama 
Kyoritsu Gakuen (Doremus School) until 1936. She taught 
at Doshisha 1939-1940. After returning to the U.S. she 
taught one term at Wesleyan University, New Haven, Con 
necticut. 

ELIZABETH TRENT WILSON McLAUCHLIN (Mrs. 
Wilferd C. McLauchlin), of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States, was born in Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A., 
June 10, 1887 and died at China Grove, North Carolina, 
U.S.A., January 8, 1969. In China 1916-1949 (Suchien and 



418 IN MEMORIAM 

Haichow); in Korea 1927-1928. In Japan 1949-161. With 
Dr. McLauchlin, she served in evangelistic work among 
Overseas Chinese, opening up the first of this mission s 
work in Japan, and establishing congregations in Kobe, 
Osaka and Kyoto. She also made invaluable contribution 
at Kobe Union Church. After leaving Japan Dr. and Mrs. 
McLauchlin have been serving the Emanuel Presbyterian 
Church, China Grove. 

MISS AGNES SOPHIE MELINE, of the Woman s Ameri 
can Baptist Foreign Mission Society, was born December 10, 
1886, in Colon, Nebraska, U.S.A., and died March 17, 1969, 
in Norfold, Nebraska. In Japan 1919-1932. She taught at 
Sochin Girls School in Yokohama and Shokei Girls School 
in Sendai. Returning at her own expense in 1937 she taught 
at Tsuda College until she was interned in 1941. She was 
repatriated on the Gripsholm in December of 1943. 

MRS. SHERWOOD F. MORAN, (nee Ursul Reeves) 
American Board of Commissioners, died October 25, 1967 in 
Claremont, California, U.S.A. In Japan 1916-1957. Served: 
Yodogawa Settlement House (Zenrinkan), in Osaka. Rev. 
S.F. Moran was one of the founders of this institution. 

REVEREND WILLIAM B. PARSONS, Protestant Episcopal 

Church, U.S.A. 

MRS. GLORIA LOUISE PENNINGTON, Reformed Presby 
terian Church of North America, was born in New Brigh 
ton, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., November 2, 1938 and died in 
San Diego, California, U.S.A., November 23, 1967. In Japan 
1964-1966. Worked in student work in Hyogo Ken. After 
leaving Japan she served in various capacities as wife of 
the pastor of San Diego, California, Reformed Presbyterian 
Church. 



PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 419 

MISS TORDIS M. PETERSEN, of the Board of Interna 
tional Missions of the Evangelical and Reformed Church 
which is now merged with the United Church of Christ, 
was born at Flekkef jord, Norway, January 28, 1915 and died 
at Short Hills, New Jersey, U.S.A. May 7, 1969. In Japan 
1953-1958 working at the Doshisha Theological Seminary 
and in Occupational Evangelism, leading workers choruses 
in Osaka. Returned for a time to Japan and worked as a 
secretary at IBM. 

MISS MYRTLE Z. PIDER, Methodist, was born 1880 in 
Kansas City, Missouri, and died September 9, 1967 in Pasa 
dena, California, U.S.A. In Japan: 1911-1950. Served: 
Tokyo Women s Christian College, Tokyo, during her entire 
stay in Japan. 

REVEREND JEFFERSON FRANKLIN RAY, Southern 
Baptist, was born January 15, 1872 in Ripley, Mississippi, 
U.S.A. and died September 13, 1967, in Jackson, Tennessee. 
In Japan 1904-1940. Served: Evangelistic work in Fukuoka, 
Hiroshima, Kure, and in the Shimonoseki-Kobe area. 
While living in Shimonoseki he was one of the first to use 
an automobile for literature evangelism. He received 
degrees from Union University in Jackson, Mississippi and 
from the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louis 
ville, Kentucky. Before coming to Japan he was pastor of 
churches and taught school in Alabama and Mississippi. 
Mrs. Ray died in 1944. To them were born three children. 
Dr. Herman S. Ray served as missionary in Japan and is 
now a pastor in Honolulu. 

MISS CONSTANCE M. RICHARDSON, Church Missionary 
Society, was born October 16, 1887 in England and died 
November 14, 1968, Cambridge, England. In Japan 1911- 
1918. She taught at Poole School, Osaka and worked as 



420 IN MEMORIAM 

evangelist in Tokushima. She was Principal of Kennaway 
Training College, England in 1924. Later she took great 
interest in Japanese students in Cambridge. 

REVEREND STEPHEN WILLIS RYDER, Ph.D., Re 
formed Church in America, was born 1880 in Florida and 
died November 28, 1967. Graduated from Yale University 
1910, Brunswick Seminary, N.J., 1913, Ph.D. Columbia Uni 
versity, Union Free College, Glasgow. In Japan: 1919-1930. 
Served: Saga. After leaving Japan he served the Flatbush 
Church, Saugerties. He wrote the book, "A Historical 
Source Book of the Japan Mission of the Reformed Church 
in America, 1958-1951". 

MRS. CHARLES H. SEARS, (nee Minnie V. Sandberg), of 
the Woman s American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, 
was born in Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A. on February 25, 
1894 and died December 1, 1968 in Kansas City, Kansas. 
She taught at Soshin Girls School in Yokohama and also 
was for a time its principal. In Japan 1918-1923. From 
1928-1959 she served as the WABFMS Candidate Secretary, 
Foreign Vice President, and Secretary for Japan, Philippines 
and China. After the Merger of the Woman s Society with 
the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, she served 
as Secretary for Japan, Hong Kong and the Philippines. 
From retirement she taught Missions at Central Baptist 
Seminary in Kansas City. 

REVEREND DEWEES FRANKLIN SINGLEY, Evangeli- 
can and Reformed Church, was born 1889 (or 1890) in 
Nuremburg, Schuylkill Co., Pa., U.S.A. and died November 
22, 1966 in Southamption, Pa. In Japan: 1918-1924. Served: 
Morioka in evangelistic Work. After leaving Japan he 
served as minister in Mauch Chunk, Pa., Amherst, Henrietta, 



PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES 421 

and Akron, Ohio. He retired in 1964 but continued to sup 
ply. 

ROY SMITH, Methodist, was born June 17, 1878 on a farm 
a,rNiota,"Hancock County, Illinois, U.S.A. and died June 3, 
1968 while visiting old friends on a farm adjoining his 
birthplace. In Japan 1903-1906, 1909-1942, 1947-1968. In 
answer to the Student Volunteer Movement appeal for 
Middle and High School teachers he taught at Chofu, Yama- 
guchiken, and Waseda, Tokyo. In 1909, after further edu 
cation in America he returned to Japan and began to teach 
at Kobe Higher Commercial School. He remained with that 
institution .when it became the Commercial Department of 
Kobe University until his retirement in 1968. In 1938 he 
was awarded the Fifth Class Order of the Sacred Treasure 
and later received two other decorations from the Japanese 
Government. On his retirement he was made an honorary 
professor of Kobe University. From 1942-1947 he worked 
among the Japanese in Chicago. 

MRS. IRENE SABIN SNELSON, R.N., of the Fukuin Koyu 
Kai, was born March 27, 1908 in Palmyra, N.J., U.S.A. and 
died while on furlough on February 23, 1969 when in the 
hospital for treatment. She worked in Hamadera, Sakai, 
Osaka Fu, caring for many babies which were adopted by 
missionaries in the Fukuin Koyu Kai. She later worked in 
Kobe with established churches, and cared for convalescents 
in her home. In Japan 1949-1968. 

HviISSJVlARIE STAPLES, of the United Church of Canada, 
was born ~at~ Princeton, Ontario, Canada on March 3, 1889 
and died in Brantford, Ontario, Canada on July 26, 1968. 
In Japan 1914-1941. She served as teacher at the Toyo 
Eiwa Girls School in Tokyo and also as teacher and 
evangelistic missionary in Nagano, Fukui, and Shizuoka. 



422 IN MEMORIAM 

After returning to Canada she worked with the All Peo 
ple s Mission in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. 

MISS GRACE STOWE, American Board of Commissioners, 
was born April 11, 1882 in Enfield, Connecticut, U.S.A. and 
died September 7, 1967 in Claremont, California, U.S.A. 
In Japan: 1908-1952. Served: Kobe College, Nishinomiya 
her entire stay in Japan. She was president of the college 
1925-1926. During the war years she served in Madura, 
South India. 

REVEREND A. J. STIREWALT, D.D., of the United 
Lutheran Church of America was born February 5, 1881 
and died September 28, 1968 in Luray, Virginia, U.S.A. In 
Japan 1905-1968. He served in various capacities until his 
retirement in 1952. After his retirement until the summer 
of 1968 he lived in Japan and did educational work in Kobe 
in the Bible School and Seminary under the auspices of the 
Norwegian Lutheran Missionary Society. For many years 
he was the necrologist for the Fellowship of Christian Mis 
sionaries. 

MR. CECIL S. WILKINSON, Japan Evangelistic Band, was 
born in England and died February 12, 1968 in Worcester, 
England. In Japan 1913-1937. Served: International Chris 
tian Police Association, Tokyo, Koriyama. Fukuchiyama, 
Kobe, and Field Director of the J.E.B. After leaving Japan 
he ministered to Japanese in British Columbia and Alberta, 
Canada. 

v ^SS^MABEL WHITEHEAD, of the Board of Missions of 
the Methodist Church: World Mission, formerly Board of 
Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South; 
Woman s Division of Christian Service of the Methodist 
Church, was born in Arcadia, Missouri, U.S.A., January 22, 



CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES 423 

1892 and died in Birmingham, Alabama, August 8, 1968. In 
Japan 1917-1940, 1946-1960. For some time she worked in 
Oita. After the war, in 1952 she became President of Seiwa 
Junior College, now Seiwa College for Christian Workers, 
in Nishinomiya, a position which she held until her retire 
ment. 

MISS FLORENCE WALVOORD, Reformed Church in 
America, was born January 28, 1896 in Cedar Grove, Wis 
consin, U.S.A. and died October 1, 1967 in Denton, Texas, 
U.S.A. In Japan: 1922-1960. Served: Baiko Jo Gakko, 
Shimonoseki. During the war she served in India. 

CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES 

SISTER ALICE ATKINSON was born January 1, 1892 in 
New Jersey, U.S.A., and died June 22, 1968 in Seoul, Korea. 
In Japan: 1932-1957. Taught at Obayashi and Susono 
Sacred Heart Schools. Went to Seoul 1957 as founder of 
Sacred Heart School. In Japan and Korea ... 36 years. 
SISTER MARIA CAMILLERI was born August 28, 1897 
in Malta and died July 3, 1968 in Tokyo. In Japan: 1926- 
1968. Served as teacher in Sacred Heart School, Tokyo . . . 
42 years. 

BROTHER GELINAS CONRAD, O.F.M., was born No 
vember 28, 1889, in Saint Barnabe, P.Q., Canada, and died 
April 27, 1968 in Tokyo. Served in Japan: 1922-1968 in 
Kagoshima and Tokyo ... 46 years. 

FATHER FRANCIS A. CUNERTY, C.SS.R., was born 
December 24, 1923 in Toronto, Canada and died March 9, 
1968 in Toronto. Served in Japan: 1956-1966 in Kyoto... 
10 years. 

SISTER CLEMENCE DEPREY (SISTER ADOLPH) of St. 

Maur, was born November 10, 1887 in France and died 



424 IN MEMORIAM 

November 26, 1968 in Tokyo. In Japan: 1925-1968. Served 
as a teacher in St. Maur s schools in Tokyo, Shizuoka, 
Hakodate and Yokohama. In Japan ... 43 years. 

SISTER ST. ANNE DUFORD was born April 28, 1886 in 
Lennoxville, P.Q., Canada and died December 9, 1968 in 
Chigasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture. Served in Japan 1934- 
1968... 34 years. 

FATHER GRATIAN FELTZ, O.F.M., was born January 1, 
1904 in New York and died January 22, 1969 in New Jersey. 
Served as a missionary in China 1934-1948. In Japan: 1955- 
1958. Served at Kitahama, Osaka. In Japan and China 
17 years. 

FATHER FRANCIS FLAHERTY, C.P., was born April 19, 
1903 in Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A., and died December 7, 1968 
in Detroit. Served as a missionary in China for 25 years. 
In Japan: 1963-1965 as director of retreats ... 2 years. 

BROTHER CHARLES FOJOUCZYUK, F.M.S., was born 
January 17, 1893, in Detmold, Germany, and died June 17, 
1969 in Tokyo. Served in China 1913-1951. In Japan: 1951- 
1969. Founder of Marist School, Kobe. In Japan and China 
... 56 years. 

FATHER JOHN FORSTER, S.J., was born March 26, 1902 
in Montana, U.S.A., and died March 9, 1969 in Seattle. 
Served as professor in Jesuit schools in the U.S. from 1934- 
1948. In Japan: 1948-1968. Served at Yokosuka, Kobe and 
Tokyo ... 20 years. 

BROTHER RENE GAVALDA, S.M., was born in Vincenne, 
France November 30, 1880 and died September 15, 1968 in 
Tokyo. In Japan: 1904-1968. Served as professor at Gaku- 
shuin and tutor to Prince Chichibu. Teacher at Gyosei and 



CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES 425 

Chaminade schools ... 64 years. 

BROTHER IGNATIUS CROPPER, S.J., was born Decem 
ber 2, 1889 in Bayern, Germany and died November 17, 1968 
in Tokyo. In Japan: 1930-1968. Served as architect for 
churches and institutions ... 38 years. 

BROTHER THEODOR GUTLEBEN, S.M., was born No 
vember 8, 1882 in Alsace and died February 18, 1969 in 
Tokyo. In Japan: 1903-1969. Served as teacher in St. 
Joseph College, Yokohama, Osaka Meisei, Tokyo Meisei and 
Gyosei ... 66 years. 

FATHER JOSEPH HEIDRICH (FATHER EDMUNDUS) 
O.C.S.O., was born March 5, 1898, in Oberschlesien, Ger 
many, and died at the Trappist Monastery in Hokkaido on 
November 1, 1968. In Japan: 1927-1968. Served as a mis 
sionary with the Divine Word Society in Kanazawa and 
Akita. Entered the Trappists in 1948... 41 years. 

SISTER KATE HOLLAND was born June 6, 1882 in 
Sefton, New Zealand, and died December 1, 1968 in Osaka. 
In Japan: 1926-1968. Served as teacher at Sacred Heart 
School, Obayashi, Takarazuka ... 42 years. 

FATHER JULIUS HOLZER, S.V.D., was born February 6, 
1894 in Vienna and died January 9, 1969 in Nagasaki. In 
Japan: 1931-1969. Served as teacher in Nanzan University, 
Nagoya, and as principal of Nanzan High School, Naga 
saki ... 38 years. 

FATHER ANTHONY KARLOVECIUS, M.M., was born in 
Chicago, 111., U.S.A., on June 13, 1921 and died April 9, 
1969 in Chicago. In Japan: 1952-1968. Served in Kyoto . . . 
15 years. 

FATHER JACQUES LEDUC, O.P., was born October 23, 



426 IN MEMORIAM 

1927 in Sainte-Anne de Bellevue, P.Q., Canada, and died 
September 10, 1968, in Montreal. Served in Japan: 1956- 
1968 as pastor of Shibuya Church, Tokyo, and Director of 
Veritas Publishing Company, Kyoto. In Japan ... 12 years. 

FATHER GUSTAVE MAYET, M.E.P., was born in Jura, 
France in 1890 and died in Tokyo July 10, 1969. In Japan 
1921-1969. Served in Sekiguchi and as first pastor of Koen- 
ji Church in Tokyo. Founder and director of Tokyo Kinder 
garten and Nursery Teachers Training School ... 48 years. 

SISTER M. EPHREM ANNA MERTEN, Franciscan mis 
sionary, was born August 22, 1885 in Spahn, Germany and 
died July 8, 1968 at Yuki no Seibo-en, Tsukigata-machi, 
Hokkaido. In Japan: 1925-1968. Served as teacher and 
director of home for mentally retarded children ... 43 years. 

FATHER ALOIS OBERLE, S.V.D., was born January 2, 
1895 in Wiimersheim/Rastatt, Germany, and died May 16, 
1968 in Nagoya. Served in China 1925-1949. In Japan: 
1949-1968. Served as teacher in Nanzan High School, Na 
goya. In Japan and China ... 43 years. 

FATHER GERARD PARE, O.P., was born July 16, 1906, 
in Montmagny, P.Q., Canada and died July 29, 1968, in 
Tokyo. In Japan: 1955-1968. Served as superior of the 
Dominicans in Japan 1955-1963 and afterwards in Shibuya 
Church ... 13 years. 

BROTHER FRANCOIS-XAVIER POITRAS (BROTHER 
FELIX-MARIE), F.I.C., was born April 10, 1902 in Sainte- 
Scholastique, P.Q., Canada and died in Fukushima Pre 
fecture July 7, 1968. In Japan: 1951-1968. Served in St. 
Mary s International School, Tokyo, which he founded. In 
Japan ... 17 years. 



CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES 427 

SISTER ERNESTINA RAMALLO was born in Buenos 
Aires November 9, 1902 and died January 26, 1969, in Tokyo. 
In Japan: 1934-1969. Founded the Seisen Schools in Tokyo, 
Kamakura, Nagano and Ofuna. Superior of the Handmaids 
of the Sacred Heart and first president of the Association 
of Religious Sisters in Japan ... 35 years. 

FATHER FRANCIS REUSCHEL, S.J., was born Novem 
ber 23, 1913 in Breslau, Schlesien, Germany, and died July 
23, 1968 in Hiroshima. In Japan: 1935-1968. Served in 
Fukuyama, Yokosuka, Onomichi, Hatsukaichi, and Yanai 
... 33 years. 

SISTER LEONA ROUSSEL, of the Congregation of Notre 
Dame, was born 11 December, 1909, in Tracadie, N.B., Cana 
da and died October 2, 1968, in Montreal. In Japan: 1959- 
1968. Served as a teacher in Tokyo ... 9 years. 

FATHER MACARIO RUIZ, O.P., was born February 28, 
1894 in Palencia, Spain and died October 31, 1968 in Sakai- 
de, Kagawa-ken. In Japan: 1918-1968. Served as pastor in 
Shikoku ... 50 years. 

SISTER MARIANNE DE SCHONBERG (SISTER M. 
HERIBERTA) of the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary, was 
born on March 25, 1882, in Wilsdruff, Saxony, Germany and 
died November 1, 1968 in Yokohama. Served in China 1921- 
1950 and at Yokohama 1950-1968. In Japan and China . . . 
47 years. 

SISTER SAL VINA XERRI was born May 14, 1901 in Malta 
and died June 3, 1969 in Osaka. In Japan: 1927-1936 and 
1952-1969. Served as teacher in Obayashi and Tokyo Sacred 
Heart schools. In Shanghai 1936-1951. In Japan and China 
... 42 years. 



428 CONTRIBUTORS OF ARTICLES 



Contributors of Articles 

Toru Takakura 

General Secretary, Kyodan 

(United Church of Christ in Japan) 
James Colligan, M.A. 

Information Office 

National Committee of Catholic Church 
Hisashi Aizawa, LL.D. 

Professor, Sophia University, LL.D. 
Robert Epp, Ph.D. 

Eesearcher and Chief Translator 

Center for Japanese Social and Political Studies 

Assistant Professor of Oriental Languages, University 

of California, Los Angeles 

Reiko Matsuoka 

Playwright 

Vice-President of the Japan YWCA and Tokyo YWCA 
Keiji Kuniyasu 

Pastor, Komazawa Church, Kyodan 
Takashi Sakamoto, Ph.D. 

Professor, Sophia University 
Chitose Kishi, D.D., Th.D. 

President, Japan Lutheran Theological Seminary 
Chosei Kabira 

President, Okinawa Hoso Kyokai 

(Okinawa Broadcasting Corporation) 
Paul Pfister, D.D. 

Professor, lezusu-kai Shingakuin 

(St. Mary s College) 



TRANSLATORS 429 



Translators 

1. (a) Kev. and Mrs. John Krummel, Missionaries of Unit 

ed Methodist Church and I.B.C., Staff of Aoyama 
Gakuin. 

2. Rev. Grant Worth, missionary of Southern Baptist Con 
vention. 

4. Rev. W.H. Howard Norman, D.D. Missionary of the 
United Church of Canada and I.B.C. 

5. Miss Patricia Murray, Staff member of Center for Japa 
nese Social and Political Studies. 

8. Fr. Francis Uyttendaele, CICM, Editor: The Japan Mis 
sionary Bulletin, Researcher, Oriens Institute for Re 
ligious Research. 

9. Rev. William Elder, Missionary of the United Methodist 
Church and I.B.C. 



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11 


Kassui Kirisuto Kyodan 


3 


14 


Church of the Resurrected Christ 


4 


7 


Universal Evangelical Church 


1 


30 


Fukuin Dendo Kyodan 


20 


21 


Japan Evangelical Mission 


9 


5 


Next Towns Crusade in Japan 


11 





Kirisuto Shinshu Kyodan 


12 


16 


Christian Canaan Church 


7 


5 


Sanbi Kyodan 


3 


7 


Jesus Gospel Church 


4 


16 


Advent Christian Mission 


11 


1 


Spirit of Jesus Church (Statistics according 


l 


to the church office) 135 304 


True Church of Jesus in Japan 


7 3 


Japan Pentecost 


8 2 


Japan United Pentecostal Church 


15 5 


Nihon Shinyaku Kyodan 


10 





Mino Mission 


4 


20 


Evangelical Free Church in Japan 


9 


5 


The Worldwide Evangelization Crusade 


4 


7 


Evangelical Covenant Church of Japan 


5 9 


Mission Covenant Church in Japan 


9 1 


Swedish Alliance Mission in Japan 


7 4 


Orebro Mission 


10 


Evangelical Orient Mission 


9 3 


The Salvation Army Territorial Headquarters, 






Japan 


57 


59 


Seventh-day Adventists Japan Union Mission 


71 57 





Pastors 
















,,. . Baptized 
Total Mlss . on- Total Church 
anse Members 


Non-Com 
municant 
Members 


Baptisms 
in 1967 


School 
Pupils 


67 


32 164 5,046 


2,587 1 


322 


5,034 


15 


18 26 








17 


28 2,346 










11 


25 577 


45 





160 


31 


20 1,000 










41 


42 626 


252 


41 


1,558 


14 


20 8 149 


83 


31 


682 


11 


6 10 450 










28 


4 1,286 









12 28 2,652 


146 


13 


288 


10 3 152 










20 


11 865 





51 




12 


11 9 395 


131 


49 


563 


439 


165 57,776 





1,943 




10 


6 350 










10 


1 9 175 








70 


20 


3 26 320 










10 


18 350 









24 


2 5 342 









14 


19 10 434 


100 





650 


11 


21 4 80 





6 




14 


16 12 263 


135 


44 


590 


10 


12 7 547 


| 


34 


800 


11 


18 6 151 





36 


820 


10 


16 550 











12 


11 9 128 





14 


300 


116 13 262 5,535 


4,716 


189 


2,863 


128 


42 434 6,749 





370 


6,744 



Statistics of the Protestant Churches 



Churches 



Preachi] 
Points 



Japan Open Bible Church 7 


1 


Pentecost Church of God in Japan 


6 


3 


International Church of the Foursquare Gospel 


5 





Apostolic Faith Mission 


2 





The Apostolic Christian Church of Japan 


3 





Philadelphia Mission 


4 


5 


Shorisha lesu (Jesus the Victor) Kyodan 


3 


3 


Japan Gospel League 


4 


4 


Japan Rural Mission 


3 





International Evangelical Convention 


3 





Swedish Evangelical Orient Church 


4 





Swedish Evangelical Mission in Japan 


7 


Japan Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society 






of Friends 


8 





Church of God Remmei 


5 


2 


Japan Church of God 


5 


3 


Gospel Hall, Plymouth Brethren 


7 





International Christian Body 


4 





United Universalist Association 


2 


-t 


Japan Free Religious Association 


4 





Independent 


163 


Total (Protestant) 


4,896 1,871 


Total (Catholic) 


Total 



Pastors 




TW **? 


Baptized 
Total Church 
Members 


Non-Com- B at) t; 
municant ^ 1( 
Members 


^ s Pup^s 


8 2 12 200 


250 


15 500 


9 3 


8 400 


600 


25 500 


5 2 7 139 





30 165 


2 1 32 


17 


7 45 


3 2 3 30 





19 


9 8 


8 188 


190 


22 390 


6 5 


5 70 





5 200 


g 


16 319 





184 


3 4 3 31 


20 


30 


3 6 50 







4 5 


2 116 





36 820 


7 6 8 170 








8 269 





90 


7 9 

Z 

8 2 


8 52 
10 265 


40 


170 
400 


7 


1 200 







4 4 233 







3 2 92 







4 10 1,365 







163 21 147 10,245 






6,767 1,713 

I 


12,324 455,193 


156,980 15, 


801 217,588 

1 



(From the Christ Weekly, Year Book, 1969) 



.fit fl 






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