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Japanese Exterior and Interior 

Village Street, Asama Hot Spring, and Room in Inn, Miyanoshita 

Water colors by Bunzo Watanabe, 1882 


1877, 1878-79, 1882-83 













Published October zqrj 


XIII. The Ainus . . 1 

XIV. Hakodate and the Return to Tokyo .... 44 
XV. A Japanese Winter .___^_. 77 

XVI. To Nagasaki and Kagoshima 129 

XVII. Travels in the South 164 

XVIII. Lectures and Social Functions 200 

XIX. Japan in 1882 208 

XX. Overland to Kyoto 239 

XXI. The Inland Sea 263 

XXII. Pottery-hunting in and about Kyoto . . . . 281 

XXIII. Customs and Superstitions 305 

XXIV. The Caves of Kabutoyama 319 

XXV. Tokyo Notes 327 

XXVI. Falconry and Other Matters 381 

Index 437 




We were told by a servant of the house that just back of the 
town a dance, or ceremony, was going on in an Ainu hut. I 
had not entered an Ainu hut, though one meets Ainus in the 
street, so we all went to the place and were invited into the 
hut, which consisted of one large room. There were three 
Ainus in the room, all with heavy black beards and tangled 
mops of long hair, their faces strongly resembling those of 
our race. Not a trace of Mongolian was detected. These 
men were sitting cross-legged on the floor around a large dish 
of sake. One of them was performing a monotonous dance, 
making a curious gesture of the hands as if bowing to the win- 
dow, to a glint of sunlight on the floor, to everything about the 
room, and to the shrine outside, which consisted of a dozen 
bear skulls stuck on the ends of long poles. They were all really 
intelligent-looking men, with their long, dignified beards, and 
it was impossible to realize that they were low, unlettered 
savages without moral courage, lazy, and strongly given to 
drunkenness, supporting themselves by hunting with bow and 
arrow and fishing. One of the Japanese with me asked them 
where I came from, and they answered that I was the same as 
the Japanese! 


One old fellow, who was very drunk, showed me a quiverful 
of their terrible poisoned arrows; another one told him to be 
careful, and I felt rather nervous as he walked behind me with 
an arrow in his hand, performing in curious gestures and sing- 
ing a monotonous chant. One man strung his bow to show me 
how they shoot the arrow, and when he took the arrow from 
his quiver he first very carefully removed the poisoned point. 
This point consists of a blade of bamboo, and I noticed a white 
powder on it. The poison used is said to be aconite of some 
form, and so virulent is it that the Ainu bear is killed by it. 

We gave them twenty cents to replenish their vessel of sake, 
and when it was brought we had to drink with them. It was 
worse than eating worms to drink out of their dirty dishes. 
The Ainus, in turn, poured out a large lacquer cup full of sake, 
and, resting a long, thin piece of w T ood resembling a carved 
paper-cutter across the cup, sat down and went through a 
series of movements, first taking the stick and dipping the end 
of it into the liquor and sprinkling a few drops in front of 
them. They made a movement such as one would make in 
removing a speck or a fly from milk. This they did several 
times, offering the drops to different points of the compass; 
but I observed how slight were their offerings of the precious 
liquor to the gods. They then stroked their full beards and 
made a peculiar upward movement of the hands toward their 
beards as a sign of thankfulness. After this long introductory 
they raised the cup toward the mouth, and taking the stick 
lifted the heavy mustache away from the wine as they drank. 
These sticks are known as mustache sticks, and many had 
interesting Ainu designs carved upon them. 


The hut was simply a large, square room literally black with 
soot. The fireplace was a square area in the middle of the dirt 
floor, over which, hanging from the roof, was a simple device 
to suspend a pot or kettle. Most of their household effects 
were in round Japanese lacquer boxes. In many things the 
evidence of Japanese contact could be seen: in the quavering 
voice in singing, in their dance, and in other behavior; or pos- 
sibly the Japanese may have derived some of these features 
from the Ainu centuries ago when the Ainus occupied the 
whole country. There were one or two openings in the hut 
besides the door, but the place was too dark to make out 
details. Figure 365 is the merest apology of a sketch made in 
the dark. I hope to get more details of the Ainu huts later. 

While we were in the hut an Ainu woman came in. She had 
large, coarse features and a wild, untamed look in her eye. 

Fig. 365 


She was working on some kind of a garment and, between 
stitches, scratching for fleas. I have seen three Ainu women 
thus far, and they all had an indigo-colored 
<St? <Sb area resembling a mustache painted about 
their mouths (fig. 366). It is a curious cus- 
tom, and though bad enough looking, it was 
not half so hideous as the blackened teeth 
Fig 366 °^ tne Japanese married women. 

On the 29th of July we left Otaru for Sap- 
poro. The specimens we had collected at Otaru were packed 
in large sake kegs. These objects consisted of a hundred 
shells of the big scallop, a big oil can of alcohol in which 
was the material we had dredged, a pile of ancient pottery 
from the shell heap, etc. Our horses were brought to the 
inn, two of them having foreign saddles for Professor Yatabe 
and me, the others with pack-saddles which required a lot 
of blanket padding. Our pack consisted of two large willow 
baskets. The driver of the train rode another horse, while 
Mr. Sasaki and the servant preferred to walk, thirty miles 
being nothing to a Japanese. As there are no wheeled ve- 
hicles, or jinrikishas, we had before us, after leaving Sapporo 
to ride across Yezo on horseback, one hundred and fifty 
miles, or walk. I must admit to a feeling of apprehension 
about this long ride on horseback over a ragged roadway 
with different horses each day, — wild devils some of them 
too, — though we were told that from Sapporo to the east 
coast of Yezo the roads were fairly good. It was a curious 
fact that I had never been on the back of a horse before. The 
recollections of friends with broken arms, broken heads, and 


accounts of others dragged to death with foot entangled in 
stirrup came up to haunt me with their terrors. However, I 
was in for it, and there was no time to walk, and if I broke my 
head I would not im- 
piously accuse Provi- 
dence, but look upon 
it as a result of my 
neglected education. 
Not caring to exhibit 
myself before the na- 
tives, I had my horse 
led beyond the bound- 
ary of the town while 
I walked. This was 
so enjoyable that I 
walked four or five miles before mounting the nag. The road 
for ten miles led along the coast. In two places the bluffs 
had been tunneled through, and in figure 367 is a view of 

Otaru through one of 

Fig. 367 


these tunnels. A fresh 
breeze blew in from the 
sea and the waves beat 
out their "everlasting 
anthem." Fishermen 
off shore were busy get- 
ting seaweed, a large Laminaria which is dried and exported- 
to China in bales. The fishermen use a kind of fork on a 
pole ten feet long with a cross-bar at the end of the pole. 
The pole is thrust down into the forest of seaweed and then 

Fig. 368 


turned a number of times, twisting the seaweed in such a 
manner that it can be pulled from its moorings (fig. 368). 

In the distance we saw our steamer on its way back to Hako- 
date. Such beautiful precipices we passed, over one of which 
a broad cascade fell. Such chances for an artist I have not seen 
elsewhere in the country; there were so many exquisite bits for 

Fig. 369 

the pencil and the brush. In figure 369 is one of these views, 
a place called Kamakotan with a long, curved beach in front 
and great basaltic cliffs, eight hundred feet in height. In some 
places these cliffs showed the most contorted structure, the 
basalt perfect in its crystallization. The lava had poured 
down in great masses which had cooled and crystallized in 
successive fiery floods. It was too complex a structure to 

After a few miles I got upon my horse for the first time. I 
mounted with an air as if I had always ridden a horse, and what 
a manly, commanding sort of feeling it gave me. It is true the 


horse was slow and persisted in walking unless urged into a 
violent trot, but nevertheless I felt like a commander, and it 
seemed as if I were at the head of an expedition for the survey 
of the world. It was some little time before I got accustomed 
to the motion, but after a while matters became easier, and 
from contemplating the horse with considerable anxiety, I 
could contemplate the landscape with some serenity. The 
sides of the road everywhere were strewn with large fronds of 
seaweed, drying. For ten miles it was a rugged path and very 
steep in some places. Along the sides of alarming cliffs "a 
false step," as the books say, might have precipitated me a 
hundred feet, but the horse knew better than to do such a 
thing, though my uncertain seat in the saddle made me somer 
what nervous. After a while, getting on a level road, I had the 
hardihood to give the horse a gentle hint. Instantly I re- 
gretted it, for such a painful jolting I got; each individual step 
by each individual leg bumped me up and down with a dozen 
rebounds and I instantly pulled the horse up again. Before I 
reached Sapporo I had acquired the art of synchronizing my 
movements with the rigid bounce of the horse, and though 
very lame and sore I managed to trot mildly after a fashion. 

Our first resting-place was a collection of sleepy houses 
forming the village of Genibaku (fig. 370). At the inn where 
we stopped were signs of former activity and importance. 
Long suites of unoccupied rooms recalled the daimyo proces- 
sions that used to pass across the island. Now the house was 
in a moribund state, the rice was poor, and I had hard work 
to supply my "chemical laboratory" with anything palat- 
able. After leaving the place the road became wider and led 



Fig. 370 

away from the coast. The heat now became oppressive, and 
a huge horsefly, much larger than those in our country, 
swarmed by hundreds. I dreaded them, for I was told that 
their sting was fearful. The horse repeatedly stumbled, nearly 
throwing me over his head, he, was so occupied in switching 
and kicking them off. At times he would strike my legs a hard 
rap with his nose as he swung his head back, and I found it a 
difficult matter to sit straight and keep the horse straight too. 
When we got within two miles of Sapporo we passed large 
military barracks, the houses built in foreign style. It was an 
odd sight to see these long rows of one-story houses with win- 
dows and chimneys. The soldiers live here the year through 
and have their families with them. After passing this station 
we were met by a very polite Japanese officer, who spoke Eng- 
lish very well, and who, receiving word from Otaru that we 
were on the way, had come to escort us to town — Professor 
Yatabe to the best inn and me to the house of Professor 
Brooks, one of the officers in the Agricultural College, who was 
to take care of me. As we approached the town I noticed a 


large building surmounted by a dome similar to our Capitol 
buildings at home; it looked like home in fact, and on inquiry 
I found it was really the capitol building of Yezo. 

The streets of Sapporo are wide and cross one another at 
right angles. The whole town suggests a new but thriving vil- 
lage in our Western States. There are a number of houses 
occupied by Government officials built in our style, but the 
other houses were purely Japanese in character. Professor 
Brooks gave me a cordial welcome, and after brushing up he 
conducted me to the college and farm. The college had the 
appearance of our usual country college: common buildings 
without the slightest taste shown in their design or construc- 
tion. In one room was an interesting collection of vessels and 
fragments from the shell heaps of Otaru. How I wanted them ! 
In certain features of decoration they reminded one of the 

Fig. 371 


Omori pottery, but in form they were entirely unlike (Fig. 
371). After examining these and other objects on the shelves, 
principally minerals, I was conducted to the farm, where I 
saw a huge barn modeled after one at the Amherst Agricul- 
tural College in Massachusetts. Last year I had chanced to 
see a report of the college with a picture of this model barn. 
It seemed too absurd to erect such a structure for the Japa- 
nese, as their requirements were so different from ours. But 
after riding through the country and learning more about the 
climate, I realized that farming in our sense might be done 
and in our way too, and therefore not only implements such 
as we use, but barns of our kind, were necessary. In the barn 
were tons of hay. We climbed to the cupola and had a fine 
view of the surrounding country, and in coming down had a 
big jump from a beam to the hay below. All this, with the 
odor of cows, made me homesick. At Professor Brooks's I had 
a quart of fresh milk. It was difficult to realize that I was in 
the heart of Yezo and that only eight years ago this place was 
a howling wilderness frequented by savage bears. That they 
still exist in the region is attested by the account of Professor 
Brooks that last year a bear was killed which had eaten four 
men one after the other, in one case breaking into a house to 
get the victim. It is to the highest credit of the Japanese that 
they not only conceived the idea of the Agricultural College, 
but sent to a Massachusetts Agricultural College for a man to 
establish the farming part of it. It is a rapidly growing town. 
A lager-beer brewery is making the finest lager beer, bottled 
for immediate use, as I was informed when a dozen bottles 
were presented to me. 


The mountains seen from Sapporo are rugged-looking, 
though not high. Figure 372 represents the mountains looking 

Fig. 372 

northwest. The highest of these peaks is about three thousand 
feet; a volcanic mountain, still smoking, is also seen from 
Sapporo (fig. 373). Professor Brooks called my attention to 
some low mounds near the school, the largest one being twenty 

Fig. 373 

feet in diameter and two and a half feet high. We dug out two 
of them, reaching the original level of the ground, but found no 
pottery and but a few fragments of bones. Figure 374 shows 
their general appearance. 

Fig. 374 

The next morning, though stiff and lame from the ride, I 
walked, in the broiling sun, to some woods a few miles away, 
hoping to find some land shells under the dead leaves. The 
forest of beech and hard-wood was an ideal place for snails, 


and I found a number of species that seemed identical with 
certain species I had found in New England. In hunting for 
these creatures one has to get down on his hands and knees 
and crawl about overturning layers of damp leaves and bits of 
bark. I had been searching for these little objects for some 
time when I heard a number of shouts, as if of warning. Look- 
ing up I saw, at a distance of fifty or seventy-five yards, a 
number of hairy Ainus, in a row, shouting at me and gesticu- 
lating. I waved my hand in recognition of their call and 
shouted back to them a Japanese word, "Yoroshii" (All 
right), as they all understand a little Japanese, whereupon 
they became more violent in their gestures and one pulled his 
bow and arrow in a series of jerks in what seemed to be a 
threatening manner. Then it suddenly occurred to me that 
they thought I was hunting for their graves, which they defend 
even to the extent of murder, and recalling the deadly poison 
of the arrow tips I reluctantly got up and walked away. With 
Professor Yatabe I visited the settlement from which these 
men had come, to inquire into the meaning of their hostile 
demonstrations and to explain to them that I was only hunt- 
ing under the leaves for little snails, when they explained that 
one of their men had been killed and eaten by a bear a few 
days before, and that they had set a bear trap with a huge 
poison arrow, and they were warning me that I might get shot 
if I did not get out. This the Ainu had tried to express to me 
by pulling his own bow. They were afraid of coming nearer, 
not knowing quite where the string was which would spring 
the bow; and I on my hands and knees crawling about like 
a bear with the hidden trap ready to shoot me! 


The next morning our pack-horses and saddle-horses were at 
the door. On one were loaded two cases of lager beer; on an- 
other two large, square, willow baskets filled with specimens. 
The Governor had kindly loaned us two foreign saddles until 
we should get to Hakodate. The horse provided for me was a 
huge fellow, and when I mounted and started off the lameness 
from the ride the day before only made his triphammer bounc- 
ing and rigidity more noticeable, and I felt completely and 
literally broken up. I stuck to him for some time, however, 
and then gave up in despair and, dismounting, walked for 
miles before I had the courage to remount. In crossing a large 
truss bridge I noticed a ponderous staging erected the entire 
length. Wondering what it was for, I learned that the bridge 
was to be painted. In some things the Japanese are remark- 
ably dull, for at home a man with a ladder would have accom- 
plished the whole thing in the time they were building the 

After all, there is luxury in riding along and overlooking the 
low bushes beside the road with the woods and marshes be- 
yond. We traveled fifteen miles before we changed horses. 
I got a beast then that kicked and reared whenever I struck 
her with a stick, though by considerable urging I got her into a 
gallop, and then she tore along at a great rate. In my igno- 
rance, it was the first time I had dared to venture on a gallop, 
and, to my surprise, I found it much easier than any other 
way. I was out of my saddle twenty times during the next 
ten miles to get some snails to study, for the habits of the 
larger snails here are quite different from those of ours at 
home. Here they seem to live on the leaves of bushes, and 


you pick them off as you would ripe fruit. On this ride we got 
two specimens of fresh-water mussel, apparently like the pearl 
mussel, Margaritana, and the common New England Unio 

We reached Ghitose, our resting-place for the night, and 
found there our German friend the doctor, who came on the 
steamer with us from Yokohama and who was now on his way 
across the island. I opened one of our boxes of beer and gave 

Fig. 375 

him six bottles, and you may imagine his delight. He could 
not thank us enough. Figure 375 shows the inn at Chitose, 
an old-fashioned one that used to be at the disposal of the 
daimyo and his retainers on their way from the west coast to 
the capital. Now its rooms are unoccupied save by an occa- 
sional visitor. A row of water tubs on the ridge of the roof 
gives the appearance of chimneys, which the Japanese house 
never has. The next morning we were up early, this time 
for a thirty-mile ride with one change of horses. My attention 
was so completely occupied with minding my horse and get- 
ting him into a gallop that I recall hardly anything from sta- 
tion to station, except that toward noon the road became more 
level and sandy and we realized we were approaching the east 


coast. At noon we came in sight of the sea at a place called 
Tomokomai. Here we made a long stop waiting for Sasaki and 
a servant who had elected to walk. I envied them and should 
have preferred walking the entire distance, but it was such a 
fine opportunity to learn to ride that I could not resist it. 

Fig. 376 
Figure 376 is an old inn in Tomokomai, its roof grass-grown 
as are most of the houses we see. It is odd to see yarrow 
and other wild weeds and plants growing on the roof in luxu- 
rious profusion. On the beach I got a sketch of a few Ainu huts 
and an outlook (fig. 377). Here were a few Ainu fishermen 

Fig. 377 


making nets and curing fish. All along the road the Ainus we 
met were in the service of the Japanese, taking care of their 
horses in particular. When the Ainus ride they sit cross-legged 
and perched up high on the saddle, and whenever I saw them 
they were going at full gallop. 

Fig. 378 

On the beach was a Japanese fishing boat, twenty-five feet 
long, made after the model of a junk, its unpainted wood 
immaculate in cleanliness with a few ornamental designs in 

Fig. 379 

black at the bow and stern. A large interspace in the stern for 
the rudder is a curious feature about the model ; it is peculiar 
to all their junks. As before mentioned, there are no rowlocks; 


simply short loops of rope hang down at the sides through 
which the oar is passed. Hanging just inside the bow is a 
tassel of shavings having some fancied effect in warding off 
danger or in insuring good luck; evidently derived from the 
god-stick of shavings of the Ainu from which the Shinto 
gohei is supposed to be derived. The boat was finished like a 
bit of cabinet-work, perfectly fitting joints, and so clean and 
attractive that I had to make a careful drawing of it. Figure 
378 is a view of the boat from the stern; figure 379 is the stern 
from the side; and figure 380 represents the bow. The boat is 
loaded with a large fishing net and is waiting 
for the tide to float her. 

All along the shore at intervals, or rather at every little 
settlement, is a rude sort of lookout erected on tall poles and 
used by the fishermen to see schools of fish at a distance or to 
burn lights at night. Figure 381 shows one of these lookouts 
at Tomokomai. The rough shelter on top seems to be made of 
odd pieces of wood, either fragments of wrecks or other stuff 

Fig. 381 


thrown up on the beach. Another characteristic structure 

on the shore is a huge 
windlass to drag boats 
up from the water (fig. 

The dogs of the coun- 
try are of two types. 
One resembles the Es- 
kimo dog in form and 
color, while the other 
type is almost precisely 
like a fox in color, form, 
motion, and bushy tail. 
If it is possible to get a cross between a dog and a fox there 
is certainly fox blood in these creatures. Every village has 
a pack of dogs, and 
at night they are very 
noisy, making sounds 
like cats, but more in- 
fernal; they howl and 
squeal, but never bark. 
Darwin has observed 
in his work on domes- 
ticated animals that 

when dogs relapse from their cultivated state to a semi- 
savage one, they lose the bark and take on the howl again. 
Wild creatures to which they are related never bark, but 
From Tomokomai a curious mountain is seen known as 

Fig. 382 


Tarumae. Figure 383 is a rough sketch of it, but it gives one an 
idea of the curiously formed mountains in Yezo. There were 
several Ainu houses 
in the place, but we 
had little time to ex- 
amine them, and be- 
ing told that our stop- FlG 383 
ping-place for the next 

night was an Ainu village we pushed on to Shiraoi. The 
road now led along the sand beach, the road itself white and 
sandy, the broad Pacific on one side, with the constant roar of 
its breaking waves, and on the other side mountains of bizarre 
forms, probably all volcanic in origin. Despite blue glasses, 
the glare of the sun from the white sand became painful and 
after a few miles the ride became monotonous. We passed 
several small clusters of Ainu houses, and at one place over- 
took an Ainu with his little girl and boy and two dogs. The 
children were entirely naked, and the little girl carried by a 
head band a bundle resting on her back while the man led her 
by the hand. It seems strange to see the women and girls 
doing all the work while the man takes it easy. The women 
are all rather coarse in looks, but kind and good-natured and 
with manners of extreme diffidence. In nearly every instance 
when I saw them they persistently held their hands to their 
mouths as children do when bashful. In every case their 
mouths were bordered with an area of black, as before men- 
tioned, and in some cases their arms were painted with a series 
of rings like bracelets. I learned definitely that the material 
they use for this coloring is simply soot from the kettle. The 


children resemble very closely European children, having 
large eyes and pleasant faces, but are ex- 
ceedingly timid and bashful. As the women 
habitually hold the hand to the mouth in 
the presence of strangers, one gets the idea 
that they are hiding the paint about the 
mouth, but such delicacy is hardly credi- 
ble, particularly as the children have this 
gesture. Figure 384 represents a woman 
carrying a load with the head 
band; figure 385 represents two 
Fig. 384 Ainu wom en ; fig- 

ure 386 is a child, 

showing the red cloth earrings and 
the peculiar bang 

Fig. 385 

of the hair; and 
figure 387, three 
children sitting. 
They were in a 
dark hut and re- 
mained fixed like statues while we were 
present. A mop of coarse black hair is 
combed down straight about the head, 
cut short about the neck, hanging long 
over the ears, with a large bang in front. 
I had some difficulty in making sketches 
of the Ainus, as among some of them there 
is a superstitious dread of having their 
pictures made. So, while sketching them, I pretended to be 

Fig. 386 


interested in something else, now and then getting in a glance 
when their attention was directed elsewhere. 

Their huts are very dark and also very dirty. When we 
entered they would light a roll of 
birchbark to enable us to see about, 
but even with this illumination the 
hut was too dark to make out de- 
tails. Figure 388 is an attempt to 
show the general arrangement of 
objects within. There was no end 
to them, — bundles, rolls of dry 
fish, and a number of fish fins of 

large size hung up to dry, and bows and quivers. Over the 
fire were parts of fish hanging to be smoked. The sleeping- 
place was simply a slightly raised platform on one side of the 
room, and on this platform was a round lacquer box with 

Fig. 387 

Fig. 388 



cover, standing on four short legs. These boxes are made by 
the Japanese evidently for the Ainu trade, as in every Ainu 
house I saw a few. 1 In these boxes the Ainu keeps his treas- 
ures. On the wall are very old Japanese short knives or dag- 
gers, quivers full of poison arrows, and other implements of 
hunting. The entire contents of the hut are brow r n with smoke 
and the roof and rafters are black. The floor is mother earth, 
but on this they do spread a straw mat to sit upon. Whenever 
we entered their huts they would take down from the rafters 
above a rolled mat in 
which had been worked 
some simple design in 
brown and yellow straw 
and place it on the 
ground for us to sit 
on. Most of the Ainu 
sketches I made at Shi- 

raoi, where there is quite an Ainu village (fig. 389). The Ainu 
houses are symmetrically made and the ribbed-straw roof is 
very neat and even attractive. I went through a number of 
Ainu villages and could find no evidence of alignment, or even 
street area. Narrow, irregular paths led through the grass 
from one house to another, but there w T ere no cleared areas and 
no ground trodden down as if children played there. Most of 
the houses were surrounded by a high fence composed of bun- 
dles of sedge, or reeds such as their houses are made of. We 

1 In the Peabody Museum there are three of these boxes, and I have had distin- 
guished Japanese, old and young, give their opinion as to the uses of the object, and 
all vary, though the majority believe it to be a box to hold the shells used in a liter- 
ary game. 

Fig. 389 



Fig. 390 

were told that their houses last only six or eight years. The 
villages consist of thirty or forty houses; at least we saw many 
of that number. Many of the houses had a sort of ell, or porch, 
and this gave a better appearance. The roof is often thatched 
in such a way as to form a series of horizontal ridges, with a 
steep ridge running up vertically nearly two feet, and sur- 
mounted by a round stick. This was apparently held in its 
place by a straw rope which bound it to a transverse beam 
running through the base of the ridge. It is entirely unlike any 
roof I have seen in Japan. Figure 390 is an Ainu house with 
the peculiar ridged roof; figure 391 shows another Ainu house 

Fig. 391 

Fig. 392 


with porch; and figure 392 is a larger view of the porch. The 
rake on top is not an agricultural implement, but a rude de- 
vice to rake seaweed. One square opening admits the only 

light except what comes 
from the doorway. In one 
house I saw two windows 
with rough board shutters 
hanging down outside. 

The neatness and general 
picturesqueness of the house 
disappear when you enter: 
hard, damp ground beneath, 
blackened rafters above, and a strong fish smell pervading 
everything. Near the square fireplace stands a big bowl con- 
taining the remains of the meal, in every case consisting of 
fish bones, large, sickly looking ones. I saw nothing else to 
eat in their huts except 
smoked fins and other 
parts of a fish, hanging 
up, and some hard, dry 
cakes resembling the 
wheels of a child's cart. 
From one pole in the 
house were suspend- 
ed (fig. 393) a satchel 
made of straw matting, 

the round hard cakes, and strips of fish. The utensils were 
large lacquer cups, the kettle over the fire and a few other 
objects, all of Japanese manufacture, and food bowls of wood 

Fig. 393 



made by the Ainus. Figure 394 shows the fireplace with a 
simple device to hold the kettle at different distances and the 
lamp consisting of a shell filled 
with fish oil and resting on a 
split stick. Figure 395 repre- 
sents the gill covers and fins 
of a horse mackerel; figure 
396 shows another way of cut- 
ting fish with skewers put in 
to keep the cuts apart; it is 
also cut in long strips. Fig- 
ure 397 shows two fish heads 
and other articles and an air 
bladder of a fish. These last 
were hanging directly over the 
fire. All these are suspended 
from poles that hang up in the 

house and the smoke of the fire is sufficient to cure them. 
But think of living and sleeping in a house always charged 

Fig. 394 

Fig. 395 

Fig. 396 

with smoke, so thick at times that one has to run out now 
and then to get a breath of fresh air! 


A number of sticks with curled shavings pendent, known as 
"god-sticks," were in one corner of the hut. I endeavored to 

buy one, but an offer of 
a million dollars would 
be no more effective 
than the offer of ten 
cents, as the Ainu has 
no idea of the value of 
money, or, indeed, any 
knowledge of the sim- 
plest arithmetic. Hang- 
ing on the bedside of the hut were Japanese daggers in sil- 
ver scabbards, quite old, mounted on flattened, oval-shaped 
tablets of wood, the wood at the handle end ornamented by 
flat disks of lead of various sizes hammered into the wood 

Fig. 397 

Fig. 398 

(fig. 398). Whether these daggers were made for the Ainu 
trade as we make objects for the Indians of the Northwest, 
I could not learn. The Japanese with me said they were 


very old and the Ainus seem to hold them in great veneration. 
At Otaru an old Ainu had one that he kept in a bag. He 
showed it to me and seemed to regard it as a most precious 
object. The handle was loose, but that did not seem to impair 
its value. On the walls, at right angles to the wall upon which 
the knives were hung, were three Ainu quivers with the covers 
hanging down; from the shape of these quivers the forms of 

Fig. 399 

the wooden tablets supporting the daggers had been derived. 
Figure 399 is a sketch of them. I endeavored to buy one of 
the quivers, but an offer increasing from one dollar to five 
hundred had not the slightest effect. To my astonishment, 
however, the Ainu took down one of the quivers, removed one 
of the arrows, and, after carefully scratching off the poison, 
gave it to me. 

The storehouses in which they keep their dried and smoked 
fish and skins are built on posts four or five feet in height. In 
some instances a flaring wooden box was placed inverted on 
the top of the post in the same manner in which our corncribs 


in New England are protected from rodents by tin pans on 

the posts. The types of 
these storehouses are 
seen in figures 400 
and 401. Large wooden 
mortars, in which they 
pound rice, are seen in 
or about the house. 
The one shown in fig- 
ure 402 is about three 
feet in height, shaped 

and hollowed out from the trunk of a tree. The Ainu boat 

dug out from a tree-trunk 

was different in form from 

the other "dug-outs" I 

had seen in Japan. The 

one represented in figure 

403 was fourteen feet 

long, bow and stern alike, 

with the walls thin and 

very neatly made, as is 

much of their woodwork. 

Fig. 400 

Fig. 401 

Fig. 402 

At Shiraoi, where I made many Ainu 
sketches, we found many beautiful white 
snails clinging to the bushes. With the ex- 
ception of one species the shells were light 
and delicate. The fresh-water shells are 
equally thin and some of the land shells 
are almost colorless. The absence of lime 




1 't JwT C^. 



Fig. 403 


in the soil is supposed to be the reason for the thinness of 
the shells. We could hardly tear ourselves away from the 
Ainu village the morning we left Shiraoi. It was most in- 
teresting roaming through narrow paths, some of them al- 
most hidden by the grass and bushes, and finding, here and 
there, disposed in the most irregular 
fashion, the Ainu huts. Old men sit- 
ting at the doorway would greet us 
with the peculiar gesture of raising 
both hands toward the face and then 
bringing them slowly down over the 
beard as if stroking it; as children 
make the same gesture, it has nothing 
to do with the beard. The woman's 
salutation consists simply in slowly 
rubbing the side of her nose with the 

If I could only draw a horse I could 
make an interesting sketch of our cara- 
van. Figure 404 is a sketch of Profes- 
sor Yatabe's assistant, which I made while riding behind him. 

Fig. 404 


He was loaded down with botanical boxes and bundles, and 
shortly after making the sketch his horse suddenly kicked up 
in the air and off the assistant went, heels over head, to the 
ground, the heavy pack-saddle, tin boxes, and bundles making 
a clatter. The man picked himself up, shook himself together, 
and with the assistance of our Ainu leader got on his horse 
again. Some of the horses we have had are vicious brutes. 
The last one I had yesterday made me so lame that when we 
started off to-day I walked a distance of seventeen and one 
half miles before mounting. The road lay along the beach the 
entire distance. 

Our caravan was led by an Ainu, a large, black-whiskered, 
hairy fellow with a mop of hair on his head a foot in diameter 
(fig. 405). A cloth was tied around his head to 
keep his hair in place and a peculiar Ainu 
design was wrought in the back of his gar- 
ment. He sat cross-legged on his saddle and 
looked like a giant. This man accompanied 
the train to bring back the horses. To his 
horse was tied another horse carrying the two 
willow baskets containing specimens, clothes, 
etc., and to this horse was tied still another,, 
lugging our cases of lager beer, given to us 
at Sapporo, which were rapidly diminishing as we went on. 
With Yatabe and his assistant, Takamine, Sasaki, and me, 
this made a cavalcade of eight horses. 

We went rattling along the road, and a rattle it was, for 
with the wooden rollers on the cruppers and the other things 
dangling, we made a good deal of noise and dust as we trotted 


or galloped along the white, sandy road. The beach seemed 
interminable. Suddenly, for no apparent reason, three of 
our horses ran away, and I was on one of them. It was in 
vain that we tried to pull them in. Sasaki was ahead, 
Takamine next, I last, and the rest of the cavalcade was 
soon left far behind and out of sight. Everything portable 
was shed: first hats; then strings and straps broke and tin 
botanical boxes, bags, and packages came off, one after the 
other, and the road was strewn for a long distance with these 
objects, which we trusted our men behind would pick up. 
As an indication of the progress I was making in horse- 
manship I managed to hold on to everything: my pith sun 
hat, my colored eyeglasses, and a cigar-holder with lighted 
cigar were undisturbed. Just before the runaway, Takamine 
had folded his red flannel blanket under him to ease the asper- 
ities of the pack-saddle. He was directly ahead of me, and as 
he bounced up and down, his black hair flying in the wind, his 
blanket became unfolded and, little by little, sagged on one 
side and finally came off in the road. Had I been an experi- 
enced horseman, I should have anticipated the shy that was 
sure to come. I did not, however, and was laughing at the way 
Takamine was bumping up and down on his naked saddle 
when my horse shied with such violence that I was nearly 
thrown into the road. With every jump of the horse, however, 
I little by little regained my seat. The wild dash for some 
miles ended as abruptly as it had begun: for, overtaking a 
large pack of horses that filled the road, our horses immedi- 
ately came to a walk and joined them. They had been ac- 
customed to travel with these horses and recognized the odor. 


The Ainu pack-horse is an uncertain brute. He walks more 
slowly, I am told, than any other horse in the world, but I can- 

Fig. 406 

not imagine any horse trotting more painfully or galloping 
more energetically than this Yezo breed. My experience in 
learning to ride would have been more agreeable if I could 
have learned on civilized horses. Figure 406 shows the typical 
Yezo pack-horse with the pack-saddle. 

As we approached Mororan the evidences of upheaval could 
be plainly seen. The bluffs near the water were undercut to a 
height of several feet, as shown in figure 407. The soil seemed 

Fig. 407 



to be composed of pumice which indicated former volcanic 
activity. In our long ride from Shiraoi, not a house was 
seen, and the only signs __ 

of man were observed 
in an occasional rude 
shrine, very dilapidated, 
though a few bunches of 
flowers in front showed 
that it was cared for in 
a way. The figure un- 
der a rough framework 
consisted simply of two 
stones, a smaller one 
representing the head, 

resting on a larger one. The head was covered with a cloth 
cap with long strings hanging down on each side (fig. 408). 
Before reaching Mororan the scenery became delightful. 
The low mountains and inlets of the sea and the Bay of 
Mororan, with its long, yellow beach, would have made a 
fine subject for a picture. Figure 409 gives a rough idea of 
the region. Near Mororan was a curiously shaped Japanese 
house, the roof unusually high, with the flat ridge covered 
with lilies, iris; and other flowers. The roof was thinly 

Fig. 408 

Fig. 409 


thatched, and the little shed-like roofs near the eaves were 
covered with round stones. 1 In our ride we overtook an- 
other pack of twenty horses, filling the road. Before we 
could get by them they turned into a narrow path. We were 
informed that that path was much shorter to Mororan than 
the regular road, so we turned in and followed the pack, 
Yatabe and I only, as we were far in advance of the rest. 
The path led to the top of a mountainous ridge, at places 
rocky and wet and at times very steep. I wondered what 
would happen if the horse slipped, for the path led along the 
side of an abrupt precipice and the path itself was sloping. 
After riding this way for half an hour we came to the high- 
est portion of the ridge through a dense growth of oak and 
other trees. It was evening, and the delicious fragrance of 
the forest, the curious insects that I could actually clutch 
from the overhanging leaves, and the pack of odd-looking 
horses and odd-looking drivers as they rattled along in 
single file gave me a delightful hour, and I enjoyed every 
minute of it. There was only one place where I was in dan- 
ger. Yatabe and I had got mixed with the pack in some 
way, and in one place where there was a sloping wall on one 
side and a steep precipice on the other, one of the horses 
endeavored to regain his place in the file by attempting to pass 
me on the inside. The driver was doing his utmost to hold him 
in, and I, realizing the danger, as he had two enormous packs 
on his saddle, hit him a sharp rap across his nose which 
checked him. It was impossible for me to hurry ahead, for the 
narrow path was only wide enough to ride in single file, and 

1 See Japanese Homes, fig. 41. 


had the horse succeeded in his efforts my horse would have 
been crowded over the precipice. It was quite dark when we 
entered Mororan, a single long street bordering a beautiful 
cove, and hills and low mountains in every direction. We had 
made over thirty miles, of which I had walked seventeen and 
one half miles, had been run away with, and had had other 
experiences, with the result that sheer fatigue sent me to bed 

The next morning we found it raining hard and no steamer 
going across the bay to Mori, where we had to take horses 
again for Hakodate. It gave 
me an opportunity to make a 
few sketches about the house. 
In the middle of the floor, both 
in the front and back part of 
the house, is a large, square en- 
closure filled with sand. These 
are the fireplaces and here 
everything is cooked. Figure 
410 shows the kitchen of the 
inn. Overhead is a rack, hang- 
ing from which fish is smoked. 
Such a collection of teapots 
huddled around the hot coals 
would not be seen in a pri- 
vate house. Figure 411 repre- 
sents a fireplace in the best room. The device suspending 
the tea-kettle was of brass and highly polished. A copper 
box is filled with hot water, and in this is placed a bottle of 

Fig. 410 


sake to heat, as their rice beer is always drunk hot. The 

tongs are in the form of chop- 
sticks united above by a ring, 
for if one gets lost the other 
would be useless. Most of the 
servants at the inn were men, 
and all of them wore their hair 
in old-fashioned style; indeed, 
it was a rare sight to see a Jap- 
anese without the queue. In 
Tokyo, on the contrary, the 
queue, though commonly seen 
in the farmer class and among 
the sailors, fishermen, artisans, 
and old men, is rapidly dis- 
appearing among the younger 
generation, and the students 

Fig. 411 

have entirely given it up. 

Figure 412 represents the 
clerk busy all day long mak- 
ing up the voluminous bills 
for the guests. The length of 
the bill startles you, and yet, 
when the items are translated, 
you are greatly relieved to 
hear one and a half cents for 
this, one and three tenths of 
a cent for that; and finally 
the whole bill for supper, 

Fig. 412 

Fig. 413 


lodging, and breakfast, added up, amounts to less than twenty 
cents, which you pay without a murmur. 

Figure 413 shows the attitude of a servant as he comes into 
your room to receive your order. It has taken a long time 
to get used to this, and even 
now I feel a repugnance to 
having any one humble him- 
self before me in this fashion. 
The proper way in kneeling 
is to turn the hands inward, 
and as you see it often, you 
notice the failure to do it, as 
much as if one should use 

the left hand in shaking hands. Mr. Takamine, who was 
page to a daimyo, illustrated the proper way of bringing in a 
tray holding food. It is held with two hands on a level with 
the eyes, and on approaching the prince one should kneel and 
present the tray and then, still on the knees, move backward, 
and rising, back out of the room. 

One of the sketches I made while rainbound in the house 
was of a family at dinner (fig. 414). It is an interesting sight, 

though you may have seen it 
a hundred times in walking 
through the streets. The whole 
affair is so unlike our sitting in 
chairs at the table, each with 
plate, knife, and fork in front. 
Here they sit on the floor, the wooden bucket at one side hold- 
ing the rice which is scooped out with a wooden spatula. 

Fig. 414 


In this little village of Mororan there is a well-furnished fire- 
engine house. Figure 415 is a rough sketch of its appearance. 
It is entirely open on the street and all the utensils immedi- 

Fig. 415 

ately accessible. A list of the objects was as follows: twenty- 
seven canvas buckets; twenty small wooden buckets; six large 
buckets; two ladders; six poles; rope, chain, and hook; two 
lanterns on long poles. 

The fire companies always carry the lanterns on long bam- 
boo poles. Figure 416 shows the lantern and the hook, which 
last is attached to a long chain for tear- 
ing down buildings. The people are 
very careful about fire, as the buildings 
are of wood with most inflammable 
roofs of thin shingles or thatch. Lately, 
in the larger cities, municipal laws pro- 
hibit the use of these inflammable ma- 
terials for roof coverings. In Mororan 
a boy goes through the long street at stated hours every night 
having tied on behind him three hardwood boards of varying 

Fig. 416 


sizes which clap together with a loud noise at every step he 
takes. There is a rattle, rattle, rattle as he goes by (fig. 417). 
This is to warn the inhabitants to look 
after their fires and see that they are 
extinguished; it indicates also that the 
boy is attending to his duties. 

Sunday morning we were up at half- 
past two to eat our breakfast and to 
pack, as the boat was expected to start 
at four o'clock. It did not leave the 
wharf till six, but we got aboard before 
the sun arose, and such a beautiful sight 
as the bay presented, the shore fringed 
with mountains! Our road led along a high bluff and we 
looked down into the deep gloom of a valley where the 
bright red fire of a forge shone out. The sun was just be- 
hind the clouds, the water calm, and a picturesque crowd 
of Japanese was going along the road with us. It was en- 
joyable being the only foreigner about, nor had I seen one 

Fig. 417 


Fig. 418 


during my long trip, except at Sapporo, and the German doc- 
tor we had met. Figure 418 is a hasty sketch of Mororan 
from the boat. The little steamer we were on was crowded 
with Japanese. Their pleasant courtesies, which were interest- 
ing to watch, we knew would soon wither as we rounded the 
headland into Volcano Bay, and within an hour they were 

all dreadfully seasick, 
as the boat rocked vio- 
lently. Figure 419 is an 
outline of the headlands 
as we came out of Mo- 
roran harbor. In this 
sketch you will notice 
how the rocks have been 
undercut at the water- 
line, an indication of 
upheaval. The whole 
country is volcanic and 
unstable. I made a few 
sketches from the steamer, but found that my condition was 
approaching that of the other passengers and so sought the 
cabin for a little rest. When we got near Mori, our landing- 
place, a boiler flue burst, nearly extinguishing the fire, and 
we lay at the mercy of the winds and waves for some time. 
Had a storm come up we should have been helpless. The 
wind was blowing hard; it was raining, and it was an aggra- 
vation to be so near land and not be able to get ashore. 
Finally, we got under way and at noon landed at Mori. 
Figure 420 is an outline of Usuyama from Mororan harbor, 

Fig. 419 


and figure 421 shows the volcano Komagatake, its peak 
hidden by steam that continually arises. This mountain is 
easily seen from Hakodate. Its height is nearly four thousand 

Fig. 420 

feet and twenty-two years ago it was in violent eruption. 
After lunch we engaged our pack-horses, Yatabe and his man 
remaining to climb the volcano, and Sasaki, Takamine, and I 
going on. The ride over mountain spurs and through a wild 
region was exceedingly picturesque. The mountain peaks 
were obscured by mists and at times it threatened rain. We 

Fig. 421 

passed a beautiful lake, but could not stop, as it was after 
two and we had thirty miles to make to reach Hakodate again. 
The road was being repaired the whole length and we had to 
be on the lookout all the time. After a ride of several miles 
from Mori we entered a mountain pass. Here the scenery was 
delightful. At one place the rugged and conical peak of the 
volcano suddenly loomed above the clouds, the peak looking 
ten miles high, its sides being so precipitous. It had been rain- 


ing for some time and had suddenly ceased, and the air was 
very clear. 

Shortly after this we were going down the other side of the 
pass at a good trot, Sasaki on his hard pack-saddle just in 
front of me. I had been trying to fix the end of my umbrella 
in my shoe as an easier way of carrying it, but the joggling 
of the horse prevented me. Leaning over to see the shoe I 
again attempted rather impatiently to jab the point in the 
shoe, when, in some way, I missed the mark and the um- 
brella hit the horse under the belly. He instantly shied and I 
was thrown to the ground striking on my head and shoulder. 
I remember only scrambling out of the way of his hoof and 
getting my foot out of the stirrup, as I had fallen on the right 
and dragged the left stirrup over the saddle. Looking up, I 
found Sasaki on the ground also, and supposed he had jumped 
off to assist me. It seems, however, that his horse shied too, 
and he had been thrown off his pack-saddle and landed on his 
knees in precisely the same position in which he had rested on 
his saddle, so instantaneously had the horse shied. Our horses 
went tearing down the road and we after them. It meant walk- 
ing to Hakodate if we lost them, but shortly they encountered a 
pack of horses coming up the ravine and their rushing in among 
them made a flurry of kicking and snorting. Despite this we 
pushed in among the pack, bumping against their heavy loads, 
avoiding kicks, and finally secured our horses. Sasaki was 
lame for six months, and I slept on my left side for several 

When we got out of the pass, at four o'clock, the mountains 
of Hakodate were in plain sight, yet it was nearly midnight 


before we reached the town. The last two miles we walked, 
since the horses stumbled at every step over piles of dirt or 
rocks in the road, and in our walk we were at times in the ditch 
beside the road, at others sprawling over heaps of gravel that 
had not been smoothed down. 



Since our return to Hakodate we have had a number of 
dredging trips in Tsugaru Straits, in one of which we went 
away for the day taking a fine lunch, Bass's ale, and other 
good things. At one place Takamine and I landed to walk to 
a certain point about six miles in search of ancient shell heaps. 
We could see our little steamer ahead of us, but before we got 
to the point a gale sprang up, and though we waved our hand- 
kerchiefs till our arms were tired, they missed seeing us, and 
we had the misery of watching the boat head for Hakodate 
leaving us fifteen miles away. At a small fishing village we got 
a bowl of thin fish soup and poor rice, thinking of the delicious 
lunch aboard the vessel. Here we hired two pack-horses with 
the native saddles, and these were so intolerable that part of 
the time we walked, reaching Hakodate at night tired out and 
lame enough. In coming back we had a magnificent view of 
the volcanic mountain, its outline quite different from that 
seen at Hakodate. The form of the crater could be clearly 

Fig. 422 


made out, the slopes a light brown color and rich in the sun- 
light. Figure 422 is a rude sketch of its appearance. 

Fig. 423 

Figure 423 gives another sketch of our laboratory from 
the front. We are packing, preparing to take our long trip 

Fig. 424 

across the straits and a twelve days' journey from Aomori 
to Tokyo. Figure 424 shows the house I have lived in since 
I have been in Hakodate. Next to it is the temple gate, and 


it has always been interesting to see the people going in to 
worship, or even bowing their heads in prayer as they passed 
the entrance. To-day I noticed that the girls and little 
children were finely dressed, and that a great many flowers 
were being brought into town, particularly a sort of blue- 
bell. This evening a great many people were going into the 
temple, and I went into the temple yard and watched the 
people as they ascended the broad steps. It was pleasant 
to see them, old and young, as they walked up, first leav- 
ing their clumsy wooden sandals at the foot of the stairs. 
When at the top, their figures, brightly clothed, stood out in 
sharp contrast to the darkness of the temple within. After 
enjoying this sight I came back to the house, when Mr. 
Dean, the Danish consul, called out from the veranda that 
I had not seen half of the sights and told me to go back 
of the temple up the hill to the cemetery. It was an inter- 
esting walk through the temple grounds to the cemetery 
above, which was in the midst of a sombre forest of tall cedars, 
and here the people were making their offerings to the dead. 
They first smoothed a place on the ground in front of the 
gravestone, then spread clean white sand which they had 
brought, and on it placed flowers in bamboo tubes which 
stood like little vases, at the same time laying down a few 
reddish-colored rice cakes, and in some cases quite a feast 
of offerings. Here an old woman muttering a prayer was busy 
smoothing the ground around a stone monument and taste- 
fully arranging a few flowers. It was a charming sight, the 
quiet shade of the great trees, the gray-colored stones, square 
and dignified in design, and the hundreds of brightly dressed 



children fluttering about like brilliant butterflies. It was in- 
teresting to find that these people too had their religion; that 
they pray just as fervently and in their devotion go even 
beyond the Catholics. There is always one service between 
five and six in the morning, and at this early mass infirm old 
men and women are borne on the backs of some sturdy rela- 
tive. In the street as they pass the temple the people always 
bow very low and in many cases utter a prayer. 

Since our return across the island we have had some re- 
markable dredging, getting many Brachiopods, and have 
made some interesting studies of the living creature. On the 
last day's dredging the authorities provided a much larger 
steamer (fig. 425) and we went out to the deeper parts 
of Tsugaru Straits. 
Everything has been 
done for us on the part 
of the authorities, and 
all our success in col- 
lecting is due to their 
courtesies. In return- 
ing overland I decided 
that Prof essor Yatabe, 

Mr. Sasaki, and Mr. Yatabe's gardener should accompany 
me, while Mr. Naniya and Mr. Takamine should go down 
the west coast of Japan to dredge at Niigata, while Mr. 
Tanada and my attendant and the servant of the Univer- 
sity should return with the collections by the steamer to 
Yokohama. Curiously enough, the three steamers for these 
various destinations started the same day, August 17. We 

Fig. 425 


had a pleasant sail across the straits and finally entered a 
vast bay. Sailing into this we passed the entrance of an- 
other immense bay, at the upper end of which no land could 
be seen. The sea was perfectly calm, and we were all day 
sailing from Hakodate to Aomori, a distance of seventy 
miles. The town is long, low, and flat; beyond observing 
these facts we noticed nothing. At six o'clock the next morn- 
ing we started on our long jinrikisha ride to Tokyo, a dis- 
tance of over five hundred miles, hoping to accomplish the 
journey in ten days, though we were told that fifteen days 
would be required. 

We have passed at intervals a curious sign which seems 
peculiar to the north of Japan (fig. 426). It is made of spruce 
or cedar twigs bound together in a big ball, 
two feet in diameter, and is the sign of a 
wineshop. The saying, " Good wine needs no 
bush," may have the same significance in 
this country. Our first day's ride was over 
a rugged and mountainous road, and we had 
to get out and climb many a steep hill to 
ease our jinrikisha men. The scenery was 
very beautiful, and we had fine views of the great bays and 
curiously shaped mountains. Toward night of the second 
day we had to take pack-horses to cross a precipitous range 
of mountains. It was a ride of fifteen miles. Our horses 
were led by old men, who kept up a continual banter and 
chaffing with one another the entire way. The endurance of 
these men is amazing, even more so than that of the Tokyo 
workmen. They were fifty or sixty years old, at least, and 

Fig. 426 


while climbing the most precipitous slopes, in some cases 
apparently pulling the horses along, they had breath enough 
left to joke and chaff continuously. At the top of the moun- 
tain pass I dismounted and walked a long distance to enjoy 
the grand views. In one place we stood on the edge of a 
precipice said to be eight hundred or one thousand feet to 
its base. The face had been worn away by a river whose 
grand curve disappeared beneath our feet hidden by the over- 
hanging edge of the precipice. We passed an old blind man 
leading a horse down the road or path, which was rough, 
crooked, and in places very steep, and yet this old man 
seemed to know every part of it. 

In the houses we pass I notice a curious basket cradle (fig. 
427), a thick, circular basket of straw, 
and the baby warmly stuffed into it. 

Having crossed the mountainous 

range we came to a long, level reach 

of country, not unlike the rolling prairie 

land of Iowa. Japan looks very small 

on a map of the world and yet we were 

^ Fig. 427 

an entire day crossing this prairie. The 
villages were few and far between. Every settlement we 
passed through had its peculiar features, some of the places 
shabby and poor, while others were very trim and evidently 
prosperous. We neared another range of mountains where the 
villagers had managed to conduct a rapid mountain stream 
through the middle of the main street. The street was 
cleanly swept and in some cases the stream was bordered 
with beautiful little clusters of flowers or oddly shaped 


dwarf trees, and at intervals pretty little rustic footbridges 
spanned the stream. On the level plain I noticed poles 
about ten feet high, which appeared to be telegraph poles, 
except that there were no wires and the poles were a little 
farther apart than telegraph poles. We were told that these 
were erected in order that the traveler in winter could find 
his way along the road, as all signs of the road disappear 
under the deep snow: a good idea, which might be fol- 
lowed in our country in some places. The late storms had 
done a great deal of damage. In many places the bridges 
had been washed away, the roads had been overwhelmed by 
landslides, a number of which we passed around. In one 
place a house, partially wrecked, was standing in the middle 
of what appeared to be a small stream, but which had been 
a raging torrent. 

The fatigue of traveling from morning till late at night 
prevented my making many sketches on the trip. The vil- 
lage of Fukuoka I recall as a very beautiful place with its 
row of little gardens in the middle of a wide main street and 
the street cleanly swept. The people in this region have light- 
brown eyes and are better-looking than those farther south; 
the children, with few exceptions, are unattractive. In many 
places along the road springs of delicious cold water come 
out of the rock, and neat little stone troughs had been placed 
to catch the water for the comfort of horses and bulls. The 
rarity of foreigners in this part of the country was indicated 
by the way the horses shied and kicked as we passed them. 
Many of the old customs are still kept up. For example, in 
no case did a man in meeting us pass me on horseback, but 


in every instance the rider dismounted and waited until we 
had passed. When I first noticed this, I thought the horses 
were afraid and that the men dismounted to hold them, but 
I learned that it is an old custom that the lower classes never 
ride by a superior when on horseback. It was somewhat em- 
barrassing to see a number of men, when they came in sight 
on the road, promptly dismount from their high pack-saddles 
and not mount again until I was well by. On the road I met 
men in the ancient form of dress such as one may see only 
at the theatre. 

A curious device for irrigating the rice-fields is shown in 
figure 428. On the banks of a swift-running river a water 
wheel was adjusted and was slowly 
turned by the current. On the sides 
of the wheel were fastened square 
wooden buckets ; as they dipped into p IG# ^8 

the stream they became filled with 

water, and as the wheel rotated the water was spilled from 
the buckets into a trough which conveyed it into the fields 

Whenever we rode through a village in the daytime it 
seemed deserted. A few infirm old men and women and little 
children were seen, but everybody else was at work in the 
rice-fields or on the farms or busy with duties in the house. 
It illustrates the universal industry of the people. Every- 
body works; all seem poor, but there are no paupers. The 
many industries, which with us are carried on in large fac- 
tories, here are done in the home. What we do by the whole- 
sale in the factories they do in the dwellings, and as you ride 


through the village you see the spinning, weaving, the mak- 
ing of vegetable wax, and many other industries. In these 
operations the entire family is utilized from a child above 
babyhood to blind old men and women. I have noticed this 
feature particularly in the pottery industries in Kyoto. I 
passed one house where the loud pounding of wooden mallets 
attracted my attention. The people were engaged in making 
vegetable wax, which is derived from the seeds of some 
species of sumac. From this wax the Japanese make their 
candles, and tons of it are sent to America for use in the 
manufacture of cartridges. When at home last year I visited 
the cartridge factory in Bridgeport, Connecticut, and Mr. 
Hobbs, the superintendent, told me they were making mil- 
lions of cartridges for the Russian and Turkish armies, and 
that Japanese vegetable wax was used to coat every cartridge. 
Here in the north of Japan the making of this wax was going 
on as in other parts of the Empire. The seeds are gathered 
and reduced to a powder by a triphammer; the powder is 

then heated in a fur- 
nace and put into a 
stout bag, made of 
strips of bamboo, which 
is then placed in a 
square hole in an enor- 
mous beam of wood. 
A wedge is placed on 
each side of the bag, 
and two men with vigorous blows of long-handled mallets 
drive down the wedges, squeezing the fluid wax out of the 

Fig. 429 


bag, which runs in a stream into a bucket sunk into the 
ground below the hole, as shown in figure 429. 

The ridge-poles of many of the roofs in the north of Japan 
are covered with red lilies, and a pretty sight it is as one rides 
through a village to see the crests of the houses flaming with 
red. Around Tokyo the blue iris seems to be the favorite flower 
for this decoration. One has no idea how beautiful these roofs 
appear: grand old thatched 
roofs, high and broad, with 
a splendid sweep to the eaves 
and surmounted by a wav- 
ing fringe of red lilies. The 
eaves of these thatched roofs 
are often three feet in thick- 
ness. The taste of the people 
is shown in using alternately 

dark straw and light straw in thatching, so that when the 
eaves are evenly trimmed there are exposed alternate bands 
of dark and light colored straw (fig. 430). 

Last year I made a record in my journal that the farmer 
cut his monogram in the end of the ridge and painted it black; 
it was a natural inference seeing this gracefully written Chi- 
nese character. Through the region in which we are passing 
the same initial is observed, and Professor Yatabe tells me 
it is the Chinese character for water. He thought there was 
some superstition that this character might keep away fire; 
absurd, perhaps, but no more ridiculous than to see an intelli- 
gent man rap wood after some statement or to nail a horse- 
shoe over the door. 

Fig. 430 

Fig. 431 


One constantly notices the care taken to give comfort to 
the horses. A simple device that we might follow is to sus- 
pend a broad piece of cloth under the belly of 
the horse. The constant flapping up and down 
drives the flies away from that region of the 
body most difficult to reach. 

The lacquer trees we pass have their trunks 
curiously marked with cuts, from which the 
sap is scraped by men who collect it (fig. 431). 
The trees appear as if they had been pur- 
posely ornamented with tattoo 

Along the road the Government 
is laying a telegraph line which is to run the length 
of the Empire. It was interesting to see the thor- 
ough way in which the work was being done. The 
trees to make the poles, instead of being cut a foot 
or two above the ground, were cut close to the 
roots, so that the base was very wide, and this part 
was charred to preserve it. This wide base gives 
it a much firmer hold in the ground. The top of 
the post was protected by a pyramidal piece of 
hardwood which sheds the rain (fig. 432). 

In a number of places in the northern part of 
Japan I noticed at some distance from the village, 
on each side of the road, a large mound, and on 
each one a huge tree of great age. We were told 
that they marked the boundary between villages, or towns. 
At intervals along the road little booths were erected where 

Fig. 432 



Fig. 433 

melons were sold (fig. 433), a fruit not unlike our cantaloupe, 

but coarse in fibre and good only for its juice, though the 

same fruit about Tokyo is delicious. The interesting feature 

about these booths is 

that in most cases 

there was nobody 

in them; the prices 

were marked on the 

melons, a box with 

a little money in it 

rested beside them, 

and one could buy 

and make change! I 

was far ahead of my 

companions, enjoying 

the freedom and delight of walking in a strange country 

unattended. At one of these booths I stopped, being very 

thirsty, and wished to purchase a melon, but could see no 

one in attendance nor any one in sight, and so had to wait 

till Yatabe came up, when he explained that the man had 

left his melons and a box of change in the morning and was 

off to work in his rice-fields. I could not help wondering 

how long the rickety booth would remain standing in our 

country, to say nothing of the melons and change. 

After being ferried across a river and walking over some 
fearful washouts along the road, we approached a village. 
It was nearly dark, and w r e passed a great many people com- 
ing from the village, nearly all of whom were men more or 
less hilarious with sake. I never passed so many people in 


such a condition before. They came along in groups of a 
dozen or more, talking, laughing, singing, and a few stagger- 
ing. Something unusual had been going on. In many cases 
we had to walk through a crowd of them, as the smooth parts 
of the road were very narrow. The sight of a foreigner was 
a great novelty to them and they stared continually. When 
we reached the village we found there had been a wrestler's 
exhibition, which accounted for the crowd. I make a note of 
this experience to ask where in our blessed country would a 
foreigner of another race pass crowds of men more or less 
affected by liquor and fresh from an animating exhibition of 
wrestling without receiving some slurring word or gesture? 

When we got to the principal inn, every room was filled, 
and what was more, after an hour's hunting among all the 
inns of the place, big and little, no accommodation was to be 
found. A company of two hundred soldiers had arrived only 
a few hours before and the officers and many of the men had 
filled the inns. So we sat there in the dark, ravenously hun- 
gry and tired out, while a native hunted up some prominent 
man of the village to whom our plight might be explained 
and who might help us to find some private accommodation. 
There is a law in Japan that a foreigner shall not stop at a 
private house, and we were in despair. Finally accommoda- 
tions were found in a private house nearly opposite the 
crowded inn where we were resting — a large room, beauti- 
ful and clean, absolutely free from fleas, conditions which 
were a great luxury, as I had a hundred bites from these pests 
already. A delicious supper was given us, and the next 
morning we were off at four, first, however, endeavoring in 


vain to induce our host to accept something for his hospi- 
tality. Besides the countrymen still lingering in the village, 
there were the soldiers loitering about after their long march, 
but I do not recall a hostile look or an impertinent gesture. 
I was hundreds of miles from an American consul and with 
only two attendants. 

In one village at which we stopped I roamed back of the 
town to find something new, and in a house noticed hanging 
over the central fireplace a big cushion of 
straw, into which were stuck many little 
sticks, each one having upon it a 
little fish which was thus smoked. 
The contrivance was simple and 
yet effective. The Japanese are 
fond of smoked trout, and as fast 
as they catch them they spit them 
on long, slender sticks of bam- 
boo which they thrust into the cushion, as in 
figure 434. 

A curious way of doing up eggs for transporta- 
tion is shown in figure 435. The eggs are bound 
together in straw like peas in a pod and can be 
carried, hanging down in the hand. 

After leaving Fukuoka we ascended rapidly; in 
fact had a hard climb in reaching the crest of a 
high range which we finally attained. The crest 
had a deep cut through it to lessen the grade. The 
IG * rock seemed to be a light sandstone of which the 

mountain was composed. A sketch of the cut is given in 

Fig. 434 


figure 436. The stratum dipped slightly to the west and was 
filled with fragments of shells and Brachiopods looking pre- 
cisely like those species I had dredged in Tsugaru Straits. 
The deposit must be very new geologically, and illustrates 

Fig. 436 

how recent and profound are the changes which have taken 
place in. the northern part of this island. This region, judg- 
ing from the fossils, was at one time thirty or more fathoms 
below sea-level and has been elevated two or three thousand 
feet within recent geological times. 

We entered Morioka, a large, flourishing town, by a nar- 
row street lined on both sides by houses rather close together 

Fig. 437 


and by gardens. The hollyhocks in great profusion were 
peeping over light bamboo fences. The houses, all with 
gable ends to the street, were heavily thatched, and the whole 
place had an air of thriftiness. On our way to this town 

Fig. 438 

we got a fine view of Ewatayama, or "Namboo Fuji," as 
it is called, because it resembles Fujiyama and rises from 
a region called Namboo (fig. 437). At Morioka the river 
is quite wide, and here we had to take a boat, and to get 
one we were directed to a lumber yard on the banks of the 

Fig. 439 

river. The office was two stories in height and the rooms, as 
well as the sanitary arrangements, were immaculate in their 
cleanliness — and this in a common lumber yard! While 
negotiating for the boat and crew a little lunch with tea was 
offered us from the daintiest of dishes. We stopped but a 


short time at Morioka, laid in some fruit and candy, and at 
noon started for a sail down the Kitakami River to Sendai, 
a hundred and twenty-five miles. The boat we engaged was 
different from the boats we saw last year on the Tonegawa; the 
stern was square and high and the bow long and sharp. Fig- 

Fig. 441 

Fig. 440 

ure 438 is a sketch of the boat 
with one man rowing, two men 
poling, and the fourth mem- 
ber of the crew sound asleep. The rudder is held in place 
by a miracle; at least the bearing is only three inches wide 
and apparently hangs on nothing. In the centre of the boat 
was a square area carpeted by straw mats, and here we were to 
eat and sleep for a few days more. Heavy rush mats formed 
a roof over our heads. The river was sluggish, the current 
helped but little, and the crew were a good-natured but lazy 
lot of fellows who had to be continually urged to hurry up. 


On the banks of the river were men fishing. So used are 
they to sit on their legs at every form of work or pleasure that 
these fishermen had light 
bamboo tables upon which 
they squatted on the shore 
or in the river, and we saw 
them either on their tables 
or wading along with their 
stands on their backs. They 
have two hooks on their line 
on one of which is a live fish 
for a decoy. They have a 
floating box in which they 
keep the fish, for they sell them in the market alive. Figure 
439 is the roughest possible sketch of the fishermen. Up 
to eleven o'clock at night we were carried along by the cur- 
rent, sluggish as it was, but as dangerous rapids were ahead 
and the moon was not up the crew would not proceed. So 
we pulled up at a little village and patiently waited for the 

Fig. 442 

Fig. 443 



moon to rise, which it did at two o'clock, and we got under 
way again. I sat up till we passed the rapids and then lay 
down on the hard floor with a Japanese pillow and slept 

soundly till daylight. Figure 440 shows one of the crew smok- 
ing, with a cloth tied over his head like a bonnet. Here I may 

mention the fact that in Yezo, 
even on hot days the country 
woman ties up her head and face 
in a blue cotton cloth so that in 
some cases only the nose is visible. 
Figure 441 is another member of 
the crew. 

The next morning we were up 
bright and early and enjoyed the 
delightful landscape and the in- 
teresting objects along the shore. After the toughest experi- 
ences on horseback and the roughest jinrikisha travel, it was 
a pleasure to float along without jolt or care and to beguile 
ourselves by watching the crew, the river, the shore and 

Fig. 445 

Fig. 446 



landscape beyond. Our kettle was soon boiling and rice and 
fresh trout gave us a good breakfast. Figure 442 shows our 

Fig. 447 

fireplace on the boat, and figure 443 is a suggestion of the 
appearance presented by two of our crew as they were tak- 
ing their rice. 

The scenery on the river was beautiful. Namboo Fuji was 
in sight the entire day (fig. 444). We dozed 
under the matting and kept out of the hot sun 
as much as possible. The only water to drink 
was from the river and it was lukewarm and 
very dirty. Figure 445 is a sketch of our boat 
from the stern. The sail, as before described, 
consists of strips of cloth laced together leaving 
quite an interspace between the strips as shown in the 

Fig. 448 


sketch. The boatman's song on the river closely resembled 
the boatman's song in Hakodate. Figure 446 is the song 

Fig. 449 

written for me by Professor Fenollosa, the first song being 
the Hakodate song, the second stanza being the variant sung 
by boatmen on the Kitakami River. At times boatmen 

Fig. 450 


would come out to sell us fish, and while trading with them 
we would all drift together downstream. Figure 447 shows 
our boat's crew rowing 
and poling. Figure 448 
is a sketch of one of 
our boatmen on the 
third day of our voy- 
age. His queue had be- 
come demoralized and 
wa£ tied in a knot on 
top of his head; his 
shaved pate and chin 
were bristling with a 
new growth of hair, and his nose was very red from sun- 
burn. The first thing he will do as soon as we land will be 
to hunt up a barber, get a shave, and have his queue rebuilt. 
Figure 449 represents another type of river boat, with flat 
bottom and broad stern, a freight-carrier. This boat is work- 
ing its way up the river, and a man under the stern is push- 
ing the boat off some sandbar. 

At one place we landed at the foot of a precipitous bluff and 
started off, despite the hot sun, to collect land snails, and in a 
short time we had found eight species new to our collection. 
On these precipitous bluffs fishermen establish their stations. 
The little hut for this station (fig. 450) was thirty feet above 

Fig. 451 

Fig. 452 



the river, and by a long rope the fishermen could pull up their 
nets to see if any fish were caught. A ladder runs up to the hut, 

which was of the rudest 
description. Figure 451 
illustrates a type of net. 
Along the whole length 
of the river one notices 
these fishing stations. 

As we approached Sen- 
dai Bay the river became 
wider, less rapid, and not 
so clear. During the last 
day of our sail it was dif- 
ficult to drink the wa- 
Along the shore people 
were seen washing clothes, or themselves. One little sketch 
was made which illustrates the tameness of crows. A woman 
was evidently cleaning fish over the side of a boat, and within 
a few feet of her a crow had alighted and was perched on 
the boat watching the operation (fig. 452). As we neared the 

Fig. 453 
ter, it was so thick with sediment. 


mouth of the river the wind began to blow upstream and our 
boatmen got out on the bank and towed the boat for several 
miles (fig. 453). This they did by hoisting the mast, attach- 
ing a rope to the top of it, and pulling the boat along. One 
man remained on the boat and with a long bamboo pole 
kept the boat from running ashore. It was a lazy experi- 
ence — imprisoned in a boat for three days — and we dozed 
and slept much of the time. In the sketch (fig. 454) one 

Fig. 455 

of us has a sheet of paper over his head to keep off the 
mosquitoes. After getting on in this slow way for several 
hours we concluded, in order to save time, to land at the 
first village and take jinrikishas to Sendai. I was glad we 
did, for we got into a village where the sight of a foreigner 
must have been a great novelty — if, indeed, they had ever 
seen one before. The people, young and old, flocked about us 
in great crowds, and at the inn where we stopped they filled 
the yard, clambered on the fence, and stared at me as if I had 
come from the moon. Every now and then I would make a 
rush at them, a good-natured one, of course, and they would 


run clattering away on their wooden clogs as if the devil were 
after them. When we started in the jinrikishas the crowd 
followed along by the sides for some time looking at me with 
the greatest curiosity and interest. 

I noticed quite a change in the architecture of the towns 
through which we passed and a curious arrangement of beams 
in the gable end of the houses. The one shown in figure 455 
was typical and reminded me of the picturesque architecture 
of Switzerland. The wood, in its natural condition, was, of 

Fig. 456 

course, gray with age. We came along at such a rapid rate that 
I had but little time to sketch, but I noticed all along the 
way the fine woodwork on the houses. A long bay window 
over the first story was often of the most delicate woodwork 
with perforated designs of pine, bamboo, or other motive, as 
seen in figure 456. 

In some of the villages through which we passed, the main 
street was almost entirely spread with mats on which the peo- 
ple were drying indigo leaves. Women and children were strip- 
ping the leaves from the branches brought in by others, and 
their hands were stained blue by the work. So filled was the 


street with these mats and leaves that our jinrikisha would run 
over them. As we neared Sendai the men seemed to wake up 
and run faster; the roads improved, and it was a great luxury 
to move rapidly after the slow monotony of the boat. When 
we came to a village the men would tear through it like mad, 
yelling for people to clear the track, and everybody would 
rush into the street to see what sort of a show was going by. 
The people are as curious as 
are the Yankees. Whenever 
I threw away the end of a 
cigar, some one would pick 
it up and tear it apart to see 
how it was made. 

Figure 457 is a curious fan 
about three feet high that is 
used to fan dust out of rice or 
to winnow the chaff out of 
grain. A man holds the upright handles, which are made of a 
continuous piece of bamboo, and moves his hands in and out 
as if he were working a pair of bellows; this movement opens 
and closes the fans, which are shaped like butterflies' wings. 

The jinrikishas were single ones and narrow, and one had to 
keep awake to balance them as they were high and top- 
heavy. It was misery to have to keep awake for fear of 
upsetting. Ahead of me was a Buddhist priest in his beauti- 
ful robes, his head drooping in sleep. I knew he would go 
over, and I got wide awake watching him for a mile or more 
when over he went into the wet gutter beside the road. The 
jinrikisha man was also thrown, but picked himself up and 

Fig. 457 


stood with his hat off bowing again and again in apology. I 
could not help laughing, and when the priest noticed me, he 
laughed in sympathy. 

Toward afternoon we found it would be difficult to reach 
Sendai that night, so we stopped at Matsushima, a famous 
resort. It was delightful to feel the salt breezes again. The 
beach was covered with seaweed, as the tide was out, and the 
odor was delicious. We stopped at a pretty little tea-house 
on a promontory partly hidden by trees. As we rode into 
Matsushima the road led around bluffs in which were caves 

of various sizes, all 
bearing the marks of 
former erosion of the 
sea. This wearing ac- 
tion was very curious. 
The upper layers of 
rock overhung the 
lower portion resem- 
bling certain forms 
of snowdrifts. Figure 
458 is a fair representation of the form these rocks assume, 
whether on land or sea, for the Bay of Sendai has hundreds 
like the one figured. Some of these islands are not over 
twenty feet long; others are much larger, standing twenty feet 
above the water. It is a most singular effect and shows the 
great denudation and recent elevation that have taken place. 
We were up before daylight the next morning and reached 
the city of Sendai by nine o'clock. To be riding through 
crowded streets seemed a little like Tokyo. Two of our men 

Fig. 458 


were left at Matsushima to make collections, and Yatabe and 
I started for the long ride to Tokyo. We left everything we 
could spare so as to travel light, and had two men to a jin- 
rikisha. Yatabe endeavored to telegraph to Tokyo, but found 
to his surprise that all telegrams from private persons were 
forbidden. This worried him a good deal, for various inquir- 
ies failed to bring any explanation of this edict. Had a revolu- 
tion broken out in Tokyo? Was there an anti-foreign demon- 
stration? Nothing could be learned, and so we started for a 
two-hundred-mile ride overland to Tokyo. 1 It seemed to me, 
after this hold-up on telegrams, that every Japanese we passed 
looked at me suspiciously. After leaving Sendai we rode for 
two hours before we learned that we were going in the wrong 
direction. We were then compelled to go back to Sendai, 
losing half a day by the blunder. Here we had dinner, and 
with a new team of men rode until ten o'clock at night when 
we reached Fujita. All the tea-houses were full, so we were 
compelled to sleep in an obscure inn with poor mats, poor food, 
and fleas in plenty, but we were too tired to complain. 

The next day we had to make seventy miles to Shirakawa in 
order to reach Utsunomiya the next night, so we started be- 
fore sunrise, and before night we were almost paralyzed with 
fatigue. I remember that at noon we stopped at a very pretty 
tea-house for something to eat. The garden behind, though 
only ten feet in depth, gave a good idea of how the Japanese 
utilize the narrowest strips of land. This little area was a 
charming sight from the room where we rested. The bushes 

1 As we neared Tokyo we learned that a mutiny had broken out in the Tokyo 
garrison, hence the suppression of the telegraph. 


were gracefully trimmed, the iris dwarfed, curious rocks were 
piled here and there, little evergreens and Japanese maple 
gave color, and the whole effect was pleasing. All the after- 
noon we traveled, and at seven o'clock we were so tired that 
it seemed impossible to go farther, yet, after taking a hearty 
lunch of rice, we started for the next station. It was cool and 
delightful riding in the evening air and interesting, passing 
through village after village at night and then into the open 
country road again. If we could only reach Shirakawa that 
night we could get to Utsunomiya the next night, and from 
that place we could get a stage to Tokyo. 

As we neared the town at ten o'clock at night we knew some 
unusual event was taking place, as people were flocking along 
the road in numbers. As we got into the place we found that 
the buildings were all illuminated by lanterns and transpar- 
encies of various designs. It was half-past ten before we found 
accommodations for the night, so full w r ere all the inns, and the 
inn we finally stopped at was crowded and the streets thronged 
with people, all smiling and happy. At eleven o'clock a big 
procession came along, all having lanterns of bright colors on 
the ends of long poles or carrying them in the hands. As the 
procession was made up of companies, or groups, they prob- 
ably represented different trades or charitable organizations. 
One group had red lanterns, another white, and so on. The 
oddest sight was to see the lanterns carried on long bamboo 
poles, in some instances thirty feet high, the men seeming to 
have all they could do to balance them. The men moved along 
in a sort of half trot, and all shouted, "Yasu! Yasu!" 

In the middle of the procession was an elaborate canopy 


carried on the shoulders of a dozen or more men, and in carry- 
ing it there seemed to be a mock struggle by some of them to 
hold it back as if it were being borne along reluctantly. It was 
impossible to sketch this scene, but you may imagine the 
appearance of a wide street lined with the low, one-storied 
Japanese houses, with rows of lanterns under their eaves, the 
tea-houses filled with admiring guests, girls playing on the 
samisen, or flute, and the street filled with this trotting pro- 
cession, lanterns bobbing up and down from poles fifteen feet 
high, and, at intervals, in pairs, big lanterns on poles thirty 
feet high. I, a solitary foreigner looking on, was greeted by 
every one that passed with a glance, yet not a disrespectful 
look or the slightest rudeness was offered by this great crowd. 
The next morning we were off by candle-light. At noon we 
stopped at a place famous for its fried eels and we had a deli- 
cious dinner. In the afternoon we crossed the Tonegawa 
swollen by the rains, and while waiting for the ferry-boat we 
noticed a crowd of Japanese below the landing on a broad strip 
of sand that bordered the river. We were told that a few hours 
before a man had been drowned in attempting to wade the 
river, and they were just getting ready to remove the body 
which had been recovered. I went down into the crowd, and 
there was the customary big wooden tub in which the body 
had been packed preparatory to cremation, a woman beside it 
in deepest grief. A few men were burning incense sticks, and 
the rush of water, the stretch of sterile sand, and the black, 
scudding clouds above all formed a sombre and striking scene. 
My sudden appearance among them was like an apparition, 
and they all looked at me as if I had dropped from the clouds 


above. The boat came and I hurried back to the landing. 
Soon afterward it began to rain and continued to rain the 
whole day. 

About seven o'clock in the evening we reached Utsuno- 
miya, sixty-seven miles from Tokyo. It seemed like getting 
home again, for it was the first familiar place I had seen since 
I left Tokyo in July. We spent the night here on our way to 
Nikko last year; we now stopped at the same house and I had 
the same room. I could hardly realize that in the short time 
that had elapsed since my first visit I had been to America and 
returned, to Yezo and back overland, had got so accustomed 
to Japanese food that I could not only eat with a relish, but 
could ask in Japanese for anything I wished, and had become 
so used to the Japanese objects, ways, etc., that everything 
seemed perfectly natural. 

The stage left at six the next morning. Our passengers were 
all Japanese, and among them were two rather elderly ladies 
who had been to Nikko and were returning to their home in 
Tokyo. They were all very pleasant and courteous and of- 
fered to one another candies and cakes, and, in turn, dropped 
a few cents into the tray that was often brought to us with 
cups of tea from some wayside booth. At noon we had dinner 
together, and I amused the ladies a good deal by insisting upon 
pouring the tea for them. I also entertained them with a num- 
ber of hand tricks and we had a most enjoyable time. At 
the inn I got a sketch (fig. 459) of one of the ladies as she 
was taking an afternoon smoke, at most three or four gentle 
whiffs. It shows the position of the right foot when sitting 
on the floor; the left foot is just inside. The upper, outer side 


of the feet rest on the mats while one sits on the inner side 

of the feet and the lower part of 

the leg. 
Figure 460 is an ishidoro, or stone 

lantern, in a garden back of the 

inn at Utsunomiya. The upper 

piece is wrought out of a single 

block of stone and the pedestal 

represents an old stump of a tree 

worked out of another block of 

stone. It was old, judging from the lichen that grew upon 

it. What amazes one in Japan 
is the fine stonework, cabinet- 
work, and other kinds of arti- 
sans' work found in nearly every 
town and village. It shows the 
widespread distribution of men 
in various occupations who are 
skilled in the work they do, all 
having served their apprentice- 
ship faithfully. 

At noon we came again to 
the Tonegawa and crossed it in 
a large, flat-bottomed scow, and 
then went on again, changing 
horses every few miles. As we 
approached Tokyo, particularly 
in the outskirts of the city, I 

began to notice how much prettier the children were than 

Fig. 460 


in the country. I noticed this feature in approaching Sendai. 
I explained this marked contrast in the appearance of the 
children by the fact that in all the inns and tea-houses girls 
are employed as servants, and the keepers of these places 
evidently scour the country for good-looking girls. These 
come to the city, ultimately marry, and transmit their good 
looks to their children. This, at least, seems a rational expla- 



We got back to Tokyo about seven in the evening and I 
started for the yashiki with a fresh jinrikisha. It seemed odd 
to be riding through crowded streets again. It made me quite 
nervous for fear of a collision, and it was several days before 
I became accustomed to it. I had been traveling for eleven 
days on long country roads a distance as far as from New 
York to Columbus, Ohio, and more than half this distance 
with a single Japanese companion, yet, with the exception of 
a scowl from an old Japanese woman in a village far to the 
north, and an experience with two men who endeavored to 
make me move off a narrow road, I had met no unfriendly de- 
monstrations during my entire journey. The road experience 
was a perfectly natural one, and might happen a thousand 
times in our country when two gentlemen walking along a 
country road would not permit themselves to be crowded into 
the gutter by a Chinese laundryman. I was half a mile ahead 
of my companions, and was standing in the middle of a nar- 
row road sketching the outline of mountains. The two men 
regarded me as an outside barbarian, and to avoid the risk of 
a fight I should have regarded myself as such and stepped to 
one side. But their evident intent to run me down made me 
stand my ground, and just as they were ready to push into me 
they parted and did not even brush me, though I felt a little 
apprehension as they passed. 


In inquiring about the names of fingers and toes I found the 
Japanese have no name for toes except "foot fingers." The 
thumb is called "great finger," or "parent finger"; the fore- 
finger is named "man-pointing finger"; the mid-finger is 
known as "high, high finger"; the ring finger is designated 
as "medicine finger" or "no-name finger"; and the little 
finger bears the same name as with us, "little finger." In 
Spanish the third or ring finger is also known as "medicine 
finger," as when we apply ointment to the eyes, or when we rub 
them, we nearly always use the third finger, this finger being 
softer. In a few Indian vocabularies to which I have referred 
the toes are called "foot fingers." The teeth also have their 
names; the incisors, or front teeth, are called "thread-cutting 
teeth," showing that the Japanese ladies have the same bad 
habit that ours have. The Japanese word for "tusk" is the 
name for canine teeth; the molars are called "back teeth"; 
while the wisdom teeth are known as "no parent teeth," as 
they usually appear after one's parents are dead. The eye- 
brow is called "hair over the eye"; eyelashes are called "pine 
hairs." The neck is called " root of the head." There is no dis- 
tinct name for the ankle and wrist, it is leg and hand kubi; 
the prominences on the ankle are called "black prominences," 
as in their barefoot habits these parts show the dirt first. The 
shin is called mukozune, and the Japanese say when this 
part is struck even Benkei would cry. Benkei was a very strong 
man and marvelous stories are told in regard to his strength. 

A Japanese professor and his wife called at our house the 
other day and I induced the latter to permit me to make 
a sketch of her. The face does no justice to her beauty 


(fig. 461); I also had an opportunity to sketch a Japanese 
baby sound asleep. 

One may visit the market many 
times and meet with something 
never noticed before. One is at once 
impressed with the artistic way in 
which everything is displayed and 
the immaculate cleanliness of every- 
thing; the turnips and white rad- 
ishes are literally white, not a par- 
ticle of dirt showing upon them, 
and everything is tied or done up 
in graceful ways. String beans are 
bound with straw in packages as 
shown in figure 462. 

The mechanical toys are always 
interesting. With the simplest of construction, and frail as 

many of them appear, their 

durability is remarkable. The 

mouse that eats out of a dish 

and drops his tail at the same 

time is shown in figure 463. 

The bamboo spring on the 

side keeps the mouse in an 

attitude of head and tail up, 

by strings that run up from 

the stand below. The moment you press the spring the 

string is loosened, the head and tail drop, the head going 

into a little ring of bamboo which represents a dish. The 

Fig. 461 

Fig. 462 


mouse is not painted, but charred, making a brown surface. 
The Japanese have a great many ingenious devices for toys 

of this description, many of them 
on sticks to be moved by strings, 
or they may move like our jumping- 

Many toys and games are similar 
to ours, though in many instances 
they are more elaborate; thus, in 
cat's-cradle the forms go beyond 
ours. The Japanese make a great 
variety of paper objects, and many 
of them are very ingenious. Those 
commonly made represent a kimono, 
a flying heron, a boat, lantern, flower, 
stand, box, the box quite differ- 
ent from the fly-box of our boy- 

As another illustration of the 
tameness of birds, especially crows, my jinrikisha man had 
left his lantern hanging on behind the jinrikisha, and while 
I was putting on my overcoat, within three feet of the jin- 
rikisha, a crow came down, alighted on the wheel, smashed 
a hole through the paper lantern, and devoured the vegetable 
wax candle within. I allowed him to do it and would have 
paid for a hundred lanterns and candles rather than have 
missed the experience. The crows are literally the scavengers 
of the streets, and are often seen disputing with a dog the 
possession of a bone or stealing crumbs from the children. 

Fig. 463 

Fig. 464 


Japanese artists have depicted a crow stealing a fish from a 
basket carried on the head of a street peddler. The crows are 
very tame because they are never treated unkindly; indeed, 
all wild animals are tame and the domestic animals are much 
tamer than with us. 

At this time of the year (November) the children are flying 
kites, playing ball, or spinning tops. They fight their peg 
tops as our boys do. The tops, however, are 
differently shaped from ours, as shown in fig- 
ure 464; and instead of endeavoring to split 
the other top they push them together until 
one or the other stops. The ball-playing con- 
sists in patting the ball to the ground, then catching it on 
the back of the hand and bouncing it again; the one who 
can do this the greatest number of times wins. 

The boys are as fond of walking on stilts as are our boys. 
The stilts are called chikuba; literally, "bamboo horse." 
One speaks of a boyhood friend as a chikuba 
no tomodachi, or "stilt friend." Figure 465 
represents two types of stilts, one made of 
two pieces of wood bound to bamboo by 
cord. The rest for the foot, instead of being 
transverse to the foot, is lengthwise, so that 
the whole sole of the foot is supported. The 
other is a rarer form made entirely of wood. 
The stilts may be four or five feet in height, and the boys 
often hop on one stilt and with the other endeavor to dis- 
lodge, or pull down an antagonist, and in this way get up 
lively contests. 

Fig. 465 


November 22. We visited the Omori shell mound again to 
make a collection of the different species of shells composing 
it, and then went to the beach to collect the living examples 
washed up along the shore in order to compare the two. I 
had begun to notice the difference in the shells sometime ago, 
not only the variance in size, but a difference in proportion. 
Three species of a bivalve shell (Area granosa, lamarckiana, 
and ponderosa), having radiating ribs like a scallop, have in- 
creased the number of ribs since the shells were deposited; 
one species of whelk (Eburna) has a more acute spire to-day; 
another species (Lunatia) has a less acute spire. 1 

While walking along the railroad track we observed that 
the Japanese workman in grading would sing with every 
stroke of the shovel or bar. The Japanese apparently sing 
at all their work. 

We went to a famous tea-house for lunch. A stone monu- 
ment in the beautiful garden had an inscription which puz- 
zled my Japanese friends to translate. Professor Yatabe 
said the meaning of it might be conveyed by the following: 
"The fragrance of plum blossoms causes the flowing of ink 
in the writing room." The idea to be conveyed is that the 
fragrance of flowers prompts the poet to write verses. Many 
of these inscriptions, often from their own or from Chinese 
classics, are found on tablets hanging up in the houses or on 
stone slabs in the gardens; When translated they sound rather 
feeble -to us, but the Japanese insist that the characters in 

1 These and other differences were published in my memoir of the Omori shell 
mounds. That portion referring to the changes observed in the shells was sent to 
Darwin, and in reply he said, "What a constant state of fluctuation the whole organic 
world seems to be in!" (More Letters of Charles Darwin, vol. I, p. 383.) 



which they are written mean much more to them and that the 
spirit is impossible to translate. The students with me en- 
deavored to render the inscription into English, but found it 

Fig. 466 

very difficult. One of them accomplished the following: "The 
odor of plums is like the flowing of ink in a room where they 
keep white paper." Mrs. Yatabe wrote in my album a senti- 
ment from the Chinese classics which is said to be beautifully 
done. A tracing of these 
characters is given in fig- 
ure 466 : " Loving flowers 
we rise early in the spring, 
admiring the moon we 
retire late at night." 

The sign for macaroni 

& -uj^-ajjjj-ip FlG> 467 

(fig. 467) consists of a 

block of wood with strips of paper hanging like a fringe 

below. The macaroni is made from buckwheat and is very 


good in soup. The sign for paste is a round disk with 
a character for paste written upon it (fig. 468). Paste is an 

article of merchandise as with 
us, the Japanese, however, 
finding many more uses for it. 
This season (the last of No- 
vember) seems to be the time 
for moving trees, and one meets the tree-movers very often 
in the streets. I have seen a tree so large that thirty men 
were required to handle it. The trees seem to bear repeated 
transplantings, for they are sold and resold again and again, 
and are carried miles in 
the way shown in figure 

As the cold weather 
approaches the people 
appear in thicker over- 
garments, though the 
lower classes are all barelegged and barefooted, and so far 
as one can see the houses are as open as ever. With a heavy 
frost on the ground and the ditches along the streets frozen 
over, the little shops are still wide open, the only source 
of heat being the little fire box, or hibachi, around which 
they seem to cuddle a little closer to warm their hands over 
the few coals burning in the ashes. It is an odd sight to 
see jinrikisha men, after a run of miles and reeking with 
perspiration, throw a light blanket loosely over the back 
and sit in the cold wind while waiting for another fare. 
Everybody goes bareheaded, and so unaccustomed are they 

Fig. 469 


to wearing a hat that oftentimes when students wear a hat 
in calling on you, they will go off without it and perhaps 
come a week after to reclaim it, the delay show- 
ing how little they miss it. In cold weather 
men wear a cloth bag arrangement, heavily 
quilted, with a long cape behind. It appears 
to be a bag with a hole in it for the face (fig. 
470). We have the same device made of 
worsted for boys at home. The children, when bundled up 
in their warm clothing, are funny-looking things. The outer 
garment is heavily wadded, and the sleeves are so long that 
the hands are entirely hidden; it resembles a Chinese gar- 
ment. The ladies wear a very becoming hood made out of 
a piece of cloth, a yard and a quarter long, folded as in figure 
471 and sewed at A, but open behind; in- 
side, at B, are long loops which go over the 
ears pulling it down in front, the face coming 
out at D; the two flaps, E E, are wound 
around behind the neck and folded in front. 
It is very easily adjusted and is a device that 
would be appreciated in our country. It is 
generally made of purple crape, and even a 
plain woman looks pretty when wearing it. 
Figure 472 represents a lady wearing the hood. 

The oranges now displayed in the markets are all of the 
variety known with us as tangerines; they have a very thin, 
easily removed skin, and the segments almost drop apart. 
In some you can look through the centre, as the segments 
do not meet. They vary from the size of an English walnut 

Fig. 471 


to some as large as our ordinary orange. The smaller varieties 

are seedless; the very large 
ones are not good to eat, 
but are used as ornaments. 
When oranges are to be 
given as presents they are 
packed in a very attractive 
manner in open wicker- 
work baskets of bamboo. 
These baskets are sup- 
ported on three bamboo 
legs, the strips of bamboo 
being prolonged two feet 
above the or- 
anges and held 
together by two 
bamboo rings 
(fig. 473). The 
shops are very pretty with these graceful orange- 
holders in rows, arranged artistically with a little 
sprig of evergreen on top and with the rich 
color of the oranges showing through the deli- 
cate slats of green bamboo. An interesting and 
puzzling way of cutting an orange is shown in 
figure 474; figure 475 shows one half from the 
end, the dotted lines showing the manner of 
cutting. The soft and easily separated peel 
renders it rather easy to do, yet at home a 
friend of mine did it with one of our hard-skinned oranges. 

Fig. 472 

Fig. 473 


The games are as seasonable as with us. Kite-flying, top- 
spinning, and battledore and shuttlecock are dominant at 
present. In walking or riding you are 
often struck by the shuttlecock, al- 
ways followed with smiles and apolo- 
gies. The implements are different 
from ours. The battledore is made 
of board, on one side of which is an 
elaborate picture in crape of bright 
colors in relief, the subject being 
some celebrated hero or actor. Some 
of the battledores are very elaborate 
in their decoration (fig. 476). The 
shuttlecock is made out of the soap- 
berry seed (mukuroji), five feathers 
forming a plume at one end. These 
are sold in sets of five and are held 
in a slip of bamboo (fig. 477). In the shops where they are 
sold they have a most brilliant display of them, and gener- 
ally a huge shuttlecock hangs outside as 
a sign. Figure 478 represents Daikoku, 
god of fortune. It is made up of pieces of 
y bright-colored brocade with gilt threads 
Jl interwoven, and is coarsely made, as the 
toy is very cheap. Figure 479 shows the 
attitude of a girl in playing battledore. 
Instead of the thum, thum, thum sound of 
our battledore, the sound of the Japanese game is click, click, 
click, as the hard seed is struck by the wooden battledore. 

Fig. 475 

Fig. 477 

Fig. 478 

Fig. 479 


During this month (December) there are a number of fairs 
held in the vicinity of the temples, the articles sold consisting 
of household decorations of straw for the New Year, shrines 
for the house, and children's toys. The larger fairs having been 
held, the smaller ones spring up in various parts of the city. 
It is astonishing what crowds of people throng these outdoor 
bazaars. We attended one held near a temple not far from 
the yashiki. The streets on both sides were crowded with 
booths, and the people were packed in a dense mass, many 
going to the temple to get 
their purchases blessed by the 
priests, holding them high 
above their heads to avoid 
their being crushed by the 
crowd. It was interesting to 
observe that at all these fes- 
tivals the objects offered for 
sale were children's toys, re- 
ligious or semi-religious deco- 
rations, and objects connected 
with their household shrines. 
When I read in the papers 
from home letters by mission- 
aries saying that the temples 
are being deserted and the 
faith dying out, and then see 

r IG. 4oU 

the actual facts of temples 

crowded every day, temples being retiled and repaired, with 

every evidence of prosperity, I wonder at such false reports. 


The objects for New Year's decorations are made of rice 
straw, twisted and braided in various ways. It is customary 
to hang them over the entrance of the house 
and also over the household shrine. Many 
of the designs are pretty, and some of them 
indicate considerable skill in their construc- 
tion. One of the prettiest designs and one 
of the most common is shown in figure 480. 
This one was over two feet long 
and the pendants below were three 
feet in length. The roll may repre- 
sent a boat; if so its cargo consists 
of three balls made of rice straw 
with sprigs of pine and some bright 
red berries. Below a few bunches 
of rice are hanging; a little gilt leaf 
is stuck on the poles of the balls 
and the whole afTair is bright and 
attractive. Another one (fig. 481) 
is a wreath of straw with bunches 
of rice and straw hanging down; figure 482 shows a 
form which is hung over a door and consists of a 
twisted strand of straw running down to a point. 
Some of them are six feet long, and one often sees 
this form in Shinto temples. Figure 483 is a fringe 
to hang over the door, and figure 484 is a rope of 
straw woven, with strands hanging to it at a distance of five 
inches apart. This is wound up like a huge tassel, and when 
unwound is hung around the sides of the room, white paper 

Fig. 481 

Fig. 483 


cut in symbolic form being tied to the rope between the 
pendent strings. In some cases the decoration is very elab- 
orate. In figure 485 is rep- 
resented a complicated struc- 
ture over a gateway. In the 
centre is a lobster with dried 
seaweed hanging below, dried 
persimmons on each side, 
fronds of ferns pendent, paper 
cut after Shinto style, and the 

whole structure supported by pine trees. Without color it 
is difficult to represent its attractive appearance. Figure 486 
shows a decoration in front of a gate; the cut bamboo, deep 
green in color, was twelve feet high and looked like huge 
organ pipes. These rose from a cluster of pine twigs, the base 

firmly tied up with straw 
rope and the earth neatly 
piled up below with a straw 
ring to hold the earth. 

At New T Year's time it is 
a constant source of pleasure 
to roam through the streets 
and study the great variety 
of decorations. The taste dis- 
played, the sentiments con- 
veyed by the use of symbolic 
material, such as pine, bamboo, etc., make an interesting 
study. On New Year's in my round of calls I noticed that 
many of the shops were closed. The streets presented a 

Fig. 484 



Fig. 485 

lively sight of action and color — the older people, finely 

dressed, making their New Year's calls, the younger ones 

brilliantly dressed, playing 
battledore and shuttlecock, 
the boys flying highly col- 
ored kites of all sizes and at 
all heights. In gardens of 
the higher classes the girls 
were gayly dressed, and such 
flashes of color as their long 
sleeves streamed in the air 
in striking the shuttlecock! 

A great many officers and soldiers were on the streets, flags 

were flying everywhere, 

and nearly every house 

was decorated with the 

quaint straw devices. It 

was an inspiring sight to 

see the streets thronging 

with children, to hear the 

sound of musical instru- 
ments, and here and there 

to catch a glimpse of 

convivial parties sitting 

around their food and 

wine. At every place 

where I called food and 

sake were offered me as 

one of the customs of the New Year, for even the food con- 


veys some sentiment as well as satisfaction. A sweet sake 
is always served at New Year's, and this is offered in a 
special vessel with a spout like a teapot, and the bail, or 
handle of porcelain, or pottery, is in one piece with the 
body. One often sees these objects mixed with a collection 
of teapots. 

As the service is essentially the same as to dishes and food 
a sketch of one will answer for all. Figure 487 represents a 

Fig. 487 

typical service of wine, cake, etc., at the house of one of the 
Japanese professors where I felt well enough acquainted to 
pull out my sketch book. The drawings show the objects just 
as they were upon the mats. The pot of sweet sake is seen to 
the right with a sprig of pine and the noshi which always ac- 
companies a present secured to the handle; the ordinary sake 
is served in a bottle which rests in a low square box. The 
three square lacquer boxes one above another contain the 
food, which consisted of the following articles: fish eggs in 
masses, just as they are taken from the fish; a bean pickle in 
sugar syrup and Japanese sauce; a little dried fish as hard 
as a stick; lotus root, cut in oblique slices and very palatable; 
a water chestnut, cut in sharp scallops; a fish tied up in a 


bundle with green seaweed; cold omelette, cut in slices; cake, 
tea, and sake (fig. 488). 

The Japanese are very formal in their 
observances of New Year's calls. The 
gentlemen call and leave their cards in 
boxes or baskets at the door, or walk in 
and drink a little tea or sake. After a few 
days the ladies call. On New Year's day 
the Japanese officials call on the heads of 
departments, and one sees many officers 
on their way to the palace, and a funny 
sight it is to see those who affected for- 
eign costumes. The New Year's celebra- 
tions continue for a week, and during this 
time it is impossible to get any work 
done. How staid and sober our New 
England method of celebration of New 
Year's appears in contrast to all this 
gayety — a few wreaths hung up in the 
window, but nothing more. In New York City the sav- 
agery of horn-blowing finds its parallel only in the racket 
made by the Chinese. 

A present came to our 
house of two large, fat 
teal (fig. 489). These 
were in a square, shal- 
low basket standing on 
four short bamboo legs. 
The teal rested on vegetables, greens and three round lemons. 


Fig. 488 


The birds are made into soup and the lemons are squeezed 
upon it, but notice the neatness of the whole device and 
the complete way a present is given in Japan. A present 
means a great deal here, and no matter how humble, the 
noshi is always affixed to it. 

Mochi is a favorite article of food at New Year's time, and 
just as the New Englander makes up a lot of mince and 
pumpkin pies for Thanksgiving and 
Christmas so the Japanese prepare 
mochi. It is made of a glutinous kind 
of rice, which after proper boiling is 
placed in a huge wooden mortar and 
stirred vigorously with long sticks. It 
is a common sight at this season to 
see the preparations going on in the IG ' 

street. Figure 490 shows men stirring the dough. After this 
it is dusted with rice flour and pounded with a large wooden 
mallet. It is very sticky and the mallet often gets stuck in 
the mixture. Hokusai has made a comical drawing of a man 
who is endeavoring to draw his mallet out of the adher- 
ing mass. After it is properly 
^ kneaded in this way, it is made 

up into flattened round loaves, 
Fig. 491 * 

some of them two feet m diame- 
ter and resembling huge puddings ; it is also rolled into thick 
sheets (fig. 491). It is sold in many shops and is much liked 
by the Japanese. It is very sticky to eat, and reminds one 
of heavy bread, but it is nice when toasted in thin sheets with 
burned or browned meal and a little sugar sprinkled on it, 


a common way of eating it. Figure 492 shows one form of 
offering. This is a little bamboo table, or stand with two big 
loaves of mochi on the lower shelf; wreaths of rice straw, ever- 
green leaves, white paper cut into 
strips, and a few fern leaves surround 

At this time of the year (January) 
every boy in the city has a kite, and 
the wind being favorable the air is 
literally full of kites of all sizes, 
shapes, and colors. Some of them are 
of so large a size that a small rope is 
necessary to fly them with. Some 
have large dragons painted on them 
Fig. 492 j n fright colors. These may be eight 

feet square, with eyes made like tambourines hung in circu- 
lar frames, so that as the wind revolves' them, the eye being 
painted black on one side and covered with silver leaf on 
the other, the monster appears to be winking at you. I saw 
a most frantic scattering of a flock of hens as a kite of hide- 
ous aspect darted down among them. Some of the kites are 
in the shape of a boy with long sleeves fluttering in the 
wind; others like birds with outstretched wings; some in the 
form of centipedes, fans, and other quaint designs. The kite, 
though frail-looking, darts with great force to the ground, 
and is dragged over it without injury. The frame of the kite 
is made of light strips of bamboo bent slightly backward by 
strings running across from the ends of the transverse pieces 
of the framework; the paper, of that tough kind peculiar to 


Japan, is thus stretched like a drum-head and is convex in 
front. The kites have all manners of flying. Some without 
the long tail, or bob, are as steady in the air as are others 
with two exceedingly long tails hung from the lower corners 
of the kite. It is a pretty sight to see these two long bobs 
hanging parallel, and as the kite sways back and forth the 
graceful curves of the bobs run along in perfect unison. Some 
kites dart back and forth in vigorous fashion; others are 
made to fly directly 
overhead in strong 
winds, and the string **C*Si 

is almost vertical. The 
boys not only enjoy 
the mere flight of the 
kite, but often fight 
them; and, I may add, it is the only way I ever saw boys 
fight among themselves. At the kite shop can be bought a 
simple device of wood which is strung upon the kite string; 
in a deep notch of this device is a sharp blade as shown 
in figure 493. By manoeuvring the kite the string can be 
brought over the string of an opponent, and by dragging it 
along, the string slides into the notch and is cut. Boys in 
different blocks and out of sight of one another may engage 
in these contests. It was a new thing to me to see the 
adroit way in which a boy would make his kite go sideways 
almost at right angles to another kite flying by its side. The 
kites often have attached to them a " singer" consisting of 
a thin ribbon of whalebone kept taut by a bamboo bow. 
This is secured to the top of the kite and the wind vibrates 

Fig. 494 


the whalebone ribbon, producing a loud, humming sound 
which reminds one of a planing machine or a sawmill. It is 
a great annoyance at times when writing to have this inces- 
sant hum directly over your house with the boy flying the 

kite a thousand feet 
away. Besides this seo- 
lian-harp-like device I 
have seen a cord simply stretched across the bow-like piece, 
to which was attached short flaps of paper, and these would 
flutter so rapidly in the wind as to make a peculiar 
humming sound different from the whalebone, or 
sometimes bamboo, ribbon. Figure 494 is a sketch 
of the musical contrivance attached to the top of 
the kite. 

A curious device to indicate the months which 
have thirty-one days and those which have thirty 
or a less number of days is shown in figure 495. 
The object consisted of an irregular piece of wood 
charred brown, the characters painted in white. 
The first column is headed with the character for 
"small," or "little," and then follow the numbers, 
2, 4, 6, 9, and 11, these months having thirty days 
or less; the second column with the months con- 
taining thirty-one days is headed by the character 
for "great." The mushrooms at the bottom were 
made out of paper slightly browned by heat, look- 
ing precisely like the real objects, and held in a 
little straw device as they are seen in the markets. My 
daughter paid one and one half cents for it. 


We went to the theatre the other day at twelve o'clock 
noon, carrying our lunch with us, and never left the place till 
half-past eleven at night. The actors, the scenery, the music, 
and the audience held the attention at every moment, and 
intermissions of ten or fifteen minutes left one time to enjoy 
the family gatherings in their two-mat bins, servants from 
outside tea-houses bringing in attractive-looking lunches. 
The concealed orchestra had two drums of widely different 
pitch, one not unlike an ordinary drum, the other sounding 
like a person suddenly choking. The illusion of distance on 
the stage was ingeniously accomplished by making the build- 
ings and sides of the stage taper to the rear as in exaggerated 
perspective; the stage was not over fifty feet in depth, but 
by this method it looked ten times as deep. In one scene a 
Tonin is leaving the gate of his yashiki uttering sad words of 
regret and waving his hand. Suddenly the gate appears more 
distant, and again it apparently recedes. The illusion is con- 
veyed that the man is fast leaving it. The effect is produced 
by a big gate painted on thin board which drops forward dis- 
closing a smaller gate painted precisely like the first and this 
in turn drops, disclosing another gate still smaller. The 
classical plays of the Japanese enable one to get an idea of 
court dress and, in a slight way, perhaps, of court etiquette 
and ceremony. Figure 496 shows hasty sketches of an actor 
in various attitudes, and is interesting as illustrating the 
old costumes. To see a two-sworded dignitary walking across 
the stage in nether garments four feet too long, trailing back 
under his feet as he walked, was very odd. 

An interesting sight it was to see throngs of beautifully 



Fig. 496 

dressed children leave the audience and rush to the stage as 
the curtain came down and find their way behind the cur- 
tain on each side to watch 
the stage carpenter at work 
erecting new scenery. When 
the wooden blocks clacked 
together as a signal for the 
curtain to be raised, the children swarmed 
out again and hurried to their respective 
bins in the audience. What greater evidence 
could be offered to illustrate the universal 
good behavior of the Japanese boy and girl! 
Of course such an invasion of children on 
our stage would not be permitted for a 
moment; but think of the tacks spilled, paint 
upset, and other deviltries which would instantly develop 
if our sweet children were allowed behind the curtain! In 
Japan, however, the children are allowed to go everywhere 
and see everything because they never seem to abuse the 
privilege. 1 

Early in December the fire companies of the city come to- 
gether for a review. The fire bells ring and the companies 
gather on a large square where all kinds of acrobatic feats take 
place. They climb ladders, have races, and perform a number 
of feats, and appear very skillful, but in actual service, while 
showing the greatest bravery, they do not impress the for- 

1 And the way these same children become brave fighting soldiers as shown in the 
Formosan, Chinese, and Russian wars, proves that courtesy, gentle ways, and good 
manners are not disassociated with consummate bravery and endurance on the 


eigner as very efficient. Their problems, however, are so dif- 
ferent from those of our firemen that it may be hardly fair to 
pass judgment. The Japanese firemen are called upon to de- 
stroy buildings in the path of a conflagration and to wet down 
the men who are thus engaged, and to do all this work with 
the greatest possible dispatch. 

Occasional snowstorms have occurred this winter, but the 
jinrikisha men do not seem to mind the snow and run in it 
barefooted, and when standing the steam is seen rising from 
their bare feet. Curiously enough, the houses appear as open 
as in the summer. The children are barelegged just as in the 
summer, and play in the snow with- 
out minding the cold. After a snow- 
storm the people turn out with 
scoops, boards, and a peculiar kind ■""" fig 497 
of wooden shovel and clear the en- 
tire street in front of their respective shops and houses, the 
snow being put into the gutter which runs along the side of 
the street and which is usually covered with boards. Figure 
497 is an extemporized snow shovel made out of a board 
with a loop of rope near the end for a handle. The snow being 
moist, the children roll big balls of it as do our children at 
home, and have contests as to which one will make the big- 
gest ball, in the following manner : a small stick is tied cross- 
ways to the end of a string, and this is swung back and forth 
in the damp snow to see how big an accumulation can be 
made before the snow drops off of its own weight. 

The construction of ladders is interesting. The sides are 
made of stout bamboo, and from the centre to the ends the 


bamboo is bent outward, thus giving a wider base upon which 
it rests and a flare at the top (fig. 498). By this method 
the ladder is greatly strengthened. The slats are 
firmly tied to the supports, while with us holes 
are bored in the sides of the ladder which naturally 
weakens it. 

In a recent visit to the Omori shell mounds I 
discovered a large fragment of a human tibia later- 
ally flattened with an index of 60, as indicated in 
Broca's platycnemic tibia ; the index of the tibia of 
a modern Japanese is 76, as is ours. This suggests 
a considerable antiquity to the deposit. 

I was tolcl by one of my students that in former 
times, if any person fell into the castle moat and 
was drowned, it was not allowable for any one to 
recover the body, as the depth of the water might be 
discovered, and this was kept a secret. This state- 
ment has not been verified, but may be true, though I doubt it. 
For several weeks I have taken my lunch at the laboratory 
a la japonaise. Trying it once I found that the lunch was 

Fig. 498 

Fig. 499 


good, and though I have to eat it on the corner of a big table 
laden with snakes, worms, and skulls, I find my appetite is 
not affected by the surroundings. The wooden bucket con- 
tains boiled rice (fig. 499) and the wooden shovel is to scoop it 
out with. There is also a large piece of broiled fish, — horse 
mackerel, — tender and delicious; another dish contains a 
slice of salted ginger, radish, and a bunch of green leaves of 
something. Having acquired 
the use of the chopsticks, I 
shall recommend them to the 
world as the most simple and 
economical device ever in- 
vented by man. 

One marvels at the dwarf 
plum trees that one sees at 
this season (January). You 
are invited to a garden to 
see in various sizes of flower 
pots what appear to be dead 
stumps, literally black chunks 
of wood without the sign of 
a bud or sprout ; then weeks 
after you again visit the gar- 
den and find that these same black stumps have produced 
long, delicate twigs bearing the most beautiful blossoms with- 
out the sign of a green leaf. The contrast between these 
exquisitely tinted blossoms, and the black and apparently 
dead stumps from which they spring, leaves you amazed at the 
skill of the gardener who can produce such anomalies. The 

Fig. 500 

Fig. 501 


one shown in figure 500 was forty years old. It is trained to 
grow in this way. It is kept under cover where it is warm 
_ n and the blossoms appear much ear- 

lier than on the out-of-door trees. 
Pine trees are also trained to leaf out 
from thick logs of pine, as shown in 
figure 501, though the usual form of 
dwarf pine is a veritable tree, branches 
and all, three feet high arid a hun- 
dred years old. 

February 28, the plum trees are in 

full blossom. The flowers are usually 

of a deep pink or rose color and emit a delicious fragrance. 

Peddlers wander from house to house carrying twigs and 

branches of plum blossoms for sale. 

It is curious how slowly and unconsciously one grows to the 
appreciation of the quaint and odd in Japanese art hand-work. 
Of course the artist instantly sees the beauty of it, and no one 
could fail to admire the beautiful work of the sword-guards and 
other objects. But when one sees their pottery, for example, 
irregular in shape, purposely dented 
in, with sketchy designs, so unlike 
any pottery an Occidental is accus- 
tomed to, he wonders what there is 
to admire about the work. Let him 
begin to collect, however, and if he 
is a natural-born collector he will be- 
come wild over the tea-jars and other forms of pottery. I 
have started a little collection and have lately added two 

Fig. 502 


pieces (figs. 502 and 503). One is a vessel for sauce. The pot- 
tery is Akatsu, Oribe; the other a Satsuma teapot. They are 
at least one hundred and fifty years old, perhaps older. They 
are really fascinating to handle, and 
the fun of finding such nuggets in the 
simplest little bric-a-brac shops is only 
appreciated by those imbued with the 
collectors' spirit. The collector of bric- 
a-brac finds Japan a veritable para- 
dise, for wherever he goes he finds 
second-hand shops, known as furui 
doguya, displaying old objects of every 
description: pottery, metal and lacquer work, basketry, 
swords and sword furniture, pictures, etc. In the smallest 
villages through which one rides one finds some shop of this 
description with a modest assortment of old things. One 
cannot help recalling the fact that in our country the second- 
hand shops in our towns are limited to the sale of second- 
hand furniture, second-hand books, and second-hand cloth- 
ing, and only a few of the larger cities will have shops 
containing bric-a-brac, etc. Furthermore, it may be ob- 
served that in the Japanese shop the objects with few ex- 
ceptions are native products, the exceptions being from China 
and Korea, while in our country the objects are invariably 
from Europe or Asia, Dutch delft, Italian majolica, German 
ironwork, etc. It is a significant fact that one looks in vain 
for any art object worth preserving from our own country. 1 

1 This will not always be so, for within thirty years the arts and crafts movement 
and the numerous kilns throughout the country have been producing artistic pottery, 
and the future bric-a-brac shops will have artistic objects "made in America." 


I have lately become acquainted with a celebrated anti- 
quarian, Ninagawa Noritani, and have visited him at his 
house. He is the author of a book on the various kinds of pot- 
tery in Japan, illustrated by lithographic plates. These plates, 
though rather roughly done and colored by hand, are far more 
characteristic of the pottery than the most perfect chromolith- 
ographs one sees in French and English publications on similar 
subjects. The objects figured in the first five parts were sold 

to some European before I 
came to Japan, but I am 
trying to get representative 
pieces similar to those al- 
ready figured, and Ninagawa 
will identify them for me. If 
I can only get the same kind 
of pottery he describes and 
figures, it will be nearly as 
good as the original collection 
from which the figures were 

Through Ninagawa, I have 
learned many interesting 
things about collectors and 
collections. It was interesting to find that for hundreds of 
years these people have had their collections and crazes for 
collecting. He said that the Japanese have never specialized 
so much in their collecting as foreigners, and, I judge from 
what I have learned, were never so systematic or scientific 
and generally not so curious nor so exact as to the age and 

Fig. 504 


locality of the objects. Among Ninagawa's friends he spe- 
cified the following as the kinds of objects they collected: 
pottery, porcelain, coins, swords, kakemono (pictures), pieces 
of brocade, stone implements, and roofing tiles. The collec- 
tions of brocade are mounted in books like postage stamps, 
the pieces three or four inches square; he had seen speci- 
mens four or five hundred 
years old. Bits from the 
robes of famous men were 
highly esteemed. The tiles 

Fig. 505 

Fig. 506 

are considered very interesting objects; he had seen roofing 
tiles a thousand years old. He did not know of any one col- 
lecting armor. A few collect shells, corals, and the like. There 
are many books treating of all the kinds of objects above 
mentioned. Dr. Ito, the famous botanist, whom I have al- 
ready mentioned in the early pages of the journal, has a large 
collection of plants. 
Figure 504 shows a little girl of the higher class in warm 



winter garments. The method of dressing the hair from in- 
fancy to old age is a source of interest and wonderment to a 
foreigner. How a child can manage to preserve her elaborate 
coiffure for an hour, not to say three days, is past compre- 
hension. An opportunity occurred to sketch various types of 
hair-dressing. Mrs. T. and her daughter, and little Miss I. 

made a call on the family, 
and they amiably submitted 
to my making a sketch of 
their coiffure which had been 

Fig. 507 

Fig. 508 

made expressly for the visit and was consequently in the 
most perfect state. There are twenty to thirty ways of 
doing up each one of these types, and though very likely we 
should observe no difference the Japanese detect it at once. 
It is said that the first thing young ladies do when they meet 
is to discuss these various styles. The very method of mak- 
ing these graceful bows and knots necessitates the employ- 
ment of a hair-dresser, and women barbers go from house to 
house to perform this service, which is inexpensive. The 


country people do their own hair or perform reciprocal ser- 
vices. For a hair-dressing a vegetable wax preparation is 
used, and the hair has quite a polish when properly dressed. 
A form made of stiff black crape is used which keeps the 
graceful loops of the bow rigidly in shape. Figures 505 and 
506 show the side and back views of Mrs. K. In the back 
view the hair forms a sharp keel which is kept in place by a 
whalebone, or iron clip. Figure 507 is of Mrs. T.; a lacquer 
comb stands transversely on 
the slender queue turned back 
from the front. Figure 508 is 
the back view of figure 507; 
the square-ended object pass- 
ing through the bow is a stone, 
probably jade, after Chinese 
style. Figure 509 is of the 
daughter of Mrs. T. Figures 
510 and 511 are of Miss I., 
who is about twelve years old. 
In these a flower hairpin is shown; red crape is fastened in- 
side the loops. It is a very common form for girls of that 
age. In the street one sees the most poorly dressed girls with 
their hair beautifully arranged; even little children, four or 
five years old, will often show that more care is taken with 
their hair than with their dress, which may even be ragged. 
A tousled head is not a common sight. In these various 
styles of hair-dressing a Japanese recognizes different ranks 
of people: the handmaid (fig. 512), the country girl, the 
young lady, and certain forms that are considered very 

Fig. 509 


"dressy"; and finally, the very highest classes and royalty; 

while entirely different forms may be seen in pictures and 

possibly on the stage. 

I visited a Japanese newspaper office in order to see how the 

composition room was arranged. I had expected to see an 

immense room, knowing the number of characters used to set 

up a piece of printed matter, 
and was astonished to find a 
room not over thirty feet 
square. The number of Chi- 
nese characters possessed by 

Fig. 510 

Fig. 511 

the office may be counted by thousands. The number of 
different characters in common use for the newspaper is 
twelve or thirteen hundred, and there are many hundred 
more which are rarely used. Besides these there are the type 
for the Japanese alphabet of forty-eight phonetic signs, and 
these are often set up beside the Chinese character to spell 
out the Japanese word in case the reader may not know the 
meaning of the Chinese character. 


Figure 513 represents a portion of a Japanese newspaper, 
showing the use of the Japanese alphabet. The reader will 

Fig. 512 




Effr ft e> 


observe the simple letters running alongside the vertical col- 
umns of Chinese type. The cases are 
different from those of our printers; 
the boxes are two feet long and eight 
inches in height divided by vertical 
partitions. There are sixty-six par- 
titions in each box and the width of 
the space between the partitions is 
the width of the type. The types are 
placed in the partitions with their 
faces out, so that the compositor may 
see at a glance the character he 
wants. A description of the Chinese 
character is necessary here, but one 
must refer to a student of Chinese to 
understand the subject. It may be 






Tx13- e 

Pgo if 

n mi 
* i 


\n* B 

X © 



~* I 

Fig. 513 


< mi 
* &s 


*■ ®* 
■<* *» 

ft *i 


Ml* 1 
tf> J: 


said, however, that the Chinese character is composite; that is, 
in the character there is a radical which classifies it in a way. 
Thus, every character referring to money, such words as buy, 
sell, debt, loan, dicker, etc., will have the money radical in it; 
words referring to feeling, such as passion, hate, love, etc., will 
have the heart radical in it; and so on; and the characters are 

Fig. 514 

arranged in these partitions by their radicals. It is a queer 
sight to see a compositor running from one part of the room to 
another, holding his "stick" and manuscript in his left hand 
and with his right hand picking out the character he wants; 
so different from our printing-office where a man stands at his 
case with all the letters, a few figures, and punctuation marks 
in front of him, and never moves from the spot. Here the 
Japanese compositors, eight of them, are racing back and forth 
across the room for the proper character. Dressed in dark blue 
as they were, the appearance of the room reminded one of an 

Fig. 516 


ant-hill with the black ants ceaselessly passing each other to 
and fro. Figure 514 represents the composing-room showing 
the arrangement of the cases, but there were many more men 
than are represented in the sketch. Figure 515 shows the com- 
positor setting type. The man distributing type (fig. 516) sits 

Fig. 517 

at a table and with a pair of forceps picks out those characters 
of the same kind and then returns them to their proper posi- 
tion in one of the many cases. 

Figure 517 represents a cut from a daily illustrated news- 
paper. The drawing is full of action. The subscription price 
of the paper is twenty cents a month. Figure 518 is a repro- 
duction of a page proof of some book. When the compositor 
cannot make out the character in the manuscript, he turns the 
character upside down, and it is printed from the bottom, and 
the proof-reader, with red brush, marks the proper character 
in the margin. The characters are set up without spaces, 
which are put in afterwards. In Japanese manuscripts, if a 


character is rubbed out and afterwards it is desired to retain 
it, the word iki, which means "alive," is written in katakana. 
It is curious that in a printing-office they speak of "live" and 
"dead matter" as with us. In viewing this intricate system 

* « it 

r> < ~ * 

» ft » * 

* v a / 

Fig. 518 

of printing it would seem that ultimately the Japanese must 
establish a phonetic system. In this way only can they use the 
modern type-setting machine. The Chinese character lan- 
guage is a burden to them, and if, at this moment, they could 
all speak English it would add greatly to their development 



along our lines. Those who learn to write English prefer it to 
their own method. They all say it is much more exact, and 
the little boys who go to the preparatory school for the Uni- 
versity, where they study English, preferably write to one 
another in English because they can do it more easily. A dear 
little boy friend of mine always writes to his brother in Eng- 
lish, and his brother, who is thirteen years old, is studying 

Fig. 519 

English and at the same time is studying German in a foreign 
language school, so that he may enter the Medical School 
which is conducted in German. He comes to my house every 
Sunday, and already speaks English very well. 

A visit to Mitsui's famous silk store is well worth making, 
for it is the largest dry-goods store in the city and an immense 
business is done. To see a big shop without counters or seats 
is curious. The clerks and salesmen sit in the usual way on 


the straw matting, the customers likewise. Entering from the 
street the customer steps from his sandals on to the raised 
floor, the sandals being left behind. A cup of tea is imme- 
diately served on a tray to every one, whether a purchase is 
made or not. Figure 519 gives a faint idea of the appear- 
ance of this store. To the right is the street and to the left 
the clerks have access to the huge fireproof buildings from 
which the goods are brought as wanted. All the attendants 

Fig. 520 

had their hair dressed in true Japanese style, and running 
about were little boys, probably cash boys, who at times 
emitted a curious, prolonged call. The extreme slowness, 
gravity, and politeness the attendants showed in all their 
movements contrasted strangely with the crowds and ac- 
tivity in similar places at home. At the farther end of the 
store was an artistic device of copper. This was the water- 
boiler, or heater for tea. A man was in constant attendance 


making tea and pouring it into cups, and little boys were 
coming with trays to carry the tea to the customers (fig. 520). 
Hibachis containing coals of fire were conveniently placed 
for the smokers, both men and women, though the customers 
were mostly women. The place was a very interesting sight. 
All the massive beams above and the woodwork were in natu- 
ral wood. The brilliant colored silks, brocades, and crape, and 
the handsomely dressed ladies and children with flowered 
hairpins, added greatly to the beauty of the scene. In my 

_y w \^ L^ns^ 

'S \/y w — f^ 

Fig. 521 

sketch of the store there should be many more people, but 
there was no time to make an elaborate drawing. Almost 
the first object one notices is the unusually large and hand- 
some shrine (fig. 521) hanging from the ceiling, made in the 
form of a Shinto temple. Every house and every shop has a 
shrine of some kind exposed in this way before which the 
inmates pray in the morning. A light, or several lights, are 
placed in the shrine at night. It was odd to see this sanctu- 
ary hanging up in a large store and the proprietors and all 

Fig. 522 


hands praying before it in the morning, whether customers 
are present or not. I cannot imagine a religious shrine in our 
large stores with like devotion shown by the proprietors. 

Figure 522 represents the latest style of doing up the hair. 
My daughter noticed the braid, which is entirely new to the 
Japanese in hair-dress- 
ing. It is adopted from 
the foreigners, particu- 
larly from the children 
with their long braids 
behind. The face has 
no resemblance to the 
pretty woman I had for 
a subject. I think it 
is annoying to them to 

have the face sketched; at all events, I never attempt it, 
but put the features in afterwards. 

Many of the firemen of the city are house-builders and 
carpenters, and after extinguishing a fire they hang up the 
names of those who have helped in the matter, either fire 
company or individual firemen; then they claim a present 
from the owners of the building, or the chance of getting 
the job of rebuilding. Figure 523 is a sketch of a fire-ruined 
house showing the labels suspended from bamboo poles. 

In the bric-a-brac shops, of which there are a great many, 
one often notices among the lacquers, inlaid work, basketry, 
and the like, a pottery jar (fig. 524) enclosed in a faded bro- 
cade bag (fig. 525). The jar has an ivory cover, and is often 
exceedingly plain in form and appearance. You are amazed 



Fig. 523 

at the prices asked for some of these jars until you learn that 
they are among the oldest of pottery. These are known as 

chaire, and are made 
to hold powdered tea 
for a certain form of 
tea-drinking. They are 
kept in boxes (fig. 526) 
on the covers of which 
the names of the object 
and potter are written. 
There are many that 
are comparatively new 
and low-priced. It re- 
quires some time to get 
familiar with even the common kinds, but the more one 
studies them the more attractive they appear. 
The Japanese show their artistic ingenuity 
in tying a great variety of knots to which they 
give separate names. 
Many of these knots 
are ornamental. They 
are used in tying up 
presents, bags, scrolls, 
dresses, and for other purposes. The little 
pottery jars for holding powdered tea 
are kept in brocade bags. I learned to 
tie the knot which closes the mouth of 
the bag and always awakened the in- 
terest and sympathy of the dealer when, having replaced the 






Fig. 524 


Fig. 525 


tea-jar in its bag, I carefully tied the proper knot. I greatly 
enhanced my opportunities among the dealers of pottery by 
observing these simple courtesies. 

The other evening we were invited to dinner by Dr. Ben- 
jamin Smith Lyman, who has made a geological survey of 
Yezo for the Government. 
He lives in a Japanese house 
filled with beautiful screens, 
bronzes, porcelains, and the 
like. There were a number 
of guests present, and we 
were entertained by Japanese 
dancing and music, consist- 
ing of six koto, or harp, play- 
ers, and a biwa player. The 
biwa is almost out of date, 
and there are but two or 
three good players left in Ja- 
pan, the one we had being 
one of the great players. Fig- 
ure 527 is a sketch of this player who was blind. He strikes 
the strings with a broad ivory plectrum. The samisen players 
use a device that is similar, but not so wide. The koto players, 
of whom there were six, men and women, three of whom were 
blind, were arranged as in figure 528. Their music, which is 
extremely interesting and pleasing, was indescribable, all 
playing in unison with a peculiar rhythm, but with no break 
or pause. Figure 529 represents three playing together. There 
was on the finger a horn device like an enlarged finger nail. 

Fig. 526 


The various musical instruments figured have all been derived 
from China originally, coming through Korea. The group 

of dancing children we had 
seen before at a tea-house some 
months ago, and when we came 
into another room from dinner 
they looked surprised and de- 
lighted and rushed to us, and 
we were pleased to see them. 
Their ages were three, four, five, 
and six. There were two at- 
tendants. Figure 530 gives an 
idea of them. The samisen 
player is shown in figure 531. 
The boys' dress, with its obi and long sleeves, resembles a 
girl's dress, and it takes some time to distinguish the sexes, 
though, of course, the hair instantly betrays the difference. 
The hakama is a kind of divided skirt with a stiffened appen- 

Fig. 527 

Fig. 528 

dage behind like a short inverted unsplit coat tail, from the 
edges of which a band extends and is tied in front. This 


only the samurai class was permitted to wear, but, curiously 
enough, school-girls could wear this garment if they were the 

Fig. 529 

daughters of samurai, and when wearing it to school, as they 
sometimes do, it is indeed hard to distinguish them from boys. 
It is in every way a graceful and an easy garment to wear. 
Figure 532 represents a boy fourteen years old wearing the 

The other night I ran and walked nearly three miles to a 
fire on the outskirts of Tokyo toward the west and arrived 
there in time to see the 
last house catch fire and 
burn up. It was a re- 
markable and brilliant 
sight. The fire burned a 
row of large houses with 
heavy thatched roofs of 

straw, and as the wind 

Fig. 530 
was blowing a gale great 

masses of the thatched roof floated away in the air, resem- 
bling clouds of golden threads, and when the roof finally fell 


in the shower of sparks that drifted away was like a storm 
of golden snow. It was amazing to see how rapidly the houses 
melted away as soon as the fire got inside. I again witnessed 
the bravery and heat endurance of the firemen. At a dis- 
tance of at least three hundred feet from one building the 

heat was so intense 
that it was impossi- 
ble to look at the fire 
except through the 
openings between my 
fingers; yet the fire- 
men were within ten 
feet of the blaze, and 
only retreated when 
their clothing was ac- 
tually in flames, and 
even this condition 
they did not seem to 
notice until streams 
of water were directed 
on them. When I 
started to the fire, running through the dark streets, I asked 
a man where the fire was, and my Japanese was promptly 
understood, for he answered "Sukoshi mate" (Wait a little). 
I ran along with him until we came to a police station, and 
there posted up outside was a notice stating the place of 
the fire and what was burning, and this was certainly not 
more than ten or fifteen minutes after the alarm. I observed 
the same notice at other police stations which we passed. 

Fig. 531 


Of course I could not read it, but the details were given to 
me by the man whom I had encountered. On inquiry about 
it the next day I heard 
it was customary to 
post a message on the 
bulletin boards at all 
police stations, and at 
the earliest possible mo- 
ment, the position and 
character of the fire. 

One often notices the 
city workmen repairing 
the streets, but in this 
work attending only to 
the middle third of the 
street. On inquiry it 
was learned that the city 
looks after the middle 

third of the road, the abutters on either side taking care of 
the other thirds. In a similar way we are compelled to clear 
our sidewalk. It is amazing to see how honestly this work 
is performed by all, in contrast to the way our people often 
neglect clearing the snow. 

This morning (April 8) at five o'clock the fire-alarm bell 
rang, and as there was a gale blowing I dressed immediately 
and ran a distance of two miles, arriving too late to witness 
the struggle of the firemen. There were, however, interesting 
things to see. The extent of the conflagration showed how 
rapidly it had spread, and the wooden buildings partly 

Fig. 532 


burned indicated that the work of the firemen was not so 
trivial as foreigners supposed it to be; at least to check the 
fire in a high gale must have required great effort and skill. 

Fig. 533 

The fact is that their houses are so frail that as soon as a fire 
starts it spreads with the greatest rapidity, and the main 
work of the firemen, aided by citizens, is in denuding a house 
of everything that can be stripped from it : partition-screens, 
floor mats, and the ceiling, which is of thin cedar board. It 

^^ seems ridiculous to see 

them shoveling off the 
thick roofing tiles, the 
only fireproof covering 
the house has; but this 
is to enable them to 
tear off the roofing 
boards, and one ob- 
serves that the fire then 
does not spring from 
rafter to rafter. The more one studies the subject the more 
one realizes that the first impressions of the fireman's work 
are wrong, and a respect for his skill rapidly increases. I 

Fig. 534 


saw for the first time a new type of fire engine belonging to 
the police department mounted on a two-wheeled cart with 
hose attached and coiled on the engine. It draws water and 
plays a good stream. The engine is taken from the cart and 
manned by six or seven men. It is a recent adaptation from 
a foreign model. Figure 533 represents one going to a fire, 

Fig. 535 

and as the firemen run along the streets they howl like cats. 
Figure 534 represents firemen hanging out the names of en- 
gine companies who saved the building as it stands. 

Shortly after this fire another one occurred and as the wind 
was blowing with violence I ran to it. I made another at- 
tempt at a sketch, but with such a moving crowd of people 
jostling each other and me, and with other interruptions, a 
poor drawing was made (fig. 535). The quiet way in which 
the sufferers of these calamities take their misfortunes is in- 
teresting; not a face that is not amiable and smiling. It is 
curious to see women cry at the theatres and yet be so stoical 


at the complete destruction of their dwellings in a conflagra- 
tion. With their belongings they erect a sort of wall made 
out of partition-screens, a bureau, and mats standing up, and 
behind these the family are gathered; fire is in the hibachi 
and water is being warmed for tea, and a little bonfire en- 
ables them to broil a fish or to make a little soup, and in the 
open air, which is not cold except in winter, they seem just 
as happy as ever. 



For some time I have been getting dredges, jars, and 
other things together for a trip south. The University allows 
me to go earlier than the summer vacation and will pay all 
expenses of the expedition. We are to dredge in Kagoshima 
Gulf, Nagasaki, and Kobe, and as the fauna is semi-tropical 
much new material will be obtained for the University 
Museum. We left Yokohama for Kobe on May 9, 1879. 
The discomforts of the voyage in a rough sea and a head wind 
may be left unchronicled. We were in sight of land during the 
whole trip, though I saw little of it. Leaving on Wednesday 
night we reached Kobe at three o'clock Friday afternoon. 
As soon as the steps were lowered, I landed in a little boat 
and rushed to a hotel for something to eat, and after that I 
took a stroll about the town. The town is backed by high hills; 
the streets are rather narrow, and the shops differ in no re- 
spect from those of Tokyo. The women seemed to dress their 
hair a little differently from those farther north, but I could 
carry away no idea of its arrangement and I was too tired 
to attempt a sketch. The children are certainly much pret- 
tier than the Tokyo children; a more refined cut of features, 
a clearer olive complexion. They all bang their hair in the 
most pronounced style, and this is an old Japanese custom 
and not adoptecf from the foreigner. The jinrikishas were 
a little more clumsy-looking than those in Tokyo, and the 

Fig. 536 


men seemed stouter and better-looking. The lantern is hung 
at the base of the shaft and not carried in the hand as in the 
north. A few beggars were seen, but they are not insistent; 
a mild type, so to speak. The drays in the streets have two 

solid wheels and are dragged by long 
ropes, one or two men balancing the 
load behind. I did not hear a man 
grunt or sing in pulling the loads, as 
they do so energetically in Yokohama. 
The ox-teams are odd-looking affairs; 
one wheel in front and two wheels 
behind, and the ox has a saddle to 
which the shafts are attached. It seems strange in a dis- 
tance of three hundred miles to see so many differences in 
habits and customs. 

I managed to run behind a jinrikisha and get the style of 
hair of a grown woman; the bows are much smaller than in 
Tokyo and are flattened against the head (fig. 536). The 
dressing of the children's hair is mark- 
edly different from the style in To- 
kyo. Figure 537 shows the style for 
little girls eight to ten years old. 
These were hastily sketched on the 
street, a difficult matter as you walk 
along, because they watch you so per- 
sistently that you get no chance, and if they find that they 
are the subject of the sketch, instead of some object down 
the street, they hastily run away. 
At Kobe the hotel stands near the water, and from my 

Fig. 537 

KOBE 131 

window I managed to get a sketch of a Japanese junk un- 
loading (fig. 538). These vessels will rapidly disappear, as 
the Japanese are now building after foreign models. A fifteen- 
minute walk from the hotel brought me to a glen remark- 
able for its beautiful cascades, reminding one of certain spots 
in the White Mountains. It was impossible to sketch the 

Fig. 538 

scenery, but what impressed me was the exquisite rustic 
bridges, the charming little tea-houses perched upon the 
edges of precipitous points, and the gayly dressed girls invit- 
ing you to a cup of tea. 

My party consisted of my assistant, Mr. Tanada, the ser- 
vant also, and Professor Yatabe's servant, Tomi, who is very 
skillful in collecting plants and neatly pressing them. My 
servant is as good in collecting shells, and Mr. Tanada looks 
after everything and acts as interpreter and translator be- 
sides being a good collector. On our way back from the falls 


we collected a number of shells, among them a species of Pupa, 
the first I have seen in Japan, which reminds me of a Philip- 
pine species. As we entered Kobe again by an obscure street, 
the poorest quarter, we passed a row of houses, and by look- 
ing through the gloom of these dark hovels I could see the 
little sunlit gardens beyond, indicating that even among the 
poorest classes a taste for such things is universal. 

Fig. 539 

In the afternoon we went aboard the steamer bound for 
Nagasaki. From the deck I made a hasty sketch of Kobe 
(fig. 539) with the hills back of the town. These hills are said 
to be not over nine hundred feet high, but the captain of the 
steamer thought they were much higher. The sail was very 
beautiful, but we were to pass through the Inland Sea at 
night, and this is considered one of the most beautiful sails 
in the world. In the night I went on deck at a time when the 
steamer was passing by a great number of Japanese fishing 
boats. The fishermen blew their shell horns as the fishermen 
at home blow their tin horns; having no lights they burned 
shavings of wood which made fitful glares here and there over 


the water. The darkness was impenetrable, and the blasts 
of the horns and the flashes of light kept up till the steamer 
was abreast of the boats, when one after the other the lights 
went out and the noise ceased. So in front was this curious 
racket of many horns with lights flaring here and there, while 
astern not a sound was heard, nor a light seen. It was as if 
the steamer had engulfed them all. The approach of our 
steamer must have been alarming to the fishermen, with the 
dash of the paddle wheels heard afar off and the danger of 
collision approaching nearer and nearer. As it dashed by 
with whistle blowing, with the splash of the wheels, with the 
steam, the smoke, the lights, and the tremendous waves 
marching in echelon from the bow, and the thoughts of the 
dire results of a collision with such a monster, — the very 
passing of it was an alarming experience. 

The next morning it rained hard and everything was ob- 
scured. At two o'clock in the afternoon we passed through 
the Straits of Shimonoseki, and the thought of the great 
wrong inflicted on these people by the four great nations in 
the bombardment of the forts and town and the subsequent 
robbery of $3,000,000 exacted as an indemnity made me 
ashamed of the so-called civilized races. 1 Figure 540 is a 
hasty sketch of the town of Shimonoseki. It rained so hard 
and was so thick during our short stop in the Straits that I 
could get only hasty outlines looking toward the Inland Sea 
(fig. 541). 

At seven o'clock in the evening we started again and 

1 Years after, the United States alone returned its portion of the indemnity, as 
an act of justice which the Japanese fully appreciated. 


passed out of the Straits and into the ocean once more. 
Densely foggy and with some sea on, we were to sail all night 
along a coast studded with rocks and islands. Among the 

^^l&t;* v^J5^ 


Fig. 540 

passengers was a Catholic bishop with whom I had an inter- 
esting talk. He was a Franciscan priest when he came from 
Paris nineteen years ago; since then he has been made a 
bishop and had attended the great encyclical council at 
Rome. He had a fine-looking head and great, sympathetic 
eyes. I asked him how many Catholic converts there were 
in Japan after his nineteen years' work with so many other 
priests laboring in the same field, and he thought there might 
be 20,000. Reducing this number a few thousand on account 

Fig. 541 

of his enthusiasm, I tried to compute how long it would take 
to convert the 33,000,000, and on the whole how much better 
the efforts of conversion would be among the sinners of his 


own people in whose language he could appeal, and to those 
who may have remembered a mother's prayer. Moreover, in 
this way the manners and behavior of foreigners who came 
in contact with the Japanese might leave a more favorable 
impression in the treaty ports. The bishop was a trained 
scholar; he was fluent in English, French, and Japanese, and 
of course Latin was like a mother's tongue to him. I asked 
him the amount he received, and he said twenty dollars a 
month. The priests are paid ten dollars a month. They get 
contributions from France for their schools and Sisters of 
Charity, and are very saving, even walking instead of riding. 
It is true they are unmarried and have only themselves to 
support. The Protestant missionaries get a thousand dollars 
a year, and if married fifty dollars extra for every child born 
to them. I told the bishop I was in irreconcilable antagonism 
to his church, but he nevertheless smoked with me and did 
not break into tears out of simple kindliness of heart at my 
awful doom when he bade me good-bye. But what a wonder 
and a force is this great Church, and how united and power- 
ful it is when a Catholic can find his Church with identical 
service and belief in every part of the world! How much 
more effective the Protestant churches would be if all the 
various branches could unite in a few simple acts of devotion, 
dropping all the petty dogmas that now separate them! 

Up early the next morning to see our approach to Nagasaki. 
How strange were the headlands and the little islands off the 
coast rising out of the water in grotesque shapes. The shores 
are all mountainous, and most of the hills and mountains are 
terraced to their very summits. Crops of corn, wheat, and 

Fig. 542 


rice in horizontal patches are seen in every direction. The 
novelty and beauty of it all are indescribable. Figure 542 

is of one of the odd projections six- 
teen miles from Nagasaki; it is one 
hundred and fifty feet high. A nar- 
row opening is seen through the cen- 
tre and the fissure springing from it 
extends to the top. That shown in 
figure 543 is farther off, but is marked on the chart as two 
hundred and fifty feet high. 

For the first time I saw the flying fish. The first two were 
flying near together, and I mistook them for birds trying 
to fly out of the water, as ducks appear when they first rise. 
I could hear their fins strike the wa- 
ter, or possibly it was the caudal fin 
which was rapidly swinging back and 
forth and appeared like a peculiar 

tail feather. I did not realize that they were flying fish until 
they disappeared. The actual flight of the animal was un- 
questionable. Eagerly I watched for the next one, and for- 
tunately it arose directly under the bow and flew a distance 
of at least five hundred feet, first in a straight line, then just 
before dropping into the water curving gracefully. It flew 
very rapidly at precisely the same height above the water, 
about a foot and a half, and with the most exquisite grace. 
The steadiness of the flight reminded me of that of a dragon- 
fly. I had no idea from the descriptions that it was such a 
beautiful sight. 
We anchored in the harbor of Nagasaki at eight in the 


morning, and I hastened ashore to make an official call on the 
Governor and to explain the object of our mission, which was 
to dredge in the harbor and surrounding waters and to col- 
lect material for the museum of the Imperial University. To 
facilitate our work it was necessary to secure a good room for 
a laboratory. In less than an hour a large room was found for 
us in the custom house. 1 We got our dredges, ropes, cans, bot- 
tles, and other material unpacked and I found time to visit a 
local exhibition. 

May 13. We did some great dredging. Our boat's crew con- 
sisted of two men and a woman who sculled as vigorously 
as the men. Hereabouts the women work at all the things the 
men do — lugging coal, loading vessels, and rowing boats. It 
was difficult to concentrate on the work at hand, as my eyes 
continually turned away from the dredging to the magnificent 
views — the long bay hemmed in by high hills, green with 
foliage from the water to the summits, and the little houses, 
temples, shrines, hidden in the trees, with flights of stone steps 
leading up to them. I was pulling up with my dredge tropical 
shells, echinoderms, crustaceans, and forms unfamiliar to me, 
yet it was hard to turn away from the contemplation of such 
beautiful vistas to bury my head in the mud of the dredge. 

In the afternoon we went down the harbor shore collecting 
at low tide, turning over large stones and getting many inter- 
esting species of shells. We had a boat's crew of three men, 
who joined in our efforts as if they had always been collectors. 

1 I mention this incident to show the prompt and businesslike way of the Japa- 
nese official, for everywhere I have had the same experience. 



No one who is not a collector can realize the delight of pick- 
ing up rare tropical shells of species entirely new to him. We 
worked till dark and came back with a strong wind astern. 
To-morrow we are to have a larger boat with four men to scull 
and are to go down the harbor several miles. 

Let me record here briefly that Nagasaki has narrow streets, 
most of them paved with long rectangular stones over which 
jinrikisha wheels roll very smoothly. The oxen have long 
strings of bells hanging down on their flanks, and as they walk 
along the sound reminds one of the jingling sleighbells of New 
England; ten times louder, however. The people of Nagasaki 
by their long association with foreigners are not so polite as are 
the inhabitants farther north. They are not rude, but there is 
no "thank you," and but little bowing, and when I thank 
them in a shop for showing me anything they look astonished 
as if they had never been treated civilly by a foreigner. The 
little experience I have had here shows me that the foreigners 
are sharp and severe with their Japanese servants, speaking 
sternly to them and scolding them for the slightest fault. The 
jinrikishas are of a new type, the covering 
resembling an old-fashioned sunbonnet. The 
boys call after you "Horanda san!" "Hor- 
anda san!" It means "Hollander Mr." 

The children's heads are shaved in a pecu- 
liar style, as may be seen in figure 544. They 
have the appearance of being influenced by 
the Chinese. 
Figure 545 shows a farmer going to his 
work carrying a plough on his shoulder. It is dragged by a 

Fig. 544 



single bull. The point is tipped with iron and the plough is 

typical of the region, for there are many types of ploughs in 

different parts of the country. 
Figure 546 illustrates a 

stone wall peculiar to Naga- 
saki. It is made of round 

worn stones brought up from 

the beach and laid in white 

mortar, smoothed carefully, 

and a coping of roofing tiles 

completes it. The smooth 

stones make a wall difficult 

to climb. The kinds of walls 

and fences in Japan are in- 
numerable and one could 

make an interesting study of 

fences alone. 
May 17 we walked across the peninsula to Mogi, a distance 

of seven miles, taking the dredge, ropes, seines, etc., on a 

horse's back. The road was 
paved the entire distance 
with rocks and stones, smooth 
enough in some places and in 
other places very rough. We 
first climbed a very steep 
hill. Most of the narrow path 
was of rough stone steps, and 
FlG * 546 it w r as interesting to see how 

the horse walked up these steps, and we met bulls coming 

Fig. 545 


down. We overtook a bull with his cumbersome pack, a man 
as usual leading the creature. The path was narrow and 
muddy and the bull with his burden filled the entire path. 

Fig. 547 

At one place the bushes on the side were not so thick, and I 
managed to get ahead by jumping rapidly and darting along 
the gutter, but the suddenness of my approach and my big 
white sun hat frightened the bull, and the creature began to 
dance and kick, and the driver was scared out of his wits; he 
jumped as if the mountain was falling on him. It was amusing 

to hear his amazed utterances 
and protestations long after 
we had passed him. 

Most interesting features 
are the terraces held up by 
huge stone walls and marking the landscape everywhere. 
These walls sustain level patches of land for cultivation, the 
irrigation coming from a mountain stream and the water 
running from terrace to terrace. The sides of these other- 
wise barren hills resembled a garden, a city park in fact. 

Fig. 548 

Fig. 549 


We at last reached the village of Mogi and found our way to 
the principal inn. Figure 547 is a sketch of a few houses oppo- 
site the inn close to the 
water's edge. The tide 
being out we rushed to 
the shore to collect. 

Figure 548 shows a 
stone-arched bridge on 
the road to Mogi. In 
the village the road is 
bordered by a high stone 
wall, and as I followed 
along this wall to find 

an open space to the shore, I passed through a school yard 
where the boys were out at recess and were all flying kites 
from the wall. They all looked at me intently, and when I 

got by they began shout- 
ing in unison, "Horanda 
san," "Horanda san." 
The village of Mogi is 
hemmed in by high hills 
as shown in figure 549. 
The bluffs along the 
shore beyond Mogi are 
so curiously shaped that 
one wonders if these 
strange features are due to volcanic agencies. Certainly 
denudation has left mountain outlines of the most extra- 
ordinary shapes (fig. 550). 

Fig. 550 


As in Catholic countries one sees symbols of the Church 
along the road, so in Japan one sees Buddhistic symbols and 
shrines everywhere. Along the shore at Mogi were stone 

shrines, the doors being 
of stone, and before 
these the fishermen 
pray. Figure 551 rep- 
resents two of these, 
the tallest being three 
feet high. 

On a bridge crossing 
a creek in the village a number of boys were flying kites, in 
some cases from the ends of long bamboo poles. By such 
means a breeze could be reached, and an easier hold on the 
kite was secured (fig. 552). The bridge looked very unsafe, as 
there were no side rails. 

We returned to Nagasaki, and after packing up the results 
of our day's collecting, we flung ourselves on the mats, tired 
out. The steamer was to sail for Higo and Satsuma Sunday 

Fig. 551 

Fig. 552 


night, so all day we were ashore collecting and packing up 
dredges and other material. The mail did not get in from 
Yokohama when expected and we had to go without it. We 
left the shore at midnight in a small boat to board the steamer 
which lay out in the harbor. It rained torrents and it was 
darkness impenetrable, and it seemed impossible that our 
little Japanese boatman could find his way. As soon as we 

^ - 

Fig. 553 

boarded the steamer we got to our berths completely ex- 
hausted. The next day it rained. We were off the shores of 
Higo at noon and anchored at a distance of five miles from 
the shore, as the water was so shallow. As the vessel was to 
stay all the next day to take on a cargo of rice, we all landed 
in a heavy rain and collected along the rocks lining the shore, 
getting drenched to the skin. We had to walk six miles along 
a narrow river in a narrow and very muddy path to the village 
of Takahashi, where we were to spend the night. The river 


boatmen stared at me as I passed, and even discovered us long 
before they reached us. They continued to look till we were 
out of sight, though they were all very civil and polite. 

Figure 553 is a rough sketch of Takahashi from our inn. 
The houses border the river and there is a grove of bamboo on 
the opposite bank. Figure 554 shows a street in Takahashi, 

Fig. 554 

narrow and muddy. We took a boat down the river to the sea, 
and as the tide was up collected from the piles of shells near 
the fishermen's huts, getting many fine specimens in perfect 
condition. Imagine my amazement upon finding on one of the 
refuse piles a large number of the shells of the large green 
Lingula anatina! The animal had been used for food, and I 
ran around like a maniac to find somebody who could tell me 
where they were dug. I soon learned that they were dug at 
low tide and were a common article of food. Here was the 



creature that alone had brought me first to Japan, and for 
the moment I felt like abandoning everything to devote my 
whole attention to this ancient worm. However, that would 
not do, but I shall come back to this place after the Satsuma 
work is over. 

When we left the Higo coast a fisherman came alongside, 
and in the boat, among other crabs and shrimps, I got a hun- 
dred specimens of a curious crab with 
the two posterior pairs of legs ap- 
parently out of place and turning 
upward from the thoracic region. At 
last I found one covered by a circular 
bivalve shell (Docinia), the function 
of the two little claws being to hold 
it on the back (fig. 555). The back 
of the crab has a grotesque resem- 
blance to a human face, and there is 
a legend connected with this, which 
the fisherman endeavored to tell me. 1 

As has been mentioned, the foreign traveler in Japan never 
fails to notice the innumerable ways in which the bamboo is 
utilized, not only in the most delicate devices, such as the 
sticks of a fan, but in water conductors for a house. Figure 
556 shows a dipper made entirely of bamboo and composed of 
three pieces, the water-holder, the handle, and the pin ; solid, 
durable, and light, and probably costing a cent. 

1 This crab is known as Heike gani, and in the valuable work of Joly entitled 
Legends in Japanese Art, it is recorded that Heike gani are tiny crabs to which at- 
taches a curious legend verging on superstition: they are popularly credited with 
being the ghostly remains of the Heike warriors killed at the battle of Dan-no-ura by 
the Minamoto (Genji) in 1185. For additional details see the above work, p. 115. 

Fig. 555 


The steamer was all day getting the cargo of rice aboard, 
which came out in lighters in the peculiar bags of matting so 
characteristic of Japan. This delay gave me an opportunity 
to sketch the distant mountains. The entire coast of Higo 
is extremely mountainous, as will be seen by a few sketches 
here given. It is volcanic and is considered very danger- 
ous to navigation, as hidden 
rocks and sharp peaks are 
met with. The mountains 
are not over four thousand 
or five thousand feet high, 
those near the coastline 
being perhaps fifteen hun- 
dred to two thousand feet. 
I managed to draw a fairly 
accurate outline of the 
mountains as seen from the steamer. 

As we sailed along the coast there was a grand panorama of 
mountain scenery. As we got farther south many mountains 
seemed to rise directly from the water's edge, nearly all of 
them volcanic, many of them having smoking craters or steam- 
ing sulphur springs. In figure 557 an idea of the mountain 
ranges is given. As we reached the coast of Satsuma the 
mountain scenery still continued, but the mountains seemed 
more precipitous and the rocks near the shore more jagged 
than those farther north. Figure 558 gives an idea of the char- 
acter of these mountains and crags along the Satsuma coast. 
Figure 559 shows the appearance of Nomagasaki as we ap- 
proached it going south — a remarkable series of craggy peaks. 

Fig. 556 

Fig. 557 

Fig. 558 

Fig. 559 
1 Figure 557 (a, b, c) represents a continuous range of hills. 


This promontory we rounded as we approached the entrance 
of Kagoshima Bay. Figure 560 represents an isolated peak 
rising from the water at the southern end of Satsuma. 


Fig. 560 

While our steamer was taking in its cargo of rice yesterday 
a Japanese junk was lying alongside and I had a good oppor- 
tunity to sketch her. The curious stern with a deep recess, 
in which the huge rudder plays, the square rail behind, 

and other details ma'ke 
the vessel unique in 
its way. Figure 561 
is a stern view of the 
vessel, and figure 562 
is a view looking at 
the stern from inside, 
showing how the place 
is utilized ; the tiller has 
been removed. Among 
the details is a little 
charcoal stove or hi- 
bachi for cooking, and 
a little cupboard with sliding doors which represents the 
cook's galley. 

Some of the junks are ornamented with delicate carving. 
Figure 563 shows the design on the bow, cut into the wood, 

Fig. 561 

Fig. 562 


the lines wide and deeply cut and colored green, but beyond 
this there is not a touch of paint or stain on the whole vessel. 
The woodwork is of 

immaculate cleanliness 
and one always sees 
some of the crew scrub- 
bing. Many of the pas- 
senger junks are pret- 
tily ornamented with a 
variety of diaper in geo- 
metric patterns. Some 
of the old junks ap- 
pear quite grand after 

you get used to their odd appearance. They are said to be 
very unseaworthy and having no keel they cannot keep up 

to the wind; as a 
consequence these 
vessels sail near the 
shore and rush to 
cover on the ap- 
proach of a storm. 
The Satsuma fish- 
ing boats, which are 
said to sail very 
fast, are odd-look- 
ing craft with their 
sails of varying 
Figure 564 is the roughest sug- 

Fig. 563 

height from bow to stern 

gestion of their appearance. The sides of the vessel are 


lumbered with oars, nets, poles, etc., and as they sailed rapidly 
past us I could get only the hastiest idea of them. There 
are three masts, the middle one being held up by the other 
two in some mysterious way. The primitive and even flimsy 
way in which the sails are rigged is remarkable, and yet they 
never seem to come down unless they are pulled down. 

At dark I went to bed, but lay awake to see our entrance 
into the Bay of Kagoshima, lat. 31°. At midnight, I was on 

deck again, but a far more in- 
teresting sight than the entrance 
to the Bay was the phosphores- 
cence of the sea. It was start- 
ling in its brilliancy, and what 
was very remarkable, the dim 
and ghostly outline of every fish, 
big and little, was clearly de- 
fined by the phosphorescent material they stirred up. I hung 
over the bow to see better this wonderful exhibition. A shark, 
like a ghost, went beneath the vessel, a skeleton fish with a 
spectre-lit path, every turn and dodge dimly outlined. Some 
fish darted away from the vessel's side like a rocket, leaving a 
straight shaft of light; other fish would get confused and re- 
turn. So clearly were the fish depicted and illuminated that 
an ichthyologist would have been able to identify every one. 
At a distance I noticed a sharp line of light in the water which 
I supposed was the shore, but the shore-line was far beyond. 
As we neared the line I saw that it was a dense mass of the 
phosphorescent material bordering some current in the sea 
and consisting of the embryos of marine worms, jelly fish, and 


the like. As the boat surged through it the effect was inde- 
scribably beautiful. It illuminated our faces as we looked over 
the side of the vessel. The light was literally dazzling, and yet 
the color was a light sea green. It reminded one of the bril- 
liancy of a Geissler's tube, and after we passed it, as the suc- 
cessive waves of the steamer's track reached it, brilliant flashes 
of light came out from the dark waters. This is the first time 
I have seen the tropical phosphorescence, and it seems impos- 
sible that it has ever been described with exaggeration. 

Fig. 565 

It was soon daylight and the scenery was so beautiful that 
it was impossible to go down to our hot, close cabins. We 
landed in a small boat from the steamer at six o'clock. The 
scenery about Kagoshima is magnificent. Directly in front 
of the town, and not far away, there rises from the waters 
of the Bay a grand mountain with its peak shrouded in mist. 
This is the famous Sakurajima, or Cherry-tree Island (fig. 
565). Figure 566 is an outline of Sakurajima yama, opposite 
Kagoshima, sketched from Tarumizu on the west coast of 
the Bay, eight miles south of Kagoshima. Looking across 
the Bay to the west a very high volcanic peak, known as 


Kaimondake, having the symmetry of Fujiyama, forms an 
imposing feature in the landscape. The slope as represented 
is no doubt too steep, but that is the way it appeared to me 
(fig. 567). Back of the city low hills arise. 

Fig. 566 

In the midst of these charming surroundings it was exas- 
perating that our itinerary allowed us but this one day, as 
the steamer returned to Nagasaki early the next morning. 
The city itself, newly built, is bounded along the water by 

Fig. 567 

an immense stone wall. The houses are poor and very cheap. 
The entire city was reduced to ashes in the Satsuma rebel- 
lion two years ago, and the people are poor, the streets muddy 
and treeless, and many of the houses were still temporary 


shelters. It was bombarded by the English ten or twelve 
years ago to avenge the killing of a bumptious Englishman, 
who, despite the warning of his friends, insisted upon in- 
truding himself upon a procession of the Daimyo of Satsuma 
on its way to the Capital. That foreigners were naturally 
disliked could be plainly seen by the hostile looks of the men ; 
that foreigners were great strangers I could see by the way 
in which the women and children stared at me. In fact, I felt 
uncomfortable during my stay there, as I was the only for- 
eigner within two hundred miles of the place. This proud 
town was also suffering from an epidemic of Asiatic cholera, 
but we did not learn it till some hours after. We were directed 
to a wretched tea-house where the food was so poor that I 
could eat only the rice. How I longed for a cup of coffee ! 

After this depressing meal I took my assistant and went 
collecting along the shores and sea wall of the town, sending 
the two boys into the hills back of the town for land snails. 
It was hot and sultry, and in our collecting we came across 
piles of garbage and refuse of the town, a most unusual sight. 
We got many fine specimens of a peculiar bivalve and also 
some carrion-eating snails. We got a great many Auricula, 
Melampus, and one Truncatella in the refuse piles. The stench 
was dreadful, and I wondered at it, as Japanese towns are 
generally so clean. On our way back we went to the telegraph 
office, and there saw posted up in Japanese a warning notice 
which read, "Cholera is now prevalent; be careful"! I must 
confess I felt uncomfortable the whole day knowing how I 
had exposed myself overhauling garbage heaps on a nearly 
empty stomach, compelled to live on Japanese food of the 


poorest quality, and so thirsty all the time that I had to drink 
water once in a while. 

I called on the Governor of the Ken and told him the ob- 
ject of my visit, and he detailed a very pleasant Japanese 
officer as an assistant for me during our brief stay. He also 

found us a clean, pleasant 
place to spend the night. 
At noon he had a boat en- 
gaged, with a crew of four 
naked men, who not only 
sculled vigorously, but 
took an interest in the 
dredging and helped pick 
over the dredging ma- 
terial. The Satsuma boat 
is the most efficient boat 
of its kind, — one of the 
fastest I have yet seen, 
and as clean as a kitchen 
floor when that is clean 
and dry. The forward end is wrought out of a single block 
of wood, as shown in figure 568; a plan of the boat is shown 
to the right in outline. We dredged till dark and got many 
good things. 

The next morning we were to go down the Bay ten or 
twelve miles to dredge and collect along the shore. The offi- 
cer selected by the Governor to accompany us described to 
me a deposit of shells high up on the land which the people 
were burning for lime, and from his description I decided it 

Fig. 568 


must be an ancient shell heap. We were up at four o'clock, 
and after getting things together we started down the Bay. 
A long row — for there was no wind — brought us to a very 
picturesque place, Mototarumizu, on the eastern side of the 
Bay. The government officer landed with me, while Mr. 
Tanada and the servant started off dredging. Foreigners 
never come here, and the inhabitants turned out en masse 
to see me as I passed through the little fishing villages bor- 
dering the shore. I recall a delicious drink of water from a 
mountain stream. We walked nearly three miles round the 
shores of the Bay to the supposed shell heap. It was indeed 
a shell heap, but not an artificial one, for it was a huge de- 
posit of beach-worn shells. An upheaval of the coast within 
comparatively recent times had placed them at a consider- 
able elevation above the water-level. Darwin, in his "Voyage 
of a Naturalist," describes similar upraised beaches at Go- 
quimbo, in Chile. It was a further indication of the volcanic 
character of the country as shown by the mountain contours. 
The walk had been of the greatest interest, for all the old- 
time customs prevailed; children stopped their play and 
bowed to me politely; men and women suspended their work 
to bow as I passed; and these bows were as politely returned, 
for practice had made me an adept in the Japanese form. 
We met men on horseback with saddles and stirrups in the 
Japanese style; everything purely Japanese. In passing a 
back yard I noticed the typical well-sweep of New England 
(fig. 569).* 

1 Though the sketch has been reproduced in Japanese Homes, I cannot refrain 
from again presenting it. 


Afrude sort of stable is shown in figure 570. In Japan the 
horse, instead of going into the stall head first, is always 
backed in. 

On our return to the landing-place we stopped at a gentle- 
man's house to examine some old pottery. The officer had 

told the people that I 
was greatly interested 
in old pottery, and so 
I had a chance to see 
many curious objects. 
Figure 571 represents 
an old Korean cup, six 
inches in diameter, the 
design inside so odd 
that I sketched it. I 
have never seen the pe- 
culiar rake or bench in 
Japan. I was given for 
the University Museum 
a curious oviform jar, fourteen inches high, with a fillet of 
clay around the biggest diameter; it was of coarse, red clay, 
thick and heavy, and unlike any of the pottery found farther 

After a charming time over the old Korean and Japanese 
pottery we started off again along the shore, as the tide was 
out, and I had the delight of seeing alive for the first time a 
number of tropical species of shells, Cypraea, Conus, Murex, 
and an exquisite little Bulla, During the day the breeze died 
out, and we were delayed for hours. The Governor had in- 

Fig. 569 

Fig. 570 


vited me to dinner at six o'clock, but it was nine o'clock be- 
fore we got back to the landing-place, and had it not been 
for a spanking breeze 
which came up it 
might have been mid- 
night. I jumped from 
the boat and ran to 
the inn for dry stock- 
ings and a clean shirt, 
and hurried to the 
Governor's house with 
the officer who had 
accompanied us, and 

my assistant. We were shown into a beautiful room, large 
and spacious. I was in my stocking feet, of course. As I 
walked into the room the Governor came forward and greeted 

me cordially, and I 
did not detect the 
slightest impatience 
in his manner at my 
lateness, though it 
was nearly ten o'clock. 
He had a wonderful 
collection of chrysan- 
themums in his gar- 
den, and these were 
illuminated by hundreds of lanterns. He then showed me 
a number of old Satsuma and other pieces and expressed 
his amazement several times that a foreigner, whose inter- 

Fig. 571 

Fig. 572 


ests were supposed to be in other directions, had learned to 
distinguish so quickly the Chinese, Korean, and Japanese 
pottery. At ten o'clock we were invited upstairs to dinner. 
There were six in all, and the dinner was 
in foreign style in compliment to me, 
though, as I had got used to Japanese food, 
I should have enjoyed it more if it had 
been Japanese; as it was, I showed my 
appreciation by eating heartily. The only 
mouthful I had had since four o'clock in 
the morning was two sweet potatoes with 
a little coarse and dirty salt. 

One of the gentlemen was full of fun, 
and before we were half through dinner began to play some 
odd tricks with his hands. I managed to do all of the things 
that he did except bend my fingers back to my arms. I then 
showed them the trick of making the hands go round in op- 
posite directions, and finally the right hand going faster than 
the left hand. It was laughable to 
see the desperate attempts they all 
made to accomplish the trick, and 
not one was able to do it. 

I then asked permission to bor- 
row a sword for a moment. This 
was brought to me wrapped in silk. 

Knowing the dignity and ceremony involved in unsheathing 
the sword I apologized, turned slightly away, and drew the 
sword with the cutting edge toward me. The trick consisted 
in grasping the handle with one hand and the scabbard near 

Fig. 573 

Fig. 576 


the handle with the other, the backs of the hands down, and 
then withdrawing the blade, turning both hands completely 
over, and sheathing the sword to the hilt. Not one could get 
the sword parallel to the sheath; it was generally 
at right angles. 

I showed them a number of tricks on the floor 
that I had learned as a boy in a country academy, 
and what with the sake and the games we had a 
delightful time. The Governor gave me the Satsuma 
bottle he drank from. It was made especially for 
him many years before, but he said it did not hold 
Fig. 577 enough. Figure 572 is a sketch of it with the deep, 
box-like tray that accompanies it. It will be ob- 
served that the deep wooden tray has openings 
on opposite sides through which to draw the 
cloth in cleaning it. 

At two o'clock in the morning we had to say 
good-bye and all expressed the pleasure they 
had enjoyed. We hurried to the tea-house in 
the dark, packed up the results of our day's 
collecting, and started for the steamer just as 
day was dawning. We heard the anchor be- 
ing weighed and clambered aboard with the 
steamer just starting. I had been on my feet 
for twenty-four hours, had dredged, had walked 
eight miles in a broiling sun with almost noth- 
ing to eat, and now found myself so tired out 
that I dropped on the hard deck and fell sound asleep. 

I learned in some way that my mail from America, which 


I had missed at Nagasaki, had been forwarded overland to 

Kagoshima, but it was impossible to wait for it, as the 

steamer had to sail on schedule time, and so I was missing it 

again. Orders, however, had 

been left at the Post-Office to J^^ZS ^ ^j fe^- 

return it to Nagasaki, where I Fig. 579 

was to be for a week or more. 

Before entering another region of Japan there are a few 
observations to record. Every place seemed to have its pecu- 
liar type of jinrikisha, and Kagoshima is no exception. Here 
the shafts are bent in a curve over the head of the man so 
that the transverse piece is over the man's head, and one 
wonders why it does not bump him. The sketch (fig. 573) 
gives a faint idea of this jinrikisha. The back and sides are 
gaudily painted and lacquered and pictures of dragons and 
other mythological subjects and heroes also embellish the 
back of the vehicle. A peculiar type of plough is used in the 

Fig. 580 

grain-fields of Satsuma and Higo (fig. 574). The iron shoe 
and shearing piece seem light and feeble, but the plough en- 
counters no boulders in the ground. It is drawn by a single 
horse, and though primitive in construction seems to do its 
work well. 


The country abounds in stone-arched bridges, many of 
them old, some of them of considerable size, and all pic- 
turesque. It seems curious to see so many arched bridges 

and not one of the arches 
having a keystone, such an 
important element in a bridge 
Fig. 581 as we consider it, yet the 

Japanese have never seen the 
necessity of it. To us their arch looks imperfect and inse- 
cure. However, I have never seen one showing weakness 
and there is no reason why it should. It forms a pretty 
feature in the landscape — rivers and even little brooks 
spanned by stone arches, lichen-covered with age. A little 
narrow creek in Kagoshima was spanned in one place by 
three stone-arched bridges connecting with as many little 
footpaths (fig. 575). 

Not only are well-sweeps of the old New England type 
seen in Satsuma, but in some cases the well is inside the 
house and the well-sweep stands outside, as a 

in figure 576, which represents a bathhouse in 

It is interesting to see how promptly the Japanese turn 
to bamboo for little devices. For instance, the other day, 
while dredging, I found that a pair of long iron forceps had 
been left behind, but my boy immediately took down a slen- 
der bamboo flagstaff from the boat, cut off one joint, and 
soon made a fine long pair of forceps which I found not only 
very serviceable, but light to handle (fig. 577). 
There are several types of anchors. An iron form with four 


recurved hooks is shown in one of the sketches of junks. Fig- 
ure 578 shows another type. It is made of wood, and the 
weight consists of two pieces of stone lashed to a transverse 

In Higo and Satsuma, and probably in other portions of 
Kyushu, they use pottery beads, or cylinders, two inches 
long, on the breeching-band of the harness, this device per- 
mitting the rope to rub up and down without friction. These 
are strung alternately on the rope which goes over the flank 
of the horse and are glazed yellow and green (fig. 579). In 
Yezo round wooden beads are used in the same way. 

A few sketches of headlands are given: in figure 580 the 
entrance to the Bay of Kagoshima; figure 581, off the Higo 
coast, with stratified rocks dipping to the south; and figure 
582, rocks on the west coast of Satsuma, known as "fifty- 
foot rocks," as they are said to be fifty feet in height. The 
stratified rock I had not seen so well defined before. 



The sail from Kagoshima to Shimabara Gulf was delight- 
ful. The sea was as smooth as a millpond, with not the slight- 
est swell even, and I was able to write a good deal in my jour- 
nal. The next morning the vessel anchored off the mouth 
of Takahashi River; not nearer than five miles, however. In 
the mean time a strong breeze had sprung up and a heavy 
sea was smashing against the side of the vessel. I knew how 
safe the little Japanese sampan was, for I had dredged from 
them many times, yet I felt somewhat anxious as I saw the 
boat dancing up and down by the side of the steamer. We 
had great difficulty in getting our luggage aboard, and then 
had to make a flying leap from the steamer's steps which 
had been lowered for us. However, we landed safely, and 
having ascertained all about the position where Lingula 
might be dug I left my boy and Tomi, as we call him, to give 
their whole attention to collecting all the Lingula they could 
find and all the seaweeds, and I pushed on with my assistant 
to Kumamoto, nearly four miles inland. 

We called on the Governor at the castle, a fine-looking old 
gentleman who had provided for us a good Japanese dinner, 
which we greatly enjoyed. The Governor showed us about 
the castle and told us about the siege two years before, when 
for six weeks the castle was besieged, many of the buildings 


burned down, many citizens and soldiers killed, and the city 
of Kumamoto laid in ashes. The Governor was in his castle 
and the rebels made special efforts to destroy the building 
in which he was supposed to be. The buildings were battered 
and in many places were the marks of bullet holes. It was 
interesting to see the animation of the old man as he described 
his experience. 

And here, before I forget it, I must record the fact that 
nearly ninety-nine out of a hundred intelligent people I have 
met in our country confound the phases of the moon with 
eclipses. The captain of our steamer, an Englishman, had 
no conception of the matter till I explained it to him, and in 
the discussion I found that he knew nothing about the laws 
of gravitation and had an idea that we were held to the earth 
by the pressure of the atmosphere ! I cannot spend the time 
recounting our discussion, but here was an English captain 
navigating a steamer, and knowing thoroughly the coast 
with its hidden rocks and sandbars, yet utterly ignorant of 
the simplest facts in astronomy. He asked me, though in 
an abashed way, if Darwin lived in the days of Aristotle (for 
he seemed to know that name and that he lived centuries ago), 
or was of the present time ! 

To return now to the Governor I told him the objects of 
our work, and he offered to send an officer to accompany us, 
as I intended going to Yatsushiro, thirty-four miles south. By 
this time it was late in the afternoon and we were very tired, 
yet we took a long walk around the outskirts of the city. 
Here, as at Kagoshima, and at other places, the absorbed 


way in which every one looked at me showed how rare was 
the sight of a foreigner. 

That evening the officer sent by the Governor came to 
our inn and a delightful gentleman he proved to be. Such 
profound bows as he made, and I could not help laughing at 
myself to find how natural it seemed to me to be kneeling on 
the floor and bowing again and again till my head repeatedly 
touched the mat, and I had even acquired the curious sipping 
sound in drawing the air into my mouth. 

The next morning we were off at five o'clock, and after a 
long, tiresome jinrikisha ride of twenty-four miles over the 
roughest of roads came to Onomura, where I found the shell 
heaps I had been looking for. The road passes through them 
and they are at least five miles from the sea. The deposits 
may prove to be equal in depth to the shell heaps of Florida, 
at least thirty feet. The solid mass of shells consisted of Area 
granosa, though many other species of shells were found. 

We examined and dug until nearly dark, and then pushed 
on to Yatsushiro, arriving there at nine o'clock at night, when 
we reported to the Governor of the Ken and met a most cour- 
teous gentleman; every movement, every action was that of 
grace and refinement. In the Shogunate his rank was very 
high, but with all his charm of manner there was not the 
slightest trace of affectation. He ordered a merchant to find 
accommodations for us, and this my assistant informed me 
was customary when they wished to do special honor to a 
visitor; instead of letting him go to a public house they open 
a private house for him. What unfathomable lies my assis- 
tant told him about me I did not learn, but in my somewhat 


fatigued condition the hospitality was indeed gratefully re- 
ceived. The house where we spent the night was large and 
ample; the rooms were much higher-studded than in the usual 
house, and spacious. The space between the sliding parti- 
tions and the ceiling had a remarkable carving representing 
long gutters of wood conveying water, for irrigation prob- 
ably; the grasses, supports for the gutters, and other details 
were beautifully made. 1 

The next morning the Governor brought to me as a pre- 
sent four Koda teacups which he said had been made by the 
order of his father thirty-five years before. 
Figure 583 is a sketch of one of them. I 
was delighted to possess them, as I have 
developed a passion for Japanese pottery, 
old and new. He told me he had a large 
collection of tea-jars, and that he would 
bring them to Kumamoto for me to examine. He expressed 
a desire to examine the Onomura shell heaps with us. 

We started for Onomura in a driving rain; we were soon 
wet through and were in that condition all day. We made as 
thorough an examination as possible of the shell heaps in 
the limited time we had. We got many bones, among them 
fragments of human bones as in the Omori deposit showing 
evidences of cannibalism. One human tibia was unusually 
flattened, an index of 50.2, one of the lowest ever recorded. 
Some extraordinary forms of pottery were found ; one shallow 
bowl with unique arrow design (fig. 584). 

Professor Lyman, the geologist, who first told me about 

1 The sketch of this ramma has been reproduced in Japanese Homes, fig. 149. 


the Onomura shell heaps, also described a curious stone coffin 
near the shell heaps. We easily found it. It was a huge stone 
sarcophagus. The end of the cover had been broken and was 
face down, and it was hard to get the villagers to assist us in 

turning it over on account 
of superstitions connected 
with burial. Our jinrikisha 
man, however, had no scru- 
ples, and by digging around 
the stone with a beam for 
a lever we got it turned. 
Figure 585 is a rough sketch 
of its appearance ; the inside 
was cut in panels. It is be- 
lieved to date back a thou- 
sand or twelve hundred 
years. The Governor of Ya- 
tsushiro knew nothing about it, and regarded it with the 
greatest interest. 

The rain continued all day and we were wet and muddy. 
At noon we stopped to take a hasty lunch. The jinrikisha 
men had brought their lunch with them: cold rice, a pickled 
plum, and possibly a little raw fish with the customary shoyu. 
We found a fisherman's hut, a rather poverty-stricken place, 
and humbly asked for rice, and the fisherman and his wife 
politely, and without a sign of being flustered, set about the 
task of getting us something to eat — a dark-colored rice 
and some small dried fish as hard as a bone. There was no 
servile apology for the meagreness of the fare, though they 

Fig. 584 


realized the august presence of the Governor, and had never 
before had an "outside barbarian" beneath their roof; yet 
with simple dignity they did what hospitality required. The 
manners of the Governor were simply exquisite; he ate the 
poor food with an apparent relish and returned bow for bow. 
I cannot find words to describe the way he charmed those 

Fig. 585 

*t<* n 

poor people by his apparent enjoyment of the simple food. 
Had he been entertained by the Emperor with a sumptuous 
feast he could not have shown his appreciation and gratitude 
more strongly. 

While we were eating, some villagers looked in to wonder 
and admire. One of the men told us there was a cave in the 
side of the hill in which were a few pottery vessels. Knowing 
the peculiar form of cave pottery farther north and that the 
caves were burial-places, and that the vessels were placed 


there for offerings of rice, wine, etc., I asked for a brush and 
paper and ventured to draw the outlines of the vessels which 
were in the cave. The Governor showed the drawings to the 
men, and asked them if they were correct. With curious em- 
barrassment they told us they had never seen the pottery, nor 
had their fathers, but their grandfathers had handed down 
the story that when a narrow road had been built on the side 
of the hill the workmen had broken through the roof of the 
cave and had seen the vessels. 

After lunch we had the men guide us to the place. Though 
it was raining in torrents we waded through the mud up a 
steep incline for nearly half a mile, when we came to a place 
where they stopped and pointed over the precipitous side of 
the road where ten feet below was an opening out of which 
the muddy water was pouring like a sluice, and that was the 
entrance! Only a muskrat or a beaver could stem a current 
like that. In looking around for the source of the water I 
found that a flooded gutter beside the road was losing much 
of its water at the place where we were standing. The Gov- 
ernor got permission to dig up the gutter at this point, and 
we came to a number of logs which covered the hole in the 
roof of the cave. Farther up the road the gutter was dammed 
in such a way as to divert the stream over the steep embank- 
ment. The hole was certainly not over two feet in diameter. 

A dozen or more villagers had collected, and generous pay- 
ment was offered to any one who would allow himself to be 
lowered into the cave, but superstitious fear at entering a 
sepulchral vault was so great that not one of them was willing 
to go down. Our jinrikisha men from Yatsushiro shook their 


heads also, and as my assistant did not volunteer there was 
nothing to do but go myself. The Governor endeavored to 
restrain me, saying that mines had been dug there; but if so 
I knew the water must be on a level with the stream outside. 
I got two jinrikisha men to grab my hands and lower me. It 
was as dark as a pocket, and the little light from a rainy sky 
was cut off by the curious and awe-stricken crowd that 
shaded the hole. I stretched out my legs in vain to find some- 
thing to touch, and finally jerked my hands from the grasp 
of the men and dropped into the water nearly up to my 
middle. There was a momentary silence and then shouts of 
horror came echoing down from the opening. I called back 
to my assistant that I was all right, when in agitated tones 
he told me that great poisonous centipedes were crawling 
out of the opening ! I had on my wide-brimmed hat and a 
slippery rubber coat, and what I had supposed to be crumbs 
of earth and pebbles tumbling from the sides of the ragged 
hole were huge centipedes dropping on me ! I stood literally 
in a cascade of the venomous creatures. They were scam- 
pering around the walls of the cave and dropping off from 
the ceiling as frightened spiders will. As I got accustomed 
to the dim light I saw them by hundreds floating in the 
water, and after waiting till the current had drained them 
off I groped around in the sand for the pottery. The sand and 
mud had been accumulating and a deposit two feet or more 
in depth covered the whole floor. It was a hideous experience, 
but my slippery raincoat and broad-brimmed hat saved 
me, for the creatures could not retain a hold and tumbled 
into the water as fast as they struck me. Had I not been so 


excited over the pottery, my loathsome position in this dark 
and noisome cave, crouching in a cascade of centipedes, 
would have horrified me. I got three specimens of the crea- 
tures for the Museum, made a sketch of the wall of the cave 
toward the opening, and then had a rope lowered to me and 
was pulled up. The ground around the hole outside was 
marked with the mangled remains of many centipedes that 
had been crushed as they crawled out. 

With the water dammed above and drained away from the 
cave, I finally induced two jinrikisha men to go down, and 
with hoes they carefully scratched away the sand, and after 
an hour's hard digging discovered four specimens of pottery, 
one perfect, another slightly broken, and large fragments of 
two others. The Governor drew out the sketch, and I heard 
him speak to the natives in wonder that I, a foreigner, who 
had come ten thousand li across the seas, should describe 
precisely the shape of the vessels to be found, which they 
had never seen. The natives looked at me as a foreign devil, 
indeed, and showed much discontent when I took the pottery 
away. The Governor explained that it was to be placed in 
the Museum of the University. Figure 586 shows the ap- 
pearance of the cave looking toward the entrance. The centre 
arch shows the opening into the cave; from the outside, where 
the opening is small, the entrance enlarges to the cave and 
the alleyway is curved as well; on each side within were two 
blind arches. 

At five o'clock in the afternoon we started for a twenty- 
four mile ride to Kumamoto, and a more dismal and weari- 
some ride I never had — raining all the time and the roads in 


frightful condition. I was tired out, and so cold that I shiv- 
ered, so sleepy that it was a struggle to keep awake; and yet 
if I dozed for a moment my head would be nearly wrenched 
off by the jolts of the jinrikisha. I had left Mr. Tanada be- 
hind to pack the pottery and other specimens we had got 
at the shell heaps, and my only companion was the Governor, 
who did not understand a word of English, and my Tokyo- 

Fig. 586 

Japanese — almost a dialect — was nearly unintelligible to 
him. At eight o'clock we hired extra jinrikisha men, and they 
sang the entire way, each one in turn giving a grunt or a note 
uttered at every step. The novelty of jinrikisha men singing 
kept me awake for a while, but even this attraction wore 
away, and when I got to Kumamoto I was more dead than 
alive. The Governor of Kumamoto had ordered a private 
house for our abode, but I was too cold and even sick to ap- 
preciate the accommodation, and having taken off my shoes, 
crept into the house and lay down on the floor in my wet 
clothes and slept like a log. 

The next morning I called on the Governor of Kumamoto 
to thank him for his courtesies and to tell him of the discov- 
eries we had made and of the curious cave at Onomura. He 


then told me that in the castle rocks were some caves. He 
smiled at my impatience to see them, but amiably got up and 
guided me to them. My limited time permitted only the 
briefest examination of them. The openings appeared on the 
side of the cliff; foliage hung down so as to obscure many of 
them, and some were difficult to reach. I entered a few of the 
caves, which were square in shape. In one there was a trans- 
verse partition and in others there were recessed portions in 
the farther end about four feet up from the floor, making a 
ledge on which probably offerings of food were placed. An 
interesting field of study would be an examination of the 
caves of Japan; they are found widespread throughout the 
Empire, and, so far as I know, are mortuary caves. 

In the afternoon I returned to Takahashi and found that 
the boys had done wonders in collecting. I feasted my eyes 
on tubfuls of the big green Lingula, and ate a few of them as 
the natives do. The peduncle only is eaten and I found them 
rather tasteless. 

After reaching the little fishing village at the mouth of the 
Takahashi River, I learned with disgust that the steamer 
would not sail until the next day on account of the threatening 
storm and I therefore spent the rest of the day studying Lin- 
gula, On the mud flats were a number of creatures hopping 
about which I first mistook for small toads or frogs. Catch- 
ing one with difficulty I found they were little fish with an 
extraordinary development of the pectoral fin. These little 
animals gamboled about as if playing with one another. It 
was not difficult to see how Lamarck got his ideas of the result 
of effort in modifying parts, etc. 


The kites at Takahashi were of enormous proportions — 
eight or ten feet square with a stout rope for a string. One 
kite had the same flashing eyes already mentioned. 

On our way from Onomura yesterday we passed a fine old 
tree beyond which was a shrine. It is interesting that every- 
where in Japan, where there is a picturesque view or some 
natural object of interest, a shrine is erected. Figure 587 is an 
illustration of this cus- 
tom. The tree being 
quaint and of interest 
the shrine is erected 
back of it. Here they 
utilize nature to call 
attention to their reli- 
gious duties; in our 
country beautiful scen- 
ery is either hidden by 
huge signs for liver 

troubles, or the landscape is ruined by other vulgar advertise- 
ments. At Takahashi is a camphor tree, magnificent in form 
and size and greatly treasured by the people; its trunk ten 
feet from the ground is eight feet in diameter (fig. 588). 

Looking west from Takahashi across the Shimabara Gulf is 
seen a noble mountain mass known as Onsendake. The tops 
of these volcanic mountains are obscured by clouds most of 
the time, but now and then glimpses can be had and the out- 
lines shown in figure 589 are fairly correct. The steamer that 
carried us to Nagasaki made a hasty trip to the island and 
town of Shimabara, reaching there at five in the afternoon. 

Fig. 587 


It is one of the most picturesque places in Japan. You sail in 
and out among little rugged islands and finally reach the town, 
at the water's edge, and just back of the town rise the rocky 
slopes of Onsendake. We rode through the town a mile and a 

half to a famous inn and ordered a fine dinner consisting of 
a large gasteropod, Rapana bezoar, served in its beautiful shell, 
boiled cuttlefish, fried eel, and rice, — all delicious. On our way 
back to the boat, which was to stop only two hours, we hunted 
for shells, the natives eyeing us with reluctant and unfriendly 
gaze. Here is where the people opposed to the last the landing 


of foreigners, and every look and action betrayed their aver- 
sion to the barbarian. 

I managed to get one little hasty sketch of a stone bridge. 
Everywhere one sees stone bridges, many of them constructed 

Fig. 589 

precisely like a wooden one, but its beams, supports, and rails 
are hewn out of stone, as shown in figure 590. 

At seven in the evening we started for Nagasaki and such 
beautiful little islands as we passed! It seemed like going 
home after the somewhat fatiguing dash we had made in Sa- 
tsuma and Higo. Our steamer was the smallest one I have yet 
traveled in. It was so small and cranky that when I walked to 
one side it would tip in that direction. No wonder the cap- 
tain waited for a few days on account of the stormy weather. 



The next morning we reached Nagasaki, where I was again 
to find European food, a chair to sit in, and a table with a kero- 
sene lamp at which to write. Living in Japan, I notice the 
absence of a table more than I do the food, to which I am grad- 
ually becoming accustomed. To go without coffee, milk, and 
bread-and-butter is indeed a deprivation; but it is awkward 
and painful to sit on the floor to write and draw, and when 
one is tired it is almost impossible. At Nagasaki I remained 

Fig. 591 

several days studying the living Lingula I had brought from 
Higo and also a minute Descina which I had dredged in the 
harbor. Mr. Mangum, the American consul, and his wife were 
very kind to me. They gave me the use of a fine room in their 
house for my microscope, and furthermore insisted that I 
should come to dinner every day while in Nagasaki. As the 
hotel was poor, it was enjoyable to get one good meal a day. 
A river runs through the town spanned by a number of 
stone-arched bridges, some of them very old. Figure 591 
shows the type of these bridges. A form of kite which the boys 
fly from the bridges is shown in figure 592; it is unlike the 
northern kite and the two circles are entirely black. There are 

Fig. 592 


other forms and designs, but the form figured seems the most 

Many of the measures — wet as well as dry — are made in 
the form of a square instead of round. In the dry measures 
for grain a piece extends from one corner 
diagonally to the other corner flush with 
the edge of the measure (fig. 593). Figure 
594 shows the sake measures with conven- 
ient handles and a tub of sake near by. 

Nagasaki is famous for its tortoise-shell 
work. It was interesting to visit the place 
where they made objects of tortoise shell. 
The workmen in every trade sit on the ground, and in this 
place they sat cross-legged, like Turks, and not in the usual 
way already described (fig. 595). It seemed wonderful that 
they could apparently mould and melt together the thin 
plates of tortoise shell. They use ponderous iron, pincers 
which they heat in a furnace (fig. 596), and squeeze the sheets 
of tortoise shell together or make curved or other forms. 

On our way back from Nagasaki to Kobe we again passed 
through Shimonoseki Straits, and came to anchor off the vil- 
lage of Shimonoseki consisting of a long stretch 
of low buildings. I was told that the people 
were very unfriendly to foreigners, and no 
wonder when one recalls the cruel bombard- 
ment years ago by the warships of four Chris- 
tian nations. We desired to land, but were told by the 
Japanese purser that foreigners rarely landed at the village. 
Relying on the uniform courtesy of the Japanese, I was 

Fig. 593 


bound to land, though my passport did not cover the place 
or even the province. I told the purser that it was important 
to get a glance of the shore at low tide in the interests of 
the University. He then permitted me to go ashore in his 

boat. A glance at the shore was 
made, and then I walked through 
the main streets of the town and 
peered into every shop. I could 
readily see that a foreigner was 
persona non grata. I was not treated 
rudely, but was simply ignored. The 
children ran from me as if I were the 
Devil, and one sweet little boy, 
whom I could not resist patting, 
held his breath as if it required the 
greatest courage to endure the caresses of the hated foreigner. 
At Kobe we stopped for dredging for a few days and I made 
various excursions into the country. At the hotel I met the 
surgeon of the British gunboat, who had brought to me at 
Nagasaki a big package of mail. We dined together, and he 
told me some particulars regarding the incident of my mail. 
He said that when the gunboat left Nagasaki for Kagoshima 
Gulf, the commander left word to have mail forwarded to 
Kagoshima. When they reached Kagoshima, they heard that 
a large bundle of mail had arrived and had been sent back to 
Nagasaki overland. They concluded, naturally, that the mail 
was for them, as they knew of no foreigners within two hun- 
dred miles of the place. They had had no letters from home 
for a long time and were all hungry for their mail. On their 

Fig. 594 



way back from Kagoshima, they put in at one place to inter- 
cept the mail, but it had gone by. The next day, farther up 
the coast, while the commander and officers were in the cabin, a 

Fig. 595 

bundle of mail was sent aboard and they all gathered about the 
table in great glee and tore open the bundle; the surgeon told 
me that I would not have been edified if I had heard the com- 
ments upon my name as the commander read over the ad- 
dresses. It ranged all the way from damning me, to inquiries 
as to who in h — 1 I was. 
Every piece of mail to the 
last scrap was for me ! 

While in Osaka we were 
told that there were cer- 
tain ancient mounds in 
the villages of Hattorigawa, 
and Korigawa, about twelve 

miles from Osaka. Our ride carried us across a large plain 
under complete cultivation. As far as the eye could reach 
were innumerable well-sweeps after the typical New Eng- 

Fig. 596 


land style, which were used in bringing up water from shal- 
low wells for irrigating purposes. The mounds were typical 
dolmens such as have been described in Brittany and Scan- 
dinavia: a huge mound of earth covered a long, narrow 
entrance-way leading to a square chamber, ten or twelve feet 
across. We examined them with great interest, and wondered 
how these people, twelve hundred years or more ago, could 
have raised the immense blocks of stone that form the roofs 
of these chambers. 1 

A hasty trip from Kyoto to Nara was through delightful 
woods and charming scenery. It is beyond me to add any 
words to the many descriptions of the charms of Nara. Cer- 
tain memories of the place will last forever : the quiet roads, the 
deep shadows, the deer from the forests tranquilly walking 
through the village street, with the inhabitants, young and 
old, equally inoffensive. Ruskin has somewhere said that he 
hoped the time would come when man would make as much 
effort to make wild animals tame as he now 7 does to make tame 
animals wild; and it is a fact that wild birds and mammals in 
Japan are in many instances tamer than are our domestic 
birds and mammals at home. Nara is the ancient capital of 
Japan, and a spirit of a hallowed antiquity broods over the 
place. One may spend weeks in a study of the grand old tem- 
ples. A marvelous old wooden storehouse perched on high 
posts was built a thousand years ago to preserve the objects 
belonging to an emperor of that time. It is certainly one of 
the marvels of Japan. In this building are preserved the 

1 These structures were described and figured by me in an article, entitled 
"Dolmens in Japan," in the Popular Science Monthly, March, 1880, p. 593. 


household objects and utensils actually owned by the emperor, 
from the simplest hairpin to the finest musical instrument, 
some inlaid with gold; objects of the kitchen, decorative 
pieces, pictures, books, pottery, furniture, clothing, weapons, 
walking-canes, ink-stones and sticks of ink, fans; indeed, the 
entire contents of the palace. To appreciate the marvelous 
character of the collection one must imagine a similar store- 
house in England which should contain the household objects 
belonging to King Alfred. Once a year Government officials 
open the single entrance and examine all the objects to see that 
none have been injured by dampness or other influences. I 
was fortunate in being in Nara during this annual examina- 
tion, and knowing one of the officials was permitted to enter 
the building with them and allowed to make sketches of the 
old pottery. It was interesting to watch the reverent behav- 
ior of the grave officials. All wore white cloth gloves and all 
spoke in a low tone. 1 

The jinrikisha ride from Nara to Kyoto was most delight- 
ful. The road led through dark forests and out again into 
charming, open scenery, and the purest of Japanese life was 
seen. There is no better way of absorbing the beauties of the 
country than in jinrikisha riding. To ride in one is like sitting 
back in an easy-chair, and the speed is just fast enough to fan 
you and yet sufficiently rapid to make you realize that pro- 
gress is being made toward your destination. At one place we 
crossed a river ford, not by going down a deep and sandy em- 
bankment, but by climbing up a gentle incline to ford the river 

1 Within a few years the Japanese Government has published an account of these 
treasures with beautiful illustrations of many of the objects. 


far above the general level of the plains, the river literally 
running on a ridge! For centuries it has been confined to its 
channels, not by digging out the detritus swept down from the 
mountains, but by piling up embankments on the sides, with 
the result that the river-bed is conspicuously above the sur- 
rounding country, resembling a railroad embankment. On 
both sides of the road, as one enters the ford, are stone posts 

Fig. 597 

with deep vertical grooves, and at times of freshets planks are 
fitted into these grooves to keep the water from washing away 
the road. 

Kyoto was approached through interesting surroundings, 
a proper frame for a city of art and refinement, prominent be- 
cause of its varied points of interest. The cleanliness, the so- 
briety, and the artistic atmosphere impress you. A visit to 
the pottery districts — for there are a number: Kiyomizu, Go- 
jiosaka, Awata — was most interesting. Instead of finding a 


rough neighborhood and coarse surroundings and acres dis- 
figured by broken pottery, it was like visiting some of the 
famous studios near Paris. The children in the region, pret- 
tily dressed, bowed politely to us as we walked along. The 
entrance of the potteries was reserved and modest (fig. 597), 
and within we were greeted by the head of the family, and tea 

Fig. 598 

and cake were immediately offered us. It seems that the mem- 
bers of the family alone are engaged in the work, from the 
little boy or girl to the old grandfather, whose feeble strength 
is utilized in some simple process of the work. The output is 
small except in those potteries given up to making stuff for the 
foreign trade (fig. 598), known to the Japanese as Yokohama 
muke, meaning "Yokohama direction"; that is, for export, a 


contemptuous expression. In these cases many outsiders are 
employed, boys ten years old splashing on the decorations of 
flowers, butterflies, and the like, motives derived from their 
mythology, but in sickening profusion, so contrary to the ex- 

Fig. 599 

quisite reserve of the Japanese in the decoration of objects for 
their own use. Previous to the demands of the foreigner, the 
members of the immediate family were leisurely engaged in 
producing pottery refined in form and decoration. Now the 
whole compound is given up to a feverish activity of work, 


with Tom, Dick, and Harry and their children slapping it out 
by the gross. An order is given by the foreign agent for a hun- 
dred thousand cups and saucers. "Put on all the red and gold 
you can" is the order, as told to me by one agent, and the 
haste and roughness of the work, which is exported to Amer- 
ica and Europe, confirms the 
Japanese that they are deal- 
ing with people whose tastes 
are barbaric. 1 And yet these 
Japanese products are re- 
garded as attractive in our 

As before remarked, one 
sees but few potters at work, 
and every member of the 
family is utilized, from the 
young child, who carries the 
pieces from the thrower to 
the shelves for drying, to the 
old man, who may be blind, yet able to grind the clay (fig. 
599), or to knead clay with his feet (fig. 600). I had to 
ask a good many questions regarding the work and history 
of the Kyoto potteries, and was told that in order to get 

Fig. 600 

1 A year afterward I noticed a parallel case in this country. At Minneapolis I was 
invited to inspect a large department store. On one of its floors was a vast array of 
tables crowded with objects made of hard rubber: combs, bracelets, breastpins, 
cheap jewelry of such atrocious vulgarity that I was forced to inquire as to the people 
who bought such stuff, as I had never seen such shocking things worn by the poor- 
est creature. The answer was that they were made for the Northwest trade — 
probably mongrels and half-breeds, as no true savage would endure them. But 
where were they made? I inquired. In Attleboro, thirty miles from Boston! 


these interviews a little money present in advance would 
facilitate matters. It seemed odd enough and rather mer- 
cenary to send in advance a dollar or more to secure the 
desired information, and yet what right has one to intrude 
on a busy man without offering some compensation for the 

Fig. 601 

time demanded? I realized, furthermore, that in our coun- 
try men, even millionaires, were too busy to attend direc- 
tors' meetings unless a ten or a twenty dollar bait were held 
out as a proper compensation. The results of all these inter- 
views, which inquired into the history and origin of the pot- 
ters, the number of generations, impressions of the various 
stamps used by the different families and generations, were 
got by patient and laborious inquiries through an inter- 
I made many hasty sketches of the ovens, which are built 


after Chinese models. 1 The ovens are built on a hillside, each 
oven eight to ten feet in length, six feet high, and three feet 
in width, and they are placed side by side, one behind the 
other. Figure 601 will illustrate the arrangement. They 
are one compact mass of brick and mortar. The ovens open 
at the end and communicate with each other by openings. 


Fig. 602. Ovens of Rokubei 

Fire is kindled in the lowest oven and the heat from this 
passes through each oven in turn till it issues through rude 
chimneys in the upper one. By this device all the heat is uti- 
lized as the current of heat rises to the last oven. After the 
first oven has been heated sufficiently, fuel in the shape of 
long slender sticks is thrust into the second oven through a 
little hole in the bottom, and then into the third, and so on, 
till all have been sufficiently heated and the pottery com- 

1 These were not so strongly and compactly constructed as those I afterwards 
saw some forty or fifty miles back of Canton. 


pletely fired. This is ascertained by test objects which may 
be observed through an opening in the upper end of each oven. 

Every Sunday Ninagawa has come to my house to identify 
the pottery I have collected during the week. One day I 
actually abducted him, carrying him in my jinrikisha, against 
his protestations, to a photographer, and had his picture made, 
the first and only one he ever had. Ninagawa was a Kyoto 
man, and his sister still lived in the old homestead in Kyoto, 
which was over three hundred years old. He gave me a letter 
of introduction to her, and with a copy of his photograph I 
visited her, and her delight at the picture of Ninagawa en- 
abled me to make a study of the house, inside and out. 1 

Most of my time in Kyoto was spent at the various pot- 
teries and from the more famous ones, Dohachi, Kichizaemon, 
Yeiraku, Rokubei, and Kitei, I made a large addition to my 
pottery studies, getting from them a history of the families 
of the past generations, impressions of their pottery signa- 
tures, etc. 2 

From Kyoto we went to Osaka again. Here a Japanese 
student, Mr. Ogawa, whose acquaintance I had made in 
Tokyo, desirous of entertaining me, and not realizing that 
I had become accustomed to Japanese food and enjoyed it, 
invited me to a Japanese restaurant to have what was sup- 
posed to be food cooked and served in foreign style. The 
Japanese make excellent cooks when properly taught. I had 
had experience in a Japanese foreign restaurant before, but 
of all abominable stuff the Osaka attempt was the climax. 

1 Sketches of the house and garden are given in Japanese Homes. 

2 This information is given in my Catalogue of Japanese Pottery, published by 
the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 

Fig. 603. A Potter making Flowers in Relief in a 
Recessed Panel on Vase 


Fig. 604. An Artist decorating Pottery 
Observe the kerosene oil lamp 


Every dish was a travesty, and I wondered how the Japanese 
were impressed when, out of curiosity, they attempted our 

Cholera was very prevalent, and one had to resist the temp- 
tation to eat of everything raw, such as grapes and other fruit, 
and green things of various kinds. Moreover, not a swallow of 
cold water could be drunk. Tea, tea, tea, morning, noon, and 
night, and on every possible occasion. Speaking of tea, how- 
ever, it is one of the pleasant features of Japan that wherever 
you go, friend's house or shop, tea is offered you. No matter 
how poor and humble the place, this courtesy is never omitted. 
But we must realize that preparing tea as they do is a very 
simple act, and it is drunk without cream or sugar. Along 
the road are little resting-places at intervals where a tray 
with tea and a few rice cakes are offered you, for which it 
is customary to drop in the tray a coin the value of a cent. 
You give a public lecture, and instead of the customary 
pitcher of cold water and a glass, a tray with a teapot and 
cup is placed upon your desk. At the University one man's 
whole duty is to prepare tea for the teachers, and at inter- 
vals throughout the day he brings to your laboratory a tea- 
pot of hot tea. The tea is very mild, but always refreshing. 
For centuries the Japanese have realized the danger of 
drinking water in a country where the sewage is saved and 
utilized on the farms and rice-fields. 

A very attractive feature seen in the paper shops are the 
envelopes and writing-paper. The envelopes are of compara- 
tively recent origin, having been adopted from abroad. For- 
merly there was, as with us before the invention of the 

Fig. 605. Potter making Toy Houses 

The potter rolls the clay into thin sheets, cuts the sheets into desired shapes and 
unites them with wet clay 

Fig. 606. Potter applying Liquid Glaze to Pottery 


envelope, a definite and formal way of folding a letter. The 
writing-paper is in long rolls, six inches or more in width. 
The writing is in vertical lines and the lines begin at the right. 
The writing is done with a brush, the India ink being rubbed 
for the occasion. The roll forms the support upon which one 
writes, beginning at the free end. As line after line is written 
the paper is unrolled, and when the letter is finished the strip 
may be five or six feet in length. It is then torn off and loosely 
rolled up again, flattened by the fingers, and slipped into the 
end of the envelope, which is a little longer than the roll and 
two inches or more in width. The envelopes, and often the 
paper, are made attractive by pretty designs in color, the 
paper with the lightest suggestions of cherry blossoms, petals, 
pine needles, and even entire landscapes, all subdued in color 
so that the writing is not interfered with. The envelopes have 
more pronounced designs, generally around the margin so 
as not to interfere with the address. One is amazed at the 
infinite variety of designs. Many subjects are derived from 
foreign objects, some of them prosaic to the last degree, yet 
rendered attractive by these facile artists. Many of the de- 
signs are enigmatical unless one is familiar with the folklore 
or mythology of the Japanese. Others reveal their meaning 
at once, as a steaming teapot in the foreground, and in the 
distance a railroad train or a shaft of lightning and a telegraph 
pole, indications that the origin of the discoveries of steam 
and electricity is understood. 

My colleague, Professor Mendenhall, has lately been in- 
terested in the speed of movements made by insects and 
snails. By carefully measuring the time made by a large 


species of snail, he found that it covers a mile in fourteen 
days and eighteen minutes. He also estimated the speed of 
a common species of ant, and found that in ordinary walk- 
ing the creature moved at the rate of one mile in one day 
and seven hours. These estimates are rough approximations. 

The Japanese remember sacredly the anniversary of a 
parent's death and observe it with appropriate ceremonies. 
Even the anniversary of a grandparent's 
death is remembered and observed, 
fresh flowers and fruit offerings being 
placed before the gravestone. The Bud- 
dhists also have a stated festival for the 
dead. A curious form of lantern (fig. 
607) is made for the occasion, and pic- 
tures over two hundred years old show 
the same form of lantern. 

A brief visit again to Osaka gave me 
an opportunity of visiting a few of the 
many places of interest. In this great 
city is one of the largest bronze bells 
in the world ; and an ancient Buddhist 
temple containing a gilded Buddha, said 
to have been brought from Korea a 
thousand years ago, and many other features of interest. 
Alluring as all these places were I realized that they had 
already been described in guidebooks or special memoirs, and 
throughout the keeping of this journal I have endeavored to 
sketch and record only those trifling matters so often over- 
looked by the student and traveler. 

Fig. 607 


No one should visit Osaka without inspecting the ruins of a 
famous castle built by Hideyoshi in 1583. These ruins stand 
on a high elevation, and in its time the castle must have been 
well-nigh impregnable. In its second siege in 1615 it was over- 
thrown and burned, and the rounded edges of the huge blocks 
of stone of which the walls are built attest to the intense heat 
of the conflagration. I was permitted to roam about at pleas- 

Fig. 608 

ure, and no one objected to the sketches I freely made. Figure 
608 represents the highest portion of the castle; figure 609, 
the outer wall. The large block in the centre is thirty-five 
feet in length and ten or more feet in thickness and height. 
The stones were brought from distances of fifty to a hun- 
dred miles in vessels, and the gigantic size of some of them 
baffles the imagination as to how they were quarried, and it is 
still more inexplicable as to how they were transported and 
dragged up to the high plateau on which the ruins stand. 


These enormous stones were put in place without steam der- 
ricks, hydraulic devices, or other of the appliances of to-day, 
and yet the ancient Egyptians were performing similar mir- 
acles twenty-five hundred years before. One hardly associates 
colossal structures with the Japanese after becoming familiar 
with their diminutive houses and gardens, the dainty dishes, 
and the delicate and tiny objects associated with their life, and 

Fig. 609 

yet the Osaka castle is a marvel in the gigantic structure of its 
walls. There are many instances of huge and ponderous struc- 
tures, as the giant bells in Kyoto and Osaka, the Dai Butsu 
in Kamakura and Kara, and the great stone tori-i, but with 
the exception of the old castles and castle walls and the great 
temples, which tower above the dwellings as the cathedrals 
dominate everything in Europe, the structures are usually 
diminutive and delicate. 

An exhibition of natural products and manufactures was 
going on at Osaka, and it was filled with objects of various 
kinds. The remarkable character of the people was seen in the 



great number of devices which they have adopted from Amer- 
ica and Europe. The ability of a nation not only to recognize 
immediately the convenience and usefulness of a device, but 
to proceed to its adoption and manufacture, is an indication 

Fig. 610 

of the long civilization of the people. Only a high civilization 
is capable of doing this; the savage and the barbarian are in- 
capable of it. At the exhibition were the remains of a boat 
dug up near Osaka. The portion preserved was thirty-five 
feet in length, four and a half feet in width, and two feet in 
depth. It was made in two parts interlocking, with the wood 
wrought into the bottom in such a manner as to leave trans- 
verse loops through which a bar passed to hold the two parts 
together. It was very much decayed and the details of its 
structure were hard to make out (figs. 610, 611, 612). It was 

Fig. 611 

supposed to be over a thousand years old. It is curious that 
a boat divided into two portions may be seen to-day in Kago- 
shima Bay. (Fig. 568, p. 154, vol. n.) 


The mosquitoes are a great scourge in Japan. The big, 
square, box-like netting, already described, enables one to sit 
inside with table and lamp, and in this way in summer and 
fall I have been able to write. 

Fig. 612 

My children early adopted Japanese dress as being much 
cooler in summer than their own form of dress. Many of the 
Japanese teachers in the University, while adopting our form 
of dress, as more convenient than theirs with the flowing 
sleeves and skirts, nevertheless find their own dress much 
cooler in summer and warmer in winter, and always wear their 
native costume during hot and cold spells. 



Have been hard at work preparing examination papers for 
my class in zoology. This forenoon, I spent four solid hours in 
examination, and I pitied the students, for during the whole 
week they have stood examinations in chemistry, geology, 
paleontology, and botany. These examinations are all in Eng- 
lish, a language they have fully to acquire before entering the 

General Grant, on his way around the world, is now in 
Japan with his wife, son, and Mr. Young the writer. The 
Americans in Tokyo and Yokohama gave a dinner and recep- 
tion to him at Uyeno Park. I paid my subscription, but had 
no special desire to go, having no time for such affairs. My 
friends, however, urged me to do the proper thing, and so re- 
luctantly I attended the dinner. I was presented to General 
Grant in turn with a long string of others, and despite my prej- 
udice admired the quiet, dignified, yet easy tone of his voice. 
My daughter, who was with me, greatly enjoyed the affair. 
General Grant spoke to her while she was standing near a 
doorway, took hold of her hand, and introduced his son to her 
with some witty remarks about his little boy, who was a six- 
footer, big and robust. My prejudices, due to the infernal 
slanders of our newspapers, were promptly swept away when 
I watched the man. As others had brought their boys to the 
reception, I got away quietly and hurried to Kaga Yashiki in 


a jinrikisha, and had my boy, nine years old, awakened from a 
sound sleep, dressed, and hurried to the reception, that he 
might remember in after years that he had seen the great 
General. 1 At the dinner General Grant did not touch a drop 
of wine of any kind, and the stories of his intemperate hab- 
its, I was told, were gross exaggerations. His reception at the 
College of Engineering was of the greatest interest. The royal 
princesses in their archaic, yet beautiful court costumes; mem- 
bers of the Chinese Legation in their curious and rich clothing, 
with their white, conical hats with red horsetail plumes pend- 
ent; the Koreans in their quaint garments, ceremonial belts, 
and unique head-dresses; European officials wearing their 
decorations — were all new and interesting to me. A number 
of teachers from the Nobles' School, with a class of forty 
young girls, were very attractive, They were all beautifully 
dressed and excited much admiration from the foreigners, of 
whom there were many. In the Japanese dress as seen in 
masses the soft, harmonious colors and graceful folds form a 
striking contrast to the dress of foreign ladies. I know of no 
more perfect illustration of the artistic character of the people 
than the grace and beauty of their clothing in strict harmony 
with their short stature, and their jet-black hair wonderfully 
arranged and ornamented. The contrast is immediately rec- 
ognized when they attempt our costume; their appearance is 
sometimes shocking. The charming group of little girls and 
their teachers stood near the centre of the hall in an innocent, 
bewildered sort of way, somewhat abashed by the admiration 

1 Later by a fortunate coincidence, we returned to San Francisco on the same 
steamer with General Grant and he taught my son how to play chess. 


they excited. I got a Japanese to guide them to where General 
Grant stood with others in receiving. Later I noticed that no 
one helped them to the ice-cream and cake, so I got a Japanese 
to assist me in bringing them refreshments. They were all 
sitting in a row on the mats against the wall, and it was diffi- 
cult for them to hold the plate of ice-cream and cake in their 
hands, and crumbs of cake naturally fell on the floor. A drop 
of the melting cream would drip on their beautiful crape 
dresses, and they would laugh and carefully remove the drop 
with paper they carried with them. This paper was crumpled 
up and stowed away in their pocket-like sleeves, and when 
they finally got up to go the mats were carefully scrutinized 
and every crumb gathered and wrapped in paper to be thrown 
away later. It was a revelation to me to realize that children 
of nobles were taught such behavior. 

I was invited to give a course of four lectures at the Nobles' 
School, which only the children of nobles attend. Count 
Tachibana, the Director, was a most charming man, and pa- 
tiently answered a hundred inquiries I made. Among other 
questions I asked him if the Japanese were ever demonstra- 
tive in meeting after a long absence. I was led to ask this by 
observing that the Japanese greeting seemed cold and formal, 
no hearty handshake or hearty embrace. He told me that it 
was not uncommon for Japanese nobles after a long absence 
to greet each other with an embrace, and he, putting his arms 
about my shoulder to illustrate, gave me an affectionate hug. 
I may add that later I asked a dear little boy (now a distin- 
guished lawyer and at one time Councillor of the Japanese 
Embassy in Germany and in the United States), who called 


me his "American papa," if his father never took him in his 
arms on meeting him after an absence. "Never," he said. 
"But how does he show his affection?" "He shows it in his 
eyes." And afterwards I was present when his father, from a 
distant town, came to my house and greeted the boy, his eyes 
showing parental love in the tenderest manner. 

The Nobles' School is a huge, two-storied, wooden building 
with a front of two hundred feet or more, as barny and inartis- 
tic as many of the structures the Japanese have erected after 
foreign models. At the ends are wings running backward a 
hundred feet or more, and the enclosed ground space between 
these wings is utilized in making a great map of Japan: the 
ground built up like a relief map with mountain chains, rivers, 
lakes, etc., the lakes filling with water and the water running 
in the rivers when it rained; the top of Fuji painted white to 
represent snow; short green grass for the levels and actual 
rock for the mountains; and towns and villages indicated by 
little tablets bearing the names of the places. The ocean is 
represented by little gray pebbles which, reflecting the rays of 
the sun, glisten like water. Across this beautiful and instruc- 
tive area black wires are stretched to indicate the degrees of 
latitude and longitude. It was a pretty sight to see little girls 
daintily walking across the pebbles to point out the town or 
village in which they lived. The main island of Japan ran 
across the area diagonally, and was over a hundred feet in 
length. It was designed with the delicacy and precision which 
characterize all Japanese work and was in a perfect state of 
preservation despite the fact that it was in a school yard 
of hundreds of pupils. Again I could not help surmising in 


what condition a similar device would be in a school yard at 

It was in this school that I learned for the first time that 
even the children of nobles dressed in the simplest and plain- 
est of clothing. They were no better dressed than the school- 
children of the public schools from the primary to the high 
schools, though this plainness of garb was in no way a school 
uniform. My attention has slowly been drawn to this sim- 
plicity of clothing of school-children no matter of what grade 
or class, and here at the Nobles' School I got an answer to my 
query. Asking of Count Tachibana an explanation of this 
method of simple dressing, he said it had always been the cus- 
tom in Japan for wealthy families to dress their children 
plainly when they attended school so that the poor children 
would not be ashamed of their own clothing! The same in- 
quiry was afterwards made in the great commercial city of 
Osaka, with the same reply. 

My last lecture at the Nobles' School was attended by 
members of the Imperial family as well as by many nobles and 
their families. Nobles indeed they were in their simplicity and 
courtesy. The unaffected charm of manner was beyond ex- 
pression. It was an interesting experience, and though awk- 
ward at first, in that I had to lecture through an interpreter, 
I finally got used to uttering a sentence at a time which my 
interpreter, Professor Yatabe, repeated in Japanese. After 
this last lecture a regular course dinner was given in our style, 
and it was excellent. There were three hundred and fifty at 
the dinner, and I quietly observed their movements and be- 
havior. The subdued conversation, the modest acknowledg- 


ments, the bows and concessions, were all marked by extreme 
simplicity and exquisite refinement. 

I received an invitation to lecture before Mr. Fukuzawa's 
famous school. Among the many distinguished men I have 
met in Japan, Mr. Fukuzawa impressed me as one of the stur- 
diest in activity and intellect. I illustrated my lecture with 
objects and drawings on the blackboard and endeavored to 
explain to the students the simple factors of natural selection. 
In every experience of this kind I have noticed how quickly 
the Japanese grasp the points, and I soon realized the reason. 
The Japanese are more familiar with the animals and plants of 
their country than are we with ours; indeed, the familiarity of 
the country boy with flowers, fungi, and insects and the like is 
akin to that of those who collect and study these objects in our 
country. The country boy has common names for hundreds 
of species of insects where our country boy has ten. I have 
often been amazed at his knowledge of structural detail. An 
experience I had with a little country boy will illustrate this. 
I was showing him, with the aid of a pocket magnifier, a pecu- 
liar feature of an elater beetle which when placed on its back 
jumps into the air. One has to examine the structure with a 
lens. It consists of a projection on the last thoracic ring be- 
low, and this fits into a socket on the first abdominal segment. 
The insect bends the thorax and the abdomen dorsally while 
resting on its back; the projection comes out of the socket and 
rests on the edge; and then, by bending the body ventrally, 
the projection rests for a moment on the edge of the socket and 
finally snaps in with a violent jerk causing the beetle to jump 
into the air several inches. Now, I am sure that with us only 


entomologists are familiar with this structure; yet this Jap- 
anese country boy knew all about it, and told me it was called 
a rice-pounder, the spur or projection representing the pestle 
and the cavity the mortar. The boy was delighted, however, 
to see this structure magnified with a fine lens. 

After the lecture Mr. Fukuzawa gave me a remarkable exhi- 
bition of fencing by the students. They were all dressed in 
fencing armor. This consisted of a thickly wadded headpiece, 
with lappets protecting the neck and heavy bars of iron in 
front to protect the face, and a stiff jacket with arms and 
shoulders additionally protected by polished pieces of bam- 
boo. The jacket had a skirt of several wadded lappets. The 
foil was made up of slats of bamboo tied together with a han- 
dle long enough for the two hands to grasp as in the long 
Japanese sword. The great blow is directly down upon the 
head, and, with the hands holding the foil vertically, the push- 
ing of one hand forward at the same time the lower hand is 
drawn backward brings the sword down with lightning-like 

The class was divided into two groups of fifty, the leader of 
each class standing back with his retainers protecting him. 
The leaders had tied on top of the hood a disk of soft pottery, 
two and one half inches in diameter, with two holes for the 
string, and the object w T as to smash the disk of the opponent. 
The noise of the clash was terrific; the slats of bamboo made a 
resounding whack, though the blows did no damage. Mr. 
Fukuzawa called my attention to one of the boys who was the 
son of a famous fencing-master. It was wonderful to see the 
dash with which he penetrated the crowd and smashed the 


pottery disk on the head of his opponent. The disk flew into 
many fragments, and one could instantly see the result of the 
combat. Though the boys wore long-sleeved gauntlets, many 
came out of the fray with bruises and bleeding scratches on 
their wrists. 


JAPAN IN 1882 

After an absence from Japan of two years and eight months 
I arrived for the third time in Yokohama on June 5, 1882, and 
again experienced the novelties of sounds, odors, and sights 
which invariably impress the traveler. Doctor William Stur- 
gis Bigelow, an ardent admirer and collector of Japanese art, 
was my companion. It was ten o'clock at night when we 
landed, but nevertheless, we ate a hearty meal after having 
nearly starved to death on the steamer, and despite the rain 
which was falling, started off for a brief walk. Grossing the 
creek near the hotel we sauntered along the narrow road 
known as Homura, bordered on both sides by little shops, 
most of them closed. The people clattering along on their 
wooden clogs, the flickering of lanterns, the curious hum of 
voices within the houses, the odors of tea and cooked food, all 
were as interesting to me as if I were experiencing them for 
the first time. 

We went the next morning to Tokyo and by jinrikisha to 
Kaga Yashiki. As the Ginza and Nihonbashi were torn up 
for the construction of a horse railway, we rode through the 
castle grounds, passing over the moat and along its side for a 
while. As we rode through the Hongo it was delightful to 
see that no changes had taken place. The watch-repairer on 
the corner; the curious little dwarf with no chin; the fish- 
chopper with hisrap-a-tap; the gold-beater w,ith his monoton- 


ous pounding; the cooper and the straw-hat maker, — they 
were all at work as I had left them nearly three years ago. 
Great changes have taken place in Kaga Yashiki. Large sheds 
are erected back of the house Dr. Murray used to occupy, in 
preparation for laying the foundation of the University build- 
ing. Dr. Murray's house has had a large ell added to it, and 
the building is to be a school for foreign music. An old teacher 
of music in the Boston public schools, Dr. Mason, has been 
employed as instructor, and the work he has already accom- 
plished is little short of marvelous. He has worked with de- 
votion with his young pupils and the progress already made is 
incredible. Foreigners find the greatest difficulty in learning 
Japanese music, but apparently the Japanese children find 
no difficulty in learning ours. 

On the steamer coming over I had given three lectures on 
Evolution, raising over fifty dollars for the benefit of thirteen 
shipwrecked Japanese fishermen who had been rescued by the 
United States steamer Pensacola and brought to San Fran- 
cisco. The officers had raised fifty dollars for them and pro- 
vided them with clothing. Dressed in blue, with hats bearing 
the name Pensacola, they were an odd-looking lot. With Mr. 
Tashiro, a Japanese merchant, who came on the same steamer, 
we went to the money exchange and I converted my money 
into Japanese paper currency, getting nearly ninety yen. We 
then went to a Japanese inn where the shipwrecked men were 
waiting to be transported to their native provinces. Mr. 
Tashiro ascertained how many had families. By a tremendous 
feat of mathematics I found that each man could be given 
three yen, each wife two yen, and each child one yen. It was 


delightful to witness the pleasure and gratitude they showed. 
Though the amount was small, it was for each a month's earn- 
ings, or more. 

A quest for pottery showed unexpected conditions, for 
where formerly the bric-a-brac shops were filled with interest- 
ing pieces, now they are scarce; tea-jars, particularly, as the 
cult of the tea ceremony has been revived, and tea-bowls, tea- 
jars, and other utensils have come into use again. Further- 
more, in England and France, the collecting of Japanese pot- 
tery has become a craze, and a few in the United States have 
begun to see the charm of Japanese pottery and even art 
museums are beginning to appreciate these objects. 

The dear little boy, Miyaoka, who bade me good-bye nearly 
three years ago, came to see me to-night and I hardly knew 
him. He was dressed in foreign clothes and had grown to 
manhood. He had lost a little of his English and stuttered 
slightly when embarrassed. When I visited the Museum the 
next morning I found gathered in Director Kato's room a 
number of the Japanese professors expecting me; Professors 
Kikuchi, Mitsukuri, Yatabe, Toyama and Vice-Director 
Hattori. Soon after, Dr. Kato came in. If warmth of hand- 
shaking and hearty voices betoken anything, it was evident 
that they were as glad to greet me as I was to greet them. 
The finest tea in Kutani cups and the best cigars were passed 
around and we had a delightful time comparing notes. All the 
clerks bowed profoundly, the servants smiled a glad welcome, 
and I felt that I had not been forgotten. With Professor Mi- 
tsukuri, who is Professor of Zoology, I entered the old labora- 
tory. My old servant, Matsu, fairly beamed with joy. Mr. 


Ishikawa was working away at some exquisite drawings; Mr. 
Tanada, my former assistant, was on hand looking a little 
older, but was the same faithful fellow. He has charge of the 
Museum, and Matsu has become one of the officers of the col- 
lege with higher pay. 

After looking about for a while we crossed the street to a 
large two-storied building erected since I was here before. 
This was the Zoological Museum. The last work I did before 
I went home was to draw the plans of a two-storied building. 
My plans had been carried out to the letter. Many new cases 
had been built similar to the first ones I made, and I must 
confess to a feeling of gratification when I entered the main 
hall to see a full-sized portrait of myself, neatly framed, hang- 
ing on one side of the main entrance, with the Director's por- 
trait on the other side. The artist who drew the pottery for 
my Omori shell mound memoir had made a full-sized portrait 
from a small photograph, and had certainly got a good like- 
ness. The Museum w T as in far better condition than I had 
expected to find it, though I can see that my help will brighten 
it a little. 

In the afternoon Dr. Bigelow and I were invited by Mr. 
Takamine to dinner at his house at Koishikawa, Mr. Miyaoka 
and his brother, Mr. Takenaka, coming for us to show us the 
way. The house and garden were in pure Japanese style. One 
room only was furnished with bed, high desk, tables, chairs, 
and the like, as Mr. Takamine, a graduate of the Oswego 
Normal School, found our ways more convenient. Among 
other features of interest he had an archery range. I tried 
shooting, but found the bow very awkward, as their method 


of release with the arrow on the right of the bow is so different 
from our method of shooting. He had also a croquet ground, 
and his mother, a sweet old lady, and Takamine's brother 
played. Young Mrs. Takamine is charming and very intelli- 
gent, speaking English fluently. About six o'clock dinner was 
brought in for three, the ladies and boys acting as waiters. 
It was a most delicious dinner in pure Japanese style, and it 
was interesting to see how promptly Dr. Bigelow ate every 
course with a genuine relish. Before we had finished our din- 
ner two beautiful kotos (Japanese harps) were brought in and 
placed on the mats. One belonged to young Mrs. Takamine, 
the other to her blind teacher, one of the most famous koto 
players in Tokyo. Mrs. Takamine revealed herself as a skill- 
ful player. She then brought out a violin, and the blind 
teacher tuned his koto to the scale of our music, the bridges 
supporting the strings being moved up and down the instru- 
ment to bring it in tune with the violin. I wondered what kind 
of an ear-destroying performance was coming, for it seemed 
incredible that Mrs. Takamine should be able to make a true 
note on so difficult an instrument as a violin. I was not pre- 
pared for the surprise that followed, for she played with great 
strength and accuracy "Auld Lang Syne," "Home, Sweet 
Home," and " Glorious Apollo," while the blind teacher played 
an elaborate accompaniment on the koto, such as one might 
play on the harp. Mrs. Takamine played without her notes, 
and the blind player, of course, had never been able to see a 
note! The music was simple enough, but the perfect harmony 
in the performance was what amazed me. Her violin instruc- 
tion covered only forty-seven days. I hardly knew which 


most to admire, Mrs. Takamine playing on a foreign and dif- 
ficult instrument or the koto player changing his instrument 
and playing in a key and scale entirely foreign to him and 
playing in a very elaborate manner. We stayed very late and 
the experience was delightful. 

June 10. At the dry-goods shop and at other places where 
my children used to go I was immediately recognized, and 
inquiries were made for baa san, John san, and Edie san. 
Tatsu, my old jinrikisha man, with his little girl, called on me, 
and the next day his wife came with a present of a box of cake 
from Tatsu. 

June 15. Attended the parting dinner given to Professors 
Netto, Chaplin, and Houghton. The dinner was given in a 
new building at Shiba Park known as the Koyokwan, be- 
longing to a club of Japanese. The rooms are very beautiful; 
wonderful bits of old wood-carving have been worked into the 
rooms in a very effective manner. The dinner was excellent as 
all good Japanese dinners are. Before we were through some 
old Japanese comic acting was introduced, one act being a 
man fighting the spirit of a mosquito. Koto players gave 
some curious music. (I was told by a Japanese that their word 
for music, literally translated, meant " tone pleasure.") After 
dinner the geisha girls danced and sang and the same old jug- 
gler that I saw here three years ago performed his tricks. When 
I came away a box was given me which contained cake and 
candy. The box, eight inches square, was made of thin white 
wood and a little handle to the cover was cut out of green 


bamboo (fig. 613). (I was told by Takamine that the bam- 
boo attained its growth in one year.) 

I called on Ninagawa and it seemed to give him a melancholy 
pleasure to see me. He appeared not a day older than when I 
last saw him. I bought of him one hundred and twenty-seven 

pieces of pottery, many very 
rare. I attended a meeting 
of the Biological Society at 
the University. The society 
has now thirty-eight mem- 
bers. I gave them a little 
talk on changes of fauna. 
Mr. Ishikawa communicated 
some facts regarding pro- 
tective coloring in Crustacea. 
It was interesting to see 
the society which I had es- 
tablished not only in exis- 
tence, but holding its regu- 
lar monthly meetings. 
The University authorities have given me a little house just 
back of the astronomical observatory. The house has two 
rooms, one of which Dr. Bigelow has, and a large closet, and 
accommodations for a Japanese servant and his wife. Back of 
the house is the insane hospital, and we are lulled to sleep by 
the songs of the maniacs, enlivened now and then by the 
shrieks of some cases of acute mania. 

By appointment my old jinrikisha man came for me to take 
me to his home. He was neatly dressed, and though I sug- 

Fig. 613 


gested going in my own jinrikisha, he leading the way, he 
would not listen to it, but insisted upon taking me off in tri- 
umph for a ride of three miles. He has a nice house, given to 
him by his father, who lives in Owari. His wife and child were 
dressed in their best, and cake, candy, and tea were offered me, 
and I endeavored to show 
my appreciation of their wel- 
come. Conversation is diffi- 
cult between persons who do 
not speak each other's lan- 
guage, and so we had to con- 
verse with bows and smiles. 
I was asked to remain to din- 
ner, but excused myself on ac- 
count of other appointments. 
This evening I attended a 
dinner in foreign style given 
by the Japanese professors at 
the Seiyoken. Dr. Bigelow 
was also invited. Imagine 

my surprise and delight when I found that they had invited 
a number of my old friends. There were thirty-two present, 
all Japanese, and as I passed round the room, greeting each 
one in turn, I was glad to find that not a single name had I 
forgotten. One Japanese said that he had been associated 
with his English professor for a year or more and the English- 
man could not call him by his right name yet! It was gratify- 
ing to find that all my old special students were professors 
in the University, or in other colleges, while my old assistant 


is now permanently engaged as an officer of the Museum. 
Professor Toyama made the address of welcome in English; 
Mr. Fujita, of the Hochi Shinbun (newspaper), made a speech 
in Japanese. Mr. Kaneko, in his speech, directed part of it 
to Dr. Bigelow, and the Doctor made his first after-dinner 
speech in return. He urged the importance and necessity of 

Fig. 615 

the Japanese adhering to their own methods of drawing and 
painting. It was certainly the most delightful experience I 
ever had. 

The construction of a house near by gives me the opportun- 
ity to watch every detail of the work. Mr. Greenough, a Bos- 
ton architect, on his way to India, tells me that the Japanese 
way of mortising beams, curious as it is, is no better than the 
method practiced by our carpenters. Certainly the Japanese 
mortising is very complex in design. Mr. Greenough admired 
the way the Japanese use the adze and would like to see more 
of that kind of work in America. The Japanese tools seem 
sharper than ours, and the planed surfaces of the woods are 

(Character reversed on screen) 

Fig. 616 


delightful to smooth with the hands. Dr. Bigelow called my 

attention to the fact that in a Japanese saw the teeth are 

small near the hand, but 

increase in size toward the 

end. 1 The roofing tiles are 

bedded in dark, sticky mud 

which is kneaded into balls 

and is passed up from one 

man to another till it 

reaches the roof (fig. 614). 
A few days ago a Japa- 
nese sword dealer, of whom 

Dr. Bigelow had bought a 

good many swords and sword-guards, offered to bring his 

friends to the yashiki and show the Japanese style of fencing. 
He came accompanied by a number of 
famous fencers and wrestlers. It was an 
interesting sight to see them grouped on 
the grass in front of the house. A long 
white curtain, decorated in black with 
swords and Chinese characters, was hung 
up as an awning, making a protection from 
the oblique rays of the sun (fig. 615). The 
characters and sketch (fig. 616) were re- 
peated on the screen. They fenced with 
foils of bamboo, with spear and sword, 
and with a weapon known as the "chain 
This weapon was used in feudal times, and their 

Details of house construction are given in Japanese Homes. 

Fig. 617 


Fig. 618 


handling of it was very interesting to watch. A peculiar kind 
of wrestling called jujitsu was demonstrated, in which one was 

taught how to kill a 
man in combat with- 
out the use of weapons. 
In this method of wres- 
tling, a weaker man is 
taught how to take ad- 
vantage of the efforts 
of a stronger man. It 
was impossible to get 
any sketches of the 
fencers so rapid were their movements, but a few outlines 
were made of their weapons (fig. 617). The fencers stooped 
opposite one another with their masks 
on the ground. When their names 
were announced they tied on their 
masks (fig. 618) and banged away at 
one another in lusty fashion, keeping 
up a most infernal yelling at the same 
time. These men had come to the ya- 
shiki expressly to demonstrate to for- 
eigners their various arts of fencing, 
and their services were given gratui- 

In making tea, if the tea is choice, 
the teapot is first filled with water hot 
from the kettle. The water is then poured away, and the 
tea is immediately put in, and at the same time the cups are 

Fig. 619 



filled with water. The tea becomes slightly moist in the 
teapot from the steam which remains, and the water in the 
cups is then poured into the teapot, and though lukewarm 
a fine flavor is produced. Care is taken not to pour the tea 
from the canister directly into the teapot, as the steam would 
affect the tea in the canister. It must be taken out with a 
scoop. Even the tea-scoops are dainty bits of art. Figure 619 
represents a few forms. Miyaoka 
while illustrating this process told 
me that if a man had drunk too 
much sake the night before, the tea 
grounds of tea made in this way, 
eaten with a little sauce, was an ex- 
cellent antidote. 

On June 30 I gave a public lecture 
under the auspices of the Biological 
Society in a large hall recently built 
in foreign style and having a capa- 
city for seating fifteen hundred per- 
sons. It was densely crowded when 

I got there. Mr. Ariga acted as my interpreter, and my sub- 
ject was the antiquity of man with a sketch of the evidences 
of his lowly origin. In my audience were several Buddhist 
priests and one Korean. I saw many familiar faces, and it 
seemed like getting back among old friends as they watched 
me with kindly eyes. Many Japanese ladies were present, 
Viscount Tanada and his wife, Ninagawa, and other anti- 
quarians and scholars. Figure 620 represents the ticket of 

&$ <T> <!> <t> 35 2> 3> 2> <M> <!>*J»5 

Fig. 620 


The other night a number of Koreans came to the observa- 
tory with Mr. Dan, who had them in charge. I was presented 
to them collectively, and they immediately bowed and pre- 
sented their cards and we exchanged. The Koreans seemed 
much interested in what they saw and were a fine-looking body 
of men. Their dress was of silk and more like the Chinese than 
the Japanese dress. Their hats, which were tied on with rib- 
bon behind the ears, terminating in a long pendant in front, 
appeared to be made of mosquito netting, but were made of 


Fig. 621 

horsehair, and within could be seen their hair tied in a knot. 
Their language sounded like a cross between that of the Japa- 
nese and Chinese. I talked with them through a Japanese in- 
terpreter who could not speak English, so I had first to converse 
with Mr. Dan in English and he translated my words into Jap- 
anese, and the interpreter converted them into Korean. I also 
talked to them directly with my limited knowledge of Japa- 
nese, for in their residence here they had picked up about 
as much Japanese as I had. They shook hands cordially on 
going away. 

Figure 621 is a rough sketch of the house in which the jani- 
tor of the observatory and his wife reside. My room (fig. 622) 



is about twelve feet square, and in it I have a double bed, two 
trunks, a desk, two bureaus, two chairs, and a washstand. 
The bureaus are entirely covered with pottery, books, papers, 
etc. One may imagine how I am crowded, and yet I enjoy 
having things where I can literally lay my hands upon them. 
Mr. Takenaka, who is a student in the Medical College, 
which is carried on by German doctors, and where the instruc- 

Fig. 622 

tion is in German, is, of course, a good German scholar, but he 
has learned English from his younger brother, Miyaoka. He 
has given me many items of interest. The Medical College 
that he attends has for this year (1882) 1457 students, of 
whom 397 are in the preparatory school; 159 are studying 
medicine and surgery in German; 818 are studying medicine 
and surgery in Japanese; and 83 are studying pharmacy. It is 
really wonderful that the Japanese are so promptly giving up 
the ancient practice of Chinese medicine and adopting what 


their common sense teaches them is based on reason and sci- 
ence — remarkable in the fact that next to one's religious 
belief one clings to one's methods of medical practice, no 
matter how absurd they may be. 

Dr. Bigelow and I were invited to the house of Mr. Kik- 
kawa, whose family runs back thirty generations. Mr. 
Kikkawa was formerly Daimyo of the Province of Suo. He 
has a large estate and five houses near the Meganebashi. A 
large gate was swung open on our arrival and an attendant 
escorted us ceremoniously through certain passages to rooms 
where we were introduced to Mr. Kikkawa and to several 
officers of the household. Then we were led upstairs to a 
beautiful room having that simplicity of detail and absolute 
cleanliness that characterize their house interiors. Mr. Naka- 
wara acted as interpreter. In the recesses of the room were 
most superb specimens of gold lacquer and rare old kakemono. 
The guardian of the family — I suppose one might say the 
steward — was a delightful spirit of the past. Compliments 
were exchanged, and then, on our expressing a wish to see ex- 
amples of ancient swords, one after another was brought out, 
each sword in a silk bag contained in a fine lacquer box on 
which was the crest of the family in gold. The first one shown 
was seven hundred years old and had been used by an ancient 
Kikkawa in beheading some famous opponent. The scab- 
bard was of leather as was also the cord which bound the han- 
dle. Portions of this were reduced to powder by age and this 
powder was wrapped in paper. This scabbard, handle, guard, 
and other parts were laid out on the mats with great formal- 
ity and dignity, and we were invited to examine the blade. 


Other swords were shown us, and such magnificent blades I 
never saw before. The Doctor went wild over them, but this 
enthusiasm on both our parts was suppressed to the last de- 
gree. It was very interesting to see Mr. Kikkawa kneeling in 
an immovable attitude and all the attendants, never for a 
moment forgetting their dignity, speaking in low, measured 
tones with that interrupted and hesitating manner betokening 
the utmost humility and awe. 

We expressed a wish to see a beautiful piece of lacquer in 
one of the recesses. The attendant who brought it rose from 
his knees in one movement, reverently approached the piece, 
knelt down before it, gently took it in his hands, rose again in 
the same manner and with measured step approached us, 
again knelt down, and deposited the box where we could 
examine it. These attendants were all high samurai and have 
their own attendants in Suo, where the Kikkawa family have 
a residence, and at which place they have fine old pottery, 
lacquer, and pictures which will be brought to Tokyo as soon 
as the brick fireproof building is finished. We saw the building 
on entering the gate. 

During our visit servants came into the room at intervals 
bearing in their partly outstretched arms the low bon, or tray, 
containing delicious food. We had a most enjoyable time, and 
realized that we had had a genuine glimpse of one of the many 
interesting features of old Japan. When we came away we 
were given a little souvenir of Suo, consisting of a thin wooden 
box about four inches long lined with gold paper, across which 
was a narrow strip of black cloth on which were pasted seven 
caddis worm-cases (fig. 623) ! These common objects in our 


streams are found in the river at Iwakuni. On the outside was 
a picture of the wonderful wooden arched bridge with a curi- 
ous formula of trusses. 

I was shown through the insane asylum near the house. It 
was interesting to see the same expressions on the faces of 
these unfortunate creatures that one may see in going through 
our asylums at home, — dementia, melancholia, acute mania, 
and other types of mental disease. 

Fig. 623 

We heard the most wonderful music of the flute by a Japa- 
nese court musician. The flute, much larger than ours, was 
made of bamboo, and the number and position of the openings 
were different from those in our flute. The enjoyment for us 
consisted in the delicious contrasts between note after note. 
The notes were long and of exquisite purity. It was a revela- 
tion to us. With harmony one gets these effects in our music, 
but in Japanese music there is no harmony, only melody. In 
the "Oratorio of St. Paul," our leader, Carl Zerrahn, always 
became specially alert in anticipation of a delicious terminal 
note in one phrase in the choral "To God on High." 

On July 2 I attended a public exhibition of the normal 


school classes that Mr. Mason has trained to sing in our meth- 
ods. The exhibition was in the old Chinese college, a fine hall 
with good acoustic properties. Class after class came in and 
sang various selections. The music was our common school 
music, and therefore not very difficult, yet it was amazing to 

Fig. 624 

hear them sing in our way. Their voices lacked the vim and 
snap that are characteristic of our school-children, yet there 
was no doubt that the Japanese could be taught to sing in 
our way; whether it is desirable to engraft our musical meth- 
ods on them is another question. There was piano playing, 
and some of it was remarkably good; also an orchestra of 


violins, clarinet, flute, bass-viol, etc., which played "Glorious 
Apollo," "Angel of Peace," "Men of Harlech," and other 
compositions, and really did very well. Kosaka Sankishi, a 
little boy of five years, scarcely large enough to reach the keys, 
played some simple thing on the piano with remarkable 

skill (fig. 624). His play- 
ing excited a good deal of 
interest, and Mr. Mason 
called him a Japanese 
Mozart ! Figure 625 rep- 
resents him writing mu- 
sic on a black-board as 
Mr. Mason played it on 
the violin. The boy then 
sang it, and it was re- 
markable to see how rap- 
idly he caught the notes. 
He was so small that a 
stool was needed to en- 
able him to reach the 
blackboard, but he was a 
bright little fellow, and when I showed him the rough sketches 
I had made of him he seemed to appreciate them. 

One morning my servant called my attention to a curious 
procession of worms, evidently the maggot of some fly. They 
were transparent or colorless larvae about a third of an inch long, 
having black heads, and being very moist they were adhering 
to one another and were crawling in a long compact mass 
across a smooth walk in front of my room. They glided over 

Fig. 625 


one another, and only in this way could they crawl over the 
dry surface, and in no other way could they protect them- 
selves from the number of little yellow ants that hovered on 
the flanks of the column. Now and then a worm got detached 
from the column and the 

£ Mr 

ants immediately seized the -s&^^^^^^^^^iBmmJ^ 
straggler and dragged it ^ 

away. If the forward end Fig. 626 

of the column was dis- 
turbed, the entire column instantly stopped. I dug a long 
ditch in front of the column, and it was interesting to observe 
the leaders deploy in fan shape to feel for a place to cross. 
Figure 626 shows a portion of the column, which was two feet 
long, and figure 627 shows the head of the column deploying. 
The column made its way slowly to the side of the house and 
then disappeared in a crevice. It was evident that this method 
— of traveling was a means of protection, for an 

ant could not pull away an individual worm 

from the mass. 

July 5, I was invited to give a lecture before 

the Japanese Fish Commission and had an 
Fig. 627 

audience of intelligent Japanese. One of the 

princes I had met at the Nobles' School was in attendance 
and greeted me very kindly. I spoke of the work accom- 
plished by the fish commissions of Europe and America and 
the success attending the artificial propagation of fish and 
other marine forms. 

Takenaka tells me many items of interest. In mentioning 
some of our proverbs or sayings he matched them with similar 


ones in Japan; thus, "Every little helps, as the old woman said 
when she tried to row a boat with a needle"; the Japanese say, 
"To dip out the ocean with a shell," and also, "To make a 
hole in a mountain with an awl"; and in describing a dense 
crowd in a hall, "There was no room to put an awl to the 
floor." Our saying, "Lock the barn door after the horse is 
stolen," is paralleled by the Japanese saying, "Carry the 
stick after the quarrel." 

In numbering the volumes of their books, besides the usual 
1, 2, 3 the Japanese use other characters. For example, if 
there are three volumes they use the characters for "above," 
"middle," "below"; if there are two volumes, "above" and 
"below"; or for a work of three volumes they may use the 
characters meaning "heaven," "earth," and "man"; two 
volumes may be designated by characters meaning "north- 
west" and "northeast." It is customary in the case of a num- 
ber of volumes to preface the numbering by a character which 
means "roll," as in ancient times the books were in form of 
rolls; our word "volume" has the same origin. The Japanese 
signs of the zodiac are called after the names of animals, as 
with us. The compass is also divided into twelve points with 
the signs of the zodiac; north, being "rat"; east, "rabbit"; 
south, "horse"; west, "birds." There are two intermediate 
points between these greater ones, and for northeast they have 
the name "bull-tiger." 

The Japanese used to have many superstitions about build- 
ing a house that are still believed in by the lower classes. 
Takenaka said that when he was a small boy and the family 
moved to Tokyo, his father consulted a compass and found 


that a certain part of the house was not in the right direction, 
and on account of this he after a while moved into another 
house. This superstition has long been outgrown by the intel- 
ligent classes. It is a common matter when friends meet to 
allude to the last time they met or to speak of a letter they 
may have written to one another. 

A region in Tokyo, known as Asakusa, is famous for its high 
temple and avenue lined with toy shops and curious side- 
shows, and flocks of pigeons which alight upon you. The Doc- 
tor and I visited one of these shows. There was a little room 

Fig. 628 

with seats for thirty or forty persons, and a raised table, be- 
hind which were a number of small cages containing a peculiar 
species of native bird smaller than our sparrow and very intel- 
ligent. The man who exhibited them had the kindest manner 
and a most winning face, and seemed to have the most perfect 
control over the birds. The little fellows were pecking away 
at their cages impatient to come out and go through their 
tricks. Some of them were remarkable. One wondered how 
they could have been trained to do such things. 

I made the most hasty sketches, which will, nevertheless, 
present a better idea of the tricks than any descriptions could 


do. In figure 628 the cages stood open opposite each other, a 
foot apart, and a little toy horse stood between. In this trick 
one bird jumps on the horse, while the other takes the reins in 
his bill and drags the horse about the table by 
a series of jerks. It was amusing to see the 
prompt way in which the birds came out of 
their cages and went through the trick. In 
another trick (fig. 629) a bird hops up a ladder, 
step by step, to a staging above and draws up 
a bucket with his beak, holding on to the slack 
string with his feet. In the next trick (fig. 630) four birds 
come out of their respective cages, and three of them peck 
away at the drums and samisens which are fixed to little plat- 
forms, while the fourth tosses about some bells and jingling 
affairs that lie upon the table. Of course no music is made nor 

Fig. 629 



Fig. 630 

time, but a lively noise is kept up, and it is interesting to see 
the birds go through their parts so eagerly. 

In figure 631 a bird runs from its cage, mounts a flight of 


steps to a bell tower, and pulls the swinging stick so as to ring 
the bell after Japanese fashion. Figure 632 represents a bird 
shooting with a bow. What he really does is to detach the 
string from a notch in the 
stick which terminates in a 
horse's head (a hobby horse 
which is a common toy for 
Japanese children). The ar- 
row is shot, however, and the 
fan which forms the target 
drops from its support. 

In figure 633 a bird runs out 
and pulls a string, which rings 
a bell in front of a shrine. 

The bird then runs to a box 

, . . . r x . Fig. 631 

and picking coins from the 

table, drops them into the box. In Japanese churches, or 

temples, a number of bells hang suspended above and cords 

Fig. 632 

hang down by them so that they may be struck by means 
of the cord. Worshipers do this when they pray. The con- 


tribution box, instead of being a small affair on the end of a 
handle, passed around once a week, is a huge box, even four 
or five feet long and two feet deep, open above, but protected 

Fig. 633 

by triangular shaped bars just wide enough apart to allow 
the metal coin to drop through. This box stands in front 

of the place of worship year in 
and year out, and a man may 
stand in the street, mutter 
his prayer, and toss his coin 
into the box, often missing his 
mark, as may be seen by the 
number of coins on the earth 

The most amazing trick is 
shown in figure 634, in which a 
bird picks from the table, one 
after the other, three kake- 
mono and hangs them on pegs which are on miniature trees. 
The bird is compelled to jump up on a low roost to reach 


the pegs. To teach a bird to perform such a series of acts 
must have required an infinite amount of patience. In another 
trick a little bird runs up a ladder to a platform and throws 
off a number of coins, one after another, with 
great energy. In still another a bird, holding an 
umbrella over its head, runs up a long ladder and 
walks out on a tight rope; it also picks out a cer- 
tain card and puts a cover on a box. The trainer 
brought out a talking parrot and a 
large parrot-like bird; then, holding 
one in each hand, he made them utter 
phrases alternately, such as, "How do 
you do," "Good-bye," etc., in Japa- 
nese, of course. It was altogether the 
most interesting exhibition of trained 
animals I ever saw. Some of the tricks 
were in line with the natural movements of birds 
in their daily life, such as picking up things, 
pulling strings in nest-building; but how a bird 
could be taught to pick up pictures and hang 
them on appropriate pegs was more than we could 

The Japanese candle is made of vegetable wax, 
and there are a number of varieties; a kind made 
in Aidsu has decorations in color (fig. 635), and 
in some the figures are in relief. The wick con- 
sists of a hollow tube of paper; the candlestick has a barb 
of iron instead of a socket, and the opening in the wick be- 
low allows the barb to fit into it securely. Such a candle- 


Fig. 635 

Fig. 636 


stick, long extinct, was known in England as a " pricket" 
candlestick. The candle is finished above with the wick pro- 
truding and pointed. The economy of this shape is seen when 

the piece of candle burning 
low is taken off the pricket 
and adjusted to the top of the 
new candle, so that not a par- 
ticle of candle is wasted (fig. 
636) . The ordinary candle has 
the same diameter through- 
out, but in some of the finer forms the 
upper part is much larger in diameter 
than the rest and thus lasts longer in 
burning. The lanterns, which nearly 
every one carries at night, burn candles. 
Figures 637, 638 and 639 show sketches 
of various forms of candlesticks. 1 There 
are many forms of portable candle- 
holders, some quite ingenious in design; 
also bamboo tubes with cover, so that 
one can carry candles in his little pack 
done up in a bundle handkerchief. (Fig. 
639 represents fig. 638 folded.) 

A curious form of weather-vane was 
made of a thin sheet of metal in the 
form of a pennant, painted and shaded as if fluttering in the 
wind (fig. 640). 

1 At the Peabody Museum, Salem, is a large collection of Japanese candlesticks, 
some of which are portable and fold up. 

Fig. 638 


July 15. I went to the graduating exercises of the Tokyo 
Female Normal School, and was given a seat on the platform 
in a position where I could see all the exercises. Before going 
to the main hall I saw 
the kindergarten children 
with their pretty little 
games of marching. It 
was a charming sight to 
see a hundred little girls, 
all beautifully dressed, 
their sleeves, in some 
cases, touching the floor, 
and so many with the 
sweetest faces. After this 
performance they went 

into the main hall, where the children marched up the centre 
aisle, keeping step with music played on the piano by Miss 
Nagai, a graduate of Vassar College. When they were seated, 
their various names were called out by one of the teachers, 
and each in turn came up to the platform to receive a pres- 
ent, which consisted of a roll of Japanese 
paper of large size, a stick of ink and a brush, 
done up in the neat way of the Japanese 
present, with the noshi slipped in under the 
cord that held it. When they approached, 
a very low bow was made. On receiving the 
present, which they did with both hands, they raised it to 
their heads, made another deep bow, and backed away to the 
steps. Such little tots came toddling along, and as some child 

Fig. 639 

Fig. 640 


approached, particularly shy in her demeanor, it was interesting 
to watch the pleased and sympathetic smiles of the company, 
from the Prince and Princess, who sat on the stage, to the door 
attendants. It was curious to look over the large hall and see 
such a crowd of black heads, — no light hair, nor red, not 
even a gray-headed one, — all polished black hair beautifully 
dressed with bright red crape and dancing hairpins, and a 
background of attendant nurses standing up and peering 
anxiously to find out the position of their individual charges. 
The smaller children having retired, the larger girls came in, 
and the bright-colored hairpins, like flowers sticking up here 
and there, produced a very pretty effect in the sea of black. 
The larger girls, as their names were called, came up the main 
aisle very slowly and bowed low to the Prince and the Princess 
and the assembled guests on the stage, then approached the 
desk, made another low bow, received the present, which was 
raised to the head in another bow, then slowly turned to the 
left, and went back to their seats. Among these were a num- 
ber that were being graduated, and when they had received 
the folded diploma they retired two steps backward, opened 
the diploma with formality, quietly examined it, folded it 
carefully, and then, holding it in the right hand in a peculiar 
manner, bowed again and retired. 

After the graduating exercises the audience strolled to vari- 
ous rooms where lunch was served in Japanese style. In a 
Japanese room the graduates were served, and as I knew Miss 
Nagai and young Mrs. Takamine, I crossed a garden to the 
room where they were and ventured to join the class. It was a 
pretty sight to see the girls sitting on the mats in two long rows 

Fig. 641 


facing each other, all beautifully dressed and served by a num- 
ber of equally prettily dressed girls. I was invited to drink 
sake with some of them, and many bowed to me whom I 
did not remember having seen 
before. During the exercises a 
few of our songs were sung, 
"Angel of Peace," "Auld Lang 
Syne," the latter particularly 
well; then a Japanese song was 
sung accompanied by three ko- 
tos, three shos, and two biwas. 
This song was sung by the entire 
school. It was started by a young lady striking a long, flat, 
thin piece of wood with another piece of the same shape at 
right angles. The click was sharp and peculiar. She then 
uttered a long, high note without the slightest inflection, as 
a keynote, and the chorus began. The music was certainly 
very weird and very impressive, and with the peculiarly 

sweet accompaniment and curi- 
ous rhythm, gave me an impres- 
sion of the merit of Japanese 
music that I had never had be- 
fore. Their music sounded dis- 
tinguished as they sang it, com- 
pared with ours. Of course they 
did not sing the best of our 
music, or in the best way; nevertheless, here was a chance 
for some one to secure ideas in regard to the power of music 
in a new direction. 

Fig. 642 


In pounding rice a large wooden mortar is used. The ham- 
mer or pestle is of large size and very heavy and is raised high 
above the head (fig. 641). The man wears a cushion on his left 
leg against which the end of the handle rests as he raises the 
hammer in the air. It requires a strong man to do the work. 
The face of the hammer is hollowed deeply, with sharp edge, 
and in the mortar is a thick ring of straw rope as shown in 
figure 642. When the blow is given the rice is forced up outside 
the ring and drops down inside. By this arrangement a cir- 
culation of the rice is secured so that all the rice in turn comes 
under the blow of the hammer. This idea I have never seen 
carried out in similar processes before. A yellow dust, which 
comes from rice after it is pounded, is tied in a bag and used 
to wash the face. At home corn meal is used in a similar way. 
This rice dust is also used to cleanse greasy dishes or lamps. 



July 16. I have been busy packing for our great trip 
through the southern provinces, going overland to Kyoto and 
then by steamer through the Inland Sea. My passport is made 
out for at least a dozen provinces. Mr. Nakawara has brought 
me a long letter from Mr. Kikkawa, introducing me to his 
people in Iwakuni, Province of Suo. On the envelope was 
written first the name of the place and province, then the name 
of the person, and in one corner of the envelope the charac- 
ters, "Ordinary tidings," to signify that there is no bad news 
in the letter. If these characters are omitted, then bad news 
is expected and the recipient has time to compose himself. 
We shall see a little of the life of old Japan; I shall add a great 
many specimens to my collection of pottery ; Dr. Bigelow will 
secure many forms of swords, guards, and lacquer; and Mr. 
Fenollosa will increase his remarkable collection of pictures, so 
that we shall have in the vicinity of Boston by far the greatest 
collection of Japanese art in the world. 

July 26. We started on our overland trip to Kyoto, having 
a stage and three horses for conveyance. At Sammaibashi 
we left the stage to ascend a steep mountain road paved with 
irregular boulders in the steepest portions. Fenollosa and I 
walked a distance of eight miles to the village, while the Doc- 
tor and the rest of the party took kagos. The Doctor enjoyed 

Fig. 643 


this mode of traveling very much. At times the most charm- 
ing views came in sight. It was refreshing to get on one's legs 
again for a good sturdy walk, for though portions of the road 

were very steep we made good 
time. It was interesting to ob- 
serve that our kago men kept 
up with us the whole way — 
though we walked rapidly — 
and each man was support- 
ing nearly a hundred pounds, 
counting the weight of the 
kago and all. We met at in- 
tervals men carrying heavy loads on their shoulders travel- 
ing through the pass and walking rapidly too. They were on 
their way to Odawara, twelve miles distant. In every village 
we passed there were some new forms of balcony, gateway, or 
pretty interior, but it was impossible, going 
over the ground so rapidly, to get more than 
a few hasty outlines. The road is so fre- 
quently traveled by foreigners going to pleas- 
ure resorts that the Japanese took no notice 
of us. The children did not run away and 
showed no timidity. Besides men of burden 
on foot, horses with heavy pack-saddles and 
enormous loads were being led by country- 
men. Figure 643 is a sketch of a pack-saddle not loaded, ex- 
cept with the owner's sun hat, raincoat, and a pair of straw 
sandals; a clumsy cushioned affair passes under the tail. 
In a house where two rooms come together they are separ- 

Fig. 644 

Fig. 645 


ated only by sliding screens running in grooves in the floor and 
a hanging partition; the space above this partition is usually 
filled in with an open device of lattice, carved wood, or designs 
cut in stencil. 1 The skill and taste of these 
designs and the perfect cabinet-work shown 
were due to the fact that in the region 
were many men employed in making in- 
laid work of colored woods. Hakone is a 
great place for the manufacture of boxes, 
cabinets of drawers, and the like, in which 
pretty effects are produced by various patterns of colored 
woods. The different woods are built up solidly in firmly 
glued blocks, as shown in figure 644, and transverse slices are 
cut off as seen in figure 645, and used with other forms to 
decorate the cover of a box or the front of a drawer. These 

drawings are half size. 
Figure 646 shows the 
man at work with his 
glue-pot over a few 
coals buried in ashes. 
No end of intricate de- 
signs are made, and 
the interesting feature 
about it is that the man 
seems to use only the 
common tools of a house 
carpenter. He sits on the floor and has for a bench a large 
block of wood. 

1 This detail is called a ramma, and I found many interesting forms which are 
given in Japanese Homes. 

Fig. 646 


Our inn at Hakone is within a stone's throw of the lake and 
beyond rises Fuji high above the mountains that border the 
lake. We are two thousand feet above sea-level, the lake 
water is cold and pure, and the air fresh and invigorating. 
At every moment my pencil has been busy sketching pictur- 
esque places. Figure 647 is a sketch of one of the stronger 

Fig. 647 

kinds of fences to resist the high winds that come with the 
typhoons. All along the road one sees spinning and weaving 
going on in the houses. Figure 648 shows a woman weaving 
coarse straw matting used for rice bags and for other rough 

We started early in the morning for a kago ride of eight 
miles. The descriptions of this form of transport do not at all 
convey an idea of this method of conveyance. There are, in 
the first place, three men to each kago, and they take turns 
in the work. In my journal four years ago I made a sketch of 
the ordinary kago used by the Japanese. Now at Hakone, 

Fig. 648 


and probably at other places, a special kago, much longer and 
heavier, is made for the foreigner. They travel with the kago 
diagonally across the road (fig. 649). Changes are often made. 
Thus, two men will start off tak- 
ing about ninety steps on a hill 
and perhaps one hundred and 
forty steps on a level, when they 
will rest the kago on the bam- 
boo poles they carry with them, 
and then change shoulders, tak- 
ing the same number of steps 
again, when the spare man re- 
lieves the forward man; then, 

after two more turns, the man that slipped out relieves the 
rear- one. Going downhill or on a level they proceed in a 
sort of jolting run giving vent to a series of pe- 
culiar grunts. The weight each one carried was 
a hundred pounds at least, and this for eight or 
ten miles without a rest, uphill and down, showed 
great strength and endurance. 

It was difficult to keep an itinerary of the jour- 
ney overland. We lost the day of the week and 
even the month. We had grand rides and tire- 
some ones, saw beautiful scenery, crossed long 
bridges over wide and shallow streams, stopped 
at interesting tea-houses; and at all times re- 
ceived that courteous attention which charac- 
terizes this people above all others. We spent an hour or 
so — or a day, as we did at Hamamatsu and at Shizuoka — 

Fig. 649 


in hunting up old pottery, pictures, and the like; at Na- 
goya we stopped a few days. On our way across the coun- 
try we noticed that in the inns where we spent the night 
the chambers were adorned with mottoes or sentiments, 
which, when translated, were invariably found to refer to 
the beauties of nature or were moral precepts or admoni- 
tions. Even in places where one may get sake the sentiments 
expressed by these inscriptions are highly moral. I have 
never seen a barroom in Japan, but, in seeing these refined 
sentiments, moral precepts, and the like, I could not help re- 
calling a similar grade of country inns at home and the usual 
character of pictures one sees in the public rooms. Many of 
these sentiments are derived from Chinese classics. It is amaz- 
ing how much may be conveyed by four or five Chinese char- 
acters: here is one in five characters, "Facing water shame 
swimming fish," w T hich, fully rendered in our language, means, 
"When we contemplate the water in which the fish are swim- 
ming with calmness and ease, we feel ashamed of ourselves 
that we are such busy beings." How far this is correct I do not 
know; the translation was made by our Japanese interpreter. 
When we arrived at Shizuoka, Province of Suruga, an out- 
break of cholera was killing thirty or forty a day. The largest 
inns were closed, and it was with difficulty that we obtained 
entrance into one of them. The landlord said that if a death 
from cholera occurred, it would greatly injure the reputation 
of his hotel. We were promptly disinfected even before we 
could get out of our jinrikisha. Everybody seemed to be pro- 
vided with a simple atomizer, consisting of a tin tube soldered 
to the top of a small tin dipper, in which was put a weak solu- 


tion of carbolic acid. We had been sprayed upon at other 
places as if we brought the infection with us. At one place, 
Dr. Bigelow said, a man standing at the entrance of a house 
made a vigorous gesture at him as if to cut him down with a 
sword. These hostile demonstrations are of the rarest occur- 
rence. I have but once experienced a similar hostile gesture. 
Walking with my daughter in Tokyo I passed three men who 
were straggling slowly along. We did not know that it is con- 
sidered a rude thing to overtake and pass one without an apol- 
ogy. To resent our rudeness one of the men ran ahead and, 
turning, Mocked our way and swung an imaginary sword in 
the air as if to cut us down. His two companions, laughing, 
grabbed him and drew him away. The man was evidently 
slightly intoxicated. Directly after the Doctor's experience, 
when passing along a country road, two middle-aged and re- 
spectable-appearing Japanese bowed very low to us as we 
passed by, and Mr. Ariga said the act was to show their re- 
spect for foreigners. 

We spent two nights in Shizuoka and devoted the entire day 
to collecting. I penetrated every place where objects might be 
found, feeling no fear of the pestilence, being always careful 
not to eat things which might bear cholera bacilli, or to drink 
water, as, in fact, one rarely does in Japan. The next morning 
early we started in a rude, lumbering stage without springs, 
and had the toughest shaking-up imaginable; indeed, at noon, 
when we reached the crest of a high range of hills, the 
Doctor gave up the carriage in disgust, and I was only too 
happy to follow his example. Fenollosa and Ariga went on, 
and we snoozed until three in the afternoon and then hired 


jinrikishas, each with two men, and had a grand ride to Ha- 
mamatsu, Totomi, where we spent the night. In the evening 
we saw a curious dance by a lot of pilgrims on their way to the 
top of Fuji. They occupied the large room in the hotel that 
opened on the street, and formed a ring. Each one had a stiff 
fan in his hand with which he beat time and then went through 
a curious dance and chant, turning first one way and then 
another, the circle moving partly around. It made a weird 
and peculiar sight. The dancers evidently enjoyed our inter- 
est in their performance and I was invited to join them. Their 
heads were tied up in white cloth, and before the dance I had 
seen them in a room upstairs kneeling, praying, and chanting, 
evidently rehearsing for Fuji. 

After leaving cholera-infected Hamamatsu, somewhat de- 
pressed with the melancholy atmosphere, we came in our 
journey to a steep ravine up which the men had hard work to 
drag the jinrikishas. Halfway up we passed what was appar- 
ently a mountain brook tumbling down the sides of the ravine. 
It was too much for Fenollosa and me to resist, and though 
Dr. Bigelow urged us not to drink the water, we nevertheless 
ventured on a few swallows and found it dead and unpalat- 
able. When we got to the top of the ravine imagine our horror 
to find a wide expanse of rice-fields, the drainage of which was 
our mountain brook! 

Our next day's ride brought us to Toyohachi, and the next 
morning we made a raid after pottery and secured a number 
of good pieces. The following morning we left at eleven 
o'clock and reached the great city of Nagoya in the evening. 
Here we spent four days, Dr. Bigelow after lacquer and sword- 


guards, Fenollosa after pictures, and I ransacking every place 
for pottery. A good-natured old fellow named Gonza, of whom 
I bought a few pieces of pottery, became interested in my 
quest and volunteered his services in showing us around the 
city from one curio-dealer to another. Whether he got a com- 
mission on each purchase I do not know, but he carried our 
parcels and beat down the price when he thought it was too 
high, conducted us to places we should never have found but 
for him, got dealers to come to our rooms with their treasures, 
and at the end helped pack the pottery I had bought, which 
filled two large boxes that were shipped to Tokyo. At the 
hotel where we stopped we had large tables and chairs, which 
were of great convenience. The dealers were coming to our 
rooms all the time, sometimes eight or ten at a time, spreading 
out their stock in trade on the floor. Up to the last hour of our 
stay we were buying things, and I made some fine additions 
to the pottery collection. 

Gonza took me to a friend of his on the outskirts of the town 
who was the founder of an oven known as Fujimi, where I 
spent the entire forenoon. Ceremonial tea was made for me, 
the potter grinding the tea in my presence. He showed me his 
collection of old pottery, in which were many good pieces, 
drew a picture for me, and requested me to draw one for him 
in return, and invited me to a formal cha-no-yu (tea ceremony) 
the next day; so altogether w r e had an interesting time. I was 
most kindly treated by the family, and on the veranda, where 
I sat, a large, shallow, lacquered tub was placed filled with 
cold water and over this I was fanned by the daughter. The 
cool breeze thus made was very agreeable. 







The tea ceremony to which we had been invited was of such 
interest that I made copious notes of the formalities, though 
doubtless a number of details escaped me. The summer tea- 
room was a little house by itself about ten feet from the main 
house. This little building, fifteen feet square, was made ex- 
pressly for ceremonial tea and was extremely simple in all its 
appointments. Between the tea-house and the main house 
ran a stone path, at one side of which was a large stone recep- 
tacle filled with water. It is neces- 
sary to describe these particulars in 
order to appreciate the ceremonial 
offering of powdered tea. A bell 
sounded, and we — that is Gonza, 
Kimura, and I — took our seats on 
circular cushions on the veranda 
facing the tea-room (marked A, in figure 650). The name of 
the tea-house was on a long pottery tile in four characters, 
the literal translation of which is "wind, moon, clear, stall," 
which was fully translated to me as, "The little house as clean 
and clear as the wind and moon!" (fig. 651). While we sat here 
contemplating the house, a sliding screen in it was pushed 
aside and the daughter Miki crept in on her hands and knees 
and filled a lacquered wooden vessel from the stone water 
basin and returned, closing the screen after her. When she 
had first entered the tea-house she had walked a few steps on 
the ground and had left her sandals resting one against the 
other on the stone steps, as in figure 652. After a few minutes 
we were bidden to go to the tea-house. Wooden sandals were 
placed at our feet, and on these we hobbled along solemnly to 

Fig. 650 


the stone urn, where the host stood and poured water on our 
hands from a little wooden dipper and offered us a towel. 
Having dried our hands we entered the house by opening 
the screen and crawl- j 


Wn > ^ 

\ A \ 

{ *y»( ifc&tvi i i ^>~ — - v 

/ \'«J«|/-U \) •*-* <^> zz> isS* 

Fig. 651 

ing on our hands 
and knees under the ^ 
lattice screen, which 
was hanging halfway 
down. We first crept 
to the tokonoma (re- 
cess in room) and con- 
templated the kake- 
mono, which was ex- 
ceedingly plain; then we crept to the sunken fireplace, which 
consisted of a triangular space in which were a few stones 
on which rested a box of incense; and then back to the other 
side of the room, where we adjusted ourselves in a row and 
remained in silence. Some writers have described the cere- 
mony as a religious one on account of the solemnity and 
austerity of the occasion. The room was of 
the simplest character: the ceiling made of 
thin, wide ribbons of dark wood braided 
like a mat, the corners and jogs of bamboo, 
or of natural branches of wood, with a 
warm brownish plastering. The simplicity 
and absolute cleanliness of the room were remarkable. 1 

After a few moments the sliding screen opposite us was 
gently pushed aside and Miki appeared bringing triangular 

1 This room is figured in Japanese Homes, p. 153. 

^ V V V w 

Fig. 652 




Fig. 653 

lacquer trays, one at a time. The various dishes were of the 
finest description : the rice-dish was of pottery as was the large 
rice-spoon; the sake pots were of metal richly wrought, and 
the sake cups of fine lacquer. The rice was in one bowl, raw 
fish with pickles in another, fried eels and melon in another, 
miso soup and lily bulbs in another; and a covered dish was 
filled with richest soup served in the very dish in which it was 
cooked. The host in the main house, with his son, was being 
served in the same way, 
it not being proper for ^gr; 
him to be present dur- 
ing the serving of the 
dinner. We could see 

him, however, in plain sight across the veranda. While we 
were eating, the old man entered to drink sake with us. 
We first drank sake with Miki, her father doing likewise. 
There was no haisen in which to rinse the cup, but back and 
forth it was passed on the little stand. After drinking with 
the daughter we drank with the host. Then a very beauti- 
ful lacquer tray was offered, in which was a little pile of 
cake and another in which were some vegetables; these I 
was too busy sketching to taste. The cake was placed in 
the cover of our rice bowl. After this the cake that was left 
was wrapped in two packages, the daughter putting one 
in her sleeve, the old man taking his in his hand, and both 
retiring from the room. Hot water was then brought and 
a little poured into each vessel from which we had eaten. 
Courtesy should have compelled me to eat the entire con- 
tents of each dish, but I was too hot to eat much, and was 


consequently spared the disagreeable necessity of drinking 
dishwater and wiping my own dishes with paper, which the 
others did and with great care. Every dish was thoroughly 
cleaned and placed in the trays and removed one by one by 
Miki. Then was brought in a lacquer box containing three 
square pieces of jelly, which w r as served on beautiful square 
lacquer trays (fig. 653). After eating the jelly with the single 
chop-stick, it was proper to keep 
this as a souvenir of the occasion. 
While eating the jelly, Miki entered 
with great formality bearing an iron 
vessel (fig. 654) full of burning char- 
coal, and placed it piece by piece in 
the sunken fireplace, using iron 
chopsticks for the purpose; x she 
then took a large feather which hung 

on a little peg, and kneeling in the opening by which she 
entered, carefully swept the mat and retired, closing the 
screens. One of our company then took up the little trays 
and carried them to the opening by which Miki had entered. 
Just before this, however, Miki brought in an iron kettle and 
placed it on the coals. The old man in the mean time showed 
us the incense box which we were to inspect and sniff. Here 
we rose to pur feet and walked out on the veranda, stepped 
into our sandals, washed our hands at the urn, and then 
crossed to our host's house, where we rested, smoked, and I 
got a drink of cold water warranted free from all pathogenic 

1 These are called hashi, and represent our tongs. 


After a while another gong was struck, much deeper in 
sound than the first one, and we went through the same for- 
mality of washing our hands and crawling into the tea-room. 
The kakemono had been removed, and in its place was a sim- 
ple vase holding some flowers arranged as only these people 
know how to arrange them. Miki then appeared bearing the 
tea-bowl, and as she brought in the various utensils, one after 
the other, she pushed aside the screen, being on her knees. 
She then rose formally and walked straight through the open- 
ing, turned squarely round, 
facing the fireplace, walked a 
step toward it, paused and 
looked ahead in an absent- 
Fig. 655 minded way, then knelt and 

reverently deposited the ob- 
jects on the mat. She rose without touching her hands to 
the floor and retired in the same moderate manner. After 
the bowl had been brought in, she brought in a delicate bam- 
boo dipper. I should have mentioned that when we entered 
the room the water-vessel and the jar had already been placed 
in their proper positions. At this stage the objects appeared 
as in figure 655. The tea-jar was untied and the bag pushed 
down on each side by the edge of the hand; the bag was then 
hung on the peg from which hung the feather duster. Water 
was dipped out of the kettle, poured into the tea-bowl, and 
by a rotary movement of the tea-stirrer (fig. 656) and a cir- 
cular movement round the bowl at the same time, the bowl 
and the stirrer were both washed; the bowl was then wiped 
with a piece of white cotton cloth and this act was performed 


in a certain way. Not a word was spoken during all this 
performance. A slender bamboo spoon was then used in 
scooping out the powdered tea from the tea-jar. Miki, hav- 
ing taken out the customary three teaspoonfuls, was about 
to stop when her father said in an undertone "More," and 
"Still more," and several times till she had put a lot of the 
tea in the bowl. We sat facing her in a semi-circle, I on the 
extreme left, then Gonza, next Kimura, and then 
our host. The water was then added and stirred 
briskly, though every movement was made with 
extreme formality. The host then approached the 
daughter on his knees, took the bowl with a pro- 
found bow, crawled along to me, and presented the 
bowl with another deep bow. The tea was like the 
thickest, green syrup, and was delicious. I took a 
swallow, wiped the edge of the bowl, where my lips 
had touched, with my finger, and, not having a roll of paper, 
wiped my finger on my coat inside, then turned the bowl in 
such a way that, when it was passed to the next one his 
mouth should strike a clean place on the rim. At this point 
it was my duty to inquire of the host what tea it was, which 
I did, and he gave me the name. 1 It was actually made by 
a noted man and was considered the most precious tea in 
Japan. The cup went from one to another till it reached the 
host, who finished what remained, and this he did kneeling 
upright as if in the attitude of .prayer, with a most beatific 
countenance, smacking his lips with great gusto. After he 

1 The tea was called Hatsumu kashi, and was raised in Uji, near Kyoto; the style, 
or school, of the tea-making was that of Rikiu, in the time of Taiko. 


had drunk the tea he wiped the bowl in such a way as to 
leave a pointed oval area in the bottom. The bowl was then 
passed round and commented upon, as it was a rare old speci- 

After this the girl took out all the utensils and the old man 
brought in the boxes that held the various objects and we 
examined them. Some of the boxes were lacquered with the 
name of the object, pottery, and maker in gilt letters; the 
plain wooden boxes were marked in black with the seal of 
the maker in red. While showing them to us the host said that 
when in use they become "tiger," and when not in use 
they become "rat," meaning that when in use they become 
useful like the tiger and when not in use valueless as a rat. 

On the afternoon of the last day we visited the castle of 
Nagoya, one of the best-preserved castles in Japan. It stands 
one hundred and fifty feet high, the walls are massive, the 
rooms immense. It was built in 1610-12, and towers up far 
above the surroundings, and one gets grand views from the 
window openings. It is surrounded by massive stone walls and 
deep moats. The buildings surrounding it have spacious 
rooms, and the sliding screens have been decorated by the 
most celebrated artists of the period and the wood-carvings 
have been done by famous wood-carvers. In one room was 
a model of the castle about seven feet high. It was very inter- 
esting, as it was made as a model to follow before the castle 
itself was built. 

Figure 657 is a hasty sketch I made while waiting for the 
sentry to carry our cards to the authorities within. The 
sketch gives the merest idea of its appearance. The massive- 


ness and grandeur of the building are remarkable. Architec- 
turally it impresses one as marvelous, with its succession of 
upturned roofs and successive gables, massive copper tiles, 
heavy ribs to the roof angles, imposing sweeps of the great 
roofs, and on the ends of the highest ridge immense bronze 
dolphins covered with scales of pure gold, resplendent in the 
sun. The gold represents a value of nearly a third of a million 
dollars. We were led to the main cas- 
tle through heavy, walled, passage- 
ways and up broad stone stairways. 
We entered through heavy doors, and 
found ourselves in a vast room where 
ponderous beams in walls and ceilings 
revealed the strength of such struc- 
tures in feudal times. We ascended 

flight after flight of stairs, landing at the head of each flight 
in wide, low rooms of massive construction, and came to the 
upper rooms, having climbed one hundred and twelve high 
steps, not counting the flights of stone steps and inclines we 
met with in approaching the entrance. From the windows 
of the upper hall we had a comprehensive and charming 
view of the country. A delicious breeze poured through the 
place which, after our hot climb, was very grateful. 

We left the castle reluctantly and hurried back to the hotel 
to pack for our start to Kyoto at seven o'clock. Our jinriki- 
shas dragged slowly along, but the scenery, brilliant sunset, 
and rest were delightful. At nine o'clock we came to a river 
and for five miles were rowed tranquilly over its quiet waters. 
Our landing-place was to be Yokkaichi, a place famous for its 


pottery, known as Banko. The place was brilliantly illumi- 
nated and in the distance looked like a New England town. 
As we landed on the stone slope we found a festival of some 
kind was going on. The shore was lined with booths provid- 
ing ices, and we sat down on a bench and were served several 
times. The ice is planed, the plane being upside down and 
fixed. A chunk of ice is moved back and forth over the plane, a 
dish underneath catching the shavings, so to speak; a little 
sugar is added and a flavoring of powdered tea, and it made a 
very cooling refreshment. It was an approach to our boyhood 
snow ice-cream. Though ice is very high, sixteen to twenty 
cents a pound, this article is sold for a cent a glass. In poorer 
quarters of our cities a similar custom might be introduced. 

Owing to the festival the town was crowded and every 
hotel full, so we were compelled to ride on to the next town, 
starting at 2.30 in the morning, and the cocks were beginning 
to crow and dawn was breaking when we reached our resting- 
place. We were completely tired out, and were glad to lie 
down in a mean little inn for a few hours' sleep. I was up at 
eight, and after a breakfast of poor rice started back to 
Yokkaichi to find out how the hand-made Banko pottery was 
made. I came across the famous Hansuke, who cleverly 
moulds clay with his fingers alone and produces a beautiful 
little teapot. I made full notes and sketches of the potter. 

At 2.30 we started again, having a most picturesque ride 
up a mountain ravine and, still in the Province of Ise, reached 
Sakanoshita in the midst of mountain scenery. Here we spent 
the night, and the next morning, with two men to a jinrikisha, 
went rapidly along, reaching Otsu at 2.30 and Kyoto at 4.30. 



We rode immediately to Ya-Ami Hotel, situated high up on 
the mountain-side overlooking the entire city. The hotel, 
though Japanese, is kept in foreign style, and a rare beefsteak, 
baked potatoes and a cup of good coffee were delicious after 
the varied Japanese meals we had had. The building in which 
we are is approached by a long incline and a flight of steps, and 
is tiresome enough to reach. The rooms are good, with spa- 
cious verandas and charming surroundings. I have a tiny 

Fig. 658 

house of one room to myself; a little arched bridge leads to it 
from the veranda (fig. 658) and a mass of shrubbery comes up 
level with the floor. My sketch-book is full of sliding screens, 
lattice-work, framework of window openings, and beautiful 
rammas. The grace and beauty of these designs it is impos- 
sible to show in offhand sketches. The stencil-cutting in thin 
wood is perfection: the dashing waves, with curious shepherd- 
crook processes and individual drops poised in the air, and 
appearing conventional to the last degree, show precisely the 
appearance the waves present in instantaneous photography. 
What amazes you in traveling through the country covering 


hundreds of miles is, that in the most remote country villages 
there are carpenters and cabinet-makers and designers who 
are sufficiently skilled to do these things. 

In many houses one sees swallows' nests built near the ceil- 
ing in the best rooms. As soon as the bird begins his nest a 
small shelf is fastened beneath to prevent the mud that is apt 
to drop in construction from soiling the mats (fig. 659). It 

was interesting to observe 

that the birds build a more 

Fig. 659 

delicate and elaborate nest 
under cover than when built 
outside exposed to the ele- 
ments; indeed, it would al- 
most seem that the birds recognized the tastes of the people 
with whom they live. 

It was interesting to note the change in the structure of the 
ridge on the thatched roof as we passed through the Provinces 
of Suruga, Mikawa, and Owari. I saw men engaged in mend- 
ing a thatched roof black with soot that came from the kitchen 
within. The skillful way in which the modeler in plaster elabo- 
rates a ridge is interesting. 

During the day we crossed a river where a number of men 
w r ere engaged in making boats. I noticed two men pounding 
the edge of a boat's plank with iron hammers, pounding the 
grain down, so to speak, so that when the plank was fitted to 
the next plank the crushed edge would swell when wet and 
thus make a tight joint. 

The city of Kyoto is certainly the artistic centre of artistic 
Japan. Everywhere you see evidences of it — in the shops, 



houses, fences, roof-tops, window-openings, sliding screens 
and the devices for sliding them, trellises, balcony rails. The 
very advertisements are designed with taste — art and refine- 
ment are everywhere. Moreover, I have seen no place in 
Japan where the girls and little children are more prettily 
dressed. The hair arrangement is remarkable, and the crape 
for the obi and the adornment of the head is resplendent. Our 
hotel is placed on the slope of a mountain amidst trees and 

Fig. 660 

Buddhist temples. From this vantage-ground one sees at 
sundown the wonderful effects of sunlight across the city; at 
evening are heard the sound of singing voices and the notes of 
the koto, with merry laughter. Loud declaiming is heard, 
while intermingled with all comes the drowsy hum of the 
priests at their devotions near by; indeed, the sounds the 
priests emit in their prayers can with difficulty be distinguished 
from the hum of insects. Last night, in connection with the 
priestly chants, I heard a rapid tap, or ring, which sounded 

Fig. 661 


precisely like an insect I had heard at Enoshima, and which 
was there called the bell insect. As the higher the tempera- 
ture the more rapid the notes of these stridulating insects, out 
came my watch, and I counted the beats at thirty-five per 
quarter of a minute. Before seeking a thermometer, how- 
ever, I asked a servant what kind of an insect it was that was 
making the sound and he told me that the 
sound was made by a priest's bell ! 

Through the city runs a wide, shallow 
river. At this time the water is low and the 
river-bed is exposed in many places, showing 
large, flattened boulders. These large areas 
are covered with low tables, a foot high and big enough for 
one mat, sometimes two. The Japanese hire these tables and 
a large party will place them side by side. Here families 
gather in the evening to drink their tea, eat their supper, and 
enjoy the sunset. From the bridges crossing the river the 
sight is of wonderful beauty, as every 
stand is illuminated with a number 
of bright-colored lanterns, and it is 
a sea of color as far as the eye can 
reach, with here and there bonfires 
kindled on the dry river-bottom. 
Mr. Greenough, who is with us, says 
it rivals a carnival scene at Venice. 
To-day (August 8) I visited the 
artist Bairei to employ him to make 

a copy of a picture he had painted for Rokubei, the potter, 
illustrating the process of pottery-making. I found Mr. 

Fig. 662 


Bairei, who is a teacher, in the midst of a class of pupils, who 
were busy with their work, all on the floor with their copies 
in front of them (fig. 660), many of them being boys of twelve 
or younger. Some of the older pupils, he told me, had been 
with him for ten years. The pupils come at eight o'clock in the 
morning, leaving at noon in the summer and at 5 p.m. in the 
winter, every day except Sun- 
day, which has lately become 
a holiday. The price of tui- 
tion is thirty cents a month, 
and the teacher supplies pa- 
per, brushes, ink, colors, etc. 
In three years the pupils learn 
to copy well. The first les- 
sons consist of simple lines, 
diaper work, and the like. The next year they paint flowers; 
after that mountains and scenery; and finally figures, first 
drawing drapery, then the nude figure from life. Some of the 
pupils come from the artisan class, such as potters and others 

whose occupations demand designs or 
decoration; the other pupils come 
from the samurai class. Mr. Bairei has 
twenty pupils in his daily class, besides 
a few who practice at their houses and 
bring their work to him once a week 
for criticism. After an interesting in- 
terview I rose from my knees. All the 
pupils immediately bowed low, and at 
the same time Mr. Bairei presented me with a large roll of 

Fig. 663 

Fig. 664 


paper which consisted of the exercises of the school for that 
day: beautiful drawings in strong, vigorous brush strokes of 
flowers, fruit, and boats. These drawings illustrate better 
than all the descriptions the methods of teaching and the 
proficiency of the young Japanese. With the tea was offered 
a dainty basket of candy in the form of cherry blossoms (fig. 

With us it is customary to mark on boxes containing fragile 
objects the word "glass," and in Europe to make a drawing of 
a wineglass to show the brittle nature of the contents. In 
Japan the packer ties a pearl shell (Haliotis) to the box; as 
shown in figure 662, a drawing of the shell is also made on the 

At a little shop where I stopped to examine the pottery, a 
peculiarly shaped vessel was offered me containing something 
like spaghetti, the strings more the size of cotton twine. It 
was very difficult to eat, as in taking one strand out of the 
dish it would stretch two or more feet before it could be wound 
up on the chopstick. A little cup contained the sauce. It was 
called hiyamugi. The vessel containing it was said to be 
Chinese (fig. 663). While I was eating the food the little 
daughter of the shopkeeper played to me on a kind of guitar 
(fig. 664). 



We left Kyoto on the 10th of August on our way to the 
Inland Sea, and spent two days at Osaka, where we met Mr. 
Fenollosa and Mr. Ariga, hunting up pottery and pictures. 
A carnival being in action on the river the Doctor hired a big 
boat with dancing-girls and food, fireworks, etc. We invited 
Mr. Greenough to join us. It was a lovely night, and the river 
presented a scene of gayety. The pleasure boats are prettily 
built, with broad, wide floors to sit upon, perfectly dry, and the 
hundreds of merry groups slowly passing back and forth, with 
the sound of samisen and koto, singing and laughter, and the 
innumerable bright-colored lanterns, made a scene not easily 
effaced from the memory. Nearly every town in our country 
has a river, bay, pond, or lake. Why can't our people indulge 
in similar holidays? Such assemblies on the water are possi- 
ble, however, only in countries of good manners. 

We left Kyoto at five o'clock in the morning in a little 
steamer for Hiroshima, Province of Aki. We had a good-sized 
room all to ourselves on one side of the boat. The boat being 
built for Japanese stature was extremely low in height of 
rooms and passages, and we bumped our heads continually in 
moving about. Most of our time was spent on deck admiring 
the beautiful scenery. We arrived off Hiroshima at six in the 
evening, and then, taking a boat in waiting for us, we had a 
pull of over an hour, or rather our boatman poled most of the 


way over shallow water, to the mouth of the river. It was a 
wide, shallow expanse of water, and we slowly moved along, 
passing under stately piled bridges, one after the other. The 
banks of the river on both sides were lined with well-made 
high stone walls surmounted by fireproof buildings, mostly 
painted black. Few people were seen despite the early hour in 
the evening, few lanterns were lighted, and there was no com- 
merce on the river. The appearance gave us a very oppressive, 
gloomy feeling. The contrast between the commercial activ- 
ity of Osaka and this sombre place was marked in the extreme. 
Here was a city of a hundred thousand people — apparently 
dead, as the cholera was raging. It was some time before we 
found an inn. The one to which we had been recommended 
had just lost its landlord by cholera, so we sat in our boat for 
an hour with hungry stomachs and tired bodies, depressed to 
the last degree by the long row of black buildings, tall, gaunt 
bridges, and the deathlike silence everywhere. Finally, an 
inn having been found that would accommodate us, we started 
down the river and across to the other side and landed, as it 
were, at the back side of the inn. Baggage was got out of the 
boat, and the ascent of a flight of stone steps and a walk 
through a long, dark, narrow lane brought us to the neatest 
and cleanest hotel we had yet encountered. Fenollosa and 
Ariga, hearing of a restaurant in foreign style, left us for what 
they thought would be better food, while the Doctor and I 
took our chances with the native food and had a first-rate 

The next morning I started off early to ransack the old 
pottery shops. A Japanese at the hotel became interested in 


my quest, and was very kind in conducting me to all dealers 
likely to have the objects I wanted. He also told them to get 
together what they could and bring them to the hotel for my 
inspection. The result was that a continual stream of dealers 
with good, bad, and indifferent things streamed into our rooms 
for the rest of the day. Fenollosa, being disgusted with the 
so-called foreign food of the night before, lost all interest in 
Hiroshima and our intended visit to Miyajima and Iwakuni, 
and with Ariga started back to Osaka and Kyoto. On the 15th 
of August Dr. Bigelow and I started in a clean new Japanese 
junk for a sail through the Inland Sea. Before leaving the 
hotel it occurred to me that a Japanese junk was about as un- 
stable a craft as was ever built, and that if we fell overboard 
my watch would be ruined. I also realized that, as we were to 
be the guests of the Japanese in Iwakuni, it was not necessary 
to carry along much money. So I asked the landlord if he 
would take care of my watch and money until I returned, and 
he pleasantly agreed to do so. A servant came to my room 
bringing a shallow lacquer tray without cover, telling me it 
was to hold my possessions. These things were then deposited 
in the tray which she held out to me, and placing the tray on 
the floor she went away. I waited for a while impatiently, 
supposing, of course, that she intended taking them to the 
landlord, who would protect them in some way. The girl not 
returning, I called her, asking why she left the tray. It was all 
right there, she said. I called the landlord, and he also said it 
was perfectly safe where it was, that he had no safe or other 
receptacle for such things. Realizing the honesty of the peo- 
ple in the fact that I had never seen a lock, key, or bolt on any 


sliding screen in Japan, I resolved to risk the experiment, so 
left eighty dollars in silver and bills and my gold watch in an 
open tray in a room which was probably occupied a dozen 
times during my absence and to which access could be had by 
every domestic and guest in the house. We were off for a 
week's trip, yet on my return every bit of change to the last 
cent, and the watch, of course, were in the open tray as I had 
left them. When one recalls the warnings and admonitions in 
printed notices on the doors of American and English inns 
in comparison with this experience, one is compelled to admit 
the innate honesty of these people, and this is only one of the 
many examples I could cite. It must amuse a Japanese when 
he visits our country to see dippers chained to the fountain, 
thermometers screwed to the wall, doormats fastened to the 
steps, and inside every hotel various devices to prevent the 
stealing of soap and towels. 

Returning to our junk : we had a crew of four men and a boy, 
and a boy from the inn to help matters. We were fortunate 
in securing the services of Mr. Tahara, an old student of mine 
at the University, who became our interpreter and accompan- 
ied us. At times the wind died out and the men rowed with long 
clumsy oars. The experience was unique, sailing in a Japanese 
junk through one of the most picturesque and beautiful wa- 
terways, in the world. I fairly enjoyed the rapturous comfort 
the Doctor seemed to take as he sat on the roof of the cabin. 
Leaning back against a pile of matting with a box of Manila 
cigars by his side, he held his post the entire day, either doz- 
ing or admiring the varied scenery, which was indeed beau- 
tiful. As we passed Miyajima Mr. Tahara told us many in- 


teresting facts about the island. We saw on the shore a large 
Shinto temple with the tide running under the corridors and, 
rising from the water, a colossal tori-i whose base is immersed 
at half tide, all having been originally built high and dry some 
distance from the shore. The effect is striking, for the island, 
except for the beach, rises precipitously from the water, with 
mountains of considerable height and great abruptness. One 
gets an idea of the stupendous convulsions that within com- 
paratively recent times have caused this depression of the 
coast-line. Everywhere along the coast one sees these evi- 
dences of elevation and depression. 

During the evening w r e had a breeze which finally brought 
us to a little fishing village, where we landed at ten o'clock at 
night. Our host had had a man there all day in anticipation 
of our arrival, and he was on hand to greet us with many bows, 
and jinrikishas with two men for each one. After some delay 
with the baggage we were off for Iwakuni, which lay in a beau- 
tiful valley some miles distant. It was such a balmy night, — 
everything looked so strange, the palms and palmettos, the 
odor of semi-tropical vegetation, and the men running and 
yelling like mad ! It was delightful, after being cooped up all 
day in the junk. It was an experience never to be forgotten. 

We entered the village of Iwakuni with people still awake 
and evidently expecting us, as they lined the street and stared 
at us in a way that I had not seen before. We were told that 
the last foreigner seen in town was seven years before our 
arrival. One has a curious mixture of emotions at being de- 
liberately stared at by a crowd; in a way, it is embarrassing. 
Realizing that every movement is watched, you feel how ab- 


surd or inexplicable some of your movements must be to the 
starers. You try to affect indifference, and yet you are con- 
scious of an added dignity and importance at being stared at. 
You are guilty of performing acts specially to excite their 
attention, such as turning your pockets inside out in search of 
something, for a pocket in Japanese clothing is as unknown to 
them as it is to a woman nowadays; you raise a laugh by some 
gesture of annoyance; sometimes you find you are making a 
fool of yourself, when all the time the effort is to appear calm 
and natural. Mr. Kikkawa's agent conducted us to a private 
hotel, in which in olden times the daimyo's guests alone were 
received and cared for, and now it had been opened for us and 
beautiful old screens and kakemono had been brought down 
from the prince's treasures and displayed in the rooms we were 
to occupy. A delicious supper was served to us, and at one 
o'clock at night we went to bed. From the openings between 
the shoji I peered out and saw a large booth dimly illuminated 
in which a theatre was in action. A number of other booths 
were seen, and cries of hucksters indicated that some kind of a 
fair or festival was in progress, and beyond and above was 
total darkness. 

The scene that greeted us in the morning as we pushed back 
the shoji was surpassingly beautiful. We looked out on a broad 
river-bed whose bottom of smooth stones and pebbles was 
perfectly bare, and beyond rose picturesque mountains, while 
to the right was the famous arched truss bridge of which no 
description can convey an idea. After breakfast the various 
officers in the employ of Mr. Kikkawa came to pay their re- 
spects, among them Mr. Misu, the agent of a primitive cotton 


factory that Mr. Kikkawa has established here, a perfect type 
of the old loyal retainer with a face such as one sees in some of 
the old prints; Mr. Kikkawa, a distant relation of the family, 
who looks after things generally, with a smiling, genial, and 
most hospitable face; and many others whose names it is im- 
possible to recall, and all most attentive to our comfort. They 
were, of course, in their native dress, and perfect their dresses 
were. Indeed, not a foreign notion or scrap did we see during 
our whole visit, and had they worn swords we should have 
seen Japan as it was in feudal times. It was all there except 
the swords: manners, customs, courtesies, and all, and it was 

In the morning we went through the town looking up bric-a- 
brac shops. After dinner, at noon, we were taken in a covered 
barge up the river a few miles to see the site of the old Tada 
ovens established a hundred and eighty years ago, but extinct 
for many years. One man stood at the bow poling, another 
man ahead in the water towing by a long rope, and we, reclin- 
ing on soft mats, were regaled with jelly, candy, cake, and tea. 
We went up rapids, floated quietly across calm pools of water 
vibrating with wonderful reflections from the dark forests, 
and amidst the most beautiful scenery. A landing was finally 
made in a most picturesque region where a number of attend- 
ants had assembled, and such profound bows we got and so 
many of them! A short walk brought us to the site of the 
oven, now in ruins and covered by a dense bamboo growth. 
An old man, one of the last potters of the place, gave us an 
account of the pottery and processes, and after looking about 
for a while we went to a house where lunch was served. It 


seemed as if a dinner or lunch were given to us every two 
hours. At this place were a number of specimens of Tada, 
Ajina, and Kikko pottery, some of which were presented to us 
and others I had a chance to buy. 

About eight o'clock we started for the boat, and now bright- 
colored lanterns fringed the canopy and we had a rapid and 
delightful sail back to Iwakuni. Attendants were awaiting our 
arrival, and we were conducted at once to a building where the 
Doctor and I joined a cha-no-yu party in a charming little 
tea-room and drank the delicious powdered tea. After this 
ceremonious affair we went to an adjoining room w r here a 
dinner was given us. After all this we went to a provincial 
theatre and afforded a greater spectacle to the audience than 
the play itself, for the people, young and old, stared at us and 
crowded about us in a way I never before experienced in Japan. 
We finally got to bed, tired out by our day's experiences, all 
of which had been novel and delightful, and which gave us 
a vivid conception of old Japan with its hospitality, courtesy, 
and gentle manners. 

We were up early again the next morning to pass another 
eventful day. At ten o'clock Mr. Misu came to escort us to the 
cotton factory. After the Revolution in 1868, when the Sho- 
gunate was overthrown, the Prince of Kikkawa made his resi- 
dence in Tokyo. The government of the province being de- 
ranged by the events following the restoration of the Mikado, 
a great many of the retainers were thrown on their own re- 
sources, and it became necessary to find some employment for 
these former dependants of the daimyo. A number of gen- 
tlemen, retainers of the prince, formed a company among 


themselves and established a cotton mill. This scheme was 
encouraged by the prince, who invested a considerable sum of 
money in the enterprise. To-day there are extensive buildings 
containing all the machinery for the manufacture of cotton 
cloth — rude, primitive, wooden machines, yet all bearing a 
resemblance to the great machines one sees in our mills at 
home. Over one hundred women and thirty men are engaged 
in the work, the men all wearing fyakama, showing them to be 
samurai. Besides thread, the mill turns out nearly one hun- 
dred thousand yards of cotton cloth a year. It was interesting 
to see a tread wheel in which were two strong-looking samurai 
treading away patiently, supplying power for a certain portion 
of the machinery, while in a room outside were other arrange- 
ments to move certain machines, also turned by samurai, who, 
when we looked in, got off their perches and politely bowed to 
us. Indeed, as we walked through a long room in the second 
story of one of the buildings, every clerk — and there were 
many of them — bowed to us. We continued to the farther 
end of the room, where upon the floor a large carpet was 
spread and tea was brought to us. Then the clerks and others 
employed in the office came in groups of four and five, and 
upon their knees bowed to the floor, as we were in a kneeling 
position. When we entered the factory yard and during our 
entire progress through the factory, every one bowed to Mr. 
Misu and to us, and it was interesting to see how polite and 
kind Mr. Misu was to the operatives. He borrowed the Doc- 
tor's powerful hand-lens and showed them how the fabrics 
looked when magnified. In the vestibule of the office was 
hung up a list of the clerks, operatives, and attendants, and 


these formed a cooperative society, each one paying a small 
assessment to help those who might become sick. What 
amazed us beyond expression was the absence of all dirt and 
grease. Every girl looked clean and neat, everybody looked 
pleasant, and a happier and cleaner set of people I never saw. 
Ruskin would have thought he was in the seventh heaven. 

After these interesting experiences we were invited to a 
large room, where all the operatives gathered, the girls on one 
side of the room, the men on the other, like a Quaker meeting, 
and, much to my surprise, I was asked to give them a lecture, 
Mr. Tahara interpreting for me. I selected ants for a subject. , 
I had no blackboard, but they all seemed to be greatly inter- 
ested. Mr. Yamagata, an old student of mine, was there, and 
he helped now and then in difficult passages. 

We then went into the third story of the building, a kind of 
lookout, from which a magnificent view of the river valley and 
surrounding country was obtained. A refreshing dinner was 
served from a table, with chairs about, some bright girls, 
prettily dressed, waiting upon us, as did three beautiful little 
boys, one of whom had been my constant companion the day 
before, with a fan with which he often fanned me. The dinner 
was excellent, though I had already eaten twice that day, but 
it is amazing how often one can eat Japanese food. I learned 
through Mr. Tahara that the sendees of a famous cook from 
some distant place had been secured and there had been gath- 
ered the best the country afforded. The appearance of the 
table and dishes was of the most artistic character. One dish, 
in particular had a beautiful dwarf pine, forty years old, rising 
from its centre; another dish, on which was raw fish, rested on 


a bamboo raft, five feet long, with a most graceful arrange- 
ment of leaves rising from its centre. Both of these devices 
were supported on lacquer stands. Figure 665 is a very rude 
sketch of their appearance. This was our farewell dinner, and 
all this artistic and delightful affair in the third story of a 
cotton factory! 


Fig. 665 

Besides the cotton factory there is another factory for the 
manufacture of paper, and connected with it is a printing- 
house where books, pamphlets, and anything in the line of 
work of a printing-office is done. 

At four o'clock we left the factory and were accompanied by 
a number of gentlemen to the house we had occupied. At that 
place the jinrikishas were waiting, so final good-byes were 
said. A large square package of white cotton cloth was given 
to each of us. The Doctor secured two sword-blades in their 
wooden scabbards, made by famous Iwakuni sword-makers, 
and I was given a number of pieces of old Iwakuni pottery. We 
managed to leave little presents for the twenty-two men who 


had attended us. When we asked for our hotel bill, we were 
informed that it had already been paid, and the jinrikishas 
to the coast had also been provided. Indeed, we were liter- 
ally in the hands of these hospitable people. We learned after- 
wards that Mr. Kikkawa had sent a man from Tokyo to pre- 
pare for our coming. We finally started amid hundreds of 
bows, and crowds of curious faces smiled on us as we rode rap- 
idly down the main street and out into the country with feel- 
ings of overwhelming gratitude and affection for the Japa- 
nese race, and particularly for the Prince of Kikkawa and his 
loyal subjects, who, despite the change of political conditions, 
preserve, as of old, their fealty to their prince. 

During this delightful ride, with remarkable atmospheric 
effects, as the mists were slowly rising from the meadows and 
rice-fields, with the dark thatched roofs silhouetted against 
the white mists and a dark range of mountains beyond, we 
mentally digested the remarkable experience we had had. 
Reaching the coast village, we were taken to a little tea-house 
in a wonderful garden, where tea and cake were offered us, and 
finally, when we got aboard our junk, a number of boxes of 
cake and candy were given us. 

Our next port was the famous village of Miyajima, twelve 
miles distant, accounted one of the most picturesque and beau- 
tiful places in Japan. There being no wind the sailors rowed 
or sculled the entire distance to Miyajima. It was a delightful 
experience sitting on deck in the balmy southern air watching 
for the August meteors and reflecting on the unique experi- 
ences we had enjoyed. I had ample time to call the Doctor's 
attention to one beautiful meteor before it disappeared. 


We arrived at Miyajima at midnight, and walked up through 
the quaint and silent streets to a tea-house situated in a deep 
ravine, and soon got to bed and to sleep. The next morning 
(August 17) we had a delightful surprise as we opened the 
shoji and looked out on a beautiful wild ravine, cool and re- 
freshing. Deer came out of the wild forest and looked at us 
with gentle eyes; one even came into the enclosure in front of 
our room and ate a rind of watermelon from my hand. I sup- 
posed they were deer kept in confinement and tamed, but 
when I walked through the village some hours later I met 
them in the street, and found that they 
were not prisoners or park specimens, but 
came down from the mountains. In other 
words, they were wild deer that had never 
been treated unkindly. 

The famous Shinto temple has its long 
corridors, decorated with pictures by vari- 
ous artists; some of the pictures very old 
and their details partially effaced by time, 
but we spent two hours in examining them. 
There were also curiosities in the shape of " 
old bamboo roots; an interesting painting 
of a bamboo made by a boy six years old, some remarkable 
wood-carvings of deer, and appended to one carving was the 
chisel used by the carver. The temple is about seven hun- 
dred years old, and a stone lantern which stood near one of 
the corridors is also seven hundred years old. Figure 666 
represents the lantern, or ishidoro. In the street near the 
ravine are curiously constructed aqueducts which supply 

Fig. 666 


the houses with water, one near our inn was very primitive 
in its construction. On a huge square pile of stones was a 
large wooden trough, the sides of which were perforated with 
holes, and out of these poured streams of water into water- 
conductors of bamboo, as shown in figure 667. These con- 
nected with bamboo pipes underground which led to various 
houses in the village. In another ravine bamboo gutters con- 

Fig. 667 

veyed the water long distances. In one place a strainer of 
bamboo in a box was used as shown in figure 668. By these 
various devices the village of Miyajima was supplied with the 
purest water from mountain brooks. 

A simple method of automatically closing a gate is shown in 
figure 669. A weight hangs from a cross-bar above. By its 
weight the gate is kept closed, and when one enters, the weight 
bangs against the gate a few times, thus answering the pur- 
poses of a door-bell. The deer that roam freely through the 
main street of the village are inclined to wander into the gar- 
dens, and this device is made to keep the gate closed against 
their intrusions. 

Fig. 668 


Miyajima is regarded as a very sacred place, and the abso- 
lute repose and tranquillity are beyond description. No ani- 
mal was allowed to be 
killed on the island. 
We were told that only 
within a few years was 
any one allowed to die 
on the island. Former- 
ly, when one was near 
death, the poor creature 
was put into a boat 
and rowed across to 
the mainland where the 
cemetery is located. If 

any one climbing the mountain accidentally injured himself 
so as to bleed, the earth upon which the blood fell had to be 
scraped up and thrown into the sea. Here is a village of 

servants, wood-carvers, shopkeepers, 
and the usual make-up of a village 
community. By what mystery do they 
elect to behave themselves? Why are 
the children always so good? Are 
they effeminate? They make the best 
soldiers in the world. 

I left the island in a small boat for 

the mainland on my way back to 

Hiroshima, the Doctor wishing to stay 

another night in Miyajima. In sailing along the coast one 

notices enormous walls built of stone running along for miles, 

Fig. 669 


and seen from the water they appear like breakwaters. I 
was not prepared to see the extensive character or meaning 
of these structures till I rode along their crests on my way to 
Hiroshima. The walls, built nearly one hundred years ago, 
were made to reclaim the bottom of the sea for agricultural 
purposes, and the enormous tracts of land thus recovered are 
amazing. The coast is abrupt and mountainous, and the 
mountain ridges jut out of the ocean like promontories, leav- 
ing great bays between; the walls are built from the ends of 
these promontories and the enclosed areas are filled in and 
are under rich cultivation. On the crest of the wall is a broad 
road, and the ride was delightful. I reached Hiroshima at 
eight o'clock and naturally went to my room at once for 
my watch and money, which, as I have mentioned, I found 

Sick with a cold and a bilious attack, I lay on the floor all 
the next day while dealers in bric-a-brac brought old pottery 
to me to examine, and I made large additions to my collec- 
tions. With no interpreter I got along very well, and should 
not hesitate to go through Japan alone. The Doctor arrived 
the next day, and he spent the entire time with the dealers, 
who came in swarms. When we were ready to go, we were told 
that the dealers had provided a large barge and wished to con- 
vey us to the steamer, five miles away. Imagine our astonish- 
ment when we got aboard to find that they had hired a fine 
pleasure barge with singing-girls, a fine lunch, and everything 
to make the sail pleasant. In this way these people wished to 
show their gratitude to us. A number of Japanese friends 
accompanied us in another boat, among them Mr. Amakusa, 


whom I had met a few years before when examining dolmens 
near Osaka. Just before we started, an acquaintance of Mr. 
Tahara made a call, and I invited him to take a little brandy, 
the only thing I had to offer. He poured out much more than 
an ordinary drink, and I warned him that it was very strong 
and he could not carry it. He said, "Dai jo bu, yoroshii" (Able 
to resist, all right). It was interesting and amusing to see how 
rapidly he succumbed to the influence of the liquor. By the 
time we got aboard he was in a grotesque state of intoxication, 
and finally became so drunk that we had to land him on the 
banks of the river, where he laughed, sang, and declaimed till 
we were out of sight ! 

We soon reached the steamer, and bidding good-bye to our 
pleasant hosts, got aboard a little low thing evidently built for 
the most diminutive Japanese. The result was that we could 
hardly move about without breaking our backs or bumping 
our heads, and the Doctor repeatedly broke the third com- 
mandment during his back-breaking experiences. 

We sailed at eleven o'clock at night, and all the next day 
and night, stopping now and then, and finally reached Kobe 
in the morning. I never endured more misery. It rained most 
of the time, and we were confined in a little room with a 
Japanese family, with another room connecting in which were 
eighteen more Japanese. They were all courteous and quiet. 
Had they been natives of any other country we should have 
suffered much more, if that were possible. We slept on the 
floor, for there were no beds or berths; the Japanese food was 
execrable, and I had not recovered from my illness at Hiro- 


Arriving at Kobe we rushed to the English hotel for some- 
thing to eat. For over two weeks we had lived on Japanese 
food, much of it most excellent, but no matter how good the 
food, it is the breakfast that makes us homesick, so we reveled 
in the English food with almost delirious joy. 

I have done little but eat and write for a week 



Our Inland Sea experiences have been remarkable and, 
with the exception of steamboating, perfect. We are now to 
start for a town in the Province of Kii, and then on to Nara 
and Kyoto, so my journal notes and sketches accumulate 
without a chance for writing up in orderly sequence. I have 
added a great stock of notes for my pottery journal which is 
sadly behindhand. 

Within a month a violent outbreak has occurred in Korea 
and a number of Japanese have been massacred. I was in 
Kyoto when the news was received by the Japanese papers, 
and the excitement over the affair reminded me of the days 
following the outbreak of our Civil War. Osaka would raise 
three regiments of soldiers and contribute a million of dollars; 
Niigata, away up on the northwest coast, would raise half a 
regiment and give a hundred thousand dollars. I mention 
these details in order that the following incident may be fully 
appreciated. With the country aroused at the Korean coup 
d'etat and Japanese troops forced to retreat to Chemulpo, I, on 
my way to Kyoto, sat in the train with two Koreans. I had 
rarely seen a Korean before, and the Japanese in the car 
had apparently never seen these people, from the way they 
watched them. They got out at Osaka, and I sacrificed my 
ticket and followed them. They had no guard, not even a po- 
liceman, nor was a guard necessary. Crowds flocked around 


them, for their conspicuous white clothing/ curious horsehair 
hats, shoes, everything, were as strange to the Japanese as to 
me. I followed them until I got tired, simply to discover, if 
possible, a hostile gesture or a jeering word. The Japanese were 
sensible enough to realize that these two men were innocent of 
the atrocities going on in their native country and they were 
treated with the usual courtesy. Naturally I recalled the way 

the Northerners were treated 
in the South during the war in 
our country, and again asked 
myself which people are the 
most civilized. 

While at Rokubei's pottery 
the old man, in showing me a 
water-jar he had thrown some 
years before, made a gesture 
new to me: he held his two 
fists against his nose, one in 
front of the other. I wondered 
what he meant by it, and was 
told that it indicated pride. 
A wise old character known as 
Tengu is represented in masks and pictures as a man with an 
inordinate length of nose, and to show wisdom or commend- 
able pride the two fists are held as above described to indicate 
a long nose. 

At Kobe I watched from my window a number of workmen 
driving piles. I have already described the process in the 
earlier pages of the journal. We have now learned the meaning 

Fig. 670 


of their song. Figure 670 shows the men on the staging who lift 
the heavy log hammer. Two men below steady and direct the 
pile to be driven, and one of these sings a short chanty, while 
those on the staging above keep up a swinging sort of time by 
slightly swaying their bodies and partially lifting their ham- 
mer; then they join in the chorus, and when that is finished, 
three or four blows are given, when the man below starts the 
chanty again. The chanty consists in queries or encouraging 
words, as, "Why is this so hard?" "A few more blows will 
drive it down"; "It is almost down," etc. At this, several 
rapid blows may be given. The workmen above often laugh 
heartily at the funny words of the soloist, and all work in a 
happy, smiling sort of way. The men seem to accomplish a 
good deal of work during the day, but it is laughable to see 
them work so slowly and deliberately. 

After a three days' stop at Kobe we went to Osaka, and 
from there started for Wakanoura, Province of Kii. I went 
ahead with Mr. Tahara and at every town ransacked the 
curio-shops for pottery. Our ride across the plains of Osaka 
to the mountains beyond, though monotonous, had many 
points of interest. The entire region was covered with big 
stacks of straw gathered about high poles in picturesque 
groups of four or five, of various heights, and each with its 
little spire, which was the end of the pole which forms the axis. 
Many of these stacks had gourd or squash vines trained upon 
them, and some of them had little huts built against them as 
shelters for the farmers. Figure 671 is a sketch of their appear- 
ance. At close intervals were single or double well-sweeps for 
the irrigation of the land. The weighted end consists of a 


rough-hewn stone, disk-like in shape, with a hole in the centre, 
into which the end of the pole is wedged. There were thousands 
of these wells scattered over the vast plain and many of them 
were being worked. The extent to which irrigation is carried 
on probably has no parallel except in China, which I hope soon 
to see. There the well-sweep is two thousand years old. 

A very ingenious water-wheel (fig. 672) is met with, which is 
worked by the current of a river. It is a Chinese device, and is 

Fig. 671 

rare about Tokyo and farther north, but not uncommon in the 
southern provinces. The wheel is eight or more feet in diam- 
eter, and attached to it are large bamboo tubes which are fas- 
tened obliquely to the side of the wheel at the periphery. As 
the wheel is turned by the current, the bamboo tubes are filled 
with water, and as these tubes are turned to the top of the 
wheel, the water pours out in a stream and is caught by a deep 
box trough running parallel to the diameter of the wheel. 
From this trough it runs into another trough, and from thence 
to the irrigating ditch. It is interesting to watch the methodi- 
cal manner in which each bamboo in turn becomes filled with 
water, finally to spill it into the trough as it comes to the top 


of the wheel. At times may be seen two or three wheels close 
together along the banks of the river, and large quantities of 
water are raised during the day to irrigate the rice-fields. 

Fig. 672 

At one place in Kii I saw a curious implement used for weed- 
ing in rice-fields. It consisted of a long box without a bottom; 
inside the box were two shafts running from side to side, these 
shafts being studded with wooden pins; long arms or handles 
ran up from the box; and the machine was pushed through 
the rows of the rice-fields. Figure 673 gives a fair idea of its 


appearance. It was invented by a man in the village where 
we saw it used. 

The pass through the mountain chain which separates 
Izumi from Kii was very delightful; such perfect roads and 
such fine stone bridges! 

The scrupulous efforts made to protect the roads from moun- 
tain floods one observes at all times. Even the beds of brooks 
are paved like a street so that the torrents shall do no damage. 

Fig. 673 

Figure 674 gives a faint idea of the manner of protecting the 
abutments of a bridge and the brook-bed. A big dam was made 
below the bridge so as to check the too rapid flow of water. 
The bridge shown is one in the mountain pass as we left Isumi 
and entered the Province of Kii. 

I noticed a curious way of treating the roof in Izumi. After 
the thin layer of shingles is put on, a layer of mud is added, 
and a thin layer of cotton-seed is hammered into the mud with 
large wooden mallets. The seed is the refuse after the oil has 
been pressed out, and being oily, it forms a waterproof coat- 
ing until the mud has become hard and baked by the sun. 

At one place on the road where we stopped, I saw the process 


of manufacture of a curious kind of food one often sees in 
certain soups. It has a bright-yellowish color, is thin as paper, 
and has no definite flavor. The substance is made from soya 
beans by a curious and simple process. The beans are boiled in 
a large boiler till they are very soft; they are then ground in a 
mill to a fine paste, and mixed with water and colored by some 
stuff that is imported from abroad (fig. 675). This material is 
then put into a shallow trough divided by square partitions, 

beneath which is a charcoal fire which keeps the stuff gently 
boiling. The surface coagulates as it does on boiled milk, or on 
a cup of cocoa, and the film that forms is taken off very skill- 
fully with slender bamboo sticks and hung up to dry (fig. 676). 
Other films form and are promptly removed by a girl who is 
kept busily at work. 

As we entered the plains of Kii in the vicinity of Wakayama, 
the view was charming : long reaches of rice-fields, from which, 
at intervals, arose little clusters of farmhouses with black- 
tiled roofs, intermingled with brown thatch and white walls, 
and towering above them quaint-looking trees with deep, 


dark foliage, all rising out of a perfectly level carpet of the 
brightest green which extends for miles. At a long distance the 
position of Wakayama could be detected by the castle which 
looms up on the horizon and forms a conspicuous feature in 
the landscape. 

Fig. 675 

As one goes from province to province one observes a 
change in many things. The variety of tiled roof has already 
been alluded to in this journal. It is interesting to notice the 
difference in ploughs. Figure 677 shows the type of plough 
used in Kii. It is similar to the plough used in Yamashiro, but 
is not so solidly made or so graceful. 

We got to Wakayama at six o'clock in the evening. The 
city stands on a slight elevation, enfolded in the midst of 
great trees. It is a place of fifty thousand or sixty thousand 
inhabitants, yet simple and quiet. The people stared at us in 


eager fashion as we rode through the town. The number of 
foreigners who visit a place may be estimated by the quantity 
and quality of the staring one is subjected to; so we judged 
that foreigners rarely visit Wakayama. We found a clean inn, 
and good it was to get something to eat and to go to bed. The 
next morning we started out in the usual quest for pottery 
and added many pieces; the next day was a repetition of the 

Fig. 676 

In the afternoon Mr. Tahara and I rode to the little fishing 
village of Wakanoura, the village being placed just back from 
the beach with beautiful mountains towering up at a distance. 
On the slopes of one mountain was a large temple illuminated 
by the rays of the setting sun. We crossed a little bridge on 
which was a crowd of men and boys who were catching dragon 
flies in sport. They had regular insect nets, and one man, in 
order to leave his hands free, had four dragon flies in his 
mouth, his lips holding the insects by the wings turned back. 
A boy had a number held between his fingers in the same way. 


The boys tie strings between the thorax and the abdomen and 
play with them, the creatures flying and supporting several 
feet of light string. This is a boys' sport that one sees all over 

There were many signs of past grandeur in the temples and 
roads. A decayed tori-i rises up in a tangle of bushes and 

grass, the sea water coming 
to its base (fig. 678) ; a quaint 
old stone bridge spans a wide 
creek with no trace of a road 
leading to it. An evident sub- 
sidence of the land has taken 
p IG g 77 place in comparatively recent 

times and traces of man's 
work have been swallowed up by the waves. When we re- 
turned to Wakayama the moon had risen, the air was refresh- 
ingly cool, and the views were altogether delightful. The next 
day the Doctor went with us to the beach, where we had a 
grand swim. 

I noticed the remarkably good looks of the older women, 
very sweet, motherly, and intelligent faces; indeed, I may say 
that in the many places I have visited in Japan I never saw 
so many fine and intelligent old ladies as here. The children 
were also very pretty, and there is an air of culture and refine- 
ment that impresses the visitor at once. It being a three days' 
festivity in honor of their ancestors, every child was prettily 
dressed, and at night they all carried bright-colored lanterns. 
The streets were filled with booths, and such an activity of 
shouting and merriment would have been almost distracting 


if there had not been the utmost courtesy and politeness in all 
these demonstrations. We went to the fireworks one evening. 
These were given in a large enclosure made by straw mattings 
nearly twenty feet high. The pieces, though simple, were very 
beautiful, and the crowd emitted precisely the same sounds 
expressing surprise and wonder that one hears among our own 
people under similar circumstances. 

Fig. 678 

At Wakanoura I observed fishermen boiling pine bark in 
order to tan their fish nets. I asked them why they did not 
tan their boat sails, and they said that the sails did not wear 
so well if tanned. Figure 679 represents the appearance of 
this simple tannery. The fishing boats pulled up on the beach 
were somewhat different from those of other parts of Japan. 
There is a marked difference in the boats of different provinces, 
though they are all remarkably dry boats and float like an 
egg-shell in heavy seas. 


Wherever I go there is perceptible in the hum of the city 
streets certain noises that are rhythmical. You find that the 
Japanese workmen hum or sing at their work, and if the work is 
pounding, stirring with a stick or spoon, or any uniform move- 
ment, it is done with an accent and in rhythm. These noises 
may be a series of grunts, or an actual song. The gold-beaters 
and fish-choppers always beat and chop with a peculiar tempo. 
A curious preparation of raw fish has to be rubbed into a paste 
in a stone mortar. The mortar is on the ground, the pestle 
is a long pole, the man stands at his work, and he works 

with great vigor. The 
movements of stir- 
ring are accompanied 
with a peculiar whis- 
tling sound in perfect 
time to the stirring, 
which is interrupted by long and short stirs. The black- 
smiths have the hammers of the helpers tuned differently, so 
that an agreeable series of sounds is made, and when four are 
pounding in rhythm it sounds like a chime of bells. It is a 
curious trait in their character to lighten the burden of their 
labors by some pleasant sound or rhythm. 

In the country villages it is interesting to observe how unob- 
trusively the people call one another's attention to the ap- 
proach of a foreigner. They seem to know of his approach a 
long time before he passes their door. Often children go ahead 
to tell their parents; mothers call their children's attention to 
the strange sight, but in doing this they never call out loud 
or point their fingers. In Tokyo, in Kyoto, and in other large 

Fig. 679 

GOJIO 293 

cities the sight of a foreigner is too common to attract at- 
tention, though even in remote parts of the great city of 
Tokyo, one attracts some notice, and countrymen in the city 
may be recognized by their interest in you. 

Our visit to Wakayama was full of interest. We left the 
city August 31 forNara, a two days' jinrikisha ride up a most 
beautiful valley. In all 
our travels in Japan 

we have never passed 
in and out of so many 
charming and pictur- 
esque places. Toward 
evening we reached 
Gojio, a town in the 
Province of Yamato. 
On the way up the 
river I saw a regular terrace formation, in appearance pre- 
cisely like the terrace formation in the upper Connecticut 
River, but due to an entirely different cause. 

In Gojio I saw a house in that stage of construction that 
shows how the ceiling of a room is supported. One sees that 
the thin rafters upon which the cedar boards rest are alto- 
gether too weak to support the boards, no matter how thin 
they may be; a long cleat is nailed on the upper side of these 
boards and a piece is nailed to that and to the rafters of the 
roof above. The space above the ceiling and under the roof, 
which forms our attic or garret, is never utilized in the Jap- 
anese house; it is a playground for rats only. In Gojio I made 
a sketch of an engine house (fig. 680), not unlike the sketch of 

Fig. 680 


a similar house I made in Mororan, Yezo, four years ago. The 
engine hangs up under the roof and becomes dry and cracked, 
and when used at a fire it is amazing to see how the water 
squirts out of it in every direction till the wood becomes 

In the town of Yagi, Yamato, I saw a number of thatched 
roofs (fig. 681), showing a series of laps of thatch resembling 

in that feature the 
thatched roofs of Ainu 
huts in Yezo, but the 
successive edges were 
not so prominent as in 
the Ainu roof. 

We left Gojio in the 
morning, and after a 
delightful all-day ride 
reached Nara at six o'clock. After getting into the Province 
of Yamato I noticed at times in the road fragments of the 
blue, unglazed, lathe-turned pottery, dating back a thousand 
years and more. This pottery is regarded as Korean by anti- 
quarians, but the abundance of it scattered over the ground 
leads me to regard it as Japanese, though the art of making 
it was originally introduced by Korean potters. It is asso- 
ciated with tombs and caves and is mortuary. As we ap- 
proached Nara we passed the tomb of the first Emperor, 
Jimmu Tenno. It is a large, square, flat-topped mound of 
slight elevation, surrounded by a plain, substantial stone 
fence. It was intensely hot as we turned off the main road to 
examine it, and I was too tired to make any sketches. I man- 

Fig. 681 

Fig. 682 


aged to get a hasty sketch of the padlock which fastens the 

gate of the inner sanctuary, a big, heavy, brass device that 

can be unlocked only on an order from the 

Emperor (fig. 682). 
At several places along the coast at the 

entrance to a path leading back to some 

farmhouse was seen a curious device in the 

shape of a tall slender stick, on the top of 

which, inverted, was a large mushroom (fig. 

683). The stem was wrapped in paper and 

the stick below had a roll of paper about it. We 
were told that it indicated a death in the family. 
It w r as evidently peculiar to Yamato, as I never saw 
it elsewhere. Nothing was learned as to the signi- 
ficance of it. 

The various temples were very interesting. At 
one place we saw a remarkable religious dance by 
four girls, peculiarly dressed, with three priests 
I] who sang an accompaniment. 
-J In Nara the deer come down from the woods 

and roam through the streets, and I tried to feed 
them out of my hand. They were not so tame as 
the deer of Miyajima; at least, I was not able to 
get within ten feet of them, much to the disgust of 
an old woman from whom I had bought a few 
rice-balls. She coaxed in vain for the deer to ap- 
proach me. The Japanese have no difficulty in 

feeding them, but the deer recognize a foreigner at once. 
I had the same two jinrikisha men with whom I had left 

Fig. 683 


Wakayama and they were great runners. They made the dis- 
tance of twenty-nine miles with only two stops of short dura- 
tion, running all the time. At one place where we stopped a 
tall wooden screen which was leaning against the building blew 
over, and the man in the shafts tried to save it from falling on 
the jinrikisha, and in doing so lost his balance, and over the 
jinrikisha went backward, tumbling me out with my valise and 
a box of pottery. As I never hurt myself in such tumbles, I 
picked myself up all right, but it was amusing to hear the two 
men scolding each other till they found I was really laughing at 
the mishap, when they began the most hearty and satisfac- 
tory laugh I had heard for a long time, and for miles on the 
road I would give a chuckle just to hear them laugh again. 

I came up from Kobe on the steamer which conveyed a 
number of Korean ambassadors to Tokyo. They were very 
pleasant, genial men, and I quickly got acquainted with them. 
I made a few sketches of them on the sly. As a few of them 
spoke Japanese, I managed to ask them a great many ques- 
tions and to understand their answers. Two of them wore large 
goggles with colored glasses, as I supposed. They allowed me 
to examine them, and to my amazement I found that they 
were made of clear smoky-quartz crystals mounted in tor- 
toise-shell frames. I inquired about their method of releasing 
the arrow in archery and found it to be like the Japanese 
method, only an arm-guard is worn, and they do not allow the 
bow and string to revolve. The Korean pipe has a much larger 
bowl than the Japanese pipe. The Government officials wear a 
coat slit up the sides, and up the back to the shoulders, and like 
all Koreans they dress in white. Figure 684 is a sketch of one 


of the Koreans with his coat removed. The breeches are very 
baggy, and separate at the knee. Below, their legs are stuffed 
into the stockings, which are heavily wadded with cotton so 
that they bulge over the edge of the shoe. In summer this 
wadded stuff must be intolerable. The jacket is short with 
two pockets in front, and is made of a light yellow q 

nankeen-like cloth. There is no shirt. On the 
arms are sleeves reaching from the wrist to the 
elbow. These are woven in white horse-hair, and 
are intended to keep the cloth sleeves away from 
the skin. Around the head in its longest diameter 
is worn a band of black horsehair, finely woven, 
which is drawn so tightly that when taken off a 
deep line is seen on the forehead. When not wear- 
ing this band, they roll it up very carefully. It is 
perhaps two feet long, two and a half inches wide, 
with strings at the ends, and little black rings 
through which the strings pass in fastening it on 
the head. One form of official hat is in two parts: the first 
part a simple, bag-like form made of horse-hair, which has 
dangling inside, from the top, a tortoise-shell pin which is 
stuck into the stubby queue on top of the head to keep the 
hat on. Outside of this goes an affair in the form of two 
square boxes, one above the other, both flaring as in figure 
685; this is also made of horsehair. Another form of hat, and 
one most commonly seen, judging from pictures of Koreans, is 
a tall hat, the crown somewhat tapering and the rim very wide 
and slightly arching; this is made of the finest fibres of bam- 
boo and is wonderfully woven. The hat is an expensive one, 

Fig. 684 

Fig. 685 


costing fifteen or twenty dollars. Figure 686 shows it on the 
head of an elderly man. 

In Kyoto with Mr. Tahara for a few days we devoted our 
entire time to visiting the famous potters, from whom I got a 
mass of notes regarding the present and past 
generations of the families, impressions of their 
various stamps, and other information. Ro- 
kubei seemed pleased to see me again, and im- 
mediately brought the cups I had made on a 
former visit, which he had baked and glazed. 
On the bottom of the pieces I had marked 
"M," and had drawn a shell inside, and Ro- 
kubei had marked in Chinese character on the 
side, "Rokubei assisted." I gave him one of them, and he 
was polite enough to seem pleased. I secured from him a 
complete set of tools used in pottery-making. 
Figure 687 shows Rokubei's pottery from the yard. 
From Rokubei's we went to the Raku pottery 
Kichizayemon. I found a modest-appearing house. 
The old potter representing the twelfth genera- 
tion of the family, who have made for three hun- 
dred years a peculiar kind of pottery known as 
Raku, invited us in, and we introduced ourselves 
as coming from Rokubei. He kindly answered all 
my questions, and showed me a complete set of 
Raku bowls representing the work of all the gen- 
erations. I made outlines and rubbings of the marks. He 
then showed us the working place. It seems that only the 
immediate members of the family are engaged in the work, 


no outsider having anything to do with it. The oven is very 
small, and the one in which the famous bowls are baked is 
only large enough to hold one bowl. The bowls are not 
made on a lathe, but are shaped by the hand and shaved on 
the sides. He gave us powdered tea and cake, and while we 
were drinking, a cunning little child came to me to be hugged. 

In his room he had a letter mounted as a kakemono. This 
letter was from Kato Kiyomasa, a famous general in the 
time of Taiko, who had the reputation of having killed a tiger 
with a blow of his fist. The letter was addressed to the first 
generation of the Raku asking him to make some tea-bowls. 
The letter had been sacredly preserved through all the gener- 
ations of the family. He also showed me a piece of pottery 
made by the first Raku. It represented a mythological lion, 
and had also come down as a precious heirloom of the founder 
of the family. It seems that when Nobunaga was defeated and 



his palace burned to the ground, the first Raku saved this 
piece from the ruins. I made a hasty sketch of the old man 
and the Nobunaga no Shishi as he was reverently telling me 
the story (fig. 688). 

The next day we visited Yeiraku, one of the famous potters 
of Japan. Here we were as cordially welcomed as at the other 

potteries. Powdered tea and 
cake were offered us, and Yei- 
raku listened with great at- 
tention to my inquiries, and 
then gave me a complete his- 
tory of the family, of which he 
represents the thirteenth gen- 
eration. While Mr. Tahara was 
recording his conversation, 
which will appear in my pot- 
tery journal, I made a sketch 
of the room in which we were. 
The marvelous square oak 
panels in the ceiling were the 
most beautiful I had ever seen. 
At Yeiraku's I noticed an in- 
teresting treatment of wall plaster. Directly after its appli- 
cation to the wall iron filings are blown upon it, and these 
particles oxidizing, give a warm, brown tinge. 

From Yeiraku's we went to another Kiyomizu potter, Zo- 
roku, and there for the first time I discovered where all the 
counterfeit Ninsei, Asahi, and other famous potteries had 
been made. The curious feature about the matter was that 

Fig. 688 


the potter and his brother did not seem at all ashamed at the 
counterfeiting they were doing. They showed me specimens 
of their father's work, among which were bowls with the 
Ninsei mark! 

After Zoroku we visited Kitei, who represents the fourth 
generation of his family, and here we were very kindly re- 
ceived and every facility was given us to examine his work. 1 
His furnace had the same general aspect of all the others; a 
series of lateral ovens built on the side of a hill. Potters often 
bake in one another's ovens. Zoroku bakes all his pottery in 
Kitei's oven and Yeiraku bakes in an oven some distance from 
his house. 

I again visited Bairei's drawing-school and house, and for 
two hours enjoyed watching the deft way in which the pu- 
pils work. It seemed an awkward position to be down on the 
floor with knees bent under the body, yet Bairei told me that 
the pupils would hold this position for hours apparently with- 
out fatigue. The work consists in copying from other draw- 
ings. Much of the preliminary work is done by tracing and in 
every case a brush is used. The paper is not thin enough to 
see the drawing distinctly, and so it is lifted up at almost every 
touch of the brush. The paper is held down by a paper-weight 
at the head of the sheet. In beginning, the brush is filled with 
the paint, a proper point is made by trying the brush on an- 
other sheet, and if there is too much paint it is sucked out 
of the brush at the base, so as not to spoil the point. 

At the temple of Nanzenji, at Kyoto, the priests showed me 
a small collection of pottery, none of which appeared remark- 

Kitei's garden is figured in Japanese Homes, p. 255. 


able. A tea-room, built by a famous chajin, Kobori Enshiu, 
two hundred and fifty years ago, was a good illustration of the 
simplicity of design in accordance with the plainness and aus- 
terity of the tea-ceremony cult. 

At Osaka the Doctor had discovered an interesting temple 
pond in which were hundreds of turtles of different sizes. 
Near a little stone bridge which spans the pond is a booth 
where one can buy hollow balls, in the form of lanterns, made 
of rice-flour of which the turtles are very fond. When these 
balls are thrown into the water, it is curious to see the turtles 

race for one, snapping at it 
again and again, only to throw 
it farther away, and so they 
chase it till it gets water- 
soaked, or until it is driven 
against the stone wall bordering the pond, where it is quickly 
broken and devoured (fig. 689). The lanterns are colored red 
or white, and as the turtles stream across the pond in pursuit 
they form a sort of procession with the lanterns at the head 
of it. These objects are sold at the rate of five for a cent, and 
one may spend some time feeding the turtles. The way they 
snap reminds one of the game of biting at an apple suspended 
by a cord from the ceiling. 

While in Osaka a Japanese invited me to go with him to the 
rice exchange, as I would see a very curious sight. As I ap- 
proached the building I heard a curious babel of shouts which 
reminded me of the corn exchange in Chicago. As we entered 
the building there was the same turbulent crowd of brokers 
and speculators gesticulating, flinging up their hands, and 

Fig. 689 


shouting at the top of their voices. In amazement I asked of 
my Japanese when the custom was imported, and he in turn 
was amazed when I told him that just such gatherings might 

Fig. 690 

be seen in Chicago, New York, and Boston, and other large 
cities. These men were rice brokers, and identical conditions 
and demands had resulted in identical behavior. 

The dirt carts of Kobe are odd-looking, three-wheeled vehi- 
cles, with a little centre wheel, far in front, consisting of a 
solid block of wood, and the two main wheels of wood solid 


throughout. The axle is fixed, the wheels turning on it. The 
tire consists of hard wooden pegs partially driven in, and be- 
tween these projecting portions a straw rope is wound about 
the pegs, for what purpose I did not learn, unless to prevent 
the pegs from sinking far into the roadway. Figure 690 repre- 
sents a side view and plan. The cart is drawn by a bull. 



Miyaoka tells me that in writing a letter no punctuation is 
used. As the letter is written in Chinese characters, it is con- 
sidered impolite to punctuate, for that would assume that 
your friend could not read Chinese properly. In print, the 
sentences are always marked by a circle, or a figure like a capi- 
tal L to show the end of a paragraph. The circle is used in 
Chinese classics, while the L is used in other text. 

In addressing a letter in former times the name of the sender 
was written directly under the name of the receiver; at the 
present time the name of the sender is written on the other 
side of the letter. Some old-fashioned people will not receive a 
letter if the sender's name is not given. In past times letters 
written to women were directed simply to the master of the 
house. Furthermore, a letter directed to the master of the 
house may be opened and read by his wife, his son, or his inti- 
mate friend, unless it is marked on the outside, "Please open 
it yourself," the equivalent of "Personal." Before envelopes 
were adopted a sheet of paper as a wrapper was folded in 
a peculiar way. The outlines from 1 to 15, in figure 691, 
show the various stages of this folding. The sheet is first 
folded as in 1, 2, 3, and then unfolded as in 7 and 8; the letter 
is then put in and the envelope sheet is again folded, but in a 
different way, the creases already made being a guide. 

In the province of Yamato I observed very effective meth- 


ods of arranging ornamental tiles to form borders on the roofs 
of porches and gateways, methods from which our architects 
might get suggestions. In Yamato greater use is made of tiles 
for ornamental purposes than in other provinces I have visited. 




\1 A 



Fig. 691 

The ornamental flat tile does not seem to be used to any ex- 
tent. A few are seen only in garden walks; at Rokubei's I 
noticed them in the garden. 

In our country we have bad spellers among those who are 
otherwise scholarly. In Japan the same condition is found, 
and there are scholars who cannot write the Chinese charac- 


ters correctly. It is enough to paralyze the brain of an ordi- 
nary man to think of the monumental load a Japanese has to 
carry, to remember the thousands of characters as well as the 
Chinese name of the character and the equivalent in Japanese. 
Not only this, but each character has its written script, its 
seal form, as well as the square form, as in our alphabet 
where we have the capital B, for example, the written script, 
the old English script, and any fanciful monogram. The 
foreign student of Japanese history is perplexed at the differ- 
ent names that one historical character may have. This fea- 
ture has often perplexed me in the names of famous potters 
and artists. All samurai have first a clan name, which is the 
name of the ancient family from which they have descended, 
or to which they belonged in feudal times. This name is called 
the sei. They have also the family name, which is called the 
uji, and a name which is analogous to our Christian name, 
called the tsusho. A scholastic name is also given them, which 
is called the go, and even another scholastic name known as 
azana. Still another name is used for drafts, petitions, deeds, 
contracts, etc., called the imina. 1 And finally, not to leave 
them in peace even then, they have a name given by the 
priest after death, and this name is known as the kaimio. As 
an illustration, the famous historian, Rai Sanyo, 2 who died 
fifty years ago had the following names : — 

Sei, clan name, Minamoto. 

Uji, family name, Rai. 

1 Hepburn's Dictionary says this name is used after the age of fifteen. 

2 This name is included with the names of other distinguished scholars on the 
Boston Public Library Building. 


Tsusho, equivalent to Christian name, Kyutaro. 

Go, scholastic name, Sanyo. 

Azana, additional scholastic name, Shisei. 

Imina, legal name for contracts, etc., Jio. 

Kaimio, name after death, not known by my informant. 1 

At Miss Nagai's house this afternoon, and made a sketch 
of the end of the thatched roof. 2 Her brother, Mr. Masuda, 
told me that the material for the thatch was a peculiar kind of 
reed which costs more and lasts much longer than the ordinary 
straw used for thatching. Such roofs are very heavy and abso- 
lutely water-tight. The Japanese roof, thatched or tiled, is so 
unlike anything we have in our domestic architecture that one 
is tempted to sketch it all the time. The roofs vary greatly 
and each province has its peculiar types. It seems a pity that 
our architects do not break away from the stiff, straight 
lines of our ridge-pole and eaves. Along the St. Lawrence 
River the French-Canadian houses are built with the eaves 
slightly curved upward which gives a certain grace to their 

My friend Takenaka, at my request, collected during his 
summer vacation records of a number of superstitions and cus- 
toms among the lower classes; these he gives me from a note- 
book from time to time when I am not too tired to write. The 
Japanese have no general name for superstition, but a su- 
perstitious person is called a gohei-katsugi; a curiously cut 
paper which the Shinto priests carry is called a gohei, and 

1 I have material of this nature to fill a thousand pages, and find but little time 
for recording. My pottery journal exceeds this journal already, and I shall have 
enough material to make an interesting book on Japanese pottery. 

2 See Japanese Homes, fig. 83. 


katsugi means to carry. One who carries such a thing is re- 
garded as superstitious. 

When a person dies it is customary for the friends of the 
deceased to bring presents to the family, generally of money 
in an envelope, and the strings of this envelope must be 
black and white, and not red and white, as red is an emblem 
of happiness, the red string, or cord, always being seen on 
infants' clothing. The knot must be tied in a square knot 
and not in a bow or other form of knot. The envelope is 
usually marked "for flowers," or "for senko" which is an in- 
cense stick. The money may, however, be used for anything. 
Food and candy may be brought in a lacquer box, the recipi- 
ent taking them out and putting them on a plate and then 
depositing in the lacquer box a single sheet of paper folded 
once or twice, or in lieu of paper two thin sheets of wood. 
These offerings are made while the corpse is still in the house, 
or directly after the funeral. If there is great grief in the 
house, or the person has just died, no paper is put into the box, 
which is carefully cleaned by the recipient; on other occasions 
it is not cleaned. 

The Buddhist priest comes to pray every seventh day for 
forty-nine days. After the funeral the master or mistress 
gives each visitor five cakes made of wheat, and after thirty- 
five days nine cakes are sent to the house of each visitor. 
Mention has been made of the color red as a sign of happi- 
ness; rice colored red is served on festival days. The god of 
poverty does not like red rice, or black tofu, and this food is 
therefore put on the god shelf, or in the tokonoma, to drive 
away this evil spirit. 


Each year has a special name. This (1882) is the year of the 
horse. Any one born in the year of the ox must not eat eel 
after he is fifteen years old. A child born when the father is 
forty-one years old is not considered a good child ; that is, the 
child will be disobedient. In such an event the parent goes to 
a friend with the child and tells him he is going to put the child 
away and will the friend kindly take it; in the mean time the 
child is left in the street. The friend takes it and carries it 
home. The next day the parent brings a present and says, 
" I have no child; will you give me your child?" This is done, 
the same child, however, being given back again; and this 
ridiculous performance is supposed to free the child from the 
evil destiny in store. The present made on the occasion usu- 
ally consists of katsubushi (fish dried as hard as wood), and 
this present has not attached to it the usual noshi. All pres- 
ents of fish are made without the noshi (a paper folded in a 
peculiar way with a dried bit of Haliotis meat enclosed). In 
regard to eating eel, it is supposed that the child over fifteen 
who eats it will not be intelligent or rise in life. 

On the 15th of August (old calendar) a man must remain 
where he is until the 13th of September. If urgent business 
requires, he may go away, but must return to the place on the 
13th of September. On these days cake must be offered to the 
moon. On the 15th of every month a man must contemplate 
the moon and make offerings of flowers and cake. On days in 
which the figure 1 occurs, as on the 1st, 11th, 21st, trees must 
not be cut down; on days in which the figure 2 occurs, as 2d, 
12th, 22d, the power of fire is very strong, so for a counter- 
irritant in rheumatism mogusa is used, as its heat is more 


powerful ; on days in which the figure 3 occurs, the ground 
of a garden must not be dug; on days in which the number 
4 appears, bamboo must not be cut down; on days with num- 
ber 5, food — such as rice, peas, or any kind of seed — must 
not be carried home, nor must rice be bought on these days ; 
on days containing the figure 6, wells must not be cleaned out; 
on days with 7, strangers must not be invited to the house; 
on days with 8, marriage must not be talked about, else the 
parties will afterwards separate; on days with 9 it is consid- 
ered good luck to eat eggplant. The 9th of September is 
deemed especially good, as September is also the ninth month, 
and wine bottles in the shape of an eggplant are used on this 
day. On days with the 10, as 10th, 20th, 30th, the latrine 
must not be cleaned. The penalty for all these offenses is un- 
happiness or bad luck. 

In serving daikon, a kind of radish, two pieces are always 
put upon the plate, one piece is called hitokiri, meaning one 
piece; it also means "man cut"; three pieces is called mikire, 
and also means "body cut." Eggplants and other vegetables, 
except daikon, must be cut longitudinally and not trans- 
versely, because cutting transversely seems cruel. 

In presenting cake the cake must rest on a folded sheet of 
paper, as numbers divided by two are considered lucky; when 
mochi cakes are given they must be presented in numbers of 
2, 4, 6, 8, etc. 

Sprinkling salt is considered purifying, and the accidental 
spilling of salt is regarded as good luck. Returning from a 
funeral, salt is sprinkled on the person by a servant. 

In sleeping the head is turned to the south as the proper 


thing; when a person is dangerously sick, or dead, the head 
must point to the north. Wherr buried in a sitting position the 
body may face in any direction. 

When the lobe of the ear is large, it is a sign of a happy dis- 

If the second toe is longer than the first toe, it is a sign that 
you are to occupy a higher position than your father; a long 
tongue or arm is the sign of a thief. 

Left-handed persons aire caused by the mother, when first 
dressing the baby, putting the left hand and arm through the 
kimono first. 

If you sneeze once, it is a sign that some one is praising 
you; if twice, that you are loved by a woman; if three times, 
that people are talking about you, in praise, or otherwise; if 
four times, that you have taken cold. In the Province of 
Bizen one sneeze is a sign that you are disliked; two sneezes, 
that you are loved; three and four, that you have taken 

If the left ear itches, a man will hear good news; if the right 
ear, the news will be bad; with women the signs are reversed. 

If an incrustation gathers on the lamp-wick, it is a sign that 
somebody is coming. The shallow plate holding -the oil and 
wick is held by another plate, and if the incrustation can be 
got into the lower plate, it is a sign that the person coming is 
going to bring a present. 1 

If a crow caws on a house-top, it is a sign that somebody is 
dead within the house. 

1 A similar superstition is found in America and Great Britain, and probably 
on the Continent. 


The finger nails must not be cut at night, as it is a sign that 
one is going crazy. 

If children spill rice on the dress, or mats, they must eat it; 
otherwise they may become blind. 

A man about to commit hara-kiri is helped to rice, using the 
cover of the box as a tray and not in the usual way. 

If one's head itches, it is a sign of being happy; if dandruff 
falls, it is a sign of intelligence. 

If it thunders a little in summer, it is a sign of many danger- 
ous insects in the rice-field. 

When a person is getting poor and unfortunate, the expres- 
sion is used, "Anoshito no uchi wa hidari mai ni nam"; that 
is, "The man of the house folds his kimono to the left," which 
is considered unlucky. A corpse is dressed with the kimono 
folded to the left. 

In order to keep sickness away from the house, particularly 
smallpox, the character for horse, painted three times on paper 
and stuck over the door, is considered very efficacious. An 
ink impression of the hand made on paper and displayed over 
the door will also answer the purpose. 

At Chusenji I noticed hanging over the fireplace four foetal 
deer: these were dried and discolored by smoke, and were sup- 
posed to be efficacious for women in sickness following child- 

If you find a comb in the street, before picking it up you 
must step toward it with your left foot; otherwise you will go 
through the world whining and crying. 

A man must not marry a girl four years older or four years 
younger than himself; otherwise domestic trouble will arise. 


Any other number of years older or younger makes no differ- 

In mixing mustard you must stir it with an angry face, and 
this will make the mustard strong and stinging; if you smile 
during the operation the mustard will be mild. 

One who prays to a certain god (Miyoken) must refrain 
from eating eight kinds of food; otherwise the god will not an- 
swer his prayers. These foods are eel, turtle, catfish, carp, wild 
duck, goose, onions, and another vegetable of a similar nature. 

The ages of 3, 7, 19, 25, 42, 52, and 53 are especially bad 
years for a man; and for women the ages of 16, 25, 33, 56, and 
57 are bad; as a general rule, too, years ending in the num- 
bers 7 and 9 are considered bad. 

One year after the death of a person the family meet for a 
solemn ceremony; also in the 3d year, the 7th, 13th, 17th, 25th, 
33d, 100th, and after this every fifty years. 

The crow sings in the early morning ka! ka! which means 
"wife"; hence the wife must get up before the husband 

At a funeral visitors have their names recorded on a sheet of 
paper. The brush used for this purpose must be pushed 
through the sheath the wrong way; hence, doing this act at any 
other time is bad luck. When the body is carried out of the 
house, the men performing this function do not remove their 
clogs as they enter or leave; hence, if one is seen trying on his 
new clogs on the mat, his friend will say, "Please do not do it; 
it is a bad sign." 

If tea-leaves float vertically in a cup, it is a sign that good 
fortune will come or that good news will be received. It is cus- 
tomary for dancing-girls to take these leaves and put them in 


the left sleeve, accompanying the act with a sipping sound 
like the chirp of a mouse to insure the good omen. 

A string tied round the wrist and ankle is supposed to pre- 
vent one from taking cold. 

If a weasel crosses the road in front of a superstitious man, 
he immediately turns back and gives up the object of his jour- 
ney; or if it is of great importance he must take another road. 

If two funerals meet, it is a sign of good luck for both; if 
one overtakes another, it is a sign of bad luck. 

If the cord by which the clog is held to the foot breaks be- 
hind, it is considered lucky; if it breaks in front, it is bad luck. 

There is a belief that the crane in its flight across the seas 
from Korea carries in its feet a certain plant, so that when the 
bird alights on the water it uses the plant as a float. 

The dragon is supposed to go heavenward in a water spout, 
and it was believed that if one got even a glimpse of its leg or 
foot he would become a great man. 

The Japanese have many curious superstitions about the 
fox. People who are insane are believed to be possessed by 
the fox, the spirit of which gets into the body by way of the 
finger nail; that is, the spirit is supposed to pass in under the 
finger nail and this makes them act as they do. The Govern- 
ment in past times made provision for the maintenance of the 
insane, the family having to look after them; when violent 
they were kept in cages. Among the lower classes the belief 
in the fox has full sway, and stories are told of men who have 
fed foxes becoming rich through good luck. It is believed that 
if one keeps young foxes in a cage and feeds them properly, he 
will become prosperous. 


Since foreigners have brought science among the people 
these superstitions are rapidly passing away. 

I asked Takenaka what men did after retirement. He said 
that, generally speaking, a man in comfortable circumstances 
will retire from business when he is sixty years old. He en- 
trusts all his business duties to his son, lives in retirement, 
and usually has some hobby of collecting, such as rare plants 
and ferns, pottery, or stone implements, etc. He gets up at 
five o'clock in the summer, six o'clock in the winter; fire is 
built in the hibachi to heat water in an iron kettle ready for 
tea, which is made strong; he has yokan, a kind of jelly, and 
miso soup made of fermented bean; he composes a Japanese 
poem; he calls on an old friend or is called upon at nine 
o'clock; he plays the game of go all day. If he is a sake drinker, 
he will begin to drink at nine o'clock and keep it up until he 
goes to bed. During the day he may take a long walk to some 
park or other beautiful feature in the country. 

Takenaka has been informed by the Chief of the Sanitary 
Bureau that during the Tokugawa Shogunate the drinking of 
sake was much more common than at present. At that time 
sake was always offered to a friend when calling, and it was 
considered an offense to refuse it. Now tea is offered instead, 
and if sake is offered, one may drink it or not, as he pleases, 
without offense. At that time one cup was used in a convivial 
company and the cup had to be emptied when passing. Now 
each has his own sake cup and can regulate his desires without 
restraint. Sake drinkers are not fond of sweet things such as 
cake and candy. 

The word for interesting or curious is omoshiroi, which lit- 


erally means "white face," coming down from olden times 
when a white face was a curious sight. Nowadays the comic 
papers use the word omokuroi for "interesting," the word 
meaning "black face." 

Japanese society is now officially divided into upper, middle, 
and lower classes. Japanese now address jinrikisha men and 
other laborers in more gentle fashion than formerly. 

Professor Toyama informed me the other day that he and 
Professor Yatabe and another friend had been for some time 
engaged in translating the works of Shakespeare and other 
authors. These are published and eagerly read by the Japa- 
nese. Thus far they have already translated the following: 
Hamlet's soliloquy; Cardinal Wolsey's soliloquy; Henry 
the Fourth's soliloquy; Gray's "Elegy"; Longfellow's 
"Psalm of Life"; Tennyson's "Charge of the Light Brigade"; 
and they are at work on others. The Japanese have in the 
past translated many books from the English, French, and 
German ; indeed, when the Dutch first went to Nagasaki, in 
the last years of the sixteenth century, the Japanese schol- 
ars, with the most painful efforts, learned Dutch in order to 
translate Dutch books on history, medicine, anatomy, and 
other subjects. The character of some of the books already 
translated is interesting. Professor Toyama gave me a list 
from memory of some of these translations from the English: 
Darwin's "Descent of Man," and "Origin of Species"; Hux- 
ley's "Man's Place in Nature"; Spencer's "Education" (of 
which thousands were sold); Montesquieu's "Spirit of Law"; 
Rousseau's "Social Contract"; Mill's "On Liberty," "Three 
Essays on Religion," and "Utilitarianism"; Bentham's 


"Legislation"; Lieber's "Civil Liberty and Self -Govern- 
ment"; Spencer's "Social Statics," "Principles of Sociology," 
"Representative Government," and "Legislation"; Paine's 
"Age of Reason," and Burke's "Old Whig and the New"; 
of this last book over ten thousand copies have already been 

In translating I have often observed that the Japanese in- 
stantly recognize a Chinese character upside down, but in 
reading an obscure mark on pottery they turn the character 
right side up in preference. 



August 6. In the afternoon Dr. Bigelow and I, accompan- 
ied by Mr. Takenaka as interpreter, started from Tokyo for 
Kabutoyama, some forty or fifty miles, to visit Mr. Negishi 
and to inspect certain caves near where he lived. We spent 
the night at the little village of Shirako. Our rooms looked out 
on a quaint little garden with a veritable waterfall, whose 
music lulled us to sleep. In the evening the two girls who had 
waited upon us at supper came in and played games with us. 
Such a good-natured, jolly, laughing set of servants cannot be 
found elsewhere in the world. They are ready to entertain 
guests with their wit and fun, and yet never for a moment pre- 
sume upon your familiarity. . The next morning we were off at 
nine, and had one of the most delightful rides we have had in 
Japan. The day was cool, the sun shaded by clouds, which did 
not threaten rain, however. We reached Kawagoe at noon, 
and had dinner at the house of an uncle of Takenaka, who had 
a hardware shop on the main business street, and we passed 
through the little shop to pleasant rooms behind with the cus- 
tomary garden. The family were very attentive to us, and 
were for the first time entertaining foreigners. After hearty 
good-byes we were off for Kabutoyama. 

We had had from Tokyo two men to a jinrikisha and that 
makes a great difference in the speed of traveling and in the 
delight of it too. Some portions of the road were still muddy 


from the recent rains, and in one place we crossed a broad 
river where evidences of the recent flood were seen fifteen 
to twenty feet above its present level. Houses in the vicin- 
ity of the ferry had been submerged to their ridge-poles. 
When we got within half a mile of Mr. Negishi's estate, we 
were met by a gentleman who politely informed us that Mr. 
Negishi was expecting us. As we got nearer the house, three 
other gentlemen and Mr. Negishi's only boy were in the road 
awaiting us. We immediately alighted from our jinrikishas and 
exchanged the most formal bows with them, and they hur- 
ried after us as we rode rapidly along. Approaching the gate- 
way of the house, Mr. Negishi, with his family and a number 
of servants, stood bowing and giving us a delightful and hos- 
pitable welcome. We were conducted at once across a spacious 
courtyard to a suite of rooms in a house by itself. Such perfect 
cleanliness, everything sweet; the courtyard so immaculate 
that the indentations of our heels in the smooth, hard earth 
disturbed us. Dinner was soon served, and the Doctor and I 
agreed that it was the best dinner we had had in Japan; most 
delicious soups, and refreshing raw fish, of which the Doc- 
tor has become very fond. We learned afterwards that Mr. 
Negishi had sent fifteen miles for a famous cook. It was late be- 
fore we arose from the floor, and our beds were already made 
up with silk futons in great, high-studded rooms with rare 
carvings over the screens, and all in perfect taste. The guest- 
house we occupied formed a part of an irregular group of build- 
ings which enclosed the large courtyard. It was a separate 
building, and like the others was nearly three hundred years 
old. The thatch on the roof is made of a special kind of rush, 


quite expensive and said to last fifty years or more. The ridge- 
pole of wood and other portions were painted black, and the 
whole structure was very neatly and elaborately made. 1 

The. next morning I was up before the others and made 
many sketches about the premises. The great courtyard sur- 
rounded by various buildings is typical of the residences of the 
wealthy farmer class, who, though not samurai, stand above 
the ordinary farmer class. After breakfast we examined the 
large collection of pottery Mr. Negishi had collected in the 
neighborhood, dating back twelve hundred years or more. 
There were two types, a light-reddish, soft pottery and the 
hard, bluish-gray pottery so commonly found in ancient 
graves. I never before dreamed of the existence of such tran- 
quil, charming people. Refinement and culture were shown 
in their every word and act; no affectation, no unnatural 
restraint, attentions bestowed with ease and sympathy. Mr. 
Negishi's mother, an old lady of eighty, was interested in hav- 
ing me sit beside her, and through an interpreter asked me 
many questions, all very intelligent. Her interesting que- 
ries were such as a refined and cultivated lady at home might 
ask a Japanese. A foreigner had never been in the house be- 
fore, and the sight of one was a rare event in this out-of-the- 
way village. It was a hot day, and whenever I sat down the 
two daughters would fan me, and their shy and half-fright- 
ened manner was curious to witness. It is a delightful custom, 

Just before we bade good-bye to our charming hosts, and 
while the jinrikisha men were waiting, Mr. Negishi crossed 

1 The main house, kitchen, and interior are carefully drawn in Japanese Homes. 


the courtyard to a little room opposite, and I could see him 
busily engaged in writing. I supposed he was writing a mes- 
sage he wanted us to carry to Tokyo. To my surprise it 
was a letter to me and it was presented to me on my saying 
good-bye. The act represented an old custom of Japan and 
one that we might adopt. Here is a translation of the letter : — 


Kabutoyama, Musashi, Japan, 

August 8, 12th year of Meiji. 
Dear Sir: — 

It was a long time ago that I began to hear your name on 

the island of Nippon in the eastern ocean, but I did not expect 

to have you come and examine the caves which are situated 

between Osato-gori and Yokomi-gori, in the Province of 

Musashi, and that I should have the honor to receive you at 

my cottage, which was built three hundred years ago, and in 

which I had the pleasure of showing you my collection of old 

pottery and stone implements. Now, if we should turn our 

eyes to the condition of our country thirty years ago, what 

would we see? We would see that the people both in our island 

and across the seas could not avoid doubting and suspecting 

each other, but at present we have reached such a degree of 

friendship that I have had the privilege of spending these days 

with you. For this reason I have permitted my brush to creep 

on, and in view of the deep friendship existing between our 

two countries I wish you long and continued prosperity, 

With respect, your friend, 

T. Negishi. 


We started for the caves — a long, hot walk in the sun. I 
had for a close companion Mr. Negishi's dear little boy, who 
entertained me by describing many objects along the road, 
and some of the conversation I understood. He was a perfect 
little gentleman and seemed to feel the responsibility of his 
position as successor to his father's great estates. A bridge 
on the road which had been damaged by the storm had been 
repaired, and the most minute attention had been given to 
our wants and comforts. The day before Mr. Negishi had 
workmen cut out all the paths leading to the caves, greatly 
facilitating our examination of them, and full notes were made. 
The caves were on the face of a precipice; they were originally 
burial caves, but had been repeatedly occupied by refugees. 
Whatever relics they had contained had long since disap- 

In the afternoon we started for Kawagoe, where we were to 
pass the night with Takenaka's relatives. Mr. Negishi and 
his friends went some way with us in their jinrikishas, and 
formal good-byes were made when we parted. 

Again on the road, and another absolutely perfect day, and 
such varied scenery! Of all the roads in Japan the road from 
Tokyo to Kabutoyama, by way of Kawagoe, seemed about 
the most diversified and beautiful. It was like a garden, rich 
in luxurious farms, long stretches of rice-fields over which we 
got wonderful views of Fuji, beautiful old farmhouses, courte- 
ous people. We passed a group of children just out of school, 
and they stood by the side of the road and bowed politely to 
us as we passed them. I have noticed the same behavior of 
children in Satsuma and in the pottery districts in Kyoto. 


When we got back to Kawagoe, where we were to spend the 
night, Mr. Takenaka had arranged to have me give a lecture 
on the ancient people of Japan. With the aid of a blackboard 
I explained the shell heaps and other evidences of an ancient 
race. Figure 692 is a reproduction of the lecture announce- 
ment, which I took down from the tea-house 
as I came away. We sat up with the family 
till midnight playing games, and the hearty 
way in which the two girls, cousins of Ta- 
kenaka, and the other members of the family, 
entered into the fun was delightful. The sit- 
ting on a mortar with one foot balanced on 
the other and lighting one candle from an- 
other created the greatest merriment. We 
were the first foreigners that had ever been 
^\ "fTOT * n ^ e t° wn > anc * one woman came to the 

^ „™ house just to look at us. After a profound 
Fig. 692 J ^ 

bow she said that ten years before she had 

gone to Yokohama expressly to see a foreigner, but had never 

seen one since that time. 

The next morning Takenaka's uncle cooked the choicest 

portions of our breakfast, as indeed he had our supper the 

night before. Takenaka had given to him by his aunt a jar 

full of cooked grasshoppers to eat as a relish on his rice. The 

Doctor and I ate a number of them and found them very good; 

the taste resembled that of shrimps. It is a common custom 

in this part of the country to eat grasshoppers as a relish, and 

there is no reason why we should not utilize our grasshoppers 

in this way at home; the insect was apparently precisely like 


our common grasshopper. The Japanese prepare them by 
boiling them in shoyu, sugar, and a little water, till the water 
has nearly all boiled away. After breakfast we visited a little 
temple, which corresponded to our country meeting-house 
at home. The interior was like a precious cabinet with the 
most beautiful and elaborate carvings, every last fragment 
of which would in our country be exhibited in our art museums 
behind plate glass. The thought was startling when I tried 

Fig. 693 

to realize what bit could be secured as an art object from 
our country meeting-houses ! We also visited a large building 
where fifty or more girls were engaged in reeling silk from 
cocoons. As we passed through the factory we were greeted 
with modest bows and an atmosphere of good-breeding. 

After a hurried lunch our host and his brother and the two 
nieces in jinrikishas accompanied us to the boundary of the 
town, and then in a little tea-house we drank a parting cup of 
tea and bade good-bye. On our way out of town we visited a 
temple where stands a huge coil of rope over six feet in height 
and three feet in diameter, and this rope was made of human 


hair! Hanging from the ceiling were a large number of tresses 
and queues representing sacrifices in pledging certain vows, 
or expiatory offerings. 

Figure 693 shows a peculiar shovel made of wood tipped 
with iron. The shovel part was over three feet in length and 
the handle seven feet long. It is used through the western 
part of this province (Musashi) and seems to take the place of 
the plough. It was interesting to observe that in the old 
houses here, as at home, the timbers were large and ponder- 
ous, for wood was cheaper in early times, and there was the 
lack of knowledge, perhaps, to make an equally strong frame 
with less material. The traveler often notices the very high 
polish of the wood floor in country houses and inns, and par- 
ticularly in the flight of steps leading to the second story. I 
learned that the polish was obtained by using water from the 
bathtub to wash the floors; the oily substance in the bath- 
water after using giving the high polish. 



October 18. There came to my room two Koreans, father 
and son. The father was a prominent Government officer in 
Korea, and in the late revolt had to flee for his life; the son has 
been studying Japanese in a Tokyo school, and is a friend of 
Miyaoka. Miyaoka had arranged with the young man to 
bring his father, from whom I was to get, if possible, informa- 
tion in regard to certain subjects, such 
as antiquities, pottery ovens, arrow 
release, etc. They presented their 
visiting cards (fig. 694). The father 
was very quiet and dignified, but 
thoroughly interested in my questions 
in a sober kind of way; the son was 
very handsome, and had that pecu- 
liar sweetness that so many Japanese m "^"^ * ¥ * * 
faces present. Both had beautiful 

brown eyes; both were subdued and sad, as if they realized 
the dreadful degradation and decay of their country from 
its past intellectual eminence, when it had taught Japan many 
of its arts. It was somewhat difficult to interrogate the father, 
from whom I was to obtain the information desired. I would 
first speak to Miyaoka, who would translate into Japanese 
to the son, who would in turn translate into Korean to his 
father, who did not understand a word of Japanese, and the 

f f 

L £ 


answers would come back through the same interrupted 
channel. The contrasts in the sounds of the Korean and Jap- 
anese languages, were marked and interesting. At times they 
seemed to sound like French; a mixture of French, Chinese, 
and Japanese would well illustrate the sounds. The respect- 
ful and dignified way in which the son always addressed his 
father was marked. Question after question was asked, and 
it was slow and tedious work, as it ran through the gamut of 
English, Japanese, and Korean and back through Korean, 
Japanese, and English. Pottery is still made in Korea, both 
the white stone and blue decorated kinds, and soft pottery, 
all of the poorest quality. The pottery oven is built on the 
side of a hill, and, judging from a poor sketch the father 
made, is not unlike the Japanese oven. If there is no hill, an 
incline is built for it. Much pottery is lost in the baking, 
as in the lower portion it is over-baked and at the upper end 
the heat is insufficient. The lathe is the kick wheel, such as 
is used in Hizen, Higo, and Satsuma, where the device was 
introduced by Koreans in past times. Large jars are made 
up of rings of clay superimposed one upon another and then 
welded together by hand. Inside, a stamp is used, cut in 
squares or circles, and impressions on the inside of large ob- 
jects may often be seen. I showed the father a number of 
pieces which Mr. Kohitsu had pronounced Korean and he 
recognized them as such. He had seen only one in Korea 
like some of the forms from ancient graves which I had in 
my collection, and this one had been taken from an ancient 
burial-place. He had never heard of dolmens or shell heaps, 
and he added that the study of archaeology was not known in 


Korea and very few old things had been preserved; he had 
heard of caves, some of large size, with evidences of previ- 
ous occupation. The comma-shaped ornament known as 
magatama, found in ancient burial-places in Japan, he had 
never seen in Korea. 

In archery the Korean uses the left as well as the right hand 
in drawing the arrow, and the left hand is considered the bet- 
ter; in illustrating the method the father used the left hand. 
The bow is grasped firmly and an arm-guard is worn. A 
thumb-ring of either bone or metal is worn. The Korean often 
practices at a hundred and sixty paces, which is probably 
greater than the York round of a hundred yards. The father 
made a model of the thumb-ring by cutting it out of paper. 
He seemed to have no facility with a pencil, but invariably got 
a piece of paper and folded it up, or bent it, or cut it with the 
scissors, to illustrate what he wanted to explain. Dr. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes once told me that he could not do anything 
with a pencil, but could always cut out of paper with scissors 
any model he wislied to make. Some of the Korean bows are 
of immense strength, and Korean archers particularly train 
their muscles by various exercises to draw their powerful bows. 
It was pathetic to listen to the Korean's frank avowal of the 
absence of all archaeological interest in Korea; he said the only 
relics they had to show were themselves, and laughed rather 
sadly when he said it. They look upon the Japanese as the 
advance guards of Western civilization, and if the hatred that 
the ordinary Korean has for the Japanese can be modified, it 
will be a great day for Korea. The Japanese can teach them 
the many features acquired from the Eastern barbarian. 


Figure 695 represents the appearance of the Japanese floor 
as it is seen raised from the ground. The upright portion has 
panels which are often ornamented by simple designs of bam- 
boo, pine, or conventional fig- 
ures cut in stencil. These panels 

===^^it§S> are often removable, and space 

FlG 695 is secured below the floor for 

f sandals, umbrellas, and the like. 

The Japanese house has no cellar, and these stenciled panels 

and open lattice-work secure ventilation beneath the floor. 

The foreigner visiting Japan is impressed at the very out- 
set by the Japanese love of 
flowers, for everywhere, in gar- 
dens, or in little tanks, flower- 
pots and hanging or standing 
flower-holders are seen, and 
he begins to realize that the 
simplicity and beauty of their 
arrangement is everywhere 
manifest. Further inquiries 
reveal the fact that there are 
teachers whose sole duty it is 
to instruct one in the grace- 
ful and artistic arrangement 
of flowers. There are differ- 
ent schools, and diplomas are given to those who graduate. 1 

1 Miss Mary Averill, of New York, studied flower arrangement in Japan, receiving 
a diploma. She has written a book on Japanese flower arrangement which will greatly 
aid those interested in the subject. Conder's work, entitled The Flowers of Japan and 
the Art of Floral Arrangement, is an important work on the subject. 


It is by no means a feminine accomplishment only; students 
of the University take lessons in flower arrangement as nat- 
urally as our students take lessons in the art of spreading 
a man's nose over his face without dislocating the wrist. Fig- 
ure 696 is a sketch of a hanging flower-holder with a grace- 
ful arrangement of a few flowers. The basket was very old 
and was signed; indeed, the makers of baskets signed their 
names just as potters, netsuki and inro artists, metal-workers, 

Fig. 697 

and other art handwork producers signed their names to 
their work. One appreciates the art of the Japanese in these 
matters when he recalls the cult at home. At a lunch I at- 
tended in the old Chinese college the tokonoma had three 
large masses of flowers, bouquets four or five feet in height. 
They were in simple cylindrical vases mounted on draped 
stands, the material consisting of large branches and twigs 
of pine with flowers intermixed (fig. 697). 

The varieties of ploughs in Japan are very interesting. The 
type is after the Chinese style, but the forms in different prov- 
inces are quite marked. Figure 698 shows the most primitive 


plough in Japan. I saw it used in the Province of Suo. Its 
form sustains the contention of E. B. Tylor that the plough 
was evolved from the hoe. Nevertheless, in a painting, nearly 

three hundred years old, of 
a Chinese subject I found a 
curious device in the form of 
a shovel dragged by a bull. 
Here is an idea that it might 
have been derived from a shovel. A shovel of this form is 
used in Japan to-day (fig. 699). Figure 700 is a Kishiu plough 
not unlike the one used in Yamashiro and Yamato; figure 
701 is from a drawing made by a student of a Chikuzen 
plough. There are many types of ploughs in Japan of which 
I have sketches. In mountain regions bulls are used to drag 
ploughs, and cows are used in softer ground so that boys 
can do the work. 

At a lunch the other day there were dishes of candy made in 
exact imitation of mushrooms. The dead-white stipe and gills 
and a translucent, yel- 
lowish gray pileus were 
actually specific in their 

In Kyoto there is a 
building over three hun- 

A A ^A U« I. FlG ' 6 " 

dred years old which 

rests on the site of a structure built in 1132. It is known as 
San-ju-san-g en-do, and derives its name from two enormous 
roof-beams thirty-three ken in length, a ken being nearly six 
feet. The building is nearly four hundred feet long, and fifty- 


Fig. 700 


three feet wide, and shelters thousands and thousands of fig- 
ures of the goddess Kwannon, arranged in phalanxes, one 
behind the other. They are said to number 33,333. 1 Sur- 
rounding it is a veran- 
da, six feet wide, and 
as you walk along, pass- 
ing successive doors, 
which are open on one 
side and protected by 
heavy bars, you see this 
forest of saints standing 
in close rows like a regi- 
ment on parade. The 

roof overhangs the veranda, about eighteen feet above it, 
and is supported by a complicated set of beams and bars. 
In feudal times the custom was to place a target at one end 
of this long veranda and shoot at it with bow and arrow. 
The bow had to be of enormous strength, and the archer 
as well, to throw an arrow nearly four hundred feet with a 

limited trajectory of eigh- 
teen feet. Evidence that 
the archers missed thousands 
of times is seen in the dense 
mass of broken arrows which 
still stick to the intricate 
structure above. One's first 
impression is that big birds had attempted to build nests. 
Figure 702 is a rough sketch of the appearance of these 

1 All these facts I derive from a guidebook. 

Fig. 701 



Fig. 702 
broken arrows which could find lodgment in sheets of copper 
which covered the beams. In the field beside the building 
and at one side is a little booth where one can hire a bow 
and ten arrows for a cent. The target is only halfway down 
the field. I hired thirty arrows, and though it was an in- 


tensely hot day I managed to hit the target several times, to 
the amazement of the old man who had rented the bow. Hav- 
ing no arm-guard and not being able to twist the bow in 
Japanese method as the arrow is released, my wrist has been 
raw for two weeks. I may add that shooting only half the 
distance my trajectory was nearly as high as the ridge-pole 
of the building! 

The agreeable way the people enjoy the summer evenings 
is everywhere marked. Riding along the banks of any river, 

Fig. 703 

as in Mikawa and Ise, stagings are seen built along the shore, 
or even over the river, and here the families collect to eat 
supper. On many of the long bridges at evening it seemed as if 
the entire population had gathered to enjoy the fresher air 
blowing in the river valley. 

October 26. Dr. Bigelow and I had an opportunity of visit- 
ing the crematory at Senju in Tokyo. Getting permission from 
the Chief of the Sanitary Bureau, with Mr. Takenaka we 
started for the crematory at nine o'clock at night. It was an 
hour's ride to the place. I expected to see a barren-looking 
region with rather dismal sheds and buildings. Instead I saw 


those features associated with all public works of the city: 
neatly swept grounds, trim fences, and the usual number of 
pretty trees. On one side of the street is the crematory (fig. 
703). It consists of two one-storied, brick buildings, seventy- 
two feet long and twenty-four feet wide. These buildings are 
in line, but are separated from each other by a space of fifty 
feet. In this space stands a tall, square chimney, and to the 
chimney run large iron flues from the ridges of the buildings. 
Each building is divided into three compartments, having a 

Fig. 704 

doorway with sliding doors. A flight of steps, as shown in 
the sketch, leads to a staging at the junction of the flues with 
the chimney, and here is an arrangement for burning coal to 
accelerate the upward draft in case many bodies are being 
cremated at the same time. Figure 704 shows how each com- 
partment opens into the flue above. 

The simplicity and cleanliness of the appliances used in re- 
ducing the body to ashes interested us greatly. The furnaces, 
or better, the fireplaces, are on the ground, and the body, in a 
bent-up position, is placed on the pile, which consists of two 
sticks of wood and a little kindling. After the fire has been 
going for some time the mass is covered with straw rice-bags. 


The fireplace consists of a bottom stone, two side stones, and a 
head stone, as in the sketch (fig. 705). The bodies are consumed 
in three hours; those we saw had been burning two hours. I 
pushed the straw away with a stick, and noticed only a few of 
the larger bones and these were calcined. The room was full 

Fig. 705 

of smoke, but more from the burning straw than from the 
bodies; indeed, there was hardly any odor, though the walls 
of the room were black with soot. In one corner were two 
little fireplaces for children, in one of which cremation was 
going on. 

The highest price paid for cremating a body is seven yen. 
This is done in a separate building (fig. 706) which contains 
but a single fireplace in the centre. The next grade is two yen 
and seventy-five sen, about $1.37 in our money. This is done 
in the large building, and the body is burned in the large 
wooden tub in which it is brought. The third and cheapest 

Fig. 706 


grade costs only one yen and thirty sen; in this case the body 
only is burned, the tub being saved. The man who superin- 
tends the work lives close by and has in his keeping the jars 
containing the ashes. These jars cost from 
six to eight cents apiece according to size. 
He gave me one (fig. 707). In the jar was 
a little wooden box in which are preserved 
the teeth, which are carefully picked out 
of the ashes. A curious superstition seems 
to prevail about the teeth, and in ancient 
times the people made prayers and offerings 
on certain days that their teeth might not 
loosen. The bodies that were being cremated were of victims 
of cholera which was very prevalent in the city. The super- 
intendent and all engaged in the work did not have that grim 
look often associated with sextons, but were cheerful, polite, 
and pleasant fellows. We were most favorably impressed 
with our experience and wondered how long prejudice would 
stand in the way of this sanitary process in our country. 

On our ride to the crematory and back we went through the 
poorest quarters of the city at an hour when 
similar regions at home would be crowded 
with open bar-rooms and charged with vo- 
ciferous talk. The most decorous New Eng- 
land village could not have exceeded the quiet 
and order prevailing everywhere. It is cer- 
tainly a wonderful fact that these people are 
all so orderly in their obedience to law. The Police Commis- 
sioner of Boston has said that hoodlumism is the greatest 

Fig. 707 


menace to our country. There is certainly no such menace 
in Japan; indeed, everybody is well behaved. 

My room at Tenmon Dai was in a little house built in for- 
eign style for the attendant of the astronomical observatory. 
My only stove is shown in figure 708, a square wooden box in 
which is a round earthen vessel filled with ashes; the tongs, in 
the shape of iron chopsticks, are seen in one corner in a bam- 
boo tube. Ice has already formed outside 
and my room would be very cold without the 
little charcoal fire. I have become accus- 
tomed to the carbonic acid gas, though most 

Fig. 708 
of it settles through the cracks of the floor; 

when it gets too strong I open the door. On inquiry I found 
that the Japanese never suffer any inconvenience from burn- 
ing charcoal, their sole means of heating. The old woman 
who builds my fire, or rather brings in a few hot coals from 
her own hibachi, had never heard of the gas being injurious, 
nor had she an idea that it could kill one. My room is in a 
continual tangle of confusion — the accumulation of pot- 
tery, ethnological objects for the Museum at Salem, note- 
books, pictures are all crowded into a little room hardly 
big enough for my bed and writing-table. Figure 709 is a 
rough sketch of the room from where I sit at the writing- 

The other day I had the opportunity of sketching a woman 
— the wife of the man who looks after my little house — in 
the act of blackening her teeth. She told me that she had to 
do it every three or four days. A special copper vessel is used 
in which to discharge the rinsings of her mouth ; a metal shelf 


rests across it, upon which are two brass vessels, one a box in 
which are nut galls pulverized and resembling ashes; in the 
other a fluid containing iron in solution. This solution she 
makes herself by soaking a piece of iron in vinegar, using an 
old jar for the purpose. The brush used is a small piece of 
wood frayed at one end, the ordinary Japanese toothbrush. 

Fig. 709 

This she dips into the iron water, then into the nut gall, 
and rubs the teeth as if she were cleaning them, rinsing her 
mouth now and then from a bowl of water at her side, and 
at times taking up a mirror to see if her teeth are sufficiently 
blackened. It is said that the operation is good for the teeth 
(fig. 710). 

The common name for violets is sumo-tori-gusa, sumo-tori 
meaning "wrestler," as the children play with the flowers by 
hooking them together and pulling them apart to see which 
one yields. 


The word for "ceiling" in Japanese is tenjo; literally, "hea- 
ven's well," coming from the same root as our word. 

The word for "fool" in Japanese is baka, which literally 
means "horse deer." Sea-sickness is called funayoi — "boat 

Fig. 710 

For the first time the Emperor's garden has been open for 
inspection, by special invitation. A few days ago cards were 
sent to all native and foreign professors and, presumably, to 
all the Japanese officers of the same rank, for the chrysanthe- 
mum display. To-day and to-morrow are the days appointed, 
and being considered an officer of the University, though I have 
no official connection with it now, I was invited. Heretofore 
only members of the diplomatic corps among foreigners could 
get access to the gardens. Each ticket permitted the pos- 
sessor to take five members of his family, and it would seem 


that every ticket was used to its fullest capacity. There were 
many ladies and children and they were beautifully dressed. 
It was delightful to see the perfect behavior of the children — 
no shouting, or screaming, no tearing around by the boys. It 
was a perfect paradise in itself. I have neither the language nor 
the ability to describe the wonderful beauty of the grounds. 
The place was of large extent and had originally been built on 
a level plain. There had been constructed undulating hills; 
rock ravines, down which poured mountain brooks; valleys; 
bridges; rustic summer houses, — everything to admire. 

In our party was a tall foreign teacher (American) re- 
cently appointed to the University. He was like a bull in a 
china shop. He stalked through the grounds and saw nothing 
to admire ; indeed, his comments were so rude and ridiculous 
that we finally got rid of him. Before he left us, however, we 
came across a beautiful little summer house shockingly dis- 
figured within by a cheap, glaring red carpet from abroad, and 
this man, for the first time, saw something to praise, and he 
commented on its beauty utterly oblivious to this shocking 
incongruity in a room with the most delicate and delicious 
cabinet-work in natural woods. 

The flowers were beautiful in their variety and daintiness. 
They were arranged under tastefully constructed shelters of 
bamboo and reed matting, though in some instances more 
permanent shelters were provided. There were many wonder- 
ful trees and some of dwarfed varieties, — one with a disk of 
dense foliage, twenty feet in diameter, and not over two and 
a half feet high, with a trunk a foot in diameter; rustic fences 
and bridges, and beautiful little lakes. The Japanese excel 


the world in the art of landscape gardening, and they seemed 
to enjoy the beauties of every feature, and the foreigners 
were equally appreciative, all except our tall professor, who 
appeared bewildered and positively unhappy. 

On the 3d of November, Count Enouye, Minister of For- 
eign Affairs, gave a great party in honor of the Emperor's 
birthday. To this party were invited all the foreign diplo- 
mats and all the teachers with the rank of professor, besides 
a great many other high officers. A thousand invitations 
were issued. Count Enouye's house is very large and spa- 
cious, built entirely in foreign style. The grounds were bril- 
liantly lighted with gas jets and lanterns. Such a variety of 
costumes as were seen! The Japanese ladies were beautifully 
dressed, and the various nationalities — French, Russian, 
Swiss, German, Italian, English, and American attaches of 
the embassies and the legations — were in their respective 
uniforms, many with brilliant decorations. Seven Chinese and 
eight Koreans were in their national costumes. 

To me the most interesting features were the two Japanese 
brass bands, the Army and the Navy, side by side, and play- 
ing alternately. They were very full bands with Japanese 
leaders and with all the modern instruments, playing, with 
great precision, music from classical composers. I was amazed 
at the crispness and accuracy with which they played and at 
the progress they had made in four years; for I had heard the 
Army band play four years ago and remembered distinctly 
how crude the performance was, and that I came to the con- 
clusion then that however perfectly the Japanese could acquire 
foreign methods, in our music they would certainly fail to 


grasp its meaning and its proper rendering. I argued this way 
because the two musics were so entirely unlike. Now I must 
alter that conclusion and admit that, so far as our music is 
concerned, practice only was required. It would have been 
impossible for any one but an expert to have told whether 
Japanese were playing or good foreign musicians. It was also 
curious to see the number of Japanese ladies and gentlemen 
who were joining in the dancing, and who were dancing very 
well too. On both floors of the house a delicious lunch was 
served, with wine, champagne, and beer in abundance. On the 
grounds outside brilliant fireworks were being discharged, and 
the whole affair was a great treat. 

I have begun the study of the intricacies of the tea ceremony 
and have joined a class of Japanese. My teacher, Mr. Kohitsu, 
tells me I am the first foreigner to take lessons in the art. The 
fact that I was taking lessons got into the newspapers, and 
also the statement that I had astonished the old fellows at the 
school by rapidly identifying the pottery brought out on the 
occasion. It seems curious that the newspapers here, as at 
home, get hold of all trifling events, social gossip, and the like; 
it shows that human nature is the same the world over. 

The Japanese are said to have no inventive faculties, but in 
my rambles around Tokyo I have noticed many mechanical 
appliances of a simple nature which our artisans might adopt. 
To-day I noticed a man who works in pearl-shell cutting. The 
piece of pearl to be sawed was held down by an elastic strip of 
bamboo bent under a transverse bar above, as shown in figure 
711. The saw rested vertically upon the piece to be sawed and 
the sand used in the operation remained in place. It was a 

Fig. 711 


simple form of vise that could be instantly adjusted, and the 
varying degrees of firmness could be got by selecting stiffer or 
lighter strips of bamboo. 
The tub was full of water 
so that the pieces could 
be immediately washed. 

Figure 712 represents 
a blacksmith at work. 
He sits on the ground, 
or floor, as do all opera- 
tives. The bellows con- 
sist of a long, square 
box in which a square 

piston is moved back and forth by means of a rod and handle ; 
with his left leg the blacksmith blows his bellows by grasping 
the handle with his foot and moving his leg back and forth, 
leaving his two hands free for hammering. In this case the 
helper stands up. The tools were not unlike those used by 
our blacksmiths at home, though I noticed in some of the 
larger hammers, perhaps in all, that the handle was not in- 
serted in the middle of the iron part, but nearer to one end. 
The floor was littered with bits of iron bolts and the usual 
bits and fragments one sees in a blacksmith's shop at home. 
Sometimes a boy is employed to blow the bellows, and this 
he does with his hands. 

In many parts of the city ditches or deep gutters run along 
the streets, especially along the walls of yashikis. These 
places are the breeding-grounds of the mosquitoes which in- 
fest the city and are a source of livelihood to the men and 


boys who with nets drag for mosquito larvae and sell them for 
goldfish food. 

For the last few days professional packers have been at 
work packing the pottery, and the floor is covered with boxes 
and straw. It is interesting to see their method of wrapping 
each piece in straw. The man takes a handful of straw, 
combs it out straight with his fingers, gives the mass a twist 

Fig. 712 

in the middle which spreads the straw at each end like a fan; 
the bowl is then put in the centre, and the straw folded over the 
rim of the bowl around the edge. Tea-jars are done up in the 
same way, the straw being twisted above. With large cylin- 
drical pieces of irregular contour a long straw rope is made and 
wound around the piece. The cook's little girl and a playmate 
came to the door and peeked in, the sight of so many speci- 
mens of pottery amazing them. I invited them in and gave 
them some paper and scissors, and the skillful way in which 
they cut out dolls and made chickens, herons, and other ob- 


jects was surprising. I saved them all and they will go to the 
Museum in Salem. I gave them a pot of tea and two cups, 
and it was interesting to see and to hear them: one poured tea 
for the other, and when the cup was passed the child thanked 
her as courteously as if they were playing ladies, and yet they 
were not playing, they had simply been brought up to be polite. 
They were not more than nine or ten years old, dressed poorly, 
and were the children of the servants in the yashiki. 

The other day I made another visit to the insane asylum 
just back of my house. The superintendent was very kind, 
spoke a little English, and with my little Japanese we got 
along very well. I got a good deal of information about the 
percentages of troubles, causes of insanity, etc. 

Mr. Machida, the sword merchant, came in to spend the 
evening, and I kept him till midnight asking him questions. 
In his time he has acted as executioner, having beheaded a 
great many criminals, and he told me some very grim stories. 
It is curious how different nations regard the same act. An 
executioner is loathed and an outcast in some countries and 
the professional executioner in Japan is from the Eta class. 
In Japan a gentleman considers it a fine chance to try the 
temper of his blade by beheading a criminal. For another 
reason also: if any of his friends had to commit hara-kiri he 
might be called upon to do the act of beheading, as the act of 
disemboweling is followed immediately by beheading by a 
friend, who with a quick stroke cuts off the head. One sees a 
striking representation of this act in the theatre when the play 
of the "Forty-seven Ronins" is presented. The beheading of 
a criminal gives a man practice. Mr. Machida told me that it 


did not require such a very hard blow to separate the head 
from the body. He said the first time he performed the act he 
struck so hard that he broke his sword by striking a rock on 
the ground. A bandage is tied about the criminal's eyes; he 
kneels upon a mat, in front of which a hole is dug big enough 
to admit the body; attendants hold the arms back, and im- 
mediately after the head drops into the hole the body is 
pushed after it and the mat thrown over it. Mr. Machida says 
the muscles about the cheeks and lips quiver for some time, 
and the same quivering motion is seen in the hands and even 
in the whole body. He gave me some interesting details about 
the battle of Uyeno at the time of the Restoration. 

During the month of November an interesting market is 
held back of Asakusa Temple, where a large number of booths 
are erected in the streets for the sale of curious charms to in- 
sure happiness and wealth. These charms are miniature bags 
of rice, twisted straw, and other symbols of plenty and happi- 
ness made of bamboo covered with bright-colored and gilt 
papers. In some the ship of fortune is represented holding the 
seven treasures; others are in the shape of a fan or rake with 
the mask of Otafuku, goddess of Happiness, in the centre, with 
various devices about the sides. It was curious to see the nar- 
row streets and lanes closely crowded with people and lined 
with rudely constructed booths, on both sides, packed with 
these strange-looking charms and emblems, some of them of 
large size, five feet or more in diameter. Throughout the day 
of the festival the people are seen returning home bearing 
these things in their hands, or riding in jinrikishas, and if the 
objects are large holding them up like banners. The objects 


were always mounted on a rod of bamboo. Figure 713 illus- 
trates two of these charms, the smaller one showing a dry 
measure in the centre with sprigs of rice. These objects 
were all roughly made, 
and yet, flimsy as they 
appeared, they never 
seemed to break apart. 
They had a decorative 
character, too. Near 
by was a Shinto tem- 
ple, before which crowds 
of people were praying, 
standing seven or eight 
deep. A large contribu- 
tion box stood in front 
of this temple, at least 
eight feet long and three 
or four feet wide and 
deep, and into this 
dropped a continuous 
shower of rins, tempos, 
sens, and larger pieces 
of money done up in 

paper. Near by was a rude stage where some play was going 
on accompanied by a drum and flute which kept up an in- 
cessant noise without a moment's pause. Little children 
with shrill voices aided their parents in calling out the char- 
acter of wares that were being sold in the crowd. Two beg- 
gars kneeling on the ground in an (5pen space were the only 

Fig. 713 


evidence of poverty in the mass. A peculiar potato was being 
sold to be eaten raw or cooked; mochi was for sale in large 
slices; hairpins of the cheapest character — mere tinsel — 
were sold as souvenirs of the fair; and everybody was smiling 
and happy. The celebration was a new one to me and well 
worth seeing. 

A fat and good-natured friend by the name of Sakurai, whom 
I first met at Nagoya under the name of Gonza, and who 
helped me greatly in that city in hunting up pottery and di- 
recting me to the proper shops, has come to Tokyo. He has 
brought not only documents relating to early potters of Seto, 
but also a number of objects of interest, and is stopping in 
Tokyo, at some considerable expense to himself, in order to 
help me pack. His wife and daughter at Nagoya sent me by 
express a rare old Owari bowl that may prove to be a Gempin. 
The present was accompanied by a letter in katakana which 
Takenaka has translated. It runs as follows: — 

"We write to you. How you are? Getting very well? We 
congratulate you are well this time. Gonza went to you and 
you bought many from him. He sent me very much money. 
I thank you very much. We present this bowl to you and glad 
to express my thanks. We wish you to carry it to your native 
country. I got this bowl from a yashiki. It is very old. Please 
use it. We hope very much that you will get home in safety. 
We send only a few words. We happy. We congratulate. 

"Goes to Morse Esq. Nov. 10. 

"Tsuru, Mother. 
"Haku, Daughter." 


In regard to Japanese gestures, a few are like ours and 
others are quite different. Takenaka told me that a com- 
mon gesture was, when one asked of a friend some good thing 
like candy, for the friend to pull down the eye giving a sort of 
leer, as much as to say, "Don't you wish you could get it?" In 
beckoning with the hand, the back of the hand is uppermost, 
though the fingers move in the same way that ours do. In say- 
ing "no" the hand is moved back and forth in front of the 
face. In talking with a friend about the similarity between the 
gestures of the two peoples, I called attention to the resem- 
blance in expressions of amazement, perplexity as shown in 
rubbing the nose, etc., but the expressions in displeasure differ. 
With us we usually frown and compress the eyes, but the Jap- 
anese when "mad" open their eyes wide; and a boy who has 
done something wrong will get a scolding, or Omedama 
chodai; literally, a "gift of eyeballs." A curious movement 
is made if the finger is slightly burned : the lobe of the ear is 
instantly grasped; the ear is always cool, which alleviates the 

In the college dormitories students are not permitted to 
have any kind of musical instruments, nor are they allowed to 
play chess and go, as it would interfere with their studies. 
Their work, beginning early in the morning, is one hard grind ; 
subjects precisely like those taught in our colleges at home are 
studied, but all in English, or, in the Medical College, in Ger- 
man. A samurai boy rises at six o'clock, washes his face beside 
the well, then reads some book in a loud tone of voice. 1 The 

1 Reading aloud is customary, as otherwise they say they cannot understand 
what they are reading. In college as they progress in their studies they lose this 


grade of different dormitories is recognized by the noise the 
students make in their reading. After an early breakfast the 
boy goes to school, and must write through six or seven 
books, forty pages to a book, and four large characters to 
each page. The pages are written on again and again, the 
wet ink showing clearly on the dried ink. A lazy boy will 
sometimes make splashes on the page, but the teacher can 
generally detect the trick and the boy is kept after school as 
a punishment. The boy always takes his lunch box with 
him and comes home "hungry as a bear." His mother gives 
him cake which he eats greedily; he then plays until supper, 
and after studying his lesson for the next day goes to bed. 

A class of girls are found in Japan of which we have no 
parallel in our country: they are known as geisha, and it is the 
duty of these geisha to entertain company, the wife and daugh- 
ters not appearing. For instance, you give a dinner to some 
friends, and you may employ two or more of these girls, who 
not only help in the pouring of wine, but by their bright and 
witty conversation put everybody in good humor. Many of 
them are quite pretty and all dress beautifully. I remember 
meeting at one dinner a geisha who was not only unusually 
plain-looking, but who was quite old. On inquiring about her 
of a Japanese friend, — for I had supposed before that the 
geisha were employed for their beauty, and possibly youth, — 
I found that she was one of the most famous geisha in Tokyo. 
To a dinner party of a dozen men, officers of the Government, 
perhaps of irreconcilable political views, this geisha, by her 
amiability and conversational £kill and wit, would, within a 
short time, bring harmony, good-nature, and a freedom of 


action that for the time being would melt the crowd into a 
congenial whole. In our country it is a common experience 
for us to invite some young lady to a dinner solely for the pur- 
pose of having things go off pleasantly, but we do not pay 
her. In Japan it is a profession, and these good-natured, witty, 
and sprightly girls, polite and gentle, represent a large class 
who earn their living by entertaining at dinners and gatherings 
of all sorts, and they are certainly, in their manners and accom- 
plishments, far more entertaining than the usual run of girls 
and women one meets outside this class. These girls often 
marry from the chance acquaintances made on these occa- 
sions, and it may be said with truth that love matches are 
sometimes made during these festivities. 

In using an arrow to pull something from behind my bureau 
I broke it, which led Mr. Takenaka to inform me that in past 
times the Japanese made their arrows purposely very weak 
that they might not be used again by their enemy. 

Mr. Machida came in a jinrikisha full of weapons: long 
spears and various warlike implements; fans for military sig- 
naling; a beautiful bow and quiver with twelve arrows; all the 
implements used by fencers in practice, sword and spear; and 
these he gave to me for the Peabody Museum, Salem. The 
swords he is going to bring next week. I am having many 
things given to me for the Peabody Museum, but this gift of 
Machida's is by far the most important accession. 

Yesterday two Koreans, father and son, whom I have met 
several times, came to bid me good-bye, as the father is soon 
to return to Korea. The son speaking Japanese we got along 
quite well until I tried to ask the father if he had anything 


Korean of no particular use to him to give me for our Museum. 
This was more than I could say in Japanese and after floun- 
dering for a while I sent out for a Japanese friend to inter- 
pret. He said he would see if there were any* articles in his 
room. Last night eight different articles were given to me, all 
Korean and all of interest. 

Japanese farmers eat five or six times a day, principally 
rice, radishes, fish, etc. It has been ascertained by actual 
measurement (so Takenaka, who is a medical student, in- 
forms me) that the Japanese stomach is larger than that of 
foreigners; this may have been caused by the large amount of 
rice they consume. It is amazing to see in the country little 
children with abdomens roundly distended by the quantity of 
rice with which they have literally stuffed themselves. 

Mr. Takamine, Director of the Female Normal School, went 
with me to the Imado District, where there are a number of 
potteries, and endeavored to get some information about the 
potters. But the people seemed rather stupid, sluggish, or in- 
different, and I could not arouse in them any interest in the 
matter. I finally left with the conviction that the blighting 
effects of some rude Englishman must have been responsible 
for their stupidity or aversion. The contrast with the Kyoto 
potters was marked. 

Takamine invited me to dinner at his house. There were a 
number at dinner, and I felt as much at home on my knees for 
an hour or more with chopsticks and strange food, to which I 
have become accustomed, as I do at home sitting in a chair 
using a knife and fork. After dinner Mr. Takamine conducted 
us to the tea-rooms, where were all the utensils for cha-no-yu 


and invited me to make ceremonial tea, which I did, after a 

Afterwards Takamine guided me to the Eta district. The 
Eta were formerly looked upon as unclean; they worked 
in hides and leather, carried off the bodies of animals, and 
were in a general way the scavengers of the city. No one was 
allowed to marry into the class; they were shunned and ab- 
horred, though some of them were wealthy. They were com- 
pelled to live apart from the people in a certain district and no 
one ever went through their region. Now all legal restrictions 
are removed, yet the Eta live by themselves. The main street 
has a peculiarly deserted appearance, — not a jinrikisha is to 
be seen and hardly any shops ; a few signs, but no paper signs 
or lanterns in front of the shops. I passed five places where 
they were making drums, as the work of drum-making in- 
volves the handling of leather. It seemed as if the children 
looked a little coarser, but there was no humble or crushed 
appearance in the people such as I had expected to see. Per- 
fect quietness and soberness reigned. The children were spin- 
ning tops and running about as in other places but a certain 
serious atmosphere was there without question. 

I met at the Normal School an educated Ainu from Sapporo 
in Yezo. He has a typical Ainu face and is able to converse 
fluently in Japanese. I asked him a number of questions about 
his people. He said the Ainus made no pottery, and, so far as 
he knew, they never had. I got from him all the details re- 
garding the bow and arrow and how the hand was held in 
drawing the bow. The Ainus draw the arrow with the thumb 
and bent forefinger. It will be interesting to ascertain whether 


the lowest savages have this simple method of releasing the 
arrow and if the higher races have a more complex method. 1 
I also learned that the Ainus shoot arrows at the feet of a 
man running away. 

In the preparation of flax in Suo an enormous cylinder of 
wood, made like a barrel and tapering above, open at both 

ends, is filled with flax, 
and this is placed over a 
kettle of water fixed in 
the ground and fired be- 
low; the water is then 
boiled for some time, 
the steam passing up 
through the flax. A de- 
vice like a well-sw r eep 
lifts the cylinder when 
the flax is sufficiently 
steamed (fig. 714). 

Ninagawa's obsequies 
were observed to-day, 
and I was invited to at- 
tend. As he died of cholera no public funeral was allowed 
at the time, and now, after three months, the obsequies are 
held. I went early with Takenaka to the cemetery beyond 
Uyeno, and while waiting for the procession, sketched a few 

1 I have since ascertained that the low savage people have this simple method as 
described. See Memoir on Ancient and Modern Methods of Arrow Release. Essex 
Institute, Bulletin, Salem, Massachusetts, vol. xvn (1885). The last edition of the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica gives this reference as follows: "Archery Ancient and 
Modern, by E. S. Morse, Worcester, Mass., 1792." 

Fig. 714 



gravestones, and then watched the main avenue to meet the 
funeral when it arrived. Soon it came: first, twelve men 
bearing new, white lanterns on bamboo poles; the men were 
dressed in white and had curiously shaped 
ceremonial black hats made of silk (fig. 715); 
following these were two men bearing enor- 
mous bouquets of flowers; then a long affair 
borne on the shoulders of six men, the hearse, 
in fact: empty, of course, but representing 
the remains of Ninagawa (fig. 716). Follow- 
ing this came the mourners, a sister of Nina- 
gawa, his nephew, and a number of other per- 
sons whom I did not know, some on foot and 
others riding in jinrikishas. I had often seen 
these funerals on the street and had supposed they were genu- 
ine, but many of them are simply honorary funerals. The 
hearse was carried into a large building open on all sides, but 
protected by a white curtain that fluttered back and forth in 

the wind. It was quite cold, 


s y -J 






and it was uncomfortable to 
sit there bareheaded. 

Figure 717 is a hasty sketch 
of the appearance of the in- 
terior when the service be- 
gan. The hearse, or bier, is 
seen to the left resting on two supports; masses of flowers are 
in stands at the ends of the bier; then come two lacquer 
tables, one lower than the other, and resting against the 
larger one is the wooden post bearing Ninagawa's name. 

Fig. 716 


This is carried in the procession and is used as a temporary 
gravestone. The tables held cups and objects of polished 
brass, with food offerings on black lacquer stands, six can- 
dles burning in simple wooden candlesticks. The priests, all 
shaven and shorn, wearing beautiful brocade robes, marched 
in and took positions as shown in the sketch. A bench on 
each side accommodated the chief mourners. I sat on the 
right next to a high priest who for some reason did not join 

Fig. 717 

the other priests, but continued to mutter a prayer. The 
kneeling priests opened their prayer-books, which they placed 
on the floor in front of them, but never looked at them. A 
low, humming sound, begun by the head priest, was taken 
up gradually by the rest. The sound, though apparently 
meaningless, as I could not detect a single articulate word, 
was not without interest. It sounded like a dirge. After 
the humming had gone on for a while one of the priests picked 
up a large pair of cymbals and clanged them several times. 
Then the other priests uttered short prayers, rolling their 


heads in their hands, terminating with a short whisk or 
movement of the head, and resuming their chant, which 
seemed interminable in the cold wind. Then the head priest 
(whose head is accurately depicted in the sketch), after the 

© © ©oe 







Fig. 718 



cymbals had been clanged again, rose, untied a large fold of 
paper, and in a pathetic, or funereal, tone read a brief account 
of Ninagawa — who he was, what he did, etc. 

At this point Ninagawa's sister rose and stood in front of 
the table, marked "incense" in figure 718, on which was a 
receptacle for coals, and at each side of which was a little box 


of incense. She first clasped her hands and made a low bow; 
then out of the left-hand box she took a piece of incense and 
put it on the coals, again bowed low, and took her seat. The 
nephew followed next, going through the same movements; and 
then, to my surprise, the Japanese sitting next to me nudged 
me to go up, but I whispered to him in what Japanese I could 
command to go first, that I might watch him intently. He 

took the incense from the right-hand 
box. I had to go next and must con- 
fess to some embarrassment, as in 
the presence of eight priests I had 
to fold my hands, make a low bow, 
and take the incense from the right- 
hand box. 

There were no tears or other evi- 
dences of grief, but there was cer- 
tainly a soberness, even solemnity, 
in the ceremony. Fifty or sixty 
people stood near the building and 
probably wondered at the novel sight 
of a bare-headed foreigner in long ulster among the mourn- 
ers. After the burning of the incense the ceremony ended. 
The sister, an old lady of sixty or more, came to thank me 
for my kindness in joining the mourners; the nephew also 
thanked me. The wife does not go to the cemetery until the 
day following, and for that reason Mrs. Ninagawa was not 
present. Figure 718 is a rough diagram of the affair showing 
where the priests and mourners sat. 
Figure 719 represents a Buddhistic gravestone; this one is 

Fig. 719 

Fig. 720 


an old style. The holes in the rock are to hold flowers. On 
the Buddhistic gravestone the spiritual name is used, a name 
that one receives after death. On the Shinto, the real name 
of the deceased is engraved with 
a brief account of his life. The 
Shinto stone shows the natural 
cleavage of the rock as it is quar- 
ried. Figures 720, 721 represent 
Shinto gravestones. 

The Japanese worship their 
heroes and never forget to deco- 
rate their graves, even those hundreds of years old. In 1338 
Yoshisada was killed in battle while fighting to restore Go 
Daigo, the rightful Mikado, to his throne. To this day his 
grave is carefully guarded and fresh flowers decorate it. A 
shrine and monument were erected in 1875. Other burial- 
places equally old are cared for in the same manner. 
After the funeral I hurried to Takamine's house, where he 
had invited a northern archer to shoot for 
me that I might sketch the attitude of the 
hand in drawing the arrow. The Chinese 
use a thumb-ring to engage the string in 
pulling the bow. The Japanese use a long- 
wristed glove with two or three fingers and 
a thumb, the thumb greatly thickened. 
There is a groove at the base to catch the 
string, and a strap secures the glove firmly 
about the wrist. Figures 722, 723 represent the attitude of 
the hand in pulling the bow; figure 724 shows the archer's 

Fig. 721 

Fig. 722 


glove. The release is somewhat difficult to acquire, but it 
is just as strong as that of our people, which consists in pull- 
ing the string back with the 
tips of three fingers. 

I hunted up an authority 
on pottery who had been a 
high official, but who had 
lost his place through in- 
temperate habits and was a 
bankrupt. He was living in 
an obscure house with evi- 
dences of poverty, and his condition was pathetic. He had a 
big boil on his neck and a severe cough, his house was in dis- 
order, and the futons showed that he had been lying down, but 
he invited me in without hesitation or apology. I inquired 
about various pottery authorities. He said Mr. Kohitsu was a 
good one, and also gave me a letter to Mr. Kashiwagi. 

Though it was nearly six o'clock and dark, I hunted the 
latter up, or my jinrikisha man did, and finally found, on the 
corner of an open square, three 
gloomy-looking godowns, or 
kura. I went through a low 
opening in a bamboo fence, fif- 
teen feet high, and was shown 
into one of the godowns (fig. 
725). Mr. Kashiwagi intro- 
duced me to three men, all 

antiquarians. He was very kind and showed me a number 
of interesting things which I immediately sketched, and ha 

Fig. 723 


also gave . me many points of interest regarding a number of 
potteries of which he seemed to have knowledge. He said 
the idea that "Satsuma floral deco- 
rated" was over eighty years'old was 
absurd. His remarks on pottery are 
recorded in my pottery notes. He has 
the rarest collection of old Japanese 
coins, ancient pottery a thousand and 
more years old, rare pictures, and 
many other things. Every object in 
the room was old and rare. The hiba- 
chi was very old ; the lower half was of 
lacquer inlaid with pearl, the motive 
of decoration being horses' bits! 

I also learned some new points regarding house matters. 
The way the Japanese convert a large, cold, barny room of a 
fireproof building into a pleasant place to live in is shown in fig- 
ure 726. A square framework of bamboo is erected conform- 
ing in shape to the room, but smaller, leaving a passageway of 
three and a half feet between the frame and the sides of the 

Fig. 724 

Fig. 725 


room. This framework is covered with cloth, slightly glazed, 
and as it is smaller one can walk between the cloth and the sides 
of the room. He showed me an old book published in 1700 in 
which full directions were given for constructing this frame 
and hanging the cloth. It is evidently an old idea and showed 
that these fireproof buildings were utilized as living-rooms. 

I had never seen the device 
before, though I have been in- 
side a good many of the build- 
ings. In summer the room 
must be very cool and agree- 
able. The walls of the godown 
were lined with bookcases and 
cabinets and here Mr. Kashi- 
wagi's books and treasures 
were stowed away. The cur- 
tain is looped up, forming an 
opening into which he would 
dive for some object, and I 
could follow him about by the 
light of the candle which faintly 
glimmered through the cloth. 
Some time ago, Mr. Masuda told me of an antiquarian he 
wanted me to meet, and I have tried to make an appointment 
to go with Mr. Masuda to the place. Last night I called again 
on Mr. Kashiwagi, but he had not returned. After waiting 
a little while he came in, accompanied by Mr. Masuda, who 
appeared surprised and delighted to see me and wondered how 
I had found the place. Seven or eight antiquarians were there, 

Fig. 726 


and it was delightful to talk with them and to discuss pottery 
and other precious things which Mr. Kashiwagi brought out. 
I have acquired enough Japanese to get along easily in dis- 
cussing pottery and antiquities and do not require an in- 
terpreter. The appreciation of these old things is shown by 
everybody, and scholars meet to discuss subjects of every kind ; 
it is one evidence among hundreds of others of their long and 
high civilization. 

To-day I was invited to dinner by Prince Fushimi-no-Miya, 
at the Seiyoken, at Uyeno. There were twenty-one guests, 
nearly all governors of provinces. I met there the Gover- 
nor of Nagasaki, who was so 
kind to me when I dredged at 
Nagasaki some years ago. I 
sat at the right hand of the 
Prince, and as he is President 
of the Fish Commission, I im- 
agine the dinner was given to 
me in return for a lecture I 
gave before his commission 
some months ago. 

I visited Matsura Takashiro, an antiquarian of some note, 
who received me very kindly. He has recently published a 
work on antiquities in two folio volumes with excellent illus- 
trations of rare objects in his collection. I had an introduction 
from Mr. Hattori, Vice-Director of the University. The serv- 
ant brought out a number of boxes, and these Mr. Matsura 
unlocked with keys from a large bunch, each key having an 
ivory tag. While he was unlocking the boxes the girl brought 

Fig. 727 



three stands which she placed in the tokonoma. He then took 
out long strings of beads, chiefly magatama, a comma-shaped 
stone, and other forms composed of quartz, jasper, and other 
minerals, and hung these on the stands (fig. 727). Many of 
them were of great rarity, most of them from Japan, and all 
dating back to a dim historic past. They were all dug up 
from burial mounds and caves, and some are found in earthen 
jars. The magatama extends from Loochiu Islands on the 
south to northern Japan. Mr. Matsura had never heard of a 
^^^ magatama being found in Yezo, or 
^3^ ^~\j China, but other kinds of stone beads 
are found in China. He has the larg- 
Fig "28 es ^ co ^ ec tio n of these objects in Ja- 

pan and all of the younger Siebold's 
material for his work on "Japanese Antiquities" was drawn 
from Matsura Takashiro's collection. He has many other 
heads in drawers, of which I sketched a few (fig. 728). 

I was telling Takenaka about our boys when very young 
playing with dolls and paper soldiers. He told me that the 
samurai boys were never allowed to play with dolls or such 
things; their bringing-up was intended to train them as war- 
riors; they were to keep sober when others laughed. At meals 
the boys rarely, if ever, talk, and it impresses them as very 
odd to hear foreigners talk so incessantly at their meals. It 
is difficult for them to understand some of our jokes, and 
what we call "chaff" is incomprehensible to them. 

Figure 729 1 is taken from a humble house that I passed every 

1 I cannot resist reproducing the original sketch, a drawing of which appeared 
in Japanese Homes, as most characteristic of Japanese taste. 


day on my way to the University. The occupant had some 
pottery he wished to show me, and while he was taking the 
pieces from the boxes I made the sketch. The interesting way 
in which a large fragment of an old shipwreck is worked into 
the general effect is unique. The rich, gray color of the wood 

Fig. 729 


with warm, red stains of iron rust, the little holes bored by 
Teredos, and the appearances of age are all features which the 
Japanese admire. The door of the latrine is just beyond and 
this ship fragment takes the place of the sode-gaki. I have 
often observed a peculiar fence which projects from the ver- 
anda, or from the side of a house, never more than four or five 
feet. It hides some objectionable features from the veranda, 
and we might adopt it with advantage. It is called sode-gaki. 
Kaki means "fence" and is changed to gaki for euphony; 
sode means "sleeve," it being shaped like the sleeve of a Japa- 
nese dress. 1 

One often notices along the streets women engaged in 
smoothing strips of cloth on long, narrow boards that lean 
against the house or fence. The surface of the board is very 
smooth. It is first rubbed with a seaweed that is sold for 
the purpose. Wet with water it gives out a gelatinous sub- 
stance. The wet cloth is smoothed down on this board and 
placed in the sun to dry. When the cloth is pulled from the 
board, it is smooth as if it had been ironed and stiffened as if it 
had been starched. A similar idea is resorted to in our coun- 
try when a wet handkerchief is smoothed down on a window 
pane. A device is seen in the form of a metal pan with handle 
and polished bottom. This is filled with burning charcoal and 
used as we use a flatiron. In drying cloth after dyeing, little 
strips of bamboo sharpened at the ends with shoulders are 
used to stretch the cloth apart, the cloth being suspended from 
two poles. A great many are used on a single piece of cloth. 

1 I have Japanese books giving many of these sleeve-fences, and in Japanese 
Homes I have figured a number of them drawn from the gardens here. 


The other night I took two little girls, children of the ser- 
vants about the yashiki, to walk along the Hongo where a 
fair or matsuri was going on. I gave them each ten cents in 
coppers to spend, and I was interested to see how they would 
invest the money. It was like giving a child in similar cir- 
cumstances in our country a dollar in change. The children 
stopped at every booth where hairpins were displayed, and 
though buying only one or two at half a cent apiece, neverthe- 
less, examined every one. We passed a poor woman sitting on 
the ground dolefully playing a samisen, a beggar, in fact, and 
each of the children without a hint from me dropped a cent 
into her basket. 

Miyaoka spent the night with me, and among other things 
told me that in past times, and even at present among the 
superstitious, it is believed that when a person sleeps the 
spirit roams away. It was therefore customary to give a child 
a drink of water before going to bed, whether thirsty or not, 
to prevent the child's spirit from being thirsty and drinking 
stagnant water while on its wanderings. 

I inquired of Miyaoka about his personal expenses. He 
said his board, including charcoal and oil, amounted to five 
dollars and fifty cents a month. It is true he gets only rice, 
vegetables, and fish, but how low compared to our prices! Mr. 
Takamine told me that many of the servants about the Normal 
School, men who had families, work on a wage of fifteen cents 
a day. 

Coming out of the college yard the other day with Pro- 
fessor Mitsukuri, one of the attendants bowed to us as he 
passed, and my friend remarked that the man, before the 


Revolution of 1868, ranked higher than a samurai and just 
below a daimyo. The Restoration left him utterly incompe- 
tent to earn a living and he was capable of filling only a serv- 
ant's place. The Professor said it was a good illustration 
of the absurd conditions of some features of feudalism, at the 
same time showing the patient manner in which these men 
often assume menial positions with resignation and humility 
and are willing to work rather than to beg or borrow. I was told 
that samurai had become jinrikisha men; it is true they were 
not high samurai, but the fact that they work indicates an 
absence of the false pride so common with our race. The 
man who looks after my laboratory has a salary of twenty-five 
cents a day, and on this he supports a wife and a daughter 
who is taking music lessons. 

Yesterday I went through a street from which ran little 
alleyways, not over five feet wide, lined with dwelling-houses. 
It looked squalid to me, and Mitsukuri told me that it was the 
lowest and poorest quarter of the city. I went slowly along 
and examined each alley in turn. I heard no loud cries or 
shouting, saw no blear-eyed drunkards or particularly dirty 
children, and for a hundred children picked at random from 
what might be called slums, though slums they were not, I 
would venture that they were more polite and graceful in 
manner, less selfish, more considerate for the feeling of others 
than a hundred children picked at random from upper Fifth 
Avenue, New York. 

During my life in Japan I saw but one street fight, and this 
was so remarkable in its performance and surroundings that 
as usual I compared the action with similar experiences at 


home. To describe our street fight would be unnecessary, 
as all know that from the smallest boy to the old man a crowd 
instantly gathers, forms a ring, and watches the combat with 
excited interest, admiring the punches and regretfully de- 
parting when the battle is finished or the police interfere. In 
the Japanese affair the men were simply pulling hair ! I was 
the only one who watched. Every one else showed disgust or 
horror at such a breach of good manners, and a wide berth was 
given the fighters, people actually turning aside in passing. 

In cities the houses are generally tiled, though there are 
many shingled roofs; in the immediate suburbs many thatched 
roofs are seen. Vast conflagrations occur in Tokyo on account 
of the inflammable character of the roofs, the shingles being 
hardly thicker than playing-cards and the thatched roof as 
sensitive to a cinder as gunpowder. 

I have made many visits to Mr. Kashiwagi's, and to-day 
Dr. Bigelow went with me. He became greatly interested in 
the old lacquer boxes in the collection. For the first time I 
went up to the second story of the godown; it was literally 
crammed with boxes, cabinets, and various objects, all an- 
tique. Mr. Kashiwagi is one of the pleasantest men I have 
met in Japan. He is not afraid to say he does n't know when 
some questions are asked of him, and does not approve of 
Ninagawa's method of trying to tell the exact age of an ob- 
ject. Mr. Kashiwagi is full of antiquarian lore, and he gave 
me the other day the most rational explanation of the two 
brocade bands that hang down from the upper part of a 
kakemono. In former times the pictures were of a religious 
character, and when hung were supported on frames, long 


bands trailing down behind, and short ones in front; and when 
the picture was rolled up it was tied by these bands. The 
open character of the temples, with the wind blowing 
through, compelled the rolling-up of the pictures 
without removing them from the frames. Nowa- 
days, when the kakemono is rolled up, it is taken 
down and packed away in a box. In old books he 
showed me illustrations in which curtains were 
w*% looped up by similar bands. The longer bands have 
disappeared, but the shorter ones in front have sur- 
vived like the buttons on the back of one's coat. As 
a proof of the correctness of this explanation, the 
name of these bands is futai or kazeobi, the latter 
meaning "wind band." 

I noticed the children playing with great anima- 
tion a game with their hands, in which, at the end 
of the doggerel they were shouting, they clapped 
Fig. 730 tne i r hands three times and then gave the gesture 
for "judge," "fox," or "hunter." I asked them to 
recite the words slowly and took them down, with sketches of 
the various attitudes of the hand. The words as near as I could 
get them were as follows: — 
Ikken ki na sei (play once) 
Cho bisuke san (Mr. Small, meaning little finger) 
Janome no karakasa (eye of dragon umbrella) 
San gai e de (third story of house) 
Shichi ku deppo go sai na (?) 
Mu teppo de (without gun) 
Yoi! ya! na! (?) 


Figure 730 is a rude sketch of the attitudes of the hand in 
the recital. 

I give sketches of Yezo and Saghalien tobacco pipes, as 
given to me by Matsura Takashiro, who made rough sketches 
of them which I accurately copied. The Korean pipe has a 
larger bowl than the Japanese or Ainu pipe, but otherwise is 
much the same in form. It is interesting to look over old 

Fig. 731 

Japanese prints, three hundred years old, and notice the ab- 
sence of pipes, an object so universally used by the Japanese, 
and appearing repeatedly in picture prints since that time. 
(Fig. 731. A, Early Japanese pipe made of iron; B, C, Ainu 
pipes ; D, Manchurian ; E, Saghalien.) 

To-day (Sunday, December 16) I went, by invitation of 
Professor Yatabe, to a large one-hundred-mat hall beyond the 
river to listen to Japanese music, story-telling, etc. A club 
having about eighty members was formed last March, and is 
intended to bring together for the first time ladies and gentle- 
men at social meetings. When I went in and took my seat 


on a mat, I received about thirty bows from as many differ- 
ent people whom I knew. Many of my Japanese friends are 
members of the club, among them Mrs. Takamine, young 
Mrs. Takamine, Mrs. Kikuchi, Professor Kikuchi's little sis- 
ter, Professors Hattori, Toyama, Koizumi, Matsubara, and Mi- 
tsukuri. Each member has the privilege of inviting one guest, 
and the result was the bringing together of over a hundred 
pleasant and delightful people: bright, cultivated men and 

women and a few lovely 
children. The hall was a 
great airy room with the 
audience sitting on the 
mats, drinking tea and 
smoking. At one end of 
the hall was a slightly 
raised platform, or rather 
a long, low table, covered with a red cloth, on which the per- 
formers were to sit. First came music — two kotos, a sami- 
sen, and a flute-like instrument; after this a story-teller, 
and though I could catch only a word here and there it 
was interesting to watch his various gestures as he por- 
trayed the different characters in his story; the embarrassed 
fellow twisting his fingers together; the expressions of a 
countryman and the unceasing and rattling jabber of an old 
woman were all perfectly rendered and made everybody laugh. 
So strongly and promptly marked were the imitations of the 
different voices that with the eyes closed one would think that 
there were three distinct people talking. One often passes in 
some open lot a big tent from which issue the sounds appar- 

Fig. 732 


ently of a number of people disputing. Looking in, you see a 
story-teller with a rapt audience about him hanging onto every 
word and at times bursting into surprised laughter. Women 
and girls are never seen in these places, where it is considered 
improper for them to go; just as in our country one never, or 
rarely, sees a woman in the crowd that surrounds an oratori- 
cal street peddler. After this came a peculiar kind of story, — 
a very common form in Japan, — in which the story-teller 
partly recites and partly sings his story, accompanied by an- 
other performer who plays the samisen, keeping up an extra- 
ordinary vocal accom- 
paniment with curious 
guttural sounds, short 
notes, high squeaks, even 
sobbing sounds and as- >*, . 

tonishing ejaculations, p 733 

appropriate to the parts 

depicted in the story. Strange as it may seem, people are 
affected to tears by pathetic recitals in this style. When one 
hears this form of story-telling it impresses one as highly 
absurd; becoming accustomed to it one can somewhat un- 
derstand the reason for the vocal accompaniment in express- 
ing emotions of pain, anger, despair, etc., but it is entirely 
beyond description. The samisen, too, is made to form an 
important auxiliary, for all kinds of sounds are evoked from 
it — crescendo, sobs, abrupt notes and weird notes — by 
running the fingers up and down the string while vibrating it 
(fig. 732). It was interesting and delightful to see this cour- 
teous and cultivated audience so gentle, quiet, and apprecia- 

Fig. 734 


live, as they came in one after another, kneeling on the mats 
and bowing here and there. 

In an old makimono, nearly six hundred years old, with 
a panoramic picture of the erection of a temple, the dishes 

designed for food are of lacquer, and 
this explains why so little progress was 
made in the fictile art in the early 
days. Only the very poorest people 
used pottery in those days. Unglazed 
and lathe-turned, as well as hand-manipulated, pottery was 
used for vessels of offering in burial-places. 

I was in search of samples of Ainu cloth, or clothing, and 
was directed to a place beyond Eitaibashi. After a long hunt 
and a number of inquiries, I found a house where the people 
showed me an Ainu apron and other objects. When I asked 
the price, they insisted upon giving them to me. When I told 
them the objects were for the Peabody Museum, it made no 
difference. They told me that if I would come down on the 19th 
of December, they would have other Ainu objects to show me. 
So to-day I went there again, and they brought out an Ainu 

Fig. 735 

garment, leggings, needle-case, and another apron. Again I 
attempted to buy the objects, offering them ten dollars, the 
coat always being expensive, but again they positively refused 


to sell, and made me take them as a gift to the Peabody Mu- 
seum. I gave them some trifling presents, and I have invited 
them on Sunday to go to the University Museum and to my 
snug quarters, where I shall give them tea and sake. These 
persons were absolute strangers to me, and this illustrates 
again the generous nature of the people. There was a model 
of an Ainu anchor (fig. 733) ; a genuine boat-bailer (fig. 734) ; 
an Ainu scoop net, with handle fifteen feet long (fig. 735) —a 

Fig. 736 

very heavy and clumsy affair; and a model of an 
Ainu fishing boat (fig. 736) — all for the Educa- 
tional Museum, Uyeno Park. The boat was 
curious in that the pieces were fastened together with cords 
and not with wooden pins. The boat differs greatly from the 
boats I saw at Hakodate and Otarunai, these being modeled 
after Japanese forms. Figure 737 represents the basket in 
which the Ainu carries the fish from the boat to the packing- 
house. It is simply a rude basket fastened to a board, which 
in turn is strapped to the back of the fisherman. A pair of 
Ainu boots made from the skin of a salmon (fig. 738) was 
given to me; the leg is very large, making the foot appear very 
short. I was told that the leg and foot were stuffed with 
straw to keep the feet warm. These boots are used by the 
Ainu on the Ishikari River. 

Fig. 737 


The Female Normal School, of which Mr. Takamine is 
Director, was burned and with it the beautiful hall near the 
old Chinese college. The latter building was fortunately 

saved. The conflagration was intense 
in its heat and the firemen were help- 
less in getting near enough to do any 
good. There is no limit to the courage 
displayed by the firemen, but courage 
counts for nothing without proper 
weapons to fight with. Figure 739 is 
a hasty sketch made at the fire. 
The contents of a godown often resemble those of a garret 
or shed — old chests, baskets, corn drying, and the rejecta- 
menta of a house, saved by the spirit of frugality in the hopes 
that sometime they may be useful. 
In case of fire the contents of a 
house, which after all amount at 
most to but a few objects, are 
hurried into the godown. As there 
are no bedsteads, chairs, or lounges 
and but few books, and as the valu- 
able pictures and bric-a-brac are 
kept permanently in the godown, 
this is soon accomplished, the doors 
are closed and hermetically sealed 
with mud, which is always on hand 
in tubs, and sometimes, as in busi- 
ness streets, in front of the shop below the ground, access 
being had to it by a little trap door. 

Fig. 738 


I called on one of my special students, Mr. Sasaki. He has 
been married a few months, but I never knew of it till to-day. 
It seems to be an event that the Japanese never talk about, 

Fig. 739 

and when one is married it is always a matter of surprise. 
Two days ago I was invited by Mr. Mitsukuri to meet his wife 
with other friends at a tea-house. I am now so accustomed 
to Japanese life that it is becoming hard to realize how differ- 
ent it is from ours. At the tea-house was a large, spacious 


room, absolutely devoid of furniture except for a row of square 
boxes in a line on each side and at the end of the room; in the 
boxes charcoal was burning in the ashes, and at each box was 
a soft, square cushion upon which one kneels. As I entered 
the room, where many had assembled with Mrs. Mitsukuri 
at the left of the entrance, down I went on my knees with 
hands in front and head touching the mat; it seemed per- 
fectly natural for me to do so, and she did the same. As each 
one arrived his name was announced, and each one bowed to 
the bride. I knew nearly every one, and I noticed, as in many 
of these gatherings, that I was the only foreigner present. 
Food was brought in on trays; geisha and little girls passed the 
trays, poured sake, danced, sang, and made everything joyous. 
When we came away the untouched portions of our food were 
given us in the neatest of boxes to take home. 



Last Sunday (December 24) Dr. Bigelow and I were in- 
vited by Prince Kuroda to his place in the suburbs of Tokyo 
to see the method of falconry. We reached the house at half- 
past eight, and immediately went to the hunting-lodge, — 
for so it might be called, — an open, shed-like affair sheltered 
from the north wind and open to the sun, with a big square hole 
in the middle of the floor, filled with burning charcoal, where 
one could warm the hands and feet. There were tables and 
chairs, cigars, tea, and cake. An electric bell connected it with 
the duck ranges in the vicinity. Another room was occupied 
by the servants, the hawkers living outside. On a long rest 
were a number of curiously shaped nets on long poles, and at 
one side a small building with several compartments in which 
were kept the hawks. 

After we had been waiting at the lodge a little while, the 
bell sounded, and we were told to start for the ranges. A 
hawker came after us supporting on his left hand a handsome, 
slender-looking falcon. The bird showed no signs of fear and 
stood very erect and expectant, with brilliant yellow and black- 
pupiled eyes. The grounds upon which we entered were 
cut up into narrow passageways bordered by high embank- 
ments upon which grew dense masses of bamboo. We entered 
a long, open place bordered on one side by bamboo groves, 


and on the other side by a series of openings between the em- 
bankments with the similar crests of bamboo. These bamboo 
groves and fringes were intended to shield one from the 
wild ducks which might take alarm, though wild birds are so 
tame in Japan that there seemed hardly need of screens of 
any sort. 

First, however, it is necessary to describe the main pond 
and the canals that lead from it, into which the wild ducks are 

AUn*.**- ?onvcL 


Fig. 740 

decoyed and from which they fly and are caught by the oddly 
framed nets or by the hawk, as the case may be. A pond of 
some size is selected, or artificially made, into which the 
ducks are sure to alight. This is surrounded on all sides by 
thick groves of bamboo, and no one is allowed to approach 
the place except by a narrow path that leads to a little hut 
big enough for two only. In this hut are two little openings 


from which you get a view of the pond. It was an interesting 
sight to catch a glimpse of the placid water closely framed in 
the dense bamboo, the sun shining brightly down on the backs 
of hundreds of little fat ducks, some swimming about, others 
resting on a thin film of ice in shadow, and on a little island 
in the middle of the pond a large heron stood on one leg, tran- 
quil in its security. Here and there on the edges of the pond 
you could see by the darker shadows where the canals were 

into which the ducks were to be decoyed. Figure 740 shows 
the pond, the lookout, and the three canals which run from the 
pond, and figure 741 shows a section of the canals. These 
canals are three feet or more in width and four or five feet deep, 
the edges of the canal being raised in a slight embankment 
a foot and a half high, then an open space fifteen feet wide, 
then a high embankment as shown in section. This high em- 
bankment has a dense fringe of bamboo. In the canals are kept 
tame ducks which do not fly or show any fear of the falcon; 
these ducks are frequently fed, so that they will not go 
out to the main pond. The wild ducks, however, come into 
the canals, and through a minute hole in the lookout at the 
end of the canal one can see whether any wild ducks have 
come in. 

The fact that the game is there being announced, you pass 
along on tiptoe to the open space at the side of the canal. 
The hawker approaches the little embankment where the 


wild duck is supposed to be, and another man goes to the end 
of the canal near the pond and by waving the hand startles 
the wild duck, which flies up. As the duck appears above the 
low embankment the hawker throws the falcon at him, and 
away they go. The falcon invariably overtakes the duck, and 
tackling it by the head brings it to the ground, where it rests 
with its wings outstretched till the hawker comes and takes 
up the duck carefully, interlocks the wings behind 
its back, and then, by a dexterous thrust of the 
thumb, actually takes out the bird's heart. Suck- 
ing some of the blood, he feeds the hawk with a 
small bit of the heart so that it will be hungry for 
the next duck. If there are a number of wild 
ducks in the canal, then other men stand near 
the edge, with nets ready to catch the ducks as 
they rise. 

It was a stirring sight to see a number of men flourish- 
ing the long-handled nets as the ducks rose in the air, and 
at the same instant the two falcons were thrown, each pur- 
suing a duck that got beyond and above the nets. 

Figure 742 is the form of net used, and figure 743 represents 
the attitude of the hawkers. Skill is required to throw the 
falcon properly with a long sweep of the arm, the speed in- 
creasing as the bird leaves the hand. If the throw is too rapid, 
it pushes the bird off his wing, so to speak, just as if one were 
to push a boy who was running a race: if the push were too 
violent the boy would be thrown off his feet. 

The method of catching and training the falcon is inter- 
esting. The bird is caught by means of a sparrow which is 

Fig. 742 



imprisoned in a long, tubular net, larger in the centre and 
kept distended by hoops. This is held to the ground, tied to 
pegs at the ends, as shown in figure 744. Transverse to the 
tubular net is hung on poles a large net of the finest cord with 
wide meshes. This is about six feet in height and eight or ten 
feet in width, and is hung in such a way that it is easily 
released from the slender bamboo pole above and the split 

Fig. 743 

bamboo on the ground (fig. 745). To catch the sparrow the 
hawker watches for a flight of sparrows over his head, then 
with a whistle makes a sound like a falcon; the sparrows take 
alarm, immediately dive to the ground, and with a flourish 
of the net the hawker is sure to secure a number. One of these 
is imprisoned in the tubular net and used as a bait. A wild 
falcon, as he passes over the net, spies the sparrow in the 
tubular net and makes a dive for it; the sparrow flies to the 
other end of the net, the falcon pursues it, and dashing into 

Fig. 744 


the vertical net, is immediately entangled in it. The hawker 
illustrated to me the working of the net by throwing a big ball 

of twine at the net, 
which instantly became 
released from the four 
corners and the ball was 
enfolded in it. The fal- 
con having been caught 
is kept in a dark room 
without food or drink — 
literally, almost starved 
to death, and becomes 
so weak and helpless that it can be handled. The hawker 
goes into the room with his face covered with a cloth and 
holds the falcon on his 
hand for an hour, and 
then feeds him on a lit- 
tle sparrow meat. This 
he repeats every day for 
some time. Finally, he 
takes the cloth from his 
face when he goes in; 
gradually a little light 
is let into the room, and 
the light is increased 
from day to day until 
the falcon becomes per- 
fectly docile, and, knowing his keeper, is able to stand the 
full light of day and can be safely held by anybody. He never 

Fig. 745 



attempts to escape, comes to the keeper, alights on his hand 
when he gives the signal, which is given by drumming on a 
box, and is altogether a rational and well-behaved bird. This 
work is accomplished in from thirty to forty days. One of 
the falcons used was a wild bird a little over a month ago. 
This ground, fitted for a falconry, had been in use for this 
purpose for over two hundred years. Figure 746 shows the 

Fig. 746 

little shelter and lookout at the head of one of the canals. 
The man is pouring seeds into a little funnel and watching 
through the hole at the same time. A few wooden decoy 
ducks were floating in the water, with the other ducks, but 
so perfect was the imitation that it was with the utmost diffi- 
culty that they could be distinguished. 

Foreigners wonder why the Japanese object to their going 
about the country banging away at the birds. The banging 
of the guns frightens the birds away from the ponds over large 


regions. With hawking and netting as above described the 
hunting may go on indefinitely. 

It impressed me as a cruel sport, though the ducks are 
secured for the table. The quiet, unexcited way in which 
everything was done showed how often this diversion was 

We were greatly entertained by this ancient sport, seen for 

^^SL 1 II n0f 

Fig. 747 

the first time, and the Doctor vowed that when he got home 
he would establish it. 

A kite shop in the height of the season is a curious and novel 
sight — a little shop entirely open in front with a quaint sign 
in the shape of a large cuttlefish made of framework covered 
with cloth, the arms of cloth swinging back and forth in the 
breeze, the whole device painted in bright colors. Though 
different characters are used in writing it, the word for kite 



and for cuttlefish is the same; hence the use of a cuttlefish 
for a sign. 
Figure 747 is a hasty sketch of one of these shops. Inside, hun- 

Fig. 748 

dreds of kites were piled up in stacks, while two or three men 
were painting designs in the brightest colors, devils and mytho- 
logical subjects, hideous masks, and the like. Outside ranged 
a group of boys of all sizes, crowding up to the shop eagerly 
to examine the stock. While I was making the sketch over the 


heads of the boys in front, one old man grinned good-naturedly 
and another workman noticed me amiably; but none of them 
stopped work for a second, as they were too busy with their 
small customers. Their living for a whole year was apparently 
concentrated into a few weeks of kite-making. The prices 
seemed remarkably low, a big kite gaudily decorated in bright 

colors being sold for three and one half cents and small ones, 
capable of flying, for one half cent. When a boy buys a kite 
the shopkeeper fits the string. 

Figure 748 is a sketch of a kite nearly three feet in length, 
and the dotted lines show where the strings are attached in 
front connecting with the main string by which it is held. 
The boys send up paper disks on the strings as do the boys 
of the United States. We used to call them "messengers"; 
the Japanese boys call them "monkeys." A lantern is often 
sent up, sometimes two, and at night it is lighted. The 
strings running from the kite to the main cord are numerous 
and of great length. They seem to run from every point where 
the bamboo strips of the frame intersect, from top to bottom, 
and as in a large kite the strips run up and down, across and 
diagonally, there are many points of intersection (fig. 749). 


Our kite-flying is in the most rudimentary stage compared to 
the Japanese methods and devices. It is a curious sight to see 
a group of boys flying 
kites, nearly every one 
having a baby tied to 
his back (fig. 750). 

A common form of kite 
in Nagasaki is shown in 
figure 751. It is made 
with a straight strip of 
bamboo, having a hook at 
the upper end by which 
to hang it up, and a few inches below the top a strip of bam- 
boo, four feet long, fastened to the upright piece and bent 
like a bow; strings, holding down the ends of the bow, are 

fastened to the central 
piece four feet below. 
This forms the frame- 
work upon which the 
paper is fastened, mak- 
ing a segment of a circle 
about one fifth. The 
cord is fastened to the 
point where the bow is 
attached and also to the 
bottom of the kite, and 
A very long bob hangs 

Fig. 751 

runs out in front six feet or more, 
As a substitute for the hot-water bottle for cold beds the 


Japanese use the fire-bowl with a few coals, protected by an 
ample wooden frame. This is put under the futon, or wadded 
comforter, and supplies the proper heat. 

Figure 752 is a sketch of Mr. Kohitsu, from whom I am 
taking lessons in the tea ceremony. He is quite an expert in 

pottery and a very 
agreeable man. Fig- 
ure 753 is a sketch of 
Mr. Kohitsu's shoe 
closet. 1 Though Mr. 
Kohitsu has a small 
family, there are a 
number of shoes or 
sandals for each in- 
mate: low ones, fine 
ones for best clothes, 
and high ones for 
muddy weather, and 
some of them, by their 
appearance, evidently 
worn out. Indeed, one can judge from the appearance of the 
clogs left outside of a house the social status of the strangers 
he is going to meet within. 

As with us at home the Japanese have candy in which is 
enclosed a motto of some kind. Figure 754 shows one pinched 
up in a triangular form. It was made of molasses and was 
brittle, and tasted like a gingersnap without the ginger. The 

1 Though this has been given in Japanese Homes, I reproduce it from the original 
sketch, as it is one that the Japanese say makes them homesick. 

Fig. 752 


free translation of the motto is as follows : "Determination will 
go through rocks, why then can we not be united?" Mr. Dan, 
who translated this, tells me that the mottoes usually refer 
to love or politics; he also informed me that the idea was 
old. As a boy I remember similar devices at home with 
printed love mottoes 
folded inside. 

The devotion of ser- 
vants who have been 
faithful to the family 
was shown New Year's 
day by Tatsu, our old 
jinrikisha man, coming 
to my house with his 
little child and bring- 
ing as a gift a large 
basket of oranges; and 
the next day Kichi, our 
old cook, brought me a 
box of yokan (made of 
sugar and beans) and 

wished me a happy New Year. Both of them inquired after 
the family and remembered the names of Edith and John. 
The cook told me he had a good place in a Japanese res- 

Figure 755 is an ingenious device called the hikisawa, made 
of brass or silver, used by Japanese draftsmen to rule straight 
lines with a brush, as they have no drafting-pen. The brush 
is placed in a groove, A, reaching down to the end, B, which 

Fig. 753 



rests against the ruler; the upper part, C, is flattened; and 
with this they rule preliminary lines, and most delicate lines 
can be made. 

Yesterday (January 11) I was invited to lecture at the 
opening of Mr. Okuma's school. My subject was Evolution, 

or Darwinism, and Mr. Ishikawa, one 
of my old special students, inter- 
preted for me. After the lecture we 
were invited to Mr. Okuma's summer 
house just back of the school — a house 
with beautiful rooms, built twenty 
years ago strictly in Japanese style. 
The rooms were very large and high- 
studded, and the tokonoma was pro- 
portionately deep. I have noticed in 
large halls that the tokonoma is of great depth, and the 
kakemono and the vases or ornaments are of proportionate 
size. It may be interesting to mention that the seat of honor 
is in front of the tokonoma. Mr. Okuma had engaged a fa- 
mous blind biwa player (fig. 756). The music was entirely un- 
like that made by other instruments; certain notes are quite 
plaintive and touching. 

The bridges of the biwa ^ v 

are very high and the 

Fig. 754 


Fig. 755 
strings are pressed down 

between the bridges, and with varying degrees of pressure 
curious wavering notes are produced. Remarkable modula- 
tions are thus made, and Japanese of refinement are often 
affected to tears by the exceedingly sweet and caressing notes 


the instrument emits in the hands of a master. The plectrum 
is certainly a foot wide across the flat edge. After he had 
played awhile a glass was brought in containing a number of 
green leaves. Taking one of these leaves the player held it with 
two fingers against his lower lip (fig. 757), and blowing over 
it in some way made remarkably clear notes, high and low, 
by pressing more or less 
with the fingers. I tried 
in vain to make the sound 
and managed after awhile 
to evoke a squeak. 

After this entertain- 
ment we were invited into 
another room where Jap- 
anese food was served, 
and though I have tasted 
many delicious foods in 
Japan I never tasted such 
excellent soups as we had. 
One, containing slices of 

wild boar, was particularly good. Raw fish in vinegar was 
fine. I had to hurry away at six-thirty to meet another 

To-day (January 12) I gave another lecture at the Univer- 
sity on the reptilian affinities of birds. It was strongly Dar- 
winian and the students seemed to enjoy it. 

Lately I have found a bowl with the mark of Fuji, which 
proves a great puzzle to the Japanese experts. Kohitsu called 
it Ninsei, Kiyomizu, two hundred years old, but he had never 

Fig. 756 


seen the stamp before; Kashiwagi identified it as old Akahata, 
Yamato; Ando said it was Hagi, Yamato; Masuda recognized 
it as old Satsuma; Maida thought it might be Naniwa, Settsu; 
and another expert, whose name I do not recall, pronounced it 
Shino, Owari. I give this as an illustration of the divergence 
of opinion among the Japanese connoisseurs, and to show the 
difficulties in the work of identification of puzz- 
ling pieces. 

Bigelow, Fenollosa, and I were invited to dine 
at the house of Prince Kuroda, who was form- 
erly Daimyo of Chikuzen and is a brother of 
a famous Satsuma prince. He is very fond of 
animals, especially birds. He told me that after 
he had heard my lecture on ants some years ago 
he had observed their habits. The Prince is 
nearly seventy years old and slightly infirm, but 
is full of interest in scientific subjects. He lives 
in a foreign-built house with large, pleasant rooms and open 
fireplaces. We spent three hours looking over his collection 
of Takatori pottery and kakemono. 

January 16 the Doctor and I were invited to dinner at Mr. 
Okuma's in his city house, which is near the University. The 
house is in foreign style and very beautiful; Dr. Bigelow pro- 
nounced it perfect in its appointments. The dining-room had 
a beautiful wood floor, and over the doors and windows were 
elaborate wood carvings. The garden is in pure Japanese 
style, with the exception of a circular plat of grass, which is 
certainly not Japanese. Japanese food was served on trays 
with chopsticks on a table at which we sat in chairs. 


The gateways of the Japanese are nearly always pictur- 
esque, though many of them are frail in appearance. It is 
rare, however, to see one in ruins or in disrepair. They are 
never painted, and are made of light, thin strips, though the 
upright posts are thick and enduring. Quaint old planks of 
wood, with curious twisted branches, 
form a framework for the most deli- 
cate panel-work of braided lattice, or 
beautiful designs cut in stencil. Some- 
times a bamboo is cut longitudinally to 
form the centre of some panel. It is 
these contrasts between the strong and 
light, rough and delicate, that add a 
charm to these structures. Rustic ef- 
fects are seen in the city in fences, 
wells, and the like. 

I visited an old chajin and pottery 
sharp named Nishikawa Rokubei, who 
thinks that "floral decorated Satsuma" 
is three hundred years old. He repu- 
diates Ninagawa, Kohitsu, and everybody else, and looked 
like figure 758 when I told him that all the evidences were 
against him. 

I had made an appointment with Mr. Nishikawa to see his 
pottery, but when I got to the house he said he had only a few 
objects to show me, as the godown had been sealed up owing 
to the high wind, and he had not dared to open it. From a 
cupboard, however, he dragged a large basket-like box from 
which he took a few specimens of pottery. The box had bands 


arranged upon it so that a man might carry it on his back 
(fig. 759). 

For the last few days the wind has blown a furious gale, 
and everywhere on the street are seen preparations in an- 
ticipation of a large conflagration. Few goods are displayed; 
godowns are partially sealed with mud, men mixing the 

mud in the hole in front of the 
shop, or in a large jar on a pro- 
jecting shelf below the second- 
story window for ready seal- 
ing. What with the terrible 
conflagrations and chances of 
destructive earthquakes, it is 
no wonder that dwelling-house 
architecture has hardly de- 
veloped. It is useless to build 
more than temporary shelters. 
In an old book which I have 
is given the genealogy of the Kohitsu family. For fourteen 
generations they have been chajins and experts in pottery, 
and have been recognized as authorities in the identification 
of old pottery, writings, and kakemono. 

Yesterday morning, about four o'clock, I was awakened by 
a sudden and severe shock of earthquake. My floor is within 
two feet of the ground, yet the shock was so violent that the 
pottery on the shelves rattled at a great rate. It really seemed 
as if the house must fall, but before I could collect my wits it 
was all over. Dr. Bigelow is in a hotel, in the second story, and 
he thought the house would surely come down. 

Fig. 759 


January 18. The wind is still blowing a gale, yet boys and 
men are flying kites. I saw two men hanging on to a kite rope, 
the kite being over six feet square. The kites are certainly 
much stronger than ours or they could not stand such severe 
gales. The Japanese play with kites more than we do, and 
many men are seen flying them. 

The other night I was invited to an interesting gathering. 
Mr. Tanimura, a teacher of cha-no-yu, has a meeting every 
month of men who are interested in old Japanese pottery. 
It is a guessing party, and each one brings a specimen of pot- 
tery difficult to identify. These are numbered and recorded 
in a list by one who does not take part in the guessing contest. 
The method is rather curious. The party sit around in a circle 
with candles in the middle, and each one has a lacquer cup 
with his name written on the bottom. A specimen of pottery, 
such as a tea-jar, bowl, or incense-box, is passed around, each 
in turn examines it, and then with a brush and India ink 
records his guess on the inside of the lacquer cup and places it 
face downward on the mat. When every one of the party has 
marked his guess, or opinion, the host records each name and 
opinion in a book. In this way we examined a number of old 
tea-jars, tea-bowls, and the like. It may be interesting to 
record that I got the highest number of correct attributions, 
and it was also gratifying to know that I was not alone when 
in error. A tea-jar that I called Takatori was said to be Zeze 
by the judge, for that was the name written on the box from 
which it was taken : an unsafe evidence, for the original piece 
in the box may have been broken or lost and another jar sub- 
stituted that would fit the box — a very common practice. The 


two potteries closely resemble one another, however. Another 
piece said to be Koda, I am sure was not, as I am pretty sound 
on that pottery. It was interesting to meet such a pleasant 
party. One was a student, another a doctor, a third was an 
editor of a daily paper, another was a gentleman of leisure, and 
the host was a pottery expert. They all expressed their amaze- 
ment at the quickness of my decisions, as I always put my 
lacquer cup down first. The others would look at the piece in 

Fig. 760 

turn, expressing their emotions in curious sounds, saying it 
was odd or troublesome, and grunt over it, and at the very last 
moment write their decisions. Figure 760 is a hasty sketch 
of the party. 

Takamine told me a good story of a famous judge, Itakura, 
of the time of the first shogun, who used to sit behind a screen 
when he heard evidence and grind tea at the same time. The 
stone mill is quite heavy, and to grind the tea properly the 
mill must rotate slowly. He sat behind the screen so as not to 
see the witness's face; otherwise he might be prejudiced; and 


he had to repress his emotions, otherwise he would grind the 
tea rapidly and thus ruin the powdered tea. 

I took my first lesson in Japanese singing this afternoon. 
With a letter of introduction, I, or rather my jinrikisha man, 
found the way to Mr. Umewaka, who lived at Asakusa Minami 
moto machi Kubanchi. He is a famous teacher of no singing 
and acting, and has adjoining his house a stage for no play. 
Takenaka accompanied me as interpreter. We were presented, 
and Mr. Umewaka was very hospitable and seemed pleased 
that a foreigner should wish to take lessons in singing. Take- 
naka explained that I had many things to do and must begin 
at once. Mr. Umewaka brought me a singing-book and read 
slowly the words I was to learn, and I wrote them down as 
well as I could. I had to sit down with legs bent directly under 
me in Japanese fashion. This method of sitting is intolerable 
to a foreigner at the outset, but I am now able to sit an hour 
and a half without discomfort. He placed in front of me a 
little music-stand and gave me a fan which I held resting on 
my leg. He sang a line and I sang it after him; then he sang 
another; and so on through the eleven lines of the piece. After 
trying it twice in that way we sang together. I realized how 
very rich and sonorous his voice was. Then I observed that, 
do what I would, my notes sounded flat and monotonous 
while his were full of inflections and accents, though all on one 
note. I felt awkward and embarrassed at the absurd failure I 
was making and perspired freely, though it was a cold day 
in January. Finally, in desperation, I threw off all reserve 
and entered into it with all my might, resolved, at any rate, 
to mimic his sounds. I inflated my abdomen tensely, sang 


through my nose, put the tremulo stop on when necessary, and 
attracted a number of attendants who peeked through the 
screens to look on, in despair, no doubt, at a foreigner dese- 
crating the honored precincts by such infernal howls. Be that 
as it may, my teacher for the first time bowed approvingly at 
my efforts, complimented me when I got through my first 
lesson, and told me, probably in encouragement, that I would 
in a month's time be able to sing in no play. Figure 761 shows 
the attitude of the teacher and pupil. It is by taking actual 

lessons in the tea ceremony 
and in singing that I may 
learn many things from the 
Japanese standpoint. The 
method in singing is to de- 
press the diaphragm, mak- 
ing the walls of the abdomen 
as tense as a drum, this 
acting as a resonator. The 
strain on the voice is so 
great that a singer will of- 
ten cough in the midst of the singing. 

I was interested the other day in observing the behavior of 
two children to whom I showed some prints. They began to 
count the number of objects when they were in sequences, as 
children do at home. Indeed, the more I see of children here 
the more resemblances I find to our children. In their games 
there are some striking differences, and yet many of the games 
are alike, such as the bounding of a ball on the ground by 
patting it with the hand, and the jackstones played with little 

Fig. 761 


bags filled with peas and beans instead of stones. There is no 
hoop or skipping-rope; indeed, in the latter game they would 
shake down their nicely arranged hair. The children clasp 
their hands together and pound them on their knees making a 
peculiar sound which they call "money"; our children do the 
same thing. They also have the play of seeing who can stare 
the longest without smiling. Takamine told me that when 
the children eat an orange they play with it by making a shal- 
low cup with a segment of the rind, and then, nipping off the 
end of the segment, squeeze a few drops of juice into the cup, 
thus pretending to drink sake. The children have many ways 
of utilizing such objects for toys. 

In Japanese personal names there are many like Kichizae- 
mon, Hachizaemon, the termination zaemon and uyemon be- 
ing quite common, at least among the potters whose names I 
am collecting. These names mean, respectively, "left guard 
gate" and "right guard gate." Bei, as in Rokubei, means 
" soldier guard." Many of their names indicate a soldier origin 
of the family. 

Fuji has put on some magnificent appearances lately. It has 
been very cold for some time, with high winds. Fuji is covered 
to the base with snow, and for the last two nights the sun in 
sinking behind the mountain has illuminated the snow which 
has been whirled up in clouds from the sides. The appearance 
of the dark gray mountain in shadow, outlined with the most 
brilliant golden border and a rich rose halo, has been a sight of 
remarkable beauty. Fuji is about forty miles in a straight line 
from Tokyo, and I have a wonderful view of it every day as 
I ride to the University, and every day it is beautiful in the 


changing lights, shadows, snow effects, etc. In figure 762 the 
upper drawing shows the mountain with the snow illumined 
by the setting sun; in the lower drawing it is shown as illu- 
mined by the rising sun, with shadows of clouds. The other 

Fig. 762 

morning Fuji was in deep shadow from clouds with the excep- 
tion of irregular areas which were dazzling white. 

I went through the cemetery at Uyeno to-day and inquired 
for Matsura's grave and found it (fig. 763). I was curious to 
see how the cutting of the epitaph I wrote had been done. It 
was finely engraved in capital letters, the gravestone a dark 
slate. The Japanese epitaph, written by one of the students, 
is thoughtful and significant. 1 

"His family name Matsura and given name Sayohiko. His 
native province Tosa. Early entering college he devoted him- 
self to study of biology. By diligent labor he made consider- 
able progress. On 5th day, 7th month, of Meiji 9th, aged 22, 
died of fever. His nature was actively keen; he treated men 

1 In my course of lectures in the Lowell Institute I read this epitaph, and that 
dear man, William James, expressed great interest in it and asked for a copy. 


altogether without discrimination; hence he was lovingly 
sought by all. His friends subscribed to erect this monument 
and this is written for the inscription : — 

" The cherished hope is not yet fulfilled, 
As the faded flower he fell, 
Alas, the law of Nature ! 
Is it right, or is it wrong? 

" Inscription by Shogoi Kusakabe Tosaku. Erected by those 
of Tokyo Daigaku interested, 8th day of 7th month, 12th 
year of Meiji." 

For the last week I have been hard at work translating, with 
an assistant, a number of manuscript volumes of Ninagawa 
relating to pottery, which the family 
will not sell, though they are of no XvN 

possible use to them. In them I find a \ y \ 

great deal of information and enough if =£*• \ 

to show me what an untiring student [| hjijl / 

of pottery he was. J| _ j ^ 

Dimples in higher class ladies are "^^S^^^^^J;- 
not considered pretty because they fig. 763 

accompany laughter, and laughter is 

undignified; among servants, however, dimples and a fat, 
robust figure are regarded favorably. 

On February 2, 1883, there was the biggest snow-storm 
for many years; the snow was nearly a foot deep on a level. 
It required two men to drag me to the University. The chil- 
dren went off to school barefooted on their clogs, carrying 
their stockings in their sleeves so as to have something dry 


to put on in school. It is curious to see the jinrikisha men and 
other laborers barefooted and barelegged in the snow and 
slush. Directly after the first snowfall came another, ac- 
companied by a high wind. The snow drifted in great piles, 
and even in Maine the storm would have been considered a 
"rouser"; for two days the streets were impassable. This 
storm was followed by cold weather, so after several days the 
snow remains in great drifts. 

It is interesting to see how the art tastes of the people are 
manifested in the figures they make in the snow. A very com- 
mon figure is that of Daruma, a follower of Buddha, often 
pictured and made in metal, pottery, or carved in ivory; a 
great many bridges and arches are made and lanterns placed 
in some. In one case I saw a miniature garden with path- 
ways, summer-houses, stone lanterns, and the like. Masses 
are wrought in the form of large balls of mochi, one on 
top of another and diminishing in size. A very common pic- 
ture shows two large pinnacles of rock with straw 7 ropes and 
pendent straws hanging from one peak to the other; this was 
beautifully rendered in snow. Also the sun rising out of the 
waves, — the waves gracefully carved and the sun made by 
pressing snow in a shallow tub, making a disk like a big cheese. 
These and many other designs arrested one's attention in rid- 
ing through the streets. People are walking about, most of 
them, particularly women and children, carrying bamboo 
canes to support themselves. The people seem perfectly help- 
less in the presence of such a depth of snow, and there seems to 
be no effort on the part of the city authorities to remove it. 

I have already taken several lessons in singing, and although 


I have a fairly quick ear, I have not been able to carry away 
two consecutive notes, or to recall any notes. It has been 
very interesting to see how different their music is from ours. 
Their manuscript music has no notation, no indication of any- 
thing but inflections indicated by short lines, level, or slanting 
upward or downward, or with undulations up or down. My 
teaching is entirely by rote, the teacher first giving the line and 
I singing after him. I noticed almost immediately that he 
varied slightly each time. Sometimes certain notes are made 
sharp and again the same notes are flattened. In my mind 
Utai is not singing, but inflectional declamation, not un- 
like the conversation of the countrymen of Yorkshire. Many 
years ago Dr. Philip P. Carpenter, brother of the famous 
physiologist, actually rendered into musical notation conver- 
sations he had heard among the farm people of Yorkshire. He 
sang me one which I have always remembered. The music I 
am studying is written with short dashes pointing downward, 
or upward, or level. My teacher at the outset had told me 
that I must keep my abdomen distended, — a constant strain, 
— with the result that my voice would be sonorous ; it was a 
difficult accomplishment to acquire. The various forms or 
schools of Japanese music, whether vocal or instrumental, are 
listened to by a foreigner, first with bewilderment, and then 
greeted with laughter. It was a humiliating experience to at- 
tend a Japanese entertainment in which classical music was 
sung, music that would bring tears to the Japanese eyes, and 
have it greeted by the Englishmen in the audience with con- 
temptuous laughter. You hear quaint music in the East, music 
that excites your interest, music that prompts your feet to beat 


time, but Japanese music is simply unintelligible to a foreigner. 
As their pictorial art was incomprehensible to us at the outset, 
and yet on further acquaintance and study we discovered in 
it transcendent merit, so it seemed to me that a study of 
Japanese music might reveal merits we little suspected. For 
that reason I studied Utai, a school of Japanese music, taking 
my lessons of the famous teacher Umewaka. Professor Ya- 
tabe, a graduate of Cornell, while thoroughly approving the 
adoption of many features from abroad and admitting their 
superiority, nevertheless insisted that the Japanese music was 
superior to ours. 

Figure 764 is a hasty sketch of a sword-maker in Tokyo. I 
find no memorandum in regard to it and at this late date can 
recall nothing. The hammers of the helpers are very odd. 

I have already alluded to the love of collecting among the 
Japanese and have briefly mentioned some of the objects they 
collect. Since that record I have seen many other collections, 
and they comprise pottery, porcelain, cloth, swords and sword 
details that are found on the handle and scabbard, autographs, 
coins, stone implements and beads, brocade, pieces of which 
are stuck into books as are stamps in stamp collecting, pic- 
tures, drawings, books, ancient manuscripts, old furniture, 
such as cabinets and priests' desks, sticks of ink and ink- 
stones, roofing tiles, lacquer, and metal ornaments. Very few 
collect natural objects, though I have met some collectors of 
insects, shells, and plants. 

In examining Japanese hand-work of any kind the foreigner 
is immediately impressed by the fact that all surfaces of the 
object are equally well finished. Whether it be a bronze fig- 



^ ^ If f— ^JL^ - 

Fig. 764 

ure, lacquer box, inro, or netsuke, the base is finished as care- 
fully and accurately as the exposed surfaces. One is amazed 
to find the ventral portion of a carved insect, or the base of a 
sculptured animal, finished with anatomical accuracy. A good 
illustration of this fidelity in work is often seen when some 


family is moving its household furniture, not much, to be sure; 
yet, when the bureaus, low desks, lacquer cabinets, lacquer 
boxes, etc., are piled together on a cart, one notices the con- 
trast with similar furniture vans at home. Even from the 
house of the rich the load appears fairly squalid, while the 
Japanese load from the house of the poor suggests anything 
but squalor. 

The Japanese children, and for that matter the nation, have 
no such thing as a lead pencil or chalk, crayon, writing-pen, 
or fluid ink, except what they make themselves by rubbing a 
hard piece of India ink with water in some receptacle, usually 
an ink-stone. A writing-box of wood or lacquer contains an 
ink-stone with shallow spaces on each side for brushes with 
which they write, a paper-knife, stick of India ink, and a lit- 
tle vessel, holding water, with two minute openings, one of 
which you cover with your finger, thus checking the flow of 
water from the other opening. Unless the ink is already pre- 
pared, one has to allow a few drops of water to fall on the 
stone, and then the ink is rubbed until the result is sufficiently 
black. Then only can one write a letter, which is done on a 
roll, — vertically, of course, — and as line after line is written the 
paper is unwound till five or six feet may be unrolled according 
to the length of the letter. It is then torn off, wound up again, 
flattened by smoothing with the hand, and slid into a long, 
narrow envelope which has lately come into use. If one is in a 
rage and is inclined to dash off an angry letter, he has suffi- 
cient time to cool off in getting ready to write it. 

A device known as yatate (fig. 765) takes the place of our 
fountain pen. It is usually made of metal and consists of a 


tube to hold the writing-brush, and attached to the top, at 
right angles, is a receptacle for a wad of cotton saturated with 
fluid ink. The writer can get ink enough on his brush to write a 
few characters. The artistic work seen on these devices almost 
equals the work seen on the sword-guards and other metal fur- 
nishings of the sword. The designs are infinite. The yatate is 
thrust into the obi, the ink-holding portion preventing it from 
sliding through. The carpenter has a device, carved 
out of wood, consisting of a receptacle holding ink- 
saturated cotton, and a wheel on which a cord is 
wound, the cord passing through the cotton as it 
is wound and unwound. The cord has an awl at- 
tached to it, and the carpenter makes an ink line 
on the board by pulling the string out and with 
the awl fastening it to the board and then snapping 
it, as our carpenter does his chalk-line. The device 
should be adopted by our carpenters, as it makes 
a sharp, black, durable line. 

Mention has already been made of the boy's sub- 
stitute for a slate. The child begins the practice of 
writing Chinese characters, using a large brush for 
the purpose. A book of paper sheets, usually six by nine, 
though often larger, is a substitute for the slate. The char- 
acters are drawn of large size on these sheets and are drawn 
over and over again. Only one side of the paper was used in 
the book here figured, consisting of thirty-two leaves. The 
freshly written character shows plainly on the dried ink- 
markings of the day before. Figure 766 gives the appearance 
of these books. 

Fig. 765 

Fig. 766 


On visiting famous temples the priests present you with 
paper slips, and sometimes thin wooden tablets, upon which 

the name of the temple and other char- 
acters are written. These tokens are 
fastened to the side of the house en- 
trance to ward off contagious diseases 
and evil influences. Figure 767 repre- 
sents one of these tokens from the tem- 
ple of Nantaizan. It is five inches 

In Tokyo, and presumably in the 
larger cities, a little wooden tag is 
worn under the clothes of the child, 
on which are inscribed the name of the child and the house 
and district in which the child lives. The police- 
man simply reaches down the neck of a lost 
child, pulls out the tag, and promptly returns 
the child to its anxious mother. Figure 768 rep- 
resents the tag worn by Dr. Takenaka when a 

One of the many features that attract the eye 
of the foreigner are the hair ornaments of the 
women and especially of the little girls. With 
scarcely an exception the hair is formally ar- 
ranged, usually in a broad knot, or some other 
shape, behind. At the junction of this knot with 
the head, red crape is tied, and at this place 
ornamental hairpins are thrust. These are called 
kanzashi. Here one sees the ingenious way in which, with 

Fig. 767 



Fig. 768 

the simplest materials — cloth, gold paper, delicate spiral 

springs, straw, spangles, red coral, etc., — a great variety of 

objects are made. Quite half the designs 

represent flowers. I do not remember ever 

seeing a natural flower worn in the hair nor 

on the person. Many of them represent a 

story or act of some kind; a child painting 

a kakemono (fig. 769), a bird-cage (fig. 770), 

a bird in bamboo (fig. 771). Elaborate as 

some of them are, the cost is trifling — a 

cent or two. Hardly a visit is made without 

a present of some kind being offered, and these kanzashi are 

favorite objects for that purpose. 

In Buddhistic families one often hears a blessing asked by 

the host. At a private dinner each one declines the seat of 

honor and some time elapses before 
the guests are seated. It is not con- 
sidered polite to accept articles of food 
when offered the first time, but only 

when passed the second time. In our country the unin- 
formed Japanese student often suffers in consequence of this 

form of good manners. They depreciate their children and 

themselves, their homes, houses, and 

possessions; a feature due to Chinese 

cult. Hokusai often signed his pictures 

with characters meaning "a stupid 


Prince Nabeshima invited me to dinner, and as Mrs. Sam- 
uel Bright was visiting us she was also invited with Mrs. 

Fig. 769 


Fig. 770 


Morse. There were twenty or more at the table, and Mrs. 
Bright was curious to know the religious belief of the gentle- 
men present. It was a somewhat embarrassing inquiry. I had 
explained to her before that the cultivated Japanese had out- 
grown whatever belief in Buddhism or Shinto they may have 
had. The question was skillfully presented by Prince Nabe- 
shima, and without exception every one, though with many 
smiles, confessed his freedom from religious belief. 

With the exception of a certain region in Tokyo, known as 
the Ginza, the sidewalk is unknown. The Ginza for a certain 

distance had been built in for- 
eign style, with two-story brick 
blocks, a brick sidewalk, and a 
curb. Elsewhere in the city the 
carriageway extends from one 
p IG> 771 side of the street to the other, 

and is slightly rounded in the 
centre, and fairly hard and smooth. The people throng into 
the middle of the road. One never sees people keeping step in 
walking, neither men, women, nor children. Sometimes two 
men will hold hands, or one will have an arm flung over his 
companion's shoulder. The absence of rhythm in their walk 
is noteworthy, as with our people even school-children keep 
step in walking. One realizes at once that the Japanese never 
dance together as we do. The waltz, the polka, and other old- 
fashioned dances requiring absolute rhythm in their move- 
ments, and the school drill of marching out of school to the 
music of a piano, all contribute to the marching habit. 
Mr. Ninagawa, the antiquarian, who has been mentioned 


elsewhere in these pages, and who died in 1882, frequently 
called on me. Mr. Kohitsu, another antiquarian, was an occa- 
sional caller. The front door of the little house I occupied 
opened into my only room, which functioned as a library, 
workroom, and bedroom as well. In calling upon me in winter 
these men would knock on the door, which I would promptly 
open for them. They would show no signs of recognition of 
my presence until they had removed their hats, which they 
would place on the step; then, untying the handkerchief about 
the neck, folding it, and placing it in the hat, they would make 
a few profound bows, which I would return, and then they 
would enter the house. These men never called on me to- 
gether; whether their relations were strained I never learned. 
I was amazed that the various experts that I met in Japan 
seemed always unfamiliar with one another's work. Nina- 
gawa published an interesting work on Japanese pottery, with 
remarkable illustrations in lithography, yet the various ex- 
perts in pottery that I have thus far met seemed utterly igno- 
rant of its existence. 

An indication of the rational character of the Japanese is 
seen in the numbers that are abandoning the queue. The stu- 
dents were the first to do so. In the country one sees every- 
body wearing the queue; also in the city among the lower 
classes. Old scholars, too, still adhere to the custom. Nina- 
gawa not only always wore the queue, but his outer garment 
was slit as if he still carried the two swords. Mr. Kohitsu, a 
teacher of the tea ceremonies and a pottery expert, while 
retaining the Japanese dress, told me that he gave up the 
queue a few years ago. Old men with very little hair still 


manage to gather the few hairs on the back of the head, wax 
them, and construct a queue the size of a toothpick. On one 
occasion, in a crowd, I had before me a bald head with 
a queue of this description. I noticed that the queue was 
black, so it must have been dyed or stained with ink. A closer 
examination revealed the fact that a black line had been 
painted vertically on the scalp in line with the queue, thus 
making the queue appear an inch longer. A mischievous boy 
might have been tempted to swing the genuine queue gently 
to one side! 

The Japanese have an interesting way of waking a sleeper. 
Instead of loudly speaking, or roughly shaking him, the per- 
son begins to tap his shoulder in the most quiet manner, 
slowly increasing the force of the taps until they become 
vigorous slaps; the sleeper finally wakes without the slightest 
shock and with wits fully established. Hospital nurses and 
others should adopt this method. 

A marked characteristic of the Japanese is their love for 
nature. They not only enjoy nature in all its aspects, but they 
enjoy it with an artist's eye. So dominant is this trait that the 
city directory of Tokyo devotes a few pages to pointing out 
places in the parks and suburbs where nature in its finest 
aspects is to be found. The following is a translation of these 
pages copied from the "Tokyo Times": — 

For snow effects: the banks of the Sumida River, Koishikawa, 
Kudan, Uyeno, and Atagoyama, during the later winter. 

For plum blossoms: Mukojima, Asakusa, Kameido, latter part of 

For cherry blossoms: the banks of the Sumida River, Oji, Uyeno, 
Higurashi, Koganei, from the middle of April. 


For peach blossoms: Osawa village, from the middle of April. 

For pear blossoms: Namamugi village, during the latter part of April. 

For Yamabuki (Kerria japonica): Mukojima and Omori, in April. 

For peony: Garden of Somei, Terajima, Meguro, in mid May. 

For fleur-de-lis: Horikiri, in May. 

For fuji (wistaria) : Kameido, Meguro, Noda, latter part of May. 

For morning-glory: gardens of Somei and Iriya, from the middle of 

For lotus: Mokuboji, Uyeno, Tameike, Mukojima, from the latter 
part of July. 

For the seven flowers of autumn: Terajima, from latter part of 

For Hagi: Buddhist temple of Rengeji at Terajima, and at Kameido, 
from the latter part of August. 

For chrysanthemums: Meguro, Asakusa, Garden of Somei, Sugamo, 
in November. 

For maple leaves: Konodai, Oji, Tokaiji, Kaianji, in November. 

We are also informed in this connection that for firefly 
hunting we must resort to the paddy-fields in Asakusa, Oji, 
Koishikawa, along the Sumida River and elsewhere in the 
early summer. Oji and Meguro are mentioned as furnishing 
excellent waterfall fishing in the same season. Various places 
are also named where one can catch "sweet singing insects." 

In addition to what appears in connection with the "Hints," 
we are reminded of the garden of Dangozaka, celebrated for 
chrysanthemums; Tabata, for plum blossoms ;Nezu andHigu- 
rashi, for cherry blossoms, maples, and kirishima; Aoyama, 
Asakusa, for its waterfall and pine trees; Tsunokami, Yotsuya, 
for all sorts of flowers; Shinfuji, Shibuya, for pretty grasses; 
Susaki Benten, for fishing at low tide, and Takinogawa for its 
waterfall and maples. 

The loyalty of the people to residents of their own province 
is noteworthy. They provide lodging and food, if able to do 


so, to any one coming from their own province, whether rela- 
tion, friend, or total stranger. A Japanese friend of mine told 
me that he had entertained in this way six young men whom 

Fig. 772 

he had never met and had kept 
them a number of days. 

The main supply of animal 
food is derived from the ocean. 
Nearly every creature living in 
the sea is used as food by the 
Japanese. The vertebrate fish forms the larger proportion of 
food, though nearly every species of mollusk of sufficient size 
may be found in the market as well as the cuttlefish ; eggs of 
the sea urchin; a worm-like Sabella, the brachiopod Lingula; 
Cynthia, an ascidian; and a number of seaweeds. Of the ver- 
tebrate fish many more species are eaten than with us. Not 
that we do not have as many species, or nearly as many 
on our coast, but our taste seems to be confined to a few 
kinds. I remember as a 
boy flounders were never 
eaten. Formerly on the 
coast of Maine the had- 
dock was not considered 
a food fish. Nearly all 
fish caught by the Japanese is brought to the market and 
is sorted and sold. Thousands of fishermen in their little 
boats and men and boys on the rocks are catching all kinds 
of fish. With us only those fish that can be caught or netted 
in great numbers are thought worth while to bring to the 
market; hence the food fishes are limited to a few kinds, the 

Fig. 773 


principal ones in New England being the cod, haddock, mack- 
erel, and halibut. We are extremely limited in our taste for 
mollusks, the clam, quahog, oyster, and scallop, and, rarely, 
the mussel, forming the usual supply. The periwinkle, 
an imported species, may be found in the market 
for the Italian population. It is commonly eaten in 
England, and is sweet and nutritious. As in many 
other matters each province in Japan has its special 
type of fishhooks. Figure 772 represents the cod 
hook in the provinces of Echizen, Echigo, and Ugo. 
The eel hook, which is tied to the end of a long pole, fig. 774 
an ordinary fish knife, and a hand hook for sorting 
fish are shown in figure 773. In Iwashiro the fishermen use 
a hook for catching bonito, a kind of mackerel. The stem is 
a mass of lead, in the side an oblong strip of pearl is intro- 
duced; and at the end, surrounding the hook, are strips of 
stiff paper (fig. 774). For trolling, a wooden fish is used, with 
a metal keel to keep it upright and a double row of hooks in 
the tail. The model is browned over hot coals and darker 

spots are burned on the sides 

(fig. 775). 
The bric-a-brac dealers in 
FlG 775 Japan, as in all other parts of 

the world, are not famous for 
their rectitude. When one recalls the frauds he may have 
purchased in Europe or America in the way of old furni- 
ture, oil paintings, especially "old masters," Egyptian relics, 
etc., he will not judge too harshly the Japanese dealers in 
"old Satsuma" (often warm from the furnace), old kake- 


mono, and the like. With all this knavery one cannot but 
admire the ingenuity of some of these cheats. As an exam- 
ple, a dealer will find some old house with a quaint garden 
in the suburbs of Yokohama or Tokyo. If he can induce 
the occupant to move out for a few weeks, "bag and bag- 
gage," he will fill it up in an appropriate way with kake- 
mono, bronzes, folding screens, lacquer boxes, and the like. 
If he can persuade the owner — provided he is a dignified old 
gentleman — to play the part of a decayed daimyo, who by 
an unfortunate turn of affairs has become poor and is com- 
pelled to sell his art treasures, the trap with its bait is com- 
plete. A foreigner just landed and wild for choice examples 
of Japanese art, is incidentally told by some dealer that he 
knows of a retired daimyo, within a few miles of the city, 
who is compelled by stress of circumstances to part with his 
household belongings, and a rare chance is offered to secure 
heirlooms of great merit and antiquity — such an opportun- 
ity as occurs but once in a lifetime. Jinrikishas are engaged, 
and after a long and delightful ride he arrives at the modest 
house of the supposed daimyo. The dealer goes ahead and 
announces his coming. He is then formally presented to the 
venerable old man, who with exquisite politeness offers tea 
and cake and possibly a little sake. He is abashed by the im- 
pertinence of his intrusion, and while preliminary skirmish- 
ing goes on through an interpreter his eyes greedily roam 
about the room selecting the objects he is bound to possess, 
at the same time hypnotized by the dealer and beguiled by 
the refined and deprecating manner of the dear old man. He 
is ashamed to modify the prices modestly mentioned for this, 


that, and the other object. With a feeling of exalted triumph 
he rides back to the hotel with jinrikisha loaded with pur- 
chases, sure that this time at least he has secured rare old 
treasures, to find out that the stuff is all fraudulent and that 
he has been most egregiously swindled. The trouble taken by 
these dealers and the ingenuity they display are manifested 
in other ways. If you are in the Government employ, or a 
teacher in the University, and have a regular route of travel 
to and from your duties, an object you have admired and bar- 
tered for in some remote part of the city, and which you have 
refused to buy on account of its price, is placed in the hands 
of a dealer whose shop is on a street through which you daily 
pass. The price is lower, and the chances are that you secure 
it. With suspicions that it is the same object that you had 
refused to buy in another part of the town, you immediately 
visit the remote dealer to find that the piece you wanted has 
been sold. If, furthermore, you refuse to buy the object and 
again visit the remote dealer, you find the object in his pos- 
session with a still lower price. I have had this experience 
several times. 

An old dealer by the name of Gonza, who had helped me 
greatly in Nagoya by guiding me to various dealers of bric-a- 
brac in that large city, and who seemed above suspicion, 
attempted to swindle me afterwards in a manner that, had I 
not been familiar with Japanese pottery, would have resulted 
in my being woefully cheated. I had copied very carefully from 
an ancient manuscript certain incised marks of some of the 
early potters of Seto. These copies were sent to Gonza with the 
request that he would hunt up pieces bearing these signatures 


and the highest prices would be paid for them. After the lapse 
of a few months a box came to me from Nagoya, with a letter 
from Gonza giving a history of these old potters, and samples 



Fig. 776 

of their work in the shape of tea-jars, bowls, and other objects 
in pottery, with marks on the pottery apparently the same 
as the copies I had sent him. I was sufficiently familiar with 
Japanese pottery to see at a glance that the pottery, instead 
of being three or four hundred years old was not over thirty 
or forty. With soap and water and a brush the first applica- 


tion brought out the dirt that had been rubbed in, leaving 
the incised marks clear and bright. An ordinary lens showed 
that the marks had been scratched in the hard-baked object, 
whereas genuine incised marks are done in the clay before it is 
baked and show raised clay at the ends of the lines. I imme- 
diately wrote to him a fierce letter, stating that all the marks 
were fraudulent, and that I should show him up as a swindler 
in my contemplated work on Japanese pottery. In the course 
of a few weeks I got a letter, with a water-color drawing on 
silk, from Gonza (fig. 776). The following is a rough transla- 
tion of his letter by Mr. Takenaka: — 

Morse Sensei — 

Dear Sir, — Sometime ago on account of my unexercised 
eyes I made a mistake in criticizing potteries. I am very 
much ashamed. To ask your forgiveness again for my fault I 
send you now a note of the acknowledgment of my error. In 
the picture the gentleman sitting in the chair and inspecting 
pottery is Morse Sensei, another is Mr. Takenaka, the other 
is Mr. Kimura. The man who kneels down at the front of 
them and who is imploring pardon is Gonza. At last I pray 
you to be kind to me in publishing your book on pottery. 
I regret very much that I acted wrong against you whenever 
I think of the book you are going to publish. 

I remain, dear Sir, your obedient servant, 


The poem in the picture reads as follows: "In the world al- 
most everything is so. You cannot see from the outside the 
astringency of some persimmons." 


When I returned home from Japan I crossed to China, and 
after a short stay in that country, I went down the coast, 
touching at Annam and spending some little time on the Malay 
Peninsula and in Java. From Yokohama to Shanghai I sailed 
with Captain Connor, an Essex County, Massachusetts, boy. 
After passing through Shimonoseki Straits, Captain Connor 
pointed out to me a rocky and precipitous island, and said 
that eleven years before he and his wife were on a vessel that 
was wrecked on this island. The night was very dark, though 
the sea was calm. Rockets of distress were sent up, and in a 
short time fishermen came alongside from up and down the 
mainland, to aid in any way. The personal property of the 
passengers was passed over the sides of the vessel to these 
rescuers, who disappeared in the darkness. In the morning 
a Japanese Government steamer drew alongside, and taking 
the passengers and crew aboard, landed them at Nagasaki, a 
distance of one hundred and forty miles from the scene of the 
shipwreck. The passengers, somewhat anxious about their 
personal property, consisting of all their clothing and other 
items, wondered how they were to recover it, and were politely 
informed by the officers that as soon as the Government 
could post notices along the coast road indicating some places 
where the property might be brought, all the material would 
be gathered and returned. Within a few days every single 
item, to cuff buttons and soiled collars, was brought to 
Nagasaki, and not a single object was lost. Captain Connor 
added, with a bitter smile, that a few years before he and his 
wife were wrecked on the coast of New Jersey in the month 
of November. It was very cold at the time. It is needless to 



mention the bitter treatment they received except to state 
that they were robbed of everything. 

In no better way does the freedom from all bigotry show 
itself than in the way in which the Chinese practice of medi- 
cine was doomed when the people began to see the sound 
principles of the foreign practice. The 
prompt establishment of a medical college, 
and the inquiries that were made as to 
where Americans were sent to finish their 
medical education, showed the sagacity 
of the Government. It was found that our 
distinguished physicians and surgeons had 
studied in the medical schools and hos- 
pitals of Berlin and Vienna. Thereupon 
Germans were invited to teach in the med- 
ical college and students had to be well 
grounded in the German language before 
entering. Furthermore, a chemical lab- 
oratory was established in Yokohama for the purpose of 
examining all drugs that were imported to the country to 
ascertain their purity. The absurd pharmacopoeia of the em- 
pirical Chinese practice was discarded, although in the coun- 
try one would often see hanging from the ceiling the dried 
foetuses of deer (fig. 777), or dried centipedes, and other 
grotesque absurdities representing the materia medica of the 

A quack is called a bamboo doctor, probably because the 
bamboo is light and hollow. 

I made the acquaintance of Mr. Sugi, head of the Statistical 

Fig. 777 


Department of Tokyo, and found him a very intelligent man, 
interested in the antiquities of Japan, tea ceremonies, and the 
like. From him I secured many interesting facts regarding 
health conditions of Tokyo. Dr. Baker, of Lansing, Michigan, 
Secretary of the State Board of Health, sent me his report for 
1879. Among vital statistics I found that eighty-seven mur- 
ders had been committed in that year. As the population of 
the State of Michigan at that time was only slightly larger 
than the population of Tokyo, I asked Mr. Sugi how many 
murders had been committed in Tokyo for the year. He 
said none; indeed, only eleven murders and two cases of poli- 
tical assassination had been committed in Tokyo in the last 
ten years. 

On inquiry of Mr. Agee and others in regard to the first 
public lectures in Japan it was difficult to secure reliable in- 
formation. The renowned Fukuzawa informed me that in 1871 
a number of scholars met together and papers and essays were 
read. The sessions were private. In 1873-74 an association 
was formed under the name of Mairokushi, consisting of older 
scholars. The public was admitted to their discussions. Trans- 
actions were also published. In 1874-75 Mr. Fukushi and 
Mr. Numa gave a few lectures, for which a small admission fee 
was charged. In the latter part of 1875 a lecture association 
was established under the name of Kodankai. Messrs. Fuku- 
zawa, Obata, Enouye, Yano, Agee, and other scholars met 
twice a month. A small fee was charged for admission to the 
lectures, and at first much opposition was shown by some of 
the members, as it was thought highly improper, not to say 
discourteous, to ask an admission fee. Another organization 


was effected in 1878, known as the New Kodankai, the first 
meeting being held on September 21, 1878. Mr. Agee at- 
tempted to establish public lecturing as a paid profession, after 
the American method. Again the charging of an admission 
fee caused the resignation of some of the members. The lec- 
tures were given on Sunday, and four or five lectures were 
given at each session, with an intermission of a few minutes 
between the lectures. Among those who lectured in the first 
course were Messrs. Sugi, Nishi, Toyama, Kawazu, Kato, 
Agee, Kikuchi, Numa, Fukuzawa, Sato, Fujita, Nakamura, 
and three Americans, Mendenhall, Fenollosa, and Morse. The 
lecturers were Japanese and American professors of the Im- 
perial University, officials of Government departments, edi- 
tors, a Buddhist priest, and other prominent men. The lec- 
tures were given in a large hall, and the audience averaged 
from six to eight hundred and showed no diminution in num- 
bers to the end. It was interesting to see the auditors squat- 
ting on the matted floor, — not closely jammed together, — 
attentive and evidently eager to understand the lectures on 
evolution in religion, in the solar system, and in the animal 
kingdom. The platform was only slightly raised above the 
level of the matted floor. There was, of course, no artificial 
heat in the hall. At times it was so cold that I had to wear my 
thick winter ulster while lecturing. Compelled to be in my 
stockinged feet, I endeavored in vain to stand in one place, 
but by the end of the lecture my feet were very cold. At the 
end of the lecture many of the auditors would rise to exchange 
greetings with some friends in other parts of the hall. I used 
to watch the place where some corpulent auditor was sitting, 


and if he rose, I would find the hot spot on the mats where he 
had sat and warm my feet till the lectures proceeded. It was 
a curious experience in my early lectures in Japan to have a 
police officer armed with a sword sitting in a chair by my side 
and facing the audience. My lamented friend, Mr. Agee, was 
known as a radical, and he interpreted my lectures. He might 
have made me utter the most seditious sentiments, so far 
as I knew, for I had only acquired a few Japanese words and 
expressions. Later in my lecture experiences I had learned 
enough of the language often to grasp the meaning of my in- 
terpreter's translation, and on a few occasions I ventured to 
correct him. The pleased and sympathetic expressions of my 
auditors at the evidence that I was beginning to understand 
their language, were gratifying. 

The following is a list of subjects dealt with in the first 
course of the Kodankai: — 

Sept. 21. Mr. Toyama. On public speeches and lectures. 

Mr. Kawazu. Advantages and disadvantages of a represen- 
tative assembly. 

Mr. Fujita. Necessity of cooperation. 

Mr. Nishi. Congratulatory address. 

Mr. Fukuzawa. Criticism on his "Rights of the Nation." 

Mr. Morse. Congratulatory address. 
Oct. 6. Dr. Hasegawa (of the city hospital). Evil effects of drinking 
impure water. 

Mr. Numa. Conflict of native and foreign laws. 

Mr. Shimaji. On value. 

Mr. Kikuchi. Evolution of the solar system. 

Mr. Ouchi. Advantages of admitting women to more social 

Mr. Nishi. Practice makes perfect. 

Mr. Nakamura. On competition and cooperation. 

Mr. Mendenhall. Introductory address. 
Oct. 20. Mr. Kikuchi. Evolution of the solar system (continued). 


Oct. 20. Mr. Morse. Insect life. 

Dr. Kato (Director of the Imperial University). On the 
opinions of Moto-ori and Hirata. (Old Japanese scholars 
who believed that Chinese civilization ought to be disre- 
garded, as the Japanese had a civilization of their own.) 

Mr. Toyama. Association of ideas. 

Mr. Sugi. Moral statistics. 
Oct. 27, 28, 31, and Nov. 2. Mr. Morse. A course of four lectures 

on Darwinism. Evolution of the animal kingdom. 
Nov. 10. Mr. Agee. On the army and navy. 

Mr. Nishi. Practice makes perfect (continued). 

Mr. Fenollosa. Evolution of religions. 

Mr. Ono. Battle of words. (Showing the persuasive effect of 

Mr. Fujita. On the Forty-seven Ronins. 
Nov. 17. Mr. Fukuzawa. Rights of the nation (extra territoriality). 

Mr. Kikuchi. Future of the solar system. 

Mr. Toyama. Matters relating to foreign intercourse cannot 
easily be altered. 

Mr. Fenollosa. Evolution of religions (continued). 
Dec. 1. Mr. Kawazu. Absurdity of Socialism. 

Mr. Fenollosa. Evolution of religions (concluded). 

Mr. Morse. The Glacial Theory. 

Mr. Tsuji. On the fine arts. 
Dec. 15. Mr. Agee. On assumed virtue. 

Mr. Kikuchi. What constitutes a good government. 

Mr. Fujita. Necessity of checks. 

Mr. Sugi. Moral statistics. 
Jan. 5. Mr. Kikuchi. Evolution in general. » 

Mr. Toyama. Illusion of the senses. 

Mr. Morse. Laws of growth in animals. 

Mr. Nakamura. Good and evil of society. 

Mr. Kato. A few words to the members. 

Mr. Sato. Cultivation of the brain. 

Mr. Agee. On the evil effects of rewarding informers. 

An insight into the intellectual activities of the Japanese 
may be gathered, not only by the books which have been 
translated into Japanese and sold by the thousands, but by 
the subjects dealt with in these public lectures. I know of no 


public course of lectures in the United States to compare with 
them, except the Lowell Institute's free courses of lectures in 
Boston. 1 

The intellectual character of the audience may be judged 
by the fact that it sat patiently through a session of four or 
five one-hour lectures with only a slight intermission between 
them. What lecture audience in America, or in any other 
country, could stand such an ordeal as that! 

The official positions of some of these men who lectured in 
this first course of the association are as follows: Mr. Fujita, 
editor of a Tokyo daily paper; Mr. Nishi, formerly clerk in 
the War Department; Mr. Fukuzawa, famous teacher, repre- 
sentative in new local assembly; Mr. Hasekawa, doctor in the 
City Hospital; Mr. Numa, clerk in Genroin (Privy Council); 
Mr. Shimaji, Buddhist preacher; Mr. Kikuchi, Professor 
of Mathematics, Imperial University, Cambridge wrangler; 
Mr. Ouchi, editor of a Buddhist religious journal; Mr. Kato, 
director of the Imperial University, famous Dutch scholar; 
Mr. Toyama, Professor of Philosophy, graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan; Mr. Sugi, head of statistical department; 
Mr. Kawazu, clerk in Genroin; Mr. Agee, Professor of the 
Imperial University; Mr. Ono, clerk in Genroin; Mr. Tsuji, 
clerk in the Educational Department. 

In the fall of 1882 the Department of Education invited the 
head teachers of the various kens to meet together in Tokyo 
for the purpose of discussing matters connected with their 
work. Among other questions that came up was one referring 

1 Our public lecture courses have now fallen from their high standard of thirty 
years ago to lantern shows, musical entertainments, with rarely a thoughtful or 
scientific lecture. 


to the teaching of physical science in the schools. It was urged 
by many that the apparatus for this purpose was far beyond 
their power to purchase, and without the apparatus but little 
progress could be made. Thereupon the pupils of the Tokyo 
Normal School resolved to make a number of devices to il- 
lustrate how cheaply and easily many of the instruments re- 
quired for the study of physics could be made. Before the 
session ended the students had made fifty-six instruments, 
which were exhibited on the platform, with a list of the mate- 
rials used in their construction. These materials consisted of 
bits of glass and wire, bottles, corks, bamboo, stuff that could 
be got from any junk-shop. From the list of devices here given 
it will be seen that the Japanese are not only apt pupils in 
acquiring a knowledge of physical science, but that they dis- 
play a great deal of ingenuity in fabricating the proper appar- 
atus for its illustration. I could not help realizing what a 
grasp of the subject a student would get in studying out and 
constructing this primitive apparatus. Such an example 
might profitably be followed by our students at home with 
their Yankee ingenuity and skill with a jack-knife, and with 
a far larger assortment of materials to be found, even about 
the house. 

List, of devices 

1. Balance. 

2. Balance with weights. 

3. Pendulum. 

4. Centrifugal machine. 

5. Inclined plane. 

6. Centre of gravity, double cone. 

7. Dropping-machine with pendulum. 

8. Centre of gravity. Equilibrist. 


9. Lever balance. 

10. Heros fountain. 

11. Suction pump. 

12. Cohesion figures. 

13. Barker's mill, with inclined plane. 

14. Forcing pump. 

15. Illustrating air pressure. 

16. Geissler's air pump. 

17. Illustrating suction. 

18. Air receiver, with manometer. 

19. Baroscope, with air receiver. 

20. Windmill. 

21. Illustrating suction. 

22. Air pump exhausting and condensing. 

23. Tuning-fork. 

24. Vibration of bell. 

25. Savert's apparatus, with two kinds of resonator. 

26. Sonometer, with bow. 

27. Wave phenomena. 

28. Resonator. 

29. Pyrometer. 

30. Expansion of solid. 

31. Angle mirrors. 

32. Rumford's photometer. 

33. Efflux of gas. 

34. Light experiment. 

35. Camera obscura. 

36. Continuation of light. 

37. Diffusion of light. 

38. Hollow prism. 

39. Expansion of gas, with index. 

40. Expansion of liquids. 

41. Illustration of thermometer. 

42. Magnetic needle. 

43. Magnetic needle, with stand. 

44. Electric pendulum. 

45. Universal discharger. 

46. Electro ball. 

47. Electro pendulum. 

48. Discharger. 

49. Insulating stool. 

50. Alarum bell. 


51. Electro wheel. 

52. Nairne's electro machine. 

53. Ley den jar. 

54. Galvanometer. 

55. Galvanic keys. 

56. Gravitation battery. 

The following is a list of the objects used in construction: 
copper, brass, and iron wire, bamboo in various forms, thread 
and string, augers and gimlets* saucers, card, zinc and tin 
plate, lead bullets, old seats, shallow wooden tub, lid of box, 
spinning-top, thin boards, wine bottles, glass tubing, buckets, 
lamp chimney, paper and cardboard, pieces of leather, copper 
coins, shell, wine glass, tumblers, rubber tubing, mercury, 
candles, flask, rubber ball, needles of various kinds, wheat 
straws, lady's scissors, porcelain bowl, cups, lantern, abacus 
balls, paper tea caddy, priest's bell, draughting-board, hook 
nails, mirror glass and ordinary glass, magnifying glass, 
feather, sealing wax, vitriol, watch-spring, small bottles, and 

The rough and aggressive Anglo-Saxons, until within a half- 
century, have held the most erroneous ideas of the Japanese. 
It was thought that a nation whose men flew kites, studied 
flower arrangement, enjoyed toy gardens, carried fans, and 
manifested other effeminate customs and behaviors, must of 
necessity be a weak and childish people. The "Encyclopaedia 
Britannica" of 1857 says: "The Japanese at one time enjoyed 
a high reputation among Eastern nations for courage and mil- 
itary prowess. This, however, is no longer the case, and we 
suspect they will be found an essentially feeble and pusillani- 
mous people. According to Golownin, they are deficient in 


courage, and in the art of war mere children. This can scarcely 
fail to be the case with a people who, by all accounts, have en- 
joyed peace external and internal for more than two centuries. 
A courageous and patient endurance of pain and suffering, and 
even a contempt of death, we know to be quite consistent 
with a lack of active, aggressive courage." It is not necessary 
to go back as far as that, however. Lord Curzon, in his inter- 
esting book entitled "Problems of the Far East," published in 
1894, in speaking of Japanese aspirations says: "The military 
parade which Japan, taking advantage of the recent disorder 
in Korea, is making in that country as these pages go to press, 
and which threatens to involve her in serious dispute, if not 
in actual conflict, with China, is a later outcome of the same 
impetuous Chauvinism." He further says these demonstra- 
tions "bring a smile to the lips even of the most impassioned 
apologist for national delirium." Recent events have shown 
how superficial was the judgment of the Anglo-Saxon. 

The two great nations, China and Russia, the terror of 
Europe, were both thrashed by the Japanese within a period 
of eight years (1894-1902); their fleets utterly destroyed, and 
indemnity secured — in cash from China, and from Russia 
the southern half of the island of Saghalien. England for the 
first time regarded Japan as worthy of notice and formed an 
alliance with her. Really the ethics of a mining camp ! 

A late writer on the Japanese says: "Togo's people, the 
Japanese, are a race of patriots — toilers and warriors, too. 
Their characteristic is not yet fully understood by the peoples 
of the West. They have been represented to, us by many su- 
perficial observers as a race of imitators, incapable of original 


action, competent only to select the best inventions of other 
people and to apply these inventions in an awkward manner 
for their own use. Nothing is further from the truth. No 
people on earth is keener in search of exact knowledge. No 
people on earth is animated by a stronger national feeling. 
No people on earth is capable of larger individual sacrifice for 
the common good. No people on earth excels the Japanese in 
clarity or subtlety of logical thought." 

In closing, the reader may wonder, after the manners of 
the Japanese have been so often contrasted with those of our- 
selves, what my attitude is regarding my own people. I be- 
lieve that we have much to learn from Japanese life, and 
that we may to our advantage frankly recognize some of our 
weaknesses. The words of Mr. O'Meara, the Police Commis- 
sioner in Boston, have deeply impressed me. He declared 
that hoodlumism was the greatest menace to our country. I 
have therefore held up in contrast the behavior of the Jap- 
anese. My comparisons are not' invidious. They are simply 
plain statements of facts as I saw them forty years ago. To 
feel this weakness of ours is not to condemn us as an inferior 
people, and one may still read with a feeling of pride and belief 
such appreciative comments about America as Hall Caine, in 
"My Story," writes. "I love its people because they are free 
with a freedom which the rest of the world takes as by stealth, 
and they claim openly as their right. I love them because 
they are the most industrious, earnest, active, and ingenious 
people on the earth; because they are the most moral, reli- 
gious, and above all, the most sober people in the world; 
because, in spite of all shallow judgments of superficial ob- 


servers, they are the most childlike in their national charac- 
ter, the easiest to move to laughter, the readiest to be touched 
to tears, the most absolutely true in their impulses, and the 
most generous in their applause. I love the men of America 
because their bearing towards the women is the finest chiv- 
alry I have yet seen anywhere, and I love the women be- 
cause they can preserve an unquestioned purity with a frank 
and natural manner, and a fine independence of sex." 




Acting, I, 404-06. 

Actors, I, 29, fig., 30, fig., 385, fig., 404-06. 
,/Affection and its manifestation, I, 384, 385; 
2, 202, 203. 

Agee, Professor, i, 364, 390, 414 ; 2, 426-30. 

Ainus, dance of, 2, 1 ; poisoned arrows of, 2 ; 
offerings to the gods, 2; huts, 3, fig., 15, 
fig., 21-27, figs.; women, 3, 4, fig., 19, 
20, figs.; and bear trap, 12; children, 19, 
20, figs.; boxes, 21, 22; village, 22, fig., 
29; weapons, 26, fig., 27, fig.; store- 
houses, 27, 28, figs.; mortars, 28, fig.; 
boats, 28, fig. ; salutations, 29 ; horses, 29- 
32, figs.; shrines, 33, fig.; gifts of various 
articles, 376, 377, figs. 

Alphabet, Japanese and Chinese, I, 166 n., 
218, 219. 

America, Hall Caine quoted on, 2, 435, 436. 

Anchors, 2, 162, 163, fig.; Ainu, 377, fig. 

Ancient implements, I, 311, fig. 

Anniversaries, 2, 195. 

Antiquarians, calls from, 2, 414, 415. 

Ants, speed of movement of, 2, 195. 

Aomori, 2, 48. 

Aqueducts, 2, 275, 276, fig. 

Archaeological museum, University, Tokyo, 
beginning of, I, 311. 

Archery, 2, 211, 212, 334, 335, 361, figs., 
362; Korean, 296, 329; Ainu, 355, 356. 

Arrows, Ainu, 2, 27, fig. ; Japanese, 353. 

Art, wonders of Japanese, I, 252, 253, figs., 
258-62, figs., 305, fig., 306, fig.; house- 
hold, 269, 270, fig.; hand-work, 2, 104, 
105, figs. ; fictile, state of early, 376. 

Art and nature, I, 252, 253. 

Artists and artizans, I, 343. 

Aaakusa, Tokyo, I, 125, 266, 267, 269; 2, 

Asiatic Society of Japan, the, I, 320, 359. 

Assassination, a political, I, 376-79. 

Astronomy, ignorance of, 2, 165. 

Audience in theatre, I, 28, 29. 

Awls, I, 412, fig. 

Axes, I, 278, fig. 

Azaleas, I, 66, 83, 95. 

•Babies. See Children. 
Back, pounding the, I, 318. 
Bags, saddle, I, 424, fig. 

Baird, Professor, I, 36 n. 

Bairei, Mr., 2, 260-62, 301. 

Ball-playing, 2, 81. 

Bamboo, uses of, I, 32, 53, 101, 108, 113, 

156, fig.; 2, 145, fig., 162, fig., 276, fig.; 

lumber yards of, I, 119. 
Barbers, peripatetic, I, 53, 230; outfit of, 

230, fig.; movements of, 378; women, 2, 

Basket of candy, 2, 262, fig. 
Baskets, fish, I, 35, fig.; orange, 2, 86, fig.; 

Ainu fish, 377, fig. 
Basket-work, I, 271-73, figs. 
Bathhouse, 2, 162, fig. 
fBaths, public, I, 97-101, fig. 
Battledore and shuttlecock, 2, 87, figs. 
Beads, on harness, 2, 163, fig.; rare and 

valuable, 366, figs. 
Beans, I, 37, fig. 

Beggars, I, 21, 34, 49, 178, 179, 430. 
Bells, method of striking, I, 75, 80, fig. 
Betto, I, 9. 

Bigelow, Dr. William Sturgis, 2, 208. 
Bills, currency, I, 318. 
Bills, inn, 2, 36, fig. 
Biological society, I, 340; 2, 214. 
Birds, tameness of, 2, 66, fig., 80; trained, 

229-33, figs. 
'Birth superstitions, 2, 310. 
Biwa, the, I, 379, fig.; 2, 121, fig., 394, fig., 

Blacksmith's shop, I, 344, fig. 
Blacksmiths, I, 60, 378; 2, 292, 345, fig. 
Blind masseurs, I, 20, 219, 220. 
Blindness, I, 20, 50, 53. 
Blocks, city, I, 121, 150, fig., 383, fig. 
Blow-guns, I, 123. 
Blowing bubbles, I, 207, fig., 412. 
Bluffs, undercut, 2, 32, fig., 40, fig.; erosion 

in, 70, fig. 
Board, cost of, 2, 369. 
Boat, adventure in a, I, 101, 102, fig.; and 

crew, 186, fig.; 2, 60, fig., 62, fig., 63, figs., 

65, figs.; in two parts, 198, figs.; Ainu 

fishing, 377, fig. 
Boat-bailer, Ainu, 2, 377, fig. 
Boat-making, 2, 258. 
Boatmen, I, 1, 113, 131, 186,422, fig.; 2, 65, 

fig. See Boat. 



Boats, 1, 1, 2, fig.; river, 111-14, figs.; 2, 65, 
fig.; in river festival, I, 129-31, fig.; 
names of, 215; fishing, 225, fig., 226; 2, 
16, 17, figs.; features of, 1, 238, fig.; Ainu, 
2, 28, fig. ; Satsuma, 154, fig. See Junks. 

Bones, fragments of, 2, 11, fig. 

Books, I, 120, fig., 162; English, in Japa- 
nese, 2, 317, 318. 

Booths, 1, 348, fig., 350, 351, fig.; melon, 2, 
54, 55, fig. 

Boots, I, 384, fig.; Ainu, 2, 377, fig. 

Botanical Garden, Tokyo, I, 378, 379. 

Botany, device for studying, I, 396, fig. 

Boundary marks, 2, 54. 

Bouts, wrestling, I, 18, 268. 
lowing, I, 330. 

Bowl, with arrow design, 2, 167, fig. ; a puz- 
zling, 395, 396. 

Box, of cake and candy, 2, 213, 214, fig.; 
souvenir of Suo, 223, fig.; with bands, 
397, 398, fig. 

Boxes, Ainu, 2, 21, 22. 

Boys, names of, I, 213; festival, 329, 371; 
Japanese, compared with American, 362; 

•^"dress, 2, 122, 123, fig.; bringing-up, 366. 

Brachiopods, I, 183, 427. 

Bread in form of salamander, I, 257, fig. 

Breakfast, I, 145. 

Bric-a-brac, collecting, 2, 104-07, figs.; 
dealers in, 419-23. 

Bridge, swept away, 1, 242, 243 ; with turtles, 
368, fig.; with bed and abutments pro- 
tected, 2, 286, fig. 

Bridge models, I, 149. 

Bridge pier, model of, 1, 149, fig. 

Bridges, 1,71, 196, fig., 381, 382, figs.; stone- 
arched, 2, 141, 162, fig., 178, fig.; railless, 
142, fig.; stone, 177, fig.; arched, 257, fig. 

Brooks, Professor, 2, 8, 9, 10. 

Brooms, I, 147. 

Bucket and dipper, I, 331. 

Buckets, I, 24, fig., 97, fig., 270, fig., 304, 
fig., 305, fig. 

Buddhas, stone, I, 85, 428, 429, fig. 

Buddhist burial, I, 408-10, figs. 

Buddhist shrines, I, 121, 168, fig. 

Buddhist temple, Tokyo, I, 125-28. 

Building methods, I, 12, 13, fig. 

Bull teams, I, 234, fig. 

Bulls, I, 152; 2, 140. 

Bundles, I, 371, 372, fig.; carrying, 389, fig. 

Butter, 1, 120. 

Butterflies, I, 85, 95; paper, 299, fig. 

Cabinet-makers, I, 379, fig. 
Cabinet-work, 2, 241, figs. 
Caine, Hall, quoted on America, 2, 435, 

Cake, presenting, 2, 311. 

Calendar, 2, 98, fig.; superstitions, 310, 311. 

Camphor tree, 2, 175, fig. 

Canals, 2, 382-84, figs. 

Candles, 2, 233, fig., 234, fig. 

Candlesticks, I, 146, fig.; 234, figs. 

Candy, I, 110; 2, 332; in revolting forms, I, 
257 ; peddlers of, 326-28, fig. ; a present of, 
395, fig.; mottoes, 2, 392, fig., 393. 

Cantilever, I, 149, fig. 

Cards, students playing, I, 236. 

Cards of silkworm eggs, I, 109, fig., 110. 

Carnivals. See Fairs, Festivals. 

Carp, subject for decoration, I, 329. 

Carpenters, I, 60, 264, 265, fig., 373, fig.; 
and their tools, 411, 412, fig. 

Carts, man-drawn, I, 9, fig.; matsuri, 298, 
299, figs.; dirt, 388, 389, fig.; 2, 303, 304, 

Castle moat, I, 13, 136, 328, fig., 329; 2, 

Castle of Hideyoshi, 2, 196, 197, figs. 

Castle of Nagoya, 2, 254, fig., 255. 

Catholic missionaries, 2, 134, 135. 

Cats, I, 363. 

Cave of centipedes, 2, 169-72, fig. 

Cave shrine, a, I, 165, fig., 166. 

Caves, mortuary, 2, 174; of Kabutoyama, 

Ceiling, wood for, 2, 341. 

Cemeteries, I, 20, 409, 410; 2, 46, 404. 

Centipedes, cave of, 2, 169-72, fig. 

Chaire, 2, 119, 120, figs. 

Chambermaid, I, 341, fig. 

Chamber-work, I, 237, 238, fig. 

Change, word for, I, -234. 

Chanty, of Japanese boatmen, 1, 1, 3, 186, 
422; 2, 64, fig.; of pile-driving men, I, 4; 
2, 283; of cart-men, I, 9; of workmen, 77, 
115, 346, 380 ; 2, 82, 292 ; of carriers, 1, 171 ; 
of fishermen, 171. 

Charms, 2, 348, 349. 

Cherry blossoms, I, 118. 

Chess, Japanese, I, 61, 210, 331, fig.; de- 
scribed, 163, fig., 164. 

Chessboard, I, 163, fig. 

Chessmen, I, 163, fig., 164. 

Child, drawing of, by Matsumura, I, 224, 

Children, carried on the back, 1, 10, 23, fig., 
26, 41, 52, fig., 108, 114, fig., 153, fig., 201, 
fig., 202, fig., 391, fig.; good-behaviour %/ 
of, 10; 2, 100; heads shaved, i, 10, 22, 
199, 201, fig., 372; 2, 138, fig.; present at 
every kind of activity, I, 26 ; Japan a para- 
dise for, 41, 299, 351 ; engage in work, 41, 
42; beckoning to, 52; drawing experience 
with, 56; legs short in proportion to arms, 



65; group of, 109, fig. ; making mud cakes, 
*J^7; good-manners of, 128; incising 
names, 147; abdominal protuberances of , 
155; modeling temple, 181, 182; dressed 
for company, 198, 199, fig.; with insects 
on strings, 258; games of, 296, 297; 
Ainu, 2, 19, 20, figs.; pretty, 75, 76; in 
the theatre, 100; dancing, 122, fig.; at 
fair, 369; Japanese, resemblances to 
American, 402, 403; tags of, 412, fig. 

Children's fair, I, 350, 351, fig. 

Chimneys, I, 182, fig. 

Chinese, in Japan, 1, 277, 285, 286, fig.; com- 
pared with Japanese, 370. 

Chinese accountants, I, 147-49. 

Chinese characters, I, 54, 90, fig., 166, fig., 
171, 218, 219, 265, 369, fig. ; 2, 82, 83, fig., 
110-16, 306, 307, 318; conciseness of sen- 
timent expressed by, 244; used in letters, 

Chinese classics, reading, 1, 183. 

Chinese medicine, 2, 425. 

Chinese sounds and inflections, 1, 368, 369. 

Chitose, 2, 14, fig. 

Chiuzenji, trip to, I, 81-89; in winter, 89; 
little clothing worn in, 89; ascent of Nan- 
tai from, 89-104. 

Chiuzenji, Lake, I, 86, 91, 95. 

Cholera, I, 336; 2, 153, 244, 245. 

Chopper, I, 374, fig. 

Chopsticks, I, 33, 34; use of, 142, fig., 143. 

Christening, ceremony resembling, I, 154. 

Circulating library, I, 120, fig. 

Circus, i, 16. 

Cleanliness of Japanese, 1, 42-44, 61. 

Cleansing potatoes, I, 265, fig., 278. 

Clerk, inn, 2, 36, fig. 

Clogs, I, 3, fig., 8. 

Clothing, of Japanese boatmen, I, 1, 422; 
of jinrikisha men, 6, 105; of tea-firers, 26; 
of carpenters, 31 ; of Japanese on the road, 
46; little worn in Chiuzenji, 89; man 
mending, 203, fig.; Japanese and Amer- 
ican, 274-77, fig. ; of Japanese and Chinese 
teachers, 276, 281; Japanese, described, 
302, 303, figs., 319; ill-fitting, 384, fig.; 
winter, 2, 84, 85, figs., 107, fig. ; boys', 122, 
123, fig.; cooler than ours, 199; appro- 
priateness of, 201 ; of nobles' school-chil- 
dren, 204; Korean, 220, 296-98, figs. 

Cloud effects, 1, 150. 

Club, entertainment at, 2, 373-76, fig. 

Coins with holes, I, 41, fig. 

Collecting bric-a-brac, 2, 104-07, figs. 

Collectors, and collecting, Japanese, 2, 106, 
107, 408. 

Colman, Samuel, I, 64. 

Compass, names of points of, 2, 228. 

Composition room, 2, 110-14, figs. 
Concert, a Japanese, 1, 398-402, figs. 
Confectionery. See Candy. 
Conflagrations. See Fires. 
Conjurors, 1, 341, 342, fig., 392, 393, fig. 
Contribution box, 2, 232, 349. 
Conventionalized natural objects, I, 145. 
Conversation, ejaculations and sounds of, I, 

Cook, the, I, 207, fig. 
Corbicula, I, 87. 
Costume. See Clothing. 
Cotton factory, a, 2, 270-73. 
Courtesy, I, 117, 177;. a governor's, 2, 168, 

Crabs, 2, 145, fig. 
Cradles, basket, 2, 49, fig. 
Cremation, I, 20; 2, 335-38, figs. 
Crematory at Senju, 2, 335-38, figs. 
Criminals, I, 247. 
Crow, tameness of, 2, 66, fig., 80. 
Cryptomeria, I, 58, 106. 
Cup, sak6, 1, 38, fig. 
Curious crowd, a, I, 439, fig. 
Curtain, theatre, 1, 30. 
Curzon, Lord, quoted, 2, 434. 
Custom house, I, 419, 426, fig. 
Customs officers, I, 2. 
Cut, a mountain, 2, 57, 58, fig. 
Cuttlefish, I, 35, fig., 109, 162. 

Daggers, Ainu, 2, 26, fig., 27. 
Daikoku, 2, 87, fig. 
Daikon, I, 36, 37; 2, 311. 

Daimyo, residence of a, I, 333, fig. 

Daimyos, the, 1, 14, 312. 

Dancing, 1, 387, 392, 401 ; of Ainus, 2, 1. 

Dancing girls, I, 300. 

Darwinism, lecturing on, I, 339, 340, 415. 

Death, sign of, 2, 295, fig. 

Decorations, I, 22, 252, 253, figs. 

Decorative art, I, 252, 253, figs., 258-62, 
figs., 305, fig., 306, fig. 

Deer, tame wild, 2, 275, 295. 

Defacement of buildings, 1, 199. 

Deformities, 1, 116. 

Dentistry, I, 40. 

Devotion, religious, 2, 47. 

Dimples, 2, 405. 

Dinner, the first, I, 143, 144, fig.; a family, 

^386, 387; with the Governor, 2, 156-60; 
a parting, 213; given by Japanese profes- 
sors, 215, 216; in a cotton factory, 272, 
273, fig.; given by Prince Fushuni-no- 
Miya, 365. 
i dinner customs, 2, 413. 

Dinner entertainment, a, I, 389-93, figs. 



/Dinners, farewell, I, 359, 364-67; formal, 

365-67, 380, 382, 385. 
Dipper, bamboo, 2, 145, fig. 
Directory, city, nature in the, 2, 416, 417. 
Directory makers, 1, 121. 
Dirt, method of lugging, I, 117, fig., 389; 

carried in saddle-bags, 424, fig. 
Dirt carts, I, 388, 389, fig. 
Dirty town, a, 1, 106, 107. 
Diseases, I, 21, 39, 40, 127, 128. 
Dismounting on the road, an old custom, 2, 

50, 51. 
Dogs, I, 193, 194, 388; names of, 214; 

"Kumhere," 246; of Yezo, 2, 18. 
Dolls, 2, 366. 
Dolmens, 2, 182. 
Door-plates, I, 412, 413, fig. 
Dormitories, 1, 360, 361; 2, 351, 352. 
Dragonflies, I, 86; on strings, 258; sport 

with, 2, 289. 
Drawers, I, 373, fig. 

Drawing-school, Bairei's, 2, 260-62, 301. 
Drawings, of mountains, I, 215, 216, fig.; 

with brush, 224. 
Dredging, 183-85, 224, 227, 426, 427, fig., 

439; 2, 47, 137, 154. 
Dress. See Clothing. 
Drowning accident, 2, 73. 
Drums, I, 391, fig. 

Drying device for clothing, I, 186, 187, fig. 
Dwarfing trees, I, 125. 

Earthquakes, I, 161, 334, 335, 395, 396; 2, 

Eating on the floor, I, 143, 144, fig.; 2, 37, 

Education, I, 282. 

Educational Museum, Tokyo, I, 281, 282. 
Eggs, I, 37; 2, 57, fig. 
Eldridge, Dr., I, 39, 178, 181. 
Emperor's birthday, 2, 343, 344. 
Emperor's garden, the, 2, 341-43. 
English, studied in Japan, 2, 115, 116. 
English books in Japanese, 2, 317, 318. 
Engravers, wood, I, 265, 266, fig. 
Enoshima, zoological station at, I, 138-41; 

place of resort, 156; position of, 162, fig.; 

map of island, 174, fig.; street in, 192, fig.; 

at midnight, 195; collecting at, 205, 209; 

the author's life at, 245, 246; temple relics 

at, 246, 247. 
Enouye, Count, 2, 343. 
Enouye, Professor, I, 364, 390, 414. 
Envelopes, 2, 192, 194, 239, 305, fig., 410. 
Epitaph, 2, 404, 405. 
Erosion, 2, 70, fig. 
Eta class, the, 2, 355. 
Evolution, lecturing on, I, 339, 340. 

Ewatayama, 2, 59, 63, fig. 

Executions and executioners, 1, 312; 2, 347, 

Eye troubles, I, 63. 
Eyebrow, name of, 2, 78. 
Eyelashes, name of, 2, 78. 

Fairs, I, 122; 2, 89, 348-50; children's, i, 

350, 351; flower, 394; children at, 2, 369. 

See Festivals. 
Falconry, 2, 381-88, figs. 
Fan racks, I, 21, fig. 
Fans, I, 145, 154, 155, 363; winnowing, 2, 

69, fig. 
Farewell dinners, I, 359, 364-67. 
Farmers, matting on shoulders, I, 152, fig. ; 

sweeping the road, 153, fig.; working in 

rice-field, 153, fig. 
Farmhouses, I, 11, 47, 50, 51, fig. 
Farr, Mr., I, 150. 

Female characters in the theatre, I, 30. 
Female Normal School, Tokyo, burned, 2, 

378, fig. 
Fences, 2, 139, 242, fig. 
Fencing, 2, 206, 207, 217, figs., 218, figs. 
Fenollosa, Professor, I, 402. 
Fertilizing, I, 10, fig., 23, 24. 
Festivals, street, I, 122, 298, 299, figs., 429, 

430; river, 129-31, fig.; 2, 263; in honor of 
^ancestors, 1, 201 ; children's, 299 ; for boys, 

329, 371; at Wakayama, 2, 290, 291. 

See Fairs. 
Fingers, names of, 2, 78. 
Fire alarm, I, 131, fig.; a precautionary, 2, 

39, fig. 
Fire bowls, I, 401; 2, 392. 
Fire companies, I, 132, 133; 2, 38, 100. 
Fire engine, 1, 132, fig., 134, fig.; 2, 127, fig. 
Fire-engine house, 2, 38, fig., 293, fig. 
Fire-fighting, 1, 131-35, figs, ; 2, 125-28, figs. 
Fire pipes, 1, 132, 133, fig. 
Fire-ruined house with labels, 2, 119, fig., 

127, fig. 
Fire talisman, 2, 53. 
Fire vessels, 1, 7, 27, 51, 386. 
Firemen, 1, 134, fig.; hats, 358, fig.; presents 

to, 2, 119, fig., 127, fig.; heat endurance 

of, 124; skill, 126. 
Fireplace, 2, 25, fig., 35, fig., 63, fig. 
Fireproof buildings, I, 12, 31, 32, 178, fig., 

182, fig., 222-24, fig., 430, fig. 
Fires, 1, 12, 13, 31, 32, 61, 119, 182, 222-24, 

fig.; 2, 38, 123-28, figs., 378, fig., 398; de- 
scribed, I, 131-35, figs., 355-58, figs.; 

care to avoid, 413. 
Fireworks, for day and night, I, 368. 
Fish, in markets, I, 34-36, figs.; netting, 

113, 114, fig.; raw, eaten, 144, 185; at 



boys' festival, 329, 371, fig.; in Ainu huts, 
2, 21, 24, 25, figs. ; method of smoking, 57, 
fig.; hopping, 174; and fishing, 418, 419, 

Fish hooks, 2, 419, figs. 

Fish knife, 2, 419, fig. 

Fish peddling, I, 25. 

Fisherman's lunch, a, I, 185. 

Fishermen, 2, 61, fig. 

Fishermen's huts, I, 217, 218, fig., 421, fig.; 
2, 65, fig. 

Fishhooks, 2, 419, figs. 

Fishing, I, 62, fig. 

Fishing boats, I, 225, fig., 226; Satsuma, 2, 
149, fig.; Ainu, 377, fig. 

Fishing nets, 2, 66, fig. 

Fish-women at Otaru, I, 437. 

Flags, I, 89, fig., 90, fig., 166, fig. 

Flails, I, 66, fig. 

Flax, preparation of, 2, 356, fig. 

Fleas, wild and domestic, I, 87; nuisance, 

Flies, 1, 51, 206. 

Floor, eating on the, 1, 143, 144, fig. ; sleeping 
on the, 161. 

Floors, 2, 330, fig. 

Flower fair, I, 394. 

Flower-holders, I, 271-73, figs., 304, fig., 
305, figs., 330, 331, figs. 

Flower-pot holders, I, 394, fig. 

Flowers, I, 66, 91, 118, 140, 372; 2, 330, 331. 

Flute, 2, 224. 

Food, I, 63, 87, 88, 120, 227; seems tasteless 
and insipid, 63; of the lower classes, 87, 
88; offerings of, 121; manner of serving 
"and eating, 141, 142, 391, fig. ; dinner, 143, 
144, fig.; breakfast, 145; Japanese, less 
nutritious, less rational, and less easy to 
digest than ours, 162; a fisherman's lunch, 
185; a bill of fare, 193; fruits and vege- 
tables, 197, 198; grasshoppers as, 344, 
345; 2, 324, 325; at a farewell dinner, I, 

*/364, 365; at a family dinner, 387; at 
Otaru, 439-41; New Year's, 2, 93, fig.; 
a lunch, 102, 103, fig.; from soya beans, 
287, figs.; at Mr. Okuma's, 395; animal, 
418, 419. 

Fool, word for, 2, 341. 

Foot-bridges, I, 381, 382, figs. 

Footlights, I, 29. 

Footmen, I, 9. 

Forceps, bamboo, 2, 162, fig. 

Foreigners, courtesy to, I, 117; restrictions 
upon, 118, 119; views of a masseur on, 
220; rule as to place of residence, 316; at- 
tract attention, 292. 

Fourth of July, celebrating, I, 102-04, 413. 

Fowl, domestic, 1, 53. 

Fox, superstitions connected with, 2, 315. 

Fraud among bric-a-brac dealers, 2, 419-23. 

Frogs, I, 87. 

Fruit, 1, 37, 197, 198, 300, fig., 379. 

Fujisawa, 1, 167, 207, 208, 241. 

Fujita, 2, 71. 

Fujita, Mr., 2, 427-30. 

Fujiyama, I, 93, fig., 140, 188, 189, 331, 332; 

conventionalized, 145, fig.; meaning of 

name, 214; drawings of, 215, 216, fig.; 

snow-covered, 2, 403, 404, fig. 
Fukui, Mr., I, 311-14. 
Fukuoka, 2, 50. 
Fukuyo, Mr., 1, 352, 359. 
Fukuzawa, Mr., his school, 2, 205-07; lec- 
•tures, 426-30. 
funeral, I, 408-10, figs.; customs, 2, 309; 

honorary, 356-60, figs. 
Furniture, I, 7, 8, 78, 187-89, figs. 
Futon, I, 87. 

Gallantry, I, 8. 

Games, I, 123, 157-59, 162-64, 210-12, 

296, 297, 366;2, 80, 87, figs., 372, 373, fig., 

402, 403. 
Garden, a government, I, 380-82, figs.; of a 

tea-house, 390, fig. ; the Emperor's, 2, 341- 

Garden stones, I, 119. 
Gardening, 1, 117, 118. 
Gardens, I, 246. 

Gate, automatically closed, 2, 276. 
\Gateways, picturesque, 2, 397. 
Geisha girls, 2, 352, 353. 
Genibaku, 2, 7, fig. 
German language, I, 210. 
Gestures, 2, 351. 
Ginza, the, 2, 414. 
Girls, bathing, I, 83; dressed for company, 

198, 199, fig.; names of, 213; dancing, 300; 

geisha, 2, 352, 353. 
Glaciation, I, 85. 
Glass, jingling, 1, 51, fig. 
Go, the game of, I, 157-59, 210. 
Godovms, 1, 32, 178, fig. ; 2, 362, fig., 378. 
God-shelf, 1, 121, 168, fig. 
God-sticks, 2, 26. 
Gojio, 2, 293. 

Goldfish holder, I, 389, fig. 
Gongs, wooden, I, 425, fig. 
Gonza, 2, 247, 350, 421-23. 
Good-manners of Japanese children, I, 128. 
Government garden, a, I, 380-82, figs. 
Grant, U. S., I, 71 n.; dinner to, 2, 200-02. 
Grapes, I, 278, 279, fig. 
Grasshoppers, peddled, I, 120; on strings, 

258; as food, 344, 345; 2, 324, 325. 
Graves, 2, 361. 



Gravestones, 1, 360, fig., 361, figs. 
/Greeting, Japanese, 2, 202, 201. 
Griffis, Dr. W. E., I, 121 n. 
Guide-posts, I, 106. 
Guitar, 2, 262, fig. 
Gutters, I, 69, 105. 

44 Ha" and "Hei," I, 184. 

Hair, women's, I, 68, 279, fig., 280; 2, 108- 

10, figs., 119, fig., 129, 130, figs.; tousled, 

I, 302, fig., 398; girl doing up, 304, fig.; 

the queue,' 397, fig., 398; 2, 415, 416; 

banged, 20, figs., 129; of Ainu, 30, fig.; 

children's, 129, 130, figs. ; ornaments, 412, 

413, figs. 
Hairpins, 2, 412, 413, figs. 
Hakama, the, 2, 122, 123, fig. 
Hakodate, landing at, I, 417; harbor, 417, 

418, figs., 421, fig.; the town, 418, figs.; 

call on the Governor of, 418, 419; author 

accommodated in, 419, 420; 2, 45, fig.; 

from Sapporo to, 13—43, figs. 
Haliotis, I, 35, fig., 109, 162. 
Hamamatsu, 2, 246. 
Hamao, Dr., Vice-Director of University, I, 

281, 364. 
Hands, games with, I, 210-12; 2, 372, 373, 

Hanging flower-holders, 1, 271-73, figs. 
Hansuke, 2, 256. 
Hara-kiri, I, 404., 
Harp, I, 399, fig. 

Harris, Mr., consul at Hakodate, I, 417. 
Hasekawa, Mr., 2, 428, 430. 
Hashi-ishi, I, 58, 69, fig., 96, 102, 103. 
Hats, I, 50, 128, 153, fig., 189, fig. 
Hattori, Professor, I, 364, 386, 390. 
Hattorigawa, 2, 181. 
Hawkers, 2, 384, fig. 
Headlands, 2, 163, figs. 
Healthfulness of Japan, 1, 23, 39 ; 2, 426. 
Hedges, I, 66, 83, 117. 
"Hei" and "Ha," I, 184. 
Heike gani, 2, 145, fig. 
Hens, I, 53. 
Hepburn, Japanese and English Dictionary, 

I, 219. 
Hideyoshi, Castle of, 2, 196, 197, figs. 
Higo, 2, 143, 146-48, figs., 163, fig. 
Hikisawa, 2, 393, fig. 
Hiroshima, 2, 263. 

Historical collection at Nara, 2, 182, 183. 
Hiyamugi, 2, 262, fig. 
Hoes, I, 65, fig., 307, figs. 
Holes, way of mending, i, 55. 
Holidays, I, 65. 
Hollyhocks, I, 66, 118. 


Honesty of Japanese, I, 37, 38, 167, 316, 

Hoodlumism, lack of, 2, 338, 339, 435. 

Hook, fire, 2, 38, fig., fish, 419, figs. 

Horseback riding, 2, 4-9, 13-15, 29-35, 42, 

Horse-shoes, I, 22. 

Horses, I, 61; names of, 215; Ainu, 2, 29-32, 
figs.; falls from, 42; care of, 54. 

Horticultural Hall, Industrial Exhibition, I, 

Hospitality, X, 7; Yatsushiro, 2, 167; Iwa- 
kuni, 273, 274. 

Hotels, I, 56; 2, 257, fig. See Inn, Inns. 

House, Mr., I, 178. 

House, of artist, 1, 330; old, 430, fig. ; in Ya- 
tsushiro, 2, 167; of janitor of observatory, 
220, fig. 

ouse-construction, 2, 216, 217, fig., 293. 
ousehold art of Japanese, I, 269, 270, fig. 

Household decorations, x, 145. 

Household shrines, 1, 121, 168, fig., 229, fig. 

Houses, I, 6-8, 31, 32, 61, 333; fireproof, 12, 
31, 32, 178, fig., 182, fig., 222-24, fig., 430, 
fig.; along Tonegawa River, 114, fig.; 
around Tokyo, 116; near Enoshima, 140; 
open, 176, 334; before and after Revolu- 
tion of 1868, 315, 316; Ainu, 2, 21-27, 
figs.; along Kitakami River, 68, figs.; 
with polished floors, 326. 

humanity, Japanese born with attributes 
of, I, 44. 

Huts, fishermen's, 1, 217, 218, fig., 421, fig.; 
2, 65, fig.; Ainu, 3, fig., 15, fig., 21-27, 

Ices, 2, 256. 

Ignorance of Japanese on many subjects, I, 

Ikkoto, Mr., i, 175, 176. 

Illiteracy, I, 120. 

Image, wooden, I, 127. 

Impedimenta, method of carrying, I, 82, 

Imperial Gardens, Tokyo, I, 337, 338, fig. 

Imperial Museum in Uyeno Park, Tokyo, 

Imperial University at Tokyo, foreign pro- 
fessors in, their residences, I, 14; visit to, 
15; author professor at, 120, 139; author 
delivers lecture at, 138, 139; salary of 
Professor at, paid to fraction of cent, 234; 
beginning of work at, 281; reception to 
foreign professors of, 281; nationality of 
the foreign professors of, 281 ; the author's 
servant at, 283, fig.; life at, 284, 285; plan 
of main building, 319, fig.; dormitories, 
360, 361. 



Indians, American, and the Japanese, I, 

Indigo, 2, 68. 

Industrial art museum at Tokyo, I, 149. 

Industrial Exhibition, I, 248-51, figs., 254, 
255, 258-62, figs., 270, 286, 287, fig., 295, 
359, 360. 

Industry of Japanese, 1, 19, 20, 68; 2, 51, 52. 

Ink, 2, 410, 411. 

Inland Sea, sailing on, 2, 132-34, fig., 266. 

Inn, in a mountain village, I, 70, 78, figs.; 
at Nowata, 109; room at, 187-89, figs.; 
at Chitose, 2, 14, fig.; at Tomokomai, 15; 
kitchen, 35, figs., 36. 

Inns, I, 54, 63, 107, fig., 203, fig., 204; 2, 
244; chamber-work at, I, 237, 238. See 

Insane asylum, 2, 224, 347. 

Insane poor, I, 360. 

Inscriptions, in taverns, I, 54, 103; in tea- 
houses, 67, fig.; translating, 2, 82, 83, fig. 

Insects, 1, 71, 81, 82, 86; collecting, 102, 103, 
fig.; peddled, 120; on strings, 258. 

Intelligent chore-man, an, I, 191, fig., 192, 

Interesting, the word for, 2, 316, 317. 

Intoxication, 2, 55, 56, 279. 

Iris, blue, 2, 53. 

Irrigation, I, 46, 116; 2, 51, fig., 284. 

Ishidoro, I, 151, fig.; 2, 75, fig. 

Itakura, judge, 2, 400. 

Itinerant musician, I, 331, fig. 

Ito, Dr., botanist and President of Botani- 
cal Society, I, 136, fig.; 2, 107. 

Iwakuni, I, 267-70, 273, 274. 

Izumi, 2, 286. 

Japan, the paradise of children, I, 41, 42, 
299; great thought and care bestowed 
upon dress in, 277; Chinese in, 277; nearly 
a third of its annual budget spent on edu- 
cation, 282 ; inferior position of women in, 
282, 283; northern coast of, 416, fig.; after 
an absence of two years and eight months, 
2, 208; a glimpse of old, 269, 270. 
Japanese, nolitenesa of . I, 8, 19, 28, 33, 44, 
VlOO, 117, 131, 177, 194, 195, 251, 386; 2, 
56, 57, 73, 138, 347; little gallantry 
observable among, I, 8; industry of, 
19, 20, 68; 2, 51, 52; decorative im- 
pulses of, I, 22; healthfulness of, 23, 39; 
reverse jmstpms of, 25, 221, 373, fig.; 
tneiFTnanner of sitting, 27, 6 0.; honesty 
of, 37, 38, 167, 316, 317; 2, 265, 266, 
424; t emperance of , I, 38; cleanliness 
of, 42-^4"4\ 01; physical individuality of, 
43; physical peculiarities of, 43; born with 
attributes of humanity, 44; early hours 

of, 46; excellent taste of, 54, 67; artistic 
character of, 55; country ppiplc, charac- 
teristics of, 56; chess, 61, 163, fig., 164; 
views of, on exposing the body, 97-101; 
their love for natural objects, 123, 124, 
figs., 355; their faces without strongly 
marked expression, 124; characteristics 
of laboring classes, 125; chUdj^n^jjQod- 
mannerej , 128; students, 157-59; alpha- 
bet,l66n., 218, 219; 2, 110-15, figs.; gen- 
tle character qf T i, 196; desirous to ac- 
quire knowledge, 221, 222; are timid as 
sailors, 224, 225; kindness to children, 
228; childishness of, 229; soldiers, 232; 
characteristics of,, 245, 246; their love of 
nature and power to embody simple mo- 
tifs in decorative art, 252, 253 ; toleration 
for eccentricities of dress or behavior, 
274, 275; the ir considerate treat ment 
all, 275; hair of men, 502, fag., 31 
described, 302, 303, figs., 319; Chinese 
compared with, 370; and American In- 
dians, 371 ; language, 376-78, fig. ; habits, 
resemblance to those of other nations, 
378; clothing, ill-fitting, 384, fig.; willing- 
ness to learn, 387, 388; alertness of, 408; 
of Otaru, 436, 437; collectors, 2, 106, 107; 
officials, promptness, 137; hostile demon- 
strations, 245; sense, 282; names, 307, 
308; society, 317; national character of, 
415; love of nature, 416; courage, 433-35. 

Japanese Hydrographic Survey, I, 255. 

Jars, 2, 119, 120, figs. 

Jarves, J. J., quoted, I, 270. ' 

Jimmu Tenno, tomb of, 2, 294. 

Jinrikisha men, politeness, I, 33, 44; speed, 
58, 137, 140, 322; row with, 108; drink- 
ing tea, 109; tattooing among, 124; in 
Kobe, 2, 129, 130; cause a tumble, 296. 

Jinrikishas, I, 4, fig., 5, fig., 6, fig., 22, 34, 
105, fig., 244, fig.; 2, 129; of Kagoshima, 
161, fig.; pleasures of, 183. 

Jokes, practical, I, 411. 

Jugglers, I, 341, 342, fig., 392, 393, fig. 

Jujitsu, 2, 218. 

Junks, I, 238, fig., 422-44, figs.; 2, 131, fig.; 
148, figs., 149. 

Kabutoyama, caves of, 2, 319, 323. 

Kaempfer, Dr., I, 127. 

Kaga Yashiki, I, 14, 15; author's residence 

in, 256, fig., 257; gateway and entrance, 

316, 338, fig. ; changes in, after three years, 

Kago traveling, I, 81, 84, figs.; 2, 239, 240, 

242, 243, fig. 
Kagoshima, 2, 151, 161, 162; to Shimabara 

Gulf, 164. 



Kagoshima Bay, 2, 148, 150, 163, fig. 

Kaimondake, 2, 152, fig. 

Kakemono, bands of, 2, 371, 372. 

Kamakotan, 2, 6, fig. 

Kamidana, I, 121, 168, fig. 

Kanzashi, 2, 412, 413, figs. 

Kashiwagi, Mr., 2, 362-65, 371. 

Kato, Dr., Director of University, I, 281, 

365, 427, 429, 430. 
Kawagoe, 2, 319, 323-25. 
Kawazu, Mr., 2,427-30. 
Kibigaku, I, 398. f 

Kichizayemon, 2, 298. 
Kii, 2, 287, 288. 
Kikkawa, Mr., 2, 222-24, 269. 
Kikuchi, Professor, i, 386; 2, 427-30. 
Kindergarten, a, 2, 235. 
Kindling, I, 49. 

Kissing in public, I, 99, 297, 298. 
Kitakami River, sail down, 2, 60-67, figs. 
Kitchen, the, 1, 207, fig. ; of inn, 2, 35, figs. , 36. 
Kitchen-midden, a, I, 287-89, 301, 308, 

352, 353, 386; 2, 82, 102. 
Kite-flying, 2, 142, fig., 390, 391, figs., 399. 
Kitei's pottery, 2, 301. 
Kites, 2, 81, 87, figs., 96-98, figs., 175, 179, 

fig., 389-91, figs. 
Kite-shop, 2, 388-90, fig. 
Knots, I, 203; 2, 120, fig. 
Knox, Mr., I, 178. 
Kobe, 2, 129-32, figs., 180; sail to, 2, 279, 

Kodankai, 2, 426-29. 
Kohitsu, Mr., 2, 392, fig., 415; genealogy, 

Komagatake, 1, 421; 2, 41, fig., 44, 45, fig. 
Korea, 2, 281. 
Korean, language, 2, 328; pottery, 328. 
Koreans, 2, 220, 281, 282, 296-98, figs., 327- 

29, 353. 
Korigawa, 2, 181. 
Korschelt, Mr., I, 159. 
Koto player, 2, 121, fig. 
Kumamoto, 2, 164, 165, 173. 
Kura, I, 178, fig. 
Kuroda, Prince, 2, 381, 396. 
Kyoto, 2, 183; trip to, 239-56; artistic centre 

of Japan, 258-60. 

Lacquer trees, 2, 54, fig. 

Lacquer-work, I, 258-62, figs., 287, fig., 305, 
fig., 306, fig., 329. 

Ladders, I, 132, fig.; 2, 101, 102, fig. 
d^Lady, smoking, 2, 74, fig., sketch of, 78, 79, 

Lanterns, paper, I, 122, fig., 123, fig.; at 
fires, 134; 2, 38, fig.; stone, I, 151, fig.; 
2, 75, fig., 275, fig.; temple, I, 170, 171, 
fig.; in procession, 2, 72, 73; for festival 
of the dead, 195, fig. 

Latrines, 1, 78, fig. 

Lectures, 1, 283-85, 315, 359, 385, 386; pub- 
lic, 413-15; on Evolution, 339, 340, fig.; 
at Nobles' School, 2, 202, 204; at Mr. 
Fukugawa's school, 205; for shipwrecked 
fishermen, 209 ; under the auspices of the 
Biological Society, 219; before Fish Com- 
mission, 227; announcement of, 324, fig.; 
at Mr. Okuma's school, 394; at Univer- 
sity, 395; public, in Japan, 426-30. 

Leeches, I, 87. 

Le Gendre, General, I, 352. 

Leland, Professor, I, 402. 

Letter of student to author, I, 221, 222. 

Letters, i, 219; 2, 305, fig. 

Lighting of fire, I, 185. 

Lighting of rooms, I, 183. 

Lingula anatina, 2, 144. 

Lips, held apart, I, 110. 

Lookouts, 2, 17, fig. 

Lotus, I, 136, fig. 

Lower classes, conduct of, I, 374. 

Loyalty to members of own province, 2, 417, 

Lumber yards, I, 119. 

Lyman, Dr. Benjamin Smith, 2, 121, 167. 

Laboratory, at Enoshima, I, 139, 144, 160, 
173-75, fig., 178, fig. ; building and equip- 
ping, 180, fig., 181; interior, 209, fig.; of 
the University, 319, fig.; at Hakodate, 
419, 420, 426, fig.; 2, 45, fig.; at Otaru, 
I, 438, 439, figs.; at Nagasaki, 2, 137. 

Laborers, 1, 346, fig., 347, 380; of the author, 
352, fig. ; sitting cross-legged, 2, 179, fig. 

Laboring classes, characteristics of, 1, 125. 

Macaroni, 2, 83, fig. 

Machida, Mr., 2, 353. 

Magatama, 2, 366, fig. 

Magnum, Mr., 2, 178. 

Mail, I, 63, fig., 208, 209; 2, 180, 181. 

Mairokushi, 2, 426. 

Mallory, Colonel Garrick, I, 166 n. 

Man-drawn carts, I, 9, fig. 

Mangosteen, 1, 198, fig. 

Manure, for fertilizing, I, 10, fig., 23, 24; 
from the street, disposal of, 153, fig. 

Map, a relief, 2, 203. 

Markets, I, 34-37, figs., 300; 2, 79, fig. 
^Marriage, I, 314, 315. 

Married women, teeth blackened, I, 110. 

Masks, I, 385, fig. 

Masseurs, I, 20, 57, 219, 220. 

Mats, for beans, I, 37, fig.; floor, 57, 62, 63, 
fig.; for lugging dirt, 117, fig., 345, fig., 
346, 389; of glass rods, 143, fig. 



Matsumura, Mr., 1, 176, 184, 190, fig., 191, 

212, 229; sketch of child by, 224, fig. 
Matsura, Mr., I, 352, 360, 361; death and 

funeral, 408-10, figs.; epitaph, 2, 404, fig., 

Matsura Takashiro, Mr., 2, 365. 
Matsuri carts, I, 298, 299, figs. 
Matsushima, 2, 70. 
Measures, 2, 179, figs. 
Medical College, 2, 221. 
Medical practice, I, 40. 
Medicine, Chinese, 2, 425. 
Medicine peddler, I, 348, 349. 
Melon booths, 2, 54, 65, fig. 
\/Men and women, distinctions between, I, 

Mendenhall, Professor, I, 402. 
Mercury, transit of, I, 374. 
Microscope, exhibiting a, I, 235. 
Mills, I, 55, fig. 
Missionaries, 2, 134, 135. 
Misu, Mr., 2, 268, 271. 
Mitsui's silk store, 2, 116-18, figs. 
Miyajima, 2, 266, 274-77. 
Miyaoka, Mr., i, 388; 2, 210, 211, 219, 221, 

305, 337. 
Moat, Castle, 1,13, 136,328, fig., 329; 2, 102. 
Mochi, 2, 95, figs., 96, fig. 
Models of mines, bridges, etc., I, 149, fig. 
Modesty and immodesty, I, 97-101. 
Mogi, 2, 139, 141, figs., 142, figs. 
Mollusks, I, 35. 
Mem, I, 411. 
Money-brokers, I, 349. 
Monkeys, I, 267, 332. 
Monoliths, I, 382, fig. 
Monument, a, I, 428, fig. 
Monuments to the god of mercy to horses, 

I, 64, fig. 
Mori, 2, 40. 
Morioka, 2, 58. 

Mororan, 2, 32, 33, fig., 35, 38, 40, figs. 
Mortar, Ainu, 2, 28, fig. 
Mortuary caves, 2, 174. 
Mosquito netting, I, 57, 199. 
Mosquitoes, 1, 160, 199; 2, 345. 
Mototarumizu, 2, 155. 
Mottoes, in taverns, I, 54, 103; 2, 244; can- 
dy, 393, fig., 394. 
Mountain peaks, I, 82, fig. 
Mountain village, a, I, 69-71. 
Mountains, names of, I, 213, 214; drawing, 

215, 216, fig.; traveling among, 2, 41-43, 

48, 49. 
Murders, 2, 426. 
Murray, Dr. David, 1, 13-15, 180, 181, 365- 

Museum of Natural History, I, 145, 245. 

Music, I, 115, 295, 296, 302, 359, 360, 380, 
391, 392, fig., 398-402, figs.; 2, 99, 224-26; 
343, 344, 394, 395, 407, 408. 

Music girls, I, 391, fig. 

Musicians, and musical instruments, I, 291, 
292, fig., 301, 302, fig., 399, 400, figs.; 
2, 121, 122, figs., 394, fig., 395, fig.; itiner- 
ant, I, 333, fig. 

Mustache sticks, 2, 2. 

Nagasaki, approach to, 2, 135, 136, figs.; 
harbor, 136-38; streets, 138, 152; people, 
138; return to, 177, 178. 

Nagoya, 2, 246-54; castle of, 254, fig., 255. 

Nakedness, I, 97-101. 

Namboo Fuji, 2, 59, 63, fig. 
ifaames, of boys and girls, I, 213; of moun- 
tains, 213, 214; of dogs, 214; of horses, 
214; of rivers, 214; of wrestlers, 214, 215; 
of boats, 215; of certain parts of the body, 
2, 78; of signs of zodiac, 228; of points of 
compass, 228; personal, 307, 308, 403. 

Nantaisan (Nantai),i, 86; ascent of, 89-93, 
figs. ; on the summit of, 93, figs. ; descent of, 
94-104, figs. 

Nara, 2, 182, 294, 295. 

Nature, knowledge of, 2, 205 ; love of, 416. 

Nature and art, I, 252, 253. 

Naval College Exhibit, I, 254. 

Neck, name of, 2, 78. 

Negishi, Mr., author entertained at the 
home of, 2, 319-22. 

Nets, I, 113, 114, fig.; 2, 66, fig.; method of 
hauling, X, 216, 217, fig.; Ainu scoop, 2, 
377, fig.; hawkers', 384, fig.; for catching 
falcons, 385-87, figs. 

New Year's Day, 2, 91-95, figs. 

New Year's decorations, 2, 90, 91, figs. 

Newsmen, I, 380, fig. 

Newspaper article, I, 353, fig., 376, 377, fig.; 
2, 111, fig. 

Newspaper cut, 2, 114, fig. 

Newspaper office, description of, 2, 110-15, 

Nicknames, 1, 361. 

Night, an uncomfortable, I, 239, 240. 

Nightgowns, I, 87. 

Night-lamps, I, 57, fig. 

Night noises, I, 161. 

Nikko, trip to, I, 45-56; temples, 69-76, 
figs.; height, 81. 

Ninagawa Noritani, 2, 106, 107, 190, 414, 
415; obsequies of, 356-60, figs.; ms. vol- 
umes of, 405. 

Nishi, Mr., 2, 427-30. 

Nishikawa Rokubei, 2, 397, fig. 

Nobles' School, 2, 202-04. 

Nomagasaki, 2, 146, fig. 



Nowata, inn at, I, 109; pronunciation of, 

Numa, Mr., 2, 428, 430. 
^Nursing, I, 8, 27, 40, 60, 95, 176, fig., 262. 

Oars, I, 2, fig. 

Oaths, I, 39, 264. 
^Offerings, to the dead Shogun, I, 293, fig.; 
to the dead, 2, 46. 

Okamui, I, 433, fig., 452, fig. 

Okubo, Count, assassination of, I, 376-79. 

Okuma, Mr., school and summer house, 2, 
394, 395; city house, 396. 

Omnibuses, I, 137. 

Omori, kitchen-midden at, I, 287-89, 301, 
308, 352-54, 386; 2, 82, 102. 

Ono, Mr., 2, 429, 430. 

Onomura, 2, 166, 167. 

Onsendake, 2, 175, fig. 

"Opening of the River," 1, 129-31, fig. 

Orange-holders, 2, 86, fig. 

Oranges, 2, 85, 86, figs. 

Orchestra, I, 30, 399, fig., 407; 2, 99. See 

Osaka, 2, 190, 195-98, figs., 302. 

Otaru, boat voyage to, 1, 431-34, figs. ; f acili-i 
ties furnished author at, 435; harbor and 
shore, 436, figs. ; appearance of people at, 
436, 437; Ainus at, 2, 1-4, figs.; view of, 
through a tunnel, 5, fig.; journey from, 
to Sapporo, 4-9, figs. 

Otsu, 2, 256. 

Ouchi, Mr., 2, 428, 430. 

Outdoor bakery, I, 350, 351, fig. 

Ox-teams, 2, 130. 

Pack-bulls, I, 61. 

Pack-horses, I, 153, fig. 

Packing, 2, 346. 

Pack-saddle, 2, 240, fig. 

Padlock, 2, 295, fig. 

Palanquins, I, 81, 84, figs. 

Pantomime, I, 273, 274, fig., 298. 

Paper, composition of, I, 156. 

Paper lanterns, I, 122, fig., 123, fig. 

Paper-polishing, I, 373, 374, fig. 

Parsons, Professor, I, 352. 

Passports, I, 118, 119. 

Paste, 2, 84, fig. 

Peaches, I, 37, 118, 228. 

Pearl-shell cutting, 2, 344, fig. 

Pears, 1, 37, 198; displayed in tubs, 300, fig. 

Pease porridge hot, I, 368, 369, fig. 

Peddlers, 1, 119, 206, 207, fig.; cries of, 206, 

326; of candy, 326-28, fig. ; medicine, 348, 

Phosphorescence, 2, 150, 151. 
Physical individuality, 1, 43. 

Physical science, teaching of, 2, 431-33. 

Pictures, I, 160, 237. 

Pigeons, I, 126. 

Pile-driver, I, 3, 4, fig.; 2, 282, 283, fig. 

Pilgrims, 1, 105, 106, 170, fig., 175, fig., 177, 
192; 2, 246; in boat, I, 205, 206, fig.; 
sketching eagle, 254. 

Pillows, I, 8, 57, 62, figs., 161, 176, fig., 189, 
fig., 237, 238, fig. 

Pincers, 2, 179, fig. 

Pines, dwarf, I, 248, 249, fig.; 2, 104, fig. 

Pipes, I, 7, fig.; 2, 296, 373, fig. 

Pistols, i, 111, 112. 

Plane, carpenter's, I, 373, fig. 

Plant-stands, X, 124, fig., 304, fig. 

Plants, I, 11, 383, 384. 

Play. See Theatrical performances. 

Ploughs, 2, 138, fig., 161, fig.; Kii, 288, fig.; 
varieties of, 331, 332, figs. 

Plum trees, 2, 103, 104, fig. 

Plums, I, 198. 

Poem, man reciting, I, 106. 

Poles, telegraph, 1, 60; 2, 54, fig. ; and poling, 

I, 101, 102, fig., 112, fig., 113, fig., 114, 

t fig. ; as guides in snow, 2, 50. 

'Politeness, 1, 8, 19, 28, 33, 44, 100, 117, 131, 

194, 195, 251, 386; 2, 56, 57, 73, 138, 347. 

Pomegranate flower, I, 50, 66. 

Pond, 2, 382, 383, fig. 

Poorhouse, I, 360. 

Postmaster, I, 167, fig. 

Post-office, I, 167, fig. 

Posts, I, 77, fig. 

Potato shops, I, 278. 

Potatoes, I, 198; cleansing, 265, fig., 278. 

Potteries, at Kyoto, 2, 184-91, figs., 193, 
figs.; Tada, 269, 270; Imado, 354. 

Pottery, unglazed, I, 294, fig., 308-11, figs.; 
prehistoric, 334; Omori, 353,354, figs.; 
art hand-work, 2, 104, 105, figs.; jars, 119, 
120, figs.; old, curious objects of, 156, 
figs.; bowl with arrow design, 167, fig.; in 
cave at Onomura, 169-72; for foreign 
trade, 185-87, fig.; scarce, after three 
years, 210; unglazed, lathe-turned, Ya- 
mato, 294; Korean, 328; in early times, 

Pottery, Rokubei's, 2, 298, fig.; the Raku, 
298-300, fig.; Yeiraku's, 300; Zoroku's, 
300, 301;Kitei's, 301. 

Pottery party, 2, 399, 400, fig. 

Practical jokes, I, 411. 

Prairie, 2, 49. 

Prayer casket, I, 269, fig. 

Praying-posts, I, 429, fig. 

Presents, I, 394, 395, fig.; 2, 94, fig. 
|/Pride, sign to indicate, 2, 282. 

Priest, a sleepy, 2, 69. 



Priests, I, 292, figs., 293. 
Procession, a, 2, 72, 73. 
Prompter, I, 30. 

Proof and proof-reading, 2, 114, fig., 115. 
Protective coloring, 1, 80. 
Proverbs, 2, 227, 228. 
vPublic baths, I, 97-101, fig. 
Public story-tellers, I, 200, fig., 201. 
Pumps, sprinkling, 1, 153, fig. 
Punctuation, 2, 305. 

Queue, the, I, 397, fig., 398; 2, 36, 65, fig., 

415, 416. 
Quivers and arrows, Ainu, 2, 27, fig. 

Racks for carrying grain or grass, I, 66, fig. 

Raku pottery, 2, 298-300, fig. 

Ramma, 2, 241 n. 

Rapper of story-teller, I, 231, 232, fig. 

Raspberries, I, 71. 

Reading, Japanese manner of, 1, 147 ; 2, 351 ; 

of Chinese classics, 1, 183; by child, 426. 
Reception at tea-house, 2, 379, 380. 
Reeling silk, I, 250. 
Relics, temple, I, 126. 
Religious belief, 2, 413, 414. 
Resonators, I, 231, fig. 
Restaurants, I, 279. 
/Retirement, occupation after, 2, 316. 
y*teverse customs, I, 25, 221, 373, fig. 
Revolting forms of edibles, 1, 257, fig., 258. 

See Food. 
Rice, varieties of, I, 68; manner of serving 

and eating, 142; at festival, 202, 203. 
Rice dust. 2, 238. 
Rice exchange, 2, 302, 303. 
Rice-fields, I, 9, 10, fig., 11, 46, fig., 50, fig., 

68, 116, 367; 2, 51, fig. 
Rice-pounding, 1, 55, fig.; 2, 238, figs. 
Ridge-poles, I, 64, 65, fig., 116, 119, 182, fig.; 

2, 53, fig., 258. See Roofs. 
Riverbanks, protecting, with bamboo, I, 

River travel, 2, 60-67, figs. 
Rivers, names of, I, 214. 
Road experience, 2, 77. 
Roads, I, 47, 58, 82. 
Rokubei's pottery, 2, 298, fig., 397. 
Roofs, I, 61, 64, 65, fig., 109. 182, fig.; 2, 53, 

fig.; of Ainu houses, 23, figs., 33; treat- 
ment of Izumi, 286; thatched, 294, fig., 

308; city, 371. 
Rooms, I, 77, 78, fig., 107, fig., 187-89, figs., 
f 317, fig., 330, 360, 361; 2, 220, fig., 221, 

339, fig., 363, fig., 364. 
Root in front of drinking-booth, I, 124, fig. 
Rope, I, 203. 
Rudder, I, 423, fig. 

Saddle bags, I, 424, fig. 

Saddles, I, 424, fig., 425, fig. 

Saigo, General, I, 382. 

Sails, 1, 113, 225, fig., 226; 2, 63, fig. 

Sakanoshita, 2, 256. 

Sake, I, 38; cup, 38, fig.; measure and tub, 
2, 179, fig.; drinking, 316. 

Sakurajima, 2, 151, fig. 

Sakurajima yama, 2, 151, fig. 

Salt, 2, 311. 

Salt-water carriers, I, 36. 

Salutations, Ainu, 2, 29. 

Samisen and player, I, 391, fig.; 2, 121, 122, 
fig., 375, fig. 

Sammaibashi, 2, 239. 

Samurai, I, 214, 303, 312, 313, 330, 363; 2, 
370; lower and upper, 1, 314. 

Sand artists, I, 346, fig., 347. 

Sandals, I, 3, fig., 8. 

Sanitation, I, 23. 

San-ju-san-gen-do, 2, 332-34, fig. 

Sankishi, Kosaka, 2, 226, figs. 

Sapparo, journey from Otaru to, 2, 4-9, figs. ; 
streets, 9; college, 9; vessels and frag- 
ments, 9, 10, fig.; farm, 10; mountains 
near, 11, figs.; journey to Hakodate from, 
13-43, figs. 

Sarcophagus, 2, 168, fig. 

Sasaki, Mr., I, 352; 2, 42. 

Satsuma, 2, 146-48, figs., 163, fig. 

Satsuma bottle, 2, 160, fig. 

Saws, I, 412. 

Scene, theatrical, I, 405, fig. 

School, an artist's, 2, 261, fig. 

School apparatus, exhibit of, I, 255. 

School-children, I, 362. 

School-houses, I, 47, 48, fig., 124. 

Schools, 1, 124. 

Scoop net, Ainu, 2, 377, fig. 

Screens, 1, 108, 109, 156, fig. 

Scribes, I, 139, fig. 

Scrubbing, I, 51. 

Sculling, I, 1, 2. 

Scythes, I, 383, fig. 

Seals, I, 265, fig., 324, fig. 

Sea-sickness, word for, 2, 341. 

Seaweed, as food, I, 88; gathering, 2, 5, 6, 

Sendai, 2, 70. 

Servants, I, 407, 408; attitudes, 2, 37, fig.; 
devotion of, 393. 

Service, a, 2, 93, fig. 

Sewing machines, I, 33. 

Shark, chasing a, I, 225. 

Shaving, the head, I, 10, 22, 199, fig., 201, 
fig., 372, 398; 2, 138, fig., the face, I, 53, 
230, 231. 

Shell, pearl, attached to box, 2, 262, fig. 



Shell-heap, result of coast upheaval, 2, 155. 

Shell-heaps. See Kitchen-midden. 

Shells, I, 85; collecting, 101; 2, 137, 138; 
screens made of , 1, 108 ; roof covered with, 
109; at Enoshima, 141, 205, 209; as re- 
sonators, 231, fig.; at Yezo, 427, 428; 
snail, 2, 28; differences, 82. 

Shell-work, I, 157, figs. 

Shelter, hawkers', 2, 387, fig. 

Shimabara, 2, 175-77. 

Shimabara Gulf, Kagoshima to, 2, 164. 

Shimaji, Mr., 2, 428, 430. 

Shimonoseki, 2, 133, fig., 179, 180. 

Shimonoseki, Straits of, 2, 133, fig., 179. 

Shin, name of, 2, 78. 

Shingles, I, 61. 

Shinto, shrines, I, 121, 168, fig.; faith, com- 
munion of, 290-95, figs. ; burial, 408-10, 

Shirakawa, 2, 71, 72. 

Shirako, 2, 319. 

Shiraoi, 2, 22, fig. 

Shizuoka, 2, 245. 

Sho, the, I, 291, fig., 399, figs. 

Shoe and umbrella shop, I, 344, fig. 

Shoe closet, 2, 392, fig. 

Shoemaker, Chinese, I, 285, fig. 

Shogun, offerings to the dead, I, 293, fig.; 
the days of the, 375. 

Shop signs, I, 296, 322-25, figs., 374; 2, 48, 
fig., 83, fig., 84, fig. 

Shops, I, 6-8, fig., 78, 128; 2, 116-19, figs.; 
by night, I, 135. 

Shorin, I, 329, 330. 

Shovels, I, 307, fig.; 2, 326, fig., 332, fig. 

Show cases, making, I, 375. 

Shrines, I, 11, 47-49, 92, figs., 93; house- 
hold, 121, 168, fig., 229, fig.; erected 
near striking natural features, 165; cave, 
165, fig., 166; pilgrimages to, 170, fig.; 
Ainu, 2, 33, fig.; in stores, 118, fig., 119; 
stone, 142, fig.; picturesque, 175. See 

Sidewalks, 2, 414. 

Signs, inn, I, 140; shop, 296, 322-25, figs., 
374; 2, 48, fig., 83, fig., 84, fig.; names of 
institutions, I, 412. 

Silk, reeling, I, 250. 

Silk store, a famous, 2, 116-18, figs. 

Silkworm eggs, cards of, I, 109, fig., 110. 

Silver bronze, a, I, 255, fig. 

Singers, outfit of, I, 231, 232, fig.; with or- 
chestra, 400, 401. 

Singing, I, 115, 380; lesson in, 2, 401, 402, 
fig., 406. See Chanty. 

Singing workmen. See Chanty. 

Sinks, I, 96, fig., 227, fig. 
•fitting, Japanese method of, I, 27, 60. 

Slate, substitute for, 2, 411, fig. 

Sleeper, method of waking, 2, 416. 
I /Sleeping, I, 57, 62, fig., 78, 161, 230; 2, 67, 

Sleight-of-hand, I, 392, 393, fig. 

Slums, 2, 370. 

Smallpox, I, 21, 39, 219; sign to ward off, 

Smoking, I, 7; 2, 62, fig., 74, fig. 

Smoothing and ironing, 2, 368. 

Snails, hunting for, 2, 11-13; speed of move- 
ment of, 194, 195. 

Snailshells, 2, 28. 

Sneezing, 2, 312. 

Snow in Tokyo, 2, 101, 405, 406. 

Snow shovels, 2, 101, fig. 

Societies, student, I, 361. 
| /Social customs, I, 313-15. 

Sode-gaki, 2, 366-68, fig. 

Soil, fertilizing, I, 10, fig., 23, 24. 

Soldiers, I, 232. 

Soup, I, 88, 142, 387; 2, 395. 

Souvenirs, I, 78, 79, fig., 156, 157, fig. 

Soya beans, preparation from, 2, 287, figs. 

Specimens, transference to Tokyo, I, 244, 
fig., 245. 

Spiders and spider-webs, I, 80, 81, figs. 

Spinning-wheels, I, 50. 

Sprinkling, pump used for, I, 153, fig. 

Stable, 2, 156, fig. 

Stacks, straw, 2, 283, fig. 

Stage, theatre, I, 28-30, figs.; 2, 99. 

Stage-ride to Nikko, I, 45-56. 

Stages, outdoor, I, 301, 302, fig. 

Stamps for collection, I, 150. 

Standards of fire companies, I, 133, 134, 
fig., 357, 358, fig. 

Stands for plants, I, 124, fig. 

Steam launch, I, 426, 427, fig. 

Steamboat trip, from Yokohama to Hako- 
date, I, 416; from Hakodate to Otaru, 
431-34, figs. 

Steamer, 2, 47, fig. 

Stilts, 2, 81, fig. 

Stockings, I, 8. 

Stomachs, Japanese, 2, 354. 

Stone-arched bridges, 2, 162, fig., 178, fig. 

Stone images, I, 428, 429, fig. 

Stone lanterns, 1, 151; 2, 75, fig., 275, fig 

Stone shrines, 2, 142, fig. 

Stone walls, 2, 139, fig. 

Stone yards, I, 119. 

Storehouses, Ainu, 2, 27, 28, figs. 

Stores, 2, 116-19, figs. 

Story-tellers, public, I, 200, fig., 201; outfit 
of, 231, 232, fig.; professional, 2, 374, 375. 

Stoves, charcoal, 2, 339, fig. 

Strainer, bamboo, 2, 276, fig. 



Straw, articles made of, 2, 90, 91, figs. 

Strawberries, I, 66. 

Street cries, I, 21. 

Street fights, 2, 370, 371. 

Street jugglers, I, 341, 342, fig. 

Street-names, I, 121, 150, 383, fig. 

Street-repairing, 2, 125. 

Street scenes in Tokyo, I, 262-64, 343-51, 

Street sweepers, I, 153, fig. 

Street traffic, I, 137. 

Street-watering, I, 24, fig. 

Streets, how laid out, I, 150, fig.; appear- 
ance of, 2, 414. 

Student sorting specimens, I, 302, fig. 

Students, I, 157-59, 183, 210; ambitious, 
221; playing cards, 236; rooms, 360, 361; 
societies, 361; life, 362; their method of 
wearing the hair, 398; 2, 415; their daily 
schedule, 351, 352; ingenuity of, 431-33. 

Sugi, Mr., 2, 425-27, 429, 430. 

Sumida River, I, 129. 

Sundays, I, 31, 177. 

Sunstroke, I, 24. 
Superstitions, 2, 228, 229, 308-16, 369. 

Swallows' nests, I, 50, 51, fig., 106; 2, 258, 

Swearing, I, 39, 264. 

Sweet potatoes. See Potatoes. 

Sword-maker, 2, 408, fig. 

Swords, old, 2, 222, 223. 

Syringe for preparing tokoroten, I, 88, fig. 

Tablets, lacquered, I, 258-62, figs., 287, fig. 

Tag worn by children, 2, 412, fig. 

Takahashi, 2, 143, 144, figs. 

Takahashi River, 2, 164, 174. 

Takamine, Mr., I, 384; 2, 30, 31, 354, 355. 

Takamine, Mrs., 2, 212. 

Takenaka, Mr., 2, 324. 

Tanada, Mr., 2, 131. 

Tanaka, Mr., I, 365. 

Tangerines, 2, 85, 86, figs. 

Tanimura, Mr., 2, 399. 

Tanks, I, 102, 103, fig. 

Tannery, 2, 291, fig. 

Targets, I, 123. 

Tarumae, 2, 19, fig. 

Taste of Japanese, I, 54, 67. 

Tattooing, I, 124, 125. 

Tea, as mark of hospitality, I, 7; growing, 
11; firing, 25-27; for export, 26; for home 
consumption, 27; how drunk, 52 ; drunk on 
all occasions, 192; method of making, 218, 

Tea ceremony, a, 2, 248-54, figs., 344, 392. 

Teacups, 2, 167, fig. 

Tea-firing buildings, I, 25-27. 

Tea-house, dinner entertainment at, 1, 389- 
93, figs.; reception at, 2, 379, 380. 

Tea-houses, I, 66, 67, 141, 145, 146, 279. 

Tea-places, I, 151, 152, fig. 

Tea-scoops, 2, 219, fig. 

Teeth, of the Japanese, 1, 40; of married wo- 
men, blackened, 110, 285; names of, 2, 
78; in cremation, 338; blackening, the pro- 
cess, 339, 340, fig. 

Telegraph poles, I, 60; 2, 54, fig. 

Temperance of Japanese, I, 38. 

Temple, leading to Nantai, I, 89, 90; in 
Asakusa, Tokyo, 125-28, 266, 267, 269; 
in Enoshima, relics in, 246, 247; service in, 
289-95, figs.; plan of, 292, fig.; people en- 
tering, 2, 46; at Miyajima, 275; at Ka- 
wagoe, 325. 

Temple lantern, 1, 170, 171, fig. 

Temple tokens, 2, 412, fig. 

Temples, I, 47; Nikko, 69-76, figs.; fairs 
near, 2, 89. See Shrines. 

Terraces, 2, 140. 

Thatched roofs, I, 61, 64, 65, fig. 

Theatres, I, 27-30, figs., 402-04, fig.; 2, 99, 
100, fig. 

Theatrical performances, I, 241, 242, 404- 
07, figs. 

Ticket of admission to lecture, 2, 219, fig. 

Tiles, 2, 306. 

Tobacco, I, 7. 

Toes, names of, 2, 78. 

Tokonoma, 2, 394. 

Tokoroten, I, 88. 

Tokyo, the name, 1,11, 86; arrival at, 12; 
sights of, 12, 31, 32; building-methods in, 
12, 13; Dr. Murray's office, 13; yashiki, 
14; Imperial University at, 15; the wrest- 
lers at, 16-19; alone in, 19; glaciated 
boulders at, 20; street- watering in, 24; 
the Imperial Museum in, 31; jinrikishas 
in, 34; departure from, 45; temple in 
Osakusa, 125-28, 266, 267, 269; industrial 
art museum at, 149; picturesque points 
of, 233; sights in, 262-64, 343-51, figs.; 
view of, 279, 280, 335, fig.; the foreigner 
and, 375 ; snow in, 2, 101 ; health condi- 
tions of, 2, 426. 

Tokyo Athletic Club, I, 320, 321, fig. 

Tokyo Female Normal School, 2, 235-37. 

Tokyo Normal School, 2, 431. 

Toleration for eccentricities of dress or be- 
havior, I, 274, 275. 

Tomatoes, I, 37, 198. 

Tomb of Jimmu Tenno, 2, 294. 

Tombs, I, 72-76, figs. 

Tomokomae, 2, 15-19, figs. 

Tonegawa River, a trip down, I, 110-16, 



Toothbrushes, 1, 146, fig. 

Toothpick holders, I, 396, 397, fig. 

Tops, I, 157, fig.; 2, 81, fig., 87. 

Tori4, 1, 48, 49, 90, fig. ; 2, 290, fig. 

Tortoise-shell, 2, 179, figs. 

Towing, 2, 67, fig. 

Toyama, Professor, I, 15, 162, 175, 176, 

190, fig., 212, 219, 314, 386; 2, 427-30. 
Toyohachi, 2, 246. 
Toys, I, 156, 157, fig.; mechanical, 2, 79- 

Trains, I, 11. 

Translating inscriptions, 2, 82, 83, fig. 
Transplanting trees, I, 347. 
Traveling by night, 1, 196. 
Trays for offerings, 1, 293, fig., 294, fig. 
Tread-wheel, I, 46, fig., 116. 
Trees, I, 58, 59, figs., 117, 337, fig. ; dwarfing, 

125 ; transplanting, 347 ; 2, 84, fig. ; lacquer, 

54, fig.; picturesque, 175, fig.; camphor, 

175, fig. 
Tricks, 1, 366, 392, 393, 411; 2, 158, 159. 
Trolling, 2, 419, fig. 
Trumpets, I, 157, fig. 
Tsugaru Straits, I, 431. 
Tsuji, Mr., 2, 429, 430. 
Tubs, I, 270. 
Turtles, 2, 302, fig. 
Twine, I, 203. 

Type and type-setting, 2, 110-15, figs. 
Typhoon, a, I, 171, 172, 174, fig., 175, fig 

178, 192, 354, 355. 

Umbrella and shoe shop, I, 344, fig. 
Umbrellas, I, 236, fig. 
Undercutting, 2, 32, fig., 40, fig. 
University. See Imperial University. 
Upraised beach, 2, 155. 
Usuyama, 2, 40, fig. 
Utsunomiya, I, 56; 2, 74. 
Uyeno Park, Tokyo, I, 248, 289. 

Vaccination, I, 21, 39. 

Vegetables, I, 36, 37, 197, 198; cleansing, 

265, fig. 
Venders, street, I, 21. 
Vessels, Japanese, 423, fig., 424. 
Village, Ainu, 2, 22, fig., 29. 
Violets, name for, 2, 340. 
Violin and koto, 2, 212, 213. 
Visiting cards, 2, 327, fig. 
Volumes, designations of, 2, 228. 

Wakanoura, 2, 289. 
Wakayama, 2, 287-93. 
Wall-paper designs, I, 155, 156, fig. 
Walls, stone, 2, 139, fig. 

War prints, I, 269. 

Wash sinks, I 227. 

Watchmen, private, I, 20. 

Water, lack of, in houses, I, 96; salt and 

fresh, 220. 
•^Water-carriers, I, 25, 36. 
Water-wheel, used as tread- wheel, 1, 46, fig., 

116; for irrigation, 2, 284, fig. 
Watering of streets, I, 24, fig. 
Watermelons, I, 197. 
Wax, vegetable, manufacture of, 2, 52, 53, 

Wax figures, I, 267. 
Weapons, Ainu, 2, 26, fig., 27, fig. 
Weather-vane, 2, 234, fig. 
Weaving, I, 50; 2, 242, fig. 
Webs, spider, I, 80, 81, figs. 
Weeder, 2, 285, fig. 
Wells, I, 8; 2, 277, 278. 
Well-sweeps, I, 60; 2, 155, fig., 162, 181, 

283, 284, fig. 
Wertheimber, Mr., I, 178. 
Williams, Dr. S. Wells, I, 166 n. 
Wilson, Professor, I, 15; his son, 17, 18. 
Windlass, 2, 18, fig. 
Windows, I, 67, fig. 
Winnowing-fans, 2, 69, fig. 
^Women, and men, distinctions between, I, 

114; inferior position of, in Japan, 282, 

Wood, for fire, I, 343. 
Wood engravers, I, 265, 266, fig. 
Wood-turners, I, 266, fig. 
Wooden sounding-devices, I, 425, fig. 
Woodwork, I, 78, 251, 252, figs., 305, 306, 

fig.; 2, 68, figs. 
Woolen fabrics, Japanese wonder at, I, 

Work, cheapness of, I, 379. 
Workmanship, fidelity in, 2, 408-10. 
Workmen. See Laborers. 
Workroom and workmen, 1, 190, 191, fig. 
Worms, procession of, 2, 226, 227, figs. 
Wrestlers, I, 16-19, figs., 268; names of, 

214, 215. 
Writing, Japanese method of, I, 173. 
Writing and marking devices, 2, 410, fig., 

Writing material, 2, 410. 
Writing-paper, 2, 194, 410. 

Yagi, 2, 294. 

Yamato, 2, 294, 295. 

Yashiki, 1, 14, 375. 

Yatabe, Professor, 1, 139, 352. 

Yatate, 2, 410, fig., 411. 

Yatsushiro, 2, 166. 

Yedo. See Tokyo. 



Yedo, Bay of, islands in, I, 19; map, 162, 

Yeiraku's pottery, 2, 300. 

Yezo, I, 416; 2, 48, figs. 

Yokkaichi, 2, 255, 256. 

Yokohama, landing at, 1, 1, 2; first morning 
in, 3; workmen in, 3, 4; first impressions 
of wandering through, 4; market in, 34; 

Japanese and Chinese at, 147-49 ; ground 
laid out in rows of squares, 150. 
Yumoto, I, 94-96, 101, 102, fig. 

Zodiac, signs of, names, 2, 228. 
Zoological Laboratory, I 319, fig. 
ZoSlogical Museum, 2, 211. 
Zoroku's pottery, 2, 300, 301. 

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