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Presented to the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
LIBRARY 

by the 

ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE 
LIBRARY 

1980 



THE JAPANESE IN AMERICA, 



THE JAPANESE IN 



AMERICA. 



BY CHARLES LANMAN, 

AMERICAN SECRETARY JAPANESE LEGATION 
IN WASHiNGTON. 




LONDON : 
LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER. 

1872. 




CHISWICK I'RKSS: PRINTED BY U'HITTINGHAM AND \VII.K1.\?, 

TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE. 



CONTENTS. 

PART I. 

Page 

THE Japanese Embassy 1 

PART II. 
Essays by Japanese Students. 

The Students in America 67 

The Practical Americans 80 

The Chinese Ambassador in France 86 

Co-Education of Boys and Girls 93 

Oriental Civilization 97 

History of Japan 102 

Christianity in Japan 108 

The Strength and Weakness of Eepublics .... 112 

Japanese Costume 119 

A Father's Letter 123 

The Memorable Year 129 

Expedition to a Eomish Church 136 

George Washington 141 

Public and Private Schools 145 

Eaid on the Missionaries 153 

Christmas 162 

Japanese Poetry 165 



vi Contents. 

PART III. 

Life and Resources in America.. 

Page 

Preliminary Note 177 

Introduction 178 

Official and Political Life 182 

Life among the Farmers and Planters 199 

Commercial Life and Developments 228 

Life among the Mechanics 246 

Eeligious Life and Institutions 259 

Life in the Factories 292 

Educational Life and Institutions 312 

Literary, Artistic, and Scientific Life 331 

Life among the Miners 351 

Life in the Army and Navy 363 

Life in the Leading Cities 374 

Frontier Life and Developments 390 

Judicial Life 398 

Additional Notes . . 405 




PREFACE. 




HE first object of this volume is to give 
an account of the Japanese Embassy re- 
cently accredited to the several Treaty 
Powers and now visiting America,, on 
its way to England. The whole work, however, 
consists of three parts. The first is devoted to the 
history of the Embassy, giving a detailed account 
of the objects of the mission, and the reception it 
has met with in the United States from the Govern- 
ment, Congress, and various corporate bodies in all 
the leading cities on the Atlantic coast which have 
been visited. It also supplies many interesting par- 
ticulars of the personal character and past career of 
the chief members of the mission. The second part 
consists of a collection of essays written by Japanese 
Students. The third gives a description of Life 
and Resources in America, prepared under the 
direction of Jugoi Arinori Mori, the Japanese Minis- 
ter in Washington. With regard to the last divi- 
sion, it should be stated that it was recently printed 



Vlll 



Preface. 



in a separate volume for circulation exclusively in 
Japan ; that a translation into the language of that 
country is also in course of preparation ; and that 
the present republication has the hearty co-opera- 
tion of the Japanese authorities at Washington. 




PAET I. 

THE JAPANESE EMBASSY. 





PAET I. 

THE JAPANESE EMBASSY. 

November, 1871, His Majesty " Mont- 
sohito," the Emperor of Japan, gave a 
dinner to the nobles of his empire, in 
his palace at Tokei, and made to them 
the following address, translated by Norhiki Gah : 

" After careful study and observation, I am deeply 
impressed with the belief that the most powerful 
and enlightened nations of the world are those who 
have made diligent effort to cultivate their minds, 
and sought to develope their country in the fullest 
and most perfect manner. 

" Thus convinced, it becomes my responsible 
duty as a sovereign to lead our people wisely in 
a way to attain for them results beneficial, and their 
duty is to assist diligently and unitedly in all efforts 
to attain these ends. How otherwise can Japan 
advance and sustain herself upon an independent 
footing among the nations of the world ? 



4 The Japanese in America. 

" From you, nobles of this realm, whose dignified 
position is honoured and conspicuous in the eyes of 
the people at large, I ask and expect conduct well 
becoming your exalted position, ever calculated to 
endorse by your personal example those goodly 
precepts to be employed hereafter in elevating the 
masses of our people. 

" I have to-day assembled your honourable body 
in our presence chamber, that I might first express 
to you my intentions, and in foreshadowing my 
policy also impress you all with the fact that both 
this government and people will expect from you 
diligence and wisdom while leading and encouraging 
those in your several districts to move forward in 
paths of progress. Eemember your responsibility 
to your country is both great and important. What- 
ever our natural capacity for intellectual develop- 
ment,- diligent effort and cultivation are required to 
attain successful results. 

{{ If we would profit by the useful arts and 
sciences and conditions of society prevailing among 
more enlightened nations, we must either study those 
at home as best we can, or send abroad an expe- 
dition of practical observers to foreign lands com- 
petent to acquire for us those things our people 
lack which are best calculated to benefit this nation. 

" Travel in foreign countries, properly indulged 
in, will increase your store of useful knowledge,, and 
although some of you may be advanced in age, 
unfitted for the vigorous study of new ways, all 
may bring back to our people much valuable in- 
formation. Great national defects require imme- 
diate remedies. 



History of the Embassy. 5 

" We lack superior institutions for high female 
culture. Our women should not be ignorant of 
those great principles on which the happiness of 
daily life frequently depends. How important the 
education of mothers, on whom future generations 
almost wholly rely for the early cultivation of those 
intellectual tastes which an enlightened system of 
training is designed to develope ! 

" Liberty is therefore granted wives and sisters 
to accompany their relatives on foreign tours, that 
they may acquaint themselves with better forms of 
female education, and on their return introduce 
beneficial improvement in the training of our 
children. 

" With diligent and united efforts, manifested by 
all classes and conditions of people throughout the 
empire, we may successively attain the highest de- 
grees of civilization within our reach, and shall expe- 
rience no serious difficulty in maintaining power, 
independence and respect among the nations. 

" To you, nobles, I look for endorsement of these 
views ; fulfil my best expectations, by carrying out 
these suggestions, and you will perform faithfully 
your individual duties to the satisfaction of the 
people of Japan." 

On the 12th day of January, 1872, Jujoi Arinori 
Mori, the Japanese Charge d' Affaires in Washing- 
ton, addressed a letter to the Hon. Hamilton Fish, 
Secretary of State, from which we extract the fol- 
lowing paragraphs : "I have the honour to inform 
you that I have received dispatches from my 
Government, communicating the information that a 
Special Embassy from the Tenno of Japan to the 



6 The Japanese in America. 

Government of the United States would soon arrive 
in this country. On what particular day they were 
to sail I do not know; but I presume they will 
reach Washington about the close of the present 
month. . . . The objects to be attained by 
this Embassy will be fully stated on a future occa- 
sion ; but, in the meantime, I may remark that one 
of them will be to increase the friendly relations 
already existing between Japan and the United 
States." 

On the morning of January 15th, the steamer 
America arrived at San Francisco, having on board 
one hundred and seven Japanese passengers, of 
whom forty-nine constituted the Embassy, while 
the remainder consisted of five young ladies and 
fifty-three young gentlemen and servants, who were 
accompanied by the Hon. Charles E. De Long, 
American Minister to Japan, and his family, and 
W. S. Eice, Esq., Interpreter of the United States 
Legation in Japan. The official list of officers 
composing the Embassy is as follows : 



Ambassador Extraordinary. 

NAMES AND RANK. OFFICIAL POSITION IN JAPAN. 

Sionii TOMOMI IWAKTJRA . . . Junior Prime Minister. 

Vice-Ambassadors Extraordinary. 

Jussammi TAKAYOSSI KIDO . . Council of State. 
Jussammi TOSSIMITSI OKUBO . . Minister of Finance. 
Jushie HIEOBUMI ITO .... Acting Minister of Public 

Works. 
Jushie MASSOUKA YAMAGUTSI. . Assistant Minister of the 

Foreign Affairs. 



History of the Embassy. 1 

First Secretaries. 

NAMES AND RANK. OFFICIAL POSITION IN JAPAN. 

YASKAZOU TANABE Foreign Department. 

NORIUKI GAH Foreign Department. 

ATSNOBOU SHIODA Foreign Department. 

GHEN-!TSIRO FOUKOUTSI . . . Treasury Department. 

Second Secretaries. 

HIROMOTO WATANABE .... Foreign Department. 

TERMORI COMATZ Foreign Department. 

TADAS HYASH Foreign Department. 

KELJIRO NAGANO Foreign Department. 

Third Secretary. 
QUANDO KAWAGE Foreign Department. 

Fourth Secretaries. 

MASSATSNE IKEDA Educational Department. 

TADATSNE ANDO Foreign Department. 

Private Secretary to Chief Ambassador. 

KOTJNITAKE KOUME Clerk to the Legislative 

Code. 

Attache. 
YASSI NOMOURA Foreign Department. 

Commissioners connected with the Ambassadors. 

Jushie TAKANORI SASSAKI . . . Acting Minister of the 

Judicial Department. 

Jussammi MITSITOMI HIGASSIKOUZE Chief Chamberlain of the 

Imperial Court. 

Jugoi AKIYOSSI YAMADA . . . Brigadier- General of the 

Imperial Army. 

MITS-AKI TANAKA Commissioner of the Bu- 
reau of Census, Trea- 
sury Department. 

FOUZIMAR TANAKA Chief Clerk of the Edu- 
cational Department. 

TAMEYOSSI HIDA Commissioner of Dock- 
yards, Public Work 
Department. 



8 The Japanese in America. 

Commissioners connected with the Ambassadors. 

NAMES AND RANK. OFFICIAL POSITION IN JAPAN. 

NOBOTJYOSSI NAKAYAMA . . . Vice Governor of Hiogo. 

YASSOUKAZ YASSOUBA .... Deputy Commissioner of 

Bevenue. 

Jushie YASSOUNAKA ITSOUTSOUZI . Assistant Director of Ce- 
remony, Impl. Court. 

TADAKATS OUTSMI ..... Secretary to the Gover- 
nor of Kanagawa. 

Officers attached to the said Commissioners. 

YOSSIKAZOU WAKAYAMA . . . Treasury Department. 

HISSOM ABE Treasury Department. 

MOKIKATA OKI Treasury Department. 

KAZOUNARI SOUGUIYAMA . . . Treasury Department. 

NOBIYAS TOMITA Treasury Department. 

NAGAMASSA Yo lo . . i . . Treasury Department. 

KASOUMITSI HAEADA .... War Department. 

NOEITSOUGOU NAGAYO .... Educational Department. 

NAGAMOTO NAKASSIMA .... Educational Department. 

MASSATSNA KONDO Educational Department. 

WAEO IMAMOUEA Educational Department. 

KIMIHIEA OUTSIMOUBA .... Educational Department. 

TAKATO 0-SiMA Public Works Departmt. 

FOUBOU OUBIU Public Works Departmt. 

TAKE-AKIBA NAKANO .... Judicial Department. 

SIGUETOSSI OKA-OUTSI .... Judicial Department. 

YOSSINARI HIKAKA Judicial Department. 

HOUMIAKIBA NAGANO .... Judicial Department. 

TSOUNEMITS MOUEATA .... Imperial Court. 

YOSSINAGA TAKATSOUZI .... Imperial Court. 

HIEOYAS KAGAWA Imperial Court. 

The formal reception of the Embassy took place 
on the day following their arrival at San Francisco, 
and the kind wishes of the citizens and the hos- 
pitalities of the city were tendered to the distin- 
guished strangers by the Mayor> the Hon. William 
Alvord. By special request of the Board of Super- 



History of the Embassy. 9 

visors, the Mayor was also requested to address a 
letter of welcome to the Embassy, which was 
accordingly done on the 18th, and in which he 
remarked as follows : ' ' As the nearest neighbour, 
on this Continent, of the Empire of Japan, the 
people of San Francisco feel a special pride in 
welcoming you to our city, the landing-place, in 
America, of an Embassy whose labours are doubtless 
destined to be followed by results in the highest 
degree interesting and important in their bearings 
upon the progress and enlightenment of all nations, 
and especially to the commercial prosperity of 
Japan and the United States. The Board take 
pleasure in extending to your Excellencies every 
facility for visiting and examining our public insti- 
tutions, and cheerfully place at your disposal all 
means of information, trusting that your stay here 
will be agreeable, and that the great objects of the 
Embassy will be achieved by bringing into nearer 
intimacy the ancient and modern civilizations, ce- 
menting still closer our mutual relations of trade 
and commerce, and strengthening the ties of inter- 
national friendship." The Press of San Francisco, 
in a body, paid their respects to the members of 
the Embassy, and were treated with attention. A 
committee of citizens also waited upon the digni- 
taries, and in reply to an address of welcome from 
B. B. Swain, President of the Board of Commerce, 
the Chief Ambassador replied, through an inter- 
preter, as follows : 

" Gentlemen : Being commissioned by His Im- 
perial Majesty, the Tenno of Japan, to visit all the 
Treaty Powers, we have reached your city on our 



10 The Japanese in America. 

way, and have been greatly pleased at receiving so 
warm a welcome upon the threshold of your Con- 
tinent. We receive it thankfully, as a distinguished 
honour paid to our sovereign and our country. 

" Commerce, following in the path of our first 
friendly relation, has been an active agent in draw- 
ing our respective countries nearer together, in the 
strongest bonds of friendship. Our people have, 
by its means, become acquainted with the civiliza- 
tion of more enlightened nations, and they now 
seek to advance themselves in a knowledge of the 
arts, sciences, products, and mechanisms of western 
nations. 

' ' The true spirit of our mission is to establish 
peaceful relations more firmly, and to see how 
greater privileges may be granted in the true 
interests of a righteous government and a free 
people. 

" Our mission being one of investigation, we 
shall inspect with pleasure your manufactures and 
machinery, your colleges and schools, and your 
system of justice ; and as these are to become the 
guide of our nation in the future, this study will be 
one tending to promote our national welfare, and, 
as commerce is reciprocal, may be of future direct 
interest to your city. 

1 ' Your kind offer to share with us your acquired 
knowledge, and exhibit to us your various indus- 
tries, we gladly accept, and shall not fail to note 
them carefully, and aim in the future to establish 
with you active intercourse and practical results. 

" We assure you, that as soon as His Imperial 
Majesty, the Tenno of Japan, is informed, from our 



History of the Embassy. 1 1 

letter, of your generous hospitality, lie will un- 
doubtedly testify his eminent satisfaction, and the 
hearts of the whole people of Japan will feel deeply 
grateful." 

In the evening of the same day, the citizens of 
San Francisco gathered around the Grand Hotel 
and gave an admirable serenade, and, on being 
called out on the balcony, the Chief Ambassador, as 
before, delivered the following address : 

" Citizens of San Francisco : It is now a recog- 
nized fact in Japan, since the conclusion of the 
treaty between the United States and our country, 
that our true prosperity has greatly increased with 
our new commercial intercourse. Our advancement 
in the arts and sciences of western nations we now 
consider a substantial benefit to our nation, and 
desire that with every increase of national inter- 
course there shall be an increase of international 
friendship. 

"With a view of hastening these results, and 
further facilitating the instruction of our people in 
the civilization of western nations, His Imperial 
Majesty, the Tenno, has commissioned us to visit 
all those countries having treaties with Japan, in 
the capacity of Ambassadors Plenipotentiary, first 
visiting your country. The warmth of our recep- 
tion is unquestionable proof to us of the friendship 
of Americans, and I assure you it is more than 
echoed in the hearts of our people. 

" Your expression of feeling, when announced to 
His Imperial Majesty, will be made known through- 
out Japan, and assist in cementing a mutual friend- 
ship between our countries, which it is the wish of 



12 The Japanese in America. 

the Japanese people should constantly increase, as 
by intercourse we get to know each other better." 

On the same day the Chief Ambassador, on 
behalf of the Embassy, sent a telegram through to 
Nagasaki, Japan, announcing to his Government 
their safe arrival in this city, and the cordial recep- 
tion they had met with. This dispatch went direct 
to Hongkong, whence it was transmitted by cable 
to Nagasaki. 

He also sent word across the continent to his 
three sons, who are students in Rutgers College, 
Brunswick, New Jersey. An answer was received 
just as he had concluded his first address to the 
American people. It announced the good health 
of his sons, and their joy at his safe arrival in this 
country. The contents and the occasion combined 
to render him exceedingly happy. 

During the whole of their stay in San Francisco 
the members of the Embassy were treated with 
marked kindness and cordiality ; but the great event 
of their visit was a superb banquet, which was given 
to them by the leading citizens, at the Grand Hotel, 
on the 23rd of January. After the preliminary 
toasts had been disposed of, that of " Our Distin- 
guished Guests" was proposed, when the Chief 
Ambassador rose, and was greeted with prolonged 
applause. He spoke in his native tongue. Mr. 
Tadas Hyash then read the following remarks in 
English : 

" Gentlemen : I earnestly desire to express, on 
behalf of the other members of this Embassy, and 
in my own behalf, our warmest thanks for all the 
kind honours you have shown us. The particulars 



History of the Embassy. 13 

of our reception, and the princely hospitality of your 
banquet this evening, will be sources of great gra- 
tification to our Emperor and his subjects. 

" The relative situation of this port to Japan is 
such that your prosperity will be the promoter of 
our civilization, and we hope our progress will con- 
tribute to enrich your city. We promise our best 
exertions to uphold and increase friendly relations 
between our countries, by which, in future, we will 
have many mutual interests. The gratitude I feel 
for your great kindness is beyond my power of ex- 
pression. Governor Ito, one of our ambassadors, 
will respond more fully in our behalf." 

The Vice-Ambassador Ito, in furtherance of the 
response, read the following words in a clear voice, 
so as to be distinctly understood by all present : 

" Gentlemen : Being honoured by your kind 
generosity, I gladly express to you, and through 
you to the citizens of San Francisco, our heartfelt 
gratitude for the friendly reception which has every- 
where greeted the Embassy since its arrival in your 
State, and especially for the marked compliment 
paid this evening to our nation. 

" This is perhaps a fitting opportunity to give a 
brief and reliable outline of many improvements 
being introduced into Japan. Few but native 
Japanese have any correct knowledge of our country's 
internal condition. 

" Friendly intercourse with the Treaty Powers 
has been maintained (first among which was the 
United States) , and a good understanding on the 
part of our people has increased commercial re- 
lations. 



14 The Japanese in America. 

" Our mission, under special instruction from his 
Majesty, the Emperor, while seeking to protect the 
rights and interests of our respective nations, will 
seek to unite them more closely in the future, con- 
vinced that we shall appreciate each other more 
when we know each other better. 

" By reading, hearing, and by observation in 
foreign lands, our people have acquired a general 
knowledge of constitutions, habits, and manners, as 
they exist in most foreign countries. Foreign cus- 
toms are now generally understood throughout 
Japan. 

" To-day it is the earnest wish of both our Go- 
vernment and people to strive for the highest points 
of civilization enjoyed by more enlightened coun- 
tries. Looking to this end, we have adopted their 
military, naval, scientific, and educational institu- 
tions, and knowledge has flowed to us freely in the 
wake of foreign commerce. Although our improve- 
ment has been rapid in material civilization, the 
mental improvement of our people has been far 
greater. Our wisest men, after careful observation, 
agree in this opinion. 

" While held in absolute obedience by despotic 
sovereigns through many thousand years, our people 
knew no freedom or liberty of thought. 

" With our material improvement, they learned 
to understand their rightful privileges, which, for 
ages, have been denied them. Civil war was but 
a temporary result. 

" Our Daimios magnanimously surrendered their 
principalities, and their voluntary action was ac- 
cepted by the General Government. Within a year 



History of the Embassy. 15 

a feudal system, firmly established many genturies 
ago, lias been completely abolished, without firing 
a gun or shedding a drop of blood. These won- 
derful results have been accomplished by the united 
action of a Government and people, now pressing 
jointly forward in the peaceful paths of progress. 
What country in the middle ages broke down its 
feudal system without war ? 

" These facts assure us that mental changes in 
Japan exceed even the material improvements. By 
educating our women, we hope to insure greater 
intelligence in future generations. "With this end 
in view, our maidens have already commenced to 
come to you for their education. 

(t Japan cannot claim originality as yet, but it 
will aim to exercise practical wisdom by adopting 
the advantages, and avoiding the errors, taught her 
by the history of those enlightened nations whose 
experience is her teacher. 

" Scarcely a year ago, I examined minutely the 
financial system of the United States, and, while in 
Washington, received most valuable assistance from 
distinguished officers of your Treasury Department. 
Every detail learned was faithfully reported to my 
Government, and suggestions then made have been 
adopted, and some of them are now already in 
practical operation. 

* In the Department of Public Works, now under 
my administration, the progress has been satisfac- 
tory. Eailroads are being built, both in the eastern 
and western portions of the Empire. Telegraph 
wires are stretching over many hundred miles of 
our territory, and nearly one thousand miles will be 



16 The Japanese in America. 

completed within a few months. Light-houses now 
line our coasts, and our ship -yards are active. All 
these assist our civilization, and we fully acknow- 
ledge our indebtedness to you and other foreign 
nations. 

" As Ambassadors and as men, our greatest hope 
is to return from this mission laden with results- 
valuable to our beloved country and calculated to 
advance permanently her material and intellectual 
condition. 

" While in duty bound to protect the rights and 
privileges of our people, we shall aim to increase 
our commerce, and, by corresponding increase of 
our productions, hope to create a healthy basis for 
this greater activity. 

" As distinguished citizens of a great commercial 
nation, prepared for business, desirous of partici- 
pating in the new commercial era now dawning 
auspiciously upon the Pacific, Japan offers you her 
hearty co-operation. 

" Your modern inventions and results of accumu- 
lated knowledge, enable you to do more in days than 
our fathers accomplished in years. 

" Time, so condensed with precious opportunities, 
we can ill afford to waste. Japan is anxious to 
press forward. 

" The red disc in the centre of our national flag 
shall no longer appear like a wafer over a sealed 
empire, but henceforth be in fact what it is designed 
to be, the noble emblem of the rising sun, moving 
onward and upward amid the enlightened nations of 
the world." 

This response was repeatedly interrupted by 



History of the Embassy. 17 

applause and cheers, and when he sat down the 
clapping of hands was deafening. 

The next toast, " Our Relations with Japan," was 
responded to by Hon. C. E. De Long. His re- 
marks were as follows : 

" Gentlemen : The toast that I am called upon to 
respond to is one about which I would most love to 
speak with freedom, but it is at the same time the 
one of all other subjects that I, as American Repre- 
sentative to the Empire of Japan, am least at liberty 
to discuss. 

" I will venture a few words, however, in the 
hope of not transgressing my instructions, and yet, 
in part, responding to your call. 

" What were our relations with that Empire in 
the past, and what are they now ? No intelligent 
Japanese or American can ever hear the name of 
Commodore Perry mentioned with indifference. 
His gallantry first bore down the outer walls of 
seclusion that had walled that Empire in from any 
but the most limited communication with other 
powers, for unknown centuries of time. Under his 
auspices the foothold was gained which is revolu- 
tionizing that land. 

" To-day what do we behold ? 

" Under the wise administration of His Imperial 
Majesty, the Tenno, we see thirty odd millions 
of people marching at a ' double-quick' into full 
fellowship with foreign states. 

" The reign of his Majesty, signalized by its en- 
lightenment, must make its own history for ever 
illustrious. In this noble and unprecedented work 
of reform it is but proper to add that his Majesty 

c 



18 The Japanese in America. 

finds most able and effectual support from the counsel 
of the noble Ministers of the Empire, some of whom 
it is our good fortune to be able to meet and honour 
in our land. 

" The mighty change, from our relations as they 
were to our relations as they are, is so sudden, so 
complete, so very wonderful as to be bewildering. 

" Allow me to note a few of the prominent land- 
marks in this, road of reform upon which this nation 
is travelling. The Japanese Government has been 
centralized by the abolishment of Daimiates, thus 
resolving its political condition from one of num- 
berless and comparatively small principalities into a 
consolidated nation of over thirty millions of people, 
containing over two millions of men born to the 
profession of arms, men whose martial valour none 
who knows them doubts, and who are rapidly being 
armed, uniformed, and drilled with the best of arms, 
under the tuition of the best of foreign military 
teachers. 

" But the other day his Majesty received his fleet 
of ten steam- vessels of war, including two powerful 
ironclads, and in a few days a flying squadron, com- 
posed of three of his Majesty's vessels of war, will 
sail to circumnavigate the globe. 

'" A railroad completed and in running order, 
from Yeddo to Yokohama, conveyed these gentle- 
men, our noble guests, on the commencement of 
their journey. 

" Telegraph lines in working order, operated by 
Japanese operatives, are already constructed, and 
more contemplated. 

" Light-houses and light-ships have been con- 



History of the Embassy. 19 

structed at all necessary points along the Japanese 
coast, where well-kept beacons guide and welcome 
commerce in safety to their ports. 

" An Imperial Mint, complete in all of its appoint- 
ments, has coined millions of dollars of the precious 
metals, and is still in active operation. 

" A dry dock has been constructed in which, but 
the other day, one of the largest of our vessels of 
war, the flagship Colorado was docked, with all her 
guns in position, and repairs to her bottom most 
successfully made. 

" Hundreds of the young nobility of Japan are 
being educated in our own country and in Europe. 
A college, numerously attended, is in full operation 
in Yeddo, under the jurisdiction of an American 
gentleman, assisted by European and American 
subordinates. 

" Private schools are numerous throughout the 
Empire, conducted by foreigners, and with me come 
five Japanese ladies, seeking foreign culture, and 
marking by their advent the promise of a most noble 
reform. 

:( Thus I might proceed, and enumerate, at a 
great length, the evidences of this nation's progress, 
but I feel that more extended allusions are not 
necessary in the face of the one great fact that meets 
us here, face to face to-night, in the presence of this 
noble array of Japanese dignitaries, representing, as 
they do, not only all departments of that Govern- 
ment, but the dignity of the throne itself a throne 
which, but yesterday, as it were, was one of the 
most secluded and mysterious on earth. 

" Who of you all, gentlemen, can fail to see in 



20 The Japanese in America. 

this sight the harbinger of greater events still to 
follow, that shall place Japan, in a very brief future, 
in complete alignment with the most advanced 
nations of the earth ? We are proud of the past, 
proud of the present, and confident of the future. 
In this spirit I am sure the whole heart of the 
American nation will leap up to welcome the noble 
Ambassadors of our sister nation." 

The advent of the Embassy on American soil 
called forth a large number of hearty editorials of 
welcome in the San Francisco papers, but the most 
satisfactory one, on account of its authentic facts, 
appeared in the Daily Evening Bulletin; and no 
apology is needed for introducing a portion of it in 
this place. 

" Japan is to-day, all the circumstances of her 
previous condition considered, the most progressive 
nation on the globe. Less than twenty years have 
elapsed since the first treaty was made by Perry in 
1854, for harbours of refuge for shipwrecked sea- 
men and supplies for vessels in distress, and still 
less since the treaty was made by Minister Harris 
for purposes of trade. Prior to the period named, 
the 'penalty of death was visited upon Japanese who 
had had intercourse with foreigners, and trade was 
simply impossible. The government of the empire 
was in the hands of a number of Princes, or Daimios, 
who nominally ruled in the name of the Mikado, 
but practically in their own right. Each Daimio 
had his armed retainers, who wore the uniforms and 
marched under the distinctive banners of their chief. 
The Mikado was termed the spiritual Emperor, and 
had his own court at Kioto ; while the Shogoon, or 



History of the Embassy. 2 1 

Tycoon, which title was hereditary in the Tokagawa 
family, exercised temporal authority at Yeddo, under 
the Gorogio, or Council of State, composed of some 
of the Daimios of highest rank. The distinctions 
of caste were rigorously enforced, and feudalism, in 
its most ultra form, was prevalent throughout the 
empire. This state of things prevailed less than 
twenty years ago, since when more radical changes 
have taken place than in any other country known. 

" Among the principal changes, there has been 
an entire revolution in the system of government, 
the Mikado having become the active head of the 
temporal power. The entire system of feudalism 
has been swept away, and all the forces of the em- 
pire, both on land and sea, have been consolidated, 
and are fed and clothed in European style, and paid 
from the national treasury. The Government pos- 
sesses a large fleet of war and transport steamers, 
among which are the Stonewall, and other iron-clads 
and rams. It also has constructed a stone dry-dock 
that will admit steamers of the largest size, with ways 
for repairing smaller vessels, and foundries, ma- 
chine-shops, and forges, capable of doing the largest 
class of work, the machinery used being the best 
obtainable in France, at a cost of over two million 
dollars. This establishment gives employment to 
eighteen hundred men, about a score of them being 
foreigners and the remainder Japanese. The go- 
vernment is also building a railroad, which, when 
completed, will extend from Hiogo to Yeddo, a dis- 
tance of about four hundred miles. 

" The government schools at Yeddo contain about 
sixteen hundred pupils, studying foreign languages, 



22 The Japanese in America. 

three-fourths of whom are under American teachers, 
receiving an English education. The principal of 
this school and some twenty sub-teachers are Ame- 
ricans, while many subjects of other nations are em- 
ployed in different capacities in other departments. 
An American fills the highest office that a foreigner 
can hold under the Japanese Government that is, 
Imperial Councillor, whose duty is to frame codes of 
general laws for the empire. Four Americans com- 
pose a scientific commission, to introduce new methods 
of agriculture, mechanics, mining, roads, &c., while 
another American has been appointed to revise and 
organize a system of internal revenue somewhat 
similar to our own. In addition, during the last 
four years, nearly one thousand young men of intel- 
ligence and ability have been sent abroad to study 
the languages, laws, habits, manufactures, methods 
of government, and all other matters appertaining 
to western civilization, the greater part of which is 
to be introduced into Japan. 

" Japan, to-day, has a population of thirty-five 
millions, or within a few millions of that of the 
United States. Unlike the Chinese, its people 
readily make changes in clothing, food, manu- 
factures, and modes of living, when they see im- 
provement therein. They are, as a race, impulsive, 
highly intelligent, brave to rashness, cleanly in their 
habits, have a high sense of personal honour, and 
are universally polite, from the highest dignitary to 
the lowest in the land, and withal are kindly dis- 
posed toward foreigners, especially Americans. 
Unlike the Chinese, again, the people of Japan are 
warmly attached to their country, and will not 



History of the Embassy. 23 

emigrate on Coolie contracts, the thirst for know- 
ledge being the incentive of those who seek foreign 
lands. A Japanese who can speak and write 
foreign languages, the English in particular, is 
assured of profitable employment under his Go- 
vernment, with favourable prospects of promotion. 
The law that forbade marriages between the noble 
and the common classes has been repealed, with the 
effect to elevate the marriage ties, by improving 
the moral and social status of woman. The barriers 
of caste that allowed nobles only to bear arms, or to 
hold military or civic office, have been modified so 
that all classes, except the tanners, whose occupation 
is deemed unclean, are now eligible. 

" Another important change made has been the 
withdrawal of Government assistance to the Buddhist 
religion, leaving it to continue only through the 
voluntary support of the people. The priests, having 
no income, have been advised by the Government to 
enter the army as soldiers, so that Sintooism, which 
is only a moral code, is all the religion left for the 
guidance of the people. This circumstance seems 
to prepare the way for the introduction of Christi- 
anity, for it is now well-known that the repressive 
measures taken by the Japanese Government against 
it, were mainly caused by its interference with the 
temporal authority. The Embassy that is about to 
visit the United States and Europe, will see for 
themselves that Christianity does not necessarily 
interfere with good government, either republican 
or monarchical; and the young men studying abroad, 
on their return will take with them additional proof 
of this, and perhaps themselves be the means of 



24 The Japanese in America. 

introducing the belief in many places where no 
foreign missionary could reach. It needs only that 
patience and forbearance be exercised by foreigners 
in this matter, so as not to excite undue anxiety in 
the minds of the opponents of Christianity, to insure 
for it the same tolerant recognition which is accorded 
all religions in America. 

" The present situation of Japan appeals strongly 
to all well-wishers to the race, that no impediments 
nor difficulty, either social, moral, political, or re- 
ligious, be placed in the way of her progress. We 
need only show her people the effects of western 
civilization, in a kindly and courteous spirit, without 
needlessly exciting prejudices in so doing. The 
natural intelligence of the Japanese, which has no 
superior, will satisfy itself, and work out the problem 
of what to introduce in their own country, to a con- 
clusion satisfactory to all concerned." 

Before leaving the Pacific coast, an incident oc- 
curred which must not be omitted in this place. 
Charles Wolcott Brooks, Esq., the Japanese Consul 
in San Francisco, was officially informed by the 
Ministers, that his administration of their affairs 
had been so faithful, his salary should be increased 
to the extent of two thousand Mexican dollars, and 
that they were anxious to have him accompany them 
on their mission to Europe, so that he thus became 
a member of the Embassy. In view of the fact that 
the Embassy is accredited to all the Treaty Powers, 
it might seem strange to some that an American 
was selected to accompany the mission, but it should 
be recollected that Mr. Brooks had been eighteen 
years in the employ of the Japanese Government, 



History of the Embassy. 25 

six years as commercial agent, and twelve years as 
Consul. 

The very last act performed by the Embassy in 
San Francisco, was to sign and cause to be published 
the following card of acknowledgment which was 
signed by all the Ambassadors : 

" The undersigned, since their arrival in the city 
of San Francisco, having received from the officials 
of the State, city, and county alike, and also from 
all classes of the people with whom they have the 
honour to come in contact, the most kind attention 
and generous hospitality, beg leave respectfully to 
return their most sincere thanks, with their assu- 
rances that it will afford them great pleasure to 
reciprocate the same whenever opportunity offers." 

The Embassy left San Francisco by railway on 
the 31st of January, and their first stopping-place 
was Sacramento, where they became the guests of 
the Legislature, and on the evening of February let 
were treated to a banquet, on which occasion Gover- 
nor Ito delivered the following speech : 

" In acknowledging the generous hospitality of 
your welcome, we feel from the depths of grateful 
hearts the honour conferred upon us. His Majesty 
our Emperor having the noble desire to increase 
our prosperity and extend our commercial relations 
with friendly powers, has sent us to your country 
on this important mission. Our people require 
much that you can furnish us, and we shall look 
largely to our nearest enlightened neighbours for 
those supplies of which we stand in need. The 
object of our mission is to inspect and examine into 
the various mechanic arts and sciences which have 



26 The Japanese in America. 

assisted your country in gaining the present high 
position she occupies before the world. We come 
to study your strength, that, by adopting wisely 
your better ways, we may hereafter be stronger 
ourselves. We shall require your mechanics to 
teach our people many things, and the more our 
intercourse increases the more we shall call upon 
you. We shall labour to place Japan on an equal 
basis, in the future, with those countries whose 
modern civilization is now our guide. The friendly 
intercourse of commerce will necessarily draw us 
closer together, and the State of California will be 
among the first to receive such benefits as must 
necessarily flow from more intimate relations. Not- 
withstanding the various customs, manners, and 
institutions of the different nations, we are all 
members of one large human family, and under 
control of the same Almighty Being, and we be- 
lieve it is our common destiny to reach a yet nobler 
civilization than the world has yet seen. Now, 
I am sure that you are the advocates of these prin- 
ciples ; and these hospitalities, so generously offered, 
we receive as a compliment to our nation, and as 
the public expression of these magnanimous senti- 
ments. With thankful hearts, therefore, let us drink 
to a closer friendship between our countries one 
whose benefits shall be mutual and lasting." 

The Embassy left Sacramento on the 31st of 
January ; and, on reaching Salt Lake City on the 
4th of February, they were blockaded by the snow, 
and compelled to remain at that place until the 
21st of February. During their sojourn there they 
were comfortably housed, and were treated with 



History of the Embassy. 27 

great kindness by the authorities and citizens. A 
banquet was given to the Embassy in that place, 
and a toast was offered by the Chief Ambassador in 
the following words : " On this, the first day of the 
fifth year of the reign of the Emperor, I propose 
the health of the President of the United States." 
Of course, in this connection we must allude to the 
famous Mormon leader, Brigham Young, but this 
we do in the language of one of the local papers, as 
follows : 

(< One of the principal members of the Japanese 
Embassy was waited upon yesterday by a mes- 
senger from the ' Prophet Brigham/ requesting the 
Oriental Prince to call on the Western Prophet. 
His Highness remarked that it was not etiquette in 
Japan for persons of his rank, when amongst 
strangers, to make calls, but awaited the calls of 
people among whom they may be sojourning. 

<( The Prophet's messenger replied that the Seer 
and Revelator was very anxious to see the repre- 
sentatives of His Majesty, but was sorry to admit 
that it was impossible for him to do so immediately. 
The Royal Ambassador inquired why the Prophet 
could not call ? To this the messenger replied 
that the Prophet was unwillingly confined to his 
room in charge of a Federal officer. The Prince 
saw the point at once, and, with a frown, said; 
' We came to the United States to see the President 
of this great nation ; we do not know how he would 
like for us to call on a man who had broken the 
laws of his country and was under arrest/ '' 

Their next stopping-place was Chicago, where 
they remained less than two days, and were treated 



28 The Japanese in America. 

with warm hospitality; and that visit they com- 
memorated by presenting to the Mayor the sum of 
five thousand dollars, for the benefit of the poor of 
that lately devastated city. 

The correspondence on that occasion was as 
follows : 

" Secretary's Office of the Japanese Embassy, 
" Chicago, Feb. 27, 1872. 

" To His Excellency J. Medill, 

Mayor of the City of Chicago : 
" SIR. Permit us to add a small offering to the 
relief fund which the benevolent of your nation have 
donated to alleviate the distress of those of your 
people who suffered by the late fire. Kindly accept 
and dispose of it as your best judgment may dictate. 
With many thanks for your kind civilities, we re- 
main, yours respectfully, 

" Sionii TOMOMI IWAKURA, 

Ambassador Extraordinary of Japan. 
Jussammi TAKAYOSSI KIDO, 

Vice- Ambassador Extraordinary. 
Jussammi TOSSIMITSI OKUBO, 

Vice- Ambassador Extraordinary. 
Jushie HIROBUMIE ITO, 

Vice-Ambassador Extraordinary. 
Jushie MASSONKA YAMAGUTSI, 

Vice- Ambassador Extraordinary" 

His Honour returned the following reply : 

(< To Sionii Tomomi Iwakura, Jussammi Takayossi 
Kido, and others, of the Japanese Embassy : 
" GENTLEMEN. I have the honour to acknowledge 
the receipt of $5,000 from the Embassy of His 



History of the Embassy. 29 



Imperial Majesty, of which you are the Chief 
Envoys, at the hands of Mr. Charles W. Brooks, 
Consul of Japan at San Francisco, donated to 
alleviate the distress of our citizens who suffered 
by the late calamitous conflagration. Permit me, 
in behalf of the people of Chicago, to tender you 
their most grateful thanks for this wholly unex- 
pected and munificent gift. They will esteem it as 
an additional proof that the great nation you re- 
present has enrolled itself among the progressive 
and civilised powers of the earth, as well as a lively 
testimonial of the personal sympathy of your Em- 
bassy for the misfortune of this portion of your 
American friends. Respectfully yours, 

" JOSEPH MEDILL, Mayor." 

They left Chicago on the 27th of February and 
arrived in Washington on the 29th following. 

At this point it becomes necessary for us to 
pause for a moment, to glance at the action of the 
Government in connection with the Embassy. On 
the 30th of January the Congress of the United 
States made an appropriation of fifty thousand 
dollars for the purpose of entertaining the Embassy 
while in this country, and on the next day Mr. Mori 
wrote to the Secretary of State as follows : ' ' In view 
of the action which the Congress of the United 
States has been pleased to take in regard to the 
Japanese Embassy, now on its way to the Capital, 
I deem it my duty, as it is certainly my pleasure, 
to tender my personal and official acknowledg- 
ments. It is not on account of the amount of 
money appropriated, but the spirit which prompted 



30 The Japanese in America. 

the measure, which will gratify the Tenno of Japan, 
and my countrymen generally. I can assure you, 
sir, that this princely act will be fully appreciated, 
and will result, I trust, in making perennial the 
cordial friendship which now exists between the 
United States and the Empire of Japan ." 

In a subsequent dispatch which Mr. Mori sent to 
his Government on the 18th of February, he thus 
alludes to the action of the American Government, 
and gives his views as to how the money appro- 
priated by Congress should be spent : " Owing to 
the l snow- blockade ' on the Pacific Railroad, the 
Embassy has not yet arrived in Washington, and 
it is impossible to say how long the delay may 
continue. It affords me pleasure to inform you, 
however, that the Government here has made 
every preparation for extending a warm welcome 
to the Embassy. The President and Secretary of 
State have both exerted themselves in the matter, 
and a prominent person, General William Myers, 
has been selected to carry out the wishes of the 
Government. . . . With regard to the ques- 
tion as to how the money appropriated by Congress 
shall be expended, I have intimated to the Ameri- 
can Secretary of State, that it should not be used 
in paying the hotel-bills of the Embassy, but simply 
for carrying out any plans that may be devised for 
their entertainment." 

The appropriation made by Congress was sanc- 
tioned with great unanimity ; but before their final 
action, the honourable members of the Committees 
of both Houses, on Foreign Affairs and Appropria- 
tions, desired some authentic particulars about the 



History of the Embassy. 31 

present condition of Japan, when, under Mr. Mori's 
direction, the following notes were prepared : 

The influences which have been disseminated 
among the nations of the East by the various 
interests of the western nations, have hitherto been 
injurious rather than beneficial. The people of 
Japan, as well as all in the Orient, feel the need of 
increased light in regard to the more elevated 
interests of humanity ; and this is the chief reason 
why Mr. Mori cherishes a strong desire to do all he 
can for the education of his people. 

The influences alluded to have also done much to 
keep back from the people of Japan very much of that 
true spirit of civilization, so eminently characteris- 
tic of America. And the fact seems now to be gene- 
rally acknowledged that the Japanese people not only 
desire to follow, as far as possible, in all educational 
and political affairs, the example of the Americans, 
but that they look upon them as their best friends, 
among the nations of the globe. A prominent idea 
with the educated' classes of Japan is, that in the 
very ship which took Commodore M. C. Perry to 
Japan in 1852, were the germs of Christianity, 
civilization, and desire for equality and political 
freedom, and that the seed then planted has been 
steadily growing from that to the present time. 

At first, the Japanese were, from their ignorance 
of the outer world, unwilling to open their ports to 
foreigners, or to receive them in their country ; but 
as they began to see and understand, they gradually 
yielded up their prejudices. A new spirit animated 
them, and it was this which brought them to the Re- 
volution from which they have recently emerged. 



32 The Japanese in America. 

The first concession made by the Japanese was 
an acknowledgment of the darkness in which they 
were,, and of the superior character of foreign in- 
stitutions ; and the immediate result was that they 
desired to cement a closer friendship with foreign 
governments. They naturally looked upon the 
United States as occupying the first rank. Then 
they also wished to consolidate the various internal 
interests of Japan. 

The late Tycoon was favourably disposed, but, 
not being the legitimate head of the nation, the 
people were against him, did not support him, and 
hence he was powerless, and in due time resigned 
the Tycoonite. He was not the supreme ruler, 
because that position belonged to the hereditary 
Emperor. 

The great party which opposed the Tycoon con- 
sisted of the Daimios the Feudal or Provincial 
Princes and a bitter rivalry existed between them. 
Both were willing to civilize Japan to some extent, 
but the Tycoon wished to civilize his followers 
alone, and the Daimios were anxious to secure the 
same end for their followers. While thus inter- 
fering with each other, both of these parties were, 
in reality, coming into a new light. They soon 
saw the necessity of uniting their interests, and the 
present movements now going on in Japan are the 
result of the co-operation of these two elements. 

To help his cause, the Tycoon sent students 
abroad to be educated ; and the Daimios, with the 
same object in view, also sent some of their fol- 
lowers abroad. Hence it was that the Japanese 
were soon found scattered among the colleges and 



History of the Embassy. 33 

seminaries of the United States and Europe, and 
representatives of both parties long since recon- 
ciled are now in Washington. Originally , there 
were leaders in both parties who looked into the 
future, and did all they could to secure unity of 
action, and it was the late E evolution which settled 
the question of consolidation. 

Ever since the Japanese began to throw aside the 
old restrictions, commerce has been steadily in- 
creasing, and the present disposition of the Govern- 
ment is to have the freest possible intercourse with 
all the world. It was the great ignorance which 
prevailed among the people of Japan, which pre- 
vented the development of commerce. The channel 
is now open, and all that is wanted is to have the 
people sail into it with determination. 

The great aim is now to educate and elevate the 
people. The system of caste has already been 
abolished. The middle classes, which were for- 
merly kept back by hereditary pride, are now 
turning their attention and energies to industrial 
pursuits. Among the developments which are now 
going on in Japan, may be mentioned the building 
of railroads, the establishment of telegraphs, navy- 
yards, arsenals, and the building of steamships. 
By competent scholars, English books, in great 
numbers, are being translated into the Japanese 
language ; and newspapers even daily journals 
are becoming a necessity. Hospitals managed ac- 
cording to Western ideas have been established ; 
also, institutions for the employment of the poor, 
and many successful schools. And, by way of 
showing the zeal of some of the native scholars, it 

D 



34 The Japanese in America. 

may be stated that there is one man in Yeddo who 
has educated at his own house not less than two 
thousand Japanese children, and to-day has a 
school of three hundred and fifty pupils. The in- 
telligent people of the Empire are hungering and 
thirsting after knowledge, and the study of the 
English language is considered the best means for 
accomplishing the end which is so strongly de- 
sired. 

On the 29th of February, the Japanese Embassy 
arrived in Washington City; and at the railway 
station, the Governor of the Territory of Columbia, 
Hon. Henry D. Cooke, with several officials, as 
well as the Japanese Minister and many Japanese 
students, were in waiting to receive them; and 
after the proper arrangements had been made, 
the Governor delivered the following speech of 
welcome : 

" I take very great pleasure in extending to you 
and your associates a hearty and sincere welcome 
to the capital of this country. I trust that your 
visit here may not only be agreeable to you per- 
sonally, but that it may result in closer ties and 
more intimate relations between our two countries. 
I extend to you, on behalf of the citizens of the 
District, its cordial hospitalities. I have now the 
pleasure of introducing to you General Myers, of 
the army, who has been intrusted with the pleasant 
duty of providing for your comfort during your 
visit ; and I beg also to present General Chipman, 
the Representative of this District in the Congress 
of the United States." 

The address was interpreted by Mr. Mori, to 



History of the Embassy. 35 

which the following response was made by the Chief 
Ambassador (Mr. Mori interpreting) : 

" I thank you kindly for your remarks and ex- 
pressions, and have no doubt but the sentiments 
expressed will be appreciated and reciprocated. I 
am very glad at having arrived safe, and having 
met with no accident. I have been informed by 
Mr. Mori that you have been here some time await- 
ing our arrival. I thank you very much for taking 
this trouble, and feel very much impressed by this 
reception." 

The preliminaries of the reception and formal 
welcome over, the visitors were escorted to car- 
riages, and proceeded to their headquarters, at the 
Arlington Hotel. Among the students assembled 
to greet the ambassadors were three particularly 
good English scholars, who were in Paris, and two 
of whom were about to return to Japan, when they 
were summoned by telegram from San Francisco, 
to report themselves in Washington, to accompany 
the Embassy in their going round the world. 

On Monday, the 4th day of March, at noon, the 
Embassy had an audience with the President of the 
United States, Ulysses S. Grant, which was ad- 
mirably arranged; and when the proper moment 
arrived, the Prime Minister read from a Japanese 
manuscript the following address of their Excel- 
lencies, the Ambassadors from Japan : 

" His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, our most 
august sovereign, has sought, since the achieve- 
ment of our national reconstruction, to attain a 
more perfect organization in the administrative 
powers of his Government. He has studied with 



36 Tlie Japanese in America. 

interest the results attained by Western nations, 
and having a sincere desire to establish permanent 
and friendly relations with foreign powers on a still 
closer footing, has commissioned us his ambassadors 
extraordinary to all powers having treaty with 
Japan. Upon the soil of your country we first 
present our credentials, delivering to you person- 
ally the letter of our august Sovereign at this public 
official audience." 

Minister Iwakura here presented to the President 
their credential letter, folded in an envelope some 
two feet long and six inches wide, and curiously 
wrought with flowers of gold. The following is the 
text of the letter : 

THE LETTEE OP THE EMPEEOE. 
[Official Translation. ~\ 

" Moutsoukito, Emperor of Japan, &c., to the Pre- 
sident of the United States of America. 
" Our Good Brother and Faithful Friend, Greeting : 
" Mr. President : Whereas, since our accession 
by the blessing of Heaven to the sacred throne on 
which our ancestors reigned from time immemorial, 
we have not despatched any embassy to the courts 
and Governments of friendly countries : We have 
thought fit to select our trusty and honoured 
Minister Sionii Tomomi Iwakura, the Junior Prime 
Minister, as Ambassador Extraordinary, and have 
associated with him lussammi Takayossi Kido, 
Member of the Privy Council ; lussammi Tossimitsi 
Okubo, Minister of Finance ; lushie Hirobumie Ito, 
Acting Minister of Public Works, and lushie Mas- 
souha Yamugutsi, Assistant Minister for Foreign 



History of the Embassy. 37 

Affairs, Associate Ambassadors Extraordinary, and 
invested them with, full powers to proceed to the 
Government of the United States, as well as to 
other Governments, in order to declare our cordial 
friendship, and to place the peaceful relations be- 
tween our respective nations on a firmer and broader 
basis. 

" The period for revising the treaties now ex- 
isting between ourselves and the United States is 
less than one year distant. We expect and intend 
to reform and improve the same so as to stand upon 
a similar footing with the most enlightened nations, 
and to attain the full development of public right 
and interest. The civilization and institutions of 
Japan are so different from those of other countries, 
that we cannot expect to reach the desired end at 
once. 

"It is our purpose to select from the various 
institutions prevailing among enlightened nations 
such as are best suited to our present condition, 
and adopt them, in gradual reforms and improve- 
ments of our policy and customs, so as to be upon 
an equality with them. 

" With this object, we desire to fully disclose to 
the United States Government the condition of 
affairs in our Empire, and to consult upon the means 
of giving greater efficiency to our institutions, at 
present and in the future ; and as soon as the said 
Embassy returns home we will consider about the 
revision of the treaties, and accomplish what we 
have expected and intended. 

" The Ministers who compose this Embassy have 
our confidence and esteem. We request you to 



38 The Japanese in America. 

favour them with full credence and due regard; 
and we earnestly pray for your continued health 
and happiness, and for the peace and prosperity of 
your great Republic. 

" In witness whereof we have hereunto set our 
hand and the great seal of our Empire, at our palace, 
in the city of Tokio, this 4th of eleventh month, of 
fourth year of Meiji. 

" Your affectionate brother and friend, 

" MOUTSOUKITO. 
" JUICHII SANETONII SANJO, 
" Prime Minister." 

After this ceremony, the Minister resumed, and 
concluded his address as follows : 

" The objects of the mission with which we are 
charged by our Government are somewhat set forth 
in this letter. We are authorized to consult with 
your Government on all international questions, 
directing our efforts to promote and develope wider 
commercial relations and draw into closer bonds the 
strong friendship already existing between our re- 
spective peoples. Thus we hope to gain fresh 
impulse in the paths of progress, gaining good 
from every form of civilization. This we shall 
aim to do while in the exercise of strict integrity 
to our own national interests, so trustingly confided 
by a generous sovereign, and shall earnestly hope 
to receive your kind co-operation in facilitating the 
task assigned us by our Government. We gladly 
avail ourselves of this happy meeting to convey 
personally to your Excellency our sincere wishes 
for your continued prosperity and happiness, and, 



History of the Embassy. 39 

as national representatives, we extend the same 
wish to all the people of the United States." 

With the last words of the above he bowed very 
low, and with great dignity stepped back a single 
pace. 

The President of the United States then read to 
the Ambassadors the following reply : 

" Gentlemen : I am gratified that this country 
and that my administration will be distinguished in 
history as the first which has received an Embassy 
from the nation with which the United States was 
the first to establish diplomatic and commercial in- 
tercourse. The objects which you say have given 
rise to your mission do honour to the intelligence 
and wisdom of your sovereign, and reflect credit on 
you in having been chosen as the instruments for 
carrying them into effect. The time must be re- 
garded as gone, never to return, when any nation 
can keep apart from all others, and expect to enjoy 
the prosperity and happiness which depend more or 
less upon the mutual adoption of improvements, 
not only in the science of government, but in those 
other sciences and arts which contribute to the 
dignity of mankind, and national wealth and 
power. Though Japan is one of the most ancient 
of organized communities and the United States 
rank among the most recent, we flatter ourselves 
that we have made some improvements upon the 
political institutions of the nations from which 
we are descended. Our experience leads us to 
believe that the wealth, the power, and the happi- 
ness of a people are advanced by the encourage- 
ment of trade and commercial intercourse with 



40 The Japanese in America. 

other powers, by the elevation and dignity of 
labour, by the practical adaptation of science to the 
manufactures and the arts, by increased facilities of 
frequent and rapid communication between different 
parts of the country, by the encouragement of 
immigration, which brings with it the varied habits 
and diverse genius and industry of other lands, by 
a free press, by freedom of thought and of con- 
science, and a liberal toleration in matters of re- 
ligion, not only to citizens, but to all foreigners 
resident among us. It will be a pleasure to us to 
enter upon that consultation upon international 
questions in which you say you are authorized to 
engage. The improvement of the commercial rela- 
tions between our respective countries is important 
and desirable, and cannot fail to strengthen the 
bonds which unite us. I will heartily co-operate 
in so desirable an object. Your kind wishes for 
me personally, gentlemen, are cordially recipro- 
cated. I trust that your abode with us may be 
agreeable to you, and may contribute to a more 
intimate acquaintance and intercourse between our 
respective peoples." 

The President next introduced each member of 
his Cabinet by name to the Ambassadors. The 
officers of the various Departments were then called 
forward, commencing with the Department of 
State. 

After these introductions were over, the Presi- 
dent offered his arm to Prime Minister Iwakura, 
and, with the Embassy, the Cabinet officers, and a 
few others, proceeded to the Blue Room. 

Here were stationed several ladies. 



History of the Embassy. 41 

After formal introductions had been made to the 
ladies, Mrs. Grant, Mr. Mori acting as interpreter, 
held a very pleasant conversation with Mr. Iwakura 
and other members of the Embassy. They all 
remained in the Blue Room for half an hour, and 
then withdrew, bowing very low to the ladies, and 
not averting their faces until they were in the main 
corridor of the Executive Mansion. 

They repaired at once to the Arlington, to pre- 
pare for a splendid social entertainment afforded 
them in the evening at the residence of Hon. 
James Brooks. This dinner was given by Mr. 
Brooks as a recognition of the handsome courtesies 
extended to him during his visit in Japan, and was 
one of the most elegant entertainments ever given 
in Washington. 

On Wednesday, the 6th of March, the Congress 
of the United States, by special invitation, gave the 
Japanese Embassy a formal reception. Long before 
the appointed hour the galleries of the House of 
Representatives were filled to their utmost ca- 
pacity ; and when, at eleven o'clock, the Embassy 
arrived at the Capitol, the Chief Ambassador was 
escorted by the Hon. Nathaniel P. Banks, Chair- 
man of the Committee of Foreign Affairs, and the 
other Ambassadors by the remaining members of 
the same Committee. As they entered the hall, 
the members and clerks rose and received them 
standing, and the visitors were escorted to the 
semicircle in front of the Speaker's desk, the chief 
Ambassadors taking positions nearest the desk, 
and the attaches in the rear of them. Amid pro- 
found silence, General Banks then introduced the 



42 The Japanese in America. 

distinguished visitors, and as each name was men- 
tioned the person designated bowed low. A 
moment afterward, the Hon. James Gr. Elaine, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, addressed 
the Embassy as follows : 

" Your Excellencies : On behalf of the House of 
Representatives I welcome your Imperial Embassy 
to this hall. The reception which is thus extended 
to you so unanimously and so cordially by the 
members of this body is significant of the interest 
which our whole people feel in the rapidly develop- 
ing relations between the Japanese Empire and the 
American Republic. 

" The course of migration for the human race 
has for many centuries been steadily westward a 
course always marked by conquest, and too often 
by rapine. Reaching the boundary of our con- 
tinent, we encountered a returning tide from your 
country setting eastward, seeking, not the trophies 
of war, but the more shining victories of peace ; 
and these two currents of population appropriately 
meet and mingle on the shores of the great Pacific 
Sea. It will be my pleasure to present to you 
personally the representatives of the people ; and I 
beg to assure you, for them and for myself, that 
during your stay at our capital you will be at all 
times welcome to the privileges and courtesies of 
this floor." 

At the close of the Speaker's address the Chief 
Ambassador was introduced, and deliberately un- 
rolling a parchment, he proceeded to read an ad- 
dress in his native tongue. 

At the conclusion of this address, which was 



History of the Embassy. 43 

delivered in a clear and distinct, though not power- 
ful, voice, and with a peculiar and somewhat 
monotonous intonation, which made the strange 
scene the more striking, General Banks, at the 
request of the Prince, read the following translation 
of the Chief Ambassador's address, which he re- 
quested might be spread upon the journal of the 
House. 

" Mr. Speaker, and Honourable Members of the 

House of Representatives of the United 

States : 

l< On behalf of the Ambassadors of Japan, our 
sovereign, and the people whom we represent, we 
tender to you our sincere thanks and warmest 
friendship. We fully appreciate the distinguished 
honour which places us, face to face, in presence of 
that mighty power which rules the great American 
Republic. 

ft Governments are strong when built upon the 
hearts of an enlightened people. We came for 
enlightenment, and gladly find it here. Journeying 
eastward from the empire of sunrise toward the 
sun-rising, we behold a new sunrise beyond the 
one we before enjoyed. 

(f New knowledge rises daily before us, and 
when a completed trip shall have passed in review, 
an encircled globe shall gather together our 
treasures of knowledge ; remembering that however 
we have advanced toward the sources of light, each 
onward move has revealed a further step beyond. 
The Government of Japan already appreciates the 
value of an enlightened policy toward itself and all 



44 The Japanese in America. 

nations ; but our mutual assurances on our return 
will confirm to the people at large the friendliness 
of feeling so frequently expressed heretofore, and 
now so generously exhibited to this Embassy. 

" In the future an extended commerce will unite 
our national interests in a thousand forms, as drops 
of water will commingle, flowing from our several 
rivers to that common ocean that divides our 
countries. 

" Let us express the hope that our national 
friendship may be as difficult to sunder or estrange 
as to divide the once blended drops composing our 
common Pacific Ocean." 

This concluded, the Embassy faced the body of 
the Representatives, and the latter filed past and 
were severally introduced. The Hon. Schuyler 
Colfax, Vice- President of the United States and 
President of the Senate, honoured the occasion with 
his presence, and was the first dignitary presented 
to the Embassy ; and the Hon. Henry L. Dawes, 
on behalf of the Eepresentatives, took occasion to 
say that they had all listened with great pleasure to 
the speech delivered by the Ambassador ; after 
which the entire body paid an informal visit to the 
Chamber of the United States Senate, then in 
session, and were next shown about the Capitol 
building generally. During the remainder of their 
stay in Washington, the members of the Embassy 
were constantly engaged in attending to their 
business with the Government or in accepting 
hospitalities, and they left the Metropolis only to 
enjoy a continuous series of welcoming entertain- 
ments in the cities of the North, to which they were 



History of the Embassy. 45 

invited by many delegations of distinguished gentle- 
men. 

Having now seen that the Japanese Embassy is 
in the hands of the American Government, and that 
they are visiting the institutions of the nation, 
under official escort, and that they are being hos- 
pitably entertained by corporate bodies in all the 
leading cities on the Atlantic coast, we proceed to 
give a few particulars of a personal character. 

And first, as to the Chief Ambassador, Tomomi 
Iwakura. He was born in 1825, and is a man of 
superior abilities. He does not speak English, but 
has manifested his regard for education by sending 
three of his sons to be educated in this country. 
He is the Left-hand President of His Japanese 
Imperial Majesty's Ministry Sandeo being the 
Right-hand President and is, in fact, the princi- 
pal working executive officer of the Japanese Go- 
vernment. His visit confers the same degree of 
honour from Japan, as the visit in person of the 
Premier of Great Britain would confer from that 
power. He was an inveterate opponent of the 
Tycoon in the late war, and was for several years 
held as a prisoner by the Tycoon's Government. 
To him, more than any other man, is due the late 
revolution and its wonderful results, and he now 
wields a corresponding influence in the Japanese 
Ministry. 

His first public audience at Court was in Decem- 
ber, 1838. He was appointed to the Privy Council 
in December, 1863, soon after the formation of the 
present Government. He was elected Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Ministry (Cabinet) January 9, 1868. 



46 The Japanese in America. 

The title of " Sionii," the second honorary grade of 
the imperial order, was conferred upon him, Febru- 
ary, 1869. This is the first title below the imperial 
title. On the 26th day of September, 1869, the 
Emperor issued the following decree : 

" TOMOMI, Being zealous in strengthening the 
imperial authority throughout our empire, you 
have at length succeeded in establishing our Go- 
vernment in its present form, and have taken upon 
yourself this great task of administration. 

"You have, indeed, laboured industriously, 
vigorously, and nobly at this difficult task, and your 
plans and suggestions have always been suited to 
the requirements of our empire. You are the 
founder of our present style of Government, and 
the indispensable member of my councils. As I 
am heartily gratified with your distinguished merit, 
it is my pleasure to bestow upon you the augmental 
salary perpetually, without chance of discontinua- 
tion. 

" In future I expect to rely upon your assistance 
as much as I have in the past." 

He was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
July, 1871, and raised to the rank of Junior Prime 
Minister, October, 1871, and is now Ambassador 
Extraordinary, charged with the most important 
mission that has ever left the shores of Japan, and 
one more important than any which ever reached 
our shores from any Eastern nation. 

During his visit to San Francisco, Consul Brooks 
had two imperial photographs taken of His Excel- 
lency, one of them in his official Japanese costume, 
and one in the prevailing American dress. When 



History of the Embassy. 47 

copies of these portraits were presented to Mr. 
Mori, in Washington, he had them put into one 
frame, side by side, and hung up in the guest- 
chamber of the Legation ; and, in view of the great 
changes now going on in the East, had them labelled 
with these words in Japanese characters, Ancient 
and Modern Japan. 

With regard to the four associate Ambassadors, 
we are only able at present to give the following 
particulars : 

Takayossi Kido is of the clan Choshiu, which 
holds the lower end of the Island of Nipon, com- 
manding the Straits of Simonoseky. This was one 
of the first clans to raise the standard of revolt 
against the Tycoon, and Kido was one of the chief 
emissaries under Iwakura for the organizing of the 
army, uniting the other clans in the cause. Since 
the revolution he has been made a member of the 
Privy Council. He is thirty-nine years of age, was 
a leading man before the revolution, but since that 
event has been held in greater esteem. He does 
not speak English, and has never before been out 
of Japan. Tossimitsi Okubo is forty- three years 
old, and belongs to the warlike clan of Satsuma, 
which holds the Loo Choo group and the south end 
of Kanchin. He is now Chief Minister of Finance. 
His knowledge of English is very limited, and he 
has never before been out of Japan. 

It is said of him that upon news of a defeat in 
the first battle of the revolution (which was the 
outgrowth of 600 years, so slow do great move- 
ments ripen in Japan), some one asked in the 
General Council what they should do with them- 



48 The Japanese in America. 

selves and the Mikado. Okubo replied, "Let us 
expect no more than to die here ; but while a Satsina 
lives, the usurpation of the Tycoon will be resisted." 
It was Okubo's soldiers that at last turned the 
battle and defeated the Tycoon. 

Hirobumi Ito is said to be thirty-two years of 
age, speaks English fluently, is a close observer of 
men and things, visited England about ten years 
ago, and took part in negotiating the Treaty which 
called for the payment of $3,000,000 to the four 
powers, and his present visit is the second he has 
made to this country. He was formerly Governor 
of Hiogo and Kobe ; put in operation the present 
system of revenue in Japan ; and, as Acting Minister 
of Public Works, he has been intrusted with autho- 
rity to purchase or order to be built and put in 
operation a great variety of things having reference 
to the material prosperity of his country. His 
friendship for America and American institutions is 
conspicuous, and during his former visit to Wash- 
ington he made many warm personal friends. 

Massouka Yamagutsi is the fifth ambassador ; he 
is the Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs, and 
about thirty-four years old ; has some knowledge of 
international law; and is recognised as a man of 
ability. He does not speak English, and has never 
been out of Japan before. 

The honorable Commissioners, who form a part 
of the Embassy, are all men of high rank in the 
army and civil list of Japan, and their business is 
to inquire into whatever may be of advantage, in 
the special departments of the Government to which 
they are attached. 



History of the Embassy. 49 

It is now our duty, and most certainly our plea- 
sure, to make a special allusion to Jugoi Arnori 
Mori, Charge d' Affaires from Japan in Washington, 
to whom was assigned the task of receiving and 
providing for the comfort of his diplomatic asso- 
ciates during their sojourn in America. He was 
born in the southern part of Japan, and is not yet 
twenty-five years old. He was among the first 
Japanese students sent to England to be educated, 
and, after remaining in London two years, he re- 
turned to Japan. He took a leading part in the 
Home Parliament after the late revolution, and was 
afterward, on account of his talents and Western 
education, appointed Minister to this country, 
having been the first to receive a diplomatic mis- 
sion from his Government. 

He is greatly interested in the progress of know- 
ledge^ earnest and desirous of promoting the advance- 
ment of his country in all good things. By his 
intercourse with our official representatives, and by 
his visits to different parts of the country, he has 
gained the confidence and esteem of very many dis- 
tinguished Americans. 

While occupying a seat in the National Legisla- 
ture of his country, Mr. Mori introduced a propo- 
sition to abolish the ancient custom of wearing two 
swords, by one of the great privileged clans ; for a 
time the measure met with determined hostility, 
but was subsequently successful ; and the following 
letter connected with this subject, addressed to the 
Hon. Wm. W. Belknap, Secretary of War, by Mr. 
Mori, will be read with interest : 

" I have the honour to ask your acceptance of 
E 



50 The Japanese in America. 

the accompanying Japanese sword, to be deposited 
in the Military Museum attached to your Depart- 
ment. It has hitherto been worn by one of the 
provincial officials of Japan, who is now travelling 
in this country. He brought it with him, because 
of his former devotion to the ancient custom of 
wearing that weapon in duplicate ; but having, 
since his arrival here, been convinced of the use- 
lessness of that custom, he thought proper to 
present the weapon to me. And if you will pardon 
me, I may add that the significance of this act on 
the part of my friend (Mr. Kondo) is enhanced by 
the fact that the original proposition for abolishing 
the wearing of two swords was submitted in the 
Japanese Parliament by myself, and that Mr. 
Kondo was one of those who, at that time, depre- 
cated my proposition. It may be well enough for 
me to add that the blade of this sword was manu- 
factured more than three hundred years ago, and 
that the metal is considered far more valuable than 
that employed in modern times. " 

Some time ago, when Professor Joseph Henry, 
of the Smithsonian Institution, was informed that 
the Japanese Government had been compelled to 
pay to the United States an indemnity of about 
seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars, on the 
strength of what many think an unjust claim, and 
that this money was held by the Department of 
State, and not deposited in the Treasury, he in- 
augurated a plan for the restoration of the money. 
He consulted with Mr. Mori, and when that gentle- 
man earnestly expressed the hope that the money, 
if returned, should be devoted exclusively to edu'ca- 



History of the Embassy. 51 

tional purposes, the Professor at once addressed a 
letter to the Joint Committee on the Library of 
Congress, setting forth his views at considerable 
length; and as that letter is both interesting and 
valuable, we are glad to print it, as follows : 

" Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, Jan. 10th, 1872. 

To the Joint Committee on the 

Library of Congress, Capitol : 

" Gentlemen. The Smithsonian Institution, in 
its mission for the ' increase and diffusion of know^- 
ledge among men/ has entered into friendly 
relations with the authorities of Japan for the ex- 
change of specimens of natural history and eth- 
nology, and for the establishment of meteorological, 
magnetic, and other physical observations. In 
relation to these matters, I have had frequent inter- 
course with Mr. A. Mori, the Japanese Minister, 
and have been informed as to his various plans for 
elevating the intellectual condition of his people. 
One of the most important of these is the estab- 
lishment of a National Institution in the city of 
Jeddo for educational purposes, to be furnished 
with a Library in which shall be represented the 
science and literature of Western Europe and the 
United States, with specimens, apparatus, and 
models, to fully illustrate all the principles of 
abstract science, as well as their application to the 
practical uses of life. 

"This Institution is designed to be a great 
central university, and to serve as a normal school, 
in which teachers may finish their education as 



52 The Japanese in America. 

rapidly as a knowledge of the English language is 
disseminated throughout the country. 

" In view of the intimate relations existing 
between the United States and Japan, and the 
manner in which the money known as the Indem- 
nity Fund has been obtained, it has been suggested 
that this might with propriety be appropriated by 
Congress, for the benefit of the proposed Institu- 
tion -, and it is the object of this letter to respect- 
fully present this suggestion to you for your con- 
sideration, and through you, should it meet your 
approbation, to the Congress of the United States. 

"I may be allowed to say, in favour of the 
suggestion, that its adoption would indicate a 
proper appreciation of the sentiments entertained 
by the Japanese people with regard to the character 
and institutions of our country, and be a manifesta- 
tion of a desire on our part to encourage and aid 
them in the remarkable efforts they are now making 
to become imbued with the principles and habits of 
modern civilization. Furthermore, it would tend, 
beyond anything else, to show that in our inter- 
course with them we are actuated by other and 
higher motives than those which pertain to com- 
mercial benefits merely, and strengthen the unre- 
served confidence with which they are now receiving 
our advice and adopting our instruction. 
" I have the honour to be, very respectfully,, 

" Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) " JOSEPH HENEY, Sect. S. Inst." 

The gentlemen of that Committee were favour- 
ably impressed with the proposition, but referred it 



History of the Embassy. 53 

to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, which was 
equally favourable ; it also met with the hearty co- 
operation of the President and Secretary of State ; 
and either that or another kindred proposition, 
founded upon the opening of the ports of Japan, 
would seem to be in a fair way of being accom- 
plished. As it is quite likely that Congress will be 
influenced by Mr. Mori's opinions and wishes on 
this important subject, we may state them in outline 
as follows : He would take about one-third of the 
amount, and erect in Japan a number of appro- 
priate buildings in the leading cities, and furnish 
them with all the necessaries, including libraries 
and scientific apparatus, for a complete course of 
education ; he would have them supplied with pro- 
fessors and subordinate teachers, taken from the 
United States ; and would then have the balance of 
five hundred thousand dollars invested in United 
States securities, and kept in Washington, the 
interest of which should be used to support the 
institutions in Japan. The idea is indeed a splendid 
one, and in strict keeping with the many and un- 
wearied efforts of Mr. Mori to elevate and promote 
the permanent prosperity and happiness of his 
people. 

One of the most remarkable and interesting 
features connected with the advent of the Embassy 
in this country, was the fact that it was accompanied 
by a party of young Japanese girls, who were 
brought hither for the purpose of being educated ; 
and we feel certain that, in concluding this account, 
a few words about them will be acceptable to the 
public. 



54 The Japanese in America. 

In 187 1, a Japanese gentleman, named R. 
Kuroda, passed through the United States on his 
way from England to Japan. He subsequently 
returned to America, and in his official capacity as 
Commissioner of the Island of Yesso, concluded 
arrangements which resulted in securing the ser- 
vices of General Horace Capron for the benefit of 
Japan. During his two brief visits to this country, 
he became so deeply impressed with the happy 
condition of the American woman, that he began to 
inquire into the cause of such a state of things, and 
was told that it was because the women of the 
country were educated, treated with the highest 
consideration, and are regarded equal to men in all 
the higher qualities of humanity. With his friend, 
Mr. Arnori Mori, he held several long discussions 
on the subject, took the advanced ground that the 
Japanese ought to intermarry with the people of 
the more enlightened foreign nations, and, in his 
zeal, went so far as to insist that Mr. Mori should 
marry an American lady without delay. To this 
the youthful minister replied, that he considered 
himself a true patriot, and would like to oblige his 
friend, but did not think it necessary for him to go 
into the marrying business quite so suddenly. 
From that time, however, Mr. Kuroda thought and 
talked unceasingly about the importance of edu- 
cating the women of his native land. The letter 
which he wrote to his Government on this subject 
deserves to be printed in gold. A copy of it was 
brought to this country by the Embassy, and de- 
livered to Mr. Mori. After commenting upon the 
importance of colonizing the wilder parts of Japan., 



History of the Embassy. 55 

the writer goes on to speak of the importance of 
education. To send ignorant men into the new 
regions would be quite useless, and, therefore, the 
first thing to be done was to educate the women of 
the Empire, so that the coming generation might 
be enlightened. While children under ten years of 
age were wholly under the influence of their mothers, 
it was, of course, of the utmost importance that they 
should be educated. As a little leaven leavens 
the whole lump, so would the education of women 
elevate the people of Japan. The Government had 
sent its young men to America and Europe to be 
educated, and was already reaping a valuable 
return ; and now was the time for Japan to begin 
to educate its women ; and hence he would have a 
delegation of girls sent to America without delay, 
and he knew that a great many others would follow 
in this pathway of enlightenment. What was new 
with Mr. Kuroda, however, was an old story with 
Mr. Mori, who, if a little less enthusiastic, was quite 
as deeply interested as the commissioner. On his 
return to Japan, he broached the idea to his Govern- 
ment of sending a number of young girls to America 
to be educated ; reported the fact that he was fully 
indorsed by Mr. Mori, and, having obtained the 
hearty co-operation of Tomomi Iwakura, the Junior 
Prime Minister of Japan, an arrangement was 
made by which five Japanese girls were permitted 
to accompany the great Embassy to Washington. 
As the American Minister, Mr. Charles E. De Long, 
was about to visit the United States on private 
business, he joined the Embassy ; and, as he was 
accompanied by his wife, she took charge of the 



56 The Japanese in America. 

Japanese girls during their long journey from 
Yeddo to Washington ; and treated them with 
great kindness and attention, and received their 
gratitude in return. Before leaving home they 
were summoned to Yeddo, and in testimony of the 
good-will of the Mikado, and according to an 
ancient custom, they were each presented, by the 
attendants of the Court, with beautiful specimens 
of crimson crape, and an order was issued that 
their expenses while in America should be paid by 
the Government. 

The names of this delegation of Japanese girls 
are as follows : Lio Yoshimas, aged 15 ; Tei Wooyeda, 
aged about 15 ; Stematz Yamagawa, aged 12 ; Shinge 
Nagai, aged 10, and Ume Tsuda, aged 8 years. 
They represent in their persons five distinct families, 
and while they are not immediately connected with 
the imperial family of Japan, they do belong to that 
particular class, which would, in this country, be 
called the aristocracy of intellect and wealth com- 
bined. How these particular girls happened to be 
selected is not important; and, although their 
fathers or friends were abundantly able to send 
them abroad, they have in reality come to this 
country as the wards of the Japanese Government. 
Their fathers are all connected with the present 
Government, and rank as follows : Yoshimas, re- 
tainer of a prince of Tokzyawa ; Wooyeda, Second 
Secretary of the Department of State ; Yamagawa, 
First Chamberlain to the Prince of Adzu; Nagai 
was formerly a retainer of the Tycoon, but now 
holds allegiance to the ruling power, and has a 
public position ; Tsuda is one of the Secretaries of 



History of the Embassy. 57 

Agriculture, as well as a geologist and civil engi- 
neer. They were consigned to the care of the 
Japanese Minister, Mr. Mori, in Washington ; and, 
in view of very numerous applications that were 
made by educational institutions throughout the 
country, to take them in charge, and while debating 
what was best to do with the girls, Mr. Mori re- 
solved to keep them for a few months under his 
immediate protection, and obtained comfortable 
and cheerful homes for them in Georgetown, under 
the general supervision of the editor of this volume. 

With regard to the kind of education which the 
Government of Japan would have bestowed upon 
these girls, that is a question which will probably 
be decided by Mr. Mori, and his personal views 
have been freely expressed in Washington society. 
He would, in the first place, have them made fully 
acquainted with the blessings of home life in the 
United States ; and, in the second place, he would 
have their minds fully stored with all those kinds 
of information which will make them true ladies. 

The glitter and folly of fashionable life may do 
for those who have no love or respect for what is 
called true culture; but that is not the arena in 
which he would place the bright-eyed daughters of 
his native land. That the Tenno of Japan is in 
hearty sympathy with the educational movement 
now under consideration is proven by one of his 
recent declarations, in which, to the astonishment 
of the world, he has uttered the following senti- 
ment : 

" My country is now undergoing a complete 
change from old to new ideas, which I sincerely 



58 The Japanese in America. 

desire, and therefore call upon all the wise and 
strong-minded to appear, and become good guides 
to the Government. During youth time,, it is posi- 
tively necessary to view foreign countries, so as to 
become enlightened as to the ideas of the world; 
and boys as well as girls, who will themselves soon 
become men and women, should be allowed to go 
abroad, and my country will benefit by the know- 
ledge thus acquired. Females heretofore have had 
no position socially, because it was considered they 
were without understanding ; but if educated and 
intelligent, they should have due respect." 

We are pleased to know that since their arrival 
in the district they have appeared very happy, and 
have expressed themselves well pleased with the 
temporary arrangement which Mr. Mori has made 
for them. They are all eager to learn the English 
language, and they have already become acquainted 
with many common words and their uses. The 
most interesting feature among them is probably 
the fact that the youngest was sent by her mother, 
who voluntarily makes the sacrifice of her own 
happiness for the benefit of her child. Her father 
is a good English scholar, and has already taught 
the little one many words ; and among her valu- 
ables, carefully packed away by them for her, is an 
illustrated cyclopaedia, in two large Japanese volumes, 
in which is written : ' ' My dear daughter Ume, from 
father; Yeddo, Dec. 19, 1871," and a good supply 
of letter-paper, pencils, and India-ink, which she 
seems to appreciate. She is very bright, and quickly 
learns what she is taught. They have all been 
more pleased with a selection of American primers 



History of the Embassy. 59 

than anything they have been shown.. Their time 
seems to be most cheerfully and satisfactorily em- 
ployed, which is devoted to the spelling of words, 
expressing the common articles in daily use on the 
table and about the house, and the oldest assists in 
the duties of the household, at her own request. 
They all know the English alphabet, and are apt at 
forming words therefrom. 

They have brought with them several handsome 
dresses, which are of elegant materials, and em- 
broidered in gold and coloured silks, mostly upon a 
fabric of Canton crape. 

The youngest has brought from her home pic- 
tures of her father's house, with the family on the 
porch or balcony in front ; in one scene the house 
looks upon a rice-field ; in another, upon a beautiful 
lake, and another gives a glimpse of river scenery, 
with the banks lined with cherry-trees. Her mother 
is seated, with her little sister in her lap, her father 
by her side, and her mother, a very old person, 
beside him. There is also another picture of the 
mother with her little Time's hand in hers, and this 
seems to be a pleasant picture to the little wanderer. 
She does not seem to be at all home-sick, and her 
companions say that she has never been unhappy 
since she left Japan. The two older ones are grace- 
ful, sprightly, and attractive, although not beau- 
tiful, and are very neat in their habits and persons. 
The other two are full of mischief and glee, making 
the house ring with their merry laughter. They 
are anxious to assume the American garb, and are 
impatient to have their wardrobes completed at 
once. They do not use any paint or powder, as has 



60 The Japanese in America. 

been asserted, and have abandoned their pomatums, 
hoping thereby to be better enabled to arrange 
their luxuriant hair in the American bushy style. 
They are all exceedingly polite and gentle in their 
manners. 

It having been intimated to these girls, on their 
arrival in San Francisco, that they ought to be, or 
might be, supplied with jewellery, the older ones 
declined any such arrangement. They said that 
their Government had been very kind in sending 
them here to be educated, that the expenses attend- 
ing their education would be great, and that they 
would be perfectly willing to dress in the most 
humble manner until their return to Japan. And 
these are the people whom some of the fools of 
America would treat with ridicule ! 

It may be mentioned that, although the majority 
of the Japanese in this country seem anxious to see 
the women educated, there is to be found an occa- 
sional dissenter, one of whom happens to be at 
school in Norwich, Connecticut, and is the brother 
of one of these young girls ; and, on hearing that 
his sister was coming with the Embassy, he wrote 
to Mr. Mori that he was opposed to the educational 
system for women, and hoped that he would not 
send his -sister anywhere in his vicinity, but would 
keep her under his own eye. It should be added, 
however, that he subsequently discussed the matter 
with Mr. Mori in person, and was at once converted 
to the more enlightened doctrine, and is now very 
glad that his sister is in this country. 

It is generally supposed, as we learn from a 
Japanese, that the nations of Asia pay little respect 



History of the Embassy. 61 

to ladies, and it is true, in many cases. This de- 
gradation of woman unfortunately arose from mis- 
taken views, inculcated in the philosophy of China, 
for Chinese classics found their way into Japan 
much as those of Greece and Rome did among 
scholars of western nations. He also says that 
" from the earliest dawn of our recorded history, 
women have enjoyed equal rights with men, and, 
although abuses may have crept in among our 
lower classes, womanhood has never been degraded 
in Japan. Whatever customs have been introduced 
among the lower classes, through the pernicious 
teachings of Chinese literature, they have been con- 
stantly resisted by our better classes. Never original 
to Japan, our efforts have been to eradicate them as 
fast as possible. In proof of these assertions, I 
refer to our ancient history, showing that out of one 
hundred and twenty-four sovereigns, rulers of Japan, 
eight empresses are included in the list. These 
ladies ruled long and wisely. Under the rule of an 
empress, Japan attacked and conquered Corea, after 
a brilliant campaign, which country she held as a 
dependency for over six hundred years, when, find- 
ing it had become more care than value, we volun- 
tarily relinquished it. Under the rule of an em- 
press, Japan attained high literary culture, religion 
was inculcated and respected, and facilities for 
general education were greatly improved. China 
never had an empress. Throughout most of the 
countries of Europe and Asia, lines of hereditary 
descent have been wholly male ; but I am happy to 
say, Japan has prospered under eight such reigns. 
Finding our ancient practice confirmed by the ex- 



62 The Japanese in America. 

perience of western nations,, Japan need not hesitate 
now to enforce among all classes that respect and 
consideration for woman which has never been 
wanting about her court, and among her better 
families. Thus may Japan hope to insure the 
stability of her civilization, and regain her early 
chivalry, and, by enlisting the assistance of educated 
mothers and daughters, secure a noble future/' 

While the women of Japan are not treated with 
very great respect by the male inhabitants, there is 
an old law which has existed for hundreds of years, 
and which is yet, in spirit and letter, rigidly enforced, 
by which a mother, in Japan, is held responsible for 
her children. If they are good, she receives all the 
credit; if they are bad, she is punished. Their 
young minds are singularly free from all evil tenden- 
cies, and it is something almost unseen or unheard 
of, to find unruly children. They are singularly 
obedient, and are taught habits of courtesy, and an 
abiding faith in a mother's influence. The only ex- 
ceptions to this rule are those naturally depraved 
persons, who are to be found wherever the sun 
shines. In the main, however, the Japanese race 
are polite, attractive, charitable, and noble. One 
of the earliest faiths instilled into the mind of the 
young of both sexes, is that which forms so impor- 
tant a part of their religious belief, and this faith is 
inculcated in them when they are but prattling babes, 
learning to lisp their own language. 

The story is that of one of the earlier princesses, 
who, thousands of years ago, was a ruling power in 
the Great Land of the Kising Sun. Her virtue, her 



History of the Embassy. 63 

honesty, and her integrity, are discoursed upon at 
length, and the children are taught that they must 
emulate her illustrious example. In order that they 
may do so there have been placed in different parts 
of the islands temples to the Goddess Issa. In each 
of these temples are to be found a precious stone, 
large, pure, and polished, a mirror, and a sharp 
sword. 

The application is as follows : They must ever 
preserve their honour and their virtue as a precious 
jewel. In deciding upon important questions, or in 
the lesser affairs of life, should there be any doubt 
as to the proper course to pursue, or should they 
imagine they are not acting as prompted by the 
heart, they look in this mirror and examine their 
own eye. The eye being the index of the soul, the 
gazer can the more easily determine the honesty of 
his intentions. Then, satisfied that he is right, the 
seeker after knowledge takes the sword and defends 
his faith to the death. 

In Japan there are but two classes or grades of 
society, those who are of the nobility, and those who 
are not. They never intermingle, and it is only the 
latter that are ever seen on the streets or in 
public. 

The wives of common people will walk abroad ; 
but a lady never goes except in a close carriage. 

The prevalent pagan sentiment of inferiority 
creates this disadvantage. They are completely 
subject to their husbands' orders, and even should 
he be willing for his wife to go abroad, the inex- 
orable law of caste would interpose objections. They 
are, in fact, in unwholesome restraint. 



64 



TJie Japanese in America. 



The present experiment of sending females to 
America to be educated will doubtless prove a suc- 
cessful one, and the selection made would seem to 
insure a happy result for Japan. 




PART II. 



ESSAYS BY JAPANESE STUDENTS. 





PAET II. 

ESSAYS BY JAPANESE STUDENTS. 

THE STUDENTS IN AMERICA. 

HE total number of Japanese students 
who have visited America is estimated 
at five hundred , but the number now 
studying in that country is about two 

They are chiefly congregated in the New 
England States, and New York, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, and Maryland. Nearly the whole of them 
are supported by their Government, a few by their 
rich relatives, and perhaps half a dozen by themselves. 
Their annual expenses average about one thousand 
dollars, and all the money is received by the 
students through their Minister in Washington. 
The institutions which they attend are various in 
character, and have been selected, in each instance, 
so as to meet the peculiar desires of each student, 
in view of his future profession or position under 



hundred. 



68 The Japanese in America. 

the Government ; and the official reports which are 
regularly sent to Washington, prove conclusively 
that the sons of Japan are quite equal to those of 
America in their intellectual progress, their morals, 
and general good conduct. One distinguished 
teacher in New England remarked that if all the 
Japanese resembled his scholars, he would like to 
move his school to the Empire of Japan. Another 
gentleman, who had closely studied the manners 
and habits of the students in his charge, on being 
questioned as to his intention of going to Japan, 
quietly remarked that he hoped so, because he 
wished to improve his own education in some im- 
portant particulars. Professor J. D. Butler of 
Illinois, who had the privilege of travelling in the 
West, by railway, with a party of twenty-nine 
newly-arrived students, furnishes us with this testi- 
mony : " I have never seen a more promising set 
of students. Each has two swords his badge of 
nobility but these were almost all packed .up in 
the baggage, and instead of such vanities, most 
had books, each on his seat or table ; not merely 
guide-books and maps of the route, but lexicons, 
grammars, and polyglot phrase-books. When weary 
of gazing at corn-oceans, and the grain in harvested 
wheat-fields, each would be busy with his books or 
writing. 

" There was no drinking, no cards, nor any game. 
I should have thought myself in a school, but for 
the pipes, with bowls not half as big as thimbles, 
which appeared in homoeopathic smokes." Com- 
modore John L. Worden, of the Naval Academy at 
Annapolis, on being questioned by the Secretary 



The Japanese Students. 69 

of the Navy as to the conduct of the Japanese 
students in that institution,, gave a full account of 
their studies, and paid them this compliment : 

" The conduct of the Japanese students has been, 
as I have stated, excellent, and so far from their 
interfering in any way with the discipline of the 
academy, the example they have set of amiability 
and strict regard for regulations, has been worthy 
of all praise. They have been and are now subject 
in all respects to the same rules and routine as the 
cadet midshipmen of the academy, even to attend- 
ing morning prayers and divine service on the 
Sabbath. In the latter regard, their seeming in- 
terest and respectful deportment is not at all behind 
that of their Christian fellow- students. They add 
nothing to the expenses of the academy, as all 
charges are paid by their own Government. From 
the character of the young Japanese who have been 
admitted to the academy, the interest they take in 
their studies, and their seeming susceptibility to 
the influences by which they are surrounded, I do 
not think I am wrong in auguring the best results 
to American interests in Japan, as well as to the 
common cause of Christian civilization, from the 
wise provision of Congress by which a limited 
number of her young men are permitted to be edu- 
cated at this institution." 

Looking upon Mr. Mori as their protector in 
this country, the more advanced students have 
naturally fallen into the habit of sending to him 
some of the results of their school education, and 
the papers which follow have been selected from 
the hap-hazard collection thus made. The opinions 



70 The Japanese in America. 

they entertain are as various as their characters, 
and we happen to know that on several occasions 
Mr. Mori has thought it his duty to censure these 
students for uttering their sarcastic remarks, for it 
is his chief desire that the kindest feelings should 
be cherished between the Americans and Japanese. 
Some of the essays are written by very young men, 
and many of their apparently 'severe assertions were 
uttered more from a love of fun than from unkind- 
ness. If some of them are rather severe upon cer- 
tain discreditable phases of American life, it is 
because the writers have a quick eye to discover 
the truth, and the honesty to tell us what they 
really believe. So far as our observations have 
gone, they enjoy going to the American churches, 
and what they sometimes say of religion does not 
prove that they have no proper respect for sacred 
things, but that they cannot overlook the fact, that 
mere profession of Christianity is a delusion and a 
mockery. T^or can they be indifferent to the fact, 
that some of the most deplorable calamities and 
internal troubles in their native land have grown 
directly out of the conduct of the Roman Catholics, 
in trying to usurp their government ; and the 
more cultivated of the people, as well as the masses, 
cannot see any great difference in the designs or 
general deportment of the different Christian sects. 
This is, of course, unfortunate, but not strange, 
and the Americans who come in contact with the 
Japanese are in duty bound, by their upright 
example, to eradicate, as time progresses, the pre- 
judices against true religion which prevail among 
the Orientals. 



The Japanese Students. 71 

That the Japanese are very close observers of 
character and of the ways of fashionable society, is 
pre-eminently true, and on this point a single illus- 
tration occurs to us which is worth mentioning. 
On questioning a resident of Washington as to his 
reasons for not going to parties, he replied as 
follows : ' ' Because I am not a man, but only a boy ; 
I am over twenty-one years old, but mentally only 
a boy. A jacket becomes me better than a swallow- 
tail. After I have studied five or six years longer, 
I may be fitted for parties, for drinking, and smok- 
ing, and dancing, but not yet. When I have 
become a full man, I may possibly indulge in such 
elegancies. I do not think these are the accom- 
plishments in which my country is anxious to have 
me successful." Now this very student is one of 
those whose hostility to sham churches cannot be 
overcome, and yet the plain, frugal, and unselfish 
manner of his daily life is simply heroic and Spartan- 
like. 

When we come to consider their intellectual 
characteristics, it will not be easy to estimate them 
too highly. If we may judge of the gallant two 
hundred, now in that country, by the few specimens 
whose productions are printed in this volume, they 
are abundantly able to compete with students of 
any other nationality. In their native language 
they are all liberally educated ; and when it is re- 
membered that, with one or two exceptions, none 
of them have been studying English for more than 
five years, and a large proportion not more than 
one or two years, their ability to read, speak, and 
write good Anglo-Saxon is most amazing. There 



72 The Japanese in America. 

is one young man, not yet twenty one-years of age, 
a taste of whose quality will be found in this 
volume, whose style of writing is clear, correct, and 
pointed, and would serve as a model for many pro- 
fessional American writers, and yet he has been 
studying the English language less than four years ; 
and the thoughts of this writer are quite equal to 
his style. Another youth, who has been in this 
country only fifteen months, furnishes a paper which 
would not be out of place in Addison's Spectator. 
Among our contributors is one, a little older than 
the preceding, whose sarcasm, analytical style, and 
comprehensive views, must surely make him a 
power among the rising statesmen of Japan. If 
that empire is to be favoured with leaders made out 
of such materials as we have just mentioned, she 
may well anticipate a career of intellectual great- 
ness. Several of the shorter essays that we publish 
were written by a mere boy, not over fifteen years 
of age. The ready adaptation to western forms of 
expression which all these essays exhibit forcibly 
illustrate the fidelity with which the Japanese assume 
our Anglo-Saxon characteristics. 

While these Oriental students generally present 
rather a demure appearance, they are fond of fun, 
and when opportunities occur, enter into harmless 
frolics with great zest. One of them, in a private 
note which he sent us, makes this allusion to the 
advent of the Japanese girls : ' f I tender my sincere 
thanks to you on behalf of my sisters, who are ex- 
pected from Japan ; but, I pray you, do not initiate 
them into that western custom among ladies, of 
henpecking their husbands. Beyond the broad 



The Japanese Students. 73 

Pacific such an awful thing must not be practised." 
The same young man, who had gone to Boston to 
study law, wrote the following : " I succeeded in 
securing a private teacher for each of my three new 
friends, and also their boarding-houses ; but I can't 
get any place for myself. Thoroughly disgusted 
with this state of affairs, I instructed my solicitors, 
Demosthenes, Cicero & Co., Elysium, to purchase 
for my benefit an elegant residence on Beacon Street. 
As I was getting ready to leave this noisy hotel, 
and establish myself in my new residence, a most 
astounding answer to my positive order arrested 
further proceedings on my part. Substance of this 
was Almighty Dollar did not see fit to trust me." 

Another youth, from whose room in a boarding- 
house a favourite book had been taken away by one 
of the literary boarders, wrote a letter to his land- 
lady to the following effect : " Is it the custom of 
this country to convey away one's property without 
asking ? I thought my room was my* castle. I 
should be very much obliged if you would acquaint 
me with any custom of which I am ignorant." 

With regard to the habits and physical charac- 
teristics of the Japanese students, a passing word 
may be acceptable. They dress handsomely, but 
without ostentation ; they enjoy our American food, 
and are generally very temperate in their eating 
and drinking ; and a large proportion of their spare 
cash is expended for books, and such things as are 
calculated to elevate the mind. Their sense of 
honour is exceedingly acute ; their confiding dis- 
positions and liberality are proverbial, and hence 
they are frequently imposed upon by unworthy 



74 The Japanese in America. 

men j while they are by no means clannish in their 
feelings, they treat each other with the greatest 
kindness and consideration, often excusing an err- 
ing brother, rather than reprimanding him ; and in 
their deportment among themselves or strangers, 
never forget that they are gentlemen. With very 
few exceptions, they are all quite young, more of 
them less than over twenty years of age, and, 
although oftentimes delicately developed in their 
persons, yet they enjoy more than an average de- 
gree of good health. Of all who have visited this 
country, we believe that only three have died here ; 
and this remark carries our mind, with most touch- 
ing reflections, to a little spot of ground in New 
Brunswick, New Jersey, where these children lie 
buried, and where others of their race, in future 
years, may join them in their dreamless sleep, far, 
far from their native land. It is pleasant to know, 
however, that the footsteps of the departed, under 
the skies of America, are lovingly remembered by 
many who knew them when they were living, and 
saw them consigned to the little spot which is the 
common property of the Japanese brotherhood in 
this country. 

But now, as good examples are more convincing 
than generalities, we propose to exhibit the pluck 
and enterprise and wisdom of the Japanese young 
men generally, by sketching the career of one of 
their number. To give his name would afford us 
the greatest pleasure, but we have made a promise 
not to do so, and, from the excessive modesty of our 
friend, we expect to be scolded for even making 
this allusion to him. But his career has been so 



The Japanese Students. 75 

remarkable, we cannot refrain from giving the lead- 
ing particulars of his life, carefully avoiding the 
mention of certain proper names. 

He was born in Yeddo, in 1844, and after ac- 
quiring a little learning in a native school, studied 
navigation, and became the secretary of a local 
prince, who had purchased an American ship, and 
was trying to do business in that line. On one oc- 
casion, when this vessel was about to sail for Hako- 
dado, our young hero volunteered to go as an 
assistant of the native captain, whose knowledge of 
sea navigation was limited, and in that port he re- 
mained a number of months, supporting himself by 
teaching a priest of the Greek Church the Japanese 
language. He there became acquainted with an 
English clerk in a commercial house, and with his 
help acquired a little knowledge of the English lan- 
guage. To that friend he spoke in confidence, and 
told him that he believed the Almighty intended 
him to be of some use to his fellow-men, but that 
he could do nothing in Japan, and was resolved to 
leave the country. In due time, with the help of 
his friend, he found a ship in port, which was com- 
manded by an American, and bound to China ; he 
sold his Japanese clothes, and with the money he 
had earned by teaching, secured a passage on the 
vessel, going on board in the evening, and hiding 
himself in the cabin until she was fairly out to sea 
on the following day. When the captain found his 
passenger a mere boy of twenty, and well-nigh des- 
titute of means, he arranged to let him work his 
passage over the Yellow Sea. In China he remained 
about nine months, wandering from one port to 



76 The Japanese in America. 

another, now acquiring a knowledge of the Dutch 
and English languages, and then teaching a mer- 
chant's clerk the Japanese language, or working as 
a cabin-boy, and sometimes as a sailor, on board 
the coasting vessels. At Shanghai he became ac- 
quainted with the captain of an American ship, to 
whom he expressed a desire to go to America. The 
captain took an interest in the Japanese waif, and 
arranged to take him on board as a passenger the 
passage to be paid for by mending and washing the 
captain's clothes, keeping his books and the cabin 
in order, and instructing the American in the secrets 
of the Dutch language; and in this manner he 
made a full payment for his passage to America. 
He arrived in Boston, and was employed for about 
ten weeks as a watchman on the wharf where his 
ship was lying. The captain had become attached 
to him, and introduced him to his employer. That 
good man asked the youth what he wanted to do, 
and the reply was, " I wish to obtain an education." 
Arrangements were made, and he was immediately 
sent to an appropriate school ; and between an 
academy and a still higher institution, he has spent 
the intervening six and a half years, to the present 
time. 

From the hour that this young man first began 
to study he has been animated with the single 
thought of becoming a preacher of the Bible in his 
native land. In the early part of his career as a 
student he went to work and translated into Japa- 
nese the greater part of the Gospel of St. John. 
When he came to the sixteenth verse of the third 
chapter, it riveted his attention and a new light 



The Japanese Students. 77 

began to dawn upon his mind. He felt that he had 
never before been a true Christian, but now it was 
as if a great load was lifted from his back, and all 
doubts and fears were at once, and for ever, cleared 
away, and the world was full of sunshine. He sub- 
sequently always spoke of that passage in the Bible 
as his verse, and he has never ceased to wonder 
at the goodness of God in protecting and keeping 
him in a happy state of mind. 

Very soon after Mr. Mori's arrival in this country 
he became acquainted with the history and position 
of our nameless student, and reported the same to 
the Home Government, requesting that he might at 
once be made an official student. The request was 
promptly granted, the offer made by Mr. Mori, and 
was very gratefully but decidedly declined. The 
reasons assigned by the student were, that he wished 
to be free and independent, to pursue his long- 
cherished idea of becoming a missionary in Japan. 
He fully appreciated the summons which had been 
sent to him by his Government, declared himself as 
truly loyal to the Tenno of Japan, but felt that he 
could be a more useful friend of his race by pur- 
suing the course he had marked out for himself, 
and what was more his highest allegiance was due 
to that Great Being who had thus far been his best 
friend. 

When the Japanese Embassy arrived in Washing- 
ton, the student in question was summoned to 
Washington by Mr. Mori, who renewed his former 
proposition, which was again declined. His ser- 
vices were needed in connection with certain pro- 
posed plans connected with education ; and on the 



78 The Japanese in America. 

ground that he should be treated as an hired ser- 
vant and not as a Government student, he went to 
work for Mr. Mori, and acquitted himself with 
marked ability and faithfulness; and he was also 
assigned to the pleasant duty, by the Embassy, of 
accompanying the Japanese Commission of Educa- 
tion on an exploring tour among the educational 
institutions of the country. 

With regard to his future course as a missionary 
and a teacher, he is yet undecided. He hopes, 
however, to leave the United States in about one 
year from this time. Should he then find that 
the laws in Japan against missionaries have not 
been relaxed, he will go and become a simple 
school-teacher among his people, waiting patiently 
for the time when he can become a teacher of the 
Bible. In Japan, as well as here, he will be free 
from all government patronage, and he has an 
abiding faith that, when in want of funds, he can 
always obtain an abundant supply from the good 
people of the United States. 

One more incident, illustrative of another phase of 
our friend's character, and we will close this notice. 
Leading, as he has now done, for nearly seven 
years, the life of a hard-working student, he has, of 
course, required some relaxation. This he has ob- 
tained by visiting the sea-shore or the mountains. 

In the former case, his favourite resort has been 
the home, on Cape Cod, of the good old captain 
who brought him to this country from China, and 
where, until the old sailor died, about a year ago, 
he was always treated as one of the family. And 
of his mountain- tours, we can only say that one of 



The Japanese Students. 79 

them was performed on foot to the White Moun- 
tains, accompanied by two friends, when he was 
absent for nearly six weeks and only spent thirty 
dollars three of which were paid out for photo- 
graphic pictures. The pedestrians started with a 
tent, but it turned an " elephant," and so, after 
tramping about twenty-five miles per day with 
knapsack and staff, and obtaining their meals at 
farmhouses or from the berry-fields, they usually 
slept in clover, in the barns which were at hand as 
the sun went down, and to which they were always 
kindly admitted. This whole expedition was one 
of great interest, and a minute account of it would 
make an interesting volume. 

We are sorry to say that a promised essay from 
this student on the importance of making Chris- 
tianity the foundation of all intellectual culture in 
Japan, was not received in time to be printed in 
this volume ; and since the above was written we 
learn that he has been persuaded to accompany the 
Embassy to Europe, where he will remain until 
September, and then resume his studies in New 
England. 





THE PRACTICAL AMERICANS. 
BY E. R. ENOUYS. 

S it a disgrace to the Americans that 
they are a practical people ? 

Before entering into the discussion 
which the theme demands, let me de- 
fine the position from which I am obliged to look at 
this delicate question. Japan, before the late revolu- 
tion, was undoubtedly the most aristocratic nation 
in the world. As is usually the case under such 
circumstances, the down-trodden mass of the people 
strikingly manifest that characteristic which is the 
subject of my present essay namely, an acquaint- 
ance only with those ways of life which relate to 
the supply of the actual wants and necessities of 
mankind. This is because, the greater portion of 
the nation's wealth being in the hands of the ruling 
class, the lower classes have to make the most of 
everything within their reach. I, like any other 
thoughtless born-aristocrat, despised this tendency 
of the commons. I acknowledge now that this 
was very unjust, but still something of this spirit 
will no doubt influence me in the decision of the 



Students' Essays. 81 

great question now before us, and I request my 
kind readers constantly to bear in mind this cir- 
cumstance. 

When Columbus revealed to the astonished in- 
habitants of the Old World this continent, with its 
boundless resources, unappreciated by its simple 
natives, the terrors of the yet unexplored Atlantic 
were not sufficient to keep back the bands of adven- 
turers who soon flocked from all quarters to this 
newly-discovered land. Disregarding the rights of 
the original owners, they appropriated to their use 
whatever they could obtain, and it was not long 
before bitter quarrels among themselves began. 
Mexico had its Cortez, Peru its Pizarro ; but that 
portion of the new continent now the United States 
of America was contended for by the English, the 
French, and the Dutch. They settled in various 
localities of the country, and by their conglome- 
ration was formed the United States of the present 
day. 

The Americans, who unmistakably inherited the 
virtues as well as the vices of their ancestors, are 
a nervously energetic, enterprising people. When 
they threw off the British yoke, what remained was 
to develope the hidden resources of the country ; 
and how well they have performed this the present 
prosperity of the country sufficiently attests. In 
the course of this stupendous undertaking they 
were being continually brought into contact with 
new difficulties, and they have always proved them- 
selves equal to any emergency. 

The world is indebted to the Americans for the 
steamboat, telegraph, and many other very useful 

G 



82 The Japanese in America. 

inventions. It may be broadly asserted that what- 
ever had a practical application was studied and 
improved by them. A glance at its educational 
system enables one to form some idea of the people. 
The city have their business colleges, while agri- 
cultural colleges dot the face of the country. Then 
there are schools of engineering, architecture, 
medicine, and other departments of the useful 
arts, and these are faithfully attended to, while 
the general education of the youths is designed to 
make practical men. The fine arts, which refine, 
ennoble, and delight mankind, are sadly neglected. 
The fact is, an American does not want to be a 
painter, sculptor, poet, or rhetorician, but a rich 
man. Wealth is the sole object of ambition of the 
people at large. I must say now that I am enter- 
ing on very serious grounds. I am not so pre- 
sumptuous as to attempt to trespass on theology, 
but I must confess I shall go very near the fron- 
tiers of it. The Americans who point the fingers 
of scorn against the rest of Christendom as luke- 
warm in the cause of religion, and freely condemn 
without fair trial the rest of mankind as ignorant 
of the duties of man, seem to think that money- 
making is the most important business of life ; and, 
taking this as a standard, I shall finish the rest of 
my essay accordingly. It is not possible that the 
Americans should be such enthusiastic champions 
of Christianity, and yet reject its teachings in their 
ordinary life. 

But Christianity teaches them that their souls 
live after their bodies, and therefore they must 
better the condition of their minds by the cultiva- 



Students' Essays. 83 

tion of virtues in this world. The money-loving 
Americans are doing just the opposite of this. So- 
called business men, who constitute a large portion 
of " the life and the blood " of American society, 
seemingly have no souls, for they are exposed for 
sale, if not already exchanged, for hard cash. When 
their souls are disposed of they receive the millions 
of money they desire; but what is to be done 
with it ? 

Without sympathy, without frankness and gene- 
rosity of feeling, despising human nature, they have 
no more use for their riches than the Peruvians had 
for theirs before the Spaniards came to rob them. 
Some men find delight in the fine arts, in philo- 
sophy, in science, in the exercise of the benevolent 
and social affections ; but they have no relish for 
these. They can no more detect beauties in them 
than a savage can appreciate all the intricate com- 
binations of harmony in music. As to religion, 
they consent to pay their pew-tax, and to be bored 
by an occasional sermon on Sunday, for appearance' 
sake ; but their real churches are their counting- 
houses, their real bible their ledger, and last of all, 
their real god is not Almighty God, but "the 
almighty dollar." 

If money-making is the source of enjoyment to 
them, as drunkenness and gluttony are to some 
men, I have only to say that their taste is a cor- 
rupted one. It is but just to say that the riches of 
these men are gained by hard, patient labour ; hence 
they are more to be pitied than condemned, for the 
question again returns, " What is to be done with 
these riches, and what have they made themselves 
by the operation ? " 



84 The Japanese in America. 

Another set of men, thinking this a rather un- 
profitable way of making money, adopt a system 
which combines both theft and perjury, and insures 
to those men a life of misery, which they richly de- 
serve. I refer to those who seek fortune by a lucky 
marriage an excellent mode of self-selling ! A 
man who is so degraded as to go through a formal 
loving of an innocent, confiding woman for the sake 
of her money, shows a disposition which, if an op- 
portunity presented, would sell country, religion, 
anything and everything which mankind so sacredly 
prizes. All these things arise from that intense 
love of money which is so deeply ingrafted in the 
hearts of the Americans. If they should pay more 
attention to philosophy and the fine arts, they would 
be far more intellectual as a people ; but as long as 
they are admirers of wealth, no matter how gained, 
they are merely practical and inconsistent people. 
Inconsistent, because priding themselves, on their 
republican simplicity, they are the most willing 
slaves of fashion ; or pretending to be true repub- 
licans, they are never so happy as when they have 
an opportunity of paying respect to a prince or a 
duke. Where is the trouble ? The answer is plain. 
They are too practical. 

When Franklin, than whom there cannot be a 
more practical American, with all the simplicity of 
Cincinnatus presented himself before the court of 
Versailles, even the ultra-royalists could not with- 
hold the veneration due the man for true dignity, 
and he commanded the respect of even the bitterest 
enemies. Compared with this glorious spectacle, 
the idea of the Americans of the present day, with 



Students' Essays. 85 

much money, trying to imitate the manners of other 
countries whose teachers they might well become, 
and making bad blunders, is really disgraceful. In 
their eagerness to educate all the young persons to 
be practical, they almost neglect their moral train- 
ing. Man is both an intellectual and moral being. 
He must be so educated as to develope both these 
capacities. If his intellect is trained more than 
his moral nature, he will be a dangerous man, for 
his power for evil is increased beyond measure. 

In this connection I may again observe a strange 
inconsistency of the Americans. Though they 
thus neglect their moral training at home, they 
send missionaries to teach the wretched heathen to 
be good, and at the same time send a company of 
practical men who show their practicability by ex- 
tracting the riches in every way, and when they 
could, by cheating those men whom their fellow- 
countrymen undertake to teach to be what ? to 
be good I 

So I might go on, but I think I have said 
enough to make you acknowledge, at least to your- 
self, that it is a disgrace to the Americans that they 
are a practical people. 




THE 

CHINESE AMBASSADOR IN FRANCE. 
BY M. TOYAMA. 




HE dwarf of yesterday is the giant of 
to-day. He who appears a dwarf before 
a giant, appears a giant before a dwarf. 
He who behaves politely, even timidly, 
before a greater one than himself, behaves haughtily 
and confidently before a weaker one than himself. 
A cat is to a mouse as a dog to a cat. M. Thiers is 
to the Chinese Ambassador as Bismarck to Thiers. 
In the recent interview between Tchong Hoan, 
Ambassador of the Great Empire of Tsing, and M. 
Thiers, the illustrious President of the great French 
Nation, the heathen Ambassador was taught by the 
Christian President how in Christendom the weaker 
is to be kicked by the stronger. If the speech by 
the Ambassador sounds very funny, with so many 
pompous adjectives, and so much servility, the 
reply of the President sounds so haughty and com- 
manding that there is no doubt he has already 
thoroughly learned the Bismarckian style of ad- 
dressing a weaker one, from the frequent practices 



Students' Essays. 87 

exercised upon himself. But Bismarck makes a 
consistent speech, while Thiers makes an incon- 
sistent one. 

Let me see how he goes on. He says : " The 
French nation is too humane to take pleasure in 
the shedding of blood/' But if there has been any 
nation since the creation which has taken pleasure 
in the shedding of blood, it is this very French 
nation. Again, he says : " It demands only that 
severity which is necessary to restrain the wicked ." 
Well, if it is so, the relations of the victims of the 
recent barbarous executions in France, in cold 
blood, would have been more fortunate, and a 
grand funeral procession would never have taken 
place in New York on Sunday, the 17th of Decem- 
ber, 1871. Again, he says: "Your Government 
is too enlightened not to appreciate the merits of 
those missionaries men of great worth who ex- 
patriate themselves in order to spread abroad 
throughout the world principles of civilization, 
against whom evil-disposed persons have not feared 
recently to excite the popular hatred/' 

What is meant by these merits ? Are they 
serviceable for France or the Pope ? And what 
is their worth ? These missionaries might perhaps 
be worth a good thrashing, for expatriating them- 
selves in order to spread abroad throughout the 
world superstition and sectarian fanaticism instead 
of the principles of civilization, which are directly 
against their interest, and to meddle with politics, 
disturb the authorities, and cheat the people under 
cover of the sacred name of religion. A great 
many good authorities are witnesses to how much 



88 The Japanese in America. 

mischief has been brought upon the world, instead 
of good, through the work of those French and 
Spanish missionaries. It would be a pity if the 
Chinese Government is too enlightened to appre- 
ciate the merits of these missionaries. Suppose 
that they are the real ministers of the Gospel. In 
that case they had better stay at home, because 
their hard labour would be more necessary there 
than anywhere else. If Paris does not require as 
many missionaries as the whole number among the 
heathen Chinese, Sodom must have been a pretty 
holy place. Well, this is really a conceited world ! 
Again, Thiers says: "The people will respect 
the foreigners when they shall see their own magis- 
trates treating them with respect." If this is true, 
M. Thiers is accusing himself. How can he excuse 
himself from so many hard complaints of outrages 
committed upon the Prussians by the French be- 
cause this is not done by the French people, but 
by the French magistrates ? If such is the case, no 
compassion would be felt toward the magistrates 
for the troubles arising from this direction, but they 
ought to be effectually punished. Thiers might 
say that the French have a great deal of prejudice 
against the Prussians ; so the Chinamen have many 
prejudices against the foreigners, especially against 
those nominal Christians who might be called the 
Shylockian Pecksniffs. It does not always follow 
that the magistrates do not respect foreigners when 
the people do not respect them. Is there any 
Government which treats foreigners as respectfully 
as that of the United States ? Yet look at the oft- 
repeated outrages committed upon the Chinamen 



Students' Essays. 89 

by the people of the United States. Does M. Thiers 
think that this is because of the lack of respect for 
foreigners by the magistrates of the United States ? 
If even the people of the more cosmopolitan United 
States, whose motto is universal intercourse among 
nations, have such prejudices against some foreign- 
ers, how much more could it not be expected from 
the ignorant people of conservative heathen China ? 
The hatred of foreigners occurs in two cases ; when 
the people have mere prejudice against them, and 
when they have real cause of hatred on account of 
their haughty or impudent conduct, their disrespect 
to the natives, their disregard of the laws of the 
land, and, most of all, their violation and ridicule 
of their most sacred customs, which drive some- 
times even the more civilized people into madness. 
But in most cases these two causes are joined ; 
this is at least the case with the hatred of foreigners 
in the eastern countries. How can foreigners expect 
to be respected by the natives when they do not 
respect the natives ? They are not to expect from 
the heathen Chinamen that they should let them 
smite their other cheek when they have smitten 
their right cheek. This is indeed too much for the 
heathen. Here is the merit of which Thiers spoke. 
When they have converted the nations to perfect 
Christians according to their mould, and insinuated 
their passive doctrines into their innocent minds 
completely, then is the time when foreigners may 
smite both cheeks of the natives, disinter the dead 
bodies, kidnap their children, without incurring 
any hatred, nay, be still beloved by them all the 
more. Such is the invaluable merit of those Roman 



90 The Japanese in America. 

Catholic missionaries. Then there would be no 
need of those silver-headed heavy canes for coerc- 
ing the will of the natives summarily. The conduct 
of foreigners, excepting some of the better class 
of missionaries and a few laymen, is a very shame 
to the name of Christianity and civilization, and 
retards the progress of both. They do not pay 
the prices of things they buy, and even the boat- 
fares required of them; but no sooner do they 
observe a shadow of discontent in the face of the 
person who demands it, than the heavy cane is over 
his head. At home such behaviour would be pro- 
perly chastised by indictment for assault and battery, 
but in the Eastern countries the European tyrants 
are under the protection of guns and powder ; 
moreover, of that sacred cross of St. George, or the 
Tricolor. So that, whenever they treat a native 
outrageously, if he do not lose his senses he would 
keep his anger to himself, because, if he resent it, 
the fate of his darling country would be endangered 
even by the loss of a single hair of theirs. 

There is no mystery in the fact that Christianity 
has not made any considerable progress beyond 
Europe, when we know that those Christians who 
go out to foreign countries behave themselves worse 
than the heathen, or, at least, no better than they. 
First of all they are the slaves of Mammon, go to 
houses of ill-repute, swear without almost any cause, 
insult the natives, kick and beat them, and behave 
as haughtily as Julius Caesar. Moreover, these 
things take place on Sunday more than any other 
day of the week, because on other days they have 
things of more material interest to attend to. 

It is in vain that some really good Christians try 



Students' Essays. 91 

to persuade the natives that Christianity is the true 
religion of God, while they are beset on all sides by 
these splendid specimens of nominal Christians; 
and when they look back at their conduct, they 
would not find any reason why they should feel par- 
ticularly ashamed before Christians. A traitor is 
worse than an enemy. Yet these nominal Christians 
are such. How can one be blamed when he cannot 
find out the right way, when he has no guide ? But 
how could one be excused when he goes a wrong 
way by his own perverseness and wicked intention, 
when he has a sure, infallible guide ? The eastern 
nations could not help being heathen, because they 
had no good guide to take them to the right path. 
But among the western nations was there not an 
infallible guide who sacrificed himself for their sake? 
Those who call themselves Christians, yet behave 
quite unlike them, are far worse than the pure 
heathen ; while, if there were no such mock Chris- 
tians, Christianity would have made its progress 
smoothly. It loses credit through their conduct 
among the ignorant heathen, and its progress is 
thus obstructed. Woe to the betrayers of the 
Master ! If He should appear in this world at this 
time, He could scarcely recognize His own people. 
Oh ! has He shed His blood in vain ? May we 
hope that God will forbid that ! We can get over 
any difficulty when we are in earnest. Our way is 
always open when we are willing. Lack not your 
will, that is the only passport to pass the gate ! 
Let those true Christians who are going to enter 
the gate, and wish to take with them as many 
fellow- creatures as they can, pay more attention to 
their followers, purify their camp first, then go out 



92 The Japanese in America. 

to the expedition. A rotten root can never bear a 
good fruit. 

But I have digressed too much. To return to 
the foreigners talked about by M. Thiers. I think 
that before the Frenchmen can teach the Chinamen 
how to respect foreigners, they should first learn 
how to do so themselves, because it was for their 
want of such respect that they were lately caught 
by the Prussians. Perhaps Thiers has learned the 
evil consequences of this want of respect for foreign- 
ers, by his recent experience, and may have spoken 
with a true kindness, lest China might meet with 
the same misfortune. But I am afraid that although 
the President has learned to respect the stronger, 
he has yet little respect for the weaker, as I do not 
find much respect for the foreigner in his late 
speech addressed to the Chinese Ambassador. Even 
the Indian Commissioner here in the United States 
addresses the Indians in more respectful words. 

Thiers also says : ' f It is again the province of 
the Chinese Government to show by its attitude 
and by its proceedings, with respect to diplomatic 
and consular agents, the extent of the special con- 
sideration which is due to their public character, by 
virtue of the rules universally received among all 
nations " 

There is nothing to be said if this is reciprocal. 
Why, is there not likewise a proper conduct for 
diplomatic and consular agents universally received 
among all nations? They, as the more civilized 
people, should first set an example as to the decorum 
to be observed. 

But in the eastern countries, many Catacazys 
would go with impunity. 




CO-EDUCATION OF BOYS AND GIRLS. 
BY SHIOJI TAKATO. 

N music, there are a thousand instru- 
ments, each differing from the other in 
its pitch and sound. The object, how- 
ever, is not to separate them, but to 
unite and harmonize them, so as to produce an en- 
chanting melody, which can never be obtained from 
any single sound. So the object of God in creating 
all things and beings, and giving them forms and 
characters differing one from another, is, no doubt, 
to unite them and produce a temperate and accom- 
plished whole. The burning wind of the tropics 
uniting with the freezing blasts from the poles, 
causes the mild and temperate clime, where spring- 
flowers smile and spontaneous products grow. God 
has given the man a character bold and strong ; 
the woman, one mild and gentle, differing one from 
the other as the piercing sound of the flute from 
the soft tones of the harp. His object is evident 
in itself, and requires no solution. Look at the 
nations who are treating women as a slave or as in- 
strument of their sport, they are very low in their 



94 The Japanese in America. 

civilization, and, like wild beasts, are constantly 
biting and fighting. 

From the law of God, and the instances furnished 
by those nations, I see, then, clearly, that the cha- 
racters of the sexes must blend and help each other; 
or otherwise great discord in the music of nature 
will be the result. Female colleges and academies 
are excellent and important institutions ; but they 
have nothing to do in the matter of tempering the 
characters of the sexes. Only in co-education of 
the sexes can we secure both ends at once : the cul- 
tivation of their intellects and the harmonizing of 
their characters. In thus co-educating, we teach 
them in the same school, by the same professors, 
and with the same books ; therefore, during the 
entire session, from day to day, and from month to 
month, the opinions and purposes of the sexes will 
gradually and naturally harmonize ; the saucy mis- 
chievousness of the boys will be tempered by the 
gentle politeness of the girls, and the vain fancy 
and timid weakness of the girls will take on the 
primitive simplicity and determined steadiness of 
the boys; and, at last, a moderate, accomplished, 
and unblemished virtue and culture will be attained 
by both the sexes. Some say, the wives of officers 
have nothing to do in the offices, and the wives of 
merchants do not interfere with the business ; con- 
sequently, for woman there is no need of such an 
education as that required for man. The opinion 
is worthy of the farmer in the old story, who, think- 
ing that the trees, and not the ground, bore the 
fruits, scattered his fertilizers over the leaves and 
boughs of the trees, and left the ground unenriched 



Students' Essays. 95 

and uncultivated. But, ere his boast of the new 
economical invention spread to his neighbours, all 
his trees had died. If we are able to make the 
world fruitful by cultivating man only, leaving 
woman a desert, the trees of the farmer should have 
borne the fruit. 

When a tree is young it easily bends ; a pin for 
a post and a thread for a rope are enough to twist 
it into any shape. A small rivulet can be stopped 
or led in any direction without difficulty, even by a 
single hoe in the hand of a child. But after the 
tree has grown into a towering trunk, with its 
boughs mingling with clouds: or after the rivulet 
has become a mighty river with billows on its sur- 
face, and carrying down millions of tons of soil 
every year, nothing in the world can either stop the 
one or bend the other. It is plain, then, that if we 
teach men from their youth, the effort will be suc- 
cessful, and we have no doubt of success in the at- 
tempt to harmonize the sexes by co-educating them 
from their youth. The great disadvantage of co- 
education, as urged by many, is that it will make 
young gentlemen and ladies too intimate, and occa- 
sion objectionable associations. 

But what is the province of the school, and what 
are the subsequent relations of the sexes ? The 
school is not the place in which reading and cipher- 
ing alone are to be taught, and the subsequent re- 
lation of the sexes is not to be that of opposition 
and isolation. It seems then, to me, very foolish, 
that men should attempt to prevent the occurrence 
of injuries by keeping their children separated 
closely one sex from the other. Two country people 



96 The Japanese in America. 

once caught two young foxes and brought them 
home to domesticate ; A put his fox into a yard 
with domestic fowls ; while B kept his closely hid- 
den away from the sight of fowls, fearing that the 
fox would" catch them. But to the surprise of B, 
A's fox did no harm to the fowls, but played with 
them, and slept with them, though it grew big and 
strong. So B, following the example of A, let his 
fox loose and free among the fowls that had been 
kept away from its eyes. But again, to his surprise, 
his fox caught one of the fowls and fled away with 
it. If we co-educate the sexes from their youth, as 
A did his young fox and fowls, I am certain that 
they will agree and dwell in concord, and no trouble 
will occur, provided the rules in the school are per- 
fect and carefully observed. But if we should fol- 
low the policy of B, I am afraid, or rather sure, that 
at the time when the sexes reach their full age and 
are set free, the pic-nic and the party will become a 
scene of wrong and a field of shame, as when B's 
fox ran at large among the fowls of the yard. 





OKIENTAL CIVILIZATION. 
BY YASHIDA HICOMARO. 

[A Dissertation delivered at the Annual Exhibition at 
Munson Academy. This student is probably better read 
in Latin and Greek than any other of the Japanese, On 
account of his impaired health he was obliged to visit 
Europe, and has since returned to Japan.] 

INGE the time when the world was 
proved to be spherical in form, by its 
circumnavigation by Magellan, the 
terms oriental and occidental have not 
been used with strictly scientific accuracy ; for the 
United States of America are east of Japan, and yet 
Japan is called an oriental nation, though in fact it 
is occidental in relation to them. 

Notwithstanding this geographical absurdity in 
their application, still these terms have, in history 
and literature, a signification which is well enough 
understood, since the term oriental designates those 
countries and whatever belongs to them, which are 
south and east of the Black Sea, while all Europe 
and the American Continent are spoken of as 
occidental. 

It is an evident and remarkable fact, that, 
H 



98 The Japanese in America. 

throughout the East, a striking uniformity exists 
as to the type of civilization called oriental, relating 
to ideas, customs, habits, and manners, though it 
includes many different races, nationalities, and 
religions. So there is in the general character of 
western or occidental civilization a general unifor- 
mity which is very evident. 

Why there is that marked distinction in the 
character of a people, which is expressed by these 
general terms of locality, I cannot understand. 
The difference in the local condition and character 
of mankind are infinite, and. cannot be determined 
definitely. 

We know what changes are produced by the 
vicissitudes of time; but, notwithstanding the in- 
finite diversity in the condition of mankind, we 
know that human nature is the same everywhere 
and always ; that there is unity in the conscious- 
ness of mankind in all places alike; and all are 
animated with love and hatred, with grief and fits 
of passion. 

Men in every land have conscience, or the power 
to judge what is right or wrong in acts. Integrity 
is as highly valued in Japan as in the western 
nations. In the great cities of the West, such as 
London, Paris, and New York, the degraded classes 
are not unlike those who live in the great empo- 
riums of the East, such as Calcutta and Yeddo. 

Persons not conscious or reflective, are apt to 
treat unfairly and unjustly, with conceited biases 
and prejudices, such facts as these. Bound as I 
am by so much love and sympathy for the oriental 
country to which I belong, I may carry philosophy 



Students' Essays. 99 

too far, and flatter too much the civilization of the 
East ; and yet I cannot but regard the East as 
being the cradle of civilization, and as the earliest 
source of light of every kind which relates to the 
arts and philosophy. 

The eastern nations mirrored forth their intel- 
lectual life before Greece and Rome began to exist, 
and long before other European nations, whether 
Teutonic or Celtic, were anything but strictly barba- 
rous, being buried in utter darkness and ignorance. 
Long before the ages of improvement in the West, 
the faculties of the mind, endowed by the Creator, 
were not undervalued in the East. The meta- 
physical speculations of India, and the theologico- 
philosophical doctrines of the Vedas, were not 
surpassed by the Greek or Roman writers. The 
uninspired wisdom of Confucius made the nearest 
approach to the divine morality of the gospel. The 
'rationalistic discourses of Loo reached a climax of 
excellence. The pantheistic theory of the philoso- 
pher Hagel was understood in the East very early. 

It is certain that very long ago in the East there 
were many theories, systems of philosophy battling 
each other with various forms and principles, just 
as we now see these conflicts going on to-day in 
the western world. 

By this I infer that the theories of social life, 
and ideas or opinions concerning philosophy, meta- 
physics, morality and theology must continue to 
battle each other as they always have, from the 
earliest times ; that opinions and systems will con- 
quer and be conquered, will rise and fall again and 
again, as the history of the human mind and human 



100 The Japanese in America. 

nature shows in all ages and countries, East and 
West. 

We trust and earnestly hope that, by-and-by, 
this process of struggles will bring all thinking 
minds into a certain equilibrium as to the matters 
of belief and right action, though that end we have 
come far short of as yet. 

If we turn now and ask for reasons why Asia, 
long the seat of so much mental activity and con- 
flict, and the source of so many systems of philo- 
sophy, should now be sunk into such utter darkness, 
why the progress in philosophy made in ancient 
time should now be checked, and why social life 
in all its forms and institutions should now be 
confined, as it were, by mechanical rules, there are 
many reasons, of course, to account for this ; such 
as despotic government, the organization of caste, 
the vain formalities of social etiquette, which are 
each and all especially paralyzing in their influence, 
and so preventing the progress of civilization. 
But the greatest, the most specific and essential 
obstacle of all which retards and holds us back, is 
the total absence of freedom in the spirit and in 
the mind of the people. This lack of freedom has 
tended to the result which in turn has become a 
great hindrance to progress, that is, a want of that 
flexible and versatile character of mind which once 
so distinguished the Greeks, and is not wanting 
among modern occidental nations. If this want of 
flexibility and versatility must remain as the fault 
of the eastern nations, then they must decay con- 
tinually. Social stagnation and utter decline is 
the great danger of our people, unless they are 



Students' Essays. 101 

shaken out of this lethargic condition by some 
vehement convulsion. 

We look to the western nations for this hoped- 
for wakening power. The steamship, railway, and 
telegraph, are pushing their mighty forces further 
and. further into the profundities of oriental life. 
The quickening effects of western activity and 
enterprise are felt everywhere, and are causing 
rapid and more surprising changes in many re- 
spects. As to the final result, western influence 
on the national character and civilization of the 
East no doubt will work counter changes, and 
have great reactive power. History has shown us 
that changes in civilization have been intensely 
slow in their beginning, and often very rapid in 
the latter stage of assimilation. 

I firmly hope that the people of my native land 
will soon incorporate many of the noble ideas and 
principles of the western world into our own insti- 
tutions ; especially that we, as a nation, may be 
able to penetrate and understand the eternal truth 
of God and his great providential scheme. Then, 
I trust, our ancient civilization will become more 
noble than ever before, and especially, so I trust, 
that the great empires of the East will cherish and 
maintain a magnanimous spirit, so that they may 
forget and forgive every injustice long practised by 
some of the western nations ; and also remember, 
with amity and good-will, the kindness of those 
nations, especially the people of the United States 
of America, who desire to do them good. 



HISTORY OF JAPAN. 
BY T. MEG ATA. 

[The subjoined was delivered as a lecture before the 
Lyceum of West Newton, Massachusetts. Tanetarow 
Megata is about twenty years of age, and has been in this 
country only since October, 1870. He speaks English very 
fluently, and writes a neat, bold hand. He has here given 
the first lecture ever spoken by a Japanese in this or any 
other land. His subject was " Japan, its History, Recent 
Eeforms, and present Social and Religious Condition."] 

HE great crusading army that, with the 
power of all Europe, planted its cross 
in the East, brought back no news from 
the extremest East. Marco Polo, the 
great traveller in the thirteenth century, first men- 
tioned the existence of the islands lying in groups 
east of China, by the name of Zipango. He says, 
in his great story, that the country is fertile, and 
abounds in gold, silver, and other valuable metals. 
This was the first time that the existence of the 
islands came to the knowledge of the world. Though 
in a later time the Portuguese and Dutch came to 
the islands for trade, yet there was no intercourse 
with other nations until about nineteen years ago, 




Students' Essays. 103 

when the doors that kept the nation without being 
known to others were knocked at by the hands of 
Commodore Perry, who was sent from this country 
to make a treaty of commerce with us. The name 
of Japan, by which it is now known, arose from 
some mistake among foreigners. The whole islands 
are known among the natives by the name of Ni- 
phon, which is given by foreigners to the largest 
island of the group. The real history of the coun- 
try goes as far back as 600 B.C., when there reigned 
an emperor who, coming from the western part of 
the country, subjected it entirely to his dominion, 
and became the founder of the present dynasty of 
the Mikado. Some time previous to this emperor 
there was another by the long name of Ten-show 
Dai-jin, which means " the great spirit of the celes- 
tial splendours." This emperor is believed to be 
the true founder of the present dynasty of the 
Mikado, as well as of the religion of Sinto. But 
his history being old and obscure, we take the 
former for the first era of the history of Japan. 
Prom this emperor, who reigned as far back as 600 
B.C., our present Mikado is descended. The present 
Mikado is the 1 27th monarch of this noble family. 
This is the singularity of our imperial family, and 
causes us to respect it with utmost love. As for 
the religion of the country, there are several sects. 
First, Sinto; second, Buddhism; third, Confucian- 
ism ; the latter of which can hardly be called a reli- 
gion, as it does not teach about the worship of any 
god. Of the religion of Sinto, its founder was, as 
I said above, the Emperor Ten-show Daijin. This 
old religion teaches about the worship of One Su- 



104 The Japanese in America. 

preme Being. Though it admits the worship of 
deities, yet it never makes idols. This religion has 
a great resemblance to the Grecian mythology. 
Divine honours are paid to meritorious emperors 
and other personages. Those who taught this reli- 
gion lived in the same way as the common people 
did. They had their houses near the divine temple, 
and attended its worship, but they are now abo- 
lished. Their temples are left in ruin ; their estates 
have been confiscated. Second is the Buddhist 
religion, which was introduced from Corea during 
439 A.D. It had once a great power in the country. 
This religion is divided into eight different sects, 
each differing in doctrine more or less, but believing 
in the same faith. 

The lecturer then gave a concise history of Japan 
from the most remote periods to the recent revolu- 
tion, and the changes introduced by the intercourse 
with foreigners. He then continued : Since the 
revolution the institutions of our Government have 
undergone a complete change, and now resemble 
those of America or the other countries of Europe. 
The Government is divided into eleven different de- 
partments. The Prime Minister and privy councils 
constitute the Cabinet of the Mikado. The House 
of Representatives is an important part of the Go- 
vernment. It is similar to the Congress at Wash- 
ington. Each province of the Empire sends its de- 
legates to the capital, as each State in this country 
sends its delegates to Washington. Like India, or 
some other country of Asia, the people of Japan 
were divided into a certain number of castes. They 
were divided into four different classes, viz. : First, 



Students' Essays. 105 

military class ; second, husbandmen or farmers ; 
third, mechanics and artists ; fourth, merchants. 
Among these castes there existed great distinctions 
of customs and feeling. Their occupations were 
hereditary. The son followed the occupation of his 
father. The military class used to enjoy more privi- 
leges than the rest, and were supported by revenues 
paid by their tenants. The class of husbandman or 
fartier ranked higher than the other two. Different 
from other countries, in Japan the resources of the 
Government and the people were obtained from the 
taxes laid on the products raised by the husband- 
man more than those on other articles of mer- 
chandise. From these circumstances they ranked 
higher than the other two classes. These distinc- 
tions of caste are most disadvantageous in a nation. 
They create a different feeling among them. 
During the last few years, however, these things 
have been rapidly changing. The costume of our 
people was rather peculiar. We wore long and 
loose robes. The climate of the country being 
mild, our clothes were rather for covering than pro- 
tecting our bodies. So it was a common thing for 
us to go out bareheaded. There were few distinc- 
tions between the clothes of men and women. The 
ceremony of marriage and death bore rather dif- 
ferent characters from those of other nations. In 
marriage the most important thing is to get the 
consent of the parents, or, in some cases, that of 
other relatives, without which the law would not 
protect them. Before the marriage both the bride 
and bridegroom choose a gentleman and lady as the 
proposers of the marriage. Then a present of a dry 



106 The Japanese in America. 

fish and some flax are exchanged between the 
parties. This custom shows the simplicity in 
which our forefathers lived, and warns both to live 
in harmony and frugality. At the appointed day 
the bride is taken to the house of the bridegroom. 
The proposers of the parties preside on the occasion. 
The. chief ceremony is then performed : viz., the 
bridegroom takes a glass with drops of wine and 
offers it to the bride, which is returned to him 
again. After the ceremony a banquet is given, 
which is followed by music and dancing. The 
ceremony of the burial of the dead is rather similar 
to that of other countries. The late political revolu- 
tion has produced an entire change in social affairs. 
The whole country has, since that time, undergone 
a complete change. That strong feudalism that 
had its sway over the country during the eight 
centuries, was abolished in a single year without 
shedding of blood. At the same time the power of 
the Mikado, which was absolute before, became 
very much limited. The reformation of education 
was made. Our Government stimulates education 
by a sort of compulsory system, and sends out its 
students to foreign countries to bring back the ac- 
quirements of others. At present there are about 
400 or 800 students abroad pursuing their course of 
studies. The building of railroads and telegraphs 
is encouraged. The object of Europeanizing or 
Americanizing the country is executed with rapid 
success. The changes which had taken place 
during the last nineteen years, since the opening 
of the country to foreign intercourse, are entirely 
new to the eyes of the people who were born some 



Students' Essays. 



107 



thirty or forty years ago. When we knew not 
others, we felt ourselves proud and superior ; but 
when we know them, we feel our inferiority, and 
struggle to take the same step with them. We owe 
much to the United States. The United States 
was the country that entered first into a treaty 
with us ; or, I say, that the United States 
was the country that awakened us from our 
sleep. AVe are like a man who, waking late from 
his sleep in the morning, goes to work hastily. We 
have slept too much. But we have now waked up 
from our long sleep. We are struggling to trace 
the same road of civilization wherein you have ad- 
vanced. Happy will be Japan, when she attains 
her desire to teach the highest degree of civilization 
for which she aims. 




CHRISTIANITY IN JAPAN. 
BY TADAS HYASH. 

[The writer of the following account of the Christian 
religion in Japan acquired his knowledge of the English 
language in America as well as Europe, and after his return 
to Japan, was employed as a clerk and interpreter at the 
American Legation, in Yeddo. The facts communicated 
by him were drawn forth by a request made by the Ameri- 
can Minister, and by him transmitted to the Department 
of State in Washington, in 1871.] 

N reply to your request for me to state 
to you in brief what I know about the 
history of Christianity in Japan, and 
the present condition of native Chris- 
tian converts, I beg leave to state : That about the 
sixteenth century Christianity was propagated with 
so much success in the country, that the Tycoon, 
Nobunagaya himself, is said to have confessed his 
belief in the faith. A certain essential part of a 
castle is always built in imitation of the steeple of a 
Christian church, which the chief of the castle at 
times used as a place of worship. This part, which 
is called "Tenshu," (meaning, dedicated to the 
Heavenly Lord,) continued to be built long after 
the prohibition of Christianity in this empire, thus 




Students' Essays. 109 

proving that this religion was still, for some time, 
tolerated among natives. 

The Christian missionaries, seeing their growing 
influence over the consciences of the people, com- 
menced to meddle with the politics of the state, 
whereupon the Dutch warned our people of the 
danger from this. Acting upon this suggestion, 
the Government prohibited its propagation, and 
compelled all foreigners, except the Dutch, to leave 
the country. 

At the siege, and subsequent fall of Osaca, the 
final victory of the ancestors of the Tokungawa 
family was gained, and many leading officers who 
were in the city escaped to Shunabarra, near 
Nagasaki, where the people generally professed 
Christianity, and excited them to open insurrec- 
tion, by deluding them into the belief that the 
Government intended to prohibit Christian worship. 
Those people, labouring under this delusion, re- 
belled against the Government, and maintained 
their position for over two years ; and soon after 
they were overcome they still continued to be re- 
bellious and fanatical, mixing their religious belief 
with party spirit. This caused the Government to 
take steps to prohibit this worship entirely through- 
out the empire ; therefore, on this account, and not 
on account of the belief itself, it was prohibited. 
This is further proved to have been the motive by 
the fact that Buddhism was not also prohibited, 
which is not the faith of the Mikado, he being 
Sintoo in his faith. These things occurred about 
the year 1630. 

At the time Commodore Perry entered Yeddo, 



110 The Japanese in America. 

the Tycoon made the treaty with him in opposition 
to the sentiments of the several of the great daimios, 
who, having long been jealous of the Tokungawa 
clan (of which the Tycoon was a member) , took ad- 
vantage of the anti-foreign sentiment of the people, 
then prevailing, and pretending also to make war 
to uphold the religion of the Mikado, rebelled 
against and overthrew the Tycoon, and put his 
majesty, the Mikado, on the throne in his stead. 
In fact, they made use of the Mikado as a puppet, 
to execute their desires in his name, and seemingly 
by his authority. 

The present Government, owing to its declara- 
tions, was necessarily severe against any who fol- 
lowed any foreign religion. Against those who 
professed Buddhism which being generally pro- 
fessed in the Empire they took measures only 
against the priests, who were deprived of many 
privileges hitherto granted to them. 

Whatever promises may have been made by it 
relative to the mild treatment accorded to native 
converts, their punishment continues to be severe 
and cruel. 

Under the late Government the punishment was 
the crucifixion of the convert, but by the law of 
this Government the punishment extends over 
eight families ; to wit, parents, grandparents, elder 
and younger brothers and sisters, uncles, aunts, 
sons, daughters, grandchildren, and male and 
female cousins of the convert, and is death. It 
certainly has done away with the punishment by 
crucifixion, but simply doing this can hardly be 
called mild treatment. 



Students' Essays. Ill 

Those converts who were imprisoned year before 
last would have been killed according to this law, 
but for the remonstrances of the foreign representa- 
tives. They are yet kept in close confinement. 



In reply to your request for me to give you the 
definition of the term " Meidi," I have to say : The 
Emperor of Japan gives a certain title to the year 
when he ascends the throne, and thus counts the 
years of his reign as first, second, third, fourth, etc., 
of such title. Formerly, if there occurred during 
the course of his reign any great calamities, such as 
great earthquakes, famines, tempests, etc., he would 
change the title, and commence to count the years 
anew from that time, thinking the title unfortunate 
and productive of bad results. This superstition 
was originally introduced here from China about 
one thousand two hundred years ago. The usage 
has been so long in force here that the people have 
become accustomed to it. "Meidi" is the title 
given to the year by the present -Emperor at his 
succession to the throne, which was four years ago, 
this being the fourth year of " Meidi." 

By the present law of this empire, our Emperor 
is not allowed to name the year but once during 
his reign ; therefore the present title " Meidi," 
which means " peace," after enlightened manners, 
will continue until the present Emperor dies. 




THE STRENGTH AND THE WEAKNESS 
OF REPUBLICS. 

BY E. R. ENOUYE. 

HE republican form of government is 
now generally conceded to be "theo- 
retically the best," but its claim to be 
also the strongest is still disputed, or at 
least not yet firmly established. The Declaration 
of Independence by the American Colonies; the 
French Revolution, and various important subse- 
quent events, until the present time, all unite in 
proclaiming to the nations of the world the right of 
a people to govern itself, and by so doing demon- 
strated clearly the absurdity of the divine rights of 
the kings to rule. 

The whole political heaven is, as it were, being 
charged with republican electricity. The explosion 
will come sooner or later. Meanwhile, the diffusion 
of intelligence among the people makes them more 
enlightened and more jealous of their rights than 
ever before ; despots tremble on their thrones, and 
as they make concessions most reluctantly, most 
readily do the people call for more. Judging from 



Students' Essays. 113 

such circumstances,, it would appear that all the 
nations of the world, as if by common consent, are 
converging rapidly toward that point where Repub- 
licanism reigns supreme. 

It is then a matter of the utmost importance to 
us to endeavour to discover in what lie the strength 
and the weakness of republics. 

Nothing is more plain than the theory of a re- 
publican government. 

There is a body politic composed of so many 
citizens. It is an impossibility for the members of 
a State to assemble in a body to make their laws ; 
hence they elect a certain number of the citizens as 
their representatives, who transact business for the 
whole people. 

In a republic, every citizen is interested in any 
measure before the government, and it would be 
safe to set this down as one of the great elements of 
strength. 

The government is influenced, to a great extent, 
not by the opinions of a king, or, what is worse, 
those of a few ambitious politicians, but by the 
mighty voice of an almost infallible people. It is 
evident that the government thus situated will be 
more faithful in the execution of its duties than in 
monarchical countries, where the character of the 
government depends a good deal on the disposition 
of the sovereign. Another strong point in a re- 
public, is the bicameral feature of its government. 
One body acts as a check on another, and, if their cha- 
racters are different for instance, the first radical 
and the second conservative the course of legisla- 
tion will be neither too progressive, with which the 



114 The Japanese in America. 

people cannot keep pace, nor so conservative as to 
interfere with the enterprises of the country. The 
right to struggle for fame, for learning, and wealth, 
is the grandest heritage of humanity, and this right 
is most scrupulously respected in almost all the re- 
publican countries of the present day ; hence, the 
poorest and humblest can have fair play to become 
superior in position to any other. 

This state of things keeps the people ever in ac- 
tivity. 

We can hardly think it otherwise. In whatever 
direction an individual may go, his energies for the 
advancement of his position in life, his actions, are 
fettered by no arbitrary laws, but, on the other hand, 
every encouragement is given to him for the success 
of his enterprise. If, thus favourably situated, men 
are poor, it is no fault of the government, but their 
own. What, perhaps, exerts a most powerful influ- 
ence in the affairs of the republic is undoubtedly a 
spirit of competition. The highest honours of the 
State are within reach of the meanest citizen. Men 
love honour, and we are sorry to add, they love 
wealth and power just as much as honour, if not 
more ; hence the perpetual struggle for the offices 
of the country. As a very few succeed, they will 
be qualified for their posts, at least intellectually, if 
not morally. We said, perhaps not morally, because, 
in the tortuous way which a politician takes to the 
object of his ambition, he too often treads on the 
grounds which are clearly forbidden by his con- 
science. The government composed of such ma- 
terials cannot fail to be strong. If the government 
of the Jacobins was guilty of the most atrocious 



Students' Essays. 115 

deeds, it was beyond all question the most energetic 
body which. France, perhaps the world, ever saw. 
In order to appreciate the enormous amount of work 
which that body accomplished, we must hastily 
glance at the position of France at that time. 

The whole circuit of France was begirt with ene- 
mies. Disunion within and difficulties without did 
not stop here. Her commerce was destroyed by 
the invincible navy of Great Britain. The provisions 
were scarce. Never was a country in such an ap- 
palling condition. How they encountered and over- 
came these difficulties we shall not discuss. If we 
go back a few years in the history of the world, we 
shall find the true strength of republicanism dis- 
played in the American war. We do not purpose 
to look at that memorable contest in all its bearings, 
but will content ourselves with an observation illus- 
trating one of the secrets of the success of the 
Americans. Every historian has dwelt with en- 
thusiasm on the retreat of Washington through New 
Jersey with a few thousand of the barefooted and 
famishing soldiers. Was it the devotion to their 
illustrious commander which enabled those brave 
men to encounter so cheerfully the manifold dan- 
gers of that disastrous campaign ? 

No, noble Washington did much, but the real 
strength of the army lay in the fact, that every 
soldier was also a citizen, imbued with a hatred of 
the tyrant, and conscious of fighting in the cause of 
freedom and humanity. 

When we see so much dignity in common soldiers, 
we shall not be dazzled by the sublime spectacle of 
the Revolutionary Congress defying the power of 



116 The Japanese in America. 

the strongest nation in the world, often fleeing be- 
fore the victorious foe, yet firm and unyielding, and, 
at last, after a long struggle, giving the country a 
glorious peace, and placing her by the side of the 
proudest nations of the world ! 

Thus far, we have looked at the strong sides of 
the republic. Now we shall investigate some of 
the causes of its weakness. " When you assemble 
a number of men to have the advantage of their 
joint wisdom, you inevitably assemble with those 
men all their prejudices, their passions, their errors 
of opinion, their local interests and selfish views." 
The history of every republic too clearly illustrates 
the above remarks of Franklin. Grant that all the 
legislators chosen are conscientious men ; they 
determine to be true to their sacred trust. But 
alas ! they do not, nay, cannot, agree as to the best 
method of promoting the interests of their consti- 
tuents, for nothing is dearer to a man than his 
theory ; and especially is this true of such upright 
men as we suppose them to be. And then, a par- 
ticular member, in pleading the cause of his con- 
stituents, may badly interfere with carrying out of 
a measure which will be beneficial to the whole 
people as a nation. It may be contended that the 
majority will rule; but, if our supposed member 
happen to be also an influential man, he may so 
exert his powers as to cause the very majority to 
enter into his views. 

Now, for the working of the machinery of the 
government by such persons. A good deal of 
valuable time is consumed in making a law for, not 
saying of the various forms being attended to ; the 



Students' Essays. 117 

members advance their respective opinions, some of 
which are at direct variance with one another. It 
may be all right in a time of profound peace, but 
there are times when the destinies of a state depend 
on the passing moments. To deliberate under such 
circumstances will not only be foolish, but ruinous. 
To remedy this evil, the ancient Romans found it 
necessary to create the office of dictator. We have 
hastily glanced at the bright side of the republican 
institution, and, as regards its strength, we are not 
very well satisfied with our 'observation. 

This is the case when we supposed that all the 
legislators are honest and sagacious men. Throw- 
ing this Utopian vision aside, let us look at the 
stern realities. 

In the first place, it will be admitted that the 
officers of a republic are not always the best and 
ablest men of the land, but that they sometimes 
are the most cunning, perhaps the most unprin- 
cipled. 

By the most unprincipled, we refer to that class 
of politicians called demagogues. These persons 
rarely succeed in securing the confidence of the 
respectable portion of the people, and when they do 
so, they cannot retain it long. 

To the mere outsiders, they would seem to be 
wholly incapable of doing any serious injury to the 
state. But when we study the' effect of their pro- 
ceedings, we shall be very likely to change our 
opinion. Too often have the glories of the state 
been tarnished by the disgraceful conduct of these 
men, too often their impudence, vulgarity, and 
recklessness have so prevented an enlightened states- 



118 The Japanese in America. 

man from carrying out his plans, that they deserve 
to be set down as at once worse than traitors. 

At the head of this class of men stands Alcibiades, 
the name closely connected with the events which 
resulted in the ruin of the Athenian greatness. 
Lavishly endowed by nature with the qualities of a 
great soldier and statesman, the darling of the Athe- 
nian democracy, graceful and beautiful, in fact, with 
all the means of being the first man and the great- 
est benefactor of his country, he proved himself its 
meanest trickster, its most mischievous citizen. In 
a republic, a constant change of officers exerts a 
very baneful influence, and is the cause of bitter 
political and party strife. Thus there can be no 
stability in the government. And the stability, it 
must be remembered, is an important element of 
the strength. 

Beholding a republic with her weakness and 
strength before us, and a monarchy with hers in the 
same position, we shall fear the latter as our enemy, 
for she is strong, but the former we shall love as we 
love the truth ; we shall encourage as we would an 
inexperienced youth, for her strength is not yet 
as fully developed as that of her elder sister, mo- 
narchy ! 





JAPANESE COSTUME. 

BY N. KANDA. 

T is not uncommon for both nobility 
and peasantry in Japan to walk in the 
street without wearing anything on 
their heads, while the Europeans wear 
hats or caps out of doors. But, in the summer, 
when the sun is very hot, only the men wear large 
rounded hats about a foot and a half in diameter, to 
protect their faces from being burnt by the sun. 
And the women carry parasols which are always 
made of paper, and often men carry them too. 
They have two kinds of umbrellas, one for protect- 
ing them from the hot sun in the summer, and the 
other for the rainy weather, called an " amagasa," 
which is also made of paper, and afterwards 
spread over with a certain oil, and dried. In the 
cold winter days, the men and women wear almost 
the same kind of covering over their heads. They 
are sometimes made of soft crape and sometimes of 
camlet, and are made in different styles. But one 
of them I will explain. This is made in the shape 
of a Shaker-bonnet, only not so stiff, and it has 
a little longer cape. Now, I will describe how the 



120 The Japanese in America. 

men dress their hair, as well as I can. It is a 
good deal longer and coarser than that of the 
European. 

They keep it long, for they want to arrange it, 
and coarse, because they shave their fine hair in 
childhood. The hair of the men is generally 
arranged by a barber once in two days, with a 
quantity of hair-oil, and so they don't comb their 
hair every morning. It is almost of equal length, 
and is tied or arranged in an indescribable 
manner, and it is commonly shaved off the width 
of two inches from the forehead to the top of the 
head, which is generally done at the age of fifteen. 
The hair of the women is gathered, and tied in 
bunches, smaller than those of the Europeans. 
And they tie around it beautifully dyed crapes and 
red corals, and stick through it, from one end to 
the other, the long four-cornered tortoise-shell pin, 
made by putting a number of them together, and 
warming and pressing them, till the whole appears 
like one pin of shell, and it is then polished. I 
have now written all about their heads, and I will 
next speak of their bodies. 

There is not much difference in the shape of the 
common dresses of the ladies and gentlemen. But 
there is a difference in the noble ladies' dresses, 
which have trails like those of the European ladies. 
But, of course, there is a difference in the materials, 
almost as much as there is in the Europeans'. 

The dresses are made very long, which are about 
as long as the length of the vest and pants, and 
are twice as wide as the common European coat. 
The sleeves are like large flowing sleeves, only 



Students' Essays. 121 

sewed about half-way up to the arms, forming 
a pocket. The dresses are made of different 
materials, according to the different ranks. The 
dress of the nobility is sometimes made of silk, 
and sometimes of crape, while the people of the 
lower class wear dresses of calico, or something of 
the kind. Both nobility and peasantry wear belts 
of different material around their waists, as the 
former and latter wear different dresses. It is a 
kind of sash, being about four yards long, and 
about four inches wide. It is doubled and stif- 
fened. 

Japanese did not wear such tight-sleeved under- 
shirt as is now generally worn. However, it was 
their own custom to wear a kind of drawers under 
their robes in the winter. It was generally made 
of silk or a cheaper material, and was dyed dark- 
purple, or grey, or some other colours, but never 
white, nor red, nor any light colour. They wear 
socks of cotton, which are generally fastened to 
feet by means of strings or clasp. The women 
always wear white socks, and the men wear very 
dark purple-coloured ones. It is made so that big 
toe is separated from the rest of the toes, in order 
to hold between them a thong, by which the shoes 
are fastened to feet. There are many kinds of 
shoes, almost as many as there are in America. 
The general name for articles worn on their feet 
is " haki-mono." Under the head of "haki-mono," 
there are <( amageta," which means rainy shoes, and 
are worn in rainy weather only. They are only 
made little higher than those which are worn in 
clear weather ; and " hiyori-geta," which are worn 



122 The Japanese in America. 

in clear weather, and " koma-geta," which are also 
worn in clear weather. " Koma-geta" is like those 
mentioned before, made of wood, but of one piece 
of wood, and cut into the shape of the shoes men- 
tioned before. They are both made without any- 
thing on, and with mats of ratan made for the 
purpose. " Zori," which are made of straw only, 
are always worn in dry weather, and are worn 
generally by attendants when they go along with 
their masters. t( Setta," which are worn by both 
nobility and peasantry, are made better than 
"zori," though it is also made of straw, and have 
leather of some animal under them. 




A FATHER'S LETTER. 



BY G. NEEKO. 

[Giobu Neero is the name of a gentleman who resides in 
the province of Satsuma, Japan, and who was formerly a 
Cabinet Minister under the Prince of that famous province. 
He belongs to a noted family, and was one of the first men 
in that Empire who advocated a change in the policy of the 
nation, from a state of semi-barbarism to one of civilization. 
He took no part in the late Japanese Kevolution, and has 
never been anxious to be connected with the general 
government. In 1865, on account of his high character 
and rare abilities, he was commissioned by his Government 
to take charge of sixteen young Japanese boys, with whom 
he visited Europe, and whom he located at various institu- 
tions of learning. One of those boys is the present charge 
d'affaires from Japan, M. Arinori Mori. On his return to 
Japan, Giobu Neero immediately arranged to send his son 
to France to be educated, and the following letter, written 
in the latter part of 1871, was sent to that son by his 
devoted and noble-minded father. It was originally 
written in the character as well as letter-language of Japan, 
and the present is a literal translation.] 

HA YE received your letter dated Feb- 
ruary 19, 1871. I am greatly pleased 
to learn of your progress in educational 
matters and health. It was unlike the 
former letter. It seems that you have come to 




124 The Japanese in America. 

know that I do not like to receive from you pre- 
sents and the like, and this accords with my views 
precisely. You have said nothing about the great 
war. This shows that you are in earnest in your 
studies, and it is my sincere hope that you should 
so continue. It is now five years since I have 
seen you. As you have reached your sixteenth 
year, it is proper for me, at this epoch of your life, 
when you are entering upon the more important 
objects of your career, to address you with kindest 
feeling. First, it is a parental duty that a man 
should sacrifice his beloved son for the sake of his 
country. Regretting that we have no proper 
educational system in Japan, I have had fears that 
my son might grow up without education. It was 
quite unexpected that I should have been appointed 
to go abroad in the spring of 1865. During the 
voyage I witnessed an incident at Singapore, which 
I will relate. There were among the passengers a 
husband and wife, with three children under seven 
years of age; they had embarked in our mail- 
steamer, and when it was announced as ready to 
depart this husband and wife were in utter distress, 
with sad faces and many tears. The wife remained 
on the steamer with the children, while the husband 
had to return to the shore, in a sorrowful state of 
mind. At the sight of this, two hundred and fifty 
passengers were struck with grief. There was a 
perfect silence, as all on board knew the circum- 
stances ; but our Japanese, although strangers 
among foreigners, and having no knowledge of the 
language, were influenced to sympathise with the 
party, and we also shed tears. I asked one of the 



Students' Essays. 125 

passengers as to the particulars, and he told me 
that this family were Dutch ; they had been stay- 
ing a long time in Singapore, and their children 
were born in that place. The parents having 
determined that their children should receive a 
good education in their native land of Holland, 
and knowing ^hat Singapore was not the proper 
place for them, their object was to educate their 
children so that they might love them more, and 
so they had sacrificed all their affections and com- 
fort and pleasure for them. This struck me with 
great force. Even a small nation like Holland was 
so anxious to have her children educated, and 
Holland knows her children would do great things. 
This influence induced the husband to be satisfied 
with parting from his wife and sacrificing his happi- 
ness. Thus, I came to appreciate those great 
western nations, like England and France, where 
civilization has attained the highest point, and 
where there is no lack of education; and it was 
then I determined to send my son to those coun- 
tries. I arrived in London after a voyage of more 
than two months, and I employed the time, when 
not engaged in official business, in the cause of 
education, and I learned the real condition of it, 
which was all wonderful to me. I solved the whole 
problem in regard to the education of my son. 
As I thought England and France were like two 
hands, left and right, both essential to civilization, 
I thought I would send my two sons -one to each of 
these countries. But, during my stay in London, 
the sad news reached me that your brother had 
died, and my grief was great. My mind was then 



126 The Japanese in America. 

wholly set upon yourself alone. It was my great 
anxiety to find a teacher for you. I met a French 
gentleman, Mr. Montblanc, and I told him my 
views, and that I desired you should be acquainted 
with political economy chiefly. He understood me 
well, and assured me he would do his best for you. 
The above is a brief history of my anxiety and 
efforts in your behalf. . 

You were not sent abroad to come back soon, 
certainly not before the accomplishment of your 
education. I desire, after you have finished your 
studies, that you should visit different countries and 
places in enlightened Europe. You should also 
visit Pekin, in China, when you return. I am not 
satisfied with your knowledge of the French alone, 
but you should also become acquainted with the 
English language. All these particulars Mr. M. 
understood and agreed to fulfil. 

Second. When I returned home from Europe I 
begged my parents to send you abroad, and it was 
gratifying to me that they were so deeply interested, 
and granted their consent at once. It was not only 
a blessing to you alone, but to me also. You were 
then only eleven years old, and you had no know- 
ledge of my earnest desire. There was a strong 
effort made to stop the movement by friends and 
relatives, because of your age, and also because of 
the recent loss of my second son. But I succeeded 
with great difficulty in appeasing their anxiety. It 
was indeed the blessing of heaven that you could 
leave home and could go over the sea ten thousand 
miles away for such a purpose. This should be 
borne in your mind deeply. 



Students' Essays. 127 

Third. The principal object of education is to do 
our most for the benefit of one's country. We use 
Chinese characters in our country to a great extent, 
and the letters we have also derived from the 
Chinese. As those Japanese you meet abroad will 
use Japanese or Chinese, and it will be inconvenient 
for you not to understand them, it was my great 
fear that you might be induced to think you should 
learn those languages in order to become acquainted 
with Japanese affairs. This is a most important 
time for you. You should be aware of the great 
object of the future, and not to be occupied in 
trifling. You should have your whole mind on 
western education. It will not be too late for you 
to learn Japanese and Chinese after your return 
home. It is of the utmost importance that you 
should not be confused on this subject. 

Fourth. For the few communications I have 
made to you there is some reason. It is from my 
deep love for you. It is quite natural for one who 
is still young to think of home when he is in a dis- 
tant land, but communications from home do more 
harm than good, because they are apt to excite the 
feelings, and hence disturb your studies. You 
parted with your mother when you were not quite 
three years old, and have been brought up since in 
my bosom alone. How could my love for you, 
under such circumstances, be less intense ? You 
should not mistake me for so rarely communicating 
with you. 

Fifth. Your cousin in London felt lonesome and 
wished to have another Japanese for a companion. 
This, to me, was a great mistake, and I will avoid it 



128 The Japanese in America. 

in your case. You should carefully remember that 
you have gone abroad for a great purpose. You 
are expected to have, therefore, the highest aims 
in regard to the future. It impressed me deeply 
when I learned that Napoleon Bonaparte, when very 
young, was asked by his mother about his object in 
life, and said, " that he would like to have all the 
historical parts of the world in his mind, and to go 
from one end of the world to the other with a single 
sword." His age was not then more than yours. 
I think this is a very good, thing for you to con- 
sider. 

Sixth. I have heard that you told Mr. Mayeda 
you intended soon to return to Japan. What was 
your reason for this ? The object for which I sent 
you abroad is already stated fully. I shall only be 
delighted to hear of your return after you have 
fully finished your education; there could be no 
greater satisfaction to me. I fear that what you 
said was the result of truant thoughts of home. 
You have to direct your whole attention to hasten 
the accomplishment of your education. This is the 
only thing you need. Your last letter to me in- 
forms me how you advance, and it is my greatest 
expectation to see the full development of your 
capacities. You will try to bear this important 
idea in your mind. I have read your letter over 
and over, and I felt as if you were talking to me 
face to face ; and I hope this letter will be the same 
to you, and that my deep-felt and sole desire for 
your education will be remembered forever. 




THE MEMOEABLE YEAR. 
BY E. E. ENOUYE. 

HE sun of 1871 is fast sinking below the 
horizon. Before we lose sight of it 
entirely, let us review the important 
events with which this year is so closely 
united. 

We are not yet recovered from the shock which 
we at first experienced in witnessing the utter 
humiliation of one of the most haughty of the great 
powers of Europe, or surprise at the glorious 
triumph of her hereditary foe ; or the sudden 
brightening up of the sky where we saw, in the 
direction of England, nothing but the dark clouds 
of war ; or, still later, the horror which seized us 
all at the cry of despair from the west in our own 
country. We begin our remarks with the closing 
scene in the Franco -Prussian war. Notwith- 
standing the assurances of fiery Gambetta, France 
has finally lost all hope in the prosecution of a suc- 
cessful struggle. As to Trochu in Paris, he is 
entirely powerless, and all that he is trying to do 
seems to be the postponement of the inevitable 
surrender. The cry of despair rises from all quar- 



130 The Japanese in America. 

ters. Something must be done or all will be lost. 
At this juncture Bourbaki makes the last effort for 
France, but fails signally before Belfort, and his 
shattered army saves itself from annihilation by 
taking refuge in peaceful Switzerland. Almost 
simultaneously with this event, the army of the 
JSTorth, in spite of the strenuous exertion of its 
brave commander, Faiderbe, is utterly defeated; 
while the army of the Loire, beaten in detail, has no 
prospect of offering any resistance to the foe. To 
complete the catastrophe, Paris falls with a tremen- 
dous crash. On the other hand, the Germans, 
triumphant even beyond their expectation, proceed 
to reconstruct the fabric of their ancient empire. 
It lasted one thousand years from its foundation, 
and having been overthrown by the genius of the 
great Napoleon, it was thus eventually restored to 
more than its former greatness by the incapacity of 
his nephew. King William was crowned the 
Emperor of Germany in the palace of Versailles. 

But where is the sovereign whose dream it was 
to march to Berlin, dictate peace, return with a 
large portion of territory secured by triumph over 
a fallen foe, and as a reward for this service to 
France was to ask her to tolerate his son on the 
throne which he usurped ? The answer is a sad 
but conclusive one. He is a lone exile in a foreign 
land. When in October, 1870, Prince Gortschakoff 
issued his notes on the Treaty of Paris, it almost 
amounted to the declaration of war. It recites the 
successive violations of European treaties, among 
them that of 1857. Eussia wished to increase her 
defensive power, especially in the Black Sea, hence 



Students' Essays. 131 

she disavowed her obligation to the limited enjoy- 
ment of the empire, and invited the Sultan to enjoy 
equal rights with her. England would have gone 
to war, but, not to speak of her own decline in 
power, her trusted ally was utterly prostrated. As 
to her other ally in the Crimean war, the King of 
Italy, he had enough to do at home. 

Nothing could be expected from either terrified 
Turkey or incapable Austria. At this state of affairs , 
it was agreed that a conference between the great 
powers of Europe should decide all the differences. 
This congress, which assembled in London, in the 
early part of this year, gratified every wish of Rus- 
sia. She has already turned this to account in the 
furthering of her own interests. She has built 
many ships of war, and the work is still going on 
with great energy. 

Sebastopol, Odessa, and other principal ports of 
the Black Sea are being fortified with great care. 
We know what all this means, namely, the capture 
of Constantinople ultimately, and the absolute su- 
premacy of Russia in the councils of European 
nations afterward. Among the events which have 
taken place in England, the most important has 
been the abolition of the purchase-system in the 
army. Taught by the example of France, and fear- 
ing a collision with Germany, she proceeded to put 
her forces in good condition, which was impossible 
as long as that absurd custom existed. This was 
not accomplished without opposition. It almost 
resulted in the fall of the ministry of Mr. Gladstone. 
Next we turn to Italy. Rome is taken by the 
Italian army, and the temporal power of the Pope 



132 Tlie Japanese in America. 

is for ever gone. All in good time Rome is made 
the national capital, and that dream of illustrious 
Cavour, the unification of Italy, is now complete. 

Anarchical Spain next claims our attention. In 
the Duke of Aosta she found her king, but scarcely 
does he find himself on the shore of Spain ere Mar- 
shal Prim, the soldier to whom he owed his throne, 
falls by the hands of assassins. Ministry after 
ministry is formed, all to no purpose. Much may 
be said of her condition, but we will leave young 
Amadeus to struggle alone with his destiny, and 
turn our attention again to Paris. 

Paris, fighting against whole France, presented 
us with the spectacle of a ship frozen amid the ice 
of the polar sea, and its crew, without the means 
of wintering there, engaged in a desperate contest 
with nature itself. Such a state of things cannot 
long continue. Although the provisional govern- 
ment was obliged to temporize at the beginning of 
this mad revolt, as soon as it rallied its forces it 
acted with firmness, and punished the insurgents to 
their hearts' content. The last hours of the Com- 
mune of Paris were disgraced by their wanton de- 
struction of those great works of art of which Paris 
was so justly proud. Well might Madame Roland 
exclaim, " Oh, Liberty, how many crimes are com- 
mitted in thy name ! " By the fall of France, the re- 
publican government is firmly established in France 
for the time being. We dare not speculate on her 
future. Who is her president ? M. Thiers, the 
ex-minister of Louis Philippe ! This is not an en- 
couraging prospect for France. 

Besides, are there not the Bourbonists, the Or- 



Students' Essays. 133 

leanists, and the Bonapartists, madly engaged in 
their selfish intrigues ? Her destiny depends a 
great deal on her president. It will be a real bless- 
ing to her if M. Thiers proves himself a Washing- 
ton to France, but we have reason to fear he will be 
another Talleyrand, who treated his enemies as if 
they might be his friends in future, and vice versa, In 
America the San Domingo question is agitating the 
public mind. The president, although he has often 
declared that he has no policy opposed to the will 
of the people, seems determined on annexing the 
island to the United States, but he is not supported 
by the people at large. The excitement was be- 
coming greater and greater, when the Administra- 
tion yielded the point, and the subject was dropped, 
for the time being ; because the West Indies, by 
their situation, are unmistakably destined at no dis- 
tant day to form the outposts of this grand republic. 
The San Domingo question lost much of its import- 
ance on account of the Alabama claims, which sought 
the attention of the nation. This difficulty, together 
with the so-called fishery question, was the cause of 
much feeling between the United States and Great 
Britain. It threatened a war between the two na- 
tions ; but, after protracted preliminary negotia- 
tions, in which the recriminations, evasions, and 
" assurances of the distinguished considerations " 
were curiously intermixed, it was agreed that the 
Joint High Commission should settle all the differ- 
ences. The result of their labours was the Treaty 
of Washington, which is justly considered one of 
the triumphs of modern civilization. By its pro- 
visions the Tribunal of Arbitration is shortly to as- 



134 The Japanese in America. 

semble in Geneva, Switzerland. This august court 
is composed of the members appointed respectively 
by the United States, Great Britain, Brazil, Italy, 
and Switzerland. We have every reason to believe 
that the difficulty will be satisfactorily settled. 

An event which called forth expressions of sym- 
pathy from every quarter is the great fire at Chicago, 
which almost destroyed that empire city of the 
West. We all know how the conflagration was 
caused by an accident, how the strong wind rendered 
futile the efforts of its gallant firemen, how the thou- 
sands of people were made homeless, how the world 
poured its beautiful charity into the devastated city. 
A circumstance which is particularly deserving of 
notice is that its inhabitants, nothing daunted by 
the magnitude of their calamity, set themselves at 
once to the work of reconstruction. Speaking of 
the Chicago fire, we should not overlook that great 
fire which raged in the forests of some of the western 
States. 

The completion of the Mont Cenis tunnel is one 
of the greatest triumphs of scientific engineering, 
and an event which well-nigh reconciles us to this 
year, which has been so full of calamities to man- 
kind. The honour of this great achievement belongs 
unitedly to Louis Napoleon, Emperor of France, 
and Count Cavour, the Prime Minister of Victor 
Emanuel. Cavour's immediate object was to estab- 
lish perfect means of intercourse between two 
divisions of the kingdom over which his sovereign 
then ruled ; but its importance to Europe, especially 
France, was so manifest, that the French govern- 
ment agreed to pay half the expense, which is 



Students' Essays. 135 

about thirty million dollars. It was commenced in 
1857, and completed in September of this memor- 
able year. Its length is seven and one-half miles. 
It was well France shared the expense, for, by the 
Treaty of Villa Franca, Napoleon III. wrested from 
Sardinia the rich province of Savoy, which is one 
of the divisions previously referred to, as a com- 
pensation for the aid to her in the Austrian war. 
At the advent, this year was enveloped in the thick 
clouds of war. One by one they have disappeared. 
Now, sinking beneath the western horizon, she 
sends us her farewell light in the forms of many 
scientific improvements and higher civilization ; 
but alas ! a cloud still obscures a spot on the earth's 
surface, over which are written the words, " The 
Eastern Question." 




EXPEDITION TO A KOMISH CHURCH. 



BY M. TOYAMA. 



[The paper is rather severe upon the Komish Church. 
It is evident that the writer has not forgotten the efforts 
of the Jesuits, made about two hundred years ago, to usurp 
the Government of Japan, and for which they were effec- 
tually punished. We may also remark that he is some- 
what severe upon himself, for, instead of being a pagan, 
he has respect for, if not a true believer in, the Christian 
religion, although not an actual professor. He is also a 
most devoted hater of shams, and the existence of so much 
strange conduct on the part of so-called Christians in this 
country and England, is one of the topics which has greatly 
exercised his mind. He is not the special student (but 
only the friend with whom he sympathizes), who, after 
having joined a Protestant Church, was requested by an 
over-zealous teacher to add the word Christian to his sig- 
nature, whereupon the young gentleman resolved never to 
write his name without appending to it the word Pagan, 
and has thus far kept his word.] 




the 



HAD intended, for a long time, to visit 
one of the many great institutions whose 
ramifications are extended all over the 
world like a cobweb, namely, one of 
churches of the "Rodins." It was only on 



Sunday last, however, that I gratified my curiosity. 
One of my friends having lately taken lodgings in 



Students' Essays. 137 

the vicinity of one of these temples, and because, 
whenever I visit him, I can always hear from his 
room the great and charming bell of said church 
calling the people to vespers, I could no longer 
resist the temptation to become wiser than I am in 
that direction. I was joined in the expedition by 
two other Japanese pagans. After reaching the 
sidewalk, we marched with slow and steady steps, 
as well as with breathless anxiety, not so much 
from the solemn character of our visit, as from the 
icy surface of the street. Indeed, the pavement 
was so slippery that I am sure we must have 
broken our necks but for the massy prayers for all 
mankind of our worthy and assiduous Eoman 
Catholic fathers. 

When we entered the church, several candles, 
both large and small, were burning on the altar ; 
but the house was almost empty, excepting five or 
six persons who were either absorbed in praying or 
were busy in making the sign of the cross between 
the forehead and breast. Besides the above, there 
were two boys, each about twelve years old, of the 
most haggard appearance, clad in shabby clothes, 
and moving about just inside of the church. These 
young Jesuits cast a side-glance at us from time to 
time, as if they scented something unusual in us 
probably our heathenish appearance. Looking at 
them calmly, I was struck so much with their lean 
and haggard appearance, that I thought there was 
no mistake about their piety, though they were yet 
so young, because they must have not only fasted 
to the utmost extent during the last Lent, but were 
in the habit of doing so on many ordinary days. 



138 The Japanese in America. 

Now and then there came in some other persons. 
Every one of them, as soon as he or she entered 
the church, dipped a finger in the holy -water, 
touched the head with it, made a sign of the cross 
between the forehead and breast, and at the same 
time falling towards the crucifix, bent the right 
knee to the proper angle. 

Thinking that we were rather before time, we 
held a council among ourselves, and retreated once 
more to our own quarters for a short time. When 
we sallied forth again, and drew near the place, we 
met a swarm of children coming out of the Sunday 
School, and this was an interesting sight. "When 
we entered the church the second time, many seats 
were already occupied. Thanks to the kind usher, 
we were permitted to take ours about the centre. 
Soon after we were seated, one of the fathers, in a 
heathen-like costume, followed by several boys, 
appeared, and began his part by sprinkling holy 
water all over the building. 

Although I felt from the first somewhat heathen- 
ish, it was only when the worthy priest began to 
read the service that I was almost at a loss to know 
whether I was in a Buddhist temple or a Christian 
church of the nineteenth century, so great was the 
similitude between the tone and accent of the 
father's voice in saying the service, and that of 
our heathen priests in reciting theirs. Suddenly 
I was awakened from my reverie by the charming 
tenor of the choir. Indeed, the music was so good 
that I was convinced that this must surely be the 
true Church, thus to make one feel so near Heaven. 

About twelve o* clock the pulpit was rolled out 



Students' Essays. 139 

to the front of the altar, and Mr. Preacher ascended 
to the summit. We noticed at once of what stuff 
this teacher was made that is to say, he was not 
very far from the ideal of the true Jesuit. He 
looked around for a moment over his people with a 
countenance made up of pride and satisfaction, as 
if he were assured that all the secrets of their hearts 
were in his hands. He took as the text of his 
sermon the parable of the Sower and the Seed. In 
his opinion all the Protestants are anything but the 
good ground. He was full of pity that so many 
millions of money are spent every year abroad to 
convert the Chinese or Japanese heathen, while 
there are such multitudes of heathen at home, 
meaning all the poor Protestants. He said that 
what the Protestants believe is not the work of 
God, but that of man. He triumphed over the 
miserable condition of Protestants, in getting worse 
and worse every day by schism after schism, while 
his Church has ever stood firm. This was because 
theirs was the word of man, substituted for that 
of God, while his was the word of God. He was 
especially hard against the Germans. They were 
infidels, atheists, and sceptics. He boasted that 
all the bishops of his Church agreed with what was 
decided by the convention at Metz, and assured his 
audience that the Church was never so firm as at 
the present moment. 

That is decidedly a man, I fancy, who knows 
perfectly well how to convince the ignorant people 
like the Irish. Whenever he attacked the Protestants 
with a strong expression, he paused, stared into 
vacancy, and stood still, with a most majestic and 



140 The Japanese in America. 

triumphant mien, as if the Protestants must be 
crushed and uprooted from the world for ever by 
his denunciation. 

After the exit of Mr. Preacher, mass and singing 
went on alternately for some time, and the whole 
piece was crowned by the drinking of two or three 
goblets by the holy father, of what must have been 
good wine. May I not believe that, if this wine 
had not been changed by transubstantiation before 
it was drank, it might, at least, have been infused 
into the blood of our worthy father ? 

From what I saw and heard, I shall always be- 
lieve Mr. Preacher when he says his Church alone 
has stood firm and unchanged, because it is shocking 
to imagine that it ever was or can ever be any worse. 
But, to tell the truth, it is my greatest desire that 
these churches will not change, at least while I stay 
in this country, because, henceforth, whenever I may 
get homesick, I will go to one of the Roman Catholic 
churches, and feel that I am in one of the dear Buddha 
temples of far-off Japan. 





GEORGE WASHINGTON. 

BY N. KANDA. 

EORGE WASHINGTON, who was a 
great patriot, and the first President 
of the United States, was born in West- 
moreland, in the eastern part of the State 
of Virginia, on the 22nd of February, 1732. His 
father was a rich man, but Washington received 
only the usual education which any one could receive 
in this country at that time. He might have been 
sent to Europe to receive a further education if he 
had wanted to. Washington knew the French lan- 
guage, which he learned after he became a general, 
for the purpose of talking with the French soldiers 
who were sent here to unite with the Army of Inde- 
pendence. Washington was a very good surveyor. 
When he was but sixteen years of age he was em- 
ployed in surveying the great wilderness near the 
Alleghany mountains, belonging to his relation, 
Lord Fairfax. Before he was twenty years old, he 
was made one of the important officers in the army, 
called Adjutant-General. When he was about twenty- 
two years old he became an important general in the 
war of English and French, in America, of 1754, 



142 The Japanese in America. 

which war lasted for six years, from 1754 until 1760. 
When the war closed, the Americans hoped that there 
would be better times, as a new king had ascended 
the throne, whose name was George the Third. 
Because, at those times, the governors of the colo- 
nies were sent from England, and they oppressed 
them very much with strict laws. But instead of 
better times came more troublous times, as follows : 
During the war just ended the king spent all the 
money he had, and he asked his advisers how he 
might get more. Then his advisers said, " Tax 
the Americans, for they are rich and will not mind 
it." And men were sent from England to collect 
taxes. But the people murmured about paying 
taxes, and disliked them. James Otis, a great 
patriot of Massachusetts, advised the people not 
to pay a penny. So the king could not get much 
money. Therefore the king and his advisers made 
another law to take the money from the Americans, 
called " The Stamp Act." But this failed also, by 
the advice to the people by a great patriot, named 
Patrick Henry. And again the king and his ad- 
visers tried another way to get money, which was 
to make Americans pay taxes on any tea, paper, 
glass, painters' colours, &c., brought in ships from 
England. And, knowing that the Americans would 
not like to pay, they sent soldiers to compel the 
people to pay. And this made the Americans very 
angry. The people in many colonies drove their 
governors away, and said to the king and his ad- 
visers, " We are all ready to fight for freedom ; 
send your soldiers as much as you please." So 
the Americans now began to strive for freedom. 



Students' Essays. 143 

The first battle for independence was fought in 
Lexington, near the city of Boston, Massachusetts, 
on the 19th of April, 1775. They appointed George 
Washington to be Commander-in- Chief, and several 
other great patriots as his assistants. Washington 
first took the command of the army under the elm- 
tree, still standing, in Cambridge, near Boston, on 
the 3rd of July, 1775. The army was made up of 
all kinds of people. Their dresses were not uni- 
form, nor were their weapons alike, but some had 
pitchforks, and some poles, &c. Washington soon 
changed their dresses and weapons, and made them 
soldiers. 

On the 4th day of July, 1776, the " Declaration 
of Independence" was agreed in the State House, 
Philadelphia. So every year on that day, the bells 
are rung in the morning and at night, and guns are 
fired. Boys fire crackers from morning till night. 
After the independence was declared, hard wars 
continued for eight years in many different places, 
from 1775 till 1782. 

George Washington was Commander-in- Chief of 
the army all through the war, and gained a great 
many victories over the British, in many places. 
He was a great general, and a very brave soldier. 
When the Americans became independent they 
thought they must have somebody to govern them, 
so they chose Washington to be their Chief Euler 
or President; and John Adams was chosen Vice- 
President. 

Washington was inaugurated the first President 
of the United States on the 30th of April, 1789. 

After faithfully governing the people for eight 



144 



The Japanese in America. 



years, lie retired from Ms office on the 4th of March, 
1797, and went to his home on Mount Vernon, and 
lived there quietly until the 14th of December, 1799, 
and he died. His tomb is in Mount Vernon, near 
his old house, which is yet standing. 




PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS. 
BY E. R. ENOUYE. 




T may be universally affirmed that, in 
every country, public schools were 
established long after the people were 
fairly started on their road to civiliza- 
tion. Prior to this period, such learning as was 
known to the country was chiefly in the hands of 
priests. At last, a long series of bloody wars has 
ceased ; what had been mere clusters of tents and rude 
huts are now replaced by more substantial villages 
and cities; men leave the implements of war for 
those of agriculture and other useful industries : in 
fact, all is peace throughout the country. Educa- 
tion of the young no longer consists in mere physical 
culture, and in the art of war ; but some attention 
begins to be paid to the cultivation of their mental 
faculties. Now, for the first time, we shall find 
private schools established, mainly under the 
auspices of priests, where children of the wealthy 
are educated. The time intervening between 
this period and the appearance of public schools, 
of course varies with different countries, but in 

L 



146 The Japanese in America. 

all cases are full of most important events in the 
history of the mind of man. 

It would be a very interesting task to investigate 
these stages of progress, but, as the object of our 
present essay is merely to discuss the merits of pub- 
lic and private schools, an elaborate history of their 
origin will not be attempted. Suffice it, then, to say 
that, by degrees, the diffusion of intelligence among 
the people demands better facilities for education than 
that hitherto afforded by private schools ; hence the 
establishment of public institutions of learning. The 
design of private schools is to secure to the young 
a thorough learning in every needed department of 
science, when such opportunities would not be 
secured by public institutions. 

At the present day, most private schools are 
founded on the principles of home discipline. 

. When a child enters a private school, he is, to a 
certain extent, severed from his own home, and 
home authority is, in this case, transferred to the 
school. Henceforth, he is to be treated as one of 
the children of the principal. 

As he who can afford to send his child to a pri- 
vate school must be a man of some property, the 
child in question will find himself in comparatively 
limited, and at the same time quite a select, com- 
pany. By a select company, I do not mean the 
individuals composing it will be by nature more 
morally disposed than the same number elsewhere 
are likely to be, but characterized by the absence of 
common vulgarity, which is invariably found in 
most public schools. Though the company is thus 
small, yet it is sufficiently large to enable one to 



Students' Essays. 147 

form some idea of the duties and trials of life to 
come. 

A member of such a school as I have tried to 
describe above, is peculiarly subject to temptations 
of learning more serious vices than those he may 
have to encounter in a public school. 

Thrown upon his own responsibility, and daily 
mingling with a limited number of associates, he 
soon learns numerous little things, in which the bad 
far outnumber the good. 

And then, like a capricious coquette, he will have 
his likes and dislikes, to whom he usually gives such 
elegant designations as " good fellows " and " nasty 
fellows." Thus, he takes his first lessons in unduly 
extolling or in hating his fellow-beings. But, as he 
himself is one of the " nasty fellows," he will be 
compelled to drink the first draught of this world's 
bitterness. 

In this way, definitions of such words as hate, 
meanness, jealousy, and false honour, and various 
others of this class, are indelibly stamped on his 
wild and inexperienced imagination. But all this 
falls into insignificance when we contemplate the 
effect on his morals and after-life of those innumer- 
able little conspiracies which too often constitute 
one of his chief amusements. 

It may be contended that these are nothing more 
than mere practical jokes, and wholly harmless in 
their consequence. But when such a view is ad- 
vanced, we must remember that the disrespect of 
the child at the fireside has but a step to go to dis- 
obedience of the civil and divine law. 

Amid all these faults of private schools, as insti- 



148 The Japanese in America. 

tutions of learning, two advantages secured here 
are at once so manifestly great as to cause the de- 
fects above mentioned to be usually overlooked by 
their patrons. First, it is only in private schools 
that a variety of study can be pursued ; and, secondly, 
instruction given is far more thorough there than 
that is likely to be in public schools. This circum- 
stance is easily explained. 

A limited number of pupils being always under 
the eyes of their teachers, who are generally greater 
in number in proportion to their pupils than are 
afforded in public institutions, therefore their scholars 
receive better attention than in public schools. 

Besides this, as the private schools stand only by 
their reputation, everything is done to obtain this 
desired object. 

Public schools are designed for the general edu- 
cation of the people. The system employed differs 
in every country, but their fundamental principle is 
the same, which, briefly told, is as follows: They 
are founded and maintained at the expense of the 
people. The necessary amount of money is raised 
in the form of taxation, and their administrations are 
in the hands of officers appointed by the government 
for that purpose. 

Such being the case, every citizen has a right to 
send his child to a public school in his district. 

I have said that, in a private school, the company 
is select; but here the table is turned. In a public 
school every grade of society, intelligence, and re- 
finement, has its representatives, and usually in such 
numbers as to overcrowd recitation rooms. 

Such being the state of things, we shall not bo 



Students' Essays. 149 

surprised to find that each pupil does not receive as 
much attention as might be wished. This, no 
doubt, is a strong disadvantage of public education, 
and consequently loudly decried by the advocates 
of private schools. 

Admitting their accusation to be well founded, 
there is another thing in public schools which almost 
redeems this defect. 

Everything is done so openly and impartially here 
that scholars soon feel that in order to obtain the 
honours of the school, they must first distinguish 
themselves in their studies. 

This circumstance fosters laudable ambition among 
them, especially that strong incentive to faithful 
labour, emulation. Nobody will question that this 
state of things will have a most beneficial effect 
upon their character. 

Another charge brought against public schools 
is, that the course of study is not sufficiently ex- 
tended for the various requirements of its members. 

Those who say this, are thinking only of the 
interest of a small portion of the community, and 
not that of the whole sovereign community. 

The mass of people want a simple course of 
education, which is exactly what public schools 
purpose to give to their scholars. There is but 
one road to the field of knowledge, and those who 
think there are several, will never reach that glo- 
rious goal. In a public school, students must 
pursue such a course of study as may be prescribed; 
in a private school, studies are, to some extent, at 
the option of its pupils. 

The pupil of a public school, when told what he 



150 The Japanese in America. 

has to do, in nine cases out of ten, concentrates all 
his energy on the work before him, and comes out 
of the severe ordeal with something substantial, 
with which he may begin the arduous duties of life 
with some hope of success. 

In a private school, the case is far different. In 
the first place, a young gentleman is not sure what 
studies he will undertake. When at last the im- 
portant question is settled, he is not pleased with 
the stern realities of the work. Let us take a case : 
A young gentleman, besides the regular studies, to 
which he does not do justice, begins the French, 
for instance, because it is fashionable, or because he 
remembers, with chagrin, an occasion when he was 
laughed at, for writing in a friend's autograph-book 
" votre amie," which elegant phrase was, to his 
astonishment, translated, Your female friend. By 
the time he can say " Comment vous portez vous ? " 
without reference, he has had enough of the French 
language, and turns his weary eye to the German, 
or Latin, in which he will fare no better. 

If the critical history of a private school be 
written, it will be found that it has sent out by far 
the greater portion of its students to swell the 
ranks of that class of persons who know a little of a 
good many things, but nothing in particular to any 
extent. I think, however, that the chief merit of 
public schools lies in the fact that the child is not 
sent away from home at a tender age, the time 
when his character, still all chaos, so to speak, is 
just forming itself into some shape, and with whose 
completion his destiny is to be fixed. 

How critical a period this is for him, no sensible 
man will question. 



Students' Essays. . 151 

It is true, that as he goes to school daily, he 
sees all sorts of juvenile vices, but he does not asso- 
ciate with their possessors to such an extent as to 
be influenced to a great extent ; and even if he is 
affected a little, there is on hand a good remedy in 
the love of his parents. The reason why public 
schools are not fully appreciated, is because there 
are so many in the country. 

Whatever is abundant is very apt to be slighted. 
Thus, a man once observed, after profound con- 
sideration, that the rays of the moon are more 
precious than those of the sun, because the former 
we get in the night, which would otherwise be 
dark, while the latter comes to us in the daytime, 
when we do not want any light at all. In order to 
appreciate fully the importance of public schools, 
imagine them all destroyed. In the course of time 
the people would be utterly degraded, and only a 
small minority of the people have an opportunity of 
education, and also that of exercising a most galling 
tyranny over the ignorant mass of people. 

As men in this state are actually dead to the 
intellectual world, we cannot measure the loss to 
humanity of those great minds which, though con- 
taining all the power of shining as stars of the first 
magnitude, go out of existence as quietly and as 
little developed as those of the lower orders of 
creation. To illustrate this, let us refer to the life 
of the late Professor Mahan of West Point. We 
need not here speak of his long, steady, and glo- 
rious career. We need not speak of his melan- 
choly death, but let us ask how his great mind was 
developed. His parents were poor, and, in all 
probability, could not have given to their son a 



152 The Japanese in America. 

good education ; but the brightness of the boy so 
attracted the attention of Hon. Willoughby Newton, 
in whose congressional district he was born, that 
he became a warm patron of the boy, and sent him 
to the Military Academy at JWest Point, thus 
snatching as it were from the hands of fate, one of 
the greatest scientific soldiers of modern times. 
The relation which private schools sustain to public 
schools is very similar to that between cavalry and 
infantry in the army. Cavalry can be employed 
only on the plains. Infantry can be employed 
under every possible circumstance. It is true, 
cavalry does great service, but the fact that it 
cannot act independently, brings it at once to a 
secondary rank. The same may be said of private 
schools. 

That an army may, if necessary, dispense with 
the service of cavalry, is evident when we study the 
campaigns of Napoleon in Egypt. 

The battle of the Pyramids, for instance, was 
gained only by the bayonets of the French soldiers, 
against the array which the best cavalry then in 
the world charged in vain. 

In the same manner, public schools can educate 
the people without any help from private schools. 
From what has been said, it will be evident that 
private schools, with all their excellences as insti- 
tutions of learning, are but so many squadrons of 
cavalry in the army of education ; hence we come 
to the conclusion that the system of the private 
schools is a strong auxiliary force to that of public 
schools, but that they ought never to supersede 
wholly the latter. 




RAID ON THE MISSIONARIES. 



BY M. TOYAMA. 



[The writer of the subjoined essay offers an argumenta- 
tive appeal, urging that missionaries shall not be introduced 
into Japan by any provisions of the new treaty of that 
country with western powers. He makes points in the 
treatment of this subject which certainly are wide of our 
cherished notions. Education, he thinks, is the one thing 
needful for Japan, and his strictures bear with equal force 
against Catholic and Protestant, since it cannot be shown 
that they offer what his countrymen need. While few will 
be convinced that "missionaries are the fathers of ignorance 
and the enemies of free religion," none can dispute that 
a Christianity without enlightenment, a religion without 
knowledge, might serve as little for the intellectual im- 
provement of the masses of Japan, as it did in our slave- 
holding days in respect to the field-hands on the planta- 
tions.] 

To the Gentlemen of the Missionary Societies. 

SlES. 

PRESUME that the revision of our 
treaties with the western nations being 
at hand, you are very anxious to intro- 
duce into Japan your so-called free re- 




ligion by that opportunity. But it is one of the human 
weaknesses that we believe we are right when there is 



154 The Japanese in America. 

no objection brought forth against our argument. 
It is, therefore, the indispensable condition for 
judging properly that we should hear both sides 
beforehand. So far as I know, you have yet heard 
only one side in regard to all the questions concern- 
ing religion. I do not know that you have ever 
heard any heathen thus publicly speak out his 
notions on religious questions. Before judging 
Mohammedanism, you must hear the Mohamme- 
dans plead their cause. Before you judge Mor- 
monism, you must hear the Mormons plead their 
cause. If you agree to this, I should be very 
much obliged to you if you would be kind enough 
to hear what is my opinion on the question of mis- 
sionary work. 

Taking it for granted that the intention is good, 
it would be a great satisfaction to know that those 
who believed that theirs is the only true religion 
should send out missionaries to propagate it among 
the so-called gentiles, that they might be saved. 
But, if I am not greatly misinformed, this is not 
always a disinterested business. Even if it is so, I 
can only sympathise with their intention, but can- 
not agree with the thing itself. I object to send- 
ing out missionaries, on two most grave grounds ; 
first, because they are the fathers of ignorance, 
and secondly, because they are the enemies of free 
religion. 

So far as I know from my scanty knowledge, it is 
a historical fact that the more ignorant people are, 
the more superstitious they are, and the more 
superstitious, the more are they the slaves of priests. 
To see whether there is any foundation for this 



Students' Essays. 155 

assertion, it will suffice to cast a glance at the 
developments of Christianity. After the fall of the 
Roman Empire, Europe fell into the hands of the bar- 
barians, and for several centuries ignorance reigned 
through its whole extent. It was during this time 
that the people were most superstitious, and the 
most abject slaves of priests. It was during this 
time that Peter the Hermit had a magic power to 
cause hundreds of thousands of the Christians of all 
ranks to embark in a most groundless expedition, 
and to go out to Asia, over thousands of miles. 
As the knowledge of the people increased, the zeal 
of going out to crusades gradually abated, till, at 
last, during the Papacy of Pius the Second (al- 
though, at a European Congress held at Mantua it 
had been agreed by the Envoys of almost all the 
sovereigns that fifty thousand men should be raised, 
and a tax levied for three years of one-tenth from 
the revenues of the clergy, one-thirtieth from those 
of the laity, and one-twentieth from the capital of 
the Jews) , when the Pope appeared next year at 
Ancona he found out that the princes had failed in all 
their promises. Thanks to the increased know- 
ledge of man, he was no longer the same dupe of 
priests as at the time of Peter. But the time was 
not yet come for an open rebellion against the papal 
thraldom. Indeed, about this time there was such 
a man as Wickliffe, but the minds of the people 
were not yet ripe enough for such principles as his. 
It was not till 1517, when knowledge had been dis- 
seminated among the people for seventy-nine years, 
through printing, that the people of the more 
advanced states shook off the Papal yoke under the 



156 The Japanese in America. 

leadership of Martin Luther. But the more igno- 
rant still clung to Popery, and they do so unto the 
present day. This is because the ignorant believe 
blindly, but the men who have a little knowledge 
believe only reasonable things. The ignorant can- 
not reason. Hence an ingenious man can make 
them, by his artful insinuations, believe those 
things which are most ridiculous to a more ad- 
vanced mind, fear those things in which there is 
really nothing to fear. By such artifices priests 
keep the minds of the people entirely under their 
control, and turn their ignorance to full advantage. 
They tell people that they must obey the word of 
God, must fear Him, must give up all their posses- 
sions, and that, unless they do all this, they will be 
sent to hell and tortured eternally. But how could 
this be done ? It could be done only through the 
hands of priests, who represent God on the earth. 
They must receive whatever priests tell them as the 
word of God, because they are not allowed to in- 
terpret the word of God by themselves. They 
must give up all their property to priests, because, 
as they say, we can give up things to God only 
through means of his representatives. Moreover, 
entirely to keep the people under their control, it is 
necessary tp know the secrets of their hearts. This 
they accomplish by means of confession. 

Thus, while they tell the people to give up all 
they have, they themselves take most greedily. 
While they tell the people to be poor in spirit, 
they themselves are the richest in spirit. While 
they tell the people to be meek, they themselves 
are the most impudent. Indeed, what they do is 



Students' Essays. 157 

the most sacrilegious thing which, could ever be in 
the world. They substitute man for God. Nothing 
of this kind could be imposed upon the men of com- 
mon sense, who have received the proper education. 
They would not allow any man to pretend to be 
more than a man. They would not buy off their 
sin by money. Thus the most ignorant always 
have been the most superstitious and credulous, and 
consequently the most implicit slaves of priests. It 
is, then, the interest of priests to get as much 
knowledge as possible for themselves, and to keep the 
people as ignorant as can be ; and just such things 
they have been practising from the time of yore till 
the present day. If they allow the parents to 
educate their children at all, it is done by those 
who are in the mystery of priestcraft, so that they 
may be brought up in perfect superstition and 
bigotry. As to the material branches of education, 
they might be quite as competent as anybody, 
but as to the education of mind it is not their 
interest to develope it, but to paralyze it as much as 
possible, so that those who would be called the 
most educated would nevertheless be the most 
abject slaves of priests. Thus, wherever priestcraft 
prevails, there is no freedom of thought, and the 
human faculties are entirely pinched. It is the 
most dangerous enemy of civilization. 

You perhaps say that, indeed, such is the case 
with the Roman Catholics, but there is no danger 
of this kind from the Protestants, because they are 
not such superstitious narrow-minded men as the 
Roman Catholics, but propagate the free religion, and 
consequently where Protestantism prevails there has 



158 The Japanese in America. 

been the free religion and the people are more ad- 
vanced. But, sirs, do you know which of the two came 
first, the increase of knowledge or the Reformation ? 
Why did the people rise against the Popish despot- 
ism ? Why did they begin to discard the absurd 
dogmas and teachings of Roman Catholicism ? Be- 
cause the knowledge of man increased. As the 
knowledge of the people increased they became more 
and more liberal in religious matters. But the ignorant 
have been always the same superstitious, bigoted, 
and credulous people, no matter whether they are 
Roman Catholics or Protestants. Thus, although 
the Swedes and Scotch are the oldest Protestants, 
yet the superstition and bigotry among their 
ignorant people has scarcely been surpassed by 
those of the Spanish or Irish. Well, then, where 
knowledge came, there likewise came the diminu- 
tion of superstition and their conversion to Pro- 
testantism, but it does not follow from people's 
being Protestants that they are not superstitious or 
the abject slaves of priests. There is nothing so 
tempting for any man as to lead his fellow-creatures 
who follow him most implicitly, and take whatever 
he says as the infallible truth. It is from this 
temptation that, wherever people are ignorant, 
these priests always have taken advantage of it, and 
exercised an undue influence over them, whether 
Protestant or Roman Catholic. But for those who 
have ever tasted this pleasure, it would be the 
hardest thing to give it up, and therefore they 
would try to enjoy it as long as possible. But this 
could not be accomplished by keeping people ever 
so ignorant, because when their knowledge in- 



Students' Essays. 159 

creases they will know what man is, and no longer 
will be the implicit worshippers of priests; and 
this is just what priests do, as I said before. For 
the ignorant who have once fallen into this trap, 
the chance to get out of it would be as one to a 
thousand; but the worst part is not the fate of 
those who first fall into it, but that of their children 
and grandchildren, who are predestined for the same 
ignorance long before their birth. The ignorant 
parents bring up their children in ignorance ; the 
superstitious parents bring up their children in 
superstition. Thus superstition and ignorance 
become hereditary. But for all this the parents 
are not to blame : but, on the contrary, they ought 
to be the objects of our pity and compassion. 
Those alone are to blame, nay, deserve to be cursed, 
who take advantage of their own superiority and the 
ignorance of others, endeavouring to keep them for 
ever so. Thus priests are the fathers of ignorance. 

Now I shall show you that they are likewise the 
enemies of free religion. 

You know that there are some words which are 
ever so dear to man, so dear that, when the sup- 
posed meaning of such words is made the subject 
of a question, people are often blinded by their very 
grandeur, and take the reverse of what one of these 
words really means as the true meaning. The 
cunning know this weakness of man, and people 
are not unfrequently made their victims. Freedom 
is one of these words. It is no wonder that many 
crimes are committed under the name of liberty, 
when we know that there are many people who 
establish even slavery by means of this word. It is 



160 The Japanese in America. 

just so with religion. You shout "free religion," 
yet your free religion means the slavery of minds. 
You want to send out missionaries on the ground 
of propagating free religion. But I object to it on 
the very same ground. Does not free religion mean 
that every one should believe any religion what- 
ever, according to his heart's conviction ? If it is 
so, is there free religion when the missionaries of 
the different denominations go out among the most 
simple and ignorant people, who are so unsuspect- 
ing and credulous that they would be intimidated 
by the most ridiculous things and would believe 
the grossest absurdities, and gain over these inno- 
cent beings to their sect, sometimes by intimida- 
tion, and sometimes by the most flattering insinua- 
tion, painting the tortures in hell, each according 
to his imagination, in the most revolting colours, 
yet telling them at the same time that they might 
be saved from all this by coming to them and 
believing what they tell them ? Is there anything 
free in this ? I can see nothing but intimidation 
and enticement. There is no more freedom in this 
than in the case of a rascal leading a timid child 
both by the fear of being whipped, and by the 
desire of having a favourite toy. But it is not only 
from the present generation that freedom of reli- 
gion would be thus taken away, but also the coming 
generations (how far we cannot tell) , because the 
children of such parents will be most carefully 
brought up in the same dogmas and superstitions, 
because it is a most difficult thing for any one to 
shake off" what was infused in his mind during his 
childhood. This is the reason why I said that your 
free religion is mental slavery. 



Students' Essays. 161 

What I understand by free religion is to let the 
people believe any religion whatever, without any 
foreign influence, either intimidation or enticement. 
The proper way to free religion is, first to educate 
the people, to enlighten their thoughts, and to en- 
large their views, so that they would not be in- 
fluenced either by any groundless fears or flatter- 
ing insinuations ; and then, let whatever missionaries 
come, whether the Jesuits, the Methodists, the 
Episcopalians, the Baptists, or the Unitarians. Till 
that time, free religion is worse than a mere idle 
phrase. The educated people alone can enjoy free 
religion. What do you think of the free religion of 
the Irishmen ? The poor Irishmen do not know 
whether there is any such thing as free religion in 
the world. They are always the same helpless 
slaves of the crafty priests, and as yet I do not see 
any good prospect for their salvation from this 
slavery. Thus, in the present age, the cunning use 
the name of liberty for enslaving the poor people 
both socially and mentally. 

These are my reasons, when I say I object to 
the sending out of the missionaries among the 
ignorant nations, because they are both the fathers 
of ignorance and the enemies of free religion. On 
this question depends the whole future destiny of 
our countrymen. It depends on the issue of this 
question, whether they are to become the Eastern 
Irishmen or the Eastern Yankees. I hope, gentle- 
men, you will weigh my reasons without any preju- 
dice, before you enter into any intrigue to force 
upon our Government the so-called free religion. 
Very respectfully. 



CHRISTMAS. 



BY K KANDA. 




the 



VERY nation in the world, where the 
people receive Christianity, observes 
the 25th of December as a holiday, be- 
cause it is the birthday of Jesus Christ, 
Son of God, who was born in Bethlehem of 



Judea, a part of Palestine in the western part of 
Asia, on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea. The 
mother of Jesus was Mary, the wife of Joseph. 

Jesus Christ was sent from God. " For God so 
loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son, 
that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, 
but have everlasting life." He was on the earth 
for thirty-two years, preaching the Gospel, and 
doing a great many miracles ; and great multitudes 
of people believed in him. He had twelve apostles, 
who always followed him from place to place, as he 
went preaching the Gospel and doing miracles. 
There were a great many who did not believe that 
he was sent from God, and they tried to find some 
fault in him, that they might put him to death ; but 
they found none, and at last, on a Friday, the chief 
priests, scribes, and elders held counsel with each 



Students' Essays. 1 63 

other, and bound Jesus, and took him to Pilate, a 
Roman Governor, who was then ruling over them. 
And Pilate sought to release him many times, say- 
ing, " Why, what evil hath he done ? " because he 
found no fault in him ; but they cried out, " Crucify 
him," and so Pilate, though unwilling to put Christ 
to death, but willing to content the people, deli- 
vered Jesus Christ to be crucified. And they 
dressed him with purple robes, and put a crown of 
thorns on his head, and worshipped him, and struck 
his head with a staff, and spit on his face. And 
afterward they took the robes, and put his own dress 
on, and led him to be crucified. About nine o' clock 
in the morning he was crucified, and the following 
superscription was written over his head, "The 
King of the Jews." And there were crucified two 
thieves with him, one on his right-hand side, and 
the other on the left. And that night the Jews who 
believed on him came, and asked for his body ; and 
they gave the body to Joseph of Arimathea, and he 
wrapped him in linen, and put him in a sepulchre, 
and laid a large stone at the mouth of it. 

There was a great earthquake very early on the 
first day of the week, and the angel of God de- 
scended from heaven, and rolled back the stone 
which was at the opening of the sepulchre. ' ' His 
countenance was like lightning, and his raiment 
white as snow. And for fear of him keepers did 
shake, and became as dead men ! " And when the 
women came they found the stone rolled away, but 
did not find Jesus in the tomb, but an angel, dressed 
in white, sitting at the entrance. And he spoke to 
them, " Be not affrighted : Jesus, whom they cruci- 



164 The Japanese in America. 

fied, is risen, and go to Galilee, and you will see 
him there/' So they and Jesus' apostles went there 
and saw him. He was on the earth for forty days 
after he had risen from the dead, and he appeared 
to his apostles and disciples many times, and on the 
fortieth day he ascended to heaven, being carried 
by a cloud, and all his apostles and disciples looked 
up to heaven steadfastly till he went out of their 
sight. 

Christmas-day, the birthday of Jesus Christ, who 
came to this world to save sinners, is celebrated as 
a holiday. In the evening, in some houses is placed 
an ever-green tree lit with a great many candles, 
and on it are hung many round glass balls which 
reflect the light from the candles, and make the tree 
look more beautiful. And on it are hung many 
presents, which are given to each one in the family. 
The room is shut until everything is ready, and they 
open the room where the tree is lighted with a great 
many candles and balls, and the presents are grow- 
ing on the tree like fruit. And some one cuts the 
fruit off from the tree, and gives to the person to 
whom it is addressed. 




JAPANESE POETRY. 




HE collection of oriental books which 
forms a leading feature of the Japanese 
Legation in Washington, has among 
its treasures a compilation of ancient 
Japanese Poetry. The work is called Man-yo-Sliiu, 
is in three volumes, each one about three inches 
long, and less than half an inch in thickness, and 
beautifully printed on gossamer paper. There is 
also embodied in these volumes a Poetical Anthology 
entitled Shi-ku-SMu. Some editions of this work 
are in large type and copiously illustrated. The 
poems, so called, were written between the years 
A. D. 905 and 1201, nor are they, by any means, the 
earliest poems extant. They are numerous, and 
while some of the more ancient specimens fill several 
pages, with accompanying notes, the majority do 
not occupy more than half a page, and others only 
a single line of Chinese and Japanese characters 
combined. They purport to have been written by 
emperors and princes, court minstrels or poets- 
laureate, by priests and common men; and they 
touch upon the various themes of love and war, the 
feelings of joy and sorrow, upon birds, insects, 
flowers, trees, and all the wonders of nature. Many 



166 The Japanese in America. 

authors composed all their poetry in couplets, which 
were executed with skill, and no subjects were too 
formidable for them to grapple. Some of them are 
addressed to friends, in the form of letters, and oc- 
casionally different parts of a poem are written by 
different men. For example, if a fortress is reduced, 
the emperor relates the cause of the war, and the 
successful and defeated generals give their respective 
experiences, and thus complete the story. Owing 
to the mixed characters in which the poems are 
written a kind of oriental black-letter some of 
them cannot possibly be translated, and those most 
easily understood lose their peculiar beauty in the 
English tongue. The collection in question has 
passed through many editions, and been printed in 
various styles, but the miniature copy now before 
the writer was published in Miako, the cradle of 
Japanese literature, in 1717, and the binding con- 
sists of thin paper covered with blue silk. 

Before submitting to the public a few literal 
translations from the little volumes referred to (made 
chiefly by Mr. Samro Takaki of the Japanese Le- 
gation, and formerly a student in New Brunswick) , 
it may gratify the reader to look at a synopsis of the 
Introduction. These poems, as the compiler informs 
us, are founded on the human heart. The thousands 
of words which compose them convey a similar 
number of thoughts, which are the result of seeing 
and hearing. As the birds chirp among the flowers, 
the frogs croak in the still waters, and all animated 
beings have a voice to be heard, so is it with those 
who compose songs. They echo the spirit of the 
universe, and move to pity the hearts of the gods and 



Students' Essays. 167 

demi-gods, who are not seen with human eyes, and 
who have power to prevent famine among the people, 
cure diseases, and abate the most terrible storms. 
They strengthen the affections between men and 
women, soften the passions of ferocious warriors, 
and have existed from the beginning of the world. 
It has come down to the present race in tradition, 
that the art of poetry originated in heaven, and is 
perpetuated upon earth by the wise. By direction 
of one of the early emperors, the poems to be there- 
after written were limited to thirty- one syllables, 
whereas before that time the number was unlimited. 
But few of those more ancient poems, however, are 
now in existence. As the art of poetry progressed, 
it increased the expression of human feelings for 
nature, until there was found a deep meaning, even 
in dew-drops, and birds, and flowers. Among all 
the poems written in the olden times, and in as 
many as six different styles, there were two which 
were greater than all the rest, and equal in ability, 
and these should always be learned by beginners. 
Some of the ancient emperors, in the " beautiful 
mornings of flowery Spring, and the moonlight 
nights of Autumn," were wont to call the members 
of their courts together, to compose poems on the 
works of nature, and in that manner they became 
acquainted with what was in the hearts of their 
people. And it was in this manner also that many 
celebrated poems came into existence, which are 
still cherished and repeated in the domestic circles 
of Japan. 

Accompanying many of the verses under con- 
sideration are elaborate notes, connecting them with 



168 The Japanese in America. 

important historical events and personages. It is 
related of one of the emperors, for example, that he 
always composed his poetry by the side of a favorite 
waterfall ; and of a certain prince, that he had been 
sheltered in a monastery on a stormy night, and 
having written a poem on the subject, presented it 
to the institution, whereby it obtained a fortune. 
Among the most ancient and distinguished women 
who wrote poetry was one of the Empresses of 
Japan, named Soo-tood-hime, but much of it is said 
to be " like the complainings of a beautiful girl in 
her sickness." Among the poetesses who is thought 
never to have been excelled, was Onono-Komatch, 
and she is remembered to this day with religious 
veneration. She was originally attached to one of 
the Imperial Courts of Japan, and her style or power 
of playing with words, which cannot be illustrated 
in English, was considered the perfection of art. 
But on account of the coldness and indifference with 
which she received the homage of her many 
admirers, she became reduced to beggary, and as a 
lonely and friendless minstrel she spent the greater 
part of her life. For many years she wandered, 
barefooted, from village to village, selling her trea- 
sures of thought and sentiment to any who would 
purchase them, and teaching the little children who 
gathered around her, how to recite her poetry on 
the beauties and sublimities of creation. Very many 
of the poems in the collection before us have become 
popular as songs, and as these are more easily 
translated than the longer poems, the subjoined 
specimens are exclusively of that character. 

These productions are undoubtedly more nearly 



Students' Essays. 169 

allied to the lyric than to any other form of compo- 
sition, although many of them are merely poetic 
aphorisms ; and yet, so far as they are pervaded by 
one leading idea, they might, barring their length, 
resemble the sonnet more closely. To the casual 
reader they may occasionally appear somewhat tri- 
vial, but they certainly give us many glimpses into 
the Japanese mind ; but when we consider their 
origin and great antiquity, they cannot but be read 
with interest and pleasure. 

Some of the longer poems in the collection are 
founded upon the customs, as well as the traditions, 
of the Empire, and we submit a single specimen, in 
which the beautiful and the sorrowful are happily 
combined. Among the numerous holidays which 
the Japanese formerly celebrated with great care, 
there were three of them which they devoted to the 
Festival of Departed Spirits. It occurred in July, 
between the 13th and 16th of the month. On the 
first day a fire was built in front of every house in 
the Empire, which was a signal or invitation for all 
the departed members of the house to revisit their 
old homes. A suitable place in each house was ar- 
ranged, where food of various kinds was kept con- 
stantly in view, for the use of the spirits. On the 
third day another fire was made, and the spirits 
were supposed to take their departure with the set- 
ting of the sun. On that night, as was believed, 
the fires of hell were opened, and kept open until 
the dawn ; and during the nocturnal period, cere- 
monies were performed, and effigies exhibited in 
honor of Satan. With these preliminary remarks, 
and avoiding everything like a display of learning 



170 The Japanese in America. 

in regard to Japanese authors and their productions, 
we submit the following translations. 

Nature. 

Among the things in nature which will never tarry for 
the pleasure of man, are running rivers, fading flowers, and 
passing time. 

The Cherry-Trees. 

We feel not the cold under the cherry-trees, when the 
blossoms are falling, and there are snow-showers which do 
not come from the skies. 

The Moon. 

There are many ways of climbing a mountain, but all 
who reach the summit are sure to look upon the same 
moon. 

Love. 

My love is like a rock in the depths of the ocean, which 
never gets dry, and the secret which I cherish is unknown 
to all the world. 

Illusions of the Snow. 

When the snow lies so deep upon the mountains that we 
cannot see the winding roads, then it is that the villages 
are brought nearer to their summits, for the valleys are 
all filled up, and the pathway, as we look upon it, is distinct 
and clear. 

Parting from Friends. 

When compelled to say farewell to a friend, the parting 
is like a rock which divides a mountain-stream, the waters 
of which are sure to meet again. 

The Plum-Tree. 

Send me your fragrance upon the eastern winds, 
flowers of the plum-tree, and do not forget the Spring, 
because of the absence of the sun ! But the sweetness I 
enjoy only makes me anxious for more, and so I am 
tempted to go forth and break down your branches, that 
I may press you in my hands. 

The New Tear. 

The year is new, and the singing- voice of the night-bird 
is unchanged, but the plum-tree may blossom in the snow 
before the coming of Spring. 



Students' Essays. 171 

Story of the Smoke. 

I climbed the mountain (said an emperor, when his 
countrymen were suffering from poverty), and, looking 
down, I saw the smoke rising from unnumbered dwellings, 
and so I was glad to believe that my people were in com- 
fort, for I love them as a mother does her children. 

The Dew drop. 

Having the pure heart of the lotus, why does the dew- 
drop, reposing on the leaves, attempt to deceive us by 
pretending to be a gem ? 

The Fat Widoiv. 

I am so large, that you could not encircle me in your 
arms, yet you must remember that a willow-tree is never 
anything but a willow-tree ; and, whether sitting or lying 
down, I find that my musquito-netting is larger than I 
need. 

The Rejected Lover. 

I wish to tell you (says the lover), that even the smoke 
on the sea-coast where the salt-makers are at work, is car- 
ried off against its will, and thus may it be with you ; and 
(replies the maiden), I might have obeyed your will, but it 
would have been at the hazard of my good name. 

The Duties of Li'fe. 

As I hope, in the future, to be permitted to study and 
wander among the stars, I must not forget, during my 
present life, to respect the gods, treat my fellow-men with 
justice, and keep my heart pure. 

The Deer. 

As I walked (said an emperor) in a pensive mood, along 
the woodland-paths, I heard a doe moaning for her lost 
mate, which had been killed by a hunter, and so I resolved 
to issue a decree that nevermore should the deer be used 
by my people as an article of food. 

TJie Faithful Lover. 

If my beloved doubt me, and would know the extent of 
my affection, she must go and count the waves along the 
rocky coast of Tago-no-woora. 



172 The Japanese in America. 

Future Life. 

As the fisherman, with rudder lost, floats helpless on 
the waves of Yura, so uncertain will be my future life. 

The Neglected Wife. 

You chide me because I went to sleep, but I waited, 
wakeful and desolate, for your return, until the morning 
light came up above the eastern sea. 

The Thinking Lover. 

To think, when we are entirely alone, is sometimes 
painful ; yet, without doing this, how can the mind of my 
beloved be brought to enjoy my thoughts of happiness ? 

Treacherous Waves. 

When the moon is shining, the receding waves of ocean 
collect its light, and picture it in its fulness upon their 
bosoms, but soon they dash it upon the rocky shore, shat- 
tering it into unnumbered fragments. 

Love for the Unknown. 

I do not know when my heart first began to love, but I 
do know that it is now yearning towards one, of whom I 
have heard, but have never seen. 

Autumnal Winds. 

Mournful, to my heart, are the sounds of Autumn, as I 
hear them at the twilight hour, passing over the thatched 
roof of my house, and the rice-fields growing near. 

Wayward Lovers. 

I am now in the autumn of life, which I had no desire 
soon to see, and the hearts of the men who once talked 
pleasantly to me, have wandered after many things besides 
love. 

Glean Houses. 

When the houses of a people are kept clean, you may 
always be certain that their government is respected and 
will endure. 

Unlimited Love. 

Although I have not told it, my unlimited love is well- 
known to one who is above the skies. 



Students' Essays. 173 

The Water on the Grave. 

I pray, water, that I have placed upon the grave of 
my aged mother, you may never freeze under the influence 
of the winter's cold ! 

The Doubting Wife. 

I will not blame you, should your absence be long- 
continued, but you must not gather the unknown flowers 
that you may see upon the winding roads. 

The Returned Letter. 

By sending back my letter you have filled my eyes with 
tears, and I now see that your love is like a broken foot- 
bridge across a mountain- stream. 

A Question. 

Why ? O why ? is not the one I love as faithful in keep- 
ing her promise as is the beautiful moon in passing across 
the heavens ? 

Perseverance. 

Although the walk of a cow is slow, she can, by perse- 
verance, reach the distance of a thousand miles. 

Sadness. 

When I am sad my feelings are like the closing year, 
and looking at the autumnal moon only increases my 
sorrow. 

Home. 

I call that place my home where I happen to be in all 
the world. 

The Lover's Unkind Message. 

I know that you did not send me that branch of the 
maple-tree as a token of remembrance, but to show that, 
like its leaves at the close of autumn, you are tired of the 
life of love. 

The Returned Wanderer. 

Long a wanderer from my early home, I returned only 
to find that my old friends did not remember me ; but I 
remembered, with rare pleasure, the fragrance of the Spring 
flowers. 

Unfading Love. 

I promised that my love would not fail until the waves 
of the sea had swallowed up the mountain of Suye, and is 



174 The Japanese in America. 

it not true that the clouds are still playing around its lofty 
summit ? 

A Robber going into Banishment 

I ask you, fishermen, who toil upon the sea, to tell the 
people of my native village that you have seen me in a frail 
vessel sailing in banishment to the island of Yassoshima ! 

The Dancing-Girl. 

As I look upon the dancing-girl, I am reminded of the 
goddess Otone, as she appears in the sky when the clouds 
are fleeing before the stormy wind. 

The Snow-Shower. 

To please the one I love, I went into the mountains to 
gather the wakana plant for her enjoyment, and I was 
caught in a shower of Spring snow. 

A Sleepless Night. 

During the long night have I heard the chirping of the 
grasshopper, and while the hoar-frost was covering all the 
ground I have in vain tried to obtain repose. 

Bunning from Troubles. 

I did not wish to hear about the troubles of life, and so I 
fled far away to the distant hills, but even there I heard 
the painful cry of the wounded deer. 

The Cuckoo. 

I heard at night the cry of the cuckoo-bird, and when I 
went forth to see it, I only saw the morning moon. 

The foregoing poems, with few exceptions, are 
taken from the collection to which we have alluded. 
By way of showing to what extent the art of poetry 
has been patronized in Japan, we submit the follow- 
ing list of the principal books which have been pub- 
lished in the native language, viz. : 

Chok-sen-shiu, a Collection of Selections made at the 
command of the Emperor. 

Go-sen-sJiiu, Collection of after Selections. 
Jiu-i-shiu, Collection of Additional Poems. 
Kin-yo-shiu, a Collection of Golden Leaves. 
Ko-Mn-shiu, Collection of Ancient and Modern Poems, and 
Shi-ka-shiu, a poetical Anthology. 



PART III. 

LIFE AND EESOURCES IN 
AMERICA. 




PAET III. 

LIFE AND RESOUECES IN 
AMERICA. 



PRELIMINARY NOTE. 




knowledge furnished by all the 
better qualified minds of the world is a 
powerful element, rendering great ser- 
vice in the cause of humanity. It is 
often the case that enmity and bloodshed are the 
consequence of storing up prejudices, resulting 
from the want of mutual knowledge of the parties 
engaged. The object of this publication is not 
only to aid in removing those prejudices, but also 
to invite all the lovers of their race, in Japan, to 
join in the noble march of progress and human 
happiness. 

In view of the fact that many dates are men- 
tioned in this volume, it has been found necessary, 

N 



178 Life and Resources in America. 

for the sake of convenience, to adopt the western 
calendar altogether, and it is hoped that this course 
will not lead to any embarrassment in the mind of 
the reader. 

ARINORI MORI. 

WASHINGTON CITY, U.S., September, 1871. 

Or, according to the Japanese Calendar, the 
Seventh month of the Fourth year of Meidi. 




INTRODUCTION. 

Y the term America, which appears on 
the title-page of this book, we mean 
the United States of America. As 
we are writing for the information of a 
class of readers who have never visited this country, 
we propose to speak in as simple and concise a 
manner as possible. Whatever statements of fact 
we may make, shall be founded upon the public and 
other authentic records ; and in submitting any 
general observations, we shall endeavour to steer a 
middle course, and give only such opinions as are 
held in common by the people of the country. Be- 
fore proceeding to the main object of this volume, 
however, we think it necessary to take a brief sur- 
vey of the area and population of the United States, 
as follows : The total area of the Republic, which 
extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific 
Ocean, and, excepting Alaska, lies wholly in the 



Introduction. 179 

temperate zone, is about 3,830,000 square miles 
an extent of surface larger than the whole of 
Europe ; it has a coast-line, including shores of 
bays, sounds, and lakes, of 30,000 miles, of which 
2,800 are on the Atlantic, 1,800 on the Pacific, 
and 2,000 on the Gulf of Mexico ; it is traversed 
from north to south by two great ranges of moun- 
tains, called the Alleghany and Rocky Mountains ; 
its rivers are numerous, and among the largest in 
the world ; its lakes contain more than one-half of 
the fresh water on the globe ; and its population, 
according to the census of 1870, is not far from 
39,000,000, which is a considerable advance upon 
the population hitherto claimed for the Empire of 
Japan. In the last 70 years, the increase has been 
about 33,000,000. Of these inhabitants, it has 
been estimated that more than two-fifths of them 
are immigrants, or the descendants of immigrants 
from foreign countries. Great Britain and Ireland 
have contributed most largely to this immigration, 
and the other countries which have helped to swell 
the population are as follows, and we mention them 
in the order of their contribution, viz : Germany, 
France, Prussia, China, West Indies, Switzerland, 
Norway and Sweden, Holland, Mexico, Spain, 
Italy, Belgium, South America, Denmark, Azores, 
Portugal, Sardinia, Poland, and Eussia, whose con- 
tribution was less than 2,000. Of this great mass 
of immigrants, it has been ascertained that a very 
large proportion have changed their circumstances 
for the better. With regard to the black race, 
who prior to the year 1860 were in a state of bond- 
age, but are now free, they number nearly 



180 Life and Resources in America. 

4,900,000 ; the half-civilized Indian tribes, about 
26,000, and the wild Indians have been estimated 
at 300,000. In 1870 there were of Chinese 63,254, 
with whom were included 53 Japanese, but since 
then the latter have reached about 250 in number.* 
The public lands of the United States are so abun- 
dant, that every man who settles in the country 
can afford, with careful management, to have a 
small farm for his exclusive benefit, as the price of 
land is generally so reasonable that it scarcely ex- 
ceeds, and seldom equals, the rent payable in 
England. There is no description of produce, 
European or tropical, which may not be raised in 
the United States ; and aside from its many other 
advantages, there is no other country which offers 
so many inducements to people in search of perma- 
nent and comfortable homes ; and it is the present 
condition of the people who enjoy this inheritance, 
with their manners and customs, that we propose to 
describe in the following pages of this volume. 

But, before concluding this introduction, it is 
important that two subjects should be mentioned 
for the special consideration of the Japanese people. 
While we entertain an exalted opinion of what is 
called a Eepublican form of government, we con- 
fess that it is not without its disadvantages and 
dangers. For any foreign nation fully to under- 
stand them, must require time and much careful 
study. The Japanese people have been somewhat 
fascinated by what they have seen of the American 



* It must not be understood that all these foreigners 
have been naturalized. 



Introduction. 181 

government and institutions, and it is of the utmost 
importance that they should well consider the sub- 
ject in all its bearings, before adopting any of its 
features into their own form of government. The 
evils resulting from the misuse of freedom in 
America, are among the most difficult to correct or 
reform, and ought to be carefully avoided. Another 
fact that should not be forgotten has reference to 
the educational qualifications necessary to secure 
success in a Republican form of government. It is 
undoubtedly true that the best thinkers in America 
deplore the fact that the machinations of the politi- 
cians have resulted in placing the United States in 
an unfortunate condition in this respect. It has 
been so profitable with designing and selfish men to 
increase the number of voters, that they have se- 
cured the passage of laws, which allow all men to 
vote, in view of the single idea of personal freedom. 
This is undoubtedly all wrong, and the evil effects 
of this state of things are being manifested every 
day. A prosperous, happy, and permanent Repub- 
lican government can only be secured when the 
people who live under it are virtuous and well 
educated. 





OFFICIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE. 

S preliminary to this chapter, it would 
seem to be necessary that we should 
give an outline of the machinery of the 
American Government. It is twofold 
in its character : first, Federal, because it is made 
up of States, and second, National, because it acts 
directly from the people. According to the Con- 
stitution, it is divided into three branches, viz., Ex- 
ecutive, Legislative, and Judicial. The head of the 
Executive branch, or governor of the nation, is called 
the President, who is elected by the votes of the 
people for the term of four years, and is sometimes 
re-elected for an additional term of four years. He 
is also the Commander-in- Chief of the United States 
Navy and Army. The average cost of each election, 
in money, has been estimated at two millions of 
dollars, and these expenses are incurred in part by 
the Government and people. His office is styled 
the Executive Mansion, and is identical with his 
official residence, the White House. He is obliged 
to be a native and citizen of the country, and thirty- 
five years of age ; and his annual compensation is 
twenty-five thousand dollars. The second officer 



Official and Political Life. 183 

of the Government is called the Vice-President, 
whose business is to preside over the Senate. He 
is elected in the same manner as the President, and 
his salary is eight thousand dollars per annum. The 
Executive departments of the Government are seven 
in number, viz., the departments of State or Foreign 
Affairs, Treasury, Interior, Post-Office, War, Navy, 
and of Justice. The heads of these are called Secre- 
taries, and they form the Cabinet of the President. 
They each receive a salary of eight thousand dollars, 
and their jurisdiction, under the President, extends 
to all the subordinate officers of the Government, 
whether located in Washington or in the several 
States of the Union. The Judiciary of the country 
is vested in a Supreme Court, District Courts, and 
the Court of Claims ; the salaries of the Judges 
ranging from sixty-five hundred down to thirty-five 
hundred dollars per annum. The Legislative branch 
of the Government consists of a Senate and House of 
Representatives the Senators, numbering seventy- 
four, elected for six years, and the Representatives, 
two hundred and forty-three, elected for two years 
and their compensation is five thousand dollars 
per annum. The number of States which form the 
Union is thirty-seven, with ten Territories or in- 
cipient States, and their form of government is pre- 
cisely similar to that of the nation at large; the 
leading officers of each State or Territory bearing 
the titles of Governor and Lieutenant- Governor. 
To the above may be added the municipal form of 
government for cities and towns, where the local 
authority is allied to that generally recognized in 
Europe, where the chief officers consist of Mayors 



184 Life and Resources in America. 

and Aldermen and their subordinates, although 
bearing different names in different countries. With 
these particulars before him, the reader will be able 
to comprehend the following observations. Al- 
though the real and official residence of the Presi- 
dent is in Washington, the fashionable season, so 
called, begins and ends with the sittings of Con- 
gress, beginning in December and lasting from 
three to six months. The position occupied by 
officials, under the Constitution, gives them neces- 
sarily a certain rank, according to the importance 
and nature of the office, the length of time, and the 
age, required by law, of the incumbent. The house 
in which the President resides is the property of 
the Government ; and, to a great extent, his house- 
hold expenses are paid by public appropriations. 
The title by which he is addressed in conversation is 
that of Mr. President, and every citizen of the Repub- 
lic, no matter how humble his position, has a right to 
visit the Executive in person. During the winter 
he holds public receptions as often as once a week, 
and on the fourth of July, which is a National Holi- 
day, and the First of January, he receives, as a 
special mark of respect, the Diplomatic Corps and 
the officers of the Army and the Navy in full uni- 
form, himself always appearing without any uniform. 
He accepts no invitations to dinners, and makes no 
calls or visits of ceremony ; but is at liberty to visit 
without ceremony at his pleasure. State-dinners 
are given by him quite frequently, and persons in- 
vited commit a breach of etiquette when they de- 
cline invitations. The rules of social intercourse 
which govern the Cabinet Ministers are similar .to 



Official and Political Life. 185 

those recognized by the President. As their tenure 
pf office is limited, they have, in spite of themselves, 
a very busy time during their whole term of ser- 
vice : spending their days in dealing out patronage, 
and their nights in giving or attending parties. 
Their families take the lead in fashion, and all 
American citizens have an undisputed right to at- 
tend their receptions, and, after that public manner, 
to be fashionable ; and as exclusiveness in the Pre- 
sident or his Ministers would be considered un- 
democratic, and therefore would not be tolerated, 
there is no end to the so-called enjoyments of life. 
If a Minister is rich and liberal, he becomes, for 
the time being, the biggest man of the hour, in 
spite of his politics ; if poor, and dependent only 
upon his salary, the fact of his having to occupy a 
large house, and to entertain the people, invariably 
sends him into retirement a poorer man than he 
was before. With the Judges of the Supreme 
Court these matters are somewhat different. They 
are the only dignitaries who hold office for life, and 
they can afford to do as they please, and generally 
please to lead the quiet lives of cultivated gentle- 
men. They go into society when the spirit moves 
them, are not disinclined to partake of good dinners 
with their friends, a Foreign Envoy, or a Cabinet 
Minister ; and perhaps the greatest of their bless- 
ings is, that they are not compelled to curry favour 
with the multitude. 

The next layer of Washington society to which 
we would allude, is made up of the heads of Bureaus 
and the Officers of the Army and Navy, their pay 
ranging from ten to two thousand dollars per 



186 Life and Resources in America. 

annum. They are the men who more immediately 
manage the machinery of the Government, and 
upon whom, to a great extent, depends the success 
of all the public measures enacted by Congress. 
Though generally well paid, many of them cannot 
afford to display much style, although they live 
comfortably, and generally in their own houses, 
although many officials reside in boarding-houses or 
hotels. The civil officers are but seldom appointed 
on their merits, but usually through political in- 
fluence ; and the party which happens to be in 
power commonly claims all the patronage, and the 
most worthy and competent men are often dismissed 
from office without a moment's warning. With the 
Military and Naval officers the case is somewhat 
different, for though they may get into office through 
political influence, they are usually appointed for 
life, and are not removed without cause. After the 
above come the Clerks or employes of the Govern- 
ment, which number several thousand in Washington 
alone. They are, in reality, the hardest working 
population of the Metropolis. Among them may 
be found men from every State in the Union, and 
from many foreign countries ; men of no particular 
mark, who have lost fortunes ; ripe scholars, who 
have been rudely buffeted by the world; men of 
capacity, who can teach their superiors in office ; 
rare penmen and common- place accountants ; and a 
sisterhood, composed chiefly of respectable widows 
and orphans who have fled to the Government for 
support. The custom of employing women as 
clerks originated out of the disasters which followed 
the late war, and the number now employed by the 



Official and Political Life. 187 

Government has already reached several thousand, 
and they have been found to be quite as useful as 
men-clerks. Their compensation ranges from nine 
hundred to twenty-five hundred dollars per annum, 
and while it is true that many receive more than 
they earn, because of their idle or inattentive habits, 
others find it difficult to secure a comfortable sup- 
port. Occasionally a man may be found who has 
grown grey in the public service, and is an oracle ; 
but the great majority are, in reality, a floating 
population. The comparative ease with which these 
clerks earn their money tends to make them im- 
provident; many instances might be mentioned, 
however, where clerks have left the government 
service, and become as distinguished as merchants, 
or in some of the professions. For a totally different 
phase of Washington life, and the most influential 
for evil or for good, we must return to the brotherhood 
of Congressmen. Coming as they do from all parts 
of the country, and representing every variety of 
population, it is quite as impossible to speak of them 
collectively as of their individual characteristics. 
Among them are to be found honest and able states- 
men, but that a large proportion of them are mere 
time-serving politicians is a fact that cannot be 
questioned. It is frequently the case that after a 
Congressman has ended his career as a legislator, 
he turns office-seeker, and many of them, without a 
knowledge of any language but their own, are sent 
abroad as diplomatic Ministers. Of these Con- 
gressmen, there have been not less than five thou- 
sand elected since the foundation of the Govern- 
ment ; and the several political parties to which they 



188 Life and Resources in America. 

have belonged may be summed up as Federalists, 
Democrats, Whigs, Locofocos, Freesoilers, Aboli- 
tionists, Fire-eaters, Republicans, Copperheads, 
Native Americans, Secessionists, and Radicals, 
forming in the aggregate a conglomeration of poli- 
tical ideas quite in keeping with the energetic and 
free spirit of the American people. Prior to the 
late civil war, coloured men were not admitted to 
seats in Congress, but at the present time a few of 
them hold positions in both Houses of Congress 
there being now no distinction recognized on account 
of colour, so far as political rights are concerned. 
With regard to the permanent population of Wash- 
ington, little can be said of special interest. Occu- 
pying, as this city does, a position on the River 
Potomac, at the head of navigation, about midway 
between the Atlantic Ocean and the Alleghany 
Mountains, it was calculated to become a place of 
commercial importance. But this idea was not 
realized, and it became a metropolitan city, chiefly 
dependent for its support upon the General Govern- 
ment. The local trade is measured by the wants of 
the population, and there is nothing exported 
excepting a limited amount of flour, and a consider- 
able quantity of bituminous coal. The only parti- 
cular, perhaps, in which the inhabitants differ from 
those of other American cities, is in their free and 
easy manners, growing out of their intercourse and 
familiarity with people from all quarters of the 
globe, drawn hither by business or pleasure. With 
them, the dignitaries of the land, as well as ambas- 
sadors from abroad, are appreciated at their real 
value ; and a man who towers as a giant in the 



Official and Political Life. 189 

rural districts, is very sure to be measured accurately 
in the metropolis. But the most peculiar feature of 
"Washington society at the present time (1871) , is the 
position to which the coloured or negro population 
has attained. Before the late civil war, these unhappy 
people were in a state of bondage, and only enough 
of them were congregated in the metropolis to 
supply the demand for household servants. While 
the war was progressing, which resulted in their 
emancipation, large numbers fled to this city, as to 
a place of refuge, and here a large proportion of 
them have continued to remain to the present time. 
They have been admitted to all the rights and 
privileges of citizenship ; but, while the more intel- 
ligent have profited by their advantages, large 
numbers of them are content to idle away their 
time, or depend upon the authorities for support, 
and they constitute about one-third of the present 
population. They have not as yet been sufficiently 
educated to be received in society on the same 
footing with the white race, and the repugnance to 
receiving them at the same table, or to intermarrying 
with them, is as strong as in other times, quite 
universal, and will probably so continue. 

In the further prosecution of our plan, we must 
direct attention to that large mass of the com- 
munity engaged in carrying on the business of the 
nation in the diverse regions of the United States. 
We begin with the Postmasters, one of whom is 
located in every city, town, and village throughout 
the land, and the aggregate number of whom is 
about twenty- six thousand, exclusive of their nume- 
rous assistants. Their duties are, to receive and 



190 Life and Resources in America. 

deliver all letters sent to their several offices, and 
to look after the prompt dispatch of the mails, by 
ships and railroads, by coaches and waggons, and on 
horseback, and their compensation ranges from six 
thousand dollars to a few dollars per annum. They 
are all appointed indirectly by the President, and 
hold office during his pleasure. Next to these 
come the custom-house officers, who, including all 
grades, number not less than five thousand em- 
ployes ; after these comes another large body, 
whose business is to collect the Internal Revenue 
of the country ; and also a very extensive force 
engaged in carrying on the interests connected with 
the Public Lands, the Indian Tribes, and the Judi- 
cial business in the various States and Territories, 
as well as those interests prosecuted under the 
authority of the Patent Office, the Pension Office, 
and the Agricultural Department. Now, as the 
people here mentioned, numbering in the gross not 
far from sixty thousand persons, obtain their posi- 
tions through political influence, it is natural that 
they should take a special interest in politics, and 
do their utmost for the success of the particular 
party to which they belong. Hence the great ex- 
citement which invariably prevails at all the elec- 
tions. As before intimated, the President and 
Vice-President are voted for once in every four 
years ; and the Representatives in Congress once 
in two years ; the Senators being chosen by the 
State Legislatures. It would appear, therefore, 
that as the people are intelligent and honest, so 
must be the office-holders ; but this is not always 
the case, because of the existence of what are called 



Official and Political Life. 191 

mere politicians or demagogues. This class of 
citizens has greatly multiplied of late years, and it 
is safe to say that nearly all the troubles which be- 
fall the country are the result of their petty schemes 
and selfish intrigues. There is not a village in the 
land where they do not congregate, or pursue in 
secret their unpatriotic designs. Of course there 
are many exceptions to this state of things, but the 
rule is as we have stated it ; and the evils resulting 
from the power thus obtained and prostituted, have 
come to be universally recognized and deplored by 
the honest people of the land. The loss of dignity, 
and the decline in public morals on account of 
politics is, to-day, a source of mortification and 
alarm among the virtuous and patriotic citizens of 
the country. The philosophy of government is a 
subject to which the people of America have devoted 
but little attention, and very few books have been 
published on the subject, and yet it is claimed that 
they are in advance of all other nations, in the 
practice of self-government. To what extent this 
is true, the present writer is not called upon to de- 
cide. It is too true, however, that the opinion is 
frequently expressed by foreigners that the un- 
bridled system of a Republican government leads 
to many political troubles. The two or three crown- 
ing features of the American Government would 
seem to be as follows : That the nation is a peculiar 
organism, having a life and destiny of its own, 
founded on the idea of humanity, and like the in- 
dividual person, but in a more continuous degree ; 
that its authority to govern the people is derived 
from their actual or implied assent; and that, in 



192 Life and Resources in America. 

asserting its prerogatives, it looks to the least pos- 
sible interference with the free action of the in- 
dividuals composing the community. This form of 
government involves the idea of contract, tacit or 
expressed, and no matter how it may be carried 
out, must rest upon the understanding of the 
people, not only as to the end to be pursued, but 
also as to the methods. As one circle within another, 
so does the government of each State and Terri- 
tory revolve within the circle of the Union, and the 
State, county, and town elections, for offices which 
are subject to State patronage, are precisely similar 
in character and results to the National elections. 
While deprecating the abuses to which the American 
people are subject, on account of what is called 
universal suffrage, there are many social features 
which are to be highly commended, and are peculiar 
to the country ; among these is the absence of 
pauperism, and the universal respectability in per- 
sonal appearance among all classes. This fact is 
apparent to all observers, and has been fully con- 
ceded by the best English writers on this country. 
There is no beggary here except such as arises from 
profligacy or causes beyond the control of human 
nature. Another peculiar feature of American life 
is, the equal distribution of wealth, acknowledged 
as remarkably characteristic of the nation. In all 
the large cities and occasionally in the country, may 
be found a man possessing enormous wealth, but 
among the millions of our population wealth is 
diffused, and there is a wonderful equality in the 
material condition of the population. Another 
phase of American life, to which we have already 



Official and Political Life. 193 

alluded, and which, has astonished the governments 
of the Old World, is, the doctrine of universal suf- 
frage. It is this which lies at the basis of all her 
institutions, and it is this, more than anything else, 
taken in connection with the superabundant re- 
sources of the country, that tends to an equal dis- 
tribution of wealth. It is not, as a noted English 
statesman has said, so much a man's wealth, which 
the American people recognize, and to which they 
pay homage, as the energy and ability which may ; 
turn wealth to account. In theory, as well as in 
reality, they regard equality and brotherhood as of 
the essence of the Constitution under which they 
live, and of their social well-being and existence. 
As the official and political classes heretofore 
touched upon, are either the law-makers of the 
land, or engaged in carrying out the laws, it may 
be well enough to notice their rights and privileges 
under those laws. While it is true that members 
of Congress, and some few dignitaries besides, are 
exempt from arrest for civil misdemeanors, when 
engaged in their public duties, all persons of every 
position are amenable to the criminal laws. A lead- 
ing dignitary, when he violates the law, is as 
promptly brought to trial as the humblest man in 
the community ; but the misfortune is, that the in- 
fluence possessed by the former is too apt to keep 
him from deserved punishment, while the latter is 
compelled to meet a less happy fate. 

The titles which accompany the possession of 
office are of no special value, and, except in the 
Army and Navy, terminate with the office. At the 
same time it must not be supposed that the Ameri- 

o 



194 Life and Resources in America. 

cans are without the sentiments which grow out of 
association with old and honoured families. In 
some parts of the country there is a very decided 
feeling of aristocracy, but it is peculiar to the 
regions which hare been the longest settled. The 
privilege of receiving and sending letters free of 
postage, and without limit, is enjoyed only by the 
President, his Cabinet, the heads of Bureaus, and 
Congressmen ; under certain official restrictions, 
the postmasters may frank their letters, but, beyond 
that, all men in office have to pay postage like ordi- 
nary people. When a young man has determined 
to lead a political life, his first desire is to be elected 
to the State Legislature, then to become Governor 
of the State, and from that position he thinks him- 
self entitled to go into the United States Senate ; 
but there is no uniformity in these promotions. 
Generally speaking, the career of public men in this 
country is measured more by their cunning or suc- 
cess in managing the people who have votes, rather 
than by their abilities. Nor does their political 
success depend upon their antecedents upon 
wealth or family position. Ten years before he be- 
came President, Ulysses S. Grant was a leather- 
merchant ; it was the boast of Andrew Johnson, the 
late president, that he had been bred a tailor ; and 
of Abraham Lincoln, that he had earned his living 
in early life as a common chopper of wood, or rail- 
splitter. The present Minister to England was 
once a tutor in an academy ; and the Ministers to 
France and Spain were both printers ; but at the 
same time it does occasionally happen in these lat- 
ter days, as it frequently did in former times, that 



Official and Political Life. 1 95 

the diplomatic representatives abroad have attained" 
high positions, notwithstanding the fact that they 
have been men of culture and quiet scholarship, as 
in the case of Motley and Bancroft, the historians, 
and Marsh, the distinguished scholar and authors 
The present Secretary of the Treasury was, for 
many years, a merchant's clerk; and among the 
Senators and Eepresentatives are men who once 
sold drygoods for a living, or were engaged in 
various mechanical employments, but who are not 
on those accounts less esteemed than they would 
otherwise have been. But when a notorious gam- 
bler or profligate is elected to Congress, as has 
sometimes been the case, it must not be supposed 
that the American people are indifferent to his 
antecedents. The most striking fact, perhaps, 
which can be mentioned, by way of illustrating the 
wonderful elasticity of the American Government, 
is this, that among the Representatives now sitting 
in Congress and engaged in moulding the laws, 
are several persons, members of the negro race, 
who were once slaves, employed upon plantations, 
both of which could alike, at one time, have been 
sold for a specific sum of money. Although there 
are many instances among the State governors, 
where men have risen to eminence from obscurity, 
the people have generally been more careful in se- 
lecting their State executives than in selecting 
their Congressmen ; and what we have said in 
regard to the changes effected by politics in the 
case of prominent officials, is equally true, in a less 
degree, of all the subordinate office-holders. And 
now the question arises, how about the servants of 



196 Life and Resources in America. 

the public after they have been superseded in their 
official position ? It cannot be said that any of the 
Presidents have ever gone into any unbecoming 
employment after leaving the Executive chair ; but 
it is not uncommon for Ex- Congressmen and other 
ex-officials of the so-called higher grades, to go into 
all sorts of inappropriate employments, from a 
government clerkship to a claim agency. The 
only one of the presidents who consented to enter 
Congress after leaving the Executive Chair was 
John Quincy Adams ; but his character stood so 
high as a man and a statesman, he could afford to 
do as he pleased; and to die, as he did, in the 
harness of public life. As before stated, the total 
number of men who have served the country as 
law-makers, is about five thousand ; of these, the 
legal profession has sent the largest proportion : 
the men of letters have numbered only one in every 
fifty: the eloquent speakers, or orators of special 
note, have not been more than two hundred ; less 
than one-half graduated at learned institutions ; 
while the balance have been farmers and planters, 
merchants, and members of various professions. 
The total number of men who have held Cabinet 
appointments is one hundred and eighty-two, of 
whom one hundred and thirty-three have been 
Congressmen : of the forty-four Supreme Court 
Judges, one-half of them served in the Senate or 
House of Representatives : out of five hundred and 
twenty-seven Foreign Ministers, one hundred and 
seventy were members of Congress : and of the 
seven hundred and sixty-eight State and Territorial 
Governors, three hundred and forty-nine were Con- 



Official and Political Life. 197 

gressmen. The treaty which has recently been 
made between the American and English Govern- 
ments, consummates a long- wish ed-for condition of 
affairs, viz. : a cordial good- will with all the great 
Powers of Europe Great Britain, France, Ger- 
many, Italy, Eussia, and Spain. It is claimed, in- 
deed, by the best thinkers, that the American Go- 
vernment was never more powerful and influential 
for good than it is at the present. time. Intercourse 
and trade between the two continents, over the 
Pacific Ocean, are growing rapidly. The friend- 
ship of Japan for the United States, and its thorough 
reciprocation on their part, are universally acknow- 
ledged. The latter seem to watch attentively the 
movements of England and other European Powers, 
in the far East. And while the British Government 
may deem it wise to use force in its dealings with 
the eastern nations, the American policy appears to 
adhere resolutely to the principles of peace, justice, 
and equal rights to all, notwithstanding the late 
unwarrantable operations of the American Navy on 
the coast of Corea. The changes for good that 
have taken place in Japan during the last few 
years, are a matter of wonder and satisfaction to the 
whole civilized world. The American people have 
been, since the memorable visit of Commodore 
Perry, taking great and special interest in the 
affairs of Japan. The President of the United 
States has justly echoed the prevailing sentiment 
among the Americans, when he said to the Prince 
Fushimi, member of one of the Imperial families of 
the Mikado, that he had seen with pride the young 
-men of Japan coming over to receive their educa- 



198 Life and Resources in America. 

tion, and that he would take the greatest pleasure 
in contriving to make their residence in this 
country both agreeable and useful to them. There 
rests upon Japan a great hope, as well as high re- 
sponsibility, for the success of bringing about a 
healthy and exemplary civilization, which must take 
the lead among all the Asiatic nations. 

P. S. In view of the changes which are con- 
stantly taking place among the officials of the 
American Government, to which allusion has been 
made in the foregoing pages, the writer must express 
an opinion. They are, beyond all question, a great 
disadvantage to the Republic. They naturally 
interfere with the proper and regular working of 
the machinery of the Government, and are the 
primary cause of the bitter political dissensions 
which have long prevailed, and continue to prevail, 
among the American people. And what is more, 
they lead to all kinds of corruption ; and at the very 
time of our writing these lines, the people of New 
York are greatly convulsed over the discovery that 
the Treasury of the City and State has been robbed 
to the extent of many millions of dollars, growing 
directly out of the evils of office-seeking, and rota- 
tion in office, from party considerations. On the 
other hand, it must be confessed that where the 
people have it in their power, as in America, to 
regulate the conduct of the men they elect to office, 
so long as they are truly honest, they can always 
prevent a long continuance of the evils brought 
upon them by unscrupulous demagogues. Hence 
the great importance of their being both virtuous 
and truly patriotic. 




LIFE AMONG THE FARMERS AND 
PLANTERS. 

N the present paper, we propose to give 
a comprehensive account of the Agri- 
cultural population of the United States, 
and shall speak of Farm Life in New 
England, (the Eastern,) the Middle, and Western 
States ; and of Plantation Life in the Southern States. 
It is now generally acknowledged that the prosperity 
of America depends chiefly upon its Agriculture, 
and that it has come to be considered the granary 
of Europe. The area of land susceptible of cultiva- 
tion has been estimated to be about two thousand, 
two hundred and fifty millions (2,250,000,000) of 
acres, more than half of which is owned by the 
Government, five hundred millions (500,000,000) 
having been surveyed and is now ready for occupa- 
tion ; while the lands under cultivation amount to 
more than two hundred millions (200,000,000) of 
acres. It has also been estimated that seven-eighths 
of the entire population of the county are engaged 
'in agricultural pursuits, or in the various professions 
and trades naturally dependent thereupon. The 
largest wheat crop ever produced in the States, was 
in 1869 when the yield amounted to two hundred 



200 Life and Resources in America. 

and sixty-four millions (264,000,000) of bushels, 
and as the average price was one dollar and forty 
cents ($1.40) the total cash value was not less 
than $369,600,000. The quantity of corn was 
1,100,000,000 bushels; Rye 22,000,000; Barley 
28,000,000; Buckwheat 17,000,000; Oats 275,000,000, 
and Potatoes 111,000,000; Say 22,000,000 tons; 
Tobacco 3 10,000,000 pounds; Cane Sugarl 20,000,000 
pounds, and Cotton 1,767,000,000 pounds, valued 
at $147,380,000. And as to domestic animals, 
including young cattle, horses, sheep and swine, 
their value was $978,872,785. 

With these few leading facts before him, the 
reader may obtain an approximate idea of the 
agricultural wealth of the country : and he must 
remember, that the very numerous unmentioned 
articles would swell the agricultural supplies to the 
extent of many additional millions. It is claimed 
by English farmers, that in some particulars, their 
method of farming is superior to that practised in 
this country, and that is undoubtedly true, but on 
the other hand it has been demonstrated, that the 
leading grains can be produced at a much lower 
cost in the United States than in England. As this 
is pre-eminently an agricultural country, it follows 
that here the most numerous attempts to produce 
labour-saving implements have been directed to 
facilitate the labours of the farm. The extent to 
which new agricultural inventions have been pa- 
tented, is so great, that in 1869, they reached the 
number of nineteen hundred (1,900) and all of them 
for saving muscular power on the farm, and in the 
household. A particular account of them is as 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 201 

follows: Churns and churning, 130; Corn-shell ers 
and husk ers, 40 ; Cultivators, 150 ; Diggers and 
spaders, 30 ; Fertilizers, 6 ; Forks (hay, manure, 
&c.,) 100 ; Harrows, drays and pulverizers, 80 ; 
Harvesters and attachments, 195 ; Hay-spreaders, 
25 ; Hoes, 25 ; Mowing and reaping machines, 30 ; 
Planters, 150 ; Ploughs and attachments, 255 ; Prun- 
ing, 15 ; Rakes, 90 ; Seeding and sowing, 80 ; 
Separators and smut-machines, 50; Straw, hay and 
fodder- cutters, 30 ; Threshing-machines, 35 ; and 
Yokes, 15. In the more settled parts of the 
country, the old-fashioned varieties of the hoe, the 
spade, and even the ploughshare, are now looked 
upon as barbarous contrivances, and in their place 
the farmers use what are called Steam ploughs, the 
Rotary Spade, the Sulky plough, Horse Cultivators, 
Shovel- ploughs, as well as Reaping, Mowing and 
Threshing machines of many varieties. The im- 
provements that have been made in such tools as 
the shovel, spade, hoe and forks, are so great that 
they may almost be considered entirely new inven- 
tions. With regard to these and many other 
implements of husbandry in America, lightness, 
simplicity and comparative cheapness are absolutely 
essential to their perfection. One of the effects, if 
not the most important, of these labour-saving 
machines has been, that, while one man has been 
kept in the field, three have been sent to the great 
towns to prosecute other enterprises of profit, or 
have entered upon the cultivation of other farms. 
The organization of Agricultural Societies, which 
have done much to perfect the science of tilling the 
soil, was commenced shortly after the establishment 



202 Life and Resources in America. 

of the Government in 1775, and their influence, in 
connection with annual fairs, has been wide-spread, 
and of the greatest advantage. There is not a 
State in the Union, which does not boast of one of 
them, organized for the benefit of all the inhabitants 
at large. Nor ought the fact to be forgotten, that 
there are already many Agricultural Colleges in the 
country, and that they are annually increasing in 
numbers and influence. And then again, the 
agricultural periodicals are numerous and of high 
repute. 

But notwithstanding all these facts, experienced 
men have expressed the opinion, that the condition 
of agriculture in this country is not what might be 
desired. The great trouble is, the want of proper 
method. The art is as yet imperfectly known and 
practised, and the American system is full of de- 
ficiencies. The domain of the United States, 
embraces soil capable of yielding the richest and 
most varied productions, in the greatest abun- 
dance ; and it is a peculiar feature of the country, 
that all the lands which have been sold by the 
Government, or are still owned by the same, are 
surveyed upon a system of squares and divided 
into townships of six miles square, sub-divided 
into sections and quarter sections, whereby the 
farms are generally regular in shape, and disputes 
are avoided in regard to boundary lines. The 
lands belonging to the Government are sold at the 
uniform price of one dollar and a quarter ($1.25) 
per acre, so that for one hundred dollars, a new 
settler can receive a farm of eighty acres ; but 
under existing laws, a foreigner, as well as a native, 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 203 

if of age, and intending to become a citizen, obtains 
a homestead substantially as a free gift. The total 
quantity of land owned by the Government was 
1,834,968,400 -acres; of which 447,266,190 acres 
have been sold ; and the amount now for sale is 
1,387,732,209 acres. That the National Govern- 
ment takes a deep interest in the welfare of the 
Agricultural population is proven by the fact, that 
a Department of Agriculture exists in Washington, 
which annually publishes a very valuable volume of 
miscellaneous information, and supplies seeds and 
cuttings for all who may apply for them, while the 
Postal laws of the country allow their transpor- 
tation through the mails free of expense ; the same 
laws making only a small charge for the exchange 
of seeds, cuttings and plants between private par- 
ties ; but more than all that, the National Govern- 
ment has recently made a grant of seven millions 
(7,000,000) of acres of land for the benefit of 
Agricultural Colleges, and propositions are now 
pending for giving away nearly twenty million 
(20,000,000) acres of land for objects directly or 
indirectly connected with the farming population 
of the Republic. The total number of farms in the 
United States is about three millions, which gives 
a farm for every thirteen of the entire population ; 
and the largest proportion of these farms range from 
twenty to one hundred acres. 

And now we propose to give a description in 
general terms of Farm Life in the New England 
States, (the six Eastern States,) viz. : Maine, Mas- 
sachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut 
and Rhode Island. In this region the farms are 



204 Life and Resources in America. 

almost universally small, ranging from ten to one 
hundred acres, and stone fences predominate above 
all other kinds. The Agricultural season is short, 
winter lasting through half the year. No verdure 
but that of evergreens resists the annual cold, and 
an unmelted mass of snow covers the ground for 
months. The soils, excepting in the more exten- 
sive valleys are poor and rocky, and aside from 
those farms which are given up chiefly to the 
grazing of cattle or the production of hay, the pro- 
ducts of the earth are only obtained by the severest 
kind of labour. Along the sea shore, kelp and 
fish are popular manures, but in the interior, guano, 
calcareous manures, and the yield of the barn yards 
are employed. The owner is, himself, the foremost 
workman, and his sons, his principal assistants: 
and all household matters are performed by the 
females of the family. The farmers live in com- 
fortable frame houses, very frequently surrounded 
with flowers, use both coal and wood for fuel, and 
are noted for their frugality and neatness. Their 
barns are spacious and substantial. They produce 
nothing for exportation, but a greater variety of 
crops than the more extensive farmers, and are 
quite content if they can obtain a plain, comfort- 
able support. In Vermont, the raising of superior 
breeds of horses has been a specialty, but for farm 
work, oxen are more popular than horses. If the 
farmers happen to have a small surplus of any 
commodity, they dispose of it in a neighbouring 
town; and thus provide themselves with luxuries, 
or put aside a little money for a rainy day. In 
some localities Agriculture is often joined to other 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 205 

employments such as fishing and shoemaking. 
The farmers in New England, as well as through- 
out the country, are generally a reading people, 
and profit somewhat by the published theories on 
the science of Agriculture. Their children have 
access to the country schools, but the sons are 
often obliged to help their parents in the field 
during the vernal months, so that their principal 
time for study is in the winter. They are a 
church-going people, and to the extent of their 
means, liberal in furthering the cause to which 
they may be attached. They take an interest in 
politics, and are decided in their opinions. They 
are social in their dispositions, fond of visiting 
their friends, and on winter evenings, have what 
they call apple-paring, and bed-quilting frolics, 
when their homes are cheered by such refreshments 
as mince and pumpkin pies, as well as cider, wal- 
nuts and apples. Their amusements are as various 
as their tastes, but the perpetual struggle with 
mother earth, for the means of living, makes them 
careful of their time, and is apt to induce and 
keep alive the most serious views of life. On 
farms lying in the vicinity of villages, it is often 
the case, that certain members of the family obtain 
positions in the factories or other manufacturing 
establishments, whereby they are enabled to in- 
crease their means of support. As soon as the 
boys attain the age of manhood, they find their 
fields of operation circumscribed, and leaving the 
paternal roof, wander forth into the world to make 
their own fortunes: some of them to the turmoil 
and strife of the large cities, and others to the 



206 Life and Resources in America. 

more inviting regions of the great, and not yet 
fully developed "West. In New England, farm life 
is to-day very much what it was a generation ago ; 
and from the very nature of the cold and barren 
soil, will so continue without any marked progress. 
The farmers have done their best, in fact all that 
could be done ; everything is finished and they are 
contented. It is not that the spirit of competition 
has died out there. That the Agricultural interests 
of New England have reached and passed the 
period of culmination is undoubtedly true. The 
farmers of this region are more truly the yeomanry 
of the land, than any other class, and a large pro- 
portion of them are natives of the soil they now 
cultivate, and like the venerable oaks and elms, 
which adorn many of their farms, they are content 
to live in the present as in the past, hoping that any 
family offshoots that may have been planted in 
more congenial and productive soils will be, as 
they have been in unnumbered instances, a blessing 
to their descendants. 

We now pass over into what are called the four 
Middle States of the Union, viz. : New York, Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey and Delaware, where we shall 
find a somewhat different condition of affairs, but 
with the stamp of New England manners and cus- 
toms everywhere visible. There the average size 
of farms is between one hundred and one hundred 
and fifty acres, and generally speaking, the soil is 
productive. The fences are usually made of rails, 
and every variety of manure is employed. If not 
rich, the farmers are in easy circumstances, and 
count upon annually laying up something handsome 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 207 

in the way of profits. Though well posted in their 
business, by years of practical experience, they em- 
ploy a needed supply of hands, who do most of the 
hard work, while their own time is occupied with 
the lighter duties of the farm and a general super- 
vision of affairs. Their houses are comfortable and 
often elegant, and afford ample accommodation for 
the proprietor, his family and his assistants. While 
those of New York, where the native American ele- 
ment prevails, fare sumptuously on the food of their 
own raising, and have become celebrated for their 
superior butter and cheese, the farmers of Dutch 
descent, located in Pennsylvania are charged with 
never eating what might be readily sold at the 
nearest market. It is to the credit of these farmers, 
that their barns are unequalled in this country, 
oftentimes better than the houses they live in, and 
that with them, the profits of their style of farming 
are always satisfactory. With regard to the cheese 
business, it has come to be so extensive, that we 
may allude to it more particularly. The entire pro- 
duce of last year was about one hundred millions of 
pounds, three fourths of which was made in the 
Middle States, but the largest amount in New 
York. 

From time immemorial the Dutch have had con- 
trol of this business, but the exports from this 
country are now about double of the exports from 
Holland. Formerly it was the custom of the farmers 
to make cheese upon their respective farms, but it 
is now made in regularly established factories, which 
are supported by the farmers located in their vicinity. 
The total number of these factories now flourishing 



208 Life and Resources in America. 

in this country is thirteen hundred, and they are 
supplied with milk from not less than three hundred 
thousand cows. In New Jersey and Delaware and 
on Long Island, where the chief attention is devoted 
to fruits and vegetables, and where are to be found 
the most beautiful gardens in the country, the hired 
hands are more numerous than elsewhere, in pro- 
portion to the size of the farms or gardens, but 
their positions are not so permanent. Various kinds 
of berries are here raised in the greatest abundance, 
and the surplus hands left unemployed after the 
annual gatherings have to seek other employment. 

In the great majority of cases, the proprietor 
joins his hired men in the work to be done, whether 
in casting the seed, driving the machinery employed, 
or gathering in the harvests; they all occupy the 
same platform as citizens, whether naturalized, or 
natives of the country ; free access to schools and 
churches is enjoyed by all without regard to family 
or fortune ; and the man who is working to-day as 
a hired hand, knows full well, that if he continues 
to be true to himself and his opportunities, he will 
yet be respected as a proprietor. By means of 
newspapers and books, they keep up with the spirit 
of the age ; and, though generally disinclined to 
participate in the partizan squabbles of the day, 
they are by no means indifferent to the welfare of 
the country, and are frequently called upon to fill 
offices of trust and honour. They rise early, eat a 
frugal meal at noon, and retire at the coming on of 
darkness, excepting in the winter, which is their time 
for visiting and home enjoyments, and this is true 
of the farming classes generally throughout the 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 209 

country. What are called fancy-farmers are proba- 
bly more numerous in the Middle States than in any 
other region, but these men are apt to spend more 
money than they make ; and an idea of the wealth 
which some of them attain, may be gathered from 
the fact that there is one family in the valley of the 
Genessee in New York, who own not less than thirty 
thousand acres of land, and all of it in the highest 
state of cultivation. It is this class of the more 
wealthy farmers residing in all the States, who 
greatly benefit the country by introducing the best 
kinds of stock from foreign countries, who have 
been known to pay twenty thousand dollars for a 
single stallion (horse) , two or three thousand for a 
heifer, a ram, or a bull, or one hundred dollars for 
a trio of fowls, consisting of one male and two 
females. It was one of these extensive farmers who 
inaugurated the plan of issuing printed cards with 
the following regulations for the guidance of his 
men. " Regularity in hours. Punctuality in clean- 
ing and putting away implements. Humanity to 
all the animals. Neatness and cleanliness in per- 
sonal appearan.ce. Decency in deportment and con- 
versation. Obedience to the proprietor, and am- 
bition to excel in farming." Extensive and various 
as are the farming interests of the Middle States, 
and so great are the temptations to go farther west, 
the demand for farm hands and female servants is 
always greater than the supply, and while the men 
receive from fifteen to thirty dollars per month with 
board, the women receive from eight to fifteen dol- 
lars per month for home work, and of these, by far 
the largest proportion are from England, Ireland and 



210 Life and Resources in America. 

Germany. The secret of the unparalleled growth, 
and the daily increasing power of the United States, 
is, that the Government in its practical working, is 
confined to the narrowest limits, that it is the Agent, 
not the Master of the people, and that the latter 
initiate, all changes in its political and social life. 
It is therefore the condition of the success of a 
settlement that the immigrant relies bn his own 
strength, acts on his own responsibility, and seeks 
by his own efforts the prosperity which he is sure 
to find if undisturbed. In spite of obstacles and 
disappointments, he will make his way and ultimately 
attain his objects. In the States now under con- 
sideration, as well as in all the States of the Union, 
excepting New York and a few others, a married 
woman may not convey her separate real estate, 
except in a joint deed with her husband, and yet in 
most of the States, the separate property of the 
wife is recognized. There is no imprisonment for 
debt in any part of the Republic ; and, when a 
farmer has become involved, (in more than half the 
States) , his homestead is exempt from execution ; 
and in all of them household furniture to the extent 
of five hundred dollars, wearing apparel, tools and 
books necessary to carry on business, one to five 
cows, one yoke of oxen, ten sheep, carts and farm- 
ing implements ; and the uniform and arms of any 
man who is or has been in the public service, are 
also exempt from the grasp of the creditor. When 
the head of a family dies, without making a will, his 
property is equally divided among his children or 
their offspring, and when there are no lineal de- 
scendants, the estate goes to the next of kin, except 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 211 

that the wife has a life interest of one third, called 
the widow's dower. 

The next division of farm life we have to con- 
sider, is that of the Western States. Of these 
there are sixteen in all, thirteen in the valley of the 
Mississippi river, and three on the Pacific Ocean. 
Their extent is so immense, and their products so 
numerous, that it is difficult for the mind to com- 
prehend their importance and influence. Four of 
them were, until recently, classed among the Slave 
States, and because the system of slave labour 
therein has become greatly modified by free labour, 
they can hardly be, with propriety, embraced in our 
present review. As a wheat-producing region, 
the Western States have progressed in a manner 
perfectly amazing, until they now stand unsurpassed 
by any other region of like extent in the world. 
Although the population has increased about fifty 
per cent, in the last twenty years, the increase of 
produce has greatly exceeded that of population. 
But the relative value of all the other cereals, and 
other farm productions in these States is quite as 
extensive and remarkable as that of wheat. That 
the people who are annually bringing out of the 
soil such immense wealth, are wide-awake and in- 
dustrious is self-evident. Generally speaking the 
farms are much larger than those in the Middle 
States, and the farm hands very much more nu- 
merous. Very many of the farmers with whom we 
come in contact, seem to have settled in the country 
with limited means. Some bought land, with no 
more money than would pay the first instalment on 
it, and had to work for others to make money to 



212 Life and Resources in America. 

pay the other instalments as they came due. They 
are able, in this way, in a few years to settle down 
and cultivate their own soil : and this method of 
operating is in progress to-day. When farms are 
rented, which is often done, the system adopted is 
as follows. If the tenant is not able to provide 
stock, implements and seed, the proprietor supplies 
him with all these and then allows him one-third of 
the grain crops. In this way many a man works 
himself into a farm of his own. The ordinary rate 
of interest on borrowed nloney is ten per cent., but 
even at this high rate it usually pays a farmer well, 
and there is every facility given to respectable and 
industrious men. There are often cultivated farms 
in the market for sale, but persons desiring to pur- 
chase cannot always be present ; and in buying 
second hand farms, it is well to be certain, that it 
has not been previously mortgaged. As is the 
case in all other branches of business, the man who 
has the best capacity is likely to be the most suc- 
cessful, and the operations of some of the more 
famous farmers in the West sound more like ro- 
mance than reality. For example, there was lately 
one farm in Illinois which contained about forty 
thousand acres, with one pasture field of eight 
thousand acres : its chief production was corn, all 
of which was consumed upon the farm itself; but 
in one year the proprietor sent to New York City, 
cattle enough to bring seventy thousand dollars, 
while his home stock was valued at one million of 
dollars ; and yet the man lived in a small house, in 
the most simple and unpretending style, and habi- 
tually sat down at the same table with his hired 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 213 

men* But the farming exploits of this man were 
eclipsed subsequently, by those of another who is 
now carrying on a farm of fifty thousand acres. 
With regard to another of the model farms of Illi- 
nois, we may state, that it contains thirty-six 
thousand acres, and last year had one corn field of 
five thousand five hundred acres yielding two hun- 
dred and twenty thousand bushels, three thousand 
tons of hay, four thousand head of cattle, and gave 
employment to eighty-five ploughs, fifteen planting 
machines and fifteen mowing machines. The 
hedge fencing on this farm measures about one 
hundred and thirty miles, and contains also about 
eighty miles of board fencing. There is however 
still another farm, located in Illinois, which ought 
to be mentioned in this place, as it is reputed to be 
one of the most extensive and successful in the 
world. It is called the Burr Oak Farm and is 
owned by a man named Sullivant. It embraces 
sixty-five square miles ; and although the owner 
commenced work upon it only four years ago, he 
has at the present time, growing upon it not less 
than eleven thousand acres of corn, and five thou- 
sand acres besides, planted in miscellaneous crops. 
The hedges which cross, re-cross and surround the 
farm, measure three hundred miles, the board fences 
six miles, and the ditches one hundred and fifty 
miles. The working men employed on this farm 
are mostly Swedes and Germans, number two hun- 
dred and fifty, and are constantly employed from 
the first of April to the first of January. They 
work ten hours per day, report to the proprietor 
every evening, and are not allowed the use of any 



214 Life and Resources in America. 

intoxicating drinks. The working animals of the 
farm consist of three hundred and fifty mules,, fifty 
horses and fifty yoke of oxen, and it is amply sup- 
plied with the ordinary stock of an extensive farm ; 
and the leading machinery employed consists of one 
hundred and fifty steel ploughs, seventy-five break- 
ing ploughs ; one hundred and forty- two cultivators ; 
forty-five corn planters, and twenty-five harrows ; 
and it has one ditching plough which is drawn by 
sixty-eight oxen and managed by eight men. The 
house in which the proprietor resides is a common 
wooden structure, comfortable, but without the 
least pretension. It will be understood, of course, 
that farms of this extent are not found in every 
county or State ; but they give us an idea of the 
spirit that animates the farming fraternity generally. 
Let us now, on the other hand, look at the opera- 
tions of one or two small farmers in Illinois. One 
man, for example purchased eighty acres of prairie 
land for $360. Spent $500 on improvements, his 
crops for the first year brought him over $1,500, 
and at the close of the third year, his farm was sold 
for $2,000. Another man with a capital of only 
$700, bought one hundred and sixty- acres : his 
annual produce for six years was $2,000, at the end 
of which time he was worth about ten thousand 
dollars. And such instances as the above have oc- 
curred by the thousand in the great West. As we 
glance over the immense number of farmers who 
are toiling throughout the Western States, it is 
quite impossible to depict their manners and cus- 
toms with anything like accuracy. So many are 
the nationalities which compose the great mass of 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 215 

inhabitants, the mere mention of these is indeed a 
kind of description. In Illinois and Ohio, the 
Germans, Irish and English are about equally- 
divided; in Wisconsin the English and Germans pre- 
dominate -, and Missouri is most extensively settled 
by the Germans. In the States bordering on the- 
Great Lakes and the Upper Mississippi several 
Scandinavian colonies have been established ; and 
there has been a considerable immigration of 
Chinese into California, but this latter class has not 
manifested any strong predisposition for Agricul- 
tural pursuits. The great variety of nationalities 
which sometimes congregate in one region was 
strikingly exemplified a few years ago when the 
State of Wisconsin was obliged to publish its Go- 
vernor's message in not less than eight languages. 
The amount of money sent across the ocean by im- 
migrants, to friends left behind, principally to pay 
their passage to America, is surprising. From the 
official returns of Emigration Commissioners of 
England, it appears that in 1870 there were sent 
from this country to Ireland, principally, $3,630,040 
in gold, of which $1,663,190, was for pre-paid pas- 
sage. In the twenty-three years from 1848 to 
1870 the amount of money sent was $81,670,000 in 
gold, being an average of about $3,889,047 yearly. 
But this amount is probably somewhat below the 
actual amount, as it only includes what has been 
sent through banks and commercial houses. And 
these sums, large as they are, are made up by care- 
ful savings from the wages of servant girls and 
farm labourers. In California, Missouri and Ohio, 
the grape has been so extensively cultivated as to 



216 Life and Resources in America. 

give them the reputation of being the Wine pro- 
ducing regions of the United States ; and among 
their vineyards we find many of the habits prevail- 
ing which are common to the wine districts of 
Europe. In California a farm is called a Ranch, 
and one of the most noted ones in that State may 
be described as follows. It contains eighteen 
thousand (18,000) acres ; and last year sixteen 
hundred (1,600) acres were devoted to wheat, eight 
hundred (800) to barley, two hundred (200) to 
oats, two hundred (200) to meadow, and about 
fifteen thousand (15,000) acres to orchards, vine- 
yards and pasturage. The fruit trees number eight 
thousand (8,000), the grape-vines fifty thousand 
(50,000) ; and the live stock consists of two hun- 
dred (200) horses, one thousand (1,000) head of 
cattle, three thousand (3,000) sheep and two thou- 
sand (2,000) swine ; and the entire domain is sur- 
rounded with good fences. From the above and 
other facts already narrated, it will be seen that the 
United States are supplied with all kinds of farmers ; 
some cultivating their thousands of acres, and 
others their half dozen ; and yet they all seem to 
live comfortably, and the great majority are inde- 
pendent. And there are numerous instances of 
American women who have been, and are to-day, 
quite successful in the management of farms ; and 
what will be the result of the extensive emigration 
from China to this country now going on, is a pro- 
blem, which can only be settled by the future. 

Our next subject for consideration is the Planta- 
tion Life of the Southern States. Only about six 
years have now passed away, since the close of the 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 217 

civil war, which resulted in the emancipation of 
more than four millions of slaves, and a glance at 
the condition of the South, before that great event, 
would seem to be necessary. In I860 there were 
fifteen States in which Slavery existed, and all of 
them, excepting five, made war upon the General 
Government four of them having already been 
mentioned, as among the Western States. They 
contained a population of 4,334,2oO, of whom only 
383,637 were Slave owners. The number of Planta- 
tions under cultivation was estimated at seven hun- 
dred and sixty-five thousand, comprehending about 
seventy-five millions of acres : and as to the cotton 
and sugar, rice, wheat, corn, and live-stock, which 
were produced upon them, they can only be appre- 
ciated by consulting the publications of the Census 
Office. The planter was the owner, not only of 
broad acres, almost without number, but also of, 
from ten to one thousand menials or slaves, whom 
he fed and clothed for his own exclusive profit, and 
who, for the most part, did his bidding without a 
murmur or thought beyond the passing hour. He 
lived at his ease among books and in the dispensa- 
tion of a liberal hospitality, leaving all the labour on 
his plantation to the direction of an overseer, who 
spent most of his time on horseback, issuing orders 
to the working men and women, and watching the 
regular progress of affairs. According to his wealth, 
the planter lived in a house, or an elegant mansion, 
while his slaves were domiciled in rude but com- 
fortable cabins. They received a supply of pro- 
visions, but no compensation in money ; although 
it was customary to allow them the use of a patch 



218 Life and Resources in America. 

of ground for their own benefit, and a fragment of 
time out of each day or week to cultivate it. But 
all this is now changed : Slave labour hag no ex- 
istence on the soil of the United States : and the 
opinion is universal that the suppression of slave 
labour will ultimately add greatly to the national 
advancement of all the States in which it formerly 
existed. Among the results following the late re- 
bellion, was the fact, that much of the property in 
the Southern States passed into new hands. Many 
old plantations were abandoned by their owners 
and have never been reclaimed, others have been 
confiscated, and others sold at a ruinous sacrifice. 
Many of the soldiers, who went South, who had 
been raised among the rocky hills of the North, 
became in love with the rich and beautiful fields 
and valleys of the South, and thousands resolved to 
settle in the new country. They married Southern 
women, formed new alliances and associations, and 
have opened up a new career for the South which is 
rapidly becoming more and more salutary in its 
influences. The great landed estates which have 
been cut up, may be purchased by all new comers, 
at a very small cost, while the black race to a great 
extent have settled upon small patches of land, 
where they can maintain themselves in comfort and 
enjoy an independence of thought and feeling which 
they did not know under the old order of things. 
Whole plantations have been settled by families of 
owners, who were formerly slaves upon the same 
estates. Men who were formerly overseers or 
superintendents, are themselves settling down upon 
their own newly acquired farms. Although at- 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 219 

tempts to obtain labourers from China and Sweden 
have been made, the principal cultivators of the 
Southern States are the Freedmen : who, indolent 
by nature, do as little work as possible, will not 
hire out for more than a single year, and one of the 
results of their freedom is, that they will not let 
their wives work as in the olden times. To retain 
their services, the planter is obliged to praise and 
humour them in many ways. The terms upon which 
the negroes are hired is generally to let them have 
one half of what they produce, but when supported 
by the planter they receive but one quarter of what 
they produce. When the planters are attentive to 
their business they almost invariably succeed, and 
when unsuccessful as farmers, they are apt to help 
their pockets by keeping small country stores, and 
in all the towns are located men who are called 
warehouse-men, whose business is to receive, store 
and sell all the cotton or other produce which may 
be consigned to their care. What the people of the 
South now need is help not lands ; and in many 
of the most fertile regions every inducement is 
thrown out to invite emigration from the North. 
But, after all, it is idle to suppose, that the griefs, 
the passions and animosities engendered by the late 
rebellion, will die out while the present generation 
survives. Too many brave men have perished, too 
many homes made desolate, too many families broken 
up and reduced to beggary, to expect anything of 
that sort. Men whom it has impoverished will live 
and die poor, remembering constantly, the cause 
of their poverty. Widows will long mourn over 
husbands, children over fathers, slain in battle. 



220 Life and Resources in America. 

A new and happier era is in store for the rising 
generation ; but its advance will be slow. The 
people of the North and of the South, it is fondly 
hoped and believed, will again become a happy, a 
united, and prosperous people ! united in interests, 
in pursuits, in intelligence, and in patriotic devotion 
to their united country. 

Of all the products grown in the Southern States 
the most important and universal is cotton, and it 
has been asserted that it was this single commodity 
which prevented that portion of the Union from 
relapsing into abject poverty. Everything was 
sacrificed to slavery, and slavery sacrificed every- 
thing to itself ; and as there were not slaves enough 
to cultivate the soil as it needed, cotton raising was 
all that saved the country. The principal States 
where cotton is now grown are Mississippi, Alabama, 
Louisiana, Georgia, Texas, and Arkansas, and in 
all of them, efforts are being made for the introduc- 
tion of Chinese labour. The cultivation of rice is 
limited to three States, South Carolina, Georgia 
and Louisiana : sugar cane and its products, in the 
way of sugar and molasses, to Louisiana : in Florida 
considerable attention is paid to the cultivation of 
oranges, lemons, and other tropical fruits : wheat 
and tobacco have occupied the chief attention of 
farmers in Virginia and the neighbouring States 
of Tennessee and Kentucky : North Carolina 
has acquired a reputation for its sweet potatoes 
and ground nuts. Indian corn is an important 
product in all the Southern States : while the 
mountain lands, which in all directions are covered 
with grass as well as extensive forests, are devoted 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 221 

to the grazing of cattle in great numbers, where 
they flourish throughout the year without shelter 
or any special care. In all the States lying directly 
on the gulf of Mexico the climate is mild, the 
winters short, open, and delightful, and farm work 
can be done every month in the year. They begin 
there to make their gardens in December, and until 
the following December there is a continuous suc- 
cession of crops. The people live easily and pro- 
duce more for the same amount of labour than in 
any of the Northern States. Lands are cheap and 
may often be paid for by a single crop. The 
timber is everywhere magnificent, and the lands 
are irrigated by numerous streams, and adapted to 
an unlimited variety of products. And for the 
raising of cattle there is not a region probably, in 
the world, better suited for that purpose than the 
extensive State of Texas. In some localities, the 
cattle may be counted by the thousand, and it is an 
amazing fact that droves of them are annually sent 
by the stock-raisers as far off as California ; and 
Texas cattle have even been butchered in the city 
of New York, and even cargoes of Texas beef have 
been shipped in ice to Philadelphia. From ten to 
twelve men are required for a herd of a thousand 
cattle, with two horses or mules to each man, for 
day and night duty, the cattle needing to be herded 
at night to prevent stampedes. For those who 
have never witnessed its operations, it is difficult to 
realise the extent of this cattle traffic, and it is 
sometimes the case that the whole earth seems to 
be covered with the herds, as far as the eye can 
reach over the vast prairies. The class of people 



222 Life and Resources in America. 

commonly known as the " Texas Cow-boys " are 
indeed a power in the land, whose exploits and 
lives of adventure are more like romance than 
reality. And here, in passing, we may with pro- 
priety devote a paragraph to the various modes 
employed by farmers in fencing. In those regions 
where loose rocks are abundant, stone walls are 
almost universal : where both stone and wood are 
scarce, they have a fashion of planting trees and 
shrubbery : as a matter of taste, wire fences are 
occasionally employed. In all localities where wood 
is abundant, they make what are called post and 
rail and worm fences. It is said that the fences of 
New York have cost $144,000,000, those of Penn- 
sylvania $120,000,000, Ohio $115,000,000, and 
South Carolina $20,000,000, while the fences of 
the whole Union are estimated at $1,300,000,000. 
These figures are enormous, but they tend to ex- 
hibit the extent of the farming interests of America. 
Having now taken a general survey of the Agri- 
cultural population of America, we shall conclude 
what we have to say, with a few remarks on their 
manners and customs, as exemplified by certain 
amusements, which are for the most, peculiar to 
this country. And first, as to the Sugar- Making 
Frolics. In various parts of the Union, large 
quantities of sugar are annually made from the sap 
of the Maple tree. The moment winter breaks, 
and the sap begins to ascend in the spring, the 
trees are tapped, and the liquid thus obtained is 
boiled down until it becomes a rich syrup or granu- 
lated sugar. All this takes place in the dense 
woods, and most of the work is performed at night. 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 223 

At the close of the season the farmers invite their 
friends and neighbours to a kind of jubilee which is 
held in the sugar camps, and where, with sump- 
tuous fare, followed by music and dancing, the 
entire night is given to enjoyment ; and when the 
last cauldron of sugar has been made, and daylight 
has appeared, the company is dispersed, and the 
sugar utensils are packed away until the coming of 
another season. Corresponding to the above, in 
most of the corn-growing regions they have what 
are called " Corn Huskings." This entertainment 
occurs when a farmer is anxious to prepare for 
market an unusual quantity of the yellow maize ; 
and in the North or West, when the young men 
and country lasses have met, they are piloted to the 
spacious and sweet smelling barn, and for a stated 
time all work without ceasing, until the allotted 
task is performed ; an adjournment then takes place 
to the farm house, where feasting and dancing con- 
tinue all the night long. When this frolic occurs 
in the South, the coloured people there do the 
work, and enjoy themselves in their own rude, but 
amusing ways, while the white people for whom 
they may happen to be working, act as the hosts, 
content to enjoy the laughable scenes brought to 
view. In the New England States, especially those 
regions bordering on the Sea, they have what are 
called " Clam Bakes." These are usually attended 
by men only, who congregate from various quar- 
ters ; for the purpose of exchanging political 
opinions, and having a systematic good time, when 
speeches are delivered, and large quantities of 
cheering beverages are imbibed, as well as Clams 



224 Life and Resources in America. 

eaten, after a primitive fashion. The shell fish are 
roasted in an open field and duly prepared with the 
desired condiments. These affairs take place in 
the summer after the leading harvests have been 
gathered in. In the Southern States, certain 
festivals are common, but more so before the late 
war than now, which are known as " Barbecues." 
They are political, and sometimes bring together 
very large numbers of the planters and their fami- 
lies, and the time is generally devoted to speech- 
making, happily varied by eating and drinking the 
good things of the land. The principal food on 
these occasions, consists of beef or mutton, and the 
oxen or sheep are roasted entire, over a pit duly 
prepared and filled with burning coals. The cooks 
and caterers are generally negro men and women, 
and as they have the privilege of inviting their own 
friends, the groves where they assemble present a 
varied and fantastic scene. The young people have 
it all their own way, and there is no end to the 
variety of their amusements. Another rural 
custom is known as a " House-Kaising." This 
occurs after some farmer has prepared his timber 
for a new house or barn, when he invites his 
friends and neighbours to come and help him to lift 
the timbers and cross pieces into their proper 
places. This invitation is always cheerfully ac- 
cepted, and most of the time is devoted to down- 
right hard work. But after the task has been 
accomplished the men have a substantial feast and a 
good long talk about their farms, their crops and 
cattle, and commonly separate with a warm brotherly 
feeling for each other and for their fellow-men 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 225 

everywhere. In some of the fruit-growing regions, 
large quantities of apples are stripped of their 
skins, cut into quarter pieces, and hung up to dry 
for winter use, and in that condition become a 
source of revenue. Out of this variety of business 
has grown an Autumnal festival called an " Apple- 
Paring." This takes place in the evening, the 
guests are invited as to an ordinary party, and after 
a few hours' attention to business,, the night is 
given up to feasting and dancing, or the playing of 
innocent games by the young people who compose 
the majority. Sail-playing and Sleigh-riding are 
two other pastimes in which the Americans indulge 
with rare gusto. By the rural population Saturday 
afternoon is usually assigned to the former, on 
which occasions the young men are as active and 
expert in throwing and catching, or striking the 
ball, as if they had been idle all the previous week 
instead of having had to work in the fields with the 
utmost energy. Sleigh-riding of course takes 
place in the winter only, when the ground is 
covered with snow, and then it is that the young 
farmers bring out their best horses, fill their Sleighs 
with lady friends, enveloped in gaily trimmed furs, 
and to the exhilarating music of the bells, start oft 7 
on all sorts of expeditions over the neighbouring 
country. From time immemorial it has been the 
custom among the negroes of the South to devote 
the last week of the year commonly called Christ- 
mas Holidays to every variety of amusement. 
When slavery existed, those prolonged festivities 
were freely accorded to the slaves, and were full of 
romantic interest ; but now that they are free, the 

Q 



226 Life and Resources in America. 

coloured people claim their old privilege as a right, 
but do not find the same unalloyed enjoyment as of 
old in their annual frolic. They have not as yet 
arrived at that stage, when they can enjoy the 
blessing of supporting themselves. About the 
close of the year they have in various parts of the 
country what they call " Shooting Matches." 
These are of two kinds, one where turkeys and 
other birds are tied to a stake, and made a target 
for men who like to shoot the rifle, and experienced 
. shots sometimes win a sufficient quantity of large 
.poultry to supply all their friends. Another kind 
of match is, when two parties pit themselves 
against each other, and go upon a hunt for a day 
or a week, for squirrels or birds of game, when the 
victors are rewarded with a prize of some kind, 
paid for by the losing party. And then they have 
throughout the country such rural jollifications as 
Sheep- Shearing, Ploughing Matches, and, to the dis- 
credit of the participants, Cock- Fightings, which 
need not be described. But of all rural assem- 
blages none are so generally popular as Country 
Fairs. They occur in the Autumn in numerous 
localities, and bring together thousands of the 
Agricultural population. The first Agricultural 
fair ever organized in this country by any of the 
coloured population, was recently carried through 
with success in the State of Kentucky. Farm pro- 
ducts, animals and country fabrics are exhibited to 
a marvellous extent, in many of these fairs. All 
sorts of friendly competitions are entered into, and 
Horse-racing has become an important adjunct to 
all these fairs, whether patronized by the State at 



Life among Farmers and Planters. 227 

large, or confined to the counties where they are 
held. But the crowning custom, and the one most 
universally recognized by the American people, is, 
the celebration of what is known as Thanksgiving 
Day. It is an annual festival honoured by procla- 
mations from the President, and the local Governors, 
who specify the particular Day ; and of all places to 
enjoy it, none can be compared to the house of a 
successful farmer. The primary object of this fes- 
tival is to recognize the goodness of the Almighty 
in crowning the labours of the field with prosperity, 
and the occasion is made especially joyous by the 
gathering together, under one roof, all the scattered 
members of the family in the old home. There are 
some other rural customs, which might be men- 
tioned in this place, but as they are of a religious 
character we shall defor them for a subsequent 
chapter of this volume. 





COMMERCIAL LIFE AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

HE inland and coast line navigation of 
the United States is not surpassed, in 
extent and character, by any country 
on the globe ; and the industry and 
enterprise of the Americans in developing their 
commercial and shipping interests, has been until 
within the last few years, equal to their superior 
advantages. Passing by all statistics in regard to 
the tonnage of the country, let us take a brief 
survey of the vessels and navigators which have 
given the country its reputation. By far the 
largest proportion of American vessels are run 
upon inland waters, and are called small craft, but 
the sea-going vessels, if less numerous, are gene- 
rally as large as those of any other nation, and 
have been constructed on unsurpassed models. 
The ships called " liners/' which, a few years ago 
ran between New York and Liverpool, acquired 
wide celebrity, and have never been surpassed for 
beauty and speed. But they have been superseded 
by steamers, and ships of that class now transact 
the same business. The burthen of those sailing- 
vessels was about two thousand tons ; they were 
splendidly equipped, swift, were commanded and 



Commercial Life and Developments. 229 

manned by the best metal, and did an immense 
business in bringing merchandise and immigrants 
to America. But with the calamities that have 
befallen the mercantile marine of this country, they 
have nearly all passed away. During the fiscal 
year of 1870, there were less than one hundred 
thousand tons of sea-going vessels built in the 
United States, and less than three hundred thou- 
sand tons of all descriptions of vessels, which amount 
was about equalled by the vessels built on the Clyde 
alone, while the tonnage of steam vessels built in 
all England, was sixty times greater than that of 
America. One result of this falling off in American 
ship-building has been that large numbers of men, 
who were brought up on the ocean, are seen turning 
their attention to a variety of pursuits connected 
wholly with the land. The inland waters of the 
country are most abundantly supplied with steam- 
boats, and all the varieties of the smaller sailing 
vessels.; the coasting trade, and fishing interests, 
are quite as important and extensive as heretofore, 
but new vessels are by no means now turned out 
with the rapidity that they were a few years ago. 
It was the late war, also, which helped to put back 
the carrying trade of America, but with the return 
of peace and the final restoration of the Union, the 
old order of things began to be restored. When 
the Great Rebellion, or rather the British cruisers, 
sailing under its flag, drove American shipping 
from the seas, and thus transferred the carrying 
trade to foreign bottoms, the commerce of Phila- 
delphia suffered in common with that of other cities. 
The substitution of iron for wood, at about the 



230 Life and Resources in America. 

same time, as the material for first-class steamships, 
left the country not only without ships, but behind 
other nations in facilities for making them. Boston, 
New York, and Baltimore soon recovered in good 
part their former commerce through the help of 
foreign subsidized steamship lines. But Phila- 
delphia, more thoroughly imbued with American 
ideas, made little effort to secure such foreign lines, 
but waited to build a line of her own, which will 
soon be established between that city and Liver- 
pool. In 1860 the tonnage of the United States 
amounted to 5,353,868 tons, and in 1870, to 
4,246,507 tons. Notwithstanding the above facts, 
however, the commerce of the country is very large 
and flourishing, since it appears that the American 
imports for 1870, amounted to about six hundred 
millions of dollars, and the exports about four 
hundred millions. The great variety of native 
productions exported from America gives assurance 
of the impossibility of failure in the resources of the 
nation. For example, from the sea, they have such 
products as oil, whalebone, spermaceti, and many 
kinds, in great abundance, offish ; from the forest, 
timber, shingles, staves, lumber, naval stores, and 
furs ; from agriculture, every description of corn 
and vegetable food, and the products of animals, in 
the way of beef, pork, tallow, hides, bacon, cheese, 
butter, wool, lard, and hams, with horned cattle, 
horses, and other animals. From the Southern 
States they have cotton, tobacco, rice, and sugar; 
from the factories, every variety of useful goods ; 
while their exports of specie and bullion, have 
never been exceeded by any other nation. And 



Commercial Life and Developments. 231 

as to their imports,, they are simply enormous 
silks, woollen goods, tea, coffee, and sugars being 
the most important, and for which there has always 
been a demand. But the crowning element of 
American commerce is its internal trade ; and in 
this connection, we cannot, perhaps, mention a 
more remarkable fact than this, that the produc- 
tion of spirituous liquors in 1870 amounted to 
$600,000,000, the persons engaged in selling it by 
retail, numbering not less than one hundred and 
fifty thousand ; while the importation of opium from 
China amounted to nearly $2,000,000. The dis- 
tances in America are so great that the internal 
trade and traffic of the country has been, and must 
always be, a business of vast importance. And the 
extent of territory implies great diversity of pro- 
ductions. The growths of tropical regions are ex- 
changed for the field crops and forest produce of 
cooler latitudes ; and in another direction, the pro- 
ducts of the coast and of extensive interior districts 
are exchanged. The tide of emigration sets from 
east to west, while the tide of commerce flows from 
west to east; and we can only obtain an adequate 
idea of the inland commerce by considering the 
enormous extent of the inland shipping and the 
railway facilities of the country. 

But it is with the social aspect of American Com- 
merce that we have to do at the present time. The 
grand business centre of the nation is New York 
City. Having direct and constant intercourse with 
all parts of the world, the nationality of its mer- 
chants is as varied as the countries which they 
represent. Of the native-born merchants the most 



232 Life and Eesources in America. 

numerous and successful originated in the New 
England States, and are distinguished for their 
intelligence, ability and elevated personal charac- 
teristics. They live in elegant houses, and while 
surrounded by all the appliances of prosperity and 
wealth, are not prone to making a greater display 
than their less fortunate neighbours ; they are plain 
in their manners, and hospitable ; and if many of 
them happen to indulge in keeping up fancy resi- 
dences in the country, the largest proportion are 
quite content to spend their summer vacations by 
the sea-side, or among the green hills of their native 
States. They devote themselves to business with 
ceaseless activity, and are the men who generally 
take pleasure in expending their surplus capital 
upon all sorts of benevolent, religious and educa- 
tional institutions. A type of merchants, allied to 
these, is also found in all the other cities of the 
country. Next to them come the English, French 
and German merchants, who generally deal in the 
kind of merchandise sent out from their several 
countries. In their modes of transacting business, 
and of living, they adhere as closely as possible to 
the customs of their native lands, but with many 
modifications. The particular men who laid the 
commercial foundation of New York were from 
Holland, but their characteristics have been amal- 
gamated with those of the various nationalities 
which have, latterly, made that city the most cos- 
mopolitan in the country. While a very large trade 
is carried on between New York and the Oriental 
nations, the merchants of Boston have long con- 
sidered themselves the special patrons and friends 



Commercial Life and Developments. 233 

of the far East, and that city has always been a 
noted mart for the commodities of India, China, and 
Japan, in which particular it is now finding a rival 
in San Francisco. Its coasting trade is also very 
extensive, and it is the port whence various manu- 
factures are shipped in immense quantities. The 
whaling business, which was formerly divided be- 
tween several cities, is now almost entirely con- 
fined to New Bedford ; the merchants of which city, 
like those of Boston, are proud of their descent 
from what is called the Puritan stock. In Phila- 
delphia, where the coasting trade is almost unpa- 
ralleled, they have, what is called a Quaker element 
of population, which has always been noted for its 
integrity in matters of business ; but this city is 
now vieing with New York in the cosmopolitan 
character of its merchants, and in the person of 
Stephen Girard produced one of the wealthiest and 
most eminent merchants in America. With regard 
to Baltimore and Charleston, Mobile and New Or- 
leans, all these places are the natural outlets of the 
entire Southern half of the United States, and in 
all of them may be found an abundant supply of 
merchants from the four quarters of the globe. 
And corresponding with the cities just named, 
there are throughout the interior of the country 
very many cities which have grown into centres 
of trade and commerce with marvellous rapidity ; 
among them may be mentioned Chicago, (whose 
merchants are now building up a large tea trade 
with China, by way of San Francisco,) Detroit, 
Cleveland, St. Louis, and Cincinnati, Louisville, 
Buffalo and Pittsburg, in all of which may be found 



234 Life and Resources in America. 

the principal nationalities of the globe. Looking 
at the commercial classes in the aggregate, it is 
quite impossible to give prominence to any nation- 
ality ; and it would seem as if, after a brief residence 
in America, the whole mercantile population, with 
one exception, becomes permeated with the charac- 
teristics of the native-born inhabitants. The ex- 
ception alluded to is the Jewish race. They are 
found in every city, and almost in every hamlet, 
always engaged in bartering and selling, and never 
in producing, and they are pre-eminently a wan- 
dering people. With them the one great end of 
life would seem to be to make money, but where 
they settle down to enjoy it has always been a 
mystery. 

In America, as elsewhere, permanent success in 
business is chiefly dependent upon character ; honest 
and upright men are sure to command the respect 
of their neighbours, and when unfortunate always 
find their fellow merchants ready to assist them ; 
and when men of bad repute happen to make for- 
tunes they generally find it convenient to settle 
down among strangers, to enjoy their ill-gotten 
gains. One of the effects of the late war in this 
country was to enrich a large number of adventurers 
and unscrupulous men, who made money by imposing 
upon the General Government, through political in- 
trigues, and it was because of their foolishness in 
spending their money and putting on airs, to which 
they were not accustomed, that they came to be 
known by the opprobrious title of shoddy, in remem- 
brance of a spurious cloth which some of them 
palmed off for the use of the army. But the aver- 



Commercial Life and Developments. 235 

age American merchant of to-day is a man who 
deserves and receives universal respect. He is 
intelligent, but not addicted to the profits and 
pleasures of literature. Engaged all day in the 
excitement of commercial speculation, he has but 
little time to devote to reading and improving his 
mind. He works so hard and so constantly, that 
work becomes a second nature to him, prostrating 
his energies and making him indifferent to proper 
recreations ; he considers his word as good as his 
bond, and, to protect his credit, will make the 
greatest sacrifice of property ; he is liberal in his 
feelings and gives freely to all objects which have 
the sanction of his good opinion ; he is hospitable, 
but would prefer to have his wife and daughters 
attend to the honours of his house and table ; and 
when overcome by reverses, he takes a new start, 
changes the character of his business, perhaps, and 
will not acknowledge himself as overwhelmed, and 
proves his metal by attaining final success. Perhaps 
there is no feature in the character of the Americans 
which is so remarkable as their spirit of enterprise. 
It is indeed wonderful and is the cause of their suc- 
cess. But it does not follow that this enterprise is 
all native born; a portion of it is undoubtedly 
brought into the country by intelligent men from 
the leading countries of Europe. 

But let us now take a glance at some of the 
phases of their commercial life, or rather at the 
classes of men who transact the mercantile business 
of the country ; and, first, as to the shipping mer- 
chants. To carry on their business a large capital 
is required, and as individuals or organized com- 



236 Life and Resources in America. 

panies, they are generally the leading patrons of 
the great ship yards. They have vessels built to 
order, and also buy them in open market; they 
establish lines of communication between home 
ports, by way of lakes and rivers, and between the 
United States and foreign countries ; and they are 
the men who so frequently obtain valuable contracts 
from the Government for carrying the mails, as in 
the case of the Pacific Steamship Company, which 
receives not less than five hundred thousand dollars 
for conveying a semi-monthly mail from San Fran- 
cisco to China and Japan. One of the most famous 
of these men is named Cornelius Yanderbilt. An- 
other class of shipping merchants are those who 
simply direct or superintend the business for other 
parties. They are, indeed, what might be called 
more properly brokers. One of the wealthiest men 
who ever lived in the country, John Jacob Astor, 
and who left about $25,000,000, was originally en- 
gaged in the shipping business, and made a great 
deal of money by sending his ships to China, but 
he was pre-eminently a trader in furs ; but it has re- 
cently been asserted that Wm. B. Astor, Cornelius 
Vanderbilt, and A. T. Stewart are each worth about 
sixty million dollars. Then come the importing 
merchants. They have their agents located in 
foreign countries, purchase and sell their mer- 
chandise only in the bulk, and are the men who 
give the greatest impetus to the home trade. Some 
merchants of this class, engaged in trade with the 
Oriental nations, have followed the same business 
for nearly a century ; many of them located in New 
York and Boston have acquired immense fortunes, 
and it was the son of one of these, James Lenox, 



Commercial Life and Developments. 237 

who lately made a donation of a million of dollars 
for the establishment of a Library and Gallery of 
Art in New York. With some few of these im- 
porters the custom prevails of selling their goods 
by auction, soon after their arrival, and in this 
manner whole cargoes of tea from China, or sugar 
from the West Indies, were sold within the space of 
half-an-hour. But this business has well nigh been 
absorbed by the class known as brokers. Another 
important class of merchants are the wholesale 
dealers or jobbers. They receive their goods in 
the bulk from the importers, and sell them by the 
piece or in broken packages. They sell on credit, 
and usually confine themselves to a particular class, 
or a few classes of goods. One house, for example, 
will sell only silk goods, another all sorts of cotton 
fabrics, another the several varieties of woollen 
goods, another hardware, and others wooden or 
fancy goods and groceries of every description. 
And then there are what are called the retail mer- 
chants. They constitute the most numerous class, 
and are to be found in every city and village of the 
land. In the larger towns there is no mingling of 
dry goods and groceries, but in the hamlets the 
merchants find it necessary and to their advantage 
to keep for sale everything that the people can 
possibly require from a yard of calico or a piece 
of ribbon, a paper of buttons or needles, to a pound 
of tea or coffee or sugar or shot, or a cake of soap. 
It is sometimes the case, however, that the import- 
ing, jobbing, and retail trades are carried on by the 
same firm, and there is one man located in New 
York City, Alexander T. Stewart, who is reputed 
to be the wealthiest and most influential merchant 



238 Life and Resources in America. 

of this sort in the world. His establishments are 
on the most stupendous scale ; he employs agents 
and clerks by the hundred; and his passion for 
business is so strong that he is among the first, 
as well as the last, in his daily attendance at his 
enormous warehouses. This man began his career 
a poor and friendless boy, and besides building a 
palace for himself, giving away millions for the 
comfort of the poor, he is now engaged, at an 
immense outlay, in founding a model town in the 
vicinity of New York. The commission merchants 
form another very extensive class of the business men. 
To carry on their business less capital is required 
than for those already named, but it is important 
that their credit should be unimpeachable. They 
receive goods or produce from the manufacturers 
or farmers, and sell them to the best advantage, 
receiving for themselves merely a certain per cent, 
on the amount of sales, in the way of commission, 
for trouble and expenses. With regard to the sub- 
ordinates, who are employed by the more important 
merchants, they consist of drummers, who devote 
their time to hunting up customers ; of clerks, who 
sell goods and keep the books; of porters, who pack 
the goods and do the manual labour ; and of dray- 
men, who carry the merchandise to the vessels, of 
every description, and to the railway stations. But 
there are certain other classes of business men in 
all the commercial marts whose duties are important 
and whose influence is extensive. First among 
these are the auctioneers, who sell to the highest 
bidders, real estate, furniture, books, works of art, 
and everything in fact which the owners desire to 
turn rapidly into money ; then come the brokers, 



Commercial Life and Developments. 239 

who usually devote themselves to one commodity, 
such as cotton or money, tea and coffee, sugar or 
grain, who have come to be a numerous and useful 
class, and who sell only by samples, receiving their 
pay like the commission merchants. They transact 
the business which was formerly performed by one 
class of auctioneers. The class of men known as 
bankers are those who conduct the monied institu- 
tions of the country, albeit large numbers follow 
the business on private account, many of whom, in 
all the leading cities, have acquired immense for- 
tunes. Of these, perhaps the most successful and 
celebrated is now a retired citizen of Washington, 
and who, within the last few years, has given away, 
for purposes of charity and culture, many millions 
of dollars. And still another class of the business 
men, who are very numerous and constantly in- 
creasing, are known as insurance men. They are 
the managers of extensive corporations, who insure 
in stated sums of money all kinds of property from 
fire and marine disasters, as well as the lives of 
men who desire to secure a competence for their 
families in the event of death. From the foregoing 
statements it will be seen that the machinery of 
commerce in this country is fully organized and 
very complete. 

But, fully to comprehend the extent and range 
of the commercial interests, we must now turn our 
attention to the System of Railways as it exists in 
the United States. This is a subject which in- 
creases in interest and importance every year. In 
1860 this system had already reached a develop- 
ment which was justly regarded as amazing. It 
was the product of but a short time ; every mile of 



240 Life and Resources of America. 

road had been built within the recollection of men 
who had not yet passed middle life, and three- 
fourths of it all within ten years. Yet there were 
in operation more than thirty-one thousand miles of 
road, which, with their equipment, had absorbed of 
the capital of the country not less than twelve 
hundred and fifty millions of dollars, or ten per 
cent, of the entire assessed value of property in the 
United States. There were men, however; who 
protested that this interest had outgrown the needs 
of the country, and was the result of speculative 
and artificial influences; that it diverted capital 
from more useful employments and tended to retard 
the prosperity of the country. Nor have these 
men changed their opinion. But what a change 
has taken place in this business ? From the official 
reports we learn that at the commencement of the 
present year there were railroad lines in operation 
to the extent of more than fifty-three thousand 
miles, which, with their equipment, cost nearly 
twenty-seven hundred millions of dollars, or twenty- 
two per cent, of the entire assessed value of pro- 
perty in the country. Of these, more than eleven 
thousand miles have been built within two years, 
and at an expenditure of four hundred millions 
of dollars. In other words, the people of America 
have contributed during the last ten years more 
than half as much to build railroads as they 
have paid in taxes for the support of the Go- 
vernment, including the conduct of the war, and 
are now contributing yearly for the same pur- 
pose two-thirds as much as the whole revenue 
of the national treasury. The total earnings 
of these railroads in 1870 were four hundred 



Commercial Life and Developments. 241 

and fifty millions of dollars ; and the gross tonnage 
transported equalled one hundred and twenty-five 
millions of tons, having a value of more than ten 
thousand millions of dollars. 

Prior to the late war, the American railroads 
were regarded almost exclusively in their relations 
to trade, and the comprehensive study of them was 
the concern only of the economist. But they have 
now become the centres of many forms of power in 
the hands of corporations whose management is 
concentrated, secret, and largely irresponsible ; 
they hold vast accumulations of wealth ; employ a 
large proportion of the scientific and practical 
ability of the nation ; they exert an immense in- 
fluence on all the markets, and on the social and 
material welfare of the whole people. They are 
also the favourite instruments of speculation, and 
sources of sudden profit ; they wield political agen- 
cies and parties, in many places, and even dictate 
to the State Legislatures. They thus connect 
themselves with society, in so many relations, that 
their growth and influence are becoming an anxious 
study, not only for the economist and the trader, 
but for the politician, the statesman, and the 
moralist. Hitherto, a large part of the capital 
thus consumed has been borrowed from foreign 
nations, and the want is not felt in the United 
States. But it makes part of the debt on which 
the productive industry of the country must pay 
the interest. The subject, as it has been well said, 
thus presents important and difficult questions for 
discussion. But all men must acknowledge that 
the rapid progress of this enormous interest is as 

R 



242 Life and Resources in America. 

wonderful as its present magnitude ; and it is plain 
that the ultimate extent to which the construction 
of railroads in America will be carried, no estimate 
can be formed. 

Before leaving this subject we must submit a few 
additional particulars. The average rate of speed, 
with the passenger trains in America, is thirty 
miles per hour, and the number of cars in each 
train varies from five to fifteen ; while the freight 
trains frequently number not less than one hundred 
cars. The locomotives are far more powerful, and 
much larger than those on English roads, and wood 
is the common fuel. In front of the engine is 
generally placed a massive iron grating called a 
' ' cow catcher " intended to throw off any animal 
that may be upon the track ; and in winter they are 
supplied with immense ploughs for the purpose of 
cutting through the banks of snow. They are sup- 
plied with bells as well as steam whistles, to be 
sounded when starting, or used to give note of 
coming danger. They are generally managed by 
three men, one engineer and his assistant, and one 
fireman. The passenger cars are large and have 
from eight to sixteen wheels ; some of them plain 
and open to all, and others called Palace Cars, are 
very elegantly fitted up, and occupied only by those 
persons who are willing to pay an extra fare. On 
all the trains, are also to be found such conveniences 
as " Sleeping " and " Smoking Cars." The men 
who manage the trains while running, are the 
11 Conductors," who collect the tickets ; at the end 
of each car is stationed a brakeman, who helps to 
regulate the speed ; there are also baggage men ; 



Commercial Life and Developments. 24o 

while boys with, books or papers or fruit are per- 
mitted to pass through the trains ; and upon those 
which carry the United States mail, there is always 
an officer of the General Post Office Department. 
Tickets are purchased before entering the cars, and 
for every piece of baggage a metal check is given, 
so that a man may travel a thousand miles or more 
without casting a thought upon his baggage. The 
rails are made of iron and steel and single or double 
tracks are in vogue according to the necessities of 
the route ; and the longest continuous line of rail- 
way in America, running from New York City to 
San Francisco, is three thousand and two hundred 
miles. 

As the primary object of commerce is to accu- 
mulate money, it is proper that we should conclude 
this paper with a general survey of the finances of 
the United States, and of the people to whom their 
management is intrusted. At the close of the 
last fiscal year the debt of the United States 
amounted to $2,480,672,427 ; the reduction, since 
1866, when it reached the highest amount, having 
been $292,563,746. The total receipts of the 
Government were $566,935,818, while the expen- 
ditures amounted to 8417,433,346, leaving a balance 
in the treasury of $149,502,472. The money spent 
for the civil service was $19,031,283 ; Foreign In- 
tercourse, $1,490,776 ; Military Establishment, 
$57,655,675} Naval Establishment, $21,780,229; 
collecting Customs Revenue, $6,237,137 ; assessing 
and collecting Internal Revenue, $7,234,531; 
Light House Establishment, $2,588,300 ; Mint Es- 
tablishment, $1,067,097 ; Indians, $3,407,938; and 



244 Life and Resources in America. 

Pensions, $28,340,202 ; while the balance was 
devoted to miscellaneous expenditures. Turning 
from the operations of the National Treasury to the 
Banking Institutions, we find the following infor- 
mation : the National Banks, which are conducted 
by private enterprise but made perfectly secure 
by the General Government, number 1,627, and 
have a capital of $436,478,311 ; the Chartered 
Banks, which are disconnected from the Government, 
number 1,882, and have a capital of $503,578,000 ; 
the Private Bankers represent about $400,000,000 
of capital; and the Savings Banks are estimated 
to hold about $195,000,000. The system upon 
which all these institutions is managed, is quite 
uniform each one having a president and cashier, 
a board of directors, and as many clerks as may be 
required. Taken in the aggregate, the bankers of 
America are as upright and intelligent as any in 
existence, but no class, from presidents down to 
common clerks, are so liable to go astray, and 
therefore it is that the papers have occasionally to 
chronicle acts of dishonesty among banking men. 
On the score of success, it is also worth mentioning 
that the Private Bankers have at all times led the 
way in the more important financial negotiations 
between the United States and foreign countries ; 
and the late rebellion, as well as the preceding war 
with Mexico, were both greatly indebted to the skill 
of two men, whose names as bankers have passed 
into history, viz. : William W. Corcoran and Jay 
Cooke. Of the various financial institutions, per- 
haps the most useful and truly American in its 
character is that known as the Savings Bank, the 



Commercial Life and Developments. 245 

primary object of which is to keep in safety the 
savings of the poorer classes, for the use of which 
the bank pays a regular interest. Other banks 
make it their business to lend money for commer- 
cial purposes, but not so with the Savings Banks, 
which have more to do with real estate in making 
use of their funds. With regard to the circulating 
medium of the United States, we may remark that 
it is divided into paper money and specie. The 
former, which is also called currency, is all issued in- 
directly from the National Treasury, in denomi- 
nations ranging from 10 cents to $1,000 and 
$356,000,000 being a legal tender; while all the 
issues under one dollar are called fractional cur- 
rency. The specie of the country is coined at a 
national mint, located in Philadelphia, and of course 
under the direction of the Treasury, and is com- 
posed of copper, nickel, silver, and gold ; the 
copper and nickel forming one and two cent pieces ; 
the silver five, ten, twenty- five, and fifty cent 
pieces ; and the gold, one, three, five, ten, twenty, 
and fifty dollar pieces ; to all of which may be 
added, what is called gold and silver bullion. 
Branch mints are in operation in San Francisco, 
Denver, Charlotte, Carson City, and an Assay office 
in New York. While it is true that in all parts of 
the world money is considered a great power, there 
is probably no country where the people are so 
universally imbued with the love of gain, or place 
so high an estimate on the possession of wealth, as 
is the case in the United States of America. 



LIFE AMONG THE MECHANICS. 




N no way, perhaps, can the magnitude of 
the mechanical and artisan interests of 
America be better realised than by 
walking through the spacious apart- 
ments of the Patent Office in Washington, where 
are to be found over one hundred thousand models 
0f American skill and enterprise. Of these, about 
five thousand have been deposited within the last 
three years. It might also be mentioned that the 
cost of supporting the Patent Office and publishing 
its records, down to the present time, has been 
twelve millions of dollars ; that fifty thousand appli- 
cations for patents have been rejected; and that no 
inventions, which are inoperative, frivolous, or mis- 
chievous can ever be protected by the Government. 
Sixty years ago the manufactures of the country 
were valued at $200,000,000 ; to-day they are esti- 
mated at $3,000,000,000 ; while the people who are 
engaged in this enormous business are also counted 
by millions. Their character is varied and inte- 
resting. All labour is respected, but this is espe- 
cially true of skilled labour. The American mecha- 
nics are partial to the higher grades of work, and 



Life among the Mechanics. 247 

this has a tendency to elevate them in society. 
They are ambitious to succeed, but often fail, be- 
cause of their attempting too much. As employers 
they are faithful and punctual, and they who work 
as subordinates seldom have cause to complain. 
As fellow-labourers they are not always considerate, 
but offences in that direction grow out of individual 
dispositions. Their minds are not given to abstract 
thought, but they are fond of industrial organi- 
zations. In dealing with men and things, and in 
surmounting obstacles they are wonderfully inge- 
nious ; and perhaps their chief intellectual distinc- 
tion is that of inventors. To use the language of 
another, their moral qualities are not striking, but 
generally sound. They are a good-natured people, 
and treat strangers with kindness. Fairness and 
honesty prevail among them. Discipline is weak. 
They respect their institutions, and deserve to be 
called a law-abiding people. Their homes are gene- 
rally well-ordered, and their domestic virtues are 
above the average among European nations. They 
are fond of amusements, but perhaps too willing to 
break through the rules of a wise restraint. Diffe- 
rent sections and pursuits, however, bring about 
different results : and what is true of one neigh- 
bourhood is not always true of another, and of course 
the inhabitants of the newly- settled regions are not 
generally as far advanced in culture as those located 
in the older cities and towns. A single brick or 
block of stone may give us a faint idea of the house 
to be built of that material, and, in like manner, we 
may partially become acquainted with the manu- 
facturing population, by considering a few of its 



248 Life and Resources in America. 

leading classes, who come under the head of mecha- 
nics or artisans. 

And, first, as to the very extensive number of 
persons engaged in the production of flour and 
meal the millers of the country. They are to be 
found in every part, and the business of transform- 
ing the various cereals into flour is carried on by 
steam mills, as well as those propelled by water and 
wind power. The mills which are run by water 
power are the most numerous, and it is only in a 
few level districts that the old-fashioned wind-mill 
is in vogue. Many of the mills in question are of 
limited capacity, and only intended to grind the 
grain which is sent to them from the immediate 
vicinity; but in various parts of the country are 
located very extensive establishments which send 
their brands of flour to various quarters of the 
globe. In these larger mills, which run both day 
and night, and employ two sets of hands, they 
grind and turn out from three hundred to one thou- 
sand barrels of flour in each twenty- four hours. 
Wheat is always a cash article, and to carry on the 
business a large capital is required. Besides the 
regular millers and their immediate assistants, these 
establishments give employment to large numbers 
of coopers, who manufacture the barrels that are 
used; but within the past year complaints have 
been made against these millers, that they were in 
the habit of using old barrels, which had been used 
for other purposes. This kind of dishonesty, how- 
ever, is not common, and will undoubtedly be reme- 
died. The weight of a barrel of flour is always one 
hundred and ninety- six pounds, and it is univer- 



Life among the Mechanics. 249 

sally inspected by a public officer before shipment 
from the place of its manufacture ; so that the seve- 
ral classes through whose hands each barrel of flour 
is obliged to pass are the proprietors, the millers, 
and their assistants, the coopers, the inspectors, and 
finally, the book-keeping and shipping clerks. In 
the larger mills, moreover, regular millwrights are 
also permanently employed. 

Excepting agriculture, there is no branch of 
American industry which gives employment to so 
many people as that of boot and shoe manufacturing. 
The New England States take the lead in this busi- 
ness, and Massachusetts is in advance of all the 
other individual States, the largest single establish- 
ment in that State giving employment to fourteen 
hundred persons, and paying out, in the way of 
wages, nearly one hundred thousand dollars per 
annum. And it is reported of one town that it 
turned out in one year boots and shoes enough to 
amount to five millions of dollars. The States of 
New York and Pennsylvania come next to New 
England, and it is estimated that the product of 
the whole United States is very much more than 
one hundred millions of dollars per annum ; while 
the raw material in the way of leather has reached 
a similar amount. The finer qualities of boots and 
shoes are usually made in the cities, and chiefly by 
Germans, and the more ordinary varieties in the 
country towns and villages. In some of these 
almost every house has attached to it a shop for 
making shoes, and all the members of the family, 
when not engaged in household affairs, or in cultivating 
a garden, take part in the manufacture. Within 



250 Life and Resources in America. 

the last year quite a colony of Chinese shoemakers 
have found employment in New England, and every 
inducement is given to encourage their coming in 
greater numbers. Where the sewing machine is 
employed, large numbers of shoes are turned out 
by some families, which are paid for on being deli- 
vered to the local dealers, who ship them to the 
wholesale merchants in the cities. A large propor- 
tion of the shoes made are fastened on the bottom 
by wooden pegs, thereby creating peg factories, in 
many of which shoe lasts are made, the combined 
business amounting to many hundred thousand dol- 
lars. About one- third of the people engaged in 
making shoes are women, and it is said that the 
aggregate amount now paid to the shoemakers as 
wages is not far from fifty millions of dollars. With 
regard to the leather used in this enormous busi- 
ness, it is chiefly manufactured in the country, and 
its annual production reaches very nearly one hun- 
dred millions of dollars. 

. The manufacture of clothing for men, boys, 
women and children, has become a business of late 
years, of great magnitude. It is confined chiefly to 
the large cities, and gives direct employment to 
nearly one hundred and fifty thousand hands, the 
largest proportion of whom are women. According 
to the latest published returns of the Census Office, 
they received in one year nearly twenty millions of 
dollars in wages, and produced merchandise which 
sold for about ninety millions of dollars. The gen- 
eral distribution of wealth in America enables the 
people of all classes to be comfortably and respect- 
ably attired, and it is seldom that one class is com- 



Life among the Mechanics. 251 

pelled to wear the cast-off clothing of another class. 
Out of this fact has grown the vast demand for 
ready-made clothing of moderate cost, which has 
developed into an immense and growing trade, 
giving employment to multitudes of women in the 
larger cities, who would otherwise find it difficult to 
support themselves in comfort. The cutters of 
common clothing are principally Americans, while 
the Germans and Irish are chiefly employed in the 
other branches of the business. The wages, both 
for men and women, are larger than those paid in 
Europe. The American women are noted for their 
fondness for dress, and carry the custom of clothing 
their children to a preposterous extent ; and hence 
the demand for fancy articles of dress is probably 
greater than in any other civilized country on the 
globe. And while that wonderful invention called 
the Sewing Machine has not only greatly increased 
the means of producing, it has at the same time 
created an increased demand for every variety of 
clothing. 

Of the class of artisans who are engaged in the 
manufacture of machines, the number is not far 
from fifty thousand. The machines made by them 
are well-nigh countless, in numbers and variety, 
ranging from Steam Engines and Locomotives down 
to Printing Presses and Sewing Machines. There 
is no country in the world where hydraulic machinery 
or water mills are so abundant as in America, and 
its water power is practically unlimited. Taken as 
a whole, the machinists of the country are noted for 
their superior intelligence, and turn their attention 
more to what is useful than to what is ornamental. 



252 Life and Resources in America. 

Among the articles which they produce of special 
importance may be mentioned clocks and watches, 
fire arms, cabinet furniture, cutlery, and all sorts of 
implements and tools, musical instruments, including 
organs and pianofortes, carriages, soap and candles, 
bricks, tobacco in all shapes, with articles of un- 
numbered varieties made of iron, copper, brass, 
glass and wood. Within the bounds of the Re- 
public may be found the raw material for almost 
every branch of manufacturing industry. The in- 
tellectual power and skill of the American mechanic 
may be partly appreciated by the fact that the 
manufactories of the country when last officially 
published, numbered one hundred and forty-one 
thousand, besides the machine shops of great value 
and capacity, yielding products to the value of two 
thousand millions of dollars. These immense re- 
sults, which include the products of the cotton and 
wool manufactories, whilst measurably affected by 
the wealth of the soil, and its successful cultivation, 
are yet traceable to the artisan skill, energies and 
industry of the American people. It has been said 
that the manufacturing and mechanical capacities of 
the Northern States of America were the primary 
cause of their success in the late Rebellion, and that 
a more striking illustration of the power and value 
of such resources is not to be found in history. In 
looking over the official lists, we find that the 
mechanics and artisans of the United States might 
be arranged in classes which number about one 
hundred, and of course in a paper like the present, 
it is impossible to describe them with minuteness. 
But let us now take a glance at the subject of 



Life among the Mechanics. 253 

compensation. Common labourers in America earn 
from one to two dollars per day, without board. 
The wages for skilled labour are considerably higher, 
but they cannot be precisely specified, because the 
workmen make their own contracts with their em- 
ployers, the prices being regulated by ability, the 
season, and the nature of the business. By way of 
illustration however, we append the following selec- 
tion, as about the rate of full monthly wages in 
vogue at the present time, viz. : Bakers, fourteen 
dollars; blacksmiths, ninety dollars; bricklayers, 
one hundred and twelve dollars ; book-binders, 
eighteen dollars ; butchers, twenty dollars ; cabinet- 
makers, ninety dollars ; carpenters, one hundred and 
twelve dollars ; cigar makers, sixty dollars ; confec- 
tioners, forty dollars ; coopers, one hundred dollars ; 
engineers, ninety-two dollars; machinists, ninety- 
two dollars ; masons, one hundred and twelve dol- 
lars ; millers, ninety-two dollars ; painters, sixty 
dollars ; printers, ninety- two dollars ; harness and 
saddle makers, sixty dollars; shoemakers, sixty 
dollars ; tailors, eighty dollars ; stone cutters, one 
hundred and twelve dollars; watchmakers, eighty 
dollars ; wheelwrights, eighty-four dollars ; waggon 
makers, ninety-two dollars; spinners and weavers, 
forty-eight dollars ; and wood carvers, eighty dol- 
lars. The above are only about one-fourth of the 
trades followed in America, but they are among the 
most important. Generally speaking the lowest 
wages are paid in the cities along the Atlantic sea- 
board, and they increase as the immigrant passes 
westward, reaching their highest point on the 
Pacific. 



254 Life and Resources in America. 

We come now to speak of some of the incidental 
circumstances connected with that portion of the 
labouring population devoted to mechanical employ- 
ments. The hours for beginning and ending a 
day's work vary according to the seasons of the 
year. Hitherto, it has been customary to labour 
ten hours, but this has generally been regulated by 
agreements between the employer and his hired 
men. Within the last two years, however, this 
business has been mixed up with politics, and Con- 
gress has been induced to pass a law limiting a 
day's labour to eight hours so far as the public 
service is concerned. Whether these regulations 
have resulted to the advantage of the employed or 
the employer is not yet settled. It is alleged that 
they have tended to make discord in the more im- 
portant establishments, causing the employers to 
lower the wages paid, and at the same time making 
the employed restless and more disposed than for- 
merly to demand unreasonable terms. Looking at 
the mechanics of the United States in the aggre- 
gate, it may safely be said that they live in com- 
fortable houses, have the best of plain food, husband 
their money with care, and are less addicted to in- 
temperance than are certain classes who think them- 
selves their superiors. They are not so driven in their 
employments that they cannot enjoy a suitable amount 
of recreation, and their amusements and entertain- 
ments differ according to their nationalities. If the 
Germans have their gardens,where they congregate at 
stated times to play games and drink beer, the Irish 
have their festivals in honour of their patron saints, 
as well as their wakes or hilarious funerals, while 



Life among the Mechanics. 255 

the native-born inhabitants amuse themselves with 
pastimes peculiarly American, including pick-nics, 
steamboat excursions and athletic games but sel- 
dom omitting to read the daily papers, or have 
something to do with politics. While it is true 
that there may here and there be found artisans 
who have a hard struggle to get along comfortably, 
yet a large proportion, who are industrious and 
frugal, succeed in laying up money and surrounding 
themselves with the elegancies of life. Indeed, in 
many parts of the country very marked changes are 
going on among the people, and successful mechanics 
are pushing aside the older and more aristocratic 
families, and giving tone to society. If called upon 
to say from what sphere the largest number of 
moderately wealthy men have arisen, our observa- 
tion would incline us to answer, the mechanical and 
artisan classes. There are men in all the larger 
cities who were once engaged in the most ordinary 
employments, but who have amassed fortunes that 
are truly regal, and who are using their wealth in 
helping the poor, building hospitals and founding 
institutions of learning, thereby proving that all the 
wisdom and benevolence are not possessed alone by 
the cultivated and intellectual classes. 

By way of illustrating the wonderful changes that 
have taken place in mechanical employment through 
the inventions of machinery, we may direct attention 
to the simple affair called a button. The first manu- 
facturer in America of these useful articles was one 
Samuel Williston. He was a country merchant, 
and while selling buttons made of wood he con- 
ceived the idea of covering them with cloth, and 



256 Life and Resources in America. 

he invented a machine for that purpose, which was 
the first one invented in the United States. From 
this humble beginning sprung up a factory, until 
this man was found to be making one-half of the 
buttons made in the whole world. Several factories 
which he established are coining wealth for their 
proprietors and are known to the dealers in all 
climes. This man Willis ton is now nearly eighty 
years of age and is worth about five millions of 
dollars; he is also a very liberal man, and has 
endowed several institutions of learning with more 
than a million of dollars, one of them being Amherst 
College, where several Japanese students are at the 
present time receiving their education. 

The inventive talent of the Americans is univer- 
sally recognized, and its special power is derived 
from the existing facilities for education. Among 
these, the most important undoubtedly, are those 
afforded by the great mechanical exhibitions, which 
take place in some of the leading cities every year. 
One of them, which occurs in New York, has come 
to be considered as a national institution. The 
total number of labouring-men, women and children, 
in the United States, has been estimated at thirteen 
(13,000,000) millions; and it is said that the 
steam machinery of the country is equal to two 
(2,000,000) millions of horse power, or twenty- 
eight (28,000,000) millions of grown men; so that 
while one-third of this work is done by labouring- 
men, two-thirds are performed by labouring ma- 
chines. According to the opinion of a leading 
British Statesman there are few countries in which 
the working man is held in such repute as in the 



Life among the Mechanics. 257 

United States. The labouring classes may be said 
to embrace the entire American nation. American 
artisans prefer those occupations in which the exer- 
cise of brain is in greater demand than that of the 
elbow, and their chief ambition is to attain the 
positions of master workmen. Being educated, 
they perform their duty with less supervision than 
is required when dependence is to be placed upon 
uneducated hands. It rarely happens that a work- 
man, who possesses superior skill in his craft, is 
disqualified to take the responsible position of super- 
intendent by the want of education and general 
knowledge. The true mechanic toils at his trade 
under the conviction that manual labour, to be 
effective, must adapt itself almost wholly to the 
direction of science ; and that under that direction 
unskilled labour necessarily becomes skilled, and 
limited trusts enlarge into influential responsi- 
bility. 

As already intimated in this paper, the records 
of the Patent Office bear witness to the effects of 
general education in the development of mechanical 
ingenuity in the American people. No where in 
the world, has it been justly said, does it exist to 
the same extent ; and yet, in some of the most 
important departments of manufacture, the people 
are now nearly stationary, while in others they make 
but little progress. A few years ago, Germany 
sent to Massachusetts for machinery to manufacture 
woollen cloth ; but to-day there is scarcely any 
broadcloth made in any of the United States. Many 
of the most important improvements in the cotton 
manufacture are of American origin ; and yet the 



258 Life and Resources in America. 

amount of cotton wool now consumed, hardly ex- 
ceeds that which was required eight years ago. 
The same is true of various other articles of manu- 
facture. In the last ten years the population has 
increased about nine millions ; and yet the number 
of persons engaged in many of the manufacturing 
establishments is not now greater than it was then. 
The whole increase, therefore, is forced into agri- 
culture and trade ; and a new class of men, called 
" middle men " who neither produce, nor sell at 
their own risk has sprung into existence, whose 
influence upon the prosperity of the country is 
thought to be of doubtful character. 




RELIGIOUS LIFE AND INSTITUTIONS. 




NDER this head we propose to submit 
a general account of religion in the 
United States. 

There is no State Religion, and the 
Government undertakes only to maintain order and 
administer justice to all, and they are entirely free 
to choose any kind of religion, save those which 
are contrary to its civil laws. Men associate them- 
selves according to their preferences under separate 
organizations called churches. They all believe in 
one eternal and incomprehensible Deity, and in the 
immortality of the soul. All these churches have 
a book called the Bible. This book is believed to 
be a revelation from the Deity or God, and is 
divided into the Old and New Testaments, the 
former being called the Hebrew Scriptures, and the 
latter the Greek Scriptures. They claim that the 
Old Testament contains the most ancient writings 
known, and gives a history of the world and of man 
from the creation, and also prophesies the coming 
of Christ at a given time, which is fulfilled in the 
New Testament, wherein there is a history of the 
birth and ministry, death and resurrection of Christ, 



260 Life and Resources in America. 

contained in its principal portion called the Gospel, 
the meaning of which word is "good news," and 
is applied to the story of Christ. Christ is believed 
to have been tf God manifest in the flesh," and all 
who believe in Him are called Christians. 

As specimens of each of these parts of the Bible 
we quote here some of its leading features. From 
the Old, the " Decalogue " containing the Ten 
Commandments or precepts, written on two tables 
of stone, claimed to have been delivered by God to 
an inspired man called Moses, at Mount Sinai, 
in Asia ; they will be found in the following words : 

" And God spake all these words saying, I am 
the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of 
the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. 
(1) Thou shalt have no other gods but me. (2) 
Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, 
or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above 
or in the earth beneath, or that is in the water 
under the earth ; thou shalt not bow down thyself 
to them nor worship them ; for I the Lord thy God 
am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers 
upon the children unto the third and fourth genera- 
tion of them that hate me, and shewing mercy unto 
them that love me and keep my commandments. 

(3) " Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord 
thy God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him 
guiltless that taketh His name in vain. Kemem- 
ber the Sabbath day to keep it holy. Six days 
shalt thou labour and do all thy work; but the 
seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God ; 
in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy 
son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy 



Religious Life and Institutions. 261 

maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that 
is within thy gates ; 

(4) " For in six days the Lord made heaven and 
earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested 
the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the 
seventh day and hallowed it. 

(5) " Honour thy father and thy mother : that 
thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord 
thy God giveth thee. 

(6) " Thou shalt not kill. 

(7) " Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

(8) "Thou shalt not steal. 

(9) " Thou shalt not bear false witness against 
thy neighbour. 

(10) " Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, 
thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his 
man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor 
his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbour's." 

From the New Testament we quote a part of 
Christ's Sermon on the Mount, as follows : 

" Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the 
kingdom of heaven. 

" Blessed are they that mourn ; for they shall be 
comforted. 

" Blessed are the meek ; for they shall inherit 
the earth. 

" Blessed are the merciful ; for they shall obtain 
mercy. 

1 ' Blessed are the pure in heart ; for they shall 
see God. 

f( Blessed are the peace-makers ; for they shall 
be called the children of God. 

" Blessed are they which are persecuted for 



262 Life and Resources in America. 

righteousness' sake; for theirs is the kingdom of 
heaven. 

" Blessed are ye when men shall revile and per- 
secute you and shall say all manner of evil against 
you falsely for my sake." 

After thus declaring who are blessed, he goes on 
to say who are the salt of the earth, the light of the 
world ; and that he came to fulfil the law ; what it 
is to kill, commit adultery, and to swear. He ex- 
horts man to suffer wrong ; to love even his ene- 
mies ; to labour after perfectness ; to give alms ; 
teaches him how to pray, how to forgive, how to 
fast, where to lay up treasures, how to serve God, 
and not to serve mammon, not to be careful for 
worldly things, to seek God's kingdom. He re- 
proves rash judgment, forbids to cast holy things 
to dogs. He warns them to beware of false pro- 
phets.: to be doers of the word, and to be like 
houses built upon a rock. He then teaches the 
following prayer : 

" Our Father which art in Heaven, Hallowed be 
thy name, Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in 
earth as it is in heaven : give us this day our daily 
bread ; and forgive us our debts, as we forgive our 
debtors, and lead us not into temptation, but deliver 
us from evil, for thine is the kingdom, and the 
power and the glory, for ever. Amen." 

In another place he says : " Thou shalt love the 
Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, 
and with all thy mind. This is the first and great com- 
mandment, and the second is like unto* it : Thou 
shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two 
commandments hang all the law and the prophets." 



Religious Life and Institutions. 263 

And still in another part of the Gospel we find 
this assertion : ' ( Not every one that saith unto me, 
Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, 
but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in 
heaven." 

In view of the fact that Christ was crucified on a 
cross, and the same has ever been considered a sym- 
bol of suffering, we quote the following mandate : 
" And when he had called the people unto him with 
his disciples, also, he said unto them Whosoever 
will come after me, let him deny himself and take 
up his cross, and follow me. For whosoever will 
save his life, shall lose it ; but whosoever shall lose 
his life, for my sake, and the Gospel's, the same 
shall save it. For what shall it profit a man, if he 
shall gain the whole world and lose his own soul ? 
or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul ? 
Whosoever, therefore, shall be ashamed of me and 
of my words in this adulterous and sinful genera- 
tion, of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, 
when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the 
holy angels." 

What is called the ' f golden rule " is contained 
in the following words : " Therefore all things what- 
soever ye would that men should do to you, do ye 
even so to them : for this is the law and the pro- 
phets." 

These specimens will show how the Christian re- 
ligion accords with the Bible. 

Both the Old and New Testaments contain, as 
most of such books do, many wonderful and strange 
stories, hard to be comprehended. The present 
writer deems it best not to allude here to any of 



264 Life and Resources in America. 

them, as they appear to him to be of no grave im- 
portance, in regard to their real religious essence. 
The increasing influence of the Bible is marvellously 
great, penetrating everywhere. It carries with 
it a tremendous power of freedom and justice, 
guided by a combined force of Wisdom and Good- 
ness. 

Education, Industry and Benevolence are also 
other strong agents of the Bible influence. The 
believers in it have schools, and preaching, and 
missionary enterprises. For the care and help of 
all the unfortunate they have Institutions. These 
are of three general kinds : 

First. Schools for the masses, supported by the 
State, though this does not exclude schools sup- 
ported by those directly partaking of the benefit. 

Second. Institutions of Mercy, Asylums for the 
Blind, the Deaf and Dumb ; and the Insane. These, 
because of the great expense attending them, are 
general, and are supported by the State, while hos- 
pitals and infirmaries and lying-in establishments 
are denominational or belong to churches, and are 
supported by charitable contributions. 

Third. Penal Institutions, which include houses 
of correction for young persons, jails and peniten- 
tiaries. All these being conducted more upon the 
principle of reforming the evil-doers than upon the 
principle of punishing them. 

Having now given a general outline of the sys- 
tem of religion, we will give a few particulars con- 
nected with the separate organizations. 

There are three great divisions of the Christian 
Church throughout the world, Protestant, Roman 
Catholic, and Greek Church, the latter being or- 



Religious Life and Institutions. 265 

ganized in the United States only to a limited 
extent. 

The name Protestant was first given in Germany 
to those who under the leadership of Martin Luther, 
an Augustine monk, protested against a decree of 
the Emperor Charles V., to support the doctrines of 
Rome. The Pope, Leo X., had granted indulgences 
for sins, on the payment of certain sums of money into 
the church treasury, and this was deemed wrong by 
Luther, who soon founded a religion in opposition 
to such teachings, and the name Protestant now 
comprehends chiefly all those Christians who are 
opposed to the Roman Catholic church. 

Numerous denominations or sects have since 
sprung up among the Protestants, and they may 
be named as follows : 

Methodists, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, 
Baptists, Episcopalians, Lutherans, Moravians, 
Quakers, Dutch Reformed Church, Universalists, 
Unitarians, and a few others. The sacred volume 
or Bible, in which all these sects believe, although 
some of them interpret it differently from others, is 
chiefly printed and circulated by special Bible 
Societies, which, in connection with other societies 
established in Europe, have issued the book or parts 
of it in one hundred and sixty-five different lan- 
guages, and circulated it to the extent of one 
hundred and one millions of copies during the pre- 
sent century. With regard to the leading prin- 
ciples just mentioned, the great multitude of 
Protestants are agreed, but the sects, in their 
modes of worship, are somewhat different from each 
other, and must be mentioned separately. Of these, 
the most extensive class are the Methodists. 



266 Life and Resources in America. 

This sect was founded in England, and is known 
by the names of Methodist Episcopal and Methodist 
Connection. It receives its name Methodist from 
the fact that its members profess to be guided in 
their living by the methods laid down in the Bible, 
and the name of Episcopal marks that branch whose 
power is vested in bishops. They have arranged 
their doctrines of belief into twenty-five articles ; 
they recognize the two great sacraments of Baptism 
and the Lord's Supper, in common with all Protes- 
tants. They are ruled by what is termed a Confer- 
ence, and their principal officers are called Bishops, 
Preachers, Deacons and Elders. Their churches 
are plain, and usually built without steeples or 
towers. Many of the preachers spend their time 
in travelling from one part of the country to another 
as missionaries. 

They own an extensive book establishment, and 
annually give large sums of money for the support 
of missionaries in various parts of the world. In 
1870, their preachers numbered 19,170; regular 
members 2,623,201 ; colleges, 23 ; academies and 
seminaries of learning, 85 ; while the total amount 
of their property was about seven millions of 
dollars. 

Presbyterians are governed by presbyteries or as- 
sociations of ministers and ruling elders; several 
adjoining presbyteries meet under the name of 
Synod, and their General Assembly, which is their 
highest tribunal, is composed of delegates from 
each presbytery ; this body meets annually and 
attends to the interests of their church throughout 
the country. Although known in various parts of 



Religious Life and Institutions. 267 

Europe, this sect was introduced into America from 
Scotland, where it is the Established Church. The 
doctrines which they profess are purely evangelical 
on all points. They give the name of bishop to each 
minister, and hold them equal in power ; the mean- 
ing of the word bishop being overseer. In 1870, 
the total number of ministers was 4,877; the 
churches, 5,342 ; and the members or communi- 
cants, 524,945. The amount contributed and ex- 
pended for church and missionary operations was 
about $8,000,000. One of their customs is to have 
protracted meetings, which continue for several days 
at a time, and often terminate in what are called 
revivals of religion, usually bringing many new 
members into their congregations. 

Closely allied to the above is the sect called Con- 
gregationalists. It is the same as that known in 
England as the Independents, and they have been 
identified with America ever since 1620, when the 
pilgrims first landed on the shores of New England. 
The essential peculiarity of this church is that it 
maintains the independence of each congregation. 
It is associated with Presbyterians in missionary 
and publishing enterprises ; its colleges are nume- 
rous, and its chief strength lies within the New 
England States ; its ministers number 3,043 ; 
churches, 2,341 ; its members, 306,518 ; and in the 
last forty years it has expended for religious pur- 
poses nearly six millions of dollars. 

Next to the Methodists, in point of numbers, are 
the Baptists. They differ from all other sects in 
regard to the rite of Baptism; they not only ex- 
clude infants from the rite, but in case of all adults, 



268 Life and Resources in America. 

insist upon immersion, or subjecting the entire 
body to the influence of water ; hence they have in 
most of their churches a large tank or basin, built 
behind their pulpits, in which the ceremony is per- 
formed ; but in some parts of the country it is 
quite common to perform the rite in rivers or 
natural pools of water, and at such times, the con- 
gregated spectators help to make the scene impres- 
sive ; the officiating pastor leads the person to be 
baptized into the water and dips the head under, 
while pronouncing the necessary form of words. 
There is a loose dress worn on the occasion by the 
pastor and the person to be baptized. They do not 
use the title of bishop, and they recognize no 
officials higher than pastors and deacons. One 
branch of this sect call themselves Close Communion 
Baptists, and will not allow members of other de- 
nominations to commune with them ; another 
branch are called Seventh Day Baptists, because 
they consider Saturday, or the seventh day of 
the week, the true Sabbath. Still another branch 
are called Free- Will Baptists, because of their more 
liberal opinions. According to the latest records 
the members of this church number 1,221,349; the 
churches, 15,143 ; and ministers, 8,784. They 
publish thirty-five periodicals ; and support twenty- 
five colleges and fourteen seminaries of learning. 

We now come to the Protestant Episcopal Church. 
It consists- of thirty-nine confederated dioceses 
under the care of bishops to whom their priests 
and deacons are subordinate. Each bishop has 
charge of a diocese or circuit which is the extent of 
his jurisdiction and generally comprises one state. 



Religious Life and Institutions. 269 

These representative bishops meet in a general con- 
vention, composed of the " House of Bishops/' con- 
sisting of all the diocesan and missionary bishops, 
and of the " House of Clerical and Lay Deputies/' 
consisting of four laymen from each diocese. This 
Convention meets triennially. Each diocese has its 
Annual Convention, composed of its bishop and 
assistant bishop, if there be one, and the priests, 
deacons and laity from each congregation, and all 
disputed questions are referred to the House of 
Bishops. This sect has a written form of worship 
called a Liturgy, which is embodied in a book called 
the " Common Prayer ; " it is founded upon the one 
used by the Church of England, with such altera- 
tions as were deemed expedient upon its adoption 
in the United States. There have been several 
dissensions in this church growing out of the use 
of this book, and these have caused the division of 
the sect into High and Low Church. They are the 
only Protestants, excepting the Dutch reformed 
who wear robes or gowns while performing their 
priestly office. This gown is of black silk, fitting 
loosely, and is worn while preaching and at funerals. 
A white gown is used for all other services, which 
is made of white muslin; bishops wear only the 
white gown. They have 52 bishops, and their 
priests and deacons number 2,786 ; their parishes, 
2,605 ; and members or communicants about two 
hundred and twenty thousand. 

The denomination known as Lutherans, claims to 
be more especially Protestant than any other, and 
takes its name from Martin Luther, although that 
celebrated reformer was opposed to its use in that 



270 Life and Resources in America. 

connection. Another name for this church is that 
of the United Evangelical Church. They believe 
in the actual salvation of infants, dying unbaptized. 

In other respects the Lutherans substantially agree 
with all the denominations hitherto mentioned. It 
has long been an influential body in America ; its 
ministers number 1,933 ; its churches, 3,417 ; and 
members, 387,746. Closely allied to the sects 
already mentioned are those known as the Dutch 
Reformers and the Moravians. The first of these 
has its seat of power in New York; its ministers 
number 974 and its members, 175,091. The Mo- 
ravians, though not numerous, have also been noted 
for their devotion to missionary labour, especially 
in the Northern parts of North America. 

All the denominations described above, are com- 
monly styled as Orthodox or Evangelical. The 
following are those which in some degree are in 
opposition to the others in both faith and principle. 
They are regarded very liberal and broad in their 
views. 

The sect known as Universalists, claim that their 
doctrines were preached in the United States, as 
far back as one hundred years ago. They reject 
the doctrine of the Trinity, giving to Christ the 
second place and making him subordinate to the 
Father; and while declaring that God is infinite, 
they believe in the final destruction of evil and the 
restoration of all human souls through Jesus Christ. 
They do not believe that any of the human race will 
be finally lost. Their government is representative 
and ecclesiastical; and they have 1,279 societies, 
998 churches and 724 preachers; publish about 



Religious Life and Institutions. 271 

twenty periodicals, and hold property to the value 
of about eight hundred thousand dollars. 

And next come the Unitarians. They oppose 
the doctrine of the Trinity, which is held by the 
great majority of Protestants, and believe in the 
absolute unity of God. They do not reject the 
existence of Christ, but believe him to have been 
only a man. The manner of their worship is simple, 
and each church manages its own affairs separately. 
This sect originated in the United States in 1825, 
and is more popular in Massachusetts than in any 
other State of the Union. The number of societies 
which they support is 334, and they have 396 
ministers, a large proportion of whom are not per- 
manently settled. They support two Theological 
Seminaries ; seven or eight periodicals ; and fifteen 
charitable Institutions. The population connected 
with this denomination is variously estimated at 
from fifteen to thirty thousand. Within the last 
few years they have accepted the co-operation of 
the Universalists in their efforts to do good ; and 
they have made the following agreement : 

" Re-affirming our allegiance to the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ, and to secure the largest unity of the 
spirit and the widest practical co-operation, we 
invite to our fellowship all who wish to be followers 
of Christ." 

Having now given a general description of the 
various Protestant denominations, it is proper that 
we should be a little more explicit in regard to the 
sacraments of the Evangelicals. They admit as 
essential to membership only two sacraments, which 
are considered of Divine Institution. These are 



272 Life and Resources in America. 

the rite of Baptism, and the Lord's Supper, called 
the Communion. Baptism is a representation or 
seal of the new covenant, and is the appointed 
ordinance for their introduction into the church, 
and is a sign of profession, whereby the promises of 
remission of sins and adoption into the family of 
Christians, are said to be visibly sealed by the Holy 
Ghost. All the denominations mentioned above, 
excepting the Baptists, believe in the efficacy of 
infant Baptism, and that it has an influence on all 
the periods of life, and all administer the rite, by 
sprinkling with water the face of the child or adult 
believer, and sometimes, as in the Episcopal church, 
making the sign of the cross on the forehead, while 
the minister pronounces the words, " I baptize thee 
in the name of the Father and the Son and the 
Holy Ghost," showing by these words that the 
person baptized, or the person bringing the child, 
believes in the Trinity, or Triune God, the Father 
as Creator, the Son as Redeemer, and the Holy 
Ghost as Comforter. The water is used as an 
emblem of purity, and it is not generally supposed 
that the outward sign will profit those who live and. 
die without the inward grace, but is to be an 
adoption into the family of God, by being conse- 
crated to his service, and is a safeguard from evil, 
so far as the remembrance of this consecration has 
its influence. Baptism therefore, is supposed to 
commemorate the fact that Jesus Christ revealed 
God to be the Father, himself the Son, and the 
Spirit the Holy Ghost, or three persons in the one 
Godhead, all of which are acknowledged by them, 
to exist as a mystery, understood by God alone. 



Religious Life and Institutions. 273 

The Holy Communion, or Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper, commemorates the fact that Jesus 
Christ lived and died, and it derived its institution 
from the fact that on the evening before his death, 
he had a supper, commonly called the Last Supper, 
and he gave bread and wine to his disciples, saying, 
" Take and eat this bread in remembrance of me, 
and as often as ye drink this cup ye do show forth 
the Lord's death until He come." These words are 
found recorded in their Bible and are believed by 
all Protestants ; so that this Sacrament is revered 
by all who believe in Christ's sacrifice on the cross 
to atone for the sins of the whole world. The 
Episcopalian and the Methodist form of partaking 
of the Lord's Supper is by kneeling around the 
chancel in front of the pulpit, while the minister 
passes before them, first with the bread, which he 
gives to each one saying : " The body of our Lord 
Jesus Christ which was given for thee, preserve thy 
body and soul unto everlasting life. Take and eat 
this in remembrance that Christ died for thee and 
feed on him in thy heart by faith, with thanks- 
giving." He then gives the cup to each one saying, 
"The blood of our Lord Jesus Christ which was 
shed for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto 
everlasting life. Drink this in remembrance that 
Christ's blood was shed for thee, and be thankful." 

Right here we may pause for a moment to look 
at a passage in the New Testament, wherein Christ 
declares himself to be the bread of life to all 
believers, and addressing himself to the doubting 
Jews : " Then Jesus said unto them, ' Verily, 
verily I say unto you, except ye eat the flesh of the 



274 Life and Resources in America. 

Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in 
you. Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my 
blood, hath eternal life ; and I will raise him up at 
the last day. For my flesh is meat indeed, and my 
blood is drink indeed. He that eateth my flesh, 
and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in 
him. As the living Father hath sent me, and I live 
by the Father ; so he that eateth me, even he shall 
live. This is that bread which came down from 
heaven; not as your fathers did eat manna, and 
are dead; he that eateth of this bread shall live 
forever/ 3 ' 

The Presbyterians partake of the Sacrament 
sitting either around a table, which is placed in 
some churches, or in the pews of the church ; the 
bread and wine being handed to them by the Elders 
of the church; the minister at the same time re- 
peating words nearly allied to those used by Christ 
at the Last Supper. The Congregationalists and 
Baptists use nearly the same forms. 

The next rite of importance is that of marriage. 
It is considered by all Christians to have been or- 
dained by God, and therefore, it is a holy rite, not 
to be engaged in without the sanction of the proper 
authorities, which make the tie binding and lawful. 
The ceremony, after a license has been granted, is 
performed either in the church or at the home of 
the bride, always by a clergyman, if one can be 
procured, but in some cases of emergency it can be 
solemnized or performed by a Justice of the Peace. 
The Episcopalians have a written form contained 
in their Prayer Book, and the other denominations 
use also a set form of words, although every one in 



Religious Life and Institutions. 275 

conclusion makes use of the Bible text : " Those 
whom God hath joined together let no man put 
asunder," which was the injunction used by Christ 
at the institution of the ordinance. 

The burial service for the dead is also a written 
form with the Episcopalians and Methodists, and is 
generally performed at the house of the deceased, 
but members of the church are frequently buried 
from the church, where the body is carried, for the 
purpose of having the burial service performed. It 
is then borne out of the church by persons selected 
by the family, called pall-bearers, and followed by 
the relatives and friends to the grave, which has 
been previously prepared, and is there committed 
to the earth by the clergyman, lowered into the 
grave by the pall-bearers, and the earth thrown 
upon the coffin, and the grave is then closed. 

But there are some other religious classes that 
must be mentioned, who are noted for their pecu- 
liarities. 

The sect called Quakers or Friends was founded 
in England by a man named George Fox, and the 
recognized head in the United States was William 
Penn. The epithet Quaker was given to them 
because they often trembled under an awful sense 
of the infinite purity and majesty of God. While 
professing to be guided by the Protestant Bible, 
they have the following peculiarities : They are 
very plain in their manner of dress, and in their 
church buildings ; have no special reverence for 
the Christian Sabbath ; speak in public assemblies 
only when prompted by the Spirit ; and they allow 
women to speak at their meetings. They are to 



276 Life and Resources in America. 

some extent Unitarians in belief, have always been 
opposed to slavery, and also to war, and never par- 
ticipate in military affairs ; and in consequence of 
a division that once took place among them, a 
portion of them followed the lead of a man named 
Elias Hicks, and became known as Hicksites. The 
city of Philadelphia was founded by them, and Penn- 
sylvania and New York have been their principal 
fields of labour. Of late years, they have increased 
in numbers in the Western States of the Union, and 
the sect now claims about one hundred and thirty- 
five thousand members, while they have four col- 
leges, and quite a number of large boarding schools. 
The people called Shakers originated in Eng- 
land about one hundred years ago, but are now 
confined to the United States. The order was 
founded by two women named Ann Lee and Jane 
Wardley, the former having professed to receive 
divine light directly from heaven. They believe 
that God is dual, there being an eternal Father and 
Mother in the Deity; and the same of Christ. 
They are ascetics ; live in secluded communities ; 
take no part in earthly governments, and are 
virtually opposed to the marriage relation. They 
look upon idleness as sin, and are noted for their 
neatness and plainness of dress. There are twelve 
societies or settlements of them in the United 
States, and they have not increased in numbers in 
the last fifty years, their total number being less 
than two thousand. They are famous for their 
knowledge of gardening, and in their principal 
community called Mount Lebanon in New York, 
which they own in common, they carry on an 



Religious Life and Institutions. 277 

extensive business in the way of selling seeds and 
certain articles of domestic manufacture, often yield- 
ing an annual income of fifty thousand dollars. In 
their religious services they frequently resort to 
dancing, and they believe that their members have 
the power of healing diseases by means of prayer 
and abstinence from food. 

Another class of religionists are called the New 
Jerusalem Church and was originated by Emanuel 
Swedenborg of Sweden, whose name it sometimes 
bears ; its doctrines are founded upon the Bible, 
but are considered by Protestants as very symbol- 
ical. Its followers in America are not numerous, 
but generally cultured people. Another sect is 
known as Mormon, whose founder was Joseph Smith, 
and whose disciples have built up a city in Utah ; 
they are the advocates of polygamy, which they prac- 
tise to a large extent, and Brigham Young is the 
name of their present leader, but who, within a 
short time, has been prosecuted by the General 
Government as an offender against the criminal 
laws of the country. 

Next come the Millerites or Second Adventists, 
founded by one William Miller, who preached that 
the world was to be destroyed on a particular day, 
when his disciples dressed themselves in white 
robes and waited for the great event in open fields ; 
and although the predictions of this pretended pro- 
phet were not fulfilled, the sect still survives to a 
small extent. And then there are the Tunkers or 
Harmless People, who profess to be animated in 
their religion by fraternal love; the Spiritualists, 
so-called, who boast that they are infidels and here- 



278 Life and Resources in America. 

tics; the Perfectionists, who advocate a new and 
perfect way of Society ; the Socialists, the Fourier- 
ites, the Trappists, who believe in a " community 
of goods," and finally the Female Seers, who claim 
that women are superior to men, and that some of. 
their sect have been ordained to be prophetesses 
and seers. 

The Roman Catholic church comprises that so- 
ciety of Christians whose members acknowledge the 
Pope as the visible head of the church. Its fol- 
lowers claim it to be co-eval with the commence- 
ment of the Christian Era, although it does not 
appear to have been fully organized, until the fourth 
century. The Pope is also called a sovereign pon- 
tiff, and the word pontificate is used to denote the 
reign of a Pope. He resides in Borne, and his 
power extends over all his followers, wherever they 
may exist, and all the churches of this sect in the 
world are under his supervision. All rules for 
government and discipline emanate from him and 
he is supposed by them to be the present represen- 
tative of St. Peter, one of Christ's Apostles, from 
whom the popes have in a successive line proceeded ; 
thus founding their belief in Apostolical succession. 
After the Pope, the next in order of rank or power, 
is the Archbishop who presides over the bishops of 
the dioceses over which he has jurisdiction ; then 
follow the Bishops, Priests, Deacons, and Sub- 
Deacons, with similar powers to those mentioned in 
the Episcopal Church. 

But that which chiefly distinguishes Eoman 
Catholics from Protestants, is their belief in the 
Virgin Mary as an intercessor between God and 



Religious Life and Institutions. 279 

man, and also in the intercession of the Saints or 
the good persons who have died and are supposed 
to be in the enjoyment of heaven. These, they 
think, can hear and transmit the prayers of the 
faithful on earth, to Christ, and that the prayers of 
the Virgin Mary are especially efficacious with her 
son Jesus Christ. They believe in the use of 
images and relics of Saints and the Virgin, and 
generally wear these and the crucifix, or image of 
Christ, about their person as a supposed safeguard 
from evil, and as reminders of their dependence 
upon these persons for salvation. 

Roman Catholics also believe in the prayers of 
the church for the dead, and what is called High 
Mass is said in the church, after death. These 
prayers are said for the dead, believing that there 
is a middle state, called Purgatory, between Heaven 
and Hell, into which persons pass for purification 
before entering Heaven, and therefore that the 
prayers of the church, and good people, will avail 
to get them from the transition state into Heaven. 
Their chief reliance for salvation is in the blood of 
Christ, but they believe that their good works of 
prayer, fasting and almsgiving are meritorious. 
They believe in the saving grace of baptism, and 
that after the form has been used, the person is re- 
generate, and delivered from all sin ; besides the 
use of water, they anoint with oil and use salt, and 
the rite is performed somewhat after the following 
manner : The priest blows three times upon the face 
of the person, saying, " Depart out of him, O Un- 
clean Spirit, and give place to the Holy Spirit, the 
Comforter ; " he then makes a sign of the cross on 



280 Life and Resources in America. 

the forehead and breast, and a grain of salt is put 
into the mouth of the person, and he is admonished 
to keep the soul from the corruption of sin. Oil is 
used to anoint the breast and between the shoulders, 
and water is then poured upon the head three times 
in the form of the cross saying, "I baptize thee 
in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost ; " then a white linen cloth is put upon 
the head, and a lighted candle is placed in the hand, 
the priest saying, " Keep the light of faith ever 
burning by the oil of good works." He finally 
pronounces the blessing : " Go in peace ; the Lord 
be with thee." 

They believe in the sacraments of confirmation, 
marriage, penance, extreme unction, and holy or- 
ders, but that of the Lord's Supper, or Eucharist, 
as they call it, and Baptism, are the only ones held 
in common with Protestants, and we will only give 
these to show how they differ from that body of 
Christians. They believe in the Real Presence of 
the body and blood of Christ in the Lord's Supper ; 
or that the bread and wine are changed by the con- 
secration of the priest into the real body and blood 
of Christ ; this they term Transubstantiation, or the 
change of the substance from bread and wine into 
flesh and blood. In performing this sacrament the 
priest blesses the bread, or wafer, as they call it, 
and then the people go up to the rail before the 
altar and kneel down, holding a towel, or white 
cloth, before their breasts so that if a particle of the 
bread should fall it may be received into the towel 
and not fall to the ground. Then the priest distri- 
butes it to them, making the sign of the cross with 



Religious Life and Institutions. 281 

the consecrated bread upon each one, saying, " The 
body of our Lord Jesus Christ preserve thy soul 
unto everlasting life." They do not give the cup 
to the people, but the priest takes all the wine, be- 
lieving that after consecration, the whole body, and 
blood and divinity is substantially contained in the 
wafer or in the wine, and that it is not necessary to 
give both, and the bread is distributed instead of 
the wine, as there is danger of spilling the blood of 
Christ if all receive the cup. 

Their church service is called the mass, and it is 
in the form of a liturgy or manual. It is read in 
Latin, that being the original language in which it 
was written, and the translation accompanies each 
part, and is thus comprehended by those who can 
read, while the ignorant accept the form and hear it 
in a devout manner, believing in the power of the 
priest to present it to God for them, although they 
may not understand the words. Their faith in the 
priesthood is extreme, and they have frequent ac- 
cess to them for spiritual advice, the special guide 
of each individual is the priest, who presides over 
the congregation of which he is a member, and ac- 
cording to his dictation are performed outward acts 
of contrition, satisfaction and confession, called pe- 
nances, by which those sins into which they may 
have fallen after baptism can be remitted ; some of 
these penances are very severe, sometimes requir- 
ing much bodily suffering and great sacrifices of 
time and pleasure, and often much fasting before 
absolution is given by the priest. They have what 
is called the confessional, and the apartments de- 
voted to this purpose are small closets or curtained 



282 Life and Resources in America. 

places in the church or chapel wherein the priest 
stands, outside of which the person who confesses 
kneels with head covered, and repeats his sins and 
receives the admonitions of the priest ; it is not ne- 
cessary that the individual be known personally to 
the priest ; all that the priest is required to do, is 
to hear and absolve as he may deem proper. This 
constitutes one great hold which the priesthood 
have upon the people, and they are willing to accept 
from them all advice upon matters of conscience. 
The priests wear robes and vestments while officiat- 
ing in the church, and these are sometimes very 
elaborately embroidered and enriched by lace and 
other materials. This sect denounces as heretics 
all who do not believe in their teachings, and they 
believe that none can be saved outside of their 
church, excepting by a special providence of God in 
cases of ignorance of their doctrines. 

The Bible is interpreted by their priests for the 
people, and Roman Catholics are said to be opposed 
to the free schools of America, because the Bible 
is permitted to be read and taught in these schools. 
They exclude it from their own schools, as a whole, 
believing it to be wrong to place it in the hands of 
those who may be led to interpret it for them- 
selves. That portion of it which they allow for 
general use contains only the New Testament, the 
Old Testament being given in the form of a Bible 
history which has been compiled for this purpose. 
This question has caused a great deal of discussion 
in the political world, as free schools are a govern- 
ment institution, and it has influenced many poli- 
tical elections throughout the country, when it has 



Religious Life and Institutions. 283 

been made a test question, whether the candidate 
under consideration would vote for or against free 
schools. This plan of interpreting the Bible is 
another bond of union for Romanists, all being 
made to adopt the interpretation of this church 
before becoming a member of the same; while 
Protestants differ and are divided into sects just 
as men will naturally differ on any subject they 
are allowed to discuss freely. While the Roman 
Catholics are all united under one head, there is 
however a secret society among them known as 
Jesuits, whose special object is for its propagation. 
It was this society, as our readers will remember, 
who established themselves in Japan in 1549, but 
who were destroyed or driven from the empire in 
1595. This sect had in 1870 seven archbishops ; 
forty-five bishops ; seven vicars-apostolic ; thirty- 
five hundred and five priests, and according to the 
best authorities, three millions, three hundred and 
fifty-four thousand members. 

The most devoted people in this denomination 
think it incumbent upon them to make certain 
sacrifices of time and service, and voluntarily go 
into entire seclusion from the world. For this 
object they have institutions called nunneries, to 
which the women retire and take certain vows, and 
live within their enclosures during the remainder 
of their lives ; of course, these women never marry. 
There are also monasteries where the men retire 
from the world and also take the vow of celibacy, 
which means never to marry; they devote them- 
selves, generally, to teaching young men, and there 
is a college for that purpose connected with most 



284 Life and Resources in America. 

of these institutions; as there are also female 
academies connected with the nunneries. 

Another class of religious people who occupy a 
position peculiar to themselves, are the Jews or 
Israelites, whose history is identified with ancient 
and modern times, and more replete with incidents 
than any other. Although unable to give the extent 
of their population in America, we may safely state 
that they are to be found in almost every city and 
town in the country, and they claim to have about 
two hundred congregations. Though standing 
alone in their religious beliefs, they have the credit 
of manifesting great energy in prosecuting works 
of charity in behalf of the sick, the needy and the 
widows and orphans of their own people. A large 
proportion of them are wedded to the doctrines of 
their illustrious father, the patriarch Abraham, with 
whom the recognition of one Supreme being origi- 
nated, and has been cherished to the present day 
by Bible believers. A party has sprung up among 
them, of late years, called the Reformed or Chris- 
tian Jews, and they advocate a religion of progress, 
in which they have been somewhat successful. 
They never intermarry with people not of their 
own race, and from time immemorial have been 
noted for their sagacity in accumulating money. 
Their history, which occupies a large space in the 
Bible, is considered the most wonderful in the 
annals of religion throughout the world. 

Of all the rites or ceremonies which are practised 
by the Jews, the most strict and solemn is that 
which annually occurs on what they call the Day of 
Atonement. It is marked by a rigid fast, which 



Religious Life and Institutions. 285 

commences at sunset on one evening, and ends 
with sunset on the following day, during which 
time the more faithful of the sect will not permit a 
morsel of food or water to pass their lips. During 
all this period they offer up prayers, clad in such 
garments as are used in burying the dead; and 
until the close of this special season for religious 
worship their synagogues are crowded with wor- 
shippers, who, like the Quakers, invariably wear 
their hats in all public assemblies. 

In looking at the people of the United States in 
the aggregate, it has been estimated that about 
seven-eighths of them are either allied to the Pro- 
testants have no religion at all, or come under the 
head of miscellaneous sects, while the remainder are 
Roman Catholics. Nearly all the denominations 
are amply supplied with theological institutions, 
which number more than one hundred, and those 
who are educated in them are always expected to 
become the advocates of the doctrines in which they 
have been instructed. As to the benevolent insti- 
tutions for the relief of suffering humanity, they are 
to be found in nearly all the individual States, and 
are chiefly supported by the Protestant sects or 
by the people through their legislatures. In their 
internal arrangements all these asylums and hospitals 
are in keeping with the advanced improvements of 
the age. By means of raised letters the blind are 
enabled to read ; by wise treatment the insane are 
made docile, and contented with their unhappy con- 
dition ; and by personal kindness and sign-alpha- 
bets the deaf and the dumb are instructed and made 
to forget their misfortunes. The total number of 



286 Life and Resources in America. 

these unfortunates in the United States is nearly 
one hundred thousand. 

To give an account of the hospitals, the homes 
for the orphan and widow, and other charitable in- 
stitutions of the country, would occupy more space 
than can be afforded in this work, but we can state 
that they are very numerous, liberally endowed and 
as efficiently conducted as any in the world; and 
when necessary, people from every clime can find a 
convenient place where they may be cared for, 
whether their troubles are the result of poverty, of 
accidents, of sickness or any other misfortunes. 

Of all the visible evidences of prosperity among 
the religious people of America, the most impressive 
and extensive, are the Churches or Temples of Chris- 
tian worship. Not only are they to be found on 
almost every street in the larger cities, but they are 
the leading architectural attractions in the towns 
and villages of the whole country. Bricks and 
every variety of stone are employed in their con- 
struction; every school of architecture is called 
upon to beautify them with their designs ; and the 
money expended in building them, ranges from ten 
or twenty thousand, to one or two millions of dollars. 
The current expenses of these churches are paid by 
voluntary subscriptions, or with the money received 
through the renting or sale of pews or seats. 

The ministers who preside over these churches, 
excepting the Roman Catholics, who are supported 
in a different manner, receive by way of compensation 
from five hundred to ten thousand dollars, according 
to the wealth of the congregations. These churches 
are open for public worship twice on every Sunday, 



Religious Life and Institutions. 287 

and occasionally on week days ; are never used for 
mere secular purposes; and in many of them, 
elaborate music, consisting of singing combined 
with magnificent organs, forms an important part 
of the services. It is from these churches, more- 
over, that the money goes forth for the support 
of charitable and benevolent institutions, and for 
spreading the religion of the Bible, by means of 
missionaries, throughout the world. There is also 
attached to most of these congregations what are 
called Sunday Schools, in which children, both rich 
and poor, are instructed in the ways of Christianity. 
While it is true, as we have already stated, that 
there is no state religion in America, it is also true, 
however, that the religious denominations of the 
country, occasionally exercise a decided influence in 
public affairs ; and when a man of mark puts him- 
self forward as a candidate for an elective office, his 
chances of success very frequently turn upon the 
nature of his religious belief, and hence, we find a 
perpetual warfare going on in America, between the 
Protestants and Roman Catholics, which is anything 
but creditable to the parties, an honour to the coun- 
try, or a blessing to the world. 

Although only indirectly connected with the fore- 
going subject we deem it quite proper to append in 
this place a few words in regard to the noted Secret 
Societies known as Free Masons and Odd- Fellows. 
The first, which is identified with the history of ar- 
chitecture, is claimed to have originated in the re- 
ligious mysteries of the ancient world and es- 
pecially in Asia Minor. Members of the fraternity 
are found in every quarter of the globe, but it is 



288 Life and Resources in America. 

perhaps more flourishing in the United States than 
elsewhere. They have what they call a Grand Lodge 
in all the States of the Union, and many of the most 
distinguished men in this country have been mem- 
bers of the Order. Their highest officer is called a 
Eoyal Arch Mason ; in the exercise of charity, par- 
ticularly towards their fellow-members, they are 
eminently liberal ; and their houses, which are called 
temples, are numerous and often very handsome ; 
and their publications are highly respectable, if not 
abundant. 

The fraternity known as Odd-Fellows, bears a 
general resemblance to the Free Masons, traces its 
origin to the fourth Century, and has until recently 
been confined to Great Britain and the United States, 
in which latter country it is exceedingly prosperous. 
Like the Free Masons, they have their Lodges and 
many officers, and it is said that in the last forty 
years they have expended for charitable purposes 
not less than fifteen millions of dollars. The relief 
furnished to its members during sickness, and to 
their families after death, is accorded to them as a 
right. Connected with this Order is an institution 
which they call the Grand Encampment, whose 
members are known as patriarchs and priests, and 
which consists of past officers of the several subordi- 
nate Encampments. The State Grand Lodges con- 
sist of the past officers of the subordinate Lodges ; 
and the Grand Lodge of the United States, which 
is the highest body of the Order in this country, is 
formed of Representatives elected by the several 
State Grand Lodges. Some years ago, by the ac- 
tion of the present Vice-president of the United 



Religious Life and Institutions. 289 

States, Schuyler Colfax, (who is a distinguished 
member of this Order,) women were admitted to a 
partial fellowship in it ; and since then, at stated 
periods, the different subordinate Lodges confer 
upon such wives and widows of Odd-Fellows who 
may desire it, what is termed the " Degree of Re- 
becca." 

But there is one feature connected with religion 
in America, which is peculiar to this country, and 
must not be forgotten in this summary. We allude 
to the Young Men's Christian Associations. There 
are one thousand of these Societies in the United 
States, and they are conducted by an active element 
in the various churches, and without any denomina- 
tional distinctions. They are supported by the 
free-will contributions, on the part of their mem- 
bers, and their buildings in the larger cities are 
frequently quite splendid and beautiful. They are 
generally so arranged as to afford under one roof, 
a library of the best books, a Eeading Room sup- 
plied with the leading newspapers and periodicals 
of the day, a General Receiving Room, where re- 
ligious services are held for those who wish to at- 
tend them, and a Lecture Room, where able men 
are invited to lecture. To all of these privileges ex- 
cepting the Lectures, the public are admitted with- 
out any charge, and the good which these associa- 
tions have already accomplished in elevating the 
tone of Society, is considered in the light of a 
national blessing. 

It is proper, before concluding this chapter, that 
the writer should submit a few particulars respect- 
ing its arrangement, which are somewhat personal 



290 Life and Resources in America. 

to himself. After his return to Japan from Europe, 
some years ago, he was frequently questioned by his 
countrymen as to his opinions about the Christian 
religion. In his replies, he took the ground, that, 
so far as he could understand it, the Bible was a 
good and a wise book, but that it contained many 
things he did not understand. That while the 
people, who called themselves Christians claimed 
to have the only true religion and pretended to be 
better than all other men, they did not, in that par- 
ticular, differ from the Chinese or Japanese, who as- 
sert the same claims for their religions. He thought 
it advisable that those who desire to form any opinion 
on Christianity, should acquaint themselves with it 
by close and attentive study, and then to judge for 
themselves. Hence, in the present chapter his de- 
sire has been simply to give facts, and in the plainest 
possible terms. Whatever may be his private 
opinions, on matters of such great importance, he 
has not thought it proper for him either to oppose 
or advocate them. According to his observations, 
a very large proportion of the American people are 
known by the name of Christians, and yet a great 
many things are said and done by them, which do 
not accord with the principles of their own Bible ; 
but, is not this true of every nation upon the earth ? 
Where men think that they know everything, and 
boast of their superior wisdom, the presumption is 
that they have yet much to learn ; and all human 
experience as well as the Bible of the Christians, 
inculcate the idea that before men can be wise and 
good, they must be humble. It would be a very 
wonderful thing, should the time ever arrive, when 



Religious Life and Institutions. 291 

the so-called Christians, who profess the faith, but 
do not live up to it, shall cease to boast of the su- 
periority of their religion, and regard themselves as 
worse than all other people, because of their guilt 
in making insincere professions. True Christianity 
may not be considered as identical with the general 
sense of civilization in which the good and the 
bad participate, but true philosophy would seem 
to teach that it should be a leading element in such 
civilization. 




LIFE IN THE FACTORIES. 



HE term factory, as employed in Ame- 
rica, means a place where men and 
women are engaged in fabricating 
goods. In this paper, it is proposed 
to speak of those establishments, especially, where 
the staples of cotton and wool are turned into the 
woven fabrics, commonly known as calicoes, sheet- 
ings, carpetings, cloths made of both materials, as 
well as hosiery and worsted goods, blankets, shawls, 
table covers, felted cloths, and bedspreads. 

The largest amount of cotton ever produced in 
this country, in one year, was in 1860, the year 
before the late rebellion, when the figures reached 
4,669,770 bales, 'each bale weighing 465 pounds; 
and the factories numbered 1091. According to 
the last published statistics, the supply of cotton 
reached only 2,500,000 bales ; the number of cotton 
mills or factories is 831, of which 444 are in New 
England ; 86 in the Southern States ; 220 in the 
Middle States, and the balance in the Western 
States. The total value of the cotton crop was 
$270,000,000, and it is said that the people pro- 
ducing it, sold and exported the whole of it, ex- 



Life in the Factories. 293 

cepting the value of $10,000,000 kept for home 
consumption. 

But, however we may arrange the cotton statistics 
of America, the fact remains that its cotton manu- 
factures, though still very large, have declined of 
late years, and are greatly excelled by those of 
England. 

The annual production of wool in the United 
States is estimated at about one hundred millions of 
dollars, while that of Great Britain in 1868, was 
in pounds 260,000,000; Germany, 200,000,000; 
France, 123,000,000; Russia in Europe, 125,000,000; 
Spain, Italy, and Portugal, 119,000,000 ; Austria, 
South America, and South Africa, 157,000,000; 
British North America, 12,000,000; Forth Africa, 
49,000,000 ; and Asia, 470,000,000 ; making the ag- 
gregate of wool produced in the world, 1,610,000,000 
pounds or one pound and a quarter to each inha- 
bitant on the globe on the supposition that the 
total population is twelve hundred and eighty-five 
millions. As is the case with cotton, the most 
numerous woollen factories of America are found in 
New England. With these few particulars in view, 
we may proceed to speak of the peculiarities of 
factory life in the United States, which of course 
must be done in very general terms. 

Wherever in the northern portions of the country, 
is to be found the best supply of water, suitable for 
running machinery, there do the manufacturing 
establishments mostly congregate. And it is be- 
cause New England is rocky and not well suited to 
agriculture, and also because its rivers are numerous 
and well adapted for mills, that its manufactures 



294 Life and Resources in America. 

have become especially celebrated. The villages 
which have sprung up out of this kind of business, 
are to be found in every part of the land ; and 
while some of them consist only of the houses col- 
lected around one factory, others contain a number 
of factories, and are proportionally large. In one 
place the ownership may be vested in one man ; at 
another place in an organized company of men ; 
and then again, a single man or family may be the 
proprietor of several factories, employing thousands 
of hands to carry them on, and requiring millions 
of money for their support. In this connection a 
few such men as Amos and Abbot Lawrence and 
William Sprague have acquired national reputa- 
tions. In many instances the small villages alluded 
to are located in the midst of beautiful scenery, and 
the necessary surroundings of the mills, which give 
them existence, are pleasant little churches, com- 
fortable school houses, shops for the sale of house- 
hold merchandise, and appropriate houses for the 
shelter of the operatives. Men, women, and chil- 
dren are all employed in these factories, and gene- 
rally speaking, they absorb all the labouring popu- 
lation to be found in the country immediately 
surrounding them, as well as many persons from 
abroad. The idea of strict discipline is recognised 
and carried out, from the overseer down to the 
humblest workman, and it is in these small villages 
that a greater amount of comfort is enjoyed by the 
persons employed, than in the larger manufacturing 
cities. Of course the facilities for obtaining the 
raw materials of cotton and wool and for transport- 
ing the manufactured goods to market, are com- 



Life in the Factories. 295 

mensurate with the necessities of the case ; and the 
establishments where the goods are sold, are gene- 
rally located in the larger cities. 

But a truly comprehensive idea of factory life in 
America cannot be had without considering its 
character as we find it in the larger towns or cities, 
and no better example can be selected for that 
purpose than the city of Lowell in Massachusetts. 
What may be said of this place, is also true, only 
in a different degree, of all the factory towns 
throughout the country, and especially such places 
as Lawrence, Providence, Norwich, and Worcester ; 
and it may safely be said, that the aggregate num- 
ber of persons who obtain their living by means of 
the cotton and woollen factories of the country, is 
not less than three hundred thousand. The growth 
and prosperity of Lowell as a manufacturing town, 
are without any parallel in America. It lies on the 
river Merrimac, and the water power is formed by 
dams that are thirty feet high. It has not less than 
fifteen manufacturing corporations, with about sixty 
mills, which employ a capital of fifteen millions of 
dollars, and support about fifteen thousand hands, 
from the beginning to the close of the year, while 
the entire population of the city is nearly fifty 
thousand. All the mills are heated by steam and 
lighted by gas. The women who work in them far 
outnumber the men ; and although, a few years 
ago, much the larger proportion of these were native 
Americans, so great a change has taken place in 
this particular, that the majority are now foreigners 
and chiefly Irish. The men are without ambition, 
and the women work for the sole purpose of making 



296 Life and Resources in America. 

money, and not because they like the employment. 
Widows are there, toiling for the education of their 
children; and daughters are there, hoarding up 
their wages to pay the debts of improvident fathers. 
The labour of the women is essentially on an equality 
with that of the men ; but while the former receive 
from two to three dollars per week, in addition to 
their board, the latter receive from four to six 
dollars for the same period. The time for labour 
ranges from ten to twelve hours per day, and extra 
sets of hands are often employed for night work. 
The hands are summoned to their work by the 
ringing of bells ; a brief time only is allowed for 
meals ; and the only opportunities which the opera- 
tives have for recreation or study are at night, 
when worn out with the fatigue engendered by the 
jar and whirl of the machinery in the mills. When 
the American element prevailed in these factories, 
an earnest effort was made to elevate the minds of 
the thousands of girls employed, and for a time, 
these efforts were successful. A monthly periodical 
was established called the " Lowell Offering," which 
was supported entirely by the productions of fe- 
males working in the mills, and in which many 
valuable papers were published. For a time this 
magazine was very successful, and excited much 
wonder and comment among the factory people of 
New England, but the novelty soon wore off, and 
the work was suspended. A leading American 
writer, while mourning over this fact, and also over 
the fact that there was so little comfort to be found 
in these large manufacturing towns, said, that the 
patron Saint of Lowell was Work ; that the " Fac- 



Life in the Factories. 297 

tory Girls " might be counted by the acre ; that the 
motto over the gateways should be "Work or Die;" 
and that the fifty factories in the city were each 
larger and more imposing than the temples of 
worship in Japan and China. In the largest of 
these mills from one thousand to fifteen hundred 
women or girls are constantly employed, and from 
three hundred to five hundred men. Each manu- 
facturing company owns from twenty to thirty 
dwellings, which are leased to responsible persons 
as boarding houses for the exclusive benefit of the 
hands employed in the factories. These dwellings 
are large enough to accommodate from forty to fifty 
inmates, and the sexes are kept entirely separate. 
The Corporations also provide hospitals in which 
the work-people find attendance in sickness, for 
which, if they be unable to pay, the employers are 
responsible. While it is true that the young 
people, who are obliged to work in the factories, 
have little or no time to cultivate their minds, the 
younger children of the married people have every 
facility afforded them to obtain knowledge; the 
common schools of the city are numerous, well con- 
ducted, and chiefly under the direction of competent 
female teachers. There is also a good library in 
the city, where all who are fond of reading, no 
matter how poor, can be furnished with useful and 
entertaining books : and the religious privileges 
enjoyed by all, by means of numerous churches, and 
the weekly day of rest which is called Sunday, are 
all that could be desired. But notwithstanding 
these many advantages, recent writers on this 
subject have declared that the extinction of the 



298 Life and Resources in America. 

educated American operative has become an accom- 
plished fact, and the mills of Lowell, as well as 
those of the Atlantic States generally, are now 
worked, as already stated, by immigrants from 
Europe from Ireland, Wales, and Germany. But 
these as they grow in intelligence and begin to go 
westward, like their predecessors demand higher 
wages, shorter hours for work, and more freedom. 
They have learnt the European lesson of fighting 
employers by combinations, and altogether, the 
problem has become so confused, that the manu- 
facturers are beginning to look for relief to the 
Chinese, a number of whom have already been in- 
duced to enter the factories of New England. 
American girls are said to be growing dissatisfied 
with the restraints of factory life, where they have 
to compete with the more rugged and experienced 
women from European countries ; hence they go to 
the larger cities and become domestic servants ; but 
that kind of employment they find irksome, and so 
they make another effort to succeed according to 
their wishes, and emigrate, as best they can, to the 
Western States. 

In the further elucidation of this subject, it is 
proper that we should consider the opinions of the 
manufacturers themselves. They assert that the 
opprobrious epithet of " white slavery," which has 
sometimes been applied to the labour in the New 
England factories is wholly unwarranted. They 
claim to have purged it of every element of feu- 
dalism ; that they have avoided the English plan of 
employing whole families in the mill, often includ- 
ing children, who should have been at school, the 
families being kept in a state of absolute dependence 



Life in the Factories. 299 

upon the mill, and exposed to suffering whenever 
business was not prosperous. They claim also to 
have abolished the custom of payment by orders on 
a factory store, which tended to involve the work- 
people in debt, and they instituted the practice of 
weekly payment of wages in money ; and that they 
have done all that could be done, to secure the 
independence as well as comfort of the American 
operatives. 

And here it occurs to us, we may furnish a 
further illustration of factory life in America by 
submitting a brief description of what may be 
termed a model New England establishment, as fol- 
lows : It is located in the city of Lawrence ; is a 
joint stock company, with one hundred and fifty 
stock-holders and nine directors ; has one hundred 
thousand spindles ; and has a capital of $2,500,000, 
while its property is valued at a considerable ad- 
vance on that sum. The manufactured goods, con- 
sisting chiefly of fabrics for the wear of women, 
made both of cotton and wool, which are annually 
sold, amount to about $7,500,000 ; and the total 
dividends declared during the last twelve years, 
was more than three millions of dollars. 

The total number of work-people employed in 
this factory is thirty-six hundred, of whom the 
men number 1680; women, 1510; boys, be- 
tween ten and twelve years of age, 80, and 
between twelve and eighteen, 140 ; girls between 
ten and twelve, 40 ; and between twelve and 
eighteen 150. The lowest weekly wages, ac- 
cording to gold rates, are as follows : for men, 
$6.75; women, $2.48; boys, $2.85; and young 
girls, $1.82; while spinners, weavers and a few 



300 Life and Resources in America. 

others, receive according to the quantity of 
goods produced, and some of them large wages. 
Very many of the operatives are frugal with their 
money, and have invested their earnings in the 
stock of the company itself, deposited it in Savings' 
Banks, or purchased the bonds of the General 
Government ; some of them have been so successful 
as to be elected members of the City Government ; 
and not a few are the owners of comfortable houses. 
Where men are obliged to hire houses, they pay 
only one-eighth of their wages for rent ; and for the 
comfort and accommodation of the unmarried fe- 
males, a large building has been erected, holding 
not less than eight hundred persons, who pay, for 
food, lights and washing, only one-third of their 
regular wages. Connected with the establishment 
is what they call a ' ' Relief Society/' organized for 
the care and support of the sick among the work- 
people. Every possible attention is paid, both to 
the'inorals, and intellectual culture of the operatives. 
No men are employed who are intemperate in their 
habits, and the use of profane language and the ill 
treatment of subordinates strictly prohibited. All 
females are compelled to be at their lodgings by 
ten o'clock at night, and none of them are permitted 
to attend improper places of resort. No child 
under ten years of age, according to law, is allowed 
to work in the factory, and all the boys and girls 
must be furnished ' with from eleven to sixteen 
weeks of schooling, in each year, and all the schools 
are paid for by the Company. Of the persons em- 
ployed, less than fifty in every thousand are unable 
to read, and for the benefit of all there is a well 



Life in the Factories. 301 

conducted Library, with pleasant reading-rooms for 
both sexes, and every facility is afforded for attend- 
ing lectures, and places of profitable amusement. 
A week's labour in this establishment will produce 
more yards of cloth than is produced in any Euro- 
pean mill, but it is claimed that a yard of cloth 
costs less in Europe, which latter point, however, is 
not conceded by the Americans. 

But let us now look for a moment, at some of the 
local results of the cotton and woollen manufactures 
of recent times. It has been said, that where one 
person, a century ago, consumed one yard of woven 
goods, the consumption per head has since risen to 
about twenty-six yards. This vast difference in the 
comforts of every family, by the ability which they 
now possess of easily acquiring warm and healthful 
clothing, is a clear gain to all society, and to every 
individual as a portion of society. It is more 
especially a gain, they say, to the females and the 
children of families, whose condition is always de- 
graded when clothing is scanty. The power of 
procuring cheap clothing for themselves, and for 
their children, has a tendency to raise the condition 
of females more than any other addition to their 
stock of comfort. It cultivates habits of cleanliness 
and decency, which are considered in America 
great aids to virtue, if not actual virtues them- 
selves. There is little self-respect amid dirt and 
rags, according to the American belief, and without 
self-respect there can be no foundation for those 
qualities which mostly contribute to the good of 
society. The power of procuring useful clothing 
at a cheap price has tended to raise the condition of 



302 Life and Resources in America. 

women in America, and the influence of the condi- 
tion of women upon the welfare of a community 
can never be too highly estimated. If there be one 
thing more remarkable than another in the visible 
condition of the people of the United States, it is 
the universality of good clothing. The distinction 
between the rich man and the artisan, or between 
the lady and her maid, is oftentimes almost imper- 
ceptible. Perhaps the absence of mere finery, 
and the taste which accompanies good education, 
constitute the chief difference in the dress of various 
ranks ; and this feature of the present time is a 
part of the social history of America. 

The history of the cotton and woollen manufac- 
tures has occupied the minds of many of the ablest 
men in the world, and their developments are of 
vital interest to the whole human family. The arts 
of spinning and weaving were slowly developed 
from the time of the simple distaff, and it was just 
as they had reached something like completion that 
an American named Eli Whitney invented the cotton 
gin in 1793, which at once gave a new character 
and impulse to the growth, as well as the manufac- 
ture of cotton. This invention was the final step 
by which the whole process of manufacturing cotton 
into cloth was effected by machinery ; and just 
about that time steam was introduced to the world 
as an agent of limitless power in driving machinery 
of every kind ; new channels of internal communi- 
cation were opened between the different parts of 
the world ; chemistry furnished the means for rapidly 
bleaching the fabrics produced from cotton ; and all 
the resources of science and skill, of invention and 



Life in the Factories. 303 

industry, seemed combined to create an immensely 
increased demand for the raw material upon which 
all these labours were to be expended. And if 
something like this enterprise can be transported 
to Japan, what may we not expect, in the future, 
from the Empire ? 

There are many wonderful inventions connected 
with the manufacture of cotton, but nothing is 
perhaps more astonishing than the rapidity with 
which some portions of the machinery is employed. 
Notice the fact, for example, that the very finest 
thread which is used in making lace is passed 
through the strong flame of a lamp, which burns 
off the fibres, without burning the thread itself. 
The velocity with which the thread moves is so 
great that the motion cannot be perceived. The 
line of thread, passing off a wheel through the 
flame, looks as if it were perfectly at rest; and 
it appears a miracle that it is not burned. The 
primary object of the extensive and complicated 
machinery employed in the manufacture of cotton 
has been of course cheapness of production, and in 
that particular the advance, from the time of the 
distaff, has been wonderful, and success complete. 
Nor has this been done at the expense of the working 
classes. Ten years after the introduction of the 
machines, the people employed in the trade, spinners 
and weavers, were more than forty times as numerous 
as when the spinning was done by hand. It was 
thought that the newly discovered power might 
supersede human labour altogether, but such was 
by no means the case. It only gave a new direc- 
tion to the labour that had previously been employed 



304 Life and Resources in America. 

at the distaff and spindle; but it increased the 
quantity of labour, altogether employed in the ma- 
nufacture of cotton, at least a hundred-fold. What 
is here said of the machines for manufacturing 
cotton, is also true of those employed for the woollen, 
the silk, and the linen manufactories, and to the 
uneducated eye and understanding they are all 
wonderful, and of incalculable value to the com- 
mercial world. 

But there is another curious machine which we 
may, with propriety, mention in this place, and that 
is one for making needles. Hitherto, the largest 
number of needles used in America were made in 
England, but there is a machine in New Haven in 
which the whole process is performed without the 
manual labour of a single person. A coil of steel 
wire is put into it ; then the machine cuts it off at 
the required lengths, punches the eye holes, coun- 
tersinks the eyes, and then sharpens the needle, 
when it drops out a perfected thing. They are also 
arranged and put up in paper by another machine ; 
and the number of needles thus manufactured per 
day by each machine is about forty thousand. 

But before dismissing the subject under consi- 
deration, we would submit to the Japanese reader a 
few remarks on the art, whose object is merely to 
beautify the very numerous fabrics which are made 
in the various factories already alluded to, the art 
of printing cloth in colours. It applies to the most 
common as well as to the finest productions of the 
loom; and the science of the dyer, the beauty of 
his patterns, and the perfection of his machinery, 
have become universally celebrated. As an expe- 



Life in the Factories. 305 

rienced writer lias said, there is a striking, although 
natural parallel, between printing a piece of cloth 
and printing the sheets of a book or newspaper. 
Block printing is the impress of the pattern by 
hand, as block-books were made four centuries ago. 
There are no block-books now, for machinery has 
banished that tedious process. But block-printing 
is used for costly shawls and velvets, which require 
to have many colours produced by repeated impres- 
sions from blocks covered with different colours. 
Except for the most expensive fabrics, however, 
this mode is superseded by block-printing with a 
press, in which several blocks are set in a frame. 
Then again they have what they call cylinder- 
printing, which resembles the rapid working of the 
book-printing machine, each producing with great 
cheapness. As the pattern has to be obtained from 
several cylinders, each having its own colour, there 
is great nicety in the operation; and the most 
beautiful mechanism is necessary for feeding the 
cylinder with colour ; moving the cloth to meet the 
revolving cylinder; and giving to the machine its 
power of impression. But those who witness this 
operation can hardly realize the ultimate effect sub- 
sequently obtained by the process of dyeing. Fast 
colours are produced by the use in the patterns of 
substances called mordants; which may be colour- 
less themselves, but receive the colour of the dye- 
bath, which colour is only fixed in the parts touched 
by the mordants, and is washed out from the parts 
not touched. Other processes are also employed, 
which enhance the beauty of the fabrics. 

It is thus seen that the chemist, the machinist/ 
x 



306 Life and Resources in America. 

the designer and the engraver, set the calico-printing 
works in operation, so that the carrying on of this 
complicated business can only be profitably done on 
a large scale. Very numerous also are the employ- 
ments required merely to produce the dyes with 
which the calico-printer works. The mineral, vege- 
table and even the animal kingdom, combine their 
natural productions in the colours of a lady's dress ; 
there is the sulphur from Sicily, salt from Austria or 
Turk's Island, peculiar woods from Brazil, indigo 
from the East and West Indies, madder from France, 
and insects from Mexico. The discoveries of science, 
in combination with experience and skill, have set all 
this industry in motion, and given a value to innu- 
merable productions of nature, which would other- 
wise be useless or unemployed ; and they also create 
modes of cultivation which are important sources 
of national prosperity. But of all the discoveries of 
chemistry, in this connection, was that of chloride 
of lime, which has become the universal bleaching 
powder of modern manufactures. What was for- 
merly the work of eight months, is now accom- 
plished in an hour or two, so that a bag of raw 
dingy cotton may now be converted into the whitest 
cloth within the space of a single month. 

As an appropriate conclusion to the foregoing 
remarks, we may now submit a few general facts 
on the American Tariff of duties on imported mer- 
chandise. This has been the means on which the 
Federal Government has chiefly depended for its 
support, ever since it came into existence. It has 
also been amply sufficient for affording money to 
extend its territory, carry on wars, execute treaties 



Life in the Factories. 307 

and accumulate a large property in lands, buildings 
and materials for war. From the earliest times, 
however, the people have been divided into two 
great political parties on this subject, and yet the 
friends and opponents of the measure have in the 
main admitted that it is the best means for raising 
the public revenue, inasmuch as direct taxation has 
been thought impolitic for Federal revenue. There 
is a large class of people, moreover, who believe 
that the levying of duties is detrimental to the 
agricultural interests. These, and numerous ques- 
tions of a similar character, have long occupied the 
minds of the leading statesmen of the United States, 
and they remain unsettled to this day. As the 
political parties have gained ascendancy, so have 
the tariff rates been 1 changed or modified, from time 
to time, and in looking back over the forty years prior 
to the late civil war, we find that the rates of duty 
have varied from eighteen to forty-eight per centum, 
and that the largest receipts from customs during 
the period in question were in 1854, and amounted 
to $64,224,190, when the free imports reached 
$33,285,821, and the dutiable imports $271,276,560. 
The total imports at the port of New York in 1870 
amounted to $315,200,022; and the exports, to 
$254,137,208 ; while the figures for all the States 
for the same year were, imports, $373,894,980 and 
the exports, $328,072,226 ; and for 1869, imports, 
$463,461,427, and exports, $394,644,335. That 
these enormous figures have an important bearing 
upon the success, or want of success of the factory 
system in the United States, must be apparent to 
all men who investigate these subjects. 



308 Life and Resources in America, 

In accounting for the excess of imports over the 
exports, it may be stated that the difference arises 
chiefly from the importation of articles of luxury. 
The American people are practical, and while they 
confine themselves chiefly to producing the neces- 
saries and comforts of life, and to accumulating 
money, they are quite willing to obtain their fashions 
and articles of luxury from Europe. Notwithstand- 
ing the immense immigration from abroad, the 
American people have always had enough to feed 
all who come to their shores, and to provide em- 
ployment for all ; and the strength of the nation is 
shown by the fact that in spite of the large amounts 
which are .expended for the mere elegancies of life, 
which the rich bring over from Europe, the country 
is constantly prospering. 

But again. Statistics show that the trade of the 
United States has been regularly progressing, until 
interfered with by the late civil war. Generally 
speaking, the exports have exceeded the imports, 
and the balance of trade has been in favour of 
America. The export of grain does not .depend 
upon the state of the crops, so much as upon the 
wants of other countries. The great variety of the 
native productions exported gives assurance of the 
impossibility of failure of the resources of the nation. 
Figures also show that there is no industrial pursuit 
in which the people of the United States do not 
regularly progress, and that there is little demand 
for any class of produce which they are not able to 
supply. 

As the revenue of the country depends in a great 
measure upon the customs duties, so does its pros- 



Life in the Factories. 309 

perity chiefly depend upon the amount of its exports 
of bread-stuffs and all sorts of merchandise ; but as 
the theories which have been brought to bear upon 
this subject are widely different, and have occupied 
the minds of the ablest writers, they cannot be en- 
tered upon in this chapter. Upon one subject, 
however, all men are agreed, viz. : that the exten- 
sion of commerce will do more than anything else to 
diffuse the blessings of civilization, to bind together 
the universal society of nations, by sharpening, and 
at the same time gratifying their mutual wants and 
desires, and to maintain undisturbed that tranquillity 
so indispensable to its full development. 

P. S. Since the foregoing chapter was sent to 
the printer, we have received from the Bureau of 
Statistics and the Census Bureau some interesting 
particulars bearing upon the Factory, Mechanical 
and Farm life of the United States, which ought not 
to be omitted in this place. The following have 
reference to 1869. The hours of labour per week 
were sixty-six ; and omitting overseers, the average 
weekly earnings of operatives in the cotton mills 
was $5.56 in gold. The wages in the woollen mills 
ranged from five to seventeen dollars per week, in- 
cluding overseers ; in the paper mills from four and 
a half to twenty-six dollars ; in establishments for 
making musical instruments from fifteen to thirty- 
one dollars ; in foundries and machine shops from 
eight to twenty-four dollars ; and in leather estab- 
lishments from nine to twenty-five dollars per week. 
In 1870, the average daily wages were for black- 
smiths, $4.85 ; masons, $5.66 ; cabinet makers, 



310 Life and Resources in America. 

$4.99; for carpenters, $5.03; coopers, $430; 
painters, $5.36; plasterers, $6.51; shoemakers, 
$4.49; stone cutters, $6.10; tailors, $4.58; tan- 
ners, $3.97 ; tinsmiths, $4.96 ; and wheelwrights, 
$5.37. The wages for farm labour in the Eastern 
States, ranged from 73 cents to $1.49 per day, but 
on the Pacific States and Territories from $1.35 to 
$2.97 per day. As a subject of general interest, 
we also submit a list, showing the average retail 
prices, for the leading necessaries of life in 1869, 
as follows: Flour, $7.36 per barrel; beef, veal, 
mutton and pork, nine to twenty-two cents per 
pound; butter, 38 cents per pound; dried fish^ 
thirteen to fifteen cents per pound ; potatoes 
per bushel, 75 cents; rice per pound, thir- 
teen cents ; beans, eleven cents ; milk, nine cents 
per quart; eggs, 29 cents per dozen; tea, $1.40 
per pound ; coffee, 28 to 35 cents ; sugar, fifteen to 
seventeen cents per pound; coal, $10.80 per ton ; 
and wood per cord, $3.98 to $4.98. The prices for 
plain house rent, ranged from ten to fifteen dollars 
per month; and plain board from $4.14 to $4.80 
per week. And finally, for the want of a better 
place to print them, we submit the following aggre- 
gate of returns for the year 1870, respecting the 
agricultural resources of the country : 



Acres improved 188,806,761 

Acres woodland 158,908,121 

Acres unimproved 59,366,633 

Cash value of farms $9,261,775,121 

Cash value of agricultural implements . . $336,890,871 

Wages paid $310,068,473 

Farm products $2,445,602,379 



Life in the Factories. 311 

Value of live stock $1,524,271,714 

Wheat, bushels 267,730,931 

Eye, bushels 17,000,000 

Indian corn, bushels 760,963,204 

Oats, bushels 282,095,996 

Barley, bushels 29,761,267 

Buckwheat, bushels 9,821,662 

Eice, pounds 73,635,021 

Tobacco, pounds 262,729,640 

Cotton, bales 2,999,721 

Wool, pounds 102,053,264 

Potatoes, bushels 143,230,000 

Sweet potatoes, bushels 21,634,000 

Wine, gallons 3,096,000 

Cheese, pounds 53,492,000 

Butter, pounds 514,002,460 

Milk, gallons 236,500,000 

Hay, tons ........... 27,416,000 

Hops, pounds 28,456,669 

Sugar (cane,) pounds 87,043,000 

Sugar (maple,) pounds 28,443,000 

Molasses (cane,) gallons 6,600,000 

Molasses (sorghum,) gallons 16,041,000 




EDUCATIONAL LIFE AND INSTITUTIONS. 




LTHOUGH the cause of education in 
America has always been considered of 
primary interest and importance, there 
does not, after all, exist a regular and 
uniform system of instruction. The diversity of 
plans is almost as various as the several States of 
the Union are numerous, for each State, in its sove- 
reign capacity, has a right to devise and execute, 
and does execute such provisions for the education 
of the people as are deemed expedient. Setting 
aside, therefore, a detailed account of all the exist- 
ing plans, we can only consider in this place the 
characteristics of the school systems of the States 
in their collective capacity. It should be remem- 
bered, however, that the Federal Government is a 
most liberal patron of the schools in all parts of the 
country, and that a majority of the States have re- 
ceived large grants of land to be used for the sup- 
port of educational institutions, and that they have 
appropriate officers to look after and expend the 
revenue derived from the sale of those lands. Ten 
years ago the aggregated amount of money realized 
from the liberality of the general Government was 
about fifty millions of dollars, but this amount has 



Educational Life and Institutions. 313 

been annually increased since then ; and when to 
this fund we add the appropriations regularly made 
by the State Legislatures, we find that the total 
amount of money spent for educational purposes is 
truly enormous, and that in this particular, if not in 
any other, the States of America are unequalled by 
any other nation. Hence it is that there is ample 
provision made by the authorities alone, without 
including the munificent gifts of private individuals, 
to furnish every child in the land with a good 
education, and the black race or freedmen have the 
same privileges which are enjoyed by the whites. 
Prior to the late rebellion there existed no provi- 
sion for the education of the coloured race, but as 
soon as they became free, measures were taken for 
their education, and in 1869 the total number who 
were known to be in attendance upon day, night, 
or Sunday-schools, under the auspices of the Freed- 
nien's Bureau, was upwards of 250,000, and the 
freedmen paid out of their own earnings about 
$200,000 for tuition and $125,000 for school build- 
ings. 

But we must now proceed to submit a general 
account of the educational systems of the United 
States, and we begin with the common schools, the 
principle of which is the free elementary education 
of every child in the community, and which under- 
lies the whole intellectual fabric of the American 
Republic. The system as formerly practised, origi- 
nated in New England at the commencement of the 
present century, and was based upon the following 
ideas: 1. The instruction of all the children in the 
State in the rudiments of an English education, 



314 Life and Resources in America. 

viz. reading, writing, elementary arithmetic and 
geography, and grammar, this to be accomplished 
by schools in every district ; 2. Each district to be 
independent of every other in all financial matters 
and management ; 3. That there should be a super- 
intendent or board of visitors in each town, gene- 
rally consisting of professional men, and especially 
clergymen, to examine teachers, inspect the schools, 
and prescribe text books; 4. The support of 
these schools by taxation; and 5. The power of 
compelling attendance on the part of the town autho- 
rities. After an experience of nearly twenty years, 
it was found that the condition of the schools was 
not up to the demands of the time, and a revival in 
the cause of education took place, which resulted in 
greatly increasing the efficiency of the old system, 
until it was brought to a state of rare excellence, 
through the efforts of such men as Horace Mann 
and Henry Barnard. The school system was again 
regenerated, and now possesses all the elements of 
the highest efficiency, the leading features of which 
are as follows : First, a system of graded schools 
for each town, embracing primary schools for the 
younger pupils ; grammar schools for the older, in 
which are taught, in addition to the common branches, 
philosophy, chemistry, history, drawing, music, 
algebra, geometry, and the French language; high 
schools for the more advanced, in which are taught 
the studies necessary for a business education, as 
well as the languages and the higher mathematics. 
Secondly, the employment of regular visitors, who 
are paid for their services. Thirdly, the en- 
forcement of uniformity of text books and regu- 



Educational Life and Institutions. 315 

larity in attendance. Fourthly, regular and fre- 
quent public examinations. Fifthly, the establish- 
ment of school libraries in connection with all the 
schools. Sixthly, the introduction of black boards, 
globes, maps, charts, and other apparatus for in- 
struction. Seventhly, the proper construction of 
school houses. Eighthly, the establishment in every 
State of normal schools for the instruction of regu- 
lar teachers. Ninthly, the organization of State 
associations for comparison of methods of teaching, 
and the establishment of school periodicals. And, 
tenthly, the extension of the privileges of these 
schools to all the children of the school age in each 
State either by supporting the schools entirely by 
taxation and the income of funds where they exist, 
or by taxation and small rate bills, which are abated 
where they are unable to pay, and the furnishing of 
necessary books to the children of the poor. 

That the above is a noble ground- work for the 
education of the masses must be acknowledged by 
all, and yet we find it a subject of serious complaint 
that the teachers in the common schools are not 
what they should be. In the great majority of cases 
they are said to be too young and inexperienced, 
and that both the young men and young women 
employed look upon the office merely as a stepping- 
stone to better positions or more agreeable employ- 
ments, and not as a permanent business. An office 
under the Government, or a profession, will allure 
the young man from the school room ; and so also 
will an offer of marriage the young woman. Of 
course there are many teachers whose knowledge, 
discipline, and nobleness of character eminently fit 



316 Life and Resources in America. 

them for their responsible posts, but they are not 
sufficiently numerous to form a class ; and it was 
this fact which caused a prominent writer on the 
subject to suggest that all badly-managed schools 
should be closed, and that the houses should bear 
this inscription "Poor teachers worse than no 
teachers/' In the one particular to which we have 
alluded, it is confessed by leading Americans, that 
Prussia is far in advance of the United States. 
But notwithstanding this drawback, the common 
schools of the country are a great national blessing. 
They are free and open to the poorest children in the 
community ; but because these advantages are not 
always accepted by the people, in some of the States 
of the Union, laws have been passed compelling a 
certain attendance at school. The houses are com- 
fortable and conveniently located in every district 
where they are needed. The teachers are generally 
intelligent and circumspect in their lives and 
morals, and where they make teaching a regular 
profession, are all that could be reasonably expected 
or desired. With regard to their compensation 
there is no uniformity, but it is estimated to range 
from thirty-nine to fifty-seven dollars per month 
for male teachers, with board, and from twenty- 
seven to thirty dollars per month for female teachers, 
with board. But, perhaps a better idea, on this 
head, may be obtained by looking at the average 
of the annual salaries which have recently been 
paid in some of the leading cities, as follows : 
Boston, $798 ; Cincinnati, $769 ; New Haven, 
$577 ; New York, $649 ; New Orleans, $675 ; Phila- 
delphia, $415 ; San Francisco, $829 ; and Washing- 



Educational Life and Institutions. 317 

ton, $507. Nor is there, as we have already stated* 
any uniformity in the management of the schools 
by the State authorities, and so with a view of 
attempting to give a general idea of their condition, 
we submit the following figures in regard to four of 
the representative States of the Eepublic: The 
number of scholars who attend school in the small 
State of Connecticut is 124,000, amount expended 
in 1870 for school purposes, $1,269,152, and its 
school fund is $2,046,108 ; in New York there are 
1,000,000 children' in the common schools, and 
120,000 in the private schools, the school houses 
are valued at $20,500,000, the amount paid to- 
teachers is $6,500,000, amount expended in 1870 
for instruction nearly $10,000,000, and the school 
fund is $11,300,000; in Pennsylvania, the scholars 
are 900,753, schools 14,212, teachers 17,612, school 
property $14,045,632, and annual expenses about 
$7,000,000 ; and in Ohio the scholars are 740,382, 
and the school expenditures in 1870 amounted to 
$7,771,761. Total amount of school fund in all the 
States is estimated at fifty millions of dollars. We 
give no figures in regard to any of the Southern 
States, first, because the system of common schools 
has never flourished in that region of the country, 
and secondly, because the late war has so deranged 
all public matters in those States, that no statements 
at this time would do them full justice. Notwith- 
standing all that has been done in the United States 
for the cause of education, it has been estimated 
that the illiterate people of the country number 
about six millions. 

With regard to the much discussed subject of 



318 Life and Resources in America. 

the Bible in common schools, we may submit the 
following remarks by a distinguished professor of 
Harvard University : " To banish the Bible, was to 
garble history, for there was much history, of which 
it was the only source. Christianity is the great 
factor in the history of the world. If moral phi- 
losophy is to be taught, it must be Christian ethics. 
For the culture of the taste and imagination, the 
Bible transcends all other literature. Our English 
Bible has rendered important service in preserving 
our language. It is the key to the best English 
diction and has helped to form the diction of every 
child. Our children should not be kept in ignorance 
of the fact that we are a Christian people. Sectarian 
religion should be excluded ; but this can be done 
only by giving an unsectarian book, and the Bible 
is such a book. The Eoman Catholics, in opposing 
the introduction of the Bible in common schools, do 
not so much object to the Book itself, but rather 
desire that the school funds should be separated, 
which course, the Protestants think would be detri- 
mental to the welfare of the whole system." 

With a view of enhancing the efficiency of the 
common schools in the United States, there have 
been organized, within the last few years, a large 
number of Normal schools, the sole object of which 
is to educate a class of persons solely for the busi- 
ness of teaching, whereby very great good has 
already been accomplished in elevating the tone of 
instruction. At the present time there are fifty of 
these schools in successful operation in the Northern 
States, which are supported by the City or State 
governments, and not less than thirty in the 



Educational Life and Institutions. 319 

Southern States, for the benefit of the freedmen ; 
and the number of teachers already educated by 
them, including males and females, is estimated at 
two hundred thousand, and the pupils now being 
instructed about nine thousand. While there is no 
special uniformity in the management of these 
schools, we may obtain a general idea of their 
character by glancing at the features of a single 
one of them which has been particularly successful, 
viz. the Normal University of Illinois. Candi- 
dates for admission to this institution, whether male 
or female, must have attained the age of sixteen ; 
must produce certificates of good moral character ; 
must sign a declaration that they intend to devote 
themselves to school-teaching in Illinois ; and must 
pass a satisfactory examination in reading, spelling, 
writing, arithmetic, geography, and the elements of 
English grammar. The necessary annual expenses, 
for each pupil range from ninety-seven to one 
hundred and twenty-eight dollars. There are five 
professors, and the term of study is the usual one of 
three years : and the course of instruction embraces 
the following subjects: Metaphysics; history and 
methods of education ; constitution of the State and 
the United States ; school laws ; English language -, 
arithmetic ; algebra ; geometry ; natural philosophy ; 
book-keeping ; geography ; history ; astronomy ; 
chemistry ; botany ; physiology ; geology ; vocal 
music ; and writing and drawing. The total number 
of pupils is three hundred ; and there is an append- 
age to the institution called a model school, which 
contains five hundred pupils, whose tuition is free, 
although they have to support themselves. While 



320 Life and Resources in America. 

the Americans confess that their common schools 
are not equal in efficiency to those of some other 
countries, they claim that this state of things cannot 
continue, and that their Normal schools, as at present 
organized, are unsurpassed. 

Before an American youth can pass from a 
common school into a college, he is obliged to go 
through a course of studies, in what is called a 
High School or Academy. These institutions are 
exceedingly varied in character, quite numerous, 
independent in organization, and very frequently 
originate in the liberality of private individuals. 
Although the instruction afforded by them is not 
gratuitous, the expenses are generally moderate. 
In some of them, however, provision is made by 
public appropriations for the education of such 
pupils as are too poor to pay. It often happens, 
however, that when young men are about to leave 
the academy, or High School, they conclude that 
their education has been sufficiently advanced for 
all practical purposes, and so relinquish the idea of 
passing through college. 

And here, before describing the Colleges and 
Universities of America, we may with propriety 
allude to the present condition of the miscellaneous 
schools of the country. Of distinct schools of 
Science, unconnected with colleges, there are none 
of any importance ; but the Sheffield Scientific 
School, which forms a part of Yale College, 
and the Lawrence Scientific School, connected 
with Harvard University, are both flourishing in- 
stitutions, and are doing much to meet the wants 
of the age ; while there are departments, standing 



Educational Life and Institutions. 321 

on nearly the same basis, belonging to Brown Uni- 
versity, Kutgers College, and the University of 
Michigan. As to Industrial Schools, there is also 
a great dearth of these in the United States ; 
especially is this true in regard to Engineering 
and Navigation ; and about all that is accomplished 
in the country, in the way of art instruction, is ac- 
complished by the National Academy and Cooper 
Institute of New York, the Athenaeum in Boston, 
the Academy of Arts in Philadelphia, and the Pea- 
body Institute in Baltimore. In Massachusetts, 
New York and Pennsylvania, they have Institu- 
tions of Technology : in California, a College of 
Mining and the Mechanic Arts, associated with 
Agriculture ; and attached to Columbia College, in 
New York, they have a School of Mines. As to 
the advantages afforded by agricultural colleges, 
they are quite numerous, and well-endowed institu- 
tions are to be found in the States of Delaware, 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, 
Maryland, Massachusetts (where there are several 
Japanese students), Michigan, Minnesota, New 
Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia, 
and Wisconsin. In none of the public schools of 
America are the foundation principles of commerce 
taught, and hence there have been established by 
private individuals what is called a " Chain of 
Commercial Colleges ; " they number not less than 
forty, and extend from Maine to Louisiana ; their 
course of instruction is very complete, and covers 
all that is necessary for a commercial life ; and 
because this association is under one head, the 
regulations are such, that a student, after complet- 



322 Life and Resources in America. 

ing a course of studies in one, may again take them 
up and pursue them at another school of the chain, 
without additional expense. With regard to the 
theological institutions, they have already been 
mentioned in a previous part of this volume ; and 
on a page which is to follow, we shall speak of the 
Army and Navy Schools of the country. The only 
Schools remaining to be mentioned under this 
miscellaneous head are those devoted to the study 
of medicine and law. The medical colleges and 
schools of the country number fifty-one, and, first 
and last, as a competent writer has said, there have 
stood at the head of them, men of learning, genius, 
and eminent distinction. And so, there have also 
been in the ranks of the profession, many physicians 
and surgeons of great ability and skill. But hardly 
any one, who is acquainted with the status of 
medical education in America, will claim that either 
the distinguished professor, author, or practitioner, 
has owed his success, in any considerable degree, 
to the training of the schools ; for, as compared 
with the European standard, the training in America 
has been unsatisfactory to the last degree. The 
law schools of the United States number twenty- 
two ; and it is said that, in at least one respect, 
they are superior to those of England : in that, 
what they assume to do at all, they do more 
thoroughly and well. But it is no less true, that 
they undertake very little in comparison with what 
is both attempted and accomplished in several of 
the European countries. In the form of depart- 
ments, there are schools of law connected with 
many of the leading colleges ; and in all of them 



Educational Life and Institutions. 323 

the term of study is two years, the courses of in- 
struction being so arranged that a complete view is 
given during each year of the subjects embraced 
within it. The professors number from one to five 
in each of these schools ; a majority of them, in 
many instances, being judges of the Supreme Courts 
and resident lawyers in regular practice, whose 
services are gratuitous or partially compensated. 
The terms of admission are simply good morals and 
the age of eighteen years, and the fees, payable in 
advance, amount to one hundred dollars. The 
lawyers of the United States, as heretofore men- 
tioned, have much to do with the making of the 
national laws, and the affairs of the general Govern- 
ment ; and a competent American critic has said 
how few of them have been students of political 
economy, of civil polity, and of universal history, is 
painfully manifest from the legislative discussions 
they hold, and the laws they enact. 

We come now to speak, in general terms, of the 
collegiate institutions of the United States, known 
as universities, colleges, seminaries, and institutes, 
and which number in the aggregate not less than 
two hundred and eighty-five, exclusive of eighty- 
two, in which theology is alone studied. While 
their courses of instruction embrace all branches of 
learning, it is almost invariably the case that some- 
thing like a sectarian element pervades each insti- 
tution, the only exceptions to this rule being those 
which are supported by the State Governments. 
The number of institutions in America, bearing the 
title of university, is larger than in any other 
country, and a less number of them is said to have 



324 Life and Resources in America. 

really any sort of claim to the title. On the other 
hand, there are several colleges which, though 
bearing that more modest name, are really entitled 
to be called universities. And then again there are 
seminaries and institutes, which would seem, from 
their extent and high character, to be worthy of 
being called colleges. The precise meaning of the 
term university, is a universal school, in which are 
taught all branches of learning, or the four faculties 
of theology, medicine, law, and the sciences and 
arts ; a college is a school incorporated for purposes 
of instruction, where the students may acquire a 
knowledge of the languages and sciences ; the idea 
of a seminary or an academy, is allied to that of a 
college, only that the former are more especially 
designed for a younger class of students ; and an 
institute is a literary or philosophical society, 
formed by persons for their mutual instruction and 
advantage in all matters connected with intellectual 
culture. The so-called Universities of America 
number one hundred, while the other collegiate 
institutions are about equally divided between the 
three remaining classes. To give an account of all, 
is of course not to be expected in this paper, but 
the reader may obtain a general idea of their 
character by glancing at a few of the more influen- 
tial and prominent institutions. 

Harvard College, located at Cambridge, in Mas- 
sachusetts, and founded in 1636, is the oldest insti- 
tution of learning in America. It has twenty-eight 
professors and about five hundred students; and 
although it has hitherto had a Liberal divinity school, 
arrangements have recently been made for incor- 



Educational Life and Institutions. 325 

porating in it an " Episcopal Theological School." 
It has a Law department with three professors ; a 
Medical department with eleven professors ; a School 
of Astronomy with two professors ; a Dental School 
with seven professors ; a Museum of Zoology with 
lectures by four professors ; and the Lawrence Scien- 
tific School and School of Mining and Practical Geo- 
logy with seven professors. Its general and special 
libraries comprise one hundred and fifty thousand 
volumes, and its scientific collections are extensive 
and of great value. It is managed by one president, 
five fellows, and one treasurer, and by thirty over- 
seers chosen by the State Legislature ', its endowment 
fund, derived from numerous individuals and cor- 
porations, and independent of the college grounds, 
buildings, libraries and collections, is somewhat over 
two millions of dollars ; and its annual income is 
about one hundred and eighty thousand dollars. 
The term of study in the Law School is two years ; 
in the Divinity School, three ; and candidates for the 
degree of doctor of medicine, must have studied 
three years, and attended two courses of lectures. 

The next oldest institution of learning in America 
is Yale College, founded at New Haven, Connec- 
ticut, in 1700. It has about sixty professors, and 
usually seven hundred students. Besides an Aca- 
demical department, it has five others, devoted to 
philosophy, theology, law, medicine, and the fine 
arts. Its miscellaneous collections are extensive 
and very valuable, and its libraries comprise about 
eighty-five thousand volumes. The total amount 
of its funds available for the support of the college 
is something over one million of dollars. This col- 



326 Life and Resources in America. 

lege differs from Harvard chiefly in the constitution 
of its department of philosophy and the arts, which 
has come to be known as the Sheffield Scientific 
School. Candidates for admission are obliged to 
be sixteen years of age, and to undergo a two-fold 
examination first in mathematical studies, and 
secondly in elementary literary studies. The charge 
for tuition is one hundred and twenty-five dollars, 
but students of chemistry have to pay an additional 
sum of seventy-five dollars. The term of study in 
each of the courses is three years ; and in the 
divinity school no charge is made for tuition. 

Another college of note and influence is Columbia 
College, founded in the city of New York in 1754, 
but prior to 1787 it was known as King's College. 
Its funds, derived chiefly from donations, amount to 
two millions of dollars; its professors about fifty, 
and the usual number of students is nine hundred. 
It has four departments, devoted to Letters and 
Science, Mines, Law, and Medicine. The charges 
for tuition range from one hundred to one hundred 
and sixty dollars per annum ; several societies and 
municipal corporations are entitled to several scho- 
larships free of charge ; every religious denomina- 
tion in the city of New York is entitled always to 
have one student free of all charges for tuition ; 
and every school from which there shall be admitted 
four matriculants in any year, is also allowed to 
send one pupil free of charge. 

The College of New Jersey, located at Princeton, 
is another of the venerable institutions of the United 
States. It was founded in 1746 ; has about twenty 
professors, and nearly three hundred students j is 



Educational Life and Institutions. 327 

supported by the Presbyterians, and has educated 
nearly nine hundred men for the Ministry; charges 
a tuition fee of seventy dollars ; and has a choice 
library of twenty-five thousand volumes. In George- 
town, District of Columbia, there is a Roman Catholic 
College, founded in 1792, with twenty professors, 
two hundred students, and a library of thirty thou- 
sand volumes ; in Brunswick, Maine, is located 
Bowdoin College, founded in 1802, and possessing 
a library of thirty-seven thousand volumes ; in New 
Hampshire they have Dartmouth College, founded 
in 1769, supported by the Congregationalists, and 
with thirty-eight thousand volumes in its library ; 
in Pennsylvania, Dickinson College, founded in 
1783, supported by the Methodists, and with twenty- 
five thousand volumes ; in Rhode Island, Brown 
University, founded in 1764, supported by the Bap- 
tists, and having a library of thirty-eight thousand 
volumes ; and in Virginia, a State University, 
founded in 1819, with thirty-five thousand volumes. 
But these several institutions, which have more 
recently been founded, and which are growing with 
great rapidity and exercising a paramount influence 
in the educational world, viz.: the Universities of 
Michigan, Kentucky, and Illinois, and the Cornell 
University in New York. But there is another 
institution which deserves special mention, because 
of its extent and peculiar character, viz. : Vassar 
College, located at Poughkeepsie, New York. It 
was founded in 1861 through the liberality of one 
man, Matthew Vassar, and is wholly devoted to the 
education of women. The buildings are extensive 
and beautiful ; the school offers the highest educa- 



328 Life and Resources in America. 

tional facilities to females at moderate expense, and 
admits as beneficiaries those who are unable to pay 
even that expense. Special attention is devoted to 
the fine arts, and it has a corps of instructors in the 
English language and literature, the modern lan- 
guages of Europe and their literature, ancient lan- 
guages, mathematics, all the branches of natural 
science, including anatomy, physiology, hygiene, 
intellectual and moral philosophy, political economy 
and the science of government, domestic economy, 
and the study of the Scriptures, without secta- 
rianism. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the educational 
records of the United States are very complete, and 
the amount of money annually expended in the 
cause is very large, it would seem that the require- 
ments of the age and of America have not as yet by 
any means been attained. An American writer, in 
an elaborate report on this subject, published at the 
National expense, has summed up his opinions in a 
single paragraph, as follows: To tell the plain 
truth, he says, the very best of our many universi- 
ties are but sorry skeletons of the well-developed 
and shapely institutions they ought to be and must 
become, before they will be fairly entitled to rank 
among the foremost universities of even this 
present day. And if we are not content always to 
suffer the contempt of European scholars, who 
properly enough regard us as a very clever, but 
also a very uncultured, people, it is time that all 
true lovers of learning, as well as all who desire 
the highest prosperity and glory of America, should 
awake to the importance of at once providing the 



Educational Life and Institutions. 329 

means of a profounder, broader, and higher culture 
in every department of human learning. 

As the education of women is a subject which 
possesses a peculiar interest for the people of Japan, 
we here submit a few observations in that connec- 
tion. In America, females possess precisely the 
same advantages for education that are possessed 
by the males. Boys and girls are admitted to the 
same schools; and the gentle influences of the 
latter are counterbalanced by the elevating influences 
of the former, whereby it is thought that both classes 
are improved. At the same time, there are thou- 
sands of schools in which the two sexes are instructed 
separately. The idea is universal that the women 
of the country are capable of receiving, and should 
receive the highest kind of education ; and as to the 
question of their right to take part in politics, by 
voting, which has been extensively discussed in 
America, it seems to be one of those problems 
which the future alone can establish. The im- 
portant part which the women of America take in 
educational affairs is shown by the following facts : 
that they are educated at the Normal schools for 
the express purpose of becoming teachers, that they 
officiate as teachers in thousands of the common 
schools, that seminaries for the education of young 
ladies are to be found in every part of the country, 
that they are admitted into several of the American 
colleges as regular students, and that a .number of 
institutions of the highest character are exclusively 
devoted to the education of women, the most exten- 
sive and interesting, Vassar College, having already 
been mentioned . Not only are the libraries of the 



330 Life and Resources in America. 

country regularly visited and used by ladies (in 
some of which they are employed as librarians) , but 
in the leading cities are to be found libraries and 
reading rooms, designed for their use exclusively, 
and all of them in harmony with the idea of 
American civilization. 





LITERARY, ARTISTIC AND SCIENTIFIC 
LIFE. 

NDER the head of literary life, we pro- 
pose to submit some information on the 
book-publishing and newspaper inter- 
ests of the United States. When an 
author has written a book, whether large or small, 
and desires to profit by its publication, he is obliged 
to take out a copyright, by which the Government 
promises to protect his rights, for a term of years, 
in the profits of the work, as his own property. 
The document in question is issued, under the law 
by the Librarian of Congress, and two copies of 
every book or pamphlet published, have to be 
deposited in the National Library, whereby the 
collection of volumes belonging to the Government, 
is annually increased to a large extent. The books 
printed and the authors who write them, are so 
numerous that it would be quite impossible even to 
name them in this place. The best and most com- 
prehensive work ever published on the authors who 
have written in the English language, was written 
by an American, named S. Austin Allibone : it is 
called a " Dictionary of Authors," and contains the 



332 Life and Resources in America. 

names of not less than forty-six thousand authors, 
with an account of their publications. 

As to the subjects upon which books are written, 
they are of course very numerous, the general heads 
under which they are arranged being as follows: 
Theology and Religion, Poetry, History, Biography, 
Geography and Travels, Philosophy, Science, Social 
Reform, School Books, Useful and Fine Arts, Fiction, 
Literature, Miscellaneous Books, Republications 
and Translations from Foreign authors. With many 
men, as well as women, the writing of books is a 
special business, and then again there are thousands 
of books written merely as a pastime by their 
authors, or from motives of personal vanity ; gene- 
rally speaking, the writers do not find the business 
profitable; but then again, there are authors who 
make a great deal of money by writing especially 
is this the case with school books, novels, and 
national histories. The men who print and sell the 
books which are written, are called publishers, and in 
all the principal cities are to be found establishments 
which do business on a very large scale. Some of them 
give employment to large numbers of people, such 
as writers, paper makers, printers, binders, artists 
of various kinds and machinists, as well as clerks 
and common workmen, and not a few have acquired 
very large fortunes by this branch of industry. 
They usually sell books by the quantity alone, and 
the retail merchants, who purchase of them, are to 
be found in every town and village in the whole 
land. When an author has written a book, he 
either sells his copyright to the publisher for a 
specific sum of money, after which he has nothing 



Literary, Artistic and Scientific Life. 333 

to do with his work, or else, he allows the publisher 
the privilege of printing and selling his book, 
charging for the same a certain per centum on the 
price of each volume, retaining the ownership of the 
work in his own name. While many of the books 
published are so interesting or valuable as to be 
purchased by everybody interested in the subject, 
very many of them can only be sold by means of 
extravagant notices in the newspapers, and hence 
the custom prevails of sending most of all the new 
books to the newspapers, which pretend to give 
impartial notices, but often do the very reverse. 
The custom of reading books among the people of 
America is almost universal, far more so, it is said, 
than is the case in England or France; and in 
every home, from that of the rich merchant, down 
to the poorest farmer, may generally be found such 
collections of books as they desire or can afford to 
buy. And for those who cannot afford to purchase 
all they may wish to read, in the cities and towns 
everywhere, they have circulating libraries, where 
for a small consideration, books may be read, or 
borrowed, to be read, at home. In most of the 
leading cities, collections of this sort have been 
established which are very extensive and valuable. 
The good which these libraries accomplish by fur- 
nishing the people with information on every con- 
ceivable subject, cannot be estimated; the money 
which some of them have cost would reach a million 
of dollars ; and the largest in the country, which is 
called the National Library, and located in Wash- 
ington City, contains not less than two hundred 
thousand volumes, and is entirely free to all who 



334 Life and Resources in America. 

may desire to consult its treasures. In I860, there 
were 27,730 libraries in the country, in which were 
collected nearly fourteen millions of volumes. 

But the most striking feature connected with the 
literature of America, is the universal circulation of 
newspapers and magazines which are read by all 
classes of the people, and so conducted as to form, 
to a great extent, a substitute for books. According 
to the latest accounts, the whole number of periodi- 
cals issued in the United States and its Territories 
is 6,056; of these 637 are published daily; 118 
tri-weekly; 129 semi- weekly; 4,642 weekly; 21 
bi-weekly; 100 semi-monthly; 715 monthly; 14 
bi-monthly ; and 62 are issued quarterly. Of this 
large number it is estimated that about four-fifths 
are political journals, the remainder being religious 
or literary. It is through these numerous publica- 
tions that the mind of the nation is chiefly expressed, 
and its intellectual pulse may generally be measured 
by the success of the several journals. While very 
many of these have a circulation which is confined 
to their particular religious sect or political party, 
there are a few whose circulation is immense, and 
their influence proper tionably extensive. For ex- 
ample, there is one weekly paper published in New 
York, which has a circulation of 175,000, and if we 
estimate that each paper is read by five persons, 
which is not unlikely, we perceive, that each issue 
has the teaching of 875,000 minds ; aud then again, 
there are some daily papers, which issue every 
morning from one hundred thousand to two hun- 
dred thousand copies. As far back as 1860, it was 
estimated that the circulation of the newspapers 



Literary, Artistic and Scientific Life. 335 

alone amounted to 100,000,000. Hence we perceive 
that the power of the Press is enormous, and it is 
a matter of the utmost importance that it should be 
conducted with honesty and wisdom. That portion 
of it which comes under the head of newspapers, is 
by far the most profitable, so far as making money 
is concerned, but the profit does not come from 
selling the paper alone. In all of them certain 
columns or pages are filled up with advertisements, 
and as these are paid for on liberal terms, they 
become a source of profit. The ownership of these 
papers is generally vested in a company of men, 
who are the printers and publishers ; and as some 
of these great establishments send forth books, as 
well as newspapers and periodicals, we can only 
obtain an idea of the extent of their business by 
resorting to figures. According to the latest pub- 
lished statements the capital invested in printing 
and publishing is about $20,000,000 ; cost of raw 
material used, $13,000,000 ; cost of labour per 
annum about $8,000,000 ; number of hands employ- 
ed more than 20,000 ; and the value of books, 
periodicals, and daily journals nearly $32,000,000. 
With these figures before us, we cannot wonder 
that what is called the Press of America should be 
considered an element of almost incalculable power. 
As has well been said, it records with fidelity the 
proceedings of Congress, of all State and Territorial 
Legislatures, and of Judicial tribunals, holds the 
pulpit to a just responsibility, reviews the doings of 
business and social life, and watches with sleepless 
vigilance over the concerns of the people. It is the 
great representative of the people, a conservative 



336 Life and Resources in America. 

power held by tliem to guard both public and in- 
dustrial liberty; reflecting their opinions and judg- 
ments in all matters respecting the public weal, 
exposing wrong, and vindicating and encouraging 
the right. 

In writing for the newspapers of America, many 
of the ablest men are employed, and the leading 
writer for each journal is called an editor. He is 
frequently the sole proprietor, sometimes only owns 
a few shares in the enterprise, and then again he 
may be hired to perform a specific editorial duty. 
He is responsible for the opinions expressed, and 
when necessary, as is always the case in the larger 
establishments, he is assisted in his labours by sub- 
editors, who look after all matters connected with 
commerce or literature ; by reporters, who prepare 
the proceedings of public assemblies ; and by corre- 
spondents, who furnish information on every subject 
of public interest. Weekly papers are commonly 
published on Saturday of each week, and daily 
papers in the morning or evening ; and as most of 
the latest news is received through the telegraph, 
it is frequently the case that an evening paper will 
publish information of an event which may have 
taken place in Europe, on the morning of the same 
day. With regard to what is called the liberty of 
the press, in times of peace, it is quite unbounded ; 
so much so, indeed, that the rights of private 
citizens are not always respected; but while an 
editor may not be interfered with by the govern- 
ment, for expressing his opinions, provided they 
are not immoral, it is too often the case that his 
real independence is materially affected by the 



Literary, Artistic and Scientific Life. 337 

allurements or dictation of the political party 
to which he belongs. And then again, the habit 
of dealing in personalities is perhaps more pre- 
valent among the newspaper writers of America, 
than among any other people ; the excesses in this 
direction, sometimes lead to bitter conflicts and 
even to untimely deaths ; but it is certain, that all 
the more notorious abuses of the press are frowned 
upon by the better classes in every community. 
Notwithstanding its many drawbacks, the conclu- 
sion is inevitable, that the press of America is the 
leading civilizer of its multifarious population, and 
the particular engine which has brought about the 
present prosperous condition of the Republic. 

Our next topic for consideration is the artistic 
life of America, as we find it developed in the pur- 
suits of painting, sculpture, and architecture. The 
number of persons engaged in these various em- 
ployments is not large, but they are necessarily 
men of culture ; exert a great influence in develop- 
ing the taste of the people generally; and they 
congregate and find employment chiefly in the 
larger cities. The painters are of several kinds, 
viz.: portrait painters, historical painters, landscape 
painters, and various subordinate classes who pro- 
duce miscellaneous pictures. The materials most 
commonly used are oil colours and canvas; and 
while the majority of these artists manage to sup- 
port themselves in comfort, those who happen to 
become fashionable or possess extraordinary ability, 
frequently meet with great success. While it is 
true that good portraits may be obtained for fifty 
or one hundred dollars, it is also true that five 

z 



338 Life and Resources in America. 

thousand dollars is not an uncommon price for 
very superior portraits; and, according to cir- 
cumstances, the prices paid for pictures of scenery, 
range from fifty dollars to ten thousand dollars. 
In these two departments, the American artists are 
perhaps equal to those of Europe; but with regard 
to historical painting, the English, French and 
German artists are all in advance of the Americans. 
Generally speaking, before a man can become expert 
in the art of painting, he has to acquire a know- 
ledge of drawing, and this study has come to be 
so common and popular that many artists confine 
themselves to drawing alone, and hence the kind of 
pictures known a^s engravings, which are merely 
copies of drawings as well as paintings, have almost 
a universal circulation. They are executed on 
steel, on copper, on stone, and on wood, and used 
extensively in books and weekly and monthly 
periodicals. To what extent this is true, is shown 
by the fact that a single illustrated journal pub- 
lished in New York, is said to have a circulation of 
three hundred thousand copies. And then again, 
large numbers of engravings are prepared and 
published, which are used for the adornment of the 
houses of the people, as is the case with paintings, 
as well as photographs, and chromo-lithographs, 
which latter classes of pictures have come to be 
more popular* than any others. The custom of 
hanging pictures on the walls of the houses* is a 
leading characteristic among the Americans ; and 
while the poor mechanic or farmer may be content 
with a few cheap engravings or photographs, men 
of wealth are very .much in the habit of spending 



Literary, Artistic and Scientific Life. 339 

thousands upon thousands of dollars, for works of 
art of the highest order. Many of the private 
collections thus formed are really of a princely 
character ; and then, in all the leading cities, they 
have extensive public collections of pictures, with 
which are commonly associated certain schools for 
imparting a practical knowledge of the fine arts. 
The extent to which the general government patro- 
nizes the art of painting is limited to a few historical 
productions, including compositions and portraits 
to be found in the Capitol and Executive Mansion, 
As the art of sculpture is far less popular among 
the people, than that of painting, we find the 
sculptors reduced to a small number. Among 
them, however, are to be found some few men of 
great abilities and extensive reputations. It is 
claimed, indeed, that the United States has gained, 
in sculpture, a far higher rank than in any of the 
fine arts. The works here produced, are generally 
executed in white marble, though sometimes in 
bronze, and in the great majority of instances 
represent the busts or full length figures of dis- 
tinguished men. This style of art is always expen- 
sive, and it is only the rich who can afford to 
perpetuate the features of their family friends in 
this manner. When intended for exhibition in 
private dwellings, or in galleries of art, these pro- 
ductions are usually of the size of life, but when 
intended for the adornment of private gardens or 
public grounds, they are of colossal size, and noted 
military men are occasionally represented mounted 
on horses. The chief patrons of this kind of art 
are the National and State Governments, and hence 



340 Life and Resources in America. 

busts and statues are to be found, stationed to some 
extent, in the public buildings in Washington and 
in the capitals of the several States. In the 
TsTational Capitol, a large and handsome hall has 
been appropriated entirely to the reception of busts 
and statues of celebrated statesmen and military 
and naval commanders ; and in this connection, a 
law has been passed, granting the privilege to each 
State in the Union, to send to this central exhi- 
bition-place, a portrait in marble of any two men, 
which the State authorities may choose to honour 
in this manner. When copies of marble or bronze 
productions are desired by private individuals, and 
the means of the person wanting them are limited, 
it is frequently the case that a kind of white plaster 
is used as a substitute for the more enduring 
materials ; and this composition is employed, to a 
great extent, in reproducing the ancient and more 
celebrated works of sculpture in Europe, which are 
brought to America to serve as models in the art 
schools of the country. 

We come now to speak of what has been done in 
the United States in the way of architecture. In 
the early years of the country the abundance of 
wood, and the ease of preparing it, made it the uni- 
versal building material, and for a long time hardly 
anything else was used, although for buildings of 
importance brick was brought from England. The 
haste to get shelter, and the availability of wood, 
make this still the common material almost the 
only one used in the new cities of the Western 
States and Territories. The recent terrible fire at 
Chicago, is an illustration in part, of this fact, and 



Literary, Artistic and Scientific Life. 341 

of the evils of building with wood alone. But 
within the present century much brick has been 
made, and stone quarries have been opened all over 
the country. In the older cities, brick and stone 
in connection with iron, are now almost entirely 
employed, certain varieties of stone being used for 
all the most important buildings. The New Eng- 
land States furnish a great deal of granite and sie- 
nite, which are very strong and durable stones, but 
too hard and rough for finely cut or ornamental 
work. There is much sandstone in the Middle 
States, and in the West are many kinds of sand and 
limestone which are easily cut, and receive readily 
the richest ornamentation. There is also through- 
out the United States a great variety of white and 
coloured marbles, much used in ornamental and de- 
corative work ; and many elaborate buildings are 
built of them. 

Before the present century architects were few in 
America and of little skill ; buildings were designed, 
for the most part, by the men who built them. 
But the gain of the community in wealth and leisure 
has greatly developed the profession in the present 
generation. The earlier architects worked only by 
English traditions, which were, in their turn, de- 
rived from the Italian architects of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. The earlier architects 
of this country usually obtained their professional 
education in Europe, where the advantages were 
numerous ; at the present time, however, young 
Americans find excellent opportunities in the offices 
of the better trained architects at home. The mul- 
tiplication of prints, photographs and casts in plas- 



342 Life and Resources in America. 

ter from the best old examples, have greatly faci- 
litated study ; schools of architecture have been 
established in several of the educational institutions 
of the country; and in New York, they have an 
American Institute of Architects, which is repre- 
sented in all the leading cities of the country by 
what they call " Chapters/' and which are said to 
exercise an important influence within their proper 
sphere. The styles of architecture employed in 
America are as various as possible, but perhaps the 
kind of buildings in which the United States archi- 
tects are most successful, is that of wooden villas, 
which are often both beautiful and convenient. It 
has been charged against the Americans, that in re- 
gard to architecture, if nothing else, they lay more 
stress upon the idea of a conventional beauty, than 
upon substantial usefulness. A church may be 
beautiful to the eye, but filled with uncomfortable 
seats and a perpetual darkness ; a public building 
may be very ornamental, but badly ventilated ; and 
a dwelling may appear like a palace, and in reality 
be without a single comfort. Notwithstanding the 
immense amounts of money which are annually ex- 
pended in America upon fine buildings, it is claimed 
that there is much room for improvement ; and it is 
a creditable truth, that a great impetus has recently 
been given to the art of architecture by the patron- 
age of the General Government, whose buildings 
are numerous, and among the most extensive and 
imposing in the Republic. In this connection one 
fact which seems amazing, and is indeed a subject 
of remark, is this : that there now stands in the 
city of Washington a monument to the memory of 



Literary, Artistic and Scientific Life. 343 

George Washington, who is called the Father of his 
Country, which was commenced a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago, and is yet unfinished, and a painful spec- 
tacle to all the world. 

We come now to speak of science in America, 
but before doing so it may be proper to make some 
remarks in regard to science in general. The term 
science, in its more restricted sense, is a knowledge 
of the laws of nature, or how the changes in the 
natural world are produced. In a more general 
sense,it is used to include descriptive natural history, 
from which it differs in this, that the latter classifies 
and describes things or objects in nature, as they 
exist, without considering their origin or the 
changes to which they are subjected. Science, 
then, although founded on the results of experi- 
ments and observations, does not consist in collec- 
tions of isolated facts but in general principles from 
which special facts can be deduced when certain 
conditions are known. Thus the phenomena of 
astronomy are all referred to principles which are 
denominated the laws of force and motion. By 
means of these laws, if the relative mass, position and 
velocity of the heavenly bodies are known at a given 
epoch, their relative position for all times, in the re- 
motest past as well as in the distant future, can be 
calculated. Other phenomena are referred to other 
laws, such as those of light, heat, electricity, navi- 
gation, chemical action, life and organization. 
These laws are generally expressed in the form of 
theories, by which they can be more readily under- 
stood and applied, either in the way of practical in- 
ventions or in the discovery of new truths. The 



344 Life and Resources in America. 

knowledge of a law of nature enables the savant to 
explain, predict, and in some cases to control the 
phenomena to which these laws pertain. These 
characteristics of science afford the means of clearly 
distinguishing between the expressions of real 
truths or laws, and the mere vague speculations 
with which the principles of science are often con- 
founded. It is by the discovery and application of 
these laws that modern civilization differs essentially 
from that of ancient times, and also from the civili- 
zation of China and Japan. In these countries the 
arts of life are based upon facts accidentally dis- 
covered, which lie, as it were, on the face of nature, 
are few in number and soon exhausted. While in 
Europe and North America the various inventions 
which add so much to the material well-being of 
man, are derived from the endless stores of facts 
deduced from scientific principles. It is by a 
knowledge of the law of gravitation, heat, electricity 
and chemical action that these powers are rendered 
obedient and efficient slaves by which man emanci- 
pates himself from the bondage of brute labours, to 
which in ancient times he was universally subjected ; 
while by a knowledge of the laws of light and of 
sound, the infirmities of age are remedied, and the 
range of human senses indefinitely extended. By 
the constant study of the phenomena of nature, irre- 
spective of the use which may flow from them, our 
knowledge is continually increased, while from the 
discovery of every new principle in science, many 
applications in art usually follow. It is this which 
is understood by the Baconian aphorism " Know- 
ledge is power." There are at the present time in all 



Literary, Artistic and Scientific Life. 345 

parts of the civilized world men who are devoting 
their thoughts and time to the investigations of the 
various phenomena of nature, and through the in- 
tercourse which is established between all parts of 
the world, the discoveries made by each, become 
the knowledge of all, and in this way science is 
rapidly increasing. Moreover, whatever is dis- 
covered in one portion of the domain of nature, as 
a general rule, tends to reflect light on various other 
portions, and also to furnish instruments for more 
extended and varied research. 

It is evident, from the foregoing remarks, that 
the country is most highly civilized, at least in 
one direction, which makes the best provision for 
the investigation of abstract science. Of all nations 
at present existing, Prussia appears to be the most 
advanced in this respect. Whenever an indivi- 
dual is found capable of making original dis- 
coveries in that country, he is at once consecrated 
to science. He is elected a higher professor in one 
of the Universities, receives a liberal salary, is sup- 
plied with all the implements necessary for research 
in his special line, and is allowed full time for his 
investigations ; being required to give but few lec- 
tures on higher subjects, while the teaching and 
the drilling of pupils are performed by men of 
inferior talents. In the United States, where so 
much is to be done in the way of subduing nature, 
and developing the resources of a new country, 
there has been consequently, a great demand for 
the application of science, and less attention has 
been given, until of late, to encourage and sustain 
original investigation. 



346 Life and Resources in America. 

One effect of the general diffusion of education 
in the United States, especially in New England, 
has been to render the people impatient, as to mere 
manual labour, and hence, from the scarcity of 
labourers, and the great demand for them, a large 
amount of talent has been devoted to the invention 
of labour-saving machines. There are no people in 
the world who make so many inventions as the 
Americans, which fact is evinced by the number 
and variety of models in the Patent office. There 
is, however, a growing inclination on the part of 
the Government and of wealthy individuals to endow 
establishments for the advance of pure science. 
The Government has established the National Ob- 
servatory, which is supported at an annual expense 
of not less than seventy-five thousand dollars, and 
in which the motions of the heavenly bodies are 
continuously studied, hew facts observed, and new 
deductions from them constantly made. There has 
also been established a Bureau for the calculation of 
a Nautical Almanac, the object of which is to furnish 
mariners with the means for determining their posi- 
tion on the ocean, while it also contributes to the 
advance of science by original mathematical deduc- 
tions from facts which have been observed. An 
extended work called the Coast Survey has likewise 
been established, the object of which is to furnish 
accurate maps, by means of astronomical determi- 
nations, of the whole coast of the country, but which 
also, is developing, in its operations, new facts of 
the highest interest to science. Among those are 
the laws of the variation, direction and intensity of 
terrestrial magnetism the form and dimensions of 



Literary, Artistic and Scientific Life. 347 

the earth the variation of' the force of terrestrial 
gravitation on the different portions of the earth's 
surface the knowledge of organized beings which 
live at the bottom of the ocean, within soundings 
- and the temperature, motion and magnitude of 
the Gulf stream, which, in passing across the 
Atlantic ocean, moderates the temperature, and 
gives a genial climate to the north of Europe. 
Another of the Government establishments which 
advances science is the office of Weights and Mea- 
sures, in which a series of investigations are carried 
on, for determining the expansion of bodies and 
the best manner of making accurate standards of 
measure, of length, weight and capacity. The 
Government also has its schools of applied science ; 
one, at West Point, for the education of officers 
of the Army in all things pertaining to military life 
and operations ; and another at Annapolis, for the 
education of Naval officers in all matters connected 
with the naval service. Of late years, moreover, 
numerous surveys and explorations have been made 
at the expense of, the Government across the Conti- 
nent, which have tended, not only to develope the 
resources of the country, but have afforded means 
for the critical study of the geology, mineralogy 
and natural history of the regions traversed, and 
which have resulted in the construction of the 
celebrated railroad between the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans. In many of the older States of the Union 
there have been instituted geological surveys, which, 
while they have served to discover the peculiar 
mineral treasures, within the State limits, have 
greatly added to the science of geology as well as 
to natural history. The ostensible object of all 



348 Life and Resources in America. 

these establishments of the General Government, 
as well as those of the separate States, is practical 
utility, although abstract science is greatly advanced 
by means of them. 

In various parts of the country astronomical 
observatories have been erected in connection with 
some of the principal Universities and Colleges, 
but in them, with but few exceptions, original 
investigations are subordinate to the business of 
education. There are also connected with the 
higher institutions of learning, scientific schools, the 
object of which is generally to teach the principles 
of science, as far as they are applicable to civil and 
mining engineering, and the various manufactures 
which depend upon a knowledge of chemistry and 
physics. The professors in Universities and Col- 
leges are the principal contributors to the scientific 
journals of the day, in which the progress of science 
is recorded. There is no civilized country in which 
there appears to be a greater taste for a knowledge 
of general scientific results or in which a greater 
number of popular scientific works are read than in 
the United States. At the same time, there is 
scarcely any country in which original talents, 
applied to pure scientific investigation, meet with 
less reward. In France and other European coun- 
tries there are Academies of Science, consisting of 
a limited number of the most distinguished indivi- 
duals, and supported by Government, each member 
receiving a salary besides marks of social dis- 
tinction. To become a member of one of these 
academies is an object of the highest ambition, to 
which is directed the best mind of the community. 
In Great Britain there are no such academies, yet 



Literary, Artistic and Scientific Life. 349 

the Government makes yearly grants for scientific 
investigations, and individuals, distinguished for 
their scientific discoveries, not only receive pensions, 
but are honoured by the titles of barons and knights. 
No adequate inducements are yet held out in the 
United States, as a stimulus to scientific investiga- 
tion, but for scientific invention or the application 
of science to useful arts, there is frequently an 
abundant remuneration. Notwithstanding these 
drawbacks, much has been done and is doing, in 
the way of advancing science, as is evinced by the 
transactions of the American Philosophical Society 
of Philadelphia, of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences of Boston, the publications of the 
Smithsonian Institution, and of the Natural History 
Societies and Academies of Boston, Salem, Phila- 
delphia, Chicago, San Francisco, and New Orleans. 
AH these institutions were established and are sus- 
tained by private individuals. To the above may 
be added the American Journal of Science in New 
Haven, and the Journal of the Franklin Institute of 
Philadelphia. 

A large portion of the scientific labour of the 
United States has been devoted to descriptive 
natural history, to which attention was invited by 
the almost unbounded field which was presented 
for study in the mineral, vegetable and animal king- 
doms, and because a knowledge derived from these 
was intimately connected with the development of 
the wealth and prosparity of the country. Science 
should, however, be studied for its own sake, with- 
out regard to its immediate application, since 
nothing tends more to extend the bounds of 
thought, to add to the intellectual powers of man, 



350 Life and Resources in America. 

and to raise him in the scale of intelligence than 
the study and contemplation of the operations of 
nature ; and we are happy to think that, as we 
have said before, there is in this great country a 
growing appreciation of the importance of abstract 
science, and that many institutions in various parts 
of it will be established through the enlightened 
policy of wealthy individuals for its cultivation and 
advancement. A conspicuous example of what has 
been done in this line is the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, founded in Washington by James Smithson, 
of England, for the increase and diffusion of know- 
ledge among men. The founder was devoted to 
scientific investigation, and under the impulse of 
his ruling passion, bequeathed his entire property 
for a similar purpose. It is as yet the only well- 
endowed institution in America which is intended 
exclusively for the advancement of abstract science. 
But through the influence which it has attained, by 
the persevering effort of its director, Prof. Joseph 
Henry, and the example which it has set, it is 
thought that other institutions of a similar character 
will be founded. Indeed, several wealthy indivi- 
duals have already, independently of each other, 
made appropriations for scientific investigations. 
Foremost among these in liberality, and more 
especially as a man of science, may be mentioned 
Prof. A. D. Bache, the late Superintendent of the 
Coast Survey, who left the sum of fifty thousand 
dollars for scientific experiments and observations, 
the first proceeds of which are now being devoted 
to a magnetic survey of the United States, the 
results of which will be published and distributed 
to all parts of the world. 




LIFE AMONG THE MINERS. 

T is now generally acknowledged that 
the mineral resources of the United 
States are more extensive and varied 
than those of any other country in the 
world. Indeed, to give anything like a minute 
account of them, would fill many volumes, and 
therefore, with a view of being brief, we propose to 
submit a few facts on the leading mineral produc- 
tions of the country, beginning with the precious 
metals. 

Gold has been found in about one half of the 
States of the Union. Prior to the year 1848 this 
metal, as well as silver, was chiefly obtained from 
Virginia, Tennessee, the Carolinas and Georgia ; at 
the present time the States of California, Oregon 
and Nevada and the Territories of Washington, 
Idaho, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Montana, 
Dakota and Wyoming, are by far the most produc- 
tive gold-fields on the globe, and throughout all 
this region, many other valuable minerals are found, 
but silver is the most important. At the time of 
the great discoveries in California, the annual pro- 
duction of the whole world was only twenty millions 
of dollars, but in seven years from that time, Cali- 



352 Life and Resources in America. 

fornia alone yielded sixty millions, and its recent 
annual production has been fixed at eighty millions 
of dollars. The total gold and silver product of the 
United States down to the year 1868, was estimated 
at $1,255,000,000, and never before in the history 
of the world have so few people established so ex- 
tensive a business. The region where gold is found 
covers an area of one million square miles and is 
chiefly the property of the nation. Handwashing, 
as we have been informed by a man of experience 
in these matters, was the earliest mode of collecting 
gold, and the pan and the rocker were the first im- 
plements used in California mining. Quick-silver 
was soon employed to collect the fine particles, often 
lost in hand-washing. Hydraulic mining, now 
largely used in California, is done by throwing 
currents of water, from hose and pipes, with enor- 
mous force against banks of earth, cutting away 
whole hills. Down the face of the hills, also, pour 
artificial streams. At the foot, the waters all pass 
away in long flumes or wooden troughs, carrying 
the earth and stones with them. Slats on the 
bottom of the flumes catch and retain the gold ; and 
where gold is found in hard quartz, the stones are 
ground to powder by machinery and stamp-mills, 
and the gold thus comes to the light, and quick- 
silver separates it from the dust. Silver is never 
found like gold, in grains among the sand, but in 
ores or quartz, from which it has to be reduced by 
stamping or grinding or by smelting. It is found 
in a variety of ores, usually associated with gold, 
copper or lead. Pure masses are occasionally 
found among the copper mines of Lake Superior, 



Life among the Miners. 353 

and also in Nevada and Idaho. The discovery of 
the rich deposits of gold and silver in California 
gave new impetus to the movements of population 
everywhere, stimulated all departments of industry, 
brought together into the same communities people 
from every part of the globe, settled the vast terri- 
tories of the United States, facilitated intercourse 
between the nations, and, with the mining opera- 
tions in Australia, has steadily changed values 
throughout the world. 

But, notwithstanding the immense amount of 
treasure that has been taken from the soils and 
rocks of California and other Pacific States, the 
business of mining has not been profitable with the 
majority of miners. Indeed it is said that during 
the last fifteen years, the farmers of Illinois have 
more frequently made fortunes than have the gold 
hunters of the West. In 1865 a miner of California 
named Jules Fricot realized the sum of $182,511 by 
quartz mining, and since then a man named James 
P. Pierce, from Placer mine obtained in one year 
the sum of $102,011, but these were exceptional 
cases. The cost of living at the mines is always 
expensive and the accommodations anything but 
comfortable. At the general eating houses which 
are established among the mines, they commonly 
charge one dollar for a single meal, and twelve 
dollars per week for board, the sleeping accom- 
modations being a bare floor and a pair of J)lanket$. 
According to the latest authentic data, the number 
of miners in California alone was 46,550, of whom 
20,800 were Chinese, and the wages of these men 
ranged from three to five dollars per day. The national 
A A 



354 Life and Resources in America. 

laws bearing upon the mining region of the Pacific 
Slope are not, as yet, what they should be; but 
those which have been enacted provide for two 
classes of miners, those who are licensed to work 
upon the public domain, and those who become 
actual proprietors by purchase from the Govern- 
ment. The right is also granted to men to pur- 
chase and work such mines as they may discover ; 
and as to the mining customs, mandatory edicts 
are passed, at twenty-four hours' notice, by from 
five to five hundred men, which, for the time being, 
are the law of the land. 

And now, in closing these remarks, let us glance 
at what has been said in regard to the distribution 
of the precious metals. The drain of them has 
hitherto been toward the East, where they are used 
for hoarding and for ornaments, rather than for 
money. This is particularly true of silver. Be- 
tween the years 1850 and 1864, there were exported 
to Asia from England and the Mediterranean more 
than $650,000,000. The total amount of silver in 
the world is estimated at $10,000,000,000, or only 
enough to pay the debts of three or four of the 
leading nations of the present time. The coining 
of gold and silver, as well as copper, was com- 
menced by the United States in 1793, and the total 
product of each metal, down to the middle of 1870, 
was as follows: Gold, $971,628,046; silver, 
$143,760,474; and copper, $11,009,048, or a grand 
total of $1,126,397,569. 

Of the baser metals, which have hitherto been 
employed in the coining of money, copper is the 
most important. Its most valuable alloy is brass, 



Life among the Miners. 355 

out of which a very large number of useful things 
are manufactured. Another alloy, known as " French 
Gold," is extensively used in the manufacture of 
cheap jewellery and watches. Copper is found in 
ores and in a metallic state, and was first mined on 
the American Continent in New England. It has 
been worked in seven or eight of the United States, 
but, practically, all the copper product of the Union 
comes from Lake Superior, which was almost an 
unknown wilderness as late as the year 1843. It 
is found in a ridge of trap rock, on the shores be- 
longing to Michigan, and masses of the solid metal 
have been discovered weighing several tons. The 
mines were opened there in 1845, since which time 
the total yield has been not far from one hundred 
and fifty thousand tons. It is extracted from its 
ores by smelting and calcination, and prepared for 
the market in ingots, which are converted into 
sheets by rolling mills established chiefly in the 
Atlantic States. Situated as are the copper mines 
of Michigan, in a region where the winters are long 
and the summers short, the miners are subject to 
many hardships from the cold, and to many priva- 
tions in the way of bodily comforts. A large pro- 
portion of them are men who have had experience 
in the mines of Great Britain and other countries, 
and their compensation is not on a par with their 
habits of industry and their experience, but the 
quantity of metal which they obtain from the earth 
and send to market is very large. 

Next in importance to the precious metals, come 
the coal productions of the United States, the two 
prominent varieties of which bear the names of 



356 Life and Resources in America. 

anthracite and bituminous ; the largest producer 
of both is the State of Pennsylvania, and in the 
production of the former, Rhode Island stands 
second, and Ohio occupies the second position in 
regard to bituminous coal. The area of workable 
coal-beds in the United States, excluding Alaska, 
is estimated at two hundred thousand square miles, 
which is said to be eight times as large as the avail- 
able coal area of all the rest of the world. The coal 
veins are usually reached by vertical shafts, but when 
found in hills, are worked by horizontal galleries. 
Notwithstanding the fact that perpendicular shafts 
are employed to secure thorough ventilation, and 
safety lamps are used to prevent the ignition of the 
fatal fire damp, many serious accidents have hap- 
pened in the mines of Pennsylvania. The first rail- 
way for the transmission of coal from the mines was 
built in 1827, and the coal mines now give employ- 
ment to more than forty railroads and canals. It 
is a common occurrence for a train of one hundred 
cars to enter the city of Philadelphia, loaded with 
anthracite, and the same may be said of Baltimore, 
which is the principal exporting place for bitumi- 
nous coal. The total product of the United States 
for the year 1868 was about 19,000,000 tons, valued 
at $26,000,000, since which time these figures have 
been increased, and are still increasing. It is now 
seventy years since anthracite coal was used as fuel 
in this country, and about forty years since it began 
to be extensively mined in the United States ; and 
it has been stated by authentic writers on the subject, 
that the coal fields of the United States are thirty- 
six times greater than those of Great Britain, while 



Life among the Miners. 357 

the annual production of Britain is five times greater 
than that of the United States. The reasons for 
this great difference are apparent. In many of the 
States of the Union, the climate is so mild, that no 
coal is needed for domestic purposes, and when fuel 
is demanded for manufacturing purposes, there is 
always to be obtained an abundant supply of wood. 
And then again, excepting the New England, the 
Middle, and some of the Western States, where 
prairies abound, the forests are so numerous that it 
must be many years before coal will become a ne- 
cessity among the people. Indeed, the very re- 
markable fact has been chronicled, that in some of 
the Western States, where agriculture is the chief 
source of wealth, the article known as maize or 
Indian corn has been employed as fuel. If, how- 
ever, we find that a large proportion of the inhabi- 
tants in America have no immediate interest in the 
production of coal, it is at the same time true that 
a very large part of the population are consumers 
of what is called coal oil or petroleum. Although 
long known to the scientific world, this article did 
not become known to the commercial world until 
1858. It is found in various parts of the country, 
but more extensively in Western Pennsylvania than 
in any other region, where very large fortunes have 
been made by persons engaged in drawing the pre- 
cious liquid out of the earth. It is obtained by 
means of artesian wells, which are sunk from one 
hundred to six hundred feet into the earth, and 
some of which have yielded with the aid of forcing 
pumps, as much as two thousand barrels of oil in a 
single day. The applications of petroleum are 



358 Life and Resources in America. 

chiefly limited to purposes of illumination and lu- 
bricating machinery, and for the latter purpose the 
consumption is very large on the railroads and in 
the manufactories. A distillation of this oil is also 
used in the manufacture of certain kinds of leather, 
and in the preparation of paints and varnishes. 
This trade in rock oil has become very extensive, 
and is every day becoming more and more highly 
appreciated, as a servant of civilization ; the revenue 
which it produces being of great magnitude, and 
the number of people which it supports very nu- 
merous. 

The next important mineral product that we have 
to notice is iron, recognized as the most useful 
known to man. It is more widely distributed 
throughout the United States than any of the im- 
portant metals ; is found in abundance in New York, 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut; Mary- 
land and Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Oregon, Vir- 
ginia, the Carolinas, Alabama, and Missouri; but 
is chiefly mined in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 
where the yield is more than one-half of the whole 
product in the United States, or about seven hun- 
dred tons per annum, from one hundred and thirty 
establishments. In Missouri it is found in great 
abundance, where there is a hill called " Iron 
Mountain," which is more than two hundred feet 
high, and is supposed to contain two hundred and 
fifty millions of tons of pure metal. Another well 
nigh solid iron mountain is called " Pilot Knob," 
nearly six hundred feet high, and it is thought 
would furnish one million tons per annum for two 
hundred years. These two mountains, with another 



Life among the Miners. 359 

called " Shepherd's Mountain/' also in Missouri, 
are considered among the curiosities of America. 
And yet with these figures before us, the astounding 
fact is proclaimed, that nearly half a million tons 
of iron were imported from Great Britain in 1868, 
while the yield of the United States was about 
sixteen hundred thousand tons. But the fact that 
there should be any iron imported from England, 
grows out of the operations of the American Tariff. 
The great magnitude and importance of the iron 
interest, which can only be fully treated in elaborate 
volumes, is rendered difficult to notice in a para- 
graph like the present. The processes by which 
the ores are turned into metallic iron are as fol- 
lows : in what are called bloomeries and forges 
the ores are converted directly into malleable iron, 
without passing through the intermediate stage of 
cast or pig iron ; and by means of blast furnaces, 
the ores are decomposed as they fuse in vast quan- 
tities at a time, and produce the cast or pig iron ; 
and then they have what are called rolling mills, 
which convert the iron into sheets and plates. 
With regard to the uses to which iron is appro- 
priated in the United States, they are well-nigh in- 
finite ; and we can only obtain an idea of the extent 
of its consumption, by reflecting upon the quantity 
of it which is transferred into steel for cutlery and 
machinery ; upon the extensive lines of railway in 
the country, and the great number of locomotives 
employed ; and upon manifold uses in connection 
with shipping and house-building throughout the 
length and breadth of this immense country. 

We come now to speak of the production of lead 



360 Life and Resources in America. 

in the United States. The two most prominent 
deposits of this useful mineral are to be found in 
the States of Missouri and Illinois. The working 
of the former was commenced in 1854, and the 
latter in 1788. The largest supply comes from 
those two States, although it is also found in 
abundance in Wisconsin and Iowa. The American 
lead is remarkable for its softness and purity, and 
although obtained with comparative ease, excepting 
what is mined in Illinois and Iowa, it is not easily 
transported to market. The total production of 
the Union, during the year 1869, was estimated at 
thirty-eight millions of pounds, while Spain pro- 
duced about sixty-seven millions, and Great Britain 
more than one hundred and fifty-three millions of 
pounds; and the imports into the United States 
greatly exceed the domestic product. The uses to 
which the metal is applied are very numerous and 
highly important. One of the most useful applica- 
tions of lead is in the manufacture of the carbonate, 
which is extensively used as a white paint, and also 
as a body for other colours. The smelting of lead 
and the manufacture of the white paint therefrom, 
are considered prejudicial to health, and the work- 
men suffer much from colic and paralysis. 

Another of the more important minerals found 
in the United States, in almost inexhaustible quan- 
tities, is quicksilver. It is chiefly mined in Cali- 
fornia, where the annual product is considerably 
more than half the yield of the whole world beside, 
the total annual yield having been about six hun- 
dred thousand pounds. Until recently the mines 
of Spain controlled the Chinese market, but the 



Life among the Miners. 361 

miners of California shipped a large amount to 
Hong Kong, where they sold it far below cost, and 
the supply from Spain was driven back to that 
country. The English market is now supplied by 
Spain and the Chinese market by California. Be- 
sides the countries named, Austria and Peru furnish 
a small supply of this valuable mineral. The chief 
demand for it is for mining purposes, and for the 
manufacture of calomel and vermilion. 

With regard to the metals known as tin, zinc, 
platinum, nickel, antimony, cobalt, and other minor 
metals, they are all found in various parts of the 
United States, but none of them have as yet been 
minedto any great extent. With the increase of popu- 
lation and railways, it is supposed that the business 
of mining will grow into a gigantic national interest, 
and that America will lead the world in the value 
and variety of her mineral products. The National 
Government, within the last few years, has done 
much to develope the hidden resources of the land, 
by sending forth competent scientific expeditions, 
and publishing their results for the benefit of the 
public ; and the people themselves have manifested 
their interest in the subject by establishing and 
supporting a number of well-conducted journals 
devoted wholly to mining engineering. 

In taking a general survey of the mining popu- 
lation of America we cannot but conclude that they 
are noted for their intelligence, and in view of the 
hardship and privations which they undergo, are 
not as well paid as they should be, although better 
paid than the mining people of other countries. 
A very large proportion of them, however, are 



362 Life and Resources in America. 

foreigners, and as they have generally improved 
their condition by emigrating to this country they 
are contented with their lot. Those of them who 
are engaged in mining coal, iron, lead, and copper, 
in the older States of the Union, have facilities for 
the education of their children at common schools, 
but in the frontier States and Territories, where the 
precious metals are chiefly found, family men are 
not abundant, and the opportunities for making 
them comfortable, and educating the young, are 
few and far between. 




LIFE IN THE ARMY AND NAVY. 




' HE standing army of the United States 
began with, the foundation of the Go- 
vernment in 1789, but when necessary 
it has always been customary to employ 
what is called a volunteer force or army. During 
the war of the Revolution the number of soldiers 
employed was 275,000; in the war of 1812 the 
combined troops numbered 527,631 ; during the 
Seminole war of 1817, 5,611 ; Black Hawk war of 
1832, 5,031 ; Florida war of 1842, 29,953 ; war with 
Mexico in 1846, 73,260 ; miscellaneous troubles, 
about 20,000 ; and during the late Civil war the 
forces in the field, at one time, numbered 2,688,523. 
The total amount of money expsnded by the 
United States in carrying on its various wars was 
$3,308,352,706. 

The Regular Army of the United States is at 
present constituted as follows: 1 general; 3 major- 
generals; 16 brigadier-generals; 68 colonels; 83 
lieutenant-colonels ; 271 majors ; 36 aides-de- 
camp ; 532 captains ; 40 adjutants, (extra lieu- 
tenants ;) 40 regimental quartermasters, (extra 
Lieutenants;) 682 first lieutenants; 455 second 



364 Life and Resources in America. 

lieutenants ; 34 chaplains ; 29 military store- 
keepers ; 5 medical store-keepers ; 40 sergeant- 
majors ; 40 quartermaster-sergeants ; 40 chief 
musicians ; 60 principal musicians ; 10 saddler- 
sergeants ; 10 chief trumpeters; 151 ordnance- ser- 
geants; 362 hospital stewards; 430 first sergeants; 
430 company quartermaster- sergeants ; 1,947 ser- 
geants ; 1,837 corporals ; 240 trumpeters ; 654 
musicians ; 240 farriers or blacksmiths ; 620 arti- 
ficers; 120 saddlers ; 430 waggoners ; 300 privates 
of the 1st class, (ordnance and engineers;) 299 
privates of the 2d class, (ordnance and engi- 
neers ;) 22,100 privates ; also one battalion ser- 
geant-major and one battalion quartermaster-ser- 
geant ; making the whole number of commissioned 
officers 2,263, and the whole number of enlisted men 
30,000. There are besides at the United States 
Military Academy, 8 professors and 241 cadets, 
making the total commissioned and enlisted, 3 2,512. 
The Army is sub -divided into 10 regiments of 
Cavalry, 5 regiments of Artillery, 25 regiments of 
Infantry, and the Engineer Battalion. Each regi- 
ment of Cavalry has 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 
3 majors, 1 adjutant (extra lieutenant,) 1 regi- 
mental quartermaster, (extra lieutenant,) 12 cap- 
tains, 12 first lieutenants, 12 second lieutenants, 
1 sergeant-major, 1 quartermaster-sergeant, 1 chief 
musician, 1 saddler-sergeant, 1 chief trumpeter, 12 
first sergeants, 12 company quartermaster-ser- 
geants, 60 sergeants, 48 corporals, 24 trumpeters, 
24 farriers and blacksmiths, 12 saddlers, 12 wag- 
goners, and 804 privates. The whole number of 
commissioned officers to the regiment is 44, and 



Life in the Army and Navy. 365 

whole number enlisted is 1,0 13, making the aggre- 
gate 1,057. The regiment is sub-divided into 12 
troops, each troop having 1 captain, 1 first lieu- 
tenant, 1 second lieutenant, 1 first sergeant, 1 com- 
pany quartermaster- sergeant, 5 sergeants, 4 corpo- 
rals, 2 trumpeters, 2 farriers and blacksmiths, 1 
saddler, 1 waggoner, 67 privates; total commis- 
sioned, 3; total enlisted, 84; aggregate, 87. 

There are 5 regiments of Artillery, each regiment 
having 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant- colonel, 3 majors, 1 
adjutant, (extra lieutenant,) 1 regimental quarter- 
master, (extra lieutenant,) 12 captains, 24 first lieu- 
tenants, 13 second lieutenants, 1 sergeant-major, 1 
quartermaster-sergeant, 1 chief musician, 2 prin- 
cipal musicians, 12 first sergeants, 12 company 
quartermaster -sergeants, 50 sergeants, 48 corporals, 
24 musicians, 24 artificers, 1 2 waggoners and 562 
privates; total commissioned, 56; total enlisted, 
749 ; aggregate, 805. To each regiment there are 
12 companies, one of which is mounted and is 
called a Light Battery. A company of Artillery 
consists of 1 captain, 2 first lieutenants, 1 second 
lieutenant, (Light Battery has 2,) 1 first sergeant, 
I company quartermaster-sergeant, 4 sergeants, 
(Light Battery has 6,) 4 corporals, 2 musicians, 2 
artificers, 1 waggoner, 45 privates, (Light Battery 
has 67 ; total commissioned 4, (Light Battery 5 ;) 
total enlisted 60 (Light Battery 84 ;) aggregate, 64, 
(Light Battery, 89.) 

There are 25 regiments of Infantry, each having 
1 colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 1 adjutant, 
(extra lieutenant,) 1 regimental quartermaster, 
(extra lieutenant,) 10 captains, 10 first lieutenants, 



366 Life and Resources in America. 

10 second lieutenants, 1 sergeant-major, 1 quarter- 
master-sergeant, 1 chief musician, 2 principal musi- 
cians, 10 first sergeants, 10 company quartermaster- 
sergeants, 40 sergeants, 40 corporals, 20 musicians, 
20 artificers, 10 waggoners, and 450 privates; total 
commissioned, 36 ; total enlisted, 605 ; aggregate, 
641. Each regiment has 10 companies; to each 
company there are : 1 captain, 1 first lieutenant, 1 
second lieutenant, 1 first sergeant, 1 company 
quartermaster sergeant, 4 sergeants, 4 corporals, 2 
musicians, 2 artificers, 1 waggoner, 45 privates ; 
total commissioned, 3 ; total enlisted, 60 ; aggre- 
gate, 63. 

Another branch of the service is the Engineer 
Battalion, which has 1 major, 1 adjutant, 1 quarter- 
master, 5 captains, 5 first lieutenants, 5 second 
lieutenants, 1 sergeant-major, 1 quartermaster-ser- 
geant, 50 sergeants, 5 corporals, 10 musicians, 119 
privates of the first class, 119 privates of the second 
class ; total commissioned, 16 ; total enlisted, 350 ; 
aggregate, 366. In the Battalion there are 5 com- 
panies, each having 1 captain, 1 first lieutenant, 1 
second lieutenant, 10 sergeants, 10 corporals, 2 
musicians, 24 privates first class, 24 privates second 
class ; total commissioned, 3 ; total enlisted, 70 ; 
aggregate, 73. 

The President is by law Commander-in- Chief of 
the Army. To assist him in the execution of the 
laws in so far as they relate to the army in its con- 
trol, subsistence and supply, a Secretary of War is 
appointed by him, through whom he exercises a 
general supervision. To facilitate this a Depart- 
ment of War has been established, which is sub- 



Life in the Army and Navy. 367 

divided into the following staff departments or 
corps : 

1 . Adjutant General's Department. 

2. Inspector General's Department. 

3. Bureau of Military Justice. 

4. Quartermaster's Department. 

5. Subsistence Department. 

6. Medical Department. 

7. Pay Department. 

8. Signal Officer. 

9. Chief of Staff to the General of the Army. 

10. Corps of Engineers. 

11. Ordnance Department. 

The general staff is the central point of military 
administration. It comprises all the officers con- 
cerned in regulating the details of the service, and 
furnishing the army with the means necessary for 
its subsistence, comfort, mobility and action. 

All general orders which emanate from the head- 
quarters of the army, the orders of detail, of instruc- 
tion, of movement, and all general regulations for 
the army, are communicated to the troops through 
the office of the Adjutant General. 

The Adjutant General is charged with the record 
of military appointments, promotions, resignations, 
deaths and other casualties ; with the registry and 
filling up of commissions, and with their distribu- 
tion ; with the records which relate to the personnel 
of the army, and to the military history of every 
officer and soldier ; with the duties connected with 
the recruiting service ; the registry of the names of 
soldiers ; their enlistment and descriptive lists, and 
of deaths, desertions, discharges, &c. ; with the 



368 Life and Resources in America. 

preservation of monthly returns of regiments and 
posts, and the muster-rolls of companies ; with re- 
ceipts and examination of applications for pen- 
sion, previous to their being sent to the Pension 
Office, and of inventories of the effects of deceased 
soldiers. 

The annual returns of the militia of the several 
States and Territories, of the ordnance, arms, 
accoutrements, and munitions of war appertaining 
to the same, required by law to be made to the 
President of the United States, are filed, and the 
general returns of the militia annually required to 
be laid before Congress, are also prepared and con- 
solidated in this office. 

The Inspector General's Department is charged 
with the duty of inspecting and reporting upon the 
condition of the forts with their armaments, of the 
state of discipline of the troops, in short, upon 
the whole " materiel and personnel " of the army, 
and to report whether or not the prescribed rules, 
regulations, and orders for its government are 
properly carried into effect. 

In the office of the Judge Advocate General, 
under whose charge is the Bureau of Military Jus- 
tice, the proceedings of all courts martial, courts of 
inquiry and military commissions are received, re- 
vised, recorded, and reported upon. It is the duty 
of the Judge Advocate General to report at once 
for the action of the Secretary of War, all fatal 
irregularities in proceedings, and illegal or unusual 
sentences. When called upon by the proper autho- 
rity, he gives an opinion on questions of con- 
struction of military law ; and through him all 



Life in the Army and Navy. 369 

communications pertaining to questions of military 
justice should be addressed. 

The Quartermaster General's Department fur- 
nishes to the army its transportation, of whatever 
nature, quarters, fuel, stationery, &c., and pays for 
rent of quarters and for all materials to be used in 
the construction of buildings for its use. To that 
office are sent all reports and returns of property 
purchased, issued, worn out in service, lost, sold, 
destroyed, or remaining on hand, and there are 
approved all contracts for purchases connected with 
the above. 

The Subsistence Department, as its name implies, 
has charge of the furnishing of subsistence to troops, 
all reports and returns necessary to the end that 
stores may be properly accounted for are made to 
this office, and here all contracts for their purchase 
are approved. 

The Medical Department, or Surgeon General's 
Office, has charge of the selection of medical officers 
for detail, and to it all returns and reports in regard 
to sick and wounded officers and soldiers, and medi- 
cal stores are made. With regard to the other 
bureaus or officers which have been mentioned, 
their duties are described by their titles. 

We may further remark, in brief, that the 
American army is divided into divisions and de- 
partments commanded by generals ; that, in times 
of peace it is chiefly employed in occupying the 
various forts and defences of the country and in 
keeping peace with the Indians on the frontiers ; 
that, after forty years of service, the officers of the 
army may, at their own request, be retired, receiving 
B B 



370 Life and Resources in America. 

seventy-five per cent, of their pay ; that members of 
Congress designate the largest proportion of those 
who are admitted to the West Point Academy, 
which is the regular school for the education of 
officers for the army. When, in time of war, it is 
necessary to have volunteers, they are called for 
by Proclamation of the President, and the State 
Governors immediately answer the call, and send 
the proportion assigne<jl to them, which are chiefly 
composed of the militia or State troops ; and after 
the war, these volunteer troops are disbanded and 
return to the ordinary avocations of life, which fact 
has been considered by foreigners as one of the 
marvels of the American Government. The regular 
army is supplied with soldiers by enlistment, and 
after entering the service no man can leave it with- 
out the consent of Government, nor without suf- 
ficient cause. With regard to the pay of the army, 
which is always enhanced by long service, we 
submit the following : General, $13,500 ; lieu- 
tenant-general, $11,000 ; major-general, $7,500 ; 
brigadier-general, $5,500 ; colonel, $3,500 ; lieu- 
tenant-colonel, $3,000 ; major, $2,500 ; captains, 
$1,800 and $2,000; regimental adjutant and quarter- 
master, each, $1,800 ; first lieutenants $1,500 and 
$1,600; second lieutenants, $1,400 and $1,500; 
and chaplains, $1,500. The pay of the common 
soldier is thirteen dollars per month with rations. 
There are twenty-five armories and arsenals in the 
country, all in command of competent officers, and 
the military departments of the Government number 
fifteen, and embrace the whole Union. The amount 
required for supporting the military establishment 



Life In the Army and Navy. 371 

during 1872 is about twenty-nine millions of 
dollars. 

As the War Department is the centre of the 
Army, so is the Nary Department the fountain 
head of the Navy. The duties of this department 
are distributed through the Secretary's office and 
eight bureaus, namely : Bureau of Yards and 
Docks, which has charge of the navy-yards, in- 
cluding the docks, wharves, buildings and ma- 
chinery, and also of a Naval Asylum; Office of 
Navigation, which has charge of the maps, charts, 
flags, signals, &c., and also of the Naval Academy, 
Naval Observatory, and Nautical Almanac ; Office 
of Ordnance, which has charge of ordnance and 
ordnance stores, the manufacture and purchase of 
cannon, guns, powder, shot, shell, &c.; Office of 
Construction and Eepair, having charge of the con- 
struction of vessels of war ; Office of Equipment 
and Recruiting, which has charge of the enlistment 
of men for the Navy, the equipment of vessels, 
anchors, cables, rigging, sails, coal, &c. ; Office of 
Provisions and Clothing ; and Office of Steam 
Engineering ; Office of Medicine and Surgery, the 
duties of which last two are described by their 
titles. There is attached to the Navy Department 
what is called the Marine Corps, whose duties are 
allied to those of the Army, only that they are per- 
formed on board ship or at the navy-yards ; also a 
National Observatory, which has earned a world- 
wide reputation ; and also an Hydrographic Office, 
which, with the Observatory, annually publishes 
volumes of scientific information of great value. 

The largest vessel in the United States navy has 



372 Life and Resources in America. 

a displacement of 5,440 feet, carries 12 guns, and 
like the majority in the service is a screw steamer. 
Some other ships, however, carry 45 guns. Of 
those ranking as first rates there are five ; second 
rates, forty ; third rates, forty-three ; fourth rates, 
ten; to which may be added the iron clads, re- 
ceiving and practice ships, supply vessels and tugs, 
making in all one hundred and seventy-nine, and 
carrying in the aggregate 1,390 guns. The officers 
of the navy, to which we affix their "at sea" 
salaries, are as follows : 1 admiral $13,000 ; 1 vice- 
admiral, $9,000 ; 12 rear-admirals, $6,000 ; 24 
commodores, $5,000 ; 50 captains, $4,500 ; 89 com- 
manders, $3,500 ; 164 lieutenant commanders, 
$2,800 ; 201 lieutenants, $2,400 ; 75 masters, 
$1,800 ; 68 ensigns, $1,200 ; 113 midshipmen, 
$1,000; 150 in Medical Corps, whose salaries are 
widely various ; 134 in the Pay Corps, with various 
salaries ; and 241 in the Engineer Corps, together 
with an ample supply of naval constructors, chap- 
lains, professors of mathematics, and civil engineers, 
whose salaries range from $1,700 to $4,400, and are 
increased with length of service. The pay of 
common seamen is $21 50c. per month ; and while 
the subordinate grades in the service number fifty- 
seven, their pay ranges from $8 to $56 per month. 
The Academy where young men are fitted for 
service in the ISTavy is located at Annapolis, and is 
under rules, in regard to admission, allied to those 
of the Military Academy at West Point. Of com- 
plete Navy Yards there are eight in the United 
States ; five fleets are now doing duty in various 
Quarters of the globe; and within the last year 



Life in the Army and Navy. 373 

several scientific expeditions have been fitted out as 
follows, viz : one to survey the Isthmus of Tehuan- 
tepec, and another to survey the Isthmus of Darien. 
both of which have in view the making of a canal 
between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; and an 
expedition has also been fitted out for explorations 
towards the North Pole. Indirectly connected with 
the Navy is a bureau called the Lighthouse Board, 
with which, as an active member, has hitherto been 
connected Admiral Thornton A. Jenkins, but who 
has recently been assigned to the fleet in the waters 
of China and Japan. Without going more fully 
into the subject, for want of space, it only remains 
for us to add, in conclusion, that the sum of money 
which will be required to support the American 
Naval Establishment during the year 1872 will be 
about $20,000,000. 




LIFE IN THE LEADING CITIES. 




HE total number of incorporated cities 
in the United States is four hundred 
and nine, but many of them do not con- 
tain more than two thousand inhabi- 
tants. By far the largest proportion of foreigners 
who come to this country across the Atlantic ocean, 
enter the country at the port of New York, which is 
the largest city in the Western Hemisphere. It 
was founded by the Dutch, and called by them New 
Amsterdam. It occupies the greater part of an 
island called Manhattan, which is thirteen and a 
half miles long, and contains an area of twenty-two 
miles. The cities of Brooklyn and Jersey City, 
and several other towns, although having each a 
government of its own, are in reality portions of 
New York, and their combined population is not far 
from one and a half millions. According to the last 
census, the population of New York by itself was 
942,292 ; of whom 523,198 were born in the United 
States, and 484,109 in the State of New York. 
Within eight miles of the commercial metropolis, in 
New Jersey, is a city called Newark, of one hun- 
dred thousand people, but it is so closely identified 
with the former in its business and social interests 



Life in the Leading Cities. 375 

as almost to be considered a suburb of New York. 
During the last fifteen years the number of emi- 
grants arriving there from various parts of the 
world was about 2,341,000, the arrivals for 1870 
alone having been 211,190, and it is estimated that 
about four-fifths of these foreigners found perma- 
nent homes in the various States of the interior. 
The principal Street of New York, which runs 
through its entire length like a back bone, is called 
Broadway, and for several miles is completely lined 
with iron and marble buildings, devoted chiefly to 
business pursuits, and winning for it the reputation 
of being one of the handsomest and wealthiest 
streets in the world. But much of this splendour 
is also found in all its subordinate streets and 
avenues, where the houses are generally built of 
brick; and as a street for private residences, its 
Fifth Avenue is claimed to be unsurpassed. Pro- 
jecting, as this city does, into a splendid harbour, 
where the fortifications are strong and imposing, 
it is perpetually surrounded with a forest of ship- 
ping, which gives the stranger an adequate idea of 
its very extensive commerce. The value of its real 
and personal estate has not been definitely settled, 
but has been estimated at nearly eight hundred 
millions of dollars, and the rate of taxation is two 
per cent, per annum. It is supplied with pure 
water by an aqueduct which cost more than fifteen 
millions of dollars, the water pipes of which measure 
some two hundred and seventy miles. It has one 
hundred miles of sewers and more than two hun- 
dred miles of paved streets. Its temples for reli- 
gious worship are numerous and many of them 



376 Life and Resources in America. 

very beautiful, the church property of the city 
reaching in value nearly fifteen millions of dollars. 
Its principal park, known as Central Park, is said 
to be equal to the best in Europe, and its principal 
financial street, known as Wall Street, although not 
more than half a mile in length, has a power which 
is felt in the remotest corners of the earth. Its 
hospitals and other benevolent institutions are nu- 
merous and liberally conducted in every particular ; 
and the same may be said of its institutions of 
learning, ranging from first-class colleges to the 
best of district or common schools. It is abun- 
dantly supplied with libraries, many of which are 
very large, and all of them are conducted on the 
most liberal principles. Its manufacturing esta- 
blishments are numberless ; its fire department is 
noted for its efficiency and is founded on the volun- 
tary system; and there is a lively military spirit 
among its young men, and its militia regiments 
rival veteran regulars in their drill. Its police 
force is of the first order and is managed by com- 
missioners. Policemen are appointed during good 
behaviour, and officers rise from the ranks. Patrol- 
men are paid eight hundred dollars per annum, 
sergeants nine hundred, captains twelve hundred, 
inspectors two thousand, and a general superin- 
tendent five thousand dollars a year. There are 
about seven hundred police stations, four hundred 
and twelve miles of streets, and eleven miles of 
piers in the city. Its newspapers are abundant 
and taken in the aggregate are probably more in- 
fluential for good or evil than any similar number 
on the globe. Its markets for the necessaries of 



Life in the Leading Cities. 377 

life are fully supplied with everything that can be 
desired, in the way of meats, flour, fruit and fish. 
Its government, although resting upon the most 
liberal provisions, has for many years been a kind 
of political arena, in which unworthy men have 
obtained and exercised the most dangerous powers, 
and at the moment of writing these lines, a number 
of men who were lately at the head of the city 
government are confined in a common prison for 
robbing their fellow-citizens to an enormous extent. 
While it is true that New York is very much of a 
cosmopolitan city, it has been estimated that two- 
thirds of its inhabitants are natives of the United 
States. It is, however, pre-eminently a commer- 
cial city, and in several respects is equal to London. 
The post office of New York is the most important 
in the country ; and its customs receipts amount to 
about three -fifths of the total in the United States. 
The manufactures of the city constitute a leading 
element of its prosperity and wealth. The most 
numerous class of workmen are those engaged in 
making wearing apparel ; next to whom come the 
workmen in iron and metals; then the chemists; 
workmen in leather, steam machinery and lumber ; 
navigators ; workmen in fibrous substances, glass 
and pottery; and the manufacturers of cars and 
waggons ; so on, to an almost unlimited extent. 
Nowhere is the habit of eating away from home, so 
general as in New York, owing to the great dis- 
tance between the dwelling houses and the places 
of business ; and this habit has made eating houses, 
lunch rooms, refectories, oyster cellars, and bar- 
rooms, a prominent feature of the town. Its hotels 



378 Life and Resources in America. 

are quite magnificent, and its boarding houses as 
comfortable as any in the world. The eating houses 
are found everywhere, and are frequented by the 
millionnaire as well as the vagabond. The city 
government is vested in a Mayor and Boards of 
Aldermen and Councilmen, who are annually elected 
by the people. While it is true that in times of 
high political excitement, it is sometimes afflicted 
with mobs and riots, the din of business always 
ceases on the approach of the Sabbath, and that day 
is observed as a day of rest, of churchgoing and of 
recreation by its teeming thousands. The spring 
and autumn are the two great seasons for business; 
winter, the special season for amusements and all 
sorts of gaiety; while the summer is comparatively 
sluggish, although even then the turmoil of business 
is far from being dead. 

The second largest city in the United States is 
Philadelphia, which was founded by William Penn 
in 1682, and contains 674,022 inhabitants, of whom 
490,398 were born in the United States, and 
428,250 in Pennsylvania. It stands on a plain 
between the rivers Delaware and Schuylkill, and 
has several suburban cities, the whole of which 
form one municipality, containing 120 square miles. 
The streets of the city proper are laid put in 
regular order, and the houses are more distin- 
guished for their neatness and comfort than for 
their richness or extravagance, and in this par- 
ticular are in keeping with the character of the 
population. The city is well supplied with parks, 
one of which, for its collection of trees and scenes 
of beauty, is considered a successful rival of the 



Life in the Leading Cities. 379 

great Central Park of New York. Its public 
buildings are numerous and beautiful ; one of them, 
called Girard College, was built and the institution 
endowed by one of its citizens alone ; but the chief 
boast of the inhabitants is Independence Hall, 
which was the meeting place of Congress during 
the earlier history of the American Eepublic. The 
churches are also numerous, all the religious deno- 
minations being well supplied, but this is especially 
the case in regard to the Quakers, who have 
hitherto been so numerous and influential, as to 
have given to their city the name of Quaker City. 
The literary and scientific institutions of Phila- 
delphia have always occupied a high position, and 
the cultured character of its inhabitants has always 
been manifested by its rich libraries and galleries 
of art, and by the upright character of its press. 
It was here that Benjamin Franklin lived, and 
worked as a printer, and won his great fame as a 
philosopher. From the earliest times the central 
mint of the United States has been established 
here, and the city has borne an important part in 
the financial history of the country. Because of its 
remoteness from the Atlantic ocean, it may not 
compete with New York in its foreign commerce, 
but it carries on an immense trade with the inte- 
rior country, and is a noted terminus for unnum- 
bered railroads and canals. As a depot for the 
exportation of coal it is without a rival ; and it has 
always been famous for the extent of its book- 
publishing business. Within the last few years 
Philadelphia has greatly increased its manufac- 
turing establishments, until its inhabitants now 



380 Life and Resources in America. 

claim that they can now produce everything that 
may be required for the comfort or convenience of 
man ; indeed, in the variety and extent of its 
manufactures, it is said to be unequalled by any 
other city in the Union. On this point, we submit 
one illustration, which is, that it contains the two 
largest establishments in the world for the manu- 
facture of locomotives, which give employment to 
about four thousand hands, and can build one of 
those wonderful engines in a single day. The 
capital invested in its manufacturing establishments 
is estimated at $300,000,000. While the inha- 
bitants of this city are noted for their peaceful dis- 
position and for their love of order, it is also true 
that it has been the scene of many political or 
religious disturbances, but which, in these latter 
days, have been quite unknown. Another of the 
characteristics of this city is the total absence of 
tenement houses, and the existence of comfortable 
homes for the labouring population. As one of 
her public men informs us, every labourer, who has 
a family, dwells under a separate roof, which is 
most frequently his own in a house lighted by 
gas, and supplied with an abundance of pure water. 
As this city is pre-eminently a producing city, so 
are its native and foreign inhabitants distinguished 
for their industry, and there is not in the whole 
land, probably, any other crowded city where among 
the working classes more genuine comfort and con- 
tentment can be found. 

The next city on our list is Boston, which con- 
tains 250,526 inhabitants, of whom 172,450 were 
born in the United States, and 127,620 in the 



Life in the Leading Cities. 381 

State of Massachusetts. If, however, we should 
add to it the various towns which adjoin it, the 
population would be nearly double. It was first 
settled in 1630 by the Puritans, and is the leading 
city of New England, upon which it has always 
exerted a paramount influence. It bore a very 
important part in the history of the American 
Revolution, and events of great importance have 
transpired within its limits and in its vicinity. 
Formerly it was more closely identified with the 
commerce of the East than any other American 
city, and at the present time ranks next to New 
York in the extent of its foreign commerce. The 
city is chiefly situated on a peninsula, and some of 
the adjacent parts, with which it is connected by 
numerous bridges, rise to the height of one hundred 
and thirty feet above the level of the harbour, which 
is deep, convenient and secure. The streets were 
originally laid out upon no systematic plan, and 
being accommodated to the unevenness of the sur- 
face, many of them are crooked and narrow, but 
these defects are being annually remedied. Many 
of the public buildings are handsome, but some of 
them are more famous for their associations than 
their imposing appearance. The State house occu- 
pies the apex of the city, and presents a command- 
ing view from the sea and surrounding country ; 
and its Faneuil Hall is universally known as the 
" Cradle of Liberty," because it was here that the 
orators of the Revolution fired the hearts of the 
people against England. One of its leading land- 
marks is the monument of Bunker Hill, where was 
fought a famous battle. Its wharves and ware- 



382 Life and Resources in America. 

houses are on a scale of magnitude surpassed by no 
other city of the same size. Its churches are 
numerous, and many of them beautiful, the largest 
number of them belonging to the Unitarian denomi- 
nation. It has an extensive park called " Boston 
Common," which is a delightful resort for the 
inhabitants during the vernal months. With re- 
gard to literary, scientific, and educational insti- 
tutions, the city is most abundantly supplied. Its 
schools have a high reputation, and it publishes 
more than one hundred periodicals. Among its many 
libraries is one, the largest, which is entirely free to 
all who may desire to enjoy its advantages ; and the 
fact that the famous Harvard University is located 
in one of its suburbs, called Cambridge, has greatly 
tended to give to it its high reputation as a seat of 
learning. Its benevolent institutions are also 
numerous and richly endowed, and it has taken 
a prominent part in providing for the wants and 
intellectual elevation of the blind and the comforts 
of the insane. Its infirmaries have always borne a 
high reputation. The ice trade is a Boston in- 
vention, and is said to have secured for it the im- 
portant trade which it enjoys with Calcutta and 
other portions of the East. On the score of enter- 
prise and culture the inhabitants of Boston have no 
superiors, and that circumstance has tended to make 
them somewhat clannish, or exclusive in their 
manners and conversation and their modes of 
doing business, and hence it is that the outside 
world, especially the cosmopolitan citizens of New 
York, occasionally indulge in a little ridicule at 
the expense of the Bostonians. It is a thriving 



Life in the Leading Cities. 383 

city, and by means of seven or eight great lines of 
railway, carries on an important trade in manu- 
factures with the interior country. It is a poor 
place for idlers and beggars, and yet the most 
liberal provision is made for the deserving poor. 
While this city does much to promote the fine arts, 
it claims a reputation of its own, for what it has 
done in developing the art of music, and it boasts 
of an organ which is the largest in the world. 

Another of the leading cities of America is Bal- 
timore, which has a population of 267,354, of whom 
210,870 were born in the United States, and 187,650 
in the State of Maryland. It was founded by the 
Roman Catholics in 1729 ; is admirably situated 
both for foreign and internal trade, having a 
spacious and secure harbour, and occupying a 
central position as regards the Atlantic coast of 
the United States. The site of the city is pic- 
turesque, covering a number of eminences ; and 
although connected with the Northern and Western 
States 1 by its business ramifications, it has hitherto 
been considered a representative of the Southern 
States. It was here that the first gun was fired, 
by a mob, at the commencement of the late Civil 
War, when a regiment of troops from Massachusetts 
was assaulted on their way to Washington. Its 
proximity to the Seat of Government, from which 
it is only thirty- eight miles distant, has added to 
its importance and made it popular with the officials 
of the nation. From the number and prominence 
of its monuments it has been called the " Monu- 
mental City." The most imposing of these is sur- 
mounted by a statue of George Washington, which 



384 Life and Resources in America. 

stands three hundred and twelve feet above the 
adjacent harbour ; and the city contains a shot- 
tower which is two hundred and fifty feet high, the 
highest in the world. The churches of this city 
are numerous, and many of them beautiful and 
imposing ; and it boasts of one large Park, which 
is remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, and is a 
successful rival of those in New York and Boston. 
The manufacturing facilities of Baltimore are un- 
common and quite equal to its commercial advan- 
tages. In its benevolent and educational institutions 
it is behind none of its sister cities, and its name 
is associated with many men of culture, connected 
with literature, science, and the fine arts. It was 
here that the famous George Peabody first esta- 
blished himself in business, and where he founded 
one of the largest educational institutions associated 
with his name. 

Among the representative cities of America is 
ISTew Orleans. It was founded by the French in 
1717, and has a population of 191,418. Its site is 
on the eastern bank of the great Mississippi river, 
about one hundred miles above the mouth of that 
stream, and as it forms a half circle has been called 
the Crescent City. Many parts of it are so low 
and flat that the waters are kept from overflowing 
it only by artificial embankments. It possesses 
unrivalled natural advantages for internal trade, 
and it is visited by vessels from every quarter of 
the globe. Every description of craft is employed 
in transporting to it the rich products of the Mis- 
sissippi and its many tributaries, whose navigable 
waters are not less than fifteen thousand miles in 



Life in the Leading Cities. 385 

extent, and embrace every variety of climate. Not 
only is it the receptacle of countless varieties of 
produce from the interior, but is considered the 
largest cotton market in the world. The particular 
spot where all this merchandise is received, and 
from which it is shipped to foreign ports, is called 
the Levee ; it extends along the river for miles, 
and because of the strange commingling of ships 
and steamboats and other kinds of vessels, and also 
on account of its vast proportions and never- 
ceasing bustle, has been pronounced by travellers 
as one of the wonders of America. It abounds in 
handsome buildings, and its various public insti- 
tutions rest on liberal foundations. On account of 
its low situation and warm climate it is subject to 
annual visitations from the yellow fever, which is 
frequently fatal to strangers. Any description of 
this city would be incomplete without a notice of its 
cemeteries. Each one is enclosed with a thick brick 
wall of arched cavities, made just large enough to 
admit a single coffin, and rising to the height of 
twelve feet. Within the enclosure are crowded 
the tombs, which are built wholly above the ground, 
and are from one to three stories high. This method 
of sepulture is a necessity, for the earth is so uni- 
versally saturated with water that none but paupers 
are consigned to the earth. The population of the 
city is exceedingly varied ; its chief resident in- 
habitants are known as Creoles, or the native 
population ; and those who are engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits, and are successful, usually remain 
there during the winter or business months, spend- 
ing their summers among the highlands of the 
c c 



386 Life and Resources in America. 

interior country. It is also thickly inhabited by 
coloured people, who were once in slavery. It was 
the scene of quite a famous battle in 1815, between 
the English and the Americans under Andrew 
Jackson, who was victorious, and subsequently 
became President of the United States. The pre- 
vailing religion is Eoman Catholic, and many 
churches are modelled upon those of European 
countries ; and notwithstanding the fact that this 
city is sometimes called the " Wet Grave " and 
the " City of the Dead," it is celebrated for its con- 
tinuous round of gaieties, from the beginning of the 
year to its close. 

On leaving New Orleans, if we pass up the 
Mississippi river about twelve hundred miles, we 
come to the city of St. Louis, which contains 310,864 
inhabitants. It was founded by the French fur 
traders, and possesses the peculiarity of being 
located at the geographical centre of the North 
American Continent ; and its advantages as a com- 
mercial emporium, are probably not surpassed by 
those of any inland port in the world. The busi- 
ness transacted here by means of steamboats and 
railroads is enormous ; the people are cosmopo- 
litan in their character, and not behind the cities 
of the Eastern States in their industry, liberality, 
and intellectual culture. And what we say of St. 
Louis is also true of Cincinnati, on the Ohio, with 
its 216,239 inhabitants ; of Louisville, on the same 
river, with its 100,753 inhabitants ; and of Chicago, 
on Lake Michigan. With regard to the last named 
place, we may remark that its rapid growth, in 
twenty-five years, from a village to a city of nearly 



Life in the Leading Cities. 387 

300,000, is one of the marvels of the age. But, 
since the first pages of this volume were sent to 
press, Chicago has met with a calamity by fire, 
which has been pronounced quite unprecedented. 
It occurred in October, 1871, and resulted in the 
total destruction of all the business portions of the 
city. More than a hundred lives were also lost ; 
eighty thousand persons, including merchants and 
mechanics, were thrown out of employment, or 
reduced to beggary in a single night, and the total 
loss of property was estimated at $200,000,000. 
It is said to have been the most extensive fire that 
ever occurred in any country, and the sympathy 
felt for 'the sufferers called forth subscriptions of 
money from every quarter of the globe, amounting 
in the aggregate to many millions of dollars ; and 
what was still more wonderful was the fact that the 
regular business of the city was again in successful 
operation in a very few weeks, although it had to 
be transacted under many and great disadvantages. 
Having elsewhere touched upon the characteris- 
tics of Washington, the metropolis of the United 
States, with its 120,000 inhabitants, we conclude 
our list of the larger cities, with an allusion to San 
Francisco, which contains about 150,000 inhabi- 
tants. The rapidity of its growth can only be com- 
pared with that of Chicago ; and while the former 
was chiefly built up by the gold mines of California, 
the latter owes its prosperity to the agricultural 
development of the wide and fertile region of which 
it is the centre. The fact that San Francisco is the 
largest American seaport on the Pacific ocean, and 
that it is at the terminus of the Pacific Railroad, 



388 Life and Resources in America. 

gives it command of the commerce of all the 
Eastern nations, by which advantages it will pro- 
bably become a city of vast importance and influ- 
ence. From the nature of its position, its social 
characteristics are quite different from those of the 
Atlantic cities, and it is not behind them in any 01 
those qualities which give power and dignity to a 
city, yet it stands quite alone in regard to its 
Chinese population. The high rates of labour in 
this city generally, and its dependence on importa- 
tion for all its iron, brass, cotton, hardware, and 
most of its wool, leather and hard wood lumber, 
prevent the establishment of factories, and all the 
cutlery, fine tools and machinery, glass, porcelain, 
clothing and shoes, are necessarily obtained from 
abroad at a great expense, thus giving employment 
to a large amount of shipping. 

In our remarks thus far, we have only spoken of 
those American cities which contain more than 
100,000 inhabitants. But there are many smaller 
cities, which have a world-wide fame on account of 
their beauty, business characteristics, or historical 
associations. Among these may be mentioned 
Charleston, which has about 50,000 inhabitants, is 
the centre of the rice-producing country of South 
Carolina, and in whose harbour, at Fort Sumter, 
was made the first regular assault upon the national 
forces at the commencement of the late civil war, 
when the city was a great sufferer ; Savannah, the 
chief seaport of Georgia and the rival of Charleston, 
having a population of nearly 30,000 ; Richmond, 
in Virginia, with more than 50,000 inhabitants, and 
famous for its beautiful location, its flour and tobacco 



Life in the Leading Cities. 389 

trade, and for having been the head-quarters of the 
late rebellion ; Mobile, in Alabama, with 32,000 
inhabitants, possessing characteristics similar to 
those of New Orleans ; Detroit, in Michigan, with 
nearly 80,000 inhabitants, beautiful for situation, 
and the commercial gateway to the Great Lakes of 
Huron, Michigan and Superior ; Milwaukie, in 
Wisconsin, with 71,000 inhabitants, the counter- 
part of Chicago and its unsuccessful rival ; Cleve- 
land, in Ohio, with 93,000 energetic inhabitants ; 
Buffalo, at the eastern end of Lake Erie, with a 
population of 115,000 souls, near which are the 
Falls of Niagara ; Pittsburg, in Pennsylvania, with 
a population of 86,000, almost entirely devoted to 
the coal and iron interests ; Albany, in New York, 
the head of navigation on the Hudson, and famous 
for its Dutch history, and as being the Capital of 
the Empire State, with 70,000 people ; Rochester 
and Troy, in the same State, with 63 ; 000 souls ; 
Indianapolis, in Indiana, with 48,000 people, and 
famous for its surrounding agricultural country ; 
Portland, in Maine, which has 32,000 souls, and 
one of the best harbours in America ; and the cities 
of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and New Haven, in 
Connecticut, where are located two of the leading 
colleges of the United States. 




FRONTIER LIFE AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

HE frontiers of America are so exten- 
sive and the pursuits of their inhabitants 
so various that an entire volume would 
not suffice to describe them with minute- 
ness. In taking- a bird's-eye view of the domain 
in question, (and a similar view of other subjects 
is all that has been attempted in the foregoing 
chapters,) we propose to speak of the four follow- 
ing characteristics, viz. : the Indians, the Pioneer 
Farmers, the Fur Traders and Trappers, and the 
Lumbermen. 

It is now a settled fact that the Red race or 
Native Indians of America, are gradually passing 
away under the march of civilization. According 
to the most authentic data, the number of Indians 
who recognize the President as their Great Father, 
is about three hundred thousand. Of these, the 
Creeks, Cherokees, Choctaws and Chickasaws, who 
live on the head waters of the Arkansas, number 
some fifty- four thousand ; and excepting 1 4,000 of 
the six nations in New York, 1,000 Cherokees 
in North Carolina, 600 Penobscots in Maine, and 
41,000 of various tribes still holding reservations 
on the great lakes and the Mississippi and Missouri 



Frontier Life and Developments. 391 

rivers, they are the only tribes that have made any 
satisfactory advances in acquiring the arts and 
comforts of civilization. It would thus appear that 
the number of wild Indians who live entirely by 
the chase, and inhabit the American territories, 
excluding Alaska, number two hundred thousand 
souls. Although nominally obedient to the laws 
of the United States, these hunting tribes are in 
reality as free to roam, as if there were no central 
government. But with those who are partially 
civilized the case is quite different. Their wealth 
has been estimated at $3,300,000, while they sup- 
port about seventy schools, nearly the same number 
of teachers or missionaries, and cultivate nearly one 
thousand acres of land. The names by which they 
are known number one hundred and fifty, and their 
geographical condition is co-extensive with the 
area of the United States and Territories ; and it is 
a remarkable fact that of all the races or classes of 
people who inhabit the United States, the Indians 
are the only people who are not recognized as 
citizens by the General Government. 

On leaving the hunting grounds of the Red-Men 
for the .haunts of opening civilization the first thing 
which attracts attention is the cabin of the pioneer 
or frontier farmer. Though born and bred in a 
settled country, this man, who represents a large 
class, has been tempted by the spirit of enterprise 
to purchase a few hundred acres of land at the low 
Government price, which he is clearing away as 
rapidly as possible, and in the midst of which he 
has fixed his home. It is built of logs, small and 
poorly furnished, and but for the smoke issuing 



392 Life and Resources in America. 

from its rustic chimney,, could hardly be distin- 
guished from the stable or barn, where he shelters 
his horses and oxen and cows. Hard work and 
rough fare are the lot of this poor yeoman, but his 
mission, as a man, commands the highest respect. 
He has a growing family about him, and in their 
welfare are centred all his hopes. Though far re- 
moved from schools and churches and the refine- 
ments of life, he plods on year after year, giving his 
boys the best education he can, thankful that they 
are approaching man's estate, and cheered with the 
prospect that, like many of his predecessors in a 
new country, he will acquire a fortune and spend 
his old age in a large frame or brick house, and end 
his days in peace. Five, ten, or it may be fifteen 
miles from this man's cabin is another, built on the 
same model, and whose owner is a counterpart of 
himself. Farther on, still another log cabin comes 
in view, and so on do they continue to appear, 
encompassing the entire frontiers of civilization. 
The ancestors of many of these men were among 
those who originally fought on the battle-field for 
the independence of their country, and they them- 
selves, with their brothers and sons, flocked by 
thousands to its rescue, during the late Civil War 
in America. These men embody the true spirit of 
the land in which they dwell, and in history they 
will be long remembered with honour and gratitude, 
for what they have done, and are doing, to make 
clear the pathway of empire. 

We come now to speak of that class of people, 
living on the frontiers, known as Fur Traders and 
Trappers. The business of collecting and selling 



Frontier Life and Developments. 393 

furs and peltries, was commenced immediately 
after the first settlement of the country, and for 
about two hundred years was eminently lucrative 
and gave employment to large numbers of enter- 
prising men. Eepresentatives from France and 
England as well as the United States participated 
in the trade, and several companies of great magni- 
tude and influence were the outgrowth of this trade, 
viz. : the Hudson's Bay Company, the North-west 
Company and the American Fur Company. Of 
late years, however, the fur business has greatly 
declined on the American Continent, but is not yet 
extinct. The men called traders are those who 
locate themselves on the borders of the wilderness, 
and keep for sale ample supplies of all such articles 
as may be needed by the Indians or trappers, who 
pay for what they purchase with furs and peltries. 
The more common articles required are blankets, 
guns and ammunition, flour and pork, tobacco, 
knives, as well as trinkets and the baneful fire- 
water, while the articles for which they are ex- 
changed are buffalo robes and the skins of the 
deer, the beaver and otter, the sable, the mink, 
the bear and the wolf, for all of which there is 
always a demand in the cities of the Atlantic 
States. The men known as trappers, are either 
white men or half breeds, (so-called, because 
they are the offspring of French fathers and 
Indian mothers), and they are the successful 
rivals of the native Indians in hunting or trap- 
ping wild animals. Those who reside in the prairie 
countries or among the Rocky Mountains, chiefly 
employ the horse in travelling, while those who 



394 Life and Resources in America. 

reside in the densely wooded regions, where rivers 
and lakes abound, employ the bark canoe in their 
operations. In the earlier times, when America 
was yet a wilderness, this latter class of men 
rendered important service to the English and 
French nations, by acting as guides and assistants 
in the exploring expeditions, and they became 
universally known as voyageurs. While there are 
many American towns and cities which owe their 
origin to the existence of the fur trade, the two 
most noted of these are St. Louis on the Mississippi 
river, and Montreal in Canada, which lies on the 
river St. Lawrence, but both of these noted cities 
are rapidly losing their former reputations, and 
have really become cosmopolitan in their character, 
as well as cities of great magnitude and importance 
in the history of commerce. 

But, by far the most important phase of frontier 
life in the United States, is that connected with the 
lumbering business. There is no country on the 
globe which equals America in the extent of its 
valuable forests, and there is a great and constantly 
increasing demand for every variety of lumber, for 
the building of houses and the countless other things 
which are made of wood and indispensable for the 
comfort of mankind. The manufacture of lumber 
is of the utmost importance, and is a prominent 
source of wealth in America, the aggregate value of 
the trade amounting to more than one hundred 
millions of dollars, and giving employment to nearly 
one hundred thousand persons in its various depart- 
ments. The variety of forest trees which are cut 
down and transformed into lumber is very great, 



Frontier Life and Developments. 395 

but the pine is most abundant, next to which may 
be mentioned the fir, spruce and hemlock, all of 
which are found in the Eastern, Northern and 
North-western States. The various marketable 
articles, which are manufactured out of these several 
woods are known as timber, staves, shingles, boards 
of every thickness, scantling, masts and knees for 
shipping ; and the uses to which these productions 
are applied are endless and of vast importance to 
the people in every sphere of life. In North 
Carolina they have a peculiar kind of pine, which 
they not only manufacture into lumber, but from 
which the inhabitants obtain large quantities of tar, 
pitch and turpentine. In Alabama and Mississippi, 
they have still another variety of pine, which is 
worked into spars and masts by the ship-builders 
of the country. In Florida, an extensive business 
is done in preparing the live oak of that region for 
use in building the Naval vessels of the country, 
the Government retaining the monopoly of that 
valuable product. In many of the Western States, 
there is a tree called the black-walnut, which is 
employed to a great extent in the manufacture of 
elegant furniture, and has competed successfully 
with the imported wood called mahogany. 

With regard to the various classes of people 
engaged in the lumbering business, throughout the 
Union, the most numerous are called lumbermen. 
In all those regions where the white pine and spruce 
and fir prevail, they form extensive parties and 
spend the winter in the dense forests, cutting down 
trees and dragging the logs to the banks of the 
streams ; and when spring comes, and the streams 



396 Life and Resources in America. 

become full of water, they drive tlie logs down the 
rivers, and in immense quantities, all arranged in 
rafts, deliver them at the saw-mills at the mouths of 
the streams and on navigable waters, where the logs 
are turned into all kinds of lumber, and thence 
shipped by vessels to various parts of the United 
States as well as to foreign countries. Many of the 
merchants or companies who employ these lumber- 
men do business on a scale of great magnitude, and 
they not only control the various operations in the 
interior, but are also the owners of the mills where 
the lumber is made, as well as many of the vessels 
employed in the carrying trade. The mills to which 
we have alluded, are generally so located as to be 
driven by water-power, and as they are very numer- 
ous and extensive, they give employment to work- 
men of many grades, who form a class quite distinct 
from that of lumbermen. They are for the most 
part an intelligent and hardy race of men, and fail 
not, when elections take place, to exert an important 
influence on the affairs of their own State or those 
of the General Government. 

As we pass into the pine forests of Carolina, we 
there find quite another state of affairs. In that 
region the manufacture of lumber is carried on, as 
already stated, in conjunction with the production 
of tar, pitch, and turpentine, and by far the largest 
proportion of the men employed were formerly the 
coloured people called slaves, but now known as 
freedmen. There, as well as elsewhere, the prevail- 
ing business is conducted by organized companies 
or by men of ample means, who give employment, 
and a good support, to large numbers of hardwork- 



Frontier Life and Developments. 397 

ing men. As to those who live in the States bor- 
dering on the Gulf of Mexico, especially in Florida, 
and who prepare the live oak timber for use at the 
Navy Yards, they are mostly men from the north, 
with northern habits and constitutions, and are ex- 
clusively employed by the General Government. 
They also pursue their arduous labours in the winter 
months, and, like the lumbermen of New England, 
live in tents or cabins, and on the plainest fare. As 
to the business of spar-cutting in Alabama and 
Mississippi, it requires so little sagacity, that it is 
chiefly carried on by those who own the forest lands ; 
but when we pass on to the Northwestern States, 
where the black-walnut prevails, we there find the 
business of lumbering fully organized, and the dur- 
able and rich-looking wood carefully prepared for 
transportation by steamboats or railroads to the 
markets on the Atlantic coast. 





JUDICIAL LIFE. 

HE Constitution provides that " the ju- 
dicial power of the United States shall 
be vested in one Supreme Court, and 
in such inferior courts as the Congress 
may from time to time ordain and establish." The 
Constitution further defines and limits the judicial 
power as follows <{ 1. The judicial power shall 
extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under 
this Constitution, the laws of the United States, 
and treaties made, or which shall be made, under 
their authority ; to all cases affecting ambassadors, 
other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of 
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controver- 
sies to which the United States shall be a party ; 
to controversies between two or more States, be- 
tween a State and citizens of another State, be- 
tween citizens of different States, between citizens 
of the same State claiming lands under grants 
of different States, and between a State or the 
citizens thereof and foreign states, citizens or sub- 
jects/' " 2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, 
other public ministers and consuls, and those in 
which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court 
shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other 
cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall 



Judicial Life. 399 

have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and fact, 
with such exceptions, and under such regulations, 
as the Congress shall make." 

The Supreme Court being established by the 
Constitution, Congress has from time to time esta- 
blished the following additional " inferior courts " 
of the United States, viz : the Circuit Courts, the 
District Courts, the Court of Claims, the Supreme 
Court of the District of Columbia, the Territorial 
Courts, with the Supreme Court, constitute the 
Judiciary of the United States. The outlines of 
their powers, jurisdiction, &c., will be briefly pre- 
sented, as follows : 

I. The Supreme Court. The original jurisdic- 
tion of the Supreme Court is denned in the Consti- 
tution, as quoted. Its appellate jurisdiction is also 
there denned, but is provided to be subject to 
exceptions and regulation by Congress. This power 
Congress has exercised in the following instances. 
Appeals from these Circuit Courts to the Supreme 
Court, in civil actions, equity cases, and admiralty 
and prize cases, are restricted to those in which the 
matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of two 
thousand dollars exclusive of costs. But this re- 
striction does not apply to patent copyright, or 
revenue cases ; nor does it affect appeals in criminal 
cases. Congress has also provided that the Supreme 
Court shall have appellate jurisdiction from judg- 
ments or decrees of the highest courts of the several 
States in suits where is drawn in question the 
validity of a treaty, or statute of, or an authority 
exercised under, the United States, and the decision 
has been against their validity ; or where is drawn 



400 Life and Resources in America. 

in question the validity of a statute of, or an 
authority exercised under, any State, on the ground 
of their being repugnant to the constitution, trea- 
ties, or laws of the United States, and the decision 
is in favour of such validity; or where any title, 
right, privilege, or immunity is claimed under the 
constitution, treaties, or laws of the United States, 
and the decision is against the title, right, &c. But 
from the operations of these provisions are excepted 
cases of persons held in the custody of the military 
authorities of the United States, charged with mili- 
tary offences, or with having aided or abetted rebel- 
lion against the Government. 

The Supreme Court sits at Washington, and 
holds one annual session, commencing on the first 
Monday in December, with such adjourned or special 
terms as may be found necessary for the despatch 
of business. It consists of a chief justice and eight 
justices, who, in common with all the United States 
Judges, hold their offices during good behaviour. 
The salary of the Chief Justice is $8,500 ; that of 
each of the justices eight thousand dollars, per 
annum. Six of the nine constitute a quorum. 

II. The Circuit Courts are nine in number ; the 
United States being divided into nine circuits, each 
comprising three or more districts. Justices of 
the Supreme Court are allotted by that Court, to 
the several circuits, to assist in holding the Circuit 
Courts. Each circuit has besides a circuit judge 
with a salary of six thousand dollars ; with the same 
power and jurisdiction as the justice of the Supreme 
Court allotted to the circuit. The Circuit Court in 
each circuit is held by the justice of the Supreme 



Judicial Life. 401 

Court } or by the circuit judge of the circuit, 
or by the district judge of the district 
sitting alone; or by the justice of the Supreme 
Court and circuit judge sitting together ; or (in 
the absence of either of them,) by the other and the 
district judge. Where two judges hold a circuit 
court, and differ in opinion, the law provides for a 
special appeal to the Supreme Court. There are 
two annual sessions of each circuit court, with 
special sessions for the trial of criminal cases. The 
jurisdiction of the Circuit Courts is as follows: 
They have concurrent jurisdiction with the State 
courts, of civil suits at common law and equity 
where the matter in dispute exceeds, exclusive of 
costs, the sum .or value of five hundred dollars, and 
where the United States are plaintiffs or petitioners, 
or an alien is a party, (but not where both parties 
are aliens ;) or where the suit is between a citizen 
of the State in which the suit is brought, and a 
citizen of another State. They have exclusive 
jurisdiction of all crimes and offences cognizable 
under the authority of the United States, except of 
such as are within the jurisdiction of the District 
Courts, and of those they have concurrent juris- 
diction. They have also original jurisdiction in 
all patent and copyright cases, and their juris- 
diction also extends to all cases arising under the 
revenue laws. They are also invested with juris- 
diction of certain classes of cases removed to them, 
under special statutes, from the State Courts ; in- 
cluding suits between citizens of different States, 
suits against aliens, and suits and prosecutions 
against military and other officers of the Govern- 
D D 



402 Life and Resources in America. 

ment. The Circuit Courts entertain appeals from 
the District Courts in criminal cases, and in civil 
cases where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum 
of fifty dollars. 

III. The United States is further divided into 
districts, for the holding of U. S. District Courts 
therein. A district usually includes a single State ; 
but the larger States are divided into two or some- 
times three districts. For each district, there is a 
District Judge, who holds four regular sessions of 
the district court annually. The salaries of the 
District Judges are different in different parts of 
the country. The District Courts have original 
and exclusive jurisdiction of admiralty and maritime 
cases, of cases of seizures on land and water under 
the laws of the United States, and of suits brought 
for penalties and forfeitures incurred under said 
laws. They have also jurisdiction, exclusive of the 
State Courts, of suits against consuls, vice-consuls, 
&c. They have also concurrent jurisdiction with 
the Circuit Courts in cases of crimes and offences, 
not capital, committed under the laws of the United 
States. Also concurrent jurisdiction with such 
courts and the State Courts of suits at common law 
in which the United States, or any officer thereof 
may sue, under the authority of any law of the 
United States. Also a similar jurisdiction of all 
suits by aliens, on account of torts in violation of 
the laws of nations or a treaty of the United 
States. 

IV. The Court of Claims sits in the Capital at 
Washington, and commences its regular annual 
session on the same day as -the Supreme Court, viz.: 



Judicial Life. 403 

the first Monday in December. It consists of a 
chief justice and four justices, with salary of four 
thousand dollars each. It has jurisdiction of " all 
claims founded upon any law of Congress, or upon 
any regulation of an executive department, or upon 
any contract, expressed or implied, with the Govern- 
ment of the United States, which may be suggested 
to it by a petition filed therein, and also all claims 
.which may be referred to said court by either House 
of Congress;" also jurisdiction of all counter claims 
and demands on the part of the United States, 
against any persons making claim against the Go- 
vernment in said court ; also jurisdiction of claims 
to property captured or abandoned during the 
rebellion ; also jurisdiction of the claims of disburs- 
ing officers of the United States for relief from 
responsibility on account of losses of public property 
by capture or otherwise while in the line of duty ; 
and of some other claims of less general importance. 
The court is precluded from passing upon claims 
for supplies taken, injuries done, &c., by United 
States troops during the rebellion, and from render- 
ing judgment in favour of any claimant who has 
not been loyal to the United States. Appeals may 
be taken by the United States to the Supreme 
Court in all cases where the judgment is adverse to 
the United States ; and by the claimant where the 
amount in controversy exceeds three thousand 
dollars. This court is the only court of the U. S., 
in which the United States can be directly sued as 
a defendant. 

V. The Supreme Court of the District of 
Columbia consists of a chief justice and three other 



404 Life and Resources in America. 

justices, and holds its sessions at the City Hall in 
Washington. The salary of the chief justice is 
four thousand five hundred dollars, and of each of 
the other justices four thousand dollars. The court 
combines the general powers and jurisdiction of 
a circuit court and a district court. Any single 
one of its judges is authorized to hold a district 
court. Its jurisdiction extends only to civil pro- 
ceedings instituted, and crimes committed in the 
District of Columbia ; and to cases of seizures on 
land and water made, and penalties and forfeitures 
incurred, under the laws of the United States 
within the same limits only. It entertains appeals 
from the local justices of the peace and police 
court ; and its final judgments, orders and decrees 
are subject to be appealed from to the Supreme 
Court of the United States. 

VI. Territorial Courts. When a territorial go- 
vernment is organized by Congress for any Terri- 
tory, a judiciary is provided, consisting generally 
of a Supreme Court of three or more judges, dis- 
trict courts to be held by the judges of the Supreme 
Court separately, probate courts, and justices' courts. 
The district courts are invested with the jurisdic- 
tion of the circuit and district courts of the United 
States; and an appeal is given from the district 
courts to the Supreme Court. An appeal is also 
provided from the Supreme Court to the Supreme 
Court of the United States, in the same manner as 
from a circuit court. When a Territory is ad- 
mitted into the Union as a State, these courts cease 
to exist, being supplanted, by the State Courts. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 




FTER the foregoing chapters on Beligious 
and Educational Life had been printed, we 
obtained some later official information on 
those subjects, which we append in this 
place. In 1870, three States of the Union 
passed laws compelling the education of all 
children with sound minds and bodies. The total number 
of Colleges in the country is 368, of which 261 are sup- 
ported by the different religious denominations. In these 
institutions there are 2,962 instructors and 49,827 pupils ; 
in 99 of them males and females are instructed, while the 
balance are confined to males ; and besides these there are 
136 institutions for the superior instruction of females 
alone, in which there are 1,163 teachers and 12,841 pupils. 
Of Medical Schools, there are 57; Theological Schools, 117; 
Law Schools, 40; Normal Schools, 51, and Business Schools, 
84. Connected with these various institutions, there are 
180 Libraries with 2,355,237 volumes. The benefactions to 
educational objects by private citizens were quite unparal- 
leled in 1870, amounting in the aggregate to $8,435,990. 
With regard to the effect of education upon crime, we find 
that there was one homicide to every 56,000 people, one to 
every 4,000 in the Pacific States, and one to every 10,000 
in the Southern States. At least 80 per cent, of the crime 
of New England is committed by those who have no edu- 
cation ; in all parts of the country, 90 per cent, of the cri- 
minals were illiterate ; 75 per cent, were foreigners ; and 
from 80 to 90 per cent, connected their career of crime with 
intemperance. From these figures the conclusion is ine- 



406 Additional Notes. 

vitable, that ignorance breeds crime and education is the 
remedy for the crime that prevails. 

In further illustration of the preceding article on agri- 
culture, we append the following statement. The total 
value of farm products in the United States and Terri- 
tories, during the year ending June 31, 1870, according to 
the Census, was $2,445,000,000. The largest product was 
in the State of New York, and the second largest in Illi- 
nois. 

Now that this little book is finished, the mind of the 
Compiler naturally turns to take a single comprehensive 
view of the great country which has been briefly described. 
It is indeed one of the wonders of the century and of the 
world. The extent of its domain and its unbounded re- 
sources, the peaceful blending of its many nationalities, 
the well-nigh unlimited diffusion of intelligence and 
knowledge, and the free cosmopolitan character of its peo- 
ple, combine to give it a conspicuous position among the 
nations. At the very moment when these closing lines 
are being written, a Diplomatic Embassy from the Tenno 
of Japan is on the point of visiting the City of Washing- 
ton, and the fact cannot but have made an impression on 
their minds, that, after landing on the soil of America, 
they have been compelled to travel more than three thou- 
sand miles before reaching the metropolis. But when the 
Ambassadors, and the other high officials who accompany 
them, are informed of the warm welcome which is in store 
for them from the Government of the United States, and 
many of the leading men and corporations throughout the 
Union, and when they shall have experienced the un- 
bounded hospitality of the American people generally, 
they will undoubtedly be deeply impressed, and effectually 
convinced, that America and Japan are strongly bound 
together by the cords of sincere regard and unselfish affec- 
tion. 




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184 The Japanese in America 
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