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Full text of "Japanese names and how to read them : a manual for art-collectors and students, being a concise and comprehensive guide to the reading and interpretation of Japanese proper names both geographical and personal as well as of dates and other formal expressions"



'^y^'-m>%^^:''^ 




*iJN!VOf 
TOHOKTO 



\1 



JAPANESE NAMES 



A 



TIROXIPA'S 

DEBITA XOX SINE REVEUEXTIA 

XECNON ET EXPERTIS 

IXDIGXVM HOC 

AVCTORES 



MEIJI BENRAN 




t<' 



JAPANESE NAMES 

AND HOW TO READ THEM 



.4 MANUAL FOR ART-COLLECTORS AND STUDE^JTS 



BEING A CONCISE AND COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO THE 
READING AND INTERPRETATION OF JAPANESE PROPER 
NAMES BOTH GEOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL, AS WELL 
AS OF DATES AND OTHER FORMAL EXPRESSIONS 



BY 



ALBERT J?"" KOOP, B.A. 

OF THE VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM, 
HONORARY EDITOR, JAPAN SOCIETY, LONDON 

AND 

HOGITARO INADA 

OF KIOTO 




LONDOxN 



Thk Eastern Press, Limited 
3 Chancery Lane, W.C. 2 



Bernard Ouaritch, Limited 
II Grafton Street, W. i 



MCMXXIII 



■r.„\ 



V. 




PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 

BY 

THE EASTERN PRESS, LIMITED, 

KATESGROVE WORKS, 

READING 



PREFACE 



THE present work, the appearance of which has been much delayed 
by the long continuance of the war and its after-effects, repre- 
sents the first attempt to explain, in a comprehensive, yet simple 
and intelligible manner, the principles on which the Proper Names 
of Japan are constructed, and how, in accordance witli those principles, 
they are to be read when written, as is customary, in Chinese script. 
The subject is indeed almost virgin soil, despite the fact that it concerns 
not only the general student of the Japanese written language, but also, 
and in a very special degree, the collector and admirer of Japanese works 
of art. Faced with a signature, to say nothing of a date or other 
informative expression, on almost ever}' second piece he picks up, the 
average collector finds himself dependent for its reading and interpretation 
on the services of some native or other ' expert ", whose verdict he cannot 
che(^k and must perforce take on trust. At the same time the student who 
may so far have mastered the language as to be capable of perusing a 
book or newspaper in the vernacular, yet knows to his cost that the 
reading of the personal and geographical names is a study in itself, 
towards which no adequate assistance has hitherto been available. 
Contrary to the practice of the land of their origin, the Chinese 
characters as used in Japan, whether in ordinary phraseology or for the 
writing of proper names, are capable as a rule of at least two, and in 
many cases of half-a-dozen or more, different readings. The student of 
written Japanese is thus saddled with a preliminary task which does not 
trouble the sinologue — that of determining, among a number of alterna- 
tives, the sounds intended by his author, before he can attempt to 
interpret his meaning. 

The Japanese use of ' side-feaoa ', a system of phonetic glosses appended to 
the written ideographs, provides, in theory at least, a means of completely 
disposing of this task. Unfortunately for 'foreigners', this royal road is 
commonly abandoned wherever the (native) reader might be expected to 
stand in no need of it. This is regularly the case, in books, not only 
with the commoner geographical names, dates and the more commonplace 
phraseology, but also with personal names, excei)t in instances of sjiecial 



vi PR K FACE 

difficulty and in works of a didactic nature ; wiiile in signatures and the 
great majority of inscriptions met with on objects of art its use is 
entirely avoided. 

This somewhat vexatious omission on the part of the Japanese becomes 
intelligible when we reflect that it is not the custom, with us, for a man 
to announce the pronunriatif)n of his name in his letters or on his visiting- 
card, and that even the schoolboy is usually left to discover from the lips 
of his teacher the correct reading of the names in his geography or 
history book. 

Putting aside 'native' works— which afford but little direct assistance and 
certainly do not cater for the Western tyro — , the existing literature on 
the subject is confined to a few short articles in such works as Chamber- 
lain's Things Japanese, his Inirodiictiou to the Study of Japanese Writing, 
Aston's Gravimar of the Japanese Written Language, or, among specialist 
works, Anderson's Catalogue of Japanese . . . Paintings in the British 
Museum, Brockhaus's Nctsuke, Hara's Meister der Japanischen Schwertziera- 
then, and one or two more. None of these, however, attempts to touch 
more than the fringe of this widely ramified subject.* 

Japanese Names may therefore justly claim to be a pioneer work. Its 
most prominent feature is inevitably a Dictionary of the Chinese 
Characters used in writing Proper Names, accompanied by their various 
Readings and a sufficiency of actual Examples to illustrate their use in this 
connection, singly or in combination. For the especial benefit of the 
collector, this section of the work — as well as much of the preliminary 
matter to which further reference will be made — has been extended to 
cover the interpretation of Dates and other items of conventional phrase- 
ology, which occur with such frequency on Japanese works of art. 
Those who are inclined to fight shy of dictionaries may be reminded that 
the only conceivable alternative, to keep pace with even the collector's 
more limited requirements, lies in a well-nigh illimitable series of 
facsimiles or transcripts of actual signatures, etc., a series which, apart 
from its unwieldy bulk and prohibitive cost, would be incapable of any 
intelligible arrangement. . . . 

The characters dealt with are grouped on a novel plan, which makes 
reference to them a matter of the utmost ease and dispatch. The general 



* .\ German dictionary of Japanese In Dr. Lange, now in omrse of pul)licatit)n, devotes 
some space to the use of the characters in forming names, i)iit makes no attempt at an 
exhaustive treatment of this .subject. 



PREFACE v,i 

scope and arrangement of the Dictionary, and the best method of using 
it, are explained in full detail in the Introduction, whicli is immediately 
followed by a series of Chapters dealing with certain matters closely 
related to the subject in hand, such as the principles on which various 
types of name are constructed, and including a number of useful Lists 
and Tables. 

Many other new and original features distinguish the work, among which' 
may be mentioned the grouping of the Kana signs (pages 25 to 33) and 
the Genji symbols (iiq), tlie handy lists of Nengo characters and dates 
(49 to 64), and the articles on the formation of Personal Names and 
Titles, particularly tlie nanovi and zokumid (67 to 88). The beginner is 
specially catered for in a chapter on Typical Signatures (8q to q6) and a 
list of the Commoner Characters with their chief readings in names, dates, 
and the like (133 to 136). A course of study for his benefit is also 
outlined in the last-named section. 

An alphabetic index provides, in a succinct form, a reference to the 
geographical and family names quoted in the Dictionar}', and should 
prove useful in more ways than one. It is, in effect, the converse of this 
most prominent section of the work and would have amply justified the 
enlargement of the title to ' Japanese Names and how to Read and Write 
them'. . . . 

Particular attention has been paid throughout to the manner in ' which 
each piece of information is conveyed. At every turn the needs and 
perplexities of the tyro have been kept in view, no less than the require- 
ments of the more advanced student. One of the authors has vivid 
recollections of the difficulties and pitfalls in what was to him terra fere 
incognita at the time, now many years agone, when he began the task of 
amassing the material necessary for the work. His collaborator's share 
has been chiefly confined to the all-important role of guaranteeing its 
accuracy on the Japanese side. . . . 

Comprehensive as the work claims to be, within the limits indicated on 
the title-page, it is obviously beyond its scope to attempt the interpreta- 
tion of the poems, the excerpts from Buddhist writings, or the 
miscellaneous literary and other allusions of a more recondite nature that 
crop up now and then on Japanese works of art.* Its authors nevertheless 
trust that it will have justified its publication if it has for the first time 



* For a -.short acrount of this class of inscription, see the paper by H. L. Joly ui 

Tmnxdcli'ina of the Japan Socielv, Lonclm, xv, p. 80. 



viii PRKFACE 

smoothed the path of the general student on tlie one hand, and on the 
other opened the eyes of the tollector to the comparative ease with which, 
under its guidance, \\r may read what has hitlierto been a sealed loook to 
all but a favoured nunoritw Some idea of what iDa}' be attempted in 
this direction with every prosp(H-t of success will be gained by glancing 
through the chapter on typical signatures already alluded to. . . . 
With considerable reluctance it has l)een decided not to embark on a 
treatment of the difficult cursive and seal scripts, which are, however, by 
no means proof against a certain degree of analysis and simplification. 
Fortunately, the great majority of the inscriptions on Japanese works of art 
are written in a hand that so nearly reproduces the formal features of 
printer's type as to offer no difficulties even to tlie beginner. Those to 
whom the matter is of more urgency are referred to Piggott's excellent 
manual, The Elements oj Sosho. 

The absence of a regular bibliography, apart from the few books or 
articles quoted above and in various parts of the text, may also seem to 
call for explanation. As already shown, the work is substantially original 
and has no foreruimers, although it obviously cannot claim to be a work 
of pure invention ! The basic material composing it is very largely the 
result of personal examination of a vast number of colour-prints and other 
products of Japanese art (not forgetting the titles, prefaces and colophons 
of native books). Much of it, on the other hand, has been delved from 
actual works of reference. But so numerous are these latter and so widely 
do they vary in general purpose and specific utility, that it would be 
quite impracticable, were it at all worth while, to cite the whole or 
even a respectable proportion of them the more so as the great 
majority are in Japanese or Chinese and therefore accessible to but few 
Occidentals. . . . 

Corrections of detail and suggestions for the improvement of any part of 
the work are cordially invited by the authors (under cover to the 
[)ublishers). They are glad meanwhile to acknowledge the help and 
encouragement they have received from a number of friends, among 
whom Mr. H. L. Joly, Mr. .\. D. Wai.kv of the Rritisii Museum, and his 
colleague Dr. Ijonel Giles, as well as Mr. F. J. Peplow, must be singled 
out. .Mr. J. \.\K.\G.vw.v, of tlie Eastern Press, Limited, has rendered 
invaluable assistance during the printing of the work. 

A. J. K. 

11. 1. 



CONTENTS 



Introduction — Method of using the work. Arrangement of the 
Dictionary: Characters, Readings, Illustrative Examples 
Orthography, Hyphenation, Pronunciation 

Chapter I. — How to count tlie strokes of a character. \'ariant Forms : 
Minor Script Variations 

Chapter II. — The Kana. Analysis of Japanese Sounds ; the Ivoha-iita 
and Gojuon-dzu. Uses of the Kana; Kaiia Combinations 
Tables of the Katakana and Hirai>ana ... 
Synoptical Table of Kana. Kanamajiri 

Chapter III. — The Nigori. Consonantal and Vowel changes 

Chapter IV. — The Numerals : Cardinals, Ordinals. Numeral SuFhxes 
Numerals as used in Dates and Statements of Age 

How to read Dates : Years, Nengo, Cycles, Months, Leap-years 
Days, Seasons, Hours... 

Lists of the Emperors and Nengo. chronological, alphabetical, etc. 

Table of the Cycle Combinations 

Japanese Weights and Measures ... 



Chapter V.— Personal Names and Titles : Clan and Family Names 
Art and Semi-religious Names 
Zokumio : various Types and their Formation... 
Nanori : their Formation and Connotations ... 
Women's Names and their Meanings 

Of^cial Titles (Imperial Government) with Table of Oflicers 
Adzuma-hiakkwan, Buddhist Titles, Ranks of Honour ... 

Chapter VI. ^Typical Signatures, liow to analyse and interpret tlienj 

Chapter VII. — Numerical Categories : Lists of Famous Groups of 
Personages, Provinces, Post-stations, Books, Art-subjects, the 
Genjimon, etc. ... 



Page 

I 

12 



20 

25 
29 

:a 
37 

49 
63 

67 

70 



73,80 

77 
81 

86 
89 



97 



X 



CONTENTS 



Chafthr \'I1I. — Words expressing l"\'uiiil\ Rclationsliijis 

Chapter IX. — List of the Radicals 

Chapter X.— Beginner's List of Common Characters used in Names, 
etc., with their usual Readings 

List of Abbreviations, Etc. ... 

Dictionary oe Characters Used ix Names 

Index of Na.mes ... 



Page 
129 

13.3 

137 
141 



. . Followinsj the Dictionary 



XL 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 

In the interests of those using this work, the authors earnestl_y urge that 
the following emendations — or at least a reference to them — should be entered 
in the text. 

N.B. — An asterisk (••■) indicates that the line is to be counted from below 
(notes included). All entries from p. 142 onwards, unless specially charac- 
terised, are to be regarded as additional examples. 



Page 3, line 13. Last character but 

one should be ^. 
4,4. 'tyro'. 
9, 22. Heavy type is chiefly restricted 

to large groups of examples. 
15. Interchange the notes. 
18, II. M is eight strokes. 
37. ' 17 ' is jushichi. 
38,6*. 'hachi' (no hyphen). 
43, note 2. See entry for p. 35. 
45. 7th month also Choshu 1^ ^. 

45, end, and 46, 8 and g. The correct 

form of the character for ' inter- 
calary ' and that of its contraction 
are shown on p. 343. 

46. List of Leap Years. In a com- 
munication to the authors, Major 
Sexton kindly points out that a 
print of the year 1873 (on the first 
day of which, i.e., January 1, P^ 
^toTC^JEH ^n H , the Gregorian 
reckoning officially superseded the 
Old Calendar) displays an old- 
style date-seal reading ' Cock, 
6th-intercalary' ^ ^ 7^, which 
would have worked out roughly 
as August, 1873. Apparently, even 
after six months or so of the new 



style, the censors were unable to 
shake off an age-long habit ! 

46, note 4. ' taiyo ' should follow the 

three characters. 

47, 16. Compare also 'Uj (p. 231). 
49. In writing out the names in List 

A it is advisable to retain all 
hyphens, disregarding the special 
significance of the ' long hyphen '. 
49, note 2. In some cases (especially 
with Emperors of the Northern 
Court) the suffix is [^ -in, 

52. No. 51: 'Heizei'. No. 81 : ^ ;^,. 

53. Suko ^ it- No. 108, Miosho, 
was an Empress. 

55. Shucho ' 686 '. Interval ' 690 '. 
According to Bramsen and others, 
Shucho began in 686 a.d. (Jan. 
30th) and by strict official reckon- 
ing lasted only till 689, the years 
690 to 6g6 forming a ;;e»^o-Iess 
interval named after the reigning 
Empress (Jito IV, V, etc.). The 
date 687 for Shucho I was copied 
from Sakamoto's Sekaishi Nempio 
(Tokio, 1910). 

56. Ninji '1240'. The date ' 1521 ' 
belongs to Taiyei (Daiyei). 



ADDENDA ET CORRlGExXDA. 



63. No. II, J^, not J55t. 

67. Other clan-names are quoted in 
the Dictionary but the following 
should be added thereto (charac- 
ters omitted where obvious on 
reference to the text) : — Page 145 
(1. 4*) A ^ Matta or Hata. 149 
(13*) Kawabe. 150 (10*) Mihara. 
'^53 (iS) HF ili Shiino-tsumichi. 

153 (9*) Shimotsukenu (or -no). 

154 (12*) Yuge. 157 (9) Kume. 
157 (22) Kuga. 159 (2*) _h it 
Kantsuinichi. 160 (16) Ji ^ 2f 
Kantsukeno, Ji ^ 5f |5 ;$^ 
Kantsukeno-no-sakamoto or 
Kodzukesakamoto. 162 (12*) \\\ 

p. Yamagami or Yamanokami. 
162 (11*) Yamaguchi. 163 (i) 
Yama. 164, 7X M. Motori {moitori 
as gild-name). 171 (13) Kura or 
Uchinokura. 173, J^ To. 178, 
i^ jjilji Inugami, 180 (i) Nakahara. 
180 (10) Onakatomi. 183 (20) 
Taniwa. 186 (16) Nagahara. 
191 (2*) Tamate. 192 (16) ^ |^ 
Heguri ; "^ ^ ^^ M Heguri-no- 
-funya. 193 (14*) Ishikawa. 194 
(5) ^ _h Ishinokami or Iwano- 
kami. 195 (9) ^ fjg Kono. 198, 
^> ^ Yoshimune. 198 (2*) 
Tateno. 201 (12*) Fuse. 205 
(13*) 5 ^ Kose (one ptr. referred 
to is Kose no Kanaoka ^ fS)) ; 
£ # M EB Kose-no-kashiketa 
or Kosekakeida. 207 (11) gg p 
Tanokuchi. 207 (12) Tanaka. 
209 (4* J Ise. 210 (jned.) p ^ 
Koremune. 213 (17, 25) Ikeda, 
Ikehara. 216 (14*) Kudara. 218 



(i) Nishi. 223, ^ Oi ; ^ :)|t 
Tame. 225 (9) Oyake. 227 (16) 
Kibi. 233 (11*) Sumiyoshi. 234 
(7) Saiki ; -J^ ^ Sami. 234 (2*) 
Tomo. 236(2*) t)j :^ Machimoto 
(? Bonomoto). 237, ^ ;$: Saka- 
moto. 243 (4) ;^ S Oto. 245 
(20) Asuha. 248 (5*) Tsuno. 
249 (11*) ^ A Shishindo. 262 
(16*) Aso. 262 (10*) Abo or Ao. 
262 (3*) pnj jg and [Jp7 P^ Abe. 
265 (8) Oyeda. 265 (u) Hayashi. 
269, IIJ Yamato ; |P ^ 1^5 
Wak&abe. 269 (14*) Wake. 272 
(12) Nagaoka. 272 (15*) ^ ^ 
Nagamune. 277 (6*) Uneme. 
278 (4*) ^ ^ Munakata. 278 
(3*) I S- Muneoka. 283 (7) ,£. 
^ Tadamune. 284 (15) ^ # IHS 
Iwamurabe. 284 (11*) Kishida. 
298 (2*) Kaki[no]moto. 301 (14) 
Akishino. 306 (15*) Hoshikawa. 

310 (18) ^ 1^ Nambuchi. 310, 
^ Haru. 311 (2) ^ ]^ Haruhara. 

311 (13) Kasuga; i^ ^ B 
Okasuga. 311 (8*) ^ Sada. 314, 
^ ® -^ Wakarabe. 

70, II. ^ ^ -sensei. 
72, 14*. 7^, not ig. 
73,4. '-bidye\ 

82, med. Jingi-kwa7t, second char- 

acter strictly fiR. 

83, 4. San ^. 

83, II*. 'first and third grades' (no 

second). 
83, 7*. ^, not ^. So also on p. 86 

(no. 71), p. 289 (9*). 
85. Under ' Danjo-tai ', J^» may also 

be read -no-chu. Under ' Pro- 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



X\ 



vinces', g may also be read 
-no-sakwan. Note 5 applies also 
to grades 2 and 3 of the Jingi- 
-kwan, to grade 4 of ' Provinces', 
and to grades 3 and 4 of Shiki, 
Rid, Danjo-tai, Sa{U)hidye-fu, Sa- 
{U)yemon-fu. 
98, 7. For J^ read ^. 

98, last. For ft[j read ^. 

99, 14. ' Liu Pei '' 

103, 19*. ' Su-zan '. 

104, 5*. For ^ read jg. 

104, 2*. Otomo in this name is some- 
times written ^ ^. 

106, 15. Shidzu-ga-take. The ^ is 
optional. 

108, 4*. Or A m- 

109, 83, no. 8. Shin-kokon-shu. 

113, 10*. Yukinro, first char, should 

be ^". 
134-5. Place JsSi at end of Seven 

Strokes (not Six) ; J^ to come 

third in column 3 (Ten, not Nine). 

The forms ^ and ^ (Ten) to 

follow % below. 
139, g. The examples in group (a) 

are surnames, not town-names. 

142, 5. — ' K- A "^ Kamatsuka, and 
— M. jIL Ichinohazama (f.). 

143, 16. Semicolon after 'futatsu'. 

144, 12. T also Tei (Tyong, f. early 
Korean potters in Satsuma). 

144, 13. T Slf also Yobono (f.). 
144, 17. Karigane is n. only. 

144, 7*. U m also tone (tit.). TJ M 
y|^ Tonematsu (n.). 

145, 24. A ffl ^ Hatabe (t. ; perh. 
related to Ainu hattava-pet, ' deep 
pool river'). 



145, 27. A >ife Yanami (t, ; iVinu 

ya-nai, 'land stream'). 
145, 29. A iSi also Yajima (f.). 

145, 2*. For A jE some read Hachido, 
not Yamichi, as f. met. Dis- 
tinguish from A jE niudo (p. 146, 
1. 7*). The reading 'Musashi' 
derives from the game juvoku- 
-musashi, a Japanese version of 
fox-and-geese, with an allusion to 
to the province-name. See also 
p. 107, 78. 

146, 17. A "h A l§ Todoroki, and 
A + A BH Hajiyama (f.). 

147, 2. ningio A ^• 

147, 22. -p ^ also Tsuji (f. ; i.e., 
'crossroads'). 

147, 24. Ochifurui : Koji Ruiyen 
(1900), quoting an early work, 
gives -^ Zl Jpl^ ^ Otsufurui (f.) — 
Japanese chi and tsu are closely 
related phonetically. Kano is 
also quoted without the ^ . Add 
+ A ^ Soyagin (f.). 

147, 25. -|- B^ also Toki (f.). 

148, 14*. Tsitkiimo {t£ '^ ^) is an 
old word for an unidentified 
water-plant {mo) and is quoted in 
a well-known early poem which 
alludes to the straggling locks 
{tsukumo- garni) of those who 'fall 
short of a hundred years by one 
year': — 

Momotose ni 
Hitotose taranu 

Tsukumo -garni 
Waga wo konrashi 
Omokage ni miyu. 
As applied to hair the word has 



^xJ 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



y 



8 



II 



150. 
131. 
I5r> 

153, 
153. 
155. 
156, 
156, 

157. 
158, 

158, 
159, 

160, 
165, 



1^5. 2 



166. 



ever since been written as if ' gg '. 
The pun tsuku-mo, 'approaching 
100', has also helped to bring 
this about. 

12*. H fife also Mike (f.). 
H # also Miya (f.). 
H ^ ffl Migata (f.). 
H ff Minuki (f.). 
T" >|t ^ Amenomiya (f.). 
"]» ij' -^ Shimodome (f.). 
For it (v) read j|Il (p. 187). 
=F- ^ Chiburi (f.). 



12. 

7*- 
last 

lO*. 

8*. 



o 



also Honya (f.). 



13 
II 

8* 



167. 

170, 
170, 

i7i> 



^ Jill ^ Kujira (f.). 
^^'^ Hasebeji (f.)._ 
See also p. 256, note 2. 
Jj^ and y$, (twelve strokes) 

are on pp. 391, 392 respectively. 

9- Jt ?^ ?? also Kadono (f.). 

3*. ^ ^ ^ Jji^ Sukunabikona- 

-no-kami (d.). 

6*. Hira-san : for this rendering 

of the sound hiva, compare entry 

for p. 192. 

It ^ Hina (t.). Hiramatsu, 

compare foregoing entry. 

Before •jpl^ add : 3^1^ Variant 
for ;fL (p. 190) ; also contraction 
for 1^ (p. 261), whence its reading 
as Nuki (f.). 

3E is used as a contraction of p| 
(p. 413). See entry for p. 45 (end). 
18. 35: PJ1 Gokan (f.). 
5*- 5 H l loroi, m. "S m 
Dodoki (f.). 

I. ^ as lichi or nai in place- 
-names may sometimes represent 
the Ainu ush ('possessing' or 
'plentiful') or nai ('stream'). 



172, 4*. Keharamiya is written ^ |i^ 

172,3*. =^ ^: Koji Ruiyen gives 
this as Menjo, with the alternative 
1^ (sen. keniushiro ' a wool rug '. 
82) for the first character. It also 
quotes ^ AfS Memma (f.). One 
meaning of men is ' cotton '. 

174, 3. Ushiku-numa (lake). 

174, 7. ^ ^ Gokoye (f. ; lit. 'cow- 
dung'). 

175, 10. ~\^ Hen or Ben (f. early 
Korean potters in Satsuma). 

i75> 19- 7^ ^ Rokku (t.). 

176, 8. ' Monju-san '. 

176, II. ^ ^ also Funya (f.). 

178, 8*, 9*. X ^ Inunai, X^ M 
Inuochise (t.). The former may 
represent Ainu inao-nai (' sacred- 
-symbols stream '), the latter per- 
haps inun-chise, name for a fisher- 
man's temporary shanty by a river. 

180, 13. ff' ^ Nakakiri (f.). 

184, 16. Hinata also t. 

^ Hinaga (t. ; f.). 
^ Hina (t.). 
// Tachigori (f. ; i.e., 
[tsui]tachi + [tsii]go[mo]ri, ' the 
first and last days of the month '). 
9. ft as shiro in certain place- 
-names may represent Ainu shiri 
(' land '). 

188, 6. j]W ^ ^ also read Anafu as t. 

188, 5*. ;jt also read Kitabasliiri as 
f., lit. 'north-running'. ;jl: ^ 
Hokuyetsu (= Echizen, pr.). 

188, note. There seems to be some 
doubt about this reading. Koji 
Ruiyen, an official publication 



184, 8*. 

184, 7*. 

185, 5- 



187, 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



Sii 



(1900), quoting Okina-gusa, gives 
the (normal) reading 'Karuta'. 

189, 12*. Jjj :/j Kunuki (f.). 

189, 6*. ^_/, : 7;zan};o-reading {WO). 

189, 3*. Hiromaye may be related to 
Ainu pira-nai (' cliff-stream '). 
The variant with -saki is due to 
^ being susceptible of that read- 
ing in ordinary language. 

190, I. ^i, ff 3E Oke-o (prince, = 
Kenso, 23rd Mikado). 

190, 17. ^ \[\ also read Komparu as 
alternative for ^ ^ (f. no- writers). 

190, 4*. ;j:L : a variant is ^[,. 

191, 21. IE ^ shogaku, same as bodai 
(p. 407). 

192, 16*. ^ ^ Hirauchi (t. ; f.), 
Hiranai (t.). The former t., in 
Kiushu, may be connected with 
Ainu pira-ush (' cliffs abundant '), 
the latter, in Mutsu, with pira-nai 
(' cliff-stream '). Other examples 
of hira (^ or J;t; ^) in place- 
names may be similarly explained 
(see entry for p. 165, 1. 6*). 

196, 16. Q Haku (Paik, f. early 
Korean potters in Satsuma). 

196, 12-3*. Delete the bracket after 
'signatures' and put a comma for 
that after fliljl. (S.-miojin is not 
the title of a tw.) 

197, 16. ^ is fourteen strokes (p. 449). 
204, I. The variant (an older form) of 

"tfi:, as quoted here and on p. 226 
should have the bottom line 
projecting beyond the uprights. 
It is made up of three 'tens' (-p) 
over ' one ' (— ), sc, ' 30 years as 
a whole ', ' a generation '. 



205, 7- iC m Oyu (t.). 

205, 6*. Idzumo is perhaps connected 
with Ainu etu-moi, 'cape bay'. 

206, 3. Dekishima is also a northern 
village (?Ainu teke-shuma, 'hand- 
like rock '). 

206, 8*. m -}- A M Koyenara (f.). 
206, 7*. pg M ^ Shishiuchi (f.). 

206, 4*. pg :^ # ^ Yomo-no-akara 
(pseud.). 

207, 13*. H R^ jjiiji Tanokami (f.). 
207, 8*. m^^ Tamommata (f.). 

209, 10*. Idzu, a frankly phonetic 
transcription, is perphaps con- 
nected with Ainu etu, 'nose' or 
' promontory '. 

210, 20. ^ ^ Idzutsu (f.). 
214,8*. P£: ^ kittoku, 'babbling 

bald-head ', a variant for ^ -0 

in statements of age on works 

of art (see p. 42, E). 
215, 13*. ^\> Boku as f. early Korean 

potters in Satsuma (Pak) ; ;|:|^ :^ 

Honoki (f.). 
2i5> 2*. fP M, Isogai (f.j. 
218, 3. M ;^ W Nishimorinai (f.). 
220, 8. IpQ 1^ Sagisaka (f.). 

223, 12*. ^ ^Na-uchi,7fC-ki>-gi(f•)• 
224, 17. ^ ^ Ine (f.). 

225, last. ^ ^ Ataka (t.), Atagi (f.). 

226, 8. ^ jjig also as Yasukabe (f.) ; 
^ P Hatayasu (f.), 

228, 20. ;f Wj Udo (f.). 

229, 4. K6-, not Ko-. 

229, 15. Reference to censor's mark 
to be transferred to Mera (1. 23). 

230, 14. 'readings '. 

Before -f*\ insert : jnV^ Con- 
(P- 452)- 



230. tsetore -Y} 
traction of '■ 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



232, 
233, 



3. g Onnoko (L). 
5- fp- ^ Sakuna (t. ; f.). Like 
Sakunami, this may be related 
to Ainu sak-nai, ' summer (dry) 
stream '. 
233, 3*- i^ Shin (Sin, f. early Korean 
potters in Satsuma). 
14. ifC Chin (ditto). 
9- ^ ^ ^Iso as alternative for 
Kwanze ^ iU; (f. no-writers). 
II. Another alternative for Kiso 

is m M- 

13. Miogi-san is tlie usual pro- 
nunciation (not -zan). 
6. :^ j^ Hajika (f.). 
8*. % rfj Kisaichi (f.). 
end. betsu in a number of place- 
-names (N. Japan) may be related 
to Ainu pet, 'river'. 
8. ^ fpj \\'agawa (f.). 
7*. 'with dot below, viii ' {i.e., 
P- 273). 

last. Imiki also as f. 
8. ^ ft Hodzuma (f.). 
17- ^ ± Hiozu (f.)- 
8*. # A ^ Mutobe (f.). 

12*. \ M also Shishizawa (f.). 
* 



236, 
237, 

238, 

239, 

242, 
242, 
242, 

244> 



244> 



245, 
247, 
247, 
247, 
249, 
249, 



250, 2 



250, 
255. 
258, 



g'^. ^ also a Chinese surname 

(Sung) ; it was adopted by a 

painter of the Chinese School, 

I ■^ ^ So Shiseki, whose master 

was the Chinese | ^ ^ Sung 

Tzu-yiJan. 

^ also Sha (Chhya, f. early 

Korean potters in Satsuma). 

19. ^ Ri (Yi or I, ditto). 

2. ^ fig Kaino (f.). 
8* . * 

Hahakabe 



4'". Hokabe is better written 



261, I. ^. Contraction : ^L, read 

Nuki (f.). 
261, 2*. P^ : iwan);o-reading (WO). 
263, 17. jia M. Tara {see p. 297, 1. 6). 
263, 16*. Oane-no-kimi. 



264, 8> 



The main character should 



be 



n 



265, 

265, 

265, 
266, 



266, 
266, 
268, 



271, 
275, 



5- ^ ^ Hirakata (f. ; comipare 
^, p. 266). 

12. if^ Rin (Yim or Im, f. early 
Korean potters in Satsuma). 

9*- W. ^^■ 

14. The name Sorai embodies 
those of two hills in Lu (China), 
Tsu and Lai. 



' Hojotsu '. 
For H; read 



14 
6* 

3*. P^ tH* Toga (f. ; compare f^, 

p. 382 ; both quoted by Koji 

Ruiyen). 

4. Itodzu also f. 

Add: 



top. 




I. kuwashii 



I ;^ Shi tori 
p. 320). 



275, 



276, 



277, 



('minute, tiny'). 38. 

(t. ; f. ; compare ^, 

6*. ^ (sixteen strokes), p. 486. 

12. ^ nenuichi, ' memorial 

day'. 

I. Kin as representing Kim, f. 

early Korean potters in Satsuma. 



277, 9*- ^ Sai (ditto). 
277, 



278, 

279, 
280, 

282, 



2. # H Komman (f.). 
II 'Kio-. 

II*. ^5 M Kimachi (f.). 

15. Koji Ruiyen quotes ^ M ^^ 

{sic) as vShoji (f.). 

10. Delete hyphen before ' ge ' 

(Shoren-in and Shorenge-in). 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



,^ii 



284, last. ' sono ni '. 

288, med. ^ has been entered on 

p. 271. 
290, 6. jWl ^ (not ■^) Shukitsu, Su- 

kitsu or Suki (k. of Oki), 
290, 12*. [S) ^ also Oiyake (f.). 
297, 10*. /J> ^p fj also Oyaidzu (f.). 
299) 5- tJl (eleven strokes), p. 362. 

Ij^ (seventeen strokes), p. 492. 

I n ^. 
^ H Kagami (f.). 

as sen, also ' currency, 
^ senkwa, 'a small coin, 
I T Senka ('Hades'). 
also Shunnichi (f.). 
312, 4. The central stroke of this old 
form should strictly be continuous, 
not broken as shown. The entry 
should therefore be transferred to 
eight strokes (after ^ on p. 284J. 



300, 13. 
300, 17. 

307. 17- 
307, 6*. 

coin' ( I 

cash '). 

311, 13- ^ 



.% 



iI2. 



H*. -t 



Sudo (f.). 

312, 10*. ^ Kio (Kang, f. early 
Korean potters in Satsuma). 

3H> 7*- 
3^5, 18. 
316, 2. 

316, 7*. 
316, 3*. 

be 

318,6. 
318, II. 

318, 13- 
320, II. 



^ ^ Ao (f.). 

^ W Hekohori (f.). 

^ f^ M Nukariya (f.). 

Oya-ichiba. 

The main character should 



325. 



326, 18. 

327, 18. 

328, 9. 
328, 17. 



ft- 

m n m M- 

it H also Serita (f.). 
3@ (eighteen strokes), p. 308. 
^ : see entry for p. 275. 
Ken-shi. 

Compare ;|g (p. 391). 
Yengan-zan. 
See entry for p. 312 (1. 4). 
B$ iE j^sei, in dates, 'exact 



tmie 




328,21. The simple form is correctly 
given on p. 231 (1. 3). 

331, 10*. The main character should 
be "' 

332, 3- iHlfi also Nasshoand Naso asf. 
335, 12. Hario-jima, Harinoki-toge. 
344, 17. Also ^ 1 as Miyazono (f.). 
357, 8. Reference should be to p. 356. 
361, 4. ^ also Jin (Chm, f. early 

Korean potters in Satsuma). 
381, 14. 3!lj ^ Kaidani (t.). 
383, 3*. The main character should 

be 




385, 7*- "M # Vuya also as f. 

391, 8*. For the rare character i^^, 
other dictionaries (including Q ;^ 
:k. ^ m ^ihon Daigiokuhen) give 
as the on sen, which accords better 
with the Chinese sound {hsien). 
The meaning quoted is also not 
borne out by these authorities. 
Perhaps the example given is not 
a surname, but merel}' an art- 
-name, Sensho. 

392, 20. ||£ g Madarame (f.). | i^| 
Ikaruga (f., lit. the Japanese Haw- 
finch, Coccothraustes personatus ; 
compare f |, p. 502) ; I.-no-miya 
^ (pal.); I.-dera^ (tem.). | ^ 
Hannio (no). 

395, 16. 1^: wanyo-reading : KA. 
400, 20. 1^ ^ Hao (f.). 
402, 8. ^ ^ Fuse (f.). 



JHt 



407. After 1. 3 add : ^^ SHO. 140. 

I ^ shobu, ayamegnsa (the Sweet 

' Flag, Acoriis spuriiis), Shobu (t.), 

Ayame[-no-maye ^uJ (princess). 



<5> 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



412, I. The form of the first con- 
traction should be as on p. 379. 

417, 6*. ^ =^ (not /J>) Mashiko (f.). 

426, 10. Iff # HI Shibata (t. ; f.), 
Shioda (f.). 

440, 6*. Sakaikurohiko-oji. 



445' I- 

447, 16. 

448, 3*- 



For 




read 




^ H Shiromi (t.). 

The correct form is ^ (i.e., 
with an extra horizontal stroke in 
the centre of the left-hand portion). 
Another form is seen on p. 112, 96, 
no. 6. Delete the entry relating 
to I [1 and substitute | 0. 
kokutan, same as ^ kichinichi, 
' lucky day '. 

450, 14. 'Pi §^ Saimei (Empress, 37th 
Mikado). 



454, 17. ^ ^ Kudafu (t., same as 

'f 4:, p. 407)- 

455' 4*- ^ is really fifteen strokes, 
the left u{)per element being com- 
posed of ± (3) and ij (4). 

456, 15*. Shogaku-in no betto. 

468, 6. Kageyama (f., not m.). 

468, 19. M W Kemmochi (f.). 

480, 9*. Kamo-no-midzuumi. 

524, note. A contracted form of ran- 
jatai is ranja, written ]^ ^, lit. 
' orchid and musk ', the second 
character being : — sha, ja. kaori- 
-shika (the Musk Deer, Moschus 
moschiferus) ; \ ^ y'afeo (' musk'). 
198. Another contraction is 
ranma ^ ^ (also a name for 
a Buddhist temple, from San- 
skrit.) 



Note. — For the Ainu derivations suggested in various parts of the work the authors are indebted 
to Professor B. H. Chamberlain's The Language, Mythology and Geographical Nomenclature of Japan 
vieived in the light of Aino Studies, being no. i of Memoirs of the Literature College, Imperial 
University of Japan (Tokio, 1887). Professor Chamberlain suspects an Ainu (aboriginal) derivation 
for a number of the place-names of Japan, particularly those whose true and original meaning 
would seem to have been misunderstood by the Japanese who first made use of them. 

Such names would include not only (a) examples the traditional transcription of which in 
Chinese characters is avowedly phonetic (vianyo-gana), as well as (6) those written with characters 
which are ' a mere approximate adumbration of the sounds ', but also (c) those which, while 
appearing at first sight to be of purely Japanese origin, nevertheless prove, in the light of their 
ideographic transcription, to bear meanings of such 'wild and grotesque improbability' as to suggest 
their being unstudied corruptions of more appropriate Ainu names, rather than the independent 
inventions of Japanese pioneers. Professor Chamberlain would even regard as suspect {d) more than 
one name whose Japanese origin might seem to be effectively established by the appropriateness of 
its present meaning and ideographic transcription. 

(a) Examples of the class , first mentioned would include the province-names Idzu (for which 
Ainu etu, 'promontory', is suggested as a cognate), Noto (nottu, same meaning), Iga and Iki [ika, 
iku, 'across', sc, across the mountains or the sea), Shima (shunia, 'rocks'). 

(6) Amongst the second would be the province-names Tsushima (tuima, ' distant '), Idzumo 
{etu-moi, 'cape bay"), and possibly others such as Sagami, Hitachi, Tajima, Inaba, Hoki, Oki, 
Harima, Mimasaka and Sanuki. 

(c) The third class would include such names as Tonami ^ ^ ('hares in a row') or Tannami 
^ i^ ('cinnabar south'), both of which perhaps reflect Ainu to-iiai ('lake stream'); Inao ifg H 
('rice tail'), for inao ('sacred symbols'); Kanehira |^ ^ ('simultaneous Hat'), for kene-pira {' alder - 
-tree cliff ') ; and so forth. 

(d) Among examples in the fourth class it is suggested that even Vamashiro ]\\ ^ ('hill fort') 
may be related to yam-shiri ('chestnut-tree land'). 



INTRODUCTION. 



METHOD OF USING THE WORK. 



THE present work comprises a Dictionary of Cliaracters used in Japanese 
Names, Dates and the like, and a series of preliminary chapters dealing 
with certain general questions germane to the subject. 
In the Dictionary over 3,300 Chinese^ characters (including a small 
number of variant forms) are dealt with in separate entries, and have been 
selected with a single eye to tlie scope of the work, viz., the reading of 
Japanese Proper Names and Dates, and of the simpler and more formal 
Locutions likely to be met with in inscriptions on Japanese art-objects. 
Certain characters, common enough in ordinary language, but not fulfilling 
these conditions, are in consequence omitted, as are also a number of the 
rarer ideographs appearing otherwise than initially in certain of the 
Illustrative Examples (especially those of Chinese names). 

The same applies to a group of infrequent characters used in the names 
of litevaU such as jusha (Confucianists), kangakusha (sinologues), haijin 
(writers of haikai poems) and the like, and read therein with their ordinary 
on or Sinico-Japanese sounds.- Less likely to be met with by the tyro, 
these names can easily be worked out by the expert with the aid of a 
native dictionary such as the excellent little index to Shingioso Daijiteu, a 
modern corpus of the cursive script. 

The Variant Forms, to which allusion has been made, are entered in 
their appropriate places according to the general scheme of arrangement 
described in subsequent paragraphs. They include (i) common calligraphic 

' It is perhaps hardly necessary to point out that these characters are common to China and 
Japan, being used by both nations with (roughly) the same meanings, but with different 
pronunciations, exactly as is the case with the arabic and roman numerals in Western countries. 

^ Much the same, too, may be said for a number of the names borne by Buddhist priests and 
by ladies of the Imperial family. 

I 



2 CHARACTERS. [ixtrodiction. 

(but not cursive) contractions or modifications of the ortliodox forms, and 
(2) characters essentiallx' distinct from, but used interchangeably with, the 
corresponding normals. No room, however, has been found for the rarer 
variants, for those showing but trifling aberrations, or for such as are strictly 
to be classed as cursive {sosho) forms. Omitted also are all those whose 
variant portions have been previously entered as variants of independent and 
simpler characters. 

The main entries of the characters are accompanied by the various 
Readings applied to them in Proper Names, as well as by their chief 
renderings in ordinary language and their English meanings. A select 
number of Examples illustrating their use in names and oft-repeated locutions 
on objects of art are assembled under the initial character of each. 

The following detailed explanation of the arrangement of the Dictionary 
should be carefully ])erused before taking the work into general use. The 
beginner is also recommended to get by heart, if possible, the list of 
Common Characters in Chapter X., and to follow the course of study 
outlined at the head thereof. 



ARRANGEMENT OF THE DICTIONARY. 

(i.) Char.\cters. 

The Characters are arranged primarily in groups according to the number 
of strokes with which they are written (see Chapter I. for rules on this head), 
and secondarily, within these groups, according to the principles of their 
construction, to which end the authors have adopted the new and original 
method of classification now to be described. 

Putting aside a small number of the less complex characters — of tiiose, 
say, written with not more than three strokes— it will be readily observed 
that any given example (as wTitten in the full kaisho or standard form) falls 
under one or other of the following categories : — 

A. — Characters divisible vertically into two or more separate elements, 

e.g., »b, A, ft, m^ Iff. m. BT, m, i^r-, tr, ni wi i^-, etc. 

^ B. — Characters divisible horizontally into tw^o or more separate elements, 

e pr ^^ ^E. ^ &■ J- ^ ?pij }fc *^ f^ti^ 1 
•^•(S-' — .' o' >^, ^> iii.»7 jTi, a4, ic? 'A^j etc. 

C. — Characters having one portion embracing or enclosing the rest, 
e.g., M. M, V\, ^, ig, [fil, M.. fj\, 0, etc. 



' Characters belonging to both groups .\ and ii (divisible 'quarterly," to use an heraldic term) 
are usually placed in the latter group. They are but few in number. 



INTRODUCTION.] CHARACTERS. 3 

D. — Characters forming a solid structuro and not composed of separate 

elements, e.g., :^, ^, #, ^, ^, H^, Ff», etc. 

In practice it has been found convenient and natural to amalgamate 

D with B, and we thus have, within each group of characters written with 

the same number of strokes, three distinctive categories, A, B-D, and C, the 

further classification of which is equally simple, as follows: — 

Characters in Categor\ A are arranged according to the number of 
strokes in the left-hand element (that on the extreme left, if there be more 
than one^j. 

Characters in Category B-D are arranged according to their upper 
parts, in the following order : — 

Upper part not divisible vertically: — -' ' '^'^ \ 

(a) Topmost stroke horizontal, as in Iff, g, :g:. ^< P9, ^, "W^ fi> M. 

M, M., ^, ^^ etc. 

(b) Topmost stroke oblique, as in ^, ^, ^, 5£. M.^ #■ 4*. ^> ^' 
etc. 

(f) Toimiost stroke a mere tick on a horizontal, as in jfc, ]^, ^, 

W, ^, etc. 
(d) Topmost stroke a vertical (or oblique) cutting a horizontal, as 

in ^, ^., -M, ^, m, ^, W, ^^ iif. 4^5^, etc 

{e) Topmost stroke a vertical for oblique) flanked by one or more 
ticks or short strokes ; examples include characters such as 
i', a, ^, jfc, 3^, ^, S, ^, etc., leadmg through ^, ^-, and 
the like, to the important group (rad. 140) :fE, ^, !§, and so 
forth. 
Upper part divisible vertically : —  

(a) Doublets (or triplets'), as m ^, ^, ^, H, ^, M, M. etc. 
(6) Dissimilars, as in ^, ^, ^., ^, ^, ^, S, ^, etc. 
Characters in Category C are arranged according to the extent and 
position of the enclosing element, thus : — 

Top and left : /f , ^^ ^, fj, ^, 2fe, etc. 
Top and right : t^, pI. ^. ^, j\l ^, etc. 
Left and bottom : M, jS^ 5^^ ^. etc. 
Left, top and right : \]l], M., }$L, |!j1, etc. 
Left, top and bottom : ^.,1^, etc. 
Left, bottom and right : ^, jij, etc. 
All four sides : @, ^, etc. 



' An exception is made in the case of radical 6i, as in f^, wliere the three strokes at the left 



are regarded as a single three-stroke element. 



4 KAKIHAN. [introduction. 

It will be seen, therefore, tliat the characters follow a logical and easily 
remembered order, and a little practice soon renders the discovery of any 
particular example a matter of the utmost ease and rapidity.' 

The t*ro is hereby warned agamst mistaking for ordinary characters the 
devices (paraphes. tlie French would call them) often placed after a signature 
and known as ;J^ ^lj> kakihan (or kwau), literally 'written (as opposed to 
impressed) seals/ The following are typical examples : — 

M ^ ^ ^ S) ^ 








s^ 




With a little experience, it is not difficult to recognize their true nature 
at a glance, as they commonly display characteristic construction-lines and 
bold curves not paralleled in any of the ideographs, however written. 

(2.) Readings and Examples. 

The paragraph immediately following each main-entry character is 
marked off by full-stops and semicolons respectively into the following 
categories and sub-categories, which appear uniformly in the order given 
(although one or more may of necessity be absent, wholly or in part) : — 

(a). Within square brackets :■ — a reference to variant forms of the 

character (see Chapter I.), 
(b). In large roman capitals : — the on or Sinico-japanese readings (see § i 
below); in large italic capitals: — the manyo pronunciations (see §2) ; 
in lower-case roman type : — the kitn or pure-Japanese readings 
commonly used for geographical names and surnames (§3); in 
lower-case italics (but see Note) :— those peculiar to the uanori class 
of name (ibid., and Chapter V., § 2) ; in mixed type : — abnormal 
readings (on or kun) for the zokumid class (Chapter V., § i). 

' Failure to find a character in the expected place is often due to a miscount of the number 
of strokes ; in such a case a reference to the stroke-groups next before or after should be crowned 
with success. 



INTRODUCTION.] READINGS AND EXAMPLES. 5 

Note. — [The less frequent nauori -readings are enclosed in parentheses ; those 
for 'one-character' nanovi begin with a capital initial. The refer- 
ences ' zok., Oto-', ' zok., -saku ', indicate respectively the readings Oto 
at the beginning and saku at the end of zokiimin?^ 

(c). In lotver-case italics, accompanied by English translations or 
definitions : — the chief pure-Japanese readings used in ordinary 
phraseology. 

[Hyphenation in categories (/)) and (c) indicates whether a reading is 
initial or final, the absence of a hyphen implying that it mav he 
either. The strict distinction between .ordinary and long hyphens 
(see List of Abbreviations immediately preceding the Dictionary) is 
not operative until the Illustrative ]'.xam[)les are dealt with.] 
(d), (e), etc. Miscellaneous information, such as special meanings for 
the on readings, references to other characters of confusingly 
similar appearance, and so forth. 
(}'). A reference by number to the Radical (see list in Chapter IX.) 
under which the character is grouped b}" the Chinese.^ (An 
italic number indicates that the character is itself the radical.) 
(z). Illustrative Examples, if of small bulk. (Larger groups commence 
a new paragraph and are set out and punctuated as explained in 
§ 5 below.) 

The foregoing remarks are enlarged upon in the following sections 
(§ I to 5), which are addressed in the main to the novice. 

^ I. On (Kan-on, Go-on, To-in). 

The on ^ (literally 'sounds', as opposed to kiin p| or yomi ^, 
'meanings', i.e., the vernacular equivalents) are the Japanese versions of the 
ancient Chinese pronunciations. Thus, siins^'- in the modern Peking dialect 
(anciently song) may becon.e in Japanese slid (/j^) or so (5fc) : s/n7; (anciently 
shek, zhak, zliit, etc.) becomes seki (^), shiki (5^!, shaku (^), jitsu (^). and 
so forth. 

Every character borrowed directly from China has, nominally, two on, 
known respectively as the Kan-on'''^ and the Go-on'^ and here quoted in that 
order (in roman capitals). Frequently the two on are identical — at any rate 



' On a system wliicli classifies t}ie characters according to a series of 214 elements ('radicals'), 
one of which is to be detected— often with considerable dithciilty— in every example. Tiie 
arrangement here adopted is largely a development of the radical system on logically simplihed 
lines and succeeds in avoiding the diihculties referred to. 

- l''rom Kan (Chinese Ilaii ^). a pf)pular appellation for Northern China. 

' from Go {W'li ^), meaning rouglily South-eastern China. 



6 ON PRONUNCIATIONS. [introduction. 

as far as their roman transliteration is concerned' — and in that case the 
form is quoted once only. 

On the other hand, different shades of meaning may carry with them 
alternative on (or pairs of on), and these, if of any importance, are duly 
cited. As a rule, a close phonetic resemblance runs through the normal and 
the alternative on, apparent exxeptions occurring where a character is being 
used instead of another bearing the divergent reading. 

The entry ' (No on) ' indicates tliat the cliaracter is a waji fn ^, 
'Japanese character', i.e., one manufactured in Japan to fulfil local needs, 
and not, therefore, possessing a sound derived from Chinese. The ivaji are 
all formed on the same lines as those for which the Chinese themselves 
are responsible. 

The Goon were introduced at an earlier date than the Kanou, and where 
the two are not identical the former survive- — at any rate as far as the 
ground covered by this work is concerned — chiefly in Buddhistic names and 
expressions, in old official titles, and in local and family names of early 
origin. The kanon are more closely bound up with Confucianism and the 
modern spirit, and their greater literary flavour is the cause of their being 
generally preferred for azana and go (types of noms dc guerre) and for the 
transliteration of Chinese local and personal names, other than Buddhistic. 

Here and tliere a character is provided with yet a tliird type of on, the 
To-on or To-in }^ ^, named after the T'ang (To) Dynasty of China, 
although these pronunciations were only brought to Japan in the 17th 
century, by Buddhist priests of the Obaku sect. They occur mainly in a few 
Chinese place-names and in the names of the dynasties Ming (Japanese Min, 
not Mei) and Ch'ing (Shin, not always Sei). 



S ^_ 



y 



Manyo Readings. 



The manyo or purely phonetic readings of the characters are indicated 
by italic capitals. 

For some centuries after tlieir first serious adoption in Japan, the 
Chinese ideographs were used exclusively for compositions in the Chinese 
language — if we except the phonetic transcription of native proper names, a 
usage not unknown to the Chinese themselves. Later, when the first 
faltering attempts were made to write tlie vernacular by the same means, 
the lack of signs to represent the grammatical inflections and particles 
peculiar to Japanese led to the employment of certain ideograi)hs for this 



' They may still be differently written in tlie phonetic kana script (see Chapter II.). 



INTRODUCTION.] MANYO READINGS. 7 

purpose in a i)urely phonetic manner. But it was not until about tlie 
8tli century a.d. that the final analysis of the language into 72 distinct 
syllables was made (see Chapter II.) and a varying number of characters 
[manyb-gana] fixed upon to represent each of these sounds. 

The name Manyo-gana} is taken from Manyo-shu ^ H ^ ('(jarner of 
a Myriad Leaves'), the title of a famous anthology compiled early in the 
9th century a.d. In this work the earlier poems are written in a jumble of 
ideographs and ill-organized jihonetics, making the interpretation of both 
sound and sense a task of the greatest difficulty. The later pieces, however, 
are rendered entirely in manyo phonetic characters, so that the sound (if not 
the sense) is never in doubt^an all-important consideration in the writing 
of poetry ! 

Alanyo readings are usually derived from, if not identical with, the Goon 
pronunciations, but a number of them follow the kun or ]")ure-Japanese 
renderings and are specifically known as Yamato-ganci ^[] ^ ig ('Japanese 
kaua '}. 

The use of manyo-gana as such survives to-day chiefly (i) in Buddhistic 
names and expressions derived from Sanskrit through Chinese, such as 
Amida \^ ^ Pt: ; U) in native place-names of early origin, as Fuji, the 
name of this famous peak being undoubtedly aboriginal (pre-Japanese) 
although it is alternatively written ^ -j^ ('prosperous scholar'), ;f> ZL 
('peerless') or PfC ^ ('deathless'); and (3) in a number of foreign place- 
names which have been honoured by transcription into Chinese characters, 
such as Italy, Itavi ^ ■;X<, ^'Jj Canada, Kanada ^^ ^"^ Pt, and the like. 

The comiection between the manyo-gana and the written syllabaries 
known as hiragana and katakana is referred to in Chapter II. 

§ 3. Vernacular Readings (kun) for Proper Namc>^. 
Ordinary roman t\i)e is used for those readings found in geographical 
and family names (surnames), italic type distinguishing those ociairring in 
nanori (see Chajjter V., § 2). Of the latter, those beginning with a t-apital 
are complete one-character nanori, while those placed within parentheses are 
of less frequenc}- (either generally or for the character under notice).* 



' For the meaning of gaita (kana), see Chapter II. 

■-' An extensive (and, it would seem, largely fanciful) selertion of jicninri-readings is given in 
Kuvkoku Nanni'i Daizen by Hagiwara Otohiko (Tokio, 1875), an enlargement of a similar work, 
Nanori Jibiki by Takai Ranzan (Osaka, 1839). This little manual quotes more than twice as many 
characters as have been deemed worthy of inclusion in the present work, each with its one or more 
Hanori-readings. The authors have resisted tlie temptation of drawing on this reserve, contenting 
themselves with quoting only such characters and readings as are recorded in the general or 
tec-hnical biographical lists. 



8 VERNACULAR READINGS. [introduction. 

Where Sinico-Japanese or viauyo readings are equally applicable to 
names, these will have already been accounted for. At the same time, an 
abnormal pure-Japanese reading (or one confined to but two or three 
examples) is usually omitted here for brevity's sake — it is in most cases 
easily suggested by one of the ordinary-language readings tliat follow. 

It may be stated as a general rule that two (or more) characters 
combining to form a word or name are read either both in the mi or both 
in the kiiu. Withi nauovi there are practically no exceptions to this rule, 
with azana and go very few, but the zokumid (Chapter V., § i) follows its 
own peculiar rules, and abnormal readings for this type of name are quoted 
where necessary. Geographical names and surnames are on the whole fairly 
regular, exceptional cases arising for the most part from obvious and 
inevitable causes. 

§4. Vernacular Readings (kun) in Ordinary Language and English Meanings. 

Most Japanese names ' mean something ', in common with those of other 
languages, and a knowledge of the meaning cannot but help to lighten the 
otherwise dull task of deciphering a name. For this reason alone the work 
would be incomplete without the matter herein comprised, but neither the 
readings quoted nor their suggested ' Englishings ' are to be looked upon as 
exhaustive or in any sense competing with a regular dictionary. An 
attempt is made, however, to indicate, wherever possible, the derivation of 
any readings used for proper names, whether previously quoted or suggested 
bv the illustrative examples which follow. 

In certain cases, of course, the purely phonetic nature ad hoc of a 
character^ employed in writing a name renders it useless to seek for the 
meaning in the character itself. The same warning is necessary in order to 
understand the true connotation of the pure-Japanese nanori, a matter fully 
dealt with in ^ 2 of Chapter Y. 

^ 3. Illustrative Examples. 

These are quoted under the initial character^ of each, except in the 
case of the numerous examples beginning with ^ (generally 0-, 'great') and 
/J> (generally Ko- or 0-, 'little"), which are dealt with under the second 
character, a course dictated not merelv bv convenience, but also bv the 
rationale of their construction. 

* Not necessarily ahva\s in tlie capacity of a manyogaiia (see § 2 above). 
'■^ Which is uniformly replaced, after its main entry, by the sign ) . 



INTRODUCTION.] ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES. 9 

Extensive groups of Examples are arranged in the following order, each 
being provided with a short explanation or reference (see List of Abbrevia- 
tions preceding the Dictionary) : — 

Topographical Names, including those of buildings, natural features, 
and tlie like. 

Clan and Family Names (Surnames). 

Individual Names of special interest or dilliculty. 

Titles and Official Designations. 

Nengo and other Chronological References. 

Names of Mythical Creatures. 

Names of famous Books, Plays, Legends and Art-sul^jects. 

Locutions and Idiomatic Expressions occurring in signatures, dates, 
book-colophons, titles of colour-prints, etc. 
(Those belonging to more than one of the above classes are not usually 
repeated after the first entry. Consequently, an example not found in its 
expected place should be looked for in the [)receding class or classes.) 

The Examples in each class, if more than two or three in number, are 
as a rule marked off by descriptive headings in capital type, which headings 
are operative only as far as the first succeeding fuU-stoj). Where, as so 
frequently happens, the reading of the initial character is the same through- 
out a number of examples in the same class, much space has been saved In' 
quoting both character and reading (the latter in heavV type) with the fin^i 
example only and leaving them to be supplied in the succeeding entries 
(which are arranged according to the number of strokes in the second 
character^). One or two analogous methods of contraction arc here and 
there employed, for which see List of Abbreviations. 

As regards the choice of examples, the 9th century a.d. has, but for a 
few outstanding instances, been taken as a starting-point, so that the great 
majority of the local and personal names and titles that fill the pages of the 
Nihongi, the Kojiki, and other early works, will be looked for here in vain. 
Fortunately, when quoted in Japanese books, they are usually accompanied 
by their phonetic readings in kana, and, with the few exceptions alluded to, 
they are not likely to be found on works of art. A certain number of them 
appear in the list of Emperors in Chapter IV. 

Subject to this restriction, completeness has been aimed at, with respect 
to Geographical Names, in the case of the provinces"', their districts and 



' Or the third, wliere the second is merely epentlietic /> ivi or -V ga. 
' A classified list of tliese is given in Chapter VII., 104. 



lo ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES. Lintrouiction. 

administrative divisions {kdri)\ tlie great cities and tlieir chief features-, the 
province-capitals and dainiids' castle-towns, i)otter\ -fabriques (esjjecially those 
appearing in marks) and lhe headquarters of craftsmen generally, battle- 
fields, and, indeed, all i)laces famed in history, art or song. A certain 
discretion has been exercised in the introduction of local names not fulfdling 
these conditions, the chief considerations being comparative diHiculty of 
reading and identity with a surname worth quoting'^ Non-Japanese 
examples, including Ainu names and tliosc of the Hokkaido gen(Mally, are 
with few exceptions omitted. 

Family Names (Suruames) are quoted on an analogous ])rinciple. Those 
of the aristocracy (kuge, daimid, samurai) and, generally, of the chief person- 
ages of history, literature and legend, receive special attention, as do also 



* E.xcluding those of Hokkaido (Ye/.o) and the I.iuhii Islands. Some 70 new kdi-i -names fust 
given in 1874 ^^^ indicated as modern ('mod.'). Others, dating from the same year but consisting 
merely of an older name with a prefix such as j^f Higashi (' l'~ast ') or f^ Nislii ('West'), are 
omitted. In all cases the termination ^ -guri is to be supplied. 

- A word of explanation is necessary witli regard to the examples quoted as 'street of Vedo.' 
Strictly speaking, these names are not, as with us, applied to a thoroughfare and to the buildings 
lining it on both sidef. They belong, indeed, in each case to a block (or grouj) of blocks) of 
houses, so that in many streets a different ' street ' name is applied to either side. Each block 
(BJ, generally read cliij in Yedo-'lokio and mcichi elsewhere), if cut up into sections {"f, also read 
cho) by smaller thoroughfares, gives its name to these sections with the addition oi a numerical 
distinguishing name. t\g., — "J* B itchume, ' first section." The individual houses are further 
numbered as — ^ ;^ ichibauchi, 'No. i,' etc. (tanciful names for ordinary tlwelliiig-houses are 
almost non-existent.) 

Most street-names, in "^'edo and elsewhere, have as their basis a geographical or, less commonly, 
a family or individual name. This is provided with a suffix such as mj"-f/;i'> or -luaihi, less 
frequently /]■» JJ -koji, ^ -^ -xhui-michi, ^ ^ -gashi, jg, -luri {-dtii-i), i^ -bovi, and the like ; and 
often with a jirehx such as jji Higashi- ('I-^ast'), j^ Mliiawi- ('South"), gg Nishi- ('West"), 
:|b Kila- (' Xorth "), ^ i'chi- ('Inner"), ^ Soto- ('Outer'), ^ Oinote- ('Fore"), ^ Ura- ('Hear"), 
J:. L'ye- ('Upper"), f Shimo- ('Lower"), t\i Xaka- ('Mid'), X ^'^- (' (">i'eat '). /J* A'o- ('Little'). 
i^ Hon- or 7C -Voio- ('Old'), ^ Shin- (' Xew "), ^ Tori- ('Thoroughfare"), )Y Kala- ('Side"), 
;|i| Yoko- ('Cross"), g Tate- (' N'ertical"), |6j MnkU- ('Facing'), ^ Fukmo- (' Blind-alley "), ^ Suye- 
(' Further "), Jj; -^ Dote- (' Embankment '). 

Sometimes tiie BJ has an immediate prefix such as _t -nye {-inaciti), f -shimo {-iiiachi}, 
t|) -naliu (-«o-c/iO), jjc -hon {- chu), ^ -shin (-cho),^ -saka { machi), )\- -kata {-vuiclii), i^ -voko {-cho). 
Others are formed from Huddhist temple-names with the sufiix ^ij -ma\e or -mai, or p^ b5 -"'0"2f". 

In the interest of brevity, 'street' names based as above described on local or personal names 
already accounted for, are omitted from tlie I'Lxamples. 

' Certain names of islands, mountains, cajjes, and rivers, which, a}5art from the defining 
termination, are identical \\ith examples qutjtcd in other connections, are referred to under these 
latter only, by means of the usual references (is., m., cape, r.). With islands, the termination % 
is to be supplied, its reading as either -shima, -jiina or -no-shima being quoted with the reference. 
Similarly with mountains: -ycnua, -scin or -zan iinijlying ^Ij, -dake or -gii-dakc ^-, and -saki or 
-zaki tt^. In the case of rivers ()][), the reading is quoted oiil\ where it is -hmvci instead of the 
more usual -gaiva. 

A few analogous cases (shores, bays, lagoons, temples, and so forth) are similarly treated, but 
with these both the terminal character and its reading are quoted. 



INTRODUCTION.! ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLP:S. ii 

those of artists and craftsmen, actors and other professional men (moderns 
excepted), these being specifically quoted as sucli (see List of Abbreviations). 
It is not, of course, to be assumed that such references exclude the possibility 
of a name having been borne by others not following the professions in 
question. 

Other surnames introduced include, besides abnormal or comparatively 
difficult readings, a sufficient proportion of easily read exam])les to show tlie 
relative frequency of a given character as an initial. To indicate still 
further possibilities without wasting space over obvious combinations, cross- 
references to other characters having identical sounds as name-initials are 
inserted at the head of the Examples. Furthermore, as a cursory perusal of 
the work will demonstrate, many of the instances quoted merely as 
geographical names are quite capable of being used also for those of 
families — a statement of which the converse to a certain extent cdso holds 
good. 

Except in a few specific cases, the surnames are quoted with their 
ordinary conventional jjronunciations, despite the undoubted fact that other, 
unconventional, readings are always possible in individual cases, even if 
highly improbable. But a work such as this can hardl\' do more than 
indicate what would be recognized throughout Jajjan as the ordinary 
reading in any given instance. 

Individual Names are quoted on a somewhat different principle. Ordin- 
arily none but anomalous instances are admitted of this class of ap]jellation, 
whose construction is explained at length in Chapter \'. and whose pro- 
nunciation in normal examples can be deduced from the readings quoted 
with each character in the Dictionary. At the same time, it has been 
thought useful to include the posthumous names of the Emperors, as well as 
the speciaP names of various Japanese prominent in history, hagiology and 
legend. A select number of the nan:ies of divine beings and of the Sennin 
and other Chinese personages depicted (and often named) in the graphic and 
glyptic arts of Japan also find mention, together with their Chinese readings 
according to the now generally accepted orthographic system of Sir Tliomas 
Wade~. 



* I.e., those usually quoted independently or of a surname or clan-name. 

- In transliterating these names into Japanese, the prevailing (if somewhat illogical) custom is 
here followed of making one continuous undivided reading in each case, even where two separate 
names are inv(jlved. I hus, Chinese Tiing-faiig So, l.ii Tiiiig-piti, Tiug Lmi, become in Japanese 
Tobosaku, Riotuhin, Teiroti. There is much to be said, however, in favour of writing Tobu (perhaps 
not Tu-bd) Sakii, Rio Tohin, Jci Ran, and so fortli. 



i-j ORTHOGRAPHY. [introduction. 

It should he noted that a specific reference in the case of an individual 
name indicates, as a rule, only the most prominent or exalted personage 
recorded as bearing the name in question. Where the reference is merely 
'(n.)", it is implied that the name is one usually quoted in connection with 
a surname or clan -name. 

Official Titles connected with the Imperial Government are dealt with 
largely by reference to Chapter W, § 3, where this subject is somewhat fully 
treated. Of other titles, oidv the more important have been usually deemed 
worthy of citation. 

Examples in the remaining classes (see page 9) might, of course, have 
been multiplied indefinitely. In some directions, indeed, exhaustive treat- 
ment has proved feasible, in others a careful selection has i)erforce been 
exercised, but always with an e\e to the needs of the collector. 

The nomenclature of art-objects and art-processes is passed over as 
having no place in a work of this nature. Similarly omitted are all lengthy 
explanations which belong more properly to historical or topographical 
works such as the excellent manuals of B. H. Chamberlain (Thiu^i^s Japanese, 
and other handbooks), E. Papinot {Historical and Geo^^n'aphical Dictionary of 
Japan), W. ¥. Mayers (Chinese Readers Manual), H. Giles (Chinese Bio- 
graphical Dictionary), and particularly the indispensable Legend in Japanese 
Art of H. L. Joly. 

(3.) Orthography. 

Great care has been taken to maintain a uniform transliteration of 
Japanese words and names, a matter sadly neglected even in didactic works, 
w^here exactitude and consistency should be a prime consideration. The 
distinction between long and short and u is a common stumbling-block, 
although, trivial as it may appear, there is as much difference between the 
names Quo and Ono^ as between our Gretton and Lytielton. Lack of care in 
this and kindred instances is no less heinous than the wrong accentuation of 
Greek or Erench or the making of a 'false quantity' in Latin. 

The more debatable features of the orthography adhered to in the work 
are as follows : — 

(i) Bio, gio, hio, kio, mio, nin, pio, rio, are [)referred to byo, gyo, etc., 
and similarly with hid, gio, hiu, giu, etc. 



' In kaiia (tlie native phonetic script) these two names are written respectively ho-no 
and Wo- no. 



INTRODUCTION.] HYPHENATION. 13 

(2) Careful distinction is made between kwa and gwa, gwa and ga, 
(altliough ko for kivo is allowable) ; also between z (a voiced .s) 
and dz (a voiced ts). These distinctions are widely disregarded 
in s])eech (except in Kioto and Western Japan generally), but are 
properly retained in writing the phonetic kana, as, in the authors' 
opinion, they should be in a roman transliteration. 

(3) Ye, yei, are preferred to e, ei, at the beginning of a syllable, the 
only exceptions admitted being the province-names Echizen, 
Echigo, Etchu, Esshu. 

Such antiquated spellings as 6 for 6, biyo or hiyau for bio (etc,), chiit for 
chu, jiii for jn or ju, e for final e\ are still rife even in the most recent 
works, but it may be hoped that the publication of these lines will show 
the propriety of dropping them. 

(4.) Hyphenation. 

The following principles governing the hyphenation of composite names 
(and titles) have been followed as far as practicable throughout the work. 
They do not, it must be confessed, cover the whole ground, but they at 
least clear tlie air to a great extent, and are strongly recommended for 
general adoption. 

(i) Where the final element of a composite name is merely a topo- 
graphical suffix or title, defining the locality or person alluded 
to, it is written with a small initial and hyphenated with tlie 
preceding element-. Thus: Musashi-no-kuni ('Musashi province'), 
, Fuji-san ('Mount Fuji'), 0-yama ('Big Mountain'), Naka-gaua 
(' Naka ,River'), Mii-deva (' Mii Temple'). Similarly: Tajikarao- 
-no-kami ('the Divinity Tajikarao '), Jimmu-tennd ('the Emperor 
Jimmu '), Mochihito-o ('Prince Mochihito'), Kawara-no-sadaiji)i 
(' the Kawara Minister-of-the-Left '), Kobo-daishi (' the Great Teacher 
Kobo '), Masa-ko ('Mistress Masa"), and so forth. 

As a corollary, mere titles such as Giobu-kio (President of the 
Giobu or Ministry of Justice). Kotsiike-no-suke (Vice-Governor of 
Kotsuke Province), Hioye-no-jo (Third Official of the Household 
Guards Bureau), follow the same rule (but see next). 

^ The reader misguided enough to pronounce Japanese sake, Tone, hide, as if they were Lnglish 
words' is not really worth catering for. 

^ It is perhaps inadvisable to carry this rule to its logical extreme in such succinct and 
familiar instances as Choshi'i (' Nagato Province'), Kofu ('Yedo City' or 'Capital of Koshu '), 
Tokaido (' Eastern Sea Road or Circuit "), and so on. 



14 PROXUXCIATIOX. [introduction-. 

(2) Names identical with, or formed on the same lines as, those above 
alluded to, but not describing the localities or persons defined by 
the final element, are written in one word without hyphens. 
Thus : O-yama as a mountain-name, but Oyama as a town or 
familv name; similarly Aikaiva. Akasaka, Arahmyta (townsj, 
hhinomiya, Xakaga-wa. Furiisawa (surnames) — the Dictionary will 
furnish a host of other instances. 

The same rule is followed in the case of zokumio (Chapter \'.. 
§ i) resembling, or even actually reproducing, titles as described 
above.^ Thus : Yuranosuke, Gennojo, Giobiikio, Kotsukenosuke. 

(3) Appellations like Minatnoto no Yoshitsune ('Yoshitsune of the 
Minamoto [clan]'), Tokugawa lyeyasu ('lyeyasu [of the] Tokugawa 
[family]*), and the like, are properly so written, the names 
Yoshitsune and lyeyasu having an independent significance as 
applied to the personages bearing them. 

In the titles of Numerical Categories (Chapter VII.I the authors have 
purposelv erred on the side of over-hyphenation, in order to indicate the 
structure of the more prolix compounds. 



f'j.) Pronunciation. 

A word as to the proper pronunciation of Japanese.- Briefly put, the 
consonants should be given as in English,^ the vowels as in Italian ;* the 
voice should maintain an even tone, no special emphasis being laid on any* 
but long syllables (generally or u). Thus, in the name Akasaka each a 
has exactly the same fun-English) sound and stress ; its pronunciation a.> 
Acker-sdhker is quite wrong. 

These simple rules, if carefully followed, should result in a fairly good 
enunciation of Japanese, but the following refinements^ deser\e attention : — 
(ij shi is actually half-way between shi and si ; similarly fu is 
between ju and hu. 



' In such cases the question of h\-phenation obviously depends on whether the given instance 
is a real title or a mere name (sokumioj. 

* I.e. as transliterated into roman, 

^ I.e., with their true or normal sounds, so that s is a true s, not the z of ' roses ' ; and so forth. 

* Thus eliminating the vowel-sounds heard in (Southern) English man, call, sir, fun, boat 
Choh-oot'), French du, eux, le, fin, German SUd, 01. 

^ In all the examples which follow, the Italian sound of the vowels is intended, unless the 
contrary is specified. 



INTRODUCTION-.] NON-JAPANESE VOCABLES. 15 

(2) .i,-" initial is always hard, but between two vowels (especialh- in 
the Tokio dialect) it tends to become ng (as in our ' singer,' not 
as in ' finger '). 

(3) n hnal resembles our ng (not the sound heard in PVench ' son,' 
' ton '). This rule is extended to compound words where a vowel 
follows the 11, as in Kan-on. 

(^) iig = n final -{- g initial, i.e:, as in our ' finger ' ; nk as in 
' sinker.' 

(5) II final, even in the first element of a compound word, is 
somewhat clipped ; in tsti, dzii, su, zu, it is virtually silent, as is 
also i in certain cases {hito, shita, etc.) Um initial has the sound 
of mm ; e.g. tima, time, Umetada. 

(6) Full value should be given to doubled consonants, as in Tenuo, 
Hotta, Homma, Busshi, and the like.^ 

It will be useful to remember that no complete Japanese word can end 
with any consonant except n (an original mn). Moreover, the following 
letters and vocables, natural enough in English and other Western languages, 
are avoided in modern Japanese (although one or two of them may appear 
in slang words or local dialects) : — c (except as in ch), che, di, du, fa, fe, fi, 
hit, ;e,- /, q, she,- si, ti, th, tsa, tse, tsi, tso, tu, i\ we, wi, wu, x, yi, zi. Also 
all combined consonants except: ch, dz, gw, kw, ntb, mm, mp, nch, nd, ng, 
nj, nk, nn, nv, ns, nsh, nt, nts, nw (usually becoming nn), nz, pp, sh, ss, ssh, 
tch, ts, tt, tts. 

An examination of tlie foregoing list will determme whether a given 
word can by any possibility be a correctly spelled Japanese example. 



-'b/O^ Used in certain parts of Southern Japan, for zc and sc respectively. 
■^ ^ See also p. 20, note 3. 



JAPANESE NAMES 



AND HOW TO READ THEM, 



CHAPTER I. 



HOW TO COUNT THE STROKES OF A CHARACTER. 

In counting strokes one may, as a general rule, follow the light of 
nature, always remembering that a mere tick at the end of a stroke (caused 
by — or representing — the flick -up of the brush in leaving the paper) is 
disregarded ; an actual dot, however, separately formed, is separately counted. 
The following characters or parts of characters, which might reasonably be 
supposed to count as at least two, are nevertheless regarded as containing 
but one stroke each. 

Single Strokes. 
[The figures in brackets indicate the number of strokes in the examples 
quoted.] 

A, as in A (2j, A (2), 
P9 (4.)- 



~), as in P (3), B (4), 

S (5), Sl (5), M (7)- 
-7, as in iJ (2), ^ (4), 

v\ (5) ; but or is)- 

~l, as in 5E (4), # 4. 
-:;, as in ^ (3). 

7, as in ^ (3), 7X (4) ; 

hut JC (4). 
/, as in ^ (3). 
-y, as in 7 (2), 7 (3), 

^ (4)- 
~^, as in ^ (6). 



a, as jn ii (3), ^ (4). 

2<, as m jl (2), ^ (3). 

U, as m ilj (3), \i\ (5), 

C (3). 

\, as in X (a), X (2)- 

'j,as m -^ (5), ^ (3). 

~^j, as in J^ (2) ; bwt 

]L (3)- 

J^ , as in J:fc (4), ]ifc (5), 

^ (7), a (^>), R (4) ; 



but Jt^ (5) ; while the 
radicals X, i- ■, J* 
i , i£, .ii, i, ^ount 
their full numbers (3, 
3, 4, 7, 7, 6, 8, re- 
spectively). 

X, as m :^ (3), :^ (5); 
but ;£ (5) ; also the 
radical it (5)- 

<. , < , as m «< (3), i; (3), 

^> (6). 
/,, as in ^ (3). 

2 



i8 



COUNTIXG STROKES. 



[chap. I. 



As familiarity with the c-haracters increases, it will be observed that 
even the most complex examples are constructed from a series of elements 
of which the forms are sufliriently well defined, and the total number 
sufiiciently limited, to bring them easily within the grasp of ordinary human 
memory. \\'ith the aid of the foregoing table there should be no (Ulliculty 
in counting the strokes of the great majority of these elements. But in a 
few cases, cited below, the number of strokes may not, for one reason or 
another, be on all occasions clear, and the reader is advised to study the 
followinir table before beo-inning the search for characters in the Dictionary: — 



H ^ 


[5 3 


HH 4 


U (> 


#. ^' 


") 2 


iL 3 


n 3 


iitn / 


" i: 4 


^ ^ 


1- 4 


-& 3 


m ^ 


fli 3 


tL 2 


"f 4 


|H: 5 




Jj 4 


Jl'2 


# 4 


t' 5 


B (^ 


5& 8 


P ^ 


# 5 


(as represent- 


B 7 


^- 4 


B 2 


+ 3 


ing ^) 


^ 7 


^ 4 


E 3 


^ 3 


^ 5 


1\{ 3 


^ 4 



VARIANT FORMS. 

The task of identifying the characters is complicated, fortunately to no 
very great extent in mscriptions of the type for which this work caters, by 
the occasional use of variant forms, which may be either mere calligraphic 
modifications or else distinct but synonymous characters. These variants are 
not infrequently found to contain considerably more strokes than the standard 
versions, although the natural tendency is to employ a contraction or a less 
complex synonym. 

Of the characters dealt with in this work, the well-established non- 
cursive variants are separately quoted in their appropriate places in the 
Dictionary according to the general scheme of arrangement, with cross- 
references under the standard forms. A considerable degree of selection has 
been exercised as regards mere script variations of the selfsame character, 
which may range between, on the one hand, modifications insufficient to 
affect either the number of strokes in the character or even its position in 
the Dictionary, and, on the other, the extreme of cursive contraction." 



' .As an element only ; three strokes as an independent character. 

'^ .Although it is true that some completely distinct characters difTer from one another only by 
a. small stroke or tick, yet, on the whole, those points of difference which do not constitute distinct 
characters are as soon picked up by the average student as are tlie variations in cnir own printing- 
types or MS by tlie intelligent schoolboy. 



CHAP. I.] 



VARIANT FORMS. 



iQ 



The treatment of strictly cursive forms has been omitted from the scope 
of the \vork\ as likely to lead too far afield. An attempt, however, is 
made below to summarize the more important of such minor modifications 
(non-cursive) as are not dealt with seriatim in the Dictionary. Further 
economy of space has been secured, in the case of the more complex 
examples, by omitting a number of common variants the aberrant portions 
of whicli are entered elsewhere as variants of independent normal forms. 

Minor Script Variations. 

(a) In characters such as "g (and its compounds fg, fj-j", etc.), ^, ||, ^, 
the two uppermost horizontal strokes (zL) may become a mere dot on 
a stroke (~^), and vice versa. 

(b) In characters such as .B|, ,1^, ^, 'Ji], fjrt, the four dots may become 
a horizontal line. 

(c) A in composition sometimes becomes P (and vice versa) ; it may 
also replace the upper part of ^ (so in tlie compounds ^, ^, etc.). 

(d) Certain left (or right) hand elements of characters are commonly 
transformed or contracted in script as follows: — 



75 becomes ^ 
P or \: „ 1^ 



becomes /^ 



^ 



n 



or 1 



j\ becomes 'X 

% „ ti or a 

(e) The little tick or short line beginning the right-oblique stroke in 
such characters (or elements) as %, %, JL, 3^, ^ ^ Jc^ A, A, y^, 
is a mere printer's fancy and is not reproduced in script. The loss 
of one or both dots in the elements y' ^^^^^ ?— presents a greater 
lapse from strict accuracy. 

(/) In a number of characters or parts of characters the upper or lower 
parts may change as follows : — 

\^ to *" or f- as in M.. 

^' „ ■# » ^^ '^^ I^- 



T or j^ to 7 as in :^, Jx- 
-' ?? ») Si." 

A^ -xt. /S2k. 



.3. 

I: 






nn 



l=ci 



t3 

no 5 



' Except ill so far tis the synoptical table of kana on pages 29 to 32 may serve to give an 
insight into the principles of cursive contraction. 



CHAPTER 11. 

THE A'^iV^. 
Analysis of Japanese Sounds. — For the purpose of spelling out their 
language phonetically the Japanese at an early date classified its sounds into 
the following forty-seven syllables : 

The GojOon-dzu'^. 

a, 7, 11, e, o; ka, ki, kii, ke, ko ; sa, shi, su, se, so; 

ta, chi, tsu, te, to; na, ni, nu, ne, no; ha. hi, fu, he, ho; 

ma, mi, mu. me, mo; ya, [yi], yu, [ye], yo ; va, ri, ru, re, ro ; 
wa, ivi, [ivit], we, ivo ; 
to which must be added the following twenty-five modifications^ of the 
k, s, t and h groups : 

ga, gi, gu, ge, go; za, ji^, zii, ze, zo ; da, ji\ dzu, de, do; 

ba, pa, bi, pi, bu, pii, be, pe, bo, po ; 
as well as n final (phonetically identified with mu). 

The 72 (or 73) syllables thus evolved are capable of writing every com- 
bination of sounds belonging to the Japanese language, diphthongs, long 
vowels and other composites being written with various collocations of the 
simple elements, as explained below (p. 23). 

The gojuon-dzu arrangement of them is used, especially in modern 
dictionaries and index-lists, exactly as we use the alphabet for ready 
reference. In that case the daku-on and handaku-on (ga, gi, gu, etc.) 
immediately follow their corresponding sei-on {ka, ki, ku, etc.), so that, for 
example, the entries Nakata, Nakada, Nagata, Nagada, would appear in that 
order. Final n takes its place either at the very end of the list or as if it 

' 3L 'h ra' HI. 'table of fifty sounds', made up by importing the three non-e.\istent syllables 
set within brackets. Of the others, we is transliterated in ronian as e or ye (the authors, as already 
explained, preferring the latter), wi as j, and wo as (except when it stands alone as an accusa- 
tival postposition). Furthermore, in the ])resent work the fourth sound, c, and in rtrlain cases he, 
are represented by ye. 

^ Known as daku-on ij^ §, 'thickened sounds" (the pa-pi-pu-pe-po group as handaku-im ^ j|j §, 
'semi-thickened sounds'), as opposed to the normal or 'pure' sounds, sei-on i(^ ^-, in the preceding 
list. Compare also p. 34. 

^ Ji, as a modihcation of either s/ii or chi, is indifferently pr(jnounced like our 'gee', except in 
Western Japan, where the former is given the softer sound of I'rench ji. The two derivations 
appear in Fuji {shi), the mountain, and jtiji (chi), ' wistaria.' 



CHAP. II.] THE KAMA. 



21 



were a modification of mu (in the latter case it may even be represented bv 
the same sign as mu itself). 

In less recent times, however, the Ivoha^ arrangement appears to have 
been preferred for the above-mentioned purpose. This is actually readable 
as a poem on the transience of human life and runs as follows : 

The IrohA-UTA? 

i ro ha ni ho he to: chi vi nil ru ivo : iva ka yo ta re so: tsu ne na ra 
mil : u tvi no o ku ya ma: ke fu ko e te : a sa ki yu me: mi shi we hi 
mo se su. 

(The modified syllables and final n are for ' alphabetic ' purposes 
worked into this series as with the gojuon-dzu arrangement.) 

The Kana Signs. — The earliest use to which this phonetic analysis of 
the language was put — a use, indeed, to which it owes its inception — was 
the representation in writing of such words or names as could not 
conveniently be rendered by the ideographic characters borrowed from 
China. And to this end the seventy-three sounds were provided with a 
number of specially chosen signs, to which was given tlie name of kana 
^g ^ (kari-na, ' borrowed names '), i.e., signs used in a purely phonetic 
manner as opposed to 7nana j|L ig (' real names ') or characters used 
ideographically. 

The earliest kana, the manyo-gana, have already been dealt with (p. 6). 
They were actual Chinese characters used in their full (kaisho) forms, and at 
some subsequent date about 130 of them, written in varying degrees of 
cursive script (sosho) according to the fancy of the writer, came to be 
known as Hira-gana ^ IS ^ ' plain ' or ' easy kana ' (see tables below), and 
were distributed unequally over the 47 primary syllables (and n final), the 
modified syllables being represented by two ticks (or, in the case of pa, pi, 
pu, pe, po, by a small circle) at the top right corner of the sign for the 
corresponding primary — thus: {^ ke, ^ ge ; (J^ hi, (f. hi, Q^ pi. These 
diacritical marks, it is annoying to find, are frequently omitted, especiallv 
in the less recent literature and in cases where, to a Japanese at least, ao 
ambiguity is likely to ensue. 

The bewildering variety of the hiragana forms was perpetuated until 
recent times, but the modern tendency, due largely to the introduction of 



' Jiil S l4 '"■ ^ S A, tlie name being derived from the first tbree syllables of this arrange- 
ment. 

^ I.e., ' iyflha poem' (iita ^ 'song, native poem'). 



22 



THE KAN A. [chap. ii. 



movable type, is to adhere to one definite form' for eacli syllable and to 
avoid the confusing practice of joining up consecutive kana— an inevitable 
concomitant of the cursive style. 

Much simpler and easier to read (although until recently only the better- 
educated Japanese were familiar with them) are the Kata-kana ye ^g ^, 
'side' or 'part kana', which came into use at an early date. If we except 
two or three special combinations (see the table-), the katakana have always 
provided a single symbol for each sound and are kept quite separate from 
one another even in manuscript. They reproduce in each case, more or less 
exactly, a portion (hence their name) of a manyo-gana character, as shown in 
the synoptical list on pages 2<) to 32. The same diacritical marks are used 
for the daku-on and handaku-on as in the case of the hiragana. 

Uses of the Kana. — Apart from their employment in writing out 
prominent words and names not provided for in the ideographs, the kana 
have two other important uses: (i) to render grammatical inflexif)ns and 
particles, and (2) to indicate the pronunciation of Chinese characters as 
intended by the writer (in the latter case they are written at the right side 
of the ideographs and are called kunten p| ^, ' ])ronunciation marks '•"'). 

As a general rule, the preference, even in modern literature, is for the 
hiragana rather than the katakana, the use of tlie latter being confined to 
dictionaries and learned works generally, as also to tlie spelling-out of foreign 
names. But it is a rule w'ith many exceptions. 

Kana forms, as such, are rarely used in the more formal inscriptions 
found on art-objects*, and certainly never (if we exclude woodcuts) as 
'pronunciation marks.' For one thing, such inscriptions are usually supposed 
to be written in Chinese, or at any rate in the Chinese fashion, although 
read in Japanese, and the reader is therefore left to supply the requisite 
particles and inflexions from his own knowledge of the language. Occasion- 
ally, however, part of a signature will be rendered in hiragana, either to hll 
up a space, to improve the appearance of the inscription, or merely from 
some caprice of the writer or engraver. 



' I'he term 'hiraf^ana' is now usually confined to these modern types, 'manyo-gana' being 
reserved lor the obsolete forms. 

^ .Add ai-o ne, | or ■?, and [u']i, »|: or #. 
See example of kanamajivi on p. 33. Unfortunately for 'foreign' readers, the Japanese have 
frequently avoided the use of kunten wherever their own countrymen might be expected to be able 
to djspep ,e witli then: This applies in large measure to names. 

* '^ '> fhe other hand, is commonly written almost entirely in hiragana, only a 

few ol w rds being rendered in Chinese ideographs. 



CHAP. II.] 



KANA COMBINATIONS. 



23 



Kana Combinations. — A number of Japanese sounds which are pro- 
nounced (and romanized) as single syllables^ are rendered by special 
combinations of the kana, as shown in the list below^. (Those entries 
set within square brackets are comparatively infrequent, while certain of 
the kana combinations, similarly enclosed, are actually non-existent, being 
introduced here merely for symmetry's sake.) 

The student is warned that the converse process, viz., tlie reading of the 
combinations quoted in the list with the pronunciations as therein indicated, 
is confined, with few exceptions'^ to Sinico- Japanese readings and then only 
if representing a single character (or at any rate a single idea). 

Kana Combinations. 



Sounds 


, 


Kana. 




)0UNDS. 


K.ANA. 




SOUNDS. 




K.\NA. 


( I ) kwa 




ku-iva 




sho 


shi-yo 


(4) 




1 a-u 


gwa 




git-wa 




i« 


... ji-ya^ 






a-fu 


kwo 


(ko) 


ku-wa-u 




ju 


... ji-yu^ 







.. " o-u 


gwo 
ktve 


... 


gu-iva-u] 
ku-we] 




lie 
jo 


... ji-ye'] 
... ji-yo* 




w]o 


. 


0-Jll 

^ 0-ho 
wa-u 
tvo-u 


(2) cha 
chii 
che 




chi-ya 
chi-yu 
chi-ye\ 


(3) 


bya^ 
byu 
byo 
And 


bi-ya 
bi-yu] 
bi-yo 
similarly for 




bo 




/ ba-ti 
ba-fu 
bo-u 
bo -fit 


cho 




chi-yo 




gya, [gyii], gyo, kya 






\bo-ho 


sha 




shi-ya 




(etc.). 


mya (etc.), 




And similarly for 


shu 




shi-yu 




nya 


(etc.), pya 




do, go, 


ho, ko, mo, 


she 




shi-ye] 




(etc.), 


rya (etc.). 




no, po, 


ro, so, to, zo. 



' It should be noted that ai, ii, tii, ei, oi, ao, io (except as in groups 3 and 4 in the table), 
and KO, are not true diphthongs, being pronounced (as in Italian) with the full force of both 
component vowels. In these cases the second vowel is frequently rendered in kana not by i or 0. 
but by hi or ]io (occasionally [w]i or [w]o). 

■" The perplexing lack of uniformity which will be noticed in the rendering of the long vowels 
is due to a desire to indicate their etymology (from the original Cliinese or early Japanese forms). 
^Vhen foreign words and names are nowadays transliterated into kana, no such motive is present 
and length of vowel is simply indicated by the sign j following the kana for the short vowel. 

2 E.g., pure- Japanese (J^) is written in kana as o-ho, to (^) as io-ho, to i'^) as ia-fu, and s(> 
forth ; also, the verbal endings au, on, and itu (written in kana as a-ju, o-fu, u-jn) are in Western 
Japan pronounced 0, and u respectively, although commonly romanized with the original pair of 
vowels. On the other hand, Sf 3 as a pure-Japanese rendering of f^ and one or two other 
characters, is written kiyo, not kyo or kio ; similarly, s + miya for ^, and many other instances. 

^ The ji is the modified form of shi or chi, according to etymology. 

^ The y in tliis group (as also in the kyo, kyu, etc., of groups 4 and 5) is romanized as / else- 
where throughout the work. 



24 



Sounds. 



yo 



cho 



sho 



P 





KANA COMBIXATIONS 


Kana. 


Sounds. Kana. 


ya-u 


ki-ya-u 


you- 
ye-ii' 


ki-yo-ti 

kyo  ^ , 

1 ke-u 


ye-jir 


ke-fu 


chi-ya-u 


.And similarly for 


chi-yo-ii 


byd, gyo, Iiyo, myo, 


te-ii 


nyo, pyo, ryo. 


( te-fu 




I shi-ya-ii 


is) /" ••■ /"-" 


shi-yo-u 


pu ... pu-u 


se-ii 
se-fu 

1 7 '■-)•«-"' 
ji-yo-u'^ 


ku ... ku-u 
gu ... gii-ti 
So for nu, rfi, ^u. 


dc-u 




yu-u 


de-fu 
zc-u 


ytl 


yu-ju 
i-u 


\ze-ju] 




ye-fu^ 



Sounds. 



:]i u 



shu 



jii 



[CHAF. II. 

Kana. 

chi-u 

chi-yu-u 

chi-fu 

[ shi-u 
shi-yu-u 
shi-fii 

•j ji-yu-u'^ 



( ji-fu^ 

I ki-u 
kyu ... -, ki-yu-u 

I ki-ju 
And similarly for 
hyii, gyu, hyu, uyu, 
pyu, ryii. 



Other Kana Anomalies. — Apart from the cases (juoted on p. 23 (note 3), 
certain other variations are made in the pronunciation and romanization of 
kana. Thus : 

(i) In pure-Japanese readings (very rarely in Sinico-Japanese) the kana 
ha and he, closely follow ini^ another kana^, become respectively wa and e 
(or ye, as the authors prefer to write it). Thus: kawa [ka-ha), 'river'; 
Owari (O-ha-ri), province; iye (i-he), 'house'; uye (u-he), 'upper'. 

(2.) In Sinico-Japanese readings n becomes m before b, p, or m (compare 

(3) The katakana y, -'^ (normally ke, ha) become ga, wa, when following 
a noun as a genitival or nominatival postposition. 



' Tlie ye is the kana x (tfe) or 31 (e). 

■^ Tlie ye is tlie hana x (tve). 

^ Tlie ;'/' is the modified form of shi or chi, according to etymology. 

* Generally only in the same word-element, thus ruling out cases of compound words and 
individual names like Masa-hnru J£_ ^. But hara ]gi at the end of place-names and surnames 
occasionally becomes wara. 



CHAP. III.] THE NIGORF AND OTHER PHONETIC CHANGES. 35 

it is worth noting that the nigorl is never applied (i) alter tiie postpositional 
no or ga (thus: Higiichi, but Hinokuchi; Tsiikabara, hut Seki-ga-hara), nor (2) 
to the commoner elements of pure-Japanese nanori^, with the exception of 
sane, sumi, jiimi (which regularly become -zane, -zumi, -biinii), and of a few 
cases noted chiefly in names of early date (or in modern archaistic revivals 
of these) and duly cited in the Dictionary. 

A striking exception to the avoidance of incidental nigori in Sinico- 
Japanese is afforded by \l\ san, 'mountain',- which regularly becomes -zan, 
except in a few names of mountains and tlie art-names derived from these. 
Thus: Setsuzan, not Sessan : but Fuji-san, Gwassan. (Considerations of 
euphony do not seem to be involved here, being on the whole, indeed, less 
regarded in Sinico-Japanese than in pure-Japanese compounds). 

On the other hand, it may be taken as an invariable rule that the 
Sinico-Japanese endings for art-names, of which a list is given on p. 69, 
never undergo incidental nigori (although their presence may freely involve 
the changes noted in the following section). 

Assimilative Consonantal Changes. — The changes indicated below 
occur: (i) almost regularly where both elements are Sinico-Japanese, the 
exceptions in the case of names including zokumia" (Chapter V., § i) and 
instances where the second element is in the nature of a title and not in 
close composition with the first; (2) rarely where one or both are pure- 
Japanese ; (3) never in pure- Japanese nanori (Chapter V., § 2). 

ch- becomes -tch- (Ichi-chu, Itcho^). 

-pp- {ichi-fukit, ippiikii). 

-pp- (ichi-hiki, ippiki). 

-kk- (hachi-kei, hakkei). 

-ss- {hachi-so, hasso). 

-ssh- (hachi-sho, hassho). 

-tt- (Nichi-ten, Nitten). 

-tts- {ichi-tsui, ittstii). 

1 See list in Chapter V., § 2, C. 

^ But not (Ij X ^anjin ('mountaineer, hermit'), or any kindred semi-titular suffix. 

^ Which, however, regularly incur the change of -n-h- to -mp- (or -mh-). 

* The hyphen in this column implies that the syllable indicated is the jinal of a dissyllabic (two- 
kana) or trisyllabic (three-/o«»rt) reading for a single character. Otherwise no change takes place {e.g., 
Chi-cho, Chi-fukii, Gi-ki-kokii, Kn-kei, etc.). 

* Strictly speaking, most cases of -chi + . . . - should be regarded as really -tsu +...-, and 
are, indeed, usually so written in kaini phonetics. In other words the karwn rather than the goon 
reading is being used. Note, however, that shichi, ' seven ', undergoes no change, unless it be in the 
special phrase shippo {shichi-hu -t %, ' the seven treasures, enamel '). 



chi^ 


+ 


ch- bec( 




+ 


/- 




_u 

1 


h- 




+ 


k- 




+ 


s- , 




1 
1 


sh- 




+ 


t- 




+ 


ts- 



\ 
\ 



36 THE NIGORI AND OTHER PHONETIC CHANGES, [chap. hi. 



becomes -kk- (seki-koku, sekkoku). 
„ -kk- [Roku-kaku, Rokkaku). 

„ -mh- (Ten-bun, Tembuu). 

,, -mp- [Ten-iuku, Tempukii). 

,, -mb- (san-hon, sambon). 

or -7np- (san-hin, sampin). 
,, -mm- (san-mon, samvion). 

„ -nn- iten-[iv]a, tenno ; Nin-wa, Ninna). 

„ -tch- {Etsu-chu, Etchu). 

[And so oil, as with -chi.] 

Vowel Changes (pure-Japanese only). — A few examples follow ; they 
are by no means of universal application. 

sake \^, 'rice-wine', becomes saka- [Sake-i, Sakai). 



-ki 


1 


k- 


-ku 


— 


k- 


-n 


+ 


b- 


?> 


+ 


f- 


5> 


+ 


h- 


)> 


-f 


m- 


5> 


+ 


w- 


-tsu 


~r 


ch- 



kanc ^, ' metal ', 

kaze J^. 'wind ', 

June ^ or f^, 'boat", 

mune fH^, 'breast', or ;j$ 'ridge', 

suge ^, 'sedge', 

shiro Q 'white' 



kana-^ (Kane-sawa, Kanazawa, 
Init also Kanesawa). 

kaza-^ (Kaze-haya, Kazahaya). 

juna- (Fune-ta, Funada). 

muna-^ [Miine-ita, Munaita). 



,, suga- (Suge-hara, Sugawara). 

„ shira- [Shiro-kawa, Shirakawa, 

but also Shirokawa). 

These and certain other changes, still less subject to rule, are indicated 

where they occur in the Examples quoted in the Dictionary. 



' Rarely, if ever, in nanori. 



CHAPTER IV, 



NUMERALS, DATES, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

§ I.— NUMERALS. 

A.— The Cardinal Forms. 





Characters. 


Sinico-Japanese. 




Pure Japanese. 


I 


— 


or §■' 


... ichi (itsrr) ... 


.. hilo[tsu]. 


2 


- 


or ^ 


... ni (jr) 


.. futa[tsu'. 


3 


~^- 


or ^ 


... san ... 


.. mi[tsu]. 


4 


m 


or ^ 


shi ... 


. . yo[tsu^ . 


3 


5. 


or ^. 


••• go 


.. itsu[tsu\ 


6 




or 1^ 


roku (rikir) 


.. mu[tsu . 


7 


-b 


01- m 


... shichi 


.. nana[tsu . 


8 


A 


or |5'J 


liachi (hatsu'') 


.. ya[tsu\ 


9 


X 


or iJl 


ku (kiu-) 


. . kokono[tsu . 


lO 


+ 


or ^ 


... ju (jitsu, jutSLl) 


.. to, to, (-so). 


1 1 


+ 


— 


... jLiichi 


.. (to-aniari-hitotsu). 


12 


+ 


- 


... juni ... 


^ 




13 


+ 


~*. 


... jusan 






H 


+ m . 


... JLishi (or jCiyo) 


.. 




15 


+ 3f.'*» 


jugo 


.. 


(to-amari-futatsu), 


16 


+ 


yN 


... juroku 


.. 


etc. 


17 


+ -b . 


... jushichi 


, , 




18 


+ A 


... juhachi 






19 


+ X . 


... jLiku... 


' * y 


' 


20 


ZL 


+ or 


ii* ••■ niju 


.. (hata-, fuso). 


21 


jl^ 


+ - 


nijuichi 


.. (fuso-aniari-hitotsu). 


30 


^"^ 


-f' or 


M  sanju 


.. (miso). 


40 


m 


-h . 


... shiju 


.. (yoso). 



^^^The alternative complex forms quoted with numbers i-io may also be used to make up 
numbers 1 1 and upwards. ('1 he same applies to the simpler alternative for io,cco.) Their primary use is 
to obviate falsifications in accounts or documents, but they are frequently employed for their ornamental 
appearance only. 

^ These, the kaiion readings, are far less commonly used than the others quoted (the goon). 



38 






NUMERALS. 


CHAP. IV., 


§ 1 




Characters. 


Sinico-Japanese. 


Pure Jnpanese. 




50 


Ji. + 




• g<^>ju 


.. (iso). 




bo 


>'^ i^ 




rokujii 


.. (muso). 




70 


-t + 




. shichiju 


.. (nan a so). 




80 


A + 




hachiju 


.. (yaso). 




90 


A + 




kiiJLi 


.. (kokonoso). 




100 


W 




. hiaku 


.. (niorno, ho). 




lOI 


A* - 




hiakuichi. 






I TO 


A" + 




liiakuju. 






II I 


rv + 


— 


liiakujuichi. 






200 


- w 




nihiaku. 






300 


- K 




sambiaku. 






400 


m w 




shihiaku. 






500 


31 W 




gohiaku 


.. (io). 




600 


A A 




roppiaku. 






700 


-b H 




shichihiaku. 






800 


AW 




happiaku ... 


•• (yao). 




900 


A H 




kuhiaku. 






1,000 


=f- 




sen ... 


chi. 




10,000 


H or 


J] 


man (ban) ... 


(yorodzu). 




100,000 


+ m 




juman. 






1 ,000,000 


w ^ 




hiakuman. 






8,000,000 


A fi- 


n 


happiakuman 


.. (yaoyorodzu).^ 




10,000,000 


=f m 




semman 






00,000,000 


#. 




oku or icliioku. 






I billion 


^is 




cho. 







The following examples will explain Japanese numeration and nota- 
tion : — 

H -I- n M 3i =^ ^ ^ ^ + A 

saiijushiiiiaii- ^i^csen- lopj'ictkii- shichiju- haihi. 

m] mm m] 7^ w [^i a 

[rei-] shiman- [rei-] roppiaku- [rei-\ hachiv 
(This optional use of rei, literally 'omission', to express zero, is a 

comparatively late fashion). 

A somewhat recent method of numeration and notation, used especially 

for the pagination of books and the quoting of telephone numbers, is 



nihiaku- 

2,040,608= ZL W 
nihiaku- 



' Used to express infinity. 



CHAP. IV, § i.l NUiMERALS. 



39 



founded on the Arabic system. Thus, 1915 becomes ~ Jl -— Ji. ichi-kii- 
ichi-go; 1905 is written — ji Q Jt. and read ichi-ku-rei (coUoquiall) maru, 
' circle ') -^^0. 

Fractions. — 'Half is rendered han ^; thus: ^ ^- han-nen, 'half a 
year', H ^f ^ mikudavi-han, 'three columns and a half (of writing)'. 'One 
quarter' is pg ^^ — shibuichi (also the name of a copper alloy) or shibun- 
no-ichi. 'Three quarters' is 15} ^ H shibiisan. 'One third' is ^ ^ — 
sambuichi ; and so forth. 

B. — Ordinal Forms. 

The cardinal forms (Sinico-Japanese) are converted into ordinals (i) by 
prefixing ^ dai : thus : ^ H ^ dainisho, ' Chapter II.' (2) by suffixing g 
me; thus: P9 jl^' @ sbidaime, 'fourth generation', — "f @ itchome, 'first 
block [of a street]', -t: {Be @ shichidamme, 'Act VH '. Ban H, banime ^ g,- 
and go ^ are used similarly to mc. 

Certain sets of characters are often used in place of numerals in 
numbering the volumes of a book, the prints in a set, and the like. Thus : 
I, 2 : Jh 70, y ge; or hiJ sen, ^ go. 

I, 2, 3 : -h 70, ^ chu, "f ge ; or fjsfn, ^i chil, ^^ go ; or ^ ten, j^ chi, 
A i'" ; <^^r ^ setsu, ^ getsu, 1^ kwa (the order is sometimes getsu^ 
seisii, kwa). 
I, 2, 2y 4- ^ ^^"' i'l' ^^^''^ H ^^on, ^ ,iro» ; or ;f£ feu-a, ^ c/jo, 

M. fa, H getsu. 
I, 2, 3, 4, 5 : ^•tt'a, cho, fu, getsu, as above, and ^ setsu. 
I to 10 : ^ ko, ^ otsu, and the rest of the jikkan (see p. 63). 
1 to 12 : -p nc, ^ as///, and the rest of tlie junishi (see p. 63). 
I to 48 (or les.s) : 4 /, p ro, and the rest of the katakana (see 

pp. 21, 25). 
I to 54 : tlie Genjimon (see Chapter VII., 103). 

C. — Auxiliary Xl'merals (Numeral Suffixes). 

The t-ardinal numbers often follow the noun they qualify and are 
themselves followed by an appropriate enumerative suffix, sucii as the 
following : — 

(a) Used with the pure-Japanese numerals (without the termination tsu) < 
^ /zn'i (in counting swords and spears). ' 1^ hashira (for Shinto deities, kami). 
5^ havi (for bows, tents, hand-lanterns, % suji (for belts). 

etc.) i fi kasane (for suits of clothes). 



40 



NUMERALS. 



[chap. IV., § I. 



(b) Used with the Sinico-Japanese numerals {goon forms) 



7v. "fn (for persons). 

\fC hiki (for animals and pariahs) : 

ippiki (i), sambiki (3), roppiki (6), 

jippiki (10), hiappiki (100), sembiki 

(1,000), etc' 
i|3 ^'« (for birds) : ippa (or ichiwa), 

samba, roppa (or rokiiwa), jippa, 

h lappa, semba. 
^ bi (for fishes) : sambi, sembi. 
$f ken (for houses) : ikken, sangen, 

rokkeu, hakken, jikken, hiakken, 

sengen, mangen. 
^ so (for ships or boats) : isso, hasso, 

jisso. 



brellas, trees) : ippon, sambon, 
sembon, etc. (as with hiki). 

^ rid (for suits of clothes or armour). 

^ rid (for carriages). 

^ ki (for stationary objects, as court- 
yard lanterns) : ikki, rokki, hakki, 
jikki, hiakki. 

ijig fiikti (for kakemono) : ippuktt, sam- 
biiku, roppukn, etc. (as with hiki). 

^ soku (for pairs of shoes, socks, etc.) : 
issoku, hassokii, jissokii. 

j^ jo (for belts, etc.) 

^ jo (for mats). 

1^ cho (for guns, spades, chisels) : itcho, 
hatcho, jitcho. 



l§, tsfi (for unsealed letters, documents, 

copies, etc.) : ittsu, hattsu, jittsu. "^ shu (for Japanese poems) : isshu, 

i^ mai (for flat objects, sheets of j hasshu, jisshu. 

j)aper, boards, coins, bridges) : ^ kn (for Buddhist figures). 

sammai, semmai. g^ to (for domestic animals). 

;^ hon (for long, narrow objects, as ^ kai (for hats and umbrellas). 

sticks, shafts, ])illars, pens, um- ^ kiakit (for couches and tables). 

With ^@ (or ^ or -^^j ka, used for various classes of objects, both 
numeral and auxiliary precede the noun, as in H 1® J1 sangagetsu (' three 
months '), "g" ^ ii'f, hiakkajo (' one hundred items '). This is also the case 
with several of the foregoing examples. 



' Examples are restricted to those instances in whicli a phonetic change takes place. 



CHAP. IV., § I.] 



NUMERALS. 



41 



D. — Numerals as Used i\- Dates. 





Numeral 

(or 

other sign). 


Followed by ^ {-nen) or 

^ (sai) for the years of 

a reign or of a neiigu.^ 


Followed by ^ 

for months of 

the year. 


Followed by Q 

for days of the 

month. 


,' 




issai ...... 


ichigetsH . 
(modern) 


ichijitsu 




jE 




shogwatsu 




1st < 


^ 






shonichi or 








shojitsu 




7C 






tsuitachi 


\ 


gennen or gwannen . 




gwanjitsu (for ist 










month only)- 


2nd 


— - 


ninen ; nisai 


nigwatsu . . 


futsuka 


3rd 


— 


saunen ; sansai 


sangwatsu 


mikka 


4th 


m 


yonen : shisai . 


shigivatsu 


yokka 


5th 


.7f. 


gonen ; gosai . . . 


gogivatsu . . 


itsuka 


6th 


1 . 


rokunen ; rokusai . 


rokugwatsu . 


muika 


7 th 


■t 


shichinen } shichisai . 


shichigivatsu 


nanoka 


8th 


A 


hachinen ; hassai . 


hachigwatsu . 


ybka 


9th 


A 


kiineu ; kitsai . 


kugivatsu 


kokonoka 


loth 


+ 


j linen : j issai . . . 


jugwatsu 


toka 


nth 


+ - 


jftichinen ; juissai . 


juichigwatsu 


juichinichi 


I2th 


+ n 


junitien ; junisai . 


junigvcatsu . 


juninichi. 


13th 


+ H 


jusannen ; jusansai . 




jitsannichi 


14th 


+ m 


juyonen ; jushisai . 




jiiyokka 


15th 


+ 2L 


ju gonen : ju gosai . 
Etc. 




jugonichi 
Etc. 


20th 


- -f-or-ii- 


nijunen : nij issai . 




hatstika 


2ISt 


n + - 


nijuichinen ; nijuissai 




nijuichinichi 


22nd 


- + n 


nijuninen ; nijunisai 
Etc. 




nijuninichi 

Etc. (see § 2, 
Days) 



' These phrases may be replaced by ^ — daiichi, 'first' ('year' being understood), ^ Zl daim, 
'second', etc., provided some other indication (season or month) follows. ^ ^ -saiji ('year- 
succession') is also found. The first year may also be designated BJC 7C '^a'gen (literally 'renewed 
beginning '). 

^ Also poetically 7c 0. givautan. 



42 NUMERALS. [chap, iv., § i. 

E. — Numerals as Used to Indicate Age. 

The ordinary Chinese numerals (— , H, H, etc.), followed by j^ (con- 
tracted form ::^), are read issai, nisai, satisai (' one, two, three, years old '), etc. 
as in Column 3 above. In poetical language some of these are read in 
pure Japanese, as: hataji ('20 years old"), misoji (30), yosoji (40), isoji (50), 
miisoji (bo), nanasoji (70), yasoji (80), kokoiwsoji (90), momoji (100), chitose (1000). 

The phrase ^f ^ giunen or "^ ^ ki'nicn, or else ]^ or g^ )'Oie'a/ ('age'), 
often precedes the Sinico-Japanese forms. In the signatures of artists and 
others proud of their advanced age tlie termination sai is frequently replaced 
^y m "0 (lit. 'old |gentle]man '), less commonly by ;^ J\^ -rojin (same 
meaning), and occasionally by ^ -ga (lit. 'a birthday fete' in honour of the 
42nd, 6ist, 77t]i, and 88th anniversaries). In these cases no phonetic change 
takes place in the ordinary Sinico-Japanese forms of the numerals. 

The age of 70 is sometimes expressed by the phrase koki "^ ^-, lit. 'rare 
from ancient times ", quoting a Chinese saying ; and that of 88 by beijti ^ -^, 
lit. 'rice longevity' but derived from the fancied formation of the character 
■j^ from A ~h A, i-e., ' 88 '. Similarly a cursive form of the character g ki, 
'luck', stands for the age of 77, owing to its resemblance to a combination 
of the characters -^ -p ^ ('77'); compare page 30, first column, line 12. 

§ 2. HOW TO READ DATES. 

Years. — Japanese years are quoted on one or more of four distinct systems 
of calculation : — 

I. — The date of accession of the hrst Emjjcror, Jimmu-tennd, given as 

660 B.C., is taken as a starting-point. Thus the year bbo b.c. 

would be described (in full) as : — 

Jimmu -tenuu sokiii kigen geu{gwan)uen. 

i.e., 'first year of the era of the accession of the Emperor Jinuiiu'. 
Various abridgments of this i)hraseology are used, such as Jimuiu- 
kigen . . . , or even, in tables and the like, Jin-ki . . . (ec^uivalent 
in its degree of contraction to our 'a.d. "); it is also permissible to 
quote a year, e.g., 644 a.d., simply as "f- H W P9 ^ sen-sambiaku- 
yonen ('1304th year'), where no ambiguity would be occasioned.^ 



' In a similar way the Christian dating for tlie years .\.D. is rendered in Japan bv — 

S '§ *E 7C (or S' IE) •  . ¥ 

Kirisuto (Christ) kigen (Ki-ki) . . . uen. 
For the years B.C. the word -jen is inserted as \v\\\\ tlie Jiiiiniu era. Otlier rhronulogical 
systems are analogously rendered in Japanese, but need not be dwelt on here. 



CHAP. IV., § 2.] DATES.— YEARS. 43 

For the 3'ears antevior to 660 b.c. the word -^ zen, 'anterior', is 
inserted after the era-name. 

Tliis system is of recent introduction, but is n(jt in common 
use. 

II. — The years are numbered from the first civil year of each J^mperor 
(see List A, pp. 49-53), the monarch being quoted by his canonical 
name (given after death or abdication), or, if reigning, by a phrase 
like 4* J: ^ M Kinjo-tenno, ' His Present Majesty '. Thus 644 a.d. 
would (in after ages) be quoted as ^ ;|^ 5^ ^ [111 ^1 H ^ 
Kogioku-tennb [no gio-ii\ sannen, 'third year of [the reign of] tlie 
Empress Kogioku ". 

III.— The year 645 a.d. saw the institution of tlie Nengo system, derived 
from China. That year was declared to be the first of the nengo^ 
Taikwa -jsi it, and tlienceforward until the present day there has 
followed an almost unbroken" series of nengo, each having a different 
name'' and lasting for a varying number of years.* Their names 
and dates are quoted under their initial characters in the Dictionary 
and will also be found in chronological order in List B (pp. 55-57). 
Those of the last 700 years are further tabulated alphabetically 
in List C (pp. 57-59). 

The N'ears, then, from 645 a.d. are common quoted by means 
of the nengo-\-\?in\e. followed by a numeral indication (compare p. 41, 
column 3), as in the two foregoing systen;is. Thus, the year ' Bunkwa 
XII.', as ^^'e write it, i.e., 'the 12th year of the era Bunkwa' (which 
began in 1804), corresponds-"' to our year 1S04+12 — 1 = 1815 •^■^^• 
It would be written in Chinese cliaracters thus : ^ ft ~|* H ^ 



' ^ 1^, Chinese nien-hai\ literally ' ^ear-designation.' ' I'lra " is perhaps the most convenient 
English version of the word. 

' There were two breaks onlj', from 655 to 67 1, and from 697 to 700 inclusive. During these 
the pre-645 methods of reckoning were necessarily resumed. 

^ I.e., written with different characters— the jMonunciations, of which there are in several cases 
varying versions in use, sometimes coincide (as romanized). Each iiengu is written with two (in 
four cases with four) different characters drawn from a series of sixty-nine (see List I), |)p. bo, 61). 

* In one case lOyei, 1394-1427) as many as 34. Some important event, auspicious or otherwise, 
was usually made the occasion for a change of nengo (kaigen ^ 7c), sutii as, almost regularly 
from qfn (Owa) onwards, the arrival of the hrst and fifty-eighth years of the Cycle (see p. 44 
and list on p. 64). In Meiji V (1872) it was decided that each reign should have only one nengo 
(as in modern China); hence Meiji lasted for 44 years (i.SdS to 191 ij. 

* It must not be forgotten that, owing to the diflerence between the incidence of the Japanese and 
the Western .New Year (the former being from 17 to 46 days 'late'), the last few weeks of a 
nengo year belong strictlv to the succeeding Christian year. 



44 DATES.— YEARS. [chap, iv., § 2. 

(or H:), Bunkiva junineu, or 3!^ ft + H ^M^ Bunkiva junisai. 

No matter at what time of year a new nengb was proclaimed,^ 
the preceding portion of the calendar year was officially reckoned 
as belonging to it, although in actually contemporary documents 
it would necessarily be quoted as part of the previous era. 

IV. — Either accompanying or replacing the year-numeral after the nengo- 
name— or even, especially in earl\- times, forming the only vear- 
indication — may be found the Cycle indication. Tliis has reference to 
the Sexagenary System, also derived from China, by which years are 
counted independently in cycles of sixty, numbered by means of the 
sixty possible combinations of one of the Jikkan (or Ten Elemental 
'Stems') preceding one of the Junishi (Twelve Zodiacal 'Branches'), 
both series recurring in regular sequence side b\- side, as follows- : — 
ist Year : ^ -^ kinoye-ne or ko-shi. 
2nd Year: 2/ 3Bt kiuoto-iishi or otsii-chu. 
and so on, up to : 

nth Year: ^ J^J^ kinoye-iint or kn-juisu. 
i2th Year: 2* ^ kinoto-i or otsit-gai. 
13th Year: p^ -f^ hinoye-ne or hei-shi. 
and so forth, ending with : 

6oth ^'ear : ^ ^ midzunotu-i or ki-gni. 
These indications (known as ye-to ^ ^) either immediately 
precede or follow tlie year-numeral, where the latter is also quoted ; 
and the two characters are often written a little smaller, placed 
side by side or en echelon (instead of vertically), and a little to the 
right of the central line of the column. 

If the year-numer?d is omitted, the character ^, 'year', is to 
be read in this connection toshi (not nen or no loshi). 

Japanese year-cycles (which coincide with the Chinese) began 
with the following years a.d. : — 

4-4'\ 484. 344. <'J04. ^^'4, | i3-4. ^3^4. i444. ^504' 13^4. 
724, 784, 844. Q04. 964, j 1624, ir.84, 1744, 1804, 1864, 

1024, 1084, 1 144, 1204, 1264, i 

' In several cases as late as the twelfth moiitli, and in one (Horeki. 1751-1753) on the 27th 
day of that month (see List C, pp. 57-59). 

^ For these see Table of Cycles, p. 63. For their use as ordinal numbers see p. 39. 

^ In certain of the historical records of Japan cyclical dates are quoted as early as G67 li.C. 
(51st year of a cycle). But, as Aston points out in his translation of the Nihoiif-i under that date, 
the cyclical system 'was not in use to record years liefore the Christian era even in China, and 
can hardly have been known in Japan before the introduction of writing' (ca. 405 -A.F).). Such 
dates, he adds, are, in this part of the Ailwngi, purely fictitious. 



CHAP. IV., § 2.] DATES.— YEARS, MONTHS. 45 

Consequently a year quoted as, say, the 21st of a cycle miglit, in the 
absence of other indication, be either; . . . , 1464, 1524, 1584, 1644, 1704, 
1764, 1824, or 1884 A.D. This uncertainty is sometimes increased just 
tenfold bv the zodiacal (junishi) sign alone being quoted, to the exclusion 
of all other clues to the date. This is particularly the case with certain 
woodblock-prints, as explained under 'Months' below. 

Somewhat less mystifying is the practice, occasionally indulged in, of 
quoting only one character of the nen^o-name— usually, however, with the 
full cycle-indication to narrow down the possibilities. A few instances 
noted bv the authors in actual examples are : j^ Sei for Bunsei or Ansei, 
^ Ho for Tempo. List E (p. 61) should prove useful in such cases. 

Months.- — Eor ordinary use these are numbered from ' first ' (always JE 
sho-, until modern times, when — ichi- is used) to 'twelfth' (compare p. 41, 
col. 4). But in learned and poetical language (and frequently in book- 
prefaces and on art-objects) each month has various descriptive names, as 
follows, the first in each case being the most usual, the last being derived 
from the Juniritsu (see Chapter ML, 92) : — 

1st Month. Mutsiiki ^ ^, Mogetsu ^ ^, Tangetsu ^ J| , Tarbdzuki 
'X<.% H^ Chonen |^ ^, Hatsusoratsuki ^J ^ j^, Taiso ;^ ^. 
2nd Month. Kisaragi M ^ or ^n ^, Jogetsii in /^ , Kiosho ^ ^. 
3rd Month. Yayoi (lyaoi) Jg ^, Sakuradzxiki ^ f\, Kosen -^ i^t- 
4th Month. Udzuki ^\l ^, Mugiaki ^ ^, Shttka -^ g, Chiiro f{^ g. 
5th Month. Satsuki S^ (or IJL) f], Seika J^ g, Siiihin ^ (or ^) ^. 
6th Month. Midzunashi{Mina)dziiki 7K f Rl ^> Rinsho i^Jf. ^. 
7th Month. Fu[mi]dzuki ^ J^ , Isoku ^ ^ij. , ^ 

8th Month. Hadzuki ^ j^ , Keigetsu fi^: J^ , Akikazedzuki ^ M. B 

Tsukimidzuki B M. H, Seishfi JE 7^, Nanvo 1^ g. 
9th Month. Nagadzuki {Chogetsu) -g j^ , Kikudzuki ^ j^, Biiyeki M ^ 
10th Month. Kaminadzuki fil{i M ^ , Ybgetsu ^ }^ , Koharu {Shoshun) /h ^ 

Osho m M- 

11th Month. Shimotsiiki ^ j^ , Chogetsu ^ ^, Kaguradzuki jp't' ^ i] 

Osho J^ ^. 
1 2th Month. Shkvasn ^jp ^, Gokugetsu @ ^ (also read Shiwasu) 
Rd M (or Rogetsu Bt j^ or Roko fli ^), Zanto ^ ^ 
Tairo ^ ^. 
In certain years (called ^ ^ junnen or itrudoshi) an Intercalary Month 
(^ Fi jungivatsu or urudziiki) was added to the normal twelve and was 
named with reference to the month it followed ; thus : M \S H urii-shigwatsu, 



46 



DATES.— MOxXTHS, DAYS. 



[CH-\P. IV., § 2. 



'intercalary month between the 4th and 3th.' Such indication is rarely 
found on art-objects other than certain seal-dated colour-prints and other 
woodcuts of the nineteenth century. These date-seals contain, besides the 
junishi-sign for the )ear (see p. 44), the numeral indicating the month, 
generallx' in 'seal-script' (tensho). As usual, the first month is described as 
jH sho, but for the fourth ^\] (it, for ndzuki) is sometimes used to avoid 
confusion between the teusho forms for 4 and 6. Furthermore, ^ (gokii, for 
gokugetsii) may replace ^ (12th). P^or an intercalary month, ^ (often 
contracted to ^Bj ^is usual precedes the month-numeral (although this latter 
is occasionally omitted). 

Thus, no year-indication beyond the zodiac-sign being given, with a 
normal month there is, in default of extraneous evidence, a choice of years 
at regular intervals of twelve; but, with an intercalary month, this choice 
is greatly narrowed, as the following table will show^ : — 

LEAP YEARS FROM 1805 TO 1870 INCLUSIVE, 



Zodiac 
sign. 




Leap years. 


Intercalary 
month. 


Zodiac 
sign. 




Leap years. 


Intercalary 
month. 


^ 


1 


1816 


8~ 




< 

i 


1822 


I 


1852 


2 


^ 


1846 


3 




"1 


1805 


8 




1870 


ID 


3: 


1841 


I 


* 


f 


1811 







1 


1865 


5 


1 


1835 


7 


'M 


( 
1 


1830 
1854 




/ 


^ 


( 


1824 
i860 


8 
3 


^n 


1 


l8iq 
1843 


4 

9 


n 


( 


1813 
1849 


II 
4 


M 


I 


1808 
1832 


6 
II 


^ 


f 
1 


1838 
1862 


4 
8 




I 


1868 


4 


^ 




1827 


6 


B 




1857 


5 











Days.— These are normally quoted as shown on p. 41, last column^. 
A month might \\\\ the Old Style^j consist of either 29 or 30 days, but the 



* Compare, for a full treatment of this interesting question of date and other seals on colour- 
prints, the article by Major J. J. 0"Brien vSexton in The Studio, May, 1913, p. 313 ff. 

' Sc, 'immediately following the normal eighth month', and so forth. 

^ Or occasionally by means of the cycle-combinations (see above). These can be worked out 
only by means of protracted tables and lists such as those of Bramsen. 

* The old lunar calendar (^ |I> Jf^ taiin-reki or kiu g -reki) was superseded in Japan by the 
Western New Style (taiyv ^ f^ J§ -rehi or shin ^ -reki) on the third day of the twelfth month of 
Meiji V, which thus became the first day of the hrst month of Meiji VI (Jan. i, 1873 A.D.). 



CHAP. IV.. § 2.] DATES.—DAYS, SEASONS, HOURS. 47 

last day was in any case quoted as H§, or ^ l|, read misoka (literally 
' 30th day ') or tsiigomori ; the last day of tlie year being called ^ ITp^ H , 
omisoka or otsiigoinori. 

At the beginning of each year an ofllcial announcement was made as 
to whicli months would contain 30 and wliich 29 days (the former being- 
called i^ y ^ dai no tsiiki, the latter /J> y }^ sho no tsuki), also whether 
there would be an intercalary month and in what position. Calendars 
giving this information are called daisho-goyomi ^ /J% /ff and certain colour- 
prints are known in which the numerals for the ;^ (or the /J^) months of 
the current year are worked into the decorative scheme. 

The vague datings H nichi ('a day')', ^ g kichi-uiclii, -jiz ^ B 
daikichi-nichi, ^ J^ [l kissho-nichi, and kisshin'' ^ ^ (all meaning 'lucky 
day '), are frequently found on art-objects. 

Occasionally the day or month-and-day indication is given by quoting 
the name of a festival, e.g., ~[* X ^ kagen no hi (15th of loth month), 
and so forth. 

Sh.vsoNS. — The month and day indications are sometimes accompanied, 
or replaced, by a reference to the season. In Old Japan the four great 
seasons, it is interesting to note, did not begin (as with us) at the equinoxes 
and solstices, these occurring at their middle periods. 

For the purpose of dates the season-names (see Chap. ML, 40) are 
usually qualified by a prefix; thus: :^]) ^ shosliitn"' or ^ ^ mosliun ('early 
spring') — and so for the other seasons; /(tji ^ chushiin ('mid-spring'), etc.; 
^ ^ banshiin, ^ ^ boshiin, or ^ ^ kishun ('late spring'), etc. Tliese 
roughly correspond to the first, second and third months of each respectively. 

Occasionally the Nijushi-ki or Twenty-four Seasons are drawn upon 
(see Chap. VII., 96). 

Hours. — Under the old system (abolished as from 1873 in favour of the 
Western chronology) the Japanese day was divided into two parts: (i) from 
sunrise to sunset, and (2) from sunset to the next sunrise. Each of these 
parts was divided into six equal ' hours ' or, rather, intervals of two hours 
(more or less) ; these were called |l^ toki or, in composition, -ji. Obviously, 
in winter the night ' hours ' would be of greater length than the day ' hours ', 



' So following the month-indication {slwgwatsti nichi, etc.j, but g i\ would be read natau no hi 
(' a day in summer '), and so forth. 

^ This does not mean ' lucky Dragon day ' as opposed to other days in tlie zodiacal series. 

^ This particular phrase may also be read hatsuharn, implying the New Year season. ^ ^ 
shinshitn is a phrase of similar import. 



48 DATES.— HOURS. [chap, iv., § 2. 

and vice versa in summer, the proportionate ^graduations being in practice 
calculated for tlie beginning of eacli lialf-niontli and remaining constant for 
that period I 

Bv a simpler system the day was divided into twelve equal intervals 
(of 120 minutes) irrespective of the foregoing considerations. 

Tlie twelve 'hours' (-j- ZL H.^ i"'"7'* ^^^ eacli complete day were named 
in two ways : — 

(i) By the zodiacal signs (see Table of Cycles, p. 63); thus: 
1. ^ / |l.^ ue no toki, about 1 1 to i at night. 
-• 3t -^ ll-V "■^■/2'' "0 toki, about i to 3 a.m. 

and so on, u[) to : 
12. J^ / 11.^ / no toki, about 9 to 11 p.m. 
(2) In two sets of six, each numbered backwards from 9 to 4 ; thus : — 

1. At ll$ kokonotsu no toki or kuji (corresponding to ne no toki at 
night and to nma no toki in the daytime). 

2. A. K^ yatsit no toki or hachiji ( = iishi no toki or hitsiiji no toki). 

and so on, up to : 
0. P9 ll.'f yotsu no toki or ydji ( = mi no toki or i no toki). 
Further subdivisions c^f Japanese time are noted on p. 66. 



^ Clocks were regulated in two ways : either the dial-signs were fixed and the movement 
regulated at intervals throughout the year, or the movement was constant and the dial-signs 
capable of being pushed backwards or forwards as required. 




CHAP. IV., § 2.] DATES. 



49 



LIST A.— THE EMPERORS OF JAPAN. '- , 

With the dates of their first (complete) years, and, in the case of the 
first fifty, their earlier canonical names. (See p. 43 and notes below. 1 

' First • ^''«'ern 
^*'- v^o,-i Canonical Earlier Canonical Name^ 

1 Cell . XT '} 

Name-. 
B.C. 

1. 660 JiMMU Kamu -yamato -iware -liiko. (Died 585.) 

2. 581 SuiZEi Kamu -nuna<(awa -mimi. 

^ %^ # W ^ jl| ?• 

3. 549 Annei Shiki -tsu -hiko -tama -temi. 

4. 510 Itoku Gyamato -hiko -sukitomo. 

5. 475 KosHo Mimatsu -hiko -kayeshine. 

6. 392 KoAN Oyaniato -taraslii -hiko -kuni -oshibito. 

# ^ %\\ J^ ^ "& ^ t'l' A- 

7. 290 KoREi Gyamato -neko -hiko -futoni. 

# @ :^ H 2{c m i^ ^ i: JJ. 

8. 214 KoGEN Gyamato -neko -hiko -kunikuru. 

# X :^ H ;^ ;tl ^ ^ il ^^. 

9. 157 Kaikwa ^^'aka -yamato -neko -hiko -ohibi. 

10. 97 SujiN iMimaki -iri -hiko -iniye. 

mm mfn^n A M s + a m. 

11. 29 SuiNiN Ikume -iri -liiko -isaji. 

A.D. 

12. 71 Keiko -tarashi -hiko -oshishiro -wake. 

M ^f ± & ^ m> ^ w 

13. 131 Seimu Waka -tarashi -hiko. 

14. 192 ChOai Tarashi -naka -tsu -hiko. 

# % ^ \^ "& 

* Which is not necessarily the year of actual accession. 

^ Those of the first forty-nine were not given until 784, during the reign of Kwammu (no. 50). 
1 he Imperial title-suffix -tenno 5^ ^ is to be supplied in each case. 

^ These names (first given in 702 a.d.) are for the most part omitted from the Dictionary. 
Except in the cases marked with an asterisk, the suffix -no-sumeramikoto ^ ^ is to be supplied. 
'Ihe hyphenation is provisional, but on the whole advisable. 

4 



50 LIST OF THE EMPERORS. [chap, iv., § 2. 

'Firsf ^lodern 

No. ^. Canonical Earlier Canonical Name, 
lear. »- 

Name. 

A.D. 

— 201 Jingo' Okinaga -tarashi -liinie. (Empress-Regent.) 

m yh s (or n.) ^ ^ m- 

15. 270 O.TIX Honiuda -wake. 

E m # ffl ^'1 

16. 313 NiNTOKi' Osasagi. 

17. 400 RiCHu Izao -wake. 

18. 406 H.w'SHd MidzLiha -wake. 

19. 412 IxKio O -asatsuma -wakuko -no -sukune. 

it^ m mm (or w U) m"^ mm- 

20. 454 AxKo Anaho. 

21. 457 YuRiAKU O -hatsuse -waka -take. 

mm i<i vfi m m ^- 

22. 480 Seixei Shiraga -take -hirokuni -osliiwaka -yamato -neko. 

mm ^ k ^ JM M i^ m u ^ m 1-. 

23. 485 Kexso Kume -no -wakugo -oke -no -iwasu -wake. 

24. 488 NiXKEX Oke -no -tenno*. 

ii M m If ^ M. 

'^5- 499 BuRETSu O -hatsuse -waka -sasagi. 

^ ^11 /j^ m m m m m- 

26. 507 Keitai Olioto. 

mm. ^ ± ^. 

-7- 55-\- AxKAX Hirokuni -oshi -take -kanalii. 

^ f^ mm n it^ # H . 

28. ^],6 Senkwa Take -o -hirokuni -oshi -tate. 

29. 540 KiM.MKi Anie -kuni -oshi -hiraki -hironivva. 

^m ^ m m m m )&■ 

30. 572 BiTATSU Nunakakura -futotamashiki. 

ic ii i-¥ ^ M ± J* it- 

^ Jingo-kogo is in some lists counted as i6th Mikado, thus alTecting the succeeding sequence- 
numbers. 



CHAP. IV., § 2.] LIST OF THE EMPERORS. 51 

,p. . Modern 

No. V ' Canonical. Earlier Canonical Name. 

^'^'""- Name. 

A.D. 

31. 586 YoMEi Tachibana -no -toyohi. 

32. 588 SusHux Ha[tsu]sebe -no -waka -sagi. 

33- 593 SuiKO Toyomike -kashigiya -hime. (Empress.) 

34. 629 JoMEi Okinaga -tarashi -hi -liironiika. 

35. 642 KoGiOKU Ame -toyo -takara -ikashi -hi -tarashi -hime. (Empress.) 

^m % M: m 1: H ^ m- 

36. 645^ KoTOKU Ame -no -yorodzu -toyo -hi. 

37. 655 S.\iMEi (Second reign of No. t,^.) (Died 661.) 

m m 

38. 668 Tenji Ame -no -mikoto -liirakasu -wake. 

39. 672 KoBUN Otomo-oji* (princely name). 

^jLX :^ ^ M i^- 

40. 673 Temmu Ame -no -nunahara -oki -no -mahito. (Died 686.) 

^tl X -^ r|. ]^ u M A- 

41. 690 JiTo Takama -no -hara -hironu -hime. (Empress.) 

42. 697 MoMMU Ame -no -mamune -toyo -oji. 

43. 708 Gemmio Abe* or Yamato -neko -ama -tsu -mishiro -toyokuni 

Ttm mm b ^^ ui- % w m \k ^m 

-nari -hime. (Empress.) 

44. 715 Gensho Hitaka* or Yamato -neko -takamidzu -kiyotarashi 

-hime. (Empress.) 

45. 724 Shomu Ame -tsu -shirushi -kmii -oshi -hiraki -toyo -sakura 

m ^ X m m w m ^ m 

-hiko. 



1 Commencement of the first iiengo, Taikwa ^ -ft- 



52 



LIST OF THE EiMPERORS. 



[chap. IV., § J. 





'First' 
Year. 


Modern 








No. 


Canonical 
Name. 


Earlier Canonical Name. 




A.D. 










46. 


749 


KoKEN Abe*. (Empress.) 










# m H ^^• 












On abdication known as 


1 akano-tenno i^ 5f ^ M- 


47- 


759 


Ji'NXix'J Oi-tenno*. 

Wi^ :^ ^ 5^ M. 








48. 


7(^5 


Shotoki; (Second reign of 


No 


• 46.) 




49. 


770 


KoNiN Shirakabe. 








50. 


782 


K\v.\MMr "^'amabe. 








No. 


' First ' 
Year. 
A.D. 


Canonical Name. 


No 


' First ' 

Year. 

A.D. 


Canonical Name. 


51- 


806 


Heijo or N.\KA ^ ^^. 


71- 


I (J69 


Go-Sanjo I^ - f^. 


52. 


810 


Saga H^ m. 


7^- 


i073 


Shirakawa ^ ^. 


53- 


824 


;uNXA f^: ^11. 


73- 


1087 


HORIKAWA |)g VPj 


54- 


834 


NiMMio fn Pj]. 


74- 


1 108 


TOBA ^ ^. 


55- 


851 


MOXTOKU jt W- 




1 124 


SUTOKU ^ tf.- 


56. 


859 


Seiwa -^I ^11. 


76. 


1142 


KONOYE ig^ ^J. 


57- 


877 


YOZEI ^ ^. 


77 


1156 


Go-Shirakawa ^^ ^ JpJ. 


58. 


885 


KOKO ^ #. 


78 


1 159 


Nijo - m. 


59- 


889 


Uda ^ ^. 


79 


i]6f) 


RoKUJo >\ {1^. 


60. 


898 


Daigo HJ^ @^. 


80. 


1 1 69 


Takakura ^ ^. 


61. 


931 


SUZAKU ;Jjc l5^:- 


81 


1181 


Antoku ^ ^,. 


62. 


947 


Murakami ;jsj- _E. 


82 


1 1 84 


GO-TOBA \^ ^ ^. 


63- 


968 


Reizei ?^ 7^. 


83 


• 1 199 


TSUCHIMIKADO + ^1 P^. 


64. 


970 


Yenyu g] li. 


84 


1211 


^UNTOKU HIM i%. 


65. 


985 


KwAZAx :^ ^J. 


85 


122 I 


[Chukio^ jljj ^]. 


66. 


987 


ICHIJO — i\^,. 


86 


1222 


Go-HORIKAWA ^^ |g fnf. 


67. 


1012 


San JO H jil;- 


87 


 ^233 


shijo m i\^. 


68. 


1017 


Go-lcHijcr;^ - ji^. 


88 


• 1243 


Go-Saga ;i^ m m.- 


69. 


103-/ 


Go-SuzAKi- ;f|^ ;5}c ^. 


89 


• 1247 


Go-FUKAKI SA ;{^ -J^ ^. 


70. 


1046 


Go-Reizei I^ ^fj ^ji. 


90 


I 260 


K AM E yam A ^ llj. 



' Name given in 1871. 

'^ Go- in this and subsequent instances implies 'second of the name'. 

^ Name given in 1870. 



CHAP. IV., § 2.] 



LIST OF THE EMPERORS. 



53 



Canonical Name. 



No. 'First- 
lear. 

A.D. 

91. 1275 Go-Uda ^^ ^ %. 

92. i28s fushimi \% h. 

93. 1299 GO-FUSHIMI % \% _^. 

94. 1302 Go-Nijo %, zL fi^. 

95. 1309 Hanazono 1(^ g). 

96. 13 19 Go-Daigo ^^ gl |$g. 

SouTHERx Court. 

97- 1339 Go-Murakami ;{^ /|r.j- t. 

98^ 1368 Go-Kameyama ^ ^ ilj. 

Northern Court. 

133 1 KOGON ^ H. 

1336 KoMio ^ m. 

1349 SUKO ^ ^. 

1352 Go-KoGox j{^ % ^. 

1372 Go-Yenyu ^ III ggi. 

1383 GoTvOM.\TSU \^ /J> /f^. 

99- 1393 GoT<;oMATsu. 

100. 14 1 3 Shoko ^ %. 

loi. 1429 Go-Hanazono \^ ^ m. 

102. 1465 G()-TSUCHIMIKAI)0 

\k ± m n 

103. 1301 GoTnashiwabara ;{^ Ifj ]^ 



No. 


' First • 
Year. 
A.D. 


Canonical Name. 


104. 


1527 


Go-Nara ^ ^^ a. 


105. 


^55^ 


Ogimachi IE M Wf- 


106. 


1587 


Go-YozEi ;^ ^ ]ii. 


107. 


1612 


Go-MiNoo ;^ 7K H. 


108. 


1630 


MiOSHO |J^ jE- 


109. 


1644 


G0-K0M16 % it m- 


no. 


if'53 


Go-Saiix % ^ [>^. (Em- 
press.) 


III. 


1663 


Reigen ^ X. 


112. 


1687 


HiGASHIYAMA '^ \\\. 


113- 


1710 


Nakamikado 41 ^1 p^. 


114. 


1736 


Sakuramachi ^ I?]". 


113- 


1748 


MoMOZONo ;^^ g . 


116. 


1763 


Go-Sakuramachi I^ ^ WJ 
(Empress.) 


117. 


1771 


Go-MoMozoNo \^ j^^i m. 


118. 


r78o 


KOKAKU ^ ;j#. 


119. 


i8r7 


NiNKO fn :^. 


120. 


1847 


KOMEI ^ P^. 


121. 


1867 


Mei.II ip Va- 


122 


1912 


Taisho ;:^ jE . 



LISTS B TO E. THE NENGO. 
(See p. 43.) 

The readings of all nengo-names, with the dates of their first years and 
last (complete) years, are given in the Dictionary under the hrst character of 
each. But, especially for nengo from 1190 a.d. onwards, the following lists, 
B to E, will prove useful for rapid reference. List B shows the complete 
chronological sequence of the nengo witli the dates of their first years. 

List C, arranged alphabetically, comprises the nengo from 1190 a.d. 
onwards and shows the years in which each began and ended. The indications 
(i. iiia), (5. iii), etc., indicate the Japanese day-of-the-month on wiiich the 



^ Some lists insert Ch5kei 
first year. 



(1369-73) as the 98th Emperor, making 1373 Go-Kameyama's 



54 DATES. [chap, iv., § 2. 

nengo was changed. Thus, the entry : 

Antei . . . 1227 1229 (5. iii) 
indicates that the nengo Antei was proclaimed at some date^ in 1227 .\.d., 
the whole of which year (roughly speaking) is officially reckoned as the 
first of this nengo; 1228 is, of course, the second (and officially last) year; 
while the reference 1229 (5. iii) indicates that on the fifth day of the third 
month- of what in actually contemporary documents could only be described 
as Antei III (1229) the nengo was changed (to Kwanki, as shown by List B)'\ 
From that day onwards, however, the whole of the year 1229 would officially 
be referred to as the first of the succeeding nengo, i.e., Kwanki I. 

In this list (C), which may be used for calculating dates (from 1190) 
where the reading of the nengo-name is already known, no references to 
characters are given unless there is a choice between two or more alternatives 
for a particular element. 

Otherwise the proper characters are to be ascertained from List D, which 
shows the ideographs used in nengo (complete series), with their readings 
according to their position as initials or finals. Those readings which appear 
(initially or finally as the case may be) before 1190 only are set within 
square brackets, and the dates of nengo involving these must be looked for 
in the appropriate places in the Dictionary (or the earlier portion of List B). 

List E shows the first years of the nengo (from 1190), which are here 
indexed according to their final characters. It is for use where the characters 
are given, whether their reading is known or not. (The arrangement by 
finals has been adopted so as to provide clues in cases where the initial is 
for some reason unidentifiable, as for instance in a partially obliterated 
inscription. Tlie reverse case would, of course, be met by reference to the 
Dictionary.) 



1 Reference to List B shows that the preceding nengo was, in this case, Karoku ; while further 
reference to List C shows that the nengo was changed from Karoku to Antei on the loth day of 
the 12th month of 1327. 

^ Which, by the way, does not mean '5th of March'. This particular entry, as a matter of 
fact, corresponds to March 31, 1229, in the Julian Calendar. (See Bramsen's Japanese Chronological 
Tables.) 

3 Note that 'iii a' is an abbreviation for 'intercalary 3rd month.' (See pp. 45, 46.) 



CHAP. IV., § 2.] 



THE NENGO. 



55 



LIST B.— COMPLETE CHRONOLOGICAL SERIES OF NENGO 
WITH DATES OF FIRST YEARS. 

(N.B. — In each case the last (complete) year is to be read as the year 
preceding that quoted for the next entry. Certain alternative readings are 
omitted, especially those involving the suppression of y (preceding e) at the 
beginning of a syllable.) 



AT — 


First 


\T — 


First 




First 


A'enf^o. 


year. 


.\ engo. 


year. 


Xengo. 


Year. 


Taikwa ... 


643 


Shohei (Johei) ... 


931 


Shoho (Joho) 


1074 


Hakuchi ... 


f)5o 


Tenkei (Tengio) 


938 


Shoreki (Joriaku, 




Interval] ... 


^55 


Tenriaku 




Shoriaku) 


1077 


Hakuho ... 


672 


(Tenreki) 


947 


Yeiho 


1 08 1 


Shucho (Sucho) ... 


687 


Tentoku ... 


957 


Otoku 


1084 


Interval] ... 


697 


Owa 


961 


Kwanji ... 


1087 


Taiho (Dailio) ... 


701 


Koho 


964 


Kaho 


1094 


Keiun (Kioun) 


704 


Anna (Anwa) ... 


968 


Yeicho ... 


1096 


Wado 


708 


Tenroku ... 


970 


Shotoku (Jotoku) 


1097 


Reiki 


715 


Tenyen ... 


973 


Kowa 


1099 


Yoro 


717 


Teigen (Jogen) ... 


976 


Choji 


1 104 


Shinki (Jinki) 


724 


Tengen ... 


978 


Kasho (Kajo) 


1 106 


Tempio (Teinpei) 


1 729 


Yeikwan... 


983 


Tennin ... 


1 108 


Tempio-shoho 


749 


K wanna 




Tenyei ... 


mo 


Tempio-hoji 


i 757 


(Kwanwa) 


985 


Yeikiu 


1113 


Tempio- jingo 


^65 


Yeiyen ... 


987 


Genyei 




Jingo-keiun 


767 


Yeiso 


989 


(Gwanyei) 


1118 


Hoki 


770 


Shoreki 




Hoan 


1120 


Teno 


781 


(Shoriaku) 


990 


Tenji 


1124 


Yenriaku 




Chotoku ... 


995 


Daiji (Taiji) 


1126 


(Yenreki) 


782 


Choho 


i 999 


Tensho (Tenjo) ... 


1131 


Daido 


806 


Kvvanko ... 


1004 


Chosho (Chojo)... 


1132 


Konin 


810 


Chowa ... 


1012 


Hoyen 


1135 


Tencho 


824 


Kwannin... 


1017 


Yeiji 


1141 


Showa (Jovva) 


834 


Jian (Chian) 


1021 


Koji 


1142 


Kasho (Kajo) 


848 


Manju 


1024 


Tenyo 


1 144 


Ninju 


: 851 


Chogen ... 


1028 


Kiuan 


1 145 


Saiko (Seiko) 


854 


Choreki 




Nimpio (Nimpei) 


1151 


Tenan 


857 


(Choriaku) 


1037 


Kiuju 


1 1 54 


Jogwan (Jokwan) 


! 859 


Chokiu ... 


1040 


Hogen 


1156 


Genkei (Gwangio) 


1 877 


Kwantoku 


i 1044 


Heiji (Bioji) 


1 159 


Ninna (Ninwa) ... 


885 


Yeisho (Yeijo) ... 


: 1046 


Yeiriaku 




Kwampio 




Tenki (Tengi) ... 


1053 


(Yeireki) 


1 160 


(Kwampei) 


: 889 


Kohei 


1 1058 


Oho 


1161 


Shotai 


; 898 


Jireki (Jiriaku, 




Chokwan 


1 163 


Yengi 


: goi 


Chiriaku) 


\ 1065 


Yeiman 


1 165 


Yencho 


923 


Yenkiu ... 


1069 


Ninan 


1 1 66 



56 



THE NENGO.— LIST B. 



[chap. IV, 



§^. 



Nengo. 


First 
Year. 


Nengo. 


First 
year. 


Ne7igo. 


First 
year. 


Kao 


1 169 


Shoan 


1299 


Kakei 


1387 


Shoan (Joan) 


II71 


Kengen ... 


1302 


Kdd 


1389 


Angen 


II75 


Kagen 


1303 


f 


1390 


Jisho 


... 


II77 


Tokuji 


I '^06 


Meitokii ... 


to 


Yowa 





I181 


'^'enkei (Yenkid) 


1308 




1392 


Juyei 


Genreki, 


1 182 


Ochd 

Shdwa 


131 1 
1312 






Genriaku 






G^^ 


'anriaku) 


1 184 


Bumpd ... 


1317 


Meitoku 




Bunji 





1 185 


Gend 


1319 


(continued) 


1393 


Kenkiu 




1 190 


Genkid (Genkd) 


1 32 1 


Oyei 


1394 


Slioji 


.. 


1 199 


Shdchu ... 


1324 


Shdchd ... 


1428 


Kennin 




I20I 


Kareki (Kariaku) 


1326 


Yeikid (Ydkid) ... 


1429 


Genkiu 





1204 


Gentoku ... 


1329 


Kakitsu ... 


I44I 


Kenyei 


.. 


1206 


Genkd 


133I 


Bunan 


1444 


Shogen (Jogen) ... 


1207 


Kemmu ... 


1334 


Hdtoku ... 


1449 


Keiireki 




Yengen ... 


1336 


Kidtoku (Kdtoku) 


1452 


(Kenriaku) 


I2II 


Kdkoku ... 


1340 


Kdshd 


1455 


Kempo 


I213 


Shdhei 


1346 


Chdroku ... 


1457 


Shokiu ijokiu) 


1219 


Kentoku ... 


1370 


Kwanshd 


1460 


Joo (Teio) 


1222 


Bunchu ... 


1372 


Bunshd ... 


1466 


Geiinin 


1224 


Tenju 


1375 


Onin 


1467 


Karoku 


1225 


Kdwa 


1381 


Bummei ... 


1469 


Antei 


1 227 


Genchu ... -> 


1384 


Chdkid (Clidkd) 


1487 


Kwanki (Kwangi) 


1229 


to 


Yentoku ... 


1489 


Joyei (Teiyei) 


1232 


1392 


Meid 


1492 


Tempuku ... 


^^33 






Bunki 

Yeishd (Ydshd) ... 


I5OI 


Bunriaku 






1504 


(Bunreki) 


1234 


Northern Court. 




Taiyei (Daiyei) ... 




Katei 


^^35 






Kidroku 


I52I 


Rekijin 




Shdkei ( 
(Shdkid)] 1 


1332 


(Kdroku) 


1328 


(Ri ' 
Yeno 


akunin) 


1238 
1239 


to 
^333 


Tembun ... 

Koji 


1532 
1555 


Ninji 




124c 






Yeiroku (Ydroku) 


155-^ 


Kwangen . 




1243 


Riakud (Reki-d) 


1338 


Genlvi 


1570 


Hoji 




1247 


Kdyei 


1342 


Tenshd ... 


1573 


Kenclio 




1249 


Teiwa 


1345 


Bunroku ... 


1592 


Kogen 




1256 


Kwand ... 


1350 


Keirhd ... 


1596 


Shoka 




1257 


Bunna (Bunwa)... 


1352 


Genna (Genwa)... 


1615 


Shogen 




1259 


Yembun ... 


^35^ 


Kwanvci... 


1624 


Buno 




1260 


Kdan 


1361 


Shdhd 


1644 


Kocho 




1261 


j/^ji 


1362 


Keian 


1648 


Bunyei 




1264 


Oan 


1368 


Shod (J do) 


1652 • 


Kenji 




1275 


^'eiwa (Ydwa) ... 


1375 


Meireki 




Koan 




1278 


Kdreki (Kdriaku) 


1379 


(Meiriaku) 


1655 


Shoo 




1288 


Yeitoku (Ydtoku) 


1381 


Manji 


1658 


Yeinin (Yc 


min) ... 


1293 1 


Shitoku 


1384 


Kwambun 


1 66 1 



CHAP. IV., § 2.] 



THE .V£.VGO.— LISTS B, C. 



57 



Neiipv. 



^'empo 

Tenna (Tenwa) 

Teikio (Jokio) 

Genroku 

Hoyei 

Shotoku 

Kiohd 

Gembun 

K\vamp(~) 

Yeiikio 



First 


year. 


i^J73 
if)8i 


1684 
1688 


1704 


1711 


1716 
1736 


1741 


1744 



Xengo. 



Kwanyen 

Horeki (Horiaku 

iMeiwa 

Anyei 

Teminei . 

Kwansei . 

Kiowa 

Bunkvva . 

Bunsei 

Tempo 



First 


year. 


174S 


1 75 1 
1764 


1772 

1781 
1789 
1801 


1804 
1818 


1830 



Nengo. 



Kokwa 

Kayei 

Ansei 

JNIanyen 

Bunkiu 

Genji (G 

Keio 

Meiji 

Taisho 



wanjil 



First 
vear. 



1844 
1848 

1854 
i860 

1861 

1864 

1865 

1868 

igi2 



LIST C— THE NENGO FROM 1190 A.D. ONWARDS. 
(See explanation on p. 53.) 



Neiigu. 


1 

First year. 


Date when changed. 


Xettg-o. 


First year. 

1 

1 52 1 


Date when changed. 


An-sei 


 1854 


1860 (i. iiia) 


Dai-vei .. 


1528 (20. viii) 


-tei .. 


•' 1227 


1229 (5.iii) 


Gen-bun .. 


1736 


1 74 1 (27. ii) 


-yei .. 


•: 1772 


1 781 (6. iv) 


-chu .. 


1384 


1392 (3. xa) 


Bun-an . . 


■' 1444 


1449 (28. vii) 


-Ji •• 


1864 


1865 (7. IV) 


-chu .. 


•1 1372 


1375 (27. V) 


-ki .. 


1570 


1573 (28. Vll) 


-ki . . 
-kiu .. 


.: 1501 
.' 1861 


1304 (30 11) 
1864 (I. iii) 


-kio-^ \ 
-ko J 


132 I 


1324 (9. xi) 


-kwa . . 


. 1804 


1818 (22. iv) 


-kiu .. 


1204 


1206 (27. iv) 


-meiL. 


.; 1469 


1487 (20. vii) 


-ko" .. 


1331 


1334 (29- i) 


-na" . . 


•: 1352 


1356 (28. iii) 


-na .. 


1615 


1624 (30. n) 


-0 


.' 1260 


1261 (20. ii) 


-nni .. 


I 224 


1225 (20. iv) 


-pO'^ . . 


•, I3I7 


13 19 (28. iv) 


-0 


I319 


1321 (23. ii) 


-reki "I 






-roku.. 


1688 


1704 (13. iiij 


-riaku j 


1234 


1235 (19. IX) 


-toku.. 


1329 


1331 {10. viii) 


-roku.. 


•I 1592 


1596 (27. xi) 


-wa . . 


1615 


1624 (30. ii) 


-sei .. 


.! 1818 


1830 (if), xii) 


Gwan-ji .. 


1864 


1865 (7. IV) 


-sho-^.. 


. 1466 


1467 (5. iii) 


HoiHi •• 


1247 


1249 (18. 11) 


-wa~ .. 

-yei .. 


•: 1352 

. 1264 


1336 (28. iii) 

1275 (25. IV) 


-reki | 
-riaku j 


1751 


176.4 (2. vi) 


Cho-ko^' \ 
-kio j 


1487 


1489 (2.1. viii) 


-toku 
-vei .. 


1449 
1704 


1452 (25- vn) 
171 1 (23. iv) 


-roku.. 


•i 1457 


1460 (21. xii) 


Jo'-ji- 


13^2 


1368 (18. ii) 



* Read Btiiniuei ; so with Bitmpo. Gemhitn, Kcmmit. etc. 
2 Of the 'Nortliern Dynasty' (Hokitclw). 



t* 



JE 



or 



% 



0. 



«f 



5^ 



THE .V£iVGO.— LIST C. 



[chap. IV., § 2. 



Nengo. 


First year. 


Date wlien changed. 


Nengo. 


First year. 


Date when changed. 


j^:,}-wa^ 


1684 


1688 (30. ix) 


-reki- 
-riaku 


} 1379 


1381 (14- ii) 


-6 ... 


J TOO 


1224 (20. xi) 


-sho* . 


•• 1455 


1437 (28. ix) 


-vei 

-• 


12^2 


1233 (13- Jv) 


-yei- . 


•• 1342 


1345 (21. x) 


-kiu 


1207 

I2iq 


121 1 (9. iii) 
1222 (13. iv) 


K5"-koku 
Kio J 


1340 
u 1528 


1346 (4. vii) 
1532 (29. vii) 


-6 ... 


1652 


if'55 (13- i^') 


-tok 


U i 1452 


1455 (25- vii) 


Ka-gen . . . 


1302 


1306 (14. xii) 


Kwan-bui 


1 ' l()(\l 


1673 (21. ix) 


-kei2 ... 


T387 


1389 (9. ii) 


-gei 


1 1243 


1247 (28. ii) 


-kitsu ... 
-reki 1 
-riaku J 


1441 
I 326 


1444 (5- Ji) 
1329 (28. viii) 


-ki 
-53 


1 1229 
1350 


1232 (2. iv) 
1352 (27. ix) 


-roku ... 


1225 


1227 (10. xii) 


-p6- 


' 1 741 


1744 (21. 11) 


-tei 


1235 


1238 (23. xi) 


-sei 


1789 


1801 (5. ii) 


-yei 


1848 


1854 (27. xi) 


-sho 


1460 


1466 (28. ii) 


Kei-an 


1648 


1652 (18. ix) 


-ye] 


1624 


1644 (16. xii) 


-cho . . . 


1596 


1615 (13. vii) 


-yei 


1 1748 


1751 (27. xii) 


-o 


1865 


1868 (8. ix) 


Man-ji 


.. 1658 


1661 (15. iv) 


Ken'^-gen 


1302 


1303 (5. viii) 


-yen 


.. i860 


t86t (28. ii) 


Ken^^-cho 


1249 


1256 (5. X) 


Mei-ji 


.. 1868 


1912 (30. vii) 


-ji ... 


127.5 


1278 (29. iii) 


-0 


•• 1492 


1501 (29. ii) 


-kiu ... 
-mu ... 


1 190 
1334 


1 1 99 (27. iv) 
1336 (29. ii) 


-reki 
-riaku 


} ^^^55 


1658 (22. vii) 


-nin ... 
-po^ ... 


1201 
1213 


1204 (20. ii) 
1219 (12. iv) 


-toku 
-toku2 


 1393 \ 
•• 1390 j 


1394 (3- vii) 


-reki 1 
-riaku J 


1211 


1 2 13 (6. xii) 


-wa 

Nin-ji 


.. 1764 
1240 


1772 (16. xi) 
1243 (26. ii) 


-toku 


1370 


1372 (4. x) 


0-an- 


.. 1368 


1375 (27- 11) 


-yei ... 


1206 


1207 (25. x) 


-cho 


.. 1311 


1312 (20. iii) 


KioMio^ ... 


1716 


1736 (28. iv) 


-nin 


.. 1467 


T469 


-wa ... 


1 801 


1804 (11. ii) 


~y^\. 


•• 1394 


1428 


Kio" ! 1 
K6- r"^ 


1528 


1532 (29. vii) 


Reki-jin 
Reki 1 


.. 1238 
-0 --, 


1239 (7. 11) 
1342 (27. iv) 


-toku 


1452 


1455 (25- vii) 


Riaku J * 


^' U^^ 


Ko^-an . . . 


1278 


1288 (28. iv) 


Riaku-nii 


1 1238 


1239 (7. ii) 


-cho . . . 


1261 


1264 (28. ii) 


Shi-toku- 


i3^^4 


1387 (23- vni) 


-ji ... 


1555 


1558 (28. 11) 


Sho*-an 


.. 1299 


1302 (21. Xl) 


-kwa 


1844 


1848 (15. iii) 


-cho 


.. 1428 


1429 (3. ix) 


-wa ... 


1381 


1384 (28. iv) 


-chu 


• • 1324 


1326 (26. iv) 


Ko"-an2 ... 


1361 


1362 (23. ix) 


-gen 


•• 1259 


1260 (12. iv) 


-gen ... 

— 

-o- 


1256 
1389 1 


1257 (14. iii) 
1390 (26. iii) 


-hei 
-hio 


} ^346 . 


1370 (24. vii) 



*4 

1 



2 Of the 'Northern Dynasty' {Hokucho). 
' ^ * JE ^ ^ or $ ^ ^ 



If- 



It 



CHAP. IV., § 2.] 



THE NENGO.—UST C. 



59 




2 Of the 'Xortliern lOynasty ' (Hokucho). 

M* 'IE 'Wi ''IS- 




6o 



Charac- 
ters. 



As Hei 

X 

m 






% 



-SH. 



As Kei 



e 
^ 



THE NENGO. 

LIST D.— CHARACTERS USED IN NENGO. 
(See explanation on p. 54.) 



[chap. IV., § 2. 



As 
initials. 



An- 

[Bio-] 

Bun-, 
Bum- 



[Chi- 



Ji-] 



Cho- 



Dai-, 
Tai- 



Gen-, 

Gem-, 

Gwan- 



Gwan-, 

Gen-, 

Gem- 



As 
finals. 



[Haku-] 

Hei- 
[Bio-J 



-an 

-bun 
-chi 

-ji 

[-cho] 

-cho 
-chu 

[-do] 
[-do] 
-gen 



-ki 
-gio 



-gen 



[-go] 

[-gwan, 
-kwan] 



-hei, 
-pei, 
-hio, 
-pi 6 



Charac- 
ters. 



^ 



M 



T^ 



f- 1 

or \ 

Ml 






As 
initials. 



[Ho-] 
Ho- 



Chi-] 



[Jin- 

Shin-] 
Nin- 

[Nim-] 

Jo-, 
Tei- 

J5-, 
Sho- 



[Ju-] 
Ka- 

Kei-, 

[K10-] 
Ken-, 
Kem- 
Ken- 



Kio-, 
Ko- 



[Kio-] 
Kei- 



As 
finals. 



-ho, 
-po 
[-ho], 
-po 

[-ho] 

-ji 

[-ji] 



-Jin, 
-nin 

-tei 

[-sho] 

[-jo, 
-sho] 

-ju 

[-ju] 

-ka 

-kei, 
-kio 



-ki 

-ki, 

-gi 

-kio, 
-ko 



[-kio] 

-kei 

-kitsu 



Charac- 
ters. 



or 



m. 



ft 



fn 



mm 
2iz: 



As 
initials. 



[Km-] 

Ko-, 
Kio- 



Ko- 



Ko- 



Kwan-, 
Kwam- 



Man- 



i\Iei- 



[Wa-] 

Nin- 

Nim- 

0- 

[H6-] 

Ho- 



As 

finals. 



-kiu 

-ko, 
-kio 



-ko 



[-ko] 

-koku 

-kwa 



[-kwan, 
-gwan] 



-mei 

-mu 

-na, 

-wa 

-nin, 

-jm 

-6 

-po, 

-ho 

-po, 

-ho 

-puku 



[Rei-] : ... 

Reki- -reki, 
Riaku- -riaku 



CHAP. IV., § 2.] 



THE .V£,VGO.-^IJSTS D. E. 



6i 



Charac- 


As 


As 


Charac- 


As 


As 


Charac- 


1 

As 


As 


ters. 


initials. 


finals. 


ters. 


initials. 


iinals. 


ters. 


initials. 


finals. 


^ 


... 


-ro] 


m 


... 


-sho, 
-jo 


^ 


Ten-, 
Tem- 


... 


m 


... 


-roku 


H 
B 


[Sho-] 




m 


Toku- 


-toku 


m 


Sai-, 
Sei-l 


... 


^ 


[Shu-] 


... 




... 


-un] 


Wi 




-sei 


m 


... 


[-SO 


IP 


[W^a-] 


-na 


"^ 


Shi- 


... 


± 


Tai-, 
Dai- 


... 


7% 


Yei- 
Yo- 


-yei 


m 


[Shin-, 
Jin- 


... 


m 


... 


[-tai 


m 


Yen-, 


-ven 


IF 


Sho 


-sho 


M 


Tei-, 
Jo- 


-tei 




Yem- 




m 


Sho-, 
Jo- 


[-sho] 


M 




-tei 


m 


[Y6-] 





Also, as medials in the four four-character nengo : 

¥ [-P10-] m [-sho-] jf,| [-jni-] m [-go-] ^ [-kei-] 



LIST E.— A'£.VGO (FROM 1190 A.D.) INDEXED ACCORDL\G TO 

THEIR FINALS. 

(See explanation on p. 54.) 

[N.B. — The finals are arranged according to tlie number of their strokes.] 



Final. ! Initial. First Year. Final. 



!K 



t: 



it- 



7lC 



% 

m 
^ 



1 190 
1204 
1219 
1861 
I20I 
1224 
1238 

1467 
1804 
1844 
1207 



Final. 


Initial. 




% 




m 




IE 




m. 








^k 




m 


X. 


m 




^ 

w 




Mi 

7C 


^■- 


jE 




X 



First Year. 



1243 
1256 

1259 
1302 

1303 

133'^ 

1661 

173^' 
1324 
1372 



Final. 


Initial. 








TC 


tK: 


m 




^ 




X 1 




M , 




m i 




■k 




% 




^ 








3^ 


^L- 


7C 



First Year. 



1384 
1206 
1232 
i2(:>4 

134-^ 

1394 
1521 

l()24 

1704 
1772 
1848 



1 Of the ' Northern Dvnastv. 



62 



THE NENGO.—UST E. 



[chap. IV., § 2. 



Final. 



jE- 



^ 
^ 



-rfc 



ic 



IP: 



Initial. 



JE 
jE 






jE 



X 

X 

IE 
M 

7lC 



First Year. 



455 
460 

466 
504 

573 
912 

346 
278 
2gq 
36 1 1 
368^ 

444 

648 

441 
748 
860 
199 
240 
247 

275 
306 

362I 

555 
658 

864 

868 

469 

781 

789 

818 

854 
312 

345^ 
352^ 
375' 



Final. Initial. 



^ 



1* 



M 



JS. 



First Year. Final. Initial. 



1 

m 

JE 

7lC 

M 



X 

1: 

7lC 

X 
5^ 



JE 



1381 
161 5 
i68l 
1764 
1801 
1249 
1261 
1311 
1428 

1596 
1321 
1429 
1487 
1684 

1744 

1334 
1213 

1317 
1644 

1716 

1741 

1830 

1375 
1227 

1340 

1229 

1225 

1457 
1528 

1558 
1592 
1688 

J 235 
1257 






X 

m 

m 
1 

IE 
52 
JE 
M 



X 



X 

M 

m 

X 

X 



m 



First Year. 



{ 



1329 

1370 

1381I 

1384^ 

I390I 

1393 
1449 

1452 
1489 
1711 
1308 

1332' 

1387^ 
I2II 

1234 
1326 

1379^ 

^^55 

1751 
1501 

1570 
1222 

1239 

1260 

1288 

1 3 19 
1338^ 

1350^ 
1389I 

1492 

1652 

1863 

1673 



' Of tlio • Northern Dynastv.' 



CHAP. IV., § 3.] 



•WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



65 



§ 3.— JAPANESE WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 
LENGTH {shakudo K !^)- 



10 rin M — I bu ^ 

10 bu =1 sun -^ 

10 sun = I shakii''^ J^ 

I hiro or jin (fathom) t^ 

6 shaku = I ken fa\ 

10 shaku = I 70 ^ 

60 fee/i = I cho HJ 

36 cho = I rf Jl 



= o'lig 111.' 

= I '19 in. 

= 11-93 in. 

= ca. 5 ft. 

= 3'977 ft. 

= 9-942 ft. 

= ii9'52 yd. 

= 2 '44 miles. 



36 



30 
300 

10 



AREA (heiho-shaku ^ :fj J^). 

sq. shaku 
{hoshaku ^j /^) = I sq. ken or 

I tsubo 1^ or bu ^ = 3"95 sq. yd. 

tsiibo = I sc Q^ • = ii8"5 sq. yd. 

:fsi(6o = I tan ^ or ^ = o"245 ac. 

tan = I hocho ;;// BJ = 2 '45 ac. 

(A jo ^, the area of a room-mat, is about 6 ft. X 3 ft.) 



CAPACITY [vippo-shaku it ij K)- 



10 


satsu ^ 




— 


I sai or sho 
:? (or if) 




= 


0'0032 pt. = o'lioS c. 


in. 


10 


sai {sho) 




= 


I seki or shak 
^ (or ^) 


u 


— 


0-03177 pt. = 1-1075 c. 


in. 


10 


seki {shak 


u) 


= 


I go ^ 




= 


0-3177 pt- = ii'o75 c. 


in. 


10 


go 




= 


I sho^ ^ 




= 


3-177 pt. = 11075 c. 


in. 


10 


sho 




= 


I to S\' 




= 


3-97 gal. = 1107-5 ^^■ 


in. 


10 


to 




= 


I feofen ^ (or 


M) 


rrz 


4-963 bus. = 1 1075 c. 


in. 



' These equivalents (except in the table of Time) are approximate only. 

2 Also seki occasionally in composition. Read issliakii (i), nijaku (2), sanjaku (3), shijaku (4), 
ku (j), rokushdkii (6), shichijaku (7), hasshaku (8), and so forth. 

2 This sho is the standard and is contained within a masu (measure with diagonal bar acting 
as 'jpveller), whose internal dimensions are 4^9 sjih square by 27 sun deep. 



66 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



[chap. IV., § 3. 



10 


ski ^, 


10 


mo 


10 


Yin 


10 


fun 


4 


momme 


40^ 


rid 


250 


rio 




or 


000 


momme 



WEIGHT [ju-rid ^ 1 

I mo ^ 

I rin m 

I jun ^ 

I me or momme ^, ^ or ^ 

1 rid "^ 

I kin Jr C' catty") 

r I kwan ^ "j 

= - or ,- ... 

[ kwamme ^ @ j 



o'o5796 gr. troy. 

o'5796 gr. troy, 

5796 gr. troy. 

57-96 gr. troy. 
231-84 gr. troy. 

1-325 lb. av. 

8-267 lb. av. 



I 



60 

15 

4 
12 



hid ^ (each 2 sec.) 

fun 

koku 

toki 



TIME (Old Style). 

= I fun ^ 

= I koku- ^Ij 

= I toki or ji [1$ 

= 1 hi or 7n'c/zi H 



= 2 mm. 

= 30 min. 

= 2 hr. 

= 24 hr. 



4 s/iu ^ (or §|) 
4 bu ... 



COINAGE. 

I 611 ^ (or ^). 

I 7a'o ^ or 60 momme weight of silver money 



' This for avoirdupois ; for apothecaries' weight, 30 ; for a few other uses, 50. 

■^ Koku also, at one period, described the hundredth part of a day-and-night, thus giving 8^ 
koku to the toki. At the spring and autumn equinoxes the 100 koku were equally divided between 
day and night ; at the winter solstice the day had 40, the night 60 koku, and vice versa at the 
summer solstice. 

Another system of division gave three koku ta the toki (Jo _t., chu t|), and ge "f -koku), or 
36 to a day-and-night. 



CHAPTER V. 

JAPANESE PERSONAL NAMES AND TITLES. 

Without, venturing upon an historical investigation of the personal names 
of Japan, it is convenient, so far at least as concerns the ten or eleven 
centuries preceding the present regime, to classify them broadly as follows : — 

A.— GROUP NAMES. 
(i) Clan-names, ^ sei or kabane, borne by hereditary right or as a 
privilege granted by authority. They are not many in number and are for 
the most part of identical construction with the ordinary family-name or 
surname (2) — indeed many of them appear independently in the latter guise. 
The best-known examples^ are: — 

Otomo ;;^ j^ Fujiwara* ^ ]^ Sugawara* % ]^ 

Soga M ^ Minamoto* i> Oye ± xL 

Mononobe Jj^ ^5 Taira* ^i Abe ^ /{§ 

Nakatomi i^i g Ki* ^ 

Kiyowara f^ ]^ Tachibana* ^ 

When a name is written in full, the clan-name jollows the surname and 
immediately precedes tlie nanori (see (5) below) but for the indispensable 
epenthetic no, a sort of genitival ' postposition ' analogous to the German 
von (thus : Fujiwara no Kamatari). This no is properly inserted in reading 
and in a kana or roman transliteration, but it is (or should be) never 
represented when the name is written purely in Chinese script. 

(2) Family-names or surnames, ^ uji, "^ ^ mioji, borne, until 1870, 
only by the court-nobles and the military class {kuge and samurai), and by 
such craftsmen and other members of the lower ranks of society as were 
specially privileged to do so. Others might replace them by a name indicative 
of their calling, such as Yaoya A ^ M ('greengrocer'), Hiakusho "g" J^ 
(' farmer '). They were rarely quoted in the case of women. 

A rough analysis of them reveals some 1,300 or 1,400 different characters 
used as initials,^ sharing between them for this purpose some 800 or 900 

^ Those marked with an asterisk are fairly commnn in craftsmen's signatures, Ki, for example, 
being used by the Miochin, a family of armourers, and Tachibana by the Umetada, swordsmiths 
and makers of sword-furniture. Fujiwara and Minamoto, again, are very common with swordsmiths 
generally, I'aira somewhat less so. 

^ Many characters, despite tiieir obvious suitability, seem rarely or never to have been used 
for surnames. 



68 PERSONAL NAMES AND TITLES. [chap. v. 

different pronunciations. The number of finals is considerably smaller^ — 
those in common use amount to less than a hundred in all and are chiefly 
of topographical import (see the list on p. 93). Nevertheless, and including 
only two-character examples (an initial plus a final-), the possible combinations 
would still total a very large number, although, for various reasons, a mere 
fraction of them appear ever to have been in actual use. Some of these 
reasons are not far to seek. Certain characters are naturally less popular 
than others, and there is always a strong tendency to euphony,""^ thus 
debarring many of tlie Sinico-Japanese readings, which are largely monosyllabic. 
Apart from the incidence of the nigori (see Chapter III.) in finals, and 
putting aside frank anomalies such as Wase ^ ^, Hase ^ ^, Hatori ]\^ iffl>, 
Kawanami ^^ [^-, and the like, each character is with few exceptions read 
uniformly in all its combinations. Such exceptions are due chiefly to the 
existing choice between the vernacular and the Sinico-Japanese pronunciations 
or among a number of vernacular readings {e.g., _t ka7ni, uye, age; ^ hira, 
-daira ; ^ tani, ya, yatsu ; ji tate, tatsu, tachi ; 0f nii, ara ; ^ tsiino, kado, 
sumi ; ^ iye, ya ; /\\ Ko, 0; ^ koshi, -goye). Epenthetic 720 (na) or ga, 
usually unrepresented by a character (e.g., Ichinomiya — '^, Tanabe EB pfU> 
Teshjgahara ^]} ^ ]^), must also be mentioned. 

B.— ORDINARY INDIVIDUAL NAMES. 
(Quoted, actually or by implication, in connection with the surname 

or clan-name, if borne.) 

(3) BoY-NAMES, yomid, osanana, ^ ^, '^ ^, /]> ^, bestowed ceremonially 
the sixth day after birth. They are usually short and simple. Some historical 
examples end in waka ^, maru 'Ji^ or '^. They were borne until the 
attainment of 'majority' (the age of 15) at the gembuku ceremony, when 
the zokumio (4) was assumed. 

(4) Zokumio ^ ^ or Tsusho ^^ ^; and 

(5) Nanori ^ ^ or Jitsuniio ^ ^. The zokumio was the 'ordinary 
name ', by which a man would commonly be known. Only the upper 
classes (or privileged members of the lower) would concurrently possess a 
nanori,'^ and this was restricted in its use to special occasions (it commonly 

' That is, if we exclude the long list of examples beginning with -^ (' gre^t ') and /]■» Ko 
or ('small'), many of which have as finals characters otherwise used only as initials. 

^ The usual form. A few consist of three or of one onlv, and a mere liandful of four or hve. 

^ Even six-syllabled examples (e.g., Kawarabayashi) run trippingly from the tongue. 

* In modern times the law insists on a single surname and a single individual name for 
ollicial purposes throughout life. This second name is indifferently called vatwri, though it may 
be of the zokumio or any other appropriate type. 



CHAP, v.] PERSONAL NAMES AND TITLES. 6q 

appears in signatures, for instance, in preference to the zokumio). It was 
closely associated with the clan-name, if borne (i). 

Zokumio and nanori are highly distinctive in their mode of construction 
and fuller treatment of them is relegated to §i and 2 (pp. yoL, 75f.). 

Women's Names in general are also dealt with in §2 (p. 77f.)- 

C— SPECIAL INDIVIDUAL NAMES. 
(Usually quoted independently of the surname.) 

(6) Pseudonyms or sobriquets, azana ^, torina jrtJ, ^, borne by literati 
and artists. They are practically indistinguishable from the next. 

(7) Art-names or iwms-de-guerre, generically called go ^ and including 
gwamio (for painters), haimid (for writers of haikai verses), geiryiio (for enter- 
tainers), etc. Although often quoted in company with the ordinar}- names 
in signatures, the go is regarded as independent of them — belonging to 
another and higher life, as it were. Nearly always in Sinico-Japanese (and 
usually in the kanon rather than the goon reading), it is often the real or 
fanciful name of the bearer's studio or workshop. Hence the prevalence of 
such terminations^ as the following (roughly in order of frequency) : — 

do ^ ('hall'), TO ;jf ('upper storey'), bo^ ^ ('cell'), 

sat ^ ('studio'), bo^ ^ ('chamber'), kwa ^ ('retreat'), 

ken If ('house'), yen^ g] ('garden'), kaku f^ (tall building'), 

sha" '^ ('house'), do \^ ('grotto'), kwan $q ('mansion'). 

tei ^ ('pavilion'), kutsu ^ (' cave '), 

an^ ^ (' outhouse '), u i^ (' stronghold '), 

( ^ ski and f^ ro are analogously used.) 
These terminations are not subject to the incidental nigori (p. 34). They 

are in each case most commonly preceded by two characters, occasionally 

by one only, rarely by as many as tliree. 

An interesting group, of religious import, has the termination ami p] ^ij 

(sometimes merely a pij), derived from Amida 1^1 5M K (the Buddha Amitabha). 

This is preceded by a single character only. Another group reproduces 

Chinese geographical names, chiefly those of mountains (see Chapter VII., 53) 

and valleys. 

^ Names with such suffixes are sometimes called dogo ^ S^. 

^ Occasionally noya (or yd), wliere the prefix is read in pure-Japanese. The uoya is sometimes 
rendered by Jg or more explicitly by the two characters jg (or ^ or 7J or even J^) ■^ (t>r 
W. or g). 

3 With these terminations the prefix is sometimes in pure-Japanese, and very rarely with one 
or two of the rest. 

* Occasionally :^ono, where the prefix is pure-Japanese. 



70 PERSONAL NAMES AND TITLES. [chap. v. 

A number of go, including some of those constructed in the above 
manner, have as additional sulTixes words or phrases of various significance, 
as follows : — 

Expressing 'master of [the house]' — ^ A -shujin, ^ -shu or -no-aruji. 

Expressing retirement from worldly cares — 5^ \ -dojin, ]\l A^ "WC A 

-sanjin, J^ -± -koji, ^, ± -inshi, j|l| ^ -sen^hi, ^ ^ -givaishi, 

Wl ^ -gioshi, i^ 7v -giojin, ^ A -chiitjin. 

Expressing old age (and therefore retirement) — ^ A -rojin, ^ -0 (or 

-no-okina), ^ -so. 
Expressing eccentricity — ^Hi dt -kioshi, -^ A -kijin. 
(Phrases like ^l -sensei partake rather of the nature of independent 
titles, ' Professor ', etc.) 

The art-names of women may be followed by the suffix -joshi -^ ^, 
' femme savante '. 

(8) Semi-religious Names (Buddhistic), generally in Sinico-Japanese (goon). 
They include : — 

(a) Homid ^^ ^, either a posthumous name, or one received on taking 
the scarf as a lay-priest and replacing the secular name during the rest of 
the bearer's life. In the latter case it is often preceded or follow^ed by the 
word niudo \ ^ ('one who has entered the church'). The homid usually 
consists of two characters only. 

■J 

(b) Kaimid J^ ^, strictly posthumous only, although in the Shin sect 
it might be received quite early in life, especially at the kozori ^ ^\\ 
ceremony, or by a young man about to be called up for active service. 
The kaimid, however, is used on special occasions only and does not replace 
the secular name. Except in the Shin sect, it always consists of more than 
two characters. 

Suffixes to names of this type include : -in |^, -koji ^ "i", -shinshi |g -j;, 
and, for women, -shinnio fg ^. 

(9) Titles (secular and Buddhistic) and Ranks of Honour may be 
included here in consideration of their analogies and close association with 
personal names. They are dealt with in detail in §3 and 4 below (pp. 8if., 
87, 88). 

§ I.— ZOKUMIO. 
(Compare page 68.) 
Zokumid may be classified as follows : — 

A. Those having reference (nominal, if not actual) to the order of 

birth. 

B. Those with terminations derived from certain official titles. 



CHAP. V, § I.] ZOKUMIO. 71 

C. Combinations of A. and B. 

D. Those more or less exactly reproducing official titles. 

E. Those with other, non-official terminations. 
A.— Z0KUM16 Implying Order of Birth. 

(a) The simplest form is a combination of a numeral (from i to 10) 

with the word -ro %^,^ a complimentary term for a man. Thus : 
i; gP Taro ('eldest man'). H gp Rokiiro? 

— g[5 Ichiro ('first man'). -|^ % Shichiro (7th). 

Tfi gp Ichiro." y\ gp Hachiro (8th). 

ZT- fiP Jiro ('second man'). ji gjj Kurd (9th). 

^ fiP /iro ('succeeding man'). _^ lljp /u^ro.^ 

^ 111) iz>0.3 _j. j;,j, j^^^g (lOth). 

H ^li Sabwro (3rd). g gp Jz7ro.- 

IZg gp S/tzro (4th). To which may be added : 

S fiP Goro (5th). ^ llJi; Kichiro ('lucky man ■).3 

^ gp Goro:^ ^ gp Jwj/o (' long-lived man ').^ 

7^ gp Rokiiro (6th). 

(b) Combinations of the above simple forms are found, such as : 

K fiP n ^^Shirojiro; - Hj; pg fip Jiroshiro; i^ gp i; j;^!') Jirotoyo; 
^ SP H ^P Jirosaburo; H ^P H IP Saburojiro ; and so forth. 

It should be noted that, with the sole exception of Saburo-, 
the first IP in these cases is always read -ro-, not -ro-. 

(c) Any of the simple examples described under (a) may be ' enriched ' 

by a prefix of one, less commonly two (or even three) characters, 
mostly of complimentary significance, such as ^ Yasu, ^ Kin, 
}±, Sho, ^ Hei, H \K Miyo, and the like ; thus : |f — gp lichiro, 
^ >[C fiP Rintaro, ff ^ IP Shinjiro, ^ H IP Hikosaburo, /> m IP 
Koshiro, ^ 51 IP Ningoro, JE ji gp Shokiiro, gc + IP Masajiiro, 
and so on, in endless variety. A large proportion of the characters 
entered in the Dictionary are used in this manner, being given for 
the most part their Sinico-Japanese {kanon'") pronunciation; it is 
only exceptions to this rule that are specifically mentioned in the 
appropriate places (see p. 4). Among such prefixes must be included 
the numerical or quasi-numerical examples detailed under B. (a) 

^ Often contracted in writing to ^. 

^ In these forms, of Avhich only the second, ^ |[5 Jiro, is in really common use, we may 
recognize homophonic substitutes for the actual numerals. 

^ Common. Compare the vague dating kichi-uichi noted on p. 47. ■* Rare. 
^ The first-quoted, where alternative on are cited. 



72 ZOKUMIO. [chap, v., § i. 

on p. 73, as also many of the names of the provinces (see Chapter 
VII., 104), and those of government ministries and bureaux (see §3, 
p. 8if.). 

It should be noted that i:)honetic assonance changes . . . nhachiro 
into . . . mpachiro; also that -saburo may become -zaburd. 

A few anomalous cases, like ti. fiP Yoshivo, ^f fil) Toshiro, 
M !i nP Kitokuro, ^ ^ ftf) Heisakuro, |g ^ Goro, may be regarded 
as phonetic imitations of this class of zokumio. Others, like gp 
Katsiiro, are less easy to explain. 

(d) With an 'enriching' prefix as above described, -ro may be omitted 

(rarely, if ever, where the numerical element is shi, ku, or jii) ; 
thus : (!^ ZL Genji, Zj^ ;^ Heiroku, ^ A Kimpachi, and so forth. 
In this case H (final) is to be pronounced -20^ and is frequently 
replaced by the homophonous substitutes ^ and 3n ; thus : yt H 
Motozo, f^ 1^ Genzo, 2ji 3'^ Heizo. Further may be noted the 
change of . . . nhachi into . . . mpachi, and, occasionally, of -ta 
to -da.~ 

(e) The same omission of the final -ro may take place with the 

examples described under (b) above. In this case the surviving 
-ro- does not shorten its vowel (e.g., Gordji, Hachirdda), except 
where the final is -zo (as in Jirozo). 

B. — Zokumio With Titular Terminations (compare §3, table, p. 85). 
(a) One of the following suffixes : — 
zki ^ -dayii (alone as Tayu) ; 
I*, H, ^Y^ i&^ ^ or it, -suke;^ 
;> !;(; (etc.) -nosiike (N.B. — In actual official titles the no is always 

pronounced, but never represented by a character) ; 
^ ^ -nojo; ^ i^ -uoshin ; ;£ t|j P^ -zayemon (alone as Sayemon) ; 
;£ ^r P^ M -zayemonnojo (chiefly with swordsmiths) ; 

* Rarely -san. The omission of -ro sometimes marks a familiar shortening of the fuller form 
(like our Tom for Thomas). In such a case a final 3 may be read -sa or -za. 

^ Note that in the pure-Japanese type of name known as nanori, — , ^, ^ and ^ can be 
read as kazit, tsugti, ham and yoshi respectively, so that ^ ^, for example, might be read 
Yoshitsugti as a nanori, but would be Kichiji as a zokumio. Again, jEJf — as a nanori is Masakazu, 
but as a zokumio, Masaichi. Similarly with ^ -^ Y'asu-harn (-/i), ^ ^ Sada-yoshi (-kichi), and 
so forth. 

^ I.e., a pure-Japanese reading. At the same time it should be recognised (and this is a 
matter which has its bearing on all individual names) that there is nothing to prevent final ^, ^, 
te) ^> ^tc, from being read -jo, -ho, -sa, -rio, etc., in certain names (not zokumio), provided the 
prefix is equally in Sinico-Japanese. Thus : JE f^ Shoj'o, but Shosuke as a zokumio, or Masasuke 
as a nanori. 



CHAP. V, § I.] ZOKUMIO. 



73 



^ Wi f^ -yemon (alone as Uyemon, the u being always omitted in 

pronunciation, unless in an initial position) ;^ 
^ Hi P^ f't -yemonnojo (swordsmitlis) ; 

-^ %] -hei or -hei,~ anciently -hioye or bioyg- (alone as Hioyc); 
^ Wi Wi -hei{-bei)nojd, -bioye{-bidye)nojd (swordsmiths) ; 
— may be preceded by one of the following numerical or quasi -numerical 
prefixes : —  



-\^ Shichi- {-hei, etc.). 

A Hachi- {-hei, etc.). 

ji^ Ku- {-hei, etc.). 

-\' or ^ /n {~bei, etc.). 

3l + Iso- {-hei, etc.). 

A ~h Yaso- {-hei, etc.). 

A W Y<^o- {-hei, etc.)." 



^\Z Ta- (e.g., Tahei, Tazayemon, Tayemon, 
Tadayu, Tasiike, Tanosiike, Tazayemon- 
nojo, etc.). 

— or ffj Ichi- {-hei, -zayemon, etc.). 

H. ^ or Jj^ /;■- {-hei, etc.). 

-■- San- (Samhei, Sanzayemon, Sansuke, etc.). 

3f., rarely ^, Go- {-hei, etc.).'^ 

:^, rarely H, Rokii- {-hei, etc.). 

(b) To the suffixes quoted in B. (a) (with tlie addition, rarely, of -noso 
;^ ;£ ^) may be added one of the non-numerical prefixes referred 
to in A, (c). Thus: ^,^; ;^ !)[; Gennosuke, 3C ^ Hi P^ Matazayemon, 
JEh ^ Hi P^ Shoyemon, ^ ^ ^_ Tomenojo, j^ ^ j^ Sakunoshin, 
^ ^ Iff Tokubei. 
C— Combinations of A. and B. 

Examples are : Taro-bei, Ichiro-bei, Jiro-bei, etc. ; Taro-zayemon, 
etc.; Taro-yemon, etc.; Tarodayu ; Tcwosuke ; Shivoheinojo ; Juro- 
zayemonnojo ; and so forth. (Note -ro- short, without exception.) 

D. — ZOKUMIO IDENTICAL (oR NEARLY SO) WITH OFFICIAL TiTLES. 

I^ §3 (P- 8i f.) will be found the principal official (Imperial Govern- 
ment) titles used in Old Japan. Originally these implied actual 
office, but as the Imperial power declined before the influence of 
the Shogunal government they became mere sinecures and were 
granted as a special honour to men of high rank and distinction, 

' Per contra, the y^ is very rarely omitted in writing. 

^ In this case, if in no other, it is possible to state a definite rule as to the incidence of the 
nigori (ciA^nter III.). If the zoktimio-pTefix is a single character pronounced (i) with a single kana 
(Chapter II.), b.'ch as //-, I'o-, Ta-, Sa-, Bit-, Mo-, &c., or (2) with two kaim of which the 
second is ya, yo or. '«, e.g., Cho-, Gio-, Jo-, Jii-, Kio-, Rio-, SJia-, Site-, and Shit-, then the sulhx 
^ ^ is to be read -lu!. (The sole exception noted by the authors is Jg ^J^ f^ Sebei.) Otherwise 
-bei, as in Yutobei, Yasitbei, Ju(=Ji-\-fit)bei, Shd{ = Shi+ya-{-it)bei, Sliim( = Shi+n)bei. On the other 
hand the suflix -zp. -hei (see h. below) hardly ever becomes -bei. [Note that in knna :^ ^ is 
written he-ye (^ :e), but ^ he-i (•'- ^ ).] 

^ Shi- (0) seems to be generally ."voided as having the same sound as the word for 'death'; 
it is not even, as elsewhere happens (compare p. 41), replaced by the less sinister reading Yo- 
(although ^ Yo- is common enough as a ?o/ci<m/o-initial). 



74 ZOKUMIO. [chap, v., § i, 

in some cases becoming hereditary. Certain craftsmen, even, 
received them as a mark of Imperial favour, chiefly swordsmiths 
and makers of sword-furniture. Moreover, from about the seven- 
teenth century onwards, a number of them came to be adopted 
with no special authority and so may be looked upon as mere 
zokumid, rather than as actual titles. (Compare remarks on p. 14.) 
In the present case either the complete title is used (occasionally 
with verbal or orthographic variations from the original termina- 
tions), e.g., Geki, Naiki, Kemmotsu, Hioyenosiike, Ktiranosuke, 
Mimbunojo, Ktirando, Uneme, etc. ; or merely the name of the 
ministry, bureau or province, as Shikibu, Hidbu, Sayemon, Sahioye, 
Sakon, Ukon, Uta, Kadzuye, Shume, Osumi, etc. 

The Adzuma-hiakkwan ^ "g" *jg, or titles invented by the 
earlier shogunal governments in imitation of those of the Imperial 
Court at Kioto {Chotei no hiakkwan) are similarly drawn upon. 
A list of them is given in §3, G. (p. 86). 
E. — Z0KUM16 WITH Non-Official Terminations. 

Here a prefix of the type described in A. (a) — note -ro- short 
— or A. (c) precedes one of the following endings, none of which 
can be definitely referred to an official title (except that several of 
the Adzuma-hiakkwan are formed on this model) : — 

j^ -saku. J^ -mi. X^ -maru. 3(. -niata. 
. 511 ~y^- f^ -nai. jUI -ma. ^ -kane (but see below). 

5i ± if -ye {i.e., not preceded 

-yata. ^ -;/. )X -ye. by ^j. 

\ -hito. ^ -hei.^ ;j^ -matsii. |il -ki. 

^ -shi. ^ -ma. ^ -saku. -g -ki. 
Also the following, common chiefly among men of the province of 
Satsuma : — 

b| -kuma. ^ -hiko. ^ -tetsu (see above). 

;|^ -kusu. |j^ -kitsu. lil -tsuchi. 

' As already stated, this hardly ever becomes -bei. An historical exception, ^ -^p Heibei, is of 
somewhat freakish formation (the more so as it is accompanied by the surname -^ ^ Hiradaira!). 
Otherwise, at the most it becomes -pei after h, so that ^ -^p- Kan-hei is read Ka^\yet, while 
Kambei is written ^ |^ f%. Similarly — ^ Ippei (for Ichi-hei) and even ffj -^p-, also Ippei. In 
the last-named case the sound icbi, as pure-Japanese for ffj and therefore sub' _c to the rule that 
pure-Jai)anese -chi does not coalesce in combination with a suffix, is heto a phonetic substitute 
for the Sinico-Japanese ichi (written — j, which explains the apparent i.ifraction of this rule. 

It will be further clear from the above remarks that while, for example, Maiabei X :^ ^ ^^^ 
Mfilabei X ^ ar^ "ot interchangeable, on the other hand bo'ji f^ ^ '^ and f^ -^ can only be 
read Jihei (that is, as zokumid). .Again, while fg as a ^o/c/', /no-initial is occasionally read Nobu-, 
euphony forbids Nobiibei for i^ ^ ^, preferring Shimbei. On the other hand, Nobuhei is admissible 
for "fn ^ ^^ vfeAl as Nobnhira and Shimpei. 



CHAP, v., § 2.] PERSONAL NAMES AND TITLES. 



/.-) 



§ 2.— NANORI AND WOMEN'S NAMES. 

(Compare pages 68, 69.) 

A. — Nanori. The man's nanori (jitsumio) may be either a Sinico-Japanese 
or, what is far more frequent, a pure-Japanese reading.^ 

(i) The Sinico-Japanese nanori consists as a rule of a single character — 
names of two or more characters pronounced in this way will for the most 
part be found to be either azana, go, or zokumio (see pp. 68, 69)." The reading 
of this character is generally (to our ears) monosyllabic and in the kanon 
rather than the goon pronunciation (p. 5). 

(2) The pure-Japanese nanori may also consist of a single character, but 
two-character examples form the overwhelming majority — those with more 
than two are rare and anomalous. 

Taking the two-character nanori as the standard, we find (a) an exceedingly 
wnde range of ideographs which have been noted as used for this purpose, 
although the number in anything like common use does not amount to more 
than two hundred or so. We find also (6) the characters used sharing a 
comparatively meagre list of pronunciations'^ between them — even if we include 
the readings of rare or only moderately frequent occurrence. \\'hile, however, 
most of the pronunciations are in consequence common to a number of 
characters, this does not prevent (c) many of the latter being capable of 
more than one reading apiece — in some cases half a dozen or more.* 
Fortunately, in very few such cases may two or more alternative readings' 
be regarded as of equal frequency or probability. 

From the foregoing considerations it will be seen that the average two- 
character nanori can, by the aid of the material gathered together in the 
Dictionary, be read with the probability, if not the certainty, of being correct 
in any given instance. It should be noted that the choice of alternative 
readin-gs for either of the two characters is exercised quite independently of 
the other. At the same time, a character recurring in the nanori of a father 
and son (sometimes of a whole family for several generations), or of a master 
and adopted pupil, will almost certainly be read in the same w^ay in each 
instance. This applies also to art-names, read in Sinico-Japanese. 

The individual readings used for two-character nanori are, with but one 
common exception {-akira), either of one or of two syllables (i.e., kana). 



' For convenience, the term nanori is used elsewhere in the work to express the latter class 
only. 

^ If not priests" names or posthumous appellations. 

■^ See list below (p. 80) for the commoner examples. 

* Compare, in the Dictionary, ^ (vi), |jc (xiiij, |^ (xiii). 



76 NANORI. [chap, v., § 2. 

They are either self-contained parts of speech (chiefly nouns, adjectives and 
verbs) ^ or the root-forms of polysyllabic examples of the same. 

As aids to the reading of men's two-character nanori, the following 
conclusions, culled from the authors' experience, are worth recording : — 

(i) Monosyllabic (one-feawa) elements, such as ka, ki, ma, mi, na, 
ne, no, 0, ya, ye, rarely occur initially.- Exceptions are mainly confined 

to Chi- i^hMa- iM), Mi- (&, m), ^'«- (^), 0- (/h, m, ^, ^^ m^ 

Ya- (A). 

(2) It is highly improbable that both elements will be monosyllabic, — 

(3) Or that they will be identical. Exceptions noted include five 
swordsmiths named Kanekane — written ^ ^, ^ ^, and ^ ^ (three) ; 
and one named Motomoto ^ %. 

(4) Almost without exception the two characters are always 
different. If ^ # Yatsu-ya fan historical example, ca. 17 16) is to be 
classed in this general category, its freakish character is only intensified 
by its association with the surname ^ ^ Tanigai ! 

With regard to names of Sinico-Japanese pronunciation, the foregoing 
statements do not, of course, apply. It would be not unusual in one of 
these to find the same reading (especially in the roman transliteration; applied 
to two different characters. At the same time, the repetition therein of a 
character with the same reading, although in no way abnormal, is not 
, common, being found mainly in art-names idogo) of three characters. 

Xanori of more than two characters may usually be resolved phonetically 
into the equivalents of two-character examples. Thus, in H ^ M. ^H-chi- 
kaze, the H =p-, in spite of its meaning '3000' (michi), is obviously a mere 
expansion of a single character (say 5^) reading michi ('way'). So with 
jE Q Hi Masa-hi-de, a substitute for the more usual jE ^ Masa-hide. In an 
example like ^ \^ J^ Chi-yo-hiro it is perhaps permissible to regard chiyo 
as a single element (meaning ' eternal 'j, although one can point to no single 
character read in this way. 

On the other hand, the (pure-Japanese) one-character nanori are in a 
quite distinctive class. Some of them are identical with the disyllabic 
readings used for the same signs in the two-character examples, such as 
Shige, Yoshi, Tsuna, Tsiine ; but a larger number are verbal or adjectival 
enlargements of these, chiefly trisyllabic, as Sadamu (from sada), Tadashi or 
Tadasu (tada), Shigeshi or Shigerii (shige), and so forth. Others, again, are 



' E.g., ari, jumi, fusa, haru, hito, kage, toshi, yoshi, etc. 

^ This rule excludes To- and Kin-, which are each written with two kana. 



CHAP. V, § 2.] NANORI. WOMEN'S NAMES. 77 

independent nouns, adjectives or verbs, also chiefly tris3'llabic, such as Iwao, 
Isao, Makoto, Minoru, Tsiiyoshi, Tsiiko. Monosyllabic examples have not been 
noted. 

The multiplicity of characters available for writing most of the commoner 
wanorf-readings has already been alluded to. Obviously due, in the first 
instance, to a desire for variety, it is closely bound up with the undoubted 
fact that to each reading is attached a definite connotation (in a few cases 
perhaps two or three of these), which may be traced with more or less success 
in the ordinary meanings of any of the characters employed in a particular 
instance.^ An attempt is made in tlie list on p. 80 to indicate the connotations 
of the commoner pure-Japanese wanori-elements, including some of the one- 
character readings, which, as in the Dictionary, are distinguished by beginning 
with a capital. 

B. — WoxMen's Names." Women's ordinary names (na i^ or namaye 
i^ lllj) are usually written in hivagana (Chapter II.), a script which has 
always been closely associated with the sex in Japan. Among the aristocracy, 
however, and the better-educated generally, Chinese characters are preferred, 
and their presence certainly adds a definite significance to what are otherwise 
mere sounds with meanings which can only be a matter of guesswork. 

The names are in general short, commonly consisting of a single element 
of two kana (apart, that is, from an extraneous prefix or suffix), very rarely 
of more tlian three. Many of them are transcripts of Sinico-Japanese sounds 
to which, even in the absence of characters, it is not difficult to attach 
meanings of complimentary import. Such are : Ai, Bun, Cho, Den, Fuku, 
Gin, Itsii, Jun, Kaku, Kan, Kei, KicJii, Kin, Kid, Kd, Kon, Man, No, Rai, 
Raku, Riki, Rin, Rid, Riu, Rokti, Rui, Saku, Sei, Sen, Setsu, Shin, Shun, Tei, 
Tetsii, Toku, Yen, Yetsu, etc. 

Others reproduce the simple forms, of analogous import,''^ used in the 
pure-Japanese two-element nanori for men ; e.g., Aki, Asa, Atsu, Chika, Ftimi, 
Fusa, Fuyu, Haru, Hatsu, Haya, Hide, Hiro, Hisa, Kane, Karu, Katsu, Kazu, 
Kimi, Kiyo, Koto, Kiini, Maru, Masa, Masu, Michi, Mine, Mitsu, Moto, Naka, 



' Occasionally the connection is perhaps merely phonetic, as in the use of -g^ ('thong ) for -o 
(ideographically rendered by t$,, ^, etc., connoting ' manliness ') ; similarly ;^ (' direction '), instead 
of ^ (' firmness '), for kala. 

2 The remarks that follow were penned in substance before the publication of a valuable 
article by Mr. Sakaye Suzuki entitled Japanese Female Names of To-day (Transactions of the Japan 
Society, London, vol. XV., p. 2), written in criticism of Lafcadio Hearn's essay on tiie subject in 
Shadowings (Boston, igoo). 

^ Compare Section C (p. 80). 



78 WOMEN'S NAMES. [chap, v., § i. 

Nao, Nobu, Nori, Oki, Oto, Sada, Sachi, Saki, Shidzu, Shige, Sumi, Sute, Suye, 
Tada, Take, Tama, Tame, Tafni, Tane, Taye, Tern', Toki, Tome, Tomi, Tomo, 
Toshi, Toyo, Tsiigi, Tsiine, Yasu, Yori, Yoshi, Yiiki, etc. 

A few of the extended forms used for men's one-character nanori (pure- 
Japanese) are also found; e.g., Hajime, Hisashi, Kaoru, Sakaye, Yiitaka, Isao, 
Misao, and others. 

To a number of women's names, including some of the foregoing, may 
be applied meanings of a more concrete character than those already 
adumbrated. Thus, certain examples reproduce the names of birds, etc., 
such as Tori (bird), Tsitru (crane), Taka (hawk), Cho (butterfly);^ of the 
mythical creatures, dragon (Tatsii, Riu, Rid) and tortoise [Kame) ; or of 
flowers and plants, such as Hana (flower), Miki (branch), Asa (hemp), Fuji 
(wistaria, if not the mountain of that name)," Fuki (butterbur), Fuyo (hibiscus), 
Hagi (bush-clover), Ine (growing rice), Kiku (chrysanthemum), Kiiwa (mulberry), 
Maki (podocarpus), Matsu (pine), Momo (peach), Ogi (reed). Ran (orchid), 
Ren (lotus), Sanaye (rice-shoots), Shino (ground-bamboo), Sugi (cryptomeria), 
Take (bamboo), Tsuta (^cissus), Ume (plum-blossom), Yaye (' double ', of flowers), 
Yone (rice-grains), Yuri (lily). 

Others have a general literary or artistic flavour, such as Koto (zither), 
Ito and Kinu (silk), Uta (song, poetry), Fude (writing-brush), Nui (embroidery), 
Tama (gem), Tamaki (bracelet), Tsuya (brilliance), Fumi (literature), Chiyo 
(looo ages), Kama (tea-cauldron), Sayo (night), Suzu (grelot), Yume (dream), 
Yiimi (bow), Hina (doll), Kumi (braid). Some (dyeing). No (drama), Ruvi 
(emerald or lapis-lazuli). 

Another class consists of names of topographical import, such as Shima, 
Yama, Alachi, Hama, Kishi, Mine, Seki, Saki, Nami, Ishi, Oka, Kiira, lye, etc., 
which may be given in allusion to the name of the bearer's birthplace or 
to that of some neighbouring natural feature. Cognate with these are 
examples reproducing actual place-names (provinces, districts, towns, mountains, 
rivers, etc.) of a short and euphonious character. 

Names like Haru (spring), Natsu (summer), Aki (autumn), Fuyu (winter), 
Yayoi (third month), Yuki (snow), Ima (now), Hatsu (early, first), Tsugi 
(second), and various numerical examples, may indicate the time or order 



' To these may be added Chidzu (' looo cranes'), Kadzii ('lucky crane'), and 1 acbiu ('field 
crane ' or ' numerous cranes '), quoted by Mr. Suzuki, who adds that names taken from those 
of quadrupeds are generally considered vulgar. 

^ In the former case the ji is properly written in kana with the softened form of chi, in the 
latter with that of shi (Chapter II.) — another instance of the danger of jumping to conclusions 
in matters of this sort with only the roman transliteration to go upon. 



CHAP, v., § 2.] WOMEN'S NAMES. 79 

of birth (compare some of the men's zokiimio, §1, p. 71), or^in the case of 
high numbers — express a pious wish for the bearer's k>ngevit\.^ 

Various suffixes and one prefix may be added to certain names of the 
foregoing type. Thus, disyllabic names frequently have the (diminutive) 
suffix ^ -ko, which may be written witli that character even when the 
body of the name is in kana. In early times this suffix is read -shi after 
the monosyllabic- (Sinico-Japanese) name of a lady of exalted position. 

In signatures of craftswomen, the ordinary name may be followed by ^, 
to be read -jo, ' lady '. In the medieval period the suffixes -gozen or -goze 
'0 f]ij and -no-maye |tj were sometimes added to the names of famous (or 
notorious) women, while -no-kata 'jj or / "jf appears in the names of 
ladies of the court of the Tokugawa Shoguns.^ 

The prefix 0- (^ or, phonetically, ppif, j^, ;jt), despite its original 
lionorific significance, seems to have fallen into a certain disrepute in 
modern times. It is only used with disyllabic examples. 

Special names for women are not subject to any of the constructional 
rules outlined above. Those of craftswomen follow the lines prevailing 
with the other sex, while the professional names of courtesans (joro, oiran) 
and geisha are mostly of a poetical turn and reproduce or imitate the 
Genjimon (see Chapter VII., 103), the titles of no plays, and the like. 

Among the ladies of the Imperial Court in early days, especially those 
known to fame chiefly or solely by their poetry, names reproducing high 
official titles (often those held by some male relative) are very prevalent, 
with or without a prefix or suffix (for examples see §3, A, p. 82). Many 
of the poetesses and other women of that period, however, are recorded 
merely by the individual name or title of a male relative with an appropriate 
suffix like -^ no haha ('mother of'), ^ ^ no menoto (nurse), ^ no musume 
(daughter), and so forth. The suffix J^ -no-tsubone (' Lady of the . . . ') is 
usually preceded by a name of topographical import. 

^ Mr. Suzuki, following Hearn, quotes Tome (' Stop ! ') and Siiye (' Last ! ') as curious examples 
— chiefly among the lower classes — of the wish being father to the name. He further notes cases 
like zl H for Fumi and % -f- for Iso as indicating the date of birth (day, month-and-day, or 
nengo-yeav) or even the father's age. This does not, one may be pardoned for suggesting, prevent 
these examples from being, on occasion, mere phonetic versions of ^ (literary) and ^ (beach). 
Similarly, in cases like ^ ^ ('nobility and beauty') for Kimi, =f- ^ ('thousandfold') for CItiye, 
and many others cited by our author, one cannot help suspecting the characters to be, not so 
much ideographic signs with meanings of their own, as phonetic versions — and therefore as little 
informative as mere kana — of ^ kimi (lady), ^ ^ chiye (wisdom), and so forth. 

^ I.e., monosyllabic to our ears, even if represented by more than one kana. 

^ Mr. Suzuki, enlarging on a hint by Hearn, mentions other suffixes fashionable in modem 
times and in certain provinces, such as : ->io (|f), -ye (jl, i^, g or ^), -yo (fj), and -o (g or ^|). 



( 



8o NANORI CONNOTATIONS. [chap, v., § 2. 

C. — Some Pure-Japanese A/',4iV0i?;-ELEMENTS and their Connotations. 
The following alphabetical list is an attempt to indicate the connotations 
which the Japanese attach to their commoner wanori-elements, whatever 
the characters with which they may be written. A few of the one-character 
pronunciations (beginning with a capital letter) are included, and the 
characters in most frequent use for each reading are inserted, largely with 
a view to supplementing the Beginners' List in Chapter X. 

aki, -akira, Akira, ^, PJ], ^, brightness, clarity; A/ata, ^, freshness; 
ari, '4ii ^) existence, permanence; atsu, Atsushi, ^, ^, ardour, liberality; 
chika, Chikashi, f|, j/f, intimacy; fumi, ^, literary attainments; jiisa, ^, 
abundance; Hajime, — , priority; haru, ^, j^, expansion; hide, Hiidzuru, 
^, ^^, excellence ; hiko, ^, eminence ; hiva, ^, ^, peacefulness ; hiro, Hiroshiy 
Hiromit, ^i,, ^, %, breadth, liberality; hisa, Hisashi, ^, t^T, longevity; hito^ 
A, in, humanity; Hitoshi, ^, ^, uniformity. 

Isao, Isaoshi, yjj, merit; Isamu, J|, bravery; Iwao, ^, firmness; iye, ^, 
permanence, family ; ka, ^, fragrance ; kado, f^, openness (or as iye) ; kage, 
^, brightness; kami, Ji, eminence ; Kanaye, |fp{, strength ; kane, (i) ^, precious 
or firmness, (2) |^, ^, uniting; Kaoru, ^, fragrance; kata, Katashi, ^, ^, 
firmness; katsu, ^, success, victory; kase, J^, spirit, empressement ; kazu, 
— , %\\, number, decision; ki, Hf, solidity; kimi (kin-), ^, eminence; kiyOy 
Kiyoshi, fp|, purity; kore, >\%, ^, ^, existence; koto, "g, eloquence; kuni^ 
^, ^[S, country, lordship. 

Makoto, fg, truth; Mamoru, ;^, protection ; masa, Masashi, JE, iSC, q, ?§.- 
directness, honesty ; Masaru, j^, supereminence ; masu, ^, i^, increase ; mi,, 
(i) ^^, personality, (2) ^, clear-sightedness; michi, j^, jjti, principle; mine^ 
^, eminence; Minorii, ^, seed, succession; miisu, Mitsuru, ^, \^, brilliance, 
fulness; mochi, ^, maintenance; mori, (i) ^, protection, (2) ^, abundance; 
moro, ^j]j, uniformity; nioto, ^, %, ;<^, priority; mune, ^, main line of the 
family ; miira, i^, village; na, ^, fame ; naga, Nagashi, -0^, ^, ^, longevity; 
naka, i^, r\^, middle son, or the Golden Mean; nao, Naoshi, ^, ^, correctness; 
nari, ^, ^, production; Nohori, Nohoru, ^, ^, rising (to eminence); nobu, 
it, 'M., expansion, truth; nori, ^ij, ^, |g, ^, i§„ law-abiding. 

-0, i^., ^, j^, manliness; oki, ^, rising (to eminence) ; onii, g, lordliness; 
Osaniu, ^, good government; sada, Sadamii, J(, ;^, determination; sachi,^^ 
good luck ; Sakaye, ^, flourishing ; sane, (i) ^, M., truth, (2) ^, seed, 
succession; sato, {1) |^P, M? village, (2) j^, quick-wittedness ; shidzu, Shidzuka, 
^, ])eacefulness ; shige, Shigerti, Shigeshi, 2i, ^, tft, abundance, luxuriance; 
Shitagau, jlj^, obedience; siike, ^, jjp^, ^, assistance; sumi, (i) f^_, '^\^, clearness, 
(2) iE, permanence ; Susumn, y\^, advancement ; stiye, ^, ^, succession. 



CHAP, v., § 2, 3.] NANORI. TITLES. 81 

tada, Tadashi, Tadasu, ,^„ ^, correctness, directness; taka, Takashi, 
^, 11, #, eminence; take, Takeshi, 5^, ^, /p^, bravery; tame, :^, action; 
Tamotsu, ^, protection ; tane, j^, fi}?, seed, succession ; teru, m, )^, brightness, 
to, ^^ (ta/w), jia {toho), endurance; toki, 11.^, ^, timeliness ; io^nf, ^, prosperity ; 
tomo, %, ^n, ■?■)•], Jl, friendliness; /ora, ^, bravery; loslu, (i) ^, :^, length 
of years, (2) f^, ^Mj, quick-wittedness ; Torn, :^, |3», penetration, endurance; 
fo3'o, ;^, abundance ; tsuna, |I^, control; tsunc,^^, %,^, permanence, uniformity ; 
tsuva, ;^, 3^, orderliness; Tsutomu, ^, industry, zeal; Tsuyoshi, ^, bravery, 
strength. 

uji, ^, family, succession ; Wataru, '^, progression ; yasii, Yasiishi, ^, 
\^, M-, M, peacefulness ; yorl, H, \^, dependence; yoshi, ^, ^, |^, ^, ^, 
#, ^» ^-, ^, goodness, beauty, luck ; yuki, ^y, ^, ;^, progression ; Yiitaka, 
% , abundance. 

§ 3.— OFFICIAL TITLES. 
The frequency witli which official titles of all kinds, and especially 
those of tlie Imperial Government, are quoted in connection with Japanese 
personal names, even, in many cases, forming or helping to form an actual 
name itself,^ is ample warrant for a somewhat full treatment of this important 
subject. Nevertheless the following lists do not claim to be exhaustive 
and a number of titles are quoted in the Dictionary only. 

A. — The DajO-KWAN zk, ^ *^ (early name, dimatsuyigoto no tsukasa), the 
Council of State, with the following officials-: — 

a. Dajodaijin >[c 0C i^ S ipki-dimdchi-gimi or omatsiirigoto no omatsugimi 

or oki-otodo), frequently replaced by the Sessho ^ ^ or the 
Kwampakii pj Q. 

b. Sadaijin tr. J^ ^ {dimochigimi) or Safu ^ jj^. 

c. Udaijin /^ J^ gi (dimdchigimi) or Ufu /^ /j^. 

[These three are collectively known as the Sanko ^ ^ or 
Santal H "p, the "Three Lords'.] 

d. Naidaijin ^ ^ ^ [iichi no otodo) or Naiju f^ )^ [Naijin ^ {5 

until 702). 
[Jundaijin 1^ ^ ^ or Gidosanshi 'f^ [p] H T^, honorary.] 

e. Dainagon ^ ,f^ p (oimono-mosu-tsukasa). 
[Goudainagon 1^ ;}^ ^H 'mj supernumerary officials.] 

f. Chunagon FJ^ Mi "o {naka-no-mono-mosn-tsiikasa) or Konion J^ P^. 
[Sangi ^ ,1^ [omatsuvigoto-bito), honorary privy councillors.] 

' Compare § i, B. (p. 72 f.) and § 2, B. (p. 79). 

^ In many cases, especially among the subordinate ranks, the same title was held by more than 
one official. This applies also to the other offices described in the following pages. 

6 



82 OFFICIAL TITLES. [chap, v., § 3. 

g. Shonagon ^ |ft "g {sunaimono-mosu-tsukasa). 

h., i. Geki ^ |2, (Dai ^ and Sho ^ -geki). 

j. to p. Sadaiben tc. :k. W^^ Udaiben /^ :}^ ^ [oi-dtonioi] ; and similarly, 

Sa{U)chH f^ -beii (naka no otomoi), Sa{U)sho /J? -ben {sunai-dtomoi} ; 

also Gon-no ;f|| dai{chu, sho) -ben or merely Gon-no-ben or Gomben. 
[These seven grades are collectively known as Shichiben ■\^ ^, 
the seven Ben.\ 
q. to t. Sadaishi "Jlx. ^ ill, Udaishi /& :^ ^ ; similarly Sa([/)s/zo ^ -shi. 

Names, not actual titles, based on the above include the following 
(Court ladies and poetesses, unless otherwise described) : — Dainagon ; 
D.-no-siike Jfc f^, -no-tsubone J^, -hoin '{^ ^[l (priest). Gondainagon-no- 
tenji Jfe f^ ; Chunagon ; Ch.-no-niod ^ 3E) -no-suke M f^ ; Chunagombo 
^ (lay -priest). Gonchunagon. Shonagon; Sei '^ -sh. ; Sh.-niudo A. ?E 
(lay-priest), -no-tsubone. Geki (common with men). Ben-no-tsubone, -no- 
naishi. These will serve as types for the hosts of names similarly 
formed from titles quoted in succeeding paragraphs. I 

B. — The Jixgi-KWAN jpljl |£ *g [Kami-tsukasa or Kandzukasa), the Board of 
Religious (Shinto) Affairs. For the four chief officials see the table 
below (p. 85) ; minor officials were the Kamiibe jp^ ^, Urabe \> ^, 
and Tsukaibe ^ ^. 

C. — The Hassho A ^, 'Eight Sho' or Ministries, each with a number of 
Bureaux dependent on it. These bureaux were of three grades : shiki 
f^, rid ^ and shi (tsukasa) "p]. The titles of the first four officials 
in a sho and in each of the three grades of bureau will be found 
on reference to the table (p. 85). 

I. Nakatsckasa Fj^ ^ ^ (naka-no-matsurigoto no tsukasa). 

Officials: Nakatsukasa-kio r\^ ^ 51^jl (etc., as table); also Jiju 
i^ I3t> Udoneri ^ "^ A (iichi [-no] -toneri), Naiki ^ fi (uchi-no- 
shirusu-tsukasa), including Dai ;^ and Sho /J? -naiki, Kemmotsu 
^ % (oroshimono no ts.), also including Dai and Sho. 

Bureaux : Chugu-shiki ^f^ ^ ^ (miyadzukasa, naka-no-miya 
no ts.). Otoneri-rio :A; '^ A ^5 Dzusho-rio M ^ ^ (fumi no 
ts.), Kura-rio ^ |^ ^ (uchi-no-kura no ts.), Niii-rio |^ ^ ^ 
(nuidono no ts.), Onyo-rio P^ |^ ^ (ura no ts.),^ and Takumi-rio 
^ E ^ (uchi-no-takumi no ts.). 



' The Reki-hakase i§ t$ i. Temmon '^ ^ -hakase and Rokoku -J^ $\\ -hakase were professors 
attached to this rio. 



CHAP. V, § 3.] OFFICIAL TITLES. 83 

2. ShikibU-SHO ^ "^ ^ {nori no tsukasa). 

Bureau : Daigaku-rio :k. ^ ^ with its four faculties Kiden 
IS If (History), Miogio PJ ^ (Chinese classics), Mioho ]\)] l^ 
(Law), and San (Mathematics), each with its chief professor, 
Kiden-hakase ([H -±), San-hakase, etc.; further, Om ^ -pakase, 
Monshd ^ ^ -hakase and Sho ^ -hakase ; also Zoshi ^ ^. 

3. JiBU-SHO Vp bR ^^ {osamuru-tsiikasa) 

Bureaux: Uta-rio S ^ ^ (ntamai no ts., tita [no] ts.), Gemba- 
^^0 i ^ ^ (hoshimarabito no ts.). and Shorio-rio ^ |^ ^ 
[misasagi no ts.) 

4. MiMBU-SHO S IflS ^' (tami no tsukasa). 

Bureaux : Kadzuye-rio i t|- ^ and Chikara-rio i ^ 3^ 
{chikara no ts.). 

5. HlOBU-SHO ^ "^ ^ {tsinvamono no tsukasa). 

Bureaux : Hayato (or Haito) -dzukasa :^ X ^- Taka-tsiikasa 

6. GlOBU-SHO j^\ ^i ^ (utaye-tadasu-tsukasa). Other officials: Hanji 

tU ^ and Tofe/6e J5$ ^> (in both cases Dai- Chil-, and S/10-). 
Bureau: Shugoku-shi ^ "^ {hitoya no ts.). 

7. OkurA-SHO -i^k. M ^ {okiira no tsukasa). 

Bureaux." I\Ioku-rid ;^ IC ^ (kodakiimi no ts.). Oribe-dzukasa 

S. KUNAI-SHO ^ 1^ ^ (miya-no-iichi no tsukasa). 

Bureaux : Daizen-shiki ;;^ ^ ^ [okashiwade no ts.). Kamon-rw 

^ pP ^ ikcinimori or kammovi no ts.), Tonomo-rio ^ ^ ^ 

{tonomori no ts., tonomo-dz.), Oi-rio ^ j^ ^, and Tenyaku-rio 

^ ^ ^ {kusuri no ts.^). Naizen-shi \^ ^ ^ {uchi-no- 

kashiwade no ts.), whose two first grades of officials were also 

called Hozen ^ ^ and Tenzen M ^. 2\londo no tsukasa 

i tK ^ (moitori 7X M. no ts.), Miki no ts. -^ '^g "^ [sake 

no ts.), Okindachi no ts. jE IM "^ (okimi-dz., okimi), and Uneme 

no tsukasa ^ ;^ ^. 

Independent bureaux included the Shuri-shiki j^ JM ^ {osame- 

tsukuru-ts.), and the Naishi-no-tsukasa f^ f^ '^. Of the latter the 

officials were all women and included further the Nioju ^ j^, 

Miobu •^ jifi, and Uncme ^ ^. 



' Its officials included further th" I-hakase § j? i> •'V'o-' 'ic ^ -hakase, and S/h'h ^f -hakase, 
also the S'/zn ff ^. 



84 OFFICIAL TITLES. [chap, v., § 3. 

The KuRODO-DOKORO ^ A )3^, of wliich the officials generally 
were called Kurodo (sometimes Kuraudo) |^ J^, had at its head the 
Kiirodo-no-betto (^Ij ^), followed by K.-no-kami (yj|) or simply To §|, 
Hi i^Y-) -kurodo, Tokoro-no-shii ^ ^ or simply Shu ^, Takiguchi -Jfl P 
(guards), Kotoneri /\\ ^ A, etc. 

D. — The DanjO-TAI ?|| IE i {tadasu-tsukasa) or Higli Court of Justice. 
(For officials see table, p. 85.) 

E. — The RokU-YF.-FU 7^ tll ij|^ or Six Departments (Ju) of Household Troops. 
(For officials see table.) 

I, 2. Konoye {Konye)-fu ^Jr ^ M, divided into a Left, Sa ^ -konye-fu, 
and a Right, U ;^ -konye-fu. These are often contracted to 
Sakon ;£ ^ and Ukon /^ ^ (see also table). 
3, 4. Hioye-fu ^ 'iM M and 

5, (). Yemon-fu |^ f^ J^, each divided similarly to the Konye-ju. 
Bureaux : [Shu]me-rid [^] }^j ^ (znna no tsukasa), the titles being 
taken from its two divisions Sama-rio ]£ J^ ^ (left) and Uma-rio 
^ ^ ^ (right) ; Hiogo-vio J^ J^ ^ {tsuwamono-710-kura no ts.). 

F. — Territorial Governments. (For officials see table, p. 85.) 

1. Chinzei-fu ^ ]§ j^, Kiushu ; later becoming: — 

2. Dazai-fii zk. "^ M {omikotomochi no tsukasa). 

3. Chinju-fu ^ ^ j^, Oshu. 

4. The Provinces generally. In naming the officials, the full name of 

the province is used, thus : ^ f^ (not ^ j]]) ^- Nagato (not 
Choshu) -no-kami. In the case of the provinces Hitachi, Kadzusa 
and Kodzuke, the Governor was always an absentee Imperial 
Prince [shinnd] and the title-suffix then became -no-taishu -jj^ ^. 

5. Sakio-shiki ^ ^ ^ for the eastern, and Ukio-shiki 7^ ^ 1^ for 

the western part of the Imperial capital, Kioto. Old names : 
hidari{migi)-no-misato no ts. 



The four chief grades of officials in each office were known generically 
as the chokwan ^ *^, jikwan ^X ^, hogwan ^ij 1g , and shuten "^ -& respectively. 
The actual titles of the officers in these grades were formed by prefixing 
the name of the office — docked of its termination {-kwan, -slid, -shiki, -rio, 
-shi, -no-tsukasa, -ju, -tai) — to the title-sufl x as given in the table below. 
Additional titles were provided in many (.cases by inserting ^ gon-no 
('supernumerary'), as -no-gon-no-kami, etc. 



CHAP, v., § 3.] 



OFFICIAL TITLES. 



8^ 



Table of Officials. 
(See previous paragraph.) 



 Office. 


Chokwan 

(Chief). 


Jikwan 
(Second in 
command). 

glj -no-suke 


H5gwan 
(Third). 


Shuten 

(Fourth). 


Jingi-kwan 


'fj^ -haku or 

-no-kami 


j|l^ -no- jo 


^ 


-s/ii or 
-no-sakwan 


Sho 


IPP -kid 


^ fl -tayu, 
/J; ^ -sho \yu\ 


^ -no- jo'" 


H 


■no-sakwan'^ 


Shiki ... 


^ ^ -daibu 
(occ. -no-ta\u) 


^ -no-suke 


'^ -no-shin 


m 


-no-sakwan 


Rio 


i!f.( -no-kami 


^ -no-suke 


jt -no-jo 




ditto 


Naishi-no- 

tsukasa^ 


-no-kami 


-no-suke 


^ f^ -no- jo 




(none) 


Other tsiikasa 
(or shi) 


]p -no-kami 
(occ. -no-sho) 


(none) 


f& -no-jo 


-no-sakwan 


Danjo-tai 


^ -no-in 


^^ -no-hitsu^ 


^, -no-jo 


m 


-no-sakwan 


Sakonye-fu, \ 
Ukonyc-ju ^ j 


-no-taisho 


-no-chujo, 
-no-shosho 


-no-shbgen 


^ 


w 

-no-shoso 


Sa{U)hidye-fu, 
Sa{U)yemon-fu 


^ -no-kami 


j^ -no-suke 


it -no- jo 


Tfcr 


-no-sakwan 


Chinzei-fu 


)jf f -sho gun 


(none) 


^ij 'g -hbgwan 


^. 


M. -shuten 


Chinju-fu^ 


ditto* 


(none) 


'W- ^ -gunkan 


?: 


^ -gun so 


Dazai-ju 


^l|j -no-sotsu 
(occ. -no-sochi) 


-no-daini, 
-no-shoni 


-no-daigen, 
-no-shogen 


i: 
d'^ 


-no-daiten, 
-no-shoten 


Provinces 


^ -no-ka7ni 


^ -no-suke 


%. -no-jo^ 


@ 


-no-moku 



1 The characters as given here are themselves the full titles, reading Naishi-no-kami (or Shoji), 
N.-no-suke (or Tenji), N. -no-jo (or merely Naishi). The senior N.-no-jo was also designated Ichi-m-naishi 
— .^ ^ l^, Koto-no-n. -£; # ft f# or Nagahashi-no-tsiibnue ^^ !^. 

2 The -ye may be dropped (both character and sound) in naming tiie officials ; further common 
contractions are Sa {U)-daishd, -chujo and -shosho (;fe ^fc S?. etc.). 

^ The -fu is retained in naming the chief official. 

'' Also -fiiktt gl] -shogun (supernumerary). 

* Sometimes divided into dai % and sho 'X> {-no-daijo, -no-sho-sakivan, etc.). 



86 



OFFICIAL TITLES. 



[chap, v., § 3, 



G. — Adzuma -HIAKKWAN. (Compare 

The following is a complete 
as quoted by Kaibara 
' numerical categories '. 



page 74.) 

list of the ninety-eight Adznma-hiakkwan 
Yekken in Wakan Meisu, a work on 



I 


. ^ P! 


Samon. 


33- 


^ n 


Tamon. 


66. 


^k ± 


Makita. 





• ^ P^ 


Umon. 


34- 


-k r-if it 


Oshoke. 


67. 


M M 


Tenrei. 


3 


• ^ 4* 


Sachu. 


35- 


/h m it 


Koshoke. 


68. 


M-k 


Tenjo. 


4 


• ^ Ff. 


Uchu. 


36. 


^ ^ 


Hange. 


69. 


jt ^fX 


Yeni. 


5 


. ^^ u 


Chuki. 


37- 


¥ # 


Heigaku. 


70. 


± m 


Shuya. 


6 


• u ^ 


Sanai. 


38. 


^ p^ 


Kumon. 


71- 


^ m 


Udono. 


7 


:^ ft 


Unai. 


39- 


II m 


Utono. 


72. 


M *B 


Gukwan. 


8 


M -^.t^ 


Kadzuma 


40. 


^ m 


Une. 


73- 


TF jt 


Shoi. 




(|/j, -no-suke). 


41. 


^ m 


Ori. 


74- 


ft it 


Shinzo. 


9 


m ^ 


Yemori. 


42. 


n'^ 


Tamiya. 


75- 


m t 


Hifu. 


10 


^ It 


Namiye. 


43- 


m ± 


Kurosu. 


76. 


:? U 


Gunki. 


1 1 


fT -1 


Yemori. 


44. 


# p^ 


Ommon. 


77- 


^ « 


Shisho. 


12 


m ^ 


Tomo. 


45- 


— ^ 


Ichigaku. 


78. 


m m 


Shorei. 


13 


^ P^ 


H anion. 


46. 


:f^ M 


Tanya. 


79- 


-t ^ 


Shurei. 


14 


¥ M>S 


Heima. 


47- 


p^ ?i 


Monya. 


80. 


m ^ 


Fukuba. 


15 


:^ M 


Hioma. 


48. 


^m 


Yakara. 


81. 


^ m 


Shingei. 


16 


^jn j^ r. 


Kajima. 


49. 


^ i'^ 


Tachu. 


82. 


- m ^ 


Ittota. 


17 


^ a 


lori. 


50. 


^f M 


Gioma. 


83. 


m m ^ 


Kimata. 


18 


:P3-T 


Tange. 


51- 


^ M k 


Modzume. 


84. 


j^. # m 


Shidzuma. 


19 


5}t r^ 


Motome. 


52- 


±m 


Daini. 


85- 


A ft 


Bunnai. 


20. 


^:)it 


Kume. 


53- 


'p m 


Shoni. 


86. 


m m 


Orii. 


21. 


#. # 


Tanomo. 


54- 


3%m 


Tenzen. 


87- 


X m 


Bunko. 


22. 


■^. m 


Sazen. 


55- 


m T 


Hoya. 


88. 


A- m ± 


Kogenda. 


23- 


^ Bi 


Uzen. 


56. 


■^ ill] 


Kosen. 


89. 


IE m ± 


Sagenda. 


24. 


/h m 


Kozen. 


57- 




Toma. 


90. 


Jtb M 


Konomo. 


25 




hvao. 


58. 


^ ft 


Kinai. 


91. 


i^ 


Naka. 


26 


U ¥ 


Sahei. 


59- 


m^^ :^ 


Moteki. 


92. 


^^ 


Itsuki. 


27. 


;& ¥ 


Uhei. 


60. 


m m ^ 


Yagiobu. 


93- 


s. 


Watari. 


28. 


i!i m 


Oriye. 


61. 


f« p2< 


Seiki. 


94. 


m 


Utata. 


29. 


^ K 


Kaname. 


62. 


}{^ M^ 


Shoden. 


95- 


•i-^^ 


Ataka. 


30. 


"p^ ^ 


Shiba. 


63- 


5f M.S 


Tamba. 


96. 


m ^ m 


Notoro. 


31- 


^ ^ 


Onari. 


64. 


-^ ^ 


Bukioku. 


97- 


m, zwj 


Orinosuke. 


32. 


g r^ 


Shinen, 


65- 


± ^ 


Shubi. 


98. 


mz^ 


Hayanosuke 



CHAP. V, § 3.] OFFICIAL TITLES. 87 

H.— Buddhist Titles. The soktvan ff *g or chief officials of the Buddhist 
hierarchy in Japan comprise the three Sojo if jE, the four Sodzu if Up 

and the three Risshi ^ $i|), whose full titles are as follows : 

I to 3. Dai (:^), Sho (]£) and Gon (^||j -sojo, corresponding in rank 
to Dainagon, Chunagon and Sangi respectively (see p. 81, A, e, f). 
4 to 7. Dai -X (or Shodai JE ic), Gondai ^f ;^, Sho A^ (or Sho^U 
jE ^) and Gonsho ^ A; -sodsu. These correspond in rank 
to court nobles of the fourth rank of honour {shii, see §4, 
p. 88). 
8 to 10. Sho JE, Chu r\i and Gen ^ -risshi. These correspond to 
the fifth rank (goi). 
Of the soi if ^ or honorary titles conferred on or applied to 
Buddhist priests generally, the following may be noted : — 

Hoin j^ pp (' seal of the law '), corresponding to the sojo group 

above ; also called Dai-osho ;:^ ^P [pQ. 
Hogen \^ ^ (' eye of the law '), corresponding to the sodzu group ; 

also called Os'io'' |1J [pj. 
Hokkid (often wrongly spelt Hokio) -^^ j^ ('bridge of the law'), 
corresponding to the risshi group ; also called Shonin J^ J\^. 
These three were conferred by Imperial decree, and in recent 
times were extended also to craftsmen, especially metalworkers, of 
high standing (e.g., Goto Hokkio Ichijo, Shummei Hogen, etc.). Other 
priests, of less exalted position, received such titles as : Ajari (or 
Azari) [TriJ ^ ^, Daitoku (or Daitoko) ;^ ^„ Souja ^ ^, Chishiki ^ |i, 
Zenji |p ^iji (originally conferred imperially only), Gobo (vulg. Ombo) 
^ ^, Shaku no ^ (corresponding to our ' Reverend ' and written 
before the name, being not so much a title as an indication of 
honorary relationship with the S'akya ^ jjB clan). 

Priests who had the honour of instructing the Emperor in the 
Sacred Law received the posthumous title of Daishi 3^ ^jp (notably 
Kobo-daishi of the Shingon sect) or Kokushi ^ ^j|) (if of the Zen 
sect). A posthumous title of less exalted rank is Hoshi '/^ ^jji. 

^ So in the Zen sect ; the Tendai sect pronounces Kivasho, the Ritsu TT'a/J, the Shingon U'as/io (also 
Wajo, written 5^ _h). 



88 PERSONAL NAMES AND TITLES. [chap, v., § 4. 

§ 4.— RANKS OF HONOUR. 

From the second year of tlie era Taiho (702 A.D.j down to the 
Restoration of last century the following system of Ranks of Honour was 
in force : — 

A. — For Shinno (i.e., sons and brothers of the Emperor) there were 
four ranks (^ hon) : ippon ('first rank'), nihon, samhon and shihon. 
Thus: Nihon Shinno Mochitoyo IL ^ M ^ B ^- The term 
nitthon or 7nnbon M ^ was applied to a shinno on whom no such 
rank had been conferred. 
B. — For Nobles and Court Officials, whether of the kuge or daimio 
class, and including Princes wath the title -0 3E) there were ten 
ranks (-^ i), each with two or four grades. The ten Ranks were 
numbered : 

ichi-i, ni-i, sammi, shi-i, go-i, rokti-i, shichi~i, hachi—i, dai-sho—i 
"^ ^ ^ and sho ^ -sho-i. 
Ranks i to 3 were each divided into two Grades by prefixing JE 
sho (' first grade ', e.g., sho-ichii) and ^ jii (' following grade ', 
e.g., ju-sammi). 

Ranks 4 to 8 were similarly graded, but each grade was further 
subdivided as yo ( J-^ 'upper') and ge {"]»" 'lower'); thus: Sho-goi-jo, 
Jii-rokui-ge, etc. 

A jo and a ge w^ere similarly used to difference the grades (two 
each) of Ranks q and to. 
The Taiho Code further regulated the kwanisoto or ' normal corres- 
pondence between office [kwan) and rank [i) '. Thus : Rank i, grade a, 
would correspond to the office of Dajodaijin (see §3, A, p. 81); rank and 
grade 2a to Sadaijin, 2b to Udaijin, and so forth. 

If, then, the rank borne was greater than the office filled, the word 
-gio ^7 was suffixed, followed by the official title and then the name ; in 
the contrary case the suffix was -shti ^. Thus : ]u- sammi -shu Dainagon 
Fiijiwara no Kanenori ; Sho-nii-jo-gio Udaijin Minamoto no Noritomo. 



CHAPTER VL 

TYPICAL SIGNATURES. 

In reading a signature and tlie information often accompanying it on 
Japanese works of art, two successive tasks have to be performed : first, 
its dissection into the separate names and words composing it, and, second, 
the detevminaticn of the nature of the elements thus dissected, and, consequently, 
of the manner in which they should be read. 

Despite the absence of any definite punctuation in all such inscriptions, 
the first task is to some extent facilitated by a convenient tendency on the 
artist's part to break up a long example into two or more columns or 
sections, each corresponding as a rule to tlie natural syntactical division 
of the matter and in any case ending with a complete name or word. 
Further assistance is afforded by the frequent occurrence of certain key- 
characters, many of them referred to below, which provide clues to the 
nature and reading of the combinations immediately preceding or following 
them. 

For aid in the second task, already in part lightened by these same 
' guide-post ' characters, the student is referred to the general explanations 
which follow, as well as to the special references under individual characters 
in the Dictionary. 

Apart from an unaccompanied kakihan,^ whicli in any case may be 
eliminated as a mere unreadable sign, the simplest form of signature consists 
of one of the artist's individual names, such as his ordinary nanori- (Examples 
I. and II. on next page), his pseudonym (III. to V.), art-name^ (VI., VII.), 
or even zokumid^ (VIII.). His surname alone may also occasionally be 
found. 

Dealing for the moment with Example I., reference to the Dictionary 
will reveal other possible ways of pronouncing the characters in question, 
such as, for instance, Sei-cho. (The student will have already gathered that 
the hybrid readings Sei-naga and Kiyo-cho are virtually impossible.) Proba- 
bility, however, points to Kiyonaga, seeing that fH as kiyo and ^ as naga 



1 See p. 4. 2 Chapter V., § 2, p. 75. ^ Ibid., p. 69. " Ibid., § i, p. 70. 



go 



TYPICAL SIGNATURES. 



[chap. VI. 



are among the commonest nanori-elements} And probability becomes a 
certainty when this signature appears on a colour-print displaying the 
characteristics of the Torii School, and, in particular, of one of its shining 
lights, whose name the reference-books give definitely as Kiyonaga. 

Mutatis mutandis, the same remarks apply to II. (Nobu-iye), found on a 
sword-guard revealing the style of the famous Miochin smith Nobuiye. 

In 111., \y. and V., min (bin), kei and rin are the only readings quoted 
in the Dictionary for the three final characters. Consequently the other 
three must equally be read in Sinico-Japanese as so, gioku and ko, not as 
mune, tama and mitsu. (In 111., Shu~min (-bin) is certainly a possible 
alternative, but the reference-books give no such name.) 

Names of this type read in Sinico-Japanese are usually to be described 
as nicknames or art-names, or in some cases as semi-religious (lay-priestly) 



Examples of Signatures. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


\\. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


VIII. 


m 


m 




^ 


% 


m 

HI 




^ 


^ 


% 


^ 


a 


ifr 


^ 


^ 


^ 



I. Kiyo-naga~ (on a print). 11. Nobu-iye (sword-guard). III. So-min 
(ditto). IV. Giok[u)-kei (netsuke). V. Ko-rin (painting). M. Ko-riu-sai 
(print). VII. Jd-ka-sai (lacquer). VIII. Jin-go (sword-guard). 



names, and may be accompanied by a Buddhist title such as X ?M Niiido, 
a ^n Hoin, j^ gg: Hogcn, */^ ;|^ Hokkio, or by a sullix referring to honourable 
old age and retirement from worldly affairs, such as ^ -5, J| -so, ^ J\^ 
-rojin, ^ :t -koji, |^ -J^ -inshi, j^ \ -dojin, and so fortli (see Chapter V., 
Art-names, p. 70). 

Examples VI. and VII. follow the rule laid down for this class of 
art-name (dogo) in the same part of Chaj)ter V., where another useful group 
of kev-characters will be found. 



' Chapter V., § 2, C, p. 80. 

^ 'Long hyphens' have been inserted in these and subsequent examples merely in order to indicate 
the reading of each separate character. They should ordinarily be omitted. 



CHAP. VI.] TYPICAL SIGNATURES. 



91 



\\'hen forming part of a longer signature, the dogo is commonly placed 
by itself in a separate column preceding the other name (or names). 

The zokumid type of name (VIII.) is dealt with in Chapter V., §1 (p. '}o f), 
an examination of which will reveal another group of key-characters, 
particularly as finals. One of these finals, by the way, f^ mon, may be 
found used in a different manner in a long signature, after the name of the 
artist's master, being then read ... no mon, 'pupil of . . . '; see below, 

P- 95- 

Perhaps the most usual enlargement of the single-name signature is 
(again apart from the kakihan) some word or phrase immediately following 
it and corresponding to our ' fecit ', ' pinxit ', etc. Such are : j^ saku or 
tsukuru, ^ sei or tsukuru, in zo or tsukuru, all meaning ' made ' ; ^ gwa 
or yegaku, ^ no hitsu, ^ no dzu, 'painted' or 'drew'^; JJ no to, 'carved'; 
^ cho or horu, ^1] koku, horu or kizaniu, ^ sen, hizamu or chiribamu, 
'chased' or 'engraved'; ^ iru, 'cast'; ^j utsusu, 'copied', or often 'drawn 
from nature ' ; H^ shiki, ' wrote ' (as author) ; ^ sJio, ' wrote ' (as penman) ; 
^ If no henshu, 'compiled'. Others are quoted in the Dictionary. 

Combinations of some of these are found, such as ^ j^ seisaku, ^ %\\ 
chokoku, ^ i^ chuzo. The added prefix- ^ kore [ivo], 'this' (ace), is 
common ; e.g., j^ ^ kore ivo tsukuru, ^ %\\ ^ kore ivo chokoku, ' made or 
engraved this '. 

Other prefixes to be looked out for are the qualifying words seen in 
JE ^ no sho-hitsu, ' genuine drawing by . . . ', |^ j^ kin-zo, ' respectfully 
made', J^ ^ ki-giva, 'drawn in fun' (or sometimes 'as an amateur'), or 
some longer adverbial phrase, such as : ' (made) of sentoku ', ' of foreign 
iron ', ' at such-and-such a place ', and so forth (see later, p. 96). 

The above class of phrase (with or without the prefixes) immediately 
follows the artist's name (last name, of course, if more than one)."' In fact — 
once more apart from the kakihan and a readable seal-mark, if present — 
it indicates the end of the whole signature and its accompaniments. 



' One or other of the three characters in this little group, following the name of the designer not 
being the actual craftsman, will be read in the same way but translated ' after the design of . . . '. 
The third, following the name of a place, building or piece of scenery, is similarly to be read no dzu, 
but translated ' a picture of . . . '. 

^ Note that this character is wvitten after the verb, though read before it (compare note on p. 95). 

^ The possibility of there being two (or even more) artists' signatures on the same work should not 
be overlooked. 



92 



TYPICAL SIGNATURES. 



[chap. VI. 



Working backwards, on tlie other hand, from the artist's final name, 
we may expect to find one or more of the following : — 

(a) The surname ; (b) the clan-name ; (c) an individual name of another 
type (see antea) ; (d) an honorary official title and (or) a Court 
rank of honour ; as well as statements of — - 
(e) The artist's abode or birthplace, or the place where the work was 
made; (f) the date; (g) the artist's relationship (son, brother, 
pupil, etc.) to some other artist ; (h) his age ; (i) the name of his 
patron or customer; (j) that of the artist whose design he has 
followed ; (k) his profession ; (1) his change of name ; and (m) 
miscellaneous information, such as a reference to the material 
used for the object, the particular technique employed in making 
it, and so forth. 



IX. 



m 



X. 






XI. 






XII. 






a 
^ 



XIII. 






XIV. 



XV 



i& 



^ 



^ 









^^ 



XVI. 



^ 



m ^ 



it 



IX. Tori-i (family-name) Kiyo-naga (nanori). X. Mid-chin (f.) Nobu-iye 
(n.). XI. Katstira (f.) Yei-ju (n.). XII. Na-ra (f. or school-name) saku 
('make'). XIII. Kaji-kawa saku (see last). XIV. U me-tada (L) uji {'iamily') 
Shige-yoshi (n.) saku. XV. Mio-chin (f.) Ki (clan-name) [no]^ Miine-suke 
(n.). XVI. Mu-sashi[-uo]-kami (title) Fuji-ivara [no] Naga-michi (clan 
and n.). 



Taking these in order 



(a) The surname (family-name), as pointed out on p. 68, usually consists 
of two characters (Examples IX., X., XII. to XV.), although the 
student must be on the look-out for those of one only (XI.), of 
three, or even more. The following is a list of the commonest 



' The words in square brackets must be inserted in reading, although not represented by 
characters. 



CHAP. VI.] TYPICAL SIGNATURES. 93 

final characters employed in family-names, together witli their 
most usual readings in this connection. They are arranged 
roughly in order of frequency : — 

51 -ta, -da, \\l -yama, )\\ -kawa, -gawa, ^ -i, -^ -moto, 
Pi- -n^ura, ^ -saka, -zaka, [Ij^ -saki, -zaki, ]^, -hara, -bara, 
-wara, f^> -sawa, -zawa, 1^ -liashi, -bashi, $f -no, ^ -be, ^ 
-shima, -jima, ^ -ya, -tani, -dani, ^ -o, M -ya, ^ -tsu, 
-dzu, fSI -oka, tIc -ki, -gi, ^ -se. Hi -to, -do, j^ -tsuka, 
-dzuka, ^ -ko, -go, p -kuchi, -guchi, j|}) -ura, ^ -to, -do, 
^ -ji, -tera, -dera, tC -ye, ^ -be, -nabe, ^ -koshi, -goshi, 
-goye, ^ -bayashi, ^ -mori, -/^ -numa, ^ -nami, -ba, -wa, 
>i^ -matsu, '^ -ishi, ^ -daira, -hira, ^ -u, J^ -uye, -nouye, 
-kami, -gami, f -shita, -noshita, p^ -uchi, -nouchi, :;fj -kata, 
-gata, ^i -naga, g -miya, -nomiya, -^ -kura, -gura, ^ -umi, 
-mi, M -mi, M -ri, i^ -shiro, J^ -shiro, -ki, -gi, ;t.^ -ne, 
\a\ -ma, H -ga, -ka, j^ -ji, -chi, -j^ -sa, ^ -ra, pf^ -naka, 
M -i, 1^ -buchi, @ -me, ^ -wa, -ba, Jg -gaki, ^ -ba, 
^ -tsuki, -dzuki, BJ -machi, ^ -ba, ^$ -ki, -ku, ^ -ke, -ge, 
-ya, m -de, -dzu, ^ -te, -de. 

The word *^ uji, ' family ', is sometimes affixed to the surname 
(Example XIV). 
(b) The clan-name (XV., XVI.) is usually placed immediately before 
the last individual name (generally a nanori read in pure-Japanese), 
being itself preceded by (if it does not replace) the surname. A 
list of the most usual clan-names is given on p. 67, and affords 
another set of key-characters. Several of them (e.g., Ki |£ in 
Example XV.) are written with one character only. The word 
^ g ason ('courtier") is sometimes inserted between the clan- 
name and the nanori (jj^ 1^ ^ [5 ^Ij ^ Fujiwara no ason Toshisada), 
especially in the signatures of swordsmiths. 

(d) Example XVI. includes an (honorary) official title. See pages 81 f. 

and especially 84 (F. 4). 

(e) The simplest statement of the artist's place of abode consists of 

a single name, e.g., of a province, district or town. The names 
of the provinces are recapitulated in Chapter VII., 104, and 
should be committed to memory. They may be quoted in several 
forms, such as : ^ f^ Nagato (' [of the province of] N. ') ; ;^ f^J ^ 
Nagato no kuni (' [of] the province of N. ') ; ^ ')]] Choshu, ^ |^ 
Choyo (same) ; ^ ^ Chohan (' [of] the daimiate of Cho[shuj ') ; 



\ 



94 



TYPICAL SIGNATURES. 



[chap. VI. 



^ ^ Tobu ('[of] Eastern Bu[shu] ') ; ^* ^g .Yanfei (' [ofj Southern 
Ki[shu] '). (Some more key-characters are revealed here.) 

The province-name may precede one or more of the following 
names, in order as given : — 

(i) The kori or administrative division of a province, quoted 
as . . . U|S, . . . -gori, 'so-and-so kdri\ This is but 
rarely found on art-objects, and then chiefly on sword- 
blades. 
h) The town (commonly). The most frequent finals in town- 
names virtuallv coincide with those given above for 
surnames (p. 93). 
(3) A location within the town (ward, street, building, 'bank 
of the river,' etc.). 



XVII. 


XVIII. 


XIX. 


XX. 


XXI. 


m 


^ 


^ 


^it 


^ 


m 


m 


H 


. ^ 


A #1 


ffi 


tt 


m. 


'>H 


m fa 




A 


{£ 






XVII. Echi-zen \_noY jn ('residing in E.'). XVIII. Cho-shu [no] ju-nin 
('a resident of C). XIX. Cho-yo (=Choshu) Hagi (town) [no] jTi. XX. Oite 
Bii-shu Ye-do (read B. Y. ni oite, 'at Y. in B.') Tada-toki (artist's name) 
saku (' fecit '). XXI. Chikii-shu (province) Hako-zaki (town) Hachi-man 
(temple) oite kei-dai (read keidai ni oite, 'in the precincts [of the temple]'). 



The address thus made up of one or more names may, if standing 
alone, be understood to denote the artist's residence, but this 
is more definitely indicated by the sufifix ^ or \^ J\,, read 
. . . no ju, . . . no junin, ('residing in', 'inhabitant of; see 
Examples XVII. to XIX.). A cognate suffix is j^ no san, 



' See note on p. 92. 



CHAP. VI.] TYPICAL SIGNATURES. 



95 



'native of. On the other hand, jj^; . . . ni oite, although 
read after the address, is written before it^ (sometimes merely 
before the last item in it) ; it may be translated ' at ' or ' in ', 
and denotes the place where the object was made (see 
Examples XX., XXI.). 

(f) The methods of quoting dates are fully set out in Chapter W. 

Obvious key-characters are those for 'year' {^, or less commonly 
]^), for 'month' (^), and for 'day' (H); also for the numerals, 
the seasons, the cycle-indications and the nengo. 

(g) The artist's relationship to another artist is indicated by a word 

such as: ^ no ko, ^ no nan, '|^ no segare ('son of); p^ no mon, 
P^ ^ (A. ^> ^, H) "0 mon-tei (-jin, -sei, -riil, -yd), ^ ^ no 
dcshi ('pupil of); |^ no tei ('younger brother of); and so forth 
— immediately following the name of the father, master, etc. 
Nisei ZL iifc or ni-dai\-me^ zi f^[@] is equivalent to our 'II.', 
' second of the name ', etc. 

(h) Statements of age are dealt with on p. 42, where a compact 
group of key-characters may be distinguished. 

(i) llie patron's name preceded by the word \^ {ni yotte, ' in accordance 
with') and followed by f^ {no kononii, 'the desire or taste of) 
would be read nanigashi no konomi ni yotte, 'by desire of So-and- 
so.' See further under jlc in the Dictionary (eight strokes). 

The honorific ^ -knn, or ^ -dono, equivalent to our 'Mr.', 
may be inserted immediately after the patron's name. 

A common phrase, especially on colour-prints, is J5^, |^ motome 
ni ojite {ozu, if anonymous), 'by special request'. 

(j) The source of the design may be acknowledged by quoting the 
designer's name with a suffix like m no dsu, ^ no hitsu, meaning 
' [after] the drawing by . . . ,' and with or without the prefix Jgi 
{wo motte) ; thus : [J^] ^'Ij # M Toshinaga no dzu [lvo motte], ' after 
a design by T.' fj^ ^ fj| i^ narau Yasu-chika saku, read Yasitchika 
no saku ni narau, 'copying the work or style of Y.', is another 
possibility. The word 'Mj utsusu, 'copying', is also to be looked 
out for. 

(k) Phrases indicating the artist's profession are naturally in great 
variety. Some of the more common are : — on prints and drawings, 
It $iiJ yeshi, 'draughtsman', :;^ ^D ft X (or ^iji) Yamato gwako 



1 More sjh/co— these inscriptions making a pretence of being written in Chinese, although naturally 
readable only in Japanese. 



96 TYPICAL SIGNATURES. [chap. vi. 

(or yeshi), ' Japanese painter ' ; on metahvork, |S % $i|) (or '^) 
hovimonoshi, 'chaser', ^ % TilfJ imonoshi, 'founder'; on swords, 
^ ^ ?p m E ^"vz'/zou kaji-sosho, ' master-smith of Japan ' ; 
and so forth. The boastful phrases f|^ M ^ ^J chilko kaisan, 
' rehabilitator of the famils's fortunes', and ^ 1*" — tenka-ichiy 
' unique in the world (or in Japan) ', may be alluded to here.  

The latter is especially common on metal mirrors.  

(1) Of phrases indicating a change of name, §] ^t ^ 1^ ~ -sen " 

Hokusai litsu, ' I., formerly [known as] H.', is a well-known 
instance. Besides "^tj, the words ^fc ^^^^ ^^o, 'formerly', and gSc 
aratame, ' changed ', are also used in this connection (see their 
entries in the Dictionary). 

(m) The use of \^ motte, lit. 'using', has already been referred to in 
paragraph (j). Preceding the name of a material it is to be read 
as follows: \ii '^ ^ i$. namban-tetsii wo motte, '(made) of foreign 
iron ', JAi ^ kugi ivo motte, ' (made) out of a nail '. Phrases 
describing methods of manufacture are found in too great variety 
to be summarised here. A number of them will be found in the 
Dictionary. 




CHAPTER VIL 

NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. 

The Chinese, and the Japanese following in their train, yield to no 
other nation in tlieir love for the more or less artificial grouping in numbered 
series of interrelated subjects. The present selection of these ' Numerical 
Categories,' extensive as it may appear, comprises the most important only 
of the Japanese examples and excludes many of purely historical or technical 
interest. Several of them are mere transcripts from Chinese or other sources, 
wliile most of the remainder are formed on Chinese models. All, or nearly 
all, have been selected with an eye to the interpretation of the titles or 
sub-titles of certain colour-prints, numbers of which were ])roduced in series 
alluding, directly or indirectly, to one or other of the categories cited. 
Punning versions are not unusual, and several of these are quoted in the 
subjoined list. 

TWO. 

1. Rio-Gi^ M '^. oi^" Rio-SEi pg '14 (especially for the two sexesj. The 

Two Primordial Forces of Nature : Yd [^-, the Male or Positive 
Principle, and In ^, the Female or Negative Principle, quoted 
together as inyo (the Chinese yin-yang). 

2. Ni-o ZL (or in) EE. The Two Deva Raja or Guardian Kings : Taishaku- 

-ten ^ P ^ (Indra), and Bonten ^ ^ (Brahma). 

3. Waka-nisei fn W< Zl H- I'he Two Japanese Gods of Poetry : Kakinomoto 

no Hitomaro 1t^\ ^ K J^, and Yamabe no i\kahito lU it ^ A- 

THREE. 

4. San-sai H :}' or San-kioku H @- The Three Powers of Nature: 

1 Heaven, ten ^; 2 Earth, chi iHi ; 3 Man, jin \. See also p. 39, B. 

5. San-ze H ill-- The Three States of Existence: i Past, zense rij ^ ; 

2 Present, kunse (Bud. konze) ^ ilt; 3 Future, gose % ^. 

6. San-ko H %■ The Three Lummaries : i Sun, jitsu H ; 2 Moon, getsu 

^ ; 3 Stars, sei ^. 

7. San-goku H M- The Three Countries: India; China; Japan. 



1 The 'long hyphens' here inserted in the titles should ordinarily be omitted and the various 
elements written as one word in each instance. 



y 



98 NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. [cii.vp. vii. 

8. Sanga no tsu H M -SP' "i" San-to H ^- ^^^^ Tliree Cliief Cities of 
Japan : Kioto ff^ ^]^ ; Yedo jl ^ ; Osaka ;^ [J^. 

9. Saxga no tsu H ^ ^- 1 1'P 'riiree Cliief Japanese Ports in olden 
times: i Hakata \§ ^ in Chikuzen ; 2 Anotsu ^ |»^ ^t, now Tsu '^\, 
in Ise ; 3 Bonotsu Pj / p: in vSatsuma. 

10. San-dai-ka H :k, M- 1 lit^ Three Largest Rivers of Japan : i Kiso-gawa 
;?{v ^ Jll : 2 lone-gawa ^l] ;fii jlj ; 3 Shinano-gawa if, Jg }\\. 

11. |Nihon] SAN-KiC-Rir [U :^\ H ^ ^- I'lie Three Swiftest Streams of 
Japan: 1 Fuji-kawa 'jg :J: jlj in Suruga ; 2 Mogami-ga^va :^ J-. jlj 
in Ushu ; 3 Kuma-gawa ^ ^ )\\ in Higo. 

12. San-dai-kio H ::^ ^- I he Three Chief Bridges in Japan. 

1 Seta-no-karahashi ^ 03 /,!f Iw- 

2 Uji-hashi ^ }^ m- 

3 Yamazaki-hashi [Ij jlj^j ;j^. 

13. [Nihon] San1-fu]-kki [|3 ^ij H [El f;- The Three Chief Sights of 
Ja{)an. 

1 Itsuku-sliima J^ ^j, or Miya-jima ^ ^, in Aki. 

2 Ama-no-hashidate ^ ^ jt in Tango. 

3 Matsu-shima ^=^ ^ in Oshu. 

14. San-sen-jin H ^Jc 'P'I'- I li*' Three War Gods of Japan. 

1 Marishi-ten ^ ^Ij ^ ^. (Marici Devaj. 

2 Daikoku-ten ;^ S ^ (Mahakala). 

3 Bishamon-ten ^ i^^l; p^ 5^. or Tanion-ten ^ P'j 5^ (Vais'ravauci). 
Tlie YuMiYA-SAN-TEN '^ ^ H ^, three divinities who ])rotected warriors, 

were : — 

1 Marishi-ten (see abo\e). 

2 Ben[zai]-ten ^ [:}' or |?tl ^ (Sarasvati). 

3 Bishamon-ten (see above). 

15. San-gC H ^- 1 he Three !', ni presses : Reigning. Dowager, and Arch- 
dowager. 

16. San-ko H ^, oi' San-tai H "p- See j). 81, and the next. 

17. San-ju ^ ^. 'Ihe Three Long-li\ed Personages of Mythologw 

1 Seiobo [Ig Hi ^9^ (Hsi-wang-niLij. 

2 Tobosaku '^ ~Jj f)\ (Tung-fang So). 

3 Jurojin ^ :^ jfilp (Shou-lao). 

The S.\N-CHo-,u:-JiN H :^ -^ K, or San-cho-mki H li '^ were:-— 

1 Urashimataro fffj ^ ::^s: %■ 

2 Tobosaku (as above). 

3 Miura-no-dsuke H l[ff ;^ ft[j (Yoshiaki ^^ P/J). 



CHAP. VII.] NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. 99 

Purely Japanese are the San'-k6 H ^ : Urashimataro, Takeshiuchi-no- 
-sukune ^ ^ ^ |^, cind Miura-no-osuke. (See also 16.) 

18. Susui-SAN-Kio (or -SHI) @t^ ^ H iS: iM)- The Three Sake (or rather 
Vinegar) Tasters 

1 Shaka ^ M (the Buddha). 

2 Koshi ^L -jF (Confucius). 

3 Roshi :^ ^ (Lao Tzu). 

19. Waka-san-jin ^fj ^ H fi|- The Three Kami of Japanese Poetry: 
Uwa-, Naka-, and Soko-tsutsuo-no-mikoto. This title is sometimes 
punningly written ^ H A, 'three young people'. 

20. Shoku-san-ketsu ^ H '^- Tlie Three Heroes of the Chinese State 
of Shu (Shoku). 

1 Kwanu ^ %^ (Kuan Yii). 

2 Riubi :fij ^1 (Liu Pi), also called Gentoku ^ ^. (Hsuan Te). 

3 Choin 5g M (Chang Fei). 

21. [Kokei-]San-sho f;^ 'M] H ^. The Three Laughers of the Tiger 
Gorge fHu-ch'i), China. 

1 Keiyen-hoshi ^^ ja 'ik N> (Hui-yen). 

2 Toyeinmei [5fe] DJj^ HJ (T'ao Yiian-ming). 

3 Rikushusei 1^ \^ |[f (Lu Hsiu-ching). 

22. San-chu H ^^- J 1>^' Three most faithful Supporters of tlie Imperial 
Throne in the Middle Ages. 

1 Taira no Shigemori ^ M ^. 

2 Fujiwara no Fujifusa )|§ ]^ 'i$ ^. 

3 Kusunoki Masashige /|li jE Ii^- 

23. Sam-pitsu H ^- 'I^li*' Three Great Calligrai)liers of the 9th century. 

1 Saga-tenno i^i ll|t ^ M. Emperor. 

2 Tachibana no Hayanari \'^i] M. ^• 

3 Kobo-daishi ijl 'i^ i^ %^, priest. 

24. San-seki H il'. The Three Great Calligraphers of the loth century. 

1 Ono no Michikaze (popularly Dofu) /J^ ^ ^ M. (for whom Prince 

Kaneakira-shinno ^ IJH H 3i is sometimes substituted). 

2 Fujiwara no Yukinari ^ M ^f B^- 

3 Fujiwara no Sukemasa (^ Ji). 

25. San-kisha H I§ M- 'I'lie Three Sports of the Middle Ages combining 
horsemanship and archery. 

1 Yabusame :5^ i^ ^• 

2 Kasakake ^ #|«. 

3 Initomono J^ iS J}^. 



loo NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. [chap. vii. 

26. San-kioku H ^- The Three Musical Instruments: drum, samisen, and 
flute. 

27. San-dai-shu H i^ ("r ;;^) ^. The Three Great Anthologies, Nos. 
I to 3 of tlie Hachidaishu (83). 

28. Sambiki-zaru H R5 ^- Tlie Three Mystic Apes: Mi-zarii, Iwa-.zant, 
and Kika-zaru. 

29. Sam-bo H W- '^ 1^^ Triratna or Three Treasures of Buddhism : the 
Buddha, the Law, the Priesthood. The word Bupposo f^ -/jj (^ expresses 
the three. 

30. San-shu(-ju) [no Shinki or no Jingi], or Mikusa no Kandakara H #' fij' ?|- 
The Three Regalia of the Empire (see under A and ^ in the Dictionary). 

31. San-zo H ^ The Tripitaka or Three Classes of Buddhist Scriptures. 

1 Kio ^«? or sutra \^ ^ ^. 

2 i?ifsz< :^ or vinaya ^ /g. 

3 i^on 1^ or abidhavma psj ^ A. 

32. San-kio H tj(- The Three Religions: Shinto, Buddhism, Confucianism. 

33. S.\N-RiAKu H B^. See 66. 

34. San-ju H t9b- The Three Obediences due from a woman : to parents, 
to husband, and to the son who has inherited his father's position. 

35. Sho-chiku-bai, the three plants symbolical of longevity. Sometimes 
known as Saikan no San-yu j^ ^ H <^, ' the Three Friends of the 
Cold Season '. 

1 Pine, sho, matsu >j^. 

2 Bamboo, chikii, take Y^- 

3 Plum, 6a/, time ^. 

36. Setsugekkwa. The Three Friends of the Poet (see also p. 39, B.). 

1 Snow, setsii, yuki ^. 

2 The Moon, getsii, tsuki f]. 

3 Flowers, kiva, hana 1^. 

37. San-shibai H ^ ^. The Three Chief lV)pular Theatres in Yedo 
durimx the i<Sth centurv. 

1 Nakamura-za FJ^ ^ ^. 

2 Ichimura-za Tfj ;|sj" J^. 

3 Morita-za 5^ B3 /^. 



CHAP. VII.] NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. loi 

FOUR. 

38. Shi-kiu P9 ^* or Siii-.iin |5? jfi^. The Four Guardians of the Cardinal 
Points. 

1. E. and left: ^ iH Scirid, the Green Dragon. 

2. N. and back : 3^ j^ Gembu, the Dusky Warrior (serpent and 

tortoise). 

3. S. and front : ^ ^ Shnjakii or ^ ^ Sluicho, the Red Bird. 

4. \^'. and right : ^ ^ Biakko, tlie Wliite Tiger. 

39. Sni-[D.\i-]TENNo PS 1;^] ^ 3i- I'he Catur Mahd-rdja or Four Guardian 
Gods of the Quarters of Heaven. 

1. East: Jikoku t>^ [il (Dliritarashtra). 

2. South: Zoclid i^ jj^ (X'irudhaka). 

3. West : Komokii Jl^ g (\'irupakshaj. 

4. North : Bishamon (see 14). 

40. Shi-ki py ^ (or ^), sometimes Shi-ji pj |lrf. The Four Seasons. 

1 Spring, shun, ham ^. 3 Autumn, s/tH, aki ^. 

2 Summer, /?«, nalsn g. 4 Winter, ;fo, fiiyu ^. 

41. Shi-ho IZg ^, or Sm-KioKU jiy |^^. Tlie Four Cardinal Points. See 
77, I, 3, 5^ 7- 

42. Shi-min PH lie, or Shi-no-ko-sho ± B X I^*. The Four Classes of 
Japanese. 

1 Shi, samurai "Jr, f^. (For other terms see under 5^ in the Dictionary, 

eiglit strokes.) 

2 No Jg or hiakiisho "gf $$, farmers. 

3 /v6, takiimi X. craftsmen. 

4 S/20, akindo ^, merchants. 

Nos. 2 to 4 form the heimin ^ g, 'common folk". 

43. Shi-sei pg $1:. The Four Great Clans (see p. 67). 

1 Fujiwara B B. Clo^l" M i^)- 3 Minamoto f,\ (Genji iKi ft). 

2 Taira 4^ (fleike 4^- '^). 4 Tachibana ^|$j. 

44. Shi-h.mshi py :;/c ^iji. The Four most famous Priests having the 
exalted title of Daishi (see p. 87J. 

1 Dengio \% U (Saicho M M)- 3 Jikaku B ^ (Vennin H in). 

2 Kobo gi, i^ (Ktlkai i^? •^)- 4 Chisho ^ |^ (Yenchin m i^). 

45. Shi-ten[no] pg ^c IIEJ- \'arious groups of the Four Chief Retainers 
of celebrated Japanese warriors. 



I02 NUMERICAL CATEGORII-.S. [chap. vii. 

Raiko no Shitenno (those of Minaniolo no Yoriinitsu or Raiko 

1 Watanabe no Tsuna •(]% ^^ p. 3 Urahe no Suyetake b ^ ^ 5^. 

2 Usui no SadainitsLi 1^ Jj- ^i ^. 4 Sakata no Kintoki ^ 09 ^ |l?f. 
YosHiTSUNE NO Shitkxno (those of Minamoto no Yoshitsune jl/ji ^ 

m:.) '.— 

1 Kamada Morimasa H [[] \§. l6C 3 Sato Tsuginobu ^ ^ f^ fg. 

2 His brother Mitsumasa ^ ^. 4 His brotlier Tadanobu ,\^» i=. 
YosHiNAKA (or Kiso) NO Shitenno (those of Minamoto no Kiso 

Yoshinaka W^ ^ ^ ^ tl') : — 

1 Imai Kanehira ^ ^- ^ ^. 3 Tate Chikatada |fg || /£,. 

2 Higuchi Kanemitsu # P ^ t^. 4 Nenoi Yukichika >j=S ^ ^ |^. 
Oda-shiten (those of Oda Nobunaga ^ fg ^g;) :— 

1 Shibata Katsuiye ^ \B M %• 3 Niwa Nagahide j^ ^ ^ ^. 

2 Takigawa Kazumasu Vb^ jl| — ^. 4 Akechi Mitsuhide P^ ^ :^ f|- 
Those of Tokugawa lyeyasu ^, jl| ^ j^ : — 

1 Sakai Tadatsugu 'M ^- ^. ^- 3 li Naomasa ^ ^ ig i^. 

2 Sakakibara Yasumasa W^ B> M ^. 4 Honda Tadakatsu ;^ ^ ,§, ^. 

46. Shi-sho pi ^. The Four Great Chinese Classics. 

1 Daigaku ;fc ^ (Ta-lisueh). 3 Rongo |^ |f (Eun-yu). 

2 Chuyo r^ J^ (Chung-yung). 4 Moshi ^ ^ (Meng-tzu). 
The Waka-shi-sho ^U ^f^ Hq ^ are tlie lM)ur Great Classical 

Romances in Japanese. 

1 Yamato Monogatari |n % M- 3 Taketori M. Yi ^ % to- 

2 Sumiyoslii M. ft ^ % fg. 4 Utsubo M. ^ ij^ |g. 

47. Shi-kun-shi ra © ^. The Four Xoble Plants. 

1 Ran HI] (orchid). 3 Unu' |§ (plumj. 

2 Tafet' -f^ (haml:)Oo). 4 Kikii ^ (clirysanthemum). 

48. Shi-gei PH ^. The Four Accomplislnuents. (See also 67.) 

1 Kin ^ (playing the koto). 3 Sho ^ (literary work or calligraphy). 

2 Ki ^ (the game of ,^,"0). 4 G\c'fl ^ (■i)ainting or (hawing). 

49. Shi-jo Rq 'j^-. Tlie I'\)ur Passions. (See also 74.) 

1 Ki M (joy). 3 ^'' K (grief). 

2 Do ^ (anger). 4 Raku ^ (pleasure). 

50. Siii-sui IZH [ji^. The Four Sleepers, i.e., the two Iwy-senuin Kanzan 
^ ill and Jittoku -|- ^., with the priest Bukan-zenji ^ ^ ;]ip fSiIJ and 
his white tiger. 



CHAP. VII.] NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. 103 

ElVE. 

51. (io-Gio 5ff. ^T- I'lie Five Elements. 

1 Ki tK (wood). 4 Kane ^ (Hietal). 

2 Hi iX (iii'e). 5 Midzn 7K (water). 

3 Tsiichi :^ (earth). 

52. Cjo-shiki 5l 'fe- Tlie Five Colours. 

1 Sei ^ (blue or green). 4 Biakit [^I (wliite). 

2 0^ (yellow). 5 Kokii M (black). 

3 Se/ei ^ (red). 

They correspond, though not in th*^ same order, to the next group. 
52a. Go-kin ^ -^. The Five Metals. 

1 Kin ^, Gold (yellow). 4 Tetsu i^. Iron (black). 

2 Gin ^, vSilver (white). 5 Suzu ^, Tin (blue). 

3 Do ^, Copper (red). 

53. Go-GAKU Ji, ^ (or -^). The Five Peaks (-wu yo) or Sacred Mountains 
of China. They have supplied art-names for se\eral ])ainters and others. 

1 East: ^ [Jj Tai-zan (T'ai Shan in Shantung). 

2 West : -^- (or ^) iJj Kwa-zan (Hua Shan in Shensi). 

3 North : fa. \\\ Kd-zan (Heng Shan in Chihli). 

4 South : %j ill Ko-zan (Heng Shan in Hunan). 

5 Centre: ^ ^ Taishitsu or ^ ^J Shu-zan (T'ai Shih, Sung Shan, 

in Hon an). 
There is also a Japanese group of _i,''o^§'a/c;/- dak'achiho, Kongd-zan, 
Nioi-zan, Hiyei-zan and Atago-yama. 

54. Go-CHi-xioRAi 3l ^ ^11 35j$- The Five Buddhas of \\'isdom {Taihdi^ata). 

1 Dainichi Niorai X ^11 ^$ ('ii the centre). 

2 Ashuku \M ^ N. 3 Hoshd ^ '^ N. 
4 Amida (or Mida) [pi] M Pt N. 5 Shaka P M N. 

55. (io-Jd 3l "^^ The Five Cardinal Virtues or 'Moral Constants'. 

1 Jin fn (benevolence). 4 Chi ^ (intelligence). 

2 Gi \$: (justice). 5 Shin fg (good faith). 

3 Rei ^^ (decorum). 

56. Go-SETSU 3l Ip (or Go-sekku Ji |p '^). The I'ive Great Festivals 
of the Japanese year. 

1 Jinjitsu A H (ytli day of ist month). 

2 /o»n' _E B (3rd day of 3rd month). 

3 Tango j^ ^ (5th day of 3th month). 

4 Shichiseki -tl ^ (7th day of 7th month). 

5 Choyo g ^ (9th day of qth month). 



I04 NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. [chap. vii. 

Each has one or more alternative names : — 

I Naiiakusa ■\^ jf$; (see 73). 2 Hina ^ no sehlm. 3 Shuhu for 
Ayame-no) ^ ^ -setsu ; Nobori Ipfji^ 110 sekku. 4 Tanahaia ^ \^- ; 
Hoshiai ^ '^. 5 A'/'/czf ^j ;/o sekkii. 

57. Go-Kio 35". It».- 11'*' 1' i\'e Chinese Chassics. 

1 Yeki-kio ^ |«\ il-chiiii^'). 4 Shunjil ^ ^A (Cli'iiu-ch'iu). 

2 Sho-kid ^ M\ [Shii-chiiig). 3 /^c/A'/ f« gH [Li-chi). 

3 S/z/-/e/o ^ ^^. iShih-ching). 

58. Nashitsibo no Go-kaskn ^ gg TT. ff^ j|Ij- See 70. 

SIX. 

59. iMuTSu(or Mu)-tama-ga\va >'^ 3& M (or )\\). 'TIic Six Streams called 
Tama-gavva. 

1 Ide ^\^ JiJ (or Hagi ^") no Tama-gawa, in Vamashiro. 

2 Nose if ^ no T., in Yamato. 

3 Toi ^ i^c (or Kinuta ^^) no '!".. in Settsu. 

4 Ko\a j^j If no 'I., in KishCi. 

5 Chohu 1^ ^ no T., in Musashi. 

b Noda Sip 03 (or Chidori =f- ,^) no T., in Mutsu. 

A punning variant of the title is Mutsii-lauia-gao >'< Jg ^, 'six- 
jewel faces'. 

60. T^oKU-jizo 7^ Jl}J 1^. Tlic Six Forms of the di^■inity Jizo. 

1 Yemmid j£ -^ -Ji^-o 4 Jichi i'^ |^ -j. 

2 Hoshd i^ '14 -J. 3 Hdin '^i F-U -j. 

3 Hosho (or Hoshu) 'f^^ ^ -J. f. Kengai ;^; M or Darani Pt HI M -.!• 

61. RoKU-KWANNON ^ IB, "g". The Six l'\)rms of the divinity Kwannon. 

1 Senju ^ ^ T\\\'annon. 4 Juicliimen -f* — • IHl T\. 

2 Shd ^ T\. 3 Juntei ?§ jJE^ T\. 

3 Medzu (or Batd) }^ M -K. (> Nio-i-rm ^u .@: H -K. 

62. RoKU-BU-TEX /> t^ %. Tiie Shiteniw (39) together w itii tlic A'/-n (2). 

63. RoK-KASKX 7^ ^^ -fllj. The Six Poetical Geniuses of the ninth century. 
The numbers in s(]uarc bra(]<ets refer to the order in the llundred 
Poets series (106). 

1 Ariwara no Narihira ^\\ )f,i % ^^. \ij\ 

2 Sojd Henjd f^t JE U M- h^J 

3 Ono no Komac:lii /]> 5^ /]^ Plf. [g] 

4 Kisen-hdshi ^/ ]% Ui fJiji. [8] 

3 Otomo no Kuronushi ^ f]'- ^^ ^. 

6 Fumiya (vulg. Bunyaj no Yasuhidt^ ^ /-f? ^ ^. [22] 



CHAP, vii.] NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. 



lo; 



A list of six twelfth and tliirlctMitli centLirx poets is sometimes 
quoted as Shin %f\ -mkkascn and includes Xos. (Sd, iji, (j:^, i^y 
and 98 of the 100 Poets (106), togetlier with I'"uji\vara no 
Toshinaii fl§ |^ (^ fiS;. 

The title rokkasen is [)unnint;l}' written in idiiits as >'^ |Jj (or ;|^) 
^P, 'six elegant selections', >^ ^ |^, '[six courtesans] chosen 
from six houses", ^ ^^ jl, 'six bridal selections', or >'>; ;|^ j^, 
'six decorative fans'. 

64. RoKr-YEir 7^ §f f^. See p. 84. 

65. RiKi'-CHd 7^ :^j|. The Six Dynasties of China from 250 to ^S.^) a.d. 

1 Go ^ (Wu). 4 Sei # (Ch'i). 

2 Toshin "^ ^ (Tung Chin). 5 Rio "^ (Liang). 

3 So 5|e (Sung). 6 Chhi Ff (Ch'en). 

66. RiKU-Td San-riaku 7^ |^ H B^- llie six volumes of the military 
treatise attributed to Kioshiga (Taikobo, China, 12th century h.c), 
and the three of the Heiho & ji^ (P'",i,'' Fa), a similar work ascribed to 
the mythical personage Kosekiko. They comprise the follo\\ing : — 

Jinn ^ -to, Bu 5^ -to, Rid || -to, Ko ^ -to, Hio fj -lo, Ken J^ -to ; also 
Jo- _h, Chii- 4», ^nid Ge- "[»" -riaku. 

67. RiKU-GEi >^ ^. The Six Accomplishments. (See also 48.) 

1 Rei f^ (etiquette). 4 Gio ^ (horsemanshi[)). 

2 Gaku ^ (music). 5 Sho ^ (literature and calligraphy). 
J Sha :^t (archery). b Sil |^ (mathematics). 

SEVEN. 

68. Shichi-fuku-jin -t: ^ ^fp. The Seven Luck Gods. 

1 Yebisu m ^ or .+Jc or M it M 5 Bishamon[-ten! ^ ^''> P*3 I^J- 

2 Daikoku[-ten| i^ ^, [^]. 6 Ben[zai]-ten p (flt or ::}•-] X. 

3 Fukurokuju ^g ff; #. 7 Jurojin ^ :g jjilji. 

4 Hotei [-osho] ^ ^^ [In tAj]. 

69. Chiku-rin SHicni-KiiN-Tix -ft +:^ 'I: "pL A [Chii-lin ch'i hsicn). The 
Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove (China, 3rd century A.n.). 

1 Kioshu (fi] H (Hsiang Hsiu). 5 Genkan ^jt )^ (Viian Hsien). 

2 Keikd i^ J^ (Chi K'ang). 6 Genseki M. ^ (Viian Chi). 

3 Riurei fij ^ (Liu Ling). 7 OjQ '£ ^t (Wang Jung). 

4 Santo \\\ ^ (Shan T'ao). 

The title is on certain colour-prints punmngly written L' t-f' A 
shichikenjin, meaning '[seven courtesans] from seven houses'. 



lof) NUMERICAL CA'l'J'GORIES. [chap. vii. 

70. Xasiiitsubo no Sniciii- kase-X ^ ^ {^ ^^ \\\\. 'V\\e Sovcni Maids-of- 
HonoLir to llic l''.nii)ress jdto-niouin (988-1(174) who were famed for 
poetry. Tlie first and last tlir(M^ appear in the list of the Hundred 
Poets (106) as Nos. 57, 3b, 59, in, f)2, ()0 ; the fourth is Xo. 21 in the 
later list of 'I"hii-t\--six Poets (100). The first fnc of the S('\-en are 
also known as \\\v Xashitsubo no s^'okascii. 

71. Naxa-komachi [^ /J^ lUJ". Seven (>pis:Hles in tlu^ canHM- of the poetess 
Ono no Koniachi /j^ ^ /]>■ [Hf. 

1 Soshi-arai Koniachi f^ 0: f5t A"" Wf- 5 Amagoi ]^ ^ K. 

2 Sekidera Wi ^ K- f' Omu i| M^ K. 

3 Kiyomidzu f^ tK I^- 7 Sc'toba :^ J^ v^^ K. 

4 Kaif^io jfi)^ ;ff K. 

72. Shichi-[hon'-]yari ^ |/^| ^. The 'Seven Sjiears', /.('., the seven most 
valiant spearmen at various battles. Those of the contest at Shidzu-,C!,a- 
take ^ -y f^- (1383) are the most famous:- — 

1 Fukushiraa Masanori f H ^ IE M'J- 

2 Kato Kiyoniasa j][\ )]§ ^ JE. 

3 Wakizaka Yasuharu -^ JK 5c Vn- 

4 Hirano Nagayasu ^ ff ^ J^. 
3 Kato Yoshiaki jn\ ft W Sfl- 

() Katagiri Katsumoto /i' ^|iil ^ 7C- 
7 Kasuya Takenori flf M j^ ^'J- 

73. Aki no Nana-kusa ^ ^ ]^. 'fhe Seven Plants of Autumn, usu.allv 
grown and grouped together. 

1 Has^n ^ (Lespedeza bicolor). 

2 Siisiiki f^. {Eulai'ia japonica) or OImiiui i^ (Miscaulhiis si)iciis!s). 

3 Kiizu ^j (Piieraria ihitnheri^inna). 

4 Xadeshiko ^ ^ or Tokoiuilsu ',%' ^ {Diauihus supevhiis). 
3 Ominameshi ;^ jlp ^ [Pairinui i>cabiosae folia). 

6 Fiijibakama |^' (Eupatoriiiiu chiucuse). 

7 ^4sa^.^ao ^ (Coin'()Iviilu.'< major). 

The nanakiisa no H'akdiid [j f'li [^j ^^] are the se\rn sorts of \i\getal)les 
eaten on the festival of j'nijilsu (see 56). 

74. Shichi-.to ^ '|||. Th(> Seven Passions, i.e., {\\v Shijd (49) togellKM- with 
Ai ^ (love), Aim ^ (liatnnl), and Yokii ^ (drsire). 

75. Shichi-do .^ jit. I he Seven 7>1 or (iroiips of l'i-o\inc(^s (t\\cluding tlie 
Gokinai and Yezo). See 104. 






CHAP. VII.] NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. 107 

EIGHT. 

76. Hak-kk a ^T-F (pa kiia). The Ei,i(ht Divinntory Trirrranis. 

Kcii, luH! %• (Chinese cJi'ien}. \.\\. 
Da ^ (tui). W. 

i^i m i^n. S. 

4 — ^ Shin ^ (chen). !•;. 

Sou, Tcilsitmi II isiiii). S.E. 

/v((H j-^*, J-^, (k-(iu\. N. 

7 ^ ^ ("jon, Ushilora ^ (ken). \.V.. 

H 1™  /vo;z, Hitsiijisaru ii\i, PJi (k'lin). S.W. 

77. HAK-K[w]r) A >ic '>i' IIak-kiokt a M?. Tlie Eight Points of the 
Compass. Compare the foregoing. 

1 To, Higashi ^ (E.) 3 Sei (Sai), Kishi ^ (W.) 

2 Son, Tatsumi H (S.E.) f, A>)/, /;n// fi (X.W.) 

3 A'an, Minami ^ (S.) 7 //o/c», A'//a. ;jt (N.) 

4 /von, Hitsujisaru i^ (S.W.) 8 Go;;, Ushilora ^ (N.E.) 

78. Hachi-do a M- 'I'lie Eight Groups of Provinces, sc, the Shichi-du ^75) 
together with the Hokkaido (Yezo, constituted a do in i(S68). 

79. Omi-hak-kki i£ ni A #:• 'I"he Eight \'ie\vs of Lake Omi (Biwa). 

1 ^ Ishiyama no shugtvatsti ^ \U ^ B ('the Autumn Moon at Ishiyama'). 

2 Hira no bosetsn J:b ^ ^ ^ ('Lingering Snow on .Mt. Hira"). 

3 Seta no sekishd ^ EB ^ M ('Evening Gh^w at Seta'). 

4 Mii no banshn H ::^ H^ M ('the Evening Bell at Mii-dera'). 

3 Yabase no kihan ^ ^ ^ 'till (^' Returning Sailboats at Yabase "). 

6 Awadzu no seiraii M ^ Rn ^ ('Glorious Sunset Sky at Avvadzu '). 

7 Karasaki no van ^ lllsj ^ M (' ^'ig^'t Rain at Karasaki"). 

8 Katata no rakugan ^ B3 ^ ifil ('Wild-geese alighting at Katata '). 



' Tlierp is ;ictu;ill\' no fixed order in titis .-ind aii.iloj/ous series. 



io8 NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. [chap. vii. 

The above list is a direct imitation of the Chinese j^ '^ A ^ 
Hsiao Hsiaug pa ching {Shoso-hakkei) or Eight \'ie\vs on the 
Hsiao and Hsiang Rivers (in Hunan) : — 

1 Totei (m ^, lake) no shugivatsu {Tung-fing ch'iu yiieh). 

2 Koteii {i£ ^> 'river sky \) no bosetsu (Chiang fien mn hsii:h). 

3 Giosou ('/fe ;jsj-. 'fishing hamlet') no sekisho {Yii ts'iin hsi chao). 

4 Y'enji {j^ -^, 'distant temple') no bansho {Yiian ssii wan chung). 
3 Yempn (^ \^, 'distant shore') no kihan {Yiian p'u kuei fan). 

() Sanshi ( |lj TfJ, 'hill town') no seiran {Shan shih ch'ing Ian). 

7 Shosb (tlie two rivers) no yau {Hsiao Hsiang yeh yU). 

(S Heisa (^ y};. 'flat sands') no rakugan {P'ing sha lo yen). 

Other Japanese districts have their hakkei, usually in identical 
phraseology. Thus, the corresponding localities in the Kanazaiva 
(^ '/|l. near Yokohama) -hakkei are : — 

1 Seto M J^- 5 Ottomo Zj. It- 

2 Uchi-kawa |^ jlj. 6 Susaki '^^ ^^]. 

3 Xojinia Wf j^}. 7 Koidzumi /]-» ^. 

4 Shdmiri ^ ig (Shomid-ji, tem.). 8 Hira-kata 4^ '^. 

Those of a Yedo-kinko (^ p j^ ^, 'environs of Yedo ') -hakkei 
list are : — 

1 Tama-gawa ^ }\\. 5 Giotoku \y ^,. 

2 Asuka-yama ^ % \\\. 6 Shibaura ^ jj^. 

3 Koganei /J> ^ ^. 7 Adzuma-sha ^ ^J ]f±. 

4 Ike garni ^ Ji. 8 Haneda ^ /j=^ H. 

A different ])hraseolog}' appears in the list Tama-gatva jukei 3E j'l 
^ ^ (the Tama River of Musashi province) : — 
I Seta no koto ^| 09 ^' ^ ('yellowing rice'). 
J Okamoto no kayo \^ }^ ^X ^ ('autumn foliage'). 

3 Okura no yorii no ame ';}\, M. ^ W ('iiiglit rain'). 

4 Fuji no seisetsu ^ it Hr ^ ('clear weather after snow on Mt. Fuji'). 
3 Noborito no shukugan ^ ^ ^ M ('geese at rest'). 

(> Futago no gioshil Z^ -f" J^ fy ('fishing boats'). 

7 Yoshizaiva no giogetsu |^ f^ H^- ^ (' moon at dawn '). 

8 Kaivanobe no yukeburi jl| nl> 3^ @ ('evening smoke'). 

In colour-prints the term hakkei may be punningly written /V W.^ 
'eight rivalries,' or A ^. 'eight assignations,' etc. The name 
Omi is subject to similar jeux de mots (see under ^ and ^ 
in the Dictionary, six and thirteen strokes). 



CHAP. VII.] 



NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. 



log 



79a. Has-sho-ji\ a M t4- 'i'lie Gods of the Eiglil Compass-ijoinis. 



1 Taisai -jjj^ j^. 

2 Taishogun ;;^ }|^ 



- K^ 



3 Daion i,^ |1^ 



3 Saiha ^ fi^. 

6 Saisetsu |^ |^. 

7 Oban ^ i|t. 

8 Hiobi fj Ji. 
ni£iv 1)6 added to these names. 



4 Saikio ^ ^J. 

Excef)t with No. 2, the sufhx -jiu jji^ 

80. Has-sen (pa hsieu) A fli|. The Eight Chief l^ishi {Scuuin) or Taoist 
Immortals. 

1 Shoriken || ^ |f (Chuiig-li Cii'uanj. 

2 Chokwaro ^g ij^ fiI5 (or ^) (Chang Kuo-lao). 

3 Riotohin g -ijlij ^ (Lii Tung-pin). 

4 Sokokkiu ^ ^ H (Ts'ao Kuo-chiu). 

5 Tekkai or Ritekkai [^] M!c f^ (Li T'ieh-kuai). 

6 Kanshoshi ^ J|g ^ (Han Hsiang-tzu). 

7 Ransaikwa ^^ 5^ |n (Lan Ts'ai-ho). 

8 Kasenko jmJ j|Ij ^ (Ho Hsien-ku). 

81. Hak-ken-shi a i^ it- The Eight Dog Heroes of Bakin's novel 
Hakken-den A :K i$^- 



Inudziika Shino" ^ i^ iB 75- 
Inuyama Dosetsu ;:^ |il jM ffJ- 
Inugai Gempachi i^ f^ i^ A- 
Inuye Shimbei ;/t tt ^ -^ 



,.^ ^• 



Inuda Kobungo :ic D3 >'J^ ^ ^ 
Inumura Daikaku J^ ^.j" X ^• 
Inugawa Sosuke ^ )\\ !|^, j^-. 
Inuzaka Keno^ :^ gS ^ Hip. 



82. Has-sho a ^. The Eight Ministries of the Imperial Government. 
See p. 82. 

83. Hachi-dai-shu A ^ ^- The Eight Famous Anthologies of Japanese 
Verse. Nos. i to 3 are known as the Sandaishu (27). 



1 Ko-kin-shu "^ ^ ^. 

2 Go(Kd)-sen-shri 1^ If 

3 Shui-shfi Y^ '^ M- 

4 Go-shui-shu ^ |p pia 



5 Shi~kwa-shu |pj :||£ ^. 

6 Kin-yo-shu ^ ^ ^. 

7 Sen-zai-shu ^ j^ ^. 

8 Shin-ko-kon-shii. 7^ "^ ^ 



NINE. 



84. GosHO fll ft/f (or Kojo ^ :^) no Kumon ji f^ 
the ancient Palace at Kioto. 

1 Impu-mon ^ ^ P^. 6 Kenrei ^ ta -mon. 

2 Bifuku 1^ )jiS -mon. 7 Joto Ji ;^ -nion. 

3 Anki ^ f^ -mon. 8 Yomei H PJ -mon. 

4 Shujaku ^ ^ -mon. 9 Soheki H H -mon. 

5 Taikem f^ ^ -mon. 



The Nine Gates of 



Commonly pronounced Shinu, KenO. 



I lO 



NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. 



[chap. VII. 



TEN. 

85. |iK-KAN, JrK-KA\ -p ^. The 'l"cii Cyclical Signs or 'Stems'. See p. 63. 

86. jf-DAi-DESHi -f- ^ »^ f-. The Ten C^reat Disciples of the Buddha. 

1 Kashd jIjII ^ or ^- ^"^ ( Kas'vajja). 

2 An an H H (Anandaj. 

3 Shariholsu -^ ^Ij ^ (S'ariputra). 

4 Mokkenren or Mokuren g I^Ml ^ (Maudgalyayana). 
3 AnaritSLi H ^H> # (Aniruddha). 

6 Shubodai fj ^- |£ (Subhuti). 

7 Furuna '^* ^ |j}l'> (Purnaj. 

8 Kasenyen M M }& (Katyayana). 

9 Ubariniitsu (# ^ ^ ^- (Upali). 

10 Ragora 1: M (or fe or ItfL) ,^ (Rahula). (See 95.) 

TWITA'E. 

87. jC-Ni-SHi -f* H ^. The l\\'elve Horary or Zodiacal 'Branches'. See 
p. 63. Punningh' written -^ ZL ^, 'twelve histories', in a print-series. 

88. jC-Ni-KA-GETsr -j- zi \\i^ H tor JC-xi-Ko -p zz ^)- 'I'he 'i'welve 
Months. See p. 43. 

89. jC-xi-j! -Y ZL 11.^- I b^' Twelve 'Hours' of the day. See p. 47. 

90. Ju-Ni-o -j- ZL 3i or JC-xi-TEN -p ZL ^ The Twelve Heavenl\ Deities 
of Buddhism. 



1 Jiten ilii ^. 

2 Gwatten }] ^. 

3 Bishanion-ten ^ :^^' P^ ^. 

4 Futen m. ^. 
3 Suiten 7X ^• 
6 Rasetsu-ten H ^Ij ^. 

91. CnCSHINGURA Ju-NI-])AX ^^ ^ 



7 Bonten ^ ^. 

8 Nitten U X 

9 Ishana-ten #J ^ ^f^ %. 

10 Taishaku-ten ^ ^ ^. 

1 1 Kwaten >/^ %. 

12 Yemma-ten j^ (or ^) ^ ^. 

t i' n f^. The Twelve Acts of the 
famous play Clntshiu^i^iira (compare 101). 

Act I. (daijo ^^ /^). Tsuviii^aoka shinzen ^ "^r ^] jfiljl hij" (' Before the 

I Hachiman] shrine at Tsurugaoka '). 
.\ct II. {nidamme H j^t Qj- Momonoi 110 yashiki ^^ / )[■ / fS. %. 

(' Momonoi's mansion 'j. 
Act 111. [sandamme^ H iBc @ )• Kamakiira denchu M >^ ^ "t* ('the 

Palace at Kaniakura 'j. 
Act W . Hangwan seppukit ^ij *jg -t/J )j|i (' the Sui(.:ide of [Yenya] 

Hangwan '). 



' And so on for llie remaining acts. 



CHAP. VII. I XL'MLRICAL CATRGORIKS. in 

Act \'. Yoichibei oshi |a — & %] ^- ^ ('the Murder of Yoichibei 'j. 

Act W. Kampei siimika ^j] ^j^ ^ ^ {' the Dwelliiij,^ of [Hayano] 

Kami)ei '). 
Act VII. Ichiriki ageya — ij ^% M. Ctl't^ Ichiriki I^rothel'). 
Act Mil. Tokaidd michiyiiki '^ M ^ M \\ ('the Journey along the 

Tokaido '). 
Act IX. Yamashina besso \[\ ^^- )}lj j{£ ('the Country-seat at Yaniashina'j. 
Act X. Amagawa-ya sumika ^ )\\ M ffi ^ ('the Dwelling of Amagawa 

[Gihei] •). 
Act XI. Gishi ymichi ^ ± ^ M (' the Xight-attack of the Faithful 

Samurai ' I. 
Act XII. Sengaku-ji hikiage ^ ^ "^ ^1 _L (,' the Withdrawal to the 

Sengaku Temple"). 

92. ju-M-RiTsu -p H # or JC-xi-CHosHi -\^ IL M -^- The Twelve Tones 
or Ke}-notes of Chinese Music. 

1 Ichikotsu ^ ^ or Taiso ^ ^. (ist month.) 
J Daugin ||If ^ or Kiosho /^ |0;. (2nd month.) 

3 Hidjn ^ ||^ or Kosen ^ j^t- (ji'*-! I'nonth.) 

4 Shozelsu ^ |g or Chiiro i|> g. (4th montli.) 

5 Shimo-init "]»" M or Suihin ^ ^. (3tli month.) 
b Sojn ^ 1^ or Rinsho ^^ ^. (f^tli month.) 

7 Fitsho ^ ^ c)r /,so/c// ^ ^Ij. (7th month.) 

8 Oshiki ^ ^ or Xauro ^ g. (8th month.) 
() Raukei ^ ft or Biiyeki fjlE :^ij-. (gth month.) 

10 liaushiki ^ i'-J; or 0,s/;o pg ^. (loth month. j 

11 Shinzcu jji^ j|Ij or Osho ^ ^. (nth month.) 

12 Kaiui-uiit _t M or Tairo ^ g. (12th month.) 

The second names are also used as alternative designations for the 
twelve months, as shown above. See p. 43. 

THIRTEEN. 

93. Frji-Mi Jus.\N-SHu ^ d: M + H 'Hi- The Thirteen Provinces from 

which Mt. Fuji can be seen. They are Xos. 11 to 20, and 24 to 26 
in the list of provinces (104). 

FIFTEEN. 

94. Benzaitex Jugo-doji ^ Ht 5^ i' 51 m f • '^"^^^ Fifteen Sons of the 
goddess Benten. 

1 Aikid ^ ^. 3 Hikken ^ gl 

2 Hanki tc If. 4 Giuba ^- 1%. 



112 



N U M E R I C A L C ATEGO K I ES. 



[CHAI\ VII. 



3 Inyaku F-D ^. 
b Jusha ^^ qg. 

7 Keislio If ^. 

8 Konzai ^ Kt- 

9 Kwantai 'g ^f. 
lo Sanyo ^ ^. 



95. JUROKU-RAKAN -f* 7^ ^ ^ 

Buddha. 

I Hatsuratasha ^ ,^ .% fi]. 
3 Dakaharita sg M ^ Si II: 
5 Dakora ji^ ^^ ^. 
7 Ragora. (See 86.) 
9 Inkada f^j pt- 
II Ashita pnj ^ ^. 
14 Shubaka j^ fH ijp. 



1 1 Shusen "ig }]\. 

12 Isho :^ ^. 

13 Shoniio ^ '^. 

14 Tochu m a- 

15 Sensha J|{V J^t. 
(Extra) Zenzai ^ n|. 

sixteen:. 

The Sixteen Chief Arhats, Disciples of the 



2 Kiadakabassha M W M iX 
4 Sohinda |s^ $^ p't*. 
6 Batsudara or Hattara ^ pt 
8 Xakasaina M^ filH Z^? ^)1^- 
10 Hatsunabashi fjc M'j ^^ S/f- 
Kari jftn PM. 13 Hottara ^ ^ 



15 Handaka ^ |^ jjn. 
16 Chu(rarely Shu)dahandaka ^ ^ ^ E* i^n. 

The honorific suffix -sonja :^ ^ is usually added to these names. 



96. XlJUSHI-KI 

Seasons of 
asterisk are 

Spring : 

2 pH ;K 

3 ^^ m 

5 m m 

6 13: M 

Summer : 

7 :4H 

9 i£ I'R 

10 ^ ?^ 

11 /h ^- 

12 :A: ^ 



TWEXTY-FOUR. 

H ~h P9 ^. The Twenty-four Solar Terms or Agricultural 
the Year (derived from China). *Those marked with an 
more frequentl}' quoted than the rest. 

Risshiiu* v' beginning of spring'). 

Usui ('rain-water'). 

Keichitsu (' awakening of insects '). 

Shiimbun* ('spring equinox'). 

Seimei (' clear weather '). 

Kokuii (' grain rains '). 

Rikka* ('beginning of summer'). 
Shoman (' lesser fulness '). 
Boshu ('grain in the ear'). 
Geji* (' summer solstice '). 
Shusho ('lesser heat'). « 

Daisho (' greater heat '). 



CHAP. VII. j THE TWENTY-FOUR PARAGONS. 113 

Autumn : 

13 ^ lit Risshu* ('beginning of autumn'). 

14 ^ ^ Shosho ('limit of heat'). 

15 fi ^ Hakiiro ('white dew'). 

16 ^ ^ Shubun* ('autumn equinox'). 
^7 ^ W Kanro ('cold dew'). 

18 Hi j^ Soko ('hoar-frost descending'). 
Winter : 

19 jt ^ Ritto* ('beginning of winter'). 

20 /\\ ^ Shosetsii (' lesser snow '). 

21 ::^ ^ Daisetsu ('greater snow'). 

22 ^ S Toji (' winter solstice '). 

23 /h ^ Shokan (' lesser cold '). 

24 :;A; ^ Daikan (' greater cold '), 

97. NiJUSHi-Ko H + pg #. The Twenty-four (Chinese) Paragons of 
Filial Piety. A Japanese uijushiko series is sometimes quoted. The 
title has been parodied in a print-series as ^ -f^ P9 f^, ' twenty-four 
crazes'. The order of the Chinese series usually followed in Japanese 
books is as given below. 

1 [Taijshun (Chinese Shun) [-j^] ^. 

2 Moso (Meng Tsung) ^ ^ or Kobu (Kung Wu) ^ j^. 

3 Kan no Buntei (Han Wen-ti) 'M ^ ^- 4 Teiran (Ting Lan) T P- 
5 Binson (Min Sun) BS ^^. 6 Sosan (Tseng Ts'an) "^ j^. 
7 Osho (Wang Hsiang) ^ p. 8 Roraishi (Lao Lai Tzu) ^ M ~P- 
9 Kioshi (Chiang Shih) H Up. 

10 Saishi (Ts'ui Shih) .|| ^ or To-fujin (T'ang Fu-jen) ^ ^ A- 

11 Yoko (Yang Hsiang) ^ ^. 12 Toyei (Tung Yung) j| ^. 
13 Koko (Huang Hsiang) J| ^. 14 Kwakkio (Kuo Chu) |p g. 
15 Shujusho (Chu Shou-ch'ang) :^ # ^. 16 Yenshi (Yen Tzu) ^\\ ^. 
17 Saijun (Ts'ai Shun) g )l[g. 18 Yukinro (Yii Ch'ien-lou) M. ^ -1- 

19 Rikuseki (Lu Chi) ^ |;^. 

20 The brothers Denshin (T'ien Chen) g M, Denkei (T'ien Ch'ing) 

gg ^, and Denko (T'ien Kuang) fQ ^. 

21 \ 22^ The brothers Choko (Chang Hsiao) ^ # and Chorei (Chang 

23 Gomo (Wu Meng) ^ U.- 

24 Koteiken (Huang T'ing-chien) ^ ^ ^ or Sankoku (Shan Ku) \\i ^. 



1 Sometimes replaced by Chuyu (Chung Yuj -(t ft and Kokaku (Chiang Ko) Jl 3^. Oho (Wang 
P^o) 2 ^ also appears in some lists instead of No. 20. 

8 



114 



NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. 



[chap. VII. 



In '^'amashiro. 



> In Kioto. 



THIRTY-THREE. 
98. S.\iKOKU Sanjusan-siio ]Il{ fi^ H + H j'jf. Tlie 'Thirty-three Places' 
or temples sacred to Kvvannon in Kioto and the surrounding provinces. 

1 Nachi-san ]}[> ^ \\\ 

2 Ki-niiidera ^ H ^- r In Kishu. 

3 Kokawa-dera p^ )\\ (or JpI) ^•, 

4 Makino-dera l^a ^ ■^. In Idzumi. 

5 Fujii-dera jj^ -j^ ^. In Kavvac:hi. 

6 Tsubosaka-dera ^ ^ ^. ) 

7 Oka-dera [55) ^. 8 Hase-dera -g ^ ^. - In Yamato. 
g Nanyen-do ]^ UJ ^, at Nara. ] 

10 Mimuroto-dera H ^ ^ ^. ' 

11 Kanii-daigo-dera Ji Hie f|li^ "^.j 

12 Iwama-dera ^ fa] ^. j 

13 Ishiyama-dera ^ jlj ^. - In Onii 

14 Mii-dera H # ^. ) 

15 Imagumano ^ fj^ if. \ 

16 Kiyomidzu-dera fp| 7X ^• 

17 Rokuhara-dera 7^ ;^ H ^. 

18 Rokkaku-do >\- ^ ^. 
ig Ko-do ^ ^. 

20 Yoshimine-dera ^ ili^ ^. 

21 Ano-ji 5^ Hi ^. In Tamba. 

22 Soji-ji tl ^ ^. 

23 Kachi(Katsu)o-dera B Mu '^■ 

24 Nakayama-dera fj^ |Jj ^. 

25 Shin-kiyoniidzLi-dera ^j? f^ 7JC 

26 Hokke-zan f^ f|^ jlj. 

27 Sliosha-zan ^ % jij. 

28 Nariai(Seis6)-ji ^ ^0 "^^f 
2g Matsunoo-dera |2j ^ ill- 

30 Chikubu-ji Y^ >^ -^'f. 1 

31 Chomei-ji Ik -^ ^. - In Omi. 

32 Kwannon-ji ||| ^ ■^.j 

33 Tanigumi-dera ^ -(1,^ ^f. In Mino. 

The names in the above list are as quoted in the famous print- 
series Kwannon Reigen-ki, but there are also alternatives. A 
further list of thirty-three belongs to Eastern Japan {Bando 
^ }|C sanjusansho), and still another to the district of Chichibu. 



In Settsu. 



^. 



In Harima. 



In Tango. 
In Wakasa. 



CHAP. VII.] THE THIRTY-SIX POETS. 115 

THIRTY-SIX. 

99. Sanjurok-kasen H + A ^ jllj- 'Hie Thirty-six Poetical Geniuses of 
Japan anterior to the eleventh century. Twenty-six of them ajjpear 
among the Hundred Poets (106) and are here quoted only by their 
numbers in that list. A punning variant of the title is Sanjrirok-kassen 
(^ W, 'thirty-six fights'. See also 100. 

I to 15 [3, 35, 2q, 19, (), 4, 17, 12, 21, ^-^, 5, 9, 27, 44, 43]. 

16 Fujiwara no Takamitsu "^§ ^ ^ ^■ 

17 Minamoto no Kintada ^^ ^ ^,. iB [30]. 
ig Saigu-no-niogo ^ ^ ^ tifll (Yoshiko-nioo, poetess). 

20 Saishu Yorimoto ^ Efe H ^ (Onakatomi family). 21 [18]. 

22 Minamoto no Nobuaki t!^, ff ^. 23, 24 [28, 48]. 

25 Fujiwara no Kiyotada M JB' fn >&• 

26 Minamoto no Shitagau t!^. HI. 27 to 29 [34, 42, 31]. 

30 Fujiwara no Motoyoshi S M 7C W- 

31 [38, also called Kodai-no-kimi /J> ^ ^]. 

32 Fujiwara no Nakabumi ^ ]^ /ftfi X- 33 to 35 [49, 41, 40]. 
36 Nakatsukasa »^ f^ (daughter of No. 4 in this list). 

100. Chuko-sanjOrok-kasen fJ^ "6" H + 7^ ^ j|I]- The Thirty-six Poets 
of the Middle Ages, a later list, including another nineteen of the 
Hundred Poets. Compare 99. 

I to 7 [56, 65, 47, 59, 69, 61, 46]. 

8 Domio-ajari it -^ K fe^ ^'J (Fujiwara). 9, 10 [51, 52]. 

II Taira no Sadabumi zji ^ ^. 12 [36]. 

13 Oye no Yoshikoto :f^ xL M ^^ 

14 Minamoto no Michmari ^, ^ )&■ ^5 L^>3l- 

16 Zoki-hoshi Jt ^ 'i* W- 

17 Ariwara no Motokata /fh B. jt :^- i^' ^9 [-3' 55j- 

20 Onakatomi no Sukechika i^ ^ S li IS- 

21 Fujiwara no Takato |§ ]^ i^ jia- 

22 Uma-no-naishi J^ p9 f# (Minamoto). 23 to 25 [50, 57, S3]- 
26 Fujiwara no Nagayoshi jt^ :g: Hb- -7 M- 

28 Joto-monin-no-chujo Ji ^^ f^ ^ ^h ;l^- (poetess). 

29 Kanemori-o (or -no-ogimi) ^ ^ 3i- 

30 Ariwara no Munaliari ^fh M It ^- 3^ f^"]' 

32 Fujiwara no Tadafusa ^ ]^ ^S, M- 

33 Sugawara no Sukemasa %^ )^i |i IE- 

34 Oye no Masahira J<Z XL W- ^^ 

35 Ambo-hoshi ^ fi -/i gili (Minamoto no Shitagau M H'- 

36 [62]. 



ii6 



NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. 



[chap. VII. 



FORTY-SEVEN. 

101. Shijushichi-gishi P9 + -t: ^ dt'- The Forty-seven Faithful Samurai 
{ronin), avengers of the judicial murder of their lord Asano Takumi-no- 
-kami Naganori i^ if ^ [S SH ;^ ^£ through the machinations of his 
enemy Kira K6tsuke[-no-suke] Yoshinaka "n R _t i? ['^H ^ ^- ^" 
the various plays {Chushingura,^ etc.) and romances founded on this 
episode of the early i8th century, the names of the personages concerned 
are altered for legal reasons, but are usually colourable imitations of 
the originals. 

FIFTY-THREE. 

102. ToKAiDo GojusAN-TSL'Gi ^ '^ M 31 + H ^ (or -YEKi ]p).- The 
Fifty-three Post-stations on the Tokaido, the great highroad leading 
from Yedo to Kioto along the southern coast. They are, in order, as 
follows : — 



Start. Xihombashi U ^ ^ 
(bridge in Yedo). 

1 Shinagawa ^ jl|. 

2 Kawasaki Jlj |1|§. 

3 Kanagawa ^i^ ^f }\\. 

4 Hodogaya ^ ^ ^. 

5 Totsuka ^ 1^. 

6 Fujisawa ^ j^. 

7 Hiratsuka ^ j^. 

8 Oiso ± li^. 

9 Odawara /j^ 0^ ]^. 

10 Hakone jlj (or ||) ;f^. 

11 Mishima H ^• 

12 Numadzu -/g :^. 

13 Hara ]^. 

14 Yoshiwara ^ ]^. 

15 Kambara -^ j^. 

16 Yui ^ J;!: (or )^ ^). 

17 Okitsu M ^. 

18 Yejiri tC ^. 

19 FucliQ Iff ^{i. 

20 Mariko ^ ^. 



21 Okabe [S] 1^5. 

22 Fujiyeda ^. 

23 Shimada ^ fQ. 

24 Kanaya ^ ^. 

25 Nissaka H ^. 

26 Kakegawa ^ jlj. 

27 Fukuroi ^ ^. 

28 Mitsuke M /ft- 

29 Hamamatsu ^ ;|^. 

30 Maizaka H ;g^- 

31 Arai ff ^ (or ff M)- 

32 Shirasuka j^ f^ ^. 

33 Futagawa ZL jll- 

34 Yoshida "^ g. 

35 Goyu m m 

36 Akasaka ^ ^. 

37 Okazaki [i^ |l^i^i. 

38 Chiriu m M M- 

39 Narumi ^% '(hi. 

40 Miya ^. 

41 Kuwana ^ ^. 

42 Yokkaichi pg ftj- 



1 Compare 91. 

^ Or even -tsui ^ (' set of 53 '). 



CHAP. VII.] THE HUNDRED POETS. 1:25 

ONE HUNDRED. 

106. HiAKU-NiN-JSSHu "g" A — #• 'A Hundred Poems by a Hundred 
Poets V an anthology collected in 1235 by Fujiwara no Sadaiye (No. 
97). The authors are always quoted in this connection as follows : 

1 Tenji-tenno ^ ^ 5^ M (38th Mikado). 

2 Jito-tenno W ^ ^ M. (Empress, 41st Mikado). 

3 Kakinomoto no Hitomaro W ^ A ^- [xxxvi.f] 

4 Yamabe no Akahito \U ^i ^^ A- [xxxvi.] j ^^^ ''•^^'' ^■ 

5 Sarumaru-dayu ^ % d^ ^. [xxxvi.] 

6 Chunagon Yakamochi r\^ Mi b M ^ (Otomo no Y.). [xxxvi.] 

7 Abe no Nakamaro ^ /(^- /ftjj ^. 

8 Kisen-hoshi g ^ -^^ ^iji (priest), [yi.] 

9 Ono no Komachi /J> if /J> BJ (poetess), [vi., xxxvi.] 

10 Semimaru $p 'Jl^ (courtier). 

11 Sangi Takamura # ^ ^ (Ono no T.). 

12 Sojo Henjo ff- ]£ jg BS (Yoshimine Munesada, bishop). [vi., 

xxxvi.] 

13 Yozei-in H |R 15c (57th Mikado). 

14 Kawara-no-sadaijin f pJ i^ ;£ :A: S (Minamoto no Torn). 

15 Koko-tenno ^ # ^ M (58th Mikado). 

16 Chunagon Ariwara no Yukihira 4* #i "o IE ]^ ^f ^• 

17 Ariwara no Narihira Ason ^ J^ M ^ M [S- [vi., xxxvi.J 

18 Fujiwara no Toshiyuki Ason ^ i^ ^ ^f ^ S- [xxxvi.] 

19 Ise ^ ^ (Fujiwara). [xxxvi.] 

20 Motoyoshi-shinno X ^ IS BE (prince, son of 13). 

21 Sosei-hoshi ^ '[^ f^ ^ij) (priest, Yoshimine Harutoshi, son of 12). 

[xxxvi.] 

22 Fumiya (vulg. Bunya) no Yasuhide ^^ M ^ J^- [vi., xxxvi.] 

23 03'e no Chisato ;:^ Ql ^ M- [xxxvi.] 

24 Kanke ^ ^ (Sugawara no Michizane). 

25 Sanjo-udaijin H j!^ ^ ::^ 6 (F.^ no Sadakata). 

26 Teishin-ko ^ fg ^ (F. no Tadahira). 

27 Chunagon Kanesuke ff* ,^ "q ^ li (F. no K.). [xxxvi.j 

28 Minamoto no Muneyuki Ason M^ ^ ^ ^ ^. [xxxvi.] 



' More literally ' a poem by each of a hundred people '. 

^ Numerical references in square brackets indicate that the poet in question is also numbered 
among the Six Poets (vi.), the Thirty-six Poets (first list : xxxvi. ; second : xxxvi), or the Nashitsubo 
no Shichikasen (vii.). 

^ I.e., Fujiwara, and so throughout the list. 



126 NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. [chap. vn. 

29 Osliikdchi no Mitsune jl, M 1^ 1^ 'I'M- [xxxvi.] 

30 Mibu no Tadamine ff ^ ,§, ^. [xxxvi.] 

31 Sakanouye no Korenori J^ _L :^ I'J. [xxxvi.] 

32 Haruniichi no Tsuraki ^ ^ ^'ij ly-j". 

33 Ki no Tomonori ^£ ^ ^Ij (nephew of 35). [xxxvi.] 

34 Eujiwara no (Jkikaze ^$ |^ JFJ- |^. [xxxvi.] 

35 Ki no Tsurayuki ^.^ ^ ;^. [xxx\i.] 

36 Kiyowara no Fukayabu 'M i^ ^ ^ 5^- l-vxA't'/.] 

37 Funiiya no Asayasu i^ M ^i? J^ '"^'"i "f^ --)• 

38 Ukon 7^ 3/£ (poetess). | xxxvi.] 

39 Sangi Hitoshi ^ ^ ^ (Minamoto). 

40 Taira no Kanemori ^ ^ ^. [xxx\i.| 

41 Mibu no Tadami $ ^ ^S» M (^on of 3(V). [xxxvi.] 

42 Kiyowara no Motosuke fp| i^ % li- [xxxvi.] 

43 Chijnagon Atsutada fj' Ift s |^ .£» (Eujiwara). [xxxvi.] 

44 Chunagon Asatada »f* ,f^ B^ |^ ,S, (son of 23). [xxxvi.] 

45 Kentoku-ko ^ ^, ^ (E. no Koretada). 

46 Sone no Yoshitada '^ ^^ ^^^ ^S"* (Sotan, priest), [xxxr/.] 

47 Yekio-hoshi ^^, ^ >^^ ^i|i (priest), [xxxt'/.] 

48 Minamoto no Shigeyuki '^^ 1g ;^. [xxxvi.] 

49 Onakatoini no Yosliinobu Ason ^ ^ f^' "^g ^ fj§ ^1. [xxxvi.] 

50 Eujiwara no Yoshitaka M W. ^ ^- [xxxvi.] 
31 E. no Sanekata Ason (^ ;j^ ^ |^5). [xxxvi.] 

52 E. no Michinobu Ason (j^ fg ^ [-"fi). [xxxi'/.] 

53 Udaisho Micliitsuna no lialia /^ i^ 7W ^ M # (mother of E. 

no Michitsuna). [xxxr/.] 
34 Gidosanshi no haha '{^ Ir] H "^ "iS^ (Taka-ko, mother of E. no 

Korechika). 
55 Dainagon [E. noj Kuito ± ^ -^ [|i M.] ^ pi- [xxxvi.] 
36 Idzumi-sliikibu ^[J ^^ 'j^ ffj) (daughter of Oye no Masanmne). 

[vii., xxxvi.] 

57 Murasaki-shikibu ^ ^ ^J (daughter of E. no Tanietoki). [vii., 

xxxvi.] 

58 Daini-[no-]sammi :;^ ^ H fi (Kata-ko, daughter of E. no 

Nobutaka). 

59 Akazome-yemon >i(n |{^ tif P^ (daughter of Taira no Kanemori). 

[vii., xxxvi.] 

60 Koshikibu-no-naishi /J^ ]X iil> I^ f^JT (daughter of Tachibana no 

Michisadaj. [vii.] 



CHAP. vii.J THE HUx\DRED POETS. 127 

61 Ise-no-tayu ^ ^ :k. ^ (daughter of Onakatonii no Sukeciiika). 

[vii., xxxvi.] 

62 Sei-shonagon fp| ^ (wrongly IE) |ft "e (daughter of 42). [vii., 

xxxvi.] 

63 Sakio-no-tayu Michimasa ;£ ^ >l'C ^ M ?i (Fujiwara). [xxxi'i.] 

64 Gonchunagon Sadayori ^ r^^ ^^ "b /£ IS (son of ^s^l- l-^xxi';.] 

65 Sagami ^^ i^ (wife of Oye no Kinsukej. [xxxvi.] 

66 Daisojo Gioson :^ ff" JE ^f # (archbishop). 

67 Suo-no-naislii ^ \^Jj \^ f^ (daughter of Taira no Tsuginaka). 

68 Sanj6-in H jl^ ^m (^'ytli Mikado). 

6g Noin-hoshi "^^ ^ ^i^ f5i|i (priest, Tachibana no Nagayasu). [xxxvi.] 

70 Riozen-hoshi j;^ Ji '(^ ^iji (priest). 

71 Dainagon Tsunenobu X M^ s ^ & (Minamoto). 

72 Yushi-naishinno-ke Kii jjpfi ^^ j^ ii 3E 'M ^ i^ (poetess). 

73 (}onchunagon Masafusa ^ Ff* #1 B I^ M (C)ye). 

74 Minamoto no Toshiyori Ason ^; f^ H |f3 S (son of 71). 

75 Fujiwara no Mototoshi M W^ ^ i^ (son of Toshiiye). 

7f) Hoshoji-niudo Saki-no-kwampaku Dajodaijin -^^ '14 ^ AM H>] 
li e ± liS: :^ g (F. no Tadamichi). 

77 Sutoku-iu ^j ^, 1% (75th Mikado). 

78 Minamoto no Kanemasa M ^ q (son of Toshisuke). 

79 Sakio-no-tayu Akisuke iJi ^ i^ ^ M ^ (Fujiwara). 

80 Taiken-monin Horikawa |# ^ P'! K: IS P] (daughter of Minamoto 

no Akinaka). 

81 Go-tokudaiji-sadaijin ^ {§. :k ^ & :k 1^ (^'- 110 Sanesada). 

82 Doin-hoshi it ;^i ^fli (priest, F. no Atsuyori). 

83 Kotaikogu-no-tayu Toshinari ^ d< ^ )a d^ ^ i^ }& (Fujiwara). 

84 Fujiwara no Kiyosuke Ason M ]^( '/f H 19 S (son of 79). 

85 Shunye-hoshi (^ ~^, -(^ ^iji (priest, son of 74). 

86 Saigio-hoshi ^ ^j ^i ^iji (priest, Sato Norikiyo). 

87 Jakuren-hoshi ^ jJI -/Jt (Jili (priest, F. no Sadanaga). 

88 Koka-monin-no-betto ^ % f'j }% iJlJ %. 

89 Shikishi-naishinno 5^1: i^ ^ IS IE (princess). 

90 Impu-monin-no-osuke ^ ^ P^ |^ ;^ 11 (? Fujiwara). 

91 Go-kiogoku-sessho Saki-no-daj6daijin ^^ M @ ^ ii^C m 'k.'^X^^ 

(F. no Yoshitsune). 

92 Nij6-in Sanuki ZL \% }% If WL (poetess, Minamoto). 

93 Kamakura-udaijin H ^ ;& :;^ g (Minamoto no Sanetomo, third 

Shogun). 



128 



NUMERICAL CATEGORIES. 



[chap. vh. 



94 Sangi Masatsune ^ ^^ ^f ^ (Fujiwara). 

95 Saki-no-daisojo Jiycii fij -j^ \^ IE W^ M (Jicliin, archbishop, son 

of 76). 

96 Xiudo Saki-no-dajodaijin X ^ HU 'A\. ^X '}^ ^. (Saionji Kintsune). 

97 Gonchunagon Sadaiye ^ ff |ft "g >i£ ^ (son of 83). 

98 Junii lyetaka tl3t IT. fi ^ H^ (Fujiwara). 

99 Go-Toba-no-in \k % M ^ (82nd Mikado). 
100 Juntoku-in HIH Cf. |^ (84th Mikado). 




CHAPTER IX. 









LIST 


OF THE 


RADICALS.^ 








I Stroke 


20.* 


n 


40.* 


r'-* 




i 


Strokes 


81 


;t 


I.* — 




21. 


t 


41.* 


i- 




61.* 


*ij t 


/h 


82 


^ 


2* 1 




22 .* 


L 


4.2.* 


/J^ 




62.* 


:^ 




83 


. R 


3- '» 




23- 


C 


43- 


± 




63. 


^ F 




84 


^ 


4-* ) 




2J. * 


+ t 


44.* 


f 




64.* 


^ t 


^ 


83 


* 7K '^ ;^ 


5-* Z. 


L 


25- 


> H 


45- 


IP 




f>5- 


^ 




86 


* >/^ ^>n 


6. J 




26.* 


p a 


4f,.* 


III 




66.* 


:S JC 




87 


* jk 


2 Strokes 


27.* 


r 


47- 


«< 


« 


67. 


X 




88 


% 


7-* n 




28. 


A 


48.* 


X 


-r 


68. 


^ 




89 


^ 


s.* ^ 




2q.* 


X ^ 


4Q- 


a 




69.* 


Jr 




90 


:H 


9-* A 


i 


3 i 


Strokes 


30.* 
5I-* 






70.* 
71- 


a 

^ 




91 
92 


>i* 


ic* )i 


30.* 


P 


^ 


II. A 




31.* 


P 


52. 


k 




72.* 


H 




93 


* Z- ij. 


12.* A 


/> 


00^ 


+ t 


33-* 


r 




73-* 


E3 




94 


* :;fc ^ 


13* n 




33-* 


± 


54-* 


^ 




74.* 


^ F^ 


^/ 


5 


Strokes 


14.* ^ 




34- 


X 


33- 


:'l- 




73-* 


7|C ^ 




95- 


^ 


15.* 'i 




»35- 


% 


5^'- 


-t 




76.* 


^ 




96. 


* 5 J 


16. A 




3b.* 


^ 


57-* 


^ 




77.* 


Ih Ob 




97- 


J^ 


17- U 




37-* 


ic 


58. 


1 


^ 


78. 


V 




98. 


% % 


18.* J] 


'J 


38.* 


-k ^ 


39- 


^ 




79.* 


^ 




99. 


-H- 


19.* ;f; 




39-* 


1- ^ 


bo.* 


^ 




80. 


# 




100. 


4' 



' The commoner (or at any rate the more important) radicals are here distinguislied by an 
asterisk. Those desirous of pursuing the study of Chinese characters beyond the confines of this work 
will find it a great saving of time to be able to remember instinctively by number at least tiie examples 
so marked. 



132 






THE 


RADICALS. 








CHAP. IX 


loi. ffl 


126. 


m 


151- 


¥ S 


9j 


Strokes 


199. 


^ t. 


I02.* 03 


127. 


M ^ 


152- 


m 


176. 


ifei 




200. 


m ^ 


103. JE 


128.* 
i2g. 


X ^ 
m ^ 


153- 
^54-* 


M 

m 


177.* 

178. 


■h. 




12 


Strokes 


104.* r 


201. 


^ 


105. n 


130.* 


^ n 


155- 


# 


179. 


m 




202. 


^ 


106.* Q 


131- 


g 


156. 


M 


180. 


# 




203. 




107- ^ 


132. 


e 


I57-* 


& S- 


181.* 


M 




204. 


m 


108.* M nn 


133- 


s ^ 


158. 


# M 


182. 


M. 




' LI 


Strokes 


loq.* a 


I34-* 


B B 


159-* 


i^ 


183. 


m 




205. 


It 


1 10. ^ 


^55- 


^ 


160. 


^ 


184.* 


^ 


f 


206. 


frl 


III.* ^ ^ 


13b. 


^ 


161. 


m 


185. 


-t 




207. 


n 


112.* ^ 5 


137.* 


it> ^ 


162.* 


^ i- 


186. 


# 




208. 


E 


113* ^ Jff 1^ 


138. 


^ 


163.* 


Q P (r) 


TO 


Strokes 


l± 


Strokes 


114. I±) 


139- 


fe 


164.* 


M 


187.* 


}\h 




2og. 


* 


II5-* T< f 


140.* 


iJllH HH 


165. 


^ 


188. 


# 




210. 


^ 


116.* ^ 7X 


141.* 


f"^ f^ 


166. 


M 


189. 


-^^ 




\^ 


Strokes 


117* -^ iC 


142.* 


& 


8_ 


Strokes 


190. 


^ 




211. 


^ 


6 Strokks 


143- 


jfiL 


167.* 


^ t 


191. 


n 




16 


Strokes 


118.* y; ^rt 


I44-* 


^f 


168. 


^ 


192. 


m 




212. 


tl 


iiq.* ;H^ f 


145.* 


^ ^ 


i6q.* 


pg 


193- 


P3 




.213. 


m 


120.* ^, ;^ 


146. 


m 


170.* 


^ ^ P fL) 


194. 


m 




iZ 


Strokes 


i^^* S 


7_ 


Strokes 


171. 


^ 


II 


Strokes 


214. 


^ 


I2J.* [Ml ™ 


147.=^ 


^ £ 


172.^ 


= t 


1 95-' 


' m 


Jl 






123.* ^ ^ 


148. 


:^ 


I73-' 


= M ^ 


196.=' 


' ^ 








124.* ^ ^;? 


HQ-' 





174. 


W 


197. 


^ 








135. ;g ^ 


150. 


# 


175- 


# 


198. 


E 









CHAPTER X, 

BEGINNER'S LIST OF COMMON CHARACTERS. 

The following is a carefully compiled list of some 250 of the characters 
most commonly used in Japanese local and family names and in the phrases 
accompanying signatures. They are arranged in the same order as in the 
Dictionary and each is followed by its most usual readings in this connection 
and a short clue to its meaning. To supplement it, the list of the Numerals 
(P- 37) 9-nd that of the commoner wanori-elements (p. 80) should also be 
studied, the characters and readings in these having for the most part been 
omitted here. 

In order that the beginner may at the earliest moment familiarise himself 
with the characters in a size such as he will most frequently encounter not 
only in printed books but also in the signatures and inscriptions on small 
objects, they have been given here in the standard fount selected for the 
work, rather than in the larger main-entry size used in the Dictionary to 
facilitate rapid reference. It will be found that even in the more complex 
examples there is no loss of clarity. 

Before taking the work into general use the beginner is strongly recom- 
mended to train himself to this familiarity with the ideographs and their 
use in Japanese names by studying and, if possible, getting by heart the 
contents of the present list, supplemented as shown above. An occasional 
dipping into the Dictionary, to see 'how the thing works out,' would also 
not be amiss. 

As a succeeding stage in his apprenticeship, the student may proceed to 
acquire the characters used in Cycle-combinations and Nengo (pp. 60, 63), 
in the names of the Provinces (p. i2of.), and in several other groups of 
names in Chapter VII. He may also study with profit at this point the 
article on Typical Signatures (p. 89 f.). 



134 



COMMON CHARACTERS. [chap. x. 



One Stroke. 4* ima, 'modern, now'. Six Strokes. 

— iCHi, hito, kazu, 'one', ij kata, 'direction'. ^ i, 'this'. 

/ no (feana-sign), 'of. if, ki, -gi, 'tree, wood'.- ^ naka, 'central'. 

2« oto, 'youngest'. i^;. T-\, 'great.' ^ ji, tsugu, 'to follow, 

•j^ inu, ' dog '. succeed '. 

Two Strokes. ^ ^^^^ j^^j,^^ 'middle, /^^ take, 'bamboo". 

A NIC, in, iru, 'enter'. ^^^^^j , ^ ^^.^ ^^^^ 'estuary'. 

A JIN, NiN, hito, 'man, ^ i, '^ well'. __ ^ ike, 'pond'. 

P^'^^^" • ^ GETSU, tsuki, -dzuki, j|l) ji, 'earth, place'. 

[Also several numerals.] ' the moon, a month '. ^ u, ha, -ba, 'feathers'. 

NiCHi, hi, 'the sun, a 'g sei, s.\i, nishi, 'west'. 

Three Strokes. , , *, tt ^ u .^ ' 

dav . ^ Funa-, boat . 

/h SH6, Ko-,0-, 'small'. ^ ^^^ . ^^^^^^^^ , 

)\\ kawa, -gawa, ' river \ j,^^.^ g^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ . ^^^^^^;^ ^^^^ , 

Tshimo, shita, 'lower'. , < ^. i • ,^ < > 

' ' y^ YEi, naga, 'perpetual . ^ an, a-, vasu, easy . 

a kuchi,-guchi,' mouth'. ^^ ^_^^^ shiro, ' reign, sub- c^ mori, 'defend'. 

:p SHI, ko, ne, 'child, ^^^^^^^,_ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ _^^^^^ .^^^ 

sign of the Rat . .,, i •- i^.,+i ' .. i - 

^ _ ;jt HOKU, kita, nortJi . temple . 

^ (repeat-sign). ^ sei, SHo,masa, 'direct'. ^ kichi, voshi, 'lucky'. 

ff -ga- /eano-sign), oi . __- , ; » .^ . , , , 

^_ . ^ ' . , ^ GiOKU, tama, gem . ^ an, be . 

fK Kiu, KU, hisa, 'ancient'. -^ , • ,  , • ,i, - ■- <u -n- +> 

-^^ ' ' ' . , 2[i HEi, hira, taira, -daira, ^ ko, mitsu, brilliant . 

-I- to, do, tsuchi, 'earth." m i' >!/• ^  ' 

-^ _ ' ' ' . level . tI^ yone, rice . 

V JO, kami, -garni, uve, -^ • i • • < + m x •• < j ' 

-^ ' ' ^ , ^ ^ seki, ishi, iwa, stone7--5-t tsuji, crossroads . 

-nouve, 'upper'. -, , ^p. • tu » 

•^ ' _ ^^ ^ rock . jK set, nan, become . 

-\c DAI, tai, o, 'great'. ^ , • o, • 

-^ ' ' ' & Q haku, shiro, Shira-, 

-ir JO, me, onna, ' woman'. i i •. » o c 

-s^ ' ' ' ^ white . Seven Strokes. 

itr maru, ' round '. t^ ^ , ,. c ■, r  , 

^ ' ^ ya, arrow . >[fe saku, 'make, fecit \ 

ih SAN', -ZAX, yama, .. ,, n • - mc^' .^ -  • . j n. 

^ ' ., 3£ Iku-, Iki-, -u, life . /tt Tu,sumi, -zumi,' dwell . 

mountain . . , . <,,.., 

, . jL tatsu, tachi, tate, set -te SA, assist . 

[And several numerals.] , ,r- , . . 

up . J^ saka, ascent . 

Four Strokes. Tfj ichi, 'market or |^ saka, 'ascent'. 

7X sui, midzu, mi, 'water'. town'. ^ sugi, ' cryptomeria '. 

7C GEX, moto, 'origin". ;$! HON, moto, 'below, ;;j«j- mura, 'village'. 

^ to, -do, 'door'. origin, book'. ^ij ri, toshi, 'gain'. 

% TEN, ama, ame, ;£ sa, 'left'. BJ cho, machi, 'town, 

' heaven '. ;^ u, ' right '. ward,, street '. 

1^ NAi, uchi, -nouchi, "^ ko, furu, 'old'. Jg, ashi, 'leg, foot'. 

'inner, within'. H ta, -da, 'rice-field". ^ kai, -gai, 'shell'. 

:^ te, Ta-, ' hand '. g me, ' eye '. M mi, ' see '. 



CHAP. X.] 



COMMON CHARACTERS. 



^35 



_g. Ri, sato, ' hamlet ', 1^ hana, -bana, ' flower '. ^ 

&. HEi, ' military '. }^ fu, -pu, ' capital, gov- -^flj 

^ ya, tani, -dani,' valley'. ernment department', •j^, 

^ KAKU, sumi, tsuno, ^ tora, ' tiger '. 



'horn, angle'. 
^ SEKi, aka, ' red '. 
j^ SHI, ' record '. 
S o, 'tail'. 



Eight Strokes. 
•/g numa, ' marsh '. 
'^ ji, ' government '. 
'^ HA, -BA, nami, 'awave'. jS kaki, -gaki, 'fence'. 
:^pj kawa, -gawa, 'river', j^^ j6,shiro,ki,-gi, 'castle' 

|lt^ toge, ' mountain-pass' 



^ Bu, MU, take, 'brave'. 
^ oka, ' mound '. 

Nine Strokes. 
\^ HO, yasu, ' to keep '. 
^^ GO, 'after'. 
^ tsu, 'harbour'. 
p^ nada, 'ocean'. 






p\ A-, ' a spot '. 

;|^ matsu, 'pine-tree'. 

i^^ hayashi, -bayashi, 



grove 



5^ ita, ' board '. 



^P yanagi, Yana-, yagi, 

' willow '. 
fX aki, ' autumn '. 
^ hoshi, -boshi, 'star' 






^ 



^ MEi, Mio, ake, 'clear'. Ig ju, shige, 'weighty'. 



^ tokoro, ' place '. 

P^ MON, kado, ' gate '. 

ft yashiro, 'Shinto shrine'. 

^ tori, 'take'. 

•g; CHo, naga, 'long'. 

^ KIN, KON, kane, Kana-, 
' metal, gold '. 

^ so, SHU, mune, 'prin- 
cipal '. 

% TEi, sada, ' establish '. 

^5 RAi, -ki, -ku, ' arrive '. 



^ SEN, idzumi, ' a spring'. 

^ TEI, ' pavilion '. 

^ muro, ' cellar'. 

^ SHUN, haru,' the Spring'. 

^ NAN, minami, Mina-, 

-nami, ' south '. 

>]i] ZEN, maye, 'fore', 

g JIN, 'very'. 

^- waka, ' young '. 

^ MO, shige, 'luxuriant'. 

^ shiba, 'brushwood'. 



^ 



% 



KAi, umi, Un-, -mi, 'sea'. 

ura, 'shore'. 

SON, mago, ' grand- 
child'. 

HO, mine, 'hilltop'. 

hime, 'princess'. 

ne, ' root'. 

SHIN, JIN, kami, ' a 
deity' (Shinto). 

-r6, -ro- (element in 
names of men). 

KEN, 'house-front'. 

GUN, kori, -gori, ' dis- 
trict'. 

kuri, -guri, ' chestnut '. 

BA, uma, -ma,'ahorse'. 

o, ' old man '. 

kuwa, ' mulberry '. 

Ki,oni, 'spirit, demon'. 

TO, shima, -jima, 
' island '. 

Ma-, 'real'. 

kura, -gura, ' a store- 
house '. 

k6, taka, -daka, ' high '. 

miya, -nomiya, 'palace, 
shrine '. 

waki, 'side'. 

hara, -bara, -wara, 
' moorland '. 



tsuma, -dzuma, 'wife'. ^ some, 'dye' 



'^ TO, higashi, 'east'. 
^ NA, ' how, why ? '. 
^ Ko, ' good luck '. 
^ ao, 'bluish-green', 
a, 'rock, reef. 



^ iw 



vEp 



kishi, -gishi, ' preci- f^ nami, ' wave ' 



pice . 



Eleven vStrokes. 
"/^ GO, Mi-, O- (honorific 

prefix). 
U fuka, ' deep '. 
ff SEi, kiyo, 'pure'. 
^ asa, ' shallow ". 
i^, hori, -bori, 'moat". 
^ saki, -zaki, 'headland", 
if Saka-, 'safe?, rice- wine'. % bai, ume, ' plum-tree '. 



f: ya, ' house '. 

\ FU,kaze,Kaza-,'wind'. 

Ten Strokes. 
% JO, ' item, district'. 



136 



COMMOxN CHARACTERS. 



[chap. X. 



if no, ' moorland '. 
^ -be, 'a gild'. 
^ KAN', ' consider '. 
J^ CHo, tori. To-, 

' bird '. 
^ DO, ' hall '. 
Jg shika, ka, -ga, ' deer '. 
^ AX, 'huf. 
i^ z6, tsukuru, ' make, 

fecit '. 
% KU, 'town-ward'. 
^ KOKU, kuni, ' country, 

province '. 

Twelve Strokes. 
^ vu, ' hot water'. 
•^ watari, Wata-, 'ferry'. 
^ su, various meanings. 
^ 1-, Ino-, ' wild-boar '. 



ECHi, koshi, -goshi, H ken, 'prefecture'. 
-goye, 'cross over, ^ kame, -game, 'tortoise'. 



pass . 
PU ma, 'room, interval". 

Thirteen Strokes. 

^ den, ' transmit '. 

ij^, gen, Minamoto, 
' source '. 

j^ tsuka,-dzuka, 'mound'. 

^ saru, Sa-, ' monkey '. 

^ suzu, ' small bell, 
grelot '. 

If SHIN, nil, ara, 'new'. 

H ha, -ba, ' leaf. 

j^ DO, michi, ' way, cir- 
cuit '. 

Fourteen Strokes. 



.Ei 



^ -ba, ' place, site '. 

YO, ' the male principle m i - 

' M FUKU, luck . 



in nature'. 

^ SHO, katsu,kachi,' con- 
quer '. 

13 CHO, asa, ' dawn, 
dynasty '. 

^ TO, ' capital city '. 

^ UN, kumo, 'cloud'. 

"^ so, ' ever'. 

^ kuro, -guro, 'black'. 

^ FU, tomi. To-, 
'wealth'. 

^ mori, ' forest'. 

M Ki, ' rejoice '. 

g GWA, ' draw% paint, 
pinxit '. 



^ YO, ' and '. 

^1 kuma, -guma, 'a bear'. 

PI Dzu, ' picture '. 

Fifteen Strokes. 
^ TOKU, ' virtue '. 
j^ Ina-, 'growing rice'. 
H BOKU, sumi, 'ink'. 
!^ utsusu, 'copied, drew, 

pinxit '. 
^ r.\ku, -ra, ' pleasure '. 

Sixteen Strokes. 
^ YE, ' defend '. 
i^: sawa, -zawa, 'marsh'. 
^ kiku, ' chrysanthe- ;f^ hashi, -bashi, ' bridge'. 

mum '. m yoko, ' athwart '. 

IpE fude, 'brush, pinxit'. % nishiki, 'brocade'. 
^ ka, GA, ' congratulate '. || Rio,Riu,tatsu, 'dragon'. 



Seventeen Strokes. 
\ hama, ' beach '. 
; iso, ' beach '. 
1 so, ' generally '. 
[ tan, kitau, ' forge 

[iron] '. 
\ SAi, ' studio '. 

Eighteen Strokes. 
\ ori, ' weave '. 
HO, BU, toyo, ' abun- 
dance '. 
^ zo, kura, 'treasury'. 

Nineteen Strokes. 

'^ se, ' rapids'. 

^^1 taki, -daki, 'waterfall'. 

ji^ ye, 'picture '. 

^ RA, 'gauze'. 

^ TO, -DO, fuji, 'wistaria'. 

[^ KW^AN, seki, -zeki, ' bar- 
rier '. 

BE, -nobe, -nabe, 
' vicinity '. 

Twenty Strokes. 
g HO, takara, 'treasure'. 

TwENTY-ONE STROKES. 

|§ sakura, -zakura, 

' cherry-tree '. 
H tsuru, -dzuru, ' the 

crane '. 

Tw"ENTY-FOUR STROKES. 

^ shio, -jio, 'salt '. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIOXS, 

REFERENCES AND METHODS OF CONTRACTION 

EiMPLOYED LN TP-IE DICTIONARY.'- 



anct. = ancient. 

arm. = armourer. 

bat. = battlefield. 

Bud. = Buddhist. 

cap. = capital. 

cas. = castle. 

Chin. = Chinese. 

Great. = creature. 

d. = divinity (Shinto or Buddhist). 

dist. = district. 

dram. pers. = dramatis persona. 

esp. = especially. 

f. = family-name (surname). 

f. arm. = surname borne by (among 

others) an armourer or armourers. 

So with ' f . ptr.' (by a painter), 

etc. 
fest. = festival, 
hist. = historical (of Japan). 
Impl. = Imperial, 
is. = island.^ 
k. = kori (administrative division of a 

province ; see note i on p. lo). 
lacq. = lacquerer. 
leg. = legendary, 
m = mountain or hill.- 
met. = metalworker. 



mod. = modern. 

mus. = nmsician. 

myth. = mythical. 

n. = individual name (generally ex- 
cluding zokumio). 

n. poet = individual name borne by 
(among others) a poet. So for 
n. swo. (swordsmith), etc. 

occ. = occasionally. 

pal. = palace. 

pers. = personage. 

pot. = potter. 

pr. = province. 

ptr. = painter. 

r. = river.- 

sculp. = sculptor, carver. 

sev. = several. 

sub. =: suburb. 

swo. = swordsmith. 

t. = town, city or hamlet. 

t. text. = town noted for textile work. 
(So with analogous abbreviations.) 

tern. = temple. 

text. = textile worker. 

tit. = title. 

worn. n. = woman's name. 



zok. ■— zokumio (see p. 70 f). 
The sign 1 stands for the character under notice. 

(i), (11), (in), etc., after a Chinese character, indicate the number of its 
strokes. 



' In all abbreviations where applicable, the singular embraces also the plural 
^ See note 3 on p. 10. 



138 JAPANESE REFERENCES. 



Japanese words or phrases entered as explanations without further 
comment include the following: — 

rakan : disciple of the Buddha (see p. 112J. 

sennm : Taoist wonder-worker or hermit (rishi). 

'Mikado': Emperor or reigning Empress — the term is not commonly used 

in Japan and is employed in this work for convenience only. 

(N.B. In quoting the names of Emperors, Empresses, Princes and 

Princesses, the title-suffix is usually omitted here — solely for the 

sake of brevity.) 
joro : courtesan (oiran). 
nengo : year-period, era (see p. 43). 
mon : heraldic badge. 
Genji Chapters: see p. 117. 
ken, kii : modern administrative divisions, of Japan ('prefectures') and of 

Tokio (' arrondissements ') respectively. 
kuvi : administrative division of a province (see p. 10, note i). 
sokumiu, uanori : see pp. 70 f, 75 f. 

no, joriiri, kiogen : various types of dramatic performance. 
' Omi and other hakkei' : see p. 107 f. 
' Tokaido stage', ' Nakasendo stage': see pp. 116, 124. Some of the 

stages on the highroads Koshu- and Nikko-kaido are also referred 

to, but not by number, nor are they dealt with as series, 
'paragon': For the Twenty-four Paragons, as also the Hundred Poets, 

see pp. 1 13, 123 f. 



METHODS OF CONTRACTION. 



139 



The following methods of contraction in the quoting of Examples and 
tlieir readings are frequently made use of in the Dictionary. In such cases 
the long hyphen or short dash (-, technically a lialf-em rule) is employed to 
indicate that the name is not to be hyphenated at that point when written 
out in full. On the other hand, the ordinary hyphen (-) is used wherever 
its retention in such circumstances is desirable.^ 

Contracted Examples. In Full. 

Under the character iiJ : 



(a) I y Tsu-shita, /jl -dzume, fi 
-uchi, flC -ye, . . . (t.). 



(b) I Tsu (t.) ; Tsu-no-kuni 
-da B (t.). 



(Pr.), 



(c) ;^ '^ Otsu (t.); Otsu-ye ft (kind 
of picture). 



'^ 1» Tsushita, :jf: 7R Tsudzume, 
:^ tl Tsuuchi, :j^ tt Tsuye, . . . 
— all names of towns. 

:j^ Tsu (town) ; ^ ^ Tsu-no-kuni 
(province); '^ H Tsuda (town). 

^ '^ Otsu (town) ; :k W ^ Otsu-ye 

(kind of picture). 



Also 



(d) H X m, ^) ill Mitsu-mata 
(-iwa, -mori) -yama (m.). 



(e) H nil (or ff) BT Sangen-cho 
(street). 



(f) m [t or M] ^ Ben[zai]ten (d.). 



H X ll] Mitsumata-yama ; 
H ;B" ill Mitsuiwa-yama ; 
H ^ ill Mitsumori-yama — all names 
of mountains. 



H f^ Wr or H If i 

(name of a street). 



Sangen-cho 



^ ^ Benten, a divinity also known 
as 1^ :}^ ^ Benzaiten or p flt % 
Benzaiten. 

It will be observed from examples (d) to (f) that : — 

(i) A character set within round brackets or parenthesis is capable, 
when substituted for the one (never more) immediately preceding 
it, of forming a new and independent example. The reading 
for the new character, if different, is similarly set within its 
own parenthesis at the appropriate point. 
(2) Characters and readings set within square brackets, on the other 
hand, indicate not substitutions, but additional matter, to be 
inserted at option or as circumstances dictate. 



1 Observe that in the lists of readings immediately following the main entr>' of each character 
ovdinarv hyphens are used without this special significance. 



DICTIONARY OF CHARACTERS. 



[For method of arrangement and meaning of abbreviations and references, 
see pages i to 19, 137 to 139 and compare the footnotes on this page 
and the next.] 



ONE STROKE. 

* [Complex synonyms (used for distinctness, but not alternatively in names) : 

^ , less commonly ^.] ICHI, ITSU; hitotsu, hito- ; kasu, Hajime, 
{inasa, nobu); zok., ichi (in all positions, see pp. 71, 73). hitotsu, hito-, ('one, 
single, only, first, whole, complete, entirely'). See also pp. 37, 41, 42, 71-73, 88. 
Used in a mon of the Tanuma of Sagara. 7. 

[Compare Tfj^ (v).-] | ^ H ^ [iSl Ittembanj6-no-kuni (poet, for 
'Japan'); see also Titles (below) and under H (xiii). | i^ Isshi (k. of Ise). 
I 3il ll] Hitotsumuri-yama (m.). \ '^ )\\ lcliinose(Hitotsuse)-gawa (r.). 
I ^ Ichi-no-tani (valley, bat.). 

Towns"': | ;^ if, Ippongi ('one tree', cf. p. 40); | P Imoarai (f. met.*); 

I ^ P lU Ichi-ukuchiyama, \^ -jd (also dist. of Kioto, f. and 60th 

Mikado), ii^ (or ^) ^ -jogatani, ^ -jo (f, swo.^), J$ -kura ; | fe I[s] 

-shiki (f. met.), ^ ^ (wrongly 0) -shinden ; | ^ Ichino*^ -he (f.), •§" -miya 

' Under which character other names l^eginning with Ichi- are quoted (and may suggest 
readings for any examples beginning with the character — but not quoted thereunder). 

^ To be found under Five Strokes. 

2 This and similar headings cover all Examples as jar as the first jull-stop (period), in this 
case up to and including ' Hitokubota '. 

" I.e., — p Imoarai, besides being the name of a town (village;, is also a family-name (surname), 
used by (among others) a metalworker. 

^ Ichijo, so written, is also the art-name of a well-known metalworker, but as a general rule 
all similar references, of regular formation and pronunciation, are omitted throughout the work. 

^ An example of epenthetic no (genitival 'postposition'), which in the case of certain place-names 
(rarely with surnames; may be represented by the kana sign /> (see p. 25) ; sometimes optionally, 
as in — ^ p Ichinohe (t.). Similar remarks apply to epenthetic ga -*r (same force), e.g., A [-5^] S 
Yatsu-ga-dake (m.) ; see p. 24 (3). 



One Stroke 142 

(f. met.; Kazunomiya as n. swo.; see also Titles below), j6 -hazama (f.), 
^- -su, M -se (pot.^; 1". ptr.); | H Tti HitO-ichi, g| B3 -kubota. 

I ^ ;^ Ic-hi-koku-bashi (bridge in Yedo), ^ ^ M -nionji-ya, ;fy ^ 
-riki-ya (brothels). 

Other Surnames: | P^ Issd (mus.) ; | ^ ^ Ikuze; | H H Hifunii; 

I )\\ Ichi-kawa (ptr.), % -niaru (n. swo.), ill -yama, ^ ^ -nioji, ^fc 
-ki (also Hitotsugi), |5l -saka, BJ BEI -machida, J^ -o, ^pJ -kawa, |^ -matsu 
(also Hitomatsu), j^ -jo, 5^ -niori, js| 0] -mada, :t^ -ba ; I |^ HitO-ini. 
[U -maru ; | ^[] Hitotsu-yanagi (some read Ichiriu as f. met.), ,^ -baslii 
(ptr.). 

Other Personages: | 3^ Ichimokuren (d.) ; I j^ Ikkaku iscunin; 
Ikkaku -sennin jll| X, ;7o-title); | f^fc Ikkiu, I jig Ippen (priests); 1 y ^1 
^ ^ Iclii-no-olieya, /^ | jt^ I^ Koichijo-no-iii (hist, pers.) ; | 7c Hitomoto, 

I If Hitofude (/oi'o; see also Locutions below); | ji, Ikku, | ^ Kazuma,- 

! ^ Hitokoye^ (n.). | f^ Ikko (Bud. sect). I # H H If. ^^ Ichi-no- 
-tani Futaba Gunki (joruri). 

Titles: | 5^ ^ (^) itten-no-kimi (-uo-shu), \ ^ || ^ ^ ittembanjo- 
-no-kimi, \ J\, ic.ijin (the Emperor ; last also as ichiiiin, 'one person', and 
as ichi-no-hito, title of the Kwampaku); | [^ ichi-in (see 4^, v), ^ -iio-miya, 
W (or ^) ^ -no-miko (Emperor's eldest child), fi)l -no-tokoro (the Kwampaku), 

h -no-kami (the Sadaijin, cf. p. 81); | ^ Icliigaku, I ffl] -jiji Ittota (see 
p- 86); I ^ I A ikkoku-ichiniu, \ \\\: \ ^ issci-itW ('the ioremost or 
only [artist] of his province, of his generation'). 

Locutions: | iX ichidai ('a lifetime, dxnasty, reign, regime'; ichidai- 
-ki IE, 'a biography', ichidai-dziiye ^ |:^, 'an illustrated ditto'); | ^ 1^ 
ichiridztika {' a milestone'); | ^^ hitotsuya {' a lonely house ") ; | ^ liitojude 
(' a few lines,' women's epistolary phrase), ippiisii (' [drawn witlij one stroke 
of the brush '). 

1' A vertical stroke'. Used in dictionaries to indicate a repetition of 
the character under notice. 2. 



J 



HETSU, HECHI ; Itavit. iUirii (' to reach [to the ground]'). As hetau, 
' a left-hand stroke.' 4. 



1 Standing by itself, ' pot." has direct reference to the heading ' T<nvns ' and indicates Ichinose 
as a town connected with the ceramic industry. (The reference ' n. pot." would have been used to 
indicate that Ichinose was also a potter's individual name, and would in that case have jollon-ed 
the surname-reference ' f. ptr.") 

^ The more normal (or at least more obvious) readings ' Ichiba ' and ' Issei ' are equally possible 
in these two cases. Similarly, — [Ij, cjuoted in the preceding paragrapii as ' Ichiyama (f.) ', might 
just as well be read ' Itsuzan (n.) ', a normally formed individual name. Note 5 on p. 141 applies 
here with equal force. 



143 One and Two Strokes 

» A katakana form (see p. 25), read no and as such appoariiiL^ in sp\eral 
names with a possessive force (see note 6 on j). 141 ). 

^ CHU; Shivushi. 'A dot, mark'. Regarded as an old form of ^ (v), 
also as a contraction of '^ (vin). 3. 

■^ ITSU, OTSU ; 0; oto; zok., Oto-. oto- (' youn<jjest ') ; see p. 130. As 
*— ^ otsu or kinoto, the second of tiie jikkan (see ]>. 63). 5. 

[Compare ^ (ix).] | Kinoto (t.). | %]\\ OtO-kuni (k. of Yamasliiro ; 
f.j, -kun (same k.), ^ -jima (is.), {il;- -gu (or Ottomo, t.), % -l)e (t. ; f. inet.j, 
^ -mo (or Ottomo, t.), ^ -tsu, ^ -ba (f.), ^ -bone (f., also Okkotsu), 
llg -hime (d.), -me {Genji, Chap. xxi.). I ^, I ^, see p. ijo (lirst also 
otone, second 'Rat' day of first monthj. 



TWO STROKES. 

/y_ or ^\ Script forms of A (p- 145)- 'Vim second also a katakana (see 
pp. 24, 25) ; ^ -»* ^ y'i/SM zva iianigaslii, ' really So-and-so ", on 
colour-prints, indicating" a person's real name. 

' [Complex synonyms: jl^, ^1[]-] JIj ^^Ij fula-, futatsu : sok., ji (in all 

* positions), rarely Ni- (see also lixamples). fiUaisii, fiila- ('two, 

second, double'). See pages 37, 41, 42, 71-73, ^^H, 97, 112, 113. Used as 

a mon by the Yamanouchi daimi(3 (see also A, [). 143). Distinguish from —, 

a katakana phonetic read ni (see p. 23). 7. 

[Compare fn, j^ (iv), f^ (vij.J | ^ Ninohe (k. and t. of Osliu ; f.j. 

I ^ Futakata (k. of Tajima) ; Nigata (t.). | ^" \[\ l'\ita[a]ra-yama or 

Niko-zan (old name for Nikko-zan fJ jfe [il, q.v., iv). | ^ (_!:) |lj Futa- 

-go(-gami)-yama, | Ji ^ Xijo (Jijcjj-ga-dake (m.). | ^ M M Xikase-goye 

(pass). I ^ \^ Futami-no-ura (shore). | yuj (fa\) jij Xi-go (-ken)-gawa (r.). 

Other Towns : | li "ifj Futsukaichi ; I ^ ^ Futatsuijuku : \ :^ j^j 

Ni-gishima, ;$: /f^ -liommatsu, :$: |[§ -honkusu, ;$: |# -hongi, j^ -mura 

(Ninornura as f. ptr.), |flS -bu, [5g ^ -kaido (tern.; f.), ^ -ka, ^ -nomiya 

(f. lacq. ; tit. of Emperor's second child) ; | )\\ Futa-gawa (Tokaido stage 

33 ; f-), H -mi (f.j, M -i oi" -tsui, {^ -mata (f.), ty M -tsuya, ^ -baye. 

I f!^ Nijo (dist. of Kioto ; 7btli Mikado ; n. jjoetess ; cas., -jo ^}. 

I J^ ^ Nigwatsu-do (tem.). 

Other Surnames : | 3i -^i^"' (ii- swo. ; also for fn 3i- see p. 97; ; | yjv 
Nikki (ptr.) ; | |;pp Fulatsmanagi ; | Jr. Nino-uye (also Futagannj, ^ 
-tani, Jti: -;natsu, fi^ -kami (also Futagami, f. ptr.j ; | llj Futa-yania, 



Two Strokes 144 

^ -i, ;;^ -moto, ^ -ra, '{^ -w atari. ^ -l^a fn. ; 'stripling'; also Niwa as f.), 

^ -bashi. 

I fi M Xii-no-ama (= Masa-ko as widow of Minamoto no Yoritomo). 
I \\ tfy Futsukabo (poet). | H Fumi (worn, n.); | H -X* Finniji (zok.). 
I X '^ N'inin-Shidzuka (no); | K -j<i ^ Ninin-daimio, | =f- "^ Jisen-seki, 
I A + A Xikujuhachi ikioj^en). \ 'Y >^ ^ nijurokuya (moon fest., ' 26th 

night", esp. of ytli month). I ^ :^ A niijifino no rojin ('greybeard"). 

p* TEI, CHO ; 0; (atsii). yohoro, yoboro (one liable to corvee service in 
^ early times). As tei or hinoto, the 4th of the junishi (see p. 63) ; 

as tei, also 'a man, person'; as cho, 'a leaf of a book, 'block' of houses 

(p. 10, note 2). Used as a contraction of BJ (vii). i. 

I Yoro (t. ; f.j. | '{j^ Yohoro-no-watari (ford).. | ^ Yoboroko (f. ; 

n.) ; choji ('a clove ', heraldic motive); Choji-ya ;§, brothel. | ijp Yoborono 

(t. ; f.), Chono (f.). | ^ Tei-ko (Ting Ku, Chin, hero), p^^ -ran (Lan, 

paragon) ; I ^ ^ Teireii (Ting-ling Wei, sennin). 

I * GAX. iwao ('a cliff'). Also used as a contraction of j^ (xii), e.g., as 
^ Karigane (f.), and occasionally of ^, (xvii). 27. 

TRIO ; imasa). owaru (' to finish ') ; satoru (' to understand ) ; sadameru 
('to settle'). Distinguish from ^ (iii). 6. | p] ^ Rioami (n.). 

/7 YC, U ; {mata) ; zok., Mata-, -mata. mata (' again, also, and '). See 
^^ p. 130. 29. 

[Compare {^ (ix), ^ (viii).] | ]^ Matawara (f.). | ^ Mata-ko 
(Empress). 

#^ GAl iKAI). karu ('to mow'); osameru ('to govern'). 4. 

f I TO, DO; TO. katana ('a knife, sword'); ... no to ('carvtd by'). 
'^'^ Distinguish from ;J] (11). 18. 

I -§* To-i (anct. dist. of China), i^^ ^ -ne-zaka (m.), ^^ \\\ -neyama 
(t.), H -ne (f.). I Q toji (title, lit. 'house-wife'). 

TTlj [Synonyms: g, g.J DAI (TAI). XAl ; A'^, NO. nanji ('you'); 
■^ sunawachi ('then, that is'). As a phonetic (wan}'o^a/m), no ('of'). 4. 

[Compare ¥f (xi), tl (x).] I ^ Hj^ Xo-zaki (cape). I ^ g M 
Notoro-no-taki (fall). | ^ Xo-mi (t. ; f.), ;t; -gi, Jf -no [L). 

I J KKI, KIO. Used as a contraction of [n] (vi). 13. 
n KI. Simple form of i(Jl (vi). 16. 



145 Two Strokes 

n [Script forms: y\^. ^^ ; complex synonym; |g|J.] HATSU, HACIll- 

YA, HA; yatsu-, ya- ; (yati^u-, ya-) ; zok., see ]). 71 f. yatsii-, ya- 
(' eight, eighth', anctly. 'many'). See pp. 37, 41. 42, 48, 107-109, as well 
as the two next entries. Used as a mon on the banners of the Owari 
Tokugawa; also, surmounted by zi (p- i43.'> as part of the chief mon of the 
Koide (daimio). 12. 

[Compare, for Ya-, ^ (x), ^ (vii), ^ (ixj, ^i (x), ^ (xviii), and, for 
Hachi-, ^, 1^ (xiii); see also tlie two next entries.] ;;;^ | ^^ (or ^) ^ 
Oyashima-no-kuni (anct. name for Japan). | ^ ^ Hachijo-jima (is., 
text.). 

KoRi : I y^ Hattd or Yatto (of Inaba pr.) ; | \K;, Yatsushiro (Higo 
and Ivoshu; t. pottery; Yashiro as f.) ; | Ji Ya-gami (Kawachi and Inaba; 
t. met.), -^ -me (Chibugo, mod. ; anct. dist. of Kiushu), ^ -na (IMibawa), 
y^ -tsuka (Idzumo, mod ; f. ; n.), i'fp -be or ^ -tabe (Settsu), ;j^ -bashi 
or -base (Hoki ; Yatsuhashi as f., n. mus., joru and art-motive), y/j -dzu 
(Inaba, mod.). 

Mountains : | H M lil Yokami-yama ; | ^^ falso ^) \[\ Hasso-zan 
(two m.) ; I ^ Hachi-o-yama, "^ jjj -men-zan ; I '^ jil Hak-kai-zan, 
^ IB UJ -koda-yama, ]^ ^j -ko-zan (or Yataka-yama), jfl |i| -ko-zan (or 
Yamizo-yama) ; | [-^J -^ Yatsu-ga-dake, ^ ^J -ishi-yama. 

Other Towns: | j^ Yoka ; I "fti (ifi iM, WJ) Yoka-ichi (-ichiba, 
-machi) ; | ^ Yawata (Nakasendo stage 24 ; f. ; d. ; Yawata-hama ^, t., 
-shirazu ^< ^B, grove), Hachiman (same d. ; H.-gu ^, tem., n. swo.), Hatsuma ; 
I T @ Hatchome ; \ ^ M Hataki ; | JH Hachi-nohe, ^ ^ -dji (or 
Hachoji, text.), M or ^ -ya, ^ -mori (f.), '^ -liama ; | Jll Ya-kawa 
(but Hachikawa-dani :^, valley), 3l |^ -gohara, :;^ -gi (f. ptr., met.), 
-da (see also Surnames), ^ -o (f. ptr.), -tsuo, 4^ -maki, ^p -chi, i|t ^ 
-tsuai, jH: i^ -ibara, jfiljl -kami (f.), j^ -keshi (f.), % -shima (pot.; f. ; no; 
also for M #j, t.), ^ -se ; | ^ Yatsu-busa, "jg -omo. 

In Yedo: I ^ ^ Hakkei-zaka (hill); | J^ ^ Yatsumi-bashi (bridge); 

1 /h 'l^ Yatsu-koji, | T M Hatcho-bori, | 'g fff) fff Hak-kwan (-ken) 

-cho, I Hi: m\ PTJ" Yayesu-cho (streets). Ix Kioto : | fl^ Hachijo (dist. ; 

f.) ; I ^ Yasaka- j§ -to (pagoda), jlh -no-yashiro (the Gion Temple). 

I ¥f M Hachikenya (part of Osaka). | |tJ Vatsuri (anct. pal.). 

Other Surnames: i;: \ tK Oyagi ; I >[c, I ffl, I ^ Haclnda, 
Hatsuda, or Hatta ; \ f^ ^ Hakashima ; | f^ M W, I l^jj Hodzumi (see 
also below); | jt Yamichi (met.), Musashi ; | i^ Yagi (ptr., met.; whence 
Yagi-shita T> -ta 09, -oka IJ5], -hara |^, -hashi ;^, -sawa %); \ '>H Ya-su, . \ 




Two Strokes (A, contd.) 146 

^ -ba, JM -saka (met.), # -mura, j^ -sugi, M -zato, ^ -ya, Si" jg -yegald, 
Hi W^ -yegushi, ^ -uma, ^ ^ -kufu, p^ -sumi, ^ -tsurugi. 

Other Personages: I ^ M -? Yatsumimi-iio-oji (Prince Shotoku) ; 

I ti M $P1I Yayegaki-hime (myth, pers.) ; | f\ 1^ (H) ;& tr P*! Hakkaku 
Tate(Nada)yemon (wrestlers) \ \ "f \K. Yacliio (poetess) ; | iUJ 7 ^ 
Yashio-no-ko (court-lady) ; | ^^^, \ A Yasliio, | g ;j:^] Yayegiri [jord) ; 

I f^j Hachiya, I ^ Yakumo (n.) ; \ f^ U Yatagarasu (d.) ; | M ± K 
Yamata-no-oroclii (dragon of Susa-no-o). 

I '^ ill 1^ Hakku-renga, | ^ illi H Yao-jizo, i l])^ jg Yawata-muko 
{kiogen). I ;;^ ^ Hakkenshi, \ :j^ i^ Hakken-den (see p. 109). | f^ i^ 
yata-no-kagami, \ K- ^ ^ (or '^) 3E yasakani-no-magatmna (the Mirror and 
Gem of the Impl. Regalia, see p. 100, 30). | ^ fjl hasso-tobi (Yoshitsune's 
leap). I 1^ hassaku (fest., first day of 8th month). 

j\ -|- HACHIJU ; yaso- ; yaso- ; zok., Yaso- (but | | 6|5 Hachijuro). 
3'aso (' eighty '). 
I I ^ Yaso-shima (is. ; f.), ^ -se (f. ; r.), ^ -no-miya (princess), ^ 
-ko (poetess), ^ -de (swo.). 

yl "5* HAPPIAKU ; yao ; yao- ; zok., Yao-. yao ('eight hundred'). 

I I M Yaoya (f., lit. 'greengrocer'; Yaoya O-Shichi pi ■\^, 
joriiri and its heroine). | | H Yaori (n.). 

AJU (JU), NIC; iri, iru- ; (/)'/, irii, nari). ivii ('to enter, set [as the 
sun], require'); irevii C to insert'); -ire ('a container, case'). 77. 
I flij Iruma (k. of Musashi ; t. ; f.) ; Iruma-gawa )\\ (r. ; f. ptr. ; kiogen). 
I fi ill Irusa-yama (m.). Other Towns: | ^ Niuzen (f.); | ^ Irube ; 
I il Iri-ye (f. ; lit. 'inlet, arm of the sea'), ^S -ki, jgf -no (f . ; r.). 

Other Surnames : | "gg Nissai ; I ^ f? Xittono ; | ^ Iruka (n.) ; 
I ^J Iri-yama (see also below), ^ -ya (ptr.), ^ -ta, ^ -majiri, /jsj- -mura, 
J^ -ya (also dist. of Yedo), 'l^ -zawa. 

I W^ W 'M, Niumetsu no Shaka (the Buddha about to enter nirvana). 

\ p irikuchi ('an entrance'). | \\] niu-zan, 3^ -do (Bud. tit.; see also 

^ (xvi) and pp. 70, go), ;f§ -bai (the rainy season, roughly the 6th month), 

M -kio, ^ -jo ('entering Kioto, one's castle'), :J^ -shin, JUV -sen ('entering 

harbour', latter also as irifune, 'a homeward-bound vessel'). 

II [Script form: J^^.] JIN, NIN ; hito ; hito, Hilo, {-bito, kiyo); zok., 
^ Nin-, -hito. hito ('a human being, mankind, person, people'). See 
pp. 39, 40, 97. As -jin after a place-name, 'native of. ,9. 



147 Two Strokes 

I % HitO-ana, ^ -yoshi (t.), "i" -kobe (t. ; Musu as f.), M -n^i 
(f. ptr.), ^ -o (f.), ^ -wa (n.), If -uma {kiogen). \ 1\^ ningio ('a doll, 
figure'); ningio-shi ^jR or X, 'doll-maker'; Ningio-clio EIJ", street of Yedo. 
•j^ I us/ii (tit.), otona (' an adult '). | H jinjitsu (see p. io6, 73). | % 
jimbntsu ('a human being, human figure, personality'). | ^ nin-no fthe 
Emperors from Jimmu-tenno onwards), fu\ -g^n ('mankind'), Jg, -soku ('a 
coolie '), ^ -^/o (' a merman, mermaid '), i^^ -so (physiognomy '). 

I ■* [Complex synonyms: ^, rarely 3l3l ('•'^■' ^^^'^ fives, j£!.J SHC, JC 
^ (JITSU-, JUTSU-) ; SO, TO; ^o, so; (kazu, mitsu, to): 20k., see p. 71 f. 

id, to, -so ('ten, tenth'). See pp. 37, 41,42, 110-112. Used as a subsidiary 

mon by the Ogasawara and Shimadzu (daimio, main families), also, within 

a ring, by the Naito of Takato. 24. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 173).] I j^ Tokachi (pr.). | 7|T 

Toichi (k. of Yamato ; f. ptr.), Tochi (same k.). | Z^ \\i Jippo-zan, | % 

^ -g- Jumonji-dake (m.). | jil (^) |l[| Jik-koku(-k[i]oku)-t6ge (passes). 
I >Kf M To-no-ura (shore). I H B9 fS Towada-numa (lake). | )\\ 

To-gawa (r.), Togawa (f.). | ^ )\\ Totsu-kawa (r.). | H ^ Jumantsubo 

(plain). ! ZL ^ ^M Junis6-no-taki (fall). 

Towns: | 11 WJ Tokamachi ; | ^pJ Sogo ; I H Jusan (also pass, 
-toge |Ilf, and lagoon, -gata '^); \ r. ^ Junisho. | ^ f^ Juji-bo (tern.). 
Other Surnames : 1 Mogiki (lit. ' tree-trunk ', i.e., :^, ' tree ', without the 
branches; see also Personages) ; | i^ Juji (ptr. ; lit. 'the character -p', 'a cross') ; 

I J^ Toma (ptr.) ; I "^ M Masumi (cf. masukagami below) ; | H #j 
Ochifurui; I -b 1^ il Kano ; | A ^ Wakairo ; | \^ ffl Soshiroda ; 

I ;fc To-toki, 3^ -tsuka, ^ -aki, |l^ -toki (ptr., pot.), J^ -ton. 

Personages: | 3£ Ju-6 (the Ten Kings of Hades); | — fj Juichimen 

(see p. 104,61); I Ju, I H # Junishin, I g Mitsushige, | ^ Mitsukata 

(svvo.) ; I -^ ijiltJ Jissungami (dram, pers.) ; | :^^ ^ Togane, | jg Tokayeri 

ijoro); I pg M Jiishiya (n.). | ^ (or ^) ^ Totsuka-no-tsurugi (sword). 

1 /^ -f^ 12. Izayoi-no-ki (classic). 

Locutions: | =f, \ H ^, see p. no. \ B toka ('the tenth day' 
of a month, 'ten days'); toka -ycbistt ;g jt M (fest., loth of ist month), 
-no-sechiye ffj fr (fest., 15th and i6th of ist month); | H (31, 7^) ^ 
ju~san(-go,-rokii]-ya (moon-festivals, nights of the 13th, 13th, i6th, esp. ol 
the 8th month; if)th also read izayoi) ; | -^ H masukagami ('a ten-inch, 
hence bright, mirror'; the masu is for ma-siimi ^ v^, 'truly bright'); 
I f1? ^ jisshiiko (variety of the Perfume Game). 



Two Strokes 148 

\^ [Complex synonyms (not used alternatively in names) : -^j less com- 
^*^ monly ^.1 SHITSU, SHICHI (HICHI in Tokio diarect) ; nana; 

zok., shichi (in all positions, but see Examples). nanatsu, nana- ('seven, 
seventh'). See pp. 37, 41, 42, 48, 105, 106, and 35, note 5. i. 

I H Shichimi, Shitsumi (k. of Tajima). | ^ "^ Shichiri-ga-hama 
(coast). Mountains : | IJ llj Shichimen-zan ; I ^ ill Nana-kura-yama, 
M % -koshi-mine, |l.^ '^ -g- -shigure-ga-dake, ^ jllj? -mi-toge (pass). | 'i|| 
Nana-taki (fall). 

Towns : I / ^ Shichinohe ; I H "^ Naniai ; I H Tfj Nanu- 
(Nano)kaichi ; | [•;'] llj Nana-[tsu]yama, :X M im ;^ -kuri-no-yu, ^ -i, 
•it If] -kitada, M -sato (f. ; joro ; also Shichiri as f.), ^ -o. Other 
Surnames: I "^I* 3l :^ Kutsuwada ; | 21 H Shime (also as ^o/s. -initial ; 
as shime or shimenaiva, the sacred straw rope of Shinto) ; | ^ Xana-mi, 
'l^i -zawa. 

I naniika ('the seventh day' of a month, 'seven days'); Xanuka- 
-ben ^ (= Fujiwara no Sadamichi ^ jjfi), -kwampaku ^ Q (= F. no 
Michikane j^ ^). Other Joro : | J^ Xana-ndo, :^ -goromo, ^ -koshi, 
1^ -aya. | ^^ v§ Shichiki-ochi (kiogen). \ ^ shichiseki (see p. 103, 
56). I ^ ^ nanaye-kitaye ('sevenfold forging'). | ^ nanako (for ^ ^, 
granulation of metal). 

-^ [Complex synonyms (not used alternatively in names) : ^j^, less com- 
^ monly ^^.] KIU, KU ; AX"; zok., Ku- (I H Kuma-). kokonotsii, 

kokono- ('nine, ninth'). See pp. 37, 41, 42, 48, 71-73, 109. Used as chief 
iiwn by the Kuki | ^ of Ayabe. Distinguish from ^ (p. 161). 5. 

[Compare ^ (p. 157), |^ (vii).] | ^'H KiOshu (is., division of Japan). 

I 7 ^ Kunohe (k. and t. of Oshu). | -p | kiijuku ('99'), tsiikumo 
(' dishevelled ') ; Tsukumo-jima ^ (is.), -bashi ;|^ (bridge in Yedo) ; but 

I + I M M Kujukuri-no-hama^ (coast). | ^ |1|^ Kokonoye-toge (pass). 

I yjj 11 )\\ Kudzuriu-gawa (r.). 

Other Towns : | Tfj Kokonokaichi ; I — - -fe ^H" Ku-ishikimura, 
■^ ^ -shiya, ^ ^ -giudaira, iH: iJlj^ -zeto, :g:. -tani (pot.), J^ ^J -doyama, 
^ j^ -sodomari. | fl^ Kujo (dist. of Kioto; f.) ; Kujo-jima ^ (dist. of 
Osaka), -haitei j^ ^ (85th Mikado, renamed Chiikio 'fiji ^ in 1870). 

Other Surnames : | ^ Ku-ki, ^ -nohe, JO. -nori (met.), ff -no. 

I M II Kudzunu (d.). | fip ^'J *& Kuro-hangwan (= Minamoto no 
Yoshitsune ^ |^). | f^ Kubutsu, | ^ i^ Kunembo (n.). | H T" 
Kumi-ko (wom. n.). | ^V ^ Kuzeto {no). \ H Kiucho (poet), Kokonoye 
(joro, lit. 'ninefold'). | ^ [^0(\ ^ kiubi no kitsiine (myth, 'nine-tailed fox'). 

* Also written ^ 3. ^> where ^ represents "g" ('a hundred') minus — ('one'j. 



149 Two and Three Strokes 

-J-j RIOKU, RIKI ; Chikara, Tsutomu ; zok., Riki-. chikara (' strength, 
y^J power, ability'). Distinguish from JJ (p. 144). 19. 

I X Rikimaru, | :^ Chikaraishi (f.j. -X \ ii "^ Dairikinosuke 
{zok.). I ^7 rikishi ('a wrestler'). 



V 



BOKU; (ura). ('divination'). 23. 

[Compare ]g.] \ ^i Urabe (f. ; anct. gild ; tit., see p. 82). 



V (.jj. / Not a Chinese character, but used as a seal-mark outside a 
*^ ^ letter (across the folds), or as meaning ' total ' in a bill- 

in each case called shime ('closed'). 

THREE STROKES. 

I SHO ; KO, iWO) ; Ko-, O- ; (0-) ; zok., Ko-. chiisashi, sukoshi ('small, 
-* lesser '). As Ko- in street-names (see p. 10, note 2). Forms, 

within a ring, the mon of the Ogasawara /J> ^ |ij( (daimio). Distinguish 
from /J? (p. 163). 42. 

[For Examples see under the second character, except the following.] 
:X I SS" Ooji (t.). I y |Ij, in prints, for | if Uj Onoyama {jord). 
I / i^, see p. 47. 

Ill [Original form: {{{ (the radical).] SEN; kawa ; (kawa). kawa ('a 
' *l river 'j. As -ga-wa, rarely -kawa, in names of rivers. Distinguish 

from one of the hiragaua for tsu (see p. 32). 47. 

[Compare fpj (viii).] Kori : ^ | Okawa (Sanuki, mod. ; t. ; f. met. 
sculp. ; n. ; 0-kawa as r.j ; | _t, Kawa-kami (Bitchu ; t. ; f. ptr., met.), 
^ -be or -nabe (Dewa ; both as t. and f.), -be (Settsu), -nabe or -nobe 
(Satsuma). | i}^« ^ Kawanakajima (dist. of Shinano). | ^ (or ^) U) 
Kawana-saki (cape). | ^ | Sendai-gawa, | ^ | Kawade-gawa (r.). 

Other Towns : "j^ \ Wf Okawano ; /J> | Ogawa (f. ptr., met., sculp. ; 
O-gawa as r. ; also Kogawa as f.) ; I □ Kawa-guchi (Nikkokaido stage ; 
f. ptr., met.), p>J -uchi (also Sendai), y \^ -nouchi, ^f -i (f.), ^ -moto 
(f. pot.), -j^ -ko, y :^ -noishi, % -jiri, ^ -i (f. ptr.), / xL -noye, 
^ -mura (f. ptr., met.), ^ -na, j^ -mata, >]ij' -maye, -mai, 2^ -tabi, 
U -mo (f.j, ^ -shima (f. ptr., met.), -jima, ^ -shimada, ^ -saki 
(Tokaido stage 2 ; f. ptr., lacq.), gf -no (f.), ^ -be (f. met., svvo.), -nobe, 
•^^ -tari, ^ -tana or -dana, ^ -goye (f.j, If^ -ji (f.j, ^ -nobori, || -doi. 

In Yedo : | fpj j^ Kawa-gashi, \ M ^ ^ Kawase-koku-cb.6 (streets) ; 
I ^ M Kawashima-ya (brothel). 



Three Strokes ijl|, contd.) 150 

Other Surnames : | Kawa (met., for | J^ Pf, Kawarabayashi) : /\\ \ ^ 
Okawado ; | % Kawa-mata, ^ |Vc -kubo, jt -moto, ^ -do (Kawanoto 
as joro), ^ -de, ;jt -kita, [B -da, i|ll -ji, ^ -na, '^ -nislii, j}f) j^ -nabe, 
^ -zumi, -kado, ^ -dani, ^p "ji, ^^ -niatsu (ptr.), ^ -yeda (ptr.), ^ -kishi, 
-gishi, ;fa -i, ^[1] -bata, '(^ -iianii, ]^ -bara, -ra, j^ -zoye, ^ -katsu (met.), 
M B,M ^ -kita, ^ -zumi (met.), JJ^ -bata (ptr.), fg -kubo (ptr.), ijif -bata, 
•^ -zumi, ;f^ -hashi, ^ -nabe (ptr.), -^ -se. 

I Ji nl> Kawakamimoto (anct. smith). | _h illl ||c Kawakami-jizo 
(kiogen). I t^^ kaiva-biraki (fest., 20th of 7th month), ^^- -^ifa7^/ ('river-fishing'). 

-JT^ GOTSU (KOTSU), GOCHI. 'To cut off the feet.' As kotsii, 'to be 
bald, bare '. 10. 

/y Common synonym of H (xiii), '10,000'. Distinguish from ;^/ (p. 175). i. 

• — ^ [Complex synonym (not used alternatively in names, except Mikawa, 

' pr.) • ^-1 SAN; MI, SA ; mitsu-, mi-; (mi-, mitsu, kazu), \ ^ 

mine, j ^ michi ; zok., see p. 71 f. and Examples, fin. mitsu, mi- ('three, 
third'). See also pp. 37, 41, 42, 88, 97 f., 114, 115. Used in the mon of 
the Inaba (daimio, several branches), also of the Kono (extinct towards 
1600). I. 

[Compare, for San-, ilj (p. 162), and, for Mi-, H (ix), fll (xi.)] | H 
Sankan (the three ancient kingdoms of Korea ; Sankan-seibatsii ^jE JX^ 
Empress Jingo's expedition). | (or ^) '^nj iMikawa (pr. ; f.) ; | >)]] Sanshu, 

I 1^- Sanyo (same pr., former also joro). Islands : ;:;^ I ^ Omi-shima ; 

I ^ ^ Miyake-jima ; I :^ ^ Mikura-shima. 

KoRi : I ^ Sannohe (Dewa ; t. ; f. ; also Mito as f.) ; | Ji Mi-kami 
(Bingo; f. ptr., met.; m., -yama), ^ -kata (Wakasa; t. ; f.), :^ -ki (Sanuki; 
cas. ; f. ptr., i)ot. ; also Mitsugi as f., n. swo.), ^ -i (Chikugo; see also 
Temples; Mitsui as f.), ^C -yoshi (Bingo; t.), ^ -ike (Chikugo; t.), ^ -yoshi 
(Ashu ; t. ; f. ptr., swo. ; r.), ;f=^ -ne (Hizen), g -ye (Ise ; mod. ken ; t. ; f.), 
\^ -ura (Sagami ; f. ptr., met., pot. ; brothel, -ya M), ]^ -hara (Chikugo 
and Awaji ; t. swo. ; f. ptr. ; m., -yama), if -no (Sanuki ; f. ; Minu as n. 
poet), ^ -shima (Echigo, also read Santo ; Settsu, mod. ; t., Tokaido 
stage II ; tem. ; f. ptr.; r.), ^^ -tani (Bingo; t. ; f.), ^ -tsuma (Chikugo; f.), 
-mma (.same k.), ^ ^ -yaki (Hizen, mod.), ^ -toyo (Sanuki, mod.). 

Other Mountains: | )f/( \\\ Sambe(Mikame)-yama; | ^ \\\ Mitsumine- 
-san ; | % (^, ^) \\\ Mitsu-mata(-iwa,-mori)-yama ; | .^ |.Il Mio-san ; 

I f] (#, '^, [iSl) \\\ Mi-kado(-kami,-kasa,-kuni)-yama. | M (M, M) l^r 
Mi-saka(-shima,-kunij-t6ge (passes). Other Rivers: | 3^ p\ Sandzu-no- 

-kawa, vulg. Sodzu-kawa, the Buddhist Styx, whence Sandzu-no-kawa (vulg. 



151 Three Strokes 

Shotsuka)-no-baba ^ (d.) ; | ^ )\\ Minie(Miomoto)-ga\va ; | H Wf )\\ 
Mikano-gawa. | ^ ^ Sanzori-kutsu (cave). 

Other Towns : \ Jx B Sail-danta, g -da (pot. ; f. ; also Mita as 
dist. of Yedo and f.), ^£ -zai, ^ fijf -gasho, M -ya, fl^ -jd (also dist. of 
Kioto; 67th Mikado; f. actor), / g -nomiya, ^ -nomiya (f. ptr.), y j^ 
-nokura, ^ -ga ; | ^ yfc Sani-bongi, ;^ >j^ -boinmatsu, ^ -mi or -i, 
^^ M M -niaibashi-jo (cas.) ; I j^ Mitsu-mata (also Minomata ; both as 
f-), i^ lU -zeyama; | JJ H Mi-toya, jlj -kawa, jl| j^ -kawachi, tK M 
-kizato, iff -naka, ^ ^^ -iraku, '^ H -kanichi or -kkabi, P f] -kadzuki 
(f. pot.), -ffi -kkaichi, i^ -yo, [-7] '^ -tsuislii, ^ -tai, EB E -tajiri, 
^1 M -tSLikiiyeura, ^ -yake (f. jjtr., met.), jj^ -nari, f^ -sa, ^ -saka (f.), 
^ -ra, ^ IS. -rasaka, ^ -tani (f. ptr., met., sculp. ; r.), ^ -sumi (f. met.), 
i^l ^ M -suminoura, J^ )\\ -tokawa, {^ -yori, \^ j^ -kochi (pot.), ^^ -bayashi 
(f-)) ^ ^f -yoshino (f.), i^ -tsu (f.), -to, ^^ 1^ -tsugahama, |g -omote, 
^ -haru (Mitsuharu as 707^0), ^ -waka, -^ (or 'g) gf -tono (Nakasendo 
stage 41), ;fg -su (f.), ,^ -no, ;^ -kusa (f. ptr.), |1^ -saki, ^ -kuni (f. sculp., 
actor), "^ -watari, ^ -sumi (f.), '^ -kumo (f.), ^ -katsura, j|E -mmaya, 
1^ -wa (tern. ; f. ptr., pot. ; n. sculp. ; no), |^ il|§ -wazaki, ^ -take (f.), ^ 
-sawa (f.), ^ -se (f.), '7 t^ -tsuze. 

In Yedo : I M ^ Mikawajima (dist.) ; | -[- fj] ^ Sanjukkembori, 
I Wi WI Misuji-cho, | ^ (^, f^ or ff) Eff San-nen(-zaki,-gen)-cho (streets); 
I ^ j|g Mitsui-dana or -no-mise (' the M. shop 'j. Other Temples : 
I ^ -^ Mii-dera (monastery, also called Onj6-ji ; no; \ ^ ^ M' -^-'^'^ '^0 

hansho, one of the Omi-hakkei) ; I ^^ I fu] ^ Sanjusangen-do ; I ^ ^ ■^ 

Mimuroto-ji. 

Other Surnames: J^^ \ |t Omiwa ; I ^ ^ M Sammonjiya (met.); 
. I i^ Saigusa (ptr.; lit. a plant-name; saigiisa-matsnyi ^, fest.); I ^^ — ^ 
Saiissho ; \ M M San-ami (swo.), jf^ ® -jonishi, [5^ M -g^^iya ; | ^ 
Mitsu-ishi, ;jsj- -mura (also Mimura, f. ptr., met.), ijflJ -yanagi, lUij -buchi 
(Mibuchi), 5^ -mori (Mimori, ptr.), fj] -ma, ^ -hashi (ptr.); | iJj Mi-yama, 
J] ^ -toya, ^ j\:: -tejiro, ^ -ke, ^ M -tomi, ^ -hira, EB # -tamura, 
^ -ya, ^ -mori (n.l, -kami, ^ -yoshi, ^ M -yoshiya, ^ -o (ptr.), ^ ^ 
-onoya, gg -saka, M -sato, ^ -gai, 'jnj P -kawaguchi, >|^ -matsu, ^ -maki, 
jjg -oka, ^ M -oya, ^ jlj -tsugawa, :jf: p -tsuzawa, >{i^ -suna, ^ ^ 
-murodo, i5?j -shina (see also p. 88), |^ -masu (actors), ^ -ke, ^ -hata 
(ptr.), ^ -kasa (swo.), ^ -bori, Sf' ;(sf -nomura, ^ -yoshi (clan ; f. swo.), 
^M -su, -^ -mune, ^ -koshi, ^ -tomi, ^ -hashi, ig" -masu, ^ ^o, t^ 
-guma (ptr.), H EH -wata, |i -nawa, -^f^ -taki. 



Three Strokes (^l- contd.) 152 

Other Personages— Deities: \ ^ i^i ^^ Sammen-daikoku; | ^ ^ jjiij' 
Sambo-kojin (for sambo, see p. 100, 29). Chinese : I I$L ~F Sampushi 
(San-feng-tzu, sennin) ; I |^ '/i ^i|) Sanzo-hoshi (San-ts'ang or Hsuan-hsiao, 
priest ; for sanzo, see p. 100, 31) ; | % Sansho (see p. 99, 21 ; no). 
Japanese: | |l^ Sanjo- ^ -no-miya (= Prince Mochihito J^ fH), fff -no- 
-machi (court-lady), :^ ::^ gl -udaijin (=: Fujiwara no Sadakata ^ 3^, 
No. 25 of the Hundred Poets ^), /J> ^ {^ -no-kokaji (= Munechika ^ i£, 
swo.) ; I ^ Mitsu-wa (poet), H ^ 5M -mi-no-sukune ; I 13 ^ ;/L 
Mikadzukimaru (swo.) ; | 'M :)<Z ^t iMiura-no-6suke (see pp. 98, 99) ; I ^ fUJ 
Mikuni-no-machi (court-kidy) ; /J> | }^j Kosamba (author) ; | ^ Sankatsu 
(actor, geisha). Other Joro : | :|^ Mitsu-hana, ^ -haru ; | A Mi-hito, 
^p- ]^ -chitose, \X M -yosato, ^ if -yoshino, ^ if -murono. Myth. 
Pers. : I ^ /h ^ fiP Mikuni-kojoro ; j g /J> f^ Mitsume-kozo ('ghost). 
Dram. Pers. : | ^ Sanko (see also pp. 82, 98) ; | ^ ^ Sambaso. 

I llJ Sanna, | ^ iMitsuki, | ^ g iMikaki (n.). Zokumio (cf. also 
p. 71 f.): I t\\l Saburo; I H , I ^ , I ^ Soji, -soji, -soji, but I <f(- 
.Sansuke, etc.; | g gp Miyero or more regularly SanjiJro; | ■^' ^ lif P^ 
Sabuyemon ; and, initially, | =f- xMichi- | f^ Miyo- I J§, I 1^, I Hi 
Mio-, I '^ iMitsu-, I H Miwa- etc. 

Histories: | ^ ^, (or t^.) Sangoku-shi; | jX. M Wi- Sandai-jitsuroku. 
KioGEN : I A yfr It Sannin-katawa ; | A W ^4 Sannin-hiakusho ; | ;<^ 
i^ Sambombashira. Locutions : | % san-gen (New Year's Day), ^ -r/io 
(morning of the same), jfr ;fg -^eso ('a fortune-telling book'), ^ % ]^ 
-sankiido (part of the wedding ceremony). | |^ Sanron (Bud. sect;. 

— !! SHUKU, CHIKU. 'A step with the right foot'. Used incorrectly 
J (esp. in prints) for ^ below. 7. 

-ri U; L/, A7; {yiiki). kokonl ('here'); oite ('at, in'); yiikii (' to go '). 7. 

J [Compare homophones under ^ (vi).] | "^ Ukitsu (Yii Chi, sennin). 

I ^ ^ i;7'a[w]6on {iillambana, a day of the Bon fest.). | |I.^, before a 
date, toki ni . . . , ' at the date of . . . ', a Chinese locution. 

KAN. taie ('a shield'); hiru ('to ebb, dry up'); okasu ('to oppose 'j; 
migiwa ('a river-bank'). Distinguish from ^ (p. 155). 51. 
[Compare homophones under B (iv) and jt (v).] | JrJc Tateki, | pi j^ 
Hikawagishi, Higashi (f.). -p | jikkan, jiikkan (see p. no); | ^ ye-to 
(p- 63); ^ -p shi-kan ('the junishi and the jikkan', see ibid.). 

' The sobriquets of several other Fujiwara are similarly formed. 



^ 



153 Three Strokes 

XKO, KU ; Tsnkasa, Takuini. takumi ('art, craft, skill'). As ko, in 
composition, also 'a workman, craftsman'; after a name,. . . no ko, 
' the work of ', in early woodcuts, ' printed by '. Distinguish from the 
katakana j. and :z. (see p. 32), which are read ye {e} and are sometimes 
(in script) used indiscriminately for %] in the zokumid-endin^^s -hei {-hei), 
-zayemon, -yemon (see pp. 72-3). 48. 

I ^ Kutsuki, I |§ Kudo (f.). ;j<i \ Daiku (f., lit. 'carpenter'); 
Daiku-cho PJ (street of Yedo), -hara ]^ (f.). I ^ kufit ('an invention'); 
Tf^ I saiku ('art work'). 

TKA, GE ; GE ; shimo, shita, -noshita, -moto ; moto, (shimo). shimo, 
sliiia, moto ('below, lower, inferior'); kudarii ('to descend, leave 
the capital ') ; kiidasu (transitive form) ; kudasaru (' to condescend, grant '). 
As ge, 'the second' of two or 'third" of three (p. 39); see also p. 83. i. 

I if Shimotsuke (pr., anctly. Shimo-tsu-kenu ; f. ; n. ; also Shimono 
as f.). I li Shimosa (i)r., anctly. Shimo-tsu-fusa ; n.). | ^ Shimo-jima 
(is.; f.). KoRi : | )M Geza or Shimo- tsu-asakura (Chikuzen) ; I ^ 
Shimo-ge, -tsu-[mi]ke (Buzen), ^t -kita (Oshu), ^ -tsuma (Chikugo; t.;f.), 
j^ -michi (Bitchu ; see also Locutions), H -agata (Tsushima). | \\\ Ge- 
-san (m.), Shimoyama (t. ; f.). I ^ Shuno-dani (valley) ; Shimodani (f.) ; 
Shitaya (dist. of Yedo, mod. ku of Tokio ; f.). 

Other Towns [for further examples (including street-names) where HF 
is a mere directional prefix (Shimo-), see under the second character] : | g 
Gero; ) ^ Ql Oroshiye; | fn ffl Shimo-nita, ^ ig -tedo, :Jj -kata (f.J, 
/ M XL -nokaye, i\j -ichi (lacq.), B3-ta, -da (f. ptr.), / fll -noye, ^ -mio, 
j£ -nosho, ^ -saka (f. or n. swo.), ;|^ -mura (f.), M -sato (f.), |2j -matsu, 
i^ ^ azabe, i^ -noho, ]^, -hara, -bara (f.), |K^-buchi, ^[S -gori, ^ -nashi, 
M M -ganio, 11 -date, \^ -noseki (now Akamagaseki), -seki, i| -nada. 
I ;^ Shimo-kio (the eastern part of Kioto). 

Other Surnames : | Shimo ; ;^ | Oshita (met.) ; | '^ Oroshi ; | ^ 
Susogo (lit. a robe with darker hem) : | ji\ Gesu (ptr.) ; | % Gejo, also 
Shimojo (ptr.) ; | )\\ Shimo-kawa, ill ^ -yamasa, ^ Sf -tsukenu (S. no 
Komaro -^ ^S fiist. pers.), ^ -daira, fj" -dake, \L -ye, f^ -sa, ^ -saka, 
M -kawa, ipj it -kobe (ptr.), psj ^ # -akutsu, 1^ -yeda, ^ -tsu, ^ -aki. 
|g -buri, if -tsura, iV ^ -funao, % -gasa, fa^ -tsuma, -^ *^ -sone, ^P 
-go, -sato, It -gura, ^ -se, v5> -sawa. 

1 M] ik % Geba-shogun (= Sakai Tadakiyo \^ JY ^> '^'J' ^ I ^ P9 K 
Heta-no-naisho (poet); \ M '}^ ^ Shimomoye-no-shosho (poetess). 

Locutions : | V kiidari (' from Kioto and Osaka ', of an actor) ; | % 
kagen (fest., 15th of loth month); | :f- heta ('a bungler, smatterer ', cf. 



p 



Three strokes ("]^, contd.) 154 

-fc. ^j ; I nf) shimobe ('a servant'); | ilii v\ (or $]|i) shitajishi ('preparer of 
grounds', esp. in mctalwork) ; | -^ A'^'-yo ('maidservant'), fp] -kn ('home- 
ward journey', from Kioto or a temple), ^1 -hin ('inferior class'), ^ -viakii 
('etc.', 'rest of quotation omitted'), |i -hen ('last volume,' of two or three), 
^ -do (' tlie [easy] way down ' from a temple), ^j ~ba (' spot where one 
must dismount '), ^ -jo (ditto, inch palanquin), J^ -soku (where the sandals 
must be removed). 

□ I ; Kakoii. meguvH (' io surround 'j. An ancient contraction of ^ 
(xi) and m (XII). 31. 

KO, KlI ; KU \ kuchi ; iahi, hivo). kiichi ('mouth, opening, entrance'). 
30. 

Towns [for further examples where HI as Kuchi- is a mere directional 
prefix, ' approach to ', see under the second character] : ;}^ \ Okuchi (f.) ; 
I ^ Kuchi-nohe, [^] ^ -notsu, ^ -ba (f.), i^ -nohayashi. | M -^ 
Kuchinashi-no-ike (water). /]> | Oguchi, Koguchi, I :^ 03 IS I"- 
Kumodekwanze (f.). | A Kuchudo (n.). | ^ {^ ^ Kuchimane-muko 
(kiogen). 

BSHI ; {mi, ware); zok., Mi-, -mi, | f^' Miyo-. See p. 63. Confused 
with the two next, esp. with the reading mi. 49. 
I ip Mino, I |g Konomi (f). 

i~| I; /; kore, Otvari, (oto). yamu ('to stop'); owaru ('to cease'). Com- 
l— ^ pare the foregoing. 49. 

KI ; KO ; {oto). onore, mi ('self'); tsiichinoto (see p. 63). Compare 



S 



the two foregoing. 49. 



J~| KIU, KU ; YU ; {yiimi). yitmi ('a bow' for arrows). 57. 

-J I '["ji] Yu-ge (old name for Kawachi pr. ; t. ; f. ptr.), 'jj{ -dzuru 

(t. ; n.), I^'ij BB -geta, %}, -ba (f.), /^ fj -dzuki-no-kimi (n.). | PIJ Yumi- 
-cho (street of Yedo), A l|i^ -hachiman [m). \ ^ yumiya (' bows and 
arrows, war'; epithet of fiachiman, d. ; see also p. 98, 14). | ^^ ^ 
yumiharidzuki ('the crescent moon'). 

_2V1 SHI, TSU (SU) ; KO, NE; ko ; ko ; zok., \ -^ Xeno-. ko, musiiko, 
J musume ('a child, son, daughter'; see pp. 95 and 135-6). See also 

p. 63. As Shi (Chinese 'I'zu), the personal name of Confucius ; as shi, a 
mod. title, ' \'iscount ', also a name-ending (see pp. 69, 79). Distinguish 
from 'J (p. 144) and ^ (i?-)- 39. 

[Compare homophones under -^ (v).J | ^^ )\\ Kosute-gawa, | ^ jl| 
Netori-gawa (r.). Towns: ■;)^ \ Daisiii or Daiko ; | ^ Ko-naji, ^ -yasu 



'^55 Three Strokes 

(^■\ M -^^^^ (or Shibo). Other Surnames : | | | Xekoshi ; | j^ t 
Kochigami ; | ^ Kodate ; /h | t^ Chiisakobe (Ch. no Sabichi M ^^, "o 
Sugaru ii M. wrongly i^ |f., hist, pers.j. I ^ or | 5| Shiyei (Tzu Ying. 
senuin). \ j^ Ko-nusubito ikidgeii). 

Locutions: | ^ ko~mochi ('a mother'), jit -c^omo ('a child, children"), 
^ -dakara ('the precious little ones'); | // ne-noko (day after first Hog day 
of loth month), ^ -malsiivi (fest.. first Rat day of same), H •# -;/o/ii no 
as66z (fest.j. 

I *J Contraction of fpj (vi). 

XX Qj. 1^ HAN, BON; BO; (chika, tsiiuc). oyoso,' subete, ('in general'); 
^ ^ «^ "n';;a ('all'). Distinguish from % (p. i6i). i6. 

I M P^ 1^ tl Oshikochi no Mitsune (No. 29 of the Hundred Poets). 
I ^\ hanrei {' introduction ' of a book). 

yj or ~M JIN, NIN. ha, yaiba ('edge, blade, weapon'). 18. 

"T^ KIU, GO; (chika). oyobu ('to reach to, be equal to, result in, lie in 
•^^ one's power'); oyobi ('and', with nouns only). See ^ (p. 168). 29. 
I ^ Nozokito (t.). I jl| Obikawa, | ^i Oyobibe (f.). | ^ 
Shikifuchi (n.). 

yv^ Synonym of ^ (xiv). 2. (N.B. — With the central stroke hooked 
I below, ^, it is an old form of ~f [p. 144), classed under radical 9.) 

"1 ^ [Complex synonym (not used alternatively in names) : 'j-p.] SEN ; 

' CHI; chi ; chi-, (kazu). chi ('a thousand, large number, infinity'). 

See pp. 38, 42, also the next entry. 24. 

[Compare, for Sen-, fp (v), and, for Chi-, ^0 (viii), ^ (ix), fit (x).] 
I ^ Chi-shima (the Kurile Islands). Kori : I ^ Chi-dzu (Shimosa), 
yfl -dzu (same k. ; t. ; Chigami and Sento as f.), ^ -ba (Shimosa; mod. keji; 
t. ; f. ptr. ; moor, -ga-hara ]^). | f1|! '^ Chikusa-ga-hama (shore). | ^ -^ 
Senjo-dake, I j^ ^ ll] Senkoji-yama (m.). | ^ jlf]? Chihaya-toge, | i^ ^ 
Chisaka-goye (passes). 

Rivers : | ,^ S )\\ Chidori no Tama-gawa (see p. 104, 59) ; | j^ 
(f:, ]^) )\\ Chi-o(-kusa,-tose)-gawa ; | ^ (or ^) jlj, for ^ jf jll 
Chikuma-gawa. Waters: | '^ fg Semba-no-numa ; | fit ^ Senja-ga-ike. 
Falls : | ^ ^|| Senju-ga-taki ; | ^ \^^ Chihiro-no-taki ; I 3^ v|{i Senzoku- 
-no-taki. 

Other Towns: /J> | ^ Ojiya ; | /^ Semmaya ; | J^ Senzoku (f.) ; 
I ^ Chi-haya (cas. ; f.), ^^ ^p -cliiwa (f), // M -chiya, ^ -kusa (f. met.)^ 



Three Strokes (=f-, contd.) 



1^6 



^ -kuni, 1^; -kusa (f. ; n.)- In' Vedo : | ^ Sen-ju (sub.; f.), ^ -zoku 
(sub.), lie ^ ^ -dac^aya (dist.), J||: tK B]" -dagi-cho (street), ^^ ^ -zoku-no- 
-ike (pond) ; | rl^ plj Chitose-cho (street). | :^ jiH Sembon-dori (street of 
Kioto). 

Other Surnames : | Sen (tea-ceremony experts) ; | ;^ Sem-bon, ^, ^, 
i^ -ba (last ptr.) ; | jlj Sen-gawa, ^ -ju (epithet of Kwannon, d. ; no), 
^ K: -ji-ii" (swo.), Eg -da (also Chita), ^ -shu (also Chiaki), ^ -ge, if-no, 
tll5 -zaki, ^ -ga, ^ -jo ; | |S Chi-saka, ^ |^ -chiwa, :^ ^ -burinominato, 
;f»J' -niura, ^ -gara, ^ -ya, J^ -ba, ]^ -Iiara (ptr.), j^ -dori (n. joro; semi- 
mythical birds), ^ -katsu, ^ :jj^ -gaura (Chiganoura as n. wrestler), ^ 
-gaya, t| -kuma, f^ -sawa. 

Other Personages : I $g Sen-hime (wife of Toyotomi Hideyori), 
7v -tn -ninkiri (Benkei, priest), ^ ;^ -jumaru (swo.), 'g % -tomaru, J^, ^ 
-ya (n.); | ^[ Chi-biki, :^, '^ -tose (n. ; last also joro and tit. of dancer), 
^ -f- -ye-ko (poetess), ^ '^\\ -shima-no-maye (leg. pers.), ^ -haru (n.; joro), 
^i\ -bune ijord). 

\ ^ ^ Mf senshu-fuyeki ('unchanged for a thousand autumns, immutable'); 
I ^ ^j J^ senshu-manzai (New Year greeting) ] \ ^ ^ ^ sengaji-mairi 
('pilgrimage to a thousand temples', Nichiren sect); | -^ senkin ('[worth] 
heaps of money '). 

-"T- /f-f* SEXDAI ; chi}o ; chiyo; sofe., Chi}o-. chiyo ('a thousand ages, long 
life, eternal '). See the foregoing and compare remarks on p. 76. 
I I Chiyo (f. met.; wom. n.). | | jlj Chiyo-gawa (r. ; f. ; also 
Sendai-gawa as r.), f^ -ga-ike (pool in Yedoj, gj IBJ -da-machi (street of 
Yedo), gg -da, ^ -gura (f.), ^ -hime (daughter of Tokugawa lyemitsu), 
^ -dzuru (swo.), \l^ -no, g ^ -doji (n.). | | ^ Sendai-hagi (play). 

yt^ A katakana sign, read normally ke, but ga as a genitival postposition 
^ appearing occasionally in geographical names (see p. 24). 



D- 



I ^ 



KITSU, KOCHl. koii, motomeru ('to beg, pray for'). 
kikkoten (fest., = Tanabata, p. 103, 56). 

Indicates the repetition of the preceding character, e.g., ^ // :^, for 
f^ f4 /^, Sasaki (Sa-sa-ki). 



/-» SEKI, JAKU. yu, yfibe, also | fUJ yiTbe on a print ('evening"). 36. 
-^ \ ^ Yu-bari (t.), IJ / fj^ -lii-no-oka (mound in Yedo), ^ -giri 

(poetess ; joro ; Genj'i Chapter xxxix), ^ -gao (ditto, iv ; no ; ' the night- 
flowering gourd 'J. Locutions : | Bo seki-sho (' evening glow ', in the Omi 



or 



'^-*l SEKI, SHAKU. momme (see pp. 65, 66)) 



20. 



4 



157 Three Strokes 

and other hakkei), |f -yd ('the aspect of e.') ; | ;,^ yu-suzumi ('enjoying 
the cool of e.'), jE, -nagi (e. calm'), P -/// ('the setting sun 'j, I^ -bare 
('clear weather at e.'), ftfe or ^ -baye ('the glow of sunset"; Yubaye, joro),. 
jt -datsu (' e. rain'), -dachi ('a squall, sudden shower'). 

Ar KIU, KU ; AX'; hisa; hisa, Hisashi, (tsuiie) ; zok., Kiu-, less commonly 
^^ Hisa- (but see Examples). hisashi ('long-continued, endurinf,. 
arxient '). 4. 

[Compare jl (p. 148), |^ (vii) ; for Kubo-, ^ (xiv); for Kuru- ^$ (viii),. 
^ (x).] KoRi : I ^ Ku-ze (Yamashiro; t. ; f.), jifi -me (Hoki and lyo;. 
Mimasaka, mod. ; t. ; f . ; see also Personages and p. 86),;^ ;jt fl^ -mehokujo^ 
^ ^ ill -menanjo (Mimasaka, old), ^ -ji (Settsu ; t. ; r.), J^ [lijj^] -raid 
(Musashi). | ^ ^ Hisaka-jima or Kuga-shima (is.). { ^| \[\ Kuno-zan, 

i li M llj Kusuri-yama, \ M ^ ^ Kusuya-ga-dake (m.). | ~f }\[ 
Kuge-gawa, | fll jl| Hisaye-gawa (r.). | 41§ J?- Kusumi-hana (cape).. 

I j^ ^ 'M Kubodani-no-hama (beach). 

Other Towns : :k. I \^ Okubo (f. ptr., met.) ; | ^ 4f Kiuhoji ; | ^ 
Hisa-i, ^if -no (f.), ^ kata, / ^ -nohama; | At ^-Ij Ku-kuri (f.), /^ ^ 
-kuno, =f- 55 -chita, yfc if -kino, EH H -tami, jp^ -jii'i (pot.j, i^ -ju (Kusumi 
and Hisazumi as f.), il^ -chi, :^ [3 -meda (f.), ;jsj- -mura (f. met. ; also 
Hisamura as f.), ^Mj -ri (f.), f^ fflg -ganawate, ^•, -shi (f.), ^ ^ -bota (f. 
ptr., met.), ^ ^ -bosawa, '^ -dzu, jtffl -bata, J| '^ -mihama, ;^^ -no (f.), 
^ :^v -rume, ^ S -run, ^ % -rushmia (f.), Ws "Saki (f.), U- -ki (Q, M -g^, 
H HJ -mamachi, |^ -re. 

I jis ^ Kuon-ji (tem.). | ^ rH (or ^ ^) ^ Kukimanji-ya or 

j M H: Kuki-ro (brothel). 

Other Surnames: | Hisa; /J> [ Ql Okuye ; /Jn J '{^ Kokubo ; | ^. 
Koga (Kuga as n.) ; | ^^ Kiugo ; | (^, Kiijtoku ; | "]*" Ku-moto (met.), 
-saka, ;fc /|sj- -kimura, {^ -shiro, ;^ jl| -megawa (;oro), ^ -saka, M -ri, 
^ -gai, ^ ;?|C -shimoto, -jimoto, -f^ -bo (ptr., met.), 'f^ il| -boyama, ^ ^{^ 
-boi, \^ ^ -bodera, i^^ ^ -tsumi, ^ -ji, ;tl lll§ -nezaki (met.), 'gg ;^c -noki. 
i^ -no, p^ -sumi (ptr.), i§ |^ -rematsu, ^ |i -sumi, ^ ^ -sumi (ptr.), 
f^ -ma (also Hisama, f. ptr.), H -ma; | jM Hisa-gawa,^ lU -yama, g -ta, 
^ -naga, ;^ -moto, "^ -yoshi, ^ -mitsu, ;f^ -matsu, JU -za (ptr.), ^ -tomi,. 
1^ -tsugi. 

Other Personages : | ^\. i\\] Kume-sen (Japanese sennin) ; I 3® ^ 
Kuni-no-miya (prince) ; | ^ Hisa-ko (princess) ; I |£ :// Kume-no-kata 

' At least six of the surnames in this little group are of characteristic nauori type (see p. 75 {.).. 
Other e.xamples of similar construction will be found passim in the Dictionary. 



Three Strokes >X, contd.) 158 

(hist, pers.) ; | ^ Kuso, | 3g ^ Kuni-ko (poetesses). | % Kiuma, | fiP 

Kuro (sofe.); | % A Kumando (n.). Zokumio-initials : I ^, I "^ Kuga-: 

I ,'j!;;, I ^1^ Kuma-; | -;j^ Kume- (often written ^). Nengo: | ^ Kiuan 

(1145-50), I -^ Kiuju (1154-55). I H % /en rabe (on prints, for ^, XX). 



X 



Contraction of "j^ (p. 174). 



rKEX ; ^lA. 'A shelter.' Generally found as a contraction of ^ 
(xv) or ^ (xvi), also of ^l (xi). 5o. 

. -f A BO, mo. sliinu ('to die'); /loj^obw ('to be destroyed'); ushinau ('to be 
L- bereft of). 8. 

I ^ 'S^ Bofu-seki (rock). | _A l^ojiii (' a deceased person ") ; I ^ 
borei (' a ghost '). 



z 



(Counted as four strokes.) 

SUX ; SU, KI ; Hakarii. hakarii ('to measure'). As sun, a measure 
of length (see p. 65). 41. 

 V» f ^ SAI, ZAI. As sai, 'talent, power', also a measure of capacity 

"^ I (see p. 65) and a contraction of ^ (xiii), esp. in statements 

of age (p. 42). See also p. 97. 64.^ 

[Compare "g (vi), |f (xvii).] | )\\ Sai-gawa (r.), -da (t. ; f. met.), 
^ -dzuno (t.), 7|v -ki (f.), J§ -maro (n.j. | ^ Tayemitsu (swo.). | \ 
sai-jin, ^ -jo ('clever person, clever woman'). 

--rl-' CHO, JO ; {take). take ('length'). As jo, a measure of length (see 
->^^ p. 65), also an honorific suffix, esp. to actors' names on placards, 
etc. I. I ^ Hasebe (f.). | A Taketo (n.). 

I SHI ; SHI, SU, ; ihito, koto, -o). samurai, saburai (' a man of the 
— *^ upper, military class', 'a gentleman ; see p. loi, 42; descendants 

of this class are now known as shisoku \ ;^). As shi or koto, also ' a man, 
person'; as no shi after the name of a province or smaller daimiate, 'in the 
service of . . . ' ; as -shi, a name-ending (see pp. 70, 74). Used in the 
mon of the Hisamatsu Matsudaira of Imaharu. A I daishi = 'man' on 
the mortuary tablets {ihai) of exalted persons. 33. 

± [Script variant: ±.-] TO (DOj, TSU ; TO, DO; tsuchi, ham, hiji ; 
{tsuchi, hiji). tsuchi ('earth, clay, the ground'); hani ('clay); hiji 
('mud'). One of the Five Elements. As to, 'a country';- as to or do, 'a 
locality, local '. 32. 

' It thus has a stroke less than its radical (-^j. Compare 3E , from ^ (rad. 96). 



159 Three Strokes 

[Compare, for To-, -]- (p. 147), ^ (173), ^\. (vj, ^ (xii), f^ fxi), and, for 
Tsuchi-, ;|^ (xiv).]. | f^ To-sa (pr.; one of its k. ; t. ; f. ptr. ; n. poetess), 
*M'| -shu (same pr.), [Ilj^ -ki (k. and t. of Mmo ; f. ptr.j. I ^ \\] Hanichi- 
-no-yama (m.j. 1 $i|j )\\ Hashi-gawa (r.). 

Other Towns : | ^ To-ge, ^ -de or \i\ -ide (former also as doie or 
tsutsumi, 'an embankment', Dote as t. and f., Dote- as a jjrelix to street- 
names), gg -da (also Tsuchida as 1., f. ptr., met., lacq., and Doda as f.), 
/r g -doro, J3i -nosho, ^ -dani, j-Ji^ -bata, ^/ fli^ -gasaki, ^ -gashira ; 

I 5E Do-i (f. svvo. ; also Toi as t.), jg -i (f. ptr.) ; | \l\ Tsuchi-yama 
(Tokaido stage 48 ; f.), f^ ^ -sai, j§ -ura, |1|§ -zaki (also Tozaki as f.), j^. 
-zawa ; | ^ Ha-bu (f. ; also Haniu as f.), ^ tQ -buta. 

In Yedo : I ^^ fff Kawarake-maclii, | ^ }^ Dobu-dana, | ;j^ Dobashi 
(streets; last as f., also Tsuchihashi as f.). 

Other Surnames : | j^ To-tsukuri (ptr. ; Tsuchitsukuri as n. poetj, 
^ -kura, ^, H -shida, tfl^ -zakida ; | ^ Do-i (ptr.), ^ f^ -iuchi ; 

I jlj Tsuchi-kawa, ^ -ko, Ji -gami, 7lC -mi, f^ -kado, ^ -ya (ptr., 
met.), ^ip -shi (ptr., also Haji), ^) P^ -mikado (83rd Mikado, also known as 
Tosa-no-in | f^ l>>c), Wf -no, |^ -gura (ptr. ; Dokura as n. ptr.) ; | ^ 
Hiji-kata (ptr.), ^ -kata. 

Other Personages : | f^ [/i?] ^ Tosa[sh6]j6 {joruri chanters) ; | -j^ 
>{C ^ Tosadayu (mus.) ; I f^ ^ Tosabo (n.) ; I f^ j^ Tosa-no-tsubone (court 
lady). No: | '^ Tsuchi-guruma, $);P ^ -gumo ('earth-spider', myth, creat. 
or name for the aborigines of Idzumo pr.). | ^ili gi. haji-no-omi (anct. tit.). 

I b|5 hanibe (anct. gild). | ^ A dohio-iri (ceremonial entry of wrestlers). 

i M. miyage ('a local souvenir'; e.g., Yedo Ql ^ )n., 'a present from Y.'j ; 
Miyage-no-kagami y ^ {kiogen). 

±SH0 (jOj, JO ; uye, -nouye, kami, ko-, age, aga- ; {taka, kata) ; zok.^ 
Jo-. uye, kami ('above, upper, superior'); tiwa ('exterior'); agcru 
('to raise'); noboru ('to ascend '}; tatnnafszrj^i ('respectfully submitted', written 
outside letters, petitions, etc.). As ju, 'the first' of a pair or trio (see p. 39); 
see also p. 88. i. 

[Com[)are, for Uye-, ;fj|, M (xiv), for Kami- jjilj? (x).] Provinces : 
I 11 Kadzusa (anctly. Kami-tsu-fusa) ; | 5f Kotsuke or Kodzuke (anctly. 
Kami-tsu-kenu; Uyeno as t., dist. of Yedo and f. met.; Agano as t., also f. 
pot.) ; I il'|<I Joshu (Kotsuke pr., also occ. Kadzusa). Kori : | ^ Jobo 
(Bitchu) ; | ^ Joza or Kami-tsu-asakura or Kamisonari (Chikuzen) ; | ^ 
Kami-ge or -tsu[mi]ke (Buzen ; also Koge), ;jb -kita (Oshuj, ^ -tsuma 
(Chikugo ; also Kandzuma and Kodzuma ; last as f.), jE -michi (Bitchu ; 
also Jodo), j^ -agata (Tsushima; f.j. | ^ fji Kamitare-no-taki (fall). 



Three Strokes _h, contd.j i6o 

Other Towns [for further examples (including street-names) where J:. 
is a mere directional prefix (Kami-), see under the second rliaracter] : | "]* 
Joge ; I 7 |l| Kaini-noyama, H -[nojmikawa (Kaniimikawa as f. ), ^ 
-bun or -bu, ')j -gata (= Kioto and vicinity; f.), Tjj -ichi, "fjj 1^ -ichike 
(lacq.), fj" -^n -arichi or -uclii, i(^ -mura ff. met., pot.; also Kammura as t. 
and Uyemura as f.), fnj f^ -gochi, |S>f ^ ^ -akutsu (f.), 'J{^ -moku, -^ -kane, 
;^ -kio (= the western part of Kioto), / ^gj -nohata, |§. -gumi, :f^ -ne, 
^[5 -kori, -j^ ^ -shibotare (lacq.), ^ ji^ -gamo or -kamo, y ^% -nogo, 
j^ f]^ -tdno (f. ; also Uyedono as f.), f^ -taki, ^ -nada ; | ^ Ko-dzuki 
(f. ; also Ivamitsuki as f.), ^^ "^ i^ -tsuraki, '^ ^ -tsuura ; | 03 Uye-da 
(text.; f. ptr., met.; also Kamida as t.), Wf -no (see Pro\inces above), Wf i^ 
-nohara (Koshukaido stage); | ^ Agfe-lshi, j^ -o (Nakasendo stage 5), 
^^ -matsu (ditto 38; Uyematsu as f. i)tr.), j^ -kura (Uyekura as f.). 

Other Surnames : | Uye, Kami (see also Titles below) ; | im ^ 
Kadzusa-ya (publisher) ; | )\\ Kami-kawa, jlj ^\- -kawai, jij -yama, jlj f^ 
-yamasa, 7X -midzu, ^ Wf -tsukenu, "^ -tsukasa, \^ -shiro, ^ -de, ^ ^ 
-funao, /^* ^ -uchi (cf. Towns ; also as Kodzuchi), ^-lj -ri, |S -saka (also 
Uyesaka), j^ -toko, \^ ^-n -ichi, fnf -kawa, >^ '^ -matsuura, i^ -bayashi 
(also Kambayashi), ^ -oka (also Uyeoka), ^ -idzumi, |p[I -yanagi (also 
Uyeyanagi), \\^, -jo (ptr.), ^ -nomiya, ^ -be (ptr.), f| -rio ; | if. Uye-ki, 
g -nishi, if^ -sugi (ptr.), ^ -tani, -/g -numa, jt_a -gaki, ]^ -hara (ptr.), 
% -jima,^ -mori, (^- -zawa. 

Personages : | g" ic ^ Jogu-taishi (= Prince Shotoku) ; | Ht P^ |% 
Joto-monin (Empress); Joto-monin-no-chuj6 4*7!^ (poetess); | — [^(^JKamiichi 
[maruj (two swo.). Sennin : | yt ^ A Shogen-fujin (Shang-yiian Fu-jen) ; 
I ^ ^ Shoseiko (Shang Ch'eng-kung) ; | ^ij ^ (wrongly for M ^ ID- 
Titles : I shd, jo, uyc, \ |J| uye-sama (the Emperor; iiye also for the 
Shogun) ; ^ | o-kavii (' the Emperor, the Government ') ; | ^ joko 
(abdicated Emperor) ; I \, see p. 87 ; | alone, after a subject's name, 
-uye (for a parent, elder brother or sister), -no-uye (for a lady of high rank). 

Locutions : | "^ jo-ko (' antiquity ', the period from Jimmu-tenno to 
A.D. 645), B ~mi or -shi (the Girls" Festival, see p. 103, 56), lij -/z/u (first 
decade of month), % -^^'^ (15th day of ist month), ^ -kai (Bud. paradise), 
'^ -raku, ^ -kid ('visiting [the Emperor] in Kioto'), )^ -han, tK -boku, 
^- -s/ii ('publishing, published,' lit. 'upon the printing-blocks'), ^ -zu ('an 
expert'), ^ -go ('a toper'), ^ -/zi;;, ^■^S -/o ('first class'), 'f^ -sakti ('best 
work'), |g -/zen (or shohen, ' \'ol. l.'|. 

|-l-| KIX, KON. tenugui ('a towel'); kashiradzutsumi ('a head-cloth'); 
I jukusa (' a wrapper 'j. 50. 



i6i 



Three Strokes 



"fl Contraction of 3l (p- 170), 'five'. 



JL* DAI, TAI ; or TA ; ; o- ; 0-, {naga, osa, hivo, masa) ; zok., Dai-. 
-^^ 0-, oinaru ('great, large, wide'). A seal-form is used in the mon 
of the Okubo Jz ^ i^ (daimio, main family). Distinguish from -i^:^ and i^ 
(ivj. 37. 

[For Examples see under the second character, except the following.] 
I ;^ :fj Dai-no-kata (mother of Tokugawa lyeyasu). /J> | ^ Kodai-no- 
-kimi (see p. 115, 99j. /j> I jif Kodaishin (poetess). Xexgo : | ft 
Taikwa (645-649); | 77c 'rai(Dai)yei (1521-27); | JE Taisho (1912 to 
datej ; | fpj Daido (806-809); | ;^ Tai(Dai)ji (1126-30); | ^ Taiho 
(701-703). I y /3. I /J> ;f , see p. 47. 

- /^ - JO, XIO ; ME; me; (me, chika, yosJii, taka). onna (omina), me ('a 
-^^ woman 'j ; musume ('a girl, daughter '; see p. 130). Unless in 

immediate composition (see Examples), to be read onna in print-titles 
('women's . . ., women as . . .'j. As -jo ( | ^ -joshi) after women's names 
(see pp. 70, 79). 38. 

I tM ^ Niogo-no-shima (myth. is.). | )\\ Onakawa, I ]^ Onnawara, 

I ^ Mera, | Jfg Mega (t.). /h I f| Onabuchi, | ft .Meshino (f.). 

I jji^ Jokwa (Xij-kua or Yii-wa, Chin. myth. pers.). \ ^ ^Vl Meonosuke 
{zok.). I % 1^ Ominameshi ino}. 

Titles: | -^ nio-tei (woman mikado, reigning Empress), 3E ~o (Emperor's 
female descendants to fourth generation) ; | ^1 nio-go (his secondary wife), 
15c -'" (or nioin, Dowager Empress become a nun), ^ -/w (Mady ^, \vife',_ oH^. 
a court titl£^^*g -kivan (or niokwan or jokwan), ^ -ju (court-ladies). 

Locutions: | A nio-nin, 'j4 -s/zo ('a woman, women'); | p{^ jo-chu 
('women'), jllj -sen ('female sennin'), ^ \\\\ -kasen ('a poetess'), J!{|) -ro (in 
Yedo dialect joro, 'a courtesan"), ^ -3'0 ('[for] ladies' use'), ^ -s/zi, 5£ -j^ 
('a little girl'); | ^ KE^ mioto-gitsime ('a pair of [magical] foxes'). 

•:^ [More correct, though less usual form : y^ (which distinguish from jl, 
^•^ p. 155).] KWAN, GWAN; WA; maru; maru. martishi ('circular'); 
tajna ('a pill, bullet'). As maru, a practically meaningless suffix to names 
of men (as indicated on p. 74 and otherwise) ; also of ships, swords and 
parts of castles. 3. 

[Compare [fj (xiii).] | \\\ Maru-yama (m.; dist. of Yedo; f. ptr., met. ; 
n. wrestler). Towns: I ^ Maru-ko !f. ; more usually iMariko as t.), 7^ ^ 
-ichibi, ^ -oka (1), |i -bashira (pot.), ^^ -ne, ^ -mori, ^ -game. | HiZ 
BX Maruta-machi (street of Kioto). \ M ^ M Maru-yebi-ya (brothel). 

II 



Three Strokes %, contd.; 162 

Other Surnames : | Maru ; /J> | Komaru (pot.) ; i )\\ Maru-kawa, 
■^ -me, ^ -mo (ptr.), ^\^ -i, g -me, ffl -ta, M -chi, # -ya, ^ -o, M -ya 
(ptr., pot.), ^ -mo, 5f -110, v^ -sawa, '^ -hashi. 



-44* \'ariant of -{f* (iv), ' twenty '. 24. 
r\. \'ariant of C (p- 158)- 



|L| YA ; YA ; jmj'/, /jore ; zok., -va. »ar/ (' to be '). Distinguish from ^ 
^ (V). 3- 

|t| SA\', SEX; yama ; yatna, (iaka). yama ('a mountain, hill'). As san 

r^ {-san), also ' a Buddhist temple ' ; see also p. 35. A seal-form 

figures in the mon of the Masuyama JQ" jlj (daimio). 46. 

I Fw jE Sanyodo, | |^ j^ Sanindo (two divisions of Japan, see pp. 
1 2 1-2). I ^, anctly. | ^, Yamashiro (pr. ; f.) ; | j]] Sanshu (occ. for 
same pr.). I {^ (^) ^ Yama-bushi (-kuni) -dani (valleys). Ji^ | Dai-sen, 
0-yama (m.) ; Oyama (t. ; f. met.). | FJ^ ^1^ Yamanaka-ko or -no-umi, 
/h (or ^1^1 I ?{fe Koyama-no-ike (lakes). 

KoRi : I 5^ Sambu (Kadzusa, mod.); 1 ;i^ Yailia-moto (Higo, Chikugo, 
Dewa ; f. ptr., met., swo., lacq., pot., sculp., actor), 03 -da (Kotsuke and 
Iga ; t. lacq. ; f. ptr., met., lacq., sculp. ; plain, -ga-hara ^ ]^ ; Yamada or 
Yoda as t. of Ise), ^ -na (Totomi ; f. ptr.), f^ -to (Chikugo; see also 
Locutions), ^ -naslii (Koshu ; mod. ken; t. ; f.), J^ -ga (Higo; t. pottery; 
f-)) ^ ~gata (Mino and Aki ; f. met.), ^ -be or -nobe (Kadzusa and Yamato; 
both as f. ; see also Towns, fin.). 

Other Towns: /J> I Oyama (Nikkokaido stage; f. ptr., actor; Koyama 
as f. met.); /J\ | Oyamada (f.) ; | 3i Sanno (also d.) ; | ^ Sanna ; 

I jlj Yama-kawa or -gawa- (pot.; f. met., actor; see also Locutions), 
f -shita (f. ptr., met., sculp., actor), _L-kami (f. sculp., but I Ji Im ^ 
Yamanouye no Okura, poet), P -guchi (mod. ken ; f. ptr., met., swo., sculp., 
pot.; brothel, -ya M), >^ O -nokuchi, |^ -uchi, -nouchi (latter as f. ptr., 
met., swo.; see also Locutions), ^ -te (also 'The Bluff" at Yokohama), 
;;^ -gata, fj=» -naka (lacq. ; f. ptr., met. ; see also Locutions), f(^ ^ -naka-j6 
(cas.), / ^{^ -noi, f^ -shiro (pot.), 4b -kita (f.), @ -nome, g Ji -dakami, 
^ -dera, y ^ -nobo, ^ -gata (mod. ken ; f.), f^ 2f -dono, j|[ -taye, 
ij|[ j§ -naomi, ^^ -shina (f. ptr., actor), ^ -ga (f.), -ye (f. ; also Yamabe, 
Yamaya and Yambe as f.), il^ -zaki (f. ptr., lacq., met. ; bridge, -bashi ;(^, 
see p. 98, 12), ^ -utsuri, ^^ ^ -funiu, j^ -ge (-kage as f.), / i;§ -nobe. 
In Yedo : I ^ is Sanya-bori (canal) ; I "f" 13^1 P'^ Yamashita-gomon 
(gate) ; I ^ ^ Yamasuge-no-hashi (bridge). 



1^3 Three and Four Strokes 

Other Surnames: | Yama (met., as contraction for | ^ Yamazaka); 
i^ I B3 Oyamada; /J> | ^ Osanai ; | ^ Santo; \ A Yama-iri, ^ ^ 

-kubo, ^I -biki, ^C -gata, ^ -noi, tIc -ki, tT -uchi (lacq.), ^ -ba, j^ -ji, 
H -nishi, ^ -yoshi, f^ -sa, ;jsj- -niura, ^ -dani, -ya (see also Personages), 
^} -kado, -zunii, ^ -o, ]^ -nari, -^-bJ -kavva, ^ -gata, ^ -gishi, ^ -oka, 
^ -muro (ptr.), ^ -biko, J^^ ^ -shiroya (met.), J^ -za, M -y^, M -ura 
(met.), ^^ -ne (ptr.), ^ l^i -sliirobe, ^ -waki (ptr.), ^ -shima, ^ -daka, 
]^ -bara, -^s -zoye, if -no, if 3^ -nobe, ^ -be, ^ -kuni, ^ -su, ^g -neko, 
|5^ -shina (mod. princes), ^ -mori, ^ -to, ^ -goye (see also Personages), 
M -g'-^, ^iP -go, ^ -ji (ptr.), H -ba, ^ -se, [^ -giwa, ^. -tokii, ff -zumi, 
ij^ -bata (ptr.), i^ -zawa, ^ -se, jf^ -fuji. 

Other Personages: I ilE ^ jM Yamagoshi no Shaka ('the Buddha 
flanked by the mountains", sc, the bodhisats Monju and Fugen) ; I ^ 
San-koku (Shan Ku, paragon), ^ -kwan (Kuan, Chin, sage), ^ ii\, ^ 
-shodayu (hist, pers.) ; I P^ Yama-buki (-gozen ^ ffi], amazon), ^ 3i 
-shiro-o (prince), P ;^ 3i -guchi-no-nioo (poetess), ^ ^ -zakurato (n.). 

Locutions: | J\^ saii-jin ('hermit, retired person'; see p. 70), )\\ -sen 
(or yamakatva, 'mountains and rivers'), 7jC siii ('landscape), FJ^ -chii ('in 
the mountains, a hermit's life'), -^ -shokil ('hill scenery'), '^ -kai ('land- 
and sea-scapes'), ^ -zokii (or yamadachi, 'a brigand'); I j^ sandai, \ P^ 
sammon (the precincts and chief gate of a Bud. tern. ; latter often the tem. 
itself, esp. Hiyei-zanj ; | {/^ yamahushi (cant name for the shugenja, a 
class of Bud. priests). 



FOUR STROKES. 

> SHIN; (.sane, kiyo, miine). kokoro ('heart, mind, interior'). 61. 
^L* I J^ ^ Shinji-no-ike (pond). | ^ ^ Shinsai-bashi (bridge in 

Osaka). | ^^ kokoroye (' understanding '). | ^ shin-gaku (' moral philo- 
sophy'), »f» -jii (lovers' double suicide; Shinju Futatsu Haraobi H ^ W, 
joruri). 

A^ SHO; SA ; (masa, 0-). sukunashi ('small'); wakashi ('young, junior'). 
^ Much used in official titles (see pp. 82, 85-7). Distinguish from /]> 



(p. 149). 42. 

I ^ Shoni (tit. ; f.). | fi Sho (tit. ; n. poetess) ; /h | ^ Koshosho, 
I fS ^ iff Sho-no-miobu (poetesses). | P^ Okui, | JE. Otaru, | ^l S 
Sukunamaro (n.). | ^- shonen ('a youth'); Shonen-ko ^j (art-subject). 



Four Strokes 164 

-t\^ SUI ; MI, SHI; inidzu, mi-, mina- ; (niidzu, mi-, mina-); zok., Midzu-. 
^J^ midzu ('water'); one of the Five Elements. Distinguish from ;^, 
tK U^'l) 7K' y\<^ (v). A cursive form appears in the mon on the palanquins 
of the Mito Tokugawa, the square form on their tent-curtains. 85. 

I ^ Midzu-shima (is.; t. ; f . ; but Mishima-nada ^, part of the Inland 
Sea). I 1^ Minochi, Minuchi (k. of Shinano) ; Minouchi-gawa )\\ (r.). 

I iiB "S" Suisho-dake (m.) | y XL Midzu-no-ye (r. and shore). 

Other Towns : | /j^f Sui-fu, j^^ -jo, ^ -han (all = Mito | ^ in 
Owari ; the second also Midzuki, anct. dock), ]^ -bara (also Mibara as t. 
and Midzuhara as f.), \^-. -sawa (also Midzusawa as t. and f. ptr.); | ^ 
Mi-noo (Midzunoo as f.), fnt ^ -nase (tern.; f.) ; | P Milia-kuchi (f. ptr.), 
{^ -mata ; | g Midzu-ta (f. swo.), % ^ -kaido, ^ -koshi (f. pot. ; also 
Midzunoo as f.), |jft -nashi, fg] -ma (f.), i^ -ba, ^ -kubo, ^ -hashi (f.). 

I # ^ Suijin-no-mori, | j^ 1^ Suido-bashi (grove and bridge in Yedo) ; 

I ^ ■^ Suitaku-ji (tem.). | ^'i ^ Suizenji (park at Kumamoto). | ^ 
^ Suiten-gu (tem. ; d.). 

Other Surnames: | Ji Mina-kami (ptr.; also Midzukami), p^ -to; 

I }\\ Midzu-kawa (ptr.), i^ -ki, ^ -i, Jf -moto, ^ -haya, /jr.j- -mura, 
W]* -machi, jg. -tan, |2, -mi, ^ -tani, -noya, ^ jl| -tanigawa, %^ -goi'i, 
^ -tsu, 5o -shina, |lfs^ -saki, if -no (ptr., met.), ^ -kuki, :^ -tame (ptr.), 
^ -tani, ^ -ochi, ^ -fuji. 

Personages: | jjiljJ Sui-jin (d.), ^ -ten or ^ ^ -tengu (same d.), 
^ -sei (the planet Mercury), ^ -ko (dram, pers.) ; I ^ ^ ^ Minoo-tenno 
(= Seiwa, 56th Mikado). | ^ ^ Suiko-den (Chin, romance). I ^ 
Midzukagami (history). | fiiE ^ ^ Minadzuki-harai [no; from a name for 
the fourth or 'waterless' month, see p. 43). | |^ ^ Suiron-muko, | i^ 
^ ^ M> Midzukumi-shimbochi (kiogen). \ Jp suisai (myth, creat.). | J^ 
moitori (anct. gild ; see also p. 83). 

Locutions: | IJI] ;j;^ minarezao ('a punt-pole'); | ^ midzuseme (attack- 
ing a castle by flooding or by cutting off its water-supply) ; | jll] siii-scn 
('narcissus'), ^ -did (or midzudori, 'waterfowl"), f^ -men ('reflection in 
water "), ^ -ki (' ghost of one drowned '), ^ -sen (' naval battle '), ^ -slid 
('crystal'). 

A-* JIX, XIX ; XI; hito, [sane); zok., Ni-, rarely Jin-. itsukiishimu ('to 
I — • treat with consideration'); awaremii ('to pity'). As jin, 'benevo- 
lence ', one of the Five Virtues. 9. 

[Compare H (p. 143), f^ (vii).] | ^ Nit[t]a (k. of Idzumo). | ^ }\\ 
Niyodo-gawa (r.). Towns: ^ | Ohito ; | ';^ Ni-gata, >^ -ki (Xikki as 
i-), ^ ffl -ita (f.), -ida, ^ ^ -ijuku, H -ta (f. ; also Xitta as f.), ffl ill 



i65 Four Strokes 

-tayama (pot.), ^ -i, ti, )\\ -rakawa, ^ -o (f.), ^ -o (f. ; r,), ^ ;^ -hori- 
-higashi, ^ \^ -gao (f.), fi -re (f.), ^ if -buno. | ;fn ^ Xinna-ji (tern.). 

Other Surnames : | A Ni-hachi, J^ -nouye (met.j, ^ H -toda, 
3^ -hira, H ]^ -tawara, ^^ -sugi (or Hitosugi), ^ -mi, ^"l- -sliina (ptr.), 
M lli -rayama. 

Emperors: | PJ Nimmio (54th); I ^ Nin-ko (iigtli), ^. -toku (iGthl, 

^ -ken (24th). I 3E Ni-d (see p. 97; n. swo. ; kiogcn ; Nio-nidayu | ^^ 

^, wrestler). | [fiij 5M Ninami (n. pot.). Nengo : | ^ Nimpio (1151-53); 

I ^ Ninan (1166-68); I Jp Ninji (1240-42); | |U Ninna (885-888); | # 

Ninju (851-853). I ^n M [or ^), phonetic spelling of nkvaka ^ (fest.). 

Ajj JO (SHOj, NIO ; yori. yorii [' to depend on ') ; nao [' yet, also). 9. 

^ / Contracted form of f^ (vii). 9. 

/^l* SHU, JU. to (' file of ten soldiers '). As ju, ' domestic furniture ' 
'  ( I % jumotsu, ' a set of temple vessels '). 9. 

/-J| RIOKU, RIKI ; Hagemii, Tsutomu, Masaru. hagemu, tsutomeru (' to 
l/v exert oneself '). 9. 

iJft KIO, GU. add ('an enemy'). Used as a complex synonym of ji 
V^ (p. 148), 'nme'. 9. 

I Wi Asaka (t.). | ^ ^ Kiu-sensei (Ch'iu, sennin). | |^ ada-uchi 
('act of revenge'), ^ -kurabe ('rivalry'). 

jtl^ KWA, KE ; KE ; (nori). kawavu, bakeru ('to be changed, metamor- 
M-^ phosed'); bake ('a transformation, fraud'). 21. 

I |!t kesho ('toilet'); Kesho-zaka ^, hill in Yedo. | J^ ke-shiu ('an 
incarnation'), ^ -shu ('an apparition, ghost', also | % bakemono), /-]£ :f[' 
-sho-no-mono (' a transformed creature ', esp. fox or badger). 

kK Simple form of ^ (xi). 9. 

ri^ HI; HI; (kore, tomo, chika); \ -^ hiko. tagiii ('sort, kind'); narabevu, 
^"^ takuraberu ('to compare'). Distinguish from ^, ;|t, jlfc (v). S1 . 

[Compare homophones under PJ dv).] | 4^ Hi-ki (k. of Musaslii ; 
^■), M % -me-jima (for $g ^, is.), ilji )\\ -ji-kawa (r.j, ^ ^J -ra-san (m. ; 
see also p. 107, 79), tj( llj -yei-zan (m. ; tern.), 4^ /if- \\\ -mure-no-yania 
(m.), ^ ililji -i-no-misaki (cape). 

Towns: | ^ Hi-i, ^ ^ -kigayatsu, 03 -da (f.), ffl J^ -lakatsu, 
\L -ye, ^^ 1^ -ramatsu, ^n -wa. | % i^ Hiyoku-dzuka (mound in Yedo, 
from hiyoku, myth, creat.). Other Surnames: | ^ Hi-sa, -g -ru, ^ fal 



Four Strokes (Jrh;, contd.) i66 

-ruma, ^ Eg -kida. | [^] ^ Xami-no-iniya (wife of Tokugawa lyeshige"). 
I g Hi-to, ^ -to, ^ 4^ -somu, ^ g -ramaro, ^ ^ -rafu (n.). | £ 
bifeM ('a priest'. Bud.), hikii-ni Jg (' nun '), Biku-sada ^ ikiogen). |{t | 
7Ha/ii ('incomparable'). 

Occasionally for PQ ( v), ' four ', i.e., two twos zi- 7- 

jm [Variant: ij}.] SETSU, SECHI ; or SEI, SAI ; kiri. kiru ('to cut'). 

[Compare if^ [x), ^ (.xix).] | ^ Kireto (t.). | ^ Kiri-ishi (t.\ 
|1] -yama (f. ), :^ -ike (f. ptr.). | ^ j^ kirishitan ('Christian, Christianity ') ; 
Kirishitan-zaka |S, place in Yedo. | ^ kiridoshi Ca cutting through a 
hill'); I B^ seppuku (harakiri, suicide by cutting the belly); | ^ setsudan 
(' amputation '). 

yjj Contraction of Hi (^xx). 19. 

Ja)^ Contraction of ^ (xviii). 29. 

>^|| ^77 GAI, GE ; kari. karii ('to reap'). Commonly interchanged 
A\l *" /yJ with 3cij (VIII), q.v. 18. 

[Compare also ^ (ix), 'fg (xi).] | ^ jl| Karumo-gawa (r.). | B3 
Kari-ta (or Katta, k. of Oshu), ^ -ha (k. of Echigo), ^ ^J -o-yama (m.), 
^ -yasu, ig- -ya, ^P if -wano, ^13 i^ -wasawa (t.), ^ ^ -chi-no-ike 
(lake). 

~?l KO, KU ; KU ; {yoshi). yoshi ('good'); hanahada ('very'); ana ('a 
4VJ liole'). As ko, 'a sage.' 39. 

1 W rP Kusebe (f.). I '^ M ^ Kusanoya (n.). | ^ Koshi, 
Kuji (K'ung Tzu, Confucius, see p. 99, 18). | P^ Ko-mei (K'ung Ming, 
Cliin. sage), ■% -gen (Yuan, sennin). \ ^ kiijaku ('a peacock"). 

"Ij t IX ; hiki. /z/fezi (' to draw, drag, lead, look up [a reference] '). 57. 
Vl I f^ Inasa (k. of Totomi). | ilji )\\ Hikuchi-gawa (r.). | H 

Hikida (t. ; f.j, Hiita, Hiketa (t.). | ^ Hikimoto (t.). | PJJ Hikuma 
(cas.). I Ji hikiage ('withdrawal' of a force). I j^ Juki f line ('a tow- 
boat '). 



KWAX, GEX. maboroshi (' illusion, glamour ') ; Maboroshi {Genji 
Chap. XLi. ; f.). 52. 



~ZZ^ Occasionallv for P9 (v), 'four', i.e., two twos zi 



X 



1^7 Four Strokes 

UN. in ('to say, speak, name'). | /r iiuniiu, shikajika ('so-and-so, 
and so forth, etc. '). 7. 

GEN, GWAN ; moto ; moto, Hajinie ; zok., Gen- or Moto-. moto, 
hajime ('origin, original'). See p. 41. As Gen, the Yiian or 
Mongol dynasty of China; as Moto- in street-names (see p. 10, note 2]. 10. 

[Compare ^ (v).] | JfX -g- Moto-tori-ga-dake, f^ -^ llj -kiyosumi- 
-yama (m.), ^ )]\ -yasu-gawa (r.). 

Surnames: | Moto; I ]\i Moto-yama, :;^c -ki, ^ -i, EH -da, ^ -yoslii, 
j,^ -ra, fj^-oka, ^ -zaki, ^ -mori, j]| -fuji. Personages: | ^ Genko 
(the Mongols) ; ;;^ | Daigen (Ta Yuan, Chin, hero) ; :^ \ ^^ Daigensui 
(d. ; tit. of Emperor as generalissimo; but daigeusui-hd or daigen-no-ho 'i^, 
Bud. ceremony); | f^ Gentetsu (Yiian Ch'e, sennin); \ PJ^ Gemmio, | J£ 
Gensho (43rd and 44th Mikados, Empresses) ; | ^ Moto-ko (court-lady). 

Nengo : I ^ Gen-kiu (1204-05), fn -nin (1224); | ;^ Gembun (1736- 
40); I Ff» Gen-chu (1384-92), ^j, -ko (1331-33; Genko no ran ^L, the Civil 
War of 1331), 7^ -yei (or Gvvanyei, 11 18-19), ^ ~\i'\o or -ko 11321-23), 
^ -ji (or Gwanji, 1864), |^ -roku (1688-1703), ^ -kei (or Gwangio, 877- 
884), ^, -toku (1329-30), ^ -ki (1570-72), @ -reki (or Gwanriaku, 1184), 

M -o (1319-20). 

I ^ ^ genshisai (fest.). | ]\^ gembiiku (boy's coming-of-age ceremony). 
I M. givanso (' founder '). 

p-^ Variant of J^ (p. 173). 

~r^ (i.e., ^^ Oj ; WA ; (taka). kimi ('monarch, king, prince'). As -0 
— L» or -no-o (in early times -no-ogimi, -no-ohokimi), a suffix to names of 
princes of the Imperial house other than the Emperor's sons and grandsons 
(see shinno || I ), also to other individual names (-0 esp. with those of 
youths). Distinguish from ^ (p. 172) and from the radical 2 (v). 96 
(compare note to ij", p. 158). 

-^ I lU Taio-zan (m.). | ^ Oji (t.). | •^ Oji (sub. of Yedo ; lit. 
'prince'). | {it Otomo (f.). Chinese Personages: | [^] ^ O[shijkio 
(Wang [-tzu] Ch'iao), | ijif {ll| Obosen (Wang Mao-hsien), | % J|II O-bunkei 
(Wang Wen-ch'ing), 4* ^ -chCirin (Chung-lun), ^ '^ -gempo (Hsiian-fu), 
jijj ;|'I5 -chuto (Chung-tu), ^ \^ -shichQ (Tz'u-chung), ^ -ro (Lao), ^ -yen 
(Yen), ^n ^ -chiyen (Chi-yiian), ^ i§ -shogu (Ch'ang-yu), ^ -gei (I), 
^ -sho (Ch'u), ^ -ka (Ho), ^ -nio (Yao), jt -yen (Yiian), ^ -shitsu 
(Chi)— all sennin ; | f^ Osho (Wang Hsiang), | ^ Oho (Wang Pao), 
paragons ; | fn Wani, | ^ ;^ Ogishi (Wang I-chih), literati. | J|$ osho 
(chesspiece). 



Four Strokes i68 



m 



Variant of [g (v). 50. 




-~r^ FC, FU ; FU. A negative, generally as zu or nu after pure- Japanese 
* verbs (although written before them) ; A ^ 2;^ B, /I oyobazu B, ' B 

surpassing A, A not equal to B '. i. 

[Compare :^ (v), j{>f fviii), ^ (xii).] | ^ Fuwa (k. of Mino ; f. ; 
barrier, -no-seki P). | H or | ^ Fuji (m., commonly written 'g -J:, 
q-v.) ; I H M ^ M Fujimi-jaya (teahouse). | A ?E 'M Funiudo-taki 
(fall). I ^ ^J Oisenu-yama, I j^^ \\\ Wasurezu-yama (m.). I fia ^X 
Shiranu[h]i (anctly. — Hishu pr., now an ignis jatinis seen off Higo pr.). 
I S -^ '?lk Shinobazu-no-ike (pool in Yedol. 

I ^ Fu-wa (f.), ^Jc -wa (f. ptr.), Wj -do (d.; fall, -ga-taki i|), ^ 4t W\ 
-kukongo (d.), J:t ^ -liito (n. ; sect), H A -mihito (n.), Wl # -dan-zakura 
(cherry-tree), ^ j ;^ -ju-fuze (sect). I ^ fuyeki (' unalterable, constant 'j. 

\'ariant of ]x. (iv). 

"3X2 TEX; T£; ama; ama-. ama, ame ('heaven, the sky'). See pp. 39, 97. 
>^>- Alone or followed by ^, as Ame-no- ('Heaven's'), a prefix to 
many names of kami (deities of Shinto).- As -ten ('divinity'), a suffix to 
the names of certain Buddhas. Distinguish from ^ (yo, ivakajini, ' early 
death ') and the next. 37. 

[Compare -y*, /g (v).] | "[»" Tenka, Amenoshita ('under heaven', hence 
' the World ', often specifically ' Japan ' ; see Titles and Locutions below). 

I ^ Tenjiku ('India'; nickname of Tokubei ^, -^ ^, traveller in that 
countryj. | ^ Teshio (pr. ; t.). Kori : | ^9 Ama-da (Tamba ; f.j, 
^ -ha (Kadzusa ; f. ; also Amo as f.), ^ -kusa (Higo; f. ; is., -jima). 

iMouxTAixs : I \\i Ten-zan ; | ^ \\] Tenjo-zan ('Ceiling Mountain']; 

I @ (^, if^) llj Tem-moku(-pai,-man)-zan ; | :^ llj Amagi-zan ; | Ji 
(5f) \h Ama-kami(-no)-}-ama ; I ^ |Jj Ama-no-kaguyama (sacred m.j. 

I ^ li Ama-no-hashidate (spit, see p. 98, 13). 

Rivers : | }\\ Ten-no-kawa (as Amanogawa, ' the Milky \\'a.y ' ; as 
Amagawa, f.), Amano-gawa (also written | ff jlj) ; | |i| )\\ Tenriu-gawa ; 

I S jl| I empaku(Amashiro)-gawa. | ^ "/H Temma-no-taki (fall). 

Other Towxs : /]> | Oama ; | T ^ M Ten-gajaya, 3i ^ ffl 
-no-shinden, j^^ -jo (or Amaki ; latter as f.), jjif -jin (is., -jima; see also 
Deities), jji^i iJj -jinyama, g -do (m., -yamaj, !^ ^ -nenji; | llj] Tem-mio 
(see also Nengo), ^ -ma (see also Deitiesj ; | J| Ania-mi (f.), ^ -tsu (f.). 

' For the few such quoted in the work, see under the first succeeding character in each instance. 



I 



1^9 Four Strokes 

I ^ ^ Temman-gu (tern. ; name for Sugawara no Micliizane) ; | 3E 
(tl) ^ Ten-no (-rm) -ji (tem.j. | jji'}' M Tenjim-bashi, | j^ ^ Tenima- 
-bashi (bridges in Osaka). 

Other Surnames: | Ama ; | jp^ ;ii^ Tenjimbayashi ; | -^ Temmio; 

i :^ Ama-kata, tIc -ki, ^ -ya, ^ -dera, ^Ij -ri, ^ -dani, -noya, % -ni, 
f^ -numa, "/^^ -mi (Tenkai as f. ptr. and n. priest), ^ -nomiya, gf -no 
(ptr.), SJ* :g^ -noya, ^ -gasa. 

Other Deities (see note, p. i68) : | HS ^ p jjjijj Amaterasu-omikami or 

I Up, ^ i^ # Tenshoko-daijin (the Sun Goddess); j — jpiji Tenichijin or 
Nagakami ; \ ]£ Tenno (see p. loi, 39, cf. also 45) ; | jpill Tenjin or 

I fpg Temman (= Sugawara no Michizane). | ^ Tenji (38th Mikado). 

I n ^ Tennichibo (priest). | H 1^ Ama-no-hihoko (anct. Korean prince). 

1 ^f Ama-yuki, |^ -nohara, J^ -kura, ^ -kuni, |§ -fuji (swo.). | ^ 
Amainu (swo.), ^e-n^^^a/ (myth. race). | J Tendai (Bud. sect.; its chief, 
Tendai-zasii j^ ^). | 7v tennin, | ^ ft^/zn/o, I ^ 2< "^ amatsiiotome (the 
Apsara or Bud. 'angels', who wear the | ^^ ;^ ama-no-hagoromo or feather- 
cloak). I ^ Tenko (7J0). 

Titles : | ^ Tenno, anctl}-. Suberagi, Sumeragi, Sumerogi, | ^ TensJii, 

I df^ Sumemimago (Imperial, see p. 49, note) ', \ f^ ^ temmon-gata (temnion, 
'astrology'); | P^ fH JT temmon-hakase (see p. S^) ; | T» — tenkaichi 
(' unique under heaven ', common with mirror-makers) ; I T" iRl fi tenka- 
-miiso (same meaning). 

Nengo : I fn Ten-nin (1108-09), TL -gen (978-982); | JC Tembun 
(1532-54J; I 7TC Ten-yei (1110-12), JE "sbo (1573-91); I ¥ Tem-pei, 
-pio (729-748), 4i jji^ If -pio-jingo (765-766), ZjS ^ J^ -pio-shoho (749-756), 
4^ M ^ -pio-hoji (757-7f'4); I ^ Ten-an (857-858), $i -yen (973-975)- 
\'^ -ji (1124-25), ^p -wa, -na (1681-83); I fP^ Temmei (1781-88); | ^ 
Ten-cho (824-833), ^ -sho, -jo (1131); I i^ Tempo (1830-43); | ^ 
Ten-ju (1375-80), g -ki, -gi (1053-57), H -roku (970-972); I jjig Tempuku 
ij^3j)'^ I W^ Ten-toku 1957-960), ^ -yo (1144), M -l^ei, -gio (938-946), 
JI -o (781). 

Locutions: | T^ -jl^z (or #i ^ tenka-taihei ('the world at peace'); 

I B^ M tengankid (phrenologist's magnifying glass). 

-yt BU, MU; Aft/. Used as a variant of M (.\i), as in | ^ ^ K 
VLi Muga-dojin (n. ptr.). Distinguish from tlie foregoing. 71. 

rp GA, GE; GE. kiba ('a canine tooth, tusk'). Distinguish from # 
^ (viij. 92. 



s 



KG, GO. tagai ni ('mutually'). Distinguish from S 'vi). 7. 



Four Strokes 170 

f^ [Contraction: jjl ; complex synonym, not alternatively used in names: 
-^ 15-] GO; GO, /; itsu-, i-. itsutsu, itsu-, i- ('five, fifth'). See 
pp. 37, 41, 42-48, 88, 103, and compare the two next entries. i. 

I M ft G-0-kinai (see p. 120), ^ -to (archipel. ; f.), -^ '^ -shiki-no- 
-hama (coast), >*^ -^ -roku-dake, ^ ]\\ -ken-zan (m.), f^ ^ -so-goye (pass), 
^f f-^, [^] iH) j'l -gio(-i, -kase)-ga\va (r.). | ^ f| Itsukushi-no-taki 
(fall). 

Towns : | H R^ J^ G-0-sammaiba, ;^ ^ -daido, ^ -nolie (f.), ^ -i 
(f. ; also Gonoi as f.), /^C ^ -hommatsu, PJJ 03 -chota, ^ ^ -kasho, 
/3/t M i^ -shokawara, ^D IM ^ -chikokubu, ^ -sen, j^ -jo (also dist. of 
Kioto and f. ; see further), ^ -ka, ^ ^ -kanosho, f| \\\ -riuzan, ^ ^ 
-riobayashi ; I B Tfj Itsu-kaichi, U fff -kamachi, 0, Tfj -maichi. | 
i^ M. Gojo-zaka, ^ -bashi or ;^ ;{^ -no-ohashi (dist. and bridge of Kioto). 
I ^ I5c Gochi-in (tem.). | i^ 1^ Gomei-ro (= Ogi-ya ^ M, brothel; n. 
of one of its keepers). 

Other Surnames: | ji Itsutsuji ; | /J Sa-tsuki (n.), ^ -^ -otome 
(see below) ; | ^ Go-kiu, :^ p^t -tai, j\- M -iya, \K. -dai (lit. ' fifth 
generation 'j, 'gr ff -ino, ^ -mi, |(4 gg -seda (ptr.), ^Ij- -rio, 'g -tomi, 

^^ iijf -i<iso, m -to. 

I ]^ ^ Gonomaruden (concubine of Tokugawa lyetsuna). | p] 5M 
Goami (n.). | j^ 1^ samidare (rains of the 5th month, I j^ gogwatsu or 
^ ^ Satsuki). 

7i. "I GOjn ; /; iso-, ika-, i- ; iso- ; 20^., Iso-. iso-, ika- ('fifty', the ka 

being an auxiliary numeral ; see p. 40). 

I I ;i| Iso-gawa (f. met.), ^ -be (f.), ^ -bata (f.), ^ -gimi (n.), 

^ -ma (zok.). I I ^ Ika-go, M -ri, ^ -ha (t.). | | ^ Igarashi 

[L ptr., lacq., pot.). | i # IIIt? I-bura-toge (pass), ^ )\\ -suzu-gawa (r.), 

^ 5f -jimino (t.), 3^ ^-- -tode (n.), ||g [[1|] -tsuki[zono] (n.). 

ji "g" GOHIAKU; io- ; io-. i/io, io ('five hundred'). | | )\\ Gohiaku- 
-gawa (r.), ^ ^ ^ -rakan-ji (tem.). | | ^ lo-no {t. ; f. ; princess), 
A -to (n.). 

nrt CHU, CHU; zok., Ushi-. As chu or tishi, 'the Ox' (see p. 63). i. 
-^ I 11$ ph ushi-no-toki maivi (incantation). 

-{^ BU, MU. nakave, nashi (a negative). Distinguish from -^ (v). SO. 
■*)5^ Variant of /R (p- 173). 29. 



I?! Four Strokes 

1^ DAI, NAI; uchi, -nouchi ; \uchi, tada) ; zok., Nai-, -nai ( | ^ Kura-). 
I ^ Hchi ('inner, private, secret, the interior'); . . . uchi (of a courtesan, 

'in the service of); . . . no uchi ('within, among, one of the [series] . . .'). 
As Uchi- in street-names (see p. lo, note 2). Distinguish from pq (v). 11. 

[Compare fj (v).] i^ I Ouchi (k. of Sanuki ; f. ptr.); Ochi (same k. ; 
f.); ouchi (the ImpL palace). | j^ Utsumi (lagoon; t. ; f. ptr.); Uchiumi (t. ; 
f. pot.); Uchmoumi (t.). j }\\ Uchi-kawa (r.; t. ; f.). | ^ )]\ Utsu-kawa 
(r.). 

Othkr Towns: ;^ | \\i Ouchiyama ; | )}§ f? ^ Naito-shinjiku (sub. 
of Yedo, Ivoshukaido stage). | \\] TTchi-yama (f.), ;> ^ -noko, ^ j§ 
-noura, ff^ -nomaki, ^ -ura, ^ H -shimami, ]^ -hara (f.), Wf -no (also 
site of the old Kioto palace in Ashikaga times; f. met.), jM; )]\ -michikawa. 

Other Surnames : | ^ Kura ; | |E Nai-ki (tit., see p. 82), -^ -ki, 
li -to (ptr.); I :^ XTchi-kata, ^ -moto (met.), H -da (ptr., met.), ^ -ike, 
;j«J' -mura, ^ -shiba, jg -gaki, ^ -ume, ^ -jima, ^ -kura (n. swo.),. 
^ -bori, lll^ -zaki, gf j^ -nokura, ^\ -ki. 

^ I Q Ouchijiro (horse). | '}'p -ji<^ Uchisata [kibgen). \ ^ daivi 
(the Impl. palace, the Emperor). | ^ nai-gu (part of the Ise Shrines), 
^ -den (' inner chamber ' of a Shinto shrine or Impl. palace), [^ -jin (ditto 
of a Bud. temple). 

Titles (for others, see pp. 81-85) • I ^ i nai-shinno (princess of the 
blood), ^ ^ -kwanrio (Shikken's secretary), ^ -ju (court page), g -shitsu 
(hon. for ' wife '). 

Z\ FUN, BUN (BU) ; FU ; wake ; (ivake, chika). wake (' separation ') ; 
-^'J wakatsu ('to divide, apportion'). As bun, 'a portion, share, status, 

state of life'; as fun, a measure of weight and time (see p. 66); as bu, a 
measure of length (p. 65 ; see also p. 39, Fractions). 18. 

:f^ I Oita, formerly also Oita (k., r. and t. of Bungo ; Oita as mod. 

ken and f.), Okida (anct. f. ; n.). | E3 Bunta, | i^ pl |^ Bumbaigahara 

(t.). I Pt M ^{£ 15r: Fundarike-in (tem.). | ^ Wake-be, M -se (f.)- 

I |5^ bunke, \ -^ bumpa ('a branch family, branch sect or school'). Ji 

('t'5 T) I jo-{chii-, ge-)bun (' ist, 2nd, 3rd class'). 

yt KO, KU ; kin- (kimi, tomo, taka, tada, mitsu). kimi (' a lord ') ; oyakc 
•^ (' tlie public, equitable '). As kb, ' public ', also a suffix to noble- 

men's names, 'My lord' (compare ^, ix). 12. 

[Compare ^ (vii).] | ^ Kodzu (t.). | ^ Kimihira (f.). I ^ 

Kobu (Kung \Vu, paragon). | ^ Kimi-ko (Empress). | Bi Kugio (priest). 

I ^ kuji ('public affairs, a ceremony, lawsuit'); Kuji-shimbochi f? ff % 



Four Strokes J^, contd.) 172 

{kiogen). I 5^ kii-ge, '^\\ -gio (court-nobles), ^ -bo (tit. of Shogun), A 
-nin (tit.), ^ ^ ~mon-jo (anct. bureau). | gj /?o\'c'n ('public park'). 

"Y^ VO ; i4/a». tc'flj'e ('I, we'). Distinguish from "J (p. 144), ^ (154) 
J' and ^ (\). 6. | jpj A Anato (n.). 

~y]. IX; fa(ia, (?nasa). tadasii ('to direct'). As i;;, a title (see p. 85). 44. 

^ I S Jl ^i'<~^ (^v'- I S I'l-l^i l^'i" Hsi), .Hl -ki (Kuei), sennin. 

tl SEKI, SHAKU. A measure of length (see p. 65) ; Seki (f.). Used as 

/^ a common contraction of ^ in several of its compounds (^, 

m, mi 44- 

-^^ JIX, XIX; (/rtrfa, -tsugu). As ynz or midziinoye, see p. 63. Distinguish 
-^ from i (p. 167). ^T,. 

I /-i£ Mibu (t., Nikkokaido stage; f.), Nibu (clan). | ^ )\\ Mibu- 
-Icawa (r. ; t. ; f. ; also Nibukawa as t.). 

-|t SHU, SHU; TE, TA ; te, ta- ; (ta-). te ('the hand, arm, a handle, 
J grip, action, skill, handiwork, handwriting, a workman'). 64. 

I J^ Te-jima (is.), Teshima (f.). I ^ '£] Teishi-no-ura (shore). 
W^ I H 1^ Kotesashi-ga-hara, I M Pi W-> Tekoshi-ga-hara (plains). | [p] \[\ 
Tamuke-yama (m.). | ^ '/g Tega-numa (lake). | J^ )\\ Tetori-gawa 
(r.). Towns : | [p] Tamuke, Tamuki, Toge ; I / ^ Te-noko, Q J^ 
-shirodzuka, '^.-miya, Wf -no, |j^ [2 -kurata, j^ -hen. 

Other Surnames : J^ \ Ote ; | ^|t Tengai (swo.) ; | ^ Te-shiro, 

^ -dzuka, \\^ -gara, ^ -jma ('jugglery'), ^ -ga, |^ -goshi, j|t -dzuka (met.). 

Personages : | ;/j ^ # Tajikarao-no-kami, | fg: 1^ ^ ^ Taokihooi- 

-no-mikoto, | [pj jji^ Tamuke-no-kami (d.) ; I ^ ^ $Ei Tashiraka-hime 

(Empress) ; \ ]^ ^ ^ Tagisliimimi-no-mikoto (prince) ; /J^ | /g Chiisade- 

-no-ama, | "j^ ^^ (or )}|)) Tekona (iiist. pers. ) ; I |^ iL) Tegarayama (swo.); 

I 7J IH. letora (n.). | ^ Teguruma, | ^ ^ Teoi-yamadacln {kiogen). 

I ^ Tenarai [Genji Chap, liii ; lit. 'penmanship'). 

Locutions: j :^ te-hon ('a copy-book, manual'), ^\^ -so ('palmistry'), 
^ -waza ('handiwork'), J^ -tori Can expert'), ^ -dziuna (for | pn tejiua, 
'conjuring'), fg -6afeo ('a toilet-box'), ^ -dziiktiri ('home-made'), ^ -zome 
('home-dyed'), ?^J ^ -mari-uia ('l)all-play songs'). 

r-yt^ -MO ; .A/0, A'£ ; ke. Zee ('hair, fur, feathers'). As mo, £i weight (see 
"T^ p. 66). 82. 

I [Ij Ke-yama (m.), ^ -sliima (is.), ^^ |^ -manai, ]^ -liaramiya 
(t.). Surnames: | ^iJ .Mori (met.), Mori; | ^ Menju, Keuke; | g Mo-ro, 
%^ -hira, ;^ -dzuka ; | |f,lj Ke-zori, ^ ;jsj- -yamura, .^T^ -ma. | % iMo- 
-ch5 (Mao Chang, d.), -^ -jo (Xu, seiinin], f^ 3;^ -hakudd (Po-tao, sennin). 



173 Four Strokes 

F^ [\^ariant : ^ .] KG; TO, HE; to, lie, -nohe ; (hiro, iye) ; zok., To-. 
'^ io, he ('a door, house-gate, house"). Used as a common contraction 

for iM. (>^vi) in several of its compounds. A seal-form is used in the mon 
of the Tozawa [ 'J^. of Sliinjo. 63. 

[Compare -[- (p. 147), ± (138), ^ (v), ^ (xii).] | ^ To-shima (is.; 
t. ; f.). I ^S -g- Herai-dake, | [Jg (Jj Togakushi-yama (m.). | )I| 
To-gawa (r. ; f.), Tokawa (t.). ^ | -^i Oto-no-taki (fall). 

Other Towxs : | ^ He-tsugi (f.), ^$ j^ -rai-mura ; | / p To- 
-nokuchi (lacq.), ^ -de or -ide, ^ Sf -deno, ^ -ge, ^ -i, ^ J^ -ishi-jo 
(cas.), B3 ~cl^ (f- pti'-, met. ; r. ; moor, -ga-hara Ji^* ; also Heda as t.), -^ H, 
-gari, ^ -dani (f. ; also Toya as f.), ^ jj| -yato, fnj ^ -gochi, j^H -bata, 
^ 'M -shimaura, ^ -kura (f.J, ^ jll^J -gasaki, ffj) -be (f. ; also Kobe as f. 
mus.), j^ -tsuka (Tokaido stage 5; f. ptr.), ^ -zawa (f. ; brothel, -ya J^J,. 
gg -gashira. 

Other Surnames : ^ \ Oto (n.) ; j Ji To-gami, 7JC -midzu, ^-(^ H 
-ida, }>f -gano, ^ -ya, '|^ -kumi (ptr.), ;jsj- -mura, ^ ^ -nara, ^ -nami, :^ 
-yeda, yi}\ -gari, ^ -ya, ^ -muro, '^^ -nami, ^^ -ban (met.), J^ ^ -gari, 
lllfl'j -zaki, 1^ |lf$ -gasaki, ^ -matsuri. | ^ j|| Tonase (dram. pers.). 

SHO ; masu, Nohorii, Nobori; zok., Masu-. noboru ('to 
a measure'). As slid, a measure of capacity (see 
p. 65). 24. 

[Compare J^ (^v), ^, |54 (x).] Surnames: | Masu-da, ;^ -moto,. 
M -va (met.). 



^L [\'ariant: ^JJ^.] S 
■^ ' rise ') ; masu (' 



Kl\, KON ; (ono). 0110 ('an axe'). As kin, 'a catty', measure of 
weight (see p. 66). 69. 



rf^ SHI, JI ; uji; iiji. nji ('family, clan, family-name'). As -shi or -uji,. 
"^"^ a suffix equivalent to our ' Mr '. 83. 

I % Uji-iye (t.), -ye, -ya (f.), ]^ -hara (f.), K -ndo (n.). | ^ ^ 
uji-no-chdja ('chief of the clan'); W> \ ^ ^ Genji-no-chdja (tit. of Tokugawa 
shogun). 

rtf [Variant; see p. 170.] SO; tsume ; [tsiime). tsume ('a nail, claw,. 
/'V hoof, plectrum [of koto]'). 87. 

I 'A^ ^ Tsumaki-zaki (cape). | ^(£ Tsumehana {jord). \ 
tsumaoto ('the sound of the koto'). 

Ar^ KEX (KETSU). kakerii ('to be defective, missing, lost'). 76. 

>Vl ^O. As go or lima, 'the Ox' (see p. 63); as go, esp. 'noontide'. 24. 



3C. 



I ^ fp^ Kakemama (t.). 

As ,i,''o or lima, 'the O 
I M ^ ^ Godzu-tenno (d.). 



Four Strokes 174 

Jtl-^ GIU, GO; ushi ; zok., Ushi-. iishi ('a bull, cow, ox, cattle'). 93. 
1 I ^ Ushi-jima (is.; f. ptr.), jf[i -no-taki (fall). Towns: /J> 1 03 

Kogoda; | ^ Ushi-ku (lake, -nunia •//?), ilJj -ji, / ^ -noya, :j$; -tsu, 
-dzu, ;f;^ -ne, ^ -buka, ^ -bori, '<g -mado, '^ -kubo, '^ -kata. | jA 
Ushi-gome (dist. of Yedo, mod. kit of Tokio ; f.), ^ fi^ -tenjiii (tern.), fJil ^]ij' 
-gozen (forecourt of same). 

Other Surnames: /J^ | Kouslii (sculp.); | ;^ Ushi-maru, ^J -yama, 
H -da, ^ -o, :^ -kusa, jFt -oku, J^- -ba, '^^ -zawa, ^ fi| -gase. Personages, 
etc.: I ^ UsliLi (n.); | ^ Ji, Uslii-wakamaru (boy-name of Minamoto no 
Yoshitsune), l^ ^ H -ya-daijin (= Fujiwara no Korekimi ^ ^l, ^ g 
-maro, -^, ^ -kai (n. poets); | ^^j Giuba (see p. iii, 94), also L'shi-uma 
[kiogen] ; -^ \ )}^ Oushijo (drain, pers.). | ^ iishi-matsuri (fest., 12th 
day of gth month). 

•i^ [Variant: see p. 138.] IN (JO); {chika, suke, nobu, masa); zok., -suke. 
y*^ ataru ('to correspond to'); iikegau ('to agree'). As jo, a title 
(see p. 85). 10. I ^ Inkio (igtli Mikado). 

/V KAI, KE ; A'.4, KE ; suke, Suke; zok., Suke-, -suke. tasukeru ('to 
xl help'); suke ('a subordinate oflicial ', see p. S^). 9. 

[Compare !^ (vii).] | )\\ Sukegawa (f.). | ^ Kai-sho (Chieh 
Hsiang), 3^ -yen (Yen), seuuiu. 

/v KIN, KON; ima; [ima, yoshi); zok., Ima-. ima ('now, modern, present 
 <^^y')- Used as a contraction of ^ (viii). Distinguish from ^ (v) 

and -^ (viii). 9. 

I in Ima-date (k. of Echizen ; f.), -dachi (same k.), jX M -ye-gata 

(lake), }\\ -gawa (r. ; f. ; see also Locutions), \^ )\\ -o-gawa (r.j. Towns: 

I §fi; iZ Nachijin (Luchu Is.; Nakinin as f.) ; | -t/J Ima-gire (f.), ^ -do 

(pot.), ^ -i (f. ptr.), ^ W} -isurugi, Tfj -ichi (Nikkokaido stage), -da (f. ), 

j^ -mura (f. ptr., pot., actor), ^Ij -ri (same as '^ ^ M), WX -niacin, ^Ij 

-betsu, /I -o (f. ptr.), Vp -haru or -baru (Imahari as f.), ^ ^ -tsuru, ^^ 

-idzumi (f. ptr.), ^ -juku, ^ -su (Nakasendo stage 59), ijig -fuku (f. ptr.). 

In Yedo: | ^ Ima-ogi (sub.), )\\ (^) ;j^ -gawa(-do)-bashi (bridges). 

I yj }\\ Ima-degawa (dist. of Kioto; pal.; f.), ^ -niiya (dist. of Osaka; 

f. ptr.), fjg f? -gumano (tem. ; f.). 

Other Surnames : | Kon, Ima ; | piiji] Kongo ; | ^ Komparu ; | ^ 
Komman ; | ;}^ J^ Inia-oji (ptr.), /J^ J{f^ -koji, Tfc -ki (n. poetess), f|=> -naka, 
tC -ye, 1j -nishi, J± -sho, ^ -yeda, /^ -fu (ptr.), ^ -i, ^ -take, 130 -oka, 
p^ -dzu, J^ -ki (n. poet), lEf -no, ^ -mine, ffl -zawa (met.), ^ -hashi 
(ptr.), m -zeki, li -taka. 



/3 



Four Strokes 



Personages : I p jM Inia-sliaka (priest), ^ ^ -shikibu (poetess), 
M ^ -sadamune (swo.) — in each case meaning ' the modern S.' | -^ 
Ima-ko (poetess), M Wt -ya-dono (prince), ^ \ -kebito (nj, ^ -mairi 
(kiogen). 

Locutions : | [i [^ n^J kinjd[-kQtei] (' the reigning Emperor ') ; | |^;, 
I ^ imayo, \ ]^imafu ('modern style, latter-day'); | "^ konseki, konjaku 
('ancient and modern', cf. "^ | kokon, kokin); -^ | Jl| onna-Imagaiva {^ women 
of the [noble] Imagavva type '). 

^^ FU, BU; BU. chichi {'a father'). See p. 129. 88. 

-f^ HEN, BEN. iwri ('law, rule'). 25. 1 |IJ. Hen-kwa (Pien Ho), 
I ^ -so (Chuang), Chin, worthies. | P Benkwan (priest). 

— *-* [Complex synonym, not used alternatively in names : j^.] RIKU, 
■^^ ROKU ; MU \ mutsu, mu-. miiisit, mn- ('six, sixth'). See pp.37, 
41, 42, 48, 71, 73, 88, 104. 12. 

I j1 ^ Rokuren-jima (is.). | ^ llj Rokuno-zan, | ^ ^] Rokko- 

-zan (m.). | |jf Roku-ura (shore), Mutsuura (t. ; f. ; no). Other Towns. 

I ')] ?f Roppono ; I illl H Roku-jizo [kiogen ; see also p. 104, 60), 

%l -go (f. ; r. ; bridge in Yedo, -no-hashi ;f§) ; | f\ Rok-kaku (f. ; tem., 

-do ^), ff -ken; | ^ Mu -te, 11 PTf -ika-machi, /^ -mai. 

In Kioto: | ^ ^ Rokuhara (dist. ; f. ; tem., -dera -^j ; 1 \^ Rokujo 
(dist. ; f. ; 79th Mikado ; poetess ; R.-gawara ^%, dry bed of the Kamo 
River). 

Other Surnames: | ^j" Roku-mura, Wf -no; | ]^ Mutsu-hara, HiJj 
-zaki; | A bR Mu-tobe, % -gasa. | ^n Rikunio (priest-poet). | #. i 
Roku-sonno (= Minamoto no Tsunemoto |i\ ^), i^ ^ rij -dai-gozen (leg. 
pers.), ^ ^ fnt ^ Hj f^ -ji-namuyemon {joruri chanter), A fi" -ninso 
(kiogen). I til> rokubii ('a pilgrim'). | :fg rikkiva or wztttsn j/o //una 
(' snow '). 

— f^ HO; HA; kata ; /eaia, (masa, fiisa, michi). kaia ('side, direction, 
y^ square, division, method, agent, person'). As -no-kata (occ. with 

/ , or ;^J, a suffix to names of certain exalted ladies (see p. 79). 70. 

[Compare homophones under yf (iv).] | H Katagata (k. of Mino). 
I r\t Boju, I ^ Hokin, | J^ Hoza (t.), | ^ if Hoko-ji (tem.). /]^ I 
Ogata, I ^ ^ Katabami (f.). | m Hokwai (Fang Hui, sennin). \ ^ 
hojo ('[a room] ten feet square', 'the prior' of a monastery or his dwelling); 
Hojo-ki IE, classic. | ■± hoshi, 'a sennin', one who works hujutsu | (or 
ik) %, 'geomancy'. 



Four Strokes 176 

-^ [Variants: ^, ^.] SHI; SH/, .VO ; yuVi, iltant, hove); zok., -shi 
^"■^ ( I 5^ -nosuke, etc., see p. 72). yuku {' to go ') ; kore (' this ' ; 
see p. gi) ; no (genitival postposition). 4. 

-^^ BUN, MOX ; MO ; fumi ; fiimi-, -bnmi, {aya, aki). fiimi (' a letter, 
-^^^ book'). As bun, 'literature, composition, document, style*, 'civil" (as 

opposed to j^ bu, 'military'); as mon, 'a coin, cash'. | ^ moiiji, moji, 
'a character, word'; J^ \ ^ dai-uiouji, 'the character ^\ etc. 67. 

I ^ Ul Monju-san (m.i. | ^{ Fubasami (t.). ::^ I ^ M Daimonji- 
-ya (brothel). Surnames: | Fumi; | ^ Moji (Moji-noya ^, n. poet; 
Moji-dayu ^^ ^, also /J^ | ^ :;^v ^ Komojidayu, n. mus.) ; | H Bunza ; 

I jj^ Fumi-nari, ^ ~y^j M ~y^ (poets, vulg. Bunya). 

Personages : | |^ Monju (Manjusri, d.) ; | ^ ^ Bun-slio(-kioku)sei 
(star-gods) ; | 3i Bunno (Wen Wang, Chin. Fmperor) ; | ^ Bumpin (Wen 
Hin), I ^ Bunsho (Wen Hsiao), senniii ; | %^ Mommu (42nd Mikado) ; 

I if, Montoku (53th ; M.-jitsuroku '0 i^, history) ; I Hg (^) F^g Bun-sho 
(-kio)-in (posth. names of lyenobu and lyenari, bth and iilh Tokugawa 
Shoguns) ; | >^ Mongaku (priest). | ^ Bunzo, | ;^g ^ Fumisumo, 

I ill M Fumi-yamadachi (kiogen). \ ijig ^ l^- Bumbuku-chagama (fairy- 
tale). I j^ Bunnai, | ^ Bunko (see p. 86; latter lit. 'library, book-box 'j. 

I /I fu[ini]dsiiki (the 7th month). 

Nengo: I ^ Buil-kiu (iS^i-fjj), ft -kwa (1804-17), rji -chu (1372-74), 
jE -sho (1466), 7JC -yei (1264-74),^ -an 11444-48), Vp -ji (1183-89), 111 -na 
(X. Dyn., 1332-33); I PJ Bum-mei (1469-86), i^ -po (1317-18); | 1^ 
Bun-sei (1818-29), §^ -roku (1392-93), ^ -ki (1301-03J, ^ -reki, -riaku 
^1234), M -o (1260). 

I ^ bunsho ('a document). | ^ bunshin ('tattooing'). | :^ t# it 
vwnsho-hakase (tit., see p. 83). | H mombi ('a festival day'). 

SHI; ye, (>'eda), Tamotsu. ye, yeda ('a branch', lit. and met.); sasayeru, 
tamotsu ('to preserve, support"). As shi, see p. no, 87. 65. 
I % Shina (' China '). | ^ Hasekura (f.). | /g s/ii/eu (' a branch 
shop '). 

-j-l^ CHUN (TON) ; Tamuro, {mura). As ton or tamuro, ' an encamp- 
T-^ ment'. 43. 

-^ BOKU, MOKU ; A7, KO, MO ; ki, ko- ; (-ki, shige) ; zok., Moku-. ^i, 
•^ ko ('wood, wooden, a tree'). Distinguish from y]<, (p. 164) and 4^ 
(V). 75. 

[Compare M, ^ (xii), ^ (viii), ^ (xvi), "^ (vi).] | ^ Ki-no-kuni 
(old name for Kii pr.j. | ^ Ki-shima (is.; f . ; also Kijima and Konoshima 




177 Four Strokes 

as f.). I gg Kida (mod. k. of Sanuki ; f. pti.). | ^ Kiso (dist., also 
written HJt |iJi ; f . ; r., see p. 98, 10; high-road, -kaido ^^j jt or -ji '^, see 
p. 124). I -^ \\\ Kogiri-yama (m.). | ;|^ ^ Kogarashi-no-mori (forest;. 

I ^ llti? I\inorne-t6ge (pass). Other Rivers : | f (^j )\\ Ki-ge(-dzu)- 
-gawa, I 0C (5f) Jll Ko-tsugi(-no)-ga\va. 

Towns : /^ | Ogi (f. ; also Kogi as f.) ; /]>. | f|S Ogitsu ; | f Ki- 
-noshita (f. ptr., met., pot.), -oroshi, / ~J» -nomoto, ^J -vama (f.), J^ -do 
(f.), / ;$: -nomoto, :^ ^ -shimi, [i -tachi, ^ -tsugi, |I|J^ -ki, ^ ^ 
-saradzu, :j^ -tsu, -dzu (f. ; also Kotsu as f.), ^ ^1 -y^i-^^e, ]^( -bara (f.), 
j^lV -fune, if iJj -noyama, ^ -be (f. ; branch of Shin sect), jg -tsukiiri (f. ; 
also Ivodzukuri as f.), ^ ^ -tsuga, ^ -oroshi, f^ i^ niatsuka, ^ -se (f.j; 

\ M y M Ko-yanose, H -noha, l]^ -hata (f.), -^'^ -dzuki. 

In Yedo: ;^ I ^ Okido (gate); | J|i BJ Kiba-cho, | ^ Bf Kobiki- 
-cho (streets) ; I -^ ^ Mokubo-ji (tem.). | 'J{^ ^ I\inomarudono (anct. 
pal.). I '^ Ivitsuji (the Osaka ' Yoshiwara 'j. 

Other Surnames : ;^ | Oki (ptr.), Ogi ; ;:^ | P Okiguchi ; /\^ \ ^ 
Kokiso (ptr.); | ^ Ko-dera, ^ -ba, i^j -ba (kiba, 'a wood-yard'); | p 
Ki-kuchi, _ti -nouye, % -moto (ptr.), j^ -uchi, ^ -tsuke, ^ -hira, 4^ 
-moto, 'jg -nishi, ^ -mata, H^ -mura (ptr., met., pot., lacq.. sculp.), g ^ 
-roko, ^ -damari, ^H^ -tani (met.), ^> ^ -sliimi, ^ -mata (ptr.), j^ -bata, 
M -ya, ^ -shiba (met.), # -waki, ^ -gura, if -no, if ^ -nomura, ^ 
-nashi, ^ -koshi, ^ -gurashi (met. ; also Kogure), '^^: -zawa, '^| -taki, 
tU -do, j^ -be. 

Personages : | ;^:?^^:^>f^MMoi' I ^ ^M t!& Ivonohanasakuya- 
-hime (d.) ; | ^ Bokko (Mu Ivung, sennin); \ % Dzuku (prince, lit. 'owl'); 

I ^ Ki-nezumi (nickname), ^ '^ -dera-no-miya (princes), ^ \^ pjJ -dera- 
-hoin (priest), ^ i,^ ^ -tsugidayu (n.), "^ ^ ^ -so-kwanja (= Minamoto 
no Yoshinakaj, M. :^ V) -yanosiike {zok.) ; \ Wi m Kogakure-6 ; | ^ yu, 
' mulberry-bark cloth ', whence Yu-shide EQ ^, poetess, and -gaki jg, n. 

I ^ Tokusa (;?o, lit. the Horsetail or Scouring-grass, Equisetum). 

I A\ ^ Kirokuda (kiogen). | X moku, takumi ('a carpenter'; see also 
p. 83). I ^il deku, ningio ('a puppet'), bokugu ('an image'). | M % f^i 
konoha-tengu (myth, creat.). | @ kodama (' the spirit of a tree '). | )^ 
mokko (formerly moko, a quatrefoil heraldic motive). 

r . TAI (TA, DA-); TA, HO; 0-, futo ; {moto); zok., ta (in all positions, 
y^ but occ. -da, see p. 71 f. ; | ^ Tayu, -dayu ; | JJ Tachi-, from 
tachi, a type of sword). jiitoshi (' big, bold ') ; oinaru ( 'large ') ; hanahada 
('very'). Distinguish from -}^ (p. 161) and the next. 37. 

12 



Four Strokes (:fc, contd.) 178 

I ^ jl| Futoi-gawa (r.). Towns: j 03 Ota (Nakasendo stage 51; 
r. ; f. ptr.), Oda ; | gg i^ Otamura (pot.); | HI] Taima ; | ^ J^ Dazaifu 
(see p. 84) ; | j^ Tara ; \ Ull 'Ji^ I aromaru. | ^ Udzumasa (sub. of 
Kioto ; f.). I ^i i^ Taihei-bashi, | 6P ;i& ^ P^! ^ Taroyemombashi 
(bridges in Osaka). | ^ ^ Taihei-ji (tem.). Other Surnames : | 
(O no Yasumaro ^ ji^ S and O no Tokutari ^, | Jig, early historian and 
poet) ; I HI ^i Otaguro ; I -f- M Taishiya ; | j^ Ta-mura, J] M -chiya 
(swo.), 7J j'l -chikawa, g|) ^ -rodate. 

Other Personages: I $ Dazai (d. ; see also p. 84); | j^ Taisai (d.); 

I ^ i4i laikobo (T'ai-kung-wang, Chin, hero) ; /]'» I ^ Kodayii (joro). 

I ii\i Tachu (n.). | ^ ^ Tayuguro (horse). Sennin : | Ji ^ S 
Taijo-rokun (T'ai-shang Lao-chun, i.e., Lao-tzu) ; I A 3i ^ A Taishinno- 
-fujin (T'ai-chen-wang Fu-jen) ; i |^ ^ Tai-yoshi (T'ai-yang-tzu), |^- -^ 
-yojo (-yang-nii), P^ r^ -injo (-yin-nii), '^ -^ -genjo (-hsiian-nii) ; | li| 
^ ^ Taizanrofu (T'ai-shan Lao-fu). | J] ^ Tachihai {kiogen). 

Titles (for others see pp. 81, 84): | J^ ^ dajoko, I Ji 5^ M dajotenno 
(abdicated Emperor); | -^ taishi (Prince Imperial); | ^ tai-ko (Empress 
Dowager), ^ ^ -koshu (Emperor's aunt), ^ \ J^ -kotaiko (his grand- 
mother), ^ -ko (retired kwanipaku, if still ruling; used esp. for Toyotomi 
Hideyoshi, familiarly Taiko-sama | ^ ^ ; Taiko-ki |i, a history of his 
times) ; | ^ tayu (see ^ below). 

Locutions: | ^ tai~yd, ^ -in ('the sun, moon'; see also p. 46, note 4), 
"^ ~ko (' the Age of the Gods '), ^ -hei C universal peace ' ; Taihei-ki |S, 
history) ; I ^P j^ tarodzuki (the ist month) ; | [/^] jjii^ *5| (see under 
jfi^, x) ; I H'l iii'towaye (the courtyard of a Shinto temple). 

|V KK\; inu. inu ('a dog"). 94. 
^'V I _L Inukami (k. of Omi ; r.). | [Jf; [!{§ Inu bo-ga-saki or Inuboye- 

-zaki (cape). Towns : | llj ;|sJ" Inaki-mura (pot., Inuyama ware) ; | ]\\ 
Inu-yama (f. ptr.*), ^ -ishi, @ -me, jj^ -buse (f. met.), -bushi, Jg,' -i, 
fn] - kai (f. met.*). | jg -^1 Inukayeri-no-taki, | f^ -^ Inukai-daki (falls). 

Other Surnames : | jlj Inu-gawa*, % -maru, BB -da*, tC -ye*, 
^ -saka, ^ -saka*, :;jsj- -mura,* j^ -dzuka* (ptr.), ^ -kai, .^ -kake. 

I 5^ ^ Inu-kubo (= Tsunayoshi, Shogun), 0g jl| -tagawa (n. wrestler), 
M ;^ -bomaru, =f- {!;; -chiyo (n.), ^J j^ -yamabushi (kiogen). \ i^ ^ 
inuomono (sport, see p. 99, 25). 

* For the eight surnames marked with an asterisk, see also p. 109, 81. 



179 Four Strokes 

>^ Variant of :i (v). 

-JK FU ; BU, 0; -o, (sw/ee). ono/eo ('a man, male'); otto ('a husband,* 
-^V see p. 129); tasukeru ('to help'). 37. 

/h I Obu (t.). I ^- fufu, meoto, now nn'o^o ('husband and wife'); 
Mioto-seki or -ishi :fi (rock); Meoto-no-ike ^ (lake); Meoto-gi ^fc (f.). | ip 
fushi ('a sage", esp. Confucius). ;f;; | toi/w (Chin, title; also, in Japan, 
same as karo ^ ^, a daimio's chief retainer), daibu (tit., see p. 85). -^ \ 
tayu (honorary title equivalent to goi S ^ or the 5th rank of honour; also 
applied to rankless professionals summoned to Court, such as musicians 
and esp. the upper class of courtesans, oiran, on whom the 5th rank was 
temporarily conferred). 



/i^ Script variant of ;£ (v). 




[Script variant: ^ (i.e., with dot above).] YD, YU ; tomo ; tomo; 

zok., Tomo-. tomo ('a companion, friend'). 29. 
[Compare # (vii), ^^ (viii), f^ (xiv).] Towns: | g Tomo-da (f. 
ptr.), fg -numa, |3S -be (f.). Other Surnames: ^ \ Otomo (ptr.) ; | \[\ 
Tomo-yama, ^ -hira, xL -ye, ^ -yasu, ^ -nari, ^ -matsu, (S] -oka, 
5? -no, "^ -tsune. | '^^ BijJ Tomohoshi (swo.). 

pIi CHU, CHU ; naka ; naka ; zok., Chu-, rarely Naka-. naka ('middle, 
i interior, among, friendly relations'). As -chu {-ju), 'amid' or 'the 

whole body of . . . ' ; as Naka- in street-names (see p. 10, note 2). See 
also p. 39. 2. 

[Compare -fiji (vi).] | ^ Chugoku (the provinces of the Sanyodo 
and Sanindo combined, see pp. 12 1-2), Chukoku or | -l^- [^] Chukwa 
[-koku] ('China'). | j§ J^ Naka-dori-jima (is.), j|Ij ^ -sendo (high-road, 
see p. 124), jii -yama (m. ; t. text. ; f. ptr., swo. ; joro), ^ )\\ -tsu-gawa 
(r. ; t., Nakasendo stage 45 ; f.). | f^ ^ f§U Chuzenji-ko (lake). 

KoRi : I Naka (Tango; Sagami, mod.; f. ; also Chu as f.) ; | ^ 
Nakajima (Owari ; t. ; f. ptr., sculp., actor; Naka-no-shima as is., but | / 
^ Nakanoshima, dist. of Osaka). 

Other Towns [for further examples (including street-namesj, where t\* is 
a mere directional prefix (Naka-), see under the second character] : /h I ]^ 
Konakawara ; | ^ Chu-shi, j^ -jo (f. ptr.; also Nakajo as t.) ; | ^ 
Naka-to, ^ )\\ -tokawa, ;^ fl^ -nojo, g -da (Nikkokaido stage ; f.), )±, 
-nosho, il? -sato, -zato, f^ -nosaku, ;)[sj- -mura (pot.; f. ptr., actor; theatre, 
-za JM, see p. 100, 37), fnj 1^ -gawara, \-^ -bayashi (f. ptr.), fe' -i, -^-H -su, 



Four Strokes (^j^, contd.) i8o 

^ -tsLi (f.), Jg T^j -gaiclii, ^ -idzumi, y ^ -noho, ]^ -baru (Nakabara 
as f. ptr., met., lacq.), Ifl. -kumi, 3?f -n" (f- ptr., met.), f]^ Wf -nomachi, 
;^ -nuki, / ^ -nosliuku, '^^ -watari, fj] -nia (f.), ^ -go, / ^^ -nogo 
(also dist. of Yedo), ^f gg niita, g) -sono (-zone as f.), ^ -oki (see also 
Locutions), \^i -sawa or -nosawa (-zawa as f. ptr., met.), ^ -se (f.), / P 
-noseki. 

Temples: | ^ ^f Chuson-ji ; | ij) ^ Nakayama-dera. In Yedo: 
I Jic Naka-saka (hill ; f.) : | rt! (or ^ i^) ^ Naka-manji-ya (brothel). 

Other Surnames: J;^ \ Onaka ; ;;f^ | )\\ Onakagawa ; ^ \ [5 
Onakatomi ; /]^ | )\\ Konakagawa ; /J'* I yjsj* Konakamura ; | H jM Naka- 
-migawa, _t -garni (met.), Ji }\\ -gamikawa, ;;^ ^ -oji, 'Xt -maru (ptr.), 
P -guchi, 33^ -gata, ^ -i (ptr., met.), ^ -uchi, ^ -ishi, ^ -hira, @ -me, 
ffi -de, ^ -tsugi, tH -ye, Ql jM -yegawa, ]Ig -nishi (ptr.), ^ -yasu, g -tomi 
(clan), 4^ 09 -muda, J^ -nobo. BIJ -machi, j^ -mura, ^ -dani, ^ -o (met.), 
^ -numa (ptr.), i^ -tsubo, ^ -gane, ^ -higashi, [SJ -oka, f^ -mata, jg 
-gaki, ^ -shiba, Jf -ura, |5t -noin, ^'^ -ne (ptr., met.), :fl^ -giri, jji$ -gami, 
^ -gori, ^ P^ -mikado, Ifjg -bori, ^ ^ -suka, '^ ^^ -sone, |^ -mizo, 
jff^ -ji (ptr.), ^ -ma, j£ -michi, -ji, ;j^ -hashi, -baslii, '^ -hama (ptr.), 
M -fuji. 

Personages : | A i|# Chu-hachiman (d.) ; I J|^ Chujo (dram. pers. ; 
see also p. 8^) ; \ ^ t& Chujo-hime (hist, pers.) ; ;:^ I i^S Onakatsuhime 
(Empress) ; | 3^ 52i M "F Naka-no-oye-no-oji (prince), ^ Q -no-kwampaku 
(= Fujiwara no Michitaka 5^ |^^), ^ \X -sendai (= Hojo Tokiyuki |l^ ^j) 
^ -nuri (poet), /]> ^ -koji (mus.), ^ -tsukasa (poetess; see also p. 82). 

Titles (for others see pp. 81-7) : | [% chu-in (second of three surviving 
retired Emperors), ^' -gu (Empress, or Emperor's favorite wife), ^ -ro 
(Tokugawa minister), |^ -ro (— naishi-no-jo, see p. 85). 

Locutions: | "j^ chu-ko (the medieval period, 646 to 1185), g -ro 
(the 4th month), B -nichi (the 4th day of either of the two 7-day periods 
known as higan ^ ^ ; the vernal or autumnal equinox), (^ -nen (rough 1\- 
the age of 20 to 30), ^ -in (49 days' mourning), M -ko ('restoration, 
reinstatement ' ; see p. 96). 



^ 



jh 



TO, TSU (TO); {masu). sakadzuki ('a wine-cup'); masu ('a measure'). 
As to, a measure of capacity (see p. 65). 68. \ ]^ Tonami (t.). 

SHI; TO. todonierii ('to stop, cause to cease'). 77. 

I // g H Todoromi (f.). \ WJ ^ ^ Shido-hogaku {kiugen). 

Contraction of ^ (xiv). i. 



i^i Four Strokes 

Xt "Jj Variants of -^ (p. 176). 

-p Variant of ± (p. 158). 

.lU I\WA ; HI \ hi. Wi.ho ('fire', one of the Five Elements). Distinguish 
^'V from ;>tc (p. 176) and -^^ (161). S6. 

I ^ Hi-no-kuni (anct. name for Hishu pr.), Kwakoku or Hinokuni 
(Hell). I >f^ Kodzukuri (f.). Deities: j ^ Kwaten (Agni Deva) ; | ^• 
Ho-musubi, HS -deri, ^ |^ -suseri. | ^ Hi-no-miya (princess). | j^ 
Hi-no-kurnma (' the Wlieel of Hell '). | ^ kivaji (' a conflagration "). 

I ^ hinomi (' a fire-lookout '). 

IX* HEN; kata (not noted as a nanori-reading). kata ('one side'). As 
/ i Kata- in street-names (see p. 10, note 2). 91 . 

[Compare ';^ (p. 165), ^ (vi), j^ (vii).] | [J^ Kataoka (k. of Kotsuke ; 
f. ptr., met., lacq., actor). | ^ )\\ Katashina-gawa (r.). Towns : | Ji 
Kata-kami (f.), S. -oka, ffl -da (f.), ^ -kai (f.), P^ -kado, ^ -maki, 
;;^ -kura (f.), ^ -shima, ^ -niwa, ^ -kake, ^|g -nawa, ^^ -se (f.), ^ -shio 
(anct. pal.). 

Other Surnames : | \[\ Kata-yama (ptr., met., actor), -^ -giri, ^ -hira, 
^ B9 -hirata, 01 ye, ^ -ba, ^ -ta, ^ -mi, ^^ -yanagi, ^ -giri (ptr.), 
ff -no, ^ -yori. | 5f /g Katano-ama (poetess). | ^ ^ katakana 
(see p. 22). 

4h SEI, SHO; /; i, -noi ; (kiyo). i, ido ('a well'). 7. 

^'I [Compare homophones^ under ^ (vi).] Rivers: J^ | jl| Oi-gawa; 

I if jl| Ino-gawa ; | Hi S Jl| Ide no Tama-gawa (see p. 104, 59). 

I M ^ Inokashira-ike (lake). Towns : :^ I Oi (f.- ptr. ; joro) ; ;^ | 2p 
Oitaira ; :Hc I '^ Oizawa ; /]> I )\\ Koikawa ; \ / }\\ I-nokawa, / P 
-nokuchi, ^ -do (f. ptr., met.), ^ -de (f.), ^ ^ -idani, j^ -mura (f. ptr.), 
^ -nami, ^ -noye, ||{§ -saki (f.), ]^ -bara (f. ; also Ihara as f.), ^ -seki 
(f. sculp.). I 'M M. Idzutsu-ya (brothel; f.). 

Other Surnames: | I; :A: I Jl Oinouye; :^ \ Bg Oita; | }\\ I-gawa, 
Jt -nouye (ptr., swo., met., sculp., lacq., pot. ; Empress), P -guchi, -nokuchi, 
7X -midzu, p B9 -toda, j^ -uchi, ^ -de, ^ -hira, :^ -seki, -ishi (also 
Domburi, lit. the noise of a stone thrown into water), ;^ -nomoto, -moto, 
II -jiri, -noshiri, ^ -i, i^ -gumi, ^ -saka, M -zato, :^ -bana, ^ -seri, 



' Not strictly homophonous in the case of ^ and It, which are read with the simple katta 
sound '/', while ^, j^ and ^ provide the reading 'wi' (commonly written Tj. 



Four Strokes (^, contd.) 



182 



P^ -kado, :f^ -noshiri (ptr.), ig. -gaki, 3[^ -kari, "g -nomo, ]^ -ura, :^ -ki, 
^ -geta, ^ -jima, ^ -gusa (ptr.), ^ -buka, ?f -no, if i§ -nobe, ^ -be, 
^ -gumo, IhJ -dzutsu {no ; woni. n.), J|^ -koma, '^ -zawa (ptr.). 
I ^ M Ide-no-ama (poetess). ;^ | ^ Oi-ko (amazon). 



•;i* 



-It* [Variant: ^fv] JD, NIO ; NIJD. hatachi ('twenty'). See pp. 37, 
■^ 41. 55. I B Tti Hatsukaichi (t.). 

"Ht SO (SANJO). m/so, miso;/' ('thirty'). See p. 37. 24. 

I[T YAKU. ivazawai ('calamity'); kurushimu ('to be distressed'). 27. 

J^ [Variant: ^.] HAN, HON (HEN); //£ ; kayeri. kayeru ('to come 
'^'^ back'); kayesn ('to send back'); sori ('warp', 'curve' of a sword). 
As tan, a measure of area (see p. 65; compare also /£, p. 191). 29. 

I \\i Kayeru-yama (m.). I HJ Sorimachi (f.). | J£ Hansho (i8th 
Mikado). | ^ &. ^ Soppa-no-hioye (nickname of Yamamoto Yoshitsune 
UJ 4^ ^ ^)- \ ^ M Hoguan (n.). | ^ ^ Hangonko {no). 

>^~t [Formerly confused wntli '^ (v).J KO, KU. magaru (' to be bent, 
^ perverted '). 20. 

I fSJ Magari-no-oka (hill), ^ ,^ -kanahashi (anct. cap.), :^ % 
-oine (prince, afterwards Ankan, 27th Mikado). | fQ Magata (f. ptr.). 



I 



Kosen (Kou-chien, Chin. Emperor). | 



pa 



koto (tit., official of 



Kwampaku's household, prior of Shingon sect, also a grade of blind men) ; 
koto-no-naishi ^ f;^ (tit., see p. 85, note i). I 3i magatama, magari no 
tama (early type of g^m). 



^ 



(No on) ; -wa. n'wn (' to be fragrant ') ; nioi (' perfume '). 

I ^ Kosaka (f.). | ^ Niou-miya {Genji Chapter xlii). 



A^ FUTSU, HOTSU; MO. nakare ('do not"). 20. 

^'^ I r^v Wi Nakoso-no-seki (pass, same as Kikuta-no-seki, see ^, xii). 



Variant of ^^ (p. 156). 



_J^ KWA ; {tamo). hoko ('a halberd'). Used in script (also without the 
-^"^ dot) for 4^ as a contraction of ^ (xiii). 62. 

ZA* Complex synonym of — , 'one' (p. 141). 56. 



183 Four Strokes 

Q GETSU, GWATSU ; tsuki ; Tsuki, {tsuki, -akira). tsuki ('the moon, 
■^ ^ a month'). See pp. 39, 41, 97, 100. 74. 

[Compare ^ (xv), ^ (xii), H (xvi).] Mountains • | il| Gessan, also 
Gwassan or Tsuki-no-yama (second as n. swo. ; Getsuzan as n. met.); | ^ 
(or Jff) llj Tsukiori-yama. ;;^ | ]^ Otsuki-no-hara (moor). Towns : /Jn | 
Otsuki or Odzuki ; | ^ M Yamanashi^ (f.) ; | ^ Tsuki-gata (f.), ^ ff 
-yano, ^ -tsu, ff -tate (f. met.), H j£ -wanoslio, -^ -gata. 

Other Surnames : | , written large, for ^ | Otsuki (met.), also 
legitimately Tsuki ; | gj Tsuki-da (met.), ^ -yasu, ;jsj- -niura, |S] -oka 
(ptr.), ii; -nao (ptr.), ^ -mori, H -nowa, 'M -gase. Deities : | % 
Gwatten ; | ^ Gwakko (n. swo.) ; I "J* ^ Gekka-6 or | ~|^ ^ A 
Gekka-rojin ; i -f^ 5iL ^ Tsukiyomi-no-mikoto. | ;^ Tsuki-nomoto, ^ 
-noya (art-names). | ^ ^ Gekkuden (the 'Moon Palace'). 

Locutions : | "]» gek-ka (' moonlight '), ||II -kei (higher court-nobles) ; 
I ^ tsukimi ('moon-gazing'), tsnkimi-dzuki )\ (the 8th month), Tsukimi- 
-zato J^ g§ {kiogen) ; | -f^ tsukiyo ('a moonlight night"); | /g [M] t^'Mfei 
wo mayuzumi ('crescent-shaped eyebrows'). 

in TAN; NI, TA\ {-akira). akashi ('red'). As tan, 'cinnabar', also a 
-^ J medicine. 3. 

I ^ Tamba (pr.) ; Taniwa (old name for Tanshii below) ; Tamba, 
Niwa (f.) ; Taniwa- or Tamba-gori ^[S (old name for the Naka f|i kori of 
Tango) ; Tamba-ichi Tfj (t.), -se M (f-) ; Taba-yama llj (t.). | ^ Tango 
(pr. ; f. mus.). | JW Tanshu (Tamba, Tango and Tajima pr. combined). 

Other Kori: | ^ Ni-wa (Ovvari; f. ptr.), ^ -bu or -u (Echizen ; 
both as f. ; Nifu as t. ; Nibu-san jlj, m. ; Niu-gawa j||, r.) ; | ^t Tan-hoku 
(or Tajihi-no-kita, Kawachi), ^ -nan (or Tajihi-no-minami, ditto; Tannan 
or Tannami as t. ; last as f.). 

I j:t Tajihi (t. ; f.). | i^. \U Tan-zawa-yama (m.), T W. -ge-ga-hara 
(moor), 1^ ^ -cho-no-ike (lake ; tancho, the crane). 

Other Surnames: | -^ it Tajihi; | ^Ai M Mionoya ; | T Tan-ge 
(see also p. 86), g -da, Vp -ji, fj/f -i^^ ?f -"«• I tt Tanka (priest). 
I ^ Tanya, | ^ Tamiya (see p. 86). | U iavipil ('maples'). | fj 
tanzen (' foppery '). 

irr HITSU, HICHI; hiki ; {tomo). tagui ('sort'); hiki (see p. 40). 23. 
1^ [Compare /£ (p. 191), ^I (166).] | ^ ]\\ Hikimi-yama (m.). | Jll 
Hitsu-gawa (r.). | ffl Hikita, Hikida (t. ; f.). 



1 Sc, ' no hills  (yama nashi) to obstruct the view of the moon ! Compare Takavashi under $^ (.\i). 



Four Strokes 



184 



\y^ Contraction of ^ (xi). 



23- 



HA; HA; Tomoye. tonioye (the comma-shaped device). 49. 

I Tomoye (no; m., -yama; r.). I M I^^ri ('Paris'). | (for 
f]tj Tomoye-gozen (amazon). | ^ ^, see ^ (xvi). 








Contraction of 



(xiii). 



YETSU ; (nori). in (' to speak, say '). 
' interpreter, translator '). 



73. 



I -^ osa (anct. tit.. 



hi C the sun ') ; hi, ka 
I |i}, I 3^ as /if(ic in 



0JITSU, NICHl; HI, HO, KA ; hi, -ka ; (aki). 
('a day, daytime'). See pp. 41, 47, 97. 
nanori (see also Examples). 72. 

[Compare (for Hi-) J;!: (p. 165), jJE (viii), ;ft (.wii), 7IC (p. 186), 
^ (ix).] Names for Japan : | ;^ Nihon, familiarly Nippon, poet. Hinomoto 
and (esp. in early princely names) Yamato; ^ \ :^ Dai Nihon, Dai Nippon, 
Oyamato ; | ^ Nisso ; | ^ Nitto (f. ptr.) ; | alone, in compounds, Nichi 
(6-g-5 I ift Nichi-yei, 'Japan-British, Japanese-English'). 

Provinces : | (p] Hiuga (n. ; Hinata as f. ptr.) or | ^'1 Nisshu ; I ^ 
Hidaka (r. ; Hitaka as k. of Kishu, Hita of Bungo ; latter also called | 
Hita or Hida — see Towns). | |^ ^ Hiburi-shima (is.). I 1^ Jl j^ 
Hidakami-ji (anct. dist. of E. Japan). 

Other Kori : | ^^ Hi-ne (Idzumi ; f. ptr.), Wf -no (Hoki ; t. lacq., 
text. ; f. ; r.), g -oki (Satsuma ; t. ; Heki as same k., Hegi as f. ptr., swo.). 
I jfe Nikko (dist. of Shimotsuke ; mod. t. ; f. ; d. ; n. swo. ; m., -zan ; 
highroad, -kaido pj j^). 

Other Mountains : | \\\ Hi-yama ; ;;;^ I ^ Dainichi-dake ; I ^ llj 
Higane-san ; | ^fl (^n 09, '^j llj Hi-yori (-wata, -nami) -yama. | ^ if 
Higurashi-no (moor). | ^ )\\ Hiki(Heki)-gawa, | /^ jl| Hibashi-gawa (r.). 

Other Towns : :^ I [pJ Ohinata ; | )\\ Nikkawa ; | i^ Nichibara ; 
I ^ Nissaka (Tokaido stage 25; Hisaka as f.) ; | T* Kusaka (f.); | f ^ 
Kusakabe (f. met.); | Jt Hi-bi (f. ? sculp.), j^ -kata, {f} -ji or -de, JiJ ]\\ 
-deyama (Hijiyama as f.), JtJ ^ -deya, ffl -da (f. ; see also Kori), Jg, -tari, 
M -ye, fll ^ -\Nasa (f. ; r.), [SJ -nooka (pass, -toge ^), ^ ^ -nagu, HtJ 
-kuiiia (but Hinokuma-no-yashiro jft or Nichizen-gu ^, tem.), ff ^ -noharu, 
if (or / ) ^'iIj -noura, "^ -atari, pS -dzume, if^ -wata, -to. 

In Yedo: /J^ | ([i] Kobinata (dist; f.); | ^ M Nippori, orig. Higurashi- 
-no-sato (sub.) ; \ }^ ^ Nihombashi (bridge from which distances were 
measured along the highroads; cf. p. 116, 102, and 124; Nippombashi as 



185 Four Strokes 

bridge in Osaka) ; | ;^ H Nihon-dzutsumi (embankment) ; | j^ (or ^) 
iBX Hikage-cho (street); | ^ ^ Nichirin-ji, | ^ 1^ Nichion-in (tem.). 

I Wi It Nisshin-kvvan (clan-school). | \\;, Hishiro (anct. pal.). | 
^ P^ Higurashi-no-mon (gate of the Daitoku-ji, Kiot(>). 

Other Surnames: ^^ j Ohi (met.; Dainichi as d.); | ^F ffl Kusakada; 

I yt ^ Hi-biya, J:fc l?f -bino (ptr.), 4» -naka (ptr.), y% -naga, fp] 5? 

-natano, i^ ^ -nako, "§ -yoshi (d., also read Hiye ; Hiyoshi-maru ^, 

early name of Hideyoshi), jf; -tsuji, ^ -o, ^ -guraslii, ;f^ gf -neno (arm.), 

^ -natsu, ^ -iki, jHf ]J5 -nonishi, if ^ -noshima, ^ -bana, ^ -gurashi. 

Other Personages: | ^ Nitten (d.); | ^ ^ Yamato-takeru (prince); 

I ^ Nichira (hist, pers.) ; | jH Nichiren (priest and sect founded by him, 
N.-shiJ ^; man}' other priests' names begin with H, read Nichi-, Nik-, 
Nip-, Nis-, Nit-, as the case may be). | ^ ^ Hikage-hime (princess) ; 

I ^ f 2. ^ Nihongi-no-tsubone (= Murasaki-shikibu, poetess); | ^ j^ 
Hiramaro (n.) ; I ^P H Hiyorimi (n., lit. ' weathercock, turncoat ');!;$: 
^ t^ P^ Nipponzayemon (brigand). 

Histories: | :^ Nihon- IE -gi or, in full, ^ |E -shoki, ^ ^ -gwaishi, 
^ ^2 -seiki, 3E f^ — W -odai-ichiran. Locutions . \ /^ JH^ (or J) ^iji 
Yamato-yeshi ('Japanese painter'); | :;^ — Nihon-ichi ('unique in Japan'); 

I ^ ^ jitsii-gessei ('sun, moon and stars'; see p. 97); | Jt} hinode 
('sunrise'); ^ | natsu no hi ('[on] a summer's day'), etc.; | |l.^ ff hidckei 
('a sundial'). | ^ hi no maru ('sun-disk', heraldic motive illustrated 
below). • 




Five Strokes 



1 86 



FIVE STROKES. 



irt Contraction of ^ (xviii), and of p (vi) in some of its compounds 

'tJ (e.g., M, mi 



7TC 



HITSU, HICHI; HI. kanarazii ('certainly, without fail'). hi. 
I V£ Hisa (f.). 

YEl, YO ; naga ; naga, Hisashi, Naga, {hisa, tsune). hisashi ('long, 

perpetual'). Distinguish from 7K (p- i^'4) ^^^^ ^^^^ next. 85. 

[Compare ^ (viii).] | llj Naga-yama (m. ; t. ; f.). | ff Nagano 

(t. ; f. met.). In Yedo : | \\;, WJ" Yeitai-cho (street), ;j^ -bashi (bridge) ; 

I ^ HJ Yeiraku-cho (street) ; | % (IH) ^'f Yei-gen (-kwan)-ji (tern.) ; 

I M M. Yeiki-ya (brothel). 

Other Surnames : /h I ^ Konagai ; | ^ Yeiraku (pot.) ; | yt 
Naga-moto, ^ -to, ^' -i (ptr., met. ; N.-no-betto ^Ij '^ = Saito Sanemori 
K ^)> B9 ~ta (ptr., met., lacq.), ^ -yasu, ^ -mori, 7^ -mitsu, ^ -mi (pot.), 
-f^ -saku (Yeisaku as zok.), |^ -matsu, ^ -iwa (ptr.), ij^ -ne, ^ -mine 
(ptr.), ]^ -hara (? f. sculp.), J^ -tori, ^ -tomi, |§ -o, 1)^ -hata, f^ -taki. 
I ^ Yeisuke (n.). 

Nengo : I ^ Yei [Yd) -kiQ (1113-17), fn -nin (12(93-98), jt -sho 
(1504-20), ^ -kio (1429-40), In -wa (N. Dyn., 1375-78), ^ -ji (1141), 
■g -cho (1096), ^ -sho or -jo (1046-52), J^ -yen (987-988), 'f^ -ho (1081- 
83), ^ -so (989), fi^ -roku (1558-69), ^; -man (1165), f§ 'T eki or -riaku 
(1160), ^^ -toku (N. Dyn., 1381-83), U -kwan (983-984). 



^1^ [\'ariant : ^|C.] HIO; HI ; (kiyo). hi, kori {'ice'). Distinguish from 7K 

■^ (p. 164) and the foregoing. 85. 

[Compare homophones under (p. 184).] Kori : | _h Hi-kami 
(Tamba ; f.), -nokami (same k.), ^ -mi (Etchu, mod. ; t.). | \\\ Hi(Hi6)- 
-no-yama, Kori-yama (m.). | )\\ Hi-kawa (t. ; f.), ^ -muro (f. ; no). 

I Jl i^ Hikami-no-iratsume (princess). 

II] Old form of ft (ix). 9. 

AyJ JIN, NIN. hiro (* a fathom'); hakaru ('to measure')., 9. 

i^ SEN; Tsukasa. tsttkasa ('a governor'). Used as a complex form of =f-, 
I i 'thousand' (p. 155). 9. 



it 



187 Five Strokes 

SHI ; SHI ; Tsukau. tsukayeru (' to serve, wait on ') ; tsukamatsuru 
(respectful suffix to verbs, esp. in their Sinico-Japanese forms). 9. 
I At shi-tate ('tailoring, education'), JfJ ^ -dashiya (' cookshop '). 

>W^ CHO, JO. tsuye ('a staff'); yoru ('to rely on'). 9. 

/J* [Synonym : |Jfij".] FU ; tsuke, tsuki ; {tsitki, tomo). tsuku, tsukeru (' to 
'^ fix, attach, give, supply, wear', etc.). 9. 

I ^n Tsukechi (t.). ^ [^] | nanigashi no [on-]kononii ni tsuki, 
'in obedience to the [esteemed] wish of So-and-so'. 

/J^ TAl, DAI ; YO, DE ; yo, shiro ; yo, {shiro, nori) ; zok., Dai-, yo (' age, 
I ^ reign'); s/j/ro ('a substitute, representative'). Dist. from f^ (vi). 9. 
[Compare |^ (p. 195), J^ (x).] /]> | Kotai, Koshiro, | g Shirota, 
Yoda (f.). I M Shiro-sumi {jorb), ^ -nushi (no). | /r yoyo (' ages, 
eternal ') ; Yoyo-gi TJC (f.), jlj -yama, r^, j^ -tose, ^ -haru (yoro). H I 
[@] nidai[me] ('the second generation, successor'), etc. 

'^ TA; T^. hoka ('other). 9. | ^ Osa-da (f.), ^ -be (prince). 

/jjl [Synonym, not used alternatively in names : ^^.] SEN ; Yamabito, 
''^ (nori, Jiito). As sen, yamabito, \ \ sennin, 'a supernatural being, 
genius, fairy ', esp. used for the Taoist rishi, but also (as sen) for a mortal 
' genius ' (see ^, xiv). 9. 

[Compare =f (p. 155), ^ (vi).] | @f? ]^ Sensui-jima (is.). | ^b 
Sem-boku (k. of Dewa), ^ -ba (f.). | $ Sen-dai (t. ; f. actor), jt -do 
(t.), H -da (t.; f.), :^ -goku (f. ptr.), -^ -do, yf -dzu (f.), ± ^ -taro 
(^ofe. ; myth. pers.). | •§ sen-kaku ('retired person'), -^ -jo ('a female 
sennin "), fin) [^ Jjjf] -to [-gosho] (tit. of abdicated Emperor or his palace)- 

1^1 [Old form: §.] I; /; mochi, kore, {sane). tvo motte ('by, with, be- 
^-^ cause of; see pp. 95-6). Dist. from Jt (p. 165), ;jl:, jlfc (pp. 188-9). 9- 
I ^ ^iJ Iburi (t.). I g '^ zVo/ta (see p. 21, 'ABC'); ivoha-biki ^I 
(' arranged in iroha order '). 

^VT Contraction of ^ (xiv). 

-I||-| KA ; /v,4 ; {masu, mata). masu, kuwayeru ('to add, increase'). 19. 
a/U [Compare ^ (xii), ^ (xiv), #, ji' (xi), pf (v), ^ (ix), iK (x).] 
I ^ Kaga (pr. ; f. ; n. ; brothel, -ya M)- I ^"1 Kashu (same pr.). | ^ 
/h Uj Kaji-koyama (m.). | -^ jll Kako-gawa (r. ; t. ; f.). | |S (© or ]^) 
)\\ Ka-ne (-ru) -gawa (r.). 



Five Strokes (M, contd.) i88 

KoRi : I 1^ Ka-ko (Harima ; f.), ^ -sa (Tango), ^ -sai, y^ -to 
(Harima), ^ -mi (or, in full, Kan-no-gori, Musashi and Oshu), ^ -mo 
(Mikawa, Mino and Sado ; t. ; f. met., sculp.; r., for ^ jlj ; lem., -no-miya 
^, Kamonomiya as f. ; fest., -matsuri ^ : horse-races, -no-keiba ^ JS^). 

Other Towns : | ^ # Ka-sliimo, ^ |^ -kuto, :jl^ -buto, -da, [H: ffl 
-seda (f.), fg -da (f. pot.), ig /^ -nafu (Kano as f.), M M -riya, '^ tK 
-chiki or -jiki (f.), ^n ilj -chiyama, ^ -ya, # f^ -tsusa, ff -ke, '1;^ -ya 
(f. ; also KanitsLi as f.), ^ -no (Nakasendo stage j^ ; f. ptr., met.), ^ -su 
(f.), n m -gaura, If^ -ru. 

Other Surnames : | }\\ Ka-gawa, \\\ -yama, Ar 7R -gatsume, A^ i£ 
-gaye, ^ ^ -gami, >^ ^ -gami (ptr.), j^ -nouchi, M -ji, illi ^ -jii, ?d -ji, 
;?p M -jiya, ffi -numa ^$ -ku, -rai, f^ -mon, |^ ^ -bocha, ^ -bata, ^ 
-shima, J^ ^ -gurai, -g 03 -ruta,i ^j -be, ?p -no (ptr.), ^ [Ij -gayama, 
^ ^ -gami, ^ 5flJ -sori, ^ -tsume, -shii (pot.), -jii (met.), j^ \[\ -bayama 
(met.), g| -to, ^ -se, |f -to (ptr., met., sculp., pot.), )^ ;^ -toki (met., sic 
with short o). 

I ^ ;^ Kazutsura or, according to some, Ka Toshitsura (met.). | 
^ M H fiP Kagamijiro {zokX \ '^ ^ Kajima (see p. 86). | |^ kaban 
(tit.). I ^ ^ \\\ M M Kagami-yama Kiu no Nishiki, | M M ^ B^ 
y^ ^ Kaga-no-kuni Shinowara Kassen (jovuri). 



n 



TEl, CHO ; Migiwa. inigiwa (' a river-bank ') ; nagisa, susaki (' an 
isthmus '). 85. 



rO. iir i on C to be distressed') 61. | ^flj ^ Tori-ten (Bud. heaven). 

Ja7 Variant of JjX. (vi). 

-Jl^ HOKU ; kita ; (kita). kita (' the North, northern '). Distinguish 
HL from j^ (p. 187), it (165) and the next. 21. 

[Compare -^ (xii) or :^ (p. 176) in combination with ^ or g.] 

I ^ jE Hokurikudo, | ^ ^ Hokkaido (see pp. 121, 122). j ^ Kita-mi 

(pr. ; f.), -^ % -ki-shnna (is.). Kori : | Kita (Oshu; f.) ; | % ^ Kita- 

-amabe (Bungo, mod.). Rivers : | )\\ Kita-gawa (t. ; f. ptr., met.) ; ^ 

I jl| Okita-gawa ; | _fc, (llj) )\\ Kita-kami (-yama) -gawa. 

Other Towns [for further examples (including street-names), where ;|t 
is a mere directional prefix (Kita-), see under the second character] : | jt^ 



' A retainer of the Kishu Tokugawa clan, circa 1720, is quoted as jJn ^ H I aruda (sic) 
^ ^ ^ PI Tanoyemon in a list of curiously named clansmen given in ig 9^ j§ ^ ^ Meika 
Mampitsti-shu, p. 492f., quoting ^ ^ Okina-gusa, vol. iv. 



189 Five Strokes 

Hojo (f. ptr., arm.); I ij Kita-kata, -gata, g -me, ;|sj- -mura (f.), j^ 
-hara (f.), ^ -nosho (= Fukui), j^^ -jo, ^ -noiira (Kitaura as f.). | ^ 
Kita-hama (disl. of Osaka ; f.), if -no (tem. ; 1". ptr.). | ^ Hokurei 
(= the Hiyei-zan m. and tem.). | *H«j Hoku-shu, M -ri (Kitasato as f. 
ptr.), also I ^ Hok-koku, J|^ -kwaku, names for the Yoshiwara in Yedo. 
Other Surnames : | Hokugo (ptr.), Kitasato ; | /]> 1?^ Kita-koji, 
•j^ 1^ -oji, il] -yama (ptr.), P -guchi, -f^, ^ -jiro, ^ }\\ -shirakawa 
(princely), "^ ^ -koga, ;^ -moto, -da, ^ -ike, fpj -nudce (also Toki), 
it -tsuji, ^ -zumi, g. -mura (i)tr.), ^ -o (ptr.j, -^nj -gawa, iiij ]^ -gawara, 
1^ -matsu, ^ -i, [S) -oka, ig -gaki (ptr.), J^ -kaze, jg -ya (ptr.), % -jima, 
^ -batake, % -waki, -^ -zoye, -^ 7K -shimidzu, |^ -bori, % -be, gl] -zoye, 
^ -mado (met., swo.), '^^ -zawa, ;f^ -hashi, f^t -date, |^ -fuji, 3^ -be. 

I W. ^ Hokuriku-no-miya (prince). | /\^ ^ '^ ^ )^ Kitanokdji- 
-udaijin (= Fujiwara no Michitsune jM ^), 5^ %t -saiin (princess). | \%, 
H^ M l£ Hojo Tokiyori-ki (joniri). \ ^ hokii-cho (tlie 'Northern Dynasty' 
of Japan, 1336 to 1392), ^ -shin (the North Star), ij- -to (Ursa Major), 
^ ^ "i^ -men-no-biishi (guards). 

|LL SHI ; SHI ; zok., Kono-. kore, kono (' tliis ') ; koko (' this place, this 

**H^ reason'). Distinguish from jt; (p. 165) and the foregoing. 77. 

A^ I :^ Okonogi (f.). I M. Kono-sato, :^ -hana, ^ -haru (joro). 
I 15 Konomo (see p. 86). 

jLw KO, KIO ; {yoshi, taye). takimii ('skill, ingenuity'). 48. 



KO, KU ; koto, tada, Isao, {isa, nori). isao, isaoshi ('merit, exploits'). 
As ko, also 'ability, work'. 19. I N 51 Koami (n. met.). 



t/I Script variant of -tjj (p. 166). 

-ffT* DA ; uchi, utsu. utsu (' to strike '). 64. 

"^^ [Compare ^ (p. 171).] Surnames: | ^ Uta ; | H, Utsumi ; 

I B3, ^ Uchi-da, ^ -koshi (met.). | {fJ nchidashi (repousse work); 
Uchide-no-hama ^ (t.) ; uchide-no-kodzuchi /^ ^ (Daikoku's mallet). 

gr KO ; or KO, GU ; hiro ; hire, Hiroshi, Hiromu, Hirome; zok., Ko- or 
Vi*^ Hiro-. hiromeru ('to publish, spread abroad'). 57. 

[Compare ^ (xv).] Towns : | M Hiro-mi, [351 -oka (f.), m -saki 

or -maye (lacq.), ]^ -hara. | fjc ^ Koki-den (pal. Ijuilding). | BJ ^ 

Gumio-ji (tem.). | ;^ p^^ Ko-bun-in, jt; t^ -^Jo'^^'^^'^" *^^^-^i^°^^)- Surnames: 

I r^ Hiro-naka, H -ta, M -se. I X Kobun (3qth Mikado, name given 



Five Strokes 5/», (contd.) 190 

in 1870). I i^ :}c ^^ Kobo-daishi (Kukai § ^, priest). | ^ Hiro-ki 
(poet), ,'.!:> -me (n.). 

Nengo : I fr. Ko-nin (810-823), >ft -kwa (1344-47), ^ -an (1278-87), 
^n -wa (1381-83), ^ -cho (1261-63), Vp -ji (i555-57)- 

nri" TKI, CI 10. nengoro ni (,' kindly, friendly '). Distinguish from p]" 
i (v). 30. 

\tr KIO, GIO; A'a«a!/. kanaii ('to fit, suit'). Old form of ^ (viii). 30. 
P[^ SHITSU, SHICHI; S///. s/iifearu ('to scold'). 30. 

Jin >&n or dK ^^' ^^^' ^' ''' ^'^'^^^' ^^^•' ^'^ ^^' ^' ""' "' '^^''^ 

VH, /r nr Hare' (see p. 63). 26. 

[Compare liomo})hones under ^ (vi).] I 7 BJ Unomachi, | ^ ^ 
Usakamori (t.). | ^ tidziiki (the 4tli month, see pp. 45-6). 

A*J GWAI, GE ; TO; to, tono-, soto ; (to, nao, hiro) ; zok., Soto- or Hoka- 
X r ( I H- Toyo-, etc.). soto, hoka (' outer, foreign, different, besides '). 

As Soto- in street-names (see j). 10, note 2). See also p. 129. 36. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 173).] Towns: | ^ '^ Sotogahama ; 
I iii M Sotomiura ; | ^J Toyama (f. actor) ; I ^ Hokao (pot.). Other 
Surnames : | |d Geki (tit., see p. 82) ; | jlj To-gawa, j^ -nomura, 
^ -dani, '^ -nami, ;j^ -matsu, ^ -noura, ^ -shima, ^ ^J -miyama, 
ft§ -zaki, Wf fS] -nooka (ptr.). | -^ j^ Gemiofu (poetess). | j^ Gedo 
(dram. pers.). I ^, I ^ Tomori (n.). 

Locutions: | <£ j^ soto to uchi ('in and outdoor'); | ^ kakoime, 
kakoimono ('a secret mistress'); | ^ gwai-kokti ('a foreign land'), A ~j^^ 
('a foreigner'), ^ -s/i/ ('a non-official history'; see also p. 70); | ti'j 
tozama (grade of daimios). 

J^Tt DO, NU ; DO, NU. yakko (' a slave, servant '). 28. 
"^ I nl Nuka (k. of Bingo; f.). | ffl Nuda (f.). 

vfl [Variant: -^.J YO;()r'\'0. wakashi, itokenashi,osanashi {'young'). 52. 
I ?S- osana-asobi ('children's games'). | -^ yo-jo ('a little girl'), 
^ -nen ('early years, }outh "), ^ or ^ -mio (also osanana, 'a child-name'), 
ft -c/n' ('childhood'). 

-T^l SATSU, SACHl. juda ('a card, ticket'). As satsu, also 'paper money, 
' •^ premature death '. 75. 

I :;jsj- I'udaiiiura, | iji]^- Sapporo (t.). | y ij: Fuda-no-tsuji (street- 
name). I i^Jj Fudaba (f.). 



191 Five Strokes 

.~~^m. SHI, JI ; Shimesu. shimesu ('to show, inform, announce'). 113. 
^J"^ I ^ Shiku, I m. Jisho (priests). 

tl2 [Script variant : ^.] SEI, SHO ; masa ; masa, Masashi, Tadashi, 
Tadasu, {tada, sada, nobu) ; zok., Sho-, rarely Masa-. masashi, tadashii 
('correct, upright, straight'). As sho in Buddhist titles, see p. 87; as kami, 
a secular title, see p. 85. 77. 

[Compare j^ (viii).] Towns: | fjH "ffj Sho-mio-ichi, f^-jfj, ^ -in, 
H -gon. I TJC IS 'i^ iMasaki-inari (tern.). | ^ |% Shoso-in (museum). 
Surnames : I H Wf Ogimachi (106th Mikado) ; | if Sho-no, jJiif 5f -ami 
(met.), ^ [^ -shinin ; | ^ Masa-hisa, J^ -to, ;|c -ki (ptr., pot.), ^{*- -i, 
"^ -mori (ptr.), 03 -da, 'g^ -zumi, i^ -mura (met.), ^J(i -bayashi (met.; 
[^ -oka, jg -gaki (ptr.). 

I A ^ Sho-liachiman (d.). I -^ Masa-ko (princesses, poetess). | 7^ 
Masato, Masando, | ^iji Masashi (n.). | '^ Shozon (no). \ |g, in titles, 
see p. 83, fin. \ jig Shoi (see p. 86). I ^ ^ Kozengo (zok.). 

Nengo : I % Sho-gen (1259), 4» -chu (1324-25), ^ -hei or -hio 
(1346-69), ^ -an (1299-1301), Vp -ji (i 199-1200), |p -wa (1312-16), ^ -cho 
(1428), ^ -ka (1257-58), ^, -toku (1711-15),^ -reki or -riaku (990-994). 

I j^ shogwatsu ('the first month' of the year), | ^ seishu (the eighth). 
I i^ sho-mei ('real name'), §g -»/?/ ('genuine signature'), |ij -men ('the 
front, obverse'), ^ (see p. 91). 

[]f SHO, SO; hiki. hiki ('a piece' of cloth two tan (jx or j^) long or 
nearly 65 feet; a unit of ten cash). 103. 
[Compare HP. (p. 183), ^I (166).] | ffl Hiki-da (t. ; f. swo.), |n ffl 
-wada, ff -no (f.). 

3^ GIOKU ; tama ; Tama, (tama, kiyo) ; zok., Tama-. tama (' a gem, 
^ bullet, bead, precious'). As gioku-, also 'Imperial'. Distinguish 
from 3E (P- -167). 96. 

I ^ ^ Tama-tsu-shima (is.), ^ -na (k. of Higo ; f.), -ina (same k.), 
in -tsukuri (k. of Oshu ; t. ; f. ; r.), jl| -gawa (r., see p. 104, 59; t. ; f. ptr., 
met., actor; joro), ^ (if) )\\ -gushi (-no) -gawa (r.), ^ [\i -no-yokoyama 
(m.), ^ ^ -de-no-oka (hill). 

Other Towns : /J> | Jl| Kotamagawa ; | 7jC Tama-midzu, / ^f 
-noi, ^£ -nia (Tamo as f.), ^^ -mura (f.), ^$ -rai, / i§ -noura, ^ -shima, 
^ -niwa, g: -ki (f. ptr.), f'g-taki. | H Tamao (anct. pal.). | M 
Tama-}'a (brothel ; n. actor). 

Other Surnames: | J^ Tama-no, ^^ -te (ptr.), ;fc -ki, ^ -i (actor; 
Tama no 1, no), f^ -shiro (actor), >fc -moto, H -da (ptr.j, 01 -ye, ^ -mushi, 



xE 



Five Strokes iiE, contd.) 192 

f^ -tsukuri, ^-Ij- -ri, ;j^ -niatsu, ^^ -"ova, jg -g'^^ki (n. wrestler), i^ kaji 
(lacq.), *^|| -zawa (actor). 

Other Joro : \ / xL Tania-noye, }^ -toko, ^ -sho, ^ -giku, 
^ -goto, HJ? -teru, 1^ -liagi, ^ -kadzura (last as no). Other Personages: 
I >f:|r Taniakatsura, | jg Giokuto (the Moon) ; | f^ Tama-zasa, \ii ||gi 
-yori-liime, ^ ^ -ori-liiiiie, ^ m -mo-no-niaye, Jj g -toji, |i %i ^ 
-tsuki-no-iratsume, ]{i ^ tori-no-ama; | ^ Giokushi (Yii Tzu, sennin), 
Tama-ko (worn. n.). | ^ 'ramakadzura [Genii Chapter xxii). 1 }|i 
giokuhen ('a lexicon', fi-oni the famous Chinese dic:tionary Yii-pien). 

TK HEI, HIO (BIO); HE; hira, taira ; hira (rare hiitiall}) ' ; sok., Hei-, 
I hei- (see p. 74). hira (' level, flat, a flat object, plain, ordinar}- ') ; 

taira, i.e., ta-hira (' level ') ; iairaka ni (' level, calm, safe '). Distinguish 
from ^ (p. 195) and ^ (v). 51. 

;fe I \^ Taihei-yd (the Pacific). | ^ Hirado (is. ; f.) ; H.-jima ^ 
(same is.), -kaikio '^i [1]^ (strait). | ^|S J^ Heigun-jima (is.). | ^ llh}? 
Hiraishi-toge (pass). Kori : | ^|S Heguri (Yamato ; f.) ; | ^ Heguri 
(Boshu ; f.) ; | ]^ Hiraga (Oslm ; f.). Cities: | j^ ^ Nara-no-miyako, 
later Heijo-kio (= Nara ^ ^; Hei-jo | ^ alone is the palace there); | ^ 
Heian or | ^ ;^ Taira-no-miyako, later Heian-kio (= Kioto ^ ^l ; Heian-jo 
I :^ M is the palace there). 

Towns : | Taira (see ^, xv, also Surnames) ; ^ \ Oliira (f. ptr. ; r.), 
Otaira ; /J> | Kohira (lacq. ; f. ptr. ; also Kodaira as f.) ; | J^ Heisaka 
(also Hirasaka as t. and f.) ; | ^Jj Hira-yama (cas. ; f. ptr.), ;;^ -ki (f.), 
^ -i (f. ptr., met., lacq.), ^ JSJ ]^ -igawara, ^ -fu (Hiro as f.), Jf} -de, 
03 -ta (f. ptr., met., enamellers), ^ -tani, ^ -o (f.), '/g -numa (f.), |& -matsu 
(f.), Pf, -bayashi (f. pot.j, ^ -jo (Hiraki as f.), ^ f^ -idzumi-no-tate, ^ 
-bari, 5f -no (f. ptr., met. ; tern., -jinja jjilji jgt), "^ -yu, J^ -tsuka (Tokaido 
stage 7 ; f . ; moor, -hara ]^), fig -fuku (f. ptr.), '^ -kata, |f. -o, ^ -sawa 
(f. met., pot.), m -se (f.). 

I FhI Hirama (sub. of Yedo; f.). | ^ |^ Biodo-in, | m ^ Heikan-ji 
(tem.). 

Other Surnames : | Taira (clan, see p. (^7), Hira ; | ^ Heike or 
I IX; Heishi, ' the Taira clan ' (Heike Monogatari ij^ |g, classic) ; I 51 3S 
Heikodama ; | )\\ Hira-kawa (sculp.), Ar -daira (see also p. 74, note i), 
-p -ko (Hira-ko and Taira-ko as worn, n., latter a court poetess), yt -moto, 
p9 -uchi, ^ -de, -^ -kata, "^ -ishi, j^ -moto, g -me, jfe -mitsu, ^ -zumi, 
fi -sa, )i -mi, ^ -iwa (met.), ^ -oka (ptr.), \^ -o. ;jlip -yanagi, ^ -idzumi 



Haga {Nihon Jimmei Jitcn) quotes only seven examples, three of them swordsmiths. 



193 Five Strokes 

(ptr.), ^ -shima (met.), ^^ -bara, -wara, ^ -be, ^ -ga ^pot.), -^ -tonii 
(pot.), j^ -iwa. 

Other Personages: | ^ Heigei (P'ing I, Chin, hero); I i>Jc ^ ^ 
Heijo-tenno or Nara-teiino (51st Mikado^); | fj| -^ Heisliinno (= Taira 
no Masakado) ; | ^g |il Heishokoku (= T. no Kiyomori) : | ^ Heida 
(dram. pers. ; zoh.); \ % Hiragawara, | ^ Hiraka (n.) ; /]» \ '{f\ Koheiji 
{zok.) ; I ^ Heima, | ^ Heigaku (see p. 86). 

I '^ Heiji or Bioji (nengo, 1159); Heiji Monogatari Jj^ ^, classic. 
I iU ^ hiragana (see p. 21); Hiragana Seisui-ki ^ ^ 12. (joruri). | ^ 
heimiu (' tlie common folk', see p. loi, 42; also a member of the same). 



^ 
M 



Variant of ^< (p. 168). 

HEI, HIO. As hei or hinoye, see p. 63. Distinguish from ^ (p. 171) 
and ^ (vi). I. 



-c^ GWA, GE;GA. feaicam ('a tile, brick'). 98. 

'^■^ [Compare )\\ (p. 149) or 'j'pj (viii) in combination with ]^, reading 

Kawara-.] ) \S\ Kawara-cho (street of Yedo). | ;f^ Kawarabayashi (f.). 

^ZT [Variant : ;g ] SEKI, JAKU (SHAKU) ; KOKU ; HA ; ishi, iwa ; 
■~* {iwa, ishi); zok., Ishi-. ishi ('stone, a stone, rock'); i-wa (usually;^, 

'a rock, large stone'). As kokit, a measure of capacity (see p. 65). 112. 

Provinces : | ^ Iwami (t. ; f. ; r.) ; | ')\] Sekishu (same pr.) ; | ^^ 
Ishikari (t. ; r.). Kori: | )\\ Ishikawa (Kawachi, Kaga and Oshu; t. ; mod. 
ken ; f. ptr., met., sculp. ; Ishi-kawa as r.) ; | ^ Ishidzu (Mino ; t. ; f. ; r.). 
Mountains: :;^ | ilj Oishi-yama; | '^ |Jj Sekison-yama (= O-yama ■;^ ]\\ 
in Sagami) ; I i ^ ill Jakuoji-yama ; | jg (^51) iJj Ishi-gaki(-dzuclii)- 
-yama. | [^ |I|^ Iro-zaki (cape). | :^c jfiljl Iwatagami (rock). | -^ 
(or W.) "11 Ishi-zumi (or -dzumi) -no-taki (fall). 

Other Towns: ^ \ Oishi (f. ptr., met., swo., sculp.); ;/; I ffl Oishida; 
A^ I ]^ Koishiwara ; I jjiljl ^ Shakuji (d.) ; | fU Isawa (r.j ; | tfj Isurugi ; 
I M U Kajikazawa (see |^, .\x) ; | ill Ishi-yama (f. ptr.), ^ -1 (f. ptr., 
sculp.), Hi -de (f.), iiii -chi or -ji, |J61 -oka (f.), ^ -nomaki (Ishimaki as f. 
and r.), ]^ -hara, -wara (f. ptr.), ^ ba, (^ -zaki (f. ptr.), ^ -be (Tokaido 
stage 50), J^ ig- -toritani, J^ ^ -doriya, y ^ -nomori, ^ -koshi, ^ -dzuka 
(f. ptr.), ;j^ -bashi (f. ptr.; m., bat., -yama; Shakkio as no), ^ -hama (pot.), 
^ -gase, ^ BijJ -yakushi (Tokaido stage 43). 



Heizei or Xara, according to Haga (Nilioii Jimmci Jiten). 



Five Strokes (^, contd.^ 



194 



/h I j'l Koishikavva (also written 1^ )\\), dlst. of Yedo, mod. kii of 
Tokio. Temples : | t ifilji ^ Isonokami-jingu ; | ]\\ ^ JM ^ Ishiyama- 
-hongwan-ji ; | ill ^ Ishiyama-dera ( | lU ^ ^ Ishiyama no shugivatsu, 
one of the Omi hakkei). 

Other Surnames : | Seki (pir.) ; | ^\i Oshiko ; | |-. Iwa-gami 



(Isonokanii as d.), \K^ -sliiro, i^, -shi. 



ki, ff -no (also Ishino) ; | Jl^ 



Ishi-maru (ptr.j, -tfl -kiri, J^ -do, 3i ~o, ^ -ge, ;^ -moto, fQ -da (ptr., 
text.), ^ -ai, ;5^ -bai, ^ -mitsu, ^ -dzukuri, |g. -zaka (ptr.), /jsf -niura, 
:^ -gaya, ^ -o (ptr.), '^iij -kavva, -kd, >j^ -matsu, |ll fg -wada, -^ -gane, 
jg -i, Jl -gaki, fi -lira, |ff -geta, J^ -jim^, ^ -gura (ptr.), -gf -dome, 
^ -do (met., svvo.), "^^ -vvatari, |& -guro (ptr., met.), ^ ;tJ^ -sone, ^ -mori, 
^ -ga, ^f -uchi, it -michi (swo.) ^ -do, |^, -vvata, i^ -ba, Ip^ -bata, 
^ -zavva, ^ -game, ^ M -seya, {g -odori. 

I ^ !i^ Sekidomaru (hist, pers.j. | 3i (also ^) ^ % Ishiobioye 
(srul[i.). I f^' Iwa-dzumi, ^ -sliiki (n.). | / jfil}l Ishi-no-kami {kiogen). 

CHO ; or SHO. mesu ('to take, do, summon, call, conscript '; also a 

polite colloquial suffix); yohu ('to summon, invite'). 30. 
I \)^ meshitsukai ('a servant'). 

IjO, MO: [hoko). hoko ('a halberd 'j. Distinguish from -^- (p. 172). 

no. 



^ 
^ 



|~t SfU; tada ; iada; zok., Tada-. tada ('only, ordinary'). 30. 
^^ [Compare Pfg (xi).] | £ Tada-mi (t. ; r.), tK -ki, Igf -no (f.). 

pl| KKl, KlO ; YE; (ye). ani, ye ('elder brother', see pp. 129-30). 10. 
^'U I )!l Anigavva (t.). | ^ Aniko (n. doctor). 1 ^ |f Kiodai- 

-isakai {kiogen). 



SL 



30- 



■yr" Used as a contraction of '^jl (xiii), 

tjpl MIX; MI; tami; lami; sok., Tami-. tami ('the people'). Distinguish 
*^ from R (p. 173) and ^ (vi). 83. 

I 'i'ann (f. ; wom. n.). | ^ Tami-ya (f.), ^ -gata (f. ptr.). | ^ 
tnitnbu (see p. S^). 

m KO ; or KA'lSl' ; KA ; (ki) ; .wk., | ^ Kine- (but | ^ i:{|; Koshiro 
I and Kashiro are quoted as modern nanori <»!' sokiiniio type). yoroi 

('iurnoLir); wrongly used for kabuto ('helmet'), properly ff{] (xi) or ^ (ix). 
As ko, also 'carapace, back of the hand'; as ko or kinoye, the hrst of the 
jikkan (see p. 63), hence feo, ' ftrst ' or '{principal' (as 2i '^^s/t, 'second', etc., 
see p. 39). Distinguish from jlj and \\i (\j. 1(32. 



195 Five Strokes 

[Compare homophones under ^ (viii).] | |^ Kai, orig. Kahi fpr. ; f. ; n. 

poetesses) ; | "}[] Koshu (same pr. ; Koshu-kaido p; jt, highroad). | iJj 

Kabuto-yama (m. ; Kozan as 1.) ; | |^ ^M; UJ Kaigane-zan, | ^ jlj 

Kinoyene-yama or Koshi-zan (m.). | ^ Konu or Kdno (k. of Bingoj ; 

I ^ Koga (k. of Omi ; t. ; f. ptr.). 

Other Towns : | Kabuto ; j If^ Kannoura ; | illj, Katchi ; | ^ 
Ko-shi (or Kasshi), jt -tachi, "^ -to, )^ -fu (cap. of Koshu). Other 
SuRNxVMES : \ ^ J±. Kainosho ; | g] Ko-da (met.), ^ -ra (architect ; also 
Kawara), ^ -ya, 5f -no, ^§ -do. | |^ ^ Kokomo (n.). | ^ katchu 
('complete armour"). | ^ kotei ('a daimio's cliief town-house'). 

m. BO, BO (MO); MO. haha ('a mother'; see p. 129, also p. 79, fin.). 
V' Distinguish from ^ (p. 170). 80. 

[Compare ^ (ix).] | )\\ Haha-gawa, | ^ jlj, for ^ )\\ Hahaki-gawa 
(r-)- I ^ H Horotsuki (t. ; Jwro \ ;^, ij^, is the cavalryman's arrow- 
guard). I tK Mo-gi, M^-ri, ^ -jima (t.), ft -tai (f.). 

|~| TAN ; {aki, -akira). ashita (' dawn ') ; akiraka (' bright '). Confused 
-tiL with the next; distinguish also from W (vi). 72. | ^ Asage (t). 

rt SHA ; or SHO, SO; SO; (katsu). kaisii ('moreover, sometimes'); 
-D*. karisome ('a short time'); oinarii ('great'). Confused with the 
foregoing. i. | ^S Atsuriu (t. ; f.). 

[in BEI, MlO. sara ('a dish, plate'). 108. | ^Jj Sarayama (t. pottery), 
^j^ KWA, WA. 'Growing crops'. 775. 



GO;0. ka (interrogative particle). Distinguish from ^ (p. 192). 4. 
I ^D A Ochibito, | ^ ^ Osamaro (n.). 



^J Variant of ^ (v). 

HO, BO ; BOi MO. toboshii (poor, deficient '). 4. 




r*l [Variant: it.] KIC, KIJ ; 7vO, 0; oka. oki ('a mound, hill'). i. 
• ' ' •* I Oka (f.) ; Kiu, in Chinese Ch'iu, Confucius. | ^ |^ Kiushoki 

(Ch'iu Ch'u-chi, Chin. sage). ^ \ Ooka (n.). 

1^ HAKU, BIAKU ; shiro, shira- ; {shiyo, aki). shiroshi (' wliite ') ; mosu 

I — I ('to state'). One of the Five Colours. Distinguish from g (vi) 106. 

[Compare ^\;: (p. 187), j^ (x).] | )\\ Shira-kawa (r. ; k. of Iwaki ; t. ; 

f. ptr. ; jord). \ p\ Shirokawa (another k. of Iwaki), Shirakawa (t. ; f. ; 



Five Strokes (^, contd.) 196 

72nd Mikado; palaces, -den J^, -kitadono J{t j^)- Mountains: | ^] Haku- 
-san, also Shira-yama : | ,11^ |lj I lakuba-san ; I :4^ S" Shiro(Shira)ki-ga- 
-dake ; | }^ {^J \\\ Shira-ne(-ye)-san ; | ^ (^) \[\ Shira-kumo(-ga)- 
-yania (former also Hakuun-zan) ; I ^ llj Shirotsubaki-yama. Other 
Rivers : | i^ )\\ Hakuto-gawa ; | ^ "^ Jl| Shirakijo-gawa ; | ^ jll 
Shirokame-gawa. | jg, ^, see p. 148, note. | 7K (|^.) -^g Shira-midzu 
(-ito)-no-taki (falls). | -^ ]^ Shirokane-ga-liara (moor). 

Other Towns: /J^ | '^ Koshirahama ; | ^ Shira-ko (also Shiroko 
as t. and f.), TJC -ki (f. ; also Shiroki as f.), ^ -i (f. ptr., pot. ; also Shiroi 
as t.), ^ -ishi (pot. ; f. met. ; also Shiroishi as t. and Hakuseki as n.), Tfj 
-ichi, ^ -oi, ^ -iwa, ^ -tsu (f.), ^ -sago, ^^ -ne (f.j, ^ -mine (f.j, j^ 
—tori (f.), ^f ^ -suka (Tokaido stage 32), 'l^ -sawa (f. ; hakutaku as myth, 
creat.), ^ -hama (f.). 

I •^ Shirokane (dist. of Yedo), Shirogane (f. ; n. ; street of Mi to, 
-machi W]"). 

Other Surnames : | i Shira-to, t. -kami, 7X -midzu, jil -ni, %£ -ye, 
^^ ^sugi, tf -ya, M. -o, >t^ -matsu, \^ -oka, f}\\ -su, ^ -ye, -tsuka, f^ 
-nami, jfiljl -kami, ^ -shima, ^ -kura, ^ -su, j^ -tsuka, ^ -nui, M -koslii, 
^ -hata, %^ -taki, M -se, || fuji (n. wrestler). 

Sennin : I ^ i\l Hakusekisei (Po Shih-sheng) ; | f| jE 7v Hakkaku- 
-dojin (Po-ho Tao-jen). Other Joro : | Shiro ; | ^ Shirotaye ; | ^ 
Shira-tama, % -mono, ^ -ito, H -ba, ^ -giku, ^ -tsuyu. | ^ 
Shira-ga (prince), ^ ^ -hashi-no-okina (eccentric), ^ ^ -tayu (Shinto 
priest), ^ ;^ -gikumaru, |^ g] -kashizono (hist. pers.). | ^ Hakuto 
(horse). 

-^'o : I ^ 5^ Hakurakuten ; | ^ Shirahige ('old man' in signatures); 
Shirahige-miojin |J^ filjl (d. and tem.). Nengo : | ^ Hakuchi (650-654) ; 
I J^ Hakuho (672-686). Other Locutions: I ^ or | ^shirotaye no 
(poet, for shivoshi, 'white'); I fQ ^ shirabioshi (danseuse) ; | ^ hakiiu or 
yudachi ('a sudden shower'); I -§i hakiishiki (mask); | j.!^ tlj ^ hakuba 
no sechiye (Imi^l. fest.). 

riT KWA, KE; uri ; (jH'i). tn'f ('a melon'). Distinguish from TR (p. 173). 97. 
/^ I ^ Uri-Li (f.), ^ 3!? -Lino (t. ; joro), ^ -dzura (bat.), 1^^ -wari 

(f-)> ^ A -nusubito (kiogen). 

/j\ Sill; YA, SHI; ya ; {tada, ya); zok., Xa-. ya Can arrow'). 111. 
y^ [Compare, for Ya-, A (p. i45)> ^ l^ii), M (ix), ^ (x), if (xviii).] 
Mountains : I ^ (::^ gi) lU Va-hadzu(-daijin)-yama ; | gg (or ^j [1] 
Yadzu-san ; I ;^ ifr Yagura-dake. Rivers : | % ]\\ Yabe-gawa (t.) ; 



197 Five Strokes 

/h I IH5 jl| Koyabe-gawa ; | ffl (f^ or ^|, ^) jlj Ya-ta(-hagi, -kage)-gawa. 
I M M Yasashi-no-liania (sliore). | ^ jff Yatogi-no-taki (fall). 

Other Towns : | Ji Ya-kami or -gaini (f.), P -guchi (f. ; ford, -no- 
-watari -/i). ^ -nai, iX ~^lnro (f.), f^ ^ -shiroda, ^ -tama, Bg -ta, -da 
(f. ptr., swo.), j/^ -hagi (f.), VX -buki (f.j, ;|g -ita (f. ptr.), M -ne (f.), ^, 
-shima (f. ptr.), ^ -gura (f.), ^t -kake, ^ -be (f. ptr.), ff -no (f. ptr., 
swo., sculp.), ^ -base (see ]). 107, 79; f. ptr.). | ffl ^ Yada-ya (brothel). 
I jt ^ Yatate-sugi (cryptomeria tree). 

Other Surnames: ;^ | Oya (ptr.); ± \ ^ Oyano ; | 75 Ya-no, 
± -tsiichi, ;^ -gi, H -|^r> -tabe (met.), H |^ -tabori, ^ -tsugi, iHi -ji, 
^ -mori. §E -nobe (met.), ^ |S -ozaka, ^ -mata, ^ -sada, ]^ -wara, 
lll^ -zaki. lep ^ -noshima, ^ -tomi, fj] -zaiiia, •^- -to, ^ -wata, -^ -zawa, 
^ -to, -dzLi. 

I ;^ ;# Yadaijin (d.). | |S Yakara (see p. 86). | ;f^ Tf. ^U 
Yanonegoro (play). 



^ 



Contraction of ^ (xv), alone and in its compounds (e.g., 5M> My M), 
^^^ also of the right-hand portions of ^ (ix), ^ (xi) and ^ (xiv). 

^/-hf I Old variant: iji.]^ SEI, SHO; iku-, iki-, nama-, oi-, -fu, -bu, -u ; 
nari, (-0) ; zok., Iku-. nam, iiniu (' to give birth to, produce ') ; 
umare ('birth, lineage', also 'birthplace, country of origin'); ikivii ('to live'); 
nama ('raw, unskilled, partly'); ki- ('pure, raw'); -fit ('a plantation'); tibu 
('natural'); sho-ziwu ('to produce, create'). See also ^ (vin). 100. 

[Compare, for Iku-. fJ^ (xii).] | p ^ Ikuchi-jima, | )^ ^ Ikutsuki- 
-shima (is.). | J|pJ Ikoma (k. of Yamato ; f. ; m., -yama) ; | H Ikuha or 
Ikuba (k. of Chikugo). | ^ J[£ Ikudama-no-sho (dist. of Settsu). | ^ ^ 
Oishi-zaki (cape). | ^ )\\ Shodzu-kawa (r.). 

Towns: /J> | fUj Konamase ; | ^ f^ Obonai (of Ainu origin); | ^ 
Oyunn or Oimi (f.) ; | ^ Iku-tsuki, ^3 -ta (f. ; forest, -no-mori ^ or ;|:j: ; 
tern., -no-jinja jjiljl jtt), iiii ^.ji (Oiji as f.), |^ -saka (f.), ^ -no, '^ -mo; | ^ 
Nama-mugi, ^ -se (f. ; r.). | ^ s^ jjiljl jlil: Ikudama-no-jinja (tern.). 

Other Surnames : 3;^ | Oi)u ; | %\ Vj^ Seigenji ; | )\\ Ikkawa, 
Namakawa ; | ^ Obokata, IJbukata, Ikigata ; | |^ Kigake ; | ^ Oi-shi, 
^ -saki ; | ^ Naiua-i (Ikui as f. ptr.), Ql f^ -yezawa (ptr.) : | 3i 
Iku-tama, ^ |fj> -tamabe, Jf} -de, :^ -tsu, ^ -ma, ^ -shima (lacq., actor), 
t| -ma, ^ -ine (or Ikine). 

' This is one of the most interesting of characters, from its great variety of distinctive readings 
both in ordinary language and in proper names (the two groups largely coinciding). 



Five Strokes (^^, contd.) 198 

I f^ Shobutsu (priest); \ ^ :^ W] Slioshinosuke (zok.) : \ ^ Nari-ko 
(court lady) ; | 3E Nario (svvo.) ; | P^ Iketsuki or | ^ Ikedzuki fliorse). 
I B9 ^ ^ Ikuta AtSLimori (no) ; | t|[ |^ ^ Ikedori Suzuki (kiogen). 

Locutions : | ^ij, I |j|] namagiki (' a smatterer '), /]> | shasei (' I '), 
self-liumiliatives ; | figj shokoku ('native country';; | ^ shonen (= gionen 
^y r^-:, see p. 42): — | isshd, [— ] | "^ [is]shdgai ('in all one's life'); | 
itii fSiji (or "pI) kijishi {— shitajishi; see "J*, p. 154); I gf? namayoi ('fuddled'); 
I ^^ ikebana ('flower-arrangement", abstract or concrete); | ^J iki-utsushi 
('a drawing from life'); | J^ ^ ikiningio ('living puppets'). 

>^p- \'ariaiit for |pj (vi). Distinguish from ^ (vi). g. 

/V RKI, RlO ; (yoshi, nori). yoshi (' good ') ; seshimeru (' to cause to do '). 
T As rei, ' a command ', also an anct. title and a colloquial honorific 

prefix. Distinguish from -^ (p. 174), -^ (vi) and -^ (viii). 9. 
I ^ llj Reisho-zan (m.). | ^ sakwan (tit., see p. 85). 



>j^ Variant of ^ (vi). 
y^ Variant of ^ (viij. 



I ; or TAI, DAI. wave (' I ') ; yovokobu (' to rejoice '). Usually read 
l-l tai or dai as a synonym of ^ (xiv) ; as tai, esp. 'exalted, venerable' 

(compare H I santai, p. 81). 30. 

I -g- Tai-gaku, ^ -rei or ^ -ho (= fliyei-zan, m., see j:t;, p. 165), 
Wi P5c -toku-in (Hidetada, sliogun). j -^ taimei ('Government orders 'j. 

*^ HEN, BEN. A sort of headgear. Usually found as a contraction 

yr of p (xvi). 55. 

r^ Variant of ^ (p. igo). 

:^V (^^i" y§^ 105 /")'"• /"J'" ('winter'; see p. 47). 15. I >fc Fuyuki (f.). 

 *y ^ [Variant: ^.] f^IU; or RITSU; tatsu, tachi, tate; Tatsu, [late, tatsu); 
— " zok., Tatsu-. tatsu ('to stand, rise'); tateru ('to erect, open up'); 
taclii ('standing, erect, setting out'). 777. 

[Compare, for TatsU-, ^ (vii), f^ (^vi), and, for Tate-, ^ (p. 152), 
i^ (xiii), m (IX), ft (xvii), ^ (xiii).] I Oj Tate-yama (m.; f.); | gg Oj 
Tatsuta-yama, | ^^ \\\ Tateshina-yama (m.). Towns : | ffl Tadda (f. ; 
also Tateda as t. and Tachida as f.) ; | JUp Tate-no (also Tachino; Tatsuno 
as f.), ^ -ishi (f. ptr.), i^ -ba ; | )\\ Tachi-kawa (also Tatekawa ; 



199 Five Strokes 

Tatsukawa as f. sculp. ; also Tategawa as f.), i£ -ye, fpj -kawa ff. ; also 
Tategawa as f.), ;fE -bana (f.), 1^ -ho, ]i?, -bara (f. ; also Tatsuliara as 
same t., L, and Tacliihara as f. ptr.). | ^ fM 1- ^ Tateyeboshi-jo (cas.). 
In Yedo : I M W]" Tachiuri-cho (street) ; I :fE M Tachibana-ya 
(brothel). Other Surnames: | Ritsu, Tate; :^ | Odate ; /J> | Kodate ; 
I ^ TatSU-mi, ^ -nami, '||> -zawa (also Tachizawa) ; | X Tachi-iri, 
7|C -gi; I ;|=^ Tate-bayashi (ptr.), f^i; -matsu (ptr.), ^ -iwa, j^ -ma, # 
-waki. 

\ M, \ M\ ^^ \ ^, see pp. 1 12-3. I ^ ^ lachimachi no isuki 
(the moon of the 17th night). 

^4^ or ~^ [Other variant, see p. 195.] GEN; har 11, [kit ro). hariika C dim'); 
■^^ -^ kuroshi ('black, dark'). See also p. 130, fin. 95. 

I M M (or W) Genkai-nada (sea). | f^ Gembu (see p. loi, 38): 

Gembu-do ^ (cave). | ^, Gen-toku (Hsiian-te), ^ -so (-tsung). Chin. 
Emperors. | ^ Genno (priest). | H gemba (see p. 83, init.). \ j^ 
tsubame (' a swallow '). 



X 



Variant of ^ (vi). 



— t^ SHU, SU ; SU ; nushi, {niori). nushi (' lord, owner, haunting spirit, 
— L» you'j. See p. 70, init, and compare the character "% (p. 143). 3. 
I _h shujo ('the Emperor'). | ff, I ^, | ^, see pp. 83, 84. 

mSHI ; CHI; ichi, -chi ; zok., ichi (in all positions, see pp. 71, 73). ichi 
(' a market, town '). As shi, ' a city '. Distinguish from :^ 
(p. 201). 50. 

[Compare — (p. 141).] | )\\ Ichi-kawa (r. ; t. ; f. ptr., met., actor; 
joyo), i^ -hara (k. of Kadzusa ; f.), -noharu (t.), ^ \\i -l)usa-yama (m.). 
Other Towns : | [Jj Ichi-yama (f. actor), jl| ^ P^ -kawa-daimon, ^ 
-ke (f.), Tfc -ki (f.), ^ -nari, >|sj- -mura (f. actor; theatre, -za J^, see p. 
100, 37), ^ -nami, -^i -ku, -ki (f.l, i\^ -jo, |^ -buri, ]^-, -shima (f.), Wf 
/r -nono, ^ -bu, j^ Jf -kano, ^ -juku, i^, -ba (f.), |f: -yeki. | ^ ^ 
Ichigaya, | ^ ||j JTf Ichibei-machi (dist. and street of Yedo). 

Other Surnames : | Ichi ; /J> | Koichi (met.) ; | P Ichi-kuchi 
(arm.), -da (ptr.), "^nj -kawa, [SJ -oka, ^^ -ura, ('ii|i -shi, ^ -kura, 5p -no, 
gf i^: -nosawa, '^f -sawa, ;^- -bashi (ptr.), M -nose. | ^]- (or i*) ^ ig 
Ichikishima-hime (d.) ; | i^ i Ichihara-o (poet) ; ;X I Ochi, | 7^ Ichindo 
(n-); /h I 1^ Iff Koichibei {zok.). \ r\* shichu ('in town, Town, the City'). 



t^ TA, DA. Simple form of JTi; (xi). 40. 



Five Strokes 200 

id^ ^^_. i-^-p KETSU, GECHI; ana. ana ('a cave, hollow, hole'). 116. 
^^ ^'w I p^ Anato (old name for Nagato ^ f^, jir.). Towns: 

I 7X Ana-niidzu, f^ -nai, -chi, -j^ -buto, WX -buki, j^ -niura, f,i|) -shi. 

I % Analio (anct. pal.): And-ji ^ (tem.). I ;'^ A ij^ Anabato-hachiman 
(tern.). Surnames: | ^ Ano : | jlj Ana-yanui, gj ta, )^i -zawa. 

-J^ . _ / HON; HO, NE: moto, -nomoto ; moto ; zok., Moto-. moto 
■^ '^ ('origin, original, below'). As hon-, 'original, this, the 

present, principal ' ; also alone, ' a l)ook ' ; a numeral-suffix for trees, etc. 
(see p. 40), and a common element in street-names (p. 10, note 2). Borne 
as a vion, aloiie or within a ring, bv various dainn'o families named Honda 
I ^ 75. 

[Compare yt (P- i^'?)-] I #|5 Hompo, | .^ Hon-clio, fj^l -koku, ± 
-do (' Japan ') ; | ^'H Honshu (the Main Island). | ^ Hon-shima (is.)> 
Motojima (f.). | ^ Moto-yoshi (k. of Oshu ; t. ; f.j, ^ -su (k. of Mino ; 
lake, -ko or -no-umi ^, also written | |g \^). | ^J Hon-zan (m. ; see 
also Locutions), Motoyama (t., Nakasendo stage 32 ; f. ptr.). /\\ \ )\\ 
Omoto-gawa (r.). | if ]^ Honno-ga-hara (moor). 

Other Towns: | illi Hon-ji (lit. 'native land', 'original territory'), 
^f ^. -giotoku, JFh -jo (Nakasendo stage 10; f. met.), ^ ^ -sodo, ^ -no, 
^ -gu (or Motomiya, latter as f. ; see also Locutions), Sf _t. -nogami, 
.^ -shuku (or Motoshuku ; former as f.), ^^ -go (also dist. of Yedo, mod. ku 
.of Tokio; f.), jf ^ -doji ; | g Hom-me (f.), PTJ -machi, ^ -moku (f.), 
;P>3 M. -miojo; | "fli M MotO-ichiba, ^ 03 -yoshida, I® -tate. I Jiff 
^Honjo (dist. of Yedo, mod ku of Tokio ; f.). Temples : I P^ ^ Hommon- 
-ji ; I M 'fit, I^, M^ J^) ^ Hongwan (-no, -riu, -koku, -jo) -ji. 

Other Surnames; | 03 Hon-da (ptr.), ^ -da (i)tr., met., swo.), jlnf 5§ 
-nami (lacq., sword-experts, etc.), j^, ^ -jo, ^ -do (ptr. ; see also Locutions;, 
i^ -clio; I j^ Hom-mura, fj] -ma; | tK MotO ki, ^^ -sugi, j^ -o, 
Jg -ori, p6) -oka, :^ -dzu, ]^ -liara, if -no, ^ -nashi, j^; -zawa, ^ -hashi. 
I |/i Honimbd (n. ^o-players). | >|; Motosuye {joro). | :^ in 
-J^ P9 :^ Honcho-niJLishiko {jdriivi). Locutions : | ilj hou-zau, -^ -;'/ 
('chief temple'. Bud.), ^ -^'■zl, frh sha ('chief shrine', Shinto), ^ -do ('chief 
building' of a Bud. tem.), :^ -^;oj7 ('chief object of worship,' Bud.), P;^ -in 
(first of two or three surviving retired Emperors, also ichi-iu — 1^^}, ^ -ke 
('main family'), ^ -ka (the tanka or 31 -syllable stanza), ^ [pI -kegaycri 
('the age of 61', lit. 'returning to the original cycle-combination'), '^ -so 
(' the vegetable world, botany ') ; I ;/L kom-marn (' the keep ' of a castle), 
^ -mo ('one's chief desire'). 




20I Five Strokes 

KIO, KO. saru ('to take away, go away, leave'). 28. 

-4^ BI. MI; MI. imada, niada ('not yet'). As 6/ or hitsuji, 'the Goat, 
'^^ or Sheep ' (see p. 63). 73. 

—4-^ BATSU, MATSU ; MA; suye ; siiye, (mitsu); zoh., Suye-. si/yc ('the 
-^^ end, top, future, descendant'). Compare locutions on p. 130, fin. 
As Suye- at the beginning of street-names (see p. 10, note 2). Distinguish 
from ^$ (viii) and its variant. 75. 

[Compare ^ (viii), |5^ (xi).] | )\\ Suye-kawa, "§ -yoslii (t. ; f.). 
Other Surnames: | % Suye-moto, y^ -naga, ^j, -hiro, -^-kane, g -da, 
^' -tsugu, il^ -take, ^ -nobu, /^ -matsu, ^ oka, ^ -taka, ^ -mori, 
^ -kane, ;^- -liiro (joro ; lit. a type of folding fan; Suyehiro-bashi ;f^, 
bridge, -matsu ^^, pine-tree, -gari ^^, kiogen). \ ]]% 1^ Suyetsumuhana 
{Genji Chap, vi ; lit. the SafHower, benibana). | ^ matsuji, | ]^ massha 
('branch temple'); | ^ matsuge ('branch family'), but | |^ bappan ('cadet 
branch' of a daimio family). 

R^ HI, BI. kaiva ('skin, bark, peel, leather'). 107. 

ht^ Variant of ^ (p. 179). 

- X * HO, FU ; nuno, me; (shiki, taye). niinn ('coarse cloth'). Distinguish 
^l^ from tU (p. 199). 50. 

[Compare homophones under /f> (p. 168).] | /g. )\\ Xunoshi-gawa, 

I M i^, f5lli) jl| Fu-se(-ru, ^shi)-gawa .(r.). | fi Nuno-ga-taki, | ^I }i 

Nunobiki-no-taki (falls). Towns : /J> | ^ Ofuse (Kobuse as f.) ; I ^ 5? 

Hoteino; | ^ Mera (f.) ; | f5ili H Xunoshita (f.) ; | )\\ Fu-kawa (f.), 

ffl -da (f.), J^ -se (f. met.; lit. 'a priest's fee'), f^ -ma. 

Other Surnames : | :^ Pu-tsu, fjll H -seda, •© -ru, jl'f -no (ptr.), 
^ -se; I Ji Nuno-ganii, g -me, H^ -mura, ^ -ya (pot.). | 1^^ 7^ M 
Fushinoya (art-name). | ^ [?II -fp^] Hotei[-osh6] (d., see p. 105, 68). 

-f-^ [Variant : ~fc] SA ; SA ; (sitke). hidari (' left-hand, the following, 
-^-^ the below-mentioned '). Compare the next. A common element 

in titles {Sa-) and zokiimio [Sa-, -sa-) ; see pj). 71 f, 81-6. | ^ as so, lit. 
' welfare, tidings '. 48. 

[Compare homophones under -^ (vii).] | % ± Hidari-fuji (Mt. Fuji 

as seen from Nango fg %]. \ ^ Sazawa or Aterazawa (t.). Surnames : 

I P Sakuchi; | 7^ BQ Soda; | X ^ Samonji (swo.). I Hidari 

(nickname, esp. of Jingoro, sculp., 'the Left-handed'), Sa (n. swo.). | ^, 



Five Strokes (;£, contd.) 202 

Saji (Tso Tzu, sennin). \ ^ Sakon (poetess, title and zok. ; S.-no-sakura 
^, cherry-tree) ; /J'» | jf? Kosakon, /J> j ^ Kosakio (poetesses). | ^ 
Sa-nai, t^ -chu, ^ -hei, P^ -mon, i|^» ::;;[s; -genda, ^ -zen (see p. 86). 

I -^ J.t:> Sa-yaina, v\ Mj -jinia, vfi t^ -jiye, # -kio, Hf -mori (zok.). 

/ ■> YD, 1.1 ; Af i^"/. mi^^i ('right-liand, the foregoing, the above-mentioned'). 
^-l Compare the foregoing. As u, a common element in titles and 

sokumid (but see p. 73. ;';;//.). Distinguish from ^ (p. 193). 30. 

I :fe n Usa(Uba)guchi (t.). Si-rnames : | B3 Migita (ptr.) ; | i£ 
Ukon (actor: tit. and zok.; n. poetess, No. 38 of the Hundred Poets; U.-no- 
-tachibana ^, orange-tree) ; I M| "^ Umakai : | Ift Udo. | f^ U-nai, 
r|i -chu, ^ -hei, f^ -mon, ^ -zen (see p. 86). Zokumio : I Hf P^ j^ 
Yemosaku ; | p\ M, U-jima, ^ ^ ~]h'^j lil ~'"ori. | ^ yilhitsii ('a 
secretary '). 

— t^ KO; KO; furu; furii, hisa. furushi ('old, antique'); inishiye ('antiquity, 
l-J formerly '). As Ko- before a name, ' the old, the original '. 

Distinguish from ^ (p. 203) and "^ (vi). 30. 

[Compare, for Ko-, /J^ (p. 149), ^ (154J, E >'-05)) 5E. (vni), and, for 
Furu- |g (x), I^ (ix), -g (xviii).] I j^. Koshi (k. of Echigo; f . ; r.) ; | -fti 
Furuichi or Furuchi (k. of Kavvachi ; former as t., f. ptr.). | )\\ Furu- 
-kawa (r. ; t. ; f. ptr., met., swo., sculp.). Other Towns: | '/pJ Ko-ga (Nikko- 
kaido stage; f. ; also Furukawa as f.), ^ -mi, /^ -fu, ^ ^- -ganei (for /J> 
etc.), ^ -ga (f.), ^ las -sobe (pot.j, f^ ^ -gahashi ; | □ Furu-kuchi, \\i 
-yama (f. ptr.), ^ -hira, "ffj i^^ -ichiba, Ql -ye (f.), PIJ -machi, -^ -yu, 
^ -michi, f^ -seki. | -(j'Ji Koto or Kowatari (cas.), Furuwatari (f.). 

Other Surnames: | -4* Ko-kon (actor; see also Locutions), ^ 09 -uda, 
^ -zai (also Furuari), :^ -bayashi (also Furubayashi), y^ -to, ^^ ^ -gay a, 
^ -mori, ^ -hitsu (art-experts), ^ -ma (lacq.), ^ -to, ^ gg -toda ; | ^ 
Puru-uchi, ^ ^ -teya, tJc -ki, fQ -ta (ptr.), ^ -ike, ^' -yasu, :^ -saka, 
^ -ya (ptr.), .j^ -matsu, ^ -hata, ^ -ya (ptr.), ^|5 -gori, ^ -shima, ^ 
-miya, ^ -ya, ll|§ -saki, if -no, ^ -sho, ^15 -sato, i^ -sawa (ptr.), ^ 
-hashi (ptr.), ^ -se. 

Personages : | j^ ;j[; Kon-no-kata, | '^^ Kocha (ladies of Tokugawa 
court) ; I ;& ^ Ko -ukio (ptr.), ^ Ql -omi, 3^ ^i -shikibu (mus.), -^ ^ 
-sami, g ^P -toko, ^ ^ -jihi (n.), j|Ij -sen (see p. 86); | A Furu-hito 
(poetj, -bito (prince), B -hi, -g^ -ki (poets), i^' ^ ^ -inosuke {zok.). 

Locutions: | -4* ko-kon ('ancient and modern'; but see p. 109, 83), 
^ -ji ('an old story, legend'; Koji-ki |2,, history), ^- -ki (the age of 70, 
see p. 42), ;^ -bun or ^ -;i (' ancient form ' of a character), S^ -butsu 
(' an antique '). 



203 Five Strokes 

jjk O ; {)iaka, naga). mannaka, nakaba (' the centre '). 37. 
-^ I 14 Nakaba (n.). 

j4j SHI; Fithito. jubito ('an historian, secretary'). As s/ii or jiuni, 'a 
^^W history ' ; see also pp. 70, 82, 85. 30. 

I+I SHIN ; nobu. mosii, noberii (' to state 'j. As s/iin or sarti, ' the Ape ' 
I (see p. 6)3). 102. 

I 'S W Shimposho (Shen Pao-hsii, Chin. hero). | ^ Shingei 
(see p. 86). 

i-t-j YU, YU ; YU ; yoshi, (yori) ; zok., Yoshi-, less commonly Yu-. yoshi 
m ('cause, reason'); yovu ('to depend on'). 102. 

[Compare vjli (viii), •^- (xii).] | >f-ij Yu-ri (k. of Oshu ; f. ; is., 

-shima), ;^ -fg- -bu-dake (m.). Towns : | ^ YQ ; | fl Yu-ni, ^, better 

J;fc, -i (Tokaido stage 15; both as f., latter as f. ptr. ; coast, -ga-hama ^), 

^ -sa, |llj^ -ki, ^ -ra (f. ; strait, -kaikio '^ [I^). Other Surnames: I Yu ; 

I 7|C Yu-ki, :^ -bu, H -mi, ]^ -bara, -zuhara, J^ -za, '^ -hama. 

I ^1] (R) It ^ Yu-ri (-ra)nosuke {zok.), g ;^ -dzuru (n.), M ^ -i"i-l<t) 
(worn. n.). I ^5 yurai ('origin, raison d'etre'). 

ytl^ HAN; HA; Nakaba, (naka). nakaba, nakara ('half, halfway, middle '). 
1 See p. 39, init. Distinguish from ^ (p. 102). 24. 

I tn Handa (t. ; f. ; r.). Other Surnames : | ^ Nakarai ; | |^ 
Hambara ; | ^ Han-dani, '^^i. -zawa, ^ -do (ptr.). | ^ jjD Han-daka 
(rakan), ^^ ^ -dayu ijoro), ^ -ge (see p. 86). I ^ Hampei, | # ^ 
Hampeida (zok.). | ^ Hashitomi (no). zi B I nigwatsu- nakaba ('middle 
of the 2nd month '), etc. 



-tr Variant of ^ (p. 197). 



1-^ SEN; zok., Ura-. shimeru ('to occupy'); uraiiau ('to foretell, divine'). 
I—* Distinguish from "^^ (p. 202). 25. 

-I j> KAN ; A'A ; ama. amashi (' sweet '). 1^9. 
M [Compare ^ (p. 168), J^ (204).] | |i!| Kanra (k. of Kotsuke ; f. ; 

r., also Kanna-gaw^a). | ;4c Ama-a^, M -nawa (t.). Other Surnames: 
:^ I Oama; | ]^ Hm Kan-nabi, ^ ^ -roji (swo.) ; | M Ama-ri, ^ ^ 
-no, ^ -mi, IQ, II -kasu. | Dq Kangeki (Kan Chi, sennin). 

\Y^ Variant for £ (p. 195). 

-^ FUTSU; or HOTSU. A negative; used lor s dara, 'a dollar'. 57. 
^^ I S ^ Hottara [rakan). \ ^ Fusso (n.). 



Five Strokes 204 

III- . jr|^ SEI, SE ; SB, YO ; yo : yo, (toshi, tsugi-, -tsugu). yo (' the 
• — " *—* world, an age, a generation, contemporaries'). As -se'i 

after a number {issei, nisei, sansei, etc.), it denotes the order by generation 

(compare f^, p. 187); as sei-, 'hereditary'. Distinguish from 4^ (p. 162). i. 
[Compare fg (xix).] | H Se-ra (k. of Bingo; f.), H ^ -tamai (t.), 

ti. B3 rata (t. ; f.), B ^^ ^ -tagaya (dist. of Yedo), :^ ^ -son-ji (tern.). 

Other Surnames : :;^ I 1^ Oseko ; | ;|c Yo-ki (also Seki), ^ -tsugi 

(ptr., pot.) ; I "^ Se-ko, [5 -ta, ^ -ya. ]^ -ra (ptr. ; Tokinaga as n. 

prince), ^ ^ -yama (dancers). 

I ll /£. ^ Yosotarashi-hime (princess) ; I /^ llj Yoyoyama (joro) ; 
I H 5if Seanii (n.). | ^ sekai (' the world '). 2r. I M .iTf^sci no son 

('descendant in the fifth generation'), etc. 

\j^ KO ; shiri. shiri, izarai ('back, hinder part, rump'). 44. 
^^ I ^ Shitsukari (t.). | M )\\ Shiri-nashi-gawa (r.), ^ (or M) li^ 



-ya-zaki (cape), f^ -uchi (t.), [gj -taka (f.j, ^ -kake (f. swo.). 

tpf J I, NI ; J I, NI, NE; ama. ama, \ f^ ^i[) amahoshi, }^ £ | bikiini 
/tl ('a Buddhist nun'). 44. 

[Compare ^ (p. 168), -y* (203).] | ^ Niiji (t.). | g- Ama-ga-dake 
(m.), d^ -gasaki (t. ; f.j, ^ -se (t.), ^ -ko (f.), ^ ^^ -ko-iratsume (princess), 
jEh -sho (brigand), )|^ ^ -shogun (= Masa-ko as widow of Minamoto no 
Yoritomo), ^1 ^ -midai (same). 

|-|| KA ; A'^ ; {yoshi, art) ; | >[c as kaia. yoshi (' good ') ; -beshi (a polite 
J imperative suffix to verbs). Distinguish from ffj (p. 190). 30. 

[Compare homophones under ;^|I (p. 187).] | ^ Ka-ni or -ko (k. 
of Mino), -ni, -ji (f.), |f|> -be (t.), J^ -nari, % -maru, M M -tori (n.). 
I ^ M ^ "^ L'mashimate-no-mikoto (d.). | Yn Umashi (n.). 

— 't SHI (SU) ; SHI; Tsukasa, (mori). tsukasa ('a chief, government bureau', 
"J see p. 82). As shi, also ' a professor, craftsman ' (often used 

alternatively with X, &i', as a sufTix with that meaning). 30. 

[Compare liomophones under J^ (vii).] | Ji!^ Shiba (f. ptr., met. ; see 
also p. 86); Shime (n.) ; anct. Cliin. title, ssu-ma ('minister of war' under 
the Chou dynasty), and surname, wdience the following : — Shiba-onko '2m 5^ 
(Ssu-ma Kuang 5^, Chin, worthy), -kishu ^ ^ (Clii-chu, sennin), -shotei 
j^ %i\ (Ch'eng-cheng, sennin), -tattd ^ ^ (Ta-t^ng, priest). | Tsukasa 
{joro). I ^ Shislio (see p. 86). 



^ 



HO; HO \ kane (common with swordsmiths). kanerii, tsutsu7nu ('to 
wrap u\), pack, conceal '). 20. 



205 Five Strokes 

y^j KO, KU; KU. kagiru ('to limit'); magaru ('to be bent'). As kit, 
V 'a sentence, stanza'. Orii^inally a variant of ^] (p. 182). 30. 

-^V Complex form of zL (p. 143J, 'two'. 56. 
^ Contraction of ^ (xi). 16. 

[E] Variant of HI (vi). 13. 

m YO, YU ; YO, YU ; mochi. mochiiru ('to use'). 101. 
/TJ [Compare ^ (ixj, ^ (xi).] I gg Yoda (t.), Mochida (f.). | [^ 

Mochii, I ^ fH Mochigase or Monagase (t.). I PjJ Yomei (31st Mikado); 
Yomei-tenno Shokunin-kagami 5^ M ^ A li (yoi-ar/). | 7X >'o^-"i (water 
stored for special use, as fires, etc.). 

JJjJ ^>i- U SAKU; or SATSU. fuda ('a ticket'). As satsu, 'a volume'. 13. 

(No on.) tako ('a paper kite'). [50.] 

jlX I ^ yakko Takohei (' the servant 1\'). 

^ BO ; (shige). As bo or tsiichinoye, see p. 63. Distinguish from j^J^, 

etc. (vi). 62. 

Irlj [Contraction : 7|f •] SO. meguvii (' to revolve '). 22. 
~^ I im Sosa (k. of Shimosa; f.). 

gKIO, KO ; KO ; (0-, nao). oinaru (' large "). . Distinguish from gi 
(VI). 48. 
[Compare homophones (Ko-) under "^ (p. 202).] | J^f Ko-ma (k. of 
Koshu), m -se (t.), ^n iSlS -chibe (f.), # -se (f. ptr. ; prince). | \if., \t 
Ogura-ike (lake; see ^, x). | ffl Ota, | ^ ^^ Kosone (f.). | 'g 7^ 
Kioreijin (Chii Ling-jen, sennin). \ ^ kiokwai, oyadama ('the principal . . .'). 

Ill [Variant: /Jj.] SHUTSU, SHUCHI; or SUI ; idzu, ide, dc ; Idsuni. 

*"^ idzurii ('to come forth, rise'); dasu, idasu ('to put out, send out, 

bring out, exhibit, open up'): derii, idevu ('to go out, issue forth'). 17. 

I ^ Dewa (pr. ; f.), Idzuha (t.) ; Idewa-no-ben ^ (poetess). | -^ 
Idzumo (pr. ; zok.), Idzumo, Shutto or Shitto (k. of same pr.); Idzumo-zaki 
il^ (t-)' -ya M (brothel). | 7K Idzumi (k. and t. of Satsuma). | ^g 
Idzushi (k. and t. of Tajima; f.). 

Other Towns: /J> | Koide (f. ptr., met.) ; /]> | ^ Koidcshima; | 'MM 
Adakai ; | ^ ff tK Deai-no-shimidzu ; | P Deguchi (f. ; lit. ' exit ) ; 

I iHij: Idzu-mi, ;g f}|> -be. | ^ Deslnma (part of Naga.saki in Hizenj, 






m 



Five Strokes (Hi, contd.) 206 

Dejima (f.). Other Surnames : ;^ \ Oide (ptr.) ; | j{J^ Suino ; | gg 
Ide-ta, ^ -Lira (also Deura) ; | ^ De-i, g -nie (sculp.), j^ -mura, ^$ % 
-kishima (actor), fKfj buclii. | 7X jil Demidzugawa (n. wrestler). | ^$ 
deki (' turn-out, result, success ') ; Deki-maru ;/L, -boshi ^ (n.). 

Other Locutions: | |]| shus-san ('issuing from the mountains', epithet 
of the Buddha, Shussan no Shaka ^ ^), jli* -se (' making one's debut, 
taking the Buddhist scarf; Shusse-Kagekiyo ^ f^, joruri), "^ -sei ('displaying 
one's character', i>un 011 | 3^ shiissei, 'diligence'); I IS, I )S shuppan 
('publishing, published') ; | ^ de-tachi {' setting out f)n a journey'),/^ -dana 
('a branch establishment"), ^J} -some ('issued for the first time'). 

pj Variant of (vij. 31. 

rirt SHU, JU. I J\. shujin or 7neshudo, 'a prisoner, convict'. 31. 
F-^ I ^Dt shugoku (see p. 83). 

[Script variants: [QJ, ;^, ~]]^ ; complex synonym (not used alternatively 

in names) : ;^.] SHI ; SHI, YO ; yotsu-, yo-. yotsii, yo- (' four, 
fourth"). See pp. 37, 41, 42, 48, 71, 73, 88, loi, 116. | 3J^ as shiho or 
yomo, 'four sides, all quarters' {20k., Yomo- ; see also Examples). 31. 

[Compare, for Yo-, jit (p. 204), ^ (xiv), and, for Shi-, homophones 
under ^^ (vii)] I ^ Shikoku (division of Japan containing 'four provinces', 
see p. 122); Shikoku-saburo H 1^|> (the Yoshino ^ if Riverj. | |Sf ill 
Adzuma-yama (m. ; see also below); | PJ§ ^ Shimei-ga-dake (summit of 
Hiyei-zan, m.). \ ^ f§. M Shibire-no-umi (lake). | H {Ji}, -f-, -\- A) JH 
Shi-ma(-ma[n|to, -juhac]ii)-gawa (r.). | ^ "g" ^^ Yoiso-no-mori (forest). 
Towns : | Q Tti Yokkaichi (Tokaido stage 42) ; | ^ Shi-nohc (f.), 
-[' H -jima {shijuman, '400,000'), ^ if, -tengi, % ^ |fj( -rogahara, /j^ -ma; 
I ii; Yotsu-lsuji, ^ -kura, )^ -bashi ; | ')j Yo-kata (f. ; also Yotsukata 
as f. ; see also above), •>' ^j j^ -tsukaido, f§ -ura. 

I jl^ Shijd (dist. of Kioto; f. ; 87th Mikado; school of painting, -ha 
'^) ; Shijo-nawate fflg (t.). In Yedo : | ^ Yotsu-ya (dist., mod. kn of 
Tokio ; f. ptr.), if 3^ -ki-ddri (street), @ M -me-ya (brothel). 

Other Surnames: | J] |^ \\ Watanuki;- | ^ 3E Shi-tenno (see 

also ])p. 101-2), if. Iji' -hommatsu, ^ -nomiya (ptr.), ^ g -mada ; | x 

Yotsu -moto, if, -moto, M -ya, ^ -se ; I + ^ Yo-zumi, ')j -moda. 

I $ Yotsu-guruma (wrestler), |^ -ami (poet), ^ ^ -yaan (art-name). 

I S >^ Yogoroku, I ^j I :/i'. ;^ |^j p^ Yomoshigoyemon (20/;.). | jJiiJ 

Adzumaya {Genji Chapter l). | ^' ^ shihohai (Impl. fcst.). 

' As a date this would be read shif^watsii tsuitachi, 'first day of tlie fourth month", the time 
when unwadded clothing {tvataniiki ^ ^) was resumed. 



20' 



Five Strokes 



HDEN; TA, TE; ta ; (ta, hiro, tada) ; zok., Ta-, rarely Den-. ia ('a 
rice-field, rice-swamp'). 102. 

[Compare ^ (vi).] Kori : /Jx | Oda (Bitchu ; cas. ; f. ptr., met.); 

I jlj Ta-gavva (Buzen and Ushu ; r. ; f.), :^ -gata or -kata (Idzu), j^ -mura 

(Kadzusa; f. ptr., met., pot.; no). | ^ Ta-jima (is.; f. ptr.), -^ -gata 

(lagoon). Other Rivers : :;^ | jlj Ota-gavva (f.) ; | J^ (M) JH 'I'^i- 

-nakami (-busa)-g"awa. 

Other Towns : ^/^ | ]^, Otawara (f.) ; ;^ | (or ^) ^ Otaki ; /J% | jlj 
Otagawa (f.), Kodakawa ; /J^ | ^1^ Otai (Nakasendo stage 21; f.) ; /]> | ^, 
Odaslii (pot.); /J> I ]^ Odawara (Tokaido stage g) ; I gg Dento ; | y p 
Ta(To)nokuchi ; | =f Ta-go (f. ; bay, -no-ura •^), p -guchi (f. ptr., sculp.), 
_b -gami (f. ; n.), -nouye (f.), J^ -maru (f.), \[\ -yama (f.), r\t -naka (pot. ; 
f. ptr., met., sculp., pot.),i ^ -i (f.), \\: -shiro or -jiro (f. svvo., actor), ^^ 
-bira, # jpt}! -mogami (f.), ^. X -nushimaru, ^ H -fuse (f.), % -jui (f.), 
fJC -buse, ig llfi -nnbe (f.) or -nabu, ^ -ro, j^ -biko, |^ -suke, ^ -goto 
(see also Locutions), fS -numa, ^ -ko, 3^ -nami, ^ -biko, ^fff -noura 
(Taura as f.), / \§ -noura, ]^ -wara (lacq., pot. ; f. ptr., actor), j^ 4: 
-waramoto, |^ -buchi (f.), if -no. Sip /r -nono, |a> -be (f. ptr.) or -nabe, 
^ ^^ -mugimata, fjiE -nashi, /jj; J| -mari, '^ -gi, ^ -sawa (Tazawa as f. 
met.), lH -ze, ^ -nabe (f. ptr., met.), % '^ -tsuruhama. | BJ Ta-machi 
(several streets of Yedo ; f.). 

Other Surnames: | Den (ptr.); i;, | Ota^; ^ j f^ (jg, ffi) Ota-jiro 
(-gaki, -guro) ; /> | -tjj Odagiri ; /J> | ^i^, Otabe ; | /^ Ta-da, f -sliita, 
-noshita, ;^ 'f^ -kubo, j^ -uclii, -nouchi, f\i |f -nakadate, ^j- -tsuki (lacq.), 
7J<. -naga, UJ.- gf -mono, Jll) -chi, -ji, ^ -yasu (ptr.), ^, g^ -saka, :J>|i ;^ 
-namura, :^ -dani, -}'a, ^ -o ([Mr.), v'pj -gawa, ^\:. -bayaslii, jjlf -dokoro, 
^"U -chi, 31^ 7|c -namiki, S^ -maki, jJ? -cliika, [35] -oka (ptr.), ^ -bata, 
^ -nami, ^ -Vci, fjb ;|sj" -nomura (ptr.), ^ -guwa, ;3^ -gura, ^* -miya, 
M M -waraya fsculp.j, Hl^j -zaki (ptr.), if ;jsj- -nomura, if iJj> nob«>, ^ ^|- 
-bei, :j!^ -ni, |,'i -yui, ^ -ga, ^ -nobori (plr.i, lf(^ -ji, -michi, ^^ -bata 
(ptr.). ^ -bashi, ^ -gusari ([)tr.). 

Personages: \ M, \ ^\ /^"- ^''t' P- ".i- 97, 2(\ | ji? Ta-miclii, 

;i|«j- j^, -muramaro (generals), :f\i '^. kulsu. ^}i sa, 3^ ][]] ^ -jiniamori, 

■g -nomo (n.), ^ -me, ;fij- -^p -niura-ko iwoiii. n.l, % fyj- -dzuki (poet), 
^ ^ -dzu-ko (poetess). 



' Alsd, in seal-script, as a censor's mark on udodriit-^ Ijclwecn 1^4; and 1S5-;. 
' This name is far less common tlian ^ |5 Ola. 



Five Strokes EQ, contd.) 208 

Loci'Tioxs : I ^ densha, inaka (' tlie country, rural'); | ^ dengaku 
(dance) : | ||| tauye (' transplanting rice ") ; | ^ ^ tagoto no tsukl (art- 
motive, ' tlie moon rellected in a number of rice-swamps'). 

tzt MOKU ; ME; me; Me, [me). mc ('an eye, graduated mark, tooth„ 
*— * grain |of wood, cloth, etc.] '). See also p. 39, B. Distinguish 

from (J (p. 184) and Q (vi). 109. 

I fM 1^ Me-tachibara (t.), |^ -jiro (sub. ol' Yedo), H -guro (ditto; 1'.). 

Other Surnames: ;/1; | Ome (met.); | jl'f Me-toki, ^ -ga, ^ (j}\]) g, 

-gata (both ptr.), ^ J^ -nukiya (mus.), ^, -toku. 

Personages: I jiM, I !^ iH. see p. no, 86; | iH Mokuren (priest); 
I ^ ^ Meko-hime (princess). Titles: | uioku (see p. 85); | j^ mokudai; 

['X] I ^'J* Lo]me/sj(^(?. I >fij viekiki ('an expert'). | ^, wrongly | ^, 

megane (' spectacles ' ; cf. fl^, xi). | JfJ ]j^ tnedetashi (' fortunate ', as in 

0f ^^ fll I m i^ shinnen o-medeto, ' A Happy New Year ! '). | |t 

mokiiroku (' a list, index '). 



pa 



O. nakabiku, nakakiibo ('concave'). 17. 

TOTSU, TOCHI. nakadaka ('convex, protruding'). 17. 
I (UJ totsuo (in a name), ' the ups and downs ' of life. 



SIX STROKES. 

jjjj [Variant : ^j.] SHO, SHU ; SU ; (kuni). kuni (' a province ', see 
^ ' p. 120). I -J;]- shuho ('a daimiate'). 47. 

A^ GIO, Go (KOj ; Aogu. aogu (' to gaze up at, respect ') ; ose (' a 
I " command '). 9. | yfc Aogi (f.). 

i'll "^'^ri^i^t of fP (p. 215). 

/tT go. itsutari (' a file of five men '). Used as a complex form of 551 
L"* (p. 170), 'five'. 9. 

I -f- ^ Goshisho (Wu Tzu-lisii, Chin. hero). 

Af^ JIN, NIN ; to; id, {taye, jusa), Tsukasa. iaycrii, minau ('to endure, 
1-*^ perform a duty'); makasevu ('to trust'); uin-zurti ('to appoint' to 
a dignity or office). 9. 

I ^)|> Mimana (anct. kingdom of Korea). | ^- Taye-ko (Empress). 
I ^, before a signature, konoml iii makase[te] (' l)y desire'). 






-09 Six Strokes 

KEN, GEN. ^^t(c?a)j no ('tlie aforesaid'). 9. 

Contraction of {^ (x). 9. 

KI, GI ; KI. takunii, waza (' skill, talent 'j. 9. 

KIU, KU ; yasu, Yasiishi, (yoshi, tane). yasumii ('to rest, go to bed'); 
yoshi ('good') 9. 



#CHU, CHU ; naka ; naka; zok., Naka-. naka- ('between, linking up', 
esp. of human relationships). 9. 
[Compare 4* (p. 179).] | Naka (t. ; f. ; see also p. 86). | :j^ 
Naka-tsu (k. of Buzen), ^ jjl -tado (mod. k. of Sanuki), BJ or $i -no-cho 
(street, esp. the main artery of the Yoshiwara dist. of Yedo). Other 
Surnames: | ^ Naka-go (Naka-ko, court-lady), /Jn {^ -koji, ^ -i, H -da 
(met.), g -nome, ^ -yasu, j^ -mura, ^ -o, ^^ -jo, ]^ -hara (clan; f. 
ptr.), Wf -no (n. prmce), ^^ g -maro, f^ -ma (swo.). 

I ^ Chu-yii (Chung Yu, paragon), ^ -ai (14th Mikado), ^ -kio 
(85th, name given in 1870). | ^ Naka-tsu-hime (princess). | ^ 
Nakamitsu (no). I ^, I H, I ^, I ^, see p. 47. 

/J^ FUKU, BUKU ; fushi, -buse ; {fushi). fusu ('to lie down'); kakureru 
lA. ('to hide oneself). 9. 

:M. I ill Obuse-yama (m.). Towns : | ^ Bukuishi ; | tJc P^ushi-ki 
(f-)) Mj -mi (Nakasendo stage 50; f. ptr.; 92nd Mikado; swo.), ^ -ogami, 
if -no. I ^ Fuseya, | ]^ Fushihara (f.). | ^ Fukki (Fu Hsi, myth. 
Chin. Emperor). | Jl ^' Fushimi-no-miya (mod. princes). 

InX, I; /; fcore, (tada) ; zok., \ ^ Ise-. feore ('this'); tada ('only'). 9. 
1?^ [Compare ^^ (p. 181 with note), ^ (xii), If (xvii), ^ (x).] | g 
Idzu (pr.) ; whence Idzu -no-shichito -{^ ^ (archipelago), -ga-dake -^ (m.), 
-san \\] (t.), -kura-yokocho |^ if^- PTJ" (street of Yedo), -ta ^, -ya ^, -shima 
^, -buchi ^^, -no Wf (f.), -hara i^, (f. ptr.), -chiyomaru =f- i\;; :^ (n.). 

I ^ Iga (pr. and one of its kori ; t. ; f.) ; whence Iga-no ^ (t. 
pottery), -no-tsubone J^ (hist, pers.), -goye no Katakiuchi ^ jji nt (joniri). 
I #1 Isliu (Iga pr.). 

I ^ Ise (pr. ; f. pot.; poetess. No. 19 of the Hundred Poets); whence 
Ise -no-umi -^ (sea), Ise-zaki |lli!j (t. text. ; f.), -chi or -ji ilil, -bara ]^ (t.), 
-da B3, -ya M (f-), -no-tayu :j^ H (poetess, No. 61 of the Hundred Poets), 
-bito A (n.) ; Ise Monogatari #7 gg (classic) ; Ise-oudo ^ yH (dance). 

14 



Six Strokes (^. contd.) 210 

I ^ h'^^ (pr- ''^"d one of its kori ; 11. ; poetess) ; lyo-be ihT> (^■)- Other 
KoRi : I j^ Date (Oshu ; f. ; 2o/e. -initial; lit. 'foppery'; also Itate as f.); | 
Yf I-saku (Satsuma ; t.), -^ -sa (same k. ; t. ; f. ; worn, n.), j}\i or ^ -na 
(Shinano ; former as t. ; both as f.), M^. -gu (Oshu ; f.), ^ -ka, -kago (Omi ; 
latter as f. ptr.), fp -to (Kishu). 

Islands : I 3i ^ lo-jima ; | ^P lllj^ % Itsuki-shima (for H J^, q.v., 
xx). I \iX (J^) iJj I-buki(-buri)-yama (m.). I ^ fj^ ll^ Irako-zaki, | 
^ l^ |ll^ Isora-zaki (capes). | ^ \^ ^ Ikao-numa (= Lake Haruna). 
Rivers: /J> | ^ jlj Koira-gawa ; | ^ )\\ Ina-gawa (f. ; Inagawa-bashi 
;jf , bridge) ; | jl (-f^ ^ ) jll I-o(-sasa)-gawa. 

Other Towns: I ^ H I-kumi, 3£ gf -ono (f. ), ^ -te, ;;^ ^ 
-gataura, -jl^ ff ^ -takiso, :^ fj -kiriki, ^\- ^ -inoya, j^ -tami (f.), f^ ^ 
-sario, -^ p -sasawa, ^ -o, ^ TJC -oki, ^^ -to (f. ptr.), -j^ j^ -onai, # >f^ 
-kao (see above), ^ifi -shi, "^^ -no (Ino as f.), %[\ -fune, if -no (f.), ^ -be 
(f. ; also Imbe as t. pottery and f., anctly. ^^ ^), ^ ^ -jihn (f.),^ H M 
-mari (pot.; f.j, 'j^ -sawa (for ^ ^11; f-), ^ -za or -sobe. I M ^ BT 
Isarago-cho (street of Yedo). 

Other Surnames: I ;^ I-ki, -gi, =^ -i, j'j- M -tamiya, ^ -dzuki, 
XL -ye, M ^0 -jichi (met.)/ g ^ -jira, ^fi]- ^ -funaki, g -omi, -tomi, 
|g -saka, P^C -buki, ^ -gata, ^ -ra, :^, ^ -shira, ^ ^ -ami, jg -taka, 
]^ -bara, ^ -ba, ^ -zaki, jjig -fuku, b| -kuma, |il -yoda (met.), ^ iHi 
(^D) -sechi, ^ -to (ptr., swo.), ^ -so. 

Other Personages: | ^ flfj |l|j^ (Hj jji| Izana-gi(-mi)-no-kami (d.); | 
W\ (or IB) ^ M Ikigenkai (I-ch'i Hsiian-chieh, sennin) ; I # ^f^^ $E Ikao- 
-hime (leg. pers.) ; I # '^ M Ikashikome (Empress) ; I lljj^ J3^ Ikiuji (court- 
lady). I ^ H I-kina, j^ ^ -sama, fp $| -tsuo (n.), ft -on (see p. 86), 
H ^ -soji (zok.), ]^i -ma (wom. n.). | g ^ Iroha [kiogen \ cf. p. 21, 
note I, for | g y\). 



4^ Contraction of >(g (xi). 



/IJ BATSU, BACHI; BA. ntsii, kirn ('to cut, strike, kill'); hokoru ('to 
IA< be vain, brag'). Distinguish from \X (p. 1S7) and from J^, etc. 

(VI). 9. 

I ^ M ::^ 7lf Bassera-taisho (d.). | ffi ^^ ^ Hatsunabashi [rakan). 
I 1^ if" IE Kirikui-no-soj6 (priest). 

/Hi \'ariant of yljj (viij. 15. 



Ijuin and Ijichi are surnames peculiar to Satsuma province. 



211 Six Strokes 

Variant of 7JC (p. 186). 15. 

-^ SHI, JI; SHI, SU ; tsuf^i ; -tsugu, tsugi- ; zok., ji (in all positions, see 
^'V p. 71 f). tsugu Clo follow, succeed'); isugi ('next'); nami ('periodic', 
as in ^ I tsukina77ii, 'monthly'). See also p. 130, med. 76. 

I % j'l Tsugimaru-kawa (r.). | ^ Tsugikura, | ^'f '^ Shidaihama (t.). 

jj^ [Variant : 'J^.] SHU, SHU ; Osamu. osameru (' to pav in, store 
^^ up'). 66. 

yf-Y'^'^^' GIO ; AN {Toin)\ yuki ; yuki, (isura, michi). yuku ('to go, walk, 
'J be current'); okonai ('conduct'); okonaivaru ('to be in vogue'); kudavi 

('a column of writing', see p. 39, inii.). See also pp. 88 and 103, 51. 144. 
[Compare g: (xi).] | -^ Namekata (k. of Hitachi and hvaki ; f.). | 
it \[\ Giodo-san (m.). | ^ )\\ Yukiai-gawa (r). | j]| J|| Mukabaki-no- 
-taki (fall, from mukabaki, 'leggings, "chaps'"). Towns: | \Q Gio-da 
(f. ptr.), ^ -ji (lit. 'busmess'), ;^, -toku (f. ptr.). | \ ^ Gionin-zaka 
(street of Yedo). Other Surnames : | |1)J Giomei ; | )\\ Yuki-gawa, '^f 
-zawa (ptr.). 

I ^ Gio-gi, ^ -ki(3, ^ -son (priests), J4 -ma (see p. 86). \ ^ 
Yuki-ko (poetess), /^, -^ -ai ijoro, lit. 'meeting'). 

Other Locutions: | ^-: Miyuki {Genji Chapter xxix, 'an Imperial 
progress'); | ^ cin-gii, -kill, ;f£ fijf -zaisho ('temporary palace'), ^ -gia ('a 
wandering priest'), @ -don, -do (a paper lantern to stand on the floor); | 
^ yusan ('a picnic'); | "^ gio-ji {'umpire' at wrestling), ijjli -han ('outward- 
bound sailboats'), ^ -nen ('aged . . . ", see p. 42), ^1] -vetsn ('a procession'), 
7^ ~P ('conduct'), ^ -ja ('a pilgrim, ascetic'), ^ -sho (the semi-cursive script). 

CHIKU; take; take; zok., Take-. take (the Bamboo, Bambusa viridis, 

etc.). See p. 100, 35. 118. 
[Compare ^ (viii).] | ff Takeno (k. of Chikugo and Tango; t. ; 
f. ptr.), Takano (same k.). I ^ Take-shima (is., also ^ ^ 1^ ', f-)- 
I ^ ^ Chikubu-shima (is. in Lake Omi ; no ; Chikubu-shima Mode fg, 
kiogen). I ^ llf{f Takenouchi-toge (pass). 

Other Towns : ;X I Otake (f. met.) ; /b | Kotake (Odake as f. met. ; 
also Kodake as f.) ; | ^ l\nkanuki (f.); | T Take-noshita (f. ; also 
Takeshita as f. ptr.), \Q -da (lacq. ; f. dramatist), \B W -datsu, ^ -ori, yg 
-domari, ^ -oka (f.; T.-no-ama Jg, nun^ 'rlM -gaoka. jr,{ -hara (f.), ^f WJ 
-nomachi, ^ -bukuro, M. -gahana, f^ -zawa, (f. ptr.), ;|^ -bashi or -nohashi 
(Takehashi as f.). | ^: ^ Chikului-ji, | ^ ^ Take-shiba-dera, |&J jjil 
-goma-no-yashiro (tern.). | M Take-ya (brothel; f.), Takenoya (f. ; n.). 



It 



Six Strokes (Y![, contd.) 212 

Other Surnames : | )\\ Take-gawa {Genji Chapter xliv), _^ -Iiisa, 
llj -yama (met.), P -guchi, \^ -nouchi (ptr., met., sculp.), % -moto, ^ 
-iiaka (ptr., actor), ^j^ -i (met.), ^ -hira, ^ -ishi, ^i£ -bu, Jf, -moto (ptr., 
dramatist), jfj -su {i)tr.), j^ -mitsu, it -tsuji, ^ -nobo, j^ -mura (ptr.), 
^ ~y^^) *^» B3 -shita, ^ -o, V^I -gawa {Genji Chapter xliv), /j^ -matsu, 1^ 
-bayashi (see also p. 105, 69), -^-D -chi, 1^ -bana, ^ -i, {^ -mata, :j^ -tsu, 
jg -gala, ^ -waka, ^ -shiba, ^6 -hazama, "^ -gura, ^ M -guraya, ^ 
-miya (ptr.), -/^ -zoye, IKll -buchi, jlji^ -zaki, ^ -o, '^ -tomi, ^ -mori, 
H -ba, ^ -goshi, ^ -dzuka, ^ -nokoslii, ^ -ma, gj -zono. 

Personages: | |5iiJ J^ Chiku-ami (Hideyoshi's step-father), ^ -ra (n.) ; 

I ^ Take-no-gosho (hist, pers.) ; I / ^ ^ Takerioya-suzume (author) ; 

I ^ fil ic Takebashi-goten (= Sen-hime ^ ig); | A Takendo, | y^ 

Take-hime [joro). \ ^ ^- Take-no-ko Arasoi {kiogen); \ i^ t\f/j |g Taketori 

Monogatari (classic, see p. 102, 46). 



?F 



KAX ; A'^ ; ase. ase (' sweat '). 85. \ A Ase[i]ri (k. of Hoki), 
Airi (t.). I jfn. Kanketsu (Han-hsueh, horse). 



y~r* KO (GO); YE; ye; {-ye, nobu) ; zok., Ye-, -ye. ye ('a river, estuary,. 
t-L». |3ay, sound'). 85. 

[Compare m (ix), ^ (x), M (xiv), if (xvi), M (xn), H (xix).] | 
m Ye-numa (k. of Kaga ; f.), ;$!] -zashi (k. of Oshu), ^ -no-shima (is.; no), 
-jima (f. ; hist, pers.), gg ^ -ta-jima (is. ; t.). ;^ | ]\\ Oye-yama, | ^ -g- 
Yegi-ga-dake (m.). 1 ^ |lf^j Yenaslii-zaki (cape). | }\\ Ye-gawa (r. ; f. 
met.; joro). \ ^ Yedo (t. ; f. met.; bridge, -bashi ^ ; I ^ -?" yedokko^ 
'a cockney 'j ; | Ko (in composition, = Yedo, t.) ; | J^f Ko-fu, ^ -to 
(same), '^ -to (its eastern part). :Ac I / iS Oye-no-saka (old name for 
::^ ^ Osaka, t.). 

Other Towns: /]> | Oye (f. ; also Koye as f.); | CI Ye-guchi (f. ; no; 
Yeguchi-no-kimi g, = Taye jf^', jovo), J^ |li§ -dosaki, ^fc -gi (f.), ];{: pj] 
-bima, ^ -jiri (Tokaido stage 18; f.), g -ta (f. ; also Yeda as f.), >(J; -sumi, 
|£ ilfl -sumiura, j,i -mi (f. ; r.), ^^ -ra (f.), Jl -bi, -noo, ;^ -nami (f. pot.), 
jlQl -mukai, '^f|j -noura, j.t^ -ma (f. ; Yema-kojiro /\\ s); J^I5, — Hojo Yoshitoki), 
]^ -bara (f. ; r.), lllij -zaki [L ptr.), -saki, ^ -guro, i||| -gashira (f. ; also 
Yeto as f.). ^ | M Oye-ya (brothel), ;j^ -bashi (bridge in Osaka). 

Other Surnames : | (io ; ;;^ | Oye (clan ; f. ptr.j ; :^ I EO Oyeda ; 

I # Goka ; I Ji Ye gaini, '4i -moto, -f^ -take, ^ -mori, J|jt -saka, j^ 

-mura (ptr.), ;/fj -sumi, Jf^ -bayashi, f,^ -bata, ^ -nami, ^ -natsu, ^ Jg 

-jimaya, :^ -gusa (ptr.j, -{^^ -zoye (ptr.), p^g -ma (Yema-niudd A ?E> swo.)^ 

^ -dzuka, IJJ^ -bata, '^^^r -zawa (ptr.), ;j^ -bashi, |^ dzumi, j]§ -to. 



213 Six Strokes 

Other Personages: | '^ Ko-kaku (Chiang Ko, paragon), ^^^ g -nagon 
(poet, Oye no Koretoki), f^ ^ -jiju (poetess); | f^ Yc-nion {joro), ^ f^ 
-ciozumi (poet), % -mori (see p. 86) \ ^X \ % Oyemaru (n.) ; :^ I M :^ 
Oye-no-ojo (princessj. 

yprt KIC, KO ; kumi. kumu ('to ladle, hobnob with'). Distinguish 
»i^ from ^ (VIII). 85. I H Kumida (f.). 

V>& SEKI, JAKU; shio ; {shio). shio ('the tide'). 85. 

1^ [Compare ^ (xxivj, M (xv).] | ^ Shio-mi (f.), H |S -mi-zaka 

(m.), ^J [j^ -no-misaki (cape), -^ ;|^ -dome-bashi (bridge in Yedo), lll§ -zaki 
(f-). I ^ sh'io-Jii ('low tide', as in shiohi-gari ^^, 'gathering [shellfish] at 
low tide'), 1^ -hama ('a salt beach', strictly written with |g). 

y^ JO, NIO. /mas///, uanji ('you'). 85. 

illl ^-^^'^'' ^^^'- ^3'°^" ('^^ swmi'). 85. 

>M| CHI, Jl ; CH/ ; ike; [ike). ike ('a pond, artificial lake', also for a 
*^ small natural lake). 85. 

■^ I O-ike (lake ; f.). | $j Ike-shima (is. ; f. ptr.), \[\ -yama 
(m. ; f.), fQ -da (k. of Mino ; t. ; f. ptr., met., swo., lacq. ; lake, -ko i^), 
4 llj -notai-zan (m.), \^ -no-ura (inlet), -ura (f.). Other Towxs : | ^J| ||f| 
Chiriu (Tokaido stage 38, also written jiW ^) : /h I S? Shochino ; | |Pf 
Ike-no (f.), )^ )\\ -tsukawa, ^ -bukuro (also sub. of Yedo and f. ptr.), 
%f\ B9 -shinden. | J^ Ike-gami (sub. of Yedo ; f, ; also Ikenouye as £.), 
^ ^ -nohata (dist. of Yedo ; f.), t^ -gokoro (anct. pal.). 

Other Surnames : | Ike ; /J> | Koike (ptr., met.) ; | |^ Ike-uchi 
(ptr.), ^ -ana, ^ -naga (ptr.), J^ -jiri, -garni, '0 -nishi, ^ -mori (n.), 
^ -nobo (ptr.), ^ -mura, PTf -machi, ^ -gaya, 7 ^ -notani, ]^ -hara 
(ptr.), "^ -zoye, -^j -be, ^ ^ -notani, ^ -mori, ^ -nokoshi, ^ -zawa, 
5^ -be, -nobe. | ^ Ike-ko (princess), j{^ jg -no-zenni (nun). | ^ 
Chigashi (n.). 

^rt HAN, HON; or FU, FU ; {hiru), Hiroshi. hiroshi ('wide'); ukaberu 
iJld ('to float, drift'); tadayou ('to drift, wander'). 83. 

ifcn HAX, HON; HO; ho. ho ('a sail"). 30. 

B^L [Compare ^ (ix).] | ^ ^ Ho-kake-iwa (rock), ;t£ llj -bashira- 
-yama (m.), \[\ -yama (f. ptr.), Jg, -ashi (f.), ^ g^ -nosuke {20k.). 

[toki). kizashi ('the first sign'); urakata Can omen'). 
s cJio, ' a billion '. 10. 
I Wi TTI Chodensu (= Mincho ^ | , priest and painter). 



^^ o,- i\^ CHO; 



m 



Six Strokes 214 

Jj~^ I. hashi ('a bridge'). 32. 

Jj|| cm, JI ; //. /sz/c/ii ('earth'); iokovo ('a place, locality'). As chi or 
•''lli y/, also 'land, tlie earth' (see pp. 39, B, and 97, 4). 32. 

I W. Ji^o (d., see p. 104, 61), whence Jizo[-ga]-dake -{g- (m.), -gawa 
jll (r.), -gaya ^, -ji ^, -do '^ (t.), -in Rt (tern.), -ni /g (nun). Other 
Towns: | y ^ ji-noya, ^ -6, /lig -fuku, g| -to, gg :/; -togata. | ^ 
jigoku/a. heir, also 'a solfatara', e.g., O ;;^ (Ko /J>) -jigoku ; Jigoku-dayO 
d^ ^ (;^''^)- SuRXAMES : ;;^ | Oji (met); I ]^ Jihara ; | ^| Chi-biki, 
jJ5J- -mura. | |f -{jj, Jiraiya (play and its hero). | |^ jinai ('within 
the precincts'); I ')j chi-ho ('local'), ^ -mei ('a place-name'). 

U; U, HA; ha, -wa, hane ; {ha). ha, hane ('feathers, wings'). As 

ha (wa), a numeral-suffix for birds (see p. 40). 124. 
[Compare ^ (vm), M (^'lO-] I ^'H Ushu (Dewa pr.). Kori : | P^ 
Ha-gui (Noto ; t. ; f. ptr.), -kui (same k.), ^ -mo (Sado ; Hamo-hongo 
^ My t.), -mochi (same k.), ^'i -guri (Mino ; f. ; also Haneguri as f.), ^ 
-shima (Mino, mod.; f.). | \\} Ha-yama (m. ; f. ). 

Other Towxs : I ;^ :^ Ha-inutsuka or -indzuka, ^ -niu (f. ; r.), 
HJ ^ -deniwa, ^ -mura, ^ -dori (f.), y x^ -noura, ^ -guro (f. ; m., 
-san), ^ i^% "ga-ye ; | jlj Hane-kawa (f., also Hagawa as f. ptr.), H -da 
(f. ptr., lacq. ; also Hata as f.j, J:^ -chi. Other Surnames : | A Ha-iri, 
t -ni' ^ B3 -geta, -neda, -j^z -ta, -da, -buto, ffl ^[^ -tai, J!^ -yuka, f^ HU 
-sama, ^ -shiba, ^SW SI -suzono, ^ -gura (ptr.), ^^ H -neda, ^^ -buchi, 
^ -ga (ptr., met.), % -kui. J |^ Hadzumi (n.i. | ^ ^ hagoita ('a 
battledore'); | i^^ ^ hanetsitki (the game of shuttlecock). 

Hllll Radical 140, occasionally used as a simple form of ^ (x). 

KIO, KO; sui. su, nomii ('to drink in, mhale, smoke [tobacco]'). 30. 

j|/-» KITSU, KOCHI. domo, domori .(' a stammerer ', as in | Domori, 
"LJ kiogen, and \ ^ & ^ Domo no Matabei, = Iwasa Matabei, 
ptr.) 30. 

n~| TO. hakn ('to spit out, vomit'). 30. | ji ^ Togetsu-kio (bridge). 

Arl* SEX; masu ; masu. somiiku ('to oppose'). Used in Japan as a 
^ I A^ariant of JY (p. 173). 136. 

[Compare homophones under JQ" (xv).] | yji .Masu-midzu, :^ -moto, 
PJ -aki (f.). 




215 Six Strokes 

JpT K() ; yoshi ; yoshi, Yoshimi ; zok., Ko- or Yoshi-. yoshi (' good M ; 
-^J yoshimi ('terms of friendship'); konomi ('desire, taste, relish'); -ziiki 

('fond of, addicted to'). See p. 95, (i), also p. 113, 97. 38. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 227).] | J^^ Koma ft.). | ^ ^ 
Kosei-do (clan-school). | ;j^ Yoshi-naga, |^ -mi, ^ -tori (f.). | :j^ 
Yomidzu (n.). | % ko-bittsu (' a favourite article, titbit"), -g. -s/;o/en ('venery')- 

-hr\ JO, NIO; )'u/ei, (yoshi). yuku ('to go ') ; . . . no gotoku ('like, as if, 
-^r* as follows'). 38. 

I ?i ^ Niolioji (t.). I ^5 niorai (honorific title for a Buddha; 
compare p. 103, 54) ; Niorai-ji ^ (tern.), ;g -ni (physician). | ;§. nioi 
(Chin, jii-i, a sort of sceptre used by Buddhist priests in Japan); \ m> M M 
nioi-hoju (the Sacred Gem of Buddhism) ; I S^ $t nioirin (epithet of 
Kwannon as holding the Gem, see p. 104, 61 ; Nioirin-ji ^, tern.). | ^ 
jogetsu or kisaragi (the 2nd month). 

J»r| HI. kisaki (' Empress, Emperor's consort ', same as ^ feo or ^ ^ 
"Cd kugo). 38. 

J*Tt KIC, KU. kuchiru (' to decay '). Distinguish from i^ (vii). 75. 
4v I 7|c Kuchiki (t. lacq. ; f. ptr.). | ^ Kutsumo (t.). | || 

Kutami (f.). 

J-L HAKU (BAKU), BOKU. ho, hdnoki (a tree. Magnolia hypoleuca). As 
I I hoku, ' artless ' ; so initially in several pseudonyms (esp. painters of 

Kano school) ; Boku as f. (foreign). 75. 

I Tfl EH (or ^) ^ ^ Yechi no Takutsu (hist, pers, 7th century). 

«»ll KI ; tsukuye. tsukiiye ('a table, desk'). 75. 

>Kr Contraction of -^ (xvi). 86. 

4pK HIN, BIN. mesii, me- ('female', of animals or birds). 93. 

ilV Contraction of j|$ (xi). 

cll [^'f^ri^i^t : f'p.] IN; oki, (aki). shiriishi ('a mark, sign'). As in, 
' ' a seal, impress, printing.' 26. 

[Compare @ (vi).] | ^ Indo (' India '). | ijif Imba (k. of 

Shimosa ; lake, -numa yg). | '^ In-nami (k. of Harima ; t. ; Innami-shin 

%j\, Inami-hara ]^, t.), -nan (same k. ; f.), ^ -ga, l^ ^^ -tsuji (t.). Other 

Surnames : | ^ Imube ; | !\^ Immaki, Kanemaki ; I ^. I |^ Indo ; 

I S. Igu, Oshizumi. | ^l] insatsii. ('printing'). 



Six Strokes 216 

jCti RETSU, RECHI; RE; (tsura, nohii). nami ('a row, series'); tsuranaru 
-^ J ('to be in a row'). As refsn-, 'the whole series of . . . '. 18. 

I J^ Xamiki (anct. pal.). | ^ ^ Retsugioko or | ^ Resshi 
(Lieh Yii-k'ou, Lieh Tzu, senuin). \ ^ retsudeu ('a biographical series'), 
I illl i$ ressenden ('an account of all the senuin'). \ |^ rekken (Impl. 
fest.). I ^ -vetto ('the . . . Archipelago'). 

Tt|I KEl, GIO ; (nori). nori ('law'); tsmninau ('to punish'). 18. 
^» J I nl> Osakabe (t. ; f.) ; giobit (see p. 83). j ^ Keima (n.). 

Inl Contraction of j^ (xviii). 113. 

"p^ SEX ; (tada). Simple form of ^ (ix). Confused with the next ; 
* distinguish also from 0. (p. 195). 7. 

"P^ ~1C^ KG ; Watari, Wataru (both also as f. ; for former see also 

— ^ — ' ^ p. 86). zvatarit ('to cross over'); waiasu ('to send over'). 
Confused with the foregoing ; distinguish also from 7l (P- ibg). 7. 
I m Watari (t. ; f.). 

^^ji SHI ; chika, Itaru, iyiiki, yoshi). itaru (' to arrive ') ; ... ni itaru 
* " ('up to, until'; see Q, p. 220). As shi-, 'superlatively'. 732. 

I ^, Shitoku {nengo, X. Dyn., 1384-86). I ^ shison (tit. of 
Emperor). 

"pCj^ HAKU (rare), HIAKU ; momo, mo, do, -ho, -o ; imomo); zok., Hiaku-, 
»— * I ^ Yuri-. momo, ho (' a hundred, many '). See p. 38. As 

hiaku-, also 'all, the complete series of . . . '. 106. 

[Compare, for Momo-, ;^^ (x).] | -J^ Hiakusai, Kudara (Pek-che, anct. 
kingdom of Korea ; Kudara also as anct. pal. and f. ptr.). I ^ Momo- 
-jima (is. ; f.), |^ ^J -kiku-yama (m.). | |§" J^ 5 ]^ Mozu-no-mimi-hara 
(plain, from mozit \ "g-, the Shrike, Lanitis bucephalus). 

Towns : | ^^ Hiaku-mai, @ ;:^ -meki ; | ^ Momo-ishi, v»I -kawa ; 

I ^I Mo-hiki or -biki, ^g -ai. | '^ Momoshiki (old name for the Impl. 
pal.). I ^ jg Hiakumamben (tem. ; Bud. ceremony). Other Surnames : 

I // Dodo (ptr.); | ^- Dodoi, Momoi ; ) )\\ Momo-kawa (jjtr., met.), 
X -to, :^ -ki (ptr.), xL -ye, M -dzuka, ^ -tsu, M -se. 

Personages, etc.: | ^ ^ Hakusekisei (Po-shih-sheng, sennin): \ ^^ ^ 
Momodayu (marionette-worker). | ^ Yuri (wom. n. ; lit. 'lily"); hence 
/h I "o* Sayuri (wom. n. ; poet, for 'lil\"'), | 'p' ^ ;:^ S Yuriwalca-daijin 
(hero), I ^ ^% m M % U Vuri Ga Koma Gunki (jdruri]. | ]j^ 
Momo-to, ^, ^ -ki (n.). I A — ^ Hiakunin-isshu (see p. 123); | X 



217 Six Strokes 

•^ ^P Hiakunin-joro (jdruri) ; | H Hiakuman (no) ; \ ^ i^ Hiakkajo (the 
' Legacy ' of lyeyasu) ; | ^ ^^ ^f Hiakki-yagio (tale). 

Locutions: | ^ hiaku-shd ('a farmer'), % |g- -monogatari (game of 
telling ghost-stories), ,Vn ^ -iro-banashi ('miscellaneous stories'), A A — A 
-hachinin-ichiuin ('the io8 [heroes of the Suiko-den] one by one 'j ; | :|{^ gl 
hiakktvayen ('a flower-garden'); | =f- j^ vwmochidori (same as chidori, 
see =f, p. 155). 

A~^ Variant for ^ (p. 193). 

-fia«. SAL mata ('again'); fiiiatabi ('twice'). See also p. 130, med. 13. 

I \[\ Futatabi-san (m.). 



rfrj JI, KI; A7, TE; (yiiki). shikoshite ('yet, still, and'); vanji ('you'). 126. 

]^ Variant for ^ (viii). 

|4I-| [Old form: ^.] SKI, SAI ; SE ; nishi. nishi ('the west, western'). 
'  Distinguish from PS (p. 206) and "jg (vii). 146. 

[Compare, for Sai-, z:^" (p. 158), 5^ (xvii).] | ^ Saikoku (W. Japan; 
f. or n. actor). | -^ j^ Saikaido (division of Japan, see p. 122). | ^ 
Seinan (Kiushu, lit. 'south-west', cf. I ^ seihoku, ' north-west 'j. A I ^ 
Taiseiyo (the Atlantic). | ^ Nishi-no-shima (is.), -jima (t. ; f. ptr.), 
^ ^ llj -kirishima-yama (m.), ]^ -ga-hara (moor), -bara (f. ; also Saihara 
as t. and f.), )\\ -kawa (r. ; t. ; f. ptr., met.), A J'l -ol^'^^'^^'^i (!'•)> M -taki 
(fall). KoRi : I n^ Nishinari (Settsu ; f.) ; \ ^ i^ Sai-saijo, ;\t j!^ 
-hokujo (both Mimasaka), fjQ -haku (Hoki, mod.). 

Other Towns [for further examples (including street-names) wliere ]J5 
is a mere directional prefix (Nishi-), see under the second character] : I ^J 
Seizan (Nishiyama as L ptr., met., pot.); I A ^ Sai-daiji, ^^ -moku (f.), 
■^ -gane, ;^ -kio (= Kioto; Nishinokio as f.), j^ -jo (r.), fl^ -jo (f. ; also 
Nishijo as t.) ; | A ^ Nishi-ohira, A ^ ~^^}^ (formerly Ninshoji ; f.), 
A I^ -"ji, ^ -nouchi (f.), ij -kata, ^ If -noura, ifj -iclii, ;^ -moto 
(f. ptr.), Eg -da (f. ptr.; brothel, -ya ^J, j^ -mura (f. ptr., met., actor), 
^ -dani, -tani (f. ; also Nishinoya as f.), ^ -o (f. ptr.), / ^* -nomi\a, 
tm -bata, ||^ ;a -hadzu. 

I i^ Nishijin (dist. of Kioto, met., text.). | A ^ Nishi-otani. 
^ 1^1 "# -hongwan-ji (tern.). Palaces: | % Nishi-maru (in Yedo), A fi^ Mc 
-hachijo-dono, ^ 'f^ ^ ^ -sanjo-no-dairi (in Kioto). 



Six Strokes i]Jg. contd.) 218 

Other Surnames : | Xislii (ptr., met.) ; ^ \ Onishi (ptr.) : /\^ | 
Konishi (ptr., met.) ; | H Sera : | 5)r Sai-to, [# ^ -riuji, ^ -ga, M -go, 
m ^ -onji, jii -to; | P Nishi-guclii, ^A, \^ -kubo, ;^ i^ -oyeda, ;^C ^ 
-kido, ^\- -i, 2; i± -itsul^uji, [19 j^; -yotsutsuji, g -me, '^ -ike, ig -na, 
4^, H -muda, -f]' -an, ^ -gai, \^ -yori, vnj M -gawara, i^^ -bayashi, ^ -i, 
(SJ -oka, ^7^ -o, i^ [5^ -notoin, jg -gaki (met.), "g -o (see also below), 
ihj: -umi (Nishinoumi as 11. wrestler), ;[f[j -ura, jjiftl -gami, j^ ji; -takatsuji, 
g" -nomiya (ptr.), % -waki (ptr.), J^ -za, ^ -bori (met.), SIJ' -no (sculp.), 
5p A -noiri, ^ -zawa, f^ -date. 

Other Person.\ges : | 3^ i^r Seiobo (see p. g8, 17); | fM Seishi 
(Hsi Tzu, Chin. Empress); | [^ ^ Seirioshi (Hsi Liang Shih, ditto); | f|Q 
Seihaku (Hsi-po, Chin, hero); | |5i: ^ Saiin-tei (= Junna, 53rd Mikado)- 

I RS 1^ ^ Nishi-in-omuro (= Doho, prince); | ^ P^ |5i: Seikwa-monin 
(Empress); | ^1 ;j^ Xishi-no-onkata (court-lady); | ^j Saigio (priest; 
Saigio-monogatari ij^ |g^, history, -zakura ^, no) ; \ M ^ Saikachi (ptr.), 

I j^ 12, Saiyu-ki (Hsi-yu-chi, Chin, legend). I M ^^ "i" saimen no bushi 
(Impl. guards). 

'/fit SHI; SHI. shi, shini ('death'); shinuru ('to die'). 78. 

y^^ I J\^ Shibito ('corpse', nickname). | [ij (or ^) ^J Shide-no-yama 

(Bud., m. in Hades). 

LJ* JI, XI ; NI. mimi (' an ear, handle of a vessel, eye of a needier 
"•T' selvedge '). As mimi in early princely (divine) names for mi~mi, 
' august body.' 128. 

I ]\\ Mimi-gawa (r.), fjlE ^ -nashi-yama (m.), J^ -dzuka (mound), ^ % 
-jiro {zok.). 



d^ Script contraction of '^] (xvj. 

7^ 



SHO, JO. tastikerii ('to assist'); nkeru ('to receive"). See pp. 72 
(cf. List of Errata) and 85. Confused with ^ and i§^ (viii). i. 

~i| The swastika used as a Buddhistic symbol synonymous with ^ (xiii),. 
**— 'ten thousand', and called H ^ man-ji ('sign for 10,000'); compare 

I ;g 7^ Manji-rojin as pseudonym of Katsusliika Hokusai, ptr. Symbolical 
of eternal happiness, it is represented on the breast of Buddha figures, but 
is also much used as an heraldic motive known as the migi ('right-hand') 
manji, as opposed to the hidari Cleft-hand') manji, \f\, of which the arms 
point in the reverse directions. 24. 




219 Six Strokes 

SEN, ZEN; mata; (mata, masa, uiitsii, ioino, yasii, utsii, yoshi). mattashi 
('whole, perfect'). As zen, 'complete', esp. of a book in one 
volume, or of a series of prints. Distinguish from ^ (p. 198). 11. 

I A Mata-hito (prince), ^ -ko (court-lady). In book-titles : ;^ | 
daizen ('complete series", 'exhaustively treated'); -t; | shichi-zen ('seventh 
and last [volume]'), etc.; | |^ zempen ('complete in one volume'). | ^ 
zensei (' [in] all its perfection, [at] the height of its prosperity '). 

j^tl [Variant: ^ (q.v., vii.)] JIKU, NIKU. shishl ('flesh, meat, comi- 
■^ plexion'). 130. 



s 



Script contraction of Jg, (vii). Distinguish from ^ (vii' 



¥SO ; SA, HA; haya, sa- ; {haya). hayashi ('swift, early, soon'); sa- 
(' pertaining to the fifth month '). | "j^ saimye, ' rice-shoots ', 
I fQ wase, an early rice ; see also Examples. 72. 

[Compare j^ (vii), 3^ (xi).] I ^ Sawara (k. of Chikuzen ; prince), 
Sora (same k. ; f.). | "^ ^J Soun-zan (m.). | ^ ^ Hayaike-mine, also 
I '?& ^ llj Hayachine-yama or S6,chih6-zan (rn.). Rivers : | }\\ Haya- 
-kawa (t. ; f. ptr., met., swo., lacq., actor); | P (^, Hi) )\\ Haya-kuchi 
(-tsuki, -de)-gawa. \ ^ M ]^ Hayatomo-no-seto (strait). | llh^ Haya- 
-saki (cape), -zaki (t. ; f.). 

Other Towns : | ^ Haya-ki, |ljj^ -ki (or Haiki), ^ x£ -tsuye, ^ 

-noura, j^ -shima (f.), ^ -se (f. ptr.). | fg Waseda (dist. of Yedo). 

Other Surnames: /J> | )]\ Kobayakawa ; | ^ -^ Saotome (swo., met.); 

I ^ ^^ ase (Sanaye as n.); | Yi Haya-take (jugglers; also Satake), g -ta 

(met.; also Soda), if -no (met.), ^, 5^ -mi, :^ -kumo. 

I EH ^ Sada-no-miya (priest). | ^ |§ Sayoginu (joro). I 1^ ^ I?/ 
Sanayenosuke {zok.). \ '^ Haya-urushi (kiogeu). | ^ Sawarabi [Geiiji 
Chapter xlviii). I ^ satsiiki (the 5th monthj ; I ^ M or | ^ samidare 
(rains of the same). I ^ ^ it suten no Fuji (Mt. Fuji as seen in early 
morning). | ^I haya-biki, ^ {Jj -luidashi ('an index for rapid reference'). 

GON ; (kata, tada). katashi Chard"); iodomern ('to stop'). See also 
pp. 39, B, and 107, 76, 77. Distinguish from ^ (vii) and J^ 
(viii). 138. I j^'^i Nagurumi (t.). 

:^ ZETSU, ZECHI. shita ('the tongue"). 135. 
I— t I ^ ^ Shitakiri-suzume (fairy-tale). 

l^-j KlU, GU ; usu. iisu ('a mortar"). 134. 

M [Compare j^ (xiii), f^. (xvii).] | ^ Usu-ki (k of Hiuga ; t. : f.), 

m -ta, ^1^ -1 (t.; f.), ^ -o (t.), ^ -kura, ^ -1 (f-)- 



Six Strokes 220 

|^-| KIO, KO ; muko-, muku-, mukai-, -muke, -nata ; Mukau. niiikau 



miikeru ('to be opposite'); miikai ('opposite'); -nata (i.e., -no-kata, 



* [in] the direction of, facing '). As Muko- in street-names. Distinguish 
from fpj (vi). 30. 

I % Mukai-jima, Muku-shima (is.), Mukojima (t. ; dist. of Yedo). 

I jl| Muko-gawa (r.). Other Towns: /J> | Obuke (pot.); | |^ Mukuhara, 
Mukonobara : ( fF! Mukoda, Mukota (former as f.), Koda; I Iff Mukomachi; 

I 13 WT Mukaimachi. Other Surnames : | Mukai ; | # Mukai (met.) ; 

I |lj Muko-yama, ^ -bata. 

_|VL SHU, SHU; funa ; {June). June, juna- ('a boat, ship'). A seal-form 
^ J is used in the mon of the samurai family Funakoshi (which name 

is, however, written ^^ ^). 137. 

[Compare i|{V (xi).] | "/^ Funato (t.). /J> | BJ Kobuna-cho (street 
of Yedo). Surnames: | tjC Funa-ki, ^ -mi (met.), ^ -nami, ;^ -bashi 
{no), ^ -koshi. | ^ ^ Funa-Benkei (no). 

t^ SHI, JI : // ; kore, yori, {tada, yoshi). yori (postposition, 'from, than"; 

I — I see Examples); midzukara ('self'); onodziikava ('spontaneously'). 

Distinguish from Q (p. 195) and @ (208). 132. 

I tt j'z<^i ('free and easy"); ^ \ :^ Daijizai (epithet of Temman 
^ ffll, the deified Sugawara no Michizane) ; -^ \ ^. ^ Daijizai-ten (d., 
Siva); I ^ ^ E Jizai-no-s6sho (art-name). | ^$ ^ Jnaiya (for iHl || -lit, 
q.v., p. 214). I '1^, ilj J\^ Unobore-sanjin (art-name; nnobore, 'self-conceit"). 

I fJ^ jincn. shinen, shizen ('natural, spontaneous'); Shinen (see p. 86); Jize- 
-maro J|fi, g (poet) ; Jinen-koji ^ ^ (no). \ ^ ^ Onokoronoya {onokoro, 
■'spontaneously congealed", is the description of the first-created island of 
Japan). 

Other Locutions: I -b S ~i* shichi yori jfi ui itaru ('from [no.] 7 to 
[no.] 10'), etc. I ^ ji-hitsu ('an autograph"; jihitsu-shu ^, 'a series of 
autograph or holograph poems", etc.), 'jig -man ('self-conceit" or 'proper 
pride'), ^ -vuku, ^ -saku ('unaided literary or other work'). 



m 



Used as a contraction of f^ (vii) 



^ KETSU, KECHl; CHI. chi ('blood"). 143. 

-"IL I 1^ jl D!) Chiyarikuro {zok.). \ '^^ kessen ('a bloody battle'). 

M-\ SHU, SU. akashi ('red"). As shu, 'vermilion, cinnabar", also a coin 
^^i^ (see p. 66). 75. 

I ^ suzaku, also read shujaku and sujaku (see p. loi, 38): Susaka 
(mod. dist. of Kioto) ; Suzaku (6ist Mikado) ; Shujaku-mon p^, -no-6ji -^ '^'^ 



221 Six strokes 

(gate and street of Kioto). | ^ Akera (f.). | ^ Sbucho or Sucho 
{nengo, 686-690— see Errata for p. 55 ; see also p. loij. [|^1] | pjj [go]shuin 
(the Shogunal ' red seal 'j. 

Chinese: | jtjj Shu-cliQ (Chu Chung), ^^ =f -jushi (Ju-tzu), sennin; 

I ^ Shu-shi (Chu Tzuj, ^ g -baishin (Mai-chen), ^ ^ -boshuku or 

-moshiku (Mou-shuj, sages; | ^ ^ Shujusho (Chu Shou-ch'ang), paragon. 

HK SEN; saki; Susumu, {saki, yuki). saki ('the end, point'); saki no . . . 
y^ ('former, ex-, late, future'; e.g., saki no kivampaku \ P Q, ' ex- 
kwampaku\ etc.); compare hU (i^)- As sen, often 'late, deceased'. 10. 

[Compare H^ (xi).] | llj Sen-zan (m.). | ^ Sakimitsu (f.). | ^ 
sensei (see p. 70), sen jo (see ^1, x). | |g, sc^uso ('an ancestor'); scnzo-denrai 
f# ^5 (' an heirloom '). 

>^T^ [Variant- ^.] NEN ; A' £ ; tos/zf; zok., Toshi-. toshi ('a year, year 
• of plenty'). See pp. 41-5 and compare Jg (xiii). 51. 

I M. «V", f<^r t^ (xvi); hence Ayu-maro ^ g (n.), -ichi-gata iff M 
(lagoon). Parts of the Year: | -^ nen-shi (or toshi no hajime), -^ -shu, 
H -to, I ^ nernbo, the beginning. New Year; | "^ nem~ho, ^ -hi, \ ^ 
toshi no oivari (or no kure), the end ; | 7^ nemmatsit, last ten days ; | ^ 
toshikoshi, New Year's Eve. 

Other Locutions: | 4* nen-jii ('all the year round', as in nenju-gioji 
^j ^, 'the year's doings'), yj)^ -go (see p. 43), ^ -sei (after an era-name, 
'made during the . . . era', in imitation of the Chinese '. . . nien chih'), 
j^, -ki ('anniversary of a death', celebrated esp. in the ist, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 
13th, 17th, 50th, looth and loooth years following), ^ -ki, ^ -rei ('one's 
age '), ^ -reki (' an historical record '), \\^ |i -daiki (' a chronicle '), ^ 
-gioku (or toshidama, 'a New Year's gift'), ^ -ga, j^ ]i^ ^ -shi no shugi 
('New Year congratulations', such as | %\ ^1 fjJJ fp] nento no go-shukushi) ; 
I ^ nempio (' a chronological table ). 

'^ BO, MO; MO, MU, N final, ushi no koye ('the lowing of cattle'). 93. 

I ^ [Compare 5^ (viii).] I ^ Muro (k. of Kishu). Towns : :fe I ffi 

Omuta; | f^ Mu-sa, lljj^ -gi, H -re (i.). \ H Mu-ta, QH P -taguchi (f.). 

J> BEKI, MIAKU; ito; (ito). 'Fine thread (ito ^, xii)'. 120. 

•"^ A^ I j'l Koito-gawa (r.). | ^ Ito-shima (mod. k. of Chikuzen), 
lltly -saki, 'l^i -zawa (t.). | (or H,) j^ )\\ Itoigawa (t.). Surnames : | )\\ 
Ito-gawa, ^ -ku, \[\ -}ama, ^ -1 (met.), 7K. -naga, ^ -o, M -ya, J|[ 
-ga (met.). | ;§| itozakuni (the \Veeping Cherry, Pntnus pendula); Itozakura 
Honclio Sodachi 4^ WJ ^ {jdnivi). 



Six Strokes 222 

-"—^ Contraction of -^ (xiii). 

/^ KO, GO ; or KATSU (GATSU) ; ai. au (' to agree, fit, suit, be 
F-* joined'); cnvaseru ('to join, mix, amalgamate, match, whet"); 

awase ('a fitting, matching, comparison, capping' ; see Locutions); ai- ('joint, 
common, fellow- '). Compare ^g (ix) and ^ (xiii). Distinguish from -^ 
(p. 198) and ^ (vii). 30. 

[Compare homophones under ^g (ix).] | ^> Goshi or Kawashi (k. of 

Higo), Awashi, Kawashi (f. ptr.). | ^ Go-tani (valley). | ± )\\ Aito- 

-gawa (r.). Towns: | ^ Godo ; I Jii Osaka ^ ; | 1^ 1]^ Kassemba (lit. 

'battlefield'); | )\\ Ai-kawa (f. ptr.), ^ -kai, ^ -tsu. Other Surnames: 

I H Goda; | ]^ Ai-bara, ^ -ga, H -ba (ptr.). | ^^) Aisome (joro). 

I 7|] Gappo (no). I liji Awase-gaki (kiogen). 

Locutions: | j'^ gassaku ('made in collaboration'); | ^ gogio ('mutual 
help'); I fJi Jiassen ('a battle, campaign, war'); | ^ aigasa ('[lovers] 
under the san^e umbrella ") ; I ^ aivase-kagami (' a mirror reflecting the 
spectator's back '). In print-titles : §^ \ \ bijin-aivase, ' a comparison of 
fair women ', but ^ J| A I hana-hi jin-cnvase, ' flowers and fair women 
compared '. 

y^ [\"ariant : ^.] KI ; KI. kuwadate (' a plan, scheme '). 9. 
-"^ I ^ Kiku (k. of Bizen). 

>ft^ SHOKU, SHIKI ; SHI; iro ; {iro). iro ('colour, sort, love, lover, 
t^ lewdness'). See p. 103, 52. As shiko in ancient names; as -shoku 
or no keshiki, 'local colour, scenery'. 139. 

I )\\ Iro-kawa, -ta (f.), ^ -ko (court lady). | ^ ^D Shikofuchi 
(n.). S I ^ goshikizome (' dyeing in the five, i.e. many, colours '). | ^ 
ironaoshi (the bride's change into coloured garments). | fR shikishi (the 
square poem-card). 

T.\ : TA ; masa, Oshi, {masii, kazii) ; zok., \ -^ Tame-, | -j^:, Tada-, 
I Jl Tami-, etc. (see also Examples). oshi (' much, many, 
abundant'). 36. 

[Compare H (p. 207).] Isl.vnds : | ^ % Take-shima (for ^j* ^) ; 
'}^ \ )^ Uj Otafu-shima. Kori : | nj" Ta-ka (Harima). ^ -ko (Kotsuke; 
f- P^r.j, )^ -do (Sanuki), |ti -ki (Tamba ; f.), ^Tl -ke (Ise ; f.), -ki (same k. ; 
t. ; f.), JpJ -ka (Hitachi), 2? -no (Kotsuke, mod. ; f.), j^ -ka (same k. of 
Hitachi; Taga as t. and f., also cas., -jo ^, and tern., -no-yashiro fth), M 
-ma (Musashi; r., also | fri^' )\\ and ^ jlj), ^v -ge (Mino), -gi (same k. ; f.). 




' I.e. a-fu~saka ; not the famous city (^ |^, o-ho-saka). 



223 Six Strokes 

• I -F M Tago-no-ura (shore, not same as 03 etc.). Mountains: | J^ ^ 

To-, Tabu-, Tamu-no-mine (t. ; tem.j ; \ zi\. ^ Tada-ga-dake ', \ % ^ 
Tara-dake ; I '^ llj Taso-yama. 

Other Towns: ;^ j ^ Otao ; :;^ | (or H) ^^ Otaki ; /J> | H Otada; 

I ^ Ta-ku (f.), y^ ti ^ W. -taragahama, yt -hira, Jj] -kd, B3 -da (f. 

ptr., met., swo., pot.), fQ |5t -dain (Tada-no-in as tern.), -^ -ko or -go, 

^ -ra, ^ ;;^ -raki, M -ri, P^ :^Jc -mon-jo (cas.), Vo ^ -jimi (pot. ; f. ; n.), 

}^ # -dotsu (f.). 

Other Surnames : I O, Oslii \ -j^ \ ^U Otawa ; I )\\ Ta-ga\va, ^ 
-ko (Masaru-ko as Empress), /^ -da, ^ ^, ^ ^ -tara, Ji -gami, ^ -do, 
^ -uchi, @ -me, ^ -jiri, ^ -na, ;^ J:t -jii (founded by Tajiiko-no-6 | ^ 
It "^ 3E), IP ffl -wada, ^ffl -bata, Jf -Lira, Ift -no, fd -ki, ^i -be, -nabe, 
^ ^ -bei, g -ki, W- tTi -kizawa, ^M # -gaya (ptr.), '^ -ko, ^ -se 
(Tase-ko ^, poetess), j^ -bata, ^ ^ -rao (ptr.). 

Other Personages: | ^ Ta-mon (= Anan, p. no, 86), f^ -mon 
(or Tamon-ten ^, see p. 98, 14 : see also p. 86), 'ftji -dm (see p. 86), 
^ -miya, ±, i| g -damaro, ^ij i| -rio, ^ -ra, §f ;^, BiJ -suku (n. ; last 
normally Tasuke as 20k.), -^ ^gj p^ -noyemon {zok.), fll; -yo (poetess), ^ ^ 
-mi-ko (princess). 

MEI, MIO ; A'.4 ; na ; na, Nadziiku ; zok., Xa-. na (' a name, good 
name, fame '). As mei-, esp. ' famous '. 30. 

[Compare ^ (viii), jjfi (vii).] Kori : | '^, | y^, Na-no-nishi, -no- 
-higashi, or Miosai, Mioto (Ashu) ; | l^i Na-tori (Oshu ; f. ; n.), ^ -kusa 
(Kishu; f. ptr.), ^ -bari (Iga; t. ; r.), ^ -ga (Iga, mod.). | (or ^) |p M 
Nawa-no-ura (shore). I .^ ^^ UJ Nakui-yama (m.). I (or ^) {i ;t| 
Nai-no-taki (fall). 

Other Towns: /J^ | ^ Konabe ; /J^ | '^ Konahama or Onanohama; 
I ^ Na-de (see also Locutions), y )\\ -nokawa, ^ -tachi or -dachi, 
•j& (formerly %%) ^ -goya (f.), ^fc t§ -kizawa, |lJ -wa (f.), ]^ -taka, ^ 
-jima (now called Fukuoka ; f.), ^ -shio. Other Surnames: | jlj Na- 
-gawa, ^ -ko, tJc -ki, ;jsj- -mura (met.), J|. lUpj -mizaki (mus.), fg. ^ -kogata, 
5£ ]^ -goya, 1^ lll^ -mizaki, ^ -gura (n.), ^ -goye, -goshi, J^ -dzuka (ptr.), 
#: -gusa. 

I ][] Meizan (joro). | -^ "^ Nakoso (leg. pers.). I ^ ,® "^ 
Nagoshinoya (art-name). | ]^ jlj Natori-gawa (kiogen). J^ \ dainiio, 
/J> I shomid, \ ^ uaiiushi (tit.). Locutions: | ^/^ na-hirome ('announce- 
ment of a change of name'); | 7^ 'nei-jin, X -ko, ^ -s/xu ('a famous or 
expert craftsman'), % -bittsn or ;^ -sa;z ('a famous local product'), jjlf -sho, 
W- slid, '^^ -/ez/ ('a famous locality, sight, "lion"'), ^ -yo ('honour, renown'). 




Six Strokes 224 

/k^ KAKU. ono-ouo ('each, all, the various'). 30. • 

I f^ Kakami or Kagami (k. of Mine) ; Kagami, Kakumu (f.). 

■^^ KO, GO; (kata). tagai ui (' mutual"). 8. 

->^ I if Katano (k. of Kawaclii ; f. ; court-lady). | ilh Koshi (Cochin 

China) ; Koshi-doshi (Chiao-chih Tao-shih, sennin). 

—t-^ I (YE) ; YE, SO ; koromo, kinu. koromo, kinu, -so (' clothing, a 
^^ garment"). 145. 

I fill Koromo-ga-ura (sea), )\\ -gawa (r. ; Kinugawa as f.), ^ -no- 
-seki (barrier), '§i -no-taki (fall), ^ -de (joro, lit. 'sleeve'). | ^ Kiuu- 
-gasa (t. ; f. ; n. ; joro ; in seal-script, as a censor's mark on woodcuts from 
1842 to 1853), ^ (5M) ill -kasa(-bari)-yama (m.), ^ -zuri (f.). 1 ^ 
Yemon (joro, lit. 'dress'); Yemon-zaka |^ (street of Yedo). j |^ Ibi (f.). 

1 ^ Isho (d., see p. 112, 94; lit. 'apparel'). | l§^ $g Sotori-hime 
(princess). 

-J^ . J^ " JU, JIJ ; mitsu, Mitsitru. michiru, mitsiiru (' to be full, 
7C °' Ju abound'). 10. 

^K" GAl ; /; (i) ; zok., I-. As gai or i, 'the Hog' (see p. 63). 8. 

YEKl, YAKU ; zok., Mata-. mata ('again, also'). 8. 



/^ 



:^ I Omata, | if Matano (f.). 

^ U ; U. As z/, the canopy of heaven, also a numeral-suffix for sacred 
J buildings (cf. p. 39, C) ; \ "^ iichu ('the universe'); ^1 | gioUj 

' the Emperor's reign '. 40. 

[Compare ^p (p. 190), ^ (viii), || (xviii).] | _^ ^ U-ku-shima (is.), 
^n Wi -wa-shima (is.), -wajima (t.), ;j=^ ^J -ne-yama, :j^ ^ -tsu-mine (m.), 
^ ^ lltf -tsunoya-toge (pass). Kori : | ± U-do or -to (Higo; t.), ^ -da 
(Ivvaki ; t; f. swo. ; 59th Mikado; Uda-Genji i|j^, |I;, branch of the Minamoto 
clan), f^ -sa (Buzen ; t. ; f.), J^ -ji (Yamashiro ; t. ; r. ; bridge, -hashi ;^, 
see p. 98), jig -ji (same k., anctly. ^ j^), P't -da (Yamato, anctly. 'pg ^; 
f.), ^D -wa (lyo), ^ -chi or -ji (Yamato). 

Other Towns: | H U-da (f.), Jt} ^^ -setsu, ,f|<j PJ] -noma, |^ -noshima 
(f. ptr.), Wf -no (f. ptr.), % -be, ;g|; g -tsunomiya (f. ptr., met.). | \^ ft 
Ube-no-yashiro (tem.). Other Surnames: | j!| U-gawa, l\ -ku, jlj -yama, 
■Jf. -ki, JY -i, EQ j'l -dagawa, f^ jl| -sagawa, Vo jll -jigawa, -{^ H -jita, 
III )\\ -wagawa, ^cll # -jimura, p: -tsu (ptr.), :^ ;/fc -tsuki, ^ ^* -tsunomiya, 
# jgp -tsuno, JI -gaki, f/J -ru, -g? ?f -runo, j^ -daka, % -shiku, gp if 
-nozawa, ^ -ga, i{ fiJli -kagami, M- B, -B ^ -l^ita, Ij -slnki, ;|f -hashi, 

B -to. 



225 Six Strokes 

Other Personages : | jM 1^ Sfe Jpl^ Uga-no-mitama-no-kami (the Food 
Goddess) ; | ^ M. Fi Utamaro (n. poet) ; | JM M k Uji-no-kurome 
(poetess) ; | ^ Umakai, | ^ jQ Udzumaro (n.) ; | fi^ I'lie (see p. 86). 
I Vo ^ lo Uji A'lonogatari (classic). 

^i* SHI, JI ; NA; (sane). na ('a name'); azana ('a sobriquet'). /J^ | 
J osanana, ' a child-name '. As ji, also ^ \ moji (occasionally as 

-monji in compounds), 'a character, letter, sign'. 39. 

i^*^ TAKU, DAKU; {iye, yaka-). yake, iye, idokoro ('a house, dwelling'). 40. 
•^ I ^ j'l Takura-gawa (r.). Surnames : I Taku ; ^ | Oyake ; 

/J^ I Oyake, Koyake ; | faj Taku-ma, ^ -ma (ptr.). | J] g Yakatoji 
(court -lady). 

i^V^ SHU, SHU; mori ; movi, Mamoru; zok., iMori-. niamoru ('to guard, 
J protect, preserve ') ; mamori (' protection, an amulet ') ; mori (' a 

warden, watchman '). See also pp. 84, 85, 88. 40. 

[Compare ^, ^ (xii).] Towns : | \\\ Mori-yama (Nakasendo stage 

67, also Moruyama ; f. ptr., met.), P -kuchi (f.), fC -y^, M ~y^ (f- ; n.), 

^ -zane. Other Surnames : | Mori (ptr., met.), Mamori ; | ^ Shuto ; 

I )\\ Mori-kawa (met.), ^ -ya [sic), ;^ -naga, ^ -ya, ;?^ -moto, g -ta 

(met.), ^ -zumi (ptr.), ;|sj- -mura, ^ -ya, ^ -o, ^ -take, ^ -ya, 1^^ -be (n.). 

I ^ Mori-ko (princess), ^ -to (n.), ^[v; ^ -tayu {jdrnri chanter). 

I W. [M\ shugo[shokii] (tit.). 

AN; A; yasu ; yasu, Yasicshi, Yasii ; zok., Yasu-. yasushi ('peaceful. 



-^^^ easy ). 40. 

[Compare, for A-, psf (viii), ^ (vii), and, for Yasu- [^ (ix), ^ (x), 
j^ (xi).] I ^ Annan (' Annam '). | ^ Avva (Boshu, pr. of the Tokaido). 
I ^ Aki (pr. and one of its kori ; t. ; f. ; poetesses ; k. of Tosa, also 
written | ^ ; see also ^ , viii). Other Kori : | A Ampachi or Ahachi 
(Mino) ; | f^ A-sa (Aki, mod.), 'f^ -be (Suruga ; clan ; f. ptr. ; r., -kawa ; 
moor, -no ff ), j^ -no (Ise and Iwami ; f.), j!^ -dachi (Oshu ; f. met., sculp. ; 
Adachi-ga-hara ->■ ]^, moor, no), ^ -saka (Oshu ; f. ; prince ; Atsumi as t. ; 
also Adzumi as f.), ^ -dzumi (Oshu ; t. ; f.), j^ -so (Shimotsuke ; f.) ; i ^ 
Yasu-na (Bingo), ^ [^] -kabe (Kawachi). 

I 1^- Mi \h Ashio-zan, | j^ ic ^P lU Adachitaro-zan (m.). | ^ iJj 
Anto-zan (hill), |!j§ -zaki (cape). | ^ )\\ Aji-kawa (r.). | H >^| Ami-no- 
-taki (fall). 

Other Towns : | ^ An-naka (Nakasendo stage 15 ; f.), ^ -jo, 
^ -shu, ^ -do, ^ -jo, p -jo (cas.) ; | ± A-dzuchi (Adzuchi-ko ^, 
= Oda Nobunaga), 1* }± -genosho, lljJS: -ki, ^> -shi, ^jj -chi, J§ ^ -gui, 

15 



Six Strokes (^, contd.; 226 

-^ -jiki, ^ -biko, ^ ^ -kari, ;fg :j^ -notsu (old name for Tsu ^, cap: of 
Ise ; see p. 98, 9); | }\'- Yasu-i (dist. of Osaka; f. ptr.), H -da (f. ptr., 
met.), ^ -ra, >5jS -gi, (S) -oka, J^ -dzuka, ^ -zawa. 

I ^ P Ataka-no-seki (barrier). | fn jji^ jfrh Ani-jinja, | ^ (^) ^ 
An-koku(-raku)-ji (tem.). | ff- SB]" Anjin-dio ('Pilot Street'- in Yedo) ; 
I M (^, ^) P^ An-ki (-ki, -ka) -mon (gates of Kioto); ^ \ ^ Oan-dono 
(part of the palace, Kioto) ; I jt BJ Anriu-machi (dist. of Osaka). 

Other Surnames: | Yasu ; | jji| Ampuku ; | ]I5 An-zai (ptr., met.), 
y^ -do, ^ -do (met.), ^ -raku, ^ -zai, ^ -do (ptr., enameller) ; | tJc BQ 
A-kita, jt -dachi, ^ -taka (ptr.; nu), ^ ^i -sami, j^ \^i -rasawa, ^^ ;^ 
-naki, >f^ -bo, ^ -jima (also Yasushima), |fi> -be (ptr., swo.), faj, j^^ -ma; 
I }\\ Yasu-kawa (ptr., met.), jt -moto, ;?fc -gi, ^ -naga, W -yo, /fi -moto, 
^ -zumi, ;jsj- -mura, Jg. -tari, ^ -mi, fpj j^ -goclii, |^ -matsu, ^ -i, 
1^ -hara (met.), if -no, % -tomi, ^ -mitsu, i^ -ba, % [B -da. 

Emperors : I ^ An-nei (3rd), J^ -ko (2otb), P^ -kan (27th), ^^ -toku 
(8ist). Empresses : | g (^) P^ f^ Anki(-ka)-monin ; | ^ Yasu-ko. 
I % 3i Yasukabe-6 (prince). | ^ P^ fi ^ij) Akuin-hoshi, | ^ Anchin 
(priests); | \^ Ambo (priest-poet, see p. 115, 100); | ^^ fi ^ijj ^ Ambo- 
-hoshi no nmsume (his daughter, poetess). | tt(] ^ Ankisei (An-ch'i Sheng, 
sennin). | H Ama (n. ptr.). | jlj Yasuyama (joro). I H ^l S 
Adzumaro (n.). Nen'Go: | % An-gen (1175-76), ^ -yei (1772-80), ^p -na 
(968-969), ^ -sei (1854-59), M -tei (1227-28). 



ni SHI. hari ('a sting, spine'). Distinguish from ^ (vii) 






[5* I ; / ; -hina ; (hina). hina ('rustic'); yebisii ('a barbarian'). 37. 

[Compare 5^ (vi).] I ^j Isumi, formerly | ^ Ishimi (k. of 
Kadzusa). | jlj Yebisu-gawa (r. ; f.), PJ -machi, ^ -minato (t.). | |f 
yebisti-ko or ^ -matsuri (merchants' festival in honour of Yebisu ^ ^, d., 
20th of loth month). | ^ij isoku (the 7th month). 




\'ariant of ^ (viii). 

-ffi^ \'ariant of ^ (p. 204). 

KEI, KE; (kado, kiyo). tama Ca gem'); kado ('an angle). Compare ^ 
(x). 32. 

^ Said to be named after Will Adams, whose Japanese name .Anjin is properly written ^ ^j-. 



227 Six Strokes 




^^ Contraction of ^ (vii). 




SHI, JI ; //; tera. tera, \ ^ jiin, 'a Buddhist temple'. 41. 
*J Towns : ■;^ \ Otera or Odera (both f.) ; | ^ Jike or Jige ; | ^ 

Tera-ko, ^ -i (f.), ^ # -itsu, yt -moto, :g -islii, ffl -da (f.), j£ -sho, 
^ -o (f. pot.), '^Q -domari, |S) -oka (f.), ^ -tsu, |ljf -saki (f. ptr.). 

Other Surnames : /^ | Kodera ; \ ^ ^ Jigemura ; I )\\ Tera-kawa, 

P -kuchi, p -to (met.), ^ -uchi, ;^ -moto (sculp.), ^ -nishi, ^ -saka, 

i^ -niura, BJ -machi, ^ -mi (pot.), $^; -bayashi, |^ -matsu, f^ -kado, 

jg -gaki, ^iji -shi, ^ -shima, j^ -kura, ]^ -wara, ^ -be, ^}^ -sawa (ptr.). 

I JBt jisha ('Bud. temples and Shinto shrines'); jisha-hugio ^ ^j (tit.). 

I i|' jichu ('precincts' of a Bud. tem.). 

- If KITSU, KICHI ; KI, YE ; yoshi ; yoshi ; zok., kichi (in all positions), 
I— I rarely Yoshi-. yoshi ('lucky, favourable'). Placed above two rings, 

it figures in the mon of the Miyoshi H $f of Awa (extinct ca. T-SII)- 
Distinguish from "^ (p. 202). 30. 

[Compare ^ (viii), ^ (p. 215), % (vii).] | ()|ii Kibi (see p. 122, F; 
mod. k. of Bitchu ; f . ; n.); Kibi-maro ^ g (n.), -daijin -^ ^ {— Kibi no 
Makibi), -tsu-uneme # ^ ;^ (poetess). Other Kori : | B3 Yoshi-da 
(Echizen ; t., Tokaido stage 34, also pot.; f. ptr., met., arm., actor; r. ; m., 
-yama ; tem., -no-yashiro j^h), M ~ki (Hida ; f. ptr.), gf -no (Yamato and 
Mimasaka ; t., Koshukaido stage ; f. ptr., sculp. ; n. ; joro ; r. ; m., -yama ; 
see also Personages), H^ -ki (Suo). | ^ ililp Kina-no-misaki (cape). 

Other Towns : | [^ Yonabari ; I ^ jll Ki-rakawa, % -sa, ^ -be, 
o5 ifj -beichi ; | }\\ Yoshi-kawa (f. ; joro; also Kikkawa as f. met), TJC 
-ki, ^ -i (f. ptr. ; r.), ^ tIJ" -imachi, ^ -naga (f. ptr.), gj ^ -daya (pot.), 
XL -ye (f.)) iS. -zaka, TplJ -toshi, -/g -numa (sub. of Mito), ;|^ -matsu, %W -wa, 
pjj -oka (f. met., sculp.), ]^ -wara (Tokaido stage 14; prostitute quarter 
of Yedo ; f. ptr.), itni -zaki ff.), |1|^ j'ff -zakiura, if % -nojuku, '^ -hama. 
Temples: | 7X )P^ )tth Yoshimidzu-jinja ; | j/i Jlt Kibitsu-no-yashiro. 

Other Surnames : | dt Ki-shi (anct. tit.), j^^^ -ra ; | % Yoshi-maru, 
jlj -yama (ptr., met.), y\\ -midzu, ^j, -hiro, ;^ -moto (ptr.), ^ -zumi, 
j^ -mura (ptr., met. ; in seal-script as a censor's mark on woodcuts from 
1842 to 1853), -^ -tani, 1^ -mi, ^ -o, J^ -nari, 5^ -take, f^ -mi, % -ma, 
^ -masu, J^ -taka, '^ -tomi, ^ -ki, -/^^ -zawa (ptr., met., actor). 

Other Personages : \ 1^ ^ 'tc Kichijo-tennio (d.) ; | Sf Yoshino- 
^ -^ -tenno {= Go-Daigo, 96th Mikado), -j^;^ ^ -taishi (= Prince Furubito 
"6" A), M -Shidzuka, % A -tennin (no) ; | A Yoshi-to (n.), ^ -ko 
(princess; but Kichiko as early poet); | ]^ Kissho (n.), but Kichijo-in 




Six Strokes {'^, contd.) 228 

J5c (mask-carver).. J [p] PJ , see p. 47. I ij yehd (see ^, xii). I f^, 
after a signature, kissaku ('successfully made'). | ;£ ;6' kisso, \ ^ij kitsurei 
(' a lucky omen, lucky precedent '). 

SON, ZON ; ZO ; {ari, ori, naga, masa). nagarau (' to continue in 
life'); zon-jiru ('to think, feel, know'). 39. 

-Ar^ ZAI ; ari; ari. aru ('to be, dwell"). As zai, 'rural, resident m, 
1-^ attending, supplied with.' 32. 

[Compare the next.] Surnames : | jl| Ari-kawa (met.), H -ta, 
]^ -wara (clan; joro). | JE r|^ ^[f Zaigo-chujo (== Ariwara no Narihira, 
poet); I ,f^ "g Zai-nagon (= Yukihira, his elder brother). | -^ zai-riu 
('resident'), §g ->nei ('signed'). 

~jt^ YD, U ; [/ ; ari ; ari, {mochi, siimi, tonio). aru ('to be, dwell') ; iamotsu 

iJ ('to hold, own'). As yil in numbers, 'and' (see Examples). 74. 

[Compare ^ above.] | |g Udo (k. of Suruga ; shore, -no-hama '^). 

I EH Ari-ta (k. of Kishu; t. pottery; f. ptr., met.; r.), -da (same k.), §3 -ake 

(f. ; m., -yama ; gulf, -no-umi ^), ^ -ma (f. met. ; m., -yama), ^ )\\ 

-magawa (t.), ^ ][] -chi-yama (m.), ;fg )\\ -su-gawa (r. ; see also below). 

Other Towns : | (^ U-ne, -^D -chi (or Arichi), g -ki ; | )\\ Ari- 

-kawa (f.), i^ -ho, ;(^ -matsu, [SJ -oka (f.), ^ -ye, if -no, ^ -kabe. 

I ^ HJ Yuraku-cho (street of Yedo). Other Surnames : | % Ari-moto, 
;>fC -ki, ^ -i, -^ -moto, ^1" -take, illl -chi, ^ -yoshi, ^ -mitsu, |g -saka 
(ptr.), ;^ -mura, ^ -o, ^ -mochi, ^ -idzumi, ]^ -wara, ^ -mori, ^ -ga, 
j^ -michi, jjig -fuku, '^^ -sawa, ^ -so, "^| -taki. 

Personages : I ^ -f* Uchi-ko (princess) ; | ^ Ukaku (tea-ceremony 
expert) ; | ^ (^.) [^ Yu-sho(-toku)-in (lyetsugu and Yoshimune, shoguns) ; 

I >tS j'l ^ Arisugawa-no-miya (mod. princes) ; | fJl M "F" Arima-no-6ji 
(princej; | ^ Ari-6, -^^ gijj -hoshi, ^ gji -koro (swo.). I ^^ ;^ ft^ 
Arimanosuke {zok.). -tl + I -tl shichiju-yil-shichi (' seventy-and-seven ') ; 
-tr ~h I fi; j^ shichiju-yuyo-sai (' over 70 years old '). 



hj^ Variant of ^ (p. 230). 



|-t* KI ; mushi ; (mushi). hebi (' a reptile '). Commonly used as a con- 
^' ^ traction of ^ (.win), whence the reading mushi. 142. 
I PJ iMushi-aki (t. pottery), Jf^ -ka (f.). 

rb YEI, YE. /li^M (' to draw, lead '). 73. 
^ I 03 Hiketa (t.). 

1-"^ _Jfcu SHI; S/// ; (mune). umashi ('sweet, pleasant, skilful'); 7nune 
P^ W ('aim, intention'). 72. 



229 Six Strokes 



^ GIO, GO. takashi ('high'). 46. 

Qj \'ariant of ^ (p. 205). -"H- Contraction of ^ (xiii). 

ytf"^ ^^^ KO (i.e., KWO) ; mitsu; mitsu, Hikaru, (tern, -akira); zok., 
>'l^ v'Li Mitsu-, less commonly Ko-. hikari ('light, glitter, gloss, 
glory, power'); hikaru ('to shine, be glossy'). 10. 

I ^ Hikari-do (tern.). Surnames: | Hikari; I \\\ Mitsu-yama (ptr.), 
^* -i, 7K -riaga, ^ -yoshi, ^ -mura, [J^ -oka, i^ -masu. Emperors: 

I # Ko-ko (58th), !§- -kaku (119th), H)] -mio (N. Dyn. ; also Empress). 

I M P^ Kogon-in, | ^ Teru-no-miya (princes); | -^ Mitsu-ko (princess). 

I :^ 7lf Hikaru-shosho (= Eujiwara no Shigeiye ^ ^) ; I P^ ^ ■# ^ 
Komiobuji-dono (= F. no Micliiiye 5^ ^). | .^^ feofe^'f ('scenery, landscape). 

,\pl BEI, MAI ; Af£ ; yone, kome ; (/jiyo, ko7ne, yone) ; 2o/e., Yone-. yone, 
"^t^ kome (' [unhuUed] rice"). As Bei, esp. 'American' (U.S.A.). 118. 

I ^J Yone-yama (m. ; f.), lll§ -zaki (cape; f.), \X j'l -shiro-gawa (r.). 
Towns : I llj "^ Beisanji ; | ]^ Mai-bara (Yonehara as f. and a censor's 
mark on woodcuts from 1842 to 1853), ^ -tani or -ya (Yoneya and 
Kometani as f.) ; | -^ Yone-go (or Yonago), j^ f^ -naisawa, [JS) -oka (f.), 
1^ -dzu (or I 7 ^ Komenotsu ; Yonetsu as f. i)tr.), '{^i -zawa (f. met., 
actor) ; | ^ Kome-gawaki, |^ -kura. 

Other Surnames : | Yone (ptr.) ; | )]\ Yone-gawa, ^ \^ -kubo, 

^ -i, >^ -moto (met.), g -da (also Komeda), j^ -mura (ptr.), ^J(i -bayashi, 

^ -mochi (also Komechi), '^ -kura; j ^ Kome-fu, ^ -ya ; I yfc Me-ki, 

^ J:fc -tabi, ^ -ra. | ^ Ipl Kome-shogun (= Yoshimune). | TfJ Yoneichi, 

I 1^ Himenori (kidgen). \ ^ beiyw (see p. 42). 

ri/L. RO ; oi, fuka ; Oi, {ioshi, oyu). fukeru ('to grow old'); oi ('old age'). 
"fimU As 7'o, 'an old man, elder'. 125. 

I ^ Oi-no-saka (m.), j^ ^ -so-no-mori (forest), fp| 7K -no-shimidzu 
(lake), ^ -tsu (t.), ;|^ Iff -matsu-cho (street of Yedo), )\\ -kawa, "/g -numa 
(f-)> & S -maro (n.). | ,H| Omma (f.). | ^ Fukami (f. pot.). | ^ 
Roshi or | ^" Rokun (Lao Tzu, Lao Chiin, founder of Taoism ; see p. 
99, 18). I ^ ^ Roraishi (Lao Lai-tzu, sennin). /j> | Kooyu (poet); | 
ff" Roso Cold priest ', dram. pers.). | "^ ^ Oimusha ('old soldier", kiogen). 
I K vbjin, I ^ rofu (suffixes to art-names, see p. 70, also p. 42 ; both 
Otona as n.). | \^ rojil, \ -ijr rojo, ^ \ tairo (tit.). 

KO. kangayeru ('to think, consider'). As ko, also 'a deceased father'; in 
book-titles, 'a treatise [on ...]'. 125. | ^ kogwa, 'carefully drawn'. 





Six Strokes 230 

YO. hitsuji ('a sheep'). 123. i^ \ Ohitsuji (f.). 
- jY " Synonym of ^ (viii). 51. 

JE KlO, GU ; tonio, {taka). tonio ni ('together'). 12. 

fflKIOKU, KOKU ; magari, maga- ; {kuma). magavu ('to be crooked, 
perverted'); magari ('curved, evil, a corner"). As kioku, also 'music, 
a tune, an entertainment' (compare p. 100, 26). 73. 

^ I Omagari (t.). | il^ Magario (anct. pal.). | /^ BJ Sashide-cho 
(street of Yedo). Surnames : \ ^ 'M Manase (doctors) ; | ffl Maga-ta, 
jg -ki ; I tK Magari-gi (also Magaki), ^^ -buchi, '^^ -sawa. | ^ Kiokumi 
(dram. pers.). | ff kuruwa ('a prostitute quarter"). | 7jc ^ kioku(gokii)- 
sui-no-yen, magarimidzu no toyo-no-akari (Court fest., 3rd day of 3rd month). 

A^ KAI, GAI. yomogi, mogiisa (the Moxa plant, Artemisia moxa). 140. 

^ RETSU, RECHI. otoru ('to be inferior'). 89. 
^^ I (TO reppin, ' a poor thing ' (but mine own). 

rjip [Variant: M-] KWAI, KE. hai ('ashes'). 8b. 
/y^ I M Hainoya (art-name). 



l_Vl Contraction of ^ (vii). 



53- 



rV^ HEI, BIO; or SO, SHO ; zok., Sho-. tairaka ('level'). Commonly 
Z-*^ interchanged (in ordinary language) with ^ (xi), with the meanings 
'village, manor, towmship' — whence the alternative pair of on reathings. 53. 
Towns : | j^ Sho-nai (r.), ]^ -bara (f.), if -no (Tokaido stage 44 ; 
f. ptr.). Other Surnames : | jl| Sho-gawa (ptr.), "^ -ji (ptr., met. ; tit.), 
-da, $^ -bayashi. | ^ shoya (tit.). 

r*^ KO. GU. kimi ('a sovereign, lord, lady'); kisaki ('an empress, consort 
''i-l of the Emperor ') ; nochi (' subsequently '). Compare titles under -j^ 

(p. 177). 30. I §?■ Kokei (Hou I, Chin. hero). 

— P^ SHOKU, SH1KI;S///; nori. nori ('law, custom, procedure, ceremony'). 

^ 56 

[Compare ^ (-"^v).] | _t. Shiki-j6 or -no-kami, "]* -ge or -no-shimo 
(two k. of Yamato), ^^ ^ -ne-jima (is.), ^ -mi (t.), ^ -mori (f.). | tfjS 
Shikibu (zok. ; poetess ; see p. 83, 2) ; /]> I h1) Koshikibu (poetess ; joro) ; 
/h I nT> ft f^ Koshikibu-no-naishi, I ^ Shiki-shi (court lady and princess, 
Nos. 60 and 89 of the Hundred Poets). 



231 Six Strokes 

SHUN, JUN; (toki). idka ('a period of lo days'). 72. _h {^,y) I 
jd{chu, ge)-jiLn, 'the first (second, third) decade of a month'. 



20. 



"pCu Simple form of ^ (x). 

-I#n KIOKU, KOKU ; (aki, -akira, tern). asahi ('the rising sun'). 72. 
/L^ I Asahi (f. sculp.). 1 }\\ Asahi-gawa (r. ; t.), 'M W- -shogun 

(= Minamoto no Yoshinaka). 

^"1[ (No oil); kome. komu ('to insert, be huddled together'). 
*^-' I ]U Komeyama (f.). 

^ K (No on); tsuji ; (tsuji). tsnji, anctly. tsumuji ('a cross-roads, carfax'). 



Regarded by some as a Japanese contraction of j^ (xii), whence 
the on KI sometimes attached to it. 

Towns: | H^ Tsuji-mura (f. ptr.), ^ -do. Other Surnames: | Tsuji 
(ptr., met., sculp., pot.) ; /J^ | Kotsuji ; | % Tsuji-moto, j^ -uchi, ^ -i 
(pot.), ;^C -moto, pS) -oka, ^ -sawa, ;j^ -bashi. | ^ tsiiji-matsiiri (fest.), 
^ -ura (method of fortune-telling), ^ -iiri ('peddling'). 

\/l Common contraction of j^ (xixj. 162. 

jHl [Contractions : pj, pj ; variant : ^.] DO ; {kane, atsu, nobu, ai). 



onaji (' same 'j ; onajiku (' likewise, equally, and ' ; in lists, ' ditto '). 
As do-, ' mate, co-, also '. Distinguish from [p] (p. 220). 30. 

I B3 M Do-danuki (t.), >ij» BJ -shim-machi, jjj fff -bo-machi (streets 
of Yedo), H -za (priest). | ^ doshi, onajiku ko ('. . . and his son'); | ^ 
dosaku (' also made '). 




yjA Contraction of J^ (ix). 

1^ SHUKU. asa (' the dawn ') ; hayashi (' early '). 36. 
/^V< I ^ Asa-ko (Empress). | ^ Shukuya (n, ptr.). 

Iit|, (^^o on). nagi ('gentle waves'). 

i-Pp SHU, SU. mamoru ('to guard', esp. the frontier). Distinguish from jrj^ 
^-^ (p. 205), jX (210) and the next. 62. | t^ ^ Shubaka {rakan). 

X^ JUTSU. horobosu ('to destroy'). As jiiisu or inn, 'the Dog' (see 
>^ p. 63). 62. 

T^W JO, NIC; or SHO. tsuwamono ('a soldier'); yebisu ('a barbarian'); 
Yebisu (d.). Distinguish from the foregoing, also from J^ (vii). 62. 
[Compare ^ (p. 226).] I "]*" Yebisu-gashimo (t.), IHf -no (f.). 





Six and Seven Strokes 232 

SHIN, JIN; M/ ; omi, -tomi ; omi, (-tomi, shige, -0). As shin or omi, 
'a servant, retainer, minister'. Distinguish from g (p. 205). 131. 
Titles (cf. p. 81, A) : ^ \ daijiu, anctly. otodo, omi (oomi) ; ^ I 
iiaijin, f^ J^ \ naidaijin. 

t^ KlO, KO; masa, tada, Masashi, Tadashi; zok., Tada-. hako ('a box'); 
I — * tadasu (' to correct '). 22. 

Sennin : I ^ Kio-yu (K'uang Yii), ^ -clii (Chih), ^ -slioku (Su). 

SHO, so. takiimi ('a carpenter, expert'). See ^ fviii). 22. 

[pI [Variants: [H], \S\ ] KW'M, YE; WA. mcguru ('to revolve 'J ; 
  kayeru ('to return'). As kwai, 'chapter' or 'part' of a book; as 

-kwai or rtabi, ' . . . times ', e.g., ZL I futatahi, nikwai, ' twice ', etc. ; 
^ H I daisankivai, 'Part III', etc. 31. 

I [p] |5c Yeko-in (ten:. ; yeko are Buddhist masses for the dead). 

l-j^t [Variant: Q.] IN; (yoshi, yori, yorii). yoshi ('a cause'); yorii ('to 

 depend on 'j ; . . . ni yotte ('from, because of). 31. 

I l]j|| Inaba (pr.) ; Inaba-do ^ {kiogen) ; | '}[] Inshu (same pr.). | ^ )]\ 

Imbi-gawa (r.). | i§ In-do (f.), P'^ ^ -dara (d.), f^ pt -kada (rakan). 

I ^W ^ ^ Ishiraka^ (ptr.). I ^ A JL ^ ^ Inaba-yakami-no-uneme, 

I ^ Yoruka (poetesses). 



SEVEN STROKES. 

to resemble '). 9. 
I Nitori (f.). I |§ nigao ('a likeness, portrait'). 



Jtr*t SHI, JI; NI. niru ('to resemble'). 9 

/hn KA, GA ; KA, GA. togi ('a sick-nurse, attendant'). Used in Bud. 
IvM words for Sanskrit ka or ga (compare jjB, ix). 9. 

I H Kiara (f. ; lit. ' aloes- wood') ; Kiara Sendai-hagi "^ \K. M (jornri). 
I ^ garan (' a [large] Bud. temple '). 

A^\^ HO, CHO ; Tsukau, Tayori. tsukau ('to serve'). 9. 

/Cfl TEI, TAI ; TE. taruru, unadaru ('to hang the head'); hikushi ('low, 
'•^ short, dishonourable'). 9. 

" So Haga. Aston {h'ihongi. Translation, 1896, vol. I, p. 350, under date 463 a.d.) calls him 
' In-sa-ra-ka' of the Painters' Be (Gild) and describes this as the first mention of painting in 
Japanese records. 



TAN, DAN; {tada). tadashi (a conjunction, 'or, but'). 9. 
I ^ Tajima (pr.). | ^ Tajimi (n.). 



233 Seven Strokes 

Jt/^ __ . t/i^ SAKU ; SA ; nari, -tsukuri, -liagi ; (nari) ; zok., Saku-, -saku. 
I I I "^ nasu, tsitkurii ('to make'); tsukuri ('make, manufacture'). 

See p. 91. 9. 

I jJ'H Sakushu (Miinasaka pr.). Towns :/!>»! H Kosakuda ; | 7|c 
Saku-ki, J^ -mi, ^ -nami (f.). Other Surnames: | tJC Narimoto; | M 
Saku-ya (actor), ^^ -ne (pot.), fjjj -ma, ^ ^ -rado (n.j. | ^ [[1|] Sakura 
[zono] (n.). I S^ sakumono ('chef d'oeuvre ' or 'work of a famous crafts- 
man'), tsiiknrimono ('artificial object' or 'forgery, fake'); | S^J 0t tsukumo- 
-dokoro (palace workshops bureau in anct. times). | ^ sakii-sha ('author'), 
;|^ -i ('author's or artist's fancy'). 

'T^P rrSU, ICHI. ianoshimu {'to enjoy"). 9. 

/|^ HAKU, HIAKU ; {nori, taka). As haku, a mod. title, 'Count'; see 
 W also pp. 85 ijingi-kivan), 1-29 (Uncle, Brothers). 9. 

I ^ Hdki (pr., but | ^ ]^ Hokiwara, f.) ; | '}[] Hakushia (same pr.). 
I 3^ ^ Hakata-jima (is.). | ^^ Hakata (t.). | ^t g Hakamaro (n.). 
I ^ Haku-i (Po I, Chin, hero), jM -do (Tao, sennin), ^ -raku (Lao, 
seiinin). | # '^ 'M Uba ga Sake (kiogen). 

i|^ CHI; or I; or AI. shirizoku ('to retreat'). 9. 

I; /; (nori, taka). kurai ('position, rank, dignity'). See p. 88. 9. 



^ 



-^ I ^j Ivurai-yama (m.). I ^ Taka-ko (Empress). 

/-l^ CHU, JC ; sumi ; {sumi, tomo). siimu, ju-suru (' to dwell, inhabit '). 
■-*-» See p. 94, fin., and Examples. 9. 

[Compare f^ (.xii), '^ (vii), *^, M (xv).] | Sumi (f.). ;^ | Osumi 
(k. of Sagami; f.). | ^ Sumi-yoshi (k. and t. of Settsu ; f. ptr. ; Sumiyoshi- 
-mode II, no), i£ -noye (t. ; f. ptr.), H -da (f. ptr.), \\\ -yama, ^ -tomo 
(f-)- I xL i^ M: ~^ Suminoye no Naka-tsu-oji (prince). | ^ sumika ('a 
dwelling '). 

After a place-name {£ is to be read ... 770 ju, ' resident at ..." ; 
similarly {\- J\,, read . . . no junin (same meaning) ; but, before such a 
name, as [Teiio] ni jilsu (^ xL ^, 'lives in Yedo'). 

\/h^ Incorrectly used as a synonym of ^ (xxiii). 9. 

■ira SHIN ; (nobu). noberu (' to stretch, extend '). 9. 

•Yir "^'U, U ; or jO ; [suke). tasukeru (' to assist '). See also p. 85. 9. 
I [li Sukeyama (f.). 



Seven Strokes 234 

/X- SA ; SA ; siike, ( | ^ sato) ; sofe., Sa-, rarely Suke-. tasiikeru (' to 

l^-t* assist '). See p. 85. 9. 

[Compare ;£ (p. 201), |lg| (xiii), ^ (x), and see the next entry.] I '0% 
Sado (is. pr. and one of its mod. kori ; f. ; Sado-no-in ^, = Juntoku, 84111 
Mikado) ; I ^M Sashu (same pr.). | ;f: % Saki-shima (is.). Other Kori : 

I ^ Sa-ku (Shinano), ^ -yo (Harima; t. ; f. ; Sayo-liime $|g, hist, pers.), 
fjQ -yeki (Aki ; t. ; f. ptr., swo., text), -iki (same k. ; t.), fi -i (Kotsuke), 
^ -wa (Kotsuke, mod.; f . ; also Sanami as f.j, ^ -no or -ya (Totomi; Sano 
as t., f. ptr., met.), ^ -ga (Hizen ; mod. ken; t.), ^ -ga (same k.). 

I J-t 'i^i jll Sa-bi(-o)-gawa (r.). | H (^) ilitjJ Sata-no-misaki (two 
capesj. I MiP -j^ i^ Sano-no-matsubara (place). 

Other Towns: | A Sohachi: | )\\ Sa-gawa (f.), i ]i^ -dowara (f.), 
^ ^J -kuyama (f.), ^ -i (f.), ^ ^ -sebo, g -jiro, -da (f. ; also Sata 
as f.j, ^ -ta (f. ptr.; joru; also Sada as f.j, ^> M. -nagu, fg -numa, J)^ -ji 
(f . ; also Sachi as f.), ^0 -wa, ^\] \\\ -wayania, -j^ -o (f.), jg, j^^i -gaki, 
^ -kura (f.j, i^ -wara (f.j, § / '^l -kmohama, ^ ^ -suna, ^ P 
-ganoseki, j)^ -shiki (cas.). | \^ Hp Sanai-cho (street of Yedo). | fj ^'i: 
(151) M Sano-matsu(-tsuchi)-ya (brothels). 

Other Surnames : /]> | jl| Osagawa (actor) ; /]> | ^^ Osade : /h I |^ 
Osanai ; /]n | ^ Kosaji ; | ^ Sukeya ; | )\\ B3 Sa-kawada, "|» ^ 
-kabashi, ^ [{Ij -kuma (ptr., met.j, \\] -yama (n. mus.j, ^, ^ M -buri, 
'fl* -sakai, ^ -kata, -^ -ko, ^^^s; -da, ;$: -moto, jU; -se, ^ifi -naka, ^-t -take 
(sculp.), ^p -yanagi, ^ -ka (ptr.), ^ -ya, -/^ -mi, % -waki, if jl| -nokawa 
(actor), ^ -tori, -^ ^j -doyama (ptr.), -^ ^ -dojima (actor), :|P -to, ^ -ze, 
f^ -ma, -go, ^ -bashi, '/^ -zawa, -^ -se, iff -to (ptr., met., sculp.), 
^ -so. Other Personages : | ^ Sa-mi (prince), j^ -nai, ^ i^f -tao 
(n.), ^fi j5 ^ -kinoya (art-name), -f^ iJj -oyama, Hj P^ | -yemon-no- 
-suke (poetesses), ^ j^ -kao (joro), j^^ -me, ^ -tsu (wom. n.). 

a. h [See the foregoing.] Used phonetically in names w^ith the reading 
Sasa- ; for this compare -|^ (xij and fi^ (xvi). 

Towns: | | yfc Sasa-ki (f. ptr., met., swo.), 3]^ -nami (or Sazanami), |[5 
-be (f.). Other Surnames: | | Sasa (ptr.); | | Jl| wSasa-gawa, ^ -i, '^ 
-fu, ^ -kura, ]^ -hara. | | ^4; |1| ^ f^ Sasakiyama-no-naishi (poetess). 

irV> HAN, BAN; tomo ; tomo\ zok., Han- or Ban-, rarely Tomo-. tomo 
t I ('a companion .). 9. 

[Compare, for Bau , iH (p. 237), ^ (xiii), and, for Tomo-, ^ (p. 179), 
|f5 (xiv).] I Tomo (t. ; f.j ; Ban (f. met., swo.). Other Surnames : ;^ | 
Otomo (n.) ; | ^ Bamba ; | [B Ban-da, 5f -no (also Tomono) ; | \J^ 



235 Seven Strokes 

Tomo-bayashi, ^ -be. i^ \ [^ Jl] ^S "^ Otomo-no[-sakanoye-no]- 
-iratSLime (two poetesses). | j^ tomo-no-tniyakko (anct. tit.). 

Ijjh FUTSU, BUTSU. hotoke ('a Buddha, Buddhist image'). As Futsu, 
f l^ esp. 'France, French'; as Butsu, 'a Buddha, Buddhistic' Distinguish 
fron: f^ (ix). g. 

I ^ Bukkoku ('the land of the Buddha', also as n. priest); Futsukoku, 
also I ^ II Furansu ('France'). | 'S^ jjj But-cho-zan (m.), j^. ^ )\\ 
-tsuji-gawa (r.). | ^ Hotoke-jima (is.), ^) "^ -gozen (hist, pers.), |^ 
-ga-hara (no). ;;^ | daibutsu ('a colossal Bud. image'), Daibutsu or Osaragi^ 
(f.) ; Daibutsu-den ^ (tem.). /J-* | Kobotoke (t., Koshiakaido stage ; f.), 
0(Wo)saragi ^ (t. ; f.). | it ^ Bukko-ji (tem.). | >(;> ^ Busshin-shu 
(the Zen sect). 

Buddhistic Locutions : | |?2 butsuda (full form of butsu, ' a Buddha ') ; 

I IE busso (' the founder of Buddhism ") ; I f^ butsumon, | j^ butsitdo, 

I '?ic fjwp/'o, I i^ bukkio (' Buddhism ') ; | -/^ (^ bupposo (see p. loo, 29) ; 

I ji^lj bussetsu (a fera or Bud. tem.); | ^ bukke ('a Buddhist'); | ^ '^ 

busshoye ('the Buddha's birthday festival', Sth day of 4th month); | ^ij) 

busshj, I X. bukko ('a maker of Bud. images'); | ^^ bitkki, \ -M. butsiigu 

(' implements used in Bud. worship '). 

/|rf KA ; KA. nani, ika- ('what, how, why, something, anything'). 9. 
I J [Compare homophones under j]\\ (p. 187).] | Ka (f.). I J^ Ikaruga 

(k. of Tamba). | ^ Ka-ko (Ko Hou), fll| ^ -senko (-hsien-ku), sennin. 

I Xi Nani-maru (poet), ^ -noya (art-name). 

/m TEN, DEN. tsukuda ('a cultivated rice-field'). 9. 

II-^J I Tsukuda (f.). | ^ Tsukudajima (dist. of Yedo), 

V^ YA. irii ('to melt or cast metal'). Distinguish from '^ (viii). 15. 

• I-* IX yako, imonoshi ('founder, bronze-caster'). Compare ^ (xvii). 

y/^ REI, RIO; {kiyo). hiya ('cold, cool'). 15. 

T I yK lllr Hiyamidzu-toge (pass). | ^ Rei-ken (Ling Ch'ien, 

sennin), ^ -zei (63rd Mikado ; f.). 
vQ ^JJ KIO, KO. kvanya (' still more '). Also used as a variant 

iJt °' yU of -^ (viii). 15, 7. 

>C/L YEKI, "\'AKU; (tsura). tsiikau ('to employ'). As yaku, 'office, govern- 
!>>• ment'; as yeki, 'a campaign'. 60. | >f}^ |^ Yen-no-matsubara 

(garden of tlie Inipl. palace in Kioto). | /J^ j^ Yen no Shokaku (priest), 
I A yakii~nin (' an official 'j, ^ -sha (' an actor '). 

' Is it permissible to connect these anomalous pronunciations with the Japanese name for the 
sacred sal or Saul Tree of -Buddhism, ^ W. M: ^ sara-soju ? 



Seven Strokes 236 

viN SA ; or SA, SHA ; SA. isago, masago, suna[go] ('sand'). Used 
i^ alternatively (not in names) with igj; (ix). 85. 

I )\\ Sunagawa, Isagawa (f.). | f)l^ BE >^ Shanaomaru (novice- 
name of Minamoto no Yoshitsune). | f^ shamon ('Bud. priest', s'ramana). 
I 5M shami ('Bud. novice, s'ravaka); Sliami [-maro] ^ or }^i g (n. poets); 
shami-ui Jg ('novice', fem.). 

,^qr 0. 'An expanse of water'. 85. | -^ ^^ Otaifu (Wang T'ai-fu, 
•-^ sennin). 

!^^ BOTSU, MOTSIJ. bossu ('to die, sink, set [as the sun]'). 85. 

v'7\ FUN, BUN. Chinese river-name, the | 7X Fen-shui. 85. 

' ^ \ Wj Kawanami (f.) ; I {^ i Funyoo (Fen-yang Wang, the 

Chinese Methuselah). 

,y/f> . %ji-~^ CHIN, JIN. shidziimu ('to sink, be absorbed'); hitasu ('to 
iAu '" OL be nnmersed'). 8^. I Chin (f. ptr.). | ^ i| Chinda-no- 
-taki (fall). | ^ Chin-ken (Ch'en Chien), ^ -gi (I), sennin. 

^rf| [Variant: }^.\ CHO, CHU ; oki ; oki. oki ('the open sea'). 85. 
"* ' [Compare M (xv).] I ^ Oki-no-shima (is.). | ^^ Okinawa 

(mod. ken, i.e., the Riukiu or Luchu Islands, of which the largest is Okinawa- 
-shima or Riukiu-jima). Towns: | 03 Oki-ta, 0f gg -shinden. Surnames: 
I \[\ Oki-yama (sculp.), i^ -mura, jg -gaki, ]^ -wara, Hf -no. 

I/T ^"^^^'' I'^ON. yorokobu ('to rejoice'). 61. 

x^ As . . . no segare, 'son of . . . ', self-humiliative. Said to be a 
'^^ contraction of '\^ (SUI, ZUI, itrei, 'affliction'). [61.] 

^W* SHIN, JIN; Makoto. makoto ('the truth'). 61. 

jjrfi^ KWAI, KE ; (yoshi). yorokobu ('to rejoice'). 61. 
l^V I H^ kwaisei (' fine weather '). 

4^ [Variant: i§.] KAN, KON. otoshiana ('a pitfall'). See also 
^ p. 107, 76. 32. I g kanjitsu (same as nenohi ; see -^j p. 154). 

^OjT KO, KIO. hori ('a canal'); ana ('a hole, hollow'). 32. 

,1.-1- HO, BO. As bo, 'a Bud. priest', or his dwelling; see p. 69. 32. 
^ /J I vfi Bo-domari, jfi -gasama (t.), / ^ -no-tsu (harbour, see p. 98, 9), 

/ ill -no-ura (shore), f^ -mon (I; Bomon-no-tsubone ^, court-lady), J^ -jo, 
^ -no (f.). I ^ bozu (orig. ' a prior ', then a common name for a priest, 
also for any person with shaven or .bald head). 




237 Seven Strokes 

HAN (BAN), HON; saka; (saka). saka ('road uphill, acclivity'). 32. 
[Compa.re ^ (p. 238), i@ (x), ^ (viii), ^ (xiv).] | ^ Bansai 
(Japan west of Osaka Pass), Sakariishi (f.) ; | '^ Banto, Bando (Japan east of 
same; latter as f. actor; Bando-taro -j^ gp, the Tone River). I ^|* Saka-i 
(k. of Echizen ; t. ; f. met.), \B -ta (k. of Omi ; f. actor). 

Other Towns : ^ | Osaka (more properly ^ ^) ; /J> | Kosaka (f.), 
Ossaka (also Osaka as f.) ; /J^ \ ^ Osakabe or Kosakabe ; | ~|* Hange, 
Bange or Sakashita (latter as f.j ; | Ji Saka-gami (-uye, -nouye or -noye 
as f.), I / T* -noshita (see ^ ; f.), % -moto (f. met.), ^ -to, -do (f.), 
;;JC -ki (f.), ^ -^ -iminato, ^ -islii, ;?^ -moto (Nakasendo stage 17 ; f. ptr., 
met.), {U -de or -ide, yjsj- -mura, BJ -machi, ^ -ki, ^^ -ne (fall, -no-taki 
il), M -nashi (f. met.), M -koshi. 

Other Surnames : | Ban, Saka (met.) \ J^ \ M. Osakaya ; 1 A Saka- 
-iri, jl| -gawa, P -guchi, ^ EH -ida (pot.j, i^ -chi, ig ^ -nai, ^ -tani, 
M -o, ^ -chi, ^ -mo, ^ -kura, ^ -saki, ^fi -be, ip -no, J^ -ba (met.). 

- h^ t KIN; Hitoshi, {hira). hitoshii ('alike, level'). 3: 
V I ^ Hitoshiki-ko (princess). 



TO 



^^ KO, KU. wtsH, semeru (' to attack '). 



66. 




pjj» [Synonym: ^^.] SO, SHO. kasumeru ('to rob'); utsiisu ('to copy'). 
-^ As sho, ' an extract, excerpt '. 64. | ^ sho-hon, §. -riaku 

(' excerpt "), ^ -yo (' epitome ') ; |% | yesho, gwasho (' selected illustrations '). 

jHTri YOKU, OKI. osayeru (' to depress, repress, stop ') ; somosomo (' or, 
4*lr now ...'). 64. I t^ yokiiyo ('modulation'). 

TO, TSU. nagerii (' to throw '). 64. 

4rl SETSU, SECHI; on, ore; (oW). oru ('to bend, fold'). 64. 
^/I [Compare Hi (xviii).] Towns: | jt Ori-tate, ^^ jfi -fusako, ^ -o, 

it -kabe, '^ -hama. Surnames: | ^J Ori-yama, ^ -to, £0 -ta, |^ -hara, 
I ^ Sessho (Che Hsiang, sennin). \ fp Ori-fushi (poetess), ^ $g -koto- 
-hime (leg. pars.). | ^^ orikami ('certificate of authenticity'). 

jA- Variant of )[f^ (viii). 64. 

KI, GI. wasa, takiimi (' work, art, skill, expertise '). 64. 




FU ; or FU, BU ; FU ; {suke). tasukeru (' to assist ') ; tamotsu (' to 
keep'). 64. I ^ Fuso (Shinto sect); Fus6[-koku ^], in Chinese 
Fu-sang (also f^ ^), anct. name for Japan, orig. a plant-name. 




Seven Strokes 238 

)tYi I'^IO, GO. kurii ('to be warped, mad'). As kid, esp. 'extravagant, 
-*J-* eccentric ', often merely ' comic '. 94. 

I ^ kio-shi (see p. 70), \ -jin, 'ic ~jo (' a madman, madwoman '), 
^ -sei ('imbecile', self-humiliative), "^ -gen (farcical entr'acte in a no 
performance), ^ -ka ('comic poetry'), ^ &i|i -kashi ('comic poet'), ^ -ku 
(type of satirical poem), fjj -dan (' humorous tales '), ^ -gtva (' comic 
drawings '). | ^ adazakiira (' showy, but perisliable, cherry-blossom ', a 
trope for ' human life '). 

tlti- KI, GI ; KI, GI ; [michi). chimata ('a crossroads, road-forking, site, 
^ field '). 46. 

I I'll, for ;^ ^, Kiso [q.v., p. 177). | ^ Gifu (t. ; mod. ken). 
I ^ Kishuku (t.). 

HfL KO, KU. ikarii (' to be angry '). 30. 

rt/Cr* Sri ; fuki, fuke. fiiku ('to blow'). 30. 

^^ I M M Fukei-no-ura, | ^ ^^ Fukiori-no-ura (shores). Towns : 

/J^ I Kobuki ; | 03 Suita (Suida or Fukita as f.) ; I ^ ^ Fukei ; | Ji 
Fuki-age (f.), M -ya, ^ -ura (or Fuk[ujura). Other Surnames : | ^f 
Fukei ; | ilj Fuki-yama, gf -no. | ^ Fukei (n.). I ^ U Q Fubuki- 
-toji (poetess). 

til^ GIX. GON. nageku ('to mourn'); wfaw, ginzurn ('to hum'). 30. 

 I ^ Ginji-muko (kiogen). \ ^ ^ gimmiyakit (tit.). 

[Hr HA I, BI ; hoye. hoyeru (' to bark '). 30. 

It~^ GEX. GWAN. Chinese local and family name. 170. 
V^^ I 1^ Gencho (Yiian Chao, sennin). 

t^f^ HO, BO. tsiitsumi ('a dike'): jusegtt ('to repel, defend'). 170. 

^V I >j'|<J Boshu (Suo pr.j, | (or ^ or |ll§) tj^ sakimori (guards of 

the dazai-fu, with s.-no-tsukasa ^ at their head). | jjtjc 6osen ('defensive 
fighting '). 

Classical synonym of ^ (p. 237). 170. 

:^ I Osaka (t., see p. 98, 8; cas., -jo ^). | (or |i) / T 
Sakanoshita (t., Tokaido stage 47). I f^ ]^ Sakato-ga-hara (plain). 
SuRN.\MES : I Ji Saka-gami, -noye, ^j- -i, 4: -moto, gj -ta (actor), 
ig. -tani. 




Piro 



Contractions of |i^ (xi) and (^ (xii) respectively. 170. 




239 Seven Strokes 

KAI ; (masa). aratameru (' to change, renew, examine, improve, 

censorize '). 66. 

In seal-script on woodcuts between 1853 and 1857, g^ is to be read 
aratame, ' passed by the censor ". | §4 kai-sei (' chane^e of surname '), 
^ -mei ('change of nanori'); e.g., in signatures: Al M^ \ ^ j'l Uyesugi 
aratame Imagawa ('U. changed to I. ') ; | $4 ^ 7|c kaisei Suzuki ('surname 
changed to S. ') ; | ^ j^ fg kaimei Takanobit (' nanori changed to T.'). 
I % kai-gen ('initiation of a new nengo\ 'first year of a nengo' ; see p. 47, 
note i), ^- -nen, ^ -reki ('the New Year'), f^ or ^ -han ('revised edition'). 

-ttX\ BIO, MIO ; iaye, to, [tada, waka). taye (' excellent, beautiful '). A 
-^i^ Buddhistic character {mio), for which the Taoistic synonym is ^ 

(ix). See Invocations under '^ (ix). 2>'^. 

I ^ (M> i^, ^) lU Mio-k6(-ken, -ko, -gi)-zan (m.). | ^ Mio-ji 
(t.), M -ken (t. ; f. ; d. ; also Yoshimi as f.). | £ ^ Mio-ken-do, \^ ^ 
-ho-in, >jj» -^ -shin-ji (tern.). | Taye {jovo). 

^ GEX, KEX. kaoyoshi ('fair of face'). 38. | ^ Kazu-ko (Empress). 

•f^ YO. 'Unnatural, bewitching, magical'. 38. 

I M yo-kivai ('a ghost'), Ht -ko ('a magical fox'; see ^, p. 161). 

-I;lJ KOTSU, GOCHI. kui ('a stump, post'). 75. 

■^^ I ^ j'l Kuize-gawa (r.). | :^ Kumata (t.). | i)^ A ^* Kui 

ka Hito ka (kiogen). 

jjn^ [Variants: il^ and ^.] (No on); tochi. toc/zi (the Horse Chestnut, 
i4esci(/ws turbinata). Distinguish from ^^ (p. 215). [75.] 
[Compare ;f^ (viii), >|^ (xvi).] Towns : ^ 1 Otochi ; | TJC Tochi-gi 
(mod. ken), / -^ -noki, J^ -o, ]^ -hara, ^ -kubo. | |^ Tochiuchi (f.). 
I ^ Tochi-no-bo (priest). 

-i»^ . nt^ SAN; sugi; (sugi). sugi (a conifer, Cryptomeria japonica). 75. 

L>^ t'\ [Compare \^ (xiij.] | lij Sugi-yama (m. ; f. met.). 

Towxs : I ^ Sugi-to, y TJC ff -noki-shin, ffl -ta (f.), ig j:IH -nahata, 
^ -saka (f.), ]^ -hara, -wara (f. ; also Suibara as f.). Other Surnames : 

I Sugi ; -j^ I Osugi ; /J> | Kosugi (ptr., met.) ; | ]\\ Sugi-kawa, "f -shita, 
TfC -noki, x^ -naka, ^- -i, ^ -hira, :i -tate, ;^ -moto (ptr.), \L -ye (n. 
poetess), ^ -mura (ptr., met., arm.), .^ -tani (ptr.), -ya, ;f^ -bayashi, 
[^ -oka (met.), ^ -waka, ^ -ura (ptr., met.), % -shima, |I|^ -saki, SIf -no, 
^ -mori, :^ -tani, \^-. -sawa. | 75 '^ Suginoya (art-name). 

-jkK TO, TSU ; TO, DO ; mori ; [mori) ; 20/2., Mori- (but | % M. Toyozo). 
|_Ia mori ('a grove', esp. one surrounding a temple). 75. 



Seven Strokes (|±, contd.) 240 

[Compare homophones under ^- (p. 225).! | Mori (f.). | ^ H 
Toshimi (Tu Tzu-mei, seunin). \ ^ Kakitsubata (no; lit. a plant, Iris 
laevigata^). | fl% or | "^ Jiototogisu (the Japanese Cuckoo, Cucultis 
poliocephaltis). 



tt 



CHO, jO ; (tsuye). tsuye ('a staff, support"). 75. 



hA ' [Synonym (not used alternatively in names): '^\i.\ SON; mura; wwra. 
' ^ mura (' a village ' ; technically a subdivision of a kori). 75. 

[Compare also ^ (vii).] I jjj Alura-yama (k. of Dewa; f. actor), 
'^ -ma-no-ike (water). Towns : J^ \ Omura (f. met.) ; | Ji Mura- 
-kami (f. met. ; 62nd Mikado), ^-i (f. ptr., met.), 09 -ta- (f. ptr., met.), J^ 
-matsu^ (f.), ;|=^ '^ -matsuhama, jpf -sho, fS] -oka (f. met.). 

Other Surnames : 1 Mura- ; /]> | Komura ; I i, I dr Suguri (lit. 
'village-chief, from a Korean title); | jlj Mura-kawa, >fc -ki, ^ -ishi, 
:^ -moto, iili -ji, ]fg -nishi, ^ -saka, ^ -sugi, J^ -o, Jp -ji, ^^ -bayashi, 
^ -kishi, jg -gaki, \^ -ura, ^ -jima, ^ -taka, if -no, ^ -kuni, ^ -kumo, 
|j)c -koshi (ptr.), :^ -tsuka, v?: -sawa, ^ -se (ptr.). 

I H^ Murasame (hist. pers.). | J\ son-jin ('villager', used as a self- 
humiliative), frh -sha ('local shrine"), ^ -cho ('village-chief'). 

4-4- SAI, ZAI; [kazii, ki). tsiikuvigi ('timber'). 75. | ;^C zaimoku (same 
"1^ meaning) ; Zaimoku-iwa y^ (rock), -cho HJ (street of Yedo). 

"itlll ^-^'^ ^"-^ ' soma; zok., Soma-. soma ('a timber-forest, a woodman'). 
4* W [Compare ^.^ (xii).] | \\\ Soma-yama (t. ; f.), If -no (t.), :^ -gi 

(f.), HI -da (f. lacq.), jlj -kawa (jord). 

rfj^ BO, MO; 0. osu, 0- ('male animal, cock bird"). 93. 
TJ- I % Oshika (k. of Oshu), but | M. 11 Shikasuke {zok^. \ f^- 

botan (the Moutan or Tree Peony, Paeonia Moutan) ; | fj- ^^ ""^ ^U 
Botankwa Shohaku (poet). 



j^^ Synonym of ^ (xxi). 



86. 



SO, SHO. tsuyoshi ('strong, brave'). 33. | ^g' |]s Soyu-kwan (clan- 
school). I ^ sonen (' [ofj adult age '). 



■rftt^ SON; mura. mura ('a village'). 163. 
'liH [Compare ;|sj- above.] | ^ Muraoka (f.). 



' Strictly these characters stand for another plant, the yabumioga, Pollia japonica. 
^ These three surnames appear in seal-script as censors' marks on woodcuts between 1842 
and 1853. 



241 Seven Strokes 

^^t^ HO; kuni, Kiini ; zok., Kuni-. kuni ('a country, nation'). 163. 
^I"* [Compare @ (xi).] | ^ Kuni-tomo, ;j^ -matsu (f.), ^ -ko 
(poetess), ^ -mi (prince). 

y^ Contraction of ^ (xiv). 
P^J Contraction of 11$ (x). 

^flp K.'^N. See J^ (xi). 96. 

qr^Af KIO, KU ; ivL^. 'Smoky quartz'. Used as a less common complex 
^^V form of jl, (p. 148), 'nine'. 96. 

[Compare also ^ (p. 157).] Kori : | JpJ Ku-ga (Suo ; t.), -ka (same 
k. ; n.), 1^ -su or -shu (Bungo), ^ -ma (Higo ; r. ; usually written with 3^, 
q.v., xi). I ^ Ku-ba, ^ H -sumi (t.), ^ ^ -ga-hime (court-lady). 




TO ; (kage). akashi (' red '). 59. 

IEC^ KEl, GIO ; {kata). kata, katachi (' shape, pattern, model ') ; -nari 
^y^ (' of . . . shape'). 59. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 181).] | ]^ Kataliara (t. ; f. ; 
also Narinohara as f.), ;^ ]f( -nohara (same t.). | ^ kehhb (' figure, 
personal beauty '). 

Ttl/ KEI, GIO. Chinese place and family name. 163. 
"^'1 I ^P ^ Keikwahaku (Hing Ho-p'o, sennin). 

DxA., NA ; A^^ ; {tomo). A grammatical particle. 163. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 223).! Kori : | ^ Na-wa 
(Kotsuke ; f. ; Naba as t.), JBJ -ka (Hitachi, Musashi, Sanuki, Chikuzen ; f. 
ptr. ; r.), ^ -su (Shimotsuke ; t. ; f. ; moor -no if), ^ -ga (Idzu), -ka 
(Iwami, Ashu, Kishu, Hiuga ; r.). Other Towns: | "^ Na-ko, ^^ -go, 
^ -chi (tern., -san [Ij ; fall, -no-taki jf|), ^ -ha (or Nafa, cap. of Luchu). 
I ^ Na-ya, -^ -gura (f.), |^p Jp | -kasaina irakan), ^ -sai (n. poet). 
I ^ |!| — Nasu no Yoichi {kiogcn and its hero). 

JCCT^ JA ; ZA, YA. yokoshima ('wicked, depraved'); ya (grammatical 
J I particle). 163. 

I ^ [P^J jashu[mon] ('the depraved sect', old name for Christianity). 

gr^ KAN; kimo. kimo ('the liver'). Compare ^ (xvii). 130. 

-^1 I M Kimo-tsuki (k. of Osumi), ft -tsuki (f.). | ^ kimoiri (' a 

superintendent 'J. 

16 



Seven Strokes 242 



-^T| SHO, SO; liatsu ; Hajime, [hatsu, nioto) ; 20k., Hatsu-. huisii- ('the 
l^-* first, original'); hajime ('the beginning'); sonieru ('to begin, do for 

the first time', esp. in the New Year). See also pp. 41, 88. 18. 

I ^1 Hatsuse or Hase, for ^ ^ Hase (t.) ; Hatsuse (n. ; r.) ; Hatsuse- 
or Hase-dera ^ (tern.); Hase-ji ^ ijoro). \ ^^ Hatsukari (t., Koshukaido 
stage). I (or t^) ^ Hatsuishi (t.). Surnames : I 0] Hatsu~da (also 
Hatta), jii -mi, |S) -oka, ^ -ne (also Genji Chapter .\xiii, lit. 'the first 
song' of the nightingale), ^ -shima, J^ ^ -kano (or Hajikano). | ^ 
Hatsugimi (poetess). 

Other Locutions : I ^^'^ hatsii-hcuia, ^ -yuki, ^ | kakisome, §|| | 
hikisome ('the first blossoms, snow, writing, playing', of the year); | ^ 
hatsiiyiime (a dream on the second night of the year), -f -ne, ^fj -11 (first 
Rat, first Hare day of first month), ^ -uma (first Horse day of second 
month), ^ -ham (or shoshiin, see p. 47), ^ ^ -soratsuki (the first month); 
I ^ sho-ro ('a man of forty'), ^ -kican (the gembiiku ceremony); | ^ 
uizan ('giving birth to a first child'). 

y4>ij . /U|| HAX ; HA; (sada). wakatsu ('to distinguish, cliscern, judge'). 

' " As hail, also 'a stamp, seal'. 18. 

[Compare ^ (p. 203).] | H Han-da (t. ; f.), 7^ -no (f.). Titles: 

I ^ /ja;?;/ (see p. 83, 6) ; ;;^ | ^t (or ^ 1 daihanji ; | *g hangwan or 
hogwaii (see pp. 84-3, also ^, xvi); | *g \^ hangivandai. 

HI: i?/, TO; toshi, Toshi, [masa); zok., commonly Ri-, rarely Toshi-. 

toshi ('sharp-witted'); kiki ('efficacy, answer to prayer'). As ri, 

also ' profit, interest.' Borne within a ring as the chief mon of the 
Matsudaira of Kamex'ama. 18. 

I ^ To-shima (is.). | ;|=^ Tone (k. of Kotsuke ; f.) ; Tone-gaw-a )\\ 

(r., see p. 98, 10; f. met.). | j^ Rifu (t. ; f.). :^ | On (f.). | ^ 
ToshiTvO (princess). 

^t SHI. ivatakiishi ('I, we'); hisoka ('private, secret'). 115. 
'^ I ^ shishi ('an unofficial history'). 



m 



^n Variant of in (ix). 



BETSU, BECHI ; BE ; wake, (waki). wakatsu, zvakeru (' to divide, 
separate, distinguish 'j. As beisii, esp. ' different, separate, other ' ; 
as wake, a common element in early princely names (see ]). 49 f.), from an 
ancient title. 18. 

I ilj Bessan or Wakare-yama (m.). Towns : | "^ Betsugu ; | /ff 
Beppu (f.) or Befu ; | "^J Bes-shi, -^ |i| -shiyama. Other Surnames: 



243 Seven Strokes 

I ^ Betsuyaku ; | ^ Bes-sho fptr.), ^ -sho ; I :^, I § Bekki. | ^^ 
betto (tit., see p. 84, znit. ; also 'a groom'); I ^ betsu-mid ('a pseudonym, 
other name '), ji; -do (' a branch road ') ; I ^ 6e/j/e? (' a branch family ') ; 

I JIP bettei, \ ^ besso ('a country seat'). 

04| JO, SO ; suke ; suke, Tasuku ; zok., Suke-, -suke (see p. 72, B). 
•^^ [taJsM^eru (' to assist ') ; suke (' an assistant, second in command ' ; 

see p. 8j). 19. I )\\ Suke-gawa (t.), >j^ -matsu (f.), ^ g -takaya (f. 
actor). /Jn I Odasuku (f.). 



[Variant : -^; occasional contraction : ~J".] TEI, CHO ; machi ; 



lU I [VclilctllL . "T^  

"^ (machi). machi ('a town, village, street'). As -cho or -machi in 

street-names (cf. p. 10, note 2); as cho- or machi-, often 'bourgeois'; as cho, 
a measure of length (p. 65). 102. 

Towns : ^ \ Omachi (f. ; joro) ; | fQ Machi-da (f. ptr., met.), (Jj P 
-yamaguchi, j^ -mura, xU EB -kanda, ^ -ya. Other Surnames: | Machi; 

I p Machi-guchi, ^ -1, tU -de (ptr.), K "Jin, 5? -no. I K ::^ g 
Machijiri-no-otodo (= Fujiwara no Michikane ^ ^). Poetesses : /J> | 
Komachi (Ono /\^ 5f no K., No. 9 of the Hundred Poets; see also p. 106, 
71) ; /h I Mi (^) Komachi no ane (no mago) ; I ^ -f Machijiri-ko. 

I ^ ^j machibugio (tit.). | A chonin ('a merchant'). 



1] SAN, SEN. kedzuru ('to scrape'). 18. 



^F [Full form: ^ij-.j KIU, KU ; tatia, Tadasu. tadasu ('to examine'). 120. 
I JM Tadasu-gawa (r.), ;|:i: or ^ -no-mori (forest). 

Jjl Contraction of ^L (xiii). 5. 

[Variant: g.] GEN, GON ; feoio, (feore, toki, nori, r.obii). iii ('to 



^-^ say, talk ') ; koto, kotoba (' a word, speech ' ; also | H kotoba or 

kotonoha). 149. 

|— I TO, DZU ; DZO"^ ; mame. mame (' a bean, pea, pulse ') ; ;;:^ I daidzu, 
*^ -* mame (the Soy Bean, Soya hispida) ; /J^ | shodzu, adziiki (the Red 
Bean, Phaseolus radiatus). 131. 

I ^'M Dzushu (Idzu pr.). /]> I Shodo, now Shodzu (k. of Sanuki) ; 
Shodo-shima ^ (is.; ; /J> | '^^ Kodzusawa (t.), Adzukizawa (f. ptr.) ; /J^ (or 
:^) I 1^ Adzuki-zaka (hill, bat.). Other Towns : ^ \ Daidzu ; ;;;^ I ^ 
Mametani ; | fQ Mameda (f.). 1^:1^ mamemaki (the scattering of 
parched peas on New Year's Eve). | ^ tofu ('bean-curd'). 



^^ Variant of ^ (p. 249). 






Seven Strokes 244 

Contraction of ^ (vni). 

GO ; GO, A ; aga, a-. ware, waga, aga (' I, we '). For its use in 
P^ zokiimid, see pp. 71, 73. 30. 

[Compare psj (vm)-] I ^ Adzuma (Eastern Japan, often merely 
Yedo ; k. of Kotsuke ; f. met., actor ; jovo ; m., -yama) ; Agatsuma (same 
k) ; Adzuma-mura ;jsj- (t.). | ^ Adzuma (anctly. for | ^ as E. Japan; 
tem., -sha j^). \ )\\ A-gawa (k. of Tosa), gg -ta (anct. dist. of Satsuma), 
^. ^ -biko (f.). I B \M ^] M Ada[kaashi]-tsu-hime (goddess). 

KO, KIO ; sara ; {-tsugu, to). sara ni ('anew, afresh'). As ko, 'to 
change ', also ' a night-watch ' (one-fifth part of the night, the first 
beginning with the hour of the Dog, tlie fifth with that of the Tiger ; 
see p. 48). 73. 

I f4 Sara-shina (k. of Shinano ; f.), ^ -i ft.), i^ ^J -chi-yama (m.), 
Wi "'^hina (f. ; r.). | ^ kisaragi (the 2nd month), koi (tit. of court-ladies 
acting as valets to tlie Emperor). 

YU, YU ; (naga). umu ('to be sated'). As yu or tori, 'the Bird, 
Cock" (see p. 63). 164. [Compare % (xi), ^ (viii).] | ^f: Torii 
(f. met.). I f^ tori no machi (fest., first Bird day of iitli montli). 

rtta Contraction of ^ (viii). 

j^lj^ BU, MU. kannagi, \ ^ kannagi or miko ('a Shinto vestal' or 'a 

sorceress"). 48. 1 fjfj Mikobe (f.). 
^^ RO, Rll. moteasobu (' to sport, toy with '). 33. 
I 3& Rogioku (Lung Yii, sennin). 
TAI, DE ; DA ; (michi, toki). yorokobu (' to rejoice '). See also 
p. 107, 76. 10. 

"fi^ or ^^£1 [Often wrongly written ^, with the central strolve in the 
•^*^ v'l^ oblong not continuous with the lower stroke to the left.] 
BEN, MEN; ME. manukaru ('to escape [disaster]'); yusuru, men-zuru 
('to permit, exempt, jjardon, dismiss [from office]"). Distinguish from ^ 
(with dot below viii), from which it is said to be derived. 10. 

^Jj JIN, XIN ; 0; oshi ; Shinobu, (yoshi) ; zok., Jin- or Xin-. shinobu, 
'Li^ korayeru ('to endure patiently'). 61. 

[Compare |lp (viii).] | llj Oshi-yama (m.), ^ -mi, -nomi, -noumi 
(k. of Yamato; f.). Towns: | Oshi (f ptr.); | ftc Ozaka; | ff Osakabe 
(n. prince). | fifi] Shinobu-no-oka (hill in Yedo), Shinobugaoka (f.). Other 
Surnames : I ^ ^ Osakabe ; | gg Oshi-da, il|§ -zaki. 




245 Seven Strokes 




^1^ Contraction of ^ (xxiv). 

^^ Variant of ^ (p. 254). 

i^ RIO, RO ; RO ; (uaga, tomo). tsuvanaru ('to be in a row'); seboiie 
(' the backbone ') ; nagashi (' long '). 30. 
I ^ JM Roku-gavva (r.). Sennin : | f^ Rio-slio (Lii Shang, 
= Taikobo), m ^ -tohin or ^ -gan (Tung-pin, Yen), ^ -kio (Kung), 
jM, ^ -dosho (Tao-ciiang). ^ \ tairo (the 12th month). 

JOI YU, O; mura ; mura, kiini. mura ('a village"). 163. 
•--<* [Compare /|sj- (p. 240).] Kori : | ^ O-ku (Bizen), H -mi (Inaba). 
^ -clii (Ivvami), |^ -ra, formerh' -haraki (Kotsuke). | ^ O-mi, ^n -chi. 
(t.). I Ji Mura-kami, 5^- -i (f.). | ^ Ochi (n., variant of ^^ Tfj). 
I ^ Oji (n.). 

TKI, JO. 'To offer to a superior*. Before recipient's name: j^ | 
shintei, |g | kintei, ' offered as a gift to ... ' 30. 
I -^ Tei-shi (court-lady). 

til [Contraction : Q.| SHOKU, SOKU : ashi, tari ; tavi, {taru). ashi 
'^*-' ('a leg, foot'); taru ('to suffice, be content'). As sokii, a numeral- 
sufii.x for shoes and socks (see p. 40). 157. 

[Compare ^ (xx), ^ (xiii).] Kori : | li Adachi (Musashi ; f.) ; I ^ 
Ashiha, Asuha (Echizen ; latter as f. and r.) ; | ^Ij Ashi-kaga (Shimotsuke : 
t. text.; f. ), #i _h -gara-kami, i^ ~f -gara-shimo (Sagami; Ashigara-toge fi^, 
pass). I ^ (f^) Qj Ashi-ura(-ro)-yama (m.). Other Towns : :}z, I 
Odara ; I !^ Asuke (f. ; r.) ; | ^ Ashi-mori, ^ -o, l^t -arai. Othrr. 
Surnames: | ^ Adachi (ptr.) ; | f^ Ajiro; | 5^ Ashio (Tario as n.]. 

I 1?^ ashigaru (inferior samurai). 

1^ 1=1 [Other variant : ^.] GO ; GO ; kure. kureru C to give,, 

-^^ -^^ bestow '). As Go or Kure, the Chinese state and surname 
\Vu. 30. 

I Kure (t. ; f. ptr.); Go (f.). | ^^ Kureha (f. swo. ; no; Kureha-no-sato 

M, t.) ; Kurehatori (n. early weaver; see 3^, viii) ; gofiiku (' mercerj- * ; 

gofuku-dana f2^, 'a mercer's shop'). | ^ )\\ Kureha-gawa (r.). | ^ 

Gosu (f. pot.). I Y:[ Kuretake {joi'o). Sennin : I M "F" Go-doshi (\Vu 

Tao-tzu, ptr.), ^ -mo (Meng, paragon), ^\\ -ko (Kang), ^ ^ -sairan 

(Ts'ai-lan). | ^ goon (see p. 5). 

.G* Kl ; KI. imi ('mourning ") ; imu ('to dislike, taboo') 61. 
I (or #■) bP Imbe (t. pottery; f.). | "^ imiki (anct. tit.). 



Seven Strokes 246 

BAI ; kai. kai ('a shell '). Distinguish from ^ (viii) and the 
next. 154. 

[Compare ^ (x) and ^pj (xii).^] Towns : /J^ | Okai (but Kogai-gawa 

;il, r.) ; I Ba Kai-da (f.j, # -dzu (f.), M -dzuka (f.), M -buchi. | ^ 

Kai-jima, ]^ -bara, ^ -ga (f.). | ^^ kai-awase (the shell game). 

B KEN, GEN; MI; mi; wi, (afei). inzr/f ('to see, look at'). Distin- 
xLi guish from the foregoing. 147. 

[Compare homophones (Mi-) under H (p- 150).] /]'« I }\\ Omi-gawa 
(r. ; t.). I \^ Mi-tsuke (t., Tokaido stage 28, also written | pff ; f . ; cas., • 
-ga-hara j^), ^ -shima (is. ; k. and t. of Choshu), ^p ^ -shirazu-no-mori 
(grove). I ^ Kembutsu (t.) ; kembiitsu, mimouo ('a sight'); Kembutsu^ 
-zayemon ;£ ^ P^ {kiogen). Other Surnames : -^^ \ Otni ; /J> | Omi, 
Komi ; /J> I ill Omiyama (ptr.) ; /J> I ?f Omino ; | 09 Handa ; | |^ 
Mihara. | g Mirume (d.). I |^ A ?! Mikoshi-niudo (ghost). 

Other Locutions: In titles of landscapes: A J; b B H, -4 yovi B wo 
miru (' B as seen from A ') ; | jx. mi-kayevi (' looking back, seen on the 
return journey'), ^ -tate ('select', common in print-titles), -ftt; -se ('a shop'; 
mise-biraki ^, 'opening a new shop'), [[\ -dashi ('an index'), ^^ -ai (formal 
introduction of bride to bridegroom), jiji -toshi ('anticipation'), B^ -harashi 
('an extensive view, panorama'). 

"^- Variant of BJ (p. 243). 

RI ; RI ; sato; sato. sato ('a village, one"s home-town, the country'); 
. . . no sato (' the village of . . . "). As ri, also a measure of 
length (see p. 65). 166. 

:^ I Osato or Ozato (k. of Musashi), Dairi (t.). /]> | Osato ft.), Ori 
(f.). I )\\ Sato-gawa (r. ; f.). Other Surn.\mes : | j^ Sato-uchi, "§ 
-yoshi, ;(sj- -mura, H -mi (met.), ^ -haru. | M ^ ^ Satomi-no-kwanja 
(= Nitta Yoshinari f? H H JK)- \ '^ :^ ij Riye-no-kata (mother of 
lyeyoshi, shogun). I §'^ satogayeri (bride's first visit to her old home). 

DAN, NAN; [WO); otoko, o; 0; zok., \ ^ Ome-, | ^ Oto-. 
0, otoko, onoko ('a man, male, manly'). As dan or nan, often 'son' 
(see p. 130); as dan, a modern title, 'Baron'. 102.. 

I (or i| ^) \\\ Otoko-yama, | U§ llj Nantai-zan (m.). | )\\ 0-gawa 
(r.)> m '/p -ga-numa (lake), ^ -busuma (k. of Musashi ; f.), ^ J^ -gashima 
(t-j) ^ -dani (f. ), ^ )\\ -megawa (f. actor), -{b, -nari, ^ -ri (see p. 86), 
^ -mimi (Empress). | fg Namashina (t.). 

* These two characters are not strictly homophonous, the kai they represent being phonetically 
ka-i, while ^ is ka-hi. 





247 



Seven Strokes 




I ^ danjo, Bud. uannio ('of both sexes"). | £^ ^ otoko-toka (court 
fest., 15th of ist month), ^ -mai (dance), ['^l ^ -date ('a freelance"). 

TON (DON); {nomi).. nomu ('to drink'); ku ('to eat'). 30. 

 ^ 1 % TOKU. hageru ('to be bald, bare'); kaburo, kaniuro ('a courtesan's 
-/X-* handmaid'). 115. 

^^^ SHO, SHU; SU ; hide, Hide, Hiidzu; zok.. Hide-, less commonly Shu-. 
>^V hiideyu, hiidzuvu ('to excel, transcend'). 115. 

I '^ Hodzuma, | ^ Hideshima (f.). | ^ Hide-ko (princess), 
fib ^ -noi ? (sculp.). \ ^ :K '^ Shuku-daimio (kiogen). 

KRI; (tsugi-). ito ('thread, system, lineage'); tstidsuku ('to continue'). 
I ^ keidzu ('a pedigree"). 120. 



^ 



;^ HEN, HAN. ivakatsu ('to divide'). Distinguish from 55^ (viii). 165. 






^ Variant of ^ (viii). 

r*L HEI, HIO ; zok., Hio- (otherwise, see p. 73, note 2). tsuwamouo ('a 

>^^ weapon, soldier '). As hei, also ' war ' ; as hio, on chesspieces, 
'pawn'. 12. 

I J^ Hio-go (t. ; mod. ken ; see also p. 84, E ; brothel, -ya M), |f , Wj, 

m -do (f.), las -bu (p. 83), ,r^ -ma (p. 86), ^ -ye (PP- 73, 84). /h | ^ 
Kolhoye (poetess). | 2^ heisotsu ('a common soldier'). 

Variant of f^ (x). 50. 

i KA, GA ; GA. ware, waga ('I, we'). 62. 

I ^. ^ Abiko (t.). I M Kan, | M Jir^ Karima (n. swo.). 
SHIN; MI; mi; (mi). mi ('a body, person, self '). Distinguish from Jf 
(p. 169). 738. 
I fft Mi-nari (t.), J^ -nobu (t. : no; v.; m., -zan), J\^ -uto (f.). 

[Synonym: ^.] BO, MIO. kao ('the face'); sugata ('form, shape'). 

Distinguish from 52» ("^'"i)- 106. | ilt Kaoyo (leg. pers.). 
HAI, MAI; ME; [tsune). goto ni ('each'). 80. 
I Maiden (f.). | F3 mainichi ('daily'). 

Contraction of jl^ (x). 

y^^V CiAN, GON ; (moto). fukumu (' to contain '). g. 
B I # t^ Gamman-ga-fuchi (fall). 




^ 
^ 




Seven Strokes 248 

y^^ VO ; YO, A ; ware, waga (' I, we ') ; amari (' remainder '). Used 
'^J^ alternatively (not in names) with ^ (p. 172). g. 

[Compare f^ (xvi), HB (p. 206), H (xiv).] | ^ jll Yogo-gawa (r.). 
I (or f^) §^ ^ Yogo-ko or -no-midzuumi (lake). | @ Amaru-me, i§j5 -be 
(t.). I |g Yo-go, ^ -go (f.). 

>^r> KOKU ; tani, ya, yatsu, -gayatsu, -gaya, -gai ; itani) ; zok., Tani-. 

■-• ya, yatsu, tani, hasama or hazama ('a valley'). 150. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 196).] Towns : | Tani (f. ptr., 
met., sculp. ; also Yatsu and Hazama as f.) ; ;;^ | Otani (f. ptr., met., 
actor ; but Daiya-gawa )\\, r.) ; -jn^ \ fy Otaniuchi ; | Jl| Tani-kawa, 
-gawa (f. ptr.), p -guchi (f. ptr., pot.), Ji -kami, \\] -yama (f.), H -da 
(f. ; also Yada as f. ptr., lacq.), Jili -chi (or Yachi), ^ -ai (f.), i^ -mura 
(f. actor; also Yamura as t.) ; I 03 ^ Ta-takai, g nP -tabe (f. met.). 

I 4" Yanaka (dist. of Yedo ; f.). | ^ ^ Tanigumi-dera (tem.). 

Other Surnames : :;^ I ;:^ Oyagi ; /h I |5^ (^, if) Koya-matsu 
(-tsu, -no); I 7C Tani-moto, ^ -uchi, ^ -i (also Yai), :^ -naga, :^ -moto 
(ptr.), ^ -gai (Yatsuya as n.), ^ -oka, ^ -dzu (also Yatsu), ^ -shima 
(actor; also Yashima, Yajima), j^ -taka, A§ -zaki, |H5 -be, if -no (also 
Yano), ^ -mori, jf -zawa ; | y H Ya-shimoda, H )\\ -tagawa, ^ ffl 
-koda, iili gg -chida. /\^ \ ^ Otani -no-kata (wife of Shibata Katsuiye). 

I ^ Tani-no-miya (princess). | J^ Tani-kaze (wrestler), Jl§ -^ "^ -zaki- 
-koto (poet), ^j -yuki {no). 

A|^ KO. tsugerii (' to announce ') ; tsuge (' [divine] inspiration '). 30. 
Pl I Tsuge (t.). I II Tsugemori (f.). 

^B& [Contraction: p^.] KAKU, KOKU; tsuno, kado, sumi ; {kado, sumi); 

^ ^ 20k., Kaku-, -kaku. tsuno, anctly. tsunu (' a horn, projection ') ; 

kado, sujni ('a corner, angle'). 148. 

[Compare, for KadO-, P^ (viii), and, for Sumi- homophones under ^ 
(P- 233).] I ^ \h Gakuban-zan (m.). | (for f^) ffl ji| Sumida-gawa 
(r. ; no). Towns : | ^ Tsunoma (r.) ; | 03 Kaku-da (f. ; also Tsunuda 
as t., Tsunoda and Sumida as f.), f^ )\\ -magawa, fg -notate. | ^ 
Tsuno-hadzu (place), ^ /{^ -gata-no-matsu (pine-tree). | ^ Sumi-ya 
(brotliel), Kakuya (f.). | ^ (jj$ ^) ^ Kado-tama(-yebi)-ya (brothels). 
Other Surnames: | Sumi, Tsuno; ;^ | Osumi; ;^ | ^ Otodzume ; 

I [^' Sunami ; | ^ Kaku-ya, [^ -oka; | ^ Sumi-kura, -nokura (pot.); 

I ^ Tsuno-i (or Kadoi), J|f -ore, ^ -mura. | M Kakuri (Chio Li, 
Chin. sage). | ^ jfif^' Tsunu-no-sukune (n.). | OJ i^ Suininobo (sculp.). 

I ^j kakko (chesspiece). | JJ sumo ('wrestling'). 



249 Seven Strokes 

~|*1 FU ; (sane), Makoto. makoto (' the truth '). ^q. 

KO, KIO ; Torn, {yasu, nori, michi). torn (' to penetrate 'j. Used 
interchangeably with ^ (viii), esp. in neuk^o. 8. 

SHIN; kara, ko-. karashi ('bitter'). As shin or kanoto, see p. 6^. 160. 
[Compare ^ (x), ^ (viii).] | (for fif) |li§ Karasaki (t.). I M ik 
KarasLi-no-yashiro (teni.j. | g Kocia, | ^ Karashima (f.). 




^fl Contraction of ^ (xvi). 

^ [Variant: ^.] RIO; RA ; yoshi, (iiaga, ham, tarn). yoshi ('good'). 
Sometimes used as a contraction of jgp (.\). Distinguish from ^ 

(p. 2iq). 138. 

[Compare homophones under '^ (p. 227).] ;f; | Ora (t.). | -^ 
Yoshi-mine, ff -no (f.). A \ery common initial in priests* names, e.g., 
I p Rioben (but Roben-no-taki fl, fall), | jg -/^ gi|i Riozen-hoshi (No. 70 
of the Hundred Poets). | pij J^ Rioami (art-name). 



itt^> 



BO, MO. ivasuni ('to forget'). 61. 



^^ KWAN, GWAN; Mataki, Tamotsu, (sada). mattashi ('whole, i)erfect'). 
TC 40. 

^/\£ KIO, KU ; Khvanni, {sumi). kiwamerii ('to investigate, exhaust, carry 
yVA to extremes'). iib. 



Tic 



/j^ Variant of ^ (viii). 

i-^> Old form of ^ (p. 219), used in the following and other examples. 40. 

^^ I M. Shisawa or Shiso (k. of Harima). | jf; Shimuji (t.) ; 

Shinji-ko ^ (lagoon). | ^ Shishi-do (t. ; f.), ]^, -hara, P^ -kui (t.), 
% -guri, ^ -kura, ^ -gusa (f.). 

SO, SU. As So, the Sung dynasties of China. Distinguish from ^ 
(viii). 40. I ;^ 3;^ Soyudo (Sung Yu-tao, sennin). 

rw^ KO (KWO), KIO ; h'lYo, Hiyoshi ; zok., Hiro-. hiroshi ('wide'). 40. 
^ I Ko (f.). 

Iifa KWAN; kushi. kushi ('a skewer'); tsuvanuku ('to string in a 
I row '). 2. 

[Compare ^" (xix).] Towns: ;;;^ | Okushi (f.); /J> | Ogushi (f.) or 
Kogushi ; I ;f: i? Kushi-kino, }^ )^ -motoura, if^ -mura, ^ -ra. | 
Kusliida (f. ptr.j. 3E I tamagushi ("a string of j)earls ', lit. and met.). 




Seven Strokes 250 

SHA. kuruma ('a wheel, carriage'). Distins^uisli from ^ (viii). 139. 
I , I f^ Kuruma, /J> | t§ Ogurume (f.). | j^ Shain (Cli'e Yin, 
Chin. sage). /J^ | Oguruma (joru). \ ff" Kuruma-zo (no and its priest- 
hem j£ ^ Shoko). 

-^ SHOKU, SOKU ; tsuka. tsuka (' a hand's breadth ') ; tsukaneru (' to 
-^V^ bind'); faha ('a bundle, sheaf'). Distinguish from ^ ([). 226) 
and ^ (viii). 73. 

[Compare :^ (xiii).] I i^ jlj Tabashine-yama (m.). ^ | Otsuka (f.). 
I ^f sokutai (men's full court-dress) ; sokuiai-hajime ^ or -shiki ^ (court 
ceremony). 

KOKU ; or KC^TSU ; katsu, Isoshi, {yoshi, nari) ; zok., Katsu-. katsu 

('to conquer'); yoku ('well, fully'). 10. 
[Compare ^ (xii).] . | B Katsumi (f.). | i\\', Yoshira (mod. n.). 

i3 and ^3 \^ariants of ^ (viii). 29. 







j|^ Contraction of ^5 'viii). 

MOKU. A Japanese compound of :7|C X, kodakumi, nioku ('a carpenter'). 

\ M M^ \ M Mokuami fn.). 
RI. sumomo ('a plum"). Distinguish from ^ (viii). 75. 

I ^ Sumomodaira (t.). | Ri, | ^ Rinoiye (f.j. | ^ ^ 
Risampei (I Sam-phyong, Korean, originator of Arita pottery). | ^ \ 
Rifujin (Li Fu-jen, Chin, princess). Sennix : | A ^ Ri-happiaku (Li 
Pa-po), ^ ^ -shokun (Shao-chiin), [::(<] Q -[taijhaku (Po or 'l''ai-po, poet), 
H -a (A), ^ ^ -choja (Chang-che), f; ;j£ -shozai (Ch'ang-tsai), M, ^ 
-bitei (Pi-t'i), m. 1^ -tekkai (T'ieh-kuai). 

-^1^ KIO, GIO. anzu ('an apricot'). Distinguish from ^ (viii). 75. 
>=» 1 Kio (f.). 

- I * SHI ; SHI ; (yiiki, nori, muue). kokorozashi (' purpose, desire '). As 
^LJ^ shi 'a record'; as sakivan,^a. title (see p. 85). 61. 

[Compare ^ (p. 206), j^j (xii), ^ (xi), and see the next entry.] 
I Shima (pr. and mod. k. of same ; k. of Chikuzen ; f. ; n.). | -^ 
Shigi, for fg ^ [q-v., ix). Other Koki : | -jlyz Shi-da (Suruga and 
Oshu), 16, -ki (Kawachi), ^[1 -wa (Oshu ; also Shiba, see ^ and ji/i). 

Towns : /b | 03 Koshida (pot.) ; | ;^ Shi-ki, ^ PTJ" -katamachi, 
lb -i, ]^ S -tloro (pot.), ^ I -bushi,. [TJ --da (})ot. ; f.), jf^ -dzukuri, 
^ -sa (f.), ^ -do (j"ot.), $t -ga (f. ; no), ^ ^, -kanoshima, H -chiku, 
-tsuku or -dzuki. 



251 



Seven Strokes 



Other Surnames: | 7X Shi-midzu (met.), |^ -uchi, ^ -ge, ij -kata 
(ptr.). :ijr -date, g HJ^ -jil<i. # -nnira (ptr.), ;i)|^ -na, -^ -ba, -nami, ^D -c.hi, 
^D ?^ -chiike, J4 -ma, ^g- -gura, if -no, ^ B9 -buta, 'i\ -dzuku, jf -do, 
1^ -dan, ^ -ma. 

I is Shi-on (priest-poet), i^ ^ $S ^ -nobunoya (art-name), ^ ^ 
-mabito, gf ^ -dzuma (n.), % -o, ^^ |.£ -dzuki (wom. n.). 

'^^ ^ SHI-DZU. [See tlie foregoing and compare j^ (xvi), ^ (xv).] 
I I Shidzu (f. swo.). I I )\\ Shidzu-kawa (t.), gf -no, ^ -ri 
(f.), j$f, ^ -ma (n. ; for latter see p. 86). 




^^ SEKI, SHAKU; aka ; (aka). akashi ('red'). 155. 
-^'' KoRi : I Hi Ako (Harima ; t.); I |^ Akasaka (Bizen ; t., 

Tokaido stage 36 ; another, Nakasendo 14 ; f.), ^ -iwa (Bizen, mod.). 
Mountains: | J^ Oj Akagi-san ; | :^ (^, ^f, H) Oj Aka-isln(-yasu, 
-zawa, -nagi)-yama. Rivers: | }\\ Aka-gawa (f.); | @ (tt) )\\ Aka-me 
(-ye)-gawa. Lakes: | ^l fS Akama-numa; j j^ "^ Akasa-gata. Faels: 
I 1 (;b- ;1) il Aka-guma(-iwao)-no-taki ; I @ EH + A il Akame- 
-shijuhachi-taki. | g ^ (see g, p. 243). 

Other Towns: | |^ Sekiheki (Ch'i-pi in China); | ^^ Sekijo (= Ako 
al)ove ; n. Confucianists) ; | tK Aka-gi (f.). '^ -ana, ^ -ike, ^ ^^ -bane 
(f. ; also (list, of Yedo, sometimes | ^), ^ -na, |^ -saka (variant for |5 
above ; dist. of Yedo ; f. met.), ^ -tani, ^ -o (f. met.), '/g -numa, yQ 
-domari, [SJ -oka, |^ -bori (f. ), H^ -saki (f.j, Ji§ Jt^ rfj i^ -baba-ichinohara, 
^ ~yu, Pu] -ma, fUJ 'i'" IP -magaseki (= Shimonoseki), :^ -tsuka (f.). 

I lT. ^ Aka-yedani (dist. of Yedo), ^ ^ -tsuta-ya (brothel), ^ -hada 
(pottery mark). 

Other Surnames : | ^ Shakudzuru (sculp.) ; | |lj Aka-yama, ^ -i, 
^ -shi, p\ -shi, -tsukasa, ffl -da, -ni -ye^ illi -ji, ^ -"""i^ li M -niizaka, 
f^ -sa, >{^ -matsu (ptr., swo., sculp.), P(i -Ijayashi, ^ -iwa, J® -gaki (met.), 
>g -boshi, bX -se, JM. -za, ijt -bani, ^ -su, ^-hagi, -^ -zawa, ;{^ -bashi, 
M -ne, ^ -shio (met.). 

I ^h "?■ [^] Sekishoshi[yo] (Ch'i-sung-tzu[-yu], sennin). \ ^ % 
Sekitome (Ch'i-t'u-ma, horse). I ^ ^ P*] Akazome-yemon (poetess, Xo. 59 
of the Hundred Poets). | ^ Akei (n.). 

tU Contraction of ^ (xvii). 

[Variant, see p. 227.] SO, SHC; HA\ iyiiki). hashirii, washiru ('to 
run'). 156. \ ^ Hashiri-i (spring; f.), 7K -midzu (old name for 
Uraga Channel), ^ -jima (is.). 




Seven Strokes 25c 





[Full form: ^^.] Kl, KE ; mare. mare ('rare'); koinegau ('to yearn 
for, beg for'). 50. | \ Marendo (n.). 

KIO; [chika]. chikashi ('near'). 37. 
I ^ kiosho (the second month). 

Al7 SA, ZA;Z-4. sosoro »/(' involuntarily '). As 2a, a variant of J^ (x). 32. 

 ^1^ KID, GU ; AX', GU ; imoto). motomu ('to desire, search after'); 
*^> motome ('a wish'). 85. | ^ Motome (n.j ; M.-dzuka 1^ (hill). 
I ^j Motome, | *g Gukvvan (see [). 86). 

fHO ; FU ; toshi, Hajime, (nami, yoshi, suke). tasukerit (' to assist ') ; 
hajimevu ('to begin'). loi. 
■)^ I Daiho, I % Hoki, | ^ |i| Hokiyama (f.). 

lH> HO; or FU (BU); BU. ayumu ('to walk'). As 6m, a measure of 
--^ area (see p. 63); as /« (written on the piece itself), 'a pawn'. 77. 

KO, KIO; taku, Takash'u Tsukau, (yoshi, nari). As ko, 'hlial piety'; 
^ -f^ P9 I nijushiko, 'twenty-four instances of filial pietx* ' (see p. 
113, 97). 39. 

I ^ Taka-ko (Empress). Mikados: | % Ko-gen (8th), ^ -an (6th), 
^ -mei ( 1 20th), Hg -sho (3th), ^. -toku (36th), ^^ -ken (Empress, 46th), 
m -rei (7th). 

•^M SHIX; (WO); mine. mine ('a mountain-peak'). Compare ^ (x). 




1 



Vf 



(XVII). 46 




TEI, D.AI; TE; (chika). oto, ototo ('a younger brother', cf. pf). 129-30). 
I -^ deshi, 'a pupil' (see also p. 95). Distinguish from ^ 
(p. 203), and ^ (xi). 37. 

I "F JL Deshimaru (f.). | ^ Oto-kuni (anct. cap.), ^ g -maro 
(n.), -^ -me (poetess), )i^ ^ -tachibana-hime (wife of Prince Yamatotakeru). 
I ^ otodzuki (the 12th month). 

d^ir U: or KU ; imo. iwo (general name for the Taro, the Potato and 
J the Sweet I^otato). 140. 

I ill Imo-yama (m.), ;i| -kawa. ffl da. ||JJj -buchi, j^ -se (f.). 

7::^ KH', KU. A medicinal plant, Angelica. 140. 

Z^^ Sll.VKU, JAKU. kaoyogusa, | ^ shakuyaku (the Herbaceous Peon}', 
J Paeovia albifiora). 14(1. 

>d[> SH( ). j/n'M ('to resemble'); kaiadoru ('to make like'); sugaia ('a 
l~J shape'). I -fl^ s/zasf}, sugataye ('a portrait') 130. 



253 Seven Strokes 

JU 



Itl Contraction of j^ (viii). 




DO, NU ; NU ; Tsutomu. hagemu, tsutomeru (' to be diligent, exert 
oneself). iq. 

4E^ SHA ; or SA. sukoshi ('small'). 7. I ^ ^ Sasaan (art-name). 



WqP Contraction of jijx (viii). 




MSHIN, JIN; tatsu ; ioki, (tatsu) ; zok., Tatsu-. toki ('time'). 
As shin or tatsu, ' the Dragon " (see p. 63). Distinguish 
from ^ (viii). 161. 

[Compare jfc (p. iqS), f| (xvi).] Surnames : | £< Tatsu-mi, :^ -ki, 
^ -i, "iji -ichi, [33 -oka (actor), 1% -ma, 5? -no. | $|g Tatsu-hime (hist, 
pers.). I ^ Tatsui (n.). ^ I , see p. 47. 



filV Contraction of ^ (xvii). 




[Variant : 'j^.] SHO, JO (ZO) ; ZO ; tsuiie, {-tsugii). tsuizuru ('to 
arrange in order, write a preface '). As jo, ' a preface ' ; I ^ 
jobatsu ('a postscript' to a book, 'appendix'); ;^ | daijo ('Act I.'). 53. 

|j^ [More correct form : ^[:;|^.] SO, SHO ; toko, yuka ; (yuka). toko (' a 
• bed'); yuka ('a floor'). ^^. 

I ;^ Yukagi (t.). | ^ Toko-nami (t. ; f.), ^ -i, ^ -nami (f.). 

KIOKU ; (chika). tsubone (a special room in a palace or the court- 





Hf lady occupying it; see p. 79, fin.). As kioku, 'an administrative 

bureau", also 'a chessboard'. 44, 

Bl, Ml; MI, [WO); o; (0). ('a tail, end, foot of a mountain'). 

As bi, a numeral-sufiix for fishes (see p. 40). 44. . 

[Compare /J> (p. 149), ^ (xv).] | ^^ Owari (pr. : t. ; poetess ; also 

Ohari as t. ; Owari-ya M, brothel). | (or ^) ^ \\i Onami-yama (m.). 

I ;1^' jl| O-koshi-gawa (r.j, j|f| -^ -se-numa (lake). Other Towns: | A 'M 

O-yaye, Ji -noye (f. actor), ^Ij -yama (now Kanazawa, cap. of Kaga ; f. ; 

joro), ^j -biki, ^ -to (pot.), vQ -tomari, :^^ ^ -banasawa, |^ -gami, 

ll|$ -zaki (f. ptr., met., swo., sculp.), ^ -michi, ,!^ -buchi, ^ -washi or -hase. 

Other Surnames : /J> | Obi (ptr.) ; | ^ Bito (ptr., swo.) ; | -^ 

O-gata (]jtr.), rj:> -naka, -^ -ko, ;$: -moto, Yi -take, f^ -ike, ^ -dera, 

M -zato, ^ -mi, "^ -shiba, ^ -gata (ptr.), ^ -jima, j^ -taka, ^ -ki, 

m -zono, ^ -dai, |§ -zeki (ptr.). | ^ O-koshi, f^ % -samaru (n.). 

•j^ I taibi ('the end, last of a series'). 





Seven Strokes 254 

-39* [Variant: ^.] KUN ; AX''; kimi, -gimi, {taka). khni ('a sovereign, 
^~* lord and master, the Emperor, you ' ; also an ancient title) ; tattoshi 

('honourable'). As -kun after a surname, equivalent to our 'Mr.' 30. 

[Compare ^ (p. 171).] Kori : | '^ Kimi-tsu (Kadzusa, mod.), t?; -sawa 
(or Kuntaku. Idzu). | ^Ij Kimi-yama (m.), ^ -shima, ^ -bukuro, 1^ 
-tsuka (f.). I kimi or ^ \ ogimi I' the Emperor'); I ||j j^ kimi-baiizai 
(' long live tlie Emperor ! ') ; ;;^ I also taiknn, as tit. of tlie later Tokugawa 
Sho^uns. 

Tl'^I, jO. tairaka (' level "J Used as a contraction of ^ (x). 54. 

YI'A' ; YE ; nobu, nobe ; nobii, Nobu ; zok. Yen-, rarely Nobu- (chiefly 
mod.). noberu ('to extend'). 54. 
I ^ Xobe-oka (or Nobioka, t.), ^ -sawa (t.). I ^ ^ Yensho-ji 
(tem.). \ ^ d\, ^ Yenjudayu [joruvi chanters). | ^ Nobu-ko (Empress). 
I '^ tE ^' Yemmei-kwanja (dram. pers.). 

Nekgo: I ^ Yen-kiu (1069-73), % -gen (1336-39), % -clio (923-930), 
^ or ^ -kio (1744-47), W -gi (901-922; Yengi-shiki ^, code), % -toku 
(1489-91), ^ -kei, -kio (1308-10), ^ -riaku (782-805; Yenriaku-ji ^, same 
as Mii-dera, monastery), ^^ -6 (1239); | ^ Yempo (1673-80). 

vqfl U; i^o). maivaridoshi ('circuitous, tedious'). 162. 
/>mLm I J3 iiso (' old horc ', self-humiliative). 

yTt JIX ; haya. hayashi ('swift'). if>2. 

^i-- [Compare ^-. (p. 219), j^ (xi).] | ^ Hayase (f.). 

-^/// JU-X. megurii (' to circumambulate 'j. 162. 
•^*— ' I ^f jiin-ko, f^ -rej ('a pilgrimage'). 

|r1 °'' [51 ^^^'' ^^*^- «^^>«^« ('bright'}. 13. 

r^ SEl, JO ; naru, nari ; nari, shige, (naru). naru (' to become, grow 
W up'). 62. 

[Compare P^ (xiv).] | :^^ \\\ Xariai-zan (m.). | jlj Xaru-kawa 

(r.j, Xarikawa (f. met.). Towns : | }^^{ ^ Jogwanji ; | flt Naru-no, 

M -se (f.), y^ ITf -tomachi ; | ^^ Nari-hisa, H -ta (tem. ; f. ptr., met., 

actor), ^f -yuku, ^ -ha (r.j; | ;j:g Xareai (Xarai as f.). | ^ ^ Seisho-ji, 

I ^3 ^^f Xariai-ji (tem.). 

Other Sirxamks : | ^ Naru-ko (Xari-ko, princess), ^}^ -i, ^ -ya, 
^ -nn, ^% -shima, -^^ -sawa ; | }\i Nari-ki (ptr.), || -o, ^* -tomi. | f^ 
Seimu Ii3tli Mikado). | /|f( )\\ Xarusegawa (n. wrestler). | J: ^M 
Xariagarimono (' the Xouveau Riche ', kiogen). 



^55 Seven and Eight Strokes 

; ^||l^ KAI ; KE. imashimeru ('to prohibit, punisli '). 62. 

/JX< I pg Kai-da, ^: -ju (f.). | ig /^a^■w^o (see p. 70). ^ | ^ofeai 

(the I'^ive Prohibitions of Buddhism). 

[Counted as eight strokes.] 

K(). kiishige ('a toilet-case'). 22. 

YEI. ynbukuro ('a bow-case'). Used as a contraction of ^ (xviii). 23. 






jpi l Contraction of J (xii). 102. 
lyl \'ariant of [gj (p. 232). 31. 

Common synonym of [^ (xi). 31. 



EIGHT STROKES. 

JtAl REI ; /?£ ; {isuue). tameshi ('a precedent, usage'). 9. 
'^ ^ \ ^ ^ reiheishi (hnpL envoy carrying offerings, reihei, to a Shinto 

shrine) ; Reiheishi-kaido ^ j^ (highroad). 

1«? [Variant: fg.] KAN. sunao ('artless'). 9. 

4 j^ Contraction of j^ (ix). 

/tI^ 1, YE; YE; yori ; yor/. yorii ('to depend on'); . . . ni yotte ('because 

Wv of). 9. 

[Compare ^ (xi).] | ^ (or H) ^ Yosami [-no|-ike (anct. irrigation- 
pond). Surnames : | |[^ Yosami ; | gg Yoda (ptr. ; also Yorita) ; | ^ 
Yori-mitsu (ptr.), fS) -oka. | ^ Yori-ko (princess). | ^ ^^ (^) nanigashi 
no kononii {no shoku) ni yotie (independently, ni yarn}, 'by request (to the 
orderj of So-and-so'. 

/-ft KA (KAI), KE ; (yoshi), Yoshi ; zok., Ka-, rarely Yoshi-. yoshi 
1^ ('beautiful'). 9. 

I ^ Yoshi-ko (f)rincess). | ^ Kamori (n.). 



Eigfht Strokes 256 

/-H SHI, JI : SHI. haherii, samuvau, sabiirau ('to serve, attend on'); 

i"*J saburai Can attendant, nobleman's bodyguard'): sabiirai, samiiraP 

(see -±^, p. 158). Distinguish from ^ (ix). 9. 

I tSb i'i" (^^^ P- 82, fin.), Jiju (n. ptr., poetesses); Jiju no menoto ^ # 
(l)oetess) ; /J^ | fj^ f"^ Ml ^'^'^'jiju [-no-miobuj (poetesses). For p^ | uaishi 
and other titles, see pp. 83 fin., 85. | )>Jf samurai -dokoro (government 
oHice in Kamakura period). 

SHI. tsukai ('a messenger, envoy'). 9. 

Titles: | ^ omi: \ Iff) tsukai-be (see p. 82), |^ -6an. A iji^ W i 
Hachiman no tsukai ('a messenger from [a temple of] H.'). 

/IJ^ 1\R), KU ; 7vL/ ; tomo. tomo (' a companion'); sonayern, tatematsuru 
t^ ('to provide, offer to a suijerior'). 9. 

[Compare f-j-- (p. 234), ^ (xiv).] ;^ | Otomo (f.). | i^ kii-motsu 
('offerings' to deities), ^ fJ ->'o6i (day on which offerings, kiiyo, are made 
to the spirits of the dead). 





p| TO, TSU. sunao ('simple, artless'). 9. 
HAI, BE. obiru (' to gird on, wear '). 9. 
Modern synonym of Hif (p. 190). 24. 





^tll ^^-^> SHO ; {yiiki). yiiku ('to go'); utsii ('to subdue'). bo'. 
•-^ I ^ Sif Soyano (f.).~ | fj^ sei-batsii (' a punitive expedition '), 

^ -i (ditto, esp. against Ainu) ; | M i^ 1^ W- seii-taishugtin (tit., often 
contracted to shogun). 

4^ SO, ZO. ynfen ('to go'). 60. 

.^-I^ ^^^ ^' or O, WA. yiiku ('to go'); inishiye, mukashi, \ "j^ ofeo 

LL* l-A^ (' the past, formerly '). 60. 

I ^ Yukiki (n.), orai ('passing to and fro'). | ^ dp ('death', Hud.). 

'Crf* HI; HI. sono, kare ('he, she, it'); kano, a]io ('tliat'). 60. 
I^'V [Compare [H (xiii).] | -j=^ Sonoki ik'. and t. of Hizen ; lagoon, 
-no-iriye A 01). I ^ higan (' nirvana " : also a [)eriod of seven days 
about the vernal or autumnal equinox). 

* Samurai strictly describes only the lower ranks of the iliilitary class, the general term being 
hushi ff^ i or collectively hukc f^ ^. 

- From soya, a commnn arrow with only three featherings. 



257 Eight Strokes 



^/Jj SHO ; NU ; numa, nu-. nunia, anctly. nu ('a swamp, marsh, lake, 
W lagoon '). 85. 



I J^ Nu-shima (is.), Numajima (t. ; f.). Kori : ;^ \ Onuina (Oshu; 
t. ; f. met.) ; | £3 Numata (Aid ; t. ; f. ptr.), Nuta (same k.) ; | [^ Numa- 
(Nuno)kuma (Bingo). | JtJ |I|§ Numade-zaki (cape). Other Towns : | ^ 
Nuttari (Nutari as f.) ; /]> | |D^ Konumasaki ; | ^ Numa-jiri (f.), :j^ -dzu 
(Tokaido stage 12 ; f. ptr.), ^ |^ -kunai, ^ -nofukuro, ^ -sawa, tl -date. 
I ^ RiJ fi'l' it Xunasaki-jinja (tem.). 

Other Surnames : | , | fgj Numa ; /\\ | Onuma, Konuma ; | J:^ 
Numa-gami, ^ -i, ^ -o, ^, |^ -nami, ^ -batake, |1|^ -saki, 5f -no. 

^JTA KIO, KO. hiya ('cool, cold'). Used interchangeably witli Ijl 

^ (P- -^35)- 85. 

\^/^ HAKU, BAKU; tomari. toniarn ('to stop, lodge'); iomari ('a 
iti lodging'). 85. 

I Tomari (t. ; f.). /J^ | Kodomari (t. ; cape, -zaki |1|^). | ^Q ^ 
Sazanaminoya (art-name). | ^ Hatsuse (anct. cap., see :^, p. 242, also p. 
273, note; element of early princely names, cf. pp. 50, 51 ; joro) ; Hatsuse-gawa 
JH (n.). 



ijK Contraction of -^ (xi). 



CHI, JI; //; haru; haru, Osamti; zok., ji (in all positions, see p. 71 f.). 
'»-■ osameru (' to govern ') ; haru (' to reclaim ' land). As chi, ' good 

government, peace '. Distinguish from J^ (p. 235). 85. 

I H Hatsuda (t.), Haruta (f.). | -p Haru-ko (princess). | ^ jibu 
(see p. 83) ; | "olS ^P /^ Jibukio-no-tsubone (court-lady). Nengo : | ^ 
Jian, Chian (1021-23); I ^ Jisho, Jijo (1177-80); | ^ Jireki, Chiriaku, 
Jiriaku (1065-68). 

"^^ [Contraction: ^ (p. 143).] CHO; or SHU, SU. sosogu ('to irrigate, 
•-■^ pour'). 85. I ^ ^ l£ M Chu(rarely Shu)dahandaka (rakan). 



^Jy- KIIj, KO. naku ('to weep'). 85. 



I i^ Naki-masu (mask), jg -ama (kiogen). 

^jJ[* VU, YU. abura ('oil, grea.se, sweat'). 85. 

iW [Compare ^ (p. 203), % (xii).] | H llj Aburai-yama (m.). j ^ 

Aburatsu or Yutsu, | ;;fc Yuki (t.). Surnames: | )\\ Abura-kawa (also 
Yugawa), M -ya (also Yuya), /]> gg- -nokoji ; I ^, I J;fc Yui. \ W i. \ 

Abura-bozu ('the Oil-priest'). | ^^ aburaye ('an oil-painting'). \^y \ 




Eig-ht Strokes 258 

ypt KO, KU. Chinese river-name. 85. 

FU, HO (HOTSU); (nori). nori ('law', esp. 'the Law' of the Buddha). 
As ho, 'rule, law, maxims, dogma, incantation'; a word of especially 
Buddhistic import (beginning many names of priests; cf. also p. 100, 29). 85. 
I ^ Ho-mi (k. of Inaba), ^jc f^ -kisaku (t.), ^ ^ -sho-ji (tem. ; t.), 
tt (1^) -^ -ju(-riu)-ji (tem.). | ^ Hokke (for Hokke-shu ^, Bud. sect, 
= Nichiren-shu) ; Hokke-zan \\] (tem.), -ji ^ (tem. ; n. of Ashikaga Yoshimasa), 
-taro -j[\^ Uf) (swo.) ; but | /^ )^ Hoke-kio (scripture, = Mioho-renge-kio ; 
see ^, ixj, whence Hokekio-taro ^l^;^ g|^ (swo.). | 7{C Noriki (f.j ; | ^ 
Ho-an (f. or n. met.), J^^ ^ -joji (f. or n. swo.). | ^ Honen, I 'I^ ^ 
Hosshobo (priests). | ;^g ^ Hosso-shu (Bud. sect). 

Buddhist Titles : | 5! ho-o (formerly for priest Dokio 3;^ ^ only ; 
mod., ' the Pope '), ^ -0 (retired Emperor taking the scarf), fg 3E -shinno 
(see II, xvi), ^ -shi (see p. 87 ; Hoshi-monogurui 4^ ^'£, kiogen) ; | pj] hoin, 
I lis hogeu, I ^ hokkid (p. 87). | -^ ho-mio, ^ -go ('posthumous name, 
see p. 70). I ^ hatto ('an ordinance'). | ^ hora ('a war-conch'); 
Hora-sanjin [Ij A ("•)• 

Y|tr SEX. soyerii, masu ('to add, increase'). 85. 

^jXp DEI, NAI; DE, NE. doro, hiji ('mud'). As dei, also 'metal paint'. 85. 
Vu I ^ Hijinoya (f.). | ;^ ^ Doronosuke [zok). \ g^ Deigan 

(mask). I i ^ Iplli Uhijini-no-kami (d.). 

*ytt ^-^ • HA\ nami. nami ('a wave'). Distinguish from |S. (p- 213) 
liX and ig (XII). 85. 

[Compare, for Nami- ']^ (x), 3^ (viii), ^ (xviij, for Ha-, ^ (xiii).] 
I ^ Harusha (Chin. Po-ssu, 'Persia'). | -j^i % Hata-jima, | ;& HI] ^ 
Hazama-jima (is.). | JU, jjj Hafu-zan (m.). | g jlj Hadzu-gawa (r.). 
I p^ ffi Xasaka-ura (lagoon). 

Towns: | -tJJ Xakiri ; | At fj Hokabe (f.) ; 1 ^ Nami-ai, fp -no 
(f.) or Hano ; I ± '^ Ha-shihama, ffl -da (f.), ^ -ta (f.j, f^ -sa, -j^ ^ 
-sami, H -mi, ^^ -fu, ;t^ -ne, ;t^ ;^ -ne-higashi, Wf Tfj -noichi, ^^.y -ki, 
^ -se or -ze. 

Other Surnames : | >^ fjQ ^'il) Hokabe ; | 4^ Nami-nohira, xT ~ye 
(see also p. 86); | -^ Ha-ta, ;tc fi' -kiri (sic), ^ ^ lii" -imase, ^ tC 
-taye, ^ 5f -tano (ptr.). | ^ ]# fi^ Hairo-jin (d.). | P^ Hamon (see 
p. 86). I ^ Xamiye (n.). | -^ Haru (worn. n.j. 



259 Eight Strokes 

VrtI ^^^^' GA ; KA; kawa, ko; ikawa). kawa ('a river'). A more literary 




character than )\\ (p. 149), and therefore rare in river-names, though 
fairly common as an ending in town-names and surnames. See p. 98, 10. 
Compounds: | ^ kashi (generally -gashi in street-names), 'a shore, market- 
place ' ; I I^ kaivara, for ^ (xvi), ' a dry river-bed ', but also for y ]^ 
-ga-hara, ' Plain of . . . '. 85. 

[Compare )\\.] | ^ Kawachi (pr. ; t. ; f. ; n. ; poetess), Kawachi or 
Kochi (k. of Kawachi, Hitachi and Shimotsuke), Kochi (t. ; f.), Kachi (same 
k. of Hitachi), Kawauchi (f.j. | >}\] Kashu (Kawachi pr.). Other K5ri : 
I Jit Kahoku (Kaga ; lagoon, -gata '^ ; Kawakita as f.) ; | ^ Kawawa 
or Kawa-no- (Ise) ; | /jsj- Kawa-mura (Hoki ; f. ptr.), f^ -numa (Oshu), 
^ -ge (Ise, mod.), j^ -be or -nobe (Ushu ; also of Satsuma, but not same 
as witli )\\ ; Kawabe as f. ptr. and r.). | ^ {^) )]\ Kawa-jiri(-dzu)-kawa 
(r.). /J^ I ]^ fS Kogawara-numa (lake). 

Other Towns : :^ | ^ Okawachi (f.), Okochi (pot. ; f.) ; ;^ | |i?. 
Okawara (f.) ; ::^ I Sf i§ Okawanobe ; | '^^ Godo or Goto (Nakasendo 
stage 16) ; | ^ Komori or Kawamori ; ) _t Kawa-kami (f.), n -guchi 
(f. ; lake, -ko or -no-umi fi^), /^ -i (f. ; also Kaai as f. ptr.), ^\\ -wa, 
]^ -baru, -ra (Kawara and Kawabara as f.), ]i^ [0 -rada (f.), SIf -no (f. ; 
also Kono as f. ptr., met., swo.), |^- -kita. | ^ jijj, Kashi-dori (street 
of Yedo). 

Other Surnames: ^ | Okawa; :)<:, \ ^ Okawado; ^ \ :^ Okawamoto; 
/h I Ogawa ; /Jn | ]^ Ogawara ; | ^^ Kato ; I |p3 llj Kochiyama ; | ^ 
Kawa-i (sculp.), ^ -wa, ;^ -moto (ptr.), ^ -jiri, B9 -tla (ptr.), M -ji, 
Y;[ -take (actor), "g -nishi (ptr.), ^ -zumi, Vp -ji (met.), J^ -i, j^ -mata, 
^ -dzu (met.), -j^, ^ -nami, J^ -shima, ^[^ i(^ -rabayashi, ]^ |l^ -rasaki, 
^ -saki, ^i -be, glj -zoye, # H -kita, ^ -goye (ptr.), ^ -ji, t^ -bata, 
^ -kubo (ptr.), "^ -se, ^ -nabe (ptr.), H -hire, -bata. 

I i^' ^ :A: 15 Kawara-no-sadaijin (= Minamoto no Toru g^). | jg 
iS 75 ^ Kawanobe-no-okina (art-name). | Ji ^ Kawakami-no-yoshi 
(Empress). | ^ Kawa-ko (court-lady). 

CHITSU, JICHl. As chitsu, 'a portfolio', 'a wrapper' for a set of 
volumes or prints; /^ | shochitsu, ZL I nicJiitsu, 'Portfolio I., II.', 

etc. 50. 




^ 



CHO (JO). tareniino ('a curtain'). As jo, same as orihon J/f /^, 'a 
folding book' ; also 'a chapter' of a book or 'a quire' of paper, (i.e., ten 

sheets of folded paper, hanshi ^ ^Jj, or 48 of the thick paper known asminogami 

^ ^ IR)- 50- I f^ Chosa (t. pottery ; f.). 




Eight Strokes 260 

KWAI, KE. ayashii ('strange, mysterious, weird, monstrous'). 61. 
I s Ak Kwaidomaru (boy-name of Sakata no Kintoki). | f^ 
kwaidan ('ghost-stories'). 

)R4^ SEI, SHO. nmaretsiiki ('nature, quality, disposition'). As sho, begins 
tt many names of Bud. priests. Compare JJ (p. 263) and p. 97, 1. 61. 



iK^ I; /. yorokobn ('to rejoice'). 61. 
IP 



I j[2. Icio or Ito (k. and cas. of Chikuzen). 

J^j^ HEI, BIO ; tsubo. tairaka (' level ') ; tsuho (a measure of area, see 
^^ p. 65). 32. 

[Compare ^ (xii).] | )\\ Tsubo-kawa (r. ; f.), ^ -i (t. ; f.), :^ -ya 
(t.). /h I ^ KotSLibosaka (place). Other Surnames : ;^ | Otsubo ; 
I [il Tsubo-yama, ^ -uchi, yfc -ki, 09 -ta, ^ -kura, if -no. 

~jP^ TAN; ihiYO, Yasushi). hiroshi ('broad'). 32. 



t^ 







[Synonym: ^^.] KO\, KUN. hitsujisaru ('the south-west'); tsuchi 
('the earth'). See also pp. 39 and 107, 76. 32. 

HA. Similar in meaning to ^ (p. 237). 32, 

SEKI, SHAKU; or TAKU, CHAKU. hirakii. ('to open'). 64. 
I ilji takiichi (' colonization '). 

Variant of ^ (ix). 64. 



y^ SHO. inanehu (' to invite '). 64. | 5^ jjh Shokon-sha (tem.). 

-hrt 0, KO ; oslii. osz/, osayeru ('to press down, repress, suppress'); oshi 
JT (act of so^doing ; as prefix, 'by force'). 64. 

[Compare ^t (xi), ig (p. 244).] | ^ Oshi-zaka (hill), -^ -kiri (t. ; 

r.), ^ -te (t.), /J> ^ -koji (dist. of Kioto, pot. ; f.). Other Surnames : 

I )\\ Oshi-kawa, _b -age (r.), yt -moto, H -da, -^ -mura, SIf -no. | ^ 

Oshi-hime (Empress). | g| ^ orioshi (tit.). | ft oshiye ('a raised [cloth] 

picture'). | ^ oji (= kakihan, see p. 4). 

+I4L HO, MO (BO), oyayuhi ('the thumb'). 64. 
"^^ I fP ^o/7z ('a thumb-print seal'). 

J^ SHU (CHU). sasayeru ('to support'). 64. | J^ji Shujo {kiogen). 
4y^ TEN, NEN. /n'nerw ('to twist'). 64. 



m 






261 Eight Strokes 

5» HATSU, BATSU; (ntiki). nuku ('to pull out, select, abridge'); nukeru 
(' to slip out, escape '). 64. 
I i$ th Nukilioko-no-yashiro (tern.). | ^ >[c "M" Nukegi Futokubi 
(poet). I -^ Xuke-kubi (ghost), % -maru (sword), ^ -gara (kiogen). 

FUTSU, FUCHI. harau ('to sweep away, clear out, sell off'); harai 
('a clearance sale'). 64. 

HO ; HO ; (mochi). idaku, kakayeru (' to hold, embrace, engage, 
employ'). 64. 

jftlT KO, KU ; KO. minashigo ('an orphan'); hitori ('alone'). Distinguish 
Ji^^ from KU below. 39. I -^, | ^ hitotsuya (' a lonely house '). 

KEN, GEN; {tsnru) ; zok., Gen-. tsiiru ('a bowstring'). 57. 

[Compare H (xxi).] | >fc Tsuru-ki (f.), ^ jlj -maki-yama (m.). 

'A\\ SHO, SO. itsiiwaru ('to deceive'). 94. 

Yj^ HAKU ; or HA, HE ; koma. koma or | -j^ komainu (one of the two 
-**-* 'lion' figures set up at Shinto temple-approaches, the other being 

called amainu). 94. 

[Compare J|pJ (xv).] Surnames : | Koma (mus.) ; | A Komodo ; | ^ 
Koma-i, xT -ye. | ^ nfi -f" ^l S Koma-no-tachibe no Komaro (early 
ptr.). I ^ Koma-no-miya (prince). | ff" jE Koma-sojo (priests). 

KO, GO. kitsune ('a fox', Canis viilpes). 94. 

I )\\ Kitsune-gawa (r. ; t. ; f.), j^ -dzuka (f. ; kiogen), ^ J^ -kaji 
(= Keimaro ^ ^i Q, swo.). /J> | Kogitsune (met.). | / j$. Kitsune 
no Yomeiri ('the Foxes' Wedding', fairy-tale). | ^J^ kitsiine-bi {'ignis 
fattius' ; see also ^, x), ^ -ken (game), Jb -tsukai ('fox-possession'). 

>^A| KO, KU. inu ('a dog'). Compare J^ (p. 178) and ^ | tengu 
■f -* (p. 169). 94. I ^ Komatsuki (f.). 

BIN, MIN. Chinese place-name. Usually as Min in Japanese personal 
names. 46. 

|lJH' KO. misaki ('a cape, headland'). As -no-misaki in names of capes. 46. 
|||^ SHU, JO. kuki ('a glen'). 46. 

\\^ Variant of |n (p. 269). 

r^^ KO, KU. yohu (' to call, name, invite '). 30. 
J I ^ Yobu-ko, if -no (t.). | ^ Yobi-saka (t.), ^ -goye (kiogen). 





/ 



Eight Strokes 262 

||il BI, MI; MI; aji. aji ('taste, relish'); ajiwau ('to taste'}. 30. 

^^ [Compare |t§ (xxii).] | "^ ]^ Mikata-ga-hara (bat.). I if Aji-no 

(t-), M jM -mi-gawa (r.), fSj -oka, ;tc -ki (f.), ^ -to (n. ptr.). 

R^ Full form of ^ (p. 187). tsuketari . . . (' to which is added . . . '), 
rlJ 170. I -^ Busu {kiogen, lit. 'aconite'). 

litl SHO, SO. sagashii ('steep, dangerous'). 170. 

tPf* TA, DA ; DA. Same meaning. Much used (phonetically as da) in 
 "^ Buddhistic words. 170. 

I M M Darani (f. or n. swo. ; lit. ' a magic formula ', esp. Bud.). 

ffttf A; A; (kuma, -tsugii). kiirna ('a spot, edging, retired locality, recesses 
r J of the mind'). As a, 'flattery'. As -a, a name-ending (see p. 6g); 

as 0-, an honorific prefix to women's names (p. 79). Much used (phonetically 
as a) in Buddhistic words. 170. 

[Compare, for A-, ^ (p. 225) ^ (244).] I M M Ame-no-kuni (poet. 
for 'Japan'). I |f P'b (or ±) Oranda ('Holland, Dutch, foreign'). I ^ 
Awa (pr. of Shikoku ; straits, -no-naruto n% ^), Aba (t.) ; | '}[] Ashu (same 
pr-)- \ ^ M ^ Abuka-shima (is.). 

KoRi : I ill A-yama (Iga, mod.), ^ -ta (Satsuma), ^ -bu or -mu (in 
full An-no-gori, Choshu ; Abu as f. and r., -kawa), ^ -be or -hai (Iga), 
^ -tetsu (Bitchii, mod.), If -no (Sanuki ; t. ; f.), -ya (same k. ; f.), ^ -ga 
(Bitchu), ^ -so (Higo ; f. ; m., -san). 

I ^ (m) \h A-bu(-ki)-yama (m.), ^ Hf^ -bo-toge (pass), ^ f^ 
— bu-mon (cape and inlet), fn (^ ^) )\\ -ni(-bukuma)-gawa (r.), "^ '^| 
-ko-no-taki (fall). | (or '0) ^ 7X Ocha-no-midzu (lake). 

Other Towns : | )\\ A-gawa (f.), "[»" ^ -geki, ^ ^ -kutsu, ^ ^^ 
-kune, -tl |fj B3 -nimayeta, ^ -i (f. ptr. ; r.), ^ -tsuki, :^ -fu, 0g |p -tawa 
or -dawa, ^n ^ -chisu, ^ -bo (f. ptr. ; Ao as prince), j^^ -shiki, ^ -nashi, 
^ ?f -gano (r.), H -ma (f.), ^ -kogi (shore, -no-ura ^), 51 Pb -mida (d., 
Amitabha ; fall, -no-taki '/H). 

Other Surnames : | \Q Kumada (met. ; also Ata) ; | JJ A-to, ^ $j 
-kogashima, ^ ^ -kusawa, J:t -bi, -i, J:b "6" -biko, J;t; -^ -hiru, "^ tJc -kogi, 
;£ -^ -sako, ^ }\\ -degawa, ^ j| -tami, ^ -kuma, -^ ^ -sai, f^ ^ij 
-sari, -^ H -sami, ^)f> ig -nana, Vp JH -jikawa, ^p ^ -chiba, ]^ -nami, 
^ -taka, ^ ^ ilji -rutaki, ^ -be (ptr., met., swo.), ^^> £f -beno, ^ -be, 
J^ fg -kanuma, "^ -so, "^ :^ -sotani, '^ fg -sonuma, ^ -baka, |§ -to 
(arm.). 




263 Eight Strokes 

Other Deities: | ^ ^ A-naritsu, H -nan (see p. no, 86); Chinese: 
S\' -to (A-tou, prince) ; Koreans : ig ii^ -jiki or ^n "o ^i|i -chikishi (A-chik- 
-ki), ^D 'Si i -chi-no-omi ; Japanese, Men : ^ ^ -so-no-miya (prince), 
M -re, ^ & ^ -bemaro, 'i'p % -samaru (n.), -^ ^ -meya (pot.), ^ ^h ^ 
^ ^ -bunomatsu-midorinosuke (wrestler) ; Women : f^ -butsu, ^ %% ^ 
-be-iratsume, f^ -kogi (poetesses), |(^ ^ -no-no-tsubone (court-lady), g, -ko, 
■^ M or 1^ ^ -koya (two joro). \ ^ (^) ;;^ Kuma-6(-waka)maru, | 
^ ^ O-cha-no-tsubone, | H (jg) 'jj 0-nian(-yu)-no-kata (hist, pers.) ; 

I jll] O-sen (famous beauty) ; I H ^ Asoji {zok.) ; | ^ Akobu (mask). 

I S M fl2<3^^' or ayari (see p. 87}. 

SET, SHO ; (xiyi, no). kabane (see p. 67) ; iiji (' surname '). After a 
name, read sei (untranslated). Confused with '^ (p. 260) and often 
contracted to ^ (p. 197). 38. 

/J> I kosho (nobleman's page) ; kosho-gumi |H. (Shogun's bodyguard). 

•ffX^ SHI; SHI; Hajime, [moto). hajime, hajimern, someru (same meanings 
•^M as with ;^, p. 242). 38. 

I M '^ Shikotei (Shih Huang Ti, Chin. Emperor). 

•ff^ "/irft SHI; ane ; {ye). ane ('elder sister', see pp. 129-30). 38. 
"IH tA^ I jl| Ane-gawa (r. ; f. actor), ^ |li§ -gasaki (t.), ^ -saki 

(f-), ^h Sg- -nokoji (f. ptr.). | ^, see ^f (xi). ■;)^ \ Mm ('eldest sister'), 
daishi (= 'woman' on the mortuary tablets of exalted persons); Oane-no- 
-kimi ^ (Empress).) 

-jf^ BAI (MAI), ME; imo, se. imoto, imoto ('younger sister, see pp. 129-30). 

>*^ Distinguish from the initial of j^ ^ Maiki (Mo Hsi, Chin. 
Empress). 38. 

I "j^ (or ^) iniose (' husband and wife ') ; Imose-yama \\i (myth, m.) ; 

Imose-yama Onna Teikin M :k ^ M ijoriiri). \ j^ Senoo (t. ; f. ptr., 
met.). I ^ Imoko (n.). 

-^LL HI, Bl. I ;m bkva (the Loquat, Eriobotrya japonica) ; Biwa-shima ^ 

"IJC (t.). 75. 

TA\ HAI, HE; tsuki. sakadziiki ('a wine-cup'). 75. 

4j^ [Variants : see pp. 273, 280.] SHO ; matsu ; (matsu) ; zok., Matsu-, -matsu 

■^ matsu (general name for conifers, 'pine, fir'). See p. 100, 35. 75. 

I 15 Matsu-shima (archipelago, see p. 98, 13; t. ; dist. of Osak§. ; 

f. met., actor ; joro), -noshima (t.), |^ -ura (k. of Hizen ; f. ptr.j, -ra (same 

^•)) M M -o-no-ura (coast), )\\ -kawa (r. ; t. ; f. ptr., met.). 



Eight Strokes (/j^, contd.) 264 



Other Towns: | Matsu (f. ; worn, n., Japanese paragon); /)^ I 
Komatsu (f.) ; /J> I jl| (^, §^ 'f^) Komatsu-gawa (-shima, -kaisaku) ; | \^ 
Matto^ (f.); I JU Shofu (= Matsunioto, cap. of Shinano) ; I % Matsu- 
-maru, \\i -yama (f. ; joro), ^ \Q -ida or i^ -yeda (Nakasendo stage 16), 
^ -do (f.), \X -dai or -shiro, ;^ -naga (f. ptr.), ^ -daira (f. ptr.), ^fc -moto 
(pot. ; also sub. of Hagi, cap. of Choshu ; f. ptr., met., pot., actor), '^ ^ 
-motodaira, ^^ §^ -motohiraki, EH -da (f. ptr., sculp.), \X -buse, xT -ye 
(pot., met. ; f. ptr. ; n.), ^ -ai, ^ -zaka (text. ; f. ptr.), ^ ^ -gatani (pot.), 
J^ -o (tern. ; f. ptr., met. ; cape, -zaki jll^ ; also Matsunoo as f.), ^ \li 
-oyama, ^ -yeda (see above ; f.), |I5J -oka (f. ptr.), ^]Y] -maye (f. ptr. ; also 
Masaki as t.), ;f^ -ne (n.), ^ -kura (f.), ]^ -bara (f. ptr.; 'pine-forest'), 
|lf§ -zaki (f.), ^ |1^ -gasaki, if -no (f. ptr.), ^ -bashi (f.) or -base, -^ -mine. 

/h I ^ Komatsudani (dist. of Kioto, pot.). /J> | ^ Komatsu-ya 
(brothel ; f. ptr.) ; I ^ (;^) M Matsu-ba(-moto)-ya (brothels). 

Other Surnames : | ^l Matsu ; /h I >hl" Komatsu-mura (ptr.), |^ -bara 
(ptr.), |ll§ -zaki ; | 1^ MatSU-shita (ptr.), P -kuchi, ^ -hisa, % -maru, 
% -moto, ^ -kata, 7|c -ki (actor), -noki, ^ -i (ptr., met.), ^ -ishi, 
^ -suye, il^ -ji, "§ -yoshi, ^ -zumi, H^ -mura (ptr., met. ; joro), ^ -mi, 
^ -ya, ^ -nami, i^ -bayashi, ^ -gane, ^ -nami, J§ -i, ^ -o, ^ -muro, 
■^ -nami, "g" -naye (n.), ^ -ya (Matsunoya as art-name), J^ -kaze (no; 
Genji Chapter xviii ; joro ; horse), '|^ -nami (ptr.), % -waki, ^ -miya, |5^ 
-kuma, J^ -dzuka, ^ -ye, ^ -yoshi, ^ -ba (met.), [IJ -zono, j^ -kage, 
'M -zawa, ^ -nami. 

Other Personages, etc.: /j> | ^ Komatsu-no-mikado (= Koko, 58th 
Mikado) ; \ E M Sho-getsu-ni (nun), # % -jumaru (n.) ; I ^ || S 
Matsu-dono-kwampaku (= Fujiwara no Motofusa ^ ^), "T*" l|i j§ -shita- 
-zenni (hist, pers.), ^ ^ -omaru (dram, pers.), \ -ndo (n. ; joro), ^ -mushi 
(no), (7) f(!f -no-sei, ^ ^ -yudzuri-ha (kiogen). 

/J> I ^j komatsiibiki (fest.). | ^ katsiio (the Bonito, Thynnits pelamys). 
I ^ inatsutake (' a mushroom 'j. 

ifc^ J^^' -^0. toc/ii (the Horse Chestnut). Compare ^ (p. 239) and i^ 

tT (xv). 75. 

■T^^ SHO, SO; KI ; kine, ki ; (-ki). kine, ki ('a pestle'). 75. 

'  [Compare homophones under ;;fc (p. 176).] | ^ Ki-shima or 

-noshima (k. of Hizen), H -dzuki (t.), ||f3 -buchi (f.). | ^ Kme-nomiya 
(t. ; f.), ^ -ya (f. mus.). 



1 One of the rare examples of the coalescence of -tsu with a following consonant in pure Japanese 
(compare p. 35, fin.). 



265 Eight Strokes 

-j^f BAI, MAI ; {hira, kazu). yeda (' a stem ') ; kazoyeru (' to number '). 
l^ As 7nai, a numeral-suffix for flat objects (see p. 40), also a monetary 
denomination used especially in valuing sword-blades, thus : •^ — ! kin 
ichimai, '[worth] one gold mai' {— y^ rid (ff^) ; ^ ~i^ I gin jumai, 'ten 
silver mai' (= 430 momme ^). 75. 

■1r\t SHI; YE\ yeda, -ye; {yeda, ye, -ki, shina). yeda, ye ('a branch'). 
l^v Compare ^ (p. 176). 75. 

:}^ I Oyeda (f.). | )\\ Yeda-gawa (t. ; f.), jt -moto, :;^ -ki, 
■^ -yoshi, /^ -matsu. 

#RIN ; liayashi ; (shige, hayashi, mori). hayashi (' a grove ', met. ' a 
collection, assemblage'). 75. 
I Hayashi (t. ; f. ptr., met.), Rin (f.). | 03 Hayashida (t. ; f. ptr.). 
Other Surnames : -^ \ Ohayashi (ptr., swo.) ; /J^ | Kobayashi (ptr., met., 
swo., sculp.), Ohayashi ; | ^ Hayashi-ya, ]^ -bara, jll^ -zaki, ^|S -be. 
I M ^ Rinreiso (Lin Ling-su, sennin) ; | ^ Rimpo or | ^D JH Rinnasei 
(Lin Pu, Lin Ho-ch'ing, Chin. poet). | ^ rin-sen (' a landscape '), ^ 
-sho (the sixth month). 

■ItU SHIN; or CHIN, JIN. makiira ('a pillow, head-rest'). 75. 

^-^ I 1U$ iMakura-zaki (t.), ^ -bashi (bridge), ± ^ -jido {no), %} ^i^. 

-monogurui [kiogen). \ ^ |^ Makura no Soshi (classic), makura-zoshi (' an 
obscene book ') ; I 4 makuvaye {' indecent pictures '). 

Jjt^ HAN, BAN; ita. ita ('a board, plank, sheet' [of metal, stone, etc.], 
M^ also applied to a piece of weaving or plate of armour). Used for )j^ 
(p. 267) in the sense of 'printing-block', as in | % Jiammoto. 75. 

I M. j'l Itashiki-gawa (r.). Towns: ^ \ Oita ; | ;^ Banto; | y^ ^ 
Bandojima ; I ^ 1^ Ita-ibara, ^ -ya (f. ptr.), |SC or ^ -dori, jg -gaki 
(f-)) M if tK -yanoki, "^ -kura (f. swo.), M. -hana (Nakasendo stage 14; f . ; 
but Itabana-kengio ^^ ^, blind poet), ^ -bashi (Nakasendo stage i, also 
Nikkokaido stage; f. ptr.). 

I ^ ^ Itabuki-no-miya (anct. pal). Other Surnames : | \\\ Ita- 
-yama, ^{^ -i, ^ -bane, J^ -saka, M. -ya, W- -dzu, ^ -mochi, |^ -be. 
I ^^ Bangaku (hist. pers.). I TJv bangi (watchman's clappers). 

%jF^ Contraction of >^ (xx). 86. 

iMp* SUI. kashigit (' to prepare, cook [rice] '). 86. 

A'V -^ I oi (see p. 83) ; Oi-mikado or -nomikado ^ f^ (f.). 

1 See p. 66. Equivalent 200 years ago to about ^12 13s. ^d. (present valuej. 




Eight Strokes 266 

fl-J^ BOKU, MOKU ; maki, mai- ; (maki, hira) ; zok., Maki-. maki (' a 
L>V pasture, meadow '). 93. 

[Compare ^ (vm), t^, ^ fxiv).] Towns : I Moku (Maki as f. ptr.) ; 
/J> I Komaki (f. ; m., -yama) ; | ^ Hirakata ; | |^ Maki-nouchi, 03 -ta 
(f. met. ; also Maita as f.). | fS) jth Maki(Hira)oka-no-yashiro (tem.). 

Other Surnames: | jlj Maki-yama, ^ -to, 'g -nishi, ;!«)• -mura (actor), 
|i^ -wara, ff -no (ptr., met.), gj -zono. | -j^ Makita (see p. 86). 

BUTSU, MOTSU ; mono ; {mono) ; zok., Mono-. mono (' a thing, affair, 
person, agent '). 93. 
I M llj Monomi-yama (m. ; wrestler; wowowf, 'sight-seeing'). ;^ | ^ 
Daimotsu-no-ura (coast) ; ::^ I jl| Omono-gawa (r.). | ^ Mononobe 
(t., and clan, from old word for 'a soldier'; M.-no-tojime JJ § ^, poetess). 
I ^ Mo-dzume, -dzumi, ^ ^ -dzume (f. ; for latter see also p. 86). ;^ | 
^ j{\^ Omononushi-no-kami (d.). | ^^ ^ Butsu Sorai (= Ogiu Soyemon 
^ !zfe in /& tif P^> of the Mononobe clan, whence the Butsu adopted by 
him as a 'surname'). | 1g Monomo (n.). 

I ^£ luono-gurui (' going crazy '), fg- -gatari (' a narration, history, 
romance '), M. f0, -mane (' mimicry '). 

-fc^ HO; (sute) ; zok., Sute-. snieru ('to abandon'); hanatsii ('to set free, 
'-i^ banish'); hanare ('stray, detached, solitary'). 66. 

I ^ ^^ojo (' freeing live creatures ', Buddhist practice) ; Hojo-tsu or 
Bojo-dzu ^ (t.), Hojo-gawa )\\ {no). | |pj Hanaregoma (wrestler). | "f ff" 
Hokazo or Hokaso {no), hokaso or | "]*" ^flj hokashi {dengakii dance). 

"fc^ [Variant : f^.] YO, O ; 0. oiie, ... ni oite (' at, in, with regard 
^ ^ to'; see p. 95). As 0-, used phonetically as a name-prefix (see psj, 
p. 262). 70. 

I EH O-da (f. ; n.), "^ -so (f.), ^ -tama (hist. pers. ; O-tama-ga-ike ^, 
pond near Yedo), ^ jjiS -tafuku (= Uzume, d.), 1^ -hana {joro), ^ij ^ OJ) ';^ 
-rio-no-kata, ^ ^ OJ) "^^ -raku-no-kata (hist. pers.). 



HI; HI. A negative. 175. 

I A hi-nin ('a pariah'), ^ \ -kiirodo (see p. 84). 



4^ 

^p \ariant of 3^ (vm). 51. 

Pp Variant of ^\l (p. 190). 

ij>|^ More correct form of }^ (p. 253). 90. 




26? Eight Strokes 

ll-U JO, NIO. katachi, sugata ('form, appearance'). As jo or jumi, 'an 
'y\ epistle' ( I H johako, a box to contain a letter during delivery). 94. 

HAN, BAN. As han or | :^ hangi, 'a printing-block'. Compare H^ 
(p. 265). I % hammoto ('publisher', as possessing the blocks and 
hence tlie copyright). 91. 

t^Z^ KIN, KON; (yoshi). tanoshimu ('to enjoy'); yorokobu ('to rejoice). 76. 
'I/V I -^ Kin-shi, Yoshi-ko (princesses). 

g^ [Variants : ^ , :^ .] SHO, SO ; SO ; (nobii). tokoro (' a place, cause, 
^' that, which'). See ^ (x). As io/?oro or sho (-jo), 'a government 
bureau '. 63. 

I Tokoro (f.). I p Tokoro-guchi, ^ -sawa (t.). ;^ (/J>) | ft 

0(Ko)shoke (see p. 86). | v\ \K shoshidai, | ^ tokoro- no- shii (tit.). I ^ 

s/ioyi ('a possession'), ... no shoji ('the property of . . . ') ; | f^ shosa, 
okonai ('actions, doings'); | j^ ^ shosagoto ('an actor's specialities'). 

■jt^ [Variant : g.] SET, SHO ; masa ; masa, Masashl ; 20k., Masa- (thus 
^"^ contrasting with JE). tadashii ('correct'). As sei or matsurigoto 
(I ^), 'government, political'. 66. 

[Compare JE (p. 191).] j ;^c Masa-ki, H -da, M -il^e (f.), ^ ifi 
-oichi (n. mus.), X -to (n.), ^ -ko (wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo), 
^J -yama, jjfi ;fc -"agi (yoro). | ff^ Mandokoro (f. ; central administrative 
office under the earlier shoguns ; d{;}^)mandokoro, kita(:\t)^iandokoro, tit. of 
mother, wife, of the Kwampaku or Shogun ; former esp. for the wife of 
Toyotomi Hideyoshi, 

Jjjj^ Rare synonym of -f- (p. 147), ' ten '. 

GWAN. moteasohu (' to enjoy, sport with '). 96. 




nn [Variant: ^.] MEI, MIO; MIN (Tdin); ake; aki, -akira, Akira, (toshi). 

^'^ akiraka ni (' bright, clear, evident, intelligent ') ; akeru (' to dawn, 
begin, open, evacuate, unlock', etc.). As Min, with special reference to the 
Min-cho | fl§ or Ming dynasty of China. 72. 

I ^ Akashi (k. and t. of Harima ; f. ; Genji Chap, xiii ; joro ; Akashi- 
-shiganosuke ^ :M ^ ft(j, wrestler). I ^ \\!!^ Akikane-misaki (cape). 

I H M Asumi-no-umi (lake). | ^J}^" |^ Usagi-ga-hara (plain). Other 
Towns : I ^ Asuka (later written j\^ ]^, q.v., ix ; prince) ; | jl| 
Asugawa ; | ^[c Akiraki ; | illi Akuchi ; | ^n Akechi ; | ijii|i Akinokami 
(see further) ; | ^, Akeho. I JpfjJ ^ IS. Miojin-higashizaka Uiill in Yedo). 

I ^ ^ (fiB) Meirin-do (-kwan), schools. 



Eight Strokes (Nj^, contd.) 268 

« 

Other Surnames : | ^ Mio-chin (arm., met.), ^ -jo ; | gj Ake-da, 
i^ -bayashi, ^^ -ra (ptr.), ^ -chi, |§| -ra. Other Personages : I ^ i^ 
Meishugen (Ming Sung-yen, senniii) ; \ JE Miosho (logth Milvado, Empress), 

I i^ Meiji (122nd; see also Nengo) ; | ^ Aki-ko (Empress); | ^Bi Mincho, 
;;;^ | Taimei (priests) ; :^ I ^^ Daimeikio, I ^ Mio-ju, ^ -shin (swo.) ; 

I M 5M Mioami (n.). | jfiFJl widjin, daii-j^^miojin (tit. of a Shinto deity 
translated as a Bud. avatar). | '/i, | ^, see p. 83. 

Nengo: | ^ Mei-ji (1868-1911), |p -wa (1764-71), ^ -toku (N. Dyn., 
1390-93; S. Dyn., 1393), ;g -reki, -riaku (1655-57), M -o (1492-1500). 

I ^ mionen, ake no ioshi ('next year'); | Q mionichi, asu ('to-morrow, 
next day ') ; I ^ IT miogonichi, asatte (' next day but one '). 

Q/L KO, KU. mata ('the crutch'); momo ('the thigh'). 130. 
fi^ [Compare % (p- 144), j^ (ix).] | if Matano (f.). 

Jl^ KO, KIO. hiji ('the elbow'). 130. | )\\ Hiji-kawa (r.). 

FUKU, BUKU. kimono ('clothing'). As fiikii, also a numeral-suffix 

for doses or for whiffs of tobacco (cf. p. 40 j. 74. 

I ^ hatori (sc, hata-ori, ' loom-weave '), anct. gild of silk-growers 

and weavers, with hatori-no-muraji '^ at its head and subdivisions of kiire- 

-hatori (see -^, p. 245) and aya-hatori ('Jl I ) ; hence Hatori (f. ptr. ; r., 

also Kureha-gawa ; lake, -numa '^). 



m 




npl HI; HI; koye. koyeru ('to be fat, fertile'). 130. 

'J^ [Compare, for Hi-, homophones under (p. 184), and, for Koye-, 
M (xii).] I i\\ Hi-zen (pr.), ^ -go (pr. ; f.), '}[\ -shu (these two pr. 
combined), ^ ^ -goshima (dist. of Osaka), \^ -noura (t.), H -da, gj if 
-dano, |i-( -bara (f.), 'g -hi (see p. 86). I # Koye-i (t.), M -dzuka (f.). 
I A Umahito (n. poet.). | ^ hidachi ('convalescence'). 

HO ; HO; (tomo). tomo ('a friend, companion'). 74. 

BB MON ; MO; kado, -to; Kado, Hiro, {kado, hiro). kado, to ('a gate, 
i •* outer door'). As mon, also 'a sect, class, school of artists, pupil'; 

for \ A, \ ^, etc., see p. 95). 169. 

[Compare ^ (p. 248).] | B9 j'l Monden-gawa (r.). Towns : | Kado 
(r.); -^ I Daimon (Omon, the 'Great Gate' of the Yoshiwara, Yedo; Omon- 
-guchi n, the space inside it); | ^i]" Monzen (see also p. 10, note 2) ; | "^ 
iMoji (f.); I ^ Kado; | ^ Kado-i (f.), M -ya (f.), M -ma (f.), f^: -sawa. 
Other Surnames: | M. Kamado (?Ma-kado ^ p^ reversed); | illJ Mo-ji, 
^ -kawa, ^ -na ; | P Kado-guchi, -la, pf, -bayashi, % -waki (ptr.), 
'^ -kura, if -no, ^ -be. 



269 Eigfht Strokes 

I ^ Monya (see p. 86). /j> | A Komondo (joro). | ^ ^ Monto- 

-shu (the Shin ^ sect) ; | ^JJ^ monzeki (one of its temples, = hongwanji ; 

see ;^, p. 200 ; see also ^, x). | |5c rnonin (tit. of a Dowager Empress 

become a nun, preceded by the name of a Kioto gate ; cf. p. log, 84). 

I 1^ kadomatsii (' a New Year pine-sapling '). 




||\ KI. sakan ('flourishing'); oinaru ('large'). 113. 

SHI, Jl. matsiiri ('a festival'); yashiro ('a Shinto shrine'). As shi. 



m 



'krf • a year . 113 

ijlL SHA, JA ; ZA, ZO ; (taka). yashiro ('a Shinto shrine'); nakama ('a 
/|I_L company'); koso ('particularly^). 113. 

I Yashiro (t.). \ ]^ Jt U Kosobe no Oguchi (hist. pers.). ^ \ 
Taisha (no), oyashiro (Shinto ' cathedral '). | ^ shashoku (' gods of the 
land and grain ', sc, the Emperor's household ; shashoku -no- shin g, ' the 
prime minister'). 

T^rt L^'^i'is-i^t- P^-] KWA, WA; WA; kazu, {inasa, nari) ; zok., Wa- ( | B3 
' Wada-). niko-, nigi- ('soft'); yawarageru ('to soften, tranquillize"); 

yawaragi (^' peace'). As kiva, also 'amount, fusion'; as kwa or wa, 'peace, 
concord'; as Wa or Yamato, 'Japan, Japanese.' | ^ me, nigime (an 
edible seaweed), nigite (a soft cloth for sacred offerings). 30. 

[Compare ^ (xv).] | ^ Wakoku (' Japan ' ; joro). J^i I Yamato 
('Japan'; pr. ; f. ; r.j ; Yamato-ya M (f- actor); | j^ Washu (same pr.). 
I ^ Idzumi (pr. ; one of its kori; f . ; brothel, -ya ^) ; Idzumi-shikibu ^ ^ 
(poetess, No. 56 of the Hundred Poets). | ^ Wa-ke (k. and t. of Bizen ; 
f. pot.; prince, -o 3£), ^ -ka or -ga (k. of Oshu). | (form. H) M Pt 
(or ±) Oranda (' Ho*lland, Dutch 'j. 

Other Towns (see also the two next entries) : I ;^ BQ Idzumita ; | ^J" 
Kazumura ; | ^ Wa-ta, -^ -jiki, -^ -fuka or -buka. | g^ /j^ Waboku- 
-no-matsu (pme-treej. Other Surnames (see further): | ^ )(lj Mekari {no); 
I ^ Wa-ku (ptr.j, ^ ^j^ -kui, fn -ni, TJC -ki, ^ -tsuji, i^ -sa, ^ -nami, 
m |fr> -nibe, ^ -gun, H^ -saki, ^ -chi, Ji -dachi, ^, M -ni, 3l ^ -mbe. 
Other Personages: | ^ jjirji Wago-jin (the two 'Deities of Peace and 
Concord'); | j^ (or |§) [^ Watonai (— Kokuseiya or Teiseiko, Koxinga, 
Chin, worthy ; play) ; \ ^ ^ Wi Wasobioye (hero of fiction, the Waso 
meaning 'the Japanese Chuang ' i.e., ^ ^ Soshi, Chuang Tzu, Chin, sage; 
the bioye is a termination of zokuniio type, cf. p. 73) ; | -f Kazu-ko, 
^ -no-miya (court-ladies) ; I ^ ^ Nigitemaro, | ^ ^ W'atamori, | ^ 



Eig-ht Strokes (|n, contd.) 270 

^, I ^ Wataru (n.) ; | ±, \ jp], see p. 87. I ^ Wado (nengo, 
708-714). I ^ wakan ('Chinese and Japanese'). 

%W D3 ^^''^'^^ (^- ! Nakasendo stage 42; f. i)tr., met., swo.). ^ \ \ Owada 
(t.). /J^ I I Kowada (f.). | | |l]t}i W'ada-no-misaki (cape). 
I I [[\ Wada-yama (cas.), ^ ^jj -toyama, ^ -minami, "^ -hama (t.), 
:^ -la, ^ -tSLi, m. -gaki (f.). 

^P ^ [Compare ^ (ix).] Waka (t. ; lit. 'Japanese poetry', see pp. 97, 3, 
99, 19, and 102, 46 ; tvaka-dokoro ^, government bureau). 
I I ^ \\'aka-no-ura (shore). | | iJj Waka-yama (t. ; mod. ken), ^ 
-mura (t.j, ^ -tsuki (f.), ^jij -no-maye (danseuse, shirabioshi). 



^ 



CHI; CHI, SHI; tonio, (chika, aki) ; zok., Tomo-. shiru ('to know'); 
y^ I shirazu, shiranii ('don't know'). iii. 
[Compare =f (p. 155), it (x).] /h | Ochi (f.). I ^ M .t) Chi-buri- 
-shima (is.), ^^ "l^u (k. and t. of Oki), -buri (same k.), ^ -ta (k. of Owari), 
jL -riu (t., see vtil, P- 213), gj -dzu, ^ -ran, (t.), ffl -ta (f.), ft -shiki (f. 
met.), ^ -sho (Chih Chang, Chin, poet ; Tomoakira as wo). | -^ chi-mei 
(age of 50 to 5o), /{t^ -gio (' landed estate ' of a daimio or -samurai), ^ IjX 
-feajj (tit.). 



6^ 



TEKI, CHAKU. mato, ikuha ('a target'). As tekl, 'exact, suitable', 
V also a genitival postposition. 106. 

I ^ Mato-ya (t.), M -ya, J^ -ba (f.). | ^ BQ ^ li Ikuba no 
Toda-no-sukune (hist. pers.). | j^ Tekiro (Ti-lu, Gentoku"s horse). 

-H*!^ KAN. Chinese geographical name. 163. 
"I I -fP Kantan (Han-tan, Chin, cap.; no); K.-no-otoko J§ (dram. pers.). 

jjrl^ TEI, TAI. yashiki ('a mansion, residence') 163. 

Jfjlf SHO, jO. Chinese place and family name. 163. 
' I J^ W Shokosetsu (Shao K'ang-chieh, Chin. sage). 

\ ariant of ^X (P- 243). 





SEI, SE ; (suke). As sei, 'a command, law'. Sometimes as a con- 
traction of %l (xiv). 18. I n[; (or ]f^) M m -f' Seitaka-doji (d.). 

KOKU ; KI ; {toki). kizauiu, hovu, kirii, yeru ('to cut, carve, engrave', 
see p. 91). As kokii, also a division of time (p. 66). 18. 

ll^ll SHI, Jl; sashi. sasu ('to pierce, sting, wear [as a sword in the girdle], 
A*4 stick in [the hair, etc.]'). 18. [Compare ^g (ix).] | ^ Sashiga (f. 





271 Eig-ht Strokes 

IJ SATSU, SECHI; (kiyo). kirn ('to cut'). See ^\\ (p. 215). 18. 



^ll SATSU, SECHI. hashira ('a pillar'); tera ('a Buddhist temple'). 18. 
■^4 EI otera ('a cathedral'). 

$|J TO. itaru ('to arrive'). 18. | ^ Itodzu (t.). 

Itrt SHUKU. See pp. 129-30, Uncle, Brothers. 29. 
^l^ I ^ Shukusei (Shu Ts'i, senniu). 

'Vfrf SHU, SU ; SU ; tori ; (tori). torn (' to take, gather, seize, capture, 
'H^ use ', etc.). 29. 

[Compare ^ (xi).] | ^ Tori-te or -de (t.), ^ jlj -kaye-gawa (r.l. 
I /M tori-kumi ('a wrestling match'), ^ -shimavi ('a director', esp. of same). 

^P KWAI, KE. iirakata ('the signs of divination'). See p. 107, 76. 25. 

Kll GWA. fusu ('to lie down'). 131. 

■^^ I fl ;|^ Gwario-bai (plum-tree). | f^ _^ fushimachi no tsuki 

(the moon of the 19th night of the month). 

JU, NIO; CHI. chi, chichi ('milk, the breasts'). 5. 

1 T^ Clii-mori (t.), ^ ^Ij -busa-yama (m.), /^ ^ -chii (f.j, -tj] tjc 
-giriki {kiogen). \ / J\^ cJiinohito, \ ^ niubo, menoto (' a wet-nurse ' ; 
see p. 79). 




KEN; kata. kata ('a shoulder'). Distinguish from ^ (ix). 130. 

MU; ame, ama-. ame, in composition ama-, -same ('rain'). 173. 
I ^ U-da (anct. dist. of Yamato, also ^ P'E), ffl -da (f.), J] -getsu 
(no). I ^ Ama(.'\me)bata (t.). | ^ Ame-nomori (f.), ^ jjj -mori-yama 
(m.), ^J -yama (f.), ^ -miya (f. ptr.). | |% amefuvi ('rainy weather'); 
Afuri(Aburi)-yama |Jj (m.). | f^ j£ Ame-no-s6jo (priest). 

I ^ ama-yadori ('sheltering from rain'), \^ -yasiimi ('farmers' holiday'), 
^ ~goi ('praying for rain'; Amagoi-Komachi /J> BJ) "o, see also p. 106, 71; 
A. -ken or -no-tsurugi fjQ, sword). | Ff=» uchu ('in the rain, rainy weather'). 
piit [Variants: ^, ]i]^, p9§.] RiO ; (;)zo7'o). 77^0^0 (' both 'j ; futatsu ('two'). 
 ■^ As rid-, often ' the two . . . ' ; as rid, also a weight and a coin 

(see p. 66). 11. 

I ^ Rio-mo (the two provinces of Kotsuke and Shimotsuke), jjiljl iJj 
-kami-yama (m.), j^ -goku (dist. of Yedo ; f. ptr.; wrestler; bridge, -bashi 
^)) # BX -san-cho (street of Yedo), ^ -kaku (f. ; also Futakado). | -^ \\i 
Futago-san (m.). ! ^ rio-gan ('both banks'), jf^ -saku, ^ -hitsu ('made, 
painted, in collaboration'). 



Eig-ht Strokes 272 

fpl Variant of "^ (ix). 





or 




|P^[ and [^1 Contractions of ^ (xii). 102. 

A ; {-tsiigu, tsugi-). tsjigu (' to succeed, follow '). As a, ' next, 
second'. 7. I ^ ^ Ashito (n.). 

[Other variant : ^.] CHO ; naga, osa ; naga, Nagashi, 
(Tsukaya, osa). nagashi ('long', of distance or time); 
nagasa, take (' length ') ; osa, tsukasa (' a chief, head official 'j. As cho, also 
'long-lived'; see also p. 129, Children. Distinguish from ^ (p. 253). 168. 

[Compare ;^ (p. 186) and see the next entry.] | f^ Xagato (pr. ; f. 
ptr. ; joro); \ '}]] Cho-shu, ^ -yo, -H -han (same pr. ; second also f.). | ^ 
Naga-shima (is. ; t. ; f.). Kori : | ^ Chosei (Kadzusa, mod.) ; | K 
Naga(Nagano or Chonojkami (Totomi) ; | [^ Nag"a-oka (Tosa ; t. ; f. ptr., 
swo.), ^^ -ra (Kadzusa; f. : r.), ^ -sa (Boshu ; f.). iMountaixs : | ^ 
Naga-mine (f. ptr.); | ^ ]\l, I ^ llj Nagara-yama (former also t.). | 09 
)\\ Osada-gawa, | ^ )\\ Xagara-gawa (r.). I ^^ '/g Nagaido-numa (lake). 

Other Towns: | J^ Cho-fu (= Toyora in Choshu), ^ ^ -shoji, 
■^ -nan (f.), ^ ^jS -jahira, ^ H]" -jamachi (also street of Yedo) ; | jl^ 
Osa-mura, ^ -fune (swo.) ; \ ^ ^ Naga-kute, ^ ^ -kubo (Nakasendo 
stage 27; f. ptr., met.), ^ -i (f. ptr.), ^ -te, -ta (f. ptr., met.; also 
Osada as f.), f^ -ike, |g. -saka (f.), BJ -machi, ^ -shi, ^ -o (f. ptr. ; 
joro), fg -numa (f.), ^ g -tsuro, f\\ -su, 'g] -ura, -^ -kura (f.j, ll|§ -saki 
(mod. ken ; f. ptr.), ^ -no (mod. ken ; f. lacq.), 2f |^ -nohara, '^ -yu, 
^ -mori (f.), ;^ -tsuka (f.), ^ -dono, ijig -fuku, ^ -sawa (f. ptr., met.), 
^ -shino, '^ -hama (f. met. ; joro), ^ -mine (f.), ^ -se (f. ; r.), f^ -toro. 
I ^ Nagahori (dist. of Osaka ; f.). | ^ /{^ Choham-bashi (bridge 
in Yedo). | -^ ^ Chomei-ji (tern.). 

Other Surnames: | Cho; ^ | Daicho ; | >fi] Osari ; | ^b Cho-boku, 
^ -mei (ptr. ; see also Locutions), •^ ^ ^f^ -sokabe, j% -go ; | }\\ 
Naga-kawa, ±^ g -toro, {Ij -yama, ^ -to, 7^ -moto, Ql -ye, ^ -ai, 
'^^ -suna, 3^ -tsuka (also Xadzuka), ^v -mine, ^4 -ra (n.), |^ -matsu, 
^ -tsuma, ^ -ya (lit. 'barracks'), ^ -miya (ptr.), ]^ -hara, ^ ;tli •f" H 
-sone (met., swo.), ^ -o, M -yo, J| -hiro, fjl -taki, |i -shio (ptr.). 

Other Personages: I ^ ^ Cho-sokun (Ch'ang Sang-chiin, sennin), 

^ -kei (98th Mikado), ^ ^. j,'i -reibeshimi (mask), :iv ^ -dayu, 

^ -to (joro) ; I ^ Naga-ko (Empress), IE -ta-6 (poet), ^ -ru (n.), 

A -ndo, ji^ -ha (joro). \ BJ -^ HH "tU Xagamachi Onna-harakiri [joruri); 

I ^ Nagamitsu (n. ; kiogen). 



273 Eight Strokes 

Nexgo : I f^ Cho-kiQ (1040-43), % -gen (102 8-36), Vo -ji d 104-05 j, 
^ -jo, -sho (1132-34), ^ -ko, -kio (1487-88), ^ -roku (1457-59), % -kwan 
(1163-64), ^ -reki, -riaku (1037-39). 

Locutions : | ^ cho-getsii (or nagatsuki, the 9tli month), *g -kwan 
(see p. 84), ^ -sAa Can elder'), -ja ('a rich man"; tit. of head of the 
To-ji y^ ^, a Kioto temple; 'head' of a clan, = iiji-no-kami, see ^, 
p. 173, and ^, xiii), -^ -mei, ^ -yu ('long life'; see p. 98); | ^ naga-ya 
('a barracks'), ^ -;(la ('lyric poetry 'J, P^ -uta ('popular lyrics'). 

^ ^ Hase (t.^ ; f.) ; Nagatani, Nagaya (f.). /j> I | Ohase, Konagaya, 

/h I I nfi Ohasebe (f.). | | }\\ Hase-gawa (r. ; f. ptr., 

met., lacq., pot.), ^ -do (t. ; tem.), -^ -dera (or Chokoku-ji, tem.), || -o (n). 

"X^ KIOKU, KOKU ; or Kl. moynsu (' to prepare, supply '). Distinguish 
-^ from ^ (p. 218). 7. 

-TY*> BO, MO ; or HO, MIO ; take, Takeshi. hajime (' the beginning ') ; 
-DDL tsutomeru (' to exert oneself '). 39. 

I ^ Mo-shi or ^ ^ -fushi (iMeng Tzu or Meng Fu-tzu, Mencius), 
^ -so (Tsung, paragon), |ljj^ -ki, ^ -kin (Ch'i, Ch'in, sennin). | ^, 
I i;> I |!^> I ^> see p. 47. 

SHO, JO; (-isugii, koto). ukeru ('to receive'); ukeiamawaru ('to listen 

politely'). (ienerally as Sho- in priests' names. 64. 
Nengo : I ^ Sho(Jo)-kiu (1219-21), % -gen (1207-10), ^ -an 
(1171-74), fll -wa (834-S47), ^, -toku (1097-98), M -o (1652-54); I m 
Joreki, Joriaku, Shoriaku (1077-80). 

^^ Variant of ;j^ (p. 263). 

^^ [Strictly the central stroke of the oblong should be continuous with 
-^^ the lower left stroke, thus, ^; for another variant, see p. 247.] 

TO, TSU ; TSU, U ; u. usagi (' a hare, rabbit '). Distinguish from 
its derivative ^ (p. 244J. 10. 

[Compare ^ (p. 224), f| (xviii).J | ]^ Uhara (f. met.). j ^ Tonari, 
I :^ Tomo, Tomo (n. ; see p. 86). | ^ ^ Usagi-no-miko (prince). 

' As a place-name of Yamato province (there is another Hase in Sagami), this was formerly 
(and is still in literature) written ^J ^| and then alternatively pronounced Hati>use. The use of 
the characters ^ ^, meaning literally 'long valley', is due to the situation of the Yamato Hase 
(the first locality to bear this name) in a long narrow gorge of the Hatsuse River ^J Jfl )\\. The 
site of the old capital Hatsuse -^Q ^ is in the vicinity. See Dr. Yoshida's Dai Nilion Chimei Jisho 
('Topographical Dictionary of Japan'). 

18 




Eight Strokes 274 

|=t KON ; or KON, KEN ; (yasit). ye, kouokami (' an elder brother ') ; 
**-w onaji ('same'). Distinguish from ^ (p. 219) and |g (ix). 72. 

I 1^ Konyo or Koya (t.). | if Konno (f.). | ;j]j kombu, kohu 
(an edible seaweed, Laminaria japonica) ; Kombu-uri ^, -fuse >fjj ^, Kobu- 
-gaki ^ {kiogen). 

p-| 

^rj KO ; {taka). takashi ('high'). 72. 

^ KG, GO. hiroshi ('wide'). 72. 

^5 SHO ; masa, saka ; viasa, Masashi, Sakau, (aki, atsii, harti). sakan 
*— J ('flourishing'); sakari ('acme, prime'); akiraka ('bright, clear"). 72. 

[Compare homophones under jE (p. iqi) and ^ (237).] I ^ 1i^ 
Shohei-ko (school), ;j^ -bashi (bridge). | |S] Masaoka, I ^f Sakaya, 
Shoya, | ^^ Sakazaki (f.). | ^ Masa-ko (Empress). | ^ Shotai 
{nengo, 898-900). 

Contraction of ^ (ix). 

1; or YEKI, YAKU ; /; yasu ; zok., Yasu- or Yeki-. yasushi ('easy'); 
kayerii (' to change '). As yeki, ' divination ' ( I ^ Yeki-kio, Yi- 
-ching. Chin, classic). 72. 

[Variant: ^.J Synonym of ^ (p. 173). 72. 

I ^ll| Ito Shosen-kio (bridge). | ^ Sho-shi (Empress). | 
Noboru (n.). 

Q BIN, MIN. awaveniti ('to pity'). As Bin, a Korean priest of tlie 
^5C^ yth century a.d. 72. 

SL KO, GO. hinode ('sunrise'); akiraka ('clear, bright'). 72. 

KWA; or WA ; or KWAN ; Hatsiirii, Hatasu, {hata). hate ('the end, 
outcome ") ; hateru, hafsiiru (' to finish, die ') ; haiasu (' to complete, 
fulfil'); kudamono ('fruit"). 75. 

Q KU, GU ; KU, GU ; tonio. sonayern ('to provide'); sonawaru ('to be 
-^^ equipped with'). As ,^,'^2/, '[a set of] parts or fittings". Distinguisli 

from ^ (p. 246) and 3t- (-85). 12. 

:k. I J'l Oku-gawa (r.). | ~f i^ Kugetsuka (f.). | J^ giisokn ('a 
suit of armour'); Gusoku-cho BJ* (street of Yedo). 

-'^P? Old form of ^ (p. 221). 







275 Eight Strokes 

KI ; suye ; suye, {toki, toshi) ; zok., Suye-. siiye ('the end, tip"); toki 
('a season', see p. 112, 96); wakashi ('young'). As ki in year- 
dates, for ^, 'a year', periiaps by confusion with the foregoing. Distinguish 
from ^ (p. 250) and ^ f-3-)- 39- 

[Compare ^ (p. 201). | | ^ Suye-ba, ^ -iye (f.), ^ -ko (court-lady). 
I ^ Kiga (Chi Ho), I m Kiteki (Chi Tse), senniu. I ^, I H, ! fk^ 
I ^, see p. 47. 

frC * SUI. taru, -tari; (to7'/, torw). tareru ('to hang down, drip, bestow'). 
— "^ Distinguish from ^ (xj. 32. 

I ^ Taru-i (t., Nakasendo stage 13; f.), 7X -nii or -midzu (t.), -mi 
(f.). I 'fll Suinin (nth Mikado). 

HEI, HIO. inatsnka ('a handful of rice-ears'). 115. 




H3 YV. shibarakit ('a short time'). 134. 

1^ [Variant: J;^.] jl, NI ; JI, NI, KO ; ko. ko, chigo, /\\ \ shoji, slwni 
'^^ ('a child, infant'). Distinguish from ^ (p. 247). 10. 

[Compare homophones under -^ (p. ).] Kori : | ^ Ko-dama 
(Musashi ; t. ; f. ptr., sculp.), % -jima (Bizen ; t. ; f. ptr., met.; n. ; poetess, 
prince, -no-miya ^), "^ -yu (Hiuga). | -^ |U|{ Chigo-ga-fuchi (whirlpool ; 
see ^, XVI). I ]\i Koyama (f.). 3^ | M. ^^ ^ Ame-no-koyane-no-mikoto 
(d.). I (for J:^) m ^ Jiraiya (leg. pers.). | ^ chigo-zakura ('young 
cherry-blossoms '). 

f^ CiAKU ; take (generally as -dake or -ga-dake in mountain-names), 
M^ oka; (take), take ('a mountain-peak'). Synonym of ^ (xvii). 46. 

[Compare |^ (p. 290).] | ^ f| Takeya-ga-taki (fall). | ;|sj- 
Okamura (f. met.). 3i. I , see p. 103, 53. 

^6L Script contraction of M (xv). 

FU, BU (FU). oka ('a hill, mound'). 170. 




^ HAKU, BIAKU. kinu ('silk'). 50. | ^U Hakkwa (Po Ho, sennin). 

KOTSU, KOCHI ; (Lada). tachiuiachi ('at once"). 61. 
■^ I i]^» ^A Koppitsuretsu (Kublai Khan, Hu Pi-lieh). 

^* Contraction of ^ (xi). 





Eig'ht Strokes 276 

>?V Ml^l. MIO; ihti^Li, toshi, {nobu). iuochi ('one's life'); iitsiike, ose ('a 
"H comniancl, (l(HTPe, fate'); mikoto (for ^1 "g, 'divine words, imperial 

edict"): mikoto (for ^ '^y, 'divine person, deity"; like ^, in the form 
-no-inikoto, a sulVix to the names of Shinto deities). Distinguish from -^ 
(p. 174), ^ (198) and ^ [222). 9. 

I J^ Meio (f.). I ^ miobu (grade of (^ourtdadies ; see also p. 83, 
//)/. ; name for fox -messengers of the goddess Inari). 

nrt^ UIX : (totno). oiiiou ('to think"); niaroshi ('circular'). 9. 

yft^ Nl'^X ; iniiiiie). onion ('to think'); lonayerii ('to call, recite'). As 
iL^^ ncn, 'mind, thought, care, notice'. f^)i. 

I J^ Wi Xezu-ga-seki (anct. barrier ; t. ; compare H,, xiii). -j^ \ ^ 
Dainenji (t.). 

Jv rOcc. contraction: ■^■] KIX. KOX : kane, kana- : kane, kin- (swc), 
ikaiKi-). kane {'metal, gold, mone\"). One of tlie Five Elements 
(metal) and the Five Metals (gold). 167. 

[Compare ^ (x).] | tf^ ]\\ Ivinkwa-zan lis.). Mountains : | iJj 
Kana-yama (see also Towns) ; I H'J llj Ivongo-sen or -zan ; I ^ Uj Kimi)u- 
-san or Kombu-sen : | (for ^) |I.*f |ll Kintoki-zan ; | |f ^J Kinkei-zan ; 

I -lb ill T\inip()ku-zan ; I /(^ tU Ivanasa-yama. Kivers : | }\\ Kana-gawa 
(Kanakawa as t.) ; | @ jlj Kaname-gawa. 

Other Towns : /j> j Kogane (moor, -gadiara ^ ]^) ; /F I ^ Koganei 
(f.) ; I y^ Koganetsuka ; | ^ Konze ; | ]^ Ivdnoura ; | ^ Kannari ; 

I Ijif Kimpu (= Kanazawa in Ivaga) ; | ^ Kin-j6 (same; also = Nagoya 
in Owari, from the copper-gilt •' dolphm " hnials on its castle-roof), 09 — 
-taichi (or Kanetaichi), ^^ -^ -taiji u;as.) ; | ]^ Kane-ko, ^ -uchi (f.), 
f^ -saki (also read Kanasaki), ^/ |m^ -gasaki (also Kanagasaki), ]\i -yama 
(also Kanayama as t. and f. [)tr. : kinzan, 'a gold-mine'), ^ ^ -gasawa ; 

I y|c Kana-ki. 5^ |^ -igahara (bat.), ^ -ishi, -iwa, 03 -da (f. ; also 
Kaneda as f. i)tr. ). ^ -ya (f.), ^ -maki, ^ -tsu (f.), f^ -ya (f. met.; Kane-ya 
as brothel 1, 'l^: -zawa (f. j)tr. ; also Kanesawa and Kanezawa as t. and f. 
met. ; see p. 108), ^r ^|^| -gase. 

Ix Ykikj : I /j;^ Kanasugi (dist. ; f. met.: bridge, -bashi ;|^) ; | ^ BJ" 
Kanatomi-cho (street). Temples: | J;t; ^. Kompira (d.) : | ^ Kon-do, 
W\ 'j= -go-ji. W] K 'f -gobu-ji. Jlli 1J;£ -chi-m: | M \U Kin-riu-zan, |i ^ 
-kaku-ji {= the Rokuon-ji in Kioto, so named after the adjoining pavilion 
Kin-kaku). | jjil] Kanazashi, I ;^ Kanahashi (anct. pal.). | 3i ® 
Konnd-zakura 1 cherry-tree). 




277 Eight Strokes 

Other Surnames : | Kin, Kon ; | ^ Kisu ; | ]^ Kimbara (met. ; 
also Kanahara, met.); | ^ Komparu [no writers); | ^ Kin -go (from a 
name, of Chin, origin, for the yemon-fu, see p. 84, E), %% -rid; | jfilji Xou- 
-jin (d.), HlJ -go {no writers; u. swo. ; lit. 'diamond', a Ikul. term, see 
Examples above and below), ^ -rm (also Kanawa) : | ^ Kaiie-ko iptr., 
met.), ^ -do, ^ -i (ptr. ; also Kanai), ;^f 03 -ida, y^ -molo, '^- - mori, 
^ -mitsu, ;^ -yeda, ^ -naga, 51 ~l"^o, ^ -i, /g H ida, ^g' -/.ashi, 
^ -shige (pot. ; also Kanayej, Iff -no, ^ -mori, |[^ -tsuna ; | ;^ Kana- 
-maru, ^ j^ -kubo, \£ -ye (pot.), ;|sj- -mura, ^ -kubo. 1^' -kura. 

Other Deities: | |t^lj Kongo- ^ -shu, ;^ -i; -rikishi != the Xi-d -^ 5E), 
^ (or |?i) X P I -yasha-miod. \ M ^ -^ Kaneuri Kichiji (hist. pers.). 
I IE Konnd, | 3i 'JL Konndmaru, | psf 5M Kniami (swo.). | ;j:L Kinsatsu 
{no, 'paper money'). Kiogek : I (33 Ktmaoka (n. ptr., poet), | '^ illi ^ 
Kanadzu-Jizd. | X kin-ko (' metalwork[er] '), J^ -sa Ca mint'), )|^- -slid 
(chesspiece), =f- ^ -senvio ('1000 rin of money"), — ;^j{ -icliiinai (see p. 263). 
SHA ; SA : (jye), Yagnvi. iye, ya ('a house"); yadorii ('to lodge"). 
As -sha or -ya or -no3'a at the end of art-names (see \). 6g). (). 
I A '1 oneri ('bodyguard"; f. ; n. ; prinee, -sliinnd || 3£ ; poetess, 
-no-iratsume %% -^j ; ;;^ | A oloiieri (Impl. bodyguards; see also p. ^2); 
/J> I A kotoneri (tit., see [). 84); f^ I J\, see }). 82. | ^-IJ'Shari {no, 
'cremation relic'); Shari-hotsu ^ (d., see p. no, 86), -m' /g (nun). | -^ 
lye-ko (Empress). 

^^ EU ; {one); zok., Ono-. ono ('an axe'). Tx). 

/ 1 [Compare the combination /]> 5p, xi.] | Ono, | 03 Onoda, | ^ 

Onodera (f.). 

/^N SO, SHO. arasou, kisou ('to contend, qu.arrel") ; arasoi, k'tsoi (' con- 
J tention, rivalry 'j. 87. 

^l9^ SHU, JU ; ZU ] i-tsugu). ukevii ('to receive"). 87. 
^^ I jll Ukegawa (f.). 

/^ SAI. torn ('to take"). As sai, 'a fief" (| \^ m'uhi, chigio, land or 
^^1^ property of a. daimid or mmiivai). Also used for ^ (xi). Dis- 
tinguish from its radical ^ (p. 247J. 163. 

I ?f Saino (f.). | ;^ Uneme (tit., see p. 83; u. : no); Uneme-ga-hara 
J^^ (l)lace in Yedo). | ^ Udono (see p. 86). 

Y A ; YA, YO ; (yasit, yoru). vo, yoru, yoivct, /J> | sayo ('night'). 36. 
I M Yasu (k. of Chikuzen ; f.). | ^ ]£ Yosamu-no-sato (t.). 
I P^ Yoake (d. ; lit. 'daybreak"). | % Yasha (mask-carver; daughter of 
Minamoto no Yoritomo; lit. 'demon", 'SkX. yaksluiw Yasha-no-ike "^ (water); 




Eig-ht Strokes i]^, contd.) 278 

Yasha-kuro ji fijj, -gemba ^l ^, -musashi ;^ |^ (n.). /]^ \ )ii Sayoan 
(art-name). | i4 ^ Yonaki-isln (rock). | ^, see p. 107, 79. I ^ j^ 
yahangetsu, yowa no isitki (' the moon at midnight '). | j^ yo-asobi 
('nocturnal diversions'), ji iH: -mise ('a shop open at night")- @ -zakuva 
('cherry-blossom as seen at night"). 

-iir KEI. KIO; (taka): zok., Kio-. miyako ('a capital'); takashi ('high'). 8. 
>^ I ^ .Miyako/ later Kioto (k. of Buzen), Kioto (the Imperial 

capital); | Kio (same city; f.) ; | fii[i Kei-slii, ^ -raku, j)^ -jd (same 
city; last also for Soul, mod. cap. of Korea), H -ki (Kioto and the Gokinai ; 
see p. 120, fin.), ^ -han (Kioto and Osaka), '^ -hin (Tokid and Yokohama). 
I i^ Ki"-tsuka (t.), ^ -goku (dist. of Kioto ; f. ; poetesses), ^ -bashi 
(dist. of Yedo, mod. kn of Tokio ; r.), 03 -da, ^ ^ -kubo (f.), ^ M 
-masuya, ;j^ ^ -gokuya (f. actors). 

KIO, KO ; itaka). ntatsiiru ('to worship, make sacrifice'); itkevu ('to 

receive'). Confused with ^ (p. 249), esp. in nen go. 8. 
Nengo : I i% Kio(Ko)-toku (1452-54), ;|^ -roku (1528-31); | j^ 
Kio-ho (1716-35), In -wa (1801-03). I ^' see p. 42. 

[Synonym: ^^.J IKU, YOKU. sodatcru ('to educate'); sodate ('up- 
bringing"). 130. I •ip Yasu-ko (Empress). 

SHO. niekake (' a concubine '). 38. 






BO, MO. mekuva, \ \ uiojin, \ ^ meshii ('a blind person"). log. 
I ^ nwki (myth, creat.). 

SOTSU ; or SHUTSU. shimobe (' a servant ') : oivaru (' to die, end ') ; 
niwaka (' suddenly ') ; movomoro (' all ") ; shussuru (' to die ', of a 
nobleman). 24. | i^ ^ sotoba ('a grave-i)ost ') ; Sotoba-Komachi /]> BJ" 
(;;o; see also p. lof), 71). 

^r^ SO, SHU; miine. uiunc ('the main })oint, main line of a family'). 
^^^ As shu, "a sect", esp. Buddhist. Distinguish from ^f (P- -24) 
and 54c (24.^). 40. 

[Compare ;j;^; (.xii).] | i^ Munakata (k. of Chikuzen ; f.). Towns 
I ^f So-ya (cape, -misaki |lit|i ; La Perouse Strait, -kaikio y@- |I^), J^ -ga 
I \% .Munetaka. Other Sirnamks: | So ; I ;;fsj- S6-mura, |>uj J^ -ami 
(n.)? M -so: I :// Munakata: | 03 MlUie la (met.), [^ -oka (or Soga, 
also written | Ifi). | ^ Mune-ko (court-lady); | || ('i^J jg 3E So-yei 
(-cho)-ni-o (princesses). | ^^ Shuron ikidgen, 'religious disputation'). 



' Miyako, poet, fur Kioto tiie city, is usually wriltpii with the second character only. 



279 Eight Strokes 

Locutions: | g sd-shd ('past master'; compare p. g6), jfiH. so ('ancestor'), 
-ka, -ke ('main family'), ^ -rid ('heir, heiress'). 



, TEI, JO ; sada, Sadamu ; zok., Sada-, rarely Tei-. sadameru (' to fix, 
^^^ establish, pacify '). 40. 

[Compare ^ (ix).] | ^ Sadakata (f.). I ^ Sada-ko (Empress). 

I ^ Joye fpriest). | ^ Zesai (comic actor). | ^ Teika (no). 

TO, DO. ' A cave, covered passage '. 40. 




M. m. 



[Other variant : ^.] GI ; GI, GE ; yoshi, Yoroshi. yoroshi 




('good, right, proper'). Distinguish from ^ (ix). 40. 

KWAN ; {hiro, iaka). tsukasa (' a government office or official ') ; 
dyake ('the Government, Emperor'). Distinguish from g (x). 40. 

w^^ KO, KU. sora ('the sky'); mtmashii ('empty, vacancy'); utsu, utstiro 
-3^ ('hollow"). 116. 

I ^D >tc Sorachifuto (t., Ainu). :J^ \ Ozora (f.). | ^ i| Kuya- 
-no-taki (fall). | // liu-ku (mus.), J^ -ya (priest), jfe -ko (early ptr.), 
1^ -ge (blind poet), '[^ -sho (prince-priest), ^ -kai (priest, Kobo-daishi 
^L ?i JZ ^Ip)' ^ ~sei (priest) ; and many other similar names with the 
reading Ku-. | ^ Sora-ude (kiogen). \ $f Utsusemi {Genji Chap. III., 
' cicada's moult "). 



* 



CHU. ozora, ^ | nchii (' the universe '). 40. 




[Variants: ^, ^.] RAI ; KU, KI, KO ; kuru, ku, ki, -ko ; Kitaru, 

(yuki, -ki). kitarit, itaru, kuru (' to reach, arrive at '). 9. 

I "^ }\\, for 7^ }\\ ix:, p. 224). Towns : | f^ Rainai ; | ^ Kutami ; 

I H Kuru-mi, ^ -shima (f.), J^^ -bara (f.). Othkr Surnames: | Rai ; 

I ^ Raijo (ptr.) ; | 5^' Kitsugu (ptr.) ; | f^ Kurumi ; | ^ Koromo. 

I g Kume (n.). | US rai-reki ('biography'), 1^ -ko ('entering port'). 

-^r TO, TSU ; TO; higashi ; Adsuma, adsiima-. higashi (i.e., hi-mukashi, 
>^lv ' facing the sun ', ' the east, eastern ') ; adziima (see Examples). 
Distinguish from ^ (p. 250). 75. 

[Compare f§ (xix).] | Adzuma (also written ^ ^), 'Eastern Japan', 
or specifically ' Yedo ', as in | ||§ Adzuma- nishiki, 'brocades of Yedo ', 
i.e., 'colour-prints'; | T* A.-kudari, 'travelling to Yedo'. | ^ Toyo 
('the East, Asia, Oriental'). | r@ (lU) ?E T6-kaif-san)d6 (see pp. 121, 116). 

KoRi: I ^ Higashi-nari (Settsu) : | f|^ To-haku (Hoki, mod.), l^ \% 
-nanjo, ^t flj^ -hokujo (Mimasaka). | lil Higashi-yama (m. ; f. met. ; see 



Eig-ht Strokes (^. contd.) 280 

also Personages). Rivers; | )\\ Adzunia-gavva (Higashikawa as t. and f.) ; 
I :;fc:;il Higashi-okawa; | fl^ ;i| Tojo-gawa. | ^ itfc Togo[-no]- ike (lake). 

Other Towns [for further examples (including street-names) where ^, 
as Higashi-. is a mere directional prefix, see under the second character] : 
I 3^ T6-kio, rarely -kei, ±^ -do, (^ -vo, ^ -to (all = Yedo ; the first, 
read Tonkin, also = Tonquin, Tung-ching); ^ \ Daitd (cape, -no-saki f^ ; 
Ohigasiu as f.); \ -(^ ^ Toraini ; | T^ To-sliirno, ^ -gane (f.J, J^ -jo 
(f.), U -mi (Tdkai as f.), Wt -ge, M S^^ (f-j, §§ J£ -kisho ; | /]> M 
Higashi-koya, ^ff -kata (f. ptr.), ^ -o (f.), ^^ -ne, fg -date. 

In Yedo: | ig [i[\\ Tr)tai[-zanj (= the Uyeno ± gf district): | ^ 
Adzunia-bashi (bridge). | ^ M Higashi-ogi-ya (brothel in Osaka). 

Temples : I ::^ ^ Higashi-dtani, ;^ M "^ -1iong\van-ji ; | ^ T6-ji, 
^ 1^ -jiin, :}^ ^f -daiji, |g ^ -fuku-ji, '^ [{] -yei-zan or ^ (•^) -dai 
(Uyeno. Yedo), Ho ^* -sho-gu (tomb of Tokugavva lyeyasu in Nikkd). 

Other Surnames: | To, Higashi (ptr., met.); | ilij, ^ Tochii; | •/§ ;|sj- 
Shojiinura ; | "^ To- ji (met.), Hli -ji, 'ft^ -jo (also Higashijo), '^ -riu, 
Mj -ma (n.), ^ -gu (also tit. of Prince Imperial), H -ma, ^ -gi. ^ -ri ; 
I ic 1^ Hig-ashi-oji (ptr.), H fl^ -sanjd, ^ ilt -kuze, \jz M -fushimi 
(mod. prmces), ^ J^ -bojd, ;jsj- -mura, ^ -dani, ^ -ura, ^ -ma (pot.), 
Sf -no, [H -zono. 

Other Personages: | ';^ |SJj Tobd, saku (Tung-fang So, seuuin; see j). 
9^): I §1 •2* Toyenko (Tung Yiian-kung, Chin, sage) ; | ilj ^ Higashiyama- 
-dono (= Pujiwara no Michiiye ^ ^, also Ashikaga Yoshimasa, shogun ; 
Higashiyama-jidai \\*f f^, period ol' the latter) ; | M ^ i:^ IH ^ Toshogu- 
-daigongen (posth. name of Tokugawa lyeyasu) ; I ^, I M Adzumaya 
{joro; latter also Gcnji Chap, l, 'arbour'). | A Adzumabito, Adzumodo, 
/]> I A Koadzumabito (n.). | ^ (or ^) Tdsliin (Tung-chin, the Eastern 
Chin Dynastv of China. 517 to 419 A.D.). 

Other Locutions: | j^" tb~uan ('S.E.'), ^b -hokii, -bokit (' N.E.'), 
ffi }M -lb -uiinambokii ('[from or in] all quarters'), ^. -un (or shinonmne, 
' dawn '). 

y> Contraction of ^ (xii). ^^ Variant of 4^ (p. 263). 

I Variants: ^, ^.] SHI, jl ; Jl \ {koto). koto ('a thing, matter, 
affair": before or after a name, 'alias ...'). 6. 
I ft rl{ Iplp Kotoshironushi-no-kami (d.j. | ||*j koto-osamc (cessation 
of work on Sth day of 12th month). -^ or ^ -hajiiuc (resumption of work 
on 8th day of jnd month). 






28i Eight Strokes 

SEI, SAI ; ME; tsuma. tsiima ('a wife"; see p. 129). 38. 

Towns: | f| Tsumago (Nakasendo stage 42; f.); I fg Me-numa, 
?i -ra (also written ic ^). | TfC Tsuma-gi (f.), ^ -tani (f. met.), ^ -giku, 
^ -goto (Jovd). I f^, I J^ Mega (f.). | ^ tsiimado ('a hinged door'). 
KO, KIO : yuki, (sachi, saki, hide, taka, yoshi). sakvai, i.e., saki-ivai, 

sachi ('good luck"). Distmguish from -^ (p. 249). 51. 
[Compare fp (p. 194), )fi^, ^ (xi, ^ (ix).] | ^ Satte (t., Nikkokaido 
stage). I 3g Sakidama (anct. pal.). | ^ Saiwai-bashi (bridge in Yedo). 
Surnames : | Ko : ;;^ | Daiko, Osaki ; | \\\ Ko-yama, # -mo, H -da, 
;(sj- -mura, psf ^ -£inu (sculp.). ^ -waka (also a dance), ^ -jima, ff -no 
(Ptr.), ^ -toku, ^ ^ -tokui. 

I ^ Sachi-no-miya (prince). | ^ Yuki-ko (princess), Ko-ko (vvom. 
'■i-)- I "T" f^ Ko-chiyo, ^ ;^ -omaru, ^ ;^ -vvakamaru, ;|^ ;^ -matsumaru, 
;|^ ^ -matsumaro (n.). 

>^V i\'ariant: ^.] DAI, NA1;A\4. ikcin, nanzo ('how, what, why?'). 37. 
'*"* [Compare ig (p. 223), ^|S (241), ^ (ix), and the next entry.] | -^ ^ 
Naru-shima (is.). | ^fl M Xawa-no-ura (shore). | ^ •/§ Nago-no-uini 
(lake). /Jn I ;^c }\\ Konagi-gawa (r.). Towxs : | )\\ Na-kawa, ]t M 
-biga, -^ -ko (f.), ^ ^-Ij -hari or -wari, ^ (see next). Other Surnames: 
I i& Xa-Sci, fnj -gawa, "^ -gura, ^ -su (ptr.). | Jjg ^ Nademaro (n.). 

^ ^ NA-RA. [Compare ^ (xiii).] Towxs: | | Nara (anct. cap.; 
mod. ken ; f. met. : 2ofe. -initial) : | \ :^ Nara-ki, ^ -i 
(Nakasendo stage 34), /f: -moto, gg -da, ^ -o, f^ -wa. Other Surnames : 
I I ^ Nara-ya, |^ -hara, |l|^ -saki, ^ -he. | I $^ Naramaro (n.). 

YEN. ikon, yasumu ('to rest'). 37. 

I (Of ^) M -'^gi> Angi or Ange (k. of Ise). 
3^. KI ; KI ; ()'or/) ; zok., -ki. ayashii (' strange, curious 'j ; katagata, 
"■* amaru ('odd" in number). 37. 

! y^ ,^ Kikira (f.). | ^ f^ Kikumaro, | ^ Hanya (n.). | ^ 
ki-keu, HB. -kwan ('a fine piece of scenery'), ^ -doku ('a portent'), A "7'" 
('an eccentric, remarkable person", see p. 70). 

^ 1 10, HO (or BUj ; HO ; (tomo, uji). tatematsurit (' to offer or give to 
a superior", esp. deities and imperial personages; also a respectful 
suffiv to verbs implying the same thing). 37. 

I ^f hng'io (tit. of shogunal officials, 'commissioner'). | ^ A 
hokonin ('a servant'). | '}]\\ hoga ('a pious contribution'); hoga-cho ijjg 
(' a subscriptionTist '). I ^ hond (' respectfully offered "). | ^ (jo) M 
ki(2d)shii! taiematsuru ('respectfully offered, made and offered'). 






Eight Strokes 282 

.•^4^ ' SEI. SHO ; ao- ; (ao-, luini, kiyo). aoshi (' greenish-blue, unripe '). 
P3 One of the Five Colours. Distinguish from ^ (ix). 774. 

I }[' <M ^'^ M, ^, M) \h Ao-i(-ba, -no, -kudzure)-yama (m.), J^ ^ 
-ka-no-ike (lake). Towns : | \[\ Ao-yama (also dist. of Yedo : f. ptr., 
met.), ;fc -ki (f. ptr., met.), ^ -ya, ^i -ki, ^^ -yagi (f. met.), M -ya, 
'^ -mi, -^ )\\ -migawa, ;fg. -ne (f.), |^ -hara, 2f -no (f. met. ; Aono-ga- 
-hara ]^ = Sekigahara, see |§, xix), ^ -me (or Ome, text.), ^ -mori (mod. 
ken : f. ), ^ -haka. 

I % WJ Aomono-cho (' \'egetable Street', Yedo). | 3| [^] ^ 
Sho-ren[-ge]-in (tem.). Other Surnames: | >^ Ad; | ^ Ao-i, ^ -ike, 
ilji -clii, ^ -oka, ;^ -to, ^, 1^ -jima. ^ -soi. 

I III Sei-rio (see p. loi, 38), fl JJ -rioto (Ch'ing-lung-tao, Kuan 
Yu's spear), M 'fe i'J m T" -men-kongo-doji (d.), ^ ^ -uko (Ch'ing-wu- 
-kung, sennin). | ^ Aogai (n. lacq.). | j^ sei-yo ('the spring'), ;^ 
~ro ('a brothel"; .<eird-meikuii ^ ^, 'famous courtesans", -biyiu J| A, 
'beauties of the pleasure quarter", etc.), ^ -tfo (or kavakane, 'bronze'), ^ ^ 
-gaiha or -gatnami (imbricated 'wave" pattern). 

HlO. omote, uvea- (' tlie front, obverse, outside ", as opposed to ,^, 
xiii). As hid, 'a list, table" {^ \ nempio, 'calendar'): as Oniote- 
in street-names (see p. 10, note 2). 145. 

I P^ Uwato (t.). I ;^ M I ::^C Hioguya Hiota (art-name of Tahei 
>b :^ ^ ^s a connoisseur of paintings, by trade a picture-mounter, hidgti-ya). 
I ^ hio-shl (" tiie l)inding " of a book), ^ -tiai ('the title', written or 
pasted thereon), |§ -/zo ('remounted [by]", of a picture). 

[Variants: (i) with the upright of the L stroke omitted; (2) ditto, 
witli the third horizontal stroke of the g turned vertically.] 
CHOKU, JIKI ; nao ; nao, Naoshi, {tada, siigu); zok., Nao-. siigu ('straight, 
direct, at once ') ; naosti (' to repair, correct, translate ') ; iadashii (' honest ') ; 
tadachi ni ('immediately'); sunao ('simple'); atayc (anct. tit.j. 109. 

[Compare ^ (xn)-] I % Xao-shima (is.), X ~iri or -ri (k. of Bungo). 

Towns: | ^ Nao-kata (or Xogata), fC -y^' (f-), \L W -yetsu, |i -mi. 

Other F'amjlies : | J^ Nao-ki, ^' -i, i^ -mura. | A Xao-to, -ndo, >fi£ -to 

(n.), ^ -ko (Empress, etc.). | ^ jikisan, | g choknshin ('a direct vassal'). 

I ^ jiki-hitsu, ^ -sho ('autograph, holograph'; latter for exalted personages). 

KO, CilO. sakana (food taken with sake, esp. fish); | j^ sakanaba 
('a fish-market'). 130. 

' The lower part of this character (alone and in composition, e.g., ;j^, f^, i^, ^) resembles f^ (from 
which the character is said to be derived), thougli it is often wrongly written like ^. 





283 Eight Strokes 



"95^ Variant of ^ (ix). 



Old form of M (vi). 



-.T- 





TAKU, TOKU ; taka, Takashi. takashi ('high, eminent'). As taku, 
' a table " (furniture). 24. | g|J Takuro (n.). 

|:::|:t CHU, CHU ; tada ; Lada, Tadashi, Hodokosn} As chfi, 'loyalty', esp. 
01^ to a feudal lord; also a title (see p. 85). hi. 

I (<^r M) H ill Tadanii-gawa (r.). | -^ Tada-noumi (t.), ;jsj- 
-mura (f. ptr.), ^ -ko (princess), ^ -nori, fg -nobu (no). | Jl Chuyen 
(priest). I g chushin ('loyal retainers'); Chushin-gura |^, -koshaku ||| ^ 
[jd/uri). I ^ f/ij7/ed ('loyalty and filial devotion"; chuko-kijiu -^ A, nien 
remarkable for same). 

y^ YEN. honoo ('a llame "). 86. | (for |H1) ^ Yemma (d.). 

!A KEN, KWAN ; maki ; (maki). maku ('to roll, wrap up'); makl ('a 
roll, roll-picture, book, volume " ; see Examples). 26. 
[Compare ^ (p. 2f.f)), |^, ^ (xiv).l | Maki (t. ; f.). | B9 Maki-ta, ^ 
-shima (f.), ^ -noto (joro), ,^| -ginu (no). ;^ | Omaki (/oro). | Jj^ 
maki-inono (a book, i)icture or series of pictures kept in the form of a 
continuous roll, 'a scroll', like the Roman volumen), ^^ -gari ('a hunting 
drive'; see ^ -^, xii). | ;^ — maki no ichi ('Vol. 1.'), etc.; J;: / \ 
jo no ktvan (' Y'ol. I." of two or tliree) ; 3l / I go no kivan ('Vol. W), etc. 

C KEN, KWAN. tegata ('a written testimony, certificate'). 18. 

"^^ Contraction of ^ (xvi). 

i^^ [Variants; ^, ^.] (iAN ; iwa ; (kva) \ zok.^ Iwa-. kcrt ('a rock, 
"V^ reef); kwio ('a i)recipice, reef"). Really a contraction of ^ (q.v., 

xxiii), but not as a rule used alternatively in names. 46. 

[Compare also ^^ (p. iqV), ^ (>^v).] | \^ Iwashiro (pr.). Kori ; [ 
^ Iwa-te (Oshu ; mod. ken \ f. ; m., -yania, also read Ganju-san), ^ -i 
(Inaba ; t. ; f. ptr., met., arnh, sculp., actor ; joro ; valle}", -dani :^), J| -mi 
(Inaba, mod.), ^ -fune (Echigo ; t. ; no \ pass, -tdge |lf]j), ^|^ -se (Oshu; t. ; 
f. i)tr.). Other Mountains: | '/^ C;^ or :|^, 'g^) jjj Iwa-waki (-ki, -suge)- 
-yama ; | j^ Jj Ganko-zan. | M if^ l'^ Iwaya-kaikio (strait). | TJC (or 
J^) jl| Iwaki-gawa (r.). 




' Minamoto no Hodokosii, one of the Kohin-shu poets, affords perhaps the only historical instance 
of this reading. In his case the character jfjg (ix) is alternatively used. 



Eight Strokes {^, contd.) 284 

Other Towns: -j^ | Oisva (f.); ■;^ \ [[\ Oiwayama ; /J> | -^ 
Koiwazawa ; | "j*" Iwa-jita (Iwashita as f.), )\\ -kawa (f. ; wrestler), -^ 
-kiri (f. ptr.), ^ -^ -tezawa, 4i -moto (f. ptr., met.), ]^ -de (f.j, ^ jlj 
-[ijdeyania, ^ -na, jf^ -zako, ;|sj- -mura (f.), jjsf gg -murata (Nakasendd 
stage 22), ^ -mi (f.), _^ f^ -inisawa, ^ -numa (f.j, |^ -matsii (f.), ^ 
-tsu (f.), J^ -ki (f.), ^ -muro (f.), ^ -idzunii, ^^ -ya (f. ; lit. 'cavern, 
grotto'), ^ )\\ -yagawa (jjot.), ^ ^ -yadu, ^ -kura (f.), |^ -buchi 
(Nikkokaido stage; f.), |1|^ -saki (I", ptr., met., arm.), ^ ib^ -gasaki, ff -no 
(f. swo.), ^ -kuni (f. arm. : r. : m., -yama), ^ J^ -suka, jli] -ma (f. met. ; 
tern., -dera ^), -Jr ^ -galiana, ;^ -tsuki (Nikkokaido stage), y^; -sawa 
(f. met.), ^ -date. | ^ llj Iwakurazan ((list, of Kioto, pot.). | pfj B]" 
Iwatsuki-cho (street of "^'edoj. 

Other Surnames: /J> | ^- Koiwai : | P Iwa-guchi, t. -gami (met.), 
^ -to, :;^c -ki, ye -kata, ^|^ {±J -ide, 7JC -naga, j£ -date, H -ta (ptr., met., 
pot.), j^ -take, f^ -sa (ptr.), J^ -o, :^ -ya, ^ -o (see also p. 8b), f^ -nari, 
;^ -nami (ptr.), j^ -inasa, JSI -oka, P^ -kado, -to, jg -gaki, ^U -saki, -^ 
-nami, ^^ -ne (n.), ^ -shima (ptr.), ]^ -hara, f^ -sa, |^ -bori, |J{S -be, ^ 
-do, 1^ -nami (ptr.l, ^ -kumo, ^ -dani, 1^ -tsuka, j^" -mitsu. ^ -koshi 
(ptr.), ^ -kubo (ptr.), ^ -liashi, ]^ -fuji (also dram. pers.). -do. 

Other Personages : | Iwa or ,1^ | Toriiwa (joro) ; | ^ Gammaku 
(swo.) ; I ^ Iwa-ko (wT)m. n.), J^ ^ -kura-no-miya (princes), -»f ^ -kina 
(court-lad\), ^ ^ -gatake (hist. i)ers.). | ^ jfi^ ^ kvato-ha^ura (Uzume's 
dance). 

M-l. GAX : kislii ; {kishi); zok.. Kislii-. kishi ('a bank, cliff, shore'). See 

^* V"I (P- -39)- 46- 

Towns: | / ]•* Kishi-noshita, ^ -mi, |n g -wada (f.). Other Sur- 
names : I Kishi (]>tr.) : | "I*" Kishi-moto, _h. -gami, -nouye, ^ ^ -oji. 
^ -i (ptr.), E0 -da, ;i^ -moto {[)tr, met.), i^ -na. j^ -mura (ptr.), ^ 
-zawa (mus.). 



m 



^ [Variants: ^, ^, JJ;.] IIEI, lilO ; nami: {nami). nami ('average, 
commonplace'); narabi ('order, row, in a row"); narabi ni ('and, 
also'). I. [Compare -^ (p. 258), l^ (x), ^ (xvii).| | ^\] Xamiyanagi (t.). 
Surnames : | }\\ Nami-kawa, ;^ -ki, fSj -kawa (enam., of Kioto), fj^ -oka 
(ptr.), I-M -ki (n.l. 

-H- KI. GI ; GO, SO; (toki) : zok., Son- (modern). sono, sore ('that', 
-^^ pronoun of tiie 3rd personj. 

I M 5i Kiami (f. or n. met.). | EQ Sono-da (f.), ^ -mo (n.). 
J zL ^o"i "' ("continued", 'section 2'), etc. 



285 Eig-ht Strokes 

lUl [Variant, with five vertical strokes. | TEN; nori, {Isuiic, suke). nori 

■^^ ('law, ceremony'). As -ten in book-titles, 'book" (^ I • ^ I j'lten^ 
'a dictionary'). 12. 

■;^ I Daiten (priest). | ^ Ten-jo, -^^ -zen, ^ -rei (see p. 86). | ^ 

Tsune-ko (worn. n.). | fn Suke-hito (prince), -^ -moto (svvo.). -^ \ ^ 
daiteni (tit. of Slidoun's chief physician) ; | f^ tenji or naishi-no-sitke (see 
p. 85, note i). 

r=| SEKI, SHAKU. mukashi ('antiquity, of old'). 72. 

\f2 [Variant : -^ : syncjiiym, not ordinarij)' used alternatively in name;> : 

'^^ 0, q.v., XII.] KWA, KE ; hana ; {haua, harii). hana ('a flower"; 

as prefix, also 'decorated, decorative"). See also pp. 39, and 100, 36. 140. 

MouxTAixs : I llj Hana-yama (tern. ; f. ptr.) : I M lU Hanami-san ; | 
Si (jfc) llj Hana-zono(-taclii or -tatej-yama. | 7K 'P^) j'l Hana-midzu 
(-saki)-gawa (r.). | \f{g Hana-taki, | fH '/H Kwaran-taki (falls). 

Towns : | |§- Kwaraku or | ^ Hana-no-miyako ( = Kioto) ; | % 
Hana-maki, [^ -oka (f.), P^ -saki (Ivoshukaido stage; jovq), ^^ -g -tsurii, 
^ -idzunii, ^ |I|§ -gasaki (f.), ^ -wa (f.), ff -tate. | % pjf Ilana-no- 
-gosho (pal.). I j'l i^ WJ Hanakawado-machi (street of Yedoj. 

Other Surnames: | liana; /J^ | Kohana ; | jjj [% Kwazanin (also 
written with -^) ; | 7K Hana-inidzu, ;?|c -gi, ^ -i (actor), H -da (ptr.), 
^ -yasu, ^ -bo, ;fsf -mura, ^ -gata, ^ -busa (swo.), |J)|I -yanagi {jorb), 
M. -3'a (lit. 'florist"), ^ -shima, ^ -ya (ptr.), ^ -no (ptr.), ^ -gasa, gj 
-zono (95th Mikado), ^j£ -uye, '^ -zawa (ptr.). 

Other Personages: | ^D fi'T Kwa-osho (= Rochi-shin, Chin, priest); 

I lU if" jE Kwazan-sojo (priest) ; \ M M i. Kwakei-zosu (ptr.) ; | (Z) ;^ 

Hananomoto (n.) ; I BJ ^ Hanamaclii-no-miya (princes). Other JORO : 

I ^ Kwa-cho (see also Eocutions), 3^- -yu ; I A Hana-ndo, / ^ 

-noto, J:i -goromo, BJ -machi, y '(^ -no\Natashi, BS -teru, ^ -tsunia, 

|{^ -zonie, ^ -murasaki, ^ -ogi, ^ -mado, f^ -tsuyu, ^ -tsuru. 

I ^ Kwagetsu, | ^ Hanagatami (no) ; | ^ Hana-ko, ^Jx -ori, ^ 
A -nusubito, 1^ -ikusa {kioi^ren) ; | CO 'g ;^ (Z) 11^ Hana no Ivumo Sakura 
no Akebono, | Ji 2p |^ ^ ^ Hana wa Uyeno Homare no Ishibunii 
{jbriivi). I ^ ^ Hanachirusato, | 7 ^ Hana no yen (Genji Chapters 
XI and viii). 

Other Eocutions: | ^ uivan ('superior courtesan); J ^fp ktva-o (or 
kakihan, see j). 4), ^ -dan ('flower-bed,' met. 'a brothel"), ^0, -bin ('a 
flower-vase'), J^ -cho ('birds and flowers,' esp. in art), ]^ M, J^ -cJwfilgetsu 
(see p. 39), ^$j -gai (or kitrmva or hana no chimata, 'a prostitute quarter'), 



Eig-ht Strokes (^{i, contd.) 286 

^ -yd (/a beautiful appearance"), ^|^ -sen (see p. 104, 63); | ^ hana-bi 
(' fireworks '), fiji -yashiki (' a flower-garden '), ^ -zakari (' floral glory '), 
® -goyonii ('a decorative calendar'), !^ -giiruma Ca flower-chariot', art- 
subject, dance ; as kwasha, a serving-maid in a brothel), ^ -hachi (dance), 
■^ fH -shobti {Iris laevigata). 

Japanese variant of )(lj (p. 166), not used alternatively in names. [140.] 



m 



■^ I (or M) S llfr Karizaka-toge (pass). Towns : | H Kanda (f. ; 

also Karita as f. ; Karita-mtiru ^, swo., -maro ^ g, n.) : | jlj Kari-kawa, 

^ ^ -yasuka, jg -ya (Kariya-hime ^, leg. pers.). | ^ Karukaya (f.) ; 
K. Doshin 3^ i^> (leg. pers.) ; K. Somon Tsukushi no lyedzuto ^ P^ ^ ^ 

{joruri). 

~*^ UN. kaorigusa (' fragrant herbs '). Used also as a contraction of 
'^ ^ (x). 140. 




J^ 



r~t GO. Used also as a contraction of ^ (xx). 140. 

KA, GE ; ME. me ('a bud'). See also ^ (xiii). 140. 

KIN, GON ; seri. seri ('parsley'). 140. 

I ^ Seri-Li (t. ; f.), jlj -kawa, 03 -ta, ^ -zawa (f.). 

KAl ; akuta. karashi ('mustard'); akiita ('rubbish'). 140. 

I M ^ Keya-zaki (cape). j )\\ Akuta-gawa (r. ; t. ; f.), ^ -mi (t.). 

Variant of :|g above. 140. 

KEN, GEN. A plant-name. 140. 



^ 

^ 
^ 



t^t HO; HA; yoshi, Yoshi, {jiisa); zok., Yoshi-. kobashii ('fragrant'). 140. 
>^v [Compare homophones under "^ (p. 227).] | ^ Haga (k. and t. of 

Shimotsuke ; f. ptr.). I ^ ^ llj Hoshunji-yama (m.). | B]" Yoshi-cho 
(street of Yedo). Other Surnames : j )\\ Yoshi-kawa (ptr., actor), ig 
-na, /|sj- -mura, if^ -bayashi, '^^ -zawa (actor). | ^ "I'oshi-ko (princess). 

I 'a §1 Hagizono (n.). 

SHI; SHI; shiba ; ishiba, shige). shiba ('turf'). 140. 

[Compare ^ (ix).] | Shiba (dist. of Yedo ; mod. ku of Tokio ; 
r. ptr.). I ^ Shiba-fu (t. ; f.), iff} -ura (sub. of Yedo), jf| ^ -ura-ya 
(brothel). Other Surnames : -j^ \ Oshiba ; | )\\ SMba-kawa, \\\ -yama 
(sculp., lacq.), /J^ ^ -koji, 03 -ta, ij; -tsuji, ^ -mura, jg -gaki, ^ -tei, 
M -ya, I^ -hara, Hi] -ma. | ^'^j |lg Shiba-hogen (n. ptr.). | J^ shibai 
('a theatre'; see p. 100, 37). 




29 1 Nine Strokes 



1^ 



NINE S'rROKl-:S. 

Variant: 'faL-J IN; tunc, {-tsiii^n). lane ('seed, offspring"); isitdznkii, 

tsitgu (' to continue, suC' 
I ^ Tane-ko (Empress). 



''** tsitgu ('to continue, succeed to'). i3(\ 



>f^ I Contraction : '[p.] SHIN; S/:^/ ; nol^u ; );o6i/, Makoto, (sane); zok., 
'*-* Shin-, rarely Not^u- (never before -^ ; see p. 74, note). As shin, 

'belief, truth, fidelity, trustworthiness (one of the I'^ive \'irtues), trust, a 
communication '. 9. 

I -{^ Shinano (pr. ; f. ; r., see p. 98, 10 ; brothel, -ya ^J ; | j^ 
SiiinsliLi (same pr.). | ^ \[\ Shigi-san, | ^ \\\ Shintaku-san (m.). 
KoRi : I -^,^1 Shi-da (Hitachi ; f.), -noda (same k. ; f. ; forest, -no-mori ^), 
^ -nobu (Oshu ; f. ; n.^ ; Shinobu-gaoka fSi]> tlist. of Yedo). Towns : 
I Ba Shinoda (f. : also Shida as f.) ; | ^| Shigaraki (pot. ; f.) ; | jg 
Shindachi or Shindate. 

Other Surnames : | Shin ; | 75 Shinno ; | 'H^} Nobu-ya, fj5] -oka. 
^ -hara, ^ -kuni (swo.), ^ -sawa. | p\ ^ Sliin-ami (n.), ^ -zo (see 
p. 86). I -^ Nobu-ko (court-lady). | -i: shin-shi (Ikiddhist posthumous 
suffix to men's names, see p. 70), ^ -nio (ditto, women's), ^^ -to ('congre- 
gation ", Ikiddhist or Shinto). 

HEN, BEN; or lUN; BE: yori. iayovi (' 0|>portunity, aid'); t^tigi) 
('convenient"). 9. 
I ^ henvan ('a handy survey"). 

/O (No on); mata. mata ('a forking, the crutch"). 

P^ [Compare % (]). 144), f^ (268).] /J> | Omata (t. ; f.), Komata 
(f.). I if Matano (f.). 




IB 



RIO, RO ; RO \ (tomo) ; zok.. Tomo-. ioino Ca companion"). 9. 



' Could alio 1)6 read Nobuo as a nannri. The jajianese love for plays upon words is illustrated 
by the case of a fourlli son being called Shinc)bu ('forbearance'), written as above, where his elder 
brothers (as is not unusual) alst) had nobu ^ in their iianori. He himself was thus 'the fourth Nobu ' 
(shi-tiobu) ! 



Nine Strokes ■2C)2 

/Q HO ; HO iO) : yasu ; yasu, Tamotsii, (mori) ; sok., Yasu-. yai^imziirii 
M> ('to ])acify"); tciuioisii {'to keep'); matnoni ('to guard"). 9. 

[Compare, for Yasu , liomophoues under ^ (p. 225), and. for Ho-, l^ 
(213), M ^-^vii).] I '^t }\\ Hodzu-gavva (r.). | g i^ |1] Horoba-san 
(m.). 'rtnvNS : j ± 'r ^ ILo dogaya (for ^ ^r ^), ;^ ff .kino, # ^ 
-ido, pQ -da (f. ; also ^'asuda as t.. f. and r.), :^ -saka (f. jitr.), ]^ -bara 
or -hara, I^ -ya. 

OTH^:l^ Si.rxamms : j jl| Ho-gav\ a (also Yasulowa as f. ptr.j, // ~bo, 
jt -date, # bo, ^flj -ri, f^ -sa. ^p ^ -cfiina, ijf: -tsu, ^ H -dzumi (met.), 
H, -mi, \^ -oka. Pt^ -ma. | "^ jfii^ Ukemochi-no-kami (d.). \ ii 1^ '^fj 
Hora-no-kata (hist. pers.). | ^ — Hokiichi izok.). 

Nekgo : I % Ho-gen U 1 3b 58 ; H. Monogatari S^ |§, classic), ^ -an 
(1120-23), Vp -ji 11247-48), 5i -yen (1135-40). 

4p KEN: or J\1\X. GEX. shinoiii no mono fa spy"). (). 




[Variant: %(^\ l'^^ \ ^^ • /c/j;// ('a lord"). As ho, a suflix to 
noblemen's names, "My lord" (compare ^, ]). 171), also a modern 
title, 'Marquis": see further p. no, 88. Distinguish from \^ (.x). 9. 

Sknkin- : I :^ ^ Ko-seusei (Hon Hsien-sheng, = Gama-sennin), ^ ^ 
-dokwa (Tao-liua). 



M 



C].\: KA. naname ('oblique"); niwaha ('sudden,' name of a festival), q. 
I ?E >C> Xivvaka-Ddslnn ikiagen). 



/^> SHOKU, ZOKU ; ZO : Xaran, (yo). naraivaahi ('common, secular'). 
IM As zokii, also 'custom, habit". <). 

I ^ zoku-niio (see |). 70 f. ), ^ -sei ("secular surname" of a Buddhist 
l)riest). 

yWj^ Slil'N; loshi, Saloshi. Su^^uru, ikane) ; zok., Shun- or Toshi-. sugureru 
f^^ ('to excel, be eminent"). q. 

I ^ Toshi-ko (princess). j ^ Shun-kwan, ^^. -ye (priests). | ]fi, 
Jj, ^\\ Shunzei Tackanori (no). 

Kb KVl. 'To sitnulale.' q. 

^ (or f^) I n'lnkw- ('a protector (.)f 



A|j^ KIO. otokodale, \ ^ kiokaku, 
iy\- the weak, knight-errant"). q 



(Xo o)zj. omokage ('a jjortrait '). Distinguish from f^ (p. 235). q, 
I y tm ( )nu)kage-no-hashi ('bridge in Yedo). 



293 Nine Strokes 

/</!► KO, GO: GO; sliiri ; {nochi, chikci, moclii). ato, uochi i/o ('afterwards, 

l^C future, subsequent, succeeding'); .s/i/W. iishivo ('back, rear, stem, 
rump "J. As Go- in the posthumous names of twenty-eight Mikados,^ and 
as Go- or Nochi-no- in the sobriquets of otlier exalted personages, meaning 
'the Later . . / or 'second of the name' (see l-lxamples) ; as -i^o in several 
province-names, 'further", opp. to —zen ^ij and -chil rf^ (set' also p. 39). 60. 
I ^ Shiribeslii- ([)r.i. | ^ Shitsuki (k. of IVitchu; see jdso Locutions). 

I llj Ushiro-yama (m.). | fg, Goiiien (t.i. Surnames: ;^ | Daigo; 

I IIU Go-kan, ^] -kan, g,^ ^^ -daiin, if^ -to (plr., met., sculi^.). 

Emperors (for others, see under the second ciiaracter, comparing 
remarks abovej : I ^ ^ Go-Fukakusa (89th), /j^ >|^ -Komatsu (looth), ^\ 
^, -Kashiwabara (104th), ^ ^ -Nara (103th). ^K M. "Minoo (108th), ■g j^ 
-Saiin (iiitli). | J^" ^ ^/c Go-Takakura-in (^ Morisada ^ ^, prince). 

I W> ^ ^f lii i^ S Go-tokudaiji-sadaijin (= i''uii\vara no Sanesada, no. 
i^i of the Hundred Poets). 

Locutions: I H ^ ^ ^i^'osanucu no yeki (the 'Later Three Years' 
War" of 1086-89); I li kokeu, itshiroiui ('a guardian"; ushirnmi-shokii ^, 
tit.); I #, I #, I m, see j). 129, Husband and Wife; | j|L, I I!!:, see 
p. 1^0, jin.; I ^ koshitsii ('a nobleman's widow'); | ^ [^] noc/ii no 
/,s///ei[;u7j ('[gazing at| the moon of the 13th night of tiie 9th month"). 

>^^b T.VI, DAI; (tnachi). matsu (' to wait for, long for'); -nzac/zi (' waiting ", 
I *J esp. to see moonrise). Distinguish from f^ (p. 256). 60. 

I ^ Ui Machikane-yama (m.). | ^ Matsuc-lii (f. ; m., -yama). 
I M 1'^ Taikem-mon (see p. 109, 84) : Taikem-monin ^jc (Empress). 
I '|5 matsuyoi (tlie 14th night, esp. of the 8th month); Matsuyoi-no-kojijii 
/h # t9b (= Kojiju, poetessj. 

UrrSU, RICHI ; [lada, nori\. iiori ('law'); tadasu ('to correct'). As 
Ritsu, a Buddhist sect ( | ^ Rissliu). See also {)p. 100. 31. 
and 111, 92. 60. | &|i risshi (Bud. tit., see p. 87), Risshi (swo.). 

^ittl ^^^^'' ^^ ' ^^'- '^""'' ^''' <-l^-l^'^' islet, t-ontinent'). 83. 

•^''i [Compare homophones under ^ (xii).| ^ \ Osu or Ozu (t.). | 4^ 

Su-moto (t.), ^ -nomata (r.j, ||j -saki (cape ; f. ptr. ; see also p. 108, med.), 

-110-saki (same cape ; Sunosaki as t.), -saki or -zaki (dist. of Yedo). 




' Formed, with the six exceptions quoted later, from the actual canonical names of previous 
Emperors, the exceptions being derived from merely unoHicial sobriquets of earlier occupants of the 
throne (see under the appropriate characters). Strictly speaking, Go-Nara is an exception only as 
regards the characters (see under ^, p. 192). Go-Takakura-in, quoted above, never acceded. 

- Suggested derivation : Ainu shiri-pet, 'swift (or mighty) ri\cr '. 

' One of the few instances where a • pure -Japanese ' reading is derivable, uitli more or less 
certainty, from the Sinico-japanese sound. 



Nine Strokes 294 

^og SEI, SAI; or SA 
• »— * tiiiiTuisli from i 




SEI, SAI; or SAI, SK : or SA, SHA, etc. arau ('to wash"). Dis- 

(X). 85. 
I ^ sharaku ('wilty, clicerfur), share ('wit. ])un '). 

V^ Variant of ^^ (p. 30S). 85. 

^^ KWATSU, K\V.\CHI ; i/7.'/). ikiru ('to live'). As kivatau, 'alive, 

• l-l lively, movable (of t}pe) ". 85. 

I )\'' Ikii i, ^ -tama (f.), 5 1/c $^ -tamayori-hime (= Tamayori- 

-liimc. (1.). 

^fjh SEN. arau ("to wash"). 85. 

1/U -}^ I Oarai (t.). | }$ Seba (t. Xakasendo sta^e 31; f.). 

"V^C fi-'^KU. miyaki) ('a eajiiial." where t])e Em])eror resides). 85. 

• M I Rakii, :^^ I Kwarakiu | 1^ Rakuyo (poet, for Kioto); | r-j:i 
Raku-chu, ^ -gwai (names ,u,iven h\ Hideyoslii to Kioto and its environs 
respectively), :\}^ -liokn. ^ -sai, '^ lo (tlie N., W. and E. portions of the 
city). 

Kl'^N. nagareni ('to flow"). 85. | ^ Kenslii (Chuan Tzu, sennin). 

^^ SHIX: TSf7; Isu ; (/sn) ; so/v'., Tsu-. Uii ('a harbonr '). Often repre- 

• I * sents in early names the archaic genitival postposition tsu. 85. 

[Compare ;fll) (xii).] | ^ Tsu-no-kuni (old name for Settsu ^ | 
pr.). KoRi : I ^ ^ Tsu-kui (Sagann ; \. met.), ^ -na (Awaji). ^ -taka 
(Bizen), i^. -garu (Oshu : 1. ; f.). 

Other Towns: | Tsu (sec ]). 98, 9; f. met.); X I ^^^t-' ('I'okaido 
stage 52, Xakasendo ()9 : f. ])lr. ; n. : r. ; Otsu-ye ^, kind of picture); | J^ 
Shimpii (= Tsuyamaj : | )]\ Tsu-gawa (f. ptr.), ^ ^ -kumi, |Ij yama 
(f. ; r.). p -guchi, ^ do (f.), )\- -i (f.). ;^ ^ij -fun, H -tla (f. ptr., swo., 
gunsmith; r.). ||J 5?f -wano, K gu, /j^ gane (f.), jg jlj -iyama, ^^ -ne, 
J^ -shima (f. : n. j)oe1 ). / ^ nomiya (f.), '^^ ]^ -gahara. $^ ^ -garuishi, 
^ -bata (r.), j^: sawa. 

Othkr SrRNAMKs: X I Jc Otsumi (met.); /]> | Od/u (ptr.); | "J*" 
Tsu-shita, yj^ - (Iznme. f"f uchi. -JX ^y^', '^' niori, :;|:.J- -miira iptr.), j^ -saka, 
■g ru, -dome, fttj -saki. IL'f no (ptr.). 5^ -be. | j*^i Tsu ma (wom. n.), 
5? ^ -nodiinH' (com-ldad\ ). Pokts : | ^ Tsumaro, ^]i % -tsumaru, 
-15 (contraction for r<uii(>l\uni\a Td^hird | ^ M W I^ fiP ''^i^l ^ s. 
Tojird ^§ :;^ fi|5). 

*J1. KG. KC: i/z/ro). owidzit ('a Hood"). 85. 

'•'^'^ I .ef, Ko-slii (Hung Chih), /^ -kai (Yai), sennin. 



295 Nine Strokes 

^j^ YO ; Hiroshi, {hiro). nada (' an ocean, open sea '). As j-o-, also 
• T* 'foreign', generally non-Asiatic (more often f|[ | >^eiyo-). 85. 

I Nada (f.). I A yojin ('a foreigner, Westerner'). 

MHAI ; or llA. As ha, 'a denomination, sect, school,' etc. 7X / I 
midzu no mata, minamata ('the forks of a stream"). 85. 
"j^C \ ^ ~^ Omata-no-6ji (prince). 
^Ip\ DO (Tt)), DZU ; {hiro, -akira). hora ('a cave'). :\s -do, an ending 



■• for art-names (see p. 69). 85. | P^c Toin (f.j. | p9 Horonai 
(t., perhaps from .\inu poro-nai, 'big stream'). 

Mjfcx^ KC), GO ; tsune : tsnne, Tsune, Hisashi ; .wk., Tsmie-. tsuuc no 
l-Jt» ('ordinary, usual'); toko- ('perpetual'). 61. 
[Comipare "^ (.\i).J | \\\. ^t^e p. 103, 53. Surnames: | jlj Tsune- 
-gawa, ^ -yoshi, vnj -g^iwa, M -y^, ^ -tomi, ^ -to. 

^IS ^^^^' ^'^^'^'* shid.ziika ('quiet'). 61. 

*V^ KO. atakamo ('almost, like, just as'); Ataka (see p. 86). 61. 

^lu I'^-^I'^U. tsulsiishimn ('to be respectful'). 61. 

n^p Slf I ; Tanomit. tanomu ('to rely on'). 61. 

uK, ^^^^ -^^5 ^'^E- oinarn ('great, extensive'). 61. 

J'&t ^HUN ; Makoto. makoto ('the truth'); siimio ('straightforward"). 61. 
IR/ I -^ Nobu-ko (princess). 

-tg" YIlN, ON; kaki ; (/a/ja). /edfe/", | ^k kakiiw ('a fence, wall'). 32. 

'^ [Compare |,li (].. 298), m (x-^i).] Towns: ± \ Ogaki (f.) ; | ft 

Kaido or Kaichi (former as f. ptr.). Other Si:rn.\mes : | Kaki; | 
Kaki-da, ;^ -moto (i)tr.), ^ -mi (or Kakehi). 

up I'nauthorised character. | ^[] Haga (f.). 

KWATSU, KWACHI. musubu ('to tie, bind"). ()4. 




Jbjb*^ SHU, JO. /r/ron ('to pick up"). Used as a c-()mi)lex synonym (not 
^tt alternatively in names) of -) , 'ten'. 64. 

I Cf> Jittoku or Juttoku (Shih Te, senniti). \ >a ,/''' •>'' -^"''"^ 
('supplement, appendix, supplementary plate', etc.); Sl)ui-shu ^ (anthology, 
see p. log, 83). 






Nine Strokes 296 

AN; or Al'SU, ACHI. osayeru ('to repress'); kangayeru Clo consider'); 

hhvameru ('to examine'). 64. 
^ M I ^ iMiura Anjin (Japanese name; of William Adams, cmjin 
being an old word for 'a pilot'). | ^ Aze(lii, I ^ |31 S ^ Azechi- 
-no-niiyasLidokoro (poetesses) ; I ^ {il: azechi, ansatsushi (aiict. til.). I J^^ 
anima ("a shampooer, massage*). 

Contraction of ^ (xi). 64. 

CHI, JI ; moclii ; nwclti. niotsu, tamotsu ('to have, hold, keep"). 64. 
[Compare }^ (p. 205), ^ (xi).] | f,V Mochi-fune (t.), ffl -da, iHi 
-ji (l-)- I ^Jl ^ Jimio-in (pal.; line of the Impl. house; f.). 1 ^ jikoku 
(d., see ].'. loi. 39). | ^ Jitd (Empress, 41SI Mikado). 

-U^ SHI; SHI; sashi. sasu ('to point, indicate"); yuhi (' a fmger'). 64. 
^H [Compare $lj.j | f] \\l vShidzuki-yama (m.). | ffj ^ Sliirushi-no- 

-oka (hill); | f^ shinan ('instruction, a teacher'), shiriibc ('a guide, sign-post'); 
I "^ j\i shinansha (the Chinese chili -nan -ch'e or "south-pointing chariot", i.e., 
compass). Surnames: | ^ Yubisui ; | Sashi da, ]^ -kara, % -jiku. 

KlO, KU. torn ('to take'); komamikii ('to fold the liands"). 64. 

SHU, SHU; kari, ka-. karii ('to hunt, seek out'); kari ('a hunt, 
-I searching for, sightseeing expedition '). 94. 

[Compare %\] (p. 166), ^ (xi).] Towxs : | ^ ^ Karuga : | jil 
Kari-kavva, i^ '^^; -basawa. | Sf Kano, vulg. Kano (f. j)tr. ; r.. Kano- 
-gawa) ; | ?f ^: ® Kanoyuki-hime (leg. pers.). | ^ Kari-to, ^ ya (f.). 

3ffi Contraction of ^ (xvi). 94. 

tt^ SHO; {scik}). sakii ('to bloom'). Used also for % (x). 30. 

>'V [Compare llliy (xi).] | gg jl| Sakita-gawa (r.j. | 4i Sakimoto 

*/•)• I M. Sakuma (n.). | ^ sakkvake (blooming with difTcMcnt-coloured 
flowers on same plant). 

\\\ \'. (No ^"O ; tog(\ toge, orig. tamiike (written ^- jii]), 'a mountain-pass*, 
■^ r esp. its crest. [46.] 

I Toge (f. ptr.). I fH 'logeta (t.). 

KO, go. fnru ('to descend', as rain or snow); kndaru ('to descend, 
surrender'). Distinguish from (^ (xn). 170. 
I ^ Furuya (f.). | H ill: IpJ lE Gozanze-miod (d.j. | |i /.'(;/«» 
(' birth ' of a remarkable personage). | ^ yfij ^ ^V'^'"'^' '"'' '''/^t'n (Tudo's 
' sharp sword for subduing demons '). 




iy> 









297 Nine Strokes 

"I'O. tttsitkusJiii ('beautiful'). 38. | it Vokd (Yao Kuang, scnnin). 

KO, GU. See if; (xiv). ^S. 

TF/rSU, TECHI. mci ("a niece'). See p. 130. 38. 
I jl| Mei-gawa (r.), / ^ -nohama (t.). 

-Ipt^ O. ntsukushii ('beautiful'). 38. | ^ or | H Aira (k. of Osumi, 
>fo also called Tara %« ^; f.). i^ | M. Oaira (t.j. 

^■^ KITSU, KICHI. Chinese name. 38. | ^ Yoshi-ko (Empress). 

i/Hi 1. o6rt (' an aunt '). 38. | % Obasute {no ; m.. -yama). 

T1O, MO. n6(i (' an old woman, nurse '). 38. 

I ^- Uba-ga-dake (m.). | % Ubagamochi (pottery). | #P 

Ubayanagi (f.). | ^ It i^ nha i^a yetoki (' pictorial explanations by the 
nurse "). 

jhjn ,,,. ^;&rj Kin, RU; yanagi, yagi, yana-. yanagi ('a willow'). 75. 
jy" 1/r [Compare ;j:^ (xiii), ^ (xi), and the combination A yfc (p. 

145, //;/.).] Towns: | ^ YagiQ (f.) ; j }^ Yanagi-moto (or Yagimoto ; 
both as 1'.), ^ ^ -uto, j^ -mura. ^ff -ura, ff: -sawa (f. ptr., lacq.), ^ 
-bashi (also bridge in Yedo) ; I )\\ Yana-gawa (pot. ; f. ptr., met.), ^|^ ^ 
-itsu or -idzu, ^ -tsu or -itsu, P. -se (f. ptr.), ^r iffj -gase. 

I ^ Yanagi-shima (dist. of Yedo), M -y'^ (toothbrush-shop in Yedo ; 
f-j, .'.i^ M -no-baniba (street of Kioto). 

Other Sir.v.vmks: 1 Yanagi (ptr., met.); ^ \ Oyanagi ; /\^ \ 
Koyanagi (ptr.); ::^ | :pf!: Oyaidzu ; /Jn | '^ Oyaidzu ; | 1» Yanagi (also 
Yagi)-shita, % -moto : | ^ Yanagi-uchi, g -ta (ptr.j, ^ -ya, ^ 
-vvara, gj -zono (n.) ; | lU Yana-yama, ^j- -i (ptr.), pi -gawa, ^ -gura. 
I ^ Riujitsu (Liu Shi, seniiiu). | ^ Yanagidaru {' mke bucket', kiogen ; 
also a name for connc anthologies). 

7m\ SMA. tsuge ('box-tree, lioxwood'). 75. | ^ Tsuge (t. ; f.). 

-jklj MEI. HIO; YIi[ (moto). tsitka, kara, ye ('a handle'). 75. 

TH [Compare U (xm), fM (■^)' tL (P- 212).] | pl^j Tsukazaki, | H ;4c 

Karameki (t.). | |^ Yebara (f.). 

yhlr* (No on.) inasdki (a tree, liuonymiis japonicus). [75. | | ?|v Masaki (f.). 



Nine Strokes 298 

-Xtt SI 10. SO: ,-ii- o- : suke, <m!). mini ('to l()f>k"): ai- f iiiulual, 
B9^ reciprocal, in common'). As slid, | pcj shnkokii, "a prime minister'; 
as so, 'appearance*. 109. 

[Compare ^ (p. 222), f^. '^ '.mii), 1^ (xviu).] | |^: Sa.^ami (pr. ; f. ; 
poetess: r.) : | 'j^•^ Sosliu (same pr.). | ffi- Ai-no-lakc, | ^ (Jj Soi^a-san 
(m.). Koui : | 1% Soma (Shimosa ; also of hvaki, mod.; 1.; f. ptr.) ; 
I ^ Sdrakn. Sagara[ka] (Vamasliiro; Sas^ara and Sdra as f.i. Other 
Towns: | j;^ Sagara (f.); | )]\ Ai kawa (f. ]:)tr.), |^, -bara (l.j, $f i^ 
-no-mura (i.e., 'Ainu village"); | nj O-ka (1.), ^n clii, j^ ;^| gase. 
I M "-^ So(Slio)koku-ii (tem). | (or '^) ^ ;j^ Aimoto-hashi (i)ridge). 

Othhr Surnames: | ;^ Ai ki, H da. Jjf -noura. |^ -i)a, ^ huchi, 
i% -ba (f)tr.). j'^> -zawa (i)tr.), ^ -iso. | t^'T ^ So-jdbd (the Tengu King), 
|SJ ^ ami (n. jUr.j. | ■^ Ai--ito, ^ mi (/un;; katter also n. j'tr. : see 
also Locutions). /|-_ |2j oi-no-matsu (two i)ine-tre(>s ; aioi. "living or growing 
up together' in mutual alTection). ^ ^f -yai-hakama [kid^i^cu). \ f^. ^ 
sJiobaushu ('tit.). 

Other L<.)crTioNS : -|- | jusu, jissu ('ten shapes or forms'); | -f^i siimd 
('wrestling"); \ ^ so-kivan ('a jiliysiognomy '), -fl -gaku ('science of ph.'), 
^ -awase {' ph.'s compared '), ^ -fe(?;z (' a physiognomist "). | ^ ai-shu' 
('chances of matrimony"), ^ -6o7r ("mutual love'), Jfc -f^ iomo ni Isitkiiru 
('made in collaboration'). 

JLBL (^'*^ '^"•) '^,><^'? /szr.^j-a (a tree, Tsuga. Sieboldi'i). Distinguish from ^ 
»^ (x\). [75.J I ^' Toga-i (f.), Ji -noo (t. ; priest). 

'h/^ (Variant: 'f^-l HAKU, IIIAKU; kashiwa. kashkva (an oak, Ouercus 

'''^ dcntata). Not the same as kashi j=^ (xvj. 75. 

I |IH^- Kashiwa-toge (pass), f|^ -zaki (cape: t. : nn). Other Towns: 

I Kashiwa (f.) ; | ,\i Kashiwa-gi (f. ; Genji Chapttr xxxvi), |lj -yama, 
% jima, ^ -gura, ]^ -bara (Nakasendd stage 60 ; f. ; also Kashiwara as f.), 
?f no (f. ptr.). Other Surnames: | ;|;ij" Kashiwa -mura, ^, ^§1 -ya, '^\ 

buchi. I i^ ^ :^. Kashiwabara-temid (= Kwammu, 50th .Mikado). 

h^t SHC", SHI'. hi\i]Yagi (the |apane>-e HoIIn., Osiuanlhus aqiiiloliuin). 75. 
1« I B. Hiragiya (f. met.). 

- f * 1 * CnU, JIJ ; [hashira). hasliira ('a pillar*; luuneral-sudix f(^r Shinto 
I— t deities, see p. 39). 75. 

-J^4f "Ijfr -"^'^^ • l^'^i^l^'- kaki (the Persimmon, Diospyros kaki). 75. 
1W "'^ l^P jComi)are ^ (p. 295), (^ (xxi).] Towns: | tK Kaki-noki. 

4k. -nomoto (f. poet, ptr., met.), ";^ -shiba, fS| -oka (f.), jlft -zako, i^j -^zaki, 
if -no. Other Surnames : | ill Kaki-yama. f^ uchi, f^ -numa, ;)j|§ -su. 




299 Nine Strokes 

^^ -wara, ^ -zawa. | ^ ^ f^ jE Kakiii()mf)lo-no-k-i-n()-soj6 (= Shinsai, 
priest). I m Kaki-zono (n.), ;^ ^f P^ -vemoii (ii. jiol.), ^ -uri. (U (^ 
-yatnabushi [kiugen). 

^^ IW, DA. kaji ('a rudder'). Variant of ^* (xi). 75. 
^ ^ I Compare also lif. (xiii), i^^ (xn).l I jl| Kajikawa (f.). 

jf}^ KC), KU ; /vO ; (kave). kaveru ('to wither"). 73. | ;4^ Kareki (1.). 

4^ Yl', U. yuzH (the Orange, Citrus aurantium). 75. 
i*W I ]^ Vuzuhara (t. ; f.). | J^ Yunoki, Yuzuki ilV). 

■tM|» KAN. kdji (a species of orange). 75. 
I iJ \ 4^ Kdjinioto (f.). I ^ Kdji, | ^ ^ Kdjidawara {kidgeii). 

jj^ Variant of ^J} (p. 239). 75. 

JrUl ^^-^ i (yeda). Synonym of 1^ above. 73. 

■J^n SAKLJ, SIIAKIJ. masc% mai^aki ('a fence'); shigaranii {' n 
17//J wattle-dike, palisade,' an ancient form of castle). 73. 
I Tic Maseki (f.). 

a^ SEI, SHO. ikeniye ('living sacrifice'). 93. | j|| Niyekawa (f. ptr.), 

jnj^ Variant o[ ^ (p. 301). 

Irfjl (No on); hata. hata, hatake ('a dry or upland field, vegetable garden "). 
^"' Synonym of f^j (x), not used alternativel\' in names. 

[Compare ij^ (xv), /j^ (xiv).| ;;^ | \\} Ohata-yauia (m.). Towns: 

I Ilata (f. met., sculp.) ; /j^ | Obata (f.) or Kobatake (also Kohata as f.) ; 

I m Hata-da, illJ -chi. Other Surnames : :^ | Obata (pot.) ; | }\\ 

Hata-gawa, (Jj -yama, 4* -n<il<a (ptr.), ^ -i, f^ -sa (i)tr.), J^ -ya. SF -no. 

-J^^ SHI; or SE ; SHI; Hodokosu (see note on p. 2''^3), iuobii). hodokoini- 
'ifot f ' to give as alms *}. 70. 

I ^ ^ ^ Shiki-no-dji (prince). | 5^ scsliii ('pious contril>utor '). 

[Variant: J^.] HAI. ogamii ('to worship"). As ha'i, a couunon 
respectful prefix to Sin ico- Japanese words. ^14. 
I % Hai-jima (t.), -gd (f.). | •^ haivin ('graciously presented", 
lit. 'respectful reception', the converse of J^ Ji hcnju^ xx). I Q haihaku. 
after a name, ' . . . begs to say '. 

PMN, MIN. 'Alabaster'. 96. 





Nine Strokes 300 



^ - ^ "' ^. ^-i:;,; 



< ; [yoshi, xidzii-, taka, nori, ham). takara ('a 
iSLire ') ; udzii- {'rare, precious'). 96. 
I EB Chiiida (f.). 



jiSrf KA ; KA. Name of a gem. q( 




I ^ M ^^ Karu-no-oji (i)riuce, afterwards 'I'emmu, 40tli Mikado). 
SAX'. I ^ saiigu, 'coral', esp. the red \arieties. . 96. 

iMT L'ouiited as eight strokes (see p. 267). 

Ip^ SIIO; aki, -akini, Akira, (tern). akiraka ('bright'). 72. 

HM I ^ Sho-slii (princess). | ^; (^ Shotoku-in (lyemochi, shogun). 

fl/r2 SAKl', XA1\Lj. As saku or | H ^akujiisii, 'yesterday'. 72. 

^i I )j sakii-i^'c'tstt, ^ -nen, ^ -ya ('last month, _\ear, night'). 

Plj] llOTSU. aM.o;/o ('the dawn"). 72. 

HP I sed as a contraction of ^ (xvi). 130. 

fltl ' ^'- haramu ('to be pregnant'). 130. | f^ i^ Tainaikuguri (rock). 

iJjI I IAN, BAN: Yiitaka, {nao). yiitaka ('abundance'). 130, 

Kl : KI. inoyii ('to pray, invoke, curse'). 113. 

I W l^c Ketoin (f.). | ^ |^ kincn-sai or toshigoi no maisuri (fest.). 

ijtt^ Kl. (II; A/; imasd, tada). huui-lsu-kami ('the gods of the land'). 
/Ml\ Commonly interchanged with ^ (x), though etymologically 
(hstiiict. 113. 

I HI Gion (ward of Kioto; t. ; f. ptr., see below; kiogen); Gion -shoja 
I'l'i' "^ (tern., the jetavaiia \'ihara), -ji ^^ (tem.), -niogo /c '0 (mother of 
Taira no Tadamori). | 3i Gio, i -^ Gijo (mistresses of Kiyomori). 

I M 'M Ginankai (= Gion Nankai, ptr.). 

A^ I'I'.l, Ml'.l. laiuotn Ca sleeve, ()ocket";. 143. 

^ftij SIIIX. iwaiiyci, Duisliile ('still more'). iii. 

:^U r>l(). MIC). sukoshi ('small'). As hio, a division of time (see 

^L^ {). (>()). I 13. 

yKil- K\\'.\ ; sliina. sJi'nui ("kind, degree'). 115. 




30I Nine Strokes 

T&Jk I Variants: jf,^, ^^.] SHI', Slill; aki, ai-; dki; zok., Aki-. ak'i f autumn '; 
^^ see p. 47j. 115. 

I :^ akitsu (old word for the dragonllv, ioinbo), Akitsu (n.j ; whence : 
Akitsu-maro ^ (n.), -shima '/^^ fanct. name for |a])an), -shirna ^ (anct. pal.; 
wrestler). | gg Akita (k. and t. of Oshu, rarely as Aita ; anct. castle, -jo 
ifJc, whence Akita-jo-no-sukc -j^-, tit.) ; Akita as mod. ken and f. (Akita-no-sukc 
■JY, tit.). I j^ Akika (k. and t. of Idzumo, also as Aika ; latter as f.). 

I H llj Aki-ba-san (m. ; tern.), ^ ill -shino-yama (m.), ^ M M 
-koya-no-taki (fall). 

Other Towns: | }ff Shufu (= Akita); | fg }§ Aihoura; | \\i Aki- 
-yama (f. ptr.), j| -dzuki (f. ; see also further), "^ -yoshi (f.), 'j^ -o (f.). 
BJ -machi. Other Surnames : | 7c Aki-moto, ^ -naga, ;^ - moto, J1 
-zato, ^ -tani, ^ -o (ptr.), pj -oka, \\1f -toki, At:> -ba (ptr.), ^ -ha, 5f -no, 
H -ba (also d.), ^ -shino. 

I ^ Aki-ko for Shu-shi, princess), ^ -no-nn\a (Em[)ress), ijl; -nobo 
(poet). I ^ ii J^ So Aki-no-yo Naga-monogatari (classic). | ^ n/ei im 
tsuki, shngivatsu ('autunni moon", as latter in the Omi and other hakkei), 
I M, ^ akikazedzuki (the eighth month). | ^ shrihiin (see p. 113, 96). 

KIO, KO ; or KIN, KON. kokorit ('to be proud'); aivaremn ('t<> 
^1 pity'). IKX I j^ (or l&d) ^ M -T Kongara-doji (d.). 

^L r.AN, DAN. As Lan, 'a measure of area' (see p. 65); as da;;, 'a step, 

"»^^ platform, grade, subject (of an essay or conversation), act (of a 
play) ■. 74. 

I ± Dan-to (t.). If -no (f.). H I @ saudammc ('Act III.'), etc. 

■^1^ Taoistic synonym of the Buddhistic j^ (p. 231^). 95. 

TCt^ SA, SHA ; SA : suna, isa-, masa-, -sago. situa, isago, tnasago ('sand. 
^i^ gravel"). Synonym of '^j/ (]). 23O). 112. 

Towns : | ^ Subashiri ; /J^ | Kosuna (pot.) ; /]> I jlj Kosagaw a : 
I )\\ Suna-gawa (f. met. ; also Isagawa as f.), ^ ^ -gozaka, ^- )^{ 
-kohara, H -da (f.), i^ -mura (dist. of Yedo ; f.), ^ J^ -chaya. Other 
Surn.\mes: I ^ Masago (as snuago, 'gold or silver dust'; Yedo 01 ^ siinago, 
'a guide (?) to Yedo'); | ^ Suna-go (ptr.; as sunagane or shakhi, 'gold 
dust'), jlj' -oshi. I 5fiJ j-^ javiba ('a gravel-bed"). 

~tyj^ [Full form: ^.j KEN, GEN; {kiyo). togii ('to siiarpen ") ; migakii 
^" ('to polish"). 112. I jl| Togikawa (f.). 

Synonym of ^ (xviii). 106. 






m 



Nine Strokes 302 

Wy BIO, MIO. snganie ('squinting'). Used as a self-liumiliative. 109. 

Ujf GEN, GWAN. mint ('to see). 109. 

-JUJt^ K(), KU ; A'O; [moto, liisa, lurii). fiirnshi ("old, ancient"); yuye ('a 
BV cause'). As ko-, ' tiie late . . .' (.0. | |g Nislii, | ^^ Kogo 
(f.). I A ko-jin ('a deceased person'), ^ -ji ('an old story, historical 
episode'), ^ -jitsu ("ancient practice, antiquities'). 

K(') : A'O. yehii^u ("a barbarian'}; nan.w ("why? how?'). 130. 
:^ I Oko (f. met.). Daigo (f.). | i% Kocho (Ck'nj} Chapter x.xiv, 
lit. 'l)utierflies'). 

irtLL j Variant; J^. | III, 1)1; BI ; (suko. tasukeru ("to help'). Phonetic- 
■^ ally used in transcrii>ts from the S^mskrit. 81. 

Dkitiks ; I 'i'p P^ [^J Bishamon[-ten] (see p. 98, 14) ; | M ^M M^ 
l')iru>li;ma (Yairosana) ; | '^' jf^j M Bishukatsuma (Visvakarma). 

\';iriant of D|- (x). loj. 

KO, (ilJ. kurcnai^ (the Safflovver or Bastard Saffron, Carlhamus 
/|*X* iinctoriiis] ; fic;;/, knrcnai (a pink or scarlet pigment prepared from 
the ilorets thereof, used in painting, colour-printing, dyeing, and, mixed 
with powdered talc, as a lip-rouge); momi ('scarlet silk'); viomidzuni ('to 
lake on autumnal colours", of leaves). See also the next entry. 120. 

I j^^f Kurenai-mura, (t.). Surnames; | Kurenai ; | ^ Beniya (ptr.) ; 

I i^Jf. Kurebayashi. | ^ Kobai {Genji Chapter xliii, lit. the red-flowered 
Pruuii.s miime) ; Kobai-chd UJ (street of Yedo). | ^' Momi-ko (poetess). 

I j^ hn-n ("red rain", sc, falling blossoms), =^ -mo, ^ -hatsu ('red hair', 
>c., foreign, foreigner). 

^X ^ [Compare the foregoing.] | j koyn, ]nomiji{ha], red autunui 
foliage, esi). of the maple {kayedc), for wlii( h momiji sometimes 
stands. | | Moim'ji. | | ^ Momijigi (joro). | | ^ Momiji no ga 
(Gcnj! Chapter viii. | | ^'V Momiji-gari inn \ lit. 'a picnic to view- 
maples"); I I li kvyomi (same meaning). | | ,^ momiji-dori ('a 
deer", poet.). 

KIC. sh'uia, ii^uidc ('class, order*). 120. 

I Ho Shinateru (t.). |^ — | dai-ikkiu ('1st grade'), etc. 






' I.e., Kitrc no ai ^ ^, 'Chinese indigo' (?). Also called suyetsumuhana (see under ^, p. 201) 
and h.'nibana | >ft or | ^ 'ft. 




303 Nine Strokes 

KI ; KI ; uo/i, loshi, {-tstigu, tada) ; zok., -ki. shirusu (' to mark, 
record ') ; itosiiji (' a line of thread '). As ki, ' lineage, law, 
chronicle, history' (compare ItL^j. Borne as a mon on the banners of 
the Kishu Tokugawa. 120. 

[Compare homopliones under ;>f: (p. i7t>).| I ^ Kii (pr. ; f.), Kii or 
Ki (k. of Yamashiro). | jl'H Kisiiu (Kii pr.) ; I # M Kii-no-kuni (same; 
but Kinokuni -zaka ^, street of Yedo, -ya M, shop-name). ^ \ Nanki 
(southern Kishu). | )\\ Kii-gawa or Ki-no-kawa (r.). | / ^ Kii-no- 
-umi (sea). | M ^r Kinomi-toge (pass). | jj^ Ki-jo or | !ft- Kifu, 
same as \\'akayama, cap. of Kishu. I ^ ^\- W]" Kioi-cho (street of Yedo). 
I Ki (clan, see p. 67). | ^ Ki-hira, i$ -to (f.). | fg Kishin (Chi 
Hsin, Chin. hero). | \% Kiden (see p. 83, init.). \ ^ ^ 1if5 Kiishikibu, 
I fiP 'k Ki-no-iratsume, % # -no-menoto (poetesses). i yt kigen (see p. 42). 
YAKU. tsiidsumcrii ('to abridge, retrench'); tsudzumayaka ('frugal'). 




>l<V ,,0. 




(No on); momi. viomi (' unhuUed rice'). 

[Compare also Y\^ (.\v).] | \\] Momi-yama (f. ptr.), ^ -i (f.). 



^j"^ K(), KIO. iiicdui ('country, rural district'). 163. 

^' I W^ hogen ('open ground about a town'). See also 3^ (p. 289). 

-gr^ IKU, OIvU. sakan ('flourishing'). 163. 

nP I ^ pJ^ Ikuho-mon (gate of Kioto). | ^ mube, ikushi (a shrub, 
Stan 11 ton id- hcxaphylla), Iku-ko (worn, n.) ; Mube-zono, Ikushi-yen gj (n.). 

Tflf YA: YA. chichi ('a father'); ka (interrog. particle). 128. 

Ah I jrf Yama (k. of Oshu). | AC} 'M Vaba-kei (gorge). | M Yaso, 

lyesu (Jesus). | \%, pt H Yaslmdara (Yasodhara, wife of the Buddha). 



ir 




Variant of jj^f (p. 267). 

HO (FU), VV. sakai ('a boundary'). As ho, 'a fief, daimiate ' ( | ^ 
hodai, 'within tlie fief); as jil, 'a letter' or the seal on it. 41. 

6r|| SOTSIJ, SOCHI; or SHC'l'SC, SHUCHl; or SUI. hikiynru ('to lead'); 
f* I subcvH ('to control'). See also % (p. 167) and p. 83. Distinguish 

from Bi{) (>^)- 50. I Sotsu (poetess). | J^ g Sochi-no-otodo or | j^ ::^ g 
Soclii-uo-naidaijin (= Fujiwara no Korechika ^ |ij). 

AfV KO, KC. niji ('a rainbow'). 142. 

^" I M Niji-ga-taki, | V^ f^ Nijifuki-ga-taki (falls). 



' Killirr cliaracter is iiulilToreiitly written with the right-hand portion (the ' phonetic ') as g,, E. 
or ti. lj»t thr first only is correct according to the etymology. 




Nine Strokes 304 

^[^ no. MIO. abu (a gadily '). 142. | }\\ Abu-kawa. fig la (t). 

^-L KI-!I; KE; (kazu). kazoyeru ('to number'); hakarn ('to measure'). 
F'  149. I -^ Kazu-ko (court-lady), IVi, -ma (n.). 

tjll SOKU; SO; nori, Usnne). nori ('law'); sunaivachi ('that is, then, at 
MU once'). 18. 

I jE^ Noritake (f. ptr.). 

'hIJ SIIAKIJ, SAKU. kedzuru ('to shave off, scrape'). 18. 
^Ij TKI, TAI ; sori. .sora I' to shave"). 18. 

ttl// KI ; nori ('law'); wadachi ('a track"). 159. 

IVariants: ^. ^j].] CHOKIJ, SHIKl. mikolonovi Can Imperial edict"). 
As chokii-, 'Imperial'. 19. 
I 'fiJii chokushi ('an Imperial envoy'); Chokushi-mon P^ (gate); but 
I iiH W- Teshi-ga-hara (plain) and | \i}l pi |^ Teshigahara (!'.). 

^1 [Variant; §\\.\ SHOKU (SOKU), SHIKI. sumncachi ('that is, then, 
 at once'); tsukit ('to follow, replace'). As sokii, 'sudden, immediate' 

( I }f^ sokuseki, ' e.xtempore '), also ' to ascend the throne (I ^ sokiii, 
' accession '). 20. 

^rt SHO, ZO, (JO) : ZO ; (-tsugu, iwbit). nobuvn (' to explain ') ; jo-snvu 
^4i^ ('to confer" a rank of lionour). As /o, for f^, 'a prefnre." 29. 




[Variant : -g".] IN, ON; NE\ oto ; oto, luivL (iic) ; zok., Oto-. ne, 
 — * oto, koye ('voice, sound, noise'). See also j). 3. 180. 

[Compare ^ I p. 143).] I M M J^ Ondo-no-seto (strait). | f= 
(l^j Ul Oto-tsure(-kiki)-yama (m.), ^ -^f^ ~wa-no-taki (fall). Si'RNWMES : 
;;^ I Ooto (met.); | )\\ Oto-gawa (scul]).), ^ J^ -waya (pot., also actors 
of Onoye ^ [-, family), M -nashi (r.). 

I A Otondo, C)ndo (n.). | fn Oto liito (prince), ^ -bane (joro), 
iJHS -na fwom. n.i. | f^ Ommon (see j). 86). | \% -j^ u)iipakase (see 
P- ^3)- I ^ onkiokii, oui^'wku (' music '1. ^ / | inushi no nc (Mhe 
chirj) of insects'). 



KKTSU, GECHI. kashira, kobe ('a head'). 181. 



■fA^ IIAl, HK. mkadzuki ('a wine-cup'). 108. 



305 Nine Strokes 



|A| [Variant : ^.] BEN, MEN ; ME ; omote, omo, -mo. omo (' face, sur- 
*^^ face ') ; omote, kao, vulg. tszira (' face, countenance ') ; | ^, for ^ 

(p. 292). 77^. 

3^ I Omo (t.). /J^ I Kotsura (mask-name). I (or ^) jl| Omo- 
-kawa (r.). | ;^ Omo-ki (f.), ]^ -taka (t.), ^ jl] -kage-yama (m.), 
$y jl| -no-gawa (r.). -(g | men (' a mask ' for the stage, etc.). | 4S 
menso ('expression, physiognomy'). \ ^ JL '^ mempeki kunen (Daruma's 
meditation 'for nine years before a wall'). 






M 



Variant for ^ (p. 267). 

YO ; YE; Kaname, {toshi, mochi, yasu). kaname ('the rivet' of a fan, 
' the essential principle ') ; motomu (' to ask for '). As yd, esp. 
'essential, vital.' 146. | ^ Kaname-ishi (rock). | \ Kaname, Kanando 
(n. ; see also p. 86). | ^ ydji ('business, affairs'). 

GUN. ikusa ('war'); moromoi'o ('all'). 159. 

[Compare g|S (x).] I ^, I illl Gun-ji (f. met.), ^ -nai, ^ -ji 
(f.), U -ki (see p. 86), ^ fij Bj5 3E -dari-mioo (d.). | ^ gun-kan 
(tit., see p. 85), f^ -ki ('munitions, military accoutrements'). | ^ ^ 
giimbiojo ('a council of war'). 

[Variant : ^.] KWAN. kam[m]uri, koburi, koniuri (' a cap, head- 
gear', esp. that worn with men"s full court dress). 14. 
I Kwan (f.). I ^ Kammuri-dake (m.). | ^ ^ Kwankenshi 
(Kuan Ch'ien-shih, sennin). \ ^ kwanja (' a young man, bachelor ', esp. 
as dram. pers.). 

^g Incorrect form of ^ (p. 273). 

FO, BU ; FU. oil (' to receive ', as a wound, ' take up ', as a burden, 
'sustain'); makeru ('to be defeated'). 154. 
\ ^ ^ ^ Fukioku-sensei (' Fu Ch'ii Hsien-sheng, sennin). 

YEI, YO ; mitsu, Mitsuru. niichiru, mitsiivu ('to be full, abundant*). 
108. I ^ Mitsu-ko (wom. n.). 

^^1 Contraction of ^ (x). 

HAN, BON. hodogi ('a pot, vessel'). As bon, 'a tray'. 108. 

I \\\ Bonzan (kiogen). | ^ bommatsiiri or simply | bon 

(contracted from urabon, see J-, p. 152), festival. 

[Commonly written '^.J YU. shikari ('just so'). 11. 
I M i^ (or i|^) Yureikwai (Yii Ling-kuei, sennin). 

20 







Nine Strokes 306 

JC, NIC; NI. yawaraka ('soft, yielding'). 75. | ^ Ju-shi (princess). 
I ^'^ jujutsH or I j^ jtido, a system of self-defence. 

YU ; (0, isa, take), Isamu, Takeshi. isameru ('to inspirit'); iakeshi, 
tsuyoshi ('strong, brave'). As yfi alone, or | -^ yushi, 'a hero". 19. 
I ^ Yu-ko (poetess). | J\^ Isa-me, ^ -o, JH^ -me (or Yuma), | V\ 
Yuji (n.). I f^ yumo ('valour'). . 

PJ [Contraction: Q.] HIN, HON; HO; shina ; {nori, kazu, hide, tada) ; 
'^^ zok., Shina-. shina ('sort, quality, grade, rank, materials, goods'). 
See also p. 88. 30. ^ 

I ^ Honji (k. of Bingo). | ^|: iU Shinai-numa (lake). | )\\ 
Shinagawa (t., Tokaido stage i ; f. ptr. ; brothel, -ya ^) ; | )\\ ^ Honsen-ji 
(tem.). I CO "jj Shina-no-kata (hist, pers.), ^ -no-miya (princess), JK; -teru 
ijoYo). -f- I jippin ('ten sorts'), etc.; H I sampin ('third class'), etc. 
(but compare p. 88). | Ji johiii, I* | gehin ('superior, inferior grade'). 

^^ SHI, JI ; or ZE ; J I, ZE ; kot'e, {yoshi, yuki). kore, kokoiii (' this, 
ACr here'); yoshi ('good'). As ze, 'right, correct.' 72. 

! ;^ Kore-naga, ;^ -yeda, *[g -tsune (f.), ^ ^ -hirasuge (swo.). 

SEI, SHO ; hoshi ; zok., Hoshi-. hoshi ('a star, dot, point). See 
p. 97, 6. 72. 

I M UJ Hoshinoi-yama (m.). I ^ ^^ ^ Hoshitsukiyo-no-i (water). 
Towns: | H Hoshi-da (f.), ^ -nooka {^ p&] -gaoka, dist. of Yedo), 
ff -no (f. ptr., met.). | ^ ^ Shokoku-ji (tem.) Other Surn.wies : 
I Hoshi (met.) ; ^ \ Oboshi (ptr.) ; | )\\ Hoshi-kawa, \\\ -yama, J^ -to, 
^ -i, ^ ai, ^ na, ^ -kura, ^ -jima. | jll M "F Hoshigawa-no-oji 
(prince). 

[Contraction: ^.] HO, MO. on ('to cover'). Used as a contraction 
of ijif (xii). 13. 




:b 




Variant of ffljt '[). 302). 

(Variant: ^.] CHO, JO; YE (i.e. HE); shige ; shige, Shige, Shigeshi, 
Kasanu, (atsii) ; zok., ju-, rarely Shige-. omoshi (' heavy, impor- 
tant ') ; omosa ('weight,' e.g., | -|- /p omosa, or ju, jikkin, 'weight 10 
catties ') ; kasaiierii (' to pile up, repeat ') ; -he {-ye, ' a thickness, -fold ') ; 
kasane (numeral suffix for suits of clothes, see p. 39). As ju, also ' a storey ' 
of a tower, 'tier' or 'in tiers' (of a box). 166. 

[Compare ^ (ix), ^ (xii), ^ (.xvii).] Towns: | ^ Shige-suye (f.), 

jg^ -sato, [SJ -oka (f. ; joro), ^ -tomi. | (or ]Hj) JM Omo-kawa (r.). 

I -II" M J% Sliige-idzutsu-ya (brothel). Other Surnames: I Cho (ptr.); 




307 Nine Strokes 

I ^ Shige-hisa, X -moto, [0 -ta (plr., met.), 4^ -inoto [joru), Jill -ji, ^ 
-mitsu, ^ -mura, ^ -mi, ^ -matsu, i$ -nobu, ^ -su, if -no, ^ -mori. 
Other Personages : I i^ -f Choyoshi (Chung Yang-tzu, sennin) ; 

I is?. JiJgen (priest) ; j ^ Shigeriye (yoro) ; | ^ Omoni (dram. pars.). | tJc 
Shige-ki (poetess), ^ -ki (n.). | |^ choyo (the Chrysanthemum Festival, 
see p. 103, 56). | f^ judai ('an heirloom"). | ^ kasanegi ('the wearing 
of several suits at once '). 

KIO, KO ; KA ; ka ; ka, (taka). ka, uioi ('odour, fragrance'). As ku, 

esp. 'incense' (chiefly of fragrant woods). 186. 
[Compare homophones under j}\] ([>. 187).] | (or ^) ^ Ko-shima (is.). 
I '^ I\ara-su (shore). Kori : | jl| Ka-gawa (Sanuki, also read Kogawa ; 
former as mod. ken, f. ptr., met.), JJX -tori (Shimosa ; t., also as Kadori ; 
tern. ; f.), H -mi or ^ ^ -gami (Tosci). Other Towns : | '/ Jt^ 
Ka-kaji, ^ H -kami, ^ -muro, ^ -haru (pot.), ;^ -shii (Kashii-daimiojin 
:Ac B^ jji^, the Empress Jingo). 

Other Surnames : | H Ko-da, ^ -zai (ptr.), ^ -saka ; | \\\ Ka- 

-yama (ptr.), ^ -tsuki, ;j«J- -mura, ^ fj^ ^IHJ -sokabe. i ^ -^ Kaoru, 

I ^ Kanaye (n.). | ^ kogo (' an incense-box ' ; as ko-awase or | j^ 

kodo, the Perfume Game); | -M. Jp_ kogiiya ('a toilet-shop, perfume-seller'). 

I J|l kiosha, kiosu (chesspiece). | ^ nioi-sasou ('fascinating'). 

KAN. mini ('to see'). 109. | ;^ hanami ('a flower-viewing'). 

U ; [/. As U or ;^ | Taiu, Yii the Great, Chinese Emperor. 114. 

1^ KO (KWO), O. Suberagi, Sumeragi, Sumevogi, Sumera-mikoto (' the 
-^E Emperor', also ^ | , see 5^, p. i6g, med.). 106. 

I ^[5 Ko-to (= Kioto, t.), ;j^ -gioku (35th Mikado), fn -nin (dram, 
pers.), ^ ^ -tairo (Huang Ta-lao, sennin). Other Titles : | ^ Ko-tei 
(the Emperor), Ji -jo (the reigning Emperor) ; I >ic •'?' kotaishi (the Prince 
Imperial) ; | -^ oy'/, koshi, | ^' on;o, /joy'o (resp. a prince and princess of the 
blood) ; I ^ kogo (Empress, not reigning) ; [ I ] >|s: ^ [ko]taikd (same, as 
mother of an Emperor) ; -ji^^ | d< Ja taikotaiku (as grandmother of an 
Emperor). 

^3 SEN; idzumi ; Idsiimi, {yulii). idzumi ('a spring', lit. 'issuing water'). 

I Idzumi (t. ; f. ptr.). Sen (f.) ; | ")]] Senshu (same pr.). Kori: | ^^ 
Semboku (Idzumi, mod.) ; | "^ Sennan, Idzumi-no-minami, or merely 
Minami (Idzumi). | )\\ Idzumi-gawa ir. ; t. ; f.), ^j^ -i (t.), ;g -ya 

(brothel;, f, ptr.), f=^- -sawa (f.j. | -g- (v^) ^ Sen-gaku(-yu)-ji (tem.j. 





Nine Strokes (^, contd.) 308 

Other Surnames: ^ \ Oidzumi (met.); /]> | Koidzunii (ptr., met.); | ^^ 
Idzumi-tei, J|§ -zaki. | -^ )|$ Idzumi-taislio (= Fujivvara no Sadakuni 
^ M)- I ft Senju (jovo). \ tK sensui ('an artificial water'). 

YEN; or KAN, KON. hiroshi ('wide'). 55. 




-HfJ' Variant of ^ (p. 276). 

^^ SHOKU, JIKI. hamu, kfi ('to eat, live on'). 184. I i^ Kema (n.). 
Same as ^ (p. 305). 






'--IJ* KIU, KO. isogu ('to hasten, be swift'). See p. 98, 11. 61. 

\'ariant of ^ (p. 292). 

A Japanese compound of ^ and j^, read kume (as a ^ofetnin'o-initial 
and otherwise; see under ^, p. 157). It apparently has no inde- 
pendent meaning. 

^ Old form of # (xi). 28. 

KEl, GEI. nori (' law '). 50. 

. I=t^ [Variant : *j^.] RIO ; suke, [aki, -akira) ; zok., Rio- or Suke-, -suke. 
-^ ^ hogaraka, akiraka ('clear, bright'); makoto ('the trutli '). 8. 

'l^^ TEI, CHO ; CHIN (Toin) ; TE. abaraya ('a hovel'): adziimaya ('a 



pavilion, arbour'). As iei or chin, same as the latter; as iei, a 
common ending for art-names (see p. 69). 8. 

I T P5c Teiji-in (tem. ; also — Uda, 59th Mikado). | ^ Teishi 
(prince, = Tsunesada *[g ^). | ^ teishu (' master of the house '), 

•' I'j* Al ; 0, yii. airaremii ('to pity'); kanashimu ('to grieve'). As a/, 
^^^ 'grief, one of the Four (Seven) Passions (see p. 102, 49). Dis- 
tinguisli from ^ (x). 30. 

ffi \'ariant of ^ (p. 306). 

GEN (KAN) ; liiko ; hiko, Hiko, (yoshi) ; zok., Hiko, -liiko. hiko (honorific 
sulTix to men's names in early times, as ^ hime for women ; com- 
mon element in earl}' divine and i)rincely names, see p. 49). 59. 




309 Nine Strokes 

I ^ Hiku-shima (is.), Hikoshima (t.). I l\\ Hiko-san (in.; t.), ;fft 
-lie (t. met. ; f.), pj] -ma (t.), ^ -saka, ^ -ya, ^Hi -be, ^ ^ -kubo (f.). 
I M Genjo (= Hikone, t.). Deities: | *K ^^ Ha ^ ^ Hikohohodemi- 
-no-mikoto ; | ^»j« ^n -^ Hikosashiri-no-m. ; | ^ Hikoboslii (the star 
Kengiu ^ ^ or the Herdsman). | ^ Gen-shi (Empress). | :Q Hiko- 
-ishi (sculp.), ^ -ma (n.). 

^& or ^^ TEI, TAI; Tii; (tada). mikado, ^ I /sote/ ('an emperor', esp. 
''■* T' tlie Emperor of Japan). 50. 

I ^ Teito (= Kioto, t.). | p Taishaku (t. ; m., -san); Taishaku- 
-ten ^ (Indra, d.). | ^ telkoku ('an empire", esp. Japan). 

"^'■> Contraction of ^ (xxiii). 



-pj -^. Variants of ^ (p. 281). 

*=^ SEN; no6i<, moW. noheru ('to state, narrate'). 40. 




I ft Senkwa (28th Mikado). | ^ Nobu-ko (poetess). | g* 
senji ('an Imperial decree'), Senji (sev. poetesses); Senji-nosuke M. ^ 
(poetess). I ^, Sentoku (Chin. Emp., Hsiian-te ; hence a name for vessels 
in yellow bronze or pottery made during or in the style of his period ; also 
a yellow bronze or copper alloy peculiar to Japan). 

SHITSU, SHICHI ; muro ; (iye). miiro ('a cellar'); iye ('a house'); 

tsuma ('a wife'). 40. 
:A: I llj Omuro-san (m.). I ^ ^j Muroto-saki (cape). Towns : 
I Muro (anct. cap. ; f. ptr.) ; | EQ Muro-ta (f. ptr.j ; BJ -machi (also dist. of 
Kioto and of Yedo ; f. ; M.-jidai \\!f i^, period 1392-1490), ^ -tsu (Muro- 
-no-tsu as harbour), |^ -dzumi (f.), ^" -ran (or Mororan, in Yezo). Other 
Surnames : ;f; | Omuro ; /J> | Komuro (ptr.) ; | ]\\ Muro-yama, ^ 
-uchi, pgj -oka, ^ -ya (n.), ^ -ga, 'jf -zawa. | ^ Murogimi (no). 

jig, KAKU, KIAKU-; {hito). marodo ('a guest, customer'). 40. 

YD, U. yiirusu ('to free, forgive, allow'); nadaiueni ('to relieve, 
pacify '). 40. 




-j^ Contraction of ^ (xi). 40. 



TOTSU, DOCHI. tsitku ('to pound rice'). 116. 

I M ^ Totto-no-hashi (bridge). ^ | kiokudzukl ('a trick rice- 
pounder'). 




Nine Strokes 310 

^5 Variant of ^ (p. 281). 73. 

-^^ KEI, KE. Tlie fifteenth of the Twenty-eight Constellations. 37. 



-U^ Contraction of ^ (x). 

]^S NAN; X4; minami, mina-, -nanii. nn'jzaw/ ('the south, southern'). 24. 

[Compare -^ (p. 313), ^ (xn).] | '/f^ ^ Nankaido (see p. 122). | fl^ 
Nanjo (k. of Echizen ; f. met.). | ^ ^ Minami-amabe (mod. k. of Bungo). 
I (or ig ) ^ il Nai-no-taki (fall). 

Towns [for other examples (including street-names), where ^ is a mere 

directional prefix (Minami-), see under the second characater] : ^ \ Ominami ; 

I ^ Nambu (f.), Minabe ; | ^ Naguwa ; | ij Minami-kata (Minakata 

as f.), ^ -zeki or -noseki ; I ^ Nan-kin (Nanking in China, hence 

'Chinese'), ;fqj -ka (Nan-ko, ibid.), ^P -go (f.), ^ -to (= Nara in Yamato). 

I Minami nv \ ,|f Nany.eki (= Shinagawa, sub. of Yedo ; first as f.). 

I \^ '^ii WX Nan-demma-cho (street of Yedo). | fiijj ^ Nanzen-ji (tern.). 

Other Surnames: /J> | Kominami ; | )^i Nama : | ^ Nan-go, 7^ 

-gu, B. -sen (ptr.), ^ -l^o ; I i^ Nam-bo, '^, M -ba ; | ^^ ^ Minami- 

-o]i, ^ "^ -iwakura, ^ ^ -nagao, ^ J^ -onikubo, ^ -ura, jjc -arai ; 

I jij Mina-gawa, j^ -mura, M -sato, |K,i -buchi, v^ -zawa (ptr.). 

I r# 5V i Nanyokoshu (Nan-yang Kung-chu, sennin). \ Pt ^ Nadara 
(n.). I ^^ Nan-zen (priest), |^ -rio (horse), ^jc -so (the Southern Sung 
dynasty of China), %^ -cho (the Southern Court or Dynasty of medieval 
Japan). | ^t, i^ \\]f {^ uambokucho-jidai (period 1336-1392). | g nanro 
(the 8th month). | |g 3i Xaunnen-no-o (tit. of the Emperor). | ^ 
namban ('a foreigner, foreign', lit. 'southern barbarian'); namban-tetsii He 
('non-Japanese iron'); Namban-tetsu Ura no Menuki t^ ^ (jdriiri). 

Buddhist Invocations : | ^ uamii (Skt. ' hail ! ') ; namu sambo ^ ^, 
n. Amida-biitsu pnf ^ pt: f^, "• "//o/zo renge-kio j^ j^ iH /^? ^1. 
'=i^ rOKU, DOKLJ. As dokii, 'poison, detriment'. Distinguish from ^ 
~W^ (p. 282). 80. 

i [\'ariant, see p. 283, iiiil.] SHUN ; liaru ; liarii ; zok. Sliun- or Haru-. 

havii ('the spring'; see p. 47). As shun, also 'erotic'. 72. 

[Compare ^p (p- '-37)-l I H, see the next entrw , I tK f'^I H'H'uki- 

-machi (street of Yedo). | yjc JS| Harumoto-ya (brothel). Surnames: /J^ | 

Koharu {knharu or shoshitn, the loth month) ; | ij^ Shundo (met. ; some 

read Harufuji, : | ^-jj Kasu-b(% ^ -gata (compare note on next page); 

I )\\ Haru-kawa (ptr.), )\\ -yama, )\\ -ki (ptr.), ^[- -i (lacq.), ;^ -mote, 




311 Nine Strokes 

HI -ta (arm., met.), ^ -na (pot.), i^ -yeda, 1^ -aki (Shunju as tlie Cliin. 
classic Ch'un-ch'iu), % -shima (met.), ]^ -bara, 3^ -michi, -/^ -zumi. 

Personages, etc.: | ^ Shunwaka (sculp.): | ^ Haru-ko (Empress), 

f^ -no-miya (tit. of Prince Imperial), P^ -to, % -mi, ^ -j; -fuji (n.), ^ 

-shiba [joYo], %, -kaze (horse), ^ -same (song, 'Spring Rain'). | -^ 

Shunyei {no). \ ^ shunshoku, \ ^.; ^ haru no keshiki ('a spring landscape'). 

I J shungiva ('erotic pictures'). 

^ F| SHUNJITSU; Kasuga. haru no hi or havubi (poet.), 'a spring day'; 
I I 0) hariibi no, 'vernal', an early stock epithet (makura-kotoba) 
for the Yamato place-name Kasuga\ orig. written ff Jg [kasu-gaki, 'lees- 
hedge'), the characters I | becoming in later times the regular orthography 
for the name and its derivatives, as follows : — 

I I Kasuga (t. and tem. on K.-yama ; f.). | | ]\\ Kasuga-yama 
(hill near Nara ; anct. cas. in Echigo), ^ -no-miya or jfiljl jfd: -jmja (tem.), 
i^ ^M P? -daimiojin or jji$ -no-kami (d.), ^- -i (k. of Owari ; f.), ^ -be 
(same k. ; t. ; f.), ^ ^ -no-oji, ^ ^ M -no-miya-no-tenno (princes), \\} fB 
^ -yamada-no-iratsume, [^] ^^ -no [-o]-iratsume (Empresses), ^ -no-tsubone 
(sev. hist, pers.), Wf -no (joro), f| jp^ -riujin (uo). \ \ ^ Kasuga-riu 
(school of painting), f^ ^^ -busshi (sculptors), ^ -matsuri (fest.). 

- "ft^ * 1; /■ somukii ('to oppose"); oshikawa ('soft leather'). 178. 

■^ I JUS: ^ Ida-ten (d.). Sennin : | ^ f^ I-zenshun (Wei Shan- 

-tsun), gji -setsu (Chieh), H/; -bo (Fang), ^. -jo (Nii). 

\fj CHU, CHU. kabiito ('a helmet"). Distinguish from g (p. 306)). 13. 

^^ CHO, JU ; i-tsugu, tsugi-). tsudzuku (' to continue ') ; tanc (' seed ') ; 
H siiye ('posterity'). 130. 

l5 Contraction of ^^ (xvii). 

TEI, JO ; sada, Tadashi ; zok., Tei-, less commonly Sada-. tadashii 

(^' honest'); misao ('fidelity, chastity"). 154. 
[Compare '^ (p. 279).] | jt Sada-moto, 7^; -mitsu (t.), ^ -kata (f.), 
^* -no-miya (nun). | ^ Teimo (Cheng Meng, sennin). | fg ^ Teishin- 
-ko (= Fujiwara no Tadaliira ,^, ^). | -^ tcijo ('a faithful wife'). 

Nengo: I 7C j6(Tei)-gen (97^^-977J. M "" (1^22-23), 7l<.-yei (1232), 
^ -kio (1684-87); I II Jokwan, Jogwan (859-876); | ;fll Teiwa (N. Dyn., 
1343-49); I rij ]'">]' (Jitto, i3f'2->7)- 




1 Compare poems in tlie Xiboii^i^n (trans. \V. Ci. Aston, I., p. 402, II., p. 101. '1 lie ejMthet itself 
involves a pun on /Vasju;!/', the ' ha/.e ' characteristic of spring weather in Japan. 



Nine Strokes 312 

SHA ; SA, HA; (hito). mono ('a thing, person, agent'). 125. /J^ | 
komouo (' an inferior samurai, servant '). 





Contraction of ^ (xi). 
^ Old form of \\^ (xj, 72. 
Iw> TAN; (siimi). siimi ('charcoal'). 86. | ^ Tannomiya (f. swo.). 
^^ [Full form: ^.] SHI; SHI; (kore). kore, kokoni ('this, here'). 95. 



"fc^^ 




-gill [Old form: 'j^] SEN (rare), ZEN; maye, -saki ; (chika, saki, Susumu). 
•^-* wave, saki ('front, before, former'). See p. 39, B. As zen or saki 

no before names or titles, 'formerly called . . .', 'ex-', see p. 96, (1); as 
-no-maye, an honorific affix to names of noble ladies; as -maye (-mai) after 
a Buddhist temple-name, see p. 10, note 2. 18. 

I ^ Maye-jima (is. ; f. ptr., met.), ^ -ga-dake (m.). Towns : | ffl 
Maye-da (f. swo., sculp. ; also Maita as t. and f.), / }±_ -nosho, ]^ -bara (f.), 
-baru, ^ M -gasu, ^P -go, '^^ -zawa (f. ptr.), j^ -bashi (f. ptr.). 

Other Surnames : | jl| Maye-gawa (ptr.), P -guchi, \\\ -yama (ptr.), 
:^ -ki, B3 j'l -dagawa (met.), ^ -mura (ptr.), ^ -nami, ^ -gura, ^ -be, 
if -no (ptr.), ^ -zono. | ^ zenji (tit.). | UM mayegashira, \ J^ zenza 
(grades of wrestlers and of professional raconteurs respectively). 

SHU, SHU. kobe ('the head'); kubi ('the head, neck'); obito (anct. 

tit.). As shii, a numeral-suffix for poems (see p. 40). 183. 

I M. Shuri, formerly Sukuri (t.). | ^ y|^ Shubi-nomatsu (pine-tree; 

shiibi, 'favourable opportunity'). I /^ Shurei (see p. 86). | fg Kubi-nobu 

(geisha, ' Nobu of the [beautiful] neck'). | ^ shuka (the 4th month). 

I ^ kadode ('setting out on a journey'). 

^ KIO, KO. Chinese surname. 38. | ^ Kio-shi (Chiang Shih, 
l)aragon), ^ yf -shiga (Tzu-ya, Chin. hero). 

[Variant: ^. ] P)I, Ml; MI; yoshi, {haru, tomi) ; zok., Yoshi-, -mi. 
utsukushii, uriiwashii (' beautiful 'j ; lunashi ('sweet, nice, skilful'); 
yomi-suru ('to esteem'). 123. 

[Compare H (p- 150), ^ (xi).] I i'^ Mimasaka (prov.). | i^ Mino 
([)r. ; k. of Iwami ; brothel, -)a ^). Other Koui : | "^ Mi-kata (Tajima, 
mod.), "^ -gumi (Tajima), j.t^ -ma (Ashu ; f.), -mu (same k.), ^ -ne 
(Choshuj, ^ -ki, -naki, later -no (Harima). | ^] Utsukushi-yama, | "J^ 
^ tl4 Migoto-yama (m.). | ig ^f )\\ or | ^}r> j^ }\\ Minano-gawa (r.). 





313 Nine Strokes 

Towns : | )\\ Mi-kawa, // ^ -midzii (r.), -y* -kamo, tC ^ -yeji 

(Nakasendo stage 15), i^ 7 119 -onoseki, ^ -naki. | f^ P^ Bifuku-mon 

(gate of Kioto) ; I IS P^ I5c Bifuku-monin (Empress). Other Surnames : 

I 5 Mi-tama, H -ta, '^ -tsu, ^ -ke, '3s -zoye, @ ig -dzugaki, ^ M 

-dzuya, i§ ^ -nobe, i^ H -nowa. 

I ^ Haru-ko (Empress). | A Yosliito (joro) ; bijin, \ ^ hijo ('a 
beauty']. | # Mitsuma (/oro). | ^fQ Uma-shine, ^ -ki (n.). | ^ 
J;b M Mi-keimaro, ^ -^ -haru, ^ !& >[c ^ -yakodayu, ^ -sato, ^g -tate, 
ii^ -on (n.). i aC or I ^ ;nzYate, for Ji ^t (p- 246). 

KAKU, KIAKU. kaiva ('leather'); aratameru ('to renew'). 177. 
I ^ Kodo (tem.). 

BO, MO. nanigashi, sore[gashi] ('So-and-so'). 75. 

JIN. hanahada ('very, superlative'). Distinguish from ^ (kan) as a 
2ofeMm/o-initial. 99. ! @ ^ Jimokuji (t.). 







^ Variant of ^ (p. 285). 

-;Mj' HAN, HON. A plant name and Chinese surname. 140. 

• Lj I f^ Hampo (Fan Pao, sennin). \ ^ Hanrei (Fan Li, Chin. hero). 

YEN, ON; (sono). souo ('a garden'). 140. 

HHk BIO, MIO ; {naye). nave ('young shoots'). 140. 

mJ j f^ ^J Naye-ba-zan (m.), ^ jlj -sliiki-yanui (m.), yfc -ki or -gi 

(t-), '('^ J'l -shirogawa (t. pottery, also read Nawa-). | ;|sj- Nawaniura (f. 

met.). I fl Bioriu (Miao Lung, sennin). | ^ minji ("surname'). 

■** SHO, SO. tsuto, kusadziito ('a straw wrap[)er', see ^, x). Distinguish 
-Ha from ^ (xii) and g (xiii). 140. 

BO, MIO; CHI; kaya, chi ; (chi). kaya, chi ftw(» reeds, Miscauthus 

sinensis and Imperata ariindinacea). 140. 
[Compare ^ (xiii) and ^|B (xiv).] | >^ tf^ij Chi-gasaki (t.), ^ -nu 
(anct. pal; f.), if^ -ne, 'j^ -nu (f.). | ]^, Kaya-bara, IL'p -no (f.), i|- HJ 
-ba-cho (street of Yedo). | ^ Bo-yei {Mnu Ying), i^ -mo (Meng), 
sennin. 




Ba Variant of ^ (xi). 140. 

^S TAI, DAI; TO. koke ('moss'j. 140. 



Nine Strokes 314 

HbH KO. KT ; KU. kurnshimu ('to suffer"); nigashi ('bitter, cruel"). 140. 
FJ I ;|;^ Xiga-bayashi (t.), ;j^l^ -momo (f.). | ;^C Sliimoto (n.). 

-tt^ JAKl\ XIAKU; waka; u>aka, (yoshi); 2o/e., Waka-. wakashi ('young"). 
^t5 As -waka, a sullix to boys' names (see p. 68). 140. 

[Compare 5fn h^ (p. 270).] I ^^j^ Waka-sa (or | '>H Jakushu, pr.), 
tC -ye (k. and t. of Kawachi ; f.), ^ IJJ -kusa-yama (m.). Other Towxs : 
I t^ Waka-bayaslii (f. ptr., met.), J^ -matsu (is.; f. ptr. ; joro; brothel, 
-ya ^), i$ -tsu, ^^p -yanagi (joro), -yagi (same t.), jp^ ^ -miko, ;^ -za or 
-sa (-zakura as anct. pal.). | 31 ^ Niakuo-ji (tern.). | ^ (or ^)f)) J% 
\\'akana-ya (brothel). 

Other Surnames: | ^ Jakushi (f. or n. ptr. and met.); | ]\\ Waka- 
-vama (met., actor), yji -midzu (n. poetess; lit. 'first water' drawn in new 
year), ;+; -gi, ^ -i, j^ -tsuki (ptr.), -da, (^ -shiro, g H -meda, 
Yi -take, ^ -sugi, ^ -mi, J^ -o (ptr.), ^ -miya (lit. 'young prince", also 
a grade of Shinto tem.), % -be, ^ -na (joro; kid gen ; see also p. 118, 
xxxiv, xxxv), ^ -mori, ^ -tsuka, gj -zone, 1^ -tsuki, i% -fuji. 

I ^ Waka-ko (poet and court-lady), >[<: ^ -tayu (mus.), ^ -otoko 
(— Chujo rfi ^, dram, pers.), ^ -me (poetess). Other Joro: | ^'j; Waka- 
-taye, ^)f> (for '^^] -na, ^ -ura, :f§ -ume, u^ -murasaki, ^ -ba. | H A 
waka-sanjin (see p. gg), ^ -s/n7, ^ -mono ('a youth"), rl^ ^ -doshiyori 
(tit.), [i^] ^j )(lj -me-kari (fest.). 

SEN. toma ('a mat covering"). 140. 

I EH Toma-da (mod. k. of Mimasaka ; f.), /l> '-l^ -komai (t., Ainu 
Toniako-nai, ' tiie stream issuing from the back of the lake'). 

J4-* SETSU, SECHI. mnyeru ('to sprout"). 140. 



S 



w VEI, YO ; YE; hide, tevu, jiisa, (-akira) \ 20k., Yei-, rarely Hide-. 
^^ hanabusa ('a flower"); hiideru ('to excel"). 140. 

I ^ Yeikoku, in compounds | Yei ('England, English"); | ^ ^ij ^ 
Igirisu (same). | gj (or ^) Aita or Aida (k. of Mimasaka) ; | ^ Ago 
(k. of Shima). | y^ il| Yehiko-san or Hiko-san (ni.). | J:t }\\ Yebi-kawa 
(r.). I Hanabusa (f. ptr.). | X\. Yeda (f.). | ^ yei-wei (' renowned "), 
i^ -y/7 ('famous personage, hero"). 

I lO : Shigeru. tsutomerii ('to wrap"). See ^ (x). 140. 
I lU liv Tsuto-yamabushi (kiogtn). 

])( ), M( ) ; .1/0: shige ; shige, Shigevu, (mochi, moto) ; zok., Mo-, verv 

rarely Sliige-. shigeru ('to be luxuriant"). 140. 
[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 306).] Towns: /J^ | 51 Komota; 






315 Nine Strokes 

I :^ Mo-ki, -gi (f.), -ffj -ichi, ^ -oi, f{-: -zumi, ]^, -bara, ^ -niwa (f. 

Ptr-)^ iS M -heji. Other Surnames: | ffl Shigeta ; 1 Ji Mo-gami, 

^ ;;^ -teki (see also p. 86), g -ro. | ^ Shige-ko (Empress). | ^ 
Moto (n.). 

A>V KAN. sao ('a bamboo pole'). 118. 
* I "^ jnl Sawatari-no-taki (fall). 

nrt TAN, DAN. asa/ii (' the dawn '). Used for PJJ (mei) in a painter's 
* signature. 72. 

>^ SEI, SH(.) ; Habtiku, (yoshi, mi); zok., Sei- or Sho-. kayerhniru ('to 
H look back on ') ; habuku (' to abridge ') ; tsukasa (' office '). See 

p. 82. log. 

KAI ; mina ; {tomo). mina ('all'). 106. 

[Compare ^ (xii), ^ (p. 310).] Towns: | ^ Kai-ya, ^ -hotsu ; 
I jlj Mina-gawa (f. ptr., met.), f\ -dzuki. Other Surnames : I llj 
Mina-yama (met.), :^ -ki, ^ -kiri. | f| Minadzuru (joro) : .Minadzuru- 
-hime $g (leg. pers.). 

^Hi HAl, HE; HE, SE ; se, -shiro. se, sena[ka], iishivo ('the back, rear'). 
F3 Interchanged with ^ (x). 130. 

4l4^ SAI, ZAI ; SA ; shiba ; zok., Shiba-. shiba ('brushwood'). 73. 
^^ [Compare ^ (p. 286).] | [fl Shiba-ta (k. of Oshu ; f. ptr., met., 
sculp., lacq.), ilj -yama (m. ; t. ; f.), ^ -gaki (anct. pal.). Other Surnames: 
I Shiba ; /h | Koshiba (ptr.) ; | ^|- Shiba-i, ;^ -moto (met.), fS) -oka, 
^ -miya, |^ -hara, |1|§ -saki, if -no, ;^ -hashi. 

ij^ Complex form of 4^, 'seven' (p. 148). 75. 

^^ SEN (ZEN), NEN; some; zok., Some-. so;)zt'7-u ('to dye, stain'). 85. 
^^oC I ^ Some-i (dist. of Yedo), ffl -ta (t.), ^ -dono (dyehouse of 

Impl. pal., hence sobriquets of exalted persons, such as Somedono-no-kisaki 
^, -no-otodo ^ 1^1, -shikibukio-no-miya ^ "^ ^11 '^). Other Surnames : 
I jlj Some-kawa (ptr.; jovn), ^ -va (ptr., met.), M -ya, |l}^ -zaki, ?f -no 
(met.). I ^ Some-ko (hist, pers.), |lj -yama, ^ |^ -nosuke (yoro). | tg. 
# ^ "^ P^ ^^ Some-moyo Imose no Kadomatsu (jdriiri). \ ^ sempitsu 
(' autograpli "). 

3H KA, KE; hashi. fana ('a shelf); tatern, kamayeru ('to build"). 73. 

Jbn. YEN, ON; 0. uramu ('to hate'); aJa ('an enemy'). 61. 
ilii^ I s^ yenkon ('a ghost'). 



Nine Strokes 316 

-ffX I^O' ^'U; DO, NU. ikari ('wrath'). As do, one of the Four (Seven) 
^'^'^ Passions (see pp. 102, 49, 10b, 74). 61. 

KI. As hi or midzunoto, see p. 63. 103. 

I ^ )\\ Mibukawa (f.). 
KEI ; Cliigivii. chigivii ('to ally, pledge, unite, betroth'); wariju ('a 






^ divided tally'). As kei, 'a covenant, assignation'. 37. 

I )\\ Chigiri-gawa (r.). | vi|i Iveichu (priest). | >\^ keisei, A I 
hakkei, i)unningly for (fJi ^ (xiii), A .i. (p- 107, 79). 

ii^C SHI. sugata ('form, appearance, fashionable'). 38. 
-^^ I J'l Sugata-gawa (r.), ^ -mi, Sf -no (juro), ^ ;j^ -mi-no-hashi 

(bridge in Yedo), M ~M Jm -yebi-ya (brothel). I |^ siigataye ('a portrait'). 
H W I tsi{ki hiaku-sugata (' the moon in a hundred phases'). 

1^* KO, KU ; atsu ; atsu, Atsushi. atsushi ('thick, kind, liberal'). Dis- 
' J" " tinguish from ]^ (x). 27. 

[Compare ^ (-^v).] | ^ Asa (k. and t. of Choshu), Aza, Atsuza, 
Adzusa (same k.) ; Atsusa-nosuke ^ ^j* (20k.). | ^ Atsu-mi (k. of Mine; 
f-K ^ lU -gashi-yama (m.), ;fc -gi (t.; f.j. ffl -ta (t.), i^ -ike, # -taka (f.). 

I 'M Koto (f.). 

TEN (RIN). A length and a weight (see pp. 65, 66). 27. 

SHL'X, JUX; {tate). tate ('a shield'). Compare ;J^" (xiii). 109. 
I ^Ij Tatanami (Imperial tumulus). 

typ TO, DZU; DO; tabi; nori, TFataru, (yoshi). nori ('law'); tabi ('time, 
-^-^ occasion "). As do, ' a degree ' of time or heat. Confused with "^j^ 

* 

(xii). 53. I -^ Watarai or \\'ataraye (k. of Ise ; f. ptr.). 

OKU; YA; ya; ya, (iye). ya, iye ('a house'); as -ya, a suffix denoting 
a. shop, place of business, studio, brothel, etc., or else the person 
carr}-ing on business therein (see p. 6g, note 2). 44. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. ig6).] Islands: | j^j Ya-shima 
(t.), ^ M -ku-shima, \\;_ ^ -sliiro-jima. Other Towns : ;^ | i|j i^- 
Oyaichiba; /Jn i Koya ; | {-^^ Ya-shiro (f.), iiJJ -ji, ^ -kata (lit. 'deck- 
house, mansion';. Other Surnames: ;^ } Oya ; | ^' Ya -tomi, l^\ -se. 
I ^D ;i ;(;■ Yachi-no-kata (hist. pers.). | ^}), | )|c yashiki ('a mansion, 
daimio's seat '). 

11 I'd, lilO (BIO). ou ('to cover, screen'). 44. 

I M. ^''o6u ('a screen'); Biobu-ga-ura i^ (shore;. 

^\ Sill. siikoshi ('a little"). See p. 146, line 10. 30. 






R 



mil 





317 Nine Strokes 

HEN, BEN. fiida ('a tablet'). Distinguish from ^ (p. 271). 63. 
I SI Henjaku (Pien Ch'iao, Chin, worthy). 

BI, MI ; BI. mayu (' an eyebrow '). 109. 

I llj Bi-san (m.). | tj^ Mayuwa (prince). | \{!\ J^ Mikenjaku, 
leg. pers., 'whose brows were a foot apart', but | f^ M m Bikeng6-6, 
pseudonym of analogous significance. 

^tfQ YEKI, YAKU. yeyami ('a plague'). 104. 
^>*C I f^ yakuyoke (epithet of Kobo-daishi, priest). 

HI; HI, TO; tobi ; {taka). tobu ('to fly, leap'). 183. 

[Compare homophones under (p. 184).] | 51 Hida (pr. ; f.) ; 
I ^'1 Hishu (same pr.). J;^ \ ^ Otobi-jima (is.). | ^ Tobi-jima (is.), 
-shima (t. ; Hishima as f.), ^^ -ne ft.), ffl -ta (dist. of Osaka; f. met.; also 
Tobita and Hida as f.). | J% Asuka^ (t. ; two ancient capitals— compare 
ill and ii; m., -yama ; r.) ; Asuka-i ^ (f. ptr.), -be fjp (f-)- I ^ ^ 
Hiun-kaku (building). 

Other Surnames: | ^. Tobi-shi, g -kumo (Hiun as no); | y]c Hi- 
-naga, 5f M -dase. | ^i Hirai (n. lacq.). ;^ (/h) | Hi 0(Ko)tobide 
(masks). | {f§ ^ Hiteishi (horse). | M M ^ M Tobikoye-shimbochi 
{kiogen). I ^ hisha (chesspiece). 

^^^ SAI ; ya, (toshi). kana (exclamatory final particle). 30. 

Variant of 75 (P- ^44)' ^^p. as no, 'of. 54. 

V^ [\'ariant : 5®.] KWAI, YE ; 0, WA ; {nori). meguru, mawaru (' to 
revolve, circulate, tour'). Interchanged with m (p. 232). 54. 
I ^ kwaikoku ('a pilgrimage to [holy places in] various provinces'); 
M I taki-megiivi ('a visit to various waterfalls'). | j^ || maivavi-dovo 
('a revolving lantern, wheel of life'). 

KEN; tate ; take. tatevu ('to establish, fix'). 54. 

[Compare homopliones under jt (p. 198).] | fH {^) ^ Ken-nin 
(-cho)-ji (tern.), ^ f'^ -rei-mon (gate of Kioto), J^ ^^ ^ -rei-monin 
(Empress). Surnames : | ji| Tate-kawa, ^ -ishi, ^ -batake, ^ -no, 
^ -be (ptr. ; also Takebe). | |? '^ # Takemikadzuchi-no-kami, [ | jg] 
M i^ ^ ^ ^ [Takehaya-]Susanoo-no-mikoto (d.). 

> Formerly written BJ §=, 'the morrow's or dawn's fragrance", the later orthography being 
derived from tobutori no ('of the flying birds'), an early poetical stock epithet (makura-kotoba) for 
this place-name. Compare ^ Q, p. 311. 






Nine Strokes (M, contd.) 318 

Nexgo: I ^ Ken-kiu (1190-98), fn -nin (1201-03), % -gen (1302), 
^ -yei (1206), i^ -ji (1275-77), ^ "Cho (1249-55); | |^ Kem-mu (1334-35), 
^ -p6 (1213-18); I ^ Ken-toku (1370-71), @ -reki, -riaku (1211-12). 

vljrt KA (KIA) ; KA, KE. Represents the Sanskrit sound ka or kia. 162. 
^>— » Deities: | ^. J;: Ka-gutsuchi, ^ ^ -senyen, H -sho (= ^ )p^). 
Rakan : I ^ Kari ; I |^ I tic ^ Kiadakabassha. | ^ M Iflll kariobinga 
(myth, creat.). 

■^«^ HAKU, BIAKU ; SE ; seko, sako, hazama. semaru (' to press upon, 
*^*^ approach'). 162. 

^ I Ohazama, Ikosa (t.), Oseko, Osako (f.). I jlj Hazama-gawa 
(r.). I dl] Hazama (t.), Sakoma (f.). | 7X Sakomi, | H Sekoda (f.). 
I P^ sefo ('a strait'). 

j ^vjy Contraction of jg (xix). 

^£ SHU, SU ; (sum/). todomaru ('to stop'). 162. 

Affl^ TEKI, CHAKU ; {michi). michibiku (' to guide '). 162. 

tJJL JUTSU ; Nobiiru, (nobii). noberu, noburii ('to state'). 162. 

yjM CHO (SHO); {tern, aki, -akira). akiraka ('bright'). 72. 

'ft^/ BEX, MEN; Tsiitoniu, {nari). tsutomeru ('to exert oneself). 19. 

^Q^ I; /; take, Takeshi, (toshi). ogosoka ('stern, majestic'); odosu ('to 
'-5v\ frighten'); takeshi ('strong, brave'). As i, also 'influence, power, 
dignity '. 38. | ^ Take-ko (Empress). 

KAX. mi)ia ('all'). 30. 

I^f L\'ariants : jg^, |H .] FU, FU ; kaza-, -kaze ; kaze. kaze (wind'); 
^ ^ fiiri, -buri, also as /«, 'fashion, style'. See also p. 39, B. 182. 

I ^ Kaza-haya (k. of lyo ; f.), ^ ^ -haya-no-ura (shore). | ^ \\\ 
Fucho-zan (m.). | Jg ^ Kazeya-taki (fall). Towns : I g Euro (lit. 
'boiler, bath-tub'); | '^ Kaza-nami, ^ -mori, fa\ -ma (f.). | ^ Kaza- 
-kiri, ^ -rnatsuri (f.). | ^ Futen, | j{i'\\ Fujin, Kaze-no-kami (d.). ^ \ 
taifu (' typhoon ") ; I ^ fu-getsu (' landscape, nature '), .P; -kei (' a fine piece 
of scenery '), -fg: -zoku (' a custom '), ^ -riil, ^% -ga (' elegant '). 




319 Nine and Ten Strokes 

[^ Variant of ^ (p. 290). 

|^Ia| YO, YU. ktirashi ('dark'); hartika ('dim'). 52. 

■^ I A yii-jin (' a hermit '), g -rei, s^ -kon (' a ghost '). 

iPjpn Common variant of j§ (p. 290). 17. 



[^1 Old form of ^ (xi). 31. 

"^'0, U. kagiru ('to limit'); sono ('a garden'). 31. 




n 



TEN STROKES. 

[Variants: gj, H^.] TO, TSU ; TSU. tatakau ('to fight'). 191. 
I H" Tsuke or Tsuge (anct. village). 



/^^ KO, GU ; (toki). samurau ('to be in attendance on'); soro, soro ('to 
■'^ be ' or an almost meaningless complimentary expletive in the 
epistolary style). As ko, 'weather, time'. Distinguish from ^ (p. 292). 9. 

/^C [Variant: "jj^.] SHU, SHU ; naga, Osamu, {osa, sane), nagashi ('long'); 

osameru ('to rule, study, repair'); totonoyeru ('to arrange, equip'). 9. 

I ||( ^ Shuzen-ji (t.). | f^ f]ff Shukio-kwan (school). | .^ j^ 

Shugen-do (Bud. order, its priests called shugenja | ,I^t ^ or yamabushi 

\h it)- I m shuri (see p. 85). 

il^ [Variants : j^, ^.] JO ; {naga, yeda). koyeda (' a twig '). As jo, 
'an article, item'; see also p. 40. 75. 
Surnames: | Koyeda; ^ \ Daijo ; | 5? Jono. 

yjh HAl, BAI. tawamure ('sport, fun'). 9. 

"' I (or ^) ig hai-kai (variety of Japanese poem), \ -;'", jll] -s^" 

(professional composer of same), ^ -mid (see p. 69, (7)). | (^ haiyu, 
yakusha ('actor'), haiyu, wazaoki (dance or its performer). 

[Contraction: |^*.] HO. navau ('to imitate'). 9. 

I ^ ^ JVf M Shonzui shosei iii navau, 'made in imitation of tlie 
work of Shonzui (potter)'. 




Ten Strokes 320 

JbL ^'"^''^'"^^ *'^ ^^ ^P- -91)- 

/^ HAI, BAI ; BE; masu. masu ('to increase'). 9. 

IM j^ I nibai ('twice'), etc. | g baishin ('indirect vassal'). 

/tt GU (KU); KU, GU ; (tomo, moto). tomo ni ('together'). g. 
1^ I ffi M. /# Gubiro-jin (d.). | M (or M) M B kurikara (the 

sacred sword entwined by a dragon; epithet of Fudo, d. ; Kurikara-dani ^, 
valley; see also ^, x). \ P M. 'M Kushira-no-taki (fall). 

RIX; tomo, (michi, tsune). tagui ('sort'). As r/n, J\^ \ jinrin, 'human 
relationships'. 9. 
I WC^ I W) Rondon (London). | ^ Tomo-ko (poetess). 
WA (I); WA ; (shidzu). tsutsushimn ('to respect'). 9. 

I Yamato (Japan ; f. ; jovd). ^ \ Yamato (f. ; n.). | :i\i ^ 
Yamato-no-taiko (poetess). | ^ shidzu[ri], shidori (anct. name for coarse 
stuffs), Shidori (t. ; f. ; n.) ; Shidzu-ko ^ (poetess), -hiko ^ (n.). | ^ 
Yaniato-riu (school of painting), ^ 0f -meisho ('famous scenes in Japan'). 







'jrt' Contraction of ^ (xiii). 

l^ SAl, SE. soyeru (to add'). Used as a variant of '\^ (p. 236). 9. 

CHI, JI. an ('to meet'); neuchi ('price, value'). 9. 

I ^ Chika (f.) ; Chika-no-yasoshima A ~h ^ (archipel.). /J\ | 
^ Kochiga-shima (is.). 

pTp I ; (yori). yoru (' to depend on '). 9. 

^ HIO. tawava ('a straw bag', for rice, charcoal, etc.). 9. 

I Tawara (f.). | :^ Tawara-tsu (t.j, M ~y^ (f- ptr.)- 

SHA (SHAKU), SEKI. karti ('to borrow, rent'). 9. 

B I M Kariya (f.). 

Variant for ^ (xiv). 9. 
Contraction of g§ (xvii). 



I 






Hf 



Vrp [^'ariant : jj^i^.i RIO; (suke). susushi ('cool, clear, pure'). 15. 

• "* I Suzushi (poetess). | ^ Suzunami {jovd). If^j | norio, susumi, 

rS' I or n^ I yusuzumi ('cooling oneself at night'). 

TO, TSU. kovi ('ice'). 15. 







321 Ten Strokes 

Contraction of i^ (xiii), used esp. in the titles | ^ jitn-ko, ;^ g^ 
-daijin, H "^ -sangu. 15. 

KEI, KIO ; (tsune). komichi ('a lane, path'). 60. 

JO. omomiiro ni (' slowly, gently '). 60. Sennin : I fg Jo-fuku 
l> (Hsu Fu), -^ iP -sakei (Tso-ch'ing), ^ -wan (Wan). 

'tli TO, DZU ; DZU ; (iomo). tomogara (' followers ') ; kachi (' on foot ') ; 

1^*-' itadzura ni ('aimlessly'). 60. 

I BJ Kachi-machi (street-name). | ^ Hadashi (n., ' bare-foot ') 

I f^ tsiiredzure ('tedious hours'); Tsuredzure-gusa ^, classic, 'Otiana'. 

I 1^ totei {'a pupil'). | ^ kachi-ivatari ('a shallow ford'), ^ ^^ -giuni 
(' a shogun's escort '). 

vA [Also written ^.] RO ; RA ; nami, na- ; {uami, kiyo) ; zok., Nami-. 
"*^ nami ('a wave'). 85. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 258.)] | ^, \ 0, \ ^ Xaniwa, 
variants for ^ ^ as anct. and poet, name for Osaka, t. ; | :^{£ (or 0) *^ 
Naniwa-gata (same). Other Towns : | ■ji\;_ Nabuto ; | %£ Nami-ye (n.), 
IS) -oka, ^ -nohira. Surnames : | ^ Nagoshi ; I ^ ^ Nambatei ; | )\\ 
Nami-kawa, ^ -ai, 5f -no. /Jx | Konami (dram. pers.). | ^ Namikai 
(swo.). I X ro-nin, •i' -shi ('a masterless samurai'). 

SHO, SHU; SU ; saka-. sake ('rice-wine'). Distinguish from yg 

(p. 294). 164. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 237.)] Towns : \ ^ ^ Shusui 

or Suzui (latter as f.) ; | 03 Saka-ta (for ^ 09), M -ya (lit. ' wine-shop '). 

I t/f ^ Sakaori-no-miya i,anct. pal.). Other Surnames : I Ji Saka-noye, 

^ -wa (r.), ^ -i (ptr., met.), JiJ -de (met.), [pj -muki, ^ -yori, ^ -maki, 

M ~i» M. -idzumi, |3^ -be (anct. gild), ^ -ba. 

I ^ Sake-no-kimi ('Prince Chyu ', Korean); ^ | ^ Hata no Sake- 
-no-kimi (hist. pers.). | j^ (wrongly ^) ^ ^ Shuten-doji (myth. pers.). 
I H^ Sakagura [kiogen). \ ^ shuyen, sakamori (' a banquet '). I 1^ 
shuro, vioriya ('a restaurant'). 

Vq Variant of :^ (p. 294). 
y^ Contraction of g (xii). 

5'lB [^^riant: :^.] YO, YU ; waku ; (waku). wakn ('to boil'). 85. 
■™ I ^ Waku-ya (or Yuya), ^ -tsu (t.), ^ -i, B9 -da, ^ -shima 

(^•)- I _h Vtfe Wakiage-ike (water). 

21 






Ten Strokes 322 

yyfcSHUN. fukashi {'deep'). S^. 

*^^ I ^ P)c Shummio-in (lyeharu, shogun). 

FU, FU ; FU ; uki ; (chika). uku, ukahii ('to float, swim'); uki- 
('floating, fleeting'). 85. 
I '/^ Uki-ana (k. of lyo ; anct. pal. ; Ukena as same k. and f.), 
^ -ha (mod. k. of Chikugo), i^ -tsu (t.), B9 -ta (f. ptr.), ^ -shima (f. ; 
joYo ; moor, -ga-hara ]^), ji]- -fune {no ; Genji Chapter li ; joro). \ ^ 
Fuke (f.). I ^ Futo (Buddha ; futo-ke ^, ' a Buddhist '). | £ f|^ 
Fukiuhaku (Fou Ch'iu-po, sennin). \ \\jr iikiyo (' the fleeting or passing 
world'), Ukiyo (nickname of Iwasa Matabei, ptr., as founder of the Ukiyo-ye 
^ school of painting); Ukiyo-koji /Jn j^ (street of Yedo). | ^ itkiye ('a 
perspective drawing'). I ;j^ ukihashi, funabashi (' a bridge of boats*). 

KAI ; umi, una-, un-, -mi, ama ; [umi, -mi) ; zok., Umi-. inni, ama 

('the sea'). See also tlie next entry. 85. 
[Compare ^ (p. 246).] | ^ Kaidai, pg I Shikai (' within the 
seas", 'the four seas', sc, Japan, the world). Kori : | ^ Ama (Oki ; f. ; 
lit. 'fisher'); | Ji Unagami (Shimosa ; f. ; see also below); | "^ Kaisai, 
I ^ Kaito (also Ama-no-nishi, -no-higashi, both of Owari and Mino; Kaito 
as f.) ; I i^i Ama or Abe (Kishu), Amabe or Kaibu (Ashu), Ama, Amabe 
or Umbe (Bungo ; Amabu, Kaibu or Kaibe as f.) ; | ^ Kai-so (Kishu, 
mod.), ^ -dzu (Mino, mod. ; t. ; f.). 

I P^ Kaimon (cape) ; K.-ga-dake ^ ^ (m.)- I 1^ @ M Mirume-no- 
-ura (shore ; see below). Other Towns : | 5f P Unnokuchi (f.) ; | B3 Tfj 
Kai-daichi, ^ -shu, j^ -ji. | ^ ^ Kaian-ji (tem.). 

Other Surnames: | Ama; | ff Unno (ptr., met.); I ]^ Unabara; 
:k. I i^ Ounabara ; | r)b Kai-hoku (ptr.), -da (also I'mida, f. ptr.), 
01 ffl -yeda (also Umiyeda), i^ ^, -ho, ^ -go, ^ -ga, i| -be, ^ "do; 
I J^];: Unii-matsu (see also below), / ^ -noya. 

I tl i Kairiuo (the Dragon King). | $|f ^ Kaisenshi (Hai-shan- 
-tzu, sennin). ;^ | Omi (n.). | \ Ama {no; lit. 'fisher'); :^ \ \ M. ~f' 
Oama-oji or Okiama-no-6ji (— Temmu, 40th Mikado). | ^ ^ umibozu 
(myth, creat.). | |1^ kaikid (' straits '). | ^ aonori, \ yj^ mirii[me] (two 
sp. of seaweed). | _t, after a place-name, . . . no kaijo, 'at sea off ; . .' 

M ^ I^AIRO; yebi. yebi ('a prawn, lobster'); Yebi (f.). | | ig 

Yebi-na (t. ; f.), ^ -ya (brothel), ^ -jima, ]^ -hara, J§| 
-dzuka (f.). 

vj^ RIC, RU; RU; {haru, tomo). nagasii ('to let flow, abandon '; ; nagareru 
ViL ('to flow, float, be lost'); nagare ('a current, descent, style, strayed'). 
As rill, esp. 'a style, school'. See p. 98, 11. 83. 



323 Ten Strokes 

I llj Nagareyama (t.). I H M yabusame (' archery on horseback ', 
see p. 99, 25). | ^t yiitko ('fashionable'). 

^tt\ SHO, JO; Wataru. kachiivatarii ('to wade over'). 85. 
■^'^ I JE Shosei (Sheh Cheng, sennin). 

%y>Hh» SHO; iyoshi). kiyeru ('to melt away, disappear, die'); kesu (active 
iH form). Ss. 

*7d^ HO, FU ; FU, RA ; ura, -ra ; (ura) ; zok., Ura-. ura (' a coast, shore, 
• IH coast-village 'j. 85. 

Towns : ^ | Oura (f. ; n.) ; | jl| TJra-gawa (f. ptr.), ^ -do, 
B9 -ta (f.), ^ -sa, {£ -tome, i^ ^ ittJ: -shishiki, |p -wa (Nakasendo stage 
67), gf -no (f.), ^ -ga, ^ -tomi. Other Surnames: | Ura; | ^ Hoki; 

I _h TJra-kami (ptr.), ilj -yama, P -guchi, ^{^ -i (ptr.), ig -na (ptr.), 
:g^ -ya, -tani, pg) -oka, ;f^ -matsu, |}|5 -be (met.), ^ -shima, ^ -be, ^ -se. 

I M Urazato (myth. pers.). | 1^ d^, U^ Urashimataro (hist, pers., see pp. 
98, 99, 17; properly called xK CC I ^ "f Midzunoye Uranoshimako^). 






^ GO; {nori). satoru ('to know'). 61. I ^ Satori (n.). 
'^ YETSU, YECHI; (yoshi). yorokobu ('to rejoice'). 61. 

^loR TEI, TAI ; {yoshi, yasii). 'Fraternal affection'. 61. 

BAl, MAI. umeru, udzumeru ('to fill up, bury'). 32. 
I ,£, Umetada (f. swo., met.). 

SEI (rare), jO; shiro, ki; {shiro, ki, mura, kuni, shige); zok., Jo-, shiro, 
kl ('a castle, fortress'). As jo, esp. the 'castle-town' of a daimiate, 
sometimes particularized by prefixing the province-initial (see pp. 120-2) or 
one of the characters of the town-name, as with }^ (p. 287) and |^ (xii). 32. 
[Compare, for Shiro-, Q (p. 195), \X (187), and, for Ki- h.omophones 
under ;?Jc (176).] | ^i Jo-shu (Yamashiro pr.), ^ ^ -ga-shima (is.), ^ ^ 
-ga-saki (cape). Kori : /J^ | Ogi (Hizen ; f. ; also Kojiro as t. and f.) ; 
I "^ Kiko, later | ^ Kito or Joto (Totomi) ; | ^ Kinosaki (Tajima). 
Other Towns: | J^ Kido (f.) ; | \\\ Jo-yama (Shiroyama as f.), [->*] ^ 
-gahana (lacq.), ^ ^ -gwanji. 

Other Surnames: j Jo, Shiro; ^ \ Osliiro; | ^ Ki-i, Ji -nokami, 
^ -dokoro, ^ -shima; | ^ Shiro-kura, j^ -tsuka. | f^ jo-dai, ^ -shii, 
1^ -ban (tit.), "J*" -ka (' a castle-town '), ^ -nai (' within the castle '). 






' So Haga. Aston in his translation of the Niliongi (under date 478 a.d.) renders this ' the 
child of Urashima of Midzunoye ' (Midzu-no-yej. 








Ten Strokes 324 

BETSU, BECHI; or HATSU, HACHI. sabaku ('to sell off, disentangle, 
adjudicate '). Used as a complex form of A (p- 145), ' eight '. 64. 

" " YEN. siitcru ('to throw away'); yudanevii ('to entrust'). 64. 

il^p KAN, GAN ; Mamoru. mamoru ('to ward off, defend'). 64. 

-Wt^ KIO, GIO ; or SHO. sashihasamu ('to insert, cherish'); hasamn ('to 
4y\' pinch, cut with scissors'). Confused with ^ below. 64. 

HO, BU. torayern (' to seize, catch, arrest '). 64. 
I i^ rI5 ^ Totoribe no Vorodzu (hist. pers.). 

SHIX ; furu, -buri. fuvu, jiiru ('to brandish, scatter, carry, exercise 
influence over"). See also p. 39. 64. 
I ffl l^»I -j^ li Furutamuki-no-sukune (poet). | ^ Furi-hime, 
;^ ;;^ -no-kata (hist. pers.). 

SOX; (liiko); zok., Mago-. mago (* a grandchild, grandson'). 39. 
*^ I ^ fiP Magojiro {sok. ; dram. pers.). | '|§ ^ Songoku (myth, 

ape). Chinese Personages : | ^ Sompin (Sun Pin) ; | J^ Son-shin 
(Sun Ch'en), J^ -ko (K'ang), U ^ -shikugo (Shu-ao), ^ -to (Teng), ^, ^ 
-shibaku (Ssu-mo) ; I H ^ Sombaigio (Sun Mai-yii). ^ (or X) I 
Sumemima[go] ('the August Grandson', i.e. the Emperor as descendant of 
the Sun Goddess). 

yt}h RO. okami (the Japanese Wolf, Canis hodophylax). 94. 
'vi^ I ^ Okami-goye (pass). | jBJ ]^ Oinugawara (t.). 

Rl. tanuki (the so-called 'badger', a raccoon, Canis procynoides ; 
mujina and mami, the names of two allied animals, are properly 
written with other characters). 94. 

I ^ Mujinamori (t.). | ^ Mamiana (street of Yedo). "^ | 
E'urutanuki (nickname of Tokugawa lyeyasu). 

YEI, YE. A young tanuki (see the foregoing). 94. 

KIO; Si4, semashi, sebashi ('narrow, mean, small"). Confused with 
^ above. 94. 

I Pal Hazama (f.). | jlj Sa-yama (t. ; f. ; lake, -no-ike fjfe, or 
-ga-ike ^ ^), if iH -no-no-watari (ford), )\\ -gawa (f.), :^ -goromo (n. ; 
S. Monogatari 6fy |g, romance), ^ ^ -dehiko (n.), ^ ^ (^) -o-hiko 
(-hime), prince and princess. | % yuri ('the prostitute quarter'). 

Contraction of ^ (xvi). 













325 Ten Strokes 

jl^ Variant of ^ (x). 

[Variant: ^ .] GA. keivashii, sagashii ('steep, dangerous'). 46. 
I tU Gazan (f. or n. met.). 

SHUN; Takashi, {taka, michi). Same meanings. 46. 

KIO (KO), GO. hazama ('a chasm, gorge, strait'). 46. 
I Hazama (f.). 

KO, KIO. takeru, ikaru (' to be angry) '. 30. 
I ^Takeru-ga-mine (m.). 

CHO, JO. nozoku {'to subtract, divide'); yokerii ('to shun, avert'). 170. 
I J^ Nozokito (t.). I ^ joya ('New Year's Eve'). 

YEN, IN. As in, ' a government office, public institution, palace, 
(Buddhist) edifice ', also a suffix denoting : (i) a retired Emperor 
taking the scarf (see titles under — , ff', ^^ and ^), (2) a deceased Buddhist 
of high rank (of any rank in the Zen and some other sects) ; see p. 40. 
See also titles under ^ and f^. 170. 

I 1^ In-nai (t.), ^ -no-shima (is.), ^ )\\ -nosho-gavva (r.). | ^ %, 
Shumemaru (sculp.). 

CHIN, JIN; (tsuva). tsiiranaru ('to be arranged in order'). As jin, 
'a camp, tactical disposition'. Confused with ^ (xi). 170. 
I M Ul Jimba-yama (m.). I \^ Jinnai (t.). 

HEI, BEI ; HE; (yori, nori). 'The steps of the throne'. 170. 

I ~]» heika, as in ^ ^ | "]»" Teuno-heika, 'His Imperial Majesty'. 

•hj^ Jo, NIC- musiime fa girl'); ivatsiime (old word for 'princess'). See 
>^r^ p. 130. 38. I 'tl ^J"* W]" mnsume nana Komachi ('girls as the 
Seven Komachi '). 

■//q YEN (KEN). kaoyoshi (beautiful'). 38. | ^ Ken-shi (princess). 

^IPl ^^^ ' ^'"''''^- hinie (honorific suffix to women's names in early 
>*Ih^ times, like hiko ^ for men; later 'a nobleman's daughter'; 

also a prefix, esp. to botanical names, meaning 'lesser';. Compare ^ 

(xii). 38. 

I ^ Hime-jima (is. ; t. ; f. ptr.), ^ -ji (t.), 3J? -no (f.). | /]> l^i: -f 

j^ Hime-komatsu Nenohi-asobi (jdruri). 

Im^ TEl, DAI. oto[to]yo7ne ('younger brother's wife'). 38. 







Ten Strokes 326 

-Jj^ KO, KIO ; keta. keta ('crossbeam' of a roof, 'yard' of a ship, 'reed' 
TI4 of an abacus, 'crib" of a well). 75. 

JJUX. (Xo on); masu. masu ('a grain-measure'). 

'>^ [Compare homophones under i^ (xv).] | EQ Masu-da, ;^ -moto 

(f.), Wi -toku (short for H I t^, -X I5IJ Mimasu Tokujiro, actor). 

To, DO; momo ; (momo); zok., Momo-. momo ('a peach'). 75. 

[Compare "gf (p. 216).] I :f^ ,^ tofei, anctly. tsuki, the Japanese 
Ibis, /. nippoii ; hence I ^ J^ BB UJ Tsukida-yama (m.). | jl| Momo- 
-kawa (r. ; f. lacq.), ]\\ -yama (m. ; pal.), ^ -o (k. of Oshu, also Mon[n]o), 
@S i? -kubarino (t,), -j^z ^P -taro (fairy-tale hero). Other Surnames : | 
Momo; | ^ Momo-noi, 03 -da, ^ -ya, gg, -kubari, gj -zono (also ii6th 
Mikado), '^1^ -zawa. 

■+-^ K\\'AN, GWAN ; {take), Takeshi. takeshi (' brave '). 75. 
■-^ I ^ Kwanko (Huan Kung, Cliin. hero). | 5^ Kwammu (50th 

Mikado). 

1»H» jl, NI. kikurage (a fungus parasitic on trees). 75. 

•^nt SET, SAI ; SE ; su ; {sumi). sumii (' to dwell ') ; siiniai, sumika (' a 
'11— I dwelling'). Compare i^ (xii). 75. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (xii).] I |^ Su-wara, ^ -seki (f.). 

>fg \\ariant of ^& (p. 298). 

-j^PL KON ; A^£ ; ne ; (ne, moto). ne (' a root ') ; nemoto, in full | 7c 
■J^ (' origin, original '). | ^ as nefeo in early princely names (see 

P- 49)- 75- 

I ^ Xemuro (pr. ; t.). ;;:^ I i^ llj Oneshime-yama (m.). Other 
Towns ; | Ne ; | H Ne-da, i^ -shime, ^ -ba or -bane, M -u, M j'l 
-bukawa (f.), ^S -goro (f. sculp. ; m., -san ; tern., -dera •^), ^ -gishi (dist. 
of Yedo ; f. ). | :J^ Nedzu (dist. of Yedo ; f.j. Other Surnames : :^ | 
One ; | ^{^ Ne-i, -noi, y ^- -noi, ;fc -gi, ^i -moto (ptr.), i^ -mura, 
^ -o (met., arm.). 

tI^£ [\'ariant : ^^.] SEN. 1 >fg sendan (Sansk. chandana, the Pride of 
'TT India tree, Melia azedarach) ; Sendan-no ?f (t.), -kd ^ (d.). 75. 

KAKU, KIAKU ; {tada, nori), Kiwame. tadashii ('correct'); nori 
(' rule '). 75. 

KO, KIO. kaugayeru ('to consider'). As /eo, 'revision' of a book 
(. . . kd, ' revised by . . . '). 75. 






327 Ten Strokes 

KEI, KE ; katsura. katsura (a tree, Olea fragrans). 75. 

I Katsura (t. ; f. ptr., met.; princess). | }\\ Katsura-gavva (r. ; 
f-)j UJ -yama, B3 -da (f.), if -no (f. met.), ^ -ko (poetess), / ^ ^ 
-no-miko (princess). | Jlj >M Ji ffl Katsura-gawa Renri no Shigarami 
(joruri). \ ^ kei-getsu (the 8th month), 1% -ma (chesspiece). 

-jtjb KETSU, KECHI. tsurube ('a well-bucket'). | ® kikid (a plant, 
iP Platycodon grandiflovum); Kikio-ya ^ (f.), -ga-hara j^ (moor). 75. 





KO. A tree-name. 75. 

*/H^ [ZAIJ.^ Botanical name? [75]. | gj Yamabukizono (n. poet.). 

TO, TSU ; kiri. kiri (a tree, Pauloivnia imperialis). 75. 

[Compare |JJ (p. 166), % (xix).] Towns: | ^ Kiri-u (text.; f.), 
^ -gayatsu (f. ; also Kiriya as f.), ^ -hora, ]^ -bara. | ^ M Kiribishi- 
-ya (brothel). Other Surnames: | \\\ Kiri-yama (actor), :^ -ki (met.), 
-ft -take, jf^ -mura, / ^ -noya (actor), i^ -bayashi, j^ -shima (actor), 
if -no, p -zawa. | -^ Doshi (n.), Kiri-ko (worn. n.). | ^ Kiritsubo 
(Genji Chapter i). | ^ kivibata (' a paulownia plantation '). 

iHH [Variant: j^.] YEN. kebuvi, kemuvi ('smoke'). 86. 

I j^ llJ Yengan-zan (m.). | -^ Yempa (n.). | ^ tabako 
(' tobacco '). 

TOKU, DOKU. koto ni ('especially'). 93. 
^ I ^ M Koushiura (t.). | ^ tokusei ('specially made'). 

RIO, RO. tabi, \ ;ff michiyuki ('a journey'). 70. 

I )\\ Tabi-gawa (f.), ^ -ko (princess), A -to (n.). | f| WJ 
Hatago-cho (' Hotel Street ', Yecio). 





JH^ Contraction of |^ (xiv). 70. 
jffL Variant of ;^ (p. 326). 70. 





SHU, SU (JU); SU\ (yoshi). koto ni ('especially'). 78. 

HAN. -wakatsu ('to divide'). Confused with ^ (xii). 96. 
I ^ Han-ko (Empress). | ^ Hammo (Pan Meng, sennin). 

' The character is apparently ' unauthorized '. If a ivaji {i.e., made in Japan), the existence 
of I ^, presumably Zaisai, as the signature of a bronze-caster (of the Seimin School, date Bunsei), 
would seem to endow it with an on reading. - . . 



Ten Strokes 328 

^^1^ Variant of ^ (p. 300). 

XSk SHU, SU (JU); SU. kai no tama ('a pearl'). 96. 
'^^^ I ;^ Suzu (k. of Noto; cape, -no-misaki |I|f). | Tama (worn. n.). 

I j^ Tama-ki (anct. pal.), m 'M -dare-no-taki (fall), ^ -no-miya (princess). 




KEI. Full form of ^ (p. 226). 96. 

3^ HEI, BIO; and Jit KIO, GU. Gem-names. 96. 

HlHl [^'ariant : B^.j SAI, SE : or SA, SHA. savasu ('to air, expose to 
*^ the weather '). 72. /J\ | Kozarashi (jord). 

^ [Old form: -^- ; contraction: ^] Jl (SHI); // ; toki ; toki ; sok., 
"^ Toki-. tofei ('time, period'). See also pp. 47, 66. 72. 

I :j^ Tokitsu (t.). | ^ H Jishu-kwan (clan-school). Surnames : 

I }\\ Toki-gawa (ptr., met.), ilj -yama, tfl -da, ^ -yeda, ^ -oka (met.), 

^ -shige, ^ -hara (clan), ^ -hiro. | ^ Toki-no-miya (prince), ^ -uta 

ijoyo), ^ -furu (poet; as shigure, 'drizzle', so Shigure[-an ^], n.). | ^ 

Ji-shu (sect). 

I i^ ji-dai ('epoch'), -flf: -sei ('fashionable'), §§< -sez ('spirit of the 
age, fashionable'); | ^ tokimairi ('an incantation'); | J^ hototogisu (the 
Cuckoo, Cuciilus poliocephalus) ; | ff lofe^-/ (' a chronometer, clock, watch ') ; 
I — ^ S ~h ^ ^o/jz ni toshi gojusan (' at the age of 53 '), etc. 

R& CHIN, JL\. As chin, the Imperial 'We'. 74. 

[Simple form: ^^J.] KIO, KU ; (mune). miine ('the breast, chest'). 

i3<^- I ^ Munetsuki (kiugen). 
DO. 'Body' (of man, animal, drum, etc.), 'corslet'. 130. 

n *^ I il J& ^ W (^ ^) fntatsii do dodan to torn (setstidan), 
' cut through two bodies and the block ' (at one blow, of a sword-blade). 

N'ariant of ^ (x). 130. 

SHUKU ; Iivaii, (toki). norito (' Shinto hymns ') ; hafuri (' a Shinto 







■'■'' priest'); iwaii, kotohogii ('to congratulate'). 113. 

I Iwai (f.). I A Hafuri, | BJ Iwaimachi (t.). I ^ Hafuribe 
(f. poets). I i" ^ Siiukkeio (Chu Chi-weng, Chin. sage). [^] \ ^ 
[g0']shugi ('complimentary act or gift'). 

SHI; tsutsushimu ('to respect'); or TEI, DAI; itaru ('to reach'). 
*^^ Confused with jf^ (p. 300). 113. 




329 Ten Strokes 

inift SHIN, JIN; Ivami, kan-, ko- ; (kiyo, miwa). kami, kamn, tamashii ('a 
'■ V deity, spirit'). Sliintoistic expression. 113. 

[Compare _h (p. i.59)-J I @ Shin-koku or Kami-tsu-kuni (Japan), 
Kamiguni or | ^|S Kami-gori (three knri of Ise combined, viz., linami, 
Take, Wataraye). Other Kori : | ^ Jin-seki (or Kameshi, Bungo), 
y^ -to, 'g -sai (Harima ; latter Jinzai as f.) ; | P^ Kan-do (Idzumo; Kato 
as t., Kobe as r., Kodo as f.), (ij^ -zaki (Omi and Hizen ; also of Harima, 
mod. ; t. ; f . ; r. ; also Kozaki as t.). 

Islands: j ^ Kami-shima (f.j; I ^ (or ^) % Kodzu-shima ; | ^ 
% % Mikomoto-jima. Mountains : I ^ Uj Shimbu-san ; | \\] Kami- 
-yama (t. ; f. met.) ; I IfJ^ ll] Kamiji-yama ; | ^ iF Uj Miko-san. Other 
Rivers (each with Jl|, -gavva) : | ^ Jin-riu, jili -dzu ; \ H Kan-da, 
Jig -zaki; | (or H) ^ Mitani. | ^ ^^ Kamigo-taki (falli. 

Other Towns : | il^ Jinrio : I :giC # Misaka-mura ; | ^ Kumashiro 
(f-) ; I IFP Ttl i^ Aino-ichiba ; | ]^, Kambara (f.) ; | ^ Kami-kane, 
Pj -oka, ^ -buclii (or Kabuchi) ; | J: Kan-do, jt -dachi, {i} iJj -deyama 
(cas.), ^ -[n]abe ; | ^ Ka-mori, ^ (wrongly ig) )\\ -nagawa (Tokaido 
stage 3 ; mod. ken), ^ ^ -guraoka ; | ^ Ko-be (mod. sub. of Hiogo ; 
also Kando and Kambe), ^ ]^ -dohara, \^ -jiro (f. ; also Kumashiro as f. ; 
see also Shinto Titles), '^ -nominato, / ^ -noura. 

I fQ Kanda (dist. of Yedo, mod. ku of Tokio ; r. ; f.). | 0^ Shimmei 
(tem.). [;:^1 | ^ [Dai-]jingu (the Shinto temples of Ise). | ^ ^ Jingu- 
-ji (tem. ; f.). | ^ ^ Shinka-den (Kioto palace-building). 

Other Surnames: | Shin; ;^ | Okami, anctly. Omiwa (Okane or Oga 
as clan); | ^ Jimbo (ptr.) ; | ^ v\ Slnnguji ; | ^ giji Kakotoshi ; | if 
Jin-no (fdso Kamino and Kanno), ^ -do; | :^ Kanii-ki (see also below), 
H BIS -kuni (cf. Kori above), ^ -ki, ^ -yoslii (met.), -ki, ^ -naga, ^ -ya 
(met.), ^ ^ -yado, ^ -o (or Kannoo), ^^ -bayashi, ^ -ya, H -zumi, 
M ~se ; I ^ Kan-do (kami-no-miyakko as anct. tit.), EB M -dahashi, 
^ -nami, ^ jg -agaki, 'l^ -zawa (met.); | ^ Kammaru ; | ^ Kb-zu 
(see also below), Jg, -dari (ptr.), -dami, p: -dzu (also Kamitsu), '^ -nai, 
If -date, -tachi ; I ^^ Ji Mi-kogami, ^ ^ -kosliima. 

Personages : ;;j^ | | Omiwa-no-kami (= Kotoshironushi, d.) ; | J^ 
Shinno (Shen-nung, Chin. Emperor) ; | ^ Shinda (Shen T'u, sennin) ; | ^ 
Jimmu (ist Mikado); | Jj] Jingo (Empress-Regent, 201-270 a.d.) ; I if ^ M 
Kannu-no-tenno (= Saga, 52nd Mikado); | BE Miwa-no-o (prince). | ^ J^ 
Shinobumaro (n.). 

I ^ IE ^ tt Jinko-shoto-ki (history). | ^ Kamiuta (no). \ @ ^ 
P 'D^ Shinzei Yaguchi no Watashi (joruri). Nengo : | ^ Jinki, Shinki 
(724-728) ; I M JP: S Jingo-keiun (767-769). | ^ jiu-ki (see p. 42). 



Ten Strokes (#, eontd.) 330 

Shinto Titles and Locutions: | fiR 'g (f|Q) Jingi-kzvan {-haku), \ ^ 
kamube (see p. 82) ; I -^ kannushi, | ^ shinshoku (' shrine-warden ') ; | ^ 
jni/?o ('vestal', also 'sorceress'; may be written 3£ -f) ; I l^j j'nnme, \ tK 
shimboku ('sacred horse, tree'); | ^ jinji ('festival'); | 'g^ I^ shinjo-sai, 
kanname-matsuri (Impl. fest., nth day of 9th month); | ^ kagtira (sacred 
dance, also a secular rustic dance), daidai{-j(^ ^•t)-kagura (public perform- 
ance of the former), dai{-j^-kagura (same as shishi-mai ^^ ^ ^, the 
street-mummers' 'lion-dance'), kagura-dzuki ^ (the nth month); | fjlE ^ 
kaminadzuki (' the deity-less month ', the loth, known in Idzumo pr. as 
kamiari-tsuki | % j^ , ' month when the gods are present ') ; I f^ jindai, 
kamiyo ('the Age of the Gods', Japanese history before Jimmu-tenno); | j^ 
shinto, kami-no-michi ('the Way of the Gods', the national religion), shintd- 
-gata -^ (tit.), shinto- gotetsu-ren 3l M M (phrase implying 'carefully forged 
iron ') ; | "gij shinzen (' before a shrine "). 

j^P' FUTSU, FUCHl ; harai ; [kiyo). harai, ^ \ obarai (Shinto services). 

I )\\ Harai-kawa (r. ; f. ; former also read as Misogi-gawa, misogi \^, 
a ceremonial bathing in cold water, being one of the harai). \ ^ Harai- 
-dzu (t.), J^ ^ -to-ga-dake (m.). 

~j^/ « YO, U ; suke ; zok., Yu- or Suke-. tasukeru ('to aid'). 113. 
fVU I ^ Yu-ten (priest), ^ t^ -jo^o (f.), ^ -zen (kiogen). \ ^ ft 

^ i ^ ^£ fi* Yushi-naishinno-ke Kii (poetess. No. 72 of the Hundred 
Poets). I He yuhitsu (' a secretary '). 

SHI, Jl. matsurii (' to worship ') ; hokova (' minor Shinto shrine '). 
-* I ^ shido (' ancestral shrine '). 113. 

MSO ; SO. hajime, moto ('origin, beginning'). As so, 'a grandfather, 
ancestor' (see p. 129), 'founder, doyen' (see %, p. 167, and ^, 
xivj. 113. 

I # ill Sobo-san or | ^5^ -^ Sobo(L'ba)-ga-dake (m.). Towns: | 
X fll Sobuye (f.) ; I # ->" ^j^ Hbagai ; I ^ 'ti Sobokwai (pot.) ; I Bili if 
Soshino. | ^ Soshi (f.). | % Sogen (priest), | >Jll ^ Oyawake-no- 
-mikoto (prince). /J> | -^ Kdji (poet, also written /J> '^). I 5C ^i S 
(^jimaro (n.). 




ffi 




liA. akome (name of a court robe). 143. 

HI; HI. uu ('to cover'); kdmitrii ('to receive from a suj)erior'). 145. 




331 Ten Strokes 

^lll SHU, JU ; sode. sode ('a sleeve'; of armour, 'pauldron'). 145. 
I^W I ^ M Sodegaura (dist. of Yedo). | (S) Sode-oka, ^ -shima, 

^ -zaki (all f. actors), \^ -ura (f.), -J* -l^'o (poetess). /]n I '^ fit Kosode- 
Soga (no). I i^ shfichin (of a book, 'pocket format'). 

rgri^ CHITSU, JICHI (CHICHI). tstine ('ordinary'); tsuizuvu ('to place 
XK in order'). 115. | 3C Chichibu (k. and t. text, of Musashi ; f.). 

l?rf REI, RIO; Yowai, {toshi). toshi, yowai ('years, age'). 115. 
^^ Contraction of ^ (xiv). 

KU; uori. magavigane \'a carpenter's square'); nori ('law, rule'), iii. 

JAKU, NIAKU. yowashi ('weak'); osanashi ('young'). 57. 

I ?i ^ Yoroboshi, less commonly Yowaboshi {no and its hero). 
I tQ: jakkwan ('a youngster'). 

rip SHI; or TEI, TAI ; TO; (to). toishi ('whetstone'). 112. 

r*^ [Compare homophones under ^ (p. 173).] I _h Togami (t. ; f. ; 

moor, -bara or -ga-hara j^). | }\\ Togawa (f.). 

tTiI* HA; HA. yaburu, kudaku ('to tear, destroy, break'). 112. 
fflSt I '^ g Hagunsei (d.). 

Jnin Contraction of ^ (xiv). 112. 
Jjf Full form of ^ (p. 284). 117. 
Full form of ^g (p. 312). 95. 






nn BEN, MEN; or BIN, MIN; ME, I. nemuru ('to sleep'). Distinguish 
HiV from BB: (xi). 109. | ^g Nemuvi no Neko (' the Sleeping Cat ', 
carving). 

nirK HAN; kuro, aze ; {kuro). kiiro, aze ('a path between rice-swamps'); 
'^l Jiotori (' boundary, vicinity '). 102. 

[Compare ^ (xii).] | W^ ^ Kurokuwadani (dist. of Yedo). Sur- 
names : I ^ Azekura, Aze. /j^ | Koaze ; | Ji Kuro-uye, -da, 
^P -yanagi (also Azeyanagi). 

^|t jO, NIU. himo, hibo ('a cord, ribbon, braid'). 120. 
'pit I H Himosashi (t.). | 5E Kumiko (poet). 




Ten Strokes 332 

DO (TO), NO ; i ; [nori, tomo). irerit, osameru (' to receive, collect, 
pay in '). 120. 

I Ji|f Nasslio (sub. of Kioto) ; Noso[-no]-numa ;fg (lake). | ^ Nome, 
I ^ Itomi (f.). Titles: ;;^ (^) I "g dai{shd)nagon (see p. 81); ^ (/J?j 
I J^ d{ko)nando. 





SHUN, jl'N; sit mi. yoshi ('good'). . 120. 

[Synonym: •^. | SHI. kanii ('paper'). 120. 

I M Kamiya (t. ; f.). | ^ f| kamikudzu-kago (' wastepaper- 
basket '). 

BUN, MON; sok., Mon-. aya ('a design^ pattern'). As mon or | ^ 

wonsho, 'an armorial badge". 120. 
/J> I komoii ('small designs', on cloth or leather). | B viombi ('a 
festival day '). 

UN. kusagirii ('to weed'). 127. 








[Synonym: P.-^.] KO, KIO. tagayerii ('to till'). 127. 
I ff£ kosaku (' cidtivation ", of land or an art). 

j/^ FUN: KO. ko ('Hour, fine powder'). 119. 

j )\\ Kokawa (t. ; f . ; tern., -dera ^). | }^ fiimpon Can artist's 
sketch-book '). 

*fe{I RiO. hakani ('to estimate, measure"). 68. 

I 9 I Jg riori (' management, cookery ') ; Riori-muko ^ (kiogen) ; riori- 

-nin A (' £1 cook'), -3'fl ^ ('a cookshop'). 

SETSU (SATSU), SECHI ; or SAI, SE. kovosu ('to kill'); sogu ('to 
cancel'). Distinguish from ^ (xi). 79. 
I ^ sess/io (' slaughtering ') ; Sessho-seki ^ (rock). 

CHI ; CHI ; miine, Itasii, (yoshi, yiiki). itasii (' to do, finish, go ') ; 
itaru ('to reach'). 133. 
I ?E tl Cliidd-kwan (clan-school). 

KETSU, KECHI. kakerii ('to lack'). 121.- 

IN, ON ; (shige). sakan (' flourishing ") ; akashi (' red '). As In, the 
"^'in or Shang d}nasty of China. 79. 
I "& P^ Impu-mon (Kioto palace-gate). | ^ P'j I5c Impu-monin 
(Empress); Impu-monin-no-6suke ;^ $j| (tit.; No. 90 of the Hundred Poets). 







333 Ten Strokes 

SHI; SHI; moro. nori ('a rule'). As shi, 'a teacher, expert, crafts- 
' *l man, brigade '. Distinguish from gijl (p. 303). 50. 

[Compare ft (xvi).] i^ \ l[^ W. 1'aishigawara (t.j. | ^ Moro-oka 
(f.), ^ -said (t.). I ^ Shishi (f.j. :f^ | daishi (Bud. tit., see p. 87). 
I ^ shiwasu (the 12th month). 

«^li DO, NO ; NO ; yoshi, (yasu, to). yoshi (' good ') ; yoku (' well, often ") ; 
Wli^ atau ('to be able'). As no, 'skill, talent', also contraction of | ^ 
nogaku, a type of drama. 130. 

[Compare if (xi), J^ (p. 144).] I ^ Noto (pr., Ainu nottu, 'a 
promontory ') ; | 'j^•| Noshu (same pr.). Kori : | H No-mi (Kaga ; f.), 
^ -gi (Idzumo), ^ -se (Settsu ; f. ptr.). | ^ if Nobo-no (moor). | g }\\ 
Noro-gawa (r.). | (or if ^ \^ Noshno (t. lacq.). | ^ No-dzu (t. ; f.), 
J^ -za (street of Yedo), U, ^ -ken-do (teahouse). Other Surnames: /]> | 
Ono ; I )\\ No-gawa, jO: -se, i^ -mura, ^i -mi, ^ -jinia, ^ ^ -toya, 
'M ~se. I ^ Yoshi-ko (princess). | psj J^ No-ami (ptr. and tea-ceremony 
expert), @ ^^ ^il) -in-hoshi (priest, No. bq of the Hundred Poets). | ^ ^ 
Notoro (see p. 86). 

"t^H S'^I'^U, SOKU ; Hajime. hajime (' the beginning ') ; kita (' the north '). 
yy-* I 3 tsuitachi (' first day ' of a month). 74. 

J^JL HAN, BAN. tabi ('a time'); tanoshimu ('to enjoy'). 137. 

-'"^^ I ^ Hannia (Bud. scripture ; demon) ; Hannia-zaka ^ (m.) ; 

Hannia-bo 1^ (mask-carver) ; Dai(;;^)-hannia (scripture ; kiogen). 



/J Contraction of ^,V (xi). 137. 




k 

•mf. KO, GO. fiuie ('a boat'); zvataru ('to ford'). 137. 

HO. moyai (the lashing together of boats). 137. 

TtJL "rt[|\ CHI; CHI. haji ('shame, disgrace'). As chi, a self-humiliative 
flic ^^ flV prefix. 128. 

TLf^ KO (KEI), KIO. hikari ('brilliance'); imashimu ('to warn'); iaremimi 
^^ ('pendulous ear-lobes'). 128. 

BUN, iMON; KA. ka ('a mosquito'). 142. 

[Compare homophones under jljp (p. 187J.] I if Kano (f.). | M 
M. -f Kaya-no-oji (prince). | ^9 ^ Kasumo (kiogen). | ffj kabari ('a 
fly-hook '). \ jM, iK kayaribi (' smoking out mosquitoes '). 

^|n [The right-hand element is more correctly written as ^.] HAI, HE; 
•-•" kubari. kiibavu ('to distribute'). 164. 




i 



Ten Strokes 334 

^hl KUN ; {kiini, uovi, yoshi). oshiyeru ('to teach'); toku ('to explain'). 
W" As kun, 'instruction, meaning' (see p. 5). 149. 

I ^ Kuntani (t. ; f. ptr.). | fj^ Kurubeki (t.). | JH ^ Kuzumaro 
(n.). I ^ kummo ('a primer'); ^ | teikin ('home teaching'). 

3aJ ^H^^- kotoshinobu ('reticent'); katashi ('hard, firm'). 149. 

^^ TAKU. kakotsiike {'a. pretext'): yudaneru, 7nakaseru ('to entrust'). 149. 
trti I jg^ (also I J^-) Takuma (k. of Higo; f.). | [jl] Takuma (t.; f.). 

g\r TO. ntsit ('to strike, punish"). 149. 

^r| [Compare ^, p. 303, and footnote to same.] Kl ; KI ; nori; zok., -ki. 
PL^ fitmi ('a record, history'); shirusu ('to record, chronicle'). As -ki, 
' a history '. 149. 

I ^ katami ('a souvenir, memorial'). 

■r*dL BO, MO. se (a land-measure, see p. 65). Also, for ^ or B^, n;ze, 
»HA aze, kiivo, a low dike or pathway between rice-swamps. 102. 

I j^\ less correctly | ij^ Unebi (t. ; m., -yama). | WJ Azemachi (t.). 

jfeC KEN, KOX; or KAN. noki ('eaves'). As ken, a numeral for houses, 

T^l facades, etc. (see p. 40), also a common ending for art-names 
(see p. 69). 159. 

;;^ I Onoki (L). \ \^ ^ Kenyenshu (Hsien-yiian Chi, sennin). 3l (-b) 

I A ,K'o(shichi)kenjin, 'five (seven) [courtesans] from as many houses'. 

KAKl'. Chinese place and family name. 163. 
I '}^ M Kakudaitsu (Hao Ta-t'ung, sennin). 

[Occ. contracted to ^.] RO (RO) ; (0). onoko, otoko (' a man ', 
complimentary character). For its use in zokumio, see p. jif. 163. 
I ^ iratsu-ko, -^ -me (anct. for 'prince, princess'); but ;:fe I M -P 
Oiratsuko-no-oji (prince). I fj^ roju (servants of a daimio or samurai); 

3M^ KUN, GUN; KU ; kori; {kuni, tomo). kuvi (see p. 10, with note i). 163. 
^H [Compare % (p. 305).] | ± Gu[n]jo (k. and t. of Mino). Other 
Towns : | Kori (f. ; also Gun as f.) ; /]>> Ogori, Ogun ; | llj Koriyama 
(pot. ; f. ptr.) ; I y M Konoura ; | ^ Gun-nai (text.), ^ -chu, ^ -ge 
(also Koge). | ^ Korioka (f.). | ^ Gunji (f. met. ; tit.). | f^ 
giindai (tit.). 






y HO, 1 110; zok., Hio-. 'A leopard'. 153. | ^ Hiobi (d. 



m 




335 Ten Strokes 

Jl^ SHA; SA, I; zok., I-. iru ('to .shoot, dart'). 41. 

^J [Compare ^ (p. 209) and homophones thereunder.] | tK I-midzu 

(k. of Etchu ; r.), ^\] -sawa (t. pottery), i^ ^ -wadono (cas.), {ij -de, 
it; -notsuji, i^ -ba, ^ -nokoshi (f.). | ^ sharei (court ceremony). 

613 [Variant: ^^.] KlU, KU ; {mi, moto, chika). mi ('the body'); 
-^^ midzukara ('self'). 158. | fl Mi-tsune, 5i -tsuru (n.). 

SAI, 2AI ; Takara. takara ('wealth, prosperity'). 134. 
I ^ Zaitsu (f. ptr.). | Takara, | fffj Takarabe (f.). 

TEI, CHO. kttgi ('a nail, tack'). 167. 

Surnames : | ;4^ Kugi-moto (met.), M ~y^, '^^ -saki (ptr.). 

Al. [Full form: |g^.] SHIN; hari. hari ('a needle'). 167. 

I jE Hari-michi (t.), ^ ^ -o-jima (is.), :^ |I|f -noki-toge (pass). 
Surnames : ^ \ Ohari ; /Jn | Kohari ; I ^, 'J^ ^ Hari-gatani, ^ -gai, 
M ~y^' ^ -shige. I ^ Harigane (n.). | jt || Haritate Ikadzuchi 
(kiogeu). I ^;fg shinjutsu ('acupuncture'). 

tIjjI| RAI. negirau ('to entertain'); itaivarti ('to commiserate'). Also 
'i^-'J used as a variant of ^ (p. 304). 19. 

YEN. toshi ('sharp-witted'). 18. I ^ Yenshi (Yen Tzu, paragon). 

KO ; {take, masa). katashi (' hard, firm ') ; takeshi, tsuyoshi (' strong, 
brave'). 18. 




II 





|| Variant of ^ (xij. 18. 

KEI, KIO. odoro ('a thicket'). 140 {sic). 



m 

pfY Used as a contraction of ^ (xiv). 30. 

KO, KU ; Mitsugi, Mitsiigu. mitsugi ('a tax'). 154. 
I jf^ Mitsugimura (t.). 

KA, GE ; GE ; natsu ; natsu. natsu ('summer'). See p. 47, Seasons. 
As Ka, the Hsia Dynasty of China. 35. 
I ^ Natsu-shima (is.), ||t -mai (t.). Surnames : I @ Natsu-me 
(ptr., sculp.), ^ -mi, ^ -aki, if -no, fj] -ma. I ^ ^ Kakoko (Hsia 
Huang-kung, sennin). \ ^ \^ Kakojun (Hsia-hou Tun, Chin. hero). | "jj 
Natsu-no-kata (hist. pers.). | ^ geji (see p. 112, 96). | ^ it natsu no 
Fuji (' Mt. Fuji in summer', sc, 'snowless', a trope for actors 'with the 
paint off'j. 




Ten Strokes 336 

^S^ . nnT SHIX; Snsuinu. sitsumeru ('to advance'). As Shin, the Chin 
^5 ^3 Dynasty of China (a.d. 266 to 322); see also "^ (p. 2S0). 72. 

I Susumi (f.). I ^ Shinkoku (Chin-kuo, anct. Cliinese kingdom). 



I RITSU, RICHI; kuri, kuru-. knri ('a chestnut'). Distinguish from ^ 

(xii). 75. 

[Compare ^$ (p. 279) and the combination ^ ^ (i.S?)-] I ^ (1^) lU 
Kuri-ko(-koma)-yama (m.), ^J )\\ -\'ama-gawa (r.j, J^ (or ^) ^ -kara-dani 
(valley, alternative spellings; f., witli the second; see {&, p. 320). Kori : 
I ;^ Kuri-moto (Omi ; f. ptr. ; Kurinomoto as n.), |^ -hara (Oshu ; f. ptr., 
met.; also Kuribara as Kdshukaido stage and f.). Other Towns: /J^ | ij^ 
Ogurusu (f.); | i^ Kuri-inura (lacq.j, ;j^ jl| -sugawa, ff -no (f.), ^ -kasa, 
m -se (f.). 

Other Surnames : /J> | Oguri (ptr.) ', \ ^ ^ Tsuyuri ; | i^ Kurusu ; 
I Jl| Kuri-kawa (ptr.), llj -yama (met.), ^f -i, ^ -u, H -ta, ^ -tani, 
-ya, i^ -bayashi, ?^ -ita, |||§ -saki, ^ -dzuka. | ^ Kurikuma (prince). 
/h I 'l^'J 1^ Oguri-liangwan (= Oguri Mitsushige fH ^). 




Contraction of ^ (xxvi). 

BA, ME; ."\/£ (| ^ MO); uma, ma; (iima); zok., Uma-, -ma. uma, 
***V^ muma^ (' a horse '). Borne as a mon on the palanquins of the 
Arima ^ \ , daimios of Kurume. 187. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (x).] | ^ Uma-zaka (hill). | X j'l 
Baniu-gavva, I f^ (;^) }\\ Ma-bechi(-se)-gavva (r.j. Towns : /]> | ;tc 
Komaki ; I -^ ^ Monai ; | i^ Ba-ba (f. ptr. ; ' race-course '), ^ -kwan 
(= Shimonoseki), g| -to (see also below); | ^ Uma-tate, ig -gayeshi, 
^ -ji ; I jin Ma-kuwari (Makuvva as f.). J^ ^ -miya, ^ ]^ -mihara, 
^ -gori, "^ -watari (f. ptr. ; also Motari as f.j, -watashi, ^ -koshi 
(Magoshi as f.), ;^ -bashi, f| -gome (Nakasendo stage 27). | U^ WJ 
Bakuro-cho (street of Yedo). 

Other Surnames^ | Uma (ptr.); | |^ Mega (as haka, 'a fool'); | ^ 
Ba-men (f. or n. met.), P^ gfl -bata, 3^ -tatsu ; | ^ TJma-jima (also 
Majima and Mashima), M ]^ -yabara (also Mayaliara), 1^ -sugi (also 
Masugi and Basugi); | A Ma-gumi, j^ -gome (as censor's mark in seal- 
script on woodcuts between 1842 and 1853), ^S -ku, -ki, ^ -buclii (ptr.; 
n. ; also Mabechi as n.), |^ -ginu, -^ -sumi. 

' Both pronounced as mma. 



337 



Ten Strokes 



Deities : | uU Medzu (but Bato as epithet of Kwannon) ; | U^ j§ 
Merofu (epithet of Kwannon); | |g ^ jjilp Bareki-sonjin. Sennin : | gi|) ^ 
Bashiko (Ma-shih-huang) ; | yt Ba-gen (Ma Yiian), ]^ ^ -seishi (Ch'eng- 
-tzu), ffy -sho (Hsiang), n,% /^ -meisei (Ming-sheng), |5 -gioku (Yii). 

I ^ Umako (n.), mago (also | ^, 'groom, horseboy'). | ^ Umakai, 
I ^ B9 Makuta (n.). | j^ f^ Uma-no-naishi, /]> | -^ j$ Kouma-no-iniobu 
(poetesses). | ^ nmamcnvari (tit.). 




|^>r Variant of ^ (p. 305). 14. 

^^ Simple form of ^ (xiv). 




Simple form of J^ (xiii). 



^ MEI (BEl), MIO. kurashi ('dark'). As Mei, 'Hades'. 14. 

^^ I ± Mei-do, )^ -fu (Hades) ; | /f iMei-fu, 3E -6 (its ruler, 

Yemma-6, d.) ; | 3^ Meido (nickname, 'the road to Hades'). 

>^^ (Wo). okina ('old gentleman'; mask-name). As 0, a respectful 
^^ suffix to old men's names and to statements of age (see p. 42). 124. 

I i^ Okinamaro (n.). 

[Variant: ^; script variant: ^; see also p. 341.] KEN; kane; kane; 
zok., Kane-. kaneru ('to do two things at once, hold two offices'): 
aivaseru ('to unite'). Between the names of two offices or professions, 
read ken and translate 'and'. 12. 

[Compare ^ (p. 276).] Towns : | \\\ Kane-yama, |^ -matsu (f.j, 
'{^ -sawa. Other Surnames : | Kane ; | ^ Kane-ko (sculp.), gg -da, 
^ -yasu, ^ -shige, S^ -to. | ^ Kane-mi (prince), ^ -hira (mo). 

^^^ [Variant: ^^ ; see also p. 341.] YEKI, YAKU ; masu ; masu, Masii ; 
-"*** zok., Masu-. masn ('to increase, grow'). 108. 

[Compare i^ (xv), ^ (p. 173), ;^4 {5-Q-] I'^oRi  I M ^^asuki or 
Mashiki (Higo ; former as f.), Mashiki or | B3 Masuda (Hida ; latter also f. 
and r.) ; | ^ (or p:) Mashidzu (Suruga ; f. ; former also Masugami as f.). 

I ^ Mashiko (t. ; f.), Masu-ko (princess; f.). | ^ Masu-to, ^\^ -i (f-), 
A -hito (poets), ^ -ra, j(^ -ki (n.). j ff Yek-ken, ^p -kio, fj -kei (n.). 

I jL Mashitachi (n.). | BQ li ^ Masuda no Nawate (architect). 

[Contraction : ^.] SO ; kuwa. kuwa (the Mulberry, Morns). 75. 
'^ KoRi: I ;|sj- Kuwa-mura (lyo; f. met.), ]^ -bara (Osumi; f.). Towns: 
;^ I Okuwa (f.) ; | J|f Kaori or Kori (f.) ; | ^ Kuwa-na (Tokaido 
stage 4, lacq.), ig )\\ -nagawa, ^ 5f -yumino, % -jima (f.), Hf -no (f. 
met.), |ji] -gai. Other Surnames : | Kuwa ; | \\\ Kuwa-yama (ptr.), 

22 





Ten Strokes {^, contd.) 338 

;^ -gi, EQ -(la (ptr.), ^ -dani, ^ fig -bata, f^ -kado, ^ -oka, jtll] -bata 
(met.), ^ -ya. | P'] sdn/o;; (' Bud. priest '). 

FJ YI--X (IX); /2a^H. /2c<2;z/ ('number'). As ijz, 'a member' of a society, 
-^^ etc. 30. 

I ^ Inabe (k. of Ise ; r.), Imbe (same k.). | Al| Kazu-ma (n.). 
I ^ Kazu-no-miya (prince). 

Used as a synonym of ^i (xii). •72. | Cho (f.). 
S. KO (KW'O), O; Akira, (aki, -akira). akiraka ('bright'). 72. 

AN, YEN. yasitnzuru ('to tranquiUize) ; /z/^fl/ez/7'n ('to grow late'). 72. 





^EH, KOTSU, KOCH I. hone ('a bone', 'rib' of a fan, umbrella, etc.). 188. 
^ I M BT Honeya-machi (street of Osaka). | jjc ff <ff M 

Honekawa-Shimbochi (kiogen). \ || koito ('curios'). 

mON ; (oki). megumii, itsukiishimu ('to favour, benefit'). 61. 
I ^ On-chi (t. ; f.), M -chi (f. ptr.), BB -da (f. ; also Okida). 
^ \ ^ ^. Daion-kioju (epithet of the Buddha). 



;jl^ Variant of ^ (p. 275). 

^n* [Variant: ^^] SHO, jO; nori. norii ('to ride'); noboru ('to rise'). 4. 
^^ I # Nori-tsuke, f; -take (f.), ^ [^] -kura[-dake] (m.), S^^ BJ 

-mono-cho (street of Yedo ; nov'nnono, ' a palanquin '). ^ \ Daijo, /J^ | 
Shojo (Bud. scriptures) ; Daijo- ji ^ (tern.) ', ;)z \ ^ Daijoro or Saisoro 
(dram. pers. ; see ^, p. 359). I ^J) iwvisome (' the first sedan-ride [in the 
New Year]'). 

1^^ O (WO), U; 0, U. karasu ('a crow'); kuroshi ('black'). Distinguish 
i^ from j^ (p. 371).! 86. 

I ill Karasu-yama (t.), % -maru (pal. ; f. ptr.), ^ PTf -mori-cho 
(street of Yedo), ^ -maro (n.). | ijif ^ Yeboshi (f. ; lit., a type of court 
cap) ; Y. -dake ^ (m.), -ori fjp (no and kiogen, lit. ' the folding, i.e., manu- 
facture, of yeboshi ') ; 0(;;:^)-yeboshi-yama \\i (m.) ; yeboshi-na ^ (name 
received at the gembuku or coming-of-age ceremon}'). ' I ^ Yeten (? f. 
actor). /J> i 'Ji^ Kogarasumaru (sword). 

1 J% is an eyeless ,% (bird). In other words, the crow being black, its eyes are invisiljle ! 




339 Ten Strokes 

[Variants include |Ij^ t^L ,^1 TO ; shima ; ^ Shima, (shinia) ; zok., 

Shima-. shima ('an island"). 46. 
3^ I C)-sliima (is. ; k. of Suo ; mod. k. of Osumi ; t. ; f. ; n.). | ^j^j 
Do-zen, |^ -go (divisions of the Oki archipelago). Other Kori : | J:. 
Shinia-[no-]kami, HF -[no-]shimo (Settsu), ^^ -ne (Idzumo ; mod. ken ; 
f. met.). I ]^ Shimabara (penins. ; t. ; sub. of Kioto, containing its 
' Yoshiwara ' ; f.), Shimagahara (t.). 

Other Towns : /]> | Kojima (f. ptr., arm. ; n.), Oshima (f.) ; | J{f 
Tofu (= Kagoshima, Hiroshima, Tokushima, etc.); | Shima-da (Tokaido 
stage 23 ; clan ; f. ptr., met., swo. ; r.), illi -ji or -chi (f.j, ^ -mura (f. ptr., 
met.), H '^ -mihama, f^ -ma. | / ^ Shimanouchi (dist. of Osaka). 

Other Surnames : | Shima (ptr., met.) ; /\^ \ J^ Oshimaya ; /h I i^ 
Koshimabara ; | }\\ Shima-gawa, lU -yama, ^ -uchi (pot.), ^|^ -i, 
;$: -moto (ptr.), ^ -na, ^ -dani, ^ -dzu (n.), ^ -ya, ^^ -ura, j^ -kura, 
lUg -zaki (ptr.), ij -no, ^ -mori, ;j^ -hashi. 

I & ^ Shima-kubo (= Yoshitane, shogun), ^ -hime (Empress), g|J -no- 
-iratsuko (prince, = Ninken, 24th Mikado). | A Shima-ndo, p| -dzu (n.). 
I ^ sakimori (see pj, p. 238). 

Original form of ^ (p. 371). 

^3 (No on); hatake, hata ; zok., Hata-. hatake ('a garden'); hata ('an 
tfc* upland or dry field '). Compare ^[H (p. 299). 

Surnames : | Hata ; ;^ | Obatake (ptr.) ; /J^ | Obatake, Kobatake ; 
I Ff» Hatanaka ; | [Jj Hatake-yama (ptr.), 03 ~da, Sf -no. 

KI ; KI ; oni ; (oni) ; zok., Oni- (but see Examples), oni (' a spirit, 

demon, devil, imp'). 194. 

I ^ Oni-ga-shima (is.), Onijima (f.), PKijima (f. met.). | (or §) 

^\- % Kikai-ga-shima (is.). ! ]gf jlj Kimen-zan (m.). | ^ ^^ Oni-ga-jo 

(m. ; cliffs ; f.). j il|§ Om-ga-saki (cape). | ^^ )\\, for || jlj Kinu-gawa, 

I xL jl| Ompei-gawa (r.). | ^ Oni-ishi, -^til -noike (t.). 

Other Surnames : | gi Kito (ptr.) ; | /J^ ^ Oni-kojima, 3E -o, ^ E3 
-iida, ^ -take (met.), ^ -o, j^ -dzuka (swo.), ^ -kubo, ^ -koshi, 
'}^i -zawa. Personages : I ^ ^ Kikokushi (Kuei-ku-tzu, sennin) ; | ^ 
[At] Oni\\'aka[-maru] (boy-name of Benkei, priest) ; I s ^^ Ki-do-maru, 
— * '/i BE -ichi-hogen (K. Sanriaku no Maki H !!§• ^j joruri), Ji Is -jokwan 

^ For some of the place-names ending in shima (Jima), not being those of islands, Chamberlain 
suggests a connection with Ainu sliuma, 'rock, stone'. 






Ten Strokes (^, contd.) 340 

(= Kato Kiyomasa), 3i ^ -omaro (= \ 3l JL Oniomaru, swo.), H :3k 
-sanda (follower of Yoshitsune, also written with §1, ^ ^ -tosei, {^ -mata 
(n.): I "r f^ Oni-gadake (wrestler), ^-ij tHi -giobu, f^ ;£ -sakuza, j^ 1"^ 
-musashi (n.), |S -kage (horse). 

KioGEX : I % Onigawara ; I '/jlj 7JC Oni-Shimidzu ; 1 0) ^ ^ Oni 
no Yoshi. | '^ bommatstiri (the Bon festival). | f^ kimon (' the north- 
east '). I ^ f^ oni no nembutsu ('the Devil's Paternoster', one of the 
Otsu pictures). | >/(^ onibi {'ignis jatuus'). \ j^ hodzuki-jochin (a 
loy lantern resembling the fruit of the hddznki or Winter Cherry, Physalis 
alkekengi). 

SHOKU, SOKU. iki, oki ('breath'); yasuniu ('to rest'). See also 
p. 130, med., and ^ below. 61. 
I M ith Ikisu-no-yashiro (tern.). | ^ Okinaga (f.). 

SHUN; (haya); 2o/e., Haya-. hayabusa {the Peregnne, Falco peregrinus) ; 
haya- ('bold-spirited'). 172. 
I WX Hayabusa-cho (street of Yedo), ||i ^Ij -wake (prince). | Jc 
Haya-ta (f.), A -to (or Haito, see p. 83 ; Haito as f.), :^ ^ -nosuke (see 
p. 86). /J^ i A Kohayato (n.). 

A^ KI, KE; KI, KE. iki, oki ('vapour, breath'). As fei, also 'disposition, 
-^V mind, the weather, a season '. 84. 

KoRi : I {[Ij Ke-sen (Oshu ; Kesen-numa m, t), ^ -ta (or Kita, 
Inaba and Tajima), ^ -taka (Inaba, mod.). | \\\ Ki-yama (t.), ^ -ga 
(t. ; f.). I Jt >f^ ]^ Kebi-no-matsubara (pine-forest). | (or S) ^ & M 
Okinaga-tarashi-hime (= Empress Jingo). \ ^ "M. ^ Kera-no-kwanja 
(= Minamoto no Mareyoshi ^/ ^). | |r] Kei-ji, j^ -saku (n.j. | ^ 
kisho ('temperament, a portrait, weather'); | '|4 kisho ('temperament'). 
I {^ keshiki (' a piece of scenery '). 

-^t KIX, KON. fusunia ('a quilt, bedclothes'). 145: 

y^^ SO; kura ; {kura; zok., Kara-. kura ('a store-house, godown '). 9. 
y^ [Compare |^ (xviii), ^ (xv).] /J> | Kokura (t.), Ogura (f. ptr., 
sculp. ; see also further) ; Ogura-yama [jj (m.), -ike -(^ (lake, = ^ vtil O-ike ; 
also written g |,v; fi^), -dono ^ (pal.). Other Towns : | ^ Kura-yoshi, 
-/5- -gatake (cas.), |if} -hashi (anct. cap.). ^ ^ -gano (f.), ^ -shiki, 
;|^ -hashi (dist. ; f. ptr. ; is., -jima). | 03 J^ Kurada-ya (brotliel). 

Other Surnames : | Kura ; :)^ | Okura (ptr.) ; | {ij Kura-yama, 
f9 -uchi, ^|- -i, tH -(ki, yjc -moio, :^ -ishi, lUi -chi, ])lj -nishi, j^ -mitsu, 
ii: -tsuji, ^ -gata, ^ -ya (ptr.), -dani, ^ -mi, ^ -nari, ;f:^; -bayashi. 



341 Ten Strokes 

^li -chi, [SI -oka, ^ -mochi (Kuramochi-no-iratsume JL% ^, poetess), j® 
-gaki, ^ -kazu, ^ -shima, ^ -kake, |1[§ -saki (pot.), £f -no, ^ -tomi, |^ 
-kazu, ^ -sawa. 

Other Personages : I H Soketsu (Ts'ang Hsieh, sennin) ; | §11 s^ jjitp 
Uga-no-mitaina-no-karni (d.) ; /]> | ^ -f* Ogura-oji, || 3i -shinno (princes) ; 
i ^ ft^ Kuranosuke (^ofe. ; jord). Ogura /J^ | in print-titles has reference 
to Ogura no Shikishi /J> | ^ ||^, an anthology. 



^. - Same as ^ and ^ respectively (p. 337). 

-^j^ FU (BU), HO ; kama ;i ^ofe., Kama-, kama ('a cauldron, kettle '). 167. 
-I^S [Compare |f (xviii).] | fjc llj Kama-fuse-yama (m.), :i: }\\ 

-do-gawa, ^ }\\ -nashi-gawa (r.), '^Jl -ga-fuchi (whirlpool), P -guchi, 
^ -do, ^ -ishi (t.), ^ -shima (is.), J^ -n[o]za (dist. of Kioto), ^ -ya (f.). 

^ KEN, GEN. kobushi ('a fist'). As ken, a game played with various 
gestures of the fingers, hand or body. 64. 
I ^ A Ken-fujin (Ch'iian Fu-jen, sennin). 





md 'Hi Contractions of H (xvi). 



fla Contraction of ^ (p. 372). 



JiVl RIO, RIU. tatsu, ofeoru ^' to rise'). Used as a contraction of tR 
*S^ (xvi). 117. 

-^^ Contraction of ^ (xvii). 67. 

g^* KO : KO ; taka ; taka, Takashi. takashi (' high, exalted, expensive, 
rSj loud'). 7S5. 

[Compare |^ (xxiv).] | ^ {^ Takama-ga-hara (' Heaven's High 
Plain ', sc, hea.ven), | ^ Koma or Korai (Koryo, anct. kingdom of Korea; 
often for Korea as a whole ; both as clan-name, former as k. of Musashi) ; 
Koma-zo, |^ (20/e.) ; Korai-gawa jl| (r.), -bashi, ^ (bridge in Osaka), 
-zayemon ^ |gf f^ (sok.), -ya M (i"!-)- 1 £7 Taka-siiima (is.; k. of Omi ; 
t. ; f. ptr.), ^ ^ -mi-shima (is.), ^jj) '^ -su-ga-hania or -shi-no-hama (coast), 
M 1^ -washi-ga-hara (plain). 

Other Kori : | ^fc Taka-ki (Hizen; Takagi as t., f. ptr., f. met., and 
jord), ^-j^ -i (Shinano ; f. swo.), "ifj -ichi (also Takechi, Yamato ; both as f..; 

^ Chamberlain thinks that some of the kama's in Japanese place-names are referable to an 
original Ainu kama meaning 'ledge of rock'. 



Ten Strokes (igj, contd.) 342 

but see later), gj ~^'^ (-^I'^i I ^- 5 dist. of Yedo ; f. ptr., met., swo. ; also 
Takada as t. and f.), ^ -yasu (Kawachi ; t. ; f. ptr.), ^$ -ki or -ku (same 
k. as I 7[C), |53 -oka (Tosa ; t. ; f.), ^ -ki or -gi (Satsuma ; latter as t., f. 
and joro), J^ -kura (or Koza, Sagami), ^ -kusa (Inaba ; f.), ^ -miya (Aki ; 
t., Nakasendo stage 64 ; f.). 

Mountains : | ^ (^) ^ij K6-ra(-dzu)-san (latter also tern.) ; | ^] 
Taka-yama (= Fuji-san; t. ; f.), "^ |§, iS -chiho-dake {— Higashi-kirisliima- 
-yama), If \\i -no-yama (or Koya-san, esp. as tem.), ||| ]\\ -nawa-san (or 
-yama), ^ (|^) ^J -o(-suzu)-san, ^ (]^', HJ, ;^) \\] -tsuma (-hara, -mado, 
-tsuka)-yama. | M. Takaya (Impl. tumulus ; t. ; f.}. 

Other Towns : J^ \ Otaka (f. met.), Odaka ; /J> | Odaka (f. met. ; 
also Kodaka as f.) ; | ^-H Ko-chi (mod. ken), if -ya (also Takano as t. 
and f. met.), f^ -yo (= Takaoka in Etchu) ; | ^ Taka-ku (f. ; also 
Takahisa as f.), J^ -do, ^ ]fi[{l -tenjin (Takamagami as n. swo.), ^ -tsuki, 
:^ -ishi (f.), ^ -hira (f.), ^ -su, f^ -sa, ^ -kushi, ^ -o (f. met.), ;j^ 
-matsu (f. ; poetess), ^^ -bayashi (f.), |X -tori (f. pot.), '^ -tsu (anct. pal. ; 
f. ; princess), ^ -sago (no), ^Hj -hata (f. ptr.), j}^ PIJ -jomachi, ^ -batake 
(f. met.), ]^ -hara (f. ptr., met. ; r.), ^ J^ -jaya, tw ^K -shimidzu, lH^ -saki, 
(Nakasendo stage 13 ; f.j, ^ -hashi (r.j, ^ -su (f. ptr.), ^ -mori (f. ptr.), 
^ -tomi (f. ptr.), ft -l^agi (f.), jt -to, ^ -toku, H -tsuki, ^ -hashi 
(clan ; f. ptr., met., swo., pot.), ^ -hama (f.), ^ -nabe, |g -date, ^ -se (f. 
ptr., met.). 

Other Local Names : I ^ ■"^- Kodai-ji (tem.) ; | ^ Taka-o (dist. 
of Kioto; f. ; joro ; cas., -jo ^), |^ (or ^) H -nawa (dist. of Yedo), £ 
-oka, '^ -tsu and ^C ^ -anaho (three anct. palaces), J5 '^1| ^ -ta-no-baba 
(racecourse near Yedo), ^ ^ -kura-no-miya (pal. ; n. of Prince Mochihito 
^ iZ and Princess Shiki-shi 5^ ■^), ^ ^ -shima-ya (brothel). 

Other Surnames: | Ko (ptr.); | i^ Koshi, Takashi (Taka-shi, Empress); 
I f^ Okado; | ;^ Ko-rild (ptr.), pj^ -saka (or Takasaka), ^l] -ri ; 1 )\\ 
Taka-gawa, ^ |g -chiho, :}^ -tsuchi, P -guclii, ^ -tama, ^ -uchi, '^ 
-moto (met.), J£ -oka, ijll -ji (met.), ^ -lui, fuj -muku, -muko (clan), 
^ -saka, ;j«j- -mura (met., sculp. ; joro), ^ -mi (ptr.), ^l ']^ -mizawa, 
^ -ya, ;g ^ -base, ■§ -oka (prince), ^ -tsuma, ^ -iwa, ^ -gishi, 
^M ^^'-i' S "gaki, IIP -yanagi (ptr., swo.), ^^ -ne, ^ -mine, ^ kuwa (met.), 
^ -kura (ptr.; 80th INlikado ; poetess), Sf 'M -nose, ^ -ni, ^ -nashi, 
|)g -shina (ptr. ; clan), -hashi, fa\ -ma (ptr.), IJf -yanagi, j^ -michi (clan), 
JH -maro (or -mado as clan), i^ -ba, ^ -lioko, iji]! -hata, |^ -nawa, ^ 
-sawa, j^ -no, ^ -shino (swo.), ^ -tsuki, ^ -kuwa (ptr.), -^ -mine, 
IH -nuka (clan), )1'| -fuji, || -shio. 





343 Ten Strokes 

Other Personages : | (or ^) |^ I^c Kaya-no-in (Emj^ressj, but | ^y- 
]\\ A Koyo-sanjin (n.) ; | '^ Ko-ki (prince), jjil -so, (= Nichiren, priest), 
#: P^ -dai-in (wife of Hideyoshi) ; \ M: M # Taka-miniusubi-no-kami 
(d.), -=f -ko, EH M -da-hime (Empresses), rfj -chi (prince), ^ 12 («• £ 
-oki-no-soj6 (priest), '4- 5! -da-no-nio6 (poetess), $g -liime, ^, >5c ^ 
-mado-dayu (/oro), ^ -boshi, j^ ^F -kuraji (n.) ; | ijj J^i g Takechimaro 
(n.), but I Tfi :^ ^ Takachi no Mamaro and m. ^ no Makuni (bronze- 
founders). 

I §?T' % ^3i Koya-monogurui {no). | ^ kd~mei ('famous'), ^ -ke 
(class of landless daimios). | )|fl. 3C (-^) hii-jiji {-baba), ' great-grandfather, 
-mother '. 

SUI, SAL otoroyeru ('to fall into decay, degenerate'). 145. 

CHO, CHU. lichi (' the interior ') ; makoto ('truth'). Distinguish from 
^ (p. 308) and ^ (345). 143. 

KA, I\;E ; A'^, KE, HE (YE) ; iye, -ye, ya ; iye, iyaka). iye, ya, yaka 
(' a house, family '). As ka or ke, a suffix denoting a family, class 
or agent (like ^, p. 312). 40. 

I ^ lye-jima (is. ; f. ; also Yashima as f.). Towns : ^ \ :lf^ ^% 
Oye-hongo ; | ^ Yakata ; | [1] lye-yama, f^ -shiro, j^ -ki (f.), '/fjj -noura. 
Other Si'Rnames: :}^ \ Oya; | 0f Ivasho (also lyedokoro) ; | yfc lye-ki, 
y^ -naga, |5 -da, M -ya, j^ -hara (lacq. ; clan), jlf^ -zaki ; | 'g Ya-tomi, 
M -gi, M ^, ^ ^ -suda. 

Locutions : $^; | Hayashi-ke (' the Hayashi family ') ; I ,^, I ^ !§[ 
iyedzuto (' a souvenir gift ') ; | ^$ /eerai (' a retainer ') ; | f^ ka-mon 
('members of the [Tokugawa] family'), g -shin, j; -shl ('a retainer'), 
'^ -rei, ^ -/u, |5b -/" (first three officials of a noble's household), ^ -ro 
(daimio's chief retainer), ^ -toku ('succession to tlie headship of a family'), 
^H -sen (see p. 105, /nit). I |K ^ yakata (for M ^, 'deckhouse, mansion'). 

*^^ KIO, IvU ; or GO; KU ; miya ; [miya, taka). miya (i.e., mi-ya ^ ^, 
f— * 'august house', hence 'a Shinto shrine, a palace', esp. the Emperor's 
or other Imperial dwelling) ; -no-miya (tit. of a prince or princess). As 
kiu, also 'a sign of the zodiac'. See p. 98, 15. Distinguish from *g 
(p. 279). 40. 

I j^^ Miya-gi (k. of Oshu ; mod. ken ; f.), -nojo (t.), -shiro (L), 
||§ -zaki (k. of Hiuga ; mod. ken ; cape ; t. ; f. ptr., sculp., actor), %^ -toge 
(pass), }\\ -gawa (r. ; t. ; f. ptr., met., pot. ; jovo), ^ )\\ -to-gawa (= the 
Sumida River), ^ ^J -tsuka-yama (m.). 



Ten Strokes (^, contd.) 344 

Other Towns : | Miya (Tokaido stage 40 ; f.) • ::^ I Omiya (Nakasendo 
stage 4; f. met., sculp.); /J> I illl Komiyaji ; | f Miya-noshita (lacq.), 
^1' -i (f. pot.), 1^ -uchi (f. ; also Kunai as t.), 7X -midzu, r-{^ -naka (f.), 
^ ^% -nojo, -^ -ko (f. ; is. ; r.), if. -moto (f. ptr., met.), ffi -ichi, [H -ta 
(f. met., sculp., pot.), -da, illJ -chi (clan; f. ; n. ; also Miyaji as clan and f.), 
iili -iff -jidake, ;|sj- -mura (f.), % -o (f. met.), :jf: -dzu (f.), JT -shige (f.), 
% -jima (tern., see p. 98, 13 ; f.), ]^ -baru or -noharu (-bara as f. ptr.), 
g]^ -no (f. ptr.), if ^ pj -nokawachi, ^ -nokoshi (-koshi as f.), ^ -nokubo 
(-kubo as f. ptr.). 

Other Surnames : ::A: I t5 Daigushi ; /J> | Kon^iya ; /J^ | llj 
Komiyama ; | X Miya-iri, -^ -ko (Miya-ko, Empress), □ -guclii, lij -ma, 
% -gi {ioYo), ^ -to (ptr.), ^ -uji, W -shiro, 7JC -naga (met.), ;|b -kita, 
^ -ishi, -^ gg- -koji (actor), ^ -nishi (sculp.), ^ -mori, ^ -dera, Xh -nosho 
(ptr.), ^ -zaka, M -zato, ^ -dani, "^ -nari, /j^ -matsu, ^ -dokoro (clan), 
M ffl -wada, ^ -i, 5^ -take (ptr.), |^ -oka, 1^ -jiri, :® -gaki, % -waki 
(ptr.), '% -be (met.), ^ -mori, J^ -dzuka, 3;^ -michi, -ji, *^^ -zawa (ptr.), 
gj -zono, ^ -se, j^ -nabe, -be, ^ -l^uji. 

I tt^-XWt Kubira-taisho (d.). | ^ Miya-tose (/Wo), ;^ if -gmo 
(wrestler), "^ ::;[c ^ -kodayu (yOrnrZ-chanter). Titles : | P^ Kumon (see 
P* 86); I 1^ kunai- (see p. 83); I f^ ^JJi miya-monzeki (prince-prior); | ^ 
giiji (Shinto); | \ kiUjin, miyabito, \ -^ kiujo ('court-lady'). | ^ 
miyamairi (child's first visit to a shrine). 

YEN ; (mori). sakamori (' a banquet ') ; ikou (' to rest '). Confused 
with ^ fp. 338). 40. 

^^^ YO, YU ; YO ; {yasu, kata, kane). katachi, sugata (' form, aspect ') ; 
!-• irei'u ('to permit'). 40. 

I ^ 5\ Yoseiko (Yung Ch'eng-kung, sennin). 

<~Sg SAL tsukasa (' governor, government office ') ; isiikasadoru (' to 
""H" govern '). 40. 

>[C I J see p. 178, z'nit | ^^ saisho ('prime minister'); Saisho, 
/J^ I ;^g Kozaisho, | ^0 H fi Saisho-sammi, ^ -no-kimi, JiL f^ -no-suke, 
^ -no-tsubone (court-ladies, poetesses). 

•^^ AN. tsukuye ('a table, desk'); anjiru ('to be anxious'). As an, 
>^tv also 'idea, scheme, bill'. 75. 

1 ^ anshu (tit.). | ^J ^ kakashi ('a scarecrow'); Kakashi-noya 
M "^ (art-name). 

SHO. yoru, yoi ('night, evening'). 40, | ^ Sho-ko (wom. n.). 





345 Ten Strokes 

[Variant : ^.] KOKU, GOKU. tobu (' to fly '). Used as a contraction 

of H (xxi). 172. 

^^y [Variant: ^^j.] KIO, KO ; waki. waki ('the side' of the body); 
'^ obiyakasu ('to intimidate'). 130. 

Towns : | 4^ Waki-moto, ^ -zaka (f.), BJ -machi, ^ -notsu, gj ^ 
-nosawa. Other Surnames: | Waki; J^ \ Owaki; /J> | Kowaki; I \\} 
Waki-yama, gj -da, ^, ^ -ya, f:^ -zawa. | A Wakindo (n.). 

^fe, TAI ; yas», Yasiishi ; zok., Tai- or Yasu-. yasushi ('calm'); oinaru 
"^ ('great'); yutaka ('fertile'). 85. 

[Compare ^ (p. 225), ^ (292).] | ^ Taisei ('western nations', 
esp. Europe). | Uj, I ^, see p. 103, 53. | [S] Yasuoka (t.). | ^ 
Yasu-ko (Empress). | pjj" ^ Taiami (lacq.). | ^ taihei (' age or state 
of peace '). 

• =^ ^^. ^^ SHIN, JIN; hata; (hata). As Shin, the Ch'in Dynasty of China 
-^^tr* ^9^ (221 to 206) B.C.). The second form is incorrect. 115. 

[Compare homophones under ^0 (p. 299).] Surnames : | Hata (ptr., 
swo.) ; I jll Hata-gawa, gf -no. | ^ M [-^l Shin no Shik6[tei] (Ch'in 
Shih-huang-ti, Chin. Emperor). | ^ jjiM Shin no Jofuku (Ch'in Hsii Fu, 
sennin). | f^ ^ Shimbokko (Ch'in Mu-kung, Chin. hero). | H Hatazumi 
(swo.). 

-^^ SHO, SO; {nobu, fumi, nori). kaku ('to write'); shirusu ('to mark, 
^ record'); fumi ('a book, letter, document'). See also p. 102, 48. 
Distinguish from ^ (p. 374), ft (xii) and ^ (xiv). 73. 

I !^ lU Shosha-zan (m. ; tem.). | ^ jl| Fumimaki-gawa (r.). | |M 
Shokei (Shu-ching, Chin, classic). | |^; sho-rin (' a library '), ^ -kan (' an 
epistle'), tf -± -hakase (tit., see p. 83), ^ W M. -imban-gashira (tit.). | ^ij 
kakihan (see p. 4.). 

.=±i. YEN, ON; (iza^a). nagaki koromo ('a long robe'). Distinguisli 
-fcc from :^ (p. 343). 145. 

^fe SAKU (SO). jzait'a ('a rope'); sagasu ('to search'). Confused with 
^r> the next. 120, 

I li 'II Somen-ga-taki (the 'Vermicelli Waterfall'). I 7v Mogiki 
(n.). I ^I sakiiin ('an index'). 

^^ SO, SU ; SU ; su ; Hajime, (moto). moto ('origin'); shivoshi ('white'); 
-^t^ SU- ('plain, undecorated, commonplace'). Confused with the 
foregoing. 120. 

I So (f.), I }\\ Sugawa (f. ptr.)" | >\^ Sosei (priest). | ^ sua 
(court robe) ; Suo-otoshi ^ [kiogen). \ || sugao (actors ' with the paint off'j. 



Ten Strokes 346 

Contraction of ^ (p. 373). 




^*^ 



^^^* KI, GI ; KI ; (toshi). toshiyori ('an elder'). 



IQ [Variants: ^ ^ ^.] SHIX ; Af/l ; ma-; sane, ma-, Makoto, {mi-, 
-**^ masif) ; -sofe., I fi Masa-. ma- ('real, true'); makoto ('truth'); 

sane, mi ('fruit, seed'). log. 

[Compare f^ (xii), Wv (p- Z2>^^). M (xi"^> ffll (xiv).] Kori : | ^ Ma- 

-niwa (Mimasaka, mod. ; t.), % -shima (Mimasaka ; f. ptr. ; n. ; also Majima 

as f.), If -kabe (Hitachi ; t. ; f. met.). | J^ ilj Maki(Sanagi)-3^ama (m.). 

I ± (or %) UJ Matsuchi-yama (m., for # ?L llj)- I I'mI A tH Mama-no- 

-iriye (inlet). 

Other Towxp : | ^ Moka ; | 3^ Ma-tama, ^ ]\\ -saragawa, ^ 
-gane (n.), f||] -ma (M. no Tekona ^- "j^ ^, ' T. of iM.', see ^, p. 172; M.- 
-iratsume ^ ^, poetess), ^ -nadzuru (n. ; cape, -ga-saki, |1|§). Temples : 
I |lf§ Masaki (f. ; also Magasaki as f.) ; | "^ [^ Shingon-in ; | ;^1I ^ 
Shinnio-dd ; I ijf D3 )tth Masuda-no-yashiro. | ^ Makuzu (dist. of Kioto, 
pot. ; n. pot. ; moor, -ga-hara ]^). | [11] '1^ 4 Mama-konodai (sub. of 
Yedo). I |j^ PTj" Masago-cho (street of Yedo). 

Other Surnames : | 03 Sanada (ptr., met.) : | |g Kureki ; | \ 
Matto {mahito, mabito, matte, or moto, as anct. title) ; | )\\ Ma-gawa (ptr.), 
"I*" -shimo, -shita, ^ -yumi (n.), // pg -mada, ;4i -ki, 4* naka, ]^ -saka, 
j^ -kata, ;;jsj- -mura (ptr.), ^ ff -shino, p^ -kado (n.), ^ -saki, \-\^ -kara, 
^ Wf -sano, ^ m -sazono, ^^ -idzumi, ^ -shiba, ^ -waki, jjilji -gami, 
fif 7K -shimidzu (pot.), 2f -no, ;|^ -hashi, ^ -nabe. 

Other Personages : j f^ Shimbutsu ; | f^ Shin-ga, ^ -sai, ^ -jo 
(priests, last also sect) ; | j^ Ma-gao (poet), ^ -gami (wrestler), /^ illi 
-sachi, ;^ (D ^ -kinoto (yoro) : | ^ Masa-ko (wife of Yoshimune, shogun). 
Other Individual Names : | :ft Mi-hashira, ^^ -fune ; | ji> Ma-fune, 
T§ iliH -1^'ibi, ;^ -hari, ]§. H -yemi, ^ -gane, ^ -washi, |^ -buchi, -bechi, 
|f§ -late, |[{; -mushi, if ^ -nomaro, 5? tj^ -nomori, "g, ^ -koto, '^ -kiyo, 
-suga, ||: -kaji, Bf^ -kuro, |^ -suzu, i|!j -suki. 

I ^ Shin-shu, | g" ^ Shingon-shu (Bud. sects). I Tfc ^ Makibashira 
(Genji Chapter xxxi). J shin or | ^ shinsho (the 'square character ^, /jaisAo 
IW ^)- I ^ shiutan ('well and truly forged'). | f0. mane (^'mimicry'). 
I ^ nzcf/ui (see p. 21, ;He(i). 

[Variant: lll^.] HO, FIJ ; 0; )»ine, taka, Takashi ; zok., Mine-. mine 

(' a mountain-peak '). 46. 
[Compare ^ (xviij.J ;^ | 0-mine (m. ; f.). | ^Ij INlineyama (t.). 




347 Ten Strokes 

Other Surmames : | Mine; /]> | Komine ; | fQ Mine-ta, /^j- -inura, /^ -o 
(n. poetess), ^ -kislii, ^§ -ura, ^ -shima (met.). | ^ Mine-ko (Empress). 




}^ Variant of [I^ (p. 325). 46. 
Old form of ^ (p. 312). 77. 
y^^ Script contraction of |j^ (xviii). 





^f5^ SEIvI, SHAKU. senaka ('the back'). Interchanged with f|*, ^.v., 

P- 315- 130- 
't^ CHO, NIO ; (fea). kaorignsa ('fragrant herbs"). 192. 

^ SHI; SAI; SA ; SA, SHA; SAI, SE; 5^4; sashi. sashi ('a can, pourer"; 
a measure, e.g., gofukii-zashi -^ !|li | or kujira-zashi ^^ | , a cloth- 
measure ca. 15 in., and kanezashi ^ I , ' a. carpenter's square'; also an 
auxiliary numeral for dances) ; sasu (' to join, make, catch [with birdlime], 
rise [as the tide] ', etc.) ; tagaii (' to differ, violate [a law] 'j. 48. 
I ^ ill) Sashi-kiji (t.), fR -gam.i (f.). 

"~ r^ KO. kohitsuji ('a lamb'). 123. 

1^^ [Variant : ^^.J KIO, KU ; (yuki, yasu, yoshi), Yasushi. tsutsushimii, 
^ nyamaii ('to be respectful'). 61. 

JIN, NIN ; YE ; ye. ye (a plant, Perilla ocimoides). 140. 

[Compare homophones under xL (P- 212).] | ]^ Ye-bara (k. of 
Musashi ; f.), ^p^ -gara (f.). 

M^ SHI, JI ; ibara. ibara, niubara ['a briar-bush'). 140. 
-^^ I yK Ibara-ki (k. of Hitachi; mod. ken; t. ; f.), ^ -ki (same k., 

also read Mubaraki ; cas. ; f.j, 7[c M -ki-ya (brothel), 'l^t -zawa (f.), ^ -ko 
(Empress). | Q Ibata, Manda (k. of Kawachi ; both as f.), Matta (same k.). 

Jl* Common variant (according to some, the original form) of ^ (p. 312). 
'^^ 140. 

Hj ; SEN. akane (the Munjeet or Bengal Madder, Rubia cordifolia). 140. 
ffi I M Akaneya (f.). 

JHT JO, NIU ; or JO, NIO; // ; [take.) shigerii ('to be luxuriant'). 140. 




f-^ [Synonym (rarely for names): ^^, i.e., its radical.] SO; SA ; kusa ; 
*^ (kusa, shige). kusa (' grass, herb ' ; also ' sorts, varieties, phases ', in 
error for fjli) ; midave ('dishevelled, straggling'). 140. 




Ten Strokes [f^, contd.) 348 

Towns: | jJD Soka ; | ^\^ Kusa-giu, '^ -tsu (Tokaido stage 51, 
Nakasendo 68), gf -no (f. ptr., met.). Other Surnames: :}^ | Okusa 
(ptr.) ; 1 Sogo ; | )(lj Kusa-kari (met.), )\\ -gawa (ptr.), ^ -u (Kuso), 
^ -jima, J^ -jiki, -ka, fjj^ -ma, i^ -ba (ptr.), If -kabe (prince), H -nagi 
(ptr. ; K. no tsurugi ^, sword). 

:;^ I # M "F Okusaka-no-Sji (prince). | '0i i^ /> fJJ" Soshi-arai 
Komachi (no; see also p. 106, 71). I ^ ivavaji ('a straw sandal'); 
Waraji-daio -ji^ 3E (psued.). 1 yfc so-mokn ('the Vegetable Kingdom'), 
:f^ ~kwa (' a flowering plant '), ^ -s/w (' the cursive script '). 

BEI, MIO. Young leaves of the tea-plant. Also used (wrongly) 
for ^ (xxi). 140. 

^^ [Originally written like ^ (p. 375).] TA, DA; or SA. cha ('tea'); 
■^^ I ^ cha-no-ki, the Tea-plant, Thca chinensis. 140. 

I llj Chausu-yama (m.). I TfC fg ^ Chanoki-inari (tem.). | [Jj 

Sa-yama, ^ -ya (f.). I '/ [~JQ Chacha[maru], I Cha or [psj] | ;^ j^ 

[0-]Cha-no-tsubone (hist. pers.). | g) saycu (' a tea-plantation 'j. | ^ 

chaya, -jaya ('a teahouse'). | ^- chanoyu, \ ^ sado (the Tea Ceremony). 

I ^ chabaii (variety of kiogen). 

lM* KO (KWO), O; i?zl ; ara ; ara; 20/2., ^ra-. arashi ('rough'); are- 
Jllu ('waste, uncultivated'); areru ('to be waste, barbarous'). 140. 

[Compare ^ (xiii).]. Towns : /j> I ^ Koarai ; | |^ Arenai ; | )\\ 
Ara-kawa (r. ; f. met.), ^j- ^ -ibama, g -ta (f.), BJ -machi, ^ -ya, 
?j^ -mi, ^ -to, 1^ -dzuka (or Korio ; Arehaka as m., = Chausu-yama), 
^ -hama, '^ -sawa (f.). I ;^ ;f^ llj Ara-kine-zan (m.), ^^ f± -ki-no- 
-yashiro (tem.), :^ ,^ -me-bashi (bridge in Yedo). | ;|'l' ^ Kojim-bashi 
(bridge). 

Other Surnames : :^ I ;^C Oaraki ; | ^|^ Ara-i (ptr., met. ; also in 
error for f? ^ Arai, t.), ;4c -ki (ptr., met.), 7}C H -kida, ^ -moto, ffl ^ 
-tai, ^ -o, ^ -maki, ^ -i, ^ -maki, fS) -oka, ^ -nami, '^ ^ -hata, 
itm -hata, i^ -ki (clan), ^ -shima, gj^ -buka, gf -no, ^ -ka, ^ -se. 

I jpljl Kojin (d.). I [B yij -^fr Aratawake-no-mikoto (prince). | B3 
^[^ ii! J;b ^ ^ .Iratai-no-ataye Hirafu (architect). j J^ Arando (n.). 
I ^1 ^ Arashishi (nickname). | j]W fl \ ^ Arakaga-niudo (= Minamoto 
no Yoshikuni ^ ^j. Jz \B \ ^ Ota Arani (poet). 

[Also written with three J] instead of the Jj.] REI, RAI (RI). 
I ^ reishi (the Litchi, Nephelium lichi). 140. 

Contraction of ^- (xii). 






349 Ten Strokes 

[Synonym: ^.] SHUN, JUN. takenoko ('bamboo-shoots'). ii8. 

SHO ; NO, SHI. warau (' to lauojh ') ; warai, yemi (' laughter, smile ') ; 
yemu ('to smile, blossom'). See also P^ (p. 296). 118. 
I f^ Waraibotoke (= Fudaishi, d.). | ^ Yegao (n.). | ^^ Yemijo 
(mask). H I sansho (see p. gg, 21). 

CHU, CHU. A sort of bamboo. 118. 





|qr| Contraction of ||, (xiii). 

8^ [Variant: \^.] SO, SHtj. okina, toshiyori ('an old man, elder'), 29. 

]^/$ RIU, RU ; RU ; tome; tome; zok., Tome-. tomcru ('to cease); 
P9 todomarn (' to stay, lodge '). 102. I ^s I i Rusu (f.). | ^ ^ 

rasz// (tit.). | (7) 3^ Tome-no-kata (hist. pers.). 

^\\ RETSU, RECHI; RE; {tsura). hageshii ('violent'); atsushi ('hot, 
'^^» ardent'). As retsu, also 'chaste'. 86. 

I ^ Resshi (Lieh Tzu, sennin). | 5V Rekko (= Tokugawa Nariaki 
^ Bg). I ;^ retsujo, \ ji§ reppti ('a chaste woman, faithful wife'). 

J^ KIO, KU. osoreru ('to fear'). 61. | ]\\ Osore-zan (m.). 

•^p JO, SO ; [nori, hivo, yasu, yoshi, kumi). omoiyaru, kumu (' to sympa- 
^^ thize'). 61. 

^£ SO, SHO. oinaru ('great'); sakan ('flourishing'). 37. 

SA ; SA. Used for Sanskrit sa or siva. 38. 

I ^- Sama (now Mitajiri H K JE, t.). I ,# || §•! s[/i]amso7M 
(sacred Buddhist tree, the Saul or sal). 

[Synonym : ^^.] TETSU, TECHI ; Satoshi, (aki). monoshiru (' to be 
wise'); satoshi ('clever'). 30. | ^ Tet[t]a (k. of Bitchuj. 

^J Contraction of 5f (p. 366). 
*H^ Contraction of ^ (xiii). 

SHIN. kuchibiru ('the lips'). 30. 






k< 




Ten Strokes (|^, contd.) 350 

1^" GEN, GWAN ; hara, rarely -haru ; (rnoto). hara, in Kiushu ham (' a 
^^^^ moor, plain'); moto ('source, origin'). Distinguish from J^- 
(p. 316). 27. 

^ I Ohara (k. of Idzumo ; f. i)tr., met., swo., sculp.), Ohara (sub. of 
Kioto; Ohara-goko p^ ^, no; Ohara-me ^, 'a woman of Ohara'). | )\\ 
Hara-kawa (r. ; f.). Towns: | Hara (Tokaido stage 13; f. ptr., met., lacq., 
sculp.) ; /J^ I Kohara, Ohara (f. ptr.) ; | Haruda (Harada as f. ptr. and 
met.) ; | Wl Hara-nomachi, ^ -ya, ^Ij -betsu.^ 

Other Surnames ; | P Hara-guchi, \[\ -yama, :^ -gi, illl -ji, 
:^ -mura, ^ -shima, |Il^ -zaki, ^ -koshi, ;j^ -hashi, ^ -zawa (m.). | ^ 
5 Harami-o (poet). | ]^ Motoyoshi (swo.). | ^ gembiin, | :^ gempon 
(' the original work, original book '). 

KO, KU ; KU ; zok., Kura-. biikigura ('a military store'). 53. 
^ I bunko ('a book-box, bookcase, library'). 

l^hkl TO, DO ; kara. As To, Kara or Morokoshi, ' China ' ; as To, specifically 
^f^ the T'ang Dynasty of China (| |^ Tocho) ; as kara-, also 'foreign, 

imported, conventionalized '. 30. 

[Compare ^ (p. 249), if^ (297).] I ]\i Tozan (China) ; | j:: Toto 
(same), Morokoshi (same, also f. and joro) ; I i 515 Morokoshi-hime (hist, 
pers.). I ^ Kara-shima (is.). Towns : | j^ To-ni, ^ -na ; | ;;^ 
Kara-gi (f.), '^ -tsu (pot. ; f.), ^ -saki (see p. 107, 79). | f^ Kara-mon 
(gate), i(^ -hashi (bridge at Seta ; f.). 

Other Surnames : | ^ Kara-ushi, :^ -koromo, ^ -kane (lit. ' bronze '), 
Jj^ -mono (met.), '^ -watari, j^ -hata. | ;^ Kara-maru, ^ -tachi (poets), 
^ -uta, ^ -koto, ^ -giku (joro). \ ^jfj Morokoshi [joro). \ ^ Token 
(nickname). | ^ \ To-fujin (T'ang Fu-jen, paragon). | ^ Toyaku, 

I A ^0 1^ Tojin-zumo (kidgen). Locutions: | \ to-jin ('a Chinaman'), 
■^ -in or -on (see p. 6), ^^ -sen (or karabnne, ' a Chinese or foreign ship ') ; 

I -^ kara-ko ('Chinese boys', esp. in art), 11^ -hana (heraldic conventional 
flower), i^ -zo ('Chinese priest'), $i]] -^ -shishi ('a lion ').- 

1 Chamberlain connects this name with Ainu parapet, 'broad river'. 

^ Both karashishi and shishi alone are applied as well to the king of beasts as to his mythical 
spaniel-like travesty commonly described as 'Dog of Fo ' {Fo ^, Chin, for Buddha) or even (quite 
inaccurately) ' kylin '. This word shishi is of Sinico-Japanese origin (Chin, shih-tzu) and the 
animal it describes is not indigenous to Japan. On the other hand, its pure-Japanese homonym, 
shishi 5^ (xii), or specifically inoshishi, designates the native wild-boar (originally 'beast' or 'deer'j. 
Hence the term karashishi expresses literally 'the Chinese (or non-Japanese) sZ/j'syn" — word or animal; 
and to translate it by ' Korean lion ' is to miss the point. ' Lion ' alone (and in quotation-marks 
where the art-motive is concerned) is perhaps the most suitable version. 




f^ 



351 Ten Strokes 

SA, ZA ; ZA, I. As za, ' a seat, assembly, mint, theatrical company, 
theatre' (see p. 100, 37), also a numeral for Buddhist images. 
Compare ^ (p. 252). ^^^. 

/J> I Koza (t. ; r.). | j^ j|I: Zama(Isukarij-no-}^ashiro (tern.). Surnames: 
I H Za-da (met.j, ^ ^ -koji, ^ -kame. | i ,2a-sn (Bud. tit.), gf -/o 
(a grade of blind men), -gashira ('chief actor, star'), % -nioto ('theatre 
manager or proprietor'), |if or ^ -sJiiki ('a parlour, boudoir 'j. 

SEKI, JAKU. shikimono, mushiro ('a mat, seat'). As seki, 'a room, 
assembly-hall, place of entertainment'. 50. 
I E5 Mushiroda (k. of Mino and Chikuzen). | ^ seki-gaki, ^ -^tca 
('calligraphy, drawing, done in private competition'). 

[Contraction: ^.] TEI, JO; niwa, -ba ; (niwa). niwa (' a courtyard, 

farmyard ') ; tairaka (' level '). 53. 
-JZ I Oba (k. of Mimasaka; f. ptr.). | M Niwa-se (t.), TJC -ki, 
03 -ta (f.). I irn ieikin (' home-teaching ') ; teikin-orai t£ ^ (' a primer '). 

rf^ KAN, KON. I ^ kanshaku (' irritability ') ; Kanshaku-kubo ^ ^ 
/ F* (nickname of lyesada, shogun). 104. 

^ SETSU, SECHI. kiidzu ('rubbish, scraps'); kiyoshi ('pure'). 44. 

SEN ; ogi. aogu (' to winnow ') ; ogi, \ ^ sensu (the folding fan). 63. 
I lU Ogi-yama (m.), ^ -bashi (bridge in Yedo), H -ta, PTf M. 
-machiya (t.), Jg -ya (brothel), ^ -gayatsu (f.), gf -no {joro), ^ -uri 
{geisha, ' fan-seller '). 

^U SAl, SEI ; Uyeru. uyeru (' to plant '). 75. 






Synonym of ^ (xi). 54. 

j j^ Synonym of 75 (P- I44)- i^^. 

jl^< TAI, TE. shirisoku ('to retire, depart'). 162. 

^^ TSUI, TAI; TSa; oi. on ('to pursue, follow'). As tsui, also ' to 



supplement'. 1G2. 
Towns : | A Oi-iri, ^ -wake (Nakasendo stage 20) ; | ^ Otsuba 
(r., also Oinami-gawa) ; | ^ Okai. | ^ ^ Ote-suji (street of Osaka). 
I H. Oikaze (n.). | f| tsui-na (the New Year festival), ^ -zen ('masses 
for the dead'; tsuisen-kiogen |£ "g, a charity performance of a kiogen), 
^ ^ ^ -sontenno (prince receiving Impl. okurina or posthumous name), 
ffl ^ -^^"s/n" (tit.). 



Ten and Eleven Strokes 35: 

Synonym of J^ (xiii). 162. 




j^^ SO, ZU. okiiru ('to send off, see off, escort'). 162. 
*^wr I j^ toshikoshi (' New Year's Eve '). 

^A^ GEKI, GIAKU; saka. sakan, sakashima ('contrary, reversed, inverted'). 
*^2-r As geki or giaku, also 'traitorous, adverse'. 162. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 237).] | }\\ Saka[sa]-gawa (r.). 
I ^ Saka-i (sub. of Yedo), ffl -ta (f.), -^ -hoko (no). jii ^^ I # ± 
Hakone no Saka-Fuji (Mt. Fuji as seen reversed in Lake Hakone). | ^ 
saka-otoshi (' a charge down a precipice 'J, ^ -ro (backing a rowboat '). 







jjpj Synonym of ^ (p. 317). 162, 

KI ; Kl : {oki). tatsii, okorii ('to rise') ; okosii (' to raise, originate'). 156. 
I Okoshi (t.). I X, I ^J kiko (' begun ', of a work of art). 

HO, FU ; (sono). sono ('a garden"). 31. 
^i(\ Script contraction of ^ (xi). 31. 

ELEVEN STROKES. 
[^ Correct form of f!^, (p. 319). 75. 

1^H ^^^^ ^^ ^ variant of \^ (p. 319.). 9. 

/P^ [Contraction : ^.J KA, KE ; kari, ka-. karu (' to borrow, hire ') ; 

'•^ kari ni ('temporarily'). g. 

I ^ % Kami-shima (is.). | M Kariya (t.). | ^ Kaya (f.). 

I ^ kana (see p. 21); Kana-gaki Jg (f.) ; \ ^ ^ :^ kanadehon ('an 
elementary book'); Kanadehon Chushingura ;£!, g |^ (jdriiri)' | ^ 
karitakii ('temporary premises'). | "^ men, kamen ('a [theatrical] mask'). 

/Pij SHOKU, SHIKI (SOKU). kawa ('side, row of houses'); soba 
^'♦J (' vicinity '). 9. | ^ sobashu (tit.). 

>fS ^^' ^^ ' (^^^s^)- navabu (' to compare ') ; hitogata (' a figure ') 9. 
Il*^ I ^ gujin, ningio ('a puppet'). 

jf TO, TSU. niisumu (' to steal, filch '). 9. 
TEl, CHO. iodomeru ('to stop, detain'). 9. 









353 Eleven Strokes 

i]^ GAN, GEN. itsuwaru ('to deceive, cheat'). 9. 

4^1 KAI ; {tomo). tomo ni ('together'). 9. 

AKIJ, OKU. chijimu (' to restrain '). 9. 
I f^ Akusen (Wu Ch'i^ian, sennin). 

KEN, GON ; take, Takeshi. takeshi, tsiiyoshi {^ strong, hra\e') ; sukoyaka 
(' robust '). 9. I f^l '^ (^ -;fj) jji^ Takemi-kadzuchi(-nakata)-no- 
kami (two d.). | ^ kondel (' militia 'j. 

YEN. taoreru (' to fall over '). 9. 

TEI, CHO. itadaki ('top', of the head or a mountain); itadaku ('to 
put on the head, receive [from a superior] '). 9. 
I WL chodai ('receiving from a superior'). 

^^fc^ JUTSU ; Yasushi, (yasn). niichi, nori (' method, law 'j ; tedate (' a plan, 
rW device, method'). As -jutsii, 'the art or practice of . . .' 144. 

"iSaM GIO, GO; GO, MI; mi-, o-, on-; mi-, {nori). osamern ('to govern'). 
l*Hr As gio, also 'horsemanship, control'. Used as a common honorific 
or merely polite prefix, usually read mi for the deities of Shinto, gio or mi 
for the Emperor, and go, on or for his subjects, including 0- in women's 
names (see p. 79); as such it may be rendered by 'august', but often 
merely by 'the'; frequently it may be left untranslated. 60. 

[Compare H (P- 150) find ^ (312).] | ^ Mi-kuni (Japan), "^ ^ 
-kura-jima (is.). Kori : | ^\^ Mi-i (Chikugo), ^ -tsu (Bizen, mod.), 
if -no (Bizen), pj -tsugi (Bingo). Mountains : | g- Mitake (f.), Ontake ; 
I H ill Mitsuki-yama ; I ^ ^ Mido-take ; i M til Goho-zan ; ! |^ lij 
Omoto-yama ; 1 ^ j^Jf ^ Gozaisho-ga-mori. | ^ ^ Misaka-goshi, | ^ 
|Ilf Misai-toge (passes). | y\\'] |!)^ Omaye-zaki (cape). | ^ '^j^ Mise-no-ura 
(shore). 

Rivers: 1 fff )\\ Ompei-gawa ; | B (M ^^ ^ UD j'l Mi-kage- 
(-teshi, -mosuso)-gawa. | ©, ]^ Migaki-ga-hara (plain). i jj^ j^ Onari- 
-michi (= Nikkokaido, highroad). 

Towns : \ M PJi Otabisho^ ; I "^ ^ Ofuke (sub. of Nagoya in Owari, 
pot.) ; I ^ Onden^ ; | ^ Go-bo\ -^ -> u (Tokaido stage 35), ^ -se\ 
m m -shonoura, Wt M -temba, f| -rid' ; \ ^^ ^ Mi-tarai (f.), \K: BQ 
-yoda, -g- j^^l -takemura, ^ ^ -kuriya, ^ \\\ -sayama, ^i\ -fune (f. ptr.j, 

^ See also later Examples (Titles, etc.). 



Eleven Strokes (12^1, contd.) 354 

^ -take (Nakasendo stage 49), JH -sono (f. ptr. ; n. poetess), |^ -kuriya, 
^ -kage\ ^ ^ -kagehama. 

In Yhdo : I i^ lU Gotenyama (dist.) \ \ m ^ Gozen-no-niwa (park) ; 

I ^ 7K Ocha-no-niidzu (canal) ; | /|£ •J)j^ Mimmaya-iio-watashi (ford) ; 

I M Pi J^ Onimaya-gaslii (street). In Kioto: | ^ Omuro (dist. pot.; 

Mimuro as clan) ; I ^ H Mizoro (dist. pot. ; M.-ga-ike ^^, pool) ; I ^ ji 

Oike-dori, | ^ tff Goko-maclii^ (streets). Temples : I ^ I ^ Omuro- 

-gosho ; I ^ M Gorei-ya, but | ^ igl: Gorio-no-yashiro^ ; | ^ ^ iMiyei-do^ ; 

i ^ Wi Mido-dono. | :Jf /f^ Miyuki-no-matsu (pine-tree). 

Other Surnames : | ^ Mi-ko,^ ^ ;5: -kohidari, ^ jji^ -kogami, 
^- -te (ptr.), 7|v -ki, TJC ;^ -kimoto, f^ -shiro, :i -tate, ;$! -moto, i^ -na, 
3^ -kanagi, ^ -tsukai (clan), ^ -maki (n. poet), j^ -kashigi (clan), 
^ -maye,^ ^ -haru (clan), ^ -shiku, |1|$ -saki, |^ -ko, -kawa, ^§15 -go, 
/^ -mmaya, l|^ -hata, -^ y'ife -kageike, |g- M -kuriya (ptr.), |1 -kura, ^ |?i 
-suno, |§ -kuji. 

Personages: :^ \ Jijf Ogosho (= lyenari, shogun) ; | )3Jf 3l SP A 
Gosho-no-goromaru (wrestler) ; | fjj jfiljl Mi-oya-no-kami (d.), A^ M "F 
-ma-6ji (prince), ^ ^ -i-ko (Empress), ^ P Q -do-kwampaku (= Fujiwara 
no Michinaga), g [^] -kushige[-dono], ^ ^ h' -are-no-senji (poetesses), 
3^ A -ushi, ;J5i; -tsuye, fg -shine (n.) ; | ^ ^ :^ ff" JE Omuroto-no-daisoj6 
(priest). I ^-^ Ohiya {kiogen). 

Titles, etc., Shlnto : | ^ mitama (honorific name for a spirit of the 
dead) ; | jjilfi ~^]\\ goshinzen (' offerings to kami ') ; | jji^ 0f otabi-sho, -dokoro 
(resting-place of the mikoshi or 'god-car'). 

 , Imperl\l : I ^ gosho, | ^ goten, | f^ mikado (the Palace, 

rarely the Emperor himself) ; | -^ mi-ko (' Impl. offspring ') M- Ijff -yasiidokoro 
(tit. of a prince's wife), M -scuto ('the Impl. capital', i.e., Kioto), ^ -yz</j? 
(or goko, 'an Impl. progress'; Miyuki as tit. of Genji Chap, xxix) ; 1 $[ 
go-rid (' Impl. possessions, domains ') ; \ ^M onga (Impl. fest.) ; | ^ giosei 
('poetry by the Emperor'); | §^ miyei, goyei ('a portrait of the Emperor', 
or other high personage) ; | ^ (see ^, p. 224). 

, Shogunal : I ^ [Jj/f j 7nidai[dokoro] or | fg iji gorenchu (wife 

of shogun or other minister) :, \ :k. M go-tairo (first minister of Tokugawa 
Shogun), ^ 4" -yoju (privy council of ditto), ^ -rio (shogunal domain), 
^ f|I -shiiin (shogunal red seal). 

Other Titles, etc. : I ^ -J* onzoshi (young noble without Court rank 
or office) ; | ijj goho, ombo (see p. 87) ; I ^ A go-kenin (inferior samurai), 

' See also later Examples (Titles, etc.). 



355 Eleven Strokes 

l^ij -zen, -ze (see p. 79), ^ -yd (' [for the] use of a superior, the lord, the 
government', etc.). | j)}\\ f^ otogi-hanashi ('a fairy-tale'). 

:f45 [Contraction: ^^.J SHO, JU (JU) ; SHU, SU ; SO, JO; {tomo, yori, 
•^^ tsugu). shitagau ('to follow, obey'); yori ('from'j. See pp. 88, 
and 100, 34; also p. 130, passim. 60. 

#TOKU ; TO, YE, U ; {nori, nari). uru, yeru (' to get, obtain '). As 
toku, 'profit'. 60. 
I )\\ Toku-gawa (r.), Z^ -hira, llJi -ji, it, 1g -ye, '[g -tsune, f|g -no 
(f.), ^ -ko (Empress), ,^ -ma (n.). | ^ tokudo (Bud., 'taking the scarf). 

■^JTt SHUKU, JUKU; Yoshi, {yoshi). yoshi ('good, virtuous'); yaivarageru 
vR ('to tranquillize'). 83. 

y^B [Contraction: ^^.j SHIN; fuka, mi-; {fnka, to); zok., Fuka-. fukashi, 
^^ mi- (' deep ') ; toshi (' distant '). 85. 

KoRi : I ^ Fuka-yasu (Bingo, mod.), :^ -tsu (Bingo ; f.). | )\\ 
Fukai-gawa (r.). Towns : | )\\ Fukawa (pot. ; but Fukagawa as dist. of 
Yedo, mod. ku of Tokio, and f. sculp, and pot.) ; | 03 Puka-ta (Fukada 
as f. ptr.), xL -ye (f. and n. ptr.), ^ -ya (Nakasendo stage 9 ; f.), ^> -shi, 
M -ura, ^fi -ne, ^ -bori (f.), '(^ -su (or Fukosu ; Fukamizo as f.). | ^ 
Fukakusa (sub. of Kioto) ; Fukakusa-no-mikado ^ (= Nimmio, 54th Mikado) ; 
F. -no-otoko ^ (dram. pers.). 

Other Surnames : | iLl Mi-yama (lit. ' [in] the heart of the mountains' ; 
also Fukayama), ;fg -su (also Fukasu) ; I TJC Fuka-ki, ^[^ -i ptr.), g -me, 
HJ -machi (ptr.), ^ -mi (ptr.), Jl -o, Jg. -zaka, |p -vva (ptr.), ^^ -ye, 
H -mi, ]^ -bara, ^ -no, ^ -su, '{^ -zawa, M -se. 1 # 3C Fukayabu 
(n., see p. 126, No. 36). | ^ Miyuki (wom. n., lit. 'deep snow'), 

't/J^ TEN ; soye. sou, soyeru, masu (' to add, annex '). 85. 
%ip\ [Compare glj (p. 369).] | Ji So-[no-]kami, | T*" S6-[no-]shimo 
(two k. of Yamato). | [13 Soida (t.), Soyeda (f.). 
%KfS SEI, JO; kiyo, Kiyoshi. kiyoshi ('pure'). 85. 

• T^ [Compare '^, p. 356.] | j:: Jodo (Bud. paradise, the 'Pure Land', 
Sukhavati); Jodo-shQ ^ (sect), -ji ^ (tem.). | [Sj Kiyooka (f.). | jt [3E] 
Jobon[no] (Suddhodana, d.). | ^ W, ^ M. Kiyomihara-no-tenno (myth, 
pers.). 1 ia ^ ilB Joruri-hime (hist, pers., whence jortiri, type of drama). 
I ^ ii^ ^ j6hari-no-kagami (the 'Mirror of Hell'). 

^/^* RIN (RON). sasanami (' ripples ') ; udzitmaku (' to eddy '). 85. 



7W Variant of }ff, (p. 320). 85. 



Eleven Strokes 356 




Wrt' SHUN, JUX : atsii, Suuao, [aki, kiyo) ; zok., Jun-. sitnao, tadashi 
• ^ ('sincere, upright'). Distinguish from ^ (xiij. 85. 
I f:l Junnin (47th Mikado, name given in 1871). 

TEN, DEN; yodo ; zok., Yodo-. yodo {' an eddy'); yoJomi (' stagnation, 
faltering speech'); asami ('a shoal'). 85. 
I Yodo (t.). I JI| Yodo[mi]-gawa (r.). J^ \ Oyodo (f. ; joro ; r.). 
I it Yodo-ye (t.), ^ -ya (f.). | ^ Yodo-gimi (wife of Hideyoshi). 

v^S. SEI, SHO ; SHIN (Toin) ; kiyo ; kiyo, Kiyoshi, (suga). kiyoshi, siimerii, 
•n* suga- ('clear, pure, clean'); kiyomeru ('to purify'). As Sei or Shin 

the Ch'ing Dynasty of China, or China itself ( | [^ Shinkoku). 85. 

I )\\ Kiyo-gawa (r.), -kawa (t. ; f. lacq.), -^ ^J -sumi-zan (m. ; tem.), 
jg| -taki, 7X ill -midzu-no-taki, | P^ f| Seimei-ga-taki (falls). Other 
Towns: | 7X Shimidzu (harbour; f. ptr. ; m., -yama), Kiyomidzu (dist. of 
Kioto, pot. ; f. pot. ; tem., -dera ^, also read Seisui-ji) ; | ^ Kiyo-suye, 
^ -mi (f. ; barrier, -ga-seki ^ ; tem., -dera ^, also read Seiken-ji), j^ -take, 
'^"H ~su, B« -nawate, -^ -sumi (f.). | ^ ^ Seikanji (dist. of Kioto, pot ; 
f-)- I 'i^ ^ Seirio-den (Impl. palace-building). 

Other Surnames : | Sei, Sumeri ; | 01 Sei-da (also Kiyota, met.), 
^ -ge (also Kiyoiye), ^ -fu (pot.), gp -no (also Kiyono) ; I 7K # 
Shimidzudani ; | ^ Kiyo-hisa (ptr.), yt -moto (mus.), \£ -ye, ^ -zumi, 
;jsj- -mura, ^ -mine, j;^ -nari, ^ -oka, ^4 -shina (clan), f^ -mi (n. ; Seikai 
as n. pot.), ^ -ura, ^ -miya, ]^ -wara (clan; f. ptr., lacq.), ^ ^, i^ 
-sumi, j-^ -se. 

Personages, etc. : | ^ Sei-nei (22nd Mikado), ^D -wa (56th ; Seiwa- 
-genji ^, ^, branch of the Minamoto clan), JE ^ -sho-ko (the deified Kato 
Kiyomasa | JE), ^ |;j^ "g -shonagon (poetess. No. 62 of the Hundred 
Poets), 111 -ki (see p. 8b; ; I ^ Kiyo-ko (Empress), ;^g -hime (myth, pers.), 
:^ -hana {joro), \ -liito, -ndo, J4 -me (n. ; latter also Seima), f3i -tsune {no). 
I sei-kwa (higher court-nobles), ^ -sho (' a fair copy '), <j^ -rid 
('refreshing'), ^ -kan (Bud., 'serene'). 

^/^^ SEX; asa ; {asa); zok., Asa-. asashi ('shallow'). 85. 
i:S Compare ^ (xiii, jg (xi).] J;, \ \\\ Oasa-yama, | fjj (^) ilj 
Asa-ma(-ke)-yama (m.). | ^i ^ Asaji-no-ura (bay) ; I ';^- ]^ Asaji-ga-hara 
(moor). KoRi : | □ Asa-kuchi (Bitchu), ^ -i (Omi ; f. ptr., met., pot.). 
Towns: | 7jC Asodzu (f. ; also Asami as f.) ; | )\\ Asa-kawa (f. met.), 
5plJ -ri (f.), ^ -kai, ^ -dzuma, gj -no (f. ptr.), || -mai, ^ or ^ -mushi. 
I ^1 Asakusa (dist. of Yedo, text. ; mod. ku of Tokio ; f. ; r.) ; A. -kwannon 
U ^ (tem.). 



357 Eleven Strokes 

Other Surnames ; | 'f Asa-ko, ili -yama (ptr.), yf; -ki (sculp.), HI ~da, 

■j^ -ko, ^ -ba, :^j- -mura, J^ -mi (ptr., met.), ^ -o (ptr., swo., actor), 

fg -numa, ^ -ba, fgj -oka (ptr.), ^ -ka, •/!$ -mi, ^ -kura, ]^ -hara, 

^ -ki, 1^ -ka, H -vva. | fu^ Sengen (d.). | ^ Asa-no-miya (hist. pers.). 

I b i^ Asaju (joro). \ ^ ^ Asoan (n. poet). 

^^H '^-^N, DAN; awa. aivashi, usushi ('delicate, thin, insipid'). 85. 
ivv [Compare |g (xii).] | ^ Awaji (is. pr. ; no) ; xAwaji-ya ^ (f. ; 
n.), -haitei J| ^ (47th Mikado, named Junnin in 1871 ; see '^, p. 335), 
~t)o ^ (swo.). I i@ Afumi, Omi (anctly. for ^ ft, Omi, pr.), Awa-umi 
(= Lake Omi), Omi (clan ; 0. no Mifune H %a, kist. pers.) ; \ M '^ 
Tankai-ko (= Fujiwara no Fubito). | '{^ Awaga, | iji^ Tannowa (t.). 
I jlj Okawa, I 1^ Awa-shima, ^ -se (f.). 



VBL KI. Chinese river-name, Ch'i. 85. 




YEN; fuchi, -buchi ; -bechi. fuchi ('a deep pool, whirlpool'). 85. 
Towns: ;A: I Obuchi (f.); /]n | '^^i Kofuchizawa. Other Surnames: 
I Fuchi; /J^ j Obuchi ; | }\\ Fuchi-gawa, J^. "g^-^ij ^ -moto, ^ -na 
(n.), ilif -zaki, Wf -no (ptr.), j^ -be (ptr.). 



■», 



yFp KAI, GAI. migiwa, kishi, hotori ('edge, bank, vicinity'). 85. 

7^1 'O. kasii ('to scour'); yuru ('to shake clean'). See p^ (p. 360). 85. 

^m KAKU, GAKU. kareru (' to wither ') ; hirii (' to dry up '). 85. 
'*—* I iU Hiru-numa (lagoon). 

^^& TEKI, CHAKU. tsutsushimu ('to be respectful'). 61. 

iWf^ 1; feore, tada, (nohii) ; sok., Kore-, less commonly I-. kore ('this'); 
IP^ tada, hitori ('only'), 61. 

I a Kore-to, -fj -zumi, ^ -mune (f. ; last as clan). 

^rQ Synonym of ^^ (xii). 61. 




Jt^^ SEI, JO. kokoro ('the heart, feelings'). As jo, 'a passion' (see p. 102, 
Irj 49j. 61. I ^ yos/iz ('lovers' double suicide'). 




CHO. tobari ('a curtain'). As cho, 'an account-book'. 50. 
Contraction of ijjf (xii). 50. 

^ Strictly twelve strokes, but counted as eleven by the Chinese and Japanese. 




Eleven Strokes 358 

I. tobari ('a curtain'); katabira (a summer robe). 50. 
I Katabira (t.). 




m 







Synonym of j^ (p. 236). 32, 

HO, BU. tstika (' a mound ') ; hatoba (' a wharf, jetty '). 32. 

TAI, TE; TSUI, iidzudakashi {'piled m heaps'). \ 'Jl^ tsuishu {' carved 
red lacquer'); Tsuishu and Tsuishu-ya M (f- or n. lacq.). 32. 
r^ SHOKU, JIKI. hani ('clay'). 32. 

I ^ Haniu (k. of Kadzusa and Shimosa ; f. ; r.) ; Habu (same 
two k.). I f-"!- Hani-shina (k. of Shinano), ]^ -wara (f.), ^ -^ -yasu-no-ike 
(pool), ^ ^ -yasu-hime (Empress). | f| haniwa (anct. clay funeral 
cylinders). 

-^-zfC Kl ; or KI, GE. saki (' a cape, headland '). 32. 
"^^ I S Saitama (mod. ken, see |1^, p. 360). 

KUTSU, KUCHI ; hori. horn ('to dig'); hovi ('a moat, canal'). 32. 

I IS. 1I4 Hossaka-yama (m.). | :i }\\ Horitate-gawa (r.). Towns: 

I Hori (f. ptr., pot.); | P Hori-guchi (f. met.), ^ -uchi (f. ptr.), / f^ 

-nouchi, xL -ye (also dist. of Yedo ; f. ptr., met. ; swo.), ^ jf] -oka-shin, 

f^ -koshi (f. ptr.), -koye. Other Districts: | )\\ Hori-kawa (Kioto; 

f. ptr. ; poetesses), -tJJ -kiri (Yedo ; f. ptr.), ;^ ^ -nouchi (Yedo). 

Other Surnames : ^ \ Obori ; /Jn | Kobori (ptr.) ; | H Hotta (ptr.) ; 
I |lj Hori-yama, :^ -ki, ^ -i (ptr.), i^ -naka, ^t -kita, ;$: -moto, 
^ -ike, "jg -nishi (ptr.), ^ -me, i^ -mura, ^ -ya (met.), -noya, J^ -o, 
fpj -kawa (73rd Mikado), ^ -dzu, M, ^ -ya, -© -dome, ?f -no, ^ -be, 
i^ -ba, 'l^. -zawa, |^ -fuji, f| -kome (ptr.). | ^ ff Horiiken (n. textile 
painter). 

-UJ| [Contraction: ^^.] KWAl, KE; kake. kakaru ('to suspend'); kakeru 
"•*^ (passive form) ; -/ea/ec (' a stand ' for an object). 64. 

[Compare ^. (xxi).] | ^ jli^ Kakedo-zaki (cape). | )\\ Kake-gawa 
(t., Tokaido stage 26), EH -da, ^ -ya, J^ -tsuka (t.), ^ -hashi (f.). | 0^ 
kakemono (a roll-picture, to hang up). 

^^i^ TAX, TOX. saguru, sagasn (' to investigate '). 64. 
I )^ tandai (tit.). 

SO. haku, harau {'to sweep, clear away'). 64. | '^j- Kammori (clan ; 
f)- I ^ BE Kanimori-no-ogimi (early doctor). | ^>, see p. 8}. 

^»^ SHO, JU; Zt/; Sadziiku. sacf^nfeerzi ('to deliver, impart, communicate'). 
64. 












359 Eleven Strokes 

SAI ; {mochi). torn (' to take '). 64. | ^ ^ Saisoro, vulg. Saisoro 

(bugaktt dance). 

SUI; oshi. osu ('to push'); susumii ('to advance, push forward'). 64. 
[Compare -fiji (p. 260), i^-, (244).] | ^ f^ Suikem-mon (gate of 
Ivioto). I )\\ Oshi-kawa (f.), ^ -na (f. ptr.). | "j^ Suiko (Empress, 
33rd Mikado). 

SHA, SE ; (sute) ; zok., Sute-. siiteru ('to throw away'); hanatsu ('to 
abandon, set free '). Distinguish from ^^ (p. 295). 64. 

YEKI, YAKU ; waki. ivaki (' the side '). 64. 

[Compare % (p. 345).] I jji$ Waki-gami (anct. cap.), ^ M 
-ha-no-sato (t.). 

Jy:!^ KO, I\U. hikayeru (' to restrain '). 64. 
^-^ I lH Ivokaku (ICung Ho, seniiin). 

HO, FU. sasageru ('to offer to a superior'). 64. 
j i{^ homotsn (' temple-offerings '). 

CHO, JO. ugokasu ('to move'); jura ('to shake'). 64. 

IvIIvU, IvOIvU. nigirii ('to grasp'). 64. 

CHO; hari ; {harii). haru ('to stretch, spread, publish, make, line'); 
hari (numeral-suffix for bows, lanterns, tents, etc., see p. 89). 57. 
I Cho (f. ptr.). /Jn I Kobari (f.). Sennin : | ji if Cho-kiuka 
(Chang Kiu-ko), H ^ -sanshu (San-shou), ^ ^ -tenno (T'ien-weng), 
t^ -chu (Chung), ^ -rio (Liang; no), 7^ |n -shikwa (Chih-ho), ^ [^ or gp] 
-kwa[r6] (Kuo[-lao]), -^ ^ -kimpaku (Chin-po), ^ -hei (Ping), ^ jK 
-shosei (Chao-ch'eng), 3^ |^ -dorio (Tao-ling), ^ -ro (Lu), ^ ^ -reiyei 
(Li-ying). 

Other Chinese: | 5|| Cho-hi (Chang Fei, hero; see p. 99, 20), ^ -shi 
(Tzu, sage), f^^ || -soyu (Seng-yu, ptr.), # -ko (Hsiao, paragon), f^ -rei 
(Li, paragon). | tfj Haridako {kiogen ; tofeo, ' octopus '). | ^ harimaze 
(referring to several prints of different sliapes on the same w^oodblock). 

Hjb Contraction of ^ (xvi). 57. 

^3^ MO (BO), MIO ; ta/ec, Takeshi, Takent, Isamu; zok., Take-. isamu, 
takeslii (' fierce, brave, strong '). 94. I )j^ Moko (mask). 

GEL Name for a mythical creature resembling the shishi (see p. 350, 
note). 94. I ^ Shishikura (f.). 








Eleven Strokes 360 

t|rj^^ KI ; saki ; (saki) ; zok., Saki-. saki ('a cape, headland'). 46. 
'^ [Compare ^ (p. 221), ^ (296).] :^ | O-saki (cape; t. ; f. ; also 
Ozaki as f. met.); :^ | ^ Osaki-jima (is.). | (or i^ ^ Saitama (k. of 
Musashi ; see the alternative character, p. 358). | |^ Kiyo (= Nagasaki 
^ I , t.). /J> I Ozaki, Kozaki, I [l] Saki-yama, tc -moto, [Q -ta (f.). 
I -iS see yj [p. 238). 

Gl. Used for §| (p. 374) or ^ (287). 46. 

TAKU, TOKU. tsuibamu ('to peck'). 30. 

1, YUI ; tada ; zok., Tada-. tada, hitori ('only, alone'). 30. 

[Compare 5> (P- 194)-] I Tada, | ^ Tadai (L). \ A Tadando 
(n.). I — yiiiichi ('only, premier'; Shinto sect). 

1^^ [Variants: [J^ ]^J].] IN, ON; (kage). kage ('shadow, in secret, in 

■•^^ outline'); kakiireru ('to be hidden'). As in or on, the female or m 

I 






negative principle in Nature (see p. 97), symbolized by earth, weakness, 
cold, the northern slopes of a mountain, etc. ; it is thus the converse of 1^- 
yo (xii). 170. 

J^ I Daion (d.). I [^ inyo (see p. 97, 1); onyo ('astrology'; see also 
p. 82, fin.) ; Inyo-no-taki ^^g (fall). | []I3 PI Ftc Immei-monin (Empress). 

[Simple form: "^.\ TO; suye. suye ('pottery ware, a potter'). 170. 

[Compare ^ (p. 201), ^ (275).] \ , \ 'M Suye (f. ; see below). 

I (wrongly ^) ^ Yurugi (k. of Sagami, same as ^ |.^ Yoroki). | ]^ 

Suyehara (t.). | [li Suyeyama, Suyama (f.). | |UJj Fp^ To-yemmei (T'ao 

Yiian-ming, Chin, sage ; see p. 99, 21), ^j, 7^: -kokei (Hung-ching, sennin). 

I ^ to-ji, 2s^ ~ki ('pottery'), X -ko, ^ij) -ski, ^| ^^ -kishi ('a potter'). 

RIO. ti^iika ('a mound'); oka ('a hill"); niisasagi ('an imperial 
tumulus or burial-place of an emperor'). 170. 
I 1^' ■?■ ^ Rioyoshimei (Ling-yang Tzu-ming, sennin). 

RIKIJ, ROKU ; (michi). niichi (' a road ') ; kiiga (' land ', as opposed 
to sea). Also used as a complex form of 7^, 'six' (not alternatively 
in names). 170. 

I Kuga, I 1^ Mutsuro (f.). I J^ Michinoku (pr. ; poetess; joro), Mutsu 
(pr. ; f.). I fit} Riku-zen (pr.), i^ -chu (pr.), fQ -da (f. met.), ]^ -hara 
(t.), fip -ro (zok. pot.), -f^ pj^ -sliQsei (Lu Ilsiu-ching, Chin, sage ; see p. 99, 
21), f^ -seki (Chi, paragon). 







36i Eleven Strokes 

^ CHIN, JIN; CHI; nobit, {tsiira). noberu ('to spread, state'); tsuranaru 

('to be arranged in order'); liine ("old, worn-out'). As Chin, the 

Ch'en Dynasty of China (557-589 a.d.). Confused with p^ (p. 325). 170. 

I Chin (f.). I ^ Chimpei (Ch'en P'mg, Chin, general). | -^ 

Nobu-ko (Empress). | \ chinjin ('a back-number'; see p. 70, init.). 

A; A. utsukushii, taoyaka ni ('beautiful, graceful'). 38. 

i fil> ill Adzuma (for ^ ^, q.v., p. 244). | ^j^]) ada, taoyaka ni 
('graceful, delicate'), Taoyagi (jord). 

J»3h FU, FU; FU. me, \ i^ fujo ('a woman'); yome, | J\^ jujin ('a 
7^*** bride, wife, lady '). See also pp. 129, 130, passim. Often in 
colour-prints as an allusive phonetic for the sound /;/ ; e.g., | ^ ^ fusokii 
(for M, ^;; I M m ^ M] ii'ji[bitai] (for ^ ± ['gj]); ! /^ m ^ (for #) 
0) J^ ^ jitku-tokii-kane no nam ki ('the luck-virtue-money-growing tree'). 38. 
I (or |(5ji) :^ Nei or Nebi (k. of Etchuj. 

b%^ ROKU. shitagau ('to follow, obey'). See || (xviii). 38. 
'ujpt SHO, SO. ukareme ('a prostitute'). 38. I ^ shoka ('a brothel'). 
KON. totsugi, I $0 konin, \ fjg konrei, 'marriage'. 38. 







^t- [Synonym: >^.j HIN, BIN; {hide, -akira, yoshi). sakaii ('flourishing'). 
*^ 59- 

NA. nagi (a tree, Podocarpus nageia). 75. | ^ Nagio (n.). 

i_i GO. I ^^ -^'oto, aogiri (a tree, Sterculia platani folia). 75. 

4*^ TO, TSU ; oke. oke ('a bucket'). Distinguish from tj| (xv). 75. 
•irfl I j'l Oke-gawa (t., Nakasendo stage 6), ^ fj] -hazama (t.), 

EH -da (f.), F^ -tori (kiogen). 

[Variants : ^ ^ ; synonym : ^J. | BAI, ME ; ME ; ume ; iume) ; 
zok., Ume-. ume, miime^ (the Plum, Pritniis mume). 75. 

Towns: | if- XJllie-tsubo, p: -dzu (f. ptr.), i& -zako, '^f[ -ura. /^ | 

Koume, Komme (sub. of Yedo ; f. ; dike, -dote H). | BEI Umeda (dist. of 

Osaka; f. met.). | :\)^ ^ kairagi (rayskin for sword-hilts); Kairagi-no-taki 

'^1 (fallj. I M W umeyashiki ('a plum-tree garden', esp. that of Kameido, 
Yedo). 

' Both pronounced as if spelt mine. 





Eleven Strokes {t^, contd.) 362 

Other Surnames: | Ume; | ^ Hoya^ (also a title, see p. 86); I )\\ 
Unie-gawa (ptr.), llj -yama, /J^ g-§- -kdji, -nokoji, _t -g'^mi (ptr.), ^ -do 
(ptr.), 7|c -ki, :\t -kita, ;^ -moto (ptr.), JUl -chi, -ji, ^ 03 -tada (met.), 
jI: -tsuji (ptr.), j^f -mura (met.), ^ -tani, ^^ -bayashi, fg -numa (ptr.), 
^^ -tada (met.), fS) -oka (ptr., sculp.), f^ -noto, ^ -vvaka (no-writers; 
see also below), ^ -ya, ]^ -hara, -bara, |U^ -zaki, if -no, ^ -mori, 
^ -tani, m -zono (ptr. ; n.), ^ ^ -bori, f^ -zawa (met.). 

I Is Bai-fuku (Mei Fu), i^ jjlj -shisen (Chih-hsien), sennin. \ ^ ;;^ 
Umewakamaru (hist. pers. ; also simply Umewaka, as in | ^ ^ Umeivaka 
110 haka, his grave in Yedo). | ^ Umegaye {jovo ; no). \ 3i ^ 
Umeomaru (dram. pers.). 

-jjr^ S¥{\; Adzitsa. adsusa (a tree, the Indian Bean, Catal pa Kaempfevi). 75. 
I • I (for )^) tC hammoto ('publisher'); I alone, after a publisher's 

name, is to be read shi, 'published by'. I ^ adsusayumi (a bow 
symbolical of bravery and fidelity). 

TEI, TAI. hashi, now hashigo (' a ladder '). (N.B. — kakehashi, 
written ^ j^, is a bridge over a gorge). 75. 
I Kakehashi (f. ; r.). | :\t Hashidate (joi'o). 

>q*H SO, SHO ; Koziiye, {taka, yedd). kozuye, koyeda (' twigs '). 75. 

BI, MI; kaji; (kaji). kaji (the Paper Mulberry, Broussonetia kasinoki). 75. 

[Compare 1^ (p. 299), || (xni).] I \[\ H Kaji-yamada, M M 

-yashiki (t.), j^ -wara (t. ; f.). Other Surnames: | Kaji (ptr., enameller); 

I }\\ Kaji-kawa (lacq.), ii| -yama (ptr.), BEI -ta, :^ -ya (ptr.), ^ -shima, 

5? -no, l^ -ura (ptr.). | ^ Kaji-ko (poetess). | j\^ ^ Kajii-no-miya 

(many princes, hoshinno). 

HO, FU. I ^C kagaribi, noroshi, tohuhi ('a signal beacon'). 86. 
1 |lj Norose-yama ('Beacon Hill' near Nagasaki). j i)^ if 
Tobuhi-no (moor). 

[Original form: ^^.] KI ; nori, (nari). nori (' law, rule ') ; tadasu [^ \o 
correct'). 147. | ^£ Kiku (f. ; 2ofe. -initial ; lit. 'rules, order'). 
I ^ Ki-shi (princess). 

SOKU, ZOKU ; Yakara, {yeda, -tsugu, tsugi-). tagiii (' a kind, sort ') ; 
yakara ('family, relatives, fellows'). As zoku, 'a clan, caste'. 70. 
I ^ 1^ Zokunosuke (zok.). 

* May also be read umeboshi, a name for dried pickled plums, the above reading being due to 
the resemblance of umeboshi to pickled hoya -(^ ^, a variety of shellfish or tunicate mollusc {Cynthia). 








363 Eleven Strokes 

RO. I Jf vokan, 'white coral'. 96, 

-^Ul RI ; RI ; Osamii, (tada, masa). mokume ('wood-grain'); michi ('way, 
-^^ principle'); tadashii ('correct'). 96. | Ji Rinouye (f.). 

KEN, GEN; (aki). arawareru ('to become known '); a/eirafea ('bright, 

clear'). As gen 'actual'. 96. 

I jjifji aki-tsu-kami, \ A f'$ arahitogami (tit. of the Emperor as ' the 
visible god '). 









SHU, SHU. iama no kazari ('adornment of gems'). 96. 

RIU, RU ; RU. Name of a gem. Occasionally for Jg;(xiv) in | ^ 
ruri, ' emerald or lapis lazuli '. 96. 
I J^ Riiikiu (the Luchu Islands). 
KIU, KU ; KU. ' The tinkling of gems '. Compare the foregoing. 96. 
I ;^ (or J^ or Hi,) Kuma (k. of Higo ; r., see p. 98, 11). 

KWAI, KE. kurashi (' dark ') ; misoka,^ tsugomori ^ (last day of a 
month) ; ;;^ I [\] \ omisoka, otsugomori (last day of the year, New 
Year's Eve). 72. 

BAN, MAN; (kage). As ban, 'late, evening, night'. 72. 

I ^ 1^ Bansui-ro (teahouse). ^ | komhan (' this evening, 
to-night'). I ^ ban-uen ('old age 'j, i,^ -rio (or yusuzumi, 'the cool of 
the evening, cooling oneself in the evening'). | ^ f^, ^, ^), see p. 47. 

KIAKU, KAKU. ashi ('a leg, foot'). As kiaku, a numeral-suffix for 

couches and tables (see p. 40). 130. 
■^ I Oshi (' Bigfoot ', prince, = Ninken, 24th Mikado). 

|g Old form of m (p. 367)- 

[Contraction : jj^^.] SHO, SO ; N final ; masa. masa ni, hata (' more- 
over ') ; sakan ('flourishing'); hikiyuvu ('to lead'); tasukeru ('to 
assist'). As sho, 'a general'. 41. 

I P^ \h Masakado-yama (m., from Taira no M.). ;/v; | "^ Taishogun 
(d. ; military title), | ^ Shoden (see p. 86). For I "^ shugun and other 
military titles, see p. 85, also ^]E (p. 256), 

f^ SHO, SO; SA ; yoshi, {sachi). saiivai ('happiness, luck'). 113. 
i ^ Shozui (n. pot. ; some pronounce Shonzui). 

1 Lit. ' 30th day ', but used even when the month contained only 29 days ; in the latter case 
it might be qualified as ;:^ Q | kunichi-misoka. 

^ As if tsiiki-komovi }] ^^, 'moon hidden' or 'month's retirement'. 












Eleven Strokes 364 

KO, KU. hakama ('breeches'). 145, 

I IB Hakama-da, ^ -dzuka (f.), ^ -dare (nickname). 

I; /, YA. utsiirii ('to be altered, fade, emigrate'); iitsusu (active 
form). 115. I i^ Utsunohara (t.). 

YOKU. tasukeru ('to assist'). 124. 

BU, MU ; MU ; Tsiitomu, Tsutome, [chika, kane). tsutomeru (' to be 
diligent'). 19. | Jt Buko (Wu Kuang, senniii). 

/m4« Full form of ]^ (p. 301). 

P^ KIO ; {aki, -akira). shiroshi ('white'). 106. 

■■»|p CHO. mini, nagameru (' to view '). log. 

I C^ cliobo, nagame (' a panorama, viewing scenery '). 

G.-\N, GEX. ;»e, manafeo (' an eye"). Distinguish from 0g (p. 331^). 109. 
I j^ ;f^ Megane-bashi (the ' Spectacles Bridge ' in Yedo). j ^ 
Mebun (not Gambun, sculp.). 

Variant of §. (p. 370). 

KEI, YE. aze, une ('a path between rice-fields 'j. 102. 
I 11 Azekura (f.). 

^^7j SHO, JO; {aki, -tsiigu, tsugi-). tsugii ('to follow, succeed'). 120. 
^1*0 I /|* shukai ('an introduction, meeting'}. 

j6^ SHU, SHU. ouvu (' to complete, end ') ; owaru (' to come to an end, 
/r^ die'); owavi ('the end, finis\ esp. in book-colophons). 120. 

I (or M') ^ \h Onami-yama (m.). 
^^1L KAN, KOX. As kon, a dark blue colour. 120. | M Pff K'^va-machi 
^*n (street of Yedo). | J^ Konya, | ^[■^■f Kommura (f.). 

^Fl '^^' ^^ ' C^""^^)- kumu (' to braid, knit, fit into, club together, grapple') ; 
'•^LL kunii ('braid, nest [of boxes, cups, etc.], company, troop'). 120. 
I -f Kumi-ko (poetess). 

j^tTj SEI, SAI ; SE; hoso. hososhi, komayaka ('thin, small, delicate, 
'PW detailed'). 120. 

I # JH Hosotani-gawa (r.). | ^ |lfp Hosoo-toge (pass). Towns: 
I )\\ Hoso-kawa (f. ptr., met., swo.), ^ ^ -kute (Nakasendo stage 48), 

' Where, by an error noticed just too late for correction in the text, it was printed HE^. 





365 Eleven Strokes 

g -me, ^ -3'a (f. ptr. ; also Hosonoya as f.), J^ -kura (f.), ^ -sliima, 
ff -no (f. met.). Other Surnames : | iJj Hoso-yama, ^ -do, yfc -ki, 
^ -i, ffl -da (ptr.), ^ -ai, it -tsuji, ^ -mi (as saiken, 'detailed topography'), 
fg -numa, ^ -ya, f^ -nami (ptr.), p^ -bori. 

I X saiku, 'art-work'; after a signature, no saikii, 'the work of . , .' ; 
saikti-jo |i)f, 'atelier'. 

ifeA HAKU ; kasu. kasu ('dregs'). iig. [Compare j^ (xvii).] | |£ 
"T Kasu-kabe (t.), }\\ -gawa (f.), ^ -ya (f. met.). 

\T RIO, RO. tsiihu ('a grain'). 119. | j^ Tsubura (f.). 





^k|l [Synonym: ^.] SO, SU. arashi ('rough, coarse'); hobo ('for the 
most part, almost'). As so, a self-humiliative prefix. iig. 
I ^ so-g-wa ('rough sketches'), ^ -/z/n ('[my] poor gift', etc.). 

4frf HEI, BIO; HIN (Toin) ; ikame). kame ('a jar, flower-vase'); mika 
/lA 'a vessel for saA;e'). 98. 

I ^ ^ Kame-ga-mori (m.). | ^ Mikajn-i (f.). i^i \ W ^^ 
Taihin-shojo (no). 

HO, BIO. hisago, fiikiibe (' a calabash '). 20. 

ll^^ DA ; or SHxA., JA. hebi, kuchinatva (' a snake ') ; orochi (mythical 
'^^ serpent). 142. | gj \\\ Jayen-zan (m.). | '^ jl| Jakotsu-gawa (r.). 
I ^ ll|^ Hebi-ga-saki (cape). | P Hebi-guchi (f. ; Jaguchi as mask-name), 
1^ -dzuka (f.). 

|l|il^ KAN, KON. akagai, kisa (a bivalve, Area inflata). 142. 
'»^H I (or ^) >^ Kisa-kata (bay). 

V [Contraction: fj^.] SEN, ZEN; fune, funa. fnne ('a ship, boat'). 
^ Distinguish from ^ (p. 333). 137. 

[Compare -ft]r (p. 220).] | ^f: Funai (k. of Tamba ; f.). | _r. \h 
Funanouye-sen or -yama (m.). Towns: J^ \ Ofuna ; | ^ Funiu ; | ;^C 
Puna-ki (-gi as f.), m -hiki, ^ -to, /3 ^ -tobe (f. ptr.), ^ -mi (f.), 
[Ift -tsuke, ^ -kata, [S] -oka, :^ -tsu ([.), jS -hazama, ^jji; -to, -do (f.), 
^ -koshi (f. ptr.), ;|^ -bashi (f. ; r. ; lit. 'bridge of boats'). | i^ Semba 
(dist. of Osaka). 

Other Surnames : /j^ | Kobune ; /h I ^ Kobunai ; | ilj Puna-yama, 
;$: -moto, g -da (ptr., met.), Q^ -ye, 1^ -saka. | 3E Fune-no-miko 
(prince). | ^ Funa-ko (court-lady). | Pp, Funa-uta, ^ -mori (poets). 
I Fj^ sen-chu ('in a boat'), gg -cio ('a sailor'; Sendo-muko ^, kiogen). 



i 




Eleven Strokes 366 

[Synonym: j^^.] TA, DA. kajl ('a rudder'). 137. 

■^/L SETSU, SECHI. oku ('to place'); mokeru ('to prepare, devise'). 149. 
R-SC I ^ Shidara (k. of Mikawa ; f.). 

■^rfl rOTSU, TOCHI. domoru ('to stammer'); ososhi ('backward'); nibiishi 

(' dull ■). 149. 



m 

^Tt HO. ton, iomuran (' to visit '). 149. 





KIO, KG; KO ; {moio). yuviisu ('to permit'); moto ('at, chez'). 149. 
B I \ ^% '{^ Koga-no-watashi (ford). | ^ ^j Kosobe (clan). | H 

Konomi (f.). \ M & & Koyemaro (poet). 1 1])] ^ Kiomeijo (Hsii 
Ming-shu, Chin. sage). Sennin : | ^ Kio-yu (Hsii Yu), a; z^ -sempei 
(Hsiian-p'ing), ;fg ^ -seigan (Hsi-yen), ^ S -shinkun (Clien-chiin). 

KIO, KU ; KU. suku ('to save'); tasukeru ('to assist'). 66. 
I j5V Kuku (t.). 

\'ariant of ^ (p. 304). 66. 

4^^ BIN, MIN ; toshi, Satoshi, Minu ; zok., Toshi-. toshi ('quick') satoshi 
'^K ('clever'). 66. ' | ,f§ Toshima (f.). | -^ Toshi-ko (poetess). I 3^ 
Bitatsu (30th Mikado). | ^ Togama (n.). 

KO, KIO ; iiori. oshiye (' teaching, doctrine ') ; navaii (' to learn ') ; nori 
('law'). As kio, 'a religion' (see p. 100, 32). Distinguish from 
^ (p. 332) and 15: (xii). 66. 

I S' ft Kioju-kwan (clan-school). | ^$ "^ Kioraishi (f.). | ^ 
Nori-ko (court-lady). | p| kiokun (' moral teaching '). 







\^ariant of ^ (xi). 30. 

[Variants : ^, ^ .] YA ; NO, YA ; no ; {no, hiro). no, anctly. nu 

('a moor, moorland, wild'). 166. 

[Compare 75 (p. 144), ffb (333), and see the next entry.] | >)]] Yashu 

(Shimotsuke pr.). Kori : J^ \ Ono (Mino, Echizen, Hida, Bungo; t. ; clan; 

f. ])tr. ; Onu as anct. cas.) ; | ^^H Yasu (Omi ; t. ; r., also as Nosu-gawa) ; 

I Pij] Noma (lyo ; t. ; f. ; cape, -no-saki llli'f). | )\\ No-gawa (r. ; f.). 

I g ill Noro-san, | ^ Nonobori, | ^ Noge [m.). \ m HM) i j'l 

No-da(-se) no Tama-gawa (two of the six Tama Rivers, see p. 104, 59). 

Other Towns : ::^ I T' Onoshimo ; I p^ lil Tokoroyama ^ ; | P 

1 Tokoro, written ff ^, is a species of yam, Dioscorea. 



3^7 Eleven Strokes 

No-guchi, /^ -no, ^ ffi -noiclii, ^ % nojuku, ^ % -noshima, 4* -naka 
(f.), Tfv -gi (Nikkokaido stage ; f. met.), ;^ ^ -kizaki, p^ -uchi or -nai, 
^ -sliiro (same as ]^g \X), B9 -da (f. ptr., met., swo., sculp., actor), H Jf^ 
-tajiri, ^ -mo (cape, -zaki |1|^), ^ -jiri (Nakasendo stage 40 ; f.), \% -ji, 
j^ -mura (f. ptr., met.), ^ -dani, :^ -jiri, :j^ |i^ -tsubara, "^ -kubi, ;t^ -ne 
(f. ; m., -yama), % -jima (f. ptr. ; cape, -ga-saki |1|^), ^ -mugi, :^ -tsuka (f.), 
^ -biru, ^ -sawa or -zawa (f. ptr.). 

Other Surnames : -j^ \ i^ Onoki ; | % Yabe ; | % Nombe ; | % 
Nojo ; I — -g, No-ishiki, -^ M -slnchiri, Ji -garni, ilj -yama, ^7 d 
-noguchi, // ill -noyama (ptr.), // j^^ -nomura (pot.), /j ^ -nomiya 
(lacq.), ^ -:, ^ -kita (met.), ^ -ya, ^ -moto (met., text.), ^i -de (ptr.), 
^ -yasu, ^ -dera, |g -zaka, g -ro (ptr.), g /j^ -romatsu, ^ -zato, 
^ -mi, jlc -yori, :^^ -bayashi, ^ ^ -nagase, :j^ -dzu, j^Jfl -bata, i.t^ -ma, 
g" -miya (ptr. ; n.), -nomiya {no), ]^ -hara, -bara, f^ -zaki (ptr.), gl] -zoye, 
% -ga, I^ -giwa, % -yo, ^ -se, ^1 EB -beta, % ilH -bechi. 

;::fe I 1^ Onomatsu (wrestler) ; | ^l] ]:4^ Yasura (n. poet) ; | /g 

No-kari (ditto), )^ fg )p^ -mi-no-sukune (early wrestler), [lf§ -zarashi, 

Jg, -tari (n.), ^ % -noya (art-name). | ^ ;£ (>[v ic) i;^ g Nonomiya-sa- 

(-dajo)daijin (= Fujiwara no Kintsugu and F. no Sanetoki respectively). 

I A yaj'^n ('boor', self-humiliative). | ^ nojuku ('camping out'). 

f\\ S^ [See the foregoing entry and compare ^ (p. 277).] 

Towns : | | Ono (clan ; f. ptr., met., sculp.), Kono ; I I f^ 
Ono-ichi, H -da (f.), tL -ye. Other Surnames : | | iJj Ono-yama 
(actor; jovo), TJC -ki, j^ -uchi, -^ -dera, M -zato, |J^ -oka, |1^ -zaki, 
:^ -dzuka, '/^ -zawa (lacq.), '^ -se (met.). | | ^ Onu-hime (Empress). 
I I )\\ Ono-gawa (wrestler), ff" jE -no-sojo (priests Joson and Ninkai), 
% ^ {zk. ^) i^ 6 -nomiya-u(-dajo)daijin (two Fujiwara dignitaries), BS 
-teru, '^1 -daki (joro). \ I /]■» iff Ono no Komachi (poetess. No. g of 
the Hundred Poets ; see also p. 106, 71) ; O. no K. Miyako no Toshidama 
f P ^ S ijoruri). 

Contraction of ^ (^'v). 

>l KOKU. Synonym of ^ (p. 193) in the sense of a measure of 
capacity. 68. 

[Old form: ^^.] RO ; RA ; Akira, Hogara, {aki,' -akira). akiraka, 
hogaraka ('bright, clear'). As -ro, an ending for art-names (see 
p. 69). Distinguish from gp (p. 334). 74. 






Eleven Strokes 368 

Htt 01" Hit KI, KE. sude ni ('already, about to'). 71. 

^f "^" ^1* ^^•"^' ^'^- ««"«'"^ (' oblique '). 68. 

ft! SEN. kushiro ('a bracelet'). 167. 
" I Kushiro (f. ptr.). | ^ Kushiro (pr.). 

'H^X SAN, SEN. okama ('a large sickle'). 167. 

CHO ; {tsuri). tsiiru ('to fish'); tsurusu ('to suspend by a cord'). 




' Distinguish from i^ (xii). 167 




I ill Tsurushi-daki (fall). | %\\ Tsuri-bune (f.), ^^ -nianako (mask), 
-^ -onna (kidgen). \ Jl choso ('old angler', i.e., retired scholar). 

/^A^ SAI, SEI. irodorii (' to paint ', esp. in polychrome, ' to pick out ' in 
^^ colours). 59. 

KEN, GEN; or KAN; HI. ame ('heaven'); hivu ('to dry up, cease'). 
As ken or inui, ' the north-west ' (see p. 107, 77, also p. 39, 
med.). 5. 

I Inui (f.). I % Kengen (no). \ i^ kenkon (' the universe '). 

^I» SHU, SHU; or SHITSU; {mori). mamoru ('to protect'); torn, torayeru 
~t>^^ ('to take, take hold of, manage'). 32. 

I ^f Shugio (f. ; lit. 'conduct, performance'). I ^ shikken (shogun's 
regent in Kamakura period) ; | ^1 shitsuji (tit.). 

^\fX^ HO, BU ; BE, HE, BU. wakatsu (' to divide '). As be, an ancient 
PI 'gild', also a common termination in place-names^ (and surnames 

derived therefrom); as bu, 'a department, bureau', or any subdivision, such as 
' class, group, school ', etc., also a numeral suffix for copies of a book. 163. 
/h 1 Obu (t.). I M Heya (t., lit. 'apartment'). | ^ Bushu (d., 
the 28 Attendants of Kwannon). ^^ jj§ | Gold no bu (' the Goto School 
or Group 'j, etc. 

AlA KWAKU (vulg. KAKU) ; (sato). kuruwa (' an enclosure, castle-wall ', 
HrH etc., or ' an enclosed space ', including a prostitute quarter, '^ ^1; 
or m M). 163. 

^ Chiefly names the transcriptions of which are clearly phonetic. Professor Chamberlain 
suggests an Ainu derivation for some of these, e.g., g [ig] | Tanabe {tanne-pet, 'long river'), 
2^ (also ^) I Otobe (ota-pet, ' sandy river '). 



3^9 Eleven Strokes 

I ^ Kwakubaku (Kuo P'o, sennin). | g Kwak-kio (Kuo Chii, 
paragon), ^ -kei (Ch'iung, scnniu). | 4* (ft) kivakii-chu {~nai), kurinva 
no iKika {no iichi), 'within the Quarter', of a Yoshiwara inmate. 

M^ [Variants : ^Ij, ^.] CHO. horu, yeru, kizamu, chiribamu, cho-suru 
r^*^ ('to carve, sculpture, engrave'). 59. 

I % M Horimonoya (f. met.). After a signature : | horu, \ H 
chosen, \ %\\ chokoku, | i^ chosan ('carved, engraved, chased by . . .'). | glj 
(or i^) ^ (or ^) chokokush'i, hovimonoshi ('carver', esp. metal-worker). 

g_L I; JO. yasiinzurii ('to tranquillize'). As jo, a title (see p. 85), also 
'^■•*'* a stage 'old man'. Distinguish from ^ (xiii). 41. /J> | Kojo 

(mask). I <:^ ^^ Jo to Uba, vulg. Jotomba (the Aged Couple of Takasago). 

y^tt KI. iiyeyu ('to be hungry, starve'). 184. 
^*^ I i^ Kikatsu (demon). 

ROKU. horu, yevu (' to carve, engrave ') ; osayeru (' to repress '). 
Distinguish from ^ (xii). 19. 

KAN. sadameru (' to settle, fix ') ; kangayeru (' to consider '). As 
Kan- (like ^ Jin-), a very common ^o/jwrnio-initial. 19. 
I M ^ K^geyu (zok. ; anct. tit.) ; Kageyu-zayemon ;£ f^ P^ {zok.) ; 
but I M ^ 4^ Ifn Kadenokoji (f.). | <f|* i^ W >l^ Kansuke-kosodate-no- 
-matsu (pine-tree). | ^ ^ ^f kanjo-bugio (tit.). 

TO (DO), TSU. iigoku ('to move', intrans.) ; ugokasu (trans.) ig. 
I ;^ Todoroki, | ^ Iburibashi (t.). 

Correct form of ^ (p. 370). 19. 

"^il FUKU ; or FU, FU ; FU ; soye ; (soye, suke). sou ('to accompany, be 
W J united to ') ; soyeru (' to add '). For its use in titles see p. 85, 

note 4. 18. I E9 Soye-da, ^ -jima (f.). 

,'|f^ YEN. idziikunzo ('why, where, how'); kove ('this'). Used for ;^ 
*"V (p. 176) in such phrases as ^ | kore wo seisu ('made this'); 
compare p. 91. 86. I J^ Yemba (poets). 






^^ TA. shidzuku ('a drop'). 173. | ^ Shidzukuishi (t.). 

*-|:^ SETSU, SECHI ; yuki ; {yiiki, kiyo) ; zok., Yuki-. yuki ('snow'); 
— I"* sosogu ('to sprinkle'). See p. 39. 173. 

Mountains: | \\\ Setsu-zan (Mt. Sylvia, Formosa; cf. also p. ^^^); 

I it ill Sekko-zan; | ^ \[\ Yukihiko-yama. | H (i^) Jf| Yuki-wa- 

(-zawa)-no-taki (falls). | "]*" Yuki-noshita (t. ; f. met.), -shita (f.), ^ -oka 

24 



Eleven Strokes (ij:, contd.) 370 

(f.), Sf -no (f.). I Hi: Fubuki (f., lit. 'blizzard'). | fri ^ Settci-riu 
(school of painting). | -^ Yukionna (myth, pers.) ; Y. Gomai-hagoita 
5". ^j{ ^ ^ 'tS ijoruri). | tT •^ Yuki-uchiai {kiogen, ' snow-balling '). 

I pf^ set-chu (' in the snow, a snow-scene '), ^ -ten (' snowy weather '). 
I liL ynki-mi (' a snow-viewing picnic '), Bf| -hare (' clear weather after 
snow '), 15? -^^ (' the melting of the snows '). 

Incorrect form of ^ (p. 337) as contraction of J^ (xiii). 

eg 



£L Contraction of ^ (xii). 




HIX, BIX. madzushii ('poor'). 134. | ^ jjilji Bimbo-gami (d.). 
I ^ — 'l^ hinja no iitu ('the poor woman's single lamp'). 

t=>^ HI. iyashii ('humble'); inaka ('rural'). Used also as a contraction 

ra of n (.xiv). 30. 

HtN KIOKU, KOKU ; TsiUomu. tsutomeru ('to exert oneself). 19. 
t^. SHIN, JIN. tsuto, akebono ('dawn'). 72. 
SEI, JO; i-akira). 'Sunlight'. 72. 




^3 BAN, MAN. nagashi ('long'); hiroshi ('wide'). 73. 

-2^ I P'b ^ mandara (sacred Bud. picture, Skt. mandala) ; Mandara- 

-gawa )\\ (r.). | J^ |% Manju-in (tem.). 

^9 [Variant: IH§.] RIAKU. habiiku ('to shorten, abridge') ; /wbo ('roughly 
"■^ speaking'). As riakit, esp. 'curtailment of ceremonies, epitomization' ; 
in book and print titles, ' A compendium of . . . ' ; see also "j*" (p. 154, 
init.), and p. 105, 66. 102. 

I ^ riakii-gwa ('a rough sketch'), ^ -shu ('an epitomized series 'j. 

1^^ RUI; RU. kakarii ('to depend on'); kasaticrii ('to pile, repeat'). 120. 
>^f> I Rui (n. swordswoman), Kasane (leg. pers., ghost). 

Jga I ; /, KE ; (yori). koionaru (' to differ ') ; mare (' rare, foreign '). 102. 
■^^ I 7^ i-jin ('a foreigner'), ^ -/co/en ('foreign lands'), ig -mio 

(' a nickname '). 

Vt/ .More correct form of ^ (xii). 109. 

KWAN ; nuki ; isura, Tsiira. niiku, tstiranukti (' to pierce, pervade '). 
As kwan, a string of 1000 cash, also a weight (see p. 66). 134. 




373 Eleven Strokes 

n.)- I ^ Yadorigi ('mistletoe', Genji Chapter xlix). | ^ ^ (or ^t g) 
Sukunamaro (n.). 



^E^ [Contraction: ^.] SEKI, JAKU. sabishii ('lonely, dull'); shidzuka 
^^^ ('peaceful'); jaku-siiru ('to die', of a Bud. priest). 40. 

I ^ Jakko (tem.) ; Jakko-do jt (Bud. paradise), -nunobiki-no-taki 
^ ?I M (fall). I 31 a BiP Jakuren-hoshi (priest, No. 87 of the Hundred 

Poets). 

_^£ Contraction of ^ (xiv). 

IN ; tora, Tora, (tomo) ; zok., Tora-. tsutsushimu (' to be respectful '). 
As in or tora, ' the Tiger ' (see p. 63). 40. 




/^ Variant of ^ (p. 345). 



KI; KI; (yori). yoru ('to come together, assemble'); yosevu ('to bring 
f'J together, take in, collect ') ; yose (' dependence, trust, an assemblage, 

entertainment-hall '). 40. 

[Compare ^ (p. 255).] J;^ \ ]\\ Oyori-yama (m.). | ^ Yori-i, 
^ -shima (t.), ^ -ya (f.). | ^l£ Yadorigi (see ^ /fc, p. 372). | i^ ^ ^y 
yoseba-bugio (tit.). | ^ ki-shin, pfj" -fu ('a pious contribution'); after a 
name, kishin{kiju)-su, 'contributed by . . . ' ; see also ^ (p. 281). | ^ 
yoriai ('association, together'); yoriai-gumi ,^fl., -shu ^ (tit.). 

^^ [Variants: ^ ^ )jg.] SO; or SO, SU ; Afatfo. mado ('a window'). 
^■«2^ 116. 

^j^* iMITSU, MICHI ; Hisoka. hisoka, misoka (' retired, secret, clandestine, 
I-*-! illicit'); shidzuka ('quiet'). 40. 

I gg- ;f^ Sasayaki-no-hashi (the 'Whispering Bridge'). | ^ Misshu, 
I ^ Mikkio (the Shingoii sect). 



^T [Contraction : ^.] SEN ; Mohara, (moro). moppara, anctly. mohara 
*^^ (' entirely, chietly, especially ') ; hitori (' alone '). Distinguish from 
,^ (xii). 41. M^ ^ Senshu-ji (tern.). 

JI2 : Contraction of ^ (xiv). 

xM SO, SHO. sawayaka (' refreshing, fluent of speech '). 89. 



BAKU, MIAKU; mugi. mugi ('cereals'). 199. 

I Wi Mugi-zaki (cape), \% -ura (t.), '^ -u (f.). | P^ ^ iMahometto 
(Mahomed). | ^ miigiaki (the 4th month). 




Eleven Strokes 374 

^^ ^ . \'ariant of ;f^ (p. 361). 



=H. Contraction of ^ (xiv). 

JUL ^ ^ ' 

^ [Contraction: ^.] CHO, CHU. kivu ('noontide'). Distinguish 
from ^ (p. 345) and ^ (xii). 72. 
[Compare ^ (xii).] | |^ Hiru-i (f.), % -mune (swo). | ^ ^ 
Hiru-goza or -no-omashi, | ^J ^ Hiru-no-mitsurugi (sword), 

Qj^ '^f* [Contraction : ^.] RO, RU ; RO. mimashii (' empty ') ; 
-^^ oroka (' foolish 'j. 38. 

RO. shioha ('a salt-beach'). 757. 




>*j^ TO, DO; Ti4. As do, 'a hall', often of a Buddhist temple-building; 
■^ common at the end of art-names (see p. 69). 32. 

I ^ |Jj Tokura-yama (m.). | [^] ^ Do-gashima (t.), % -jima 
(dist. of Osaka), i^ -ba (f.). | Ji tosho (courtiers ' with access to the 
palace '). 

i ^> SHO, Jo ; TO ; tsune, Tsune ; zok., Tsune-. tsune no (' ordinary ') ; 

rrl toko- ('perpetual'). See also p. 103, 55. 50. 

[Compare '[g (p. 295.).] | jU: Tokoyo (f.) ; T. -no-kuni ^ (myth, 
country). | ^ Hitachi or | j'\] Joshu (pr.). | \\] Tsune-yama (m.). 

I ^ '^1 j6sei-no-taki (fall). | ^ Tokiwa (t. ; f.j. | ^{^ Tokonabe or 
Tokoname (t. pottery). 

Other Surnames : | )\\ Tsune-gawa (ptr.), TJC -gi, ^ -i, J?, -mi, 
jf^ -matsu ; | ^ Tokiwa (also prince and others, inch Yoshitsune's mother, 
Tokiwa-gozen ^ llfj) ; hence : | ^ Tokiwa-^-i (f. ; prince, -no-miya ^), 
^ -dzu (f. mus. ; jord), ;^C -gi (jovd), ^ -noya, ^ -maro (n.). | ^ [5^ 
Joken-in (Tsunayoshi, shdgun). | ^ Tsune-ko (princess), ^ -yoshi ijoro), 
■§ -oka, j}^ -na, % -jima (n.). 

HO, FO. kudzureru (' to crumble, break up, die ' [said of an Emperor]). 
46. I ^1 hogio (' demise of the crown '). 

jj^ Synonym of -^^ (xii). 46. 

■^ KWA, GE. Chinese mountain-name (see p. 103, 53). 46. 

KON, KUN. Chinese mountain-name. 46. 

I 1-^1 lij Kon[ron]-zan (Kun-lun-shan, the Kuenlun Alts, of Tibet). 






375 Eleven Strokes 

SAI, ZE. takashi ('high'). Distinguish from ^ (p. 345). 46. 

I Sai (f., orig. Korean potters). | J3c Sai-shi (Ts'ui Shi, paragon), 
-f- i -shigioku (Tzu-yii, scnnin). 

^Sf GIN, GON ; [taka). takashi (' high ') ; kewashii (' steep '). 46. 



J^ SHO, JU; or SO, SU; (taka). takashi ('high'); tattobu ('to honour') 46. 
■^f^ I jjilf? Sujin or Sujin (loth Mikado) ; | |1^ Su-shun (32nd), ^, -toku 

(75th), ^ -ko (3rd of Northern Court). | it ^ ^ M "^ Sudo-jinkei-kotei 
(Prince Toneri ^ X). I t!^ ^ A Sugen-fujin (wife of Hidetada, shogun). 

^S \^ariant of |1|§ (p. 360). , 

Synonym of ]^ (p. 287). 4(). 

^^ [Variant : ^.] TAI ; [obi). obi C a girdle, belt, sash ') ; obivu (' to 
'* wear in the sash, gird on',). 50. 

I 4t Obi-gane (f.), J^^ fji -tori -no-ike (pool). | JJ Tatewake (n.) ; 
tate[vi']aki or tachiwaki (the Prince Imperial's bodyguard, with t.-senjo ^ ^i 
at their head); taito ('wearing a sword'). | ^ obiya ('a girdle-maker'). 

^^^ [Variant: ^.] JAKU (SHAKU). siisume (the Tree Sparrow, Passer 
■"^ montaniis). 172. 

I 153 Suzume-gaoka, ^ -nomiya (t.), >j^ |^ -no-matsubara (forest). 
I b|> Sasabe (t. ; f. ; also Sasakibe and Sasaibe as f.). | "I*" J^ Jakkaan 
(art-name). | /^ f^x P^ Jakuyemon (zok.). 




>fi^ \Tiriant of ^, a synonym of ^ (xi). 

KI ; KI ; moto, Motoi. moto, motoi (' origin, basis '). As ki, a numeral- 
suffix for stationary objects (see p. 40). 32. 
I ^ Kii (k. of Hizen). I 'jg- Kirisuto (Christ) ; | |.2, see p. 42, 
note. I ^ Moto-ko' (Empress). 

J SO; (tomo). tomogara ('companions'); moromoro {' cdl'). As So, Ts'ao, 
anct. kingdom of China. 73. 
I ^ So-so (Ts'ao Ts'ao, Chin, general), jllj -^na -sennon (Hsien-wen, 
seunin), ^ || -kokkiu (Kuo-ch'iu, sennin), ^ |a. -futsuyo (Fu-yii, Chin, 
ptr.), \^ -to (Bud. subsect). | ji\ zushi (see p. St,, init.). 

"Mr SEN. kivu ('to cut'). 18. 
-gg Variant of * (xiv). 



Eleven Strokes 376 

Contraction of ^ (xiii). 




^h^ RI. nozomii ('to desire')" 140. I ^ Nozokito (f.). 




y^ KA, GA ; KA, NI ; (mochi). ni ('baggage, merchandise, load'); ninau 
(' to carry on the shoulders '). 140. 
I H P'b for |5nl il \{^ (q.v., p. 262). | ^ |lr| Nisaka-toge (pass). 
I ^ iM Niageba (t.)- I B3 Kada (f.). | ^ Ninai-bumi (kidgen). 
-#f^ SA. niikuri (a rush, Scirpus). 140. 
^^ I ^ jl^ A Saidojin (So-i Tao-jen, sennin). 

vll* TEKI, JAKU. o^j (the Common Reed, Phi^agmites). Distinguish 
'^v from ^ (xiii). 140. 

Towns : | Ogi (f.) ; ! ^ Ogi-no (f. actorj, ^ -kubo. Other 
Surnames : | ^ Ogi-u (ptr.), g -ta, x£ -ye (worn, n.), -/g -numa, ]^ -wara. 
I "f* Ogi-ko (poetess). 

SO, SHO ; {taka, kore, osa); zok., So-, rarely Sho-. As sho, 'a village, 

manor'. Interchanged (not in names) with j£ (p. 230). 140. 
Surnames : | Sho ; | ^ Sho-nai, v\ -ji (met., swo. ; tit.), B9 -da, 
H^ -mura, ]^ -bara. | ^ Soshi (Chuang Tzu, Chin, sage, sennin). 

-gp BAKU, MAKU; or BO, MO. nashi, nakare ('not, do not'). 140. 
^^ I ;1i lU Nakoshi-yama (m.). | ^ f^^ Bakugettei (Mo Yueh-ting, 

sennin). 




T^ KO, GIO; {kiiki). kuki ('a stalk"). 140. 
>0^ ^ C, U; Hagusa. hagiisa ('weeds'). 140. 
^ GA. A species of wormwood. 140. 




-t|[^ TO, DA. A bitter herb. Distinguish from ^ (p. 348). 140. 
>^ I 11 Toyo (T'u Yii, sennin). \ Bft dabi ('cremation'). 

SlIIX. A marsh plant; Chinese place-name (Shen). 140. 

_^^ IvW'AX. imiishiro ('rush-matting'). 140. 

yW FU. BU; FLT. ^twi/u ('a split tally'). 118. 
>^ I '^ Futsu (t., ? representing Ainu put, 'river-mouth'). 

Contraction of ^ (xii). 




377 Eleven Strokes 

"^^ [\'ariant : ^.] TEI, DAI. tsuiziiru Clo put in order'). As dai, 
^*^ 'order, number, series' (see p. 39); as it'i, 'a house, mansion'. 
Distinguish from |^ (p. 252). 118. 
I >'^ ^ Dairokuten (no). 

,^V SEI, SH(). As sho, a wmd-mstrunient, 'mouth organ', the Chinese 
^ " ^ ■*■ sheng. 118. 

Ajffe^ RITSU; or RID; kasa. kasa ('a hat'). 118. 

■J^ /h I Ogasa (mod. k. of Totomi ; f.). /J"* I i^ S Ogasawara- 
-jima (the Bonin Islands). | {5- Kasa-dake, I JR (Ig) ^J Kasa-tori(-gi)- 
-yama (m.). Towns: | jj- Kasa-i (f. ptr.), ^ -ishi, J^^ -matsu (f.), 
^-D -chi, fS) -oka (f.), ^ -ya (f. actor), ^ -mori (tem. ; f.), f^J -ma (f. ptr. ; n.), 

"1: -gi (f-), li -nui. 

Other Surnames : | Kasa (clan) ; /h I Ifjl Ogasawara (ptr.) ; | 7c 
Kasa-moto, 7|c -gi, -^ -dera, ^ -mura, ^ -ya, J^ -o, ^ -jima, ;J^ 
-kura, '^ -iye, ]^ -hara (ptr.), W^ -no. | llj Ritsu-zan, ^ -o (two ptrs.). 

I fiP ^ Kasa-no-iratsume (poetess). | / ~f Kasa-no-shita {kiogen). 

I ^ kasakakc (sport, see p. 99, 25). 

TEKI, CHAKU. /uyc ('a whistle, flute'). 118. 

I WX Fuye-fuki (t. ; r. ; pass, -toge llr|), yjC -ki (f.), ;^ ^ -no-maki {no). 

Y (Xo on) ; sasa. sasa (the Bamboo Grass, Arundinaria japonica). 

[Compare f^ (xvi).] | \\\ Sasa-yama (m. ; f. ptr., met.). Towns: 
J^ I Ozasa (f.) ; | jl| Sasa-gawa (f. ptr.), "p^ -ge, ^ -go (Koshukaido 
stage ; pass, -toge lllf ), ^ -oka (f.), ^ -dzu, ]^ -wara (f.) ; | (or ^) ^ 
Sasajima (pot.). Other Surnames: /h | Ozasa; | ^ Saso ; | ^ Sasa-i, 
;?|5: -moto, ji -o, -/g -numa, M -ya (met.), 5? -no, HH -ma, ^ -mori, 
^ -se (r.). I )\\ ^ Sasa-gawa-dono (= Ashikaga Mitsutada), ^ M. 
-noya (art-name). 

SHI (SU); KE. kc, hako ('a box, case'). 118. 







SHC, JU. navau ('to learn'); nanii ('usage, custom'). 124. 
I i^ l?f \arashi-no (plain). 

^^3 YOKU. akivaka ('bright'); akiivii- ('next' day, year, etc.). 124. 
y^*" Contraction of ^ (xiv). 



^ 



Synonym of ^ (p. 366). 



Eleven Strokes 378 

;?yC HAX, llON; (/eiyo). kiyoshi {'pure'). As Bon, Brahma, 'Sanskrit'. 75. 
■"^^ Jc \ ^ )^\ Daibonji-gawa (r.). | ^ Bon-den, ^ 5^ -tenno 
(Brahma), ^ ^ -nokiu (the Buddha's heavenly palace). | ^ bon-kiil ('a 
Bud. temple'), ^ -ji, |g -^'•o ('Sanskrit characters, language'). | |^ boro 
(same as komuso, see J^, xii). 



/tJ7 Synonym of i^ (p. 260). 



mSO, jO ; SU ; su. sii (' a nest, lair, den [of robbers] '). 47. 
[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 384).] I iflfj Su-gamo (dist. of 
Yedo), 1^ -nouchi, ^ -naga, ^ -mori, (f.). | 3C Sofu (Ch'ao-fu, Chin, 
worthy). 



KWA. takara ('wealth'). 154 



^f^ [\'ariant : ^.] TAI ; or TEL fttkiiro ('a bag, pouch, mother'; in 




street-names, as a prefix, 'blind alley). 145. 
/h I Obukuro (t.). /]-« j ^ Kobukuro-zaka (m.). | ^ Fukuro-i 
(t., Tokaido stage 27), fff -maclii (street of Yedo), -ta (r. ; fall, 
-no-taki '^|). 

KA, KE. I ^ kesa (the Buddhist 'scarf"), Kesa (worn, n., esp. 
K.-gozen ^ ^ij ; 20/?. -initial) ; Kesa-kake-no-matsu ^ |i!j- (pine- 
tree;. 145. 

J%l^ SHI; SHI; murasaki. mnrasaki ('purple', often with a reference to 
>T^ the freshness of young vegetation or the garishness of the courtesan's 
life). In one print-series read yiikavi, purple being the yukavi no iro 
JHc / 'Si, 'colour of affection'. 120. 

[Compare m (p. 206), ^, (2^0), Jtff (xn).] | ^ Shi-ba (k. of Oshu), 
^ -buki (t.), ^ ^ -garaki (t., for fg ^), ^ ^ -shin-den or -shii-den 
(Impl. palace-building), jg -gaki, '§^ -to (f.), P{; ^ -shippatsu (Tzu-ch"i-po, 
horse). J ]^ Murasaki-bara (f. met.), gf -no (f.), ^ |flS -shikibu (poetess, 
No. 57 of the Hundred Poets). /]\ \ Kc^murasaki [joru). 

^t^ SEI, SAI. matsiiri ('a festival'). 113. 

AT^ I M ^ai-rei ('a festival'), jS^ -skiki ('form of worship'), £|-* -s/iz< 

(tit., Shinto), i@ -s/itr (tit., = daigaku-no-kami, see p. 83, iuit.). 

^iFj% HlO; yana ; (yana). yana ('beams' of a bridge, 'weir, fish-trap'); 
>Tv hari ('roof-beams'). As Rio, the Liang Dynasty of China (502- 
566 A.D.). 75. I EQ Yana-da (k. and t. of Shimotsuke ; f.), }\\ -gawa 
(r., t. ; Harikawa as f. ptr.), ^ -se (t. ; f.), ^ -mori, ^|^ -maro (n.). 




379 ' Eleven Strokes 

i^' ^YU, YU. nagashi Clong'). 6i. 

BO, MO; AIO ; mochi ; mochi. nozomti ('to expect, look for'); mochi 
('full', as the moon; 'the full moon'; ' tlie 15th day of a month'; 
see Examples). 74. 

[Compare J^ (p. 205), ^ (296).] | Pt Moda (k. of Kadzusa ; f.). I ffl 
Mochida (f.). \ ^ Mochidzuki (t., Nakasendo stage 25; f. ptr., lacq. ; no); 
mochidzuki or bogetsu, 15th day of a month, same as | bojitsu, bonohi or 
mochinohi ; ko /J^ -mochidzuki, the 14th. | ^ Moto, j J^ Mochiki (n.). 

^Ij RI ; RI ; nashi. uashi (the Pear, Pyrus communis). 75. 

-'"T^ I ;^ Nashi-moto (t. ; f.), -nomoto (f.), ,2^ ^ -motoan (art-name), 

;;^ -noki, ^ -ba (f.), ^ -tsubo (Impl. zenana, see p. 104, 58). 

KEN; kata ; kata, Katashi, (yoshi). katashi ('hard, firm'); tsiiyoshi 

(' strong, brave '). 32. 
[Compare homophones under j^* (p. 181).] | EQ Kata-ta (t. ; f. ; see 
also p. 107, 79), ?j$ -ku (t.), "^ -shi (prince), ^ -na (poet). 

HA, BA ; BA. uba ('an old woman, nurse, mother'). 38. 

•;^ I Oba (nurse of Hidetada, shogun). | ^ p^ baramon (' a 
brahmin'); Baramon-sojo {^ jE (Bodai, priest). 

SHU, SU. metoru ('to marry [a wife]'); yome ('a bride, daughter-in- 
law '. 38. I A yomeiri (' the bride's homecoming '). 

B^ [Variant : ^^.] KEI, KE ; {hiro, nobu). mosu (' to speak, say, 
^ tell '). 30. 

0^ TO, TSU. kabuto ('a helmet'). 10. 

>/u I ^j Kabuto-yama, jfi^ il| -kami-zan (m.), fflj -cho (street of Yedo). 






nfp Contraction of m (xn)- 




BA (MA), ME; i\M, (IV'O) ; asa, o- ; (asa). asa (the Hemp Plant, 
Cannabis indica). \ g maro as archaic nanorz-ending, later written 
in one character as ^. 200. 

[Compare |^ (xii), "^ (p. 356).] | |i| Maye, Dye or Oye (k. of Ashu). 
I ^ ill Aso-yama, J^ \ ^J Oasa-yama or Taima-san (m.). Towns : J ^ 
Aso, Asabu (f.) ; | ^ ^ Otsu ; | illJ Asa-ji, ^ -saki ; | f^ Omi (f. ; 
hence Omi-ichi — , zok.). | ^ Azabu (dist. of Yedo, mod. ku of Tokio ; 
f.). Other Surnames : | ^ Oye ; | ^ Omi ; | g Asa-da, ]^ -hara. 
I ^ Mako (Ma Ku), | :^ ^ Maishi (Ma-i-tzu), sennin. \ g Maro (n.) ; 
Maro-ko ^ (prince), ;^ ^ -dayu (n.). 





Eleven Strokes 380 

KO ; yasu, Yasushi, {shidzii); zok., Yasu- or K6-. yasushi, shidsuka 

(' peaceful, quiet '). 53. 
[Compare ^ (p. 292) and ^ (345)-] I ^ Yasu-i, EB -da (f.), 
^ -ko (court-lady), *5| -ra (poet), ^ i # -suke-o no haha (poetess)' 

YO, YU ; YO ; tsune, Mochiii, {mochi, nori). tsune no ('ordinary'); 
mochiiru ('to use'); yatou ('to hire'). 53. 
I ^ Tsune-ko (court-lady). 

tftl SHO, SO; or SA, SHA ; or SEKI, SHAKU ; {chika, moro). moromoro 
/i>H ('all'); negau ('to ask for'); chikashi ('near'). As sho-, 'all, in 
general ', also ' relating to a concubine '. 53. 

^fc' ROKU ; KA ; shika, ka ; {shika) ; zok., Shika-. shika, ka, anctly. shishi 
fm ('a deer, stag'). 198. 

[Compare homophones under ^}\] (p. 187).] \ ^ M ^ Kakui-jima 
(is.). KoRi : I J^ Ka-noashi (Iwami ; see also below), ;$: -moto (Higo, 
mod.), '^ -dzuno or -dono (Oshu), ^ -shima (Noto and Hitachi ; t. ; tern. ; 
f . ; sea, -nada /^ ; d., -no-kami jjiiji ; also Kajima as f. ptr., met.). Mountains: 

I ?f lU Kano(Kano)-zan (Kanozan-shuku ^, t.) ; I ^ ill Rokuso-zan ; 

I M, \h Kanarashi-yama ; I ^ ilj Kase-yama (pot.). 

Other Towns : /\^ \ ff Ogano (f.) ; | % Ka-nomata (also j ^ ; 
Shikamata as f.), \)^ ^ -buto (f. ; also Nimbe as f.), ^ "^ -roto (harbour), 
^> 'M -shinobu-no-hama, */g -numa (f.), ^ ^ -goshima (also written ^ %; 
mod. ken). ^ -noya, ^ ^ -shimadai, ^ -niwa, Wf^ -no (or Shikano ; both 
as f.), -^^ -do. I WW i^ Shikama-dzuka (mound in Tokioj. | ^ ^ 
Rokuon-ji (tem.). 

Other Surnames : /]> | Oshika (n. poetess) ; | ^ Shika-kura, ^ -zono, 
^ -kubo ; I "F tIv Ka-nokogi, -da, @ -nome, ^^ -tori (n.), ^ -mochi. 
I X Shika-hito, J£ -taru (n. poets), ^ -ko (blind tailor; as kanoko, 'a 
fawn', also a spotted dress-material, in full kanoko-shibori \ ^ ^). | 5f 
:^ Kanohana (nickname). | ^^ Shishigari (kidgen). | ^ shikabiiye (a 
decoy-fiute for deer). 

[Variants: ^, ^, ^.] AN, OX; io ; lori. io, iovi ('a hut, hovel, 
cottage'). As an, the dwelling of a retired Buddhist priest or lay- 
priest, hence a common ending for art-names (see p. 6g). . ^^. 

I ]^ lo-hara (k. of Suruga, also Ihara or Ibara ; t. ; f.), -^ -ji (t.), 
il!i -chi (f.), 

SEI, SAI ; (kata). katashi ('hard'). As sai, 'a rhinoceros'. 93. 
I )\\ Sai-kawa (r.), jg -gake (t.). 






38i Eleven Strokes 

See p. 316. where the simpler form # was intended. 

KO, GO. shitagau (' to follow, obey '). 63. 
'C2^ I ^ Koken (Hu Ch'ien, sennin). 

j^^ HIO, HI ; {take). ' A striped pattern (like a tiger's), ornate '. 59. 

t^ or Vj^ [Contraction: /^.] SHO, SO; SO, I; {yasii, sumi; zok., 
l>^^ /i^afc- Tokoro-. orii ('to be in'); tokovo ('a place'). As sho^ 
also 'to manage, judge'. 141. 




KI, GI. hobone ('cheekbone'). 185. 
Tifi TO, TSU; DZU. todomeru ('to stop'). 162. | ^ Dzushi (t.j. 




TO, TSU; TSU; michi, Tovu, (to), toru ('to pass along or through'); 
iori ('a main thoroughfare', see p. 10, note 2); kayou ('to go to 
and fro "). As tsu, a numeral-suffix for letters, documents or copies thereof 
(see p. 40). Distinguish from j^ (xiii). 162. 

Towns : | ^ Tsudzu ; | i[\ Toriyama ; I }^ Kayoiura. | ^ ^ 
Tsuten-kio (bridge in Kioto). | ^ Tsugen (= Chokwaro, sennin). | ^ 
Michimori, 1 /]-» W]" Kayoi-Komachi [no). \ gj Tsuyen {kiogen). \ ^ 
tsu-zoku ('popular'), ^ -ho ('currency, coin'). | ig, tsui (for ^, xiv), 

-^^ TO, TSU ; Torn, (to), toru ('to pass along or through') ; suki ('opening, 
/^2r transparency'); sukashi (openwork'). 162. 

v^k [Variant: ^^.J HO; o (au). an ('to meet'). 162. 
•^ I j^ O-shima (is.). | ^ ^ Osaka-toge (pass). | |5g jll 

Okuma-gawa (r.). Punning Phrases : | j^ ogi, ' courtesan ', for ^ ogi, 
'fan'; | /^, for ^B 'I^ (see p. 298); | j| omf, ' meeting ', or | -^ omi, 
'union", for ^ xL Omi (see p. 108, fin.). 

^^ TO, TSU; DZU; [michi). michi ('a road'). 162. 



w^^m^ I ff» Tochu (t., lit. ^ en route'). 

^li^ SO, ZO ; tsukuri ; Itaru, {nari) ; zok., -z6 (see p. 72 ; see also below). 
'^— ' tsukuru, nasu (' to make ') ; miyatsuko, miyakko (anct. tit.). After 
a signature, read zo or tsukuru, ' fecit \ 162. 

Towns : | ^ 2oga ; | j^ Tsukurimichi (lacq.j. | j: ff Zoshi-kwan 
(clan-school). | ^ J^ Zohei-kioku (the Impl. iMint). | ^ Miyakko-hime 
(princess). | \U Miki {zok. ; see also p. 83, fin.) ; Miki-tayu :i^ ^ (mus.),. 
-nosuke ;^ ^ (zok.). 



« 




Eleven Strokes 382 

^j^ SOKU ; HA; haya. hayakii ('quickly, early, soon 'j. 162. 

<<*^ [Compare ^ (p. 219), 3^ (254).] | ^ Haya-mi (k. of Bungo ; 

f. ptr. ; n.), 7X -^^^^ (t. ; f. ptr. ; n.j, ^ -hi-no-mine (m.). 

REN; RE; tsura. tsiira ('a row, rank'); tsure ('a travelling com- 
panion'); muraji (anct. tit.). As ren or renju \ ff*, 'a company, 
club, society', latter esp. 'a theatrical company'. 162. 

I iJj Ren-zan {joro), /^ -jaku (n. ; kiogen). \ ^ Murajiko (n.). 
^ I umuraji, \ ^ rensho (tit.). | b{^ renga ('capping verses'); Renga 
Bishamon H '^'p f^ I kiogen). 

j^ SHO. 1 ^ asobu ('to sport, play'). 162. 

KIO, GU. mari, iemari ('a play-ball'). 82. 
^J I dakiu (Japanese polo). 

KIO, KO ; {yiiki). yukii ('to go'). 156. 
KO (KWO), 0. See E (xiv). 16. 






pn BUN, MON; MO. tou ('to ask for, enquire'). Distinguish from \'i\ 

1^4 (xii). 30. 

Surnames : I Toida ; I |f Toga ; I :^ ^ iMonjusho. | M 
toiya (' a wholesale establishment ', e.g., ye |f -toiya, for pictures). 

Rel (Jiisa). Common form of the next. 169. 

pj^ HEI ; HE. tojirii, fusagu ('to shut, block up'). Distinguish from ^ 

y^i (xii). 169. 

I ^ Hei (k. of Oshu). I f* |li§ Heii-zaki (cape). | _h Heinokami (t.). 

1"^ [Contraction • l^-] KU ; KU. zvakachi (' difference '). As ku, also 
=^ 'a division, ward' of a city, esp. the fifteen ku or 'arrondissements' 
of Tokio, viz., Kojimachi ^ BJ, Kanda jfilji 03, Nihombashi B '4^ ^, 
Kiobashi ;^ j^, Shiba ^, Azabu j^i :^, Akasaka ^ ^, Yotsuya K ^, 
Ushigome -^ jA, Koishikawa /]> :^ jl|, Hongo ;$: M, Shitaya f ^g-, 
Asakusa -^^ :^, Honjo 4^ ^, Fukagawa ^ jlj. ig | meiku, 'a famous 
spot, local lion '. 23. 

r^l [Contraction: ^; old form: [^ ; vulgar synonym: [£J.] KOKU ; 

*""■ AT^ ; kuni ; kuni, Kuni; zok., Kuni-. kuni ('a land, country, 

province'; see p. 120, 104j ; -no-kuni ('the province of . . . '). As koku, 
also 'national', esp. of Japan. 31. 



383 Eleven and Twelve Strokes 

Mountains: | ^ (jJijj) \\\ Kuni-mi(-shi)-yama; | ^Hi -g- Kokushi-ga- 
-dake. | }^ ^ Konodai (for ^ ^, place in Shimosa pr.). Kori : | lll^j 
or I ^ Kiinisaki (Bungo ; both as f.) ; | ^ Kokubu (Osumi ; t. ; f. ptr.) ; 
I /JTp Kokubu (same k. ; f. ; also Ko as f. and Kokubun as n. swo.). Other 
Towns: i^ | Okuni (f.) ; /h i Oguni (f.) ; | ;f ^ Kodzu ; | |g Kuzu 
(f. ; Kunisu as no) ; | jlj Koku-kawa, 09 -da (Kunida as f.), ^ -^ -bunji 
(n. swo.; Kodera as f.j, ^ ^ ^-^i -bu-wakabayashi, ^ jf£ -ganosho ; | fj^ 
Kuni-naka (f. met.), ^ -tomo (f. met.), ^ -kane, ^ -yoshi (f. ptr.), 
/£ -sada, jt^ -nobe. 

Other Surnames : | jlf: Koku-mai (ptr.), fjH -rio ; | /\ Kuni-hisa, 
';^ -kata, ^|* -i (ptr.), J^ -moto, v\ -shi {kokiishi, administrative governor 
of a pr.), -tsukasa, Ql -ye, j^ -sa, |^ -yeda, ^ -matsu, [Sj -oka (met.), 
^ -yasu, ^ -shige, ^ -shima, ^ -iye, jn -tsukuri (kiini-no-miyakko as 
anct. title), ^ -tomi, j^ -hiro, j^ -sawa. 

Personages : | Kuni (several actresses) ; :^ I i $\^ Okuninushi-no- 
-kami (d.) ; I $3: |t Kokuseiya, vulg. Kokusenya (Koxinga, hist. pers. ; 
Kokusenya-kassen ^ fi^, joruri) ; | ig, Kuni-oshi (poet), ^^ -oku (swo.), 
^ % -jumaru (n.). Other Titles : | # koku-bo (Empress Dowager), 
$ll) -slii (Bud., see p. 87), ^ -shu (daimio ruling a whole province). 



TWELVE STROKES. 

Ills J^^' SHUN ; Yasushi, Shitagau, {yasu, nori, nobii, yuki, masa, osa, ari, 
' i^ toshi, yori, yoshi, muiie). yawaraka ('gentle'); shitagau ('to follow, 
obey'); tsuizuru ('to set in order'). Distinguish from ^ (p. 384). 181. 

I M. WI Junkei-machi (dist. of Osaka). | ^§ Juntoku (84th Mikado, 
name given in 1S71). I -^ Nobu-ko (Empress). | (for ^} f^ junrei 
(' a pilgrimage 'j. 

/jfo KWAI, KE. ayashii ('strange, monstrous'). g. 

1/0 I jgg, kwairai, kugutsu ('a puppet-show'); kugntsu-me ^ ('a 

puppet-show-woman, low prostitute '). 

HO, BO. katawara, soba, hata, hotori ( 'side, edge, bank, vicinity'). 9. 
I J£ Kataoka (t.j. | ;;fc Hoki, | ^ Sobashima (f.). 

EU ; (suke). iasukeru ('to assist'). As /», 'a private tutor'. 
Distinguish from ^$ (xiii). g. I :;^ Dip Fudaishi (Fu Ta-shih, 
Chin, priest). 

KETSU, GECHI. sugureru ('to excel"). As ketsu, 'a worthy' (see 
p. gg, 20). 








Twelve Strokes 384 

^ [Contraction: f^.] HI, BI ; BI ; (nari, yoshi, milsii), Sonait. sonayeru 
('to offer, ])rovide"); sonaumrii {^ to be sup])lie(l, endowed with'). 9. 
Provinces : | ^jij Bi-zen (f.), r|i -tchu, \j^ -ngo, ^'M -shu (the first 
three combined). | J]^ Bifu (= Okayama, t.). 

[Variant : '\^.] HAKU, BAKU ; hiro, Hiroshi, (masa) ; zok., Hiro-. 

hiroshi ('wide'). 24. 

I ^ Haka-ta (t. text., see p. q8, 9 ; m., -no-yama), ^i -ma, ^i, g 

-maro, ^ -toko, ^ -se ('n.). | \Q Hirota (t.). | ?i H fi Hakuga-sammi 

(= Minamoto no Hiromasa %\ \ ^^}. I it hakase, formerly hakushi ('a 

professor', see pp. 82, 83, notes). | ^ bakuro ('a horse-dealer'). 

>H^ HI(3, BlO ; iyori). noru ('to ride'); yorii ('to depend on'); wataru 
**^ ('to ford'). 187. I ^ Hiocho (Feng Chang, sennin). 

'jfkl KAI, KE. chimata, machi ('a crossroads, town'). 144. 
'^ I M ^«'<^o (' a highroad '). 

mFUKU ; {mata) ; zok., Mata-. mata ('again'); kasanerti ('to repeat'). 
60. I ^ fukushu ('vengeance'). 

4] 



/jfaai Synonym of ^ (xiii). 60. 



^& [Variant : ^^.] SHU, SU ; SU. subekaraku (" necessarily ') ; shibaraku 
-"^ (' for a short time ') ; motomii (' to desire '). Distinguish from jljg 
(p. 383). 181. 

[Compare 'S\\ (p. 293), ^ (378), i§ (xiv).] | Jf ilj Shumi-sen, 
Sumi-sen, Sumi-no-yama (Sumera, sacred m.). | jl| Su-gawa (r. ; t. ; f.). 
Other Towns : /Jn | ^ Kosuto ; I ^ i Sudo ; | Jj Su-yama (f.), // ^; 
-suma, ;fc -ki, ^ moto (or with -^'H), -|^ -ko, EH -cla (f.), f^. -sa (f.), ^ ;^ 
-saki (f.), ^ -saka, ^ -bashiri (or with ^), ^;n -chi (f.), ^ -nami (Suwa 
as f.), ^1^ -wara (Nakasendo stage 31 ; f.), |Ijf -saki (f.), ^ )\\ -kagawa (f.) 
or -gakawa, Hf lU -gayama, ^ -ma, JE -ma (f . ; Genji Chapter xii ; 
Suma-no-ura Jg, shore, jord; Suma-Genji % ^, no), % -sawa. | ^ B]" 
Suga-machi (street of Yedo). 

Other Surnames : ^ \ Osu ; /J> | Osu \ i^ \ ^ Osuka \ i^ \ ^ 

Osuma ; | ^ Su-ko, ^ ^ -kumo, // ;/f; -suki, ^ -to, ^ -naga, :i -date, 

1- -mi, ]*?, M -waraya (publisher), |a -guro, |^ -ka (ptr.), ^ ^|: -kai, :^ fig 

-kada, '^ -do. | ^ ^ Shubodai, \ f^ ^ ^ ^ Susanoo-no-mikoto (d.). 

I ^ Suyeki (priest). 

SHO, SO. Cliinese riA'(>r-name (see p. 108, iiiit.). 85. 
I ^ Shonan (dist. of Sagamij. 




385 



Twelve Strokes 





YD, YU ; YU. oyogn ('to swim'). Interchanged with jg (xiii). 85. 

SHU, SHU. knU ("a swamp'). 85. 
-X. I Okute (Xakasendo stage 47). 

*ztH ^^^- ""''' '"''^-2"'"'", I ^X /^osni ('a lake'). 85. 

iM/J ^ I Ogo (t. ; f. met,). | (or /\^} jlj \^ Koyama-no-ike (lake). 
I % Ko-to ^E. shore of L. Biwa), ^ -ide (f.), |I U\ -riu (n.)- 

il SOKU. hakarn ('to measure'). d>^. \ ^ sokurio ('a topographical 

survey '). 

HOTSU, BOCHI. 'An arm of the sea'. 85. | r^> Fukami (f.). 
Vh KWAl, KE. avail (' to wash '). Used also as a variant of ^ (p. 384). 85. 
yS Variant of i§ (p. 321). 85. 








KON, GON. subete (' generally, entirely '). 85. 
I J;^ ^ Kontaibo (priest). 

^^B TO ; yt/ ; yu. yu (' hot water, hot springs, a solfatara '). 85. 

1^ [Compare ^ (p. 203), vJlj (257).] Mountains : | -g- Yu-dake ; 

I # -^ Yuya-ga-dake : I ^ \[\ Yudono-san (spur); I ^ iM) [llf Yu-no 
(-saka)-toge (passes). | jlj Yu-gawa (r. ; t. ; f.). 

Other Towns : Ji^ \ Oyu ; I \[\ Yu-yama, :^ j^ -noo, -no, ;^ ^ 
-noshima, ;^ -moto (f. ptr.), 09 (or ^) ;jsj- -tamura (lacq.), i£ -ye (f.), 
WX -machi, ;^ -mura (f.), ;g; 1^ -nagaya (or Unagaya), [/ j fg (^) -tai, 
-notai or -nodai, ^ -noo, -no, ||ij -nomaye, ^ ;^ -3'atani, ^ -nomine, 
^ -shima (also dist. of Yedo, with Yushima-tenjin ^ jjiljl, tem.), ]^ -bara 
(f.), -hara, -nohara, ^ -asa (f. ; r. ), 3!p '^ -nohama, ^^ ][Jt -funebaru, ^ 
(see above), -^ -sawa (f. ptr.), |f '^^ -biso, '/^ -se. | ^ :^ Yudzuki-jo 
(cas.). 

Other Surnames : | Yu ; | P Yll-guchi, -ta (met.), ^( -tsugi, 
iljj -chi, ^ -mura, fpj -gawa. | ^ Yuya (jzo, also written as t| gf). 

! W- 3i Yuhara-no-o (prince). ] '^ i^ tojiba ('curative hot-springs'). 

■y0 [Original form: ;^.] OX (UN); Atsushi, {atsu, haru, naga). atatakashi, 

"^^ atsushi ('warm, ardent'); atatanteru, niikiimevu ('to grow warm'). 8^. 

I Nukumi (t.). | ^ Nukui (f.). I 7% onsen ('hot springs'); Onsen, 

Unsen, Unzen or Odzumi (k. of lyo, also called in full Yu-no-kori | j]^ gjS) ; 

Onsen-ga-dake -g- (m., also read Yu-dake) : | ;^ :^ Yunotsu (t.). | ^ \[\ 

25 



Twelve Strokes (J^, contd.) 386 

Onjaku-san (m.)- I P Wi l^mmei-den (same as Naishi-dokoro ^ f^ ^ as 
part of the Impl. palace). | ^ Atsu-ko (Empress). | ^ 1^^ Onkio-in 
(lyesada, shogun). | ^ niikumedori (myth. bird). | ^ o;//eo (' archaeology '). 

vJH, K^^ A (WA). tidzu ('a whirlpool'); udzumaku ('to wliirl round'). 
• I J Distinguish froni \^ (xiii). 85. 

wj^ [Contraction : -J'g.] DETSU, NETSU ; DE, NE. | ^ (or ^) nehan 
*-*^ (' the defiled vessel ', Nirvana ; whence tiehan-zo %,, a figure of 
Nehau-no-Shaka ^ i|Jn, the Buddha about to enter N.). 85. 



TEI, JO; NU. todomarn ('to stop'). Distinguish from '^ (p. 356). 85. 
Towns : | j^ Xu-shiro (now Noshiro fjg j^), ^ -tari (now 



n 

Xuttari fg ^). 

%^j^ SO. SHU. minato (' a harbour ') ; atsumeru (' to assemble '). 85. 
i>^ I .Minato (t. ; f. ; r.). ;^ | Ominato, /J^ | Kominato (t. ; f.). 

^lU DAN; S£. hayakise ('rapids'). 85. 
Iltn I ^ Dankei (T'uan-ch'i, Chin, river). 

^c^ SHO, SO. nagisa ('a shore, beach'). 85. 

•f^ I '{'}/ A tL Susa-no-iriye (inlet). | -^ Nagisanoya (art-name). 

»)4^ SHI; sliige ; s/x/_§-e, Shigeru, Shigeshi, (masu). shigeru ('to be thick, 
\Aj^ dense [as foliage]'); iiriiou ('to be moist, rich'); 7nasu ('to 
increase '). 85. 

[Compare g (p. 306).] I ^ Shiga (k. of Omi ; t., now Otsu ;;^ ^, 
the anct. capital in same k. ; mod. ken ; f. ptr.). Other Surnames : | 09 
Shige-ta, ^, ^ -oka, ff -no (n.), Hf ^ -noi (Shigenoi-no-ben ^, 
= Minamoto no Kintada ^ ^^, poet). | ^ Shige-ko (Empress), ^ -no- 
-miya (princess). 

\m^ TAN, DAN. shidziimu {' to be calm, serene') ; yasiishi ('peaceful'). 85. 

KO. minato ('a harbour'). 85. 

[Compare ^ above.] | Minato (t.). | 1I14 Minatozaki (f.). 

AKU, OKU. atsushi ('thick'). 85. 

I i^ Atsu-mi (k. of Mikawa; t.^ ; f.), IJ^ -mi (f.). 





■» 



BI, Ml. migiwa ('a bank, shore'). 85. 



' Professor B. H. Chamberlain would derive Atsttmi, written as above (and in other ways, 
see Inde.x), fronn Ainu at-ni, 'elm-tree'. 



387 Twelve Strokes 

vtyt TO, DZU ; TO ; watari, wata- ; Watari, Watarn. ivataru (' to cross 
tl^ over, transport, send ') ; tvatari, watashi (' a ferry '). 85. 

I ^ Watari-shima (old name for Yezo, also for Sado Is.). | jl| 
Watari-gawa, | ^ J|^ )l| Watarase-gawa (r.). Towns : | Watari (f. ; also 
Wataru^ as f.) ; | ^ Wata-nami or -noha, ^ -tsu, i^ "tfj -ribaichi, ^ -se 
(f. met.), -rise, -rase (f.j. | (or \\±) ^ ^ Togetsu-kio (bridge). 

Other Surnames: I ^ Wata-rai, M -ri, i^ -nabe (met.), 3^ -nabe^ 
(ptr., met.). | ;^ ^ Watarinosuke (zok.) ; I "^ M Tokaiya (n.). | ^ 
Toto (' China-visiting ', epithet of Sugav^ara no Michizane). | ^ tokio 
(the bringing of the Buddhist scriptures to Japan). | ^ tosen, watashibune 
('a ferry-boat '). 

1M ^^^' ^^^" ^^^^^^" ('clever'). 61. 

^PM FUKU. motoru ('to oppose, disobey'). 61. I /.§ Fukuba (see p. 86). 




1'h in, on. shidzuka {' quiet'). 61. | ^ Yoshi-ko (Empress). 

ih^ FUKU. haba (' breadth, influence '). As fuku, same as a kakemono 
I W or hanging roller-picture, also a numeral-suffix for such objects 
(see p. 40). Compare Examples under ^ (xiv). 50, 

[Contraction: ||l^.] BO, MO. kashiradzutsumi, \ ^ boshi ('a head- 
•^ covering, cap '). 50. 

^ TEI, TAI. tsiitsumi [^ a. dike, embankment'); Tsutsumi (f. ptr.). 32. 
I ^ M] M Tsutsumi-chunagon (= Fujivvara no Kanesuke ^ |§). 

' More correct form of i0j (xiv). 32. 

-1*3 KAI. kagirii ('to limit'); safeai ('a boundary'). 32. 
-^r I Sakai (t. near Osaka, lacq., text. ; r.). | *^ Sakai-noura (t.), 

(HJ -cho (street of Yedo), -machi (of Kioto), '^^ -sa (f.). 





? o 
^-'" 



KAN[. tayeru (' to endure, be able '). 

I ^, ^ kannin no fiikuro (the Bag of Patience). 



Jg Synonym of ^ (p. 390). 32. 



^ These two surnames occur as censors' marks in seal-script on woodcuts between 1842 and 1853. 
The second, Watanabe, would appear to be, next to Suzuki ^ ^jc, the commonest surname in modern 
Japan. 




Twelve Strokes 388 

-IT^ YEN. fusegu ('to ward off, dam*); seki, iseki ('a basket dike', same 
1^ as jakago.) 32. 

■j^ I }\\ Oi-ga\va (= the Katsura River). | "^ Sekiyu (t.). 

KC). GO. nnagi ('tlie nape'). 181. 

I ^ Kou (Hsiang-yii, Chin, liero ; no). 

:^ YU ; or YU, O ; or SHO, JO ; zok., Shu- (one instance noted). 

komannkti ('to fold the liands'); yudzuvu ('to yield, permit'). 64. 

! H Ibi (mod. k. of Mino ; t. ; f. ; r.) ; | ^ Ibi (same t.). | \^ 

Ibo (mod. k. of Harima). | ^ Itto or YQto, | ^ Issai or Yusai (two k. 

of Harima). | ^ Ibusuki or YCisuki (k. and t. of Satsuma). | M ly^- (t.)- 

^Q^ TEI, DAI (TAI) ; TE. hissagevii, tadzusayerii (' to hold in the 
hands'). 64. | ^ Daiba (lacq.). 

;P[^ YO : [aki). ageru ('to raise'). 64. 

I Age (f.). I H Age-ya (f. ; lit. 'a brothel'), ^ -maki (joro). 




t 






YEN; JO. tasiikeru ('to assist'). As jo, a title (see p. 85). 64. 

SEN. soron (' to be in order, uniform, complete in . number, well 

J supplied'); soroyerii. (transitive form); soroi ('a complete set, 

series'). 64. | ^ soroibiki ('retirement in good order, witli not a man 
lost', of the 47 Ronin). 

KI, GI. hakaru ('to measure'). 64. 

OKU. nigiru (' to grasp, clutch ') ; tsuka (' a hand's breadth, moment 
of time '). 64. 

ig^ Variant of ^- (xiii). 64. 

Hfiil HITSU, HICHI ; {siike). yudame (' a bow-stretcher ') ; tasiikeru (' to 
^^' assist'). As hitsu, a title (see p. 85). 57. 

p^ Svnonyni of fg (xvi). As kio, after a quantity, 'and a little over, 
J^ ' plus'. 57. 

[Synonym : ^^-1 ^^^' ^"U ; nao ; nao ; zok., Nao-. nao (' still more, 

again'); gotoshi ('like, similar'). 94. 
[Compare ^ (p. 282).] | \\;. Nao-bayashi, ^^ -zaki (f.). ;^ \ |% 
Taiyu-in flyemitsu, shogun). 

SEI, SHO. I /-f shop (myth, creat. ; ' drunkard ' ; also as nickname 
and title of a no). 94. 






^1 



389 Twelve Strokes 

X^^ YEN, ON. saru (' an ape, monkey '). 94. 
JcK- [Compare ^ (xiii).] I \\j Sayama (f.). 

CHO ; i, ino- ; zok., I-. ;', shishi, inoshishi (the Japanese \\'ild Boar, 

S//S leucomystax). 94. 
[Compare homophones under -^ (p. 209).] I ^J I-no-yama (m. ; 
cas. ; f.), ^ }\\ -na-gawa (r. ; wrestler), J^ -no (t. ;■ f.), "g' f^ -nawashiro 
(t. ; f. ; lake, -ko \^), -^ ^ -kai-no-tsu (estuary in Osaka), (7) )}^ -nohiza (t.). 
I ^ ^ Ino-koshi, ;^ ^ ^ -koshi (t.), f]^ Jj -mure-yama (m.), ^ 
-kasliira (lake, also with -no-ike f^), t| -kuma (t. ; f. ptr.), [O)] M. -hana 
(t. ; m., -ga-dake -g). 

Other Surnames : | 1 (I no Hayata ^ :^si' hero), Ino (swo.) ; | P 
I-guchi (also Inokuchi), y|c -ki, E9 -Jfi» ^ -n^^ ^ r15 , ^ rI^ -nabe, 
IS -saka, jiii -tsukai, ^^ -gari (ptr.), Wf -no, if P -nokuchi, |^ -bara, 
^ -gai ; I ^^ Ino-ko, j^, ^^ -mata, ^ -iye, |Sg -kuma, fa^ -ma, ;jf -hashi, 
m -se (ptr.). 

pH* BIO, MIO. neko (the Cat, Felis domestica; met., 'a singing-girl'). 94. 
W I 3C Neko-mata, M -ya (f-)) A* -maru (swo.). 

GIN, GON. kuchihiroshi ('wide-mouthed'). 30. 

KATSU ; or Al, YE. yobaivaru (' to call out ') ; museru (' to choke, 
sob'). 30. I -^ kasshiki ('a novice', Zen and Ritsu sects; mask- 
name, also ^ and Ko /]> -kasshiki). 

(No on). hamu, ku, kurau ('to eat, live on'). | ^ Kuimaru (t.). 
I \X Hojiro (f.). 

ttt^ KEN. kamabisushii, yakamashii ('noisy, troublesome'). 30. 
-S» I lf$. (or P;fg) kenkiva ('a quarrel'); Kenk\va-ya ^ (n.). 

|?j^ [Contraction: [^0.] YO; 0, F^ ; afei, -akira, (havii, nami, -0). hinata 
'"^ ("the sunny side, south'); atataka ('warm'); akiraka ('briglit'). As 

yo, the male or positive principle in nature (see p. 97, 1), symbolized by 
heaven, strength, warmtli, the southern slopes of a mountain, etc. ; after a 
province-initial (see p. 120), it expresses the southern or eastern portion, 
but practically means the whole of that province (also in the case of 
certain districts and large towns). 170. 

I Yo (f.). I g "/nl Hinatame-no-taki (fall). | ^ f^ Yoniei-mon 
(gate) ; | IjjJ p^ [J^ Yomei-monin (Empress). | ^ Yozei (57th Mikado). 
I j^ Kagero ('gossamer', variant for $^p| ^^ Kagero, 'dragon-flies', Genji 
Chapter lii). Ji^ | taiyo ('the sun'). | ^ yodzuki (the loth montli). 








Twelve Strokes 390 

I^M WAI, YE. kuma ('a border, edge, shading'). 170. 
I»^ [Compare t^ (>^iv).] | )\\ Kuma-gawa (r. ; f.). Towns: | Kuma 
(^■) '• :k. I Okuma (f.) ; I Jff Waifu ; | )±, Kumanosho. | x Kuma-moto, 
b|5 -1je, ^ -taka (f.). 

KU, GU (GO); GU; sumi; (sumi). sumi, kado ('a corner, angle'). 170. 
[Compare {£ (p. 233), ^ (248), 1^ (xv).] ± | Osumi (pr. and 
one of its kori ; anct. pal. ; f. ; n.) ; | j{\ Gushu (same pr.). /]> | Osumi 
(n.). I H Sumida (f. ptr.). | (or ^ or M) B9 )\\ Sumida-gawa (r. ; no, 
with I ). I ill Sumi-yama, ^ -ya (f.). 

^ Variant of p^ (p. 360). 

RID; taka, Takashi ; zok., Riu- or Taka-. takashi ('high'); yiitaka 
('abundant'). 170. I -J* Taka-ko (court lady). 

US [Synonym: j^.] KAI ; KE; hashi ; (yori). kizahashi ('steps'). 170. 
'^ \ J^ Shinado (f.). ZL I nikai ('second storey', esp. of a brothel); 

H I sangai (' third storey ", esp. a greenroom). 

it&n - llfin ■^'^^^' KIO 5 (nori, aki). kimi ('a lord'). As kid, a title 
yb.l'* yP" (see p. Sf,), also a suffix to the names of noblemen, like ^ 
and ^ (both ko). Distinguish from (xiii). 26. 

SEI, SAI. mnko ('a son-in-law'). See p. 130. 38. 
YEX. hiine (synonymous with $|g, p. 325). 38. 
BI, MI. kobirii ('to flatter, ogle'). 38. 







ffl(X 





Xo on). kiinugi (a tree, Oiiercus servata). [75.] | fQ Kunugita (f.). 

HO, BlO ; tana. tana ('a shelf). 75. 
I -^ Tana-kura, ;|^ -hashi (f.). 

SHO. hajikami, ^jj | koshd ('pepper'); jjj | sansho (a tree, the Japan 
Pepper, Xanthoxylon piperitum). 75. 
I ^ Kinome (f., lit. fruit or buds of the sansho). 

KIOKU, GOKU ; Kiwamu. kiwamern ('to fix, examine, authenticate, 
pass [as a censor] ') ; kiwame (' authentication, certificate of genuine- 
ness ' ) ; kiwameie (' very, most, thoroughly '). In seal-script on woodcuts, to 
be read as kiwamern, 'imprimatur', but sometimes as goku, an abbreviation 
of I ^ gokugetsu or shiwasu, the 12th month. See also p. 97, 4. 75. 






391 Twelve Strokes 

I M Gokuraku (the Buddhist Paradise) ; I ^ ^ |{^ Gokurakuji-zaka 

(m.). :;^ I ^ Daigoku(Taikioku)-den (hall of the Impl. palace). | j^ B^ 

Hinashi^ (f.). | fp Kokuin (nickname, lit. '[private] mark of authenticity'). 

I A, I ^ Kiwame (n.). | '^ kioknnan ('extreme south'), etc. | ^ ^ 

gokusaishiki ('highly coloured, polychrome'). 

■h^ (^^ on); sugi, soma. sugi (a tree, Cryptoincvia japonica); soma ('a 
^H timber-forest'). Possibly an incorrect variant of ^^ (xiv). [75.] 

[Compare ^^ and |[Ij (pp. 239-40).] | ;^ frh Sugimoto-yashiro (tem.). 
Surnames : | )\\ Sugi-kawa (met.), ^J -yama (also Somayama), ^ -hira. 

TSUI, DZUI ; shii. shii (a tree, Quercus cuspidata). ^5. 

I H Sliii-da (t.), ^ -ya (t. ; f.), M il -ya-no-taki (fall). Other 
Surnames : | :;^ Shii-noki, ^ -na, ]^ -bara, if -no, ^ -bashi. | ;?{C 
Shii-ga-moto {Genjl Chapter lvi). 

\^ RIO; muku, kura. mnkii (a tree, Aphananthe aspcra). 75. 
1^ I ;^ Mukumoto (t.). Surnames : | Muku ; /J^ I Ogura, Orio ; 

I ^ b15 Kurahashibe ; | ]^ Muku-bara, ^ -nashi. 

WAN. 'A bowl', esp. of wood, lacquered. 75. 

I M Wanya (f.) ; | ^ Wan-kiu (= Wanya Kiuyemon ^ :^ ^j^ f^j). 

SO, SU. Name of a tree. 75. 

TO; mune ; miine; zok., Mune-. rnune, mnnagi ('a roof, ridge, ridge- 
pole'). 75. [Compare ^ (p. 278).] | ^ xMunesuye (f.). | ^ 
Mune-ko (court lady). 

4*^ SEI, SAI ; su. sumii ('to dwell'); siimika ('a dwelling'). 75. 
I^T Compare ;fg (p. 326). 

BO (HO), FU. tsuye ('a pole, bar'). 75. . 

I M Boya (f. sculp.). | ||| Hoshibari (kiogen). 

t^ SEI, SHO. amanashi (the Crab Apple). 75. 
r3 I /j^ (f- met., pronunciation uncertain). 

+^fc- SHOKU, SHIKI; uye ; [tane, iiye). uyeru ('to plant, colonize"). 
11^ Distinguish from |m (xiv). 75. 

[Compare _t. (p. 159J and the next.] Towns: | i^ Uyeki (f. ptr.), 
53 -da (f. met.), /{^ -matsu (f.), ff -no (f.). Other Surnames : | llj 
Uye-yama, f|^ -naka, ^ -i, ^^ -take, j^\ -mura (met.), |0 -yanagi, ^ -kuri, 
^ -kusa,- ]^ -hara. | ^ uyetsuke ('transplanting'). 

' Lit. 'sunless', the characters being also interpretable as 'the last day of the 12th month.' 







Twelve Strokes 392 

SHOKU, SHIKI ; uye ; {masu). uyevii ('to plant'); masu, fnkasu ('to 
increase'). 79. [Compare J:, (p. 139) and tlie foregoing.] | ^ 
Yekuri (t.). | f^ Uye-tsuki, EH -da (f.). | ^ Masu-ko (court-lady). 

5^ S.\X, ZAX. nokorii (' to be left over, linger '). 79. 

I f] san-getsu (the moon towards dawn), ^ -sei, ^ -setsu ('lingering 
stars, snow"), :|{£ -kiva ('last flower of the season'), ^ -to (the 12th month). 

YU, O; 0; -0, {take, katsu) : zok., Yu-, -o. 0, osu ('male', esp. of 




1^^ birds); masurao ('manly, a hero ). As yu, alone or in composition, 
' a hero '. 172. 

1 B Okaohi or Okatsu (k. of Dewa) ; Okachi-hama ^ (t.). | \[i 
O-yama, J^ \ ^J Taiyu-zan, | ^ (for ^) \{\ Otoko-yama (m.). 1 J|| 
O-daki (^fall). | § Yuriaku (21st Mikado). | g O-gimi, ^ -to, 
A -ndo, ^. J4 -same, J] |^ff -riye (n.j. 

GA, GE ; GA, GE ; masa, Masashi; zok., Masa. miyabiyaka ('refined, 
elegant'). 172. 

I ^ Masa-ko (princess). 1 |lj Gazan, j ^ >fc Masanagi, I ^ W] 
Utanosuke {joro) ; for | ^| see also p. 81,, 3. | \ Masando (n.). 

HIX : Sakan, Sakaye. Synonym of ^ (p. 361). 67. 

HAN, BEN. madara ('dappled'); hiichi ('piebald'). Confused with ^ 
(P- 327)- 67. 
jDMC IvlN. tama ('a gem'). 96. 








TAKl'; Migakii. migaku ('to polish'). 96. 
J^ SO, SHO. 'The tinkling of gems'. 96. 

KI, GI. moteasobiL ('to sport'). 96. 

SEI, SHO; ham, Haruru, (hare). hareru ('to clear up'); hare ('fine 
weather'). 72. 

I JM. sciran (' glorious sunset sky ', in the Omi and other hakkei) \ 
Seiran-no-taki ■jjlH (fall). 

WAN. tide ('the arm, strength, skill'). 130. 

ffife SHO ; katsu, kachi ; kaisu, Katsu, Masaru, (to) ; zok., Katsu-, rarely 
/"^ Sho-. katsu ('to conquer'); masaru, sugureru ('to surpass, excel'); 
tayeru ('to bear, endure'). 19. 




393 Twelve Strokes 

[Compare ^ (xiii).] Kori : ! HJ Katsuda (Mimasaka mod. ; f. ptr.), 
former!}- divided into | j^ Shonan and | J{\^ Sliolioku ; I ^ Katsuura or 
Katsura (Ashu ; t. ; f.j. | )\\ Kaclii-kawa (r. ; t., also as Kajikawa); 
Katsukawa (f. lacqj. Other Towns: | \[\ Katsu-yama (f. ptr., actor; 
joro; also Kachiyama as t.), :^ -ki (f. met.), -gi, ;^ -moto (f.), m -numa 
(Koshukaido stage; f.), !0p -no (f.), fjj EQ -mata (f.). | ijif Shohata, | fl 
■^ J^ Shoriuji-jo (cas.). | )% ^ Katsuo(Ivachio)-dera (tem.). 

Other Surnames: | Katsu (ptr.), Suguru ; | ^ Katta ; | ^ Kachibe ; 
\ ^\- KatSU-i (actor), @ -n:ie, i^ -mura (ptr.), g -ro, H -mi (met.; joro), 
M> ~o, VnJ -kawa (ptr.), M -y^, ^ -mine, ^ -kura, ^ -shima, fu\ -ma 
(ptr.), M M -gase, i^. -zawa. I ^i Jlii jl Sliogun-jizo (d.). 1 gp Katsu-ro 
izok.), '^ -mi, \ -ndo (n. ; latter as shojin, 'famous personage'). | ^ 
shokci ('fine scenery'); i^ 1 >neishd ('famous view'). 





\Wj SHI; {mi). mini ('to see'); nazovayeru ('to imitate'). 113. 
\'^ariant of H (.xiii). 143. 

>fCvy VU ; Yittaka, (yasii, h'lro). yntaka ('abundant, fertile'). 145. 

-j^^ HO, FU ; FL' ; (yasit, sada). oginan ('to make good, supplement'); 
I itJ tasiikerii ('to assist'); ho-sitrn (' to appoint to an office'). 145. 

I (or ^) p't: ^ Fudaraku (epitfiet of Kwannon, d.); Fudaraku- 
-sen jli (sacred m.). | f^ Iw-sa (tit.), ^J] ~jo (' assistance, auxiliary "). 

SEl, ZE. niitsiigi ('a tax'). 115. I J3fr Saisho, Zeisho, | 03 
Saita (f.). 

Ipl TEl, CHO; (nori, hodo). hodo ('extent, status, deportment'). 115. 

I jf^ Hodo-mura (t.j, ^ ^ -gaya (t., Tokaido stage 4; f.), g -ta (f.), 
^ -baba (widow). j ^ Teishi (Ch'eng Tzu, Chin. sage). 




%(6 ^'"^^ ^^'^'^ °^ ^ ^P" ^^^' 



II 



J- 




TAX. mijikashi ('short'). iii. 
^ I n^^ tan/ea (the 31 -syllable poem) ; I K., 1 fllh I H tanzaku, 

tanjaku (the oblong poem-card). 

X© Original form of ^ (p. 362). iii. 

;j SEI, SHO. oi ('a nephew'). See p. 130. 100. 



« 



•Jfcjto SHUN. oioarzi ('to finish'). 117. | X (or 7j}] shitnko ('completed,' 
^^^ as a work of art). 






Twelve Strokes 394 

SO; or SHO, SO. ntoshi ('distant, estranged, unacquainted, ignorant'); 
mabara ni ('sparsely'). 103. I ^ Soseki (priest). 

KEN; or KKX, GEN. s^uzuri {' c\n inkstone'). 112. 
I M Suzuriya (f.). 

Ijft ^^^' -^^'- J ^ ^'^ ('sulphur'); lo-jima % (is.) ^ -nada (sea). 112. 

Ru ^^^' shiroshi ('white'). 106. 

J^S SETSU, ZETSU. tayeru ('to cease, dry up, die, overtop'). As zetsn^ 
^ *-5 'superlative, unrivalled'. 120. 

I ]^ setcho ('topmost peak'). | jli: zessei, | {^ zetsudai ('a paragon,, 
nature's masterpiece'). I ^;, | ^^ zekkei ('an unrivalled view'). | ^ 
5efe/?u (a Chinese stanza). 

T&/i^ KIU, KO. tamau ('to bestow'). 120. 

W^ ;|^ i Ogiu(t.;f.). I 1^ Kihire (k. of Satsuma ; f.), Kirei (same k.). 

^p' Slil ; SHI; zok., Ito-. ito ('thread, string, raw silk, yarn'). As shi, a 
^^1* measure of weight (see p. 66). Compare also ^ (p. 221). 120. 
I lllf Ito-saki (cape), ^ )\\ -igawa (t.), $|g -hime (Empress). ' 

^^t KO, KIO. shiboru ('to squeeze, wring, dye in the skein'); shibori (a 
'l>^ variegated cloth). 120. 

^fc^ 10, TSU ; niune, (sumi). suberu, osameru ('to govern'). 120. 
'IVL I ^ To-shi (princess). ^ | koto (' the Imperial line '). 

>^-lt KETSU, KECHI ; KE. niusubu, yu ('to tie, bind, dress ' [as the hair]);. 
^M miisiibi Ca knot 'j ; 3-'ui (' hairdressing '). 120. 

I j^^ Yu-ki (k. and t. text, of Shimosa ; f.), ll|§ -saki (t. ; f. ; also 
Kongo as f.). | ^ Ketsu-6, J5| -ge (f.). | ^n Ketchi ? (f. met., quoted 
in the Soken Kisho). /]\ \ komusubi (grade of wrestlers). | ^^ yiiino- 
(ceremony of exclianging wedding gifts). 

-mH KEN. 'Variegated, bright-hued'. 120. 

SO, SHO. yosoou ('to adorn'). iig. 

I [ly] Yosooi, I 'Jf, Yosogi (joro). \ ${5j Yosooi-hime (leg. pers.). 

SHITSU, SHICHI. hiru ('a leech', Hirudo sp.). 

[Compare ,^» (xiv).J | )\\ Hiru-kawa (t. ; f.), ^ ^ -[ga]kojima (t.),. 

H -ta, tpJ -kawa, Pff] -ma (f.). | ^ Hiruko or Yebisu (d.) ; Yebisu 
Daikoku-ten ::^ S ^ ikiogen). 





395 Twelve Strokes 

Wq KO, go. hamaguvi ('a clam'). 142. 

A, U; Kawadzu. kawadzu ('a frog'; mask-name). 142. 
I jll Agawa (f.). 

(No o/l) yebi ('a prawn, lobster'). 142. 

[Compare Jg (xv) and the combination f^ ^ (p. 322),] I ■^ 
Yebi-su, ill -ye (f.)- 

KWO (KO). Unauthorised character. 






5 CHO, JO. mika ('a wine-bottle'). 98. | ^ Mikatori (clan). 
Used as a variant of ^ (p. 365). 121. 




YET, YO. .iitau, nagamu ('to sing, chant'). 149. 
I B^ yeika (' lyric poetry '). 

^r> HEI, HIO. hakaru ('to estimate'). 149. | /E hiojo ('deliberation, 
PI council'); hidjo-shu :^ (war-council), -biigio ^ ^y (tit.). 

g^ SHO. mikotonori ('an Imperial edict'). 149. 

nHJ ^^^' J^- kotoba ('word, diction, literary style'). 149. 
gnj" KA. shikavii ('to scold'). 149. | ^ Uta-ko (poetess — so Haga). 
ff|* CHO. takuwayevu ('to amass, store'). 154. 

Synonym of ^ (xxiii). 158. 

|p|)l Old form of PJ (p. 267). 74. 

SO; or SAKU ; SU. su ('vinegar"). 164. | M Suya (f. ptr.). 

KAN, GAN. iakenatva ('at or just after its climax'). 164. 







•''-*' Contraction of M (xiv). 

Uq^ HATSU, BATSU. amku ('to walk'). As batsu, 'a postscript' 
-r^^ to a book, by another hand. 157. 
I P'b M Hattara or Batsudara, I ,^ i|JSc ^ Hatsuratasha (rakan). 





Twelve Strokes 396 

'3^K Synonym of ^ (p. 237). 167. 

hX^ KIX, KOX ; ikata, yoshi). tsutsushimn ('to be respectful'). 76. 

^\ I B^ Kinimei (agth Mikado). | M kinsei, tsutsushinde tsukuru 

(' respectfully made '). 

y^ TOX, DOX. ni6«s/2i ('blunt, dull, stupid'). 167. 

Wli I ;^ Don-yei, ^ -cho ipoetsj. | ^^ :^ Dokonso (kiogen). 

O^iJ Common variant of ■^Sj (xiii). 167. 

A:^ SHO (jC>), SO ; [nobu, yuki). noberu {' to extend') ; yiiruyaka {• gentle'). 
M J 135. I PJJ Jomei (34th Mikado). 

SHU, SHI'; navi. nam ('to become, be'); tsukii ('to obtain'). 43. 

-^/^ TOX; or SHUX, JUX; alsu, Atsiishi. atsiishi ('honest, generous'). 
H^\ Distinguish from ^ (p. 366). 66. 

I 1^ Tsuruga (k. and t. of Echizen). | fg [>^ Junshin-in (= lyeshige, 
shogun). I If 3E Atsusuke-o (prince). 

ft% HO. miikuyuru ('to reward, requite, retaliate'). As Iw, 'news'. 32. 
l^ I i Ho-do (Bud. paradise), ,g, -^ -on-ji (tem.). 

•V^ ^ KAX. ayete ('daringly, at a venture'); isamu ('bold'). As kan, 
"^^ 'perseverance'. 66. 

Jt/rf- SAX; SA. chirasu ('to scatter'); chini ('to be scattered, fade, 
f*^ wither'). As san, also 'a medicinal powder '. 66. 

I ^ ^ Sarudahiko (d. ; see ^, xiii). | A sanjin (' retired scholar ' ; 
ending for art-names, see p. 70). 

[Synonym (not used alternatively in names) : ^.] CHO ; asa ; tomo, 
(asa-^) ; zok., Asa-. asa, tsuio ashita ('the dawn, earl}-'). As cho, 
also ' a dynasty, the Imperial Court '. 74. 

[Compare ^ (p. 356), |^i, (379).] I ,# Chosen (Korea). Ivori : | ^ 
Asa-hina (Boshu ; f.), -i (same k. ; t.), ^ -ke (Ise; r.), ^ -ko (Tajima; f . ; 
Asaku and Atsuso as t.), -^ -kura (Chikuzen, mod. ; anct. pal. ; f. ptr.). 
I t^ LU Asama-yama (m., also written -^ fdj jij). Other Towns : -J^i | 
Oasa; | H Asa-hi (f. ; r. ; m., -ga-dake -^ ; see also belowj, JH -ri, 
^ -miya, gg -hari or -bari. 

Other Surnames : | )\\ Asa-kawa, Jrt, ^f -hina {kiogen), 0] -da, 
W^ -buki, ^ -yeda, ^ -nmne (clanj, fj6] -oka, ^ -ka (mod. princes), ]^^ -hara 




* Chiefly in early (esp. Fujiwara clan) uami-i and later archaisms. 



397 



Twelve Strokes 



(clan; n. princess), 5f -no (clan), ^ -ka. I Q asahi, hinode ('sunrise'); 
Asahi -shogun Jj^ !p! (= Minamoto no Yoshinaka), -no-kata (7) ')] (wife of 
lyeyasu, shogun). | ^ Asa-dzunia [joro; also for ^^ ^), |^ -kari (n.), 
^ -gao {Genji Chapter xx ; Asagao-nikki |S, joriiri). 

I ^ c/zoi-ei (tit. of Emperor). \ W^ ^ ^ chdsan-daibu (= the rank of 
honour ju-goi-ge ^ 51 f4 T, see p. 88j. | ^ cho-hai, ^ -^^a, ||fi -/e/u, 
/J> I ff kochohai (Impl. Xew Year fest.). 

SHI; Sf//; [kove). kore ('tliis'); kaku ('thus') 
viz. '). 6g. 



fr 



[Compare m (p. 206), -^, (250), -^ (378).] | 



; snnawachi (' i.e., 
Shiba (k. of Oshu, 



also written 





^ ; f. plr.). I m. ^ Shimada (f.). 

[Variant : |^.] KWAN. tataku (' to strike ') ; makoto (' the truth '). 
As kivaii, the signature and seal on a work of art. 76. 

JIN, NIN. yugi, utsubo ('a quiver'). Distinguish from ^ (p. 369). 
177. 

I Utsubo (dist. of Yedo). | ^ Yugei (t.) ; Yukiye [zok.]; yitgei or 
yttkiye (old name for the Imperial Guards, yefit) ; I ;^ |i Yukiyenosuke 
{zok.). I % fg Utsubo-monogatari (classic ; see p. 102, 46). 

.^1^ TO, TSU ; TSU.; (kuni). miyako ('a capital city', see p. 98); subete 
PH ('in all, generally'). 163. 

[Compare ^ (p. 294).] Kori : | ^ Tsu or Tsu (Bitchu) ; | -g 
Tsu-ru (Koshu; f.), J| -ga (Shimotsuke ; f.), ^ -kubo (Chikuzen, mod.), 
j^ -no (Suo; t.l, H -dzuki or -tsuki (Musashi ; f.). I 'g -jr Miyako-fuji 
(= Hiyei-zan, m.). | ^ |ll^ Toi-zaki (cape). Other Towns: I Miyako 
(= Kioto ; f. actor) ; | T*" Tf'ka (= Kioto); | ^ Tsumo ; | ^ Miyakonojo. 
Other Surnames: | ^ To-go, Vo -ji, M -kura; | ^ f| Tsu-dzumi 
(n.), ^- -mori, ^ -no (clan), lll§ -zaki, gf ^ -noi, ^ -dzuki (ptr.), ^ -ji 
(.Miyakoji as joro). | Jlli Tsu-chi (hist, pers.), ^ ^ -go (n.). | ^ 
miyakodovi (kind of bird). | V — or | >^ ^ dodoitsu (kind of poetry). 

•=fc:^ HO, HlO. os/zf ('abundant'); chikashi ('near'). 59. 

^^ I Sakaki (f. ptr.). | ^ Ho-s6 (P'eng Tsung), jf!& -so (Tsu), sennin. 

I&rf GIO, GO; GO. noni ('to ride, drive'); osameru ('to govern'). 187. 
*^^ I ^ Komu or Gomu (k. of Osumi). 

U\\f GAI, KI. As gai, 'victorious'. Synonym of ff (xiii). 16. 
I M, gaifu (' a favourable breeze '). 
KATSU, KACHI ; /v/. saku, tvaru ('to crack, split, divide'); ivavi 
('percentage'). 18. I ^\ \i\ Waribiki-yama (m.). 



HI 




Twelve Strokes 398 

11 KEI. tsityoshl ('strong, brave'); katashi rhard"). 19. 
PTi Contraction of HJj (xvij. 19. 

TAN, DON. hiroshi ('wide'). 14b. 




m 



r SHOKU, SOKU ; awa. aiva (the Bengal Grass or Italian Millet, 

Setaria italica). Distinguish from ^ (p. 336). 119. 

[Compare ^ (p. 337).] I % Awa-jima (is.j. Towxs : | ^ Okata ; 

I M\ # Okamura; | ^ Awa-fu (f. ; also Afu and Ao as t.), \Q ^ -tabe, 

^ -dzu (f. ; see also p. 107, 79), jgf -no (f.), ^ -ga (f.j. | EH Awa-da^ 

(dist. of Kioto, pot.; f. ; clan), P -daguchi^ (ditto, swo. ; f. ptr. ; kiogeu). 

I ^ th Awashima-no-yashiro (tem.). Other Surnames : I lU Awa-yama, 

M -ya ; I Awa ; I ^ B3 Aoda \ \ ^^ "^ Amenomiya ; I lie 1^ Aibara. 

"R^ AKU ; .4, 0. ashii, waviishi ('bad, wicked'); nikumu ('to hate'). See 

*^^ p. lof), 74, also^ (p. 405). 61. 

1 Aku (f.). I in jll Aku-ta-gawa (r.), -t ^ Wi -shichibioye 
{- Taira no Kagekiyo), ^p, zk, -genda (= Minamoto no Yoshihira), ^ ^ 
-hambo (priest), ^ -bo, -j^ gp -taro (kidgen), g| -jo, |;^ ^ -bozu or -bo 
(mask-names). | ^ akn-ma ('a devil'), ^ -Wo ('a malevolent spirit of 
the dead ') ; I ^ zvariimono (' a villain '). 



Correct but less usual form of ^ (p. 349). 

^I=» UN; U ; kumo ; {kiimo); zok., Kumo- or Un-. kumo Ca cloud'). 173. 
"it^ I ^'H Un-shu, 1^- -yo (Idzumo pr.). | fi} Kumo-dzu (t.), M. \\\ 

-tori-yama (m.), ^ )\\ -tsu-gawa (r.), ^ -1 (pal. ; f. ; joro). \ # ^ 
Kirara-zaka ('Mica Hill'j, but | -^ ^ Umbokei (art-name). | ^ ^ 
Unkoku-ji . (tem.). Surnames : j :!^ Unkoku (ptr. ; also Kumoya and 
Kumodani); I /j^; P5c Unrinin (school of painting; no), Un; | -tj] Kumo-kiri, 
^ -tsu. 

I W "? Unchushi (Yiin Chung-tzu, Chin, wizard). | J\^ Kumo-ndo> 
^P -yanagi, ,1^ -dori {joro). \ ^ Jiibari (the Japanese Lark, Alauda 
japonica) ; Hibari-yama ]\\ [no). | J:^ \ kumo-no-uyebito ('Emperor and 
court '). 

.^1 Contraction of '^ (xv). 

* These two names, with the addition of titular suffi.ves, such as -tiiudo, -hogen, -kwampaku, sadaijin, 
form tlie sobriquets of several prominent Fujiwara quoted by Haga (who prefers -da- for -ta- as a 
rendering of the pEl). 



399 Twelve Strokes 

^3 * SHIN, JIX. hiro ('a fathom', see p. 65); tadzuuent ('to search for, 
*J* ask, visit 'j. 41. 

>g^ SO; SO. katsuie ('formerly, ever'). See also p. 129, med. Distin- 
^i guish from "^ (xiii). 73. 

Towns: :A: 1 ^^ Osone (f.) ; I :^ So-ki (f. ptr.), f^ -tai, Ql Oj 
-yeyama, il^ -chi, ;^j- -mura, ^ -ya, f^ gf -gano, ^^ -ne (f. ptr.), i^^ il|§ 
-nezaki (S. Shinju i|[i» f|^, S. Moyo ^ ^, joruvi). \ g jlj Soro-kawa (r.j. 
Other Surnames : | So ; /Jn | ^^ Kosone ; | jl) So-gawa, ^J -yama, 
B9 -da, g ^"Ij -rori (lacq.), ^ -dani, ^ -ga (ptr. ; S. kiodai 51 I&, 'the Soga 
Brothers'), |n -wa, ^ -iniya, ]^ -hara, iftg -shi, |^" -ne. | -p So-shi 
(Ts'eng Tzu, Chin, writer), ^ -san (Ts'an, paragon), ;^ -tan (priest, no. 46 
of the Hundred Poets). 

SON; taka, Takashi. takashi ('high, eminent'); tattobu ('to honour'); 
tattoshi ('honourable'); -iw-mikoto (honorific suffix to names of 
Shinto deities; compare '^, p. 276). As son, often 'august, imperial, your'. 41. 

I ^ -^ Sonsho-ji (tem.). | ^ Sonkei (Tsun Ching, sennin). | ^ 

Taka-ko (Empress). | ^ sonja (Bud. tit., see pp. 87, and 112, 95). 

|— t 
P>,a Variant of ^ (p. 283). 46. 



^ SEI, SHO. a/eim/ea ('bright'). 72. 

^> RIO ; [kazu). hakavu (' to estimate, weigh ') ; kakeme (' quantity, 
3&, weight'). 166. 

I=jt^ SAI, SE ; mo-; (yoshi). mottomo, mo- ('very, most'). 73. 
•hX- I J^ Mo-gami (k. of Dewa ; f. ; r., see p. gS, 11; as saijo, 'best, 

maximum'), ]^ -bara (f.), r-j^ -naka (n.). | ^ ^ Sai-sho-ji (tem.), 
"^ -shu (f.), Ji ^ 1?^ ^ -jojo-no-miya (several princes). | ^ '^ saisho-ye 
(Bud. ceremony). 

^[ ^ KEI, KIO ; kage, Akira. hikari (' brightness '). Also used for ^ (^'v), 
■^t^ hence | ]\\ Kageyama (f. ptr.). As kei (cf. pp. 98, 13, 107, 79), 
also I ^ keishoku, keshiki, \ ^ keiseki, 'a fine view, scenery.' 72. 
I M M Keiami (ptr.). 

^g KOKU ; KO ; kuro ; (kiiro) ; 20k., Kuro- (imitating jh ^P)- kuroshl 
^^*> ('black, dark'j. 203. 

I )\\ Kuro-kawa (k. of Oshu ; t. ; f. ptr.), ^ '^ -to-no-hama (shore), 
lll^ -zaki (cape; t. ; f. met.j, $gi (^, -J^ ^i|)) \\\ -hime(-kami, -hoshi)-yama 
(m.). Other Towns : | 'Jl^ Kuro-maru, 7JC -midzu, :^ -ki, -gi (see also 
below), Tic ^ 0f -kigosho, ^- -i (f.), ^ -ishi, g -da (anct. cap. ; f. ptr., 



Twelve Strokes (|f^. contd.) 400 

met., swo. : r. ; pass, -toge ly), fH |^ -tawara, iX -ye (lacq.), ^ -lia or 
-bane (Kurowa as f. met.), 4^, \Q -muta (pot.), ^ -saka, ^ -tani, -dani 
(tern. ; f.), |i^ -matsu (f.), ^, -tada, ^ -iwa (f. ptr.), ^ -shima, S?f -no 
(f. ptr.), ^ -be (f. ; r.), ^ -mori, J|.] -koma, vf |l -sawajiri, ;(i|| -iso, ^^i -se 
(f. met.). ^ I ^ Daikoku-ya (brothel ; f.). 

Other Surnames : ;^ | Okuro (Daikoku as d., see p. 98, 14) ; /]> | 
Oguro ; I ^'H Kuro-su (ptr.), ^ -fune, ^ -zumi, ^ -ita, ;f|II -yanagi, pl 
-kawa, jfitji -kami, ]^f -bara, ^^^ -fune, ^(\ -su, ^ -zawa. 

I i^ Kuro-hime (Empress), ^^ $g -hime-no-iratsume (court-lady), 
;^ 3^ % -tobishikibu (poetess), ^» ;^ -genda (zok.), \ -liito, -ndo, ^^ -taye 
(n-), M -k'^i-mi, M -lii^e (masks). /!> I -j-j^ Okuroye, /J> | |§f[, g 

Oguromaro (n.). | ;4^ kitrogi ('undressed timber'; also a sort of charcoal). 

png BAI, ME. kail ('to buy'); fea/ ('shopping'). Distinguish from ^ 
->^ (xv). 154. I :^ kaisome ('the first purchase in the New Year'). 

^^t SHO. kibi (' sorghuih ", Paniciini miliaceum). 202. 
<fe I ^ Kibigatani, | /^ ^ Kibiudani (t.). 

HAN, BAN; HA, HO. tsugi ('next'); tsngayeru ('to join'); tsugai 
('junction, a pair [of animals]'). As ban, 'a turn, watch, duty, 
number' (see p. 39). 102. 

I Ban (f.). I i^ Bamba (t., Nakasendo stage 62 ; f. ptr.). | |£ 
ban-sho ('a carpenter'), ^^ i5[5 -taro, -ta (a. class of pariah), gp -to ('a chief 
clerk'), ^ -dznke ('a list, programme'). ^ \ f^ [ — ] gobantsudzuki [no 
ichi], '[no. i of] a series of five', etc. 

y^^ KlO, GO; itaka), Takashi. takashi ('high'). 30. 
rsj [Compare ^ (p. 341).] I ^JC Takagi (f.). 

^P* [More correct form: ^\ SHU, SHU; (moto). mina, moromovo ('all'). 
' A sign of the plural. 143. | ^\ Minaki (f.). 




M 



[Full form: ^.] O, OKU; (siinii) ; zok., Oku-. uchi ('inner'); 
^ fukashi ('deep'). As oku, 'inner, back, a wife'; also implying the 
privy service of the Shogun, as f^ (nai) of that of the Emperor. 37. 

I ^'H Oslnl (Mutsu pr. ; joro) ; Oshu-kaido ^; 3^ (highroad) ; | ^ Ou 
(the pr. Oshu and Dewa or Ushu combined). | ^ Okushima (= China; f.). 
Towns: | il] Oku-yama, ^ -jiri, S? -no (f.), ^ -dono, f| ^ -rioke. 
Other Surnames: | Oku (ptr.); | jll Oku-gawa, J^ -do, ^ -i, ^ -daira, 
g -da (ptr.), i^ -mura (ptr., met.), ^ -dani, |g -1, ^ -gura, g" -miya, 
)Jti -hara (ptr.), ^ -nuki, '^ -tomi, t^ -zawa, M -'^e, f|. -fuji. | =f 
Oki-ko (Empress), Oku-ko (poetess). I j^ Okumichi (n. poet). 



40I 



Twelve Strokes 



\'ariant of ^ (p. 346). 

Aaf, BU, MU; MU. uashi, nai ('not, is not, without, -less, un-'). 86. 

-K I Pu] lU Daimuken-zan (m.). I A Bi Mu-nin-to (the Bonin 



^kk> 




or Ogasawara Islands), fg] ^J -gen-zan, j^ ^ -yen-ji (tern.), ^ ^ -rioju, 
K ^ -joson (epithets of the Buddha), \Wi -kwan (priest), *g ::^ ^ -kwan- 
-no-tayu (= Taira no Atsumori), ^ ^ ^ P^ -teyemon, ^ [jg -sashi, 
Tfj -ichi, JJjl ;^ ^ -rinosuke (sofe.), Ph] -gen (or (5iiJ ^ Abi, the lowest of the 
eight Buddhist hells). | H muni ('incomparable', lit. 'not two'); Muni 
(n.); once as Arikazu (n., lit. 'existing in numbers'). | ^ bnyeki (the gth 
month). I Ifh huji ('safe, all right'). | ^j, see p. 88. 

J^^ SHO. k'-'gasii (' to char, excite ') ; kogaveru (' to long for, be in love 
i»^> with'). 86. I 7^ Shosen (Chiao Hsien, sennin). 

SHU, JO; ichika). atsumevu ('to collect'). As shu, 'a collection', 
esp. of poems (see pp. 100, 27, and log, 83). 172. | ^ Sudo (f.). 

Variant of ^ (p. 371). 

SAN. kavakasa (' an umbrella, sunshade '). 9. | f*" Sanka (poet). 
I M4 "F Sampushi (San-feng-tzu, senniu). /]> | Kcjkarakasa (kidgen). 

KIN, GON. tori ('birds'). | f^ kinjfi ('birds and animals'). ii^. 

I; /; tame, [nari); 2ofe., Tame-. tame ('cause, reason, sake'); nasu ('to 
perform, cause'); tsukuru ('to do, make'). 87. 
I >jc Tame-naga (f.), ^ -ko (princess). | ^ [P^] f^ nanigashi [no 
shoku] no tame ni tsukuru, 'to make for [to the order of] So-and-so'. 

^^ SHUN ; (kiyo). As Shun or j^ | Taishun, an early Chinese monarch, 
one of the Twenty-four Paragons. 136. 

SHO, ZO ; [kata). kata, katachi ('shape'); katadoru ('to copy'). 





rm 
M 



n 




or 




As 20 or kisa, 'an elephant' (| ^ ^oge, 'ivory'), i 



i H iJj Zodzu-san (m. ; tem.). | ^ Kisa-kata (bay), /]^ )\\ -no- 
-ogawa (r.). 

j^^ DO; KO. warabe, ivaraiva ('a boy, child'). 117. 
^^ I ic Onna (t.), donio ('a little girl'). 

i^ BI, MI; BI, MI. nevu, yasumu ('to sleep, rest'). 40. 

[Compare ^ (xiv).] | ^ nezame ('awakening'); Nezame-no-toko 
/ jj^ (rock). I "g negoto ('talking in sleep'), | ^, neboke ('dazed with 
sleep ') ; hence pseudonyms Negoto- and Neboke-sensei 7^ ^. 

26 







Twelve Strokes 402 

'^5* Wiriant : "^-j FO, FU ; FU ; tonii, ton-, to-; tomi, Toini, (uiasa, 
t^ yoshi) ; zok., Toini- (see also next entry). tomu ('to be rich'); tomi 

('riches"). Distinguish from "^ (xiii). 40. 

[For I ^ (Fuji) and derivatives, see the next entry.] | -g- Fugaku 
(= Mt. Fuji). I jlj Tomi-san (m.), -yama (t. ; f. ; also Toyama as t., 
njod. ken, and f. ptr.), /]> jlj -no-ogawa (r.), /]> Jf^ -nokoji (dist. of Kioto; f.). 
Other Towns: | ^ FiSttsu (cape, -zaki |1|^), also Futsu ; 1 -^ Fuki 
(see also below; fall, -no-taki yni) ; I ^ Toilli-naga (f. ptr.), g -ta (pot.; 
f. ptr. ; also Tonda as t. and f., and l^oda as cas. ), xL -ye, M -sato, 
^ -ya, [Sj -oka (f. ptr. ; dist. of Yedo), d\i -ku (f. ; also Tobiku and Togi 
as t.), -^ -kura (f), j^ -taka. ^ -kusa, '^ -hama ; | 03 i^ Ton-dahayashi, 
f^ -zawa (Tomizawa as f. met., actor) ; I -^ To-noini, % -shima. 

Other Surnames : | Tomi ; ;;^ | Otomi ; | |g Togashi ; | ;^ BG 
Pu-kuda, ^ ^ -kami ; | )\\ Toilli-kawa (ptr., actor; joro), 7|C -ki, ^ -i, 
^ -hira, Jf. -moto (singers), ^ -mori, "§ -yoshi, ^ -saka, )^ 7|c -oki, 
;j^ -matsu (also Tomatsu), )'jf -dokoro, J^ -ki, |^ -hara, i?f -no, ^ -mori. 
I ^ M Furuna (d.). | H (■^) ^ Fu-mi(-ki)-no-miya (princes). 
I ^ Tomi-ko (Empress). | ';^ Tomi-no-kata {= ^ 0) ^ Tome-no- 
-kata, maternal grandmother of Tokugawa lyeyasu). | m ^ ^ ffiki- 

-choshun (' wealth, honours and long life '). 

'o* -f* FU-JI; zok., Fuji-. | | Fuji (k. of Suruga ; f. met.; r., -kawa ; m., 
-sail or poetically -no-yama; compare remarks on p. 7, vied.); \ \ i'p 
Fuji-no (plain at foot of Mt. Fuji ; Fuji-no no makigari (?J ^ ^^, Yoritomo's 
hunting expeditions in this district in 1193 ^^^^ other years). | | ^ Fuji-na 
(sub. of Matsuye, Idzumo, pot. ; f.), ^ -ya (brothel), >|^ -matsu (f. ; kiogen), 
;^ ^ -daiko (no). \ \ ^ Uiji-hitai (tlie triangle of hair over a woman's 
forehead), ;|JX f| -koshi no rid (the Dragon of Mt. Fuji). 

I I jri Fujimi (t. ; epithet of Saigio |f ^y, priest ; lit ' gazing at Mt. 
Fuji' or 'from which Mt. Fuji can be seen"); Fujimi-Jusanshu -f^ H 'J'H 
(see p. Ill, 93), -no-hara |^ (place), -cho BJ (street of Yedo), -jaya ^ ^ 
(teahouse). 

GU. yadovii (' to stop, lodge '). 40. 
Old form of ^ (xiv). 40. 



HIL 



'g* SHOKU, JlKl; tada, {kore}. tada ("only";; kore ('this'); makoto ('the 
7^ truth'}. 40. 




403 Twelve Strokes 

Variant of ,^. (p. 373). 116. 

KAX ; samu. samushi ('cold'); samitsa ('coldness'); kogoyerit (' lo 

freeze'). As kaii, 'the cold season, winter'. 40. 

I Kan (f. !. ^ I Osafu (t.) ; daikan, /j^ I shokan (see p. 112, 96). 

I jlj Samu-kawa (k. of Shimotsuke and Shinano ; f. ptr. ; also Sankawa 

as f.l, ij'pj -kawa (f.), J^ ^ -sawa (t.). | ^ Samusa-bashi (bridge in Yedo). 

I M iL Sagaye (t. ; f.). 

;;7jv [Contraction: ^.] SHIX; mori ; movi ; zok., Mori-. mori ('a forest, 
^1^ grove'). 7j. 

[Compare ^ (p. 223), f^ (403)] ' I Ui Mori-yama (m. ; t. ; f. ptr., 
met.), ^ ill -yoshi-yama (m.). Other Towns: j Mori (f. ptr., pot., actor); 
;;^ I Omori (f. ptr., met.) ; /J> | Komori (f. met.) ; | "f Mori-moto (f. 
ptr. ; also Morishita as f.), ^ -to (f.), fff -machi, £ -oka, [S] -oka (same t. ; 

f.), ^^15 -go. 

Other Surnames : | )]\ Mori-kawa (ptr., met., sculp.), P -guclii 
(met.), ^ -i, x -moto, 03 -ta (ptr., met., swo., actor; theatre, -za j^, see 
p. 100, 37), 01 -ye, H^ -mura (ptr., met.), :g^-tani, -ya, -JJi -numa, '^ -dzu, 
^ -idzumi, ^ -shima, |l{§ -saki (ptr.), ^JjS -be, M. -bana, f^ -sawa. 




SO. natsume (the Jujube, Zizyphus vulgaris; also a t}'pe of lacquer 
tea-jar). 73. | ::^ Natsumegamoto (n.). 

KEI, ^'E ; YE ; Megumi, (yasu, yoshi, toshi). megumu, awaremn (' to 
^U^^ pity, fa\'our, treat with consideration '). Distinguish from ^ 

(P- 373)- 61. 

[Compare homophones under xT (p- 212).] | )% Ye-na (k. of Mino ; 
m., -san), ^ -so (k. of Bingo; r.), ^ -ra (t. ; f.), ^ -to (f.), j:fc ^ -bisu 
(d. ; Yebisu Bishamon H, \']; P^, kiogen). | H ^^P |# Yemi no Oshikatsu 
(= Fujiwara no Nakamaro). Priests: | jjjv Ye-shin, 3^ -kei, ^ -kio 
(inch Yekio-hoshi, No. 47 of the Hundred Poets); | j^ Keiyen (Hui-yen, 
Chinese, see p. 99, 21 j. | ')j yeho ('lucky compass point' to face when 
worshipping, determined by the zodiac sign of the year). 



id or ^ Old form of ^, (xv). 61. 



^^^ KO; tsubo; (/liro). tsiibo ('a bottle, jar'). 33. 
-Sfi. [Compare i^p (p. 260).] | )\\ Tsubo-kawa (r.), ^ -saka (t. ; tem., 
-dera ^), ^ -i, |^ -uchi (f.), -^ ^ -kiri-no-tsurugi (sword). | ^ Koko 
(Hu-kung, sennin). 



Twelve Strokes 404 

Y*-/ ^ KI ; AV ; yoshi, {nobii) ; zok., Ki-, -ki (see also Examples, fin.). yoro- 
I=t feobu ('to rejoice'). As ki, 'joy', one of the Four (Seven) Passions 



(see p. 106, 74). Doubled, as og. it is the ' double joy " sign of the Chinese, 
alluding to 'wedded bliss'. 30. 

[Compare homophones under '^ (p. 176), also the next entry.] | (or 
^) J?- ^ ^ Kikai-ga-shima (is.). | (or ^) M )^ Kise-gawa (r. ; joro). 

I X Ki-ire, i^ jl| -tsuregawa (t. ; f.). Other Surnames : -^^ \ (Jki 
(pot.) ; I Bg Ki-da (met.), ffl )\\ -tagawa (met.), |i -haya, ;^, -shi. | ^ 
Yoshi-ko (princess). | A Yoshindo, | ^ A Kikuto (n.). j m Ki-sen 
(priest, as Kisen-hoshi ^^ ^i|j, No. 8 of the Hundred Poets), ^ ^ -yo-no-kata 
(poetess), pi ^ -ami (swo.), ^ -cho (joro), j^ -nai (see p. 86). Zokumio : 

I H H Ki-s6ji, ^D SP -chiro, ^ ti\\ -tokuro; also | -ji^z, Ki-ta, ^ -ta, 
jl -ku, ^ -ku, ^ -so, ^ -yo, i^ -yo as initials (Kiyo | f^ also alone 
as n.). I ^ ki-d ('aged 77'; see p. 42). 

KI-TA. [Compare :\t (p. 188).] | | Kita (k. of lyo ; f. ptr.). 
I I 'Jj Kita-kata (t.), |% -no-in (tem.). Other Surnames : ::^ I I 
Okita; /J> | | Okita (ptr.) ; | | jl| Kita-gawa (ptr., met), \\i -yama, j^ 
-mura (ptr.), ^ -mi, ^ -jima, if -no. 

'^^* [Variant: ^; contractions: ^Hj, j^, [H|.] KWAKU, G\A"AKL' ; or 
-^^ K\\'AI, YE; or GWA. ye ('a picture'); yegaku ('to draw, paint'); 
hakarigoto ('a plan, scheme'). As kwaku, 'an enclosure, a stroke (of a 
character)*; as gwa, 'painting, drawing'; after a signature, read giva or 
yegaku, 'pinxit, delineavit\ Distinguish from ^ (p. 345) and ^ (374)- 102. 
I 3ffl jE A Gwamio-dojin, | fjll ^ A Gwakio-rojin (art-names, lit., 
* tlie recluse painter of cats' and 'the aged art-enthusiast'). | X gvca-ko, 
^ -ka, Biji -shi ('artist, painter'; last also as yeshi), ijl^ -jo, |g -fii, |g -ko 
('a sketch-book'), ^ or j^ -sen ('a selection of pictures'), l\^ -tsfi (or | ^ 
ycdzukushi, 'a series of drawings'). | ^ yeawase, for ^ ^^ {q.v. x;x). 
I ^1 kwakuhiki (finding a character by the number of its strokes, or a 
dictionary on that principle). 

SHUKU ; (tada, masa). tsutsushimu (' to be respectful ') ; kibishii 
'severe, solemn'). 129. 
I ^ Shukushin (Su-shen, anct. Chin. tribe). | ^ Shuku-shi (princess). 

,itK, KI ; A7 ; (taka). takashi ('high'); tattoshi ('eminent, honourable"). 154. 
-^^ [Compare homophones under :^ (p. 176).] i j^^ Kibune (r. ; 
tern., -no-yashiro jfil;. | 03 Ki-ta, ^. -shi, ^ -:hima (f.). | ^ Taka-ko 
(poetess). I t^, Kitoku (mask-name). 




405 



Twelve Strokes 



gn: Contraction of 



(XIV). 



mom (' to fill, heap up ') ; sakari 
I Mori (t. ; f.), Sakari (same t.). 



t^dr SET, JO ; mori ; mori ; zok., Mori-. 
-DttL ('acme, full bloom'). io8. 

[Compare ^ (p. 225), ^ (403)-] 
I fS) Mori-oka (t. ; f.), i^ -taka (f.), ^ -ko (court-lady), ;^ WJ -nosuke 
(joro), X -ndo fn.), ^ -hisa {no). \ pi ^ Seiami (lacq.). | ^ seikei 
(' a prosperous appearance '). | ^ IE seisuiki (' a chronicle of varying 
fortunes'). | ^ seika ('midsummer, the fifth month'). 



>>!». 
T^^ 



SHO. tanagokoro ('the palm' of the hand); tsiikasadoru ('to govern). 



■^P* 64. ! FJ^ shochu, in book-titles, 'handy, a manual'. 
TO, DO. amanashi (the Crab Apple). 75. 




-Ub^ K.\N. hameru (' to insert, inlay '). 46. 

^ Variant of ^ (p. 283). 46. 

^1 RAN; arashi ; ^ras/i/. arashi ('a storm'). 46. 

/iftv I Arashi (f. ptr., pot., actor). | ^Ij Arashiyama or Ranzan 

(sub. of Kioto ; former as no). 

HI; HI. tsniyerit ('to be wasted, defeated'). 154. 

I ^ f^ Hi-buni (Fei Wen-i), ^ ^ -chobo (Ch'ang-fang), sennin. 

SHA. inoran ('to ask for'). 154. | ^ Morai-muko [kiogen). 





^ Variant of ^ (p. 375). 

•-^j^* SEN, ZEN; yoshi ; yoshi, Yoshi ; zok., Zen-. As zen, 'virtue" as 

t=J opposed (esp. on certain colour-prints) to ^ akii, 'vice'. 30. 

[Comipare homophones under ^ (p. 227).] | ^ij jl| Seri-gawa, 

I d<. j'l Zenta-gawa (r.). | ^ ^ Zennan-suji (street of Osaka). | ^ 

•^ Yoshimine-dera, I ipS ^ Zempuku-ji, | ^ (3^) ^ Zen-ko(-tsu)-ji (tern.). 

Surnames : | Zen ; -^ \ Daizen ; ;^ I ^ Daizennosuke ; I '/i ^ 

Zemboji ; | ^n ,^ Uto (also 770 ; lit., the Puffin, Fraterciila) ; | ^^ Yoshi- 

-buchi (clan), '^ -shige (clan), 'g -tomi, ^ -miclii, -^ -zumi, |^ -dzumi. 

I -p Yoshi-ko (princess). /\> | Kozen (see p. 86). | ^ Zekai (no), 

I ^ H^ zcnchishiki (Bud. tit.). 




Twelve Strokes 406 

^^^ CHAKU. kirn ('to put on, wear'). As chakti, also 'to arrive, begin'. 
Confused with ^ (xiii). 123. 
I % kimono ('clothing, a robe'). | ^[5f chakiisen ('reaching port'). 

Contraction of ^ (xiii). 

•^^ FU ; Siisumii, {hire). amaneku (' everywhere, generally '). (Some 
^3 dictionaries count this as having thirteen strokes.) 72. 

[Compare homophones under yf, (p. 168).] | Pt ^, ^ee -f^ (p. 393). 
I f\;; Pu-dai (t.), jlj -kawa (f.), ^ -gen (d.), ^ -ken, J^ -jo (sons of Fu- 

-daishi, priest), >ft -ke (Bud. sect), f^ -mon (priest), ^ ^ ^ -guri-no- 

-tsurikata (poet). 

^^ Script variant of ^ (p. 337). 

-^ KO (KWO), 0. /ei ('yellow'). One of the Five Colours. 201. 
^^ I ^ lll$ Ogon-zaki ('Gold Cape'). | (or ^) M j'l Kise-gawa 

(r.j. I ^ obakii, kihada (bark of a tree, Pterocarpus flavus, used in medi- 
cine and dyeing) ; Obaku-san \\\ (tern.), -shu ^ (branch of the Zen sect). 

I ^ Kosen, Yomi, Yomiji, Yomo-tsu-kuni ('Hades'); Yomiji-gayeri ^ 
('returning to H.', epithet of Unkei, sculp.); I ^ jjj^ Yomo-tsu-kami, | iji^ 
Oban (d.). 

I -i^ Ko-tei (Huang Ti, Chin. Emp.), ^ -ko (Hsiang, paragon), ^ ^ 
-teiken (T'ing-chien, paragon). Sennix ' \ ^ ^ Kosekiko (Huang-shih- 
-kung) ; I J\' Ko-sho (Huang Sheng), -fn ^ -jinran (Jen -Ian ; some read 
Oninran), ^ -an (An), ^J] ^ -shohei (Ch'u-p'ing), ff J^ -yajin (Yeh-jen). 

I -^ tasogare ('the gloaming'); Tasogare-no-shojo ^P ^^ {= Matsudaira no 
Sadanobu). | P^ komon (tit., see p. 81, fin.}. \ ^ osho (the nth month). 




j>jx HEl, HIO (BIO). ukikiisa (the Duckweed, Lemna minor). 140. 

KO, KU. komo, makomo (the Indian Rice or Water Oats, Zizania 

aqiiatica). 140. [Compare ^ (xv), '^ (xvii).] | (or ]^) ^ 
Komono (t.). 1 09 Makomoda (f.). 




M 



^ SHU, SHU. aona ('cabbage'). 140. 



-jyv^ KWA, KE ; liana; (hide). /m;;a ('a flower'); hanayagu ('to be showy'); 
"T^ hanayaka ('gorgeous'). A classical and Buddhistic synonym (not 
interchangeable in names) of ;Jg (p. 285). 140. 

I m Kwakoku (Hua Kuo, 'China'). | |lj Kwa-zan (Chin, m., see 
p. 103, 53; 65th Mikado); Kwazan-in p^ (pal.; f.). | H Kwacho (f. mod. 





407 Twelve Strokes 

princes; m., -zan). | ^ |^ Kezo-in (tem.). | j^ Kegon (Bud. sect; fall, 
-no-taki f|). | [^ Hana-guma (cas.), \lfi\ -oka (f.), ^ -ogi ijord). \ ^ 
fig Kwashiki (Hua Tzu-ch'i, sennin). | ^ kwazoku (the modern aristocracy). 

SAI ; NA\ na. na ('green vegetables'). 140. 

TO, TSU ; TSU, U. u, nenashi-kadsuva (the Dodder Grass, Cuscuta). 
140. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 224).] | 1^ Ubara (k. of Settsu). 
I ^ Uji, for ^ ^ (q.v.) ; hence | ^ ft gp ^ Uji-no-wakairatsuko (prince). 
1^0^^ Unai-otome (hist, pers.) 

~^*]lT SUI, ZUI. atsumevu ('to collect'); kusamura ('thick grass'). 140. 
1 '' 5! I ^ gosuikii ('five elegant, verses"). 

\i\'^ BO (BU) ; BO. Representing the Sanskrit bo, bu or pii. 140. 

t=5 j |g Bodai (Indian priest), bodai (Bud., 'knowledge, wisdom, en- 

lightenment", strictly boji, Skt. bodhi or piiti); hence bodai-ju ^ (the sacred 
Bo or Pipal Tree, Ficiis religiosa), and bodai-satta ^ iM, commonly contracted 
to I ^ bosatsit ('a Buddha-elect', Skt. bodhisattva, ' he \x\\ose essence, sattva, 
is becoming enlightenment", denoting one who has yet to attain Nirvana 
before becoming a Buddha) ; | ^ also read Mizoro as t. pottery ; dai J^ 
-bosatsii (' great bodhisat '), whence Daibosatsu-toge jllf (pass). | |§ H 
bodai-nichi (' a memorial day '). 

J*^ KAN (vulg. KWAN), KEN ; suge, suga ; {suge, suga-). suge, masuge 

E^ (the Club Rush, Scirpiis lacustris). 140. 

I M Suga-shima (is.). Towns: | '^^ Sugezawa ; | ^ Suga-bu 
or -fu (Sugafu or Sugo as f. and clan), ^ -ya, -tani (f. ptr. ; also Sugenoya 
^s f.), ]^ -wara (clan, see also below; f. ptr.; joro), Wf -no (f. ; clan; also 
Sugeno and Kanno as f.). Other Surnames : I Kan, Suga (ptr., met.) ; 
;^ I Osuge ; /]> | Kosuga ; | ^ Sugenoi (ptr.); | 03 Suga-da, j^ -mura, 
'/g -numa (ptr.), '^ -nami, /H -ya, ![% -nami, fJJ -ma, '/fp^ -se. 

I 1^ Kan-ke, | 7^ ^3 Kan-shojo ( = Sugawara no Michizane, lit. 'the 
S. clan' and "the S. |)rime minister'). | ^ Suga-no-miya (prince), ^ -ko 
(poetess), ;^ 1^ -nosuke (joro), ^ % -noya (art-name), if, |g -o, ;f^ -ne (n.). 

I I^ f# S ^ "^ is Sugawara-denju Tenarai-kagami (joruri). 

tM^ K1. ivasuregnsa (the Day Lily, Hemevocallis). Confused with ^ (q-v., 
-tl* xiii). 140. 

SEI, SHO. sakan (' flourishing 'j. 140. 



m 



Twelve Strokes 408 




\'ai-iant of j^ (p. 380). 140. 

^ijfe RIO ; hishi. hishi (the Water Caltrops, Trapa bicornis ; met., a 
^^^ diamond or lozenge shape). 140. 

I )(lj Hislii-kari (k. of Osumi : f.), ^ -ya (brothel; f.). Other 
Surnames: | )\\ Hislii-kawa (ptr.), -da, ^ -mura (met.), ^ -dani, 
m -numa (met. ?). 

RAI. See ^ (xv). 140. 



^ 




KIKl', KOKU. okinagusa, more commonly as kikn, the Chrysanthe- 
mum. C. iiidicinn or Pyrethrum sinense. 140. 
I fji Kiku-clii (k. of Higo, also read Kukuclii ; t. ; f. ptr., met.), 
^ -ta (k. of Oshu), f^ -ma (t. ; f.), -no-ma (room m Yedo Castle), g ^ 
-ta-no-seki ( = Xakoso-no-seki, pass), ;^ ^ -moto-ya (brothel). 

Other Surnames: | Kiku (met.); ;;^ | Ogiku; /J> | Kogiku (joro) ; 
I )\\ Kiku-gawa (ptr., met., sculp.), ^i. -naga, ^ -moto, g -ta (ptr.), 
llli -chi, ig -na, ]|? -zatb (met.), ^ -tani, fSj -oka (met.), :$- -tei, Jg -ya, 
^ -no. V^ -zawa. | =p- f^ Kikuchiyo (n.), 

I ^ ^ Kikujido (Ch'ii-tzu-tung, sennin). \ 0) ^ Kiku no Hana 
(kiogeii). I ^ kikudzuki (the gth month) ; I fn "pJ fe'^n "o se/efen (see 
p. 103, 56). I 7X kiku-sui (design of 'chrysanthemums on water'), 
^ -batake (' a chrysanthemum garden '). 

K.A.X, GAX. hasu no hana (' lotus-blossom 'j. | ^ kautan, like 
^ ^ /">'o. is a name for lotus and hibiscus flowers. 140. 

KIX, GOX. kusabira (' a mushroom '). 140. 
I ill f;^ Kusabira Yamabushi (kidgeu). 

/^ HATSU, HACHl. ikada ('a raft'). 118. | )\\ Ikada-gawa (r.). 

[A variant omits the dot.] CHIKU (TSUKU) ; zok.. Chiku-. A sort 

of dulcimer. 118. 
[Compare H (xvi).] | jjjij Chikuzen. | |^ Chikugo, two pr. combined 
as I 'j'H Cliikushu; Chikugo as f. and r. ; Chikuzen-ya ^ (brothel); | ;^ 
HiJ '}H Chiku-no-zenshu (= Chikuzen pr.). | ^ Tsukushi (old name for 
Chikushu or even for the whole of Kiushu ; mod. k. of Chikuzen); 'I'sulaishi- 
-gata v^ {= Ariake-no-umi, gulf), -no-fuji "g ^ (m.), -saburo H ^P 
(= Chikugo-gawa, r.). 

OTHEii KoRi : I (later §^1 ^ Tsuiki (Buzen) ; | i|^ 'i'sukuba (Hitachi; 
t. ; f. ; n. ; m., -san) ; | j^ Tsukuma (Shinano ; t. ; Ts. no matsuvi ^^, fest.j, 





409 



Twelve Strokes 



Cliikunia (same k. ; f. ; r.). | ^ |lj I'sukiishi-yania (m.)- I T- Tsuku-de 
(t.i, ill -yama (f. ; also Tsukiyama). 

-^^ [Contraction: ^.] KEI. kanzashi ('a hairpin'); kogai ('a double- 
^ ' headed hairpin', also a sort of skewer carried in the sword- 

scabbard). ii8. I fUJ" Kogai-cho (street of Yedo). 

KIN, KOX. suji ('a sinew, line'; also 'a street', esp. in Osaka; 
numeral-suffix for belts, see p. 39). 118. 
I iE ^ Sujikai-bashi (the 'Oblique Bridge' in Osaka). 






SEN. fushidzukc ("a brushwood fish-trap'). 

hadzii ('the nock 



118. 

of a bow or arrow ; 



^ 
W 




KWATSU, KWACHI. 

'necessity'). 118. * 

'I'O ; (tomo). kotayeru ('to answer'). 118. 
I i^ Toshi (k. of Shima ; is., -jima). 

rO ; TO: Hitoshi, (toshi). hitoshii ('equal'); tomogara ('companions'); 
-ra (plural sutfix). As to, 'rank, class' (— | itto, ZL I i^ito, 'first, 
■second class', etc.); also, after a list of persons or things, 'etc.", sometimes 
merely 'and". 118. 

! ;/; Todoroki (t.). | // Tfc Todoroki (f.). 

A^ HirSU, HICHI ; fude. . fiide ('a brush, hair-pencil", for writing or 
" I * painting). As hitsii, also 'calligraphy, a calligrapher ' ; after a 
signature, as no hitsii or no fudc, 'painted by'. 118. 

I )\\ Fudekawa (f. met.). | |E hikki ('a note-book'; on prints, after 
-a name, 'description by'). ^ | }ne}Jiitsu ('a famous calligrapher"). | ^ 
ynhitsu, I ^\[ hissei, \ ^ liissha ('a secretary'). See also under — •, fin. (p. 142). 

SAKU, SHAKU ; zok., -saku. niitclii ('a whip'); hakarigoto ('a plan, 
scheme'). 118. 





Synon\'m of ^ (p. 349). 118. 

^^C TO, TSL'. tsutsu ('a tube, piiie, gun-barrel, gun'). 118. 

|RJ I ^]^ Tsutsu-i (t. ; f. ptr., actor), ^ -ki (anct. pal.), ^ -1 (f. met.). 

v^<^ KIO, KO. Jiako ('a box"); katami ('a basket"; also, punningly, for 



m 



^ ^, 'seeing oneself in a glass'). 118. 



[^ KI, KE ; AV ; iku ; Chikashi, {chika); zok., Iku-. ikii ('how many?, 
several"); chikashi ('near'); sukoshi, snkenashi ('little'). 32. 
[Compare ^ (p. 197).] | £0 Iku-ta (f. met.), ili" -yo (f.), ^ -ko 
'princess), 0, -ma (n.). \ ^ M & Kiomaro (n.). 



Twelve Strokes 410 

[tt TAN. hitoye ('single'). As tan, 'individual'. 30. 

I jE ^ Tandokai (Tan Tao-k'ai, sennin). \ ^ Tanno (ptr.). 

SOX; Tatsumi. tatsumi (see p. 3g, med., and p. 107, 76-7). 49- 
^^V I Tatsumi (f.). 

pj^ Rare synonym of ^ (p. 349). 30. 

^^ FUN', BUN. takii, yaku ('to burn, cook '). 86. 
-^^ I ^C )Eh Takibi-no-^-ashiro (tem.). 

^^ TEI, TAl kawaru (' to be changed, replaced ') ; kawari (' a change '). 73. 
•^ I g kawarime ('change of programme'): H / I "i no kaivari 

(same, also ' second show '). 

3^3S in, BI. I ^ bkva (a sort of lute) ; Biwa-ko i^ (L. Biwa or Omi), 
^t^ -maro /^ (poet), -kari-zato fa J^ Sl [kiogen) ; hkva-hoshi \^ Bijp 
(■ biwa-player ', generally a blind minstrel). 96. 

KIN, GON ; koto. koto (a stringed instrument). 96. 

Towns: | ;^ Kimmura ; | fn Koto-ni, ^ -hira (d.). | EH 
Koto-da (f. ptr.), ^ -nova (art-name). I ^ # fi (see p. 102, 48). 

;^ Variant of ^ (p. 375). 

Sill; hashi. hashi, kuchibashi ('a beak'). 148. | lldf Hashizaki (t.), 

zift^ KA (GA) ; A'^ ; yoshi ; 20/2., Ka- or Ga- ^ ( | ^ Kashi-). iwau, koto- 
^^ hogu ('to congratulate'). As ga, 'congratulations, a birthday fete',, 
esp. in honour of old age (42nd, 61st, 77th and 88th birthdays in particular) 
or at the New Year (compare p. 42). 154. 

[Compare homophones under J'JH (p. 1S7).] | (for j}\\i #| Kashu 
(= Kaga pr.). Koki : | ^ Ka-nio (Mino, Idzu and Aki ; clan; f. ptr.),. 
^ -yo (Bitchu), -ya (same k. ; clan ; f. ; prince). | '^ JI| Garo-gawa (r.). 
I ^ ^ Kano (t.). Other Surnames: -^ \ Oga; | )\\ Ka-gawa, "^ -ko, 
g -da, ^$ -ku, ^ -ya, J^ -shima, ^ -shu (pot.). | (or j^ ) |I|^- ^'Z 
Kaya-no-in (Empress). | ^ "I'oslii-ko (princess); see also above. 

TAI iTOKU). kasu ('to lend'j. 154. 





' A highly exceptional reading, Hogi- (derived from kotohogu), is seen in I ;tc II> Hogitaro, the 
name of one of the authors. 





411 Twelve Strokes 

MATSU, HOTSU ; {aki, -akira, toki, oki). hiraku ('to open'); hanatsii 
('to let go'); akiraka ('bright'); avaivavevu ('to appear'). Occasion- 
ally used as a complex form of A, 'eight'. 105. 

I ^ Jll Hot-chi-gawa (r.), EH -ta, iUi-chi (f.). | ^t hakko ('publica- 
tion, published'); | ^ hatsuhai ('sold', as a book). | ^ hokku (orig. 
first part of a poem ; later a complete poem in 5.7.5 syllables, also called 
haikai \^^ |g). 

rO ; 7 0; nori, (taka), Noborii, Nobori, Minoru; zok., \ M^ Toki-. 
noboru, agaru ('to rise'); minoru ('to be fruitful'). 105. 
[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 173).] I Nobori (f.). | ^ 
Noboritate (t.). | ill To-yoma (k. of Oshu ; f.), -yome (same k.), 
■^ -yome (same k.), -me or -yoma (t. ; f. ptr.), ^ ffg -do-no-ura (shore), 
^ ^ ^ -chibata (t.), ^ -saka (f. ptr.), ^ -kura, -gura (f.), ^> -shi 
(worn. n.). | \ Norito (n.). | H If- I'omi-no-miya (prince). | -^ 
Tomi-ko (court-lady). 

^^^ TO, DO. nusubito, \ \\}^ tozoku ('a thief, brigand'). 108. 
JnJ* I A iiE nf^ Nusubito Renga [kiogen). 

CHI; CHI \ {iomo, toshi). satoshi, kashikoshi ('wise, clever'). As chi, 

'intelligence', one of the Five Virtues. 72. • 

[Compare ^n (P- 270).] | m, see =f (p. 155). | M (ft) l^ 

Chi-on(-sliaku)-in (tem.). | fjQ Chihaku (Chih Po, Chin. hero). | j§. 

Cln-tsu, ^f ^ ^i|j -sho-daishi (priests). | ^^ chiye ('wisdom, talent'); 

Clhve-ko ^- (worn. n.). | ^ chishiki (Bud. tit.). 

^h. ZEN, NEN ; NE; {uari). moyerii, moyasu ('to burn'); sliikari ('yes'). 
-2^ 86. 

^fe?* SO, SU ; {fusa). Used for ||i (xvii), esp. as a common ^ofewnizo-initial 
il^ (So-). 61. 

\'ariant of ^ (xiii). 






^^ HI; HI. kanashimu ('to grieve"). 61. 

^J^ HI; HI \ {yoshi, -akira). aya ('a pattern, design'). 67. 

-2<^ I §3- )]\ Hii-gawa (r.). | ^ Hida (n. poet). | if Aya-o (n.), 

^ -ko (wom. n.). 

3jH HI; Tasiiku, {sake). tasukeru ('to assist'). 75. 

.^B KIO, KO. oinavu ('large'); mizo ('a ditch, drain'). 85. 



Twelve Strokes 41: 



jTg [Variant: KJ ; contractions: jfjl, [^ .] GAX, GEX ; (feaW). 
'^ karigane ('a wild-goose,' the White-fronted or Laughing 



kavi, 
Goose, 
A^jsgr albifrons). 172. 

I fH llj Gampi-yama (m.)- I ?^ Gammon (rock). | (or 3oj) ftc |llf 
Karizaka-toge (pass). | (or ^j or |^) ^ Kariya (t.). | Pu] Kari-no-ma 
(room in Yedo Castle). | , also | % Karigane (n.). | ^ Kari-u, ^ ;^ 
-umaro (swo.j. | ^ Gan-arasoi, | J^ ^ Gan-daimio ikiogen). 



jvrA Contraction of J^ (xv). 27. 



Y VU. ' A temporary granary '. 53. 

V See p. 113, 97, no. iS, comparing Errata. 

KIO, KO ; KO. munashii ('empty'); sova ('the void, sky'). 141. 
^Hti. I ^ koku ('the sky, mid-air'); Koku-zo ^ (d.). | M ff" komnso 

(name for wandering priests, often outlawed samurai, of the Fuke ^ ft. 
branch of the Zen f|| sect). 



M 



Contraction of ^ (xxi). 44. 





TO, DZU ; TSC. horosu, hojiiru ('to slaughter'). 44. 
** JI, XI ; AV. soyevii (' to add "). Used as a complex form (not in 



names) of ^, 'two". 154. 
;^ I Daini, ^j} \ Shoni (f., derived from titles, see pp. 85, 86); but 
A^ I ^ M Shoni-no-miobu, /h | ^ fi^ Shoni-no-menoto (poetesses). 

>>^ SHIX ; SHI; Susumu, (yuki) ; 20k., ^ \ -noshin (see also p. '^^. 
A— susumu ('to advance, be promoted*); susumeru ('to promote'). 162. 
I Shin, I H Shindo (f.). 

vfe ITSU, ICHI; {haya, toshi). nogareru ('to flee, escape, avoid'); kakurern 
^•^ ('to hide, conceal oneself). 162. 

I M Hemmi (f. ptr.). | ^ Itsu-nen (priest), gp -ro (n.). | A 
Hayato (n.), itsujin ('retired scholar "j. | ^ Isshi (history, lit. 'private 
record"). | -± isshi (name-ending, used similarly to jg ■± koji, see p. 170, 
init.). 

j ^ Kl, GI ; (michi). See it (p. 231). 162. 

CHO; (yuki). koyeru ('to pass over'); odoni ('to dance'). 136. 
I ^ "I'uki-ko (Empress). 




413 



Twelve Strokes 





CHIN; Shitagau. ftimu ('to tread'). 156. 



YETSU, YECHI ; 0; koshi, koye. kosu, koycni ('to pass, cross over, 
surpass, overflow'); koye ('a mountain-pass'). As Yetsu, Yiieh, 
anct. kingdom of China. 156. 

[Compare ^ (p. 420), HE (p. 268).] | Koshi (anct. pr.,^ including Esshu, 
Kaga and Noto ; f.) ; | 3& Koshiji (same dist.). | ^1j Echizen (pr. ; f. ; 
brothel, -va y^J; | ^ Etchu (pr., also called ;jt; I Hokuyetsu) ; | ^^ Echigo 
(pr.); I ^'H Esshu (these three pr. combined). | ^ Ochi (k. of lyo ; t. ; f.; 
m., -yama ; Ochi-bito A. n.) ; Yechi (f. sculp.). Other Mountains: | ^ 
Ko\-e-mine, but | / ^ Koshi-no-mine ; | ^ ^ Koshi-no-fuji (= W'ashinosu- 
-yama in Echigo). | / i^ (or fnj:) Koshi-no-umi, -no-midzuumi (^several 
lakes). I ^ ^ Koshi-ga-ya (valley; t. ; f.). | ^ >]|| Yetsusa-no-taki ffall). 

Other Towns : ^ | Ogoye (Okoshi as f.) ; | ^n Ochi (f.) ; | \v\ Kosugo ; 

I ^\i Koshifu or Ogose (both as f.) ; | ^ Koyebori ; | 7\<, Koshimidzu. 

Other Surnames : /J^ I Okoshi ; I )\\ Yechigawa ; | i^ Koyedzuka ; | ^ 

IffJ Osakabe; | ^ Koshi-da (ptr.), ^g' -ishi, jgp-no, v^ -zawa. | A Otsujin 

(prince). | ZL Koshiji (mod. n. of zok. type). 

KAI ; KE, KU. hiniku ('to open';. 169. 

I f^ ^ Kaimon-dake or Hirakiki-dake, | ^ |Jj Kaiko-yama (m.j. 

I M ^ Kaizen-ji, | P jfrh Aguchi-no-yasliiro (tem.). | B3 Kaida, Kaiden 

(f.). I M kai-so, ^ -ki ('the founder'), |lj -san ('the founder or founding 

of a Bud. temple ' ; see also p. 96, 1. 4J, ij)^ -did (Bud. service), ^ or ^ 

-hail ('published, first issued'), 31)1 -iin ('the tide that leads on to fortune'). 

intercalary '). 




[Contraction (esp. on woodcuts): 3l-] JUN. 
See p. 45, fin., comparing Errata. 169. 



iiru 



KAN, GEN; KA; [yasu). shidziika, yasushi ('quiet, leisured'). 

Distinguish from Pfl (p. 382). 169. 

I (or ^) # Shidzutani, I Ji |g Yuriagehama (t.). | |^ Kamn (f. 

mod. princes); Kanin-dairi p^ ^ (anct. pal.),^ -go-no-miko JL y '0 -f 

(princess), -no-ogimi ;^ g, -no-miobu ^ ^ (poetesses). I ^ #^ lie 

Kankoku-gakko (clan-school). | A kanjin ('man of leisure, retired scholar"). 



' I.e., the district ' across ' the mountains to those coming from vS. and E. The Ainu knsh has the 
same meaning of ' traverse ', ' across ' (Chamberlain). 

^ Originally the residence of Fujiwara no Fuyutsugu ^ ^ ^ S^ (Sth-gth centuryj, known as 
Kanin-sadaijin (j^ ^ g), later of several abdicated Emperors. •The sobriquets of several other 
Fujiwara are similarly constructed. 




W ' 



Twelve and Thirteen Strokes 414 

KAX, KEN; KA ; ma; -ma; zok., -ma. ma ('a room, 
chamber, interval, opportunity'); liima ('interval, leisure'}; 
aida ('interval", 'between', as in :/>: ^ ^ ^[j I Oisit to Kioto no aida, 
'between O. and K.', 'from O. to K.'). As ken, 'an intercolumniation ", 
also a definite measure of length (see p. 65). i6g. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 346).] ^ j P Oma-guclii (bay), 
|1|^ -zaki (cape). | ia jj^ Mato-no-watari (ford). Towxs : i^ \ ^ Omama ; 
^ I ^ Omagoshi ; /j> I yfc Komagi ; | \ Taiza or Hashudo (latter as f. ; 
Mahito as Empress) ; | ^ Ma-yumi, Ar ^ -niada (Nikkokaido stage). 

Other Surnames : | Kan, Hazama (met.) ; | "]»" Ma-shita, ^] -yama, 
i|^ -naka, ^ -kara, ^ -jima, ^* -miya, ^ -niwa, ^ -buchi, jll^ -saki, 
iHp -!'<>• ^, i^ -nabe, ^j^ -se, -nase. /J> | ^^ M. komamonoya (' a vendor of 
toilet articles'). 

I. mamovti ('to protect'); kakou, kakomu ('to enclose, keep, besiege ') ; 
kakoi ('enclosure, ring-fence, tea ceremony chamber'); also for 
kakoime (see ^Y, p. 190). 31. 




THIRTEEN STROKES. 

KEI, KlO. katamiiku ('to bend over, overthrow'). 9. 

I iJj Katamuki-yama or Katabuki-san [lu.). | J^ic keisei ('destroyer 
of castles', i.e. 'a courtesan'); in several jdriiri titles, as Keisei Koibikiaku 
Shinkuchi-mura (^ fl| p ^fr □ #), K. Awa-no-naruto ((SiJ ^ l|| P^J, K. 
Hangonko {jx St #)• 

1^ Synonym of jilj (p. 187).^ 9. 

TEN, DE.N ; DE; Tsutait, (yoshi) ; zok., Den-, tsutayeru ('to transmit, 
hand down to posterity'); tsutau ('to go, pass along'). As den, 
also 'a chronicle, biography'. Distinguisli from ^ (p. 383). 9. 

I ^i ]\\ Dempo-gawa (r.). | j|, |^ Dentsu-in, -^ \ \^ ^ Daidembo- 
-in (tem.). | ^g ^ Denshu-do (clan -school). -^ (^h, fM) I i^ SI 
0(Ko, Nan)-demma-cho (streets of Yedo ; temma are Government relay- 
horses). I '(^ H Demporin (f.). | l^ ^ K Dentsu-fujin ( = Dai-no-kata 

' The lowermost element of the phonetic is correctly written as shown (a form of Rad. 26) and 
therefore contains only two strokes. It is, however, often written (and printed, compare the form given 
under fil]) as £,, three strokes. 




415 



Thirteen Strokes 



^ (J) Jj, mother of lyeyasu, shogun). | ^ ten'io (tit.). I J'i dempd 
('religious, esp. Bud., propagandism ') ; | ^ den-kid (ditto; Denkio, priest), 
')^ -to (' Bud. enlightenment '), ^JS -rai (' inherited, heirloom '). 

/lii SAI, ZE, moyosn ('to prepare, get together'). 9. 
1^^ I ii^j ^ saibara (operatic performance). 

[Variant: j^.] KID, KU; KU ; hato; {yasu). hato ('a dove, pigeon')- 
196. I ilj Hato-yama (f.), ^ :^ -gaya (t., Nikkokaido stage), 
-gai (f.), ^ -dani (t.i, jg -1 (f.). 

flj^' *^'*' ""•' "''^ (.t^i*^ Little Grebe, Podiceps sp.). 

^»V I Nio (f.). I -^ Nio-no-umi (= L. Omi). | HS Nioteru (joroj. 




>C 




KE, GE (GA). As ga, 'a Government office'. 144. 




[Variant: ^. ] BI, MI; HI, MI. cliiisashi ('small, minute'); iyashii 
('humble'). As bi, a self-humiliative prefix. 60. 






VJi BEl (iMEI), MIO. 'The ocean'. Also used for ^ (p. 337). 85. 







KOTSU, KWATSU. nameraka ('smooth, slippery'). Distinguish from 
f^ (p- 386). 85. I jil Namerikawa (t. ; f.), Namekawa (f.). | ^ 
Namedzu (t.). | ^ kokkei ('wit, humour 'j, doke (' buffoonery 'j ; doke-shibai 
i^ ji'l (' lo^v comedy '). 






Original form of '(^ (p. 385). 85. 



V^? [Synonym: ^-^.] KEI ; KE; tani. tani ('a valley, gorge, cafion'). 85. 
'-^^ [Compare ^ (p. 248).] | Tani (f.). | )\\ Tani-gawa (r.j, 
\\\ -yama (k. of Satsuma), f|^ -naka (f.). 



V 




so. I '1^ Soro, Ts'angTang, Chinese river. 85. 



^ A 

I 
t 



or 






KAKU, KOKU. uriiou, hitasu (' to moisten '). 85. The 
former is the more correct form. 



SHIN. Chen, Chinese river. 85. 



KO, KU ; mizo. mizo (' a ditch, drain '). 85. 

Towns : J^;^ \ Omizo (f. met.) ; | P Mizoguchi (f.). Other 
Surnames: | }\\ Mizo-gawa, J^ -gui, g TJC -logi, ^ -be, ^ -ochi. 




^ Properly written with X ('entering", i.e., 'diving' bird) instead of A- 



Thirteen Strokes 416 

vj[^ I'^IC, RU. tamavu ('to accumulate', as money; 'collect', as dust; 
»p9 'stand', as water); tamavi (the noun-form, also 'assembly-room' for 

troops in a castle). 85. 

I jtfe Tameike (dist. of Yedo ; lit. ' uTigation-pond '). | flH Tamari- 
-no-ma (reception-hall in Yedo Castle). | |n ^ tamavitsume-shu (tit.). 

vFS GEX, G\\'AX ; {moto, yoshi). minakami, minauwto (' a source, river- 
i/^ head'). 85. 

I Minamoto (clan); | ^ Genji ('the M. clan'; prince, leo^. hero of 
the romance Genji Monogatari 8fy |g, for which see p. 117; Genji-kuyo 
9^ % {no), -no-choja ^ ^ ('head of the M. clan", title of the Tokugawa 
shogun). I f^ g Genseida (t.). 

I ^ Gempei ('the clans xMinamoto and Taira ') ; Gempei-kassen ^ H^, 
the wars between them, related in the history | ^ ^ ^ 12. Gempei 
Seisuiki. j ^ Moto-ko (Empress). I ;/L liP Gen-kuro Izok., esp. of Mina- 
moto no Yoshitsune), H f^ -sammi (= M. no Yorimasa ; also poetess), 
:^ -da {zok., esp. of Kajiwara Kagesuye), zk, M -daguro (horse). /J^ i >[c 
Kogenda (see p. 86). 

^jtV^ BETSU, METSU. horoburu ('to be destroyed, die'). As metsu^ 
i/^ 'destruction'; see also A (p. 146). 85. 

*\j^ KI. hajini, hazuru ('to be ashamed'). 61. 

*h^ SHIN; (chika). tsutsushimu ('to be respectful'). 61. 
L-*^ I t^. ^^c Shintoku-in (lyeyoshi, shogun). 

ih^M [Synonym: ^.J KAI (GAl) ; GE ; (kiyo, yasii). tauoshimu ('to 
*-^^ enjoy'); yoshi ('good'); yasushi ('peaceful'). 

*^ Variant of fH (p. 384)- ^i. 

KO (KWO). horo (the cavalryman's arrow-guard). Used, as horo or 
poro, in transcribing a number of place-names in Yezo (e.g., | ;^L 
Sapporo) and northern Japan proper, where it represents the .*\inu povo, 
'great'; cf. also # ^ ^ (p. 195). 50. 

I ^ Horo-nai (or Poronai), ^\\ -betsu, ^ -idzumi (t. of Yezo), ^ [\\ 
-jiri-yama (m. of ditto). 

^ [Contraction: ^.] CHO, CHU ; tsuka. tsiika {' 3. mound, tu- 
mulus'). 3. 





•3 "> 



[Compare ^ (p. 297).] /]^ \ |iji Kodzuka-hara (moor). Towns : 
I P Tsuka-guchi, ]^ -hara (f. ptr., met.). Other Surnames: ;^ | Otsuka 
(ptr.); /J> I Kotsuka ; | /^ Tsuka-moto, gg -da (ptr., met.), ip -no. 




417 Thirteen Strokes 



O, U, (WO). 'A walled town or camp'. As u, a name-ending (see 
p. 69). 32. 

-in KO, KIO. hanawa (' a mound '). 32. 

1^ I Hanawa (f. met.). /J^ | Kobanawa (t.). 

Jig" TO. ochirn (' to fall '). As to, ' a pagoda '. 32. 

^ iZ \ W: Daito-mine (m.). | iii: }\\ Tosei-gawa (r.). ^ \ Oto 

(vil. of YamatoJ ; hence Oto^ -no-miya ^ (= Prince Morinaga ^ ^) ; 
:K \ "^ 'S^ $a. Oto-no-miya Asahi no Yoroi (jdriiri). \ ]^ Tono-hara, 
'}^ -sawa (f.). 

TO, DO. tameike ('an irrigation-pond'). 32. 
SHI. me ('the female' of animals). 172. I j|| Me-daki (fall). 
■^ Contraction of ^ (xxi). 64. 






.pi 

SOX. sokonau ('to hurt, wound'). As son, 'detriment'. 64. 



n 





SO. kedzuru ('to comb'); kaku ('to scratch'). 64. 

SO. sagasu (' to seek for'). 64. 

BAKU, BAKU; uchi. utsu ('to strike, beat'); tovayeru ('to catch, 
seize, arrest '). 64. 

SHI. I ^ shishi (' a lion ', real or mythical, see }§, p. 359, note) ; Shishi- 
-ku ItfL (priest), -guchi O (mask), -so lH (Shih-tzu-ts'ung, horse). 94. 

)C^ YEN, ON; SA; saru, sa- ; Saru; zok., Saru-. saru, mashl ('a monkey, 
J^^ ape', esp. the Japanese Macaque, Macaais speciosus). 94. 

I i^ iJj Sanage-yama (m.). | ^ }\\ Yenko-gawa (r.). | ^ Saru- 
-shima (is. ; Sashima as k. of Shimosa and f.), ^ -hashi (or Yen-kio, bridge ; 
former as t., Koshukaido stage), ^ i^ lllf -gababa-toge (pass), fQ \\i -ta-yama 
(m.), ^ ^ -gakio (t.), ^ -kake (cas.), ^ [^} BJ -waka(-gaku)-clio (streets 
of Yedo), *||^ '^ -sawa -no -ike (pool at Nara). 

Other Surnames : /\\ | Kozaru ; | ^] Sayama ; | H^ Saru-ta, 
^ -waka (actor), -^ -watari; i /J> Mashi-ko, ^ -o. I fig j^ (J:fc "j&j jjiijl 
Sarudahiko-no-kami (d.). I A Saru-ndo (n.), ^ zk, ^ -marudayu (no. 5 
of the Hundred Poets), ^ ^ -kwanja (nickname of Hideyoshi), ^ -^ "^ 
-kaye-koto ikiogen). \ ^ saru-gaku (dance), ^ -mawashi, ^, ^ -hiki ('a. 
monkey-trainer '). 

^ Haga prefers to read Daito. 

27 








Thirteen Strokes 418 

SA ; SA. kewashii, sagashii ('steep, dangerous'). 46. 

I ll|^ Saga (t. ; f. ; 52nd Mikado, whence S.-genji ^p, j3^, branch of 
the Minamoto clan) ; Saga-inkunshi |^ ^ -^ (prince). 

l^jgT KAKU, KIAKU. hedataru ('to separate, interpose, estrange'); hedate 
rrrj ('separation, coolness'). 170. 

|i§ Synonym of ^g (p. 416). 170. 

KIO, KU. kagu (' to smell '). 30. | ^ Kaguhana (d.). 
'wEI SEKI, SHAKU. yome, hanayome ('a bride'). 38. 

SO. aniyome ('elder brother's wife'). 38. 

KA, KE. totsugu ('to wed a husband, be given in marriage'). 38. 

/fttr _ '^Al^ KIO, GO ; sato ; sato. As go or sato, ' a large village ', 
7*^1* /Pr esp. a group of mwra ;|sj- ; as ^0, also 'country' as opposed 

to 'town'. Distinguish from ^[I (p. 390). 163. 

I Go (I). I ;il Go-gawa (r.), M -noura (t.), ffl -da (f.). ;*; | 
Ozato (f.). I -jr ^os/// (a class of agricultural samurai). 

■hO^ YC, YU ; nara. nara (an oak, Quercus sp.}. 75. 

If3 [Compare the combination ^ ^ (p. 281).] | ^ Nara-ba (k. of 

Iwaki ; f.), "J*" -ge (t. ; f.), ;;|«J- -mura (f. ptr.), ^ -i, |^; -bayaslii, [^ -oka, 
1^ -bara, |1|§ -zaki (f.), ^^ -noya, Hj -zono (n.j. 

4»/V YV ;' nire. iiire (an elm, Ulmus sp.). 75. 
'Tn*^ I ;;^ Niregi (t., Nikkokaido stage). 

tP-S, SHO, JC; kaji ; zok., Kaji-. kaji ('a rudder'). 75. 

Tfl [Compare iH^ (p. 299), H (362).] | IR Kadori (f. ptr.) ; Kajitori- 

-saki lU^ or -no-hana ililji (cape). | fH Kaji-ye, Wf -no (f.). 

4>B YO ; y^. yanagi ('a willow'). 75. 

1^^ [Compare ;j^P (p. 297).] | Yanagi, | ^f Yagii (f.). | ^ Yamamomo 
(Imp. mausoleum) ; yamamomo or ybhai (a tree, Myrica rubra). \ ^|p Yoriu 
(epithet of Kwannon, d.). | ^ ^g Yo-kihi (Yang Kuei-fei, Chin, princess; 
no), ^ -ko (Hsiang, paragon), ^ ^ -yuki (Yu-chi, Chin. hero). 

DAN, NAN; kusu ; zok., Kusu-, -kusu. kiisu, kusii-no-ki (the Camphor 
Tree, Cinnamomum catnphora). 75. 






419 Thirteen Strokes 

Towns : | ^ Kusu-lm (f.), ;^ -moto (f. ptr.), ^ -ba. Other Sur- 
names : I Kusunoki, Kusu ; | jl| Kusu-gawa, ill -yama, :^ -noki, 03 -da, 
^ -bara, ^ -nose. | ^ Nanko ( = Kusunoki Masashige | j£ ^). 

■hj^ TEI, CHO; (sada, moto). nezumimochi (a species of privet, Ligiistrum 
^^K japonicum). 75. 

CHIN. tsiibaki (the Camellia, C. japonica). 75. 

I Tsubaki (t. ; f. ptr.) | U Tsuba[k]izaka (t.). I i^ Tsuba- 
-chi (t.), ^ -i (f. ann.). | ^ Tsubakinoya (art-name). 

CHO. kodzu, ka7ni-no-ki (the Paper Mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera). 
75- 

Synonym of ^ (p. 361). 75. j jl| Ume-kawa, gj -da (f.). 

CHIN. sawara (a tree, Chaniaecyparis pisifera). 75. 

I Midzuki (f., lit. 'water-tree', the sawara being a water-loving tree). 

KAI. ' A model, pattern, standard '. As kai or kaisho, the standard 
or ' square ' character. 75. 

SHUN, JUN; tate ; (tate). tate ('a shield'). 75. 

[Compare homophones (Tate-) under ^ (p. 198).] | Tate (f), 

I ^ Tate-nui (k. of Idzumo), [S] -oka (t. ; f.), '^ -ishi (f.). /J> I Otate 
(n. poet). 

FO, FU. kayede, morniji (the Maple, Acer palmatum). 75. 
I Me S Kayedemaro (n.). 

J\^ Synonym of ^ (xvii). 86. 








iKt* HAN, BON; BO. wadzurau ('to be ill, perplexed'). 86. 




I '[^ bonno ('worldly desires and cares'. Bud.). 
^r^ Synonym of M (p. 327). 86. 




iVM IKU, YOKU. houoo (' a flame ') ; kagayaku (' to burn '). 86. 

i|& KWAN. akiraka ('bright'). 86. 

TON. 'To bow', also 'sudden, immediate, quick'. 181. 

i ]^ Tombara (t.). | ^ Hayami (f. pot.). | ITiiJ Tona (priest). 
I "^ tonshu, 'bowing the head', respectful epistolary ending, as in soso (^ //) 
lonshu, or, still more respectful, tonshu sailiai (|f ^). 





Thirteen Strokes 420 

KA, GE. ayamachi ('an error'). g6. 

YU ; YU. tama no hikari ('the glitter of gems'). 96. 
Vv I ^ (or |!ip) lU Yuga-san (m. ; tern.). 

SUI, ZUI ; {midzn). midzu ('glorious, flourishing'). As zui, 'an 
omen, lucky '. 96. 
I ,^ii Midzu-gaki (anct. pal), ]^ JglJ -hawake (prince), ^ -ko (court- 
lady), ;^ -ye (n. ; wom. n.). | f| |5t Zuiriu-in (tem.) ; Zuiriuin-ni /g (nun). 






YEI, YO. As yet, 'crystal'. 96 



KA. hima, itoma ('leisure, dismissal from duty'). 72. 

I ^ -^ Itoma no Fukuro (kiogen). ^ f^ \ B humon no kajitsii 



('the intervals of a busy military life'). 

KI ; tent. teru ('to shine'); hikaru ('to glitter'). 72. 





H[ YO. hinode ('sunrise'). 72. 

I ^ Yokoku (Yang-ku, Chin, valley). 

tj^ AN, OX. yami, kiiragari ('darkness'). 72. 

»^B I lit]? Kuragari-toge (pass). | ^ M Kurabe-no-sato (t.). ;;^ | ^ 

Okuradani (f.). 

MYO ; koshi. koshi ('the loins, hips'; also a numeral-suffix for swords 
as worn on the person). 130. 
[Compare |g (p. 413).] J^ \ Ogoshi (f.). | ^ Koshi-goye (t.), jlj 
— gawa (f.), 0f -inori {kiogen}. \ ^ koshi no mono ('a sword'); koshi-no-mono- 
-bugio ^ ^f (tit.). I ^t koshikake (' a chair, bench '). 

Q^ FUKU ; hara. hara ('the belly, womb 'j. See also p. 130, init. 130. 
/IS. I ^ Hara-maki (f.), :^ -tai (t.), # -ka (n.). | :i hara-dachi 

('anger'), -datashi ('angry'), $X -tsudziimi (the tanuki's 'belly-drumming'), 
•^ -kiri (better seppuku -tj] gg, formal suicide by 'cutting the belly'). 

HAN. wakatsu ('to divide'). 181. 

I & :^ A hampaku no rojin (' a greybeard '). 

GWAN. nibMs/ti ('dull'); oroka ('foolish'). 181. 

^jiQ^ ROKU ; (yoshi, sachi, tomi). saiwai ('good fortune'); tamamono 
('salary, rations, a gift'). As roku, esp. 'a daimio's income '. 113, 

KI, Gl ; (yoshi). saiwai ('good fortune'). 113. 
!•-*■> I ^ Yoshi-ko (Empress). 















421 Thirteen Strokes 

KIO, KO. suso, mosuso ('a skirt, hem'). 145. 
I Wf Suso-no (moor at base of Mt. Fuji). 

Contraction and more usual form of ^ (xvi). 115. 

HAI, BE; HI. hiye (a small millet, Paniciim JYiimentaceum). 115. 
I % Hiyenuki (k. of Oshu). I B9 IW ^ Hiyeda no Are (hist. pers.). 

JIN, NIN ; Minoru, (toshi, narii),; zok., Toshi-. minoru ('to ripen'); 
\*K^ toshi ('a year'). 115. 

AI, YE. mijikashi ('short, low'). in. 

CHI, JI ; (nobu). kiji ('a pheasant'). 172. 

I BJ Kiji-cho (street of Yedo), ;^ -moto (f.). 

SEI, SHO ; yasu, Yasushi, Hakarn ; zok., Sei- or Yasu-. yasushi 
('quiet, peaceful'). 174. 

TAI, TE ; usu. usu ('a mortar'). 112. 

[Compare Q (p. 219).] | 7X, less correctly | ^, Usui (k. of 
Kotsuke ; both as f. ; r. ; m., -rio -^ ; pass, -toge |ll^ ; road, -zaka ^). | )\\ 
Usugawa (f. ptr.). ;^ | Ousu, /J> | '^ Ousu-no-mikoto (princes, the latter 
same as B ^ ^ Yamatotakeru). 

SAI, SE. kudaku ('to smash, shatter'), 112. 

TEI, CHO. ikari ('an anchor'). 112. 

I Ikari (f.). | ^j Ikari-yama (t. ; f.), ^ §§ -gaseki (t.), ^ 
-kadzuki (no), ^ ^ -nosuke {zok). 

SfE [Contraction : t^^-] KO, GO ; Nadziiku. nadziikeru (' to name '). 
As go, ' a name, designation, noni de guerre, pseudonym ', etc. See 
also p. 39, 7ned. 141. 

SUI. nemuru ('to sleep, drowse'). log. 

KI. aogimiru ('to look up, gaze'). 109. | Aogimi (joro). 

GEl, GAL nagashime ('squinting, askance'). log. 

BOKU, MOKU ; mutsu, (yoshi). mntsumajii ('friendly'). 109. 

I in Mutsuhito (prince, afterwards Meiji ^ '^, 121st Mikado). 
I J^ miitsuki (the ist month) ; Mutsuki-shima ^ (is.). 










Thirteen Strokes 422 

pj^ TETSU, TECHI. nawate ('a path between rice-fields') 102, 

YEN, ON. A land measure equivalent to 20 se ^ (see p. 65). 102. 

MP^ KI. nokorida (' an odd piece of land, corner lot '). 102. 
^ I A kijin (' an eccentric '). 

^fe^ KEI, KIO; HE, FU: tsune, {yoshi); zok., Tsune-. tsune no ('ordinary'); 
'HI* hern ('to pass through'); watari ('diameter'). As kei, 'the warp, 

latitude'; as kei or keisho \ ^, '[Chinese] classics' (see p. 104, 57); as 
kid, the same, also 'Buddhist scriptures' (see. p. 100, 31). 120. 

I ^J Kio-yama, -^ -ga-take (m.), ^ -ga-shima (is.), fjj^ -zaki or 
lIlEp -ga-misaki (cape), ^ |f -bu-kwan (clan-school). | j^ Tsunemichi 
(clan). I ^ i Jp^ Futsunushi-no-kami (d.). | i|Sc Tsunemasa (no). 

^R KEN; Kinu. kinu ('silk', thread or stuff). 120. 

n!*n [Compare :^ (p. 224).] | jl| Kinu-gawa (r. ; n. wrestler), ^ 

-tani (f.). 

"^/f^ SUI ; yasH, Yasushi, {masa) ; zok., Yasu-. yasushi ('peaceful'). 120. 






I ^ Suisei (2nd Mikado). | -^ Yoshi-ko (princess). 





n\v^ Script contraction of |^ (xx). 

^ Contraction of ^ (xix). 160. 

A|0 KO, GO. I i^ goko, niukade ('a centipede'). 142. 

"^^ I (Ij Mukade-yama (m.). | i^ -tJJ Mukade-giri (sword). 

KEN, GEN. shijimi (a bivalve, Corbicula). 142. 






KA. I ^ hiirii (the Silk Moth, Bombyx movi). 142. 

HO, FU ; haclii. hachi ('a bee, wasp'). 142. 

[Compare A (p- 145), # (4-4)-] Surnames : | Hachi ; | g 
Hachi-da, ^ -ya, ^ J| -suka (ptr.), ^ -nosu. 

TEX, DEN. A kind of lizard. 142: 

■rf^ IlEI, HIO. ton ('to ask'); iomurau ('to visit'); metoru ('to marry [a 
"^V wife]'). 128. I £j^ hei-motsu, fi^ -rei ('ceremonial gifts', for a 

wedding, etc.). 





423 Thirteen Strokes 

■^^ SEN. {aki, -akira, nori). hakaru (' to deliberate ') ; yevabu (' to 
ftl^ choose'). 149. I ^ Sen-shi (Empress). 

3^ KWAI, YE. hanasu (' to speak, tell ') ; hanashi (' an account, talk '). 

^ba GEI ; {yuki). itaru (' to arrive ') ; modern (' to visit a temple ') ; mode 
"t* ('temple-going'). 149. 

^ I * KITSU, KICHI ; -dzume. tsiinie (' a day's journey, end ') ; tsumari 
PF* (' an end, conclusion, finally ') ; tsumeru (' to stuff, pack, reduce, be 

on duty'); tsumarn (the passive form). 149. 

I :^ Kippun (Ch'i Fen, sennin). | 3^ tsume-nami, ^ -shu (grades 
of daimios). 

•Sd^ SHI; (nta). karauta, \ ^ shika ('Chinese poetry'). 149. 
I f^ Shi-kio (see p. 104, 57). | g Utaomi (n.). 

SHO, SO. tsumabiraka (' clear '). 149. 

^-p SHI; SHI. tamesu, kokoromiru ('to examine, test'). 149. 
P^ I ^ shiai ('a sham fight'}. I $1?, I B9i tameshigiri ('sword- 

testing on a body'). | ^ kokoromi ni yegakii ('drawn as an experiment"). 

^\^ KAI, KE ; GE. tokii (' to explain, untie, melt, dismiss ') ; 
fji hodoku ('to set free'). 148. 

I IH5 tokibe (tit., see p. 83, med.). \ ^ gedatsu (Bud., 'salvation'). 

[Variant: ^.] KUN, GUN; {mura), Muva. muvagaru ('to flock 
together'). 123. 

I M; Gumma (k. of Kotsuke; mod. ken), Kuruma (same kori). \ ^ 
Muraoka (t.). | ^ gunshu ('crowds of people'). 

CHO. keru ('to kick'); jumu ('to tread'). 157. 

RO; RO; -ji, michi; {michi). michi, ji^ ('a road, way, journey'). 157. 
/J> I Koji (f. ; n. poet; lit. 'by-street', contrasted to -ji^ \ dji, 
'main street', both terms forming endings for numerous surnames, esp. of 
the kuge or court-noble class, which were in most cases originally street-names 
of old Kioto ; compare the note). | ^ Michi-ko (wom. n.). | ^ W ^ 
Roren-bozu (kiogen). 

^ These two words are essentially identical, ji being the sonant form (nigon) of an obsolete chi, 
' way ', while in michi the mi is merely a non-significant prefix. This would explain the long o in koji, 
a contraction of ko-michi, 'little way'; oji is, of course, simply o-ji, ' great way'. 








Thirteen Strokes 424 

[Variants: jj, JJ]. SEKI, SHAKU ; TO. ato ('a trace, clue, rem- 
nant, ruins, footprint, track, scar', etc.). 157. 
Surnames : | )\\ Togawa ; | ^ Ato-mi (ptr. ; also Tomi), iJp -be. 
;bic I shiro-ato (' the remains of a castle '), etc. 

SHI; SHI. sarasti ('to expose'); ichigura ('a store'). As shi, 'a 
shop'. Used as a complex form (not in names) of P9, 'four'. 129. 





ZOKU ; ZO. niisubito ('a thief). 154. 
"^kIH set, SHO ; zok., Sho-. As slid or doi^a, 'a gong'. 167. 
^rj YEN. namari ('lead'). 167. | ^J Kanayama (f.). 

KIO, GO. tsuyoshi ('firm'). 167. | J^ Sazaka (f.). 




A^ REI, RIO ; suzu ; (suzu) ; zok., Suzu-. suzu (' a handbell, grelot ', the 
^T Shinto 'jingle'). 167. 

I JMt Suzu-ka (k. of Ise ; f. met.; barrier and m., -yama ; prince, -6 '^), 
-ga (same k.), ^ -ga-mine (m.), y ^ -no-mori (grove in Yedo), jl| -kawa 
(t. ; f.), J^ -ya (t. ; f.), -noya (n.), ^fc -ki (f. ptr., met., svvo., sculp., actor^j, 
;^ E9 -kida, ;;|sj- -mura, ^ -ka (f.), H or ^ -mushi {Genji Chapter xxxviii, 
lit. a sort of cricket ; Suzumushi-chunagon f^ |ft "^ = Minamoto no 
Arikata ^ ^). 





?^^ Contraction of ^ (xxi). 

HATSU, HACHI; HA; hachi. hachr- ('a bowl, basin, flower-pot'). 
i*^ 167. 

[Compare A (p. 145), !^ (p. 422).] | iX ^r Haclli-buse-toge (pass), 
^' -ishi (t. lacq.), ^ -gata (t.), jll^ -zaki (t., also as Hassaki), ;^ -no-ki 
{no, 'the Pot Plants'), i^ | teppatsu (Bud. begging-bowl). | Pfl hachitataki 
(priests of Tendai sect). 

/^jj [Variant: |i/.] KO, KU. kagi ('a hook'). Distinguish from ^ 
^^ (p. 368). 167. I M Magari-no-sato (t.). 

^*"'' \EISU, YECHI; zok., Ono-. masakari ('a battle-axe'). 167. 




^Ijl TEX, DEN. 'Inlay of pearl-shell'. 167. 

^^ I iK Uzume or, in full, 5^ I ^^ -^ Ame-no-uzume-no-mikoto (d.). 

* Suzuki is probably the commonest Japanese surname, at any rate in modern times. 
' Almost certainly derived from the on. 







425 Thirteen Strokes 

KAN; nioto, Miki, {yoshi, miki); zok., Kan-, rarely Miki-. moto ('origin'); 
miki, kuki ('a stalk'j; tsuyoshi ('firm'). As kan, 'to manage'. 51. 

, SHI, JI ; SHI; -tsugu, tsugi-. tsugu ('to inherit, succeed'). 30. 
' ' I ^p Shiro (zok.). | IS shiso ('a descendant'). 

YO, O; 0. aku, itou ('to be sated, tired of). 184. 
I HE Obi (t.). I ^ (f., i.e., o-fu). 

HAN, BON; ii, i. ii, meshi ('boiled or steamed rice'). 184. 

I ^ llj li-mori-yama, ^ (Jj -toyo-yama or -de-san, | |^ jlj 
I[i]dzuna-san (m.). Kori : ^ \ Oi (Wakasa) ; | ^ li-shi (Idzumo), f^ -nami 
(Ise, mod.), ]^ -taka (Ise ; clan ; f.), if -no (Ise ; t. ; f.). Other Towns : 

I fg Hanno ; I )JE, Ii J I ill li-yama (f. ; also Inoyama as t.), g ~da 
(f. ptr. ; also Handa as f.), |S. -saka, fg -numa (f. met.), 5^ -bu, |SI -oka 
(f-)? ^ -muro (f. pot.; limuro-azari psj ^ ^, priest), ^ -shima (lijima as f. 
ptr., met.), / |j§ -noura. Hip )\\ -nogawa, 1^ -dzuka (f. ptr., met.). In Yedo: 

I ^ li-gura (dist. ; f.), B3 WT -da-machi (street). 

Other Surnames : | )\\ li-gawa, 03 ^ -daya (pot.), H^ -mura, J^ -o 
(ptr.j, v'pj -gawa, ^ -dzumi, ia -gaki, ^ -mori (Meshimori as n}, lit. a 
serving-wench at a low country inn), ^ -tomi, ^ -mori, ^ -zawa, ^ -zasa, 
-shino. I ^L S li-maro (n.), ^ ^ ^ M. -toyo-ao-no-tenno (Empress- 
regent, 484-5 A.D.). 

RTL TEN, DEN ; TO, DE ; tono. tono (' an Imperial or other palace, a 
^*v^ temple, lord, Mr.'; e.g., ^ ]\\ | Higashiyama-dono, 'My lord of H.', 
-^ ^ tK I Sasaki-dono, 'Mr. S.', | ^^ ionosama, 'my lord'). Distinguish 

from gt (P- 369)- 79- 

Surnames : | Tfc Tono-ki, ;jsj- -mura, fS] -oka, ]^ -hara. j "]» denka 
(tit. 'His or Her Imperial Highness 'j. | Ji A denjobito (grade of court- 
nobles). ^ I goten, I 4* den-chu, ^ -do (' a palace, castle '). 

[\'ariant : g^.] KO, KU. tsudzumi ('a hand-drum'). As /eo, any 
kind of drum. 207. 
I "^ Tsudzumi-ga-ura (shore), Jf| -ga-taki (fall ; 707^0), ^ij '^ -hangwan 
(= Taira no Tomoyasu ^-n j^). -j^z I Iro taJkobashi ('a semi-circular bridge', 
esp. that at Kameido, Yedo). 

gX KIN, KON. musaboru, uraymnu (' to covet '). 76. 





;^ Synonym of ^ (xix). 150. 



1 In a haimio (pseudonym for haikai poems) of Ishikawa Masamochi "^ }\\ 5fi ^: }'a(io)'a (^ 
lit. ' inn ') Meshimoyi. 




Thirteen Strokes 426 

SHIX: SHI; ara-, nii-; Arata, (ara). ara, avata, atarashii, nii- Cnew, 
fresh, recent"). As Shin- in street-names (see p. 10, note 2). 69. 
[Compare ^ (p. 348).] I ^ Shinra, Shiragi (Silla, one of the three king- 
doms of anct. Korea); Shinra-miojin f\J] j^ (d.), -saburo H ^ ('= Minamoto 
no Yoshimitsu ^ ^1. | j^ Xii-jima (is. ; f.j. I ^ \\\ Niitaka-yama (Mt. 
Morrison, Formosa). Kori: | H Xitta (Kotsuke ; t. ; f. ; also Niita as t. ) ; 
I )]\ Nii-kavva (Etchu, also read Niukawa ; r. ; f. ; also Nikkawa as t.), 
'^ -haru or -bari (Hitachi), ^ -i for Nii, lyo ; see also Towns), ^ -za or 
-kura CMusashi). 

Other Towns : | ^ Atarashi ; | ^ Nippa ; | :\t Nikita ; | \\i 
Shin-yama, -zan (also Arayama as t. and f.), 7^ -ichi, ^ f -ishige, Jtfe -chi, 
>S: M -zaike, j£ -jo (f.), ^ -jo, M -ya (also Araya as t., Xiiya as f. ; 
Shinya- or Niiya-gawa )\\, r.), J^ -shiro, g -gu (f.), ^ -juku (also Xiijuku): 
I M Shim-mi (or Niimi ; both as f. ; also Shinomi as f.), PTf -machi 
(Nakasendo stage 11; also the prostitute quarter of Yedo), J^ j^ -pu-jo 
(cas.), ^ -bo or -bo; | ^\^ Ara-i (Tokaido stage 31 ; f. ptr., met.), ^ -i 
(same t. ; f . ; also Nii and Niinohe as f. ; see Kori above), J^ -shika ; | ;^ 
Nii-mura ff.j, ^ -ya (f.), ^ ^ -hama, ^ -tsu or -dzu, ^ -bori (also an 
old spelling for Nippori, sub. of Yedo), ^ EH -da, ^ -gata (mod. ken). 

I ^ H or I ^ ih Shin-fuji (mound near Yedo imitating Mt. Fuji). 
I ^ i^ Shin-yoshiwara (same as the Yoshiwara, Yedo). | ^ ^ Shinsho- 
"ji) I fn ^K ^ Shin-kiyomidzu-dera (tem.). 

Other Surnames : | Arata ; | ^ Arao ; | |g, Shimmen , \ };t Wi 
Imabiye ; I i^ ^ Nitobe , \ ^ ^ Shin-kubo, g. -ra, # ^ ^ -otowaya 
(actor), ^ -kai, ^ -jo (ptr.), ^ -kai, ^ -do, ff -do (swo.); | ^ Nii-ma, 
^ -fu, ^ -ai, ig -na, ^ -zato, -/J^ -numa, ^ -matsu, jltffl -bata, ;^ -dzumi, 
^ -ro (ptr. ; also Shiiro), ^ -kura, |^ -ya (Xiiye as n.), -nomi, ^[^ -bara, 
IFp -no, fu^ -ma, ^ -oki. 

I ^ Xiigasa (Empress). | IH |ll> Niitabe (prince, -shinno ^ 5, and 

Empress, -no-himemiko ^ ^1. I WJ :^ ^ Shinsuke-no-kata (hist. pers.). 

I ^ ,U^ shimbochi, shimpochi (Bud., 'a proselyte'); Tada (^ 03) Shimpochi 

= Minamoto no Mitsunaka i^ jt}j. | ^fll ^ ^ Shin-midodono (= Ashikaga 

Mitsutaka ^ j^). I >+• ^ b Shinchunagon (= Taira no Tomomori). 

I ^ hi] Shin-hizen^ (poetess); | Ji !^ F^ P^ Shin-jotomonin^ (court-lady). 

I Wi ^'ik ^ '^ Shimpan Uta-zai.mon (joruri). 

Other Locutions : | [5c shin-in (younger of two, or three, surviving 
retired emperors), ^ -reki ('the New Style' of calendar; see p. 46, note 4), 

^ I.e., ' the modern Hizen ', ' the modern Joto-monin '. The sobriquets of several other exalted 
ladies are similarly formed. 








427 Thirteen Strokes 

^ -nen, ^ -shun ('the New Year'; see p. 47, note 3), ^ ^ -jo-sai (or 
niiname-matsuri, Impl. fest.), ^ -sef ('a new work, new series'), ^ -cho, 
%\\ -koku ('new work' or 'new edition'; also | ;tg, | f^ shimpan) ; \ ^ 
[-^ Ifr] ^ s/H'ntafen[-7)zise]-6f7'a/ei ('festival at the opening of a new place of 
business '). 

YD, YU ; {novi, michi). Synonym of ^g' (p, 388). 94. 

Contraction of J^ (xx). 94. 

KEI, KIO; yoshi, {yuki, aki, taka, yasu, atsu, hivo, toshi). uyamau ('to 
honour, revere'); tsutsushimu ('to be respectful'). 66. 

CHI, JI. hasevu ('to gallop, go fast'). 187. 

TEKI, CHAKU. 'A horse with a blaze.' Also used as a contraction 
of IpJ (xv). 187. \ M. Tekiro (Ti Lu, Gentoku's horse). 

KIN, GON ; Tsutomu. tsutomeru ('to exert oneself, be industrious'). 19. 

TAN, DON. ama ('a fisher'); Ama {no, alternative spelling). 142. 

SHIN, JIN. A fabulous giant clam. 142. | ^ ^ shinkiro (art- 
subject, the Clam's Dream, lit. 'mirage', 'air-castle'). 

^Bj TEI, CHO; Kanaye. kanaye ('a tripod bowl', the anct. Chinese ting 
Tttt or sacrificial cauldron); Kanaye (f. ptr.j. 206. 

i -|:^» RAI ; Ikadzuchi. ikadzuchi, kaminari, naviikami ('thunder"). 173. 

P3 I -g. Ikadzuchi-no-oka (hill). | g f| Raitei-no-taki (fall). 

Names for the Thunder God : | Kaminari (also mask), Ikadzuchi (ditto ; 
f.) ; I ^ Rai-ko, jjiljl -jin (or Ikadzuchi-no-kami), ^ -den (n. wrestler; no). 

I ^ Raishin (Lei Chen, Chin. hero). | f^ rai-yoke (' a charm against 
lightning '), g^ -ju (myth, creat.). 

<fe|^ DEN. inadzuma, inabikari ('lightning'); Inadzuma (f.). As den, also 
Hi 'electricity, electrical'. 173. 




M 




p» REI, RIO. ochirit. ('to fall, be omitted'). As rei, 'zero' (see p. 38, 
~ri fin.). 173. 

SHO, SO. atsushi (' hot '). /\.s sho, ' the dog-days ' ; I rj« shocJiu,. 
' tiie height of summer'; see also p. 112, 96, 11, 12, 14J. 72. 

SAI, ZAI (ZE). tsumi ('punishment'). As zai, also 'crime'. 122. 
I ^J Tsumiyama (f.). | TV. zainin ('a criminal'). 





Thirteen Strokes 428 

^^ CHI; old; {yasu). oku ('to put, fix'). 122. 

I jl^ Oitama, Okitama or Oitami (k. of Dewa). 

SHOKU, ZOKU. As Shoku, Shu, anct. Chinese state (see p. 99, 20). 
142. I z|^ J^ hototogisu, shide\_no\taosa (the Japanese Cuckoo 
{Cuculus poliocephaliis). 






I \'ariant of ^ (p. 423). 

BO, MIO. kayeru, kawadzu ('a frog, toad'). 205. 




GU, GO. oroka ('foolish'). As gii, a common self-humiliative prefix, 
^■g; I A giijin, I % gubntsu ('an ignoramus, I'), | ^ c?»/" 
('my father'), etc. 61. 

-^^ I; {nori). tagiii ('sort, kind'). 58. 

P I dziii (in book-titles, 'an illustrated list or series'). 

Full form of ^. (p. 400). 

KlU, KU. shuto ('a father-in-law'; see p. 129, med.). 134. 

SHO, SO. nezumi ('a rat, mouse'). 208. \ ^ Wi Nezumi(Nezu)- 
-ga-seki (see ^, p. 276). | /j> ff" Nezumi-kozo (thiefj. 

^1^ FU, BO. kamo ('a duck'). 196. 
./Xu 






Contraction of ^ (xxxiii). 198. 



Primitive form of 'fj| (xvi). 172. 



:^^ YA. chichi, jiji ('a father, elder'). 88. 
•^^^ I ^ ^ M. Jiji-ga-chaya (teahouse). 

-^^ [Contraction: ^.] KWAI, YE; ai. an ('to meet'); ai ('meeting'); 
*^ atsumeru (' to assemble '). As kwai (Tokio kai), ' a company, 

society, firm ' ; as ye, ' a Buddhist service '. Sometimes used for ^ ; also 
for If, esp. in book-titles after p. Distinguish from ^ (p. 399). 73. 

[Compare homophones under ;j:g (p. 298).] | ^ Aidzu (k. of OshQ ; 
f . ; range, -yama, same as Bandai-san) ; | mj- Kwaiyo . (same k.). | ^ 
Aimi or Omi (k. of Hoki). | gg Ai-da (t. ; f.), 'S\\ -su, ^f -zawa (f.). 
;;^ I Daiye (no). \ ^, \ }^ kivaiseki (' a restaurant '). ^ A I "t* M 
hijin kwaichu-kagami ('beauty's pocket-mirror', punningly for 'j^ r\i kivaichu, 
* in the bosom '). 



429 Thirteen Strokes 

^^k AI, YEI; YE; {nam, nari, yoshi, hide, hisa, chika). itsukushimi ('love, 
^^ compassion'); mederu, medzuru ('to admire, love'). As ai, 'love', 
one of the Seven Passions (see p. 106, 74). 61. 

[Compare the foregoing, also -^ (p. 222) and ^ (xviii).] | ^ Yehime 
(old name for lyo pr. ; mod. ken, changed in 1882 to Kagawa ^ )]\) ; | |^ 
Aiyo (same pr.). | ^ Aiko (k. of Sagami ; f.), Ayekawa (same k.j; Aikawa 
(f-)- I ^n Aichi (k. and r. of Owari ; mod. ken ; f.), Aichi or Yeichi (k. of 
Omi), Yechi (f.) ; Aichi(Yechi)-gawa (r. and t. of Omi, Nakasendo stage 65). 
I ^ Otagi (k. of Yamashiro ; f.), Atago (d. ; f.) ; Atago-shita "J* (dist. of 
Yedo), -san, -yama ^J (several m. or hills), -baba |[^ (hist. pers.). 

Other Towns : | ^ Ayashi, Ayako (Ai-ko as n. poetess) ; | :J^ 
Aidzu, Aitsu ; | ^ Arachi ^ (n. of an 8th-9th century Fujiwara, also read 
Naritoki). | (or ^g) ;^ /f^ Aimoto-bashi (bridge). Other Surnames : | ^ 
Aso; I ;il Ai-kawa, ^ ^ -tagi, -SW -su, ^ -chi. I ^ IP 2E Ai-zemmio6 
(d.), l^ -kio (d., see p. iii, 94; lit. 'charm, loveliness'), ^ -no-miya 
(poetess), (7) ^ -no-kata (hist, pers.), ^ -waka (sculp.), ^ -some, ij!| -gamo 
ijoro). . 

I '^ medetashi ('lucky, fine, lovely'). | ^ aiju ('a favourite tree'). 
I ^ ^ A Hh i^, punning spelling of Omi-hakkei (see p. 108, fin.). 



YO, YU ; {yasH, chika). yawaragu ('to soften, harmonise'). 172. 

1 [Variant: ^^-J RI ; {ura). ura, uchi ('the interior, lining, reverse'). 
As Ura m street-names (see p. 10, note 2). 145. 
[Compare If (p. 323).] -j^ \ Dairi (t.). | J| ^| Urami-ga-taki 
.('Back View Cascade', Nikko). | '^ Ura-tsuji, ;|^ -matsu (f.), ^ -yeri (n.). 
I p^ uvamon (' postern gate '). 

YEI, YE ; YE ; {suye). suye (' extremity, future, youngest child, 
descendant, decadent age '). 145. 

^^^ I; 1,0; nori, {moto, mune, oki). kokorobase ('motive, emotions, volition'). 
**S\ As i generally, 'mind, thoughts, feeling, will', also 'meaning, 
purport". 61. 

I ^ O or Yu or lu (k. of Idzumo). | 'g i;b it Oi-no-yashiro (tem.). 
I H Jg Omimaro, | ^ |^ Ikiyo (n.). | »^ j|j» ^ iba-shinyen - (Bud., 
'human weakness, lack of self-control'). 




^ In Omi province ; one of the 3 || sankivan or three barriers anciently set up for the 
inspection of travellers to Kioto. The others were :^ ^ Fuwa in Alino and |^ ^ Suzuka in Ise. 

^ Lit. ' in temperament a (wild) colt, at heart a monkey ' ; hence often symbolised in art by 
these two animals. 



Thirteen Strokes 430 

^Al and -^^ Contractions of J^ (xx). 40. 

^t^^ SAI ; or SOKU ; (jiisa). sakai ('a limit, boundary'); fiisegu ('to 
■^^ block, stop up'). As sai, 'a fortification'. 32. 

I ^ Saio (Chai-weng, Chin, worthy) ; Saio-ga-uma 1% ('Saio's horse', 
trope for human affairs). 

KUTSU, KUCHI. iwaya ('a cave'). See p. 69, med. 116. 
KWA. utsuvo ('a hollow'). 116. 





^j^ DEI (NEI), NIO. Chinese local and family name. Regarded as a 
"^r variant of ^ (xiv). 40. | j^ Nei-seki (Ning Ch'i, Chin, sage), 
^ ^ -hoshi (Feng-tzu, sennin). 

j^^ KOX, KUN. A palace apartment. Often wrongly used for ^ 
-^ (P- 403)- 33- 



lej 



Original form of ^ (p. 404). \ 

^^ Contraction of ^ (xiv). 

i^» TO; TA ; rnasa, {-taye). ateru, atavu ('to touch, comply with, be 
P9 successful'); ate ('aim, clue, protection, success'); masa ni ('just, 
exactly '). As id, also ' this, the present, latter-day, contemporary '. Dis- 
tinguish from 'g (p. 402). 102. 

I M- I ayema, Taima (t. ; f. swo.), Toma (f.), Taima (n. ; no) ; Taima 
no Kehaya or Kuyehaya ^ ^ (strong man). | '^ Tosha (f.). J^ \ 
oatari ('great success', 'house full'). | f^ to-dai ('the reigning emperor'), 
ilt -sei, ll*f ~ji ('modern times, up-to-date'), ^ -sei ('modern and flourishing'). 

- r| * Variant of ^ (xiv). 

[Contraction: yj^.] SEI, SAI; toshi; zok., Toshi-. toshi, or, after a 

pure-Japanese numeral, -tose ('a year'). See also pp. 41, 42. 77. 

Deities ; | ^f'J Sai-kio, ^^ -setsu, ^^ -ha, ^ -toku (or Toshitoku). 

J^ I Otoshi (n. poet; lit. 'last day of the year'). | Tfj toshi no ichi ('the 

New Year market'). | ^ saisha ('a year', in dates) 

j^ [Synonym : ^.] SU, SO ; {takd). takashi (' high ') ; sobiyeru (' to 
*^* tower up'j. 46. I ^j Su-zan (see p. 103, 53, where the spelling 
should be corrected). | i|'| \[\ Suse-yama (m.). 




43^ Thirteen Strokes 

■^iU^ GlO, GO; nari, (isura). waza, shiwaza ('occupation, calling, business'). 
75- I '^ Nari-ai (f.), ^ -ko (poetess). 






nil 



SAN, SEN. sakadzuki (' a wine-cup '). io8. 

KAN, KON. ugoku {' to move'); kotayeru ('to feel'). 6i. 
/ii^\< I fg ^ Kanno-ji (tem.). | H g" Kanyo-kiu (no). | ^ kanjo 

(' a testimony, eulogy '). 

SEN. nirii, sen-jiru ('to boil'). 86. 
I ^ M Senjimono-uri (kiogen). 

^ [Contraction: ^^.] GI ; G/ ; yoshi, Yoshi, (nori) ; zok., Gi- or Yoshi-. 
yoshi, yoroshii ('good'). As gi, 'loyalty', one of the Five Virtues. 123. 
[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 227).] | ^ Yoshioka (f.). | ^ 
Yoshitsune (n.) ; Y. -uma-arai-no-taki J^ ^ ^^| (fall) ; Y. Sembon-zakura 
^ :^ ^^ (joriiri). J ^ Yoshi-ko, Nori-ko (court-ladies). | ^t gishi 
('faithful samurai, patriot, martyr', with special reference to the Forty- 
seven Ronin ; see p. 116, 101). | zJ^ ^ Gidayu {zok. mus., inventor of 
gidayu-biishi fp, a style of musical drama). 

jj^ [Often counted as 14 strokes, the upper part being regarded as ^ 
^^"^ repeated.] SHI, JI ; //. itsukushimi (' parentall ove, tenderness, 
compassion'). 61. 

I it UJ Ji-ko-zan (m.), ^ if -on-ji (tem.), HS -^ -sho-ji (building, 
same as |^ f^ -^ Ginkaku-ji), j^ ^ -l^oji (f-)) M B^ -hinari (nickname, 
'compassionate'), [IJ -yen (priest. No. 95 of the Hundred Poets), ^ -do 
(mask-name, = Kiku-jido). J^ \ J^ fM Daiji-daihi (epithet of Kwannon, d.). 

[^ KI, GI ; GO. go, igo (the game of chequers, one of the Four Accom- 
plishments, played on a goban | ^). See p. 102, 48. 112. 
I >k "^ pi fi '^J l!ir Go Taihei-ki Shiraishi-banashi {joruri). \ |g ^ 
Godanotsu (= Danotsu). 

*^^ Contraction of ^ (xiv). 

-^^ U^ed as a contraction of ^ (xviii). 151. 

DO, NO ; N.O, NU. tatsukuri (' agriculture '). As no, also | X 
no-nin, ^ -ju, ^ -ka, 'a farmer, agriculturist', one of the Four 
Classes (p. loi, 42). 161. 

A-S^ HO. sakan (' flourishing'). 140, 





Thirteen Strokes 432 

i^ RAKU; RA; ochi. ochi ('fall, defeat'); ochivu ('to fall, be omitted'); 
1^* miira ('a village'). 140. 

I ^ Ochiai (t., Nakasendo stage 44; f. ptr., met.). | "^ Otobe 
(t.). I )}g raku-gan (see p. 107, 79, 8), ^ -hatsu ('shaving the head', 
before taking the scarf). | ^ rakkwan (' signature and seal '). 



RITSU, RICH!, miignra (the Japanese Hop, Humulus japonicus). 140. 

SHU, SHU; {hagi) \ hagi. hagi (the Bush Clover, Lespedeza bicolor ; 
see p. 106, 73). Distinguish from ^ (p. 376). 140. 

I 3E j'l Hagi no Tama-gawa (see p. 104, 59). Towns : | Hagi 
(met., pot. ; f.) ; | \\\ Hagi-yama (pot.), ]^ -wara (f. ptr., sculp. ; also 
Haibara as t. ; Hagiwara-no-in [%, = Hanazono, 95th Mikado). Other 
Surnames: | ^\^ Hagi-i, EQ -ta, ^ -ya (met.), ff -no. | ^ ^ Haginobo 
(= Joyen, priest). | ;^ ^ Hagi-daimio {kiogen). 

^ KA ; {yoshi). ashi, yoshi ('a reed'). 140. 

[Compare $ (p. 434), ^ (xx).] | M Asliiya (t. ; r.). 






gpl HA, HE. hanabira ('a petal'). 140. 

"ptrt KO, GO. A species of garlic ; also a cucumber. 140. 

^~r KG, KU. I ^ ketade (a smartweed. Polygonum lapathi folium). 140. 

-jSr SHU, SO; fuki. jtikii ('to thatch'). 140. 

I ^ Fuki-ai (t.j, ^ iM) BT -de(-ya)-cho (streets of Yedo). 

^ KATSU, KACHI ; katsura, kuzu ; {katsu, kuzu, tsiira). kuzu (a plant, 
Pueraria thnnbergiana ; see p. 176, 73); tsiidzura[-fHJi], aokadzura 
(a climbing plant, Coccnlus Thunbergii). 140. 

[Compare 1^ (p. 327).] Kori: | _h Katsu-jo, "]» -ge, also Katsuragi- 
-no-kami and -no-shimo (Yamato ; former Kuzukami as f.), f^" -shika (Musashi 
and Shimosa ; f. ptr., met.); | 2J Kuzuno (Yamashiro; f. met., or perhaps 
Katsuno), Kadono (same k. ; f. ; n. ; Kadono-oji ^ ^, prince). 1 ^ :!j^ 
Katsusai-ga-yatsu (valley). | jlj Katsura-gawa (r.). | f| ^ Tsudzura- 
-iwa (rock; tsudzura is a kind of basket trunk). 

Towns : | ^ Kuzu-fu, i^ -tsuka, H -ha (Kuzunoha as myth, pers.) ; 

I ^ Katsura-o, ^^ -gi (anct. cap. ; clan ; f. ; no ; joro ; m., -yama ; Katsujo as 

n. ; Katsuragi-no-oji ^ ^, prince). Other Surnames: | Kadzura ; | f| 

Kassai, Kasai ; | ^f Kadoi (Katsurai as prince) ; | ;^ Kasanuki ; I |^ 

Katsumi ; | \\] Kuzu-yama (also Katsurayama ; Katsuzan as n.), @ -me, 



433 Thirteen Strokes 

^ -dani, ^ -maki, [S) -oka, ]^ -hara (clan, also as Katsurabara ; latter 
also prince). I ^ Kassan (n. poet). | ^ Sachi-ko (worn. n.). Sennin : 
I ;^ Katsu-gen (Ko Hsuan), ^ -yu (Yu), JlIl ^ -senno (Hsien-weng). 

Bar [Common contraction : Jfj ; occasional synonym : i\^ (see p. 218).] 
•^ BAN, MAN; MA; {kazu, tsumii) ; zok., Man- (| =p- Machi-, | |e 
Maki-, I ^ Masu-). yorodzu (' 10,000, many, all '). As ban-, ' a large 
number of, all the, in general '. 140. 

[Compare, for Ban-, ^ (p. 234), ^ (237), and, for Ma-, homophones 
under ^ (346).] I 'M Man-zai (t. ; see also Locutions), v^ -zawa (t.), 
J^ -za (m., -yama; r.). | \K: ]\i Bandai-san (range, for ^ ;^ llj). \ :^ ^ 
Yurugi-no-mori (forest). | |g ^ Mampuku-ji (^tem.). | BJ Yorodzu-cho 
(street of Yedo). ':}^ \ ^ M Daimanji-ya (brothel). Surnames: | M 
Yorodzuya ; | \\^ Ban-dai (also Mozu ; Yorodzuyo as n. poetess), JX M. 
-daiya ; | ^ Man-goku, %- -nen, ^ ^ -ji}'^ (ptr.) ; I ;tC Ma-ki (also 
Yurugi), in /> 'i^ -denokoji, g ^ -rigaya, ^ J^ -neba, ^ -o, ^ -nami, 
g -ki. 

/Jn I Koman (worn. n.). | ^ Mail-an (priest), © 'jj -no-kata (sev. 
hist, pers.), =f- \\^ -chiyo (n.). | f.£ ;^ |;^ Makinosuke {zok. ; ;oro). | ^ 
Mambi (mask-name, 'Flirt'). 1 /.(.^ Kazuma (n.). | g, for ^^ (^-I'-j xviii). 

I ^ ^ Manyo-shu (anthology, see p. 7). Nengo : | ^ Man-ju (1024-27), 
J^ -ji (1658-60), m -yen (i860). 

Locutions: | ^ baHJo ('a myriad chariots', ' the Emperor'; banjo no 
kurai ^, no kirni ^, no shii ^, 'the Emperor'; see also p. 142, med.). 

I '^ manzai, or more frequently banzai ('a myriad years', wish for 'long 
life', esp. at New Year; as manzai also a type of New Year street-mummer); 
kimi ^ banzai ('long live the Emperor!'); manzai-raku ^ (a dance, also 
an anti-earthquake spell). I "j^ ban-ko (' eternity, for ever ', Banko pot. 
mark), ;^^ -kiva (' myriad flowers ', i.e., cherry-blossom), ^ -;'/ (' affairs '), 
^ -shoku (' various professions, crafts '). 



GUN. kusashi ('malodorous'). 140. 

^^ TO, TSO ; tada, Tadasii. tadashii ('just'); tadasu ('to examine, 
- ^^ enquire into'). Distinguish from H (xviii). 140. 

I tK 'I o-yei (Tung Yung, paragon), -ftji -chu, fj^ i§ -hakkwa (Chung, 
Po-hua, sennin). 

"^^t Old form of ^ (p. 380). 140. 



^^V SO, SU. negi, nebuka (the Onion, Allium fistulosum). 140. 



«i 





Thirteen Strokes 434 

^^ KEN, KWAN; kaya. kaya ('a sedge'). Confused with g (p. 407);. 
-EL distinguish also from ^ (p. 313). 140. 

[Compare ^ (p. 313), jj^gi (442).] | iHp Kayano (t. ; f.). Other 
Surnames : | ^ Kayo ; | i{\ Kaya-numa, ^ -shima (ptr.), Ph] -ma, 
J^ -ba (met.). | ^ Kaya-nobo (priest), [H -zono (n.). 

'JAI I; ashi. ashi, yoshi ('a reed-plant'). 140. 

*■ " [Compare H (p. 432), ^ (xx).] | (or ^) ]Jjt Ashihara (old name 
for Japan, also Ashihara-no-kuni ^, -no-naka-tsu-kuni r|i j^, and -no-midzuo- 
-no-kuni 3^ H @) ; I i^ Ashiwara (f. ptr.). | ^ Ashi-do (r.), ;![: -kita 
(k. of Higo), gg -da (k. of Bingo ; r.), ig -na (f. ptr.), ^, ^ -ya, |1|§ -zaki, 
if -no, ^ -shige, jt -ki (f.). 

Contraction of ^ (xiv). 

CHO, TO; [aki, -akira, take), akiraka ('clear'); arawasu ('to publish'). 
After an author's name, read . . . no cho or . . . arawasu, ' by . . .' 
Confused with ^ (p. 406). 140. 

I J^ Kimase (f.). | 'f'^ ^ chosakusha ('author'). 

• /p^ [Contraction: ^^.] YO ; HA; ha. ha ('a leaf). 140. 
^^^ [Compare ^ (p. 214), ^ (258).] | ^ Ha-guri (k. of Owari), 
llj -yama (f. ptr.), ^ -waka, ^ -muro (f.). | ^ ha~dzuki (the 8th month), 
j^ -zakiira ('cherry-tree in full leaf, after the fall of the blossom), ^ ^ 
-goshi no tsuki ('the moon seen through trees'). 

^ KI, Gl. aoi (the Hollyhock, Althea). A seal-form occurs as the mon 
of the Matsudaira of Nishio. [N.B. — The aoi of heraldry (Tokugawa, 
Matsudaira and other families), as also that referred to in the following 
examples, is the Asavum caiilescens or Wild Ginger, futaba-aoi, Kamo-aoi.] 140. 
I Aoi (Genji Chapter ix ; f. met.?). | HJ Aoi-cho (street of Yedo), 
^ [^ 'I'd -gaoka-no-taki (fall), ■^jtj -no-maye (court-lady), j^ -noya (art- 
name), Ji -no-uye {no). 

KIO, KU ; nira. nira (the Leek, Allium odortim). 140. 

I ^zll j'l Xira-bu-kawa (r.), ilj -yama (cas.), jl)^ -zaki (t.), i^l -tsuka (f.). 

HO, BU. I ^ budo, yebi, yebikadzura (the Wild Grape, Viiis 
Thunbergii), Budo (t.). | ^ ^ Horutogaru (Portugal). 140. 

+At IX; {take). 'Bamboo-skin'. 118. 

^'Tjj^ SEI, ZEI ; ZE. medo, medogi (' divining-sticks '). 118. 




435 Thirteen Strokes 



ri \ ariant for m (xiv). ii8. 



3nF 




A?Y KIO, KO ; hako. hako ('a box'); katami ('a basket'). ii8. 
iB [Compare jij (p. 290), f| (xv).] | ill?; Hakozaki (f.). 

KEN. kakehi ('a conduit-pipe'). 118. 

I Kakehi (f.). I \\\ Kakehi-yama (m.). 

ykJ^ KIN, KON. imashimeru ('to stop, prohibit'). 113. 

>^4^ I !§f Kinya (kiogen). | r|i kin-chu, Ji -ri ('the Imperial Palace, 

the Emperor '). 

7^4> SHO, SO ; SO ; Shimoto. odoro (' a thicket ') ; shimoto (' twigs '). As 
>^<tr Sho, Ch'u, ancient kingdom of China. 75. 
I ]^ So-hara (t.), fi A -mando (n.). 

^3^ SHITSU, SHICHI. A stringed instrument of koto (^) type. 96. 
ilsJ* I /^ Shisshitsu (worn. ptr.). 

^^ SKI; S/// ; si<fee, (3;oW). tasukeru ('to assist'). As s/n', 'property'. 
.-^^ 154. I ^ Suke-ko (Empress). 

MJtl SHO, SO ; ZA. yosoou, kazarii (' to dress, adorn '). 145. 
-^X- I ;^ shosokn, sozoku (' full dress, uniform, apparel, court costume ') ; 

Shozoku-yenoki |g ;^ (tree). | ^ so/sni ('a decorated sword, the decoration 
of swords'). 

^^ SAN ; Tsubara. shirage[-gome] (' washed rice ') ; azayaka (' glossy ') ; 
y*^ tsubara ni ('minutely'). 119. 

^5C [Older form : ^.] SHU, JU, tate. tate (' lengthwise ') ; shimobe (' a 
— ^ servant'). As Tate- in street-names (see p. 10, note 2). 117. 

[Compare homophones under ^^ (p. 198).] | )\\ Tate-gawa, ]\i 
-yama (f.), Wf -no (t. pottery ; f.). p^ | naiju (Imperial palace pages) ; 
P9 I I^Jf 5'J 7u naijusho-no-betto (tit). 

^P SEI, SHO; {masa, kiyo). satoshi ('wise'); hijiri ('a sage'). As sho, 
— LJ 'sacred' (Sho, epithet of Kwannon, d.) ; as sei, 'Imperial'. 128. 

Joi I ^j": Daishoji (t.). | |g. Hijiri-zaka (street of Yedo), 'Jfl -no-taki 
(fall), % -maru (n.). | ^ Seido, | 1% ^Jc Shogo-in (tem). | ^ Sho-den 
(d.), 5^ -mu (45th Mikado), :{^, ;;^s; ^ -toku-taishi (prince), ^ -ji^^j M ~t)0 
(priests). | ^ Masa-ko (Empress). | _E seiyo, | ^ hijiri-no-kimi (tit. 
of Emperor). | A sez'/i" (' a- sage ', esp. Confucius). | ^ "^ shorioye 
(the Bon festival). 



jnL 



Contraction of |g (xxiv) 




Thirteen Strokes 436 

TOKU ; Tadasu, {masa, tada). tadasu {' to correct, examine ') ; kami 

(tit., see p. 85). loq. 
Court-ladies: | J^ Kami-no-tsubone ; /]^ 1 Kogo {no); /J> | J^ 
KojTo-no-tsubone (= Man-no-kata |§ 0) -fj, concubine of Tokugawa lyeyasu). 

VP^ SHO ; teru ; teru, Terasit, (aki, -akiva). ieru ('to shine'); terasu ('to 
^*v» illuminate'); akiraka ('bright'). 86. 

Surnames : | |i| Teru-yama, |^ -uchi, ^ -i, ^ -mine, ^ -be, 
l|i^ -hata. I -^ Teru-ko (princess), ^ $g -te-hime (hist, pers.), ^' -taye 
ijoro), =f- ^ -chika (n.). | ^ Shokun [no). \ ^ Q Shoyahaku (Chao- 
-yeli-po, horse J. 

^ra SHO, SO; zok., So-. omou ('to think'). 61. 

j^» TO, DZU. dovo ('mud'); nunc ('to paint, smear, varnish, lacquer'); 
- Hri . }7Mri (' lacquering ', etc.). 32. 

$^ [Contractions: >^, ^''g (see latter, p. 321).] SHUN (JUN) ; uori; zok., 
Jun-. nori (' rule ") ; nazorau ('to liken, symbolize, adjust'). 85. 
I M Juntei (epithet of Kwannon, d.). 

l\^ SEI, SE ; Sii. ikioi ('power'). ig. Distinguish from ^ (xix). 

I ^'I'l Seishu (Ise pr.) ; Seishu Akogi-no-ura psj "/|§ M {joyuri). \ ^ 
Se-ta (k. of Kotsuke ; f . ; also for ^ E9, q.v., xix), EH -ta (f.). ['X] I ^ 
[Daijseishi (d.). J^i \ Daisei {joro). \ ^ ^H % Seitakamaru (d.). 

27. 




Ij&JP ^'^nd jlj^ Variants of fe (xiv). 









RO. wataridono ('a corridor'). | "j*" rofea ('a balcony', esp. of a 
brothel). 55. 

REX; Kiyoshi, (kiyo, kado). kado ('an item'j; kiyoshi, isagiyoshi, suga- 
Cpure'). 53. 
I ^ Kado-ko (Empress). | fl BE Sugahito-o (poet), 

cm. orofea ('foolish'). Synonym of ^ (xix). 104. 
I 15 chhva ('flirting, lovers' quarrel, tiff'). 

HI. Name of a bird. Commonly confused with ^fjf., hi, shibiri 
('numbness, pins-and-needles '), Shibiri (kiogen). 104. 

GU ; GO. iasukerii ('to help'); and various other meanings. 141. 
1 $[1^ Guki (Yii-chi, Cliin. princess). 

SAI, SEI; {toshi, koto, nori). toshi ('a year'); noseru ('to impose, 
cheat, record'). 159. | ^ saisha ('a year', compare ]^, p. 430). 






437 Thirteen Strokes 

Variant of ^| (p. 415). 

[Variant: ^.J YU, YU ; YU. asobn ('to sport, play'); asobi ('game, 
diversion'). Interchanged with ^^ (p. 385). 162. 
I -^ Yusa (f.) ; Yusa-machi HJ (t.). | 0) ^ YCi-no-kata (court- 
lady, Tokugawa). | :ff yugio (' itinerancy ', esp. Buddhist) ; Yugio-ha 
^ (Bud. sect, = Ji-shu ^ ^), -yanagi t|p (no). | »^ yil-kwai, M -kid 
('pleasure, diversion'), \[\ -saii, ^ -ran ('a picnic, pleasure-tour'), M ~^^ 
('a prostitute quarter'). | ^ yil-jo {asobime), ^ -kini {kiwadachi), ^ ^ 
-geijo ('a courtesan'). 

■J^^ UN, ON; {kazii). hakobu ('to transport, move, advance, progress')- 
^^a— ^ Distinguish from 3II (xv). 162. | Ji iinjo ('customs, tax'). 

j ^[ SUI, ZUI ; {katsu). togeru ('to achieve'); ts/n' nf ('at last'). 162. 

-jrS^ I. chigau ('to fail, differ'); tagau ('to differ, break a rule'). 162. 

TATSU, DACHI ; [michi, sato, yoshi). itaru ('to reach'); toru ('to 
pass through '). As tatsu, ' an adept ' ; as tachi, dachi, a plural 
suffix. 162. 

I '^ nP Tassobe (t.). /J> | Kotatsu (f.). j Daruma (Bodhidharma, 
priest ; n. swo. ; m., -yama). | ^, see "^J (p. 204). | /v. Tatsu-ndo, 
•^ -mi (n.). I ^ tatsugei ('accomplishments'). 

[Old form: |^^.] TO (rare), DO; //; michi, -ji (see note on p. 423); 
michi, (-ji, yuki) ; zok., Do-, less commonly Michi-. michi ('a road, 
way, journey, method, principle, doctrine, -ism '). i\s do, ' the religion ', 
usually Buddhism, but sometimes Taoism; also 'a circuit' or 'group' of 
provinces (see p. 120, med.). Distinguish from j|i, (p. 381). 162. 

I i^ j'l Doshi-gawa (r.). | ^ D6-go, i^ ^pJ |i^ -jogaw^ara, f^^ -butsu 
(t. ; last perhaps related to Ainu to-put, 'lake mouth'), H HJ -san-cho, '||| \\\ 
-kwan-yama (street and hill in Yedo), ilp ^ -toinbori (part of Osaka), j^i 
(B^) ^ -jo(-mio)-ji (each tem. and no). Surnames: | ^ Chimori (clan); 
;^ I Daido (swo.), Omichi ; :;^ I ^ Daidoji ; | ^ Do-ke, ^ -chi, 
^ -nose ; | P^ Michi-aki, J^ -kaze, 'g -tomi. 

I flE i# Doso-jin or | [^ jjiljl Doroku-jin, | g ■^ Michi-no-omi-no- 
-mikoto (d.). Priests: | % Do-gen, ^ -kio, if -sen (Tao-hsuan), ^ -ko, 
1^ -riu (TaoTung), i^ -ho, Hg -sho, ^^ ^i1i -in-hoshi (No. 82 of the 
Hundred Poets). | jfig. ^ Michinooya-no-o (prince). | ^ xMichi-ko 
(poetess). I |P -g Michiwaru, I p[ ^ Doami, | ^ -^ M Domiojiya (n.). 



Thirteen Strokes (it, contd.) 438 

I A db-jin (name-ending, see p. 70 ; = the Bud. niudo \ \ , also 'a 
Taoist '), ^ -ska (ditto, ' candidate for dojin '), :t shi (ditto, ' a moralist '). 
I &i]j michi-no-shi (anct. tit.). | ^ ^ michiaye no matsuri (fest.). | ^^ 
michiynki ('a journey'; on the stage, 'an elopement'). | rfi dochu ('travel, 
journey'); dochu -ki ^2 ('a guide-book'), -siigoroku ^ (or ^) ;.^ (the Race 
Game). | fl^. | ^\. doke (' buffoonery, comedy '). 



[Synonym: ^j^.] HEN; HE. amaneshi ('all-pervading'). As hen, 
'[number of] times' {ippen, nihen, samben, etc.). 162. 
I ^ Hengu (priest). | ^ hendo (' a pilgrimage '). 

[Contraction : [fl .] YEN ; maru ; mavii, Maru, Madoka, Tsuhiira, 
{mitsu). marushi, madoka, tsubura (' circular, spherical ') ; maroku 
('roundly, peacefully'). As yen, also a mod. coin. 31. 

[Compare ^^ (p. 161).] Temples: | i^ 1% Yemma-in ; | ^ i^, ^) 
•^ Yen-sh6(-kaku, -j6)-ji (last as f.). Other Surnames : | ^ Hosho 
(alternative for ^ ^, f. no-writers) ; I :^, I ^ Yen-jo, psf 5|g -ami (lacq., 
perhaps n. only) ; | \\] Maru-yama (ptr.), g -ta. | U Yen-yu (64th 
Mikado), fl -nin, ^ -chin (priests). | Madoka, | 1^ Maruhama (joro). 

YEN, ON; sono ; sono, Sono ; zok., Sono-. sono ('a garden', met. 'a 

family'). 31. 

[Compare ^ (xvii).] | ^ Sonobe (t. ; f.). | ^ ^ Onjo-ji (tern., 
= Mii-dera H ^ ^)- Other Surnames : | Sono (also n. poetesses) ; ;;^ | 
Osono ; /]> I Osono, Kozono ; | ^ Sono (also worn, n.) ; | :^ Sono-ki 
(met.), ^ -i (ptr.), 03 -da, '^ -ike, j^ -mura, i§ -be (met.). I A Sono-ndo, 
"jg -mo (n.), ^ -giku ijord), f,^ ^ -no-iratsume (poetess). | 0) |§ sono no 
unie ('cultivated plum-trees'). 





439 Fourteen Strokes 

FOURTEEN STROKES. 

SO ; SO. yosutebito (' a Buddhist priest '). For its use in Bud. titles, 
see p. 87. 9. 

I il So-ga-taki (fall). | IE ?! M Sojo Henjo (priest, No. 12 of 
the Hundred Poets). 




fl 



SHO, ZO ; (kata) ; zok., 2o-. kata, katachi ('an image'); katadoru 
('to form like, copy'). After a name read no zo, 'a portrait of . . .' 9. 






[^^ DO. warabe ('a boy'); shlmobe ('a servant'). 9. 

[Variant: j||.] BOKU. shimobe, yakko ('a servant'). As boku, 
often T. 9. 

||{[ Variant of ft (P- 415)- 60. 

i^M ^^^- minagiru ('to be in spate'). 85. 

SHU (SO), SHU. avail ('to wash'). 85. 

SEN, ZEN; Stisumu, (-tsugu). susitmu ('to advance'); yoyaku, yoyo 
('at last, scarcely'). 85. 

>^M BAN, Mx'VN. midari ni ('random, rambling'). 85. 
i-^ I ^ mangiva ('random sketches'). 

\P^ GIO, GO. sunadoru, isavu, rid-suru ('to fish'). 85. 
iiiV% I ^ rioshl ('a fisherman'); on;ia -^ -rioshi ('a fisherwoman '). 

I ^o yiosen, isaribune (' a fishing-boat '). | ^ giokwa, isaribi (' fishing 
flares'). | A g^^-jiii, ^ -/« ('a fisherman'; see also p. 70). 

\/^^ YEN ; no6«, (liiro). noberu (' to declare ') ; hirushi (' wide ') ; nagareru 
iM ('to flow'). 85. 

I 3^ 111 ('fie) Yembu-kwan(-ko), clan-schools. 

^^ See p. 415. 

,^^^ SHITSU, SHICHI. uvnshi ('lacquer' or the Lacquer Tree, Rhus 
t^y^ vernicifera). 85. 

I Urushi (f.). I \[] Urushi-yama, ^ -o (t.j, ^ -be (anct. gild; 
f.), ^ -do, >M -bata, k%, f^ -ma, 1^; -bara (f.). 



Fourteen Strokes 440 

V^ TAN, DAN; (hiro). tsiiyitkeshi ('dewy'). 85. 

*)a^ BAN, MAN; MA; mitsu ; niitsu, Mitsuvu, -maro (for ^ or j|fi, g in 
• iW names of mod. Shintoists) ; zok., Man- (/J> | Koma-). mitsu, 
mitsuru, michiru (' to be full, satisfied, complete '). 85. 

[Compare ^ (p. 229) and homophones under ^ (346).] I ^'H Man-shu 

('Manchuria'; joro), ^ ^ -gwan-ji (tem.). Surnames: | 7|c, | § Maki ; 

I i i? Mionoya (sic) ; | tlj Mitsu-yama, 03 -da, ^ -tani, f^ -oka, f.j'j -no 

(ptr.). I ^ Masu, | ^ Mitsu-ko (poetesses). | :|g Mitsu-hana, |J -sode 

ijoro). I ^ man-getsu ('full moon 'j, ^ -yi ('Mongolian script'). 

^^ KAN. onoho ('a man'); amanogawa ('the Milky Way'). As Kan, 
y^^ the Han Dynasties of China, or China itself ( | jtl Kando), also 
'Chinese'. As Aya, anct. clan and f. (Aya no Yamaguchi-no-ataye Oguchi 
ill □ ^ k □> anct. sculp.). ^^. 

I i^ Kabe (t.). | ^ fiQ. Kan no Koso (Han Kao-tsu, Chin. Emp.) ; 
similarly | 5^ "^ Kan no Butei (Han Wu-ti), etc. | ^ Aya-be, ^ -nushi, 
A -ndo (f.). 



V@ SO, ZO ; kogi. kogu (' to row '). 85. 

RO, RU ; RO. mori ('leakage'). 83. | %\] rokokii ('a clepsydra'). 




SO, ZO ; Tashika. tashika ('certain'). 61. 
^iir I [/^j ^ Zo[zo]sai (two art-names). 




m 




Variant of ^ (xiv). 50. 

■\^^ [More correctly, but less usually, J^.] CHO (rare), jO ; -ba. ba ('a 
■^^^ place, site, field, circumstances '). 32. 
ic I Daiba (t.), Oba (f. ptr.). 

KEI, KIO. sakai (' limit, boundary, region, condition '). 32. 

[Compare ^ (p. 387).] | Sakai (t. ; f.). | ]^ Sakai-bara (anct. 
pal.), ^^ -be, if -no (f.J. | S ^ M ^ Sakaikurohiko-oji (prince). | ^ 
Kioku (priest). | ^ keidai ('precincts' of a temple). 

TEKI (TAKU), CHAKU. tsumii ('to pluck'). 64. 

SO; SO. tsukanevu, iabaneru ('to tie up'). Also used as a synonym 
^ of M (xvii). 64. j ^ ^ Soji-ji (tem.). 

BAKU, MAKU. saguru ('to grope after'). Not same as ^ (xv). 64. 







441 Fourteen Strokes 

SHO, SO; suri. sum ('to rub, print'); yahiiru ('to destroy, crumple 
up'). 64. I Ji l^t Suriage-hara (plain). | f^ Surizawa (f.). 
^ snrimono (type of colour-print). 

{ Old form of j|g (xv). 64. 

^h GIOKU, GOKU. hitoya ('a prison'). 94. | ^^ Gokumon (nickname, 
'f^V lit. exposure of criminals' heads at prison-gates). 





SHO. ' A mountain-range '. 46. 

|I||^ Variant of ^, (p. 339). 46. 

Hl^ AlEI, MIO ; naru, nari. nam, uaku ('to call, cry, sound, sing [as birds 
**^ or insects] '). 30. 

I ^ Naru-ko, ^ -o (t.), -/^'-mi (t., Tokaido stage 39; f.), j^ ^ 
-ka-no-umi (sea), ^ -mi (f. actor), ^ -shima (f.), m -se (f. ptr. ; r.j, J|| 
-taki (dist. of Kioto, pot.), f^ -to (f. ; n. ; strait, -no-kaikio j^ ll^ or -no-seto 
^ ^), # -kami ('thunder'; n. of the Thunder God; wrestler), jplji _£ A 
-kami-shonin (priest). 



r^ 



Rare variant of J^ (p. 339). 170. 




SEI, SAL' kiwa ('an end, border, brink, transition, juncture, vicinity, 
\^^^ rank'). As sai, 'to meet'. 170. 

mk DON, NON. yaivavaka ('soft, tender'). 38. I "j^ Nonko (n. pot.). 

TEKI, CHAKU. As a prefix, teki or chaku, ' the principal [wife] ', 
' direct [heir, pupil] ', etc. 38. 
jj,^ SHO, JO. 1 jii Shoga (Ch'ang-o), originally M M Koga (Heng-o), 
y^Hi woman sennin. 38. 

jljt (No on). sakaki (the sacred tree Cleyera japonica). 75. 
T Surnames : | Sakaki {Genji Chapter x) ; I ^J Sakaki-yama (actor), 
Bg -da, i^ -bara (ptr.). 

KA, KE ; YE. ye, ye no ki (a tree, Celtis sinensis). 75. 

[Compare homophones under fX (p- -12).] I Yenoki (f.). | (for 
VL) ^ Ye-no-shima (is.). | ^ Ye-nami (t. ; f.), ^ -nami, ^ g -namiya 
(f.). I y Yeno-shita, tJC -ki (f.), ;^ -moto (f. ptr., met.). | ^ Yenoki- 
-dzu (t.), i^ iHJ -zaka-machi (street of Yedo), ^ -do, gj -da (f.). 

4-gJ ON ; or OTSU, OCHI. siigi (the Cryptomeria, C. japonica). Compare 
"I-™- ^^ (p. 239) and ^ (391). 75. I TlilS Sugimura (n.). 







^ 




Fourteen Strokes 442 

KW'AI, YE. yenisH, now yenju (a tree, Sophora japonica). 75. 

YO, YV. I HI yiisH (the Banyan Tree, Ficus indica). 75. 

SHIX. hashibami (the Hazel, Corj/us heterophylla). 75. 

KoRi : I ^D or |5] ^ Suclii (Totomi) ; | |^ Haibara (Totomi, also 
written ^ ]^ ; f. ; m., -yama) ; | i|l Hanzawa (Musashi ; f.). | ig Haruna 
(tem. ; m., -san ; lake, -ko i^). \ ^ Hangaya, | H Shinyo (f.). 

;j»^ FU (BU), HO. kiire ('timber"). 73. | Kure, | \\\ Kureyama (f.). 

■h^ TEN ; or SHIN ; maki. maki (a tree, Podocarpits chinensis). Dis- 
i3^ tinguish from ^ (p. 391). 75. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 266).] | HJ Maki-cho (street 
of Yedo), ^ ^ -no-dera (tem.), EQ -ta, j^ -mura, ^ -noshima (f.), / ^ 
-noto, y ^ -noo (joro), ^ -ko (worn. n.). 

_ SA, JA (SE). 'To fell trees for rafts'. 75. 

-fj^J RIU, RU. ^ I sekirin, zakiiro, jakuro (the Pomegranate, Punka 
I P4 granatum). 75. 

TSUI, DZLT (TAl) : tsuchi ; (tsuchi) ; zok., Tsuchi-, -tsuchi. tsuchi ('a 

hammer, mallet'). Confused with ^ (xviii). 75. 
[Compare i (p. 158).] ;^ | Otsuchi (t.). /J> | Kodzuchi (f. ptr.j. 
I ^ Ill§ Tsuchido-zaki (cape). | H Tsuchida (f.j. 

HI. kaya (a tree, Torreya nucifera). 75. 

[Compare ^ (p. 313), ^ (434).] | ^jc Kayaki (f.). 

[Variant: ^-.] KI, GI. hata ('a flag, banner'). 70. 

[Compare homophones under j^ (p. 299).] | fj Hatano (f.). | '[» 
hatamoto (grade of samurai). 

z^^ KON, GON. tamashii ('spirit', esp. of the dead). ^ fU | Yamato- 
^'O -damashii ('the spirit of Japan', 'loyalty, patriotism'). 194. 

J^ YO. 'Green jasper'. 96. 







^*^ TO, DO. Name of a gem. 96. 




Rl. ^ I biidoro, garasu ('glass'). See also the next. 96. 

X^J RIC, RU. I fi^j riiri ('emerald' or 'lapisTazuli'); Ruri-kobo ^ ^ (n.), 
•^W -niogo ^^- iiiJ (princess). 96. 



443 Fourteen Strokes 

^ FUKU ; (yoshi, tomi, sachi). saiwai ('good fortune'), 113. 



Towns : | )\\ Fuku-gawa (f.), llj -yama (f. ptr.), ^ -i (mod 
ken; f. ptr., met.), 7^ -naga (f. ptr.), ;^ -moto (f.), g -da (f. ptr., met.), 
il -ye (is., -jima), i-tlj, -chi (f. ptr. ; m., -yama), -yoshi (f.j, % -mitsu (P.), 
^ -zumi (f.), ^ -ra, ^ -i, ^ -oka (mod. ken; f.), \^ -ra (f.), ^ -shima 
(Nakasendo stage 37, text. ; f. ptr., sculp.), ]^ -hara (? f. sculp. ; -wara as 
pal. and f. ptr.), |lf§ -zaki (f.), ^ -no (f.), "^ -watashi (kiogen), ^ [1] -chiyama, 
ftU -ma, J^ -tsuka. 

Other Surnames : | Fuku : | ^ Fukke ; | '^ Tonda ; | ^ Fuku- 
go (Saki-ko as Empress, Fuku-ko as princess), ^ -6 (ptr.), gg ^i -dabe 
(ptr.), M -ba, i^ -mura, ^ -mi (ptr.), ^ -ya, ^ -zumi, j^ -yori, |^ ^ 
-rinji, ^p -chi (ptr.), ^ -naga (also Tominaga), ^ -rai (sculp.), ^ -kake. 






-tomi, g B9 -kita, ;g -ye, ^ -chi, ^ -yo, i^. -zawa (met.), '^ -se. 



I ft;^ ^ Fukurokuju (d.). I % Fukumaru (n.). I (7) jpl^ Fuku-no- 
-kami {kiogen). \ ^ fiikusuke (myth, creat.). 

j^^ TEl, CHO ; (tada). saiwai ('good fortune'); tadashii ('honest'). 113. 
'li>> I -^ Tei-shi (Empress). 



JMa Contraction of f@ (xv 





[Contraction: ^^.] SHO, SET. tonayeru ('to recite'); homcrii ('to 
praise'); sho-suru ('to name'). As s/io, esp. 'a name'. 115. 
I -^ shomid ('Bud. prayer'}; Shomio-ji ^ (tem.), -ga-taki j|| (fall). 
I ^ Sho-ko (loist Mikado), ^. -toku (48th). 

SHO, SHU; tane, -kusa ; tane, [fiisa, kazu) ; zok., Tane-. tane ('seed, 
posterity ') ; kusagusa (' various sorts '). As -shu, -giisa, or -dane, 
'various sorts or phases of . . .' 115. 

I ^ j^ Tane-ga-shima (is.), ifj iJj -chi-yama or TfJ -^ -ichi-dake 
(m.), ly -da (f. ptr., met.), ^ -gashima, ^ -mori (f.), ^ -ko (court-lady). 
I ^ Tanamura (f.). 5'C I "f" "^ Ame-no-taneko-no-mikoto (d.). 

-Jt^ TAN; hata ; {masa, tada). hata ('vicinity'); hashi, tsiima ('edge, 
"Tnl margin'). As tan, 'the beginning', also a dress-length about ^2^ 
feet long (sometimes written jx.; see /£, p. 191). 117. 

I Hata (f. met.), Tan (f.). | fi|£ [[\ Hatenashi-yama (m., ' Endless 
Mountam'). | Ptt Hatadate (f. ptr.). | ^ Masa-ko (princess). | @ 
Hashii, | ^ Hamori (n.). | jl tan-getsu (the first month), ^ -go (the 
Boys' Festival, 5th day of 5th month). 

SO; or SATSU. kaze no oto ('the noise of the w^ind'). 182. 
I ^ Sawa (f.). I /r Sassatsu (n.). 





« 



Fourteen Strokes 444 

>&^ REI, RIO. kubi ('the neck'); yeri ('a collar'); osameru ('to govern'). 
1-^ As rid, also 'territory', and a numeral-suffix for suits of clothes or 
armour (see p. 40). 181. 

I ^ Rioke (t.). I (or | llJ or H) |t^ (or }$:) \\\ Hirefuru-yama 
('Scarf-waving Hill', = Matsura-yama in Hizen). 

SEKI, SHAKU ; (hiro). oinaru ('great'). 112. 

\^ SHI, JI. As ji, 'magnetic'. 112. 

I y^ Jishaku (kiogen ; lit. 'magnet' or 'compass"; m., -yama). 

[Contraction: ^!^.] CHIN. kinuta ('an anvil, block', esp. for fulling 
cloth); Kinuta (no). 112. 

^ CHO ; nobu, Nohuru, (masa). nagashi (' long ') ; noberu (' to expand '). 
72. I ^ chogetsu (the nth month). 

yfY^ SUI. tadashii ('honest'); kuwashii ('minute, tiny, expert'). 119. 

k^fe SEI, SHO ; Kiyoshi, Kuwashi, {kiyo, aki). Similar meanings; also yos/ii 
'I IJ ('good'), kiyoshi ('pure'). 119. 

I M M Shoji-ko or -no-midzuumi (lake). | -^ shoja ('a monastery'^ 
Skt. vihdra). | ^ ^ shdrio-matsnri (the Bon festival). I ^ seitan 
('carefully forged'). 

^^^h ^11- (^kashi ('red'). m\s hi, 'vermilion, scarlet'. 120. 

lyr I ^ Hi-no-miya (princess). | J^ Hiodoshi (n. wrestler; hiodoshi, 

written | f^, is the scarlet lacing of armour). 

^^ TEI ; or TETSU. tsudzurii ('to stitch, patch, compose, spell'); 
nSi^ tsudzuve ('rags, patches'); tojiru ('to bind', as a book). 120. 

I ^ Tsudzuki (k. of Yamashiro). | •^ Tsudzureko (t.). | :^ 
tojihon ('a bound book'). 

^jft. RIOKU, ROKU ; Midori. midori ('green'). Distinguish from j^ 
'r^ (xvj. 120. 

I }\\ Midori-gawa (r. ; f.), ^ -no (or INIidono, k. of Kotsuke), HJ -cho 
(street of Yedo), % -noya (n.j. 

jWj^ I ; or YUl ; kore, (fusa, tsiina) ; zok., Kore-. kore •(' this ') ; tsunagu 
*V\^ ('to tie up'). 120. 

I ^n Ivva (t). I f^ =^ Isa-ko (wom. n.). | /t ^ ± Yuima-koji 
(sage). I jf\ ishin (the Restoration of 1868); ishin-zen "^ij ('before 1868'). 
I lli^ iji (untranslatable prefix to a date, of Chinese origin). 





445 Fourteen Strokes 

^1^ BEN, MEN; ME; wata ; [tvata, tsura). wata ('cotton'). 120. 

'P^J^ I pg Wata-uchi (t. ; f.j, ^| -biki (f. met.), if. -ki, fj -uchi, if -no, 

% -nuki (f.), ^ -ya, ^ -maro (n.j. 

RIN (REN or KWAN). kumi ('braid'); yuruyaka ('soft, lax, gentle'). 
120. 

j^j^ Contraction of ||i (xvii). 120. 

SHU, JU. kumi ('braid'). 120. 

A'A SAI, SET. irodoru ('to paint, variegate'). 120. 
'1^^ I ^ Sairan (Ts'ai Euan, sennin). 

RIO; aya ; (aya). aya, ayaginu ('silk damask'). 120. 

I Aya (clan; f. ptr.). I )\\ Aya-gawa (r.), ^ -uta (mod. k. of 
Sanuki), {i^ -be ft. ; f. met.), BJ -machi (t.), M -se (f. ; r.), 5^ -1, /\^ ^ -nokoji, 
jg -gaki (f.), 7^ -ndo (n.), ^ -no-miya (princess). 

^^^ KI ; -^/. kamhata (a kind of variegated silk). 120. 

^rRl I g Kambata-no-miya (anct. pal.). | ^ ^ Kiriki (Ch'i Ei-chi, 

Chin. sage). 

ipS SHAKU, SAKU ; (yasii). yutaka ('abundant'). 120. 




I 




^^ KEN, KON. heso (^ ^, 'a ball or clew of thread'). 120. 
I p]- Hesomura (t. ; f.). 

KO ; tstina, Tsuna ; zok., Tsuna-. tsuna (' a rope 'j ; suberu (' to 
control'). 120. 

I Tsuna (f. ; n. ; no). | % Tsuna-shima (is.; f.), if -no (f.), 
^ -ko (poetess), ^ -de (n.). 

>^n^ HO, MO; ami, a-. ami ('a net'). 120. 

^1 J Towns: :}^ \ Oami (f.) ; | ^ (or 03) Allli-da (pot., also read 
Oda and Modaj, if -no (f.) ; | f A-boshi, \X -jiro (f.). /j> | fff]" Koami- 
-cho (street of Yedo). | ^ Ajima (dist. of Osaka). | ^ ^. Aboshiya (f.). 

Contraction of fH (xviii). 

CHI. I ^]c kumo ('a spider'). 142. ] ^ Kumo-nusubito {kiogen). 

ijt^ SEI, SHO. I il^ kagero, akitsii[mushi], tombo, tombo, seirei ('a dragon- 
•*^R fly ') ; Kagero [Genji Chapter lii) ; Akitsu-shima '^^^ (old name for 

Japan) ; Seirei-no-taki f^ (fallj. 142. 








Fourteen Strokes 446 

SHO. 'A butterfly'. 142. 

^ KEN, GEN. nina (a river mollusc, Melania sp.) ; kagamaru ('to 
crouch ' ) ; ivadakamaru (' to coil ', as a snake). 142. 
I )]\ Xina-gawa (t. ; f. ptr.), ||,"j X S -buchi-daijin (=Fujiwara no 
'ramaro 03 jg). 

J 51 CHO, ]0. semi ('a cicada'). Compare $f, (xviii). 142. 
^ ^ I llj Higurashi-yama (m., from higurashi, a sp. of cicada). 

^^^ GIO (rare), GO; GO; {koto, -tsiigu); zok., Go-. kataru ('to relate'); 

no katari (' a narration, story, romance '). As go, ' language ' {yeigo 

^ I , ' English ' ; JH I kango ' Chinese ' ; P /^ | nihongo, ' Japanese ' ; 

etc.). 149. 

^Uj JIN, NIN ; (moro). fnitomeru ('to ascertain, acknowledge, recognize'). 
P© 149. 

•^?V SETSU, SECHI; (iofei, kane). toku ('to explain'). As setsu, 'an idea, 
Wu rumour, story'; /J> | shosetsu, 'a novel'. 149. 

I ffl Tokida (f.j. | ^ setsiimo}i ('a dictionary', from the title of 
the classic Chinese lexicon Shuo Wen). 

offl SHO, JU; {naga). yoniu ('to read'). 149. 

g^ ^ U, U. izanau, sasoii (' to invite, lead on, seduce '). 149. 

2^ KWAI, KE ; (nori). oshiyeru ('to teach'). 149. 

gnSt SHI. shirusu ('to record'). 149. I ;jsj- Shimura (f.). 

^fcT TAN; i^iobn). umareru ('to be born'); azamuku ('to deceive'). 149. 
0^ I -^^ tauyo ('birth'); Tanjo-ji ^- (tem.), -Shaka ^ 3^ (the Young 

Buddha) ; tanjo-bi H (' birthday '). 

^|1^ SEI, SHO (jOj; 72o6it, sane, masa, JMakoto, IMasashi, {nari, aki). makoto 
B?Xr ('the truth'). 149. 

I -^ Masa-ko (princess). | ,§» se/c/u7 ('loyalty'). 

rJWti KAKU, KIAKU; or SEKI, SHAKU. akashi ('red'); kagayaku ('bright'). 

■^^^ 155- I B^ ^ Kaguya-hime (fairy-tale heroine). 

jfe^^^ KEI, KIO ; karu. karnshi ('light in weight'). 159. 
"t3I I Karu (anct. cap.; wom. n. ; prince, -no-oji ^ ^). Towns: 

I jlj Karu-gawa, ^|- i^> -izawa (Nakasendo stage 18), -^j -mi. | H 
Karu-mi, ^ -be, PJ] -ma (f.), ;/«; g -no-daijin (hist. pers.). 




447 Fourteen Strokes 

1^ HO, FU ; suke ; zok., -suke. tasukeru ('to assist'). 159. 

I ^ Suke-ko (nurse of Antoku, loist Mikado). Titles : ::^ I , 
/Jn I , see p. 85 ; | f^ hosa. 

Variant of j^ (p. 247). 153. 

HIN. inoko ('a wild boar'). 152. 





J|g Old form of 1^ (p. 335). 158. 
SmC Synonym of "^ (p. 278). 80. 







YO, YU; Odori. odoni ('to dance'); odori ('a dance'); Odori (t.). 157. 

SHIN. nigiwai (' bustle, stir, business activity and prosperity 'j ; 
nigiwasu ('to dole out charities'). 154. 

CHO. I ^ choshi, sashinabe ('a vessel for pouring sake'); Choshi- 
-no-hama '^ (shore), -no-taki *^, -guchi-taki P ^Jf| (falls). 167. 

Contraction of ^ (xxi). 167. 

GIN; Shirogane, (kane). shirogane ('silver'). As gin, 'silver, silver 
coin', also for ginsho (see below). 167. 
I jlj Kanayama (t.). | J^ Gin-za (the Mint, also a street of Yedo), 
^ C^] -kaku[-ji] (pavilion, later tern.), inf -ga (the Milky Way). | ;j^ 
Gimbayashi (f.). | ^i|i shiroganeshi ('a silversmith'). | 7}$ ginsho (chess- 
piece), -JU; ^ -sekai ('the world under snow' or 'a mass of white blossoms'). 

^^ SEN. kigane ('ore'). 167. 

[Contraction : ;^.] SHU, JU. As shu, a coin (see p. 66). 167. 





^^ MEI, MlO ; (aki). shirusii, arawasii, ('to record, publish'). As mei, 
a^fi 'a signature, brand'. 167. 

I ^ meiji (' characters as used in signatures '). ^ I zaimei 
('signed'), fiiE | muniei ('unsigned'). 

BO, MO; zok., Hoko-. hoko ('a halberd'); kissaki ('point' of a 
weapon). 167. | H Hokoda (t.). | ^ xMuku (f.). 

DO; kane, (katal). akagane ('copper'). As do, often 'bronze'. 167. 
I ^ Domiaku ('Brass Veins', n. poet). | i| }f| Hisage-no-taki 
(fall ; hisage is a safee-pourer). 





^M 






Fourteen Strokes 448 

SHOKU, SHIKI. kazani ('to adorn'); kazari ('ornament, decorated'). 
184. 

I ^ Shikama (mod. k. of Harima; t.) ; | ;^ Shiki-to, "gg -sai (former 
divisions of same k.j. 

HO, BO. akn ('to have enough of, be tired of). 184. 

KoRi : I 51 Akuta, Akita (Higo) ; | fB Hotaku (Higo, mod.) ; 
I % Akumi, Akuumi (Dewa). 1 ^'f^ Akura (f.). 

J!^ SHI, JI ; kai. kaii, yashinau ('to feed, rear'); kai ('feeding', as suffix, 
one who feeds birds or animals). 184. 

^^ Variant of |j^ (p. 425). 107. 

g^ SHO, JO; {aki, -tsugii). uvuwashii ('elegant'). 180. 

(No on) ; {tomo) ; zok., Tomo-. tomo (the archer's leather wrist-guard). 
[Compare ^ (p. 179).] I Tomo or | ^ Tomonotsu (t.). | ^ 
Tomokake (f. met.). | |^, for Ei,, tomoye, the comma-shaped device tradi- 
tionally decorating the tomo; Tomoye[-gozen ^J f]\l] (amazon) ; T.-taisho 
:k. ilH ( = Fujiwara no Kintsune ^ fg). 

HAKU, HOKU. buchi ('piebald'). 187. 

[More correctly ^.] TA, DA; DA. As da, 'horse-transport', also 'a 
horse-load', ca. 3001b. 187. 
I Tfj JH >l^ Daichikawara (t.). | JS| daha ('a pack-horse'). 

1<I^ [Contraction: ^.] KA; KA; uta; iita; zok., Uta- (but | 7^ Karoku, 
^•^* n. actor). uta ('a song, poem', esp. the Japanese 31 -syllable tanka 
^ I ) ; utau (' to sing '). 76. 

I % Uta-shima (is.), jg f^ -shinai (r. of Yezo), ]\\ -gawa (f. ptr. ; 
Kasen as ]oyo), j^ -zawa (f. mus., U. Shibakin ^ ^), ^ -ko (poetess), 
BJ -machi, ^ -ogi, $^ -hime (joro), ;^g ^ -zumo (kidgen). | '{JQ Kadzuraki 
(f.), utamakiiva (famous place-names used as makura-kotoba or stock epithets 
in poetry). | ^ ^ Kashiku (poet). 

I A ka-jin, jilj -sen ('a poet, poetess'; see Chap. VII, 58, 63, 70, 
99, 100;, ^ {^ -bitki ('a theatre, the stage'). | -^ uta-aivase ('a poetry 
competition '), *h' 1^ -gaviita (the Poem Cards game). ^ | 0f onta-dokoro 
(Government bureau, with ;;:^ | >jl] ^ outa-no-betto at its head). 

^^L KOKU ; Minoru, (yoshi). tanatsumono ('cereals'). 115. 

^^ S I gokoku ('the Five Cereals', viz., rice, barley and wheat, 

millet, sorghum, beans). I p kokujitsu (first day of the rice-harvest). 




®c 



449 Fourteen Strokes 

^^ SHO, SO; aki, -akira, Akira. akiraka ('clear, bright'). As sho, 
"^^ ' decorated '. 59. | ^ Aki-ko (Empress). 

^ [Contractions : ^\j , %^.] TAI ; or TSUI. kotayeru, mukai-au (' to 

"^ correspond'). As tsui, 'a pair, trio', etc. 41, 

I J^ Tsushima (is. pr.) ; Ts.-matsuri ^ (kiogen) ; | >}[] Taishu (same 
pr.). I (7) -^ Tainoko (poetessj. — | ittsui ('a pair'); H fa I 
sambukutsiii (' a set of three ', esp. kakemono or colour-prints, also ' three 
great geniuses'). 

-5itA HI. hina ('rustic'); inaka ('the country'); iyashii ('mean, humble'). 

m> 163 

"^1 [Common contraction: ^L.] RAN. midare (' disturbance, irregularity'); 
•^■^ midaveru ('to be thrown into disorder'). As ran, 'rebellion, civil 
war'. 5. 




^ [Contraction: ^ ; variant: '^■] JI, NI ; NI ; zok., -ji. nanji ('you'); 
chikashi ('near'). 88. | ^ i[pl Jishudo (£rh Chu-tung, sennin). 

^f^ SHU, SU ; or JU, NIU. motonieru ('to ask for'); motome ('a wish'). 
rfiJ See S (xvii). 173. I it Juko (priest). 




(No on). Apparently for kurumi (the Walnut, Juglans regia), usually 
i^B written j^ ;^^. | "^ Kurumisawa (f.j.^ 

■^1 BATSU, MACHI. tsumi-siivu ('to punish'). 122. 

SHO, SO. tsukasa ('a government office'). 122. 

|C^ [Contraction: n^.] YO ; YO ; tomo, Ataye, {mote); zok., Yo- (I H 
>^^ Yoso-). atayeru ('to give'); ataye ('a gift'); tomo ni ('together'); 

oyobi, to ('and'); kumi-surn. ('to league together'); azukaru ('to take part'). 

134- 

[Compare m (p. 206), ^^(204), ^ (248), ^ (xvi).] | m Yo-sa (k. of 

Tango; f. ptr. ?), ^ -shima (is.; f.), -X ^ Wi W. -j^bei-nada (sea), ;^ -ita 

(t-)? ^ ~se (t., Koshukaido stage), ^9 ~da, '^ -zumi, ^ -ra, ;^ -gura (f.), 

^ -shi (wom. n.). | J] yoriki (' aid, a constable '). 

Variant of ^ (p. 339). 



1 Quoted from Miuji-dzukushi Riakkai by Suzuki Shinnen, a treatise on notable Japanese surnames. 

29 






Fourteen Strokes 450 

HI, BI ; BI ; liana. hana ('the nose'); hajime ('the beginning'). 209. 

I Oj a Hana-sanjin, ^ p^ij -kongo, ^ ^ -bungo (n.), ^ ^ M 

-kake-jizo (rock-hewn figure of Jizo, d.), ^ ^ ^.t -kobu-akuj5 (mask), 

J^ i=i f:^ -tori-zumo ikidgen). \ ffl ^?so, same as % JfiH. gwanso ('founder'). 

I ^ hanakurabe (' trying the strength of the nose '). 

BU, MU ; MU ; mai. mau ('to dance'); wai ('a dance'). 136. 

Towns: I -^ Mai-ko (lit. 'dancing girl'), ^ -zaka (Tokaido 
stage 30), ^ -kusa, ^ -dzuru (or Bukaku). Surnames: /\\ | Komai (actor); 
I 1^ Maibara (ptr.). | f.«)" Maijo or Bujo (dram. pers.). | ^^ hu-gaku 
(type of drama), ^ -^af ('the stage'). 

5^ [Contraction: ^.] SEI, SAI ; or SHI; S£ ; nari, (tada), Hitoshi, 
Tadasu. hitoshii ('alike, even'); tadashii ('correct'). As Sei, Tsi, 
anct. kingdom of China. Distinguish from ^ (xvii). 270. 

I )]\ Saigawa (t.). | ^ Saiko or Seiko {nengo, 854-856). 

KG. abiira ('oil, grease'). 130. 

I ^ koyaku (' a plaster ') ; Koyaku-neri '^ ikidgen). 

KO, GO ; [katsu, hide). sugureru (' to ex-cel '). Confused with ^ 
(p. 372). 152. 
I ^ Go-kei (valley). | ^ goketsu (' a genius, master-mind '). 

SHIN; /, NE, NU. neru ('to sleep'). 40. 

[Compare ^ (p. 401).] | M j'l Ne-ya-gawa (r.), ^ -zame {no, 
lit. ' waking from sleep ' ; Nezame-no-sato H, t.), f^ -kawari, ^ -koye 
(kiogen). 

KWA, KE (GE). yamome, \ ^ kivafii (' a widow '). 40. 







or 



I 



c? HIN ; HI. maroto, marodo ('a guest'). 154. 




I 3§ M Bindzuru (Pindola, d.). 

'*^t JITSU, JICHI ; sane, Minoru, Sane, Makoto, {mi). mi ('fruit, seed'); 
-^^ sane ('fruit-stone'); sarte, makoto ('the truth'); michiru ('to be full'). 

As jitsti, 'real'; | ->>» before a name, jitsu wa . . . , 'really . . . , alias 
of . . .' 40. 

[Compare ^ (p. 346).] | )\\ Jitsu-kawa (f.), |SiJ -a (swo.l. | ^ 

Sane-yoshi (f.), ^ -mori {no), ^ -ko (Empress). \ ;ji|j Mikaki (n.). | IE 

jikki, I 1^ jitsurokti ('authentic record, history'. | ^ jitsiimio ('real 
name ' ; also = nanori, see p. 68, fin.). 

SATSU, SACHI ; {aki, -akira), Akira. kangayern, kangamiru ('to 
f^ consider, examine '). 40. 





451 Fourteen Strokes 

^g [Old form: ^; contraction: ^^ see also ^ (p. 430).] DEI (NEI), 
■* NlO; Yasiishi, {yasu, naka). yasushi ('peaceful'); mushiro ('rather'); 

yasunzuYu ('to pacify'). As nei, 'peace, tranquillity'. 40. 
I ^ Yasu-ko (Empress). 

Incorrect form of ^ (xv). 

CHIN. chiri ('dust'). 32. 

A, \\'A; or WA, YE; knho. ktibomu ('to be hollow'); kiiho ('a hollow, 

depression'). 116. 
[Compare the combination ^ ^ (p. 157).] I Kubo, ^ \ Okubo 
(f. ptr.). I M Kubo-ya (k. of Bitchu), BB -ta (t. ; f.), ^ -i, ^ -dera, 
# -tsu (f.). 

JHL \VA ; or KWA. iwaya ('a cave'). See p. 6g. 116. 





y 



[Contractions : ^, ^ \] SHU (rare), JU ; SU, ZU ; toshi, naga, hisa, 



*^ Hisashi, Nagashi, [hogi, kazu, hide) ; sofe., Ju- ( | H Sumi-). fcoto- 

buku ('to congratulate', esp. on old age); kotobuki ('congratulation, old age, 
longevity'); inochinagashi ('long-lived'). As ju, 'age, old age' (esp. of age 
at death of Imperial personages-). See also p. 98, 17. 33. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 384).] Surnames : I /^ ;^ Su- 
-zuki (sculp.), iU$ -saki, ]$: -ma, |§ -do. | ^ jji^ Juro-jin (d.; see p. 105, 
68). I ^ Hisa-ko (Empress). | ^ Ju-no-miya, I ^ P^ |% Jusei-monin 
(princesses). | pi ^ Juami (playwright). | Kotobuki, | Jfjp [^ Sugaoka 
(joro). I ^ Juyei {uengo, 1182-83). I M. j^isei (the S. Polar Star). 



j f ^il^ [Contractions: ^g, a-] TAI, DAI. utena, ('an open balcony or 

- ' " * terrace'). As dai, also 'a plateau, a stand (for objects)'. 133. 

I ^ Taiwan (Formosa). ^ \ ]^ Odai-ga-hara (m.). | 3;^ Dai- 
-do, ^ ]^ -gahara (t.), ^ -do (f.), ^ B]" -dokoro-machi (' Kitchen Street ', 
Yedo). 

KA ; KA ; yoshi ; zok., \ ^ Kaku-, | ^ Katsu-. yoshi ('good'); 
yojui-siiru, homeru ('to praise'). 30. 

* This strikingly formed character, with its highly felicitous import, appears, esp. in Chinese 
art, in numberless (non-cursivej forms, usually easily recognisable. The group of the ' Hundred 
Varieties of the Shcu Character' is well known. 

^ Even Antoku, loist Mikado, drowned at sea, is described as having 'crumbled away' Qio-zu 
^ X, the regular term) at the 'ripe old age' of eight (^ A ^ ;w kassai) — strictly seven, as we 
should calculate it. 



Fourteen Strokes {M, contd.) 452 

[Compare homophones under j]\i (p. 187).] | ^i Ka-ma (k. of 
Chikuzen), Hi -ho (ditto, mod.), ^ -ne (t.), Ift -no (t. ; f.), {^ -ma (t.), 
•^ -nitsu (f.), M ~sh6 (Kasyapa, d.), -sho or -jo {nengo, 848-850; as kasho 
or I ^ kajo, fast., i6th of 6th month), ^ ^ -chi-ko (Empress), '^ H 
-tsumi (joro), ^ ^ -ku-no-miya (princess), # 03 # -yedenoya (art-name), 
S ^ -toji i^ok.). ;^ I ^ Okata (f.). 1 fH Yoshihito (prince, afterwards 
122nd Mikado). I j^ Kaori (n.). 

Other Nengo: | yt Ka-gen (1303-05), j^ -yei (1848-53), ^ -kitsu 
(1441-43), ^ -sho (1106-07), j^ -ho (1094-95J, jI^ -roku (1225-26), M -tei 
(1235-37), ^ -kei (N. Dyn., 1387-88), ^ -reki, -riaku (1326-28), ^, -o 
(1169-70). I ^ ^ kaheigetsu ('the 12th month', Chinese). 

-^^ [Contractions: ^, J^.] SHIN, JIN; JI. tsukusu ('to exhaust'); 
-""• -dzukushl ('a design comprising an assemblage of . . ', 'a series of 
...',' a series illustrating ') ; kotogotoku (' all, entirely 'j. 108. 

M I miijin ('inexhaustible'). | misoka (same as ^, p. 363; see 
p. 47, init.). 



;g. Old form of fjC (xvi). 

-5^ SHO ; AfO. wo, mosuso ('skirts' of a robe). 145. | ]^ Mobara (f.). 



^^> ^^^ 



or 



tiii* 



[Variant: -g^.] SHO, JO. nameru ('to lick, taste, experience'). 
*— * ^^ 30. ;;^ I •^ daijo-ye, oname-matsuri (Impl. fest.) ; see 

also jjifp (p. 330, init.) and ^ (p. 427, init.). 

"jS* YEN. to6i (the Siberian Black Kite, Milvus melanotis). 196. 
*»'X/ I ^ ^j Tobi-nosu-yama (m.), ^ -zawa (n.j. 

i^ Variant of ^ (p. 339). 

^^ Entered on p. 431 as a 13-stroke character, but usually counted as 14 
^li^"^ by the Chinese and Japanese. 

if^ HO, BU. kania, gama (the Reed Mace, Typha japonica, often mis- 
• HJ named bulrush). 140. 

I Gama (f.). | [Ij Kaba-yama (m.). | ^} % Kabakari-jima (is.). 

I ]ij( Kambara (k. of Echigo ; t., Tokaido stage 15; f.). | \L M Kama- 
yeura (t.). | ^ Gamo (t. ; f. ptr. ; n. swo.), Kamo (t.) ; Gamo-ura ^ (t.), 
-da-no-misaki H ilif (cape), -no-iratsume gp l^ (poetess). | ^[S Kaba(Gama, 
Kama)gori or Kamagori (t.). 1 fQ Kamata (in Yedo). | ^ Hosaka (f.). 

I tS M Kaba-no-kwanja (=Minamoto no Noriyori f| ^). 




453 Fourteen Strokes 

SHI, JI ; maki. maku ('to scatter, sprinkle'). 140. 

[Compare homophones under ^ (p. 266).] | pg Makita (f. ptr.). 
I 1^ makiye (pictorial designs in lacquer) ; makiye-shi ^ (worker at same). 

JLLr SAN. hiru, ninniku (the Garlic, Allium scorodoprasum) . 140. 

'^M^ [Compare fi^ (p. 394).] I tU Hiru-yama (m.), -ta (f.), gj 

-zono (n.). 




^=^ [Simple form : ^.] BO, MO ; MO. komuru (' to receive ' from a 
-^ superior); ktirashi ('dark'). 140. 

I "p "^ taimei no komnri (' by order of the Government '). 

-^^ O ; Shigeru. kuki (' a stalk ') ; shigeru (' to be luxuriant '). 140. 

-gp BO, MO; MO \ haka. tsuka, haka ('a mound, grave'); ... no haka 
^S ('the grave of ... . ') ; Haka (f.). 32. 

^ [Variant: J^.] BAKU, MAKU. tobari, tarenuno ('a curtain'). As 
maku, esp. the fence-like tent-curtain, also 'an act' of a play. 50. 
Surnames : | j^ Maku-uchi, EH -ta (ptr.), ^ -ya. | /^ baku-fii, 
@ -tei (the Shogunal Government), ^ -ri (its officials). 

j^ [Variants: ^, ^.] BO, MU ; Mt/. yume ('a dream'). 36. 
^^^ I ilj Yume-yama (m.), if -no (moor; n.), / f^ ;{^ -no-ukehashi 

(bridge in Kioto; Genji Chapter liv), g^ -suke (zok.), yfj -^ ||j -no-ichibei 
(freelance). I /^ ® ^il) Muso-kokushi (priest). 

Ji^X^ so. aoshi, kusairo (a grey-green colour). 140. 

-^^ I ^ sosei, iami (' the people ', a Chinese phrase, ts'ang sheng) ; 

I !zfe ■? Tamiko (n.). | -^ ^ Sokaiko (Ts'ang-hai-kung, Chin. hero). 

KEN. I ^ kenka ('a rush or reed'). 140. 




~^^ [TO.] Apparently a waji (character 'made in Japan'), but quoted^ 
^^^ in I ^ ^ (Tokankio ?) as a name of the Confucianist Ko Fuyo 

^ ^ ^- Distinguish from the second character in ^ ^ kantan, a poetical 
name for lotus or hibiscus flowers, synonymous with fuyo ^ ^ (p. 287). 

1^1 KO. A species of wormwood (yomogi, Artemisia). 140. 



^^ [Variant: ^.] SA ; mino. mino ('a straw rain-cloak'). 140. 
^^ [Compare ^ (p. 454).] I Mino (f.). | ^ Mino-shima (is.), [If^ -zaki 
(cape), ^ -wa (sub. of Yedoj, g -ta (f.j, ^ -suke, ^t g -maro (n.j. | ^ 
minogame (myth, creat.). 

1 Kano Toshinobu, Honcho Givaka Jiinmei Jisho, Tokio, 1914, p. 226. 



Fourteen Strokes 454 

YO, YU. See ^ p. 287). 140. 



[Contractions: ^, ^.] KAI (GAI), KA; KE. ou ('to cover'); futa 
('a lid'); kedashi ('perhaps'). As kai, a numeral-suffix for hats 
and umbrellas (see p. 40). 108. 

-^l^ KWAI, KE. yugamu (' to be distorted '). Sometimes wrongly used 
■~P* for H (p. 406). 140. 

>gg FUKU, BUKU. yehira ('a quiver'). 118. 

/jK- I Yebira (nickname of Kajiwara Kagesuye ; jovo; no). \ -g- 

Yebira-ga-dake (m.). | M Yebiraze (t.). 

[Variant: ^.] Si\N; (kazu). kazu ('number'); kazoyeru ('to count'). 
As san, 'arithmetic' (see p. 83, init.). 118. 
I A!| Kazu-ma, ^ -ye (n.). | ^ ^ Sankan-muko (kiogen). 

SHU, SHU. hahahi, hoki ('a broom, brush'). 118. 





*tf* I ;:4v Hahakigi (Genji Chapter 11 ; lit. a plant, Kochia scoparia). 

^j^ KWAN. kiida ('a pipe, tube'); tsukasadoru ('to govern'). Compare 

B '^ (p. 279). 118. 

I Kwan (f.). Titles : | fj|| kwan-rei, -vio , ^ \ M naikwanrio. 
I ^_^ kwangen (' wind and strings, an orchestra '). 

SO, SHO. ogi ('a fan'j. 118. 

Kl; MI\ mi, mino-. mi (' winnowing-tray ') ; chiritori ('dustpan'). 118. 

[Compare ^ (p. 453).] I '^ ll] Kimen(Mino)-zan (m.). | "g )\\ 

Mino-gawa (r.j. | j'^ Mi-tsukuri, |^ -nowa (t. ; f.). Other Surnames : 

I M, I >!> I ft iMino; | )]\ MillO-kawa, ^ -wa, H -ta (ptr., met.; 

also Mita), ^ -ura, % -shima, ]^ -wara. 

[Variants: jg], ^.] KA ; KA, KE; {kazu). kazu ('number'). As 
-ka {-ga), a general auxiliary numeral (see p. 40). 118. 

^ TEKI, JAKU. 'Pheasant plumes'. 124. 
^^ I ^ ^ili Tekitenshi (Ti-t'ien-shih, sennin). 

^^ SUl, SAl. midori ('green'). See also the next. 142. 
^ I il Midori-taki (fall). 

^^ HI. I ^ hisiii, kawasemi (the Indian Kingfisher, Alcedo hengalensis), 
^^ Kawasemi (joro). 124. 

^H HAI, BE. 'Plowing robes'. Chinese place and family name (P'ei). 
-^^ 145. I j|;l Haiko (P'ei Hang, sennin). 




455 Fourteen Strokes 

fY^ Contraction of ^ fxxiv). 

^}\ YEI, YO ; saka ; hide, hisa, teru, Sakaye, Hisashi, (naga, yoshi, shige, 
^f^ naka, niasa, haru). hiidevii ('to excel'); sakaye ('splendour, acme'); 
shigeru ('to be luxuriant'). 75. 

[Compare homophones under |5 (p. 237).] | ^^ Saka-ne (t.), ^ -i, 
EB -ta (f.), ;fc -ki (n.). | /jsf Sakaye-mura (t.), HJ -cho (street of Yedo). 

I fH Yei-nin (also read Yoshihito, prince), 'g^ -sai (priest), ^ -shi (jord). 

I ^ £{^ |g Yeigwa Monogatari (history; yeigwa, 'magnificence", referring 
to the Fujiwara regime). | ^ Hide-ko (court-lady). | 4j^ Sazaye {kiogen, 
lit. the Tnvbo shell). 

■^3^ SEI, SAI. muko ('a son-in-law'). 128. 

^^^^ SEI. chikau ('to swear'); chikai ('an oath, pledge'). 149. 
^^ I M ^ Seigwan-ji (tem. ; no). | ^ seimon ('a blood-sealed 

covenant ') ; seimom-barai ^ (fest., 20th of the loth month). 

rnU [Contraction: ^"l].] SEI. tsiikuru, sei-suru ('to make'); tsiikuri ('make, 
'^^ manufacture'). For its use in signatures, see p. 91, med. 145. 

Variant of -^ (p. 460). 

^0^ SHU, JU ; or SHU, JU ; ZU ; {tsumii). atsumeru ('to assemble'); 
:^lv tsuniu ('to accumulate"). 128. 

I m 1^ Ju(Shu)raku[-no]-tei (palace). | ^ Shugei (priest). 

CHO, jO ; Hajime. hajime ('the beginning'). 129. 
I ip cho-nen (the ist month), ^ -s/n7 (the 7th). 

KA; KAN (KEN); (mi, afei). miru, kangamiru ('to inspect, look at). 108. 
-****- I -^ ^^ Ken-no-miobu (poetess). | Jj^ kemmotsu (tit. ; see p. 82, 

j^"0- I S tx kansayaku (' a judge ', esp. of wrestling). 

j^^ HEKI, HIAKU. aoshi, midori ('green, blue-green'). | 3E hekigioku 
■^^ (■ jasper'). 112. 

I f^ Aomi (k. of Mikawa). | )\\ Midorigawa (f.). 

GO. A large dog. 94. 

in* 

S- Synonym of ^ (xv). 75. 






^^ K.\KU, KOKU ; {yoshi, nao). yoshi ('good'); suuao ('straightforward'); 
^l^^ makoto ('the truth'). 61. 



Fourteen Strokes 456 

Trt^ TAI. shiwaza ('occupation'); narifiiri ('shape, look'); wazaio (' inten- 
JeR tionally'). 61. 

^^ YU, YU ; kuma ; [kuma) ; zok., Kuma-, -kuma. kunia ('a bear'j. 86. 
^v\> [Compare ^ (p. 390).] | if Kumano (dist. of Kishu; k. of Tango; 

f . ; in., -san), Yuya (no, compare *^. p. 385). | ^ Kuilia-ge (k. of Suo and 
Osumi), H -so (anct. tribe), (jj -yama (m. ; f.), "^ ilj -to(-tari)-yama (m.). 

Towns : | )\\ Kuma-gawa or -kawa (f.), ^ -ishi, ^ -moto (mod. 
ken; f. ptr.), gg -da (f.), ;|sj' -mura (f.), ^ -gava or -gai (Nakasendo stage 
8 ; f . ; latter as f. ptr., met.), yQ -domari, '{^ -gahora, '^ -kura (f.). Other 
SfRNAMES : I Kuma ; ^ \ Okuma ; /J> | Okuma, Oguma (also n.) ; | ;^ 
Kuma-maru, -t)] -giri. ;^ -ki (met.), ^Y -i, ^ B9 -ida, f^ -shiro (ptr.), 
J±, -nosho, ^ -saka fptr.), ^ -saka (no), ^ -dzu, llf§ -saki, ^ -se, ^ -zawa 
(ptr.)- I M. Kuma-gori (n.;, 3E % -omaru (n., variant for jSJ' ^ %). 

li?B IPE ^^^ ' {hiro, sato, tern). hiroshi ('wide, liberal'). 86. 

ifc»> °^ i>fc> \ If. Hiro-ko (princess). 

^^p Contraction of ^ (xvi). 

^^t SHO, so. tasiiku (' to help ') ; siisumeru (' to encourage '). 37. 

-^^ I ^ 1^ Shogaku-in (anct. nobles' school, directed by Shogakn-in 

no betto ^Ij ^^). 

^^y SHUKU, JUKU. iye ('a house'); as jitku, 'a private school'. 32. 
Contraction of @ (xvi). 






m 

j^^K GEX; Siinao. sunao ('straightforward'). 61. 

1^ or [rtS or X^ tFor other variants, see p. 436.] KIO, KU ; umaya, 
/EA 't;X fWh -mai. iimaya ('a stable'). 53. 

I ;|^ Umaya-bashi (bridge in Yedo; t., now called ^1] |^ Mayebashi). 
I >P ^ "F Umayado-no-oji ( = Prince Shotoku ^ (^,.) 

r^ KWAKU (vulg. KAKU); (hiro). hiraku ('to open'); miinashii ('empty'); 
f^t* oinaru ('large'); hogaraka ('bright'). Distinguish from ]gij (p. 436). 
Sometimes for fp (p. 368). 53. 



j^ CHIN. chiri ('dust'). 32. 



^jv SETSU, SECHI. iafsn, /eirw ('to cut'); yamu ('to stop'). 62. 
I ^ setsudan (' amputation '). 



459 Fifteen Strokes 

^fl^ TETSU, TECHI ; Tdru, (michi). torn ('to penetrate'); itaru ('to 
tnJ\- reach '). 60. 

^&^ CHO, TEL mesu ('to summon'); akiraka ('bright, clear'). Confused 
1^ with i^ (p. 415). 60. 

'fjKj Common contraction of Hf (xvi). 

^|g|* Contraction of ffj as old form of 3^ (p. 437). 144. 

^1^ [Original form : j^.] TOKU, TSUKU (rare) ; TO ; nori, anctly. toko, 
'**^ (nari, yoshi). nori ('rule'). As toku, 'virtue'. 60. 

[Compare also ^^ (p. 355).] I % Toku-no-shima (is.), Tokushima 
(t. ; mod. ken; f.). Other Towns: | )\\ Toku-gawa (f.), ^ -sa (Tokuhisa 
as f.), ^J -yama (f. ptr.), -noyama (anctly. Tokonoyama), 1% -chi, ^ -sa (r.), 
^ -ra, ;^ ^ -jira. ^ \ ^ Daitoku-ji (tern.). Other Surnames: | ^J 
Toku-riki (ptr.), ^ ^ -daiji, ;^ -naga (swo.), ^i, -hiro (ptr.), :^ -moto 
(ptr.), \i\ -de, 09 -da (ptr.), j^ -mura, ^ -mi, [^ -oka, H -mi, ^ -waka 
(sculp.), If^ -no, 1^ -hara, ^ -no (met.), ^ -shuku, ^ -tomi. 

I -^ Toku-ko (Empress), | j,^ "^ Toku-tako, ^ J!g -tari (n.). ;^ | 
daitoku or daitoko (Bud. tit.). 

CHO; tsuma. tamarimidzu ('standing water'). 85. 

CHO. shio, ushio ('time, tide, opportunity'). 85. 

I Ushio, I B9 Ushioda (f.). | ^ Itako (t.). | |li$ Shio-saki or 
lll^ -misaki (cape). | |^ |f^ Shiomi-zaka (street of Yedo). | '^ shiokumi 
('drawing sea-water", to make salt). 

»>fc^ HO, HIO. I M M (SP) % Hoko-ret(-gun)to (the Pescadores Archi- 
•^^ pelago, off Formosa). 85. 

C;fjf| ijjtl SHU, SO ; shibu ; zok., Shibu-. shibu (' persimmon-juice, 

ijfelh °^ ilHE astringent'). 85. 

I ^ Shibotare (t.). | )\\ Shibu-kawa (k. of Kawachi ; t. ; f. met.), 
^ -tami (t.), ^ -ya (dist. of Yedo ; f. met.), -tani (f.), gjj -maye or -kuma 
(t.), ^ -i, \£ -ye, 'J'Sf -kawa, ^ -sawa (f.), |{^ ^ -kami-an (art-name). 

y^ TAN, TON (DON). fuchi ('a whirlpool, deep pool'). 85. 

*)M ^^^^^' SHAKU. feato (' a bay ' in the West, ' a lagoon ' m the North). 
V^ 85. I BX Kata-machi (t.), Ji -garni (f.). 

jYil CHIKU. Chinese river-name, Chu. 85. 








Fifteen Strokes 460 

or *jS^ [Other variant: ')^.] SEN, SAN; Hisomu. kadzuku ('to 
• *-■ dive'); hisomu ('to lie hid'). 85. 

>iCF/l [\'ariant: |^.'| KETSU, KECHI ; KE ; kiyo, Kiyoshi, {hisa). kiyoshi, 
•^ isagiyoshi ('pure'). 85. 

CHO ; sumi; sumi, Sumeri. sumu ('to be pure, clear'); sumeru (adj.). 
85. [Compare homophones under ^ (p. 233).] | ]\\ Sumi-kawa, 
B9 -da (f.). I % # Chokwan no haha (poetess). 

VBH -^^^' ^^^' ^'^"' ^"'"^" '•'^^ ^^ moist'). 85. 
"J I EB Uruida (t.). | iH Jumpio (n. poets). 

Vp3 KAN, KEN (GEN). tani (' a valley ') ; tanimidzu (' a canon '). 85. 

^f§ SO, ZO. ni/jMmw ('to hate'). 61. 

|j0j| HAN (BAN or MAN), HON; HA; hata ; {hata). hata, hatajirushi 
i^W ('a flag, banner'). 30. 

[Compare ^Bl (P- 299), ^ (339), ]g (442).] Kori : | ^ Ha-ta (Tosa), 
g -dzu (Mikawa ; t.), ^ -ra or -tara (Musashi). /J^ | Obata (t. ; f. ptr., 
met.), Kohata (f. met.). Other Surnames : | )\\ Hata-gawa, ^ -i, M -ya, 
^ -kake, £f -no, ^ -gama. | |>j@ 1% Banzui-in (nickname). 

SHI. Same meaning. 50. | fn Takahito (prince). 

SO, ZO ; SO ; masu, mashi ; masu, (naga) ; 20k., Masu-. masu (' to 

add, increase'). 32. 

[Compare ^ (p. 337), 5^ (173), i^ (326).] | B9 Masuda or Mashida 

ft.; former as f. ptr., met.). | Ji ^ Zoj6-ji (tem.). Other Surnames: 

I ^ Masvi-ko (met. ; also Mashiko), ^J -yama (ptr.), J^ -to, ^f -i, ^ -mi, 

|>bJ" 5M -ami (Zoami as f. or n. sculp. j, [^ -oka, |ll| -jima, gf -no (also 

Mashino), ^ -ki, ^^ -zawa, ^ -o. | ^ Zocho (d., see p. loi, 39). 

I ^ MasTl-jo (mask name), ^ -haru (joro), ^ -kagami (history). 







FUN, BUN. tsuka ('a mound'); tsutsumi ('a dike'). 32. 

KAI, GE. i ^ Kaikoku (n., from Hsieh-ku, Chin, valley). 46. 
|I(§ KIO, GIO; (taka). takashi ('high'). 46. 
|Ili| RI^'• kewashii ('steep'). 46. 





461 Fifteen Strokes 

)^ SATSU, SACHI; or SAI, SE. tsumamu ('to pinch, take a pinch of). 
As saisu, a measure of capacity (see p. 65). 64. 

HA (BAN); HA. shiku ('to spread'); makii ('to sow, scatter'). 64. 
I ^ Harima (pr. ; f.). I ^'j Banshu (same pr. ; B. Sone no 
Matsu -f* ;ff< 0) /j^, joruri). \ ^ Harimoto (f.). 

-Mit BU (MU), HO ; (yasii). naderu, nadzu (' to stroke, fondle, pity, 
Jiku pacify '). 64. 

I )\\ Natsukawa, | ^ Muya (t.). | ^ nadeshiko (the Carnation, 
Dianthus siiperbus). 

HAKU, BOKU. utsu ('to strike'). 64. 







SEN; Yeramii. yeramu, yerabu ('to choose'); sen-suru ('to compose'; 
^ read sen-su after an author's name). | ^ seiisha ('author'). 
Interchanged with jg (xvi). 64. 

TAN, DAN; (tada). hajiku ('to jerk, spring'); tadasu ('to correct'); 
hiku ('to play' on a musical instrument). As dan, also 'a bullet, 
projectile, pill '. 57. 

I Dan (f.). /J^ I JE Kodanjo (f. ptr.). | ^ Dankin or Kotobiki 
ijoro) ; Kotobiki-yama ^j (m.), -bashi ;f^ (bridge in Kioto). | ]£ Danjo 
(see p. 84). I Mj Tamba (see p. 86). 

SHO. usobuku ('to whistle, roar like a tiger'). 30. 

Common but less correct form of ^ below. 170. 

. KI ; (yoshi). ureshi ('lovely'); tanoshiniii ('to enjoy'). 38. 

>t=» I 2f Ureshino (t. pottery). | ^ Ki-shi, Yoshi-ko (Empresses). 

W SEN, ZEN. taoyaka ('beautiful'). 38. 

i in 4 senkengwa ('elegant pictures, fashionable illustrations'). 

SHO, JO. momi (a fir, Abies firma). 75. 

[Compare |^ (p. 303).] I |il Momiyama (f.). 

KI ; tsuki. keyaki, tsuki (a tree, Zelkowa keaki). 75. 

[Compare }^ (p. 183), ^ (408), H (xvi).] | ;^ Tsuki-noki (t.), 
;$: -moto (f.), ^ -ko (poetess). :^ | Otsuki (t. ; f. ptr.j. /h | Odzuki (f.). 

■||j^ HIO ; Meate, {kata, suye). shivushi (' a sign, mark, token '). 75. 
I^^li I H Shiba (k. of Oshu; f.); Shideba, Shineba or Shikiha (same k.). 








Fifteen Strokes 462 

CHO.^ As cho or shinju (jjil{l Iff), the Ailanto, Japan Varnish or Tree 
of the Gods, Ailantus glandulosa. Connotation in names, ' a useless 
tree ', self-humiliative. 75. 

+:il SHO. kusu no ki (the Camphor Tree). Compare ;fj§ (p. 418-9). 75. 
l-^ I M ■?■ Kusu no Iwate (hist. pers.). 

-^"^ TAN ; or TEN, DEN. madoka, marushi (' round ') ; hitsugi-kuruma 
^^T' ('wheel of a coffin'). 75. | Pf. Kurumabayashi (f.). 

+.^ RO, RU ; RO, RU. takadono ('second storey, tall building'). As ro, 
I^^C an ending for art-names (see p. 69) also a substitute for ^ -ya in 
names of brothels. 75. 

I P^ 'M Romon-no-taki (fall). | _E 7'ojd (' on the second storey '), 

■tM^ YO. sama (' manner, form, appearance, style ') ; -sama, less politely 
l^iv -san, colloquial honorific suffix to names of persons and even of 
thmgs. Confused with ^ (xvi) with the on sho. 75. 
I ^ yoshi ('appearance, countenance'). 

Entered as a i6-stroke character. 



/o- 





t|| KIX, KON (GON). Asagao (for f^ H, Genji Chapter xx). 

(No on) ; kashi, kashiwa. kashi (a species of oak) ; | ^fc or ^ TJC 

katagi (general name for oaks). Confused with ^f^ (p. 298). [75.] 

[Compare also /|§ (xvii).] | ^ ]\] Kashi-yama (m.). 1 Tfc llfr 

Kashiki-toge (pass). I ^ Kashii, | yfc ]^ Katagibara (t.). Surnames : 

I ;jsj- Kashi-mura, ]^ -bara ; | E9 Kashiwa-da, ^ -ya, if -no (met.). 

TO, TSU ; hi. hi, toi ('a spout, tap'); toyit ('a gutter'). 75. 

[Compare homophones under (p. 184).] | ;f^ |l| Hioke-zan (m.). 

I gg Hida (t. ; f.). -j^ \ 0]" Ohimachi (dist. of Kanazawa, pot.). Other 

Surnames : | jl| Hi-gawa, H -guchi (ptr., sculp. ; n. swo.), -nokuchi, 

7R -dzume, jtH -bata, SFf -no. | P ^ ^ Higuchi-saigu (princess). | CD 

M Hi no Sake {kiogen). 

Synonym of ,^. (p. 373). 91. 





M^ 



l^ft HO. nogan (the Great Bustard, Otis tarda). 96. 
1^'^ I Ho (? f. sculp.). 

^ This is the accepted on readinjr for names and in ordinary language, and is borne out by 
its Chinese original, ch'u in the Peking dialect. Several Japanese dictionaries, however, unaccountably 

give KWA, KE. 






463 Fifteen Strokes 

J^ SHO, SO; [aki). tama ('a gem'). 96. | -^ Tama-ko (Empress). 

SHITSU, SHICHI. hiza ('the knee 'j. 130. | -tJJ % Hiza-kiri- 
-maru (sword), ^ :^ -kurige (novel, ' Shanks's Mare'). 

TO. T'eng, ancient Chinese state. 130. 

SHOKU. SEKI. Chinese surname (Chi) and name of God of Agricul- 
ture (^ I Koshoku, Hou Chi). 115. 
I _£ ^ Shokkiukun (Chi Ch'iu-chiin, sennin). 

[Contraction: ^fig.] TO; TA ; ine, ina- ; (ina-, ine) ; 20k., Ina-. ine 
(the Rice Plant, Orysa sativa). 115. 
I Ht Ina-shiki (mod. k. of Hitachi), ^ -ba (mod. k. of Mino ; t. ; 
f. ptr., met. ; n.), f^ ]\i -sa-yama (m.), yj^ -^ |1|$ -mura-ga-saki (cape), TJC )\\ 
-gi-gawa (r.). | :^ ^ jlj Inozawa-gawa (r.). 

Other Towns : | ^ Ina-go, ^f -i (f.), ^ -fu (Ino as f. and cape, 
-zaki |I^), E9 -ta (-da as f. ptr., met.), illJ -ji, "§ -yoshi, ^ -o, '^ -tori, 
[^ -oka (f. ptr.), ^ -kusa, ^ -niwa (formerly -ba), Wf J^ -nobe (f.), ^ -ri 
(tern. ; see also below), ^ ^^ -riyama, ^ [Sj -rioka, ^ -ki or -gi (inagi as 
anct. tit.), ^ -do, ^ ^J -bayama (now Gifuj, ^ -hashi, ^ -o. \ :^ ^ 
Inamoto-ya (brothel). 

Other Surnames: I ^f JB. Inenoya ; | jlj Ina-gawa (met., lacq. ; n. 
wrestler), p -to, "^ -ge, :^ -ki, -gi (ptr.), ;^ -moto (met.), ^ -tsugi, 
j^ -mura, H -mi, |^ -nobe, ^ -dzu (met.), jg -gaki (ptr.), ^ -jima, 
■j^ -dome, ^ -kake, |Il§ -zaki, if -no, |j| -uye, ^ -tomi, f| -guma, 
•^^ -zawa. 

I '^ [^ ^M #] Inari[-daimiojin] (d.). | ffl Tochu (see p. 112, init.). 
I 7^ Ina-to, @ -me, ;^ -shiki fn.). /\\ \ Koine [joro). | 3<Ij ina-kari 
('the rice harvest'), ^ -dzuma ('lightning', for ^). 

KO. lyara ('straw'); shitagaki ('an original MS. or drawing'). 115. 

KA, KE. tanatsumono ('cereals'). 115. 

._^ [Variant: ^.J KEI, KAI. kangayeru ('to study'). 115. 

I ^ '^ Keibunkwai (sculp). | "^ keiko (' practice, exercise, a 
lesson'). 

KAKU, KOKU. katashi ('hard, firm'). 112. 









Fifteen Strokes 464 

KO, go. shiroshi ('white'); akiraka ('bright'). 106, 

HAKU, BIAKU ; {yoshi, ai). tamashii ('a spirit'). 194. 

Ijli BEI, MIO. nemuru ('to sleep'); mekura ('blind'}. 109. 

^t?: KO, KU. tsukaito (the wrapping on a sword-hilt). 120. 
^^V\ I j[ij ^ Kosenko (Hou-hsien-ku, sennin). 

SHO, SO. moyegi (a light green colourl. 120. 

^ TAN. I ^ donsu ('silk brocade'); Donsu-daijin ^ ^ (nicknamej, 
/fi^^ 120. 

TEI, TAI. shimeru (' to tighten, add up ') ; shimaru (' to be tight,, 
fastened, strict'); shimari ('discipline'). 120. 

Pt - - 

SHU, SO; {-tsugu). tsudzuku ('to continue'). 120. 






u 





YEN;- [yovi). heri, fuchi fa border, rim, collar'); yoru ('to depend 
on'); yukari ('relationship, a relative'); yenishi ('connection, con- 
sanguinity, the marriage tie'). Distinguish from ^^ (p. 344). 120. 
I Yenishi [joro). | Q yennichi ('a festival day'). 

^^ SEN. itosuji ('a thread, line'). As sen, 'wire'. Distinguish from ||^ 
9^ (p. 445, 1. I, where |,^ has been printed in error). 120. 




^^ REN. nevu ('to temper,- train'). 120. 





I Mj Neri-ma (t.), i^ -ki (f.). 

SHO, SO; 0; 0, {-tsugu). itoguchi ('an end of thread, fons et origo')'r 
('a thong, tying-cord'). 120. 
I :fj O-gata (f. ptr.), B3 -da, PJ -ake, ^ -gata (f.). 

HEN. amu ('to weave, compose, compile'). After an author's name. 
I 1^ henshu ('compiled by, edited by'); | ^ hensha ('compiler, 

editor, author'). 120. 

« 

iamt I- odoshi (' armour-lacing 'j. 120. | jf§ Ito (f.). 

KAN, KEN. tojiru ('to sew, bind [as a book]'). 120. 

^^^ KI ; tern; zok., Teru-. teyu, hikaru ('to shine'). 159. 
^ I Oteru (f.). I -^ Teru-ko (poetess). 





4^5 



Fifteen Strokes 






KA, KE. yebi (general name for shrimps, prawns, lobsters and 

crayfish). 142. 

[Compare the combination '/^ ^ (p. 322).] | ^ Yezo (is., division 
of Japan now called Hokkaido ; also, formerly, the northern provinces of 
the Main Island) ; Yezo, Yebisu, Yemisu (the Ainu race) ; Yemishi (n., Soga 
1^0 ^^■)- I W. Yebihara (f.). | ^ gama ('a toad'); Gama-kutsu ^ (n.), 
-sennm j|lj A ('the Toad Rishi'). 

CHO, JO. As cho (in western), chocho (in eastern Japan), also, generally, 
^ I or $^ I kocho, 'a butterfly'. 142. 

HEN. I j^g hempukii, komori, 'a bat'. 142. 

HI. soshiru ('to calumniate'). See also ^|^ (p. 319). 149. 

^flrt SHU (SU). toil ('to enquire'); hakaru ('to measure'). 149. 
Wv^ I ^ Suwa (k. of Shinano ; f. sculp., met.; lake, -ko \^\; m., -yama^ 

-ga-dake ; tem., -no-jinja Jlt) ; Suwa-no-dai ^ (place near Yedo) ; Suwa-be 
n|S (f.) ; T I %ji Shimo-[no-]suwa (t., Nakasendo stage 29). 

KVVA. 'Taxation, a task, a government bureau'. 149. 

3^ RON. arasoii ('to discuss'). As ron/a. debate' (see p. 100, 31). 149. 
Pnil I gg Ronden (t.). | |§ Rongo (Lun Yii, Chin, classic, the 

Analects of Confucius). 

^/^ SUI, ZUI (ZAI); [tada). tare, iaso ('who?'); taga ('whose?"). 149. 





gl^ 



I Ift Tagasode (joro). 
gtjl RiO ; {aki, niasa). makoto ('the truth'); tasiike ('aid'). 149. 



i^*> 



rtfl G^ 5 {yoshi) ; zok., Yoshi-. yoroshii ('good'). 149. 



_ SEI, SHO. iikeru (' to rent, redeem, reclaim ') ; kou (' to ask for, 
PnJ petition 'j. 149. 

I iill Ukiji (dist. of Yedo, 'reclaimed land'; f.). | }\\ Ukegawa (f.). 

^jj^ TAN (DAN), TON; Katari. katavau ('to confer'). As dan, 'a 
conference'. 149. 
I ^ Dampo (m., = To-no-mine ^ ^ ^', also called | -^ Katarai- 
-no-mine, ' Conference Peak '). | ^ P^ Dantemmon (gate of Kioto). 

■^M CHO, JU ; Mitsugi, {tsiigi-, -tsugu). totonau (' to adjust ') ; shiraberu 
B'RJ ('to judge, investigate, play an instrument'); tsuki, miisugi ('a 

tax'). As cho, 'a musical note'. 149. 

30 








Fifteen Strokes (g^, contd.) 466 

I ^ 3i jil Chobu no Tama-c^awa (see p. 104, 59j. Surnames : I 

Tsuki (T. no Ikina ^ ^ ff, liist. pers.) ; I ^ Tsukadzuki ; | =^ Cho-shi, 
Jjff -sho. II I ^ Socho-no-kimi (= Minamoto no Nobuyoshi j$ ^, mus.). 
I ^j^ chobukii ('performing incantations against'). 

RiO. Auxiliary numeral for carriages (see p. 40). 159. 

RIN ; WA ; \va. wa (' a circle, ring, wheel, link of chain, hoop ') ; 

megiiYu ('to revolve'). 159. 
[Compare ^p (p. 269).] | % Wajima (t. lacq. ; f.). | fQ Wada 
or ;;;^ I [5 Owada (old name for Hiogo, t.) ; | B3 ^ Watamaru (n. poet). 
I I ^ Rmno-ji (tem.). I ^ Waza (f.). | ^ Rinzo {no, lit. the Bud. 
revolving bookcase). 

^ SHO, SHU. nosevu ('to impose, record, impose upon'). 159. 
TO. fumu ('to tread on'). 157. 

KIC), KO. udzukumaru (' to crouch '). 157. 

[Contraction: g^.] SUI, SAT. you ('to be drunk'). 164. | if 
siii-chu (' in a drunken fit '), J -gwa (' drawn while in drink '). 

SHUX, JUN ; atsii, Atsushi. atsushi ('thick'); kiyoshi ('pure'). 164. 

SHI. tamau ('to bestow, grant'). 154. 

SEN; (shidzu). shidzu, iyashii ('mean, humble'). 154. 

[Compare ^ (xvi).] | -g- Shidzu-ga-take (m.). | )(^ Shidzu-hata 
(t. pottery), / ^ -noo {jovo). 

JO, SO: ZO; isuki). siiki ('a spade'). 167. | f|Jj Suki-ye, -gara (f.). 
^zp TO, JO. 'To sharpen or polish a sword-blade'. 167. 

^K3 YEI ; {toshi). toshi, surudoshi ('sharp, quickwitted'). 167. 

HO, FU ; sliiki ; nobu, {harii). shiku, haru ('to spread'); noberu ('to 
extend'). Compare HJ; (p. 468). 167. 

Jl, NI. ye, yeba ('food for animals, bait'). 184. 

I ^g Ye-sashi or -zashi (t.), ^ -|" 3E -zaslii-juo (kiogen). 

n| SHO, SO. kare-ii ('rations of dried boiled-rice'). 184. 












A!^ - 





467 Fifteen Strokes 

j^L HEI, BIO. mochi ('a rice-cake'). 184. 

R/T [Compare homophones under ^ (p. 379).] | M Mochi-ya, jj^ 

-hara (f.), '{^ -zake {kidgen). 

AN; kura. kura ('a saddle'). 177. 

[Compare -^ (p. 340), ^ (xviii).J | ^ Kura-te (k. of Chikuzen), 

ma (t. ; m. and tem., -yama; Kurama-tengu ^ ^^, no), ^ -oka, ^ -kake, 

-chi, ^ -nuki (f.). | f^ bJS <^ Kuratsukuribe no Tori (ptr. and sculp.). 

KU ; koma ; konia; zok., Koma-. koma ('a colt, pony'). 187. 
*^^!^ I iS- Koma-dake, ^ ^ -ga-take (m.), jA -gome (dist. of Yedo ; 

Komagome-Fuji 'g ^, m.), ]^ -ga-hara (moor), |!^ -ga-saki (cape), -zaki 
(f.), ^ -kata (t.), -gata (f.), ^ ^ -gata-do (tem.), i^ -mba (t.), -ba (f.), 
M 2? -ba-no (moor near Yedo), fp) -kai (t., Koshukaido stage), -^ ^ 
-dome-bashi (bridge in Yedo). 

Other Surnames : /]> I Kogoma ; | 'J^ Koilia-gi, 7[c f^ -gii^e, ^ -i 
(met., ptr.), 03 ~da (ptr.), if -no, 'l^ -zawa (ptr.). | 3i At Komao-maru 
(= Minamoto no Yoshinaka ^ ■fl'). 

SHU, SHU. shiwa, shibo ('wrinkles, folds'). 107. 
I f.ij" Shiwajo (mask). 
[g^* 0,0. /mfeu ('to vomit'). 76. | ,^ E. Yoroppa, | ^4H Oshu ('Europe'). 
11^;^^ Oyoyeishiku (Ou-yang Yung-shu, Chin. sage). 

KI, KE ; {take, kata), Takeshi, TsuyosJii. takesJii (' brave ') ; tsuyoshi 

(' firm, strong 'j. 79. 
FU, HO; FU ; shiki ; {nobu, shlki) ; zok., Shiki-. shiku ('to spread'); 

shiki ('area, extent'). 66. 
[Compare ^ (p. 230) and ^ (466J.] | ^ Shikishima (pillow-word 
or synonym for Yamato pr., also for the whole of Jajian ; from Shikishima 
^i M ^, early cap.); Sh.-no-michi j^, 'Japanese poetry'. | ^ Shikichi 
(k. of Totomi) ; Fuchi (same k. ; r.). | 09 Shiki-da, ;jsj- -mura, ^ -mi, 
^^ -ne (f.). I i^ P^ |5c Fusei-monin (Empress). 

SHU, SU ; SU ; kazu; (kazu, Jiira); zok., Kazu-. kazoyerii ('to count'). 
As SU or kazu, 'number' (sfi- or su-, 'several'); as su, also 
' mathematics ' (in full, | Jg sii-ri or ^ -gakii). 66. 

I ^ M. sukiya ('a room for the Tea Ceremony'); Sukiya-cho, -machi BJ, 
-gashi ^nj f^, streets of Yedo. | J^ juzu, zuzu ('a rosary'); Juzu-ya ^ 
(f. met.). I U Suwara (f.). | # Kazu-i, fll -ye, ^ -mi (f.), Mj [m 
-ma[nosuke] (see p. 86), ^ -ye (n.). 

TEKI, JAKU. ada, kataki ('an enemy'). 66. 
I %^ adaueki (' a vendetta '). 








hj^ 



Fifteen Strokes 468 




^ 



GWAN. Used for U (p. 267). 124. 

FU, HO. mugikasu ('wheat bran'). 199. 
I /^. PTf Fuya-cho (street of Yedo). 



SL^ YEI, YO; [kage). kage ('an image, reflection'); hibiki ('an echo'). 59. 
^n^ [Compare ^ (p. 399) and j^ (470).] I 'g it Kage-Fuji (iMt. 
Fuji as seen mirrored in Lake Hahone). | |.Ll Kageyama (m.). | f.^ 
kageye ('a shadow-picture, silhouette'). 

■*^*^ TEI, CHO. nengoro ('politeness'). As Tei, Cheng, anct. kingdom 



lis 




H 




of China. 163. 

I Tei (f. early Korean potters in Satsuma). | }^ yjj Teiseiko (Cheng 
Ch'eng-kung, = Kokuseiya or Watonai, Chin. hero). Sennin : | ,© Ja 
Tei-shiyen (Cheng Ssu-yiian), ^ jjiS -zempuku (Ch'iian-fu). 

TO, DO (DZU). Chinese place and family name. 163. 

Sennin : | :^^ To-iku Teng Yii), f^ jt -hakugen (Po-yiian). 

[Common form: [^.] RIN ; RI ; chika, Chikashi. tonari ('a neigh- 
bour'); chikashi ('near'). 163. 

[Variants: ^Jl, ^J KEN; {-akira). tsurugi ('a sabre'). 18. 

I ^J Ken-zan or Tsurugi -yama (m.), Tsurugizan (n. wrestlers). 
I ^ ^ Ken-ga-mine (summit of Mt. Fuji). | ^ Kenyoshi (t.). | (B^ 
Tsurugi -zaki (cape), ^^ -ike (lake). 

f.l Rin, RU. korosti ('to slay'). 18. 
J I Riu (f. ptr.). Chinese Emperors : I ^[5 Riu-ho (Liu Pang), 

^ -bi (Pei) or ^ ^, -gentoku (same as Gentoku; see ^, p. 199, also p. 99, 
20). Sennin : | -^ Riu-jo (Liu Nii), ^ -an (An), ^ -kei (Ching), -^ -^ 
-kigaku (Hsi-yo), j^ -shin (Ch'en), ^ '^ -shogen (Ch'u-hsiian), jpj -ko 
(Kang). 




ill 



GEKI, GIAKU. hanahada (' excessively ') ; tawamureru (' to act in a 
play'). 18. I J^ gekijo, shihai ('the theatre'). 



;55j [Contraction: ^.] YEI, YE. satoshi ('clever, sagacious'). As yei-y 
'relating to the Emperor'. 29. 
I ^J Yei-zan same as ]:t; | |U (see yt, P- i^5)- 




I 

* _ 

SHO. sora ('the sky'). 173 



^i RAI, RE. koishi ('gravel'). 112. 



469 



Fifteen Strokes 



fe|^ SHIN; {navi). furu ('to shake'). As shin, one of the hakke (p. 107, 



M 



76). 173. I ;§■ Furui-iwa (rock), illi | jishin ('an earthquake'}. 



lyl BOKU, MOKU. sumi ('ink', in solid cakes and esp. black). 32. 
• "^» [Compare homophones (Sumi-) under ^ (p. 233).] | Sumi (f.). 



I (or P^) EH j'l Sumida-gawa (r.); | 7X Bokusui (same r.) ; | tC Bokko 
(in Musashi a name for the Sumida River, in Settsu for the town Sumiyoshi 
'(£ ^1, Suminoye, Sumiye (f. met.). | J^ Sunomata (t.). | || Bokuteki 
(Mo Ti, sennin). \ ^ ^ Suminosuke (n. pot.). | ^ ^ Suminuri-onna 
ikiogen). I It, I 4 sumiye ('a black-and-white drawing'). 

RO ; RO, RU. oroka (' foolish '). As Ro, Lu, anct. kingdom of 
China. 195. 




m 




\w 




Common variant of ^ (p. 449). 

Contraction of ^ (^^vi). 

HO. homerii (' to praise '). 145. | ^ Ho-shi (Empress) 



Script variant of ^ (p. 436). 

SHIN; {aki, shige). kotogotoku ('altogether'); akivaka ('bright'); 
tsumabiraka ('detailed, evident'). 40. 

SHA. iitsusu ('to copy,^ design'); utsushi ('a copy'). See p. 91, 
med., and compare ^ (p. 471). 40. I ^ shashin ('a portrait', 
'from nature', later 'a photograph'; shashin-kid ^, ' a portraying mirror', 
now ' camera '). | |.§ iitsushiye (' a picture '). 

RiO; (tomo, iye). tomogara ('companions'). As rid, a class of govern- 
ment bureau (see p. 82). 40. 

m[The lower dot often (wrongly) omitted.] KW'WN ; hiro, Hiroshi, 
Yiitaka, [chika, tomo). hiroshi ('wide, liberal'); yiitaka ('abundant'); 
yuruyaka (' easy-going, merciful '). 40. 

I ^ ^ Kwanyei-ji (tem.). | ^ Hiro-ko (Empress), | X Hirondo, 
Hiroto (n.). Nengo : | fn Kwan-nin (]Oi7-2o), jt -gen (1243-46); | ^ 
Kwambun (1661-72J ; | ^ Ivwan-yei (1624-43), ^^ -ko (1004-11); | ^ 
Kwampio (889-897) ; | J£ Kwan-sho (1460-65), J^ -yen (1748-50), ;^ -ji 
(1087-93), ^p -wa, -na (985-986); | ^ Kwampo (1741-43); | i^ Kwan-sei 
(1789-1800), g -ki, -gi (1229-31), i{i -toku (1044-45). 




' Tlie Japanese word does not necessarily imply imitation, except in so far as a drawing from 
nature may be described as an imitation thereof. 



Fifteen Strokes 470 

-^^^ or -^.^ YO, YU. kamado ('a furnace, potterv-kiln '). 116. 



i BAI, ME; ME. uru ('to sell"); -uri ('a seller of . . . '). 154. 

I ^ ll" Bai-sa-o (priest), M 6P -shuro (ptr.). 1 j| ^ baibai- 
fei»2tt (' not for sale '). 

RAI, REI. tamaii ('to bestow, reward'). 154. 
SEKI, SHAKU. itamu ('to grieve'). 61. 




*^* SHO ; (yoshi). yomi-surit ('to prize, esteem'); tamau ('to bestow'); 
-^^ tamamono ('a reward'). 154. | § yukimi ('snow-viewing'). 

B§| SHI; HA, YO. ha ('a tooth, cog'); toshi, yowai ('age', see p. 42). 211. 





i YO ; YA ; -kai ; {kai, yoshi, yasu) ; see also Examples. kaii, yashinau 
('to feed, rear'); kai ('feeding, one who feeds animals'; compare "^ 
p. 448); sodateru ('to maintain, educate'). 184. 

KoRi: I 3C Yabu (Tajima and Hizen; so in naiiori and as sofe. -initial; 
as yofu, 'a foster-father'); | ^ Yoro (Mino, mod.; nengo, 717-724; no; fall, 
-ga-taki '^| ; Yoro-sui 7jC, kiogen). \ ^ ^ Yoken-do (clan-school). | £9 
Yo-da (f.), |jBI 5M -ami (n.), ^p -wa [nengo, 1181 ; Yowa-tei ^, = Antoku, 
I2ist Mikado). | ^ yosan, kogai ('sericulture'); Kogai-no-yashiro jfrl: (tern.). 
I "?■ yoshi, -^ -jo ('adopted son, daughter'). 

IN, ON; (kage). ou ('to cover'); kage ('shade, shadow, shelter'). 140. 
[Compare ^ (p. 468).] | ]\\ Kageyama (f. met.). ^J | # 
okagemaivi ('pilgrimage to the Ise Shrines'). 

SHO, SO. komo, makomo (the Indian Rice or \Vater Oats, Zizania 
aquatica). 140. [Compare ^ (p. 406), ^ (xvir).] | '^ Komoike (f.). 

SHO, SO. aomono ('vegetables'). 140. 

HO, BU ; Shitorni. shitomi ('a door hinged above or below'). 140. 
Wl^ I Shitomi (f.). | ijj Buzan (n.). 

t* BAN, MAN. tsuYii ('a vine, climbing plant'). 140. 
I H M Tsurudzuta-ya (brothel). 

BO, MO; MO. knrerii ('to set, darken, end'); kure ('sunset, end of 

a season'); kurasii ('to spend time, make a living'). 72. 
/J> I Kogura (t. ; f.), Kogurashi (f.). I ^, I E, I ^, I ^, 
see p. 47. I ^ kuregata ('evening'). | ^ bosetsu (see p. 107, 79, 2). 
I ^ bora (same as komuso; see J^, p. 412). 








-f-^ 





471 Fifteen Strokes 

**^ BO, MO; MO. kou, shitau, koinegau ('to love, desire, long for"). 6i. 

I ^ ^ Tsumagoi-ishi (rock). 
±4 




1^ [Not same as ^^.] BO, MO; \L0. igata, utsushi ('a copy'); utsusu 
(' to copy '). Used like '^J (p. 469). 64. 
I M mo-yo ('pattern, design'), i^ -20 ('copy, counterfeit'). 

"^J|* CHO ; tsuta. iswta (the Cissus Vine, C. Thunbergii). 140. 

^^ I ;iC Tsuta-ki (t. ; f.), ^ -ya (brothel ; f. publishers), ^.0 jg [-no]- 

-hosomichi (place in Suruga ; art-subject), ;^ -moto, j^ -zawa (f.). 

=**^ SHUN, JUN ; Nunaiva. nunawa (a plant, the Water Shield, Brasenia 
peltata). 140. 

RiO ; or ROKU. fade (the Smartvveed or Water Pepper, Polygonum 
sp.). 140. 

;A^ SAI, SA. As Sai, Ts'ai, anct. kingdom of China. 140. 

>^^ I )l[| Sai-jun (Ts'ai Shun, paragon), ^ -kei Ch'iung, sennin), ^ jll| 

-josen (Nii-hsien, sennin). 

HO, FU (BO). yomogi, utayomogi (the Fleabane, Erigeron sp., or the 
Mugwort, Artemisia). 140. 
I ^ Horai (f. ptr. ; n. ; ^o/e. -initial; contraction of Horai-san ilj, myth, 
m., Chin. P'eng-lai-shan, 'Elysium'). | ^ Hokiu (P'eng Ch'iu, sennin). 
I M Yomoginoya (art-name). | ^ Yomogiu {Genji Chapter xv). 

REN; hasu, hachisu; {hasu). hasu, hachisu (the Sacred Lotus, Nelumbium 
speciosum). 140. 

I ^ (less correctly 1^) renge ('lotus-blossom'); Renge-zan iJj (m.), 
-ji ^ (tem.). I J rendai (the 'lotus throne' of Bud. images); Rendai-ga- 
-hara ]^ (plain). | ^ Hasu-no-ko (lake). Towns : | pg Hasu-da (f.), 
^ -ike (f.) or -noike, fg -numa (f.). | ^ Hachisuba, | j| Hasumi (f.). 
I jm Rennio (priest, -shonin Ji A)- I H [M] Rena[mi] (n.). | ^ 
Hasumitsu (swo.). 

SHO, SO. hako ('a box'). 118. 

I (for jij) ^^ Hakone (t.) ; H. Reigen Izari no Kataki-uchi @ ,^ 
^ iX M {jovuri ; izari means 'cripple'). | |l|^ Hako-saki (cape), Hakozaki 
(t. ; f. met.). | ^ Hako-ba (f.), 3i Mj -omaru (boy-name of Soga 
Tokimune). 

SETSU, SECHI ; YO ; Misao, {toki, take, jushi, yo). toki ('a point of 
time ') ; jushi (' a joint, knot of a tree, node of bamboo, musical 
tone or air'); yo ('a node or internode of baml^oo'); misao ('chastity'). As 
setsu, also 'fidelity, patriotism, a festival'. 118. 






Fifteen Strokes (fn, contd.) 472 

\ ¥i: f^l '^ Fushimatsu-no-kaka (comic poetess). | ^ sechiye (' a 
festival'). | ^ sekku (the five great festival days or sechinichi \ ; see 
p. 103, 56). I ^ setsubun, | ^ sekki ('New Year's Eve'; former as 
kiogen title) ; \ ^ ^ sekizoro (New Year street mummers, named from their 
cry)- I M seppu (' a chaste woman, faithful wife '). | j^ setsu-yo 
('economy'), ^ -moku ('table of contents'). 

.^^ HAN, HON; (nori). nori ('law'); nottoru ('to imitate'). 118. 
"^C* I ^p Nori-ko (Empress). 

>^f^ TEN. The archaic 'seal-script', tensho \ ^. 118. 
^^ I 1^ Tempeki (n. calligrapher). 

'^p KO (K\VO),0; Takamura. takamura ('a clump of bamboos, thicket') ; 
~*"" * Takamura (f.). 118. 

CHO. /ias/zi ('a chopstick'). 118. 

[Compare ;f^ (p. 478).] | ^ Hashi-o (f.), ^ ^ -kura-ji (tern.). 

SEN, ZEN; ya. ya ('an arrow'). 118. 




nU [Compare homophones under ^ (p. 196).] | gg Ya-ta (t.), 

P -guchi or -nokuchi (clan). | g] Yamabukizono ^ (n. poet). 



■i Incorrect form of |^ (xvi). 




^^^ HEN; HE. amu ('to weave, compile'). Compare |^ (p. 464). 118. 
/TO ^] I shohen, ZL I n'lhen, H I samhen ('Vol. I, II, III'), etc. 

^^ Contraction of ^| (xvi). 30. 

5^ REN. teguruma ('Imperial palanquin'). | ^ rendai (platform for 





carrying tra^•ellers over the Oi-gawa and other rivers). 159. 

SHITSU, SHICHI; {tada, moto). iachi. umaretsiiki ('nature, character'). 
As shichi, ' a pledge '. Used as a complex form (not alternatively 
in names) of ^, 'seven'. 154. 

i^vft KEI, ^'E. satosu ('to know'); kaoyoshi ('handsome'). 61. 
^^* I W ^ Yerin-ji (tem.). | ^ Yegen (priest). 

;^H KA (GA), KE. noru ('to ride'); sh'nwgu ('to endure'). As ga, 
i>^ 'riding in a carriage', or a superior so riding. 187. 
I g| BJ Kago-cho ('Palanquin Street', Yedo). 




f KIO, KU ; (kata). katameru ('to harden'). 177. 



1 An unexplained reading curiously paralleled under \^ (p. 327). 




473 Fifteen Strokes 

^S» [Variant: ^\] KEN; kata, {siike, yoshi). kashikoshi ('wise, clever'); 
■^^ katashi ('firm'); masaru, sugureru ('to excel'). 154. 

I ^ Kashiko-dokoro (room in the Imperial Palace, where the Sacred 
Mirror, Yata-kagami, was kept ; also the Mirror itself). | -^ Kata-ko 
(Empress). | \ ken-jin ('a sage', see p. 105, 69), -^ -jo ('a virtuous 
woman '). 

^^ Older form of g (p. 435). 151. 
Variant of ^ (p. 463). 

^^- Variant of ^ (p. 460). 

HATSU, HOCHI. kami ('human hair'). 190. 

I ^ -b Kami Choshichi (barber and mus.). I ^ Higetsugu 
(swo.). I |.i- kami-yui (' a barber '), ^ -oki, [^ sogi (ceremonies). 

^^ SHI. hige ('hair on the face, beard'). 190. 
-iWi I ff Hige-no (f.), -tJJ ji^ -kirimaru (sword). 

i^^ HAN, BAN; ivva ; iwa; zok., Iwa-. kva ('a large stone, rock, reef). 
--^=1 112. 

[Compare ^ (p. 283), j^ (xxiii).] | ^^ Iwaki (pr.) ; Iwaki-daira ^ 
(= Taira ^, t.), -no-6ji ^^ (prince). KoRi : | ^ Iwa-i (Oshu; brigand), 
E3 -ta (Totomi, mod.), ^]i] -saki or -maye (Oshu ; latter as n. poet), 
^ -naslii or -nasu (Bizen). [ |^ [ii Bandai-san (range including O -X. and 
Ko /J^ -bandai ; see also /j|, p. 433). | ^ ;ji I\vade-no-mori (forest). 
I EH jil Hashida-gawa (r.). | ^ Iwa-re (anct. cap.), ^ -kuni (t.), 
|/(^ -tsuki (anct. pal.), ^ -na, ^ -se (f.), ^ ^ -naga-hime (d.), ^ ^ -no- 
-hime (Empress). ■;}^ \ Oiwa (n.). 

^^ [Synonym : |g.] HAN, BAN. sara (' a dish '). 108. 
^^^ I ^ Bankichi {zok.). 

■^t SHUKU, JUKU. umii ('to ripen'); tsuratsura ('carefully'). 86. 
^^^ I ^ Umane (n.). | ^ jwfefeo ('carefully considered'). 

or ^fe SETSU (NETSU), NECHI; atsu. atsushi, atataka ('hot, 
>f ^ AvV warm'). 86. 

[Compare j^ (p. 316).] Towns: | fjj^ Atami (f.) ; | B3 Atsu-ta 
(tem. ; f.), |g -shio. 

E^ I; (yasw, nori). nagusami ('amusement, recreation'); yasunzuru ('to 
ilL^ pacify '). 61. 





Fifteen Strokes 474 

>^^ YOKU. negaii ('to desire'); miisahoru ("to lust after, covet'). As 
4U1\ yokii, 'desire', one of the Seven Passions (see p. 106, 74). 61. 

RAKU ; or GAKU ; RA ; (yoshi). tanoshimi ('pleasure'). As rakii, 
'pleasure', one of the Four (Seven) Passions (see p. 106, 74); as 
gaku, ' music, operatic performance '. Generally as raku (Rak-) in art- 
names. 75. 

I Raku (f. met.; pot. mark). | H Gakuden (t.). | ilt Rase, | ^ t^ 
Sasanokuma (f.). | ;^ -fj Raku-no-kata (concubine of lyemitsu, shogun). 
I H M Rakuami (n. ; kiogen). | M gakuya (' a greenroom '). 
^^ HEI, HAI (BEI) ; HE. ashii (' bad '). As hei, a self-humiliative 
prefix. 55. 

HEI, HAI (BEI) ; HE. nigite, miteguva, nusa, fp | gohei (sacred 
Shinto offerings); takara ('wealth'); zeni, ^ \ kivahei ('coin'). 50. 
I M Shidehara^ (f.). 

±^ HAN, BON. kaki ('a railing, enclosure'). 75. | Pf Han-kwai 
->'V (Fan K'uai, Chin, hero), ^ A -fujin (Fu-jen, sennin). 









Synonym of jg (p. 412). ig6. 

[Contraction: J^.] BlO, MIO. yashiro, \ ft biosha ('a Shinto 
shrine '). 53. 

[Contraction:^.] CHU, JO ; or CHU, JU. fewWya ('a kitchen '). 53. 
I )\\ Kuriya-gawa (r. ; t. ; f.). 

KEI, KIO; yoshi, Yoshi. yorokobu ('to rejoice'); iwau ('to congratulate'); 

saiwai ('good fortune'). 61. 

I it l^G Keikoin, | 'B. Yoshishige (f.). I jfe ^ M Keiko-tenno 

(= Sukehito Jfe ^, prince). | -^ Keiko (n. actor), Yoshi-ko (princess). 

I "M" J^ Kei-shuza (dilettante), ^ ^ -juin (wife of Yoshiharu, shogun). 

Nengo : I ^ Kei-an (1648-51), ^ -cho (1596-1614), ^ -un (or Kioun, 

704-707), M -6 (1865-67). 

tj^ KO (KWO) ; liiro ; hiro, Hiroshi; zok., Hiro-. hiroshi ('wide, liberal'); 
'-^^ hirogaru ('to be spread, diffused'). 53. 

[Compare ^j, (p. i8q).] ] ^ Hiro-shima (is.; t. ; mod. ken; 
f. ptr.), '/g -numa (lake ; f.), ^ -se (k. of Yamato ; t. ' pottery ; f. ptr., 
met., lacq., sculp.; r. ; H. no kami jp^ = Futen J^ 5^, d.). Other Towns: 

^ The peculiarly cut paper sh.ide (0 ^) used as New Year decorations much resemble the 
sacred gohei. 





475 Fifteen Strokes 

I ^ Kanton, Kanto (Kuang-tung, Canton); | ^ Hiro-ishi, ^ -to, ffl -ta 
(f.), i^ -mura, ^ -tani (-ya as f.), ^ ~o (Hiro, also dist. of Yedo), [^ -oka 
(f.), ^ -tsu (f.), ;|^^ -ne (clan), DJjj -buchi, if -no (pot.; f.). 

I i^ Hiro-taka (anct. pal.), /J^ 3§- -koji (street-name, 'main street'). 

I Wi ^ Kotoku-ji (tern.). Other Surnames: | Hiro; | )\\ Hiro-kawa, 
rfi -naka, ^\^ -i, 7|C -ki (met.), jg -i, M -ya, M -umi (ptr.), ^j -be, 
^ -niwa, "^ -watari (ptr.), l]^ -hata, '(^ -sawa (Hirosawa-sojo f^ j£, 
priest), ^ -hashi. | g Komoku (d., see p. loi, 39). | ^ ^ Koseishi 
(Kuang Ch'eng-tzu, sennin). \ A HirO-me, -ndo, :^ -taye, J^ -shi (n.), 
7J g -toji, ^ -hime (court-ladies), fpj ^ ^ -kawa-nioo (poetess). | ^ 
Takehiro (swo.). 

HAI, HI. shirizoku ('to retreat'); horobu ('to destroy'); yaww ('to 
put a stop to '). 53. 
I ^ haitei ('deposed emperor'). | JJ ^ haitorei ('edict against 
wearing swords'). 

[Variant: ^^i.] BA, MA; MA. sum ('to rub'); migaku ('to polish'); 
togu (' to sharpen '). Interchanged with ^ (xvi). 64. 
I M (M) ih Ma-ya(-ni)-san (m.). \ ^ ^ 'M. Mameto-no-watashi 
(ford). I j^j Mashima (f. ptr.). | Ji ^ Marise (n.). I ^ "i" ^ xMakeishura 
(Siva, d.). I :^ ^ A Maya-bunin (Maya, mother of the Buddha). I ^l] 
^ ^ Marishi-ten (see p. 98, 14). | ^ Makatsu (demon). | "^ Maro 
(n.). \ M ^ ^ mani-hoju (the Sacred Gem of Buddhism). 

RI. jumu ('to tread on'); kutsu ('footgear'). 44. 
I ii« Richu (17th Mikado). 

SO, ZO. shina (' an item ') ; kasaneru (' to pile '). 44. 
^ I $i i^ sorinto (the Buddhist 'pillar of piled rings'). 

1^^ RIO, RO. omompakaru ('to consider'). 61. 

FU, HO. hada, hadaye ('nude flesh, the shoulder, the skin'). 130. 

^ Rltj, RU. kobu ('a wen, excrescence'); hareru ('to swell up'). 104. 

[^- SHU, SHU. yaseru ('to be emaciated, barren'). 104. 

I ^ Soan (n.). | ^ Yase-otoko, -^ -onna (mask-names). 

^ KI. sakai, kagiri ('a boundary, limit'); shikimi ('threshold'). As ki, 








HXr 'an Imperial domain'. 102. 

[3£] I F^, see p. 120, fin. ;^ I Reiki (= Kioto and district, or 
same as foregoing). 






Fifteen and Sixteen Strokes 476 

TON, DON. nogareru ('to escape'); kakureru ('to hide'). 162. 

VSt TEKI, CHAKU; {atsu, masa). itaru ('to arrive'); masa ni ('exact'); 
tamatama ('occasionally'). As teki, 'proper, suitable'. 162. 

SHA, SE. sayegiru ('to block, obstruct'). 162. 
^ I ^ Shabaku (ptr.). | M ^ X, wrongly for '^'p, etc. (see 

p. 236, init.). 

Vg3 CHI, JI. ososhi (' late, backward, slow '). 162. 
?^ I M Osose (t.). I M Chidzuka (f. met.). 

1^3 YETSU, YECHI. kemisuru ('to inspect, examine'). 169. 



SIXTEEN STROKES. 

/^ JU, NIU ; {yasu, yoshi). yawarageru ('to tranquillize'). As ju, 
irflj 'relating to Confucius'; | j^ jii-do ('Confucianism'), ^ -sha ('a 

Confucianist '). 9. 

i^^ CHU, JU ; {tomo). tomogara ('companions'); tagui ('sort'); hitoshii 
!P^ ('alike, equal'). 9. 




GIG, GO (GE) ; Koru. koru, korii ('to freeze, be engrossed in'). 15. 

-f^ Ancient variant of j^ (p. 437). 144. 

■^f^^ KO, GlO ; hira. yokogi (' a yoke ') ; yokotawaru (' to be athwart '). 
I^J 144. I \[\, see p. 103, 53. 

"^^f [Contraction : ^.] YEI, YE ; YE ; mori, Mamoru ; zok., Yei-, -yei 
'^^ (otherwise, see pp. 73, 74). mamoru ('to defend'). As Yei, Wei, 

anct. kingdom of China. 144. 

[Compare homophones under ^C (p- 212).] | |§ Veto (f. ptr.). | ^ 
I^P Yeishukkei (Wei Shu-ch'ing, sennin). ^ \ Taisuke, I -j: Ye-shi, 
^ -fu, ^ -mori, ^ -suke (n.). 

w^j^ REI. RIO. mio ('a navigable channel'). 85. 

•^ 11.^ Miodzukushi (Genji Chapter xiv, lit. 'posts marking a channel'). 

y^ [Contraction: '^.J TAKU, CHAKU; sawa ; (sawa) ; zok., Sawa-. 
• •* sawa (' a marsh, swamp '). 85. 

Towns : | Sawa (f. ptr., met., sculp.) ; J^ \ Osawa or Ozawa 
(f. ptr., met.) ; I -^ Sabai ; | -fitj: Sawa-mi, '^ -tari (r.), i§ -be (f.). 



477 Sixteen Strokes 

Other Surnames : /]^ \ Ozawa (met., sculp.), Kozawa (ptr., met.) ; | jil 
Sawa-yama (ptr.), P -guclii (ptr.), TJC -ki (met.), ^j^ -i (ptr., actor), 
;^ -moto, 53 -da (ptr.), )X -ye, M -mura (actor) i^, -ya, j^ -o, ^^ -mata, 
;||P -yanagi, ^ -ya (met.), ^ -batake (met.), ^ -shima, ]^-bara, |l|f -zaki, 
if -no (met.), ^ -be, ;|^ -hashi. | ^ Sawa-no-miya (prince). I /^ 
Takuan (priest). | M^ takuju (myth, creat.). 

%/]^ DAKU, DOKU. nigoru {'' to be thick, turbid, degenerate ') ; nigori 
(see p. 34). 85. 

IKU, OKU; or 0. fukashi ('deep'); midzu no kuma ('a cove, inlet'). 
85- 

_ TAN. sasanami (' ripples '). 85. 
p=t 

►/^ DO (NO), NU ; NO, NU. koshi ('thick, deep in colour'); komayaka 
ni ('thickly, intimately'). 85. 1 ^'H Noshu (Mino pr.). | 7X 
Nosui (poet). I ^ Koimurasaki {jovo). 




i\ 




* 

I 




REN, RON. Chinese river-name. 85. 
i -?g YEKI, YAKU. yorokobii ('to rejoice'). 61. | ^ Yoshi-ko (princess). 

Ira 



^^ffi SHUN; (toshi). satoshi ('clever'). 61. 





4;HB TAKU, CHAKU ; Yeramu. yeramu (' to choose '). 64. 
J'ir' I |g_ ^ Yetoru-jima (is.). 

^R^ SO ; Misao. misao (' chastity, fidelity ') ; ayadoru, ayatsuru (' to make 
patterns in textiles, work puppets '). 64. 
I ilj Misayama ijoro). | ^ ayatsuri-kagami ('a peepshow'), \ ^ 
■ningio (' marionettes '). 

KEN, KON ; or REN, RON. kangayeru (' to consider ') ; sagurii (' to 
investigate '). 64. 
I ^ )\\ Kemigawa (t. ; f.). |^ I ^ naikenshi, \ |^ kengio (tit.). 
I 1^ 3'E ^ kebiishi (anct. police bureau, with k. -no-betto ^l] ^ at its head, 
followed by stike f^, jo ^^ and sakwan ]^ ; compare p. 85). 

[Contraction: ^^.] TOKU, DOKU. hitori ('alone'). 94. 

I 3^ Doitsu (' Germany '). | |^ tofefeo (Bud. prayer-sceptre) ; 
Tokko-no-taki «|| (fall). | ^ Dokko (Tu-ku, Chin. Empress). | ^ H 
Dokkochin (Tu-ku Chin, Chin. hero). | 0^ f| Dokuganriu ('the one-eyed 
dragon ', nickname of Date Masamune). 









Sixteen Strokes 478 

a [Synonyms : 5S^ ?Sj ^^^0, GO ; (take). takeshi (' brave ') ; kowashi 
' ('stiff'); anagachi ni (' anarchically, of necessity'). 57. 
I -^ Kowakubi (t.). 

(No on.) hanashi (' a story, tale '). [30.] 
||g KWAI, YE. kokoroyoshi (' comfortable '). 30. 

KEN, KON. kewashii ('steep'); ayaushi ('dangerous'). 170. 

►^ ZUI ; yuki, (yori). shitagan ('to obey, follow'). 170. 
fi I m Zuicho, I ^ pfj Nabusadzuke (f.). | # Zuijin (d.). | ^ 

ziii-shin (' bodyguard '), ^ -hitsu (' a commonplace-book '). 

SHU, JU ; KI ; -ki. ki, uveki ('a cultivated tree'); uyeru ('to plant'). 

75- I T Juge (f.). 
KITSU, KICHI; zok., -kitsu. tachibana ('an orange'). 75. 

I Tachibana (clan ; f. met., lacq. ; joro). \ ||f Tachibana (k. o^ 
Musashi). | ^, Tachibanaya (f. lacq.). | Kitsu-da, ^ -ya (f.). | ^ 
Tacliibana-hime, f,^ -no-iratsume (princesses). 

SON ; taru ; {taru). tarn (' a barrel '). 75. 

[Compare ^ (p. 275).] | Taru (f.). /J> | Otaru (t., Ainu 'sandy 
road'). I ^ Taru-i (f. lacq.), ;^ -moto (t.), H -mi (f.), ^ -muko (kiogen). 

T^^ KIO ; hashi, -base. hashi ('a bridge'). 75. 

iFrI Towns: ;;^ | Ohashi (f. ptr., met.; joro); | ^^ Hashudzu (but 
Hashidzu-gawa )\\, r.); | TR Hashi-dzume (f.), $. -moto (f. ptr., met., swo., 
lacq., pot.; brothel, -ya ^), i^ -ba (lacq.; f. ; lit. 'ferry'; Hashiba-no- 
-watari -JU, ferry in Yedo). Other Surnames : | P Hashi-guchi (met., 
swo.), ^J -yama (? met.), % -moto, B9 -^^^^^ M -mura, ^-nobe (met.), -be, 
lo -dzume (met). | TfJ Hashi-ithi (contraction of | ;^ TfJ |^ Hashimoto 
Ichizo, scabbard-lacquerer). I $gi Hashi-hime {Genji Chapter xlv), |Jf ^ 
-benkei (no). 

4>^ SHO, so. douguri, anctly. tsiirubami ('an acorn', esp. of the kunugi 
■^ tfl o"" 1^' Quercus serrata) ; toc/jf (the Horse Chestnut, compare |^, 

p. 264,^ and :^, p. 239). Confused with -^ (p. 472). 75. 
I (now ;^) ;fc Tochigi (t.). 

nM^ SHO, JO. shiha, takigi ('brushwood, firewood'); kikoru ('to cut 
Lm brushwood '). 75. 

1 Where the form has by inadvertence been wrongly given and requires correction. 





479 Sixteen Strokes 

KWA, KE. kaba (the Birch, Betula alba). 75. | -j,^ Kara(Kaba)- 
futo (Sakhalin Is.). | ^ Kaba-shima (is. ; f.), i\\ -yama (f. met.). 

■J Htft KO (KWO), 0; yoko ; (yoko). yoko ('side, athwart, horizontal'). As 
l-SH Yoko- in street-names (see p. 10, note 2). 75. 

I ^ YokO-shima (is. ; f.), jl| -gawa (r. ; t. ; f. ; also Yokokawa as t. 
and Yogawa as f.), |lj -yama (m. ; t. text. ; f. ptr., met., swo.), i^^ ^J -ne- 
-yama (m.), EH Pi JfA -ta-ga-hara (dist. of Shinano). Other Towns : | ^ 
YokO-te (f. ; m.), EQ -ta (f. ptr., swo.; r.), il]i -chi (f. ptr.), ^ -tani (Yokoya 
as f. met.), ^ -shiba, |^ -bori (f. ; also dist. of Osaka and element in street- 
names), ^ ^ -SLika (f.), i^ -hama (f.). 

Other Surnames: | ^ Yoko-i, ^ -ya, %£ -ye, j|, -o, jf^ -chi, ^ -ya, 
^ -kura, 2f -no, '^ t^ -sone, j^ -mizo, i^ -dzuka (ptr.), j^ -michi, 
i^. -zawa, ^ -bashi, ^ -se. i jll $ i=13 A M Yogawa-saisho-niudo 
(= Minamoto no Akira fJ^). | ]g" Oteki (n. lacq.). | ^ Yokobuye 
{Genji Chapter xxxvii ; court-lady). | ^ Yokoza (fe/o^e/!). | BJ yoko-machi 
('a side-street), |ii^ -dziina (the champion wrestler). 

Synonym of ;|=|^ (p. 215). 75. 

-fc^ KI, KE ; A7. hata (' a loom ') ; hadzumi (' impulse ') ; ayatsuri (' a 
\}% puppet-show'); karakuri ('machinery'). 75. 
I gf Inano (f.). | |j|i^ hat[a]ori ('a weaver'). 

i^fc SHO. yaku (' to burn, bake, fire [pottery], temper [steel] ') ; yaki 
^yti ('pottery, tempered edge'). 86. 

I lil ^'ake-yama (m. ; penins.), Yakiyama (t.). | ^ Yakeo, | :j^ 
Yaidzu (t.). | f.f' yakiye (' pyrography, pokerwork drawing '). 

l^ [Contraction: fj .] TO, TSU. tomosh}{bi] ('a light'); akashi, akari 
"^ ('a light, lantern'). | f| toro, a fixed lamp or lantern. 86. 






^gj^ SHI; (taru). moyeru ('to burn'); sakan ('flourishing'). 86. 

YO ; YO ; Yasushi, {yasu). yasushi ('peaceful') ; arakajime ('beforehand, 
in general'). 152. | *}[] Yoshu (lyo pr.); j /^ Yo-sho {'Matsu- 
yama in Foshu). | ^ ;|;^ Yokobayashi (t.). | ^ Yojo (Yii Jang, Chin. hero). 

TON. asahi, ashita, akatsuki, akebono (' dawn '). 72. 

KlO^; {aki, sato). Same meaning, also: satosu ('to instruct'); akiraka 
('bright, clear'). 72. | Akebono, | if Akeno (f.). 

' In the dozen names beginning with this character quoted in Haga's biographical dictionary 
(1914) the reading is uniformly Gio-. They include that of a well-known modern painter whom 
other text-books, native and foreign, seem to agree in calling A'josai (Kawanabe K. JqJ ^ | ^). 





k 




Sixteen Strokes 480 

YO, O; Akiva. kagayakti ('to gleam, glitter'). 72. 

SEX, ZEX; (yoshi). souaycru ('to provide'); kashizvade ('a cook, a 
li=ir dining-table ' ; anctly. tit. of the Impl. table-superintendent). As 
zen, esp. 'a dining-table', i.e. a small tray on legs. 130. 

I Zen, Kashiwade, | ^ Kashiwade (f.). I 0f or | ^ Zeze (t. 
pottery). | {;{^ Zeju (f. met.). Titles : ;^ 1,1^ I , see p. 83 ; | ^ ;ff 
zembugio ; \ gi kashiwade-no-omi. I EL i^ i^ Kashiwade no Batebi ^ 
(hist. pers.). 



^ HAN, BOX. 'A beautiful gem'. 96. 

^^ RIX. ' Veined ', as marble. 96. 

BOKU, MOKU ; (atsn), Atsttshi. atsttshi ('liberal'). 115. 
I 3E Bokuo (Mu Wang, Chinese Emperor). 

SEKI; SHAKU ; SA ; tsumi ; tsnini, {sane, tsumu). tsumu ('to heap 
1-^ up'); tsiimovi ('plan, intention'). 115. 





[Common contraction : ^^.] CHI ; CHI ; (ivaka). wakashi, osanashi 
('young'). 115. 

I )\\ Osana-gawa (r.). | ^ |^}j Chigo-ga-fuchi (pool, from chigo, 
' an infant ' ; compare 1^, p. 275). 




SEKI, SHAKU. kawara ('a dry river-bed'). 112. 

ni^ (Xo on.) shigi (also J^, 'a snipe or woodcock'). [102.] 

r*iy^ I 5p Shigino (t.). | j[, shigitatsu ('the rising of woodcock'); 

Shigitatsu-zawa f|^ (marsh), -an ^ (art-name). 

M|^ 0, YO ; kamo. kamo (the Wild Duck, Anas boschas). 196. 

T^^ I }\\, for ')]\\ ^ jl|, Kamo-gawa (r.). | \l^ Kama-no-midzuumi, 

I ^ B9 ifS Kamoda-numa (lakes). | ^ Kamokata (t.). Surnames : 
I p~ Icho; I y Kamo-shita, ^f -i, tT -uchi, ffl -da, ^ -chi. | -^ PJ 

Kamo no Chomei (author, priest of the Shinto shrine | j^ Kamo-no- 

-yashiro). | |^ Ainare (jord). 

REI, RIO. See H (xxi). 196. 




' So Haga, quoting Hasui and Hateshi as alternative readings for the second name. 
^ These characters mean literally ' duck's foot ' and are also applied to the iclio or Maidenhair 
Tree (Ginkgo biloba or Salisburia adiantifolia), the leaves of which are somewhat of that shape. 






481 Sixteen Strokes 

iW SHIN; or SHI. 'A pale red colour'. 120. 

rjjfct KO. shima ('a striped pattern' in textiles). 120. 

HAKU, BAKU. kiikuru, shibaru ('to tie up, constrict'). 120. 

RO. See $* (xix). 142. 

SO. A numeral-suffix for boats or ships (see p. 40). 137. 

gjS SHI. akiraka ('bright, clear'). 149. I -p Aki-ko (Empress). 

^^f» YU ; or TO, TSU ; sok., Yu-. tatoye ('an instance'); satosu ('to 
pBK instruct '). 149. 

•5*t« KI. imina ('a posthumous name'; sometimes an ordinary name, nanori.) 
P^ 149. Compare ^ (p. 494). 

■^"^ KAN, GEN (KUN). isameru (' to admonish, remonstrate '). 149. 
, H4v I ^ Isahaya (t. ; isthmus, -kio ll^). | ^ kanko (the Drum of 

Remonstrance). 

^fe SHO, SO; SO; moro ; fnoro, (tsura). moromoro ('all'); kore ('this'). 
F'tl As sho, a pluralising prefix, as in | ^ shukokn, '[all] tlie provinces', 

I A shojin, ' people ' ; but note I ^ shoko, ' a daimio '. 149. 

[Compare ^ijj (p. 333).] I |^ Morokata or Morakata (k. of Hiuga). 
/J^ I Komoro or Komuro, | ^ Shozai (t.). | ^ )\\ Moro-i-gawa (r.), 
^ 1I4 -ha-yama (m.), ^ )if, -koshi-bara or -koshi-ga-hara (moor). Surnames : 

I jll Moro-kavva, ;fc -gi, TJC if -gino, ^ -i, 03 -ta, fi -kado, ^ -oka, 
Jh -gaki, ^ -boshi, ff -no, ^ -kuzu (n.), ^ -bashi, ^ -fuji (ptr.). 

I ^ Sliogaku (' The All-wise ', epithet of the Buddha). | ^ ^ 
Shokatsurio (Chu-ko Liang, Chin, general). \ |^ Sho-rio (see p. 83), 
m -rei (p. 86). \ ^, \ Mi Moro-ye, ^ -na, # -ai (n.). 
^g2 SHIN, JIN; {nobu). makoto ('the truth'). 149. 
hI^ I ^U Shimbo (Shen Mu, sennin). 

^Vl DAKU, Yx\KU ; DA, U. ubenan, ukegau (' to consent, submit '). 149. 
I ^g ^ Dakora, \ M W, M ^ Dakaharita {rakan). 
FO, HO (FU). iyam'i ('sarcasm, satire'); soshiru ('to calumniate'). 
149- I II, I i^ Fuju (svvo.). 

SHU. atsumaru ('to assemble'). 159. | 5c shuyo ('an epitome'). 

31 





Sixteen Strokes 482 

RAI, REI ; yori, Tanomii, {yoshi) ; zok., Rai-, less cominonly Yori-. 
tanomu ('to request, rely on'); yoru ('to depend on'). 154. 
I Rai (f.). I ^ Raigo (priest). | |^ Yorimasa (no). \ f*]: 
tanomoshi (' promising, trustworthy ") ; Tanomo (see p. 86). 

HIX, BIN. shikiri ni (' constantly, urgently, in rapid succession'). 181. 
I 'ftp M hingacho (same as kar'idbinga, see }Jn, p. 318). 

^■g [The second form is more correct.] YEI, YO ; YE; {hide, masa, 
^>^ 1>^ kai). nogisaki, inabo ('an ear of grain'); kai (same, plural). 
115 (or 181). 

[Compare homophones under 01 (p- 212).] | ^ Yei (k. of Satsuma; 
t.), Ye or Yeso (same k.) ; Yeno (f.). | )\\ Yegawa (f.). =f- I Cliikai (n.). 







«^ 



KIO ; (tsura). ho ('the cheek'); tsura ('the face'). 181. 

KEl KlO. kubi ('the neck, throat'). 181. | ^ Kubiki (k. of Echigo). 

^ TO, DZU ; DZU. kashira (' head, leader ') ; kobe, atama, tsuburi, 
tsumuri ('the head'); kanii (tit., see pp. 84, 83). As to, a numeral- 
suffix for domestic animals (p. 40). 181. 

I rfj dziikin ('a cap'), tokin (a special cap worn by yamabushi priests); 
Tokin-yama \\\ (m.). | j^ Kashiranari (t.). ;^ | Ogashira, | ;^ 

Dzumoto (f.). I ^ Tsumuri-no-hikaru (= Kishi Bunsho J^ ^ ^, poet), 
Tsuburi-no-hikaru ( = Ippissai ^ Buncho — ^ Wf ^ R^? ptr.)- 

^^& [Contraction: y^.] HEN, BEN; HE; Souau, {wake); zok., Ben-. 
^^' wakimayeru ('to discern'); ivakatsu ('to decide'); ben-zuru ('to 

discriminate, transact'). As ben, 'eloquence', also a title (see p. 82). 160. 

I ^ (or f^J") 5^ Benzai-ten, vulgarly | ^ Benten (d. ; see p. 98). 
I ^ Benkei (priest) ; Benkei-bori |g, -bashi ;f^ (canal and bridge in Yedo). 
Court T.ADiEs, Poetesses, etc : | Ben ; /J> | Koben ; | ^ Ben-no- 
-tsubone, ^ f^ -no-naishi, ^ ^ -no-menoto. | =f- f^ Benchiyo (n.). 

"aJB TEl, DAI. sumizake ('a clear sake'). 164. 

i-y^ I @53 Daigo (t. ; f. ; 60th Mikado; lit., a beverage prepared from 

milk) ; Daigo -no-miya ^ (prince), -no-sojo ff" JE, -no-akuzenji ^ fiqi SiP 
(priests), -ji ^ (tern.). Jl \ M ^ Kami-daigo-dera (tem.). 

SEI, SHO. samerii ('to awake, become sober, fade'). 164. 

I <r ^ Samegai (t., Nakasendo stage 61). | ^ Samegai (f.). 

TEI, TAl. hidzume ('a hoof). 157. 





' Commonly read Ippitsusai. 






483 Sixteen Strokes 

j^f^ ■^» ^E- shikoro (' nape-guard ' of a helmet). 167. 
••^-M^ I ^j shikorobiki (hist, incident). 

RIOKU, ROKU ; zok., Roku- (see also pp. 71, 73). shirusu ('to 
record'); sakivan (tit., see p. 85). As roku, 'a record'. 167. 

SEKI, SHAKU; {yasii). suzu ('tin', one of the Five Metals). Distin- 
guish from ^ (p. 495). 167. 
I ^ shakujo (the Bud. jingle-staff) ; Shakuj6-ga-dake -^ (m.). 

KIN, KON ; nishiki ; (kane). nishiki (' brocade, a glorious sight or 
feature '). 167. 

I Nishiki (f.). | ^ Nishikibe (k. of Kawachi ; f.), Nishigori (same 
k.). I }\\ Nishiki-gawa (r.) ; \ '^ ^ Kintai-kio or -bashi (bridge over 
same). | ^ \\] Kinkozan (dist. of Kioto, pot. ; n. pot.). | PTf Nishiki-cho 
(street of Yedo), /^ i^ -nokoji (f.), ^ -do (f. ; joro ; no), ^ -mi (f.), ■jl^z ^ 
-dayu (yorwri-chanter). | j^ Nishigori (f. ptr.) ; N. -sojo ff" jE, -no-okina 
ira (pseud.). 

Other Joro : | Tfc Nishiki-gi (no), # -i, If -ye (see further). | i^ -^ 
Kinshojo (wife of Watonai). I 4) I It nishiki-ye, ^ -zuri ('a colour- 
print'). 

TEl, jO ; zok., Jo-. As jo, 'a lock'. 167. 

^ SEN, ZEN. zeni (a small copper or iron coin). 167. 

I ^ Zeni-bako (or Zembako, t.), ^ HJ -game-cho (street of Yedo), 
ya (f.). I jM Senza (Yedo street-name). 

KIO, KO. nokogiri ('a saw'). 167. | ^J Nokogiri-yama (m.). 

KO. hagane ('steel'), 167. 

KO, KU. iru (' to cast, found '), 167. 









Contraction of |g (p. 496). 135. 

KAN, GAN ; {nioto, jumi). fude ('a writing-brush'); fumi ('writing, 
epistle'). 124. 

SEI, jO ; shidzu ; shidzit, Shidzuka, {yasu, kiyo). yasushi, shidzuka 
('quiet'). 174. 

I (or W # Shidzutani (t.). | [S] Shidzu-oka (t. lacq.), ^ -nami 
(t.), ffl -ta, fin -ma (f.), },% -me (n.), ^ -ko (court-lady), M -hata {joro). 
I ifil: Shidzuka-no-yashiro (tern.). | ^ Seiya (f.). | Shidzu, Shidzuka 
(worn. n.). 




Sixteen Strokes 484 

[The left upper element should strictly be TJC ; it is also (incorrectly) 
written J^.] REI, RAI. tsuku ('to belong to, be attached to'); yakko, 
shimobe ('a servant'). 171. | ^ reisho (the wavy style of Chinese writing). 

\'ariant of ^ (p. 369). 172. 





I 



>I> SO, SHO (JO). saya ('a scabbard, sheath, pod'). 177. 




I HJ Saya-cho (street of Yedo). | ^ |ij Sayagata-yama (m.) 
^^ ^O; YO. nokori, amari ("remainder, surplus'). As yo in numbers, 
^J"* 'odd' (7^ -f- I rokujuyo, 'sixty-odd'). 184. 

[Compare -^ (p. 248).] | Amari (f.). | ,^ Yoroki or Yorogi (k. 
of Sagami ; see (%, p. 360) ; /]n | |^ Koyorogi (f.), | jfih Vo-sa (anct. 
dist. of Tamba pr.), illi -chi (t.). | 5. ;|^ !5. Yogo-shogun (= Taira no 
Koremochi). | gf -^ Yono-ko (poetess). | M yokid ('extra entertainment', 
i.e., 'additional numbers' to a series). 

GA ; GA. uyeru ('to starve'). 184. | ^ gaki (the 'starving souls' 
in Hades). 

^g [Contraction: ^.] RIO, RIIJ; tatsu; tatsu; zok., Riu-, less commonly 
^"^ Rio-. tatsu ('a dragon'). As riu-, esp. 'Imperial'. 212. 

[Compare jfc (p. 198), ^ (253).] Mountains: | jpfji \\} Riujin-zan ; 

I Wi \h Riudzu-san; | 5^ ^J Rioten-yama; | P \[\ Tatsunokuchi-yama; 

I ^ Riuge-goye (pass). | 5J| |!^ Tappi-zaki (cape). | fQ jlj 
Tatsuta(mod. Tatta)-gawa (r.). | P^ (H) 'M Riu-mon(-dzu)-no-taki (falls). 
Towns: | j^ Rondon (London, Chin. Lung-tao) ; | ^ Riu-o ^ 
(Tatsuo as swo.), jpl^ -jin\ ^% ^ -senji, [^] |l|f -gasaki, M. -gahana ; | H 
Tatsu-ta {no; barrier, -no-seki P), f^ '4f -monji (or Riumonji, pot.), S!f -no 
(f-)- I ^ ^ Riuan-ji (tem.). | ^ PIJ" Riukan-cho (street of Yedo). 

Other Surnames : | Tatsu, I^io ; | ^ Riu-gen, j^ ^ -zoji ; | J^ 
Tatsu-i, ;jc -ki, f^ -oka (actor). | l^j Riii-ju (d.), M S^ or ^ -gan 
(the Emperor), Jil^ -me (horse), ^ -ko {110, 'dragon and tiger'). | 09 Jg 
Tatsuta-hime (d.). | ^ riosJiu (meaningless affix to a year-date, sometimes 
replacing if-", 'year'; of Chinese origin). 

SHIN : chika, Chikashi, {mi). shitashimi (' friendliness ') ; chikadzuku 
(' to associate with ') ; oya (' a parent, chief, important, large ') ; 
midzukara ('self'). Distinguish from ^ (p. 426). 147. 

I ^ Shinran (priest, -shonin Ji X)- I "? Chika-ko (court-lady). 
I 'T'^ ^D oyashivazir ('[causing a man] to forget his parents'), sometimes 

' Riu-o and liiu-jin are also names for the Dragon King of mythology. 
' Also a cant name for a projecting molar. 




4^5 Sixteen Strokes 

followed by ^ ^ ^n koshirazu ('. . . his children'), a name given to a 
defile or very dangerous mountain-path. 

I 3E sliiniio, ^ I ^ naishinno, titles of a fjrince and princess closely 
related to the Emperor (others are merely ^E o tn- ^ ^ djo) ; niudo \ j^ 
-shinno implies that the prince has entered the Church; ho '}^ -shinno implies 
the conferring of the title after taking the scarf. | & shimpei ('Imperial 
bodyguard '). 

|Bjr KEN. agata ('district')- As ken, the modern administrative ' prefec- 
f^^ ture '. 1 20. 

I Agata (f.). ^ I Ogata (k. of Kawachi), /]> | Chiisagata (k. of 
Shinano). | :iv S M "?" Agata-inukai-no-iratsume (poetess). | ^ Agata-i, 
^ -maro (n.). | ^ agata-mori, ^ -nushi, 3^ -miyakko (anct. titles). 
. . . I "I*" ... -kenka ('within the prefecture of . . .'). 

YU, YO ; Toru, (to). tovu (' to penetrate, circulate ') ; tokerii (' to be 
melted'); yawaragu ('to harmonize'). 142. 
I Toru (no). | JiH :^ f^ Yudzu-nembutsu (sect). 

PTJ ; (fiina). funa (a fish, Carassius auratus). 195. 
f^li /j> I Kobuna (nickname). 

DEN, NEN. ayu (a fish, Plecoglossus altivelis). 195. 

I p^ Ayu-gai (t.), )\\ -kawa (f. ptr.), ^ -zawa (f.), ^ <|| 
-gayeshi-no-taki (fall), ;^ g/j -nosuke (sofe.). 







_^Mi HIO, BIO. hisago, Jukube, | ^ hiotan ('a gourd, calabash'). 97. 

^ Old form of m^ (xxii). 76. 

BBD SEN. tatakaii ('to fight'); tatakai ('battle, war'); osoru ('to shake 
"T^ with fear'). 62. 

I )fit|l senjin (see p. 98, 14). | f^ sengoku ('a country at war'); 
sengoku-jidai |l'f f^ ('the Age of Battles', roughly the sixteenth century). 

Contraction of j^ (p. 496). 




m^ or ^n Variant of ^Ij (p. 468). 18. 





BOKU, jNIOKU ; zok., Moku- (and so generally in art-names), modasu, 
damaru ('to be silent'). 203. | JJSJ ^ Mokuami (n.). 

[Variant: ^j].] KUN, KON ; Isao, {koto, iiori). isao, isaoshi, \ 7j} 
kunko ('merit'); kotoivaza ('a deed, emprise'). 19. 



Sixteen Strokes 486 

Contraction of ^ (xix). 




^^ KWAKU, WAKU. toshi, sumiyaka ('swift'). 173. 




^^p TAN, DON. kumorn ('to be cloudy'). 72. 

I ^ Don-cho, -ge, etc. (priests) ; I ^ [^ Donge-in (tern.) ; 
I ^ is also read dandoku (a plant, see ;fj, p. 491). 

J^ [Contractions: ^^ ^^ '^'•j G AKU, GOKU ; Manabu, (taka). manabu 
-* ' ('to learn, study'). As gaku, 'learning, study, a home of learning'. 

Distinguish from *^ (^x). 39- 

I ^ Gaku-den (t.), P^ 0f -mon-jo, ^ f| -shu-kwan (schools). | i^ 

Daigaku (Ta Hsiieh, Confucius' ' Greater Learning ' ; see also p. 83, init.). 
I ^ic gakko (' a school, college '). 

[Script contraction : ^ ; see also p. 469.] KlO, KO ; KO ; oki ; oki. 
'^ okorti ('to rise, originate'); okosu ('to raise, promote'); sakan ('flourish- 
ing"). As kid, 'pleasure, diversion'. Distinguish from M. (p. 449). 134. 

[Compare '^ (p. 236).] | ^ Okitsu (t., Tokaido stage 17; f.)- 
I JFS ^ Kofuku-ji (tem. ; swo.). | ^ fg Kojo-kwan (clan-school). | ^ 
Kozen, | ill: Oki-yo, Wf -no, jf -michi (f.). | A Okindo (n.). 

[Contractions : ^^ "^.J KI ; kame ; Kame, Hisashi, {Kagamu) ; zok., 





Kame-. kame ('a tortoise'); hisashi ('old, ancient'). 213. 

I [^ Kame-ga-oka (m.), Kameoka (t. ; f. ptr.). Other Towns : 

I ilj Kanie-yama (Tokaido stage 45 ; f. ; 90th Mikado), J^ -do or ^ ^ 

-ido (tem. in Yedo), 03 -da (f. met.), ll|$ -zaki; I J^ Kijo (= Kameyama). 

Other Surnames: | Kame (ptr.); J jl| Kanie-gawa, ^ -i, ^ -ya, -gaya 

(ptr., sculp.), jtf -gaki (ptr.), ^ -ya (pot.), f4= -zawa. 

I ^ Kanie-giku (court-lady), ^ -ko (poetess), ;^ -^ -no-kata (concubine 
of lyeyasu), Ji ^s; -yata {zok.), JJ; -oka (or Kikiu, n.), ^ (^, #) % -6- 
(-waka, -ju) maru (boy-names). | H Ki-mi, H -j^ -mata (n.). I ^ 
kikan (' a good example '). 

'"' \'ariant of ^ (p. 373). 116. 




to* KEN, KON ; uori, (teru). nori ('law'). 61. 

3|tt^ YEN ; {yasu, yoshi). Isubame, tsubakura (the Eastern Chimney Swallow, 
^^^'^ Hirundo rustica) ; yasumu (' to rest ') ; sakamori (' a banquet "). As 
Yen, anct. Chinese principality, Yen. 86. 

I Tsubame (t.). | yj][f Tsubame-no-taki (fall). 



487 Sixteen Strokes 

V^ 1 O. ' Widespread, to scatter, waste, dissolute '. 140. 

T^JIjI SUI, NAI. arnadokoro, yemigusa (the Solomon's Seal, Polygoiiatum 
^^%^ vulgare). 140. | ^ suihin (the 5th month). 

^^ Variant of # (p. 453). 140. 

HAN, BAN; Shigeru, (shige). shigeru ('to be luxuriant'). 140. 




^^ SHUN. osa^ao (the Morning Glory, Convolvulus major). 140. 
SHO. The Banana. See g (p. 287). 




iTi^ 



•^^ BU, MU ; kabura. kabura ('a turnip'); areru ('to be waste'). 140. 
^»fc> I (orf^) jlj Kabura-gawa (r.). | tjc Kabura-gi, ^ -saka, ^ -ya (f.). 




KEI, YE. A fragrant plant. 140. 

SHO. A species of wormwood {mogusa, Artemisia) ; also Hsiao, anct. 
Chinese principality. 140. 

■^^ KETSU, GOCHI. ivarabi (the Bracken, Ptevis aquilina) ; Warabi (t., 
/tvv Nakasendo stage 2). 140. 

>Kfe SHO ; sasa, shino. sasa (the Ground Bamboo or Bamboo Grass, 
l^^ Arundinaria japonica) ; shino (a small bamboo). 118. 

[Compare ^ (p. 377).] I ^ ^ Saso-dake (m.). Towns : | (or ^) 
^ Scisajima (pot.) ; | \\] Sasa-yama (f. met. ; also Shinoyama as f.), 
|g -guri, ^ -daira; | tK Shino-gi (f.), )\\ -gawa (S.-dono ^, = 
Ashikaga Mitsutada), |^ -wara (f. ptr. ; joro; also Sasahara as f.), 3If ^ -noi. 
Other Surnames : | Sasa ; /J^ | Ozasa, Koshino ; | M. Sasa-ya, 
^ -kura, gf -no; | ^ Shino-noi, ;$: -moto, H -da (met.), [i6J -oka, 
{^ -mata, |1|§ -zaki (ptr., met.), J^ -dzuka, f^ -zawa. | ^f}f Shinoura 
{joro}. I ^ Sasanoya, Shinonoya (art-names). 

^^ TOKU ; atsu, Atsushi, {sumi). atsushi ('thick, liberal'). 118. 
i**\f I -^ Atsu-ko (Empress). 

-^^t Variant of ^ (p. 453). 118. 

CHIKU ; tsuku, Isuki. isuku, kidzuku ('to build'). 118. 

[Compare j^ (p. 183), ^ (408), m (461)-] I _h Chikujo (mod. k. 

of Buzen). | ^ (see ^). | M. j'l Tsukuse-gawa (r.). Towns : I ^ 

Tsukude ; | illi Tsuiji (Tsukiji as dist. of Tokio, lit. 'reclaimed land 'j : 

I ft Tsukidate (f. met.). J^ | Otsuki, | iJ] Tsukiyama, | ^ Tsukui (f.). 




Sixteen Strokes 488 

3H [Contraction: ^.] KI. ntsuwa ('a pot, vessel, implement, accoutre- 
^^ merits, capacity, talent'). 30. | § kirio ('ability, talent'). 
/J> I shoki ('good-for-nothing', self-humiliative). 

jH*H^ KEI, GIO. hotarn ('a firefly'). 142. 

^^^ I Hotaru [Genji Chapter xxv). | ^ Hotaruzawa (dist. of 

Yedo). I ^ Hotaru-hime (fairy-tale character). 

:^^ffi YEN, ON. oshidori (the Mandarin Duck, i4ix galericulata ; strictly the 
i^^ drake only, a pair being yeno | ^). 196. | '^ Yenkai (f.). 

•^ Contraction of ^ (xxi). 




SAX. nomu ('to drink'); kiivaii ('to eat'). 184. 
^/^ KEI, KIO. hitoyemono ('an unlined garment'). 145. 

^^ KI, KE ; (tomo, fake?). tomo ni (' togetlier ') ; takcshi ('brave'). 72. 

^^ SEI, SHO ; Totouou, {nohti, tnasa, nari). totonoyeru (' to mend, put 
straight '). 66. | J^ Seimin (met.). 





'.^-v l^El. ikou ('to rest'). 61. 

HEKI, HIAKU; kabe. kahe ('a wall'). 32. 
I Kabe, | M Kabeya (f.). 

KON. tagayasu ('to cultivate'); arakibari ('development' of land). 32. 
I Konda (f.). /]> | B3 Oharida (anct. cap. ; f.), Konda (f.), 
but Oita-gawa jl| (r.). 

te^ [Contraction: ^.] REKI, RIAKU ; {toshi). koyomi ('a calendar, 
^ almanac'). 72. 

Nengo: I fr: Riakunin, Rekijin (1238); | ||g Rekio, Riakuo (N. 
Dyn., 1338-41). I tW dr rekihakase (tit.). 

^ REKI, RIAKU; FU ; {-tsugu). fiirn, hern ('to pass through, along'). 
As reki, esp. 'successive'. 77. | ^ rekishi ('a history'). 

Ppg [Contraction : J*'.] BA, MA; MA. migakn ('to polish"); sunt ('to 
^^^ rub'). Interchanged with /^' (p. 457). 112. 

I §1' \V^ Suribari-toge (pass). | ^ Surusumi (horse). 

RO, RU; RO; lori, (yoshi). 'A flat bowl, fire-i)an '. 108. 

I Ro (f. early Korean potters in SatsumaJ. I ^ Ro-sei (Lu 
Sheng, Chin, worthy), ^ -ko (Ao, scnuin). 





4^9 Sixteen and Seventeen Strokes 

SHUN, JUN. shitagau ('to obey')- 162. 
I -^ Nobu-ko (Empress). 

>3S [Compare note to ^ (p. 414).] SFA\ iitsuru ('to transfer'). 162. 
^^"^ I ^ sengu, ^* I miyautsushi (' transferrino: a Shinto shrine to 

another site'). 

^^ SEN, SAN. 'Growing brighter', of tlie sun. 72. 

*^^ I H Senra (' Siam '). 

^^> I; or YUI. okuvu ('to leave behind', at death). Distinguish from ji; 

•^ (p. 457). 162. 

I % yni-motsii ('a bequest'), ^% -scki ('a relic'). | fgl izoku ('an 
old custom still kept up '). 

jO, NIO ; [iaka). meguru ('to encompass'). 162. 

>BE SEN; (nobu). yevabu ('to choose'); -yerabi ('a selection of . . .'). 
i'^— r Interchanged with |^ (xv). 162. 

BO YEN. 'The gate of a town'. i6g. 

IMJ I ^ Yemma, Yemma-o 3£ or -daio ;;^ ^ (Yama, Regent of Hell). 

I 3E ^ Yenno-kiu (' Hell '). 

I pa 



^1 Tsed as a variant of HJ (p. 438J. 31, 



SEVENTEEN STROKES. 

YD, YU ; Masaru, {katsu). yutaka (' abundant ') ; masaru (' to excel, 
surpass '). g. 

I ^ uba (Bud. phrase, from Skt.) ; Uba-ga-dake -g- (m.); Uba-rimitsu 
M- ^ (^O ; uba-soku ^, -i H (' male, female, lay Buddhist '). | ^ ^ 
udonge (mytli. tree). 

#KI ; (yoshi). nawa (' a rope ') ; mukabaki (' leggings ') ; yoshi (' good ') ; 
itsiikushii ('beautiful'). 60. 
I ^ P^ F^ Kian-monin (Empress). | ^ Yoshi-ko (princess). 

^VA KO, GU (KU); {hivo). ogari ('a large wild-goose'); oinaru ('great'). 

V^ 196. 

I Ko (f.). I (or ^) J^ Ko-sluma (is.). | ^ Kono-su (t., Tokaido 

stage 53), ^ -dai (t. ; Mama M. {||] K., dist. of Yedo), '^ -ike (f. met.), 

4^ -moto (f.). I |£ |]g Koro-kwan (building). | -f^ koju ('an eminent 
sinologue '). 




V 



1 



Seventeen Strokes 490 

xji^ JU, NIU. nurerii, iiriiou (' to be wet, soaked '). 85. 

•ffij I TfC ll|§ Nureki-zaki (cape). | ^ Xuregami (wrestler). | f^ 

nurebotoke ('open-air Buddhist image 'j. 

SEI, SAI ; nari, Walasu, (tada). watarii ('to cross over'); suku ('to 
save ') ; sumasu (' to complete, settle '). 85. 

Y^ - v1^ HIN ; hama ; {hama) ; sok., Hama-. henna ('the sea-coast, 
»-** "iz^ beach ') 85. 

. I ^ Hamana (k. of Totomi ; f. ; lake, -no-midzuumi \^). Towns: 

I Hama (f. ; also, in seal-script, as a censor's name on woodcuts between 

1842 and 1853); /Jn I Obama (lacq.), Ohama, Kohama ; | EQ Hama-da 

(lacq. ; f. ptr., met.), ;^ "jfj -noichi, ^ -saka, /j^ -matsu (Tokaido stage 29; 

f.), BJ -machi, / f§ -noura, ^ -waki, |i)^ -zaki (ptr.), !l'f -no (f. met.). 

Other Surnames : X I Ohama ; | )\\ Hama-gawa, n -guchi (ptr.), 
Fj^ -naka, ^ -i, 4^ -moto, ^ -noike (ptr.), ill) -ji (ptr.), i^ -mura, ^ -o, 
M -ya, ^ -shima, i§ -be (met.). | =f ^ jfi^ i Hamachidori-no-kannushi 
(nickname). | ^ Hama-giku, -^ -murasaki (jord). 

%p^ TO; nami ; zok., Nami-. onami ('high waves'). 85. 
"T^v 1 )\\ Namikawa (f. enam. of Tokio). 

^^ BO, MO. kosame ('scotch mist'). 85. 

TAKU, DOKU. sosogu (' to sprinkle ") ; susugu, arau (' to wash ') ; 
isagiyoshi ('pure'). 85. 

f^ Gl ; GI. magai (' imitation ') ; nazorayeru (' to imitate, liken to, 
compare'); nazoraye (in print-titles, 'comparison'). 64. 

TO; ntsu ('to strike'); kidzukii, usiitsiiku ('to pound in a mortar, to 
full'). 64. 

I PIJ" Tsukimachi (t. text.). | ^ ^ )l\ Toi no Tama-gawa (see 
p. 104, 59). 

JU, NIU; (tsiiki). itokenashi ('young'); chiisashi ('small'). 39. 

JLtl^ jU, NIU; or SHU, JU (ZU). sohame, omoimono ('a concubine'). Used 
y^nO for ^, 'wife', in ^ | Adzuma (see p. 244, iiiit.). 38. 

ij^ [Variant: 5^; contraction: fjf[^.\ BI, MI; YA, MI ;■ ya, iya; Hisashi, 
^•^ {hiro, iya) ; zok., Ya-, -ya ( | ;;[<: Yata-, -yata) ; I ^ in nanori as 

yasii. masn ('to increase') ; iya, iyoiyo ('still more so'); hisashi ('ancient'). 57. 
[Compare homophones under ^ ([). 196).] | ^J Misen (m.). | ^ il| 
lya-taka-san or -yama (m.), ^ -/fl -dani-no-taki (fall). | ^ Ya-hiko (or 







491 Seventeen Strokes 

lyahiko, t., tem.), ^ -hira (t.), 3£ M. -tama-ya (brothel). Surnames: | :^ 
Ya-ishi, ^ -yoi (yayoi or iyaoi, the 3rd month), 'g -tomi. Deities : | [?£ 
Mida (= IJiJl I Pt Amida, Amitabhaj ; I ffj Miroku (Maitreya ; also n. 
sculp.). I fl] ^ Yagiobu (see p. 86). /h | ^^ Koyata, | H W Yasa- 
kichi, I -;^ ^ Yayeta (zok.) 

\^ I-^IO. karu ('to hunt'). 94. | ^, see |f| (p. 412). | ^i|j rioshi, 
I A kayibito, kariudo (' a huntsman ').' 

[Contraction: ^.] IN, ON; 0; (yasu). kakusu ('to conceal'); 
'^*^ kakurevu ('to be concealed, hide'); yasunzuru ('to pacify'). As in, 

'illicit, obscure, retired'. 170. 

I |i|j^ Oki (pr. ; f.) ; | >}[] Inshu (Oki pr.). | % Ingen (priest and 
sect founded by himj. | -± in-shl, jg -kio, ^ -ja ('retired layman', terms 
forming name-suffixes, esp. following place-names or studio-names; see p. 70). 

Iw """"^ te ^''''^ variants of ^ (p. 339). 170, 46. 

itt SHO, SO. shima ('an island'). 46. 

^a[ KIO, KO. kashkva ('an oak'). 75. [Compare ^f^ (p. 298), |g (462).] 
■■^^ I M Kashiwabara (t. ; f.); K.-no-miya ^ (anct. palace). 

•h^ KWAI, I\E; hi, hino, hinoki. hi-no-ki (tree, Chamaecyparis obtiisa). 75. 
IH [Compare homophones under (p. 184).] Towns: | lL| Hi- 

-yama (f. met.), -nokiyama, >fc. ^ -nokinai, ^ij -nokuma (f.), |^ -bara, [Jg 
-nokuma (anct. cap. ; f. ; r.). Other Surnames : | Hinoki (ptr.) ; I ^J tH 
Hi-yamada (met.), i^x -saka, jg -gaki (ptr.; no; Higaki-no-uba ^, poetess), 
gj -zono. I t| Hinokuma (nickname). | S^ hiinono ('matchwood ware'); 
Himono-cho HJ (street of Yedo). 

T^mt TAN, DAN. mayumi (the Spindle Tree, Eiionymiis eiiropaeiis). xAs 
'-& tan, a name for hardwood trees such as ^ | kokutan, an ebony 
{Maba ebenus), ^ | shitan, the Red Sandalwood [Pterocarpus santalinus), 
etc.; as da/z, 'a Buddhist temple'. 75. 

I id) Dan-no-ura (bay) ; D. Kabuto Gunki f,^^ |p; |ii {jorurl). \ ^ ^J 
Dandoku-sen (sacred Indian m., Dantaloka-giri ; from dandoku, the Common 
Indian Shot, Canna indica;^ see also ^, p. 486). | ifJf. danvin ('a Buck 
temple 'j ; Danrin-kogo ^ jp (Empress). | ~|» daii-ka, f|=» -c/h7, |}[^ -;/a,_ 
^ -/?e, ^ -yetsu, -otsu, -ochi, \ 'Jj dampo ('the congregation of a Bud. 
temple'; Danotsu as n. ; danna also colloquially 'master, sir'). 

^ Its seeds are used for Buddhist rosaries. 



Seventeen Strokes 492 

t^ TEI, CHO. kawayanagi (the River Willow, Salix purpurea). 75. 

il^ SUI, ZAl. hhichi ('fire-lighting, a fire-striker'); uchihi ('a flint-struck 
AnC fire'); noroshi ('a beacon'). 86. | ^ (or ^) Hiuclii-nada (sea), 

^J -yama or -^ -ga-dake (m.), ^ -no-jo (cas.). 

KW.W ; Tamaki. tamajzi C a bracelet, ring'); meguni {'to encircle'). 96. 




^^ SAX; Akira. azayaka, akivaka ('glossy, bright'). 96. 

^ [Contraction: |§.] TAN, TON; / ; 1. / ('gall'); kimo ('liver, gall- 

*^ bladder, courage'). 130. 

[Compare j}f (p. 241), ^^ {181), ^ (209), ^ (389), ^ (335).] | M 
I-buri (pr.), % -zawa (k. of Oshu). | (for ■^) IpJ llj Ikoma-yama, | 
(for ^) \^X \\\ Ibuki-yama (m.). :^ \ Yamato-damashii (compare 5||, 
P- 442). 




^ 



rO, 'I'SU (DO). utsusu ('to copy'). 149. 

S. {masu, ni a swordsmith's nanori). Apparently an unauthorised 
character. 
KI ; (tomo, tomi). saiwai ('good fortune'). 113. | -f- Saki-ko 



*•« (Empress). | 0f ^- kishinnen ('A Happy New Year') 



=j*Bn SEX, ZEX; {shidzu). shidzuka ('quiet'); yurusu ('to yield, acquiesce'). 
"t^ As zen, 'religious meditation', the Sanskrit dhayana; implying 
generally ' Buddhist ' and specifically the Zen sect (Zen-shu, | ^), and 
beginning the names of many priests of that sect. 113. 

I p^ zemmon ('Buddhism'). | ^iji zen-ji (Bud. tit.; Zenji Soga -^ ^, 
no), ^ -ji ('a Zen temple'), ^ -rin ('a Bud. temple', generally), /g -ni 
('a nun'), ^ -ko (tit. of a retired kwampaku resigning control of the 
government), ^ -jo ('abdication of the throne'). 

A^S KIO ; (tada). tameru (' to straighten, correct, pretend ') ; tadasu (' to 
^l^ correct'). iii. 

SUI, ZUI; ho (-0); -0. ho ('an ear' of grain, 'head' of a spear). 115. 
[Compare ^ (p. 292).] | j^ Ho-daka (t. ; m., -yama), j^ -dzumi 
(t. ; f. ; n. ; i)rince, -no-oji ^ ^). Other Surnames : I . ^ Ho-i, ;^|^ \Q 
-ida, ^, [jg -saka, ^ -dani, ^ -nanii, 3J1J -gari, ^^ -noini, -dzumi. | [n] ^ 
Homukinoya (art-name). 

y S SHUX, JL'X. yorokobu ('to rejoice'). 117. | ^ Yoshi-ko (Emi)ress). 




493 



Seventeen Strokes 





RIN. tsubute ('a pebble'). 112. 

KI, KE ; SHI ; iso ; {iso) ; 20k., Iso-. iso, \ ^ isobe (' the seashore ').. 

Distinguish from |^ (xx). T12. 
[Compare the combination 3l -|- (p. 170).] | ^ Shiki" (k. of 
Yamato) ; \ M ^ Shikishima (for ^ %, anct. capital hi that kori). \ |j|] 
if^ Isoma-no-ura (shore). Other Towns: | Iso (f.); ^ \ Oiso (Tokaiclo- 
stage 8 ; joro) ; /j> | Koiso (f.) ; | g Shinaga ; j jl^^ Iso-mura (f.), 
^ -ya (f. ; also Isogaya as f.j, ^ -be (f.), '^ -nohama, i§ -be (f. met.). 

Other Surnames : | )\\ Iso-gawa, ^Ij -yama, ^ -naga, ffl -da (ptr.), 
g -me, y^ -ai, ^ -gai (ptr., met.), if^ -bayashi, |i| -zaki, % -jhn^, gp -no 
(ptr., met.). | '^ ^ Isonami-no-okma (nickname). | |JI| /j^ souare nO' 
matsu ('a pine-tree with trailing branches'). 

HA, BA. shiroshi ('white'); shiraga ('grey hairs'). lob. 



SHUN, JUN. matataku ('to wink, twinkle'). 109. 






1^ 



HIO. moyegi ('light green 'j. 120. 



[Contraction: ^; synonym: f|i.] SO, SO (SU) ; {fusa, suke) ; zok., 
^niJi commonly So-, rarely P\isa-. jiisa (' a tassel, cluster, corolla of a 
flower'); subete ('entirely, in general'); awasu ('to join'). As so-, 'collective,, 
general, -in-chief. 120. 

I *)]] Soshu, anctly. | ^ Fusa-no-kuni (the provinces of Kadzusa and 
Shimosa combined). | jjjt Sosha (t. ; lit. ' the chief local Shinto shrine '). 
I + gP WJ Sojuro-cho (street of Yedo). | ^ Fuso (f.). | ^ Agemaki 
{Genji Chapter xlvii ; jord \ lit., the little boy's hair-tufts, or a sort of 
ornamental tasselled bow-knot). | ^ so-rid ('eldest son'), ^ ^ \^ 
-tsuihoshi or -tsnibiishi (tit.), g ~shd ('premier craftsman'), ^ -ka ('a 
common prostitute'), ^ -dzu ('a panorama'). 

SHUKU. chijimu ('to shorten, contract, reduce'); chijinii (' creped 
cloth'). 120. 

I |g chirimen ('crepe'). | pj shuku-dzii ('a reduced drawing'),. 
J^ -shaku ('reduced linear scale'). 

SEKI, SHAKU; Tsumugu, (nori). umu, tsumugu ('to spin'); isaa, 
isaoshi ('merit'). 120. 

HO, FO ; nui ; zok., Nui-. nil ('to sew, embroider'); nuimono ('em- 
broidery'). 120. I )\\ Nuigawa (f.). For titles, see p. 82, fin.. 







Seventeen Strokes 494 

SO; kasu. kasn ('dregs'). iiq. 

[Compare ^ (p. 365).] | ;§ Kasu-ya (k. of Chikuzen), ^ -ya 
(f. ptr.), :® (see ^ U, p. 311). 

KO ; nuka. nuka ('rice-bran'). 119. 

[Compare^ (xviii).] | 5f @ Nuka-nome