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Full text of "Japanese reading for beginners"

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Presented to the 
library of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

from 
the estate of 

PROF. W.A.C.H. DOBSON 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/japanesereadingf03rose 



JAPANESE READING 

F O R 

BEGINNERS 

ARTHUR ROSE-INNES. 



Vol I. Kana. 

Vol II. A Few Chinese Characters. 

Vol III. More Chinese Characters. 

Vol IV. The Literary Style. 

Vol V. The Epistolary Style. 



VOLUME III. 

MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS 

Second Edition, Revised. 



K. YOSHIKAWA & CO., 

Ben ten -dor i,' 1 chome, 

YOKOHAMA. 

(All rights reserved.) 



JAPANESE BEADING 

FOR 

BEGINNERS. 



VOLUME III. 

MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 

Object- The object of this volume is threefold : (a) to increase the 
student's knowledge of the Chinese characters by a free use of the commoner 
characters* (b) to familiarize the student with the use of a dictionary of 
characters, an accomplishment absolutely necessary if he wishes to puzzle 
things out for himself ; (c) to accustom him to what, for want of a belter 
word, we call the formal style. 

The Characters. In Volume II, 420 characters were studied : in this 
present volume more than 800 new characters are used, besides almost all 
the old ones. In the text, we have placed Jcana at the side of the less 
important of these new characters, leaving about 480 without Jcana : we 
suggest the student need not bother about the former, but he should study 
the latter as he comes across them. In the list of characters at the end of 
this volume, Appendix I, these 4S0 characters are marked with a special sign. 

Dictionary of Characters- The student must have a dictionary of 
cha - and he must learn how to use it. He should look up all the 

new characters he meets and all the old ones whose reading he has forgotten. 
The romanized version of the text will serve as a check ; but he had better 
try to unravel the Japanese text by the aid of his dictionary, and only refer 
to the romanized transliteration to make sure his reading is correct. As a 
help to those who possess our Beginners' Dictionary of Chinese-Japanese 
CHARACTERS — and no hindrance to those who do not — we have placed a 
vertical line at the left of those compounds which are found in the Dictionary. 
Two lines mean that the characters are a proper name. 

The Formal Style. All the reading matter in this volume is in what 



JAPANE E READING FOR BEGINNEB . 



Ave call the formal style. This is a variety of (he spoken language Hied by 
the Japanese when they are addressing an audience and sometimes also in 
"writing. It may be considered as something between ordinary colloquial 
and the literary style. In a general way, Ave may say that its adjective 
and verb forms, and most of the other words and phrases, are those of 
ordinary colloquial : but it uses some words and phrases which belong to the 
literary style. Thus, in a speech, a Japanese will say instead of Nippon, 
Waga leuni, but lie would never say this when talking simply to a friend. 
The one construction which may be considered as distinctive of the formal 
style is the use of the non-contracted forms de aru, de arimasu, etc., instead 
of the contracted forms da, desu, etc. The non-contracted forms do not 
belong to the literary style on the one hand, and on the other, they are 
hardly ever used by ordinary people in an ordinary conversation. We say 
1 ordinary people ' advisedly, as we wish to exclude soldiers, who are 
accustomed to speaking in a very stiff and formal way. 

In order not to complicate matters, we have purposely avoided examples 
in which the formal style borrows too freely from the literary style. Note 
that the old-fashioned negative termination of verbs in nu equivalent to the 
commoner nai of today, is often used in the formal style. 

Phonetic We called attention cursorily in the previous volume to the 
fact that many characters are so constructed that a certain part, called the 
Radical, gives a vague notion of its meaning, and another, called the Phonetic, 
an idea of its Chinese reading. The understanding of this construction of 
many characters becomes more and more important as the student advances 
in his studies ; so we shall endeavour to explain by means of an example in 
English, the mental process of the Chinese inventors. The word ' ash ' may 
mean in English a certain tree, or the residue of combustion : the two 
meanings cannot be distinguished except by means of the context. Let us 

A A 

suppose, however, that one was written ^C s and the other fc b ; then they 
would be easily distinguished and in a very logical manner : the first one 
would mean ' ash which has reference to tree ' and the second ' ash which 
.has reference to fire.* Now,- for every homonym we have in English, the 



VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



Chinese have perhaps a hundred : so it became very necessary to differentiate 
them in writing, and the system for doing so was worked out with a good deal 
of ingenuity ; but it must not bo thought that tho whole subject is as simple 
as the above examples would appear to make it. On passing into Japanese 
the perfection of the system has suffered considerably, but enough remains 
to make it worth while studying the relations of the Chinese, i.e. the quasi- 
Chinese, readings of characters which have the same written phonetic element : 
in this volume we shall frequently call attention to this subject in our notes. 
• A few simple Japanese examples may not be out of place here : in 
each case it is easy to guess which meaning corresponds to which character. 
illi fill are both read chi, one means earth, tho other pond : 
flfL #1 are both read hi, one means desk, tho other to be hungry : 
#£ $"£ are both read da, one means rudder, the other snake : 
PJt ik are both read sm, one means to blow, the other to cook : 
*[§• |§ are both read go, one means language, the other to perceive. 

For reference, we have given in Appendices II and III some tables 
related to this matter. 

The Text. With the exception of the last few pages, viz. those under 
the heading NEWSPAPERS, all the pieces of this volume are taken, by kind 
permission of the Mombusho, from some Elementary School Readers. It 
must, however, be understood that although the text itself has been reproduced 
without any variation, what we may call the orthography, i. e. the use of 
kan-ji for Jcana or vice-versa, has been changed to suit our convenience. 

Translation. An English translation by Dr. Whymant of all the 
pieces in this volume has been published and may prove useful : but the 
student would do well to try to make sense of the text before seeing the 
translation. In order to do this, ho will, of course, need an ordinary 
Japanese-English Dictionary for all the words in kana. 

Although we suppose that the student has studied Japanese grammar, 
we have thought it would be useful to furnish him, for reference as needed, 
with the following : 



JAPAN ESK REDING FOB BEGINNERS. 



List of the Principal Constructions that are found at the End 
of a Clause which is not the end of a Sentence. 

(a) Noun followed by the post position de : 
Kore wa oji no uchi de, Jcyonen tateta no desu. 

(b) Adjective or verb in gerundial form : 
Nagasaki iva yasai ga takakute, sakana wa yasui. • 
Kind wa kaze wo Mite, raise e ikaremasen deshita. 

(c) Adjective or verb in conditional form : 
SJdna mo yorosJiikereba, nedan mo yasui. 

Haru ni naru to, liana mo sakeba, tori mo utau. 

(d) Adjective or verb followed by a conjunction or conjunctival phrase 
such as no ni, no de, kara : note especially the eaurae. live word sld : 

Sakura ga saite iru no ni, yuki ga futta. 

Kyb wa ammari samui no de, sampo ni dekakemasen deshita. 

SJdna mo ii sJii, nedan mo yasui. 

Ip-piki wa sliinda sld, mo ip-piki wa nigete sliimatta. 

(e) Verbal stem. Until the student gets accustomed he may find it 
rather difficult to recognize in a compound verb, sJii the stem of suru when 
it follows a kan-ji : this suru is used in its nigoried form zuru in certain 
cases or even corrupted in the colloquial to jiru, e. g. zonzuru cr zonjiru. 
tsuzuru or tsujiru : in cases like these, the stem of suru becomes ji : 

Shiroi liana mo ari, akai no mo ari, aoi no mo arimasu. 

Uchi no otbto wa Ei-go mo lianasld (fSL)* Furansu-go mo lianasu. 

Ku-gatsu ni naru to, naslii mo juku-slii (JJ \^), ringo mo juku-suru. 

Denslia iva kongetsu no tbka karatsu-ji (jtj C)> kislia wa ju-iclii-nichi kara 
tsu-jita. 

In the second example lianasld is the stem of lianasu. 

In the third example shi is the stem of sunt, and must not be confounded 
with sld the enumerative particle mentioned in (d). 

(f) Adjective in adverbial form : 

Atami wa notsu wa suzttslriku, fuyu wa atatakai. 



READING LESSONS 



TAKEN FROM THE 



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VOLUME 111. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. <) 

YOI DETCHI. 

Naokichi to Chomatsu wa onaji raise uo detchi de atta. 

Aru hi shujin wa asa kara yo-tashi ni deta no de, futari ga mise no 
rusu wo shite iru to, hitori no otoko no ko ga fude wo kai ni kita. Ip-pon 
san-sen zutsu no wo ni-hon katte, jis-sen ginka wo dasliita kara, Naokichi 
wa nan no ki nashi ni sono tsuri ni is-sen no doka wo sam-mai watashita. 
Otoko no ko mo ki ga tsuka-zn ni sono mama kaetta. 

Naokichi wa ato de futo ki ga tsuite, 

M A. taihen na koto wo shita. Ima no o kyaku ni mo is-sen age-nakereba 
nara-nakatta." 

To itte, sugu ni okkakete itte, nokori no is-sen wo watashita. Kaette 
kuru to, Chomatsu wa waratte, 

" Saki de wa shira-nai no da kara, is-sen mokete okeba yokatta no ni." 

Notes. E3 Ka a coin ; note the shell. 

® Compare : ^Bij* Ginka silver coin, ^0^* Dbka copper coin ; 
^M py Hdkudbka nickel coin. 

jjj Oil to pursue ; it naturally has shinny u as it refers to motion. 

QNokori no is-sen wo watashita gave him the remaining one sen ; not, 
gave him one sen of the remainder. Nokori and is-sen are in apposition. See 
Vocabulary no 5). If the words had been kono nokori no is-sen they might 
mean ' this remaining one sen ' or * one sen of this remainder '. This latter 
meaning is absurd in the present tale, but with another context it might be 
the correct one. Likewise nokori no hambun may mean according context 
1 the remaining half ' or ' half of the remainder '. 

©Compare the following for the similarity of the phonetic : £§ Sen (unit 

of money; i^f^l Chinsen) ; ra| Sen (^§§fif? Senryo, v3& J& Sengakii) ; ^g 
Zan (^^^J; Zan-yo, ^5|<f^ ZannenX 

®9C Sen (5£^fe Sense{ > ^C Senjitsu) ; $£ Sen ($t$| Sentaku, 
WtWt Senrei )' 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. H 

To ittara, Naokichi wa, 

" Sonna koto ga dekiru mono ka ? Honto no moke do nai kano wa 
ichi-rin de mo totte wa nara-nai." 

u Sore de mo danna ga i-nai kara damatte ireba dare ni mo shire wa 
shi-nai. ? ' 

" Danna ga o rusu da kara, naosara machigai ga atte wa nara-nai." 

To itte mo, Chomatsu Wa mada waratte ita. 

Ato ni natte, shujin wa kono koto wo kiite, Naokichi wa shdjiki-mono 
da to homete, Chomatsu ni wa hima wo yatta. 

QAN. 

Tsubame wa atataka ni naru to, doko kara ka tonde kite, suzushiku 
nam to, mata doko ka e tonde iku. Gan wa tsubame no kaeru jibun ni 
kite, tsubame no kuru jibun ni kaeru. Mo aki ni natta kara, gan ga oi-oi 

Notes. °J| Ri (unit of length) ; 30g Ri (4ffi §| Muri, J!| jf] Riyu, 

j£JJ| Vori, P^l^ Byori); ^ Ri (^g Bimen, |gj|£ Hyori); Jg 

RlN (unit of money). 

®HS Hima dismissal, leisure ; when a man is dismissed he has time Q . 

®fj§ Tobu to fly ; this character is a picture of two wings. 

®#ll Suzushii cool; it has ni-zui like ^ Tsumetai cold. 

®# Ji (^ |^ Jiin, 7^ H # Hommonji p.n.); $$ Ji (|$ fgj 

Jikan, \jgfft Jihun > B^H J{ J {tsu > *m\£F T ^' i )' W Jl (i^pf Jib V F) > 
$f?$Zr Jisan, fffj&Shoji). 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 13 

tonde kuru. Gan wa itsu de mo issho ni natte, retsu wo tsukutte tobu. 
Sono toki ni wa iohi-wa no gau wa retsu wo hanarete, sukoshi saki no ho 
ni tonde iku. Sore Ira michi-annai de am. Hoka no gan wa micbi-annai 
no iku ho e tsuite iku. Mata tobu toki ni wa ga-ga to naki-au. Sore wa 
aizu de aru. Moshi retsu ni hanareru yd na koto ga atte mo, sono aizu wo 
kiku to sugu retsu ni kuwawaru no do aru. 

Gan no naku koe wo kiku no wa, sora ga harete, tsuki no akarui ban 
ni Oi. Kumotta yoru ya tsuki no nai yoru wa michi ni mayou kara, taitei 
tsuki-yo ni tobu no de aru. Yoku chui shita mono de wa nai ka? 

KAJI. 

" Jan, jan, Jan." Kane ga naru. Kaji da, kaji da. Doko daro, amari 
toku wa nairashii. 

Aeliira no sora ga makka da. Hi-no-ko ga hanabi no yo ni chitte ira. 

Notes. ®^^ The Dictionary gives P& Naku to sing, and ^ An 

to agree with, but it does not give the compound Nald-au. When a com- 
pound is not given in the Dictionary the meaning can often be guessed by 
using a little common sense ; in the present cas9 the meaning is, to call out 
together. 

® *f?: Koe voice ; note the ear by which it is heard. Q would seem a 

more natural radical, but originally the meaning of this character was, sound. 

® fl i ■ r Harem to be clear ; note the sun PJ and the blue pq sky. 

®?-tj> Kumoru to be cloudy ; a cloud *^i under the sun PI . 

/ ] T>t '^hi s combination may be read according to the hun readings 
tsuH-yo, or according to the on, getsu-ya ; in both cases the meaning is the 
same, but the context may make one reading preferable to the other. Other 

examples of similar compounds are: 3fejji'« Zen-ahu, yosM-ashi; /tj 4h£ U- 
mu, Arn-nashi. It sometimes happens that the on reading of a compound 
lias a different meaning to the hun reading, e.g. — •" H San-gatsu March, 
Mi-tsuki three months. 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. ] 5 

Yumihari wo motte hashiru hito ga, ato kara ato kara to tsuzuite tonde iku. 

Hi-moto wa Uramachi-dori no zaimoku-ya de, mo Houclio-dori e nukete, 
kado uo gofuku-ja ga yaketo ini no da so da. A, hi no ikioi ga isso tsu- 
yoku natta. Mata tonari e utsutta no ka mo shire-nai. Kaji-ba de sawagu 
hito no koe ga koko made mo kikoeru. 

Nagai tenki-tsuzuki de, kawaki-kitte iru ue ni, konya no kono hageshii 
kaze de wa, doko made yakete iku ka wakara-nai. Shiawase ni kaza-kami 
de, anshin da ga, oji-san no uchi wa do daro ? 

Dan-dan shita-bi ni natte kite ureshii. Sakki kara mo ni-jikan mo tatsu 
kara, shi-go-jik-ko mo yaketa daro. 

Oji-san no uchi e mimai ni itta nii-san ga kaette no hanashi ni, yoyo 
kome-ya no dozo de tomatta ga, futa-mune no dozo no uchi, hito-mune wa 
toto yake-ochita so da. Yakuba wa saiwai ni yake-nakatta. Issai no shorui 
ya kiroku-rui mo mina buji de atta to iu koto da. 

Notes. 7k Eashiru to run ; notice that at the bottom we have a 
man with legs stretched far apart, i.e. running with big strides. 
4w Nukeru to pull out ; done with the hand, therefore te-hen. 

®i|8< Ikioi power, strength ; notice ~J~) at the bottom. 

$|J| Sawagu to be excited ; horses iB are very excitable. 

© J/o ni-jikan mo tatsu kara. The meaning of mo is, already ; mo has 
a slight emphatic force. If mo were suppressed, the sentence would still bo 
correct, though less emphatic. 

©Mimai ni itta nii-san ga kaette no hanashi ni. The words no hanashi 
refer to nii-san, though they are separated by the words ga kaette. Foreign- 
ers would probably find the following construction easier to understand : 
mimai ni itte kita nii-san no hanashi ni. 

•^ Z6 (±jjgfc Dozd); Jig Z6 (jfyjjjg Shinto). 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 17 

Hi wa iclii-iiielu mo uakute wa nara-nu mono do am. Mai-nichi no 
shokuraotsu no ni-taki kara shuju no kogyo made, bi no chikara wo yosuru 
koto wa k.izoe-kire-nai hodo 6i. Oki na kikai no ugoku no mo, kisba ya 
kisen no hashiru no mo, mina hi no chikara no riyo ni yoru no do aru. 

Korc-hodo yuyo na ]ii de mo, hyotto machigau to tailien na koto ga 
dekiro. Kikeba kono kaji wa zaimoku-}'a no ko-ya kara deta no de, tabun 
tabako no sui-gara ga moto daro to iu banasbl da. Ip-puku no sui-gara 
kara koima 6-kaji ni nam. Hi wa jitsu ni osorosbii mono da. Hi no tori- 
atsnkai wa taisetsu ni sbi-nakereba nara-nu. 

MINATO. 

Hiroi minato ga fune de ippai ni natte iru. Takai bo-basbira ya, bikni 
ho-bashira ga takusan kasanari-atte, maru de bayashi no yo ni mieru. 

Oki na kisen no aida wo kemuri wo dasbi nagara hayaku basbitte iku 

Notes. -9?"^" ^) Yosuru ; verb formed by adding sum to an on 
reading ; see vol. IT, p. 171, note 1 ; very many examples of these verbs are 
found in this present volume. 

05. Suu to suck or smoke, ('note the mouth ^ ) ; ^4* Kara a shell ; 
sui-gara the remains of what was smoked, cigarette-end, live ashes out of 
pipe. 

11& M' ina t° P 01 ^, harbour ; note the san-zui. 

¥f Hashira post, pillar ; note ki-hen. Ho-bashira sail-pillar ; i. e. 
mast. 

®Oki na. . . .iku ; this is a verbal clause used as an adjective. The 
sentence may be considered as evolved on these lines : cJiiisa na fune ya aru 
there are some small ships ; asoko ni hayaku hashitle iku chiisa na fune ga 
aru there are some small ships darting quickly about over there ; oki 7ia 
kisen no aida wo hayaku hashitte iku chiisa na fune ga aru in between the 
big steamships there are some small ships darting about; oki na fune no 
aida wo, kemuri too dashi nagara, hayaku hashitte iku chiisa na fune ga aru 
in betwe3n the big steamships small launches, pouring out smoke, dart 
quickly about. Note that the ivo after aida is not the 3ign of the accusative, 
but indicates locality ; see Vocabulary wo 3). 



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JAPANESE READING FOR BEGINNERS 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 19 

ohiiaa na fane ga aru. Are wa liasliike de am. Chiisa na wasen mo achira- 
kochira wo kogi-mawatte iru. 

Oki no ho k ira kuroku nutta fune ga haitte kuxu. Shiroi ho wo ageta 
liokake-lmne mo ikutsu to naku haitte kuru. 

Bhomen ni aru ni-hon entotsu no kisen wa shikiri ni kiteki wo narashite 
fan. Ima ni shuppan snru no de aro. 

Hatoba no migi ni tsuite iru kisen wa ima nimotsu wo oroshite iru. 
Hidari-te no kisen wa ima nimotsu wo tsumi-konde iru. Oki na kikai de, 
donna omoi nimotsu de mo, raku-raku to age-oroshi wo shite iru. Migi no 
ho no kisen de wa, sakki kara ushi wo nam-biki to naku tsurushi-oroshita. 

Oroshita nimotsu wa sugu ni kuruma ni nosete, uma ni hikasete iku. 
Are wa teishaba e okuru no de aro. 

Notes. ^P)|p JVa-sen: the first character has several meanings ; one 
of these is Japan : the second character means, boat. The compound means, 
Japanese-style boat. Only experience can teach which of the various mean- 
ings of a character is to be taken iu any particular case. Note here tho 
interesting compound "^T Jp Yamato an old name for Japan. 

®vltl Oki the offing ; in the midst pfcl of the water, san -zui ; i.e. the open 

sea. 

© Ho-kake-bune sail, hang, boat ; i.e. sailing-vessel. 
© lkutsu to naku = kazoerare-nai Jiodo. 

wt ■^ am i 'w&ve ; the skin or surface FE? of the water, san-zui. 
® Tsumi-komu to load, to put into ; i.e. to load the vessel, to put cargo 
into the vessel. 

®j[\. Komu to crowd into. This character is not of Chinese origin, it 
was invented in Japan and has therefore no on reading. Another common 

character of Japanese origin is Jffl Hatake. 



20 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 21 

KAJI-YA. 

Boku no kinjo ni toshiyori uo kaji-ya ga atta. Se ga tataku, me ga 
surudokuto, chotto miru to osoroshii ga, itatte kidate no yasashii rojin 
de atta. 

" Tonteukan, tontenkan." To mai-asa hayaku kara deshi wo aite ni 
tsuchi wo utsu oto ga kikoeru. Iclii-niclii mo yasunda koto ga nai. Boku 
wa toki-doki sono shigoto-ba no mae ni tatte mite ita. Aru toki wa kugi 
wo koshiraete ita. Aru toki wa kama wo kitaete ita. Mata kuruma no wa 
wo utte ita koto mo atta. Boku no ie de iehi-do tsurube no kana-taga ga 
kowareta toki tsukuroi wo tanonda koto ga atta ga, yoku-jitsu sugu ni 
koshiraete kureta. Natsu no donna atsui lii de mo, ase wo nagashi nagara, 
kure-gata made liataraite ita. Shigoto wo slii nagara, boku ni iro-iro na 
Jianashi wo shita koto mo aru. Aru toki no hanashi ni, 

" Jibun wa ima koso konna ko-gatana ya kugi nado wo tsukutte iru ga, 

Notes. O Tontenkan onomatope. 
$£} Kitaeru to forge ; note the metal £>. 

:S ^ 0KU the nex *, following ; the wings at the top ffl\ indicate the 
velocity with which the future arrives. 

\j\t ^ af J am generally means to throw or abandon in the water, but 
here it is the active verb corresponding to ' to flow,' i. e. to cause the per- 
spiration to flow ; it is as if we said, he exuded perspiration. 



22 



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VOLUME HI. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 23 



moto wa sukoshi wa Into ui shirareta katana-kaji de, wakai toki kara, nan- 
jip-pon to naku 6-dachi ko-dachi wo kitaeta. Katana wa baslii no tamasliii 
to iwareta mono da kara, kitaeru toki wa mi wo kiyomete, isshin-furan ni 
utta mono da." 

To itta. 

Itsu mo jobu-so na rojin de atta ga, kjonen no kure ni shinde shimatta. 
Sono jibun made yoso e hoko ni itte otta wakai musuko ga ima de wa sono 
ato wo tsuide, asa kara ban mado aikawara-zu, " Tontenkan, tontenkan." 
To hataraite iru. 

KANKOBA. 

Macbi no nigiyaka na tokoro ni atarasliii kankoba ga dekita. Mazu 
iri-guciii wo hairu to, migi no ho ni wa sara, hachi, chawan nado no 
yakimono wo uru mise ga ari, hidari no ho ni wa zen, wan, hashi nado no 
nurimono wo uru mise ga aru. Fude, sumi, kami nado no mise, kushi, 

Notes. QHito ni shirareta well-known, famous. 
® -\~ Shi, samurai, a knight ; be careful not to confound this character 

with -4- Tsuchi. 

© Sono jibun .... otta is a verbal clause used as an adjective ; it qualifies 
musuko. Wakai musuko ga ima de wa sono ato wo tsuide his young son has 
now succeeded him ; sono jibun made yoso e hoko ni itte otta wakai musuko ga 
ima de ica sono ato wo tsuide his young son who until then had been serving 
his apprenticeship elsewhere, has now succeeded him. 

® Q This character by itself is read Musuko, the -J^ is therefore more 
or less superfluous, though generally added. Compare vol. II, p. 111. 

Jr\\ has little or no meanicg here ; but is used in this combination 
which is a common one. 



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VOLUME in. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 25 

kanzashi nado no mise wo mite, migi e oreru to, soko ni ez6shi-ya, geta-ja, 
omocha-ya nado ga narando iru. Dono mise ni mo shina-mono ga kirei ni 
narabete aru. 

Mise wa ryo-gawa ni atte, man-naka no michi wa semai ga, liito wa 
mina mae e, mae e to susunde itte, ato e wa hiki-kaesa-nai kara, tori-michi 
no semai wariai ni wa konzatsu shi-nai. 

Iro-iro na mise no mae wo totte, hidari e oretari, migi e oretari suru 
to, shira-zu, sliira-zu ni, deguchi e dete kuru. De-guchi ni chikai tokoro ni 
wa, kimono, liaori nado wo utte iru mise ga ari, de-guchi ni wa nabe, kama, 
tetsubin, hi-bashi nado wo uru kanamono-ya to, oke, tarai, zaru nado wo 'uru 
aramono-ya ga aru. Nichiyo-hin naraba mazu nan de mo aru to itte yoroshii. 
Shina-mono wa mina shofuda-tsuki de, kakene ga nai. Mise ni wa ban-nin 
ga ite, kao to omou mono wa sugu ni kaeru. Nani mo kau mono ga 
nakereba, sono mama kaette mo yoi. Mata ichi-do ni iro-iro na mono wo 
kai-atsumetai toki ni wa, hito-tokoro de sumu kara benri de aru. 



Notes. ® ^jfc Narabu to set up in a row. This character is a corruption 
of j£j5[ ; two things standing are always in a straight line. 

3I§ Susumu to advance, march ; there is motion, shinnyu is appropriate. 
© Okuri-kana i.e. the Jcana after a Jcan-jij wliich expresses the termination 
of the word, is not subject to fixed rules. H I ^ ^Jj£ would be written by 

many people without the 2 thus 3 I jj%. 

felt ® ru *° weave '■> therefore ito-lien. 
®2& Kama a cauldron ; this character comes from A* as a cauldron is 
made of metal ; the top lines have been disturbed, perhaps because so much 
stirring is done in a cauldron. Compare : ^£ Fu (tft -Hp- Fusld, ^£ ~S 
Fubo, ^Q }''/"); ^ Fu (^g[l| Fusan). 



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VOLUME HI. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 27 

TORI. 

Washi, taka, tobi uado do yo ni 6-zora wo tobi-mawatte, ta no tori wo 
toraete kuu tori ya, tsuru, gan, tsubame nado no yo ni, kiko ni yotto sumu 
tokoro wo kaeru tori wa subete tsubasa ga okii. Mata niwatori, shichimen- 
cho, ahiru nado wa riku-jo ya sui-jo ni bakari ite, takaku toba-nai kara, 
sono tsubasa ga chiisai. 

Tsuru, sagi, kuina nado mizu no naka wo aruku tori wa hagi ga nagai. 
Riku-jo ni iru tori de, hagi no nagai no wa dacb.6 de aru. Dacho wa ch6- 
rui no uchi de icliiban okikute, tamago mo kodomo no atama liodo aru. 
Hashiru koto wa uma yori mo hayai no de, sora wo tobu hitsuyo wa nai 
kara, tsubasa wa lianahada chiisai. Hagi no .nagai tori wa kubi mo nagaku, 
kubi no nagai tori wa taitei kuchibashi mo nagai. Shikashi kawasemi wa 
hagi mo kubi mo mijikakute, kuchibashi bakari ga nagai. Dacho wa hagi 
mo kubi mo nagakute, kuchibashi dake ga mijikai. Mizu-tori no kuchibashi 
wa hiratakute, saki ga maruku, riku-cho no kuchibashi wa maruku hosokute, 

Notes. f|S This character is much used in the epistolary style as a 

mere honorific termination after verbs or adjectives ; it is then read sorb 
and has a force about equivalent to the masu termination of ordinary 
colloquial. Occasionally when read sorb it is used independently and it then 
has the meaning of, to be. 

~jT Saki often meaus, the extermity, tip, end. 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 29 

saki ga togatte iru. Washi, taka, tobi nado wa uwa-kuchibashi ga koto ni 
surudokute, yaja futoi. Isuka no kuchibashi wa uo to sliita ga kui-chigatte 
iru. Bare de " Isuka no hashi no kui-chigai." To iu koto ga am. 

Me no mottomo osoroshi-ge na no wa washi, taka no rui de, karada no 
wariai ni me no mottomo okii no wa fukuro, mimizuku nado de aru. O no 
mijikai no wa kawasemi, ahiru nado de, nagai no wa kiji, jama-dori, kujaku 
nado de aru. Kujaku wa toki-doki o wo Ogi-gata ni liirogeto miseru. Oki 
na mono ni naru to, moshi ie no naka de hiroge-sasetara, zashiki ippai ni 
natte tenjo e tsukaeru hodo de aru. 

UMI NO SEIBUTSU. 

Umi no naka ni wa uo ya kai ya sono hoka iro-iro no dobutsu ga ori, 
sama-zama no sliokubutsu mo aru. 

Gyo-rui ni wa iwaslii, aji, saba, maguro, katsuo nado no yo ni 
mizu no hyomen ni chikai tokoro wo oyogu mono ga ari, tai, bora, 
hamo, kochi, kisu nado no yo ni iwa no kage ya kaiso no aida wo 

Notes. **Hashi abbreviation of kuchi-basM. 

® Osorosld-ge. -ke is a termination which serves to form abstract nouns. 
In its original form it refers generally to eatables and taste, e. g. shio-ke 
saltiness or salty taste. In its nigoried. form, as here, it means look or 
appearance. In this latter case it is generally written in kana. 

^'nIa Shintai body ; note that the two components have very similar 
mornings, and the meaning of the compound is the same as that of each 
component. In the previous volume we have already met cases like this : 

ppJ(^} SMnamono, i^ffi Baslto. 

Si ^ l '' (,i wide and )ft\\\ Hirogenc to spread, differ only in the te-hen ; 
spreading is often done with the hand. 

®ltl J ty\. The y is often omitted ; see p. 25. 
>f[li Shoku to plant; note the ki-hen. 
y/K 0'J°'J u * n swim ; written of course with san-zui. 
,f=j* I lca rock ; appropriately written with Jj and ^fT . 



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VOLUME HI. MOKE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 31 

oyogu mono ga ari, ei, karei, hirame nado no yo ni, soko no suna-ji ni 
shizunde iru mono mo am. 

Gyo-rui no hoka ni, ebi, kani, tako, ika nado ga sunde iru. Ebi no pin- 
pin hanetari, kani no yoko ni liatte aruku yosu wa, iko ya kawa ni sumu 
mono to chigawa-nai ga, tako ya ika no aslii wo soroete oyogu sama wa 
makoto ni omosliiroi. 

Asari, hamaguri nado wa suna ya doro no ue ni ori, sazae, kaki nado 
wa iwa ni tsuite iru. Kaki wa sugu ni fueru mono de, mono ni tsukeba, 
naka-naka hanare-nai. Gunkan ya, kisen wa toki-doki kaki wo kaki-otosa- 
nakereba nara-nai hodo de aru. Mata shinju-gai to iu mono ga am. Yubi- 
Wa ya eri-dome nado ni hameru utsukushii shinju wa, kono kai no kara no 
naka ni aru no de aru. 

Mushi-rui mo takusan oru. Naka de omoshiroi no wa sango de, takusan 
atsumatte ki no eda no yo na katachi wo shite iru. Kanzasbi no tama ya 
ojime ni sum sango wa kono mushi no hone de aru. Mata mono wo arat- 
tari f uitari sum toki ni tsukau kaimen mo, yahari umi no soko no iwa nado 

Notes. yjjh Shizumu to sink and "V[Jl Ike pond, are naturally written 
with san-zui. 

®Kaki wo kaki-otosa-nakereba ; the first kaki is a noun, it refers to shell- 
fish like oysters, barnacles, etc.; the second kaki is the stem of the verb kaku 
to scratch, scrape. 

© Eri-dome brooch used by ladies for fastening neck-band or shawl. 

QAru no de arte; this sounds rather confusing at first; the no after aru 
is equivalent to mono. Kono kai no kara no naka ni aru no de aru means, 
(pearls) are things which are inside this shell ; kono kai no kara no naka ni 
aru would mean, (pearls) are inside thi3 shell. 



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VOLUME 111. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 33 

ni tori-tsuite iru mushi no hone do am. 

Urni ni wa m:ita komono ga sundo iru. Iliku no kemono ni nita mono 
ni wa rakko, ottosei nado ga ari, uo ni nita mono ni wa, kujira ga aru. 
Kujira wa karada ga hanahada 6kii. Iiiku ni sumu mono do wa, zo ga 
mazu ichiban okii ga, kujira ni karaberu to otona to akago yori mo, motto 
chigau. 

NIPPON. 

Waga Nippon wa shima-guni de aru. Shi-ho wa umi ni tori-makarete 
iru. Eaigau ni wa kiritateta yo na iwa-yama mo aru ga, liiratai suna-hara 
ni natte iru tokoro ga 6i. Ichimen ni komatsu no haeta komatsu-bara mo 
ari, mata oki na matsu ga naranda nagai matsu-bara mo aru. Umibe wa 
fudan tsuyoi kaze ga fuku kara, takai matsu wa shizen ni omoshiroi eda-buri 
ni natto iro. Shiroi suna ni aoi matsu, doko no hamabe wo mite mo, 
utsukushii keshiki de aru. 



Notes. Ojg Gen (^Tfjj. Genryo, ]|f{g Gerika, 2|£Jg Heigen). 
Gan (KM Gammb, jjjjjf Jjjfg Kigan). 

tfeii£ Uwibe and Yjji iS* Hamabe both mean sea-shore or seacoast. 
®TJT Kei, Kyo (j^^ff Keihin, j|[j^ Tokyo, J^|^ Kyoto); ^ Kei 
(JSL^f Fukei, "^5^ Krnki, J^ft Keshiki the i of Kei is dropped). 



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VOLUME 111. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



Nippon ni wa yama ga 6i. Dono yama ni mo ki ga yoku shigette iru. 
Matsa, sugi, hinoki uadb ga ichimen ni haete iru no wa mo ga sameru yo 
na kokoro-moohi ga snru. Ham ^va liana, aki wa momiji de, yama no 
nagame wa toki-doki kawaru. Tokoro-dokoro ni shiroi nuno Wo sarashita 
yo na t.iki ya tani-gawa ga atte, isso yama no keshiki wo hikitateru. 

Nippon ni wa kawa ga 6i. Hayai nagare wo ikada no kudatte iku no 
ya, .^hizuka na kawa wo hokake-bune no nobotte iku no wa, maru de c ni 
kaita yo do aru. Kawa no ue ni kaketa haslii, liashi no shita ni tatte tsu i 
wo sum hito nado, sore-zore kawa no keshiki wo soete iru. 

Nippon no kuni ni wa liaru, natsu, aki, fuyu kawaru-gawaru iro-iro na 
bana ga saki, iro-iro na tori ga naku. Icbi-nen-ju karari to harota hi ga 
okutr, tsuki-yo no nagame mo utsukushii. 

HATARAKU KOTO WA HITO NO HOMBUN. 

Niwatori ga tabi-tabi naito, hi ga agatta. Hito wa mina nedoko wo 
hanareta. 

Notes. O Me ga sameru. Compare the English expression eye-opener • 
the beauty is so great as to cause us surprise. 

®|U[C Xagameru to view ; note the eye Ejj . 

®Q Haku, Byaku (£jf|pj Hakudo, EjQQ 3Ieihaku, %£^\ Kbhaku, 
2L f I KoJcubyakuj ; "pT Hyaku (hundred, ~[^f M^ ^y a ^ us ^ (J )' 

®^ So (-^|fl Sochd, JfL0% Soban); _^L So (yfc^L Suiso, ^L 
JpSoJcaX 

®it KA (§£ffc Hcnka) ; j£ Ea (ffiffi Kafun, ^jfc SSka) ; % 
K.\ (|g jf^ GinJea, ^Vfy Kamotsu). 



86 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 37 

Halia wa daidokoro do asa-meshi no shitaku ni kakari, chichi wa haya 
mise ni suwatte Bhdbai no yOmuki wo shirabete iru. Maohi wa dan-dan 
hito-dori ga oku natte, kuruma mo tori, uma mo toru. Shimbun-ya wa 
shimbun wo, gyiinyu-va wa gyiinyu wo ie-io ni haitatsu shite aruku. 

Daiku wa nokogiri, Bakan wa kote, ishi-ya wa nomi, kaji-ya wa fcauchi, 
Bhitate-ya wa hari, sorc-zore no dogu wo motte, mei-mei no shigoto ni 
kakartL Mura de wa nofu ga kuwa wo katsuide, tambo e deru toki de 
am. 

Gakko de wa mo jugyO ga liajimatta. Yakusho de mo, kaisha de mo, 
ne kara shita made, ichido sorotte jimu ni tori-kakaru. Heishi wa rempeiba 
e mukai, t;ibi-l)ito wa teishaba e isogu. 

Hito no shokugyo ni wa iro-iro atte, mina mei-mei no shigoto wo shite, 
mai-nichi hataraite iru no de am. Hataraku koto ga nakereba shokumotsu 
mo kaware-nai shi, kimono mo koshiraerare-nai. Hito no kofuku wa mina 
jibun no hataraki de umi-dasu hoka wa nai. Nani mo shi-nai de, asonde 
iru no wa raku na yo ni mieru ga, kaette kurushii mono de aru. Hataraku 
koto wa hito no hombun de aru. 

Notes. 3/ Though it has not got this meaning here, the usual 
meaning of this character is, branch, in a wide sense ; and may be used of 
such things as branch office, branch (railway) line, /fcfr also means branch, 
but in the narrow sense of, branch of a tree ; note the ki-lien. These two 
characters are both read Shi (*j£)lj Shiten, ^*?K Shina, /Rrl$i SJriyo) . 

@ -vj^ Sun (unit of length, "7^^ Svmpo) ; yj^j* Son (^^ SoncM, jj^ 
^ Sonrahi, jS^i]* Binson); ^ Shu, Su (^jfj Shiei, &*!^ B-usu). 

@ ^c » (^A Fl v in > I^c *&)} #c Fu (#c3t Fm A 

®3C K0 (^CiS Kasd > ^f3C Gaik0 )'> $c K6 (W*$L Gakk °> 

-4^- EdsJcaX 



38 



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VOLUME III liOBE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 39 

MIZU TO KARADA. 

Ware-wan wa iohi-nichi mo mizu wo noma-nai koto wa nai. Mizu wo 
noma-nai koto wa atte mo, mizu no majitta mono ya, mizu wo mazete 
koshiraeta mono wo kuclii ni ire-nai koto wa nai. 

Yu, cha, shim, suimono wa iu made mo nai. Sake ya su ya shoyu mo 
meshi ya mochi ya kashi mo, mizu ga nakereba deki-nai. Kudamono mo, 
mizu wo fukuude ori, yasai ni mo -mizu-ke ga aru. 

Ware-ware wa mai-asa kao wo arai, kuchi wo susugu. Mata toki-doki 
yu ni hairu. Toki-doki yu ni haira-nai to, karada ga kitanaku naru. Kita- 
naku nam to, byoki ni kakari-yasui. Mata reisui-yoku ya kaisui-yoku wa 
liifu avo tsuyoku shi, shitagatte karada wo tsuyoku shi, kokoro wo sawayaka 
ni sium. 

Notes. °|fjfj Do (l|//J}^J Ddbutsu, ^§j] Undo, fj*Jl§j[j Katsudb, g 
ff/jljl Jidosha); |gj DO (|^|gj Rodo). 

f\ Shiru soup, juice; written naturally with san-zuL 

@ ir>: Ka (M1H K( v' itsu > fp^c Kekka )> H Ka (H"? Kashi > ^ 

ChaJca). 

®fH| Kao face ; compare §|| Kashira head. 

®J|[ Ki ( l 0$f Kimochi, ^£fjjj| Kiko, Jf^JIJ, Kifu t ^^ Byoki 
^ Denki) • ^ Ki (p^lfl Kisha, ffifflft Kisen, Jy|^ Joki). 



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VOLUME ILL MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 41 

Kono yo ni mizu Wa ware-ware uo seikatsu ni mottomo taisetsu na 
mono de, mizu ga uakereba, ikito iru koto wa dcki-nai. Keredomo mizu 
wo takusan nomi-sugitari, tsumetai mizu uo naka ni uagaku haitte itari sum 
no wa doku do aru. Mata kitanai mizu ya kusatta mizu wo uomu to, 
osoroshii byoki ni kakaru koto ga aru. Yoku ki wo tsuke-nakereba nara-nai. 

KAIKO. 

Ip-piki no kaiko no kuclii kara deru ito wo nobashifce miru to, go-roku- 
cho mo aru to iu koto de aru. Kono nagai ito wo dasu mushi ga hyap- 
piki mo nakereba, momen-liaba is-shaku no kinu-orimono wo oru kinu-ito 
wa deki-nai. Kaiko wo katte kinu-ito wo tori, kinu-ito wo otte kinu-orimo- 
no ni suru made ni wa, taiso na tema ga kakaru. Sore wo kangaeru to, 
kinu-orimono no atai no takai no mo, kesshite muri de wa nai. 

Tamago kara kaetta bakari no kaiko wa ari hodo no okisa de, nagasa 

Notes. ^J^fS Seikatsu; another compound in which the components 
have similar meanings, and the meaning of the compound is the same as 
that of each component. 

®^ Tai, Dai (-fc^j) Taisetsu, ^ JQ Dailcu > ^~}Z Seidai ) J ^C 

Tai, Ta (^2p Taihei, ~^% T H ' WSL Ta > Da (Tit Geta > Ifc @ 

Dame). 

i^£ Taku, Sawa a marsh ; in the present case it is used merely for 

its sound : yJK ||j Takusan much. The following two characters are worthy 

of note : gS Yaku translation, and J§3? Eki station. 

®5E Go (five) ; fg Go @£fg Eigo). 

®Momen-Jtuha single width (about 14 or 15 inches) as distinguished 
from o-ltaba double width. 

£\i Kinu silk ; note the ito-hen. 
-•' Atai price ; note the shell. 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 43 

wa ichi-bu bakari shika Dai. Keredomo liito-tsuki bakari uo uchi ni wa, 
mina-san no ko-yubi liodo no Okisa ni nari, iro mo liajimo wa kuroi ga, 
dan-dan kawatto ao-jirokn nam. 

Kaori-tate kara, shikiri ni shokumotsu wo sagashite ito, kuwa no ha wo 
yam to, sugu kui-hajimeru. Chiisai jibun wa yawaraka aa ha wo komakaku 
kitte yarn ga, okiku nam to, eda no mama yaru. Kutte shimau to atama 
wo ugokashite, shikiri ni kuwa no ha wo tazunem. Oki na kaiko ga 
takusan do kuwa no ha wo kuu toki ni Wa, ki no ha ni arae ga furi-kakaru 
yd na oto ga sum. Sono koro ni naru to, ni-mam-biki no kaiko wo kau no 
ni, hito hitori tsuki-kiri de, nemum hima mo nai hodo isogashii. 

Kaiko ga kuwa no ha wo kuu no wa, oyoso ni-ju-go-nichi kara shi-ju- 
nichi no aida dc, sono aida ni ichi-nichi ka futsuka zutsu nemuru koto ga 
yo-tabi am. Nemuru tabi ni kawa wo nugi-kaete, shimai ni wa karada ga 
suki-totte mieru. 

Kono toki ki no eda ya wara nado de tsukutta mabushi e utsushite 
yaru to, kuchi kara utsukushii ito wo dashite, karada wo tsutsumu. Sore ga 
ni-san-nichi no uchi ni deki-agatte mayu ni naru. Kaiko no kuchi no naka 

Notes. 03Iina-san you, the persons to whom I am addressing myself ; 
as this piece is taken from a School Reader, mina-san refers to the children 
who are using the Reader. Mina-san no ko-yubi hodo no okisa about as big 
as 3-0111- little finger. 

xfv O "3^ This combination is usually read Ko-no-lia. 

•j£ B0 (JS±P *%«* li& *&)> It B5 (£f£ «* It 

^ Bosatsu); £g Bo (^^ Shitsubdy 

®J1 13 °* f^pjl Heibcm); 1^ Han ({ftty{ Shuppan} 
ffir Nemuru to sleep; note the eye. 

®\\]i SakO (H^^ 8akkon > R^0 Sakujitsu); ffi Saku (ff^j Sch 
kumotsu, Yfi~$C Sofafo* 1 * ISffP &***&*)* 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 45 

ni wa chiisai kada ga hitotsa aru. Sono kuda kara dasu nebatta shiru ga 
soto e deru to sugu ni kawaite ito ni nam no de aru. 

Mayu no naka no kaiko wa sanagi to nam. Kaiko ga mayu wo tsu- 
kutte kara hatsuka amari tatsu to, sanagi ga cho no yo na katachi ni natte, 
mayu wo yabutto dote kuru. Kore wo kaiko no ga to iu. 

Ga ga deru to, ito ga tore-nai kara, mada de-nai uchi ni mushite sanagi 
wo koroshitc oite, sore kara mayu wo nite ito wo toru no de aru. Ga wa 
mayu kara deru to, yagate tamago wo unde, ma mo naku shinde sliimau 
kara, dete kuru to, sugu ni kami no ue ni oite tamago wo umi-tsukesaseru. 
Sono tamagc wo umi-tsukesaseta kami wo sanran-shi to iu. Ip-piki de oyoso 
shi-go-hyaku liodo no tamago wo umu. 

Kaiko wo kau no wa liaru to natsu to aki no san-do de, haru-go, 
natsu-go, aki-go to iu na ga aru. Waga kuni wa mukashi kara yosan no 
sakan na kuni de, ki-ito wa gaikoku e uri-dasu shina-mono no dai-ichi de aru. 

Notes. m|j Kan, kuda pipe ; primitive pipes were made of bamboo, 

therefore take-kammuri. Compare : *g Kan ( g ~ff Kanritsu, 'g & Kan- 

sho, ]g/f* Bukan); ^gf Kan (^^ Tekkan, ^Jj| Kauri). 

QSanagi to nam in ordinary conversation ni naru would be more natural. 
QHaru-go : go is an abbreviation of kaiko, viz., the last syllable ko in its 
nigoried form. 

Jsj? Yasldnau to nourish, rear ; note ^" to eat, at the bottom of 

the character. Compare: pfr Yo (jftj^ Seiyo, ^fcffi Taiyo, pfcfifr 

Ycfi&u) ; ^| Yo (^1^ Tosu) ; ^ Yo (^^ Ybiku, ^^ YosM, j$£ 

kl ?1j ^ n '^ tWtt here means to export. 
@ 3^J Du <5llj^J Kyodai); Jf| Dai (|g — DaticM, ?fc$* Shidai, 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 47 

HANA NO SAMA-ZAMA. 

Koko iii sakura no haua ga am. Sakura no hana ni wa itsutsu no ben 
ga atte, ben no okLsa ga yoku sorotto iru. Mata sono ben Wa mattaku 
betsu-betsu ni natte iru kara, hitotsu zutsu ni tori-hanasu koto ga dekim. 
Ben no iro wa sliiro mata wa usu-momoiro de, gaku no iro wa aoi. 

Ume, raomo, nashi nado no liana mo sakura no yo ni ben ga yoku 
sorotte iru ga, mame ya fuji no liana no ben wa fu-zoroi de aru. Tsutsuji 
no liana wo miru to ben wa sorotte iru ga, mina hitotsu ni natte ite, hikisa- 
ka-nakereba tori-hanasu koto ga deki-nai. Mata yuri ya ayame no liana 
wa gaku no iro ga bon to liitotsu-iro de aru. 

Oku no liana wo totte sliirabete miru to ko iu guai ni sore-zore 
kawatte iru. Sono katachi mo mata sama-zama de aru. Mame no liana 
Wa cho no katachi wo shite iru shi, asagao no hana wa jogo no yo 
na katachi wo shite iru. Na ya daikon no hana wo miru to, ben ga 

Notes OThe first sentence refers to a picture in the School Header 
from which this piece was taken. 

@ S To, Zu (§J| T6J% ^;g Dairzu); gg To, Zu (^gg Sen. 
do, ggifpg Zutsu); j$jr To (^\ Toka, fj|'|[£ Dento). 

@ ^|J Retsu (fj^lj Gyoretsu, ^ijlft Ressha, ^iJHI Behkoku, $0\\ 
Chinrdsuy, 2g£ Retsu (|jj£^J Haretsu^; %\\ Retsu (^|J^ Reppu, 'jf\\ 
-^ liesshi, *Q$l{ Churetsu). 



48 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 49 

yottsu sorolte, ju-ji-kei ni natte iru. Ichigo no hana wa bon no yo na kataclii 
de, hotaru-bukuro no liana Wa fukuro no yo do aru. Shiso no hana no yo ni 
kucLibim no kataclii wo shita no mo ari, oshiroi no hana no yo ni kuda no 
katachi wo shita no mo am. 

Hana no tsuki-kata mo mata sore-zoro chigau. Tatoeba botan no yo i 
ichirin-zaki no mo ari, niujin no yo ni karakasa "wo hirogeta kataclii ni 
atBomatte saku no mo aru. Mata mugi no ho no yo na katachi ni natte 
saku mono ni wa obako no hana nado ga ari, fusa no katachi ni natte 
Baku mono ni wa fuji nado ga aru. Tampopo, yomena nado wa ichirin-zaki 
no yo ni mieru ga, jitsu wa hitotsu no kuki no ue ni takusan no chiisa na 
hana ga atsumatte saite iru no de aru. 

KISEN, KISHA NO HATSUMEI. 

Joki-kikan wa ni-hyaku-nen hodo mae ni hatsumei serareta ga, hajime 
no uchi wa tada mizu wo sui-ageru tame ni mochiiru kurai de atta. Haji- 
mete kore wo fune ni mochiite kisen wo tsukutta no wa Ainerika no 



Notes. **^ Bon tray ; note the plate [^. 

© Ichirin-zaki efflorescence with only one flower to the bunch. 

®jg K6, (11$$ Kokcd, ^^ Ogon); |g (yfqj(^f Ochaku, 

Ory'o, MM Jad ) ; Wi Kak ^ {W$fk Kakuch °)- 

^C3kS~JP Obako plantain. 
®f||] Kan, Seki h barrier; note the gate P*J. 



50 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 51 

Furuton to iu hito, mate kore wo kuruma ui 6yo sliite kislia wo koshiraeta 
no Wa Igirisu no Sncliibunson to iu liito de aru. 

Ika nana hatsumei mo ichi-do ya ni-do no fu-seiko de ki wo kujiku yo 
d wa deki-agaro mono do wa nai. Furuton ga kufu ni kufu wo kasanete 
tsukutta saisho no fimo wa Furansu no Senu-gawa ni ukabeta ga, fuko ni 
mo Bugu ni Bhizunde shimatta. Furuton wa kore ni odoroka-zu, sara ni 
atarashii kikan wo Igirisu ni chumon sliite, mata hitotsu no fune wo tsukutta. 
Kono tabi wa daijobu to kangaete, "'Nan-gatsu nan-nichi hatsu-kokai wo 
.-urn kara, nani-bito ni mo jdsen no nozomi ni ojiru." To iu koto wo 
shimbun-shi ni kokoku sliita ga, sono hi ni natte josen sliita mono wa 
wazuka jii-ni-nin ni sugi-nakatta. 

!\ono toki mo sukoslii susunda kiri de, yagate ugoka-naku natta ga, 
shirabete miru to, kikan no ichi-bu ni kosho ga atta no de, sugu sore wo 
naoshita. Sono noclii wa nan no sawari mo naku, hyaku-go-ju-mairu wo 
san-jii-ni-jikan de hashitta. Kore wo kiite, kore made Furuton wo waratta 
hit )-bito mo 6i ni kanshin shite, mina sono seiko wo yorokonda to iu koto 
de aru. 

Notes. ©Fulton. ©Stevenson. ® j£& Ukaberu to float ; note the water, 
san-zui. ^^ Odoroku to be surprised, frightened ; there is the same reason 

for referring tliis to horse E as there is for leferring the character JE^r 

Saicagu to be excited: see p. 15. © Ojiru verb formed by adding the 
modified form of suru to an on reading; see vol. II, p. 171. ©Sliimhun-slti 

=Shimbun. ®-3r Koku to inform; note the mouth. ©The characters for 
certain foreign units are obtained by adding Q to the left of an existing 
character: thus Prf* Incld (inch) from "rf" Sun (unit of length); W^ Fiito 
(foot) from J^ Siiaku (unit of length) ; pj| Mairu (mile) from j|L III (unit 
of length); fljjjff Ton (ton) from jjifi on account of its reading, TON, without 
any reference to tlie meaning. ®/^S Kan (/[f£j[^ Kanshmj; ^£ Gen (jjfo 
A} Gensho, ))\\])\^ Kagen). 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



Sucliibiiusoii Wa wakai toki kara kikan no koto ui akarukatta ga, suben 
no yoi kuruma wo suberi no yoi rem no ue do liashiraseru yo ni shitara 
yokaro to, nichi-ya sono koto bakari kangaete ita. Sate iku-do mo ikn-do 
rao tsukuri-naoshite, tsui ni sono mokuteki wo tassuru koto ga dekita. 

Sono koro Igirisu no aru kaisha de basha tetsudo wo koshiraeyo to iu 
hanashi ga atta ga, Suchibunson no hatsumei sbita kislia wo mocbiite rniyo 
to iii koto ni natte, Suchibunson wa sono kaisha ni tanomareto tetsudo wo 
shiki, sono ue wo hashiru kislia wo tsukutta. 

Iyo-iyo tetsudo ga dekite, kislia no unten wo shite mini hi ni naru to, 
shi-ho kara no kembutsu-nin wa kumo no gotoku atsuraatta. Naka ni wa 
kislia to kyoso suru tsumori de, uma ni notte kita hito mo aru. Yagate, 
kisha ga ugoki-dasu to, bajo no hito wa shikiri ni muchi wo utte asette 
mita ga, ichi-jikan ni ju-go-mairu mo hashiru kisha to wa do shite kyoso ga 
dekiyo ? Kembutsu-nin ichido wa sono hayai no to, sono ikioi no susamajii 
no ni odoroiti. 

Notes. ©The order of the characters in a compound sometimes affects 
the meaning, sometimes it does not: thus ijjF^IJ Benri and ^!|{Sf Biben 
mean practically the same, convenience; but EL ffl, Baslia means, a horse- 
drawn vehicle, while TlT E Shaba means, vehicles and horses. 

®jj3£ Ten to revolve; note the wheel jjf. 

@ ;S U * (zzk* Ua-nun); ^ Un (:§|||| Unka, Mg Koku-un); 
*fir Don (*ft^ Donten}. 

i)\\ Gotoku, an adjective used for comparisons especially in the literary 
style ; it corresponds to yd na, yd ni of ordinary colloquial. 

)£}£ ^ Y ^ ^° com P G ^ e > race *> we can sec the two competitors, their legs 
are clear, but don't investigate the other details too closely. Compare : O 

KyG, Kei (£#• Kybdai, Kcitei); ^ KyO, Kei (j^£ Kyoso, fg^ 

Kybbai, %fc}fe Kelha). 



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VOLUME lil. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 55 



MUKASHI NO TABI. 

Mukaslii Tokaido to itta no \va Edo kara Kyoto e noboru kaido de, 
oyoso hyaku-ni-jii-yo-ri, sono aida ni go-jii-san-tsugi to itto, orao na shukuba 
ga go-jii-san atta. Ichi-nichi no ryotci wo ju-ri zutsu to mite, ju-ni-nichi 
liodo kakatti. Soro ga iraa wa asa no kyuko-ressha do Tokyo wo shuttatsu 
Bureba, ban ni wa haya Kyoto ni tsuku koto ga dekiru. Taihen na chigai 
de WB nai ka ? 

Mukaslii no ryoko ni wa iro-iro nangi na koto ga atta. Joge hachi-ri 
no Hakone-yama mo koe-nakereba nara-zu, Fuji-kawa, Oi-gawa, Tenryu-gawa 
Dado mo, sono koro Wa hashi ga nakatta kara, hito no kata-guruma ni nottari 
wataski-bune ni nottari shite watatta no de atta. " Hakone hachi-ri wa uma 
de mo kosu ga, kosu ni kosare-nu Oi-gawa." To iu uta nado mo atta. O- 

Notes. **vl ' This character is* read E like the kata-kana symbol jn 

which is derived from it. 

®Tsugi posting-station on the old Tokaido road between Tokyo (then 
called Edo) and Kyoto. ( 

®>ff'j Shuku, yado posting-station, inn; note one hundred ~S persons 
A under a roof *-*-* 

®Hj"fr Shuttatsu: tatsu is used here as if it were an on reading of \f 
while in reality it is a kun reading. In "4^3^^ Sendatte the reverse 
occurs : Tatsu is the on reading of jg| and therefore invariable, but it is 

treated as if it were a Japanese verb. 

©./'"/' ascent and descent. 

©Kata-guruma carrying on the shoulders. 

9 Hakone hachi-ri etc. quotation from a poem. If you are on horseback 
yoa can cross the S-ri Hakone pass, but the river Oi is often impossible to 
cross. 



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mizu nado no toki ni wa mizu no hiku made wa iku-niclii do mo tomatte 
matte i-nakereba nara-nakatta. Sono koro kore wo kawa-dome to itta. 

Hakone to Arai to ni wa soki-sho ga atte, yakunin ga ichi-ichi tabi-bito 
wo shirabete toshita. Moslii sono seki-sho wo yoketo, waki-michi wo toru 
yo na koto wo sureba, seki-sho yabiiri to itte, sono mono wa omoi batsu wo 
uketa. 

Mukashi no docliu ni wa nma to kago ga atta. Uma wa mago ga liiite, 
yuru-yuru ayumu no da kara, hayai koto wa nai. 

Kago mo Into no kata de kaite, yasumi-yasumi iku no da kara, haynku 
mo nai shi, mata sonna ni raku de mo nakatta. 

Ima wa suiro ni kisen ga ari, riku-jo ni mo shosho-hobo ni tetsudo ga 
tsujito iru. Tetsudo no tsujite i-nai tokoro de mo, basha ya jinrikisha ga 
aru. Sono ue michi mo yoku nari, hasbi mo oku kakerareta. Seki-sho mo 
nakereba kawa-dome mo nai kara, wazuka no ryohi, wazuka no nis-su de, 
onna kodomo de mo anraku ni ryoko ga dekiru. 

Notes. JJljil Kawa-dome impossibility of crossing a river. Com- 
pare: j]^ Shi (rj=» j|^ CMshi, jj^|g ShisJiiku, f^j^ Teishi) . ^ Sin 

?S ll"C Tsujite from Tsujiru which is formed by adding the modified 
form of suru, viz. jiru to the on reading Tsu. Compare : A{§ Tsu ( jjjl jjFr 

Tsukd, ^§^f| Tsuclti, }j]|f|f TsusJdn, ^$% Tsuben, <£ jg Kbtsu) . Jfjjf 
Tsu (gg;fj|f Zutsu, Mtfi Tsusetsu). 
®^ Hi expense ; note the shell. 
j^-J-'jjfc Onna kodomo women and children : without the third charac- 
ter we would get a compound ~^^ which is read joshi or onago woman. 

@ ~£C Ax (iSC'll* Ansllin > $Z^k Anzen > ^^C Heian); ^ An (: 
pfcj Annai, ^^|* Ancjai, [§j5fe Zuan\ 



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VOLUME 111. MORK CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



BUNQYO. 

Hitohako no matchi wo tsukuru tekazu mo naka-naka fukuzatsu iia 
mono de, sore wo ozei no hito ga tewako sliito suru no de aru. Zaimoku 
wo kikai ni kakete jiku-gi wo kosliiraoru mono, jiku-gi wo hi ni kawakasu 
mono, kawaita jiku-gi no saki e yakahin wo tsukeru mono, sore wo onsliitsu 
de kawakasu mono, soroete liako ni ireru; mono, ju-ni-hako zutsu atsumete 
kami ni tsutsumu mono, mina sore-zore ni chigau. Kono yo ni ozei no hito 
ga tewake wo shite, betsu-betsu no shigoto wo suru koto wo bungyO to iu. 

Onaji nin-zu de onaji jikan ni mono wo seizo suru no ni, zentai no hito 
ga onaji shigoto wo suru yori mo bungyo de suru ho ga shinamono no 
dekibae ga yokute, seizo-daka mo haruka ni 6i. Tekazu no kakatta matchi 
no atai no yasui no mo, bungyo-ho ni yotte seizo suru kara de aru. Moshi 
hitori no te do seizo suru naraba, hito-tsutsumi san-sen ya san-sen go-rin ni 
utte wa, totemo hikiau mono de nai. 

Note3. °^ Sai (talent, Z^flfr Sainb, 5§r^ Shusai ). j$ Zai 
('{vj'yfv Zaimoku, 1$jfy Zairyo\. 

@ ft Sm (££>g Shimei) ; |£ Shi Cgjjjft HybsM, tfiflfc Hanshi, 

© The reader with not be surprised to hear that since this article was 
written the price has gone up. 

®fl)C Hai (5fcflfc Mfo* Utit Baibohi). j| Bai, || Bai (j| 
ja Baibai) . 



60 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. fil 

Hito wa sono shintai, saino uado ni yotte, sliigoto ni teki, fu-teki ga 
aru. Bungyo-ho ni yoru to, hito-bito ga sono mottomo tekishita sliigoto wo 
sura koto ni nam. Mata mai-nichi onaji sliigoto wo kurikaesu kara, dare mo 
hayaku sono sliigoto ni jukuren sura. Shitagatto yoi sliinamono ga dekite, 
seizo-daka mo oku naru. 

Bungyo-ho ni yora-zu, hitori de shuju no shigoto wo suru koto ni naru 
to, shigoto no ut>uri-kawaru tabi-goto ni, oru baslio wo kae, mata kigu wo 
torikae-nakereba nara-nai no de, muda ni jikan wo tsuiyasu koto ga Oi. 
Bung yo-1 10 ni yotte, hitori de is-shu no sliigoto ni bakari kakaru koto ni 
naru to, sonna tekazu ga habukete, itazura ni jikan wo tsuiyasu koto ga nai. 

Mata bungyo ni yotte hitotsu no shigoto ni bakari kakatte iru to shizeu 
sore ni seishin wo korasu koto ni nam kara, sono sliigoto ni tekisuru kigu 
no kairyo ya liatsumei wo suru koto mo aru. 

Kono yo ni bungyo wa 6ki na rieki no aru mono de aru ga, koko ni 
chui shi-nakereba nara-nai no wa kyodo-itchi to iu koto de aru. Bungyo de 

Notes. OfjjlJ Sei (jjjljfjl Seigen). |£ Sei (^jg Seixo, %#. 

H'dsei) 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 63 

sum shigoto wa mina zentai no iehi-bubun de aru kara, sore-zoro no shigoto 
wo sum mono ni, kyodo itchi no kangae ga nakereba bungyo no mokuteki 
wa tasserare-nai. Tatoeba tokei wo tsukuru no ni, sono kaku bubun wo 
tsukurn hito-bito ga meimei katto na katachi wo tsukutta nara, sore wo 
kanzen na tokei ni kumi-tateru koto wa deki-nai. Sekkaku kur<~> shite mo, 
sono shigoto wa nan ni mo nara-n;ii. 

Bommei no shimpo suru ni shitagai, bungyo wa masu-masu battatsu shite, 
konniohi de wa donna sliinamono wo seizo suru ni mo bungyo-ho ni yora-nai 
koto wa hotondo mi. Mata kokka zentai kara ieba, nofu no ta-hata wo 
tagayashi, daiku no kaoku wo tsukuri, shonin no buppin wo baibai shi, kan- 
kori no jimu wo tori-atsukai, kyoshi no seito wo kyoiku suru to wa mina 
bungyo ni hoka nara-nu no de aru. 

KURABE4JMA. 

Alukashi aru uji-gami no o matsuri ni kurabe-uma no jinji to iu koto 
ga atta. Sore wa uji-ko no go-ka-son kara kodomo no kishu wo hitori 

Note3. O Tasserare-nai ; the on reading of the character Tatsu, followed 
by suru in the negative passive. 

jl2 ^ A ^ complete ; compare the meaning of tt* beginning. Com- 
pare the readings : ~jQ Gen, Gan (-jQ ^|f Genki, yQ FT Ganjitsv^ ; yfc 
Kan (yr^^ Kanzen, ^]fjj(\ Kansei). 
®ffi R6 labour; note ^J. 

anb ^ ms character may be read masu or masu-masu ; the sign after 
the character means that here it is to be read in its reduplicated form. 

jj^||] Hatake field. This character is of Japanese origin. Ta are dis- 
tinguished from hatake in that ta have water and liatake. have not. This 
absence of water is indicated by ^ 

©Uji-gami god of the locality. 
% Uji-ko devotees of the god. 



r>4 



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VOLUME ILL MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 65 

zutsu dasliitc kurabe-uma wo sasete, katta iuura wa tsugi no matsuri no hi 
made, sono go-ka-son no kasliira ni nam to iu sadame do atta. 

Aru toshi erabareta kodomo no naka ni suguroto jozu na kisbu ga 
fatari atta. Ilitori wa Kumakichi, bitori wa Aisaku to itte, toshi wa onajiku 
jn gnttfti M Kotoshi no kurabe-uma wa sazo omoshirokaro." To, matsuri no 
to-jitsu ni wa, obitadashii kcmbutsu-niu ga asa hayaku kara miya no keidai 
o tsumekaketa. Yagato, go-nin no kisliu wa 6ku no hito-bito ni tsuki-soware, 
sbizu-shixu oma wo ayumasete, torii no sliita e atsumatto kita. 

Kannushi wa mazu shinzen do norito wo agete sore ga sumu to, " Shitaku " 
to iu aizu no icbiban-daiko wo ucbi-narasbita. Go-nin no kisliu wa kami 
ni sliori wo inotte, dai-ni 110 aizu wo machi-kamacte iru. Go-ka-son no 
hito-bito wa ono-ono waga mura no kishu ni mukatte, " Zehi katto kure." 
"Maketara mura no naore ni naru zo." " Shikkari yatto kure." Nado to, 
kuchi-guehi ni ikioi wo tsukete iru. 

Niban-daiko no " Narabo " no aizu ni, go-nin no kishu wa uchitsurete, 

Note3. fj§f Ko, Ka aux. num. used for counting things which have 
no special aux. num. : when used, as here, betw r een the numeral and an 
ordinary noun, the reading ka is generally preferred. ©Sugurete is a 
gerund ; it has here the force of an adverb. Other gerunds which are often 

used as adverbs are : hojimete, kiwamete, and sldtagatte. ®jf|jjrt Ki to ride ; 

we have naturally uma-lcen. © Onajiku the adverbial form of onaji is used 
in the formal style in ways which seem strange to w r estern ears. In this 
case, onajiku ju-go-sai would be in ordinary colloquial futari tomo ju-go 
deshita. Note also that the final verb is wanting in the text. Other examples 
of onajiku : after referring to a letter we might say onajiku henji meaning 
sonn tegami no hcnji. Again, sometimes it has the meaning of ' ditto.' E. g. : 
Taisho ni-nen roku-gatsu ju-go-nicld .... (this and that happened) ; onajiku ju- 
ku-nichi . . . . ; this means, the same year the same month on the 19th. If we 
had onajiku hacld-gatsu ju-ku-nichi . . . ., it would mean, the same ye ;r on the 

19th August. The character [qj is often abbreviated to >Cs> especially in 

lists, etc., when used in the sense of ' ditto.' 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. (]J 

haiden no ushiro 110 oki na tateishi no mac ni uarando, uraa no atama wo 
sorocte, samban-daiko wo ima ya ososhi to maclii-kamaete iru. 

Samban-daikp ga oaru ga hayai ka, go-hiki no uraa wa issan ni 
kakedashita. Yasliiro no mori wo hanarera made wa, amari ko-otsu wa 
nakatta. Baba nc naka-hodo kara ik-ki okuro, ni-ki okuro, tsuzuite san-ki 
made mo okurete, mohaja Kuraakiclii to Aisaku no futari dake no kyoso to 
natta. 

! 'atari no uma wa gobu-gobu ni susunde itta ga, ike no migi-te e sashi- 
kakatta toki, Kumakiclii no uma wa tsumazuite mae-ashi wo otta. • Kumakicli 
wa tsururi to subette, Bono hazumi ni koro-koro to korogatte, iko no naka 
e ochikonda. 

Aisaku wa odoroite, liirari to uma kara tobi-orite, sugu ni Kumakiclii 
no eri wo hittsukande, gutto kishi e hikiyoseta. Tsukisoi-nin mo kembutsu- 
nin mo kimo wo hiyashito kakeyottc, Kumakiclii ni mizu wo hakaseru yara, 
ish.i wo yobi ni hasliiru yara, uo wo sliita e no sawagi de aru. 

Notes. Olma ya ososhi etc. to be (ready and) waiting impatiently. 
Tho form ososhi belongs properly to the literary style : in collcquial you 
would say osoi. ®Naru ga hayai lea as soon as it sounded. 3Sj Mori 
wood, forest ; represented by three trees ^fc. ©The characters H3 Ko, f. 
Otsu, Tf3 Hei, Tei are used for enumeration or classification much as 

a\ e use : first, second, third, fourth, or A, B, C, D. The meaniug here is : 
the race was so equal there was no first or second. © Tsururi onomatopo. 
©Kimo ico hiyasu to make one's blood ran cold. The word kimo liver, is 
used in various amusing idiomatic expressions : Icimo wo tsnbusu to be 
frightened out of one's wits ; Jdmo ivo Jcesic to be frightened to death ; Jdmo 
ico hudaku to be auxious about; Jdmo no futoi yaisu a bold or audacious 
fellow. ®fl4* % Hahu to vomit; from the mouth to the ground -4- . 

Compare: -J- Do, To (J^A Dc ti in > dtftfe TccJd ' M.^t Fi2do ) : [):fc 
To (p4^ e3 Toikij. ©Yara here indicates repetition. ®[fe ico shita e no 
saioagi in great confusion and all topsyturvy. 



(>8 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 69 

Aisaku-gata no hito-bito wa Aisaku uo kata wo tataite, 

u Kaushin da, kanshin da, erai ko da. Knmakichi no rakuba shita no 
ni kaniiuva-zu, nma wo kakesasetara, kachi mo kaclii, o-kachi do atta no ni, 
liito no iuochi ni wa kaerare-nai to, aite wo tasuketo yatta no wa ika ni 
mo mi-ageta rippa oa okonai da. Aito no Knmakichi ga ano tori do, kyo 
mi sliohu wa kimara-nai ga, izuro mata aratameto yari-naoshi wo shite 
morawa-nakereba narumai." 

To itta. 

Kumakichi-gata no ]iito-bito Wa, 

" Mo aratameto shobu ni wa oyobimasen. Kachi wa anata-gata no 
mono desu. Aisaku San no rippa na kokorogake de, Kumakichi no inochi 
ga tasukarimashita. Aisaku San wa jitsu ni mi-ageta mono desu. Doka 
kyo kara ichi-nen no aida anata-gata no mura ga go-ka-son no kashira ni 
nitte, go shihai wo nasatto kudasai." 

To itta. 

Notes. O Aisaku-gata ; this kata is not a sign of the plural here ; it 
means related to or connected with Aisaku, i. e. the supporters of Aisaku, 
the men who form his party. 

@ 2£ KyCi (J>lWj Ki J Mai > i^Jt Fvky*)'' !!& kyu (it^Sfc Kokydy 

^Anata-gata ; here kata is both a sign of the plural and it also refors 
to party ; you and your party. 

Q Anata-gata no mura ; here kata is a sign of the plural. 



70 



JAPANESE READING FOB BEGIN 



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YOU Ml. MI. MOKE CIUN'ESE CHARACTERS. 71 

Kono hanashi ga tsutawatte, Aisaku wa go-ka-son wa oroka, kinjo 
kinipen 110 home-mono to natta. 

HON. 

Ware- ware wa mai-uiclii lion wo youde, iro-iro na koto wo oboeru. 
Hon no oaka ni wa ji bakari no mo am ga, e ya chizu ya sliashin no 
haitte iru no mo aru. Yonde iru aida wa naka ni kaite aru koto bakari 
WO isshin ni kangaete iru kara, do shite dekiru mono ka to iu koto wa 
fukaku kangae-nai ga, lion to iu mono wa tayasuku dekiru mono de wa 
nai. 

Takosan no hou wo yonda gakumon no fukai hito de mo, fude wo toru 
mae ni wa jiibun ni sono kangae wo nera-nakereba nara-nu. Sate kaki- 
hajimete kara mo, keshitari kuwaetari shite, ware-ware no yomu yo na mono 
ni nam made ni wa, iku-tabi kaki-naosu ka mo shire-nai. E wo kaku hito, 
zu wo liiku hito, shashin wo utsusu hito no kushin mo mata liito-tori 

Notes. °P^ Hon (gate, f^^g: Momban); f£\ Mon (fp)^ Hondo, 
^i jii] Galcumon); note that the character ml consists of a mouth pj at 
a gate PH, this corresponds to the meaning of RJ] Ton to inquire. 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 73 

de wa nai. K6 shits deki-agatta mono wo kappanjo e watasu. 

Kappanjo do wa, katsuji-hiroi ga sore wo yomi nagara katsuji wo hirotte 
uaraberu. Zu ya e wa hetsu ni katai ki ni liori, shashin wa doban ni hori- 
tsukete, sot") uo basho ni ireru. Sate kari ni insatsu shite, yomi-awasete 
mite, ayaniLii ga areba, iku-do de mo sono katsuji wo nuki-kaete uo-naosu. 
Iehi-ji mo ayamari ga nakunatte kara hon-zuri ni kakaru no de aru. Hito- 
iro no insatsu wa ichi-do sureba yoi ga, iro no takusan majitta utsukushii 
kaiga ya ehizu no yo na mono wa iku-do mo iku-do mo insatsu wo kasane- 
nakereba nara-nu. Mata goku johin na mono ni naru to, kikai de wa sura-nai 
de, te-zuri ni suru. 

Insatsu ga deki-agatta kara hon ni tojiru made ni mo, mada naka-naka 
tesu ga kakaru. Insatsu suru kami wa hiroi oki na kami de, iku-peiji bun 
mo ichi-do ni sureru. Sore wo otte, soroete tojiru. Sono ue ni hyoshi wo 
tsukete, kikai ni kakete kataku shimeru. Hyoshi ni wa kami bakari no mo 
ari, kami no ue wo nuno de tsutsunda no mo aru. Mata rippa na mono ni 
naru to, kawa wo kiseta no mo aru. 



Notes **RT Han (^^J" Hantai, R£^? Hansel, t|jlR£ Ihari). 
mN (MK JMfl,l )i Jlfc Han (fSJK Kapjpan, J|J£[gJ Hanto) . j^ 
Han (Ep^ Kampan\ ; fR Han (^l^ Yu7tan\ 

^ AC here means real. 



74 



.1 LPANESE READING I OR I E 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



Kore wa kappan-zuri uo lion no tsukuri-kata de am ga, kono hoka ni 

mokuhan-zuri no lion mo am. Soro wa han-shita wo katai ki ni hari-tsukete, 
sono ue kara liotte hangi wo tsukuri, iclii-mai zutsu te-zuri ni sum no do am. 
Kappan wa insatsu ga owareba, sono katsuji wo tori-hanasu koto ga 
dekiro kara, onaji katsuji wo nan-do de mo kumi-tateto tsukaeru. Mokuhan 
de wa iclii-mai, ichi-mai hora-nakcreba nara-nu kara, sono jiyu ga kika-nu. 
Mata katsuji wa itsu de mo tadachi ni ueru koto ga dekiru ga, mokuhan de 
wa ichi-mai zutsu horn kara, tema ga iku-sobai mo kakaru. Sore yue kinnen 
wa mokuhan ga dan-dan sutarete, kappan wo mochiiru koto ga oku natta. 

TACH1BANA CHUSA. 

Bieiji san-ju-.-hichi-hachi-nen no sen-eki ni Kimi no tame kuni no tame, 
meiyo no senshi wo togcta gunjin Wa ozei atta ga, sono uchi de mo, kaigun 
no Hiross Chiisa, rikugun no Tachibana Chusa no futari wa gun-shin to 
made i war eta. 



Notes. °^| Yu, Yu (j^^fc Yurai, g^ Jiyu, Jj|[|j Itiyu). j 
Yu, Yu (ft{]|§f Yvdan, %}$\ SeJciyu, fl{]|^ Yuzen). 
®lli Sa (~&fc 8a y*)'> fe Sa (rf3^ Chusa). 

®^* Kun (^-^ Kunshi, ^£Jg SJmkun) ; gjj Gun (rural district). 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 77 

j _^ , 

Tachibana Chusa wa Togu bukan to shito, Kotaishi Denka no go shinnin 
no atsui gunjiu do atta. San-jfi-shichi-non no shi-gatsu Dai Ni-gun ni tsuito 
Benohi e mukatta ga, Chusa wa kondo no sbutsujin wo saiwai ni Tcikoku no 
taine, Tonno Tleika no on tamo ni mezamasbii bataraki wo sbi-nakoreba nara- 
nai to, hachi-gatsu suo no Ilyoyo no tatakai ni wa, buka no daitai wo bikiite, 
ikioi sunuloku shingeki shita. 

Teki wa kewashii yama ni jiu-dotte, ue kara sbita made iku-e mo no 
jinchi wo sbiki, sakau ni dangan wo ucbi-dasu. 

Waga bei wa mono to mo se-zu teki-jin megakete totsugeki sbita ga, 
teki wa tenrngi no hayashi wo motto nmkaeta. Chusa wa massaki ni tatte, 
toki-chu e odori-konde, tacbimacbi san-nin no teki wo kiri-korosbita. Teki 
no dangan wa ame-arare no yo ni tonde kuru. Chusa wa haya migi-te ni 
ik-kasbo no kizu wo uketa ga, sukosbi mo biruma-zu, bidari-te ni gun to wo 
motto buka no bcisbi wo hagemashi, liagemasbi, toto san-jo no teki wo oi- 
baratte, Hi-no-maru no kokki wo tateta. Toki wa hachi-gatsu san-ju-ichi- 
nicbi no asa-hi mo mada nobora-nai koro de atta. 

Notes. j£T ^J Bukan military attache, aide-de-camp. 
Mx Tbis character is here read Den, but it is often found after a namo 
and read Dono with the meaning of Mr. This use is common in correspondence 
which is not of a private character. 

©jjg Teki (jg'gj* Tektto) ; $£ Teki (enemy). 

©J/o/io to mo se-zu ignoring the danger. 

%Me~gakeru to single out. 

©JVo motte; post-positional expression common in the literary style; it 
has a very vague meaning ; on, by, with, etc. 

%Wdar% te ni gunto too motte holding his sword in his left hand ; hero 
wo motte is not the same as above. 

@ :t 8h1 (iKi BusU ^^ Shihan); ft 8hi (ttB£ Shitahu); 

& ^ (MM 8h w»> MM Ishi )- 

©Hi-no-maru tho sun in the national flag. 



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VOLUME HI. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 7<) 

Teki wa koro wo mite, sam-bo kara taiho wo uchi-kaketa. Ika ni kokoro 
wa k.it.ikute mo mi Wa tosscki do nai. Ilodan ni taorem heishi Wa kazoe- 
kire-nai. Kore wo mita teki wa Baza ni ara-te wo kuwaetc, futatabi seme- 
yosele kit.t. 

Clmsa wa, 

" Iclii-do senryo shita kono kochi, zemmetsu suru tomo teki no to ni 
watasn-na. Hito-ashi mo taikyaku suru-na." 

To sakende buka wo hagemashi, teki wo gekitai sura koto su-do ni 
oyonda. Kono toki Clmsa wa Slide ni dai ni-dan wo migi-te ni, dai san-dan 
wo hara ni ukete ita ga, sore do mo tawama-zu fimsen wo tsuzukcte iru to, 
ma mo naku hodan no haben ga Chusa no koshi ni atatte, Chusa wa do to 
sono l>a ni taoreta. 

Eatawaza ni ita ichi gunso wa Chusa wo liori no uchi ni irete kailid 
shita. Tatakai wa masu-masu hageshii. Chusa wa me wo mi-hatte, gunto 

wo tsue ni oki-agaro to suru. Gunso wa Chiisa wo seotte, dangan no shita 
* ) kugori nagara, kewashii gake wo kake-orita- 

Notes. /Sfo Ho gun ; that which contains oH a stone ^f i.e. bullet. 

®X K6, Ku (X=fc M fa Kufu, XWi K V' d > i£X Jokd ) 5 $) 
K6 ($jffi K °y°>Jj£S}) Seiko); Jfc K6 (j^lfg Kbgeki, J^lfc Smko); 

QHito-ashi one step. 

QTawarmi to relax. 

®Do onomatopo which represents the dull sound of the body when it fell. 

©When ichi is used before an ordinary noun — not an aux. num. — it gene- 
rally has a meaning about equivalent to the indefinite article * a '. Ni, sari, 
etc. are not often used before ordinary nouns. 

®>ff Kai ( ^j-f(0 Kaihb ) ; J^ Kai ( {fhf^ Sekai) . 



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VOLUME in. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 81 

Hotto hito-iki tsuku ori kara, ichi-dan mata mo Chusa no muno wo 
tsuranuki, gunsd no miine wo mo uchi-nuita. Futari wa nage-dasarete, yume- 
utsutsu. 

Futari wa fuku asa-kaze ni shoki-zuita. Gunso wa onajiku fusho shite 
soko ni taorete ita ichi heishi to tomo ni Chusa wo itaWatta. Teki no totsu- 
geki no koe ga sakan ni kikoeru. Jinchi wa futatabi teki ni tori-kaesareru 
no de aro. Chusa wa, 

M A, zanuen. Tasu no buka wo shinaseta ue, sekkaku senryo shita jinchi 
wo tori-kaesarete zannen semban da." 

To ii nagara, katachi wo tadashite, 

u Kyo wa waga Kotaishi Denka no go tanjo-bi da. Kono medetai hi ni 
uchijini sui*u no wa gunjin no memmoku da. Meiyo no koto da." 

Gunso wa jibun no jusho wo mo uchi-wasurete, aran kagiri no chikara 
wo tsukushita ga, Chusa no iki wa to to sono hi no yugata ni taeta. 

Kore yori saki Chusa wa jibun no batei ni iitsukete, 

Notes. O Hito-iki a sigh (here, of relief). 
©Here onajiku is used like an ordinary adverb. 

®4$X ^ EN to think ; now /Q- in the mind j|\. 
© Ucld-wasureru to forget completely. 



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VOLUME ni. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS H?> 

" Moshi yo-ako goro totsugeki no koo ga. kikocte, liosci, jusei ga tactara, 
migoto ni teki no jinchi wo totta to omoe. Sono toki wa sugu uma wo hiite 
koi. Moshi totsugeki no koe ga kikoete mo, liosei jusei ga tsuzuku yo nara 
waga gun ga kusen shite iru to omoe. Sono toki wa ore no sliitai wo seotto 
kaem tsumori do kake-tsukeyo." 

To itta ga, yo-ake goro totsugeki no koe ga sakan ni okotte mo liosei, 
jusei wa tae-nai. Batei wa do naru koto ka to sliimpai shi nagara, yosu no 
wakaru no wo matte ita ga, toto senslii sareta to kiite, kake-tsukete, sono 
shigai ni tori-sugatte naita. 

Tachibana Chusa wa lieizei kara kokorozashi no katai yuki ni michita 
gunjin de, buka wo awaremu kokoro mo fukakatta. Chusa no yo na shini- 
kata wo shita hito wa ikura mo aru ga gun-shin to iwareru hodo ni uyama- 
wareta no wa heizei kara no okonai ga rippa de atta kara de aru. Kaigun 
no Hirose Chusa mo yahari onaji de aru. 

Notes. ^J^ Seki (jtHJ Sekininj ; ;£# Seki (ffi Jn Mensekt). 

® Kake-tsukeyo this form of the imperative belongs more properly to the 
literary style ; in colloquial it would be kake-tsukero. 

JH Yu courage ; note the strength ~J\ # 
©$£ Kei ($£|§ Eeirei, ^jfc Fukei); || Kei (f||^|| Keisa- 

tsusho 1 



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VOLUME III MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 85 

TASHIKA NA HOSHO. 

Gaikoku no aru sbokai de sbimbun-shi ni teu-in nyuyo no kokoku wo 
dashita. SliibOsha Wa go-ju-nin bakari mo kita ga, sliujin wa sono uchi de 
bitori no seinen wo yatoi-ireru koto ni kimeta. 

Aru Into ga sliujin ni mukatte, chimei no bito no togami wo motto kita 
mono mo ozei atta no ni, do iu o mikomi de ano seinen wo o mochii ni 
natta no ka to tazuneta. 

Sliujin wa kotaete, 

" Are ga kono shitsu ni bairu mae, mazu kimono no hokori wo liarai, 
haitte kara wa sliizuka ni ushiro no to wo shimeta. Kirei-zuki de tsutsusbimi- 
bukai koto wa sore do yoku wakarimasbita. Danwa saicbu bitori no rojin 
ga baitte kimasbita ga, sugu ni tatte, isu wo yuzurimashita. Hito ni sbin- 
setsu na koto wa kore de mo sbireru to omoimashita. Aisatsu wo shite 
mo teinei do, sukosbi mo namaiki na fu ga naku, nani wo kiite mo, 



Notes. f5^ Ho ; the kata-lcana symbol 7^; is derived from tbis cha- 



racter. 



® f3 In ('wll, Kai-in, fjij ij Man-in ); [jQ] En (unit of money). 



86 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 87 

ichi-ichi meihaku ni kotaete, shika mo yokci Da koto wa iimascn.* Haki-haki 
shite ite, rcigi, saho wo wakimaeto iru koto mo sore do sukkari wakarima- 
shita. 

u Watakushi wa waza to ik-kan no shomotsu wo yuka no uo ni nagete 
okimashita. Iloka no mono wa sukoshi mo ki ga tsuka-nai de naka ni wa 
sore wo fnnda mono mo arimashita ga, ano seinen wa hairu to sugu ni 
Bhomotsu wo tori-agete, teburu no ue ni okimashita. Sore de chui-bukai 
otoko to iu koto wo shirimashita. 

" Hito ga ozci komi-atte iru naka de, sukoshi mo hito ni sakinjiyo to 
wa se-zu, shizuka ni jibun no jumban wo matte imasliita. Are no onjun na 
koto wo yoku arawashite orimasu. Mata kimono wa somatsu nagara, sappari 
shita mono wo kite ha mo yoku migaite imashita. Mata ji wo kaku toki 
ni yubi-sagi wo miru to, tsume wa mijikaku kitte imashita. Hoka no mono 
wa kimoDO dake wa utsukushikatta ga, tsume no saki wa minna makkuro 
ni natte imashita. 

Notes. **^ Ken (y^iJI^ Nyujokm); ^c Kan (aux. num.). 
@ i Shu (^\ Shujin, ^ j^ Koshu); ^ Ju (££^ Jutahu, jg 

© j^ Ken (J^Sjfy Kembutsu) ; J^ Gen ( J^^ Genhin, Jg^ Genzai, 



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VOLUME in. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 89 

M Ko iu jo na iro-iro na bishitsu wo motte iru koto wo yoku mi-sadame- 
mashita ue, nao heizei no okonai wo shirabete yatou koto ui itasliimasliita. 
Rippa na hito no togami yori mo, nani yori mo, hon-nin no okonai ga tashika 
na hosho dosu." 

To itta. 

HIYODORI=GOE NO SAKA-OTOSHI. 

Hoike no gunzei ga Fukuhara no shiro wo mamotto iru. Higashi Ikuta 
no mon kara nishi Iclii-no-Tani no mon made no aida, kita wa yama no 
fumoto kara, minami wa ami no nami uchi-giwa made, liito ya uma de 
fusagatte iru. Mata ami ni wa ichimen ni ikusa-bunc ga narando ite, urni 
to oka to ni oshi-tateta nan-zem-bon no aka-hata wa maru de hi no moe-tatta 
yo ni mieru. Genji wa futa-te ni wakarete, Noriyori no gunzei wa higashi 
no mon e mukai, Yosliitsune no gunzei wa nishi no mon e mukatta. Shi- 
kashi Yosliitsune wa : " Omote kara seme-otosu koto wa muzukashii. Nan 
de mo ura kara ma watte, teki no fui wo uta-nakereba nara-nu." To kangaete, 

Notes. QHiyodori-goe name of a cliff near Kobe. 
®Saka-otoshi descent of the cliff. 

QHeike and (further on) Genji the names of two factions that were 
requentlj- at war with each other. 

ffi-^yj G vnze i army. 
®£j| Sai (^Q Saijitsu, |j||f| Sairei, g(j^| Eokusai ); $£ Sai 

(P^Pl 8 <w* 3cX& Kdsai > 

ffil Osu has little or no meaning here. 
(DAka-hata the red flag was the flag of the Heike, 



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VOLUME HI. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. <)] 

tsuyoi mono bakari san-zen-nin wo suguttc, kossori to ura-michi kara Hiyodori- 
goe ni mukatta. Kouo naka ni wa Benkei mo otta. Hiyodori-goo wa shiro 
no kita no ho ni atte, yoppoclo kewashii tokoro de aru. Fudan wa hito mo 
tora-nai miclii di kara, doko wo do itte yoi ka wakara-nai. Sono uchi ni 
hi ga kurete, makkura ni natto shimatta. 

Kono toki Benkei wa hi no akari wo tayori ni tazunete itte, hitori no 
kariudo wo tsurete kita. Mini to take no takai takumashii otoko de aru. 
Te ni wa kari ni tsukau yumi-ya wo motte iru. " Toslii wa ikutsu ka?" 
To toeba, " Ju-shichi." To kotaeta. Yoshitsune wa yorokonde katana ya 
yoroi wo yatte kcrai ni shita. 

Yoshitsune wa mazu tazuneta. 

11 Koko kara shiro no ho e oriru koto ga dekiru ka?" 

" Totemo dekimasen. Shiro no ushiro wa kewashii saka de, uma no 
toreru tokoro de wa gozaimasen." 

Note. °fj] Den (gj^ Denji); Jg Dan (^^f Danshi). 



92 



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VOLUME in. MORE CHTNESE CHARACTERS. 93 

"Shika wa do da?" 

" Shika Wa ori-ori torimasu." 

Yoshitsune wa kore wo kiku to, 

u Shika mo yotsu-ashi nara, uma mo yotsu-ashi, tada tsumo ga warete 
iru to i-nai dako no cbigai da. Sliika no toreru tokoro wo uma no tore-nai 
to iu koto ga am mono ka? Sa, annai wo seyo." To ii-tsuketo, yoru no 
uclii ni gake no ue made deta. Ma mo naku yo ga aketa. Mi-oroseba, 
shiro wa nan-ju-jo aru ka shire-nai gake no shita ni aru. Tozai no ni-mon 
wa ima ikusa no massaichu de aru. 

Heike-gata wa gake no ue kara, teki no gunzei ga seme-komo to wa 
yume ni mo omowa-nai. Yoshitsune wa koko zo to omotte, " Susume, su- 
sumo." To sashizu wo shita ga, uma mo kowagatte sukunde shimai, hito 
mo kao wo mi-awasete susumo to wa shi-nai. Kono toki Yoshitsune wa : 

"Ware wo tehon ni seyo." 

Notes. ®/jf^ Soku (^ff Ninsdku); fl^ Soku ({J^^ffi Solcusldn^. 
QSeyo is the literary form of the imperative of suru ; in the colloquial 
of today you say sliiro. 



94 



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VOLUME III MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 95 

To ii nagara, uma ni hito-muchi ateto kakc-orita. Kore wo mita 
san-zen-nin 110 gunzei wa dotto ichiji ni kakc-orite, sliiro uo naka e seme- 
konda. Heike wa fui wo utareto do suru koto mo deki-nai. Sam-bo kara 
seme-taterarete, san-zan ni uchi-yaburareta. 

HA. 

Sliokubutsu no ha ni wa chidome-gusa no ha no yo ni chiisa na no mo 
ari, hasu, basho no yo ni hirokute oki na no mo aru. Atsui kuni ni shozuru 
o-oni-basu wa chokkei ga roku-shaku mo atte, ha no shitsu mo jobu de aru 
kara, sono ue ni san-shi-sai gurai no kodomo wo suwaraseru koto mo dekiru 
so de aru. 

Ha no katachi ni wa tamago-gata to daenkei ga mottomo oi ga, zeni 
no yo ni marui no mo ari, hari no yd ni hoso-nagai no mo aru. 

Saki ya moto no marui ha mo areba, togatte iru ha mo ari, hekonde 

Notes. |g Kei (fgjj^ Keiro, [|[@ Chokkei); |g Kei (fj£{g* 
Keiben) ; ^ Kei (W^ffi Keihi, j|^IrW Keiken). 

®}f|J Kei (Jfljlft: Keiji); jfc Kei (jf£§fc Keisei} 



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VOLUME III MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 97 

iru ha mo aru. Hcri me nokogiri no La no yo ni giza-giza no aru no mo aroba, 
ittai ni subo-subo sliito iru no mo aru. Giza-giza no fukai no ni naru to, 
iclii-mai no ha ga su-mai no cliiisai lia ni wakarete iru. Bara no ha ya 
mame no ha ga BBnawachi Bore do aru. Futsu no ha wo tan-yo to ii, kono 
shurui no ha mo fukuyo to in. 

Ha ni wa subete yomvaku to iu mono ga aru. Moto no ho ga futokuto, 
Bald o iku hodo dan-dan ni hosoku natte, sue ni naru to nikugan de wa 
mie-nai hodo hosoi. Sono myaku ni mo mata shuju aru. Take no ha wo 
mini to, moto no ho kara massugu ni iku-suji ka no myaku ga narande 
dete, saki ni itto hitotsu ni atsumatte iru. Sakura ya ume no ha wa tada 
hito-suji no futoi myaku ga mannaka ni totte, sore kara deta hosoi myaku 
ga ami no me no yo ni natte iru. Momiji no ha Wa iku-suji ka no myaku 
ga moto no tokoro kara te no yubi no yo ni wakarete iru. 

Ha no kuki ni tsuku yosu ni mo shuju aru. Aburana, tsubaki nado no ha 
wa hitotsu oki ni kuki ni tsuito ori, nadeshiko nado no ha wa ni-mai zutsu 

Notes. °i t 7 Tan (j|L# Tansldn, jggg Tango); Jj|? Dan (?$& 

Dangan, Jf^*iijt Hodany 

fill GU^j me eye ; compare with Moku, Boku, me eye ; we see 

that the Chinese readings are different, but the meanings are similar. When 
the Japanese reading me is intended it is often immaterial which of the two 
characters is used. Compare :• >ffi Kon ("^yfcjj Daikon, ^JJyoC Kompon) ; 
$£ Gin (^fj Ginkg, ^^ GinJca); fj& Gan $£[}£ Kingan, [{£ g 
Gammoku); pf^ Gen ( pjx J^l GenJcai, |jj |^ McJdgen). 

Jrf-J ^ iai a ne *> no ^ e ^ ie thread, \2fo-ZtCft. 
™ [ Me ; in this case the character Ijjji could not be used as we are 
not referring to a real eye, but to tho meshes of a net. 



98 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 99 

mukai-atte tsuite iru. Mata kugaiso nado wa oku no ha ga isslio ni atsu- 
matte, Iraki no shiii wo tori-maite iru. 

KACHIKU. 

Inu to ueko wa mottomo oku io ui kawareru kemono de aru. Iuu wa 
yoru wo mamorascru tame, mata wa kari ui tsukau tame ui kai, neko wa 
uezumi wo torasera tame ni kau uo de aru. Kore-ra mo kacliiku no uchi 
ui kazoerarera ga, kacliiku to shite motto taisetsu na mono wa uslii, uma, 
liitsuji, buta to de aru. 

Ta wo tagayasasetari, ni-guruma wo hikasetari, omoi mono wo owasete, toku 
e hakobasetari, uoka de wa ushi wo iro-iro no rodo ni shieki suru. Sono uo gyu- 
uiku to gyunyu wa inshokubutsu to shite mo taisetsu de aru. Ishiu-zen mado 
Wa gyuniku wo kuu Into wa itatte sukunakatta ga, ima de wa zeukoku kuwa-uu 
tnkoro ga nakunatta. Tokyo-slii dake de mo ichi-ncn ni liofuru uslii wa su- 
M'n-to ui mo noboru to iu koto de aru. Sono kawa wa nameshigawa ui seishite, 

Notes. °|g: I (JgLfc Ihan, ^^ Sbi)\ [g I (fg\^ Shm). The 

kata-Lana symbol j^. perhaps comes from ea . 

y\B Neko cat ; the left part of this character is a corruption of y^ 
and is called Jcemono-hen ; some of the characters which have Jcemono-Jien are 
concerned with animals, e. g. : $S Kari hunting, ^ftfi Eitsime fox, 
Okami wolf. 



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VOLUME m. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 101 

kaban ya, kutsu nado wo tsukuri, sono hone ya tsimo wa iro-iro no saiku- 
mono ni tsukan. Mata, kawa, hone, hizume nado kaza wa nikawa ga deki, 
chi ya harawata wa hiryo ni nam. Nani kara nani made yaku ni tatte, 
fu-yo na bubun to in mono wa hitotsu mo nai. Uma mo ushi to doyo ni 
rodo ni mo tsukaware, shokuyo ni mo nam. Shinda ato de, shintai no 
zembn ni sutari no nai koto mo ushi to onaji de aru. Sono ue senso ni Wa 
kanarazu nakute Wa nara-nu mono de, heiki, ryoshoku wo unso slii, shosotsu 
to tomo ni senjo wo kakemegutte, yuslii ni gimko wo tatesaseru mono wa 
uma do aru. 

Subete kachiku wa } r okn itawara-nakereba nara-nu ga, tokaku ni kore 
wo ijimeru fu ga aru. Seiyo no uma ga otonasliikute, Nippon no uma no 
otonashiku nai no wa sodate-kata, tsukai-kata ni aru koto de, Nippon de 
wa amari ijimeta tame ni onozukara ara-arashiku natta no de aru. Mata 
uma ga Into wo ketari, ushi ga hito wo tsuitari suru no mo hito ni osoreru 
kara de aru. Ki wo tsuke-nakereba nara-nu. 

Buta wa moppara shokuyo no tame ni kau. Buta wa donna mono de 



Note. J|| J6 (X^ E Q*)'> BJ| Ch6 (intestines). 



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VOLUME m. MOBE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 1Q3 



rao kuu kara kau no ni tayasui. Shika mo souo seicho ga kiwamcte ]iayai. 
Tomiiku wa abura ni toude ite, yobun no 6i koto wa gyuniku ni otora-nu. 
Naichi de wa mukashi kara amari oku wa kawa-nakatta ga, Ryukyu de wa 
takusan katto otta. Ringoku no Shina-jin wa mottomo 6ku tonniku wo kuu 
kokumin de am. 

Hitsuji ya yagi wa ke ga hitsuyo de aru. Nagakn nobiru to, kari-totte 
ke-orimono no zairyo ni suru. Hitsuji no niku mo mata shokuyo to nari, 
vagi no chiclii wa gyunyu no yo ni inryo ni naru. Koto ni sono chichi no 
seibun wa hito no chiclii ni nite iru kara, kodomo ni tekisuru. 

Hiroku kacliiku to ieba, cho-rui made mo irete iu. Cho-rui no uchi 
de kacliiku to shite mottomo oku noka ni kawareru no wa niwatori de, 
keiran ya keiniku no yobun no oi koto wa shira-nu hito wa nai. Sono 
hoka ali iru ya shichimencho nado mo ie ni kawareru tori de aru. 

UESUGI KENSHIN. 

Kawanakajima no tatakai de nadakai Uesugi Kenshin wa tsuyoi 
taisho de atta. Sono aite wa Takeda Shingen de, kore mo 

Note3. °^ Kyu (^^ Yokyu); }$£ Kyu (^fcjjjfj Kyujo); J^jt 

K ™ (MM CUh y°)' 

@ K Mlx (KfaJ Minkan, ^VBc Ji™min, ^^ Eeimin); j}|£ Mix 
(fjj£'f£ Minshoku, ^c[}|^ Eimin\ 

•dh Kyo (JhJWj Kyodo, /fcdh Kbkyb); $: Kyo (£fc,f£ Kyokyu); 
fe Ko (ift^ Gunko). 



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VOLUME EL MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 105 

Kenshin ni otora-nai ikusa no jozu de atta. 

Am toki Kenshin ga yama no ue ni jin-dotto iru to, Shingcn wa hei 
wo niigi to hidari to futa-te ni wakete hasami-uclii ni shiyo to shita. Ken- 
shin wa sore wo sliitte, kocliira kara saki-gake wo shiyo to, yo no ma ni 
Shingen uo jin ni seme-itta. Shingen wa fui wo utarete odoroita ga, 
tachimachi jindato wo kaete, teki wo hiki-uketa. 

Kenshin wa kacbiki na Into de, iyo-iyo ikusa ga hageslriku naru to, 
jitto shite wa iraro-nai. Kyii ni uraa ni uchi-notte, mikata no massaki ni 
tat to Shingen no hon-jin ni kiri-konde, Shingen ni utte kakatta. Shingen 
wa katana wo nuku hima ga nai. Gumbai-uchiwa de fuseida ga, e ga orete 
kata-saki e kiri-tsukerareta. Sono toki Shingen no kerai ga ushiro kara 
yari-saki de, Kenshin no uma no shiri wo chikara ippai ni naguri-tsuketa. 
Uma wa odoroite tobi-agatta. Shingen wa sono suki ni ayaui inochi wo 
t.isukatta. Uesugi Kenshin wa konna tsuyoi hito de atta ga, mata nasake- 
bukai hito de atta. 

Takeda Shingen no kuni wa yama-guni de shio ga nai. Shio 
wa tonari no kuni kara katte ita. Tokoro ga tonari-guni de 

Notes. OKenshin, personal name used instead of full name Uesugi 
Kenshin. Later on we find Shingen for Takeda Shingen. 

@ 7^ Ml (t|c^ Miroi)\ [l^C Mi (%Jj Mikata, j£ g£ Shomi); 

W Mai $U$C SJdmai). 

QGumbai-uchuca a kind of fan used by military leaders in giving orders 
in forme»- tin. 

QChiJcara ippai with all one's strength. 

•|| Sr.u^jie Seinen, -j^$$ Seidd); 0j|- Sh (flj|^ Seiten); ffi 
SB (||tfjp|l S %nM. Seits ")> fi$ SEI (j^^ Seiyo, |§§?lfc, Sdahi. 

%j§ 4m> '(f JO (X'|f Ninjo, ffi^Jod); ffi Sei (ffj^ Sei- 
Icetsu, \y$]flL Seiryby 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 107 

wa Shingen wo koroaraseyo to omotte, shio wo okurase-nai koto ni shita. 
Kensbin wa soro wo kiite, 

u Ware-ware wa tagai ui ikiisa wo sliite iru keredomo, teki uo Irani no 
liito ui wa nan no urami mo nai. Soro wo kurusliimeru no wa kawaiso da." 

To itto, jibun no kiuii kara shio wo okuraseta. Sore kara Shingen ga 
shinda to kiita toki, Kensbin wa, " A, oshii koto wo shita. Yoi ikusa-aito 
ga nakunatta." To itte nageita. 

RYORI. 

Hito wo shodai suru toki wa iu made mo naku, mai-nichi san-do no 
shokuji ni mo sono zairyo oyobi ryori-ho ni chui suru koto ga taisetsu do 
aru. Onaji zairyo de mo, ryori no ambai ni yotte wa, mattaku betsu-mono 
no gotoku ajiwaware, ryori no hobo ni yotte wa, sono keizai no ue ni mo 
6i naru tokushitsu ga aru. 



Notes. °j^ Seki (^ g SeJcijitsu) ; 'jg Seki (*g j |§ Aiseli) ; fj| 
Shaku (f^f^ Shakkin, ^fp Taishakii). 

®y^ Shitsu to lose ; do not confound with A^ Ya arrow. 



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ZairyO uo shurui ya ryori no lioho Wa mazu eisci, kcizai, aji no san- 
homen yori kangae-nakereba oara-nu, Eisei-jo yori wa narubeku jiyO ni 
tonde, konare do yoi mono wo crabu boku, keizai-jo yori wa, narubeku atai 
no yasui mono wo motomo, sore wo narubeku sutari no nai yo ni mocliiu 
beku, aji wa luto-bito no konomi wo kangaetc, tasu no manzoku wo kau beki 
mono wo oraba-nakereba nara-na. 

Kisetsu ni yotte, shokumotsii no erabi-kata ni tasho no chui wo yosuru. 
Samui toki wa tokn ni taion wo iji suru hitsuyo ga aru kara, ju-niku, sono 
ta abuxa-ke no 6i shokumotsii ga tekito de aru ga, atsui jibun wa sono 
Iiitsuyo naku, katsu i-cho no yowari-yasui toki de aru kara, assari to shite 
ahoka shi-yasui mono wo toru no ga yoi. Mata gyo-rui ya yasai wa ono- 
ono sono kisetsu no mono wo mochiiru to, aji mo yokute, shoka mo yoku, 
mata hito-bito no konomi ni mo tekisuru. 

Shokumotsii wa mata henka ga taisetsu de aru. Hi-bi onaji shoku- 
motsu wo mochiiru to aki-yasuku, shintai no tame ni mo yoku nai. 
Sore yue, zairyo mo ryori-ho mo narubeku tekito ni henka sasete, 

Notes. ©With the exception of narubeku which is common in collo- 
quial, all expressions in which beki, beku, etc. enter, are more proper of the 
literary style. Beki, etc. has generally a meaning of potentiality or obligation. 
Erabu l>eku = eraba-nakereba nara-nai we must choose. 

©Mocldu beku — tsukawa-nakereba nara-nai we must use them. 

® Iff- Konomu to like ; the beings most loved, wife ~ijr a,nd child -^. 

%Kau Leki mono, j^l Kau here has not the ordinary meaning of 'to 
bay' but 'to take into consideration'. The meaning of this part is that as 
far as taste is concerned we must remember the likes of the various persons 
and therefore choose things that take into account the wishes of the greater 
number. 

®^fcW/ We have here a compound composed of two contradictory ideas, 
much and little ; and in this particular case it happens we might translate 
it almost literally into English by ' more or less ' although a better transla- 
tion would he 'some'. In order that the student may understand how the 
meaning of these compounds is deduced from the contradictory meanings of 
the components, we give a few easy examples : £5g^lL Enkin far, near, i. e. 

Continued on p. 111. 



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VOLUME 1U. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. ] ] ] 

mai-nichi onaji kondate wo kurikaesa-uu yo ni chili sura ga yoi. Tatoeba 
dobutsu-shitsu no jiyo-hin ui wa shokubutsu-shitsu no shokumotsu wo soc, 
tnata shiru-ke no nai mono no tsugi ni Wa shiru-mono wo daahi, amai mono 
no ato ni wa sliio-karai mono wo haigo suru rui de am. Sono ta kiri- 
kata, narabe-kata, iro no haigo ni itaru made, mina sore-zore no kufu ^a 
nyiiyd de aru. 

Tsuno ni shokumotsu wo ryori suru daidokoro wa toku ni sciketsu wo 
tamotsu no hitsuyo ga aru. Daidokoro wa shuju no shokumotsu wo oki, 
ni-taki, ami nagaslii wo suru tokoro de aru kara, nagashi-moto, todana wo 
hajimc, ryori-dogu, shokki, fukin nado ni itaru made, tsuno ni seiketsu ni 
shite oka-nakereba nara-nu. Zashiki ya teien wo kirei ni shite oku hito <^;i, 
daidokoro wo fu-ketsu ni shite kaerimi-nai no wa okashii hanashi de aru. 

CHOSEN NO FUZOKU. 

Chosen no chi ni joriku shite dai-ichi ni me ni tsnku no wa ie no hikukute, 



Continuation of note on p. 109. 
distance ; ^f^;|§- Kansho cold, hot, i. e. temperature; /&4ffi Umu is, isn't, 

i.e. (the question of) the existence of a thing ; ^IftJllL Zcn-aku good, bad, i.e. 
morality, quality. 

Notes. OXcifjajJii-moto the sink. 

®i£ En " (M)M: Fn »j°- MJj Em p~°> yk ; M Eieii )> U En (£-0 

Kben, [£] * EnteiX 

© pj Ka ( pj$£ Kaketsu, fjf pj Kyoka) ; ^J Ka (fnj j^ Xawara, 
^jnj TaiJca). 



112 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. U3 

chiisai koto de aru. Machi ni wa kawara-yane no ie mo aru ga, inaka wa 
taitei wara-yane bakari de aru. 

Chosen wa natsu mo atsui ga, fuyu wa mata angai ni samui. Ie no 
k6zo wa shu to shite samusa wo fusegu yo ni dekite iru. Yuka-shita ni 
doseki wo mori, su-jo do mizo wo tsukutte, ippo no kuchi kara hi wo taite 
sliitsuuai wo atatameru. Kore wo ondoru to iu. Sliitsu ga hiroku ten jo ga 
takai to atatamari-nikui kara, narubeku semaku hikuku snru hitsuyo ga 
aru. Kore ga Chosen no ie no chiisaku natta omo na gen-in de aru. 

Kono ondoru ga aru tame ni, futsu no ie de wa fuyu de mo yagu wo 
mochii-nai. Ondoru ni taku takigi ga nai to, fuyu ga kose-nai kara Chosen 
de wa " Kome no nai no wa shimbo mo dekiru ga, takigi ga nakereba ikite 
irare-nu." To iu imi no kotowaza ga aru. 

Dai-ni ni me ni tsuku no wa shiroi kimono de aru. Otoko wa 
yuruyaka na momohiki wo haki, dogi wo tsukete, sono ue ni nagai 
uwa-gi wo kiru. Uwa-gi to momohiki wa fuyu de mo oku wa 



Notes. IK£ Momo thigh. The left part of this character is a cor- 
ruption of [j^l Niku, and as it has the form j=^J Tsuki, it is called Niku- 
zuki. Several characters which contain this element refer to parts of the 
body, e. g. |j[|j] Do the trunk of the body ; •7=? Senaka the back ; jKql Mime 

breast ; HJj£ MtAKU pulse ; DS Cho intestine ; BW Hara abdomen ; life Kimo 
liver. However, in composition may really come from tsuki moon, and then, 
of course, it has nothing to do with the body, e. g. SO Ki period of time. 
Almost identical in form is the right part of &R Asa morning, which, how- 
ever, is a corruption of -jS* Fune boat. 

®[u] do ([jfj'lf Dojo, JfcJWJ Xy-o&)\ <M D6 (Hit mka > ftM 

Shakudoj ; jfjpi) Do (the trunk of the body, BISI^ D6gi\. 



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VOLUME in. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 115 

shiroi no wo moohiiru. Onna wa mijikai uwa-gi wo kite, seiyo fujin no 
mochiiru yo na yuruyaka na hakaina wo tsukeru. Otoko no kammuri wo 
k.ilmri, sono himo wo nagaku tarashi, ko-uma ni notte, inaka-micbi wo torn 
no wo mini to, mukashi no hito ni atta yo na ki ga suru. Mada kanrei wo 
okonawa-nai mono wa chonga* to itte, kami wo "mitsu-uchi ni sliito ushiro o 
barashite iru. Clionga. no aida wa liito ni anadorarem kara, narubeku 
hayaku kanrei wo okonau. Kane ga nakute, kanrei no okonae-nai mono wa 
san-jfi wo sugite mo clionga de, otona no nakama-iri ga deki-nai. Kinncn 
Wa z.impatsu no fii ga okonawarete, kanrei wa dan-dan sutarete iku. Sliinin 
wo homura no ni, kodakai tokoro de, minami ni menshite iru hi-atari no 
yoi clii wo erabu. Kijin no haka ni wa naichi no yo ni islii wo tateru 
keredomo futsu no liaka wa taitei tsuchi wo mori-ageru bakari de aru. 
Tosbi, sonraku no sbui no yama ya oka ni wa manju no yo ni maruku 
mori-ageta tsucbi-yama ga kazu shire-zu nannde iru. 

Chosen-jin wa tabako wo konomu. Kiseru wa mibun no takai hito 
hodo nagai no wo mochiiru. Nagai no wa slii-shaku mo aru. 

Notes. O Kanrei ceremony of initiation to manhood ; imposition of 
adult's hat. 

@ Clionga Corean name for those who have not yet been initiated to 
manhood. 

QJfitsu-ucJd plait made of three strands of hair. 

®7}j Shi (city) ; #jjj Shi (#jjj££ Shimai 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 117 



Fujin Wa shitsunai ni hikkondo ite, raikyaku ni au koto mo, gaisliutsu 
suru koto mo sukunai. Keijo chiho no fujin ga tama-tama gaisliutsu suru 
toki ni wa uchikake no y6 na mono wo kabutte, mo bakari dashite iru. 
Joryu no fujin wa shi-ho wo tojita koshi ni notte, soto kara mirare-nai yo 
ni sum. Chosen-jin wa amari eisei ni chui shi-nai ga, fujin no kimono wo 
yoku arau koto wa kanshin de aru. Kampii mi wo kiru yo na fuyu no hi 
de mo kori no shita no mizu wo kunde sentaku suru. Atsui jibun kislia ni 
notte Chosen wo ryoko suru to, doko no yama-kage ni mo shiroi kimono ga 
hoshite aru. Aki no yo-naga ni wa koromo utsu kinuta no oto ga mura- 
niura ai-6jite kikoeru. 

HOGEI-SEN. 

Saku-ya no fuu wa nagori naku osamatte, soyo-soyo to fuku kaze 
ni kaimen wa saza-nami wo tatete iru. Is-seki no hogei-sen ga 
ima shizuka ni nami wo kitte susunde iku. Mihari-nin ga masuto 

Note. bn Tojiru to shut ; the interior part of this character is an 
abbreviation of %/C Zai timber, the very thing for shutting a gate. 



118 



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VOLUME III. MOitE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 119 

no uo kara kita no ho wo yubi-zashite koo takaku yonda. 

" Buro, buro, buro." 

Kampan ni tatte ita sencho wo hajime, san-ju-go-nin no waka-mono Wa 
hitoshiku me wo sono hoko ni mukota. Haruka no anata ni shiroi mizu- 
kemuri ga mieru. 

Sencho no ocliitsnita chikara no komotta gorei ni, fune wa liaya hoko 
wo tenjite, kita e mukatte hashiru. Shi-go-seki no boto wa bosen wo 
lianarete, ware saki ni to koide iku. Kogi-nuketa is-seki wa yiiki wo 
furutte, mini uchi ni it-to no kujira ni chika-yori, kyusho me-gaketo haretsu- 
ya wo shikaketa mori wo utsu. Koyama no yo na shira-nami ga takaku 
kndakete, yudachi no yo ni furi-chiru. IJujira no ichi-gun wa kage mo 
katachi mo mie-naku natta. 

Haretsu-ya wa kujira no tainai ni fukaku kui-konde haretsu shita. Boto 
Wa mori ni tsuketa nagai tsuna ni hikarete, aruiwa migi ni, aruiwa hidari 
ni liiki-mawasareru. Ima ni mo shizumu ka to hiya-hiya suru. 

Notes. O Jfasuto = mast. 
•2?«rd= blow. 

© Anata does not here mean ' you ' but ' that place.' These two meanings 
were formerly related to each other, but now they are written with different 
characters. 'That place,' the original meaning, when written in kan-ji, is written 

1K>V ' ' ^ ou ' * s written J=i*nF> J=L y~)> or * n ^ e case °^ a womau "j*f" j£T* 
©^ Rei (^t-j^X Beifujin, §|^ Gdrei) ; ^ Rei {j/^% Beisho) ; 

$t Ky6 (M V J wft ~MM Shur y d )- 

G)B6to = boat. 



120 



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VOLUME III MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 121 

Kujira wa futatabi uki-agatta. Boto wa tsuna wo tagutto, mata mo 
kujira ni chikayori, kondo wa ju wo motte haretsu ya wo uchi-komu. Kujira 
wa dau-dan yowatto, oyogu cliikara mo naku nam. Waka-mono wa uagai 
ken wo tsuki-toshi, iku-do to naku nuito wa mata tsuku. Roku-shichi-jis- 
shaku no G-kujira mo ima wa mattaku iki taete, suimen ni yokotawaru. 
Nagare-deru clii ni kurenai no nami ga tadayou. 

Ta no boto wo mireba, ima arata ni kujira wo ou mono mo ari, mori 
wo utte, kujira ni hiki-mawasarete iru mono mo aru. Acliira-kocliira iri- 
midarete sen jo no yo de aru. Saki no boto wa kujira wo hiki nagara, boson 
no ho e isogu. Hogci wa jitsu ni yiiso na mono de aru. Hogei-ho ni wa 
kono lioka ni kisen no biho kara mori wo utsu hoho mo ari, mata izen ni 
wa kujira no tsuro ni ami wo hatto mori wo utsu hoho nado mo atta. 

Kujira wa jurui-chu mottomo oki na mono de, nagasa wa ju-go-ken, 
sunawachi ku-jis-shaku ni mo oyobu mono mo mezurashiku wa nai. Sono 
niku wa shokuyo to nari, abura wa kikai-yu ni nari, hige wa 

Notes. O Jp Kin (unit of weight); ^ Kin ($£J}ff Kinjo, $£^ 
Klnnen, J5fJ*£ Fukbi); jjjjj Ki (|Jf$g Kigan). 

@ ^ Sha (Wi^ Gakusha); J§* Sho (MzBr Kansho, 5vSft Sho- 
netsu)-, ^ Sho (fjf^ Shomei)- 

@ ff Shin (Iff^J BUmbm, $ft4£ Shinnen, $||Jf IsJdn); §£ Shin 
iy] SMnselsu, ^JC Shin -y a > fUHf Shinrui, pj^^J Myosltm). 



[22 



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VOLUME ni. MOKE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 123 

saiku-moDO ni tsukawareru. Mukashi wa G-kujira it-to wo toraeru to, jinko 
su-hyaku-nin no is-son ik-ka-getsu no seikatsu-lii wo sasao uru to itta mono 
de am. 

ARABIYA-UMA. 

Arabiya Wa sekai ni nadakai ryoba no sanclii de aru. Arabiya-uma no 
choto no kiko ni taeru koto wa jitsu ni odoroku bcki liodo de, shi-go-nichi- 
kan uchitoshi, mai-nichi san-ju-ri gurai wo kakeru no wa mezurashiku nai. 
Noraa-zu, kuwa-zu ni shu jitsu shiiya hashitte mo nao heizen to shite iru to 
in koto de aru. 

Koko ni Arabiya-uma no tassha na koto wo sliomei suru omoshiroi 
hauashi ga aru. Mukashi Toruko no aru taisho ga Arabiya-jin kara it-to 
no meiba wo san-zen-yen de kau yakusoku wo shita. Sate iyo-iyo uma wo 
uke-toru dan ni natte, taisho wa ima sukoshi make-nu ka to iu. Uma-nushi 
wa mo ichi-mon mo hike-nu to in. Dan-dan koron no sue, taisho wa ikatte 
san-zen-yen no kane wo chi ni nage-tsuketa. 

Notes. — *|§y j^] might also be written — ■ '/- H ; see note, vol. II, 
p. 179. 

?8i '^ ,0, mic ^ wa yj it has sJrinnyu like jj|j and other characters which 
refer to motion or distance. 

© Odoroku beki hodo ; in ordinary colloquial beki would be simply drop- 
ped, and we should say odoroku hodo. 

© Uchi here lias little or no meaning. 

•2£ Do (&1l Doryokn); & Do (&^ DoJci). 



124 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 125 

Uma-nushi wa shibaraku taislio no kao wo mitsumete ita ga, sliizuka ni 
sono kane wo liiroi-age, uma no mimi ni kuchi wo yosete, nani-goto ka 
hanasliite iru ka to oraou to, hirari to tobi-notte, issan ni kake-dashita. 

M Sore uma-nushi ga nigeta." To iu no de, taislio no buka no ni-san-nin 
wa tadachi ni jibun no uma ni matagatte, sono ato wo okkaketa. Arabiya- 
jin wa ato wo fnrikaeri, furikaeri, taezu otte to aru kankaku Wo tamochi 
nagara susunde iku. 

Otte ga sekkin sureba sokuryoku wo liayame, okurereba ashi no kizami 
wo mijikaku suru. Tsui ni kure-gata ni natta. Arabiya-jin wa koko ni ha- 
jimete uma ni zensokuryoku wo dasasete, kumo wo kasumi to nige-nobita. 
Ma mo naku, hi wa kurete, yoru no tobari wa mattaku uma-nushi no yuki- 
gata wo kakushita. 

Otte no Toruko-jin wa ikan to mo su beki holiu ga nai. Munashiku 
kaette, " Kislia, kiba, ogon mittsu tomo ushinatte shimaimashita." To ho- 
koku suru lioka wa nai. Mikka-me no yugata ichido hanshi hansho no tei 
ni natte kaette kita. Ipp<-> ni Wa Arabiya-jin no fujitsu wo nonosliiri 

**|tfc The left part of this character is a corruption of JH Asia foot, 
aud is called Asia-hen. The idea of foot is clearly contained in this character 
jwjfc Ato footmarks, as also in jj& Ro road. Tliis last character may be 

interpreted as being a place where each one ^ places his foot JH . Note 
the chance resemblance between Ro and road. 

®4jfr SOKU quick; note the shinnyu. Compare: 1& Soku (t^JjJ? Ya- 

\-n); ^ Soku (^^ SokutatsuX 

t^T Kasumi mist ; related of course to rain fch] m 

i*(b Nigeru to run away ; a^aiu shinnyu. 

© Su beki ; su is a literary-style inflexion of the verb suru. In ordinary 
colloquial ikan to mo su heki hbhb ga nai would be do suru hohu mo nai. 
© Hanshi hansho half dead and half alive, i.e. almost dead. Compare 

the following: ^ Ban (^SfrHambun, $£^£ Yahan); ^|J HAS 
Hanji\ 



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VOLUME in MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 127 

nagara, ippo ni wa, M Are hodo no raeiba wa ikura kane wo haratte mo 
oshiku wa nai." To kuchi-guchi ni liometa. 

Yokka-me no asa taisho wa naui-gokoro naku soto wo nagamete iru to, 
mae no uma-nushi ga futatabi uma wo liiite kite, 

M Kakk;i, san-zen-kin ga oshiu gozaimasu ka, kono uma ga hoslriu go- 
zaim;isu ka ? " 

To itta. 

Arabiya ni ryoba no oku sansuru no wa fudo ga uma no shiyo ni teki- 
sliite iru bakari de wa nai. Su-sen-nen no liisashii aida, dojiu no taote 
tayuma-nai tansei no kekka de aru. Korai Arabiya-jin wa uma wo kazoku 
no iehi-in to kangaete, kacho wa kore wo jibun no kodomo to ODaji yo ni 
kawaigaru. Uma mo yoku kai-nushi ni narete, sono kazoku ichido to sliita- 
sliinde iru. Aru hito no Arabiya ryoko nikki no is-setsu ni tsugi no yo na 
koto ga kaite aru. 

Notes. «$ Sei (faty Seiko, 5^ Yosei); ^ Sei (^^ 
Seidai, ^r)^ Zensei) ; W% Sei (|j]jJ£ ^lf Sdjitsu, ^5|^ SMsei) ; jjjj Jo 

®&p Ketsu, musvbu to tie; note the thread; however, there is no idea 
of tieing in this particular compound jfefe J& Kekka result. 

Koyu)-, f|£j Ko (aux. num.); g Kyo (££||j Jyuhjo, ^fy^? KyosMtsu); 
^ Ku (gift KusJtin, g^ Kurd). 



328 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 129 

14 Uma ga kodomo to asoude iru no wo mita koto ga aru. Yoyaku 
tachi-aruku koto no dekiru mittsu yottsu no kodomo ga uma no o wo liiki, ashi 
wo nadete, tawamurete iru to, uma wa samo ureshi-so ni kuclii de omocha 
wc sasageto, sono kodomo wo ayashite ita. Kono ichi-ji do Arabiya ni 
meiba no sansuru yuen ga wakatta." 

SHONEN KOSHU. 

Furansu-gun ga Arupu-san wo koete Itariya e seme-itta toki wa fuyu 
no nakaba de, yama mo tani mo yuki ni uzumerarete, fuku kaze wa mi wo 
kiru yo ni samukatta. 

Taichii ni Pieru to in toshi no koro ju-sau-shi bakari no shonen kosliu 
ga atta. Massaki ni tatte, taiko wo uchi nagara, kaigaishiku susunde iku. 
Futo yama no itadaki no lio ni susamajii monooto ga kikoe-hajimeta to 
omou to, liyaku-rai no icliiji ni ochikakaru yo na hibiki to tomo ni, yama 
no yo na yuki-nadare ga nadarete kite, muzan ya, kano isamashii shonen 
koshu wa tachimachi tani-soko e haki-otosareta. 

Notes °£f) Setsu (-j^JJjg SeppuJcu, ^^] Shinsetsu) ; %fi Setsu (^ 
Jfo SessJiu). 

© Pieru = Pierre 

®~J~ Cho (unit of length); Pff Ch6 (town); ]J| Cho (j||J^ Chqjo, 
\[]J£ SancJio); \tf Tei (f^^^ Teishaha, {if^j^ Teiryujo, {^fg 
Teiden). 

™p£ k Kai thunder; related to rain fjhl. Remember that lightning is 

called inabikari (ine, JriJcaru) ; that helps to explain the paddy-field J . 

Note the similarity in form and meaning of *^& thunder, and *3s electri- 
city. 



130 



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VOLUME HI. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 131 

" Pieru yo, shonen koshu yo." To koc wo soroete yonda ga, nan no 
kotao mo nai. Shizuka na yanri no naka ni nagareru miza no oto ga toku 
kikoera bakari. Shibaraku sum to tani-soko no ho ni taiko no oto ga 
kasuka ni kikoeru. Mimi wo Bobadatete kikeba, shinguu no shirabe do aru. 
Pieru ga ntsu itsu mo no taiko ni chigai nai. a Sate vra ikite iru no ka ? 
Ano isamashii shonen wo koroshite wa nara-nu. Do ka shite tasukeru kufu 
wa arumai ka?" to, ]ieisbi-ra wa mina ki wo mondo iru. 

Fukasa wa iku-hyaku-jG to mo shire-nai tani-soko, tani e oriru hoso- 
michi mo vuki ya kori ni tozasarete, doko ka mattaku shire-nai. Ucbi-narasu 
taiko no oto wa dan-dan ni liikuku kasuka ni naru. Okurereba Pieru wa 
kogoete sliinu do aro. Heislii-ra wa ki wo aseru nomi de, nan no kufu mo 
tsoka-nn. Kono toki, 

" Jibun g\ iko." To sakebu hito wo dare ka to mireba shogun Makudonaru 
de aru. Makudonaru wa kono tai no sbircikan de, tokkan shogun to iu adana wo 
motta yusho de aru. Heisbi-ra wa odoroita. Shogun wa uWagi wo nugi-sutete, 

Notes. ®<I^ Sn6 (^^M^C Shogakkb, ^/J> Daislto); ffi Sh6 

(rl'Mfc «*»); f£| Sh6 ($$& 8m *> M1& xm*)-* ^ 8sa CM* 

Shasho^tfl Shochu); ^ JO (^^ Jdshoku, ^^ Eijo); /J? Sho 
('p^ Shonen, ffisp Genshd); ^ Sho (^t^^ Mombushb). 

@JJP Tei (gfl^ Teitaku, gj$ Jitei); {£ Tei ({|£|£ Teirahu, ^ 

{£ Klid ) \ ffi Tei (Mm Teitb > ~X%£ Taitei ) ' J& Tei 0l> IS BMM). 
@ i|L Gon (jp£$g; GunJcan, j£$fc Guntai, [^^ Bikugvn, \%% 

Kcdgun); jt|C Un (j|^^ Unsb, j^#/j Undo, ^^ Kou)l > ^f*?l£ Twaiy 
&Makudondru=MAcDonald. 
%Adona pet name, nickname. 



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VOLUME in. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 133 

liaja tani e oriyo to sura. Heishi-ra wa awatete ikudoon ni, " Shogun no 
iuochi wa ware-ware sem-man-nin no inoclii yori mo tattoi. Pioru wa ware- 
ware ni o makase kudasai." To itte hiki-tomeru. Shogun wa do shite mo 
kika-nu. 

" Heishi wa mini waga ko mo doyo de aru. Waga ko no sliinu no WO 
mite, chichi ga inochi wo oshimn riyu wa nai. TaihG no tsuna wo kukuri- 
tsukete, hayaku jibun wo tani e orose. Hayaku shi-nai to Pieru ga shinde 
shimau." To slukaru yo ni iu no de, heishi wa yamu wo e-zu, shogun wo 
tani-soko e oroshita. 

Shogun ga tani-soko e orita toki ni wa mo taiko no oto wa kikoe-nu. 
Koe wo kagiri ui, " Pieru yo, Pieru yo." To yobi nagara, hobo wo tazunete 
yoyo sagashi-ateta ga, shonen wa haya iki mo tae-dae de aru. Te-bayaku 
obi wo hodoito Pieru no karada ni kukuri-tsukete aizu wo suru to, heishi-ra 
wa chikara wo awasete futari wo hiki-ageta. 

Shogun no aijo to yuki ni yotte, gunchu no hana ga tasukatta no de, zengun 

Notes. ^S Uvu or eru. This verb belongs to the literary style. It 

is irregular, and its conjugation will be understood only after the literary 
verb has been studied in the next volume. In the meantime these rules 
may prove useful. At the end of a clause which is not the end of a 

sentence, read e ; at the end of a sentence, read u. When ^S is followed 

by kana, read u when followed by ru, re or be ; when followed by any other 
IxCina symbol read e. 

QHaya iki etc. This laya is not the stem of the adjective hayai, but 
is an adverb equivalent to mo, which would be the word used in ordinary 
colloo^iiai. 



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VOLUME IH. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 135 

ichidd ni kanki no koo wo ageta ; Arupu no yama mo furuu bakari ni. 

ZOSEN NO HANASHI. 

Fane avo tsukuru ni wa mazu memmitsu na sckkei-zu wo koshiraeru. 
Sono zu wa fune no setsudarn-men ojobi kosei to wo nan-ju-bun no ichi ni 
shita shukiizu de, ta-ninzu no gislii ya gishu ga nagaku kakatte seizu sum 
kara, oki na senkau nado ni naru to, sekkei-zu bakari de su-hyaku-mai mo 
am to iu. Sekkei-zu ga deki-agaru to, saimitsu na kozo bunzu wo kaku 
koba ni mawashi, hitsuyo na bubun wa jitsubutsu dai no zu wo tsukutte, 
hajimete seizo ni cliakushu suru no de aru. 

Koba ni wa iro-iro aru. Tetsu wo kito tankoba mo areba, kotetsu, 
^hiuchu-rui wo iru tokoro mo ari, kikan, entotsu to wo tsukuru tokoro 
mo ari, mata mokusei no kigu-rui wo seizo suru mokkoba mo aru. Izure mo 
dai-kibo ni dekite ite, kotogotoku joki ya denki no chikara wo riyo 
suru. Nan-zen-gan to iu dai-tettsui mo hitori no te de jiyu ni unten 

Notes- O There is here a transposition of the words, for reasons of 
literary beauty or emphasis. The natural grammatical order would be : 
Arupu no yama mo furuu bakari ni kanki no hoe wo ageta. The verb furuu 
is proper of the literary style ; in colloquial you say furueru. Bakari here 
has the meaning of hodo. 

# S Ka (JUli Sdkan ' fLTp Kanshu ) • H Ean (¥H Gunkan). 
®Jg£ Dan (gfcA Dandan, Jj gfc Ishidan); $g£ Tan (^X^ 

Tankoiiii I. 



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VOLUME in. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 137 

sum koto ga deki, uan-inchi to atsui tetsu no ita de mo daikon wo kiru yo 
ni z6sa naku setsudan suru. Soutai no zairyo ga liobo totonou to, kumitate 
iii torikakaru. Fune wo kumitateru ni wa, sondai no ue ni bangi to yobu 
raokuzai wo tsuude, souo ue ni mazu ryukotsu to iu mono wo oku. Kore 
wa bito no se-bone no yo na mono de, kono se-bone no sayu kara rokkotsu 
WO dashite, dan-dan ni kumitatete iku. Kore wo rokuzai to iu. Rokuzai 
wa hari wo motto uclii kara sasae, soto-gawa ni ita wo hari, hari no ue ni 
yuka wo tsukutte kampau to suru. Kore de fune no daitai no katachi ga 
dekiru. Kore wa hon no daitai no kozo no hanashi de, jissai wa ryukotsu 
ni mo, rokuzai ni mo, hari ni mo, gaihiban ni mo, sore-zore fuzokugu ga ari, 
oki na fune de wa sentei mo ryo-gawa mo ni-ju-bari ni suru. Sate sore 
kara senshitsu wo wakattari, soko wo koshiraetari, hobashira wo tsuketari, 
kikan wo suetari, komakai zosajm wo shitari sliite, sukkari deki-agaru made 
ni wa hi jo na tekazu ga kakaru. 

Waga kuni no zosenjo de mottomo kibo no okii no wa kaigun no kusho de, 

Notes. ^XE Sei, Sh6 (jE^|| Seikaku, j£ ^) SJiogatsu, yf> j£ 

Fund) : Ig Sei (jg|IJ? Seiri). 

/Xj$r\ ^ nen "written in this order they must be read according to 
the on, sayu, because the Chinese refer to the left hand before the right ; 

if written /£l A~ you read migi-lddari, because the Japanese name the right 

hand first. Other examples in which the order of the characters affects the 

reading without affecting the meaning, are: jl^TO T^zai, jTEffclj Xishi- 

higashi; $y£>m? "^» Wtmw, YoJco-tate; etc. Compare Note 5, p. 13, and 
Note 1, p. 53. 

© Wo motte post-positional phrase more proper of the literary style. 
^ ®HIJ 8ok D (fjglj Kisohn); f|j Sokd ($]ft| Sokumen, £fll]jg 
/np Sasok u As uko ). 



138 



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VOLUME III. MOllE CHINESE CHARACTERS. ];><) 
, i * 

uaka ni mo Yokosuka to Kure no ga saidai ua mono do aru. • Mata shisetsu 
de wa Mitsubishi, Kawasaki to no zoscnjo ga mottomo okii. Tcikoku gun- 
kan no Satsuma wa Yokosuka, Aki wa Kure de tsukutta no do aru. 

Senkau no shiizen, sentei no nuri-kao to wo sum tokoro wo seukjo to 
iu. Seukjo no soko to mawari sam-bo wa islii do tatamu ka, konkuriito de 
katameru ka shite aru. Fune wo sono naka ni ire to ip-po no tobira wo 
toji, sono mizu wo pompu do kaidashite, koji ni kakaru no do aru. Waga 
knni de ichi-ban okii no wa Sasebo Kaigun Kosho no senkjo de, nagasa 
hyaku-san-jii-shi-ken, kyoko no haba jvi-ku-ken jo, fukasa hachi-ken yo aru" 

FUYU-GESHIKI. 

Ki ni kurenai ni hayashi wo kazatte ita ki no hamo okata wa chiri- 
hatete, mi-wataseba, shi-ho no yama-yama no itadaki'wa haya masshiro ni 
natte iru. Yama-oroshi no kaze wa mi ni shimite samui. 

Notes. ®^p MJMc Ka 9 en > WH z ° ka )' M Qx (MM Shu - 
kngay 

@ Konkuriito = concrete. 

© Pompu = pump. 

© This piece and the following one are what we may call poetical prose ; 
therefore, rather difficult. 

© In order to understand a long and complicated sentence it is often 
advisable to divide it into two or more shorter sentences, by changing certain 
indefinite fo.ms into finite inflexions. If these sentences are still too dif- 
ficult, discard the qualifying clauses, so as to get at the skeleton of the 
sentence ; then add the discarded clauses little by little. The first sentence 
of this piece, Ki ni.. ..natte iru, may be divided into two by putting chiri- 
hafrta for chiri-hatete. The first resulting sentence may be conceived as having 
been built up in the following way: Ki no ha mo bkata wa chiri-liateta the 
leaves of the trees have most of them been scattered. Hayashi wo kazatte ita 
ki no ha mo okata wa chiri-hateta the leaves of the trees, which decorated the 
gmves, have most of them been scattered. Ki ni kurenai ni hayashi wo kazat- 
te ita ki no ha mo dkata wa chiri-hatcta the leaves of the trees, which decora- 
ted the groves with yellow and red tinges, have most of them been scattered. 



340 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 14] 

Miya uo mori no kommori to shigetta aida kara furui icho no ki ga ip- 
pon, kogarashi ni fuki-sarasarete, ima wa ha iclii-mai mo nokotte i-nai. 
Hoki wo tateta yo ni takaku kumo wo harao to shite iru. Naka-hodo no 
eda no uo ni karasu ga ni-wa tomatte sakki kara sukoshi mo ugoka-nai. 
Iliroi ta no omo Wa kirikabu bakari do, hito kago no mio-nai nomi ka, 
kakashi no hono mo nokotte i-nai. Tada aze no han no ki ni suzume ga 
takusan atsumatte ite, toki-doki mure ni natte wa tobitatsu. 

Hata ni wa mugi ga mo is-sun hodo ni nobite iru. Sore to tonari-atte, 
negi ya daikon ga ao-ao to une wo kazatte, koko bakari wa fuyu wo shira- 
Dai vo ni iki-iki to shita iro wo miseto iru. Hata ni tsuzuite noka ga ik-kon 
aru. Shimo ni yakete, akaku natta sugi-gaki no naka ni wa kan-giku ga 
ima wo Bakari to saito iru. Mono-oki no ushiro ni wa Gki na daidai no ki 
ga atte, ki-iroi oki na mi ga eda mo tawamu hodo natte iru. 

Ie no yoko ni mizu no yoku sunda ko-gawa ga nagarete iru. Uo no kage wa 

Notes. O This sentence, M'uja. . . . nokotte i-nai, may be studied as follows: 
Furui icho no ki ga ip-pon ima iva ha ichi-mai mo nokotte i-nai an old maiden- 
hair-tree has now no single leaf left. Fund icho no ki ga ip-pon, kogarashi 
ni /'/ki-sarasarete, ima wa ha ichi-mai mo nokotte i-nai an old maidenhair- 
tree, which stands in the path of the winds, has now no single leaf left. 
Miya no mori no aida kara furui icho no ki ga ip-pon, kogarashi ni f ki- 
sarasarete, ima tea ha ichi-mai mo nokotte i-nai among the trees of the wood 
of the shrine, an old maidenhair-tree, which stands in the path of the winds, 
lias now no single leaf left. Miya no mori no kommori to shigetta aida kara 
fund icho no ki ga ip-pon, kogarashi ni fuki-sarasarete, ima wa ha ichi-mai 
mo nokotte i-nai among the closely-packed trees of the wood of the shrine, an 
old maidenhair- tree, which stands in the path of the winds, has now no 
single leaf left. 

ifj'l This character here forms part of an irregular compound ^fcWf 
Kogarashi winter wind; by itself yfcjfc is read Kareru to wither; an old "ft 
tree ^fc. 



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VOLUME in. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 14;j 



hitotsu mo mie-nai. Ni-sarn-ba no ahiru ga kishi uo shimo-bashira wo funu- 
kudaki nagara, shikiri ni o wo asatte ira. Iuu wo tsureta otoko ga ju wo 
k.ita ui shite, mori no kage kara dete kite, aze-michi zutai ni achira uo oka 
e mukatta. 

Zudon to ippatsu. Naui wo utta uo daro? Icho uo ki uo karasu wa 
isoide yania no ho e nigete iku. Han no ki no suzume wa ichi-do ui patto 
tobi-tatta. 

AME TO KAZE. 

Go-fu ju-u to itte, itsuka-goto uo kaze, toka-goto no ame wa taihei buji 
no yo no arisama de am. Sate kono ame-kaze mo shiki uo jiko ni tsurete, 
sore-zore ui chigau. 

Haru no ame wa shimejaka ni futte, noki no tamamizu no oto mo shizuka 
ni kikoeru. Haru no hajime ni furu no wa hito-ame goto ni hana wo moyosu ka 
to ureshii. " Ko-haku liana wa hiraku en-u no uchi." To iu keshiki wa, shizuka ua 
naka ni utsukushii nagame de aru. Shikashi kono ame wa yagate hana wo chirasu 
ame to naru no de, sono toki wa urameshii kokochi ga sum. Ame uo har^ta 

Notes. **lj?f Ken (aux. num.); j^ Gan (^^^ Kaigajij- 
© This sentence is elliptical ; supply Jdlcoeta. 

© Go-fu ju-u seasonable weather, wind every five days and rain every 
ten. 



144 



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VOLUME III. MOKE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



asa, hana no ka wo okutte, soyo-soyo to fuku haru-kazo ni wa, waga mi 
mo cho no yo ni tobi-tachitaku nam. Urao no mi no jukusuru koro furi- 
tsnzuku samidaro wa noka ni totto wa taisetsu na ame do aru ; sore wa 
chodo ta-ue no jisotsu de aru kara. 

Itten niwaka ni kaki-kumotte, hoshimono wo torikomu hima mo nai 
yiidachi wa, sawagashii naka ni isamasbii. Osoroshii no wa ni-liyaku-toka 
goro no 6-araslii de, ie wa taoreru, tsutsu mi wa kireru, ine no hana wa 
chira, iclii-nen-jii no nofu no shinku ga ichi-ya no uclii ni muda ni natte 
shimau koto mo aru. 

Kotoshi wa nanigoto mo nakute, ki-iro ni minotta aki no ta no ue wo 
fuki-wataru kaze ga naruko wo ugokasu to, mura-suzume no patto tobi-tatsu 
nc wa omoshiroi. Aki no sue ni natte, kaze no fuki-chirashita ki no ha no 
ue ni ame no furi-kakaru no wa nan to naku mono-sabishii. 

Ha no chiri-hateta fuyu-kodachi ni fuki-susamu kogarashi no 
kaze wa oto wo kiku dake de mo mono-sugoi. Ama-do wo 
akete miru to, akarui tsuki-yo de aru : mi wo kiru yo na samusa n 



Notes. QKaki has here little or no meaning. 

©Mono has here little or no meaning. 

©This sentence, Ha no.. . .mono-sugoi, may be built up as follows: 
Kogarasld no Icaze wa oto ico kiku dake de mo mono-sugoi the winter wind 
is such tli at even the sound of it is gloomy indeed. Fuyu-kodachi ni fuki- 
susamu kogarasld no kaze wa oto wo kiku dake de mo mono-sugoi the winter 
wind blowing with violence on the trees, is such that even the sound of it 
is gloomy indeed. Ha no chiri-hateta fuyu-kodachi ni fuki-susamu kogaraslii 
no kaze tea oto ico kiku dake de mo mono-sugoi the winter wind blowing with 
violence on the trees stripped of all their leaves, is such that even the 
sound of it is gloomy indeed. 



146 



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VOLUME 1IL MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 147 

omowa-zu kubi wo cliijimeru koto mo aru. Fuyu no ame no hi wa mijikai 
hi ga naosara hayaku kuraku iiaru. Yo ga fukete, ame no oto ga shizuka 
ni natta kara, yanda koto to omotte iru to, yokucho okite mireba, itsu no 
ma ni yuki ni kawatta ka, sokora ichimen gin-eekai ni natte iru koto mo 
aru. 

DOBUTSU TO SHOKUBUTSU NO KANKEI. 

Cho ya hachi wa liana kara hana o isogashi-su ni tobi-mawatto liana 
no shiru wo suu. Sono told liana no naka no kafun wa korc-ra no muslii 
ni teuifce, liitotsu no liana kara ta no hana ni dentatsu sareru. Shokubutsu 
no hana ni wa doshu no ta no hana no kafun wo ukeru to, yoi mi wo 
musubu mono ga aru. 

Mata hiyo ya tsugumi wa utsukushiku jikushite iru kajitsu wo tsuibamu. 
Sore ga tame ni onozuto shushi wo achira-kochira e sampu suru. Tori 
bakari de wa nai : hito ya jurui mo kajitsu wo tabete wa sono shushi wo 
hobo e maki-chirasu no do aru. 

Notes. °[pj Kai ([pj^ Kaifuku); $|J Kai ($3$|[ Kattm). 

®%fy Fun powder, flour; rice ^fc divided ft. Compare the following: 

ft Fun (minute), Bun (ft^ Bun W d )'> Wf ruN tfJEM Ka f un ) ; ^ 

BON (tray). 

®& Ry6 (&>l> B y 6sMn > && OMryo); gfl Bo (^J$ Taro). 

r$ii ^ usu ^ u nere means to bear. 
Qlliyo — hiyodori. 



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VOLUME IH. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 14<) 

Dobutsu wa kokyu sayo ni yotto kuki-clm no sanso wo sui, tansan gasu 
wo haki-dasu. Moshi koro wo shOhi suru mono ga nakereba, kuki-chu ni 
Wa tansan gasu ga dan-dan ni zoka shi, tsui ni wa chikyii-jo no dobutsu ga 
kokyii sayo wo itonamu koto ga deki-naku naru dori do aru. Shikaru ni 
kiiki-chu no tansan gasu no buuryo ga masa-nai no wa ip-po ni oito 
shokubutsu ga kore wo shohi suru kara do aru. 

Sliokubutsu mo dobutsu to onajiku kokyu sayo de sanso wo sui, tansan 
gasu wo haki-dasu ga, sono haki-dasu tansan gasu no bunryo wa itatte 
sukunai. Hbka ni doka sayo to itte, sakan ni tansan gasu wo totte, sono 
uchi no tanso wo yobun ni shite sanso wo hanatsu sayo ga aru. Moshi 
tansan gasu wo kyokyu suru mono ga nakereba, kuki-chu no tansan gasu 
no bunryo ga ichijirushiku hctte, chikyfi-jo no shokubutsu wa kotogotoku 
koshi su beki hazu de aru. * Shikaru ni tansan gasu ga taezu kyokyu sareru 
no wa, ta ni mo shuju no gen- in mo aru ga, dobutsu no kokyii sayo mo 
azukatte 6i ni chikara ga aru no de aru. 

Kingyo wo hoso-kuchi no bin ni irete ni-san-nichi mo mizu wo torikae-nai 



Notes. ff$ The element at the left of this character is called 
Hiyomi-no-tori. Several of the characters which contain this element have 
to do with alcohol or fermentation : 7J§ Sake rice-wine ; Mt Su vinegar ; 

^5 You to be intoxicated ; |j^ San acid ; B|t I to cure (perhaps, because 

the old-fashioned doctors were fond of prescribing elixirs and alcoholic 
preparations). 

®Wt zo (Sf^Hr Z6td )- *t z ° (*t#n zdka )-> M- s6 > (—if issd )- 

®Jj Ho (side, Jj* Hobo, JJCJ^r Shilid); jfc Ho (f^X Hdka > 
ffl& &**)> & *> Q&ffi Kobo); Pj Bo (fftffi Shobo, gftjfc 
Boshi). 

OKosJd su beki hazu de aru=karete sldmau hazu da. 

®Aru no de aru ; no here is equivalent to koto ; compare Note 4, p. 31. 



150 



JAPANESE READING FOB BEGINNERS 



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VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 151 



to, kingyo wa shindo shimau. Kore WB suichu ni tokete iru sanso ga sui- 
tsnkusareru kara de am. Moshi soiio naka ni aoi mizu-kusa wo irete okeba> 
mizu wo torikae-nakute mo kingyo wa wariai ni nagaku ikite iru. Kore wa 
mae ni itta yo na kankei ga bin no naka no kingyo to mizu-kusa no aida 
ni okonawaroru kara de aru. 

Kono hoka dobutsu wa shokubutsu no kajitsu, ne, ha to wo kutte tai 
wo vashmai, shokubutsu wa dobutsu-shitsu no fuhaibutsu Wo hiryo to shite 
seicb.6 suru to, seison-jo dobutsu to shokubutsu no kankei wa kiwamete 
missetsu na mono de aru. 

TSUJI ONGAKU. 

Kashira ni wa shimo wo itadaki, mi ni wa tsuzure wo matoi, yase- 
otoroeta kara da wo gisoku ni sasaete, michi-bata ni baiorin wo hiite iru 
rojin no tsuji ongakushi ga aru. Tokoro wa Osutoriya no shufu Uiin no 
dai-koen, kyo wa nigiyaka na saijitsu de aru. 

Chujitsu na inu wa f uru-boshi wo kuwaete, aware na shujin no tame ni michi- 

Notes. Q Several metaphors serve to complicate the meaning of this 
piece. Here, the old man's white hairs are compared to frost. 

©Foreign proper names, when written in kan-ji are generally phonetic 
transcriptions, i. e. the characters are used without any reference to their 

meaning, e. g. fjU Ka 23- Na Iff* Da, Canada ; occasionally the characters 

are used ideologically, as in ifc.\^ Ox-ford. As regards the phonetic 

jmblance it must be looked for rather -in real Chinese than in the quasi- 
Chinese pronunciation used in Japan. See vol. II, p. 93. Foreign proper 
names are often written in kata-kana. 

j\y This character, used here merely for its sound, is very often used 
after a sum of money, and is then read nari, this nari need not be trans- 
lated ; e.g. ^^JiT^^ j^Iyl-fll, -Km ni-ju-icld~yen nari, ¥21. 

® £H Chu loyalty ; naturally referred to the heart jf\. Compare the 
following: PJ3 ChO (l=f=lj£ Churitsu, ^ tfl Tochu); j£* ChU (Jjjt*| 
Chugi)\ \ty Chl; ({^^ Chukai). 



152 



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VOLUME EX MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 153 

yuku Into no nage-ataeru kislia wo machiwabite iru. Mini mono no ui kyG 
no saijitsu ni jidai okure no heta na ongyoku ni mimi wo katamukcru mono 
wa hitori mo nai. Hi wa Bade ni nislii e katamuite, matsuri kembutsu no 
hito-bito wa dan-dan kaeri liajimeru. Boslii no naka ni iclii-mon no zeni 
mo nai. Rojin wa katamuku yu-lii wo nozomi, boshi no uchi wo nagamete 
wa iku-tabi ka tameiki wo tsuite iru. Moliaya hiku chikara mo tsukite 
katawara no islii ni koshi wo oroshi, hitai wo ryo-te ni sasaete hito shire- 
nu namida wo kobosliite iru. 

Kokage ni tatte tsuku-zuku to kono yosu wo mite ita liitori no sliinshi 
ga atta. Zuka-zuka to liashiri-yotte, " Chotto kaslii tamae." To ii nagara, 
sono baiorin wo totte hiki-hajimeta. Yumi ga ichi-do ito ni fureru to tenjo 
no ongaku no yo na utsukushii ne ga waki-dashita. Rojin wa do shite ano 
baiorin kara, anna ne ga deru ka, do shite mata jibun no hiku toki ni wa 
anna ne ga de-nai no ka to fushigi-sd ni baiorin to shinshi no tetsuki wo 
ucbimamotte ita. 

Notes. °^ Sha (^j^J Shatei, 1$£^. Kdsha); $± Sha (j§l|£ 
Kisha). 

@jg.KAKU (^J^ KakucM); ^ Kyaku (guest), Kaku (§#£ Kaku- 
shi, J^^gr Shokkaku^; ^ Gaku (|||[|[j Gakumen, <$j?t^{ Kingaku). 

®^j^j^r Note the reading Kokage. 

°t}3 Shis (^^ Shinkoku); jjjfjl Shin, Jin (fgffjl Seishin, j[\$ft± 

Ji"ja)\ ffi s »^- (f^i SJdnsJii > m¥? KisUn )' 

®i% Gi (J&j| C]m ^ Ha? 0iri h fi Gi (H;j£ GisMki > H 

R*Q*)'s |f| Gl (Ht^f Gikai, f^gjig Qiron, ^||| Kaigi\ 



154 



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VOLUME ni MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



Choshu wa shi-hd kara atsumatto kite, miru uclii iri hito-yama wo 
kizuita. Omoku shizunda sliirabe ui, kurai, kurai umi no soko o lrikikomareru 
yo ua ki ga sirru ka to omou to, karuku ukitatta choshi ni, no koe, yama 
koe, fuwari-fuwari to bam-gasumi no kanata e tsurete ikareru yo na kokoro- 
mochi ni nam. Henka kiwamari nai myoon wa tachimachi hito no kokoro 
wo hyakka mankai no nodoka na haru ni yowase, mata tachimaclii oclii-ba 
chiri-shiku aki no sabisliisa ni shizumaseru. Hito-bito wa tada shinkyoku 
ni kokoro wo ubawarete myoon no hoka ni wa nani-mono mo mie mo kikoe 
mo shi-nai. 

Yaya atto shinshi wa shibaraku liiku te wo yameru to, choshu w r a zeni 
wo tsukande arasotte rojin no sasageta boshi no naka e nage-ireru. Doka 
to iwa-zu, kin-ginka to iwa-zu, ame no furu yo ni te-atari shidai ni nage- 
komu. Matataku ma ni boshi ni ippai ni natta. Rojin wa kore wo fukuro 
ni utsushite futatabi boshi wo sashidasu. Miru ma ni mata afureru bakari. 

Shinshi wa sara ni Osutoriya no kokka wo hiki-hajimeta. Iku-sen no choshu 



Notes. OThe effect of the music on the hearers is described in quite 
a high-flown style. The sorrowful parts are supposed to make them feel as 
if they were being drawn tlirougli the dark depths of the sea ; and the 
lighter melodies, to carry them on a spring haze over fields and mountains. 
Then again, the beautiful sounds are compared to the bloom of numberless 
flowers and to the loneliness of autumn with its fallen leaves. 

©Kokoro wo ubaivareru to be so absorbed in attention to one thing as 
to be oblivious of the rest. 

QKi?i-<ji/il;a gold and silver coins. 

©Te atari shidai ni whatever came to hand. 

@ — ^p Ippai full. 

® Afureru bakari almost to overflowing. 



15(5 



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VOLUME m. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 157 

wa boshi wo uuide aiwashite utatta. Uta ga owaru to, shinslii wa baiorin 
wo rojin ni watashi, raokurei shite izuku e ka itta. Hi wa haya bossliite, 
toka no hikari ga ten-ten to shite koko, kashiko ni kagayaito iru to wa, 
ima no ima made dare hitori mo ki-zuka-nakatta. Kano nasake-bukai shinslii 
Wa dare de atta ka, rojin mo shira-nu ; cliOshu mo shira-nu. Ichido wa tada 
kami no shiwaza to nomi omotta. Furansu no baiorin no meishu Arekisandoru 
Busho de atta to wa nochi ni natte wakatta. 

Notes. *j£ Ten (^jg Honten., j£ J| Ten-in) ; gf Ten (gf fo 
Tenia, %£$& Shuten). 

Hlgai) ; $£ Ha ($£ jt^ Hatoba) ; ;gjT Ha (ifj)]^ Haretsu). 

@ fj*. PfJ" F ° (Pfr^S FuMn > StPft 55 /"): J^f ^u (urban prefecture) ; 

M n OK^ Fuhai )' ft Fu CM *W*> 

Arekisandoru Bushe y Alexandre Boucher, 1778-1861. 



lf,ft JAPANESE BEADING POB BEGINNEBS 

NEWSPAPERS. 

Newspapers are sometimes written in the literary style, and sometimes 
in the formal style. Even in this latter case the beginner will find them 
far from easy as they have certain peculiarities of their own. The principal 
things 10 be observed are that, from motives of economy of space and 
time, they are very fond of abbreviations, and they use very few punctua- 
tion marks. In the extracts given here we have added a few marks as an 
assistance to the student : we have also changed many names of persons 
and places. 

The following abbreviations occur in these examples : 

f]J Den for t||$|* dempo or fgflf denshin. 

jg Sho for If gig keisatsu-sho. 

gf Sho for $§jf shbbaL 

$? Tei for ^m teikolcu. 

^C Dai for zkjfi dai-gaku. 

%£ Yaku for ® A yaku-nin. 

^ Gaku for l^$c gakkb. 

^ Sei for &$£ seito. 

j|fc Kyb for f&'jl" kybkai. 

The following characters have other more or less important meanings 
besides those given in our Beginners' Dictionary of Chinese- Japanese 
Characters. The student would do well to note them carefully. 



VOLUEM III. MOKE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 159 

2(S K.u and $£ Hatsu coming or proceeding from, from. 

^ Saru the last. Therefore, saru ichi-jitsu means, the first of this 

month ; saru san-ju-ieJii-nichi the 31st of last month saru ju-ni-nida 

Would moan, the 12th of this month, if we are speaking after the 

12th, or, the 12th of last month, if we are spoaking on or before 

the 12th. 
""p KA in or belonging to : especially in the expressions jff~p fuJca, 

RT l&nkti, ^RHF toka. 
"J$ Kata in or belonging to the house of; also, a rough indication of 

time, about, near, as in ^PJJ^f yoake-gata at day-break. 
Jf Kux an honorific used like San, but less polite ; Mr. 
~% Sai years of age. 

Pfj* or % Fu sum to hand over, to submit to. 
fjf Uttacru to report, to inform. The combination tJf'\ji]5 uttae-deru 

is also used in this same meaning. 



160 



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ICHI-YA DAIJIN. 

(Roma raiden). Tasukanii Serutarudo no inaka-machi ni sumu untenshu 
Wa, saki-goro Furorensu Beikoku Ryoji no tsukoku wo uke, shinseki no 
yuigon de sen-shichi-hyaku-man yen no isan wo uke-tsuida. 

Notes. ° Tasukanii .... sumu is a verbal phrase used as an adjective ; 
it qualifies untenshu ; ' a chauffeur living in the country town of Certaldo in 
Tuscany '. 

^TpC^flt Uke-tsugu. These two characters (without the intervening Kana) 
also form the Chinese compound Slwkei which has the same meaning, viz. 
to succeed as heir. 



VOLUME HI. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



161 



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SHINI-GAMI NI TSUKARETA OTOKO. 

(Urawa tokuden). Saitama-ken Tainura-gun Misaki-mura no Yamada 
Ryotaro to in shi-ju-shi no otoko wa, saru tsuitachi yo, jibun ga Nichi-Ro 
senso ni dete, dai is-sen ni tachi gekisen-chu, horyo ni natta no de, kore 
nara isso no koto jisatsu shita ho ga meiyo da to no yume wo »mite, me wo 
Bamashi, kyii ni ki ga kurutio, kusakari-gama do seppuku shita ga shini- 
kiro-zu, Tokyo-fuka, Meguro fukin wo chimamiro de aruite iru tokoro wo 
junsa ni hakken save, hitomazu kitakn shita ga, mikka no yoru, mata-mata 
ie-de shi, duson no Suzuki kata ido e toshin shi, honto ni shinde shimatta. 

Notes. °This paragraph may be divided into 10 sentences which 
finish at the following words : mite, samashi, kurutte, seppuku shita, kire-zu, 
hakken save, Icitaku shita, ie-de shi, toshin shi, shinde shimatta. The first sentence 
may be explained as follows : Yamada lUjbtarb ica saru tsuitachi yo yume wo 
in if a. From Saitama-ken to otoko tea is a description of the subject Yamada 
Eybtarb, From jibun ga to da to no is a description of the dream ; it con- 
sists of three points, viz. : jibun ga. . . . dete, dai is-sen .... natta no de, kore 
nar a .... meiyo da ; these three points are referred to collectively by the 
following word to. UH& Nichi-Ro Russo-Japanese. 

® The sixth sentence is : Tokyo-fuka .... hakken sareta ; the general mean- 
ing is : in these and these circumstances he was discovered by a policemau. 
The words Tokyo-fuka .... aruite iru are a verbal adjective which describes 
the circumstances ; this phrase qualifies tokoro which here means circums- 
tances, occasion. 



MVA 



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SAN-JIS-SEN NO D0R0B6 DE "5-SAWAG1. 



Ju-ku-nichi no gozen ni-ji goro Fukagawa-ku Minami-cho no_toko-ya 
Asano kata ni, san-nin-gumi no goto ga oshi-itta to iu uttae ni, Ogibashi 
shoin ga shutchd shite, kinjo no mono to tewakc shite, doke wo tori-kakomi, 
dan-dan shirabeta ga ikko sonna yosu ga nai. Yoku-yoku shiraberu to hitori 
no zoku ga doke e iri, kin san-jis-sen wo sesshu shite nige-dashita no wo. 
fukin no mono ga mitsukete, sate wa kono sawagi to wakatta. 

Notes. °This paragraph may b3 divided into 6 sentences which finish 
at the following words : shutchd shite, tori-kakomi, shirabeta, nai, mitsukete, 
wakatta. In the first sentence, ju-ku-nichi .... oshi-itta is the complaint in 
detail ; this is summarized in the words to iu. After uttae ni you must 
supply {& oite, jf (suite, or tsuki. We have thus in skeleton : '....* to in 
uttae ni (tsuki) Ogibashi shoin ga shutchd shita (on account of) this and this 
complaint the Ogibashi police official went out to investigate. 

@ The framework of the fifth sentence is: Yoku-yoku shiraberu to [kore) 
wo fukin no mono ga mitsuketa. Here, kore stands for the words hitori no 
zoku ga. . . . nige-dashita no which describe what was discovered ; there are 
three points : hitori no zoku ga doke e iri, kin san-jis-sen too sesshu shite, nige- 
dashita. These three points are one complex verbal adjective which qualifies 
the following no : no is here equivalent to koto. 











VOLUME III. 


MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 






163 


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ROJfO KEM-BUN. 

A^akusa-bashi kara densha ni yatto-kosato nori-konda inaka no ba-san, 
^VifLohn kim ga kippu wo kiri ni mae e tatsu to, futokoro no donzoko made 
te wo tsukkonde, ba-san wa shibaraku moji-moji no sue, yagate tori-dashita 
momen no liito-tsutsumi, sore wo toite dashita no wa kami-zutsumi, sore wo 
mata toite mata toki snru ; yagate ira-ira suite iru shasho san no me no 
mae ni sashi-dasareta no wa ju-nen mo mae no densha-ken ichi-mai shikamo 
waribiki no kataware de aru. Shasho san akirete shibaraku damatte ita ga 
•• shikata u;a ne " to hasami wo ireta. 



Notes- ° Bojo kern-bun. Things been and heard on the road. 

^This paragraph may be divided into 8 sentences which finish at the 
following words : tsukkonde, hito-tsutsumi, kami-zutsumi, saru, de aru, akirete, 
damatte ita y ireta. The framework of the first sentence is : inaka no ba-san 
futokoro no donzoko made te wo tsukkonda. The words Asakusa-basJd . . . .nori- 
konda are a description of the old lady. The words shasho.. . . tatsu to tell 
us what the conductor was doing while the old woman was fumbling in the 
depths of her bosom. 

®In the second sentence there is a transposition of the words: consider 
them in this order : bd-san wa shibaraku moji-moji no sue yagate momen no 
hito-tsutsumi (zoo) tori dashita. 

° In the third sentence supply de aru thus : sore ivo toite dashita no tea 
kami-zutsumi {de aru), she untied it and what she took out was a paper 
bundle. 

®The fifth sentence may be reduced to the following: yagate shasho son 
no me no mae ni sashi-dasareta mono wa fund densha-ken ichi-mai de aru. The 
words ira-ira shite iru are descriptive of the conductor's feelings; and the 
words ju-nen mo mae no and shikamo icaribiki no kataware are a description of 
the ticket : in the skeleton these have been replaced by tho single word fund, 

® In the last sentence we may supply the words ii nagara or itte be- 
tween to and hasami. 



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NISE-ISHA GA CHUSHA SHITE BATSU. 

Koishikawa-ku Tosaki-chd no Tamura to iu otoko wa hon-getsu jojun 
kara ik-kai go-yen de kinjo no mono ni sarubarusan no chusha wo shite ita 
ga, sono uchi no hitori ga san-kai-me kara me ni kosho wo okosliita no de 
uttaerare, nise-isha to wakatte, keisatsu e kammon sareta. 

Notes. ° This paragraph may be divided ioto 4 sentences which finish 
at the following words : shite ita, uttaerare, tvakatte, sareta. The framework 
of the first sentence is : Tamura to iu otoko wa kinjo no mono ni sarubarusan 
no chusha wo shite ita. Koishikawa-ku Tosaki-chd no are details about Tamura. 
Hon-getsu jojun kara is the time. Ik-kai go-yen de is the price demanded. 

® In the third sentence supply as follows : (sore de) nise-isha (da) to 
wakatla. 



VOLUME III. MORE CfltNESE CHARACTERS. 



105 



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FUKAGAWA NO KDSHI HYOSHO. 

I-'ukagawa Naka-cho no kuen de jii-san-nichi, Naka-cho kyokai-in ni- 
livaku jo mei sono ta hyaku-go-ju. yo mei no hokki de, Naka-cho hyaku-roku- 
ju-ku geta-sho Taguclii Shichiro to iu ju-ku no seinen no hyosho-shiki ga aita. 
Shichiro wa ryoshin ga sakunen knre kara jinzo-byo de toko ni tsuite iru 
no wo fuyo shite kita ga, sono tsune nara-nu koyo wo kondo mitomerareta 
no de, kucho keisatsusho-cho mo sansei shite, mokuhai hito-kumi kane jakkan 
wo okurareta no de aru. 

Notes. ° 3i L "^ 5 Hybshb public recognition of merit. 

®TJiis paragraph may be divided into 3 sentences which finish at the 
following words : aita, kita, aru. The first sentence may be reduced to : 
Tagucld Shichiro to iu ju-ku no seinen no hybshb-shiki ga atta ; but we are 
also given the locality where the ceremony took place Fukagawa Naka-cho no 
kben de, the day jii-san-nichi, and some details about Taguclii Naka-cho 
hyak u-roku-ju-ku geta-sho. 

®In the second sentence tsuite iru no wo stands for tsuite iru mono wo, 
and the word mono refers to ryoshin. With this substitution the sentence is 
in skeleton : Shichiro tea ryoshin wo fuyo shite kita. The words ryoshin ga 
sakunen kure kara jinzo-byo de toko ni tsuite iru are details about the parents. 
In English we could say : Shichiro supported his parents who had been con- 
fined to their bed, etc. Note that in English the word ' parents ' is in the 
principal part of the sentence and is represented by ' who ' in the subor- 
dinate clause ; in Japanese, on the contrary, as the qualifying clause comes 
first, the noun itself ryoshin (parents) is found in the subordinate clause 
and is represented in the principal part of the sentence by the word no. 

° '/J? & ?> #} Ts"/ie-nara-nu not usual, uncommon. 



100 



JAPANESE READING POR BEGINNERS 



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SAKURA-MARU CHIMBOTSU. 

Fukushima-ken Ishikawa-machi Suzuki Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha no 
Sakura-Maru (is-sen-hyaku-shichi-ju-go-ton) wa muika Wakamatsu-ko wo 
hasshi, Osaka ni mukau tochu Seto-naikai Kurushima-kaikyo de iwa ni noriage, 
sentai wa tsumi-ni no tetsuzai is-sen-ton to tomo ni chimbotsu shita. Songai 
yaku ju-man yen, norikumi-in ji wa betsujo nai. 

NotBS- O This paragraph may be divided into 5 sentences which finish 
at the following words : liasshi, noriage, chimbotsu shita, yen, nai. In the 
first sentence the words Fulcushima-ken . . ..ton are details about the ship 
SaJcura- Maru. 

®In the second sentence Osaka ni mukau is a verbal phrase which 
qualifies tochu. 

• In the thirfl sentence tetsuzai is-sen-ton is in apposition to tsumi-ni : 
see Yocab. no 5). 

°In the fourth sentence supply de atta after yen. 



VOLUME 1JX MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



167 



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ICHI-JI NI SAN-NIN WO HOBAKU. 

Suzaki-sho no keiji Tanaka to iu hito wa Fukagawa Kuroe-cho Suzaki kan 
no densha no naka de gin-dokei wo suro to sliita otoko wo toraeta ga, suru 
to soba kara futari no otoko ga " Nani ka no macliigai desho " to ka nan 
to ka kuchi wo dashita no wo mite; "Ha, ha, dorui da na " to hayaku mo 
mitetori, takumi ni sono futari wo mo tsurete gesha shite, Suzaki-sho e 
tsure-kondo shimatta. Torishiraberu to Hanada Tamotsu, Nakai Yoshio, 
Sakai Kichita to iu san-nin no suri to hakujo shita. 

Notes. ° This paragraph may be divided into 6 sentences which finish 
ac the following words : toraeta, mite, mitetori, geslia shite, shimatta, shita. 
The framework of the first sentence is : Tanaka wa densha no naka de otoko 
wo toraeta. Suzaki-sho.. ..hito tea is a description of Tanaka. Fukagaica 
Kuroe-cho Suzaki kan no qualifies densha. Gin-dokei ivo surd to shita is a 
verbal phrase which qualifies otoko. 

® The second sentence may be reduced to : /atari no otoko ga kuchi too da- 
shita no too mita. Suru to is a kind of conjunctional introduction : soba kara is 
the place where the two men were. ' Nani ka no macliigai desho to ka nan to 
ka is what the men said : part is a direct quotation, but the words nan to 
ka show that they said other things besides that. 

•The third sentence is: 'Ha, hd, dorui da na' to hayaku mo m'detotta. 
We have here a direct quotation depending on $L ~C M. mitetoru to 
perceive. This may seem strange, but in the Japanese mind the quotation 
represents the words the man said to himself when he perceived that the 
two others were pals of the pickpocket. 

° Tu the last sentence though the meaning is clear, the construction is 
somewhat strange even from a Japanese point of view: we might perhaps 
call it journalese. The more logical construction would be:.. ..to iu san-nin 
ga suri da to hakujo shita. 



168 



JAPANESE KKADLNO KOR BEGINNERS 



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MISE1NENSHA SAKE DE SHINU. 

Ju-ku-nichi no yoake-gata Ueno koen dobutsu-en mae no kyodo bench! 
ni seinen ga zetsumei shite iru no \vo haya-oki no tsuko-nin ga hakken 
shite, 6-sawagi to nari, Ueno-sho e uttae deta no de kakari-kan ga shutcho shite, 
torishiraberu to, seinen wa fuka Mukojima Sumida ni sumu Shimaki Takeichiro 
kata no yatoi-nin Narita Takeo to in ju-ku no mono de, mae no ban kara 
haru ni ukarete, taishu wo shita no ga tatari, tochu de shinzo mahi wo 
okoshi taoreta mono to hammei. Hakken shita toki wa shigo san-jikan wo 
keika shite ita. 

Not3S. ° Do not confound ^ Mi, imada not yet, with ^ Matsu, sue end. 

®This paragraph may be divided into 5 sentences which finish at the 
following words : hakken shite, nari, shutcho shite, hammei (shita), shite ita. 
In the first sentence the subject is after the object. Returning them to 
their logical places we have : haya-oki no tsuko-nin ga seinen ga zetsumei shite 
iru no wo hakken shita. Ju-ku-nichi no yoake-gata tells us the time ; dobutsu- 
en no mae no kybdb benchi ni tells us the place. 

® In the second sentence, viz : b-sawagi to natta, the use of to savours 
somewhat of the literary style ; ni is commoner in the colloquial. 

° The fourth sentence may be reduced to this : torishiraberu to kore de 
atta to hammei shita. Notice first that hammei sum is an intransitive verb, 
to become clear, to become known. The words fyore de atta to in out 
skeleton correspond to the following part of the text seinen wa .... taoreta 
mono (de atta) to. This is what became known ; it may be considered as 
consisting of four parts : (a) seinen wa Narita Takeo to iu ju-ku no mono de 
(atta), (b) mae no ban kara haru ni ukarete, taishu ivo shita no ga tatari 
(—tatatta), (c) tochu de shinzo mahi ivo okoshi ( = okoshita), (d) taoreta. These 
four clauses together may be considered as one complex verbal phrase which 
qualifies mono fact or facts. The words fuka Mukojima .... yatoi-nin are 
descriptive of Narita, Haru ni ukareru means to be carried away by the 
feeling of spring. Tataru to have a bad result. 



VOLUME ni. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



109 



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YAMAGATA-KENKA DAI-SUIGAI. 

Yamagata-kenka de wa ju-shichi-nichi irai kou de, Mogami-gawa hajime 
kaku kasen wa izure mo iohi-jd ni-san-jaku ni zosui shi ; Mogami-gawa no 
Oebashi wa ju-hachi-nichi tsui ni ryiishitsu shita. Sono songai dake de mo 
san-man-go-sen yen to iwarete iru. Doji ni kaku kasen no shiryfi mo zosui 
shi, Alogami, Tagawa ryo-gun no kotsu wa shinsui no tame todae, sonnai no 
taihi wa zembu nagasareta. 

Notes. °This paragraph may be divided into 6 sentences which finish 
at the following words : zosui shi, sldta, iwarete iru, zosui shi, todae, nagasareta. 
The framework of the first sentence is : Mogami-gawa tea ichi-jo ni-san-jaku 
ni zosui shita. Place : Yamagata-kenka de wa. Time : jii-shichi-nichi irai. 
Cause : kou de. Mogami-gawa hajime kaku kasen wa izure mo is a compound 
subject : note that hajime refers to precedence, not of time but of impor- 
tance. 

°Iu the third sentence you might add the words de aru between yen 
and to iwarete iru. 



170 



.JAI'ANIiSH KEADINO FOE BEQINNER3 



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REUS NEK0-1RA-ZU JISATSU. 

Koishikawa-ku Otowa no KatO Kichitaro Shi reijo Haru-ko wa sakunen 
ju-gatsu Houjo-ku Moto-machi no Noda Taichi chonan teidai tetsugaku-ka 
ni-nen-sei Ryokichi ni totsuide ita ga, saru jii-ni-nichi yo jikka ni kaeri, 
neko-ira-zu wo nonde jisatsu sliita. Gen-in fumei de aru. 

Motes. ° Neko-ira-zu name of a certain rat poison. 

®This paragraph may be divided into 4 sentences which fiinish at tbe 
following words : totsuide ita, kaeri, sJiita, aru. Tbe first sentence is in 
skeleton : Haru-ko wa saku-nen ju-gatsu Ryokichi ni totsuide ita. The words 
Koishikawa-ku . . . reijo are descriptive of Haru-ko. The words Honjo-ku . . 
. . ni-nen-sei are descriptive of Ryokichi. Note the abbreviation tei-dai for 
eikoku daigaku. 



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VOLUME [II. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



171 



TOKYO NO HIGAI. 

Yoka ohorai uo o-kaze wa yo ni itte iyo-iyo moi wo furui, koto ni 6- 
ame ni uatta no do, ju-ji chikaku ni wa mohaya liito-dori mo mare ni, fuyOi 
no hito-bito ga nure-nezumi to natte, kake-mawaru sugata mo mieru. Shinai 
kaku homen de mo kanari no higai ga aru mikomi de, chosa-chu do aru. 

Notes. °This paragraph may be divided into 5 sentences which finish 

at the following words: furui, mare ni (natta), mieru, mikomi de (aru), aru. 



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KAN-JI SEIGEN NO JIKKO SOKUSHIN SENDEN. 

Kokugo-Chosa Kai de kono aida kettei shita seigeu kan-ji wa hodo shit;*, 
tori de aru ga, kono seigen no shui wo totteiteki ni shiraseru tame, Kan-ji 
Seigen Jikko Kai de wa ju-san-nichi no gozen ku-ji kara, Hibiya koen ni 
sliinai shogaku-seito no yushi wo atsume, ju-nin zutsu mi-kumi ni wakachi, 
11 Mombuaho Seigen Kan-ji Jikko Sokushiu Kai " to kaita 6-hata wo seuto ni, 
kakuji ni mo doyo no moji wo shirushita ko-hata w r o fori-kazashi nagara 
tasuki wo kakete gyoretsu shi 6i ni senden wo shita. Toki-doki w r a fusen 
ni hata wo musubi-tsukete hanattari mo shita no de nigiyaka de atta. 

Notes. ° {J£ %£ SolcusJdn furtherance ; '{{ fif/ Senden propaganda. 

®Tiiis paragraph may be divided into 5 sentences which finish at the 
following words : de aru, atsume, wakachi, senden wo shita, atta. In the fiist 
sentence Kohugo-Chbsa Kai de kono aida kettei shita is a verbal phrase which 
qualifies seigen. Hodo shita tori de aru means literally ' is as we announced * 
i. c we confirm what we said a few days ago. This journalistic formula, 
hodo shita tori de aru (ja, is used, after repeating a piece of new r s previously 
given, as an introduction to an account of some now development or further 
details. 



172 JAPANESE READING FOIL BEGINNERS 

®The framework of the second sentence is: Jcono tame, Kan-ji Seigen 
Jikkb Kai de wa seito no yuslii wo atsumeta. The words : seigen no skid wo 
tetteitelri ni shiraseru are a development of kono tame, they are a verbal adjective 
which qualifies tame ; ju-san-nichi no gozen ku-ji Icara is the time ; ffibiya 
Icben ni is the place : shinai shbgalcu are details about the scholars. 

°Iu the third sentence ivalcachi comes from icalcotsu ; this verb is com- 
moner in the literary style : in colloquial you say walceru, past tense 
icaketa. 

® The fourth sentence is : Mombusho .... senden wo shita. Logically, the 
principal part of the sentence is the last bi ni senden wo shita and the 
general meaning is ' by doing this and that a great manifesto was presented.' 
Mombusho .... gybrelsu shi gives us details of the manifesto, viz. : fa) the 
big banner at the head Mombusho .... sentb ni (shite), and (b) the procession 
kakuji .... kakete. About this procession (b) we are given two particulars : 
the small flags which were waved kakuji .... nagara, and the s carfs worn 
tasuki ico kakete. Tasuki does not mean here the ordinary co r d used by 
housewives and servants when at work for girding up the sleeves, but a scarf 
worn over the shoulder and across the chest, baldric- wise. 

® M $d Fusen air-ship ; here, toy-balloon. 

HanattarL The frequentative is generally used in pairs, but some- 
times, as here, it is used singly. 



VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



173 



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SHGGAKKu no ensoku ni kega wo dashita. 

Insotsu Kundo ga Jisatsu. 

Sekinin-kan ni hakkyo shite no aware na rekishi. 

(Osaka denwa). Kyogetsu ni-ju-yokka Osaka-shi Nislii-ku Shikan-jima 
jinjo shogakko jido ga shugaku ryoko yori no kito, Han-Shin densha senro 
wo yokogiri, jukei shosha go-mei wo dashita ; told no insotsu-sha doko Mori 
kundo wa sekinin kannen no tamo seishin ni ijo wo kitashite ita ga, tsuitachi 
gogo yo-ji-han jitaku wo nukedashi, Han-Shin densha Nishi-no-miya Higashi- 
kuchi teiiyujo fukin no fumikiri de jisatsu wo togeta. 

Notes, ° This paragraph may be divided into 4 sentences which finish 
at the following words : dashita, kitashite ita, nukedashi, togeta. The frame- 
work of the first sentence is : gakkb jidb ga senro too yokogiri, shosha, ivo 
dashita. Time : Kyogetsu ni-ju-yokka ; details about the scholars : Osaka-shi 
.... shb-gakko ; circumstances : shugaku .... kito. Rip^ Han-Shin is an abbre- 
viation of ^cK /fity^ Osaka-Kobe: compare note on Kei-Hin, vol. II, p. 
115. Han-Shin densha qualifies senro ; jukei and go-mei give details about 
the wounded. 

® In the second sentence the framework is : Mori kundo tea seishin ni 
ijo ico kitashite ita. The first part of the sentence will be understood more 
easily if you supply the word sono thus : (sono) toki no insotsu-sha. 



174 



.JAPANESE KEAI)I\<i FOR BE UNNEBS 



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SEMPU NO BIKYO. 



Oboreta shojo wo sukuu. 

Toka gogo ichi-ji Kyobashi-ku Mizuya-cho Kamejima kashi de, yugi-chu 
no doku Okazaki-cho ni no go-ju-hachi Taguchi Kokichi san-jo Tsuru-ko 
(go-sai) wa totsuzen ka-chu ni tenraku shi dekishi shiyo to shite ita no wo 
tsuko-chu no fuka Omori-machi ternmasen sempu Murai Sangoro (ni-ju-roku) 
ga ratai to nari ka-chu ni tobi-komi sosaku no ue kyujo shi, Kitakonya-sho 
ni uttae deta no de kakari-kan shutchd, shojo wo fukin iin ni katsugi-komi, 
okyu teate wo liodokoshi, seimei wo tori-tometa ga, do seinen no koi wa 
hyosho so beki mono to shi, Ueda shocho wa Akaike sokan ni hyosho no 
joshin ni oyonda. 

Notes. ° This paragraph may be divided into 5 sentences which finish 
at the following words : kyujo shi, katsugi-komi, liodokoshi, tori-tometa, oyonda. 
The framework of the first sentence is as follows : Tsuru-ko ga tenraku shi, 
dekishi shiyo to shite ita no wo Murai Sangoro ga (Jiakken shi), ratai to nari, 
kachu ni tobi-komi, sosaku no ue kyujo shita. Time : Toka gogo ichi-ji ; place : 
Kyobashi-ku Mizuya-cho Kamejima-kashi de ; details about Tsuru-ko : yugi-chu 
.... go-sai ; details of the accident : totsuzen ka-chu ni ; details about Murai : 
tsuko-chu no fuka .... ni-ju-roku. Murai does three things : (a) he throws off 
his clothes ratai to nari, (b) he jumps into the water kachu ni tobi-komi, (c) 
he looked for and rescued the child sosaku no ue kyujo shita. Among the 
details about Tsuru-ko, ni no go-ju-hachi is an abbreviation of ni-chb-me go-ju- 
hachi-banchi ; san-jo means, third daughter. Among the details about Murai, 
\M- SS $o tewmasen nieans freight boat, barge ; ni-ju-roku is the boatman's age. 

® In t e second sentence supply shite after shutchd. 

© The fifth sentence is : do seinen .... oyonda. Here su beki is equivalent 
to the colloquial shi-nakereba nara-nai. Su is an inflexion of the verb sum 
used in the literay style. _t $ Joshin report. 



VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



17.1 



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NOGUCHI HAKASE NO HAKKEN YAKU. 

(Ju-yokka Nyu-Toku hatsu). Rokkufucra kenkyujo no Noguchi Eisei 
hakase \va, kt nkai Rokkii-san nosekizui-makuen to shoserareru dokuclm-gai wo 
men-eld to siira shin-yaku wo hakken shita ga, hakaso wa jitei ni tasu no Nip- 
pon- jin wo maneite, kore wo jintai ni chusha sureba, ichiji jiitai ni cchiiri, 
aniiwa Bhibd suru mono ga aru ka mo shire-nai ga, zelii jintai ni shiken 
shitai to tsugeta tokoro, ku-mei no kesshi obosha ga deta no de shiken wo 
hodokoshita, Migi kekka wa nesshin ni matareto iru. 

Notes. •This paragraph may be divided into 4 sentences which finish 

at the following words : hakken shita, maneite, hodokoshita, iru. The framework 

of the first sentence is : Noguchi Eisei hakase ica konkai shin-yaku loo hakken 

shita. Rokkufuera k°nk\fujo no are particulars about Noguchi ; Rokkii-san.. . . 

9Urtt a verbal phrase qualifying shin-yaku. 

•The third sentence is: kore wo jintai ni ... .hodokoshita. Although the 
words kore ivo jintai ni.. ..shitai are not between quotation marks, they are 
what was said by Noguchi. The framework of this sentence is :'....' to 
tsugeta tokoro, ku-mei no kesshi obosha ga deta no de shiken wo hodokoshita. 
Tokoro here has of course a meaning of time or circumstance, not of place. 
lohoeu here means to perform. Noguchi's words may be considered as 
co ns i sting of three parts: (a) after the injection the patient falls into a 
sous condition kore iuo . . . . ochiiri, (b) he may perhaps die amdica.... 
s/are-nai, (c) nevertheless it is most desirable that a trial on human beings 
should be made zehi .... shitai. 



17<; 



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KEIJO MIZU NI HITARU. 

Su-jitsu rai no dai-kou no tame, san-ju-ichi-nichi gogo ni natte, Keijo 
shinai shinsui slii, kiken kokkoku ni sematta do de, hiban junsa zembu shoshu, 
keikai ni dorjoku shi, hohei dai shichi-ju-shichi rentai yori mo shoko ika 
sam-byaku-rnei shutsudo shite, kakusho wo keibi shi, denshin denwa wa futsu to 
nari, densha no unten mata fukano to natta. Tsuitachi asa ni itari, Keijo 
shinai wa zembu shinsui shi, sanjo wo teishi, higai jindai no mikomi, mata 
O yokko mo zosui hanahadashiku, Shingishu shigai wa dakuryu ni tsutsumare, 
kiken kono ue mo naku, yubin kono hyaku-shi-jik-ko wa yuso fukano to 
nari, sono mama teitai shite iru. (Keijo ichi-jitsu tokuden). 

Notes. ° This paragraph may be divided into 11 sentences which finish 
at the following words : shinsui shi, shoshu {shi), doryoku shi, Iceibi shi, ?iari, 
natta, shinsui shi, teishi, mikomi {de aru), naku, shite iru. 

®The tenth sentence finishes with an adjective in the adverbial form, 
naku : see page 6 (f). The expression kiken kono ue mo nai is strongly 
emphatic, the danger cannot be greater than it is. 

® In the last sentence |f ^ 5 Kono means mail-bag. 



VOLUME 1U MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



177 



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MORAIKO-GOROSHI NO FDFU HOBAKU. 

(Chiba tokuden). Chiba-ken Ichikawa-machi no Oyama Choichi to tsuma 
Sada wa, rinson kara honnen shi-gatsu uroare no joji wo, kin hyaku-yen 
tsuki de morai-uketa ga, hajirne kara kane ga mokuteki datta tame, sono 
joji wo itjsuka no ake-gata ni assatsu slii, niwa ni umeta no "wo, hayaku mo 
sono suji kara hakken sare, tadachi ni inchi sareta : joji wa kaibo ni fushita. 
(Roku-gatsu toka). 

Notes. ° This paragraph may be divided into 4 sentences which iinish 
at the following words : morai-ulceta, hakken sare, sareta, fushita. 

®The second sentence is: hajime kara .... hakken sareta. The frame- 
work is : {kore wo) hayaku mo sono suji kara hakken sareta. Kore ico, viz, 
what the police discovered, was threefold : (a) from the beginning money 
was the sole object of these people hajime .... tame, (b) the child was crushed 
to death at dawn of the 5th sono joji . assatsu shi, (c) she was buried in the 
garden niwa ni umeta : these three clauses taken together may be considered 
as forming one complex verbal adjective which qualifies no; no has the 
meaning here of koto tilings, facts. 

•Compare Ake-gaia dawn, with Yu-gata evening. 



178 



JAPANSE BEADING FOB BEGINNEBS 



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DOSOKU WO KIN-ZU. 



TSUKO WO KIN-ZU. 



KITSU-EN WO KIN-ZU. 



EIGYO JIKAN. 

Gozen ku-ji yori 
Gogo san-ji ni itaru. 
Doyo shogo made. 

Notes. °We have here a few public notices : they are introduced as 
examples of a curious construction sometimes met with ; viz., the Japanese 
occasionally write a sentence in the Chinese order, although they read it in 
the Japanese order. To read it thus, they have to take the characters out 
of their turn, and sometimes supply postpositions or terminations. Thus the 
line *[§:fcj@, is read as if written iJE,^^-^ dosohu ivo kin-zu. Kin-zu is 
a literary-style inflexion of the verb kin-zuru. 

® This line is read as if written with g at the bottom. 

®This line is read as if written with ]g at the bottom, the particle ni 
must also be supplied. 



VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. (Appendix). j 7q 



APPENDIX I. 
List of Characters. 



The following list is based on a list published by the Mombusho in 
1923. We have, however, added some twenty characters of our own which 
aso consider indispensable or at least very useful. In doing this, it is not 
our intention to criticize the Mombusho list. The Mombusho may be right 
in saying that in future people should abstain from using characters like 

3c 5JC ^fc Z/f e ^ c * anc ^ * ua * they should use kana instead. That may 
be so ; but it is a fact that, up to now, these characters have been used 
freely everywhere (including the Mombusho text books), and it is probable 
that many will continue to use them in spite of the Mombusho's recommenda- 
tions. That is why we have included them in the list. 

As regards the form of the characters, we prefer as a rule the form 

most common in print. For instance, the Mombusho gives pg and as an 
abbreviation n^ ; now the only form to be found in most printing shops is 

*ffi , and this is the form we prefer. 

The sign A. placed against a cliaracter means that it was studied in 
the preceding volume : the sign O is placed against those characters we 
suggest should be studied at this present stage. 



180 



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VOLUME in. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



181 



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JAI'ANKSK IIKA1)IN"<; FOR Ill UN'NhllS 



m m 

m m 

m %■ 

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ft ft A 

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VOLUME IIL MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



im 



m wl° ff tit 

G R It 



o 



Kr ft* 
If 
ft* 

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1ft .j JAPANESE BEADING FOB BEGINNERS 

APPENDIX II. 

Phonetic relations between the Chinese readings 

of the same character. 

Most of the charactorslhave, theoretically at least, two or more CJiiuese 
readings, although in the great majority of cases only one is in ordinary 
use. In the case of those, in which two readings are common, it will be 
noted that theso readings are generally related to each other and that one 
may be deduced from the other by making certain definite changes which 
conform to six types. We have endeavoured to sho"w these phonetic rela- 
tions in the table given below. 

In the pairs of readings as shown there, we have no intention of 
suggesting that the 2nd is derived from the 1st any more than the 1st 
from the 2nd : and as far as the present study is concerned it is immaterial 
whether w r e consider , e. g. , ta as coming from tax by dropping the i, or tai 
as coming from ta by adding an i. 

Some of the relations are considered as kana relations, and some as 
roma-ji : thus, when the change chi to tsu is considered as merely a change 
of the i to u, that of course is on account of the kana table of sounds : on 
the other hand, when we speak of sha changing to sa by dropping the h, 
that is a roma-ji relation. 

We have placed within parenthesis those pairs in which two phonetic 
changes occur at the same time : thus in ko-go, we have 1st nigori, and 2nd 
a long 6 changing to a short o; in ryu-ru we have the dropping of the y 
and long u changing to short u ; etc. 

I. Closely related Consonants. (Nigori). 

k-g; ka-ga ^; kai-gai ffi; kaku-gaku |gj; ken-gen jg|; ko-go pj|:J 

s-z sai-zai }$; san-zan '|J>; shi-ji ^X M. ^ §; shin-jin f$; shu-ju ]'$ 

-fj; shb-jb _h; so-zo fff"; JJg"; son-zon ifc- 
t-d tai-dai -& ^ jf ; ta-da gfc tan-dan g£; chl-ji j& f& ; ten-den f$ 

J$c ; to-do ± ; to-do {£!) jj$ ; toku-doku Iff 
h-b liaku-baku {% ; han-ban {$ S >' fu-bu ^ ; fufsu-butsu f,'|; ; fun-bun 

ft J ho-bo $ 



VOLUME HI. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. (Appendix) ^5 

II. Long and Short Vowel. 

u-u fu-fu g A ; shu-shu {£ #J ffo [shu-ju Jjfc] ; yu-yu \\\ \\\\ M Sfflf 
o-o Uhio %£ : Jw-lio fg ; [bd-lio j$(] ; [fo-gro ;fg] 

III. Letter dropped. 

i tai-ta -J^; [tai-da ft] ; &< ^fj ; sei-se •{£ %■ 

y kyaku-kaku '£. $JJ; [byaku-Jtaku £]]; [?/i2-m ;£" ^ff ; Icyu-ku {KJL'&'i 

ryu-ru ££ fft] ; fyo-fo Jg fi|. J£ f£ ; tf?/o-(/o ® ; %0-fo jg. ^; 

g^o-gro H ; [fyo-<7° US 165 J <72/o-&o fl] ff ] ; ryoku-roku & 
h s/<a-sa g? © #> U} ; s/^-sw ^ ^ ^1 "g* ; sta-sw ^ ; [sJiu-su : $\\] ; 

sho-so ff{ ; shoku-soku $3 ; [shoku-zoku Jg tgS |j|] ; ,9^5-so Jff 3c ffl ; 

[shd-zo ^ it! 
k ^6-6 l' £ \ iiV ; kaku-kb §£ ; baku-bo H; [a&w-o ^ ; saku-so @j£ ; cJiaku- 

c h° ;§•] '■> shuku-shu jjj£. 

IV. Simple Vowel changes. 

a-e ka-ke ty^ Jfc f[£ ^ 3g ; [ia-gf« T" ; kai-ke g? f g; ; </ai-(/e ^f- ; A:ai-^e 

#?] ; kan-ken % f£ f p ^ ; gan-gen jq |UJ ; [kan-gen gf ] ; gatsu-getsu ft ; 

sai-sei jJlj ^f ; [zai-sei^]] ; satsu-setsu %£ ; san-sen \[\ ; £ai-fei ^ f§J ; 

[cZoi-fei #> ^ Jg] ; rat-rei jpS K 
a-o ka-ko \\$ fgf ; kaku-koku -%£ ; katsu-kotsu ffi ; gan-gon ^ ; [cfatt-£cw 

H)]; lan-hon $fc jgj§ ; ran-ron gjL 
i-u ichi-itsu — 2? *S ; kichi-kitsu "§ ; sechi-setsit @j ; hachi-hatsu $£ ; 

bachi-batsu fi] ; ricJd-ritsu fj£ 
i-o i?i-o?i ^ff ; Ari-fco Q, ; [H-(70 JUj] ; kin-Jem ^£ ^ ^ > kitsu-Jcotsu fc ;ji-jo 

[ij> ; riku-roku f$e 
e-o erc-o?i @ £ g£ ; Jcen-km £ll Jit J gen-gon jg a" ; [ken-gon ;fjg ] 
o-u o-ii ff; ; orc-?m ^ ; so-sz* §fc ; fo-tew ^|5 ; [^0-2?^ ^] ; [7io-6w ^>] 
o-u A0-/2 ^ ; t-yd-ryu ff-g ; [s/io^w #£ SJ ; cAa^ti $:] 

5-u leb-ku x a R *r & P ; |/^o-^ 90 1 [*o-ft« « ¥; »iio^« ■; 



186 



JAPANESE BEADING FOE BEGINNEES 



V. Loosely related Consonants. 

b-m hai-mai |I|; ; [bei-mai Jfe] ; baku-maku %, ; batsu-matsu yfc, ban-man 
$5 ; bi-mi 5fc fifc §| M 5 bu-mu S£ ; $J ; io-mo gg flj ; (d-oid £ 

JS ^ > [66-mw jp£] ; boku-moku ft [=! j§£ ; botsu-motsu f£ ; \}misu- 
motsu 6fy~] ; byb-myb "gf JB 5 [fta-me ^ ; bun-mon g|J j£] 

j-n jtat H jg, i£ ja ; j«wimi AtS; jo-ny© & in ; [jitsu-nkH 0] 

d-n dai-nai fa ; dan-nan j§ ; do-no |ft ; [do-nu jR; Jg ] 

VI- Complex Vowel changes, 
-ei-yo fco-fci/o MlP^IItl; ^-0^6 sffi ; [itt-^o Jg] ; sei-sM 

[tei-jo jj£]; hei-hyo j£^J [hei-byo fj*j]; mei-myo & ifr tift ; rei-ryo 

♦ s 

-eki-yaku eki-yaku $C J geki-gyaku Jj£ ; seki-shaku R. 5 ^ # # ; fe&i- 
iki-yoku sJiiki-shoku g, jfjg ; [jiki-shoku ^] ; riki-ryoku jj ; [jiki-choku [ft] 



VOLUME ni. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. (Appendix). j^; 



APPENDIX III. 

Chinese readings of characters which have the same 
written phonetic element- 



When tho readings of the characters in a series are not all the same 
it often happens that they are related liko the readings studied in Ap- 
pendix n. 

Z: H ji, nil }&ji> »j tljin, nin. See ^c 

+ + J a ; iY J a ; $t shin ; ft &«. 

I] See m $) ffiij |5 fllj 
~X T *»j c^6; JJJ cW; PTf c7*o ; |X tei; gj fe&; ^ tei; f§C fei; fl* da, c ^. 

r See £i is 

~fj x$ kd; ^ kd; #j kyu. See ^f. 

-^ See JS g E ^ t 

4; -fc «/ttc7ii ; Bfc sJdtsu. See -yj 

JL #L ** 5 fl H. See /L 

A ^L tyfii fa»; *% tyu; fa kyu; ^g feyfi; f[ 7a. 

X X kd, ku ; 3}j ko, ku; jf ko , ku; $£ Jed, ku ; V] kb ; Jjr Jed ; JJj Jed ; 

\L kd; ££ kd ; ^ &w. See ^ 
dt dr «W; jg tWj g£ «fe'; /j± s7*i. See "g #fc 
± ± to, do ; 14 to ; JSfc do. See * M g ^ ffl: gfc ^ * Is 
t £ ^o, 7?i6 ; /j£ oo, mo ; gg 66, mo ; fff mo ; ^J md ; ft; bo ; 'ffc kd. 
\\\ ill san, sen ; $\ sen. 
P p Jed, ku; ft) Jeu; #j &o. See }D A * 5 fi p *T W] 5i g S" Zx 

* El l*J S ® * 5 S « -* * J£ ft S # «f « ^ « # S S 

H B # * * 

^f flj fain; ff fom; Jff fain; ^ £arc; $£ Jean; j=jfc r/«?* ; ijip fcen. See fol- 
lowing 
^ ^ u ; ^ u . See preceding, 
-vf -*J- mm; jft son; & son; ft A»; f} fat ; $} fto. See ff \j'- ^ # £ 

Bt w * 



188 



-i \VA\Ksr: ki:\i.iv; Km bkgin'NERS 



;J "jf sai ; >fvj* 2a i ; J|>j- .sai, zai. 

r[J See ,If </iY «. 

F Sco Ivl «: jg 1. 

•j<i -j^ (ai, dai ; ^C ia>i> t a '■> Sc t a > da. See ^ -£L •§■ j^L 

& See # 'Jt .ft £ ft X 

3t ± y° .• tt y«. 

^1 ^ «/» ; ^ shi ; ^ bb., 

B cl H, &o; g 7a; fa H; ffi &»; jig H; #£ M'> 02 &w« 

^j f£ talzu ; J£ fato ; ^ ^a/^w. 

-Hi -Hi ?/« ; ffi ^ ; Mi c ^*j y* ; vili *' ; $Sl c ^- 

/L jL &0>i ; ijH ^aw. See JL. 

/M /]> s/*6; f? shb ; fg s7*o ; f£} s7*6 ; j£ s7*o ; ff s/to ; ^ sAo; ^jo; §70; 

'}?) "m to > M t° 1 !±£i do ; gl] saku ; ']? shb ; ^ sei, slid ; g|? s7^6 ; f<J? sa, sAa ; gp 

sa, sha ; ]$} sa, slia ; ^ ya&w ; #j? myb ; g? fo/o ; ^ retsu. See ^ 4& £f 

"ra" ^ W #£■ ;» 

^C ^C io, nyo ; fa 3°> n V°- See id 3: ^c 4g 

^ 3r Iff: wiw ; jjtB m '^ > Ifi c/^i?z ; g5 in. See ££ 

Jh it sAi; jjfc s7ii; iHt s^i; §& sA*; g} sJii ; ^ H; gf fe'; ^ &o, 6w; -f|- jfeo; 

^ sai. See J£. 

S S {/o ; |f (/o ; f§ </o. See ^. 

KI Kl ^o ; J& ^6 ; flfe) %o. 



SeeJ.gif»igfl4£aBltt#»**S» 



I S'f w 



Jf JT ^ w > ^E ^' in i k° n i W hi ; 0f s^o. See fjf, JJf 

4" 4 1 c 7izi ; ^ c7iz2 ; ffi cliu ; yt(j c7^ ; \& chu. 

^ ^ ho ; §$ ho; J| Ao ; ^ Ao ; jg| 720 ; ^ ho. 

Jt J\- shb ; ^ shb. 



VOLUME Ul MORE 0HIN~E3E CHARACTERS. (Appendix). 



189 



Jf }ffj hei ; '','] kci ; If; Iri, gyo ; [}\] kcd. 

^ £fr kin, Icon; J /p kin; i^ grin; ^ j/a/i ; £; rao*. 

-T* J$ y° ; H >/° ; J¥ jo ; IF 2/ a - s °° ^ 

3d 1 SF 9« ; !l 9" i 8 s 9<* ; 315 /a ; £ 5ew - 

H See HJJ IM ff H «l ft # « 

l^j i^j not, dat ; #fi no, (2d. 

fp Sou /Jn 

H p ko; |g fco; M5 fe>J JW «fo; 1H few. See J[jJ || 

UJ -lyj aefeu ; $} seta*. 

4> # fin, bun; ffrfun; ffifun; jg fawi; g" to; 3£ &on. 

-Jj -Jj ho ; ft ho : JS no ; Jy no ; $ &6 , U ; #/ Z><5 ; ij] bd ; fcjjj bo ; ft bo ; 

66 &o. 

^j jg &ofo< ; 9fo Imtsu , motsu. See |J J| <g 

^ pJc ••* ; $c *»*« 

JK JK 8d ; ^ «5 ; j$ jo- 

^ JZ ten ; jjj| fen ; § ^°^« 

* * A ; ik fu. 

^ jfc 7:efe?j ; ft fce&K ; {fc kai ; |fe &ei. 

* See * * * « * « * * * $1 

* See jft ft # ft ft- 
« «/«; HA See $ 

Jj[ K han ; ifji lean ; g£ 7*a?i ; >g£ 7*an ; Jg ^an ; gg 7ian ; IK /^a^ ; 3£ ^m. 

^C t£ 7vafew ; -§| haisu. 

5c 3c shi ; ft * ; ffe ?»• 

X & kfi ; n /i ^ ; Si hyii. 

#_ lC bun, man ; ££ &wj ; gf mow. 

ft it *; tt «*«• 

Jc See ^ ft 3ft * S « ft M » jR 

-ft ft A-a, fa ; ^ Jca ; ffi Iba ; fd 7ra. 

Jt tt «J fit »»• 

l ti 'lift ton ; £i(j "'^7. . ^jg juii. 



.190 



JAPANKSK KKAIilM; FOR BEGINNERS 



<& 

6 B. 

JE 

at 

Jl 
E 

in 



•6 

PI 



a 
w 



#l &6 ; IS ^ ; At fc& 

^ /a; ft &• 

/p/w; § Ai ; fa hai. 
See j£, ft 

^ 7co ; jfc s/i6 ; gl slio ; || 5. 

B. ^an ; ^H tow ; jj cZa?i ; j|[ sew. Do not confound with J^, a mis 

take often made even in printing. 

HE sa ; {ii sa. See ^ 

± sAw, sw ; \$L ju\ '££ c/iw ; tt c ^ '■> S£ c ^ J Si c ^- 

^ sei, s7*o; ^ sei, slid; f^£ 5 ^> s ^o ; ft set; g, set; $$ sei; |g .saw. 

j£ sei, slid ; jgfc sei» s ^ I ffi 5e ^ j S sei# > ffi s ^o. 

3£ ritsu, ryu ; *£ ritew, r?/£ ; $£ r?/£ ; fit %£ ; {£ i. See ^ 3c ilr ^fe II 

ffi s <> ; 8«o; SL so ; ffl so ; 3£ «« J S8 >. See g. Do not confound 

B. "with J3 , a mistake often made even in printing. 

See £ 

E &2/o ; ffi %o; gg Jcyo. 

[ij sJiutsu ; Jjj sefew. 

■g- &om; jf-jf 7co?z. See :jj£ 

* &o; jfc &o; #£ Jeo; ft &o ; $J &o; Jg A^o, &o ; gj &o ; JB fco, £a; ff 

&o, Tea; ^ &w. See jg 

:g s7zo; $J sAo; fij slid; % shb ; g s7*o ; ® c7w. 

?S en 'y In «*; AS S0W - 

Q 7ia^, 7>2/a^?« ; /[£ 7^a^ ; J@ 7«a^ ; $J 7ia^w ; ^& hahu ; fg 7<a^w, 7^o ■ 

S hyalcu. See ^p ^ ^ % D! 

H rfe/i; J3 daw, wa/i ; g rai; g i; ^r ban; WJ clid ; jgft sai; JB »W; 

1 rri, See ^"@ $g||iif 

A yw, y«; ^ ?/z2 , yu; ^ sAw ; |J cto ; jpA JftfeH ; ffi feAri. 



VOLUME III MORE CHINESE OHA&AOTEB& (Appendixj 



191 



m See £ R. 

^ ftr oaJbti ; l\] : . saJeu ; £j£ sa£w ; jfj£ $a. 

^ ^ rei, ryo; ft m; g§ m; |J rcij ^p ?-ei; v j{ ryo. 

zp. 2p /je/, ftyo ; f^- 7i?/6 ; i^p 7jei ; ^ 6m. 

/J> 4> fait; flj Aarc; #£ hart; f$ Aa»; IB'f to. 

Ep tp ko; diqi fco; Jqi 6. 

pJ pJ Ara ; jpj £a ; $j ka ; JnJ ka ; Sffc &a ; See tif 

^ gc W m; H wzf. See ^f- 

# #>; »/*; #A; *A; KA- 

Tfi TlT «Wj ift sJd; jfffj sJd; jjffr Aa& 

£■ ^ cAua ; |£ sJrin. 

J$ y?j dai, tei ; J$ dot, iei \ t$ tei • 

life \9b fut* 11 * hutsu; ffi futsu ; ffi futsu; j| At. 

£v JR *a; ffi fco; H fco. 

;7v) ife shitsu; ffc chitsu; <fe nldtsu; jfifc sJiitsu; f£ *7tt';£p c/a; ^ c/ii ; gc 

^) tetsu. See ^. 

?fc ?fc mi, hi ; £fc mi ; &fc rac«. 

7K tK. el; $jc ei; §|e «. 

JE /E s/ <° ; H *o ; ft so ; ffi se <*- 

ft & do, »«J £ do, nu; -$$ do. 

Bl Si J*> tfi ** ; Sc *• ; S ^ ; : & ha ; ffiJ /^- 

^ X£ 7ni7i ; gg min. 

7ft % ,/wfeM ; jlju juts a. 

t #t da, K *»i /a. 

^t ffi en\ jfc en\ %i en; yfc ican. 

ill €1 /io, Jfc *©; ffl *6; )j(3 Ao. 



192 



JAPANESE BEADING FOB UEU1NNEBS. 



3£ 

■J;- 

6 m 

B 






3d /^ kyb ; St /."'/', /.7/0 ; 55 feyo; 32 &A5, ehuku. See fa 
^ A"2/o ; 1i- ifeyo ; i;[] fcya&M ; j]j.)l fcyaAjtt ; j£ ho. 

M 5 ^i K c ^'j ^ shitsu; ^ claim; JjJ £6; {$J Id. Sen g 



1 1 



kichi, Jcitsu ; jjj H£s?£ ; £5 A:efe?^. See )/,] A- 






£ 



5 ze/sw ; fig lcatsu ; #J /cafew ; jg ?m. 

Jfc kaku ; Ifc Icalcu ; *g: kaku, kyaku ; %$ kaku, cjaku ; fljg. r?/a7az ; £ft ra7j>* ; 

$£. ra&w. See ]?g- 

g 4 sAi; j|g shi; fg 1 M. 

fg] Am ; $0 ^ai. 

gj iVi ; P0 tra ; #@ in ; ,g on. 

JfL so ; l^C so. 

:£ 2/5 ; f$ yd; §| ?/o'; ^g 2/6 ; p 5A0 ; ii$ sen. Gee g ^ 

^ ritsu ; |g 7«'£sw. See |j| 

jH»| 67m ; gfl shu ; gjf| s/i?2. 

^P fii 9# i* ; ££ i* ; 11? ^ ; l# s ^' ; # ^ ; # fo&^'; ^ to. 

^ shu ; Iff shu. 

jp] do: §$ do; S do ; jj$ to; fgj to; Jgj. &6. 

See fj* 

^ i^ ; %j jun. 

ff &o; £| &o. See ~fj. 

^C yi ; g£ sAi. 

^ ken ; ^ A:ezi , kan ; 5f> ken. 

^ bei , mai ; ^ rnei. 

Jfc. shu ; ^ shu ; ^ s/m ; J^ s/zw ; |^ c/iw. 

jjjlj shi , seki ; jf? saku. 

"& i, e; i& i. 

Jg A:o?^ ; fi£ A:ow ; fg Z:on ; ^g Aron ; HI r/ari ; $& ^w ; Pfi 17 e ^ J S ^ al> - 

See g. 

^ kb; %}} kb; % kb ; j& kb ; %& kb ; 1$£ kb , kaku. 



VOLUME III. MORE CHINESE OHABAOTEBS (Appendix). 



103 



HI: 



> ! * * ,* * 






* 



tfr 



m 

m 

fir 
ft 






]£ r» ; feli *^i« See 3£ 

ft mi; 3$ act; $ sot; ft te>. 

3£ 5C7i; gfc sen. 

£ jtB ; Jit /fl ; fefc /o. 

jfe cA5 ; (ft cAo ; ft /6; j| to. 

5R em; £ «n; ^ an. 

@ Are/ ; fg Art ; |g Ari ; g fcet , Jfeyo- 

i\t w ; 3£ 56 , s/io ; #£ 50 , 5^0. 

Afe za; JM za. 

Ig fei; jg tej. 

ill ri ; F& ri ; g| r* ; j£ W ; Jf§ rin ; g! mat. 

S to ; zu; SJ /6 , zu; & to; %$ to; ® *6 ; 



tfo ; §§ 57w ; 



?*'; -m 






icld. 



J\ km; f$ gun; ffj gun. Sec ^V 
Spo & • & 

•^ A'oZrw ; ffft feofca ; 3^ 20. 
See 5£ 

£L jba&tt; Qfc yoku; $$ yoku; $r yoku; #> zoAw; |§ 2/^. See ^ 
JJf sefe« ; f| sei. 
See ^ 

See If $Tf jgt. 
$|J ri; 3ft ri. 

15 2/" ; ffj //" ; ML w ; ft! k« ; Uifi 5/ ^ ; H v°- 

ffi Ao ; rfi Ao ; ffl /io ; $£ /«. See ^L 

ig A:o ; <# ho ; fg &o ; rg ao ; ^ (76. 

@ TTiai ; #£ iai ; #£ Am" ; j/$ Icai ; $i| Zw ; |g[ fo*7i ; §J 7<a>i. 

$£ A*?/o; [1$ fcyo; $* %6. 

£: 90; ft c/o; #J <7°- 

iX : feo ; §g £6 ; Pg| fco. 

flj Ao , ho ; J| ^ r ^- 

i\l 8ohi ; 3^ -so^ ; jgfj rhoJcu. 

;]*; %fi ; ft ^yfi ; ^<R ty«- 



I'M 



JAPANESE READING FOB l)E 



8 



a. 



51 



n 






M 
4* 



5ft 



4nT- 

TITTT. 



Jg 6'Am ; jg shin ; ^ .s/u'/i ; J5 vAm. 

S H/6 ; flft ro ; ffig ro ; flJJ ro ; & ro ; $C ro ; & /o , /•', , g vfofci. 

Sec 11. 

JB, so&« ; ffi so/cw. See ]$• 

ft shin ; jg s/iiw ; j§| -sAm. 

(^ sA?m ; g§ sa ^- 

BE &6 ; @» £6 ; {g* ben , fttn. See }£ 

££ fei; ft fei; g| tel 

?fe </« 5 fflfe # a - See ^ 

flc sei > 3~° ; 58 ^ ; M «» ; M j°- 

jfc da; fijfc datsu ; $fc etsu ; gg ci ; fft sefew , sei ; |£ gci. 
^L fa; %% ken; 5% gen; Jg &»; jjjg sH. 
fg, wew ; ^ £ew ; 0#> fcm ; j$| ichi , tfew. 
^fc jfeyo ; ^ fo/6 ; #fc kyb , &« ; g£ k° i *# *o J H *• 
^ 6at; jg 5ai; J bai; jjfc Aai. See also filf M fi H ft §£ 
^ Arei ; {^ to* ; $£ ken ; jg 7je?z ; |g soft- 
er 2/o; ^ yo; ®jo; ^Jo; &jo 9 fii J£ to; f| to; ft sAa. 
^ seK , shaku ijjfc sha. 
IS sm ; |g| sui ; §[$ 2/z2. 
3fc hei : ^ fu ; |f >. 

fi </*; IS gi; H. sen. 

^ Oft ehoku , ^iH ; ffi sAo&w ; JE cAi. 

# #£ swi ; ft sui; $£ i ; fi cAi ; Hg n ; % shu ; ^ sAi/i. See | 1 | 

J3 S kutsu; jg kutsu; $g Wsm. 

^ sAa; ^ sAa. 

j§ Z?ai; jg- to; pg 6ai; §JS. ^^^ 

See /\\ 

*£ kan; ff A*a^; fig A*aw; § feau. 

^ sho; ^ shb; P^ s/«o. 

See •£ 



1=3 



*5i 






VOLUME III. MOKE OHINEiE OHABAOTEBS. (Appendii). 



19? 






n/] 

an 



TO 

41 



* 
& 



K 
JR 

5 






j£ sofe?* ; fi£ eat ; ff net ; f-ft: m. 

JR fet, to; {ft Mi; Igf Aet; ft Aet. 

$ A 5 ; £ ho ; H Ad ; jfc fto ; Jgf ^ ei * I $ 5 ^- 

^ W; ft K; W- *«•; # hai\ !g flat; p tot. 

M aft ; © »e*. 

-ft fct; Jffi fct; H &J ''? **■ 

P 1 ] ??io;i ; Po 1 ] ?rton ; Sen f t |] 

li]] met , myo ; 5£ met. 

JJI] to; $ ho. 

|!/ .sr/ , s/to ; ff§ set; fj*f sft, eAo; 

tt rcrt; fjjjr n»; $& rtn. 

|53 *6; Hi] ho, go; #3 &6; | 

)/,] shu ; jg s/w ; |,^ c/^o ; n' 1 ' 

See 13 ; ft. 

^J i , elbt ; j}§ •&*• Sec 

8 *»; 2? rvi - 

# sal; ££ sal; ?g eat. 

ill <o; fljjLto\ $« to. 

vfe e?i ; $| ta>j ; J£ cZara. 

& ryoJex , roku ; ££ ro/jw. 

g c/io ; ifj| c/id" ; jjg did. 

ft tyo ; 4fe hyb\ 

§£ £ew ; '££ ^en ; $K &tw : } ff jin. 

U sJiU : ffi 6>/ < w - 

^ eAtf&u ; 3# efai&ti ; ? /^ tafct*. 



led, 

to ; iIIjjJ c/io. 



E3L 



$j£ mttew ; ^ mils". 
Tj& en ; |g taw. 



•et , s/io ; jtj sei , 57/o ; JJp se/ , /6 ; 



1!k; 



JAPANESE BEADING FOR BEGINNERS. 



9 



St 






3c 



y< 






,i/. .-ft. 





?jg W» ; ££ ««« ; flg sen ; Jg zan. 

•it H; JW H, r/o; 3£ /a; >fjf hi; M Kj Jft grt; £ pa 

>;c &ei , %5 ; ft *» j } M ei ; Sc n/o ; is ryo. See st 

>K ,s 'o 5 ill- 5 7jw J s u \ 6 '0. 
3c s h° > t$c sctsu. 
^ oku ; JJ «7cn. 

fl| rc5; JJg no- 

IS 2/o ; 3g 2/o ; f£ ?/6. 

^ selci, shahu ; *fg- se7a ; |^ se7a ; f[J- shalcu. 

^f on , in; Ifg an. See 3f£ ; jf; ; ^g. 






eei 

•da- 
ta 



# 



If 
1 



* 



0. 



^ sha ; ^ s//a ; ^ s/^a ; fg" s7*o ; ^ s7*o ; 

c/za^. 

•^ feat; p§ hai. 

$B so , 57z6 • jg so ; H so ; £g so. 

glj fulcu ; jjig /^ ; i@ /^^ ; IS /a. 
g 6?/o, 7/?2/o ; $fi byd, myo. 
\%l ^ ; @ * j ^ * j [3] *• 
^f ann ; 31 nn ; #j| H. 
^L 7m; ($ 7w; /}$ to', 
ffj sen; jratT sen. 
£l] soJcu; $|J so&n; $1] soJcu. 
See T- 

aa ; fff da ; g§ mi ; $| sm*. 

^ PR % ■ i 

M te*\ Hi h®i\ g 7*en. 

I^f nan; jfjg na??. 

fg &a ; j@ A-a ; gjj Z-a. 

S gu ; IB srw ; ppj gu ; il ^ • 

S io ; ^r to; Wi c/«o ; ^ yo ; ff ?/o ; fg s//6. See ^ 



§ 7/o ; j$§~ s7/o , c7io ; ^ c7zo , 






VOI.I mi: CD MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. Appendix). 



10' 



* 

it 



i r 



R 



2t 



s 



$? «W» ; Wt shin ; |g ffAtn. 
£ ^o ; K M ; fit fiat ; & fat. 
Ml ren ; j£ ren ; f$ fan. 

8k dte ; ££ *&*• 

!)i sen ; |g se>* ; 8ft sen. 

il- ~ (i ; IS dai ; #£ fct , dai ; j£ fe». 

fl5 ha ; BE2 fa ; f£ fa. 

da; JK to- 
PJ fern, aVm ; gj ta 

& Jt ; Uv jt , *At ; fig .//. 

ft 1ft y* ; • y* ; Si >y*- 

g? ^! : yo; K- y°- 
# ft w ; £4 so. 

ft yo; .& yo. 

"; g et; 5> m 
|:.|i /in ; gg cfttn. 
8} »Aa ; M *&*• 

fj /jafa ; f$l haku ; $g flafa ; yg &o- See J]J 
'j'j- hoisu ; jfj- /jofew , I'otfni. 
See ^ 
'lir tot I A tot. 

£ A'o ; gg fro ; lift to ; jjg fco. 
g§ 6a , rue ; £| 6a. 

ft St t«i ; 4K *«■ ; Ml *»» ; HE *« ; SI ren ' 
S { ''; '''< ; iS 0/ . oh • Kil <v/ . on. 



m 

7»f 



it 



V 



Pi ffli 



K 



H)8 



JAPANESE READING COB BEGINNERS, 






© 



® 






j& han ; $£ /;aw, Aara. 

jft sZtt'w; Jjij; r;7tt'w; j)|g to. 

M ^; K| cw; £1 sow. 

JSC <7^ ; iR g«» ; KB oaw. 
& fST ^ ; Sf m. 
11 M M tin; tl Hw; jjf fcinj || 7aw. 
Ha E &k," |pi fcw; it o; fig sz2. 

S ® ^a/jw; $| &a&?^. 
fii shuku; |g slmku. 
3§E san ; J| saw. 
it ryo; ^ ryo; j£ m; ]f fit. 

$jf &»»; ®f *ew- 

M gyo, go; fg) ot/o. 
^ swo; g s/io. 

It *; St *. 

3f s7*6; 5| s7w. 

If: sew ; H fcw ; flf dew, ten ; [U aaw , ton. 

®C fcK; fig feH; $ feH; 3jg feH; £jjjj fefci, c7za&w. 

J| saw; fig san, zan; %£ san. 

See £ 

W) W] do', Wl do. 

M M bo; ^ bo; M bo; ^ bo; , 

H jjjfc tow; f| waw; g| 7ta£. 

M ® few; WL ten, den. 

tfc #£ slio , jfc ; ^ slid , ,/w. 

§ 'H? Twaw; £f| ?waw; |j maw. 

iS3l *£ ^w ; jH Tew. 

Ofo ma; ^ ma; $& ma; Jjjg rwa. 

*£ 7cei, %6; g| kyb. 

R Jf se ^' ; 9f se ki ; Hf seki ; g- seki ; fi( sal 
Jt jf han ; ff[ ban ; Jf jzfew. 



**? 



^ 



^ 
^ 



£o , two ; g| Z>a&w ; gj| malcu ; M maku. 



m 



5h 



VOLUME HI. MORE CHINESE CHARACTERS. (Appendix). 



19i> 



fli & py©; ft .'/#<>• 

2 5£ 9 ze?i ; fg ten ; zen. 

ft* ft so ; fS* so ; J3- so ; Jiff so , 26 ; tQ" 80. See -gr 

If iff sd; : S so. 

§ IS sa? * i iff * *■ 

3J # taw ; gjg J,an , f<on. 

" ^l 1^ tan; flf? fern ; Jf <ta?i ; 1$ sen. 

TJ] FhJ km; fgf fan. 

IB ffl cAo; i® e^o. 

8 i% • ; fS g»- 

|R Jg reKj IJJ reH. 

^ H «fto, 8»j ^ sho, zd; JjJ ?/o. 

$$■ S£ ZiateM ; Jff 7iai. 

®C Si A-an ; jg gen , (7071. 

IK <ft hei; ^ fta. 

b£ ® sholtU fjjfc s/io/j?^ , sAi'/a ; f§£ shilci. 

M M hi; m K. 

jfcfc St sJiu , /« ; gt shu. 

K S *o» 0; fif 6; |g A-6; Uf A-6; {J fcafca. 

^ fi£ »^o ; |R ?v/6" ; $ rye. 

J& JI§ to^; JJ ton. 

5ft & ro; J& ro. 

^ & kai, e ; ffi kai , e ; 1ffi £ai. See -g* 

^ ^ #a&tt; jg fcafcu. 

• ® tyo , gro ; ^g fcyo. 

^ 3? fo&ft ; ^ /a&w ; pp 2/a&w ; ^1 stolen, selci ; g£ sH« 

lo $§ s/iotz^ ; #| sJiolcu ; ® ^°^ J ffi dalcu. See /g 

H ttt «o; $£ so. 



.3 



'200 



JAPANESE READING FOR REGIS 



tk * ^ ; at «o- 

i£i lit c/o; 5$ do. 

JliL H ?/o ; # ?/o ; Ml 2/0 ; ^ Icyo. 

1% 9t >^ ; If fun. 

M It ■«'; H oA;m; I® o&w; tg ohu. 

a Hg 2/0 ; IS 2/«^- 

$f 5f sat, set ; gf sai ; ^ sai ; ^1) zai. 

W mj u ', ft? dm. 

ft ft did ; m cho. 

gf % Jdn; }j[ hin. 

ft HI ■*»; IS cw- 

15 U| Jg ra&w, </a^; gg yaJcu. 



14 



3£ 



HJ kan ; |^* Araw ; |f| 7m/i ; g| A'cm ; |J| &e/i , gon. 

$g zo; $g «5. 

HI reft ; H§ 7te?z ; jfgt oa/i ; ?if lean. 

J§ 20/cw, s/zo&w ; Pjj zoku, sJioku. 






HI « Sf * 



c<fe # m3 



PPM* ^mrTTflWl£ffi«#TNr3E-H'M 



r 
ft 



5H* 112 "c» 

Tr w m Tft 

)\\ m m 






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CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

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537 

R6 

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