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EARLY MIGRATIONS. 



Japanese Wrecks 

STKANDED AND PICKED UP ADRIFT 

IN THE 

NOETH PACIFIC 

OCEAN, 

ETHNOLOGICALLY CONSIDERED. 

)J7 



? 



CHARLES WOLCOTTi BROOKS. 



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"^^oH 't 



SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA: 
Re-printed from the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 
1876. 




OUTLINE MAP OF THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN, 

Showing the Distribution of Disabled Japanese Junks by Winds and Currents; also Direction of the Kuro Shiwo, or Japanese Warm Stream, 

as corrected by the Observations and Investigations of Professor George Davidson, U. S. C. S. 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 




+ OAPANESE: WRECKS. 



o 



Showing the Distribution of Disi 
as corpecl 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



JAPANESE WRECKS, 

STRANDED AND PICKED UP ADRIFT 

IN THE 

NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN, 

ETHNOLOGICALLY CONSIDERED, 

AS 

Fian-iish.in.g Evidence of a constant infusion, of ?Japan.ese 

lilood among the (Joast 1'ribes of Northwestern 

Indians. 



CHARLES WOLCOTT BROOKS, 

Member of the California Academy of Sciences; Ex-Consul of Japan for California 
and Attach^ of the Japanese Embassy to fifteen Treaty Powers, 1871-72-73. 



Read before the California Academy of Sciences, at their Meeting, 
March 1st, 1875. 



SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA: 
Printed by the Academy. 

187C. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



Lr-^-- 



m 



INTRODUCTION. an™rop 

LIBRARY 



As nature is a mechanism whose parts are intimately associated, so all vork 
has its co-laborers. I am indebted to many kind friends for their co-oper- 
ation and assistance in verifying the particulars of individual cases. The 
collection, as a whole, is entirely my own, and has been progressing since 
March, 1853, when at sea off the coast of Japan I first fell in with the water- 
logged wreck of a junk. 

In issuing this reprint of a paper published in the Proceedings of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences, no one can be more aware than myself, of how 
much is left undone; but I must in frankness say, that thus far the collection 
of exact particulars has involved a voluminous correspondence, and been in- 
dustriously prosecuted, in spite of great difficulties, (often of distance); and 
had 1 awaited to obtain perfect completeness, this publication would have 
been indefinitely postponed. 

By calling attention to material already in hand, I hope other cases may be 
b'ought to light, and thus a chain of evidence become established, which 
shall point to hidden laws, underlying the ethnological as well as physical 
conditions here presented. 

With each step in the progress of these investigations, I have been deeply 
impressed how largely this list is capable of being increased, by studious and 
systematic search through all the ancient literature, relating to countries 
whose shores are washed by the North Pacific Ocean. 

In the aim to exercise especial care, where partial discrepancies were found 
to exist, the version which, after diligent examination, appears to me 
most reliable, has been adopted. Keports of Japanese wrecks not here enum- 
erated, or any well authenticated corrections to this list, will, if addressed to 
Chakles Wolcott Brooks, care of Japanese Consulate, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, be thankfully received, and posted in the official record book, access- 
ible to all for future reference. 

Among those whose kind co-operation I take pleasure in acknowledging, 
are: Their Excellencies the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Japan; His Excel- 
lency Kats Ava, H. I. J. M. Minister of Marine; His Excellency Hirobumi 
Ito, H. I. J. M. Minister of Public Works: Nakahama Manjiro; Fukuzawa 
Ukitchy, now one of the most advanced literary men of Japan; Yoshinari 
Hatakeyama, A, M., one of their ripest scholars, and head of the Imperial 
College at Tokio; and especially to my former colleague and present suc- 
cessor, Samro Takaki, to whom I am largely indebted for many valuable 
translations and researches into official records; to Professor George David- 
son, United States Coast Survey, for reliable information regarding the phys- 
ical features of the Kuro Shi wo; and to members of the Academy for their 
kind appreciation of the importance of the work undertaken. 

C. W. B. 

San Francisco, Oct. 1, 1876. 



REPORT 



OF 



JAPANESE VESSELS 



WRECKED IN THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN 



FKOM THE 



EARLIEST RECORDS TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



Every junk found adrift or stranded on the coast of North America, or on 
the Hawaiian or adjacent islands, has on examination proved to be Japanese, 
and no single instance of any Chinese vessel has ever been reported, nor is 
any believed to have existed. 

This may be explained by the existence of theKuro Shi wo, literally " black 
stream," a gulf stream of warm water, which sweeps northeasterly past Japan 
toward the Kurile and Aleutian Islands, thence curving around and passing 
south along the coast of Alaska, Oregon and California. This stream, it is 
fouad, has swept these junks toward America at an average rate of fully 
ten miles a day. 

There also exists an ocean stream of cold water, emerging from the Arctic 
Ocean, which sets south close in along the eastern coast of Asia. This fully 
accounts for the absence of Chinese junks on the Pacific, as vessels disabled 
off their coast would naturally drift southward. 

A noticeable feature is the large number of disasters on the coast of Japan 
in the month of January, during which season the strong northeast monsoons 
blow the wrecks directly off shore into the Kuro Shi wo. 

The climate of Japan is temperate, with the exception of the extreme north- 
ern provinces, where intense cold prevails and where snow is abundant; and 
the extreme southern provinces, whose climate is very warm. 

About the year 1639 the Japanese Government ordered all junks to be built 
with open sterns, and large square rudders, unfit for ocean navigation, hoping 



8 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE 

thereby to keep their jDeojDle isolated within their own islands. Once forced 
from the coast by stress of weather, these rudders are soon washed away, 
when the vessels naturally fall off into the trough of the sea, and roll their 
masts out. The number, of which no record exists, which have thus suffered 
during the past nineteen centuries niust be very large, probably many 
thousand vessels. 

Among Japanese mariners, the fear of being thus blown off their coast, has 
been an ever-threatening danger; and the memory of such time-honored 
accidents, is a common feature in the traditions of every seaport settlement 
along the eastern coast of Japan. 

By the Government Census, taken in 187-i, the total population of Japan 
was 33,300,675 souls, and there were 22,670 registered sailing vessels of Jap- 
anese style, (junks) of from 8 to 383 tons, engaged in the coasting trade. 
The crews of ordinary trading junks average from eight to twelve men each. 

In the sixteenth year of the reign of the Emperor Suizin, B. C. 81, 
merchant ships and ships of war are first spoken of as built in Jaj)an. 

Under the Shogoon lyemitsu, about 1639, edicts commanded the destruction 
of all boats built upon any foreign model, and forbade the building of vessels 
of any size or shape superior to that of the present junk. 

By the imperial decree of 1637, Japanese who had left their country and 
been abroad, were not allowed to return, death being the penalty for traveling 
abroad, studying foreign languages, introducing foreign customs, or believing 
in Christianity. 

The Empire of Japan is situated in the northwestern part of the Pacific 
Ocean, and is composed of four large islands and of a great number of smaller 
ones. It faces to the northwest the Kingdom of Corea, and is separated from 
it by the Japan sea. To the northeast the archipelago of Chijima (Kurile 
Islands) extends towards Kamsehatka. At the southwest the Liu Kiu Islands 
are situated opposite the Island of Formosa. 

Its whole length, extending from one end to the other of the empire, meas- 
ures more than 500 Bis (about 1225 English miles), and its breadth varies 
from 20 to 60 Bis (about 73% to 146 English miles.) Its total area is 23,740 
Square Bis. 

The sources of information at command have been exceptionally good. 
During seventeen j^ears, in which I represented the Government of Japan at 
this port, it has been my pleasure to devote much critical attention to the 
subject of Japanese wrecks, picked up adrift in the North Pacific Ocean and 
stranded upon the northwest coast of America and its various outlying 
islands, and those of the chain extending from Hawaii towards Niphon. 
Besides keeping a detailed record of all wrecks reported during this period, I 
have also collected and verified many cases of earlier reports, which although 
still extant, were likely to be overlooked. 

In at least 37 of the cases quoted, I have either seen the saved, or received 
a personal account from those who were themselves witnesses, Hawaiian 
and Japanese traditions I have myself gathered in those countries. 

In March, 1860, I took an Indian boy on board the Japanese steam corvette 
Kanrin-maru, where a comparison of Coast-Indian and pure Japanese words 
was made at my request, by Fukuzawa Ukitchy, then Admiral's Secretary; 



NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 9 

the result of which I prepared for the press, and it was at that time published 
in the Evening Bulletin, suggesting further linguistic investigation. 

The following examples submitted for consideration to the Academy, fairly 
illustrate the subject in its various phases; — 

1. In Mr. Hubert H. Bancroft's unparalleled collection of ancient books 
and valuable manuscripts relating to the early history of the native races of 
the Pacific States, mention is made of several Japanese vessels reported in 
some of the Spanish-American ports on the Pacific. In 1617 a Japanese junk 
belonging to Magome, was at Acapulco. 

In 1613, June 10th, the British ship Clove, Capt. John Saris, arrived at 
Nagasaki, having on board one Japanese, picked up from the island of 
Bantam. 

2. "In 1685," w^e read, " the Portuguese tried for the last time to re-es- 
tablish their trade by sending back a number of shipwrecked Japanese, 
picked up adrift, to their own country. The Japanese did liot molest them, 
but strictly prohibited their re-appearance on the Coast of Japan." 

3. In 1694, a Japanese junk from Osaka was driven by adverse winds 
and weather and stranded on the coast of Kamschatka, at the mouth of the 
river Opala, on the south of Bolschaia Keka. The only survivor was after- 
wards taken to Moscow. 

Muller, in his " Voyages from Asia to America," published in 1761, re- 
marks that when in 1696 the Eussians reported the above, they said: "we 
have learned of several other instances of Japanese wrecks previously strand- 
ed on the coast of Kamschatka." 

4. In 1710, a Japanese junk was stranded on the coast of Kamschatka, in 
Kaligirian bay, north of Awatscha. Ten i)ersons landed safely, of which four 
were killed and six taken captive in an encounter with Kamschadels. Subse- 
quently four of the captives fell into Russian hands, and one named Sanima, 
was sent in 1714 to St. Petersburg. 

5. On the 8th of July, 1729, a Japanese junk called the Waka-shiina of 
Satsuma, in distress, after having been driven about at sea for six months, 
was finally stranded on the coast of Kamschatka, south of Awatscha bay, and 
17 of her crew were saved. She was loaded with cotton and silk stuffs, 
rice and paper; the two latter articles shipped by Matsudaira Osumi-no-kami, 
(Prince of Satsuma) were government property. 

A petty Russian officer named Schtinnikovv, desiring to plunder the cargo, 
had fifteen of the survivors shot; for which crime he was subsequently con- 
demned and hung. The two remaining, an old merchant named Sosa and a 
young pilot Gonsa, were sent to Irkutz in 1721, and thence via Tobolsk, they 
reached St. Petersburg in 1732, where one died in 1736, the other in 1739. 

6. In 1782 a Japanese junk was wrecked upon the Aleutian Islands, from 
which the survivors were taken in one of the Russian-American Com- 
pany's vessels to the town of Ochotsk, and thence to the inland city of Ir- 
kutsk. In 1792, the Governor-General of Siberia ordered the transport Cath- 
erine, then at Ochotsk, to return these men to their native country. The 
Russian vessel, after wintering in a harbor at the north end of Yeso, pro- 
ceeded to the port of Hakodate, where the Japanese officials politely but 



10 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE 

firmly refused to allow their countrymea to land. They were subsequently 
returned to Siberia. 

7. Among items of history mentioned in Japanese records, I find that in 
October, 1804, a Russian frigate commanded by Capt. Krusenstern, conveying 
Count Eesanoff, as Ambassador of the Czar, brought back to Nagasaki five 
Japanese seamen, being. part of a crew of fifteen rescued from a stranded junk; 
the other ten preferred to remain in Siberia. 

8. In 1805, a Japanese junk was wrecked on the coast of Alaska, near 
Sitka; the seamen were quartered on Japonski Island, whence they were 
taken by the Russians, and finally landed on the Coast of Yeso in 1806, 

9. In 1812, Capt. Ricord, commanding the Russian sloop-of-war Diana, 
took seven Japanese, six of whom were seamen recently shipwrecked in a 
junk on the coast of Kamschatka, in the hope of exchanging them for seven 
captive Russians, confined in Japan. Being unable to land, they were 
returned to Kamschatka, reaching there October 12th. The Diana made a 
second attempt, and finally succeeded August 16th, 1813, in landing these 
Japanese at Kunashie Bay, the 20th Kurile, and eff'ected the liberty of the 
Russian Capt. Golownin and his associates. 

10. In 1813, the Brig Forrester, Captain John Jennings, when in latitude 
49^ N,, longitude 1283W., rescued the captain and two seaman from a dis- 
masted junk, timber laden, when 18 months from Yeso, bound to Niphon. 
Thirty-five men were on board, of whom thirtj^-two died of hunger. They 
were delivered to the Russians, who undertook to return them to Japan. 

11. Captain Alexander Adams, formerly pilot at Honolulu, relates that 
March 24, 1815, in latitude 320 45' N., longitude 1260 57' W., when sailing 
master of brig Forrester, Captain Piggott, and cruising ofi" Santa Barbara, Cal- 
ifornia, he sighted at sunrise a Japanese junk drifting at the mercy of the 
winds and waves. Her rudder aud masts were gone. Although blowing a 
gale, he boarded the junk, and found fourteen dead bodies in the hold, the 
captain, carpenter, and one seaman alone surviving; took them on board, 
where by careful nursing they were well in a few days. They were on a V03'- 
age from Osaka to Yedo, and were 17 months out, having been dismasted in 
consequence of losing their rudder. 

12. In 1820, a junk was cast upon Point Adams, the southern shore of the 
mouth of Columbia river. The vessel, which was laden with wax, went to 
pieces, and the crew, many in number, landed safely. 

13. A junk was wrecked on Queen Charlotte's Island, in 1831. 

14. December 23, 1832, at mid-day, a junk in distress cast anchor near the 
harbor of Waialua, on the shores of Oahu. She was from a southern port of 
Japan, bound to Yedo with a cargo of fish; lost her rudder and was dismasted 
in a gale, since which she had drifted for eleven months. Five out of her 
crew of nine had died. December 30th, she started for Honolulu, but was 
stranded on a reef off Barber's Point on the evening of January 1, 1833. 

The four survivors were taken to Honolulu, where, after remaining eigh- 
teen months, they were forwarded to Kamschatka, whence they hoped to 
work their way south through the northern islands of the group into their 
own country. This junk was about 80 tons burden. According to the tra- 



NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 11 

ditions of the islands, several such junks had been wrecked upon Hawaii, 
before the islands were discovered by Captain Cook. 

15, 16. In 1833, a Japanese junk was wrecked on the coast of Washington 
Territory, in the immediate vicinity of Cape Flattery. Many of her crew 
had perished, and several dead bodies were found headed up in firkins, in 
customary Japanese style, ready for burial. Out of 17 persons, the only 
survivors, two men and a boy, were rescued from the Indians, by the Hudson 
Bay Company's vessel Lama, Captain McNeal, who took them to England, 
touching at Honolulu on their way. Thence they proceeded to Canton, 
where they arrived in 1836, and stopped with Karl Gutzlaff, who learned their 
language, and intended accompanying them to Japan. In 1837, they left 
Macao in the American brig Morrison, dispatched by Clarence A. King for 
Yedo bay, to bear them home. Being fired upon, July 27, and prevented 
from landing, she sailed for Kagosima, where, being equally unsuccessful, 
she finally returned with the men to Macao. The Morrison, on whom Samuel 
W. Williams and Dr. Peter Parker were passengers, also had on board four 
other Japanese seamen, rescued from a disabled Japanese junk, which had 
drifted a long time at sea, until finally stranded on the eastern shore of the 
Philippine Islands, whence the survivors were forwarded to Macao, to be re- 
turned to Japan. 

17. In 1839, a wrecked junk was boarded by Captain Cathcart of the 
American whale ship James Loper, drifting in latitude 30^ N., longitude 174° 
W., or about half way between Japan and the Hawaiian Islands. 

18. In the Polynesian, October 17, 1840. published at Honolulu, I find: 
" The Japanese who took passage in the Harlequin remained at Kamschatka 
under the protection of the Governor awaiting an opportunity of returning to 
their native country." 

Note. — In 1834, the brig Harlequin conveyed to Petropaulski from Hon- 
olulu 18 Japanese taken from wrecks, who had remained 18 months at Hon- 
olulu. They were finally returned to Japan by Eussian officials. 

In 1840, Mr. Nathaniel Savory, a native of Massachusetts, residing at Port 
Lloyd, Bonin Islands, reports a Japanese junk of about 40 tons, laden with 
dried fish, entered that harbor in distress, having been driven from her course 
along the coast of Japan through stress of weather, with her jorovisions ex- 
hausted. They repaired the damage to the junk during that winter, and she 
sailed in the spring for Japan. Had these islands been uninhabited, this 
case would have added another to the list of wrecks. 

19. In 1841, a fishing junk from the southeast part of Niphon was wrecked 
on an uninhabited island, where the three survivors remained six months, 
until taken off by Captain Whitfield, master of the American whale ship John 
Howland, and brought to Honolulu, where Denzo and Goemon remained, 
while Nakahama Manjiro went to the United States, and was educated by 
Captain Whitfield. After being there several years he returned to Honolulu 
where he found his former companions, and embarked January, 1851, on the 
Sarah Boyd, Captain Whitmore, bound for Shanghai, taking with them a 
whale-boat called the Adventure, with a fall rig and outfit. When off the 
Grand Liu-Kiu, the three Japanese effected a landing and the ship proceeded 
without stopping. Hence they finally reached Kiushiu and Nagasaki, in the 



12 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE 

junk which bears the annual tribute money from Liu-Kiu to Japan. Man- 
jiro afterwards translated Bowditch's Navigator into Japanese, and visited 
San Francisco as sailing-master of the Japanese steam corvette Kanrin-mara, 
which arrived there March 17th, 1860. 

20. In 1815, the United States Frigate St. Louis took from Mexico to Ning- 
po, in China, three shipwreck Japanese, being survivors of the crew of a junk 
which had drifted from the coast of Japan, entirely' across the Pacific Ocean, 
and finally stranded on the coast of Mexico, where they remained two years. 
The Chinese authorities were willing to receive these men and return them to 
their native country by their annual junk, which sails from Cheefoo to Naga- 
saki; but the Japanese objected to their landing, owing to the law of 1637. 

In 184:5, the JajJanese authorities informed Sir Edward Belcher, command- 
ing H.B.S. Samarang, that they would not receive returned Japanese from 
abroad, but "had sent a junk-full back to the Emperor of Chiua," to whose 
country they had gone to obtain return passages by the annual junk permitted 
from Cheefoo to Nagasaki. The above leads to the inference that the 
Saniarang may have had shipw^recked Japanese seamen on board. 

21. In 1845, April 1st, Captain Mercator Cooper, of Sag Harbor, when in 
the American whale ship Manhattan, rescued eleven shipwrecked Japanese 
mariners from St. Peters, a small island lying a few degrees southeast of Nip- 
hon, and took them to Yedo Bay, where they were received undt;r exception. 
Captain Cooper is also reported to have fallen in with a sinking junk, from 
which he rescued as many more Japanese seamen. [See Dr. C. F. Winslow's 
account in Friend of Februarj^ 2d, 1846.] 

22. In 1847, a French whaleship while cruising off Stapleton Island, 
sighted a fire-signal on the shore, and sent a boat to the relief of five Japanese 
sailors, who were in a helpless plight; the only survivors of a crew, whose dis- 
abled junk lay stranded on the beach of a small bay. Later, about 1853, a 
party of officers from the U. S. steam frigate Susquehanna landed and sur- 
veyed this wreck, which they then described as " still partly kept together by 
large nails of coiaper, and portions of sheets of metal. Her planks, fastened 
together at the edge, were but little rubbed or decayed." 

23. In 1847, April 21st, the Bremen ship Otahelte, Captain Weitung, when 
in lat. 35^ N., long. 156^ E., fell in with a Japanese junk in distress, which 
had lost her rudder and had been driven off the coast of Japan in a gale No- 
vember, 1846, and had drifted five months. Took off the crew, consisting of 
nine men, also six tons of wax. She was about 80 tons burden and chiefly lad- 
en with paper belonging to Osaka, and bound north. Captain Weitung kept 
them on board four weeks, and May 19th, 1847, put them on board a junk in 
the Straits of Matsmai. [See Polynesian, October 17, 1847, and Friend, Dec- 
ember 2, 1847.] 

24. In 1848, Captain Cox of New London, Conn., picked up fifteen of 
twenty Japanese seamen from a disabled junk in lat. 40° N., long. 170^ W., 
and kept them on board six months during a cruise in the Ochotsk sea, and 
finally landed them at Lahaina, where they remained six or eight months. 

25. In 1850, during the autumn, S. Sentharo, Toro and J. Heco — the lat- 
ter then aged 13 years — left Osaka in a junk for Yedo. After discharging 
and reloading they started to return via Woragawa. After leaving the latter 



NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 13 

place their rudder was disabled and they lost their mast and drifted out to 
sea. riTty days later the wreck was fallen in with by the American bark Auk- 
l(i)id, Captain Jennings, who took off and brought the crew of 17 persons to 
San Francisco, in February, 1851. They were quartered on board the U. S. 
revenue cutter, and cared for by order of the Collector of the Port. Our citi- 
zens generally took much interest in them. The Japanese were subsequently 
embarked on the U. S. sloop *S'^. Mary's and conveyed to Hongkong, where 
15 were transferred to the U. S. steamer Susquehanna to await the arrival of 
Commodore Perry and his expedition. Heco and the second mate, Toro, re- 
turned to San Francisco on the bark Sarah Hooper, reaching there in the 
autumn of 1852. Sentharo returned with Kev. Mr. Goble, from San Fran- 
cisco to Japan, and also Toro returned in the American bark MelUa to Hako- 
date from San Francisco, via Honolulu, April 19, 1859. 

Toro was for a while clerk with Wells, Fargo & Co., and Joseph Heco, 
clerk with Macondray & Co. Heco was subsequently appointed for duty on 
the United States Surveying Schooner Fennimore Cooper, about 1858-59, and 
left her at Honolulu, on account of sickness, but finally returned to Yedo, on 
the United States steamer Mississippi. [See Evening Bulletin, June, 1862.] 

26. In 1850, April 22d, in lat. 450 N. long. 155° E., the American whale 
ship Henry Kneeland, Clark, master, fell in with a Japanese junk having 13 
persons on board. The vessel left Yedo for Kuno, but lost her rudder and 
was dismasted; then drifted to sea, and had been at the mercy of the winds 
and currents for sixty-six days, during forty of which they had subsisted on 
fish and snow water. The Captain and two seamen came to Honolulu on the 
H. K.; two of the crew were transferred to the Marengo; six were taken to 
Petropaulski and taken charge of by the Kussian authorities, and two came 
to Honolulu by the Nimrod. [See Friend, October 15, 1850; also Friend, 
November], 1850.] 

Note. — In 1851, by Japanese records I find that five Japanese seamen from 
Honolulu via China arrived at Nagasaki — probably the above. 

27. In 1851, a Japanese junk was cast away upon Atka Island, and only 
three of the crew survived. 

28. In 1852, April 15th, in lat. 31o N., long. 150O E., about 300 miles N. 
N. E. of Guam, Captain "West, in the American whaleship Isaac Howland, 
fell in with a .small Japanese junk in ballast. The four men on board had 
but a little oil to sustain life, and were much emaciated. Their tiller was 
lashed, and the vessel having been forty-nine days out of their reckoning, the 
crew had given themselves up to die. Two of these men Captain West took 
to the Atlantic States, and two were transferred to an American whaler about 
to cruise in the vicinity of the Japanese Islands. 

29. In March, 1853, the American ship John Gilpin, Captain Doane, passed 
a water-logged wreck of a junk, her deck awash with the water, in lat. 18° 
— ' N., long. 1453 — ' E., just beyond Pagan and Origan Islands. Large 
numbers of fish were around the wreck. There were no survivors on board. 
She had every appearance of having been a very long time in the water. 

30. In 1853, Captain C. M. Scammon discovered the wreck of a Japanese 
junk, on the southwest or largest of the San Bonito grouj) of Islands, off 



14 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE 

Lower California, in lat. 28CN., long. 1160 W., and near Cedros Island. [See 
Alta, April 22, I860.] 

Her planks were fastened together on the edges with spikes or bolts of a flat 
shape, with all of the head on one side. The seams were not quite straight, 
although the workmanship otherwise was good. That portion of the ^^*reckin 
sight, was principally the bottom of the vessel, and gave evidence of having 
been a long time on shore. [Extract from Captain Scammon's log.] 

31. In 1854, August 14th, just after Commodore Perry's departure, the 
American ship Lady Pierce, Captain Burrows, arrived at Simoda from San 
Francisco via Honolulu June 2, 1854. She returned Diyonoske to Japan, who 
was the sole survivor of a crew of fifteen men, and was picked off from a 
drifting junk near the Hawaiian Islands, after being seven months helpless 
at sea. He had resided some time in San Francisco. 

32. In 1855, Captain Brooks, in American brig Leverett, which arrived her 
from Ayai), Siberia. November 29th, picked up an abandoned junk in lat. 420 
N., long. 170^ W., about 900 miles from the American Coast. 

33. In 1856, the American bark Messenger Bird, Captain Homer, reported 
a disabled junk at Guam, Ladrone Islands. 

34. In 1856, Captain Jno. C. Lawton, in the brig Prince de Joinville, while 
getting guano at Cedros and adjacent islands, reported a Japanese wreck, seen 
near Magdalena Bay. 

35. In 1858, the U.S. surveying schooner Fennlmore Cooper, Lieut. John 
M. Brooke, U.S.N, commanding, sailed from Honolulu for a cruise along the 
chain of islands extending thence towards Japan. He had on board a Japan- 
ese seaman named Marsa-Kitchi, whom he landed at Kanagawa. The junk 
from which this man was taken, was disabled at sea while engaged in the 
coasting trade, and her crew were forced to put her before the wind, heading 
to the eastward, a direction in which they were forced against their will. To 
drevent drifting too rapidly, they lowered their anchor in the open sea to act 
as a drag, paying out their full length of cable, and thus allowed it to remain 
until it finally parted. 

36. Ina858, May 19th, the British ship Caribean, when in lat. 43- 40' N., 
long. 171^ E., about 1,600 miles from the coast of Japan, fell in with a dis- 
masted junk, which had carried away her rudder, and had been about five 
months floating helplessly at sea. The captain, mate and ten seamen were 
rescued and brought to San Francisco, where they arrived June 7, 1858. 
They were cared for by Captain Winchester, who took them in the Carihean 
to Vancouver Island, whence he was bound for China, but having met a Brit- 
ish war vessel off Japan, the rescued men were transferred to her, and thus 
lauded at a Japanese port. 

The junk was loaded with barley and rice, and barnacles two feet long were 
reported found upon the wreck. 

The British Government presented £400 to Captain Winchester as a reward 
and in reimbursement of his necessary outlays. 

37. In 1859, the bark <ianibia. Captain Brooks, found the remains of a 
Japanese junk on Ocean Island, lat. 28^ 24' N., long. 178^21' W. 

38. 39. In 1859, July 4th, the remains of two stranded junks, with lower 



NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 15. 

masts high on the beach, were found on the east or lagoon side of Brooks 
Island, lat. 280 11' N. long. 177o 18' to 25' W. 

40. May 11th, 1862, the bark Yankee, Captain Claxton, passed in lat. 25^ 
39' N., long. 1380 24' W., a wreck with the stump of one mast only standing, 
of which the wood was quite black with age. The junk was water-logged, 
and the sea washing entirely over her. Being satisfied there was no life upon 
her, and a heavy sea running, did not board; passed her three-quarters of a 
mile to windward, and the Yankee kept on her course. 

41. In 1862, a Japanese junk was stranded m September near Attu. They 
had drifted in distress for 90 days, and out of a crew of twelve only three sur- 
vived. These were taken in 1863 to Nicolaefsky, Amoor river, and then re- 
turned to Hakodate by a Russian war vessel. 

42. In 1862, May 4th, the ship Victor, Captain Crowell, arrived at San 
Francisco, with the captain, ofl&cers and crew, eleven in number, of the Jap- 
anese junk lo-maru, from Kanagawa, December 21, 1861, for Owari and 
Hiogo. On January 5, 1862, was disabled and drifted from land. Was about 
three months at the mercy of winds and currents, until picked up April 13th, 
1862, in lat. 33-^ N., long. 1610 26' E., by the Victor. They were cared for 
by Mr. Brooks, Japanese Consul, and by him returned to Japan, in the 
American schooner Caroline E. Foote, for Hakodate. 

43. A Japanese junk drifted past Baker's Island, lat. 0° 13' N., long. 176° 
22' W., some time in 1863. Boats were sent out and towed it on to the 
beach. There were four Japanese bodies on board; all were dead. 

44. In 1864, February 4th, on Providence Island, lat. 9- 52' N., long. 160^ 
65' E., on the Lagoon shore of the island was seen the portions of a vessel 
which had been many years a wreck. Scattered along the outer shore were 
many redwood logs, some of them of great size. 

45. In April, 1869, an abandoned junk was stranded on Adakh, one of the 
Aleutian Isles. 

46. In 1870, in October, the San Salvador ship Louisa Canovera, Captain 
Demoro, when in lat. 370 46'N., and long. 158^10' E., fell in with a dis- 
masted junk, laden with rice, having four dead bodies on board, and no living 
persons. The papers and effects were taken and delivered to the Japanese 
Consul at San Francsico, and by him returned to Japan, November, 1870. 

47. 48, 49. In July, 1871, the old chief at Attu Island, aged 70 years, re- 
ported that three Japanese junks had been lost upon the surrounding islets, 
during his recollection, besides one stranded not far from the harbor of that 
island in 1862. 

50. In 1871, February 2d, in lat. 33^45' N., long. 141o 31' E., about 150 
miles from the coast of Japan, the American ship Annie M. Smull, Captain 
Packer, fell in with the Japanese junk Sumi-yoshi-maru, of Kiushiu, and 
rescued the Captain and three surviving seamen, and landed them at San 
Francisco, February 24, 1871. They sailed from Shiroko, province of Ise, 
January 17, 1871, for Dai Osaki, with a cargo of wood. Two days later they 
were disabled, and drifted to sea, and were picked up seventeen days later. 

51. In 1871, May 23d, in lat. 340 54' N., long. 143-32' E., Pacific Mail 
steamship China, Captain Cobb, rescued five Japanese seamen from the dis- 
abled junk Sumi-ayee-maru, of Kobe. Eleven out of sixteen originally on 



16 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE 

board died upon the wreck, and the captain of the junk died on the steamer 
after being rescued. They were cared for by Mr. Brooks, who returned them 
to Yokohama, July 1, 1871, and the government presented suitable rewards. 

52. In 1871, the Japanese juuk Jinko-maru, of Matsaka, of 180 kokus 
measurement, encountered a severe gale January 18, 1871, while going from 
Ise to Kumano, during which she lost her rudder, and while in danger of 
foundering cut away her masts. The junk drifted from the coast of Japan in 
the Kuro Shiwo for 2,500 miles in a helpless condition, her crew keeping a fire 
and living on rice, and fish they speared, until they drifted on the rocks at 
Atka, July 10th, 1871, where, by means of ropes, the three men on board 
landed safely. There they remained until September 19th, 1871, when they 
took passage by schooner H. 3f. Hutchmion for Ounalaska and San Francisco, 
whence they were returned to Japan by the Consul. 

53. In 1873, Captain W. B. Cobb, in steamer China, rescued the crew 
from a wrecked junk in lat. — O — ' N., long. — o — ' E., and landed them at 
Yokohama, in acknowledgment for which the usual present was made him by 
the Japanese government. 

54. A junk has been reported as stranded on the coast of Alaska. 

55. A junk was cast upon the windward side of Kauaii, one of the Hawa- 
iian Islands, and the survivors landed at Hanalei harbor. 

56. An old resident of Petropaulski informed me there was a Japanese 
junk stranded below that harbor, previous to 1812, where many years since 
the wreck still remained. Six of the crew survived, 

57. A Japanese wreck was sighted adrift below San Diego. Reported in 
the Alta. 

58. A junk was wrecked at Nootka Sound, 

59. In 1875, April 6th, in lat. 38^ 02'N., long 164= 38' E., American ship 
Game Cock, Capt. T, C. Stoddard, fell in with the Japanese junk Wocmohi- 
maru, of about 80 tons, dismasted, with her stern stove and rudder gone, 
and generally in a helpless condition, and rescued therefrom twelve Japanese 
seamen. The junk was bound from Hakodate to Tokio, with a cargo of salt 
fish and sea-weed, when on December 3d they were blown off shore in a 
severe gale, December 10th they again made the land, when another heavy 
gale commenced and blew the junk off again, December 19th was forced to 
cut away the mast to save the hull. December 22d raised a jury mast and 
got under way, sailing towards Japan whenever the wind permitted; at other 
times took in sail and drifted. By their reckoning, they estimate having 
thus sailed 1500 miles west, principally with northeast winds, when, April 
5th, in a bad sea, they carried away rudder, and soon after stove stern. At 
8 A.M. the following day, they abandoned the wreck, from which they were 
rescued by the Game Cock, and landed at San Francisco April 28th, and were 
returned to Japan by Mr. Takaki May 1st, per Great Repuhlic. For the rescue 
and kind treatment of these men, the Japanese Government presented Capt. 
Stoddard with a gold chronometer watch through His Excellency Yoshida 
Kiyonari, their Minister at Washington. 

60. In 1876, July 3d, in lat. 37^ 10' N., long. 167= 35' E., British barque 
Abhy Coicper, Capt. Nelson, fell in with the Japanese junk Eoki-maru, of 
Otaru, island of Yeso, of 477 kokus government measurement, equivalent to 



NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 17 

atout 120 tons. The junk was dismasted and floating in a helpless condition . 
Sakaki-bara Katsiibe, mate, and Tomokitchi, sailor, the only survivors of 12 
men, were rescued from the wreck, and made the following statement, which 
is very interesting as an illustration of many doubtless similar struggles. In 
October, 1875, the Junk loaded at Shari and Abashiri, on the northern 
coast of the island of Yeso, with salted salmon and preserved roe of salmon. 
Left latter place November 5th, and touched at Hakodate, whence they sailed 
December 6th for Tokio, Niphon. On the 9th, when on the east coast of 
Japan between lat. 390and 40^ N., and about long. 142-* E.. a severe westerly 
gale was encountered. December 12th carried away mainmast. Afterwards 
got it in and fished it with a piece of the main yard. On the 18th carried that 
mast away, and the yard was washed overboard, A sea soon after disabled 
the rudder, which was unshipped and taken in, the vessel in the meantime 
making water freely. To lighten her, 300 kokus of cargo (nearly two-thirds), 
was thrown overboard. From this time the vessel floated helplessly. 

Early in January, 1876, fresh water gave out, and all the rainwater possible 
was saved and used. Then three seamen were taken down with the scurvy, 
which soon appeared among the balance. Towards the close of January, fire- 
wood gave out, but a small nucleus of fire was preserved in a stove. As a last 
resort, the junk's boat was broken up for firewood. All hands subsisting on 
a little rice cooked in rain water, and principally on salt fish, with a very 
small allowance of water. February 5th Chojero died — the first death. 
March 9th, Capt. Sato Sangoro died; then followed Kitsaburo, April 16th; 
Bunkichi, 21st; Kizo, 24th; Kenkitchi, May 2d; Skedjero, 2d; Taske, 2d; 
Heihichi, 14th, and finally, Matsutaro, June 10th. The two survivors, anti- 
cipating a similar death, lingered until the forenoon of July 3d, when they 
sighted a vessel, had strength enough to raise a signal, and were rescued. 
They caught rain May 24th, after nearly all had died, which largely assisted 
in preserving the survivors. They also caught fifteen large fresh fish called 
bonita. Before the captain died, he wrote and handed to the mate letters to 
his family and owners, describing all details. The two survivors, expecting 
death themselves, boxed these up, with the ship's papers, and fastened them 
in a conspicuous place, whence they were taken and preserved. After the 
death of each person, the survivors enclosed their bodies in a Japanese coffin 
suitably inscribed, and stowed them in the hold of the junk, hoping they 
might reach some land and receive burial. The survivors reached San 
Francisco August 15th, 1876, and after recuperating, were returned to Japan 
by Mr. Takaki.* 

Many more might easily be added, but these suffice to establish many facts 
valuable to science. 

The annual rainfall of Japan averages 70.33 inches, occurring on 197.7 
days, two-thirds of which falls between April and October; at Tokio the ther- 
mometer varies from a monthly maximum of 91o Faht. in August, to a min- 
imum of 20^ in January, averaging 580 22 for the year, and averages 48=^ 33 
at Hakodate, where the average number of hard gales per annum is 16.79. 
[See Kaitakushi Keports and Tables, Tokio, 1875.] 

* — Note. — These last two cases laave been submitted by Mr. Brooks as additions to the 
Ist for publication since the reading of this paper. 



18 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE 

The presence of wrecks so far sontli near the equator, indicates that they 
had been swept northward from Japan by the Kuro Shiwo, and thence south- 
ward along the northwest coast of America until they fell into the equatorial 
westerly current, where, in company with redwood logs, and drift-wood from 
Oregon, they must have reached these islands in the equatorial belt. 

In illustration of this equatorial current, we have the report of residents of 
Christmas Island, which speaks of a westerly current setting past that island 
at the rate of one and a-half to two miles an hour. August 23d, 1861, there 
was picked up on the shore of the island of Niihau, in latitude 21- 50' N., 
longitude 160-15' W., a bottle containing a paper, thrown from the American 
ship White Swallow, thrown overboard July 21st, 1861, in latitude 21- 30' N., 
longitude 151^ 55' W. It had made a nearly due west drift of 460 miles in 
about thirty-three days. This shows the existence of a very powerful westerly 
current around the Hawaiian Islands of about 14 miles per diem. 

In 1862, September 10th, an enormous Oregon tree about 150 feet in length 
and fully six feet in diameter above the butt, drifted past the island of Mauii, 
Hawaiian Islands. The roots, which rose ten feet out of water, would span 
about 25 feet. Two branches rose perpendicularly 20 to 25 feet. Several tons 
of clayish earth were embedded among its roots. Many saw-logs and pieces 
of drift-wood came ashore in this vicinity about this time. These were 
evidently portions of the immense body of ship -timber launched upon the 
Pacific during the great flood of the previous winter along the American coast. 
Their almost simultaneous arrival at Mauii in September, seems to indicate 
quite accurately the force and direction of the currents in this ocean. 
Supposing them to have come from the Columbia River, leaving say February 
18th, 1862, and to have drifted 2,800 miles, they must have drifted at an 
average rate of 14 miles per day to have reached Mauii September 10th. 

"We may argue from the above that there were other ways of explaining the 
similarity of flora upon many islands of the Pacific and the high terraces of 
our Sierra Nevada mountains, beside the hypothesis of an intervening conti- 
nent where the broad Pacific now rests. 

There is a strong jDresumption that the present bed of the Pacific Ocean may 
once have been an extended valley, submerged by some abrupt and spasmodic 
catastrophe, at a period when the fiery interior of the earth was in a state of 
inconceivable agitation, and its equilibrium temporarily disturbed. Abundant 
ruptures of the entire combined strata of its crust along our mountain ranges, 
bear indisputable evidence, in prominences tilted up and raised to immense 
heights: conditions which must have necessitated corresponding depressions, 
and consequently established new beds for water, forming new islands, 
re-dividing and re-shaping continents. The existing shore lines of enormous 
empty basins, the pebble and cobble stones rounded by erotion, at present in 
the centre of this continent west of the Rocky Mountains, all contribute 
testimony of some great change. 

The spores or seeds of plants may, however, have been more recently 
transferred by clinging to the earth around the roots of such mammoth trees 
as floated from the high latitudes of the northwest coast of America. Once 
cast upon any island and rooted, they would soon replant and extend them- 
selves. Driftwood from Columbia River and Puget Sound distributed itself 



NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 19 

throughout the North Pacific, and the windward shores of the Hawaiian 
Islands are literally lined with it, as well as with redwood logs of formidable 
size. 

Small parties of male Japanese have repeatedly reached the American 
continent by sea, cast upon its shores after floating helplessly for months. 
Until recently, the survivors must have remained permanently near where 
they landed, and naturally uniting with women of the native races, have left 
descendents more or less impressed with their physical peculiarities. Such a 
slow, limited, but constant infusion of Japanese blood, almost entirely from 
male seamen, was undoubtedly sufficient to modify the original stock of all 
coast tribes along our north-western shore. No marks exist of any immigra- 
tion en masse, neither is there any present record of any Japanese woman 
saved from such a wreck, although cases may formerly have occurred, but 
must have been very rare. These unfortunate seamen, often illiterate, and 
separated from their sources of learning, necessarily lost their own language; 
but in doing so, doubtless contributed many isolated words to the Indian 
dialects of this coast. Many shipwrecked Japanese have informed me that 
they were enabled to communicate with and understand the natives of Atka 
and Adakh Islands. Quite an infusion of Japanese words is found among 
some of the coast tribes of Oregon and California, either pure, as tsche-tsche, 
milk, or clipped, as hiaku, speed, found reduced to hyack, meaning fast, in 
Indian; or yaku, e^fil genius in Japanese, similarly reduced to yak, devil, by 
the Indians. In almost all words showing such similarity, the Indian word is 
always an abbreviated word, or shorter word than the Japanese, from which 
it may be argued that the latter was the original and the former derived. The 
construction of the two languages is, however, different. There are, however, 
a large number of pure Japanese words and some very peculiar Japanese 
"idioms, constructions, honorific, separative, and agglutinative particles " 
found nearly identical in the American-Indian dialect. Shipwrecked Japan- 
ese are invariably enabled to communicate understandingly with the coast 
Indians, although speaking quite a dift'erent language. The great mass of 
the Japanese people stoutly disclaim any common descent with the Chinese^ 
and firmly believe they have a wholly different origin. Any common ancestor 
must certainly have been in very remote ages. 

Professor George Davidson, in charge of the United States Coast Survey 
on the Pacific, our highest authority upon questions connected with the 
great ocean currents of this ocean, has bestowed much critical study upon 
the physical conditions connected with the Kuro Shiwo. In 1851, when sta- 
tioned at the mouth of the Columbia river, he began the interesting investi- 
gations necessary to demonstrate its complete outline. 

In 1868. he communicated to the National Academy of Science his deduc- 
tions establishing the existence of the return current northwestward, westward 
and southwestward along the shores of the Gulf of Alaska, and the southern 
coast of the Aleutian Islands, whilst the great body of the current is deflected 
down the northward coast until it is drawn into the Great Equatorial Current 
which moves westward until it strikes the Asiatic barrier, and thence starts 
on its course, about the island of Formosa, as the great warm stream of Japan. 
He first showed the striking analogy between this stream and that of the 



20 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE 

North Atlantic, especially in their origin at latitude 23°, their being nearly 
180 degrees of longitude apart,^ their general course, etc., etc. 

There is a branch of the Euro Shiwo, which shoots off northward near 
Kamschatka, and is felt 50 or 100 miles oft' this promontory; whilst close in 
shore, a cold current flows southward from the Arctic through the western 
part of Behring's Straits. On Kamschatka, the Kurile and Aleutian Islands, 
and on Alaska, great number of disabled Japanese junks must have been 
stranded in past centuries. 

Professor Davidson, who has had occasion to examine the Spanish, Eng- 
lish, Russian and American records of discoveries in this ocean, assures me 
that he has found mention of at least a dozen or more janks, wrecked on the 
coasts of Kamschatka, within a Comparatively recent period; and in the earlier 
descriptions of the Kurile Islands, and of the Kamschatka Peninsula, he 
says frequent mention is made of the wrecks of Japanese junks upon these 
coasts. 

Both winds and currents of the North Pacific assist in driving disabled 
Japanese junks around the great circle of the Kuro Shiwo. A junk disabled 
in the latitude of Tokio would be swept by alternate southwest and northwest 
winds, and the existing northeasterly current, towards the northwest coast of 
America. The distance from Cape King to San Francisco is about 4,500 
nautical miles. We have here abundant proof of the track taken by these 
disabled vessels, by a study of their positions when found drifting at sea in the 
Pacific, at the mercy of winds and waves. 

For many, many centuries the coasting trade of Japan has employed a large 
fleet of junks in exchanging rice from their southern, for salt fish from their 
northern ports. Although it may be presumed that the large number of 
their vessels thus disabled and rendered unmanageable, undoubtedl}' founder 
in the heavy gales they experience; yet comparatively large numbers having 
cargoes suitable for food, and crossing a region subject to much raio, which 
is easily caught, are enabled to sustain life until eithei' picked up, or stranded 
somewhere on the American coast, or some island in their course. 

In the above sixty cases enumerated, there were, from 1613 to 1694, four 
cases; from 1710 to 1782, three cases; 1804 to 1820, six cases; 1831 to 1848, 
eleven cases; and since the rapid settlement of this coast in 1850 to 1876, only 
28 years, we have a list of 36 wrecks reported. This apparent increase is not 
owing to their increased number, but solely to the fact, that increase of com- 
merce on the Pacific has distributed there a large fleet, whose presence has 
materially increased the chances of rescue to disabled vessels, and the likeli- 
hood of receiving reports from stranded wrecks. 

In addition to the list we have enumerated, are the Hawaiian traditions that 
several such junks were wrecked on Hawaii before the year 1778; to which 
add the wrecks from which the 18 Japanese were returned from Honolulu in 
1834, also those from which came the junk full of shipwreck Japanese, who 
attempted to, and failed in returning, by Cheefoo to Nagasaki ; also the dozen 
additional ones, alluded to by Professor Davidson, as stranded on the penin- 
sula of Kamschatka, within a comparatively recent period; and the frequent 
mention of similar wrecks on the Kurile Islands. These all taken together, 
with yet others not fully verified, could scarcely have been less than forty 



NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 21 

more, rendering it reasonable to suppose that fully one hundred wrecked Jap- 
anese junks, have been heard from, in one way or another, adrift upon the 
North Pacific, or stranded on the northwest coast of America or some outly- 
ing islands. 

In answer to the question of whether any of these waifs have ever found 
their way back to Japan from the American coast, in early times, I can say, 
that from historical data still extant, and from the personal relations of de- 
scendants of some of such returned voyagers, I have learned that in rare 
cases, occurring from 4U0 to 260 years ago, crews actUcilly reached Japan with 
tidings of the American coast; and Professor Davidson informs me, that when 
recently in Japan observing the Transit of Venus, a very intelligent Japanese 
scholar, well known to me personally, related to him a well authenticated case 
within this century. Formerly such accounts were not allowed general jDub- 
licity*, because stoutly discountenanced by an ecclesiastical government, to 
whom such discoveries were quite as repugnant as were Galileo's to the me- 
dieval government of Kome. To the peaceful masses, the confines of their 
archipelago, were but recently the horizon of the world. 

The famous voyage of the Buddhist priest from China, at the beginning of 
the seventh cenlury, to a country called by him Fusang, (meaning, translated 
"to aid or cultivating mulberries,") was at the exact period when Japanese 
historians record their first official intercourse with China; and was probably 
reached by a coasting voyage along the western coast of Corea, thence along 
the northern coast of Niphon, around Yeso, and southerly, to the southeastern 
shore of Niphon, where mulberry trees were then cultivated abundantly, and 
which was undoubtedly the land he called Fusang. A careful study of the 
native records seems to indicate that his much mooted Chinese voyage could 
not possibly have extended to the American coast. 

Of the sixty cases here reported, 27 wrecks were encountered at sea, and 
the balance stranded, as follows: On the Aleutian Islands, 8; Coast of Kam- 
schatka, 6; Alaska, Oregon, Hawaiian and Brooks Islands, two each; Off San 
Diego, Acapulco, Nootka Sound, San Bonito, Queen Charlotte, Cedros, Prov- 
idence, Baker's, Stapieton, Ocean and Ladrone Islands, one each. 

In 23 cases where the actual number on board was named, they aggregated 
293 persons; an average of 12| persons to a junk; ranging from 3 to 35 in in- 
dividual cases. 

Where definite statistics of the saved are given, we find 222 persons saved 
in 33 cases; an average of 6% persons in each disaster. On eight occasions, 
three persons each were rescued; in four cases, one person; and on four other 
cases, four persons; three times, eleven were saved; and twice each, 5, 12, 15, 
17; and once each 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, were saved. 

By an examination of the above figures, we may estimate the probable ex- 
tent of Japanese blood infused into the Indian tribes around the shores of the 
North Pacific. 

Fifteen vessels mention having drifted helplessly at sea an aggregate of 106^ 
months, averaging a little over seven months each. 

Eleven cases report 122 deaths ; averaging a little over eleven deaths to each 
wreck. 



22 JAPANESE WRECKS IN THE 

It is sincerely hoped that the publication of this record, 'which has so inter- 
esting an ethnological import, may result in awakening Japan to the adop- 
tion of immediate steps in the great interest of a common humanity; for by 
improving the models of her vessels, and adopting those with sea-going qual- 
ities, this long record of disasters may speedily be abridged, if not wholly 
terminated. 

About a year since it became my duty to forward to Japan, half a dozen 
wooden models, full drawings and specifications of small vessels, varying 
from 40 to 200 tons, ordered by the Japanese government for the use of ship- 
builders, which the now enlightened government has recommended them 
to adopt, instead of their present form of junks. Thus the edict of 1639 has 
passed away forever, and young Japan is rising to take her equal place among 
the advancing nations of the world. 

Few are better aware than the scientist, of the manifold and inevitable dan- 
gers which attend all radical changes, when suddenly made; for success is a 
problem seldom solved without repeated trials and inevitable failures. But 
to-day, Japan is earnestly seeking to establish her national perpetuity, by fos- 
tering a discriminating intelligence among her people, and by encouraging 
general and liberal education among the masses. Thus she reverses in the 
most j)ractical manner, the other edict alluded to as promulgated in 1637. 
Her centuries of quiet seclusion are now embalmed with the history of the past, 
and she seeks true greatness, in an enlightened administration of her national 
affairs, and bids fair henceforth to reciprocate a generous friendship towards 
all members of the great brotherhood of nations, from whom she may now 
claim equal sympathy and neighborly protection. 

The great changes in Japan can not be better illustrated than in the fact, 
that it is now customary for the government of Japan, in common with all 
other nations, to present through their Foreign pflfice, some suitable reward 
in acknowledgement of kind service, to the captains of vessels who rescue 
their shipwrecked seamen. 

The Japanese Government have now in their navy ten war ships, five 
dispatch vessels, and five training ships, all steamers; and in their mercantile 
marine, one hundred and two steamers of various tonnage, aggregating 30,718 
tons; also 32 modern sailing vessels built in foreign style of 7,346 total ton- 
nage. 

The great Pacific Ocean and its adjoining waters, under the impulse of this 
age of steam, is becoming the highway of an enterprising commerce, and 
steadily unfolds an attractive field of research to ethnological and linguistic 
archoeologists. 

Many young Japanese are already attracted to scientific pursuits, and 
their valuable technical as well as general results, are beginning to claim the 
attention of naturalists. 

Much valuable scientific work has been done by Japanese scholars since 
their early lessons received from Professor Wm. P. Blake and Professor 
Raphael Pumpelly; two eminent American scientists, whom I had the honor 
of selecting and engaging in the summer of 1861, on behalf of the government 
of Japan, to act as government Mineralogists and Mining Engineers. 



NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 23 

A glorious opening now presents itself for some reliable and competent 
scholar, with pecuniary means at command, to collect a library of books re- 
lating to the Asiatic shores of the North Pacific ocean, as perfect in its way 
as is that of our great historian, Hubert H. Bancroft, relating to the native 
races of the American coast; and when as systematically classified, and as 
thoroughly studied, give to the world full and correct historical details and 
analytical classifications of all native races on the borders of Asia ; many of 
whose records and traditions must necessarily fade with radical changes in 
civilization, and soon pass beyond human reach. 

The splendid sunrise, now dawning in the Orient, offers golden opportun- 
ities, which should be promptly improved while available. Old ways are 
giving place to new, and invaluable treasures of antiquity, may be lost for- 
ever, or cast aside to linger for a generation or two, in the memories of the 
aged, before their shadowy forms become enshrouded in the misty veil of a 
forgotten past. 



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