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JAPAN 



m THE 



BE6INNING OF THE im CENTURY 



\ I- .> /. ;? 






PUBLISHED BY 

: ; n IMPERIAL JAPANESE COMMISSION 

TO THE 
LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION 

1904 



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T^CE " T.A.I».A.iT Tia-CSS" O^'^'TCE. 






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^xefSLce. 



The developnient which Japan has made in all spheres of public 
activity during the period of only a few decades that have elapsed 
since she gave up the policy of exclusion is a matter which has 
secured the acknowledgment of the world. However the knowledge 
which the same world possesses about things Japanese is at best 
superficial, partly because Japan is a new member, comparatively 
speaking, in the family of nations, but chiefly because reliable pub- 
lications specially compiled for foreign readers and giving a succinct 
account of the economic and other aflairs of Japan have not existed. 
It was in consideration of this fact that our authorities decided 
when they made an arrangement to participate in the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition to compile some publication calculated to satisfy, 
at least relatively, this long-felt desideratum. In May of last year 
the work of compilation was at once started at all the offices of the 
Department and at the same time the other Departments of State 
were asked to furnish material relating to their respective provinces. 
The result of these compilations is embodied in the present publica- 
tion. It is very much to be regretted that lack of sufficient time 
has to a considerable extent prevented the compilation from being 
made in a more satisfactory manner, has caused redundancies in 
some chapters and omissions in others, has prevented the work, 
in short, from being as well proportioned and as carefully written 
as it might otherwise have been. The difficulties experienced by the 
translators and the printers were for the same reason, — lack of time, 
— very great. Under these circumstances it was impossible to bring 
the compilation up to the level of excellence to which I had intend- 
ed to bring it at first ; but I hope that I shall have an opportunity 
at some time in the near future, to revise a work in which I flatter 
myself that I have at any rate succeeded in making a beginning, 
after which subsequent work of emendation and augmentation will 
he comparatively easy. 

May, 1904. 

HARUKl YAMAWAKl 

Secretary of the Department of Ajs^riculture and 

Commerce y atid Japanese Comniissiotier far 

the Louisiana Purchase P2xposition. 



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Contents. 



rART X 



TNTRDDUCTORV. 



Chapter I.— Geography. 

Position 

Area and Administrative Divisions 

Geograph ical Format ion 

Geological Formation 

Climate 

Chapter n.— Population. 

History 

Number 

Density 

Urban and Rural Population ... 

Increase 

Household 

Social Divisions 

The Sexes 

Classi6cat ion as to Age 

Marriage 

Birth-rate 

Death-rate 

Normal Increase 

Emigration 

Chapter in.— Administrative System. 

Rights of Sovereignty 

Legislature and Legislative Organs 

Executive and Executive Organs 

Justice and Judicial Organs (with paragraphs on Codes) 

Chapter IV.— Land as an Institution. 

History 

Classification 

Burdens 

'hvn^^rship 



PAr,K. 

I 

7 

13 

39 

40 

47 
49 
51 
53 
54 
56 
57 
58 
60 
61 
63 
63 
65 
67 



71 

73 
76 
81 



84 
84 
85 
86 



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CONTENTS. 
PART II. 



PRIMARY INDUSTRIES. 



Section L—Ag^culture* 
Chapter L— Introductory. i^ace. 

Position of Agriculture in Natural Polity 88 

Features of Japanese Agriculture 88 

Free-Holders and Tenant-Farmers 89 

Chapter n.— Factors of Tilli^. 

Climate 92 

I^nd 94 

Capital 105 

Labor 113 

Chapter III.— Agricultural Froflucts. 

Introductory 117 

Food-Stuffs 121 

Pjroducts of Special Use 125 

Horticultural Products 130 

Chapter IV.— Sericulture. 

History 133 

Present Condition 137 

Egg-Cards 142 

Filature • 145 

Chapter V.— Tea Manulkcturiug. 

History 151 

Present Condition of the Industry 155 

Kind of Tea 156 

Market 157 

Chapter VL— InstitutiouB for Encouraging Agriculture. 

Agricultural Experiment Stations 159 

Agricultural Institutions 169 

Ambulant Lecturers on Agriculture 170 

Sericulture Institutes 170 

Silk Conditioning House , ... 173 

Imperial Establishment of Tea Industry 174 

Animal Epidemic Laboratory 175 

State Cattle Breeding-Farms 176 

State Horse Studs and Depots 179 



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CONTENTS. 



fa<;e. 



Chapter Vn.— Stook-Breediiq^. 

History of Existing G>nditioD 184 

Kind of Breed and Number of Live-Stock 190 

Register 195 

Slaughter 196 

Disease of Domestic Beasts 196 

Veterinary Surgeons 198 

Use of Live-stock 199 

Dairy-Farming and Meat-Preserving 199 

(Jhapter Vm— Poultry. 

History and Existing Condition 201 

Breeds and Number 201 

Eggs 202 

Chapter IX.— Bee Keeping 203 

Chapter X.— Fanner's Subsidiary Works 204 

Chapter XL— Agricultural Products in Commerce. 

Exports *2o5 

Imports 207 

Chapter XII.— Agricultural Legislation. 

Provisions Relating to Protection and Encouragement 2il 

Provisions Relating to Calamity 218 

Section IT.—Forestry. 

Introductory 224 

Area and Ownership of the Fqrests 225 

Forest Zones and Sylvicultural Conditions 233 

Adjustment of the Forests 250 

Exploitation and Treatment of Forests 257 

Forest-planting and Transport 267 

Wood-produce 267 

Official Supervision of the Forests 282 

Education 284 

Legislative Measures 287 

Section IIL— Mining and Metallui^. 

Introductory 289 

Geological Formation and Mineral Deposits 290 

Mining and Metallurgy 302 

Condition of Mine-Workers 307 

Mining I>cgislatiun 31I 

Statistics rclaliij)( lu Ihc Mining Industry 320 



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CONTENTS. 

Section IV.— Fishery. iA(iE. 

Introductory 329 

Fishing-Grounds 330 

Fishery and Fishery Industry 332 

Distribution of the principal FLsh, etc 337 

Financial Standing of the Fishermen 344 

Aquiculture 349 

Salt-Refining 351 

Markets 353 

Fishery Legislature 375 



VAllT III. 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY. 

Chapter L— General Manufacturing Industry. 

History 381 

Administration 384 

Legislative Measureb 385 

' Principal Exports of Manufacturing Goods 386 

Principal Imports of Industrial Goods 391 

Output of principal Manufacturing Goods 396 

Chapters IL III.— Organization of Manufacturing Industry. 

Manufacturing Establishments 399 

Factories and Workpeople 403 

Chapter IV. —Manufacturing Establishments by the Central and 
Local Governments. 

Encouragement and Protection by Central Government 414 

Encouragement and Protection by Local Offices » 417 

Chapter V.— Industrial Education. 

History 4^8 

Existing Condition 419 

Apprentice System ... * 420 

Chapter VI.— Manu&cturing Corporations 422 

Chapter VII.— Technical Associations 423 

Appendix * 424 

Chapter Vni.— Protection of Industrial Property. 

Introductory 434 

History relating to Protection of Patents, Designs, and Trade Marks 435 

Protection of Foreign Patents, Designs, and Tradt -Mirks 436 

Resume of Existing Regulations 437 

Provisions tliat specially concern Foreigners 440 

Statistics of Japanese and Foreign Patents, Designs, and Trade-Marks ... 442 



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CONTENTS. 
rAUT XF. 



FOREIGN TRADE. 

Chapter I.— Tariff, 

Chapter IT.— Development of Foreign Trade. 
Chapter HI.— Distribution of Trade. .., • . 
Chapter IV.— Principal Exports • 

Chapter V.— Principal Imports 

Chapter VI.— Provisions for Encouraging Foreign Trade 



PACK. 

445 

. 448 

451 

458 

464 
473 



rART r. 



FINANCES. 



Chapter I.— Finances. 

Central Finances ; , 

Local Finances ••• , 

Chapter IL~Loans. 

National Loans , 

Local Loans ••• 

Chapter III.— Currency System. 

Existing System and its History , 

Effect of Coinage System on the Finance and Economy of the Country.. 



Chapter IV.— The Condition of the Money Market 

Introductory 

History and Existing Condition 

Prices of Commodities 

Wages 

Quotation of Stocks and Shares 

Chapter V.— Banks. 

History 

Banks .' 

Chapter VL— Clearing Houses. 

Introductory 

Various Clearing Houses 

Tables for Reference 



4S1 
508 



S17 
535 



53« 
543 



554 
554 
564 
567 
569 



572 
580 



... 606 
... 607 
... 609 



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CONTENTS. 

PART vr 



ARMY AND THE NAVY. 

Chapter L— Army. 

Introductory ••• 

Distributions of the Standing Army 

The Personnel on Peace Standing 

Factories 

Appointments of Ctfticers 

The Complement of Non-Cummissioncd Officers... 

Recruiting of Privates 

Education 

Punishment and Gaols 

Medical Affairs 

Chapter II.--The Navy. 

Introductory 

Personnel on Peace Standing 

Naval Works 

Complement of the Personnel 

The List of the Imperial I''lcct 

Education 

I^inishmcnt 

Health and Hygiene 

Hydrography and Chart 

The Red Cross Society of Japan 





PAGE. 


619 




620 




621 




621 


... 


622 


... 


624 


... 


625 


... 


... 627 


k*. 


629 




630 




632 


... • 


•• 634 


... . 


634 


. 


635 


. 


637 


... . 


- 642 


... 


642 


... 


642 


... • 


643 


... 


644 



PART vir 



COMMUNICATIONS. 
Post and Telegraph. 



Chapter L— Post. 

Introductory 

Official Organization 

Transmission and Delivery 

Kinds and Fees of Mail Matter 

Foreign Mail and Parcel Post 

Receipts and Disbursements 

Chapter II.— Postal Money Orders. 

Domestic Service 

Koreign Service 

Receipts and DisUuriiemeuli) 



... 


649 


... . 


654 


... . 


656 


... 


657 


... • 


661 


... . 


665 


... 


66S 


... 


669 


.*• • 


671 



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CONTENTS. 



Chapter III —Postal Saving BankB 
Chapter IV.— TelegrapL 

Domestic Telegraph 

Organization of the Service 

Foreign Telegraph 

Telegraphic Construction 

Telegraphic Apparatus and Materials 

Chapter V.— Telephone Service. 

Introductory 

Technical Matters 

Chapter VI.— The Personnel. 

How the Staff is Recruited 



PAGE. 

.. 672 

... 675 

.. 678 

... 681 

.. 684 

.. 687 

... 694 
.. 697 

.. 702 



TMAN8POR TA TEON 



Chapter I.— Bailroada. 

Official Organization 

Legislative Measures 

Railroad Lines 

Rolling Stock ... 

Capital 

Volnme of Traffic 

Receipts and Disbursements 

Chapter II.— Ships and Shipping Business. 

Ships '. 

Shipbuilding 

Sailors 

Life-Boat Business 

Protection to Navigation 

Nautical Signals 

Open Ports 



704 
705 
707 
710 
711 

7H 
718 

723 
729 

733 
736 
737 
740 

741 



PART VIIL 



EDUCATION. 



Introductory 

General Education ... 
Higher Education ... 
Technical Education... 
Libraries 



... 742 

... 746 

... 755 

... 762 

... 77« 



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viH 



CONTENTS. 



FORMOSA. 



Introductory 
Agriculture 
Fishery- 
Forestry 
Mining ... 
Trade ... 
Finance 

Communications 
Education, Hygiene and Religion 



PAGE. 
772 

797 

799 

.. 802 

S03 

.. S09 

S19 

822 



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^ 0<- THt 

UNIVERSITY 

or 



JAPAN IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 
20TH CENTURY. 



PART I 

INTRODUCTORY. 



CHAPTER I— Geography* 

Position- Area and Administratiye Divisions— Geographical 
Formation— Geological Formation— Climate. 



I. POSITION. 

THE TERRITORIES OF JAPAN.— In the north-western cor- 
ner of the Pacific Ocean and close to the eastern coast of the continent 
of Asia a chain of islands stretches in an oblique line from north- 
east to south-west, from the vicinity of the Philippines to the south- 
em extremity of the peninsula of Kamchatka, in Russian Siberia. 
These countless islands large and small constitute the Empire of 
Japan. To be more precise, the territories, of the Empire consist of 
five large islands and about six hundred smaller ones. Our most 
southerly degree of latitude is 21° 48' N. at the northern ex- 
tremity of the island of Formosa, and our most northerly degree of 
latitude is 50° 56' at the northern exremity of Araito island, Shum- 
shu district, Chishima province (the Kuriles) ; while, as regards longi- 
tude, the position of " Flower island," the most westerly of the Pesca- 
dores, corresponding to 119° 20' E. Greenwich, is the limit of our 
Smpire on the west; and the position of Shumshu island, Shumshu 
district, Chishima province corresponding to 156° 32' E. Green- 
^ch, is the eastern limit of Japanese territories. In latitude, there- 



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2 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century, 

fore, Japan extends 29 degrees 8 minutes, and in longitude 37 degrees 
12 minutes. As the greatest length of each island is, however, gene- 
rally from south-west to north-east, and as the breadth from east to 
west is comparatively less, and, furthermore, as the whole series of 
islands from Formosa in the south to Chishiraa in the north runs 
from south-west to north-east almost in one continuous line, Japan 
contains a smaller extent of land than one would expect from the 
enormous distance separating its northern from its southern extremity. 

The five large islands mentioned above are Honshu, Shikoku, 
Kyushu, HokkaidS and Formosa; then follow as to size the five 
islands of Sado, Oki, Iki, Tsushima, Awaji and the Pescadores (which 
are, however, a group of islands), and finally of the ^hree archi- 
pelagoes of Chishima, Ogasawara (the Bonin Islands) and Okinawa 
(the Luchu). Of the above islands Honshu is the broadest. In 
shape it somewhat .resembles tlie figure of a fabulous dragon with its 
heatl erect. 

Honshu. — Honshu is bounded on the north by the Pacific Ocean, 
while on the uorth-west it looks across the Sea of Japan towards the 
Korean peninsula and the eastern coast of Siberia. But for the in- 
tervening Inland Sea it would embrace within the curve of its south- 
ern extremely the island of Shikoku. As for the lesser islands of 
Honshu, there are in the Sea of Japan the two islands of Sado 
and Oki, and in the Pacific Ocean the Ogasawara archipelago 
which form, in a sense, the southernmost extremity of Hon- 
shu. In the famous Inland Sea, ofl* the western coast of the pro- 
vinces of Kii and Izumi lies the island of Awaji, covering an area 
of 36 square ri, and forming as it were a connecting link between 
Honshu and Shikoku. 

Shikoku. — Shikoku is the smallest of the five great islands. Its 
north-eastern coast faces, across the Inland Sea, the provinces of Kii, 
Izumi, and the southern coast of the Sany5-do route. The island is 
washed on the south by the Pacific Ocean and is separated at its 
northern extremity by the Strait of Bungo from the provinces of 
Buzen and Bungo on the eastern coast of Kyushu. 

Kyushu. — Kyushu lies to the west of Honshu and Shikoku and 
is a large island measuring more from north to south than it does 
■from ea?t to west. The two islands of Iki and Tsushima lie to the 



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Position. 3 

north of Kyushu aud belong to it geographically iu3 well as for 
administrative purposes. The latter lies opposite the port of Fusan 
in Korea, from which it is separated by the narrow passage known 
as the Strait of Korea. It may be noted that the western part of 
K}Tishu faces the eastern coast of China, though at a greater distance 
than Tsushima is from the coast of Korea, the intervening seas being 
the Yellow Sea and the China Sea. Okinawa lies off the southern 
extremity of the island of Kyushu and runs in a south-westerly direc- 
tion. The most southerly island in the Okinawa group is Hateruma- 
jima, whose coast-line runs parallel to the eastern coast of northern 
Formosa aud is situated at 24° 6' N. L. Finally, the western side 
of the whole archipelago faces the provinces of Chiangsu, Chekiang 
and Fukien of China, while the eastern side is washed by the waters 
of the Pacific. 

Formosa. — Formosa forms the southernmost limit of our terri- 
tories. It lies due south of the most southern island of the Okinawa 
archipelago and at no great distance from the northern shore of the 
island of Luzon, one of the Philippine group, from which it is 
separated by the Strait of Bashi. The western coast of Formosa 
faces the province of Fukien, China, and midway between the two 
Vm the Pescadores. The coast is fairly well indented; its prin- 
cipal harbors are Tansui (Tamsui), Anpei (Anping) and Takao, all 
of which ports supply shipping facilities between the island and the 
interior of China. The eastern coast of Formosa is, on the other 
hand, a magnificent line of precipitous cliffs and affords, therefore, 
very few, if any, good anchorages. The harbor of Kelung is, it is 
true, a tolerable port, but it is situated on the northern and not on 
the eastern coast. 

The Pescadores group consists of no less than 47 islands, mostly 

small ; and owing to the naturally advantageous position of the group 

lying half-way between Formosa and the eastern coast of southern 

</Tiina, it serves aa a place of refuge for ships sailing along the coast 

• of Formosa and between that coast and the opposite shores of China. 

Hokkaido. — Hokkaido, formerly known by the name of Yezo, 
is a large .island situated to the north of Honshu from which it is 
separated by the Strait of Matsumaye (or Tsugaru, as it is called in 
some maps). This island is (if we leave out the Kuriles) the north- 



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4 Japan in the Beginning of the 20^ Century, 

em limit of our Empire, and its western coast lies opposite the north- 
ern coast of Korea and the eastern coast of Bussian Siberia, while 
its most northerly point comes close to the southern extremity of the 
island of Saghalien from which it is only separated by a narrow 
passage, the Strait of Soya. The coast of Kitami which extends 
eastward from Cape Soya to the Bay of Nemuro faces the Chishima 
group and the promontory of Kamchatka and forms, as it were, the 
southern boundary of the Sea of Okhotsk. 

The whole south eastern coast of Hokkaido proper is washed by 
the Pacific. 

Chishima is a volcanic group stretching north-easterly in an 
oblique line from the Bay of Nemuro in which Etrup, the most 
southerly of the group lies, and terminating near the southern ex- 
tremity of Kamchatka. The whole chain separates the Sea of 
Okhotsk from the northern Pacific. 

GEOGRAPHICAL RELATIONS OF JAPAN TO FOREIGN 
COUNTRIES. — ^To describe briefly the geographical relations of our 
Empire to foreign countries, we find to the east and on the opposite 
side of the Pacific Ocean the western shores of the British Dominion 
of Canada as well as those of the United States of America. The 
harbor of Yokohama lies almost in a straight line with San Fran- 
cisco, 4,722 nautical miles distant. Then, to the north-west of Japan 
and on the other side of the Sea of Japan, lies the vast plain of 
Russian Siberia. 

Vladivostock lies opposite the southern part of Hokkaido, 
while the northern coast of Korea is separated by the Sea of 
Japan from the two main divisions of Honshu, viz., San-in 
and Hokuriku. 

The harbor of Fusan which is situated at the southern ex- 
tremity of the peninsula of Korea lies close to the northern portion 
of Kyushu ; while, opposite the main bulk of Kyushu, lie the pro- 
vinces of China that are bordering on the Yellow Sea, the Eastern 
Sea, and the China Sea. 

Formosa, being the most southerly possession of the Empire, 
forips an important station for the carrying on of our intercourse 
with the islands in the South Pacific and with Australia. Its econo- 
mic development has, since its annexation to Japan in 1895, been 



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PaaUion. 5 

Tery striking; and there are great hopes of an increased advance in 
the same direction. 

In r^ard to geographical position, which naturally bears an 
important relation to national prosperity, Japan may be said to be 
advantageously situated, her territories extending in the temperate 
2one from 21® to 60® N. L., and enjoying in consequence a climate 
excellently suited for industrial pursuits. It was quite in accordance, 
therefore, with the nature of things that our forefathers should have 
<»lled the land " Toyo Ashiwara no Mizuho no Kuni " (Land of 
Plenteous Ears of Rice in the Plain of Luxuriant Eeeds). More- 
over the country is, we need hardly remark, one of great natural 
beauty and is inhabited by a people who are universally acknowl- 
^ged to possess a singularly refined taste in dU artistic matters and 
i^fhose great attainments in the arts, pure and applied, have always 
been admitted on all sides. 

Japan's Unique Nationality. — Owing to its peculiar geo- 
^phical position our country constitutes a community distinct in 
several respects, socially and politically, from the adjacent countries 
of Asia. The most marked of these distinguishing traits is that Japan 
has, for more than 2,550 years, been ruled by the same Imperial 
Family, without a solitary break in the succession, thus offering a 
JBtrong contrast to China and Korea, where frequent dynastic changes 
have taken place. Then the great natural valor of the people has 
guarded like an impregnable wall the coasts of their islands, with 
the result that never once during these two thousand years and a 
half has the country been desecrated by foreign aggression. All 
these facts have enabled our people to maintain intact their peculiar 
^nistoms and unique nationality; but it cannot of course be denied 
that in culture, in the arts, in political institutions and in other 
•civilizing factors, Japan has, as a natural and invariable result of 
geographical proximity, learned much from China, Korea, and even 
from India, exactly as in mediseval Europe England learned much 
from France, England and France much from Italy, and Italy much 
from Greece and Constantinople. 

The remark just made of Japan's maintaining intact its peculiar 
^nifltoms and its unique nationality, can hardly be made with strict 
-accuracy to-day, for, owing to the opening up of the country to 



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6 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

foreign intercourse and commerce a little over 50 years ago, a very 
extraordinary change has come over this Empire, a change which 
has affected not only the internal state of the country hut its ex- 
ternal relations as a member of the family of nations as well. It 
need not be stated here, for the fact is sufficiently well known, how 
quite recently the intrinsic strength of Japan began to be suddenly 
recognized all over the world, and how Japan pushed her way to 
the front rank in the comity of nations. 

American Continents. — In fact our country has become a focus 
of navigation routes in the Pacific and a great market in the Far 
East. This is what it should be, for to our east we have Canada, 
the United States of America, Mexico, and the Pacific coast of 
South America, with all of which we are engaged, or are about to 
engage, in active commerce. We build our greatest expectations on 
the United States of America, which is at present our best customer. 
The leading harbors on its Pacific sea-board, that is San Francisco 
and Seattle, together with Vancouver and Victoria of British Colum- 
bia, are connected with this country by regular steamship lines ; and 
it is easy to see that Japan's commercial relations with Europe will 
be altered for the better on the completion of the Panama canal. 

Asiatic Countries. — Then to our north-west we have, as has 
been already pointed out, the vast extent of Russian Siberia, whose 
great trans-continental railroad, just completed, brings Europe and 
Japan nearer to each other than ever they were before. Further, 
there is Korea which, owing to its proximity, is inviting us to ex- 
ploit its resources and to stimulate it by the introduction of our 
industrial and commercial activity. Of course, our commercial rela- 
tions with China are far more important. We need not point out 
that this vast empire covers an area of 760,000 square ri and eon- 
tains about 400 million souls. A near relation of ours, this great 
empire naturally looks to us for help in her endeavors to advance 
along the path that we have already trodden and to have its vast 
resources exploited by the money and enterprise of foreign countries. 
There can be no manner of doubt, therefore, that China*s commercial 
relations with us will become in the future one of far greater im- 
portance than they are to-day, especially when the comparative 
proximity of the two lands is taken into consideration, none of the 



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Area and Administralive Divisiojis. T 

Chinese harbors being separated from our harbor of Nagasaki by 
more than 700 nautical miles. Hongkong, too, though politically 
forming part of the British dominions, is a place of importance to 
US in connection with Chinese commerce, serving as it does as an 
important market for the goods going from Japan to China or vice 
versa. Indeed it occupies the second place on our list in regard to 
ihe volume of commercial transactions. It is separated from Naga- 
saki by 1,070 miles, while between it and the port of Anping, For- 
mosa, the distance is only 300 miles. 

South Pacific. — Lastly, turning our eyes southward, we find 
Australia with its fertile fields and rich resources, while the Philip- 
pines, Java, Dutch India, British India and so on promise to estab- 
lish in the future far more active commercial relations with us than 
are existing at present. 

II. AREA AND ADHINISTRATIYE DIYISIONS. 



AREA. — The whole area of our Empire covers 27,062 square 
n, corresponding roughly to the 325th part of the entire land sur- 
face of the globe and to 107th part of the entire land extent of the 
continent of Asia. The whole area is distributed as follows among 
our principal islands. 

Principal islands. No. of minor islands. Area (sq. r'.) 

Honshu 166^2 I4»57i.i2 

Hokkaido 12 5,061.90 

Kyijshu 150 2,617.54 

Formosa 29 2,25324 

Shikoku ' 74|^ 1,180.67 

Chishima (32 islands) — 1,033.46 

Okinawa (55 islands) — 156.91 

Sado — 56.33 

Tsushima .. * 5 44-72 

Awaji I 36.69 

Oki I 21 89 

The Pescadores 47 1433 

Iki : 1 8.63 

Ogasawara (20 islands) — 4.50 

It will thus be seen that, if 100 represents the whole area of 
the Empire, Honshu occupies 53.84 parts, Hokkaido 18.70, Kyushu 
9.67, Formosa 8.33, Shikoku 4.36, Chishima 3.82 and the rest 1.28. 



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6 Japan in the Beginning oj the 20th Century, 

Comparing our area with that of some other countries, it 19 
found to be 1/30 of the area of Russian Siberia, 1/26 of that of 
China, double that of Korea, 1/22 of that of the United States of 
America, If of that of the British Isles, about 26/100 less thaii 
that of France, and about 29/100 less that of Germany. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS.— For administrative purposes 
our country is divided into forty-six prefectures together with Hok- 
kaid5 and Formosa, these prefectures bemg as follows : — T5ky5, Ky5to, 
Osaka (these three being called Fu), Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba, 
Ibaragi, Tochigi, Gumma, Nagano, Yamanashi, Shizuoka, Aichi, 
Miye, Gifu, Shiga, Fukui, Ishikawa, Toyama, Niigata, Fukushima, 
Miyagi, Yamagata, Akita, Iwate, Aomori, Nara, Wakayama, Hy5go, 
Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Shimane, Tottori, Tokushima, 
Kagawa, Ehime, Kochi, Nagasaki, Saga, Fukuoka, Kumamoto, 
Oita, Miyazaki, Kagoshima, Okinawa (all of which are called 
Ken). Each Fu or Ken is in turn subdivided into Shi (city 
or urban district) and Oun (rural district), the latter of which is 
further subdivided into Chd (town) or Son (village). As the adminis- 
trative system exists at present, the Shi, Chd and Son constitute the 
smallest division for administrative purposes forming a self-governing 
entity, while the Oun and prefectures attend as direct administrative 
gubdivisions of the country to the affairs of state, being at the same 
time allowed some degree of autonomy. In Hokkaid5 the local adminis- 
trative system was inaugurated in 1897 while in Okinawa the adminis- 
trative and self-governing system of its own was inaugurated in 
the preceding year. At present there are throughout the country 
{exclusive of Formosa) 638 Oun, 58 Shi (the administrative dis- 
tricts in Hokkaido aud Okinawa included), 1,054 Clio, 13,468 Son 
(exclusive of those of the seven islands of Izu and Ogasawara). The 
administrative and other matters pertaining to Formosa will be de- 
scribed later on under a separate heading. 

HONSHU. 



Name of prefecture. 


Area. 


No. of 
Oun. 


No. of 
Shf. 


No. of 
Chd. 


No. of 
Son. 


T6ky6-fu 


125.80 


8 


I 


20 


158 


Kanagawa-ken 


155.67 


II 


I 


22 


206 


Saitaxna-ken 


265.99 


9 


— 


42 


350 


Chiba-ken 


3^6.15 


12 


— 


66 


.289 



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Area and Administrative Divisions, 



Name of prefecture. 

Ibaragi-ken 

Tochigi-ken 

•Gumma-ken 

Nagano-ken 

Yamanash i-ken 

.Shizuoka-ken 

Aichi-ken 

Miye-ken 

Gifu-ken ... 

Shiga-ken 

Fakui-ken 

Ishikawa-ken 

Toyama-ken 

Niigata-ken 

Fukushima-ken 

Miyagi-ken 

Yamagata-ken 

Akita-ken 

Iwate-ken 

Aomor i-ken 

Kyoto-fu 

Osaka-fu 

Nara-ken 

l?\rakayama-ken 

"Hyogo-ken 

Okayama-ken 

Hiroshima-ken 
Yamaguch i-ken 

Shimane-ken 

Tottori-ken 



Total 



Toknshima-ken 
Kagawa-ken ... 
Ehime-ken ... 
Kochi-ken ... 

Total 



Area. 


No. of 


No. of No. of 


No. of 


Qun. 


Ski. as. 


8(m. 


385.18 


14 


I 44 


336 


411.77 


8 


I 29 


146 


407.25 


II 


2 36 


171 


853.76 


16 


I 21 


372 


289.85 


9 


1 6 


241 


503.82 


13 


I 35 


307 


312.78 


19 


I 68 


602 


368.55 


15 


2 19 


325 


671.45 


18 


I 39 


305 


258.44 


12 


I 7 


195 


272.40 


II 


I 9 


171 


270.72 


8 


I 15 


260 


266.41 


8 


2 31 


239 


824.59 


16 


I 54 


762 


846.07 


17 


I 31 


389 


540.79 


16 


I 27 


176 


600.15 


II 


2 24 


205 


754.00 


9 


1 31 


208 


899.19 


13 


I 22 


218 


607.03 


8 


2 7 


161 


296.55 


18 


I 18 


263 


115.72 


9 


2 II 


293 


201.42 


10 


• I 18 


142 


310.62 


7 


I 14 


217 


556.68 


25 


2 29 


402 


420.98 


19 


I 20 


427 


520.78 


16 


2 27 


422 


389.99 


II 


> 5 


226 


435.82 


16 


I ' 12 


321 


224.16 


6 


I 7 


228 


14,690.53 


429 


40 866 


9,733 


SHIKOKU. 






271.28 


10 


I 2 


137 


"3.50 


7 


2 11 


169 


341.17 


12 


I 16 


285 


454.72 


7 
36 


I II 
5 40 


186 


1,180.67 


777 






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Google 



10 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Century. 





KYUSHU. 








Name of prefecture. 


Area. 


No. of 
Gun. 


No. of 
Shi. 


No. of 
CA5. 


No. of 
Sim. 


Nagasaki-ken 


335.15 


9 


I 


15 


288 


Saga-ken... .- 


160.08. 


8 


I 


7 


127 


Fukuoka-keu 


317.81 


19 


4 


37 


344 


Kumamoto-ken 


465.47 


12 


X 


29 


338 


Oita-ken 


402.73 


12 


— 


25 


256 


M iyay^k i-ken 


487.34 


8 


— 


7 


93 


Kagoshima-ken 


602.31 


12 


I 


— 


380 


Total 


2,670.89 


80 


8 


120 


1,826 


Okinawa-ken 


156.91 


5 


2 


— 


563 


Hokkaido 


6,095.36 


88 


3 


28 


569 


Formosa 


2,267.57 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Grand total 


27,061.93 


638 


58 


1,054 


13,468 



OLD ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS.— The present divisions 
are traceable to the first administrative divisions marked out by the 
Imperial Government in July, 1871. After the surrender of the 
R^eney by the Tokugawa Shogunate in the year 1867 and the 
reinstatement of the Imperial Grovernraent, the local administrative 
system was established by subdividing the country into the three 
main divisions, of Fu^ Han, and ^Ken, with Fu-Chiji (Governor of 
Fu) Ken-Chiji (Governor of Ken), or Han-shu (Governor of Han) 
placed over these divisions respectively. At that time, therefore, the 
local administration was conducted in conformity with the former 
Han (or feudal) administrative system. It was in 1872 that the 
system was completely reorganized, though even then the country 
was subdivided into as many as 1 Do (colonial organization), 8 Fu 
and 302 Ken, Similar amalgamations and separations have frequent- 
ly been carried out subsequently, till at last the existing local system 
has been evolved. 

Apart from the present administrative subdivisions there survives 
from former times another system of local subdivisions of historical 
importance. These divisions are the 8 Do (or routes) and 85 Kuni 
(or provinces). In tracing up the development of this particular 
system, it is found to have originated in the subjugation of the 
country by the first Emperor Jimmu, who established a feudal 



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Area and Administrative Divisions, 11 

system and placed in important districts followers of his own who 
bad distinguished themselves, conferring upon them the official title 
of Kuni-no-Miyatsuko or Agata-nush^, It will thus be seen that the 
local subdivisions of provinces were at first of political origin. The 
subsequent Emperors followed the example set by their ancestor, and 
marked out the subdivisions of Kuni and Agata with a Kuni-tsuko 
appointed over each of them. All these subdivisions were deter- 
mined by geographical considerations. It was however after the great 
change carried out by the Emperor Temmu (673-685 A.D.) that » 
the names of Kinai and 7 Do were first fixed upon, while, 
again, between 717 A.D. of the reign of the Empress Gensei 
(715-723) and the Tencho era (824-833) of the Emperor Junna 
(824-833) the small subdivisions of Kxini and Gun were first deter- 
mined upon. According to the system then elaborated, the whole 
country was subdivided into Kinai and 8 Do and 68 provinces, with 
the island of Yezo as a sort of outlying territory. The Do com- 
prised Nankaid5, T5kaid5, Hokuriku-do, Tosan-d5, Sany5-d5, San-in- 
dO, and Saikai-d5 (or Kyushu). Kinai was, properly speaking, also 
one of these' Z)5, but this special designation was given to it in view 
of the fact that the five provinces of Yamashiro, Yamato, Kawachi^ 
Izumi, and Settsu which constituted Kinai were situated round the 
then capital of the country. Nankai-do comprised Kii, Awaji, Awa, 
Sanuki, lyo and Tosa (the latter four of which constitute Shikoku). 
A stretch of land lying on the cast of Kinai and extending along 
the eastern coast of Honshu was called Tokai-d5. It comprised Iga, 
Ise, Shima, Owari, Mikawa, Totomi, Suruga, Kai, Izu, Sagami, 
Musashi, Awa, Kazusa, ShimOsa, and Hitachi, 15 provinces in all. 
Hokuriku-do was a stretch of land lying along the Sea of Japan 
and situated to the north of the central portion of Honshu. It con- 
sisted of the seven provinces of Wakasa, Echizen, Kaga, Noto, 
Etchu, Echigo and Sado. TOsan-do lay between Tokai-do and Hoku- 
riku-do and extended northward along the centre of Honshu till it 
reached its northern extremity, the eight provinces of Omi, Mino, 
-Hida, Shinano, Kozuke, Shimozuke and Mutsu composing it. Sanyo- 
d6 was the southern strip of land of Honshu to the west of Kinai 
and lying along the Inland Sea. It comprised the eight provinces 
of Harima, Mimasaku, Bizen, Bitchu, Bingo, Aki, Suwo and Nagato. 



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12 Japan in the Beginning of the 2Qth Century. 

San-in-dO was situated at the back of SanyS-dO, facing the Sea of 
Japan and contained Tamba, Tango^ Tajima, Inaba, H5ki, Izumo, 
Iwami and Oki. Lastly Saikaido contained Chikuzen, Chikugo, 
Buzen, Bungo, Hizen, Higo, Hyuga, Osumi, Satsuma, and the two 
outlying islands of Iki and Tsushima. The island of Yezo now Hok- 
kaidS before it was subdivided into provinces subsequent to the 
Restoration, was known by the collective name of Yezo. 

Although, as described above, our original local subdivisions 
owe their existence to considerations of administrative convenience, 
they lost much of this original significance subsequent to the period 
of the ascendancy of the Genji and Heik^ clans, when the real power 
of the country passed into the hands of the military classes and 
feudalism gradually came into existence. The powerful clans began 
to set themselves up in various parts of the country and while some 
absorbed several provinces, each of the minor clans had to content 
itself with holding only a part of one province. 

Important changes ensued in the local arrangements on the 
advent of the rehabilitated Imperial Government. In the year 1868 
the province of Mutsu was split up into Iwaki, Iwashiro, Rikuzen 
and Rikuchu, and the province of Dewa into Uzen and Ugo. Fur- 
ther, in 1869, the name Yezo was superseded by that of Hokkaido 
and the island thus designated was subdivided into the 11 provinces 
of Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi, Ishikari, Teshiwo, Hidaka, Tokachi, 
Kushiro, Nemuro, Kitami and Chishima. Hokkaido was further 
subdivided into 86 Oun, and an ''Imperial Colonization Commis- 
sion " (Kaitakushi) was despatched to take charge of the administra- 
tion of the island. 

In the year 1872 the Okinawa group was given a collective 
designation, being called the Province of Luchu, and joined to Nan- 
kai-dO. In 1875 Saghalien was, as the result of a' treaty with 
Russia, exchanged for the Etrup group which was annexed to 
Chishima. 

It will thus be seen that according to this special system of 
local subdivisions the country at present comprises 1 IQnai and 8 
Do, with 85 provinces. This classification no longer, however, pos- 
sesses any of the political importance which once attached to it, but 
it is still in vogue, side by side with the existing administrative 

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Otographieal Formation. IS 

8]r8tem. Being the oldest system of this description, it is of some 
archseological interest as it also serves more or less as indicating a 
natural and geographical boundary for the manners and customs of 
the different places. 



III. OEOORAPHICAL FORMATION. 



MOUNTAIN RANGES, — Japan is on the whole mountainous^ 
extensive plains being comparatively rare. Owing to the mildness 
of the climate and the abundance of the rainfall, forests are found 
everywhere thn)U«^l)out the land, feeding the headwaters of rivere,. 
which in turn intersect the country in almost every direction and 
serve as means of irrigation as well as highways for transportation. 
Our country also lies along one of the world's most noted volcanic 
routes, and the volcanic cones that stand in almost every part tend 
very much to add to the diversity of the natural scenery and ta 
heighten by contrast the natural beauty of the country, however 
destructive they may be at times. 

Formation of the Ranges. — The mountain ranges of Japan 
may be classified into two main divisions, namely Paleozoic and* 
volcanic. These two kinds of ranges intersect each other in many 
places and generally extend along the central portion of the land, 
dividing it therefore into two sections and also forming its 
watershed. 

The mountain ranges may by their general formation 
Two great \^q divided into two great systems, the northern and the 
^^ southern. The former extending from north to south, 

is known by the name of the Saghalien system, as it starts 
from the Russian island of Saghalien. It passes into our terri- 
tory at Hokkaido, where it branches out into several 
Saghalien subsidiary ranges. It then takes a south-westerly 
System. course, and enters Honshu by the northern coast. In 
the central portion of Honshu it spreads out into seve- 
ral high ranges. It is here that the Saghalien system encounters 
theKunglung system coming from the south. 

The Kunglung system, otherwise called the Chinese system,. 



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14 Japan %n the Beginning of ike 20th Century. 

takes its rise in the Kunglung range in China. After traversing 
the central portion of the island of Formosa, it divides 
Kunglung itself into two sub-ranges, one of which enters Kyushu 
System. from the south-western coast and reaches Honshu via 
Shikoku and the peninsula of Kii. Finally, it passes 
through the provinces of Yamato, Mikawa and T5tQmi and pnds on 
the borders of Shinario. The other sub-system enters Honshu froni 
its western coast, separates the San-in and Sany5-d6 regions, and 
passes along the nortliern side of Lake Biwa till it enters the 
province of Hida, where it is met by the other sub-system and also 
the Saghalien system. The consequence of this meeting is that 
many lofty peaks are formed in Hida. This encounter of the 
different systems also results in the sending southward of a chain of 
volcanic peaks which, beginning in Suruga and Sagami, passes on 
to the islands of Izu and far into the Pacific Ocean. This chain is 
known by the name of the Fuji volcanic chain. 

HokkaidS Ranges. — ^The Paleozoic mountain system in 

Hokkaido begins at Cape Soya. After passing along the border of 

the provinces of Kitami and Teshivvo it meets with, in 

Paleozoic ^^ central part of the island, the Chishima volcanic 

System, mountain system that enters the island from its eastern 

coast. At the junction several high peaks such as 

Teshiwo (5,247 shalcu), Ishikari (6,715 shaku), Tokachi (5,979 shaku) 

are formed. This Palec^zoic chain separates Hidaka from Tokachi 

and finally extends southward as far as Cape Erimo. 

The volcanic chain mentioned above originates, in the western 

part of Kamchatka and, after extending to the south-west and 

forming the volcanic archipelago of Chishima, it enters via Kunajiri 

island the main island of Hokkaid5 at the boundary 

Volcanic between Nemuro and Kitami. This system encounters 

Chain. another system at the boundary between Kitami and 

Kushiro and this .meeting place of the two mountain 

systems is marked by such volcanic cones as Raushi-san (5,400) 

Shari-dake (5,200), Oakan (4,979), and Me-akan (5,336). There is 

another volcanic chain in the south-western part of the island. 

It originates in the sea off the coast of northern Teshiwo, enters 

Kushiro and Iburi, and forms Tarumaye-san (2,929), Noboribetsu 

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Geographical Farynatian. 15 

(3,375) and Usu-dake. It enters by way of Volcano Bay the ' penin- 
eola of Oshima where it forms Komagatake (3,626) and Esan 
(1,386) and finally crosses over to the main island of Japan via the 
Strait of Tsugaru. This is called the Iburi volcanic system. 

Owing to this peculiar geographical formation, the island of 
Hokkaido surpasses all the other parts in the Empire in possessing 
extensive forests and plains, these two measuring no less than 
^,900,000 cho in area. Hokkaido therefore is noted for its timbers 
which are excellent for general architecture and shipbuilding. The 
Yubari coal mines situated at the foot of Mount Yubari are, 
together with the Poronai and Utashinai coal mines, famous for the 
<!oal they produce. 

Northern Ranges of Honshu. — ^There are two mountain 

ranges in the northern part of Honshu. One of them takes its rise 

on the southern bank of the river Hachinohe, Mutsu. 

Eitakami ^^ ^^^^ ^^^s southward, enters Rikuchu, and finally 

Bange. reaches the vicinity of the Bay of Matsushima, after 

extending along the eastern bank of the river Kitakami. 

In this range Hayai-dake (6,270), Yakushi-dake, and Murone-san 

are the highest peaks. 

The other range arises at the headwaters of the river Abukuma, 

and stretching southward it enters Hitachi. Reizan and Hayama 

(3,548) Yadaijin-sau and Akai-dake (2,376), Hakko-san 

Abnkuma (3,323) and Kaba-san (2,531) and Tsukuba-san (2,897) 

Eange. form the crests of the chain. Of the two, the former 

range is known by the name of the Kitakami range and 

the latter by that of the Abukuma range. 

Volcanic Ranges in North-eastern Honshu. — ^There are 
two ranges of volcanic cones in the north-eastern part of Honshu, 
the two together forming the backbone of that island. One 
originates at Osore-yama at Tonami Peninsula and terminates at 
Asama-yama, Shinano. YakkOda-san (5,232), Gauju-san (6,797), 
Zwdake (6,481), Obandai-san (6,072), Hiuchi-yama (6,539), Komaga- 
take (6,811), Nasu-dake (6,310), Akagi-san (6,431) are the loftiest 
peaks in this range, which at NikkO spreads out 
Toto Volcanic into a medley of high peaks. This is called the 
Kangc. '■ Toto central volcanic range." The other is known 

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16 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

by the name of U-yetsu volcanic range and starts from Iwaki- 

san (5,161), Mutsu. Like the former, it enters 

U-yetsa Vol- Shinano, sending up along its route Chokai-san 

canic Bange. (6,885), Haguro-san, Gessan (6,780), Yudono-san, 

Mikagura-san (4,022) and Shirane-san (7,069). 

These two ranges form the watershed of the north-eastern section 
of Honshu and send the rivers taking their rise in it into the Sea 
of Japan on one hand and into the Pacific Ocean on the other. 
The forests abounding in the forests of Aomori and Akita-ken are 
noted for the production of fine timber, while the forests in the 
Nikk5 group produce excellent timbers of sugi (Japanese cedar) and 
hinoki (Japanese cypress). Then in the U-yetsu range there is the 
Ani copper mine in Ugo and the Ozaruzawa copper mine in Riku- 
chu, while the famous copper mine of Ashiwo is situated in the 
Nikk5 group. 

Fuji Volcanic Ranges. — The meeting of the Saghalien and 
the Kunglung mountain systems at the boundary of Shinano and 
Hida results in great up-heavals of the surface, one of the most 
noteworthy being the Fuji volcanic range which, with 
Mt. Fuji. Mount Fuji as a centre, extends northward to the 
headwaters of the river Arakawa at Echigo, and extends 
southward to the seven islands of Izu, finally terminating in the 
Ogaeawara group. In the northward arm there are, at the boundary 
between Shinano and Hida, Iwo-zan (10,074 ft.), Norikura-dake 
(10,447), Ou-take (10,345). Yatsuga-take (9,675) stands at the 
boundary between Kai and Shinano. The upheavals of which we 
speak culminate at last in Mount Fuji, the highest peak in Japan 
proper with an elevation of 12,450 shaku above the sea-level. 
Mount Fuji possesses the typical shape of a volcanic cone. Except 
in the height of the summer season, the summit is covered with 
snow, and its majestic shape is a good landmark for navigators. 
It ought to be added that the northern arm contains in the central 
portion of Shinano an extensive plateau with villages situated over 
2,600 shaku above the sea-level. Lake Suwa, which is situated 
here, is a big extinct crater, and is situated 2,637 shaku above the 
sea-level. 

Ranges in Central Honshu. — There are four subsidiary 



'i^^a./u^ -^ ffS^ ti«?lic^ Digitized by Google 



Oeoffrdphical Formation, 17 

ranges in the central part of Honshu, of which the Hida, the Kiso^ 
and the Akaishi ranges belong to the Kunglung system while the 
remaining KwantO range forms part of the Saghalien system. 

The Hida range originates in Mount Katakarl which towers 
at the boundary between Etcha and Echigo. After forming Mount 
Hida Rengd (9,682) and Tateyama (9,372) it enters Hida, 
Range, and makes that province exceedingly mountainous. The 
Mozumi and Shikama mines, which are noted for their lead 
TTifft and silver, are found in this range. The Kiso range 
Bange. originates in Mount Koniagatake (9,934) situated at 
the headwaters of the river Kiso and extends southward as far as 
the centre of the province of Mikawa. This range abounds in steep 
passes and precipitous gorges, as also in dense forests producing the 
famous " five timbers of Kiso." 

The Akaishi range starts with Akaiwa-san (10,206) which 
stands at the boundary between Shinano and Suruga. Affcer 
Akaishi running southward between the basins of the rivers Oi 
Bange. and Tenryu, it sends up Omugen-zan (7,692) and Kuro- 
boshidake (7,132), and ends at Akiwa-san and Dainichi-san. The 
Kwanto KwantS range forms the boundary of Shinano, Mudshi^ 
Bange. and KOzuke, and runs in a south-easterly direction. 
Kobushi-dake (8,094) and Kumotori-san (6,603) are the highest 
peaks in this range. The two passes of Sasago (3,488) and Koba 
toke occur in the ridge of the range. 

The Kii range comprises the elevations found in Kii, Yamato 
and Shima. A chain of hills extending from K5ya and Hate- 
nashi-dake (3,399) and the Yoshino group containing 
Kii Bange. ^akamiyama (4,422) and Odaigahara (5,295) may also 
be mentioned here. The forests of Yoshino are famous for their 
caders. * 

Chugoku Rangis.— The Chugoku ranges, part of the Kunglung 
system, enters Honshu and Kyushu, and form the boundary liqe 
between the SanyS and San-in routes as also a watershed for these 
two regions, sending rivers, on the one hand, northward to the Sea 
of Jdpan and, on the other hand, southward to the Inland Sea. 
Tbh range extends to the north of Lake Biwa, but its peaks Ate 
comparatively low. Mount Jakuji (4,478) on the border of the 



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18 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

three provinces of Suwo, Aki, and Iwami, and Hijei-zan and 
Hiradake (4,068) rising from the shores of the lake are the highest 
peaks in the range. 

Volcanic Ranges in Chugoku.— At the same time a chain 
of volcanic cones extends along the western part of Honshu, running 
almost parallel to the Kunglung range above mentioned. It starts 
at the northern extremity of the province of Nagato, produces 
Sambe-san (4,049) at the border of Iwami and Izumo, and Daisen 
Hakn-zan (^»^^^) ^^ Hski. It passes on to Echizen via Tajima, 
Volcanic where it is represented by Dainichi-dake (5,979) situated at 
Chain the border of Echizen and Hida, and finally ends with 
Haku-zan (8,712) in Kaga. This volcanic chain is therefore 
known by the name of Haku-zau volcanic chain. 

Shikoku Ranges. — ^The mountain range of Shikoku is also a 
part of the Kunglung system and comes from Kyushu. It starts 
at the western extremity of Shikoku with j5gashiro-san (3,573). 
After sending up Mount Ishitsuchi (6,920) and some others at the 
border of lyo and Tosa, and forming Isurugi-zan (7,393) at Awa, 
the highest peak in Shikoku, it passes on to the south of 
• Tokushima, to join the Kii range across the narrow intervening 
arm of the sea. This range of Shikoku divides the island into two 
halves, northern and southern, and therefore serves as a watershed 
for the two divisions. The island has besides, a volcanic chain, 
also coming from Kyushu. 

Kyushu Ranges. — ^Though constituting a link of the Kunglung 

system in Japan, the mountain range of Paleozoic formation which 

is found in Kyushu is comparatively low. At the west it rises on 

tbe shore of Higo, extends north-eastward, to send up Kunimi-dake 

and Obayama (6,550), till, coming to Saga, it crosses over to 

I Shikoku. The volcanic chains, two in number, are 

Kirishima more noteworthy, one of them bcang called the 

and Kirishima chain and the other the Aso chab. The 

AfiO Chains, former originates at a considerable distance to the south, 

that iS| in the sea off the coast of Formosa. After 

manifesting its presence on the small islands off Satsuma, and on 

^akura-jima which is situated in the Bay of Kagoshima, it reaches 

Kirishima-yama (4,816), after which it disappears into the sea off 



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Oeographioal Formation. 19 

Tatsusbiro. The Aso chain consiBts of Tara-dake in the Hizen 
Peninsula, Onsen-dake (4,470) in the Shimabara Peninsula, and 
Aao-san (5,577). After proceeding to Bungo, the chain disappears 
in the sea off Suwo. 

FOBMOSA Ranges. — Formosa is traversed southward from its 
central part by the Gyoku-san range which subdivides that 
section of the island into eastern and western halves. The former 
district has a coast line composed of abrupt cliffs, while the latter, 
though on the whole hilly, is fringed by a fertile plain extending 
as far as the coast and with streams running through 
Mi. Niitaka. it. Gyoku-san or Mount Niitaka (sometimes also 
called Mount Morrison), which gives its name to this 
range, is the highest peak in the whole of Japan, rising as it does 
14,355 shaku above the sea-level. Its summit is often covered by 
SDow even in the hottest season, and was formerly called the 
" Jewel Mount " by the Chinese. To the east of HSzan stands 
Mount Kat5 (9,108) and to the north Mount Kantaban (9,956), 
the two peaks forming the extremities of the range. At the 
northern part of the island, which is also hilly, no regular mountain 
system is found, excepting a little volcanic group, of which Daiton- 
san is the most important peak. 

PLAINS. — Owing to the hilly nature of the land, the plains 
in Japan mostly consist of mountain or river valleys, and also 
the slopes of mountains, so that, strictly speaking, they cannot be 
called plains at all, at least in the sense in which the term is 
understood in America, Australia or Siberia. Even if we do 
regard them as plains, we find them to be comparatively limited in 
extent compared with the plains of most other countries. 

Plains in Hokkaido. — Hokkaido has, however, four real plaius, 

namely, the Ishikari plain, the Tokachi plain, 

Iihikari, Tokachi, the Teshiwo plain, and the Eushiro plain. Of 

Teshiwo, and these the first, which is the basin of the river 

Knshiio Flaios. Ishikari, is the most extensive occupying as 

it does an area of about 37 n by 5 ri. The 

basin of the lower course of the river is extremely fertile, but that 

an the upper course is rather sandy and consequently less fertile. 

The secQnd plain is the basin of the river Tokachi and measures 



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20 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

about 20 ri both in length and breadth. The soil is fertile. The- 
two rivers are partly navigable. The valley of the river Teshiwo 
forms the Teshiwo plain, w&ile the Kushiro plain is situated in 
she southern part of the province of Kushiro. It is comparatively 
humid and not quite as fertile as the other three. 

Plains in Honshu. — ^There are about eight plains worth mention- 
ing in the island of Honshu. Of these, two are in the northern 
part. One of them is formed by the basin of the river Kitakami 
and lies between the Central volcanic range and the Kitakami 
range; the other is the basin of the river Abukuma which lies 
between the Central volcanic range and the Abukuma 
Kitakami range. The Kitakami plain extends from the neighbour- 
FlaiD. hood of the city of Morioka and extends southward as 
far as Sendai. The soil is generally fertile, especially 
in the lower part of the basin. The other extends over the two 
provinces of Iwaki and Iwashiro. It is liable to be flooded in the 
rainy season, but the soil is good. The two plains are collectively 
called the plain of Mutsu and are traversed by the trunk line of 
the Nippon fiailroad. 

The Aizu plain, though well adapted for cultivation, is ex- 
tremely limited in extent, being practically the border of Lal^e 
Inawashiro. On the other hand the Mogami plain, the 
pj. valley of the river of the same n^me, is, though the 
cold is somewhat severe there in winter, an excellent 
agricultural district. Its resources are likely to prove far more 
Mogami valuable in future than at present when the Govern- 
Plain, ment Southern 0-u Railroad now extending from Fuku- 
shima to Yamagata via Yonezawa shall have been completed. 

The plain of Echigo, which measures about 40 ri from 

north to south and is watered by the rivers Shinano, Akano 

Echigo ^^^ others, is the most important rice-producing district 

Plain- in the whole of Japan, the soil being well adapted for the 

cultivation of what we may well call the national cereal. 

The Kwant5 plain is the widest alluvial plain in our coun- 
try and is also one of the most prosperous. It extends over the 
Kwanto ^^^^ prefectures of Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Gumma and 
Plain. Ibaragi, and measures between 30 or 40 ri in length. 



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Geographical Formation, 21 

and breadth. This plain is watered by the navigable river 
Tone, besides possessing lagoons and ponds, and thus enjoys 
the greatest convenience in the matter of transportation, both by 
land and water. With the metropolis of the Empire and many other 
flourishing cities situated in it, this plain is a very important dis- 
trict both from the industrial and the agricultural points of view. 

Plains in central Honshu.— The Mino-Owari plain, the 

most important plain in the central part of Honshu, is the valley 

of the lower course of the river Kisoand its tributaries. 

MinoOwari The land is rather low-lying and is therefore subject to 

Plain the danger of inundation, but it is extremely fertile 

and is noted as a rice-producing district. Nagoya, the 

largest city in Japan next to the " three cities ", is situated in this 

plain, while to the north lies the city of Gifu. 

The Kinai plain, the basin of the rivers Yamato and Yedo 

Xinai a,nd the district of Kyoto and Osaka, may be con- 

Plaio. sidered as the cradle of our old civilisation and therefore 

the centre of our ancient history. It contains Kyoto and 

Osaka, the former widely renowned for its natural beauty and fine 

arts, and the latter for its commerce and manufactures. 

In the Sanyo and 8an-in districts there is, owing to the peculiar 
geographical formation of the land, no wide plain that deserves 
any special notice. 

Plains in Shikoku.— In Shikoku the valley of the river Yoshino 
and the stretch of flat land lying on the northern sea-coast of 
fianuki may be mentioned, though both are limited in extent. The 
soil is good, and the Yoshino plain is noted for the cultivation of 
the indigo-plant. The city of Tokushima is situated on the lower 
course ef the above-mentioned river. 

Plains in Kyushu.— The Tsukushi plain, the valley of the river 

vhikugo, is the most important plain in Kyushu, on account of 

Irohishiand its extent, its fertility, and its large production of 

CMkuzen grain. The Chikuzen plain which faces the Sea of 

*"^ Genkai is also noted for its agricultural products. 

Plains in Formosa. — In the western section of Formosa a narrow 

strip of flat alluvial land extends along the coast from north to 

south, and the section stretching from Shoka to Tainan is widely 

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22 Japan m the Beginning of ike 20ih Century. 

noted for the production of rioe, sugar cane, and other crops. Colo- 
nization is most actively going on in this section. 

RIVERS. — Owing to the nature of our geographical formation 
and the consequent lack of any great distance from sea to sea, the 
rivers found in our country are comparatively short and rapid. 
However, some of them are comparatively long with wide alluvial 
basins, and supply great convenience in the way of transportation. 
They also form deltas at their mouths and hence give rise to pros- 
perous cities. The case of Osaka at the lower course of the river 
Yodo is a typical example. 

At the same time all those rivers are liable to inundations iii< 
times of heavy rainfalls, and to lay waste the surrounding districts. 
Damage inflicted by those inundations on life and property has 
frequently proved heavy. 

Rivers Kitakami and Abukuma. — Honshu enjoys more than 
any other part of the country the benefits to be derived from rivers 
as means of supplying irrigation and facilities of transportation. Of 
tne rivers that take their rise in the watershed running across this 
region and empty themselves into the Pacific Ocean, the Kitakami 
and the Abukuma, already mentioned, are found in the northern 
section, the former measuring about 79 ri in length and the latter 
about 77 n. The Kitakami takes its rise in the back part of the 
province of Rikuchti, and sending off in Rikuzen a branch called 
the Oinami, empties itself at Ishinomaki into the Bay of Sendai% 
The Kitakami, flowing from north to south across a plain, is com- 
paratively slow in current and supplies the people along its banks 
with the benefits of irrigation as well as of river traflSc. The Abu- 
kuma takes its rise in Asahi-dake and Kinone-dake, Iwashiro, and 
flowing past the city of Fukushima, empties itself into the Pacific 
Ocean at the boundary of Rikuzen. For about 35 ri in its lower 
course the river admits of river trafl[ic conducted by boats. 

River Tone. — The river Tone, otherwise called the BandO 
Taro, rises in a hilly part of KOzuke and runs for more than 70 
ri through the extensive alluvial plain of Kwant5 already described. 
Flowing southward it is joined by the river Watarase at Kurihashi^ 
while at the town of Sekiyado it sends out a branch called the 
Yedogawa. Running further in a south-easterly direction, it enters 



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Oeographieal Fopnalion. 23^ 

the ocean at the harbor of Gh(tehi. It is connected with several 
lagoons as Kasumiga-ura and Eita*ura, and is a great highway of 
communication and transportation between Tokyo and the provinces 
of Chiba, Ibacagi and Saitnma. This advantage has been greatly 
increased by the junction of the Tone and the Yedo rivers by a 
canal measuring 2 ri m length and 20 yards in breadth. The work 
was completed in 1890. 

River Sumida. — The river Sumida, though only 30 ri in 
length, gathers importance from the fact that in its lower course it 
flows through Tokyo, thereby supplying to the city a great benefit 
for its traflRc. 

River Fuji. — The Fuji (38 ri), which empties itself into the 
Golf of Suruga, and the Oi (46 ri) and the Tenryu (60 ri) are a 
source more of damage than of benefit, owing to fact that they con- 
tain little water in ordinary times, and become suddenly swollen 
after rainfalls. 

River Kigo. — The river Kieo (46 n), which rises in Nishi 
Chikuma, a district of Shinano, much resembles the Tone as to ita 
basin and its traffic importance. Its principal tributaries are the 
river Hida in the upper part of its course and the river Ibi in the 
lower part of its course, the river finally emptying itself into the 
Bay of Atsuta. The sediments brought down by it form deltas, and 
indeed the fine net-work into which the lower course is subdivided 
has no parallel in Japan. As may be seen by a reference to his- 
torical records the formation of deltas in this river is extremely rapid. 
River Yodo. — The rivor Yodo is an outlet of Lake Biwa: the 
upper course is called Uji, and the lower part the Aji. It is a 
comparatively bhort river, extending only 20 ri, but from its situa- 
tion it serves, together with the adjoining streams of Kitsu and 
Yamato, as a valuable factor in the prosperity for this district. 
The alluvial plain in which Osaka is situated was mainly formed 
by this river. 

Kyoto Canal. — A short notice of the Kyoto canal which join& 
Lake Biwa with the river Kamo may be given here, it being the 
most important work of the kind recently undertaken in our coun- 
try. It measures 6,107 ken with ramifications altogether measuring 
1/^20 ken. The canal serves for irrigation, as a highway for the 



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24 Japan in the Beginning of the 2Qih Century. 

trausportation of goods and produce, and also for generatiDg electri- 
city for the city of Kyoto. It was constructed in the year 1890 at 
a cost of 1,200,000 ym. 

River Kii. — The river Kii, called also in some places the 
Yoshino and in others the Kiino, comes from Mount Odaigahara 
and empties itself into the sea in the vicinity of. the city of Waka- 
yama. It measures 47 ri in length, of which the lower 13 ri 
admit of being traversed by river craft. 

Rivers in Sanyo and San-in Districts. — The river basin 
being extremely * limited both in the BaiiyO and San-in districts, 
owing to the existence of a mountain ridge along their border line, 
the rivers in this region are short. The Gonogawa, which comes 
from Aki and empties itself into the Sea of Japan in Iwami, is the 
longest of them, extending to the length of 50 ri, of which 20 ri 
are navigated by river craft. 

Rivers Kuzuryu and Jintsu. — To continue the description- of 
the rivers flowing into the Sea of Japan, there are in Hokuriku the 
rivers Kuzuryu, Jintsu and Imizu. The Kuzuryu rises at .the boun- 
dary of Mino and, after passing through the city of Fukui, flows 
into the sea at the* seaport town of Mikuni. The Jintsu takes its 
rise at Mount Kawakami, Hida, and flows into the Bay of Toyama 
via the city of Toyama. The other river, which rises at Mount 
Dainichi, Hida, also flows into the same bay. The three rivers 
aflbrd great convenience in the matter of irrigation and partly admit 
of river traflSc. The Imizu, the longest of the three, measures 50 ri. 

River Shinano. — The river Shinano is the largest river in 
Honshu, its principal tributaries being the Sai-gawa and the Unuma- 
gawa. It comes from the eastern pare of Shinano and, after flow- 
ing 100 n, empties itself into the sea at the city of Niigata. Owing 
to the fact that a large number of small streams join it, the river 
is very wide; but it is shallow and only at the lower course north 
of Nagaoka it admits of being navigated by small river steamers. 

River Onga-Gawa. — The Onga-gawa flowing to the east of the 
Shinano comes from Lake Inawashiro, Iwashiro. After running 57 ri, 
it empties itself into the sea at Matsuga-saki, Echigo. This current 
is more rapid than the other, and only at its lower course can it 
^mit of river traffic. These two rivers while watering the exten- 



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Oeographieal Far)naUon. 25 

siye plain of Echigo, supply it also with means of irrigation, carry 
its traffic, and yield it fish, so that they may properly be regarded 
as forming a vital factor in the prosperity* of the province. 

River Mogami. — The Mogami (62 ri) which takes its rise at 
Mount Danichi, Echigo, flows into the sea at the harbor of Sakata, 
aft^r passing near the cities of Yonezawa and Yamagata and col- 
lecting a number of streams along the way. The alluvial plains in 
which the two cities are situated are the work of the river. How- 
ever, the current is rapid, the Mogami being one of the three most 
rapid streams in our country, so that the river supplies only small 
convenience, if any at all, in the way of river traffic. 

River Ishieari. — In Hokkaid5 the existence of an elevation 
in the central part results in the sending of rivers in four direc- 
tions, those flowing west being the Ishikari and the Teshiwo, to give 
only the principal streams, those flowing northward into the Sea of 
Okhotsk being the minor streams in Kitami, while the Kushiro and 
Tokachi rivers flow southeastward into the Pacific Ocean. Those in 
the provinces of Hidaka and Iburi run parallel to each other and 
southward into the ocean. The river Ishikari is the largest in the 
whole of Japan, and watering the wide plain of Ishikari, it extends 
over 167 ri. As a large number of small streams join this lordly 
river, the Ishikari may be considered as conducing to a very large 
extent to the fertility and prosperity of the western plains of Hok- 
kaidS. For about 50 ri in its lower course the river is navigable by 
river steamers. It rises in Mount Ishikari and joins the sea at; the har- 
bor of the same name. The river Uryu is its principal tributary. 

RivEit Teshiwo. — The Teshiwo, taking its rise in Mount Teshiwo 
that stands on the boundary of Ishikari and Kitami, flows into the 
Sea of Japan after running northward for 74 ri. The current is 
less rapid than that of the Ishikari and is therefore more easily 
navigable. 

River Kushiro. — ^The river Kushiro comes from Lake Ku- 
shiro situated in the northern part of the province of the same 
name. After flowing southward, it empties itself into the ocean 
»t the sea-port town of Kushiro. The current b comparatively 
slow, and for 20 ri in its lower course it admits of being navigated 
by river steamers. 



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26 Japan in the Beginning of the 2Qth Century, 

BrvER ToKACHi. — ^The river Tokachi rises on the mount of 
the same name and, after running southward for an aggregate dis- 
tance of 53 n, it flows 'into the sea, one branch at Tokachi and 
the other at Otsu, as the river, divides into two branches before 
it reaches the sea. Although the basin of the river is wide and 
sufficiently fertile, it is not yet so extensively opened as the plain 
of Ishikari. 

Rivers in Shi&oku. — As the area is limited and a mountain 
range occupies the central portion of the island of Shikoku, the rivers 
are separated into those flowing northward and those flowing south- 
ward. All of them are short, except the river Yoshino, otherwise 
called the Shikoku Shiro. It measures 43 W, and waters the plain 
of Awa. It supplies the means of irrigation and of river traffic, 
only it often overflows the banks, iu the rainy season. The river 
takes its rise in the northern part of Tosa, and, flowing eastward, 
empties itself into the sea in the vicinity of the city of Tokushima. 

EiVER Chikugo. — In Kyushu the mountain range of sediment- 
ary formation and the two volcanic chains of Aso and Kirishima 
serve as starting points for rivers, and as the island generally 
abounds in dense forests which constantly feed the rivers, the 
volume of water in them is large and easily available for purposes 
of irrigation. However those that serve as highways of river traffic 
are few and far between, owing to the state of the current. The 
river Chikugo (35 ri) is tlie longest and rij-es iu Mount Koko- 
noye, Bungo. After running in a north-easterly direction, it passes 
the city of Kurume and enters the sea of Ariyake at Yenotsu. 
This river waters the plain of Tsukushi, but is often unruly. 

River Kuma.— The river Kuma, though only 25 ri in length, 
(or perhaps because of its shortness) is noted, together with the 
Fuji and the Mogami, as being the most rapid streams in Japan. 
However its lower course admits ef being navigated by river craft 
for about 6 ri. The river rises at the boundary of Hyuga, and, 
after crossing the province of Higo, it empties itself into the sea 
at Yatsushiro. The river Sendai, which takes its rise at the boun- 
dary of Hyuga and Higo, flows through the northern part of 
Satsuma, and then enters the sea. Its valley is fertile and the 
lower course admits of river traffic for 16 n. 



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Oeoffraphieal Farmatian, 27 

Rivers in Formosa. — As the island of Formosa measures more 
from north to south than from east to west, while the Gyoku-san 
range crosses through the centre, all the streams run from this 
watershed either to the east or to the west. They are all of them 
short Some of the streams in the western half of the island are 
comparatively well supplied with water, but they are liable to be 
dried up in time of drought, while a heavy rainfall causes the 
streams to overflow their banks, and to send down volumes of sand 
to the mouths. The rivers of Formosa therefore present a peculiar 
feature of their own, compared with those in other places. Indeed 
the Chinese used to call them brooks and not rivers. 

Of these streams the Tansui is the largest in Northern For- 
mosa. It collects the greater part of the water coming down from 
the elevations in this section. The two streams of Taiko-kan and 
Shiatsu coming from the south join the Tansui, while the Kelung 
stream comes from the vicinity of the city of Kelung. The 
Kelung is navigable by river steamers as far as Daitonei (Twa- 
tutia), situated about 5 ri from its mouth. The upper part of 
the Kelung partly admits of the use of native junks. The 
Tansui measures" about 35 ri and empties itself into the Strait 
of Formosa. The G^ Tansui in the southern part of west For- 
mosa is a stream that flows through the plain in the vicinity of 
HOzan. Its basin being comparatively wide, it also serves as 
means of irrigation. It measures 32 ri and the part of Toko 
lies at its mouth. There is a stream running across the north of 
Kagi, but it is of little use for river traflSc. Eastern Formosa, 
heing hilly and destitute of any wide plain, has no streams worth 
mentioning, except, perhaps, the Dakusui whicli empties itself into 
the sea at Karenko. Its valley is fertile and it also serves the 
purpose of irrigation. 

LAKES AND PONDS.— The lakes and ponds found in our 
country may be classified into four kinds, according to origin ^ 
▼12., tectonic, volcanic, choked up, and coastal. Lake Biwa is the 
most typical example of a lake formed by depression of tectonic 
origin. The second comprises those that occupy the craters of 
extinct volcancea, while the third group consists of those that have 
been formed by the choking up of a river basin by certain epigenic 



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2$ Japan in the Beginning oj the 20th Century. 

or hypogenic chaDges. The last group or lagoons are arms of sea 
enclosed by sand or shingle spit. The principal lakes belonging 
to the second group are Lake Ashi in Hakone (2,330), Lake Haruna 
(3,431) on Mount Haruna, Lake Chuzenji (4,340) at Nikk5, etc. 
Of the lakes, or more properly, ponds, swamps or lagoons belong- 
ing to the fourth group may be mentioned Kasumiga-ura, Kita-ura, 
Saruma-ko, HachirSgota and others. 

LA.KE BiWA. — Lake Biwa, which lies in the centre of the 
province of Omi, is the largest lake in Japan, measuring at its 
widest part 5 ri from east to west and 16 ri from north to south, 
"with a circumference of 73 ri. Its area is 81 sq. ri It is fed by 
a large number of small streams flowing into it. Its outlet is the 
river Seta, which, under the name of the Yodogawa, flows into the 
Bay of Osaka. The cities of Otsu and Z^zd which stand on the 
southern shore of the lake with the minor towns of Shiozu and 
Eaitsu on the opposite coast constitute a centre of collection and 
distribution of goods that are carried over the lake between the 
districts in the vicinity of Kyoto and Osaka and the districts of 
Hokuriku and Mino and Owari. However, as a highway of 
transportation the lake has lost much of its former -value consequent 
on the laying of railways in its vicinity. The lake is also noted 
for its fine scenery, and the ** eight scenes of Omi," together with 
the beauties of the island of Chikubu-shima that stands in the lake, 
are widely celebrated. 

Other Lakes. — Kasumiga-ura measures 36 ri in circumference 
and Kita-ura 15 ri. They are really lagoons. The towns lying on 
the shore of the first named lagoon are connected with Tokyo by 
steam service. Imba-numa is noted for its fishery and as serving 
purposes for irrigation to the neighboring fields. There is a 
scheme afoot for constructing a canal between it and the Bay of 
Tokyo. 

COASTAL INDENTATIONS.— The importance of coastal in- 
dentations as a factor in the civilization and prosperity of a country 
gathers special force in connection with such a sea-girt country as 
Japan, for which those indentations may bo considered as organs of 
respiration. It is exceedingly fortunate that our coast-line is 
comparatively well-indented, and extends for a considerable length* 

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Geographical Formation. 29 

Japan therefore may well be considered as enjoying a great natural 
gift in this respect and as being well qualified for the carrying on 
of active commerce with the outside world. 

Ratio op Coast-line to Area. — The coast-line aggregates 
4,432.84 n, all the islands large and small constituting our country 
being taken into account. This compared to our whole area of 
27,061.93 sq. ri corresponds to 1 ri of coast-line to every 3.64 sq. 
n. If the ratio is taken for the larger islands alone, there is 1 ri 
of coast-line to every 4.79 sq. ri, the aggregate mileage of the 
coast-line and the area of those islands being 5,556.54 ri and 
26,635.53 sq. ri respectively. The measurement for each of the 
larger islands is given ])elow ; — 



les of islands. 


Circumference. 


Area per i ri 




ri. 


ri. 


Honshu 


1,952.88 


742 


Shikoku 


45117 


2.55 


Kyushu 


861.18 


2.68 


Hokkaido 


583.33 


8.66 


Chishima (32 islands) 


613.21 


1.68 


Sado 


53.30 


1.57 


Oki 


7470 


0.56 


Awaji 


38.70 


0.94 


Iki 


3544 


0.24 


Tsushima 


186.27 


0.23 


Okinawa (55 islands) 


315.06 


0.50 


Ogasawara (20 islands) 


71.58 


0.08 


Formosa 


299.72 


7.52 


The Pescadores 


20.00 


0.40 



Total 5,556.54 ^4.79 

It may be seen from this table that in length of coast-line 
as compared with area, Shikoku comes first, followed by Kyushu, 
while the ratio is smallest in Hokkaidi^, Formosa and Honshu, 
speaking about the principal divisions alone. This explains why 
the coasts of Shikoku and Kyushu abound in good anchorages, and 
why in the islands of Hokkaid5 and Formosa and on the Japan 
Sea coast of Honshu this advantage is less. 

Principal Indentations and Harbors.— Brief descriptions of 



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so Japan in the Beginnmg oj. the 2Qth Century. 

flome of the good anchorages that are found in the main island 
will be given next. 

Beginning with the northern extremity of Honshu, there \b the 
Gulf of Mutsu standing on the opposite side of the Tsugaru Strait as 
seen from Hakodate, HokkaidQ. This gulf is divided into two parts, 

the eastern section called the Bay of Nobechi and the 
Aomori. western called the Bay of Aomori, the harbors of Nobechi 

and Aomori occupying the head of the bays of the respec- 
tive names. Of the two Aomori is far more important and 
prosperous than the other. It contains over 28^^000 inhabitants 
and has a regular steamship service, run by the Nippon Yusen 
Kaisha, to and from the harbors of Muroran and Hakodate, while 
it is also the northern terminus of the Nippon Railway. 

Between Aomori and along the east coast as far as Kinka-san» 
the coast is comparatively straight and possesses anchorages of only 
local importance. These are, beginning at the north, the port of 
Minato which is the terminus of the Shiriuchi Branch of the 
Nippon Railway; then Miyako and Kamaishi where the Yusen 
Kaisha's steamers make a regular call. After passing Kinka-san 
we have the Bay of Ishinomaki, containing three anchorages, the 
one at the east being Oginohama, that in the middle, Ishinomaki, 
and that at the western extremity being Kamaishi, the last being 
<x)nnected by a branch line with the Nippon Railway. These three 
ports are centres of collection and distribution for goods coming from 
the wide plain of Kitakami or into it. 

The only anchorage existing l^etween the Ishinomaki Bay and 
Boso Peninsula is Ch5shi, which lies at the mouth of the river 

Tone. Steamers regularly ply between it and the places 
Ohoshi. situated along the Tone or on the shore of Kasumiga-ura 

and Kita-ura, while the B5s0 Railway connects the place with 
Tokyo. Moreover, as a line of the Nippon Railway passes Tsuchiura, 
a port on the shore of Kasumiga-ura, Thoshi and its vicinity enjoy 
great facilities of communication. 

The Bay of Tokyo that li^ on the western coast of the 

BOsO Peninsula is the most important inlet of Japan, oom- 

Bftv of Tokvo mercially and otherwise. It is bounded on the 

east by the peninsula of Awa, on the north by the 



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Geographical Formatum. 31 

flhopes of Kazusa and ShimOea, while Tokyo and Yokohama with 
the places intervening between them constitute the western boundary. 
The peninsula of Misaki stands at the entrance of the bay. From 
the shore of Kazusa and ShimOsa as far as Tokyo, the water along 
the coast is comparatively shallow and cannot admit of the approach 
of a big vessel, but the inlets found south of Yokohama are in 
general good anchorages. 

Yokohama lies 18 miles to the south of Tokyo and is 
situated on the western shore of the Tokyo Bay It is a non- 
freezing port located at 35^26' N. L. and 139^38. 
Yokohama. E. L. In respect to the aggregate tonnage of the ' 
ships that enter it and to tho volume of foreign trade, 
. Yokohama stands foremost in the list of our trading ports.* Itis pro- 
vided with all the necessary arrangements for overland and marine 
transportation and communications Water- works, parks, hotels, Japa- 
nese and foreign banks, firms and companies of all sorts and all the other 
provisions for comfort and public convenience and utility are com- 
plete, while the harbor is provided with piers and breakwaters and 
is thronged with ships coming from all parts of Europe and 
America. The water-works supply those ships with wholesome 
water at a very low charge. Yokohama contains at present over 
193,000 inhabitants or 31,700 families. 

The Gulf of Sagami lies to the west of the Tokyo Bay, with 
the peninsula of Izu forming its eastern boundary and Cape 
Ommaye of T5tomi forming the western. There is at the western 
comer of the gulf the little harbor of Shimizu which 
JShimizn- supplies important shipping facilities to the vicinity. The 
fact that the Grovernraent T5kaido Railroad passes along 
the coast serves to increase considerably the means of transportation 
and communication. The shores of the gulf are noted for their 
fishery, while the narrow projection of Miho, which is seen to the 
best advantage from the harbor of Shimizu, is often referred to in 
poetry for its fine appearance. 

Further westward there is no good anchorage as far as the 

£ea of Ise, which may be regarded as an extensive bay. It 

possesses along its coast quite a large number of 

The Sea of be- ports. The ports of Handa and Taketoyo are 

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32 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

situated on the eastern coast of the peninsula of Chita which 
separates the two eastern inlets of the Sea of Ise, namely the Bay 
of Atsumi and the Bay of Chita, from the sea proper. The most 
inland inlet of the sea is called the Bay. of Atsuta 
Bay of Atsuta. and into this bay the river Kiso empties 
itself, as do also a large number of other streams, 
the result being the formation of several deltas. Atsuta is a 
prosperous little port Mtuated at no great distance from the city 
of Nagoya. Its prosperity will be largely increased when the 
harbor works now going on shall have been completed. On the 
western shores of the sea are the ports of Kuwana, Yokkaichi, and 
Tsu, of which Yokkaichi, being a special export port, is the most 
important. It is connected by a regular steamship service with 
Yokohama. The harbor of Toba in the province of Shima is 
situated at the western mouth of the sea. Its waters are very 
deep. 

The Bay of Osaka which lies on the western side of the 
peninsula of Kii, is bounded on the west by the island of Awaji^ 

and is encircled by the three provinces of Settsu, Kawachi, 
Osaka- and Izumi. The city of Osaka, the ** Manchester of 

Japan," surpasses all other cities in the Empire for the 
prosperity of its trades and manufactures, while the city of Sakai 
that lies a short distance off may claim the name of "Japanese 
Sheffield," on account of its cutlery industry. 

Kobe is situated on the north-eastern shore of the bay men- 
tioned above, its exact location being 35^37' N. L. and 135*^24' 

E. L. It is the western terminus of the Government 
Kobe- Tokaido Railroad and the starting point of the Sanyo 

Railroad, so that both in respect of land and marine communi- 
cations, it is about as well provided as Yokohama, its only rival in 
the matter of foreign trade. In fact, so far as the volume of the 
import trade is concerned, Kobe even surpasses Yokohama, though 
in the gross volume of the trade, however, it still comes below the 
other city. Kobe has a better anchorage, however, than Yokohama, 
its water being deep and permitting large ships to come near the 
shore where contrivances are provided for the loading and unloading 
of goods. The principal imports are raw cotton, iron ware, sugar. 

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Oeographioal FonnaJUon, 8»^ 

cotton yarns, and rice, while rice, matches, fancy matting and tea 
constitute the principal exports. It may be added that all the 
conveniences of business and communication, as also those of comfort 
are as complete in Kobe as in Yokohama. 

The Inlakd Sea (Murotsu, Ushimado, Takamatsu, Marugame 
Tadotsu, Kurd, Ujina, Shimonoseki, etc.). — A narrow trip of sea 
extending westward from Kobe is the celebrated Inland Sea. It 
is bounded on the north by the 8auy5-d5 districts and on the south 
by the island of Awaji and by Shikoku. Besides abounding in inlets 
and harbors, and dotted by innumerable small islands, many of 
them covered by pine trees, this sea is generally tranquil all the 
year round. It unfolds new {scenes and new wonders as the steame, 
threads its way between isles and round the bare or wooded curves^ 
so that a voyage through this far-famed sheet of water is delightful 
beyond description. The sea is subdivided into four sections* 
according to the divisions of the coast of Sany&<l5, and 
Harima-oki- the first of these, the *' Harima-oki," is continuous as 
far as the Bay of Osaka, and washes the shores of 
Harima and Bizen. This section possesses the ports of Murotsu and 
Ufihimado on the Sany5-dC side and Takamatsu on the 
Bingo-oki- opposite side. The second section called "Bingo-oki" 

washes Bitchu and Bingo of Sany5-do and Sanuki and 
lyo of Shikoku. Tamashima and Sasaoka of Bitchu; Tomotsu, 
Onomichi, and Mihara of Bingo ; Marugamd and Tadotsu of Sanuki^ 

and Imaharu of lyo are the ports lying on both sides 
Akino-umi. of this section. The third section called " Akiuo-umi " 

washes the coast of Aki on the one hand and that of 
the north-western coast of lyo on the other. It is distinguished 
from the other sections by a larger number of small islands, or 
which Itsukushima, popularly known as one of the ''Three Sights 
of Japan," is the most noteworthy. On the Aki side lie the naval 
port of Kurd and the port of Ujina, while on the opposite coast 
are found Mitsugahama and Nagahama. The last 
Suwo-nada- section at the western extremity of the Inland Sea is 
"Suwo-nada," with Murotsu, Tokuyama and MiUijiri, 
and Shimonoseki as its ports, while the port of Moji in Buzen, 
Kyushu, is situated just at the mouth of the sea. Of 



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34 Japan in the Beginning of ike 20<& Century, 

Bhimonoseki* these both from a historical and a commercial point 

of view, Shimonoseki is the most important. 

On the coast of Shikoku there are only two indentations worth 

mentioning, one being the Bay of Tosa situated on the Pacific side 

The Bay of ^^ ^^^ island and the other the port of Uwajima on the 

Tosa, Uwa- Inland Sea side. The latter supplies an anchorage of 

jima- local importance. 

Turning to the northern or the Japan Sea coast of Honshu, 
the condition of the coast is found to be considerably inferior so 
Th Bftv of ^^^ ^ anchorages are concerned, the coast being 
Hi-o (Saka already described. Only on the coast of H5ki, Tango, 
ye, Yonago)- Wakasa, Noto and Ugo are indentations of any im- 
portance to be found; while, owing to the prevalence of high waves 
in winter, voyage along that coast in that season is risky. The 
inlet on the coast of H5ki is called the Bay of Mi-o. At the bot- 
tom of this inlet is the harbor of Sakay^, to the south is another 
harbor, that of Yonago. These are the only important anchorages 
in Sanin-d5. 

The section of the sea bounded on one side by the projec- 
tion of Echizen and on the other by that of Tango is the Bay 
Th B V of Wakasa ^^ Wakasa. On the western side lie the port 
(Miyazu, Maizuru, ' of Miyazu and the admiralty port of Maizura, 
Tsuruga) while to the east, round Cape Tateiw^a, is 

situated the Bay of Tsuruga with the harbor of the same name 
This is the most important shipping centre in Hokuriku, and, con- 
nected by railroad with the provinces in Kinai and TOkaidd, it is 
a flourishing place for the collection and distribution of goods 
coming from the northern sea. 

The eastern coast of the peninsula of Noto is, in contrast to 
the western, rich in indentations, of which the harbor of Nanao 
facing to the south, another harbor, that of Fushiki, may 
Nanao, ^ mentioned. Besides Ix'ing a regular port of call for 
the Ytisen Kaisha's steamers, Nanao is also connected 
with Vladivostock by a regular steanifihip service, and with the 
provinces of Kinai and T5kaid5 by a railroad. Fushiki, with the 
cities of Takaoka and Toyaraa situatwl not far off, is an important 
shipping centre for this district. 

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Geographical Farmatian. 35 

The coast of Echigo has the harbor of Naoyetsu on the south 
and the harbor of Niigata on the north, the two cities being con- 
nected by a railroad, while Naoyetsu is also connected 
Hiigata- with Tokyo by a Government line. Niigata is one of. the 
five open ports first opened to foreign trade. It is situat- 
ed at 35°39" N.L. and 139^3' E. L. But the defective anchorage 
of the harbor and the remoteness of the district have prevented 
Niigata from ever becoming a market for foreign trade, and its 
customs returns are eclipsed by those of other ports opened much 
later. Owing, however, to the vast output of cereals produced in 
the fertile plains of the province, Niigata enjoys great prosperity so 
far as the home trade is concerned. 

Proceeding further northward along the coast, there are at the 
mouth of the river Mogami the harbor of Sakata, and a little 
Sakata- ^"^^^^ *^* ^^® north of it the harbor of Nojiro, the latter 
of which is connected by railroad with Aomori. 

There are comparatively few indentations in HokkaidO, owing 
to the nature of its coast-line; in fact there arc only three, namely 
Volcanic Bay in the southern extremity, Ishikari Bay on the 
western coast and Nemuro Bay on the eastern. 

Hakodate, one of the five open ports, is situated at 41^45' 
N. L. and 140°43' E. L. The basin of the harbor covers ab<jut 
1 ri 6 eho north and south and 21 cho east and west, and, as the 
water is deep and sheltered on all sides by land, Hakodate .supplies 
an excellent anchorage. The prosjKjrity of the place increased apace 
with the progress of colonization in the island for whose pro- 
ducts it serves as the most important outlet. The existence of 
water-works and the abundant supply, at cheap rates, of excellent Hok- 
kaido coal make this harbor an excellent calling place for steamers. 
However, owing to its remoteness from the centre of business and 
political activity, the volume of foreign trade here is not yet so 
high as in other places. The chief export goods are marine pro- 
ducts, sulphur, etc., while iron ware, salted fish, etc. constitute the 
principal import go(xls. With the increased utilization of the Silxj- 
rian Railroad as a medium of communication between Euroi)e and 
Asia, Hakodate is sure to become an important calling place for 
steamers. At the end of 1898, the city contained 78,040 inhabitants^ 



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36 Japan in the Beginning of the 2Qth Century. 

Otaru, situated in the Ishikari Bay, contained over 70,000 
inhabitants at the end of 1901, and being the most important outlet 
for the marine, agricultural and mining products produced 
Otara. in the plains of Ishikari and Teshiwo whose coast supplies^ 
an excellent fishing ground for herring, its advance has 
been striking. It Ls one of the newly opened ports and its harbor- 
works will be completed a few years hence. 

Nemuro and the harbor of Akkeshi on the coast of Kushiro,. 
are, though regular calling places of the Yusen Kaisha's steamers^ 
comparatively insignificant commercially on account oF 
Vemuro* their remote situation. Muromu, situated at the eastern 
entrance of Volcanic Bay, is an excellent anchorage, and,, 
together with Otaru, exports a large quantity of coal. It is con- 
nected with Sapporo and Otaru by a railroad, while there 
Kororan. is a regular steamship service between it and Hakodate^ 
Ti-avellers from Honshu who take the way of Aomori in 
going to Sapporo or Otaru generally go to Muroran via HakocLite. 

The coast-line of Kyushu Ls comparatively straight in the 
south-eastern part, but on the other baud the north-western part is^ 
well indented. Moji, standing opposite Shimonoseki, a narrow 
Koji- arm of the sea separating, is the most flourishing port in 
the latter district. Its proximity to the principal coal-mines 
in Kyushu and the vast export of coal from it has brought alx)Ut 
this marked prosperity of the port. It contains over 36,000 in- 
habitants. The means of communication and transjwrtation are very 
complete, the Sanyo Railroad running between Shimonoseki and 
Kobe on the one hand, and the K}'ushu liailroad starting on the 
other from this port of Moji. In the year 1899 it was included in 
the list of open ports, and already its volume of trade threatens 
to eclipse that of Nagasaki. The export of coal alone amounts 
to over 3,600,000 tons in a year. The little port of 
Wakamatsu- Wakamatsu situated close to it has suddenly sprung 
into imix)rtaucc owing to the establishment of the 
Government Iron Foundry in its neighborhood. 

On the northern coast of Kyushu are found Hakata in Chiku- 
zen, Karatsu in Hizcn, and Izuhara in Tsushima, all of them ports 
of local importance. The admiralty port of Sasebo and the 



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Geographical FarinaJtion, 37 

flasebo. ancient treaty port of Nagasaki are found round the western 
extremity of Hizen, while Kuchinotsu lies at the southern 
«nd of the peninsula of Shimabara. 

Nagasaki is situated at 52^45' N. L. and 130^29' E. L. It 
was opened to foreign commerce no less than 332 years ago when 

a treaty of commerce were concluded for the first time 
JTagasakL with the Portuguese. From that time till the opening 

of the country, Nagasaki was the only common ground 
of trade carried on between Japan and the outside world. Owing, 
however, to the transfer of the seat of commercial activity to 
Yokohama and Kobe, the prosperity of Nagasaki as a trading port 
has not of late made such a marked advance as that of other 
places. Still it is a regular calling port for steamers destined to or 
coming from the ports on the continent of Asia, the Philippines, 
Australia and Euroj^e, and being provided with railroad connections, 
it enjoys great facilities in the matter of both maritime and overland 
transportation. The basin measures 28 did wide. It is sheltered on 
all sides by hills, and the water in the harbor is deep. All pro- 
visions for the convenience of ships, such as water-works, a plentiful 
supply of coal, and a dockyard (the celebrated Mit-^ubishi Yard) are 
complete. In the year 1900 the volume of trade aggregated over 
22 million yen, the principal goods imported being raw cotton, sugar, 
kerosene, etc., and the principal export goods l^eing coal, rice, marine 
products, etc. 

At the extremity of the promontory of Udo on the western 
coast of Higo is situated Misumi, and at the mouth of the river 
Kuma the harbor of Yatsushiro, the latter being the 
Xagoshima* terminus of the Kyushu Railroad. At the mouth of 
the river Chikugo is situated Wakatsu and a little 
further off Omuda, both of which expo^ the coal of the Miike mine 
and also other local products. At the southern extremity of Satsuma 
18 found the harbor of Bonotsu, a regular station for shipping 
connection between Kagoshima and Okinawa. The Gulf of Kago- 
ehima lies at the southern extremity of Kyushu and contains at its 
head the harbor of Kagoshima, the most important anchorage in 
southern Kyushu. The gulf covers 20 n north and south and 3 to 
^ ri east and west. The water is deep and forms a good anchorage. 



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38 Japan in ike Beginning of the 20th Century. 

but the means of communication with the rest of the island are not 
so complete as they will be shortly, when the Government Kagoshima 
Railroad shall have been completed, to be connected with the 
Kyushu Railroad at Yatsushiro via Hitoyoshi. This line is now 
partly open to traffic. 

In contrast to the north-western coast, the eastern coast of 
Kyushu is devoid of good anchorages. The ports of Oita and Beppu 
situated at the bottom of Beppu Bay, and the port of 
Beppu Bay- Saganoseki situated a little further off to the south- 
east, and finally the port of Saiki situated still further 
to the south may be mentioned as anchorages of local importance- 
They are connected by a regular steamship service with Osaka^ 
Kobe, Moji, etc. The only anchorages to be mentiond on the coast 
of Hyuga are Ilosojima on the north and Yunotsu on the souths 
both being regular calling stations of the Osaka Sh5sen Kaisha's 
steamei-8. 

Owing to the comparatively straight, unbroken outline of the 
coast of Formosa, there are only two harbors, Tansui and Kelung^ 
on the northeastern coast, and two others, Anping and Takao, on 
the south. The former two lose much of their importance as 
anchorages owing to the fact that they are exposed to strong north- 
easterly winds in winter, while the two southern ports are subject 
to the similar disadvantage of being exposed to south-westerly winds 
in summer. 

Tansui is situated about 5 ri to the north of Taihoku and at 
tlie mouth of the river Tansui. As there are, however, a number 
of sand-bars in this harbor, steamers of deep draught cannot 
Tansui. enter the basin unless at high-tide. The tea produced in 
the island is mostly shipped from Tansui harbor, which is 
therefore crowded with Chinese junks and steamers in the height of 
the tea season. Tansui is separated from Nagasaki by 640 miles 
and from Fuchow on the opposite coast of China by 137 miles. It 
contains about 10,000 inhabitants. 

Kelung, about 9 ri to the north of Taihoku and 25 miles by sea 

from Tansui, is the most important shipping station between the 

island and Japan proper. It is enclosed on three sides by 

Xelung- hills, and the Formosan Government has started the work 



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Geological Formation. 39 

of sheltering the exposed side. Coal constitutes the prin- 
cipal item of export, the mineral being produced in the vicinity. 
The commercial activity of the city is- however eclipsed by that of 
Daitotei (Twatutia) and Muuko (Manka), in the suburbs of the city. 
The distance firom Nagasaki is 637 miles, from Shanghai 776 miles, 
from Amoy 235 miles, and from Fuchow 150 miles. The city 
contains about 10,000 inhabitants. 

Anping which ranks next to Tansui in the volume of trade, i* 
situated about 1 ri to the west of Tainan. Steamers have to anchor 
. at a distance of about 1 ri from the mouth of the harbor^ 
-?rr' and they are often cut off from all communications with 
the land by the strong trade-Mrind that blows during the 
summer. A canal connects the harbor with Tainan. The staple 
export goods are camphor and sugar. Takao about 10 ri to the 
south of Tainan and about 3 ri to the south-west of Honzan, is the 
only harbor in Formosa which is sheltered from the trade-winds. 
The depth of the basin measures 5 to 7 fathoms. Sugar is the 
staple export, but the commercial prosperity of the place shows 
rather a retrogression tlian a advance. 

Turning to the eastern coast, there Ls only one harbor, that of 
So-6 in the northern part, though it is shallow and is poor as an 
-^ anchorage. The rest of the coast-line ends abruptly and sup- 
plies no good shelter for shijis. 



IV. GEOLOGICAL FORMATION. 



General Remarks. — In general outline Japan may be con- 
sidered to consist of three ares, one constituted by the stretch of 
isLinds extending from Fornjosa to Kyushu, the second by Japan 
proper extending from Kyushu to HokkaidG proper, and the tliird 
by the Kurile group. The islands composing Japan are apparently 
a part of the continental system of Asia, but the geological forma- 
tion is even more complicated than that of the continent. For 
further particulars on this subject the reader is referred to the 
flection of Mining. 



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40 Japan in the Beginning of the 20tk Century. 

Y. CLIMATE. 



OCEANIC CURRENTS.---Owing to the fact that Japan is 
situated both in the temperate and tropical zones, the climate is on 
the whole mild and salutary. It is further influenced by the seas 
that girdle the country, the nature of the prevailing winds, etc. 

Black Current. — ^Oceanic currents first demand our attention. 
Of these the " Kuroshiwo " or Black Current is the most important, 
for it is owing to its proximity that the climate of Japan, especially 
of the Pacific districts, is considerably moderated. It is so called 
from its color, which is deep indigo in fine weather and ashy pale on 
•cloudy days. The Black Current takes its rise near the Equator, 
being produced by the Pacific Trade Wind. It is at the vicinity of 
the island of Bashi, the northern-most of the Philippine group, and 
at about 21° N. L. and 135° E. L. that the current, that has been 
flowing westward aa far as that place, turns north-ward, and thus 
begins to constitute a Japan current. After running along the 
eastern coast of Formosa it is divided into a number of currents at 
about 23° N. L. and 126° R L. The main current runs E. K E. 
and along the southern coast of Kyushu and Shikoku. Its velocity 
is extraordinary at this point and the speed with which it flows 
between the islands of Mikura and Hachij5, of the Izu group of 
islands, is as much as 40 knots per hour. Proceeding northwards, 
it turns in a north-easterly direction, to be again divided into two 
streams at about 38° N. L. The main current gradually bends 
more and more eastward, and finally reaches the vicinity of 160° 
E. L. On the other hand the branch current proceeds northward 
and finally reuclies thj Aleutian arciiipolago and the Behring Sea, 
and is known by the name of the Kamchatka Current. Ships 
sailing from Yokohama to North America follow the route of this 
Black Current. 

The branch current that is separated from the main current at 
28° N. L. passes into the Sea -of Japan via the arm of the sea 
separating Kyushu and Tsushima. From about the central section 
of Honshu, this current comes closer to the shore of the island, but 
<m proceeding to 41° N, L. and 138° E. L. it is divided into two 
branches, one of which turns eastward through the Strait of Tsugaru 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Climate. 41 

and disappears near the eastern entrance of the strait, while the 
other proceeds northward and reaches the western coast of Hokkaido, 
finally disappearing in the Sea of Okhotsk. 

Other Currents. — ^There are, besides the above, two colder 
currents, the "Oyashiwo" and the Okhotsk Current, the former of 
which originates in the vicinity of the Peninsula of Kamchatka, 
and the other near the mouth of the Amur river. 

The Oyashiwo flows downward along the eastern coast of 
Hokkaid5 and Honshu, and reaches as far as the vicinity of 
Cape Inuboye. This current is of a dark 
"Oyashiwo" Current, muddy color and can be distinguished at 
once from the Black Current. Its tempera- 
ture is 5 or 8 degrees lower than that of the other. 

The Okhotsk Current is divided into two streams, one called 

the Saghalien Current and the other the Liman Current. The 

former current is first driven northward by the 

Okhotsk Cnrrent. force of the water coming out of the Amur, then 

courses round the northern tip of Saghalien, to 

flow down southward along its eastern coast, and finally to divide 

itself into two streams at about 45^ N. L., one 

Saghalien Current, of which streams, after passing between the 

islands of Shikotan and Etrup, joins the 

Oyashiwo. The other proceeds southward, and enters the Sea of 

Japan, to disappear there owing to its coming into contact with 

the warm current coming northward. 

The Liman Current traverses the eastern coast of the continent 
of Asia. One branch of it disappears in the vicinity of Vladivo- 
stock, while the other proceeds southward through 
Liman Current, the centre of the Sea of Japan and comes as far 
south as the vicinity of Hongkong via the Korean 
Straits, the Yellow Sea and the Eastern Sea of China. It is owing 
to the proximity of this cold current that the dwtricts of China 
bordering on the two seas have comparatively severe winters. 

TEMPERATURE.— Generally stated, the districts bordering on 
the Pacific difler very much in temperature from those facing the 
Sea of Japan. In the former the temperature is more moderate 
tbftD in the other, and while it is warmer in winter it is cooler in 



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42 Japan in the Beginning of ike 20</i Century. 

summer. On the other hand, the districts along the Sea of Japan 
haye rigorous winters and hot summers. The marked contrast in 
the general temperature of the two regions may be explained by 
the fact that, while the Pacific shores are under the influence of 
the warm current coming from the sea and are protected by 
mountain ranges from the winds coming from the north-west, the 
districts along the Sea of Japan are directly exposed to the cold 
north-western winds coming from the wide plain of Siberia. 

Both from its high latitude and also owing to the influence of 

tlie cold wind from Siberia, the temperature of 

Hokkaido. Hokkaido is low. In winter, and especially in the 

month of January, the thermometer is generally below 

zero, and in summer 'it reaches 21° C. in warmer districts. 

In Kyushu and Shikoku, on the other hand, the temperature 

stands high owing to their latitude, the influence of 

Kyushu and the warm air coming from the sea, and also to the 

Shikoku. proximity of the Black Current. The average 

temperature in summer often exceeds 27° and in 

winter it rarely falls below 4°. 

Formosa is warmer, and is in fact the hottest place in Japan. 

Southern Formosa is situated, indeed, in the tropical zone, 

Formosa, and the temperature there does not fall below 15° even 

in winter, while it records 28° on an average in summer. 

The two extremes of temperature in Formosa are 35.6° and 4.8° 

On comparing the temperature of Japan with that of European 

and American places situated in the same latitude, it is discovered 

that in winter our temperature is lower while the opposite is the 

case in summer. This remark does not, however, 

Comparison with hold good with regard to the comparison between 

other places. Japan and places on the continent of Asia. In 

fact tlie exact reverse is the truth, the summer 

being warmer and the winter being colder on the continent than 

in the case of Japan. To give a few examples, Kagoshima 

is situated nearly in the same latitude as Shanghai, but while its 

average temperature in July is about 2° below that of the other, 

it is over 3° higher in January. Akita and Peking are also in 

the same latitude, but the latter has an average yearly temperature 



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aiinaie. 43 

of 11.8°, that of 0.46 in January, and of 26.2° in July, as against 
the corresponding figures of 10.3°, 2.5°, and 24.2° at Akita. In 
a similar way Fusan is about 2° higher in its yearly average than 
Numazu, but, while in the latter the average in January is 4.9° 
it is 0.17 in the other. The contrast is more pronounced between 
Vladivostock and Sapporo situated nearly in the same latitude. The 
averages in summer do not differ much from each other, but in 
winter Supporo is about 8° higher than the other. 

This characteristic climatic feature at all those continental places 
is of course due to the abwnce of the moderatuig influence of the 
fiea. 

But when a comparison is made between Japan and North 
America, the temperature of the former is found to be colder in 
winter and warmer in summer than that of the latter. For instance 
though the temperature of Niigata and San Francisco, situated 
nearly in the same latitude, is about the same in spring and 
autumn, the temperature of Niigata is lower by alK)ut 8° in winter 
though higher by about 15° in summer. S5ya and Vancouver have 
nearly the same temperature in summer and autunui, but during 
winter S6ya is dolder by 8° to 9° than the other. This com- 
paratively lower temperature in Japan is due to the prevalence in 
winter of cold winds coming from Siberia. 

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.— The average atmospheric pres- 
sure throughout Japan i?* 700 mm., the prei*sure being, as is 
generally the case, higher in winter and lower in summer. The 
difference between the winter pressure and the summer pressure 
decreases as we go from the east to the west, and while in Okinawa 
and Formosa it is about 10 mm., it falls to about 5 in eastern 
Kyushu, and down even to 4 in Hokkaido. The usual ix)sition 
of the centres of low and high pressure varies according to the 
seasons, partly owing to the geographical i^sitiou of the country. 
In summer the centre of low atmospheric pressure lies in Korea 
and Siberia, while the corresi)onding centre of high pressure is found 
in the Pacific Ocean east of Japan. In the other three seasons 
the positions of low and high pressure centres are reversed, the 
fermer being in Korea and Siberia and the latter in Honshu or 
Hokkaido or in the sea to the north-east of these islands. 



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44 Japan in the Beginning of the 2(Hh Century, 

PREVAILING WINDS.— The general condition of the at- 
moepheric pressure being such, the winds prevailing in Japan 
naturally change according to places and seasons. During winter 
the prevailing wind is from the north-west to be superseded in 
spring by a wind from the south-west which in turn is replaced 
in summer by a south-westerly wind. This gradually shifts to 
the south-east, then to the north-east, and finally resumes in 
winter the original north-westerly direction. The prevalence of a 
north-westerly wind in mnter is caused by the coming to the 
south-east of a current of air caused by the high pressure in 
northern Asia and the lower pressure existing in the Pacific. On 
the other hand the prevalence of a southerly wind in summer is 
the effect of the monsoon which originates in the Cliina Sea and 
the Indian Ocean to neutralize the low pressure caused in summer 
on the continent. This wind, which bears moisture from the sea, 
causes rain as it reaches the land, and the heavy rain in the 
month of June is the effect of this wind. 

The coming of a cold wind from the north-west in winter 
from Korea and Siberia has already been referred to, and the 
effect of this wind is most severely felt along the shores of Uzen 
and Ugo and the Hokuriku route which all lie in the direct 
path of the wind. 

About the month of August or September, when the monsoon 
is about to die away to be superseded by a colder wind, storms 
very frequently occur, taking the form of what are generally called 
typhoons. 

The storms that occur in Japan may be divided into four 
kinds, according to their places of origin. One originates to the 
east of the Philippines or in the China Sea and reaches 
Storms- Honshu via the Sea of Japan, the Yellow Sea, and Korea. 
The second, also originating to the east of the Philippines, 
reaches Kyushu via the Eastern Sea, but without entering the China 
Sea. Then at times the storms come direct from the vicinity of the 
Philippines to the southern districts of Japan, while another kind 
of storm comes from southern Siberia, to sweep across HokkaidO. 
The second and third kinds are the most common and also the 
severest. 



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CUttuUe. 45 

These storms often attain a velocity of 17 miles an hour and, 
as they reach 32® N. L. and rage not unfrequently for over 48 
hours at a time, they inflict severe damage on crops and property* 
As the storms occur generally in the flowering season of the earlier 
or later varieties of rice, the " 210th day " or the " 220th day " 
from the beginning of spring according to the lunar calender, it not 
infrequently happens that the crop is. seriously aff*ected. 

In general the winds in Japan are stronger in spring and 
winter and weaker in the other seasons. 

HUMIDITY. — Surrounded as it is by the sea, the degree of 
humidity is higher in Japan than in continental countries. The 
average recortl i^ 60/100 on an average. The atniofiphere along 
the coast of Hokkaido contains a larger quantity of moisture than 
that in any other part of the country. In the vicinity of Cape 
Erimo the yearly average is 87, while it reaches as high as 95^ 
in July. On the other hand the interior of the island is un- 
usually dry. In Honshu the districts facing the Sea of Japan, 
that is TJzen and Ugo and Hokuriku, have the highest record,, 
the year's average being over 80. Formosa too has a similarly 
high record, not falling below 80° all the year round. In the 
Pescadores even 89 is reached in June. 

On the other hand the districts bordering on the Liland Sea,, 
hoth in Honshu and Shikoku, have the lowest i-ect)rcl, which ofteu 
M1& below 60. 

RAIKFALLS. — Owing to the prevalence of moist winds coming 
from the sea and the existence of mountain rau<?e5j to condense 
that moisture, the rain-gauge records in Japan a height far above 
the average in other places. 

In Honshu the districts bordering on the Sea of Japan liave 
the highest record which generally exceeds 2,000 mm. in a year,, 
while Kanazawa has as much as 2,500. The north-eastern shore 
of Kii, Kochi in Shikoku, Miyazaki and Kagoslniiia in Kyushu, 
also have a high record. But Oshima in Kagoshima has the highest 
record, reaching as much as 3,300 mm. in a year. 

On the other hand Soya in Hokkaido has a rainfall of only 
700 to 800 in a year, both on account of its latitude and of the 
•comparative scarcity of evaporation from tlie sea. Tlie districts^ 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



46 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

botdering on the Inland Sea have also the lowest record, owing to the 
fact that the moisture coming both from the Pacific and the Sea of 
Japan is intercepted by the ranges of Shikoku on the one hand and 
by those running across the boundary between Sany5 and San-in 
on the other. 

In general the rainiest season in Japan is, as already mention- 
ed, the month of June. However this heavy i-ainfall at this particular 
season is very important for the cultivation of rice, this being the 
period of planting. 

The fall of snow is heaviest in the Hokuriku districts, where 
even along the shores it is 3 to 4 ahahu deep, while in the recesses 
of the hills the accumulations exceed even 10 or 20 shaku in depth. 
In Shikoku and Kyushu snowfalls occur very rarely, and in the 
Pacific coast districts of Honshu they are also very rare. In Tokyo 
snow does not fall more than four or Hwe times in a year, and does 
not exceed 5 or 6 sun in depth. 



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Hidory Relating to Cenms Returns. 47 



CHAPTER n— Population* 



HiBtopy — ^Nnmber — Density— Urban and Rural Population — 
InoreaBe of Urban and Rural Population — ^Households — 
Social DiYisions — The Sexes— Glassifioation as to Age— 
Marriages — Birth-rate — Death-rate — Normal Increase — 

Emigration. 

• 

I. HISTORY RELATING TO CENSUS RETURNS. 



BEFORE THE RESTORATION.— Census returns were made 
in Japan from ancient times, as it is recorded in authentic records 
that in the 12th year of the reign of the Emperor Sujin (86 B.C.) 
an Imperial Rescript was issued ordering the compilation of census 
returns with the object of levying taxes in kind and imposing labor 
for public service. Similar returns were also made during the reigns 
of the Emperors Yuryaku, Seinei, Kens5, and Kinmei (457-571 
A. D.). It was, however in the time of the Emperor Kotoku 

(645-654 A. D.) that the census business was first ar- 
Firat ranged in a systematic manner. This Emperor ordered in 
Census, the year 645 A. D. that regular census registers should 

be compiled, and that the compilation should be renewed 
in future every six years. This six year method was also provided 
in the Taiho code of laws, so called because the first systematic 
codification of laws was undertaken in the era of Taiho (701-703 
A, D.). At any rate it was evidently during the reign of the 
Emperor Kotoku that the census returns were for the first time 
regularly compiled. It is to be regretted that, owing to the remote- 
ness of the period in question, no further particulars can be obtained 
about the returns of that time. The returns compiled during the 
reign of the Empress Shotoku (724-748 A. D.) by the priest Gyoki 
in the course of his extended tour throughout the country and also 
those made by the priest Shuzen duriiiir the Eikan era (983-984 
A. D.) of the Emperor Enyu, are also lost, fi)r whatever record 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



48 Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Century. 

remains of those compilations gives only meagre information on the 
entire population of the coimtry at these two periods. Even when 
the returns were entire they could at best give barely the ap- 
proximate number of the inhabitants, inasmuch as that number 
was roughly calculated, evidently, from the number of villages, 
families, and adults whose services were available for public work. 
With the advent of the Tokugawa Regency and especially after 
peace and order had been perfectly restored and social institutions 
became properly arranged, the Regency, actuated by 

, '^^ ^^'"'ST various considerations financial and otherwise, began 
the Tokufirawa .• , . « . 

BAiren V ^ perceive the necessity of inaugurating a proper 

systtni of census returns. The consequence was the 
issue of an order at various times ordering the compilation of census 
returns for the whole country. The returns took sevei-al different 
shapes, such as returns on arable land, returns on religion, and re- 
turns on personal identification. The returns made in the year 1744 
A. D. put the entire population at 26,152,450. The figures fell to 
25,917,830 in the returns compiled seven years later. The figures 
made out in 1751 were 26,061,830, while those in 1828 were 
over 27,200,000, . 

AFTER THE RESTORATION.—With the rehabilitation of 
the Imperial regime the work of compiling census returns was placed 
under the control of the ci-devant Department of Civil Affairs which 
attended to it with greater precision and energy, as may l)e seen 

in the following preamble of Notification No. 170 

Census Noti- issued in April of 1871 by the then Daij5kan, now 

fication. corresponding to the Cabinet, by which notification 

thirty three rules were provided for making censiL^ 
returns. The preamble stated : — " It is of the utmost importance in 
the administration afiairs of a country to keep accurate account of 
the number of its families and individuals, for, unless this number 
is accurately known, the state can hardly attend to its primary duty 
of extending protection to its subjects. The subjects will also, on 
their part, enjoy peace and prasperity and can pursue their busi- 
ness unmolested only when they are under the protection of their 
government, so tliat should it ever happen that their domicile is 
absent from the ofiicial record, owing either to their own negligence 



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Nuniber of Fii>pulaiion. 4> 

or evasion or j&om an oversight on the part of the government 
officials, those people will be practically non-existent in the eyes 
of the govemmei;it and will therefore be excluded from the enjoy- 
ment of the protection universally extended by the government to 
its people. 

" Lack of uniformity in the local administration from about the 
time of the Middle Ages has, among other irregularities for which, 
it is accountable, reduced the business of keeping personal registers^ 
to a state of disorder ; people were allowed to remove their abodes 
wiUiout giving notice to the authorities, and even to evade with, 
impunity the duty of registering themselves in the census record. Ac- 
customed for ages to these irregular practices, people are prone to 
regard the duty of registration with perfect indifference. It was in 
view of this circumstance that the rules of keeping census records 
throughout the country have now been provided, and that the local 
authorities and the people are hereby enjoined to duly regard the 
points herein set forth and to carefully attend to them." 

The Government of the time drew, in that way, the attention 
both of the local authorities and of the people to the great import- 
ance of the census, and warned them against faults of omission and 
commission in the entries of the census registers. 

With the abolition in that year of the Department of Civil 

Affiurs, the census business wai« transferred to the Ceni*us Record 

Bureau of the Department of Finance, to be again 

Control of Con- transferred in January of 1874 to the control of the 

fQS Badness- Home Office which subsequently took charge of 

personal registration as well as of census-taking, till 

in 1898, when the Law of Personal Registration was put in force^ 

all matters relating to registration were entrusted to the Department 

of Justice and those connected with censas-taking to the Statistical 

Bureau of the Cabinet. 



IL MUMBER OF POPULATION. 



PROGRESS DURING THE 2^ YEARS (1872-1899).— In 
sorv^ing the movement of the population in Japan during th(f 28 
yeare b^;inning with the year 1872 and ending 1899, it L* found that 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



50 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 



the population that Btood at 33 million souls approximately from 
1872 to 1875 inclusive, grew in 1876 to 34 millions approximately ; 
then to 35 millions in 1879, to 36 millions in 1881, and to over 
37 millions in 1883, all in round numbers. The figures for 
1889 were over 40 millions, while the corresponding figures in 
1897, that is eight years later, were 43 millions approximately. In 
the year 1899 the number stood at 44,260,604 precisely, an increase 
of 11,149,779 on that of 1872, the yearly rate of increase correspond- 
ing to 412,955 on an average. Reserving all particulars about the 
rate of increase and so forth to be dealt with in special paragraphs, 
the yearly gross figures are given as follows : — 

REGISTERED POPULATION OF JAPAN. ' 



Year. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


1872 


16,796,158 


16,314,667 


33,110,825 


1873 ... 


16,891,729 


16,408,946 


33,300,675 


1874 ... 


17,050,52" 


16,575,157 


33,625,678 


1875 ... 


17,250,420 


16,747,029 


33,997,449 


1876 ... 


17,419,785 


16,918,619 


34,338,404 


1877 ... 


No returns. 


No returns. 


No returns. 


1878 ... 


No returns. 


No returns. 


No returns. 


1879 ... 


18,140,822 


17,627,762 


35,768,584 


1880 ... 


18,208,890 


17,720,170 


35,929,060 


1881 ... 


18,423.274 


17,935,720 


36,358,994 


1882 ... 


18,598.998 


18,101,120 


36,700,118 


1883 ... 


18,755,242 


18,262,060 


37,017,302 


1884 ... 


18,954,770 


18.496,994 


37,451,764 


1885 ... 


19,157,877 


18,711,110 


37,868,987 


1886 ... 


19,451,491 


19,055,686 


38,508.177 


1887 ... 


19,731,732 


19,337.959 


39,069,691 


1888 ... 


20,008,445 


19,598,789 


39,607,234 


1889 ... 


20,246,336 


19,825,684 


40,072,020 


1890 


20,431,097 


20,022,364 


40,453,461 


1891 ... 


20,563,416 


20,155,261 


40,718,677 


1892 


20,752,366 


20,337,574 


41,089,940 


1893 ... 


20,906,464 


20,481,848 


41,388,313 


1894 ... 


21,122,899 


21,690,316 


41,813,215 


1895 ... 


21,345,750 


20,924,870 


42,270,620 


1896 ... 


21,561,023 


21,147,241 


42,708,264 


1S97 ... 


21,823,651 


21405,212 


43.228,863 


1898 ... 


22.073,896 


21,689,257 


43,763,153 


1899 ... 


22,329.925 


21,930,681 


44,260,604 



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Density of Population, 51 

Note : — ^The returns for the year 1872 w^re psade on January 29th, iho^e for the 1873 
to 1885 years on January 1st, and those from the 1886 to the 1889 years on 
December 31st. Theye is a difference of two between the total aggregate of 
the male and female population for the 1889 year, because there were two cases 
of death in which the sex of the party who died was unknoMm. 

The population of the island of Formosa and of the group of 
Pescadores will be described in the special chapter devoted to 
Formosia. 

III. DENSITY OF POPULATION. 



RELATIVE DENSITY.— The total area of the Empire 
(Fonnosa excluded) being 24,794.36 sq. W, and the actual population, 
at the end of 1898, 45,402,359, the density of the population 
per sq. ri amounts to 1,831. Taking the relative rate of density 
in the six main divisions of the country, it is found that the 
Western section of Honshu with 2,945 comes at the head of the 
list, followed by 2,880 in the Middle section of Honshu, 2,642 in 
Hhikoku, 2,464 in Kyushu, 1,309 in the Northern section of Honshu. 
Hokkai(l5 with only 141 comes at the bottom of the list. 

In Honshu. — The greater density in the Western section of 
Hon:?hu is attributable to the fact that it contains the districts of 
Kinai where in one place or another the successive Emperors tliat 
ascended the Throne fixed their capital during a period of no less 
than 2,527 years, and where therefore are found many flourishing 
cities and towns. The presence of such large cities as Tokyo, 
Yokohama, and Nagoya accounts for the density of the Middle 
section. In short the presence of 1,399 to 2,945 people per s(j. 
W in the five sections above enumerated is primarily due to the 
facilities of communication and to the prosperity of trade and 
industry in those regions. 

In Hokkaido. — ^The scarcity of population in Hokkaido is due 
to its remoteness and severe climate, and especially to the fact 
that ci>mparatively a short space of time has elapsed since the 
work of colonization was started there. The soil being, however, 
well adapted for agriculture and stock-breeding while the rivers 
and shores are rich in aquarin wealth, Hokkaido will become, at 
no distant date, far more densely populated, roceiving as it (l;)es. 



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52 



Japan in the Begtnning of the 20f/i Cetitwy. 



at the present moment from^ the rest of the country from 40,000 
to 60,000 per « annum. 

The following table shows tlie relative density of population m 
each section. 



Section. 

Middle Honshu 
Northern Honshu 
Western Honshu 

Shikoku 

Kjrushu 

Hokkaido 



Total 



\rea (sq. ri.) 


Actual Pop. 


Pop. per sq. ri . 


6,145.99 


17,708,223 


2,880 


5,071.82 


6,639372 


1,309 


3472.72 


10,226,539 


2,945 


1,18067 


3,000,794 


2,542 


2,827.80 


6,967 897 


2,464 


6,095.36 


859,534 


141 


24 794.36 


45,402,359 


1.831 



Note : — The Middle section comprises the 17 perfectures of Tokyo, Kanagawa, Sai- 
tama, Chiba, Ibaragi, Tochigi, Gumma, Nagano, Yamanashi, Shizuoka, Aichi, 
Miye, Gifu, Shiga, Fukui, Ishikawa, Toyama ; the Northern section camprises 
the 7 prefectures of Niigata, Fukushima, Miyagi, Yamagata, Akita, Iwate,. 
Aomori; the Western section consists of Kyoto, Osaka, Nara, Wakayama, 
Hyogo, Okayama, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Shimane, Tottori; Shikoku comprises 
Tokushima, Kagawa, Ehime and Kochi; Kyushu comprises Nagasaki, Saga, 
Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Oita, Miyazaki, Kagoshima, and Okinawa; Hokkaido 
covers all the districts under its jurisdiction. This classification holds good 
for all the tables to be given hereafter. 

Densely Inhabited Prefectures. — To eiuimei-ate those pre- 
fectures that contain over 3,000 inhabitants per sq. n, we have : — 



Prefecture 


Area, 
sq. ri. 


Actual iwpulation. 


Population per. 
sq. ri. 


Tokyo 


125.80 


2,101,102 


16,702 


Osaka 


"5-72 


1,600,923 


13.834 


Kagawo 


"3-50 


694,280 


6,117 


Kanagawa 


155.67 


926,884 


5,954 


Aichi 


312.78 


1,639,611 


5.242 


Fukuoka 


317.81 


1,425.625 


4,486 


Saitama 


265.99 


1,175,697 


4,420^ 


Chiba 


326.15 


1,275,376 


3,910 


Saga 


160.08 


618,679 


3,865 




235.15 


902,455 


5,838 


'Kyoto 


296.55 


997488 


3^64 


Hyogo 


556.68 


1,717,634 


3,085. 



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Urban and Rurai I\>pidatioiu 53 

The prefectares mentioned above are the most densely populated 
prefectares in the country, the density in the rest ranging from 
1,000 to 3,000, with the exception of Miyazaki which contains 953 
and Iwate which has 799. Hokkaido, as described above, contains 
only 141, being the most thinly populated of any. 



lY. URBAN AND RURAL POPULATION. 



Relative Density.— Regarding a place where over 3,000 
inhabitants form one community as an urban section, the urban 
population at the end of 1898 aggregated 10,702,232, the remaining 
34,700,127 residing in rural sections. According to the foregoing, 
out of every 100 the urban population amounted to 24 and the 
rural population to 76. The particulars are given below. 

Percentage. 



action. 


Urban. 


Kurai. 


Urban. 


Rural 


Middle 


. .-. 5i007,323 


12,700,900 


28 


72 


Northern 


. ... i,38i»30i 


5.258,071 


21 


79 


Western 


. ... 2,709,596 


7,516,943 


26 


74 


Shikoku 


418,720 


2,582,074 


14 


86 


Kyushu 


. ... 944,910 


6,022,987 


14 


86 


Hokkaid5 


. ... 240,382 


619,152 


28 
24 


72 


Total 


. ... 10,720,232 


34,700,127 


76 



'Sole : — The urban population consists of the inhabitants of the <S^4 (cities) established 
after the institution of the Local Civic Corporation System and those of the Cho 
(towns) containing not less than 3,000 inhabitants. The two urban districts of 
Naha and Shuri in Okinawa and the districts of Hakkodate, Sapporo, Otaru, 
Esashi and Fukuyama, all of which contained more than 3,000, have also been 
included in the total. The population other than urban was all included in the 
rural population. 

Movement of the two Populations. — The population of cities 
and towns containing not less than 10,000 aggregated 5,500,000 in 
1890. In 1894 it grew to over 6,080,000 and in the year 1898 
to over 7,130,000. Then that of rural districts which stood at 
-35,000,000 approximately in 1890, grew to over 36,000,000 in 
1893, and to over 38,000,600 in 1898. The movement of the two 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



54 



Japan in the Beginning of the 2()ih Ce^itwy. 



flections of the . population during the 9 years ended 1898 is shown 
below : — 



Year. 

1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 



Urban districts of over 
io,cxx> Pop. 

Actual Pop. Increase over pre. 
^ year per io,oc%Pop. 

..• 5,504,059 ' ' 

... 5,657,493 27.88 

... 5,768,228 19.57 

..• 5,927,699 27.65 

... 6,086,310 26.76 

... 6,210,801 20.45 

... 6,409,736 3203 

... 6,772042 56.52 

... 7,136,691 53.85 



Rural districts of less than 
xo,ooo Pop. 



Actual Pop. Increase over ^r. 
^ year per io,oo| Pop. 



35,464,776 
35,611,239 
35.928,619 
36,133,277 
36,344,675 
36,837425 
37,090,097 

37,206,453 
38,265,668 



4.13 
891 
570 
585 
13.56 
6.86 

3H 
28.47 



Relative Increase. — To review the movement of the two 
classes of population, the rate of increase of the urban population 
is far more marked than that of the others, for while the rate in 
1891 compared with that of the preceding year was 27.88 per 1,000 
in the urban districts, it was only 4.13 in the rural. In 1895 
the rate in urban districts was 20.45 and in rural districts 13.56, 
and lastly in 1898 the rate was 53.85 and 28.47 in the respective 
districts. On the whole the rate during the 9 years under review 
was about 33 in the urban districts against 10 in the rural, and 
this marked increase in the urban population is evidently attributable 
to the rise of trade and industry in cities and the consequent 
emigration of the rural population to the urban districts. 



V. INCREASE OF URBAN POPULATION. 



The number of cities and towns containing not less than 10,000 
inhabitants was 122 in 1887. That number increased to 152 in 
1892 and to 162 in 1898. The marked increase in the number 
in 1898 was due to the amalgamation of villages with towns or 
cities on the occasion of the institution of the Local Civic Corpora- 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Increase of Urban Population. 



6& 



tion System, as also to the settlement of the people from the 
villages in the urban district**. The movement of the urban districts 
as to population from 1886 to 1898 is as follows :— 





Orer 


Over 


Over 


Over 


Over 


Over 


Over 


Over 




Year. 


10,000 


20,000 


60,000 


100,000 


200,000 


800,000 


400,000 


500,000 


TO*Al. 


1886 ... 


... 69 


36 


8 


I 


I 


I 





I 


117 


1887 ... 


... 69 


40 


7 


3 


I 





I 


I 


122 


1892 ... 


... 89 


45 


12 


3 





I 


I 


I 


153- 


1897 ... 


... 88 


52 


14 


3 


1 


I 





2 


161 


1898 ... 


... 84 


57 


13 


3 


2 


I 





2 


162 



The foregoing urban districts being distributed among the main 
local divisions, the figures at the end of 1898 stood thus: — 





Over 


Over 


Over 


Over 


Over 


Over 


Over 


Over 




Section. 


lOfiOO 


20,000 


50,000 


100,000 


200,000 


800.000 


400,000 


600,000 


Total. 


Middle 


. 45 


26 


2 


I 


I 








I 


76 


Northern . 


.. 15 


II 


2 

















2& 


Western . 


. II 


9 


3 


I 





I 





I 


27 


Shikoku 


.. 5 


4 


I 





I 











10 


Kyushu 


8 


6 


3 


I 














18 


Hokkaido . 





I 


2 


I 














3 



Total 



84 



57 



13 



163 



Next the population of those urban districts containing not less 
than 60,000 inhabitants at the end of 1898 was as follows : — 

ACTUM. POPULATION. 



Tokyo 


... 1440,121 


Osaka 


.. 821,235 


Kyoto 


... 353,139 


Nagoya 


.. 244.145 


Kobe 


... 215,780 


Yokohama ... 


.. 193,762 


Hiroshima ... 


... 122,306 


Nagasaki ... 


.. 107 422 


Kanazawa ... 


... 83,662 


Sendai 


.. 83 325 


Hakodate ... 


... 78,040 


Fukuoka ... 


66190 


Wakayama ... 


... 63.667 


Tokushima ... 


... ' 91,5^1 


Kumamoto ... 


... 6M63 


Toyama 


.. 59.558 


Okayama 


... 58,025 


Otaru 


... 56,961 


Kagoshima ... 


... 53481 


Niigata ... , 


.. 53,366 


Sakai 


... 50,203 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



^6 



Japan in the Beginning oj the 20th Century. 



At the end of 1898 the number of rural communities wag 
13,230, distributed as follows :— 



Middle Section . 

Northern ... . 

Western ... . 

Shikoku ... . 

Kyushu ... . 

Hokkaido ... . 

Total . 



4.821 
2,163 
2,982 

781 
1,920 

603 

13,270 



l»Tote: — The rural communities represented ahove comprise those "Son" (villages) 
in the Local Civic Corporation System, and also those " Cho " (towns) that 
contained less than 3,000, inhabitants, besides the rural communities of Okinawa 
known by the special name of " Makiri," 



YI. RELATIVE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN HOUSEHOLD. 



AVERAGE PER FAMILY.— The number of households at 
the end of 1898 was 8,182,017 against the population of 45,402,359, 
the number of people per household therefore amounting to 5.55. 
The relative rate in the local divisions was as follows : — 



Actual No. of 
households. 


Actual Pop. 


Number per 
household. 


. 3,160,800 


17,708,223 


5.60 


1,016,131 


. 6,639,372 


6.53 


1,994.348 


10,226,539 


5.13 


570,246 


3,000,794 


5.26 


1,266,697 


6,967,897 


5.51 


i73»795 


859,534 


4-95 


8,182,017 


45,402,359 


5.55 



Section. 

Middle 

Northern .. 
Western 
Shikoku 
Kyushu 
Hokkaido .. 

Total 



Note : — In the above and in the following two tables, the number of households does 
not coincide with the number of heads of families because there are sometimes 
more than one household under single head. 

AvEKAGE IN URBAN DISTRICTS. — The number of people per 
household in the urban districts was 4.99, the actual number of 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Social Cla89e%, 



67 



households and of the population being 2,145,316 and 10,702,232 
respectively : — 



Section. 

Middle 

Northern ... 
Western .. 
Shikoku 
K3rusha .., 
Hokkaido .«, 

Total 



Actual No. of 


Actual No. 


People per 


household. 


of Pop. 


household. 


1,021,723 


5,007,323 


4.90 


237,729 


1,381 301 


5.81 


581,863 


2,709,596 


4.66 


89,021 


418,720 


4.70 


168,811 


944,910 


5.21 


46,169 


240,382 


4.99 


2,i45»3i6 


10,702,232 


4.99 



Average in Sural Districts. — The number of people in each 
household in the rural districts is 5.75, the actual number of 
households and of population being 6,036,701 and 34,700,127 respec- 
tively : — 



Section. 


Actual No. of 
household. 


Actual Pop. 


Pop. per 
household. 


Middle 


... 2,139,077 


12,700,900 


5-94 


Northern 


778^02 


5,258,071 


6.75 


Western 


... 1,412,485 


7,516,943 


532 


Shikoku 


481.225 


2,582,074 


5.37 


Kyushu 


... i/)97,886 


6,022,987 


549 


Hokkaido 


127,626 


619,152 


4-85 


Total ... 


... 6,037.701 


34,700,127 


5.75 



It will be seen from the foregoing tables that the average 
number of people per household in the urban districts is 4.99 as 
against 5.75 in the rural, and that while the number per household 
is larger in the rural districts than the urban, in the Middle, 
Northern and Western Sections of Honshu and in Shikoku, the 
exact reverse is the case in K]rushu and Hokkaid5. 



YII. SOCIAL CLASSES. 



Four Divisions. — Our people are divided into four social 
daases, namely the members of the Imperial family, Peers^ 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



<60 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century. 

IX. POPULATION AS CLASSIFIED BY AGE. 



In classifying the population by age there are many points to 
be considered, such as ages of efficient labor, non-efficient labor, 
•conscription service, voting, school attendance, marriage, procreation, 
longevity, etc., but here only the three subjects of ages of efficient 
labor and of non-efficient labor, of procreation and of conscription 
Bcrvice shall be dealt with. 

Ages of Efficient Labor and Non-efficient Labor. 
— In general our people cannot engage in self-supporting work 
ohtil they reach the age of about 15, so that the years below 

15 must be regarded as age of non-efficient labor, the years between 

16 and 65 as ages of efficient labor, and the years above 66 
as ages of non-efficient labor. The population of the efficient and 
non-efficient labor as based on the foregoing standard is shown 
below : — 



^ear. 


Below 15. 


16 to 65. 


above 66. 


1884 


11,842,565 


23,458,278 


2,142,236 


1887 


I3P87,582 


23,826408 


2,152,303 


1892 


13,702,107 


25,120,236 


2,265,046 


1897 


14,195.521 


26602,214 


2,429,097 


1898 


14,366,923 


26,989,196 


2,404,700 



In the foregoing three classes of population shown in per centage, 
those of non-efficient labor on account of childhood constitute in 
general 33 out of every 100, those of similar non-efficiency oji 
account of declining age 6, and those of efficient labor the remaining 
61. In other words, of every 100 people 61 give support to others 
and 39 receive support from others. These relations are demonstrat- 
ed as follows : — 



Year. 

1884 
1887 
1892 

1897 
1898 



Below 15 


16 to 65 


Above 66 


Total 


years. 


years. 


years. 




. 31 


63 


6 


100 


. 33 


61 


6 


100 


. 33 


61 


6 


100 


33 


61 


6 


100 


■ 33 


12 


5 


100 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Marriage. 61 

Age op Pkocreation. — Women are not allowed in our Civfl 
Code to marry until they reach full 15 years of age, and henoe 
the age of procreation may be considered as beginning at that 
age. The years at which sterility commences are not uniform 
according to persons, the period arriving before 40 in some and 
after 50 in others. However, the average may be taken as 46 
years, so that the period between 15 and 45 years may be regarded 
as the period of procreation. 

According to that standard, the child-beai*ing portion and the 
non-procreative portion amount to 44 and 56 respectively, as shown 
below : — 



L'aa.. 


Women between 


Women lielow 15 


Pro- 


Non- 


xear. 


15 and 45. 


or above 46. 


creative. 


IVocreative. 


1887 .. 


. ... 8,498,070 


10,838,583 


44 


56 


1892 .. 


. ... 8,986,358 


11,350,172 


44 


56 


1897 .. 


■ ... 95i7,05i 


11,887,385 


44 


56 


1898 .. 


. ... 9,661,749 


12,026,561 


45 


55 



Ages of Conscription Service. — The male subjects of the 
Empire are eligible for military service from full 17 to full 40 
years. At the end of 1898 year there were 8,034,098 males of 
those ages, corres|X)nding to 36 out of every 100 males, as below: — 



Year. 

1887 

1892 

1897 

1898 





Population available 
for service- 

7,220,932 

7,477,507 

7,914,181 

8,034,098 


Per 100. 
males. 

36.60 
36.03 
36.26 
36^0 




X. 


MARRIAGE. 





Marriage Rules. — Before giving any data about mar- 
riage a brief description of the legislation enacted in connection 
with marriage may be given here. The marriage age as provided 
by the Civil Code, begins at full 17 yeai-s with males and full 15 
with females, and in making the marriage contract the consent of 
parents or of those who legally represent them i.s necessary. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



62 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

However, this consent is despensed with in the case of those males 
who have reached the full age of 30 or in that of females who 
have reached 25. The same Code prohibits polygamy under pain of 
criminal punishment, the system of monogamy having been legally 
established more than 10 centuries ago. Women are similarly 
forbidden to make any polyandrous contracts. 

Number op Marriage Contracts. — ^The number of marriage 
contracts during the ten years ending 1900, was 372,102 which 
corresponds to 8.82 per every 10,000 people, this rate being 
shown in the following table : — 

Year. 

1883 

1887 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

X897 ' 

1898 

1899 

Note : — The number of contracts for 1899 covers only those that were reported during 
that year, those that were reported after that year being excluded. This 
remark applies also to the tables of birth and death to be mentioned sub- 
sequently. 

Number of married couplks. — The number of married 
couples subsequent to l886 are as follows : — 

N'o. of married couples. Per. 10,000 people. 

At the end of 1886 

„ 1887 

., ,3 1892 

» 1897 

„ „ 1898 

As shown in the table, 182..14 to 189.29 out of every 1,000 
people are married couples so that in every 1,000 of the population 



Number of marriage 


Per 100 


contracts. 


people. 


337456 


9.10 


334,149 


8.55 


349,489 


8.51 


... 358,389 


8.66 


361,319 


8.64 


365,633 


8.65 


501,777 


11.75 


365,207 


S.45 


471,298 


10.77 


297,117 


6.71 



7,289,001 


189.29 


7,346,670 


188.04 


7,561,900 


184.03 


7,892,073 


182.56 


7,979,383 


182.34 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Birth-Rate. 



63 



there are 364.68 to 378.58 married people, the rest being single. 
This rate is a fairly good record compared with the data in other 
countries, demonstrating to some extent the easy condition of living 
in Japan and the domestic stability that obtains there. 



XL BIRTH-RATE. 



Average Rate. — During the ten years ended 1899 inclusive, 
the average births numbered 1,248,014 or 2.95 per 100 people. The 
birth-rate was larger for males, their birth during the ten years 
referred to being 104.67 per 100 females. Below is shown a table 
showing the number of births and the ratio of male and female 
births from 1872 to 1899. 



Year. 



Males. 



Females. 



Total. 



Birth-rate per Males per loo 



ICO Pop. 



Females. 



1872 ... . 


290,836 


278,198 


569,034 


1.71 


104.54 


1877 ... .. 


. ... 455.689 


434.829 


890,518 


2.55 


104.80 


1882 ... . 


. ... 474.189 


448,526 


922,715 


2.49 


105.72 


1887 ... . 


• ... 542,043 


516,094 


1,058,137 


2.71 


105.03 


1892 ... . 


. ... 617,234 


589,800 


1,207,034 


2.94 


104.65 


1893 ... . 


. ... 602,322 


576,106 


1,178,428 


2.85 


104.55 


1894... • 


. ... 620,844 


588,139 


1,208,983 


2.89 


105.56 


1895 •.. - 


. ... 638,895 


607,532 


1,246427 


2-95 


105.16 


1896 


. ... 651468 


630,710 


1,282,178 


300 


10329 


1897 ... • 


. ... 683.941 


650,184 


1,334,125 


5.09 


105.19 


1898 ... . 


696,131 


673491 


1,369,622 


3.13 


103.36 


1899 ... . 


705,017 


666,120 


i,37iJ9i 


3.10 


105.85 



XII. DEATH-RATE. 



Average Rate. — During the ten years ended 1899 the average 
rate of mortality was 880,589 which corresponds to 2.09 per 100 
l)e()ple. The rate of mortality is greater in males than in females, 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



64 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20f/i Century. 



that of the former being 106.05 per 100 of the latter, as shown 
below: — 



Year. 

1872 

1877 
1882 
1887 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 

1899 



Note: — The figures marked with an asterick (♦) represent persons whose sex wa» 
unknown. 

Though on the whole the rate of mortality is greater in males 

than in females, this is not uniformly the case for males of all 

ages, as the mortality of females Ls found to be greater than that 

of males according to age. For instance the data obtain- 

Average ed for 1899 show that, though the rate of mortal- 

according ity is greater for males at the age of not less than ten 

to Age. years, the relative proportion is reversed between 11 and 

40 years, to be again restored to the former proportion 

between 41 and 70. Finally, over 70 the rate of mortality shows a 

marked decrease for males. 









MorUUtr 


Mortality of 


Males. 


Females. 


ToUk 


per 100 
Pop. 


miles per lOO' 
females. 


208,092 


197,312 


405,404 


1.22 


10546 


324,732 


295,574 


620,306 


1.78 


109.86 


346,112 


322,230 


668,342 


I.81 


IO74I 


386.132 


367,324 


753,456 


1.93 


105.12 


452,136 


434,852 


886,988 


2.16 


104.82 


479,052 


458,589 


*937,644 


2.27 


10446 


432,820 


407,947 


^840,768 


2.01 


106.10 


448,873 


403,549 


852,422 


2.02 


I I 1-23 


469485 


443,336 


♦912,822 


2.14 


105.90 


452,383 


424,454 


876,837 


2.03 


106.58 


459,298 


435,204 


*894,5o3 


2.04 


105.54 


474,043 


453,002 


^927,046 


2.09 


104.64 



Ages. 


Mortality of males 




Mortality of males 


per 100 of females. 


Ages. 


per xoo of females. 


I to 5 . 


"3.03 


51 to 60 ... 


132.22 


1 to 10 . 


104.05 


61 to 70 ... 


119.58 


u to 15 . 


86.34 


71 to 80 ... 


95.77 


16 to 20 . 


84.50 


81 to 90 ... , 


7149 


21 to 30 . 


87.H 


91 to 100 ... 


51.76 


31 to 40 . 


88.68 


above 101 ... 


25.0a 


41 to 50 . 


"999 







Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Normal Increase of Populatio7i. 65 

XIIL NORMAL INCREASE OF POPULATION. 



General Data. — Though an approximate idea of the normal 
increase of population may be obtained by comparing the birth-rates 
with the death-ratee, this can by no means be accurate, inasmuch as 
there happen omissions in the report of births or deaths, or omissions to 
register and subsequent corrections. In fact the rate of increase of the 
population as statistically recorded is much greater than the difference 
between the birth-rates and the rate of mortality. The rate of yearly 
increase from 1872 to 1899 and the rate of increase per 100 population 
are recorded in the following table. 

Year. 

Jan. 29, 1872 to Jan. I, 1873 

Jan. I, 1873 to Jan. I, 1874 

Jan. I, 1874 to Jan. i, 1875 

Jan. I, 1875 to Jan. i, 1876 

Jan. I, 1876 to Jan. 1, 1879 

Jan. I, 1879 to Jan. I, 1880 

Jan. I, 1880 to Jan. I, -1881 

Jan. I, 1881 to Jan. I, 1882 

Jan. I, 1882 to Jan. i, 1883 

Jan. I, 1883 to Jan. i, 1884 

Jan. I, 1884 to Jan. i, 1885 

Jan. I, 1885 to Jan. I, 1886 

Jan. I. 1886 to end of 1886 

End of 1886 to end of 1887 

End of 1887 to end of 1888 

End of x888 to end of 1889 

End of 1889 to end of 1890 

End of 1890 to end of 1891 

End of 1891 to end of 1892 

End of 1892 to end of 1893 

End of 1893 to end of 1894 

End of 1894 to end of 1895 

End of 1895 to end of 1896 

End of 1896 to end of 1897 

End of 1867 to end of 1898 

End of 1898 to end of 1899 

As may be seen from the foregoing table, the rate of increase is. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Increase. 


Increase per 




xoo Pop. 


189,850 


0.57 


325.093 


0.98 


371,771 


I. II 


340,955 


1. 00 


1430,180 


4.16 


160,476 


0.45 


429,934 


1.20 


341,124 


0.94 


317.184 


0.86 


434,462 


1.17 


417,222 


I. II 


282,230 


0.75 


355,960 


0.93 


562,514 


1.46 


537,543 


1.38 


464,786 


I.I7 


381,441 


0.95 


265,216 


0.66 


371,263 


0.91 


298.373 


0.73 


424,902 


1.03 


457,405 


1.09 


437.644 


1.04 


520,599 


1.22 


534.290 


1.24 


497.451 


1. 14 



66 Japan in the Beginning of the 20f/i Century. 

€xtreracly ii regular, being in some years less than }, in others 1 and in 

still others .1 and a fraction. However in 1879, 1885, 1886, 
iLverage. 1891 and 1894 when the rate stood very low, various causes, 

such as the spread of epidemic diseases, the rise in the market 
price of commodities, etc. prevented the progress of the population. The 
average rate of increase during the preceding 28 years amounted to 
over 1.04 per 100 of the population. 

In the relative rate of increase between urban and rural popula- 
tion, that of the former is, as already explained, considerably higher 
than that of the latter. This increase is however due to an abnormal 
cause which is operative in all civilized countries, that is to say, the 
emigration of vilhigers to towns and cities. As to the normal increase, 
the r^te is higher in rural districts, because there the birth-rate is higher 
and the rate of mortality lower than the same rates in the urban 
districts. 

During the ten yeai-s ending 1897 inclusive, the birth-rate in 
cities possessing an actual population of not less than 25,000 was 

2.30 and the rate of mortality 2.18, per 100 of the popu- 

Batein latiou, the increase of population corresponding therefore 

Cities, to 0.12. For the whole country the birth-rate was 2.92 

and the rate of mortality 2.07, tlio balance in favor of 
increase biing 0.85. Thus the rate of increase in cities is less by 
0.73 than that for the whole country, as shown below : — 

For the whole country. For cities of over 25,000 Pop. 



Year. ^ 


Hinhs per 
100 Poi». 


I>eaths per 
I0i» Pop. 


Biilance between 
birth!) ttud 
deaih:^. 


Birtlis per 
100 Pop. 


Deaths lior 
100 Pop. 


Balance betweeu 
births and 
deaths. 


^888 ... 


2.96 


1.90 


1.06 


2.40 


1.07 


0.33 


1889 ... 


3.02 


2.02 


1. 00 


2.38 


2.15 


0.23 


1890 ... 


2.83 


2.04 


0.79 


2.49 


2.37 


0.12 


1891 ... 


2.67 


2.XO 


0.57 


2.13 


2.28 


0.15 


1892 ... 


2.94 


2.16 


0.7S 


2.32 


2.37 


0.05 


1893 •■• 


2.85 


2.27 


0.58 


2.23 


2.19 


0.04 


1894 •■ 


2.89 


2.01 


0.88 


2.29 


2.00 


0.29 


1895 ... 


2.95 


2.02 


0.93 


2.23 


2.19 


0.04 


1896 ... 


300 


2.14 


0.86 


2.86 


.2.02 


0.14 


1897 ... 


309 


2.03 


1.06 


2.41 


2.14 


0.27 


Average. 


2.92 


2.07 


0.85 


2.30 


2.XS 


0.12 



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Emi^ation and Immigration. 67 

XI¥. EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION. 



Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


— 


— 


13,655 


— 


— 


2,539 


2,903 


2,636 


5»539 


4,278 


3,509 


7,787 


24,289 


18419 


42,708 


36,457 


27,893 


64,350 


37,271 


26,358 


63,629 


25,182 


20,212 


45»334 


26^75 


21,643 


48,118 



Emigration at Home. — Apart from the emigration of 
country people to towns and cities, the emigration to Hokkaid6 
from the rest of Japan proper deserves special notice, 
Hokkaido, tens of thousand of settlers proceeding thither every 
year since the work of colonizing that northern island 
was started soon after the advent of the rehabilitated Imperial 
regime. This migratory movement is shown in the following 
table :— 

Year. 

1872 

1877 

1882 

18S7 

1892 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

According to the returns of the settlers for 1900, 25,927 
^ere engaged in farming, 4,620 in fishery, 1,743 in manufacture, 
'3,385 in trade and the rest in miscellaneous occupations. 

Emigration Abroad — The emigration to foreign coun- 
tries is comparatively insignificant, for those that go abroad gen- 
erally stay there for a limited period, on official duty, for the 
purpose of prosecuting their studies, with the object of carrying 
on some business, or as laborers. This remark may also be applied 
to foreigners in Japan, so that in the present paragraph a few 
words may be said of the Japanese staying abroad and of the 
foreigners staying in our country. 

Japanese Staying Abroad. — ^With increase of intercourse 
with foreign countries, the number of Japanese going abroad 
is steadily advancing, so that while in 1889 the number was only 
18,688 it grew U) 58,785 in the year 1897, to be still further increase<l 
to 123,971 in 1900. A review of the preceding 12 years shows 
the following figures : — 



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68 



Japan in the Beginning oj the 2Qi!i Century. 



Males. 



Females. 



Total. 



Year. 

1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 



According to the returns for the last year in the above table, 
the majority of those temporary emigrants >vent to tlie United States 
of America and its colonies especially Hawaii, also to Korea, Eng- 
land and its colonies, Hussia and its colonies, China, France, Peru 
and Germany. During the same year those temporary emigrants 
were employed thus: — 



13,815 


4,873 


18,688 


17,519 


6,031 


23.950 


23,681 


8,465 


32.146 


29,615 


9,388 


39,003 


31,147 


10,055 


41,202 


31,632 


9,958 


4»,59o 


34,332 


",945 


46,277 


40,348 


13,994 


54,342 


43,707 


15,078 


58,785 


53,"4 


17,687 


70,801 


76,633 


22,406 


99,039 


98,985 


24,986 


123,971 





On 


For pro- 


Engaged 






Country. 


official 


secuting 


in 


Others. 


Total. 




duty. 


studies. 


trade. 






United States and colonies ... 


52 


554 


• 2,851 


86,689 


90,146 


England and colonies 


. U3 


40 


512 


7,530 


8,215 


Russia and colonies 


15 


65 


286 


3,587 


3,953 


Holland 


4 


2 


— 


— 


6 


France and colonies 


44 


36 


18 


799 


897 


Portugal and colonies 


— 


I 


— 


9 


10 


Gennany 


ZZ 


162 


5 


14 


214 


Belgium 


10 


5 


5 


I 


21 


Italy 


7 


— 


— 


6 


13 


Spain 


2 


— 


— 


— 


2 


Austria 


8 


>3 


10 


5 


36 


Peru 


I 


— 


— 


693 


694 


Brazil 


7 


— 


— 


2 


9 


Mexico 


6 


3 


4 


32 


45 


Siam... ••• 


7 


3 


29 


39 


78 


Korea 


538 


16 


9,669 


5,606 


15,829 


China 


202 


40 


1,931 


1,630 


3,803 



Total 



1,063 



940 



15,320 106,642 



"3,971 



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Emigration and Immigration. 



69 



FoREiONEBS IN Japan. — ^The number of foreigners coming to Japan 
has been on the increase since the treaty was concluded with the 
United States of America in 1854 A. D. In 1873 the number 
stood at 4,190, increased to 4,236 in 1877, to 6,335 in 1882, 7,560 
in 1887, and so on, as detailed below. 



Year. 




Year. 




1889 


.. 9,062 


1895 


... 8,246 


1890 


... 9,707 


1896 


... 9,238 


1891 


.. 9,550 


1897 .^. ... 


.. 10,531 


1892 


.. 9,803 


1898 


... 11,589 


1893 


•• 9,633 


1899 


.. 11,684 


1894 


■• 5,875 


1900 


.. 12,664 



In the number of foreigners in 1900 as classified according 

to nationality, the Chinese came at the top of the list, followed 

by the English, Americans, Grermans and French, and so on, as 
shown in the following table : — 



Subjects of 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


United States of America ... 


... 833 


629 


1,462 


Hawaii (U. S. A.) 


2 


— 


2 


England 


... 1,260 


784 


2,044 


British Dominion in Canada 


15 


29 


44 


Russia 


... 88 


89 


177 


HoUand 


43 


23 


65 


France 


... 313 


145 


458 


Portugal 


112 


61 


173 


Germany 


... 395 


145 


540 


Belgium 


15 


7 


22 


Italy 


... 31 


12 


43 


Spain 


30 


7 


37 


Austria-Hungary 


SI 


27 


78 


Denmark 


42 


18 


60 


Switzerland 


... 56 


32 


88 


Sweden and Norway 


... 36 


14 


50 


Greece 


10 


2 


12 


Turkey 


14 


6 


20 


Peru 


I 


— 


I 


Chili 


2 


— 


2 


Roumania 


5 


3 


8 


Argentine Confederation ... 


— 


2 


2 


Philippines (U. S. A.) 


I 


— 


I 



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70 Jajyan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

Subjects of Males. Females. Total. 

India (England) 

Korea 

China 

Unknown 

Total 8,983 3,553 12,536 

The total of this table does not coincide with the other one, 
because 128 persons fo^^ming the diplomatic and consular staff were 
excluded from the table. 



7 


— 


7 


184 


9 


193 


5,394 


M96 


6,896 


44 


13 


57 



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I{igl\if^ of Sovereignty, 



CHAPTER ni— Administrative System* 



Bights of BoTereignty— Legislature and LegislatiTe Organs- 
Ezeontive and Executive Organs — Justice and Judicial 
Organs (with paragraphs on the Codes.) 



I. RIGHTS OF SOVEREIGNTY. 



Administrative System in Olden Days. — Our Empire of 
Japan is ruled over hy an Imperial House of unbroken lineage 
from the remotest antiquity, for though during the period of 
more than 2,000 yeai-s that has elapsed since the founding of 
the Empire, the nation has undergone various changes, this glori- 
ous dynasty has always remained unchanged. 

The Military^ Ascendency-. — ^The administrative system was 
very simple in ancient times. There was no distinct line of demar- 
cation drawn between military and civil affairs, and the whole 
nation was considered as one big army with the Emperor over it. 
It was during the " Middle Ages " and after the adoption of the 
Chinese system of admin i.striition, or more especially that of the 
then dynasty of Tung, that for the iirst time military and civil 
affairs were distinctly separated. S(K)n, howevejr, the warrior classes 
began little by little to acquire the supreme authority, and to 
thrust the Court into the background. For more than seven cen- 
turies the real sovereignty of the country was vested in one or 
other of the Regencies that appeared in succession, till, in 1867^ 
the Regency of Tokugawa was made to surrender the power to its 
rightful and original posses-ser, and thus the Imperial regime was 
firmly re-established. One thing that must be strictly kept in mind 
in this connexion is the fact that, in theory at least, the Emperors 
remained even during those periods of military ascendency, the 
supreme heads of the country and were always regarded as sacred 
and inviolable. 



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72 Japan in Hie Beginning of ike 20th Century. 

The Imperial Prerogative. — The restoration of the Im- 
perial Government was at once followed by many striking changes 
in the administrative system of the country, as may be inferred from 
the fact that Japan promulgated her constitution 22 years after 
jind soon began to blossom forth as a constitutional monarchy. This 
great change naturally led to the sovereign rights of the Emperor 
in the three domains of legislative, juridical and executive affairs, 
being strictly defined in the manner given below. The Emperor's 
prerogative now consists in the 

1. Right of convoking, opening, closing or proroguing the 
Imperial Diet, and of dissolving the House of Representa- 
tives. 

2. Right of issuing, in case some urgent necessity demands, the 
exercise of that right when the Imperial Diet is niJt sit- 
ting. Imperial Ordinances which take the place of regu- 
larly enacted laws. 

3. Right of issuing or of causing to be issued the Ordinances 
necessary for the carrying out of the laws or for the 
maintenance of public peace and order, and for the pro- 
motion of the welfare of the subjects. 

4. Right of determining, excepting those cases especially pro- 
vided for in the Constitution or in other laws, the orga- 
nization of the different branches of the administration , 
the salaries of all civil and military officers, and of ap- 
pointing and dismissing the same. 

5. Right of taking the supreme conmiand of, and determining 
the organization and peace .standing of, the Army and 
the Navy. 

6. Right of declaring war, making peace and concluding 
treaties. 

7. Right of proclaiming a state of siege. 

S. Right of conferring titles of nobility, rank, oi-dera and 
other marks of honor. 

9. Right of declaring an amnesty, as well as the right of 
pardon, commutation of punishments, and rehabilitation. 



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♦ Legislature and LegUlcUive Organs. 78 

II. LEGISLATURE AND LEGISLATIVE ORGANS. 



Codification in Early Days. — As provided in Art. VII. 
of the Imperial Ck)nstitution, the right of legislation belongs to 
the Emperor who exercises that right with the approbation of 
the Imperial Diet. 

To briefly review the history of our legislature, the first thing 
that demands attention is the compilation of a code of laws by 
Prince Shotoku during the reign of the Empress Shomu (724r-'48 
A. D.) and the compilation of the celebrated Taiho code during the 
reign of the Emperor Mommu (697-718). Though considered very 
important in those da}'^, these legislative measures were necessarily 
very simple, at least when they are viewed from the standpoint of 
to-day, so that their value is mainly historical. 

During the periods of military ascendency and the prevalence 
of feudalism, the legislature was in an almost chaotic condition and 
it was not until after the Restoration that this fundamental organ 
of the administration was brought to a state of some perfection. 

The First Legislative Work After the Restora- 
tion. — ^The first noteworthy legislative work accomplished by 
the reinstated Imperial Government was the issue, soon after its 
installation, of an Imperial Rescript by which the first comer-stone 
of the present Constitutional regime may be said to have been laid. 
That Rescript proclaimed, among other things, that " conferences 
shall be convoked all over the country and the affairs of State shall 
be determined by public discussion." The first legislative organ 
established in pursuance of that policy was the dual 
Sight House body consisting of the '' Right House " and the 
and Left Honsp. " Left House " created in 1871. The " Right 
House" was composed of the Heads of Executive 
Ofiices of State and the other officials specially nominated by the 
Government The " Left House " had to take charge principally of 
l^islative work at the instance of either the Prime Minister or on 
its own initiative, while the " Right House " had to advise the 
Prime Minister as to the fitness or otherwise of the resolutions 
passed by the other House. 



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74 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

The two Houses were abolished in 1874, to be superseded by 
the Senate (Genro-in) and the Local Governor's Council. The 

former was composed of Peers and of men who had 
The Senate, rendered distinguished service to the country or who 

were eminent on account of their erudition, and wa^ 
to take charge of legislative matters either emanating from the 
Cabinet or introduced at the instance of the Senate itself. The 
Senate was also entitled to receive petitions about legislation, so that 
it may be regarded as a precursor of the present House of Peers. 

The Local Governor's Council was something like a national 
assembly, composed as it was of officially nominated members ; for as 
annoimced in the Emperor's Rescript addressed 
The Local Gover- to the Council on the occasion of its first sitting, 
Eor's Council. its object was " to attend to the affairs of State 
as the representative of the people's interests." 
In the same Rescri})t the Emperor declared that he had called 
together the said Council " in pursuance of the solemn promise, 
given by Us on the occasion of Our accession to the Throne, to 
summon delegates of Our subjects, to assist Us in the conduct of 
affairs of State, to make with those delegates arrangements cal- 
culated to cement the amicable understanding that prevails between 
rulers and ruled, and to enable both to co-operate for the com- 
mon good of the country." The Governors who attended the 
Council " were under no danger of incurring the displeasure of 
the Government for any opinion enunciated by them at the 
meeting." 

Organs of Popular Representation. — The Council thus 
organized was abolished in 1880, but as meanwhile the system 
of local and municipal assemblies had been established, the 
organs for voicing popular opinion were now more satisfac- 
torily arranged. A change in a similar direction was made in 
the following year when the institution of a naticmal represent- 
ative assembly in the year 1890 was proclaimed. On the 11th 
February of 1889 the Imperial Constitution, the Imperial House 
Law, the Law of the House, the Law of Election of the House of 
Representatives etc., were promulgated, and in October of the fol- 
lowing year the first memorable session of the Imperial Diet wa» 



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Legislature and LegislaHve (h-gaiis, 75 

convoked. In this manner did Japan obtain from her Emperor tiie 
great boon of a Constitution. 

Legislative Procedure. — ^Projects of laws originate either 
in the Cabinet or in the Diet, and become law when they 
obtain the approval of the Emperor and the consent of the Diet. 
A project coming from the Government is introduced to the Diet 
after it has been submitted to and discu-ssed by the Cabinet and 
the Legislative Bureau, and finally receives the saucticm of the 
Emperor. Any project relating to a law connect(?d with the Im- 
perial Constitution must first pass througli the hands of the Privy 
Council. 

Legislative Organs. — Strictly sj)enking, the legislature 
may be said to be composed by the two Houses of the Diet, though 
in a larger sense tlie Cabinet, the Legislative Bureau, and some- 
times the Privy Council may be regarded as forming part of the 
l^islative machinery. 

House of Peers. — This House consists of Princes of the Blood, 
Peers, men of distinguishe<l services or of remarkable erudition, and 
representatives of tlie highest-tax paying section of the i)eople. It 
enjoys practically identical riglits in the legislature with the 
other House. 

House of RKPREsENTATiVEri. — This House con.-ists of members 
elected by the people ; and all male subjects of over thirty years 
old are now eligible for election, there l.eing at pres-.'nt no property 
or other qualification in consecjuence of the amendnieiu of the Law 
of Election. Owing to the same amendment the electorates are no 
longer divided into small sections as they were before, and at pre- 
sent each prefecture is divided into urban el e(;to rates which are 
independent and rural electorates which return between them a fixed 
number of members determined according tn the number of inhabi- 
tants contained in the rural districts. 

Rights and Privileges of the Diet. — It must not be sup- 
posed that the Diet enjoys part of the rights of sovereignty, for, as 
we have already pointed out, these belong exclusively to the Em- 
peror. The rights and privileges enjoyed by tlie Diet consists of 
the right of deliberating on legislative measures and of approving 
of such measures if they are considered to merit such approbation. 



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76 Japan in tJie Beginning oj the 20<A Century, 

Those rights and privileges may be briefly summed up as follows: — 
(1) the right of receiving petitions from the people, (2) the rights 
of submitting memorials to the Throne and of representations to the 
Government, (3) the right of demanding explanations from the 
Government about administrative affairs, (4) the right of supervising 
the finances. 

Legislative Forms. — There are six legislative forms, name- 
ly, Laws, Imperial Ordinances, Ordinances of the Cabinet and 
of the Departments of State, and Rules and Instructions. All these 
measures are published in the Official Gazette, and the date of the 
coming in force of a law is, unless otherwise specially determined, 
after the lapse of full twenty days from its promulgation, while all 
others are to come in force seven days after the is.sue of the number 
of the Official Gazette containing them. 

A law may supersede an Ordinance, but under no case can an 
Ordinance supersede a law. 



UL EXECUTIVE AND EXECUTIVE ORGANS. 



General Remarks. — As already mentioned above, the organization 
of the executive was extremely simple in ancient times, and that the 
encroachment of the military classes reduced the Court during a 
long period of over seven centuries to a mere figure-head. The 
feudal system attained its greatest perfection under the Tokugawa 
Regency which extended over about three centuries of prosperity. 

The Administrative Policy of the Tokugawa Regency. — 
The Regency adopted a policy of decentralization and, unless required 
by special occasions, it left the feudal princes to rule their own 
dominions with perfect freedom. The administrative system of the 
Regency, a system copied by the feudal princes, was extremely 
simple. The principal officials who conducted it were the TairO 
(Premier), Roju (Ministers) and Bugyo (Magistrates). The system 
followed by the Regency was not of much value theoretically but, in 
the amount of the practical benefit it accomplished, it was a good 
system, resembling in this the British constitution. 

It was aft^r the disappearance of the Regency and the ushering 



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Executive and Execfutive Ch^gans. 11 

in of the present Meiji (Jovernment that Japan began for the first 
time to possess a regular and efHcient system of administration 
organs. 

THE EXISTING ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM.— In the ex- 
isting administrative system there is the Privy Council as the supreme 
advisory organ to the Emperer, while on the other hand there is 
the Cabinet as the central administrative headquarters, having under it 
nine Departments of State, that is to say, the Departments of Foreign 
Affairs, Home AfTairn, Finance, War, the Navy, Justice, Education, 
Agriculture and Commerce, and Communications. A Minister of 
Btate presides over each Department, and the Government establishes 
Special Offices to deal with afikirs relating to the audit in<r of the 
State finance::?, administrative matters, litigation and j)olice. Each 
Department has under it a greater or less number of subordinate 
offices, and in this connection the Home Office stands out most 
conspicuously as it controls all the local offices and the various civic 
corporations. 

The main points in the three administrative organs, central, local 
and civic corporations will be described below. 

Central Executive Organs. — ^The central administrative organ 
is divided into executive bodies and advisory bodies. The former 
consist of the Cabinet, the Departments of State, and sjxjcial offices, 
while the Privy Council, Codes Investigation Commission and similar 
commissions make up the latter. 

First about the higher executive b(Klies with the Cabinet at 
their head. 

The Cabinet is comjxxsed of the Ministers of State presided over 
by the Premier who, in obedience to the Emperor, deals 
with all matters relating to administration. 

The principal matters to be determined by the (-abinet are as 
follows : — 

a. Drawing up of projects of laws and compilation of Budgets 
and Settled Accounts. 

b. Matters relating to treaties with forei^^u countries and to 
international questions. 

c. Imperial Ordinances relating to official organization or the 
operation of laws. 



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78 Japan in the Beginning oj the 2(ith Century, 

d. Disputes between the Departments of State as to jurisdiction. 

e. Petitioas of people sent in either by the Emperor or by the 
Diet. 

/. Disbursement not covered by the Budget. 

g. Appointments and other movements of officials of chokunin 

rank and of local Governors. 
Matters of importance coming under the direct supervision of 
the Ministers of State may also be laid before a Cabinet Council. 

Attached to the Cabinet is the Legislative Bureau which deals 
with matters relating to the drafting of projects of law or of Ordin- 
ances or their amendment or revocation, -Nvhether such drafting or 
amendment is done at the instance of the Cabinet, or of a Depart- 
ment of State or at its own initiation. It is also entitled to express 
its own opinion about those matters. 

The Minister who has charge of a Department of State is 
empowered to issue Departmental Ordmances and to issue orders to 
Departments ^^^^ chiefs of the Metropolition Police, the Hokkaid5 
of State. Administration Office and provincial Offices in con- 
nection with mr.tters coming under his direct control. 

There are two kinds of special Offices, one independent of the 

Departments of State while the other is subordinate to them. The 

Board of Audit and the Administrative Litiga- 

Special AdmiDistra- tion Court belong to the first class. On the 

tive Ofilces. other hand there are quite a number of Special 

Offices subordinate to one or another of the 

Departments, these being as follows, to mention only those that are 

important : — 

Those that are subordinate to the Home Office: — ^Metro- 
politan Police Office, I<5e Great Shrine and Great Shrine 
Construction Offices, Hokkaido Administration Office, Provincial 
Offices, Formosan Governor GeneraFs Office, Sanitary Laboratory, 
Blood-serum Laboratory, Vaccine Laboratory, Public Works 
Inspection Offices, Epidemic Diseases Lalx)ratory. 
Those that are subordinate to the Department of Agriculture 
and Commerce are Jis follows : — 

Forest Inspection Offices, Mining Inspection Offices, Agricul- 
tural Experimental Farms, Industrial Laboratory, Geological 



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Executive and Executive Orga)is. 79 

Surveying Office, Steel Foundry, Yokohama Silk-Conditioning 
House, Mineral Fertilizer Surveying Office, Horae Breeding 
Pastures and Stud*?, Cattle Breeding Pastures, Sericultural 
Training Schools, Fij»hery Training Schools. 

Those that are sulwrdinate to the Department of Finane, 
are : — Inland Revenue Offices, State ]\ronopoly Offices, Customs 
House. 

There are, besides, Post and Telegraph Offices and Telephone 
Offices under the Depiirtment of Communications; Prisons and 
Penitentiaries under the Department of Justice ; legations and 
consulates under the Foreign Office, various kinds of educational 
institutions under tlie Department of p]ducatiou, piilitary or 
naval schools under War Office or the Admiralty. 
Advisory Orcj.vxs of tiu: Higher Executive Bodies. — 
The Privy Council is the supreme advisfiry body to the 
Emperor and attends to (a) matters relating to the Imperial 
House Law ; (b) mattera relating to projects 
Privy Council, of laws and Ordinances with reference to 
clauses in and laws and Ordinances per- 
taining to the Ci)nstitution ; (c) matters relating to the 
declaraticm of a state of siege, to the issue of urgency 
Ordinances to take the place of laws when the Diet is not 
sitting, and to punitive provisions of the Constitution ; 
(d) matters relathig to treaties and international agree- 
ments, matters relating to the organization and rules of 
the Priv^' Council ; (f) other matters on which it is 
ordered by the Emperor to deliberate. 

Subject to the control of the Prince Minister, the 
The Codes Investiga- ^'-»i"mi'^^i(>n draws up drtifts relating 
tion Commission. to the Codes and Laws and Ordin- 
ances appertaining thereto, and also investigates matters 
relating to the putting in force of treaties. 

Subject to tlie control of the Home Minister, this 

Central Sanitary Association submits its opinions on points 

Association. referred to it by the Minister in reganl 

to public hygiene and epidemics among domestic animals. 

Subje3t to tlie control of tl)e Home Minister, the 



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80 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

Pablio WorkB Commission submits its opinions on points 
Commissioii. referred to it by him in regard to various 
public works. 

Subject to the control of the Educational Minister, the 
Higher Ednoational Commission submits its opinions on 
CommiBsiOD. points referred it by him in regard 

to higher education. 

Subject to the Minister of Communications the Council 

submits its opinions on points referred 

Bailroad Ccllnci^ ^ -^ u i • • i x i j 

to it by hini m regard to railroads. 

Local Administrative organs. — The local administration 
system adopted by the Tokugawa Regency was based on the de- 
centralization principal, and the local dainiyos were left to do what 
they liked in the governing of their own dominions. With the 
the abolition of the feudal system and the re-establishment of the 
Imperial Government, the administration policy was one of centra- 
lization, with the object of bringing affairs in the provinces to a 
state of uniformity. This policy was attended by some evil, as it 
did away with some beneficial local customs, but of coui-se this evil 
was outweighed by the immense improvement effected in the local 
administration. 

Meanwhile the Government saw that the time liad arrived for 
starting the contrary progi^amme of decentralization of authority, and 
of allowing people to take part in admistrative affairs. Thus in 
1880 the Provincial Assembly Regulations were enacted, followed in 
1884 by the Civic Corporation Regulations. In 1888 the self-govern- 
ment system was in thorough working order, as it exists to-day. 

The local administration system is divided into prefectual ad- 
ministration and sub-prefect ual (Gini) administration. It combines 
two functions, that of being, on one hand, a part 
Prefeotural of the great administrative organ of State, and, on 
Administration, the other, of acting as a self-governing mechanism. 
As to the former all matters are in the charge of 
the Governor who has to carry out, under the su^K^rvision of the 
various Ministers of State, Laws and Ordinances, also to attend 
to all the administrative affairs in his prefecture, and to keep 
peace and order therein. lie is therefore authorized to summon 



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Jvstic: and its Organs, with Paragraphs on the Codes, 81 

military help from the nearest headquartei-s whenever an emergency 
requires it. 

In regard to the self-government arrangement, it may be stated 
that every prefecture has a prefectural assembly composed of membeii^ 
who represent the people in the urban and rural districts. It dis- 
cusses and d. 'liberates on financial and other important matters of the 
locality. Tlic assembly is convoked by the Governor at fixed periods^ 
and the Local Council, which is a permanent institution, takes part 
on behalf of the as.«embly in administrative afiaii-s, and attends ta 
all affairs which the assembly cannot see to when it is not in session. 

It was in 1^78 that the sul)-prefectaral administrative arrange- 
ment^ were first elaborated in definite form. At present this 
administration does not differ in its procedure and 
8ub-prefectnral principles from the prefectural administration of 
Administiaticn- which it forms a part, and, just like the other, its 
system is twofold, that is it combines ordinary 
administrative business and self-government business. 

The Self-Government System as developed in 1888 is divided 

into three grades, Prefectural, Sul)-Prefectural and Civic Corporations 

(cities, towns and villages). Of these three divisions 

Self-OoYemuent the last one relating to municipal and rural 

System. communities represent the self-government mecha- 

nism in its most striking form, for in the other 
two higher divisions, owing to the greater part they have to play in 
administrative affairs their self-government function does not lie so 
distinctively on the surface as in the other. Both legislatively and 
also practically the municipal and rural communities are bonu fide 
self-governing bodies for they are entitled by law to enjoy the rights 
of juridical j^rsons, also to incur obligations as such, and to arrange 
all public matters relating to their own communities. 



IV. JUSTICE AND ITS ORGANS, WITH PARAGRAPHS 
ON THE C0QE8. 



General Remarks. — The only authentic record worth noting in 
the history of justice in this country is the existence in the " Middle 

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82 Japan in the Beginning of the 20</i Century. 

Ages " of a special office for dealing with criminal afikii^, while 
during the period of military ascendency those matters were taken 
charge of by Censors. Coming down to the Tokugawa Regency, 
magistrates were made to deal with civil and criminal affairs. They 
had not, however, any laws to follow, but were obliged to judge each 
case according to the lights of their own understanding and in con- 
formity with the broad principle of chastising wrong and of uphold- 
ing right. 

The first regular court of justice established by the Meiji 
Government was the Tokyo Court of Justice established in Tokyo in 
1871. Within the following four years one Supreme Court and four 
Courts of Appeal, besides a number of lower tribunals were estab- 
lished. Several improvements were subsequently carried out, till at 
last by the Law of Organization of Courts, the present system was 
developed. 

Abolition of the Extra-territorial System.— The most 
noteworthy chapter in the history of our judicial system is the doing 
away in 1899 with the extra-territorial rights which the Western 
Treaty Powers retained in virtue of the treaties concluded before the 
Restoration, and the bringing of foreign residents in Japan under the 
Japanese laws. 

Organization. — Our judicial system is divided into four 
grades, that is Supreme Court, Appeal Courts, Local Courts, and 
District Courts. The last is the lowest tribunal and is conducted by 
a single Judge, while in the Local Courts three collegiate Judges 
sit on a case, in the Appeal Courts five collegiate Judges, and in 
the Supreme Court seven collegiate Judges. Public Procurators are 
attached to each Court, on commission from the Minister of Justice. 
It is needless to state that ordinary Judges represent the right of 
sovereignty of the Emperor and that their function is held sacred and 
inviolable. Hence their tenure of office is securely guaranteed by the 
<I?onstitution. Judges are also amenable to special disciplinary laws. 

Number op Courts. — ^Both the Judges and Public Procurators 
secure their appointments by passing the regular examination of 
Judges and Public Procurators. 

The following table shows the number of courts and the stafis bb 
^hey stood at the end of 1901. 



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Justice and its Organs, tuiih Paragraphs on the Codes, 83 





No. 


No. of 


No. of pr9- 


Population per 


Area of district 




Judges. 


camtors. 


on« Court 


per one Court 


Supreme Court . 


I 


25 


7 


45,i93»583 


24,998.80 


Appeal Court 


7 


121 


29 


6^56,227 


' 3,571.26 


Local Court... . 


. 49 


399 


140 


922,319 


510.18 


District Court 


• 3IO 


557 


159 


145,786 


80.64 



Barristers. — It may be added that the barristers are regulated 
by the Barrister's Law, and that various strict measures are in force 
with regard to their qualifications, rights and privileges, obligations, 
etc. They are amenable to the same disciplinary law as that en- 
forced in the case of Judges. • 

Work of Codification. — Japan had no written code of 
laws properly speaking till about 30 years ago. The first attempt 
made in this direction was the compilation of a criminal code in the 
year 1870 to be amended three years after. The code was far from 
being perfect, having been mainly based on our ancient customs 
modified more or less by Chinese laws. 

In 1882 year the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Pro- 
cedure were enforced. The latter was subjected to a thorough 
amendment in 1889, and similarly the former is about to be amended 
with the consent of the Diet. The principal statute laws thus far 
enforced are as follows : — 



Imperial Constitution 


(issued in 1889) 


I AW for the Application of Laws 


(in 1898) 


Law of Nationality 


(in 1899) 


Criminal Code 


(in X898) 


Criminal Procedure 


(in 1890) 


Civil Code 


..(in 1896-1898) 


Civil Procedure 


(in 1890) 


Commercial Code 


..(in 1890-1898) 


Insurance Law 


(in 1900) 


Law relating to the Registration of Real Estate 


(in 1899) 


Law relating to the Organization of Courts of Law 


(in 1890) 


Law regarding Ships 


(in 1899) 


Law regarding Crews of Ships 


( do. ) 



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84 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 



CrTAPTER VL— Land as an Institution. 



History — Classifloation—Bnrdens— Ownership. 



History. — The history of the land in this country especially 
as regards the ownership of it, may be briefly divided into tliree parts. 
(1) The period of the ancient Imperial regime, (2) the period of 
military ascendency and feudalism, and (8) the modern period of the 
reinstated Imperial regime. 

During the first stage all the land belonged tlieoretically to the 
Court, but, coming to the period of feudalism and military ascendency, 
Vfe find that this power was practically held by the feudal barons. 
It was by a very precarious tenure that people -Nvere allowed to own 
their own land, but after the Restoration that right of the owner- 
ship of land by private individuals was firmly established by law. 

In 1867 the Imperial Government issued a proclamation to the 
eflTect that the land in the villages should belong to the villagen^ ; 
in 1874 the land was subdivided into State land and the land 
belonging to private individuals; and, finally, in the following year 
it was proclaimed that the title deeds should bear the names of the 
owners. 

Classification of Lands.— State land and private land are 
classified, the former into four and the latter into two categories. 
The four categories of State land are as follows:— 
1. Land belonging to the Imperial Court, and land belonging 
to Shinto shrines. 
f 2. Land belonging to Princes of the Blood and land belonging 
to the central and local Government oflSces. 
3. Mountains, hills, woods and forests, plains, rivers, seas, 
lakes, ponds, swamps, drainage ways, ditches, embankments, 
roads, cultivated fields, etc. not belonging to private in- 
dividuals; also land occupied by railroad tracks, telegraph 
and telephone posts, premises of lighthouses, places con- 



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History. 86 

taming historic remains, public parks, graveyards, and all 
other such land not belonging to private individuals. 

4. Land occupied by temples, schools, hospitals, etc. not be- 
longing to private individuals. 

The two kinds of private lands are as follows ; — 

1. Arable land, places of residence, woods and forests covered 
by title deeds; lands occupied by schools, hospitals, store- 
houses, pastures, shrines, temples, etc. owned by private 
individuals or by several persons or by one or several 
village communities. 

2. Land occupied by shrines, graveyards, sewer-ways, reser- 
voirs, embankments, wells, ditches, highways, etc. not 
belonging to the State. 

There are five kinds of land registers, namely national registers, 
prefectural registers, provincial registers, district Registers and town 
and village registers. Special rules exist for regulating the deter- 
mination of the various kinds of land. 

Burdens on Land. — State land is of course exempted from 
taxation,, and title-deeds are only issued to land coming under the 
2nd category. For private lands the title-deeds a^re given for lands 
of both kinds, but those under the Ist category alone are subjected 
to taxation. 

Taxable lands are divided into two classes as follows : — 

1. Arable lands, dwelling lands, salt-fields, mines and mineral 
springs. 

2. Lakes, ponds, woods, pastures, plains and miscellaneous lands. 
Lands newly reclaimed are exempted from taxation during a 

certain period of years. 

The Land Tax which stood at 2.5 per cent, of the r assessed 
value until a few years ago was raised for a period of five years 
b^;inning from 1885 to 3.3 per cent, in order to meet the increased 
Government expenditure occasioned by the so-called pdst-bellum 
measures. The limits of five years having expired it was rescinded 
m 1902. The assessed value of course differs according to local 
circumstances, relative fertility, and other f^ccidental causes. It is 
the principle of the Land Tax not to make a^iy alteration according 
to the relative success of crops. 



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86 Japan in the Beginning of the 20tli Century. 

The Land Tax carries with it two kinds of rate, Local 
Kate and Municipal or Town or Village Bate. Unless with the 
approval of the Minister of Home Affairs the former cannot ex- 
ceed 1/3 and the latter 1/7 of the main tax. The two rates are 
collected from the owners of the lands, except in some special 
cases. 

Right op Ownership of Land. — The owner of a piece 
of land is of course entitled to do whatever he likes with his land^ 
provided his act is not illegal and does not in&inge on the 
rights of others. The owner of a piece of land has special 
privileges and obligations with regard to neighboring pieces of 
land, these being the right of way and the right of using other's 
land when one has to build or repair his house or fence, etc. 
On the other hand a space of 1^ shaku from the common boundary 
pne must be left in building a house on one's land, while a window 
or veranda placed within the distance of less than 3 ehaku from 
the common boundary and from which the neighbor's premises 
can be seen, must be provided with a shutter. Then there 
are provisions for getting rid of superfluous water on one's 
land, but of course when such water happens to injure property 
of any kind in adjacent land situated on a lower level, the owner 
of the land from which the water came must pay for the damage 
done. 

Besides the right of owership, there are also the right of 
superficies, of perpetual lease and of emphyteusis attached to land, 
but these being dealt with minutely in the Civil Code need not be 
explained here. 

It may, however, be stated that land is liable to be requisition- 
ed when the interests of the public render such a step necessary. 
For particulars on this head, the Law for the Requisition of Land 
should, however, be referred to. 

A special arrangement exists for the convenience of the trial 
extraction of minerals, an arrangement which is far more con- 
venient than that relating to the ordinary process of requisition, 
for in this case of trial extraction the whole business is left 
under the case of the Chief of the Local Mining Inspection OflSoe 
im the jurisdiction of which the case has occurred. 



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History. 87 

Land may constitute the hereditary estate of a Peer, and 
no land of this kind can he sold, transferred, mortgaged or 
hypothecated. 



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88 Japan in the Beginning of the 20</i Century, 

PART II. 

PRIMARY INDUSTRIES. 
SECTION L. 



AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER I— Introductory, 



Position of Agrioaltare in National Polity — Featares of 
Japanese Agrionltnre— Free-holders and Tenant-farmers. 



Position of Agriculture in National Polity.-— The 
history of agriculture in Japan is coeval with the liistory of the 
country itself, for the sovereigns that have successively ascended the 
Throne since the accession of the first Emperor devoted all their 
attention to the prosperity and progress of this most important 
industry of the realm, so that agriculture, though subjected more or 
less to viscissitutes during that long period, still remains the bulwark 
of our national prosperity and power. In short, Japan is still essen- 
tially an agricultural country. 

The development of agriculture has been markedly accelerated 
since the introduction of the Western sciences and arts after the 
throwing open of the country to foreign commerce and intercourse 
fifty years ago. It need not be pointed out that Japan's traditional 
policy of fostering agriculture will be continued in the future. 

Feature of Japanese Agricultube. — In describing the 
condition of agriculture in this country there are two points that 
stand out prominent. They are (1) agriculture, as it is carried on 
here, is essentially tillage, and has little to do with stock-farming; 



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FasitioH of Agriculture in National PolUy. 89 

(2) and, as compared >Tith agriculture in Europe and America, the 
scope of our farming operations is extremely small. 

The fact is that our forefathers who mainly subsisted on cereals 
were further led by religious prejudices to eschew animal food. Then 
the absence of wide plains, comparatively speaking, naturally obliged 
our farmers, then as now, to conduct their business on a small scale. 

Foreigners not well acquainted with the state of affairs in Japan 
may be puzzled on being told that the average extent of land tilled 
by one farming ^Eimily does not exceed one hectare. They may even 
wonder how our farmers can subsist on such a small patch of culti- 
vated land; but this surprise, though quite natural for foreigners, 
will practically disappear when they remember that the system of 
tillage carried on by our farmers is extremely thorough and careful, 
and that, as two even three crops are raised on the same field in 
one year, even a farm measuring only one hectare is really equival- 
ent in productive capacity to a farm of two or three hectares in 
most other countries. Besides, our farmers are not required to attend 
to field work all the year round and when the field work makes no 
great demand upon their time, they can undertake other job work, 
while the women and children in their families also make themselves 
useful by raising silkworms, reeling silk or doing other such suitable 
work. 

As the natural result of the peculiar geographical formation of 
Japan, that is, of its extending so far north and south and including 
therefore so many degrees of latitude, our system of agriculture pre- 
sents diverse and distinct features. Moreover, this tendency to diversity 
was further enhanced during the pre-Restoration days by the division 
of the country into a large number of practically independent com- 
munities. The consequence is that, while in some districts sericulture 
is predominant, in others tea demands the most attention, while still 
others have sugar or other products as the staple farm produce. 
However, owing to the reasons mentioned above, stock-farming is as 
yet comparatively backward, though the rearing of live stock for 
tillage or draught work is carried on to no small extend in some 
districts. 

Free-holders and Tenant-Farmers. — Accurate data about 
the land tilled by independent farmers and tenant farmers are 



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90 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

not procurable, and the latest returns available are those for 1888. 
The ratio between the two kinds of farmers stood as follows in 35 
prefectures. 

Land tilled by Land tilled by 

Independent fanners. Tenant fanners. 

Puddy fields 6o per cent. 68 per cent. 

Upland fields 40 „ 32 „ 

According to the same returns there were in 38 prefecturers 
about 1,470,000 independent farmers and about 2,000,000 fanners who 
were partly independent and partly lessess of land belonging to others, 
while the bona fide tenant farmers numbered about 950,000. In 
other words, the farmers who were partly or wholly tenant farmers 
Agg^^g&ted about 3 millions, and therefore about double the number 
of free-holders. As matters have become less fevorable since that 
time for small free-holders, the ratio of tenant farmers and tenant 
farmers must have grown more. Indeed the condition of tenant 
Arming is far from being satisfactory, for, according to the investi- 
gations made in 1887, out of ten parts of the p 
fields throughout the country tHe landowners obtaines 
tenant-farmers only four, while in regard to the u 
relative ratio was four and a half parts and fiv 
^)ectively. The steady increase of population at a 1 
that of tillage land constitutes an important factor 
rents high, for tenant farmers are obliged from she 
compete for leases, and in raising of course the rents 2. 
result of their competition. In extreme cases the share 
that falls to the lot of tenant farmers is barely sufiiciet ^ .ue 

cost of the manure applied to the fields. 

Such being in general the condition of our tenant-farmers, in 
most cases they are obliged to depend in tillage on the labor of their 
own families, while the limited funds they have at their disposal fi^r 
getting fertilizers or farm implements Airther hampers them in their 
work. Under these circumstances, they find it hard to keep up with 
the progress of the times, and this hard lot is also shared by small 
free-holders. But the evil does not end here, for our farming classes 
which constitute 60 per cent of the whole population, are steadily 
increasing in number, so that those who can afiTord to do so are 



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Position of Agriculture in National Polity, 91 

migrating to cities and towns. In view of this circumstance both 
the Government and the general public are doing their best to 
improve the mode of tillage, to encourage the use of labor-saving 
machines and devices, and also to provide various conveniences to 
encourage their settlement in unexploited places. It may safelj be 
expected that the condition of our farmers will become much better 
in the near future than it is now. 



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92 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

CHAPTER n.— Factors of Tillage. 



Climate— Land— Capital— Labor. 



I. CLIMATE. 

General Remarks. — Owing, as has been already described, to the 
peculiar georgaphical formation of the land, the climate of Japan is 
naturally very much diversified. A somewhat detailed account about 
the climate being given in the preceeding part, it is enough to explaine 
here the special influence which the climate exerts on the agriculture 
of the country. 

Average Yearly Temperature. — The average yearly tem- 
perature in Okinawa and Formosa is above 20^ C, while in 
Hokkaido where the other extreme is to be found, the average is not 
more than 5°, according to places. The difference between the maximum 
and minimum temperatures is greater in the north than in the south, 
for while in summer the temperature stands comparatively high in 
the north, in winter, owing to the influence of the severe climate on 
the continent, the thermometer falls in many places below zero. 

The prevailing wind in summer is a moist southerly wind, but 
in winter the cold northerly wind coming from the continent reigns 
supreme. The season during which one of these two kinds of wind 
is exchanged for the other presents a peculiar meteorological aspect. 
Early in summer the moist southerly wind that begins to prevail 
brings about the rainy season, while in autumn when the northerly 
wind begins to take the place of the southerly, the low atmospheric 
pressures that frequently make their appearance in the south are 
liable to invade the country and to cause storms. The northerly wind 
coming from the continent in winter deposits its moisture borne from 
the Sea of Japan on the districts bordering that sea. 

Humidity.— As a rule the moisture is greater in the southern 
provinces and less in the northern, the rate in the latter being about 
one half that in the former. It is natural, therefore, that rain 

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Climate. 93 

Bhould be copious in' summer in the southern districts and that snow 
should fall to a considerable extent in winter in the rorthern pro- 
vinces. The average amount of rain and snow during 1901 or in 
succeeding year is shown below : 

mm. mm. 

Taiholcu 2,228 Niigata 1,765 

Kagoshima 2,061 Fukushima i»233 

Oita 1,614 Aomori 1,282 

Nagasaki 1,951 Sapporo ,.. 979 

N'umazu 1*836 

Crops as Influenced by Climate. — ^The crops raised in Japan 
are naturally influenced by its climate, and it is principally on ac- 
count of the copious rain-fall and the high temperature in summer 
that rice is so universally grown throughout the country The only 
drawback is the coming of storms between summer and autumn. 
Other tropical and sub-tropical plants besides rice are well suited to 
our country owing to the great heat in summer ; but, on the other 
hand, owing to the rather sudden fall of temperature in winter, even 
plants growing in the temperate zone can not easily stand the rigor 
of climate in that season. 

In winter, frost comes on almost everywhere throughout the 
country, while snowfalls are heavy and frequent in the north-eastern 
districts. It is in these districts, that barley and wheat and rape can 
be grown with success. However, the weather is apt to becom hu- 
mind at the ripening season of barley and wheat, thereby impairing 
to no" small extent the quality of those grains. The buds of the mul- 
berry and tea plants, too, are frequently damaged by the frost that 
comes in early spring. The cultivators of those important plants are 
therefore devising varioas measures to prevent this injury. 

In warmer places the better decomposition of manures and the 
vigorous growth of plants make it possible to raise in a year two or 
even three crops on the same field, but the farmers in cooler districts 
must be contented with only one. The two most convenient crops 
for puddy fields are rice in summer and barley or genge (Astragalus ^ 
ainiens. L.) in winter. When only one crop can be raised, the choice 
fella on rice. 

The choice of crops bears of course an important relation to the 
economy of farmers, for while their time is occupied all the year 



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94 Japan in the Beginning oj the 2(Hh Century, 

round when the tillage can be carried on throughout the year, they 
can have more or less time at their disposal when farming operations 
are suspended in winter. As a general rule our farmers are least 
busy in winter, and this leisure they employ in repairing their tools 
and implements or making other arrangement against the coming 
season. 

Stock-farming also bears an important relation to climate, but, 
as mentioned above, this branch of farming is decidedly secondary, 
both from traditional custom and from the lack of space available 
for it. It is, however, gradually coming to the front in the northern 
districts. 



II. LAND. 



General Eemarks. — Classified according to the nature of 
mother-rocks from which it is derived, the soil of Japan is divisible 
into several kinds ; but according to geological formations only two 
kinds of soil exist in Japan, generally speaking ; these soils being 
igneous and sedimentary. 

Soils derived from igneous works occupy about one-third of the 
whole area of the country, and as these generally exist on hilly places 
only a small portion of them can be brought under cultivation. The 
soil of these cultivable areas is generally loamy and fertile. 

Alluvial Soil. — Soils of sedimentary formation are more widely 
distributed than the others, generally occupying plains and therefore 
easily accessible for purpose of cultivation. Of the various kinds of 
soils of sedimentary formations, those belonging to the Tertiary, 
Diluvium or Alluvium system occupy a very wide area and generally 
form the most valuable arable land in the country, while . the 
remainder belongs to Paleozoic or Mesozoic formations and is limited 
in extent. The soils of Tertiary or Diluvium formations, existing in 
the northeastern parts of the Main Island in larger proportion than 
in others, are generally clayey, containing, as we proceed towanis 
the north, a larger quantity of organic matter. They are moderately 
fertile. The soils of Hokkaid5, also belonging to these two for- 
mations, are richer in organic «iatter which has accumulated for 



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La7id. 95 

many centuries. They are therefore far more fertile than the same 
kind of soils found in the Main Island. 

The soils belonging to Alluvium formation are widely distributed 
throughout the country, and as they occupy level places easily admit- 
ting irrigation, they are well adopted for the cultivation of rice. 
The presence of great number of streams, short in length and rapid in 
current, explains the wide distribution of alluvium soils in Japan, 
and why it has a tendency to be sandy. However, owing to the 
comparative abundance of rain fall, the soil is fairly productive. 

Natural Classification of Land. — ^The land in Japan proper 
(exclusive of Formosa) occupies an area of 24,794.36 sq. ri which 
corresponds to 38,555,229 cho. This land can be classified as followes 
as^to ownership and kind: — 

1ST KIND. (Private Land). 

Area cho. 

Land owned by private individuals 14,272,339 

(a.) TAXABLE LAND. 

Puddy or upland fields 5*045,278 

Dwelling land 384,635 

Salt fields 7,090 

Forests 6,997,571 

Plains and pastures 1,075,246 

Mineral springs, ponds, swamps and miscellaneous land. 20,967 



Total 13,530,788 

(b.) LAND EXEMPTED FROM TAXATION 
FOR SOME YEARS. 

Newly opened land 10,556 

Wasteland 232,730 

I^lddy fields 71,721 

Upland fields 133,164 

Dwelling land 3,230 

Salt fields 8,900 

Plains and postures 11)865 

Mineral springs, ponds, etc 3,236 



Total 243,286 

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Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Centwy. 

(c.) LAND EXEMPTED FROM TAXATION AND 
UNTAXABLE LAND. 

School land r,66o 

Premises of shrines 1,^64 

Cemeteries and graveyards 22,773 

Sewer- ways, drainage ponds, etc 49»638 

Embankments 4.027 

Railroad track 7,6ii 

Protection forests 401,045 

Roads and water-works routes 828 

Farm boundaries 9i277 

Others 236 



Total 498,265 

2ND KIND. 

Land belonging to the State and Court 21,394,805 

A. Land belonging to the Court, Imperial Mau- 

solea. Shrine premises 3,670,803 

B, Land belonging to Princes of the Blood, Govern- 

ment land 80,171 

O Government land, forests, plains ; public parks, 
former foreign concessions, foreign ceme- 
teries, etc i7,643»o63 

D. Premises of Government and local institutions, 

hospitals, etc 766 



Grand Total • ... 35,667,144 

If the grand total is deducted from the gross area of 38,555,229 
did, tliere remain 2,888,085 cAo,which account for highways, places 
under water, etc. 

Classification op Arable Lanb. — ^The gross area of our 
arable land Ls 6,120,519 c/i5, which can be divided as follows accord- 
ing to uses : — 

Puddy fields 2,748,575 c^5. 

Upland fields (containing ... 2,296,698 „ 

Mulberry fields 222,731 „ 

Tea plantations) « 31,889 „ 

Plains and pastures 1,075,246 ,, 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Land. 



9T 



Per centage of Akable Land. — ^Tlie whole area of the arable 
land in Japan is only 15.7 per cent of the whole area of the 
Empire (exclusive of Formosa) : in other words, the whole area of 
arable land extends over an area of 38,555,229 did as before 
mentioned. On the other hand the area of paddy and upland fields, 
amounting to 5,045,273 cho, corresponds to only 12.9 per cent, of 
the whole surface of the coun try. The comparatively small area 
of arable land is solely attributable to the hilly nature of our 
eomitry. 

Distribution of Arable Land. — ^The foregoing extent of 
arable land is distributed among the local prefectures in . the 
following tnble: — 



IVefecture. 


Paddy fields. 


Upland 
fields. 


Plains and 
pastures. 


Total. 


Tokyo 


17,892 


42,265 


7.664 


67,821 


Kanagawa 


23,868 


49,855 


25,949 


99,672 


Saitama 


66,876 


97,576 


9,110 


173.562 


Chiba 


102,101 


73499 


19,339 


194,939 


Ibaragi 


88,152 


101,698 


20,172 


210,022 


Tochigi 


5o»»99 


54,232 


25448 


129,879 


Gumma 


21,911 


69,498 


23,272 


114,681 


Nagano 


68,886 


90,547 


183,776 


343.20^ 


Yamanashi ... 


18,443 


41,898 


13.250 


73,591 


Shizuolca 


60,993 


65,566 


75,067 


201,626 


Aichi 


87,595 


60,921 


6,*>9 


155415 


Miye 


73,6n 


24,629 


4,602 


102,842 


Gifu 


61,644 


47428 


8490 


117,562 


Shiga 


63,215 


11,222 


10,106 


84.54^ 


Fukui 


45,261 


14,391 


2,562 


62,214 


Ishikawa 


50,879 


30,665 


3,317 


84,861 


Toyama 


76.148 


18,220 


3,998 


98.366 


Niigata 


162,163 


77,092 


14,726 


253,981 


Fokushima ... 


9M5I 


72408 


24,112 


187,971 


Miyagi 


80,706 


38,320 


13,310 


132,236 




84,378 


42,201 


14,991 


141,570' 


Akita 


98404 


35,025 


75,699 


209,128 


Iwate 


50,514 


86,776 


97,041 


234,331 


Aomori ... ... 


5.813 


51,773 


69,678 


179465 


Kyoto ... • ... 


46,578 


18,957 


1,317 


66,852- 


Osaka 


53,568 


16,759 


673 


71,00a 


Nara 


33,"8 


10,841 


910 


44,869- 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



^8 



Japan in Hie Beginning of the 2Qth Century. 



Prefecture. 


Paddy fields. 


Upland 
fields. 


Plains and 
pastures. 


Total. 


Wakayama 


31,622 


12,832 


1,380 


45,834 


Hyogo ... 


106,240 


33,806 


12,541 


152,587 




81,530 


38,630 


4,375 


124,535 


Hiroshima 


... 74,557 


36,991 


2,824 


114,372 


Yamagata 


79,077 


34,668 


2,599 


"6,344 


Shimane... 


... 54,729 


41,518 


1,404 


97,651 


Tottori ... 


31,521 


13,240 


60,160 


104,921 


Tokushima 


... 22^8 


38,480 


1,406 


62,374 


Kagawa ... 


39,369 


10,305 


300 


49,974 


Ehime ... 


47,067 


69,614 


653 


"7,334 


Kochi ... 


34,633 


80,867 


1,856 


"7,358 


Nagasaki 


-. 33,137 


56,316 


22,686 


112,139 


Saga 


50,404 


20,358 


27,761 


98,523 


Fukuoka .. 


109,618 


52,177 


45,939 


207,734 


Kumamoto 


... 65,361 


107,938 


13,878 


187,177 


Oita ... 


... 591,519 


49,194 


59,388 


159,101 


Miyazaki... 


39,461 


67,936 


22,174 


129,571 


Kagcfehima 


... 55,387 


161,473 


35,546 


252,406 


Hokkaido 


M78 


15,814 


2,523 


19,8x5 


Okinawa 


3,723 


8,355 


unknown 


unknown 


I/.U group 


65 


1,903 


450 


2,418 



Total ... 2,748,575 2,296,698 1,075,246 6,120,519 
Conditions of Arable Land. — The cultivation of rice 
Ijeing the principal item in the economy of our farmers, the 
greater part of the arable laud consists of rice fields which" ofken 
occupy places situated in low and wet places and not quite suited 
for other crops. Of these rice fields 30 per cent admit of receiving 
a second crop after the harvesting of rice. Upland fields are to be 
found on the other hand in elevated places where the drainage is 
good. In districts which are very densely populated or where 
special agriculture products are to be raised, even the slopes of the 
hills are utilized for upland farming. 

Average Area op Cultivated Lots. — The lots of cultivated 
fields are extremely small. According to the latest returns 53 per 
cent of the paddy fields consist of lots measuring less than 5 se, 
while about 74 per cent of upland fields consist of lots of leas than 
1 tan, Tha average extent of lot3 (exclusive of Hakkaidd and 
Formosa) is 4.14 8e for wet fields and 5.12 se for the other. The 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



iioMfiX 99 

lots for wet fields are those registered ia the Laud Records, and as 
each lot is farther subdivided the real extent of each lot does pot 
exceed 2 se. Such an extraordinarily small extent of cultivated 
fields is principally due to the comparative absence of level plains, 
to the necessity of irrigation, and also to the fact that tillage is 
principally done by hand. Besides, the shape of the lot, too, is, as 
a rule, very irregular, and this necessarily entails serious incon- 
venience on the cultivator. It is in view of this that of late the 
question of adjusting farm-lands has begun to attract serious atten- 
tion in agricultural circles. 

IRRIGA.T10N AND DRAINAGE.—Irrigation and drainage 
being indispensable for the cultivation of rice, provisions for facilit- 
ating them have been made since ancient times. The sovereigns of 
the country have also shown a great solicitude to make these provi- 
sions as complete and perfect as possible. The water used for 
irrigation is either led from rivers or supplied by storing rain- 
water in reservoirs. 

Mode of Irrigation. — ^The usual mode of irrigation for rice 
iields consists in leading the water into those fields till it has 
accumulated there in a sheet suitable in depth and volume. The 
farm is therefore made very level and is encircled by boundary 
walls 30 to 34 centimetres in height. While the water is led into 
the farm from an elevation, it is made at the same time to flow out 
by an outlet provided at the other end of the farm. The other 
crops receiving irrigation are generally cotton, indigo and sugar 
cane, and the irrigation for them consists in leading water into 
the spaces between the ridges, and causing it to remain there, till 
it soaks through. 

The condition of the rivers naturally bears an important relation 
to irrigation and also to the success of farming. The recent reckless 
felling of trees at the head waters of rivers has made the beds of 
rivers liable to rise, as to obstruct the exit of water from the rice 
fields^ the surface of the rivers being often higher than the water 
in the farms, and also to cause far more serious damage by over- 
flowing the embankments in time of heavy rain and flooding the 
fields situated in close proximity. In view of these considerations, 
the Government is at present doing its best to prevent such ravages 



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100 ' Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

on the part of unruly river?, luid has by means of legislation 
devised measures for protecting the forests at the headwaters. 
Farmers are made to organize themselves into irrigation guilds and 
to make all the required arrangements for the protection of tlieir 
common interests. All these legislative measures have not yet been 
completed, but* when they are completed, the benefits derived by the 
farmers from irrigation will be much greater than at present, while 
the risk of inundation will be minimized. It ought to be added 
that besides constructing reservoirs wherein to store rainwater, at a 
place where water for irrigation purposes cannot be easily procured 
owing to the high situation of the farms, farmers use treadmills or 
water-mills to raise water. Steam mills are even employe<l when a 
large quantity of water is required for elevated farms. 

Mode of Drainage. — The waste water coming from the 
irrigated fields is led off by a net-work of drainage ways, mostly 
small open channels, and is finally discharged into rivers. But in 
low places where this natural method of drainage is not admissible,, 
waste water must be removed either by water mills or by steam 
pum})s. To some limited extent, and especially in place^< where the 
waste water is liable to stay, a subterranean drainage system is 
adopted. 

SO^IE IMPROVED ARRANGEMENTS. — Of the improved 
arrangements of farming those that are generally carried out are 
the adjustment of farm-lands, and the improvement of the drainage, 
irrigation, surface coating of the soil, etc. 

I. Adjustments of farm-landh. — As already described in the 
preceding part, the size of farms in our country being small, their 
enclosure by walls and farm-fences naturally entails a waste of 
time and of space that might to be employed to l)etter advantage, 
not to speak of the danger to which such enclosure gives rise »f 
providing reptiles, rodents and injurious insects with a snug dwelling- 
place in the boundary lines or paths. The amount of time which 
our farmei-8 lose owing to the small size of the farms may be easily- 
imagined when it is remembered that though the average area of 
the farm tilled by one family does not exceed 9 tan 3.15 se, the 
different farms making up this average total are generally 
scattered about, and very rarely situated at one place. It was to- 



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Jjand. 101 

obviate this disadvantage that the Gbvernmeut^ with the approval 
of the Diet, enforced the law for the Adjustments of Farm-Lands, 
from January, 1900. This measure has been welcomed by the public, 
and already the provisions set forth in it have been carried out in, 
300 places where re-arrangements of fields amounting altogether to 
over 15,000 eta in area, have been effected. Some of the benefits 
derived from this measure are described below : — 

a. Owing to the size of the lots being enlarged and their 
shape made regular, farm- work is considerably expedited 
and farm-animals and labor-saving machinery can be more 
easily employed. 

b. Owing to the farm-boundaries or paths being straightened 
and those that are useless destroyed, the productive power 
of a given extent of land thus treated, is increased at the 
average rate of 5 per cent. 

c. Drainage and irrigation ways being re-constructed or con- 
structed ab initio, both the drainage and irrigation systems 
can be brought to a state of greater perfection. As the 
disadvantage arising from an insufficiency of irrigation 
water or from its excess is done away with, the productive 
power of the farms is increased. 

d. Farmers being encouraged to exchange their fields for 
fields owned by others, so as to collect as much as possible 
in one place the farms owned by one proprietor, all the evils 
and disadvantages incidental to the scattering of farms 
owned by one proprietor are done away with or minimized 

11. Dbainage. — The drainage of paddy-fields is specially im- 
portant, for, being generally saturated with water, they are hardly 
fit to admit of cultivation for the raising of a second crop after the 
harvest of rice. This is of course a grave economic disadvantage 
and it is satisfactory to see that with the advance of knowledge 
among farmers this point has begun to attract their attention, with 
the result that, in not a few districts, subterranean drainage systems 
have been constructed. In some places even special implements are 
used to effect the removal of superfluous water. Upland farms 
being naturally dry, owing to their situation, do not generally 
require any attention to be. paid to their drainage. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



102 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

III. Irrigation. — Irrigation is universally carried out owing 
to the necessity of rice cultivation, but very rarely is this irrigation 
effected for the purpose of increasing the fertility of the farms. In 
some places, however, the water from the streams flowing close by 
is led into the farms during winter, to cause it to deposit its sedi- 
ment and thus to increase the fertility of the farms. 

IV. Surface coating of soil. — The mixing of sand with soil 
which is too clayey, or the addition of clay or vegetable mould to 
soil which is too light and sandy, has been extensively practised by 
farmers from early times. 

V. Burning of surface soil. — Surface soil abounding in 
vegetable matters is often burned in order to diminish their 
quantity, and in some cases the woods or grass land cleared for 
cultivation are also burned to improve the soil. 

MODE OF UTILIZATION OF ARABLE LAND.— Arable 
land is utilized to the greatest extent as rice fields, after which 
come upland farms including tea plantations and mulberry fields. 
Pastures are very scarce, and are owned by the Grovernment 
for experimental purposes and by a limited number of stock- 
farmers. 

Paddy-fields. — Though the utilization of land as rice fields is 

so universal, these fields are, however, far from being utilized as 

they ought to be, to the utmost extent, chiefly owing to the fact 

that they are not so largely used for raising the 

Number of second crop of the year. It is only in Formosa^ 

Crops raised Okinawa and some parts of Shikoku where the 

in a year. temperature is higher than in the other parts of the 

country that rice can be raised more than two times 

in a year. In most other places, the low temperature of the soil, 

owing to the presence in it of too much moisture, obliges the 

farmers to content themselves with the cultivation of rice alone. 

Still owing to the improvements effected, the area of two crop land 

is gradually increasing, as shown below : — 

Ratio to whole 
eho, area of paddy-fields. 

One crop fields 1,^56^3 7' 

Two crop fields 755.983 29 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Land. • 10^ 

The second crop raised after the cultivation of rice is generally 
barley, rape or genge (Astragalus Siniens. L.). 

Upland Farms. — The raost imywrtant point in the utilization 

of dry upland farms consists in the choice of crops to be raised 

after the preceding crop has been harvested. The 

Vomber of crops raised in upland farms are generally grains, 

lopt Baised garden vegetables or crops of industrial value. 

in a year. Sometimes other crops are raised in the spaces left 

unoccupied by the crop that is growing. For instance, 

garden vegetables or sweet potatoes may be planted in fields where 

barley or wheat is growing. 

In general two crops are raised in one field, though in rare 
cases and in wanner districts as many as four are found ; as, for 
instance (1) barley, (2) indigo, (3) beans, (4) rape. 

Mulberry trees and tea shrubs are generally planted in fields 
set apart for this purpose, and they generally occupy land not well 
suited for the planting of more important crops, such as the slopes 
of hills, sandy dunes and such like places. They are also largely 
planted along the borders and edges of ordinary fields. 

As mentioned above, upland fields devoted to the cultivation of 
grasses for feeding cattle are extremely scarce, and it is only in 
Hokkaido and the 0-U districts (i.e. the northeastern parts of the 
Main Island) where stock farming is comparatively thriving that 
grasses are cultivated to some extent. 

RECLAMATION OF LAND.— The reclamation of forests or 
virgin land belonging either to private individuals or to the State, 
is going on more or less in Japan proper, exclusive of Formosa and 
Hokkaido. Special provisions exist for selling fitate wild or forest 
land to people desirous of converting it into ordinary tillage land. 
To enamerate the kinds of land thus reclaimed recently, the area, 
reclaimed in 1898 was 6,083 chd : in 1899, 9,890 cho ; in 1900,. 
7,790 cho. 

Reclamation in Hokkajdo. — The reclamation is of course far 
more striking in Hokkaido, where large tracts yet remain to be 
brought under' cultivation and where the Government has adopted 
various measures for inviting settlers from other parts of the 
country, by offering them a fixed rate of land free of price under 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



104 



Japan in the Beginning oj the 20iA Century. 



-certain ooaditions. The land thus opened up during the hist seven 
years with the aggregate extent of reclamation existing at the end 
of each year is shown in the following table: — 



Year. 

1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
190I 
1902 



It is of course out of the question to expect in Japan proper 

any such striking reclamation. However there exist, even in 

Japan proper, lands which though still left 

Land available unutilized for agricultural purposes may with profit 

for Reolamation be reclaimed by proper care and by the application 

in Japan of improved methods of agriculture. Supposing 

Proper. hilly land which is inclined at an angle of less 

than 15° is capable of being thus utilized this 

kind of land is found in Japan proper and Hokkailo to the 

following extent: — 



Area uewly 


Total reclaimed area exist- 


reclaiiiiocL 


ing at tlie end of the year. 


8,691 


65,677 


15,899 


82,111 


15,677 


97.806 


19,597 


"5,538 


24,697 


142,707 


28,178 


170,293 


37,002 


215,595 


29,586 


241,309 


35,924 


265,785 


— 


288,925 





Whole area. 


Level land in- 
clined at an angle 
ot less than 
15=. 


Area under 
cnltivation. 


Level land inclined at 

an nni^lo of leio than 

15* not yet 

recliuwi. 




M. 


ehd. 


chu. 


cho. 


Honshu . ... 


... 22,636,578 


5,602,786 


3,777,3*2 


1,825,474 


Shikoku 


... 1,790,346 


439,671 


305,959 


133,712 


Kyushu . ... 


... 3,676,347 


1, 102,666 


883,008 


219.656 


Hokkaido ... 


... 7348,783 


2,383,889 


215,595 


2,068,294 


Total ... 


... 35,952,055 


9,429,012 


5,181,874 


4,247,136 



Kote : — In the foregoing figures the data for Okinawa and the Izu archipelago are not 
included. 



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CapiiaU 105 

UL CAPITAL. 



Land. — The arable land that forms the basis of ourfar ming 
covers over 5 million eJw yielding about 1,000 million yen worth of 
crops every year. Of that sum rice constitutes about 400 million 
yen in value. The value of arable land is estimated at above 7,000 
million yen. 

Buildings. — Farm buildings and outhouses generally form 
part, in consequence of our farming system, of the farmers' 
dwelling-houses, and as the farming carried on is on a comparative- 
ly small scale, the capital invested on this account is not large. 
If, however, the dwelling houses of 5 million farming families are 
included, this particular capital may be estimated at about 290 
million yen, 

WORKING CAPITAL.— Apart from the capital invested in 
land and buildings for farming purposes, farmers require working 
oapital existing in the following shapes : — 

Consolidated ( Tools and implements. 

( Live stock. 

Trir>of;«^ * I Manure. 

^^^^^'°S 1 Fodder. 

I. TooM AND Implements. — From the limited scope of farm- 
ing and also from the abundant supply of labor, farming in Japan 
is chiefly carried on by manual labor, partly supplemented by the 
use of cattle. Implements of any elaborate nature are not, therefore, 
employed to any great extent, and the tools used are not always, 
made of metal. The tools and implements used in Japan may be 
divided into these kinds, namely, (1) those for tillage, (2) those for 
carriage, and those for horses and other domestic animals used for 
field-work. 

While the tools and implements employed are so limited both 
in kind and in labor-saving capacity, even the number of those 
tools and implements possessed by our farmers is comparatively 
small. The farming implements generally possessed by a family 
cultivating 1 cAd of wet and dry fields may be something as follows 
in value: — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



106 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

yen. 

For field work 2.75 

For use in-doors 1. 10 

For use in storehouse 12.65 



Total 16.50 

Estimated at the foregoing rate, the value of the farming tools 
for the whole cultivated area of 5 million cho amounts to 82,500,000 
yen. However, this estimate applies to districts where tillage is 
exclusively done hy manual labor, so that it is to be raised to some 
extent when live stock are counted in. 

II. Live Stock. — The beasts used in farming are cattle and 
horses, and their use is greater in the southern districts where 
horses are generally used, and less in the northern districts in 
which oxen predominate. ^ On the whole, the number of horses is 
larger than that of oxen. These beasts are used principally for 
tillage and as beasts of burden, though to some extent they are also 
useful, as in other countries, for supplying manure. 

Though at present farming chiefly depends on human labor, it 
is inevitable that this state of things must change with the progress 
of the times and that our farmers must be prepared to make use to 
a greater extent of the cheaper labor supplied by machinery and 
beasts. The utilization of beasts in the field of the labor is all the 
more necessary in a hilly country like ours, where the employment 
of any large labor-saving machines is not easily possible. Hors^ 
and oxen are in part employed largely in agricultural operations iu 
districts where agriculture has had a greater development than in 
other districts. In such go-ahead localities, every farmer keeps one 
or two or even three farm beasts. 

At present the number 6f live stock in our- country is out of 
all proportion to that in Western countries, but this state of things 
will be radically changed for the better at no distant time, for the 
public and especially the farmers have become convinced of the 
necessity of utilizing the labor of beasts. 

III. Manure. — Night soil and 'stable manure play a most 
important part as fertilizers, though recently farmers have begun to 
supplement them with other kinds of fertilizers. These fertilizers 



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Capital, 



107 



are generally of four kinds, namely, artificial fertilizers, vegetable 
manures, animal manures, and miscellaneous fertilizers. Of the 
y^table manures, rape-seed cakes and bean-cakes are especially 
predominant. Next to them come animal manures, among ^hich 
fish guano is most conspicuous. Artificial manures are also employ- 
ed to no small extent. These fertilizers are either made at home or 
are imported, and of the imported fertilizers rape-seed and bean-cakes 
from China are the most important item both in quantity and value, 
(a) Output of Fertilizers.— The following figures show the 
output of the principal fertilizers made at home in 1902: — 



Kind. 


Quantity. 




kwamme. 


Sulphate of lime and other artificial manures 


... 2,379,612 


Oil cakes and fish 


... 4,429,851 


Rape seed 


... 2,555,901 


Cottonseed 


426,093 


Others 


316,218 


Dried sardine 


... 362,867 


Miscellaneous flsh manure ... — 


... 1,730,644 



The demand for chemical fertilizers having grown very marked 
of late, the manufacture of superphosphate of lime and other 
phosphate manures, and nitrogenous manures has become active. 

(h) Import of Fertilizers. — The import of fertilizers from 
abroad stood as follows in 1901 : — 
Kind. 

Ammonium sulphate 

Bones 

Bone dust 

Dried sardine 

Oil cakes (beans) ^ 

Fish 

Others 

Super-phosphates 

Nitrates of Soda ... 

Others ^ ... 

Total ... ,.. 12,122,076 

Kbte >~Fraction5 of a yen are omitted. 

Though the import of foreign fertilizers of all kinds has 

been steadily on the increase of late, in no particular kind of 



Quantity. 


Value. 


kin. 


yen. 


4,250,607 


334,812 


17,871,008 


355,970 


242,575 


6,157 


4,946,243 


153,563 


3,653,621 (Picul) 


8,002,314 


745489 » 


1,451,361 


416,622 „ 


667,035 


35,304,435 


603,645 


3,468,938 


216,529 


— 


329,690 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



108 Japan in Hie Beginning of the 20th Century, 

fertilizer has this teudeucy beeu luore striking than in oil-cakes. 
In 1892, the import of oil-cakes reached 616,427 picals valaed 

at 824,652 yen. In quantity the import increased five- 
4Ml-Cakes. fold during the next ten years and in value about 

tenfold. The bulk of the imported oil-cakes <x)n8i8ts 
of bean-cakes coming from northern China, and the marvellous 
increase in the demand for oil-cakes proves how much our farmers 
have begun to appreciate the value of nitrogenous manure. 

While the consumption of imported and home-made fertilizers 
is so extensive, at the same time the farmers living in remote 
districts depend even at present chiefly on manures made at their 
own homes, such as stable manure, composts, and night soil. 

(c) Supervision of Fertilizer-business. — With the greater 
use of artificial fertilizers the Government perceived the necessity of 
providing against the dishonest practices of merchants and manu- 
facturers and of enabling farmers to secure really valuable ferti- 
lizers. This resulted in the enforcement in December, 1899, of 
the Law relating to the Control of Fertilizers. It is not yet 
possible to ascertain how far this piece of legislation has been 
successful in its object, but, according to the report made by the 
inspecting officials whose duty is to supervise the operation of 
this law, the arrangentent has been working satisfactorily at least 
during 1901 and 1902 which the said report covered. 

IV. Fodder. — The comparative insignificance of stock-farming 
is naturally reflected in the imperfect manner of feeding live- 
stock, and though oats and such food are excellent for them, 

• the food generally given by our farmer to cattle and horses consists of 
bran of various kinds, hay or fresh grass. 

Here ends this brief description of the working funds of our 
farmers. Next the banking facilities existing for their benefit will be 
briefly described. 

V. Banking Facilities for Farmers. — In Japan as else- 
where there is a tendency for the wealthier classes to expand in 
all spheres of activity at the expense of the poorer classes, and it 
naturally follows that our farmers whose means are generally very 
limited are in danger of having even these limited means encroached 
upon by manufactures or merchants of larger resources. Herein 



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CapUal. 109* 

comes the necessitj to provide some banking facilities specially for 
the benefit of the farmers. 

Banks.— The Japan Hypothec Bank (Kangy5 Ginko), the 
Local Hypothec Banks (N(Jk5 Ginko), the Colonial Bank (Taku- 
shoku Gink5) and the system of Credit Guilds, have all been 
created with the express object of satisfying this requirement. 
Those establishments will be briefly described in the following 
paragraphs, other details about them being reserved for the chapter 
on Finances. 

The preamble of the law relating to this bank succinctly 
explains the nature of the business to be transacted by the bank» 
" Jt admits of no doubt," it states, "that the 
The Japan comparative lack of development of our agriculture 
Hypothec Bank, is mainly attributable to absence of proper faci- 
lities for supplying funds on the security of real 
estate. Now, in order to carry to greater prosperity the 
agriculture of our country and to promote its productive capa- 
city, there are many things to be undertaken, these being the 
reclamation of new land, the control of rivers, planting of woodsr 
providing of better facilities of irrigation or drainage, improvement 
of the mode of tillage, supply of cheap fertilizers, and sundry 
other things. But thcfee improvements cannot from their very 
nature yield returns until after the lapse of ten or a score of 
years, so that funds which in trade can yield returns in a very 
short space of time are entirely out of place in undertaking con- 
nected with farming. The funds advanced to farmers must be of 
longer terra and at cheaper rates." 

The bank was established to supply this want, as indicated 
by the phrase " inprovement and development of agriculture and 
industry," and transacts loans and payments as follows : — 

LOANS. 

Loans on Real Estate ,^ — Loans on credit. 

PAYMENTS. 

Payments by instahaents .„ ,. In less than 50 years. 

{Within 5 years, the aggregate sum of loans 
of this kind not to exceed i/io of that of 
loans payable by instahnents. 



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110 Japan in ike Beginning of the 20ih Century. 

Loans on credit are made onlj to public bodies such as 
municipal corporations, towns or villages, or other bodies organized 
under law. 

The bank principally deals, however, with loans of larger 
amounts, leaving those for smaller amounts to be undertaken hj 
the Local Hypothec Banks which in organization and nature may 
be regarded as miniature copies of the central Hypothec Bank. 
The result is that although loans for such costly undertakings as 
the reclamation of large tracts of land or any similar work can 
be procured on easy terms from the Japan Hypothec Bank, the 
formers of small means who constitute by far the greater majority 
of the farming population are practically precluded from the benefits 
supposed to be conferred on the farming community at large by 
the bank, so that the loans made by the bank generally go to 
manufacturers and comparatively little to agriculturists. 

It ought to be added that the maximum limit of interest is to 
be determined with the approval of the Minister of Finance. 

Started in the same year as their bigger brother and at the 

rate of one to each administrative locality, the Local Hypothec 

Banks are joiut-stock companies with a capital of not less than 

200,000 yen. As set forth in the explanation of 

Local Hypothec t^^e I^aw relating to Local Hypothec Banks, the 

Banks. latter aim at supplying funds to farmers of the 

middle and lower classes, and even to make loans 
on credit when applications come from organized bodies. These 
banks number 46 in all and are also subject to the supervision of 
the Minister of Finance, and enjoy in return no small assistance 
from the Treasury. The loans to i)e made are retricted to the 
following objects: — 

1. Reclamation of land, irrigation, drainage, and improvement 
of the fertility of the soil. 

2. Construction and improvement of farm-roads. 

3. Settlement in newly reclaimed places. 

4. Purchase of seed, young plants, manure and other materials 
required in agriculture and industry 

5. Purchase of implements, and machines, boats, waggons and 
beasts for use in farming and manufacture. 



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CapUal. Ill 

6. Construction or repair of buildings for use in farming and 
manufacture. 

7. Improvements in farming and manufacture not included in 
the foregoing clauses. 

8. Adjustment of farm-lands. 

9. Undertakings by Credit Guilds, Purchases Guilds, and 
Produce Guilds of unlimited liability and organized under 
the Industrial Guilds Law. 

The loans to be made for the foregoing objects are under these 

conditions : — 

LOANS. 

Loans on Real Estate. 

I. Payments by yearly instalments ,„ Within 3b years. 

{Within 5 years, the aggregate sum of the 
loans not to exceed \ of that of loans pay- 
able by instalments. 

Loans on Credit. 

1. Payments by yearly instalments ... Within 30 years. 

_ .,./.,., / Loans payable within 5 years : and loans 

2. Payments withm fixed period \ . , , . . 

l with no such restriction. 

Loans on credit and payable by instalments can be made only 
to municipal corporations, towns or villages, and public bodies or- 
ganized under law, while loans on credit with payment within 
fixed period may be made only under these conditions: — 

Repaid within 5 years. 

1. To municipal and other civic corporations or public bodies 
organized under law. 

2. To joint application from not less than 20 persons who 
are judged thoroughly trustworthy, and who are engaged 
in agriculture or manufacture. 

3. To Credit Guilds, Purchase Guilds, and Produce Guild-* of 
unlimited liability. 

The farming classes, however, are as yet unable to enjoy to any 
satisfactory extent the benefit accruing from those facilities, chiefly 
because most of our farmers possess only limited means at their disposal, 
and because loans are necessarly acconipanied by elaborate processes. 

Herein comes the necessity of some method which will allow 



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112 Japan in the Beginning of Hie 20<A Centm^y, 

even small farmers to obtain loans, and it was to supplj this want 
that the Credit Guilds were organized, the object of their establish- 
ment being as the provisions in the Law relating to 
Credit OoilcU. Industrial Guilds proclaim, to supply to members of 
the Guilds, the funds required for developing the 
business of the members, and also of furnishing them with means 
of saving. The Credit Guilds, therefore, may be compared with 
the People's Banks existing in Germany. 

The Credit Guilds are distinct in nature from the Central and 
Ix>cal Hypothec Banks and indeed from all banks, in that those 
guilds, like the trade unions existing in England and elsewhere, are 
intended to promote the common interests of the members, who while 
obtaining for their own use funds at low rate of interest, are also 
entitled to participate in the proceeds arising from the investment or 
the capital of the organization. The members are therefore obliged 
to contribute to the capital. The guilds of unlimited liability may 
also procure loans from the local Hypothec Banks or from other 
quarters. 

Though only a few years have elapsed since the coming into 
operation of the law under which the Credit Guilds are organized, 
their number has already reached 300 throughout the country, and 
there is prospect of their growing far more numerous. It is not 
possible to describe here at any length the result of the working 
of these petty democratic banks, and it is enough to say that even 
in places where bankers generally exact interest at the rate of 20 
per cent, or so from ordinary clients and as high as 80 to 40 per 
cent, from small farmers, the guild Airnishes loans to its member 
at about 10 per cent. 

The condition of affairs in Hokkaido being distinct from that 

in the other parts of Japan proper, and especially owing to the 

abundance of waste land to be reclaimed and the 

The Hokkaido comparative scantiness of the |)opulation, special 

Ck^looization banking facilities are required for expediting the 

Bank- exploitation of the resources of the island. To 

supply this want the present bank was estab- 
lished in the year 1899 as a joint stock company with a 
capital of 3 million yen and for the term of 50 yean*. This term 



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Labor, H^ 

may be prolonged, subject to the approval of the following 
description : — 

1. Loans on real estate payable by yearly instalments within 
the period of 30 years. 

2. Loans on real estate payable within 5 years according to 
fixed period payment system. 

3. Loans on shares and debentures of joint stock companies 
engaged in the opening up of virgin land in Hokkaid5, 
also to subscribe to debentures issued by such companies. 

4. Loans on Hokkaido products and advances on goods. 

5. To accept deposits and cjastody of objects of value. 

6. Loans on cre<lit payable by yearly instalments or within 
fixed periods to municipal and other civic corporations 
established under the Hokkaido civic corporation system 
and also to legally organized public bodies in Hokkaid6. 

Tlie aggregate amount to be invested in business coming under No. 
3 may not exceed 1/5 of the total loans coming under No?. 1 and 2. 

The Government has subscribed about 1.000,000 yen to the 
capital of the bank, and in return for this help it regulates during 
the space of not more than 30 years from the establishment, the rate 
of interest on loans advanced on real estate and payable by yearly 
instalments. 

lY. LABOR. 



Farming Population and Households — Though the actual 
numbers of our farming population are not exactly known, the 
returns in 1901 put the total population at 28,000,000 with 
4,800,000 households approximately. In other words, the farming 
population, constitute a little over 60 per cent, of the whole 
population while the number of farmers' households is a little less 
than 60 per cent, of the total number of households. 

The farmers' households contain on an average 5.8 persons, of 
whom 2.5 persons may be regard as of an age capable of doing 
effective work. According to this estimate, the number of the farm- 
ing community of an age to work may be reckoned at 22,000^000. 
As this number includes landowners who generally lease their land 

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114 Japan in the Beginning of the 20iA Century. 

to tenant-farmers, the actual number of people working on the fanns 
must be somewhat less than the foregoing figures. 

Tillage Land and Farmers. — At the end of 1899 the 
land under tillage covered altogether about 5,000,000 eh4>, of which 
2,745,000 cho were paddy farms and 2,286,000 cJio were upland 
farms. The total area being compared with the total number of 
farming families, the average area of tillage land corresponds to 
about 1 cho per family, while the rate per working man is only 4 
tan approximately. It may easily be inferred therefore that tillage 
is mainly carried on by manual labor. 

The number of working people required in preparing the land 
for the various crops and in gathering in those crops — working, 
of course, according to the methods ordinary in vogue in this country, 
may be roughly estimated as follows : — 

WORKING PEOPLE PER « TAN." 





Men. 


Women. 




Men. 


Women. 


Rice ... . 


.. 17 


9 


Rape ... 


... lo 


9 


l^rley .^ . 


II 


6 


Ikans ... 


... 7 


5 


Wheat .. . 


.. II 


6 


Indigo ... 


... i8 


12 


Rye .. . 


.. 12 


6 


Tobacco 


... 25 


23 


Buckwheat . 


8 


3 


Cotton ... 


... 15 


19 



Demand and Supply op Labor. — According to in- 
quiies carried out in 1888 in 38 prefectures, of the agricultural 
families in Japan 55 per cent, cultivated less than 8 tan each, 30 
per cent, between 8 tan to 1 c/w 5 tan, and only 15 per cent, 
cultivated over 1 cho 5 tan each. From these data it is easy to 
see that farming on a large scale and by the employment of a large 
number of people is exceptional. It is only ih special cases, such 
as in the season of sericulture or of the curing of tea, that a large 
number of hands is engaged. Our farmers are generally therefore 
their own laborers, and farm laborers who make it their regular 
businass to work on laud owned by others form an insignificant 
portion of the farming community. There are, it is true, a very 
small number of petty farmers who may be open to engagement 
when the work on their own field is slack. In th^ height of the 
farming season, too, such as the season of the planting or' gathering 



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Labor, 115 

in of rice, neighbors assist each other, and thus supplement the 
mutual deficiency of hands. As things stand, therefore, except in 
the limited number of places where manufacturing is being actively 
carried on or where emigration either abroad or to other parts of 
Japan is temporarily draining the country of a large proportion of 
its able-bodied men, there is no likelihood, at least for the time 
being, of any lack of farm hands being experienced. 

Condition of Engagement. — Farm laborers may, like other 
kinds of laborers, be divideii into those who are engaged by 
the year and tiiose who are engaged by the day. The farm laborers 
generally live in the residences of their employers who, besides 
supplying them with board, also give them clothes twice a year. 
In some cases laborers are engaged under the special condition of 
working one day in their employers' service, to attend the next day 
to their own work, thus attending to the employers* and their own 
work on alternate days. Lads are also engaged for the term of 5 
or 7 years, and these therefore stand to their masters somewhat in 
the relation of apprentices to employers. During the term of 
contract they get their board, clothing and whatever else is a 
necessity of life from their employers, but very rarely do they get 
regular wages. Day laborers are of course engaged by the day, and 
their wages vary according as they bring their own food or are fed 
by thfir employers. Very rarely are day laborers contract laborers. 
Then some are engaged by the month or during some special period, 
such f3i& the season of sericulture and other work. There are also 
some work-people who do job work and get paid according to the 
aniount of the work done. 

Wages. — According to the official returns, the average wages 
of farm laborers were as follows, in 1901. 

Males. Females. 

mh. aen. 

Day laborer on farm 32.0 20.0 

Day laborer in sericulture 33.0 19.5 

Operative for reeling silk — . 20.0 

Farm laborer engaged by the year 31.82 yen 17.00 yen 

In the foregoing table, only laborers engaged by the year get 
ix)ard. The wages, it may be added, vary somewhat according to 



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116 Japan in the Beginning of the 20f^ Century, 

districts and seasons, and while some men engaged by the year get 
as much as 85 yen in one place, in others the pay is only 7 yen. 
The day laborer employed in sericulture sometimes gets 1 yen a day 
daring the height of the season. 

Wages in general show a tendency to advance, as the following 
figures based on the wages ruling in 1887 will show, these being adopted^ 
as the standard of unit (100). 

1901. 1897. 1^2. 

Day farm laborer (men) 232 204 112 

„ „ (women) 250 199 118 

Day sericultural laborer (men) 223 181 117 

„ „ „ (women) 201 176 123 

Silk-reeling operative ... ........ 182 166 122 

Farm laborer by the year (men) 165 150 f Wages in 1894 



in 1894 > 
n as f 



tt a k e 
V / ... . — ^ -^- standard. 

Wages are in most cases paid in cash, though to some extent 
payment is also made in food or clothing. 

Migration of Farmers. — As shown in the chapter on 
Population the exodus of the rural population to the cities and towns 
has grown somewhat striking, and though this migration does not 
yet show itself in an absolute decrease of the rural population, there 
can be no doubt that if this tendency becomes aggravated, the evil of a 
lack of farm hands, such as that complained of in many Western 
countries, may take place. In Hokkaido alone, during the 5 years 
ending 1901, 144,902 farmers settled there, coming from other parts of 
the country. 



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InU*OiJnctory. 



117 



CHAPTER ffl— Agricultural Products^ 



Introdnotory— Food-Stuffs— Prodaots of Bpecial Use- 
Horticaltaral Prodacts. 



I. INTRODUCTORY. 



The general tendency of our agricultural industry is to change 

gradually for the better, as the following data on the staples will 

prove. 

I. 

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF YEARLY ACREAGE OF STAPLE FOOD-STUFFS 

(fractions below decimal represent ton in this and other tables). 

1877. 1882. 1887. 1892. 1897. 1902. 

eho (in cho (in cho (in eho (in cho (in clto (in 

thousand), thousand), thousand), thousand), thousand), thousand). 



Ordinary rice ... . 


.. 2,443 


2,357 


2,391 


2,440 


2457 


2499 


Glutinous rice .. 


214 


233 


215 


268 


267 


263 


Upland rice 


— 


— 


29 


46 


62 


84 


Barley 


503 


602 


625 


635 


653 


645 


^Vheat 


176 


373 


390 


434 


458 


476 


Rye 


... 282 


488 


575 


649 


651 


682 


Soja beans 


... 188 


— 


466 


443 


435 


466 


Red beans 


— 


— 


— 


— 


109 


129 


Millet 


... 140 


— 


243 


239 


250 


226 


Soigbiun 


— 


— 


27 


27 


27 


34 




— 


— 


87 


90 


74 


70 


' Buckwheat ... 


— 


— 


158 


161 


174 


165 


Sweet potatoes... 


— 


— 


221 


243 


259 


276 


Potatoes 


— 


— 


16 


21 


28 


42 



IL 
STAPLE PRODUCTS OF SPECL\L USE. 





1887. 


1892. 


1897. 


1902. 


Cotton 


.. 98,478.9 


7i,43'.6 


44,4440 


20,700. L 


Hemp «. ... 


... 14,8404 


18,972.5 


22,349.7 


16,891.1 


Indigo-leaves 


.. 50,257^^ 


44,049.5 


50,712.3 


37,193.3 


Tobacco-leaves 


.. 21,803.5 


29,059^ 


3M77.5 


23,946.3 


Rape 


.. 167,295.1 


171,795-0 


154,167x5 


157,0451 



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118 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Century. 



It will be seen from the following table that the area of culti- 
vation of the staples is showing on the whole a satisfactory increase, 
Especially is this the case with soja beans, sweet potatoes, and 
potatoes, among the staple food-stufis, and hemp and tobacco among 
the staples for special use. The striking exception is the decrease 
in the area of the cotton plantations in consequence of the recent 
large import of foreign cotton. Our sugar industry has also suffered 
somewhat from foreign competition though it has lately began to 
recover its former prosperity, especially since our annexation of 
Formosa. Here are the figures showing the output of sugar. 



1878 
1882 
1887 
1S92 
1897 



.. 7^24,819 

•• 9,696,522 

.. 9,904,901 

.. 10,120,871 

.. 9,550489 



Again, except for some staples of less importance, the yield 
from the same area has become increased, thanks to the better 
methods that have of late obtained in farming, as : — 

(I). COMPARATIVE YIELD OF STATLE FOOD-STUFFS PER TAN. 





1887. 


1892. 


1897. 


1902. 




kohl. 


/oAm. 


kohl. 


kohl. 


Ordinary rice 


— 


1.526 


1.209 


1.328 


Glutinous rice 


— 


1. 410 


1.076 


1. 190 


Upland rice 


— 


0.781 


0.706 


0.721 


Barley 


— 


1.C42 


1.255 


1.262 


Wheat 


— 


0.708 


0.832 


0.819 


Rye 


— 


0.932 


0.946 


0.933 


Soja beans 


0.698 


0.701 


0.712 


0.673 


Red beans 


— 


— 


0.566 


0.548 


Millet 


1.05S 


1.260 


0.957 


0.885 


Italian millet 


1.265 


1.250 


1.081 


0.830 


Sorghum 


1.005 


1.022 


0.941 


0.805 


•Buckwheat 


0.705 


0.714 


0.569 


0.573 


Sweet potatoes(XtOTmwi«) 


0.253 


0.234 


0.256 


0.257 


Potatoes ( „ ) 


0.172 


0.184 


0.202 


0.128 



Kote : — ^The crop of rice in 1897 was a failure. 



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Introductory. 



IID 



(2) COMPARATIVE YIELD OF STAPLES OF SPECIAL USE PER TAN. 



Cotton 

Hemp 

Indigo-leaves 
Tobacco-leaves 
Rape (koku) ... 



1887. 
kwnmme. 

16 
31 

27 
0.682 



1892. 
kicamnie. 
iS 
14 
35 
26 
0.598 



1897. 
kmtmnie. 

16 
16 
38 
28 
0.656 



1902. 
ktiammc. 
16 
16 
34 
35 
0.777 



(3) COMPARATWE TABLE OF AGGREGATE OUTPUT OF FOOD-STUFFS 



Ordinary 
Glutinous 
Upland... 



1877. 
koku. 
24,438 

2,149 



1882. 

koku. 

27,875 

2,525 



1887. 
koku. 

36,675 

3,100 

223 



1892. 

kokv, 

37,276 

3,789 

363 



1897. 

kokv. 
29,722 
2,878 
437 



1902. 

koku. 

33.201 

3.138 

606 



Total ... 


... 26,587 


30,401 


39,999 


41,429 


33.039 


36,947 


Barley 


... 5,031 


5.817 


7.101 


6,811 


8,028 


8,146 


Wheat 


... 1.765 


2,425 


3,041 


3.078 


3,811 


3,907 


Rye 


... 2,823 


4,379 


5,678 


6,165 


6,165 


6,372 



Total 9.620 12.622 15,822 15,951 1,800 18425 

Soja beans 1,882 2,351 3,253 3,110 3,110 3,136 

Red beans — — — - 618 708 

Millet 1,318 1,633 2,574 3,016 2,395 2,003 

Soighum 170 178 274 278 260 286 

Italian millet 997 1,012 1,102 1,131 806 567 

Buckwheat 527 690 I 1 17 1,156 990 948 

Sweet potatoes(/h«iwi.) 597,447 308,422 561,407 568,371 662,391 712,126 

Potatoes ((tttiw.) ... 6,000 12,561 28,382 40,49^ 58,528 53,832 

(4) COMPARATIVE TABLE OF AGGREGATE OUTPUT OF 
SPECIAL STAPLE CROPS. 

1892. 1897. 1902. 

12,584,822 7,304,253 3,321,047 

2,745,802 3,569,159 2,687,586 

15,447,822 19415.593 12,495,151 

7,643,203 8,871,370 8,349,678 

1,026,572 1,011,004 1,110446 

In inquiring into the acreage of mulberry and tea fields which 
are vitally related to our two export staples, silk and tea, that of 





1887. 


Cotton (ktcamme) 


. 22,388,590 


Hemp ( „ ) 


2,396,856 


Indigo-leaves ( „ ) .. 


. 15424,412 


Tobacco-leaves ( „ ) .. 


. 5,987,359 


Rape(Aotti) 


1,143,035 



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120 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20ik Century. 



the latter, in contrast to that of the other, shows a striking falling 
off. One consoling fact is that the output of tea shows an increase, 
due, principally, to the improved mode of curing. 

TABLE SHOWING THE YEARLY AVERAGE OF MULBERRY 
AND TEA FIELDS. 



Mulberry. 


Tea. 


chn. tan. 


chu. tan. 


231,437 7 


60.699 7 


298,203 9 


58,892 1 


317,145 8 


49,046 I 


RLY OUTPUT OF COCOONS AND ' 


Cocoons. 


Tea. 


kohu 


kunmma. 


942,198 


2,761 522 


... 1,328,035 


6,514,678 


... 1,219,060 


7,011,221 


... 1,480,705 


7,211,865 


... 2,121,944 


8,471,956 


... 2,549,224 


6,783,128 



Year. 

1492... 

1897... 
1902... 



Year. 

1878 .. 

1882 .. 

1887 .. 

1892 .. 

1897 .. 
1902 

Fruit culture and gardening have made a striking advance 
recently. 

Live stock do not yet show any marked development ia 
numbers though there has been a great improvement in their 
quality. However as measures for improving both the quality of 
the live stock and increasing their number are now being carried 
out, the industry will be surely bettered in the near future. 
Dairy business is an industry of only recent growth, but its result 
is entirely satisfactory. 

Below will be shown the numbers of cattle and horses during 
the last 24 years : — 

Year. 

1878 ... 

1882 ... 

1887 ... 

1892 ... 

1897 .-. 
1902 ... 



Cattle. 


Horses. 


1,080.886 


1,545.283 


1,160,147 


1,644,165 


I 020,509 


1.537,606 


1,094,797 


1,554.667 


1,214,159 


1,592,871 


1,275,382 


1,515.37.^ 



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Food'Shiffs. 121 

The gross value of the staple agricultural products as calculated 
on the recent market price is as follows : — 

yen. 

Rice 445439,087 

" Mu^i " (barley, wheat, rye) 124,064,274 

Beans 35,952,282 

Others 153,872,649 

Straw 86,982,360 

Cocoons 93.618,991 

Silkworm eggs 3,844,126 

Mulberry twigs and Silkworm litters 7,953, io3 

Cured tea 9,037,545 

IJve Stock (cattle, horse, sheep, swine) 4,953,533 

Slaughtered beast 12,540,394 

Cattle and horses killed by disease 256,831 

Dairy products 4,128,017 

Staple manure 23,672,628 

Poultry and eggs 17,28x416 



Total 1,023,587,239 

Such is the general states of our agricultural industry, and In 
inquiring into the relation between supply and demand of our 
principal agricultural products, it is observed that though in food- 
stuffs the supply at home can generally satisfy the demand, this is 
not always the case with regard to the raw materials used for in- 
dustrial purposes, as cotton, hemp, etc. These come, therefore, to no 
small extent from foreign countries. 



II. FOOD-STUFFS. 



1. Rice. — ^There are two varieties of rice, ordinary rice {Orlza 
utUistima, Keke) and glutinous rice (0. glidinose^ Lour), Both are 
cultivated in wet and upland fields. The ordinary rice may be con- 
sidered as ilie rice, for it constitutes the bulk of the' output of this 
staple cereal. It is used as ordinary diet and also for brewing the 
national beverage of sake, while the other rice is used for making 
rice dumplings (mocfii) and is therefore very limited in use. 

Rice being cultivated in every place where its cultivation is 



1 



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Acreage. 


Output. 


cho. 


ko u. 


2,760,662.1 


41,429,676 


2,775.233.9 


37,267,418 


2,736,494.6 


41,859,047 


2,784682.5 


39,960.798 


2,792,499.4 


36,240,351 


2,787,181.3 


33,039,293 


2,817,624.0 


47,387,666 


2,839,550.2 


39,698,258 


2,828,479.3 


41,466,734 


2,847,395.0 


36,947,091 



122 Japan in the Beginning of the 20iJi Century. 

possible, from Hokkaido in the north to Formosa in the south, the 
area under cultivation is immense as may be seen from the follow- 
ing table. 

AREA (FRACTIONS BELOW DECIMAL ARE tan) OF CULTIVATION 
AND OUTPUT OF RICE. 

Year. 

1892 

1893 .. 

1894 

1875 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1902 

The principal centres of rice cultivation are Niigata, Hyogo, 
Fukuoka, Aichi, Chiba, Toyania, and Fukushima. Both the acreage 
and output may confidently be expected to become larger with the 
improvement of farming and the completion of various improvement 
measures. 

2. " MuGi." — The Mugi is the staple product for upland fields 
as rice is for wet fields. Barley and wheat are also cultivated in 
wet fields a.s tlie second crop after rice. Their cultivation is universal, 
but that of rye is generally confined in the districts of Kinai and in 
the more southern places. Barley and rye are used as food-stuffs by 
farmers, who use them mixed with rice. They are also used to 
some extent as food for cattle and horses. Wheat is used in manu- 
facturing soy and for making confectionary and various sorts of 
maccaroni, except buckwheat maccaroni for which buckwheat flour is 
used. The flour made of Japanese wheat is however not quite so 
good for bread and superior kinds of confectionar)', and for those 
purposes the American flour is extensively imported. In a simi- 
lar way our barley is not so well adopted for making malt for 
beer, and the bulk of this fermenting ingredient comes from therefore 
abroad. An attempt has been made with some success to cultivate in 



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Food-Stuffs. 



125 



Japan certain varieties of foreign barley. The acreage and out- 
put during the last ten years •are shown below : — 

"Mugi" Acreage. Output (koku.) 





Barley. 


Rye. 


WTieat. 


Total. 


Barley. 


Rye. 


Wheat. 


Total. 


Year. 


(in thou- 


(in thou 


• (in thou- 


(in thou- 


(in thou- 


(in thou- 


(in thou- 


(in thou- 




sand) 


sand) 


sand) 


sand) 


sand) 


sand) 


sand) 


sand) 


1892 .... 


. 653 


650 


43.S 


1,739 


6,811 


6,811 


6,060 


15.951 


1893 


. 654 


654 


437 


1,746 


7.193 


6,148 


3,294 


16,636 


1894 


648 


661 


442 


1,753 


8,533 


7.316 


3,972 


19,822 


1895 


. 654 


672 


447 


1,774 


8,541 


7,107 


3,978 


19.537 


1896 


651 


672 


443 


1,767 


7,853 


5,927 


3,559 


17,340 


i^ .... 


639 


651 


458 


1,749 


8,028 


6,165 


3.811 


18,005 


1898 


659 


68i 


465 


1,806 


8,913 


7,366 


4.181 


20,462 


1899 .... 


657 


687 


465 


1.809 


8,512 


6.682 


4,141 


19,335 


1900 .... 


644 


692 


468 


1,805 


8,659 


7,495 


4,236 


20,391 


1902 .... 


645 


476 


682 


1.804 


8,146 


3.907 


6,372' 


18425 



The principal vivgi districts are Hokkaido, Saitanm, Ibaragi^ 
Aichi, Fukuoka, etc. Especially in Hokkaido the growth of these 
crops is excellent, the comparative scarcity of rainfall during the 
ripening season being favorable for it. 

3. Beans. — The use of beans is extensive in Japan. They 
are used as subsidiary article of diet, also as focxl for cattle, and 
as manure. A large import of beans and pancakes from China 
and Korea explains their exten.«ive use in Japan. Beans of su- 
perior quality are largely grown in HokkaidS, and they are also 
extensively cultivated in Saitama, Ibaragi, Nagano, Miyagi, etc. 
There are two princi{)al varieties, namely soja l)eans and red l)eans, 
and both are cultivated during ^he seasons inter\'ening between the 
different crops of cereals. The latter is used for making confec- 
tionary, etc. 





ACREAGE AND OUTPUT. 






Soja 


Beans. 


Red Bcan-s. 


Year. 


Acreage (rho). 


Output {hJcu). 


Acreage (cA"). 


Output (kohl). 


1894 


435^52.3 


2,943,478 


101,428.9 


560.277 


1895 . 


431,240.4 


3.163.683 


105,630.7 


615,675 


1896 


440,780.2 


2,999.490 


103,957.7 


576,724 


1897 


435.6048 


3,100,973 


109,280.7 


618,804 


1898 


482,044-1 


3,108,708 


112,313.6 


654,885 


1899 


ASSAoi,2 


3^10,693 


120,675.0 


822,775 


1900 


457,673-7 


3,562,176 


122,786.1 


866448 


1902 


466,149.1 


3»i36,909 


129^90.9 


708,712 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



124 



Japan in tJie Beginning of the 20th Cenitiry^ 



4. Millets, Sorghum, Buckwheat — Millets are cultivated 
in the hilly districts and are used as food, being eaten mixed 
with rice. Sorghum is used for making dumplings and buckwheat for 
making maccaroni. 



Year. 

1894 
1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1902 



Year. 

1894 
1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1902 





ACREAGE. 






Millet. 


Italian Millet. 


Sorghmn. ^ 


Buckwheat. 


235,164.2 


84,144.4 


26,286.9 


172,334.0 


247.276.7 


77,228.9 


26,295.3 


175,991.8 


248,131.7 


75.124.4 


28,156.8 


171,215.5 


250,387.7 


74,567.6 


27.674-9 


174,138.2 


245,641.3 


77,366.3 


31,683.5 


180,039.6 


238,742.0 


76,618.8 


35,741.8 


176,144.4 


245,738.6 


72,538.3 


34,414.1 


168,996.0 


226.239.8 


70,510.7 
OUTPUT. 


34,536.6 


165,750.2 


Millet. 


Italian Millet. 


Sorghiuii. 


Buckwheat. 


2,144,839 


999,209 


250474 


1,202,372 


2,331,506 


923,862 


243.066 


1,192,377 


2 548,458 


912,154 


245,734 


1,090,254 


2,395,158 


806,274 


260,414 


990,195 


2,626,588 


901,472 


291.852 


1,192,807 


2,217,154 


861,318 


377,768 


999410 


2,487,187 


864,601 


384452 


1,285,394 


2,003,317 


567,299 


286,734 


948,886 



The ordinary millet is grown in larger quantities in Kyushu 
than in colder districts and Italian millet is found more in the 
colder districts than in Kyushu. Sorghum is chiefly grown in 
Hokkaido, Aichi, Gifu, etc. and buckwlieat in Kagoshima, Kanagawa, 
Ibaragi, Nagano, Iwate, Aomori, etc. 

5. Sweet Potatoes. — This root- crop is raised as food- 
stuff both for men and beast«», also for brewing liquor and making 
starch. It is extensively grown in Kyushu and Okinawa. 



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Acreage, (cho.) 


Output, (kuxmme.) 


238,942.9 


495,948,701 


340,797.0 


711,813,132 


255,655.2 


725,942,023 


259,166.7 


662.391,590 


267,252.3 


716,956,146 


268,070.5 


661444,862 


271,440.4 


756,935,532 


276,970.6 


712.126,037 



Far^n Products of Special Use. 125 

Year. 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1902 

6. Potatoes.— Potatoes are iised in Japan for food both 
for the men and beasts and for making liquor and starch. It is 
grown extensively in HokkaidS and other districts. 

Year. 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1902 

The acreage was only 8,850 cho in 1882, and it reached about 
42,000 in 1902. The root grown in Hokkaido largely goes to 
Siberia and Australia, being of superior quality. The appearance 
of the potato blight in 1900 in the districts lying about Tokyo 
inflicted serious damage on the crop. The disease has been stamped 
out. 

III. FARM PRODUCTS OF SPECIAL USE. 



reage. (cito.) 


Output, (kwamme.) 


23,116.3 


* 49,752.903 


23,314.4 


44.273,903 


25,276.9 


44,220,605 


28,996.0 


58,528,287 


36.898.6 


34,088,550 


37,650.6 


64,594,705 


38,261.8 


71,775,433 


42,139.7 


53.832,873 



1. Rape. — Bape is grown everywhere in Japan as the second 
crop after rice or other crops. 

The rape-seed oil was universally used formerly for purposes 
of illumination, and even now this is still the case in remote 
comers of the land. The oil is now largely exi)orted abroad, 
where it used as a lubricant. The value of rape-seed cake as 
manure is universally appreciated and is largely used for that pur- 
pose. 



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Acreage, (c^.) 


Output. (ioVtt.) 


,. 152,400.2 


1,006,581 


. 158,858.2 


969,917 


. 157.738-8 


971,198 


. 154,167.0 


1,011,004 


. 150,825.9 


1,079,594 


. 148,663.3 


1,114,614 


. 153,069.5 


1,193,839 


. 157,045.1 


1,110,446 



126 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

This crop is cultivated in all those districts where the second 
crop is possible, and also in IlokkaidS. 
The acreage and output are as follows ; — 

Year. 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1902 

2. Indigo. — The indigo-plant (Polygonum tinctorium Lam.) 
is a special product of Shikoku, especially Tokushima' perfec- 
ture where the growtli of this crop was encouraged by the local 
Government during the pre-Restoration period. It is of the variety 
of Polygonum. Since the introduction from abroad of a cheaper 
and more convenient indigo, the sale of home-grown indigo htis 
somewhat declined. But the native indigo still retains a fair sal j 
owing to the permanent nature of the dye ; and especially since a 
new mode of preparing indigo in a less costly way was discovere<i 
a few years ago by a Japanese expert, the industry has began 
to recover its former prosperity. In Okinawa and Formosa a special 
variety of indigo is produced. 

The acreage and output during the last few years are as follows : — 

Year. 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1902 

The principal places of production are Tokushiraa, Aichi, 
Fukuoka, Okinawa, Saitama, Miye, etc. 



Acreage, [chn.) 


Output, (kvoammc.) 


. 46,851.7 


i6,o8%377 


• 49,079.0 


17.373,344 


. 49,190.3 


17,9x8,863 


. 50,712.3 


19415,593 


. 48,872.4 


17,758,510 


. 47,824.8 


17,044410 


. 46,180.4 


16,582,230 


■ 37,193.3 


12,495.151 



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Farm Products oj Special Use. 127 

3. Tobacco. — The cultivation of tobacco was formerly car- 
ried out, partly with the object of selling the leaves and partly 
with that of supplying tobacco for home consumption. The leaves 
in those days were exclusively used as cut tobacco and never as 
cigars or cigarettes. With the advent of the Tobacco State Mono- 
poly in 1898, a radical cliange came over the economy of this 
crop, and the cultivation is now subject to strict official super- 
vision, while at the same time special pains are taken for improv- 
ing the quality. 

Here are the figures representing the acreage and putput 
during the last few years : — 

Year Acreage, (cho.) Output, (ikunmiie.) 

1894 35,393.8 9,541,304 

1895 35,«35-i 8,873,911 

1896 32,519.2 8,393,507 

1897 31,477.5 8,871,370 

1898 29r45o.8 9,302,560 

1899 41,647.2 10,609,531 

1900 37,182.8 10,846,452 

1902 23,946.3 8,349,679 

Ibaragi, Tochigi, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Fukushima, Okayama, 
Aichi, Hiroshima, Kumamoto, Shizuoka are the chief centres of 
this crop. 

4. SnGAR Cake. — This industry is not flourishing as it wjis 
formerly, or, more properly speaking, it has not succeeded in keeping 
up with the progress of the times. Its prosperity in the province 
of Sanuki, formerly the hirgest centre of production, has declined 
very much owing to tlie comparatively higher cost of production 
as compared with that in foreign countries. The beet-root cultiva- 
tion started some time ago in Hokkaid5 has not been a success. 
The consumption of sugar lias been largely increased recjntly, and 
naturally the import of this article of diet now reaches enormous 
figures. However, as the industry is steadily growing extensively in 
Formosa, Okinawa and Kagoshima, the output of home-made sugar 
may soon show a striking increase. The returns for the last two years 
are as follows : — 

Year. Acreage, (r'w.) Output, (kwammc.) 

>900 23,»7o.2 154,181,460 

»9oi 24,744.7 134,278,261 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



128 JajMU in the Begiiming oj the 20th Century. 

5. Rushes. — ^The cultivation of various varieties of rushes 
is extensively carried on in Hiroshima, Okayama, Fukuoka, Oita, 
Okinawa, Kagoshima, etc., as they are in enormous demand for 
the making of mats universally used in Japanese houses as carpets 
are in Europe and America, The export of fancy matting is 
also active. 

6. Cotton. — Cotton is another crop that has suffered from 
foreign competition especially since the spinning business has grown 
active, for the fibres of home-grown cotton are shorter while the goods 
themselves are more costly than their imported rivals. These princi- 
pally come from India, China, and America. 

The following table will show the vicissitudes which this crop has 
experienced during the last eight years. 

Yeaf. 

"894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

X899 

1900 

1902 

Osaka, Hiroshima, Saitama, Tottori, Aichi, etc. are principal 
centres of produce. 

7. Hkmps. — The cultivation of hemp was formerly more active 
than it is now, for with no foreign rival to compete with it, its iLse for 
weaving fabrics, making fishing nets, etc. was extensive. The appear- 
ance of Chinese and Indian hemp in the market has considerably 
affected the former prosperity of the home industry, as may be seen by 
a glance at the following table : — 

Year. 

1894 .-. 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1902 



Acreage, {cho.) 


Output, {kvamme). 


60,564.0 


12,572,971 


.. 55»54i.o 


10,488,569 


.. 51,042.5 


7^22,061 


.. 44,444.0 


7,034,253 


.. 40,288.1 


7,280,530 


•• 33.773.2 


5»23 1,955 


.. 28,262.2 


4,894,322 


.. 20,700.1 


3,321,047 



Acreage, {chn.) 


Output, (ttcamm''.) 


. 20,948.6 


3,224,094 


,. 22,050.4 


3,366,784 


.. 22,629.2 


3,285,730 


. 22,349.7 


3.569,159 


.. 25,188.0 


3.775,917 


.. 17,910.6 


2,921,954 


,. 18,203.0 


2,652.774 


,. 16,891.1 


2,687,586 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Fami Produds of Special U^, 12& 

Hokkaido, Tochigi, Hiroshima, Miyazuki, Shiniane, etc. ai-e 
the principal districts in ^vhich the cultivation of thirt crop 18 
carried on. 

8. Flax. — Flax fibres are largely used for weaving light stuff* 
for summer wear, and the flax fabrics prcxluced at Ikhigo and Okinawa 
enjoy a great reputation from forpier times. The cultivation is chiefly 
carried on in thase districts as also in Yamagata, Fukushima, etc. The 
business is sure to attain a greater development in future. 

9. Stalks for Straw Plaits. — The prejiaration of straw plaits 
in the prefectures of Tokyo and Okayama is an important minor 
industry on account of the work it gives to the womeji and chihlreii^ 
especially since the plaits have begun to go abroad. 

10. Mint. — Mint is cultivated in Yamagata, Okayuma, Chiba, 
etc., for making essence to be used for medical and other purposes. 
The foreign demand has contributed to the activity of the cultivation of 
this subsidiary crop. Yamagata i.*^ most noted for the produce of mint. 

11. Ginseng. — This medical root was cultivated formerly in 
such districts as Nikko, Aizu, and Izumo, but, owing to the fact that 
as a medicine it has lost favour among doctors of the modern school^ 
the prosperity of the business has markedly declined. Its principal 
market is China, whither the roots are also imported extensively 
from Korea and even from America. The cultivation and the curing 
of the roots being rather tedirtiu^ ami costly work, the output is 
extranely limited. Fukushima, Nagano, Shimane, Tochigi, and 
Yamagata are the principal districts for this r(x>t. 

12. Paper Mulberry Trees. — ^The fibres of this tree or rather 
ihrab, are used extensively for manufacturing paper which though 
not very smooth, is characterized by toughness. Being a hardy plant 
the tree can be planted almost everywhere and mostly in waste land. 
Ksdii, Toyama, Yamaguchi, Ehime, HimHhima, etc. produce large 
qoaoftities. 

13. •* Mitsumata " (Edgetcorthia Papylifera). — ^This shrub is 
abo lufsAj naed for manufiicturing paper, which is smoother th(/iigh 
weaker in texture than that made of the other. 8inc<; the prrK'CW 
of fltRngthening the texture has been devised liy our Printing 
Bneu the paper made of the fibres of this shrub \\w^ ctjtne to 
he highlj valued in foreign countries where it L< exports! to a largr? 



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130 Japan in ihe Beginning of the 20th Century. 

extent. The shrubs are grown in shady places, and are extensively 
planted in Shizuoka, Yamanashi, K5chi, Eknagawa, etc. 

14. Basket-willow. — The growing of willow for making 
baskets, etc., is actively carried on in the province of Tajima. The 
process of raising the twigs is very simple, for a slip easily takes 
root. The cultivation of the shrubs and the industry of basket- 
making liave been started in other places, notably in Kochi. 



iV. HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS. 



1. Fruits. — As the food-stuflfe that are ordinarily used by our 
countrymen contain a large percentage of water, the Japanese have 
not up to the present used fruit much as dessert. Moreover, deterred 
by the imperfect facilities of transportation, the business of fruit 
culture was comparatively n^lected. It was after the introduction 
of the Western style of living and the greater perfection of the 
means of communication that the industry attained a sudden develop- 
ment. The production of an excellent sort of apple in Hokkaido 
and the north-eastern districts of Honshu, as also the successful 
growth of fruits of the orange family in Kyushu and other warm 
districts, are among the results of these changes. Indeed Japan is 
now exporting to America and Siberia no small quantity of fruits, 
and there is every possibility of the business of fruit-culture growing 
far more prosperous, both for consumption at home and for shipment 
abroad. 

From the geographical formation of the country, the fruits 
grown in Japan are of diverse kinds, and may generally be classi- 
fied as follows : — 

Fruits of the orange family. Mandarin oranges and other 
oranges, lemons, prunelo, etc. 

Apples, pears, cherries, persimmons, plums, grapes, i)^aches, apri- 
cots, loquats, berries, bananas, pine-apples, etc. 

The above are distributed geographically as follows : — 

OiiAN(iKs:— AVakayama, Kagoshinia, X")mka, Yamaguchi, Shizu- 
oka, Hyogo, Nagasaki, etc. 



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HortiouUural Frodveis. 131 

Apples: — Hokkaid5, Aomori, Iwate, Yamagata, Miyagi, Fuku- 
Bhima, etc. 

Grapes : — Yamanashi, Niigata, Kaaagawa, etc. 

Cherries : — Hokkaid5, Akita, Yamagata, etc. 

Bananas and Pine-apples: — Formosa, Lucliu, and the Bonin 
Islands. 

Pears, persimmons and the rest are grown more or less in every 
part of the country. 

Of those fruits some are of native origin while others are imported. 
Apples, pears, grapes, cherries, strawberries, etc. that have been 
introduced from America and other countries are held in great 
€9teem, and have practically superseded the indigenous varieties. 

2. Flowers and Garden Plants. — From natural taste and 
traditional custom, our countrymen are very fond of flowers and 
ornamental plants and trees. They spare neither pains nor money on 
the decoration of even miniature gardens with fantastic rocks and 
well-shaped trees and plants, but they pride themselves most on their 
skill in growing dwarf trees and shrubs in pots. Nor do they care 
less about the cultivation of such flowering plants as crysanthemum, 
peony, morning-glory, etc Perhaps we should say, however, that this 
business partakes somewhat of the nature of art and is not directly 
related to agriculture, so that it is sufficient to enumerate here the 
principal flowers of the season. These are : — 

Spring flowers: — Cherry, peach, azalea, peonies, lilies of 
Tariou.s kinds, pink, hydrangea, crysanthemum, etc. 

Summer flowers: — Morning-glory, bush-clover, lotus, crysan- 
themum, poppies, etc. 

Autumn flowers: — Crysanthemum, begonia, orchids, flowers of 
the gentian family, pinkr^te* 

Winter flowers: — Crysanthemum, plum, camellia, hayacinth, 
etc. 

3. Kitchen-Gardening. — Kitchen-gardening as a businfess 
attained marked progress only lately and as a result of the improved 
feunlities of communication. The business of forcing the growth of 
v^etables by artificial heat has become quite profitable in the 
suburbs of large cities. The principal vegetables raised are : — 

Fruits of the gourd family, peas, beans, etc. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



132 Japan in the Beginning of the 20t/i Century, 

Roots, and bulbs, such as radishes of various kinds, carrots,^ 
potatoes, lilies, onions, etc. 

Greens of sundry kinds. 

Vegetables used for condiments, as ginger, horse-radish, pepper^ 
etc. 

4. — Preserved Fruits and Vegetables. — This industry is^ 
still comparatively primitive, and the cured fruits and vegetables 
that are prepared to a large extent are of limited kind being 
generally pickled plums, sugared orange-peels, jams, dried peeled- 
radish and edible gourd,, tinned fruits and vegetables. 

In view of the importance of encouraging horticulture, the Gov- 
vemment established in the 1902 fiscal year the Experiment Horti- 
cultural Garden at Okitsu, 8hizuoka-ken, to deal with the following 
matters : — 

Matters relating to the selection and cultivation of indigenous 
and foreign fruits and vegetables. 

Matters relating to the selection of seeds and saplings. 

Matters relating to preserving and curing of fruits, etc. 

Matters relating to the distribution of seeds and saplings. 

As similar work has been started by not a few of local experi- 
mental stations, our horticultural business will most probably show 
marked improvement at no distant date. 



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History. 133 

CHAPTER IV*— Sericulture 



History— Present Condition— Egg-cards— Filature. 



I. HISTORY. 



Government Patronage in Former Times. — The first 
authentic record about the history of sericulture or the art of 
rearing silkworms in Japan is that in the 4th year of the reign of 
the Emperor Chuai (195 of the Christian era) Prince Koman, a 
grandson of Kosei, the 11th lineal successor of the Emperor Shih 
Hwang, of the Tsing dynasty (China), came over and got naturalized 
in Japan, bringing with him and introducing into this country the 
Chinese species of silk-worm, which then come to be cultivated ex- 
tensively in this country. In the 14th year of the reign of the 
Emperor Ohjin (283 A.D.) Yu Tsu, another Chinese Prince came 
over and became naturalized in Japan, bringing with him a large 
number of his own countrymen. As these emigrants knew how to 
weave silk, they were distributed among different localities in the 
country, where they were made to teach the inhabitants the art of 
£iik weaving. In those early days the Court took assiduous pain to 
encourage the industry in the country, and itself set an example in 
the work of planting mulberry trees and rearing the worms. It 
issued decrees that some of the taxes to be paid in kind should 
consist of silk fabrics. From this time onward, history continues to 
indicate the efforts which were made by succeeding Emperors to 
encourage the industry, efforts which resulted in the further develop- 
ment of the industry. 

Coming down to the Japanese " Middle Ages," we find that 
silk raising and weaving had come to occupy the principal place 
among the propuctive industries of the country. Silk had come to 
be accepted for tributes and contributions to the Imperial Grovern- 
ment, while silk fabrics had also come to be used in general for 
wearing purposes. Under the circumstances, sericulture and weaving 
became almost universal throughout the country. A sericultural 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



134 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

record compiled in 796 A.D. in the reign of the Emperor Kammu 
(796 A.D.) mentions the names of 36 provinces scattered over the 
districts of Kinai, Tokai, TOsan, Hokuriku, San-in, Sanyo, and 
Nankai. Later, about 927 A.D. in the reign of the Fmperor Daigo,. 
the silk producing localities had come to be classified in the order 
of the various grades of silk they produced, there being then 12 
best, 25 medium, and 11 inferior "silk provinces:" During the 
"age of wars" (or the Japanese Dark Ages) that lasted alx)ut 70O 
years, commencing with 939 A.D. in the reign of the Emperor 
Shujaku, the raising of the worm and weaving of silk could only be 
carried on in secluded and out-of-the-way places which were compara- 
tively free from the ravages of fire and sword. 

With the return of peace under the Tokugawa Shogunate (1615 
and downward), the industry began gradually to recover its former 
prosperity owing to the endeavors of such Daimios as were anxious 
to bring the i)eople under them back to settled occupations in general, 
and who were not slow to see the importance of rehabilitating 
sericulture. For all that, however, the enforcement of rigid 
sumptuary legislation prohibiting the wearing of all silk fabrics by the 
common people, had the effect of throwing the industry into a sudden 
decline as often as recourse to such reactionary measures were made. 

The Restoration and the Industry. — With the opening of 
the trade ports, in 1859, the market for silk and silk stuffs widened 
all at once, laying the foundations, so to speak, for the permanent 
prosperity of this industry, and the indefatigable efforts made by 
the Imperial Government in its endeavors to encourage the industry 
and secure its further progress, have been crownwl with great success 
so that the fame of Japanese silk has become world-wide and the 
article commands high prices in the market of the world. 

Export of Egq-cards. — Silk as an article of foreign commerce 
has, however, its own history of ups and downs. The prevalence of 
the silk-worm epidemic in Europe (soon after the opening of the 
country) brought about large demand for silk-worm eggs in this country. 
With the increase in the quantity of the eggs exported, came, however, 
the practice of sending out egg-cards of inferior quality or carelessly 
manufactured, while the discovery was made in Europe of the process 
of producing inoculated eggs. 

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BUtory.. 135 

Legislative measures for Protecting the interest. — ^These 
drcuinstanoes had the combined effect of gradually diminishing the 
exportation of Japanese silk eggs, until they entirely ceased to be 
sent abroad. About this time demoralization set in, also, in the 
manufacture of our raw silk and their buyers abroad were loud in. 
their complaints against them. The authorities tried by legis- 
lative means to put right this evil tendency and also established at 
Tomioka, Joshu, a model filature, for which they engaged a French 
expert as superintendent. This was in 1870 and the step taken was 
conspicuously effective in reforming to a degree the silk industry of 
this country. The zeal taken by the Government in the cause of 
improvement by amending and reframing the laws and regulations 
bearing on the industry had, however, the misfortune of causing an 
outcry to be raised about unnecessary official interference, so that 
about 1877 the Government repealed all those enactments and ,left 
the people entirely free, so far as the silk industry was concerned. 
This turn of affair ouly served to benefit unscrupulous parties who 
fraudulently sold with impunity deteriorated goods, and the once good 
name of Japanese silk came to fall very low indeed abroad. Again 
the Government set face to check such dishonest practices and this 
time special care was taken to elaborate rules adapted for local 
condition of each sericultural district. The Department of Agricul- 
ture and Commerce, in order to seek the views of all those parties 
interested on the question of filature industry, held on several 
occasions meetings which were attended by noted sericulturists and 
silk manufacturers. On the strength of the report made and the 
answers received at these gatherings, the Government in. 1885 drew 
up a model set of regulations for the formation of silk guilds, and 
distributed these regulations among the prefectural authorities, in 
order that the latter might each frame sets of regulations to suit 
tibe requirements of his own particular district. The consequence 
was the organization of guilds among those interested in the matter 
in each locality. In the chapter devote<i to Industrial Legislature, 
given later on, the working of the regulations in question will be 
fi>nnd described in some detail. In a similar way, for particulars 
about the silkworm egg inspection regulations and the establishment 
of silk conditioning houses the reader is referred to the paragraphs 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



136 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

specially devoted to these two subjects. It may be stated here that 
the Law for Encouraging the Direct Export of Raw Silk had to be 
repealed soon after its issue in 1897 as it was discovered that some 
of the provisions contained in it were at variance with the operation 
of the revised Treaties. 

Feeding and Rearing. — A high stage of development was 
attained even in early days as regards the method of feeding and 
rearing the silkwarm, for history records that Prince Shotoku 
{573 — 622), told sericulturists that they should rear their warms just 
in the same way as parents nurse and bring up their infants; that 
they should think of their worms as they think of their own 
children ; that in adjusting the temperature for the worms, they 
should judge of what suited them best, making the room neither too 
warm nor too cool, while giving it good ventilation ; and that they 
should lavish the utmost care on the worms both day and night. 
The ideas embodied in this teaching of Prince Shotoku are exactly 
what are being taught and acted upon to-day. According to 
^'Kaiko Yoiku Tekagami'' a work published in 1712, "fire-heating" 
was already then a common practice in sericulture' in Gumma 
district of J5shu, and considerable progress had apparently been 
made in the method of rearing the worm. In 1842 the use of the 
thermometer was for the first time introduced in the work of 
sericulture, in Date-gori in Oshu, and the practice came afterward 
to be gradually followed by the worm-raisers throughout the country. 
This new departure forms another step forward in the progress of 
the industry. As for what led to the application of science on this 
industry, it was the World*s Fair at Vienna, Austria, in 1872. The 
official who attended the Fair, came home more or less au fait of 
the scientific side of sericiilture, as taught in Austria and Italy. 
Acting on the representations from these officials, the Government 
caused a sericultural laboratory to be established at Naito-shinjuku, 
a suburb of Tokyo, in 1874, but for a certain reason the place was 
closed not long after. In 1884 the Government opened in Tokyo 
the Sangy5 Shiken-ba (Silk-warm Disease Laboratory) and three 
years later had it removed to Nishigahara. All sorts of investiga- 
tions connected with sericulture were carried out here and young 
men sent up by sericulturists throughout the Empire were instructed 



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Pteseat Condition of Sericulture. 137 

in the art of silk-worm raising. Furthermore, the Laboratory 
having from time to time made public the results of its investigap 
tiona the institution soon proved of very great importance to the 
sericultural interests of the country. About this time, those 
interested in the industry in the provinces of Fukushima, Gumma, 
Nagano and Saitama, — ^provinces which had had a considerable start 
of the others in the art of sericulture — started sending out ambulant 
instructors and otherwise took steps to revive and develop the 
industry, and these things all contributed largely towards its 
progress. 

Prbsent Data op the Industry. — From the above brief 
history of the sericultural industry in this country it will be seen 
to what a great extent the Imperial Court and Govenment have 
always encouraged and protected the industry. The following is a 
resume of the condition of the industry as reduced to figures in 
1902 :— 

Silk- worm raisers, (No. of families engaged) 2,5481228 

Egg cards (No. used) 3»894,675 

Cocoons (in A»*tt) 2,549,224 

Egg-cards manufacturers (by family) I7>259 

those for manufacturing pur- 

-,.,, , „ . , poses — in cards 5,107,080 

Silk " seeds " examined , ^ , ,. ^ 

those for breeding purpose — 

I No. of moths 41,300419 

Raw silk manufacturers (No. of) 414,511 

Raw silk output (in ibin) 11,150,879 

Raw silk exported (in iufi) 8,078,166 

Thus it will be seen that silk-producing forms one of the most 
important industries of Japan. Indeed silk comes close after rice 
in importance as an article of domestic production while as an 
article of export it has no compeer. It may even be said that 
silk holds the balance of Japan's foreign trade. 



II. PRESENT CONDITION OF SERICULTURE. 



Sericultural Policy. — It has already been shown how sericul- 
ture formed a national industry in early days, silk forming an 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



138 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

article of common wear, how it declined during the ''Dark 
Ages" and also under the Tokugawa Shogunate owing to the 
sumptuary laws that were passed under that regime, laws which 
are almost by the way an exact counterpart of those passed in 
England about the same time, and how the industry has revived 
in the new era. In the latter respect the provinces of Nagano, 
Gumma, Fukushima and Saitama, all of which were, comparatively 
speaking, devoid of good paddy land, were the first to adopt 
sericulture as the principal industry of the inhabitants. In these 
provinces there were people even prior to the Restoration who had 
carried on the industry on an extensive scale. These people forgot, 
however, that the rearing business being a work of 30 or 40 days 
it could hardly yield income sufficient to afford them a livelihood 
for the whole year. 

Sericulture as a Subsidiary Occupation. — These things in 
addition to the recent rise in wages having gradually come to be 
understood by those concerned, there has in late years grown up 
a tendency to carry on sericulture as a subsidiary occupation 
instead of as a main industry. Especially since the Japan-China 
War this tendency has gone on increasing. Sericulturists have 
come to see the profitableness of " farming " on a reduced scale 
for spring, summer, and autumn " crops," rather than undertaking 
the rearing all at once in spiing alone. The statistical figures in 
this respect for 1901 were as follows: — 



Season. Cards hatched. 


Cocoons obtained, 
(in koku.) 


Spring crop (per raiser on average) ... 1.7 


I»20I 


Summer ,, „ 1.2 


648 


Autumn „ „ 1.5 


818 



Mulberry Farms.— The mulberry farm of the country is 
on the whole on the increase and keeps pace with the progress 
of the sericultural industry. The method of cultivating the plant 
differs according to the climatic conditions of the different locali- 
ties. ' In the north-eastern districts where a comparatively low 
temperature prevails the plants are allowed to remain unpruned 
all the year round; but in the south-western provinces where the 
climatic conditions are quite the opposite, the shoots are pruned 



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Present Conditum of Sericulture, 139 

doee to the root, while in the "Kwaato " districts where the medium 
temperature prevails the prunning is done close to the stem, which 
IS allowed to grow to a certain height. Besides, in the mulberry 
fiirms as such, the tree is also Very largely cultivated so as to form 
fences, the borders, etc., of farms and farm-houses, it being estimat- 
ed that the supply of mulberry leaves obtained from these sources 
forms about a quarter of the whole stock yearly consumed for 
sericultural purposes throughout the country. The following is a 
statistical representation of the mulberry farm industry for the ten 
years ending 1902: — 



Year. 


Mulberry farms 

as such 

cAo. 


Mulberry trees otherwise 

grown and estimated 

cAo. 


Total 
cAo, 


1893 ... 


... 176,218.4 


67,1404 


243.358.8 


1894 ... 


... 184,772.6 


69,117.2 


253,889.8 


1895 ... 


... 189,909.2 


76,255.1 


266,164.3 


1896 ... 


... 208,047.8 


80,889.2 


288,937.0 


1897 ... 


... 220,008.5 


78,195.4 


298,203.9 


1898 ... 


... 221,603.6 


82,709.1 


304,312.7 


1899 .• 


... 221,862.9 


77,733.0 


299,5959 


1900 ... 


... 222,713.1 


78,058.0 


300,789.1 


1901 ... 


... 228,202.3 


75»257.i 


303459.4 


1902 ... 


... 237,215.7 


79,930.1 


317,145.8 



Methods of Kearinq. — The method of rearing the silk 
worm i.s not uniform even at present. Some do not at all use 
"fire heart" leaving the entire process to the conditions of the 
weather, this method being called the "natural method." Others 
would have every thing dependent on artificial heating and their 
method is called "the wann rearing system," while the third 
group would resort to both of the means above mentioned, and 
theirs is called the "conventional method." It goes without 
saying that ][the "natural method" was the original one, first 
resorted to in the earliest days of sericulture. Of this method, 
however, the disadvantages are that the growth of the worm is 
slow and that the quality of cocoons obtained are often not of 
good quality. 

The "warm rearing system," on the other hand, accelerates the 
growth of the worm — in a very much less number of days than 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



140 



Japan tn tfie Beginning of the 20th Century, 



other method — and a greater quantity of raw silk may be secured 
thereby, but the disadvantage of this method is that the worms 
are often weak in constitution and liable to produce cocoons of 
unexpected character. For these reaiSons, the method most exten- 
cively followed throughout the country at present is the "conven- 
tional." 

Sericultural Economy. — While the economy of silk raising 
^cannot help being affected by the fluctuations in the prices of 
commodities in general, as also by the condition of the cocoon 
crop of the year, the profit shows a gradual diminution owing to the 
general tendency, of late years, of the prices to rise. The following 
may be given as a fair estimate of the profit and loss of the industry 
at present: — 

EXPENDITURE. 



... (I card) 

f 200 l^mr. 1 
••• \ 10 «en per A;*?!!*. / 

{5 men, 30 sen each 1 
30 women, 20 sen each j 



"Seed" Eggs ... 
Mulberry leaves... 

Workers Wages.... 

Workers Board (12 Mn per capita) 

Miscellaneous expenses (charcoal, callow, oil, bobbins, etc.) 

„ r Rearing room 47 yen \ 

^^^ t Utensils 8o«»/ 

Interest 



yen. 
1.500 

20.000 



f 7 p. c per annum or the working 
"• \ capital for 2 months 



Total 



7.500 

4.200 
5.000 

4.800 

.446 

43.446 



RECEIPTS. 

First class cocoons (8 to at 4 ym 50 aen per to) 36.000 

Middle class cocoons (i to 5 <Ao at 2 ^n per to) 3.000 

Third class cocoons (5 «^, I y«i per to) 500 

Ditto, punctured (i to 5 eho, i yen $0 sen per to) 2.250 

Carcass chrysalis (i hoka 8 to, i ysn per kdtu) 1.800 

Mulberry shoots (20 bimdles, 5 aen per bundle) 1.000 

Total 44.550 

Net Profit 1.104 

Margin op Profit. — ^Thus calculated, the net profit dwindles 
down to very insignificant figure; but sericulture being, as a rule. 



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Present Condition of Sericulture, 141 

carried on by the fanner as a by-industry and one of the rooms 
of his own dwelling being employed as the rearing room, while 
the members of his own family attend the worms, what are given 
above as items of disbursement constitute in effect his own earn* 
ings of his family, with the exception of the prices paid for the 
" seed " eggs and mulberry leaves. 

The Output. — The quantity of cocoons obtainable differs, of 
course, according to the crop condition of the year; still on the 
whole the quantity is on the increase, owing to the progress made 
in the art of sericulture, the increase being especially notable 
in the case of autumn cocoons, as may be gathered from the 
following statistics for the ten yeai"s mentioned:-^ 

COCOON CROP FOR THE WHOLE OF JAPAN. 



Vi^^r 


Total. 


Spring crop. 


Summer crop. 


Autumn crop. 


X COl . 


kohl. 


ibi&u. 


kohl. 


koku. 


1893 ... 


... 1.686,894 


1,225,018 


328,591 


133,285 


1894 ... 


-. 1,797^2 


1,257,836 


373,996 


166,010 


1895 ... 


... 2,258,173 


1,697,803 


324,028 


236,342 


1896 ... 


... 1,831,378 


1,384,411. 


255*438 


197,529 


1897 •• 


... 2,121,944 


1,654,722 


278,257 


193,965 


1898 ... 


... 2,027,339 


1,504,351 


301,393 


221,565 


1899 ... 


... 2,512,562 


1,817,936 


373,142 


320,484 


1900 ... 


•.. 2,753.903 


2,029,806 


377,466 


346.631 


I90I ... 


... 2,526,181 


1,798,672 


345,617 


381,892 


1902 ... 


... 2,549,224 


1,774,936 


359,772 


414,5 "6 




CROP RATIO OF EACH SEASON. 




Year, 


Spring crop. 


Summer crop. 


Autumn crop.- 




percentage. 


percentage. 


percentage. 


1893 ... 





72 


19 


9 


1894 ... 




70 


21 


9 


1895 ... 





75 


14 


u 


X896 .... 




75 


M 


II 


1897 ... 





78 


13 


9 


1898 ... 





74 


15 


II 


1899 ... 


.•• ... ... ••• 


72 


15 


13 


1900 ... 





74 


14 


12 


1901 ... 




71 


14 


15 


1902 ... 





70 


14 


16 



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142 Japan in the Beginning oj the 20th Century, 

Import of Chinese Cocoons. — ^No coooon is at present sent 
abroad from Japan and the entire output is consumed at 
home as material for weaving silk fabrics and also for the 
purpose of manufacturing raw silk for exportation. At the same 
time from five to six hundred thousand y«?i worth of cocoons is 
yearly imported from China. The greater part of the importation 
consists of douppions, which are turned into floss silk and silk 
thread. The Chinese cocoons were imported as follows: — 



Year. 


kin. 


Year. 


kin. 


1897... . 


713.929 


1900 , 


.. 598,999 


1898... . 


458,617 


1901 


.. 441,371 


1899... . 


807,762 


1902 


... 649,013 




III. EOO-CARDS MAKING. 





General Remarks. — In the earlier days there were apparently 
no egg-cards manufacturers separate from the fsericulturlst, the latter 
doing his own work of selecting the good cocoons out of his own 
crop for "seeding" purposes. Nor can any exact data be given 
as to when the egg-card-making came to form a specialty, though 
from about the latter part of the 17th century the district of 
Uyeda in Shinshu and the various provinces hi " Kwanto " and 
Tohoku, were already in the habit of sending out to and supplying 
the other parts of the country with the "egu:-card." What, in 
modern times, brought about the sudden prosperity of this special 
industry, was the prevalence, as already mentione<l, of the silk 
worm epidemic in Europe, which created a demand for Japanese 
"cards." It was at the time when the samurai class, deprived 
of their permanent pensions, took up this business of the egg- 
card making, as if with one accord. The subsequent decline in 
the exportation of the " card<," as already told, almost ruined the 
entire egg-card industry of the country. Since then, however, 
with the progrei»s and prosperity that have attended the sericultural 
industry in general, the si>ecial industry in (|uestioii also revived 
to such an extent that there is not a locality throughout the 



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Egg- Cards Making, 143 

Empire which does not possess its own ^g-card manufactures, as 

the following table shows : — 

NO. OF EGG-CARD MANUFACTURERS THROUGHOUT JAPAN. 

For Summer and 



Autumn hatdiing. 



Year. For Spring hatching. 

1898 16.785 7,577 

1899 16,409 7,759 

1900 16,324 7,587 

»9oi 13,745 8,939 

»902 12,923 4,336 

The Nursery Process. — The progress attained, especially on 
the scientific .side, of sericulture has now come to make it an 
established principle among those interested in the industry that, in the 
cultivation of the worms for egg purposes, the temperature should not 
be artificially raised. 

As for fighting the silk worm epidemic, Pasteur's grainage cel- 
lulaire method was improved upon and remodelled as the result of 
investigations carried at the Sericultural Laboratory and this improv- 
ed method has since proved itself a very efficient means for the 
purpose for which it was devised. Then the enforcement of the 
SOk Worm Egg Examination Regulations proved another means of 
preventing the epidemic from spreading, while on the other hand 
the examination carried out under the Regulations had aXaj the 
satisfactory result of raising the standard quality of the eggs. 
The following table will be interesting in this respect, 1898 being 
the first year in which the Regulations just mentioned were put in 
force. 

Spring breed. .Summer and Autumn breed. 





Passed. 


Rejected. 


Passed. Rejected. 




jjercentage. 


percentage. 


1898 


79 


21 


75 25 


1899 


82 


18 


75 25 


1900 


82 


18 


80 20 


1901 


88 


12 


87 13 ^ 


1902 


89 


II 


_ __ 



Economy of Egg-Card Making. — The making of egg-cards 
requires the utmo.^t skill and experience, in addition to the most 
painstaking care, while the manufa^tiULT must necessarily Ik? guided 
in this work by a .strong sense of re*'ponsi!)ility. A manufacturer 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



144 Japan in the Beginning oj the 20th Century. 

thus qualified would consider the following a fair estimate of the 
ins and outs of his business : — 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

yen. 

The " seeds " (loo encased moths at 3 «w per head) 3.000 

Mulberry leaves (10 s«» per ^hwn) 22.000 

Workers hire ^ lo men at 30 sen each, 30 women at 20 sen each) ... 9.000 

Workers board (12 8e/i a day on an average) 4.S00 

Rents (room 4 yen, utensils 86^ sen, apparatus 4 yen') ... 8.865 

Interest on the working capital for 2 months at 7 p.c. annum") ... 5^^ 

Card-paper 60 sheets 3 wn each) 1.800 

Miscellaneous expenses 6.800 

Total 56.787 

RECEIPTS. 

Proceeds r6 to of cocoons and 6o'egg cards at I yen 20 sen) 72.000 

Thread Cocoons (2 to at 3 y«a) 6.000 

Douppions (I to5 «Aoat X yen5o «n^ 2.250 

Third class Cocoons (5 «Ao at 12 «*n> 600 

Punctured Cocoons (6 to at I y»)i 20 ^©i') 7.200 

Carcass chrysalis (about 2 Ao/fctt at I ye/i) 2.000 

Waste mulberry shoots (about 22 bundles) x.ioo 

Total 91.150 

Net Profit 34.363 

Output of " Seed-Cards." — ^The yearly production of " seed- 
cards" is also on the increase in quantity along with the pro- 
gress of the sericultural industry in general, as may be seen from 
the following table which gives figures for the years subsequent to 
the enforcement of the Seed-Cards Examination Regulations : — 





For Spring hatching. 


For Summer and Autumn 
hatching. 


Year. 


For manufactur- For reproduc- 


For manufactur- 


For reproduc- 




ing purposes. tive purposes. 
Cards. Moths. 


ing purposes. 
Cards. 


tive purposes. 
Moths. 


1898 ... 


... 2,559,424 20,572497 


165,394 


3,949,821 


1899 ... 


... 2,877,532 21,242,568 


227,836 


4,579,913 


1900 ... 


... 3,124,894 27 530,491 


277.300 


5 922,683 


1901 ... 


... 3.378,718 31,239,854 


2,002,622 


8,141,607 


1902 ... 


... 3,025,280 32072,367 


2,081,800 


9,228,052 



In the above table the figSres are only for those cards officially- 
examined and consequently those made for private use are not included. 

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Filahire. 145. 

ly. FILATURE. 



First Model Filature. — ^The reeling of raw silk having been 
carried on exclusively by hand-reeling formerly, the product obtained 
was of the coarse kind unfit for the foreign market. 

It was to obviate this defect that the Government established, 
as already mentioned, a model filature at Tomioka-raachi in Gumma 
prefecture in order to encourage tbe improved method of machine- 
reeling. The example thus set before them led those interested in 
the industry to starting similar establishments oh' the factory system 
throughout the country. Even those who ^Vere previously contented 
with hand-reeling, now took up the frame-reeling and adopted the 
practice of selling Hieir product jointly by unifying its quality. This 
was decidedly a step forward in the progress of the industry which 
soon came to be recognized by the farming class as an important 
by-business. According to the official returns for 1900, the silk 
turned out by machine-reeling totalled 6,193,869 kin against 4,779,- 
575 kin by frame-reeling.' It is misleading, however, to say that 
filaturing constitutes a by-industry whenever it is carried on by 
frame-reeling, because there are establishments managed afler the 
fully developed factory system and yet emplopng the frame-reeling 
method. While it is not yet exactly known, how many establish- 
ments of this latter kind there are in the country, the statistical 
returns for the y^ar above mentioned show that in that year the 
country had 2,072 machincTreeling factories, employing 122,116 
pans against 597 frame-reeling establishments employing 55,022 pans» 
the figures being in each case for factories that employ 1 workers or 
more. 

Preservation of the Cocoons. — Owing to the fact that 
the climatic conditions of Japan are not like those of continent- 
al countries where a comparatively high temperature prevails the 
preservation of cocoons often proves to be a very difficult affair, cases 
of the deterioration of entire stock not being infrequent. The proper 
preservation of cocoons forms, therefore, a very important problem. 
In former days sun-drying was the only method adopteil iii this re- 
spect Tlie Tomioka Filature was the first to test the baking process- 



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2:46 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ti^ Century. 

but this method, too, did not give satisfactory results, owing to the 
climatic peculiarities of the country. Of late, however, many and 
valuable inventions have been made well answering the purposes of 
stifling and the subsdquent long preservation of cocoons so treated. 

The Beelinq. — ^There is no question that the Tomioka Fila- 
ture proved to be a model establishment and that it fully satisfied 
the expectations that had been formed of it. It was after a European 
model and many of this scheme tried in thLs establishment and imi- 
tated at others only proved their unfitness for general adoption in 
this country. So there came consequently a period of continual chang- 
ing from one system to another, a conspicuous instance of this kind 
Ijeing the adoptation to a very large extent of the " Kennel " method 
In place of the " Champon '' system and also of " double " instead 
of "direct" reeling. Very significant progress has also been made 
in the art of reeling itself, since the opening of the model institu- 
tion, the following figures furnishing eloquent proof of this statement. 

AVERAGE PRODUCE PER PAN. 

Year. Machine reel. Frame reeL 

1900 4&kin 27 

1896 39 » 19 

1893 39 » « 

Increase in 1900 as against 1896 ... 9 8 

FiLATURiNO Economy. — In this as in all other industries, 
the skill of the workers and the cost of the raw stock count for 
eveiy thing. It is undeniable, however, that the recent general 
rise in the prices of commodities has also tended to increase the 
cost of production in filaturing. Below is a table showing the 
average cost of production per 100 kin of raw silk. 

Year. Machine. Frame. Average. 





yen. 


ym. 


]/m. 


1900 


156 


129 


H3 


1896 


126 


108 


117 


1893 


no 


82 


96 


Increase in 1900 as against 1896 ... 


30 


21 


26 



It may be interesting to give in this connection a detailed 
list of the item of expenditure and receipt in filaturing. The 
following is such a list, the calculations being made on the basis 
•o{ 100 kin:— 



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Filature, 



147 



MACHINE-REELING. 

EXPENDIIVRIL 

yen. 

Cost of cocoons — 16 hoku 640.000 

Girls' wages — 267 reelers each 6.tho of cocoons and 10 

others doing the rest of the work 4i<55o 

Girls board 27.700 

Employees salaries I4>750 

Packing expense 1.000 

Fuel — 7,500 ib'A of coal 17.350 

Miscellaneous expenses 5.000 

Freightage — From Joshu to Yokohama • 1.000 

Insurance i/io p.c .820 

Commission — I p.c 8.500 

Jinrikisha fare .200 

Weighing fee i.ooo 

Draft discomit — ^5/10 p.c 4.000 

Interest on invested capital 40.000 

of say 12,000 ysn at lop.c.^ the total yearly pro- 
duction being 5,000 kin. 

Working capital of say 760 ym 50 sen for 6 months at 10 

p.c. a year 39.000 



Total 


... 842.548 


Receipt. 




Proceeds from sale of raw silk 


... 850.000 


„ „ Noshi and other by-products ... 


20.000 


Other incidental yidd : ... 


I.ooo 


Total 


... 871,000 


Net profit 


... 28.452 


FRAME-REELING. 




Disbursements. 






yen. 


Cost of cocoon§ — l6kiku 


... 64ox)oo 


Girls wages 


... 57.000 


Salaries 


... 12.000 


Packing expenses 


1.000 


Fuels 


12.000 


Miscellaneous expenses 


3.000 


Insurance — From Joshu to Yokohama 


I.ooo 


Commission — I per cent 


7.850 


Jinrikisha fare 

Weighing fee 

Draft discount 5/10 p. c 


.200 


I.ooo 


3925 


Interest on invested capital of say 2,050 yen 


20.500 


Interest on invested capital of say 739 yen 70 tot ... 


... 36.984 



Total 



797.744 



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146 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

Receipts. 

Proceed from sale of raw silk * 785.000 

„ „ „ Noshi and other by-products 17.000 

Other miscellaneous income ... 1.000 

Total 803.000 

Net profit 5-356 

Annual Output and Export.— While it is unavoidable 
that there should be differences in the amount of annual 
production of raw silk owing to differences in " crop " condition 
and also in those of proceed thereform according to market 
condition, there is no question that on the whole the amounts are 
on the increase, being encouraged no doubt by the growth of the 
export trade, as the following table will show : — 



Amount produced, 



Amount exported. 



M. c;ax. 


in kin. 


in itifi. 


in yen. 


1859 ... 


— 


487.625 


— 


i860 ... 


— 


812,780 


— 


1861 ... 


— 


922424 


— 


1862 ... 


— 


2,414,914 


— 


1863 ... 


— 


1,294,719 


— 


1864 ... 


— 


1,348,164 


— 


1865 ... 


— 


941,602 


— 


1866 ... 


— 


1,101,546 


— 


1867 ... 


— 


1,000,117 


— 


1868 ... 


— 


1.123,951 


— 


1869 ... 


— 


726,046 


5.720,182 


1870 ... 


— 


683.362 


4,278,752 


I87I ... 


— 


i»323435 


8,004,144 


1872 ... 


— 


895,500 


5,205,237 


1873 ... 


— 


1,202,134 


7,208,421 


1874 ... . 


— 


979,193 


5,302,039 


1875 - 


— 


1,181,387 


5,424,916 


1876 ... 


— 


1,864,249 


13,197,921 


1877 ... 


— 


1,723,004 


9,626,956 


1878 ... 


2,266,294 


1,451,235 


7,889,446 


1879 ... 


2,782,375 


1,638,198 


9,734,534 


1880 ... 


3,33i,<M4 


1,461,619 


8,606,867 


i88i ... , 


2,881,850 


1,801,181 


10,641,310 


1882 ... 


2,850,806. 


2,884,068 


16,232,150- 



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Filature. 



149 



Amount produced. 



Amount exported. 



XCiU> 


in tin. 


in kirn. 


in yen. 


1883 . 


2^5,900 


3,121,975 


16,183,549 


1884 . 


4.492,356 


2,098,398 


11,007,172 


1885 . 


3*174,925 


2,457,925 


13,033,872 


1886 . 


4.592,525 


2,635,294 


17,321,361 


1887 . 


5,124,788 


3,103,584 


19,280,002 


1888 . 


4,i48,«9i 


4,677,708 


25,916,860 


1889., 


5,5i;i04i 


4,126,741 


26,616,541 


1890 . 


■. 5,425,425 


2,110,315 


13.859,339 


I89I . 


6,799,850 


5.325,148 


29*356,339 


1892 .. 


6,850,550 


5,406,856 


36,299,744 


1893.. 


7,709,713 


3,7",2i3 


28,167411 


1894. 


8,104,894 


5,484.059 


39,353,156 


1895 .. 


10,020,694 


5,810,046 


47,866,257 


1896 . 


9,017,000 


3,918,994 


28,830,600 


1897 . 


. .- ... 9,609,756 


6,919,861 


55,630,460 


1898 . 


9,248,416 


4.837,329 


42,047,411 


1899 . 


10,964,013 


5,946,911 


62,627,721 


1900 . 


10,973,444 


4,630,903 


44,657,029 


I9OI . 


10,972,981 


8,697,706 


74,667,331 


1902 . 


Ii,i5«,8i9 


8,078,166 


76,859,478 



Demand and Supply. — ^The United States of America is 
d^idedly the best customer of Japanese raw silk, that country 
taking 50 per cent, or more of the whole amount exported. Next 
comes France, and then Italy. Other countries buy comparative- 
ly little of Japan. The destinations of Japanese raw silk after its 
exportation may be tabulated as below : — 



Destinations. 


1898. 
Atn. 


1899 
kin. 


1900. 
kin. 


1901. 
kin. 


1902. 
kin. 


U. S. A 


2,911,240 


3.820,477 


2,642,918 


5.142,376 


4,878,494 


France 


1,630,654 


1,803,4^ 


1,200,838 


2,035,818 


i,575»25i 


Italy A. 


218,652 


260,298 


669,484 


1,341,913 


1,290,480 


England 


36,491 


28,663 


45,658 


17,105 


46413 


Switzerland 


625 


3,677 


1,029 


7.579 


61.569 


Hongkong 


— 


— 


2.218 


— 


— 


-Canada 


— 


— 


18,912 


62,113 


115.170 


Russia 


39,663 


30,337 


49,846 


82,234 


87,758 


Other countries ... 


4 


2 


I 


8,568 


186 



Total 4,837.329 5,946,611 4,630,903 8,697,706 8,078,166 

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160 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Century, 



Besides the above, waste raw silk is annually expoi-ted to the 
extent of about four million yen in value. 

It may be noted here, that, the amount of Chinese raw silk 
and wild silk cocoons has considerably increased of late the 
importation now aggregating to the value of about one million 
yen a year. The Chinese raw silk is, as compared with the Jap- 
anese article, inferior in quality, but its price is lower and it is 
used for weaving fabrics of home consumption. For a similar reason 
Tussah silk yams are imported. The following gives the amounts 
of the importation from China: — 



Year. 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 



Chinese raw silk. 

kin, 
... 7,606 

... 168,839 , 

... 3,288 

631 

50 



Tussah silk yams. 
kin, 
15,760 

151,850 
148,237 
213,018 
418463 



The statistics above given conclusively prove that the future 
of sericulture in Japan in all its branches is brighter than ever. 
While now and again one hears of the complaints that the increase 
in wages is eating up all the profit formerly obtained from the 
industry, it seems nevertheless almost certain that better economy 
and more business-like methods in carrying on the industry will 
soon remove all these causes for complaint. 



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Hidarjf. 151 

CHAPTER V— Tea-Manufacturings 



Histopy— Preaeiit Gondition of the InduBtry— Kinds of 
Tea— Market. 



I. HISTORY. 



InTROBUCTioN OF T£A~8hrx7B8 FROM Ghika. — The plantation 
of the tea-shruhs in Japan first took place in the year 805 when 
Denkyo Daishi who had crossed over to China for the pui'poee 
of completing his study of Buddhism, came home with some 
tea-shrubs and planted them in a place called Daino-fumoto 
in the province of Omi. In the following year the famous K5b& 
Daishi returned from China also with a supply of tea-plants. In 
addition to this he also brought with him the art, which he had 
learned on the continent, of preparing tea-leaves for the purposes for 
which they are now used. Subsequently in 815 the Imperial 
Court ordered the plantation of tea-shrubs in the provinces 
lound about Kyoto, Tanba and Hariraa and also ordered these 
provinces to send an annual tribute of manufactured leaves to 
the Court. This was the banning of tea planting and manu&c- 
tiiring in Japan. The use of tea as a beverage, dates further 
back, however, by at least 76 years, for the Court calendar of 
those days already makes mention of the celebrated tea-ceremony. 
The latter fact would show that tea was already used at that 
time among the royalty and nobles. On the other hand, the 
Buddhist priests have always made use brewed tea as a necessary 
article of their ritual and it is more than probable that the 
subsequent popular use of this particular kind of beverage originated 
in this religious practice. 

The method of tea making as taught of K5b6 Daishi on 
his Tefeom from Chin^ was to pick the tea twigs and leaves, 
steam them and then pound them with a pestle and mortar^ 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



152 Japan in the Beginnitt^g of the 20th Century, 

afterward making the crushed matter thus obtained into balls^ 
The balls were dried over a fire and then ground into a powder, 
which was thrown into hot water and adrred Up, before it was 
«drunk. That the grinding stones were in use in those days is 
evident from the fact that there is still to be seen among the 
old relics, preserved in the fiCshSjl I'emple it)f Yamato, la set of 
these stones which Kobo- Daishi is said to have brought with 
him from China. 

In subsequent years the Imperial Court encouraged the 
Industry of tea plantation laid out within it-* "forbidden" 
precincts. 

The above facts relate only,' .it -will be ae^n, to tjie.^rliest 
period of tea-making in Japan. For 400 years or so after its 
introduction, the use of tea as. a beverage was confined to lipblef 
4UEi^ to the religious oi-ders. 

Another Buddhist priest named Eisei-Jenshi who returned 
home from China in 1191 brought with him a quantity of seeds 
of tea-plant and planted them on Mt. Sefuri, Chikuzen. He also 
introduced a new mode of curing, that is to say, pan-curing. 
His disciple Meikei took a quantity of the seeds from the Sefuri 
plot and planted them at Togano and Uji, thus laying the 
foundation of the now flourishing tea industry of Uji. 

Tea in Social Etiquette.— -The planting of tea and the 
custom of using this beverage spread apace. The custom wajs 
«till, however, as it was for a long time after its introduction to 
Europe, aristocratic, and was practically confined to the wealthiei: 
•classes and to the priests. In course of time the custom of tea- 
-drinking began to wear an aspect of sometlung like a ceremony, 
jBvith nice and strict canons of etiquette to surround it. It was 
during the time of the Shogun Yoshimitsu of tlie -iVshikaga Regency 
that these canons were nicely elaborated by a man named Shuko, 
and thus the so-called tea-ceremony were first dmwn up in a regular 
form. A special class of persons whose business it was to teach tiie 
details of tliis ceremony next began to make their appearance, and 
these persons, called " masters of tea-ceremony," occupied, an import- 
ant place in the estimation of the public. In fact all matters relating 
to social etiquette. were practically in charge of these "tea-masters," 



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Hld(^ry. \ :- 158 

And every feudal baron kept in his service one or more such 
-"^asters" upon whbm he bestwed a regular salary. Thus the tea- 
^remony finally came to play an important part in society as a re- 
gulator of social etiquette and as a means of promoting friendship. 
A big tea-ceremony meeting was a favorite occasion for bringing 
about meetings and reunions among warriors, courtiers^ and oth^ 
people in the higher ranks of society, and it can not be denied that 
the strict and sometimes graceful rules enforced by the ceremony 
tended very much to. soften the blunt and rough manners of the 
warriors inured to hardships and horrors of battles that occurred 
very frequently during die later period of the Ashikaga Regency. 
Nobunaga who succeeded in suppressing the civil strife and Hide- 
yoshi who rose after Nobunaga were both great patrons of the tea 
cult. No money was spared on the vessels used for the ceremonials^ 
and porcelain bowls and other earthenwares were specially sent for 
to Luzon, Cochin-China, and China. fiideyoshi very often gave 
such vessels to his captains when he wished to reward them for 
distinguished services and these were afterwards preserved as 
valuable heirlooms in the houses of the captains. 

As might have been expected, the tea-ceremony attained great 
popularity on the advent of the Tokugawa Regency, and during the 
period of peace lasting for about three centuries which prevailed 
under that r^me. 

Curing Process. — Only two kinds of tea were in use till 
the time of the Tokugawa, namely the pounded tea and pan-fired 
tea. It was not till 1738 that a new mode of curing tea was 
invented by a manufacturer of Yamashiro named Sannozo Nagatani. 
This mode, called at that time "green-curing," consisted in first 
steaming the leaves, rolling them, and then drying them at a fire^ 
in such a way as to preserve the natural green hue of the leaves. 
This system of curing, a forerunner of the present Uji system, was 
received with favor throughout the tea-producing districts. The 
Gyokuro tea, a modified from of the " groen-cured " tea, was first 
manu&ctured at Uji in 1835. 

It will thus be seen that the original mode of curing tea-leaves 
consisted in steaming them, then pounding them, and finally rolling 
them into balls, after which the pan-firing process came into vogue. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



154 Jaipcai tn </le Beginning of the 20th Century. 

Kext we have the powdered tea method, and then the Uji "green- 
ouring/' and lastly the Gjokuro-tea style. The black tea is the 
latest innovation, dating only about 27 years back« 

First Expot op Japanbbb Tea. — ^Tea was first export- 
ed from Japan about 1750 by some Chinese merchants of Nagasaki. 
The opening of Yokohama and Kobe to foreign commerce inau- 
gurated a new epoch for the export of our tea which found in those 
two new open ports and in Nagasaki r^uler outlet to foreign 
markets. At first our tea went both to England and America, but, 
on the development of the tea industry in Ceylon and India, 
England ceased to patroni^se the Japanese produce, so that from 
about 1871 America has been our principal customer. 

Vicissitudes of the Industry. — Just as in the case of 
silk and other staple export commodities, the history of the export 
of tea is checkered, consisting as it does of ups and downs, the 
production and export of tea of bad quality, the inevitable decline, 
in consequence, of the volume of export, the holding of conferences 
by all those concerned in the industry to make arrangements 
calculated to provide against this evil, and then the creation of 
guilds for the purpose. Further we see the appearance of companies 
formed with the object of undertaking the export of the goods direct 
to foreign consumers and thus dispensing with the services of the 
middle-men, that is of the foreign merchants resident amongst us, 
the invariable collapse of such companies, the dispatches both of the 
Government and by the guilds of a number of experts and merchants 
to Ceylon, China and other places to inspect the condition of the 
tea manafacture and the tea market in those countries. 

The World's Fair at Chicago supplied an important occasion 
for advertising abroad the merit of our leaves, and the strenuous 
efibrts made by our manufiicturers and merchants at that time were 
attended by a satisfactory result. In other words, the popularity of 
what may be called our national beverage in the United States and 
Canada was greatly increased. Meanwhile the arrangements for 
checking the appearance on the market of inferior tea and for the 
direct exportation of tea by our own merchants had been completed. 
These laudable and profitable exertions of our manufacturers and 
merchants were so much appreciated by the Grovemment that in 



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Present CondiHon of the Lidudry, 165 

1897 it granted for the time being a state aid of 70,000 yen a 
jear towards the funds for expanding the foreign market of our tea. 
In compliance with the instruction of the Govemment the Central 
Tea Guild maintains at present branch offices in the United States, 
Canada, Siberia, France etc., and causes them to take charge of the 
business of investigating the state of the market in those places and 
of taking steps to expand the market for the goods. 

DiBECT Export. — ^This aggressive movement on the part of 
our tea*manufacturers and merchants may well be regarded as 
constituting a new epoch in the history of our tea industry, for the 
export business had remained almost excldsively in the hands of 
resident foreigners during the period of over forty years after the 
opening of our country to foreign trade in modem times. These 
merchants re-cured the goods before exporting it, and the men and 
women employed by them both in Yokohama and Kobe in the 
height of the tea season numbered or used to number tens of thousands. 
The re-curing process is now carried on extensively in several tea-pro- 
ducing districts, and the Japanese establishments which are engaged in 
re-curing and in direct exporting now number more than eleven. 

CuRiNQ Machines. — ^The process of re-curing and of manu- 
fiicture has also been considerably simplified by the invention 
of sev^al machine:^, among which may be mentioned those invented 
by Gensaku Harazaki, KenzQ Takabayashi, Hatsutaro Mochizuki, 
Saikichi Kamo, KiichirO Usui, Hatsujir5 Nakatsu and others. The 
tea-manufacturing machines, large and small, nural)er over 1,000> 
and these enable our manufacturers to produce their goods with less 
cost and labor than before. Nor does the Government neglect to 
devise measures for promoting the industry. It has for instance 
created since 1896 an experimental tea manufacturing establishment 
at Nishigahara, where all matters relating to the planting of the 
shrub and the manufacture of tea, as also to the improvement of 
tea-manufaeturing machines are attended to. 



U. PRESENT CONDITION OF THE INDUSTRY. 



Abea uxder Cultivation. — ^As in the case of the mulberry^ 
plant, the cultivation of the tea-plant is carried out on large 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



156 



Japan tn the Beginning- cf the 29th Century. 



Tea fields. * 
cho. 


ea^rown m oincr lan 

(estimates.) 

cho* 


'^^- Total. 
(ho. 


38,810.1 


20,669.0 


59479.1 


38,152.5 


20,739.6 


58,892.1 


37483.3 


21,164-7 


58,648.0 


37,917.5 


19,965.6 


57.883.1 


31,889.5 


17,376.6 


49,266.1 


31,899.2 


16,949.0 


48,848.2 


32,111-5 


16,934.6 


49,046.1 



&rm8 or rather plantations specially devoted to the purpose as 
-well as in spare spaces about homesteads and in other kinds of 
land. The average under cultivation during the last seven' years is 
^ven below. 

Year. 



1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 



Shizuoka heads the list of tea-producing districts in the extent 
of acreage, and contains in fact a little over one-fifih of the whole 
acreage under tea in this country. Then follow Miye, Ibaragi, 
Kyoto, Kumamoto, and Fukuoka. 

Kinds op Tea. — ^Of the different kinds of tea manufactured 
in Japan, the Senrehaj (ordinary green tea) and the Ban-elm surpass 
all the others in output and value, and they i\ve followed in this 
respect by the Oyokuro-t&s^ and black tea. The output of powdered 
tea, Olong tea and brick tea is far below that of those mentioned 
above. The output of powdered tea is particularly conspicuous in 
gradual falling-off. Details as to the output of the different teas are 
as follows: — 

OUTPUT OF TEAS DURING THE LAST lo YEARS. 



V*n»r 


Powdered. 


QyoKuro. 


Sen-eha. 


Black. 


Olong. 


Ban-eha, 


Total. 


zear. 


ifeioam. 


kwam. 


kwam. 


kwanu 


kwam. 


kfcam. 


kwam. 


1893 ... 


.. 6,397 


71,355 


5,129,446 


36,151 


8,540 


2,388,479 


7,640,368 


1894 ... . 


.. 4435 


105,402 


5.144,733 


48,661 


17,244 


2,562,757 


7,883,232 


1895 ... 


.. 5,523 


91.206 


6,077,186 


53,401 


13.556 


2,358,008 


8,598,880 


1896 ... 


.. 4,550 


70,340 


5,974,209 


37,894 


16,848 


2,396.552 


8,500,393 


1897 ... 


.. 4,304 


64,837 


5,999.393 


30,283 


15,880 


2,357.259 


8471,956 


1898 ... 


.. 4,219 


70,586 


5,919,738 


36,069 


18,911 


2.392,195 


8441,718 


1899 ... 


.. 4,239 


91,570 


4,789,164 


33,040 


11,290 


2,589,581 


7,518,884 


1900 ... 


.. 4.325 


81438 


4,895,684 


35,862 


9,365 


2,585,514 


7,612,881 


1901 ... 


... 4,237 


75,494 


4,637,790 


38,310 


21,384 


2,073,282 


6,850497 


1902 ... 


.. 4,210 


6M71 


4,596,265 


30,981 


24,512 


2,066,289 


6,78342s 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



PreaerU Catidition of the Industry, 



157 



The fi^oAiin^tea.is moetly produoed in Kyoto and Niigata, black 
tea in Kmnamoto, and other plaoeB in Kyushu, £<m-{Aa in 
Shizuoka. 

Market. — ^The home consumption of tea comprises the whole 
of. the powdered tea and Gyokuro tea, and some of the Sen-chaf 
Ban-eha, etc. The Sen-cha^ Ban-eha and black tea coDstitute the 
bulk of the teas which go abroad. The United States and Canada 
take most of the teas ship|)ed abroad, while Kussian Siberia takes a 
small quantity of black tea and brick tea. The distribution of our 
teas as to consumption is as follows: — 

EXPORT AND AMOUNT OF CONSUMFITON AT HOME. 





Total output 


Import 


Total 


Export 


Home consump- 




kin. 


kin. 


Hn. 


kin. 


tion kin. 


1893 .. 


' •" 47.752,300 


57,904 


47,810,204 


36443,555 


11.366,649 


1894 .. 


... 40,270,200 


52,186 


49,322,386 


37,453.587 


11,868,799 


1895 .. 


.. 53.743,000 


66,686 


53.809,686 


38,826,661 


14,983025 


1896 .. 


... 53,127456 


97.643 


53,222,099 


33,241472 


19,980.627 


1897 ... 


.. 52,949.725 


119,617 


53.069,342 


32,632,683 


20436,659 


1898 .. 


. ... 52,760,738 


145,953 


52,906,691 


30,826,632 


22,o8o/)59' 


i?99 .. 


. ... 46,993.025 


5«,933 


47,044,958 


34.731.644 


12,313314 


1900 4. 


-.. 47,576,175 


"3 985 


47,690, no 


32,240,147 


15449,963 


1901 .. 


.. 42,879,444 


117,518 


42,996,962 


32,248,471 


10,748491 


1902 .. 


- 42,394.550 


125,396 


42,519,946 


32,759,580 


9,760,366 



It may be noted that the teas imported come almost exclusively 
from China. 

The ratii) of distribution i)er 1000 as fo value of the teas- 
exported was aii follows in 1900: — 



United States 

Canada 

Siberia 

Others 



Green tea. Black tea. 
{Sen-cha and Ban-dka.) 

781 960 

... ... 203 . 4 

— 13 

16 23 



Total 



x.ooo 



1,000 



Prospect of the Industry. — As may be seen from the* 
tables showing the output and the amount of export, the progress 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



158 Japan in the Be^innvig of the 20th Century. 

of the iudostry is not quite satisfactory ; on the contrary there are 
even signs of a decline, principally on account of the increase in 
the cost of production and the appearance of rivals in the foreign 
markets. In some districts the cultivation of tea-plants is being 
superseded by that of other plants, while in some others the cultiva- 
tion of tea-plants is b^inning to become active. Judged from the 
state of affairs, more or less changes may take place in a few 
years in the locale of the tea districts. 

Tlie Government is, as has been pointed out above, doing its 
best to promote the industry, and besides granting a subsidy is 
adopting suitable measures for the improvements of the quality, for 
providing against the deterioration of the tea, and for keeping those 
interested in the industry well-posted with regard to the state of 
markets in foreign countries. The local authorities follow the 
example set by the central Government and are supplementing the 
efforts of tea-growers and manufacturers to push the industry to the 
state of greater prosperity. 



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AgrienUural Experiment StaLUms. 159 



CMAPTER VL— Institutions for Encouraging 
Agriculture* 



i^rioaltnral Experiment Stations— igriealtiiral Institutions— 
Ambnlant Leotnrers on Agrioalture— Serionltnre Institutes- 
Silk Conditioning House— Imperial Establishments of 
Tea Industry— Animal Epidemio Laboratory- 
State Cattie Breeding-Farms— State 
Horse Studs and Depots. 



L AORICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 



General Remarks. — About thirty years ago Japan made a 
first attempt to improve agriculture by scientific methods. For this 
purpose the Government established many experimental farms, and 
started trial work on cattle breeding and various other branches of 
agriculture, at the same time importing from abroad new varieties 
of domestic animals as well as grains, implements etc Most of 
these attempts ended in failure, owing to the fact that there were 
not at that time a sufficient number of trained men to take charge 
of this innovation. 

Those failures, however, were not in vain, for they taught a 
valuable lesson to our authorities and caused them to turn their 
attention to the business of training men qualified to undertake the 
work. By 188G the Department of Agriculture and Commerce 
obtained a sufficient number of the graduates of the then Tokyo 
Agricultural College, and they were m^e to act as pioneers of the new 
movement. These young agriculturists as first addressed themselves 
to the task of carrying out easy and simple experiments with the 
help of farmers. The result obtained was quite satisfactory, and was 
indeed of such description as to deeply impress those farmers with 
the importanee of scientific knowledge of farming, as the three essential 
ingredients of fertilizers, the selection of seeds and so forth. In 



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160 Japan in the Beginning of ike 20M Century, 

1890 this experimental work was elevated to the dignity of a purely 
Govemment enterprise and in consequence an office with experi- 
mental land measuring about four acres attached to it was 
established at Nishigahara near Tokyo. This was the embryo of 
the present Imperial Agricultural Experiment Station. In the- 
course of time the real value of this enterprise began to be fully 
appreciated by. the general public, more especially from those who 
were directly interested in agricultural work. In 1893 an Imperial 
Ordinance relating to the Organization of the Imperial Agricultural 
Experiment Station in Japan was promulgated, and placed this 
institution on a firm basis with all the necessary expenses yearly 
appropriated with the consent of the Imperial Diet. At the same 
time six branch stations were instituted, their sites being selected 
with due regard to climate, soil, etc. In 1896 three more branch 
stations were added to the list, thus bringing the total to ten ; 
namely, one main station and nine branch stations, the latter 
located in the prefectures of Osaka, Miyagi, Ishikawa, Tokushima, 
Hiroshima, Kumamoto, Shimane, Aichi and Akita. 

Those branch stations in the early stage of their existence, had 
to devote themselves mainly to the work of carrying out simple ex- 
periments easily admitting of practical application by our farmers 
whose scientific knowledge on agriculture was yet poor, wliile the 
facilities they had at their disposal of conducting field experiments 
either individually or by combined efforts were practically absent. In 
undertaking such experiments the stations had also an eye to induce* 
the farmers to establish in their own respective districts similar organs 
for promoting the development of agriculture. 

During the last ten years the main and branch stations have- 
attended with greater zeal to this important duty of guiding the farmers 
in the art and science of agriculture. Meanwhile the Government 
elaborated a measure which had a powerful effect of etimulating our 
people towards establishing local experimental stations, for in that 
measure the Government pledged itself to grant every year State aid 
within the limit of 150,000 yen in all. Roused by those circumstances 
most of the prefectures emulated each other in organizing experi- 
mental stations, till at present these number 38 througlit the country. 
The main station was now in the position to make a new departure- 



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Agricultural Experiment Stations. 161 

in the mode of conducting scientific researches and investigations, and 
to attend to it on a larger scale than before. In view thereof, in 
1899 it divided its work into nine sections, viz., agriculture, agri- 
coltoral chemistry^ entomology, vegetable pathology, tobacco culture, 
borticulture, stock-breeding, and report and general affairs. 

In 1903 it was decided to reduce the number of the stations 
maintained by the cen^ral Government and to transfer them to the 
control of the respective prefectures wherein they were located, so 
that those stations may more satisfactorily fulfill the local require- 
ments, while the stations continuing as Government establishments 
may be enabled to concentrate their work of carrying on investiga- 
•tions capable of wider applications than before. In pursuance of this 
decision six branch stations were abolished, or rather transferred to 
the prefectural control in that year, i.e., those in Miyagi, Ishikawa, 
Toknshima, Hiroshima, Shimane and Aichi. Thus at present one 
main station at Nishigahara and three branches in the prefectures of 
Kmnamoto, Osaka and Akita are maintained by the Government. 

The work carried out. — As mentioned in the preceding para- 
graph, the work of the main station is subdivided into nine sections^ 
which attend to the following lines of work : — 

Section of Agriculture: — 

1. Cultivation of crops. 

2. Selection of the different varieties of crops. 

3. Rearing and breeding of agricultural plants. 

4. Researches in vegetable physiology. ' 

5. Researches in the relation between crops and climate, soil and 
manure. 

6. Examination of seeds and plants. 

7. Farm implements and tools, and the amelioration of soil. 

8. Distribution of seeds and seed-plants. 

Section of Agricultural chemistry. — This section is to deal 
with, 

1. Chemical investigations in crops and farm products. 

2. Experiments on manure. 

3. Micro-organisms present in soils and manures. 

4. Agricultural technology. 

6. . Examination of soils and the crops suitable to them. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



162 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

6. Investigating and surveying mineral fertilizer depoBits. 

7. Researches on the productive power of various kinds of soils. 
Section op Entomology :— This deals with, 

1. Treatment of insect pests and utilization of useful insects. 

2. Classification and life history of both injurious and osefid 
insects, and their geographical distribution. 

Section op Veqetable .Pathology :— This section deals with, 

1. Prophylactics and therapeutics of plant diseases caused by 
fungii and bacteria* 

2. Application of pathogenic fungii and bacteria for the 
destruction of injurious insects. 

3. Examination of and experiments on parasiticides. 
Section op Tobacco ; — This section deals with, 

1. Selection and cultivation of tobacco. 

2. Besearches on the relation between the quality of tobacoo and 
climate, soil, fertilizers, etc. 

3. Investigation on the curing, fermentation and preservation of 
tobacco-leaf, and on its manufacture. 

Section op Hobticultube :— This section deals with, 

1. Selection, propagation and cultivation of fruits and vegetables; 

2. Cross-breeding of horticultural plants. 

3. Harvesting and preservation of fruits and vegetables. 

4. Forcing of horticultural plants. 

5. Distribution of seeds and seed-plants. 

Section op Stock-bbeeding : — ^This section deals with^ 
r 1. Researches on natural and cultivated fodder-plants. 

2. Feeding and management of domestic animals. 

3. Zootechnics. 

4. Distribution of seeds of fodder-plants. 

Section op Repobt and Section op Genebal appaibs : — ^These 
two sections deal with matters relating to compilation and publica- 
tion of rc{)orts and library and matters relating to the general 
and financial affairs respectively of the main station. 

Bbanch stations. 'The branch stations attend to one or more 
subjects of technical work. Thus the Kinai Branch situated in 
Osaka prefecture is devoted to agricultural work, the Kyusha 
Branch in Kumamoto prefecture undertakes tlie work relating to 



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Agricultural Experiment StaHans. 168 

entomology and vegetable pathology, and lastly the Biku-u Branch 
fiitaated in Akita prefecture takes charge of the work of stock- 
breeding. At the same time both the main and branch stations 
^rry on the following lines of work: — 

1. Inspection of fertilizers. 

2. Chemical analysis made at the request of the public. 

3. Supervision of experiments entrusted to farmers. 

4. Information given to inquiries coming from the public* 

5. Lectures held at the request of the public. 

6. Besearches on special agricultural problems. 

Principal Essays published in the reports. — ^The prin- 
cipal essays heretofore published in the reports compiled by the 
main station are as follows: — 

I.— CLIMATE, SOIL AND WATER 

1. On the seed-exchange of rice. 

2. On the influence of sun's rays on the growth of rice-plant 

3. Climatological researches on rice-plant. 

4. On the burning of soil. 

5. Advantage of periodic drying of paddy-field. 

6. On the deep cultivation of paddy-field. 

7. On the influence of moisture on the growth of plants. 

8. On the volume of irrigation water required in one tan of 
paddy-field. 

9. Average quantity of water absorbed and evaporated by one 
buDch of the rice-plant during the several stages of its growth. 

10. On the proper time of discharging the irrigation water 
from paddy-field. 

11. On ammonical springs. 

12. On irrigating the paddy-field throughout the winter. 

II. -CULTIVATION. 

1. On selecting the varieties of upland-rice. 

2. On selecting the varieties of rioe-plant. 

3. On the reproductive power of barley and wheat. seed with 
special reference to weight and specific gravity. 



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164 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

4. On seed selection. 

5. On the relation between the reproductive power of the seed* 
of Indian millet and its size and specific weight. 

6. The distribution of larger seeds on the ear of Indian 
millet and its practical application in seed selection. 

7. Relation between the germinative power and the color of 
indigo seed (Indigofera tinctoria, L.). 

8. Eelation between the germinative power and the color 
of "Genge" seed (Astragalus cinicus, L.). 

9. The relative vitality and reproductive power of fresh and 
old rice graind kept in two different places. 

10. On the advantages of the proper selection of seeds with 
regard to the mode of cultivation or manuring. 

11. Reproductive power of rice amk barley in the various 
stages of their ripening. 

12. Tar as prevention of injury on seeds by birds. 

13. On the quantity of seed required in the late sowing of rice. 

14. On Japanese indigo (Polygonum tinctorium, Lout). 

15. On the proper time for sowing barley, wheat and naked 
barley in Japan. 

16. On the proper time of rice-transplantation. 

17. Cultivation of soja bean (Soja hispida, Maxim) as green 
manure. 

18. On the proper time of applying night soil as manure to 
wheat or barley crop in districts subjected to heavy snow&lL 

19. On the development of root. 

20. On cross hybridation. 

21. On the superior varieties of principal crops in .Japan. 

22. On the characteristic qualities of the different varieties of 
Boja beaifs. 

23. Improvements of nursery plot of rice in the north-eastern 
districts of the Main Island. 

24. On the characteristic qualities of the different varieties of 
rice-plant with special reference to mode of transplantation. 

25. Experiments on the number of bunches of rice-plaint in a 
given area of land and the number of plantlets in eacb 
bunch. 



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Agricultural Experiinefvt Statione. 165 

26. On the growth of paddy and upland rioe. 

27. Injurious effect of shaking rice-plant in the flowering 
season. 

28. Injurious effect of steeping rice-plant under water. 

29. Transplantation of sweet potatoe (Iponaea batata, Lam.) 
and the part of the shoots best suited for young sets. 

30. On the direction of ridges for a second crop in paddy-field. 

31. On the characteristic qualities of the different varieties of 
rice-plant. 

1^2. On the valuation and preservation of harvested crops. 
^3. Experiments on the storing of rice grains. 
34. Relation between the quality of rice and its market price. 
3»5. Cultivation of Japanese indigo in the province of Awa. 

36. Cultivation of Mentha (Mentha aroensis, L.) in Yama- 
gata-ken. 

37. Cultivation of hemp (Cannobis sativa, L.) in the province 
of Shimotsuke. 

38. Cultivation and preparation of ginseng (Aralia quinque- 
folia, A. 6r) in the province of Izumo. 

39. On Indigo (Indigofera tinctoria, L.) 

40. Cultivation of " I-gusa " ( Juncus effusus, L.) in Hiroshima- 
ken and Okayama-ken. 

41. Apple plantation in Awomori-ken. 

42. Cultivation and preparation of hemp in Hiroshima-ken. 

IIL— MANURE, CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND AGRICULTURAL 

TECHNOLOGY. 

1. Analysis of the principal commercial manures. 

2. On the effect of different nitrogeous manures. 

3. Analysis of leguminous plants used for green manuring. 

4. Phosphatic manures and their relative efficiency. 

5. On the application of phosphatic manures on different kinds 
of soils. 

6. On the absorption of nitrogen phosphoric, acid and potash 
by wheat and barley in the various stages of their growth. 

7. On the absorption of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash 
by rice-plant in the various stages of its growth. 



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166 Japan in the Beginning of the 2Qth Century. 

8. On the importance of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potask 
to various agricultural crops. 

9. On the effect of nitrogen on rice- plant grown in different 
kinds of soils. 

10. On the manurial value of Chili saltpeter and the injurious 
action of perchlorate contained in it. 

11. On the natural resources of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and 
potash. 

12. On the influence of the three manurial ingredients on the 
quality of rice grains. 

13. On the official methods of agricultural chemical analysis. 

14. On the relative proportion of carbohydrates in the difierent 
varieties of sweet- potato. 

15. On the composition of tobacco-leaves attacked by mosaic 
disease. 

16. Proportion of indigo present in the indigo plantlets in the 
different stages of growth in nursery-beds. 

17. Non-albuminoid nitrogenous compounds contained in tobacco- 
leaves grown in the province of Awa. 

18. On the methods of determining the specific weight of seeds 
by a pycnometer and a common balance. 

19. On the preparation of hemp fibre. 

20. Sweet potato as material for extracting alcohol. 

21. Investigation on Japanese indigo. 

22. Chemical analysis during the germination of rice grains. 

23. On the relation between the quality and composition of 
soja beans. 

IV.— INSECTS INJURIOUS TO FARM CROPS. 

1. Distinction between " Nika-Meichu " (Jathesia chrysogra- 
phella, Merro) and ** Sanka-Meichu " (Schacuobuis bipuncti- 
fer, Wk.) 

2. Some egg-parasitic Hymenoptera found in Japan. 

3. Lantern flies and leaf-hoppers of the rice-plant found in Japan. 

4. Report on the remedy and prevention of Sanka-Meichu " in 
Tokushima-ken, 1899. 

5. Japanese Benthredimidae. 



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Agricultural Expeinment SicUions. 167 

6. A trap-lantern with potassium cyanide can. 

7. On the proper period of cutting rice stalks injured bj insects^ 
as stalk-borers (Sathesia chrysoguaphella, Morre.) 

8. On the relation between the injury of " Nika-Meichu " and 
rice-plants as to the kinds to be selected and the mode of 
their cultivation. 

9. Habit and life history of injurious insects. 

10. Effect of heat on the larvae of " Nika-Meichu." 

11. On steeping in hot water the rice-straw inflicted with the 
larvae of " Nika-Meichu " with the object of destroying them. 

12. Experiments on destroying " Sanka-Meichi." 

13. Effect of heat on the injurious insects infecting stored grains. 

14. Destructive power of oils against ''Unka" (Gassidae and 
Fulgoridae.) 

15. Effect of insecticides on the rice-plants. 

16. Destruction of ** Ine-Awomushi '* (Naranga difusa, WKK.) 

17. On the concentration and permiability of oils used as in- 
secticides. 

18. On the number of eggs laid on a leaf of rice-plant and 

those contained in the abdomen of a moth caught by a 
trap-lantern. 

19. The period of the flight of " Nika-Meichu." 

?0. Researchee on '' Nika'Meichu " damage inflicted on a late 
variety of rice-plant at Nishigahara, 1900. 

21. On the larvae of "Nika-Meichu" escaping from rice- 
straw. 

22. On the hibernation of larvae of Nika-Meichu " in graminae 
plants other than the rice-plants. 

23. Besearches on the food-plants of "Nika-Meichu" other 
than the rice-plants. 

24. On the number of larvae of "Nika-Meichu" remaining 
in the stump of rice-plant. 

25. On the parts of the rice-stalk most infested by the larvae 
of "Nika-Meichu." 

26. Experiments on the alcoholic extract of pyrethrum (Kento- 
yeki) against " Kakushoku-chingo " (Scotinophora vermic- 
ulata, Aard.) 



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J 



168 Japan in the Beginning oj the 2Qik Century. 

27. Insecticides far '* Saruharaushi " (Phoe<Jon iucertum, Boly.) 

28. Experi merits on the destruction of scale insects. 

29. "Korogi" (true cricket, Gryllodes Chinensis, Web.) and 
'* Einma-KOrogi " (a cricket, Loi^oUlemmus haanii, Sauss). 

30. About the hibernation of " Sanka-Meichu." 

31. "Kiri-uji" (Tipula parva, Loew.), of the rice-plant. 

. V.^PLAN-DISEASES. 

1. Prevention of the stinking smut of wheat (Tilletia triticay 
Winter, and T. laevis, Kiihn.) 

2. Prevention of the smut of wheat (Urocyslis occulta, Rabb.) 

3. Prevention of the smut of millet (Ustilago panici miliacei, 
(Pers), Winter.) 

4. On the relation between the sowing period of barley and 
the injury caused by "Shimasusuki " (Helmint hosporiumfl 
gramineum, Rabb.) 

5. Prevention of the damping-off of the egg-plant. 

6. " Kingai '' (Sclerotinia trifoliorum, Fricks) of ** Genge " 
plant. 

7. "Tachigarfi" (Ophioblus graminis, Sacs) of barley, naked 
barley and wheat. 

8. "Hagar^" (Helminthosporiura oxyzae, Miyabe et Hori) of 
rice-plant. 

9. Potato-rot in Nagano-ken (Phytophthora infestans, De Bary,) 

10. White root-rot of grape and mulberry plantations. 

11. A red fungus disease of scale insect (Aspidiotus perniciosus, 
var. albopunctatas ?) 

12. ** Imochi " (Piricularia grisea (Cook) Sacc ) of rice-plant. 

13. Smut of barley, naked barley, wheat, ete. 

14. " Bakanari " (Fusarium heterosporium, Nees.) of rice-plant. 

15. Influence of copj^er sulphate on the growth of plants. 

16. "Imochi" of rice-plants in 8an-in districts. 

VI. -TOBACCO CULTURE. 

1. On the cultivation of tobacco. 

2. On the curing of yellow tobacco-leaf. 



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Ijoeal Agricultural Experinient Farms. 169 

3. Oa the varieties of tobacco most suitable for yellow tobacco* 

4. On the sauces for flavoring tobacco. 

5. On the nursery bed under cover. 

6. On the drying of Japanese tobacco-leaf in flue curing barn. 

7. On Turkbh tobacco. 

8. On cigar leaves. 

9. Fertilizer experiments on tobacco. 



I. LOCAL AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT FARMS. 



The Farms Maintained by Pbefectural Offices.— Apart 
from the Imperial Experiment Stations above mentioned there are 
local experiment stations maintained at the local expense and chiefly 
devoted to the work of practical application and of model-farming. 

There are 40 such stations throughout the country, with an 
outlay of about 403,335 yen altogether, or an average of about 
100,000 yen. At each of the stations a number of experts are on 
duty, being under the control of the respective local Governors and 
subject to the supervision of the Minister of Agriculture and Com- 
merce. These farms are not maintained entirely at the local expense, 
for the Government, with the object of securing the greater efficiency 
of the service, established in 1897 the provision of granting a certain 
rate of State aid within the limit of not more than 150,000 yen 
altogether every year. 

The Farmsa maintained by Sub-Prefectural Offices. — 
Besides, there are experimental stations maintained by sub-prefectural 
districts, where simple experiments and the work of model- farmings 
are conducted. There are also lesser experimental stations established 
by towns or village3 or by a body of farmers' sons. The experimental 
stations established by the sub-prefectural districts number 110 in all. 



IL— LOCAL AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTES. 



The local agricultural institutes are maintained by the local 
treasuries and subject to the supervision of the Minister of Agriculture 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



170 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

and Commerce. The object of these institutes is to impart to farmers' 
sons and to farming people generally some elementary knowledgs on the 
general principles of agriculture, surveying, meteorology, physics, 
chemistry, natural history, veterinary science, farriery, etc. The 
institutes are also entitled to a share of the 150,000 yen fund mentioned 
above. 

At present these establishments exist only in five places, Miye, 
Aichi, Miyazaki, Aomori and Hokkaido, and these are turning oat 
every year from 30 to several hundred graduates, who are to play an 
important part in the interests of local agriculture. 



III. AMBULANT LECTURERS ON AGRICULTURE. 



Lecturers on agriculture are appointed in local or sub-local 
districts to deliver lectures relating to farming and to answer all 
inquiries addressed to them on the same subject by farmers in the 
district. They must besides attend to the experimental farming 
carried on at the public expenses, to the local agricultural shows, 
and to other such matters. These lecturers have done much to increase 
the knowledge, practical and scientific, of our farmers. There 
are altogether 310 such lecturers throughout the country, according 
to the latest returns. 



Y. SERICULTURE INSTITUTES. 



Imperial Institutes.— In view of the important part played 
by sericulture in the economy of the country and therefore of 
the necessity of adopting measures for promoting its interest, the 
Oovemment attended to this business as early as 1874. Meanwhile 
febrine, that dreadful disease of the silkworm that had inflicted such 
terrible injury on the sericultural industry of France and Italy, 
began to make its appearance. Forc^ by the necessity of doing 
something to check such wholesale destruction, the Government 
established in Tokyo in April of 1884 the Silkworm Disease 
Laboratory. The result of the experiments there conducted was 
the adoption of Pasteur's method of " grainage oellulaire." Up to 



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Sericulture InstUiUes. 171 

1886 experiments not only on febrine but also on flacherie and mus« 
cardine were continued, and the reports embodying the results 
were distributed among all the parties concerned. In the same 
year, and as a result of those experiments the Government issued 
Rules for the Inspection of Silkworm Eggs. This legislation 
necessitated the training of men able to conduct the work of in- 
spection. In 1887 a number of students were collected from all 
parts of the country and were admitted to the sericultural ex- 
perimental laboratory established at Nishigahara, Kitatoshima, Tokyo, 
to receive instruction on the diseases of silkworm and on other 
important matters relating to sericulture. The scope of the teach- 
ing was expanded three years later and the standard of the instruc- 
tion given was raised. Till 1895 the Laboratory conducted 
experiments on sericulture, distributed the reports compiled by 
it and also distributed eggs of such varieties of worms as were 
judged best. At the same time the Laboratory attended to the work 
of turning out experts on sericulture. Coming to 1896, the scope 
of the business was expanded with the consent of the Imperial Diet 
which advised the Grovernment to establish sericultural schools of 
larger scope and better organization both at Tokyo and Kyoto. Thus 
in March of the same year the former sericultural Laboratory was 
superseded by a sericultural school in Tokyo, while, coming to 1889, 
another institute was started at Kinukasa-mura, Kadono-gaii, Kyoto-fii. 
The two institutes have to take charge of the following matters : — 

1. Instruction in sericulture. 

2. Experiments and investigations in sericulture. 

3. Lecture on sericulture. 

4. Distribution of silkworm eggs. 

5. The answering of queries. 

The courses are of two kinds, main course and special course. 
In the former which extends over two years, the students are taught 
the scientific principles and practices of sericulture, while in the 
other course which lasts for only five months the students are instruct^ 
ed chiefly in the practical side and in the elementary principles of 
this important art. The number of graduates thus far number 1078 

Further, there were 49 men who in 1888, were granted licenses 
to undertake the examination of silkworm 6ggs' to supplement the 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



172 Japan in the Beginning of the 2Qih Century, 

staff of inspectors for the better enforcement of the Rules for the 
Inspection of Silkworm Eggs, while from 1901 a special course was 
<;reated at the two sericultural institutes above mentioned for the 
benefit of experienced sericulturi;5ts who wished to acquire some 
knowledge of the diseases of silkworm. The number of students at 
this course are : — 



1901 

1902 

1903 

Total 134 130 



okyo. 


Kyoto. 


40 


40 


43 


40 


51 


50 



LOCAL SERICULTURE INSTITUTES. 



With the sudden rise in the prosperity of the sericultural 
industry soon after the Restoration, people from those places where 
the industry had just been started flocked to Nagano, Fukushima, 
Gumma and other districts where sericulture had been carried on 
from former times, in order to obtain some knowledge on the 
subject. The result was that several experts in those sericultural 
districts combined together and established institutes with the 
object of more conveniently imparting the necessary knowledge to 
the aspirants. The most notable of such private institutes were 
the Kakeda Institute in Fukushima-ken, the Takayama Institute in 
Oumma-ken, and the KyDshinsha Institute in Saitama. But the 
training given at those places confined itself almost exclusively to 
the practical side of the industry. This lack of any scientific side 
in this system of training stood very much in the way of those 
graduates from keeping up with the new requirements of the 
times. 

A regular system of sericultural education soon began to be 
provided in many parts, either as a special course in agricultural 
schools or as the only course in special sericultural schools or 
Institutes, maintained either out of the public funds or by private 



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State Silk' Conditioning House, 173 

bodies. The sericultural institutes that now exist number 125 
altogether. 

Y. STATE 8ILK-C0MDITI0MIN0 HOUSE. 



It was suggested long ago in some quarters that as a means of 
promoting the export of our silk a regular silk-conditioning 
house should be established to undertake the weighing of net and 
condition weight of silk and determine its quality. More than 
once the matter received the serious attention of both the public 
and Government, but it was not till 1894 that the arrangements for 
the establishment of such an institution were finally made and that 
two silk-conditioning houses were opened, one at Yokohama and the 
other at Kobe, the former in August of 1896 and the latter in 
June of the same year. Unfortunately the Kobe establisment had 
to close its doors in April of 1901, owing to the fact that it had 
not sufficient business to justify its existence. 

On the other hand the business at the Yokohama establishment 
grew more and more active with the lapse of time, and to-day it is 
universally regarded as an important organ of our silk industry. 
Hie work undertaken at this establishment covers the following 
subjects: — 

1. To determine the net weight of silk. 

2. To determine the condition weight of silk. 

3. To examine the number of breakages by means of re- 
reeling the silk and to determine the rate of such break- 
ages per reel. 

4. To examine the size of the filaments and to determine their 
relative uniformity. 

5. To examine the relative number of flues and slufis in the 
filaments. 

6. To determine the elasticity and tenacity of the filaments. 

7. To examine the relative quantities of gummy substances 
present in the filaments and to determine the relative de- 
crease in the quantity incidental to boiling-off. 

Of the foregoing seven items the most important are the first 
four, although the House is prepared to go through all the seven 



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174 Japan in the Beginning of the 2Qth Century. 

stages of examination at the re(][aest of applicants. Most of the ap- 
plications made at present are in connection with the determination 
of condition weight, the next greater number of applications relate 
to breakages and to the size, after which come the applications 
about elasticity, tenacity, and the presence of flues and sluffii. Ap- 
plications about net weight and boiling-ofl* are extremely rare. The 
number of examinations conducted at the House since its inception 

are as follows : — 

1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 
year. year. year. year. year. year. year. 

Gross Weight — 18 I 68 42 2 161 

Net Weight 221 178 232 737 4,007 18,236 38,751 

Determination of Grade .. 968 2,431 4,636 8,469 7,079 15003 28,749 

Softening Diminution •••47 16 15 7 21 2 4 



Total 1,236 2,643 4>884 9,281 11,189 33»244 67,665 

Note : — Examinations coming under Nos. 3. 4. 5. 6, in the preceding seven items were 
all included in the foregoing table in the column of " determination of grade." 

The reason why the number of applications relating to the de- 
termination of net weight showed a sudden increase from 1900, the 
year of the enforcement of the revised treaty, was due to the fact 
that our silk merchants, desirous of removing various abuses that 
bad previously existed in the business carried on between them and 
foreign exporters, had concluded with the latter a special arrange- 
ment by which the latter were entitled to demand a certain fixed 
rate of damages, in case the rate of humidity of the silk exceeded 
the prescribed limit 

At first the House was not quite prepared to meet with the 
sudden increase in the number of applications that resulted; but 
owing to the necessary expansion made in 1901 in the scope of its 
arrangement, to-day it is ready to undertake with promptitude all 
such applications, so that both in the scope of the work it does and 
in its efficiency, the House can at present bear comparison with its 
foreign compeers. 

¥L IMPERIAL ESTABLISHMENT OF TEA INDUSTRY. 



Placed under the control of the Bureau of Agriculture, the Im- 
perial Establishment of Tea Industry at Nishigahara in Kitatoshima 



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Animal Epidemic Laboraiary^ 175 

district, undertakes all the work relating to the cultivation of the 
tea-plant, the modes of curing the leaves and the improvement thereof, 
and the answering of all inquires coming from general tea man- 
n&ctures and dealers. Finally, the establishment carries out inquiriee 
into the state of the tea industry and market at home and abroad. 
It was established in 1896. 



VIL ANIMAL EPIDEMIC LABORATORY. 



Japan has often been subject to one^or other kind of epidemic, 
as is shown by the almost constant outbreaks of anthrax that take 
place in the Kyushu and Kinai districts where almost every year 
hundreds of cattle and horses fall victims to that disease. Serious 
loss has frequently been sustained by our stock farmers owing to the 
introduction of rinderpest from the continent, while glanders, farcy, 
rauschbrand, moonblindness, chicken cholera are diseases from which 
our stock farmers and poultry are suffering. It was to provide 
against such calamity that in 1891 the Bureau of Agaculture of 
the Department of Agriculture and Commerce established the Anima- 
Epidemic Laboratory with the object of ascertaining the best prel 
ventive measures to be taken, the work as conducted thus far by the 
Laboratory having been very beneficial. We may briefly describe it 
as follows, reserving further details for a ^ture occasion. Its object, 
then, is to carry out: — 

1. Experiments with tuberculine in cases of tuberculosis in 
cattle. 

2. Experiments on Mr. CSiarvaux's anti-anthrax inoculation. 

3. Experiments on the connection of fowl's blood with anthrax. 

4. Experiments with r^ard to injections made in the case of 
milk cows when they are suffering from tuberculosis and 
with regard to the feeding of such cows. 

5. Experiments to determine the part played by ordinary flies 
and horse-flies as media in the sprea^l of cattle epidemic. 

6. Experiments with r^ard to the cultivation of the germs 
of true farcy and glanders and experiments on inocula- 
tion with these wnns. 



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17€ Japan in the Beginning of the 2Qih Century* 

7. Experiments on Mallein injections. 

8. Experiments on the effect of silver nitrate and solution of 
percMoride of iron in cases of fowl diphtheria. 

9. Experiments on blood-serum injection as preventive against 
chicken cholera. 

10. Investigation with regard to preventive remedies and blood- 
serum treatment in the case of rinderpest. 

11. Experiments in which immunity firom anthrax has been 
effected by means of a certain disease germ. 

12. Experiments on blood-serum treatment as a preventive of 
anthrax. 

13. Practical application of the result of Dr. Mereskkowskj'^'s 
investigations on the subject of getting rid of rodents by 
means of typhus germs. 

14. Experiments on the duration of the efficacy of tuberculin. 

15. Experiments on the period of preparing blood-serum for 
use in case of anthrax. 

16. Experiments on the duration of efficacy of blood-serum 
treatment as preventive against anthrax. 

17. Investigation into the effective composition of tuberculin, 

18. Experiments on the anti-rauschbrand inoculation. 

19. Experiments on blood-serum treatment as preventive against 
rauschbrand. 



VIII. IMPEKAL CATTLE BREEDING FARM* 



General Remarks. — Japanese cattle being of inferior quality^ 
impure in breed, and therefore coming far below those of the West 
whether for meat or for milk, the necessity for improving the breed 
has long been felt, especially in view of the marked advance that haa 
taken place recently in the volume of consumption of milk and meat 
in our country. The birth-rate too of cattle does not even keep pace 
with the rate of slaughter. However the question of improving the 
breed having been regarded as one of greater urgency than that oT 
increasing the birth-rate, and as the importation of costly foreign 
cattle can hardly be undertaken by private individuals or even by 



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Imperial Cattle Breeding Fami. 177 

communal bodies, the Government was obliged to start on its own 
account number of years ago the Shimosa Breeding Pasture and 
ttndertook the business of improving the breed of cattle and horses 
by hiring out for breeding purpose cattle and horses imported from 
abroad. Unfortunately, to the keen regret of all concerned, this 
pasture was abolished not long after. The necessity for re-opening a 
similar pasture was soon felt by the public, and petitions were sent 
by our stock farmers to the authorities asking for the restoration of 
former arrangement. At last the matter was taken up by the Im- 
perial Diet, which passed a representation urging the resumption of 
measures for improving the breed of cattle and horses. The sug- 
gestion was adopted by the Government, and in 1900 the official 
organization relating to state cattle breeding pasture was enacted and 
the Nanatsukahara Cattle Breeding Pasture, the 1st station of this 
kind, was established in May of the same year at Yamauchi Higashi- 
mura, Hiba-g5ri, Hiroshima-ken. At the same time a special com- 
mission was appointed entrusted with the work of drawing up a 
programme of improvements that might be made and of advising the 
Department of Agriculture and Commerce on all matters relating to 
such improvements. The Commission was composed of officials of the 
Department, Professors of the Collie of Agriculture of the Imperial 
Tokyo University and other experts. 

Purchase of Breeding Cattle. — In the 1900 fiscal year an 
expert was dispatched abroad to making purchase of cattle and swine 
for breeding purposes. At the same time Japanese cows were bought 
in the same way for breeding purposes in the provinces of Hironhima 
and Tottori. This purchase both of foreign and domestic cattle was 
repeated in the following year so that altogether the purchases made 
during the two years numbered as follows: — 



Breed. 


Sex* 






1900. 


1901. 


Total 


Ayrshire 


Cows 


... 


... ,,, 


... 9 


II 


20 


y* 


Bolls 


... 


— 


- 3 


2 


5 


Sunmentbal 


Cows 


... 


... ... 


- 7 


8 


15 


99 


Bolls 


.-,. 


... ... 


--. 3 


2 


5 


Natire Cattle 


Cows 


••• 





... 16 


5 


2f 


f» f» 


Bolls 


... 


... ^ 


... — 




— 


Total 


/Cows 
'Balk 


... 


••• ... 


::• i 


24 

4 


56 
10 



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178 Japan in the Beginiung of the 20th Century, 

Work. — The work undertaken by the State Pasture includes 
the investigation of all questions 

1. Relating to the improvement of the breed and to the 
breeding and rearing of cattle. 

2. Matters relating to the distribution and wider diffusion of 
breeding cattle. 

3. Matters relating to the control of breeding cattle distributed. 

4. Matters relating to the calves from cows paired with breed- 
ing bulls. 

Number of Breeding Cattle. — ^The number of cattle used 
for breeding was as follows at the end of March, 1902 : — 

T«.««-*^ Native Bom on tlie t^* oi 
Imported. ^^^ p^^^^^ Total. 

20 — lO 30 

5 — 7 " 

... ^ ... 14 — 6 20 

5 — 6 II 

— 21 I 22 

— — — 4 

... *~~ — 4 4 

— — 4 4 

34 21 21 76 

10 — 17 27 

Pairing and Breeding. — The pairing is mostly done in the 
opriiig, and the birth-rate is 7 J to 10 in the case of Ayrshires, 6 
in the case of Simnientlials, and 5.55 in that of native cattle. 

In October of 1901, rules were drawn up to regulate the leasing 
out for breeding purpose of the bulls kept in the Pasture, the bulls 
to be paired of course with the proper kind of cows. 

Milk and Butter. — ^The milk supplied by the cows kept 
in the Pasture is used for feeding the calves bora on the P:isture, 
the remainder being used for making butter, which, however, does 
not exceed 100 pounds a month at present. Whatever milk remains 
is sold direct to dairy-men. 

Swine. — ^The improvement in the breed of svrine is also attend- 
ed to at the Pasture, swines for breeding purposes being imported. 



Breed. 


Sex. 


Ayrshire 


Cows 


n 


Bulls 


Simmenthal 


Cows 


i> 


Bulls 


Native 


Cows 


>f 


Bulls 


Half-breed 


Cows 


*t 


Bulls 


Total 


/Cows 
\ Bulls 



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Imperial Sorse Studs and DepoUy, 179 

At the end of May, 1902, the number of swine at the Pasture was 
as follows : — 

Imported. Native. 
••• ••• 4 "^ 

I — ^ 

2 — 

••• ■•• * "■"• 

6 - 

3 — 

14 — 

••• ••• / ^^ 

Sale of Breeding Swine. — For the purpose of encouraging 
-the improvement of the breed of swine the Pasture sold during the 
1901 fiscal year 36 swine, 18 sows and 18 boars. 



Breed. 


Sex. 


Large Yorkshire 


Sows 


n f> 


Boars 


Middle „ 


Sows 


» » 


Boars 


SmaU „ 


Sows 


» » 


Boars 


Berkshire 


Sows 


ff 


Boars 


Total. 


J Sows 
\ Boars 



Bom on the 
Pasture. 


Tota 


3 


7 


4 


6 


2 


4 


I 


2 


3 


5 


2 


3 


«4 


20 


12 


15 


— 


•• 


22 
19 


36 

36 



IX. IMPERIAL HORSE STUDS AND DEPOTS. 



History. — ^The breeding of horses being rightly regarded as 
of vital importance to the prosperity and strength of the country, 
the Grovernment commenced early in the Meiji era to improve the 
breed of horses by importing stallions for that purpose. The result was 
not wholly satisfactory owing to mistakes in the selection of breeds, 
and also in the pairing. But the interest of the country did not 
allow this business to be left neglected and the Grovernment, warn- 
ed by its past failures, decided to carry out thorough preliminary 
investigations as to the best w^ay of dealing with this important 
matter, and to appoint a Special Commission for that purpose. At 
last in July of 1895 a Commission was appointed, and this 
Commission, as a result of investigations extending till 1897, 
submitted a report representing among other things the necessity of 
establishing horse studs and depots. This representation was approved 
of by the Government. It also obtained the consent of the Imperial 
Diet. Based on the inquiries carried out by experts dispatched to 
all the important horse breeding districts in the country, tlie 

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180. Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

programme proposed the establishment of two studs and 10 depot&- 
and their completion in about seven years. 

In June of 1896 the official arrangements for the establishment 
of state horse studs and depots were completed, and two studs and 
three depots were established. At the same time inspectors and other 
official? to take charge of the breeding business were appointed, and" 
a few years after the Horse Section was created in the Bureau of 
Agriculture. 

The improvement programme aims at completing the arrange- 
ments at the two studs and of increasing the number of depots to 
the prescribed limits, so that 10 per cent, of the breeding stallions 
required throughout the country may be supplied at those stations. 
The authorities are also contemplating the enforcement of castration 
in order to complete the improvement of the breeding programme. 

Work. — The work to be undertaken at the Stud*^ and Depots 
is regulated as follows: — 

A. The Studs are to deal with all 

1. Matters relating to the improvement of the breed of hoi"J<e» 
and all experiments in connection with their breeding and 
rearing. 

2. Matters relating to the supplementing and distribution of 
breeding stallions. 

B. The Depots are to deal with all 

1. Matters relating to the breeding of breeding stallions. 

2. Matters relating to the breeding stallions. 

3. Matters relating to the control of private breeding stallions. 

4. Matters relating to the colts born of mares paired with 
breeding stallions. 

Number of Studs and Depots. — At present two studs and 
nine depots exist. Of the two studs one is located in Aomori-ken 
and the other in Kagoshima-ken. A depot is located in the prefec- 
tures of Iwate, Kumamoto, Miyagi, Akita, Fuku.shima, Miyazaki,. 
Shimane, Aichi, and Ishikawa. 

Purchase of Breeding Horses. — Not lesj* than two ex- 
perts are dispatched abroad every year to effect the purchase of 
breeding horses. These numbered as follows up to the 1901 fiscal 
year. 



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Imperial Home Studs a>id Depots. 
NUMBER OF BREEDING HORSES PURCHASED ABROAD. 



181 



Breed. 
I*ure Arabs 
Arabs 

Pure Anglo- Arabs 
Trotters 
Thoroughbreds 
Anglo- Arabs 
Hackneys 



Sex. 

{Mares ... 
Stallions 

j Mares ... 
\ Stallions 

f Mares 
\ Stallions 

( Mares ... 
\ Stallions 

{Mares ... 
Stallions 

(Mares ... 
\ Stallions 

/Mares ... 
\ Stallions 



Total. 

... 5 
... 7 

... 6 
... 3 

... 9 

... II 

... 5 

... lo 

... 3 

... 3 

2 

... 4 

... 4 



77 



Besides the above, a large number of breeding horses were 
purchased at home, as follows : — 



Mares 
Stallions . 



191 

283 

474 



Pairing. — The depots undertake the pairing of the stallions 
kept therein with mares belonging to private individuals. This was 
done previously free of charge, but a small fee has been charged 
since the 1902 fiscal year for pairing with superior stallions, 
mostly of imported breeds, owing to the feet that too many appli- 
cations for pairing had been sent in. The necessary permisBion 
being of course only given to mares properly qualified, the colts 
horn of the mares by the stallions kept at the Depats are much 
better than those generally produced. 

The object of the Studs is to keep marcs and stallions and to 
supply superior stallions for the Depots, but as these Depots 
have not yet come up to the prescribed num!)er, the stallions kept 
at the Studs are allowed to pair to some extent with mares of 
private people. This pairing was therefore started in the same fiscal 
year, a fee being charged, as in the ca.se of the Depots. 



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182 Japan in the Beginnings of the 20th Century. 

The number of pairings carried out at the Studs and Depot* 
during the five years ended 1901 is as follows : — 

Stallions used for pairing ... 454 

Numbers of mares paired 9,806 

It may he noted that at the Studs the pairing with mares kept 
by private people was started from 1899. 

Colts. — ^The colts born of mares paired with the stallions kept 
at the Pastures and Studs are as follows : — 



Year. 


Foreign 


Breed. 


Half Breed. 


Native Breed. 


Total. 


Stallions. 


Mares. 


Stallions. 


Mares. 


Stallions. Mares. 


Stallions. Mares. 


1897 


.. ••'. — 


-» 


6* 


3* 


6* 


4* 


12* 


7* 


1898... ., 


.. ...{ f 


2* 

2 


10* 
41 


13* 
45 


27 


2* 
29 


13* 

71 


17* 
76 


1899... .. 


- -IS 


I* 


23* 


25* 


7* 


6* 


34* 


3»* 


— 


72 


80 


71 


58 


143 


138 




( 1* 
I — 


6* 


29* 


21* 


5* 


6* 


3** 


31* 


1900 ••• .. 


I 


138 


140 


209 


200 


347 


34« 




f 8* 

1 2- 


8* 


47* 


44* 


,_ 





55* 


r 


1901 ... . 


I 


238 


245 


320 


336 


560 



Notes : — The figures marked with an asterisk denote the colts bom of mares kept at 
the Studs, the rest being bom of mares kept by private people. 

NuidBER OF Horses. — The number of horses at the Studs and 
Depots at the end of the 1901 fiscal year were : — 





Foreign 


Breed. 


Half Breed and 
Native Breed. 


Farm Horses. 


Total. 


Stallions. 


Mares. 


Stallions. Mares. 


Stallions. Mares. 


Stallions. ^ 


lares. 


O-u Stud ... .. 


. 24 


45 


37 134 


17 


— 


78 


179 


Kyushu Stud 


. II 


14 


33 98 


16 


— 


60 


112 


Iwate Depot 


4 


— . 


62 — 


4 


.■— 


70 


— 


Kumamoto Depot 


2 


— 


27 — 


7 


— 


36 


— r 


Miyagi Depot 


. 4 


— 


29 — 


4 


— 


37 


— > 


Akita Depot 


3 


— 


23 — 


2 


— 


28 





Fukushima Depot 


2 


— 


25 - 


2 


— . 


29 


-» 


Miyazaki Depot .. 


3 


— 


24 — 


— 


— 


27 





Shimane Depot .. 


. — 


— 


16 - 


— 


— . 


16 





Aichi Depot 


. -- 


— 


16 — 


— 


— 


16 


— 



Total 53 59 291 232 52 — 397 291 

Note : — Besides the above O-u and Kyushu Studs had each 1 1 farm cattle and the 
Kumamoto Depot 2 farm cattle. 



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Imperial Hone Studs and Depots, 183 

Other Aqbicultural Organizations. — The organizations 
described thus far belong either to the Government or to civic 
carporations. There are other organizations established under 
law by bodies of farmers, such as agricultural societies, industrial 
guilds, guilds relating to farming, tea guilds, cattle and horse guilds, 
and others. These will be described under the chapter of agricul- 
tural l^islation to be given later on. 



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184 Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Century, 

CHAPTER VH— Stock-Breeding. 



History and Existing Condition-<Kind of Breed 
and Nnmber of Live-Stock. 



I. HISTORY. 



Horned Cattle. — Scientific men agree that the horned 
cattle in Japan must have been introduced from foreign countries. 
Presuming this theory to be correct, the introduction must have 
taken place in some remdte pre-historic period, for even in the very 
earliest authentic record, we find many references about the rearing 
and utilization of cattle. What is specially worth mentioning is 
the fact that the slaughter of cattle both for food and for sacrifice 
was an ordinary occurrence in ancient times, so that it was not 
until after the introduction of Buddhism that the slaughter was 
forbidden under a severe penalty. The use of milk and even of 
butter was also known, and remained in vogue down to the period 
of the Kestoration. These two articles, were, it should be noted, 
used as a sort of drug. Official pastures were established as early 
as the reign of the Emperor Ankan (534-*35 A.D.), while in the 
time of the Emperor Junna (824-*32) cattle could be used instead 
of currency in the payment of taxes. On the whole, however, 
cattle were almost solely used till the Restoration as beasts of 
burden and employed very little for other purposes. 

The most noted cattle-rearing centres during the Tokugawa 
Regency were Tamba, Tango, Tajima, Inaba, Hski, Oki, Izumo, 
Mimasaku, Bitchu, Bizen, Bingo, lyo, Hizen, Higo, Iki, Hyuga, 
Osumi, etc. The inspection of horned cattle and horses was officially 
conducted there every spring. 

Official Encouragement of Cattle-breeding. — Coming to 
the new regime we find that 15 foreign cattle were purchased at 
Yokohama from a certain English merchant in 1869. This purchase 



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Hidory. 185 

may be regarded as the first step in the work of improving cattle- 
breeding in Japan, as it was certainly the first time that such a 
purchase was made. The Government did spare neither money nor 
pains in encouraging the development of the industry, and till 1882 
the total sum of the loans advanced to cattle-breeders by way of 
encouraging the industry amounted to over 125,000 yen. At the 
same time, in order to show the public a model method of breed- 
ing, the Home Ofiice established a pasture at ShimOsa. For use at 
this Shimdsa Stud a large number of horses and sheep were 
imported, and were either hired out or sold for breeding purpose. 
Till 1885 when the Stud was transferred to the Imperial Household 
Department the number of cattle purchased for it totaled 175 bulls 
and 126 cows mostly of mixed breed. Then 126 bulls or cows 
were hired out and 44 others were sold. 

The abolition of this Stud as a Oovemment undertaking ten ed 
very much to arrest the progress of stock breeding, but the ill 
effects of this step were counteracted when coming to 1900, the 
Government established a stud in Hiroshima-ken, as was described 
at greater length under the heading of State Breeding-Farms. 

The Horse. — ^The horse appears to have been indigenous to Japan ; 
at least its use for military purposes was known as far back as our 
authentic hL^story goes. The present to the Japanese Court of several 
horses by a kiug of Kudara (part of Korea) in the 47th year of the 
Regency of the Empress Jing5 (247 A.D.) was perhaps the first 
nstance borne out by authentic record, of the introduction of horsesi 
of foreign breed into Japan. A similar present was repeated sub- 
sequently by one or other of the rulers ef the three independent 
Kingdoms of Korea, as the peninsula was then divided. Meanwhile 
the Court paid much attention to the rearing of hurses, and in the 
reign of the Emperor Daigo (898-'93) we find that an Imperial 
mew was established to take charge of this business. Of a large 
number of pastures existing throughout the country 39 were brought 
under official protection, and of that number 32 existing in Musashi, 
Kai, Shinano and Kozuke were set apart for the use of the Court 
No olden records about pastures in the north-eastern districts of Hon- 
shu are to be found, owing to the fact that these districts had not 
then been completely brought under the rule of the central Govern- 

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186 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century. 

ment. The breeding, however, must have been equally prosperous 
there as in Kai and Shinano. 

With what special importance horses were formerly regarded- 
may be easily seen when it is remembered that they were often 
given as presents when the donors wished to manifest unusual 
respect. For instance history records the present of horses by 
Yoritomo to the ex-Empress Goshirakawa, and the same chief of 
the Genji clan also offered 1,000 horses to the Todaiji Temple on a 
certain occasion. These facts also serve to prove that the business 
of horses rearing must have been extensively carried on in the 
Kwanto districts, that is, the provinces lying round about the 
present Tokyo, for Yoritomo had his vice-regal residence at 
Kamakura. The transfer of the vice-regal seat to Kyoto in the 
time of the Ashikaga Regency very much affected the prosperity of 
the horses breeding industry in these eastern provinces. 

Importation of Foreign Horses in Early Days. — Mean- 
while as the result of establishment, on a limited scale it is true, 
of commercial relation between Japan and some of the European 
countries, foreign horses were frequently brought into our country 
either as presents by the foreign merchants or at the order of one 
or order of the various departments of Government in Japan. Perhaps 
the present of a number of Arabian horses by some Italian and 
Portuguese during the Tembun era (1534-1564) was the first occasion 
on which horses were brought from such a great distance into the 
country. Such importation of foreign horses was especially frequent 
during the Tokugawa Regency. For instance, during the time of the 
eighth Bhogun the Eegency purchased 28 stallions and mares of 
Persian breed, and distributed them for purpose of breeding among 
Koganegahara of Shimosa, Mineoka of Awa, Sannohe of Mutsu and 
others, at each of which places an important pasture existed. The 
present of 11 stallions and 15 mares of Arabian breed by Napoleon 
in in 1867 in return for the present of silkworm eggs made to the 
French Court by the Shogunate may also be mentioned here. Nothing 
in particular is known about what has become of those horses. 

The Regency possessed 20 pastures of its own, among which 
those at Kogane, Sakura, Mineoka, and Ashitaka were most import- 
ant. Among the feudal princes, those of Nambu, Sendai, Miharu, 



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History, 187 

and Kagoshima paid special attention to the business of horse-rearing, 
and some of them imported Persian or Java horses for improving the 
breed in their own dominions. 

Encouragement by the Imperial Government. — ^The Restor- 
ation was a turning, point in the activity of this industry as it was 
in all the other branches of public activity. In 1871 an American 
expert was engaged and given charge of the stock and general farm- 
ing, and at the same time two Japanese officials were dispatched to 
America to study the condition of horse-breeding and the various 
agricultural industries there. A stud was soon established at Koraaba 
and a depot at Shinjuku, both in the suburbs of Tokyo ; and then 
another depot was established at Katori, Shimosa, where two foreigners 
were employed. This was soon combined with the sheep pasture that 
had existed in another part of the same province. Finally, as already 
mentioned, the Shimosa stud was transferred to the Imperial House- 
hold. A portion of the pasture was leased by the Department 
of Agriculture and CJommerce and the breeding work was attend- 
ed on a limited scale. Even this lasted for only a few years, and 
with the repeal of all the rules relating to the hiring out of 
breeding bulls and horses, the Government stock-breeding enterprise 
was entirely suspended. 

The breeding horses imported by the Government from 1877 to 
1903 are as follows:— 

Stallion. Mares. Total. 



Trotter 


30 


23 


S3 


Perchelon 


3 


2 


5 


Clydesdale 


I 


I 


2 


Australian 


I 


— 


I 


Hungarian 


7 


2 


9 


Arabs 


.. ... 9 


12 


21 


Anglo-Arabs 


15 


II 


26 


Thoroughbred . 


5 


5 


10 


Hackney 


12 


17 


29 



In Hokkaido especially while the old Board of Colonization 
existed, special attention was devoted to encouraging stock-breeding 
besides encouraging general agricultural work. Mr. Horace Capron 

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188 Japan in the Beginning of the 20^ Century. 

and two other American experts were engaged to take charge of 
the business. About 19 horses of Trotter breed and 8 of Perchelon 
breed were imported. The present activity of horse-breeding in the 
celebrated Niikappu Horse Stud, now belonging to the Court, was a 
result of the assiduous care which the Hokkaidp Board at first ex- 
tended to stock-breeding. 

The Army, again, undertook a similar enterprise on its own 
account, and by importing a large number of Arabs, Trotters, etc. 
hired them to the breeders with the object of improving the native 
breed. 

Nor did general breeders care less about their business, on the 
contrary they also imported foreign breeding horses to a greater or 
less extent, the breeds selected for the purpose being Hungarian^ 
Australians, Algerian, Anglo-Norman, Anglo-xlrabian ; but the retufns 
as to the number thus imported are unknown. 

For particulars about the revived interest taken by the Govern-, 
ment and general public in horse-breeding, our readers are referred 
to the chapter on State Breeding-Farms given in the preceding section 
of this work. 

Sheep. — Sheep did not originally exist in Japan, and indeed 
it was as late as 1817, that the sheep-rearing was first undertaken 
in this country, a number of sheep having been imported in that 
year from China to Yedo. They were kept at the botanical garden 
in Sugamo, a suburb of Yedo. The wool obtained from those sheep 
was woven into carpets, and the Government of Yedo was able for 
the first time to supply itself with home-made carpets, the goods 
having always come previously from China and Korea. About 
forty years after, at the request of the magistrate of Hakodate, forty 
sheep were sent to be reared there. 

The history of sheep-rearing after the Restoration is practically 
identical with that of cattle-rearing or horse-rearing. It is enough, 
to state here that from the beginning of sheep-rearing in 1874 and 
the transfer of the Shimosa Stud to the Imperial Household 
Department, 5,250 sheep w^ere imported, the number of lambs 
they gave birth being 10,335. The Stud hired out 2,228 and 
sold 2,334. 

So far the business of sheep-rearing by Government has general- 



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Ij been a failure, and it is only at the Imperial Household Stud 
at Shimosa, the pasture belonging to the Sapporo Agricultural 
College, the Hokkaid5 Stud, and private pastures in Nagasaki and 
Aomori that the rearing is continued to some extent. However 
there is no valid reason why this particular branch of stock-breeding 
should not succeed in Japan. Indeed the result obtained at the 
Shimosa Stud and in the provinces of Nagasaki and Aomori tends 
to prove the possibility of sheep-rearing being carried to success. It 
was evidently from this consideration that the proprietors of the 
Koiwai Pasture, Iwate-ken, opened in 1901 this business of sheep- 
rearing by specially importimg for that purpose some dozens of 
Shropshires from England. 

Swine. — Judging from the ancient records that the surname Ikai 
(swine-herd) was given to certain individuals in the reign of the 
Emperor Ank5 (454-'56 A. D.), the rearing of swine must have 
been carried on in Japan from remote antiquity, the beast having 
probably been imported from either China or Korea. The prohibi- 
tion of the slaughter of swine for food on account of religious pre- 
judices was a death-blow to the breeding of this beast for 
slaughter, for we find that business soon dii^appeared from 
Japan. However, towards the beginning of the Tokugawtv 
Regency, some people of Nagasaki got a pair of swine on one 
occasion from Chinese traders, and this led to the rearing of the 
beast being revived to some limited extent in Kyushu. But it was 
in Okinawa that the business attained its greatest pro8i)erity, owing 
partly, perhapcs, to the fact that the people there very much 
resembled the Chinese in manners and customs. Even to-day 
Okinawa, except Formosa, shows the best record in swine-breeding 
of all Japan. 

After the Restoration the rearing of swine was conducted as a 
subsidiary industry to that of cattle, horses and otlier domestic 
animals, and when in 1900 a Government cattle depot was estab- 
lished, the business of swine-breeding was made subordinate to it. 
Ten pigs of Berkshire breed and 12 Yorkshires were imported from 
England. At the same time the growing den^and for pork, both 
in fresh or cured form, has very much encoursiged the breeding of 
this beast for slaughter among the people. 



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190 Japan in the Beginning of the 20fh Century, 

IL KIND OF BREED AND NUMBER OF LIYE-STOCK. 



HORNED CATTLE-— Strictly speaking there was only one 
original breed of cattle in Japan, chiefly because no care was taken 
in artificial selection. Indeed there was no need of any artificial 
selection inasmuch as cattle were practically intended for the single 
purpose of serving as beast of burden. In this respect our cattle excel- 
lently served the purpose, being hardy and strong. But the neglect of 
care in breeding left its mark in the somewhat deformed appearance of 
our cattle, for though sufficiently well-shaped in the forward half 
they are rather ill-formed in the hind quarters. The hilly nature 
of the country had also no doubt something to do with this peculi- 
arity in the shape of our cattle. 

Native Varieties. — ^Though our original cattle are practi- 
cally uniform in breed, they still admit of being broadly sub- 
divided into two or three varieties, principally by color. One 
of them is black with small white spots on the belly, the 
second is brown, while the third is brindled with black and 
white spots. The black breed, which, by the way, is most 
valued by our people, predominates in the north-eastern districts and 
the middle section of Honshu, as also in Shikoku and Kyushu ; the 
brindled variety • is found in Oki and Hirado and other islands, 
while the brown breed is generally found in the other parts of 
Kyushu. Of the three the brindled cattle very much resembles in 
appearances to the Dutch cattle, and probably this variety may be 
the descendants of foreign cattle imported at some unknown time 
into Japan. They also possess comparatively well formed heads. 
The brown variety apparently came, originally, from Korea. 

Foreign Breeds. — The breeding cattle imported since the 
Restoration from Europe and America must number over 10,000. 
In breed they were mostly Short-horns, Devons, Ayrshires, and 
Dutch. The number of breeding cattle during the last few years is 
shoAvn below : — 
Year. 

1898... . 

1899... 

1900... , 

1901... . 

1902... , 



Native 


Foreign 


Mixed 


Tntal 


Breed. 


Breed. 


Breed. 


lUlcU. 


1,669 


525 


431 


2,625 


1,684 


575 


533 


2,792 


1,680 


5H 


692 


2,886 


1,805 


489 


811 


3,^05 


1,804 


815 


561 


3,810 



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Kind of Breed and Number of Live^Stock. 



191 



Birth-rates. — ^In 1900 Shimane with 313 headed the list, fol- 
lowed next by Tottori, Okayama, and Hiroshima over 200 each, 
after which came Hyogo, Kagoshima, Yamaguchi, Pukuoka, and 
Nagasaki. 

The birth-rates in a year are as follows, according to the latest 
available returns : — 



Native Breed 

Foreign Breed 

Mixed Breed 


Cows. 

. ... 63,917 
. ... 2,507 
. ... 15,525 


Bulls. 

55,829 

1,859 

12,183 


Total. 

119,746 

4,366 

27,708 



Total 



81,949 



69,871 



151,820 



In Hiroshima, Shimane and Okayama the births reach every 
year over 10,000 each, while in Hyogo, Tottori, Kagoshima, Oita, 
Kumamoto, and Ehime the number exceed 5,000 each. 

Number of Cattle. — Lastly the existing number of cattle is 
as follows : — 



Year. 


Native 
Breed. 


Mixed 
Breed. 


Foreign 
Breed. 


Total. 


1893 


1,050,969 


44,980 


9,252 , 


1,105,201 


1894 


.. ... 1,033,384 


47,701 


10,284 


1,091,369 


1S95 


1,068,016 


55,769 


12,493 


1,136,278 


1896 


1,066,126 


69.898 


13,737 


1,149,761 


1897 


1,127,730 


70,639 


15,794 


1,214,163 


1S98 


1,135,968 


79,157 


15,351 


1,230,476 


1899 


1,139,466 


95,924 


14,475 


1,252,865 


1900 


1,127,016 


115,021 


19,177 


1,261,214 


1901 


1,148,202 


114,333 


19,806 


1,282,341 



At the end of 1900 Okayama and Hiroshima with over 90,000 
each came at the head of the list, followed by Nagasaki, Hyogo, 
Kagoshima, Shimane, Yamaguchi, Oita and Kumamoto with 80,000 
to 50,000 each. On the other hand Ibaragi, Saitama, Tochigi and 
Toyama had each less than 1,000, Ibaragi with less than 500 com- 
ing at the bottom of the list. 

THE HOESE* — ^It is not possible to determine the origi- 
nal breed of horses in Japan. However, a breed of small 
pony found in Oki, Shikoku, Iki, Okinawa, Awaji, and a part of 



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192 Japan in Hie Beginning of the 2(Hh Century. 

K3rushu and Hokkaid5 is regarded as original variety by some 
experts. Certainly this breed seems to be the oldest variety in 
Japan. It is characterized by hardihood, by comparatively great 
strength and by enduring power. 

Original Breed. — However, the original breed or what is 
generally understood to be such in Honshu is larger in shape, mea- 
suring 4^ to 4.8 ahaku in stature, and with a constitution and cast 
of head distinct from the smaller breed mentioned above. If there- 
fore the latter should be regarded as the real original variety the 
other may be a mixed breed between it and an imported variety. 

Import of Foreign Breeds in Early Days. — As to the 
kinds of foreign horses that were imported into Japan in olden 
days, the horses that were brought from Korea in ancient time 
belonged to the Mongolian breed while those that came in Japan 
during the Tokugawa Shogunate were horses of Persian breed. The 
former mostly produced horses of heavy type and the latter horses 
of light type. These two different types can be distinctly seen to- 
day among our horses, the horses produced at Nambu and Akita 
belonging to the heavier type and those at Sendai, jNliharu and 
Kagoshima belonging to the lighter variety. 

Native Varieties. — A brief description of those different 
varieties is given below. 

a, Nambu Horses. — Florses produced at Aomori and Iwate 
are the largest of all in Japan (larger horses measuring 
over 5 shaku), have broad chests, strong bones and joints, 
and are mild in disposition, and possessed of great power 
of endurances. Horses of lighter type are used as mounts 
and those of heavier build as draught horses. 

b, Akita Horsks. — Produced at Akita-ken, they are some- 
what inferior in build to the former with more or less 
defect in the proportion of the different parts of the bo<ly ; 
have heavy head and long trunk, and are ratlier dull. 

c, Sendai Horses. — The type of horse, bred at Miyagi-ken, 
is more slight in form than the Nambu horse. It has also 
a deep chest, a sloping hip, a small ^lea^l, big sharp eyes, 
a long weak neck, and slender bones. Ihe blood of the 
Persian horses imiwrted by a feudal prince of Sendai ahout 



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Kind of Breed and Number of Live- Stock. 



198 



3 centuries ago evidently runs in the veins of these horses, 
but, owing to the greater intermixtures of the foreign breeds 
that has recently taken place, the original characteristics 
are gradually being obliterated. 

d, MiHARU HOR8BB. — ^Produced at Fukushima-ken they are 
mettlesome and hence better fitted for mounts than the 
three preceding breeds. They have thin skin, small heads, 
large eyes, and somewhat long neck. The chest and fore- 
legs are strong, and the horses can raise their forelegs with 
great dexterity. They are not fitted for heavy work. These 
horses have also got some foreign blood in them. 

e. Kagoshima horses. — Produced at Kagoshima, they are 
quick and mettlesome and even prove intractable, have 
small heads, large eyes, and short bodies with level tail. 
They are mostly used are mounts. 

Besides the above varieties, horses more or less different in type 
are also produced at KumamOto, Miyazaki, Kochi, Yamagata, Nagano, 
Ishikawa, Aichi, Gifu, Ibaraki, Tochigi and Hokkaido, but it may be 
broadly stated that the build is generally heavier as we go toward 
the north and lighter in districts situated in the opix)site direction. 

Import of Foreign Horses recently. — ^The import of a large 
number of foreign stud horses by the Court, Government and 
people since the Restoration has very much improved the type of 
our horses, which have gradually began to assume a noble cast of 
&ce and to acquire nimbleness, making them well suited for mounts. 
The foreign horses imported mostly belong to American, Hungarian 
and Algerian breeds, next to which come Arabian, Anglo-Arabian, 
and Hackney breeds. There are also Thoroughbreds, and Australians 
while a few are of Anglo-Norman, Clydesdale and Turkish breeds. 

Number of Horsbs. — The existing number of horses in Japan 
is shown below : — 



Year. 

1S98 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 



Native 
Breed. 


Mixed 
Breed. 


Foreign 
Breed. 


Total. 


1,555405 


3M88 


804 


^587,697 


1,504,243 


41,767 


749 


1,546,759 


1,484,824 


56,048 


1,107 


1,541,979 


1,461416 


70,198 


1,559 


x,533,i73 


1,434,831 


78,805 


1,737 


1,515,373 



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194 Japan in ike Beginning of the 20M Century. 

In 1900 KagoBhima with about 115,000 headed the list followed 
by Kumamoto with 106,000, and Iwate with 95,000. Pukushima, 
Hokkaid5, Miyazaki, Aomori, Akita, Miyagi, Nagano, Ibaraki, 
Tochigi, and Oita with 50,000 to 87,000 came next. 

Number op Stud-stallionb. — ^The number of stud-stalliona is 
as follows : — 

Year. 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

At the end of 1901 Fukushima, Iwate, Aomori, and Kagoshima 
possessed over 500 stallions each, while Hokkaid5, Miyagi, Akita, 
Kumamoto, Miyazaki, Nagano and Okinawa possessed over 100. 
Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Nara, Miye, Shiga, Yamaguchi, Wakayama, 
Tokushima and Kagawa occupied the other extreme. 

Birth-rates of Horses. — According to the latest returns avail- 
able, the births during the last three years were as follows : — 



Native 
Breed. 


Mixed 
Breed. 


Foreign 
Breed. 


Total. 


4,397 


i,3»7 


80 


5,794 


4,200 


1,610 


104 


5,914 


3,616 


1,769 


141 


5,526 


3,183 


2,251 


171 


5,605 


2,790 


2,649 


198 


5,637 



Native Mixed Foreign 

Breed. Breed. Breed. 



Total. 



1900 91,641 12,834 107 104,582 

1901 85,879 15,307 129 101,315 

1902 83,558 17,172 166 100,896 

Fukushima and Kagoshima had over 10,000 births each, followed 
by Iwate, Aomori, Akita, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, and HokkaidG. 

Sheep and Goats. — ^The sheep numbering over 1,200 that were 
imported from China in 1876 comprised about 800 of Mongolian 
breed and about 400 of Shanghai breed (originally produced at the 
north-eastern districts of China), but they never throve, and generally 
died of some disease or other. The breed of sheep sent for America 
by the ShimOsa Pasture mostly consisted of Costswold, Merino, and 
South-downs. At present there are found only about 2,500 sheep of 
foreign breed in Japan, they being Merinos, Southdowns (also South- 
•downs interbred with other varieties), and Shroj>8hires. 



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Regider. 195 

The goats found in Japan are very rarely of pure blood ; most 
of them, especially those for milk, have more or less of the blood 
of^the Bear or Thibetan breed. Only in Okinawa do we find breed 
whose flesh is used for food. This breed originally came from 
China. 

Okinawa possesses the largest number of sleep of all the places 
in Japan, the number reaching over 50,000. Then follows Kago- 
shima with 67,000 approximately, followed by Nagasaki with about 
3,000. The number is extremely small in other districts. The total 
is as follows : — 

Ewes, 42,126. Ram, 17,788. Total 69,914. 

Swine. — ^Two native breeds may be regarded as existing, name- 
ly the Yato breed and Okinawa breed. The foreign breed very rare- 
ly remains pure, except a number of Berkshires and Yorkshires 
imported by the Grovernment a few years ago. The Berkshires, 
Porland-China, Chester White and others imported from America 
more than ten years ago have generally degenerated. Such being the 
case it is not easy to draw any distinct line of demarkation between 
native and foreign breeds, so that the two terms as applied to swine 
are at best very arbitrary. Here is a statement as to the number : — 

Native Breed 149)995 

Mixed „ 28,079 

Foreign „ 3,102 



Total 181,176 

Okinawa contains about 57 per cent, of the whole number, its 
returns standing at 103,000. Kagoshima with about 37,000 follows 
it, and then come Chiba and Nagasaki. In many other places the 
number falls below 1,000. 



III. REGISTER. 



The only thing worth mentioning about the register of pedigrees 
of cattle and horses in former time was the fact that in the '' Middle 

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196 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

die Ages" a strict regulation was enforced about making burnt- 
mark on horses, with the object of providing against the tricks of 
dishonest dealers. At present no regulation exists about the pedigree 
of horses or cattle, and the matters are left to the discretion of the 
people. 

lY. SLAUGHTER. 



The custom of eating the flesh of animals having been forbid- 
den in former times from religious motives, it was only among the 
class of social outcasts called eta (corresponding to pariah) that the 
custom of eating flesh existed to some extent. The discontinuation 
of this custom subsequent to the Restoration brought about a revolu- 
tion in the butcher business. At the end of 1900 the number of 
slaughter-houses existed was 1,396 throughout the country. Subjoined 
is a statement of the slaughter returns : — 

Year. Cattle. Horses. Sheep. Swine. 



1893 ■.. 


104,772 


30,990 


— 


— 


1894 ... 


149,677 


31,459 


1,404 


30,404 


1895 -.. 


160,456 


36,026 


4,664 


41,419 


1896 ... 


151,959 


44,825 


4,058 


38,637 


1897 ... 


158,504 


41,049 


6,805 


107,034 


1898 ... 


167,985 


41,478 


8,388 


108,217 


1899 ... 


208,877 


47,150 


7,755 


89,219 


1900 ... 


233,385 


53,531 


8,329 


93,904 


I90I ... 


199,655 


45,442 


7,873 


106,808 


1902 ... 


206,030 


47,875 


7,125 
BEASTS. 


124,263 




Y. DISEASES OF DOMESTIC 





Origin of the Diseases. — No data being available about 
the diseases of live-stock in former times, the present paragrapli gives 
only a brief outline of those diseases as they have appeared since the 
Restoration. 

Most of those diseases originally came from the Asiatic conti- 
nent and therefore first made their appearai;ice in districts regularly 
connected by trade with one place or other on the continent. At 
present the diseases more or less present a local character. For 



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Diseases of Domestic Beards, 



197 



instance farcy and glanders generally prevail in the north-eastern 
parts of Honshu, anthrax in Kyushu and the districts round about 
Osaka and Tokyo, rauschbrand in Hyogo, Tottori, Okayama, Yama- 
guchi, etc., rabies in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Yamaguchi and Kyushu. 

The first case of the appearance of rinderpest was in 1872, 
the second twenty years after, while it was in 1900 that foot-and- 
mouth disease first came from Shanghai and wrought serious damage 
among the milch cows of Tokyo, Kyoto, Kanagawa, Hyogo, and 
Ishikawa. Other kinds of diseases are comparatively insignificant. 
Here are two tables showing the diseases record: — 

TABLE NO. I. 
Rinderpest. Anthrax. Glanders and Farcy. 



5 






1892.., 
1893-. 
1894. 
1895... 
1896.. 

1897.. 
1898.. 
1899- 

1900.. 
I90I.. 
1902.. 



I 

1897 
1898 
1899 

1900 
I90I 
1902 
Note 



U Q 00 



3,863 796 

5,031 666 

251 57 

1,483 258 

969 139 

6,190 508 



191 
103 



9 
8 

13 



3»552 
4,7" 
243 
1,308 
1,298 
6,722 



669 
314 
153 



1,061 
581 
442 
377 
545 
573 
534 
609 
856 
542 
599 



I 

90s 
498 
418 
322 
504 
481 
496 

545 
829 
512 
528 



m 

I 

5 
7 
7 



> 

§ 

3« 

27 
6 

24 
22 

42 
30 
64 
18 
22 
24 



S 

2 



I I 



2,164 

1,604 

1,458 

1,332 

1,537 

1,899 

2,227 

1,770 

782 

442 

530 



63 

51 
39 
54 
76 

47 



SI 

53 
61 
46 
26 

51 
80 



96 61 

100 9Z 

74 47 

18 22 

27 17 



TABLE NO. 2. 



Rauschbrand. 

""TTT 
II J| 

O Q c/3 P^ 
18 17 — — 

63 52 — I 
60 ' 63 2 I 

97 95 — — 
76 74 I I 



Pseudo-Farcy. Foot & Mouth Disease. Rabies. 



I I 



b 
I 



61 — — 



- 64 

— 120 



I § 

22 33 



237 2 

689 11 33 568 2,322 30 1,950 247 146 96 

899 19 z^ 679 627 52 564 189 61 128 

- 95 95 — -- i»»7o 34 106 i/>37 522 13 509 107 31 76 
; — ^Rauschbrand was separated from anthrax from 1897, they having been mixed 

together formerly; pseudo-farcy was included in glanders and farcy till 189^ 

while rabies was first included in 1897 in the list of diseases prevalent among 

domestic beasts. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



198 Japan in die Beginning of the 20^ Century. 

YL VETERINARY SURGEONS AND FARRIER& 



Surgery.— Before the Restoration the so-called veterinary 
surgeons were horse and cattle dealers who, besides dealing in these 
beasts, used to periodically apply needle treatment and other simple 
methods to the beasts. They were of course up to the trick of cheat- 
ing in transaction of beasts just as practised by horse-dealers of other 
countries. The engagement early in the era of a French military 
veterinary surgeon by the Army was the first step taken by the 
Government for the introduction into this country of the science and 
practices of the Western veterinary surgery. By the subsequent 
establishment of schools of agriculture by the Government and also 
by local offices this branch of medicine has been reduced to a reg- 
ular system. Till 1886, there were about 6,000 men who were al- 
lowed to practise the art in virtue of their previous experience, but 
the grant of licenses to men of this class was discontinued in 1890 
and from that time onward licenses have been granted only on those 
who have passed the regular examination or have graduated from 
the veterinary course at Grovernment or public schools, or at private 
schools of officially approved standing, either Japanese or foreign 
At the end of 1900, 2,645 people had regular licenses and 1,713^ 
provisional licenses. 

Farriery. — ^The practice of shoeing horses was formerly 
unknown in Japan ; it was introduced from the West together with 
the science of veterinary. The regular examination exists, as in the 
case of veterinary surgeons, for giving licenses to farriers, and thi» 
license is granted to those who have passed the examination or have 
graduated from the course of veterinary surgery or farriery at 
Government or public schools or at private schools of officially 
approved standing whether at home or abroad, and also to those 
who possess the regular license of a veterinary surgeon. At the end 
of 1900, 2,948 men possessed regular licenses and 730 men provi- 
sional licenses. 

It ought to be added that in places where the number of veteri- 
nary surgeons or farriers is insufficient the Minbter of Agriculture 
and Commerce may grant, on recommendation of the local Governors, 
the provisional license valid for a limited number of years to those 



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Use of Live-^Stoek. 199 

who are judged to possess sufficient experience cither as veterinary 
gurgeona or aa ferriers. 

YIL USE OF LIYE STOCK. 



Cattle is still principally reared for purposes of tillage and 
for getting manure, and it was only recently that the rearing of 
them for their milk and their meat was commenced. The number 
of sheep reared being still small, wool for weaving is imported in a 
large quantity from foreign countries, while sheep as mutton princi- 
pally come from Shanghai, the yearly importation being about 1,000* 
Swine is alao insufficient in number to supply briatles for manufact' 
uring purposes, and these are imported from abroad. 



Ym. DAIST-FABMIHG AHD VEAT-PBESEBYHa 



The industiy is still in a comparatively primitive condition and 
can hardly supply the growing demand at home. At the end of 
1900 there were 23,931 milch cows in Japan, bat the milk they 
produce is almost entirely used while fresh. The bulk of the pr^ 
served meat consumed in the country may be said to be imported* 
Subjoined are two tables giving a statement of the volume of output 
of dairy prodacta and preserved meat at the end of 1901. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS. 

Butter. Cheese. Coodemed Milk. 




Ontpct. 


Valoe. 


Ontpot. 


Value. 


OotpoL. 


Valfle. 


i»r. 


ym. 


km. 


ym 


kin. 


ym. 


3J62 


M49 


^ 




— 


— 


«5 


16 


— 


— 


70^S49 


54017 


aoo 


90 


—^ 


'-^ > 


U^ 


«J«> 


— 




— 


— 


Uf^AV 


iS,i6o 


■i357 


l,i« 


1,500 


750 


4^29 


95S 


3^607 


454 




'- 


— 


— 


3A39 


4r573 


— 


— 


— - 


■^ 


JOO 


160 


— 


— 


i*5/»i 


^.3^ 


5^ 


535 


— 


— 


— 


— 


t^A> 


M»6 


— 


— 


— 


— ' 


_ 


^^ 


.. 


.— 


■7» 


39 


— 


» 


'—. 


— 


«3-7*« 


234^ 


'-^ > 


— 


— 


— 


i^ 


$* 


3» 


Vo 


— 


"^ 


^^ 


*"^ 



Tolad _ — .- I4J«5 »,7^ 1,500 73^ 4>4^<H »»5.7^ 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



200 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Century. 





MEAT-PRESERVING. 










Ham. Bacon. 


Salt Meat 


Timied Meat. 




Output. Value. Output 


. Value. 


Output. 


. Value. 


Output 


:. Value 


Hokkaido .. 


62 18 4 


I 


30 


6 


— 


— 


Tokyo ... . 


.. — — — 


— 


— 


— 


61,000 


11,800 


Kyoto ... . 


.. ^ — — 


— 


22,961 


5,281 


— 


— 


Osaka 


.. — — — 


— 


— 


— 


42,000 


7,560 


Kanagawa .. 


• 7^58 1,192 2,500 


320 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Hyogo 


1,500 660 50 


15 


— 


— 


10486 


2,306 


Nagasaki 


. 70,300 3,ioi 81,000 


19,400 


5,500 


1,240 


1,325 


495 


Niigata 


. — — — 


— 


— 


— 


4,000 


400 


Miye 


.. — — — 


— • 


— 


— 


112 


175 


Chiba ... . 


— — — 


— 


12,500 


2,000 


— 


— 


Aichi ... . 


.. — — ~ 


— 


— 


— 


1,484 


489 


Shizuoka 


.. — — — 


— 


— 


— 


1,937 


340 


Gifu 


.. — — — 


— 


— 


— 


3,820 


1,194 


Yamagata . 


.. — — — 


— 


— 


— 


1,112 


444 


Akita 


,. _ — — 


— 


— 


-- 


4,800 


768 


Shimane 


— — . — 


— 


— 


— 


7,853 


2,989 


Okayama .. 


— — — 


— 


— 


— 


147.970 


27,434 


Hiroshima ., 


— — — 


— 


— 


— . 


1,218,453 


216,131 


Yamagucbi .. 


— - 1,325 


636 


375 


75 


12,881 


2,146 


Ebime 


— — — 


— 


— 


— 


65,000 


12,155 


Oita 


,. — — — 


— 


— 


— 


14,625 


18,281 


Kumanioto . 


.. — — — 


— 


— 


— 


22,331 


2,836 


Kagosbima .. 


— — — 


— 


— 


2,512 


1,875 


480 



Total ... 79,320 22,972 84,879 20,412 65,366 11,115 1,623,064,328,323 



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History and Existing Condition. 201 

CHAPTER Vni-Poultiy^ 



History and Existing Condition— Bpaeds and Namber— Eggs. 



L HISTORY AND EXISTING CONDITION. 



Poultry in Japan principally comprises hens and cocks, with 
ducksy geese, and turkies coming next, but at a great distance. The 
only fact known about poultry in former times was that besides 
being used for the flesh, cocks were reared for cock-fighting. 

Coming to recent times we may mention the engagement of a 
Chinese expert about 1876 by the Bureau of Agriculture in order 
to teach a number of persons concerned in the art of artificial 
incubation of fowls and ducks. Pamphlets were distributed all over 
the country by the authorities with regard to this method of incubation 
and also with regard to keeping fowls generally. Meanwhile the 
public began to take a great interest in the business, and at one 
time the importation of foreign breeds became highly fashionable. 
However as the business was conducted in a somewhat speculative 
manner it soon sufiered a collapse. At present the business is not 
so popular as it was once, but at least it rests on a sounder basis. 
The reproductive powers of fowls too are considerably better than 
they were before, and a considerable improvement in the breeds has 
been effected. An increasing dendand on eggs has recently arisen 
and the import of a large quantity of cheaper Chinese eggs is seriously 
affecting the prosperity of the Japanese poultry business. As a 
subsidiary enterprise of the farmers the business does not yet occupy 
a position of any great importance. 



II. BREEDS AND NUMBER. 



Before the importation of foreign breeds commenced, the original 
fiirm-fowls consisted of four or five varieties among which may 

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202 



Japan in Hhe Beginning of the 2(Hh Century. 



be mentioned a dwarfish kind called Chabo, a longtailed fowl, a 
fighting cock also reared for its flesh. There were also two kinds 
of foreign breeds that had been imported during the Tokugawa 
epoch. Subsequently specimens of almost all the noted foreign breeds 
have been brought in but their descendants are now rarely of pure 
breed. 

There are only two breeds of ducks, one being the " white-necked " 
and the other " green-necked." Gtoose and turkey are not yet reared 
to any large quantity, they being mostly intended for use of foreign 
residents. At the end of 1901 the poultry returns stood thus: — 



Barn-fowls 
Ducks ... 
Turkeys ... 
Geese 



Number. 


Value. 


10,847,853 


3,43«,56i 


257,796 


I2«,438 


2,021 


3,189 


9,169 


7,109 



Ul. EGGS. 



The eggs produced at home are &r from supplying home demand, 
in consequence of which the quantity of Chinese eggs coming in is 
steadily on the increase. Subjoined are figures showing the quantity 
produced at home and of the import from China. 





OUT-PUT AT HOME. 




Number. 


Barn-fowls ... 


533,406,628 


Ducks 


7,823,734 


Turkeys 


65,996 


Geese 


327,716 




IMPORT FROM CHINA 


Year. 


Number. 


1898 


46,522,000 


1899 


67,280,000 


1900 


95*830,000 


1901 


99,294/)00 


1902 


92|i33iOoo 



Value. 

yen. 

6,631,481 

I3M96 

4,056 

8,495 



Value. 

yen. 

490462 

823,088 

1,238,661 

1,293,565 

l,X93>oS 



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See-Ketping. 203 

CHAPTER DL—Bce-Kccplng. 



The earlist record about bee-keeping in our history is one regard- 
ing the present of honey bees by a Korean Prince to the Empress 
Kotoku (642-645 A.D.). At present the honey is produced at lyo, 
Tosa, Chikuzen, Higo, Tamba, Tsushima, Shimane, Kai, Ghikugo^ 
etc. The output cannot be accurately known, but it is roughly 
estimated at about 200,000 kin. 

Breeds. — Generally speaking, there are three varieties of honey 
bees now in Japan, they being the Japanese breed that originally 
came firom Korea, the Italian variety, and the Cyprian variety. The 
first is hardy but is fisir inferior to the foreign breeds in the amount 
of the honey secreted. The Italian breed, though an excellent 
collector of honey, cannot stand the cold so well as the Japanese bee, 
so that it can be kept in the southern districts only. The last variety 
is best adapted for Japan, both in the large quantity of honey it 
secretes and on account of its hardy character. 

As yet the business of bee-keeping remains in a primitive condition, 
and both in the keeping and the refining of honey very little care 
18 exercised by our farmers. A little more care employed would 
be sure to make this business very profitable. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



204 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

CHAPTER X— Farmers' Subsidiary Work^ 



The question of how best to utilize what we may call hours of 
enforced idleness is one of special importance for the &rmers in such 
a country as Japan where farming is carried on an extremely limited 
scale and with such attention to minutiae as to leave very little room 
for further expansion, r,nd where farming work is generally suspended 
on account of climatic condition during winter. The kinds of subsidiary 
occupations pursued by our farmers are therefore many. They may 
be given as follows: — 

1. The manufacture of starch, konnyaku, admen (kind of macca- 
roni) frozen buckwheat maccaroni, frozen mocki, frozen t^Ju, 
frozen kannyaku, jam, dried persimmon Aruits, dried peels 
of gourd, dried radish peel, etc. 

2. The manu&cture of mat-facing, straw-plaids, mats used 
for rearing silkworms, matches, cords, nets, willow-paskets* 
rush head-gear, straw raincoats, head-gear made of hasks 
of bamboo-sprouts, coir-ropes, straw-ropes, charcoal-bags, 
straw-hats, etc. 

3. Weaving of fabrics, spinning of yarns, manufacture of silk, 
paper, and various kinds of basket-work. 

4. Extraction of oil, aquiculture, salt-making, charcoal-burning, 
lime-making, camphor-refining, etc. 

In some cases farmers divide their time and labor almost 
equally between those " odd jobs " and their regular farming work, 
being therefore partly farmers and partly manufacturers of goods* 



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Exports atid Imports. 



205 



CHAPTER^— Agricultural Products in QMnmcrce. 



EXPORTS AND IMPORTS. 



As is quite natural, the throwing open of the country to foreign 
commerce has had different effects on the prosperity of different agri- 
cultural products, for while some, such as silk, tea, etc. have been 
raised to a state of extraordinary development by the foreign demand 
for them, others such as cotton, indigo, etc. have suffered seriously 
from the competition of foreign products. 





5ms of 


A. EXPORTS. 


ucts for 


exjKjrt 




The chief ite 


agricultural prod 


and the 


amount thereof are 


given 


below in 


unit of thousand 


— 








1898 
(in thou- 
sand.) 


1899 
(in thou- 
sand.) 


1900 
(in thou- 
sand.) 


1901 

(in thou- 
sand.) 


1902 
(in thou- 
sand.) 


Rice 

i 


r picul 


. 1,050 
5,920 


2,178 
10,282 


933 
3,576 


1. 301 
6,908 


1,269 
6,679 


Raw Silk 




4,837 
42,047 


5,946 
62,627 


4.630 
44,657 


8.697 
74,667 


8,078 
76,859 


1 

Noshi and Waste Silk 




4,091 
2,655 


4,388* 
4,074 


3,900 
4,161 


4.789 
4,468 


5,193 
5,715 


Green Tea 




25,845 
7,862 


27,998 
7.699 


2,261 
7,998 


26,651 
7,819 


27,730 
9,825 


Other Tea 


** L >y 


4,981 
353 


6,733 
799 


5,978 
931 


6.596 
1,034 


5,029 
65^ 


Matting 


... ye/i 


3,938 


3,717 


3,310 


5,431 


6,772 


LUy Bulbs 


(No. 


5,100 
128 


6,083 
258 


7048 

257 


8,979 
266 


8,331 
238 


Ground Nuts 


f h'n 


3PI2 
"5 


3,298 
144 


5,305 
240 


8,817 
404 


8,089 
358 


1 Ginseng 


\kin 


356 
423 


402 
476 


402 
407 


419 
452 


363 
369 


Mint 


■{: 


45 

158 


76 
268 


.n 


120 

545 


III 


Straw Plaids 


^bundles 5,961 
"U'M 2,404 


7,134 
2,770 


8,802 

4,025 


6,974 
2,986 


8,611 
2,938 


Wood Wax 


" \ven 


3,798 
609 


4,569 
642 


3,702 
56r 


4,049 
610 


4,216 
789 


Cotton 




824 

2f8 


743 
209 


1,009 
323 


950 
308 


'Ai 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



206 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

The export of minor items worth mentioning in 1902 was aa 
follows : — 

Jktn. yen. 

Chillis 804,699 84,889 

Oranges 3»255»743 ii4»863 

Potatoes 7.882,380 158,716 

Vegetables and Fruits — 182,106 

Plants, Trees, Shrubs, etc — 122,459 

Seeds — 79,i2i 

Snake-gourd 3,957>6o2 118,987 

Ginger 2,303,512 3^7,643 

Feathers 365,030 81,171 

Bice. — ^The quantity of rice going abroad being naturallj 
determined by the condition of the crop at home and the condition 
of the foreign markets, it varies considerably according to the year. 
The places of destination, though not firmly fixed, are generally 
Hongkong, Germany, Australia, England, the United States of 
America, etc. The rice grown in Kyushu and the districts bordering 
the Inland Sea is most acceptible to foreign consumers. 

Raw Silk. — ^Raw and waste silk constitute about 30 per cent, 
of the bulk of the export trade. The United States is the best 
customer of our silk, taking about 60 per cent, of the entire export, 
followed by France, Italy, etc. This important export product chiefly 
come from the central part of Honshu. 

Tea. — Tea comes next to raw silk as the most important agri- 
cultural product for export trade, though its prosperity has somewhat 
declined lately owing to the encroachment of Indian and Ceylon 
teas in the market of the United States, which together with Canada 
is the best customer for this goods. Green tea is in demand in the 
above two places while brick tea goes to Russia. 

Matting. — Though it is an industry of comparatively recent 
origin, matting now occupies an important place in our list of exports. 
The United States is here again our best customer. Okayama and 
Hiroshima are the principal centers of produce. 

Lily-bulbs. — ^These bulbs mostly go to the United States and 
England where they are used for producing the flower. 

Ground-nuts. — The export has increased lately, the principal 



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Imports. 



207 



markets being Hongkong, Australia, United States, etc. The fruit 
]« either used for food or for the extraction of oil. 

Ginseng. —The export is practically confined to China, and 
thei^fore its market is limited. 

Mint. — The export of mint shows more or less of an incFease, 
though that increase is necessarily confined within narrow limit. It 
goes to Hongkong, Germany and the United States. 

Straw-Plaits. — This product constitutes one of the most 
important items of our export trade, having recently developed a 
marked activity, with the tendency of greater improvement of quality 
in future. The goods are principally exported to England; the 
United States, Hongkong, Australia, etc., being our next best 
customers. 

Vegetable- Wax. — The market shows every sign of shortly 
becoming enlarged, the principal consumers at present being Hong- 
kong, Germany, the United States, etc. 

Raw-Cotton. — Korea and Siberia are the principal customers 
of the cotton. 

B. IMPORTS. 



Subjoined is the list of the principal items of agricultural pro- 



ducts coming into Japan. 



Rice.. 



Flour 



Sugar 
Beans 



Malt... 



Raw Cotton 



Cocoons 



Tussa Silk Yam Cocoons. 



{picul 
ym 
(hn 
\yen 

f picul 
\yen 

{picul 
yen 

(h'n 
\yen 

{picul 
yen 

ikin 
Xyen 

{" 



1898 

(in thou- 
sand.) 


1899 
(in thou- 
sand) 


11,696 
48,219 


1,650 
5,960 


38,855 
2,022 


29,001 
1,370 


4,369 
28,439 


2,73» 
17,516 


2,406 
7,101 


8,822 


3,042 
293 


4,264 
468 


2,453 
45,744 


3472 
62,210 


458 
212 


807 
642 


15 

37 


15' 

375 



1900 
(in thou- 
sand.). 

2,286 
9,021 

84,229 
3,882 

4,045 
36,606 

1,707 
4,817 

5,642 
619 

2,608 
59,471 

598 
618 

148 
351 



1 901 1902 

(in thou- (in thou- 
sand.) sand.) 

3"Giik 4,509 

2,878 17,750 



62,972 
2,873 
4,928 

33,493 
1,938 
5,328 

6,586 
765 

1,579 
60,650 

441 

342 

213 
433 



72,104 
3,278 
2,638 
14467 
1,801 
4,956 
2,986 
33^ 
3,486 

179,784 

649 

546 

418 
955 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



208 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 



Hemp I I* 

OU-cake {P^l 

Eggs yen 

'"^^^g^ [yZ 



Wool 

Condensed Milk ... 
Hides and Leathers 



i. »> 
r dozen 
- \yen 

(Jh'n 

'" \y^-'^ 



1898 

(in thou- 
sand.) 


1899 
(in thou- 
sand.) 


1900 

(in thou- 
sand.) 


1901 

(in thou- 
sand.) 


1902 
(in thou- 
sand.) 


7,232 
590 


12,610 
1,245 


14,5 H 
1,700 


12,965 
1,370 


13,265 

I,602 


2,101 
4,61* 


2,795 
9,791 


2,280 
5,696 


3,477 
8,109 


3,070 
8,670 


492 


826 


1,243 


1,298 


1,196^ 


1,806 
2,270 


1,768 
2,903 


1,851 
3,902 


1,243 
2,665 


1,417 
3,097 


2,838 
1,642 


7,746 
4,324 


4,514 
3,919 


4,952 
3,*29 


4,066 

3.397 


174 
359 


173 
389 


300 
663 


279 

646 


Si 


2,922 

5S7 


3,104 

719 


2,696 
656 


3344 
786 


3.323 

S13- 



Minor items worth mentioning in 1902 were as follows: — 





Jbin. 


yen. 


Butter 


198,457 


140,327 


Margarine 


143,988 


51,565 


Cheese 


72,044 


30,312 


Coffee 


139,377 


4',857 


Tea 


125,396 


30,469 


Cottonseeds 


•.. 56,316,511 


787,667 


Sesame Seeds 


••• 7,945,636 


426,753 


Grains and Seeds 


— 


1.231,170 


Leaf-tobacco 


— 


950,816 


T^nd, Tallow and Grease ... 


825,045 


105,886 


Hairs, Bristles, etc 


220,828 


294410 


Wheat 


... 8,653,443 


240,050 



Rice. — Rice comes in from Korea, Touquin, British India and 
Siam, especially when the rice crop fails in our country. The 
imported rice is generally inferior in quality and is patronized almost 
exclusively by the poorer classes. 

Flour. — The import of flour has gone up to large figures 
recently, owing to the fact that the native product is not well suited 
for making cakes and other aiticles of food made of flour. The 
goods come principally from the United States, Canada, and 
Australia. 

Sugar. — The import of sugar is also advancing in rapid 
strides, the consumption of this important article of diet having 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Imp(ni8. 20^ 

remarkably increased of late. Brown sugar comes chiefly from the 
Philippines, Java, Hongkong and China, while Hongkong is the 
hirgest importer of the refined variaty, followed by Germany and 
Hungary. 

Beaks. — As raw material for making soy, fiJfu, miso, also as 
manure the import of the goods amoimts to a large quantity. How- 
ever the figures are gradually falling off owing to the activity 
rrcently of bean cultivation in Hokkaid5. 

Malt. — The great development recently of the business of 
brewing beer and the insufficient supply of malt of the required 
excellence has led to the introduction of a large quantity of foreign 
malt. However, as the quality of the home-made article is gradual- 
ly improving, the import may not attain any particular increase in 
future. Germany, Hungary, and the United States, particularly the 
first country, supply the bulk of this malt. 

Raw Cotton. — A recent extraordinary development of the 
spinning business and the imsuitedness of native cotton for the pur- 
pose, has resulted in a large purchase of this raw material from 
foreign countries, especially from Bombay, the United States, China^ 
and Egypt. 

Cocoons and Tusser Yarn.— Both come from China, they 
being used by our weavers. The latter is regarded with special 
&vor by them, owing to its low price. The import of the former 
has lately gone down to some extent. 

Hempen Goods. — ^These are coming in a gradually increasing 
quantities from Cliina, the Phillippines and India. 

Oil-Cakes.— Of all the cakes imported into this country^ 
bean-cakes form the bulk. The import shows an extraordinary 
advance, the demand of our farmers for the cakes as fertilizers 
having become enormous. The bean-cakes are shipped from 
Newchwang, and the rape-seed cake, which also comes in a greater 
or leas extent, from Shanghai. 

Fresh £60s. — Owing to the growing consuniptiou of eggs 
at home, the import of eggs from China is very large, the market 
being very low there. The recent imposition of a heavier tariff' on 
the goods and the' steady progress made by the jwultry business at 
home may check any further expansion of the import. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



210 Japan in ike Beginning of ike 20^ Century. 

Wool. — ^Wool oomes from China, Australia, Germanj, England, 
€tc., the home supply of this raw material being out of proportion 
to the demand. 

Condensed Milk. — ^This comes from England and the United 
States. No large increase of the import in future is probable, in 
view of the fact that the diary industry is developing steadily at 
^ home. 

Hides and Leathebs. — These come, especially the former, from 
Korea most, and then from China, India, etc. 

Cotton and Sesame Seeds. — ^These are imported for the ex- 
pressing of oil from them but their import is falling off. The 
ibrmer is chiefly intended to produce fertilizer from and the latter 
is used for obtaining cooking oil. Both come from China. 

In short, of the principal items of agricultural products exported 

from Japan, raw silk, tea, mats, straw plaids, and rice figure moat 

-on the list, while on the other hand rice, flour, raw cotton, sugar, 

' indigo, oil-cakes, etc. are the principal items on the import list of 

agricultural products. 



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Provisiona Relating to Protection and Enoouragonent, 211 

CHAPTER XL— Agricultural Legislation* 



Provisions Relating to Protection and Encouragement- 
ProTisions Relating to Calamity. 



I. PROVISIONS RELATING TO PROTECTION AND 
ENCOURAGEMENT. 



Agricultural Societies. — For the better protection of 
^ricultural interests and the encouragement of the industry, our 
farmers established early in the era agricultural associations in many 
parts of the country. However it soon became evident that those 
organizations could not render effective service unless the Govern- 
ment extended to them some help. Consequently coming to June, 
1889, the Law of Agricultural Societies was promulgated with the 
•consent of the Diet, and the Rules of Operation of the same in the 
following year, the legislature providing among other things a grant 
of not more than 150,000 yen every year to the societies established 
in conformity with the law. The creation of a society was of course 
left to the discretion of the fiirmers themselves, the only interference 
exercised by the local authorities being the forcing of all those who 
had not already joined a society established in their own districts to 
join it. There were in the 1903 fiscal year 46 agricultural societies 
throughout the country, their expenses amounting altogether to 
511,021 yen with State aid aggregating 148,496 yen. 

Besides those societies which were prefectural organizations, there 
were 561 subordinate societies in rural districts or cities, and over 
10,000 in towns and villages. 

Inbustrlal Guilds. — The extension of a similar protection 
to small farmers and small manufacturers was also considered 
necessary. After repeated failures to devise some legislative measure 
liaving for its object the giving of such protection, the Law relating^ 



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212 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century. 

to Industrial Guilds was at last promulgated in March of 1900 with 
the consent of the Diet. 

As only a short time has intervened since the enforcement of 
the Law, no specific statement may be given here, except that the 
provision is likely to prove extremely useful. The number of guilds 
established under the Law was as follows according to the returns on 
Oct. 15, 1902:— 

T^. , Limited Guarantee Unlimited T«f«i 

^'""^ Liability. Liability. Liability. ^°^^- 

Credit 87 6 218 311 

Sales 31 3 4 3^ 

Purchase 30 3 38 71 

Produce 5' — 5 lo- 

Combining more than two Services ... 24 i 26 51 

Jotal 177 13 291 481 

Note : — In the table the small number of guilds organized by people who are not 
themselves engaged in farming are included. 

Even prior to the enforcement of the Law a large number of 
similar guilds • existed. In 1898 these numbered 346 with 64,388 
members and possessing property valued at 968,141 yei}. Of these 
the silk sales guilds were most important, and some of them undertook 
the sale of silk to the value of about 3 million yen a year. Some 
of them, too, were established as far back as 230 years ago. Then 
there are several hundred guilds, organized on the rules laid down 
by the celebrated economist and moralist Ninoniiya. 

The industrial guilds being considered as corporations of 
public utility are exempted from the payment of the Income aud . 
the Business Taxes, while those established on the limited liability 
system are entitled to get a loan from tlie Local Hypothec Banks 
without security. 

As the state of things in Hokkaido is different from that pre- 
vailing in the rest of Japan proper, special legislation of this kind 
was enacted for it in 1900. 

Staple Products Guilds. — The existence of guilds organized 
by business people engaged in the same or in kindred pursuits 
was recognized several centuries ago, as. for instance, in the 



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Provisions Rdatiiig to Protection and Encouragemsnt. 213 

tase of the stock-brokers in Yedo (now Tokyo) and Osaka. In 
consequence of these guilds tending to become monopolies, they 
were once suppressed but this ban was removed after the Restoration. 
Daring the space of about thirty years extending to 1900 when the 
existing Law for Staple Products Guilds was enacted, the history of 
the organization of guilds by various business interests is exceedingly 
complicated, owing to the &ct that while the necessity of such 
organizations was universally admitted their imperfect supervision by 
the local authorities soon destoryed their utility in regard to their 
original aim of preventing the production of inferior goods and also 
of giving general protection to the interests. The promulgation 
in April of 1897 of the Law relating to Staple Export Commodities 
"Guilds marked a new and important departure in the ef&ciency 
of legislation of this sort. Indeed this enactment was regarded 
ais imperatively necessary owing to the production and export of 
an inferior class of goods, and to the consequent injury done to the 
prosperity of the various branches of trade. Three years after, the 
£Cope of this law was expanded, till it took the shape of the existing 
l^slation. A history of the guilds established by the silk interests 
is similar, for as they constitute one of the most, if not the most, 
important interest in the national economy, the people engaged in 
the business were impelled to combine for their common interest and 
prosperity. At last with the promulgation of the existing law, the 
special provisions previously established to regulate the silk guilds 
were abolished, so that these interests now exist under exactly same 
law as the others. 

The existing agricultural guilds number 112 of which 103 are 
devoted to sericulture and sericultural industries. 

Adjustment of farm-land. — ^As the work in connection with 
the object of adjusting farm-lands has already been described, it is 
sufficient to state here that the law for regulating this work was 
promulgated in March of 1899. 

State aid to Local Agricultural Experiment Stations. — 
The result of maintaining the local experiment stations on local 
•disbursements alone was not quite a success so far as their efficiency 
was concerned, and the Government has now made a special pro- 
vision for granting pecuniary aid to those farms, this provisioii 



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214 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

coverning also local agricultural institutes and local experimental 
fishery laboratories and institutes. This grant-in-aid stood as follows 
at the end of the ^902 fiscal year: — 

No. Total Amount of Aid. 

Local Experiment Stations 35 67,000 

„ Farming Institutes 4 3»2oo 

„ Experimental Fishery Laboratories... 21 40,100 

„ Fishery Institutes 4 5»20o 



Total 64 ii5.7a> 

Silk CoNDiTiONiNO.^The Silk Conditioning Houses having 
been described in the preceding part, it is enough to state here that 
the rules in connection with this official business were enacted m 
June, 1895. 

Rules Relating to Tea Guilds. — ^The Rules relating to 
Tea Guilds deserve special notice, as they have proved highly 
efficient for preventing the appearance of the inferior tea that too 
frequently impaired the credit of this staple in foreign markets, and 
in enabling it to hold its ground against the competition of Chinese 
and Ceylon teas. 

The enactment was made in 1884 at the instance of the 
conference of tea dealers and manufacturers held in Kobe in the 
preceding year. The Rules do not apply to such prefectures as 
Gunma, Yamanaahi, Nagano, Fukushima, Miyagi, Iwate, Aomori,, 
Akita, Yamagata, Kagawa, Okinawa and Tochigi where the tea 
industry is of insignificant proportion. 

Rules Relating to Cattle and Horse Guilds. — Very 
strict rules were enforced during the Tokugawa Regency in dis- 
tricts famous for the production of cattle and horses, and especially 
were the rules for the breeding of horses for military use strict. This 
salutary custom fell, however, into desuetude with the abolition of 
the Regency and the re-establishment of the Imperial regime. In 
1882 or thereabouts the establishment of cattle or horse guilds by 
the people was encouraged, but the regulations were far from being 
efficient as they were before. Finally, in February of 1900 
the existing Law relating to Cattle and Horse Guilds was promulgated 
with the consent of the Imperial Diet, and this Law in conjunctioa 



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PravisumB Belating to Protection and Eneounxgement. 



216 



with the work in the State Studs and Depots already described 
is now conducing in a marked manner to the interest of 
the industry. The numjber of guilds existing at present is as 
follows ; — 



Cattle Guilds 

Horse Guilds 

Cattle and Horse Guilds 

Total 



25 

137 

50 

212 



Rules Relating to the Control of Breeding Bulls and 
Stallions. — In accordance with the Notification issued in 1885, 
roles for controlling breeding bulls and stallions were left to be 
drawn up by different local offices. Thanks to the beneficient 
result of this control the breed of our live stock is gradually im- 
proving, half breeds and foreign breeds superseding the inferior 
native breeds. The number of old cattle are diminishing while the 
stature of cattle and horses in improving. The following data will 
serve to make this point clear: — 

(I) NUMBER OF BREEDING BULLS. 



Year. 


Native Breed. 


Foreign Breed. 


Half Breed. 


Total. 


1897... 


i»579 


477 


342 


2,398 


1898... 


1,666 


502 


421 


, 2,589 


1899... 


1,684 


575 


533 


2,792 


1900... 


1,980 


514 


692 


2,886 


1901... 


1,805 


489 


811 


3,105 



(2) STATURE OF BREEDING BULLS. 

(The standard measure, 44 shaku). 
Native Breed. Foreign Breed. Half Breed. 



Total. 



Year. 

1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 



RuLis Relating to Breediko Stallions.— Over and above 
the Notification mentioned in the preceeding section the control 



Above. 


Below. 


Above. 


Below. 


Above. 


Below. 


Above. 


Below. 


no 


1,469 


240 


237 


99 


243 


449 


1,949 


128 


2,538 


306 


196 


134 


287 


568 


2,021 


167 


1,517 


326 


249 


187 


346 


680 


2,121 


197 


1,483 


298 


216 


272 


420 


740 


2,119 


266 


1,539 


329 


160 


427 


384 


1,022 


2,083 



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216 Japan in the Beginning qf the 2(Hh Century. 

of breeding stallions is further regulated by a special law issued 
in 1897. These legislative provisions require all the breeding 
stallions to be inspected by competent experts and the inspection has 
resulted in a marked improvement of the breed, as may be seen 
from the following data. 

(1) NUMBER OF BREEDING STALLIONS. 

Year. Native Breed. Half Breed. Foreign Breed. Total. 

i«97 5,505 1.145 94 6,744 

1898 4»397 1,317 80 5,794 

1899 4»200 1,610 104 5,914 

1900 3,616 1,769 141 5,526 

1901 3,185 2,251 171 5,607 

(2) STATURE OF BREEDING STALLIONS. 

Year. Below 4.6 sAaJht, Above 4.6 shaJhi. Above 4.7 sAaJiu, Total. 

1897 1,505 1,788 3,271 6,744 

1898 1,149 1,447 3,«98 5,794 

1899 1,051 1,572 3,291 5,9X4 

1900 741 1,137 3,648 5,526 

1901 626 1,014 3,967 5,607 

Rules Relating to the Castration op Horses. — The 
earliest authentic record about the custom of castrating horses 
occurs in thS Ky5h5 ear (1715 — 1737 A.D.) when a large number 
of Persian horses were presented by some Hollanders to the then 
Sogun Yoshimune. The Dutchman who brought these horses waa 
the first to introduce into our country the practice of ca^ration as 
well ajs the foreign method of breeding horses. Coming to the present 
regime we find that both the Department of Agriculture and Com- 
merce and the War Oflice began to perceive the necessity of this 
practice, and that while in 1880 and 1882 the former issued instruc- 
tions for the encouragement of it, the latter started as early as 1877 
a regular course of instruction to veterinary students. In 1883 the 
practice was universally applied to war horses. But the public were 
very slow in availing themselves of those instructions or in following 
the example set by the Crovernment. The experience gained in the 
China war by Japan made it more imperative for Japan, however, 
to adopt this means for the elimination of inferior stallions, and the 



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Providom Belattng to Protection and Encouragement 217 

promulgation of the existing Law in 1901 was the result. It is 
provided in this Law that with the exception of appraved stallions 
all other stallions must be castrated at the age of three years, all 
the expences incidental to the operation to be paid out of the 
Treasury. The Rules of Operation were issued in 1902, officials 
were appointed in the Agricultural Bureau to take charge of .the 
business, and finally 94 students were collected in order that they 
might be initiated into the art at the Military Horse Section. 

Game Law and Investigations in Connbction with Wild 
Birds. — ^No regular rules existed formerly for the protection of 
useful birds and the destruction of injurious insects, except in the 
single case of the crane which was the only protected bird in 
this country before the Restoration. It was in 1873 that regular 
rules about shooting and hunting were promulgated. These rules 
underwent repeated amendments till they finally took shape in the 
present Game Law that was promulgated in 1901. 

The data about the licenses granted during the recent seven 
years are given in the following table: — 

Year. 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

Note : — ^Licenses of class A. are issued to those who use fire-arms while licenses of 
dass B. are issued to those who adopt other methods of killing or capturing 
games. 

The provisions r^arding game preserves were first enacted in 
the present Law. These preserves number 58 in all, with a ten- 
dency to increase. The total number of common game preserves is 
20, of which 13 existed under the old niles and the rest in 
<x>iiformity with the new. 

The new Law has proved effective in checking the reckless 
destruction of birds due to the enormous number of sportsmen in 
the country, as is shown by the foregoing table which records the 



License class A. 


License class B. 


... 16,376 


125,189 


... 16,991 


141,556 


... 16,609 


174,334 


... 17,198 


178,130 


... 16,966 


199,808 


... 16,918 


202,862 


... 11,102 


102,265 



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218 Japan in the Beginning oj the 20<A CmJtary. 

sudden fall of the jiumber of shooters by about 50 per cent, during 
the last two years. However no conclusive result can be arrived at 
on this point until after the lapse of several years more. 

Several other new provisions were enacted by the new Law, such 
as the absolute prohibition both of shooting and hunting in the breed- 
ing season, the establishment of game preserves and other such 
restrictive measures. In future, therefore, the breeding of birds will 
be more satisfactory than it was during recent years. 

Wild birds have, it need hardly be said, an important relation 
to farming and also to forest planting, not to speak of the fact 
that their feathers and flesh are usefiil for various purposes. In view 
of this, investigations into the varieties of birds found in Japan were 
started in 1894, these investigation covering the following points: — 

1. Kind of food. 

2. Geographical distribution. 

3. Season of pairing, of laying, etc. 

4. Power of multiplication. 

5. Natural enemies and friends. 

6. Season and extent of migration. 

7. Mode of destroying injurious birds. 

8. Mode of multiplying useful birds. 

9. Relative merit and demerit of the various methods of shoot- 
ing and hunting. 



II. PROVISIONS RELATING TO CALAMITY. 



Supervision of Makuee Business. — ^It is a natural con- 
sequence that with the progress of farming there should arise . a 
demand for manures which are more eflicacious than those naturally 
procurable. But farmers do not generally possess sufficient knowledge 
to distinguish genuine fertilizers &om those that are spurious. In 
procuring artificial fertilizers they are therefore liable to be duped by 
dishonest manu^turers and dealers. Convinced of this fact the Local 
Office of Nara enforced in its jurisdiction rules requiring the dealers 
to organize themselves into a guild. The result obtained in Nara- 
ken was so satisfactory that the Government, at the instance of the 
Diet, enacted in December of 1901 a law for controlling fertilizers. 



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Pravi9um8 BelaHng to Qdamity. 219 

ThiB Law compels all those who manufacture or deal in fertilizers 
to first get a license, to submit samples of their goods to the proper 
officials for inspection, and also to guarantee the alleged composition 
of their fertilizers. At the same time the Grovemment has dis- 
tributed, for the better enforcement of the regulations, 116 fertilizers 
inspectors among different districts and has also appointed 20 
chemists in the State Experimental Farms' to take charge of the 
analysis of fertilizers. The former necessitated the disbursement by 
the Government of 109,729 yen and the latter of 38,597 yen. 

Destruction and Prevention of Injurious Insects.— The 
appearance of injurious insects has often proved disastrous to our 
fiumers. One such case was the devastation wrought by locast in 
Tokachi, Hokkaid5, from 1880 to 1882. 

The prevention of damages done to the crops by injurious insects 
requiring first of all the united efforts of all the farmers living 
in any given vicinity, the Government first issued a Notification 
on this point in 1885 and this was made more perfect in its working 
in 1896. The appearance of the rice-plant hopper in the very next 
year throughout the country and the decrease, in consequence, of 
the year's harvest of rice by 13.8 per cent, of the normal yield, 
with an extraordinary advance of the market price of rice, at once 
roused the Government and people to the necessity of devising some 
preventive measures. Their efforts were crowned with success for 
no such calamity has since visited the country. 

Subsequently the infliction of injuries on the crops by ])arasitic 
fiingi caused the Government to further amend the regulations and 
to make them cover, besides injuries from insects, injuries from 
such lower organisms. 

Inspection of Silk- worm Egos. — The regulations relating 
to inspection of silk-worm eggs were first issued in 1886. They 
left the inspection to be done at the discretion of each locality. 
This arrangement proved comparatively unsatisfactory and an amend- 
ment was subsequently effected as to make the regulations uniform 
for all the provinces and to make the inspection compulsory not 
only in the case of the spring breed of silk-worms but also in that 
of the summer and autumn breeds. The cost of inspection and the 
incidental expenses come from the different localities, the Govem- 



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Inspection Expenses. 


Aid by Government, 


yen. 


yen. 


... 259,817.331 


75,234.719 


... 240,277.826 


69,600^31 


... 238,837.836 


74,124.380 


... 321,403.364 


99.496.172 



^20 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

ment confiniDg itself to giving more or less pecuniary assistance, as 
ilho^vn below : — 



Fiscal year. 

1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

Note : — ^The whole of the inspection expenses for Okinawa and Hokkaidd (until the 
1900 fiscal year) came from the Treasury. 

Epidemics of Domestic Beasts. — Owing to the presence 
of various deterrent causes preventing any widespread develop- 
ment of stock-farming, and owing also to the mountainous 
oharacter of the country, the appearance of any serious epidemic 
Among domestic animals was a thing unknown in the olden days. 
It was when the rinderpest spread with terrible virulence in Siberia 
early in the era, that the Government first issued a Notification 
about the prevention of epidemics beasts. Coming to 1872 we find 
that rinderpest appeared in various places, and that it re-appeared 
in 1874 and 1875, while another disease, anthrax, making its appear- 
ance in Saitama-ken, in 1881. . On each of these and on all similar 
occasions, measures were adopted for preventing the spread of the 
epidemic and for compensating the owners of affected animals that were 
slaughtered. The frequent introduction of afilicted beasts from the 
continent, especially from Korea, in spite of the various preventive 
measures taken, led the Government to establish on one occasion 
special inspection offices for its own use at Fusan and Jinsen, in 
Korea, in order that it might inspect the cattle shipped there for 
this country. Such offices were also established at Nagasaki, Kobe, 
And Yokohama, to inspect the cattle as also the bones and hides 
coming from Korea, Siberia and Shanghai. Finally by the 
Notification issued in April of 1900 the stations at Kobe and 
Nagasaki were made permanent (they had been only temporary at 
first) and the stations at the other three places were abolished. 
Th^ following table shows the returns at the two permanent 



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Prcmsians Itelating to Calamity. 221 

offices and the expenses disbursed by the Gh)yemment on account 
of the epidemics among domestic animals: — 

KOBE INSPECTION OFFICE. 
F.«,lye,r. No. of Cattle. No.ofShe^. "^^^^ ^°°/S^ 

1898 100 580 2,655 171 

1899 44 1,143 ",a>7 3" 



580 


2,655 


1,143 


n,oo7 


1,112 


7,661 


977 


11,109 



1900 96 1,112 7,661 327 

1901 433 977 11,109 5,937 

NAGASAKI INSPECTION OFFICE. 

■C-. _t -K- rr> M.A^ xr rax, No.of Bundle No. of Package 

Fiscal year. No. of Cattle. No. of Sheep. ^f Hides. ofBoneT^ 



1897 


— • 


42 


— 


10,998 


1898 


582 


711 


1,632 


29,822 


1899 


419 


2,225 


7,354 


34,501 


1900 


594 


1,779 


6,799 


67,079 


I90I 


1,569 


. 967 


22,231 


130,998 



DISBURSEMENTS FROM THE TREASURY ON ACCOUNT OF 
CATTLE PLAGUE, ETC. 

Fiscal year. j'fft. Fiscal year. y^n. 

1896 64,565.021 1899 26,o6iu|.75 

1897 23,369.522 1900 71,465.922 

1898 21,084.619 1901 43,793-753 

Since the establishment of the inspection offices, it was only 
once at Nagasaki, and that time through the negligence of a 
foreign steamer, that the country suffered from tlie introduction 
of afflicted beasts, the entry of such having been stopped in all 
other cases. 

Prevention of Tuberculosis in Domestic Animai^. — The 
prevalence of tuberculosis among the imported cattle and half- 
breeds has grown formidable, as shown in the following slaugh- 
ter-house returns of Tokyo: — 



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222 Japan in the Beginning oj the 2Qih Century, 



Year. 



Half-Bree d. Fore ign B reed. 

Cow. Bull. • Total. Cow. Bull. TotaL 



^ r No. of cattle slaughtered 734 284 1,018 6 10 16 

^ •{ No. of tuberculous cattle 322 10$ 423 24 6 

« IPer cent, of tuberculous cattle .. 43-86^ 3^.97^ 41-97^ 3330^ ¥>% 37- S% 

^ r No. of cattle slaughtered 783 222 1,004 * 5 ^ 

^ ^ No. of tuberculous cattle 358 91 449 13 4 

[Percent, of tuberculous cattle... 45-77^ 40-99^ W1^% loo^ 60^ 66.66^ 

r No. of cattle slaughtered 897 215 1,112 i I 2 

No. of tuberculous cattle 347 36 383 i — i 

[percent, of tuberculous cattle... 3846^ 16.74^ 34*44^ 100% — ^Q% 

^ r No. of cattle slaughtered 1,265 346 1,61 1 — i I 

g» ■! No. of tuberculous cattle 344 47 391 — i i 

[Percent, of tuberculous cattle... 27.199^ ^Z'S^% 24.27^ — 100^ 100^ 

[No. of cattle slaughtered 1,888 743 2,631 — i I 

_ No. of tuberculous cattle ... 585 85 670 — i i 

•* (Percent, of tuberculous cattle... 30.98^ "44^ 25.46^ — loo^ 100^ 



1i 
t(i 

•{1 



As shown in the above table, of the 5,791 cattle of either 
foreign or half breed that were slaughtered during the five yean 
under review, no lees than 2,332 were affected by tuberculasis, 
that is to say, 42.7^ of the whole. A similar state of things 
may probably exist in other places, but reports of this sort are 
not yet accurately known. This disease appears, however, to be 
rare, if it exists at all, among the indigenous cattle. 

The control of cattle suffering from this disease being impera- 
tively necessary both for the improvement of the cattle and for the 
sake of the public hygiene, a law for preventing tuberculous cattle 
was promulgated in 1900. 

Accordingly inspection is enforced at Yokohama, Kobe and 
Nagasaki over imported cattle, the object of the inspection being to 
ascertain the presence or absence of any tuberculous disease in such 
cattle. Here are the returns for 1901. 

Xo. of Cattle Inspected. ^*^- °^^"t^.^^^ 

Yokohama 37 — 

Kobe 207 4 

Nagasaki 988 6 

As the Law for the Prevention of Tuberculosis in Cattle 
came into full force in July, 1903, the disease may be stamped out 
in the near future. 



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Prmmom Relating to Calamity. 223 

To provide a staff of qualified inspectors at all places of impoiv 
tanee, the Government decided to train about 200 such men during 
the 1902 and 1903 fiscal years. The first batch of 35 students, 
all of them qualified to secure a license as veterinary surgeon, were 
admitted in September of 1902. The course extends over two 
months during which the pupils attend lectures on bacteorology, 
dimical examination, post-mortem examinations and dissection 
practices, examination of milk, flesh and urine,' and the rules relat- 
ing to epidemic diseases inflicting domestic beasts. 



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224 Japan in ihe Beginning of the 2Wk Century. 

PRIMARY INDUSTRIES. 
SECTION ir. 

FORESTRY. 



Introdaotory Area and Oflrnerahip of the Forests— Forest Zone& 
and Sylvicnltural ConditioRS - Adjustment of the Forests- 
Exploitation and Treatment of the Forests -Forest-Planting 
and Transport— Wood-Prodnoe—OflSoial Snpenrision of the 
Forests— Ednoation— Legislative Measures. 



I. INTRODUCTORT. 



The forests of Japan, ber natural ornament, which occupy 
more than one half the area of the Island Empire, would appear 
to have exerted an inspiring influence upon the mind of her in- 
habitants, for their love of forests and the luxuriant sylvan 
growth is observed to be almost intuitive. We are also inclined 
to think that the Japanese may owe their patriotism and 
aesthetic sense to the profoundly sympathetic influence the forests 
seem to have exercised upon them. They are instinctively aware 
of their duties, — ^so to speak — towards the fortsts as is indicated 
by the endeavors they never spare to meet the ever increasing 
demand for the produce of the forest, to change them in accord- 
ance with the new requirements and to maintain their supplies 
permanently. 

The forests of Japan, had, while the country was secluded, 
maintained their primitive character, but with the Restoration the 
forests underwent a revolution in the extent and modes of their 
utilization. Besides a considerable increase at home in the demand 
for timber and fuel not only in connection with industrial and min- 



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Area and Oumership of the Foreds. 225 

iBg enterprises and for ordinary building purposes, but also for 
use as railroad sleepers and telegraph poles as well as for the 
manufacture of the various wood articles and paper, the recent 
development in the carrying trade has caused the traders in forest 
produce to seek customers abroad, especially iu China and Korea. 
All this has in lecent years exercised an unequal influence on 
Japanese forests so that, while, on the one hand, there are districts 
where reckless felling and all the evils resulting from it have 
obliged the Govemnient to exercise control as to cutting, on 
the other hand tliere are in some {larts of the country vast 
areas of wooded-land maintaining all its primitive features 
unaltered. 

This anomaly has brought to light the fact that the plans 
hitherto followed in the management of forests are no longer 
adequate to meet the future increase of the population and the 
requirements of the new civilization, but points to the necessity 
for striving to develop to the full the natural capabilities of 
the forests by increasing their productive powers by the appli- 
cation of regular technical methods. 



IL ABEA AHD 0VNER8HIP OF THE FORESTS. 



The Area. — According to the latest statistics the area 
occupied by forests is 23,087,365 cho, i.e. over 59 per cent, of 
the whole area of the country which measures 24,794.36 square ri 
or 38,559,078 eko. (The area of Formosa and the Pescadores is not 
included in the above computation, not having yet been ascer- 
tained.) 

Of the two divisions in the Japanese forests, " Utilization Forests" 

and "Protection Forests," the latter are further divided into two 

kinds, " Absolute '' and "Ordinary." The area of the 

Aroteetion Protection forests in 1890 wns 689,469 cho of which 

Forests. 4,803 cho belonged to the 'Absolute" class and 

684,662 cho to the "Ordinary" category. All the 

other forests belong to the Utilization class, measuring 22,397,896 



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226 Japan in ike Beginning of the 20th Century. 

cho. Those forests exdusively maintained for the utilization of 
their produce are lefc to be managed hy the owners 

Utilisation as they like. Those forests of this class which belong 

Forests, to the State and Imperial Household are generally 

managed and tended in accordance with modern technical 

rules and bid fair to become greatly improved with regard to their 

productiveness. But those owned by the people, with the exception 

of a very small number, are entirely left to nature, nothing being 

done to increase their utility. 

Ownership of the Forests. — ^The areas of the forests of these 

<iifierent ownerships are as follows: — 

States Forests 13,125,320 

Imperial Forests 2,091,785 

People's Forests 7,870,260 

The people's forests comprise those owned by Shinto and 
Buddhist temples, communes and private individuals, their re- 
spective areas being as follows : — 

cko, 

Shinto and Buddhist Temple Forests ... 167,629 

Communal Forests I»7I5»754 

Private Forests 5,987,877 

State Forests. — The State forests are managed by the Grovem- 
ment and by the Imperial Household Department, while over the 
people's forests the Government merely exercise administr»» 
tive supervision in accordance with the provisions of the Forest 
Law. 

Of the State forests measuring 13,125,320 cho, 7,632,831 cho 
are under the jurisdiction and management of the Agricultural 
and Commercial Department of the Imperial Government, but 
5,492,489 cho in Hokkaido are placed under the control of the 
Home Department. The forests in Formosa are maintained accord- 
ing to special laws and regulations by the Governor-General 
under the supervision of the Minister for Home Affairs. 



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Area and Oumership of the Forests. 227 

These figures are not» it must be owned, the result of ac- 
curate scientific surveying, the statistics relating to. the State 
and Imperial forests being taken from the Government Forest 
Register compiled according to the Provisional Regulations for 
<3ovemment Forests of 1876 and those relative to the people's 
forests from the Land Roister prepared by the Treasury Depart* 
ment for the purpose of taxation in accordance with the R^u- 
lations for the Revision of the Land Tax established in 1873. 
These registers being based on very rough surveys the figures 
above mentioned will have to be more or less modified, when 
the work of forest adjustments and investigation now going on 
shall have been completed. Inaccuracies are especially likely to 
be found in the case of the people's forests for, as the years 
went by, there must have been lands converted from other 
classes of land into forests and from forests into farm or build- 
ing lots. 

In this period of renovations the areas of forests are sub- 
ject to changes both absolutely and in respect of proprietorship, 
as transfers and conversion into other classes of estates are 
taking place and such changes will not cease until the completion 
in 1904 of the work of the special State forest adjustment 
undertaken by the Government. 

Imperial Forests. — In 1899 States forests in Kanagawa, Yama- 
nashi, Shizuoka, Nagano, Gifu, Aichi, Miye, Aomori, . Iwate and 
Tochigi prefectures and Hokkaido, to the extent of 3,649'848 cho 
in all, were transferred to the Imperial Household to constitute 
he Imperial forests. These forests being similar to State forests 
in their nature and features, it goes without saying that some of 
them are paying concerns, while others are not. In 1892 the House- 
hold Department commenced the work of investigating the Imperial 
forests, as the result of which some of them have been disposed 
of from time to time since 1898. In 1889 over 1,370,000 cho 
in Hokkaido were returned to the State control, while some forests 
were resold to such temples, Shinto or Buddhist, as had formerly 
been their possession, in compliance with the regulations establish- 
-ed for the special disposal of such forests. Besides, some of those 
that had been classed as Government property, through error, on 



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228 Japan in the Beginning of Oie 20th Century, 

the occasion of the land tax revision in the early year of Meiji 
were restored to their rightful owners. Such transfer not having 
yet been completed, it will be years before the area of the Imperial 
forests becomes fixed. From 1889 to 1900 this kind of his Maj- 
esty's property increased by 59,533 eho while decreasing by 1,453,- 
342 cho, so that the clear loss waa 1,383,809 cho. The increase 
was principally due to the correction of the former computation 
of areas and to the declaration of lands presenting a sylvan ap- 
pearance as forests, while the chief causes of the decrease were 
tlie expropriation of some forests in Hokkaido and the reclamation 
and sale of some forests for conversion into arable land. 

The Imperial forests are divided into two classes : "Hereditary '*' 
and " Ordinary." The former comprises such forests as are so thick- 
ly wooded and extensive as to furnish enough material for a reg- 
ular working plan framed on the basis of economical considera- 
tions. Such forests are made extremely difficult of conversion by 
the Imperial House Law. Hence changes of areas rarely occur 
except in the forests belonging to the other class. In 1901 there 
were 997,250 cho of the Hereditary class and 1,100,536 cho of the 
Ordinary class. 

Private Forests. — The forests owned by civic corporations, 
religious establishments and private persons are now subject to greater 
and more frequent changes than the State and Imperial forests 
because of the recent slackening of Government control over them 
and the vicissitudes in the economic conditions of the country. 
And the decrease of the forest area since the Restoration is mainly 
due to the reckless felling of woods owned by private persons. 
We have no statistics showing the extent of such reduction, but 
see them indirectly shown in the increase of land under cultivation 
and pasturage. Private forests, however, have increased to a certain 
extent by the purchase of some State or Imperial property. 

Plains and Moors. — Besides the forests above mentioned there 
are in this country vast areas of land the uses of which are yet 
•undecided. They are known by the name of "Genya" (plains 
and moors) as distinguished from forests, being a class of land 
established on the occasion of the land tax revision. In the early 
years of Meiji the classification of lands was made merely with 



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Area and Ownership of the Forests. 229 

regard to theii features, without paying any attention to their 
position or nature or to the relations they bear toward eaph other. 
Thus the division of land into Forests and ** Genya" seems to have been 
based on no other consideration than the presence or absence of 
trees. At present there are over 2,645,322 eho of "Qenya" which, 
we raay observe, will in the near future, except such portions of 
them as may from their nature be made into pastures or cultivat- 
ed land, be mostly converted into forests. This class of land is 
especially abundant in the northern provinces of the main island 
and in Hokkaido. Some of the " Genya " already present quite a 
woody appearance and bid fair to become perfect forests in no 
distant futures. 

Of the above-mentioned area of the "Genya" 1,434,666 cho 
belong to the State; 157,174 cho to His Majesty the Emperor, 
the remaining 1,053,482 (^o being either private or communal pro- 
perty. 

Distribution of Forests. — Forests are found everywhere Ih 

the Empire from Formosa on the south to Hokkaid5 on the north. 

But their distribution is varied according to the general shape of 

the country, the height of the mountains and hills and the density 

of the population. With the exception of a small number of 

forests on level ground found here and there, Japanese forests 

form a long string on the mountains running lengthwise through 

the middle of the country. In Hokkaido the mountain ranges 

which traverse the whole island, lengthwise and crosswise, constitute 

a splendid forest-area. In the main island a 

General features chain of forests begins with Mount Hakodda 

of BistributioD, in Mutsu. It runs through Rikuchu, then appears 

as Mount Azuma in Uzen, reaches the boundary 

line between Shinano and Echigo, whence it goes on to form the 

Kiso forests, where bending southward it runs in an unbroken 

line from Mount Asama in Shinano to the Imperial forests of 

Fuji and Amagi lying between the provinces of Kai and Suruga. In 

the province of Kii the range starts from Mount Kumano whence 

it runs to meet the woods in the Yoshino districts, Yamato. In 

Shikoku the line crosses the boundary between Sanuki and Awa 

and proceeds over the summit of Mount Ishizuchi to the forests 



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230 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 



in Tosa. In Kyushu the line is continued through Mount Aso- 

and stretches to Mount Eirisbima toward the south. Thus the 

forests of Japan mostly lie in the mountainous 

Bistribntion as districts along the backbone of the country and 

to Climate. are scarce on the plains along the seaside. Again 

they are most numerous in the cold regions 

in the north and considerably less in the warmer regions in the 

south, as shown in the following table : — 



State Forests 

Imperial Forests 

Private Forests 

Total 

Area 

Population 

Area of Forests per sq. m. ... 

Area of Forests per head ... 

Forest Area as Compared 
with the Area of the 
whole Country 



State Forests 
Imperial Forests... 
Private Forests ... 

Total 

Area 

Population ... 

Area of Forests per sq. m.... 

Area of Forests per Head ... 

Forest Area as Compared! 
with the Area of the > 



Hokkaidd. 

cho, 
5,492,890.0 
651,649.5 
14,827.7 



whole Country.. 






sq. m. 
1,227.21 

2,933,657 

cho. 

836.2 

cho, 

0.35 

% 
53 



Northern Prov., 
Main Island. 

cho, 

5,773,689.7 
1,135,074.2 
3,184,358.1 



Southern Prov., 
Main Island. 

cho, 

698,480.8 

305,061.7 

3,283,306.8 



6,158,966.2 


10,093, 


,122.0 


4,286.648.6 


sq. m. 

5.987.03 

982426 

cho. 


sq. m. 
9,765.77 
19,439,079 
cho. 


sq. fli. 
5,»49.73 
14,110,730 
cho. 


1,029.6 
cho, 

6.27 

[ « 


h 


.034.5 
cho, 
0.52 


832-4 
cho. 
0.30 

% 
53 


Shikoku. 


Kyushu. 


Okinawa. 


Total. 


cho. 


cho. 


cho. 


cho. 


336,312.2 
689,761.0 


777,718.6 
687,588.8 


46,629.5 
10,418.8 


13,125,319.6 

2,091,785.4 
7,870,260.5 



1,026,073.0 1,465,3074 57,048.3 23,087,365.5 



sq. m. 
2,734.08 

6420,793 

cho, 

535.9 
cho, 
0.23 

% 

34 



sq. m. 

143.98 

465470 

cho, 

396.2 

cho, 

O.Z2 



sq. m. 
24,998.80 

44,352,155 

cho, 

923.6 

cho, 

0.52 

% 

59 



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Area and Oumership of the Forests. 231 

Note : — I. The above table does not include the forests in Formosa and the Kuriles, 
which are under investigation at present. 

2. The *< Northern Provinces, Main Island " in the above table comprise the 
districts under the jurisdiction of the Aomori, Iwate, Akita, Miyagi, Fukushima, 
Tokyo, Nagano, and Ishikawa Major Forestry Offices, while the <<Southeili 
Provinces *' comprise the districts under the Osaka, Okayama and Hiroshima 
Offices. 

The above table shows that in Hokkaido and in the north- 
ern provinces of the ma'n island, forests occupy 66^ of the whole 
area, while in the Okinawa archipelago only 26^ is wooded land. 
Kyushu has 34^ and the southern provinces of the main island 
and Shikoku have 53^ each. Leaving HokkaidQ, which was opened 
up to colonization only 30 years ago out of consideration for the 
present, Japan lias high and steep mountains in the north which 
are densely covered with forests. In the middle of the island, near 
Mount Fuji, the laud reaches the utmost elevation and thence to- 
ward the south-west the country becomes more and more open, with 
a range of hills which possesses only a few high mountains. 
These geographical features have had much to do with the unequal 
distribution of forests in the country. The difference of economical 
development in the various districts was also a powerful agent in 
this connection. In Shikoku, Kyushu and the western portion of 
Honshu or the main island, where civilization made its first appear- 
ance in Japan, the people have had better means of transportation 
than in the other parts of the Empire, and the demand for the timber 
increasing in proportion to the growth of the population, forests 
have been rather recklessly felled. This together with the greater 
need than in other regions for agricultural land must have led to 
the present scarcity of forest land in these parts. From the stand- 
point of population, Okinawa with 1 tan 2 se of forest land per soul 
rank the lowest; KyOshu has 2 tan S se; the southern provinces of 
Honshu, 3 tan; Shikoku, 3 tan 5 se; the northern provinces of Hon- 
shu, 6 tan 2 se; Hokkaido where the population is smaller than in 
any other division of the Empire, enjoys by far the greatest share of 
forests per soul, to wit ; 6 eho2tan7 se. In districts having a dense 
population there are more private and communal forests, especially 
the former, as compared with State forests, than in districts thinly 
populated. In the southern provinces of Honsha we have 698,480 



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232 Japan in the Beginning of the 20tfi Century, 

cho of State forests against 2,314,296 cho of private and communal 
forests, the ratio being 3i to 1 in favor of the latter. In Sbikoku 
this ratio is 2 to 1, while in Kyushu the two classes of forests are 
of nearly equal extent. On the contrary, in the northern provinces 
of Honshu private forests occupy only one-hulf the area of the State 
forests. In localities abounding in private or communal forests, the 
State forests are all situated in remote mountain districts, the forests 
near market towns having facilities for the transportation of timber 
being owned either by private individuals or by juridical persons. 
All these forests except a very few have hitherto been managed 
without any regard to sound principles and are therefore in a 
very impoverished condition. Some of them have lately been classed 
as protection forests in accordance with the provisions of the Forest 
Law. It is indeed in these districts that the greatest number of 
protection forests is found. 

Ill-managed forests are only too numerous everywhere in the 
Empire, but their producing capacity being made very small ia 
Distriots of coasequence of injudicious cutting, in some dis- 
Insufficient Supply, tricts the local forests are inadequate to meet 
even the ordinary demand for timber. Such is already the case 
in the southern provinces of Honshu and Kyushu, where the 
recent development of mining and industry has produced a con- 
siderably increased demand for timber. In those parts the local 
forests supply little besides wood for the purpose of fuel, and 
timber is purchased from other districts in yearly increasing 
quantities. The northern provinces of Honshu and Hokkaid5 
are yet rich in forests both in regard to area and pnxiucing capa- 
city, a great number of forests being still placed outside the 
utilization domain. There we find forests in the neighborhood of 
towns and villages, the produce of which being more than sufficient 
to meet the local needs for building, industrial and mining purpose, 
is exported to other districts and countries in large quantities. Thus 
Hokkaido exports timber to Honshu and to China and Korea for 
use in house and railroad building, Hiba (Thujopsis dolabrata) and 
Sugi (Cryptonieria japonica) timber produced in Aomori and Akita 
prefectures is exported not only to Tokyo and Osaka but to Shikoku 
and Kyushu. 



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Forest Zones and SylvicuUurcU Conditions. 233 

m. FOREST ZONES AND SYLVICULTUIULL CONDITIONS. 



The geographical position aud features of the land, the climate 
aiid the geological nature of the soil exercise manifold influences on 
the species of trees growing in such land and on their rate of growth. 

Forest Zones. — Owing to her geographical formation and more 
particularly to her climatic condition, no place of Japan except a 
portion of the Kuril es group and a few high mountains, is unfit for 
the growth of forest trees. We have all species of such trees growing 
in Japan from those belonging to the Torrid zone to those of the 
Frigid. Thus Japan is as rich as any country in the world in her 
arboreal flora. Extremes of temperature are unknown owing to the 
peculiar distribution of land and water awl to the geographical posi- 
tion, the annual average in Formosa being 23^ C. and that of 
Kamikawa in Hokkaido 5°.l. Taking the averages of the four 
mouths from April to July, (months, having, so to speak, the great- 
est influences on the growth of forest trees) we find that Kyu- 
shu indicates 21^.2 ;; Shikoku 20°.9; the southern provinces of 
Honshu 20°.4 : the northern provinces 18^.4 ; and in Hakkaid5 12.^7. 
The annual average is seldom found even in the high mountain 
districts to fall below 10°C. In comparing these with Dove's 
recognised standard temperatures, it is found that they are higher 
by 1° for the summer months and 7° lower for the winter months. 

Sylvicultural Geology. The land occupied by the sylvan 
flora of Japan has rocks belonging to almost all geological groups 
from the Achaean to the Cainozoic. They are diflerent in different 
places and very complex in structure. 

The forests in Hokkaid5 mostly stand on new volcanic rocks 
and sedimentary rocks, such as sandstone, tufiTs, and conglomerate 
belonging to the Tertiary system and in a limited space upon 
Palaeozoic rocks. The forests in the Akita and Aomori prefectures 
in North Japan are found upon igneous rocks of the Tertiary 
system. In Central Japan the mountain ranges facing the Pacific 
Ocean geologically belong to the Archaean and Palaeozoic groups, 
while the forests in the Kiso districts are flourbhing upon granite 
and other igneous rocks and also upon rocks of the Palaeozoic group. 



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234 Ja^n in the Beginning of the 2Qth Century. 

The forest land in the Muro districts in the province of Kii is 
geologically porphyry ejected in the Mesozoic era and the Yoshino 
forests in Yamato belong to the Archaean and Palaeozoic groups. 
The forests in western portion of Honshu, especially Chugoku, stand 
upon granite, while those in the provinces of Tamba and Tajima 
are found upon rocks of the Palaeozoic group. The mountains of 
Shikoku like Yoshino in Yamato are composed of Palaeozoic and 
Archaean rocks. In Kyushu only the southern section belongs to 
the Palaeozoic group, the greater part being mostly composed of 
igneous rocks. This country while fundamentally composed of Archaean 
rocks has other strata upon them, which are ejectamenta from 
volcanoes in the different periods of geological changes. These 
occasional additions of igneous rocks have been so large that at 
present nearly one-third of the forest land in the whole country is 
composed of such rocks, of which the principal rock belonging to 
the Archaean period is granite and those that were ejacted in the 
Palaeozoic and Mesozoic periods are granite, porphyry, diorite, por- 
phyrite and others. Of the ejected rocks belonging to the Tertiary 
and Quaternary periods there is a large number, but those covering 
larger aers are andesite and basalt. 

These rock formations together with other requisites for the 
growth of forest trees are found to have exercised special influences 
in accordance with their density and structure upon the generation 
of the sylvan flora aind to possess no small bearing on the formation 
of forests. 

It is a notable fact that among the extensive forests of conifer- 
ous trees that have continued to maintain a flne appearance from 
ancient times, those depending on natural regeneration are mostly 
found upon igneous rocks, while the majority of those depending on 
artificial regeneration stand on sedimentary formations. 

The fact that geographical and climatic conditions of the country 
vary in diflerent places as stated above is favorable to the growth 
of various kinds of forest trees and the fact that the topographical 
and geological features of the country are also quite diflerent in 
different places has caused a variety of forest growths to spring up. 
As it is, no less than eight hundred species and varieties of forest 
trees are feund to be well suited for culture hera But at the 



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Fwtd Zomei ani SybneuUural OondUioiu. 235 

present stage of the development of forest work in this country the 
eoonomj of forest management does not allow to attach any special 
importance to not more than ten or twelve species of forest trees. 

Obographical DiBTRiBunoK OP THE FoRESTS. — ^The forests of 
Japan are divided into four groups^ viz: Tropical forestSySub* 
Tropical forests, Temperate forests and Arctic forests. 

Tropical Forests. — Tropical forests grow in the whole of 
Formosa, the southern half of Okinawa, the Yayeyama Group and 
and the Ogasawara Islands. From the standpoint of 'altitude these 
forests are found on Niitakayama in Formosa at places below 500^ 
metres where the annual temperature does not fall below 21^C. 

Of the tropical flora the banyan heads the list followed by 
several species of palms and the bamboo. The banyan tree i& 
represented by more than 18 species, all of which are found to be 
capable of luxuriant growth. But this and other tropical plants do 
not furnish useful timber except the bamboo, several species of 
which are found in groves everywhere in these regions, growing with 
wonderful rapidity and producing huge canes, hard and strong, useful 
for manu&cturing various kinds of utensils as well as for building 
purposes. 

Sub-Tropical Forests. — The Sub-Tropical forest regions com- 
prise a portion of Okinawa, the whole of Shikoku and Kyushu 
and the part of Honshu lying south of 36** N.L. With reference 
to altitude, places lying 1,900 metres above sea level in Formosa^ 
below 850 metres in Kyushu and below 500 metres on Mt. Tsukuba 
in the province of Hitachi, Honshu, belong to this section, all 
these enjoying an average annual temperature of 13° 21' C. 

The Sub-Tropical trees are of numerous species and are highly 
valued in sylvicultural economy. As the better known parts of 
Japan, the "beaten tracts" as the tourist would call them, "Japan 
proper" as the geographer would say, have a dense population and 
early developed industries, they do not now possess forests enough to 
meet the local demand for timber. As the result of continued 
reckless felling that has been going on in these regions for many 
years, there remain only a few forests preserving their primitive 
features, and in Honshu it might be said that there are no such 
ferests except within the precincts of the Shinto or Buddhist temples. 



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236 Japan in the Beginning of the 20fh Century. 

The sylvicuUural characteristic of Sub-Tropical regions is that they are 
in possession of broad-leafed evergreens, but as the result of careless 
cutting and conflagrations deciduous broad-leafed species and the red 
pine have made intrusions changing the sylvan aspect to a remarkable 
degree. In accordance with the present features the forests in these 
regions have to be divided into three classes, broad-leafed evergreen, 
broadleafed deciduous and pine forests. 

Timber Trees in Sub-Tropical Forests. — The species 
of chief impbrtance to the sylviculturist among the broad-leafed 
evergreen trees growing in this zone are no more than the 
undermentioned : — 

Camphor Tree (Cinnamomum Camphore, Nees): — Being a 
native of this zone, the camphor tree grows in Shikoku, Kyushu, 
Formosa and the province of Kii in Honshu. This species 
is sometimes found forming a big forest. It grows every- 
where in this zone, if the soil is clayey and fertile, especially 
in places facing the 'south and free from cold winds. In 
Formosa it is found as high forest, either pure or mixed, up to 
the height of 1000 metres above the sea level. In Kyushu, 
Shikoku and the southern provinces of Honshu, old and big 
trees of this species are found here and there, thanks to the 
time-honored custom of using them as ornaniental groves of 
both Buddhist and Shinto temples. The timber is somewhat 
hard and lustrous and has a peculiar odor. It is prized for use 
in making valuable articles of furniture as well as for orna- 
mental purposes. It lasts well in water and has been valued 
from ancient times in shipbuilding. In recent years the demand 
for it as material for the production of camphor valuable in the 
various branches of industry has very largely increased and 
forests have been planted both by the Government and by 
private |)ersons. 

Tsuge (Boxus Sempervirens, var. Japonica, Mak.): — ^This 
tree even in the largest specimen measures not more than 50 
<^ntimetres in diameter and 15 metres in height. The timber is 
exceedingly hard and close and fine grained, so that the year- 
rings can hardly be distinguished. The inner wood is lustrous 
and pretty and is used not only in fine sculpture but in the 



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Foretft Zones and SyhdctUtural Ocmditians, 237 

making of valuable articles and nice rales and instruments 
because of its freedom from shrinkage or expansion, whether 
wet or dry. The tree grows in KyCishu, Izu and other 
provinces, especially in the Kawara and Koshoyama State 
.forests in Kyushu and in the private forests in Mikura and 
Miyake islands in Izu. Is a shade-loving tree and grows well 
in calcareous soil. The young trees are liable to frost damage, 
hence they must be made to grow under protecting trees. 
Reproduction by means of planting young shoots or the inser- 
tion of sprigs. 

Vbame-gashi (Quercus ilex. var. phillyrevides, P. r.): — 
The several varieties of Kashi (oak) are the most widely 
distributed of the broad-leafed evergreens. The Ubame is foui^d 
in the southern provinces of Honshu, in Awa, Kazusa and 
ShimOsa, in Kii and in the southern part of Shikoku. On the 
shores of Tosa and Kii, they are found growing in pure woods, 
but in other places mixed with other varieties of Kashi, The 
timber is white with a shade of yellow, is the hardest and 
heaviest of all timbers produced in Japan. Is used in house 
building where hardness and strength are required, but the 
chief use is in charcoal making. Considered as the best fuel 
wood in Japan. 

Ichii-gashi (Quercus silva, Bl.) : Shira-gashi (Quercus vibra- 
yeana. F.r.): Aka-gashi (Quercus acuta. Thumb.) : — 

These three species are the most extensively utilized of alf 
broad-leafed trees. The timber closely resembles that of the 
Ubame-gashi ; but its growth is quicker than the growth of trees 
of that species. Is valued in the making of the handles of 
agricultural and other tools and implements; also in making 
wheels and rudders. The I(^ii is sometimes found growing so 
big as 55 centimetres in diametre and 80 metres in height, the 
bole measuring 15 metres. Under the old regime the wood of 
this tree was highly prized for handles of spears and in the 
several clans there were strict regulations forbidding the felling 
of trees of this species. Grows in Kyushu, Shikoku and the 
southern provinces of Honshu. Pure woods are rare; fo.und 
mixed with other species of Kashi, Very widely distriduteb; 



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288 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century. 

fond of shade and grows well under standard trees. This tree 
is reproduced either naturallj or by planting. 

The deciduous broad-leafed trees belonging to this zone are 
mostly found in planted woods, principal species being Kunugi, 
Kanara and Shite. 

KuniLgi (Quercus serrata, Bl.) :— This species ranks high 
among Japanese trees in affording excellent firewood ; ranks 
next only to the oak for use in making charcoal, the far-famed 
Sakura and Ikeda charcoal being made from this wood. Not 
found in mountain regions. The home districts of these trees 
were limited to the neighborhood of the province of Settsu and 
a part of the Musashi plain. But the trees being easily made 
to form a coppice under a short-term rotation founded on very 
economical calculations, they are now found everywhere in the 
country planted as private property, except in the northern half 
of Honshu and the whole of HokkaidS. The bark contains 
tannin and is therefore used for dyeing purposes and in the 
curing of skins. The wood is also extensively used as logs for 
growing thereon Shiitake, an edible mushroom. 

Konara (Quercus glandulifera, Bl.):— Also valued as a 
firewood and charcoal yielder and commands a large sale. Found 
as a principal tree in natural mixed forests in the hilly and 
mountainous districts of Honshu, covering immense tracts ; also 
found in Hokkaid5. Like Kunugi it is somewhat fond of 
light and may grow in any land holding a suitable quantity of 
moisture within the temperate regions. It is coming into vogue 
for the making of artificial coppices of this species of oak mixed 
with Kunugi, Shite and other trees. 

The Pine family is represented by two species : Akamatsu 
or "Red pine" and Kuroinatau or "Black pine:" 

Akaniatm, or "Red Pine" ^Pinus densiflora, S. et. Z.) : — 
The most widely distributed of all the coniferous trees in 
Japan being found from the southern extremity of Kyushu to 
the southern portion of Hokkaid5; thrives in all soils 
except in places where more or less water always stagnates. 
Is fond of dry, well-drained land yellowish or reddish in color. 
It takes possession of deforested areas before other kinds of 



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Fared Zones and SylvicuUural Cdnditions. 239 

forest-trees begin to grow. In the southern portion of Honshu 
it is found in excellent condition at the height of 2,000 metres 
above the sea. It demands light and hates shade. Forms 
splendid forests either by natural or artificial regeneration. 
Mostly found in pure woods; sometimes as mixed woods planted 
with the bamboo, Konara and other trees. Because of its hardy 
nature and speedy growth, communes, religious establishments 
and private persons are very fond of planting groves composed 
of these trees. In the southern and central portions of Honshu, 
\^here, in consequence of wanton felling, the soil has been 
greatly impoverished, the red pine will come to occupy vast 
areas in the near ftiture. The wood, which is yellowish white 
with a shade of red, is hard, strong and elastic and contains a 
large percentage of resinous substances, which makes it proof 
against moisture ; hence prized for use in engineering works 
and as mining props. Used for buildiug purposes though not 
nearly equal to Sugi and Hinohi in this respect As firewood 
ranks among the most indispensable kinds of wood used for 
that purpose. The '' pine mushroom " (^MaUutake), king of table 
mushrooms, grows in the ** red pine " forests in the southern 
part of Honshu. 

Kuramatsu, or "Black Piue'*(Pinus thenbergii. Pari.): — Like 
" red pine " it serves various purposes. The wood, of reddish calor, 
is strong and hard and contains a very large percentage of resinous 
substances. Being very durable is suited for bridge foundations 
and for use in general earthwork engineering. As firewood, it 
is valued as a great heat-producer ! the root-wood being especially 
rich in resin is used as torches. Thrives well in sandy soils 
along the seashore. Found all alonc^ the coast of Shikoku, 
Kyushu and Honshu ; the area covered very extensive. 

Besides those we have groves of bamboos in the nub- 
tropical regions. Bamboos take rank among useful timbers of 
Japan. The chief species of bamboos cultivated are Madake, 
Hadiiku and Moe^. 

Madake (Phyllostachys bambusoides, Sieb. et Z.) and Haehiku 
(Phyllostachys puberula, (Miq.) Munio). — Have been used from 
ancient times for making various tools and utensils and for 



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240 Japan in the Beginning of ike 20tk Century. 

building and ornamental purposes. Recently bamboo work began 
to be largely exported to Europe and the United States. Ex- 
tensively cultivated by private persons in the southern part of Hon- 
shu, Shikoku and Kyushu. The neighborhood of Kyoto and 
Nara abound in splendid bamboo groves. At Yamashina, Kyoto, 
there are groves producing Madake canes measuring 22 centime- 
tres in diameter and 22 metres in length, ibamboo groves 
are mostly found planted either between plots under culture or 
on hill-sides. They are rarely of aoy considerable size. Bamboo 
planting is fitted for sylviculturists with small capital. 

Md^ (Phyllostachys nutis, Rivier) : — ^The largest of the 

bamboo family ; sometimes found of such dimensions as 30 

centimetres in diameter and 25 metres in height. Planted in 

groves mostly in Kyushu, Kii and the provinces adjacent to it. 

Valued for the manufacture of tools and utensils. 

Temperate Forests. — ^The Temperate sylvan flora extend from 

the northern half of Honshu to the southern half of the Hokkaido, 

between 36° and 43.° N. L., where the average annual temperatures 

range from 6° to 13° C. The Temperate forests rise in Formosa to 

the height of 3,500 metres : in Shikoku 1,800 metres ; in Central 

Honshu a little lower, to wit, 1,500 metres; and in South Hokkaido 

500 metres. 

These forests cover a large area and not a few of them maintain 
their primitive features. Being mostly natural woods of splendid 
trees they form the most important item of Japanese sylvan wealth. 
But as in these regions the climate gets rather cold and the snow lies 
on the ground during half the year, the trees are liable to be 
damaged by snow and require no small amount of tending and 
protection. 

Timber Trees in Temperate Forests. — The number of the 
species of trees belonging to these regions is over 60 but the more 
important of them are Hinohi, Sugi, Hiba, Koya-maki, Saioara, 
NezukOf Momi, Tsuga, Ira-^momi, Bara-momif Himeko-matsu, Choeenr 
inatau, Gayo-matsu and Kara-matmi in the Coniferous class; and 
KeyakL YachidavfU), Kat^ura, Onara, Saiva-gurumi, Tochi, Kurami, 
Nire, Kuri, Kiivada, Harikiri, Enju, Hokoyanagi, Doro, Honoki, 
Koishiica, Sahara, Buna and Kaede in the Broad-Leafed class. 



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FareH Zoties and SylvieuUural Canditians. 241 

Hinoki, Fir (Chamaecyparis obtusa, 8. et Z.) : — The timber 
18 soft, close-grained, strong and tough and has a peculiar scent. 
Banks first among Japanese timber trees, being used for building 
purposes, and as an ornamental wood and in engineering work 
and naval architecture; also in bridgework. Grows in the 
southern half of Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku. In the provinces 
of Kii, Yamato, Musashi, T5t0mi, and Tajima, we find extensive 
forests of this tree. The natural Hinoki forest in Kiso is one 
of the three best forests in Japan. The natural forests in the 
Koya mountains in Kii are noted for producing big Hinoki 
tree. The home of this tree is in the central portion of HonshG, 
in regions from 550 to 1,400 metres above the sea level, 
but where the atmosphere contains a suitable proportion of 
moisture, it is found in well-formed woods, either pure oi: 
mixed, in both higher or lower districts. 

Hiba (Thujopsis dolabrata, 8. et. Z.) :— This tree together 
with Hinoki, Savxira^ Nezuko and Koyamaki formed the so-called 
Goboku or "Five Trees" under the old regime and enjoyed 
careful protection at the hands of the feudal authorities. Mostly 
r^enerated naturally; rarely planted. The Aomori districts in 
the north are noted for having pure woods of Hiba. The 8tate 
forests in the Tsugaru and the Nambu peninsula are nearly 
pure woods of Hiba with a slight intermixture of Buna. There 
are extensive forests of Hiba mixed with other coniferous trees, 
such as Himeko-matsu and Sawara, in the mountains on the 
northern frontier of Rikuchu, in Goyosan in Rikuzen and in 
the mountains in the Tone districts, Kozuke. The wood grows 
slowly and the year-rings are extremely narrow. The timber is 
compact and strong; therefore used for building and engine- 
ering purpose. It has lately come to be in great demand for 
use as railway sleepers, its durability being peerless. 

Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica, Don.) ; — Very widely distribut- 
ed, being second only to "Red pines" among the conifers in this 
respect. This tree wants light, grows well in soils having a 
suitable amount of moisture, is capable of speedy and considerable 
growth, some specimens being found of such huge dim^isions 
as 2 metres in diameter and 40 metres high. In suitable soils 



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242 Japan in the Beginning of the 2(Mi Century. 

and atmosphere this tree forms woods throughout Shikoku, KyOahu 
and Honshu and even in the southern provinces of Hokkaido. 
Splendid specimens of natural pure woods of Sugi are found in 
the Nagakizawa State forests in Akita, while specimens of 
artificial forests are seen in the private forests in the Yoshino 
districts in the province of Yamato. The natural forests in 
Yakujima in Kyushu are celebrated for producing timbers having 
very fine and pretty grains known as Uzura-moku, partridge 
grains. The wood is light yellow with a shade of red ; used 
very much like Hinoki for building and ornamental purposes 
and in the manufacture of tools and utensils. 

Saioara (Chamecyparis pisifera, S. et Z.) : Nezuko (Thuya 
japonica, Maxim.): KoyorMaki (Sciadopytis verticillata, S. et 
Z.) : — Naturally these trees are always found in mixed woods;, 
and never aa pure woods. In Kiso and in the K5ya mountains 
there are natural woods of these trees mixed with Hinoki and 
other coniferous species. They are also found in large groups 
in the provinces of Yamato, Bungo, Satsuma, Omi, Iwashiro, 
Shimotsuke and Uzen, 900 metres to 1,800 metres above the 
sea-level. The timber oi Sawara and Nezuko is of pretty ap- 
pearance, but being soft, light and easy to split is mostly used 
as boards and planks by joiners and carpenters. The Koya-maki 
grows extremely slowly, its timber is close-grained and contain- 
ing some resinous substances is very durable in water. It is 
therefore valued for making water-pails and for use in earth- 
work engineering. 

Momi (Abias firma, 8. et Z.) : — Quite widely distributed, 
being always found in the primitive mountain forests in the 
southern provinces of Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku. Is a 
shade-bearing species. After its middle age it grows very fis»t 
and in well-adopted soil forms perfect trunk. The timber is 
light and coarse and undergoes much expansion and contraction, 
therefore inferior to the timber of other conifers. Owing to 
the length of its fibres and the possibility of cleaning them by 
bleaching, it is used almost exclusively as paper pulps. There 
being a great demand for the pulps the tree may gradually 
become extinct unless steps are taken for its artificial regenera- 



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Fijred Zones and SylvictUturcd Conditions. 243 

tion. The boxes and cases exported to foreign countries from 
Japan are mostly made of this wood. 

Tsiiga (Tsuga sieboldii, Carr.) : — ^In distribution similar to 
Momi and mostly found in woods mixed with Momi. Growth 
very slow; the timber being of compact structure is highly 
appreciated for ornamental purpose. Used like Momi as material 
for paper and box making. 

Himeko-matsu (Pinus parviflora, 8. et Z.): — ^Is found in 
woods in regions between places elevated 1,600 metres above 
the sea on the K5tsuke-Echigo boundary-line and the moun- 
tain ranges of Iwashiro. Nearly pure woods are seen in the 
provinces of Toshima and Shiribeshi, Hokkaid5. 

Ooyo^matsu (Pinus pentaphylla, Mayr.) and Ghosen-matsu 
^Pinus Koreinsis, 8. et Z.) are found overlapping the Tem- 
perate regions and the Arctic. Barely met with in the 
mountains in the central and northern sections of Honshu. 
The Ooyi^matsu is found in the form of a quasi-pure forest in 
the province of Tokachi, Hokkaido. 

Bara-momi (Picea polita, Carr.) and IrcHnomi (Picea bicolos, 
Mayr.) are vety limited in distribution being only found to any 
^great extent on the sides of Mount Fuji, at the height of over 
2,000 metres above the sea-level. Grenerally they are found in 
solitary clusters on the high mountains. As they possess the 
useful characteristic of making reasonable growth even in poor 
And shaded land, they have drawn the attention of the Govern- 
ment authorities as being probably suited for making protection 
forests intended to preserve the soil. The growth is very slow 
And the timber being very soft, is inferior to that of other 
<»niferous species for ordinary purposes but is suited for making 
<;eilings and also water-jfree articles of furniture. 

Karormatsu (Larix leptolepis, Gk)rd.). — ^Found in natural 
woods at Mts. Fuji and Asama and the Azumi districts in 
the province of 8hinano. Grows wild in the mountains of 
NikkO ; nowhere else found in natural woods. It is a decidedly 
light-demanding species and thrives in dry soils of volcanic 
origin. The timber is tolerably hard and durable and valued for 
Louse and ship-building purposes, as telegraph poles, in civil engine- 



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244 Jfxpan in ihe Beginning of the 2(Hh Century, 

eriog work and for other uses. The tree grows fast and is free 
from ordinary dangers incidental to sylviculture. Thrives well in 
any soil however poor, hence it is growing in popularity in 
Honshu and Hokkaid5. 

The broad-leafed trees of the Temperate regions are very 
numerous and occupy more than one half the area under forest. 
They are found everywhere in great luxuriance, but single 
species are rarely seen in the form of a strictly pure forest, 
although Konara, Kashiwa, Onara^ Kaha, Karo-no-ki, Han-no-hi, 
Kateura and Buna are widely distributed throughout Honshu 
and in the southern half of Hokkaido in almost unmixed woods. 
All the other species grow in irregular intermixture with other 
broad-leafed or needle-leafed trees, sheltering and protecting each 
other so as to preserve the original sylvan features. Below are 
given chief species of sylvicultural importance : 

Keyaki (Zelkowa Keaki, Sieb.).— No other broad-leafed 
species is adopted to so many ways of utilization and so highly 
valued as Keyaki. This species is found everywhere in Honshu^ 
Shikoku and Kyushu, but rarely in pure woods. It grows to 
enormous dimensions in woods intermixed with shade-bearing 
species of the broad-leafed family. Loves calcareous soils and 
the south-eastern sides of mountains, where, when the soil i» 
suitable, it attains perfect growth. Found wild below 1,600 
metres in Shikoku and Kytishu and under 750 metres in the 
northern section of Honshu. Kiso, Izu, T5t5mi, Kii, Hyuga, 
Yamato, Ise and Ou (the north-eastern districts of the Main 
Island) are especiall noted for producing big Keyaki trees. 
Requiring a great many years for its full growth, it is unsuited 
for planting by private sylviculturists with small capital. The 
Government is, however, making their best endeavors to preserve 
and increase the areas under this species. The timber is very 
strong, hard, and lustrous; highly valued for building and 
ornamental purpose; also in naval architecture. Keyaki timber 
which has Jorin (ring-like), Uzura, (partridge feather), Tama 
(gem) or Botan (peony) grain is used for making valuable 
articles of fumitui'e. Keyaki wood is a favorite material for 
sculptors, being hard and easy to work. 



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Fared Zo)ies mid Sylvieidtural Condition, 245 

Buna (Fagus sylvatica, var. Sieb., Maxim.) — Occupies the 
largest space next to Akarrwieu. Found in the hills and moun- 
tains in the northern section of Honshu, in the elevated districts 
in the southern section of Honshu, Bhikoku and KyQshu; also 
in many provinces of HokkaidQ. Mostly found mixed with 
Onara, Katsura^ Shuji, Itaya-Kayede and other trees, but in 
Aomori, Iwate, Echigo and Yamagata pure woods of vast 
•dimensions are seen in the mountains over 300 metres above the 
sea. As a firewood and charcoal producer, this is one of the 
most important speces. The timber is little used for building 
purposes. The Kosaka, Ani and other mines have large Buna 
forests for getting supplies of fuel. This tree grows well in the 
shade and having the characteristic of growing even when 
extremely old, it sometimes attains an enormous size. The 
Ainos in Old Japan are said to have made log-boats of this tree. 

Yaehidamo (Fraxinus mandshurica, Rupr.) and JCaisura 
(Cercidiphyllum japonicum, 8. et Z.,). — ^The only broad-leafed 
species afibiding building timbers. Also used for ornamental 
purposes. Very widely distributed, found in all parts of Hokkaido 
and in the mountain valleys in the northern section of Honshu* 
Thrives best in level ground; excellent pure woods of Katmra 
are seen in the province of Iburi. The timber is soft and 
<x)mpact and possesses elastic powers of a durable character* 
Hence extensively used of late as railway sleepers ; it is chiefly 
such sleepers that are exported to North China. 

InurEnju (Cladorostis amurensis, var. floribunda, Maxim.): — 
Found in the northern section of Honshu and in South Hokkaido 
mixed with other broad-leafed species. The timber is verj 
pretty and is used for making valuable articles of furniture* 
Exported to China and Korea as railway sleepers. 

Kurumi (Juglans sieboldiana, Maxim.): — Grows in rich 
mountain valleys and on low lands in the central and northern 
sections of Honshu. On the plains of Ishikari and Tokachi 
in Hokkaido, it is foond in woods mixed with YaMdamo, 
KaUwra^ Nire and other trees. The timber is in demand for 
making zailwaj carriages and for highly omamratal purposes^ 
4nd also for lifle-stocka. 



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246 Japan in ike Beginning of the 20th Century. 

Harikiri (Acanthopanox ricinifolium, 8. et Z.); — Grows ia 
wet soils in Shimozuke, Iwashiro and Iwate; and everywhere 
in Hokkaido. In rich soil attains considerable dunensions* 
The timber is somewhat hard and lustrous with well defined 
grain and whitish in color. Prized for ornamental purposes 
and for making articles of household furniture. In great demand 
as railways sleepers like Yachidamo and KcUsura. 

Kashivxi (Quercus dentata, Thumb.) and Onara (Quer- 
cus crispula, Bl.) : — Found in wet places between the mountains 
in the Kasu and Ou districts in Honshu and everywhere on 
the plains of Hokkaido. In Honshu rarely found in pure 
woods, always growing mixed with other broad-leaf species, but 
in some parts of Hokkaido, there are extensive pure woods of 
these trees. The timber of Onara is widely used as sleepers 
and is one of best producers of firewood and charcoal. Kashitoa 
contains tannin in its bark and is used in curing skins. Other- 
wise it is not used, except as firewood. 

Hoko-yanagi (Populus tremulus, var. villosa, Mesm.) and 
'* DoTonoki " (Populus balsamifera, var. suareobenus. Send) : — 
The two species are most valuable wood in Japan for making 
match-sticks. The former grows all over Shikoku, Kyushu, 
Honshu, and as far north as Hokkaid5, while the latter thrives 
well in the north-eastern districts of Honshu and Hokkaid5. 
They grow easily in sandy wet soil, are found forming uniform 
forests of perfect sylvicultural aspect in many parts of Hokkaido. 
The trees are fond of light and under favorable condition 
their growth is very rapid, and after 25 years from germination 
they easily attain the height of 6 metres. Beproduced by seeds 
or layer or by dividing the roots. They are being planted 
extensively in private forests. 

Kuri (Gastenea vulgaris, var. Japonica, D.G.) : — ^The 
extent of the growth of this species is exceedingly wide. In 
Kyushu and Shikoku and the western parts of Honshu the tree 
imparts a special aspect to the forests growing on the sides of 
high hills or on hillocks. In places north to the middle section 
of Honshu, it grows well on the plains and produces valuable 
timber. However the specie rarely forms any extensive pure 



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Fored Zones and SylvieuUural ChndiHons, 247 

forest of its own, and generally mixed Buna, Hiba, Kiwadoy 
KaUura, Kayede Sawah^rumi, etc In the Kobinata State 
forest found in Tone district, Kozuke, and in Hiraga district, 
Ugo, it is found forming pure forests of no small extent. The 
timber is extremelj hard, can stand wet, and on the whole lasts 
long, is therefore preferred for railway sleepers to any other 
tree growing in Japan. The sleepers used in the Government 
l%kaid5 railroad and in the Hankaku railroad are made from 
the timber of this tree. 

Sakura (Prunus Pseudo cerasus, var. spontanea, Maxim), 
Kaede (Acer palmatas. Thumb), Hanoki (Magnolia hypolenea^ 
8. et Z.) : — These are not trees of any great sylvicultural 
importance, and very rarely do they form pure forests of their 
own, growing mostly, as they do, amidst conifers or broad-leaf 
trees. However they are of importance for certain special 
purpose, and as the supply is hardly suificient to meet demand, 
their price is comparatively high. In view of this fact, both 
in State forests and private forests, they are being planted side 
by side with trees of other sorts. 

Tochi (.£bcu1us trebunata, BL), Xire (Uluno campestris, var. 
Learis, Planch), Hannoki (Alnus Japonica, 8. et Z.), Toneriko 
(Fraxinus Bungeana, D.C.), Saikachi-enoki (Gleditechia Japonica, 
Miq.), Yanagi (Salix acutiporia, L.) are deciduous broad-leafed 
trees not particularly possessing any great sylvicultural value. 
They are grown in this zone for the purpose of giving protection 
to primary trees or for maintaining the fertility of forest- 
land. 

Frigid Forebtb. — ^Forests in the Frigid zone occupy in the 
northern half of Hokkaid5 and the Kuriles those places where the 
average yearly temperature does not exceed 6*^. In regard to altitude 
distribution, the zone comprises in Formosa those places that are not 
less than 3,500 metres from the sea-level, and in the middle section 
of Honshu all places 1,800 metres above sea level. 

TiUBERrXREEB IN Frigid Forbbtb. — ^Timber-trecs growing in 
this region are naturally not so numerous as in those in warmer 
iiegi(ais. Indeed as the {oteeta of this zone, except those in Hokkaido, 
aie located in high altitudes, with pcor soil, and subjected to strong 



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348 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

winds, the trees are generally too stunted in growth to be of anj 

value. 

In Hokkaido, however, conifers grow luxuriantly and m&nj 
primitive forests not yet explored are found. The principal trees 
in these forests are Todo-matsu (Abies Sachaliensis, Mast.) and 
Yezo-inatsu (Picea ajanensis, S. et Z.). Starting from altitudes 
measuring 450 metres in the southern parts of the island, 
these trees are found growing luxuriantly in the mountains of 
Ishikari, Teshio, Tokachi, Nemuro, and Kitami, and lastly in 
the island of Kunajiri. The Imperial forests at Tarunai, Uryu, 
Kushiro, and the State forests at Otoneton, Shari and Kunajiri 
practically consist of extensive pure forests of these trees, 
presenting a highly regular aspect. The timber of Todo^matgu 
is in large demand for architectural and earth-works, and is 
indeed most valuable of all the timbers produced in Hokkaido. 
The wood is, however, coarse-grained, and light and is liable 
to bend when exposed alternately to dryness and humidity. 
Bather close-grained and resinous, the wood is in great demand 
for architectural work. 

Akaezo-matsu (Picea Glehui, Mast.). — ^Though valuable as 
timber next to the two foregoing species, this tree rarely forms 
a pure forest, is in greater demand than the other two, and 
commands a higher price. The wood is close-grained and suited 
for architectural work. 

In Etrup and Shikotan of the Kuriles, a species of larch, 
scientically termed Larix daburica, var. Japonica, Max. is found 
growing, and exposed to inclement climate forms a pure forest 
of good aspect. The wood is reddish, hard, and well stands wet, 
and is therefore used in shipbuilding, earthwork and furniture- 
making. 

Shirorkaba (Betula alba, var. vulgaris, D.C.), Yaynct-hanr 
fiokb (Alnus incana, var. glanea. Ait.), Nagakamado (Pirus 
ancuparia, var. Japonica, Max.) are some of the decidaous 
broad-leafed trees that are found in this zone either as pure 
forests or scattered among other trees. They are, however, of 
small sylvicultural value, and are generally used as firewood 
by miners or fishermen residing in the vicinity. 



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Fored Zones and SylvictUtural Coiiditions. 249 

There are many other trees growing in the respective zones, but 
the principal species are generally confined to those above described. 
As found in natural growth, they either form pure forests or are 
mixed with other trees. In general conifers occupy in the southern 
districts elevated places, while forests on the level mostly consist of 
broad-leafed trees. In the northern districts conifers cover mountain 
slopes, while on their top and foot broad-leafed trees predominate. 

Ratio op different kinds of Wooded- areajs. — On the whole 
the different classes of forests exist in the following proportions in 
the wooded areas of Japan : — 

Conifer Forests 21^ 

Broad-Leafed Forests 2$% 

Conifer and Broad-Leafed Forests 4$% 

Thinly-Stocked or Blank Areas, etc 9% 



Total 100 

Bamboo areas, though forming a feature in our forest system 
and sufficiently profitable in exploitation, are still extremely limited 
in extent ; nor do they show any sign of enlargement in a near 
fciture. A description of them has, therefore, been omitted here. 

The growing extension of Aka-matsu forests recently in Honshu, 
Shikoku and Kyushu tended to raise the relative ratio of conifer 
forests to broad-leafed forests, and this tendency is further accele- 
rated by the greater demand, in consequence of the development 
of industry and business, for such conifers as Sugi, Hinohi, and 
KaranuOtu which are being planted extensively. In the State forests 
the relative proportion of the different kinds of forests stands as 
follows : — 



Conifer Forests 

Broad-Leafed Forests 

Conifer and Broad-Leafed Forests ... 
Thinly-Stocked or Blank Areas, etc 

Total 



11% 

Ar9% 
12% 



The forest-areas devoted to conifers will attain before long the 
proper ratio to which they are entitled from increasing demand 
upon them. 



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260 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

In the Imperial forests, owing to the greater attention paid to 
forest aspect, the relative proportion is more satisfactory, as : — 

Conifer Forests 23^ 

Broad-Leafed Forests 24% 

Conifer and Broad-Leafed Forests *. 49^ 

Thinly-Stocked or Blank Areas, etc 4^ 

Total 100 

Both in the State forests or Imperial forests the principal trees 
are, in conifers, Aka-mat8U, Tsuga, Todo-matsu, Sugi, Hinoki, Monti, 
etc. ; while, in broad-leafed trees Buna, different varieties of Nara 
and Kaahi, Kaba, Kuri, etc. constitute principal species. 



III. ADJUSTMENT OF THE FORESTS. 



General Remarks. — The work of forest adjustment was attended 
to by the Court as early as the Konin era (the beginning of the 9th 
century), when the Emperor of the day issued a proclamation restrict- 
ing the undue felling of trees and ordering in general the' due 
protection of forests. From about that time till the advent of the 
Tokugawa Begency, the sylvicultural business fared no better than 
other industrial affairs, that is, it suffered much from neglect and 
devastation. With the establishment of the Tokugawa regime, and 
after about three centuries of this iron administration something like 
a regular system for protection of forests had been evolved. Different 
systems prevailed, indeed, in different dfl;imyiates but they all had 
this feature in common, that is to say they originated from necessity 
of military defense. Stem rules characteristic of a military despotism 
were therefore enforced for the protection of the forests. It is true 
that even then forests were divided into utilization forests and pro- 
tection forests, but even in the case of the former more or less 
severe restrictions were always enforced. The existence of protection 
forests was extraordinary both in kind and extent. These 
comprised forests at the headwaters of rivers, the forests planted te 
prevent landslips, the forests planted to protect against damage 
from heavy snowfS&lls, the forests intended to give shelter to the 



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AdjustmerU of the Foreds. 261 

water and to invite the collection of fish in it, and foreets of other 
descriptions. For the protection of special kinds of trees the rules 
enforced were extremely strict. The prohibition trees differed 
according to places. HU>a tree was protected in Aomori, 
^'Frohibition Suffi in Akita, while Kiso had *' five prohibition trees " 

Trees." Kii "six," Awa "seven" and Kumamoto "three." 
This prohibitive treatment gave rise to the development 
of the work of utilization and adjustment, and by keeping careful 
forest records and by adopting a conscientious system of rotation 
each daimyiate made it a point to secure the constant supply 
of valuable kinds of timber within its own bordeis. Whatever 
advantages Japan now enjop in the matter of forests, she must 
be said to owe to this jealous guard kept over her forests of old by 
the feudal pinces. 

The protection of the forests having been maintained by despotic 
roles as was the case in France before the Revolution, — rules which 
did not originate in any regular economic principles. 
The Bestoiatiou the withdrawal of those rules on the Bestoration was 
and the consequence. The Meiji Grovernment lost no time. 

Deforestation, however, in taking measures calculated to check thia 
alarming state of affairs. Those measures were, 
however, not quite calculated to cope with the trouble, and at best 
could but partially remove it. One of the most serious in- 
conveniences that confronted the Forest authorities was the absence 
of definite boundaries between one State forest and another or be- 
tween a State forest and a private forest, so that while in the former 
case the accurate determination of forest areas was not possible, 
in the latter case the State frequently claimed forests belonging to 
the other owners. Again illicit felling or felling due to mistake 
fi:equently took place, thereby complicating indescribably the work 
of proper control. It was primarily with the object of removing thia 
fruitful source of trouble and of thoroughly adjusting the boundaries, 
that the authorities' started in 1890 the first r^ular programme 
of treatment. 

FiBST Adjustment Pbogbamme. — ^This programme is to be 
oompleted in 15 years ending 1904. To meet the expense necessary 
for carrying it out the Gk)vemment decided to disburse, besides 



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262 Japan in tJie Beginning of the 20th Century. 

regular expense, a sum of 865,851 yen on account of extraordinary ex- 
pense. The programme aims in accomplishing the following object : — 

1. To inquire into the condition of those State forests and 
plains (measuring altogether 6,600,000 cho) irregularly 
scattered over the country, to carefully classify them into 
those that should with benefit be maintained as State property 
and those that should be transferred to private property; 
also to clearly define the jurisdiction limit of supervising 
offices by determining the relative convenience of control 
and relative economic advantages. 

2. To clearly define the boundary between State forests and 
to provide against illicit felling and felling by mistake. 

3. To ascertain the exact area of those State forests of greatest 
economic importance measuring 1,380,000 c7m) and to pre- 
pare accurate forest maps. 

From its very nature the work embodied in the foregoing 
clauses requires a long space of time, but at the same time the 
elaboration of a definite sylvicultural system demands the speedy 
completion of the work. It was a very judicious measure, therefore, 
on the part of the authorities that the programme was adopted as a 
continuation work so as to preclude it from being altered by any 
new arrangement that might be made in future. 

The working of this programme, which is to be completed this 
fiscal year, has been highly satisfisu^tory and has imparted for the 
first time a firm basis of operation to Government forestry policy. 
The sale of State forests and plains, the opening up of some of them 
to exploitation by private individuals either by being brought under 
cnltivation or converted into pastures, the elaboration of a high 
rotation system for other kinds of forest-land — all these and many 
other things are the fruit of this work of the first programme, which 
may therefore be said to have inaugurated a new era in the economy 
of State forests in this countiy. 

Sbcx)nd Adjustment Programme. — The work started by that 
programme has been continued by the so-called second programme 
which came into operation in 1898 to extend till 1903, a Special 
Forest Account Fund being created for the purpose. The work 
aimed at in this new programme is one of the highest importance. 

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Adjustment of the Forests. 25S 

being uothiDg less than the adjustment of the irr^^ar condition of 
State forests, the expansion of the limit of exploitation, the increase 
of fertility of forest-land, in short the thorough re-adjustment from 
the very basis of the economic system of State forests. Started in a 
concreate form the work involved in this programme consists in 
determining the forests and plains that may no longer be kept as 
State property, in the final survey of State forests and plains which 
should be kept as such, and in the elaboration of plan for working 
such forests and plains, planting open spaces, undertaking engineering 
works relating to forests, purchasing such forests as are required, and 
in short all those matters necessary for determining the system of ex- 
ploiting State forests and plains. The fund devoted for completing 
this programme was fixed at 23,025,053 yen. The fact that the 
programme involved such a big outlay at first deterred the authorities 
from adopting it, but the difficulty was solved by setting it apart as 
a special account with the revenue supplied by the proceeds of the 
sale of forests and plains which may no longer be kept as State 
property. The measure embodying this progranmie obtained the 
approval of the Imperial Diet and was finally issued as law in 
1898. 

The completion of this important programme mainly depending 
on the sale of unimportant State forests and plains, it is evident 
that the authorities must carefully regulate this sale so that all the 
difierent undertakings in the programme may be regularly carried 
out according to the prescribed plan of operation. 

Financial Prospect of the Adjustment. — The result of 
the programme will revolutionize the economy of the .State 
forests. Not to speak of an addition of 50,983 yen to the Bevenue 
on account of the Land Tax accruing from the forests and plains 
transferred to private ownership, the adjustment effected will con- 
siderably diminish the managing expenses and will improve the 
^ciency of the work of control. The revenue from the increased 
felling is especially important, it being estimated that after 1910 
the revenue will be four times what it is now. This means an 
addition of over 3,310,000 yen to the State Revenue. After the 
lapse of one hundred years, by which time the renovated forests, 
even supposing that the market price will remain as low as it in 



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254 Japan in the Beginning of ike 20ih Century. 

now, will have grown to 66 nullion yen a year, about a quarter 
of the total amount of Revenue to-day. That this forecast is by 
no means a sanguine one is proved by the experience of the four 
years that have elapsed since the commencement of the programme. 

Investigation and adjustment of State Fobbsts.— The 
investigation was carried out from 1890 to 1894 into the existing 
condition of State forests in Shikoku, Kyushu and Honshu where 
there are 719,473 such forests, with the object of selecting those forests 
which should be kept as State property and those which may with 
advantage be sold to private individuals. 

Mode op First Adjustment plan. — ^The selection is made by 
keeping the following points in view: — 

1. Those which exist in a lot of over 50 cho or in different 
lots found within the limit of one town or village or 
within the distance of not more than 2 ri from each other, 
and which can permanently carry out independent syl- 
vicultural work. 

2. Those which exist in a lot of less than 50 eho but which 
can without any trouble be managed in consequence of 
the existence in the same district or in a neighboring 
district of a State forest or forests measuring over thou- 
sands or hundreds of cho, 

3. Those which, though existing in a lot of less than 10 
cho or are economically unimportant, are useful for con- 
structing forest-roads, for the transport of wood or for 
storing wood, building official residences of foresters or 
for other matters connected with State forests. 

The foi-ests coming under any of the foregoing conditions 
were to be reserved as State property, and the others not satis- 
fying them to be disposed of Also forests or plains necessary to 
the farmers living in the neighborhood for getting fodder or grass 
for manure were to be transferred to private ownership, provided 
no particular necessity existed for keeping them as State property. 

The result of investigation was that of the State forests and 
plains measuring altogether 8,095,916 eho, 7,354,343 cho were 
judged fit to be retained as State property and the remaining 741,573 
eho unfit for that purpose. 



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Adjustment of the Forests. 266 

The proceeds obtained by dispoeing of those unimportant 
forests and plains are to be used as ftinds for carrying out the 
second forestry programme, mentioned above, that is to say, the 
forest exploitation as work of special account. 

Seookd Adjustment Plan. — ^However the selection made was 
afterward judged to be not entirely satisfactory; it was found in 
&ct to be satis&ctory both in respect of omission and of commission, 
while with the progress of the times, it became necessary to take 
into a greater consideratiops than before the question of the public 
peace and order. It was decided in 1899 to make thorough second 
investigations based on advanced principles of forest exploitation. 
The rules to guide the investigation were drawn up and the work 
was started afresh in that year. The disposal of unimportant 
forests and plains determined by the second investigation is to be 
completed in six years from 1899, and during the three years from 
that year to 1901 inclusive about 51,756 cho in 16,113 lots were sold, 
and a sum of 5,199,198 yen was realized by that transaction. 

Demarkation op boundaries and measurement of State 
Forests and Plains. — ^The exact measurement of forests and 
accurate forest-maps being absolutely indispensable for conducting 
scientiffic treatment of forests, the Grovemment issued in 1884 Notes 
relating to Boundaries of State forests, aud caused the local offices 
to undertake the demarkation of the boundaries and the measure- 
ments of the forests. The formulae set forth in the Notes were 
too simple to render the result of the work to be of any great use. 
They were repeatedly improved, the last in 1899, and the system 
elaborated in the latter year is now in force. 

The system now in force. — ^That system divides the work 
into three divisions, viz., demarkation of boundaries, triangular 
surveying as applied to forests, and contour surveying. On the 
completion of the work, foundation maps of working plan are to be 
drawn on a scale of 1/5000. 

The final survey carried out according to the foregoing system 
reached in extent to 29,289 kilometres and 761,349 cho 3 tan 5.22 
9€ in measurement There remain 2,850 kilometres for which the 
work of contour surveying has been accomplished but whose mea- 
surement still remains to be completed. 



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256 Japan in the Beginning of the 2(Mh Century. 

Elabobation of the Working Pi^an. — The treatment of 
forests without any definite plan being inconsistent with the interests 
of forest economy in 1890 a provisional working plan was there- 
fore drawn up intended to provide some directions with regard to 
felling. But with the progress of the first adjustment programme it 
was possible to apply a more scientific and permanent plan, at least 
in the case of these forests for which the work of adjustment had 
been completed. The forests qualified to be dealt with under this 
permanent plan were those in Ehime, Fukuoka, Kagoshima, Hiro- 
shima, Osaka, Ishikawa, Akita, and a few others. The notes drawn 
up for forming the plan were to this effect: — 

1. That the system of sylviculture should be maintained in 
as perfect a condition as possible and that the utmost 
quantity of timber possible should at the same time be 
obtained. 

2. That a proper care should be exercised in planting and 
felling, and provisions should be made against damage of 
wind and fire and insects. 

3. That reserves should be provided to counteract the diminu- 
tion of the crop incidental to such damage. 

In the elaboration of the plan a minor forestry office was regard- 
ed as a unit of economy, and the determination of a yearly cutting 
volume was based on the area to be cleared and the crop to be 
obtained. With the progress of the work of adjustment and the 
greater light bestowed, in consequence, on the condition of the forests, 
it was possible, especially as a result of the development of facilities 
of commimication, to draw up a plan of a more perfect description. 
In 1899 and again in 1901 the necessary amendment was effected 
in the principle of the working plan. The amendment was chiefly 
intended to adopt the plan as well as possible to the conditions of 
a district and of a forest. It was also decided that the improvement 
of the irregular aspect of the forests should be made in a limited 
space of time. In short, the plan was made to cover all matters 
relating to the utilization of timber and the renovation and re- 
generation of forests, and was intended to procure the maximum 
income and produce crops best calculated to satisfy the demand on 
the market. 



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Exploitation and Treatment of the Forests, 257 

The permanent working plan as at first elaborated was first 
put into operation in 1893 and 58,916 eho b tan 9 se was adjusted 
till 1899, while from the time of the carrying in effect of the second 
adjustment programme to the end of 1901 the forests measuring 
30,945 cho 1\ tan received similar treatment, making altogether 
89,862 eko 3} tan. 

Adjustment of the Imperial Forests. — The Imperial 
forests having been originally transferred from State forests, the 
conditions requiring adjustment and the elaboration of working 
plan were practically identical with those of the State forests. 
As in the case of State forests, therefore, the work of selecting 
those forests to be retained and those to be disposed of was started 
in 1892 and completed in 1898 while work of drawing up per- 
manent working plan was commenced in the latter year. The 
final survey was carried during the nine years ended 1901 for 
forests extending in aggregate length to 7,076 kilon etres and 
measuring altogether 332,482 cho 2.21 se. The working plan for 
147,205 cho in the forests at Fuji, Kiso, Amaki, and Watarae has 
been completed. 



lY. EXPLOITATION AND TREATMENT OF THE FORESTS. 



Sylvicultural Treatment and Oavnership. — ^The work- 
ing plan and economy of forests difier according as they are 
owned by private individuals, by the State or by the Im- 
perial Household, for it is naturally expected that, in the forests 
belonging to the State or to the Imperial Household, the interests 
of the public and of the nation should be consulted more than 
in private forests. Consequently the managers of the State forests 
do not look for speedy returns. In view of this consideration the 
State and Household forests have elaborated a high forest system- 
and the felling of trees is regulated according to this special 
system. 

Forests also present a different appearance according as they 
belong to the State, to the Imperial Household or to private in- 
dividuals. Those belonging to the former two are generally re- 



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258 



Japan in the Beginning of the 2(Hh Century. 



newed as a result of natural growth and are therefore less uni- 
form in composition than those owned by people whose forests re- 
ceive greater care, the object being to make them yield returns 
more quickly. The woods at TokaidO, already mentioned and those 
at Muro and Kii, are noteworthy in this respect, the profit deriv- 
ed from them being even larger than the rate in Saxony, where 
forestry is carried on to greater perfection than anywhere else 
throughout the world. On the other hand. 
Rotation in State affected by this consideration of obtaining quicker 
and Imperial returns, privately owned forests do not generally 
Forests. admit of high forest treatment. The State or 

Household forests are therefore obliged to supply 
that in which the other forests are deficient and to produce timber- 
trees and to properly regulate the cutting period. This period is 
generally as follows for valuable timber-trees: — 



years. 

80—120 

100—150 

100—150 

40—100 

80—100 

80—100 

150 — 200 

150 — 200 



Hinoki ... 
Hiba ... 
Aka-niatsu 
/Cara-nuiisu 
JCuro-niatSH 
Keyaki ... 
Ktisu ... 



As the economy of ordinary forests does not admit of such 

high, rotation, some of them adopt the medium 

Botation in Pri- rotation system, such as coppioe-with-standard 

vate Forests. systems, and while utilizing the underwood in a 

comparatively short space of time they leave 

the over-wood for utilization after it has reached the period of 

proper maturity. Sometimes the two-storied high forest system is 

adopted, and by planting light-demanding trees of quicker growth 

double rotation system is applied. 

FouEST Formations. — ^In regard to the selection of forestry 
formations, considerable care is required, for while naturally re- 
generated forests require reorganization on account of their irregular 
aspect a pure forest formation is likely to cause trouble in Japan 



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Exploitation and Treatment of the J^orests, 269 

from wind or snow and also on account of the risks from injurious 
insects. The result is that the planting, as it is carried on now- 
a-dajs, aims at growing two or three different species made to 
occupy different compartments or groups or suitably mixed together. 
Then again the sylvicultural system as adopted in State forests 
necessarily differs from that in privately-owned forests, and varies 
also according to locality. For instance, on mountain slopes clear 
cutting methods, especially of any wide area, may be inadvisable 
and selection cutting and shelter-wood system have to be adopted. 
This selection cutting being, however, inconvenient, the Govern- 
ment is determined to adopt, as far as circumstances permit, the 
clear cutting method and to entirely renovate sylvicultural for- 
mation. 

The coppice-with-standard system is adopted for a special 
sort of forestry management, especially for small fire-wood 
areas worked by private individuals who are aiming at the 
largest possible returns at within shortest possible periods. This 
system is of course out of place for a forest of any extensive 
area. 

Bamboo plantations constitute peculiar feature of our sylvicul- 
ture, and is likely to prove highly profitable owing to the grow- 
ing demand for bamboos. One serious drawback in the manage- 
ment of bamboo groves is the fact that land suited for raising 
any large bamboo forest is not to be found in Japan, while the 
more valuable varieties of this species can only be grown in 
certain limited parts of the country. 

Coppice woods are grown to supply firewood, the demand for 
which is unusually large in Japan. They are generally left to 
renew themselves, especially when the area is extensive; but those 
situated in the vicinity of cities and towns are artificially tended, 
the species chosen for this purpose being generally Kunugi and 
Konara. 

The treatment of protection forest consists of selection cutting, 
the style of which must differ according to 
Selection Cutting in the character of the forest and to local condi- 
^tection Forests, tions. The rotation should be regulated accord- 
ing to the following standards : — 



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260 



Japan in the Beginning of ike 2Qih Century, 



Copice Woods 

Bamboo Woods ... • ... 

Coppice-with-Standards 
Timber Forests 



... Not less than lo years. 
.,. Not less than 3 years. 

rf-Overwood not less than 30 years, under- 

\ wood not kss than 10 years. 
... Not less than 30 years. 





percei 




... 32 




6 




... 24 




... 17 




10 




II 



Treatment of State Forests. — ^The total area of the forests- 
under regular treatment is being ascertained at present by the 
Government. At present the data for State forests alone are. 
available, these roughly standing as follows : — 



Method of treatment. 

Clear Cutting Timber-Forests 

Shelter-Wood Timber-Forests 

Selection Cutting Timber-Forests 

Coppice ... - 

Coppice- with-Standard and Bamboo ... 
Tliinly Stocked Areas, Bare Areas, etc. 

Total 



It will be seen from the above that the timber-forests treatment 
occupies about 62 per cent, of the whole areas of State forests. 
The principal growing stock consists of Buna (beech) 30 per cent., 
Akamatm 20 per cent., Sugi 12 per cent., Hinoki 7 per cent., Kashi 
(oaks) 6 per cent., Kuromaisii and Hiba, both 4 per cent., the 
remaining 17 per cent., cansisting of conifers and broad-leafed trees. 
In coppice woods Kunugi, Konara, and oaks occupy about 85 per 
cent, while in coppice-in-standard woods Momi, Tmga, oak and 
Nara predominate over any other species. 

Conversion of Wood. — The method of conversion of wood 
have become more and more uniform than ever. There are usually 
three methods, these being the outcome of customs at different forest 
districts and in different markets. 

Styles of Conversion. — The Fukagawa timber yard in Tokyo 
is the most important depot for the wood produced at the northern 
parts of Middle Honshu. Three different styles of designation are 
in vogue in this depot corresponding to so many modes of convertion. 
These are " Motoki/' " Nami-motoki " and " Kawabe-mono." The 
first comes from the wood districts of Mino, Hida, Owari, T0t5mi^ 



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Exploitation and Treatment of the Forests. 261 

Tosa, Mikawa, etc.^ with a standard length ^of not less than 14 
Bkaku, the second is applied to woods coming from Kii and measures 
not less than 14 shaku, and the last one is applied to woods produced 
at Hitachi, Shimozuke, and Musashi with the length of 14 shaku. 
Woods coming from Hokkaido and the north-eastern parts of Honshu 
are treated as ** Motoki " and therefore possess measure of correspond- 
ing length. All these kinds of timber are prepared either as round 
logs or balks or sawn timbers. The converted timbers of "Motoki" 
are required to possess the legal standard, but for those of the 
other two kinds the allowance of 2 to 3 per cent, to the standard 
measure is conceded. 

In general Sugi, Hinold, Matsu, Keyaki, Momi, Tsuga, Hiba, 
Yachidamo, Hdnoki, Katsura, etc., are converted as sided logs, while 
Sugif Hiiwki, Sawara, Tochi, etc., appear on the market as round 
logs. 

Season op Felling. — The season of felling depends of course 
upon the local conditions, the convenience of transport, etc. but 
in general the five months beginning with the autumnal equinox 
and ending with the succeeding February are regarded as the 
felling season. In such snowy regions as Hokkaido and the north- 
eastern districts of Honshu where the means of transport are 
imperfect, felling must be ''tarted in the beginning of the snowy 
season, so that the timber may be easily carried over the snow. In 
places where the supply of timber for industrial purposes or firewood 
is to be kept up all the. year round there are arrangements for the 
uninterrupted felling of the trees. 

Transport of Converted Wood. — The transport of convert- 
ed timber may be divided into two stages, the first being the 
transport of woods firom felling places to depots and the second the 
transport of the timber from the depots to the markets. In the first 
stage, chiefly owing to the hilly condition of the forest area in 
Japan and also to the presence in its proximity of rivers and streams, 
water ways have been utilized from early times for the conveyance of 
timber. Indeed economic considerations do not yet allow in most cases 
the construction of special forest roads. Transport of timber along the 
middle and lower courses of rivers is generally, as in Bangkok and 
Bangoon, in the shape of rafts, till the timber reaches depots usually 



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262 Japan in the Beginning oj the 20th Century. 

situated at the mouths of the rivers and therefore easily accessible 
from the sea. 

The facilities supplied by rivers are attended in Japan by a 
drawback usually unknown in other countries, and that is by the 
necessity of suspending the river transport during the season of the 
planting and growth of the rice-plant, when the water of rivers is 
extensively utilized for the purpose of irrigating the rice-fields. 
Then there is another drawnback in this system, for the distance 
between the source and mouth of our rivers being comparatively 
short they are liable to become suddenly overflown in time of heavy 
rain. Therefore the river transport of timbers is generally done 
during the seven months elapsing between the season of the autumnal 
equinox and that of the spring equinox. 

However in consequence of the recent increasing demand for 
timber and also owing to the extraordinary improvement in the 
means of communications, coupled with the consideration that river- 
transport, besides being attended by the drawnbacks before mentioned, 
is liable to injure the quality of the timber, the tendency has 
gradually set in of making arrangements for land-transport and of 
constructing forest roads leading either to railroads or high roads. 
These arrangements are being made in State forests, and the result 
has proved economically profitable. 

Minor Forest Produce. — The tendency to a luxuriant 
undergrowth in Japanese forests, principally due to abundance of 
moisture, gives the minor produce business, a peculiar aspect, for the 
removal of the undergro^vth is of course necessary for the sake of 
the forest as for that of the undergrowth if the latter is to be 
utilized as a minor produce. 

Litters. — ^In forests belonging to the State or in those kept in 
its custody the people living in the vicinity are generally allowed, 
under certain conditions, to collect gratis dead branches and leaves 
to be used as fuel. 

Grasses and Herbage. — Though not so extensive as formerly^ 
the custom still prevails among our people of regarding forests and 
woodlands as places for getting fuel and fertilizers in the shape of 
grasses and herbage, so that even at present there is no small 
number of woodlands containing no growing stock and principally 



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Exploitation and Treatment of the Forests. 263 

used by the people for procuring manure grasses and herbage from. 
It is in those grass-lands that the injurious practice of burning is 
still carried on, especially in southern districts where farming is 
more extensively carried on than in the northern and less inhabited 
districts. The practice alluded to prevails to a larger degree than 
elsewhere in woods growing on a soil of a granite or Tertiary 
formations. However as it has been strictly forbidden by law, this 
injurious custom may entirely disappear in the near futura 

MusHBOOMS. — ^Mushrooms are the most valuable minor forest 
produce in Japan, there being over len principal edible fungii 
growing to a greater or less extent throughout the country. Of 
these the Shiitake is the most important, and constitutes one of the 
staple export items, its export to China, Hawaii, Hongkong, India, 
etc., having reached to 860,671 yen in value in 1901. The mush- 
room is produced in larger quantities than elsewhere in Hyiiga, 
Bnngo, Kii. Ise, etc., where such species of wood as Kunugi, Konara^ 
SorOy Shide, etc., which the mushroom prefers to grow on in pre- 
ference to other trees abounding in the forests. Sometimes forests are 
prepared in those districts with the main object of producing the 
mushroom, and indeed this practice is often found more profitable 
than the ordinary wood-growing industry. In a forest intended for 
the growth of mushrooms a system of rotation of from 18 to 25 
years is carried on and the forest is therefore managed according to 
the coppice system. The mushroom, moreover, possesses this special 
advantage, of growing both in spring and autumn, and naturally 
there are two varieties, one being more fragrant than the other. 

Maimdake (Armilaria edoides. Berk) grows in forests of Akamatmiy 
especially those growing on soil of the Tertiary and granite forma- 
tions found in the southern districts. What is interesting about this 
edible fungus us that it grows most when a pine forest has be come 
worn out by excessive utilization of its produce. Consequently with 
the improved forest management that was recently introduced, the 
output of the fungus has shown a tendency to diminish. This 
fungus is perhaps more popular than the preceding variety as a 
culinary dainty. The only defect about it is its delicate texture, 
and the oonseqiient difficulty of keeping it dry, as can be done 
satie&ctorily with the ** Sbii " moshroonL Consequently the season of 



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264 Japan in the Beginning of the 2(XA Century, 

the " Pine-mushroom '' last only about a month in the autumn. 
The business of tinning the fungus has lately been started, and as 
the tinned samples are reported to have been favorably received in 
foreign markets, this mushroom may by proper treatment become a 
valuable export item like the other variety. It may be added that 
in the State forests in charge of the Osaka and Okayama Major 
Forest Oflfices the greater portion of the forest revenues is at present 
derived from the sale of " Pine-mushrooms " growng in them. 

Seeds, Acobns, etc. — Seeds constitute another important minor 
forest produce. They are collected for various purposes. The seeds 
of trees of the Rhus species are principally used for making wood- 
wax, which is very much in demand both at home and abroad. In 
1901 the export reached 610,000 yen worth approximately. It 
was formerly used for making candles, but at present it is also used 
for giving lustre .to woven goods, lubricating metallic ware to 
prevent rust, while in Europe it serves the purpose of sealingwax. 
The trees are grown in the premises of shrines and temples, in 
public forests owned by private individuals. They grow best in 
sunny slopes. 

The business of collecting seeds to produce seedlings is also a 
profitable piece of minor work, especially since the work of tree- 
planting both by the Government and private people has become 
active. There are at present not a small number of merchants 
dealing in this special line of seeds. The seeds that are in 
larger demand than others are those of Sugi^ followed by those 
of AhamaUu, Hifu>ki, Kunugi and Kara^natm, The seeds of the 
^^t and Hinoki are produced most at Yoshiuo, in Yamato, and 
Muro, in Kii, where a machine of improved style is used for 
drying the seeds. The seeds of Kunugi come from Ikeda, in 
Settsu, and Nasu, in Shimotsuke, those of Karamatsu from Saku 
district, Shinano, and the seeds of Aka-mat^u from many places in 
Kyushu, Shikoku, and other warm districts. 

Further, some acorns and nuts are useful for procuring oils, 
the seeds collected for the purpose being those of the beech, 
camelia, Shikimu Abura-giriy Inu-gaya, walnut, etc. The demand 
for those oils having been extensive lately owing to great deve- 
lopment in the use of machinery, these seed-collectors can often 



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ExphUatum and Treatment of (he Forests. 266 

earn as much as threefold of the daily wages derived from other 
kinds of work. 

Barks. — The barks of oak trees are valuable for dyeing and 
tanning, and the oak forests in northern Honshu and Hokkaido 
produce an abundance of these barks. All those forests are the 
result of natural growth and have not been artificially stocked 
with the objeet of producing the barks. The barks of alders, 
chestnuts, Tsuga, Nara, etc. are also used for tanning and dyeing. 

Stones. — Except in forests where the removal of stones is 
inadmissible for important reasons, the utilization of forest-stones 
is extensively carried on, the demand for stones for various public 
works having become unusually great recently. Of these stones, 
granites and andesites are most valuable among igneous rocks. The 
former come most from the districts bordering on the Inland Sea 
and the islands situated in it, as also from Mino, Owari, and Mount 
Tsakuba. Tufa-rocks found in Hakone and Izu, slate-stones in 
Bikuzen and KQluke, calcareous stones in Mino are also valuable for 
building and other purposes. Marble-stones are produced at Kuji 
district of Hitachi. Then granites supply materials to the potters of 
Seto and Owari, while the earths used by the potters of E^aratsu and 
Hizen are liparite. It may be stated that the extraordinary demand 
for stones that has spring up of late has raised the market price to 
about double what it was formerly. 

On the whole the revenue from minor produce is comparatively 
small in State forests, as may be seen from these figures : 1892, 119,912 
yen; 1895, 73,575 yen; 1898, 117,268 yen; 1901, 158,665 yen. Hie 
revenue from mushrooms, barks, seeds and acorns, and stones promises 
to grow larger, but that from other produce is dwindling chiefly owing 
to the larger extent of free utilization allowed to the people. 

iNBuermiAL Uses op Wood. — ^Though the industrial uses of 
wood are quite active in our country, the industry as a business 
is limited in many cases in scope. 

Casbonibatiok. — ^This b most important among the industrial 
uses of wood, work being carried on wherever a broad-leafed forest 
available for the purpose exists. The Bieho charcoal industry in 
Knmanoy Kii, is most fiunous in this line throughout the country. 
The carbonisation i|idu8try has perceptibly been affected by the 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



266 Japan in Hie Beginning of the 2(Hh Century, 

greater use of ooal than before as a substitute of charcoal, but 
as our customs prevent us from dispensing with a large consump- 
tion of charcoal, the industry will remain an important one. 

Recently the work of procuring vinegar as by-product of 
carbonisation was started in several places, especially in the 
southern districts. Eight such workshops were on operation accord- 
ing to the latest inquires. Other chemical substances besides 
vinegar are produced at the shops. 

The establishment of saw-mills of an improved style is another 
sign of the development of forest industries, as a recent large de- 
mand for sawn-timbers necessitates a certain unity of dimensions 
and a mode of conversion most convenient for transport. ' Accord- 
ing to the latest available returns there were 14 saw-mills 
worked by steam, with an aggregate horse-powers of 317, and six 
saw-mills worked by water power with an aggregate horse power of 
52. 

Match-sticks. — Though the industry is one of recent origin, 
it forms one of the most important itmes of export of our wood 
industries, there being, according to the latest available returns, 
85 workshops employing 3,552 hands. The export reached about 
7,400,000 yen in 1901. The industry is most active in Hokkaido, 
where the timbers from which the sticks are made .abound, these 
being species of aspen and poplars. 

The Pulp. — ^This business is of more recent origin than the 
preceeding industry, but it now occupies almost an equally important 
place. The pulp consumed in Japan formerly came from abroad, 
but the steady development of the paper industry having given a 
powerful incentive to the pulp-making business, Japan now possesses, 
according to the latest available returns, five mills worked by steam 
power. Shirobe, Moini, Toga, Todo-matm, Yezo-matm, etc. are 
generally requisitioned to supply the raw material. These species are 
at present found abundantly in Japan. 

Other branches of the wood industry are camphor-making, 
bamboo-ware making, wheelwright, joiner's, turner's, cooper's work, 
etc. may be mentioned. 

Generally speaking the forest industry is destined to show a 
£eu- greater activity and development in Japan. 



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Forest Planting and Transport. 267 

y. FOREST PLANTING AND TRANSPORT. 



Planting. — ^The effect of reckless felling soon after the Restora- 
tion is glaringly shown to-daj in the granite hills of Omi, Mino 
and in the districts bordering on the Inland Sea. 

In order to check this wasteful system of felling, in 1875 the 
Government issued regulations for investigating the condition of 
State forests, with the special object of ascertaining the extent of 
the forests that had been felled, while in the following year an 
experimental forest-planting ground was established at Nishigahara, 
Oji. Again, in the next year, arrangements were made for en- 
couraging the planting of State forests by private individuals by 
offering them a certain percentage of the profit arising from the 
produce of the forests planted in this way. The system has not 
proved quite as satisfactorily as was expected at first, though the 
areas planted under these conditions have reached about 80,000 cho. 

Encouragikq Planting. — Prior to the carrying into effect of 
the Civic Corporation System sylvicultural works other than those car- 
ried on by the Government were few and far between, and it was only 
in forests ■ belonging to private individuals in Yoshino and Muro 
that planting was carried on in anything like a systematic manner. 
Subsequent to the promulgation of that self government orgauizk- 
tion in which provision about communal funds were made, the idea 
began gradually to prevail that forest-planting was the best plan 
for augumenting these funds. The idea gained special force owing 
to the encouragement and the grant-in-aids extended by the local 
authorities in accordance with the provisions of the Forest Law 
subsequently enforced. The result was that during the two years 
of 1898 and 1899 no less than 426,595 cJw of communal areas were 
planted, the number of seedlings and young trees planted totalling 
801,022,357. The work generally received more or less assistance 
from the local authorities, that assistance generally taking the form 
of technical advise. 

Planting in State and Imperial Forests. — Meanwhile the 
work of planting went on steadily in the State forests. At first it 
mainly consisted of regenerating the cleared areas, and therefore not 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



268 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

much atteutiou could be devoted to the deforested areas. In 1895 
the investigation relating to open spaces was completed, and a 
working plan according to the high forest system was drawn up. 
From 1899 when the second State forest adjustment programme had 
been completed, the arrangement of open spaces could be made more 
satisfactorily than before. Between 1888 and 1898, 43,149.9 cho of 
State forest areas received planting, while during the three years 
ending 1901 the areas similarly treated reached 34,897 cho» In 
the former total 80 per cent, consisted of the work of regenerating 
cleared areas, and only 30 of planting waste spaces, while in the 
latter the open space work comprised 55 per cent, the remaining 45 
consisting of regeneration work. 

The extent of bare land being comparatively small in forests 
belonging to the Imperial Household, planting is carried out mostly 
for regenerating cleared areas, the planted areas of this description 
amounting to 12,510.4 cho during the ten years ending 1901. 

Methods op Planting. — ^The system followed in planting operar 
tions must of course be different according to the locality and other 
causes, always keeping in view the main object of producing a perfect 
forest formation capable of returning a regular revenue. 

The plans pursued in pursuance of that maid iDbject are 
these: — 

1. Natural regeneration. 

2. Sowing. / 

3. Planting of young plants. 

4. Planting in dunes and patches of shifting sand. 

The first method was almost universally adopted in former 
times, but this is no longer popular in these days when the knowledge 
of forest management possessed by foresters has come highly developed, 
for if that method is the easiest and the least troublesome, nontheless 
it is not advisable in view of the necessity of effecting a thorough 
improvement in our sylvicultural conditions. However on steep 
slopes and in protection forests demanding special treatment this 
method is still used to extent. 

Generally sowing is made to supplement the necessarily fickle 
operation of the method of natural regeneration. In cases when 
sowing is carried on by itself it is done by ridge-sowing, broad-cast- 



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Forest Planting and Transport, 26& 

Bowing, line-sowing, etc. Oaks, beeches, Aka-matsu, etc can be 
grown satisfactorily by sowing. 

However, the planting of young trees is the commonest method 
in artificial regeneration, this method being adopted in the greater 
namber of cases in State forests and in forests belonging to the 
Imperial Household. Generally seedlings are transplanted to the 
woods after they have grown two or three yeara in the nursery, the 
tree of planting per cho ranging between 4,500 to 6,000 young 
trees. As it is hardly possible to expect all of them to grow 
vigorously in the new soi], about 20 or 30 per cent, of the 
planted young trees must be supplemented in year or two after 
the transplanting. 

The methud of planting by means of cuttings is practically 
identical in operation and result with the method described above, 
only that this method cannot be adopted for all species of trees. 
In Higo and Hyuga the regeneration of Benko Sugi has been ex- 
clusively carried out by this method, while it is similarly applied 
to Doro, Hakoyanagi, etc. growing in Hokkaido, Hiha in Aomori 
and Noto. 

In dunes and in plains of shifting sand, works to pre- 
vent earth from slipping away should first be constructed, these 
works generally consisting in straw- work or bramble- work or some- 
times in sods. The trees selected for this particular method 
of planting are generally Kuromatsu and Hageshtbari, mix- 
ed at the rate of 3 of the former to 2 of the latter. 
Planting should be done at the rate of 14,000 to 18,000 per 
e/b. Travellers travelling from Shimonoseki to Kobe by the 
Sanyo Kailroad must notice in Bizen and Harima many hilla 
of reddish soil covered with young pine trees planted in ter- 
races. Similar pine-clad terraces are seen along the Tokaid5 
route. All those plantations have been made by this particular 
mode of planting. 

Extent of Planted Areas. — The €xteut and nature 
of the planting operations carried on in the State forests and 
in the forests belonging to the Imperial Household during the 
ten years ending 1901 may ha demonstrated by the following 
figures: — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



270 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 
STATE FORESTS. 



Broad-leafed trees. 



Total. 



Conifers. 

/ ^ ^ / ^ . ^ ' ■> 

Area.(cho). ^awd ^^ (eho). No-nUt^y. Area. (cho). Nj^gJ. 

Natural Begeneratiott ... 15|286.2 — 2,082.8 — 17,267.6 — 

Artificial Regeneration.. 41,707.2 f^^^^ 6.8W.6 ^^^ku ^»'27 80^'lkota 



Total 



56942 4 806/516,463 « «„ - 2,346,900 ^g^Qo 329,988,88$ 

. 56,942.4 g^7ikoku ^'^'^ 23,800 koku ^^'*^ 80,271 koku 

IMPERIAL HOUSEHOLD FORESTS. 



Statural Begeneration ... — _____ — 

Artificial Regeneration.. 11,844.6 f ^^toku . ^^'^ 11220^^^ ^^''^'^ 



54,413.317 
8,085 



Total 



11-844 6 61,491,518 g^. « 2,921353 lOTasg 64,418^71 

11^44.6 j^g^ 891.2 1^220 koku ".785.8 j^jgg 



Grand Total... 68,787.0 ^^J^ 9,789.0 ^'^S 78,676.0 ^''^Sb 



8,836 



24/(20 



83356 



Kind of Planted trees. — ^As may be seen from the foregoing 
table, the areas planted with conifers are about nine-fold those 
planted with broad-leafed trees, and this predominance of conifers 
over trees of the other description will form a characteristic feature 
of our Aiture sylvicultural system. The reason why conifers are so 
much preferred to the other kind of trees is because that with the 
present activity in the work of house building and in the carrying 
on of public works the timbers of the conifers are more in demand 
than that of broad-leafed trees, so that at present except in retired 
districts most of the sylvicultural undertakings are carried out with 
the object of producing timbers of conifers. 

As to the relative ratio of the different species planted, Sugi 
occupied about 48.3 per cent, of the entire area, pines 25.6 per 
cent., Hinohi' S.S per cent, Keyaki 3.3 per cent., the remaining 1.7 
per cent, being planted by two or three different species. Again, 
in the relative ratio of conifers, Sagi, Akormatmy and Hinohi predo- 
minated over the others, while in broad-leafed trees Keyaki, camphor- 
trees, Kunugi, etc. surpassed the others. 

This overwheling predominance of conifers is a point which 



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Forest Planting and TramparL 271 

ought to demand the serious consideration of all those interested in 
our forest policy. There is another fact that similarly demands 
their attention and that is the growing tendency to prepare pure 
forests instead of mixed forests. In fact, of the forests thus far 
stocked no less than 98 per cent, are of pure forests, only 2 per 
ceot. being mixed forests. This remark applies both to conifers and 
broad-leafed trees. But it should be remembered that a pure forest 
b liable to give rise to various evils, besides being attended by 
difficulties in management. Indeed this point has lately begun to 
be perceived by foresters and others concerned, who acknowledge the 
advantage of mixing more or less light-demanding species with conifers. 
At least this i:j the policy now pursued in St&te forests, where the plan- 
ing of broad-leafed trees is attended to so long as circumstances 
permit. 

NuB8£RY-BEDS.~The efficacy of the work of forest-planting 
depending essentially on the soundness of the seeds and seedlings 
and also on the skill of the employed labor the utmost care is 
exercised in those respects. In the State forests and Imperial 
Household forests the seeds or seedlings to be used are only those 
that are collected or grown on the spot. The. nursery^beds attached 
to those forests numbered 407 at the end of 1900, with an aggregate 
area of 622.1 eho for State forests and 111 with an area of 101.9 
e^ for other forests. Then in order to procure as cheaply as possible 
the labor required in tending the nurseries, and also to facilitate 
the work of transplanting, these beds are located in places combining 
as much as possible these two conveniences. They are laid out in 
as many places as possible. 

The seedlings grown in nursery-beds are generally transplanted 
after full three years' growth in the beds, and when they have 
attained the height of li to 2 shaku. Some species, Sugi for 
instance, admit of being transplanted after two years' growth, while 
8')me broad-leafed species, such as Hiba, Kayaniaki, etc require ^ve 
or seven years' nursery growth. Of course in places where the 
injury from game is apprehended even Sugi must be left to stand 
five or six years in the beds. The quantity of seeds sown and the 
number of seedlings grown in State f(»rests nurseries during the ten 
years ended 1901 are given in the fallowing table: — 



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272 



Japan m the Beginning of ihe 20tt Century, 



Conifers. 



Year. 

1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 

1899 
1900 

190 1 



Quantity of 
Seeds. Koku, 



No. of 
Seedlings. 



Total 



•••\ 544,000 

f 21,805 

•••\ 501,400 

f 18,190 

•• t 732,880 

23,799 

r 28,748 

""I 324,716 

78,021 

107,554 

f 145.81 1 
- \ 70,000 



7.196,173 

7,560,593 

",758,563 
12,006,878 

13,377,054 

14,359,413 
20,896,129 

29,768,092 



Broad-Leafed trees. 

Quantity of No. of 
Seeds. ATohi, Seedlings. 

18,331 940,109 

31,267 765,851 

52,882 780,746 

52,681 1,611,997 

65,990 1,847,554 

32,835 1,013.359 

48,114 1,298,175 

140,528 634,667 
313,750 1,128,182 

398,189 2469,590 



■{2,8461396 127,045,029 1,154,527 12490,230 



The sudden activity of the nursery work from 1899 was due 
to the fact that in that year a special account system was allowed 
in forestry management. Then the rate of conifers and broad-leafed 
trees in the seedlings raised amounted to 10 of the former to 1 of 
the latter. In the conifers, Sugi, Hinoki, Kara-matsuy Aka-matau 
predominated over others. 

Treatment op Planted-Areas. — In newly-planted areas, ex- 
cept in areas of protection planting, the cutting of grass ia generally 
made every year for the space of three years subsequent to the 
planting. Then during the next ten years the grass-cutting is done 
every other year. ^ Thinning is carried out for tending the growth 
of young trees and for preserving the forest-aspect. During the 
five years ended 1901, 13,588.3 <Jio of State forests were subjected 
to this thinning process, by which 229,146 cubic sJiaku of wood for 
industrial uses was obtained, besides, 156,019 stacks of iirwood, and 
192,630 bundles of branch-litters. Tliese intermediate forest produce 
are growing more and more valuable owing to the greater demands 
on them for various purposes. 

Arboricultural experiments. — Arboricultural experiments 



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Forest Planting and Transport, 273 

were first started at Nishigahara in 1876, but it was not until after 
1897 that the work became really brisk. In that year eight ex- 
perimental nurseries were established in different typical places, and, 
under the supervision of the chiefs of the nearest Major Forestry 
Offices, they were made to carry out investigations relative to 
fylyicultiiral climate, selection of species best calculated to improve 
the forestry aspect, germination and growth of young plants, and 
such subjects. The overseers of the nurseries were made to submit 
to the Minister ot Agriculture and Commerce reports on the results 
on the investigations. At the same time the central nursery established 
at Kami Meguro, suburb of Tokyo, under the direct control of the 
Forestry Bureau, wns made to examine the reports sent in from 
the local offices. 

Exotic trees. — The experiments on the exotic species being 
still incomplete, it is not possible to give any authoritative statement 
as to the relative adaptability to Japanese soil of the various species 
planted in the nurseries. Judging from the aspect of growth, the 
following species are likely to prove a valuable addition to Japanese 
sylviculture. 

Robinia Paeudoacacia, L. (Imported from the U. S. A.). 
Sown in the nursery in 1900, the plants have already 
grown to the height of over 4 metres. The principal merits of 
this species are quick growth, adaptability even to poor soil, 
and the presence of strong reproductive power, shoots springing 
up from the side-roots. As a substitute for the indigenobs 
Hage^shibari the tree may serve even better than that shrub for 
the purpose of preventing the drifting of sand and landslip. The 
wood is also hard and. well suited for earthworks. 

Pinus rigida (Imported from the U.S.A.). Sown in 1900^ 
the plants have grown over 1 metre high. In respect to strong 
reproductive power, hardy character, and adaptability even to 
poor soil, this species resembles our Aka-matm very much, and 
like it the species is apparently suited for dunes and shifcing 
sands. 

Popidus monilifera (Imported from the U.S.A.). The young 
plants measuring 0.7 metre in height were imported from that 
country in 1899 and transplanted to the nursery. They have 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



274 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century, 

attained the height of over 4 metres. Both in growth and 
reproductive power they are very strong, being capable of arti- 
ficial regeneration by cuttings. As material for match-wood, 
the tree is as excellent as the indigenous popular. 

Junipervs Virginiana (Imported from the U.8.A.). Those 
sown in 1890 have attained the height of 1} metres, and those 
in 1900 that of 1 metre. Judging from the experiments thuB 
far carried out, it does not seem difficult to accla^atise the 
species to Japanese soil. In that case the wood will lead to 
encouraging our lead-pencil industry, which, has failed to attain 
any marked development for lack of suitable wood. 

Of the other exotic species experimentally planted in the 
nurseries, the German Alnua glatinoaa, the American Pinm 
strafus, the German Cedrus deoaata, and some Himalayan species 
are likely to prove valuable trees for planting in exposed places. 
The Himalayan Cedrus deosata also makes a fine garden or- 
nament. 

Forest-roads and river-transport work. — Before the 
Bestoration, owing rather to the excessive care exercised by feudal 
.princes for the preservation of their forests and the enforcement of 
what we may call the "closed door" policy of administration in 
their dominions, there were grave obstacles to the efficient manage- 
ment of forests and their exploitation. Endeavors have been made * 
for obviating those obstacles, and in such of those State or Imperial 
Household forests that are of a permanent nature or that admit 
•of financial treatment, the work of constructing forest roads has been 
•carried out so far as circumstances permitted. 

Forest roads. — ^According to the existing rules forest-roads are 
divided into two kinds, main roads and subsidiary roads. ' Further, 
they are divided into railed-roads, cart-tracks, roads made of wood, foot- 
paths and cattle-paths. The first three are considered as main-roads 
and the latter two as subsidiary roads. A main-road must be con- 
nected with a railroad or with a highway, while a subsidiary-road 
must be connected with a main-road. A highway, though intended 
for general traffic, often receives from the Department of Agricul- 
ture and Commerce some help towards its extension and repair, pro- 
vided such highway is judged to facilitate the transport of timber. 



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Forest Planting and Transport. 276 

Owing to the inooDyenienoe of procuring labor and materials 
for construction^ the cost of constructing forest-roads is generally 
hgih, the average per ri of main-road amounting to over 6|600 
yen and that of subsidiarj-road to about 4,000 yen. The oost 
of bridge-making is equally high, as a bridge in a forest-road is to 
be constructed over a rapid steam liable to overflow. This question 
of expenses very much therefore obstructs the progress of the con- 
struction of forest-roads, so that during the ten years beginning in 
1892 the roads constructed in State forests have not exceeded 776,- 
<77 metres in length, of which the following were constructed from 
1898 to 1901 :— 

Metres. Expense. 

yen, 

Main-Roads 132,000 212,575 

Subsidlazy-Roads 109,600 66,102 



Total 241,600 278,677 

The roads recently constructed in the Imperial forest areas follows : — 

Metres. Expense. 

yen. 

Main-Roads 44>i40 55,833 

Subsidiary-Roads ...^ 28,080 26,708 

Total 72,220 82,541 

Besides the above, the tracks laid with 12 pound-rails in the Imperial 
forests at Kiso measure 8,212 metres, the expense required being 
14,680 yen. 

In the colder districts, such as Hokkaid5 or the north-eastern 
part of Honshu, the wood is largely carried over hardened snow in 
winter at a very small expense. 

RrvEB Transpobt of Timbebs. — The transport of timber by 
rivers has been carried on extensively from former days, the conveyance 
of Eiso wood on the river ELiso, of Nagakizawa wood on the river 
Noshiro, and of Kitayama wood on the Shingti being some of the 
important cases of the regular river-transport of timber. However, in 
order to make rivers serve still more efficiently this purpose, all the 
obstacles in their course should be removed, the river-banks should 



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276 



Japan in the Beginning oj tiis 20ik Century, 



be made strengthened, while in the lower course where a wood-depot 
is to be formed damming- work should be constructed. From 1899 to 
1901 the obstacles were removed over 32,800 metres of river-beds 
and the stones thus taken out of the bottom covered 49,176 cubic tmbo* 



YL WOQD PRODUCE. 



General Remarks. — Data on forestry yield being unavailable 
in the case of privately-owned forests, we must content ourselves in 
this section with giving the data in connection with the State forests 
measuring about 7,500,000 cko and the Imperial forests measuring 
about 2 millions. 

It is hardly necessary to state that the yield from the forests 
varies considerably according to position and local conditions, and 
that while the harvest of convertible timber depends upon the species 
of the trees and their growth, the amount of the financial yield 
depends upon the locale of the growing stock, the relative facilities 
of transport, and the demands on the market. 

Harvest of Convertible Timbers. — ^The harvest of State 
forests continues to increase with the progress of the work of manage- 
ment, and, compared with what it was }0 years ago, the yield at 
present shows an increase of about 35 per cent, as stated in the 
following table : 





1S92. 


1895. 


1898. 


1901. 




Shakujime. 


Shaktijime, 


Shakujime. 


Shakujime. 


Timber 


... 984,464 


1.107,941 


1,010,621 


1,707,813 


Firewood 


... 3,361,566 


3,544,068 


3,609,036 


4,158,186 


Total 


... 4.346,030 


4,652,009 


4,619,657 


5,865,999 


Forest Area (f^^)... 


... 7,54«,633 


7,715,793 


7,773,155 


7,586,201 


Yield per cho 


0.58 


0.58 


0.59 


0.77 



Note : — In the foregoing figures the harvest of root, stump-wood, and faggots is ex- 
cluded, while fractions of a shakujime are also omitted. A shakujime measures 
12 cubic shaku and corresponds to about a third of I cubic metre. This remark 
applies to all the subsequent tables of a similar description. 

The increase of the harvest has been brought about by a longer 
thining made possible by the improved method of management and 
by the extension of the utilization area which was in turn due to 



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Wood Produce. 277 

<levelopment of means of transportation. Indeed the utilization area 
of State forests increased from about 18 per cent, in 1892 of the 
whole area to about 21 per cent in 1901. In other words, the 
rate of utilization area increased during the period in question by 
17 per cent, as against 35 per cent, of the volume of the timber- 
harvest 

The harvest^ according to the foregoing table, increased during 
the specified period from 0.58 ehaku-jime per cfe? to 0.78 ; and these 
compared with the respective utilization areas correspond to 3.2 to 3.7 

The volume of the harvest as compared with the volume of the 
growing-stock in the State forests is extremely small, and indeed 
does not reach even one half of what it should be. The reason of 
this abnormal yield must be sought in the fact that in most of the 
forests situated in hilly districts the presence of miscellaneous trees 
is seriously affecting the growth of timber-trees, while in most of 
the forests the growing-stock has not yet attained the normal ''age- 
classes." Further, the Government is disposed to minimize, till the 
management programme is completed, the volume of the yearly 
fellings, while the imperfect means of transport, absolutely considered, 
very much affect the extent of the utilization area. 

Financial yieu). — ^The State-forests, hampered as they are 
from various inconvenient conditions, are placed in a highly dis- 
advantageous situation, so f&r as the financial side of yeild is con- 
cerned. This point is significantly shown in the following figures 
showing the yield during the 10 years ending 1901 ; — 





1892. 


1895. 


1898. 


1901 




yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


Timbers 


342,556 


555,906 


767,842 


1,369,171 


Firewood 


213,709 


299,449 


372,515 


486,141 


Root, Stump - wood. 
Fagots, etc j' 


66,324 


19,348 


28,708 


37,880 


Minor Produce 


120,229 


73,755 


142,904 


158,655 


Rent 


23,618 


25,361 


46,323 


73,689 


Sundries 


44»623 
811,059 


24,801 
998,620 


93,374 


50,986 


Total 


1,451,666 


2,176,522 


Total Area (cAo) 


7,541,633 


7*715,793 


7,773,155 


7,581,201 


Yield per cAo 


0,108 


ai29 


0.187 


0.288 



Note : — In the above table, fractions of a yen are omitted, except in the figures re- 
presenting t]bie yiield per r^a« 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



278 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

Though absolutely considered, the yield of only 0.288 yen per 
eho is exceedingly small, still it must be r^arded with satisfaction 
on account of the relative progress that it indicates. The record for 
1892 as compared with that of 1892 shows an increase of 19 per 
cent., advanced to 73 per cent, in the next three years, and to 260 
per cent, in the subsequent three years. Again, when compared with 
the utilization area only, instead of the whole area, the yield per 
cho increased during the ten years from 0.647 yen to 1.386 yen. 

This creditable progress, relatively speaking, has been brought 
about not merely by an increase in the volume of the harvest, but 
principally by the recent growing demand for timber with the con- 
sequent rise of the market price, and by the diminution of transport 
expenses owing to the greater facilities offered by the improved 
means of communication. Above all the receipt from timbers has 
been strikingly increased, these timbers being mostly the timber of 
conifers such as Siigi, HinoH, Hiba, Momi, AhamoUsu, etc. Poles 
produced by thining were till ten years ago practically destitute of 
value but these now command a good price on the market. The 
rapidity with which the yield from timbers has advanced during 
the ten years under review is indeed remarkable, for while it has 
been quadrupled during that period the yield from firewood has only 
been doubled. 

Expenditure.— With the increase in the gross yield, the ex- 
penditures have necessarily been expanded. In 1892 the expenditure 
stood at 522,762 yen, but during the subsequent ten years the 
amount has been almost doubled and has risen to 1,029,966 yen. 
This increase, though partly due to the rise of wages and of the 
price of commodities, a phenomenon inseparable from the progress of 
the time, was more attributable to the expanded scope of improve- 
ment measures: — 



Year. 


Area. 


Management 
Expense. 


Working 
Expense. 


Total. 


Expense 
per cho. 




ym. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


1892 ... 


7,541,633 


423,146 


99,616 


522,762 


0.070 


1895 ... 


7,7*5,793 


402,789 


i8<v>85 


582,874 


0.076 


1898 ... 


7,773,155 


553,016 


364,674 


917,690 


0.11& 



1901 hs 7»58i,aoi 669,149 ^30,8I7 1,029,966 ai37 

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Wood Produce. 279 

Note : — The management expense includes salaries of ofificials, office expenses, tra- . 
veiling expense, repair of offices, etc.; while the working expense comprise 
the cost of felling, transport, planting and all the other items incidental to the 
working of forests. 

As stated in the foregoing table the average managing expense 
per eho increased during the ten years under review from 0.056 yen 
to 0.082 yen, while the average of the working expense increased 
from 0.013 yen to 0.044 yen. In other words, while the rate of 
increase of management expenses is about 60 per cent., that of 
working expenses is as much as 340 per cent. The ratio of manage- 
ment expense is rather high as compared with working expense, the 
former constituting, on an average, 68 and the latter 22, if we take 
the total expense as 100. This comparatively high rate of manage- 
ment expense is explained by the enormous extent of the State 
forests, and especially the fact that most of them require a thorough 
le-orgauization, and all these involve extraodinary trouble and 
expense. However, the ratio between management expense and 
working expense is gradually recovering normal proportion, for while 
in 1892 the management expense bore to the working expense the 
ratio of 21 to 5, in 1901 the proportion became 21 to 10. Tne 
proportion is • sure to become more satisfactory when the second 
forestry adjustment programme now being carried out shall have been 
completed. 

Profit. — Forestry yield is obtained by deducting from the gross 
receipts the working expense, while the net profit consist of what 
remains after the management expense has been deducted from the 
remainder. Calculated in that way, the net profit of State-forests 
stands thus: — 

Year. Total Area. Gross Receipts. ^^^ Net Profit. ^^^^ 



«892 7,541^33 


SiifiS9 


52^762 


288,292 


ox>38 


iS9S ..• .- ". 7,715*793 


998,620 


582,874 


415,746 


ox>54 


««98 7.773,155 


IAS1A66 


917,690 


533,976 


0069 


1901 7,5«6,»i 


2,176,522 


i/n9^66 


1,146,556 


ai5i 



The'net profit per eho, as stated in the fiyr^ioiiig table, htm 
fiom 0.038 to 0.151 oompued with the utilization arau 



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280 



Japan in the Beginning of the 2(Hli Century. 



The rate per eho was 0.212 yen in 1892 and it advanced to 0.72 yen 
ten years after. 

Data About the Imperial Forfsts. — As forests that were 
comparatively regular in aspect were selected as Imperial forests on 
the occasion of setting apart a part of State forests as property of 
Imperial estate, the forests belonging to this special class, liesides 
being easy to manage, are rich in conifers and valuable timber-trees^ 
so that the harvest is more satisfactory than that in State forests. 
The harvest during the ten years commencing in 1892 is stated 
below : — 

1892. 1895. i^S* 1901. 

Shaku-jime, Shaku-jime. Shaku-jinu. Shaku-jime. 

Timbers 803,026 588,692 685,193 

Firewood 723»32i 500,820 555»468 



1,110,324 
848,316 



Total 

Total Area 

Harvest ^x cko ... 



1,526.347 1,089,5" 

3,478,007 2,108,720 

0.44 0.51 



1,240,661 i,958,MO 

2,091,066 2,093,404 

0.59 0-94 



The average harvest per cAo that was 0.44 in 1892 increased 
to 0.94 ten years after, an increase of more than two-fold. The 
statistics on financial side are as follows : — 





1892. 


1895. 


1898. 


1901. 




yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


Timbers 


226,709 


Z^lfiAA 


752,585 


845,139 


Firewood ... 


50,131 


50,604 


62367 


83,291 


Fagots, Stump- 
root, etc.... 


Z"^} '^3 


3,141 


3,196 


4,636 


Minor Produce 


13,655 


18,619 


22,894 


29,402 


Rent 


19,724 


29r433 


54,770 


77.667 


Sundries 


28,647 


30,150 
459,591 


34,346 


74,089 


Total 


340,027 


930,658 


1,114,224 


Total Area ... 


3,478,007 


2,108,720 


2,091,(566 


2,093404 


Yield per cho 


0099 


0.218 


0.445 


0.^32 



Just as in the case of the State forests, with the progress of 
the work of management along the economic line, the volume of the 
harvest and the amount of the gross receipts are graduUy increasing, 
to make a still greater development as that work proceeds. Then the 



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Wood Pi'oduce. 281 

financial results of the administration of the Imperial forests are 
somewhat better, owing to the reasons mentioned above, than in 
the case of the 8tate forests, for the gross receipts that stood at 
0.095 yen per cho in 1892 advanced to 0.533 in 1901. As might 
naturally be expected, expense has also advanced. 

1892. 1895. 1S98. 1901. 

Total Area (^^(7) 3478,oo7 2,108,720 2,091,066 2,095,404 

Management Expense (y^j) ... 106,154 110,138 115,291 147 J34 

Working Expense (r^vi) 208,157 i95»594 369,954 40,686 



Total (y<f») 3i4,3«i 3o5,732 A^S^MS 644^20 

Expense ^T cAo ()'eft) 0.090 0.145 0.232 0.308 

In re8X)ect to the increase of expense, the Imperial forests are 
very much like the State forests, for during the period under review 
the rate per cho increased from 0.09 yen to 0.308 yen. 

However, in contrast to the corresponding state of affairs in 
State forests, the ratio between the management expense and the 
working expense is entirely reversed, the former constituting only 
27 and the latter 73, out of the total expenses of 100, This coml 
parative smallness of the management expense in the Imperia- 
forests is explained by the fact that the forests, owing to their 
convenient location, and on account of their being comparatively 
well-organized do not require any large amount of money to be 
8pent on them. Thus while State forests required in 1901 manage- 
ment expense amounting to 0.092 yen per cho the corresponding 
figure in Imperial forests was only 0.071. On the other hand, the 
average working expense of State forests in the year mentioned 
was 0.045 yen per cho against 0.337 in case of the other forests. 
This remarkable difference between the two is ascribable to the fact 
that while in State forests the forests-produce to be sold is generally 
done so in the shape of standing-trees, in the Imperial forests whatever 
produce becomes disposable is dbrectly utilized by the Household itself 
which of course undertakes the work of conversion. 

The net profit from the Imperial forests as calculated by 
deducting the gross disbursements from the gross receipts was minue 
22,640 yen in 1892, the loss being at the rate of 0.007 yen per gAob 
Subsequently conditions were restored to their normal aspect, for i|i 



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282 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century. 

1895 net profit grew to 0.045 yen per cho, to 0.125 in 1898 and to 
0.138 in 1901. In other words, during the last seven years out of 
the ten under review, net profit was increased by 0.093 yen per cho. 



¥11. OFFICIAL SUPEBYISION OF THE FORESTS. 



Controlling Offices. — Considerable changes have taken place 
as to the official repository of power in regard to managing and super- 
vising forests since the feudal princes have surrendered their fiefe to 
their sovereign liege in 1868. The forests held by them have become 
converted into State property. Suffice it to state that it was in 
1878 that the existing Forestry Bureau was created and that afiairt 
relating to State forests and to forests at large were for the firss 
time placed under the control of a special office and that something 
like a regular system began to be evolved. This tendency became 
more manifest with the transfer of the Bureau in 1881 to the control 
of the Department of Agriculture and Commerce, a Department of 
State that was created in that year. Subsequently the forestry policy 
of the Government has gone on acquiring greater importance and 
consistency. 

According to the existing system, the Minister of Agriculture 
and Commerce is the supreme supervisor of all matters relating to 
State forests and to forests at large, and, subject to his control, the 
Forestry Bureau takes charge of all matters relating to the adminis- 
tration and scientific treatment of forests. The stafi^ of the Bureau 
comprises, besides its director, four forest commissioners and ten 
clerks, and these attend to the working and treatment of State 
forests and supervision of private forests. 

The right of supervision of private forests is derived from the 
Forest Law promulgated in 1897. In accordance with the provisions 
therein set forth, the Grovernment extends to utilization forests sui- 
table economic treatment of a positive nature, while, on the other 
hand, the n^ative policy of prohibiting felling and similar restric- 
tive measures is extended to protection forests. In all these matters 
tbe respective local Governors are made to act as supervisors in the 



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Official Supervision of Hie Forests. 



283 



first instance, the right of issuing final directions resting with the 
Minister of Agriculture and Commerce. 

The control of State forests is conducted in accordance with 
Imperial Ordinance No. 18 issued in 1886, by which a regular 
system of management was elaborated. By that system the manage- 
ment is conducted by sixteen Major Forest Offices and 325 Minor 
Forest Offices. 

Forest Offices akd Jurisdiction. — ^The following table 
shows the location, extent of jurisdiction, etc. of the Major Forest 
Offices. 



Names of Major 
Forest Offices. 


Location 


State-Forests 
under Control 


No. of 
Minor Forest 


No. of 
Protection 


(i 


in thousand cAo), 


Offices. 


Stations. 


Aomori 


Aomori, Mutsu 


... 946 


25 


"3 


Akita 


Akita, Ugo 


... 1,091 


22 


94 


Iwate 


Morioka, Rikuchu ... 


... 424 


16 


50 


Miyagi 


Sendai, Rikuzen 


... 778 


20 


61 


Fnkushiiiia 


Fukushima, Iwashiro 


... 508 


20 


81 


Tokyo 


Tokyo, Musashi 


... 936 


31 


'84 


Nagano 




... 931 


17 


54 


Ishikawa 


Kanazawa, Kaga ... 


... 497 


12 


39 


Osaka 


Osaka, Settsu 


... 69 


18 


61 


Okayama 


Okayama, Bizen ... 


... 108 


18 


75 


Hiroshima 


Hiroshima, Aki 


... 174 


25 


83 


Ehimc 


Matsuyama, lyo 


... 135 


12 


49 


K6cbi 


K5chi,Tosa 


201 


19 


77 


Fukuoka 


Fukuoka, Chikuzen... 


... 103 


20 


76 


Kumamoto ... 




... 229 


26 


76 


Kagoshima ... 


Kagoshima, Satsuma 


... 446 


24 


122 



Total 



7,576 



325 



1,199 



The foregoing table will show that the extent of the Major 
Forest Office's jurisdiction lies between the two extremes of 
1,091,000 eho of Akita and 69,000 cko of Osaka, the average for 
the whole being 480,000 approximately. A greater diversity is 
noticeable in the jurisdiction of Minor Forest Offices, this diversity 
being unavoidable in such a country as Japan where systematic 
forestry management is still in the inception stage and where means 
of communication are as yet imperfect, and the formation of forests 
18 irregular. Thus while the Matsuyama Minor Office controls only 



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284 Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Century, 

2,000 cko, that of liyama under the Nagano Major Office, controls 
as much as 396,000 cho. The average for all the Offices is 23,000 
cho. It is natural that, with the progress of the work of economic 
management, the extent of jurisdiction of a Major and a Minor 
Forest Office will become more limited. 

The number of protection stations also differs according to 
places. The average number to each Minor Office is three to five, 
but in some exceptional cases as in that of the Tsunodate Minor 
Office which is subordinate to the Akita Major Office the number is 
as many as eight. 

The foregoing organization applies to the State -forests under the 
control of the Department of Agriculture and Commerce but there 
are other kinds of State-forests in charge of other Departments of 
State. 

The State forests in Hokkaido and Formosa are subject to the 
supervision of the Minister of Home Affiiirs. 

The State forests in Okinawa, the seven islands of Izu, and 
Ogasawara, though belonging to the jurisdiction of the Department 
of Agriculture and Commerce, are left for the convenience of the 
local administration, in charge of the respective local authorities who 
manage them subject to the supervision of the Minister of Agricul- 
ture and Commerce. 



¥IU. FORESTBT EDUCATION. 



Collegiate Courses. — ^The remark that the progress of indus- 
try is a faithftil reflection of the progress of education is fittingly 
exemplified in the case of our forestry industry, for the recent 
striking development in our forestry economy must be regarded as 
an outcome of a similarly striking development in sylvicultural 
education. 

It was in 1882 that the Tokyo Dendrological School, the first 
of its kind in Japan, was established at Nishigahara, but now at no 
less than 62 institutions the science and art of forestry is taught. 
Of that number three are imparting collegiate education, five a 
special course on forestry of secondary education grade, another five 



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Forestry Edv/caJtion, 285 

are giving a special course on the same subject of a somewhat lower 
grade, while the remaining 48 are imparting a general knowledge 
of forestry as a subsidiary subject to one or another of the main 
courses of practical education. It ought to be noted here that 
formerly all the important educational organs on forestry were sub- 
joined to the Department of Agriculture and Commerce, but as it 
was judged more convenient to have them transferred to the 
control of the Department of Education, this transfer was effected 
in 1890. 

The College of Agriculture of the Imperial University of 
Tokyo, the Sapporo Agricultural College, and the High Agricultural 
and Dendrological School at Iwate, are the three collegiate institu- 
tions in question. 

In all of those collegiate courses, in compliance with the 
demand of the Government forestry authorities and of general 
foresters, special attention is paid to the training of specialists who 
are to combine adequate scientific and practical knowledge on 
forestry, and who, on leaving school, are qualified to attend with 
efficiency to the duty of managing and improving our forests. 
The Government is giving special encouragement to the study 
of this useful science, by offering to the graduates comparatively 
good posts. 

The College of Agriculture is also provided with a briefer course 
on agriculture and dendrology. 

ScHoor^ OF Secondary Grade. — The five scliools of secondary 
education grade where a special course on dendrology is taught are 
as follows: — 

Kiso Dendrological School Nishi Chikuma, Nagano-ken. 

Aiclii Agricultural and Dendrological School... Hekkai-gun, Aichi-ken. 

Nara „ „ „ >, ••• Yoshino-gun, Nara-ken. 

Sbimane „ „ „ >, ••• Yatsuka-gun, Shimane-ken. 

Arima „ „ „ « ■•• Arima-gun, Hyogo-ken. 

These schools are either public or communal institutions, and 
are under the direct control of their respective local Grovernors. 
The Department of Education confines its interference merely to 



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286 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

matters regarding the unity of national practical education. Those 
schools receive a subsidy from the Treasury, the object of that subsidy 
being to encourage the cause of practical education. Then the students 
enjoy equal treatment as those at ordinary middle schools in respect 
of conscription service, ordinary civil service, etc. 

As these schools do not date back very far, they have 
not yet turned out any graduates, but the number of stu- 
dents is steadily increasing, the attendance being 418 in all at 
present. 

Schools of lower grade. — ^The five schools of somewhat lower 
grade than the preceding ones are apprentice schools enjoying a 
grant-in-aid &om the Treasury and are imparting an elementary 
knowledge of forestry to the students. The schools are maintained 
by communities which, &om local circumstances, are interested in 
bringing up young men qualified to attend to forestry management 
and to exploit the forest industry. The course of instruction extends 
for three years, and according to the latest available returns the 
students number 417 for all the schools. 

Other Schools teachinCj forestry. — Of the schools whose 
curriculum includes forestry 37 are of the secondary education grade, 
and 11 are of the higher primary education grade. Established 
long time back the list of graduates includes 1,323 for the 
former and 108 for the latter, while, at present the schools 
of higher grade have 4,364 attendants and the others 782. 
As most of those schools teach agriculture, fishery or stock- 
farming besides giving instruction in forestry, the field of their 
service is very wide and their service may be easily avail- 
able even in places where the engagement of forest specialists is 
not possible. 

Training Schools. — Lastly a short remark may be made 
about the Forestry Training School established at the Experimental 
Forestry Station at Meguro imder the control of the Forestry Bureau 
of the Department of Agriculture and Commerce. The school is 
intended to train men who are to attend to the management of 
State forests and to engineering work, so that the course of study 
comprises forestry, geodesic and triangular surveying and topo- 
graphical-drawing. It is the main idea of this institution to impart 

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Foreekry Legislature. 287 

training of a thoroughly practical nature to as many students 
as possible within the shortest terms compatible with the demand 
of instruction. 



IX. FOBESTBT LSaiSLATURE. 



The Forest Law already mentioned contains provisions about the 
control of utilization forests, protection forests, forest police, punitive 
roles, etc. A number of Imperial Ordinances for putting in operation 
the said law were promulgated at the same time, these Ordinances relat- 
ing to the Local Forestry Council Rules, Conversion and Release of 
Protection Forests, Rules for putting the Forest Law into Operation, 
Rules for compensating Damage of Protection Forests, Rules for 
managing Protection Forests, Rules relating to the Protection Forest 
Blister, etc The Register in question is of two kinds, one relating 
to privately owned forests and to be kept at the respective local 
offices, and the other relating to State forests and to be kept at the 
Major Forest Office concerned. 

The control of State forests and plains is r^ulated by the Law 
relating to State Forests and Plains promulgated in March 1899 
and it has attached to it a number of Rules and Regulations for 
putting it in execution. 

The Law relating to the Restoration of State Forests and Plains 
to Original Owners was issued in April 1899, and by issuing at 
the same time several rules appertaining thereof measures were 
devised for returning to original owners State forests and plains in- 
corporated into State property, provided the alleged owner's claim is 
juiced to rest on valid ground. This special arrangement has been 
adopted in view of the fact that not a few cases of incoporation hasti- 
ly made soon after the Restoration have subsequently been dm^over- 
ed to have been not quite justifiable. 

The existence of the Forestry Fond as an account independent 
of general account is a special feature in regard to the finance of 
forests and plains belonging to the State, the fund in question being 
employed for the special exploitation of forests such as the survey- 



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288 Japan in the Beginning of the 2(Hh Century. 

ing of State forests and plains, drawing up of their working plans, 
their planting, purchase of forests, etc. 

The official organization of offices dealing with State forests and 
plains has been determined either in the shape of Imperial or De- 
partmental Ordinances. 



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Introductory. 28& 

PRIMARY INDUSTRIES. 
SECTION III. 



MINING AND METALLURGY. 



Intpodaotory--06ologloal Fonnation and Mineral Depoiiti— 

Wning and Hetallnrgy— Gonditioii of Hine-Worken— 

Mining Legislation. 



L INTRODUCTORT. 



Before the Restoration. — ^As a result of the development 
in our seaborne trade and also in our railroad traffic and our indus- 
tries in general, the demand for mineral products has increased 
apace, and the mining industry has become an important fiictor of 
the national economy. 

Nothing accurate is known about the origin of our mining 
industry, but history records that, as early as in the 7th or 8tli 
century, gold, silver, copper, iron, coal, and petroleum were produced. 
At the b^inning of the 9th century, the Ikuno silver-gold mine, 
Handa silver mine, Hosokura silver-lead mine, and the two copper 
mines of Yoehioka and Osaruzawa were opened up. During the 15th 
century and the time of the Tokugawa Shogunate, many important 
mines were opened including the gold-silver mines of Sado, Innai, 
Kamioka, Mozomi, Serigano, Yamagano, and Shikakago ; the Kosaka 
sOver-copper mine : the copper mines of Ashio, Bewhi^ Ani, Arakaway 
Hibira, and Omodani; the Ichinokawa antimony mine; the Euratani 
sflver-lead mine; the Taniyama tin mine; the Kamairlii iron mine, 
and the coal mines of Miike, Taluushima, and AJcaike. The work- 
ing of these mines was, however, carried on a small scale, and they 
attracted but little attention. It was imhsequent Uf the Restorati^in 
that phenomenal progress has been made in the mining industry. 



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290 Japan in the Beginning of the 20(h Century. 

After the Restoration. — ^The Groverament addressed itself to 
the task of protecting and encouraging the development of mining in- 
dustry; engaged, in pursuance of that policy, foreigners ajs mining 
engineers, geological surveyors, and teachers. At the same time the 
Government undertook to work the principal mines, where Western 
methods were adopted in the departments of mining, metallurgy, 
and conveyance. The idea was to make these mines models for the 
benefit of private operators. Marked progress has since been made, 
and the output of minerals has steadily advanced. Such were the 
gold-silver mines of Sado and Ikuno, and Inuai silver mine. Seeing 
that the private working of mines was becoming pretty extensive, 
the Government gradually transferred the mines which it was work- 
ing itself to private exploitation, reserving, however, those which 
were especially necessary to the State. Moreover, the law relating 
to mining was instituted to define the right of the mining operator, 
contributing thereby to the progress of that industry. 

The putting in practice of the mining regulations in 1892 swept 
away all the existing evils that had interfered with a freer and 
fipunder development of the industry and therefore extended a help- 
ing and protecting hand to the mining operator. This together with 
the increase of technical knowledge has led to remarkable progress 
being made in the mining industry. 



11. GEOLOOT AND MINERAL DEPOSITS. 



Distribution op the Strata. — The geological forxnations of 
the Japanese Isles exist in the following proportions, taking the 
whole area of the land as 100 : — 

I. SEDIMENTARY FORMATION. 

Archaean ... 3.78 

Palaeozoic 10.24 

Mesozoic 7.95 

Cainozoic 45-84 

67.81 

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Oeohgy and Mineral Deposits, 291 

II. IGNEOUS RCKIKS. 

Older Period 11.27 

Younger Period 20.92 

Total 32.19 



100.00 



In other words, the proportion of sedimentary rocks to igneous 
rocks is 2 to 1 in the whole area, while in the former those 
belonging to Tertiary and earlier formations bear the proportion of 
1 to 2 to those belonging to younger formations. 

*__i.„..^ I Crystalline Schist System Eclogite, Serpentine, 

^^^^^^ \Gneiss System - Granite. 

Palaeozoic I Chichibu System (Carboniferous) Peridotite, Gabbro 
\Kobotoke System Diabase, Porphyrite. 

ITriassic Diorite, Diabase, 

c 



Cainozoic 



(Cretaceous Granite. 

{Tertiary Liparite, Andesite, 

Quaternary Basalt. 



Geological Formations. — The geological formations of the 
Japanese Isles, composed of the abo^e-mentioned rockes, are in the 
two arcs of Northern Japan and Southern Japan stretching from 
Hokkaido in the northeast to Kjrushu in the southwest, and also 
A chain of islands of Okinawa and the mountain system of Formosa. 
Of the foregoing geological divisions Northern and Southern Japan 
and the Okinawa archipelago are curved towards the soutiiwest. 
Then of the two arcs, the outer one facing the east is 
Outer Arc. comparatively perfect in geological formation, the sedi- 
mentary rocks composing it being on the whole sym- 
metrically developed. On the other hand, the Inner Arc facing the 
west is extremely complicated in the formation and 
Inner Arc. abounds in crevices and dislocations of strata and in 
eruptive rocks. Under the circumstances, the distribution 
of valuable ores and the condition of mineral deposits are peculiar 
in each arc. Generally speaking, mineral veins 
ICneralDepOiiits are mostly met with in the region of the Inner 
in the Two Arcs. Arc and in eruptive rocks or strata intersected by 



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292 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

such ; while metal-bearing strata are greater in sedimentary formations^ 
found in the Outer Arc. In Formosa the Outer Arc faces the east 
and its formation is comparatively symmetrical. The formation at 
its northern part is exceedingly complicated owing to the presence 
of a big dislocation which geologically intersects it from Okinawa. 
It is in this northern district that many mineral veins are found. 

Metal-Bearinq Stbata. — Some metal-beds are found in a 
highly developed form at the water level of certain strata. Thus^ 
copper bearing iron pyrites beds are markedly developed in 
Copper, the crystalline schist and the Chichibu systems, while iron- 
bearing beds are especially rich in the Chichibu system. 
Beds of the former description are widely distributed, being found in- 
the province of TotOmi, Kii, Awa, lyo, Hyuga and Higo. The 
Hibira and Makimine copper mines of Hyuga and the Itsuki copper 
mine of Higo are the principal copper deposits present in the 
Chichibu system. Similarly the principal copper mines belonging to 
the crystalline schist system are Higashiyama of Awa, Besshi of 
lyo, and Kune of Totomi. 

Iron-bearing beds exist principally in the form of either 

magnetic iron or mica-iron and are found somewhat transformed by 

the action of granite and calcareouse rocks, with both of 

Iron, which the beds are generally found. The principal iron 

mines are those of Kamaishi and Sen-nin in Rikuchu, Aka- 

dani in Echigo, Nakakozaka in K5zuke, etc. 

Manganese-beds generally exist in the Mesozoic- 

™ * system in the shape of rounded nodules. 

Metallic- Veins. — Metal-bearing beds forming veins generally 
exist either in eruptive rocks or the Tertiary formation. They 
are also found to some extent in Palaeozoic rocks. 

Mines Working Veins. — The principal mines which are 
working the veins are as follows : — 

Auriferous mines : — Hashidate in Echigo, Yamagano in Satsuma,. 
2uih5 and Kinkwaseki in Formosa. 

Gold-silver mines : — Aikawa in Sado, Ikuno in Tajima, Innai in 
TJgo, Ponshikaribetsu in Hokkaido. 

Copper mines : — Ashio in Shimozuke, Osaruzawa, Ani and Ara- 
kawa in Ugo, Okoya in Koga, Obiye in Bitchu. 



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Geology and Mineral Deposits. 293 

Lead mines: — Hosokura in Bikuzen, Kamioka in Hida. 

Antimony mines : — Ichinokawa in lyo. 

Tin mines: — ^Taniyama in Satauma. 

Of the metal mines existing in Japan, copper mines are the 
richest, the discovery of new copper veins being not unfrequent 
«ven at present. The copper ores of Japan are peculiar in contain- 
ing more or less of gold or silver or both. 

Impregnations. — Of the metalliferous deposits, those forming 
impregnations are especially found in the north of the Inner Arc. 
At the Kosaka mine in Rikuchu, which has recently raised itself 
high in the list of copper-silver mines of Japan from its obscure 
position of a worked-out silver mine, ore deposits impregnating 
Tertiary tuff, locally known as " Kuromono " (black ores), are being 
mined. 

Non-Metallic Deposits. — The principal non-metallic deposits 
in Japan are coal and petroleum. These, as distinguished from 
metal-bearing strata, are generally developed in the Inner Arc 
region which comparatively abounds in the Tertiary system, instead 
of, like the metal strata, in the Outer Arc districts. In Formosa, 
however, the coal-bearing beds are found in the Tertiary formation 
existing in the Outer Arc region. 

Coal. — The coal existing in Japan is generally bituminous. 
The greater part of the seams occur in the Tertiary system, none of 
them in the Carboniferous system. It may be conjectured that the 
strata belonging to this system were then formed beneath the occean, 
and no vegetation existed to supply material for the formation of a 
coal-bed. 

Antbracite 1^^ coal-bearing strata existing in the rocks of 

Coal-FielcU. the Mesozoic era are the anthracite coal-fields found in 
Bitominoiu the provinces of Nagato, Kii and Higo, but they are 
Coal-Fields. comparatively indignificant. 

It is in the younger Tertiary formation that the coal seams of 
Japan show a marked development. The principal coal-fields 
belonging to this class are those in Kyushu and Hokkaido, and also 
those in the Hitachi-Iwaki (Joban) districts. 

The Kyushu coal-fields comprise the extensive coal-strata of 
Chiku-h5, (two provinces of Chikuzen and Buzen), Miike, and Hizen. 



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294 Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Century. 

Below will be described briefly the principal coal-measures in- 
Japan. 

(A). THE HOKKAIDO COAL-FIELDS. 

ISHIKARI COAL-MEASURES. 

The Sorachi coal-field was the one first discovered among the coal- 
measures of Ishikari. In the travelling memorandum of Matsuura 
who undertook an extensive exploration of Hokkaid5 and other 
northern regions about 1855, the discovery of a coal outcrop on the 
banks of the river Sorachi is mentioned. About three years later, 
another man named Kimura discovered the outcrop of coal at 
Poronai while he was engaged in felling timbers. But it was by 
an American named Mr. Lyman that a definite survey Avas first 
undertaken. About 1876 the Hokkaido Board of Colonization 
entrusted that gentleman with the work of surveying the coal-fields 
of Sorachi, Poronai and vicinities. The report submitted by Mr. 
Lyman declared the presence of coal-fields in the district of Yubari. 
In 1879 the work of boring an adit at Poronai was started, but it 
was not till the fall of 1883 that extraction was regularly commenced. 
From that time till 1890 the Government worked the mine on its 
own account, but on the creation in that year of the Hokkaid5 
Tanks TetsudO Kaisha (Hokkaido Q)lliery Railroad Joint Stock 
(Company), the three measures of Sorachi, Ikushumbetsu and Yubari 
were sold to that establishment. Since then the company has been 
working those mines on an expanded scale. 

The coal-fields of Ishikari extend over the two 
Situation, districts of Yubari and Sorachi of the province of 
Ishikari, Hokkaid5. 

In these coal measures the seams contained in the Yubari 

measures are the most extensive. The seams are three in number^ 

one of which measures, including parting, 6 to 3 feet and 25 feet. At 

the depth of 300 feet below these seams occurs 

Seams and Qnsdity another measuring 4 feet in thickness. These 

of CoaL seams extend 25,000 feet in length, dipping at 

an angle of from 15 to 20 degrees. The coal- 
bearing strata of the Sorachi measures dip with suddenness, at 30^ — 
80^ angles, and they contain 13 seams each measuring over three feet 



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Gtofo^ and Jfinera/ IhpMi^t. ^K% 

in thickneas. At present the tenth scam b hein^ ^^^rk^nl Tho 
eoal-bearing strata at Poronai dip» in the north-vrtx^tern jhiH at tht^ 
measnresy at an angle of from 18 to 40 degree^ thou^srh at tho AUith* 
eastern part the dipping generally niakee$ 50** to 80^ ungltt)« Ovt^r 20 
seams of various thinkness occur, but of the^ only five jm* work- 
able. The quality of all those me^isurcd is exwllent, the prtxluot Ht 
Tubari and Sorachi being specially suited for nmking gti8 t>r (Hikt\ 

The coal-fields are workwl alma^tt oxolunivoly by tht* 

The Condition HokkaidQ Tanko TetsudO Kaisha, vihh only a A\\^h> 

of Mining. exception in the neighborhood of thiti <M>n)|mny*ii 

concession at Yubari, ^here in 1003 the working of 
another concession was commenced by a difR^rtMit iHitablUhnioiU. 
The company is working the fields at Yubari, Sorachi, Poroniil and 
Ikushumbetsu. In the first three minen a coniproHHt^l air plant in 
set to supply motor to pumps, coal-breaking nmchinoH, vonlilntow 
and elevators, and also for locomotives. Khn'tric gciicratorH am hIno 
on duty to work ventilators, screeners, various muchincM in tho work- 
shops, and also for illumination. 

At present the Yubari mine employH about 4,000 mon, pHKluo- 
ing on an average about 1,500 tons in a day. Hut at Hoiiurlil and 
Poronai about 2,000 men are at work prorhicing alwuit 000 to 000 
tons. The company's roalroads connect tl)c pitM of all tho njln<'ti 
worked by it with the exporting ports of Otani anrl Mnrorun, whll<* 
four steamers belonging to the crmiimny ship thi^ coal Ut nMit'k<'iM 
both at home and abroad. 

(B). THE CHIKUHO CXMI^-FIKLIX, 

TbeChiku-ho ajal-fiehfe pro^luce more than on« half of I Ik? vtUoUt 
oatpat in Japan, and po»^e«<, interlaid] lietween mtulMUmttt, phhUt h$uI 
eoD^OBoente, a l&rge numl>er of »fAfrm of whi^rh nior^; than Ur$t tr**. 
waAmiAe- The ooals from tliase sr^md are f^ me^lUstft ^jimlity uwt 
bitaminooi. The penetration of the vt-'iM in At^^xu *A s*>\*nu\*', 
todb tliroiigh the seams metamorph'^> the o^^ilii Xft liHiwraS /y/k^; \u 



Thoo^ the date rf ^fi^caoreiy it ikA tnLafX\y kti^/wu, tnkU^w^^ 
g» Id p^ore tint sereral bedb in tLu mh oo^l tk'i/iy/n mM Um^v^ 
warjFe than two eetiXxiivM a^% vIjI^ ttffuim% U/ iij^. 



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296 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

middle of the 19th century the coal was shipped to markets situated 
in adjoining districts. In those days the work was confined to 
surface seams, and it was not till 1881 when a steam boiler was set 
at the Meo mine (now forming part of the Katsuno mine), that the 
-extraction in modern style was introduced in this coal region. After 
that similar appliances were adopted at other mines as Namazuda, 
8hin-nyu, Meiji, Akaike, etc. About 1889 the reserved Jbeds for use 
of the Navy at Togawa, Kurate and other places were opened for 
public exploitation, while about that time the Department of 
Agriculture and Commerce adopted legislative measures aimed at 
discouraging the separate existence of small concessions, hence at 
encouraging their combination. Meanwhile the work of laying rail- 
roads through the important districts of Kyushu advanced apace, by 
which the facilities of transportation between the coal mines and the 
harbors of Moji and Wakamatsu were considerably promoted. But 
what specially stimulated the development of the colliery work in 
Kyushu was an extraordinary demand for coal occasioned by the 
Japan-China War. All those circumstances have combined to carry 
the work of the Chiku-h5 coal-fields to the present state of prosperity. 

The Chiku-hO coal-fields extend for the five administrative dis- 
tricts of Tagawa, Kurate, Kaho, Onga, Kasuya, all in Fukuoka^ 
ken, and measuring over 30 miles north and south and 
8 to 16 miles east to west. 

The coal-bearing strata in the Chiku-hO coal-fields may be 

divided into upper and lower strata as to quality of coal contained. 

The coal obtained from the upper seams is 

Seams and Quality, inferior in quality but possesses advantages of 

being easily workable. The principal seams 

, are five in number with the thickness generally varying from 2 

to 6 feet. In proportion, the area occupied by the upper strata 

does not exceed one-fifth of that of the lower strata, 

(C.) THE MIIKE COAL-FIELDS. 

The discovery of the fields date more than four centuries ago. 
From 1873 to 1889 the colliery belonged to the Government, but it was 
subsequent to the latter year, when the Mitsui Firm got the conces- 
sion, that the work of the colliery began to present a marked activity. 



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Oeohgy and Mineral Dq)09ii4, 207 

The fields cover 3} miles east and west and 10 miles north 
and south, occupying a seaward proportion of Miiko district in 
Fukuoka prefi^ture and Tamana district in 
Locality, Area, etc Kumamoto prefecture. The area occupiinl mea- 
sures 13,969 acres, while the output in 1002 
amounted to 962,091 tons, the aggregate during the thirty yean 
beginning 1873 being 11,737,931 tons. 

Several seams occur, but at present the first seam alone is almost 

exclusively worked. It measures 5 to 25 feet with an average 

thickness of 8 feet. The seam dips in general with an angle of 

5^ degrees. The second seam lying at the depth of 6 

Seams and to 10 feet under the first possesses the thickness of 6 

CoaL feet, but this seam is only partially distributed through 

the fields. The other seams are very irregular in 

formation and are hardly workable. 

The coal, as already stated above, is excellent, being especially 
suited for making gas and coke and for use in boilers. 

The work is carried on at six different places in the aAVunj, 
each separated from the other by a natural partition or brick'Wall^ 
the largest pit is that called Manda. Its mouth measures 12 feet 
by 41 feet and the pit reaches the depth of 826 feet 
The Sdstiiiy When all the arrangements now going <m for cfm^ 
ducting work more efficiently than at present have 
been completed, this pit alone is expected] to yiebl 
more tban 2,000 tons per day. 

The pumping appliance at the colliery in on a large scale^ the 
water iswiin^' at the pits averaging 1,200 cubic feet per minute on 
onfinarj days aad 2,000 in the time of the rainy season. Heveniy' 
are at work, requiring a motor of 1'>,2->I h^/ne-f^mer^ 
The pumping plant in^alled on the pit bank at the; Manda 
e, tx m<nnrff, has a hlgh'pngff»iire «team ffjUwhr 45 inch^ iu 
r, lonr- pteaim e «team fjUiAfT 90 inrKes in ffiam^t^r, a water 
23 iccflcs in cfiam^rter, and all ^jf 12 leet »troke ; ar/i is abfe 
to deSner water aaai=i« a he^ of IK/) feet V.fzefi in tKr»K ftag** of ZOO 
fat taA, fc B ikaenbei in the Ec^^ckpaedla BrI:Ar.r*>ia s» ** pr'>- 
de heaviest exiaciag t^.V.ifrr pirmpir^z plant ** in exl"»C^tv;^ 
Az jemeat 2,*>;^ mine-workers and Z.^/f wr.rkp#v^pU of other 



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300 Japan in the Beginning of the 20tt Pentury, 

layers of shale and sandstone, and some of the strata lie about 2,562 
feet deep. Though the output has somewhat declined, the quality 
of the oil from this field is the best of all. 

The Nishiyama oil-field, though on the whole similar in geological 
formation to the strata of Amaze, produces oil of inferioi- quality, 
and generally lies about 600 feet deep in the ground. 

Principal Petroleum Veins in Echigo. — Strictly speaking, 
it was in the 7th year of the reign of the Emperor Tenchi (668 
A.D.) that the first authentic record about the petroleum-fields of 
Echigo occurs. That record states that in that year 
General " burning earth " and " burning water " were presented 
Semarks. from Echigo to the Imperial Court. Though the boring 
became somewhat active toward the end of the 15th 
century to the middle of the 16th, still it was not till about 1875 
that the business b^an to acquire some commercial importance. 
The work was mostly carried on at that time in the districts of 
Kubiki and Niitsu. With the tapping of the veins at Amaze about 
ten years afterward, and especially after the work undertaken by 
the Japan Petroleum Company with regular boring machinery in 
1890 had been crowned with success, that something like a boom 
overtook the petroleum industry of Echigo. The veins at Hire and 
Urase b^an to yield oil, while in 1898 the^machine boring at 
Nagamine and the following year at Kamada struck rich beds of 
oil. From that time till 1902, boring was successfully tried' in 
several other places of Echigo. 

At present the principal oil-fields in Echigo are Nagamine, 
Kamada, and Niitsu. The first is worked by two companies and 
in 1902 produced 340,000 barrels, more than one-third of the total 
output in Japan. The crude oil is transported by iron- 
Vagamine. pipes to a refinery at Amaze separated by over 9 miles 
from Nagamine, and also to a refinery at Kashiwazaki 
separated by 11 miles. The later belongs to the Japan Petroleum 
Company and is perfect in arrangement. It may indeed be regarded 
as a model oil-refinery in Japan. 

The oil-fields at Kumada are exploited by the International 

Oil Company and an individual concessionaire, and 

Xamada. gave 120,000 barrels in 1902. The company possesses 



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(xeology and Mineral DepoeiiB. HOI 

at Naoyetsu, a place separated by 29 milee, a roflnory workml 
on a large scale. 

The oil-fields at Niitsu were originally divided Into a largt 

number of concessions worked on a small scale, but they 

Viitsn. have subsequently been amalgamated for the most part^ 

with excellent results as to yield. In 1002 this roaahed 

186,000 barrels. 

Hire, Urase, Eatsuhosawa, and Tsubakisawa are colh^jtlvoly 

called the Higashiyama Oil-fields which hi 1002 

Higashiyama produced 265,000 barrels. A number of niRtwrlm 

Qil-Fieldf. for refining the Higashiyama oil are at work at 

Xagaoka, a place lying 6 miles from the fivWn, 

The Kushiike oil-fields are the newest lierLf, having itrur;k oil 
in 1901. The next year the output reached over 28,000 imrrtrU, 

Graphite. — Graphite ores occur in Jaj«n eiiher in rn'MUUmff 
rocks in which case they exist in laminae or in mnmm in nirniStitA 
rocka. Though very widely distributed^ this witKfral in utill Mi 
oomparatiTely neglected. 

ScLFHrB. — Being a volcanic country, Japiin is t^rry rM$ iu 
sulphur, which occun? vi^ry frequently In exU^t'th*'. At^mU, 'Th^ 
principal sulphur mine^* are T.^uru^nzan in K'.k i^ Kj uwi Iwa/yff//Wi 
and Baissa in H'jkkayl^'. 

AixmjiL I>EF*>riT^. — ^AI I J Vial dei^Miu lu Jz^^t ar^ f^*^^,t' 
ed by all:rr5au rid In iLe dL<nrft 'i Eaauthi i/* 1h,\ckMyir, %(A U^m 
mod 7Z. Cl^/i::- Tl^ f.rTs.er » 4^^Uu:i>ifl fr,r:i z.*rlf^'/M ^^,MrU 

ir:c. All.-lil ^'A 4>^>»C.> ant al^^ fv..vl xv,k.x *a^ 
h^ie laioe "^^ Ijh**? Art. T^ > -r^rj 3i:.i^n ^; •**- /rr/*f^v^ ":^^ 




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302 Japan in the Beginning oj the 2Wk Century, 

of discovery in future of various mineral deposits. In short, the 
close relation existing between mineral deposits and an exceedingly 
complicated geological formation of the Inner Arc region must 
not be overlooked in investigating the mineral recources of Japan. 



III. MINING AND METALLURGY. 



General Eemarks. — As the methods of mining and metal- 
lurgy were in a rudimentary stage before the Restoration and as 
experience or what would be called, in more familiar language "the 
rule of thumb " was the sole guidance, it is no exaggeration to say 
that the mining as it is c^ried on to-day is a complete transformation 
to what was forty years ago. Moreover, as all the processes of 
mining, milling and metallurgy were practically conducted by hands, 
the scope of business was necessarily limited and the output was 
therefore small, not to speak of the waste of metal. In justice of our 
old miners, it ought to be added that with no accurate scientific 
knowledge and labor-saving appliances to assist their work, they 
developed, especially in the metallurgy of copper, lead and gold and 
silver ores, a method highly creditable to their ingenuity. 

The Restoration inaugurated an important epoch in the annals 
of the mining industry in this country. In the year 1867, an 
Englishman named Erasmus Gower introduced for the 
Introdnotion first time in this country the use of explosives which 
of he employed in the silver-gold mine in Sado, Avhile an 

Explo ives. American expert named Pumpelly also used an ex- 
plosive at the Yurap lead mine in Hokkaido. These 
are the first instances of the employment of explosives in the 
mining business in this country. In 18C8, Kanso Nabeshima, then 
the feudal lord of Siiga, in conjunction with Mr. Glover, an English- 
man, sunk a European shaft at Takashima. This was the first 
shaft ever sunk in Japan. 

On the advent of the Meji era, the Grovernment undertook the 

mining business itself and placed the Sado, Ikuno, In-nai, Ani, Kosaka, 

Kamaishi, and Okuzu metal mines as well as the 

Mining work Takashima and Miike collieries under its direct 

T)y Government, control, between 1868 and 1884. It engaged aa 



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Mining and Metallurgy. 303 

many as 80 foreign experts for those mines, and improyements 
were zealously effected in various directions. In mining, smelting, 
and transportation, an example was set to private mining com- 
panies of adopting foreign systems. At the same time, that is in 
1871, an engineering school was established for diffusing a knowldge 
of mining and metallurgy. The result was a remarkable advance in 
these departments of scientific learning. 

A large number of private operators profited themselves with 
the example thus set by the Government, and started mining enter- 
prises on an improve style, and though their undertakings were not al- 
ways successful, the result was on the whole a remarkable development 
of the industry. The mining industry now fairly launched and there 
was little or no necessity for retaining the model mines; at least 
the Grovemment seems to have taken this view of the matter, for it 
soon opened the mines under their control to private enterprise. 

Especially was the rise of the work of coal-mining noteworthy 
about this time. And in this Hokkaid5 first set an example to the 
other parts of the country, the coal industry in that northern island 
dating from 1885. Then followed the exploitation of 
Progress of the coal-fields in the Chiku-h5 districts, but it was not 
Coal-Mining, till the Japanese coal first began to go abroad, in 
1889, that the colliery-work made any striking 
development. To give some idea of this remark, it may be stated 
that, whereas 28 years ago Japan had only one colliery employing 
steam-engines and that her output of this fuel was only about 
200,000 tons in a year, to-day engines aggregating over 36,700 
horse-powers are at work with the output reaching over 10,000,000 
tons. As to demands abroad of Japanese coal, the markets along 
the coast of China east of Singapore are practically held by it. 

The petroleum industry is another mining business that has 

lately sprung into great importance. An object of curiosity knoAvn 

from olden time under the name of " burning- water,'* it was first 

turned in 1890 to real commercial use by 

VrogresB of tapping the subterranean reservoirs with drill- 

Petroleom-Mlning. machines of American style. The success of 

this innovation has given a powerful impetus to 

the development of the petroleum industry, and something like a 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



304 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century, 

petroleum boom came over Echigo. To show briefly this state of 
things by figures, the output of crude oil that did not exceed 
80,000 barrels eleven years ago with the conducting iron-pipes ex- 
tending less than 3 miles altogether, to-day the figures stand at 
1,100,000 barrels and 186 miles respectively. 

Iron foundry work was carried on from olden days in the pro- 
vinces of H5ki, Izumo, and some others, the river iron coming from 
decomposed granite having been used for this 
Iron Foimdry Work, purpose. The output of iron was necessarily 
limited. Eleven years ago the Government 
was impressed with the necessity of starting the foundry business 
modelled on a Western style, and an Imperial commission was 
appointed to institute thorough inquiries into all matters pertaining 
to this new enterprise. The result of these inquiries was the estab- 
lishment in 1896 of the Imperial Iron Works at Yawata, Kyushu. 
The working programme has not being complete yet in all its 
details, the quantity of iron produced at the works is still com- 
paratively small though sure to become considerably increased at no 
distant time. A private iron work at the Kama-ishi iron-mine is 
also producing more or less iron. 

In the mining of precious metals, the output of silver reached 

a large amount at one time owing to a highly creditable progress 

which our miners attained in a process of smelting. 

Precions Metal It necessarily declined six or seven years since, 

Mining. owing to the universal fall in the silver market. 

On the other hand, as a result of the discovery of 

alluvial gold deposits in Hokkaid5 and the adoption of an improved 

method of smelting in the gold mines of Kagoshima, Osumi and 

other provinces, the advance of the output has been carried to an 

almost unprecedented extent. 

As to the mining of copper, which occupies such an important 

place in our mining industry, the output is advancing at a rapid 

rate, the ores being found almost everywhere 

Copper Mining, throughout the country, while the processes of 

milling and smelting are being markedly improved 

and on a larger scale. 

Output of principal mines. — In 1902 the principal mines 



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Mining and MekMurgy. 



305 



existing in Japan, with their output, •are as follows. Those only 
are given which, in the case of gold-mines, produce not less than 
2,000 ounces; 50,000 ounces in the case of silver-mines, 500 tons 
in copper-mines, 500 tons in lead-mines, 10,000 tons in iron-mines, 
100 tons in antimony-mines, 1,000 tons in manganese-mines 
and sulphur-mines, 100,000 tons in coal-mines, and 10,000 barrels 
in petroleum concessions. The output of any single product at 
Omori, Omotani, Dogamaru, Hosokura and Kune mines does not 
reach that the respective standard, but they are mentioned here 
because the output of all the minerals produced by them combinedly 
reach that standard.) 

PRINCIPAL MINES AND OUTPUT (1902). 

Table I. 



Name of 


Name ot 


Gold 


SUver 


Copper 


Lead 


Locality. 


Mine. 


(oz.) 


(oz.) 


(ton). 


(ton) 


Niigata ... 


... Sado 


12,574 


123,660 


— 


— 


Kagoshima 


... Ushio 


11,925 


— 


— 


— 


Hy^o ... 


... Ikmio 


6,814 


167,167 


447 


— 


Kiigata ... 


... Hashidate 


6,696 • 


— 


— 


— 


Hokkaido 


... Shin-Totsugawa ... 


6^16 (alluvial gold) 


— 


— 


Kagoshima 


... Oguchi 


4,628 


— 


— 


— 


Hokkaidd 


... Usotannai 


4,074 (alluvial gold) 


— 


— 


Kagoshima 


... Yamagano 


9,407 


— 


— 


— 




... Kuratani 


2,196 


35,756 




"4 


Hokkaid5 


... Peichan 


2,196 


— 


— 


— 


Akita ... 


... Imiai 


2,199 


261,737 


— 


— 


Gifii 


... Kamioka 


— 


132,194 


— 


804 


Akita ... 


... Tsubaki 


— 


111,612 


— 


— 


Hokkaidd 


... Ponshikaribetsu ... 


909 


101,039 


— 


— 


EAiknshima 


... Handa 


675 


58,880 


— 


— 


Shimane... 


... *Omori 


684 


30,830 


62 


— 


Tochiki ... 


... Ashio 


— 


— 


6,762 


— 


Ehimc ... 


... Besshi 


— 


— 


4,739 


— 


Akita ... 


... Kosaka 


— 


96,087 


3,050 


— 


Miyazaki... 


... Hibira 


— 


— 


876 


— 


Akita ... 


... Osaruzaiva 


— 


— 


816 


— 


» ••• 


... Ani 


— 


— 


81S 


— 


>» ••• 


... Aralcawa 


— 


— 


918 


— 


Miyazaki... 


... Makimine ... ... 


— 


— 


751 





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306 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 



Name of 
Locality. 

Okayama... 

Niigata ... 
Akita ... 

Oifu 

Jshikawa... 

Kumamoto 

Fukui 

■Shimane ... 

^hizuoka... 

Miyagi ... 



Name of 
Mine. 
Kamaishi ... 
Ichinokawa 

Kano 

Minika 
Iwasaki 



Name of 
Mine. 

Obiye ... . 

Yoshioka 

Kusaknra 
Himiichi 

Hirakane 

Okaya ... . 

Goki ... . 

Omotani 

^Dogamaru . 

*Kune ... . 

^Hosokura . 



Gold 
(oz.) 



Silver 
(oz.) 

51,175 

20,009 
4«,59o 



Lead 
(ton) 



2«,394 



Copper 
(ton). 

567 - 

529 — 

^51 = 

472 ^ 

451 — 

374 — 

267 ~ 

253 — 
io,599(copperore) 

- 318 



Table IL 



Name of 
Locality. 

Iwate ... 

Ehime... 

Yamaguchi 

Hokkaido 

Aomori 



Iron 
(ton). 
20,060 



Antimony, 
(ton). 



Manganese 
(ton). 



Name of 
Colliery. 

Miike 

Onoura 

Yubari 

Meiji 

Shin-nyu ... 
Komatsu ... 
Katsuno 

Otsuji 

Futase 

Tagawa 
Soracbi 
Namazuda ... 
Poronai 
Takashima ... 

Akaike 

Akasakakuchi 



Table IIL (Coal.) 

Name of 
Locality. 

, Fukuoka 



Hokkatd5 
Fukuoka 



Hokkaido 

Fukuoka 

Hokkaido 

Nagasaki 

Fukuoka 

Saga ... 



513 (refined) — 

51 (sulphate) -^ 

208 — 

— ^,953 

— 1,503 



Output 
(ton). 

962,091 

458,360 

425,945 

420,695 

353,821 

301,952 

3oi/>5o 

240,721 

220,971 

218,157 

206,969 

204,902 

194,886 

189.135 

>55.936 

146,790 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Qmdititm of Minie-Worken. 



307 



Name of 
Colliery. 

Mitaku (for admiralty) 

Iriyama 

Ito 

Naigo 

Yamano 

ICanada 

Yoshinotani 

Hokoku 

Onoda 

Kinejima 

Jwasaki 

Tadakuma 



Name of 
Oil-District 

Nagamine ... . 

Niitsu 

Kamada ... . 

Hire 

Urasc 

Katsuhozawa 
Ktishiji ... , 
Tsnbakizawa 



Name of 
Mine. 

Iwaonobori... 

Konmi 

Tsunigisan ... 
Kiritomehira 
Shirikishinai 
Ransu 



Name of 
Locality. 

» ••• ••• 

Fukushima ..• 
Fuknoka 
Fukushima ... 
Fnkuoka 

n ••• 

Saga 

Fukuoka 
Fukushima ... 

Saga 

Fnkuoka 



Table IV. (Petroleum.) 

Name of 
Locality. 

... Niigata 



Table V. (Sulphur.) 

Name of 
Locality. 

.. HokkaidS 

>» 

.. Iwate 

.. Akita 

.. HokkaidS 



Output 
(ton). 

146,187 
144,636 
143,138 
133,283 
ijo,8o6 
130,687 
129,109 
128,983 
120,192 
"7,938 
105,648 
102,452 



Output 
(barrel). 

340,401 
186,439 
120,782 
94,568 
84,862 
68,123 
28,281 
16,969 



Output 
(ton). 

2,696 
2,018 

1,815 
1,658 

1,613 
1,012 



lY. CONDITION OF MINE- WORKERS. 



Labor and Life of Mine-Workers. — The total number of 

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308 Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Ceittury, 

persons employed in Japanese mines was 160,169 in June, 1902. 
These include miners, carriers, pickers, smelting men, machine 
tenders, iron workers, and pumpmen. Most of these laborers work 
underground and under uncomfortable circumstances, but in spite of 
these disadvantages they are generally satisfied with their lot and 
go to work with light hearts. Some of those workers are natives of 
the district in which the mine is stiuate but the greater numbers 
of them are from other provinces, no small number of whom settle 
down, form families, and live till their death. These mine-workers 
generally live in dwellings provided by their employers; those with 
&milies in separate rooms and those without fiunilies in large 
common rooms. The dwellings are either thatched or tile- 
roofed, and the inside of the rooms is comparatively clean, 
which reflects much credit on them. When mines are re- 
mote, provisions are supplied by the mine operators, some- 
times at a very low price. Evidently this institution of a 
cheap suj^ly of food is adopted with a view to checking any 
movement for the rise of wages on the pretext of a rise in the 
price of commodities, for it is very difficult to lower wages when 
once they are raised. 

As their calling is attended with some peril, their wages are 
on a higher scale than those of their confreres in the other walks of 
life, as shown in the table given below. 

In consideration of great risk to which they are exposed, their 

employers are bound to take care of them, when they meet with 

accidents while on duty. The employers bear part 

Protection or the whole of expenses of medical attendance, and. 

Given by when the patients are treated in hospitals other than 

Employers- those owned by the employers, they are daily paid a 

sum of money to meet the expenses of such hospitals. 

In case of their being disabled, they are given a fair amount of 

money, and in case of death, generally a sum of five yen 

or upwards is granted to the bereaved families toward the 

funeral expenses, besides giving some allowance to the fieimilies. 

The following table shows the sums paid, during the three years^ 

specified, by some of the mine-owners, under the circumstances 

already given: — 



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Conditwn of Mine- Workei'H. 309 

FUNERAL EXPENSES. 

Miike. Besshi. Ikuno. Izmai. 

t " N , ^ > , ^ > / ^ » 

y No. of Re- Amount No. of Re- Amoctnt No. of Re- Amount No. of Re- Amount 

cipients. myen, cipients. myen. cipients. myen. cipients. in yen. 

1899 15 73.000 2 24.000 45 251.000 2 9.000 

1900 9 45.000 10 80.000 39 197.500 3 15.000 

1901 25 125.000 5 41.942 42 166.500 2 10.000 

MONEY GIVEN IN AID OF THE BEREAVED FAMILIES. 

1899 14 560.000 — — 138 796.100 2 29.000 

1900 9 360.000 — — 164 957.800 3 67.200 

1901 21 820.000 2 40.000 185 1,096.800 2 54*830 

MONEY GIVEN IN RELIEF OF THE DISABLED. 

1899 8 100.000 — — 42 871.500 — — 

1900 13 135.000 — — 49 1,043.000 — — 

1901 2 60.000 — — 50 1,143.000 I 14-440 

FUNERAL EXPENSES. 

Yubari, Poronai, 
KamaishL Ashio. Sado. Ikushumbetso, 

Sorachi, etc. 

Y No. of Re- Amount No. of Re- Amount No. of Re- Amount No. of Re- Amount 

cipients. in^^i. cipients. myen, cipients. myen, cipients. myen, 

1899 — — 7 58.000 5 24.000 33 330.000 

1900 14 70.000 16 ii9xxx> I 5.000 21 210.000 

1901 6 39.950 15 127.000 I 5.000 40 400.000 

MONEY GIVEN IN AID OF THE BEREAVED FAMILIES. 

1899 — — 6 100.000 4 150.000 29 890.000 

1900 13 148.000 15 355.000 I 30.000 21 840.000 

1901 7 140.000 16 330.000 — — 32 1,480.000 

MONEY GIVEN IN RELIEF OF THE DISABLED. 

1899 — — 3 60.000 — — 21 708.000 

1900 — — 2 50XKX> — — 13 387.000 

1901 2 108.970 3 53^)00 ^ ^16 398xx)o 



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310 Japan in the Beginning of the 2(Hh Century, 

In respectable mineSy mine-workers' mutual aid associations are 
in existence. The aim of these associations is to extend help to the 
members in case of emergency. To this end, reserve 
Xme-workers' funds are created by contribution from the members,. 
Mutual Aid. and also from the mine operators or other patrons, 
and disbursements are made from these funds in case 
of the injury, illness, or death of any of the members. The sums 
to be . contributed by the mine-workers vary according to different 
associations. In some cases, a certain fixed sum is contributed 
uniformly by all, while in other cases, sums are contributed in 
proportion to the positions of the workmen. Such contributions are 
made every month out of their income. In granting the relief, the 
amount to be given is fixed, other things being equal, according to 
the length of time the party to be relieved has been a member of 
the association, or according to the position of the recipient, or 
according to both. 

Education of mine-workers. — ^Although in petty mines where 
only a small number of workmen are employed no provision is made 
for the education of the miners' children, in larger mines they are 
educated either in schools established by the mine-owners or in 
public schools subsidized by the mine-owners. Under such circiun- 
stance, the rate of tuition fee is comparatively low. 

As to the workers themselves, working ajs they do underground 
they apparently look to be of fierce and vicious characters. How- 
ever they are on the whole meek and obedient. But among those 
who are termed itinerant miners, who are constantly moving from 
mine to mine, there are occasionally found blood-thirsty rogues 
and ruffians. 

Peculiar usage exists among miners. The oaths of chiefs and 
prot^g^ and of bretheren are observed with religious strictness. 
The instructions of the " boss " are expected to be 
HinexB' "Boss.** obeyed whether they are right or wrong. These 
chie& are in intimate communication with each 
other, so that in case a miner goes from one mine to another, 
seeking employment, etc., he is sure, if he gives the name of his 
chief, to be kindly treated. His new friends will go to no little 
trouble to find employment for him and will often give him money- 



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Legiabahn. 311 

to cover liis travelling expenses. This peculiar spirit of fraternity 
is utilized for the control of miners; and it b difficult for the 
outsider to realize how implicitly the commands of these chiefe are 
obeyed and how well order is preserved. But this sympathy be- 
tween the chief and the followers sometimes aggravates a fight 
between chiefs themselves and often brings about tragic incidents. 
Sometimes these retainers of a " boss " cause trouble to the latter's 
employers. Under such circumstances, one would suppose that strikes 
must be of frequent occurrence. This is not the case, however. 
Indeed strikes of miners are almost unheard of, although quarrels 
among them are very common. This absence of strikes may gene- 
rally be ascribed to the kind treatment of miners. 



Y. LEGISLATION. 



In describing the legislative measures and administration as, 
enforced in Japan about mining, the first thing that demands atten- 
tion is the right of ownership. 

Right of Ownership. — There are, generally speaking, three 
kinds of right of ownership as to mines, these being the system of 
accession, that is to say, the system of ownership by private 
individuals ; (2) the domanical system, that is to say, the system 
of State ownership; (3) the system of concession, that is to say 
the system of giving concession on application. 

Japan has never adopted the first system ; it adhered to the 

State ownership system from former times and till quite recently, so 

that when the privilege of working a mine was 

Original System granted to any private people, this concession was 

in Japan. regared as favor of the Grovernment, and for a 

certain limited period in return for payment of 

royalty. That period as mentioned in the Mining Regulations issued 

in 1873 was 15 years. 

The progress of the times did not allow the continuation of such 

arbitrary system, which was moreover calculated to seriously impair 

the advance of the mining industry. In 1890 the 

Brasent System, said Regulations were amended, and with the opera- 



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312 Japan in the Beginning of ike 20ih Century. 

tion of the new Begulations two years later the concession system 
distinctly establishing the right of permanent working was in- 
augurated^ and thus safeguarded the sound development of the 
mining industry in Japan. 

Scope op Mining Work and Kinds op Mines.— In the Ist 
article of the Regulations it is provided that mining work means trial 
boring and all works pertaining to it. The inclusion of the work 
of smelting and so forth to mining work proper is a distinct 
feature of mining administration of Japan. It is a result of long-establi- 
shed usage and is also due to some extent to the convenience it affords 
to Government over-seers, for boring and smelting have in most 
cases been combined in Japan and the division of the two was 
therefore judged troublesome. Moreover the bringing of trial boring 
and smelting ufider the same treatment as mining were judged to 
tend to encouraging the mining industry. 

Mineral ores as recognized in law are as follows: — 
Grold (alluvial-gold excluded), silver, copper, lead, tin (tin-sand 
excluded), antimony, quicksilver, zinc, iron, (iron-sand excluded) 
hematite, manganese, arsenic, plumbago, coals, petrolemn, sulphur, 
bismuth, cloral-iron, phosphorus, peat, and asphalt. The last five 
were added to the list in 1900. 

QUALIPICATION OF MiNING CONCESSIONAIRES. — At first a 

foreigner was disqualified from working a mine and was further 
prevented from becoming a member of a mining establishment, so 
that the right of working mines was exclusively reserved for 
Japanese subjects. In consequence of the amendment of the Mining 

Regulations in 1900 a business establishment organized 
Privilege of by Japanese or foreigners or by both combined is 
Foreigners, allowed to work mines, provided such establishment is 

placed under Japanese laws. This amendment besides 
confering a great benefit on foreigners and encouraging the creation 
of mining establishments organized by foreigners, has proved a 
means of stimulating the development of the industry. 

Trial Boring and Working. — Differing from the examples 
seen in many Western countries, Japanese law does not recognize 
in the matter of trial extraction the right of priority of discoveries ; 
the right of trial boring is granted to the one who has fivst 



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Legislation. 313 

Bight of Priority, applied for it The reason why this system has 
been adopted in Japan is because the fact of 
an alleged discovery is exceedingly difficult to verify, while an 
accidental discovery has no right to claim any special privilege. 
The concession of trial boring carries with it a great privilege in 
Japan for no other person is allowed to apply for the trial boring 
in the concession conceded to the first applicant of the same metal 
as that for which the concession was made to that applicant 
(art. XXI). 

The non-recognition of the right of priority of the owner of 
land in which a discovery is made is derived from the foundamental 
principle of Japanese legislature, and must be regarded as a highly 
reasonable provision. The period of trial boring is one year, to be 
extended to another year when such extension is regarded proper 
and necessary (Art. IX.). In contrast to this limitation in the 
period of the trial borings, no such limit is enforced in regard to 
permanent working. Further, though the right of trial boring can 
not be transferred to a third person or be used as object of hypo- 
thecation, the right of permanent boring can be sold or bought or 
assigned or be made an object of hypothecation (Art XX.) 

The fact that the concession of working a mine was at first 
limited, to the space of only 15 years, and that this concession was 
forbidden from being made use of as obj^t of hypothecation did 
seriously interfere with the proper development of the industry. The 
subsequent amendment of the Regulations has removed those two 
grave defects and to-day concessionaires and capitalists are enabled 
to invest a large sum in the exploitation of mines. 

Scope op a MrwrNo Concession and Supervision op the 
Working. — ^The scope of a concession is fixed with a definite limit, 
it being not less than 10,000 tauho for coal and not less than 3,000 
tguho for other kind of minerals (Art XLL), the maximum limit 
being 600,000 in both cases. The two extremes have been so deter- 
mined in order to prevent the appearance of too many small conces- 
sions on the one hand and the evil of monopoly on the other. 
However, in case of the combination of more than two concessions 
the maximum limit may exceed 600,000 tsubo. 

In view of the fact that our mine-owners and people are too 

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314 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

apt to attend to their own immediate interests at the expense of the 
permanent interest of the mining industr7 as a 
Provisions against national economy, and that not unfrequentlj they 
Forestalling- secure concessions merely with the object of selling 
them to other people, the Government has deemed 
it advisable to interfere more or less with the mining business. 
Thus a concessionaire is obliged to forward to the chief of the 
Mining Inspection Office in whose jurisdiction the concession is 
situated the working plan he has drawn up and to obtain for 
it the approval of the chief before proceeding to work the con- 
cession (Arts. XXVI and XXVII). Further, the concession may be 
revoked by the Minister of Agriculture and Commerce in case the 
working is suspended for more than a year (Art. XXIX), while 
he also requires the concessionaire to submit every six months the 
plan of the existing condition of the mine (Art. XXXI), and 
also requires him to get his approval whenever a concession is to be 
amalgamated with another or is to be split up (Art. XLVI). 
Lastly, when the location and shape of a concession as represented in 
the application is discovered to differ from the actual location and 
shape of the bed, the Minister may order the concessionaire to mark 
out his concession anew, on pain of revoking the concession if this 
order is not obeyed. 

Use of Land. — The mining operation involving the use of the 

surface of land, the interest of a mining concessionaire is often found 

incompatible with that gf the owner of the land. The only way to 

find a way out of this difficulty is to requisi- 

Obligations of Owners tion for the benefit of the concessionaire so 

of Land to Kining much land as is judged necessary for the 

Concessionaires. conduct of his work and to give suitable 

compensation for this requisition to the owner 

of the land. It is to regulate these relations the exploitation of 

natural resource demands that a special chapter la devoted in the 

existing law to distinctly define the right of mining concessionaires 

and owners of land. According to the provisions therein contained, 

the owner of the land cannot refuse permitting to the concessionaire 

the use of his land required in the mining work, the land required 

being specified thus : — 



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LeffMOum. 315 

For the purpose of smking shafts or boring pits. 

For stowing ores, stones, and earth. 

For constructing working paths, roads, railroads, tramwajs, 
canals, ditches or pools. 

For constructing smelting workshops and other buildings, 
electric wires, iron-pipes or chains required in mining. 

The owner of the land cannot refuse leasing to the mineK)wner 
the land required f^r making the forgoing provision (Art. LX Vll), 
and the mine-owner in return must give to the owner a suitable 
compensation by way of rent or damages or must deposit security 
against rent (Art. L). Further, the mine-owner is obliged, on the 
request being made by the owner of the land, to purchase the land 
used by him in mining work for not less than three years. All 
the disputes between the land-owner and the mine-owner may be 
submitted to the decision of the chief of the Mining Inspection 
Office, but when his decision is r^arded unsatisfactory by the 
parties concerned an appeal may be made, in case of lease, to the 
Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, and to ordinary courts of 
law in case of other kinds of dispute. 

Mining Police. — From the very nature of the work not only 
is the risk to life greater to those engaged in it than in ordinary 
work, but the work may also involve serious injuries to other parties, 
by causing, for instance, the depression of the surfece level of the 
land situated in the vicinity of the mine or by causing noxious gas 
or poisonous matters to spread in the surrounding district. It being 
judged unadvisable to leave the control of all those matters to 
ordinary police who can not be properly 
Proviision to Safeguard qualified for the task, it is provided in Art. 

Public Safety. LVJII of the existing Mining Regulations 

that the following matters shall be attended 
to by the respective chiefs of the Mining Inspection Offices, subject 
to the supervision of the Minister of Agriculture and Commerce : — 

Safety of architectural constructions both in the mine and in 
connection with mining. 

Protection of the life and health of workmen. 

Protection of the surface of land and of the public interests. 

When any cause of danger or of injury to the public interests 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



316 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

in connection with mining is peroeived by the chief, he is authorized 
to order the concessionaire to remove such cause, on pain of ordering 
the suspension of the work in case of his disobeying the order 
(Art. LIX), while the supervising authorities may themselves carry 
out the necessary preventive measures and cause the concessionaires to 
pay the expense involved in the work. 

The Minister of Agriculture and Commerce has further enacted 
Rules relating to Mining Police, and enforces strict control over 
such matters as the use of explosives, arrangements for ventilation, 
subterranean works, construction of chimneys, boilers, milling-shops, 
smelting-shops etc., provisions against accident, etc. The Chief of 
the Mining Inspection Office sees to the faithful fulfil m^it of all 
the points specified in the Rules. 

Protection of Mine- Workers. — In view of the great risk to 
life and health, special provisions besides those mentioned in the 
Police Rules are in force for extending protection to mine-workers and 
their families, these provisions being intended to enforce proper restric- 
tion as to the nature of the work, number of working-hours, relief 
in case of death or injuries sustained in the discharge of duty. Every 
concessionaire is accordingly ordered to draw up for use in his own 
particular concession rules relating to workmen, and to submit to it 
the draft for the approval of the Chief of the Mining Inspection 
Office (Art. LXIV), the object of this official interference being to 
provide against unreasonable demand, made by the employers on 
employees. Further, the Minister of Agriculture and Commerce is 
authorized by means of Departmental Ordinances to place restrictions 
on the working-hours of general workmen, and on the kind of work 
that may be imposed on female workers, and on the working-hours 
and kind of work for minors (Art. LXXI) ; also to cause the con- 
cessionaire to make suitable relief provisions both for workmen or 
their families when workmen meet with death or are disabled in the 
discharge of their duties. The concessionaire is under an obligation 
to draw up regular rules to deal with such cases, and to put them 
in practice with the approval of the Chief of the Mining Inspection 
Office. 

Taxes on Mining. — ^At first the taxes were of two kinds, one 
on leases and the other on produce. The former was at the rate 



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LegUlaJtwu 317 

of 1 yen for every 500 tmbo of metallic mines (except iron) ; 50 sen 
for every 500 tsybo of iron and non-metallic mines. The other tax 

was at the rate of 3 to 20 per cent of the value 
Original Syvtem. of the output. In 1875 the tax on produce was 

abolished to give encouragement to the progress of 
the industry. But the imposition of a tax according to the extent 
of the concession was attended by a serious defect, for it induced the 
concessionaire to minimize the extent of the leases and therefore 
tended to prevent the proper exploitation of natural resources. By 
the further amendment, the original method of imposing two kinds 
of taxes was restored, but the rate for the lease was reduced to 30 

sen per 1,000 twho and the tax on produce, iron 
Present System, excluded, 1 per cent, of the value of output (Art* 

LXXIII). This restoration of the tax on lease 
was partly effected with the object of restricting the evil of 
forestalment by speculators, while the tax itself was in con- 
formity with a long-established usage. The tax on produce is 
determined according to quotations in the principal markets, the 
selling price to take the place of quotations in the absence of 
quotations (Art. LXXIV). Those for which the official quota- 
tions exist are at present gold, silver, copper, lead, antimony, coal 
and petroleum. 

Sand Ore Digginqs.— Sand ore diggings (alluvial gold, iron- 
sand, tin-sand) are treated by the laws in a manner somewhat distinct 
from other kinds of ore ; in this case the right of priority is accorded 
to the owner of land containing those ores. But when the owner 
does not work the ores he is compelled to grant permission to do so 
to those who are desirous to dig them. The owner is entitled in that 
case to exact a suitable amount of fee. The working is left uninter- 
fered with, excepting some restrictions of the nature of general 
Police regulations. However the diggings are allowed only to 
Japanese subjects and no foreigners whether as a private individual or 
as member of a company is allowed to undertake the work. In 
most other respects provisions of the Mining Regulations are corres- 
pondingly applied to the digging exploitation. 

Mining Administration. — Mining administration necessary pre- 
sents special features of its own and is distinct from the administration 



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820 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Century, 



Statistics relating to the Mining Industry* 



For the convenience of reference, statistics relating to the mining 
industries are given here in the form of appendix. Owing to 
unavoidable circumstances, these returns are not uniform as to the 
period they cover, though in most cases they begin in 1893 to end 
in 1902. 

TABLE I.— MINING LOTS UNDER TRIAL-BORING 
AND THEIR AREAS. 



Year. 


Mining-Lot. 


Area (acres). 


i^omparaiive 
Inc. or Dec. 


2\verage a 
per Lot. 


1893 


. 5,700 


671.484 


100 


118 


1894 


6,095 


910,819 


136 


149 


1895 


3,972 


721,120 


107 


182 


1896 


3,4" 


722,774 


"5 


227 


1897 


4,143 


1,240,265 


185 


299 


1898 


3,959 


1,349,860 


201 


341 


1899 


3,995 


1,391,134 


207 


343 


1900 


5,184 


1,785,593 


266 


341 


1901 


6,859 


2,189,811 


326 


319 


1902 


. 6,467 


2,038,976 


304 


315 



TABLE II.— MINING-CONCESSIONS AND AREAS. 



Year. 


No. of Con- 


Area (acre 




cession. 


1893 


... 3,513 


152,767 


1894 


.. 3,725 


194,568 


1895 


.. 4,276 


232,686 


1896 


.. 4.882 


305471 


1897 


.. 5,123 


363,896 


1898 


.. 5,270 


405,106 


1899 


.. 5.355 


453,753 


1900 


.. 5,389 


481,845 


1901 


.. 5,725 


575,969 


1902 


.. 5,908 


645,901 



Comparative Average Area 
Inc. or Dec. per Concession. 



100 
127 
152 
200 
23a 
265 
297 
31S 
377 
425 



43 
52 
54 
63 
71 
77 
85 
89 
101 
109 



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Statu4ic8 Relating to the Mining Industry, 
TABLK III.— MINERAL SAND DIGGINGS LOTS. 



321 



Year. 


Alluvial Gold. 


Iron Sand. 


Others. 


Total. 


1893 ... 


124 


1,549 


5 


1,678 


1894 ... 


Ill 


1,566 


5 


1,682 


1895 ... 


118 


1,507 


5 


1,693 


1896 ... 


201 


1478 


4 


1,683 


1897 ... 


247 


1,584 


6 


1,837 


1898 ... 


294 


1,646 


8 


1,948 


1899 ... 


635 


1,562 


7 


2,204 


1900 


2,199 


1,507 


8 


3,714 


1901 


3,336 


1,560 


10 


4,906 


1902 


3,604 


1,523 


11 


5,138 



TABLE IV.— OUTPUT OF PRINCIPAL MINERAL PRODUCTS. 
Mktals. (I) 





1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


Gold (oz) 


5.598 


10,045 


8,812 


23,362 


28,821 


30,928 


SUver(„) ... 


224,842 


332,406 


766,360 


1.699,030 


2,323,673 


2,068,564 


Copper (ton) ... 


2,399 


4,669 


15408 


18,115 


19,114 


20,079. 


Lead(..) 


230 


270 


90 


775 


1,945 


1,954 


Tin („) 


— 


17 


41 


47 


48 


50 


^^j Refined (ton)] 
^i\Sulphate(„)j 


*2 


*5o6 


•2,665 


*i,899 


639 
1,044 


5ie^ 

82d 


Quicksilver (lbs) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,061 


3,876 


Pig Iron(ton)% 










24,693 


26,154 


1 Wrought („) . 


*3,438 


*i6,685 


*6,77o 


•22414 


39 


25 


"^ISteel („)..J 










1,065 


1,194 


Sulphate of Iron (toe 


- 


— . 


— 


— 


63,243 


88,86^ 


Manganese („)... 


44 


— 


122 


2,592 


17,112 


17,935 


Arsenic (Ht») ... 


— 


— 


-- 


-- 


16,157 


I3»04& 






Metals. (II) 










1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


Gold(oz) 


33,329 


37,273 


53,860 


68,307 


79,594 


95,952 


SUver(„) ... I 


,745,658 


i.943»362 


1,805,891 


1,890,716 


1,760,158 


2,109,221 


Copper (ton) ... 


20.389 


21,024 


24,276 


25,309 


27,392 


29,098 


Lcad(„) 


771 


1,703 


1,988 


1,878 


1,803 


1,645 


T^ U) 


48 


43 


18 


12 


14 


16 


i&jRe&ied (ton) 
5|tSulphate(„) 
Quicksilver (lbs) 
/Pig Iron(ton) 
§ J Wrought („) 
£\Steel {J/. 


823 


233 


229 


349 


428 


520 


348 


1,004 


712 


81 


118 


96 


5,937 


3,085 




595 


1,653 


3.125 


26,910 


22,510 


20,778 


22455 


56,334 


44,393 


— 


— 


1,379 


1415 


1,546 


847 


1,082 


1,101 


909 


971 


12,170 


33.653 


Sulphate of Iron(ton) 76,263 


87,264 


83,757 


161,661 


175,890 


44,715 


Manganese (,,)... 
Arsenic (ft)s) ... 


15,421 


11497 


11,336 


15,830 


16,270 


10,840 


24,739 


15,709 


11,187 


10,290 


77,727 


26,859 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



322 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 



Non-Metallic Minerals. (Ill) 

1891. 1892. 1893. 1^4- 

Black Lead (ton) — — — — 

Coal (ton) BituO _ «. _ _ 

minous / 

Anthracite ... *S7i,759 *889,iii *i,305,027 *2,629,i5o 

5,476 30,583 35,069 61,677 

586 1,192 4,949 20,700 

(IV) 



Petroleum (barrel) 
Sulphur (ton) ... 



1895. 1896. 

77 215 

4,765,373 5,018,287 

45,462 94,400 

169,499 236,281 

15,531 ",518 



Black Lead (ton) 



Non-Metaluc Minerals. 

1897. 189& i^- 1900. 1901. 1902. 

390 347 53 . 94 SS 95 

^"$5'*""!^'"°^}^''^'^^^ 6,650,81.7 6,652,082 7,359,321 8,892,217 9,567.363 

Anthracite ... 75,517 98,784 123,490 129,572 i35,io8 149,78$ 

Petroleum (barrel) 262,154 318,302 537.875 869,719 1,115419 993,804 

Sulphur (ton)... 13,582 10,321 10,237 14439 16,548 17,651 

N.B : — The star (*) represents the total output, the figures for each class being lacking. 

TABLE V.-^UTPUTS OF PRINCIPAL MINERAL PRODUCTS 
AND THEIR VALUE IN 1902. 

Kind. 

Gold(oz) 

Silver („) 

Copper (ton) 

Lead(„) 

Tin(„) 

. . (Refined (ton)... 
^*""°"n Sulphate („)... 
Quicksilver (lbs) 

{Big Iron (ton) 
Wrought Iron ( „) ... 
Steel („) 

Sulphate of Iron ( „ ) 

Manganese ... 

Arsenic (lbs) 

Black Lead (ton) 

{Bituminous ( „ ) 
Anthracite („) 

Petroleum (barrel) 

Sulphur (ton) 

♦Lignite 

l^.B : — The star (*) represents returns for 1901 



Coal- 



Output. 


Vahie (jfen). 


95,952 


1,989,565 


2,109,221 


1,224,572 


29.098 


8,920,962 


1,645 


83,816 


16 


9,225 


520 


74,968 


96 


7,816 


3,"5 


1,536 


44,393 


734.145 


847 


40,775 


33,653 


1,320,880 


44715 


76,955 


10840 


35414 


26,859 


846 


95 


9,283 


9,567.361 


15,912,262 


149.785 


179410 


993.804 


1.036,864 


17,651 


316,218 


01. 


2,537,603 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Statistics JRelating to the Mining Industry. 



323 



TABLE VL— NUMBER OF MINE-EMPLOYEES AND NUMBER OF 
DAYS WORKED BY THEM IN A YEAR. 



Number of Mine-Employees. 



Year. 

1898 ... 

1899... 
1900... 
1901 ... 
1902... 



Metal-Mines. Coal-Mines. Others. 



51,706 
51,141 
54,80s 
58,5«o 
60,339 



75,831 
60,964 
70,508 
75,230 
78,947 



5,194 
7,562 

5,698 
6,545 
7,653 



Total. 

132,731 
119,667 
131,011 
140,355 
146,939 



Number of Days Worked by Mine-Employees in a Year. 



Year. 

1898... 

1899... 
J900... 
1901 ... 
1902 ... 



Metal-Mines. Coal-Mines. Others. 



14,810,715 
15,102,605 

15,150^54 
16,102,664 



17,373,163 
16,539,887 
16,992,102 
19414,676 



1,267,898 
1,141,946 
1,319,185 
1414,331 



Total. 

33,450,866 
33,784438 
33461,641 
36,931,671 



16,549,638 19,971,308 1,450,989 37,971,935 



TABLE VII.— NUMBER OF SAND-ORE DIGGERS AND NUMBER 
OF DAYS WORKED BY THEM IN A YEAR. 





Number of Diggers. 


Number of Days Worked by 
Sand-Oil Diggers in a Year. 


Year. 


Alluvial 
Gold. 


Sand 
Iron. 


Others. 


Total. 


Alluvial 
Gold. 


Sand 
Iron. 


Others. 


Total. 


1893 


— . 


— 


«. 


.. 


45,949 


339,589 


19,596 


405,134 


1894 


1,376 


4,627 


73 


6,076 


241,182 


385,932 


16,009 


643,123 


1895. 


1426 


4,148 


65 


5,639 


309411 


369,192 


11,375 


689,978 


1896 


2/)72 


3,558 


43 


5,673 


292436 


— 


1,026 


650,041 


1897 


4,659 


6,373 


41 


11,073 


— 


— 


•^ 


— 


1898 


6,990 


6,979 


19 


13,988 


^ 


— 


— 


— 


1899. 


2476 


3,577 


55 


6,108 


706,714 


280,723 


15,285 


1,002,722 


J900 


5,989 


3,778 


68 


9,835 


1,180,243 


362,260 


8,806 


1,551,309 


1901 


7,093 


3,500 


49 


10,643 


1,047,740 


299,789 


6,921 


1,354450 


190a 


4,701 


3,613 


126 


8440 


1,135,065 


348,971 


10,365 


1,494,401 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



324 Japan in the Beginning of tlie 20th Century. 

TABLE VITL— WAGES, (in s^n), 

Metal-Mines. 





rMiners 




Timbennen 




Mill Hands .. 


4} 


Smelterers 


^ 


Carriers ... . 




Miscellaneous .. 




Average ... . 




rMill Hands . 


& 


Carriers ... . 
Miscellaneous . 


Average ... . 


ts 


rMill Hands . 


M 


Carriers ... . 


1^1 


Miscellaneous . 


.Average ... . 



1898. 

21.8 

19.2 

13.9 
I7.I 

16.0 

139 

17.0 

7.3 
8.4 
8.3 

8.0 

4.6 
7.0 
6.0 
5.6 



1899. 
24.4 

20.2 

13.6 

17.9 
16.8 

15.3 

18.4 

7.6 
8.9 
8.9 
8.5 
4.7 
7.8 
6.0 

6.2 



1900. 

24.1 
21.0 

14.4 

16.0 
19.8 
16.7 
19.0 

7.6 
9.6 

9.3 

8.8 
4.8 
8.0 
6.5 
6.4 



1901. 
25.8 

21.5 

16.7 

24.8 

17.2 

20.5 
7.9 

104 

8.9 
9.1 
4.5 
7.3 
6.4 

6.1 



1902. 

27.0 
22.5 

16.5 
20.0 

21.3 
18.6 
21.0 

7.7 
10. 1 
9.8 
9.2 
4.1 
6.9 

7.3 
6.1 



Coal-Mines. 



Others. 



1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. 1902 



F1 



Miners 

Timbermen ... 

Mill Hands ... 

Smelterers 

Carriers 

Miscellaneous... 

Average 

Mill Hands ... 

Carriers 

Miscellaneous... 

I Average 

rMill Hands ... 

Carriers 

Miscellaneous... 

.Average 



31.6 29.7 

30.8 30.7 

16.9 16.6 



22.0 
18.0 

23.9 
10. 1 

14.3 

U.4 

11.9 

6.7 



21.1 

18.6 

233 
10.6 

13.4 

"•3 

1 1.8 

6.2 



33-2 33-7 

311 31.3 

174 179 

22.2 22.8 

183 17.6 

24.4 24.7 

9.9 10.7 

13-9 131 

12.7 11.6 

12.0 1 1.8 

6.7 6.9 



32.4 19-6 

33.5 »8.7 
17.7 15.5 

-» 20.2 

24.4 18.7 

19.0 164 

25.2 18.2 

10.4 10.3 
13-9 12.5 
13-2 9-2 

12.5 10.7 
7.1 — 



19.0 
20.9 
17.2 

34.7 
19.0 

17.4 
18.9 

"3 
14.3 
10.7 
12.1 



21.9 
18.7 
17.8 
23.0 

23.5 
204 
20.9 
12.8 
12.2 

9.1 
114 



26.3 274 

20.2 22.0 
17.8 17.6 
23.1 24.7 
25.7 28.1 
20.5 23.2 

22.3 23.8 
10.7 10.6 
12.7 12.5 

9.8 9.9 

II.I II.O 



8.9 9.0 9.3 10,1 10.6 — — 
7.8 7.6 8.0 8.5 8.9 — — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Statistics Relating to tlie Mining Industry. 325 
TABLE IX.— NUMBER OF MOTORS USED AND KIND. 

METAL-MINES. 

Water Wheels. Boilers. Oil Engines. Total. 

^^^mm^^^^^m^ ^im^i^^'^m^m^ ^i^m^^^^^m^^ ^M^i^^^B^B^ 

Year. No. H. P. No. H. P. No. H. P. No. H. P. 

1898 548 4,471 141 6^58 4 17 693 10,946 

1899 600 5^33 143 6,631 4 30 747 12,094 

1900 607 6,291 175 6,654 2 20 784 12,965 

1901 678 7,526 181 7,n8 4 61 863 14,705 

♦1092 775 8,669 184 7,267 8 84 967 16,020 

COAL-MINES. 

Water AATieels. Boilers. Oil Engines. Total. 

Year. No. H. P. No. H. P. No. H. P. No. H. P. 

1898 I 18 620 36,714 — — 621 36,73« 

1899 I 18 704 43,»64 — — 705 43,182 

1900 I 18 848 48,761 — — 849 48,779 

>9oi — — 999 52,823 — — 999 52,823 

*«902 — — 1,157 58,921 20 1,004 1,177 59,925 

OTHERS. 

Water Wheels. Boilers. Oil Engines. Total. 

Year. No. H. P. No. H. P. No. H. P. No. H. P. 

1898 3 132 103 2,141 — — 621 36,732 

1899 3 132 148 3,150 — — 705 43,182 

1900 3 132 223 4,526 ~ — 849 48,779 

1901 5 182 343 7,042 — — 999 52,823 

1902 5 182 420 8,658 — — 1,177 59,925 

BOILERS. 

Water Wheels. Boilers. Oil Engines. Total. 

Year. No. Ind. H. P. No. Ind. H. P. No. Ind. H. P. No. Ind. H. P. 

1898 162 3,636 440 13434 33 315 635 17,294 

1899 163 3,736 499 14,921 46 357 708 19,014 

1900 171 3,981 566 16,793 82 864 819 21,638 

1901 174 4,100 638 19,115 174 2,399 986 25,614 

1902 180 1,195 712 20,358 213 3,979 1,105 28,532 

N.B. — Tlie star {*) represents returns at the end of June, others being for December. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



326 Japan in the Beginning oj the 20tJi Century. 

TABLE X.— MILEAGE OF IRON CHAINS. 





Year. 


Metal-Mines. Coal-Mines. 


Others. 


Total Mileage. 




1898 ... 


26 


3 




14 




43 




1899 ... 


31 


3 




14 




48 




1900 ... 


35 


4 




16 




55 




1901 ... 


41 


4 




30 




75 




♦1902 ... 


52 


5 




32 




S9 






MIT. F. AGE OF PETROLEUM PIPES. 






Year. 


Between OU Wells 


Between Tanks 


Refinery 


Total 




and Tanks. 


and Refineries. 


Premises. 


Mileage. 


1898 


-... 


... 7 


20 




II 




38 


1899 





... 9 


41 




13 




63 


1900 





... 13 


92 




15 




120 


1901 


... ... ... 


... 18 


118 




17 




153 


*I902 





... 46 


149 




23 




218 






RAILROAD MILEAGE. 










Metal-Mines. Ck>al-Mines. 


Others. 




Total. 




In the Outolde 
Pit. the Pit 


Tn»*i ij^the Outside 
To^ Pit. the Pit. 


^ot^-'^^'^t^^.'^oi^- 


In the Outside »..«.^, 
Pit. thePit. T<>*^ 


1898. 


.129 127 


256 132 99 


231 ~ 


5 


5 


261 


231 492 


1899. 


.150 137 


287 151 117 


268 — 


5 


5 


301 


269 560 


1900. 


.170 152 


322 184 140 


324 - 


I 


I 


354 


293 647 


I90I. 


.189 161 


350 212 137 


349 - 


18 


18 


401 


316 717 


*1902. 


.213 174 


387 342 226 


568 I 


19 


20 


556 


419 975 



N.B. — The star (*) represents returns at the end of June, others being at the end of 
December, 

TABLE XL— NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS IN THE MINES. 









Metal-Mines. 














In the Pits. 










•" 


Accidents 


Caused rifi,«, 

by Ex- ^the^ Total. 

plosives. ^"^^- 


Death 




By 
Collapse. 


in Pits 

and 
Shafts. 


Outside. 


Grand 
Total 


rate 
per 
1,000 






# ^ » 




# " » 


# ^ » 


Mine- 


Year. 


No. of 

Case. 

No. of 

Death. 


No. of 

Case. 

No. of 

Death. 


No. of 

Case. 

No. of 

Death. 

No. of 

Case. 

No. of 

Death. 

No. of 

Case. 

No. of 

Death. 


No. of 

Case. 

No. of 

Death. 


No. of 

Case. 

No. of 

Death. 


work- 
ers. 


1898 


— — 


I 2 


— — — — I a 


— . — 


I 2 


.04 


1899 


3 3 


— ^ 


— — I 144 


7 223 


II 227 


4-44 


1900 


5 3 


I — 


6 «- 9 23 21 26 


22 19 


43 45 


.82 


1901 


36 13 


3 I 


18 3 12 7 69 24 


26 4 


95 28 


^ 


1902 


29 16 


5 3 


15 2 9 7 58 28 


30 122 


88 150 


248^ 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Statistics Relating to the Mining Indudry. 



327 



Coal-Mines. 



. ., . Caused by 

By A^.>f e'^" Caused by Explosion Other 

Collapse. ^"^ A."!^ Explosives, of Gas or Causes. 
^ Shafts. ^ CoalDust. 



Total. 



Year. 

1S98 

1899 
1900 

1901 
902 . 



>-t ©.£0-; o^ o A 0.3 0-JO.5 ©«• o,g o-j o^ 

\^ il i^ il i^ il io il la 1^ la 1^ 



3321 — 

12 8 7 10 I 

45 20 18 4 3 

"3 33 36 6 4 

219 41 71 II % 



7 4 I 9 13 17 

16 217 5 II 41 246 

40 4 9 4 "5 3* 

46 24 23 99 232 162 

43 23 21 32 362 107 





Outside. 


Grand Total. 


Death rate 






V— -— . 


^— *.**^ 


s— ^-— ^ 


per 1,000 




No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


No. of 


Mine- 




Case. 


Death. 


Case. 


Death. 


Workers. 


1898 


I 


— 


14 


17 


.22 


1899 


• 4 


— 


45 


246 


4.04 


1900 


.. 10 


2 


125 


34 


' .48 


I90I 


... 14 


I 


246 


163 


2.12 


1902 


•■ 13 


— 


375 


107 


1.36 



Others. ^^ , 

^ ^ s ^ , Death 

3 Accidents Caused ^ , Outside. ij:^^"? rate 

Cc^Ir^ "^Pits by Ex- ^^^^^ Total. Total. 

C°"*P^-andShafts. plosives. ^^^^^' i^ox) 

* * ^' "k - ' ' ■*• ^ ^t\ mf s ' I ■*• ^ < I '*' » ^■■•'''— ^ Mine- 

V °« ^"B ®« o-S o« o-S Ofli o-S o^o-BOgSO^Oo c^ work- 

'''"• i<5 la 1-5 II la II I J 11 la II iJ II 1^ Il - 

1898 — — — — — ~ — — -. — — — — - _ 

1899 *— — — — — — 2 5 2 5 — — 2 5. 66 

1900 —. — — -. — -. !«. I— 4 38 5 38 6.67 

1901 — — —. — _— 2 1 2 I I— 3 1. 15 

1902 1— I I — — — — 2 I 7 12 9 13 1.70 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



328 



Japan in the Beginning of tlie 20^ Century. 



TABLE XII.— EXPORT AND IMPORT OF PRINCIPAL 
MINE PRODUCTS. 



(I). EXPORT. 



Quantity. 



Year. 


6>pper. Antimony. Manganese. 
Uon). (ton). (ton). 


Coal, 
(ton). 


Sulphur. 
Cton). 


1898 ... 


16^54 


1,338 9,985 


1,819,807 


12,627 


1899 ... 


21 


1,304 


1,046 9,395 


2,029,805 


16,684 


1900 ... 


20.478 


377 12,903 


2422,007 


17,966 


1901 ... 


2] 


1,991 


279 8,953 


2,945,593 


17,928 


1902 ... 


20.654 


1,160 2,694 


2,962,251 


21,273 




Copper 
... 3,633.538 


Antimony. 
108,299 


Value (yen). 






Year. 
1898 ... 


Manganese. Coal. 
78,167 6,120,311 


Sulphur. 
238,507 


Total. 
10,178,822 


1899 ... 


... 5,691,679 


103,258 


76,344 5,892,357 


287,434 


12,051,072 


1900 ... 


... 6,362,968 


53,854 


112^9 6,851,828 


349,142 


13,730,241 


1901 ... 


... 6,952,305 


39,246 


93,589 8,771,137 


330,940 


16,187,217 


1902 ... 


... 5,130.992 


135,806 


26,270 8,635,209 


379,542 


14,307,819 






(2). IMPORT. 












Quantity. 






Year. 
1898 .., 


Lead, 
(ton). 

3,489 


Tin. 
(ton). 

360 


Quicksilver. Zinc, 
(ton). (ton). 

196,689 2,996 


Iron. 

(ton> 

288,273 


Petroleum, 
(barrel). 

1,608,464 


1899 •.. 


3,805 


366 


203,888 3,885 


146,276 


1,244,928 


1900 ... 


7,017 


399 


222,429 6,095 


249,839 


1,610,204 


1901 ... 


6,976 


471 


189,765 3,526 


184,875 


1,642,771 


1902 ... 


4,740 


437 


206,943 4,666 

Valiie^C^r/O. 


180,715 


1,797,147 



Year. Lead. Tin. Quicksilver. Zinc. Iron. Petroleum. TotaL ^ 

1898 208,192 113,629 88,152 362,408 7,027,855 3,749,329 11,549,565 

1899 261,950 180,644 109,507 655,574 6,053,064 3,947,666 11,208,405 

1900 550,755 236,552 129,349 831,892 11,972,603 6,796,670 20,517.821 

1901 497,402 265,122 109,306 465,380 7,139,864 7.471,701 15,948,775 

1902 286,234 250,504 122.099 666,895 6,803,649 7,468,585 15,597,966 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Introductory. 329 

PRIMARY INDUSTRIES. 
SECTION IV. 



FISHERY. 



IntFodnotoFy—FiBhing-OPounds— Fishery and Fishery Indnstry 
— Difltribntion of the Prinoipal Fish ete.— Finance Standing 
of the Fishermen— JLgrioulture—Salt-Reflning— Markets- 
Fishery Legislature. 



I. INTRODUCTORY. 



Numbers of fishermen and boats. — Owing to its geographical 
positioD, to the direction of the marine currents in its vicinity and 
also to the abundance of suitable indentations along the well-wooded 
coast, Japan is an ideal country for the fishermen. It is not 
surprising therefore that there are 900,000 families of fishermen or 
of persons engaged in the marine industry, or over three million 
individuals, and that the number of fishing boats total over 400,000. 
Fish and other marine products haVe constituted from olden times 
important items of food-stufis of our people, and this partiality of 
ours for Lenten fare is also shared by our nearest neighbors the 
Chinese who have been, for centuries back, principal purchasers of 
our marine products. 

Expansion of fishery enterprise. — With the steady increase 
of our population and the greater perfection of the means of trans- 
portation in the interior, the demand on fishing products has began 
to show striking advance, an advance further accelerated by an 
increasing demand from abroad. Under these circumstances, our 
fishermen can no longer remain satisfied with coasting work alone, 
but are obliged to a greater extent than ever to venture out into 
the open sea and even to the distant coasts of Korea and of the 
South Pacific. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



330 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century. 

IL FISmMO-OROUNDS. 



Influence op Sea Currents on Fishing-Grounds. — As des- 
cribed in the chapter on climate, the two sets of sea-currents flow 
along each coast of our country, the Pacific coast and the coast of 
the Sea of Japan. Each coast is influenced to a greater or less 
extent by a warmer current coming from the south and a colder 
current from the north. The predominance of the one or the other 
makes a great difference in the temperature of the sea. For 
instance, along the coast northwai*d from Kinkazan, Honshu, the 
average temperature is below 15^ C, while along the eastern coast 
of Hokkaido and the Kuriles it is below 10^, owing, in both cases, 
to the predominance of the colder streams. On the other hand, 
owing to the presence of warmer currents along the coast southward 
from the group of islands off Izu as far as the southern extremity 
of Kyushu, the average record there is above 20®, while along the 
coast of the Bonin islands and Oshima off Satsuma, and the eastern 
coast of Formosa the temperature is as high as 23°. This presence 
of two different sets of sea-currents on our coasts, while affecting 
the geographical distribution of the finny tribe, also contributes to 
the diversity and richness of our marine fistuna and flora. A rough 
description of the seas which surround our islands, of our rivers and 
lakes will be given below. 

1. The Pacific Ocean. — One side of the whole length of Japan 
beginning with the Kuriles on the side nortli extending to Formosa 
on the south, faces the Pacific Ocean. The Kuriles and Formosa are 
separated by as many as 29 degrees in latitude, and not only in the 
climate therefore are these two extremities of Japan widely distinct, 
but also in the temperature as well as in the depth of the sea a 
great diversity exists in our country, according to places. 

To the north of Kinkazan, in the north-eastern part of Honshu, 

is situated the famous submarine depression, that is Tuscarora. A 

warm current passes to the south of this part so that the vicinity is 

very rich both in fauna and flora, sardine, bonito, 

Kinkazan. pagrus, yellow-tail, tunny, cattle-fish, haliotis, etc 

abounding. A cold current runs to the north of this 



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Fishing-Grounds. 831 

depression, and in consequence the fauna and flora living to the 
north and south of Kinkazan are distinct from each other. 

In the sea between the southmost archipelago of Japan proper 
and Formosa there exists a strong warm current. The result is that 
in this vicinity many kinds of migratory fish are found, especially 
bonito. The eastern, that is the Pacific shore of 
In the Southern Formosa, is precipitous with no good anchorages for 
Japan and ships, and the sea is moreover very deep. The 
Formosa. inhabitants too are aborigines, and the fishery as 

carried on along this coast hardly deserves, 
therefore, any notice. On the other hand, the sea on the western 
shore is of moderate depth and the fisheries of sardine, horse- 
mackerel, "tai" (pagrus), shark, grey mullet, etc., are actively 
carried on. However, during rainy seasons, winter and spring in 
the northern districts and summer and autumn in the southern 
districts, fishing is practically suspended. 

2. The Sea of Japan. — A branch of the Black Stream flows 
through this sea. This branch current runs all the year round 
along the western coast of Hokkaid5 and through the straits of 
Tsugaru and S5ya. However, at the eastern coast of Korea» 
especially along the coast northward of Vladivostock, it is found 
only in summer. The diflerence between the high and low tides on 
the opposite coasts does not exceed 1 to 3 shahu At high-tide the 
current runs northward through the Straits of Korea but on the 
coast of Japan the tides are very weak and their movement very 
irregular. 

Tunny, bonito and other migratory fish enter this sea along the 
course of the Foutheni warm current, but in the northern part of 
the sea, where the influence of a colder current predominates, the 
principal fish are herring, cod, and the like. 

3. The Sea of Okhotsk. — The province of Kitami in Hokkai- 
dQ faces this sea, and the fisheries as carried on near the towns of 
SOya, Esashi and along the coast in general chiefiy consist of herring 
and salmon. The open sea fishery is not yet developed, but there 
18 every possibility of fisheries such as cod and others attaining a 
great importance in the near future. 

4. Inland Seas. — The largest and most important inland sea 



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332 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ili Ceniury, 

in Japan is the Inland Sea already described. The movements of 
the tides in this enclosed basin of oeA are regulated by the three 
channels of Shimonoseki, Bungo and Kii. The sea is generally 
shallow, and as the temperature varies considerably according to 
the seasons, many fish that come in the beginning of the warm 
season, go away in autumn as the colder season approaches. 
Sardine, pagrus, grey mullet, etc. abound. The shores of sea are 
also noted for their flourishing salt refineries. 

The inland seas that come next in importance to the Inland 
Sea are the Sea of Ise, Tokyo Bay, and the Sea of Ariyake. The 
fauna living in these sea are more or less distinct according to the 
size of each basin, the depth of water in it and the nature of the 
sea-bed. 

5. Rivers and Ponds.— Rivers as fishing ground, do not of 
<X)urse depend on their length and depth alone. In general, salmon 
find their way up most of the rivers in the northern districts of 
Honshu and in Hokkaido, while on the other hand the Plecoghssus 
aUivelies is found in most of the rivers in the central and southern 
part of Honshu. 

On Lake Biwa, Shinji, Kasumigaura, and Hachirogata fisheries 
are actively carried on. The principal fresh- water fish that are 
found in the rivers and pounds of Japan are carp, Crussian carp, 
eeh, etd. 



III. FISHERY AND THE FISHERY INDUSTRY. 



1. Fishermen. — Our fisheries first attained their greatest deve- 
lopment in the Inland Sea, being extended afterwards to the west 
and to the east, and finally to the north. This being the case the 
fishing population is densest along the shores of the Inland Sea, and 
is comparatively less along the shores of the Sea of Japan and the 
shores of Hokkaido. The density of the fishing population in the 
main fishery regions and the rate of population per 1 ri of coast 
line are shown in the following table : — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Fishet-y and the Fishery Industry, 



333 



Coast -Line (nj 

No. of Households 

Population 

'C -g ^ JNo. of Households 
j^^;§\Population 



Hohshu. 

545,937 

1,832,829 

201.82 

677.57 



Shikoku. 

676 
80,471 

324^*71 
119.03 

479.98 



Kyushu. Hokkaido. 

2,406 
228,804 
930,878 



Total. 



95.09 
386.89 



1,242 7,029 

51.920 907,132 

250^*22 3i338,6oo 

41.80 129.05 

201.62 474.97 



Note: — The figures for households and population in the above table include both 
fishermen and those who are engaged in manufacturing marine products. They 
are based on the returns carried out in 1891. 

2. Fishing-Boats. — Fishiug-boats for use either on the sea or 
in inland-water number about 420,000. Here are the returns com- 
piled in 1900:— 





Boats over 


Boats less than 


Total. 




5 J^efi in Length. 


5 A^n in Length. 


Honshu ... 


4.398 


238,238 


242,636 


Shikoku ... 


334 


30,684 


31.018 


Kyushu ... . 


275 


76,397 


76,672 


Hokkaido 


12,675 


59,522 


72,197 



Total 



17,682 



404,841 



422,523 



For all their serviceableness, Japanese fishing-boats are not with- 
out defects. For instance they are comparatively frail, and as they 
are principally made for rowing, they are hardly 
Defects of Japanese^ lit to sail against the wind. The authorities 
Fishing-Boats. recently begun to take all these points into 
consideration, with the result that our fisher- 
men are gradually building their boats after the foreign style, and 
providing them with decks or special apartments protected from the 
free entrance of water. These improvements are now to be found 
in our fishing-boats that are pursuing their business on the shores 
of Korea. 

The Government has also encouraged the construction of fishing- 
boats of the Western style, by enforcing from 1898 the Law for 
the Encouragement of Pelagic Fishery. The result 
Poreign-Style of that law has been that boats of this new style 
Boats. have gradually began to come into use, as shown in 
the following table: — 



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334 Japan in the Beginning oj the 2Wh Century. 

Boats and Crew receiving Boats Licenced to Pursue Sealing, 
Bounties by Law. though without Receiving Bounty. 



Year. 


No. 


Gross Tonnage. 


Crew. 


No. 


Gross Tonnage. 


1898 


8 


694 


214 


I 


99 


1899 


14 


1,419 


379 


— 


— 


1901 ... . 


15 


1,621 


392 


I 


93 


1902 ... . 


14 


1,028 


296 


3 


165 



Total 51 4,762 1,281 5 357 

3. Fishing-Geaks. — The different kinds of fishing-gear used 
in Japan are too numerous to be enumerated here in detail. The 
principal kinds of gears both for net-fishing and for angling, are 
as follows : — 

The pound-net is extensively used throughout the country. In 
Hokkaid5 it is used for herring and salmon, and in Honshu and 
Kyushu for capturing tunny, yellow-tail, bonito, 
Vet-Fishing Gears, etc. A net of this kind sometime measures as 
long as several thousand yards long. The seine- 
net is used for capturing sardine, anchovy and other shoal fish. 
It is, in this country, one of the latest innovations in the line 
of nets, having been made after an American model. Sometimes 
a seine-net is of enormous size, extending as long as three miles 
in length. Then there are drift-nets, grill-nets, trawl-nets, dredge- 
nets, etc. 

There is also another kind of net called shikirami (spread-net) 
which is spread on the bottom, and lifted up to catch the fish that 
happen to enter it. 

Angling-gears are of two kinds, viz., long-line and hand-line, 
the former being a line with a number of short 
^^ ^^ suspenders. It is left stretched in the water. 

There are, besides the above, other fishing devices, as weir 
and trap generally used in ponds or streams. 

The number of different kinds of nets used in the different 
Vninber and P&i'ts of the Empire is as follows according to the 
Kind of Nets, returns made in 1891 : — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Fishery and the Fiahery Indvtlry. 



336 



Kind. 


Honshu. 


Shikoku. 


Kyushu. 


Hokkaid5. 


Total. 


Ponnd-Nets 


20,329 


876 


632 


5,551 


27,388 


Shiki-ami, etc 


19,093 


1,160 


3.188 


6 


23,447 ♦ 


Parse Seine, etc 


7,640 


326 


228 


79 


8,273 


Trawl-Nets, etc 


85,366 


6,897 


12^439 


7,462 


112,164 


Seines, etc 


21,374 


3,463 


7.041 


1,511 


33,389 


Drift-Nets and Grill-Nets.. 


540,252 


11,275 


24,639 


234,830 


810,996 


"Square-N^ts" 


6,395 


540 


1,781 


150 


8,866 


"Throw-Nets" 


62,135 


2,512 


14,797 


20 


79,464 


Total 


762,584 


27,049 


64,745 


249,609 


1,103,987 



4. Value of takes op fishes and of marine products. — 
The returns showing the value of the takes of fish and of the marine 
products for the five years ending 1900 are as follows ; — 

Year. 



1896 
1897 
1898 

1899 
1900 



Average ... 



Takes. 


Marine Products. 


yen. 


yen. 


38,132,001 


24,155,239 


45,038,816 


29,740,358 


44,840,022 


26,190,460 


52,151,878 


31,678,766 


56,833,150 


32,725,411 


47,399,173 


28,898,047 



The returns for 1900 distributed among the main divisions 
The Mi^iTi IMstriots. o^ the Empire, the result is as follows : — 







Takes. 


Marine Ptoducts. 


Honshu ... . 


.•• 


.. 34^*30,746 


16,147,437 


Shikoku ... . 





.. 4,303,031 


2,317,218 


Kyushu ... . 





6,251,304 


3,630.684 


Hokkaido ... . 




.. 11,848,069 


10,630,072 


Total .. 


.. 56,833,150 


32,725,411 



Tlie takes made in 1900 may be divided as follows accord- 
ing to the kind of fish. The figures for Hokkaido 
Takes and represent the amount of Tnarine products, there being 
End of Fish, no returns available for the takes alone. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



336 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 



Kind. 

Herring 

Sardine 

Bonito 

Cuttle-Fish 

Calamaries 

Mackerel 

Tunny 

Yellow-Tail 

Cod 

Shark 

"Tai" 

Salmon 

Trout 

PUcoglossus 

SK3i-^ax (//aliostis) ... 

Beche de mer 

Prawns 

Oyster 

Cytherea 

Mussel 

Grey Mullet 

Poulpe 

Scomberomoraiis sinmsis 

Horse Mackerel 

Halibut 

Barrandas 

Muraenosox cinerew... 
La/eolabrax Japonicus 

Sand Eel 

Mysis 

Coryphaena hippurus... 

Flying Fish 

Spams Schlegeli. 

««Konoshiro" 

Fiat-Fish 

Eel 

Coiolabis saira 

Carp 

Crussian Carp 

Sea- Weed (algae) ... 
Other Kinds 

Total 



Quantity (ktvamnuy 
... 29,982,824 

... 48,739,197 

... 10,996,716 

... 4,359,816 

... 3,255,896 

•• 7,512,857 

... 4,084,156 

... 5*462,602 

... 1,817,148 

... 1,298,998 

... 5,228,83s 

... 2,045,569 

170.273 

586,479 

869,563 

683,810 

... 4,200,264 

993,655 

1,518,622 

296,800 

... 1,574,504 

... 1,320,632 

... 1,245,047 

... 2,270,473 

681,066 

384,170 

606,057 

254,557 

. ... 565,384 

... 1,188,245 

. - 575,393 
... 1,260,437 

337,055 

392,556 

... 2,354,440 

... 1,023,664 

137,226 

128493 
362,321 

... 7,44i,"7 
... 2,135,888 



Value (j'en). 

7,144,072 

7,306,780 

4,365,887 

1,562,951 

1,136,710 

2,159.018 

' 1,814,704 

2,224,297 

372,827 

464,616 

4,109,802 

1,023,419 

129.259 

449,213 

508478 

I74»494 

1,345,340 

190,091 

93,305 

15,366 

877,08a 

462,374 

1,011,187 

612,615 

306,125 

134,382 

364.053 
185.669 
68405 
153,932 
200,698 
103,214 
264,71a 
185,760 

823,355 

650,520 

62,122 

1 22,842 

194759 

870,918 

12,587,501 



... 160,342,855 56,833,15a 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Distribution of the Principal Fish, 



337 



The cla&sification of marine products for 1900 is as follows : — 



Kind. 

Cuttle-Fish 

Bechedemer 

Sea Ear (dried) 

Sardine (dried) 

Anchovy (dried) 

Sardine (boiled and dried) 

„ (salted) 

Mussel (dried) 

Bonito (dried and smoked) 
Tunny ( „ ) 

Prawn (dried) 

Shark Fin 

« Kainohashira " (abductor 

cle of shell-fish) 

Mackerel (sal ted) 

Tunny (salted) 

Cod (dried) 

Cod (salted) 

Salmon (salted) ^ 

"Hoshinori" 

„ (sheets) 

Herring (dried) 

Herring (guano) 

Sardine (guano) 

Fish Oil 

Yellow-Tail (salted) 

"Tengusa" 

"Funori" 

Others 



Quantity {kivamme\ 

... 1,665^93 

94,141 

129,555 

.-. 2,535,988 

564,793 

... 3,142,675 

... 2,204,532 

63,414 

... 1,972,460 

164^495 
598,220 

99,824 
mus- 

9,382 

1,410,681 

214,848 

144,219 

317,203 

... 1,131,194 

148,615 

... 8,297,500 

... 5,749,791 

... 26,147,225 

... 4^483,018 

... 1,679,311 

781,244 

285,642 

257,932 



Total ... 



Ukwam:^ 55,995,895 
"\ (sheets) 8,297,500 



Value {yen). 

2,466,004 
206,757 

. 406,549 
914,603 
277085 

2,138,777 

617,263 

64,117 

4,881,303 
288,809 
682,321 
264,171 

35,663 

556,357 

79,008 

131,775 

55,651 

523,335 

472,211 

41,736 

1,204,332 

7,058,117 

1400,319 

399,648 

433,898 

187,588 

154,066 

6,755,948 

32,725,411 



lY. DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRINCIPAL FISlT, THEIR 
YALUE, CAPTURE AND MODE OF CURING. 



(A). PISH. 

1. Herkikg {Clupea pallad). — ^This fish is caught in Hok- 
kaid5, Aomori and Akita. In Hokkaido the fishing season extends 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



338 Japan m the Beginning oj the 2Qih Century, 

from March to May. The fishing grounds lie along the western 
shores. Pond-nets and grill-nets are used.* .The takes during the 
five years ending 1900 and the value of these takes were as 
follows ; — 

Year. Quantity (fiwam,). Value (^yen), 

1896... '. 41,028,680 8,340,666 

1897 51,818,880 10,650,618 

1898 35,083,640 7,289,811 

1899 38,057,480 9,047,957 

1900 • 29,982,874 7,>44,o72 

Averse 39,194,3" 8,494,^25 

Enormous quantities of this fish being caught at a time, it 
is not possible to carry out any elaborate process of curing. In 
general only the part along the backbone and raw are used for 
food, the other parts being pressed for oil and guano. This guano 
amounts to 700,000 to 1,000,000 kohi a year (40 hwan equal to 
1 koku.) The market of guano is vitally related to the prosperity 
of the Hokkaido fisheries, and the recent import of bean-cakes from 
North China, of herring guano from Bussian Siberia, and also 
sardine from Korea, is seriously affecting the markets of HokkaidQ 
gun no. In view of this circumstance, the authorities have lately 
begun to encourage the preparation of smoked and salted herring, 
the former among the fishermen of Akita and Aomori, and the 
latter among those of Hokkaido. Samples have been sent both to 
China and Australia. 

2. Sardine {Clmanodon melaiioaticlu) and Anchovy (^En- 
graulis Japonicus). — ^These fish are caught almost everywhere along 
our shores with seine-nets, pond-nets or purse-seines. The greater 
part of the fish is used as guano, but no small part is used as 
food, after having been boiled and dried. The yield amounts to 
about 40 million kvoam valued at about 6 million yen. The 
returns for last five years are as follows: — 

Year. Quantity (^uam.). Value {yen). 

1896 48,610,784 4,601,782 

1897 38,392,354 4,893412 

1898 36,633,689 5,711,023 

1899 48,735,376 6,579,617 

1900 48,749,277 7,310,120 

Average 44,224,300 5,8i9,i9i 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



c- 



c>3:'' Y 



DigtrUnUion of the^Prvicipal FisK 



339 



The demand for sardine and anchovy as food-stuff being still 
limited in Japan, the authorities are encouraging the people to 
manufacture tinned sardine and anchovy sauce after the French style. 

3. BoNiTO (Ihynnus pelamis), — ^This fish is found in most parts 
of our southern seas, and as it haunts warm currents, its area of 
distribution is comparatively wide. It is chiefly caught by rod and 
line, the bait used being generally living sardine. The fish is a 
favorite article of food. The business of making dried and smoked 
bonito, called " Fushi,'' is highly important, it being used for 
seasoning the dishes. The business is extensively carried on in Tosa 
and Izu. The returns for the last five year are shown below : — 



Vaov 


Takes 


Value 


Dried Bonito 


Value 


Year. 


{htfam.). 


iyat). 


(Jhaam,). 


(yen). 


1896 


... 9,070,229 


2,407,828 


1,094,407 


1,796,137 


1897 


... 7,736,432 


2,754,442 


1,228,063 


2,974,448 


1898 


... 9,060,619 


3404,265 


1,472,269 


2,951,907 


1899 


... 9,688,513 


3,931,974 


1,375,926 


3,376,668 


1900 


... 10,990,716 


4,347,887 


1,972,460 


4,881,303 


Avwage ... 


... 9,309,302 


3,369,279 


1,428,625 


3,196,093 



4. *' Tai " (^Pagrua), — There are two species of this fish, viz., 
"Ma-dai" (Pagrus jnajor) and " Chi-dai " (Cardinalis), The fish 
ia very widely distributed but its most noted fishing-ground is the 
Inland Sea where the fish abounds in the intermediary season of 
spring and summer. They are first gathered together by "driving 
nets" and then caught by seines hauled by boats. Long lines are 
also used to some extent for capturing the fish. 

The fish is mostly sold raw, and very seldom in a salted form. 
It is also found very largely in the seas of Korea. The returns 
during the last five years are as follows : — 



Year, 


Capture (Jhaam.), 


Value (yen] 


1896 . 


5»"7,7o8 


2,214,377 


1897 


4,752,147 


2,609,187 


1898 . 


4,445,846 


2,695,830 


1899 


4,178,697 


3,316,733 


1900 


5,228,835 


4,109,802 


Average 


4,744,647 


2,989,186 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



340 



Japan* in the Beginning of the 2Qth Century, 



5. " Sawara " {Scomberoinarus Sinensis). — ^This fish frequents 
more our eastern and south-western seas and less our northern seas* 
It swims in shoals and is caught by drift-nets. In the luland^Sea 
it is caught in the spawning season : — 



Year. 


Capture (fiwam,). 


Value [yen). 


1896 ... . 


1,110,955 


393,913 


1897 ... . 


995,351 


509,012 


1898 ... . 


1,097,964 


624,027 


1899 ... . 


1,044,086 


766,093 


1900 ... . 


1,245,047 


1,011,187 


Average 


1,098,881 


660,846 



6. Tunnies (Thunnus schlegeli). — ^The fish are found everywhere 
and caught by means of pound-nets, drift-nets and long-lines. They 
.are generally sold fresh, but are sometimes preserved in salt or used 
in the same way as dried bonito. The figures for the last five years 
are : — 



Year, 


Capture (fitvam.). 


Value {yen) 


1896 


5,034733 


1,348,413 ' 


1897 


5,107,859 


1,532,091 


1898 


3,484,084 


1,423,123 


1899 


3,108,426 


1,327,268 


1900 


4,084,156 


1,814,704 


Average 


4,163,852 


1,489,120 



7. Yellow-tail (Seriolu quinqueradiatd). — ^This fish is caught 
mostly in our south-western seas and in the Sea of Japan, with 
|)ound-nets, gill-nets and long-lines. It is sold either fresh or salted : — 



Year. 


Capture (Jhvam,). 


Value {yen). 


1896 


^,854,715 


1,056,566 


1897 


3,547,520 


1,128,666 


1898 


3,345,915 


1,108,295 


1899 


3,784,358 


1,683,773 


1900 


5462,602 


2,224,297 


Average 


3,999,022 


1,440,319 



8. Mackerel (Seomber eolias). — ^This fish is caught everywhere 
by means of Shiki-ami (" spread "-nets), seines, and hand-lines. It 
is mostly preserved in salt. The takes are as follows : — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



DistribiUion of Vie Principal Fish. 



341 



Year. 

1896 ... 

1897 .. 

1898 .., 

1899 ... 

1900 .. 

Average 



Capture (Jhvam.). 

.. 6,510^78 

.. 5»789,8o6 

.. 6^5,249 

.. 5,584,275 

.. 7,512,857 

.. 6,388,533 



Value (>'««)• 
1,069,663 
1,299,612 
1,475,716 
1,934,091 
2,159,018 
1,587,620 



9. Cod (^Oadus brandti). — This fish is caught in the northern 
part of Honshu and along the coast of Hokkaido, long-lines and 
gill-nets being generally used for capturing it. It is sold in salted 
or dried state while the oil is valuable as a medicine. The figures 
for the last ^ve years are as follows : — 





Capture. 


Dried Manufacture. 


Salted. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




^ivam. 


yen. 


Jkwam. 


yen. 


Jkwam. 


yen. 


1896... 


.. 1463,991 


257,764 


213,975 


124^434 


232,109 


33,17s 


1897... 


.. 2,311,725 


444,934 


1,068,104 


396,555 


286,970 


33,577 


1898... 


... 2,052,252 


391,291 


1,029,135 


380,379 


184,745 


20,079 


1899... 


.. 2,625,632 


539,673 


150,650 


70,200 


290,460 


129,5,2 


1900... 


.. 1,817,148 


372,827 


144,219 


131,775 


317,203 


55,651 


Average 


... 2,054,150 


401,298 


521,216 


220,669 


262,297 


54,399 



10. Salmon {Oruxyrhyuehus haberi and O. Perri). — Salmon and 
trout come up the streams flowing into the Sea of Japan or the 
northern part of the Pacific. They are especially abundant in 
Hokkaid5 and the prefectures of Aomori, Akita and Niigata. In the 
sea, pound-nets are used while in the rivers seines are generally 
preferred. Traps are also used in some places. Both salmon and 
trout are preserved in salt or are tinned. The catches for the last 
five years are as follows : — 



Year. 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1901 
Average 



Salmon. 

Quantity (^am.). 

2,725,360 
3,528,700 
3,103,080 
2,533,440 
2,045,569 
2,787,230 



Trout. 



Value (yen). 

989,683 
1,411,918 
1,344,753 
1,096,217 
1,023419 
1,173,198 



Quantity {kwam.). 
2,769,678 
290,723 
263.993 
191,621 
170,273 
737,258 



value (yen). 

300,905 

80,032 

81,312 

86,412 

129,259 

i35,584 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



342 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century, 

(B). SHELI^PISH AND M0LLU8KS. 

Ear-spell, etc. — Of the shell-fish caught in our seas, ear- 
shell (Haliotis) is of the greatest commercial value, for besides 
its flesh being largely exported to China the mother-of-pearl obtained 
from it is in large demand for ornamental purpose. Then comes 
the oyster (Ostrea) in importance. The other shell-fish of commercial 
value are the Pearl-Oyster (Avicula), Mussel {Mytilm) Scallop (Peden) 
Bazor shell (Solen), Solecurtus constrlctu, Cytherea nieretrix, Mactra 
sulcaioria, Area granosa, etc. The returns giving the takes and 
the value are shown below-- — 





Ear-Shell. 


Oyster. 
Quantity. Value. 


Cythera, Mussel. 


Year. 


Quantity. Value. 


Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value. 




kwam, yen. 


kwam. yen. 


kwam* yen, kwam, yen. 


1896 


. 982,909 338,794 1.304,559 110,181 


605,730 36,408 647,493 26,046 


1897 


. 782,617 363,813 


1,098,707 103,903 


684,661 59,060 443,604 21,755 


1898 


. 717,196 391,629 


597,350 120,775 


1,067,651 100,989 377,078 25,839 


1899 


. 1,037,572 545,366 


963,181 187.039 


1,483,388 119,870 258,205 13,403 


1900 


. 869,563 508478 


993,655 190.091 


1,518,622 93,305 296,680 15,33a 


Average . 


.. 877,971 429,616 


991,490 142,398 


1,072,010 81,926 404,612 20,47s 



Lobsters (Palinunis) and Prawns {Penaens), — Of the two 
the former are caught in the Pacific coast and the latter in the 
Inland Sea and other inlets. Lobsters are generally caught by 
gill-nets and prawns by trawl-nets. The takes and value of these 
crustaceans are shown below : — 



Year. 


Capture (kwam.). 


Value (yen) 


1896 


3,440,503 


648,982 


1897 


3,641,732 


815.015 


1898 


3489,962 


883,388 


1899 


4,588,174 


1,095.485 


1900 


4,200,264 


1,345,340 


Average 


3,872,127 


957,642 



3. Cuttle-fish and Squids. — ^They are caught by lines 
and trawls. In the dried form they rank first on the list of 
exported marine products: — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Year. 

1896 ... 

1897 ... 

1898 ... 

1899 ... 

1900 ... 
Average 



Distribution of the Principal Fish. 

Quantity (kwam). Value (j'en). 

10,060,515 1,809,243 

8,578.722 1,880,941 

7,081,095 1,949490 

7,616,099 2,492,108 

7,615,712 2,699.661 

8,190,429 2,166,289 

(C). SEA-WEEDS. 



343 



The sea-weeds that deserve to be mentioned on account of their 
oommercial value are the " Kombu ** (Jijaminaria) ** Amanori " 
(Parphyra ten^eila, Kijelhum), "Tengusa" {Oalidiwn lamouraux), 
"Hijiki" (Cystophyllum I Agardh), "Arame" (Ecklonia Hbrnem- 
anna), "Wakame" Undaria Suringar), all of which are used as 
food. Then there are the '* Funori '* Gloiipeltia J, Agardh which are 
used for making paste, and the ** Kajime " (Eklonid) from which 
iodine is extracted: — 





« Kombu 


» 


" Tengusa." 


Year. 


Quantity (kwam.). 


Value (j'en). 


Quantity {hvam.). 


Value {yefi^ 


1896 ... 


6,097,547 


494,562 


944,619 


238,818 


1897 ... 


9,066,984 


630,461 


736,925 


195,031 


1898 ... , 


5,053,154 


409,228 


479.141 


146,310 


1899 ... 


7,965,725 


734,129 


761,317 


201,266 


1900 ... 


6,454,078 


602,777 


965,652 


252,305 


Average 


6,927,498 


574,231 


777,531 


206,746 



(D). lilARINE MAMMALS. 

1. Whales. — The right whale, sulphur-bottom whale, and 
humpback whale that were formely cAight in very large number in 
the seas off Kyushu and Shikoku, but this is no longer the case at 
present. The sperm whale is found in the Pacific, and the authorities 
are now encouraging our whalers to start open sea whalin^^ in 
oompetition with the foreign whalers. The principal whaling grounds 
in our seas are Arikawa in Nagasaki, Yobuko in Saga, Senzaki in 
Tamaguchi, Tsuro and Ukitsu in KOchi. The capture of whales 
in these four prefectures recently was as follows : — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



■344 



Japan in the Beginning of the 2(Uh Century. 





Nagasaki. 


Saga. 
No. Value. 


Yam 


uiguchi. 


Koclii. 


T< 


}tal. 


Year. 


No. 


Value. 


No. 


Value. 


No. 


Value. 


No. 


Value. 






yen. 


yen. 




yen. 




yen. 




yen. 


>893 


49 


71,957 


15 24,650 


20 


29,400 


20 


23,122 


104 


149.129 


1894 


34 


60,885 


22 38,000 


20 


33,200 


21 


38,164 


107 


260,249 


1895 


. 54 


125,953 


18 37,350 


33 


41,120 


32 


44,022 


137 


248,445 


1896 


49 


107,563 


14 48,530 


34 


70,590 


47 


52,214 


144 


283,397 


1897 


. 50 


154,424 


10 27,620 


35 


89,050 


25 


33,978 


"5 


191,500 


Average .. 


47 


104,156 


16 35,230 


28 


52,672 


31 


38,300 


121 


226,544 



2. The Sea-Otters and Fur-Seals. — The sea-otters that were 
formerly caught in the Kuriles are now practically extinct, and the 
other haunt the northern Pacific and the Sea of Japan while they 
are on their way to their northern home in summer. Formely there 
were rookeries of fur-seals in some islands of the Kuriles and the 
animal fell mostly into the hands of foreign sealers. Of late owing 
to the encouragement given by our Government, the capture of 
these valuable fur animals by our fishermen has become quite 
satisfactory : — 



Year. 

1897 .. 

1898 .. 

1899 •■ 

1900 .. 

1901 ., 

Average 



Sea Otter. 


Fur Seal. 


No. 


No. 


... 26 


4,616 


... 21 


4,757 


... 16 


6,518 


... II 


7,533 


... 12 


7,045 


... 17 


6,094 



Total. 

4,642 
4,778 
6,534 
7,544 
7.057 
6,111 



In Japan the otter skin commands the market of above 1,000 yen 
a piece while that of the other is about 25 yen. 



y. THE FINANCIAL STANDING OF THE FISHERMAN. 



General Remarks. — The only data available for making 
inquiries into the extent of our fishermen's investments in boats and 
nest are those of 1891. According to the result 
Total Inyestments. of that year's inquiries the investment amount- 
ed to 24,400,000 yen approximately, which, 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



The Financial Standing of the Fisherman. 



345 



distributed among 900,000 fishing families, corresponds to only about 
27 yen per family. There are other fishing 

Humber and Value gear besides, but they are comparatively of 

of Boats and ITets. small value so that the means ^hich our 
fishermen have at their disposal must be said 

to be extremely limited. Below is a table giving the number and 

value of fishing boats and nets : — 





Fishmg-boats. 




Nets. 




No. 


Value (j^fft). 


No. 


Value {yen). 


Honshu 


... 222,942 


5,246,974 


813,046 


2,715,722 


Shikoku 


... 29^22 


722,471 


27,601 


1,034,550 


Kyushu 


... 72,378 


2,106,847 


78,164 


6,508,054 


Hokkaido ... 


... 52,301 


1,584,450 


249,848 


4,481,985 



Total 



377,043 9,660,742 



1,168,659 14,740,3" 



Such is the economy of our fishing people, but it is evident 
that it admits of great improvement if they are encouraged to lay 
by their earnings against the bad times that must necessarily occur 
from time to time in their business, and if they are further encouraged 
to make continuous improvements in their methods of fishing. 

FiNANicAL Condition of Fishery in Hokkaido. — Perhaps in 
no part of the country are such improvements more imperatively 
necessary than in Hokkaido. About 550 years have elapsed since 
the south-western corner of that island was first opened by the settlen 
from Echizen. The fishery in Hokkaido was at that time a primitive 
affair, principally owing to the remoteness of the place from any 
of the markets, and also owing to the fishermen's ignorance of the 
best way of disposing of the fish caught. Owing, however, to the 

introduction of the manufacture of guano on the one 

Official hand and to the invention of pound-nets on the other, a 

ktronage. strong impulse was imparted to the development of the 

industry, and this resulted in a striking increase in the 
export of marine products to Japan proper. On the abolition of the 
local feudal ofiice in Hokkaido and the establishment of the Colonial 
Office in 1869 to take its place, the fishing monopoly formerly given 
to only a few privilegeed fishermen was ^lone away with, and at the 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



346 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

flame time the excis duty stations were abolished. All the fishermen 
were allowed to engage in the fishery, and the Government adopted, 
moreover, a certain arrangement for advancing loans at a low rate of in- 
terest to the fishermen, with the object of encouraging the business and 
alfio of attracting to the island settlers from other parts of the country. 
The discontinuation of this loan system on the abolition of the Colonial 
Office and the inauguration of the local administration system placed 
the fishermen in an embarrassing situation. Even at present they 
are obliged in order to obtain their woking funds, to have resource to 
loans at exorbitant rates of interest, and often they have 
Dependant to pledge beforehand the anticipated catch of the season. 
Condition of Under the circumstances, the lion's share of the profits 
Fishermen, coming from the fishery goes into the pocket of money- 
lenders, and it is hardly possible to expect the develop- 
ment of the industry while things continue in this condition. 

Economy of The number of nets used and the number of 

Herring Fishery, capitalists engaged in the herring fishery in Hok- 
kaido are as follows : — 

Nets. Fishermen. 

Year. Pound-Nets. Gill-Nets. Other-Nets. Pound-Nets.' Gill-Nets. Seines. Total. 

1895 5,088 298,080 279 2,920 10^5 229 13,594 

1896 5,099 280,800 314 2,801 10,045 203 13,049 

1897 6,161 304.920 315 3,020 n,20i 230 14,45' 

1898 6,302 361,440 341 3.404 12,261 246 15,901 

No reliable data about the i)roceeds and investments of fishery 
exist, the only returns available for the purpose being those .on the 
proceeds and taxes. These data are as follows : — 

(Inquiries based on 86 fishing guilds out of the 124 existing in 

Hokkaid5.) 

yen. 

Proceeds 7.216,359 

Taxes and Public Burdens 391,882 

Fishery Tax 274,801 

Sundries Incidental to Paying Taxes 21,505 

Guild Expenses 39,541 

Village Expenses 56,034 

The rate per capita of 39,259 members of the guilds is as 

follows : — 

yen. 

Proceeds .,.• 183.00 

Taxes 9.98 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



The Financial Standing of the Fisherman. 



347 



For obtaining so much proceeds the fishermen required 
funds amounting to about 9,300,000 yen. This is based on the 
estimate that the sum of 9 million yen is used on account of 
consolidated and working funds, exclusive of the sum required on 
account of public burdens; and on the estimate that the former 
form about a third of the sum, and the other the remaining two- 
thirds. The working funds amounting to 6 million yen are 
generally obtained by loans, and this view has been borne out by 
the inquiries made into accounts of 88 guilds out of the total 
124. The result of the inquiries was as follows: — 

FISHERY FUNDS. 

Funds Comings out of the Fishennen's own Pockets 4>333»767 

Funds Obtained by Loans 5»3^»926 

Loans from the Guilds 2,590,396 

Loans from Capitalists Engaged in other Lines of Business in 

Hokkaido 2,287,224 

Loans from other Parts of Japan 492,304 



Total.. 



9,703,693 



The following estimates show the accouuts of the capital re- 
quired for one set of pound-net used in the herring fishery : — 



1st class. 2nd class. 3rd class. 4th class. 



SNets, Boats, Tools, etc 
Construction of Boats and Ships. . . 
Purchase of one Fishing ground. .. 
Buildings 
Deposits for Ground Leased 
Total 

. Rent of Fishing-Ground 

4 [Wages 

|V[°od 

bofrucl 

2#Repairs 

1 1 Sundries 

\ Total 

Grand Total 



yen. 


;w/. 


yen. 


yen. 






2,500 


3,081 


2,500 


2,626 


1,500. 
500 1 


4,319 






i,5ooj 




455 








2,955 


2,626 


10,500 


7,400 


528 
i 


528. 


) 




2,168^ 


1 2,i68V 


2,3io> 


2,310 


2,696 


1 

2,696 


2,3«o 


2,310 


5,651 


5,322 


12,810 


9,710 






Digitized b^ 


Google 



348 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century, 



The capital required by every 100 gill-nets used in the 
herring fishery is estimated as follows : — 



Consolidat- 
ed Funds. 



1st class. 
yen.- 



Nets 

Other Gear 

Boats 

Total 

Wages 

Food 

Working JF^iel 

funds. ^Ropes, Mats etc 

Rent of Curing-Grounds ... 
Total 

Grand total 



3001 
100? 
150J 



300 
100 

550 

385 
70 
40 

55 

150' 
700 



2nd class. 
yen, 

700 
700 

600 

600 



Average. 
yen, 

625 
625 

650 

650 



1,250 



1,300 



1,275 



The herring fishery business is, as circumstances stand at 
present in Hokkaido, placed in a disadvantageous situation, for 
during the fishing season which lasts for only two or three months, 
laborers have to be engaged at comparatively higher rate of wages 
than they ordinary receive, in addition to which they are to be 
fed at the expense of employers. Money being very urgently, 
needed and very scarce, the rate of interest demanded is generally 
exorbitant as shown in the following table ; — 



Year. 



1895 ... 

1896 ... 

1897 ... 

1898 ... 

1899 ... 
Average 



Arerage 
rate in 



Average 
Bank rate 
at Hako- 



Average Interest for a Loan of over 1,000 yen. 



^°^U°' ^.»-» Ne^Ve %^^ S?^»^« OnBoU. 



Osaka. 

9.7 
9.7 
9.9 

1 1.2 
9.8 

10. 1 



Osaka. 

12.6 

11,0 

11.7 
12.8 

"3 
1 1.9 



Security. 

1 1.6 
10.6 
II. I 

I I.I 



Estate. Products. 



12.2 
"•3 

11.8 



1 1.8 



12.2 
10.9 
11,4 



1 1.5 



164 
15.6 
12.8 



14.9 



On 
Credit. 



12.0 
ia7 
ii.i 



1 1.3 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Agtiicidture. 349^ 

If the funds required demand such high rate of interest, 
the process of curing fish adopted in Hokkaido is similarly beset 
with disadvantages. The kettles used in the process do not, for 
instance, admit of the use of coal. Fagots, far more costly than 
coal, have to be used, and of course the business of manufactur- 
ing marine products leaves therefore only a narrow margin of 
profit. If, however, the Hokkaid5 fishermen were able to procure 
cheaper money for their consolidated capital and were able to* 
devise at the same time some means of curtailing the working 
expenses and cost of production, and if on the other they were 
to inaugurate a new departure in the manufacture of smoked 
or salted marine products suitable for the foreign market, the 
industry would be sure to be attended by far gre»iter prosperity 
than it is at present. 



YI. AQUICULTURE. 



Principal Fjsh Seared. — Aquiculture is now extensively 
carried on both in fresh water and in the sea. In fresh water,, 
the raising of carp, snapping turtle, trout, grey mullet, and eel, 
are most important enterprises, while in the sea the culture of 
oyster, clams, and the ** Amanori*^ is regarded as being the most 
profitable. In the case of carp and turtle the culture begins withr 
the egg, while in that of grey mullet and eel the fries are let 
in the rearing-pond. In artificial fecundation of oyster and pearl- 
oy«3ter (avicula), different kinds of collectors are placed in the water 
to obtain the spats. In the cultivation of the "Amanori " (^Porphyra) 
fiiscines are used to furnish the proper place for the attachment. 
The inland seas near Tokyo and Hiroshima are noted for this 
culture of the algae. 

Area and Condition of Hatching Beds.— The following 
table shows the area of ponds and beds of aquiculture and the 
value of the fish artificially cultivated:— 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



350 



Japan in the Beginning of the 2Qth Century. 



Snappix^ Turtle, 
Oyster ... 

Carp 

Crussian Carp 

Eel 

Porph)rra... 
Others ... 

Total 





Honshu. 


Shikoku. 


Kyushu. Hok»d6. 


Total 


, farea {isubo). 
^•\value{;r<f»). 


13,112 

7,698 


— . 


219,094 
647 


^^^ 


232,206 
8,345 


'I „ ( ,i) 


1,397,246 
98,266 


18,837 
100 


193.107 
23,700 


— 


1,609,190 
122,066 


'l „ („) 


7,063,855 
212,114 


364,519 
821 


321,589 
2,375 


1,650 
245 


7,751,613 
215,555 




3,348,132 
4,813 


1 18/515 
72 


65,197 
742 





3,531,344 
5,627 


-l „ {„) 


1,461,283 
40,248 


115,000 
18 


475 
76 


— 


1,810693 
40,342 


/ „ („) 
•"l „ („) 


1,527,244 
158,799 


— 


283,450 
11,408 


-- 


1,810,694 
170,207 


/ „ („) 
"* \ „ { ,» ) 


10,119,947 
155,640 


73,882 
486 


3,098,349 
26,621 


8 

1,650 
253 


13,292,178 
182,755 


/ „ („) 

•" I „ ( „ ) 


24,930,819 
677,578 


690,253 
1,497 


4,181,261 
65,569 


29,803,983 
744,897 



Many hatcheries of salmon and trout exist in Japan, and of 
these the Government Chitose hatchery in Hokkaido is the largest. 
Recently over 10 million salmon fries were hatched at this hatchery. 
In Hokkaido there are many private salmon hatcheries, and the 
liberation of the fry is being extensively carried on. In the 
northern districts of Honshu, i, e., in the prefectures of Niigata, 
Akita, and Aomori, salmon hatcheries may be found in many 
places. The number of salmon fry liberated in those districts are 
as follows : — 



Year. 


Chitose (Hokkaido). 


Niigata 


-ken. 


Akita-ken. 


Total. 


1892 




3,626,415 




— 


— 


3.526,415 


1893 




7.355,640 




— 


— 


7,355640 


1894 




2,700,729 




— 


— 


2,700,729 


1895 




8,549,598 




— 


— 


8,540,598 


1896 




6.984,178 




— 


404,989 


7,389,167 


1897 




3,815,588 




— 


368,952 


4,184,540 


1898 




7,881,222 




— 


339,466 


8,22o,6S8 


1899 : 




10,453486 


2,752,145 


168,756 


13,374,387 


1900 




10,190,355 


2,854,197 


334,394 


13,378,946 


1901 




12,665,214 


4,330,992 


340,000 


17,336,206 


The rearing of trout 


is also 


carried 


on in 


many places 


throughout 


the 


country. 











Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Salt-Refining. 
YII. SALT-REFININa. 



351 



In Japan Proper. — The salt used in Japan is mostly de- 
rived from sea-water, from which it is extracted either by means 
of the sun's heat alone or by sun's heat supplemented by artifici- 
al heat. The mineral salt produced in Japan is hardly worth 
mentioning, it being extremely small in quantity. 

The refining business dates back for more than 20 cen- 
turies, for the natural advantage enjoyed by Japan in the manu- 
facture of this essential ingredient of food enabled our people to 
carry on the business almost everywhere. At 
Number of present the work is carried on in no less than 
People Engaged* 34 prefectures besides Formosa, and the people 
engaged in the business number over 100,000. 
The output differs according to the year, but on an average it 
reaches about 6 million kohu. Here is a table giving statistics 
with regard to industry : — 



Year. 


Area of Field. 


No. of Kettles. 


Output. 


Output. 




cAo. 




J^oJtu. 


yen. 


1891 


7^2-3 


16,795 


5,507,097 


4,075,742 


1892 


7^83.6 


17,293 


5,655,795 


3,584,093 


1893 


7,600.1 


17,010 


6,649,263 


3,659,353 


1894 


7,721.5 


17,144 


6,325,891 


3,483,078 


X895 


7,507.0 


16,253 


5,995,052 


3,866,674 


1896 


7,578.3 


16,547 


5,235,024 


7,620,616 


1897 


7,841.3 


18,452 


6,178,094 


10,104,771 


1898 


7,906.8 


19,075 


6,364,979 


8,218,514 


1899 


7,639.8 


16,188 


5,811,021 


7.542,942 


1900 


7,774.2 

-l!_j._r_x_ 1 1 


17,584 


6,591,078 

T„l 1 


9,388,694 
1 _i 



The districts bordering on the Inland Sea produce about 
eight-tenths of the whole output produced in Japan proper, Kyushu 
produce one- tenth approximately, and the rest the remaining 
one-tenth. 

In Formosa. — In Formosa this industry promises to become 
far more prosperous than in Japan proper, owing to the greater 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Area 


No. of Person 


Output 


icAo). 


Engaged. 


(Jiohi). 


i68 


1,122 


19,726 


260 


1,336 


132,337 



352 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Centin*y, 

natural advantages enjoyed by it in this connexion. The figures 
for the two years specified are given below : — 

Year. 

1898 

1899 

It may be added that the industry in that island has had 
a remarkable development since 1899, though the precise 
figures in the late years are not yet forthcoming. Salt is now 
a state monopoly in the island whence an enormous quantity is 
shipped to Japan proper. 

Refining PROCii&SES. — Of the two methods of refining the 
natural heat system is extensively adopted in Formosa. This^ 
process does not practically differ from that seen in some Western 
countries. To give a brief description of it a circular 
HatoralHeat embankment enclosing a certain empty space is first 
System. constructed in the shoal. The space within this 
embankment is divided into two sections, one being 
used for concentrating the brine and the other for crystallization. The 
sea-water is first led into the concentration pond, where it is left 
to evaporate. After the proper degree of evaporation has been 
reached, it is next led into the crystallization pond. On further 
evaporation the salt contained in the water dejjosits itself on the 
sand. These deposits are then raked off and conveyed to a store- 
house. In some parts of northern Formosa a method resembling 
very much that adopted in Japan proper is followed. 

There are two methods of extracting salt by artificial heating 

from the sea-water, one being called " Agehama " (up-shore style) and 

the other " Irihama " (in-shore style). The latter is far 

Artificial more popular than the other, and indeed about 90 per 

Heat cent, of all the salt produced in Japan proper is produced 

SyBtenuu by the " in-shore style." This style resembles very much 

the Formosan style. First a suitable plot is marked out 

on the beach on the occasion of the ebb-tide and is enclosed by 

embankments. When the sea-water which is let into the plot, has 

sufficiently evaporated, that is, has evaporated to such an extent as to- 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



MarMs. \ 353 

cause it to deposit the saline matter it contains, the deposits ar& 
collected and transferred to a box-shaped vessel made of either mud or 
wood. Sea-water is then poured upon the vessel and the thick 
saline liquid thus obtained is kept in a reservoir, to be afterwards 
heated in a kettle and evaporated. Sometimes the vessed is dispensed 
with, and in place of it a basket and a receptacle, generally a pail, 
are used. This style is commonly used in the salt-fields along the 
shores of Tokyo Bay. 

In the " Up-shore system," the sea-water is sprinkled repeatedly 
on the shore up the beach; the sand charged with saline ingredients 
is put into a suitable vessel on which a quantity of sea-water is 
poured. A thick brine is thus produced and on its being heated^ 
the evaporation causes the salt held in suspension to be deposited. 

As the salt industry carried on in Japan was regarded as 
imperfect in several respects, the Grovernment caused the matter 
to be inquired into some years ago, and at laet in 1898, a model 
salt refinery was established at Tsudamura, Chiba-ken, and another 
at Matsunaga, Hiroshima-ken. 



¥IIL MARKETS. 



(A). HOME MARKETS. 

General Remarks. — As already mentioned in the preceding 
sections, the gross value of catch of fish in Japan is estimated at 
about 60 million yen a year. Of the manufactured marine products,, 
the dried bonitb, guano, salted or dried fish and shell -fish, and sea- 
weeds are principally consumed at home. 

Volume of home consumption. — It is not possible to estimate 
with anything like accuracy the gross quantity and the value thereof 
offish and marine products consumed at home either fresh or in a 
cured form. However as 8 million yen worth of manufactured pro- 
ducts out of the total 28,9ft0,000 yen is exported abroad, the con- 
sumption at home may be roughly estimated at 20,900,000 yen^ 
broadly divided as follows : — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



354 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century. 



Dried Bonito and Substitutes 

Guano 

Dried or Salted Fish or Shell-Fish ... 
Sea-Weeds • ... 



yen, 

3,464y+i5 
9,029,457 
8^30,200 
1,311,161 



I. RAW-FISH MARKETS. 



General Beiiarks. — Data are not available as to the amount 
of fish, etc. consumed in a fresh state, but that this comes up to a 
large amount admits of no doubt, in view of the great extension of 
the market recently owing to the improvement of the meana of 
communication. Haw fish come even from Korea to some parts of 
Japan. Some idea as to the quantity of raw fish consumed at home 
may be obtained from the statistics of our principal fish-markets. 
The following gives the value of the raw fish that were sold 
in those markets in 1896 ; — 



Tokyo 

Osaka '. 

Atsuta (Nagoya)... 

Hakata 

Shimonoseki 



yen. 
... 3,708,896 
... M79,985 
••• 473,865 
... 220,385 
169,152 



The condition of delivery and distribution were as follows at 
those markets : — 





TOKYO (1900). 




Imports. Exports. 


Value. Delivery. Value. Distribution. 


yen, 
3.708,896 


B^shu 43^ 

Sagami 7.9^ 

^^" ".0^ yen, 

Suruga 12.0^ 3.708,896 

Kazusa ^9% 

M ito and Chosh i ... 1 2.0^ 
.Hokkaido and San-Riku 8.2^ 


Tokyo 80^ 

To provinces 20^ 

Digitized by Google 



355 



OSAKA (1901). 



Imports. 



Value. Delivery. 

Kishu 

Shikoku 

Chugoku . 

Kyushu 

Near Shores ... . 

Izumi 

.Korea 



yen, 
*i479,985 



^1% 

20% 

20% 

20% 

t% 

^% 

Z% 



Exports. 



Value. Distribution. 

Osaka and suburbs m. 9S% 



yen, 
i»479,985^Yamato 



Kyoto .„ 



^% 



ATSUTA (1896). 



ven, 
475>5 



Miye .,. 
Shizuoka 
Chiba ... 
Fukui ... 
Osaka ... 
Near Shores 



25^ 
ZS% 



yen. 
»3i,238 



Nagoya 10^ 

Gifu , ••• 30^ 

Shiga • ••• ••• 30^ 

Kyoto .M ,.« ••• ••• 20% 

.Nagano m. ••• ... 20% 



HAKATA (1896). 



I Korea 
Nagasaki ... 
Near Shores 



20% 



yen, 
179,083 



Kumamoto ... m* ... 2P% 

Osaka, Yamaguchi ••« 10^ 

Saga,Oita 10^ 

Fukuoka ^ S^% 



yen. 
169,152 



Nagasaki 
Satsuma 
Tsushima 
Hirado 
Karatsu 
Wakamatsu 
Near Shores 
Goto 



SHIMONOSEKI (189^. 



AP% 

10% 

10% 

••• ... *5/^ 

~ ... s% 

~ ... 10% 



••• ••• 



yen, 
161,547 



Osaka ... 

Kyoto M* . 

Okayama . 

Buzen ... . 

lyo •- ., 



••• ••• ••• ^5/^ 

... -^ ... 39% 



•.« ... 



15^ 
20% 



The market price necessarily differs according to locality, but 
some ideas on this point may be gathered from the following 
-quotations : — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



S56 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

AVERAGE PRICE, Cvm) PER lo Jhvam, (1901.) 





1 


1 


|i 


1 


1 


d 

1 


1 


^1 

^1 




Tokyo ^ 


... 15 


II 


9 


9 


7 


8 


— 


— 


6 


Osaka ... _ ... 


... 22 


9 


II 


17 


8 


10 


6 


8 


9 


Shimonoseki 


... 15 


10 


14 


II 


9 


8 


5 


8 


9 


Yonago 


... 9 


— 


13 


4 


4 


— 


3 


6 


10 


Atsuta ... ^ ... 


... 18 


13 


18 


10 


— 


— 


— 


— 


7 


Average 


... 16 


II 


13 


10 


6 


9 


5 


7 


8 



The market shows the upward tendency owing to the greater 
demand, as shown from these figures based on the market itt 



^r Amount 
^^^' Delivered. 


Ss 


lie by Whole- 
sale Dealers. 


Sale by 
Middlemen 


^'m. 




yen. 


yen. 


1892 1,552,650 




607,915 


202^36 


6897 1,241,654 




1,379,615 


459,4=2 


1901 1,479,985 




1,655,538 


551,294 


MARKET PRICE OF RAW FISH PER 10 


kivam. 




1892. 


1897. 


1901. 




yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


" Tai " (Pagrus) 


15.00 


18.00 


20.00 


Tunnies 


6.00 


7.50 


8.50 


Yellow-Tail 


7.50 


8.50 


9.50 


Bonito 


6.30 


8.50 


9.50 


Shark 


4.80 


5.50 


6.50 


lobsters and Prawns 


7.50 


9.00 


11.00 



II. CURED FISH MARKETS. 

Of the cured marine products the " Fushi " is the most im- 
portant, this being a dried flesh of various kinds of fish and ex- 
tensively used for cooking purpose throughout the country. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Markets. 



357 



"FusHi." — ^There are several kinds of the Fmhi (dried and 
fimoked fish just like dried bonito), these being bonito Fushi, tunny 
Fushiy mackerel Fushi, and Fushi made of miscellaneous fish. The 
principal centres of bonito Fushi and their output in 1900 were 
AS follows: — 



Shizuoka ^ 


.. ... 


Chiba 


»•• ... 


Miye ^ ... , 


*• ... 


Kagoshima ... 





Fukushima ... . 


•* ... 


Kochi 





Ibaragi 


••• .*• 


Others 


•• ••• 



Output. 


Value. 


kwam. 


yen. 


343,598 


702,961 


303.574 


675,591 


221,879 


868,047 


189,111 


323,038 


183,352 


448,212 


159,847 


584,702 


108428 


255,177 


462,671 


1,023,575 



Total., 



1,972,460 



4,881,303 



Places and output in 1900 of tunny Fivsld were as follows : — 











Output. 


Value. 










kivam. 


yen. 


Miyagi ... 


••• ••• ••• 


••• 


••• 


49,384 


83,502 


Ehime 


— 


... 


••• 


39470 


81,432 


Kagoshima 


..• ... .*• 


... 


... 


20475 


20,906 


Iwate 


••• .•• ••• 


••• 


— 


13,238 


17,617 


Wakayama 


••• ••• ••• 


..« 


... 


12,322 


20,147 


Others 


••• ••• ••• 


... 


... 


29,606 


65,206 


Total 


■*• ••• ••• 


... 


... 


164,495 


288,809 



The principal markets of Fuslii are Tokyo and Osaka. The 
delivery and distribution in the two places were as follows in 
1896 :— 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



358 



Jax^an in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 
TOKYO. 



Imports. 



Exports. 



<2uantity. Value. Percentage of 


(Quantity. 


Value. 


Percentage of 


Jkioam, yen. Delivery. 


kwctn. 


yen. 


Deliver}'. 




Kochi 3% 






Tokyo 23.09^ 

Gumma . . . 10.0^ 




Kagoshima... l%% 






Nagano ...12.9^ 
Kanagawa ... 9.5^ 




Shizuoka ... 14%' 






Yamanashi ... 9.5^ 
Osaka 9.4^ 


617,244 1,230,593^ 


Chiba 30^ 

Ibaragi T% 

Miyagi 16% 

Iwate 12^ 


617,244 


1,230,593 


Kyoto ... l.z% 
Okayama ..« 5.8^ 
Nagasaki ... 4.2^ 
Hiroshima ... 6.3^ 
Miye ... 2.9^ 

Ilyogo 0.9^ 

Oita o.Z% 


OSAKA. 








Kochi 2S% 






Tokyo \o% 




Kagoshima .. 1$% 
Ehime 10^ 






Osaka 21% 

Kyoto \i% 

Shiga \o% 


224,058 454,822 


Oita S% 

Miye 10^ 

Wakayama .. 10 f^ 

Chiba \ 

Miyagi / 

Iwate 1*5%' 


724,058 


468,490 


Okayama ...\ 
Hiroshima ...1 
Shimane ,.J 

Tottori f^^^^ 

Fukushima ...1 
Kumamoto ... / 

Niigata 

Toyama ... \^% 




Fukushima .../ 






Ishikawa 




III. FISH-FERTILIZERS. 





Output and kinds of Fish-Fertilizers. — The principal 
centres of fish guano and their output are as follows : — 



Hokkaido,, 
Others .. 

Total 



HERRING (1900). 

Quantity. ' 
kwani, 

5,725,620 

24,171 



Value. 
yefu 

1,197,385 
6,947 



5,749,791 



1,204,332 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



I lokkaido 
Aomori ... 
Chiba ... 
Aichi 



Markets. 

GUANO (Herring and Sardine). 

Quantity. 

• ktvam, 

- 22,936,920 

1,049.517 

876,030 

492,483 



SS^ 



Value. 

yen. 
5,806.765 
328472 
424,254 
169,860 



Total 


25,354,950 

DRIED ANCHOVY. 


6,809,35 « 




Quantity. 


Value. 




kwam. 


yen. 


Chiba 


2,220,052 


554,510 


Shizuoka ... 


569,322 


30,270 


Nagasaki ... 


423402 


95,864 


Kanagawa .. 


250,400 


429,800 


Others ... 


1,019,842 


289,875 



Total.. 



.. 4483,018 



1,400,319 



The conditions of the delivery and distribution of fish-fertilizers 
on the markets of Tokyo, Osaka, and Hyogo were as follows in 
1900:— 

TOKYO. 



Value. 

yen. 



Percentage of Delivery. 



Value. Percentage of Distribution. 
yen* 



1 Tokyo 21.2^ 
Chiba 17.7^ 
Ibaragi, Tochigi .. \^q2^ 
Kanagawa, Shizuoka, > 28.8^ 
Aichi, Miye J 
Others 2.1^ 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



•360 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

OSAKA. 



Value. Percentage of Delivery. 

yen. 

IHokkaidS 91^ 
Others 9% 



Value. Percentage of Distribution. 
yeft. 

^ Osaka Z3% 

Wakayama ^% 

\ Kyoto and Hyogo .., 10^ 

2,599,690 <Shikoku .. z% 

[Shiga Ar1% 

I Extern and western 1 . 
districts j ^^ 



622, 



1,264 { 



Hokkaido .. 
Others 



HYOGO 



59^ 



75i»6i8 Shikoku and others. 



Demand, on fish-fertilizers. — The market of fish-fertUizers 
has lately gone up to a marked degree owing to the fact that the 
supply has not kept pace with the demand which went on 
advancing. This inequilibrium between supply and demand is due 
to the fact that in consequence of the greater improvement of 
facilities of transportation, and the better means of sending raw 
fish to the market, it is now found more profitable to sell fish as 
raw fish instead of selling it as fertilizer. To fill the gap thus 
occasioned in the supply of fish-fertilizers a large quantity of bean- 
cakes has began to arrive in Japan from North China. The fol- 
lowing table will show the movement of our fish-fertilizers and of 
Chinese bean-cakes during the ten years ending 1900 : — 

Home-Made Fish Fertilizers. Chinese Bean-Cakes. 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




kwam. 


yen. 


krvam. 


yen. 


1891 ... 


... 34,070,628 


. 4,914,188 


4,116,592 


350,816 


1892 . 


27,060.892 


4,529,733 


13,139440 


821,215 


1893 ... 


... 41,223.382 


6,715,672 


9,472,480 


592,030 


1894 ... 


... 45,696^33 


7,214,107 


8456,560 


816,910 


1895 ... 


-. 44,679,571 


7,403,519 


6,668,624 


939,948 


1896 ... 


... 38,236,862 


7,861,932 


26,206,048 


3.212,931 


1897 ... 


... 49,183,932 


10,515,196 


27,223,760 


3,3".7i2 


1898 ... 


... 33,503,946 


7,561,334 


33.572,128 


4,610,625 


Jf899 ... 


38,880,241 


9,546,054 


41,864,080 


6,047,238 


1900 ... 


... 36,380,034 


9,662,768 


32,101,376 


4.540,825 


Average 


... 38,891,592 


7,592,450 


20,282,109 


2,524,415 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Markets, 



361 



IV. DRIED OR SALTED FISH. 

Output and kinds of Dried or Salted Fish. — The quan- 
tity^of dried or salted fish going abroad is as yet insignificant, and 
they may be regarded as being practically all consumed at home. 
The places where the principal products of this kind are produced 
and the output thereof are shown below : — 

DRIED ANCHOVY. 



Miye ... 
Aichi... 



Total 



Yamaguchi 
Ehime 
Aichi 

Total 



yen. 
208,852 
91,024 



Ehime 
Others 



BOILED AND DRIED SARDINE. 



yen. 
321400 
298,322 
257,914 



Hiroshima 
Shizuoka .., 
Others 



yen. 
126,628 
515,099 



Total ... 


SALTED SARDINE. 


... 941,603 


Miye 

Aichi 


yen. 
. ... 168,672 Kagoshima 
. ... 164,843 Others 


yen. 
... 79,659 
... 204,088 


Total ... 


SALTED MACKEREL. 


... 617,263 


Kochi 

Fukui 


yen. 

. ... 105,221 Chiba 

. ... 92,611 Others 


yen. 
... 47,337 
... 311,138 


Total ... 


SALTED SALMON. 


... 556,357 


Hokkaido 


yen. 
. ... 482,000 Others 


yen. 
... 41,335 


Total ... 


SALTED YELLOW-TAIL. 


... 523,335 


Kagoshima 
Kochi 


yen. 

. ... 113444 Toyama 

. ... 76100 Others 


yen, 
... 70,500 
... 173,854 


Total ... 


« TATSUKURI " SARDINE. 


... 435,898 


Miye 

Ishikawa 


yen. 

. ... 27,641 Ibaragi 

. ... 27,580 Others 


yen. 
... 26,686 
... 195,178 



277,085 



yen. 
' 245,964 
233,949 
. 781,229 

2,138,777 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



362 Japan in the Beginning of the 2Wli Century. 

DRIED COD. 



Ishikawa . 
Niigata 

Total 



Hokkaido.. 
Total 



Aomori 
Nagasaki . 

Total 



yen. 
18,324 


Others 


102,000 




SALTED COD. 


yen. 
43,542 


Others .. 


SALTED TUNNY. 


yen. 
16,900 


Hokkaido.. 


12,244 


Others 


V. SEA.WF.KDB. 



yen. 
IMS" 



131,775 



yen. 
12,109 

55.651 



yen. 

12,143 

37,721 

79,008 



Output akd kinds of cured Sea-weeds. — Of the sea-weeds 
the Komhu ^ Laminaria), and a few others are exported to some, 
extent, but by far the greater part is consumed at home. 
« KOMBU " (Laminaria). 



Hokkaido... 


yen. 
562.234 Others 


yen. 
... 40.543 


Total 


« HOSHINORI " (Porphyra). 


... 602,777 


Tokyo 


yen. 
251,019 Others 


yen. 
... 262,928 


Total 


... 513,947 




"TENGUSA" {Gelidium). 




Tokyo 
Shizuoka ... 
Hokkaido... 


yen. 

43,380 Miye 

40,502 Others 

38,650 


ven. 
... 27,082 
... 108,691 



Total 



258,305 



(B.) FOREIGN MARKETS. 



I. Exports. — The value of marine products exported during 
1901 amounted to 8,680,000 yen approximately. The returns during 
the last ten years are as follows, the quantity being put in Jdn 
and the value in yen\ — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Markets. 



86a 







1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 






unit of 


unit of 


unit of 


unit of 


unit of 






thousand, thousand, thousand, thousand, thousand. 


0«"e-fo'' {^ '"^ 


10,356 
1,426 


9483 
1,162 


6,401 
996 


5.842 
1,251 


Beche de mer 


■{: 


865 
291 


il^ 


929 
294 


1,021 
316 


915 
319 


Shark Fins 


■{: 


226 
80 


»83 

lOI 


297 
102 


309 
95 


335 
no 


Salmon, Cod 




1,295 
64 


».7So 
85 


1,344 
66 


1,380 
64 


705 
40 


Dried Anchovy 




715 
23 


827 


273 
10 


'% 


3^9 
14 


Dned and Salted Fish .. 


•{:: 


782 
24 


617 
21 


911 
46 


993 
30 


947 
31 


IVawns 




M27 
190 


•IS 


1,283 
171 


1,535 
222 


1,35^ 
209 


Ear-shell 


•{: 


1,101 
381 


t,02I 


1,165 
445 


1,060 
396 


985 
408 


Mussel 




370 
30 


27 


218 
21 


316 
3^ 


^l 


SoUcurtus Comtricta 




~~" 


~~ 


"~" 





356 
56 


Adductor muscle of shell 
fish 


- I M 


179 
52 


3*5 
82 


54» 
127 


156 
39 


333 
93 


Oyster (dried) 




-. 


"■ 


— 


— 


226 

27 


Other Shell-fish 




82 


98 


70 


85 


228 

17 


« Kombu " {Laminaria) . , 


•{: 


36,713 
818 


32,718 
766 


35,851 
467 


39,033 
514 


29,174 
486 


Sliced « Kombu " 




6498 
«75 


6,935 
172 


5.999 
139 


5796 
116 


5,770 
122 


" Tosakanori " {^Rkodophyll 
sp) 




257 
9 


225 
9 


155 
8 


277 
II 


183 
10 


« Amanori '* {Potfhyra Vtti- f „ 
^^ris) \ „ 


4 


"6 


5 


5 


9 


" Kanten " (Colle \'egetablc) | " 


1,269 
581 


M52 
682 


1,298 
495 


1,118 
449 


1,403^ 
995 


Fish-oil 


1, 


7,357 
248 


13,751 
533 


16,668 
668 


2,654 
525 


'•s 


Mother of Pearl (Haliotis)., 




835 
59 


783 
60 


767 
50 


759 
63 


'i 


Coral 


■{: 


I 

37 


46 


48 


I 

36 


4 
88 


Salt 


■{: 


16,832 
82 


19,169 
86 


i6,iao 
68 


24,687 
97 


25,897 
132 



Total 



■{: 



4,219 



5,"5 



4,470 



4,120 4,381 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



364 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

1897. 1898. 1899. 19O0* 1901- Average. 

TuttlefiRh /Q"^- 7,093 6,046 6,390 5,191 8,798 7,308 

Cuttle-fish |y^ j^j^ ,268 1,362 1,158 1,842 1,276 

Bechedemer I » 799 760 945 668 1,005 875 

uecneaemer | ^^ 296 291 362 279 436 3«6 

<;T,«Vfin^ / » 347 363 390 360 388 329 

bnarktins i ,,, ,,^ ^^^ ,,^ j^ jiy 

Salmon, Cod ^ ^^ ^^ g^ 72 87 176 79 

TVi^nn.v^ov^ / » ^^ *73 704 1,788 2,106 779 

Dried anchovy -J ^^ ,3 ,^ ^^ ^2 106 135 



Dried and Salted fish \ - ^^^^ ''^^ ^g^ ^^ ',gi 

Prawns 



Ear-shell 
Mussel... 



Other Shell-fish . 



/Quan 
•••'LVal. 




■••{: 






•••{: 


f „ 




■•{: 


■•■{: 


=11- r « 








f „ 



7,093 
1,413 


6,046 
1,268 


6,390 
1,362 


5,191 
1,158 


799 
296 


760 
291 


945 
362 


668 
279 


347 
131 


363 
134 


390 
146 


360 
130 


895 
56 


1,413 
82 


1,178 
72 


1,206 
87 


266 
13 


273 
»5 


704 
35 


1,788 
92 


461 
18 


390 
27 


^11 


807 
73 


1,391 
215 


1,563 
270 


1,276 
251 


1,150 
232 


907 
396 


466 


1,115 

530 


850 
429 


165 
20 


216 
32 


288 
46 


320 
52 


292 
41 


179 
28 


99 
20 


90 

17 


350 
122 


179 
69 


298 
107 


368 
140 


148 
18 


136 
21 


136 
20 


159 
27 


172 
17 


i87 
22 


289 
32 


175 
27 


40,357 
726 


33,43» 
549 


39,666 
780 


30,988 
730 


4,757 
104 


6,342 
161 


MIS 


5,053 
152 


95 

5 


104 
5 


''I 


137 
6 



1,857 836 
50 



1,681 1,407 

339 230 



856 1,010 

483 433 

337 281 

52 34 



135 "5 
19 



Salecu^Cons^ric^a |;; -- ^^g - - -g 

Adductor muscle of shell- f „ 350 179 298 368 452 3«8 

fish \ „ 122 69 107 140 204 104 

oy^t"(<i-<i) { "„ ' "Ji T^ 'Z 'V, "% "Ts 



265 131 

32 48 



^^VLornhM^^ (Lam{narm\ I " 'fr^oa/ J.>,**J» jy,*'^" o^,^" 5^,526 36,946 

Slirpd^Komhii" / » 4,757 6,342 6,530 5,053 9,383 6,306 

bliced 'Kombu | ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^2 325 613 

"Tosakanori"(ie//^</tf/>^^//ij/ „ 95 104 137 137 H4 168 

sp.) I „ 5 5 6 6 5 7 

« Amanori " (J^orphyra Vul- ( „ 

^arij \ „ 

« Kanten" (Colle Vegetable) | "^ 

Fish-oil I " 

Mother of Pearl (Haliotis)... i " 

I „ 

Coral ( " 

Salt ( " 

'^''^^ { r, 5,437 5,013 6,046 6,440 8,686 5,393 

A brief description of principal marine products for export wU 
be given in the following paragraphs : — 



4 


4 


13 


12 


"s 


7 


1,326 
591 


1,205 
611 


1,207 
674 


'X 


1,584 
1,217 


1,331 
686 


12,657 
618 


6,641 
391 


9,182 
550 


12,646 
906 


14,610 
1,023 


2,134 
580 


954 
135 


755 
172 


798 
175 


5" 
109 


439 
100 


745 

lOI 


10 

187 

36,887 

300 


.4 

29,511 
215 


21 

345 

39,062 

278 


30 

354 

50,354 

452 


47 

564 

38,219 

303 


12 

187 

29,672 

201 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


, 


__ 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



kin. 


yen. 


6,044,123 


1,071,078 


1,186,606 


190,606 


85,538 


15.254 



MarkeUi. 365 

1. Cuttle-fish. — ^Tliere are three kinds of cuttle-fish of commer- 
cial value, these beiug " Surume-ika " ( Ommagtr^hidae), " Kabuto-ika " 
(Septa) and '• Kensaki-ika " (Ijoligo). The Sepia is generally used 
raw, and only the other two varieties, especially Ommastrephidae, are 
dried. The Sepia lives most in bays or inland seas while the other 
kinds are caught in Kyushu, Sado and*Oki in the Sea of Japan, 
and also along the coast of Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi and Hokkaido. 
The dried cuttle-fish goes extensively to China, as shown in the 
following returns giving the average for the ten years ending 1901 : — 



Hongkong 

China ... ••• 

Others 

Total 7,316,267 1,276,938 

2. Beche de Mer. — This is a boiled and dried sea-cucumber 
and is highly relished by the Chinese. Besides the Japanese product, 
that caught along the Siberian coast and the South Pacific also goes 
to China. The South Pacific variety is whitish and devoid of 
cutaneous projections, while the Beche de mer from Japan and 
Siberia is black and has projections. It is found mostly in Hokkaid5 
and along the north-eastern coast of Honshu. 

Average yearly export during the said ten years was : — 



China 

Hongkong 

Others 

Total 875,299 316,970 

3. Shark-Fins. — Dried shark-fins are regarded as a dainty by 
the Chinese. There are two kinds of fins, grey and black, the grey 
commanding higher price than the other. The fins come in the 
largest quantities from Oita and Yamaguchi, and our fishermen also 
cross over to the Korean coast to fish for sharks or rather for their 
fins: — 



ktn. 


yefi. 


801,378 


292,545 


7i,49X 


21,542 


2,430 


2.883 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



kin. 


yen* 


221,149 


' 83,245 


107,150 


37,440 


12,871 


7,238 



366 Japan in the Beginning of the 2(Hh Century, 



China 
HoDgkoDg 
Others .., 



Total 341,170 127,923 

Principal Salted or Dried Fish that go Abroad. 
(I). SALMON AND TROUT. 

Jtin, yen, 

77.538 

609 

1,712 



Hongkong 


1,335,741 


China 


12,468 


Others 


24,700 


Total .. 


1,372,909 




(2). DRIED ANCHOVY. 




Jh'n. 


Hongkong 


751,073 


China 


20,097 


Others 


10,626 



79,859 



ye/t, 

34470 
823 
525 

Total 781,796 35,818 

4. Other Salted or Dried Fish. — Salted or dried fish, 
mostly in the latter form, that are exported abroad mostly go to 
Southern China. The Tataukuri and cod constitute the bulk of the 
exports. Other fish of a cheap kind also go there. The recent 
advance in prices on the fish market stands very much in the way 
of the greater export of this kind of fish. An attempt is now being 
made to export salted herring and if this proves satisfactory salted 
herring will become an 'important item of export: — 



Hongkong 

China 

Hawaii 

United States 

Korea 

Others 

Total 839,903 50,429 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



kin. 


yen. 


281,444 


14,206 


137,650 


8,103 


149,921 


17,355 


17,587 


2,336 


237,194 


6,771 


16,112 


1,658 



kin. 


yen. 


780,552 


128,257 


590,307 


91,503 


406.146 


3.037 



Markets. 891 

5. Dried Prawns. — Several varieties of prawns belonging to 
die genus Penaeus are boiled and deprived of their shell, and these 
are known on the market by the common name of dried prawns. 
The prawns are mostly caught along the shores of the Inland Sea 
and also in Kyushu. Dried prawns are mostly destined for China. 



Hongkong 

China 

Others 

Total i,777/»5 222,797 

6. Ear-Shell. — This is one of the most favorite marine pro- 
ducts with the Chinese, and the export to America is to supply the 
demand of the Chinese residents there. An export trade has recently 
sprung up in tinned ear-shells, but the quantity exported is un- 
known. 

kin, yen. 

Hongkong 885,292 367,629 

China 9^AH 38,874 

United States 24,104 I3,99i 

Others 12,716 104,035 

Total 1,018,526 426,976 

7. Kainohashira. — This is the dried abductor mascle of the 
several varieties of scallop of the genus Peden. 

kin, yen. 

Hongkong IS8,749 51^5^ 

China 152,141 5o,l97 

Others 7,201 2,782 



Total 318,091 


104,035 


8. MusHfiL.— This is the dried flesh of the 


"Seto-gai" caught 


ill Yaiuaguehi, Ehime, Kumamoto, etc. 




kin. 


yen. 


Hongkong 263,335 

China l99,5lo 

Others 1,335 


32,454 
21,211 

3453 



Total 464,180 57,"8 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



368 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

9. HosHiAQEMAKi (SokcuHus coiistrida. Lam.) — ^This shell-fish 
grows in the mud of Ariake Sea, Kyushu. The flesh is boiled and 
dried. 

FOUR YEARS' AVERAGE (1898— 1901). 

/rm, yen, 

Hongkong 19,592 3,399 

China 106,598 19,632 



Total 126,190 23,031 

10. Dried Oyster. — The oyster exported in a dried form 
mostly comes from Akkeshi, Ilokkaid?). 

FOUR YEARS' AVERAGE (1898—1901). 







km. 


yen. 


Hongkong 





141.266 


23,528 


British India 





6,704 


1,245 


Hawaii 





6,500 


1,312 


Others 





4,035 


1,000 



Total 158,505 * 27,085 

II. "HAIJOTIS" SHELLS, 10 YEARS' AVERAGE (1890— 1901). 





kin. 


yen. 


England 


255,718 


41,694 


Hongkong 


281458 


32,637 


Germany 


109,086 


11,810 


Others 


95,753 


8,421 



Total 742,015 94,562 

12. "YAKO-GAI" {lurbo obearins. Lam.), 6 YEARS' AVERAGE (1892— 1897)- 

/•///. yen, 

Hongkong 44,519 5,o8i 

Others 10,901 138 

Total 55,420 5,219 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Markets. 369 

OTHER SHELLS, 6 YEARS' AVERAGE (1892— 1897). 

yen. 

Hongkong 6,715 

Germany 2,565 

England i,495 

Others 1,093 

Total 1,869 

The " Yako-gai " grows in the sea sarrounding the Okinawa 
Islands Its shell and that of Heliotis and Avicula supply important 
materials for ornamental work. 

13. " KoMBU " (Lamiriarid). — Several varieties of Laminaria 
grow on the shores of Japan, especially in Hokkaido and the south- 
eastern districts of Honshu. The "long Kombu" {Laminaria 
augustatcC) is exported most of all. The " Kombu " sliced into small 
threads is extensively used by our people and also to some extent by 
the Chinese. Shanghai is the principal market, whence the goods are 
sent to the districts along the Yangtsz. The export to northern 
China is not so great, owing to the fact that the goods produced in 
Siberia and Manchuria being somewhat cheaper than those from 
Japan are much in demand there. 

"KOMBU." 





10 YEARS AVERAGE (1892- 


-1901). 






" LONG KOMBU." 




m 




kin. 




yen. 


China 


34,944*295 




658,449 


Hongkong.., 


1484,198 




27,137 


Others 


498,023 




5,664 



Total 36,926,516 691,250 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



370 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

SLICED "KOMBU." 



China 

Hongkong ,. 
Others 

Total 





yen. 


5,873»544 


155,671 


292,067 


6,458 


140,891 


1,654 



6,306,502 



163,783 



14. " Kanten," (Cbife Vegetable). — ^This is made by dissolving 
the sea-weed Tengusa in water. After the reftise is removed the 
gelatinous infusion is exposed to the cold weather at night and 
made to congeal. In the da3rtime this congealed substance is exposed 
to the sun to make it less watery. " Kanten " is consumed at home 
and is also exported abroad. The Chinese use it as food, while in 
the West it is used as a substitute of isinglass and for starching 
woven goods or for removing the sediments of liquors. The " Kanten " 
is produced at Osaka, Kyoto, Hyogo and Nagano. 

10 YEARS' AVERAGE (1892— 1901). 







ktfi. 


yen. 


Hongkong 


«•• ■■• 


... 578,482 


292,683 


China 





... 543^19 


286,140 


British India 


.»• ••* 


34,046 


19,322 


Germany 





18,935 


14,147 


England 





13,214 


9,510 


Others 


••. ••• 


... 88,395 


43/»o 


Total ... 


... 1,276,891 


664,802 



15. Other sea-weeds that go abroad are the "Hoshinori," 
"Tosakanori" (RhodophyUis\ " Funori " (^ClmopeUis Agardh) and 
" Tsunomata " ( Chondrus slackhouse, Agardh) ; the first for Japanese 
staying abroad, the second to China and the other two to other 
countries to be used as paste: — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



MarheU. 371 

"HOSHINORI," lo YEARS' AVERAGE (1892—1901). 

HoDgkong I|593 



China ... 
Hawaii... 
Others... 



Total 



... 4,682 

••• 4^2 

... 687 

.,. 7M44 



" TOSAKANORI," 10 YEARS' AVERAGE (1892— 1901). 



China 
Others 



kin. 


yen. 


•164,873 


7,505 


4,259 


291 



Total 1691I32 7,796 

« FUMORI," 10 YEARS' AVERAGE (1892— 1901). 



km. 


yen. 


•• ZSMS 


4,141 


.. 73»399 


2,921 


950 


81 



England ... 
Hongkong 
Others ... 



Total 109,794 7,143 

"TSUNOMATA," 10 YEARS' AVERAGE (189a— I90i> 



v^nina •.. ,,. ... .•■ ... ••• 

Hongkong ^ 

Germany ••• 

Others • 



Total 32,880 5,796 

16. PiSH-oiL. — ^Fish-oil is a by-product of fish guano. It is 

shipped abroad in unrefined state, and is used for leathering, 
makiDg soap, paint, tallow, etc: — 



kin. 


ven. 


29,337 


4,036 


2,749 


1,202 


7«5 


499 


79 


59 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Jh'n. 


•♦ yen. 


5,527,476 


293,091 


1,731,359 


95,402 


1,514,026 


61,767 


622,645 


42,908 


1,001,584 


45,169 


297,980 


I34«9 


250,618 


10,705 


419,497 


18,665 



372 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century, 

10 YEARS* AVERAGE (1892— 1901). 



Germany 

Hongkong 

England ^. 

Belgium 

France 

Australia 

China 

Others 

Total 11,365,185 581,196 

16. Corals. — Corals are got by dredge-neis in the seas off Tosa, 
Satsuma and Hizen. Italy is the principal foreign market for the 
goods. The supply being in excess of the demand lately, owing to 
the greater development of the work of dredging in Tosa and Satsuma, 
the market has somewhat declined : — 

10 YEARS' AVERAGE (1892— 1901). 



Hongkong 

Italy 

China 

Others 

Total 12,941 187,751 

17. Table-salt. — Salt was formerly exported to Korea alone, 
but of late it has began to go to Siberia and Saghalien where it is 
used for preserving fish : — 

U) YEARS' AVERAGE (1692-11901). 



Korea ... 
Siberia... 
Others... 



Total 29,671,194 201,770 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



h'n. 


y^n. 


5,087 


83,528 


7,189 


80,390 


655 


23,488 


10 


345 



^n, 

17,719,697 

11,484.059 

467^38 


ven. 

196,618 

102,405 

2,747 



Markets. 



373 



(II.) Ihfobts. — Imports of marine products during the ten years 
from 1892 to 1901 :— 



Dried * 

Salted-fish ^ .. 

Shell-fish 

Hank-bill Turtle Shell- 
Salt 

"Tengusa" 

Coral 

"FuDori" , 

Dried Anchovy 

Herring Guano 

Total 

Dried-fish 

Salted-fish ^ 

Shell-fish 

Hank-bill Turtle Shell.. 

Salt « 

"Tengusa" 

Coral ^ 

"Fnnori" 

Dried Anchory 

Herring Gaano 

Total ., 



tntity 


is represented 


in kin and value in yen). 








1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


Quan. 
Val. 


— 


— 


z 


— 


- 


» 

n 


535,2«8 
I'iMi 


1,511,9A2 
44,203 


2,281.682 
61,197 


2,641,254 
107,144 


4,868,137 
231.086 




— 


— 


— 


M. 


113,816 
30,818 


n 
fl 


14,231 
60,180 


18,126 
70,755 


6,985 
46,062 


14,579 

80,798 


14,162 
107,722 


» 

It 


2,442 


3.468 


6,656 


8,245 


55,579 


It 
n 


688,5611 

29,168 


466,611 
19,990 


319^7 
12,128 


396,443 
16,462 


635,566 
24,669 


t» 
It 


8,082 
32^7 


4,622 
41,887 


2.108 
24,821 


3,239 
57,650 


5,640 
62,864 




951,309 
8,881 


772,073 
31,358 


679,446 
27,798 


678,901 
80,860 


1,084,180 
48,823 


M 
fl 


6,112,728 
92,298 


8,201,0W 
166,189 


10,412.626 
193,686 


432,842 
8,561 


2,982,066 
6A685 


f» 
fl 


- 


34,231 
759 


~~ 


" 


— 



270,751 



1897. 



368,064 



878,298 



901,220 



623,684 



1899. 



1900. 



1901. Average. 



^r 


. 11,967 
465 


292 


43,880 
2;292 


62,878 
3,197 


61,428 
3,484 


18,647 
972 


fl 
It 


9,277,42% 

496,907 


10,612,880 
609,736 


23.78S,208 
1,212,896 


48,885,638 
2,184»846 


80,641,836 
1,442,790 


1,298,891 
640.882 


» 
fl 


92.711 
26,888 


106,942 
88,865 


109.316 
35,811 


116,628 
43,907 


90,408 
36,84? 


62,982 
20,658 


fl 
ft 


11,478 
81,203 


9,893 
99,026 


7,169 
68,664 


9,744 
79,627 


9,793 
69,227 


11,110 
76,013 


» 


111,823 


133,865 


86,428 


122,884 


76,398 


59,973 


ft 
If 


472,005 
20,86) 


679,018 
29,058 


695,062 
33,517 


650,756 
37,106 


65«,075 
38.814 


544.924 
26,176 


ft 
II 


6,845 
49,873 


7,472 
108,873 


2,726 
23,808 


2,384 
29,196 


1,640 
1?,309 


3,826 
43,852 


If 


967,917 
47,519 


969,088 
46,189 


829,133 
48,884 


1,202,543 
6i,423 


1,372,232 
78,443 


947,482 
46,858 


ft 
If 


12,666,028 
288,666 


6,300,613 
128,282 


2,600,706 
89,244 


6,986,981 
235,598 


7,ni6,014 
238,970 


6,200,016 
149,412 


It 
» 


— 


— 


17,6<>6,000 
787,167 


2«,<»09,800 
1,146,116 


28,068,200 
1,171,626 


7,261,228 
305,566 



•{ 



1,123,186 1,180,135 2,332,686 8,946,300 8,167,407 1,368,867 

A brief description of the principal imported marine products 
will be given as follows: — 

1. Salted-fish. — The most important variety of salted fish 
imported into Japan is salmon. It comes from Russian Siberia and 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



374 Japan in the Beginning oj the 20th Century, 

British Columbia and the United States of America, and generally 
£:om the Japanese fishermen who are doing business in those countries 
to a large extent. 

ID YEARS* AVERAGE (1892— 1901). 

^n, yen, 

Russian Siberia 11,713,498 566,851 

United States 410,772 25,902 

British Columbia 57i>9i' 35i246 

Others 292,727 12,382 



Total 12,988,908 640,381 

2. Fertilizers. — Herring guano comes chiefly from Russian 
Siberia and dried anchovy from Korea, both through the hands of 
Japanese fishermen and merchants. Tho import was formerly free of 
duty, but in consequence of the enforcement by the Russian 
authorities of restrictive measures in regard to the fisheries conducted 
by Japanese fishermen along the Siberian coast, our Grovernment 
passed some time ago a law imposing an ad valorem duty of not 
more than 50 per cent, on salted fish and guano coming from Siberia 
and Saghalien. The tariflT has not yet been enforced owing to the 
relaxation of the Russian restrictive measure. 

3. FISH-GUANO, 3 YEARS' AVERAGE (1899—1901). 

kill, yen. 

Russian Siberia 24,159,333 1,018,300 

4. DRIED ANCHOV\', 10 YEARS' AVERAGE (1892— 1901). 

kin, yen, 

Korea 6,056,812 I44»204 

Russian Siberia 121,129 4,783 



Total 6,177,941 148,987 

5. Sea-weeds. — The principal sea-weeds that are imported 
into Japan come from Korea where our fishermen are collecting the 
Tengusa and Funori. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Fishery Legislature. 375 

"TENGUSA," lo YEARS' AVERAGE (1892— 1901). 

h'n. yen, 

Korea 5i3»9i7 24,916 

Others 31,007 1,259 



Total 544,924 26,175 

'< FUNORI," 10 YEARS' AVERAGE (1892— 1901). 

kin. yen, 

Korea 947,o74 45,839 

6. Salt. — ^The import was formerly confined to table-salt alone 
but owing to great rise in the salt market recently at home sal, 
has began to come largely from Germany, England, and China : — 



Year. 


England. 


Germany. 


China. 


United States. 


Others. 


Total. 




yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


1892 ... 


... 2,152 


30 


~ 


30 


230 


2,442 


1893 ... 


•.. 2,355 


57 


_.. 


989 


62 


3,463 


1894 ... 


... 4,773 


— 


2 


813 


68 


5,656 


1895 ... 


... 1,598 


— 


— 


945 


702 


3,245 


1896 ... 


... 2,390 


979 


49,611 


934 


1,665 


55.579 


1897 ... 


... 4,124 


18,299 


74.841 


3,526 


",033 


111,823 


1898 ... 


... 5,758 


87.399 


22,016 


6,038 


12,154 


133,365 


1899 ... 


... 2,060 


23,660 


50,396 


2,708 


7,604 


86,428 


i9cx> ... 


... 59,725 


23,093 


18 


4,119 


35,429 


122,384 


1901 ... 


... 69,158 


3 


3,205 


3,032 


__ 


75,398 




IX. 


. FISHERY LEGISLATURE. 




• 



General Remarks. — Legislature and institutions pertaining to 
fishery are as yet comparatively imperfect, as these things have 
generally been regulated in accordance with ancient usages. This 
primitive method of regulations having given rise to various troubles 
the Government put in force from July 1902 the Law of Fishery. At 
the same times steps were taken for encouraging deep-sea fishery, and 
state aids have also been granted for the encouragement of fishery 
education. The matters will be briefly described below. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



376 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

Usages and Legislature about fishery. — ^Various usages 
have existed about fishery-grounds. In general the grounds in the 
foreshores of fishing village or villages were regarded to belong to those 
villages. The inhabitants of farming villages situated along the sea 
shore did not in general care much about the grounds except perhaps 
for sea-weeds used as manure. The grounds in the foreshore of such 
villages were therefore left to the exploitation of neighboring fishing 
communities. With the increase of the fishing population and owing 
also to the fact that even farmers began to assert their own rights 
in regard to the foreshores, fishermen were compelled to extend their 
field to work even to grounds belonging to others, and this very 
frequently led to trouble. To minimize these troubles the Tokugawa 
Regency made an enactment in 1741 to the effect that the right of 
fishing and collecting weeds in the space lying within a line stretched 
from one headland to another should belong to the farmers living 
along the shores, but that the right of fishing and collecting weeds in 
the outer space should be enjoyed in common by the fishermen of all 
provinces. No fishing community should be allowed to interfere with 
the collection of weeds by farmers and no farming community should 
be allowed to interfere with fishing by fishermen. Fishing along the 
shores should be regulated according to the old usages, but fishing in 
the open sea should be open even lo those who were new to the work. 

Certain fees were charged at times for the privilege of the 
exclusive use of shores, while fishermen eligible for service in the 
maritime service of the Government were given similar privilege. 

This simple regulation established by the Tokugawa Regency 
was generally adopted by the feudal princes governing seaside domains. 
• With the Restoration, the practice of exacting fees was abolished 
and the seas were declared to belong to the State. In all other 
respects the Government left the matter to be regulated according 
to existing usages and customs. Coming to 1886 the fishery guild 
regulations were enacted, but soon this simple legislature proved 
inadequate to deal with troubles constantly occuring among fishermen, 
and at last the law in question was promulgated with the consent of 
the Diet. 

Encouragement of deep sea fisheries. — The law for the 
encouragement of deep sea fisheries was issued in 1897 and State 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Fishery Legislature, 



377 



aids are now granted according to the tonnage of the ships employed 
in the work and to the number of the crew, provided such ships, 
whether steamers or sailing ships, engage in specified kinds of fishery 
approved of by the Government. The dvelopment of deep sea fisheries 
since the enforcement of the law may be inferred from the following 
table :— 



Year. 



No. of Ships. Tonnage. Sum of State aids. 



1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 







y^. 


I 


90 


680 


14 


1,3^3 


16,240 


17 


1,888 


25,260 


22 


2,042 


28,035 



Japanese Fishery Enterprise in Korean waters. — Our 
fishermen were engaged in fishery in Korean waters even before the 
Bestoration, and as their number had grown more and more numerous 
the Government made special arrangements in 1883 and 1890 with 
the Korean Government to protect them in their pursuing this busi- 
ness there. In 1897 these fishermen established their own association 
atFusan, while in 1900 the Government commenced to grant state 
aids to the guild established by these men. 

NO. OF FISHING-BOATS TO KOREAN WATERS AND THEIR CATCH 
DURING THE TEN YEARS OF 1892— 1901. 



(In each set of figures the upper one represents No. of boats and the lower 
one value of catch in y^n). 



1892. 189a 1894. 189& 1896. 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. 



Osaka ... 
Hyogo ... 
Miye ... 
Shi mane 
Okayama 
Hiroahlnia 
Tamaguchi 



— — 10 

— — 3.000 

— - 6 

— — 1,700 



11 
8,200 

16 
6,496 



8,000 
21 



10 
8,800 

48 
18.162 



8 
4,000 

47 

16,790 



— 12 

— 2,099 



12 
570 



12 
760 



8 
230 



79 
31,690 



— 452 410 881 446 661 

— 234,092 169,777 105.765 169,695 280,858 
88 82 95 93 290 490 

39,085 40,990 48,180 50,643 256,081 286,8^3 



97 
36,164 



10 
4,500 

41 
18,013 



18 
720 

144 
2,588 

771 
826,626 

820 
818,787 



1901. 
10 

88 

81,280 

21 

211,060 

14 

260 
160 

582 

256,222 

868 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



378 

WiCkAjtantk . 
Tokushlma . 
Kagftwa... . 
Ehjine ... . 
Fukuoka 
Olta ^ . 
Saga ... . 
Kuinamoto . 
Kagoshiuia . 

Total 



••■{ 



Japan in the Scanning of the 20ih Century. 

1892. 189a. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. 

_ — — — — _-_-. — 11 

— — _ — — — -.— - 4,800 

— — — — — — — 61 82 40 

— — — — — — — 11,720 26,914 48,208 

237 202 205 ^-Sl »61 804 316 879 480 44< 

62,496 68,882 64,752 71,214 47,998 89,995 48,066 141,697 167,862 109,283 

12 16 16 82 86 67 92 127 194 166 

7,210 8,710 9,870 26,900 86,600 47,270 66,962 64,600 78,867 79,560 

— — — — — — 41 87 48 55 

— — — — — — 8,777 7,288 10/J49 12,170 

-, — — - — — — — 804844 

— — — — — — — — — 219,166 

— — — — — — — — 80 68 

— — — — — — — — 18,118 21.702 

— -. — — — — — 23 IBS 115 

— — — — — — — 12,295 41,858 43,279 

55 68 62 65 70 74 79 91 84 94 

9,R83 10.208 11,408 10,465 12,820 18,615 14,580 10,465 19,392 19,850 

8&3 873 871 897 1.000 950 1,828 1,822 2,580 2,582 

101,076 113,464 124,615 388,361 826,614 270,828 671,780 834,566 1,039,379 1,051,910 



Encouragement of fishery by the local and central 
AUTHORITIES. — The matter relating to encouragement of fishery by the 
local offices recently made a marked progress. In 1887 the disburse- 
ments from the local treasury on account of fishery business amounted 
to only 1,531 yen throughout the land. The sums swelled to 360,000 
yen in 1901 as shown in the following table; — 



Year. 



Fishery Expenditure. 



Year. 



P'ishery Expenditure. 





jr;/. 


1887 ... . 


I.53X 


1888 ... . 


9,359 


1889 ... . 


2,860 


1890 ... . 


6,185 


I89I ... . 


11,011 


1892 ... . 


13,475 


1893 •• • 


28,861 


1894 ... . 


19,282 





yett. 


1895 


... 31,593 


1896 


... 50468 


1897 


... 62427 


1898 


... 71,687 


1899 


... 108,687 


1900 


... 188,911 


1901 


... 320417 


1902 


... 360,043 


le appropria 


tion to fish 



perimental laboratories and training schools amounted to most, as 
shown below:— 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Fishery Legislature, 379 





Experimental Tjihoratory. 


Training 


r School. 






Year. 


New. 


Already 
existing. 


New. 


Already 
existing. 


Total. 


Expenses. 
yen. 


1894 ... 


I 


I 


— 


-- 


2 


1,175 


1895 ... 


I 


2 


— 


— 


3 


2,715 


1896 ... 


— 


2 


— 


— 


2 


2,998 


1897 ... 


— 


2 


— 


— 


2 


3,779 


1898 ... 


I 


3 


2 


2 


5 


12,336 


1899 ... 


4 


7 


— 


2 


13 


34,685 


1900 ... 


II 


18 


2 


4 


35 




190J ... 


2 


20 


— 


4 


26 


229,754 


1902 ... 


4 


24 


— 


4 


32 


235,643 



Experimental 








Taboratory. 


School. 




Total. 


No. Aids. 


No. Aids. 


No. 


Aids. 


ye7u 


yen. 




yen. 


7 12,200 


I 1,200 


8 


13400 


18 26,000 


4 3.900 


22 


29,900 


21 40,100 


4 5,200 


25 


45,300 



Total ... 24 79 4 16 123 667,091 

The laboratories and schools are allowed to participate in the 
state aids set apart, as described in the chapter of agricultural educa- 
tion, for encouraging agricultural education : — 



Year. 



1900 

1901 

1902 

Fishery Education. — ^The progress of fishery education has 
been very slow compared with that of agriculture and commerce. 
About 1889 a course of fishery was created for the first time in the 
Agricultural College at Komaba, but it was discontinued shortly 
after. The Fishery Training School of the Japan Fishery Associa- 
tion did much to diffuse knowledge in regard to this impoi-tant 
branch of knowledge among the people, and during the ten years of 
its existence, for it was converted in 1897 into a Government institu- 
tion, it turned out several hundreds of graduates. Of late, in 
consequence of the encouragement extended to fishery education by 
the Government, it has attained a striking improvement, as shown 
in the appended table: — 



Digitized b\ CjOOQIC 



380 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 





Fishery School. 


Training School. 




District. 


No. 


Expenses. 


No. 


Expenses. 


State Aids. 






yen. 




yen. 


yen. 


Hokkaido... . 


— 


— 


I 


833 


250 


Aomori ... . 


. ... — 


— 


3 


2,835 


750 


Akita 


— 


— 


I 


694 


150 


Iwate 


I 


3,848 


— 


— 


800 


Miyagi ... . 


I 


4,611 


— 


— 


800 


Niigata ... . 


— 


— 


I 


830 


550 


Fukui 


. ... I 


3,786 


— . 


— 


1,000 


Shizuoka 


. ... I 


1,100 


2 


1.986 


700 


Kochi ... . 


— 


— 


3 


1,044 


300 


Tottori ... . 


— 


— 


I 


— 


— 


Nagasaki 


. ... — 


— 


I 


1,193 


400 


Kagoshima 


. ... — 


— 


I 


840 


200 



Total 



15,345 



14 



10,257 



5,900 



Associations and Public Bodies on Fishery. — Of the fishery 
associations and public bodies the Japan Fishery Association and the 
Japan Salt Association are the most important. The former was 
organized in 1883 and contains 5,216 members. It produced, as 
mentioned above, a large number of graduates in fishery, and in 
general acts as the headquarters of marine industry of the country. 
The other body was organized in 1896 with the special purpose of 
improving the salt industry. The members number 2,600. Both 
are publishing monthly proceedings. There are besides fishery 
societies of local importance, and also fishery guilds and sale guilds 
created in consequence of the Fishery Law. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



History. 381 



PART III. 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY. 



CHAPTER L — General Manufacturing Industry. 



History— Administration —Legislative Measures— Principal 

Exports of Hanufuctured Goods— Principal Imports 

of Industrial Goods— Output of Principal 

Manufactured Goods. 



I. HISTORY. 



Bkfore the Restoration. — During the peaceful time of the 
Tokugawa regime, the manufacturing industry received from the 
feudal princes and the Shogunate itself protection and encouragement. 
The Shogunate too resumed with Korea the friendship that had beea 
interrupted for some while, connived at our people carrying on secretly 
commercial transaction with Chinese merchants ; and even permitted 
them to expand similar transaction with the peoples of Annum, 
Siam, Luzon, India and various counties in the Southern Seas, also 
-with Portugal, Spain, England, Holland and Mexico. The first dawn 
of our industrial development may be ascribed to this commercial 
relations with foreign countrymen. In these days many foreign ships 
used to visit the ports of Kagoshima, Hakata, Goto, Hirado, Sakae, and 
ITagasaki to trade with our people, while not a few of the latter also 
crossed over on a similar mission to Siara, Luzon, and several places 
in the South Seas. It is hardly necessary to state that this contact 
with foreigners and the trade with them largely contributed either 
directly or indirectly to the development of our industry. The 
prohibition suddenly enforeced from political consideration during the 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



382 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

Benefit of Foreign era of Kwan-ei, (1704—1710 A.D.) on this 
IntercoorBe. foreign trade and intercourse did serious harm to 
our trade and industry, and hence on our prosper- 
ity. One thing that was fortunate was that the prohibition was not 
absolute, and the two countries of China and Holland were allowed to 
continue their commercial transactions with us as before ; so that the 
merchants of these two cauntries brought to Japan foreign goods 
through the port of Nagasaki which was at that time the only open 
market in Japan. The permission reserved to the Netherlanders was 
matter of special importance to our country, serving as it did the 
connecting like of introducing Western civilization into Japan. 

Situation of the Industry at the Time op the Restora- 
tion. — As mentioned above, manufacturing industry found congenial 
atmosphere for its development during the tranquil period of the 
Tokugawa regime, and indeed many were the industrial articles that 
were then either improved or newly invented. Principal manufact- 
uring districts and their staple produce were as follows about the 
time of the Restoration : — 

1. Ra.w Silk. — Musashi, Kozuke, Shinano, Kai, Mutsu, etc. 

2. Silk Fabrics. — Nishijin in Kyoto, (relief silk), Kiriu, Ashikaga, 
Isezaki, Hachioji (plain silk) Kai (" Gunnai-kaiki ") Fukushima 
(plain silk), Akita (relief silk), Yonezawa (figured silk). Tango, 
and Nagahama (crdpe silk), Kawagoe (" Nanako "), Hakata (sash) 
Sendai (skirt for men) etc. 

3. Hemt Fabrics. —Nara (breached cotton goods), Echigo (" Jofu" 
goods), Omi (general hempen fabrics and musquito nets), etc. 

4. Cotton Fabrics. — Kokura (" Kokura-ori "), Kurume (" Kasuri ") 
Satsuma ("Kasuri"), Yamato ("Kasuri"), lyo ("Kasuri"), 
Kawachi and Mikawa (white cotton cloth), Shimotsuke (Maoka 
cotton cloth). 

5. Porcelain. —Kyoto (Awada and Kiyomizu ware), Owari (Seto- 
ware), Ise (Banko-ware), Kaga (Kutani-ware), Izumo (Rakusan 
and Fushina-ware), Awaji (Minpei-ware), Chikuzen (Takatori- 
ware), Hizen (Arita-ware), Satsuma (Satsuma-ware), Iwaki (Soma- 
ware), Bizen (Imbe-ware), etc. 

6. Lacquered- Wares. — Kyoto (art wai*e), Note (Wajima-ware), 
Kaga (Kanazawa and Yamanaka-ware), Kii (Kuroe-ware), Iwa- 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



History. 383 

shiro (Aizu-ware), Wakasa (Wakasa-ware), Mutsu (Tsugani-ware), 
Dewa (Noto-ware), etc. 

7. Copper Ware. — Kyoto, Kaga, Takaoka, etc. 

8. Japanese Paper. — Kyoto, Saruga, Echizen, Mino, Iwami, 
Tosa, etc. 

Other important ware and goods besides those mentioned were 
gold lacquered ware, carved ware, cutlery, cast iron ware, wood or 
bamboo or leather ware, mattings, sake^ and soy. 

After the Restoration. — The Restoration has inaugurated a 
new epoch in our manufacturing industry, and this change was 
especially marked in regard to the introduction of labor saying 
machines. Not that their use was unknown before the Restoration ; 
on the contrary even prior to that period their use was encouraged 
by not a few feudal princes, especially in connection with cotton 
spinning anJ weaving. But it was only after the Restoration that 
the Government made a systematic effort to encourage the use of 
Toachinery in the manufacturing industry and established model 
workshops and factories for that purpose. This official effort was 
eagerly welcomed by the people who began to make extensive use of 
machines in the business of manufacturing raw silk. Other industries 
in the similar line many of which were new to Japan, were cotton 
and silk spinning, weaving, shipbuilding, iron industries of various 
sorts, the manufacture of cement, glass, bricks, 
New Indtutries. matches, paper of foreign style, tobacco, and beer, 
the refining of sugar, the preparation of india- 
rubber, the making of paint, artificial fertilizers, coal, gas, coke and 
the carrying on of electric industries of various sorts, Ac. Ac. In the 
manufacturing industry as carried on by hand the introduction of 
Jacquard, Butten, and other kinds of looms, and the introduction 
of such dye-stufis as aniline, alizarine, etc., have imparted a powerful 
impulse to the development of weaving and of dyeing. In a similar 
way the use of Western style of kiln and of Western pigments, and 
the use of gypsum mould and copper lithograph have opened a new 
path of development for our keramic industry. The progress too of 
the fancy-mat making and of the making of straw-plaits has been 
something striking and the goods as are now turned out for foreign 
markets display a highly finished workmanship. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



384 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

The Progress op the Industry in Recent Times. — ^Under 
these circumstances our manufacturing industry has made great strides 
during the last two or three decades, so that not only are articles 
produced for home consumption but also a large quantity of goods 
for the foreign markets. How great this advance is may be easily 
inferred from the fact that the volume of manufactured good which 
did not exceed 10 million yen in 1890 advanced to over 89,800,000 
in 1902, an increase of about ninefold. The total volume of our 
export goods of all descriptions advanced during the same period 
from 55,700,000 to 255,600,000 yen both in round nimibers, that is 
to say, 4.6-fold. Again, even if raw silk, straw-plaits, etc.. are 
excluded, the export of industrial commodities occupies about 35 per 
cent, of the total value of exports. Thus while in 1890 the propor- 
tion of industrial commodities exported constituted 18 per cent, of 
the total volume of export, the percentage advanced over to 35 in 
1902. It will be seen therefore that the part played by manufact- 
uring industry in the economy of our export trade is one of supreme 
importance. 



II. ADHINISTRAf ION OF HANUFACTURING INDUSTRY. 



Matters relating to manufacturing industry were at first cont- 
rolled by the Industrial Bureau of the former Department of In- 
dustrial Affairs, to be transferred, on the abolition of that Depart- 
ment, to the Department of Agriculture and Commerce. Though the 
control has remained in this Department from that time to this day, 
the office that had direct charge of manufacturing affairs has under- 
gone frequent alterations, for the tenure of the Bureau of Industry 
was precarious and was repeatedly created and abolished and finally 
combined, as it is still to-day, with the Bureau of Commerce. At 
present all matters relating to manufacture are under the control of 
the Bureau of Commerce and Industry, and are in direct charge of 
the Section of Industry which forms part of the Bureau. The 
Section in question deals with matters relating to experiment made 
with the view to improving manufacture and manufactured goods, 
the position and construction of workshops, the control of boilers, the 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Legislative Measures Relating to Manufacturing Industi^, 385^ 

employment and engagement of operatives and apprentice together 
with their relief, education, health, etc. In April 1900 a temporary 
fectory committee was created in the Section of Industry, and was. 
made to inquire into matters concerning factories and operatives. 



III. LEGISLATIYE MEASURES RELATING TO 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY. 



General Remarks. — The first l^slative measure enacted about 
manufacture was that issued by the Department of Agriculture and 
Commerce in November 1884, when an Ordinance was promulgated 
about the formation of guilds. The object of that measure was ta 
encourage different interest to form themselves into guilds and to pro- 
vide against the production of shoddy goods. In December of 1888 
regulations relating to patents, designs and trade-marks were issued 
by Imperial Ordinances, intended to extend protection to inventions, 
designs and trade-marks, and to encourage the development of 
manufacture and industry and to protect the interest of business 
men. In April of 1898 a law relating to guilds of staple export 
interests was enacted, entitling those engaged in the manufacture 
or transaction of any staple export commodity to organize themselves, 
on the approbation of the Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, 
into aguild and furtlier entitling a guild so formed to compel 
any one engage<i in a similar line to join it. Such a guild was 
also permitted to form itself into a juridical i)erson. It is needles* 
perhaps to state that the aim of the law in encouraging the 
formation of a guild was to put a check to all evil practices tending 
to retard the development of the business. Three years later this- 
law was superseded by another relating to staple commoditiea 
interests, and therefore more comprehensive in its sc()[)c and opera- 
tion. About the same time a law relating to industrial guilds was 
promulgated, the object being that credit guilds, purcliase guilds, 
sales guilds, and production guilds may be organized as economic 
corporations with the object of furthering the business and economy 
of the members. In February 1901 rules were issuefl relating to- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



386 Japan in the Beginning of the 20iJi Century, 

the establishment of local and communal industrial experimental 
laboratories or manufacturing training schools, the object of the 
enactment being to encourage the improvement and progress of 
manufacture. It was arranged about the same time that matters 
relating to the control of boilers, factories and operatives be lefb in 
charge of the respective local offices. 



IV. PRINCIPAL EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED GOODS. 



Position op Manufacture in Export Trade. — The different 
parts played by manufactured, agricultural, marine and other goods 
in the economy of export trade and their movement may be seen 
from the following table. 

Kind 1902. 1901. 1898. 1890. Rekdve Perce ptage. 

of Produce. yen, yen, yen, yen* 1902. 190t/ 18987 1890.' 

Industrial ... 74.788,770 76,050,312 66,422,690 10,090,125 38.0 36.3 41.5 18.0 

Agricultural ... 73»336,835 94,5o7,774 66,184,407 28,776,272 37.8 45.1 41.4 S^-^ 

Fishery 5,902,623 5,624,303 4,702,739 3,698,484 3-5 2-7 2-9 6.6 

Mining 27,459,979 24,102,161 20,357,640 11,098,964 14.2 11.5 12.4 2.00 

Miscellaneous... 12,324,339 9,233,027 2,278,635 2,128,002 6.5 4.4 1.5 3.8 

Total ... 193,812,546 209,517,577 159,946,111 55,791,847 100 100 100 100 

It ought to be noted that raw silk of all sorts and straw-plaits 
are included under the head of agricultural goods. It will be seen 
from the foregoing table that manufactured goods have made the 
most striking development in the export trade, and that while in 
1890 their share was only 18 per cent, against 51.6 of agricultural 
goods the relative proportion became 41.5 and 41.4 respectively in 
1898, 34.7 and 43.6 in 1901 and 35.1 and 44.4 in 1902. In other 
words, agricultural goods that formerly occupied the proud |X)sition 
of being the most important item in ' the economy of export trade 
began to be superseded by manufactured goods. 

The importance of manufectured goods as a factor in export 
trade becomes really preponderating when raw silk of all kinds and 
straw-plaits are counted among them instead of being included in 
agricultural goods, as shown below:— 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Principal Exports of Manufactured Oooda. 



387 











Percentage. 




1902. 


1901. 


1898. 


1902. 1901. 1898. 


Manufactured... 


... 127,632,276 


145,522,297 


"3,530,035 


66.0 69.4 70.9 


Agricultural ... 


.-. 20,493,329 


25.035,789 


19,077,062 


105 1 1.9 1 1.9 


Others 


... 45*686,941 


38,959491 


27,339,014 


23.5 18.7 17.2 



Total 193,812,546 209,517,577 159,946,111 100 100 100 

Tlie manufactured goods computed in that way have always 
constituted more than 66 per cent, of the total volume while the 
agricultural have constituted less than 11. 

Principal export items of manufactured goods.— Below is 
given a table showing the movement of the export of staple 
manufactured goods. 

PRINCIPAL EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED GOODS. 



Cotton, yams 

Silk, raw 

Silk, nos/ii 

Silk, waste 

Cotton Tissues, white 

Cotton Tissues, gray shirting. 

Cotton Tissues, cloths 

Cotton Tissues, tenuguiji 

Towels 

Cotton Tissues, chijind 

Cotton Tis&MtSf gasititoori ... 

Cotton Tissues, flannel or 
Alonpa 

Cotton Blankets 

Cotton Shirts 

Cotton Undershirts and Draw- 
ers 

Silk Tissues, haJnUae 

Silk Tissues, >&«£*«. 

Silk Handkerchiefs 

Carpets, hemp, cotton or wool. 

Clocks, standing and hanging. 

Iron, manufactures of 

Bronze and Copper ware . . . 



(unit 


of thousand). 








1885. 


1890. 


1895. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


— 


2 


1,034 


20,589 


21,465 


19,901 


13,033 


13,859 


47,866 


4+,657 


74,667 


76,859 


672 


1,445 


1,347 


960 


995 


1,694 


462 


1,126 


1,515 


3,200 


3473 


4,019 


— 


— 


— 


1,778 


1,357 


1,079 


— 


— 


— 


1,754 


1,347 


1,523 


— 


— 


— 


477 


823 


1,134 


— 


45 


53 


lOI 


1.83 


209 


— 


— 


— 


356 


509 


686 


— 


51 


585 


370 


380 


351 


— 


— 


— 


190 


100 


49 


. 


3 


400 


602 


512 


548 


— 


— 


— 


235 


265 


225 


— 


— 


— 


237 


234 


156 


9 


37 


96 


235 


265 


324 


— 


818 


8,354 


17436 


23,912 


24,685 


— 


— 


1,392 


878 


1,315 


2,672 


— 


2,516 


5,339 


4,318 


3,951 


3,154 


2 


51 


1,635 


866 


707 


653 


— 


— 


— . 


229 


282 


256 


7 


32 


96 


247 


368 


437 


17 


209 


330 


284 


273 


402 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



388 



Japan in the Beginning oj the 20th Centwy, 



Jinrikisha 

Lamp and parts thereof 

Furnitures 

Glass, manufactures of ... 

Cement 

Porcelain and Earthenware 

Shippoki 

Copy-paper 

Paper, hanging 

Paper European 

Paper Napkins 

Matches 

Leather 

Match Sticks 

Soap 

Beer and other all Liquors 

Sake 

Soy 

Cigarettes 

Flour 

Hats and Caps 

Brushes 

Umbrellas, European ... 

Lacquered Ware 

Straw-Plaits 

Mats 

Fans, Folded and Round 

Screens 

Ivory, manufactures of... 
Wood, manufactures of. . . 
Bamboo, manufactures of 

Buttons 

Toy 

Boards, for Tea Box ... 

Tinned Provisions 

European Style Clothes 

Foot -Gears 

Silk-Bedding 

Gold and Silver Ware . . . 

"SilkPaper" 

Tissue Paper 

Willow Plaits 

Wood Parings 

Total 



1885. 

yen, 

34 

9 

4 

695 
23 

20 

2 

28 

60 

258 

65 

15 
10 

3 
36 



I 
467 



137 
148 

23 

3 

105 



1890. 

yen, 

50 

48 
77 

1,245 
36 

lOI 

5 

108 

i,4«9 

97 

34 
20 

41. 
23 

8 

43 
3 

114 

572 
87 
347 
339 
269 

35 
142 
194 



1895. 

yen, 

104 

103 
346 

1,955 
132 

79 
40 

506 
4,672 

323 

118 
132 
415 
74 
"5 
191 
102 

735 
1,083 

1,387 

3461 

430 
366 

106 

398 

417 



1900. 

yen, 

121 

282 
208 
478 
194 

2,471 
188 
336 
116 
228 
140 
5.760 
1,133 
153 
170 
612 

549 
280 

715 

73 

124 

384 

860 

1,066 

4,025 

3,3«o 

949 

408 

105 

344 
605 

3>9 
346 
398 



::} - - 



I9OI. 

yen. 

234 
407 
210 
394 
245 
2491 
250 

35' 

76 

251 

153 
7,392 
690 
189 
266 

1,697 
790 

279 

1,683 

9 

95 

457 

1,023 

994 
2,989 

5,351 
798 
407 
181 
243 
536 
296 
346 
270 
229 
299 
133 
63 
98 



— 370 

— 244 

— 65 



1902. 

yen, 
IS» 
488 
199 
439 
308 

2,461 
183. 
298 
loj 
240 
188 

8,169 
760 

175 
201 

1,379 
83i 
390 

2,188 

16 

148 

626 

1,037 
889 

2,938 

6,772 
795 
43J 
213 
269 
433 
371 
385- 
4i3 
272 

504 
272^ 
158 
181 

440 

464 
378 



16,525 25,774 91,229 137,293 33,544 37,605, 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Principal Exports of Manufactured Goods. 389 

. As shown in the foregoing table the staple manufactured exports 
for 1885 numbered 35 comprising raw silk of all sorts, knitting- 
work, carpets, iron ware, bronze ware, copper ware, jinrikisha, 
furniture, glass ware, porcelain and earthenware, cloisonne ware, 
wall-paper, paper napkin, matches, leather, soap, beer and other 
liquors, soy, cigarettes, flour, umbrella, lacquered ware, fans, screens, 
ivory ware, wooden and bamboo ware, etc. The volume of exjwrt of 
all those goods did not exceed 16 million yen of which raw silk, 
contributed 13,000,000 yoi, porcelain and earthenware 600,000 yen, 
lacquered ware 460,000, each of the rest occupying the level of 
less than 200,000 yen. In 1890 the new items of cotton yarns, 
towels, cotton crepe, cotton flannel, habviaye silk, silk handkerchiefs, 
and straw-plait made their appearance, bringing up the total export 
of manufactured goods to 25 million yeti, an increase of about 50 
per cent, compared with that of 1885. Of that sum of. 25 millions, 
raw silk occupied 13 millions, silk handkerchiefs 2,500,000 yen, 
matches 1,400,000 yen, porcelain and earthenware 1,200,000 yen, 
lacquered ware 570,000 yen, fancy matting 340,000 yen, folding 
and round fans 330,000 yen. The export of silk handkerchiefs, 
to such extent while it was non-existent in 1885 is a noteworthy 
fact, and equally striking was the advance of the export of matches 
which did not exceed 60,000 yen, in the same year. The export 
of fancy matting to the extent of 350,000 yen is also worth noticing, 
inasmuch as fancy matting did not figure on the list of export 
goods in 1885 or at best its export was really insignificant. 
The appearance for the first time of cotton yarns on the list is also 
indicative of the progress of our manufactures. 

Coming down to 1895 we find that the total export had 
advanced to 91 million yen, an increase of 550 per cent, as against 
that of 1885 and 350 per cent, against that of 1890. Raw 
silk with 47 million yen continued to occupy the first rank on the 
list, followed by 8 millions of Iwhutaye, 5 millions of silk hand- 
kerchiefs, 4,600,000 yen of matches, 3,400,000 yen of fancy matting, 
1,900,000 yen of porcelain and earthenware. The items that were 
specially conspicuous in 1895 were habntaye and cotton yarns, tlie 
export of the former amounting to about 810,000 yen in 1890 and 
that of the latter to only about 2,000 yen. In a similar way the 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



890 



Japan in the Beginning of ihe 20th Century. 



advance of sOk han(lkerchie&, kaihi silk, matches and fancy matting 
was also great. In 1900 quite a large number of new items 
appeared on the list, as white cotton tissue, shirting, cloth, gassed 
yarn goods, cotton blanket, clocks, lamps, copy-paper, match sticks, 
brush, toys, boards of tea-chest, etc. The total export reached 
the figure of 130 million yen, an increase of 830 per cent, against 
that of 1885, 520 against that of 1890, 50 per cent, against that 
of 1895. The principal items were raw silk with 44 million yeuy 
cotton yarns with 20 millions, hahuiaye with 17 millions, matches 
with 5,700,000 yen., silk handkerchiefs with 4,300,000 yen, straw, 
plaits with 4,000,000 yen, fancy matting with 3 millions, porcelain 
and earthenware with 2,400,000, cotton piece goods with 1,700,000 
yen, hides and leathers with 1,100,000, lacquered ware with 1 
million, etc. The figures for cotton yarns and habutaye both of 
which practically began to go abroad from 1890 really striking. 
In 1902 the nine new items such as tinned provisions, European-style 
clothes, foot-gears, silk bed-clothes etc. began to figure on the export 
list which reached over 178 J millions yen in value. This shows an 
increase of 18 fold compared with the total of 1885, of 6.9 fold 
compared with that of 1890, 1.9 fold compared with that of 1895, 
and 1.3 fold compared with that of 1900. The export items that 
reached over million yen each numbered 1.7 in 1902, these being as 
follows :— silk, 76,850,000; hahuiaye silk, 24,680,000 ym\ cotton 
fabrics, 19,900,000 ym\ matches, 8,160,000 yen) fancy matting, 
6,770,000 ym) silk waste, 4,010,000 yen] silk handkerchiefs, 
3,160,000 yen; straw-plaits, 2,930,000 yen; kaiki silk, 2,670,000 
yen, etc. all in round numbers. The movement of those staple ex- 
ports and the ratio of their progress as compared with 1885 are 
shown below : — 



Exports. 


X885. 


1890. • 


189s. 


1900. 


1902. 




% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


Raw Silk 


... lOO.O 


106.3 


367.2 


342.6 


589.7 


Habutaye 


— 


100.0 


1,020.7 


2,128.9 


3,015-8 


Cotton Tissues 


— 


100.0 


43,759.7 


870,950.2 


841,824.1 


Matches 


... xoo.o 


2.458.S 


7,715.2 


9,511.7 


13,489.4 


Fancy Matting 


... lOO.O 


37.170.2 


370,200.0 


354,015.2 


724,331.1 


Silk Waste 


... lOO.O 


243.6 


327.6 


692.0 


869.0 


Silk Handkerchief 


— 


100.0 


212.2 


I7I.6 


"25.5 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Principal Imports of Manufactured Goods. 



391 



Exports. 

Stzaw-plaits 

Kaikisilk 

Earthenware and Porcelain . 

Cigarettes , 

NoshiSilk , 

Shirtings , 

Beer and Liqours 

Cloth 

Cotton Tissue, white ... . 
Umbrella 



1885. 
% 



lOO.O 

100.0 

lOO.O 



IS90. 
100.0 

179.2 
237.8 
2x4.9 



1895. 
1,591.4 

100.0 

281.2 

3,204.0 

200.3 



1900. 1902. 

% % 

4,616.2 3»37o.4 

63.1 19 1.9 

355-5 3541 

19,800.2 60,575.5 

143.7 251.9 

100.0 886.8 

60,667.7 1,366,076.2 

— — — 100.0 237.4. 

— — — 100.0 60.7 

— 6,579.2 42,719.8 50,028.2 60,309.5 



loo.o 2,016.4 I3ii 39.8 



y. PRINCIPAL IMPORTS OF MANUFACTURED GOODS. 



Position of manufactured Goods in Import Trade. — Next the 
moyement of the principal import goods shall be described: — 

TABLE SHOWING THE CIJVSSIFIED TOTAL VALUE OF 
INDUSTRIAL COMMODITIES. 

Manufactured. Agricultural, Fishery. Mining. Miscellaneous. Total. 



1902.. 
1901.. 
1900.. 

1899- 
1898.. 
1890.. 



1902... 

190I — 
1900... 

1899.. 
1898... 
1890... 



yen, 
103.340,163 
112,861,302 

141,975,874 
86y,t24,265 

122,444,710 
24,621,570 



3.81 
442 
4.96 

3.93 
4.42 

3^2 



yeti, yen. 

128,019,666 2,011,487 

98,961,390 1,184,828 

93,800,279 2,184,846 

96,667,462 1,212,896 

112,754,614 609,736 

42,326,361 159,753 



10439,008 
RELATIVE PERCENTAGE. 



yen. yen. yeh, 

4.589,359 33,358768 271,319,443 

6,791,320 35,486,436 255,473,276 

6,684,205 41,943,218 286,588,421 

4,195,829 31,550,532 226,050,984 

3,728,106 3.7733.563 277,270,729 
4,123,662 



4.72 
387 
3.27 
4.39 
4.07 
5.18 



0.07 
0.05 
0.08 
0.06 
0.02 
0.02 



0.17 
0.27 
0.23 
0.19 
0.13 
1.28 



1.23 

1-39 
1.46 

1-43 
1.36 
0.50 



81,670,354 



10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
lo.co 
10.00 
10.00 



It will be seen from the foregoing table that the import of 
manufactured goods amounted to 24,600,000 yen approximately in 
1890, that is to say 30.2 per cent, of the total import against 51,8 
per cent, of agricultural imports. The import of manufactured goods 
roee in 1898 to about fivefold of that of 1890, with the ratio of 
44.2 per cent, against 40.7 of agricultural goods. Further, in 1899 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



^92 Japan in live Beginning of ike 20^A CefUurg, 

the amount of manufactured goods imported were about three and a 
half times the amount imported in 1890 with the ratio of about 39 
per cent, against 42 of agricultural goods. In the following year 
the import of manufactured goods again rose to the level of 100 
million yen and to over 570 per cent, of that of 1890, the ratio to 
the total volume being alx)ut 47 per cent, against 32 of agricultural 
goods. In 1901 the ratio of manufactured goods, out of the total 
import, occupied 44 per cent, against 38 of agricultural goods, while 
•coming to the next year the relative proportion was reversed, the 
former corresponding to 38 per cent, and the latter 47 per cent, of 
the total volume of import. . 

Principal Import Items of Manufactured Goods. - Now the 
import of foreign commodities increases as a rule with the purchas- 
ing power of a nation, but it alone cannot prove the condition of 
industry in the country in question. Nevertheless a careful exami- 
nation of the movement of imports into our country tends to confirm 
the progress of our manufacturing industry, seeing that while the 
import of raw materials, machinery, etc. is increasing that of goods 
of special sorts is declining or at best making very slow progress. 
The following table of imports will go to prove this j)oint : — 
PRINCIPAL IMPORTS OF MANUFACTURED GOODS. 





(unit < 


>f thousa 


nd). 










1885- 


1890. 


1895. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 




yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


Cotton yarn 


5,190 


9,928 


7,082 


7,043 


4,873 


1,747 


Cotton threads 


9 


59 


328 


333 


344 


359 


Flax or 1 inen yarns 


3 


79 


708 


324 


100 


301 


Woolen and worsted yarns of] 
all kind ' | 


10 


494 


951 


1.798 


866 


922 


Shirtings, gray 


1.233 


1,716 


3.071 


5,558 


2,981 


5,070 


Shirtings, white 


98 


225 


505 


i,3?5 


575 


1,191 


Turkey-red cambrics 


430 


366 


418 


424 


189 


302 


Shirtings twilled and Cotton] 
drills f 


151 


137 


577 


435 


142 


223 


Victoria lawns 


8 


53 


iZZ 


381 


180 


262 


Cotton prints 


208 


478 


383 


2,002 


680 


2602 


♦Cotton flannels 


— 


— 


— 


444 


234 


704 


Cotton satins and Italians ... 


103 


231 


794 


3,662 


1.684 


i,7S8 


Cotton velvets 


339 


382 


486 


864 


453 


1,231 


Handkerchiefs, cotton 


38 


138 


204 


367 


107 


94 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Principal Imports of Manufactured Goods, 



393 



1885. 
yen. 



and) 



*nush or velvets, silk 
cotton 

Italian cloth 

Serges 

Woolen cloth (cotton -woolen 1 

cloth included) | 

Flannels 

Muslin de laine 

Blankets 

Pongee 

Steam boilers and engines ... 

Electric motor and Electrics 
light apparatus or instru-> 
ments j 

Spinning 

Looms 

Sewing 

Paper making 

Printing mach ines 

Fire-engines and pirnip 

Implements and tools of farm-"! 
ers and mach ines | 

Watch accessories 

♦Watch movements and 
tings 

aocks 

♦Carriages, bicycles and tri-l 
cycles I 

Cars or carriages, railway pas-l 
sengers | 

Cars or waggons, rail way 1 



26 

474 
287 
906 
207 

31 

78 



fit- 



freight. 
Locomotive-engines 

Vessels, steam 

Photographic apparatus 

Zinc, sheet 

Lead, sheet 

Bar and rod, iron 

Sheet iron 

Tinned plate or sheet . . 

Rails 

Nails, iron 

Pipes and tubes, iron .. 
Copper tubes 



.r 



151 
4 
16 

4 
5 
35 

25 

4 



:) - 



29 



93 
636 

I 
48 

IS 
296 
192 

49 
497 
414 

19 

14 



1890. 

yen. 



63 
1,056 

927 

2,784 

572 

24 

345 



— 501 



1,065 
127 

14 
28 

39 
43 

43 

17 



295 1,027 



123 

659 

732 

35 

268 

60 

830 

417 

33 

1,259 

693 

166 

29 



1895. 
yen. 



921 
119 

3.1 20 

961 

3,633 

1,569 

78 

431 

3" 

1,896 

246 

51 

48 

96 

155 

84 

99 



993 



635 643 



99 

1,163 

4,700 

116 

500 

44 

2,085 

1,104 

313 
925 
1,278 
604 
105 



1900. 

yen. 

984 

1,120 
1,162 

5,403 
917 

7,364 
393 
134 
773 

726 

809 
232 
240 
476 
III 
374 
263 

464 
459 
916 



— — 521 



531 
804 

1,089 

2,648 

260 

882 

174 

5,243 

6,245 

832 

4,753 

2,181 

2,981 

219 



1901. 

yen. 

379 
601 
376 

2,219 

313 

3>339 

78 

122 
1,095 



1,279 
420 
161 

379 
126 
281 

277 

353 

426 

603 

540 



793 

1,749 

2,565 

239 

700 

118 

3,5" 

3,293 

884 

1,612 

1,364 

1,591 

264 



1902. 

yen. 

631 

1,181 
242 

3,430 
487 

3,754 

123 

84 

965 



979 1,323 



700 

94 

191 

224 

93 
209 

259 

238 

259 

325 

856 

128 

695 
1,708 
1,488 

266 

1,078 

61 

3,519 

4,399 

797 
1,662 

M5» 

1,073 

221 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



394 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 



Brass tubes 

Glass 

Cement 

Pkper, printing 

Other European paper ... 

Card-board 

Rice-paper 

Imitation Japanese paper 

Imitation Japanese « Silk- 
paper" 

Wrapping paper ... ... 

•Pulp for making paper 
Hides or skins, bull, ox, 

and buffalo 

Leather 

Oil, kerosene 

*Oil, lubricating , 

Paraffin wax 

Caouchouc, manufactures of. 

India rubber 

•Celluloid , 

Cork 

Cokes , 

Soap , 

Soda, caustic 

Soda-ash 

Potash, chlorate of 
Acid, salicylic ... . 

Glycerine 

•Soda, bicarbonate of . 
Phosphorus, amorphous 

Dynamite , 

Aniline dyes 

Alizarine dyes ... ., 
Logwood extract ... ., 

Paint 

Wines and all other liqours. 

Alcohol 

Sugar, refined 

Sugar, half- refined... . 

Tobacco 

Flours 

Condensed milk ... . 
Hats and Caps ... . 
Mats, packing 

Total 



1885. 

yen, 

19 

163 

33 

24 

55 



■:} 



305 
1,667 

6 
32 
13 

6 
10 

30 
119 



30 
II 
18 
12 

19 
142 

49 
121 

2,509 

2,144 

II 

102 

50 

134 

66 



1890. 

yen, 
17 
394 
175 
4x3 
158 



243 

652 

4,950 

107 
99 
23 

19 

5 

51 

145 

182 

91 

28 

39 
89 
70 
349 
39 
99 

480 

"3 

5*436 

2,974 
214 
229 

177 

348 

80 



1895. 
yen. 
107 
426 
42 
307 
477 



:} - - - 



695 
1,590 
4,303 

266 

222 

82 

59 
90 
66 
234 

419 

285 

59 

102 

260 

231 

682 

192 

218 

292 

821 

440 

7,673 

4,074 

491 

413 

139 

82 

148 



1900. 
yen. 

1,149 
120 

2,036 
806 



2,085 

14,162 

624 

5" 

332 
208 
442 
302 

314 
242 

929 

482 

679 
X67 
89 
153 
244 

187 

1,328 

156 

321 

286 

680 

132 

15,598 

11,007 

585 

3,882 

663 

411 



1901. 

yen. 

201 

1.395 

63 

864 

813 

330 

156 

277 

43 



— 196 

455 205 

656 786 813 



1,347 

14,943 

308 

449 
162 
222 

383 
258 
157 
174 
468 
450 
585 
140 

275 
174 
237 
290 
884 
136 
179 

3" 
698 
169 
21,111 
12,381 
121 

2,897 
641 

341 
241 



1902. 
yen. 

151 

1,836 

28 

1,402 

1,184 

351 

475 

198 

317 

85 
365 



1,346 

14,937 

324 

452 

223 

277 
275 
143 
103 
366 
787 
5x9 
785 
nS 
186 
156 
296 
267 

1,653 
170 

363 
261 

695 
201 

5.589 
8,878 

995 
3,302 
863 
232 
259 



21,687 47,426 69,960 141,237 112,861 103,340 

Note : — In the table the figures marked with a star (•) denote those goods the exact 
quantity of which was unknown previous to 1900, owing to the different method 
then adopted in compiling the returns. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Principal Imports of Mant^actured Ooods, 



395 



(-4).— PRINaPAL IMPORTS OF AGRICULTURAL GOODS 
RELATING TO INDUSTRY. 

(unit of thousand). 



Kind. 



1885. 1S90- ^^9S' ^9^>0' 1901* 1903. 



Cotton 

Rice 

Oil-cake 

Beans, Peas and Pulse 

Indigo, Dry 

Flax, Hemp, Jute and China\ 
Grass f 

Eggs, Fresh 

Wool 

Pig Bristle and Hair, otherl 
animal f 

Malt 

Timbers, Lumbers, Boards and\ 
Flanks f 

Seeds, Cotton 

Cocoons 

Seeds, sesame 

Lacquer 

Tnsscr Silk Yams 

Ivory or Tusks, Elephant 



yen. 

809 

674 

21 

92 
61 

ao 

21 

75 



24 



yen. 



yen. 



5*3^5 24,822 
12,302 4,357 



194 

1,856 

201 

139 

3» 
369 



— 15 



27 



4 
9 

65 



946 

2,554 

581 

645 

95 
1,136 

58 
159 



60 

145 

110 



yen. 

S9A11 
9,201 
5,696 

4^17 
3,902 

1,700 

1,243 

3,919 

216 

619 

869 

739 
618 

194 
237 
35 i 
180 



yett. 

60,650 

11,878 

8,115 

5,328 

2,665 

1,370 

1,298 

4,127 

260 

765 
709 

57* 
342 
284 
46 
431 
112 



yett. 

79.74S 

17.750 

10,121 

6,786 

3,097 

1,602 

1,196 

3.397 

294 

330 

755 

787 

546 

426 

21 

955 
163 



Total 



1,960 20,583 35*674 93>^^ 9\'/>i 128PI9 



(^>— PRINCIPAL B!K»kT- <A M.KKISE PKODfCI^, 
(unit of tbociir.':^. 
Kind- 1885. i&^/>. 1895. 'SO'-'- 'V^*' >902- 



SaJlcdFidi 
Total 



yen. ^m. yen, y<n» -'/;. y^n. 

..._-. 5 107 2,184 l,#04 2plf 



— — 5 K7 2,i&4 »f*&4 2/>ii 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



396 



Japan hi the Beginning of the 20th Century, 



(C..— PRINCIPAL IMPORTS OF MINERALS, 
(uuit of thousand). 



KincL 



Coal 

Pig and Ingot, Iron 

Steel 

Zinc, Block, Ingot and Slab 
Lead, Pig, Ingot and Slab 
Tin, Block, Ingot and Slab 

Mercury 

Salt 

Total 



1885. 

yen. 

S5 

105 

176 

20 

16 

32 

33 

I 



1890. 1895. '900* 



yen, 

no 

185 

194 

69 

85 

69 

102 

2 



yen, 
853 
673 
503 
134 
313 
191 
141 
3 



yen, 

2,100 

926 

1,153 
686 
927 

473 
258 
122 



1901. 

yen. 
2,542 
1,593 
694 
230 
876 

530 
218 

75 



1902. 

yen, 

1,598 
982 
660 

255 
510 
501 
244 
237 



472 



821 2,815 6,684 6,761 4,589 



¥1. OUTPUT OF PRINCIPAL MANUFACTURED GOODS. 



Output of Principal Manufactured GtOODS. — The industry 
in which machinery was used, was till about 1887, in a com- 
paratively insignificant state, but it became active two or three years 
after, and finally received a powerful impetus after the Japan-China 
war. Appended is a table of the output of our principal manufact- 
ured commodities during the last five years: — 

(unit of thousand). 



. Kind. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 




i kivan. 


kzvan. 


kwan. 


kwan. 


kwan. 


ku'on. 


Silk, Raw 


1 1,442 


^537 


1,479 


1,754 


1,755 


1.750 




"1 y^' 


yen. 


yen. 


yen. 


o/'"''- 


yen. 




I - 


— 


— 


110,972 


86,233 


86,623 


Silk Yams, Spinned 


. ... 740 


1,842 


2,846 


4,233 


4,296 


— 


Cotton Yams, Spinned .. 


-. 39,455 


50,634 


56,285 


81,620 


73,619 


94,562 


Hemp and Hempen Yarn 


— 


— 


— 


2473 


— 


— 


Silk Fabrics 


. ... 54,095 


63,678 


73,936 


90,717 


83,468 


76.941 


Silk Tissues, //adu^ae .. 


... 15,232 


17,683 


21,523 


29,528 


25,819 


30,003 


Silk Tissues, Aat'j^t .. 


... 3,614 


5,091 


5,049 


6,343 


7,484 


4,402 


Silk Tissues, Chirimen 
crapes) 


.^'"':} «^" 


9,102 


8,286 


",499 


9,379 


7,829 


Others 


... 26,836 


31,800 


39,077 


43,345 


40.784 


34,706 


Cotton Fabrics 


... 39,080 


42,253 


48,728 


52,857 


61,326 


49,935 


Cotton Tissues, Flannel 


... 7»35o 


7,718 


9,089 


8,893 


9,720 


8,230 



Cotton Tissues, Ci/ViWrCotO , . >- , ,^_ . ^., ^- - 

ton crepes)..! ... ...^ ...f ''4o6 1,450 1,3^6 2,667 2476 1,665 

Cotton Tissues White 9,949 10,261 14,511 12,309 15,089 13,030 

Others 20,373 22,823 23,811 28,985 34,040 27,010 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Ovipvt of Principal Manujactured Goods, 



897 



Kind. 

Silk-Cotton Fabrics 

Hempen Fabrics 

Woolen Fabrics 

Woolen and Worsted Qoths .. 
Woolen and Worsted Tissues.. 

Flannel, etc , 

Muslin de Laine 

Others . 

Miscellaneous Fabrics 

Carpets, Hemp, Cotton c 

Wool 

Silk Handkerch iefs , 



(unit of 
1896. 

9,131 
1,636 

1,094 



160 
934 

:} 965 

717 



thousand). 

1897. 1898. 

yen, yen, 
11,723 i6;2i6 

2,903 2,967 

1,039 1,655 



Knitting 

Machineries, etc. 

Ships and Boats 

Japanese Junks 

Steamships 

Others 

Clocks 

Jtnrikisha 

Bronze and Copper Ware 
Porcelain and £»4hen ware 
^hippoki 

Glass- Ware 

Cement, Portland 

Brick 

vPaper 

European Paper 

Japanese Paper 

Leather or Hide 

Matches 

on, Kerosene 

Sulphate of Potash 

Phosphate of Soda 

Sulphuric acid 

Soap 

Sak^ 

Beer r 

Soy 



...{ 



293 
9,370 



676 

924 

5,205 

270 

I 1,481 
1,350 
1446 

i3,oS3 

2,745 

10,308 

I 2,715 
5,464 

65 



244 
58,723 

636 
10,900 



99 
122 

53 
764 

1,090 
4.345 

1,457 
3,730 



722 

443 
1,130 
5,163 

219 

1,118 
2,284 
1,827 

15,268 
3»oo6 

12,261 



198 



"3 
179 

54 
1,299 

1,073 
4,055 

1,661 
1,971 



765 

454 

1.194 

4,965 

191 

1,34" 
2,160 
1,158 

15.293 

2,901 

12,392 



994 855 
6,548 6,445 



933 893 

73,3»8 83,691 

642 809 

14,616 13,938 



1899. 1900. 

yen. yen* 

18,546 20,27s 

3,161 2,851 

3,384 5,034 



254 

393 

1,064 

16,711 

549 

1,046 

4,318 

518 

1,326 

4,175 
4,651 
1.524 
2,648 

479 
1,190 

367 
1,383 
5,867 

315 

1,400 

92 

2,372 

598 

16,640 

4,947 
11,992 

1.544 
49 

5,871 
1,556 



1,106 
6,873 



20,986 

7,001 

13,985 

2,392 
200 

5,886 



1901. 

yen, 

18,056 

3,345 

5,085 



— 233 



867 
559 
794 

108,328 
2,809 

23,782 



1,714 
6,935 



19,791 

7,i4» 

12,650 

2.566 
9,266 



260 — — — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



398 Japan in the Beginning of the 2(Hh Century, 

1896. 1897. 189S. 1899. 1900. 1901. 

^an, kwatu kwan, yen, yen, yen. 

Sugar 12,642 10,550 14,527 5,652 6,216 5,207 

>, ,* ,) 

White 418 473 786 571 498 560 

n „ „ 

ShirO'shUa 6,608 4,278 3,866 1,513 1,655 »»7I9 

» „ „ 

Brown 756 391 352 134 1 16 251 

„ ,, » 

Black 4,858 4yjo6 9,522 3442 3,946 2,676 

Tobacco, Manufactured 8,110 16,719 23,123 140,651 — — 

Cigars i — *'349 3.999 — — — 

Tobacco, Cut I , - '3,337 16,033 - 

I 7,274 728 779 135,122 — — 

Flour I - 295 432 - - - 

I 552 152 102 1,235 — — 

Fans, Folded and Round {,^^~ ,^~ ,^- '''?8 - - 

Brushes — 689 828 493 — -^ 

Straw-Plaits 1,963 1,693 1,94^ 2,752 2,926 2,516 

Lacquered Ware 3,295 4,106 4,885 5,640 6,284 5,768 

Hats and Caps \ .T ^^\ 210 — — — 

^ \ 683 156 129 424 — 

Umbrellas, European 3»98o 2,270 2,284 2,918 — — 

Matting for Floor (/^M5§^^3a)... 2,183 3»217 2,090 2,460 3,039 4,960 

In examining the foregoing table it is found that woven goods 
with the total value of 150 million yen comes at the top of the list, 
followed by cotton yarns with 94 millions, raw silk with 86 milions, 
and paper with 19 millions. Other commodities worth mentioning 

are sugar, earthenware, matches, lacquered ware, ships and boats, 
machines of all sorts, cement, glass ware, fancy matting, straw-piait, 
umbrella, bronze and copper ware, etc. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ManuJ<u±wnng Establishmenis* 



399 



CHAPTER EL— Organization of Manu- 
facturing Industry* 



Hanufaoturing Establishments— Faotories and Workpeople. 



I. MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS. 



General Review of the Progress. — ^The introduction of 
Western sciences and arts has revolutionized so to say the organiza- 
tion of our manufacturing industry, for besides imparting a powerful 
impulse to its development it has gradually modified many of our 
manufactures that formerely partook of the nature of domestic industry 
and caused them to gradually adopt the factory system including the use 
of elaborate machinery. This tendency has been especially marked 
since the Japan-China War, when our economic affairs reached a 
state of unparalleled activity and when factories and work- 
shops on a large scale began to make their appearance in quick 
succession. 

NuivrBER OF Workshops. — ^The number of workshops employ- 
ing not less than 10 workpeople and of manufucturing companies is 
as follows : — 



Year. 

1900... 
1899.. 
1898... 

1897... 
1896... 



No. of 

With 
Motor. 


Workshops. 

Without 
Motor. 


Total. 


„ - Ratio of 
No. of Companies to 
Companies. Workshops. 


3,381 


3,791 


7,172 


2,554 36^ 


2,763 


3,788 


6,551 


2,253 34^ 


2,003 


4,067 


6,070 


2,164 36^ 


1,971 


4,346 


6,317 


1,881 Z9% 


1,967 


4,403 


6,370 


1,367 21^ 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



400 



Japan in the Beginning of tlie 20th Century, 



It will be seen from the above that the ratio which manufac- 
turing companies bear to workshop economy made a marked advance, 
having increased during the period under review from 21 to 36. 
The ratio will become higher if all the workshops belonging to one 
company are counted as one, for there are many companies each 
possessing more than one workshop. 

Number of Manufacturing Companies. — The number of 
manufacturing companies and their financial position are shown as 
follows : — 

NUMBER OF MANUFACIURING COMPANIES. 



Year. 


No. 


Aggregate 
Capital. 


Paid u y 
Capital. 


Reserves. 


1901 


2,477 


219,249,806 


166,293,003 


24,057,360 


1900 ... . ... 


2,554 


216,766,903 


158,851,730 


17,697,540 


1899 


2,253 


222,673,634 


147,783,280 


13,467,802 


1898 


2,164 


183,657,0:6 


122,066,653 


11,642,993 


1897 ' 


1,881 


165,232,633 


105,381,106 


7,581,535 


1896 


1.367 


143,617,530 


89,900,900 


7404,980 



Manufacturing Companies Classified. — Those companies be- 
ing classified according to kind, in the year 1900 joint stock companies 
numbered 986 with gross capital of 180 million yen, limited liability 
companies 1,176 with gi'oss capital of 21 million yen and unlimited 
liability companies 315 with gross capital of 10 million yen. Paid 
up capital amounted to 130 million for the joint stock coiiipauies, 
19 million yen for the limited liability companies, and 10 million 
yen for the unlimited liability companies. Of the capital invested in 
manufacturing business, that of joint stock constituted about 84 per 
cent. Of late the establishment of limited liability companies has 
become quite popular, as may be seen from the fact that their 
number in l900 was more than double that of 1896. On the other 
hand the increase for joint stock companies did not exceed 68 
per cent, during the same period. Below is given a list show- 
ing capital invested in their resi^ective work by diflerciit kinds 
of companies. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Manujacturing Eetablishments. 



401 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF 



Rice Cleaning 

Milling 

SaJte 

Beer 

Soy and Afiso 

Salt 

Sugar-Refining 

Tea-Manufacturing 

Medicine 

Indigp 

Dye-Stuff and Paint 

Cotton 

Cotton Spinning 

Other Spinning 

Raw Silk 

Throwning 

Hemp-Yam 

Tapes, Bands, etc 

Silk-Weaving 

Weaving 

Cotton-Weaving 

Wool- Weaving 

Knitting 

Dyeing and Bleaching ... 
Copper and Iron Ware ... 

Nails and Iron Ware 

Machineries, etc 

Shipbuilding 

Casting 

Tools and Implements ... 

Vehicles 

Railroad Cars and Wagons 
Weight and Measures 
Clocks and Watches 
Porcelain and earthenware 

Glass Ware 

Gas-Work 

Printing and Type Foundry 
Papcr-Mill 



MANUFACTURING COMPANIES (returns for 1901). 

(unit of thousand). 

No. of Capital, Total Capital Re- 

Companies. Sum of. Paid up. serves. 

jfen. yen, yen. 

122 2,705 1,534 235 

27 898 556 48 

217 6,624 4,364 220 

7 4,150 2,967 826 

74 1,793 i»277 72 

19 550 236 35 

6 3,688 2,648 520 

6 369 227 29 

52 3,865 3,106 243 

7 36 36 537 

6 598 259 12 

25 562 442 30 

58 41,593 36,108 5,655 

12 7,583 6,302 643 

321 7,723 5,635 376 

II 1,531 729 48 

6 2,805 2,435 31 

9 179 149 2 

42 1,341 968 26- 

54 2,796 2,187 151 

64 5,154 3469 252 

4 2.110 1,963 68 

5 637 389 7 

41 579 381 20 

16 1,304 731 47 

6 600 551 4 

33 i»oo5 780 53 

15 10,394 8,710 846 

8 61 ' 60 2 

... •... 33 723 536 66 

6 104 73 I 

5 2,650 2,171 38 

18 276 186 8 

9 708 607 9 

40 907 611 19 

15 582 352 36 

4 4,762 3,131 248 

108 2,i6i 1,678 200 

42 9,064 7,688 621 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



402 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 



Vermicelli and Maccaroni 

Ice , 

Lemonade 

Confectionary 

Preserved Fruits and Meat 

Provisions , 

Marine Products 

Tobacco 

"Umbrellas and Parts of 

Fans 

Writing Brushes, Lead Pencils, 
Leather and Leather Ware .., 

Candle-Making , 

Cords and Ropes 

Kerosene-Boring , 

Coal-Mining , 

Cokes , 

Oils , 

Mats 

Straw-Plaits 

Safety-Matches , 

Incense-Sticks 

Fuses ...• , 

Sowing 

Lac(iuer-Ware „ 

Bobbins 

Bamboo-Ware , 

Caps and Hats , 

Soaps and Toilet Goods 

Tiles and Bricks , 

Cement 

Cokes , 

Coal 

Clay 

Quarrying 

Silk and Re-reeling , 

Cocoon Preserving , 

India-Rubber Ware 

Fertilizers 

Others 

Total 



etc... 



No. of 


Capital, Total 


Capital 


Re- 


Companies. 


Sum of. 


Paid up. 


serves, 




yen. 


yen. 


yen* 


13 


40 


27 


522 


22 


1,112 


60s 


44 


29 


295 


192 


14 


13 


431 


232 


841 


15 


312 


137 


6 


7 


38 


21 


581 


II 


146 


III 


5 


.. 155 


12,189 


",245 


139 


8 


201 


154 


70 


7 


80 


46 


I 


7 


82 


31 


350 


13 


932 


679 


•70 


5 


180 


180 


29 


7 


579 


489 


167 


71 


16,843 


6,285 


12A 


27 


9,"3 


6,828 


583 


3 


67 


32 


16 


25 


1,608 


ii04S 


nz 


13 


lOl 


63 


5 


4 


84 


54 


— 


32 


675 


524 


19 


5 


15 


15 


212 


3 


13 


II 


"5 


30 


634 


495 


37 


12 


277 


199 


2 


3 


138 


125 


6 


10 


123 


87 


.5 


6 


676 


543 


58 


8 


67 


51 


5 


64 


3,354 


2,216 


175 


21 


5,215 


4,22*1 


265 


6 


1,014 


716 


58 


29 


• 321 


262 


II 


4 


203 


190 


6 


II 


281 


150 


9 


21 


96 


91 


I 


28 


714 


415 


3 


5 


635 


320 


21 


19 


1,495 


981 


154 


SS 


10,886 


10,214 


8.697 



2,413 



219,249 



166,293 



26,550 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Factories and Workpeople. 403 

Manufacturing Industries and Investments. — To examine 
the condition of all those establishments as to kind of business engaged 
in and the amount of capital invested, it is found that filature 
business with 321 establishments surpasses all others as to number, 
followed by aaJce brewing with 217 and tobacco manufacture with 
155. As to amount of capital, the cotton spinning business with 41 
million yen heads the list, followed by tobacco manufacture with 
12,100,000 yen approximately, shipbuilding with 10,300,000 yen. 
In the amount of paid up capital, the spinning business with 36 
million yen also comes at the top, followed by the tobacco manufac- 
ture with 11 millions. The capital of 11,400,000 yen invested in the 
weaving business and that of 7,700,000 yen in the filature business may 
also be regarded as being an important factor in our economic activity. 



II. FACTORIES AND WORKPEOPLE. 



(A.) FACTORIES. 

Kind of factories and Number of workpeople. — The 

number of factories and workpeople employed will throw an important 
light on the condition of manufacturing industry. In 1900 the 

number of factories and work-shops employing not less than ten 
workpeople stood thus : — 

THOSE RUN BY MOTORS. 

Workpeople. 

Year. J^""^?! ^^'"f ^°'^ Males. Females. Total. 
Workshop. Plant. Power. 

1896 1,967 5»325 58»i72 104,164 169,735 273,889 

1897 1,971 5*446 68,331 117,081 174,154 291,235 

1898 2,003 5»i35 80,586 118,251 171,095 289,246 

1899 2,763 4,166 62,131 96,181 184,111 280,292 

1900 3,381 4,727 84,816 100,913 181,692 282,605 

THOSE NOT RUN BY MOTORS. 

1896 4,403 — — 64,122 76,509 104,631 

1897 4,346 — — 66,777 82,554 149,331 

1898 4*067 — — 58,224 81,328 139,551 

1899 3,788 — — 41,938 70,679 112,617 

1900 3»79i — — 41,643 64,048 105,691 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



404 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

On examining the foregoing table it will be seen that the 
number of workshops run by motors is slightly larger than that of 
those not run by motors, the former corresponding to about 47 per 
cent, of the latter. The utilization or absence of motors depends of 
course to a great extent on the nature of manufacture conducted, for 
while in waving business, manufacture of earthenware and lacquer 
"ware, and the brewing of sak^ the workshops do not utilize in 
general labor-saving machines, motors are used in most cases 
in filature spinning, shipbuilding, machine-making, weaving of 
shirting, cement, paper-mills, beer-brewing, sugar-refining, printing, 
smelting, etc. 

Five Classes of Factories. — To give further analysis about 
factories and workshops, they may be broadly divided into these ^\e 
different kinds: — 

1. Fibre workshops (raw silk, spinning, weaving, cord-making), 

2. Machine workshops (machine-making, shipbuilding, furni- 
ture-making, casting.) 

3. Chemical workshops (ceramics, gas, paper-mill, lacquering, 
leather-making, workshops for the manufacture of inflam- 
mable substances, artificial manures, drugs, etc.) 

4. Miscellaneous workshops (brewing, sugar-refining, tobacco- 
manufacture, tea-curing, cleaning of grains, flour, lemonade, 
mineral water, confectionary, preserved fruits and vegetables, 
printing and lithograph, paper work, wood and bamboo 
ware, leather, feather ware, reeds and straw-plait ware, 
lacquer ware, etc.) 

5. Special workshops (electricity and metallurgy.) 

Of the foregoing kings of workshops, those in the fibre line 
using motors number 2,300 with the aggregate horse powei-s of 
about 38,000 and the aggregate number of workpeople of about 
189,000. In number the fibre workshops constiuted 77 per cent, of 
the whole number of workshops using motors, in horse-power about 
45 per cent, and in workpeople about 67 per cent. When those 
fibre workshops not using motor powers are counted in, this 
kind of workshops constitutes 57 per cent, of the whole num- 
ber of workshoi)s. The forgoing ratio will be seen from the ap* 
pended table: — 



f 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



FaciorieA atul Workpeopk. 



•105 



A. RUN BY MOTORS. 



Fibre 

Machine 
Chemical ... 
Miscellaneous 
Special 

Total ... 



Fibre 

Machine 

Chemical 
Miscellaneous., 
.Special 



No. of 
Workshop. 

•• 2i393 
230 
224 
420 

.. 114 

.. 3,381 



Horse 
Power. 

38.571 
5.050 

12,672 
8,196 

20,223 

84,712 



No. of 

Workpeople. 

189,180 

25,502 

"3.743 
21,862 
32.318 



282,605 



Total 



NOT RUN BV MOTORS. 
No. of Workshop. 

1.763 

184 

701 

1.041 

102 

3,791 



No. of Workpeople. 

44.978 

4.228 

24,744 
26,827 

4,9«4 



105,691 



Fibre workshops. — Fibre workshops as classified accfjrding 
to kind the following result is obtained : — 

^. RUN BY MOTORS. 





No. of 




Hone 


No. of 




Workshop. 




Power. 


WVk|ieople. 


Raw Silk . 


2,12^ 




7,288 


109,336 


Spinning 


153 




25^37 


0S.3»^ 


Weaving 


96 




5,557 


15.389 


Others... . 


15 




289 


lyo^r 


Total . 


2,393 




38,57* 


189,180 




B, NOT RUN BY 


MOTORS. 






No. of Workshop. 


No. of \\ffT)ci>tfj\Ac. 


Raw Silk... 


,,, , ,,, 


429 




9,468 


Spinning... 
Wearing... 
fnhas ... 


29 

1,279 

26 




645 

898 



TcTal 



1.763 



44/y78 



The f'jregffiuz table -h'fws that in fibre work*hofi« tilaturcK run 
br nxjtofi oc-n-titute ^^ per cent, of the whole nuinber, ami t^pinning 
nwlb 6.3 per cent., the two taking up 94 jjer <:euu of the mbole- Kren 
ia the wh'.le wjzi.lf^ of m^/tor-iL^iuf: worL?bof>5 of all k'twhi, ih*itits 
two partk-jjar f/'fr*i works i-j^s OjizBih^xe ^'A j^r cent, ar.d fH per 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



408 



Japan in the Beginning of Hie 20^i Century, 



WORKSHOPS NOT RUN BY MOTORS. 
(Those employing not less than lo people). 



Kind of 
Workshop. 

Fibre Industry 

Filature „ 

Spinning 

Weaving 

Others 

Machinery ... • 

Machine Making . . . 

Shipbuilding 

Vehicles 

Others 

Chemical 

Porcelain & Earthen- 
ware 

Paper-mill 

leather 

Matches 

Others 

M iscellaneous 

Brewery 

Tobacco 

Reed and Straw-' 
plaits 

Lacquer- Ware 

Others 

Special Workshops ... 

Smelting 

Others 



No. of 
Work- 
sbopw 

1,763 

429 

29 

1,279 
26 

184 

27 

19 

6 

132 

701 

\ H9 

49 

9 

177 

317 
1,041 

295 
162 

[ 146 

9 
429 
102 
102 



Those Those Those Those Those 

Employing Employing Employing Employing Employing 

more than more than more than more thai more than 

30 People. 50 People. 100 People. 500 People. 1000 people. 

388 
67 

6 2 - — — 

133 I I 

I — — 



'57 
18 



39 
6 



302 

13 
28 

5 
6 

3 

H 

240 

17 

18 

I 

133 

71 
240 

40 

72 

40 

I 
87 
45 
45 



193 
4 

I 

3 
3 

5 
133 



.4 
I 
90 
31 
77 
9 
21 

17 



30 
31 
31 



47 



34 

9 

22 

2 
8 



8 
H 
14 



Total... 



... 4,691 



941 



399 



"3 



YI. WORKPEOPLE. 



Male and Female OpBRATivEg. — In making a somewhat careful 
examination into the question of factory labor, it is found that, in 
workshops using motors, male operatives constitute about 100,000 out 
of the total of 280,000 approxiinately, the remaining 180,000 being 
female operatives. There is, therefore, a little over 35 per cent, of 
males and a little over 64 per cent, of females. When the figures 
for non-motor workshops are counted in, out of the total of 390,000 
operatives male operatives constitute 142,000 or about 36 per cent. 
and female operatives 245,000 or 64 per cent. 

General Age Classification of Operatives. — ^In regard to 
age classification, out of the total 280,000 working in motor-using 
workshops 260,000, that is over 92 per cent, are operatives of not 



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Workpeople. 



409 



less than 14 years old. Of the remaining 8 per cent, the bulk, that 
is to say 82 per cent., consist of girls and only 18 of boys. 

AVoRKSHors AND KiND OP OPERATIVES. — The kind of opera- 
tives employed differs according to the nature of the workshops. In 
fibre workshops the majority of operatives are females and children, 
in machine workshops and special workshops adult males, and in 
chemical workshops adult males also, except in glass, paper, and 
match factories. No general remark can be made about the kind of 
operatives in miscellaneous workshops, but this much can be stated 
that there are no factories of this kind where a large number of 
female operatives or children are employed. Below is given a table 
showing the sex and age classifications of operatives in workshops 
employing not less than 10 people. 



WORKSHOPS RUN BY MOTORS. 



(Employing not less than lo Workpeople), 
Males. Fern 



emales. 



Kind of Workshop. 


Over 14 
Years old. 


Under 14 
Years old. 


Over 14 Under 14 
Years old. Years old. 


Total. 


Fibre industry 


.. 22,592 


1,462 


148,731 


16,395 


189,180 


Filatures 


6,042 


210 


93,848 


9,236 


109,336 


Spinning 


.. I3»i52 


1,104 


43,248 


5,884 


63,388 


Weaving 


.. 3,100 


121 


11,025 


1,143 


15,389 


Others 


298 


27 


610 


132 


1,067 


Machinery 


.. 24,662 


312 


493 


35 


25,502 


Machine-Making 


.. 6,796 


59 


III 


5 


6,971 


Shipbuilding 


.. 10,260 


85 


10 




10,355 


Vehicles 


4,500 


7 


— 


— 


4,507 


Others 


3,106 


161 


372 


30 


3,669 


Chemical 


.. 9,986 


487 


2,979 


291 


13,743 


Porcelain and Earthenware. 


206 


3 


58 


6 


273 


Glassware 


313 


154 


51 


— 


518 


Cement 


3*3H 


157 


479 


— 


3,950 


Paper-Mills 


2,694 


34 


1,394 


75 


4,197 


Leather 


245 


— 






24s 


Matches 


70 


63 


354 


146 


633 


Others 


3,144 


76 


643 


64 


3,927 


Miscellaneous 


. 13,889 


810 


7,164 


999 


22,862 


Brewery 


1.435 


18 


220 


27 


1,700 


Tobacco 


1.490 


90 


3.791 


421 


5,792 


Printing 


• 4,478 


455 


540 


186 


5,659 


Reed and Straw-Plaits 








.. 




lacquer- Ware 


,— 











«_ 


Others 


. 6.486 


247 


2,613 


365 


9,7" 


Special Workshops 


. 26,788 


925 


4,197 


408 


32.318 


Smelting 


. 26,293 


925 


4,197 


408 


31,823 


Others 


495 




— 




495 



> 



Total 



97,917 



3,996 163,564 18,128 282,605 



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410 



Japan in ike Beginning of the 20th Century. 
WORKSHOPS NOT RUN BY MOTORS. 



Males. 



Females. 



Kind of Workshop. 


Over 14 Under 14 
Years old. Years old. 


Over 14 
Years old. 


Under 14 
Years old. 


Total 


Fibre Industry 


4,175 


898 


35,080 


4,826 


44,978 


Filatures 


763 


II 


8,081 


613 


9468 


Spinning 


223 


46 


313 


63 


645 


Weaving 


. 2,983 


783 


26,264 


3,937 


33,967 


Others 


205 


58 


422 


213 


898 


Machinery 


. 3,570 


213 


324 


121 


4,228 


Machine-Making 


. 563 


12 


— 


— 


575 


Shipbuilding 


668 


no 


145 


100 


IP23 


Vehicles 


141 


4 


2 


— 


147 


Others 


. 2,198 


87 


177 


21 


2,483 


Chemical 


. ",467 


1,873 


7,882 


3,522 


24,744 


Porcelain and Earthenware. 


. 2,388 


136 


589 


40 


3,153 


Glass Ware 


1,123 


206 


79 


— 


1,408 


Cement 


2,769 


"3 


537 


31 


3,460 


Paper-mills 


593 


131 


516 


I02 


1,342 


Leather 


226 


— 


— 


— 


226 


Matches 


1,942 


1,197 


5,684 


3,180 


12,003 


Others 


2^26 


80 


477 


169 


3,152 


Miscellaneous 


. 14,598 


859 


9,591 


1,779 


26,827 


Brewery 


. 5,513 


22 


95 


3 


5,633 


Tobacco 


1,448 


69 


4,775 


714 


7,006 


Printing 


.. 1,676 


439 


98 


56 


2,269 


Reed and Straw-Plaits ... . 


. 1,338 


54 


2,127 


584 


4,103 


Lacquer- Ware 


158 


6 


6 


t 


170 


Others 


4.465 


269 


2^90 


422 


7.646 


Special Workshops 


• 3,901 


90 


887 


36 


4,914 


Smelting 


3,901 


90 


887 


36 


4,914 


Others 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



Total 



37,710 



3,933 



53,764 10,284 105,691 



Day and Boarding Operatives. — Operatives may further be 
divided into two kinds, day operatives and boarding operatives, the 
former residing in the vicinity of the workshops which they attend 
and the latter those who have beep collected from distant places, 
the majority of them being females. Though the relative proportion 
of day operatives and boarders in workshops cannot admit of generali- 
zation, it may be stated here that the greater part of the latter 



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Workpeople, 411 

belongs to fibre workshops, or more especially filatures, spinning and 
weaving workshops. In' some filature and spinning workshops the 
majority of operatives are day operatives, while in weaving shops 
about 70 to 80 per cent, are boarders, and this datum obtained from 
workshops of certain places may be applied in general to workshops 
of the same kind throughout the country. 

Age and Sex Classification op Operatives for Special 
Kind of Workshops. — No accurate statement as to the age of the 
majority of operatives employed in any given kind of workshops can 
easily be elaborated, but broadly stated the greater part of opera- 
tives in filature factories are females of 16 to 22 years of age, the 
number of those from 22 to 30 coming next. Even the youngest 
are very rarely below 12 or 13. In general, females of from 14 or 
20 constitute 50 per cent., those above 20 about 40 per cent., and 
those below 14 about 10 per cent, of the total number of operatives 
employed. In spinning mills also girls below 14 constitute a little 
over 10 per cent, of the whole number, those from 14 to 20 about 
50, and those older about 40 per cent., of whom the majority are of 
20 to 25 years old. The female operatives in power-loom factories 
do not difier from those of spinning mills in regard to the age 
ratio, and those in hand-weaving workshops are similar to those in 
filatures. 

In shipbuilding, vehicle and machine workshops the workpeople 
employed are almost exclusively adult males, especially in those run 
on a large scale. Even when boys are employed they are mostly 
not less than 15 or 16 years of age and in very rare cases 12 or 
13. In factories dealing in clock and watches, lamp accessories, 
fihirt-buttons, umbrella-frames, etc., female operatives and children 
are sometimes employed, but those factories are all on a small scale, 
and the number of such operatives is small. In chemical workshops, 
and especially in glass factories boy apprentices of 12 to 13 years 
are employed to some extent. In some rare cases small number of 
boy-apprentices of about 10 years old is employed. In paper-mills 
not a small number of females and children is employed, while in 
match factories they constitute the bulk of workpeople, the youngest 
of whom being about 9 years old. This is also the case in 'tobacco 
factories, though the number of children under 10 employed in such 



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412 Japan in Uie Begianing of tlie 20th Century. 

factories is smaller than the number employed iu match factories. 
In printing workshops the majority are adult males, sometimes with 
a sprinkling of children of less than 14 years old. 

Working-Hours. — In general the working-hours of operatives 
are 11 hours a day, but sometimes they extend as long as 16 or 17 
hours. In cotton mills 12 hours are standard, both for day and 
night workei-s, they being made to take day and night work by 
turns every two days. In filatures the regulations hours are 13 to 
14, in power-loom factories 12. But in hand-weaving workshops a 
great diversity prevailes, the general rule being 12 to 15, according 
to the season, though in some rare cases the hours are as long as 
from 16 or 17. In bigger . workshops such as shipbuilding yards, 
vehicle, and machine shops, the working hours are far more regular, 
being in general 10 hours, with one or two hours of overtimes. In 
such chemical workshops as cement, glass, and paper in which work 
is carried on all through the 24 hours, 12 hours is a regular shift 
both by day and night. In general the regular working-hours in 
Japanese workshops may be put at 12, with overtime of one or two 
hours. 

AVages. — Wages are paid in general by the day and according 
to the amount of work done, though payment by the month also 
prevails to some extent. In general the account is settled once or 
twice a month, though in some cases it is settled every six months 
or once a year. In filature the payment is made according to the 
amount of work done, and by the month, though in some places a 
yearly account system prevails. In cotton mills those who receive 
daily wages constitute about 40 per cent, of the whole and those 
who receive payment according to the amount of work done, about 
60 per cent. The latter mode of payment is becoming more and 
more fashionable. The account is settled generally twice a mouth. 
In hand-weaving workshops the mode of payment is similar to that 
which prevails in filature, while in power-loom workshops it is similar 
to that in cotton mills. In such machine workshops as shipbuilding, 
vehicle and machine, daily payment of wages is general, but at 
times a piece of work is given out as a job contract to one or more 
artisans. The account is settled once or twice a month. In match 
workshops payment is made according to the amount of work done^ 



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Workpeople. 413 

as is also the case in tobacco workshops, while in printing workshops 
the daily wage system and the payment by the amount of work 
done equally prevail. In general this latter mode is adopted in all 
those workshops where the amount of work done by workpeople can 
be definitely computed. 

The rate of wages is about 30 sen a day for adult males em- 
ployed in such fibre workships as filature, cotton mills and weaving- 
shops, while that of females is about 20 aten. In machine workshops 
engaged in making ships, vehicles and machines the rate is generally 
high, 50 to 60 on an average, and a skilled artisan gets more than 
1 yen. In match factories, on the other hand, the rate is much 
lower, being 12 to 20 sea for ordinary female operatives, and 5 to 
13 sen for little girls. In tobacco factories and printing-shops ordi- 
nary females get about 20 sen and males about 40 to 50 sen. 



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414 Japan in the Beginning of Hie 20ih Century, 



CHAPTER IV*— Manufacturing Establishments by 
the Central and Local Governments* 



Encouragement and Protection by Central Government 
—Encouragement and Protection by OfBces. 



I. ENCOURAGEMENT AND PROTECTION BY 
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT. 



General Remarks. — The encouragement and protection of 
industrial enterprises were carefully looked after even before the 
Restoration. This was especially the case with the three daimiates 
of Satsuma, Mito and Saga. They established in the era of Ka-ei 
(1848-1853) an arsenal aft«r a Western model, and began to tium 
out guns of foreign pattern. Satsuma even started the manufacture 

of porcelain and glass-ware and also the work of 

Introduction, shipbuilding, all after the Dutch model, while coming 

of Western down to the era of Bunkyu (1861-1863) we find that 

Industries. it sent for a set of spinning machines to England, 

and established a pioneer mill in its territories. The 
construction of a shipyard on Ishikawajima by the Lord of Mito is 
also a noteworthy event. Nor did the Tokugawa Shogunate neglect 
to introduce a similar innovation. In fact the shipbuilding industry 
received from it full attention. During the era of Ansei (1854-1859) 
it constructed a shipyard at Aku-ura, Hizcn, and a similar undertak- 
ing was soon arranged at Yokosuka, Sagami, only the Restoration 
took place before it had been completed. This partially completed 
shipyard was finished by the Meiji Grovernment which in 1874 
constructed another shipyard at Tategami, Hizen. The Yokosuka 
yard was afterward transferred to the Navy which has since raised 
it to^ its present state of efficiency and perfection. The two 
shipyards in Hizen were hired out to the Mitsubishi Firm in 1884 
and finally sold to it three years after, so that the two are now 



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EncourageinerU and Protection by Central Government. 415 

known by the name of Nagasaki Shipbuilding Yard belonging to 
the same firm. 

The movement started by the Tokugawa and feudal princes by 
way of encouraging industry and manufactures was vigorously taken 
up by the Meiji Government. It established in 1872 a model 
filature at Tomioka, Gumma-ken, with the object of introducing 
the use of labor-saving contrivance in the manufacture of raw 

silk, while the operatives trained at this factory spread all 

Model over the principal silk districts the art of reeling to 

Filature the new style. The filature itself supplied a model to 

all silk districts and similar establishments rose in quick 
succession. An undertaking next adopted by the Government in a 
similar line was the establishment in 1877 at Shimmachi, Gumma- 
ken, of a silk spinning mill to utilize silk waste and waste cocoons. 
This innovation also served the salutary purpose of encouraging 

similar enterprises on the part of private individuals. 
Woolen Further, in a similar way, a woollen factory was 
Factory. established in the same year at Senju, suburb of Tokyo, 

and ten years after private woollen factories began to 
make their appearance in several places. The cotton spinning 
business also received the attention of the Govem- 
Spinning Mill- ment which established in 1881 a model mill at 
Nukada-giin, Aichi-ken, and Aki-gun, Hiroshima-ken. 
About that time 10 sets of spinning plant each of 2,000 spindles 
were sent for to England and handed over to be paid in ten years 
instalments to people of different places who were interested in the 
business. The project that appeared in 1883 in Shiga-ken about 
hemp spinning received help from the Government which loaned 

to the promoters the fund required for purchasing a plant. 
Hemp Three years later this project developed as Hemp Spin- 
Spinning, niiig Mill established in that province. The establishment 

of the HokkkaidS Hemp Company at Sapporo in 1887 
received much help from the Government which besides extending to 
it various conveniences also granted a state aid for six years. 

Further, it was the Government that first started the work of 
manufacturing cement, having established in 1875 a cement fac- 
tory at Fukagawa, Tokyo, where the burning of white brick 



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416 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

Cement. was undertaken as a sulxsidiary work. Then the establish- 
ment of a glass factory in April 1876 at Shinagawa, 
Tokyo ; the creation of a paper-mill section in the Printing Bureau 
and the manufacture of foreign style paper besides 
Glass Factorj. the improvement of the native style paper (the 
durable Japanese paper known as " Kyokushi " is 
the invention of the Bureau) ; launching of the work of machine- 
making, of soap-making, type-founding, of making 
PAper Hill. porcelain in the Western style, of paint-making, also 
the establishment, as before mentioned, of filatures 
and the making of arrangements for training female operatives in 
all such new forms of industry — all these have imparted a poweful 
impulse to the process of our manufactures throughout the country. 
Meanwhile factories modello<l after those established by the Govern- 
ment began to be started by our people, and the Government no 
longer perceiving the necessity of maintaining its model factories 
began from about 1880 to sell all of them with the exception of 
the Senju Woollen Factory. 

As a means of encouraging the advance of industry and manu- 
facture, the Government has not neglected to open exhibitions at 
home and to participate in those opened abroad. In 
Exhibitions. 1878 First Domestic Exhibition was held in Tokyo- 
where the succeeding two similar undertakings were 
also carried out. The Fourth Exhibition oix?ned in 1895 was held 
in Kyoto and the Fifth in Osaka last year. Besides, Japan 
participated in the world's faii-s held in Vienna, Philadelphia, Chicaga 
and Paris, not to speak of various other international exhibitions 
of limited scope. 

In the matter of legislative measures of protecting and further- 
ing industrial interest, the regulations relating to patents, designs 
and trade-marks ; the establishment of silk conditioning 
Other Measures house ; the enactment of industrial interests guildj-^ 
of IndUiirial etc. may be mentioned. Further, tlie sending out of 
Protectlo 1 ex[)erts to all the provinces to encourage by lectures 
and by practical experiments industrial enterprises 
there ; the organizing of fiie industrial laboratory and of the mkf 
brewing laboratory, the sending: of student manufacturers and mercliantvS 



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Protection and Encouragement by Local Offices, 417 

to foreign countries to investigate the condition of manufactures and 
trade in those countries economically related to Japan, the hiring 
out of latest dyeing and weaving machines specially imported for the 
purpose to the principal dyeing and weaving districts such as Kyoto, 
Ashikaga, Kiryu, Fukui, Toyama, Yonezawa, etc. — all these measures 
have contributed to further our manufacturing industry to the pre- 
sent state of marvellous progress within a comparatively short space 
of times. 

11. PROTECTION AND ENCOURAGEMENT BY LOCAL 
OFFICES AND PUBLIC BODIES. 



The local offices and local civic bodies have followed the example 
set by the central Government and adopted measure for protecting 
and encouraging manufactures in their respective districts. The 
Local Office of Kyoto distinguished itself above all others in this 
respect, for as early as 1870 it established a chemical laboratory 
which attended to the business of keramics, dyeing, soap-making^ 
etc.; while, in 1872, it sent a number of weavers to Lyon, in- 
troduced for the first time a number of Jacquard an<l Button loom& 
into the country ; established a weavuig factory after the Western 
style in 1874 and a dyeing factory in the following year, and thus 
laid the foundations of attaining tlmt eminence which Kyoto occupies 
to-day in the art of weaving and dyeing, or rather continues to 
occupy, for Kyoto was pre-eminent in these lines before. Other 
local offices equally adopted similarly salutary measures and the 
expenses they have incurred on this account must amount to a big 
figure. Those measures generally took the form of establishing 
experimental laboratories or training schools, opening local competi- 
tive fairs, the hiring out of costly machines, or the advancing of 
money to enable the manufacturers to purchase tliem. 



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418 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

CHAPTER V*— Industrial Education* 



History— Existing Condition— Apprentice System. 



I. HISTORY. 



General Bemarks. — The history of the progress of industrial 
-education after the advent of the Meiji Government may be con- 
sidered as dating from the creation in 1871 of the Engineering 
College, subsequently united with the Imperial University of Tokyo- 
where the subjects of civil engineering, mechanical engineering, ship, 
building, electrial engineering, architecture, chemical technology, 
mining, metallurgy, etc. were taught. It followed as a matter of 
course that the graduates from all those course contributed very 
much to the progress of industry and to the diffusion of technical 
knowledge. The establishment in 1881 of Tokyo Polytechnique 
School, now known as Tokyo Higher Technical School, and the 
teaching of the subjects of dyeing, weaving, keramics, mechanical en- 
gineering, etc. has also proved similarly beneficial in the development 
of our industry. Similar institutions were subsequently created both 
by the Government and by the local offices, so that at the end of 
1900 there were, to mention only institutions of higher grade, the 
Engineering College of the Tokyo Imperial University, the Science 
:and Engineering College of the Kyoto Imperial University, the 
Tokyo Higher Technical School, the Osaka Higher Technical School, 
and last of all — it was created quite recently, the Kyoto Higher 
Technical School. The technical schools of all grades throughout the 
country numbered in the year in question no less than 1,008 all 
contributing to the common cause of furthering technical knowledge 
among our people and promoting the technical and manufacturing 
industries. 

This progress of technical education enabled Japan to gradually 
<3ispense with the service of foreign experts, and though some such 



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Existing Omditian, 419 

are still to be found here, the number is insignificant compared to 
what it was before. 



IL EXISTING COHDITIOH. 



PnoTiXTnoN TO Technical Education. — ^With the object of 
difihsing tedinical knowledge and of imparting a general idea of 
science to apprentices, young mechanics and future manufac- 
turers, the Government has been granting from the year 1894 
states aid to the amount of 150,000 yen every year, and has also 
made arrangement for turning out teachers qualified to undertake 
the teaching of those young people. 

Number and Kind of Tbchnicai* Schooia — ^The higher 
grade schools of this standing, some deriving the aid from the fiind 
in question and others not numbered 18, in June 1901. 

Quite recently a technical school was started both in Okayama- 
ken and Ehime-ken. 

The foregoing schools, which, by the way, are maintained at 
local or communal expenses or by private individuals, are classified 
as follows according to the subjects taught: — 

Kind. No. of Schools. 

Dyeing and Weaving lo 

Metal and Wood Work 2 

Painting, Metal-Inlaying^ Design and Carving I 

Pointing, Lacquer and Metal-Work, Keramics, Dyeing and 

Weaving I 

Carving, Lacquer- Work, Casting ^ ... I 

Wood and Metal Work, Dyeing and Weaving 2 

Wood and Metal- Work and Keramics I 

lotai ..• ••• ••» ••• ..• ••• ••• ... ••• ... «,« lo 

The schools teaching dyeing and weaving exclusively are 10 in 
nimiber, but when other schools which teach dyeing and weaving 
side by side with other subjects are counted in, the number increases 
to 13. There are seven schools in which wood and metal-work are 
taught, if we combine those that are exclusively teaching them with 
others that teach the same subjects side by side with other subjects. 



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420 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20tk Century. 



Each of the other subjects is taught at one school exclusively or 
two subjects only are taught in combination at one school. 

Apprentice Schools. — The apprentice schools, all of them 
deriving aid from the said fund, numbered 21 in the same year. 

Classified according to kind those schools can be divided as 

follows : — 

Kind. No. of Schools 
Dyeing and Weaving ., 3 



Metal and Wood- Work 

Lacquer- Work 

Pottery 

Shipbuilding 

Others 

Total 



Differing from the preceding case, here metal and wood-work 
and pottery are '^t the head of the list each with five schools, followed 
by those of lacquer-work, dyeing and weaving. 

Commercial and Technical Continuation Schools. — Com- 
mercial and technical continuation schools next demand attention^ 
for these subjects occupy at present a very important place in short- 
course commercial and technical education. 

These number 34, many of them receiving grant-in-aid from the 
said Aind. 

Of the schools mentioned above, some of which are maintained 
by communities, others by private individuals, those that are exclu- 
sively devoted to technical matters are 12, those that combine agri- 
cultural, technical and commercial matters 16, the remaining 6 being 
of a miscellaneous character. Most of those schools are attached ta 
primary schools for the benefit of those who cannot attend school 
in the daytime. 



III. APPRENTICE SYSTEM. 



Formerly the apprentice system prevailed universally in all 
branches of technical and manufacturing work, but with the introdu- 
ction of the Western system of manufacture and technical work this- 



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Apprentice System. 421 

<!ustom has began to lose its importance. The scope of the apprentice 
system has gradually dwindled down, and at present it only retains 
some semblance of its former status in such ancient lines of business 
as hand-weaving, pottery, and the dyeing business. It is true even 
in new branches of work this apprentice system is found, but it is 
only in factories of small scope. Sometimes even in big factories 
the system is retained to some extent, as master crafbmen engaged 
in shipbuilding and other works often take under them a number of 
boys whom they employ at the factories they attend. However, 
taking all things into consideration, and especially with the greater 
necessity of division of labor in most branches of technical work and 
manufacture, the days of the apprentice system are doomed, to be 
superseded by regular mode of education. 



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422 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

CHAPTER VL 



MANUFACTURING CORPORATIONS. 



That combination of persons haying common interests in the pros- 
perity of a given branch of manufacture and industry, so universal 
nowadays, was first seen in this country in the organization in 
October 1882 of the spinners' union which exists to-day in a some- 
what modified form. It undertakes all matters judged to fiirther the 
common interests of the members ; dispatches, for instance, merchants 
or experts to Bombay to inspect the condition of the cotton market 
or of the cotton crop, enters into contract with steamship companies 
for the import of raw cotton from Bombay. Matters about the 
regulations of staple commodities guilds have already been mentioned 
elsewhere, and it is sufficient to state here that at present the 
organized bodies created for protecting their own respective interests 
number 192 in all. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Technieal Associations, 



423 



CHAPTER Vn. 



TECHNICAL ASSOCIATIONS. 



Scientific Associations relating to manufacture and technical 
affairs exist in large numbers, the principal of them being : — 



Name. 

Engineering Society 

Japan Weaving Society 

Tokyo Carving Society 

Electric Society 

Japan Lacquer-Work Society ... . 

Japan Keramic Society 

Technological Society 

Mechanical Engineering Society ... . 

Shipbuilding Society 

Society of Chemical Technology ... . 
Tokyo Export Metallic Ware Society . 

Japan Metallic Art Society 

Central Weaving Society 



Located in. 
, Tokyo. 



Nagoya. 



Most of the foregoing societies publish proceedings, some of these 
publications being: — 

Proceedings of the Engineering Society, the Japan Keramic Art 
Society, the Technological Society, the Mechanical Engineering 
Society, the Shipbuilding Society, the Society of Chemical Tech- 
nology, etc. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



424 Japan in the Beginning of tJie 20th Century. 

APPENDIX. 



PLACES OF PRODUCE OF STAPLE COMMODITIES, THEIR 
OUTPUT AND FOREIGN MARKETS. 

"Habutaye" (unit oi yen). 



Principal Places 












of Produce. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


Kyoto 


308,942 


372,263 


834,109 


853.877 


1,063,994 


674,077 


Niigata 


76,097 


t24,474 


298,563 


452,360 


409,094 


499,047 


Saitama 


221,989 


232,838 


276452 


555.955 


338,071 


81,180 


Gumma 


2,945,905 


3,183.234 


3,394,275 


1,349.827 


2.361,305 


5^,737,356 


Tochigi 


2,005,564 


2,116,282 


2,084,150 


460,109 


93155 


37,327 


Miye 


21,048 


21,499 


22,262 


39.729 


8i,»3o 


102,848 


AicM 


21,015 


47,243 


57,130 


313.089 


371,076 


226,279 


Gifo 


1.752,427 


1,040,154 


1,184,141 


998,065 


832.349 


958,720 


Nagano 


109,614 


229,525 


178,388 


134,332 


181,780 


237,466 


Miyagi 


23,716 


47,755 


114,615 


137,724 


180,293 


I43pi6 


Fukushima ... 


362,098 


666,588 


1,365,608 


2,265,435 


2,719,335 


2,746,124 


Yamagata ... 


37,604 


78,625 


90,400 


163,542 


209,800 


327,648 


Fukui 


6,004426 


7,400,219 


8,529,420 


13.786,352 


11,651,264 


13,669,578 


Ishikawa ... 


789,455 


1,150,014 


1,907,360 


5,400,305 


3,559,017 


4,361401 


Toyama 


412,656 


786,274 


946,424 


2,255.737 


1,383,537 


3,221,946 


Tottori 


20,316 


21,883 


53,295 


62.05 1 


59,264 


27,685 



Foreign markets: — Australia, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, British America, British 
Tndia, China, Korea, Dutch India, Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain, 
Hawaii, Hongkong, Italy, Mexico, Philippine Islands, Russia, Spain, Switzer- 
land, Turkey, United States of America. 

" Kaiki " (unit oiyen). 

Kanagawa ... 58,364 10,770 117,188 83,950 63.560 209,550 

Gumma i,233,7io 1,415,9^6 i493,9io 1,812,379 2,045,624 262,740 

Tochigi ... 234,670 1,411,268 1441,896 1,922,316 339448 1,509,928 

Yamanashi ... 2,081,774 2,245,388 1,969,296 2435,601 5,017,206 2,260,751 

Foreign markets : — Australia, Belgium, British America, British India, China, Korea, 
France,. Germany, Great Britain, Hawaii, Holland, Hongkong, United States of 
America. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Appendix. 



425 







Crepe Silk (unit of 


yen). 






Kyoto ... 


•" 5,540,155 


5,636,083 


5,326,858 


8,362433 


6,754,236 


5,657,700 


Hyogo ... 


70,000 


70,750 


72,500 


88,577 


121,600 


116,100 


Gumma 


89,919 


107,411 


100,343 


157485 


226,252 


161,828 


Tochigi 


26,671 


5,330 


3,135 


41,968 


375,222 


252,473 


Shiga ... 


... 2,349,283 


2,414,641 


2,377,831 


2446,291 


1410,701 


1,066,645 


Gifu ... 


... 249,128 


625,332 


286,723 


270,633 


364,438 


404,553 


Nagano... 


34,734 


50,103 


588,827 


51,407 


71,049 


87,283 



Foreign markets : — Australia, British Tndia, China, Korea, Dutch India, France, Great 
Britain, Hawaii, Holland, Philippine Islands, Russian Asia, Turkey, United 
States of America. 





Silk Handkerchiefs (unit of yen). 






Kyoto 


— 


«- 


— 


1,282,515 


905,652 


unknown 


Kanagawa .. 


. 487,567 


3.390,145 


3,555,115 


— 


— 


396,076 


Gumma 


— 


— 


— 


39,649 


48,738 


unknown 


Aichi 


— 


816,808 


485,165 


— 


277,783 


221,089 


Shizuoka 


— 


— 


— 


52,900 


127,964 


102,884 


Gifu 


25,560 


7,286 


51,993 


55,700 


69400 


771,000 


Fukui 


30,000 


138,990 


15416 


— 


58,986 


54,756 


Ishikawa ... 


63,349 


— 


— 


18,225 


43,330 


unknown 



Foreign markets : — Australia, British America, Brtish India, China, Denmark, Egypt, 

France, Germany, Great Britain, Hawaii, Hongkong, Italy, Mexico, Russia, 
Philippine Islands, Russian Asia, Spain, Turkey, United States of America. 

Silk Goods (unit of ^'^»). 

Kyoto 611,555 274,737 324,514 325,273 284,857 305,156 

Ishikawa ... — — — . 40,000 7,200 unknown 
Foreign markets :— As above. 

Cotton Yarns (unit of kwan). 

2,098,139 2,278,953 2,178,572 2,010,697 

701,694 821,880 657,507 557,495 

9.733,589 11,049,921 12,264,578 10,705,686 11,178,814 

5,287,532 4,954,766 4,383,584 4,705,745 

667,377 1,114,763 881,536 909,610 

1,829,658 2,380,858 1,560.653 1,718,238 

1,868,036 2,242,658 2,547,988 2,566,816 

3,741825 3,743,899 3,342403 3,216.081 

850,640 912,591 1,112,360 1,152,441 

667,734 791,763 864,265 764,888 

328,980 363,557 250,740 308,195 

580,405 704,740 610,320 647490 

1493,243 1,681,073 1408401 1,459,143 

Foreign markets ; —British India, China, Korea, French India, Hongkohg, Philippine 
Islands, Russian Asia. 



Tokyo ... . 


.. 2,213,766 


2,129,863 


Kyoto ... , 


... 194,072 


363420 


Osaka .. . 


... 8476,015 


9.733,589 


Hyogo ... . 


,.. 1,048431 


3,034,838 


Nara ... , 


.. 466,289 


383,682 


Miye ... . 


.. 1,511,300 


1,578,389 


Aichi ... . 


.. 1,265,113 


1.735,323 


Okayama 


... 1,878,067 


3,030,852 


Hiroshima 


-. 493,769 


534,658 


Wakayama 


... 434446 


495,730 


Kagawa 


— 


95,505 


Ehime ... , 


... 431,882 


561,824 


Fukuoka 


... 990467 


1,148444 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



426 Japan in the Beginning of the 2Qth Century, 

White cx)tton cloth (unit of yen). 



Principal Places 












of Produce. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


190T. 


Kyoto 


172,146 


230,053 


199,676 


133,083 


132,117 


132485 


Osaka 


1,322,242 


1,377,983 


2,045,027 


2,250,525 


3,092,800 


3,069,175 


Hyogo 


1.94,953 


191,547 


148,718 


92,244 


139,140 


156,934 


Niigata 


123,574 


133,222 


106,776 


114,281 


374,699 


297,202 


Saitama 


761,373 


617,575 


511,234 


587,902 


633,217 


555,287 


Ibaragi 


97,709 


38,497 


42,296 


74,110 


50,045 


41,350 


Tochigi 


56,260 


86,038 


58,706 


176,901 


87,714 


85,875 


Nara 


1,161,062 


1,140,012 


1,196,287 


1,580,306 


1,377,246 


1,027,642 


Miye 


72,695 


317,852 


303,722 


128,301 


182,404 


158,127 


Aichi 


3,555,901 


4,357,627 


5,182,886 


5,198,111 


6,260,721 


5,263,659 


Shizuoka ... 


36430 


32,324 


25,754 


37,683 


72,616 


70,248 


Toyama 


119,789 


87,729 


15468 


219,535 


160,938 


40,645 




112,655 


146,156 


235,007 


237,171 


484,504 


575,999 


Hiroshima ... 


231,023 


176,949 


162,654 


208,700 


218,369 


211,735 


Yamaguchi ... 


260,159 


146,584 


130,077 


73,001 


132,888 


51,244 


Wakayama ... 


200,178 


215,254 


228,217 


205,279 


193,247 


165,845 


Kagawa 


106,887 


108,520 


93,985 


147,399 


163,351 


169,806 


Ehime 


908,256 


166,064 


3,io8,oio 


802,148 


1,035493 


715,003 


Foreign markets : — China, Korea, Hongkong. 









Grey shirting (unit of yen). 

Osaka 419,370 406,695 538.765 601,564 

Wakayama ... — 109,029 162,444 113,800 

Foreign markets : — British India, China, Korea Hongkong. 

T.-cloths (unit of yen). 

Osaka — — — 206,858 

Miye — — 306447 i35,ooo 

Foreign markets : — China, Korea, Hongkong. 

Cotton flannel (unit of yen). 



1,106,736 
183,695 



393,044 
502,188 



Kyoto ... 


... 1,991,013 


1,803,634 


2,480,254 


3409,779 


3,757,642 


Osaka ... 


... 646,997 


404,719 


526,877 


556,524 


761,671 


Hy^o ... 


... 99,586 


74,767 


99,889 


94403 


102,005 


Aichi ... 


19,529 


27,799 


26467 


55,539 


64,285 


Shiga ... 


72,343 


134,018 


88,745 


77475 


133.145 


Toyama 


5,593 


13,700 


13,153 


2,800 


61,740 



1,230,373 
183,788 



unknown 



2,626,334 
593,226 
72,270 
53,200 
77,071 
27,050 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Appendix. 
Cotton flannel (unit of yen). 



427 



Okayama ... 


74,110 


162,276 


191,330 


270,190 


242,964 


145,635 


Hiroshima ... 


69,689 


59,002 


39,378 


78,664 


53,354 


58,049 


Wakayama ... 


3.5"»764 


4,137,745 


5,260,376 


3,237,217 


3440,709 


3,259438 


Tokushima ... 


575,«H 


659,643 


100,148 


389,441 


340,882 


369,913 


Ehime 


161,218 


39,241 


79,036 


444,863 


514,753 


743,793 



Foreign markets : — British India, China, Korea, Hongkong, Philippine Islands, Russian 
Asia. 

Cotton crepe (unit oi ym). 



Gumma 


77,566 


73,194 


51,639 


96,980 


183,860 


83,116 


Tochigi 


419,892 


645,164 


593,578 


1,603,226 


941,931 


757,704 


Kara 


6,780 


62,176 


58,534 


94,338 


50,318 


63,312 


Aichi 


6,220 


890 


60 


78,201 


128,910 


35,125 


Shiga 


149,626 


122465 


158,526 


180,275 


364,242 


248,182 


Toyama 


2I,8lO 


935 


1,396 


24,794 


71,851 


71,380 


Shimane 


75,783 


92,993 


92477 


123,273 


183,880 


126,279 


Yamaguchi ... 


235,702 


152484 


145,689 


169454 


213,251 


72,087 


Tokushima ... 


237,301 


45,637 


107,929 


131,505 


198,871 


94463 



Foreign markets : — Australia, British India, China, Korea, Germany, Great Britain, 
Hawaii, Hongkong, Philippine Islands, Russian Asia, United States of America. 

Matches (unit oi yen). 



Tokyo ... 


... 283,265 


265,919 


207,040 


216,874 


226,979 


171,388 


Osaka ... 


... 1,055,562 


1,236498 


869,691 


999,665 


842403 


1,695,808 


Hyogo... 


... 3,166,541 


3,585,523 


3,899,994 


2,559,861 


2,997,327 


5,954,888 


Niigata... 


60,774 


67,051 


65,849 


48,050 


68,260 


62567 


Aichi ... 


... 381489 


837,045 


825,998 


1407,581 


943,089 


667,680 


Shizuoka 


63,520 


43,542 


62,313 


68,306 


128,644 


88,831 


Okayama 


21,429 


36,774 


32,182 


57.348 


65,084 


47,702 


Hiroshima 


... 84.248 


140055 


160,934 


185,865 


222,277 


206,040 


Kagawa 


... 106,778 


118,055 


80,660 


127,923 


186,593 


147,500 



Foreign markets :^ — ^Australia, British India, China, Korea, Hongkong, Philippine 
Islands, Russian Asia, United States of America. 

Mats (unit of yen). 

Ishikawa ... 12,235 59,855 36,894 16481 66,876 199,276 

Okayama ... 779,557 1,126,258 659,874 1,088,603 1,367,332 3,117,035 

Hiroshima ... 676,512 1409,277 861,009 744475 887,741 898,535 

Kagawa ... 63406 48,373 42,849 49,874 66,701 112,989 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



428 



Japan in the Beginning of ike 20ik Century. 



Principal Places 












of Produce. 1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


Fukuoka ... 229,482 • 


271^92 


220,404 


420,779 


479,439 


518,540 


Oita 320^14 


218,739 


171,302 


53.043 


75,279 


30,329 



Foreign markets : — Australia, British America, British India, China, Korea, France, 
Germany, Great Britain, Hawaii, Holland, Hongkong, Italy, Philippine Islands, 

Russian Asia, United States of America. 

« 

Straw-piaits (unit oi yen). 



Tokyo 


126,360 


96,000 


114,600 


69.000 


62,500 


64,000 


Aichi 


. 333,230 


201,144 


344,532 


582,936 


467,725 


355,071 


Okayama .. 


. 1,294,727 


1,043,941 


1,193,094 


1,772,807 


1,796,513 


1.552,334 


Hiroshima .. 


. 117,912 


100,052 


81,170 


56,778 


76,028 


102,312 


Kagawa 


87,147 


115,968 


147,109 


119,031 


378,686 


328y^IO 



Foreign markets — Australia, Belgium, British America, France, Germany, Great 
Britain, Hawaii, Hongkong, Italy, Philippine Islands, United States of America. 

Porcelain and earthenware (unit oi yen). 



Tokyo 


49,572 


55,591 


51,891 


40,042 


70,953 


12ASI 


Kyoto 


. 438,375 


360,413 


366,563 


528,121 


705,339 


526,051 


Kanagawa .. 


17,200 


15,000 


15,000 


143,300 


152,900 


134,950 


Hyogo 


127,335 


134,893 


134,616 


131,158 


180,883 


197,187 


Nagasaki 


. "5,991 


102,677 


82,210 


76,930 


107,770 


96,792 


Tochigi 


40,082 


46,959 


53,399 


49,208 


53,609 


59,539 


Miye 


88,854 


98,231 


97,035 


86,083 


145,687 


152450 


Aichi 


1,541,954 


1,571,761 


1,494,864 


1,363,563 


2,171,404 


2,397.555 


Shiga 


SAAn 


111,730 


105,703 


123,603 


127,238 


154,278 


Gifu 


1,177,573 


1,155,962 


878,415 


972,944 


1,004,836 


1,237,740 


Fukushima .. 


. 109,837 


135,922 


139,872 


162,784 


182,369 


174,671 


Ishikawa .. 


. 239,381 


176,267 


248,947 


308,362 


322,183 


214,140 


Shimane 


67,431 


80,893 


86,570 


103,826 


122,509 


"9,"3 


Okayama .. 


37,330 


35,996 


45,357 


431,163 


79,552 


85.540 


Yamaguchi .. 


57,716 


7o/»8 


76,688 


109,254 


120,103 


128,560 


Kagawa 


30,247 


29,048 


36,678 


44,054 


55,222 


59,800 


Ehime ... . 


. 105,937 


108,705 


92,609 


"8,751 


191,800 


174,300 


Saga ... . 


. 623,510 


529,465 


612,535 


692,224 


649,915 


487.991 


Foreign markets :— Australia, Belgium, 


British America, British 


India, China, Korea, 



Denmark, Dutch India, Egypt, France, French India, Germany, Great Britain, 
Hawaii, Holland, Hongkong, Italy, Mexico, Philippine Islands, Russia, Russian 
Asia, Siam, Spain, Sweden and Norway, Turkey, United States of America. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Tokyo ... 
Kyoto ... 
Osaka ... 
Kanagawa 
Nagasaki 
Toyama 



2,087,436 



Api)endix, 429 

Umbrella (unit oi yen). 
981,193 Ii378,620 1^486,950 1,534.432 unknown 



1,876,994 2,181,064 2,201,888 2,458,519 1,095,325 1,164,564 

16,425 18,709 4,990 5,482 6433 7,750 

— ' 39,868 50,0x0 5»,522 110,500 90,000 

— 31,320 52,000 33,880 25.200 25,500 



Foreign markets :— British India, China, Korea, Hawaii, Hongkong, Philippine Islands, 
Russian Asia, United States of America. 

Lacquer -WARE (unit oi yen). 



Tokyo 


27,992 


30,829 


28,887 


42,408 


85,652 


43,051 


Kyoto 


260,000 


532,400 


425,920 


686,076 


610,422 


384,846 


Osaka 


74,186 


171,224 


134,360 


119,845 


149,297 


213,169 


Kanagawa ... 


230,192 


232,003 


480,695 


358.995 


350,755 


202490 


Hyogo 


37,520 


35,551 


34,584 


33.993 


52,376 


40,390 


Niigata 


63,763 


55,976 


53^22 


57,796 


89,704 


119.638 


Nara 


35,136 


40,636 


55.215 


65,462 


84,954 


82,204 


Miye 


39,775 


'60,051 


71.939 


53.293 


138465 


183444 


Aichi 


85,330 


118,850 


104,530 


105.392 


245.892 


232,505 


Shizuoka 


385,720 


248,960 


452,600 


530,600 


610,200 


545,740 


Shiga 


113*285 


180,265 


228,181 


227,39s 


244,563 


234,545 


Nagano 


104,749 


98,464 


86,471 


182,104 


133097 


264,284 


Miyagi 


38^7 


45,522 


49,220 


51,005 


63,082 


77349 


Faknshima ... 


218,059 


296470 


308,056 


429.752 


459,290 


330,800 


Vamagata ... 


48,634 


52,905 


57,008 


60,398 


66,150 


78,395 


Fukui 


64,128 


75,554 


77,721 


"7,223 


136.551 


154,985 


Ishikawa ... 


359.194 


464,724 


450,851 


499,650 


639,160 


681,927 


Toyama 


96,525 


110,735 


148,694 


169379 


164,842 


207430 


Hiroshima ... 


62,400 


37.318 


127,150 


152,425 


126,503 


113.518 


Wakayama ... 


577,792 


781.133 


894,590 


1,202400 


1,303,612 


i/J49,388 


Tokoshima ... 


80,045 


79,125 


72,760 


14400 


74.400 


76/x» 




26,242 


64735 


133,598 


131.525 


129,083 


5o/»5 


Ehime ... .^ 


72,685 


74,057 


142,115 


151,541 


92,826 


100,260 



Fore^ markets: — Australia, Belgium, British America, British India, China, Korea, 
Deimiaik, Dctch India, Egypt, France, French India, Gcrir^ariV, Great Britain, 
Havaii, Holland, Hor.gkor.g, Italy, Philippine I^!ar^-. Rii--. a, Ry^sian Asia, 
5^pam, Torler, Vulltd .^tales *A .America. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



430 Japan in the Beginning of the 2Qih Century. 

Fans, folded and round (unit of yen). 



Principal Places 














of Produce. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


Tokyo 


— 


— 


— 


34y»88 


43,676 




Kyoto 


686,500 


583,524 


480,312 


381,437 


326,142 


326,920 


Osaka 


177,848 


272,355 


263,396 


342,275 


77,314 


62,759 


Aichi 


353,532 


321,190 


304,288 


334,581 


237,234 


223,92a 


Gifo 


15,340 


51,028 


55,892 


32,817 


33,i02 


95.176 


Kara 


— 


— 


— 


13,800 


14,640 


unknown 


Toyazna 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3,456 


3,054 


Hiroshima ... 


— 


— . 


— 


106,292 


6,150 


6,610 


Yamaguchi ... 


— 


— 


— 


3,660 


45,530 


1,718 


Wakayama ... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


7,253 


7,248 


Kagawa 


178,932 


182,029 


180,710 


233,240 


232,910 


232,973 


Fukuoka 


— 


— 


— 


1,062 


6,200 


7,240 


Oita 


— 


— 


— 


3,140 


3,900 


4,350 


Saga 


— 


— 


— 


974 


1,524 


4,882 


Kumamoto ... 


19,887 


22,111 


19,050 


32,754 


15,325 


20,362 


Kagoshima ... 


— 


— 


— 


3,600 


3,124 


2,280 



Foreign markets : — ^Australia, British America, British Tndia, China, Egypt, France, 
Germany, Great Britain, Hongkong, Italy, Mexico, Philippine Islands, Spain, 
United States of America. 



Rugs (unit of yen). 



Osaka ... 
Hyogo ... 
Saga ... 



1,121,147 1,140,014 
25,195 135,695 



943,578 1,006,294 1,739,354 715,009 

67,813 12.658 14,710 unknown 

— — 2,142 4,000 



Foreign markets : — Australia, Belgium, British America, British India, China, Korea, 
France, Egypt, Germany, Great Britain, Hawaii, Holland, Hongkong, Philip- 
pine Islands, United States of America, Russian Asia. 

Wooden Ware (unit of yen). 



Kanagawa ... 


389,725 


23,305 


25,470 


— 


25,000 




Miyagi 


— 


24,596 


33,335 


4,937 


— 


„ 


Shiga 


— 


— 


— 


— 


39,502 


32,425 


Ishikawa 


27,500 


33,300 


43,523 


— 


— 


unknown 


Kumamoto ... 


20,235 


44,954 


41,077 


— 


— 


9» 



Foreign markets : — Australia, British America, British India, China, Korea, Dutch 
India, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hawaii, Hongkong, Italy, Philippine 
Islands, Russian Asia, Russia, United States of America. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Appendix. 
Paper (unit of yen). 



431 



Tokyo 


283,855 


310,541 


325,204 


711,617 


573.952 


831,087 


Ky5to ... ... 


79,415 


95,414 


141,356 


188,267 


i55,»33 


77,510 


Osaka 


40,885 


45,741 


31,992 


41,263 


65,104 


42,759 


Hyogo 


304,274 


685,342 


351,401 


543,468 


538,292 


533,270 


Nugata 


43,493 


55,370 


77,722 


40,680 


70,242 


72,751 


Saitama 


209,387 


215,790 


262,676 


218,718 


163,573 


235,654 


Ibaragi 


60,332 


111,012 


112,050 


72,527 


90,037 


97.168 


Tochigi 


41,898 


46,969 


138,538 


140,308 


62,507 


117,170 


Nara 


52,698 


57,817 


80,010 


44,562 


87,767 


29,635 


Miye 


103,263 


185,717 


99,577 


150,835 


124,007 


98,169 


Shizuoka ... 


842,089 


870,941 


962,684 


245,043 


1,001,665 


618,719 




51,228 


125,094 


107,634 


127,867 


125,449 


113,907 


Gifu 


1,261,889 


1,871,709 


997,969 


1,081,627 


1,103,455 


1,179,045 


Nagano 


396,422 


475,975 


519,321 


272,270 


340,463 


209,487 


Miyagi 


87,099 


182,762 


113,681 


105,950 


"4,932 


130,072 


Fukushinia ... 


104,947 


82,937 


167,957 


141,348 


147,883 


146,190 


Iwate 


60,227 


121,390 


130,001 


100,850 


60,134 


48,811 


Yamagata .•« 


32,925 


43,269 


52,084 


55,372 


52,950 


49,152 


Fukui 


167,230 


156,632 


226,239 


288,657 


299,467 


523,820 


Ishikawa 


40,533 


45,492 


160,692 


64,479 


89,619 


77,223 


Toyama 


213,402 


137,979 


"9,391 


130,161 


117,242 


147,756 


Tottori 


104,502 


116,527 


156,702 


186,967 


180,700 


278,348 


Shimane 


242,176 


313,134 


329,694 


305,094 


343,850 


282,018 


Okayama ... 


167,836 


269,078 


214,323 


356,251 


477,384 


254,707 


Hiroshima ... 


177,669 


200,866 


182,445 


179,062 


252,286 


214,650 


Yaxnaguchi ... 
W^akayama ... 
Tokushima ... 
Kagawa 

Ehime 

Kochi 

Fnkuoka ... 

Cita 

Saga 

Kumamoto ... 
Miyasaki 
Kagoshima ... 


460,639 

163*528 
242,776 
1,298,224 
1,505,322 
492,735 
152,418 

157,217 
219,600 

177,344 
88,921 


549,104 
57,077 
248,919 
253,795 
993,578 
2,094,454 
437,732 
176,999 
215,950 
221,250 
187,676 
120,919 


504,286 

90,998 

419,990 

164,045 

2,631,601 
500,101 
167,267 
212,381 
272,216 
227,030 
62,898 


579,332 

106,394 

155,145 

51,964 

1,161,555 

2,213.320 

662,742 

189,495 
261,102 

319,978 
196,140 

91,703 


678,631 

165,793 
184,500 
266,034 
1,329,924 
2,922,119 
678,796 
170,518 
230,651 
291,849 
134,484 
120,847 


580,332 
148,650 
160,790 

131,815 
1,073,215 
2,299,890 

482,969 

144,597 
312,766 

352,695 
143,728 
228,601 


Foreign markets :— China, France, Germany, Great Britain, United States of America, 


Australia, Hongkong, British America, British India, Dutch India. 








Paper ware (unit of 


yen). 






Kyoto 

Gifo 

Kumamoto ... 


73,900 


361,500 


154,196 


26,560 
419,674 


25,870 

493,360 

4,540 


unknown 
4^7 



Foreign markets : — Australia, British America, British India, China, Korea, Egypt, 
France, Germany, Great Britain, Hongkong, Mexico, Russia, United States of 
America. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



432 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Centuiy. 



Principal Places 
of Produce. 

Hyogo 

Shizuoka 

Shiga 

Iwate 

Fukui 

Ishikawa 
Kagawa 

Ehime 

Oita 

Kumamoto ... 



1896. 
14,083 
12,966 
10,807 
7,575 
13,194 



Bamboo ware (unit of yen). 

1899. 



1897. 

150,000 

33470 



1898. 

160,000 

34,140 



16,037 io,i88 



13,261 
55,705 



14,225 



15.913 
4,701 



36,190 
7,750 

10,511 

8,728 



— 41,097 



1900. 

484,739 

38,000 

7,900 

19,480 
11,129 

8,723 

12,000 

9,028 



9,591 



1901. 
unknown 
38,950 
63.600 

unknown 

11,839 

12,755 
unknown 

17,379 
unknown 



Foreign markets : — Australia, British America, British India, China, Korea, Fgypt 
France, Germany, Great Britain, Hawaii, Holland, Hongkong, Philippine 
Islands, Russian Asia, United States of America. 

Brushes (unit of yen). 

<5saka — 689,424 828,348 229,348 703,5 H 347,758 

Foreign markets : — Australia, British America, British India, China, Great Britain, 
Hongkong, United States of America, Philippine Islands, Russian Asia. 

Glass ware (lamp excepted; unit of yen). 



Tokyo 


715,825 


256,326 


344,478 


469,460 


621,295 


unknown 


Osaka 


548.104 


801,631 


864,416 


867,501 


960,923 


928,774 


Kanagawa ... 


62,972 


19,594 


56,202 


126,450 


135,900 


142,535 


Nagasaki 


6,119 


— 


— 


8,811 


8,622 


7,760 


Aichi 


— 


40,760 


76,775 


90,000 


100,000 


unknown 


Toyama 


— 


— 


- 


6,570 


6,570 


62,460 


Shimane 


— 


-- 


— 


3,802 


2,700 


2,565 


Yamaguchi ... 


— 


--. 


— 


6,943 


7,680 


7,98a 


Fukuoka 


— 


— 


— 


6,900 


2,910 


8,359 


Saga 


— 


— 


— 


15,375 


10,984 


iS,377 


Kagoshima ... 


— 


— 


— 


1,650 


3.182 


2,976 


Foreign markets : — British India, China, 


Korea, Great Britain, 


Hongkong, 


Philippine 


Islands, 


Russian Asia, United States of America. 







Screens (unit of yen). 

Kyoto — — 74,750 90,775 95,017 115,600 

Hyogo 252,330 266,500 253,742 — 215,000 unknown 

Foreign markets : — Australia, Belgium, British America, British India, China, Dutch 
India, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hawaii, Holland, Hongkong, Italy, 
Philippine Islands, Russia, Russian Asia, United States of America. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Appendix, 433 

" ShiffGkx " (cloisonne), (unit of yen). 



Kyoto ... . 


47,854 


44.738 


43,568 


58,823 


72,347 


68,934 


Airhi ... . 


.. 223,066 


175,104 


107.987 


206,828 


448,230 


487.980 



Foreign markets :— Australia, Belgium, British America, British India, China, Egypt, 
France, Germany, Great Britain, Hongkong, Russia, Russian Asia, United States 
of America. 

Bronze and copper ware (unit oi yen). 



Kyoto 


. 294,164 


510,143 


556,974 


476,000 


400,700 


725,986 


Osaka 


54,289 


67,018 


66,569 


224,039 


— 




Aichi 


48,866 


48,095 


50,862 


58,205 


56.676 


72,661 


Ishika:wa 


50^250 


30,000 


19,700 


17,600 


165,660 


183,87a 



Toyama 



224480 231,730 278,076 319,544 302,250 429,002 



Foreign markets : — British India, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Great Bri^n, Hong- 
kong, Russia, Russian Asia, United States of America. 

Of the other goods ranking next in importance to those given 
above may be mentioned towels, lamps, buttons, cotton under-shirts, 
cotton knit-work, shoes and boots, stockings, imitation foreign paper^ 
cotton blankets, towel cloth, clocks, furniture, jinrikisha, leather- 
goods, lanterns, toilet-soap, ivory-goods, etc. 



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434 Japan tn the Beginning of the 20th Century. 



CHAPTER VnL— Protection of Industrial Property* 
(PatentSt Designs and Trademarks) 



Intpodactopy — History relating to Proteotion of Patents, Designs, 
and Trade-Harks— Proteotion of Foreign Patents, Designs, 
and Trade-Harks— Resume of Existing Regulations— Provi' 
sions that Speoially Concern Foreigners — ^Statistics of Japan- 
ese and Foreign Patents, Designs and Trade-Harks. 



L INTRODUCTORY. 



General Remarks. — ^The legislative measures relating to the 
protection of the right of industrial property comprise in regard to 
patent-right, designs, and trade-marks the Law of Patent-Right 
{amended in the existing form in March 1899) the Law of Designs 
(as before), and the Law of Trade-marks (as before), intended to 
guarantee the security of the right of both Japanese and foreign 
inventors and also to ensure honest dealings in business. Similarly 
illegitimate competition in the matter of house-marks are guarded 
by the provisions of the Commercial Code issued in 1900. Measures 
for providing against illegitimate practices other than those connected 
with house-marks are incomplete, the only provision existing in this 
direction being confined to prohibition by the Customs Tariff Law 
(March 1897) of the import of substances spuriously imitating 
articles covered by patent-right or registered designs or trade-marks. 
There is no provision for prohibiting the false representation of the 
place of production. However, the legislative measures for protecting 
the right of industrial property have lately been carried to a 
satisfactory state, especially in regard to patents, designs and trade- 
marks, as will be briefly described below. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



JEKgtory Relating to Protection of Patents. 435 

II. HISTORY RELATING TO PROTECTION OF 
PATENTS, DESIGNS AND TRADE-HARKS. 



General Remarks. — ^Although the legislation relating to patents, 

designs and trade-marks was only enacted quite recently, comparatively 

speaking, this does not of course mean that the Japanese were 

destitute of inventions or designs, for facts may be abundantly 

enunciated to prove the contrary. For instance, the 

Industrial arts of keramics, lacquer-ware, weaving, etc. that 

Protection were originally imported from Chian have been 

in Olden Bays, carried to a special state of perfection by the genius 

of our people, who also have displayed original taste 

of their own in the matter of designs and have won in this respect 

special attention for our goods in foreign markets. 

However, the idea of protecting inventors and thus encouraging 
the development of manufacture was not adopted in Japan till the 
advent of the Government of this era. It is true that &om about 
the time of the Ashikaga Begency a certain sort of monopoly was 
accorded to manufacturers and technical experts, but this protection 
was extended with the object of increasing the revenue of the feudal 
princes that exercised this privilege rather than from any idea of 
encouraging invention and designs. In a similar way the protection 
of trade-marks dated from the Restoration and it was enforced 
because with the development of Japanese trade and that of foreign 
trade a necessity to adopt suitable measures for protecting trade- 
marks had become imperative. 

The first legislative measure for protecting inventions was pro- 
mulgated in April 1871 but was rescinded a year after, and for about 
fourteen years from that time Japanese inventors were 
New left unprotected. We do not mean to say that an 

Xq^lative invention of meritorious character was not recognized by 
Measures. the Government, for by instituting in December 1882 the 
Regulations Recognizing Meritiorious Acts inventors of 
distinguished merit were rewarded with the Blue-ribbon medals established 
in the regulations. In June 1884 the regulations for protecting 
trade-marks were enacted, and then in the following year the regulations 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



436 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

relatbg to the propection of patents. In consequence of the 
restoration of the regulations, 326 cases of invention that had 
been reported to the local offices subsequent to 1872 were 
brought under the protection of the regulations. But it was not till 
December of 1889 that the r^ulations relating to designs were first 
elaborated, and at the same time the two cognate legislative measures 
already existing were amended, A similar amendment was extended 
ten years later to all the three, and they exist to-day in the present 
form. 

III. PROTECTION OF FOREIGN PATENTS, DESIGNS 
AND TRADE-HARKS. 



The Laws as extended to foreigners. — With the putting in 
operation of the revised treaties in 1899 the three laws of patent, 
designs and trade-marks which, like all other laws of the land, had 
been limited in operation to the Japanese people alone, became 
operative to foreigners residing in this country. 

The dates pf the conclusion of revised treaties with different 
treaty countries are as follows: — 

Great Britain and Ireland July 1 6, 1894. 

United States of America Nov. 22, 1894. 

Italy Dec. I, 1894. 

Peru Mar. 2, 1895. 

Russia June 8, 1895. 

Denmark Oct. 19, 1895. 

Germany Apr. 4, 1896. 

Sweden-Norway May 2, 1896. 

Belgium June 2, 1896. 

France Aug. 4, 1896. 

Netherland Sept. 8, 1896. 

Switzerland Nov. lo, 1896. 

Spain Jan. 2, 1897. 

Portugal Jan. 26, 1897. 

Austria-Hungary Dec. 5, 1897. 

The revised treaties cover the protection of foreign patents, 
designs and trade-marks, but according to the agreement between 
J^apan and (Jermany it was arranged to put in force this protection 



Digitiied by LjOOQIC 



Resume of the Existing System. 437 

of patents, designs and trade-marks from the day of the exchange 
of ratification of the treaties, that is on November 18th of 1896 and 
this agreement ensured for the first time in the history of Japan 
the protection of the right of foreigners in regard to patents, designs 
and trade-marks. However, with the rest of the treaty Powers the 
date of the exchange of this mutual protection was as follows : — 

Great Britain and Ireland Jan. 4, 1 90 1. 

United States of America Mar. 8, 1 90 1. 

Switzerland July 9, 1 90 1. 

Portugal Aug. 30, 1901. 

Italy Oct. 12, 1901. 

Denmark Jan. 10, 1898. 

Netherland Feb. i, 1898. 

Sweden-Norway Feb. 15, 1898. 

Belgium ^ Mar. ii, 1898. 

Spain - Sep. I, 1898. 

Austria-Hungary Nov. 30, 1898. 

It is needless to say that a similar protection was extended 
with the coming in operation of the revised treaties to all the 
rest of the treaty Powers whose treaties that had been concluded 
with Japan contained provisions relating to the exchange of this 
protection. 

Japan as Member of the International League for thb 
Protection of Industrial Property. — ^The protocol appended to 
the treaty concluded between Japan and England in July 1894 and 
the treaties subsequently concluded with the rest of the countries 
specified the entrance of Japan into the International League for 
the Protection of Industrial Property, and in pursuance of that 
agreement Japan joined the League on July 15th, 1899, and thus 
all necessary arrangements required for protecting foreigners in the 
matter of industrial property were completed. 



lY. RESUME OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM. 



General Remarks. — ^According to the existing system all 
matters relating to patents, designs and trade-marks are controlled 
by the Patent Bureau of the Department of Agriculture aijd 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



438 Japan in the Beginning oj the 2Qih Century, 

Commerce, which adopts a regular system of examination in grant- 
ing a license in answer to application for patents or in registering a 
design or trade-mark sent in for registration. An applicant is 
entitled to appeal for re-examination or for the judgment of the 
Comptrollers in case the application has been rejected. All cases 
relating to the invalidity of patents or registrations or to the con- 
firmation of the respective rights are attended to by the Bureau, 
but when any decision of the Bureau is regarded as being at 
variance with the law, an applicant may appeal to the Court of 
Cassation whose decision is final. Then a provisional protection is 
extended to exhibits placed on view in exhibitions or similar un- 
dertakings. Patent agents are subject to the control of the Patent 
Bureau. The agents duly registered on the list of the Bureau num- 
ber 193 (according to the returns made in June of 1902.) 

Principal ciauses in the law of patents. — The Law ex- 
tends protection according to priority (Art. 1), while the following 
inventions are not patentable: — (a) articles of diet and relishes, 
(b) drugs and process of compounding them, (c) matters prejudicial 
to public order or morals, (d) matters publicly known prior to the 
filling of claims (excepting those cases in which, owing to the 
necessity of trial examinations, the matter embodied in the claim 
came to public knowledge not more than two years prior to the 
filing of the application). Then for an additional invention bajsed 
on the original one, an additional letter-patent may be obtained 
(Art. 2), a smaller fee being paid both for application and for 
license. Patents are valid (Art. 19) for 15 years from the date of 
registration in the official record, and (Art. 3) every year after the 
issue of the letter-patent the fee is to be paid in advance according 
to a fixed rate, while for an additional invention based on the 
original one, the payment of 20 yen at one time covers the whole 
period of the validity of the patent. Further (Arts. 39 & 40) (a) 
when a patentee who while himself failing to exploit in Japan and 
without justifiable cause his own invention within three years from 
the issue of the license or while suspending to make such exploitation 
for three years, refuses to transfer his right under reasonable condition 
to a third party applying to him for the said transfer or for per- 
mission to use the right ; (6) when a patentee fails to pay in the 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Remme of ike Existing System. 439 

fee for more than 60 days from the date on which he should have 
forwarded it; (c) when a patentee not residing in Japan fails to 
appoint for more than six months and without justifiable reason a 
proper attorney; in all such cases the Chief of the Bureau is 
entided to revoke the patent. 

Principal • clauses in the Law of Djosions. — ^The designs 
as protected by the existing Law are those of artistic type used in 
the form of shape, coloration or figure as applied to industrial pro- 
perty (Art. 1); but designs of the following description are exclud- 
ed from protection, (a) shape or figure resembling the Imperial 
coat of arms, the chrysanthemum, (6) figures that are prejudicial to 
public order or morals, (c) those that have been publicly 
known prior to . the filing of the application or figures Ac. re- 
sembling those already publicly known (Art. 2). The protection is 
of course determined according to priority (Arte. 2 <k 8). The 
validity of the right x)f exclusive use of a design is limited to 
objects of specified classification as represented by the applicant 
(Art. 4), and this validity holds good for 10 years from the time 
of the registration in the official records (Art 3). A similar pro- 
cess as in the case of patento is in force in paying the fee on the 
occasion of filing application and of paying the fee every year 
the after registration; but for a design resembling one previ- 
ously registered by the applicant, the rate is lower. In a similar 
way the registered design may lose its validity when the payment 
of the fee is neglected for more than 60 days or when the grantee 
of registration not residing in Japan fails to appoint within six 
months a qualified attorney residing in this country. 

Principal clauses in the Law of Trade-marks. — The Law 
protects all those trade-marks except those (a) that are identical 
to or resemble in form the Imperial coat of arms, the chry- 
santhemum ; (i) that are identical to or resemble in form the 
national flags, military or naval flags, or decorations of this coun- 
try, or national flags of foreign countries; (c) that are prejudicial 
to public order or morals or are likely to impose upon the public; 
(d) that are identical to or resemble other registered trade-marks 
or, when they are to be used for articles of the same nature, to 
those for which one fiill year has not elapsed after they have lost 



' Digitized by LjOOQIC 



440 Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Century, 

validity; (e) that are identical to or resemble trade-marks which 
are used by other people prior to the enforcement of the existing 
Law; (/) that simply represent the ordinary mode of designating 
goods or places of produce, or the characters, devises or marks cus- 
tomarily used in trade to denote a special grade or quality or shape 
of the goods, or that merely represent the ordinary style of writing 
names, house-names, or names of companies or firms (Arts. 1 & 2). 
However, a mark of an interest organized under approval of the 
authorities may be used as a trade-mark and protected accordingly 
(Art. 21). As in the two preceding cases priority secures protec- 
tion over all others coming subsequently (Arts. 2 & 8), but the 
validity of an exclusive trade-mark is limited to the special class 
of objects originally indicated by the applicant (Art. 5). The term 
of validity of the exclusive use of a trade-mark is 20 years, and 
is open to renewal (Arts. 3 & 5). The fee is payable with the 
registration of a trade-mark applied for (Art. 13 of the Law and 
Art^ 7 <fe 13 of the Regulation for putting it in Operation). 
Finally a registered trade-mark is liable to lose its validity in cdse 
(a) the place of produce, the quality, etc. of the goods for which 
it is used are falsely represented subsequent to its registration, (6) 
or when in case the applicant who does not reside in Japan, does 
not appoint within six months from the date of the registration a 
qualified attorney residing in this country (Art. 11). 



Y. PROVISIONS THAT SPECIALLY CONCERN FOREIGNERS. 



Non-Resident Foreign Applicants. — ^To enumerate those pro- 
visions in the existing laws, that specially relate to foreigners, when 
a foreigner not residing in Japan wishes to secure a latter-patent or 
to have his design or trade-mark registered, he must file in an 
application through his attorney appointed from among those in this 
country. He must further appoint, when his application has been 
accepted by the Patent Bureau, an attorney to represent him in all 
dealings with the Bureau and in all possible civil or criminal actions 
thereof The neglect to appoint such an attorney without justifiable 
reason within six months will invalidate, as mentioned above, the 



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Piwmons that Specially Concern Foreigners. 441 

efficacy of his patents or registration (The Law of Patent, Arts. 6 
and 38 : Law of Designs Arts., 12 and 22 ; Law of Trade-Marks, 
Arts. 20 and 9.) 

FoBM OF Documents. — ^Any document intended to be filed in 
the Bureau must be written in Japanese, and when it is drawn up 
in any other language Japanese translation must accompany the 
original. Further, a foreigner who is not residing in Japan must 
submit a document properly certifying his nationality, domicile and 
place of business (Arts. 3, 4 and 9 of the Eegulations for putting 
the Law of Patent in Operation : Art. 8 of the Regulations for 
putting the Law of Designs in Operation ; Art. 17 of the Regula- 
tions for putting the Law of Trade-marks in Operation.) 

Specifications and Drawings. — When an application is filed 
in within the prescribed period of priority as provided in Art. 4 of 
the International League for the Protection of Industrial Property, 
application, specifications and drawings certified by the Grovernment 
of the country of the original application must be submitted (Art. 
25 of the Regulations for putting the Law of Patent in Operation ; 
Art 8 of the Regulations for putting the Law of Designs in Opera- 
tion; Art. 17 of the Regulations for putting the Law of Trade- 
marks in Operation). 

Provisional Protection. — During the period of provisional 
protection extended to an invention or design or trade-mark exhibite 
in an international exhibition, a similar protection shall be accorded 
to it in this country during the period of the exhibition, provided 
the certificate establishing the fact of the provisional protection in 
the country where the exhibition is held is submitted on the occasion 
of sending in an application, (Art. 25. of the Law of Patent and 
Art. 26 of the Regulation, thereof; Art. 22 of the Law of Designs 
and Art. 8 of the Regulations thereof; Art. 20 of Trade-marks and 
Art 7 of the Regulations thereof.) 

Term of Reoisttered Trade-Marks. — ^A foreign registered trade- 
mark duly registered in Japan shall be valid during the same i)eriod 
of validity, in the original country, but within the maximum limit 
of 20 years (Art. 3 of the Law of Trade-marks.) 

Exploitation of Patents. — ^The exploitation of the patented 
invention must be made in Japan, but, in case a patentee, while 



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442 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20<A Century, 



n^lecting to do so for more than three years, refuses without justi- 
fiable reason to assign or to permit the use of the patent under 
reasonable conditions by a third party who has applied to him for . 
such aflsignment or permission, the patent is liable to be revoked. 
(Art 38 of the Law of Patents.) 



YL STATISTIC OF JAPANESE AND FOREIGN PATENTS, 
DESIGNS AND TRADE-HARKS. 



The applications for patents filed by Japanese and foreigners 
and the number of letters-patent granted in Japan during the period 
indicated are given in the following table: — 



Year. 

1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 

1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 



Total 



No. of Application. 


No. of License Granted. 


425 


99 


... 1,384 


205 


... 906 


109 


... 778 


1.83 


... 1.064 


209 


1,180 


240 


... 1,288 


367 


... 1,344 


379 


... 1,337 


318 


... 1,250 


326 


1,112 


223 


... 1,213 


169 


... 1,542 


188 


... 1,789 


293 


... 1,915 


597 


... 1,980 


586 


... 2,372 


606 


... 3,050 


871 


... 3,253 


1,024 


••. 29,195 


6,992 




Digitized by Google 



Statistic of Japanese aiid Foreign Patents. 



443 



DESIGNS. 



Year. 

18S9 
1890 
1891 
X892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 



No. of Application. 


No. of Registratioa 


• 


176 


23 





497 


82 


••• ••• 


290 


117 


••• 


262 


48 


«.• ■•• 


250 


59 


••• ... 


336 


64 





318 


94 





300 


96 





320 


90 





265 


52 


••• ... 


342 


139 





397 


130 





5 14 


141 


••• ••• 


930 


252 


•■• .•• 


1,181 


366 


... -. 


6,377 


1,573 


TRADE-MARKS. 




No. of Application. 


No. of Registration. 





883 


— 





1,296 


949 





624 


508 





757 


361 





568 


436 





1,029 


664 





819 


583 





896 


554 





1,146 


588 




1,243 


648 


... 


1,350 


877 





1,373 


923 





1,578 


858 





3,228 


2,335 





2,232 


1,597 





2,837 


1,942 





2,776 


1,767 





2,608 


1,621 





3,529 


2,016 





3,743 


1,924 



Total 



Year. 

1884 ... 

1885 ... 

1886 ... 

1887 ... 

1888 ... 

1889 ... 

1890 ... 

1891 ... 

1892 ... 

1893 ... 

1894 ... 

1895 ... 

1896 ... 

1897 ... 

1898 ... 

1899 ... 

1900 ... 

1901 ... 

1902 ... 

1903 ... 

Total 34^19 21,151 

Note :— In the figures for the years subsequent to 1899 as many as 628 cases of con- 
tinuation are included in applications and 599 in registrations. 



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444 



Japan in the Beginning of Hie 2(Hh Century, 



The following figures show the number of applications, licenses 
and registrations relating to foreigners from November 1896 to 
December 1903, the countries being mentioned in alphabetical 
order : — 



Patent. 



Design. 



No. of j^ ^ No. of No. of 
Applica- u^^^^ Applica- Rc^tra- 



Austria-Hungary „ 

Belgium 

China 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Great Britain 

Netherland 

Italy 

Korea 

Portugal 

Russia 

Spain 

Sweden-Norway .. 

Switzerland 

United States of Ameri 



23 
3 

20 

78 
228 

339 
10 
12 

5 

I 
8 

4 

18 

II 

831 



10 

2 

8 

43 
100 
189 
3 
5 
2 
I 
3 

II 

8 

486 



4 

7 

12 



Trade-mark. 

No. of No. of 
Applica- Registra- 
tion, tion. 



14 
8 

20 

3 

245 

1,274 

1,598 

7 

4 



II 

4 

53 

450 



14 

4 
10 

3 

200 

950 

1,183 

5 

3 



8 
3 

32 
338 



Total ,., 1,591 871 24 12 3,696 2,756 

Note : — The figures for Great Britain cover those for its colonies. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Tanff System. 445 

PART IV. 

FOREIGN TRADE. 
CHAPTER L 



TARIFF SYSTEM. 



The Original Tariff System. — The tariff system of Japan 
was originally based on the treaties concluded with the foreign 
countries. The treaties concluded with Great Britain, United States 
of America, France, Bussia and Netherlands in the 5th year of Ansei 
(1858) regulated, by means of the commercial agreement appended 
to the treaties, all matters relating to the entrance and departure of 
ships, the import and export of commodities, as well as import and 
export duties. In June of 1859 the three ports of Yokohama, 
Nagasaki, and Hakodate were opened to commerce, and customs 
house was established. Subsequently Kobe, Osaka and Niigata were 
similarly opened, the first in December of 1867, the second in July 
of 1868, and the last in November of the same year. In May of 
1866, as the result of an agreement with the Ministers of Great 
Britain, France, United States of America and Netherlands the rate 
of import and export duties was fixed on the basis of 5 per cent* 
ad valorem. 

First Revision. — The idea of drawing up a regular tariff 
system was mooted frequently and at last coming to 1894, it took 
definite shape as the Tariff System which was promulgated in 1897' 
The system divided imports into three main classes, dutiable goods 
non-dutiable goods, and prohibited goods. The tariff for dutiable 
goods ranged from 5 to 40 per cent, ad valorem, and divided into 
16 grades. The schedule has as standard rate, so to say, 20 i)er 
cent, for ordinary refined goods, this rate to decrease in one direc- 



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446 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century, 

tion but to rise in another. (1) Natural produce, (2) scientifie 
instruments and apparatus and raw materials, (3) machinery, 
(4) half-manufactured materials, (5) articles of ordinary consump- 
tion occupy the decreasing side of the schedule, while articles of 
luxury and liquors and tobacco occupy the other extreme. The 
tariff in question was put in force in January of 1899. 

Subsequent Amendments. — Subsequently the tariff received 
more or less amendment either in the interests of the inland revenue 
or with the object of encouraging home industries. Thus in the 
same year the tariff for manufactured tobacco was raised to 100 per 
cent, ad valorem, alchol to 250 per cent., Chinese liquor, sake, and 
other distilled liquors not mentioned in the list, to 80 to 100 per 
cent. In the same year raw materials required by the State mono- 
polies and match-making were relieved from all duties as were also 
artificial and natural fertilizers. In 1901 the rate on tobacco was 
advanced to 150 per cent, and that on alcohol to 42 sen per litre, 
and at the same time rate on some other imports was also advanced 
more or less. Further in 1902, in compliance with a resolution of 
the House of Representatives, a law for putting a duty of 15 to 25 
per cent, on raw eggs was promulgated. 

Takiff Law. — With the putting in force of a regular tariff 
schedule it was necessary for Japan's tariff autonomy to have a 
regular tariff law, for no such law had existed in regular shape; 
there was only a semblance of it in the shape of commercial agree- 
ments appended to the old treaties. With the object of filling this 
serious gap in the tariff legislature of the country, the draft of a 
tariff law was drawn up after consulating foreign laws on this 
subject. It was placed before the 13th session of the Imperial Diet, 
was passed by it in its original form, and at last it became law in 
1899. 

The establishment of a regular tariff law may be said to have 
ushered in a new era in the history of our tariff system. By that 
establishment many matters that formerly led to diplomatic inter- 
ference have been transferred to the domain of ordinary administra- 
tive affairs. For instance, special arrangement has been provided 
for making protest against the ruling of Customs Chie&, while it 
was made possible to determine by Imperial Ordinances places to be 



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Tariff System^ 447 

newly opened for commerce or the kinds of commodities to be either 
exported from or imported into places. Provisions relating to the 
passage of goods through the interior or through the Customs Houses 
have already been created in virtue of the law in question. The 
establishment of bonded warehouses may also be mentioned in this 
connection. 

The temporary storage of imports in Customs sheds provided for 
by Law No. 82 issue in 1900 ; the exemption of duty according to 
Law No. 85 issue in the same year, from goods re-exported in 
manufactured form within one fiiU year from the time of original 
import, and the establishment of goods agents in 1901 may also be 
cited as some of the measures provided for facilitating foreign trade« 
The enactment in 1902 of rebate arrangement on imported raw 
sugar in compliance with the proposal of the House of Representa- 
tives may also be mentioned here. 



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448 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 



CHAPTER IL 



DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN TRADE. 



Foreign Trade in Pre-Restoration Days. — ^The foreign trade 
of Japan, and indeed even home trade, remained in an insignificant 
state prior to the discontinuation of the isolation policy, for what- 
ever trade existed in those days was carried on only with China, 
Korea, Netherlands and Portugal, and even this was limited in 
scope. Then the setting up of autonomic local governments by the 
feudal barons and the defective means of communication and trans- 
portation necessarily obstructed the free development of trade. It was 
only after the conclusion of the treaties first with the United States 
of America, then with Russia, Great Britain, France, Netherlands, 
etc., as already mentioned, and after the establishment of regular 
trading ports at Nagasaki, Yokohama, Hakodate, and elsewhere and 
especially after the abolition of the feudal system in 1868 and the 
rehabilitation of the Imperial regime, that a new era began with our 
foreign trade. The introduction of various factors of Western civiliza- 
tion has powerfully accelerated its development. 

Recent Progress of Foreign Trade. — ^Below is given a table 
showing the progress of foreign trade during the last 35 years. 

TOTAL VALUE OF EXPORT AND IMPORT OF PRINCIPAL 
COMMODITIES. 

(figures marked with an asterisk denote excess of imports). 



Year. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Total. 


Excess of Exports 
and Imports. 




j'^n. 


ym. 


yen. 


yen. 


1868 ... 


... 15,553^37 


10,693,072 


26,246,545 


4,860,401 


1869 ... 


... 12,908,978 


20,783,633 


33,692,611 


* 7,874,655 


1870 ... 


... i4,543»oi3 


33,741,637 


48,284,650 


* 19,198,624 


1871 ... 


... 17,968,609 


21,916,728 


39,885,336 


* 3,948,119 


1872 ... 


... 17,026,647 


26,174,815 


43,201,462 


* 9,148,168 


1873 ... 


... 21,635441 


28,107,390 


49,742,831 


* 6471.949 



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Development of Foi'eign Trade. 
(figures marked with an asterisk denote excess of imports). 



44» 











Excess of Exports 


Year. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Total. 


and Imports. 




yen. 


jeft. 


J'M, 


yen. 


1874 ... 


... 19,317,306 


23,461,814 


42,779,120 


♦ 4,144,508 


1875 ... 


18,611,111 


29,975,628 


48,586,738 


♦ 11,364.517 


1876 ... 


_ 27,711,528 


33,964,679 


51,676,206 


3,746349 


1877 ... 


... 23,348,522 


27,420,903 


50,769425 


» 4,072,381 


1878 ... 


... 26,988,140 


32,874.834 


58,862,974 


♦ 6,886,694 


1879 ... 


... 28,175,770 


32,953,002 


61,128,773 


♦ 4,777,232 


1880 ... 


... 28,395,387 


36,626,601 


65,021,988 


» 8,231,214 


1881 ... 


... 31,058,888 


31,191,246 


62,250,134 


» 132,358 


1882 ... 


... 37,721,751 


29,446,504 


67,168,345 


8,275,157 


1883 ... 


36,268,020 


28444,342 


64,712,861 


7,823,178 


1884 ... 


... 33,871,466 


29,672,647 


63,544,113 


4,198319 


1885 ... 


... 37,146,691 


29,356,968 


66,503,659 


7,789,723 


1886 ... 


... 48,876,313 


32,168432 


81,044,745 


16,707381 


1887 ..■ 


... 52,407,681 


44,304,252 


96.7II.933 


8,103429 


1888 ... 


... 65,705,510 


65455,234 


131,160,744 


250,276 


1889 ... 


... 70,060,706 


66,103,767 


136,164472 


3,956,939 


1890 ... 


... 56,603,509 


81,728,581 


138,332,087 


25,125,075 


1891 ... 


... 79,527,272 


62,927,268 


142454,541 


16,600,004 


1892 ... 


... 91,102,754 


71,326,080 


162428,833 


19,776,674 


1893 ... 


... 89,712,865 


88,257,172 


177,970^36 


1455,693 


1894 ... 


... 113,246,086 


117481,955 


230,728,042 


* 4,235,869 


1895 ... 


... 136,112,178 


129,260,578 


265,372,756 


6351,600 


1896 ... 


... 117,842,761 


171,674474 


289,517,235 


♦ 53,831,713 


1897 ... 


... 163,135,077 


219,300,772 


382435349 


* 56,165,695 


1898 ... 


... 165,753,753 


277,502,157 


443,255,909 


•111,748404 


1899 ... 


... 214,929,894 


220401,926 


435,331320 


* 5472,032 


1900 ... 


... 204^9,994 


287,261346 


491,691,840 


* 82331352 


190I ... 


... 252,349,543 


255316,645 


508,166,188 


♦ 3467,102 


1902 ... 


... 258,303,065 


271,731,259 


530^34,324 


♦ 13428,194 



Rat£ of Pboorebs. — ^The foregoing table shows that compared 
with the corresponding figures in 1868 the total value of exports 
and imports in 1902 advanced by twenty fold ; by twelve fold 
compared with those of 1872; by eight fold compared with those of 
1882, and over threefold with those of 1892. 

Import anb Export of Specie. — ^The import and expoit of 
specie and bullion during the same period is shown below : — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



450 Japan in, the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

TOTAL VALUE OF EXPORT AND IMPORT OF SPECIE 
AND BULLION. 



(figures marked with an asterbk denote excess of exports). 













Excess of Exports 


Year. Exports. 


Imports. 


and Imports. 


yen. 


* y€n. 


yen. 


1868 — 


^^ 





1869 


... 


••• 


— • 


— 


— 


1870 


.. 


.. ••• 


— 


«• 


— 


187 1 


.. 





— 


— 


— 


1872 


.. . 





.. 4,480,896 


3,691,510 


* 789,389 


1873 







.. 5,122,927 


3,080,542 


* 2,042,386 


1874 


.. 





•. 13,995*202 


1,071,731 


♦12,923471 


1875 


.. . 





.. 14,663,971 


298,322 


♦14,365,649 


1876 


.. 





.. 10,675,701 


8,267,241 


* 2,408460 


1877 


.. 





.. 9,441,271 


2,173499 


* 7,267,772 


1878 


.. 





.: 8,328,653 


2,189,101 


* 6,139,552 


1879 







.. 12,778,864 


3,134,804 


* 9,644,060 


1880 







.. 13,222,993 


3,638,230 


* 9,584,763 


1 881 


.. . 





.. 7,490,547 


1,856,147 


* 5,634400 


1882 . 


.. . 





., 4430,198 


6,160,724 


1,730,526 


1883 


.. 


>• ••• 


.. 3,156,565 


5,451,501 


2,294,936 


1884 


... 





.. 5,005,072 


5.611,759 


606,687 


1885 


... 





.. 4,256^6 


7,546,841 


3,290,395 


1886 


.. 





.. 9,626,448 


9,171,874 


* 454,574 


1887 


.. 





,.. 11,035488 


8,871,266 


* 2,164,222 


1888 


.. 





.. 7,833444 


8,732492 


899,048 


1889 


.. 





.. 5,188,529 


14,173,246 


8,984,717 


1890 


.. 





.. 13,778,531 


1,200,607 


*I2,577,924 


1891 


.. 





.. 1,452,964 


13,888,526 


12435,562 


1892 


... 





9,729,753 


22,883,757 


13,154,004 


1893 


... 




... 12,289,188 


11,186,487 


* 1,102,701 


1894 


.. 





.. 34,379,1" 


26,783,653 


* 7,595458 


1895 


... 





... 27,301,699 


5,874,164 


♦21427,535 


1896 


.. 





.. 11,598,884 


39,142,208 


27,543,324 


1897 


.. 





... 19,219,163 


81466,713 


62,247,550 


1898 


.. 





... 86,987481 


42,563,781 


♦44423,700 


1899 







... 11,178,247 


20,163,501 


8,985,254 


1900 







.. 56,707,063 


11,517,835 


♦45,189,228 


1901 


... 


... •■• 


... 14,049,099 


10,960,750 


♦ 3,088,349 


1902 


.. 





.. 2/328,982 


32,161058 


30,132,376 



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Distribvtwn of Irade. 451 



CHAPTER EL 



DISTRIBUTION OF TRADE. 



Trade with Asia, Europe and America. — ^The commercial 
importance of the Asiatic Continent to our foreign trade is a fact 
that need not be insisted on, and the fact that the progress of our 
trade \vith the continent is striking redounds much to the credit of 
our countrymen. In 1882 Europe stood at the head of the 
list in the volume and value of its exports, followed by America 
and Asia. In imports Europe headed the list followed by 
Asia and America. Coming to 1902 the relative positions of 
these great divisions of the globe were reversed, and in the 
exports Asia came first followed by America and Europe. In 
imports also Asia occupied the same position, after which came 
Europe and America. 

Relative Progress op Trade with Asia, Europe 
AND America. — To review the relative progress of the share 
of the three continents in our trade, between 1882 and 
1902 Asia advanced by over sixteen fold in the value of 
our exports, Europe by 400 per cent., America about 600 
per cent., Australia and others by over 335 per cent. In im- 
ports the rate of advance between 1882 and 1902 was 
over 13 and a half fold for Asia, over 550 per cent, for 
Europe, over 1560 per cent for America, and over 565 per cent 
for Australia and others. Details are given in the follow- 
ing tables : — 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



452 Japan in the Beginning oj ike 2Qth Century. 

TOTAL VALUE OF EXPORTS TO VARIOUS COUNTRIES. 

Table I. 

(unit oi yen). 



Year. 



China. 



Korea. 



Dutch British 

India. India. 



French 
India. 



Hong- 
kong. 



1868 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1869... . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1870 .. . 

1871 


— 


— 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


1872... . 




















1873... . 


. 9,881,533 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1874... . 


. 8,665,716 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1875... . 


. 8,200,382 


— 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 


1876... . 


. 7,472,055 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1877... . 


5,674,540 


— 


— 


190,528 


— 


— 


1878... , 


. 4,784,194 


— 


— 


819,931 


— 


— 


1879... . 


. 5,865,350 


. — 


— 


1,591,039 


— 


— 


1880... . 


. 5,846,227 


— 


— 


1,750,977 


— 


— 


I88I... . 


5,503444 


— 


— 


2,212,964 


— 


— 


1882... . 


. 6,553,201 


— 


— 


2,306,223 


— 


— 


1883... . 


.. 5,768,226 


— 


— 


2455,619 


— 


— 


1884... . 


7,019,996 


408,398 


. — 


2,350,909 


— 


— 


1885... . 


. 6,342,198 


470,609 


— 


3,398,698 


— 


— 


i886... . 


.. 7,123,851 


563,448 


— 


3,561,319 


— 


— 


1887... . 


. 7,985,821 


1,010,374 


— 


5,291,614 


— 


— 


1888... . 


. 10,360,135 


1,041,764 


— 


7,689,092 


— 


— 


1889... . 


. 9,199,696 


1,273,332 


— 


7,333,859 


^ 


4,103,703 


1890... . 


.. 8,849,685 


4,363,540 


— 


8,910,892 


— 


5,495,912 


1891... . 


. 8,798,428 


4,032,922 


— 


5,614,079 


— 


5,089,606 


1892... . 


. 12,509,410 


3,046,340 


— 


7,662,004 


— 


6,985,721 


1893... . 


. 17,095,975 


1,999,439 


— 


8,679,029 


— 


8,268,071 


1894... . 


. 17,511,507 


2,183,313 


— 


10,560448 


6,204,147 


8,999,718 


1895... . 


. 22,985,144 


2,925,400 


— 


12,001,811 


3,382,673 


8,078,190 


1896... . 


. 21,344,521 


5,"8,925 


— 


22,517425 


1,673,389 


9,133,778 


1897..- . 


.. 29,265,845 


8,864,360 


— 


29,775,930 


9,525,553 


12,027,197 


1898.,. . 


. 30,523,861 


4,796,032 


1,659,606 


40,764,245 


26,668444 


15.904467 


1899... . 


. 28,687,731 


4,976,167 


1,305,572 


43,883,886 


4489,326 


7,338455 


1900 .. . 


.. 29,960,740 


8,805,618 


4,698,642 


23,516,351 


3,632,643 


10,659,855 


1901... . 


.. 27,256,986 


10,052,438 


5,075,787 


42,779,905 


4,082,897 


11,141,788 


1902... . 


.. 40,590,858 


7,957,946 


3,568,719 


50,977,168 


5,649,946 


2,454.881 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Dithnbwbion of Trade,. 



453 



Year. 






Philip- 
pines, 


Russian 

Asia. 


Siam. 


Total. 


1868 


>■• «•• 


••• 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1869 


• • ••• 


•■• 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1870 


••• ••• 


••• 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1871 





••• 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1872, 





••• 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1873 





••• 


— 


— 


— 


9381,533 


1874 


•• ••• 


... 


— 


— 


— 


8,665,716 


1875 


••« ••• 


... 


— 


— 


— 


8,200,382 


1876 





... 


— 


— 


— 


7472,055 


1877 


..• ••• 


••• 


— 


— 


— 


5365,068 


1878 





... 


— 


9,288 


— 


5,613412 


1879 


■•• ••• 


... 


— 


10,280 


— 


7466,669 


1880 


•• «•• 


••• 


— 


8,593 


— 


7,605,797 


1881 





... 


— 


74,844 


— 


7,791,251 


1882 


••• 


... 


— 


18,321 


— 


8377,745 


1883 





... 


— 


22,605 


— 


8,246450 


1884 


•• ••• 


... 


— 


12,488 


— 


9,791,791 


1885 


•• ••• 


••• 


— 


13451 


— 


10,224,956 


1886 


•• ••• 


... 


— 


"3,146 


— 


11,261,765 


1887 





... 


130,995 


19,146 


— 


14427,951 


1838 





... 


213,169 


332,5255 


35,696 


19,672,380 


1889 


•• •■• 


... 


227486 


825,254 


27369 


22,991,200 


1890 , 





... 


255,486 


769,948 


225309 


28371,272 


1891 





... 


228^1 


884,621 


28,472 


24,676,608 


1892 





... 


475,123 


835,395 


4,382 


31,518,376 


1893 





... 


567,133 


1,871,113 


54,391 


38,535,151 


1894 





... 


1,698^19 


1,165,306 


618359 


48,942,117 


i«95 





••• 


1^20,745 


i,37i,6»2 


143/595 


52,108,669 


1896 





••• 


iA>4,9i4 


1,318,893 


203,275 


63,115,119 


1897 





... 


2,675,300 


1,859,654 


1,190,969 


95,184309 


1898 





... 


3,294,183 


1,694,170 


4,173,610 


129478,617 


1899 





••• 


2,383374 


4,534,120 


757/>30 


98,356,160 


1900 





... 


2,284,294 


5,716,705 


585480 


89360,327 


1901 


•• ••• 


••• 


2,98iy03i 


4,515,166 


i,i95yo82 


i09p8ip8o 


1902 


.. ••• 


••• 


1,493^5 


5,963358 


1,695,779 


I20,353v02i 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



454 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

Table II. 
(unit ^iyen). 

Others. Total. 



Year. 



British 
America. 



U. S. of 
America. 



1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 

1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 

1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 



— 


1,017,761 


— 


1,017,761 


— 


1,047,250 


— 


1,047,250 


— 


1,920,346 


— 


1,920,346 


— 


1,124,882 


— 


1,124,882 


— 


1,736,781 


— 


1,736,781 


— 


2,727,585 


— 


2,727,585 


— 


3,212,273 


808 


3,2i3>o8t 


— 


2,669,334 


— 


2,669,334 


— _ 


1,816,200 


— 


1,816,200 


— 


3,133,666 


20,768 


3,154433 


— 


3,233,032 


4,844 


3,237,876 


— 


2489,970 


2,158 


2492,128 


— 


2,751,321 


2,295 


2,753,616 


— 


3,358,987 


5,536 


3,364,523 


26,174 


3,283,096 


1,185 


3,310454 


25,109 


5,648,734 


2,036 


5,675,879 


29,970 


6,143,171 


5,764 


6,178,905 


25,659 


6,874,531 


11,138 


6,911,329 


20,835 


6,840,048 


5,349 


6366,233. 


30,754 


5,988,054 


epiz 


6,024,840 


16,629 


6,090,408 


2,065 


6,109,103 


45,395 


10,982,558 


433 


11,028,387 


13,718 


9,276,360 


3,378 


9,293456 


51,525 


16,373420 


5,312 


16430,257 


129,129 


27,030,538 


289 


27,159,955 


156,989 


40,001,098 


6,651 


40,164,738 


182,018 


38,215,894 


2467 


38400,379 


316,669 


62,761,196 


12,808 


63,090,674 


181,785 


42,769430 


3,^ 


42,954,914 


517,274 


48,652,825 


1,879 


49,171,978- 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Year. 



Distribution of Trade. 455 

Australia. Egypt. Hawaii. Total. Others. Grand Total. 



1868... 


— 


— 


— 





___ 


__ 


1869... 


— 


— 


— 


— 





. 


1870... 


— 


— 


— 


— 








I87I... 


— 


— 


— 


— 





__ 


1872..: . 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 





1873... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


771,381 


28,107,390 


1874..- . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


754,373 


23461,814 


1875... . 


.. ■ — 


— 


— 


— 


399,556 


29,975,628 


1876... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


665,601 


23,964,679 


1877... . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


239497 


27420,903 


1878... 


23,238 


— 


14 


23,252 


8,341 


32,874,834 


1879 . 


78^2 


— 


998 


79440 


35,220 


32,953,002 


1880... 


38,080 


— 


50 


38,130 


48,573 


36,626,601 


I88I... 


74,327 


— 


— 


71,327 


51,723 


31,191,246 


1882... 


74,302 


— 


— 


74,302 


82,079 


29446,594 


1883... 


91,160 


% 


— 


91,160 


65,045 


28444,842 


1884... 


26^9 


— 


— 


26429 


46,554 


29,672,647 


1885.. . 


72,104 


— 


22 


72,126 


36,824 


29,356,968 


1886... . 


.. 80,466 


— 


-- 


80466 


92,881 


32,168432 


1887... 


32,266 


— 


-- 


32,266 


43,887 


44,304,252 


1888... 


218,713 


-- 


1,872 


220,585 


56,838 


65455,234 


1889... 


... 267,085 


— 


5,261 


272,346 


321,034 


66,103,767 


1890... 


•• 334,239 


— 


267 


334,505 


6,095,612 


81,728,581 


I89I... 


228,844 


— 


26,362 


255,205 


1,640,126 


62,927,268 


1892... 


... 272,787 


— 


648 


273435 


867,821 


71,326,080 


1893... . 


.. 319,034 


— 


3,690 


322,724 


1,916,340 


88,257,172 


1894... 


.. 534,763 


— 


6,148 


540,911 


390,204 


117481,955 


1895... 


.. 1,031,725 


— 


2,163 


1,033,888 


574,973 


129,260,578 


1896... 


.. 835,046 


— 


9,927 


844,973 


907,820 


171,674474 


1897... . 


897,050 


— 


4,414 


898464 


1,007,655 


219,300,772 


1898... 


.. 1,403436 


355,758 


23,951 


1,783,145 


1,306,104 


277,502,157 


1899... 


... 1,708,670 


939,365 


5,623 


2,653,658 


2,945,507 


220401,926 


1900... 


... 2455,939 


1,468,099 


5,265 


3,929,304 


3,988,141 


287,261,846 


I90I... 


.. 1,777,599 


1,889,644 


6,762 


3,674,004 


3,321,290 


255,816,645 


1902... , 


.. 1,672,218 


2^18,262 


22,724 


4,"3,2o4 


4,176,565 


271,731,259 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



456 Japan in the Beginning of ihe 2(Hfi Century. 

Tablb III. 
(unit of yen). 
Year. Austria. Belgium. France. Germany. 



England. 



1868 


■ •• •*• ••• ""^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1869 


.. ■•• ••• •"" 


— 


— 


— 


. — 


1870 


• •• .»• ••• '^~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


I87I 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1872 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1873 


— 


— 


2,489,270 


2,040,263 


11,907,182 


1874 


»• *•• •*• ~^ 


— 


1,745,242 


728,745 


10,520,490 


1875 


— 


— 


3,922,591 


813,506 


14,689,728 


1876 


— 


— 


3,171,956 


384,076 


11,117,277 


1877 


— 


63,474 


3P3ifi37 


700,981 


15,679,111 


1878 


19,757 


190,363 


3,348,811 


1,280,645 


19,273,057 


1879 


12,351 


159,789 


3499,277 


1,174,182 


16,868,965 


1880 


8,523 


363,029 


3,759,542 


V 1,745,067 


19,626,030 


I88I 


5,098 


389,588 


3,195,655 


861,921 


16,402,382 


1882 


5,871 


128,932 


M64,46o 


1,196,268 


13,971*9 


1883 


6,533 


268,913 


1,871^42 


1,421,612 


12,775,124 


1884 


... ••• 10,190 


202,653 


1,587,541 


2,315,869 


12,758,807 


1885 


5,091 


317,683 


1,333,880 


1,671,960 


12,456,611 


1886 


9,605 


507,907 


1,330,914 


2,313,659 


12,703,249 


1887 


27,074 


322,196 


2,313,346 


4,010,916 


18,970,544 


1888 


49,765 


596,160 


4,125,190 


5,260,897 


28,693,567 


1889 


19,572 


887,137 


3,334,168 


4,887,900 


26^67,935 


1890 


24,151 


1,032,351 


3,869.332 


6,856,956 


26,619,102 


I89I 


27,611 


688,958 


2,834,025 


5,127476 


19,996^51 


1892 


10,265 


951,537 


3,620,500 


6,375,048 


20,789,332 


1893 


24,209 


935,001 


3,305,278 


7,318,134 


27,929,628 


1894 


19,820 


1,201,121 


4,348,048 


7,909,542 


42,189,874 


1895 


25,121 


2,066,245 


5,180,135 


12,233,159 


45,172,111 


1896 


40,400 


3,106,094 


7,682,347 


17,183,953 


59,251,780 


1897 


85,943 


3,173,218 


5,147,592 


18,143,280 


65406,266 


1898 


591,326 


4,226,703 


6,979,983 


25,610,962 


62,707,573 


1899 


1,250,217 


5^^15,810 


5,768,180 


17,613,191 


44,836,994 


1900 


4,502,477 


7,949,254 


8^59,819 


29,199,696 


71,638,220 


I90I 


.. -- ... 4,738,198 


5,810,897 


3,752,828 


28,320,102 


50,575,789 


1902 


2,376,656 


6,977,656 


4,745,776 


25,812,921 


50,364,029 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Year. 



Distribution of Trade. 457 

Holland. Italy. Russia. Switzerland. Others. Total. 



1868 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1869 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1870 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


I87I 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1872 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1873 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


16,436,715 


1874 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


12,994476 


1875 


— 


29,519 


— 


— 


— 


19,455,343 


1876 


— 


28,832 


— 


— 


-^ 


14,702,142 


1877 


— 


63,394 


— 


41,560 


— 


19,579,557 


1878 


164,040 


118,133 


— 


66,790 


40,649 


24,502,243 


1879 


19,381 


112,999 


— 


260,831 


50,819 


22,158,594 


1880 


18,094 


159,010 


— 


530,134 


54,938 


26,264,767 


I88I ... ... 


8468 


177,110 


— 


376,590 


43,933 


21460,744 


1882 


I24I5 


112,290 


— . 


322,001 


43,940 


17,258,035 


1883 


15474 


155,964 


— 


253,093 


36,556 


16,804,311 


1884 


17,805 


91,177 


— 


294,772 


36,937 


17,315,750 


1885 


20,105 


95,998 


— 


306,255 


61,835 


16,269447 


1886 


44,749 


119,558 


— 


263,446 


75,7" 


17,368,799 


1887 


42pi8 


163,774 


— 


507,481 


122,249 


26479,695 


1888 


128,290 


200,133 


— 


659,607 


25,941 


39,829,551 


1889 


47,002 


144,663 


■r— 


765,008 


186,892 


36,340,281 


1890 


23,210 


128,744 





858,610 


103,406 


39,515,862 


I89I 


44,341 


1 1 1387 


— 


544,970 


108,776 


29489,096 


1892 


17,600 


67,680 


— 


713,650 


95,993 


32,641,607 


1893 


32,619 


86,578 


^ 


669,301 


73,106 


40,373,854 


1894 


30,174 


170,340 


8,468 


629,208 


73,744 


56,580,337 


1895 


61,535 


148,465 


46/>46 


1,040,212 


276,563 


66,249,591 


1896 


6i,799 


182,924 


97,956 


2,534,^17 


233,835 


90,376,306 


1897 


57,992 


213,267 


47,933 


2,555,905 


218,493 


95,049388 


1898 


242,869 


385,819 


116,291 


3,498,310 


319,917 


104469,552 


1899 


914,405 


236,988 


49,123 


1,676,669 


284,643 


78/>46,222 


1900 


809,620 


450,106 


309,227 


3/>i2,5o5 


426,477 


126,393400 


I90I 


408,244 


154,382 


210,276 


2,208,574 


606,068 


96,785,357 


1902 


772,666 


186,813 


103,114 


1,951,047 


625,814 


93,916491 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



458 ' Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 



CHAPTER IV^ 



PRINCIPAL EXPORTS. 



The principal exports from Japan are raw silk, habvJtayey cotton 
yarns, matches, fancy matting, tea, camphor, marine products, copper, 
coal, etc. Of these raw silk and habutaye stand out conspicuous in 
volume and value, and have in the United States of America and 
France their best customers. In 1892 the total value of their ex- 
ports amounted to 40,300,000 yen approximately, to be advanced to 
about 101,540,000 yen in 1902. Cotton yarns go mostly to China, 
Hongkong and Korea, matches and coal to China, Hongkong 
and British India; fancy matting to the United States of America, 
etc : marine products to China and Hongkong ; copper to Hongkong, 
England, Germany, etc. Details from 1868 are given below. 

TOTAL VALUE OF CHIEF COMMODITIES EXPORTED, 
(unit oiyen). 











Kan/en 




Year. 


Tea. 


Rice. 


Dried 
Cattle-6sh. 


(Colle- Sea-weeds. 
Vegetable.) 


Camphor. 


1868 


3,58»,769 


? 


125,854 


62,679 163,449 


n.09» 


1869 


2,102,420 


? 


173,586 


66,263 454,638 


"5,339 


1870 ••• .., 


4 5",6i6 


? 


195,602 


98,102 415,221 


235.^03 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 







Principal Exports. 




458 










Kanten 






Year. 


Tea. 


Rice. 


Dried 

Cuttle-fish. 


(CoUe 
Vegetable.) 


Sea-weeds 

1 


. Camphor 


1871 


4,671,761 


? 


204454 


108,388 


472,798 


129,864 


1872 


4,226,108 


? 


278,192 


78,166 


296492 


88,722 


1873 


4,659,392 


533,431 


282/330 


102,920 


397,4*8 


68,437 


1874 


7,253405 


316,126 


383,737 


134,243 


259,261 


155,550 


1875 ... ... 


6,862,855 


16,059 


242,346 


201,656 


284,883 


138,523 


1876 


5,453.981 


810,236 


323,079 


303,014 


397,672 


174,318 


1877 


4,375,275 


2,269,091 


414,956 


245,762 


339,975 


238,166 


1878 


4,283,695 


4.643,882 


379,155 


227498 


479,109 


323,665 


1879 


7/445 509 


416,879 


553,917 


269,867 


636,383 


455,910 


1880 


7,497,881 


210,652 


648,388 


291,758 


577434 


598,224 


1881 


7,021,593 


261,737 


477,886 


333,048 


681,338 


706,138 


1882 


7,029,718 


1,652,043 


648,682 


211,237 


408,309 


869,128 


1883 ... ... 


6,106496 


1,000,941 


802,986 


242405 


244,669 


707,993 


1884 


5.819,695 


2,169,942 


789,103 


309,084 


274,303 


549,503 


1885 


6,854,121 


766,759 


903,742 


345,720 


544,745 


558,646 


1886 


7,723,321 


3,301,169 


1,007,621 


392,644 


503,377 


928,028 


1887 


7,603,341 


2,255,114 


1,051,721 


337,880 


462,000 


1,130,596 


1888 


6,124,816 


7421,239 


1,071,963 


329,222 


373,552 


1,017,887 


1889 


6,156,729 


7,434,654 


1,088,605 


270,511 


471,253 


1,391,37* 


1890 


6,326,681 


1,321,635 


1,228,712 


323,444 


563,505 


1,931,993 


1891 


7,033,050 


6,123,332 


1,003^03 


453>124 


618,925 


1,629,105 


1892 


7,525,316 


4,162452 


980,307 


581,218 


818,841 


1,274,753 


1893 


7,702,088 


5,001,158 


1426,781 


682,140 


766,573 


1,308,611 


1894 


7,930.287 


5»593,i52 


1,162453 


495,625 


467,235 


1,023,956 


1895 


8,879,242 


7,207,346 


996,030 


449,271 


514,275 


1,526,832 


1896 


6,372,329 


7,951,087 


1,151,143 


595,818 


486,930 


1,119,196 


1897 


7,860,460 


6,141,218 


I 413,647 


591,057 


726,896 


1,318,292 


1898 


8,215,665 


5,920,185 


1,268,257 


611,336 


549,355 


1,174,574 


1899 


8498,783 


10,282,012 


1,362,068 


674435 


780,009 


1,754496 


1900 


9.035,819 


3,576,569 


1,158,794 


964,322 


730,844 


3,070,701 


1901 


8,854,327 


6,908,913 


1,842,249 


1,217,195 


1,092,923 


3,904,974 


1902 


10484,017 


6,679,544 


1,802415 


1,108,544 


609,143 


3404,833 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



460 


Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih i 


Century. 




Year. 


Sulphur. 


^^d^iSS!^ Fish Oil. 


Vegetable 
Wax. 


Raw Silk. 


Nbshi 
Silk. 


1868 ... 


6^79 


8,687 


9,322 


308468 


6,253.^73 


61,748 


1869 ... 


4»474 


— 


3.013 


93,445 


5.720,182 


98,539 


1870 ... 


5,461 


100,768 


no 


102,082 


4,278,752 


82,908 


1871 ... . 


.. 16,711 


142,954 


4,169 


207,270 


8,004,144 


127,514 


1872 ... 


.. 14,487 


423,716 


15,397 


273,520 


5,205,237 


205.927 


1873 ... . 


.. 19,916 


539,643 


274 


429,840 


7,208,421 


117,737 


1874 ... 


•• 35,555 


40,717 


— 


227,699 


5,302,039 


85,244 


1875 ^.. . 


.. 24,317 


135,685 


— 


188,027 


6424,916 


128473 


1876 ... , 


.. 41,282 


178,684 


- 


188,724 


13,197,921 


238,547 


1877 ... 


.. 17,186 


519,758 


— 


162,207 


9,626,956 


87,185 


1878 ... 


•. 35,531 


788,929 


- 


99,909 


7,889446 


254,157 


1879 ... 


.. 37,420 


797,726 


— 


329,975 


9,734,534 


578,322 


1880 ... 


.. 37,319 


422,056 


10,621 


244.990 


8,606,867 


605,294 


1881 ... 


... 66,982 


579,062 


3,098 


307497 


10,647,310 


961,075 


1882 ... 


... 31,225 


827,184 


105,783 


326,368 


16,232,150 


1,008,149 


1883 ... 


.. 119,765 


724,819 


153,782 


390,089 


16,183,550 


1,089,961 


1884 ... 


.. 66,645 


1,386,799 


340,269 


136,633 


11,007,172 


1,020,558 


1885 ... 


.. 137,932 


1,825,065 


108,166 


371,878^ 


13.033872 


672,630 


1886 ... 


.. 76,763 


2,148,840 


87,992 


326,174 


17,321,362 


1,297,623 


1887 ... . 


.. 136,023 


2^031,514 


38,689 


326445 


19,280,003 


1,264,780 


1888 ... . 


.. 120,903 


3,518,787 


64wt57 


381,983 


25,916,861 


M34623 


1889 ... 


.. 313,322 


2,878.969 


80,695 


350,641 


26,616,542 


1424,107 


1890 ... . 


.. 263,284 


5,352,313 


63,239 


266,848 


13.859,339 


1,445,275 


1891 ... 


.. 284,832 


4,877,089 


175,803 


316.835 


29,356,339 


1428,654 


1892 ... 


.. 280,963 


4,863,922 


248,621 


285,567 


36,269,744 


1,896,772 


1893 ... 


.. 238,832 


4,569,229 


533,480 


383,766 


28,167411 


1,594,582 


1894 ... 


.. 244,542 


4900,754 


668,063 


562,135 


39353,156 


1,632,211 


1895 ... 


.. 296,136 


5,157,667 


525/>45 


334.847 


47,866.257 


1.347,256 


1896 ... 


.. 308,588 


5478,602 


338,486 


371.701 


28,830,602 


1,247.813 


1897 ... 


.. 321,341 


5.774,699 


618478 


730,576 


55,630460 


i,i87.53« 


1898 ... 


.. 477,014 


7,267,075 


391,721 


609,760 


42,0474" 


1,082,917 


1899 ... 


.. 574,868 


",383.358 


550,961 


642,219 


62,627,721 


1,298,248 


1900 ... . 


.. 698,284 


",725,935 


906,821 


561435 


44,657,029 


960,687 


1901 ... 


.. 661,879 


13,904.611 


1,023,631 


610,371 


74,667,331 


995,407 


1902 ... 


.. 759,083 


10,261,984 


1,502,603 


789,875 


76,859,478 


1,694,272 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Principal Exports. 



461 



Year. 


Silk Waste. 


jiaouiae. 

(Silk . 

Tissaes.) 


(SUk 
Tissues.) 


Silk Hand, 
kerchiefs. 


Cotton Yam. 


Cotton 
Flannel. 


1868 ... 


19,829 






? 






1869 ... 


48,472 






? 






1870 ... 


44,140 






? 






1871 ... 


63,176 






? 






1872 ... 


88/)ii 






? 






1873 ... 


83,007 






? 






1874 ... 


107,081 






? 






1875 ... 


122,658 






? 






1876 ... 


... 227,562 






? 






1877 ... 


... 174,913 






> 






1S78 ... 


-. 344,957 






? 




1,812 


1879 ... 


... 647,291 






? 




802 


1880 ... 


... . 685.221 






? 

• 




1,008 


1881 ... 


... 828.607 






? 




3,143 


1882 ... 


... 1,206,495 






? 




652 


1883 ... 


... 878,973 






7 




296 


18S4 ... 


... 655,139 






> 




3^ 


i88s ... 


... 462,553 






? 




1,185 


1886 ... 


... 833.264 






? 




1,835 


1887 ... 


... 807,548 






1,146^81 




1,210 


1888 ... 


... 944,371 






1.233,927 




3907 


1889 ... 


... 832,469 






2.104459 




3461 


1890 ... 


... 1,126,579 


818,537 




2,516,946 


2,364 


3,175 


1891 ... 


... IP14668 


i,445»639 




2,811,820 


7,873 


22.585 


1892 ... 


... 1,314825 


41030^76 




3,494417 


7.7» 


106.10a 


1893 ... 


... 1,201,182 


3.553,604 




3,899,646 


59.176 


281,151 


i«94 ... 


... 1.S76.381 


7.254,478 


■> 


3,628,129 


955,550 


221,918 


1895 ... 


... 1,515.464 


8,354,490 


? 


5.339.955 


1,034,479 


400,520 


1896 ... 


_ 1.516,252 


7,052^17 


233,809 


4,617,720 


4,029^5 


427381 


1897 ... 


... 1,832,442 


9,530.676 


186^040 


3.390,146 


13,490,197 


231,749 


1898 ... 


.- >,573.oi4 


12,055,505 


573,551 


3,555,"5 


20,116,586 


350.830 


1899 ... 


... 2775^37 


I5.799PI4 


1,451.952 


3461.572 


28,521438 


768.95* 


1900 .^ 


.^ 3.»>,63i 


17-436.381 


878,313 


4,3i8,553 


20,589,263 


602AHI 


1901 ^ 


.. 3.473.362. 


23.912,356 


i.3i5,78o 


3.95i,»92 


214^573 


512448 


1902 ... 


.- 4,^19.524 


24,«5/|o8 


2,672,887 


3,154.237 


19901,522 


848787 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



462 

Year. 

1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 

1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 

1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 

1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 



White Cotton 
Tissues. 



Fans. 







? 


? 


79,519 


? 






? 


? 


82,978 


193 






?• 


? 


139,085 


? 






? 


? 


100,429 


2P55 






? 


? 


180,278 


19,142 




?' 


. ? 


? 


225,158 


49,653 






? 


? 


146471 


90,977 






? 


? 


213,385 


113,697 






? 


? 


187,500 


132,514 






? 


? 


289,235 


135,899 






? 


? 


381,974 


154,977 






? 


? 


454,988 


239,272 






2,043 


165 


460,086 


240,202 




• P 


4,741 


709 


395,020 


224431 






1,487 


572 


435,595 


156,857 






3,205 


1,801 


395,389 


89,061 






3,707 


2,745 


607,124 


94,994 






2,727 


3,613 


622,515 


107,945 






8,646 


3,319 


694,002 


195,144 






19,833 


2,088 


496,291 


248,925 






52,714 


5,077 


1,197,825 


280,039 






54,215 


3,210 


2,749,552 


252,131 




, * 


51,048 


8,593 


3,099,862 


295448 






94,732 


11,229 


3,179,203 


319,875 






177446 


17,250 


2,854,300 


304,886 






391,989 


29,854 


3,288,843 


424,156 






1,134,073 


56,877 


4,674,305 


319416 






1,635,902 


115,760 


5,409,111 


399,519 




182,113 


1,035,195 


81,937 


6,242,931 


693,893 


782,698 


346,036 


847,480 


231,611 


8,316,776 


885,601 


694,944 


386,226 


850,759 


133,441 


12,240,622 


499,233 


996,997 


669,074 


721,127 


294,548 


11,784,731 


532,176 


1,778,532 


1,754411 


866,591 


715,554 


13,703,655 


911,077 


1,357,588 


1,347,605 


707,770 


1,683,320 


17,542,273 


733,432 


1,079,908 


1,523,061 


653,330 


2^188,592 


17,270417 


727458 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Principal Exports. 



463 



Year. 

1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 

1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 



^^^ Matches 



Mats. 



^^^J"** Straw Europe«i 
^^^' Plaits. UmbiSSs. 



17,065 






23,015 


? 


? 


1,909 






4,704 


? 


? 


43,199 




^ \ 


26,236 


? 


? 


60,387 






22,354 


? 


? 


88,029 






45,531 


? 


? 


159,445 






116,481 


? 


? 


223,201 




384 


108,675 


? 


? 


167,880 




334 


113,224 


? 


? 


116,894 




636 


73,792 


? 


? 


185,262 




933 


120,853 


? 


? 


148,597 


20,400 


317 


169,100 


? 


? 


277,730 


83,589 


274 


307,039 


? 


? 


449,645 


369,672 


215 


474,579 


? 


7,587 


525415 


249,759 


927 


711,351 


? 


12,94« 


555,304 


37,240 


741 


578,641 


? 


1,610 


519,723 


3,165 


350 


543,768 


? 


966 


451,666 


2,792 


1,325 


525,933 


? 


3,545 


467,521 


60,566 


935 


695,269 


? 


1,762 


589,170 


378,022 


2,709 


1,002,384 


? 


. 12,083 


630,725 


941,576 


36,296 


1,311,901 


350450 


26,852 


589,649 


740,934 


148,224 


I,295^3l6 


268,557 


53,858 


628466 


1,137,952 


166^83 


1,449,888 


146,847 


84,255 


572,157 


1,489,030 


347,541 


1,245,957 


87,196 


114,228 


577,372 


1,843,637 


656,123 


1,287,027 


193,777 


161,504 


528,075 


2,202,041 


1,176,680 


1480,411 


155,162 


364,309 


708,992 


3,537,974 


1,723,383 


1,577,191 


378,349 


589,276 


797,539 


3795,635 


1,965^*93 


1484,854 


743,399 


746^)68 


1,083,212 


4,672,812 


3461,370 


1,955/360 


1,387,643 


735,207 


948,734 


4,986,260 


3^056,759 


1,974,854 


2,254,354 


773,627 


767,401 


5,641,993 


3,232,738 


1,819,061 


3,181,915 


627,050 


782,933 


6,273,949 


3,938450 


1,990,781 


2404,003 


687,197 


988,662 


5,890,666 


3,717489 


2,181,336 


2,770,178 


953.545 


1,066,390 


5,760,869 


3,310,042 


2471,904 


4,025,159 


860,986 


994,654 


7,392,869 


5,354,976 


2491,668 


2,989,836 


1,023,638 


889,079 


8,169,966 


6,772,496 


2461,544 


2,938,858 


1,037,926 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



464 Japan in the Beginning of Hie 20th Century, 



CHAPTER V. 



PRINCIPAL IMPORTS. 



Of the imports into Japan machineries, iron ware, petroleum^ 
sugar, raw cotton, cotton fabrics, woollen goods, etc. are the princi- 
pal items. Of the machines locomotives and mules surpass all the 
rest, the former coming from England and the United States and 
the latter from England. Iron ware come from the United States, 
and Russian Asia; sugar from China, Hongkong, and Germany; 
ginned cotton from the United State:*, Hongkong and British India; 
cotton goods from England and Germany ; woollen goods from England, 
Grermany, Belgium, and France. The advance in the import of all 
those lifticles is due to the development of our industry and to the 
rise of the scale of living of our people. Among those goods, there 
are many which Japan has begun to manufacture or is about to 
manufacture with the exception of woollen goods, so that though the 
import of raw materials or others ministering to one or another manu- 
facturing industry in this country is destined to advance, that of 
manufactured goods may be expected to decline. Details regarding the 
value of principal imports are given in the following table : — 

TOTAL VALUE OF COMMODITIES IMPORTED. 

(unit oi yen). 

*•-• l^r' F«*Egg. ^^ F.our. 

1868 ? ? . ? ? 

1869 ? ? ? ? 

1870 ? ? ? ? 



Aniline 
Dyes. 


Dry 
Indigo. 


? 


1,743 


? 


4,758 


? 


8,546 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Prineipal ImporU. 



465 





Locomotive 




Salted 




Aniline 


Dry 


Year. 


Engines. 


Fresh Eggs. Fish. 


Flour. 


Dyes. 


Indigo. 


1871 . 


? 


? 


21 




? 


20,859 


1872 . 


? 


? 


379 




? 


28,724 


1873 . 


. ... ? 


? 


267 




? 


3,187 


1874 . 


. ... ? 


? 


471 




? 


968 


1875 . 


. ... ? 


? 


389 




? 


6,689 


1876 .. 


? . 


? 


612 




? 


4,353 


1877 . 


. ... ? 


? 


298 




? 


7,094 


1878 .. 


. ... ? 


? 


328 




? 


7,365 


1879 . 


. ... ? 


? 


3,875 




? 


9,098 


1880 . 


. ... ? 


? 


1,135 




? 


2,902 


1881 .. 


. ... ? 


? 


10,299 




? 


9,^2 


isgr-. 


. ... -r 


? 


4,514 




? 


12,638 


1883 « 


^ ... 21,842 


? 


8,367 




137,059 


34,678 


1884 . 


. ... 60,222— 


"' 21,979 


1458 




144,375 


. 1,381 


1885 . 


. ... 93,292 


21,820 


728 




142432 


6,343 


1886 . 


90,090 


38421 


862 




185,335 


85,518 


1887 . 


95,523 


46,068 


760 




266,635 


56,654 


1888 . 


301,197 


45,596 


3,765 




367,042 


155,721 


1889 . 


284,144 


28,821 


4,582 




293.234 


250471 


1890 . 


. ... 659,604 


31,370 


5,260 


226,157 


349,579 


201,071 


1891 . 


. ... 595y*74 


33442 


10,928 


340,540 


386,604 


186,857 


1892 . 


. ... 200,418 


70444 


12,064 


275,092 


418,482 


386,193 


1893 . 


. ... 356,534 


108,056 


44,203 


319,659 


405,047 


444,208 


1894 . 


. ... 1,580,273 


56,119 


* 63,198 


619,009 


543494 


329,861 


1395 . 


. ... 1,163,695 


95,207 


107,145 


406,855 


682,138 


581,370 


1896 , 


. ... 1,620,768 


300,389 


231,035 


994,202 


1,139,929 


1,067,257 


1897 .. 


. ... 4,235,617 


337,769 


495,907 


1,156,569 


931,197 


1,538,022 


1898 . 


. ... 4,282,502 


492,553 


609,736 


2,022,413 


1,218,842 


2,270,81s 


1899 . 


. ... 1,968,374 


826,960 


. 1,212,896 


1,370,857 


904,013 


2.903,829 


1900 . 


. ... 1,089,209 


1,243,065 


'2,184,846 


3,882,517 


1,328,751 


3,902,559 


1901 .. 


. ... 1,749408 


1,298,611 


1,442,790 


2,873,302 


884,884 


2,665^^3 


1902 . 


. ... 1,708,014 


1,196455 


2^11,487 


3,278,324 


1,653,220 


3/>97,98i 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



466 


Japan in the Beginning of ih 


e 20tt C 


erUury, 




Year. 


Window 
Glass. 


Soja 
Beans. 


Rice. 


Sole 
Leather. 


Pig Iron. 


Iron, Bar 
and Rod* 


1868 « 


10,144 




435,956 


? 


16,732 


? 


1869... 


19,043 




4431386 


? 


16,902 


? 


1870... 


15.616 




14,598,114 


? 


• 4406 


? 


1871... 


32,232 




1,260,179 


? 


18,519 


? 


i872... 


... 452,586 




? 


? 


2,339 


? 


1873 .. 


... 103,325 




29,785 


? 


23491 


? 


1874... 


55,654 




• 24,366 


? 


38,981 


? 


1875... 


58495 




22,226 


? 


91,063 


? 


1876... 


100,570 




590 


? 


18,015 


? 


1877... 


91,885 




300 


? 


40,734 


? 


1878... 


... 101,337 




66 


? 


44,786 


? 


1879... 


68,453 




248,271 


? 


31,621 


? 


1880... 


105,463 




434,315 


? 


82402 


? 


1881 .. 


98,112 




134,838 


? 


112,338 


? 


1882 :. 


36,569 




20,134 


? 


95438 


? 


1883- 


... 137,628 




69 


87,384 


Ii6p44 


404,590 


1884... 


97,485 




11,529 


137417 


88436 


301352 


1885.. 


... 109,455 




674,330 


166,986 


105,843 


296,348 


1886 .. 


..• 186,405 




18,757 


143471 


101,034 


396,720 


1887.. 


116,075 




129,315 


260437 


118,369 


447,101 


1888... 


160,995 




21,628 


290,664 


397,165 


749,916 


1889... 


... 257,248 




136,756 


310,922 


164,148 


842,511 


1890.. 


202,638 




12,302,884 


234,380 


185,948 


830,116 


1891... 


300,160 




3,907,991 


243,503 


199,209 


870410 


1892... 


160,594 ■ 




2,052,901 


219430 


241,317 


871,702 


1893... 


... 359,315 




3,254,842 


215,702 


446477 


975,787 


1894... 


246,033 




8413,148 


281,782 


743,553 


1,339,034 


1895.. 


309,802 




4,357,096 


497,774 


673,796 


2,085,684 


1896... 


... 570442 




5,662,337 


576,584 


739,556 


2,399,705 


1897... 


... 488,090 


5450378 


21,528429 


462,524 


934/>io 


3,046,132 


1898... 


669,807 


6,291,064 


48,219,810 


716,879 


1,381443 


4,061,805 


1899.. 


... 1,256,577 


7,891,928 


5,960,166 


549/J29 


965,544 


2,603,676 


1900 .. 


952,919 


4,425,079 


9^21,536 


984,798 


962,910 


5,243408 


1901... 


... 1,084,833 


5,177,360 


11,878^58 


590,713 


1,593,311 


3,511,756 


1902... 


... 1,581,071 


4,956,009 


17,750317 


531,392 


982,326 


3,519,126 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Principal ImporU. 



407 



Iron Wire 



xcar. 


is.aii5. 


and Sheet. 


Iron Sheet. 


and Tubet . 


iron iMAiu. 


Ro<K 


1868.. 


? 


? 


? 






2^i% 


1869 . 


? 


? 


? 






9.1^ 


1870... 


? 


? 


? 






»»»373 


1871 . 


? 


? 


? 






13,4^ 


1872 .. 


? 


? 


? 






«4,7^> 


1873--. 


? 


• ? 


? 






IMV/ 


1874 .- 


? 


9 


? 


I3,»99 




5M2« 


1875^ 


? 


7 


? 


9/ioo 




1M« 


1876 .. 


» 


7 


? 


io//i9 




3J.26ri 


1877-. 


? 


» 


? 


i8,«67 




yA$77 


1878... 


? 


^ 


? 


20,286 




0*744 


1879 .. 


? 


^ 


? 


1M3« 




W/59 


18S0. 


162,915 


^ 


? 


2JPI4 




55/A'^ 


18S1... 


I09A47 


7 


? 


24^28 




^//JZ 


1S82... 


... i»r.'':3% 


9 


J 


2f.iAf» 




fj^'^'i 


1883^ 


... 4>3^ 


iS9.9C'3 


7 


I'jOy^ 


y^v//5 


%i'^h'/f 


iS84~ 


I7X-':*>S 


1S6.391 


5*5*5 


lO/yn 


^H.7»f 


M5//>5 


1885- 


._ -f^ut^r; 


166.797 


19/^3 


«9v5« 


AtAsirp 


'/f^¥n 


1*86^ 


_ *y--%i6 


2fIiC>iO 


19.5?^ 


34^>'« 


4y>^/y 


(A^i^M 


itoT- 


— «fM34 


218j>J2 


^55' 


V>4/'«5 


y/>^> 


lU^' 


iSSS. 


. iJL'ZJL^f 


21'fMz 


s:-^;4 


7«'0:> 


^Sv-^/ 


7SA;; 


ISS9.. 


. . ihi.>,:i 


VA'A'^ 


7*^-7:5 


3^.3 110' 


V/f^^^ 


*;.t7 


IS90- 


— i^> Vsi 


3»4.'>''7 


ry^^s 


fV, f-/^ 


V>r/' 


v.y.^ 


IS9I - 


-. ?>:r?'i 


i^JXf: 


*,z:tf* 


J'X i'yi 


<^/S irv 


v/'/' 


IS92-. 


.« 'J-JL^ 


tJtp-J^ 


y.j57 


5:*'^$ 


*f/.AXt 


' 1 4 ' ^ # 


1593 . 


.. *»j'ji 


ir^z^A 


f2;/>fj 


lii»/. 


'>r,zy^ 


•v^'v- 


155^-- 


^ ijrx-xf; 


7^- 'r^ 


;v: :<r. 


cr i.vyCr 


' //--^;t 


V^.-.-i 


ite - 


— s^ff:' 


^•i-ti> 


112 '£; 


V.t'5: 


ljr->/<^ 


^<. •< 


i>^:. 


- iv-^-xf:- 


« :/-.'>--r 


v-^yr- 


V.::>v 


«X«^^^4 


Ji^r-^ 


"^ - 


— l^yZ^z^Ji 


; -'f.jfy. 


?4i J>4 


V-tv>2 


i^:,>^3^ 


-V -'//";■ 


^^- 


^ i-^r--- 


i.a^.>-:r 


oCcjrV; 


« '..-V*-- 


* :->; 


-;>.v-6 


i^ - 


*:^.,i5c 


ija-.-c--^ 


y^LAyv 


V;'^/' 


2^:^;^ 


^-.-v.;^-^ 


190C . 


- x^rrrnr- 


x^'Jic^x: 


» :^:;:^^ 


i.y;,ii'>i 


%:k::M, 


: i'xx *v 


»9M 


:,ic^^ji 


i^-,-:^^ 


-^'"J-^A 


;-»;.vV. 


i /,^^j^ 


► -^ »^ 


iy=z . 


. Z.VJ^—J^. 


^Ai,' ^>C 


i:rj^. 


-/.-../. ;t 


i^:^'^, 


:" ,' /r 






Digitized by LjOOQIC 



468 


Japan in 


^ the Beginning of 


the 20th Century. 




Year. 


Telegraph ^ 
Wire. 


Materials of Lead, Pig, 
Bridges and Ingot and 
Buildings. blab. 


Petroleum 
or Kero- 
sene Oil. 


Printing 
Paper. 


Sugar. 


1868 ... 


? 




107,327 


7,236 


7 


529,315 


1869... 


? 




134,021 


1,662 


? 


1,090,894 


1870 ... 


? 




30,618 


21,516 


? 


2,317,921 


1871 ... 


? 




17,229 


72,170 


? 


2,188,314 


1872... 


7 




? 


160,608 


? 


1,156,697 


1873... 


? 




2,222 


330,599 


? 


1,599,960 


1874... 


? 




8,187 


306,723 


? 


1,888,935 


1875 '" 


? 




24,634 


573,671 


? 


2,582,890 


1876... 


? 




63,771 


444,134 


? 


2,185,982 


1877 ... 


? 




287,775 


605,598 


y 


2,105,026 


1878 ... 


? 




187,595 


1,803,076 


? 


2,222,975 


1879... 


? 




104,655 


2,185,224 


? 


2,375.757 


1880 ... 


58,611 




51,134 


1400471 


? 


2480,580 


1S81 ... 


13,976 




87,208 


979,112 


? 


2,287,158 


1882... 


1,759 




46,796 


2,320,905 


? 


2,887,888 


1883 ... 


30,111 




134,387 


2456,261 


38,159 


2,581,639 


1884 ... 


2,104 




67,958 


1,773,361 


21,264 


2,917,032 


1885 ... 


93 




16,678 


1,667,722 


24,729 


2,144,291 


1886... 


2,935 




71,667 


2,358498 


62,383 


1,928,698 


1887 ..• 


2,837 




108,835 


1,871428 


115,171 


2418,898 


1888... 


27,745 




201,252 


3,519,255 


387,682 


2428,608 


1889 ... 


33,549 




173487 


4,587,135 


178,335 


2,078,136 


1890... 


74,357 




85425 


4,950,256 


413486 


2,974,074 


1891 ... 


60,286 




104,028 


4,535,720 


159,622 


2461,625 


1892 ... 


89,294 




245,383 


3,328,398 


217,310 


2,810,331 


1893 ... 


121,986 




149,328 


4401,041 


217,695 


3,514,720 


1894... 


142,215 




177,638 


5,135,332 


257,857 


4,551,848 


1895 ... 


... 205,714 




313,632 


4,303,929 


307,699 


4,074,241 


1896... 


... 506,490 


579,520 


257,383 


6,331,036 


723438 


3480,588 


1897 ... 


... 477,775 


937,379 


257,805 


7,667,350 


856,957 


4»8o9455 


1898... 


... 408,842 


1,908,562 


365,202 


7,552,880 


2,283,215 


7,333,700 


1899... 


817,200 


285,842 


412,155 


7,918,149 


748414 


8,359,736 


1900... 


... 1,095,575 


1,880,314 


927,152 


14,162,652 


2,036,844 


ii/x>7,634 


1901 ... 


... 683,658 


1481,153 


876,228 


14,943401 


864^^1 


12,381466 


1902 ... 


... 799,983 


341,797 


510,713 


14,937,169 


1402,862 


8,778,657 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Principal Imports. 



469 



Year. 


Sugar 
Refined. 


ouineu 

Raw 
Cotton. 


lUlW 

Cotton in 
the Seed. 


Cotton 
Yams. 


Cotton 
Flannel. 


Cotton 
Prints. 


1868 


356,836 


421,874 




1,239,580 




77,051 


1869 


531,340 


1,087,992 




3418,148 




109,882 


1870 


7291832 


628,308 




4,522,194 




200,097 


1871 845,777 


206,799 




3,520,141 




216,602 


1872 


533,508 


85,703 




5,335,141 




210,354 


1873 


576,012 


264430 




3,400,225 




246,186 


1874 706,180 


1,091447 




3,573,257 




104.509 


1875 


842,574 


371,132 




4,058,036 




195,554 


1876 


595,388 


456,362 




4,151,664 




207,067 


1877 


688,653 


418,125 




4,084,714 




196,247 


1878 


666,631 


287,641 




7,205,931 




282,775 


1879 


974,168 


101,603 




6,179,857 




179,377 


1880 ... . 


1,055,067 


170,639 




7,700,477 




392,539 


1881 ... . 


1,444434 


196,721 




7,263,776 




407,038 


1882 ... '. 


. 1,557,908 


467,249 




6,562,012 




107442 


1883 


. 1,810,707 


247,506 




6,164,721 




233,197 


1884 


. 2,452,516 


561,262 




5,153,252 




24^,634 


1885 ... . 


.. 2,527,168 


601,778 


207,294 


5,190,095 




208,191 


1886 ..-. . 


.. 3,641,226 


618429 


76,657 


5,905457 




145,957 


1887 .... . 


■. 3,318,503 


711,952 


202,016 


8,235,204 




318,375 


1888 ... . 


.. 4451,681 


1,652,244 


569,525 


13,611,898 




389,070 


1889 ... . 


.. 4,151,356 


3464,326 


2,204,512 


12,522,039 




398,560 


1890 ... . 


.. 5436,068 


4,134,790 


1,230,363 


9,928,092 




478463 


1891 ... . 


.. 5,289,387 


6,998,534 


1,200,717 


5,589,290 




140,905 


1892 ... . 


.. 6,724,254 


11,026,637 


1,298,017 


7,131,980 




436,545 


1893 ••• . 


.. 7,957,211 


15,294,898 


856,673 


7,284,243 




635,903 


1894 ... . 


.. 8,707,392 


19,103,923 


506,838 


7,977,366 




521,697 


1895 -.. . 


.. 7,673,018 


24,304,814 


517,283 


7,082,975 




383,365 


1896 ... . 


.. 10,263,358 


32,106,276 


467,076 


",371,950 




1,193,162 


1897 ... . 


.. 15,013,320 


43,122,263 


497,952 


9,625,258 


252,929 


986443 


1898 ... . 


.. 21,105,595 


45410,457 


333,914 


8,547,589 


602,781 


1,176,789 


1899 ... . 


.. 9,156,303 


61,365,755 


844,962 


4,963,326 


797425 


1,438,245 


1900 ... . 


.. 15,598,894 


58,500,002 


971,627 


7,043,046 


1,515409 


2,002,732 


1901 ... . 


.. 21,111,901 


59,799,300 


851,062 


4,873,738 


234,672 


680468 


1902 ... . 


. 5,589,157 


78,779,858 


1/304,914 


1,747,875 


704,812 


2,602,032 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



470 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 













Woolen and 




Year. 


Cotton 
Satins. 


Gray 

Shirtings. 


White 
Shirtings. 


Wool. 


Worsted 

Yams of 

All Kinds. 


Flannels. 


1868... 


355 


1,504,788 


? 




? 


10,745 


1869... 


1,565 


1,666,241 


407 




? 


5,498 


1870... 


130 


1,727,037 


— 




? 


8,099 


1871... 


— 


4,362,020 


49,398 




? 


8,514 


1872... 


.. 308,698 


3,117,956 


20,052 




? 


105,324 


1873... 


... 294,870 


3,043,702 


60,325 




? 


224,032 


1874... 


74,987 


3,594,994 


27,770 




498 


30,229 


1875... 


... 218,739 


2,425,676 


44,646 




149 


45,695 


1876... 


... 201,397 


2,187,265 


29,235 




4,790 


39,896 


1877... 


... 271,023 


1,835,213 


64,335 




879 


130,578 


1878... 


... 294,465 


1,881,821 


85,961 




1,4+8 


170,983 


1879... 


... 356,158 


3,359,593 


68,958 




1,231 


34,358 


1880... 


... 478,259 


2,208,711 


102,738 




3,639 


28,348^ 


1881... 


... 416,458 


1,914,316 


103,738 




2,022 


• 60,317 


1882... 


96,179 


2,426,822 


94,676 




4,043 


105,785 


1883... 


... 157,843 


1,092,743 


115,951 


89,845 


2,994 


94,583 


1884... 


98,547 


855,920 


120,796 


42,519 


2,323 


172,588 


1885... 


103,148 


1,233,746 


98,814 


75,385 


10,218 


287,182 


1886... 


47,994 


848,370 


120,851 


150,002 


^,831 


318,180 


1887... 


198,991 


1,169,817 


266,800 


189,899 


255,302 


323.780 


1888... 


... 298,761 


2,332,564 


212,652 


300,369 


165,295 


549,357 


1889... 


... 189,583 


2,010,715 


174,125 


302,085 


256,112 


1,029,986 


1890... 


231,592 


1,716,981 


225,889 


369,914 


494,316 


927,562 


1891... 


... 135,880 


1,656,681 


216,895 


206,548 


168,385 


406,860 


1892... 


... 525.658 


1,727,186 


330,559 


302,502 


427,993 


1,073,743 


1893... 


... 855,398 


2,315,124 


168,305 


425,120 


513,930 


1,389,714 


1894... 


... 1,266,151 


2,935,034 


337,607 


567,197 


563,501 


308334 


1895... 


... 794,136 


3,071496 


505,720 


1,136,951 


951,035 


961,332 


1896... 


... 2,610,925 


4,057,692 


655,449 


1,017,441 


1,114,872 


1,997,245 


1897... 


... 1,796,973 


3,783,309 


250,864 


1,062,398 


1,337,424 


1,187,656 


1898... 


... 1,645,229 


4,382,509 


708,348 


1,642,819 


785,192 


1,360,038 


1899... 


949,750 


3,575,191 


517,808 


4,324,427 


593,338 


374,959 


1900... 


... 3,662,638 


5,558,004 


1,325,142 


3,919413 


1,798,535 


917,932 


1901... 


... 1,684^97 


2,991,651 


575,743 


3,127,760 


866,760 


313,297 


1902... 


... 1,788,536 


5,070,651 


1,191,777 


3,397,564 


922,147 


487,350^ 



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Principal Imports. 



471 



Year. 



Italian 
Cloths. 



Woolen and Plush or 

Mousseline Woolen and Worsted Velvets, 

de Laine of Worsted Cloths in Silk and 

All Kinds. Qoths. Part of Cotton 

Cotton. Mixture. 



1868 . 

1869 . 

1870 . 

1871 . 

1872 . 

1873 . 

1874 . 

1875 . 

1876 . 

1877 . 

1878 . 

1879 . 

1880 . 

1881 . 

1882 . 

1883 . 

1884 • 

1885 . 

1886 . 

1887 . 

1888 . 

1889 . 

1890 . 

1891 . 

1892 . 

1893 

1894 . 

1895 . 

1896 . 

1897 . 

1898 . 
1899 

1900 , 

1901 . 
1902 



2,786 


73,278 


235,345 




? 


— 


— 


606,171 




? 


42,617 


. — 


646,306 




? 


17,759 


— 


840,039 




? 


— 


— 


3,036480 




? 


155,599 


1,076444 


1,320,896 




? 


50,616 


981,237 


112,887 




? 


214,695 


2,393,158 


530,868 




? 


188480 


2,263,273 


594,601 




? 


496,081 


2,373,621 


684,936 




? 


339,814 


2,693,767 


702,653 




? 


651,929 


3,126,043 


212,109 




? 


898,429 


3478,057 


188,484 




? 


531,827 


2,709,341 


89,235 




? 


573495 


1,221,785 


181,881 




? 


995,091 


1,618,072 


192,121 


80,578 


? 


450,338 


1,839,998 


467,642 


68,072 


? 


828,055 


906,617 


391,905 


82440 


? 


857,537 


830,774 


615,574 


198,547 


? 


921,662 


1,126,675 


1402,809 


501,928 


? 


1485,059 


2,364/592 


1,041,539 


225,264 


? 


1,378,852 


1,979,344 


606,323 


195,825 


? ■ 


1,686,642 


2,784,393 


901,130 


155,198 


? 


1,846,328 


1,891,884 


432,001 


64,946 


? 


1,062,572 


2448,900 


640417 


196,618 


? 


1,489,305 


2,305,506 


801408 


3'8,799 


? 


1,759,796 


3,150,823 


641,270 


175,559 


? 


921,741 


3,633468 


2,951,042 


169,266 


? 


2,813,097 


6498,162 


3407,151 


706,902 


136470 


1,815,582 


3,835,881 


1,943,532 


290,544 


325,647 


1,068,270 


4408,753 


2,803,607 


444,144 


599495 


1,132,575 


4,350,934 


2,004,198 


531,554 


675,231 


1,120,737 


7,364,991 


2,969,763 


2437,123 


984,935 


601439 


3,339,121 


1,318,162 


901,395 


379yt02 


1,181,175 


3,754,836 


2,000,012 


1430,034 


631,233 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



472 



Japan in the Beginning of the 20f/t Century. 



Year. 


riax, rxemp, 

Jute and 
China Grass. 


Leaf. 
Tobacco. 


Coal. 


Oil-Cakes. 


1868... .. 


. ... ? 




33,754 


537 


1869 


. ... 39 




96,739 


669 


1870 


. ... — 




24,963 


50,765 


1871 


. ... 78 




145,237 


102,333 


1872 


. ... — 




179,758 


3,738 


1873 


. ... 15,298 




236,711 


1,354 


1874... .. 


. ... 11,385 




99,960 


24,626 


1875 


. ... 6,836 




147,513 


10,900 


1876 


. ... 3,695 




193,601 


408 


1877 


. ... 4,232 




159,073 


40 


1878 


. ... 9,975 




257,122 


25,036 


1879 


. ... 58,551 




164,636 


118,965 


1880... .. 


. ... 88,199 




156,227 


233,110 


1881 


. ... 62,970 




256,625 


29,335 


1682 


. ... 34,966 




149,716 


44468 


1883 


. ... 18,399 




103,322 


H,802 


1884 


. ... 20,132 




21,685 


361 


1885 


. ... 20,139 




85,038 


21,672 


1886 


. ... 23413 




65,383 


965 


1887 


. ... 50,292 




65,275 


229,687 


1888 


. ... 88,069 




29,880 


164,193 


1889 


. ... 93,611 




40,015 


201,953 


1890 


. ... 139,777 




1 10497 


194,296 


1891 


. ... 149,661 




142,918 


355,989 


1892 


. ... 213,217 




105,380 


824,652 


1893 


. ... 326,337 




81,707 


599,893 


1894 


. ... 537,92s 




472,757 


822,195 


1895... .. 


. ... 645,841 




853,080 


946^028 


1896 


708,162 


35,537 


519,380 


3,220,600 


1897 


. ... 654,791 


320,854 


573,570 


3,315,587 


1898 


. ... 590,517 


4,527,660 


399,189 


4,614,967 


1899 


. ... i,245Ai9 


5,086,354 


937,094 


6,791,813 


1900 


. ... 1,700409 


454,293 


2,100,054 


5,722,764 


1901 


. ... 1,370,183 


30,272 


2,542,133 


8,115,908 


1902 


. ... 1,602,799 


956,817 


1,298,374 


10,121,712 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Providona for Encouraging Foreign Trade. 473 

CHAPTER VL 



PROVISIONS FOR ENCOURAGING FOREIGN TRADE. 



1. Chambers of commerce : — Commercial and industrial bodies 
discharging the functions of regular chambers of commerce had pre- 
viously* existed in Japan even prior to the Restoration, but as an 
institution owing its origin to regular legislative arrangements the 
Chamber of Commerce first saw the light in September 1890. Since 
that time dS chambers have already been established throughout 
the country. The regulations about the Chambers of Commerce having 
proved defective in working, officials were sent to the West to 
investigate the organization of the institutions as they existed 
there. A draft was drawn up after careful investigations by 
the Government and leading business-men into the system of the 
Western organizations of this description, and a new law was 
promulgated in March 1902, this law being now in force. To 
enumerate the principal clauses in the new legislature, the Chamber 
is ; (1) a juridical person ; (2) qualified to investigate all measures 
calculated to encourage trade and industry; (3) to represent to the 
offices concerned its views about legislature relating to trade and 
industry and also on all matters relating to the interests of trade 
and industry ; (4) to give reply to the queries referred to it by the 
offices concerned ; (5) to inquire into the situation of trade and 
industry and to compile statistics bearing on the same subject ; (6) 
to undertake similar inquiries at the request of merchants or manufac- 
turers, and also to gurantee the place of produce, price, etc!, of 
commodities; (7) to appoint, at the request of Government offices, 
appraisers or consulting agents relating to trade or industry; (8) to 
act as arbitrator in disputes of merchants or manufacturers at request 
of the parties concerned ; (9) to establish, subject to the approval of the 
Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, institutions of a commercial or 
industrial character or to manage them or to make other provisions 
calculated to encourage trade or industry. 

The right of election and the right of eligibility for member- 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



474 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Cenhiry. 

ship are confined only to Japanese subjects or to juridical persons 
established under Japanese laws. The right of election is accorded 
to those who are carrying on in their own names business coming 
under Arts. 263 and 264 of the Commercial Code ; or those who 
are engaged in manufacturing business coming under those provisions, 
also to exchanges, mine-owners, and directors of juridical persons 
undertaking business on a large scale. The qualifications for the 
enjoyment of the right are precisely specified and only those who 
possess the right are eligible. The regular number of members must 
not be more than 50 ; besides there are " special members " not 
exceeding one-fifth of the number of regular members. The election 
is carried on according to the method of ordinary election, compound 
election and class-election. The expenses for maintaining chambers 
are to be borne by those enjoying the right of election. 

Besides the chambers existing at home, the Japanese subjects 
residing in the various part of Korea, as Fusan, Mukpho, Gensan 
and Jinsen have chambers of their own. Though their establishment 
is subject to the approval of the Japanese Consuls, those chambers 
do not come under the control of Japanese laws. 

A number of legislative measures besides the Law of Chambers of 
Commerce are in force, to regulate matters relating to the institution. 

2. The Higher Council of Agriculture, Commerce ani> 
Industry. — ^The Government does not neglect to make provisions 
calculated for encouraging foreign trade, on the contrary it has set 
apart since the 1896-'97 an item of foreign trade expansion expense 
in the Budget. One of such provisions was the creation of the 
Higher Council of Agriculture, Commerce and Industry established 
in 1896 with the object of devising measures for encouraging foreign 
trad^. The council is composed of twenty members apart from a 
chairman and a vice-chairman. Of the members five are officials of 
the Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, Foreign AfiTaixs, 
Finance, and Communications, and the remaining fifteen are business 
men of note. At first the council deliberated on matters relating to 
foreign trade alone, as may be seen from the subjects placed before 
it for deliberation by the Department of Agriculture and Commerce 
in its first session. Those subjects were as follows : — matters relating 
to (1) the dispatch of commissioners to the Yangtesking r^on of 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ProvmonB Jot Encouraging Foreign Trade. 475 

China to investigate the navigation route there, (2) the expansion of bank- 
ing facilities in connection with foreign trade, (3) the establishment of 
bonded warehouses under supervision of the Customs Houses, (4) the ex- 
pansion of sale of the principal exports, (5) correspondence on the situation 
of foreign markets, (6) marine insurance, (7) control and protection of 
workmen (the above were placed before the 1896 session of the Diet), 
(8) the operation of the gold monometallic system and its effect on 
agriculture, commerce and industry at home, (9) its effect on foreign 
trade, (10) the measures to be adopted for minimizing the evil 
side and for increasing the beneficial side of that effect, (11) en- 
couragement of the business of tea exporting, (12) encouragement 
of exportation of silk (the above were principal subjects discussed in 
the second session held in 1897.) The council also deliberated on 
sundry other matters at its own initiation and passed a resolution, 
to give one of such instances, totally abolishing export duties. 

In June, 1897, the organization of the council was amended so 
as to allow it to deliberate on matters relating to domestic trade as 
well as on matters relating to foreign trade. The number of the 
the members was at the same time increased from 20 to 30. 

3. Inspection of Foreign Markets. — The Government has 
been dispatching from 1895 a number of ofRcials and commissioners 
to foreign countries to cause them to investigate the state of the 
foreign markets, especially with the object of promoting direct export 
by our merchants, and also inquiring into other matters calculated 
to further the interests of foreign trade. Besides Government officials, 
student commercial agents and student manufacturers, and private 
individuals experienced in respective lines of trade were despatched 
on similar missions, the chambers supplying them with either a part 
or the whole of the travelling expenses. During the eight years 
from the 1895 to 1901 fiscal years altogether 124 people were sent 
abroad, some of them to China, others to Europe, and still others ta 
North and South America, and a few to the South Seas, the Strait 
Settlements, Siberia, Korea, India, the Philippines, etc. 

4. Industrial Guilds. — An outline history of regislative 
measures relating to industrial guilds having been given in a section 
of Agriculture, a brief survey of the formation of guilds of industrial 
and commercial interests may be sufiicient in this place. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



476 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

As matters relating to the guilds were left outside the control 
of Grovernment offices prior to 1884 when rules were enacted requir- 
ing the approval of the authorities in forming a guild, it is not 
possible to ascertain how many guilds of different interests had 
previously existed throughout the country. The returns drawn up 
in November 1886 first supply reliable information on this subject. 
The * number was -as follows at that time : — 

Commercial Guilds 628 

Industrial Guilds 404 

Commercial and Industrial Guilds 547 

Total... .^ 1,579 

On the issue of the Staple Exports Guild Law in 1897, a 
numbers of guilds organized under the former regulations were aboli- 
shed, so that at the end of 1889 the guilds numbered as follow : — 

Commercial Guilds 538 

Industrial Guilds , 442 . 

Commercial and Industrial Guilds 188 

Total 1,168 

The replacement of the Law in question by the Staple Commodi- 
ties Law in 1900 was again followed by change in the figures, 
thus : — 

Commercial Guilds 529 

Industrial Guilds 433 

Comi lercial and Industrial Guilds 187 

Total 1,149 

Of the foregoing number of guilds quite a large portion have 
been established in conformity with the Staple Export Guilds Law 
and its suecessor the Staple Commodities Guild Law. This is shoYrfs 
in the following table: — 



Year. ^^'^\ 
mercial. 


In- 
dustrial. 


Com. & 
In»al. 


Total. 


Dis- 
solved. 


Number 
exbting. 


1898 18 


18 


24 


60 


— 


60 


1899 • 27 


26 


52 


«03 


— 


16S 


1900 18 


13 


43 


71 


2 


237 


1901 ... 10 


II 


21 


42 


4 


275 


As existing at the end of 1901 ... 73 


62 


140 


" — 


— 


— 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Provisions for Encouraging Foreign Trade. 477 

According to the returns made in July, 1902, the guilds engaged 
in the Manufacturing business numbered 61, and those in sales and 
in manufacture and sales numbered respectively 66 and 150. 

5.. Student Commercial Agents and Manufacturers. — ^These 
oonstitute one of the regular measures adopted since 1896 as s, means 
of expanding our foreign trade. The object is to send abroad capable 
young men so that they can get a practical training either at 
commercial establishments or in factories. The candidates are selected 
fipom among those recommended by leading business-men and other 
influential people of the provinces. A certain amoimt of pecuniary 
help is given to the students, though there are some who decline it. 
All those students, whether receiving help or not, are under the 
control of our nearest legations or consulates, and the students 
receiving help are obliged to r^ularly send a report to the home 
Government about the given subjects which they are intended to be 
studying. The number of students and the places where they got 
training were as follows : — 

1896 — 10; one each at Mexico, Germany, England, France, 
China, five at the United States of America. 

1897—13 (10 continued from the preceding year); one at 
Bombay, two additional at U.S.A; the rest as above. 

1898 — 16 (13 continued from the preceding year, 4 new, and 2 
not receiving help) : one each at Mexico, Germany, England, British 
India, three each at China and France, eight at U.S.A. 

1899 — 47 (15 continued from the preceding year, 27 new, 5 not 
reoeiving help): one each ^at Mexico, England, Belgium, Bussia, 
Siberia, Australia, British India; six at France, five at Germany; 
15 at UJS. America; 12 at China. 

1900—58 (32 continued from the preceding year, 24 new, 2 
not receiving help) ; 16 at U. 6. America ; 12 at France, six at 
Germany, two each at England, Bussia and Siberia, one each at 
Belgium and Australia, 14 at China. 

1901 — 97 (31 continued from the preceding ye^r, 59 new, and 
7 without receiving help); 11 each at France and Germany, two 
each at British Canada, Mexico, Peru, Strait Settlements, and Java, 
three each at Belgium, Hongkong and Australia, Siberia, one each at 
Bussia, Switzerland, and Philippines, 14 at U. S. America, 25 at China. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



478 Japan in the Beginning of ihe 20th Century. 

6. CoMMERcrAL SAMPLES MusEUM. — Japan possesses 38 com- 
mercial samples museums, not to mention those that are now being 
set up. 

The Commercial Museum established in premises of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and Commerce being the most important of the 
institutions of this description though not the oldest, deserves to be 
described here at some length. It was established eight years ago, 
and contains 23,161 samples of which 12,756 are of foreign and the 
remaining 10,405 of domestic origin. Besides, there are 4,188 bj 
foreigners and Japanese. 

The samples collected by the Museum comprise in regard to 
domestic produce, commodities that now constitute the principal 
items of export or are likely to become so in the near future, also 
those that are competing with imported goods on our market or are 
qualified to do so. As to the foreign samples collected, they represent 
commodities of principal import or those that are likely to beoome 
80, or those that are actually competing or are likely to do so on 
foreign markets with the goods exported from Japan. Then samples 
judged to represent the situation of our industry in all its manifold 
forms are also placed on view in the Museum, as also raw materials 
of all descriptions both foreign and Japanese, that are judged 
capable of being exploited with profit in Japan. The Museum 
keeps in touch with the movement of our trade and with the 
situation of all important commodities, and while it serves as a 
medium of presenting in a business-like way all the succinct points 
which foreign merchants or manufacturers may wish to know about 
our goods in opening regular transaction with our merchants or 
manufacturers, the latter are similarly supplied y^ith all the necessary 
information about foreign goods. This intermediary function played 
by the Museum is highly appreciated both by our countrymen as 
well as by foreigners, so that while the Museum keeps up at the 
request of our people correspondence with Japanese consulates, foreign 
museums and such bodies so as to find for their goods suitable 
markets abroad, the institution extends to similar applications coming 
from foreign countries an equal amount of attention and satisfaction. 
In short the Museum is now widely regarded as one of the most 
convenient institutions both by Japanese and foreigners for keeping 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Provisions for Encouraging Foreign Trade. 479 

theofiselves in touch with the situation of commerce and industry 
both at home and abroad. 

With this growing importance of the Museum, the number of 
samples either presented by Japanese or foreigners or of applications 
from them to place their samples on view has began to increase to a 
marked extent, and the Museum is even now embarrassed to find room 
for those samples. This is indeed a great advance on the time when 
the Museum experienced no small difficulty in inducing Japanese 
or foreign merchants or manufacturers to send samples of their 
goods to be exhibited in its rooms. 

The Museum makes a loan of its exhibits or sometimes spares 
a number of its exhibits to local museums or shows with the object 
of more widely extending the benefit for which it was established. 
It also keeps up a regular correspondence with foreign museums or 
commercial schools, exchanges printed matters with them, and in short 
spares no pains for efficiently discharging its function. 

7. Commercial Sample Museums Abroad. — ^The establish- 
ment of commercial sample museums in foreign countries was another 
item included in the foreign trade expansion programme inaugurated 
in 1895. The museums are placed under the control of the 
Japanese Consulates and are left in charge of merchants properly 
qualified for the purpose and also qualified to act as a medium for 
the conclusion of transactions between Japanese and foreign merchants 
or manufacturers. The museums thus organized numbered six in the 
opening year, and were established at Vladivostock, Odessa, Bombay, 
Singapore, Shasi, and Mexico. In the following year one was 
established at Amoy. From that time till the 1902 fiscal year 
several others have been started at different places, but as some 
whose existence was not justified by results, have been closed, at 
the end of the year in question the official museums existed at the 
following places, viz. Shasi, Hangkow, Chunking, Bombay, Newchwang, 
Singapore, and Bangkok. At the same time a number of private 
sample museums have been granted state aids, these being the 
Ping- Yang-Hong at Fuchow, Seoul Commercial Museum at the 
Korean capital, the Japan-China Commercial Museum at Shanghai, 
and one at Constantinople. It may be stated that the samples on view 
at the official commercial museums comprise articles either purchased by 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



480 Japan in tlie Beginning of the 20fA Ceivlury. 

the Government or articles presented by merchants or manufacturers 
concerned. 

8. Experimental production of commercial commodities.— 
Since 1896 the Government has caused technical schools and workshops 
to undertake by trust the production of commodities at the request 
of the Government. The result of this experimental work cannot 
£eu1 to improve and encourage the respective lines of industry and 
it has been made public. 

9. Industrial Reports. — The Bureaux of the Department of 
Agriculture and Commerce concerned have been compiling reports since 
1895 on industrial subjects respectively left in their charge, especially 
in their bearing to foreign markets and the situation of production 
at home. These reports which are supplying a want long felt by 
all the public are being distributed among the Government Offices, 
public institutions, and business people. The subjects previously 
treated were cotton fabrics, umbrellas, w^ood-ware, rape-seed oil, wood, 
wax, copper and bronze-ware, silk fabrics, haudkerchiefe and other 
silk-ware, rugs, porcelain and earthenware, cloisonne-ware; cotton 
yams, straw-plaits, matches, glass-ware, matting, paper and paper- 
ware, lacquer-ware, screens, and fans. To this list cigarettes and 
other manufactured tobacco, brushes, iron-ware, buttons, clocks, soap, 
cotton blankets, cotton knit-work, cement, cotton undershirts, stock- 
ings, beer, mke and other liquors, and soy have lately been added. 

Besides the reports forwarded by Japanese Consuls, student com- 
mercial agents and manufacturers, and also reports embodying the 
result of investigations made either at home or abroad on industnal 
matters, have been published and similarly distributed. 



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CeiHral Finances, 481 



PART V. 



■ ^ • • ^ I 



FINANCES. 
CHAPTER L— Finances^ 



Central Finanoe8->Forino8aii Finanoes — Local Finances — Debts 
—Currency— Honey Market— Banks— Clearing-Hoiises. 



I. CENTRAL FINANCES. 



Finances Before the Restoration. — ^Though circumstances 
made it comparatively easy of accomplishment the work of reinstat- 
ing the Imperial Government, nevertheless it involved in the adjust- 
ment of the finances labor of stupendous description. This was prin- 
cipally due to the necessity of unifpng the different financial systems 
that had been followed for a long period by the 277 
Feudal Fie&. feudal daimyates that existed during the pre-Bestora- 
tion days, systems that were, too, in a state of extreme 
disorder and complication. The reason is because many of the feudal 
princes had been compelled by necessity to make various shifts, such 
as issuing fiat currency, minting debased coins, ordering the payment 
of taxes in advance or contracting loans. The debts for which the 
feudal princes thus made themselves responsible were enormous, and 
these devolved entirely on the Imperial Grovernment. 

On the other hand the revenue was in arears to an astonishing 
extent, for its only important resource, the Land Tax, did not supply 
more than one-tenth of the whole expenditure. The Government 
had therefore to fall back on issuing inconvertible notes to meet 
this deficit. For several years after the advent of the Restoration, 
the finances remained in this deplorable condition. In the meanwhile 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



482 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

the Government energetically strove to establish the taxation system 
on a regular and sound basis. For this the first thing that demanded 
attention was to definitely define in regard to land the right of firf 
formerly exercised by the feudal princes and the right of ownership 
by private individuals. As was generally the case in most other 
places where feudalism prevailed, this distinction was far from clear ; 
the princes besides exercising the right of control held at the same 
time a sort of right of ownership over all the land in their respec- 
tive dominions. The right of ownership was therefore rather the 
right of tenantry, and the tax or tenant-rate, paid with rice, wa£ the 
principal source of revenue to the feudal princes. The rate of this 
so-called tax was not uniform ; but it was excessively heavy, 
ranging from 30 to 70 per cent, of the yield of the field. Some 
sort of tax was also imposed on manufacture, but this was of course 
insignificant. 

The revenue of the princes was principally devoted to maintain- 
ing their military organization and supporting their retainers. The 
farmers and merchants were therefore made use of merely as tool 
for supporting this unproductive class. 

The Shogunate. — The Shogunate was peculiarly situated in 
regard to finances. It exercised the power of control over the feudal 
princes, but it did not govern directly the people inhabiting the 
princes' fiefs as apportioned by the Shogunate. The people in those 
fiefs were not therefore obliged to pay any tax to the central Grovem- 
ment, and all their duties in that direction ended with their r^pec- 
tive lords. The princes, however, were under obligation to discharge 
at their own expense the military and other services demanded by 
the Shogunate, and also to pay tribute, mostly nominal, to it 
The ordinary revenue of the Shogunate consisted of the taxes levied 
in its own dominions, so that in this respect the Shogunate was in 
a position no better than the feudal princes it had under its control. 
Indeed the Shogunate's revenue was even less than that of some 
powerful princes. 

Financial Difficulties of the Restored Imperial Govern- 
ment. — The Imperial Government therefore at once found itself 
confronted by a grave financial complication when, on the fall of 
the feudal system, the real right of administration passed into its 



Digitized by LjOOQiC 



Omtral Finances. 483 

liand. Moverover the transfer of the power of the central admmi* 
^trstion to the new Government in 1868 was not accompanied in 
practice by that of the national revenue. Even the revenue that 
the Shogunate enjoyed did not wholly go to the revenue of the reha- 
bilitated Government, and yet it had to undertake the gigantic task 
•of thoroughly reorganizing political and social institutions. It was 
necessary first of all to devise some £nancial arrangements which all 
those undertakings absolutely required. As the first step towards 
consummating these arrangements, the Government had to deal with 
the important question of the fiefs and pensions of the feudal princes 
and their retainers. This was the most delicate affair of all, inas- 
much as the restoration of the Imperial regime was by no means 
welcomed by all sections of the people; on the contrary tome of 
them were, for one reason or another, bitterly opposed to it. But 
for accomplishing this grand work of the unification of administra- 
tion, which was the primary object of the reinstatement of the 
Imperial power, it was absolutely necessary to secure the compliance 
to it of all the influential quarters, and with their compliance 
to put all the important measures under the new political system. 
This mighty national movement was fortunately backed by all 
the powerful feudal princes, who in 1869 surrendered their fiefe 
of their own accord to the central Government, and thus laid 
the foundation of the present imposing fabric of the Imperial 
Government. With the enforcement in 1871 of the local system, 
the reality of administrative unification was first brought about. 
The privileges enjoyed by the feudal princes and their retainers 
were annuled, the whole country was placed under one and the same 
legislative measures, and all the distinctions of social rank and class 
were abolished. 

Private Individuals and Ownership op Land. — With re- 
gard to the surrender of their fieft by the feudal princes, which led 
to the clear setting up of the right of ownership of land by private 
individuals, those princes were actuated by the noble altruistic prin- 
ciple, acknowledging themselves as subjects of the sovereign and 
therefore not entitled to any sovereign right over land or to rule 
people who were subjects of the same rightful lord as themselves. 
On its own part, the reinstated Grovemment, while maintaining its 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



484 Japan in the Beginning of tlie 20^A Century, 

authority in accordance with the advanced principles of law, appor- 
tioned in a fair and equitable manner the right of ownership of 
land to private individuals, and paved the way toward laying the 
foundation of sound finances. The duty of people as tax-payei» 
was for the first time solved properly, and the burden of taxation 
was made uniform throughout the whole land. 

The Land Tax. — In establishing the system of finance the 
Government undertook first of all the re-arrangement of the Laud 
Tax, and this is a measure which should remain prominent in the 
financial history of the Empire. 

It was 1871 that the measures relating to it were taken in 
hand. In 1873 a law embodying the result of the deliberations and 
investigations conducted in thb connection was promulgated, but it 
was not till ten year later that the great work of reorganizing the 
tax had been completed. This taxation measure was one of special 
importance, in that it first established in a thorough manner the 
principle of the unification of the taxes. 

The principal features in the new Land Tax law were these; — 
(a). The establishment in a firm and fixed way of the right 
of ownership of land by private individuals. 

When feudal system was abolished in European countries 
the central government had to pay a price for the fiefe held by 
the feudal lords, but in Japan the feudal lords were recom- 
pensed with public bonds when they were induced to surrender 
their dominions. 

(6). The removal of all the restrictions that had formerly 
existed in connection with the ownership of land by private indivi- 
duals. 

During the pre-Restoration days the purchase or sale of 
land by common people was forbidden ; nor were farmers left 
free in determining the crop they wished to cultivate in their 
land. The fact was as rice was used as medium for the pay- 
ment of the Land Tax, and as the production of this cereal 
was therefore regarded as the most important factor in the 
economy of the various little states, the feudal governments 
were apt to interfere in the work of the farmers to the extent 
of ordering the cultivation of rice even when the soil was not 



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Cetitral Firuinces, 485 

suited for it. The new Law of Land Tax while confirming 
indisputably the right of individuals to own land, removed 
all restrictions on land, and allowed land-owners to sell or 
mortgage their land or to use it in any way they liked. 
The discontinuation of that pernicious practice of interference 
has enabled the farmers to utilize their land to the best ad- 
vantage, and to further the development of the national re- 
sources. 

(c). The determination of the official value of land throughout 
the country. 

As the products of the land formed the basis of taxations 
in former times, the tax-gatheres of each feudal government 
inspected every year the condition of the harvest in the domi- 
nions of such government and determined the rate of the tax 
payable for the year. There was no fixed rate. The new 
Government decided to determine the official value of the land 
And to place the taxation on a basis at once sound and fair. 
It was a gigantic task, but with admirable energy the Govern- 
ment set about the work, and finally completed it in a com- 
paratively short space of time. The method adopted in determin- 
ing the official value consisted in taking the average harvest 
for five years, to convert it into money by taking the 
average price ruling in the same period, using that price as 
basis of capitalization and of hence determining the value of 
the land. The work was concluded in 1881. To carry the 
valuation to a state of greater perfection and fairness, the 
/e-assessment was carried out in 1899. 
(d). The payment of taxes with money. 

Taxes were formerly payable in kind, that is in rice or 
5ome other such produce. By the enforcement of the new law 
of taxation and the cessation of the quasi-tenantry nature of 
the Land Tax, the tax began to be paid with money and by 
fixed rate according to the official value of the land. 

All those changes have considerably reduced the burden of 
the farmers. The tax was at first fixed at 3 per cent, of the 
assessed value, but this was reduced to 2^ per cent, in 1877* 
A^r having remained unaltered for a long while the rate wa» 



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486 Japan in the Beginning qf the 20th Century. 

slightly raised, for fiye years ending 1903, the increase being 
at th0 rate of 2} per cient. of the assessed value for dwelling 
laud in urban districts and 8/1,000 for other kinds of land* 
With the expiration of this period the rate was restored to the 
original rate, that is from 1904. 

Such is a brief history of the Land Tax Law. It may be thought 
strange that this particular tax should have occupied such a promi- 
nent position in the finances of the Government in the early stage 
of its re-instatement. The reason is simply this, that Japan was at 
that time an almost purely agricultural country and all other forms 
of industry, such as manufactures, etc., were then in a very primitive 
state. Thus in the year when the assessment of the value of land 
was completed, the proceeds of the Land Tax amounted to 43,000,000 
yen out of the total of 60,000,000 yen derived from all kinds of taxes. 
New Taxes. — ^With the progress of the country, however, 
demands on State disbursements necessarily advanced, and the 
Government was obliged to seek some suitable sources fix)m which 
new taxes could be collected. The sources from which taxes had 
been drawn during the pre-Restoration days were throughly investi- 
gated, and it was decided that some indirect taxes should be imposed. 
The result was, in 1887 a new indirect tax, in the shape of an income 
tax was inaugurated. 

The Tax on Sake. — Of the indirect taxes newly established, the 
tax on sake was, as it is still to-day, the most important. The 
system as enforced to-day consists in levying the tax according to 
the quantity of the liquor brewed, that is per koku. The tax was 
created in 1878. The rate of the tax has been advanced by rather 
rapid stages, and what was only 4 yen per koku before the adoption 
of the so-called post-bellum programme has been raised to 15 yen. 

Effect of the Japan-China War on National Finances. — 
Indeed the expansion of national finances since the Japan-China 
War has been something extraordinary. Prior to that the ex- 
penditure amounted to about 80 million yen. In the 1896-7 fiscal 
year, when several post-bellum expansion measures had been in- 
augurated, the corresponding figures rose at one jump to 170 million 
yen, then to 220 million yen in the 1899-'8 year, 290 millions in the 
1900-'l year, and 280 millions in the 1902-'3 year. The war, in^ 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Central Finances. 487 

short, marks a new era for our finances, as indeed for all other 
affairs in Japan both public and private. 

The post-bellxtm Proobamme.— The successful conduct of the 
post-bellum measures demanding the expansion of the finance hand in 
hand with the development of economic resources, the Government^ 
while raising taxes or floating loans, has not neglected to take such 
measures as were calculated to encourage the development of 
economic undertakings, such as the improvement of the monetary 
system or the establishment of additional important banking mecha- 
nisms. This subject of post-bellum finance covering wide field, it is im- 
possible to treat it here at any length, so that the reader who is interested 
in the subject is advised to consult the History of the Post-bellum Finance 
published in English by the Imperial Japanese Treasury. All that can 
be stated here about this great question will be merely categorical. 
Suffice it here to state that, of the large number of measures under- 
taken in that programme, the most important are the expansion of 
national armaments, the establishment of the Iron Foundery, the ex- 
pansion of the existing railroads and construction of the new, the 
expansion of the telephone and telegraphic service; the creation of 
the Imperial Kyoto University and of additional Higher Schools 
and Technical and Commercial Institutes ; the establishment of the 
Japan Hjrpothec Bank, of Local Hypothec Banks, HokkaidQ Colonial 
Bank and of the Formosan Bank ; and lastly several other measures 
for promoting agriculture, manufacture and trade ; and then engine- 
ering work for controlling unruly rivers. All those measures have 
been carried out with a view to developing the national resources 
and industries. 

It being impossible to meet with the proceeds of the ordinary 
revenue the enormous expenses involved in the undertakings con. 
templated, it was decided that the outlays on account of those extra- 
ordinary works should be met by means of the Indemnity and loans, 
and that the additional requirement on account of ordinary expendi- 
tures should be obtained by increased tax measures. In pursuance 
of this policy these measures were carried out in the 1896-7 fiscal 
year, then in the 1898-*9 and lastly in the 1901-'2, the additional 
proceed from this new source being estimated to amount to 95 
million yen, as will be demonstrated in the following paragraphs. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



488 Japan in the Beginning of Hie 20^i Century. 

The Tax on Sake that stood at the rate of 9 yen per kohi in 1896 

was raised to 12 in 1898 and 15 in 1901. The latest tax on liquor 

is that on beer which is at the rate of 7 yen per kohu^ 

The proceeds from the tax on all the different kinds 

of liquors amount to about 55 million yen^ so that this source stands 

at the head of all direct or indirect taxes in the amount it yields 

to the revenue. 

The rate of the Land Tax increased in 1899 to 3.3 per cent of the 

assessed value brought in an additional revenue of about 8 million yen. 

but this addition was procurable for only five years end- 

ing 1903, when the rate was restored to the original 

2^ per cent. One thing to be noted in this connection is the 

marked advance that has taken place recently in the price of rice, 

and hence of the capitalized value of land on which the tax is 

bajsed, the present price being about threefold that prevailing on the 

occasion of the last assessment. Therefore even at the rate of 3.3 

per cent, it j[)ractically amounts to only 1 per cent, when considered 

in connection with that advance. 

The Income Tax was at the same time advanced by 1 to 5i per cent 

but the creation of the Business Tax in 1896 was a far more important 

measure. This tax being extremely complicated in 

-, its assessment, all that can be stated within the 

ness Taxes. 

limited space at our disposal is that the tax is imposed 

according to the proceeds realized from the sales of commodities, the 
amount of the rental of the bujldings, of capital invested, the number 
of persons employed, etc. The tax is one of special importance in view 
of its relation to franchise, for- a man who pays this tax above a 
certain limit is entitled to exercise this important right. The relation 
between the exercise of legislative functions, and the Business Tax 
has developed a new feature in the history of the national legislature, 
as it has led to the admission (as the Land Tax did in the case of 
agriculturists from the first) of the business classes to the exercise 
of this important privilege, and therefore to establish some balance 
between agricidturists and business people in the privilege of national 
representation. 

The inauguration of the tobacco monopoly measure by discontinu- 
ing the former stamp duty on tobacco was another special financial 



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Central Finances. 489 

Tobacco Monopoly, feature incidental to the post-bellum pro- 
gramme. The monopoly originated from the 
idea of increasing the revenue from this source and of doing away 
with the complicated stamp duty and the license duty. 

The post-bellum programme has not confined itself, in regard to 
taxation, to creating new taxes or increasing the rate of the old, 
for it has at the same time abolished some of the existing taxes 
and has generally simplified taxation. 

The existing taxes, besides those already enumerated, comprise 
exercise on sugar, soy tax, tax on the issue of convertible notes, 
tax on bourses, tax on mining, tonnage dues, tax on 
Other Taxes, patent medicines, regisration tax, stamp duties, etc. 
Then there are proceeds from such Grfjvemraent under- 
takings as railroads and post and telegraph services, and the pro- 
ceeds from this sources are steadily increacing. 

Customs duties were at first insignificant, for with the tariff fixed, 
under the then existing treaty, at 5 per cent, ad valorem, and with 
foreign trade remaining inactive, the receipts realized 
Ciutoms Duties, did not for several years exceed 3 million yen. The 
development of the trade was naturally attended by 
a great increase in the amoimts of custom receipts, and in 1898 
the recipts, even under the old 5 per cent, rate, amounted to about 
9 million yen. With the revision of the treaty in the following 
year, tariff autonomy was partially restored. At the same time 
export duties were entirely abolished, and the tariff was confined to 
imports alone. The tariff rate, according to the new arrangement, 
ranges from 5 to 35 per cent, ad valorem, and the enforcement of this 
new system was at once followed by a marked increase in the receipts. 
In the 1899 fiscal year, for instance, it amounted to about 16 million 
yen, and excepting the 13,600,000 yen in the 1901 fiscal year, that of 
the other three last years exceeded 16,500,000 yen, so that this 
source now constitutes an important item in our national revenue. 

Even from the brief survey given above of the development of 
our taxation system, it will be seen how our financial sjrstem is 
growing more and more soimd with the development of the national 
economy. At the beginning of the era, the Land Tax was pratically 
the sole resource of revenue for the Government, while to-day the 



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490 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

list contains a large number of taxes some of which even yield a 
larger revenue than that primary tax. 

Financial Adbonistration. — The reason why the taxation 
system has been here described at some length arises from our desire 
to show the soundness of our finance and also because the financial 
system must occupy a place of special importance in any explana- 
tion of the national condition of the new Japan. For other 
aspects of our finances only a short notice will therefore be given. 
A brief description of the history of the management of the finances 
will not however be out of place here. As might have been expected, 
the financial system was extremely complicated in the beginning of 
the era, and no regular method existed with regard to financial 
administration. Each Department of the State was financially 
independent, and there was no unity in the State finances. On the 
enforcement in 1871 of the first local administration system, it was ar- 
ranged that all financial matters should be controlled by the Treasury, 
while, coming to 1873, a regular procedure was adopted for receipts 
and payment, and this was a forerunner of the present Budget 
system. In 1880 the Board of Audit was created and placed under 
the direct control of the Emperor. Considerable difficulty was ex- 
perienced in bringing financial administration under the control of the 
Treasury and the auditing business under that of the Board of Audit, for 
each Department of the State had been used to separately look afber 
its own money matters, while no definite system had existed in regard 
to the finances of the State. It was therefore feared that an attempt 
to unify financial afiairs might not be beneficial in its result. Ex- 
perience has, however, entirely falsified this prediction, and the new 
arrangement has proved as efficient as it has been beneficial. The 
year 1882 was indeed a memorable one in the history of Japanese 
finances, for from that year the sole 'control by the Treasury of the 
right of receiving or paying Government money was obtained; and 
all irregularities that had previously attended this important branch 
of State afiairs were entirely removed. In this year too the Bank 
of Japan was created, and was made to act as cashier for the 
Government. To mention other important financial measures, the 
budgets and settled accounts were made public every year from 
1886, while on the occasion of the promulgation of the Imperial 



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Ceniral Finances* 



491 



Constitution in 1889, the Law of Finance was amended, and our 
financial system first assumed the fi^rm it presents to-day. The 
Budgets, as provided in the Constitution, are compiled by the Minister 
of Finance and carried into effect by him with the approval of the 
Diet. The settled Accounts are introduced to the Diet also after 
having been audited by the Board of Audit. 

Finance and the Imperial Diet. — On the advent of the 
Constitutional regime, a new epoch was inaugurated in financial 
affairs, so that while previously those affairs were arranged at the 
discretion of the Government alone, the approval of the Diet is now 
required for them. The compilation of budgets and the reporting of 
settled accounts are of course no novel process in the West, but its 
adoption by Japan is a significant sign proving how Japan has 
energetically striven to regulate her finances according to the enlight- 
ened system of the "West. 

Statistical Tables. — Before proceeding to treat other subjects 
about finances, statistics relating to State expenditures and revenue^ 
proceeds from different items of revenue, and other affairs shall be 
given first: — 

TABLE I.— ANNUAL STATE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE 
pertaining to THE GENERAI. ACCOUNT. 





(unit oiyen 


^> 






Rkvenue. 






Fiscal Year. 


Ordinary. 


Extraordinary. 


Total. 


1868 {a) 


3,664.780 


29,424.533 


33,089,313 


1869 {b) 


... • 4.666,056 


29,773,349 


34438,405 


1870 w 


... 10,043,628 


10,915,872 


20,959,500 


1871 {d) 


". 15,340,922 


6,803,676 


22,144,598 


1872 w 


... 24,422,742 


26,022,431 


50,445,173 


1873 CO 


... 70,561,688 


14,945,557 


85,507,245 


1874 („) 


... 71,090,481 


2,355,063 


73445,544 


"87s te-) 


... 83,080,575 


3,240,502 


86,321,077 


1875 


... 63,786,587 


5,696,090 


69482,677 


1876 


... 55,684,997 


3,796,039 


59481,036 


1877 


... 49,967»723 


2,370,410 


52388,133 


1878 


... 53,558,117 


8,885,632 


62443,749 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



492 Japan in the Beginning of the 20ih Century. 

Revenue. 



Fiscal Year. 

1879 ... 

1880 ... 

1881 ... 

1882 ... 

1883 ... 

1884 ... 

1885 W 

1886 ... 

1887 ... 

1888 ... 

1889 ... 

1890 ... 

1891 ... 

1892 ... 

1893 ... 

1894 .. 

1895 ... 

1896 ... 

1897 ... 

1898 ... 

1899 ... 

1900 ... 

1901 ... 

1902 ... 

1903 ... 



Fiscal Year. 



1868 
1869 
1870 
187 1 
1872 

1873 if) 

1874 C») 

1875 
X875 
X876 

1877 
1878 






(^) 



Ordinary. 


Extraordinary. 


Total. 


57,716,322 


4435,428 


62,151,751 


.. 58,036.574 


5,330,681 


63,367,255 


64,304,512 


7,185,368 


71489,880 


.. 69,888,873 


3,619,554 


73,508427 


.. 76,425.687 


6,681,171 


83,106,858 


72,102,109 


4,567464 


76,669,654 


56,429,622 


57,272,213 


62,156,835 


71,094,268 


14,231,876 


85,326,144 


76,068,094 


12,092,980 


88,161,074 


74,253,414 


18,703,519 


92,956,933 


82,355442 


14,332,537 


96,687,979 


78,593,498 


27,875,856 


106459,354 


.. 76,264,852 


26,966,636 


103,231 488 


80,728,018 


20,733,893 


101,461,911 


.. 85,883,080 


27,886,300 


113,769,380 


.. 89,748,454 


8421,574 


98,170,028 


.. 95,444,652 


22,988,069 


118,432,721 


.. 104,904,501 


82.114,922 


187,019,423 


.. 124,222,964 


102,167,159 


226,390,123 


.. 132,869,336 


87,184,792 


220,054,128 


.. 177,328,528 


76,925,996 


254,254,524 


.. 192,170,080 


103,684,787 


295,854,867 


.. 202,035,071 


72,323,950 


274,359,021 


.. 226,114,613 


56,318.351 


282432,964 


.. 231,802499 


19,879,462 


251,681,961 


Expenditure. 


^ Surplus or 


Ordinary. Extraordinary. TotaL 


Deficit. 


5,506,253 


24,998,833 30,505,086 2,584,227 


9,360,231 


11425.609 • 20,785,840 13,652,565 


9,750,003 


10,357,669 20,107,672 85x^28 


12,226,382 


7,008,776 19,235,1 


58 2,909440 


42474,919 


15.255,106 57,730,025 *7,284,853 


50,639,552 


12,039,048 62,678,600 22,828,645 


60,001,916 


22,267,612 82,269,528 *8,823,984 


52,842,348 


13,292424 66,134,772 20,186,305 


56,613,037 


12,590,205 69,203,242 279^35 


56,815,326 


2493,631 59,308,957 172,079 


45,344,216 


3,084,109 48428,325 3,909,808 


55,988,710 


4,954,626 60,941,336 1,502^13 



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Central Finances. 



49? 



W 



Fiscal Year. 

1879 ... . 

1880 ... . 

1881 ... . 

1882 ... . 

1883 ... . 

1884 ... . 
1885 
1886 
1887 
x888 
1889 
1890 
J891 
1892 

1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 





Expenditure. 




Surplus or 
Deficit. 


Ordinary. 


Extraordinary. 


Total. 


55,205,539 


5,112,040 


60,317,579 


1,834,142 


60,297,322 


2,843,574 


63.140,896 


226,359 


60413,710 


1 1,046,61 1 


71,460,321 


29,559 


59,75o»727 


13,729,940 


73480,967 


27,760 


67,9x4.176 


15,192,682 


83.106,858 


o- 


60,724,554 


15,938,554 


76,663,108 


6,546 


47,643,037 


13,472,277 


61,115,314 


1,041,5" 


67,613,793 


15,610,167 


83,223,960 


2,102,184 


66,042,669 


13,410,367 


79453,036 


8,708,038 


66,439,716 


15,064,308 


81,504,024 


11452,909 


63,785,569 


15,928,103 


79,713,672 


16,974,307 


66,752,431 


15,372.972 


82,125403 


24,343,951 


62,936,312 


20,619,579 


83,555,891 


19,675,597 


63,818,030 


12,916,710 


76,734,740 


24,727,171 


64,545,499 


20,036,273 


84,581,872 


29,187,508 


60,421,346 


17,707,297 


78,128,643 


20/>4i,38S 


67,148,007 


18,169,173 


85,317,180 


33,115,541 


100,712,816 


68,143,692 


168,856,508 


18,162,915 


107,695,127 


115,983,717 


223,678,844 


2,711,279 


119,072,144 


100,685424 


219,757,568 


296,560 


137,590,4x8 


116,575,120 


254,165,538 


88,986 


149,134,167 


143,615,893 


292,750,060 


3,104,807 


160,363,583 


106493.241 


266,856,824 


7,502,197 


177,596.966 


104,156,229 


281,753,195 


679,769 


178,464.121 


66,288,225 


244,752,346 


6,929,615 



^ote : — The length of term of fiscal years given in this and the following four tables 
is not uniform; (it) comprises 13 months ending December 31st of 1868 > 
(d) 9 months ending September 30th, 1869 ; (0 12 months ending September 
30th, 1870; {if) 13 months ending October 31st, 1871 ; {e) 14 months ending 
December 31st, 1872 ; (/) 12 months ending December 31st, of the respective 
years; (f) 6 months ending June 30th, 1875. The rest comprise 12 months 
each, 1875 and 1884 Hscal years ending on June 30th and the others on March 
31st, of the respective following years. 

The figures for 1868 to 1900 fiscal years represent settled accounts ; those 
for 1901, actual accounts as they stood on November of following year, and 
lastly those for 1902 and 1903 estimates on the budget. 

The figures marked by an asterisk (*) denote deficit. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



494 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century. 

TABLE n.— SOURCES OF THE ANNUAL STATE REVENUE 
PERTAINING TO THE GENERAL ACCOUNT. 

(unit of yen). 

Ordinaky Revenue. 



Fiscal 
Year. 


Taxes. 


Stamp 
Receipts. 


Receipts 

from Public 

Undertakings 

and State 

Ptoperty. 


Transferred 

for the 

Payment of 

Interest on 

Deposits. 


1868... 


3.265,483 


— 


101^56 


— 


1869... 


4,431,332 


— 


127,708 


— 


1870 ... 


9,634,864 


— 


193,761 


— 


1871 ... 


14,370,058 


— 


327471 


— 


1872... 


22,566,525 


— 


229.375 


— 


1873 .. 


64,537,656 


354.478 


2,376.256 


— 


1874... 


64,836,528 


332,650 


2.601,703 


— 


1875... 


75.808,346 


412,445 


3.550,504 


— 


1875... 


57,764^039 


700,751 


5,175,820 


— 


1876... 


50,250,312 


670,944 


4,643,593 


— 


1877... 


46,331,261 


761,725 


2,854,395 


— 


1878... 


49,740,694 


666,949 


3^21,107 


— 


1879... 


53,462,901 


784,918 


3,304.588 


— 


1880... 


52,692,91* 


962,701 


4,197,878 


— 


1881... 


58,813403 


1,002,333 


4,288,261 


— 


1882... 


64,893,531 


1,039,710 


3,763,322 


— 


1883... 


64,223,783 


975,636 


4,335.841 


— 


1884... 


63,799,177 


I 078,963 


4,812,012 


— 


1885 ... 


50.116,710 


709.701 


4,287,510 


— 


1886... 


63,356,863 


922,594 


5,304,752 


— 


1887... 


65,279,634 


878,235 


6,126,533 


— 


1888... 


63,324,078 


1,305,264 


6,841,354 


— 


1889... 


70,506,158 


622,127 


7,677,951 


— 


1890... 


65.363,608 


580,763 


8,733420 


994497 


1891... 


63,660,190 


588,099 


8,285,177 


634,229 


1892... 


66,415,217 


659,999 


9,585.488 


632,513 


1893... 


69,166,393 


761,531 


11,602,974 


913.214 


1894... 


70,417,709 


793,437 


13,957,192 


1,036,609 


1895... 


73,567,908 


900,980 


15,767,916 


1,018,057 


1896... 

IgS:;: 

1899... 
1900... 
I9OI ... 
1902... 
1903... 


75,042,271 

93,700,752 

96,187.335 

126,034,543 

133.926,09c 

139,530,008 

153,430,541 

158,488,644 


6,493.055 

7,182,667 

7,605,170 

11,942,825 

12,289,237 
12,274,702 

14,304,951 
13,532,121 


17.555.922 
19491,926 
25,410,159 
34,742,006 
40,073,716 

44.304,617 
51.821,303 
52,739,522 


1.548,193 

1,535.679 
1,099,000 
2,024,281 
2,381,896 
2,319,314 
3,309,805 
3,309,805 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Central Finaneea. 



495 





Fund Transfer- 












red for Redemp- 


Education 


Other 


MisceUa- 




Fiscal 


tion of Formo- 


Fund Trans- 


Funds 


neous 


Total. 


Year. 


san Public 
Works Loan. 


ferred. 


Trans- 
ferred. 


Receipts, 




1868 ... 


— 


— 


— 


297441 


3,664.780 


1869 ... 


— 


— 


— 


107,016 


4,666,056 


J870 ... 


— 


•— 


— 


214,998 


10,043,628 


J871 ... 


— 


— 


— 


743,393 


15,340,922 


1872 ... 


— 


— 


— 


1,626,842 


24,422,743 


1873 ... 


.. -~- 


— 


— 


3,293,298 


70,561,688 


1874 ... 


— 


— 


__ 


3,319,600 


71,090,481 


1875 ... 


— 


— 


— 


3,309,280 


83,080,575 


1875 ... 


— 


~ 


— 


145,977 


63,786,587 


1876 ... , 


-- 


— 


— 


120,148 


55,684,997 


1877 ... 


— 


— 


— 


120,342 


49,967,723 


1878 ... 


— 


— 


— 


129,367 


53,558,117 


1879 ... 


— 


— 


— 


163,916 


57,716,323 


1880 ... 


— 


— 


— 


183,081 


58,036,574 


1881 ... 


— 


— 


— 


200,512 


64,304,512 


1882 ... 


— 


— 


— 


192,310 


69,888,873 


1883 ... 


— 


— 


6,658,303 


232,124 


76,425,687 


1884 ... 


— 


.— 


2,190,926 


221,107 


72,102,190 


1885 ... 


— 


— 


i,"3.»55 


202,546 


56,429,622 


1886 ... 


— 


— 


— 


1,5^,059 


71,094,268 


1887 ... 


.• —^ 


— 


— 


3,783,962 


76,068,094 


1888 ... 


— 


— 


— 


2,782,718 


74,253,414 


1889 ... 


— 


— 


— 


3,549,206 


82,355,442 


1890 ... 


— 


— 


— 


2,921,210 


78,593,498 


1891 ... 


— 


— 


— 


3,097,157 


76,264,852 


1892 ... 


— 


— 


— 


3,»34,8oi 


80,728,018 


1893 ... . 


— 


— 


— 


3,435,968 


85,883,080 


1894 ... 


>.. — 


— 


— 


3,543,507 


89,748,454 


1895 ... 


— 


— 


-— 


4,139,791 


65,444,952 


1896 ... 


— 


— 


2,711,823 


1,553,237 


104,904,501 


1897 ... 


— 


— 


— 


2,3",940 


124,222,964 


1898 ... 


— 


— 


— 


2,567,672 


132,866,336 


1899 ... 


23,333 


— 


— 


2,561,539 


177,328,527 


1900 ... 


... 338,939 


623,61 1 


— 


2,536,594 


192,170,081 


1901 ... 


.. 563,768 


541,752 


— 


2,223,280 


202,035,071 


1902 ... 


.. 1,000,303 


500,000 


— 


1,747,710 


226,114,613 


1903 ... 


.. 1,350,000 


500,000 


— 


1,882,407 


231,802,499 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



496 



Fiscal 
Year. 

1S69... 
1870... 

1871... 
1872... 

1873... 
1874... 
1875... 
1875... 
1876... 

1877... 
1878... 

1879... 
1880... 
1881... 
1882... 
1883... 
1884... 
1885... 
1886... 
1887... 
1888... 
1889... 
1890... 
1891... 
1892... 
1893... 
1894-. 
1895... 
1896... 

1897... 
1898... 

1899.. 
1900... 
1901... 
1902... 
1903 .. 



Japan in the Beginning of ihe 20<A Century. 
Extraordinary Revenue. 



Amount Proceeds 
of Paper from 

Money Public 

Issued. Loans. 



Forestry Surplus of 
Temporary Chinese Funds the Previous 
Loans. Indenmity Trans- year Trans- 
Transferred, ferred. ferred. 



24,037,390 — 4,732,482 

23,962,160 — 911,500 

5,354,513 4,782400 — 

2,145,488 — — 

17,825,444 — — 

— 10,833,600 — 



5,187,832 
6,048,725 

3321,045 
4.003,396 



2,976,600 
36,389,874 
35.352,806 

36,166,404 

38,139,599 

31,721,764 

4,740,000 

4,740,000 



2,000,000 
3,066,205 
4,000,000 



— 353,223 



— ",798,389 — 

— 40,360.796 — 

— 46.187,071 — 
3,200,000 32,636,905 347.337 

♦5,500,000 31,240,140 868,207 

11,000,000 20,883428 1,141,042 

2,000,000 8,065,856 2,145,904 

2,687,683 3,574,717 2,145,904 



1,041,522 

2,102,184 

3,198,178 

4,348,975 

20,598,721 

24.343,95" 

19,675,598 

24,727,171 

5,748,423 

20,041,385 

33,115,541 
18,162,915 

2,711,279 

296,558 

88.987 

3,104,809 
761,011 
224,610 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Central Finances. 



497 



Extraordinary Revenue. 

^, Local Contrl- Proceeds 

Fiscal Funds Si'SSlJ^c^- ^^""^ Other Mis- 
Year Trfln« edbytheSut* State cellaneous Total. Grand Total. 
fl^A forthe Benefit Property Receipts, 
ferred. of Certain ciin 
Prefectures. ^*^' 

1868 __ -_ _ 654,661 29424,533 33.o89,3«3 

'1869 -_ _ — 4,898,239 29,772,349 34,438405 

1870 ^ — _ 778,959 io,9»5»872 20,959,500 

1871 _ _ — 4,658.188 6,803,676 22,144,598 

1872 _ _ _ 8,196,987 26,022,431 50,445»I73 

1873 _ _ _ 4,111,957 14,945,557 85,507,245 

1874 _ _ _ 2,355,063 2,355,063 73*445,544 

1875 _ — — 3,240,502 3,240,502 86,321,077 

1875 — — 2418,362 3277.728 5,696.090 69,482,677 

1876 — — 849,252 2,946,786 3,796.039 59,481,036 

1877 — — 685,305 1,685,105 2,370,410 52,338,13s 

1878 — — 776,288 8,109,344 8,885,632 62443,74^ 

1879 — — 619,047 3,816,381 4,435428 62,151,751 

1880 — — 1,183427 4,«47,254 5,330,681 63367,255 

1881 — — 737,427 6447.941 7,185,368 71489.368: 

1882 — — 545,737 3,073,817 3,619,554 73,508457 

1883 3,995,256 — 928476 1,757,439 6,681,171 83,106 85& 

1884 182,379 — 814,622 1,574,463 4,567464 76,669,654 

1885 1.262,884 — 394,194 1,003,930 5,727,213 62,156.835 

1886 1,354,698 — 1,087,763 1,560,061 14,231,876 85,326,144 

1887 767,292 — 727,510 2,447,269 12092,980 88»i6i,o74 

i8f8 7,831,811 — 1.858.383 1.994102 18,703,519 92,956,933 

1889 1.581433 — 2,266,247 2,132486 14,332,537 96,687,979 

1890 5520,725 — 726,187 677,000 27,875.85ft 106469,354 

1691 1,588053 . — 610454 424,178 26,966,636 103,231,488 

1892 239670 — 627,885 190,740 20.733,893 101461,911 

1893...... 468,524 — 678,968 2011,637 27,886,300 113,769,380 

1894 145.252 — 655,683 1,872,216 8,421.574 98,170,028 

189s 155.557 — 645,356 2,145,771 22,988,069 118,432,721 

1896 29,594,817 324400 1,110,965 3203,210 82114,922 187,019,423 

1897 1,233705 398,200 922,500 4,699,169 102,167,159 226,390,123 

1898 844,699 664,859 800,942 623,136 87.184,792 220,054.128 

1899 3.401.104 637,282 827,957 412449 76,925,996 254.254,523 

1900 20.000,000 1,246,975 931,288 5,669,591 103,684,787 295,854.868 

1901 — 1,060,655 1,254,632 2,157620 72,323,950 274,359,051 

1902 — 1,197,141 1,111,125 36,297,314 156,318,351 282,432,964 

1903 — 1,076,800 894,375 4,535,373 19879462 251,681,961 

Note . — For the 1893 fiscal year some of the items belonging to stamp receipts were 

included, according to their nature, to various headings, instead of being treated 

• according to the ordinary mode of classifying settled accounts. Hence the 

figures for the same period as given in this table may not agree with those 

given in other statistical publications. 

The figures marked with an asterix (*) include temporary loans incurred 
on account of the Boxer trouble. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



498 Japan in the Beginning of the 20th Century, 

TABLE III.— ANNUAL AMOUNT OF TAXES FROM 
VARIOUS SOURCES. 

(unit oi yen). 
Taxes in Force. 



Fiscal 
Year. 


Land Tax. 


Business 
Tax. 


Income 
Tax. 


Sake Tax. 


Sugar 
Excise. 


Soy Tax.^ 


1868... 


2,009,014 


— 


-- 


— 


— 


— 


1869... 


3,355,964 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1870... 


.. 8,218,969 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1871... 


.. 11,340,984 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1872... 


.. 20,051,917 


— 


— 


16,208 


— 


— 


1873... 


.. 60,604,242 


— 


— 


961,031 


— 


— 


1874... 


.. 59,412429 


— 


— 


1,683,530 


— 


— 


1875... 


.. ^7,7 17.947 


— 


— 


1,310,381 


— 


— 


1875... 


.. 50,345,328 


— 


— 


2,555,595 


— 


— 


1876... 


.. 43,023,426 


— 


— 


1,911,