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Full text of "Japan in the Taisho era. In commemoration of the enthronement"

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H.I.M. THE EMPEROR. 




H.I.M. THE EMPEROR IN THE " TAKAMIKURA " 
THE SHISHIIDEN HALL. 



IN 




"TAKAMIKURA. 



THE SPECIAL SEAT USED BY THE EMPEROR 
AT THE ENTHRONEMENT. 



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PREFACE. 



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'N presenting this book to the public the Compiler wishes to announce that he 
is prompted by a desire to commemorate the Enthronement of His Majesty 
the Emperor, held in Kyoto, the ancient Capital of Japan, on November loth, 
19 1 5, and the subsequent ceremonies in the Capital and elsewhere in accordance 
with the time-honoured customs of the Empire. It was on July 30th, 1912, or the 
2,572nd year after the accession of the first Emperor Jimmu Tenno, that the present 
Emperor Yoshihito ascended the Throne upon the demise of the Emperor Meiji 
Tenno the same day. Soon after the Restoration of 1868, the Meiji Tenno laid 
the foundations of the Empire on a sound basis by encouraging various branches 
of science and commerce, with the result that the country has since attained 
wonderful development in arms and peaceful enterprises on the lines of Western 
civilization, the utmost care being at the same time taken to preserve the national 
traits as far as possible. Under the glorious reign of the present Emperor the 
country continues to achieve further progress at home and abroad, and is destined 
to play an important role in the promotion of International peace together with 
the Entente Powers. 

In the "Japan in the Taisho Era " are noted the Imperial House Law, 
Imperial Accession Law, Imperial Genealogy of Japan, Emperor and Empress, 
Grand Ceremonies of Enthronement, members of the Imperial Family, Japan of 
to-day, Nobles and Personages in the Empire, all the details of which reflect 
the great progress made by, and the glorious future before', the Land of the 
Rising Sun. 

IWATA NISHIZAWA 
June, 1917. 



CONTENTS. 



FIRST PART. 



ENTHRONEMENT:- 

The Imperial House Law 

Supplement to the Imperial House Law 

Imperial Rescript of the Constitution of Japan .. 

The Constitution of the Empire of Japan 

Imperial Accession Law 

History of the Ceremonies of the Enthronement .. 
The Ceremonies of the Enthronement in 1915 
' The Grand Ceremony of the Enthronement 
The Service at the Kashiko-Dokoro 

The Daijosai 

Imperial Banquets and Visits to Shrine... 

Grand Military Review 

Grand Naval Review 

Celebrations in the Empire — Tokyo, Yokohama and 
Kyoto 

Emperor and Empress and Imperial Family :— 

H.I.M. the Emperor in Naval Uniform 

H.I.M. the Empress in European Dress 

The Emperor 

The Empress and Crown Prince with his lounger 
Brothers 

The Late Emperor Meiji Tenno 

The Late Empress Dowager Shoken 

Genealogy of the Imperial Family of Japan 

Arisugawa-no-Miya 

• Fushimi-no-Miya 

Kacho-no-Miya 

Yamashina-no-Miya 

Kaya-no-Miya 



PAGE. 

1 
5 
. 7 
8 
12 
13 
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22 
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26 
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61 



PAGE. 

Kuni-no-Miya ■... 47 

Nashimoto-no-Miya 49 

Asaka-no-Miya 50 

Higashikuni-no-Miya 51 

Kitashirakawa-iio-Miya 53 

Takeda-no-Miya 55 

Kan-in-no-Miya 57 

Higashifushimi-iio-Miya 59 

Genealogies of the Members of the Imperial 
Family 

History of Japan: — 

Prehistoric Japan 

The Organization of the Empire of Japan 

Tiie Yamato Court Period 

The Taika Reform Period 

The Nara Period ." 

The Heian Period 

The Kamakura Period 

The Yoshino Court Period 

The Muromachi Period 

The Adzuchi-Momoyama Ptsriod ■ ... 

The Edo Period 

The Present Period (Meiji and Taisho Eras) 

Aftermath of the Enthronement Ceremonies in 1915. 
Eras of the Reign of the Various Emperors of Japan. 
Congratulatory Addresses to the Throne by Foreign 

Residents — Yokohama and Kobe 

Foreign Representatives wiio attended the Ceremony 

of Enthronement 



63 

65 
66 
69 
70 

71 
74 
77 
78 
79 
82 
87 
96 
97 

101 

102 



SECOND PART. 



JAPAN OF TO-DAY :- 

The Cabinet 

The Official Organization of the Cabinet 

Cabinets, Personnel of 

Premiers of Japan 

General Rules for the Official Organization of all 

Departments 

The Official Organization of the Department of 

Foreign Affairs , 



PAGE. 

1 
1 
2 
9 

10 

12 



The Official Organization of the Department of 
Home Affiiirs 

The Official Organization of the Financial Depart- 
ment 

The Official Organization of the War Department... 

The General Staff Office ... 

Chiefs of the Army General Staff Office 

The Official Organization of tlie Navy Department 



PAGE. 

14 

15 
17 
18 
19 
20 



II 



CONTENTS. 



The Naval Staff Board 

Chiefs of the Naval Staff Board 

Official Organization of the Department of Justice 

Official Organization of tlie Department of Educa- 
tion 

Official Organization of the Department of Agricul- 
ture and Commerce 

Tiie Official Organization of the Department of 
Communications 

The Imperial Household Department 

Ministers of the Imperial Household ... 

The Geographical Situation of Japan 

Extent of Area 

Population of the Empire 

The Legislation 

Domestic Administrations 

Colonial Administration (Formosa) 

Colonial Administration (Chosen) 

Colonial Administration (Karafuto) 

Colonial Administration (Kwautung Province) ... 

The Judicial Administration 

The Military Affairs 

The Army 

The Navy 

Diplomatic Affairs 

Finance and Economics 

Communication: Land Transportation 

Communication : Marine Transportation 

The Educational System 

Religion 

Banking Section: — 

i Nippon Ginko (The Bank of Japan) 

Nippon Kwangyo Ginko (The Hypothec Bank of 

Japan) 

Nippon Kogyo Ginko (The Industrial Bank of 

Japan) 

Yokohama Shokin Ginko (The Yokohama Specie 

Bank) 

Taiwan Ginko (The Bank of Taiwan) 

Chosen Ginko (The Bank of Chosen) 

Hokkaido Takushoku Ginko (The Hokkaido 

Colonization Bank) .„ 

Bisan Noko Ginko (The Bisan Agricultural and 

Industrial Bank) 

Gumma-ken Noko Ginko (The Gumma Prefectural 

Agricultural and Industrial Bank) .., 

Shidzuoka Noko Ginko (The Shidzuoka Agricultural 

Industrial Bank) 

Aichi Ginko (The Aichi Bank) 



PAGE. 

21 
21 
22 



23 

24 

25 
27 
28 
29 
30 
30 
32 
34 
37 
39 
41 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
47 
49 
59 
60 
64 
68 



71 

74 

76 

77 
79 
80 

81 

83 

84 

85 
86 



Dai-Hyaku Ginko (The One Hundredth Bank) 

Diii-ichi Ginko (The First Bank) ... 

Dai-san Ginko (The Third Bank) 

Dazai Chozo Ginko (The Dazai Savings Bank) 

Jugo Ginko (The Fifteenth Bank) 

Kajima Ginko (The Kajima Bank) 

Kishinioto Giuko (Tiie Kishimoto Bank) 

Kyoto Shoko Ginko (The Kyoto Commercial and 

Industrial Bank) 

Meiji Ginko (The Meiji Bank)... 

Mitsubishi Goshi Kwaisha Ginkobu (The Mitsu 

bishi Goshi Kwaisiia Banking Department) 

Mitsui Ginko (The Mitsui Bank) 

Nagoya Ginko (The Nagoya Bank) 

Naniwa Ginko (The Naniwa Bank) 

0-mi Ginko (The 0-mi Bank) 

Osaka Chochiku Ginko (The Osaka Savings Ban 

Sanju-shi Ginko (The 34th Bank) 

Shiju Ginko (Tiie 40th Bank^ 

Soda Ginko (The Soda Bank and The Soda Savings 

Bank) 

Tanaka Ginko (The Tanaka Bank) 
Yasuda Ginko (The Yasuda Bank) 

Yashin Ginko (The Yushin Bank) 

Tokyo Ginko Shukaijo (The Tokyo Bankers' 

Association) ... 

Beverages and Provisions: — 

Dai-Nippon Bser Kabushiki Kaisha (The Da 

Nippon Brewery Co.) 

Kabuto Beer Kabushiki Kaisha ( The Kabuto 

Brewery Co.) 

Kirin Beer Kabushiki Kaisha (The Kirin Brewery 

Co.) 

Morinaga Seika Kabushiki Kaisha (The Morinaga 

Confectionery Co.) 

Teikoku Beer Kabushiki Kaisha (The Teikoku 

Brewery Co.) 

Teikoku Kosen Kabushiki Kaisha (The Imperial 

Mineral Water Co.) 

The Clifford- Wilkinson Tansan Mineral Water Co, 
Yushutsu Shokuhin Kabushiki Kaisha (The Export 

Foodstuff" Co.) 

Cement Section :— 

Aichi Cement Kabushiki Kaisha (The Aichi Cement 

\J\}mJ ••• ••• ••• >•• •■• ■■■ ••• ••• ••• 

Asano Cement Kabushiki Kaisha (The Asano 
Cement Co.) 

S^ura Cement Kabushiki Kaisha (The Sakura 
Portland Cement Co.) 



••* ••« 



118 

119 
119 
121 



CONTENTS. 



m 



Dry Goods Section :— page, 

Chikiri-ya (Mr. Jihei Nishimura) 122 

Dai Chu (Mr. Churobei Tsuji) 123 

Daikoku-ya (Mr. Saburobei Sugiura) 123 

Daimaru Gofukuten (The Dairaaru Department 

Store) ... • 124 

Eiraku-ya (Mr. Ihei Hosotsuji) 12.'5 

Mr. Fujii Zenshichi 125 

Hassaku (Mr. Sakuliei Nobashi) 126 

Hosoda Gomei Kaisha (Hosoda Partnership Co.) ... 126 

Ichidr\ Bunjiro Shoten 127 

Ichida Shoten (Ichida & Co.) 128 

lida & Co. — Takflshimaya 128 

luouye Daimaru Gofukuteu 130 

Ito Chobei Shoten ... 131 

Ito Man Shoten (The Ushu Yoko) ]31 

Mr. Kamikawa Genyemon 132 

Mitsukoshi Gofukuten (The Mitsukoshi Department 

Store) 132 

Nishio Soshichi Shoten 133 

Matsumura Jinyemon Shoten ■ ... 134 

Miyamoto Gisuke Shoten 134 

Mr. Nishimura Sozayemon 135 

Okamoto Sensuke Shoten 136 

Mr. Tanaka Rishichi 137 

Mr. Tsuda Tsuueshichi .. 138 

Yasumori Shoten (Yasuraori & Co.) 138 

Zeni Sei (Mr. Seibei Naiki) 139 

Dying and Dye-Stuflfs:— 

Aoki Senkojo (The Aoki Dye Works) 140 

Hananoya Enogu Seizosho (The Hananoya Colours 

Factory 140 

Inabata Senkojo (Inabata & Co.) 141 

Ito Senkojo (The Ito Dye Works) 142 

Nippon Katazome Kabushiki Kaisha (The Japan 

Cotton Printing and Dying Works) 142 

Nisshin Sempu Goshi Kaisha (The Nisshin Dye 

Works) 143 

Shibata Senryo Shoten (The Shibata Dye-StuffStore) 144 

Yamada Gomei Kaisha (The Yaniada Dye-Stuff Co.) 144 

Electrical Section :— 

Chichibu Densen Seizosho (The Chichibu Electrical 

Wire Manufactory) 146 

Dai-Nippon Denkyu Kabushiki KaisKa (The Dai- 
Nippon Electric Bulb Co.) 147 

Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Electro-Chemical Industry Co.) 148 



PAGE. 

Fujikura Densen Kabushiki Kaisha (The Fujikura 
Electrical Wire Co.) 149 

Fuji Suiden Kabushiki Kaisha (The Fuji Hydro- 
Elcctric Co.) 150 

Ishiwatari Denki Seisakusho (The Ishiwatari Elec- 
trical Works) 151 

Kokosha (Mr. Kichijiro Itami) 151 

Kurosaki Denki Seisakusho (Tiie Kurosaki Elec- 
trical Apparatus Works) 152 

Kyoritsu Denki Densen Kabushiki Kaisha (The 
Kyoritsu Electrical Machine and Electrical Wire 
Co.) 153 

Meiji Denki Kabushiki Kaisha (The Meiji Elec- 
trical Co.) 153 

Nagoya Dento Kabushiki Kaisha (The Nagoya 
Electric Light Co ) 154 

Oana Seisakusho (The Oana Works) 155 

Oda Denki Kojo (The Oda Electrical Machine 
Works) 156 

Okumura Denki Shokai (The Okumura Electric 

Engineering Co.) 157 

Osaka Denkyu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Osaka 

Electric Lamp (^o.) ... 158 

Osaka Dento Kabushiki Kaisha (The Osaka Electric 

Light Co.) 158 

Osaka Dento Kabushiki Kaisha Seisakusho (The 

Osaka Electric Light Company's Engineering 

Works) 160 

Sawafuji Denki Kogyosho (The Sawafuji Electric 

Engineering Works) 161 

Shibaura Seisakusho (The Sliibaura Engineering 

Works) 162 

Shimoha Denki Shokai (The Shimoha Electric Co.) 163 
Teikoku Denkyu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Imperial 

Electric Lamp Bulb Co.) 163 

Tokyo Denki Kabushiki Kaisha (The Tokyo Electric 

Co 164 

Tokyo Dento Kabushiki Kaisha (The Tokyo 

Electric Light Co.) 165 

Tokyo Tanaka Shokai (H. S. Tanaka & Co.) ... 166 
Tone Hatsudeu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Tone 

Hydro-Electric Co.) 167 

Toyo Denki Seisakusho (The Toyo Electrical 

Works) 167 

Ujigawa Denki Kabushiki Kaisiia (The Ujigawa 

Electric Co.) 168 

Mr. Yai Sakizo 169 

Yokohama Densen Seize Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Yokohama Electric Wire Works) 169 



IV 



CONTENTS, 



Exchanges and Brokers:— page. 

Tokyo Kabusliiki Torihikijo (The Tokyo Stock 

Exchange • 171 

Fakushima Shokai (Fukushima & Co.) 172 

Mr. Hosono Denjiro 173 

Kobuse Shoten ... 173 

Mr. Koike Kunizo (Koike & Co.) 174 

Mr. Nanba Reikichi 176 

Mr. Oda Shojiro 175 

SoDO Sakutaro Shoten 176 

Mr. Suzuki Tsunesuke 176 

Mr. Tamatsuka Eijiro 177 

Osaka Dojima Beikoku Torihikijo (The Osaka 

Dojima Rice Exchange) 178 

Nimo Shoten 179 

Hosiery Section:— 

Daitoku Goshi Kaisha (Daitoku & Co.) 180 

Mr, Hirano Fusakichi 180 

Hojo Kimo Seikobu (The Hojo Napping Works).,, 181 

Mr. Horikawa Chobei — " Kyocho Shoten " 181 

Ito Sho Shoten (S. Ito & Co.) ... 182 

Iwahashi Shigeo Shoten 182 

Iwai Wakichi Shoten (W. Iwai & Co.) 183 

Kosugi Gomel Kaisha (Kcsugi & Co.) 183 

Mr. Kuriyaraa Yasuhei 184 

Mr. Makino Terusaburo 184 

Nakagawa Isaku Shoten 185 

Nishimura Shin Yoko (S, Nishimura & Co.) 185 

Nishizawa Bufnjiro Shoten (Nishizawa & Co.) ... 186 

Niwa Shoten 186 

Osaka Boyekihin Meriyasu Kairyo Goshi Kaisha 

(The Osaka Hosiery Improvement Co.) 187 

Mr. Ozaki Knnizo 187 

Mr. Shimidzu Hikosaburo 188 

Mr, Tanimoto Tameo 188 

Shirokane Meriyasu Seizosho (The Shirokane 

Hosiery Work) 189 

Tokyo Yushutsu Shokai (Tokyo Exports Co.) ... 189 
Uyemura Kiaumeriynsu Kojo (The Uyemura Silk 

Hosiery Works) 190 

Hotel Section:— 

Fujiya Hotel 191 

Hashimoto Hotel 192 

Ikaho Hotel 192 

Tokyo Station Hotel ... 193 

Three Hotels at Nikko „. 194 



Insurance Section :— 

Aikoku Seimei Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Aikoku Life Insurance Co.) 

Daido Seimei Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Daido Life Insurance Co.) 

Daiichi Seimei Hoken Sogp Kaisha (The First 

Mutual Life Insurance Co.) 

Fukuju Kasai Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Fukuju Fire Insurance Co.) 

Fukuju Seimei Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Fukuju Life Insurance Co.) 

Jinju Seimei Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (The Jinju 

Life Insurance Co.) 

Kyodo Kasai Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (The Kyodo 

Fire Insurance Co.) 

Kyosai Seimei Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Kyosai Life Insurance Co.) 

Meiji Seimei Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (The Meiji 

Life Insurance Co.) 

Nippon Seimei Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Nippon Life Assurance Co.) 

Osaka Kaijo Kasai Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Osaka Marine and Fire Insurance Co.) 

Teikoku Kaijo Unso Kasai Hoken Kabushiki 

Kaisha (The Imperial Marine, Transit and Fire 

Insurance Co.) 

Teikoku Seimei Hoken Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Teikoku Life Insurance Co.) ... 

Yokohama Kasai Kaijo Unso Shinyo Hoken Kabu- 
shiki Kaisha (The Yokohama Fire, Marine, 

Transit and Fidelity Insurance Co.) 

Iron Works:- 

Mr. Adachi Taiji 

Adachi Tekkosho (The Adachi Iron Works) 

Ajikawa Tekkosho (The Ajikawa Iron Works) 

Fujimura Kikal Kabushiki Kaisha (The Fujiraura 
Machine Co.) 

Fushita Tekkosho (The Fushita Iron Works) 

Hirao Tekkosho — Toyo Kikai Seisakusho (The 
Hirao Iron Works and The Oriental Engineer- 
ing Works) 

Hirato Kojo (The Hirato Iron Works) 

Ikegai Tekkosho (The Ikegai Iron Works) 

Izumi Enkan Seizosho (The Izumi Lead Pipe Works) 

Kaneko Kojo (The Kaneko Iron Foundry) 

Kisha Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Locomotive 
Manufacturing Co.) 

Kisliiraoto Shoten (Kishiraoto & Co.) ... 

Kunitomo Tekkosho (The Kunitomo Iron Works).. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 
219 

219 
220 

221 
221 
223 

223 

224 
226 

226 

227 

227 
228 
229 
229 
230 

230 



Matsuhara Tekkosho (The Matsuhara Bolt and 
Nut Works) 

Matsuo Tekkosho (The Matsuo Iron Works) 

Miraura Kojo (The Miraura Works) 

Minamisenju Kikai Seisakusho (The Minaniisenju 
Engineering Works) 

NakashiraaSankoshoCTheNakashima Iron Works) 

Nakamura Tekkosho (The Nakamura Iron Works). 

Nippon Enkan Seizosho (The Japan Lead Pipe 
Manufactory) 

Nippon Kokan Kabushiki Kaisha (The Nippon 
Steel Tube Co.) 

Nippon Seikbsho (The Japan Steel Works) 

Nippon Sharyo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Japan 
Wheel and Vehicle Works) 

Nitto Seiko Kabushiki Kaisha (The Nitto Steel 
Manufacturing Co.) 

Osaka Denki Bundo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Osaka 
Electric Copper Refining Co.) 

Osaka Seisasho (The Osaka Chain Manufactory) ... 

Otsuka Kojo (The Otsuka Iron Works) 

Sonoike Kogu Seisakusho (The Sonoike Tool Works) 

Mr. Sugi Keitaro (K. Sugi & Co.) 

Tokyo Keiki Seisakusho (The Tokyo Meter Manu- 
facturing Works) 

Tokyo Spring Seisakusho— Tokyo Kozai Seisakusho 
(The Tokyo Spring Works and Tokyo Steel 
Materials Works) 231 

Toyodashiki Shokki Kabushiki Kaisha (The Toyoda 
Loom Works) 232 

Tsukudajiraa Seisakusho (The Tsukudajinia Machine 
Works) 233 

Land Transportation: — 

Japan's International Through Traffic 234 

Minanii Manshu Tetsudo Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

South Manchuria Railway Co.) 236 

Chosen Tetsudo (Chosen Railways) 241 

Hanshin Denki Tetsudo Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Hanshin Electric Railway Co ) 242 

Keihan Denki Tetsudo Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Keihan Electric Railway Co.) 243 

Kokura Tetsudo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Kokura 

Railway Co.) 244 

Tobu Tetsudo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Tobu Railway 

\JOtJ !•• ••• ••• «•• ■•• •■• ••• ••• ••• ••• «^^ 

Leather Manufacturers and Shoe Makers :— 

Chosen Hikaku Kabushiki Kaisha (The Chosen 
Leather Manufacturing Co.) >. ... 246 



PAGE. 
Meiji Seikaku Kabushiki Kaisha (The Meiji Leather 

Manufacturing Co.) 247 

Nippon Hikaku Kabushiki Kaisha (Tiie Japan 

Leather Co.) 247 

Mr. Ota Tokujiro 248 

Sakura-Gumi (The Sakura-Gurai Co.) 219 

Marine Products:— 

Mr. Hidaka Eizaburo 251 

Inouye Sakujiro Shoten (S. Inouye & Co.) 252 

Omura-wan Shinju Kabushiki Knisha (The Omuia- 

Bay Pearl Co.) 252 

Teikoku Suisan Kabushiki Kaisha (Imperial Marine 

Products Co.)... 254 

Toyo Hogei Kabushiki Kaisha (I'he Oriental 

Whaling Co.) 254 

Medical and Sanitary Section : — 

Densenbyo Kenkyujo (Institute for the Study of 

Infectious Diseases) 256 

Akikusa Shoten (fhe AkikusaCo.) 257 

Dai Nippon Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha (The Dai 

Nippon Pharmaceutical Co.) 257 

Enjudo Byo-in (The Enjudo Hospital) 258 

Fu-undo Goto Goshi Kaisha (The Fu-undo Goto Co.) 259 

Icho Byo-in (The Alimentary Organ Hospital) ... 260 
Inouye Ganka Byo-in (The Inouye Ophthalmic 

Hospital) 260 

Mr. Iwaraoto Tokichi — Iwashiya 261 

Iwashiya Matsuraoto Kikaiten (G. Matsumoto 

& Co.) 2t)2 

Kanno Byo-in (The Kanno Hospital) 262 

Koseikan Byo-in (The Koseikan Hospital) 263 

Mr. Kubota Shozayemon " 264 

Kyo-uudo Byo-in (The Kyo-undo Hospital) 265 

Dr. Makino Chiyozo 266 

Matsumura Shoten (Matsumura & Co.) 266 

Morishila Hiroshi Yakubo 267 

Naruke Shoten 268 

Ogata Fujinka Byo-in (The Ogata Hospital for 

Women's Diseases) 269 

Dr. Okazaki Keiichiro 269 

Osaka Kessei Yaku-in (The Osaka Serum Hospital) 270 

Sato Byo-in (The Sato Hospital) ' ... 271 

Sankyo Kabushiki Kaisha (Sankyo & Co.) 272 

Shiraimatsu Kikaiho (M. Shirai & Go ) 272 

Mr. Takeda Chobei ~ 273 

Toki Asataro Shoten 274 

Tokyo Byo-in (The Tokyo Hospital) ... 275 

Tomoda Goshi Kaisha (Tomoda & Co.) 276 



VI 



CONTENTS, 



- • • PAGE. 

Dr. Tsuzuki Jinnosuke 276 

Utsunomiya Byo-in (The Utsunomiya Hospital) ... 277 

Wataiuibe Byo-iii (The Watanabe Hospital) 278 

Watanuki Byo-in (The Watanuki Hospital) 279 

Mining Section :— 

^r. Aso-Takichi 280 

Daito Kogyo Kabushiki Kaislia (The Daito 

Mining Co.) ... 281 

Fujita-Gurai(TheFujitaCo.) 281 

Furukawa Gomel Kaisha (Furukawa & Co.) 283 

Hoden Sekiyu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Hoden Oil 

Co.) 285 

Hokkaido Tanko Kisen Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Hokkaido Colliery and Steamship Co.) 287 

Ibaraki Saitan Kabushiki Kaisha (The Ibaraki 

Coal Digging Co.) 288 

Ishikari Sekitan Kabushiki Kaisha (The Ishikari 

Coal Mining Co.) 289 

Iwaki Tanko Kabushiki Kaisha (The Iwaki Coal 

Mining Co.) ... 290 

Kaijima Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Kaijima 

Mining Co.) , 290 

Kidogasawa Kozan Kabushiki Kaisha — Yakuki 

Kozan Kabushiki Kaisha (The Kidogasawa 

Mining Co. and Yakuki Mining Co.) 291 

Kamaishi Kozan (The Kaniaishi Mine) 292 

Kuhara Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Kuhaia 

Mining Co.) 293 

Mitsubishi Goshi Kaisha Kozanbu (The Mining 

Department of the Mitsubishi Co.) 296 

Mitsui Kozan Kabushiki Kaisha (The Mitsui 

Mining Co.) 297 

Nippon Sekiyu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Nippon Oil 

\jO»J ••• ••• ••■ ••• ••■ asi «•• («• ••■ •■• ^t/O 

Nishizawa Kinzan Kabushiki Kaisha (The Nishi- 
zawa Gold Mining Co.) 300 

Yokoyama Kogyobu (The Yokoyama Mining 
Department) 301 

Newspapers and Printers : — 

The " Chugai Shogyo Shimpo " 303 , 

The Dobukan ; 303 

Mr. Doi Kurahichi 304 

Tlie Fuzambo 305 

The Hakubunkan ... 306 

Hakubunkan Insatsusho (The Hakubunkan Print- 
ing Office) 307 

Ichida Offset Insatsu Goshi Kaisha (The Ichida 

Offset Printing Co.) 308 

Isshiki Kappausho (The Isshiki Job Printers) .,. 309 



The " Jiji Shimpo " 

The " Japan Gazette " 

Kojiraa Kojo (The Kojima Works) 

The " Kokumin Shimbun " 

Mitsuma Insatsusho (The Mitsuma Printing House) 

The " Miyako Shimbun " 

The " Nagoya Shimbun " 

Nakaya Insatsusho (The Nakaya Printing House).. 

The Nanko-do 

Nippon Seihan Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Nippon Seihan Printing Co.) 

Nissliiu Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Nisshin 

Printing Co.) 

The "Osaka Mainichi Shimbun " and The " Tokyo 

Nichinichi Shimbun " 

The Sanshu-sha (The Sanshu-sha Printing House). 

The Seiun-do 

The Senryu-do 

The Shosan-do 

The Shimhi Shoin ... 

Shuyei sha (The Shuyei-sha Printing Co.) 

The " Tokyo Asahi Shimbun " 

Tokyo Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Tokyo 

Printing Co.J 

The Tokyo Kokubun-sha 

The Tokyo Seihon Goshi Kaisha 

Tokyo Tsukiji Kappan Seizo-sho (The Tokyo 

Tsukiji Type Foundry) 

Toppau Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Toppan 

Printing Co.) 

Toyo Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Toyo Print- 
ing Co.) 



PAGE. 

309 
310 
311 
311 
313 
313 
314 
315 
316 



318 
319 
320 
320 
321 
322 
323 
324 

325 
326 
327 

327 

328 
329 



Paper Mills:— 

Fuji Seishi Kabushiki Kaisha (The Fuji Paper Mill 
Co.) 331 

Oji Seishi Kabushiki Kaisha (The Oji Paper Manu- 
facturing Co.) 333 

Takefu Seishijo (The Takefu Paper Mill) ... ... 334 

Tokyo Itagami Kabushiki Kaisha (The Tokyo 
Card-Board Co.) 335 

Raw Silk:- 

Ishikawa Gumi Seishijo (The Ishikawa-Gunii 

Filature Works) 336 

llie Katakura-Gumi 337 

The Kosui-Sha 337 

Marudai-Gumi Seishijo (The Marudai-Gurai 

Filature Works) 338 

Taishokau Seishijo (The Taishokan Filature Works) 339 



CONTENTS. 



Vii 



PAGE. 

Yajima Seishi Kabuahiki Kaisba (The Yajima Raw 
Silk Mfg. Co.) 339 

Yokohama Kiito Kabushiki Kaisba (The Y'oko- 
liaiua Raw Silk Co.) 340 

Schools and Libraries: — 

Gakushu-in (The Peers' School) 342 

Kaigun Dai Gakko (The Imperial Naval Staff 

College) 343 

Suisau Koshusho 344 

Teikoku Dzushokan (The Imperial Library) 345 

Tokyo Joshi Koto Sliihan Gakko (The Tokyo 

Female Higher Normal School) 346 

Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku (The Imperial University 

of Tokyo) 347 

Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku Dzushokan (The Tokyo 

Imperial University Library) 350 

Azabu Jui Chikusan Gakko (Tlie Azabu Velerinary 

Surgery and Stock Hreeding School) 351 

Doshi-Sha (The Doshi-Sha University) 352 

Fukuoka Kenritsu Dzushokan (The Fukuoka Pre- 

fectural Library) 353 

Fukuoka Shogyo Gakko (The Fukuoka Municipal 

Commercial School) ... 353 

Jissen Jo-Gakko (The Jisaen Girls' School) 354 

The Kansei Gakuin 355 

Kobe Jo-Gakuin (The Kobe College) ... 356 

Kyoto Dzushokan (The Kyoto Prefectural Library) 357 

The Meiji Semmon Gakko 358 

Niigata Kenritsu Dzushokan (The Niigata Prefec- 
tural Library) 359 

Osaka Furitsu Dzushokan (The Osaka Prefectural 

Library) 360 

Osaka Ika Daigaku (Tlie Osaka Prefectural 

Medical College) 360 

Rikkyo Daigaku (St. Paul's College) 361 

Tokyo Furitsu Shokko Gakko (The Artisans' 

School of Tokyo Prefecture) 363 

Waseda Daigaku (The Waseda University) 364 

Shipbuilding :— 

Asano Zosensho (The Asano Shipbuilding Co.) ... 365 
Kawasaki Zosensho (The Kawasaki Dockyard 

Co.) 366 

Osaka Tekkosho (The Osaka Iron Works) 369 

Tokyo IsWkawa-jiraa Zosensho (The Tokyo Ishikawa- 

jima Shipbuilding and Engineering Co.) 371 

Uraga Dokku Kabushiki Kaisha (The Uraga 

Dock Co.) 672 



Shipping :— PAGE, 

Harada Kisen Kabushiki Kaisha (The Harada 
Steamship Co) 373 

Kita Nippon Kisen Kabushiki Kaisha (The North 
Japan Steamship Co.) ... 373 

Nanyo Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha (The South Sea 
Mail Steamship Co.) 375 

Nippon Yuseu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Japan Mail 
Steamship Co.) 376 

Osaka Shosen Kabushiki Kaisha (The Osaka Mer- 
cantile Steamship Co ) 378 

The Tomishima-Gumi 380 

Toyo Kisen Kabushiki Kaisha (The Oriental 
Steamship Co.) 381 

Uchida Kisen Kabushiki Kaisha (The Uchida 
Steamship Co.) 383 

Spinning and Textiles Section :— 

Senju Seijusho (The Senju Army Woollen Cloth 
Factory) 384 

Ashikaga Oriniono Dogyo Kumiai (Tlie Ashikaga 
Textile Fabrics and Textile Guild) 385 

Ashikaga Oriraono Kabushiki Kaisha (The 
Ashikaga Textile Co.) 386 

Ashikaga Yoriito Kabushiki Kaislia (Ashi- 
kaga Thrown Silk Co.) 387 

Mr. Iwaida Genzo 387 

Mr. Katsukura Mokichi 388 

Mr. Kawashima Kyubei 388 

Kiraura Asashichi Orimono Kojo (A. Kimura 

& Co.) 389 

Mr. Masuzawa Sagenji 390 

Mrs. Okajima Koto 390 

Ryoya Senshoku Seri Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Ryoya Dying and Readjusting Co.) 390 

Mr. Sakurai Shinroku 391 

Mr. Shindo Yuji ' 391 

Fuji Gasu Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha ( Ihe Fujigasu 
Spinning Co.) 392 

Fukushima Habutai Kabushiki Kaisha (The 
Fukushima Habutai Co.) ; 394 

Isezaki Orimono Dogyo Kumiai (The Isezaki Textile 
Fabrics and Textile Guild 395 

Jomo Mosurin Kabushiki Kaisha (The Jomo Mus- 
lin Co.) 396 

Kanegafuchi Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha (The Kane- 
gafuchi Spinning Co.) ...,,397 



VHl 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Kiryu Orimono Dogyo Kumiai (The Kiryu Textile 

Fabrics and Textile Guild) 398 

Ebara Teisuke Orimono Kojo (The T. Ebara's 

Weaving Factory) 399 

lidzuka Keitei Orimono Koj > (The lidzuka 

Brothers Weaving Mill) 400 

' Kakiage Bunzayemon Orimono Siioten (The 

Kakiage's Textile Store) 401 

Kiryu Yoiiito Kabushiki Kaiaha (The Kiryu 

Silk Throwing Co ) ... 402 

Ryomo Seishoku Kabushiki Kaisha (The Ryo- 

mo Weaving and Mercerizing Co.) 403 

Kurashiki Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha (Tlie Kura- 

shiki Cotton Spinning Co.) 404 

Kurihara Boshoku Kojo (The Kurihara Spinning 

and Weaving Mill) 405 

Kyoto Orimono Kabushiki Kaisha (The Kyoto 

Weaving Co.) 40.') 

Mosurin Boshoku Kabushiki Kaisha (The Muslin 

Spinning and Weaving Co.) 406 

Nippon Boshoku Kabushiki Kaisha (The Nippon 

Spinning and Weaving Co.) 407 

Nippon Keori Kabushiki Kaisha (The Nippon 

Woollen Cloth Co.) 408 

Nippon Menka Kabushiki Kaisha (The Japan Raw 

Cotton Co.) 409 

Nippon Seifu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Japan Tex- 
tile Manufacturing Co.) 409 

Nishijin Orimono Dogyo Kumiai (The Nisbijin 

Weavers' Association) 410 

Ora Orimono Dogyo Kumiai (The Ora Textile 

Fabrics and Textile Guild) 411 

Okahashi Kabushiki Kaisha (Okahashi & Co.) ... 412 
Osaka Meriyasu Boshoku Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Osaka Hosiery Spinning and Weaving Works)... 413 
Osaka Orimono Kabushiki Kaisha (The Osaka 

Weaving Co.) 413 

Osaka Taoru Goshi Kaisha (The Osaka Towel 

Manufacturing Co 414 

Sano Orimono Dogyo Kumiai (The Sano Textile 

Fabrics and Textile Guild) 415 

Mr. Shimada Isaburo 415 

Teikoku Seima Kabushiki Kaisha (The Teikoku 

Hemp Manufacturing Co.) 416 

Teikoku Yoriito Orimono Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Teikoku Thrown Silk and Fabrics Co.) ... ... 416 

Tokyo Kyariko Seishoku Kabushiki fCaisha (The 

Tokyo Calico Works) 417 

Tokyo Keorimono Kabushiki Kaisha (The Tokyo 

< Woollen Manufacturing Co.) 418 



PAGE. 

Tokyo Mosurin Boshoku Kabushiki Kaisha (The 
Tokyo Muslin Spinning and Weaving Co.) ... 419 

Tokyo Seiju Kabushiki Kaisha (The Tokyo Woollen 
Cloth Manufacturing Co.) 420 

Toyo Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha (The Oriental Cot- 
ton Spinning Co.) 421 

Toyo Keori Kabushiki Kaisha (Toyo Textile Manu- 
facturing Co.) 422 

Toyo Mosurin Kabushiki Kaisha (The Toyo Muslin 
Co.) 423 

Uzen Orimono Kabushiki Kaisha (The Uzen 
Textile Manufacturing Co.) 423 

Toyo Shokufu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Oriental 
Weaving Co.) ... 424 

Y. Yagi Shoten and the Naniwa Spinning and 

Weaving Co 424' 

Tsuji Boshokusho (The Tsuji Spinning and Weaving 
Mill) ; 425 

Sugar Manufacturing Section :— 

Chutai Takushoku Seito Kabushiki Kaisha (The 
Chutai Development and Sugar Manufacturing 
Co.) 

Dai Nippon Seito Kabushiki Kaisha (The Japan 
Sugar Manufacturing Co.) 

Ensuiko Seito Takushoku Kabushiki Kaisha (The 
Eusuiko Sugar Manufacturing and Development 

Meiji Seito Kabushiki Kaisha (The Meiji Sugar 

Manufacturing Co.) 

Minami Nippon Seito Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Minami Nippon Sugar Manufacturing Co.) 
Niitaka Seito Kabushiki Kaisha (Niitaka Sugar 

Producing Co.) 

Taito Seito Kabushiki^ Kaisha (The Taito Sugar 

Producing Co.) 

Taiwan Seito Kabushiki Kaisha (The Formosa 

Sugar Manufacturing Co.) 

Teikoku Seito Kabushiki Kaisha (The Imperial 

Sugar Manufacturing Co.) 

Toyo Seito Kabushiki Kaisha (The Oriental Sugar 

Producing Co.) > 

Toilet Articles Section:— 

Hirao Sampei Shoten (S. Hirao & Co.) 

The Imura Seiko-sha 

The Ito Kocho-yen 

The Kaneko-Go 

Mr. Kobayashi Tomijiro 

The Maruraiya Shoten 

Nagase Shokai (The Nagase Co.) 

The Nakayama Taiyo-do ... ... 



426 



427 



429 



430 



430 



431 



432 



433 



434 



435 



436 
437 
437 
438 
439 
439 
440 
441 



Ob'N't'Ell't'8. 



rt 



Trading Section :— 

Abe Icliitaro Shoten (I. Abe & Co., or Abe Ich 

Yoko) 

Mr. Abe Kobei — Masudaya _ 

The Aichi Bussan-Gumi 

Akita Sliokai (Akita & Co.) 

Aral Kenjiro Shoten (K. Arai & Co.) 

Harii Shoten (Harii & Co.) 

Mr. T. Hasegawa 

Hirahiatsu Shoten (H. Hiramatsu & Co.) 

Hotta Shokai (M. Hotta & Co.) 

Ibuki Yoko (M. Ibuki & Co.) 

Ikeda Shoten (Ikeda & Co.) 

Itohchu Gomel Kaisha (0. Itoh & Co.) 

Imanaga Shokai (Iraanaga & Co.) 

Iwai Shoten (Iwai & Co.) 

Mr. Iwatsubo Gohei 

Kakiuchi Shoten (T. Kakiuchi & Co.) 

Kanno Shokai (Kanno & Co.) 

Kato Seiju Shoten (S. Kato & Co.) ... 

Kobayashi Shoten (Z Kobayashi & Co.) 

Komada Shoten (Komada & Co.) 

ICoyamasada-Go (Koyamasada & Co.) 

Kyoshinsha (The Kyoshinsha Co.) 

Mr. Masuda Masuzo 

Mitsui Biissan Kabushiki Kiiisha (Mitsui & Co.) 

Matsumoto-Go (Matsumoto & Co.) 

Matsuinoto-Gurai (Y. Matsumoto-Gumi & Co.) 

Mr. Miyata Rikitaro 

Nakamura Goshi Kaisha (Nakamura & Co.)... 
Nakashima Yasunosuke Shoten (Y. Nakashima) 

Mosawa-Gumi (Nosawa & Co.) 

Nozaki Slioten (Nozaki Bros. & Co.) 

Mr. Ogawa Rihachiro 

Oguri Toraigoro Shoten (T. Oguri & Co.) 

Oka Shigezo Shoten (S. Oka & Co.) 

Mr. Okatani Sosuke 

Okura-Gumi (Okura & Co.) 

Mr. Sakabe Jiro (Sakabe & Co.) 

Mr. Siisano Jinshiro 

Shibakawa Shoten (Shibakawa & Co.) 

The Shosho Yoko 

Suzuka Shoten (Suzuka & Co.) ... 

The Shinkyu-Guini 

Suzuki Slioten (Suzuki & Co.) 

Tanaka Goniei Kaisha 

Tokunaga Shoten (Tokunaga & Co.) 

Mr. Watanabe Shozaburo 

Yamaguchi Kazo Shoten (K. Yamaguchi & Co.) 

Yamamoto Shoten Osaka Shiten (H. Yamamoto, 

- Osaka Branch) ... 



PAGE. PAGE. 

Yamatake Shokai (Yaraatake & Co.) 476 

442 Yezoye Shoten (R. Yezoye Sons & Co.) 476 

442 Yoshida Shikanosuke Slioten (S. Yoshida & Co.) ... 477 

443 Yoshidzumi Taketaro Shoten (Taketaro Yoshidzumi) 478 

444 Yoshikawa Kyushichi Shoten (K. Yoshikawa & Co.) 479 

445 Mr. Yuasa Siiichizayemon 479 

445 

446 Miscellaneous Commerce Section : — 

446 Mr. Akiyama Kichigoro 481 

447 Anshin-do Yabuuchi Tokeiho (The Anshin-do 

448 Yabuuchi Co.) 482 

449 Arai Shokai (E. Arai & Co,) 482 

449 Asanuma Sliokai (T. Asanuma & Co.) 483 

450 Choya Shokai (Choya & Co.) 484 

451 Fukuda Jusuke Shoten (J. Fukuda & Co.) 484 

452 Fukuda Usaburo Shoten (Fukuda & Co.) 485 

452 The Hakushin-Sha 486 

453 Hayashi Otokichi Shoteu (O. Hayashi & Co.) ... 487 

453 Mr. Hoshino Fukujiro 487 

454 Mr. Hosonuma Asashiro 488 

454 Ichimaru Shokai — 0. A. Shokai (Ichinaaru & Co. 

455 and O. A. & Co.) 489 

455 Mr. Ichinohe Zenshiro 489 

456 Ikeda Burapo-do (J. I. Bumpo-do) 490 

457 Imatsu-ya or Morioka & Co 491 

459 Inouye Tadasuke Shoten (T. Inouye & Co.) 492 

459 Ishida Manbei Shoten (M. Ishida & Co.) 492 

460 The Ito Koichi-do 493 

460 , Izawa Honten (Izawa & Co.) 494 

461 Jiyu-do Shibutani Shokai (Jiyu-do Shibutani Co.).. 495 

461 The Karaei Shoten 495 

462 Kato Shoten (Kato & Co.) 496 

462 Katsumoto Chubei Shoten (C. Katsumoto & Co.) ... 497 

463 Mr. Kawai Kitaro 497 

464 Kawamoto Kihei Shoten (K. Kawamoto & Co.) ... 498 

465 Kawasaki Suketaro Shoten (8. Kawasaki & Co.) ... 499 
465 The Kibi Shoten 499 

467 The Kita Shiraizu Shoten 500 

468 Komatsu Rokuye Shoten (Rokuye Koraatsu) ... 500 

468 Mr. Komada Rihei 501 

469 Kosuga Kyotaro Shoten — Osaka-ya (K. Kosuga & 

470 Co 502 

471 Koyama Honten (Koyama & Co.) 502 

472 Mr. Kuritani Genroku (Genroku Kuritani & Co.).. 503 

473 The Kuramoohi Shoten — Toyoda-ya 504 

473 Mr. Matsuzaka Seikichi 505 

474 Matsuzaki Isaburo Shoten (I. Matsuzaki & Co.) ... 505 

474 Mayekawa Masazo Shoten (M. Mayekawa & Co.),.. 506 
Minakawa Shoten (Minakawa & Co.) 507 

475 Mr. Minami Tametaro 507 



' CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Mitsuta Mannenhitsu Seizosho (The Mitsuta Foun- 
tain Pen Co.) 508 

Mr. Misaki Yosliinosuke 509 

Murakami Kiyoji Shoten (K. Murakami & Co.) ... 509 

M. Muranaka Shoten 510 

The Muto Shoten (M. Muto & Co.) 510 

The Mutsumiya Shoten 511 

Nagao Otokichi Shoten (O. Nagao & Co.) 511 

Nagase Shoten (D. Nagase & Co.) 512 

Nakai Shoten (Nagai & Co.) 512 

Mr. Nakamura Hambei 514 

Nakaraura Shoten (K. Nakamura) 514 

Mr. Nakamura Shozo (S. Nakamura & Co.) 515 

Mr. Nakatani Akikichi 516 

Nakatora Hon ten (Nakatora & Co.) 516 

The Nippon 517 

The Nishida Shoten 517 

Nishimura Shoten (H. Nishimura) 518 

Nishiumi Sakujiro Shoten (S. Nishiurai & Co.) ... 519 

Ochiai Buukichi Shoten (B. Ochiai & Co.) 520 

Ogimura Kametaro Shoten (K. Ogimura & Co ) ... 520 

Oishi Gomu Honten (The Oishi Rubber Co.) 521 

Mr. Okano Kambei 521 

Osawa Masajiro Shoten (Masajiro Osawa) 522 

Sakai Hamonoten (Sakai Edged Tool Co.) 523 

The Senshunyen 524 

Mr. Shibata Otokichi 524 

The Shimidzu Shoten 525 

The Sugimura Shoten 525 

TheShobi-do 526 

The Suzuhiko Shoten 527 

Mr. Suzuki Kojiro — Maruman 528 

Takata Matsutaro Shoten (M. Takata <& Co.) ... 528 

The Takegami Shoten 529 

Mr. Takeuchi Rinnosuke 529 

Toyaraa Shoten (Toyama & Co.) 530 

Toyoshima Kyushichi Shoten (Toyoshima Cotton 

Yarn Store) 531 

Mr. Tsuda Katsugoro 531 

Tsutaya Shoten (Tsutaya & Co.) 532 

Mr. Uchida Naokichi 533 

Yaraahatsu Shoten (H. Yamada & Co.) ... 533 

The Unno Shoten 534 

Mr. Yamaguchi Kitaro 534 

Yamatonori Seizosho — Kiuchi Shoten (Kiuchi & 

^^•/ ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••■ ••• ••• ••• ooO 

Yamato Shokai (The Yamato Co.) 536 

Yanase Shokai (Yanase & Co.) ... 536 

Yorozuya Shoten (Yorozuya & Co.) 537 

Mr. Yoshiwara Sadajiro 538 



The Yoshiyasu Shoten 

The Yoshidzumi Shoten 

Miscellaneous Industry Section :— 

Mr. Akiba Daisuke 

Arenkenn Gomu Seizosho (The Arenkenn Rubber 
vvorKsj ... ... ,,, ... ,, ,,, ,,, 

Asahi Eiipitsu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Asahi Lead 
Pencil Manufacturing Co.) 

Asano Mokkojo (The Asano Wood Works) 

Ashimori Seikosho (The Ashimoii Rope Works) ... 

Dai Nippon Jinzohiryo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Dai 
Nippon Artificial Fertilizer Co.) 

Dai Nippon Suido Mokkan Kabushiki Kaisha (The 
Dai Nippon Water Works Wooden Pipe Manu- 
facturing Co.) 

Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (The 
Electro-Chemical Industry Co.) 

Fujii Renzu Seizosho (The Fujii Optical Works) ... 

Harimoto Korio Shoten (K. Hariraoto Safe Co.) ... 

Higuchi Yukichi Shoten (Y. Higuclii & Co ) 

Hirano Daizu Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (The 
Hirano Bean Cakes Co.) 

Mr. Isawa Kiichiro 

Ishikawa Pensaki Seizosho (Ishikawa & Co.). 

Ito Sakusan Seizosho (The Ito Acetic and Cliemical 
Works) 

Iwaki Garasu Seizosho (The Iwaki Glass Manu- 
factory) w 

Izumi Seiyusho (Izumi Oil and Paint Co.) 

Kakuichi Gomu Goshi Kaisha (The Kakuiclii 
Rubber Co.) ... 

Kamijo Enpitsu Seizosho (The Kamijo Lead Pencil 
Works) 

Kaneko Enpitsu Seizosho (The Kaneko Pencil 

Works) 

Kanto Sanso Kabushiki Kaisha (The Kanto Acid 

and Alkali Works) 

Mr. Katsushiro Masutaro 

Kinnnon Siiokai (The Kimmon Meter Works) 
Kimura Ishiwata Shokai (The Kimura Asbestos 

Co.) 

Kinkozau Shoten (The Kinkozan Pottery) 

Koku-ko-sha (The Koku-ko-sha & Co.) 

Kiri Jubei Shoten (J. Kiri & Co.) 

Mr. Koshiba Daijiro 

Kntobuki Seiyensho (The Kotobuki Grass Rug 

Manufactory) ,, 

Kyokuto Enpitsu Goshi Kaisha (The Far Eastern 

Pencil Manufacturing Co.) 



541 



545 



545 

148 
546 
547 

548 

548 
549 
549 

550 

551 
552 

553 

553 

554 

555 
556 
556 

557 
558 
558 
559 
560 

560 

561 



CONTENTS. 



xi 



PAGE. 

Kyonioto Garasu Seizosho (The Kyomoto Glass 

Wares Manufacturing Factory) 562 

Kyoto Rutsubo Seizosho (The Kyoto Graphite 

Crucible Manufactory) 563 

Masaki Ichikawa Enpitsu Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Masaki and Ichikawa Pencil Co.) 563 

Masuda Tasaburo Shoten (The Masuda Flouring 

Mill) 564 

Masui Baisokoku (Masui & Co.) 566 

Matsui Keitei Shokai (Matsui Brothers & Co.) ... 566 

Matsuoka Shoten (S. Matsuoka) 567 

Matsuzawa Seichusho (The Matsuzawa Thread 

Works) 568 

Meiji Seiren Kabushiki Kaisha (The Meiji Smelting 

w0.).«. ••• •■• ••• ••• ••• •>• ••• ••• ••• ODo 

Mitatsuchi Gomu Seizo Gomel Kaisha (The Mita- 
tsuchi Rubber Works) 569 

Miura Tokuji Shoten (Tokuji Miura) 570 

Moritaka Shoteu ( W. Moritaka & Co.) 571 

Nagamine Seijiro Shoten (S. Nagamine & Sons) ... 571 

Nagoya Seitosho (The Nagoya Porcelain Manufac- 
turing Co.) 572 

Mr. Namikawa Yasuyuki 573 

Nippon Gakki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Japan 
Musical Instrument Manufacturing Co.) 574 

Nippon Gomu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Japan 
Rubber Co.) 575 

Nippon Ishibotan Seizosho (The Japan Stone 
Button Manufactory) 576 

Nippon Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (The 
Japan Chemical Industry Co.) 577 

Nippon Koruku Kabushiki Kaisha (The Nippon 
Cork Co.) 578 

Nippon Paint Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Nippon 
Paint Manufacturing Co.) 579 

Nippin Sakusan Seizo Kabushiki Kaislm (The 
Nippon Acetic Acid Manufacturing Co.) 580 

Nippon Shiki Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Japan 
Paper Ware Manufacturing Co.) ' ... 582 

Nisshin Seifun Kabushiki Kaisha (The Sino- 
Japauese Flour Milling Co.) 583 

Niwa Kogyosho (The Niwa Manufactory) 584 

Osaka Abe Paint Seizosho (The Osaka Abe Paint 
Manufactory) 585 

Osaka Chikuonki Kabushiki Kaisha (The Osaka 
Phonograph Co.) 586 

Osaka Tebukuro Kabushiki Kaisha (The Osaka 
Glove Manufacturing Co.) 587 

Ryosui Gctehi Kaisha (The Ryosui Match Manufac- 
turing Co.) 687 



PAGE. 

Sakaya Ishiwata Boshdkusho (The Sakaya Asbestos 

Co.) • • Ooo 

S. A. Enpitsu Penjiku Seizosho (S. A. Pencil Co.).. 589 

Mr. Sasamura Takezo 590 

Sawada Garasu Kojo (The Sawada Glass Manufac- 
tories) 590 

The Seiko-sha 591 

Shimadzu Seisakusho (The Shimadzu Works) ... 592 
Shinagawa Hakurenga Kabushiki Kaisha (The 

Shinagawa AVhite Brick Co.) 592 

Shinozaki Ink Seizosho (Shinozaki Ink Factory) ... 593 
Shofu Toki Goshi Kaisha (The Shofu Porcelain 

Manufacturing Co.) 594 

Tachibana Garasu Seizosho (The Tachibana Glass 

Works) 595 

Taguchi Shokai (S. Taguchi & Co.) 595 

Takabayashi Renzu Seizosho (The Takabayashi 

Lens Works) 596 

Takahashi Seibosho (The Takahashi Hat Factory).. 597 

Takeda Shokai (S. Takeda & Co.) 598 

Taketa Shokai (Taketa & Co.) 599 

Takeuchi Seibei Shoten (S. Takeuchi & Co.)... ... 599 

Teikoku Seibo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Teikoku 

Hat Manufacturing Co.) 600 

To-a Tabako Kabushiki Kaisha (The To-a Tobacco 

Co.) 601 

Tokyo Gasu Denki Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha 

(Tokyo Gas and Electrical Industrial Co.) 602 

Tokyo ftyusan Kabushiki Kaisha (The Tokyo Sul- 
phuric Acid Manufacturing Co.) 603 

Tomiyama Shoten (Y. Tomiyama & Co.) 604 

Toyo Ink Seizo Kabushiki Kaisha (The Toyo Ink 

Manufacturing Co.) 604 

Mr. Tsuchiya Soji 605 

Usuda Kogyobu (The Usuda Manufactory) 606 

Yagi Mahoki Seisakusho (The Yagi Thermos 

Manufactory) 606 

Yamaguchi Tankin Gomel Kaisha (The Yamaguchi 

Tankin Co.) 607 

Yamamoto Shozo Shoten — Maruyama-Go (Yama- 

moto & Co.) 608 

Yamatame Garasu Seizosho (The Yamatame Gflass 

Manufacturing Co.) 609 

Yokohama Gyoyu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Yoko- 
hama Fish Oil Co.) 609 

MisoellaneouB : — 

Aikoku Fujinkai (The Ladies' Patriotic Society) ... 611 

Arima-Gumi (Arima-Gumi & Co.) 612 

Asakusa Honganji (The Honganji Temple of 
A.sai£U3a)... ... ••• •••• •«■ t^m ... ••• ... Oxo 



Titt 



CONTENTS, 



PAGE. 

The Dojin-Kai 614 

Eihei-ji (The Eihei-ji Temple) 615 

Eyasu Goshi Kaisha (Eyasu & Co.) 616 

Mr. Fukuoka Hideshi (The Fiikuoka Iron Works).. 617 

Hakurankai Kyokai (The Exhibition Association).. 617 

Mr. Hayashi Shinsuke 618 

Hokkaido Rennyu Kabushiki Kaisha (The Hokkaido 

Condensed Milk Co.) 620 

lida Harubiko Tokkyo Jimusho (H. lida's Patent 

and Trade Mark Agency) 621 

Ishi Tokkyo Horitsu Jimusho (Ishi Patent and Law 

Office) 621 

Iwasaki Jujiro Shoten 622 

Kajima-Gumi (Kajima-gurai & Co.) 623 

Kido Tokkyo Benri Jimusho (Kldo International 

Patent Agency) 624 

Mr. Konoike Chuzaburo 625 

Konoike (The Konoike Family) 625 

Koro Hyoshiki Kanrislio (The Lighthouse Bureau).. 626 
Mr. Kusaba Tsukumo (T. Kusaba, Mech. E., In- 
ternational Patent Attorney) 627 

Kyodo Seishi Nizukurisho (Kyodo Raw Silk 

Packing Co.) 628 

Kyoto Kosho Kabushiki Kaisha (The Kyoto Manu- 
facturing & Trading Co.) 629 

Mr. Mogi Sobei 630 

Morioka Imin Gomel Kaisha (The Morioka Emi- 
gration Co.) 631 

Mural Honten 632 

Nagoya Shogyo Kaigisho (The Nagoya Chamber of 

Commerce) 634 

Nakamatsu Tokkyo Horitsu Jimusho (The Naka- 

matsu International Patent and Law Office) ... 635 
Naikoku Tsuun Kabushiki Kaisha (The National 

Express Co.) 636 

Mr. Nakano Kinkuro 637 

Niigata-ken Bussan Chiuretsukan (Tlie Niigata Per- 

fectural Commercial Museum) 637 

Ninmei-sha (Ninmeisha & Co.) 638 

Nippon Sekijuji-sha (The Japan Red Cross Society) 639 

Noji Shikenjo (The Agricultural Laboratory) ... 641 
Osaka Shogyo Kaigisho (The Osaka Chamber of 

Commerce; , 642 

Okawa Shoko Kabushiki Kaisha (The Okawa 

Trading and Manufacturing Co.) 614 

Saiseikai (The Imperial Relief Society for the Sick 

and Poor) 644 

Mr. Ovvada Shoshichi 646 

Sangyo Shikenjo (The Sericultural Laboratory) ... 648 
Sapporo KoBo-yen (The Sapporo Agricultural 

Experimental Station) ... .... 6^9 



PAGE. 

Shidzuoka-ken (Shidzuota Prefecture) 650 

Shidzuoka-ken Chagyo Kuraini (Guild of the Tea 

Traders in Shidzuoka Prefecture) 651 

Sliifu Orimono Seisakusho (The Paper Cloth Manu- 
factory) 652 

Shimidzu-Han Ryogai-Ten (Shimidzu Exchange 

Firm) 652 

Sliouyo Koshinsho (The Commercial Information 

Bureau) 653 

Soji-ji (The Soji-ji Temple) 654 

Mr. Sugawara Tsunemi 655 

Suiko-sha (The Navy Club) 656 

Sumiiomo So-Honten (The Sumitomo General 

Head Office) 656 

Mr. Suzuki Shutaro 669 

Mr. Takada Shigeru 660 

Tfikoku Gekijo (The Imperial Tiieatre) 661 

Teikoku Koshinslio (I'he Imperial Mercantile 

Association) 661 

Teikoku Kyoiku-kai (fhe Imperial Educational 

Society) 662 

Teikoku Suinan l\yusai-kai (The Imperial Japanese 

Society for Saving Life and Property from 

Shipwreck) 663 

Tetsudo Ukeo'gyo Kyokai (The Association of Rail- 
way Contractors) 664 

Tokyo Bengoshi-kai (The Tokyo Advocates' 

Association) 665 

Tokyo-Fu-kai (The Tokyo Prefectural Assembly)... j666 
Tokyo Kokusai Kabushiki Kaisha (The Tokyo 

National Loan Bonds Co.) 667 

Tokyo Komusho ( The Tokyo Mining Affairs 

Bureau) 667 

Tokyo Koshinjo (Mercantile Agency) 668 

Tokyo Siiogyo Kaigisho (The Tokyo Chamber of 

Commerce) 669 

Tsukiji Honganji (The Honganji Temple of Tsukiji). 671 
Mr. Uchimura Tatsujiro (Ucliiraura International 

Patent Attorney) 672 

Uraga Dokku Kabushiki Kaisha (The Uraga Dock 

Co.) 672 

Uyeyama Seizo Shoten (S. Uyeyama & Co.) 674 

Wakao-Ke (The Wakao Family) 675 

Watanabe Tokkyo Dairi Kyoku (Tlie Watanabe 

Patent Office) 676 

Yamanaka Gomei Kaisha (Yamanaka & Co.) ... 677 

Mr. Yamashita Kamesaburo 678 

Yokohama Shogyo Kaigisho (The Yokohama 

Chamber of Commerce) 679 

Zenko-ji (The Zeuko-ji Temple) 679 

Zohei Kyoku (The Mint) 680 



CONTENTS. 



XIII 



NOBLES AND PERSONAGES : 

Prince Kujo Michizane ... . 
Prince Shimadzu Tadashige 
Prince Tokugawa lyesato ... . 
Marquis Ikeda Nakahiro ... . 
Marquis Mayeda Toshinari... . 
Marquis Nabeshima Naliohiro . 
Marquis Tokugawa Yorimiclii . 
Marquis Yamanouchi Toyokage. 
Count Todo Takatsugu ... ., 
Count Tokugawa Satomichi 
Viscount Arima Sumiaki ... . 
Viscount Mimuroto Masamitsu .. 
Viscount Mori Motokatsu ... . 
Viscount Soma Aritane ... ., 
Viscount Tozawa Masaoto ... . 

Mr. Ando Kensuke 

Dr. Aoyaina Taneinichi 

Mr. Araki Juppo 

Mr. Asano Soichiro 

Baron Den Kenjiro 

Dr. Dohi Keizo 

Mr. Doi Michio 

Mr. Egusa Sliigetada 

Baron Fujita Heitaro 

Mr. Fujita Ken-ichi 

Dr. Furukawa Sakajiro 

Mr. Gomi Kimpei 

Baron Goto Sliimpei 

Dr. Hanai Takuzo ... ... .. 

Mr. Hanaoka Toshio 

Dr. Hara Genryo 

Mr. Hara Takashi 

Mr. Hasegawa Kazuye 

Baron Hatano Yoshinao 

Mr. Hayakawa Senkichiro 

Dr. Hayaslii Akira 

Baron Hayashi Gonsuke 

Mr. Hirabayashi Eijiro 

Mr. Hirade Kisaburo 

Mr. Hirase Minao 

Mr. Hirose Toho 

Mr. Honda Tatsujiro 

Mr. Horiye Sen-ichiro 

Baron Hozunii Nobushige 

Mr. lida Nobutaro 

Mr. lidzuka Harutaro 

Mr. Ijuin Hikokichi 



THIRD 


PART. 


J:- 


PAGE. 




a If ii K) 


683 


Mr. Ikeda Kenzo 


(s m ffi, s) 


684 


Dr. Ikki Kitokuro 


m )\\ % m 


685 


Dr. Inouye Micbiyasu 


cm H W 1«) 


686 


Viscount Ishii Kikujiro 


(BU ffl M S) 


687 


Mr. Ishikawa Tokuyemon 


{«a a iS w 


689 


Baron Ito Bunkichi 


(ii ;ii m. 1^) 


691 


Mr. Ito Kinsuke 


(Ui ?9 ^ f:) 


693 


Mr. Iwai Katsujiro 


m ^ -^k m 


695 


Mr, Iwasaki Isao ; 


(SI ;ii m m 


696 


Mr. Iwaya Matsuhei 


cw % *£ %•) 


696 


Dr. Kanasugi Eigoro 


(H ^ ;3 « *) 


698 


Mr. Kanazawa Nisaku 


(^ ?ll 7C W) 


699 


Mr. Kata Kinzaburo 


(ffl % m m 


700 


Baron Kato Sadakichi 


(^ ji E e.) 


701 


Admiral Kato Tomosaburo 


(m m m 'k') 


702 


Mr. Kinoshita Kenjiro 


Ct 111 % ffi) 


702 


Dr. Kitazato Shibasaburo 


(?S ?lc + iK) 


703 


Dr. Komoto Jujiro 


(■}S if 18, - B|5) 


704 


Mr. Komuro Suiun 


(S mm 515; 


705 


Mr. Konislii Yasubei 


(± JE S jgS) 


706 


Mr. Kosaka Junzo 


(± m ^ %^ 


707 


Mr. Kuhara Fusanosuke 


(}i ^ a !&) 


708 


Mr. Kurasono Sanshiro 


c« iB V jk m 


708 


Mr. Kusakari Katsuye 


(ii B ^ -) 


710 


Mr. Kusumi Toma 


w ;ii m =k m 


710 


Baron Kusumoto Masatoshi 


(E 1* J^ ^) 


711 


Mr. Magoshi Buntaro 


cik ^ St ^) 


712 


Mr. Makino Shizuo 


(?E * f- «) 


713 


Dr. Maruyania Ken 


(?e lisi a *) 


714 


Mr. Masuda Giichi 


im i T) 


714 


Mr. Matsubara Shigehide 


<©: m) 


715 


Mr. Matsuraoto Tsunenosuke 


i& @ ;ll fi m 


716 


Vice- Admiral Matsumura Tatsuo. 


Qt»mwt. m 


716 


Mr. Matsumuro Itasu 


(¥■ n ={" fj 515) 


717 


Mr. Matsuo Yoshio 


m m) 


718 


Baron Mitsui Hachirojiro 


m m m) 


719 


Baron Mitsui Hackiroyemon 


(."^^m^ 115) 


720 


Baron Mitsui Takayasu 


(^ « S H BI5) 


720 


Mr. Miyazaki Sannosuke 


i^MB ^m) 


721 


Mr. Motoda Hajime 


m m M m 


721 


Dr. Motoda Sakunoohin 


(* ^ fi ?fe 515) 


722 


Viscount Motono Ichiro 


mu M- 515) 


722 


Vice-Admiral Murakami Kakuichi 


m m m m') 


723 


Dr. Nakaizumi Yukinori 


ma B M Bi!) 


721 


Viscount Nakamuda Takemasa ... 


mm^isi 515) 


724 


Dr. Nakanishi Kametaro 


(ff- » K ^ $) 


725 


Mr. Nakashoji Ren 



PAGE. 

(JIfe ra IK H) 726 

(- * » a 515) 727 

<# ± a ^) 728 

CS ^ ^ =>: 515) 728 

(S n\ 'Hk^mm 729 

(.W^ m ^ "^) 730 

(f- « i<: *) 730 

(^ * 1» ^ 515) 731 

(^ «f id) 731 

(g @ ^S ^) 732 

(^ *$ 5S S 515) 733 

(^ ri t f^) 733 

(M m ^ H 515) 734 

(Da ^ S S) 735 

mmM^m 736 

(;+: T it ^ 115) 737 

(4L a ^ H 115) 737 

CM * a •?>? 515) 738 

('h m ^ my 739 

C'h H ^ :^ ffii 739 

<'h « m m) 740 

(:X I&. m Z WS') 740 

(.iJ a H ra 515) 741 

C? XI] m W) 742 

(A. fi 31 S m 742 

m * iE m 743 

(« il X * 515) 743 

(ti Sf m H) 744 

CA lU W) 744 

mam.-') 745 

(Mi U a «) 746 

(Mk an '^ Z m) 747 

(fe W M «) 748 

(J& m m 748 

(IS m ^ ±) 749 

(H ^ A5i5Mi5) 749 

(H^A515««P^) 750 

(H * ^ «) 751 

(t «3f = ^: JM) 752 

(tc H m 753 

iTL m i^ Z 5i) 753 

(*, if - 5P) 754 

(W ± <* -) 755 

C* * ff is) 756 

(tt> ^ ra St lE) 756 

Cf H « ;*: 515) 757 

W 'h BF K) 757 



XIV 



CONTENTS. 











PAGE 


Count Nogi Motosato 


(Jb 


tK 7C 


®) 


758 


Dr, Oba Shigema 


<*: 


m n 


m 


759 


Baron Ohara Senkichi 


(<h 


m m 


i?i) 


760 


Mr. Okada Ryohei 


(ISO 


m s 


¥) 


760 


Mr. Oka Genzo 


ClSil 


m 


n^ 


761 


Mr. Okazaki Kunisuke 


m 


<t n 


m 


762 


Mr. Okazaki Sessei 


(isa 


m m 


®) 


762 


Dr. Okuda Yoshito 


(* 


m m 


A) 


763 


Marquis Okuma Shigenobu 


<.iz 


K m 


^) 


764 


Mr. Omura Hikotaro 


(A: *j ^ ^ m 


766 


Lieut.-General Oshima Ken-ichi... 


i-h 


a M 


— ) 


767 


Mr. Oshima Yozo 


(.% 


It 1? 


ir) 


767 


Mr, Otani Kahei 


(:»c@»i% 


m:) 


7S8 


Prince Oyama Kashiwa 


(->: 


lU 


tt) 


769 


Mr. Ozaki Yukio 


CM 


«i| tr 


^) 


770 


Dr. Saigo Kichiya 


(H 


m Y-i 


3i) 


771 


Dr. Saigo Yoshinori 


m 


m Vi 


«) 


772 


Mr, Sato Aimaro 


i% 


m ^ 


®) 


773 


Dr. Sato Toshio 


(fe 


m m 


^) 


774 


Dr. Sayeki Tadasu 


(te 


id 


*B) 


774 


Mr. Seki Naohiko 


m 


a 


Jg) 


775 


Mr. Shiba Shiro 


(M. 


m 


m 


776 


Baron Shibusawa Eiiclii 


m. 


m ^ 


— ) 


777 


Baron Shimamura Hayao 


(% 


n a 


^) 


778 


Mr. Shimada Saburo 


(E 


H H 


BP) 


779 


Dr. Shimidzu Sumeru 


m 


7lt 


it) 


780 


Mr. Shoda Kadzuye 


(i» 


H ± 


St) 


781 


Dr. Soyeda Juichi 


m 


W « 


—) 


781 


Baron Sumitomo Kichizayemon... 


(ft *: -£;S'^P^) 


782 


Rear-Admiral Suzuki Kantaro ... 


(1^ * a * m 


783 


Mr. Tachikawa Yujiro 


(4 ;ii m =*: BI5) 


784 



Baron Takahashi Korekiyc 

Mr. Tago Nobushige 

Mr. Takakura Tohei 

Vice-Admiral Takarabe Takeshi... 

Mr. Takashima Hokkai 

Mr. Terajima Noboru 

Mr. Takashima Kahei 

Di'. Terao Torn 

Count Terauchi Masakata 

Mr. Terazaki Kogyo 

Vice-Admiral Tochinai Sojiro ... 

Mr. Tokonarai Takejiro 

Vice-Admiral Tsuchiya Mitsukane 

Dr. Uno Ro 

Mr. Urabe Jofu 

Baron Uyehara Yusaku 

Dr. Uzawa Fusaaki 

Mr. Wakatsuki Reijiro 

Mr. Watanabe Fukusaburo 

Dr. Yamaguchi Einosuke 

Rear- Admiral Yamaguchi Kujuro. 

Baron Yamakawa Kenjiro 

Mr. Yamamoto Kyuzaburo 

Mr. Yamamoto Tatsuo 

Mr. Yamashita Hidezane 

Vice-Admiral Yamaya Tanin 

Baron Yashiro Rokuro 

Admiral Yoshimatsu Motaro 
Mrs. (Doctor) Yoshioka Yayoi ... 

Mr. Yukawa Kaukichi 

Mr. Nishizawa Iwata 



da 

(«t 



(# 



^ ^ a) 

SR m 

(# a m 
m ^ m) 

(# \H iH m) 
(# m M M) 
m?i n^ eP) 
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C:fc S * <fe) 
C* if 18) 

Cji a m ^) 
(.± m M m 
cm m t& M) 
(.^- mm^ m 
mmm :b. bp) 
cm n ,m z. bs) 
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cm )\\ m ^ BIS) 
cm * X H m 
cm * ^ «) 

cm T 3^ K) 
cm M m A) 

CA -(t ;^: W) 

iti m m & 
(.m ;ii % i) 
m m ^ X) 



PAGE. 

785 
786 
787 
787 
788 
789 
790 
790 
791 
792 
793 
793 
794 
795 
796 
797 
798 
798 
799 
800 
801 
802 
802 
803 
804 
805 
806 
806 
807 
808 
808 




FIRST PART. 



ENTHRONEMENT. 






r > (. 





'he Imperial Throne of Japan, enjoying tlie Grace of Heaven and everlasting from ages eternal in an unbroken 

line of succession, has been transmitted to Us through successive reigns. Tiie fundamental rules of Our 

Family were established once for all at the time that Our Ancestors laid the foundations of the Empire, and 

are even at this day as bright as the celestial luminaries. We now desire to make the instructions of Our 

Ancestors more exact and express and to establish for Our posterity a House Law, by which Our House shall 

be founded in everlasting strength, and its dignity be forever maintained. We hereby, with the advice of Our Privy 

Cauncil, give Our Sanction to the present Imperial House Law, to serv'e as a standard by which Our descendants 

sliall be guided. 

[His Imperial Majesty's Sign-Manual.] 

[Privy Seal.] 

The iith day of the 2nd mmith of the 22nd year of the Meiji Era {Feb. li, 1889, A.D.) 



THE IMPERIAL HOUSE LAW. 
CHAPTER I. 

SUCCESSION TO THE IMPERIAL THRONE. 

Article I. — The Imperial Throne of Japan shall be succeeded to by male descendants in the male line of Imperial 
Ancestors. 

Article IL. — The Imperial Thorne shall be succeeded to by the Imperial eldest son. 

Article IH. — When there is no Imperial eldest son, the Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by the Imperial 
eldest grandson. When there is neither Imperial eldest son nor any male descendant of his, it shall be succeeded to by the 
Imperial son next in age, and so on in every successive case. 

Article IV. — For succession to the Imperial Throne by an Imperial descendant, the one of full blood shall have 
precedence over descendants of half blood. The succession to the Imperial Throne by the latter shall be limited to those 
cases only when there is no Imperial descendant of full blood. 

Article V. — When there is no Imperial descendant, the Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by an Imperial 
brother and by his descendants. 

Article VI. — When there is no such Imperial brother or descendant of his, the Imperial Throne shall be succeeded 
to by an Imperial uncle and by his descendants. 

Article VII. — When there is neither such Imperial uncle nor descendant of his, the Imperial Throne shall be 
succeeded to by the next nearest member among the rest of the Imperial Family. 



( 2 )• 

Articte VIII. — Among the Imperial brothers and the remoter Imperial relelations, precedence shall be given, in the 
same degree, to the descendants of full blood over those of half blood, and to the elder over the younger. 

Article IX. — When the Imperial heir is suffering from an incurable disease of mind or body, or wlien any other 
weigiity cause exists, the order of succession may be changed in accordance with tlie foregoing provisions, with the advice of 
the Imperial Family Council and with that of the Privy Council. 

/ CHAPTER II. 

ACCESSION AND ENTHRONEMENT. 

Article X. — Upon the demise of the Emperor, the Imperial heir shall ascend the Throne, and shall acquire the 
Divine Treasures of the Imperial Ancestors. 

Article XI. — The ceremonies of Enthronement shall be performed and a DaijOsai* shall be lield at Kyoto. 

Article XII. — Upon an ascension to the Throne, a new era shall be inaugurated, and the name of it shall remain 
unchanged during tlie whole reign, in agreement with the established rule of the 1st year of the Meiji Era. 

CHAPTER III. 
MAJORITY, INSTITUTION OF EMPRESS AND OF HEIR-APPARENT. 

Article XIII. — Tlie Emperor, tlie Kotaislii and the Kotaison shall attain their majority at eighteen full years 
of age. 

Article XIV. — Members of the Imperial Family, other than those mentioned in the preceding Article, shall attain 
the mnjority at twenty full years of age. 

Article XV. — The son of the Emperor, who is Heir- Apparent, shall be called " Kotaishi." In case there is no 
Kotaishi, the Imperial grandson, who is Heir- Apparent, shall be called "Kotaison." 

Article XVI. — The institution of Empress and that of K5taison shall be proclaimed by an Imperial Rescript. 

CHAPTER IV. 
STYLE OF ADDRESS. 

Article XVII. — The style of address for the Emperor, the Grand Empress Dowager, the Empress Dowager and of 
Empress, shall be His, or Her or Your Imperial Majesty. 

Article XVIII. — The Kotaishi and his consort, the Kotaison and his consort, the Shinno and their consorts, the 
Naishinno, the Wo and their consorts, and the Nyo- Wo shall be styled fits. Her, Their or Your Imperial Highness or 
Highnesses. 

CHAPTER V. 
REGENCY. 

Article XIX. — When the Emperor is a minor, a Regency shall be instituted. 

When He is prevented by some permanent cause from personally governing, a Regency siiall be instituted, with the 
advice of ihe Imperial Family Council and with that of the Privy Council. 

Article XX. — The Regency shall be assumed by the Kotaishi or the Kotaison, being of full age of majority. 

Article XXI. — When there is neither Kotaishi nor Kotaison, or when the Kotaishi or the Kotaison has not yet 
arrived at liis majority, the Regency shall be assumed in the following order: — 

1. A Shinno or a W5. 

2. The Empress. 

3. The Empress Dowager. 

4. The Grand Empress Dowager. 

5. A Naishinno or a Nyo-W5. 

* See the Imperial Accession Law. 



( 3 ) 

Akticle XXII. — In case the Regency is to be assumed from among tlie male members of the Imperial Family, it 
shall be clone in agreement with tiie order of succession to the Imperial Throne. The same shall apply to the case of female 
members of the Imperil)! Family. 

Article XXIII — A female member of the Imperial Family to assume the Regency shall be exclusively one who 
has no consort. 

Article XXIV. — When, on account of the minority of the nearest related member of the Imperial Family, or for 
some other cause, another member hus to assume the Regency, the latter sliall not, upon the arrival at majority of the above 
mentioned nearest related member, or upon the disappearance of tlie aforesaid cause, resign his or her post in favour of any 
person other than of the Kotaishi or of the Kotiiison. 

Article XXV. — When a Regent, or one wlio should become such, is suffering from an incurable disease of mind or 
body, or when any other weighty cause exists therefor, the order of tlie Regency may be changed, with the advice of the 
Imperial Family Council and with that of the Privy Council. 

CHAPTER IV. 
THE IMPERIAL GOVERNOR. 

Article XXVI. — When the Emperor is a minor, an Imperial Governor shall be appointed to take charge of His 
bringing up and of His education. 

Article XXVII. — In case no Imperial Governor has been nominated in the will of the preceding Emperor, the 
Regent shall appoint one, with the advice of the Imperial Family Council and with that of the PrivyCouncil. 

Article XXVIII.— Neither the Regent nor any of his descendants can be appointed Imperial Governor. 

Article XXIX. — Tlie Imperial Governor cannot be removed from his post by the Regent, unless upon the advice 
of the Imperial Family Council and upon that of the Privy Council. 

CHAPTER VII. 
THE IMPERIAL FAMILY. 

Article XXX. — The term "Imperial Family" shall include the Grand Empress Dowager, the Empress Dowager, 
the Empress, the Kotaishi and his consort, the Kotaison and his consort, the Shinno and their consorts, the Naishinno, the 
Wo and their consorts, and the Nyo-Wo. 

Article XXXI. — From Imperial sons to Imperial great-great-grandsons Imperial male descendants shall be called 
Shinno, and from Imperial daughters to Imperial great-great-granddaughters. Imperial female descendants shall be called 
Niiishinno. From the fiftli generation downwards, they shall be called, respectively, Wo and Nyo-Wo. 

Article XXXII. — When the Imperial Throne is succeeded to by a member of a branch line, the title of Shinno or 
Naishinno ;<hall be specially granted to the Imperial brothers and sisters, being already Wo or Nyo-Wo. 

Article XXXIII. — The births, namings, marriages and deaths in the Imperial Family sh>ill be announced by the 
Minister of the Imperial Household. 

Article XXXIV. — Genealogical and other records relating to the matters mentioned in the preceding Article shall 
be kept in the Imperial archives. 

Article XXXV. — The members of the Imperial Family shall be under the control of the Emperor. 

.Article XXXVI. — When a Regency is instituted, the Regent shall exercise the power of control referred to in the 
preceding Article. 

Article XXXVII. — When a member, male or female, of the Imperial Family is a minor and has been bereft of 
his or her father, the officials of the Imperial Court shall be ordered to take charge of his or her bringing up and education. 
Under certain circumstances, tlie Emperor may either approve the guardian chosen by his or her parent, or may nominate one. 

Article XXXVIII. — The guardian of a member of the Imperial Family must be himself a member thereof, and 
of age. 

Article XXXIX, — Marriages of members of the Imperial Family shall ba restricted to the circle of the Family, 
or to certain noble families spscially approved by Imperial Order. 



( 4 ) 

Article XL.— Marriages of the Members of the Imperial Family shall be subject to the sanction of the Emperor. 

Article XLT. — The Imperial writs siinctioniiig the marriages of members of the Imperial Family shall bear the 
countersignature of the Minister of the ImperiHl Household. 

Article XLII. — No member of the Imperial Family can adopt any one as his son. 

Ar.TiCLE XLIII. — When a member of the Imperial Family wishes to travel bejond the boundaries of the Empire, 
he shall first obtain the sanction of the Emperor. 

Article XFjIV. — A female member of the Imperial Family, who has married a subject, shall be excluded from 
membership of the Imperial Family. However, slie may be allowed, by the special grace of the Emperor, to retain iier 
title of Naislilnno or of Nyo-Wo, as the case may be. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
IMPERIAL HEREDITARY ESTATES. 

Article XLV. — No landed or other property, that has been fixed as the Imperial Hereditary Estates, shall be 
divided up and alienated. 

Article XLVI. — The landed and other property to be included in the Imperial Hereditary Estates shall be settled 
by Imperial writ, with the advice of the Privy Council, and shall be aimouuced by the Minister of the Imperial Household. 



CHAPTER IX 
EXPENDITURES OF THE IMPERIAL HOUSE. 

Article XLVII. — The expenditures of the Imperial House of all kinds shall be defrayed out of the National 
Treasury at a certain fixed amouut. 

Article XLVIII. — The estimates and audit of accounts of the expenditures of the Imperial House and all other 
rules of the kind shall be regulated by the Finance Regulations of the Imperial House. 



CHAPTER X. 

LITIGATIONS DISCIPLINARY RULES FOR THE MEMBERS 
OF THE IMPERIAL FAMILY. 

Article XLIX. — Litigation between members of the Imperial Family shall be decided by judicial functionaries 
specially designated by the Emperor to the Department of the Imperial Household, and execution issued after Imperial 
Sanction thereto has been obtained. 

Article L. — Civil actions brought by private individuals against members of the Imperial Family siiall be deci<led 
in the Court of Appeal in Tokyo. Members of the Imperial Family shall, iiowever, be represented by attorneys, and no 
personal attendance in the Court shall be required of them. 

Article LI. — No member of the Imperial Family can be arrested or summoned before a Court of Law unless the 
sanction of the Emperor has been first obtained thereto. 

Article LII. — When a member of the Imperial Family has committed an act derogatory to his (or het) dignity, or 
when he (or she) lias exhibited disloyalty to the Imperial House, he (or she) shall, by way of disciplinary punishment and 
by order of the Emperor, be deprived of the whole or of a part of the privileges belonging to him (or her) as a member 
of the Imperial Family, or shall be suspended therefrom. 

Article LIII. — When a member of the Imperial Family acts in a way tending to the squandering of his (or her) 
property, he (or she) shall be pronounced by the Emperor, prohibited from administering his property, and a manager 
shall be appointed tlierefdr. 

Article LIV. — The two foregoing Articles shall be sanctioned, upon the advice of the Imperial Family Council. 



( 5 ) 

CHAPTER XI. 

THE IMPERIAL FAMILY COUNCIL. 

Article LV. — The Imperial Fnmily Council shall be composeil of the male members of tlie Imperial Family who 
have reached tlie age of majority. The Grand Keeper of the Privy Seal, the President of the Privy Council, the Minister of 
the Imperial Household, the Minister of State for Justice and the President of the Court of Cassation shall be ordered to 
take part in the deliberations of the Council. 

Article LVI. — The Emperor personally presides over the meeting of tlie Imperial Family Council, or directs one 
of the members of the Imperial Family to do so. 

CHAPTER XII. 
SUPPLEMENTARY RULES. 

Article LVII. — Those of the present members of the Imperial Family of the fifth generation and downwards, who 
have already been invested with the title of Shinno, shall retain the same as heretofore. 

Article L VIII. — The order of succession to the Imperial Throne shall in every case relate to the descendants of 
absolute lineage. There shall be no admi sion to this line of succession to any one as a consequence of his now being an 
adojited Imperial son, Koyushi or heir to a princely house. 

Article LIX. — The grades of rank among the Shinno, Naishinno, W5 and Nyo-AVo shall he abolished. 

Article LX. — The family rank of ShinnO and all usages conflicting with the present Law shall be abolished. 

Article LXI. — The property, annual expenses and all other rules concerning the members ot the Imperial Family 
shall be specially determined. 

Article LXII. — When in the future it shall become necessary either to amend or make additions to the present 
Law, tlie matter shall be decided by the Emperor, witli the advice of the Imperial Family Council and with that of the 
Privy Council. 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE IMPERIAL HOUSE LAW. 

Promulgated on February lUh, 1907, that is, on the 18th year of the enactment of the original Imperial House Law, 

with the following Imperial Rescript: — 

The Law of the Imperial House of the Empire of Japan in enjoyment of heavenly grace is accordant with the 
principles of the Imperial Ancestors and there is no disagreement whatsoever. Rut with the (levelojiment of civilization 
and the progress of the worhl, it is necessary tliat the system should be established in u full and complete form, and the 
|iro(risioiis of the Law increased and enlarged. Considering it advisable, therefore, to consolidate for all time tlie Foundation 
laiil down by Our Ancestors, and being desirous of making clear the status of members of the Imperial Family by Written 
Law, We hereby promulgate a Supplement to the Imperial House Law after duly consulting the Imperial Family Council 
and the Privy Council, and it is Our hope that Our Descendants and Subjects shall follow aad observe it and never deviate 
tiieteform. 

Article I — A Wo may, by Imperial pleasure or on application, be granted a Family Name and be placed among 
the Peers. 

Article II. — A W5 may, with Imperial permission, become Heir to the House of a Peer or be adopted by a 
Peer with the ol>jfCt of succeeciing to his House. 

Article III. — The Wife and Lineal Descendants of a person who under the preceding two Articles enters upon the 
status of a subject, and tlieir wives, enter his House, except daugliters who are married to other members of tlie Imperial 
Family and their Lineal descendants. 



( 6 ) 

Article IV. — A m«'ml)er of the family who is deprived of his privileges may, at Imperial pleasure, be lowered to 
the statm of a subject : — 

The Wife of a person wiio under tlie preceding paragraph is lowered to the status of a subject enters his House. 

Article V. — In the cas-e of Arts. 1, 2 and 3, the opinion shall be taken of the Imperial Family Council and the 
Privy Council. 

Akticle VI. — A person who has once entered upon the statm of a subject cannot become a member of the Imperial 
Family again. 

Article VII. — In nddition to what is provided in this Law, regulations relating to the «te<MS and other rights and 
duties "f members of the Imperial Family shall be separately provided. 

Where, us to matters in which both members of the Imperial family and subjects are concerned, the provisions to be 
followed by the one differ from those to be followed by the other, the provisions of the preceding paragraph are followed. 

Article VIII. — I'hose provisions of laws ai d ordinances which are intended for members of the Imperial Family 
apply only where there are not special provisions in the Law and rules issued on the basis of this Law. 



On February lOtli, 1907, the fact of the above Supplement to the Imperial House Law being about to be promulgated 
was solemnly declared before the Kaihiko-dokoro (Imperial Sanctuary), the iiLoreidert (Shrine of the sprits of the Imperial 
Ancestors) and the iSAinden (Shrine of the Godi) in the Imperial palace, and Imperial messengers w<!re sent to the Ise 
shrines, the Emperor Jimmu Tenno's mausoleum at Kashiwabara and the Emperor Komei Tenno's (the lute Emperor's 
father) at Gotsuki-no-wa, Kyoto. The Document whicii was read before these Shrines, etc., ran as follows: — 

" We hereby respectfully inform the Spirits of Our Imperial Ancestors: — Nineteen years have elapsed since the 
Imperial House Laio was made for the purpose of making clear the rides bequeathed by the Imperial Ancestors and of 
consolidating the g-eat Foundation of the Dynasty, endless with heaven and earth, during which time We have duly 
observed it along with Our brethren and have never acted in contravention thereof. But now that the national fortunes are 
enhanced more than ever and the divine influence of Our Imperial Ancestors shines forth afar all over the world, it is nothing 
but what the August intention of Our Imperial Ancestors directs that the Law should be Enlarged and Supplemented in view 
of the progress of time and fortune in order to strengthen the means of upholding Our dignity and authority, and broadening 
the way which Our Descendants are to tread. We, therefore, have provided this Supplement to the Imperial House Law, 
praying for the divine grace of our Imperial Ancestors ani swsiring thtt we wil' faithfully act upon it for ever, 

" We pray that the Divine Spirits will hear this." 





jAVING, by virtue of the glories of Our Ancestors, ascended the Throne of a lineal succession unbroken for 

"A ages eternal; desiring to promote the welfare of, and to give development to the moral and int»llectiial 

faculties of Our beloved subjects, the very same that have been fiivoured with the benevolent care and 

aifectionate vigilance of Onr Ancestors ; and hoping to maintain the prosperity of the State, in concert with 

Our people and with their support, We hereby promulgate, in pursuance of Onr Imperial Rescript of the 

12th day of the 10th month of the 14th year of the Meiji Era, a fundamental law of State, to exliibit the principles by 

which We are to be guided in Our conduct, and to point out to wliat Our descendants and Our subjects and their 

descendants are forever to conform. 

The rights of sovereignty of the State We liave inherited from Our Ancestors, and We shall bequeath them to Our 
descendants. Neither We nor they shall in future fail to wield thera, in accordance with the provLsions of the Ci)nstilution 
hereby granted. 

We now declare to respect and protect the security of the rights and of the property of Onr people, and to secure to 
them the complete enjoyment of the same, within the extent of the provisions of the present Constitution and of the law. 

The Imperial Diet shall first be convoked for tlie 23rd year of Meiji, and the time of its opening shall be the date 
when the present Constitution comes into force. 

When in the future it may become necessary to amend any of the provisions of the present Constitution, We or 
Our successors shall assume the initiative right, and submit a project for tlie same to the Imperial Diet. The Imperial Diet 
shall pass its vote upon it, according to the conditions imposed by the present Constitution, and in no other wise shall Our 
descendants or Cur subjects be permitted to attempt any alteration thereof. 

Our Ministers of State, on Our behalf, shall be held responsible for the carrying out of the present Constitution, and 
Onr present and future subjects shall forever assume the duty of allegiance to the present Constitution. 

[ His Imperial Majesty's Sign-Manual. ] 

[Privy Seal.] 

Tlie llth day of the 2nd month of the 22nd year of the Meiji Era {Feb. II, ISS'J, A.D.) 

(Counters g.ied) Count KURODA KIYOTAKA, 
Minister President of State. 
Count ITO HIROBUMI, 

President of the Privy Council. 

Count OKUMA SHIGENOBU, 

Minister of State jor Foreign Affairs. 

Count SAIGO TSUKUMICHI, 
Minister of State for the Navy. 

Count INOUYE KAORU. 

Minister of State for Agriculture and Commerce. 

Count YAM ADA AKIYOStll, 

Minister of State for Justice. 

Count MATSUGATA MASAYOSIII, 

Minister of State for Finance, and Minister of Stale for Hone Aff'airs. 

Count OYAMA IWAO. 
Minister of State for War. 

Viscount MORI ARINORI, 

Minister of State far Education. 

' Viscount ENOMOTO TAKEAKI, 
Minister of State for Communications. 

( 7 ) 



( 8 ) 

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE EMPIRE OF JAPAN. 

CHAPTER I. 
THE EMPEROR. 

Article I. — The Empire of Japan shall be reigned over and governed by a line of Emperors unbroken for ages 
eternal 

Article II. — The Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by Imperial male descendants, according to the provisions 
of the Imperial House Law. 

Article III. — The Emperor is sacred and inviolable. 

Article IV. — The Emperor is the head of tlie Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty, and 
exercises them according to the provisions of the present Constitution. 

Article V. — The Emperor exercises the legislative power with the consent of the Imperial Diet. 

Article VI. — The Emperor gives sanction to laws, and orders them to be promulgated and executed, 

Article VII. — The Emperor convokes the Imperial Diet, opens, closea and prorogues it, and dissolves the House of 
Representatives. 

Article VIII. — The Emperor, in consequence of an urgent necessity to maintain public safety or to avert public 
calamities, issues, when the Imperial Diet'is not sitting, Iraperiiil Ordinances in the place of law. 

Such Imperial Ordinances are to be laid before the Imperial Diet at its next session, and when the Diet does not 
approve the said Ordinances, the Government shall declare them to be invalid for the future 

Article IX. — The Emperor issues, or causes to be issued, the Ordinances necessary for the carrying out of the laws, 
or for the maintenance of tiie public peace and onler, and for the promotion of the welfare of the subjects. But no 
Ordinance shall in any way alter any of the existing laws. 

Article X. — The Emperor determines the organization of the different branches of the administration, and salaries 
of all civil and military officers, and appoints and dismisses the same. Exceptions especially provided for in the present 
Constitution or in other laws shall be in accordance with the respective provisions (bearing thereon). 

Article XL — The Emperor has the supreme command of the Army and Navy. 

Article XII. — The Emperor determines the organization and peace standing of the Array and Navy. 

Article XIII. — The Emperor declares war, makes peace, and concludes treaties. 

Article XIV. — The Emperor proclaims a state of siege. The conditions and effects of a state of siege shall be 
determined by law. 

Article XV. — The Emperor confers titles of nobility, rank, orders and other marks of honour. 

Article XVI. — The Emperor orders amnesty, pardon, commutation of punishments and reliabilitation. 

Article XVII. — A Regency shall be instituted in conformity with the provisions of the Imperial House Law. The 
Regent shall exercise the powers appertaining to the Emperor in His name. 

CHAPTER 11. 
RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF SUBJECTS. 

Article XVIII. — The conditions necessary for being a Japanese subject shall be determined by law. 

Article XIX. — Japanese subjects may, according to qualifications determined in laws or ordinances, be appointed 
to civil or military office equally, and may fill any other public officss. 

Article XX — Japanese subjects are amenable to service in the Army or Navy, according to the provisions of the law. 

Article XXI. — Japaue^ie subjects are amenable to the duty of paying taxes, according to the provisions of the law. 

Article XXII. — Japanese subjects shall have the liberty of abode and of changing the sanie within the limits 
of law. 

Article XXIII — No Japanese subject shall be arrested, detained, tried or punished, unless according to law. 

Article XXIV. — No Japanese subject shall be deprived of his right of being tried by the judges determined 
by law. 



( 9 ) 

Article XXV. — Except in the cases provided for in the law, the house of no Japaneee subject shall be entered or 
searched without his consent. 

Article XXVI — Except in the cases mentioned in the law, the secrecy of the letters of every Japanese subject 
shall remain inviolate. 

Article XXVII. — The right of property of every Japanese subject shall remain inviolate. Measures necessary to 
be taken for the public benefit shall be provided for by law. 

Article XXVIII. — Japanese subjects shall, within limits not prejudicial to peace and order, and not antagonistic 
to their duties as subjects, enjoy freedom of religious belief. 

Article XXIX — Japanese subjects shall, within the limits of the law, enjoy the liberty of speech, writing, 
publication, public meetings and associations. 

Article XXX. — Japanese subjects may present petitions, by observing the proper forms of respect, and by com- 
plying with the rules specially provided for the same. 

Article XXXI. — The provisions contained in the present Chapter shall not affect the exercise of the powers 
appertaining to the Emperor, in times of war or in cases of a national emergency. 

Article XXXII — Each and every one of the provisions contained in the preceding Articles of tiie present Chapter, 
that are not in conflict with the laws or the rules and discipline of the Army and Navy, shall apply to the officers and men 
of the Army and of the iNavy. 

CHAPTER III. 
THE IMPERIAL DIET. 

Article XXXII [.—The Imperial Diet shall consist of two Houses— a House of Peers and a House of 
Representatives. 

Article XXXIV.— The House of Peers shall, in accordance with the Ordinance concerning the House of Peers, 
be composed of the members of the Imperial Family, of the orders of nobility, and of those persons who have been 
nominated thereto by the Emperor. 

Article XXXV. — The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members elected by the people, according to 
the provisions of the Law of Election. 

Article XXXV f. — No one can at one and the same time be a Member of both Houses. 

Article XXXVII — Every law requires the consent of the Imperial Diet. 

Article XXXVIII. — Both Houses shall vote upon projects of law submitted to them by the Government, and may 
respectively initiate projects of law. 

Article XXXIX. — A Bill which has been rejected by either the one or the other of the two Houses shall not be 
again brought in during the same session. 

Article XL. — Both Houses can make representations to the Government as to law, or upon any other subject. 
When, liovvever, such representations are not accepted, tliey cannot be made a second time during the same session. 

Article XLI. — The Imperial Diet shall be convoked every year. 

Article XLII. — A session of the Imperial Diet shall last during three months. In case of necessity, the duration 
of a session may be prolonged by Imperial Order. 

Article XLIII. — When urgent necessity arises, an extraordinary session may be convoked, in addition to the 
ordinary one. The duration of an extraordinary session shall be determined by Imperial Order. 

Article XLIV. — The opening, closing, prolongation of a session and prorogation of the Imperial Diet shall be 
effected simultaneously for both Houses. In case the House of Representatives has been ordered to dissolve, the House 
of Peers shall at the same time be prorogued. 

Article XLV. — When the House of Representatives has been ordered to dissolve. Members shall be caused by 
Imperial Order to be newly elected, and the new House shall he convoked within five months from the day of dissolution. 

Article XLVI. — No debate can be opened and no vote can be taken in either House of the Imperial Diet unless 
not less than one-third of the whole number of the Members thereof is present. 

Article XLVII. — Votes shall be taken in both Houses by absolute majority. In the case of a tie vote, the 
President shall have the casting vote. 



( 10 ) 

Article XL VIII. — The deliberations of both Houses shall be held ia public. The deliberations may, however, 
upon demand of the Government or by resolution of the House, be held in secret sitting. 

Aeticle XLIX. — Both Houses of the Imperial Diet may respectively present addresses to the Emperor, 

Article L. — Both Houses may receive petitions presented by subjects. 

Article LI. — Both Houses may enact, besides what is provided for in the present Constitution and in the Law of 
the Houses, rules necessary for the management of their internal aifairs. 

Article Lll. — No Member of either House shall be held responsible outside the respective Houses for any 
opinion uttered or for any vote given in the House. When, however, a Member himself has given publicity to his opinions 
by public speech, by documents in print or in writing, or by any other similar means, he sliall, in the matter, be amenable to 
the general law. 

Article LIII. — The Members of both Houses shall, during the session, be free from arrest, unless witli the consent 
of the House, except in cases of in ^^ajfranfe delicto, or of offences connected with a state of internal commotion or with a 
foreign trouble. 

Aeticte LIV. — The Minister of State and the Delegates of the Government may, at any time, take seats and speak 
in either House. 

CHAPTER IV. 
THE MINISTERS OF STATE AND THE PRIVY COUNCIL. 

Article LV. — The respective Ministers of State shall give their advice to the Emperor, and be responsible for it. 

All Laws, Imperial Ordinances and Imperial Rescripts of whatever kind that relate to the affairs of the State 
require the countersignature of a Minister of State. 

Article LVI. — The Privy Councillors shall, in accordance with the provisions for the organization of the Privy 
Council, deliberate upon important matters of State, when they have been consulted by the Emperor. 

CHAPTER V. 
THE JUDICATURE. 

Article LVII. — The Judicature shall be exercised by the Courts of Law according to law, in the name of the 
Emperor, 

The organization of the Courts of Law shall be determined by law. 

Article LVIII — The judges shall be appointed from among those who po3sess proper qualifications according to 
law. No judge shall be deprived of his position, unless by way of criminal sentence or disciplinary punishment. Rules for 
disciplinary punishment shall be determined by law. 

Article LIX. — Trials and judgments of a Court shall be conducted publicly. When, however, there exists any 
fear that such publicity may be prejudicial to peace and order, or to the maintenance of public morality, the public trial 
may be suspended by provision of law or by the decision of the Court of Law. 

Article LX. — All matters that fall within the competency of a special Court shall be specially provided for by law. 

Article LXI, — No suit at law, which relates to rights alleged to have been infringed by the illegal measures of 
the administrative authorities, and which shall come within the competency of the Court of Administrative Litigation 
especially established by law, shall be taken cognizance of by a Court of Law. 

CHAPTER VI, 

FINANCE, 

Article LXII. — The imposition of a new tax or the modification of the rates (of an existing one) shall be 
determined by law. However, all such administrative fees or other revenue having the nature of compensation shall not 
fall within the category of the above clause. The raising of national loans and the contracting of other liabilities to the 
charge of the National Treasury, except those that are provided in the Budget, shall require the cmseat of the Imperial Diet, 



( 11 ) 

Article LXIII. — The taxes levied at present shall, in so far as they are not remodelled by a new law, be collected 
according to the old system. 

Article LXIV. — The expenditure and revenue of the State require the consent of the Imperial Diet by means of 
an annual Budget, Any and all expenditures overpassing the appropriations set forth in the Titles and Paragraphs of the 
Budget, or that are not provided for in the Budget, shall subsequently require the approbation of the Imperial Diet. 

Article LXV. — The Budget sliall be first laid before the House of Representatives. 

Article LXVI. — The expenditures of the Imperial House shall be defrayed every year out of the National 
Treasury, according to the present fixed amount for the same, and sliall not require the consent thereto of the Imperial Diet, 
except in case an increase thereof is found necessary. 

Article LXVI I. — Those already fixed expenditures based by the Constitution upon the powers appertaining to the 
Emperor, and such expenditures as may have arisen by the effect of law, or that appertain to the legal obligations of the 
Government, shall be neither rejected nor reduced by the Imperial Diet, without the concurrence of the Government. 

Article LXVIII. — In order to meet special requirements, the Government may ask the consent of the Imperial 
Diet to a certain amount as a Continuing Expenditure Fund, for a previously fixed number of years. 

Article LXIX. — lu order to supply deficiencies, which are unavoidable, in the Budget, and to meet requirements 
unprovided for in the same, a Reserve Fund sliall be provided in the Budget. 

Article LXX. — When the Imperial Diet cannot be convoked, owing to the external or internal condition of the 
country, in case of urgent need for the mainteaance of public safety, the Government may take all necessary financial 
measures, by means of an Imperial Ordinance. 

In the case mentioned in tiie preceding clause, the matter shall be submitted to the Imperial Diet at its next session, 
and its approbation shall be obtained thereto. 

Article LXXl. — When the Imperial Diet has not voted on the Budget, or when the Budget has not been brought 
into actual existence, the Government shall carry out the Budget of the preceding year. 

Article LXXII. — The final account of the expenditures and revenue of the State shall be verified and confirmed by 
the Board of Audit, and it shall be submitted by the Government to the Imperial Diet, together with the report of verifica- 
tion of the said Board. The organization and competency of the Board of Audit sliall be determined by law separately. 

CHAPTER VII. 
SUPPLEMENTARY RULES. 

Article LXXIIl. — When it has become necessary in future to amend the provisions of the present Constitution, a 
project to that effect sliall be submitted to the Imperial Diet by Imperial Order. In the above case, neither House can 
open the debate unless not less than two-thirds of the whole number of Members are present, and no amendment can be 
passed, unless a majority of not less than two-thirds of the Members present is obtained. 

Article LXXIV. — No modification of the Imperial House Law shall be required to be submitted to the delibe- 
ration of the Imperial Diet. No provision of the present Constitution can be modified by tlie Imperial House Law. 

Article LXXV. — No modification can be introduced into the Constitution, or into the Imperial House Law, 
during the time of a Regency. 

Article LXXVI. — Existing legal enactments, such as laws, regulations. Ordinances, or by whatever names they 
may be c.-ilied, shall, so far as they do not conflict with the present Constitutiou, continue in force. All existing contracts or 
orders, that entail obligations upon the Government, and that are connected with expenditure, shall come within the scope 
of Art. LXVIL 




( 12 ) 

IMPERIAL ACCESSION LAW. 

Issued on February 11th op the Forty-Second Year of the Meiji Era (1909 A.D.) 

E hereby promulgate the following Imperial Ordinance relating to the Accession, which has been approved by 
the Privy Council : — 

Article I. — When the Emperor ascends the Throne the Cliief of Ritualists sluiU conduct a service at 
the Kashiko-dokoro (Imperial Sanctuary) and announce the fact to the Koreiden (the Shrine of the Spirits of 
the Imperial Ancestors) and to the Shinden (the Shrine of tlie Gods.) 

Article II. — As soon as the Accession is over, the name of the Era shall be changed. The name of the new Era 
shall, after consiileration by the Privy Council, be decided by the Emperor. 

Article III. — The name of the new Era shall be announced by an Imperial Ordinance. 

Article IV. — The Grand Ceremonies of tlie Enthronement and the Daijosai (the Ceremonies of Offering Rice by the 
Emperor to the Gods and the Spirits of the Imperial Ancestors) shall be conducted during a set period between Autumn and 
Winter. The DaijSsai shall be performed immediately after the Grand Ceremony of the Euthronemsat . 

Article V. — In conducting tlie Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement and tlie Daijoiai the Commission entrusted 
with the Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement shall be appointed and attached to the Court to manage all affairs relating 
thereto. The oflScial organization of the Commission for the Grand Ceremonies of the Euthronement shall also be announced 
simultaneously. 

Article VI. — The dates of the Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement and the Daijosai shall be publicly announced 
over the joint signatures of the Minister of the Imperial Household and Ministers of State. 

Article VII. — When the dates of the Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement and the Daijosai are fixed, the 
Emperor himself will announce the details to the Kashiko-dokoro, Koreiden and Shinden. The Imperial messengers shall, 
at the same time, be sent to the Imperial Great Shrine at Ise, the Mausoleum of the first Emperor Jimmu Tenno, and the 
Mausolea of the last four Ancestors of the new Emperor respectively to report the particulars. 

Article VIII. — The fields for the growing of rice to be used at the Daijosai shall be selected in the districts to the 
east and south of Kyoto, which will be known as " Yuki," and in the districts to the west and north of Kyoto, which will 
be called " Suki." These districts shall be selected by the Emperor. 

Article IX. — When the Yuki and Suki districts are selected the Minister of the Imperial Household shall issue 
instructions to the Governors within whose jurisdiction the districts are situated, ordering them to make the necessary 
arrangements with the owners of the rice-fields, who will cultivate the plants and present the new rice to the Imperial Court. 

Article X. — When the harvest season arrives, Imperial messengers shall be dispatched to the Yuki and Suki rice- 
fields to conduct the ceremony of harvesting the rice. 

Article XI. — Prior to the dates fixed for the Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement, the Emperor and Empress, 
with the Sacred Treasures, will proceed to the Kyoto Palace. 

Article XII. — On the day on which the Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement are conducted, an Imperial mes- 
senger shall report the fact to the Koreiden and Shinden. 

On the occasion of the Daijosai ceremony the Imperial messengers shall be ordered to report the details before the 
Imperial Great Shrine at Ise, the KSreiden and Shinden, and they, with the Governor of the Provinces to which they are 
sent, shall worship at the local shrines. 

Article XIII. — On the day immediately preceding the Daij5sai Ceremony there shall be conducted the Cliinkon- 
shiki (a service to pray for peace and long life and prosperity for the Emperor and Empress). 

Article XIV. — The Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement and the Daij5sai shall be conducted in accordance with 

the Supplementary Regulations. 

Article XV. — After the Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement and the DaijOsai are completed. Banquets will be 
given. 

Article XVI. — After the Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement and the Daijosai, the Emperor and Empress will 
visit the Imperial Great Shrine at Ise, the mausoleum of the first Emperor Jimmu Tenno, and the mausolea of the last four 
Ancestors of the new Emperor. 

Article XVII. — When the Emperor and Empress return from Kyoto to Tokyo their Majesties will worship before 
the Koreiden and Shinden. 

Article XVIII. — During the period of mourning for the late Emperor or Empress Dowager, there shall be no Grand 
Ceremonies of the Euthronement and Daij5sai. 



( 13 ) 

HISTORY OF THE GRAND CEREMONIES OF THE 

ENTHRONEMENT. 

f?HE Enthronement of His Mnjesty Y05HIHIT0, and subsequent Ceremonies, held at Kyoto in the Autumn of the 
I fourth year of the TaisliO Era (1915 A.D.), were conducted in accordance with the Rules of the Enthronement 
drawn up during the lifetime of Emperor Meiji Tenno, and approved by him. In these regulations ancient forms and customs 
have, as far as possible, been adhered to, but new features have in some instances been introduced to suit modern conditions 
and requirements. 

From ancient records and traditions it may be inferred that the Enthronement of Japanese Sovereign?, from the first 
Em{)eror Jimmu Tenno down to the Thiity-eightli Emperor Tenji Tenn5, were very simple, prayers being offered and the 
Three Sacred Treasures handed over to the new Emperor, With the introduction to Japan of Buddliism and Science from 
Cliina and Korea, etiquette in the Japanese Imperial Court underwent a remarkable cliange, with the result tliat the 
Enthronement was attended by much pomp and ceremony. The character of the Enthronement, itself, however, remained 
practically unchanged. 



THE GRAND CEREMONIES OF THE ENTHRONEMENT IN THE 
FOURTH YEAR OF THE TAISHO ERA (1915 AD.) 

fN the morning of November 6th, at six o'clock, His Majesty the Emperor left his Palace in Tokyo for Kyoto, travelling 
via Nagoya, to take part in the Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement on the 10th. Ideal autumn weather pre- 
vailed. The journey from the Imperial Palace to Tokyo Station was made through crowded streets, the procession being the 
most brilliant ever witnessed in Japan. The " Banzai " Arch, through which the procession passed, was erected near the 
Babasakimon, leading to the Imperial Palace, and was illuminated each night while the festivities lasted. Similar arches 
were erected in front of Tokyo Station and at various prominent places in the Capital. 

Before the Imperial procession left the Palace the ceremony of removing the Kashiko-dokoro, or Imperial Sanctuary, 
to Kyoto in connection with the Enthronement was conducted. The Imperial Sanctuary, in which was enshrined the 
Mirror, one of the Three Sacred Treasures, was removed to a palanquin specially built, and was carried from the Palace to 
Tokyo Station on the shoulders of thirty-two young men known as " Yase-doji." The State carriage of His Majesty was 
surmounted by a golden phoenix, and was drawn by six handsome horses, with outriders. Immediately preceding tlie 
Imperial carriage was borne the Imperial standard of crimson, with the chrysanthemum crest in gold. 

The Emperor wore the uniform of Grand Marshal of the Army and the Chain and Star of the Supreme Order of the 
Chrysanthemum and the First-class Military Order of the Golden Kite, etc. He was attended by Prince Hiromichi 
Tiikatsukasa, Grand Chamberlain, who wore the uniform of a Major-General. The Imperial procession comprised H.I.H. 
Marshal Sadanuru Shinno Fushirai-no-Miya, H.I.H. General Prince Kotohito Shinno Kan-in-no-Miya, Count Shigenobu 
Okuma, the Premier, Chamberlains, Commissioners of the Grand Ceremonies, the Mayor of Tokyo, Inspector-General of tiie 
Metropolitan Police, and many other officials. Tlie streets were lined by tiiousands of people. At Tokyo Station His 
Majesty was received by a large number of high officers and officials, and promptly at seven o'clock the Imperial train left 
the Station amidst the booming of a salute of 101 guns and the respectful salutations of many of His Majesty's subjects. 

The Imperial train arrived at Nagoya Station at four o'clock in the afternoon, his Majesty being received by the 
local Governor and representative citizens. His Majesty drove to tiie Nagoya Palace, where he spent the nigiit. 

Leaving Nagoya Station on the morning of the 7th, the Imperial train arrived at Kyoto shortly before 2 p.m., its 
arrival being greeted by a salute of 101 guns fired by the Artillery posted to the south of the Station. While the Kashiko- 
dokoro was being removed from the train to the palanquin the Emperor gave audience to members of the Imperial Family, 
Ministers of State, the Corps Diplomatique and other dignitaries who had preceded his arrival at Kyoto, as well as the 
Governor and Mayor of Kyoto and other representative citizens. The Imperial procession then passed through the principal 
streets to the Kyoto Palace in precisely the same order as was followed iu Tokyo. 

Kyoto, the ancient Capital, was elaborately decorated in honour of the occasion. Triumphal arches were erected at 
important points, and among the decorations were noted " Banzai " banners. Thousands of people lined the streets to see 
the procession pass on its way to the Palace. 



( 14 ) 

THE GRAND CEREMONY OF ENTHRONEMENT. 

fM'^ November 10th the Accession Ceremony was conducted at the Shishiiden Hall. Among those present were tlie Crown 
1^ Prince, Princes and Princesses of the Blood, including H.I.H. Marshal Prince Sadanaru Shinno, Coramissioner-in- 
Chief of tiie Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement, the Genro, or Elder Statesmen, comprising Marshal Prince Aritomo 
Yamagata, Marshal Prince Iwao Oyama and Marquis Masayoshi Matsukata ; Count Shigenobu Okuma, the Premier, and 
other Ministers of State ; members of the Corps Diplomatique, who were commissioned to represent their RulBrs at the 
various Ceremonies ; members of the House of Peers and House of Representatives, high officers and officials, a number of 
leading business men and bankers, and the representatives of various public bodies throughout the country. 

The rain, which began to fall shortly after the Emperor's arrival at Kyoto on the evening of the 7th, and continued 
unceasingly for two days, stopped during tlie night of the 9th. The morning of November 10th dawned with clouds and mist 
hanging over the surrounding hills, but by ten o'clock the sun had broken through the clouds and was soon shining brightly, 
and the Accession Ceremony was conducted in ideal Autumn weather. 

In the centre of the Throne Room of the Shisliiiden was the Imperial Throne (Takamikura), facing the south, and 
to the east of the Throne was the seat (Michodai) for the Empress (who, being indisposed, was unable to be present). In 
front of the Shishiiden were large stands on which two stood handsome banners bearing the characters "Ban-zai" (" Long 
Life "), a number of various antique banners in red, white, green, purple, yellow, etc., and beside them were placed gongs and 
drums used in ancient times. 

Prior to the Grand Ceremony in the afternoon a service was held at the Kashiko-dokoro (Imperial Sanctuary), in the 
Shunkoden, at which were present the Crown Prince, H.I.H. Prince Sadanaru Shinno and other members of the Imperial 
Family, the Premier and members of the Ministry, the Corps Diplomatique and a large number of high ofiicers and State 
officials. The Emperor, wearing ancient robes and sword, entered the Hall at 10.23, and read before the Gods and the 
Spirits of his Ancestors an Imperial Proclamation announcing that the Grand Ceremony of the Enthronement was to be 
conducted at the Shishiiden that afternoon. The service was over at 11, when the drums were beaten three times. 

His Majesty at 3.10 p.m. ascended the Throne, which was curtained, by the northern steps. Chamberlains placed the 
Sacred Treasures on a stand before the Throne, and two Chamberlains ascended the eastern and western steps of the dais and 
lifted the curtains, disclosing to view his Majesty on the Throne, holding the Imperial sceptre. His Majesty rose from 
his seat and read the following Imperial Rescript in the presence of the gathering : — 

" Having, by virtue of the glories of Our Ancestors, ascended the Imperial Throne of divine origin, we do 
hereby perform the Ceremony of Accession. 

" Our Imperial Ancestors having laid the foundation of Our Empire, Our wise Predecessors, in pursuance of 
the divine command coeval with Heaven and Earth, have each succeeded to the Imperial Throne transmitted to 
him in an ever-unbroken line together with the Divine Treasures of Our Imperial House, and have reigned over and 
governed the people within Our Imperial dominions with benevolent care. The forefathers of you. Our subjects, have, 
on their part, been constant and loyal in their service to the Imperial House. Thus consecrated by the ties that unite 
the Sovereign and the subject with the strength of the bond between father and son, Our Empire has developed a 
character which has no equal on this earth. 

"Our illustrious Father brought forth upon this Empire a new era of prosperity and settled his mind on a 
great policy of opening the country to foreign intercourse. He further promulgated the fundamental law of State 
by expounding the bequeathed precepts of Our Imperial Ancestors, and effected an unparalleled great achievement 
by giving a full scope of efficiency to the work of the Imperial regime. His eminent virtue thus shed its lustre 
abroad and Ids benevolent influence was felt everywhere. 

" Now that we have inherited the grand work of Our Father, it is Our will to secure, on the one hand, a 
permanent stability of Our State by consolidating its foundations, and to share, on the other, the benefit of peace 
and harmony by strengthening the friendship with other nations. May the Heavenly Spirits of Our Ancestors, to 
whom We owe so much, witness Our determination that We will fulfil Our mission by diligently labouring day and 
night. We trust that you, Our loyal subjects, will guard and maintain the prosperity of Our Imperial Throne by 
performing with assiduity your respective parts and duties. It is Our wish to make ever more brilliant the glory of 
Our country by the united virtue aud harmonious co-operation of all. We command you, Our subjects, to be guided 
by these Our views." 



( 15 ) 

Upon the conclusion of the Imperial Speech, Count Okuiua, the Preniier, took up a position in front of the Throne 
and read the following congratulatory address in reply to the Speech from the Throne: — 

" I most humbly present an adire^s to the Throne. Your Majesty, having succeeded to the Imperial Throne which 
has through all ages been occupied by on? and tlie suras Dynnsty, and taken up the Sceptre of the Empire, now ascends the 
Throne and holds the solemn Ceremony of the Accession. The entire nation rejoices with a full heart, and I, Your 
Majesty's humble servant, am filled with infinite joy. 

"The Imperial Ancestors transmitted to Their Descendants the divine ordinances which are eternal as Heaven and 
Earth, and brought tlie country under Their rule ; They handed down the Three Sacred Treasures and made the chiefs of 
the five tribes Their subjects. Thus, the foundations of the Empire unchangeable through all ages was definitely consolidated 
and the relations of Sovereign and subject were firmly established. 

"The Founder of tiie Imperial Line was brave and far-sighted to carry out the divine will of His Ancestors in 
transmitting the rule of the country and to extend the work begun by His divine Ancestors. He led the Imperial Army 
and subjugated tlie middle provinces and ascended the Imperial Throne. He decided personally in all matters and by His 
wise government left a shining example to posterity. The descendants of the various tribes who served His descendants 
also all followed the spirit of their forefathers and gave loyal support to the Imperial rule. To Him belongs the illustrious 
title of the Founder of the Empire, and sublime is the work of the Imperial rule which was established to last for ever. 

" His late Majesty of glorious memory, upon accession to the Throne, unfolded the Imperial plau of renovation by 
settling the great policy of restoration and of opening the country, and established uniform government by adopting what 
is gcod and excellent in foreign countries and, abolishing the old feudal system, made clear the basis of government by 
promulgating the imperishable Constitution, strengthened the military and naval defence by setting up the military system, 
ensured the moral and intellectual well-being of His subjects by the spread of education, lucre ised the afiluence of the people 
by fostering agriculture and industry, and increased the offioienuy of general administration by reforming the institutions. 
Thereupon the political order of the State was greatly enhanced and the prosperity of the nation grew unceasingly. 

" Your Majesty, having succeeded to the Imperial Throne aud inherited the grand work of the Imperial regime, is ever 
anxious to fulfil, in pursuance of the wise policy of Your great Father and Ancestors, Your high mission by strengthening 
the stability of the Empire and by making manifest the virtuous glory of the Imperial rule. Now on this happy occasion of 
the Grand Ceremony Your Majesty has been graciously pleased to favour us witli Your brilliant speech, elucidating the 
fundamental character of the foundation of the Empire and teaching the ways to be observed by Your subjects, and we. 
Your Majesty's humble subjects, are deeply moved. 

" Your Majesty, with Your heavenly qualities of benevolence, filial piety, modesty and self-restraint, has begun a most 
glorious reign, and with the divine aid of the Imperial Ancestors and His late Majesty always attending Your Majesty's 
person, the Imperial work is more [)rosperous and the Imperial virtues are more illustrious than ever; and the whole world 
resounds with high praises of Your Majesty. And we. Your humble subjects, solemnly swear to show our gratitude for 
Your Majesty's gracious will by ceaselessly labouring to the utmost extent and, witli one heart, stimulating the spirit of 
fidelity and making every endeavour to prove the sincerity of our feeling. 

" We, Your Majesty's subjects, who are fortunate to attend those magnificent ceremonies, and see propitious clouds 
hang around the lofty hall and golden banners flatter in the breeze of benevolence, can hardly contain ourselves for joy. 
In the name of all the subjects of this Empire, I, Your Majesty's humble servant, most respectfully present our heartfelt 
congratulations on this auspicious occasion and tender our sincere wishes for a long life to Your Gracious Majssty. 

" Your Majesty's Servant, 

"Count SHIGENOBU OKUMA, 

" Minister President of State. 
"Tenth day of November, 4th year of Taisho (1915 A.D.)" 

Descending into the courtyard at half-past three. Count Okuma called for three " Banzai " for His Majesty the 
Emperor, the whole assembly joining in the shout, which, on a pre-arranged signal, was simultaneously echoed throughout 
the length and breadth of the Empire. His Majesty then rose and left the scene, gongs and drums being beaten three 
times in accordance with the traditional Japanese custom, and thus ended the Grand Ceremony of the Enthronement. 



( 16 ) 

THE SERVICE AT THE KASHIKO-DOKORO. 

fHE service at the Kashiko-dokofo (Impsrial S.iiictuu-y) eo;nmeiiced at sunset on November llth, nncl lasted until one 
o'clock next morning. During the playing of tlie special music by the Court musicians, tiie Emperor, attended by the 
Court Ritualists, entered the Hall and offered prayers to the Gods and the Spirits of his Ancestors, afterward proceeding 
to his seat. Next, H.I.H. Princess Nobu-ko Naishinno Asaka-no-Miya, representing the Empi-ess, offered prayers, being 
followed by members of the Imperial Family. His Majesty left the Hall at 5 o'clock. Outside watch-fires were kept 
burning througho\it the service, which was conducted by the Court Ritualists. 



THE DAIJOSAI. 

^HE Daijosai is a thanksgiving festival, when the Eraparor offers new rice, Ivuroki and Shiroki (sake of black and white 
tS colour respectively) to the Gods and ths Spirits of his Ancestors this festival being specially observed after the Grand 
Ceremony of the Enthronement. Two separate rice-fields, one known as " Yuki " and the other as " Suki," were selected 
in the prefectures of Aichi and Kagawa, and there the rice offered was grown. Absolute cleanliness is most essential in the 
cultivation of the plant. The harvesting of the rice is conducted with due ceremony by a number of selected men and 
women in the presence of Imperial Messengers. The rice thus grown is sent to Kyoto, wliere it is made into sake (a fermented 
beverage), and the remainder, together with sake, is offered to the Gods and the Spirits of the Imperial Ancestors during the 
Enthronement festivities. The ceremony of presenting the rice and sake was performed at tlie Daijokyu Shrine (wherein the 
Yuki and Suki Shrines were built in ancient Japanese style for the occasion) from sunset on December 14th to dawn of 
the 15th, and was as imposing as it was important. 

There were present Princes of the Blood, a large number of high officers and officials, including Ministers of State, 
accompanied by their wives. A score of officials, wearing ancient costume and carrying the ancient swords, bows and quivers 
full of arrows, took up their positions as guardians of the gates to the nortli, south, east and west. Meanwhile preparations 
were completed for the ceremonies at the Yuki Slirine and the Suki Slirine. 

At 7.35 p.m. the Emperor in a white ceremonial robe entered the Yuki Shrine and presented offerings to the Gods 
and the Spirits of his Ancestors, His Majesty himself partaking in the sacred diet — a ceremony which was not seen by any of 
tiie assembled company. Music was played by the Court musicians during the ceremony, the whole proceedings lasting until 
after eleven o'clock. 

At 1.35 a.m. the following day His Majesty proceeded to the Suki Shrine, where a similar ceremony was conducted, 
the proceedings lasting until 4.30, when the Emperor returned to the Palace. 



IMPERIAL BANQUETS AND VISITS TO SHRINES. 

ijv T the Nijo Palace, on November 16th, the first of the two Imperial banquets was given in celebration of the Enthrone- 
^ ment. The first banquet, served in Japanese style, was attended by members of the Imperial Family, Ministers of 
State, the Corps Diplomatique, and a large number of high officers and officials, and their wives. 

The second banquet was given at the Nijo Palaco on November 17th, and on this occasion it was served in European 
style. 

On the night of November 17th a number of Japanese classical d;inces were given in the presence of the Emperor 
and the Court, the Representatives of the Rulers of all the friendly Powers, and a number of Japanese high officials, the 
assembly numbering over two thousand five hundred. 

On November 20th His Majesty visited the Imperial Great Shrines at Ise, and on the 24th visited the 
mausoleum of the first Emperor Jimmu Tenno, on the 25th tiie mausoleum of Emperor Meiji Tenno, and on the 26th the 
raausolea of Emperor Komei Tenno, Emperor Nink5 Tenno and Emperor Kokaku Tenno. 

On the 27th the Emperor lefc Kyoto for Tokyo, travelling via Nagoya, His Majesty reaching the Capital on the 28tii 
and the Kashiko-dokoro (Imperial Sanctuary) was taken back to Tokyo at the same time. 



( 17 ) 

GRAND MILITARY REVIEW. 

§P HE Military Review in honour of the Enthronement was held on December 2ad at the Aoyama Parade-ground, in 



% 

& Tokyo, in the presence of His Majesty tiie Emperor, Imperial Princes and Princesses, the Corps Diplomatique, and a 

large concourse of the general public. The troops participating in the Review were the Imperial Bodyguard and the First 

Division stationed in Tokyo, together with contingents from various parts of the Empire, the whole numbering 40,000 men. 

Fine weather favoured the review, which passed off most successfully. 

His Majesty, in the uniform of a Grand Marshal, and accompanied by Prince Hiroraichi Takatsukasa, Grand 
Chamberlain, and other high officials, left the Palace shortly before 9 a.m. for the Parade-ground. All the streets from the 
Palace to the ground wei-e densely packed by people, many of whom had from early morning taken up points of vantage. 
In accordance with police instructions, and with a view to preventing the horses taking fright, there was no cheering. 

On arrival at the Parade-groand His Majesty was received by H.I.H. Marshal Prince Sadanaru Shinno, who was 
in command of the parade, H.I.H. General Prince Kotohito Shinno, Marshal PrinceOyama, General Viscount Hasegawa, Chief 
of the General Staff, Lieut.-General Oka, Minister of War, members of the Corps Diplomatique, and other high officers and 
officials. Mounting a magnificent black charger. His Majesty, escorted by Princes Sadanaru Shinno and Kotohito Shinn5, 
the Headquarters Staff and Military Attaches of the friendly Powers, rode along the lines, afterwards taking up a position 
at the saluting base for the march past. 

The review ended shortly before noon, when an Imperial Rescript was issued to the troops. His Majesty expressing 
appreciation of their services to the State and urging them to strive with renewed energy to maintain the efficiency of the 
army. 

His Majesty then returned to the Palace, the troops marching back to barracks. 



GRAND NAVAL REVIEW. 

fN December 4th His Majesty the Emperor reviewed in Tokyo Bay one hundred and twenty-five warships, aggregating 
605,385 tons Admiral Baron S. Kataoka was in command of the whole fleet. The weather was bright, but 
very cold. 

The Fleet was drawn up in five lines, the first line pivoted on the large 30,000-ton battleship Fuso, the line 
extending in a north-easterly direction for a distance of five or six miles. Lying next to the Fuso were thirteen 
battleships, and then stretching away to the horizon were six cruisers comprising the remainder of the line. The second line 
was headed by four battleship-cruisers, at the head of which was the Hiyei, built at Yokosuka, while next to her was the 
sister-ship Kongo, built at Barrow-on-Furness. The third, fourth and fifth lines were composed of defence-boats, gun-boats, 
and destroyers, while a line of submarines completed the array. 

Day fire-works were sent up near Yokohama Station shortly before 9 a.m. to signal the approach of the Imperial 
train. On alighting. His Majesty was received by Admiral T. Kato, Minister of the Navy, Admiral H. Shimamura, Chief 
of the Naval Staff, Mr. K. Audo, Mayor of Yokohama, and many other prominent officers and officials. On his way to the 
pier the Emperor, who wore the full dress uniform of an Admiral, acknowledged the respectful salutes of the spectators, 
who included a number of foreigners. 

On arrival at the pier His Majesty proceeded in a launch to the cruiser Tsukuba, which, attended by the cruisers 
Tokiivci, Yahagi and Manshu, passed through the lines, all the vessels participating in the review firing a salute of twenty-one 
guns. The review was concluded shortly before noon. 

In honour of the occasion the city of Yokohama was gaily decorated, and a number of lantern processions paraded the 
streets during the evening. 

The Enthronement festivities were brought to a close on December 9th, with a successful gathering in Uyeno Park, 
Tokyo, when His Majesty the Emperor received the loyal congratulations of the citizens of the Capital. 



( 18 ) 




CELEBRATIONS IN THE EMPIRE. 

IN TOKYO. 

f^EVER has the loyalty of the citizens of Tokyo been demonstrated in a more practical manner than on the occasion of 
i the departure of His Majesty the Emperor for Kyoto on November 6th, 1915, for the Grand Ceremonies of the 
Enthronement. 

From early morning the citizens were astir 
decorating their houses and streets in honour of the 
event. Long before the hour appointed for His Majesty's 
departure, the streets leading from the Imperial Palace 
to Tokyo Station were packed by people eager to see the 
Imperial procession on this auspicious occasion. At 
6 o'clock in the morning the Emperor, accompanied 
by H.I.H. Marslial Prince Sadanaru Siiinno Fushimi- 
no-Miya, Marquis Okuma, the Premier, and other 
dignitaries, left the Imperial Palace for Tokyo Station, 
where His Majesty took special train for Kyoto. 

At Babasaki, in front of the Palace, there was 
erected a large archway, 60 feet high and 138 feet wide, 

known as the Banzai gate, through which the Imperial 

, r\ fU f e ^\ , I • 1 DECORATIONS AT NIHONBASHI BRIDGE. 

procession passed. On the centre or the gate, which was xj^k^^^v^^ 

in pure Japanese style, two Japanese ideographs, reading " Banzai," were exhibited in gold, together with four phoenix and 

eigiit Yatano-kagami (Sacred Mirrors). A number of large banners representing the Sun and Moon, and others bearing tiie 

characters " Banzai," etc., were placed at regular intervals between the Banzai gate and the Nijubashi bridge leading to the 

Palace. In front of Tokyo Station was erected a similar gate, this displaying ideographs representing " Long Live the 

Emperor and Empress," and " May the Prosperity of the Imperial House be Everlasting." Both sides of tiie principal streets 

were draped with red and white bunting, and white lanterns, national flags and other decorations were displayed at every 

house. At Hibiya Park there was an exhibitirm of chrysanthemums under the auspices of the Tokyo Municipal authorities 

during the Enthronement festivities. 

At the ceremony of Enthronement at Kyoto, on November 10th, the citizens of Tokyo were officially represented by 
Dr. Y. Okuda, the Mayor, and by Mr. B. Nakano, Chairman of the Municipal Assembly. Representative citizens repaired 

to the Imperial Palace and also to tlie Aoyaraa Detaclied 
Palace, where tlie Empress was then residing, to oSer 
congratulations on the great event. In Tokyo the day 
was marked by a display of fireworks and a garden- 
party given at Hibiya Park by the Municipal authorities, 
while the Electric Bureau, under wiiose direction the 
street electric car service is carried on, ran illuminated 
cars. Some 1,200,000 citizens assembled in the open 
ground in front of the Imperial Palace, at Hibiya 
Park, and other points, to join in the celebra- 
tion. At 3.30 p.m. the citizens joined in the shout of 
" Banzai," given at the same time as at the Ceremony 
of the Enthronement in Kyoto. 




FLAG PROCESSION PASSING IN FRONT OF THE 
PALACE. 



On the occasion of the Daijosai festival at Kyoto, 
on November 14th, a service was held at every temple 
and shrine in Tokyo, and on the 16th and 17th, when 

the first and second Imperial Banquets were given at Kyoto, similar entertainments were arranged by the Tokyo 

Municipality. 



( 19 ) 

On November 28th the Emperor, accompanied by members of the Imperial Family and the Court officials, returned to 

..^,..„ _ _ _ Tokyo from Kyoto. At the Station His Majesty was 

received by Dr, Okuda, Mayor of Tokyo, Ministers of 
State and representative citizens. 

At Uyeno Park, on December 9th, a celebration 
in honour of the Enthronement was held under the 
auspices of the Tokyo Municipality, this being the last 
of the series of public festivities. His Majesty the 
Emperor, accompanied by his suite, arrived at the Park 
shortly after lO a.m., and was received by Dr. Okuda 
and leading residents. His Majesty, taking up his position 
in a pavilion specially built for the occasion, received 
congratulations from the citizens. The streets through 
which the Emperor drove to and from the Park were 
thickly lined with people, who cheered His Majesty as he 
PAViHuM iM UiJi^u FAKK. passed. 

In the evening a big lantern procession was organized in honour of the occasion. 




IN YOKOHAMA. 

fHE citizens of Yokoliama celebrated the Enthronement in as enthusiastic a manner as did the citizens of Tokyo. In front 
of the Yokohama Municipal Office a large arch of greenery was erected, and on this appeared the ideographs " Long Live 
the Emperor and Empress." Similar arches were erected at the entrances to Yokohama Park and in other parts of the city. 
On the occasion of the Enthronement Ceremony at Kyoto 
on November 10th the citizens, under the direction of the 
Municipal authorities, assembled at the Park, where they 
took part in the shout of " Banzai " in honour of the 
Emperor, Mr. Ando, the Mayor, leading the cheering. 
Among those present were Mr. Ariyoshi, Governor of 
Kanagawa Prefecture, Mr.Otani, President of the Japanese 
Cliamber of Commerce, the Consular Body, leading foreign 
residents, and a large number of Japanese. As a demon- 
stration of loyalty to the Tiirone a pair of handsome 
flower vases was presented by the citizens to the Imperinl 
Court. 

As the Emperor passed through Yokohama Station 
on his journey to Kyoto on November 6th a large 
number of officials and citizens assembled at the Station 
to show their respects, and day fire-works were sent 
up at a point near the Station. The s ime thing occurred when his Majesty passed through Yokohama on his return from 

Kyoto on the 28th. 

I 

At the Yokohama Municipal Office a Special Commission was appointed to receive the congratulations which were 
offored by the citizens from November 10th to the 14tli. These congratulations were afterwards presented to the Imperial 
Household. 

On December 4th the Naval Review was held off Yokohama in honour of the Enthronement, the Emperor, on the 
cruiser Tsukuba, reviewing tiie fleet of 125 vessels. In the evening the whole fleet was illuminated, and presented a grand 
spectacle. A lantern procession was organized by the citizens in honour of the Enthronement. 




ARCH 



YOKOHAMA PARK. 



( 20 ) 



IN KYOTO. 



P HE festivities in Kyoto connected witi the JEuthronement were arranged on a hiost elaborate scale^ the Municipal 
% authorities having raised a loan of ¥500,000 for the purpose. 



During the Enthronement festivities, namely from the 7th to the 27th of November, business was practically 
suspended, and the citizens gave themselves up to rejoicing and celebration?, the ancient Capital being illuminated at night. 
Naturally the decorations in the city were on a larger 
scale than those in Tokyo, Yokohama and elsewhere. 
In front of Kyoto Station a gigantic arch, 90 feet high 
and 120 feet wide, was erected. Similar structures 
were erected at various prominent points in the city, 
which was gaily decorated with national flags, bunting, 
lanterns, etc. There were numerous lantern pro- 
cessions, and frequent displays of fireworks. In 
addition, the Municipal authorities and leading organiza- 
tions entertained in various ways members of the 
Imperial Family, the Corps Diplomatique and other 
guests invited to the festivities from all parts of 
the country, the entertainments including a dinner 
at the Yasaka Club and a garden-party given 
by the local authorities. In commemoration of the 
event an Industrial Exhibition was opened in the 
Okasaki Park, where a huge tower, known as the " Banzai-to," was erected. In a large Hull call the ' Taireikan," built 
there, were arranged models of the Shishiiden, where the Enthronement was conducted, the Daijokyu Shrine, Takamikura, 
etc. used for the ceremonies, these being provided for those not invited to the Enthronement Ceremonie-s. 




DECORATIONS AT KARASUMARU-DORI. 



The Municipal authorities, beside offering congratulations to the Throne, presented His Majesty with a pair of 
handsome flower vases, an album showing places of interest in Kyoto and neighbourhood, and other gifts, while the gifts to 

Her Majesty comprised tapestry, embroideries, etc. 

Under the auspices of the authorities a dinner was 
given at the Minami-za Theatre in Shijo-dori on 
November 8th in honour of foreign and Japanese 
journalists, who were accorded every facility in the 
discharge of their duties in connection with the 
festivities. 

All the hotels and many individual houses 
were filled with visitors, some of whom were given 
accommodation in the suburbs of tiie city. 
In fact, the local authorities and citizens did 
everything in their power for the comfort of the visitors 
during the festivities. 

Thousands of policemen were brought in from 
various districts to regulate the traffic, and, thanks to the 
way they did their work, no serious accident occurred during the festivities. As many visitors continued to arrive at 
Kyoto after the ceremonies, the authorities opened a special Exhibition at the Okasaki Park from January 15th to April 
30th, 1916, in order to show the progress of trade, etc., in the city. 




SHIJO-DORI. 



EMPEROR, EMPRESS 



AND 



IMPERIAL FAMILY. 




( 24 ) 

THE EMPEROR. 

[is imperial majesty YOSHIHITO, the one hundred and twenty-second Emperor of Japan, is the 
third son of the late Emperor Meiji Tenu5, and was born on August 31st of the twelfth year of the Meiji 
Era (1879 A.D.). 

The naming ceremony was conducted on September 6th, when the infant Prince was named Yoshihito Shiuno. The 
first and second sons of Emperor Meiji Tenno died in infancy. 

Marquis Tadayasu Niikayama and Marchioness Nakayama were appointed guardians of the young Prince, wlio in 
infancy was physically weak. On the eighth anniversary of his birthday, in 1887, the Prince was proclaimed Heir Apparent, 
«nd in September of the same year he attended tiie Peers' Sciiool. On November 3rd of the twenty-seeotid year of the Meiji 
Era (1889 A.D.), the birthday anniversary of the late Emperor Meiji TeuiiO, the ceremony of installing His Highness 
as Crown Prince was conducted at the Imperial Palace, when Emperor Meiji Tenno presented His Highness with a sacred 
sword known as " Tsubokiri " — a practice which will be carried out on similar occasions in future. The Crown Prince was 
at the same time decorated with the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum and appointed a Second Lieutenant in the 
Imperial Army. 

A new Department, to have charge of affairs concerning the Prince, was at this time inaugurated in the Imperial 
Household. In 1892 His Highness was promoted to the rank of a First Lieutenant of the Imperial Army, and two years later 
left the Peers' School to be under private tutors at his Palace. In 1895 he was promoted to the rank of Captain, and on 
the occasion of his nineteenth birthday, 1897, he was, in accordance with the provisions of the Imperial House Law, 
given a seat in the House of Peers in the Imperial Diet. In 1898 he was promoted to the rank of a Major of 
Infantry, and appointed a Lieut.-Commander in tlie Imperial Navy. 

On May 10th of the thirty-third year of the Meiji Era (1900 A.D.) the Crown Prince married Sadako (First-class 
Imperial Order of the Crown), fourth daughter of the late Prince Micliitaka Kuj5, and on the occasion of his marriage was 
decorated with the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum, with Chain. On April 29th, 1901, a son was born to the Imperial 
Couple and was named Hirohito Shinno. In the same year the Crown Prince was promoted to the rank of a Lieut.-Colonel 
in the Army and a Commander in the Navy. On June 25th, 1902, a second son was born and named Yasuhito Shinno (Atsu- 
no-Miya). In 1903 the Crown Prince was promoted Colonel in the Army and Captain in the Navy. Oa January 3rd, 
1905, a third son was born and was named Nobuhito Shinno (I'akamatsu-no-Miya). In 1906 His Highness was promoted 
Major-General in the Army and Rear-Admiral in the Navy. In 1907 he crossed over to Korea (now known as Chosen) and 
visited the Korean Court, and as a result of the visit it was arranged that the Korean Crown Prince (now Prince li) should 
visit Japan to prosecute his studies. In 1909 the Crown Prince was promoted Lieut.-General and Vice- Admiral. 

On July 30th of the forty-fifth year of the Meiji Era (1912 A.D.) Emperor Meiji Tenno died. The same evening 
the Crown Prince ascended the Throne, and in November of the fourth year of the Taisho P>a (1915 A.D.) the Enthrone- 
ment Ceremonies were conducted in Kyoto. On December 2nd, 1915, a fourth son was born to the new Emperor and 
Empress, and was named Takahito Shinu5 (Sumi-uo-Miya). 

In his early days the Emperor was educated by Mr. T. Yumoto, who, on being sent to Europe on a certain mission, 
was succeeded by Mr. K. Maruo, who was later appointed a Court Councillor. After leaving the Peers' School the young 
Prince attended lectures by the late Dr. G. Kawada (Doctor of Literature) and Dr. K. Mishima (Doctor of Literature), on 
Chinese Classics, and by the late Mr. T. Motowori on Japanese history and literature. His Highness studied French with a 
French resident in Tokyo, and later with Mr. M. Mita. He thus speaks French fluently, and reads with much interest 
French newspapers and magazines. He took a course in law, political economy and other branches of science from the late 
Baron R. Midzukuri (Doctor of Law), who also lectured on the history of the nations. 

In composing Japanese odes, or waka, the Emperor follows in the footsteps of the late Emperor Meiji TennO. As an officer 
attached to the Imperial Bodyguard the Emperor, when Crown Prince, often visited the barracks to study military science, 
and at times took command of the troops in various exercises. In military administration and tactics, the Emperor studied 
under Generals M. Yuhi, T. Matsukawa and T. Utsunomiya, all well-known authorities on tactics, while General Baron 
Y. Fukushima gave a course of lectures on military administration. Admiral H. Shimamura, Vice- Admiral H. Sakamoto 
and Vice- Admiral T. Yamaya lectured before the young Prince on naval tactics. 

His Majesty is an accomplished horseman, and as a young man often followed thjs recreation in company with officers 
of the Imperial Bodyguard. 



( 25 ) 

Among attendants of the Emperor, when Crown Prince, were the late li.I.H. Admiral Prince Takehito Shinno 
Arisugawa-no-Miya, the late Marshal Prince I. Oyama, the late Prince H. Ito, Count H. Hijikata, ex-Minister of the Imperial 
Household, Lieut.-General Viscount 8. Soga, Marshal Count Y. Oku, and the late Lieut. -General M. Kurokawa, all of 
whom distinguished themselves either as statesmen or military commanders during the Meiji Era. Lieut.-General 
M. Kurokawa was chief Aide-de-camp to the Crown Prince for many years, and was largely responsible for his training 
along various lines. Every Saturday the Crown Prince visited the late Emperor, with whom he was closetted for hours, 
acquiring knowledge in the conduct of affairs of State which should fit him for his task as ruler. 

While attending the Peers' School, tiie young Prince walked to and fro in all kinds of weatiier. He is fond of 
athletics and is a good swimmer. He has a contempt for anything underhand. One day the Prince, accompanied by his 
attendants, was rabbit-shooting, but was very unsuccessful in his bag. One of the attendants, somewlmt disturbed by the 
fact, secretly brought a tame rabbit from a farmhouse in the neighbourhood and set it free. His Highness fired, and killed 
the animal. He discovered later that it was not a wild rabbit, and on inquiry the secret was disclosed. The man responsible 
was warned by His Highness not to resort to such action again. 

In 1901, when staying at the Detached Palace at Numadzu, his Highness, with hig attendants, went on a hunting 
trip in the woods at the foot of Mt. Fuji. During the hunt His Highness became separated from his suite, and lost his 
way. Coming to a farmer's house he entered for the purpose of resting. The farmer and his wife thought the visitor was 
one of the Crown Prince's suite and treated him accordingly. It being late in the afternoon, they prepared a supper for 
the visitor, who, without disclosing his identity, partook of the humble meal. When about to leave, the Prince told the farmer 
and his wife that lie had no money to pay for the meal, but that on his return home he would send some one to pay for it. 
So saying, the Crown Prince took leave of the humble host and hostess, but had not gone far when he met his suite, who had 
been searching for him. The Prince thereupon dispatched an attendant to the farmer and his wife with gifts in return for 
the kind treatment accorded him. 

Ou ascending the Tlirone, the Emperor removed from the Aoyama Detached Palace to the Imperial Palace so 
long occupied by Emperor Meiji Tenno. His Majesty's habits are very simple. He rises at six o'clock, and after 
completing his toilet worships before the ancestral shrine. Breakfast follows, this consisting only of bread and milk. At 
luncheon iiis Majesty takes foreign food, while dinner is served in Japanese style. After breakfast His Majesty reads 
nearly all the leading newspapers, and then devotes several hours to State aflTairs. 



On New Year's Day the Emperor conducts a service known as " Shih5-hai early in the morning to pray to the Gods 
and Imperial Ancestors for the everlasting prosperity of the Empire. The service over. His Majesty receives greetings from 
members of the Imperial Family, Ministers of State, the Corps Diplomatique and a number of high officers and officials in 
Tokyo and neigiibouring districts. 

On January 5th a New Year Banquet is usually given by His Majesty at noon in the Imperial Palace, to which are 
invited Princes and Princesses of the Blood, Ministers of State, the Corps Diplomatique, and a large number of high officers 
and civilians, the company usually numbering almost a thousand. 

From about the middle of January until about the middle of March each year the Emperor and Empress stay at the 
Imperial Detached Palace at Hayama. 

February Uth, the " Kigensetsu " (Anniversary of the Accession of the first Emperor Jimmu Tenno), is celebrated 
at the Imperial Palace, when the Emperor invites members of the Imperial Family, tlie Corps Diplomatique, and other 
high officials to lunciieon. 

In April their Majesties give the Imperial Cherry-viewing Party at the Hama Detached Palace, facing Tokyo Bay, 
to which are invited members of the Imperial Family, Ministers of State, the Corps Diplomatique, Consular Body, high 
officers and officials, and leading citizens of Tokyo and neighbouring towns. 

During the summer each year their Majesties spend a considerable time at the Detached Palace at Nikko. 

On October 31.st the Emperor officially celebrates the anniversary of his Birthday at the Imperial Palace, inviting 
thereto members of the Imperial Family, Ministers of State, the Diplomatic Body and other high officials and officers. 

In November an Imperial Garden-party is usually given by their Majesties at the Akasaka Detached Palace to 
view the chrysanthemums, members of the Imperial Family, Ministers of State, the Corps Diplomatique, Consular Body and 
a number of high officers and civilians being invited. 

In December the Emperor usually opens the Imperial Diet in person, the ceremony being conducted in the House of 
Peers. From the Throne in the House His Majesty reads an Imperial Message to members of the Upper and Lower Houses. 




( 26 ) 

THE EMPRESS. 

ER IMPERIAL MAJESTY EMPRESS SADAKO is the fourth daughter of the late Prince Michitaka Kujo, 
whose family, according to Japanese myths, is descended from the god Amenokoyane-no-Mikoto. Fler Majesty 
^ was born on June 25th of the seventeenth year of the Meiji Era (1884 A.D.). 

In accordance with the rule of the Kujo family, the Empress, on the seventh day after her birth, was placed under the 
care of a farmer named Kinzo Okawara and his wife, living at Suginami-mura, N"akano, a suburb of Tokyo. There she 
remained until she was five years old. The farmer's wife carried the infant Princess on her back as she worked on the 
farm and went out shopping, and thus the young Princess, exposed to all weathers, grew up to be very healtliy. 

On November 10th, 1888, the young Princess was taken back to the Kujo family, and soon entered a kindergarten, 
passing later to the Female Department of the Peers' School. Except in very stormy weather, she walked to and fro to 
school. She was fond of recreation, lawn tennis being one of her favourite games. 

While in the School, Her Highness always occupied the foremost rank among her class-mates, none of whom could 
surpass her in various branches of science. She is of excellent physique, and is endowed with fine qualities, which fitted 
her for the position of Crown Princess and Empress. As Princess she was frugal and led a very simple life, refraining 
from all sorts of luxury common among ladies in higher classes in Japan. She was exceptionally kind and generous, 
thereby winning the respect and confidence of all. 

The Empress- Dowager Eisho, being an aunt of the Princess, often invited her to the Aoyaraa Palace, whither 
she repaired with her elder sister, Noriko. These visits led to a great attachment between the young Princess and the 
Empress Dowager, and the outcome was a betrothal between the then Crown Prince and the Princess. 

On February 11th of the thirty-third year of the Meiji Era (1900 A.D.), known as tlie Kigeusetsu, the anniversary 
of the accession of the first Emperor Jimmu Teuno, Princess Sadako was proclaimed bride-elect of the Crown Prince and 
decorated with the First-class Imperial Order of the Crown. On May 10th following, the wedding ceremony took place at 
the Imperial Palace in the presence of the Emperor and Empress, Princes and Princesses of the Blo:)d, Ministers of State, 
members of the Corps Diplomatique, and a large number of Court officials, etc. After her marriage tiie Crown Princess 
continued her studies in French, Chinese Classics, history of all nations, and various branches of Science under several 
tutors of the Crown Prince. She'also took lessons on the violin and piano. 

In addition to her daily functions at the Imperial Palace, Her Majesty devotes her energy to the development of 
various lines of domestic industry and charitable works. For instance, she personally superintends the work of raising 
silkworms in the compound of the Aoyaina Detached Palace, where the said enterprise was first inaugurated by the late 
Empress Dowager Eisho in the early days of the Meiji Era. The scope of the enterprise has since been enlarged 
and improved under the direction of the Empress, wlio has thus converted it into a Model Station for the benefit of 
the silk industry of the Empire. 

There are four sons of the marriage, namely : — 

H.LH. The Crown Prince, Hirohito ShinnO, who was born April 29th of the thirty-fourth year of the Meiji Era 
(1901 A.D.). 

When His Highness reached school-age, he attended the Peers' School, where he remained until the inauguration, in 
April, 1914, of a special Scientific Department at the Takanawa Detached Palace for the express purpose of educating him. 

On July 30th, 1912, when the present Emperor ascended the Throne, the Crown Prince removed from the Aoyama 
Palace to the Takanawa Detachei Palace, and Prince Yasuhito Shiano and Prince Nobuhito Shinno, the second and third 
sons, remained at the Aoyama Palace. 

Baron A. Hamao has been appointed Grand Master of the Household of the Crown Prince, Admiral Count H. Togo 
being the chief guardian and tutor of his Imperial Highness. 



( 27 ) 

On September 9th, 1912, the Crown Prince, the eldest son of the Emperor and Empress, was appointed a Second 
Lieutenant in the Army and Second Sub -Lieutenant in the Navy, and decorated with the Supreme Order of the 
Chrysanthemum. He was posted to the First Infantry Regiment of the Imperial Bodyguard and to the First Squadron. 

On the following day the late General Count M. Nogi was received in audience by the Crown Prince, to whom he 
presented a book called the " Cliucho Jijitsu." Tlie General in grave tones informed the Prince that the book would serve 
as a guide to him when he ascended the Throne and undertook the task of governing the Empire. The General next visited 

© »«>3 ?>» J!- •-«s® i>»^ j-es^SJ^vi- *«^S)i®-L t^^5S»-i >iS5Ci>»~»- ■^-^S -»'*® 2>»-a >iK^2>!^ 







I H.I.H. THE CROWN PRINCE. | 



Prince Yasuhito Shinno and Prince Nobuhito Shinno, the second and third sons of the Emperor, and gave them some 
valuable advice, expressing the ardent hope that they would both assist the Crown Prince in helping to maintain and 
promote the best interests of the Empire. On the 13th of the same month, the day on which the State funeral of the late 
Emperor Meiji Tenno was held in Tokyo, General Count and Countess Nogi committed harakiri at their residence, as they 
desired to follow tlieir lute Imperial master to the other world. 



( 28 ) 

On October Slst, 1914, the Crown Prince was promoted to the rank of a First Lieutenant in the Army and First 
Sub-Lieutenant in the Navy. On October 31st, 1916, the Prince was promoted to the rank of a Captain in the Army and 
a Lieutenant in the Navy. On November 3rd, 1916, tlie ceremony of officially installing the Crown Prince was conducted 
at the Imperial Palace, when the Emperor, in accordance with the rules of the Imperial House, handed His Highness a 
sacred sword known as " Tsubokiri." His Highness has a close resemblance to the Emperor in appearance and is 
endowed with high qualities and magnanimity indispensable to a Sovereign of the Empire. 

H.I.H. Prince Yasuhito Shinno (Atsu-no-miya) was born June 25th of the thirty-fifth year of the Meiji Era (1902 A.D.). 




H.I.H. PEINCE YASUHITO SHINNO 
(Atsu-no-Miya). 



H.I.H. PRINCE NOBUSHITO SHINNO 
(Takamat8u-no-Miya). 



H.I.H. Prince Nobuhito Shinno (Takamatsu-no-miva') was born January 3rd of the thirty-eighth year of the Meiii 
Era (1905 A.D.). ^ / S / J 

Prince Yasuhito Shinno entered the Peers' School in April, 1909, and Prince Nobuhito Shinno in April, 1911. They 
both have a close resemblance to the Empress in appearance. Prince Yasuhito Shinno has an exceptionally fine 
physique, and is clever in mathematics. Prince Nobuhito Shinno is as clever as Prince Yasuhito Shinno in every respect. 
In fact, like the Crown Prince they are endowed with many estimable qualities. 

H.I.H. Prince Takahito Shinno (Sumi-no-miya) was born December 2nd of the fourth year of the Taisho Era 
(1915 A.D.). 



( 29 ) 



THE LATE EMPEROR MEIJI TENNO. 

T-as|i|HE late Emperor Meiji Tenn5, father of the present Emperor, was the second son of the late Emperor KSmei 
(\W: Tenno, and was born on September 22nd of the fifth year of the Kayei Era (November 3rd, 1852 A.D.) 
The infant Prince, who was named Sachi-no-Rtiya, was placed under the care of the late Marquis 
Tadayaau Nakayama, Marchioness Nakayama, and Lady Yosiiiko Nakayama. Amid a general outcry of 
"Sonno-jo-i " ('' Reverence for the Emperor and expel the Western barbarians ! "), raised by various classes of the people, 
Marquis Tadayasu Nakayama summoned to Kyoto a physician named Yasusuke Omura, who had studied medical science 
under a Dutch physician in Nagasaki, and had the infant Prince vaccinated, an act wliich was kept secret on account 
of the general agitation started against Europeans. Lord Sanenori Okiinachi was later added to tlie numi)er of guardians 
of His Higliness. 





The young Prince learned Chinese Classics and various branches of Science from tlie late H.LH. Prince Takaliito 
Shinnf) Arisugawa-no-Miya, Marquis Tadayasu Nakayama, Lord Sanenori Okimachi, Viscount Osanaga Takatsuji 
and Lord Nobusato Fushihara. Among the Prince's schoolmates were the late Prince Tomosada Iwakura, Marquis 
Kimmochi Saionji, and Viscount Tarumitsu Uramatsu. On July 10th of the first year of the Man-in Era (August 26tb, 



( 80 ) 

1860), Hi3 Highness, when nine years of age, w.u ia^tallad Crown Prince. On Septembsr 2?th of the same year 
(November 10th, 1860 A.D.) the name of the Prince was changed to that of Mutsuhito Shinn5. On January 9th of the 
third year of the Keiwo Era (February 13th, 1867 A.D.), His Highness, at the age of sixteen, ascended the throne on the 
demise of Emperor Komei Teniio. On December 9th of the same year (January 3rd, 1868 A.D.) the administrative power 
was restored to the Imperial Court. The Enthronement took place at the KySto Palace on August 27th of the first 
year of the Meiji Era (October 12th, 1868 A.D.). On December 28th of the first year of the new Era (February 9tli, 1869 
A.D.) the Emperor married Princess Haruko, a daugliter of the late Lord Tadaka Ichijo, and in the second year of the 
Meiji Era (1869 A.D.) their Majesties removed to Tokyo from Kyoto. 

At the Imperial Palace in Tokyo His Majesty inaugurated the Imperial Sanctuary known as the Kashikodokoro, 
Every morning the Emperor worshipped before the Kashikodokoro, which may be said to be the centre of the national life 
and activities. Whenever the State was confronted with a national crisis His Majesty visited the Great Imperial Shrine in 
Ise Province, the mausoleum of the first Emperor Jimmu Tenno at Unebi, and the mausoleum of Emperor Komei Tenno at 
Senzan. While radical reforms were introduced into the system of administration on the lines of Western civilization, the 
Emperor saw the necessity of conducting religious services at the Imperial Palace in strict accordance with the customs 
observed since the days of the first Emperor Jimmu Tenno. 

During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 the Emperor, on receipt of the news of the brilliant victory won by the 
Japanese navy in the Japan Sea engagement, granted the Navy an Imperial Message, which read : — 

" We highly appreciate the bravery and gallant actions of our officers and men in annihilating the enemy, an 
achievement which we are now able to inform the spirits of our Ancestors." 

From this it is evident that His Majesty venerated his ancestors. That the Emperor was not influenced by 
old-fashioned ideas in the conduct of State affairs is seen from the fact that wlien Marshal Prince A. Yamagata was 
Premier he recommended to the Throne Count A. Yamada as a Minister of State. But the Emperor was reluctant to consent 
to the appointment, stating that the views of the Count did not coincide with the progress of the times because he was an 
earnest advocate of the return to tiie autocratic system practised in feudal days. His Majesty was, however, prevailed upon 
by Prince Yamagata to give Count Yamada a Ministerial post, explaining that once the Count became a Minister of State 
he would not dare to express such views. Thus Imperial sanction was given to the appointment. 

Among the scholars who lectured before His Majesty on various branches of Seience were the late Mr. T. Motowori, 
Doctor of Literature, a well-knowji authority on Japanese literature ; the late Count T. Soyejima and the late Baron 
N. Motoda, who were versed in Chinese Classics ; and the late Baron H. Kato, Doctor of Literature and Doctor of Law, 
a well-known authority on European literature. In 1877 Marquis T. Sasaki, Count H. Hijikata, and Count T. Yoshii 
were appointed instructors to His Majesty, whose Chamberlains comprised the late Lieut.-General Viscount T. Takashima, 
the late Viscount T. Komeda, Baron M. Tsutsumi and Viscount T. Yamaoka, all of wlioin were experts on military 
affairs. 

His Majesty was six feet tall. He was an early riser, leaving his bed not later than six every morning throughout 
the year. After breakfast the Emperor devoted some time to reading the leading newspapers of the country, and 
then attended to State affairs until after four o'clock. After dinner His Majesty exchanged views with liis instructors 
regarding administrative affairs, and frequently heated discussions lasted until after ten o'clock. The Emperor was a 
good horseman, and in the evening spent some time in horse-riding in the Court-yard with his Chamberlains and ofiicers 
of the Imperial Bodyguard. His Majesty was so assiduous in the conduct of State affairs that his Chamberlains feared 
a breakdown, and often suggested that he spend the summer montiis at one or other of the favourite resorts; but 
the Emperor never once left tlie Imperial Palace for recreation, saying that if he left the Capital he did not know who 
would look after affairs of State. 

The Emperor was very frugal in his habits and was of a most charitable disposition, frequently making large 
donations to charitable institutions aud to people overwhelmed by great calamities. 



( 31 ) 

In the early part of tlie Meiji Era the Imperial Palace, or Edo Caslle, which had been occupied by successive 
Shoguns for about two generations and a half, was destroyed by fire, and the Emperor and Empress then removed to the 
Akasaka Detached Palace. The authorities of the Imperial Household mapped out a scheme for the construction of a 
new Palace, at a cost of ten million yen, and asked for the Imperial sanction for the same. His Miijesty rejected the pro- 
gramme, on the ground tiiat it would be too costly. The new Palace was finally built in the compound of the Edo Castle at 
a greatly reduced outlay. In compiling the Budget each year the Civil List was, in accordance with Imperial command, 
curtailed as far as possible, the Emperor's private purse being a very moderate one. 

After the Sino- Japanese War of 1894-5 there was noticed among all classes a tendency to luxurious living, whereupon 
His Majesty, by way of warning his subjects, abolished various functions at the Imperial Palace and ordered that all 
celebrations be comlueted in the simplest form possible. Later it was considered necessary to increase the Civil List, and 
in the year immediately following the annexation of Korea it was increased by one million five hundred thousand yen. 
On the celebration of Kigensetsu (the anniversary of the accession of the first Emperor Jimmu Tenn5) the Emperor was 
pleased to grant the sura of one million five hundred thousand yen to be given to the poor, an Imperial Rescript intimating 
a wish that the money be used for the relief of poor people who were unable to buy medicines or to pay for treat- 
ment in hospital. For the purpose of putting to a good use the Imperial gift a public body, named the Onshizaidan 
Saisei-kai, was organized by the authorities and people, who, impressed by the lead given by His Majesty, made liberal 
donations towards the fund of the new organization. His Majesty was ever relucant to sanction any representation 
suggesting the dismissal of Court officials who had reached an advanced age, and always urged that suitable posts be given 
them on retirement. His Majesty showed a very keen interest in animals and birds, etc., and whenever he received from 
his subjects gifts of fish, birds or animals for use at the table His Majesty invariably ordered the Court ofBcials to keep 
them alive instead of slaughtering them for food. 

In conducting affairs of State His Majesty showed sound judgment and shrewdness, being guided by high 
principles of justice and uprightness. Each year the Emperor made it a rule to attend the graduating exercises at 
the Naval and Military Schools of various grades. In compliance with a request of Count S. Kabayama, Minister of 
Education, His Majesty honoured with his presence the graduation ceremony at the Tokyo Imperial University each year. 
The Emperor was well versed in the laws of the country as well as in the official organization of various Departments 
of State, and in some cases Ministers of State received counsel and direction from His Majesty regarding the exercise of 
their duties. Once the late Prince It5 prayed the Emperor for permission to be relieved of his office as Premier, to which 
His Majesty replied : — " Your responsibility ceases when you retire from office, but the Emperor himself cannot resign to 
evade responsibility." To this pointed remark the Prince made no reply, and continued in office. 

His Majesty devoted the whole of his energies to the administration of the Empire and the promotion of the status 
of the country. An interesting story showing the late Emperor's devotion to duty is related. While the Privy Council was in 
session in 1888 considering a draft of the Constitution, a messenger arrived with news of the death of the infant Prince Aki- 
no-miya, a son of the Emperor. His Majesty, after receiving the news, remained with his Councillors until the proceedings 
were finished. The late Prince Ito, then President of the Council, suspended the discussion, and reverently asked the 
Emperor to leave the Council Chamber, but His Majesty persisted in remaining, stating that nothing could be more urgent 
than State afiairs. 

A certain member of the British Royal Family once described Emperor Mutsuhito (Meiji Tenno) as a typical gentle- 
man, dignified and endowed with the fine qualities of magnanimity, benevolence, and uprightnesj. This estimate of His 
Majesty was endorsed by all who were brought into contact with him, and therefore it is not surprising that under His 
Majesty's guidance Japan made marvellous advance both in arms and science. 

His Majesty was particularly fond of horse-riding. Another favourite pastime was the composition of Japanese 
poetry, or waka, and during his lifetime he composed some 84,000 poems, his work being admitted of a very high order. 

His Majesty died on July 30th, in the forty-fifth year of the Meiji Era (1912 A.D.), at the Imperial Palace, after a 
brief illness, and was buried at Fushimi-no-Momoyama, near Kyoto. 



( 32 ) 
THE LATE EMPRESS DOWAGER SHOKEN. 

[ER late Majesty the Empress Dowager Slioken was born on April 17th of the third year of the Kayei Era 
(May 28th, 1850 A.D.), and was a daughter of the late Lord Tadaka Ichijo. The infant Princess was named 
Fukihime, but later her name was changed to that of Suyehime. On December 28th of the first year of Meiji 
(February 9th, 1869, A.D.j she married the late Emperor Meiji Tenn5 and took the name of Haru-ko. Under 
the tutorship of Lord Tadaka Ichij5, the Empress Dowager, when young, was educated along modern lines, and as a girl was 
acquainted with the conditions of the people in the lower strata of society. When she was only fourteen years of age Lord 
Ichijo died, and the Princess was then placed under the care of Lord Saneyoshi Ichijo, his eldest son, who died in 1868. 





During and after the Rest iration of 1868 the Empress Dowager assisted her husband in the conduct of State aflfairs 
and in re-organizing the system of Government on tiie lines of European countries. The late Prince H. Ito often eulogized 
Her Majesty for her sound judgment and foresight in dealing with administrative affairs. Her Majesty was an ideal 
Empress. While assisting the Emperor in the administration of State affairs, she took a very keen interest in charitable 
affairs, and each year donated the sum of five thousand yen to the funds of the Japan Red Cross Society. 



( 33 ) 

Similar donations were made to other charitable institutions and to asylums. During the Sino-Japanese and 
Russo-Japanese Wars the Empress Dowager worked energetically in the cause of relief, visiting the wounded at naval and 
military hospitals and helping in the preparation of bandages and other necessaries. Whenever a disaster overcame 
any district through fire, flood or earthquake the Empress Dowager granted a liberal donation to aid the sufferers. Like 
Emperor Meiji Tenno, the Empress Dowager was very frugal in her habits, and was very considerate in her attitude 
towards those engaged in the Imperial Household. It is said she never once lost her temper because of blunders committed 
by attendants and officials of the Imperial Household, but only warned them to be more careful in future. 

The Empress Dowager Eisho took a keen interest in the development of all domestic industries, in order to promote 
the welfare of the people. In the compound of the Aoyama Detached Palace there is, in addition to the model Station 
for raising silk-worms, a model Agricultural Station, Upon the demise of the Empress Dow.ager Eisho the oversight 
of the Imperial enterprises was attended to by the late Empress Dowager Shoken, who was particularly fond of 
music, both Japanese foreign, and was clever in composing Japanese odes, or vxika, of which she penned as many 
as twenty-four thousand. Except on tiie occasion of public functions, the Empress Dowager used to wear Japanese 
dress. Her Majesty died on April 11th, of the third year of the TaishO Era (1914 A.D.), and was buried at Fushimi-no- 
Momoyama-no-Higashi. 

The descendants of the late Emperor Meiji Tenno and the Empress Dowager Shoken were : — 

H.I.M. Yoshiiiito, the present Emperor. 

H.I.H. Princess Masako Naishinno (Tsune-no-Miya), First Class Imperial Order of the Crown ; born September 
30th of the twenty-first year of the Meiji Era (1888 A.D.); married H.I.H. Prince Tsunehisa Wo Takeda-no-Miya April 
30th of the forty-first year of the Meiji Era (1908 A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Fusako Naishinno (Kane-no-Miya), First Class Imperial Order of the Crown ; born January 28th 
of the twenty-third year of the Meiji Era (1890 A.D.); married H.I.H. Prince Naruhisa WO Kitashirakawa-no-Miya 
April 29th of the forty-second year of the Meiji Era (1909 A.D.) 

H.I.H. Princess Nobuko Naishinno (Fumi-no-Miya), First Class Imperial Order of the Crown ; born August 7th of 
the twenty-fourth year of the Meiji Era (1891 A.D.); married H.I.H. Prince Yasuhiko WO Asaka-no-Miya May 6th of the 
forty-third year of the Meiji Era (1910 A.D.) 

H.I.H. Princess Toshiko Naishinno (Yasu-no-Miya), First Class Imperial Order of the Crown; born May 11th of the 
twenty-ninth year of the Meiji Era (1896 A.D.); married H.I.H. Prince Narubiko Wo Higashi-kuni-no-Miya May 18th of 
the fourth year of the Taisho Era (1915 A.D.). 




( 34 ) 

GENEALOGY OF THE IMPERIAL FAMILY OF JAPAN. 



GENEALOGY OF THE IMPERIAL FAMILY OF JAPAN. 



AMATEKASU OMIKAMI. 

Ameno-oshihomiml-no-Mikoto. 

Kinigi-no-Mikoto. 

Hikohohodemi-no-Mlkoto. 

Ugayafukiajezu-no-Mikoto. 

1ST EMPEROR JIMMU TENNO. 
1 I 660 K.C. 

(Number of years 
after Ist Emperor.) I 

2nd Emperor Suisei Tenno. 

80 I 581 B.C. 

3rd Emperor Annei Tenno. 

112 I 549 B.C. 

4th Emperor Itoku Tenno. 

151 I 610 B.C. 

5th Emperor K6sh6 Tenno. 

186 I 475 B.C. 

6th Emperor KSan Tenno. 

269 I 392 B C. 

7th Emperor Korei Tenn5. 

371 I 290 B.C. 

8th Emperor Kdgen Tenno. 

447 I 214 B.C. 

9th Emperor Kaika Tenno. 

603 I 168 B.C. 



10th Emperor Sujin Tennd. 
564 I 97 B.C. 



11th Emperor Suinin Tenna. 
632 I 29 B.C. 



Toyosukiirihime-nO'Mikoto. 



12th Emperor Keiko Tenno. 
731 I 71 A.D. 



Yamatobime-no-Mikoto. 



Yamatotakeru-no-Mikoto. 

14th Emperor Chuai TennS. 

852 I _ 192 A.D. 

15th Emperor Ojin Tenno. 

860 I 200 A.D. 



13th Emperor Seirau Tenno. 
.91 131 A.D. 



I I 

I 
Jingo Kogo. 



16th Emperor Nintoku Teans. 
973 I 313 A.D. 



Ujinowakairatsiiko no-Woji. 



Wakanukefutamata-no-W6ji, 



17th Emperor Richs Tennfi. 
1060 I 400 A.D. 

IcUbeno-oshiiwa-oo-WSJi. 



I 
18th Emperor Hansho Tenno. 
1066 40G A.D. 



I 



20th Emperor Ank5 Tenno. 
1U3 453 A.D. 



19lh Emperor Ingyo Tenna. 
1072 I 412 A.D. 

21st Emperor Yuryaku Tenna. 

1116 1 456 A.D. 

22nd Emperor Seine! TennO. 

1139 479 A.D. 



litoyoDoao-no-Mikoto. 



24th Emperor Ninken Tenno. 
1148 I 4S8 A.D. 
25th Emperor Biiretsu Tenna. 
1158 498 A D. 



23rd Emperor Kenso Tenna. 
1145 485 A.D. 



26th Emperor Keitai Tenna. 
1167 I 507 A.D. 



27th Emperor Ankan Tenna. 
1191 631 A.D. 



28th Emperor Senka Tenno. 
1195 635 A.D. 



29th Emperor Kimmei Tenna. 
1199 I 589 A.D. 



80th Emperor Bilatsu Tenna. 31st Emperor Yomei Tenno. 
1232 I 572 A.D. 1215 | 585 A.D. 

Ofakahikohito-oye-no-Woji. Shotoku Taishi. 

I 

34th Emperor Jomei Tenno. 



1289 



629 A.D. 



32nd Emperor Snshun TennS. 
1247 5S7 A.D. 



Chinu-no-W8. 



33rd Empress Suiko Tennd. 
1253 592 A.D. 



I 



35th Empress Kcgyokii Tenno. 37th JCmpreis .".limei Tenna. 36th Emperor Koloku Tenna. 
1302 64'iA.D. 1316 633 A.D. KiOS 645 A.D. 

When Kcgyoku Tenno ascended to the throne a second time he assumed the title of Saimei Tenna. 



( 85 ) 

GENEALOGY OF THE IMPERIAL FAMILY OF JAPAN. 



38th Emperor Tenji TennS. 
1321 I 661 A.D. 



40th Emptror Teramn TtnnSi 



133? 



41st Emprest Jita Tenno. 
1346 686 A.D. 



39th EmDeror Kobun Tenna. 
1331' 671 A.D. 



43rd Empress Oemmei Tennd. 
1367 707 A.D. 



Shiki Shinna. 
(KasugaDomiya-no-Tcnna) 



672 A.D. 



49th Emperor Konin Tenno. 

14.'!0 I 770 A.D. 
60th Emperor Kanimu Tenna. 

1441 I 781 A.D. 



Kusakabe Wajl 
(Okanomiya-no-Tenna) 



44th Emprest 'Jensha Tenno. 
1375 715 A.D. 



42ncl Emperor Mommu TennS 
1S57 I 697 A D. 

45th Emperor Shomu T^ne. 
1384 I 724 A.D. 



Toneri ShinnS 
(Sndojingyo Kotei) 



47th Emperor Junntn Tenna. 
1418 788 A.D. 



46th Empress Koken Tenna. 48th Empress Shatoku Tenna. 

1409 749 A.D. 1424 764 A.D. 

When Empress Koken Tenno ascended to the throne a second time he assnmed 
the title of Shotokii Tenno. 



51st Emperor Heizei Tenno. 
1466 806 A.D. 



62nd Emperor Saga TennS. 
1469 I 809 A D. 

54th Empeior Nimmyo Tenno. 
1493 I 833 A.D. 



53rd Emperor Jnnna Tenno. 
1483 823 A.D. 



J 



Kntsurabara Shinna 
(Ancestor of the Taira Family). 



55th Emperor Montoku Tennd. 
1510 I 850 A.D 



68th Emperor K8ka Tenna. 
1644 834 A. D. 



66th Emperor Seiwa Tenna. 
161-i I 858 A.D. 



67th Emperor Yozei Tenna. 
1636 876 KX>. 



Sadazumi Shinna 
(Ancestor of the Minamoto Family). 



I 



69th Emperor Uda Tenno. 

1547 I 887 A.D. 

60th Emperor Daigo Tenna. 

1557 I 897 A.D. 



61st Emperor Suzaku Tenno. 
1690 930 A.D. 



62nd Emperor Murakami Tenna. 
1606 I 916 A.D. 



63rd Emperor Eeizei Tenno. 
1627 I 967 A.D. 

I 



65ih Emperor Kazan Tenna. 
1644 984 A.D. 



67th Emperor Sanja Tenno. 
1671 1011 A.D. 



64th Emperor Yenya Tenna. 
1629 I 969 A.D. 

66th Emperor Ichijo Tenna. 
1646 1 986 A.D. 



r Goic 



68th Emperor Goichijo Tenna. 
1676 1016 A.IX 



69th Emperor Gosuzaku TennS. 
1696 I 10.36 A.D. 



70th Emperor 
17U5 



Goreizei Tenna. 7l8t Emperor Gosanja Tenna. 

1045 A.D. 1728 | 1068 A D. 

72nd Emperor Shirakawa Tenna. 

1732 I 1072 A. D. 
73rd Emperor Horikawa TennB. 

1746 I 1086 A.D. 

74th Emperor Toba Tenno. 
1767 I 1107 A.D. 



76th Emperor Sutoku Tenna. 
1783 1123 A.D. 



77th Emperor Goshirakawa Tenno. 
1815 I 1155 AD. 



76th Emperor Konoye Tcnn& 
1801 1141 A.D. 



78th Emperor Nija Tenna. 

1818 I 1158 AD. 
79th Emperor Rokiija Tenna. 

1826 1165 A.D. 



80th Emperor Takaknra Tenna. 
1828 I 1168 A.D. 



I 



81st Emperor Antoku Tenna. 
1840 1180 A.D. 



Morisada Shinna. 
(Gotakaktira Tenno) 

86th Emperor Gohorikawa Tenna. 

1881 I 1221 A.D. 
{I7th Emperor Shijo Tenna. 

1892 1232 A.D. 



82nd Emperor Gotnba Te imV 
1845 118S A.D. 



( 36 ) 

GENEALOGY OF THE IMPERIAL FAMILY OF JAPAN. 



I 

83rd Emperor Tsiichimikado Tenno. 

1858 I 1198 A.D. 

88th Emperor Gosaga Tenno. 

1902 I 1242 A.D. 



84th Emperor Juntokti Tenuis. 

1870 I 1210 A D. 

8Sth Emperor Chukyo TennO. 

1881 1221 A.D. 



89th Emperor Uofukakusa Tennd. 

1906 I 1246 A.D. 

92nd Emperor Fushimi Tennd. 

1947 I 1287 A.D. 



93rd Emperor oofushimi Tennd. 
1958 I 1298 A D. 



9Dth Emperor Kameyania TennS. 

1919 I 1259 AD. 

91st Emperor Gouda Tenno. 

1934 I 1274 A.D. 



9Sth Emperor Hanazono Tenno. 
1968 1308 A.D. 



94th Emperor Gonijo TennS. 
1961 1301 A.D. 



Tokihito Sbinno. 
(KSgon-in). 



Yutahito WS. 
(K6myo-in). 



9Cth Empsror Godaigo Tennd. 

1978 I 1319 A.D. 
97th Empeior Gomiirakanii Tenn5. 

!9il9 I 1.339 A.D. 

98th Emperor Goknnieyaiua TeonO. 
2028 135J A.D. 



Oklbito Wo 
(Sukoin). 

Yoshibito Shinno. 

Sadafusa Shinno 
(Uosuk5-in) 

101st Emperor Gohanazono TennS. 

2088 I 1428 AD. 

102nd Emperor Gotsuchimikado TennI 

2124 I 1464 A.D. 
103rd Emperor Gokashiwabara Tenno. 

2160 I ISOO A D. 
104th Emperor Gonara Tenn5. 

2136 I _1626 A.D. 
105lh Emperor Ogimachi Tenno. 

2217 I 1557 A.D. 

Sanehito Shinno 
(Yokoin) 

106th Emperor Goyozei TennS. 

2246 I 1586 A.D. 

107th Emperor Gomidziino TennS. 

2271 I 1611 A.D. 



Ijrahito Wo 
(Gokogon-in). 

Ohito Wo. 
(Goyenyu-ln). 

99lh Emperor Gokoraatsu Tenno. 
2052 I 1392 A D. 

100th Emperor Shoko TennS, 
2072 1412 A.D. 



108th Empress Meisho TennS. 
2289 1629 A D. 



109th Emperor GokSmyS TennS. 
2303 1643 A.D. 



110th Emperor Gosaiin TennS. 
2314 1654 A.D. 



111th Emperor Reigen Tenno. 

2323 I 1663 A.D. 

112th Emperor Higashivama Tenno 

2.347 I 16-i7 A.D. 



11.3th Emperor Kakamikado Tenno. 

2369 I 1709 A.D. 

114th Emperor Sakiiratiiachi TennS. 

2.395 I 1735 A D. 



llSth Empress Gosaknramachi TennS. 
2422 1762 A.D. 



115th Emperor Momozono TennS. 

2407 I 1747 A.D. 

117th Emperor Gomomozono TennS. 

2430 1770 A.D. 



Naohito Shinno. 

Sukeliito ShinnS 
(Kyoko Tenno) 



118th Emperor KSkaku Tenno. 
2439 I 1779 A.D. 

119th Emperor Ninko TennS. 
2477 I 1817 A.D. 

120th Emperor KSmei Tenno. 
2506 I 1846 A.D. 

121st EmperorMeiJi Tenno, 
2527 I 1867 A.D. 



122nd PRESENT EMPEROR. 

2572 I 1912 A.D. 



Masako NalshlnnS 
(H.I.H. Princess 
Taked;i no-miya). 



Fnsako NaishinnS 

(H.I.H. Princess 

Eitashirakawa-no-miya). 



Nobnko NaishinnS 
(H I.H. Princess 
Asaka-no-miya). 



Toshiko NaishinnS 

(H.I H. Priuce-ss 

Higashikuni-no-miya). 



Crown Prince 
Birobito ShinnS. 



Yasubito ShinnS 
fAtsu-no-miya). 



Kobubito ShinnS 
fTakamatsu-no-miya). 



Takahito ShinnS 
(Sumi-no-miya). 



( «7 ) 



ARISUGAWA-NO-MIYA. 

URING the last few centuries the Arisugawa-no-Miya has been one of the four branches of the Imperial Family, the 
other branches being Fushimi-no-Miya, Ky5goku-no-Miya, and Kan-in-no-Miya. 

H.I.H. Prince Yorihito Shinno, the ninth son of the 111th Emperor Reigen Tenno, succeeded the Arisugawa-no- 
Miya, which, under special favour of successive Sovereigns, has flourisheti. 



PRINCE TARUHITO SHINNO. 

P^HE late H.I.H, General Prince Taruhito ShinnS, a great-great-grandson of H.I.H. Prince Yorihito Shinno, was the 
04 eldest son of H.I.H. Prince Takahito Shinno Arisugawa-no-Miya, and was born on February 19th, of the sixtli year of 
the Tempo Era (Marcli 17ti), 1835, A.D.). 

In 1862 Emperor Komei Tenno convened a Conference of Members of the Imperial Family to outline a programme 
for national defence. The plans submitted by Prince Taruhito Shinno were all accepted by His Majesty, who then 
appointed the Prince as Chief of Political Councillors at the Imperial Court. In 1867 the Emperor died, and was succeeded 
by Emperor Meiji Tenno. In that year Yoshinobu Tokugawa, the fifteenth and last Shogun, handed over the reins of 
government to the present Imperial House. On December 9th of the third year of the Keiwo Era (January 3rd, 
1868 A.D.) a Rescript was issued announcing the restoration of the Imperial regime. In fact, the great work of the 
Restoration was achieved largely through the efforts of Prince Taruhito Shinno. In February, 1868, he was appointed 
Comirander-in-Chief of the Imperial Forces, and compelled Yoshinobu Tokugawa to surrender to liim Yedo Castle, the 
present Imperial Palace in Tokyo. After holding the office of War Minister for several years, the Prince was in 1875 
appointed a Councillor of the now defunct Genro-in, and assumed the office of President of the organization the following 
year. He also took charge of the Board of Legislation. In 1877, when the Civil War broke out in Kyushu, the Prince 
was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Government Expedition. In October of the same year he was promoted to the 
rank of General, and in November was decorated with the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum in recognition of 
distinguished services rendered in subjugating the uprising. In 1882 the Prince visited St. Petersburg (Petrograd) to 
represent Japan at the Coronation of the Czar. When the military system ■was re-organized in 1889, the Prince was 
appointed Chief of the General Staff Office. In 1894 the Si no- Japanese War broke out, ami the Prince accompanied 
Emperor Meiji Tenno to Hiroshima, where the lieadquarters of tiie Japanese Array were established. On January 2-lth, of 
the twenty-eiglith year of the Meiji Era (1895 A.D.), the Prince died at the age of 61. Prior to his death he was decorated 
with the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum with Chain and the Second Class Military Order of the Golden Kite, in 
appreciation of services rendered to the State. He was buried at Toshima-ga-oka, Tokyo, a State funeral being accorded 
him. 

The deceased Prince was a clever tactician, and was noted for his caligraphy. 



PRINCESS TADAKO. 

(MER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Tadako (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the consort of the 
®-" late General Prince Taruhito ShinnS, was the seventh daughter of the late Lord Naohiro Mizogucbi, and was born 
on May 12th, of the second year of the Ansei Era (June 25th, 18)5). 

Since the death of the Prince in 1895 tlie Princess has lived more or less in retirement, but she still takes a keen 
I interest in various public affairs. 



( 3S ) 



, PRINCE TAKEHITO SHINNO. 

fHE late H.I.H. Admiral of the Fleet Prince Takehito Shinn5 was the younger brother of H.I.H. Prince Taruhito 
Shiniio, and was born on January 13th of the second year of the Bunkyu Era (February 11th, 1862, A.D.) 

Ou the death of Prince Taruhito Shinn5 in 1895, Prince Takehito Shinno succeeded to the Arisugawa- 
no-Miya. When young, Prince Takehito Shinno proceeded to England and entered a Naval Cadet Training 
School. After graduating he served for a time in the British Navy. In 1880 tlie Prince was appointed a second-class 
Sub-Lieutenant in the Japanese Navy, and was decorated witli the First Class Imperial Order of the Rising Sun. In 1883 
he returned home and was later attached to the Naval Staif Office, In 1888 he was promoted to the rank of Commander, 
and in the following year was dispatched to Europe to inspect the navies of the various Powers. In 1890, on liis 
return home, he was promoted to the rank of Captain. He commanded respectively the warships Katsuragi, Takao, 
Chiyoda, Matsushima, and Hashidaie. On February 11th, 1895, the Prince was decorated with the Supreme Order of the 
Chrysanthemum, and afterwards received the Fourth Class Military Older of the Golden Kite in recognition of services 
rendered during the Sino-Japanese War. In 1896 he was promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral, and iu 1897 was sent to 
England to represent Japan at the Jubilee of Queen Victoria. In 1899 he was promoted to the rank of a Vice-Admiral, 
and in 1904 war promoted Adrainil. During the Russo Japimese War the Prince was attached to headquarters. In 
December, 1906, he was decorated with the Third Class Military Order of tlie Golden Kite, and in 1908 was appointed a 
Councillor of the Bureau of Imperial Decorations and member of the Military Council. 

In the latter year he accompanied the present Emperor, H.I.M. Yosiiihito (then Crown Prince), to Korea (now Chosen), 
and visited tlie Korean Court. The present Emperor, on ascending the throne (in 1912 A.D.), granted a special Imperial 
Edict to H.I.H. Prince Sadanaru Sliinno Fushimi-no-Miya and H.I.H. Prince Takehito Shinno Arisugawa-no-Miya, 
directing that they both assist him in the conduct of State affairs. 

In July, 1913, the Prince was appointed an Admiral of the Fleet and decorated with the Supreme Order of the 
Chrysanthemum with Chain. On July 10th, in the second year of the Taisho Era (1913 A.D.), the Prince died at Maiko, 
where for about two years he had resided for the benefit of his health. He was 51 years old at the time of his death. He 
was buried at Toshima-ga-oka, Tokyo, a State funeral being accorded him. 

While serving on board a British warship in the Mediterranean the late Prince received a visit from a certain 
Japanese statesman wlio was on his way to Europe on a mission. When the latter boarded the warship the Prince was on 
guard over the coal bunkers. The visitor, under the guidance of the Captain, inspected the ship. When he came to the coal 
bunkers the sentry came to " The Salute." The sentry was none other than Prince Takehito Shinno. After he was relieved 
from sentry duty the Prince received the visitor in tlie Captain's room, which wag kindly placed at his disposal for the 
occasion. 

PRINCESS YASUKO. 

MEU IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Yasuko (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the consort of the late H.LH. 
®^ Admiral of the Fleet Prince Takehito Siiinno, is the second daughter of the late Lord Yoshiyasu Mayeda, and was born 
on February 8th of the first year of the Genji Era (March 15th, 1864 A.D.). She was married to the Prince on December 
11th of the thirteenth year of the Meiji Era (1880 A.D.). Her Highness is an accomplished scholar in Chinese classics, 
English and various branches of Science. 

Of the marriage there survives :: — i 

H.I.H. Princess (now Princess) Miyeko, second daughter, born on February 14th of the twenty-fourth year of the 
Meiji Era (1891, A.D.). She married Prince Yoshihisa Tokugawa on November 8th of the forty-first year of the Meiji 
Era (1908 A.D.). , , I 



( S9 ) 



FUSHIMI-NO-MIYA. 

fHE Fuehimi-no-Miya had its origin in H.I.H. Prince Yosliiliito Shinno, a great-grandson of the ninety-third Emperor, 
Gofushimi TennO. 

Prince Yoshihito ShinnO resided at the Fushimiden, which was used as the palace of Emperor Fushimi TennO, the 
ninety-second Sovereign, and has since been ustd by subsequent Sovereigns. 

He died in the twenty-third year of the Oyei Era (1416 A.D.) at the age of sixty-six. HI.H. Prince Hikohito 
ShinniJ, a grandson of Prince Yoshihito ShinnS, succeeded Emperor ShokO TennS, the one hundredth Sovereign, and was 
proclaimed Emperor Gohanazono TennO. H.I.H. Princess Sadatsune Shinn5, younger brother of Emperor Gohanazono 
TennO, succeeded the Fushimi-no-Miya and assisted the Emperor in maintaining the authority and dignity of the Imperial 
Court during the insurrection in the Onin Era (1467-8 A.D.). His descendants held high office at Court. 

The late H.I.H. Prince Moriosa ShinnO, second son of H.I.H. Prince Sadayoshi Shinno, the nineteenth 
representative of the Fushimi-no-Miya, established the Nashimoto-no-Miya, and H.I.H. Kuniiye ShinnO, who was the 
first son of Prince Sadayoshi ShinnO, and succeeded the Fushimi-no-Miya, had many sons and daughters, among them being 
H.I.H. Prince Sadanaru ShinnO Fushimi-no-Miya, the late H.I.H. Prince Akira ShinnO Yamashina-no-Miya, the lute 
H.I.H. Prince Asahiko ShinnO Kuni-no-Miya, the late H.I.H. Yoshihisa ShinnO Kitashirakawa-no-Miya, the late H.I.H. 
Prince Hirotsune Shinno KachO-no-Miya, H.I.H. Prince Kotohito ShinnO Kan-in-no-Miya, and H.I.H. Prince Yorihito 
Shinno Higashifushimi-no-Miya. 




PRINCE SADANARU SHINNO. 



w 



H.I.H. PRINCE SADANARU SHINNU 



IS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Field-Marshal Prince 
(^^^ Sadanaru Shinno, the present representative of the 
Fushimi-no-Miya, is the fourteenth son of the late H.I.H. 
Prince Kuniiye Shinno Fushimi-no-Miya, and was born 
on April 28tii, of the fifth year of the Ansei Era (June 
9th, 1858, A.D.) On thedeath.iu 1862, of Prince Sadanori 
Shinno, his elder brother. Prince Sadanaru ShinnO, 
succeeded to the Fushimi-no-Miya. 

In 1873 His Highness entered the Military Pre- 
paratery School, and after graduating in 1875 was 
appointed a Lieutenant in the Army. 

In the Civil War of 1877 the Prince was attached 
to the headquarters of the expeditionary forces, and at 
the close of the campaign was promoted to tiie rank of 
Captain. He then attended the Military Cadet School, 
and was later attached to the General Staff Office. In 
1881 he was raised to the rank of Major, and three years 
later was promoted Lieut-Colonel. In 1885 his Highuess 
was sent to Europe to study the military systems there, and 
after an absence of a year returned home, when he was 
decorated with tiie Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum. 
In 1887 he was promoted to the rank of Colonel and 
appointed to the command of the Fourth Infantry 
Regiment of the Imperial Bodyguard. In 1892 the Prince 
was promoted Major-General and appointed General 
Officer Commanding the Fourth Brigade of Infantry. 
During tiie Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5 the Prince 
fought in the Liaotung peninsula, and later joined the 
expedition to Formosa. At the termination of the war 
he was decorated with the Third Class Military 
Order of the Golden Kite, in recognition of disanguished 
services. Later the Prince was appointed General Officer 



( 40 ) 

Commanding the First Brigade of Infantry. At the Coronation of the Czar in 1896 the Prince represented the 
Emperor of Japan. In November, 1898, he was promoted Lieut-General and appointed General OfBcer Commanding 
the Tenth Division, In 1904, when the Russo-Japanese War brolce out, the Prince, as General Officer Commanding 
the First Division, proceeded to the front, where he joined the Second Army. In June the Prince was promoted General, 
and in October returned to Tokyo, to immediately proceed to the St. Louis Exhibition. On his return home in January, 
1905, he was appointed a Member of the Military Council, and in the following year was decorated with the Second Class 
Military Order of the Golden Kite in appreciation of services rendered at]the front. In 1907 the Prince was sent to Great 
Britain to convey to King Edward VII. the thanks of Emperor Meiji Tenno for tlie Order of tlie Garter brought by Prince 
Arthur of Connaught in 1906. Two years later the Prince represented the Imperial Court at the funeral in Peking of Emperor 
Kwang-hsu, the last of the Manchu Dynasty. In 1910 the Prince visited the Anglo-Japanese Exhibition at Shepherd's Bush 
in London, and represented the Emperor of Japan at the funeral of King Edward. The present Emperor, on ascending the 
throne in 1912, granted a special Imperial Edict to H.I.H. General Prince Sadauaru Shinno Fusiiimi-no-Miya and tlie late 
H.I.H. Admiral Prince Takehito Sliinno Arisugawa-no-Miya, directing them to assist His Majesty in the conduct 
of State affairs. In December, 1912, Prince Sadanaru Shinno was appointed Grand Keeper of the Imperial Seals, wliich 
office he held for some time. On January 9(h, 1915, he was promoted to the rank of Field- Marshal. At the Enthronement 
of the Emperor in the Autumn of the fourth year of the Taisho Era (1915 A.D.) the Prince was Commissioner-in-Chief 
of the Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement. While assisting the Emperor in the management of State affairs, the 
Prince devotes much time and thought to the development of domestic industries andjthe promotion of charitable work. He 
iiolds the office of President of the Onshi-Zaidan Saisei-kai (Imperial Relief Society for the Sick and Poor), Dai Nippon 
No-kai (Japan Agricultural Association), Dai Nippon Sanrin-kai (Japan Forestry Association), Dai Nippon Butoku-kai 
(Association for the Development of Physique and Morals), Kokusaii Shorei-kai (Association for Encouraging and 
Developing National Products), Teikoku Zaigo Gunjin-kai (Military Reservists' Association), Telkoku Gunjiu KSyen-kai 
(Auxiliary Association for the Navy and Array), Kyoto Bijutsu Kyo-kai (Kyoto Fine Arts Association), Meiji Shingu 
Hosan-kai (Auxiliary Association for the Construction of the Meiji Shrine in memory of the late Emperor Meiji Tenno), and 
the British Association in Japan. 

His Highness usually rises between five and six in the morning. He is particularly fond of horse-riding and "go" 
(Japanese chess). He has also some taste for gardening and music. He is known to be particularly sympathetic and 
generous, and never adopts an arrogant attitude towards his subordinates or servants. On the battlefield Prince Sadanaru 
Shinno showed himself brave and courageous. In his expedition to Formosa, as a Brigadier-General during the Slno- 
Japanese War of 1894-5, the Prince, witli a detachment, was on the way to Tainan through a mountain pass when he was 
suddently enveloped by a strong force of natives, who, with rifles and swords, attacked the party. Seeing that his men 
were somewhat startled by this sudden attack, the Prince, on horse-back, encouraged his troops, and himself daslied forward 
in the face of the enemy fire. By this courageous action of His Highness the detachment, instead of being annihilated by 
the superior force of the enemy, repulsed them and reached its destination. 

During the Russo-Japanese War the Prince, then General Officer Commanding the First Division, was taking lunch 
with his staff officers on the field, when a shell from the Russian position at Nansan, one of the outer forts of Port Arthur, 
fell near where His Highness was sitting. Several other shells fell in quick succession on the same spot and exploded. 
Tho Prince, in spite of the advice of his Staff to leave the scene as quickly as possible, remained at the table until he had 
taken his last course, when he withdrew. His Highness is known to be particularly solicitous for the welfare of his officers 
and men. 



PRINCESS TOSHIKO NYO-WO. 

tW ER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Toshiko Nyo-W5 (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the consort of 
W-" Prince Sadanaru Shinno, is the fourth daughter of the late H.I.H. Prince Takahito Shinno Arisugawa-no-Miya, and was 
born on May 21st of the fifth year of the Ansei Era (July 1st, 1858, A.D.). The fine qualities with which Her Highness 
is endowed were manifested in a very practical manner during the war with Russia. With the arrival in Tokyo of large 
numbers of troops who were on their way to the front, individual houses were requisitioned to give accommodation to 



( 41 ) 

officers and men. Princess Toshiko Nyo-Wo threw open her palace for the accommodation of private soldiers, seventy- 
seven of whom were thus provided for. Her Highness entertained them in various ways, and herself waited on them at table. 
The men were all so greatly moved by the sympatiiy shown them that they went forth resolved to sacrifice their lives, if 
need be, on the altar of national defence. 

Descendants of Prince Sadanaru Shinn5 and Toshiko Nyo-W5 are : 

PRINCE HIROYASU WO. 

fIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Prince Hiroyasu W5, first son, born October 16th of the eighth year of the Meiji Er» 
(1875, A.D.). On April 23rd of the sixteenth year of the Meiji Era (1883, A.D.) Prince Hiroyasu Wo succeeded 
the Kacho-no-Miya. On January 16th of the thirty-seventh year of the Meiji Era (1904, A.D.) Prince Hiroyasu Wo, in 




H.I.H. PRINCE HIROYASU WO. 



H.I.H. PRINCESS TSUNEKO. 



accordance with the wish of his father, returned to the Fushimi-no-Miya, while H.I.H. Prince Hirotada W5, second son 
of Prince Hiroyasu Wo, remained in the Kach5-no-Miya, and became the present representative of the House. 

Graduating from the Naval Cadet School at the age of twenty-one, Prince Hiroyasu Wo entered the Naval Staff 
College in Germany, and, after graduating there in 1895, returned home. His Highness then served on the 



( 42 ) 

Itmkushima, Matsushima, and. other warships as a Sub- Lieutenant. During the Russo-Japanese War the Prince, as a 
Lieutenant, was on the Mikasa, the flag-ship of Admiral H. Togo, Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese United Fleet. In 
an engagement with a Russian Squadron off Port Arthur the Prince was seriously wounded and was taken to the Naval 
Hospital at Saseho, On recovering from his wounds, he was attached to the Imperial Headqus rters of the Japanese Military- 
Forces, and in May, 1905, was sent to Seoul to visit the Korean Court. In November of the same year he was decorated 
with the Supreme Order of the Chrysantliemum. In April, 1906, the Prince was decorated with the Fourth Class Military 
Order of the Golden Kite in recognition of services rendered in the war, and simultaneously whs appointed second in 
command of the battleship Okinoshima. In September of the same year the Prince was sent to Peking to visit the Chinese 
Court, and at the same time was promoted a Lieut.-Commander. In 1907 lie proceeded to England to prosecute 
his studies. On his return home in 1910 the Prince visited France, Germany, Russia, Italy, Austria- Hungary, Belgium, 
the United States and other countries. In December he was promoted to the rank of Captain and appointed to the 
command of the battleship Asahi. At the Coronation of the King of Siam, in December, 1911, the Prince was sent to 
Bangkok to represent the Japanese Court. In August, 1913, he was promoted Rear-Admiral ; in August, 1914, he 
was appointed President of the Naval Staff College ; and in December, 1915, became Commander of the Second Division. 
In December, 1916, the Prince was promoted Vice- Admiral. 

H.I.H. Prince Kunika Wo, second son, born March 18th of the thirteenth year of the Meiji Era (1880, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess (now Marchoness) Sachiko, eldest daughter, born June 27th of the eighteenth year of the 
Meiji Era (1885, A.D.). She married Marquis Toyokage Yamanouchi on April 6th of the thirty-fourth year of the Meiji 
Era (1901, A.D.) 



PRINCESS TSUNEKO. 

fER IMPERIAL HIGHNES3 Princess Tsuneko (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the Consort of H.I H. 
Rear-Admiral Prince Hiroyasu Wo, is the ninth daughter of the late Prince Yoshinobu Toktigawa. She was born on 
September 23rd of the fifteenth year of the Meiji Era (1882, A.D.). In January 9th of the thirtieth year of the Meiji Era 
(1897, A.D.) she married Prince Hiroyasu Wo. In 1910, Her Highness, together with Prince Hiroyasu Wo, travelled 
in Europe. 

The descendants of Prince Hiroyasu Wo and Princess Tsuneko are: — 

H.LH. Prince Hiroyoshi W5, eldest son, born December 8th of the thirtieth year of the Meiji Era (1897, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Yasuko Nyo-W5, eldest daughter, born November 14th of the thirty-first year of the Meiji Era 
(1898, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Prince Hirotada W5 Kach5-no-Miya, second son, born January 26th of the thirty-fifth year of the 
Meiji Era (1902, A.D.). 

H.I H. Prince Hironobu Wo, third son, born May 22nd of the thirty-eiglith year of the Meiji Era (1905, A.D ). 

H.I.H. Princess Atsuko Nyo-Wo, second daughter, born May 18th of the fortieth year of the Meiji Era 
(1907, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Tomoko Nyo-Wo, third daughter, born May 18th of the fortieth year of the Meiji Era (1907, A.D.), 

IJ.LH. Priuce Hirohide Wo, fourth son, bora October 4th of the first year of the Taish5 Era (1912, A.D.), 



( 43 ) 



KACHO-NO-MIYA. 



■%7«,->r *-":/'H!a««MBlki.;aBJ?r 



,*i«»?jm:- 



f?HE Kacho-no-Miya was formerly called the Chion-in-no-Miya. 
1 In Kyoto there is a Buddhist temple known as the Chion-ia. 

named the KachO-zan. H.I.H. Prince Ryojun HOshinno, a son 

hundredth and seventh 
Sovereign, took charge of 
the Chion-in, and from 
that time to the Restora- 
tion in 1868 the temple 
has remained under the 
charge of a Prince of the 
Blood. 

In the first year of 
the Manyei Era (1860, 
A.D.), H.I.H. Prince 
Taka-uo-Miya, sixth son of 
tlie late Priuce Kuniiye 
Shinno Fushimi-no-Miya, 
took charge of the temple, 
and assumed the name of 
Sonshu HOshinnS. In 1868 
the Prince left the temple 
and changed bis name to 
that of Hirotsune ShiunO. 
He then established the 
Kacho-no-Miya. Tlie 
Prince was born the fourth 
year of the Kayei Era 
(1851. A.D.). In 1870 
he married H.I.H. Princess 
Ikuko, eldest daughter of 
the late Lord Toshitake 
Narabu. A son was born 
to them on January 18lh of 
the eighth year of the 
Meiji Era (1885. A.D.), 
and was named Hiroatsu 
Shinno. Prince Hirotsune 
Shinno proceeded to Europe 
to prosecute his studies. 




H.I.H. PRINCE HIKOTAD.A VVO. 



This is the headquarters of the Jodo Sect and 
of Emperor GomidzunS TennS, the one 

and on his return entered 
the navy. In 1875 he 
was promoted Rear- Admiral 
and decorated with the 
First Class Imperial Order 
of the Rising Sun. The 
Prince died on May 
24th of the ninth year 
of the Meiji Era (1876, 
A.D.). 

H.I.H. Prince 
Hiroatsu Shinn5, son of 
the deceased, succeeded 
the Kacho-no-Miya, but 
he died seven years later, 
namely on February 15th 
of the sixteenth year 
of the Meiji Era (1883, 
A.D.), at the age of 
nine. 



On April 23rd of 
the same year H.I.H. 
Prince Hiroyasu W5, eldest 
son of H.I.H. Marshal 
Prince Sadanaru ShinnS 
Fushimi-no-Miya, succeeded 
the Kacho-no-Miya. On 
January 16th of the thirty- 
seventh year of the Meiji 
Era (1904, A.D.) Prince 
Hiroyasu WO returned 
to the Fushimi-no-Miya, 
leaving H.I.H. Hirotada 
W5, his second son, in the 
Kacho-no-Miya. 



PRINCE HIROTADA WO. 



(^ 



(MIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Prince Hirotada Wo, the present representative of the KachO-no-Miya, was born 
®i January 26th of the thirty-fifth year of the Meiji Era (1902, A.D.). 



( 44 ) 

YAM ASHINA-NO-MIYA. 

fHE Yamashina-no-Miya was established by the late H.I.H. Prince Akira Shinno (formerly named Kanjuji-no-Miya), the 
eldest son of the late H.LH. Prince Kuniiye Shiun5 Fushimi-no-Miya. He was born in the fourteenth year of the Bunka 
Era (1817, A.D.), and was the elder brother of the late H.LH. Prince Asahiko ShinnS Kuni-no-Miya, the late H.I.H. Prince 
Yoshihisa Shinno Kitashirakawa-no-Miya, the late H.I.H. Prince Hirotsune Shinno, Kacho-no-Miya, H.I.H. Prince Sadanaru 
ShinnS Fushimi-no-Miya, H.I.H. Prince Kotohito ShinuS Kan-in-no-Miya, and H.I.H. Prince Yorihito Shinno Higashi 
Fushimi-no-Miya. At the time agitation was raised in various quarters against foreigners the Prince showed himself to be 
far-sighted, and urged the establishment of closer relations with foreign countries. He was an earnest advocate of the 
restoration of the Imperial regime. In 1864 the Prince established the Yamashina-no-Miya, and in 1868 was appointed 
Superintendent of Foreign Affairs. He died in the thirty-first of the Meiji Era (1898, A.D.) at the age of eighty-two. In 
the Restoration of 1868 he played a conspicuous part and was rewarded for his services. 

PRINCE KIKUMARO WO. 

^HE late H.I.H, Prince Kikumaro Wo was the eldest son of Prince Akira Shinno, and was born July 3rd, in the sixth 
*J* year of the Meiji Era (1873, A.D.). In 1889 he entered the Naval Cadet School, and the following year proceeded to 
Germany, where he ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^__^^^_^^__^^__ jqq^ Yr^g decorated with 

to the Naval . ^^^^H^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^J Supreme Order the 

Gradaat- ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H In the 

^^^^H^^^^^^^HJIJ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H Russo-Japanese War 

he was a Sub- ^^^^^^^^^^^^B^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 

Japanese Navy, after- ^^^^^^^^^^^|^^^^^^^^^^^^^| ^^^^^ ^^« 

wards entered the Naval ^^^^^^^^I^^I^^^K ^^^^^^H '^^ 

Staff College in Germany. ^^^^^^^^^^^I^^^B > ^^^H ^^o""l><^l»ss^i>>t»''y Order 

In 1894 he graduated at ^^^^^^^^^|^^B ^1 ^^M "^ ^''^'^^° 

the College honours, ^^^^^^^^^H^^^K ' - ^^^1 ^^ 

and returned home in ^^^^^^^^^^^^BP .- ^K '^^ 

He (hen entered the Naval 

Stafi College, but while 

Attending the institution he 

was taken ill and died on 

May 2nd, in the forty first 

year of the Meiji Era (1908, 

A.D.). Prior to his death 

he was promoted to the 

rank of Captain. 

The Prince was an 
authority on mathematics, 
and was very clever in 
gunnery. He also took 
great interest in meteorology. 
In 1901 lie established a 



in 

November of the same year. 
During the Sino-Japanese 
War of 1894-5 he saw 
active service on the cruiser 
Yoshino, and afterwards on 
the Takachiho. After the 
war the Prince was decorated 
with the Fifth Class Military 
Order of the Golden Kite 
and the First Class Imperial 
Order of the Rising Sun in 
appreciation of his services. 
In 1902 he was raised to 
the rank of Lieut.-Com- 
mauder and in November 




SON OF H.I.H. PRINCE KIKUMARO WS. 
"H.I.H. PRINCE TAKEHIKO WO. 



( 45 ) 

Meteorological Observatory on Mt. liukvia and appointed six experts to take charge. This is the first timea Meteorological 
Observatory was established on the summit of a mountain in Japan. 

In Great Britain, France, and Germany be was known as tlie diplomatic Japanese Prince. 

PRINCE NORIKO. 

^HE late H.I.H. Princess Noriko (Second Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the First Consort of the late H.I.H Prince 
^ Kikumaro W5, was the second daughter of the late Prince Michitaka KujO, and was born December 4th of the 
eleventh year of the Meiji Era (1878, A.D.). She died of illness on November 11th of the thirty-fourth year of the Meiji 
Era (1901, A.D.). 

The descendants of Prince Kikumaro Wo and Princess Noriko are : — 

PRINCE TAKEHIKO WO. 

tWiS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Prince Takehiko WO, first son and present representative of the Yamashina-no-Miya, 
"^ was born February 13th of the thirty-first year of the Meiji Era (1898, A.D.). He is an authority on mathematics. 
While attending the Peers' School he was always at the head of his class. His Highness at present takes great interest 
in scientific affairs, especially in relation to aeronautics. 

H.I.H. Prince Yoshimaro Wo, second sou, born July 5th of the thirty-third year of the Meiji Era (1900, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Yasuko Nyo-WO, first daughter, born October Slst of the thirty-fourth year of the Meiji Era 
(1901, A.D.). 

PRINCESS HISAKO. 

^ER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Hisako (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the second Consort of the 
®^ late Prince Kikumaro Wo, was the third daughter of the late Prince Tadayoshi Siiimadzu. She was born February 7th 
of the seventh year of the Meiji Era (1874, A.D.), and was married to H.I.H. Prince Kikumaro Wo on November 26th 
of the thirty-fifth year of the Meiji Era (1902, A.D.). 

Descendants of Prince Kikumaro Wo and Princess Hisako are : — 

H.l H. Prince Fujimaro W5, third son, born February 25th of the thirty-eighth year of the Meiji Era (1905, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Prince Hagimnro W5, fourth son, born April 21st of the thirty-ninth year of the Meiji Era (1906, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Prince Shigemaro WO, fifth son, born April 29th the forty-first year of the Meiji Er.i (1908, A.D.}. 



< 48 ) 



KAYA-NO-MIYA. 



HE Kaya-no-Miya had its origin iu the late H.I.H. Prince Kuninori Wo, who was the first son of H.I.H. Prince 
Asahiko Shinno Kuni-no-Miya. His Highness was born June Ist of the third year of the Keiwo Era (July 2nd, 

1867, A.D.), and in 1882 entered a school known as 
the Shingu-K5gakukan, in Ise Province, where he 
studied the Mythology of Japan, Chinese Classics, 
English Literature, and other branches of Science. 
On December 16th of the twenty-fifth year of the Meiji 
Era (1892, A.D.), Prince Kuninori Ws established 
the Kaya-no-Miya, and on November 3rd of the 
following year was decorated with the Imperial Order 
of the Rising Sun with the Paulownia. On February 
10th, 1895, the Prince was appointed to take charge of 
the Imperial Great Shrines in Ise Province. In the 
following year he was appointed President of the 
Shingu-KOgakukan, and on November 3rd, 1901, 
was decorated with the Supreme Order of the 
Chrysanthemum. He died on December 8tli of the 
forty-second year of the Meiji Era (1909, A.D.). 



PRINCESS YOSHIKO, 




H.I.H. PRINCE TSUNENORI WO. 



/©ER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Yoshiko 
oi^ (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the 
Consort of the late H.I.H. Prince Kuninori Ws, was 
the eldest daughter of the late Marquis Tadaosa Daigo, 
and was born October 20th of the first year of the 
KeiwO Era (December 7th, 1865, A.D.). Her Highness 
married Prince Kuninori W5 on November 26th of the 
twenty-fifth year of tlie Meiji Era (1892, A.D). 



The descendants of Prince Kuninori W5 and Princess Yoshiko are: — 

H.I.H. Princess (now Lady) Yukiko, eldest daughter, born November 23rd of the twenty-eighth year of the 
Meiji Era (1895, A.D.), She married the Hon. Kazumoto Machijiri. 

PRINCE TSUNENORI WO. 

flS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Prince Tsunenori WO, only son and present representative of the Kaya-no-Miya, born 
January 27th of the thirty-third year of the Meiji Era (1900, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Sakiko Nyo-Wo, second daugliter, born March 30th of the thirty-sixth year of the Meiji Era 
(1903, A.D.). 



( 47 ) 

KU N l-NO-MI YA. 

^HE founder of the Kuni-no-Miya was the late H.I.H. Prince Asahiko ShinnO, second son of H.I.H. Prince Kuniije 
&■ Shinno Fushirai-no-Miya and elder brother of the late H.I.H. Yoshihisa Shiiino Kitashirakawa-no-MiyK, the late 
H.I.H. Hirotsune Shinno Kacho-no-Miya, H.I.H. Prince Sadanaru ShinnO Fushimi-no-Miya, H.I.H. Prince Kotohito 
Shinno Kan-in-no-Miya, and H.I.H. Prince Yorihito ShinnO Higashi Fu3liimi-no-Miya. Prince Asahiko ShinnS was born 
January 28th of the seventh year of the Bunsei Era (February 27th, 1824, AD.) and took charge of a Bmldhist temple in 
Kyoto known as the Joren-in. During the Restoration of 1868 the Prince played a conspicuous part, and in the eighth 
year of the Meiji Era (1875, A.D.) established the Kuni-no-Miya. He wa« later appointed to take charge of the 
Imperial Shrines in Ise province and was decorated with the Supreme Order of the Chrysacthemum. He urged the 
importance of preserving old temples, shrines, historical places, and fine arts of the country, and it is no exaggeration to say 
that the present development of fine art is largely due to his untiring efforts. The Prince died on October 29th of the 
twenty-fourth year of the Meiji Era (1891, A.D.), at the age of sixty-seven. 

PRINCE KUNIYOSHI WO. 

t©rIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Prince Kuniyoshi Wo, the present representative of the Kuni-no-Miya, is the third son 
(^ of the late H.I.H. Prince Asahiko Shinno. He was born July 2Srd of the sixth year of the Meiji Era (1873, A.D.) 




H.I.H. l^KlNUifi KJMiyOsiHI WO. 



H.I.H. PRINCESS CHIKAKO. 



( 48 ) 

and named Yoshi-no-Miya. In 1886 his name was changed to that of Kuniyoshi W5 in 1890 the Prince entered the 
Seijo Gakko (a private Military Preparatory Scliool) in Tokyo, and was later. In 1893 he graduated from the Pehool, and 
was attached to the Third Division iri Nagoya as a cadet. In 1897 he was appointed a Second Lieutenant of Infantry and 
decorated with the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun with the Paulownia. Later the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum 
was conferred upon him. In 1899 he was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant and entered the Military Staff College. 
In 1901 he was promoted to the raok of Captain, and the following year graduated from the College. In 1904, when 
the Russo- Japanese War broke out, lie proceeded to the front as a Major and remained with the Japanese forces throughout 
the campaign. In December, 1906, he was decorated with the Fourth Class Military Order of the Golden Kite in 
appreciation of services rendered to the State. In 1907 the Prince was sent to Europe to study military affairs and was 
attached to the Second Regiment of the Imperial Bodyguard in Germany. In 1908 he was promoted to the rank of 
Lieut.-Colonel and visited various Courts in Europe, returning home in August 1909. He was promoted to the rank of 
Colonel the following year, and appointed to the command of the 38th Infantry Regiment. On August 3l8t, 1913, the 
Prince was promoted Major-Geueral and appointed General Officer Commanding the First Brigade of the Imperial 
Bodyguard. 

PRINCESS CHIKAKO. 

^ER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Chikako (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the Consort of Prince 
(&-• Kuniyoshi Wo, is the seventh daughter of the late Prince Tadayoshi Shimadzu, and was born October 19th of the 
twelfth year of the Meiji Era (1879, A.D.). On December 13th of tiie thirty-second year of the Meiji Era (1899, A.D.) the 
Princess married Prince Kuniyoshi W5. She received lessons in English from Miss Kirby, a British lady, and speaks 
English fluently. 

'"^ The descendants of Prince Kuniyoshi Wo and Princess Chikako are : — 

H.I.H, Prince Asaakira WO, eldest son, born February 2nd of the thirty-fourth year of the Meiji Era (1901, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Prince Kunihisa Wo, second son, born March 10th of the thirty-fifth year of the Meiji Era (1902, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Nagako Nyo-Wo, first daughter, born March 6th of the thirty-sixth year of the Meiji Era 
(1903, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Prince Nobuko Nyo-W5, second daughter, born March 30th of the thirty-seventh year (f the Meiji Era 
(1904, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Satoko Nyo-Wo, third daughter, born September 1st of the thirty-ninth year of the Meiji Era 
(1906, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Prince Kunihide W5, third son, born May 16th of the forty-third year of the Meiji Era (1910, A.D.). 

PRINCETAKAWO. 

t^IS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Prince Taka Wo is the fifth son of the late H.LH. Prince Asahiko ShinnO, and was 
®i born August 17th of the eighth year of the Meiji Era (1875, A.D.). He was decorated with the Imperial Order of 
the Rising Sun with the Paulownia, and is now in temporary charge of the Imperial Great Shines in Ise province. 

PRINCESS SHIDZUKO. 

^ER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Shidzuko (Second Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the Consort of Prince 
SB Taka Wo is tiie first daughter of Viscount Tadtisuke Minase, and was born September 25th of the seventeenth year 
oftiie Meiji Era (1884, A.D.). She marrie<l Prince Taka WO on March 9th of the fourteenth year of the Meiji Era 
(1907, A.D.). 

The Descendants of Prince Taka Wo and Princess Shidzuko are: — 

H.I.H. Prince Yoshihiko Wo, first son, born May 29th of the forty-fifth year of the Meiji Era (1912, A.D.). 
] H.LH. Princess Koko Nyo-Wo, second daughter, born December 5th of the second year of the Taisho Era 

(1913, A.D.). 



( 49 ) 

NASHIMOTO-NO-MIYA. 

fHE NASHIMOTO-NO-MIYA was established by the late H.I.H. Prince Moriosa 8hinn5, the tenth son of the late 
H.I.H. Prince Sadayoshi Shinno Fushimi-no-Miya. He was born on the second year of the Bunsei Era (1819, 
A.D.)- On Ddceraber of the third year of the Meiji Era (1870, A.D.) he established the Nashimoto-no-Miya, and 
died on December 1st of the fourteenth year of the Meiji Era (1881, A.D.)- 

PRINCE MORIMASA WO. 

Mis IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Major-General Prince Moriraasa Wo, the present representntiva of the Nashiraoto-no-Miya, 
*-- is the fourth son of the late H.I.H. Prince Asahiko Shinno Kuni-no-Miya, and was born March 9th of the seventh year 
of the Meiji Era (1874, A.D.). He was first named Tada-no-Miya, and succeeded to the Nashimoto-no-Miya on the death 




H.I.H. PRINCE MORIMASA WO. 



H.I.H. PRINCESS ITSUKO. 



of Prince Moriosa Wo. Prince Moriraasa Wo started life as a Cadet after graduating from the Military Cadet School, being 
attached to the lltli Infantry Regiment of the Fifth Division. In November, 1895, he was decorated with the Imperial 
Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia. On January 25th, 1897, he was appointed a Secopd Lieutenant in the Army, and 



( 50 ) 

was promoted First. Lieutenant in 1899. In 1901 he was promoted Captain, and in December of the following year 
was sent to France to study military science. On the outbreak of the war with Russia, the Prince returned home in 
April, 1904, and proceeded to the front, being attached to the headquarters of the Second Army. In the November 
following he was promoted Major and decorated with the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum. In April, 1906, 
the Prince was decorated with the Fourth Class Military Order of the Golden Kite in recognition of services rendered in 
the campaign. In August, 1906, he again proceeded to France to prosecute his studies, and entered the Military Staff 
College there. In 1908 he was promoted Lieut.-Colonel, and returned home the following year, after visiting England, 
Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Spain and other countries. In 1910 the Prince was promoted Colonel and 
appointed Commander of the Sixth Regiment of Infantry. On August 31st, 1913, he was promoted Major-General and 
appointed General Officer Commanding the 28th Brigade. 

P R I N C E S S I T S U K O . 

MER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Itsuko (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the consort of Prince 
®^ Morimasii W5, is the second daugliter of Marquis Nahohiro Nabeshima. She was born in Rome on February 2nd 
of the fifteenth year of the Meiji Era (1882, A.D.), during the time the Marquis was Minister to Italy. After graduating 
from the Female Department of the Peers' School in Tokyo, she married Prince Morimasa Wo on November 28th of the 
thirty-third year of the Meiji Era (1900, A.D.). The Princess speaks French fluently. In 1909 she accompanied the 
Prince on his travels in Europe, returning home in the latter part of the same year. 

The descendants of Prince Morimasa Wo and Princess Itsuko are : — 

H.I.H. Princess Masako Nyo-Wo, eldest daughter, born November 4th of the thirty-fourth year of the Meiji Era 
(1901, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Noriko Nyo-Wo, second daughter, born April 27th of the fortieth year of the Meiji Era 
(1907, A.D.). 



AS AKA-N O-M I Y A. 
PRINCE YASUHIKO WO. 

^IS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Prince Yasuhiko Wo, the Present representative of the Asaka-no-Miya, is the eighth son 
(^' of the late H.I.H. Prince Asahiko Shinn5 Kuni-no-Miya and was born October 2nd of the twentieth year of the Meiji 
Era (1887, A.D.). After finishing an elementary course at the Peers' Scliool, the Prince entered the Military Preparatory 
School. In March of the thirty-ninth year of the Meiji Era (1906, A.D.) the name of the Asaka-no-Miya was given him. 
In 1908 he graduated from the Military Cadets School which he entered in 1906. 

The Prince was decorated with the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia in November, 1907. He was 
appointed a Second Lieutenant of the Infantry in December, 1908, and a First Lieutenant on December 25th, 1910. He 
was promoted to the rank of Captain on August 31sf, 1913. In December, 1915, he was transferred from the Sixty-first 
Regiment to the Third Regiment of the Imperial Bodyguard. 

The Prince closely resembles his elder brother, H.I.H. Prince Kuniyoshi Wo Kuni-no-Miya. He is a elever 
tactician and shows wonderful ability in his application of military science. He speaks German fluently, and is now 
studying French. 

PRINCESS NOBUKO NAISHINNO. 

^ER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Nobuko Naishinno (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the consort of 
tcir" Prince Yasuhiko W5, is the eighth daughter of the late H.I.M. Emperor Meiji Tenno, being born August 7th of the 
twenty-fourth year of the Meiji Era (1891, A.D.). She was named Fumi-no-Miya. On May 6th of the forty-third year of 
the Meiji Era (1910, A.D.) she married Prince Yasuhiko WO. At the Azabu Detached Palace the Princess, with her 



( 51 ) 

younger sister, H.I.H. Princess Tashiko NaishinnS Higashikuni-no-Miya, was brought up under the care of the late Marquis 
and Marchioness Sasaki, and received her education from Madam U. Shimoda, Prof. T, Motowori and other scholars. 




H.I.H. PRINCE YASUHIKO WO. 



H.I.H. PRINCESS NOBUKO NAISHINNO. 



The descendants of Prince Yasuhiko Wo and Princess Nobuko Naishinno are: — 

H.I.H. Princess Kikuko Nyo-Wo, eldest daughter, born September 12th of the forty-fourth year of the Meiji Era 
(1911, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Prince Takahiko W5, first sod, born October 8th of the first year of the Taisho Era (1912, A.D.). 
H.I.H. Prince Tadahiko Wo, second son, born January 5th of the third year of the Taisho Era (1914, A.D,). 



HIGASHIKUNI-NO-MIYA. 

PRINCE NARUHIKO WO.. 

fIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Prince Naruhiko WO, the present representative of the Higashikuni-no-Miya, is the 
ninth son of the late H.I.H. Prince Asahiko Shinn5 Kuni-no-Miya, and was born December 3rd of the twentieth 
year of the Meiji Era (1888, A.D.). Graduating from the Military Preparatory School in 1906, he was attached to the 
Third lafaatry Regiment of the Impariil B)iyguarl. In November of the thirty-uinth year of the Meiji Era (1906, A.D.), 



( 52 ) 

the name of Higashikuni-no-Miya was given him. In December following he entered the Military Cadet School, where he 
graduated in 1908. In April of the same year he was decorated with the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia. 
In December, 1908, the Prince was appointed a Second Lieutenant of the Infantry and promoted First Lieutenant in 
December 1910. In December, 1911, he entered the Military Staff College, and on August 31st, 1913, was promoted 
Captain. Graduating from the Staff College in 1914, he was attached to the 29th Infantry Hegiment. In December, 1915, 
he was transferred to the Third Infantry Regiment of the First Division. Tlie Prince is a crack shot and an expert 
in jujitsu, 

PRINCESS TOSHIKO NAISHINNO. 

MER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Toshiko Naishinno (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the Consort of 
•33^ Prince Naruhiko Wo, is the ninth daughter of H.I.M. Emperor Meiji Tenno. She was born May 11th of the twenty- 
ninth year of the Meiji Era (1896, A.D.), and named Yasu-uo-Miya. She married Prince Naruhiko Wo on May 18th of the 
fourth year of the Taisho Era (1915, A.D.). Her Highness, with her elder sister, H.I.H. Princess Nobuko NaishiunO 




H.l.H. PRINCE NARUHIKO WO. 



H.I.H. PRINCKBS TOSHIKO NAISHINNO. 



Asaka-no-Miya, spent her early days at the Azabu Detached Palace, being educated by Madame U. Shimoda, Prof. 
Motowori and other scholars. She is a vocalist, and has a special taste for the fine arts. 

Of the marriage there is one son — H.I.H. Prince Morihiro W5, born May 6th of the fifth year of the Taisho Era 
(1916, A.D.). 



( 63 ) 



KITASHIRAKAWA-NO-MIYA. 

fN the third year of the Meiji Era (1870, A.D.) H.I.H. Prince Satonari SliiniiO, the thirteenth sou of the late H.I.H. 
Prince Kuniiye ShiunO Fushimi-no-Miya, was accorded the name of Kitashirakawa-no-Miya. Two years later the 
Prince died at the age of 17, and was succeeded by his elder brother, H.I.H. Prince Yoshihisa ShinnC. 



PRINCE YOSHIHISA SHINNO. 

f? HE late H I.H. General Prince Yoshihisa Shinno was the ninth son of the late Prince Kuniiye Shinn5 Fushimi-no- 
'' Miya, and was born February 16th of the fourth year of the KSka Era (April 1st, 1847, A.D.). In 1859 the Prince 
was ordered to take charge of the Kanyei Buddhist temple at Uyeno, Tokyo. Realising that the Imperial troops were 
making a descent upon Yedo (now Tokyo) from the direction of Kyoto in connection with the Restoration of 1868, 
the Prince hurriedly left for the west in order to explain the position of the Shogunate Government. In Shizuoka 
the Prince met H.I.H. Prince Taruhito Shinno Arisugawa-no-Miya, Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial troops operating 
against the Shogunate Government, to whom he explained the true motives of the fifteenth and last Shogun. The Prince 
then returned to the Kanyei Temple at Uyeno. Meanwhile part of the Shogunate force took up a position at Uyeno and 
offered resistance to the Imperial troops, but were defeated. After the restoration of peace the Prince was sent to 
Germany in 1870 to prosecute his railitHry studies, and there entered the Staff College. On January 2nd, 1872, Prince 
Satonari Shinno died at the age 17, whereupon Prince Yoshihisa Shinno succeeded the Kitashirakawa-no-Miya. In 1874 
tlie Prince was promoted Major, and in July, 1877, returned home from Germany. In December, 1878, he was decorated 
with the Imperial Order of the Rising Sun witli Paulownia. In 1881 the Prince was promoted Colonel, and later was 
Vice-President of the Toyania Military Scliool, and subsequently Chief Instructor. In November, 1881, he was promoted 
Major-General and appointed a Brigadier-General. In December, 1886, he was decorated with the Imperial Order of the 
Chrysanthemum. The Prince in 1892 was promoted Lieut.-Geuenil, and appointed to the command of the Sixth DiTision, 
being later transferred to the command of the Fourth Division, In January, 1895, he was appointed to the command of the 
Imperial Bodyguard, and in April of the same year proceeded to the Liaotung Peninsula to participate in the Sino- Japanese 
War. He then proceeded to Formosa to occupy the Island, and penetrated as far south as Tainan. VViiile with the 
expedition the Prince was attacked by fever, and succumbed to the disease on November 5th of the twenty-eighth year of 
the Meiji Era (1895, A.D.). He was 49 years old at tlie time of his deatli. Prior to iiis demise he was raised to the rank 
of General and decorated with the Supreme Order of the Chrjsantiiemum with Cliain and the Third Class Military Order of 
the Golden Kite. The Prince held the office of President of the Japan Geological Association and the Japan Fine Arts 
Association. In memory of the deceased Prince a Shrine was erected at Taipeh, in Formosa. 



PRINCESS TOMIKO. 

fER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Tomiko (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the Consort of the late 
H.I.H. General Prince Yoshihisa Shinno, is the second daughter of the late Marquis Munenori Date. She was born 
August 8th of the second year of the Bunkyu Era (October Ist, 1862, A.D.). After the death of the Prince, she devoted 
herself to the upbringing up of her little sons and daughters. 

The descendants of Prince Yoshihisa Shinno and Princess Tomiko are : — 

H.I.H. Prince Tsunehisa Wo Takeda-no-Miya, first son, born September 22nd of the fifteenth year of the Meiji Era 
(1882, A.D.). {See Takeda-no-Miya.) 

H.I.H. Princess (now Lady) Mitsuko, first daughter, born October 19th of the eighteenth year of the Meiji Era 
(1885, A.D.). She married the Hon. Osanaga Kanroji on November 14th of the thirty-seventh year of the Meiji Era 
(1885, A.D.). 



( 54 ) 



PRINCE NARUHISA WO. 

fIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Prince Naruhisa W5, the present representative of the Kitashirakawa-no-Miya, third 
son, was born April 18tli of the twentieth year of the Meiji Era (1887, A.D.), On the death of H.I.H. Prince Yoshihisa 
Shinno in 1895 Prince Naruhisa Wo succeeded the Kitashirakawa-no-Miya. Graduating from the Peers' School in 1901 
the Prince entered the Military Preparatory School, and later was admitted to the Military Cadet School. In December, 
1908, he was appointed a Second Lieutenant of Artillery, having previously been decorated with the Imperial Order of the 
Rising Sun with Paulownia. On August 31st, 1913, the Prince was promoted Captain and then entered the Military Staff 
College. Graduating from the institution with honours in December, 1915, he was attached to the Third Regiment of 
Field Artillery. 




H.I.H. PRINCE NARUHISA WO. 



H.I.H. PRINCESS FUSAKO NAISHINNO. 



H.I.H. Prince (now Lady) Sadako, second daughter, born August 6th of the twentieth year of the Meiji Era 
(1887, A.D.). She married the Hon. Yoriyasu Arima on February 2nd of the thirty-sixth year of the Meiji Era 
(1903, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Prince (now Marquis) Teruhisa, fourth son, born August 12th of the twenty-first year of the Meiji Era 
(1888, A.D.). On July 20th, 1910, he was created a Peer with the title of Marquis, and established a House called 



( 65 ) 

Komatsu in compliance with the request of the late H.I.H. Field-Marshal Prince Akihito ShinnO Komatsu-no-Miya. He 
is now serving in the Navy. 

tr.LH. Princess (now Viscountess) Takeko, third daughter, born March 28th of the twenty-third year of the Meiji 
Era (1890, A.D.). She married Viscount Masaaki Hoshina on April 17th of the forty-fourth year of the Meiji Era 
(1911, A.D,). 

H.I.H. Princess (now Countess) Hiroko, fifth daughter, born May 28th of the twenty-eighth year of the Meiji Era 
(1895, A.D.). She married Count Yoshinori Futara on July 20th of the fourth year of the Taish5 Era (1915, A.D.). 

PRINCESS FUSAKO NAISHINNO. 

.LTER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Fusako Naishinno (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the Consort of 
t^ H.I.H. Prince Naruhisa Wo, is the seventh daughter of the late H.I.M. Emperor Meiji Tenn5, and was born January 
28th of the twenty-third year of the Meiji Era (1890, A D.). She was named Kane-no-Miya. She married Prince Naruhisa 
Wo on April 29th of the forty-second year of the Meiji Era (1909, A.D.). While an infant the Princess, with her elder 
sister, H.I.H. Princess Masako Naishinno Takeda-no-Miya, resided at the Takanawa Detaclied Palace and was placed under 
tlie care of Marquis and Marchioness Sasaki. 

The descendants of Prince Naruliisa Wo and Princess Fusako Naishinno are : — 

H.I.H. Prince Nagahisa Wo, first son, born February 19th of the forty-third year of the Meiji Era (1910, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Miiieko Nyo-WO, first daughter, born May 6th of the forty-fourtli year of the Meiji Era (1911, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Sawako Nyo-Wo, second daughter, born October 21st of the second year of the Taisho Era 
(1913, A.D.). 



TAKED A-NO-M I YA. 
PRINCE TSUNEHISA WO. 

m^^ IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Prince Tsunehisa Wo, the present representative of the Takeda-no-Miya, is the first son 
®^ of the late General H.I.H. Prince Yoshihisa Sliinno Kitashirakawa-no-Miya, and was born September 22nd of the 
fifteenth year of the Meiji Era (1882, A.D.). 

During his infancy, the Prince was very weakly, and was therefore placed in the care of the late Marquis T. Sasaki. 
He grew up a healthy lad and entered the Peers' School, afterwards going to the Military Preparatory School. In 1902 he was 
admitted to the Military Cadet School, where lie graduated in November, 1903. The Prince was decorated with the Imperial 
Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia in February, 1903. On February 12th, 1904, the Prince was appointed a Second 
Lieutenant of Cavalry, and when the Russo-Japanese War broke out he proceeded to Manchuria. On the eve of his 
departure for the front, the late Emperor Meiji Tenno was pleased to present him with one of his own chargers. 
Having served throughout the whole campaign, the Prince returned home towards the end of 1905. In March of the thirty- 
ninth year of the Meiji Era (1906, A.D.) the name of Takeda-no-Miya was given him. In April, 1906, he was decorated 
with the Fifth Class Military Order of the Golden Kite in appreciation of services rendered to the State. In February, 
1907, he was promoted Captain, and in December of the same year he entered the Military Staff College. Graduating 
from the College the Prince was promoted to the rank of Major in November, 1911, and was decorated with the Supreme 
Order of the Chrysanthemum in October, 1913. On August 30th, 1915, he was promoted Lieut.-Colonel. 



( 66 ) 



PRINCESS MASAKO NAISHINNO 



|ufER IMPERIAL HIGH.VESS Princess Miisako Naishinn5 (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the Consort of 
®i H.I.H. Prince Tsunehisa Wo, is the sixth daughter of the late H.I.M. Emperor Meiji Tenno, and was born September 
30th of the twenty-first year of the Meiji Era (1888, A.D.). Slie was named Tsune-no-Miya. On April 30th, of the forty- 





H.I.H. PRINCE TSUNEHISA WO. 



H.I.H. PRINCESS MASAKO NAISHINNO. 



first year of the Meiji Era (1908, A.D.), the Princess married Prince Tsunehisa Wo. Her Highness speaks French fluently, 
and is clever at the piano and organ. In her general character she resembles the late H.I.M. Emperor Meiji Tenno, and is 
endowed with very fine qualities. 

The descendants of Prince Tsunehisa W5 and Princess Masako Naishinno are : — 

H.I.H. Prince Tsuneyoshi Wo, first son, born March 4th of the forty-second year of the Meiji Era (1909, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Ayako Nyo-Wo, first daughter, born July 4th of the second year of the TaishS Era 
(1913, A.D.). . . - . 



'( «r ) 



K A N ■ I N - N O - M I Y A . 

MeFORE and during the reign of Emperor Koraei TennO, the father of Emperor Meiji TennC.all members of the families 
W of the Emperors, with the exception of the Crown Prince, entered various Buddhist temples as priests or nuns. The 
Fu8himi-no-Miya, Kyogoku-no-Miya, and Arisugawa-no-Miya enjoyed the privilege of constituting the membership of the 
Imperial Family. During the military regency of lyenobu Tokugawa, the sixth Sh5gun in the Tokugawa regime, a well- 




H.I.H. PRINCE KOTOHITO SHINNO. 



H.I.H. PRINCESS CHIYEKO. 






known scholar named Hakuseki Aral advised theShogun to make representations to the Imperial Court that the above restric- 
tions placed on the sons and daughters of Emperors be withdrawn, so that the Imperial Family might flourish. The ShOgun 
acted on this advice, and the Imperial Court acceded to the representation. Emperor Higashiyama Tenn5, the one 
hundred and twelfth Sovereign, caused H.I.H. Prince Naohito Shinno, his sixth son, to establish the Kan-in-no-Miya. 
After the death of Prince Naohito Shinno, the Kan-in-no-Miya was succeeded by his son, H.I.H. Prince Sukehito Shinno. 
The latter's sixth son, H.I.H. Prince Tomohito Shinno, succeeded Emperor Gomomozono Tenn5, and on ascending the 
throne assumed the name of Emperor Kokaku Tenno. 

In the seventeenth year of the Meiji Era (1884, A.D.), an Imperial Decree was issued announcing that H.I.H. Prince 
Sukehito Shinno, fatlier of Emperor Kokaku Tenno, be regarded as a Dajo TennS (retired Emperor) and called Ky5k6 
Tenno. H.I.H. Prince Haruhito Shinno, first son of Prince Sukehito Shinno or Kyoko Tenno, succeeded the Kan-in-ner 



( 58 ) 

Miya, he being followed in turn by Princes Takahito ShinnS and Naruhito Shinno, and by H.I.H. Prince Kotohito 
Shinn5, the younger brother of H.I.H, Prince Sadanaru ShiunS Fushimi-no-Miya. 

Prince Kotohito Shinno is the sixteenth son of the late H.I.H. Prince Kuniiye Shinno Fushimi-no-Miya. He was 
born September 22nd of the first year of the Keiwo Era (November 10th, 1865, A.D.). The infant Prince was named Yasu- 
no-Miya. After completing his education at the Umeya Elementary School in Kyoto, the Prince in 1877 entered the 
Military Preparatory School in Tokyo. Graduating from the School in 1882, His Highness proceeded to France to pro- 
secute his studies, and was admitted to the Military Cadet School there. After graduation, he was in 1887 appointed a Second 
Lieutenant in the Imperial Cavalry and decorated with the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum. The Prince then 
entered the Cavalry School and the Military Staff College in France. After graduating from the latter institution he 
was promoted First Lieutenant on November 3rd, 1890, andVeturned home the following year. On November 3rd, 1892, he 
was promoted Captain and attached to the First Regiment of Cavalry. In addition, he held the offices of instructor at the 
Military Cadet School and other military institutions. During the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5 he was attached to the 
headquarters of the First Army. On November 3rd, 1894, he was promoted Major. After the war he was decorated with 
the Fourth Class Military Order of the Golden Kite in appreciation of services rendered during the campaign. On 
November 3rd, 1897, he was promoted Lieut.-Colonel and appointed to the command of the First Cavalry Regiment. .Two 
years later he was promoted Colonel. On November 3rd, 1901, the Prince was raised to the rank of Major-General and 
appointed General Officer Commanding the Second Cavalry Brigade. In 1904, when the Russo-Japanese War broke out, 
His Highness, as Commander of tlie Brigade, proceeded to the front, and participated in the engagement at the Shaho and 
in other battles on the Manchurian Plains. On November 3rd, 1904, His Highness was promoted Lieut.-General and 
appointed General Officer Commanding the First Division. After the war he was decorated with the Second Class 
Military Order of the Golden Kite. In September, 1911, he was given command of the Imperial Bodyguard. On Novem- 
ber 27th, 1912, he was promoted General, and appointed a member of the Military Council. On September 11th, 1916, 
His Highness, as representative of the Emperor, proceeded to Russia on an important mission, returning to Tokyo on 
October 15th. 

General Prince Kotohito Shinno, while attending to his military duties, finds time to devote to the interests of various 
public bodies in the country. Since the death of H.I.H. General Prince Akihito ShinuS Komatsu-no-Miya, Prince Kotohito 
Shinno has filled the office of President of the Japan Red Cross Society. His Highness is the President of the Franco- 
Japanese Association, Russo-Japanese Association, Tokyo Club, Dai Nippon Sanshi-kai (Japan Silk Association) and the 
Geographical Society. 

When the Prince applied to the French Government to allow him to enter the Military Cadet School in France, the 
Government replied that Princes of the Blood of various foreign Powers had hitherto engaged French instructors, and 
that Prince Kotohito Shinno could not be an exception to the rule. The Prince, however, expressed his ardent wish 
to enter the School as an ordinary student, and said he did not wish to be accorded the treatment given the 
Prince of a foreign Power. He was therefore admitted to the School, where he was treated as an ordinary student. After 
graduating from the School the Prince was attached to the French Seventh Light Cavalry Regiment and was decorated by 
the French Government with the Chevalier de I'Ordre National de la Legion d'Honneur, which is seldom given to French or 
foreign officers except when they render distinguished service to the State or achieve some great task. The holders of this 
decoration are, therefore, held in higher esteem than those having the Grand Order of Merit. While preparing to enter the 
Military Staff College in France a radical change was introduced into the organization of the French army, and as a result 
other nationals were prohibited from entering any French military institution. In spite of this, the Prince asked President 
Carnot and the Military Authorities for special permission to enter the Staff College. His request was finally granted, and 
thus very intimate relations were established between the Prince and the President, who recognised the courage and qualities 
of the Prince. 

During the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5 the Prince, as a Captain, was at one time attached to the Third Division 
under the command of Lieut.-General (later Prince) Katsura. At the engagement of Kozan the troops of the Third 
Division were hard pressed by the enemy, who threatened the left flank. Seeing this, Lieut.-General Katsura wanted to 
give instructions to the left flank to immediately advance. Prince Kotohito Shinno offered to act as an orderly — a request 
which was promptly accepted by Lieut.-General Katsura, who knew he could rely on the Prince. On his way back to the 
main body of the Division the Prince was fired on by the enemy, but returned in safety, to the great relief of Lieut.-General 
Katsura and the staff officers. This ^tion of Prince Kotohitp Shinny is one of tl^e many brave acts perforn^ed in the 
Sino-Japanese War. 



( 69 ) 

In the war with Russia Prince Kotohito 8hinn5, as a Brigadier-General, commanded a cavalry corps. In the battle 
of Shaho a strong force of Cossacks attacked a Japanese position at Penchihu, and it was feared that if this position were 
taken another position in the direction of Liaoyang would be endangered, the consequence being that the whole of the Japanese 
plans would collapse. Thereupon Prince Kotohito Shiiino, with his force, made a bold attack and repulsed the enemy, with 
the result that the Japanese scored a brilliant victory. Marshal Marquis (later Prince) Oyama, Commander-in-Chief of the 
Japanese forces at the front, highly appreciated the distinguished service thus rendered by H.I.H. Prince Kotohito ShinnO, 
and reported particulars of his bravery to Emperor Meiji TennO. 

PRINCESS CHIYEKO. 

MER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Chiyeko (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the Consort of H.I.H. 
^ Prince Kotohito Shinno, is the second daugiiter of the late Prince Saneyoshi Sanj5. She was born May 25th of the 
fifth year of the Meiji Era (June 30th, 1872, A.D.). 

Her Highness was married to the Prince on December 19th of the twenty-fourth year of the Meiji Era (1891, A.D.) 
She is President of the Japanese Patriotic Ladies' Association, Volunteer Nures' Association, and Japanese Female Education 
Association. 

The descendants of Prince Kotohito Shinno and Princess Chiyeko are : — 

H.LH. Princess (now Viscountess) Yukiko, eldest danghter, born May 13th of the twenty-ninth year of the Meiji 
Era (1896, A.D.). She married Viscount Nobusaki Ando on September 3rd of the fourth year of the Taisho Era 
(1915, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess (now Lady) Shigeko, second daughter, born May 29th of the thirtieth year of the Meiji Era 
(1897, A.D.) She married the Hon. Nagainichi Kuroda on January 21st of the third year of the TaishS Era (1914, A.D.). 

H.LH. Prince Haruhito Wo, second son, born August 3rd of the thirty-fifth year of the Meiji Era (1902, A.D.). 

H.I.H. Princess Hiroko Nyo- Wo, fourth daughter, born February 21st of the thirty-ninth year of the Meiji Era 
(1906, A.D.). 

H.LH. Princess Hanako Nyo- Wo, fifth daugiiter, burn June 30th of the forty second year of the Meiji Era 
(1909, A.D.). 



HIGASHI FUSHIMI-NO-MIYA. 



PRINCE YORIHITO SHINNO. 



/-vi 



iMiS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Vice- Admiral Prince Yorihito Shinn5 is the present representative of the Higashi 
®^ Fushimi-no-Miya, and the seventeenth son of the late H.I.H. Prince Kuniiye ShinnO Fushimi-no-Miya. His Highness 
was born September 19th of the third year of the KeiwS Era (October 16th, 1867, A.D.). In 1877 he entered the Naval 
Cadet School, and in 1884 proceeded to England to prosecute his studies. Later he proceeded to France for the same 
purpose, returning home in 1891. While in France he was appointed a Sub.-Lieutenant of the Navy and was decorated 
with the Supreme Order of tlie Chrysanthemum. In 1893 the Prince was sent to Europe and America on a mission, and 
returned home in the following year, when he was promoted Lieutenant. During the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5 
he was attached to the United Japanese Squadron under the command of Admiral Count Y. Ito, and after the campaign 
was decorated with the Fifth Class Military Order of the Golden Kite in appreciation of services rendered in annihilating 
the Chinese Squadron. In September, 1899, he was raised to the rank of a Lieut.-Commander, and three years later 
was promoted Commander. On February 2nd, of the thirty-sixth year of the Meiji Era (1903, A.D.), the name of 
Higashi Fushimi-no-Miya was given him. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 the Prince, as second in command 
of the cruiser Chitose, rendered distinguished service on several occasions in fighting and annihilating the Port Arthur and 
Baltic Squadrons. After the war he was promoted to the rank of Captain and decorated with the Third Class Military 
Order of the Golden Kite. In December, 1909, he was raised to the rank of Rear- Admiral. In 1911 the Prince proceeded 
to England, where he represented the Imperial Court of Japan at the Coronation of King George V. Three years later he 



C eo ) 

Was promoted Vice- Admiral, and now holds the office of Councillor of the Bureau of Imperial Decorations. The Prince 
also holds the office of Honorary President of the Dai Nippon Suisan-kai (Marine Products Association), Teikoku Suinan 
Kyusai-kai (Imperial Japanese Society for Saving Life and Property from Shipwreck), Nippon Kai-in Ekisai-kai 
(Japanese Seamen's Relief Association), Nichi-futsu Ky5kai (Franco-Japanese Association), and other public bodies. 
His Highness speaks French and English, and is an expert at gunnery. 




H.I.H. PRINCE YOHIHITO SHINNO. 



H.l.H. PKiNCESS KANEKO. 



PRINCESS KANEKO. 

fER IMPERIAL HIGHNESS Princess Kaneko (First Class Imperial Order of the Crown), the Consort of H.I.H. 
Prince Yorihito Shinno, is the first daughter of the late Prince Tomosada Iwakura. She was born August 29th 
of the ninth year of the Meiji Era (1876, A.D.). Her Highness married Prince Yorihito Shinno on February 10th of the 
thirty-first year of the Meiji Era (1898, A.D.). She speaks French and English and takes a great interest in music, both 
foreign and Japanese. Her Highness accompanied the Prince to Great Britain to attend the Coronation of King George. 
She holds the office of President of the Dai Nippon Fujin Eiseikai (Japanese Women's Sanitary Association) and the 
RikukaigunshOkO Fujinkai (Association of Wives of Naval and Army Officers). She is an honorary member of the Japan 
Red Cross Society, Patriotic Ladies' Association, and other public bodies, , .. : 



( ^ ) 



GENEALOGIES OF THE MEMBERS OF THE IMPERIAL FAMILY. 



ABRIDGED GENEALOGIES OF FUSHIMI-NO-MITA, EACHb-NO-MlTA, 

YAMASHINA-NO-MIYA, NASHIMOTO-NO-MIYA, AND 

HIGASHIFUSHIMI-NO-MIYA 



Ctofushlml-ln T«nn9 (93rd Emperor). 
Tokihito Sblnno (Kogon-in). 
Okibito Wo (Sukd-io). 
I. Yoshihlto Shinno (FUSHIMI-NO-MIYA). 

3. Sadafusa ShlDnd (Oosukfi-lD). 2. Haruhito Vf6. 



OohaQazoDO-lii TennO (lOUt Emp«rai ). 4. Sadatsune ShinnO, 

5- KuDitaka Shinna. 

6. Sadaatsu Shinni. 

I 

7. Kunisuke Shinnd. 

8. Sadayasu ShinnS. 

9. EuniDobu SbinnS. 
10. SadakiyoSblDDi. 



il. Kuninari Shinno. 12. Kunlmiohi ShlDDS, 

13. Sadajruki Shinno. 

I 

14. Kuninaga Sbinnd. 

I 

15. Sadatake ShlnnS. 



I 



I 



16. Kunitada ShinnS. 1 8. Kuuijori ShinnS. 

I I 

17. Sadamocbi ShinnS. 1 9. Sadayoshi ShinnS. 



20. Kun iye Sbinno. 1. Moriosa Shinna (NASHIMOTO-NO-MIVA). 

2. Morimasa Wo (See KUNI-NO-MIYA). 

I 



Masako Nyo-Wa. 



Noriko Nyo-Wo. 



I.Akira Sblnno 
(VAMASHINA-NO-MIVA). 

2 KikiiniaroWe. 

I 



AsahlkoSfainnd 
(See KUNI-NO-MIVA). 



Hisako 
(Lady Nija) 



21. Ssdanori ShiunS. 



I 
Buniha Nyo-Wa. 



i I I I I I 

3. Takebiko WO. Yoshimaro Wa. Yaauko Nyo-W3. Fujlmaro Wa. Hagimaro Wa. SbigemaroWa. 



Yosbihisa Shinnd 
(See KITA8HIRAKAWA-N0-MIYA). 



1. Hirotsune Sbinna 
(KACHO-NO-MIYA). 

2. Hiroataa Wd. 

8. Hiroyasu W9. 

I 
4. Hirotada WS, 



Nicbiyei Murakamo 
(Abbess). 



Satonari Sbinna 
(See KITASHIRAKAWA-NO-MIVA). 



Tnkako 
(Viscountezis Matsudaira). 



22 Sadanaru ShinnS. 
I 

I,, 



lyenori Kiyosu 
(Count). 



I I I 

Hiroyasu Wa. Kiinika Wo. Sachiko (Marchioness Yainanoiicbi). 



Kotobito Shinno 
(See KAN IN- lO-MIVA). 



Hiroyoabi Yasuko Hiroiada Wo. Hironobu Atauko Tomako Hirohide WS. 

WS. Kyo-Wo. (See KACHO-NO-MIYA) WS. Kyo-W3. Nyo-Wo. - 



Yoiihifo Sliinno 
(HIGASHIFUSHIMI-NO-MIYA). 



GENEALOGIES OF THE MEMBERS OF THE IMPERIAL FAMILY. 



ABRIDGED 6ENEAL0OT OF AAISUGAWA-NO-MITA. 

Belgen-ln Tennd (11 1th Emperor). 

1. Torihlto ShinnS (ARISUGAWA-NO-MIVA). 



9. Otohite ShinaO. 



<.OrihitoSbinna. 
4. Tiunahito SUnnS. 



8. Takabito ShinnS. 

6. TaruUto ShinnS. Toahiko Nyo-Wi. 7. Takehlto ShinnS. 

H.I.B. Princata Fiubimi-no-mljra (Senior). | 

Mi^eko 
(Princess Tokugawa). 



ABRIDGED GENEALOGIES OF EUNI-NO- MI7A, EATA-NO-MITA, ASAEA-NO-MITA 

AND HIGASHIEUNI-NO'MITA. 

Eunilye ShinnS (See FUSHIMI-NO-MIVA.) 
I. Aiahiko Sbiunu (KUNI-NO-MIVA). 



I 

1. Kuninori Wo. 

(KAYA-NO MIYA). 



Sakako 
(Viscountess Higashizono). 



Aklko 



Ajako 



(Lady Ikeda). (Ladr Takeucbi). 



2. Kuniyoshi Wo. 



Yiikiko 2. Tsunenorl Wi. 

(Lad; Macbijiri). 



Saklko N70-WS. 



AsaaklraWS. KunibisaWa. Nagako Nyo-WO. .NobukoNyo-W8. 



Satoko Nyo-Wa. 



Kunibide W«. 



Moriniasa Wo. 
(See NASHIMOTO-NO-MIVA). 



Taka WS. 



Motoko 
(Lady Sengoku). 



Yosbibiko We. KSko Nyo-WS. 



Suzuko 
(Countess Mibu). 



Yasuhiko Wo. 
(A8AKA-N0-MIVA). 



Nanibtko W6. 
(HIGASHIKUNI-NO-MIVA). 

.1 



J 



Moribiro Wo. 



Kikuko Nyo-Wa. Takabiko Wo Tadahiko Wd.. 



ABRIDGED GENEALOGIES OF EITASHIRAKAWA-NO-MITA AND TAEEDA-NO-MITA. 



KUQiiye ShinnS (See FUSHIMI-NO-MIVA). 



2. Yoshihisa Shinno. 1. .Satonarl Shinna (KITASHIRAKAWA-NO-MIVA). 



Tstinehisa Wo 
(TAKEDA NO MIYA) 



Miisuko 
(Lady Kanroji). 



3. Narutaisa Wo. 



Sadako 
(Lady Arima). 



Teruhisa Komatsu Takeko 

(Marquis), (Viscountess Hoshlna). 



Tsuneyoshi Wo. Ayako Nyo Wa. 



Nagahtsa Wu. Mlneko Nyo-Wa. Sawako Nyo-Wo. 



kol 



Hiroko 
(Countess Futara). 



ABRIDGED GENEALOGT OF EAN-IN-NO-MITA. 



Higasblyama Tenna (112tb Emperor). 

1. Naobito Shinna (KAN-IN-NO-MIYA). 

2. Sukehito Shinna. 

_l 

3. Harubito Shinna. Eakaka Tenna (118th Emperor). 

4. Takabito Shinna, 

5. Narubito Shinno. 

6. Kotohito Shinna (See FUSHIMI-NO-MIYA) 



Yukiko (Viscounteu Anda). 



Shlgeko (Lady Kuroda). 



Harubito Wa 



Hiroko Nyo-Wa. 



HaoakoNyo-VA. 




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H ISTORY OF JAP AN. 

^N reviewing the past history of the Imperial Court of Japan, which has been in existence for more than two 
thousand years, attention is drawn to the fact that the throne has been, and is still, the centre of the 
nation's activities. It may, therefore, be logically admitted that the history of the Imperial Court is the 
history of Japan. The following chapters are epitomized : — 

Chapter I. — Prehistoric Japan (or Legendary Japan before the accession to the Throne of the first Emperor 
Jimmu). 

Chapter II. — Organization of the Empire of Japan. 

Chapter III. — The Yamato Period (from the Accession to the Throne of the first Emperor Jimmu (660, B.C.) to the 
Emperor KStoku, thirty-sixth Sovereign, in the first year of the Taika Era, or 645, A.D., a period of 1,305 years). 

Chapter IV. — Tlie Taika Reform Period (from the Emperor KOtoku in the first year of the Taika Era to the 
Emperor Momniu, forty-second Sovereign, in the fourth year of the Kyoun Era, or 707, A.D., a period of 62 years). 

Chapter V. — The Nara Period (from the Empress Gemmei, forty-third Sovereign, in the fourth year of the Kyoun 
Era to the Emperor Konin, forty-nintli Sovereign, in the first year of the Tenwo Era, or 781, A.D., a period of 74 years). 

Chapter VI. — The Heiaii Period (from the Emperor Kammu, fiftieth Sovereign, in the first year of the Tenwo Era 
to the Antoku Emperor, eighty-first Sovereign, in the Juyei Era, or 1185, A.D., a period of 404 years). 

Chapter VII. — The Kamakura Period (from the Emperor Gotoba, eighty-second Sovereign, in the first year of the 
Bunji Era to the Emperor Godaigo, ninety-sixth Sovereign, in the third year of the Genko Era, or 1333, A.D., a period of 
148 years). 

Chapter VIII. — The Yoshino Court Period (from the Emperor Godaigo in the third year of the Genko Era to the 
Emperor Gokameyama, ninety-eighth Sovereign, in the ninth year of the Genchu Era, or 1392, A.D., a period of 59 years). 

Chapter IX. — The Muromachi Period (from the Emperor Gokomatsu in the third year of the Meitoku Era, or 
1392, A.D., to the Emperor Ogimachi in the eleventh year of the Yeiroku Era, or 1568, A.D., a period of 176 years, known 
as the Asliikaga Period), 

Chapter X. — The Adzucbi-Momoyama Period (from the Emperor Ogimachi in the eleventh year of the Yeiroku 
Era to the Emperor GoySzei one hundred and sixth Sovereign, in the eighth year of the Keicho Era, or 1603, A,D., a period 
of 35 years, known as the Oda-Toyotomi Period), 

Chapter XI. — The Yedo Period (from the Emperor Goyozei in the eighth year of the Keicho Era to the Meiji 
Emperor in the third year of the Keiwo Era, or 1867, A.D., a period of 264 years, known as the Tokugawa Period). 

Chapter XII. — The present Period (from the Emperor Meiji in the third year of the Keiwo Era to the forty-fifth 
year of the Meiji Era and the present Emperor from the first year of the Taisho Era, or 1912, A.D., to the fourth year of 
the same Era, or 1915, A.D.). 

CHAPTER I. 
PREHISTORIC JAPAN, 

The Empire of Japan is situated in the extreme east of Asia. The climate is generally mild, and the country 
abounds in picturesque and grand mountain scenery. The Japanese are renowned as a brave and patriotic people, 
endowed with many fine qualities of iiigh culture and peculiar attainments. Governed and ruled by tlie Throne, 
unchanged since the foundation of the Japanese Empire, the State has never been subjected to foreign incursion. Japan 
to-day is in the ascendency as a first class Power in the East. History shows no country equal to Japan in that she is 
one of the old Empires and is still maintaining her position as an independent State with a bright future before her. 
In narrating briefly the history of the Imperial Court it is first imperative to refer to prehistoric, or legendary, ages. 



( 64 ) 

According to legendary chronicles, there was a god named Ameno-mi-naka-nushi in " Takama-ga-hara " (the 
Heavens) before the world was created. With him were two other gods, one named Takami-musubi-no-kami and the other 
Kamumi-musubi-no-kami. The world was created by the three gods, who are regarded as the Creators of the Universe. 
After the lapse of the sixth Sovereign, there was Izanagi-no-mikoto and Izanami-no-mikoto, who constituted the seventh 
Sovereign of gods. Izanagi-no-raikoto and Izanami-no-mikoto, in obedience to instructions from the Creators of the Universe, 
stood on " Ameno-uki-hashi " in order to concrete the world and with " Araano-nuhoko " (divine halbert) given them by the 
creators of the universe, they set to work as instructed. A few drops of sacred liquid from the point of the halbert created 
an island, which was called the Onogoro-shima, and which is believed to be a small isle south-west of the Awaji Island at 
the eastern entrance to the Inland Sea, At Onogoro-shima they built a holy edifice called tlie Yahirodono and lived there. 
In addition to Awaji Island, they created Oyamato-toyo-akitsushima (Japan Proper), the Islands of lyo (now known as 
Shikoku), Oki, Iki, Tsushima, Sado and Tsukushi (Kyushu), the whole of which are known as Oyashiraa-no-kuni (Great 
Eight Islands). They tiien appointed divine rulers to control these Islands, and in the meantime Ohirume-no-mikoto and 
Susano-no-mikoto were born to them. Ohirume-no-mikoto is known as Amaterasu Omikami, and her high virtues were so 
greatly admired by Izanagi-no-mikoto and Izanami-no-mikoto that she was ordered to govern " Takama-ga-hara," while 
Susano-no-mikoto was instructed to control the world. Owing, however, to anti-divine action on _ the part of Susano-no- 
niikoto, Amaterasu Omikami, by way of warning him, entered the Ama-no-iwaya (Heavenly Cave) and shut up its doors 
with the result that it became pitch Haik day and night, being followed by innumerable ominous incidents and disasters. 
Thereupon, all the gods of the Universe convened a conference at " Ame-no-yasukawa " to save the gloomy situation. It 
was then agreed that Ishikoritome-no-mikoto should manufacture " Yatano-kagami " (Mirror comprising one of the Three 
Sacred Treasures now enshrined in the Imperial Palace), while Kushiakarutama-no-kami should make " Yasakani-no- 
magatama" (Holy Jewels, one of the Three Sacred Treasures). Tliese Treasures, together with other divine offerings, 
were hung on branches of " sakaki " trees (cleyera Japonica) and upheld by Futotama-no-mikoto, ancestor of the Imube 
family before the Ama-no-iwaya. Amenokoyane-no-mikoto, ancestor of the Nakatomi family, offered prayers beseeching 
that light might again illumine the Universe. A series of sacred dances and musical performances were at the same time 
conducted by other gods and goddesses. Thus the anger of Amaterasu Omikami was dispelled and light again flashed 
out from above the clouds. Susano-no-mikoto was then expelled to Idzumo province where he encountered a huge 
serpent, known as " Yamata-orochi," which attempted to devour Kushiinada-hime. The serpent was killed by Susano-no- 
mikoto and thus her life was saved. In the body of the serpent was found a sword, which was presented to 
Amaterasu Omikami. This sword was afterwards called Murakumo-no-Tsurugi and constitutes one of the Three Sacred 
Treasures, 

A descendant of Susano-no-mikoto, Onamuchi-no-mikoto, who is also named Okuninushi-no-mikoto, was a god 
endowed with a spirit of high virtue and courage. Taking up his position in Idzumo province Onarauchi-no-mikoto 
administered the world in a satisfactory manner. Amaterasu Omikami, in the hope of securing for his son, Araeno- 
oshiliomimi-no-mikoto, to government of the world, sent his messengers more than once to Okuninushi^no-mikoto to secure 
the latter's consent. The influence of Okuninushi-no-mikoto was so great that all the messengers became his subjects instead 
of returning to the Kingdom of Heaven where Amaterasu Omikami reigned supreme. Seeing this, Amaterasu Omikami 
dispatched two powerful gods, one named Takemikadzuchi-no-kami and the other Futsu-nushi-no-kami, to the palace of 
Okuninushi-no-mikoto to enforce obedience to her command. Thereupon Okuninushi-no-mikoto retired to the Kidzuki-no- 
miya Hall in Idzumo province. A shrine was afterwards built at Kidzuki in his memory and is at present known as the 
Great Shrine of Idzumo. 

The irresistible force of Takemikadzuchi-no-kami and Futsu-nushi-no-kumi (who are now euslirined at the 
Katori Shrine in Hitachi province and at the Kashima Shrine in Shimosa province respectively), coupled with the 
submission of Okuninushi-no-mikoto, brought about a highly admirable regulation of State affairs. Amaterasu Omikami, 
hoping that ISinigi-no-raikoto, son of Ameno-oshihomimi-no-mikoto, should govern the State, bestowed on Ninigi-no-mikoto 
the Three Sacred Treasures above referred to and then granted the following Divine Message to him who was guarded by 
Amenokoyane-no-mikoto, Futotama-no-mikoto, Ameno-oshihi-no-mikoto (ancestor of the Otomo family) and Arnatsukume- 
no-mikoto (ancestor of the Kume family): — " Ashihara no ehiiho-aki no midzuUo-no-huni wa kore waga shison no kimi 
tarubeki china ri. Yoroshiku nanji koson yukiie shirase. AmatsuhiUugi no sakaye masan koto masani tenj5 to kiwamari 
tiakarubeshi." (The Land of the Rising Sun should be ruled and governed by Our descendants. You should first go and 
control the State, which shall prosper as long as there exists a universe). 



( 65 ) 

Thereupon Ninigi-no-mikoto, accompanied by the various gods, descended on Mt. Takachiho in Himuga (general 
name of Satsuma, Osumi and Hyuga provinces) of Kyushu and resided at Kasasa-no-misaki in Atano-kuni (believed to be 
the port of Kaseda in Satsuma province at present). This is what the Japanese generally regard as " The Descent of the 
Sun Goddess' Grandson " (Tenson Koiiii). After Ninigi-no-mikoto there were Hikohohodemi-no-mikoto and Ugaya- 
Fukiayezu-no-mikoto, both of whom, taking up their supreme position in the western region, governed the country, 
which was then handed over to Jimrau Tenno, the first Emperor of Japan. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE ORGANIZATION OF THE EMPIRE OF JAPAN. 

Emperor Jimmu was the son and heir of Ugaya-Fukitiyezu-no-mikoto and was first named Sanu-no-mikoto. 
Ascending the Throne, His Majesty was named Kamuyamato-Iwarehiko-no-mikoto and established his Palace at Takachiho- 
no-miya in Himuga province (in the neighbourhood of Miyazaki in Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu). His Majesty was 
endowed with fine qualities of sagacity, uprightness and perseverance. At a council of the members of the Imperial family 
and his vassals the Emperor announced: That since the days of Ninigi-no-mikoto, who was ordered by Amaterasu- 
Omikami to govern tlie country We have only established Our seat of Government in the western region. We are aware 
that ill the east there is a vast tract of land which has not yet been placed under Our control. Surrounded on all sides by 
ever-green mountain ranges the district of Yamato (Kyoto and neighbourhood at the present time) is most suited for the 
conduct of administration inasmuch as it is located in the centre of the Empire. Be it resolved, therefore, that We should 
establish Our seat of Government there. 

Emperor Jimmu, at the head of the Imperial force, left Himuga for Northern Kyushu and thence to the districts on 
the Inland Sea, where His Majesty spent several years in subjugating the various tribes. He then planned to reach his 
destination, namely, the district of Yamato. 

At that time the district of Yamato was under the sway of Nagasune-hiko, leader of a tribe, who had as his divine 
dictator Nigihayahi-no-mikoto, descendant of a god. He was so powerful in arms that he opposed the Imperial force under 
the command of Jimmu Tenno, who landed in Naniwa (Osaka at present) and who, in an engagement with Nagasune-hiko, 
suffered a defeat. Thus the Imperial force changed the programme of campaign. Landing in Kuraano, Kii province, the 
Imperial force attacked the flank of the enemy, but was again unsuccessful. A sacred golden kite was then seen hovering 
over the Imperial force, and it perched on the bow the Emperor was carrying. Strange to say, powerful rays issuing from 
the sacred bird were so dazzling that Nagasune-hiko and his men conld not face the Imperial force and were thus obliged to 
beat a retreat. In this way the Imperial force won a brilliant victory, [The Military Order of the Golden Kite, which was 
inaugurated in the Meiji Era, is derived from this historic incident]. Nigihayahi-no-mikoto became convinced that Jimmu 
Tenno was the chief representative of the descendants of gods and tried to induce Nagasune-hiko to lay aside his arms and 
sue for peace. To this, Nagasune-hiko objected. Thereupon Nigihayahi-no-mikoto killed Nagasune-hiko and joined the 
Imperial force. Jimmu Tenno highly appreciated the action of Nigihayahi-no-mikoto, whose son, Umashimate-no-mikoto, 
was then given a powerful office. Umashimate-no-mikoto was the ancestor of tiie Monobe family. His Majesty established 
his Palace at Kashihara, to the south-east of the Unebi-yama in Yam ito province, and in January, two thousand five 
hundred and seventy-four years ago, computed from the fourth year of the Taisho Era (1915), the Enthronement was 
conducted there. Thus the Empire of Japan was established. 

Under the command of Jimmu Tenn5 there was a group of a special race who afterwards became known as the 
Yamato race and who assisted tiie Throne in adjusting affairs of the State. Various tribles, such as Ezo and Tsuchigumo, 
were all subjugated by, and assimilated with, the Yamato race who, with the Throne as the centre of activities, attained a 
remarkable development as a nation. In strengthening the foundations of the Empire the Yamato race, or Japanese, 
worshipped gods, respected their ancestors and lineage and encouraged military training. The Japanese people are in reality 



( 66 ) 

a gigantic family with the Emperor as their administrator. It is, therefore, no wonder that the people regard the Emperor 
as " Akitsu Mikami " (Living God) and that in guarding the Throne they are always willing to sacrifice everything. A 
poem composed by the ancestor of the Otomo family says : — 

" Umi-yuka ba mi-tsuku kabane; Yama-yuka ba kusa-musu kabane; Ogimino heni-koso shiname ; Nodo-niwa shinaji." 

Meaning : " In naval warfare we are prepared for a watery grave. 

" In land campaigns we are aware that our remains will be covered with grai=8 and moss. 

" Oil, our beloved Sovereign ! We are always ready to die in your presence. 

" We are not so disloyal as to breathe our last at home, but are quite willing to serve whatever command you may 
give." 

The above passages truly exhibit the loyal sentiments of the Japanese towards the Throne. Unparalleled as are the 
specially close relations existing between the Imperial House and the people, the Empire of Japan is destined to maintain 
its position for ever and to attain development both in arms and commerce on the international stage. 

CHAPTER III. 

THE YAMATO COURT PERIOD. 

During the Yamato Court Period the Empire was governed under a family system. The Emperors, with but few 
exceptions, resided in Yamato Province, although each Emperor removed the seat of Government after the Enthronement. 
The Japanese people are in reality a large family. Under the family system certain hereditary offices, either civil or 
military, were bestowed upon different families. For instance, the Nakatomi family, whose ancestor was Ameiio-koyane- 
no-mikoto, and the Imbe family, whose ancestor was Futotama-no-mikoto, took charge of festivities, while military affairs 
were entrusted to the Otomo family, whose ancestor was Ameno-oshihi-no-mikoto, and the Mouonobe family, whose ancestor 
was Nigihayahi-no-mikoto. These families are generally known as the Yaso-torao-no-o, who were rendered service by a 
class of people called the Tomobe. To these families were granted certain tracts of land, which they administered. Tiie 
successive Emperors ruled and governed the Imperial estates, known as Miagata and Mita. 

Emperor Sujin, the tenth Sovereign, was both sagacious and courageous. During his reign an epidemic wrouglit 
havoc among the people, many of whom succumbed to the malady. Thereupon the Emperor offered prayers to the gods 
and his ancestors in order that the epidemic might be speedily stamped out. He transferred to Kasanui-no-mura, in Yamato 
province, the Murakumo-no-tsurugi and Yata-no-kagami (two of the Three Sacred Treasures) which, together with the 
Yasakani-no-magatama (one of the Three Sacred Treasures), had hitherto been enshrined in the chamber where the successive 
Emperors and Empresses were. Amaterasu Omikami was also enshrined and worshipped by their Majesties. Tlie Emperor 
then ordered a sword and a mirror to be made, and kept these in the Palace together with the Yasakani-no-magatama. 
Seeing tliat various tribes were against the Imperial regime, tlie Emperor dispatched four' Generals to the TOkaido, 
Hokurikudo, SanyodS and San-indo to subjugate them, and thus peace was established in the country. 

Emperor Sui-nin, the eleventh Sovereign, introduced reforms into the system of Administration. Benevolent as he 
was. His Majesty issued instructions prohibiting the court officials and all classes of the people from committing " junshi " (to 
be buried alive together with the deceased Emperor or Empress and other high personages). Upon the death of Empress 
Hihasuliime-no-mikoto, Norai-no-sukune, an attendant to the Emperor suggested the manufacture of a number of clay human 
figures, horses, etc. to bury together with the remains of Her Majesty, thereby establishing a precedent for the Imperial 
obsequies. This suggestion was highly appreciated by the Emperor from the view-point of humanity. These human 
figures were called " haniwa," and have been discovered in various districts at the present time. By order of the Emperor, 
a shrine was established on the bank of the Isuzu-gawa river in Ise province, where Amaterasu Omikami, together with 
the Murakumo-no-tsurugi and Yata-no-kagami, were enshrined. This shrine constitutes the Nai-gu in the Imperial Great 
Shrine of Ise province. The Emperor, as did his immediate ancestor, encouraged agriculture, which attained considerable 
development under his regime. 

During the reign of Emperor Keiko a tribe known as the kumaso in Tsukushi (Kyushu) revolted. The Emperor 
led an expedition thither, and after the lapse of eight years the uprising was suppressed. Afterwards, the tribe again rose 
against the Imperial Court. Yamatotakeru-no-mikoto, son of the Emperor, who was then sixteen yeara old, was sent to 
Kyushu to suppress the uprising. Disguised as a woman, he penetrated into the camp of the tribe and killed the leader, with 
the result tlmt the uprising was quelled. Afterwards, another tribe, known as the Ebiso, revolted. The Ainu race, in the 



( 67 ) 

Hokkai-do at the present time, originates from the Ebiso, who then occupied the districts of Tokai-do and To8an-do in Eaatefn 
Japan. The Emperor again sent Yaraatotakeru-no-mikoto to subdue the uprising. Prior to his departure he visited the 
Imperial Great Shrine in Ise province to offer prayer in order that his mission might prove successful. He received from 
Yaraatohirae-no-mikoto, in cliarge of tiie Shrine, the Murakumo-no-tsurugi, one of the Three Sacred Treasures kept in the 
Shrine. Wearing the sacred sword, Yamatotakeru-no-mikoto proceeded to Suruga province, where His Highness was 
almost victimized by the rebels, wiio pretended that they had surrendered to him. Taking him into a field the rebels set 
fire to the grass in all directions, in the hope that he would be burnt to death. Thereupon, he unsheathed the sacred sword 
and cut the grass round about him, tiiereby saving himself from destruction. After this, the name Murakumo-no-tsurugi 
was changed to that ot Kusanagi-no-tsurugi (Grass-Cut-Sword) in order to mark the event. His Highness pursued the 
rebels as far as the district of Rikuzen province, in North-eastern Japan, and then returned in triumph. On the way he 
contracted an illness, to which he finally succumbed when he reached Ise province. Prior to his demise he left the sword at 
Atsuta, Owari province, where a shrine was later established to enshrine the sacred blade. This shrine has since been called 
the Atsuta jingu Shrine. 

During the reign of Empeior Chuai, the fourteenth Sovereign, the Kumaso in Kyushu again revolted. The Emperor, 
together with Empress Jingo, set out on an expedition, but His Majesty died of an illness before he could accomplish his 
object. The Empress, thinking that the uprising of the Kumaso against the Imperial Court was due to the backing of 
Shirngi (present Chosen), herself led a powerful expedition to Shiragi, in spite of the fact that she was pregnant at the time. 
Takeshi-uchi-no-suknne, the well-known General in the expedition, played a conspicuous part in the operations. The King 
of Shiragi finally surrendered, and gave pledge to present the Imperial Court of Japan with annual tributes as a mark of 
respect, intimating that the Peninsular Kingdom would never discontinue the practice unless the sun rose from the western 
horizon, the waters in the Arinare (Yalu river) flowed towards the upper reaches and the stones in the rivers rose up into 
the sky and became stars. The Empress was satisfied with this and returned home. From that time the Kumaso remained 
submissive to the Imperial rule. 

In Chosen there were at the time four different States, comprising Shiragi, Koma, Kudara and Mimana. As a result 
of Empress Jingo's expedition, these States surrendered one after another, and tlius the whole of the peninsula was annexed 
to Japan. 

On arrival in Kyushu from Ciiosen, Her Majesty gave birth to a son, who immediately ascended the throne and 
was named Emperor Ojin, being the fifteenth Sovereign. During the cliildhood of the Emperor, Her Majesty personally 
discharged the affairs of State, and this was the origin of the form of administration known as Sessho, or Regent. 

With the annexation of Chosen the means of communication were firmly established with Japan, and various 
branches of science and industry were introduced to this country. During tlie reign of Emperor Ojin, the King of Kudara 
in Chosen sent to Japan a member of his family, named Achiki, to present two fine horses to the Imperial Court. 
Achiki being a scholar in Chinese classics, the Emperor caused liis son Ujinowakairatsuko-no-Woji, to learn Chinese 
classics from him. On the recommendation of Achiki, the great scholar named Wani was the following year summoned 
from Chosen and appointed tutor to the Heir Apparent. Wani, on coming to Japan, presented several copies of " Kongo " 
and "Senjimon" to the Imperial Court, Thus Chinese classics were first brought into Japan, and were followed by the 
introduction of various lines of industry from the peninsula. Not only the Koreans but Chinese have immigrated to Japan 
in large numbers and assimilated the manners and customs of the Japanese. 

Emperor Nintoku, the sixteenth Sovereign, was endowed with fine qualities of benevolence, sagacity and magnanimity. 
Unlike his ancestors, the Emperor removed the seat of Government from Yamato to Naniwa (Osaka), where His Majesty 
established a Palace, called the Takatsu-no-miya. This was because Naniwa was far more advantageous than Yamato for 
the maintenance of communication with Chosen. The higii virtues of tiie Emperor were in many cases manifested in a 
practical miinner. One day His Majesty ascended a tower to look down over the city, when he noticed that the smoke 
issuing from the households was very scarce. Sagacious as he was, he was soon convinced that his subjects were suffering 
from want of food and other necessaries. An Imperial Ordinance was immediately issued, relieving the people from the 
imposition of various taxes during three successive years. The Palace building began to show signs of decadence, but the 
Emperor did not heed. After the lapse of three years His Majesty again ascended the tower, when he saw smoke rising 
from every household. The Emperor then declared, " We have become very rich." Hearing this, the Empress asked 



( 68 ) 

His Majesty the reason why the Imperial Court became rich when the Palace building was going to decay. The Emperor 
replied, intimating that the people constitute the foundations of the State, and it may, therefore, be urged that the wealth 
of the people means the wealth of the Imperial Court. After repeated requests from the people, the Emperor oonseuted to 
re-build the Palace. 

Emperor Yuryaku, the twenty-first Sovereign, encouraged all branches of military science. His Majesty one day 
proceeded to Mt. Katsuragi, in Yamato province, for hunting purposes. A huge wild boar suddenly appeared at some 
distance from the spot where the Emperor was seated and made a dash upon His Majesty. Thereupon the Eraptror 
ordered a " toneri " (military aide-de-camp) to kill the beast, but he hesitated. His Majesty, with bow, faced the beast, 
and after a struggle succeeded in killing it. He was so greatly irritated at the timidity of the toneri that he was on the 
point of killing him when the Empress appeared on the scene and pleaded with His Majesty to spare the man's life. 
Thus the toneri was spared. The Empress was a daughter of Emperor Nintoku, and named Hata-hi-hime. In later 
years the Emperor devoted his energy to the development of agriculture and industry, while the Empress engaged in the 
task of raising silk worms. In obedience to instructions from the Imperial Court, Hata-no-sake-no-kimi, descendant of a 
Chinese named Yudzuki-no-kimi, who, together with maqy Chinese, immigrated to Japan and became naturalized Japanese, 
caused members of the Hata family, 18,000 in all, to make a number of weaving apparatus in order to develop the silk 
industry. As a result, a large quantity of silk was manufactured and presented to the Imperial Court. The Emperor and 
Empress sent their representatives to Kure-no-Kuni (South China) to engage several female weavers and sewing girls, with 
the result that weavers named Aya-hatori and Kure-hatori and sewing women named E-hirae and Oto-hime were brought 
to Japan. The Imperial Court further asked the King of Kudara in Chosen to engage and send to Japan skillful artisans 
and workmen in various lines of industry. Thus a number of artisans, comprising " suye-tsukuribe" (manufacturer of 
earthen ware), " kura-tsukuribe " (saddle-maker) " e-kakibe " (painter) and nishigoribe (manufacturers of gold brocade), 
were also brought to Japan. A carpenter named Tsuge-no-mita, incompliance with instructions of the Emperor, erected 
large buildings for the first time in Japan. His Majesty then established a shrine at Yaraada, Ise province, wherein was 
dedicated Toyo-uke-no-«kami, god for living and clothing. This shrine is what is now known as the Geku in the Imperial 
Great Shrine of Ise. 

Upon the death of Emperor Seinei, neither Kenso Tenno nor Ninken Tenno dared to ascend the Throne. litoyono- 
aono-raikoto, who was their elder sister, conducted the admiuistration temporarily. Kenso Tenno then ascended the 
Throne, and three years later was succeeded by Ninken Tenno. 

During the reign of Emperor Kimmei, the twenty-ninth Sovereign, the King of Kudara in Chosen sent an Envoy to the 
Imperial Court of Japan and presented the image of Buddha and the Buddhist scriptures to encourage Buddhism. The 
Emperor convened a conference of high officers and officials to consider whether the presents should be accepted. 
Soga-no-Iname (descendant of Takeshi-uchi-no-sukune) urged the advisability of accepting the presents, while 
Mononobe-no-Okoshi opposed their acceptance, contending that should the Japanese worship a god of a foreign country 
they would provoke the resentment of the gods of Japan. His Majesty then gave the presents to 8oga-no-Iname, who kept 
them in his villa. Buddhism was thus introduced to Japan for the first time. Subsequently a plague was reported in 
various parts of the country, and many persons perished. Mononobe-no-Okoshi thought that this was doubtless due to the 
resentment of the gods of the country, and with the sanction of the Emperor took steps to destroy the image of Buddha and 
the temple in which it was enshrined. Still the Soga family continued to believe in Buddhism. Tliis gave rise to the later 
trouble between the Soga and Mononobe families. Umako, son and heir of Soga-no-Iname, on succeeding to the hereditary 
office of his father as Minister of State,J killed Moriya, son and heir of Mononobe-no-Okoshi, who succeeded to tlie 
hereditary post of his father as Omuraji (office similar to that of Minister of Statei). Thus the Mononobe family was 
extinguished. 

Empress Suiko, the tliirty-third Sovereign, appointed Umayado-no-Woji, son of Emperor Yomei, thirty-first 
Sovereign, Heir Apparent, to whom administrative affairs were entrusted. He was generally known as Shotoku Taishi, 
being a really intelligent and virtuous ruler, and was a devoted believer of Buddhism. Under his direction, Buddhism 
spread through the length and breadth of the country, and fine arts, comprising painting, engraving and architecture, 
attained such remarkable development that they are at present known as " the fine arts of the Suiko Dynasty," in which 
the ancient Greek and Indian designs are traceable. The famous Shitenno-ji Temple in Settsu province and the Horyu-ji 
Temple in Yamato province were built during this period. 



» 



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Shotoku Taishi adjusted various systems of administration, and promulgated a Constitution comprising seventeen 
Articles, laying great stress upon tiie importance of unity and co-opeiation of all classes of the people and the 
encouragement of Buddhism. He tiien sent an Envoy to China and presented to the Chinese Court an autograph letter, 
thus effecting intercourse oflScially between the two countries. The result was the introduction of civilization from the 
Asiatic Continent. 

In the reigns of Emperor Jomei, the thirty-fourth Sovereign, and of Emperor Kogyoku, the Soga family gained in- 
fluence in and outside the Imperial Court and committed irregularities. Thereupon Nakatomi-no-Kamatari, with the help 
of Nakano-Oye-no-Woji, son of Emperor Jomei, killed Soga-no-Iruka and thus the Soga family became extinct. With 
Kotoku Tenno as successor to Emperor Kogyoku, Nakano-Oye-no-Woji, together with Nakatorai-no-Kamatari, carried 
out thorough reforms of administration, and this is known as the Innovation of the Taika Era. 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE TAIKA REFORM PEHIOD. 

Emperor Tenji was a son of Emperor Kimmei and was named Naka-no-Oye-no-Woji before he ascended the Throne. 
He was the most enlightened Ruler the country had ever produced and introduced radical reforms in all lines of administra- 
tion while he was the Heir Apparent with the help of Nakatomi-no-Kamatari, lie was successful in executing Soga-uo-Iruka 
who had endangered the foundations of the Imperial Court. In appreciation of the distiuguislied service rendered by Naka- 
nn-Oye-no-Woji in destroying the dangerous element, Empress Kogyoku expressed her willingness lo abdicate in his favour, 
but Naka-no-Oye-no-Woji declined the offer. Emperor Kotoku, tiie thirty-sixth Sovereign tiien ascended the Throne. 
This was the first time in history that a reigning Monarch was succeeded by a descendant during his or her life-time. The 
name of the Era, called Taika, was then inaugurated for the first time. In accordance with instructions of the Emperor, 
Naka-no-Oye-uo-Woji, with the help of Nakatomi-no-Kamatari and other oiRcers, carried out thorough reforms in 
various branches of administration, and the result was that all tracts of land in the country were placed under the direct 
control of the Imperial Court, while hereditary offices of various grades in Government circles were abolished. Further, 
the Central Government was established with district offices under it and measures were taken to strengthen the national 
defence, to facilitate the means of communication and to re-adjust taxation. These reforms were all effected iu the second 
year of the Taika Era, namely in the one thousand three hundred and sixth year since the accession of the first Emperor 
Jimmu, or in 646 A.D. In the history of Japan, the Taika Era, like tiie Meiji Era, is remarkable in that the 
sovereign power was practically restored to the Imperial Court. Up to the duys of Emperor Mommu, the forty-second 
Sovereign, successive Emperors carried on administration on the lines adopted by Naka-no-Oye-no-Woji. 

Upon the death of Emperor Kotoku, ex-Empress Kogyoku again ascended the Throne, when Her Majesty was 
named Saimei Tenno. Naka-no-Oye-no-Woji, in his capacity of Crown Prince, assisted the Empress in the conduct of 
administration. The Imperial Court sent against the Ebiso, a tribe on the littoral of the Japan Sea, an expedition, under 
the command of Abe-no-Hirafu, Lord of Koshi-no-Kuni, comprising Echizen, Kaga, Noto, Etcliu and Echigo provinces. 
The expedition, in pursuit of the retreating tribe, crossed over to Wutari-no-shima (Hokkai-do) and inaugurated a military 
magistrate in Sliiribeshi in order to govern the Island. Abe-no-Hirafu then sailed for the littoral region of Siberia, which 
was known to the Japanese us Mishi-liase at the time, and after conquering that region returned home in triumph. 

After the famous expedition led by Empress Jingo-Kogo to Korea, the Slates of Mimana and Kudara continued to 
remain submissive to Japan, but the States of Shiragi and Koma revolted continually. Japan, therefore, sent expeditions 
against Shiragi on several occasions. In Mimana, a Japanese Governor-General was stationed to control the peninsula. 
During the reign of Emperor Kimmei, Shiragi subjugated Mimana, with the result that the .Japanese Government-General 
was withdrawn. Meanwhile Shiragi, with the help ot China, subjugated the whole of the peninsula. A Japanese expe<Ii- 
tion was later sent against Shiragi, but was unsuccessful. Naka-no-Oye-no-Woji thought it wise to concentrate his 
energy on domestic administration and not to interfere with the outside world. 

Naka-no-Oye-no-Woji ascended the Throne and was nameii Tenji Tenno, being the thirty-eighth Sovereign. Naka- 
tomi-no-Kamatari, the right-hand man of the Emperor, died later. Prior to his death the Emperor visited him on his 
deatli-bed — a great honour seldom accorded subjects by the Sovereign. His Majesty announced that the descendants of 



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Nakatomi-no-Kamatari would adopt the family name of Fujiwara, and the supreme court rank known as Taishokukan was 
accorded the son and heir of Nakatomi-no-Kamatari, who, during his life-time, rendered valuable services to the State in 
enacting various laws and regulations, adapted from the Chinese system of administration at the time. Under the family 
iiarae of Fujiwara the descendants of Nakatomi-no-Kamatari thrived and established blood relations with the Imperial 
House successively. In later years they became Sessho (Regent) or Kampaku (Grand Chancellor to the Emperor). 
The Emperor established his Palace at Otsu in Oral province and the Imperial Court at the time was known as the 
Omi Court. 

Emperor Kobun, the thirty-ninth Sovereign, was a tall and raanly-looking Monarch and a scholar inCliiuese classics. 

Emperor Temmu, the fortieth Sovereign, was an enlightened Ruler and laid great stress upon the importance of 
maintaining national character and spirit against the introduction of things Ciiinese which were then in vogue among 
various classes of the Japanese. A noteworthy fact is that the Emperor ordered a history of Japan to be compiled on the 
basis of all records and chronicles available for the purpose. 

Emperor Momrau, the forty-second Sovereign, on ascending the Throne, caused Osakabe Shinno, a son of Emperor 
Temmu, and Fuhito Fujiwara, a son of Kamatari, to either enact or remould viiriouS laws and regulations to suit the 
conditions of the time. This work was completed in the first year of tlie Daiho Em, or in 701, A.D., and is now known as 
the laws and regulations of the Daiho Era. In the second year of the Yoro Era (718, A.D.), when Empress Gensho, the 
forty-fourth Sovereign, ruled the country the laws and regulations in force were further amended. According to the laws 
and regulations of the Daiiio Era the Central Government comprised the Jiugi-kan and the Dajo-kan offices, the former 
attending to all functions relating to gods and Imperial ancestors and the latter dealing with administrative affairs. It 
should be noted that the Dajo-kan is composed of eight Departments of the Imperial Household, Court Affairs, Ceremonies, 
Home Affairs, Finance, Justice, War and Civil Administration. 

CHAPTER V. 

THE NARA PERIOD. 

In the third year of the Wado Era (710 A.D.), Empress Gemmei removed the Capital of the Empire to Nara, where 
Her Majesty established her new Palace on an elaborate scale. From that time Nara remained the seat of the Central 
Government for more than seventy years, during which period seven Monarchs ascended the Throne and ruled the country. 
Emperor Konin being the last Sovereign of this particular period, which is generally knowQ as the Nara period. During 
the reign of Empress Gemmei silver and copper coins were made for the first time in this country, the Chinese characters 
" Wado Kaiiio " (Auspicious Treasure of the Wado Era) being struck thereon. Another noteworthy fact is that a history 
of Japan was first compiled in the Japanese language under the direction of Her Majesty, this being known as the Kojiki 
(Ancient Chronicle). 

In the reign of Empress Gensho, who succeeded Empress Gemmei, another history of Japan, called the Nihon Shoki, 
was compiled in Chinese. 

Emperor Shomu, the forty-fifth Sovereign, who reigned from 744 A.D. to 749, was a devoted believer in the faith of 
Buddhism and issued an Order that a temple, called the Kokubun-ji, be established in eacii province of the Empire. At 
Naia a temple called tlie Todai-ji was built under the Imperial command, and within the precincts of the temple a 
gigantic image of Buddha, in copper with mixture of gold and measuring 53 feet high, was erected. Over the image 
stands a huge wooden edifice, measuring 126 feet high and extending 290 feet from west to east, was built. Empress 
Komyo, who was also a believer in Buddhism, assisted His Majesty in the conduct of State affairs and eslablished 
various charity organizations for the benefit of the poor. During this period fine arts and various branches of industry 
attained a remarkable development, as did also architecture, painting, weaving, lucquer-ware industry, etc. The 
manufacture of glass and soap was extensively carried on, and the printing of sacred books of Buddhism was undertaken 
with success. The relics of this period are at present kept at the Shoso-in at Nara. The literature, too, attained a degree 
of perfection, and among well-known literary men of the period are Kakinomoto-no-hitomaro and Yamube-no-akahito. An 
Imperial Order was issued anuouncing that the people, high and low, should wear their clothes in such a manner that the 



( 71 ) 

right-hand portion was covered by the left-hand (just as is the case with the Western frockcoat at the present time). The 
capital of Nara at the time presented a splendid and picturesque siglit, all classes of tiie people being in a flourishing 
condition. 

In Manchuria at this period was a country called Bokkai-koku (Pechili), which sent its Representative to Japan 
and thus established a communication with this country which, until about the middle of the Heian Period, continued to 
present to the Japanese Imperial Court each year its tributes in the form of rare and valuable articles as a mark of its 
being a dependency of Japan. 

Empress Koken, the forty-sixth Sovereign, re-ascended the Throne in 764, A.D. and was named Shotoku Tenno, 
being the forty-eighth Sovereign. At this time tliere was an influential priest named Dokyo, who finally secured the 
supreme office of Dajo-daijin (Premier). His influence in and outside the Imperial Court was so great that in certain 
sections the suggestion was made that should Dokyo ascend the Throne and govern the State there would be a permanent 
peace and tranquility all over the country. Thereupon the Empress ordered Wage-no- Kiyomaro, a famous loyalist, to 
obtain the Divine oracle on the subject. Wage-no-Kiyomaro then announced that the Empire of Japan shall, under the 
Divine oracle, be ruled and governed by descendants of the first Emperor Jimmu and that anyone who attempted to 
threaten the Sovereign power should be executed. Dokyo was greatly irritated at this announcement and exiled Kiyomaro 
to the country by way of punishment. He could not, however, realize his ambition to become a crowned monarch. Upon 
the death of the Empress Konin Tenno, the forty-ninth Sovereign ascended the Throne and re-calle<l Kiyomaro from his 
exile, while Dokyo was in turn exiled to Shimosa Province. 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE HEIAN PERIOD. 

The Heian Period covers a time from the accession to the Throne of Emperor Kammu, the fiftieth Sovereign, in 
781, A.D., to the inauguration in Kamakura of a Military Government by Yoritomo Minamoto. This period may be 
divided into the following three sections : — 

The first section is known as the Shinsei Period and covers the time from the accession of Emperor Kammu in 
781, A.D. to the third year of the Kajo Era (850, A.D.) when Emperor Nimmyo abdicated the Throne. 

The second section is known as the Fujiwara Period and covers a period from the accession of Emperor Moutoku, the 
fifty-fifth Sovereign, in 850, A.D., to the fourth year of the Jiryaku Era (1068, A.D.), when Emperor Goreizei abdicated. 

The third section is known as the Insei Period and covers a period from the accession of Emperor Gosanjo, the 
seventy-first Sovereign, in 1068, A.D , to the fourth year of the Juyei Era (1185, A D.), when Emperor Antoku died. 

During the first section the State was governed by tlie Sovereigns, but in the second section the country was under the 
sway of the Fujiwara family, while in the third section the Sovereign power was transferred to the retired Emperors. During 
this period there was a feud between the Minamoto and the Taira families, the former using the white banner as standard 
and the latter the red banner, just as was the case with the White and the Red Rose in England. The result was a victory 
for the Minamoto family. 

The Shinsei Period: — Emperor Kammu, ascending the Throne, removed the capital of the Empire from Nara to 
Uda-mura in Kadouo district, Yamashiro Province, in the 13th year of the Yenryaku Era (794, A.D.). The new Capital 
was called Heiankyo at the time and is, in fact, the Kyoto of to-day. Under instructions of the Emperor, the streets were 
laid out in regular order and the Palace, together with Government offices were established on the site they occupy at the 
present time. From then, Kyoto remained the Capital of the Empire until 1869, A.D., a period of 1075 years. During 
this period the Ezo tribe in North-eastern Japan often revolted. An expedition under the command of Taniuramaro 
Saka-no-uye was sent against the tribe, which was soon subjugated. 

During the reign of Emperor Saga, the fifty-second Sovereign, the Imperial Court exchanged Envoys with China. 
The study of Chinese classics and other lines of science was in vogue at the time, and a number of young men and priests 
proceeded to China for the prosecution of their studies. At Kyoto a College of high standing was established, and in the 



( 72 ) 

provinces there were a large number of schools and other educational institutions, both official and private, where Chinese 
classics were taught. Among leading scholars were Ono-iio-Takamura and Miyako-no-Yoshika, 

There were two distinguished priests, one named Kukai, who is at present known as Kobo-Daishi, and the other 
Saicho, who is known aa Dengyo-Daishi. Kobo-Daishi established a religious sect known as the Shingon-shu and a temple 
called the Kongobu-ji at the Koya-san in Kii province, as his headquarters. Dengyo-Daishi also establisiied another sect 
known as the Tendai-shu and a temple called the Onryaku-ji at the Hiyei-zau near Kyoto, as his headquarters. 

The Fujiwara Period : — Emperor Montoku, the fifty-fifth Sovereign, was a son of Emperor Nimmyo, whose 
Empress hailed from the Fujiwara family, the ancestor of which is Karaatari. Yoshifusa Fujiwara, a descendant of 
Karaatari, had a close blood relation with the Throne upon his sister's side. Enjoying the full confidence of the Court, he 
finally Hssumed the supreme office of Dajo Daijin and administered affairs of State. 

Emperor Seiwa, the fifty-sixth Sovereign, who ascended the Throne in b>yhood, was also assisted by Yoshifusa 
Fujiwara who, in the eighth year of Jogiin (866, A.D.) was appointed the Sessho, or Regent, and conducted the administra- 
tion in place of the Emperor. Tims the Fujiwara family came to grasp the reins of Government. Through the reigns of 
Emperor Yozei, the fifty-seventh Sovereign, Emperor Koko, tiie fifty-eighth Sovereign, and Emperor Uda, the fifty-ninth 
Sovereign, the Fujiwara family continued to carry on the administration. Emperor Uda, wlio was an enlightened 
Sovereign, attempted to restore to the Tiirone the administrative power from the hands of the Fujiwara family. Meanwiiile 
Mototsune Fujiwara, who had assumed the office of Sessho, died. Taking advantage of this opportunity. His Majesty 
abdicated in favour of the Heir Apparent, with the intention of realizing his cherished desire in the name of the new 
Emperor. Entering a temple called the Ninna-ji in Kyoto, his Majesty called himself Howo, or Cloistered Emperor. He 
then drafted a series of instructions which were given to the new Emperor and whicii are now known as the Kambei 
Go-yuikai (Instructions of tlie Kambei Era). 

Emperor Daigo, the sixtieth Sovereign, in accordance with the Kambei Go-yuikai, abolished the office of the Sessho 
or Kampaku, and appointed Tokihira Fujiwara, son of Mototsune, Sadaijin (assistant Prime Minister in First Class), while 
Michizane Sugawara was appointed Udaijin (Assistant Prime Minister in Second Class). The latter was a scholar of 
profound learning and highly respected by all in and outside the Imperial Coart. This aroused envy and hatred on the part 
of Tokiliira Fujiwara, who contrived a plot against Michizane Sugawara in order to deprive him of his office. His plot was 
successful and Michizane Sugawara was exiled to Kyushu. This affair occurred in the first year of the Engi Era 
(901, A.I).). Michizane died shortly afterwards in exile. During the reign of Emperor Ichij >, the sixty-sixth Sovereign, 
posthumous honours were accorded Michizane, who was given the highest court rank of Jo-ichii and the supreme office of 
Dajo-daijin. A shrine was built in his memory at Kitano, Kyoto, and called the Temman Tenjin. 

During the Heian Period the use of the Japanese alphabet became the vogue ; also the study of national Japanese 
literature and poetry. Ki-no Tsurayuki, a well-known poet, and other scholars, in obedience to instructions of Emperor 
Daigo, made a collection of excellent poems from the past ages and published it in the form of a pamphlet, called the Kokin 
Waka-ahu (Collection of Poems ill Ancient and Modern Japan). In the preface to the pamphlet, whicli was written by 
Ki-no Tsurayuhi, reference is made to six famous poets, including a poetess, all of whom are generally known as the 
Rokka-sen (Six Great Poets). They comprise Sojo-Henjo, Nariliira Ariwara, Bunya-no-Yasuhide, Ono-no-Komachi 
(poetess), Otomo-no-Kuronushi and Kisen-Hoshi. There was also a clever painter named Kose-no-Kana-oka. During the 
Engi Era all members of the Fujiwara family secured influential aud important posts in the Court and central 
government. Naturally those who could not find favour in the Court and the Central Government tried to expand 
their influence and promote their interest in other districts, and called themselves Bushi or Samurai. To this 
category belong the Minamoto family, or Genji, the ancestor of which is Emperor Seiwa, and the Taira family, or Heislii, the 
ancestor of which is Emperor Kammu. During the Shohei and Tengyo Eras Taira-no-Masakado, belonging to the Taira 
family, revolted in the Kanto district in Eastern Japan, while Fujiwara-no-Sumitomo rebelled in the Sanyo and Nankai 
districts in Western Japan. Emperor Suzaku, the sixty-first sovereign, sent expeditions under the command of Taira-no- 
Sadamori, Fujiwara-no-Hidesato, Minaraoto-no-Tsunemoto, and other Generals belonging to the Minamoto and Taira families 
in o*der to suppress the uprisings in the west and the east. Upon the restoration of peace, members of the Minamoto and 
Taira families implanted their respective influence in all parts of the country, and this led to the transfer of administrative 
power from the Throne to the Military Regency in later years. 



i 



( 73 ) 

Emperor Murakami, the sixty-second Sovereign, ascended the Throne in the first year of the Tenryaku Era, or 
947, A.D,, and conducted the administration in person without the aid of Kampaku (Grand Cliancellor of the Emperor). 

Emperor Keizei, the sixty-third Sovereign, was sickly and unable to attend to State affairs. Thus the Fujiwara 
family regained authority and assumed tlie oflSces of Sessho and Karapnku as before. For about one hundred years, namely, 
until the days of Emperor Goreizei, the seventieth Sovereign, the Fujiwara family conducted the administration. During 
the reign of Emperor Ichijo, the sixty-sixth Sovereign, the study of fine arts and music became the vogue among all 
classes of the people who led an easy and luxurious life. Especially was this the case with noblemen and their families 
in Kyoto. Among the literati of these days were two ladies, one named Murasaki-shikibu and the other Sei-shonagon. 
The former compiled the Genji-monogatari, and the latter the Makura-no-foslii, both famous literary works. They are 
both regarded as master-pieces of national Japanese literature. Fine arts, such as painting and carving, and various 
lines of industry attained to the highest pitch of development in^these days. 

In the third year of the Kannin Era (1019, A.D.), during tie reign of Emperor Goichijo, the sixty-eighth 
Sovereign, a Mongolian tribe called Toi, with an armada of over fifty vessels, invaded the Tsushima and Iki islands, and 
then attempted to land on the coast ofChikuzen in Kyushu. Takaiye Fujiwara, Military Governor of Kyushu, with the 
forces under his jurisdiction, faced the invaders, who were obliged to turn back. 

During the reign of Emperor Goreizei, the seventieth Sovereign, Sadato and Muneto, sons of Yoritoki Abe, started 
a rebellion in Mutsu-no-Kuiii, comprising Iwaki, Iwashiro, Rikuzen, Rikuchu and Mutsu provinces (North-eastern Japan). 
Minamoto-no-Yoshiiye, better known as Hachimantaro in history, with Yoriyoshi, his father, was dispatched to the Mutsu 
to suppress the uprising, whicli was entirely subjugated after the lapse of nine years. Later another rebellion occurred 
in North-eastern Japan, but was suppressed in three years by the Minamoto family, which thus laid the foundations 
for implanting its influence iu Northern and Eastern Japan. 

The Insei Period : — Emperor Gosanjo, the seventy-first Sovereign, was the second son of Emperor Gosuzaku. His 
mother was a daughter of Emperor Sanjo. His Majesty had no blood relation with tlie Fujiwara family, which was 
unprecedented since the days of Emperor Uda, the fifty-ninth Sovereign. Yorimichi Fujiwara, who then held the supreme 
office of Kampaku, tried in vain to prevent the Heir Apparent (later Emperor Gosanjo) from ascending the Throne. 
Emperor Gosanjo married Princess Kei-shi, a daughter of Emperor Goichijo, and thus cut off the blood relationship with 
the Fujiwara family. His Majesty then assumed charge of the administration and conducted State affairs in person. 
Norimichi, younger brother of Yorimichi, was then appointed Kampaku, but he was practically powerless. Thus the 
Fujiwara family was actually deprived of the authority of administration. 

His Majesty laid great stress upon the importance of weights and measures, the standards of which were fixed by an 
Imperial order. Radical reforms were introduced into various lines of administration, and an Imperial Edict was issued 
urging the people to be thrifty and to refrain from indulging in the luxuries of former years. In the fifth year of his reign 
the Emperor abdicated in favour of the Heir Apparent, and died the following year. 

During the Insei Period, State affairs were practically carried on by the cloistered Emperors, and this period covers 
the reigns of Emperors Gosanjo, Shirakawa, Horikawa, Toba and Sutoku. 

Emperor Shirakawa, the seventy-second Sovereign, was as sagacious as his immediate predecessor, and after 
abdication His Majesty, on assuming the August title of Cloistered Emperor, or Ho-Wo, continued to carry on the 
administration. During this period, therefore, the Emperors actually seated on the Throne had nothing to do with State 
afl'airs. The propagation of Buddhism was extensively carried on throughout the country, and leading temples were specially 
provided with troops, known as " so-hei," or priest forces. Among the leading temples were the Yenryaku-ji at Hiyei-zan, 
the Onjo-ji (popularly known as the Mii-dera) in Orai province, the Todai-ji and the Kofuku-ji in Kara. The priest forces 
attached to each of these temples numbered several thousand. 

In the latter days of the reign of Emperor Shirakawa another revolution broke out in the 0-u district in North- 
eastein Japan. An expedition, under the command of Minamoto-no-Yoshiiye, was sent to quell the uprising, and after the 
lapse of three years it was entirely suppressed. 

For more than three hundred and sixty years after the removal of the Capital from Nara to Heian, or Kyoto, peace 
was maintained in the Capital, but during the reign of Emperor Goshirakffwa, the seventy-seventh Sovereign, a disturbance 
occurred in Kyoto, this being known in history as the insurrection of the Hogen Era, the origin of which was that the Retired 
Emperor Sutoku, in compliance with the wishes of the Cloistered Emperor Toba, abdicated the Throne in favour of Emperor 



( 74 ) 

Kouoye, who was short-lived. Then Retired Emperor Sutoku desired that his son, Shigehito, or himself, should be enthroned, 
but this desire was not realized. By order of the Cloistered Emperor Toba, Emperor Goshirakawa ascended the Throne. 
In the first year of the Hogen Era (1156, A.D.) the Cloistered Emperor Toba died. Thereupon the Retired Emperor 
Sutoku, with the backing of Fujiwara-no-Yorinaga, Sadaijin (Assistant Prime Minister in First Class), Miuamoto-no- 
Tameyoshi, grandson of Miuamoto-no-Yoshiiye and his son, Tametomo, who is well known as a clever archer, and other 
influential leaders, started the rebellion. The Emperor, on consultation with Tadaraichi Fujiwara, Kampaku (Grand 
Chancellor of the Emperor), sent a strong force under the command of Miurtmoto-no-Yoshitomo and Taira-no-Kiyoraori 
against the Retired Emperor Sutoku, who suffered a crushing defeat. The Retired Emperor was then transferred to Sanuki 
province, while his followers were either executed or punished. 

In the first year of the Heiji Era (1159, A.D.), the year in which Emperor Nijo, the seventy-eighth Sovereign, 
ascended the Throne, another disturbance occurred in Kyoto, when Minamoto-no-Yoshitomo, eldest son of Tameyoshi, and 
Fujiwara-no-Nobuyori rose against Taira-no-Kiyomori, head of the Taira family, but were defeated and executed. From 
that time members of the Taira family grasped the reins of Government. During the reign of Emperor Rokujo, the 
seventy-ninth Sovereign, Kiyomori assumed the supreme office of Dajo-daijin (Premier) and handled State affairs in an 
autocratic manner. The insurrection of the Heiji Era had its origin in the fact that Minamoto-no-Yoshitomo, who rendered 
distinguished services in the suppression of the Hogen insurrection, was not accorded as much honour as Taira-no-Kiyomori. 
Minamoto-no-Yoshitomo was also on bad terms with Michinori Fujiwara, a favourite of Cloistered Emperor Goshirakawa. 
Nobuyori Fujiwara, another favourite of the Emperor, was on bad terms with Michinori Fujiwara. Taira-no-Kiyomori 
proceeded on a pilgrimage to Kumano. Availing themselves of this opportunity, Minamoto-no-Yoshitomo and Nobuyori 
Fujiwara rose in rebellion and besieged the Imperial Palaces occupied by the Emperors. Penetrating the Court the two 
leaders of the rebellion killed Michinori Fujiwara. On receipt of news of this extraordinary event Kiyomori hastened back 
to Kyoto and suppressed the rebellion, Yoshitomo and Nobuyori being executed. 

Emperor Takakura, the eightieth Sovereign, on ascending the Throne, admitted Toku-ko, a daughter of Kiyomori, 
to attend at Court. Emperor Antoku, the eighty-first Sovereign, was born to her. Minamoto-no-Yorimasa, who was the 
only influential representative of the Miuamoto family at the time, and who was over seventy years old, rose against the 
Taira family in the fourth year of the Jisho Era (1,180, A.D.), but was defeated. In spite of this, Minamoto-no-Yoritomo, 
third son of Yoshitomo, rose in Idzu province against the Taira family, while Miuamoto-no-Yoshinaka, his cousin, also 
rebelled in Shinauo province. Meanwhile Taira-no-Kiyomori died in Kyoto. The Taira family, assaulted by the forces of 
Ycshinaka and Yoritomo, evacuated Kyoto. 

Escorting Emperor Antoku, Munemori, the second son of Kiyomori, left Kyoto for Western Japan. Yoshinaka then 
entered Kyoto, the defences of which were strengthened by him in compliance with orders of the Cloistered Emperor 
Goshirakawa. Yoshinaka was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the whole forces of the Empire and acted in an autocratic 
manner far beyond his authority. Thereupon the Cloistered Emperor gave orders to Yoritomo to suppress Yoshinaka and 
the Taira family. 

Yoritomo, who had his headquarters at Kamakura, sent strong forces under his two younger brothers, Noriyori and 
Yoshitsune, to crush the Taira family. The result was that Yoshinaka was defeated and killed and the famous battle vvas 
fought at Danuo-ura, in the Inland Sea, between the forces of Minamoto and Taira in which the Taira, forces were nearly 
annihilated. Eraperor Antoku jumped overboard and sank to the bottom of the Inland Sea. This occurred in the fourth 
year of the Juyei Era (1185, A.D.). The whole of the Taira family, which exerted its influence over the country for a 
period of over twenty years, was ruined, to rise no more. 

Thus the Minamoto family regained its influence and Yoritomo established his military Government at Kamakura. 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE KAMAKURA PERIOD. 

Upon the death of Emperor Antoku in the Western Inland Sea, Emperor Gotoba, the eighty-second Sovereign, 
ascended the Throne. Tiie Cloistered Eraperor Goshirakawa, however, continued to carry on the administration of the 
country. Minamoto-no- Yoshitsune, after annihilating the Taira family's forces at the Dan-no-ura battle, entered the 
capital of Kyoto in triumph. Tiie Cloistered Emperor appointed him Commander of the Kyoto garrison in appreciation of 



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his distinguished services rendered in vanquishing the Taira family's militarism. Yoshitsune was the most clever and 
gallant General the country had ever produced, and he was only a little over twenty years old at the time. A division 
arose between Minaraoto-no- Yoshitsune and Minamoto-no-Yoritomo, the latter of whom had established his own military 
Government at Karaakura, and was the elder brother of the former. This was the outcome of malicious advice given 
to Yoritomo by some one who hated Yoshitsune, because of the latter's military achievements. Yoshitsune, accom- 
panied by Benkei and several other faithful followers, left Kyoto for North-eastern Japan, instead of engaging in an armed 
conflict with his elder brother. With the consent of the Cloistered Emperor, Yoritomo established Guard Stations at 
important places of the country in order to prevent the outbreak of disturbances on the one hand, and on the other to arrest 
Yoshitsune. Thus Yoritomo became practically the administrator of the country. It was then in the first year of the Bunji 
Era (1185, A.D.). Realizing that the Fujiwara family, the descendant of Hidesato, in Mutsu-no-Kuni in Nortii-eastern Japan 
was antagonistic to the Kamakura Government and protected Yoshitsune, Yoritomo sent an expedition against the Fujiwara 
family, who were annihilated. In the third year of tiie Kenkyu Era (1,192 A.D.) Yoritomo, with his forces, visited Kyoto 
and was received in audience by the Cloistered Emperor, who appointed him Commander-in-Chief of the whole forces of the 
Empire. Henceforward, with the exception of the Yoshino Court Period, lasting half a century, the country was governed 
for a period of 667 years by Military Regents, including the Tokugawa Administration. Siiortly afterwards the 
Cloistered Eraperor died and Emperor Gotoba assumed the Sovereign power. During the reigns of PImperors Tsuchimikado, 
Juntoku and Chukyo, Retired Emperor Gotoba continued to exercise the Sovereign power. In the Kamakura Government, 
Sanetomo, the Third Shogun (Military Regent), second son of Yoritomo, was assassinated by a priest named Kugyo 
belonging to the Minamoto family. Thereupon Masako Hojo, the mother of Sanetomo, with the support of Yoshitoki Hojo, 
who then assumed the office of Shikken (Assistant Regent), invited from Kyoto Yoritsune Fujiwara, who had a close 
blood relation with the Minamoto family, and appointed him Fourth Regent in Kamakura. The Retired Emjieror Gotoba, 
together with the Retired Emperor Juntoku, contrived a plan to crush the Kamakura Government, for the reason 
that the latter often ignored Imperial orders. The Kamakura Government sent a strong force to Kyoto, and in a battle 
fought between the two forces Retired Eraperor Gotoba suffered a defeat. The result was that the Retired Emperors Gotoba, 
Tsuchimikado and Juntoku withdrew from Kyoto to various districts, while Emperor Chukyo abdicated. Emperor 
Gohorikawa, the eighty-sixth Sovereign, then ascended the Throne. This was in the third year of the Jokyu Era 
(1221, A.D.), and the above conflict is known as the mutiny of the Jokyu Era. The foundations of the Kamakura Military 
Government thus became stronger than ever before. 

In Kyoto, Emperor Gohorikawa abdicated and was succeeded by Emperor Shijo, and then by Emperors Gosaga, 
Gofukakusa and Kameyama. The descendants of Eraperor Gofukakusa are known as the Jimyo-in line, and those of 
Eraperor Kameyama as the Daikaku-ji line. The former were always in favour of the Kamakura Government, while the 
latter were opposed to it. 

Prior to the establishment of the Kamakura Government, Tokimasa Hojo, the father of Yoshitoki, played a 
conspicuous part in assisting Yoritomo, the Founder of the Kamakura Government, in civil and military administration. 
After the death of Yoritomo and the assumption by Yoriiye of the office of the Second Regent, Tokimasa Hojo was 
appointed the Assistant Regent, in which office he was succeeded by Yoshitoki Hojo, and later by Ynsutoki Hojo. 
The administration conducted by Yasutoki was so generous that all classes of the people were satisfied. Seeing that the 
laws and regulations of the Daiho Era were no longer applicable to the existing conditions, a new law, called the 
Joyeishikiraoku, was enacted as a standard of tiie military administration. Tokiyori Hojo, grandson of Yasutoki, conducted 
State affairs in a satisfactory manner and discontinued the usage of appointing a member of the Fujiwara family as Military 
Regent. A Prince of the Blood was specially invited from Kyoto and appointed Regent. 

Japan was twice invaded by powerful forces of Mongolians, in the 11th year of the Bunyei Era (1274, AD.), 
when Emperor Kameyama, the Ninetieth Sovereign, occupied the Throne and Tokimune Hojo, son of Tokiyori, was Assistant 
Regent, and in the fourth year of the Koan Era (1281, A.D.) when Emperor Gouda, the Ninety-first Sovereign, occupied 
the Throne. The Mongolians at the time conquered the whole of Asia and then invaded Eastern Europe. Japan was the 
only country in the East which remained unconquerable. In the first invasion of Japan the Mongolians sent a large force 
of men and in the second invasion a force of over 100,000, but the enemy was each time defeated by the Japanese armies 
from Kyushu, Shikoku and other districts of the Empire. The enemy took possession of the Iki, Tsushima and other island* 
off Western Japan, but were unable to land in Kyushu and elsewhere. In the second invasion, a storm arose p.nd nearly 



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the whole of the Mougoliau fleet were capsized off Kyushu. In this campaign the Emperor Kameyama offered prayers to 
the gods and ancestors of the Imperial House, while Imperial messengers were sent to the Imperial Great Shrine in 
Ise province for the same purpose. In temples and shrines prayers were also offered. A priest named Kokakii, of the 
Shoden-ji Temple at Kyoto, in offering his prayer to Buddha, composed a poem which reads: — " Suye-no yo-no suye-no 
suye-made, waga-kuni-wa yorodzu-no kuni-ni mgure-taru kuni." (So long as the world lasts, may the Empire of Japan 
maintain her status as a superior and independent State). In the second Mongolian invasion, mention must be made of 
Michiari Kawano, an influential Magistrate of lyo province, who, with two small boats manned by several men each, ran in 
among several hundred vessels of the enemy and jumping aboard one of the enemy's biggest vessels put all the Mongolians 
to the sword and tooli the Commander prisoner. 

The fact that the Mongolians twice failed to conquer Japan was due to appropriate measures taken by the Hojo 
family, but after the close of the second Mongolian invasion the Kamakura Government began to suffer from flnnncial trouble 
Takatoki Hojo, grandson of Tokiraune, was far less frugal than his ancestors and neglected his duties as Assistant Regent. 

The Hojo family were in favour of Emperors belonging to the Jimyoin line, and interfered with the accession in order 
to prevent representatives of the Daikakuji line from ascending the Throne. Passing the reigns of Emperors Fushimi, 
Gofushirai, Gonijo and Hanazono, Emperor Godaigo, tlie ninety-sixth Sovereign, ascended the Throne. His Majesty belonged 
to the Daikakuji line and was an enlightened Monarch, being respected by all classes of the people. Realizing that 
Takatoki Hojo lost popularity on account of his maladministration, Emperor Godaigo, with the support of Prince Morinaga- 
Shinno, and other Generals such as Suketomo Hino and Toshimoto Hino, contrived a scheme to suppress the Hojo family. 
The Imperial scheme was also supported by forces comprising priests of the Yenryakuji and other temples at Nara and the 
samurai forces at Kyoto and neighbouring districts. Tiiereupon Takatoki sent a strong force to Kyoto. Emperor 
Godaigo established his headquarters at Mt. Kasagi in Yainashiro province and opposed the invaders, but was defeated. 
His Majesty was then removed to the Oki Island, while the Generals who supported the Emperor were all killed. This 
episode occurred in the first year of the Genko Era (1331, A.D.). Many loyal subjects in various districts, however, rose 
against the Hojo family. Conspicuous among the loyalists was Masashige Kusunoki, a famous General in the history of 
Japan, who was the descendant of Tachibana-no-Moroye, Sadaijin (Assistant Prime Minister in First Class) in the 
Nara Period, The ancestors of Masashige had resided at the foot of Mt. Kongo in Kawachi province for generations. 
While Masashige rose against the Hojo family, Morinaga-Shinno issued orders to loyalists in the country to rise against 
the Hojo family. In a battle fought at Yoshino between the loyalists and the forces under the Hojo family, 
the former were defeated and Morinaga-Shinno effected his escape. The castle of Masashige Kusunoki on Mt, Kongo 
remained intact against the siege of the Hojo forces. Other loyalists, including the Kawano family of Shikoku and the 
Kikuchi family of Kyushu, rose against the Hojo family one after another. Meanwhile Emperor Godaigo left the Oki 
Island and landed in Western Japan. His Majesty was received by a loyalist named Niigatosbi Nawa, of Hoki province, 
who rose against the Hojo family. Takatoki dispatched to San-in-do and Sanyo-do strong forces under the command of 
Takauji Ashikaga and other Generals to suppress the loyalists. Takauji revolted and took the side of the loyalists and 
then followed Emperor Godaigo to Kyoto. In obedience to the orders of Morinaga-Shinno, Yoshisada Nitta, 
another famous loyalist, rose in Kotsuke province against the Hojo family and made a descent upon Kamakura, the 
seat of the Hojo government. Attacking Kamakura from the sea-side of Inamura-ga-saki, Yoshisada penetrated the city 
and defeated the forces of Takatoki who, together with his attendants, committed suicide. The Kamakura Government 
was thus destroyed in the third year of the Genko Era (1333, A.D.). 

During the Kamakura Military Administration militarism was encouraged as far as possible, while various lines 
of social science were neglected. The study of the Japanese ode was, however, in vogue and many beautiful passages 
were composed by Emperor Gotoba and the succeeding Sovereigns. Among experts in this particular line of literature 
were Shunzei Fujiwara and his son, Teika Fujiwara, a priest named Saigyo and Minamoto-no-Sanetoino. In compliance 
with orders of Emperor Gotoba, Teika Fujiwara compiled a book, entitled the Shinkokin-waka-shu, which is a collection 
of master-pieces of odes and is highly valued at^ the present time. Among books describing warlike operations are the 
Hogea-monogatari, Heiji-monogatari and Heike-monogatari. lu picture-drawing there was Mitsunaga Tosa, who 
flourished in the latter part of the Heian Period, and a group of artists known as the Tosaye. During this period there 
were clever artists such as Nobusane Fujiwara aud Takakane Takashiua. In penmanship, Sonyen-Hoshinno, sou of Emperor 



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Fushimi, figured prominently and organized a group of experts under the title of the Shoren-in, which is now known &a the 
Oiyeryu style. Among prominent carvers were Unlcei and Jinkei. There were created many new sects of Buddhism. 
A priest named Yeisai, after prosecuting his studies in China, inaugurated a sect known as the Zen-shu which was followed 
by the Imperial Court and the Hojo family. A priest named Genku (also known as Honen-Shonin) established a new sect 
called the Jodo-shu, and another priest, named Shinrau, established theShin-shu or Ikko-shu, while Priest Nichiren founded 
a sect known as the Hokke-shu. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

THE YOSHINO COURT PERIOD. 

In the third year of the Genko Era the Emperor returned to Kyoto from Western Japan. His Majesty, with the 
aid of Prince Morinagii-Sliinno and other loyalists, carried out reforms in various lines of administration. Takauji 
Ashikaga was appointed Sangi (Chancellor of State) and granted the Court rank of Jo-zammi. He was a descendant 
of Minamoto-uo-Yoshiiye, and his ancestors have resided at Ashikaga, Shimosa province, for generations. Takauji, 
while enjoying tlie full confidence of the Emperor Godaigo was held in high esteem among military men belonging to the 
Kamakura Government. Availing himself of .this favourable situation, he plotted to grasp the reins of Government 
and awaited the arrival of an opportunity for the realization of his scheme. Yoshisada Nitta, like Takauji, 
was a descendant of Minamoto-uo-Yoshiiye and was granted the Court rank of Ju-shii, being next to Takauji. 
His ancestors resided at Nitta, Kotsuke province. Among other Generals and loyalists who were accorded similar 
honours were "Naoyoshi Ashikaga, younger i)rother of Takauji, Yoshisuke Wakiya, younger brotiier of Yoshisada, 
Masashige Kusunoki and Nagatoshi Nawa. 

Prince Morinaga-Shinno became aware of Takauji Ashikaga's plot and tried to deprive him of his authority. 
Takauji, however, forestalled Morinaga-Shinno and informed the Emperor that it was Morinaga-Shinno who schemed 
to grasp the reins of Government. His Majesty believed this and confined Morinaga-Shinno in a certain quarter in 
Kamakura. A disturbance was then created in Kanto (Eastern Japan), by remnants of the Hojo Government. 
Naoyoshi Ashikaga, who guarded Kamakura, was defeated by the insurgents and beat a retreat westward. 
On evacuating Kamakura, Naoyoshi murdered Morinaga-Shinno in confinement. Takauji prayed the Emperor 
for permission to go and rescue his younger brother, Naoyoshi, but this request was not granted for fear he might start 
a revolution. Takauji, by ignoring His Majesty's order, established iiimself in Kamakura. Thereupon the Emperor 
sent an expedition against Takauji. In a battle fought at Hakone between the Imperial army and the Ashikaga force, 
the latter was victorious and made a descent upon Kyoto which was soon occupied by the rebels. The Emperor, 
therefore, removed to Mt. Hiyei. At this critical moment, a loyalist named Akiiye Kitabatake, the Lord of Mutsu- 
no-Kuui, in North-eastern Japan, with a powerful force, arrived in R^oto and defeated Takauji, wlio fled to 
Kyushu. Hovvever, Takauji, with Naoyoshi, and other followers, managed to collect a strong force in Western Japan 
and then advanced upon Kyoto. By order of the Emperor, the loyalists under the command of Yoshisada Isitta and 
Masashige Kusunoki faced the Ashikaga force, but were defeated. Masashige committed suicide by harakiri at Minato- 
gawa (Kobe of to-day). Before his death, he told his younger brother, Masasuye Kusunoki, that he would, if possible, 
like to be born seven times in order to crush the rebels against the Imperial Court. In the 13th year of the Meiji Era 
(1880, A.D.), the late Emperor Meiji Tenno bestowed upon Masashige Kusunoki posthumous honours in recognition of 
his being a true loyalist, and granted him the first Court rank of Jo-ichii. The Minatogawa Shrine now in Kobe is 
dedicated to his memory. 

Emperor Godaigo again tried to crush the Ashikaga family, and established his military headquarters at Mt. Hiyei. 
His Majesty removed to Yoshino in the first year of the Yengen Era (1336, A.D.) and issued Imperial orders to the people 
of various districts to rise against the Ashikaga family. Yoshisada Nitta, in a battle with the Ashikaga force, was killed, 
while Akiiye Kitabatake also met the same fate. In August of the 4th year of the Yengen Era, Emperor Godaigo died 
at his temporary Palace at Yoshino without accomplishing his object. Emperor Gomurakami, the ninety-seventh 
Sovereign, then ascended the Throne. His Majesty, like his immediate ancestor, tried to crush the Ashikaga family, 
but without result. Masatsura Kusunoki, son and heir of Masashige, suffered a defeat at the hands of the 
Ashikaga force and died at Shijogawara in Kawachi province. Other loyalists, among them the Kikuohi family in 



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Kyushu, the Kitabatake family in Ise, and the Nitta family in the Kanto (Eastern Japan) were powerless to face the 
Ashikaga force. During the reign of Emperor Gokameyama, the ninety-eighth Sovereign, Yoshimitsu Ashikaga, a 
grandson of Takauji, sent Yoshihiro Ouchi to Yoshino and prayed the Emperor to return to Kyoto. His Majesty 
acceded to this proposal and returned to his Palace in Kyoto in order to put a stop to further disturbances in the country. 
Prince Motohito Shinno later ascended the Throne and was named Gokomatsu Teuno, being the ninety-ninth Sovereign. 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE MUROMACHI PERIOD. 

The Muromachi Period covers the seven consecutive reigns of Emperors Gokomatsu, Shoko, Gohauazono, 
Gotsuchimikado, Gokashiwabara, Gonara and Ogimachi, extending from 1392 to 1586, A.D. During this period the 
country was practically governed by the Ashikaga family. After the civil war in the Wo-nin Era, the Ashikaga family 
lost its authority and the whole country was thrown into a state of turmoil. For about a hundred years there were 
uprisings and disturbances in various parts of the country, and this period is known as a warlike or dark age. 

Takauji Ashikaga was desirous of establishing his government at Kamakura in order to control the State, but he 
was obliged to maintain his headquarters at Kyoto to keep a vigilant watch over the actions of the Imperial Court at 
Yoshino, which was opposed to the Ashikaga Administration. His second son, Motouji Ashikaga, was therefore stationed 
in the Kanto district to control Eastern Japan and the descendants of Motouji successively resided in the Kanto district. 
During the administration of Yoshimitsu Ashikaga, the government was established at Muromachi, Kyoto, and thus it is 
known as the Muromachi government. Yoshimitsu collected a large number of rare plants and flowers from various parts 
of the country and planted them at his official residence at Muromachi, which was then called the Hana-no-Gosho 
(Flowery Palace). At Kitayama, a suburb of Kyoto, he established a splendid villa and in the gardens there was erected 
an edifice, three storeys high, the ceilings of which were plastered with gold, as were also the inner walls. This edifice 
is called the Kinkaku and is still in existence. In compliance with a request of Yoshimitsu, Emperor Gokomatsu 
visited his villa, where His Majesty stayed twenty days, during which period the Emperor was entertained by various 
performances such as sarugaku (from which originated the " No " dance of the present day), shirabyoshi (dancing by 
women wearing men's costume), music, etc. AVith a view to preventing the recurrence of civil wars and uprisings 
which were so common during the Kamakura Period, Yoshimitsu established close marriage relations between the 
Imperial Court and his government, and from then the Muromachi government was perfectly free from any pressure 
brought to bear by the Imperial Court and its supporters. At the time Yoshimasa Ashikaga exercised his authority 
an uprising, known as the disturbance of the Wo-nin Era, broke out as a result of troubles between the Hatakeyama 
and Shiba families over questions of inhabitants. The two parties, with a force of over 100,000 men, fought in Kyoto 
and neighbourhood. Yoshimasa was powerless to suppress the disturbance, which continued for a period of eleven 
years, namely, from the first year of the Wo-nin Era (1467, A.D.) to the ninth year of the Bummei Era (1477, A.D.). 
The capital of Kyoto, including the Imperial Palace, ancient » temples a d shrines, together with treasures and 
Iwoks preserved for generations, were destroyed by fires consequent upju the continuation of hostilities. Yoshimasa, 
unlike the founder of the Ashikaga Administration, imposed heavy duties upon the people and indulged in 
luxurious living. Emperor Gohanozono warned Yoshimasa more than once to refrain from luxury and devote more 
attention to tiie country's administration, but without result. At Higashiyaraa, a suburb of Kyoto, Yoshimasa established 
a fashionable villa, the inner portion of which was plastered with silver, and it was called the Ginkaku. Emperor 
Gotsuchimikado called it the Higashiyama-dono (Higashiyama Palace). Yoshimasa collected a large number of curios, 
paintings and other valuable articles from various parts of the country and from China. Under the protection of 
Yoshimasa, various lines of fine art attained remarkable development, and in the history of fine arts this period, which 
is called the Higashiyama Period, marks an epoch. Among clever painters were Priest Sesshu, Motonobu Kano and 
Mitsunobu Tosa, while in carving Sukenori Goto was the leader. The lacquer and eartlienware industries also attained 
development. The ceremonial tea service, cut-flower arrangement, and the like were in vogue at the time. 

During the Muromachi Period very little attention was paid to the encouragement of science, but among kuge 
(court nobles) and priests ther^ were many scholars, and among samurai there were scholars such as Norizane Uyesugi and 
Dokan Ota. A famous book, entitled the Taihei-ki, compiled in the latter part of the Yoshino Court Period, is a great 



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work describing the battles during this period. In religious circles, the 2jen sect was most popular among various classes, 
and leading priests were appointed advisers to the Ashikaga government. The Shin sect was also popular, and the 
Honganji Temple collected large numbers of its believers as a demonstration ngainst the samurai class. With the exception 
of Kyoto and neighbouring districts, the whole country was then in a state of commotion, and the Ashikaga government 
was powerless to suppress uprisings. Conspicuous among the leaders were the Hojo family of the Kanto district, the 
Takeda family of Kai and Shinano provinces, the Uyesugi family, of Echigo province, the Imagawa family, of Suruga 
and Totomi provinces, the Ouchi and Mori families in Chugoku, the Chosokabe family, of Shikoku, and the Otomo and 
Shimadzu families in Kyushu. These leaders were all ambitious to grasp the reins of government. The famous battle 
fought at Kawaiiakajima between Shingen Takeda and Kenshin Uyesugi was not a mere struggle for the expansion of 
their respective territories but was the outcome of tiieir ambitious schemes. In the midst of disturbances Nobunaga Oda, 
of Owari province, rose, entered Kyoto and succeeded in grasping the reins of government in place ef the Ashikaga family. 

During the administration of Yoshimitsu Ashikaga, Japan had intercourse with China, and during the administra- 
tion of Yoshimasa Ashikaga with Korea, trade being carried on to a great extent. In the twelfth year of the Tenbun 
Era (1543, A.D.) when Emperor Gonara occupied tiie Throne, a Portuguese merchantman arrived at the Tanega-shima 
Islands, off Osumi province, Kyushu, and this was the first time Europeans came to Japan. European guns were thus 
first introduced to this country. Afterwards the various Dairayos in the open ports of Kyusiiu traded with tiie Portuguese, 
who introduced the Roman Catholic faith among the Japanese. The people in Western Japan, by organizing powerful 
expeditionary forces, crossed over to Korea and China, the littoral of which countries were all seized by tlie Japanese. On 
the Asiatic Continent the peoples regarded this as a revenge for the Mongolian invasions of Japan in tiie past. In this 
period the developnaent of Japan's shipping was remarkable. 

CHAPTER X 

THE ADZUCHI-MOMOYAMA PERIOD. 

This period covers the rtigns of Emperor Ogimachi, 105th Sovereign, and Emperor Goyozei, 106th Sovereign. 
The affairs of the State were administered by Nobunaga Oda and Hideyoshi Toyotomi successively. The former had 
his headquarters at the Adzuclii Castle in Omi province and the latter at the Momoyama Castle at Fushimi, Yamashiro 
province. Thus this period is known as the Adzuchi-Momoyama Period. 

Nobunaga Oda was a descendant of Taira-no-Shigemori and controlled Owari province. His father, Nobuhide 
Oda, was a loyalist and donated large sums of money as expenditure for the re-construction of, and repairs to, the 
Imperial Great Shrine in Ise province and the Imperial Palace in Kyoto. East of Owari province, there was a powerful 
General named Yoshimoto Imagawa, who establishing closer relations with the Takeda, Uyesugi and Hojo families, 
attempted to suppress Nobunaga and then to win tiie favour of the Imperial Court. At a battle fought at 
Okehazama, Nobunaga defeated Yoshimoto, who was killed. He then took possession of Mino province and resided 
in Gifu Castle thereby laying the foundations for grasping the reins of government. Emperor Ogimachi sent an 
Imperial messenger to Nobunaga, ordering the latter to suppress disturbances in various districts. Nobunaga 
was greatly impressed by the Imperial order and started to quell the disturbances. The Ashikaga family, though 
powerless, continued to officially look after State affairs, but in the first year of the Tensho Era (1573, A.D.) Yoshiaki 
Ashikaga, the last Regent of the Ashikaga family, was driven from Kyoto by Nobunaga and thus the Ashikaga 
Administration came to an end. Nobunaga joined hands with lyeyasu Tokugawa in Mikawa province and faced 
Shingen Takeda, Meanwhile Shingen died. His son, Katsuyori Takeda, opposed Nobunaga, but was crushed by 
the latter. Kenshin Uyesugi, who was as ambitions as was Shingen Takeda, made a descendant upon Kyoto, but 
died on the way. While Nobunaga was staying at the Houno-ji, Kyoto, he was suddenly attacked by Mitsuhide 
Akechi, who was in charge of Tamba province, and killed. Nobutada Oda, son and^heir of Nobunaga, was also killed 
at the same time. This was on June 2nd in the 10th year of the Tensho Era (1582, A.D.). In memory of Nobunaga 
Oda a shrine, called the Kenkun Shrine, is now established in Kyoto. 

Hideyoshi Toyotomi was a son of a poor individual named Yayemon at Nakamura, near Nagoya. When a mere 
child, his father died and he was brought up by a step-father. At the age of sixteen, he left iiis home to make a fortune 
and entered the service of Yukitsuna Matsudaira, a retainer of the Imagawa family, in Totomi province. He was so clever 



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aud sagacious that he was hated by his fellow-servants. He, therefore, returned home and entered the service of 
Nobuiiaga Oda. He was then named Tokichiro Kinoshita and married the daughter-in-law of Matayemon Asauo, who 
was an iiiflueatial retainer of Nobunaga .and who appreciated his wisdom. He gradually rose in rank and was 
appointed the Lord of the Nagahama Castle in Omi province, his family name being altered to Hashiba. By order of 
Nobunaga, Hideyoshi led a strong force to Western Japan and Kyushu to suppress the enemy. While engaged in the 
sweeping operations there, Nobunaga met an untimely death at Kyoto at the hands of Mitsuliide Akeehi, wlio was, 
however, attacked by Hideyoshi and killed. Hideyoshi thus occupied the foremost rank among all Generals belonging to the 
Oda and other influential families. Katsuiye Shibata, who was antagonistic to Hideyosiii, rose against the latter. In a 
battle fought at the Shidzu-ga-take in Oral province between Shibata and Hideyoshi, the latter scored a victory, which was 
mainly due to gallant fighting on the part of seven Generals, comprising Kiyomasa Kato, Masanori Fukushima, Yasuharu 
Wakizaka, Katsumoto Katagiri, Yoshiaki Kato, Nagayasu Hirano and Takenori Kasuya, all of whom were expert 
lancers. They are generally known as the Seven Lancers at the Shidzu-ga-take engagement. The Imperial Court 
granted Hideyoshi the Court rank of Ju-sliii and appointed him Sangi (Chancellor of State) in appreciation of his 
distinguished services. This was in the 11th year of the Tensho Era (1583, A.D.). Hideyoshi established the Osaka 
Castle in Osaka as his headquarters. The sister of Hideyoshi then married lyeyasu Tokugawa. In the 13th yearoftlie 
Tensho Era, Hideyoshi was raised to Ju-ichii in Court rank and practically became the administrator of the country. 
Emperor Ogiraachi granted Hideyoshi a family name known as Toyotomi and hereafter he was named Hideyoshi Toyotomi. 
Emperor Goyozei, on ascending the Throne, appointed Hideyoshi to the office of Dajo-daijin (Premier) and he also retained 
the office of Kampaku (Grand Chancellor of the Emperor) as before. In the 15th year of the Tensho Era (1587, A D.), 
Hideyoshi sent a powerful expedition, 200,000 strong, against the Shimadzu family in Kyushu, who were obliged to surrender. 
In the 18th year of the same Era, Hideyoshi, with 800,000 men, attacked the Hojo family at Odawara and destroyed them. 

Eastern Japan was given to lyeyasu Tokugawa. Masamune Date and other influential magistrates in Nortli-eastern 
Japan obeyed the dictates of Hideyoshi and tlius tranquillity was established in the country. Upon the death of Nobunaga, 
Hideyoshi took over his authority, and after the lapse of eight years Hideyoshi accomplished his ambitious designs. 

In addition to the Osaka Castle, which still exists, Hideyoshi established a temple called the Hokoji and a 
Daibutsu (great image of Buddha), in Kyoto. At Uchino, Kyoto, a splendid villa called the Shuraku was established. 
Hideyoshi invited to his villa Emperor Goyozei, and on this occasion there were present members of the Imperial family. 
Court Nobles, lyeyasu Tokugawa, Yoshiiye Mayeda, Nobuo Oda and other leaders. Availing himself of this opportunity, 
Hideyoshi addressed the brilliant assembly, urging the necessity of respecting and protecting the Imperial Court which 
was the centre of all activities. In promoting civilization and prosperity in Kyoto and elsewhere, Hideyoshi did every- 
thing in his power, with the result that the capital of Kyoto began to thrive aud its prosperity exceeded that of past years. 
Hideyoshi then retired from his official position and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hidetsugu. In the third year of 
tlie Bunroku Era (1594, AD.), Hideyoshi established the Momoyama Castle at Fushimi, Kyoto, and encouraged fine arts 
and science. Among clever painters of tiie day were Yeitoku Kaiio and Sanraku and his son. 

Hideyoshi concentrated his energy on the civil administration and adjusted the taxation. In estimating and 
measuring the crop of rice a new standard of koku was adopted. The rice crop in the country during the Bunroku Era 
amounted to 18,250,000 koku annually. The yield of the cereal in the districts under tiie jurisdiction of lyeyasu Tokugawa 
was 2,560,000 koku, and in this respect he occupied the foremost rank among all leading retainers under the Toyotomi 
Administration, followed by Terumoto Mori, who obtained 1,210,000 /fcoifcM, by Kagekatsu Uyesugi with 1,200,000 ^oirt, 
and by Toshiiye Mayeda with 1,040,000 koku. The digging of gold and silver at Sado Island, Iwami and Kai provinces 
was extensively carried on during this period. A noteworthy fact is that under the direction of Hideyoshi the work of 
moulding gold, silver and copper coins was started on a large fcale. 

Not satisfied with governing the country, Hideyoshi contrived a plan to conquer the whole of Asia, comprising 
Korea, China, India and other countries. He first sent a messenger to the King of Korea, informing the latter that as 
Japan would invade China the Korean Court should assist her in every way possible. The Korean King rejected 
Hideyoshi's proposal. In the first year of the Bunroku Era (1592, A.D.), Hideyoshi sent to Korea an expedition, 200,000 
strong, together with a naval force under the command of Yoshitaka Kuki and Takatora Todo, The headquarters were 
established at Nagoya in Hizen province, Kyushu. Hideyoshi, with a force of 100,000 men, stayed at the headquarters. 
Prior to this, Hideyoshi retired from the office of Kampaku and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hidetsugu. Hideyoshi 
then called himself Taiko. The Japanese expedition in Korea was under the leadership of Yukinaga Konishi apd 



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Kiyomasa Kato. After taking possession of Seoul, Phongyang and other regions in North Korea, Kiyomasa Kato 
advanced on Manchuria and made two Korean Princes prisoner. Meanwhile news reached the headquarters that the 
mother of Hideyoshi was dangerously ill. Hideyoshi, who lost his father in his boyhood, was brought up by his mother and 
it was quite natural that lie hesitated to cross over to Korea as originally planned. Emperor Goyozei sent an Imperial 
messenger to Hideyoshi warning him not to proceed to Korea. Thereupon Hideyoshi returned to Osaka. The result was 
the withdrawal of the expedition from North China and Korea. In doing this, an agreement was effected between Japan 
and North China that the southern half of Korea be given to Japan and that the northern half be regarded as a 
protectorate of Japan. In the first year of the Keicho Era (1,596 A.D.) there arrived in Osaka an Envoy from China, 
bringing with him a facsimile letter from the Chinese Emperor. From this, it was known that the provisions of the 
agreement above alluded to had been ignored by China and Korea alike. Hideyoshi was so greatly irritated that he sent 
another expedition, 140,000 strong, to the Continent. Among leaders of the expeditions were Kiyomasa Kato, Yukinaga 
Konishi, Hideaki Kobayakawa, Hidemoto Mori, Hideiye Ukita and Yosiiitaka Kuroda. On August 18th in the third 
year of the Keicho Era (1598, A.D.) Hideyoshi died at the Fushimi Castle, Kyoto, at the age of sixty-three. On the eve 
of liis death, Hideyoshi composed the following ode : — " Tsuyu-to ochi tsuyu-to kiye-nishi wagami kana, naniioa-no koto-mo 
yume-no mata yume." (Coming into existence like a morning dew, I am now disappearing from the world just as is the 
morning dew, and thejife of a man is but an empty dream and iiothing but a dream). In accordance with his will, the 
expedition to Korea was withdrawn. A shrine called the Toyokunidaimyojin was established in his memory. 

After Hidetsugu had assumed the office of Kampaku, Yodogimi, a favourite lady of Hideyoshi, gave birth to a boy, 
who was named Hideyori. At the time of the death of Hideyoshi, Hideyori was only six years of age. Hidetsugu was 
forced to commit suicide on suspicion that he had contributed a plan to take the life of his father-in-law, Hideyoshi. 
Thus Hideyori, the real son of Hideyoshi, succeeded to the office of Kampaku. In compliance with the will of Hideyoshi, 
lyeyasu Tokugawa and Toshiiye Mayeda assisted Hideyori in carrying on the administration. An ambitious General, 
named Mitsuiiari Ishida, who was a favourite of Hideyoshi, tried to create dissension between lyeyasu Tokugawa and 
Toshiiye Mayeda with a view to grasping the reins of government. Meanwhile Toshiiye Mayeda died, and naturally 
lyeyasu Tokugawa, who was then at Fushimi, Kyoto, gained influence. Mitsunari Ishida devised a scheme to crush 
lyeyasu Tokugawa, but was opposed by Kiyomasa Kato, Masanori Fukushima, Yoshinaga Asano, Terumasa Ikeda, 
Nagamasa Kuroda, Yostiiaki Kato and Tadaoki Hosokawa, all of whom were faithful Generals under Hideyoshi. 
Mitsunari Ishida, with the backing of Kagekatsu Uyesugi at Aidzu, rose against lyeyasu Tokugawa. At this time 
Hideyori, the real son of Hideyoshi, remained at the Osaka Castle. On the side of Mitsunari Ishida were Terumoto Mori, 
Hideiye Ukita, Hideaki Kobayakawa, Yoshihiro Shimadzu, Yoshinobu Satake, Yukinaga Konishi, and Morichika 
Chosokabe. After occupying various districts, including Kyoto and Osaka, the Ishida forces advanced eastward and 
entered Mino province. lyeyasu Tokugawa, who was staying at Oyama, Shimotsuke province, at the time, led his army 
westward to face the Ishida forces. The famous 'General, Kiyomasa Kato, was then at the Kumamoto Castle, Higo 
province, Kyushu, and supported lyeyasu Tokugawa. 

On the plain of Sekigahara in Mino province, a memorable battle was fought between lyeyasu Tokugawa and 
Mitsunari Ishida, the former having a force of 75,000 and the latter a force of 128,000. In the midst of the battle, 
Hideaki Kobayakawa revolted against Ishida, while Hidemoto Mori refrained from fighting tiie Tokugawa forces. The 
result was a crushing defeat of the Ishida forces. Thi» battle decided the fate of the whole situation and thus lyeyasu 
Tokugawa assumed the reins of Government. This was on September 15th in the fifth year of the Keicho Era 
(1600, A.D.) In the eighth year of the same Era lyeyasu Tokugawa established his Shogunate Government in Yedo 
(present Tokyo). 

Since the days of the Muromachi Court Period communication with the outside world has been carried on. Nagasaki 
and Hirato in Hizen province were the principal open ports. In addition to the Portuguese, the Spaniards traded at these 
ports and the Roman Catholic faith was introduced among the people in Kyushu and Western Japan. Under tlie joint 
efforts of Otomo, Arima and Omura, the influential families in Kyushu, an Envoy was sent to Rome in the lOth year of the 
Tenslio Era (15821, D.) wlien Emperor Ogiraachi ruled and governed the Empire. The Envoy, after being received by the 
Pope, returned home in safety. Nobunaga Oda granted the propagation of the Catholic faith and established in Kyoto a 
chapel called the Namban-ji. Hideyoshi, however, thougiit that the propagation of the Catholic faith was based on the 
policy of territorial aggrandisement and expelled foreign missionaries and religious workers from Japan. Foreign trade was, 
nevertlieless, encouraged by Hideyoshi, who permitted Japanese to sail as far as the South Pacific for commercial purposes. 



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CHAPTER XI. 

THE YEDO PERIOD. 

During two hundred and sixty-four years tlie Tokugawa family assumed the supreme office of the Military Regent 
at Yedo, the name of which was changed to that of Tokyo after the Restoration of 1868. This period may be divided into 
the following three sections: — First period: from the reign of Emperor Goyozei, the 106th Sovereign, in the eighth year of 
tlie Keicho Era (1603, A.D.) to that of Emperor Gokomyo, the 109th Sovereign, in the fourth year of tlie Keian Era 
(1651, A.D.). Second period : from the reign of Emperor G )komyo in the fourth year of the Keian Era to that of 
Emperor Sakuramachi, the 114th Sovereign, in the second year of the Yenkyo Era (1745, A.D.). Third period: from the 
reign of Emperor Sakuramachi in the second year of the Yenkyo Era to that of Emperor Meiji in the third year of the 
Keiwo Era (1867, A.D.). 

The first period covered the Military Regency, or Shogunate Government, under lyeyasu Tokugawa, first Sliogun, 
Hidetada Tokugawa, second Shogun, and lyemitsu Tokugawa, third Shogun. During this period various laws and 
regulations of the Military Government were adjusted and the foundations of the Tokugawa Administration consolidated. 
The second period covered the peaceful administration under the five Shoguns lyetsuna, Tsunayoshi, lyenobu, lyetsugu and 
Yoshimune, all of whom exercised their authority to the fullest extent. The third and final period comprises the 
administrations under lyeshige, lyeharu, lyenari, lyeyoshi, lyesada, lyemochi and Yoshinobu. During this period the 
Shogunate Government gradually lost its authority and power, the result being the Restoration in 1868. 

The first period covers the reigns of Emperors Goyozei, Gomidzuno, Meisho and Gokomyo. The Tokugawa family 
had its origin in the Nitta family, which belongs to the Genji or Minamoto family. lyeyasu Tokugawa was born at 
Okazaki, Mikawa province, in the 11th year of the Teubun Era (1542, A.D.), and liis father was named Hirotada 
Tokugawa. When a mere child, he was named Takechiyo, and at the early age of six he was sent to the Imagawa family 
as a liostage. On the way he has captured by the Oda family, who were opposed to the Tokugawa family. Takecliiyo was 
afterwards released and allowed to be taken to the Imagawa family as a hostage. Meanwhile his father, Hirotada, died and 
he succeeded to his father's territories, which were, however, placed under temporary control of Yoshimoto Imagawa, for 
the reason that he had not yet come of age. Upon the untimely death of Yoshimoto at the Okehazama battle in the 
third year of the Yeiroku Era (1560, A.D.), lyeyasu returned to his own territories Hud established friendly 
relations with Nobunaga Oda. lyeyasu then opposed Shingen Takeda. After the death of Nobunaga and Shingen, 
lyeyasu assumed an antagonistic attitude towards Hideyoshi Toyotomi, who was often defeated by the lyeyasu army. 
Peace was established between the two, and from then lyeyasu assisted Hideyoshi in carrying on the Military Administra- 
tion, lyeyasu was granted eight provinces in the Kanto district (Eastern Japan) and established his headquarters at Yedo. 
During the Muromachi Period, Dokan Ota, vassal of the Uyesugi family, built in Yedo liis castle, which was afterwards 
occupied by the Hojo family. This castle lyeyasu selected as his headquarters, and after the Restoration of 1868 the 
Imperial Palace was established in the compound of the castle. It was on August 1st in the 18th year of the Tensho Era 
(1590, A,D.) that lyeyasu m I'le his formal entry into the castle. After the death of Hideyoshi, lyeyasu assumed the Military 
Regency and granted large teiritories to all leading Generals on the side of Hideyoshi with a view to maintaining peace. 
The districts lying between Yedo and Kyoto were then occupied by members of the Tokugawa family and faithful vassals 
of lyeyasu in order to maintain communication with the Imperial Court In the eighth year of the Keicho Era (1603, A.D), 
Emperor Goyozei appointed lyeyasu Tokugawa Seiitaishogun (Commander-in-Chief of the whole forces of the Empire) and 
Udaijin (Assistant Prime Minister in Second Class). In the tenth year of the same Era, lyeyasu resigned the Shogunate 
and was succeeded by his son, Hidetada. lyeyasu then removed to Shidzuoka, but continued to attend to State afiairs. 

Hideyori Toyotomi, together with his mother, Yodogimi, was stationed at the Osaka castle built by Hideyoshi 
Toyotomi. After a series of battles with lyeyasu, Hideyori suffered a crushing defeat, with the result that he, with his 
mother and faithful retainers, committed suicide in the castle. Thus the Toyotomi family was destroyed. 

lyeyasu Tokugawa then enacted various laws and regulations relating to " Kuge " (court nobles), Daimyo and 
Samurai, besides encouraging various branches of science. On April 17th in the second year of the Genua (1616 A. D.) 
lyeyasu died in Shidzuoka at the age of seventy-five. Prior to. his death, he was promoted by the Imperial Court to the 
supreme office of Dajo Daijin (Premier), and Imperial messengers came from Kyoto to enquire after his condition. Xu 



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accordance with the will of lyeyasu, he was buried at Kuno-zan, Suruga province, but in the following year his remains 
were transferred to Nikko, where they now lie. Posthumous honours were given him in the form of the highest Court 
rank of Jo-ichii and the title of Toshogu. 

Hidetada Tokugawa, the second Shogun, faithfully followed the lines of administration bequeathed by lyeyasu, 
lyemitsu Tokugawa, the third Shogun, on assuming authority, introduced further reforms in various lines of administration 
with a view to consolidating the foundations of the Shogunate Government and promoting the imppiness of the people, 
lyemitsu's administration is generally known as the administration of the Kanyei Era, wliich covers a period from 1624 
to 1643, A.D. " Bushi " (highest class of samurai) who received over 10,000 kohu of rice annually were officially admitted 
as Daimyo, while samurai under tlie direct control of the Shogun, wliose annual allowances did not exceed 10,000 koku, 
were called " hatamoto," and the lowest class of samurai were known as "gokenin." In carrying on the administration, 
lyemitsu inaugurated three offices, called Tairo, Roju and Wakadoshiyori. The present splendid temples at Nikko were 
built under the direction of Ijemitsu, who also established a temple called the Kanyei-ji at Uyeno, Yedo, and asked tiie 
Imperial Court to have a Prince of the Blood stationed at the temple. This practice was carried on until the last days 
of the Shogunate administration. 

During the reign of Emperor Gomidzuno, lyeyasu Tokugawa prayed the Imperial Court for permission for his 
grand-daughter to marry Emperor Gomidzuno, but was rejected by Retired Emperor Goyozei. Meanwhile lyeyasu died. 
Through the good offices of Takatora Todo, the cherished desire of lyeyasu was finally realized when Kazu-ko, daughter of 
Hidetada, the second Shogun, became the Empress. In the sixth year of the Kanyei Era (1629, A.D.), Emperor Gomidzuno 
abdicated and the eldest Princess, named Oki-ko-Naishinno, ascended the Throne. Her Majesty was named Myosho Tenno, 
being the 108th Sovereign. In view of the fact that Her Majesty's mother was the daughter of Hidetada, the Tokugawa 
family was not only held 'in high esteem but consolidated the foundations of the Shogunate Administration more 
than ever. In 1644 A.D., the Empress abdicated and was succeeded by her younger brother, Tsuguhito-Shinno, when the 
name of the Era was ciianged to that of the Shoiio. The new Emperor was named Gokomyo Tenno. 

Upon the inauguration of the Shogunate Administration, lyeyasu Tokugawa prohibited the introduction to Japan of 
any religions from the West, as did Hideyoshi Toyotomi. Measures were, however, taken to establish communications, both 
diplomatically and commercially, witli Chosen and China, but tiie latter country suspected the true motives of lyeyasu and 
rejected the establishment of diplomatic relations witii Japan. Nevertheless, commerce was carried on between the Japanese, 
Ciiinese and Koreans. The navigation was more active than during the Toyotomi Administration, and Japanese vessels 
sailed as far as India, Ciiina and other quarters in the South PHci6c for trading purposes. In addition to Spain 
and Portugal, Holland dispatched to Japan its Envoy in the 14th year of the Keiclio Era (1609, A.D.). lyeyasu 
received the Envoy and accepted Holland's request to open commercial relations with Japan. In the 18th year of the same 
Era (1613, A.D.), an Envoy from Great Britain arrived in Japan and was received by lyeyasu and Hidetada, to whom he 
presented a facsimile letter from the British Sovereign, proposing to establish tradal relations with Japan. This proposal 
was accepted by the Shogunate authorities. 

Under the direction of a British subject named Mr. William Adams, who became nationalized and assumed the 
Japanese name of Anjin Miura, a number of large vessels was constructed upon the lines of European craft. In the 15th 
year of the KeichS Era, lyeyasu sent an Envoy to Mexico to engage in trade. Masamune Date, Lord of Sendai, dispatched 
to Rome his retainer, named Tsunenaga Hasekura, who, on his arrival in Italy, was received by tiie Pope and returned 
home in safety. Another hero, named Nagamasa Yamada, sailed as far as Siam on a Japanese vessel, suppressed an 
insurrection in that country and was entrusted by the Siamese King with the task of adjusting state affairs. Hideyoshi 
Toyotomi was the first to see that the introduction to Japan of the Roman Catholic religion and the propagation of its 
faith by Western missionaries were based on territorial aggrandizement. lyeyasu endorsed Hideyoshi's view, and 
upon the inauguration of the Tokugawa Administration this anti-Christian feeling become stronger than before. In the 
16th year of the Keicho Era (1611, A.D.), the Bakufu, or Shogunate Administrative Office, received secret information that 
the Japanese Catiiolic believers in Western Japan, with the backing of the navies of Spain and Portugal, contrived a plot 
to overthrow the Shogun Government. The following year the Matsu-ura family in charge of Hizen province received 
similar information, which was immediately forwarded to the Shogun in Yedo, In the 18th year of the Keicho Era 
(1613, A.D.) the Bakufu issued instructions prohibiting Spaniards and Portuguese from coming to Japan on either large 
ships or men-of-war for trading purposes. The Spaniards and Portuguese had, therefore, to come to Japan on small craft to 



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trade with the Japanese. Nagasaki and Hirato, in Kyushu, were the only ports opened to foreign trade at the time. This 
anti-fareigii measure was not so effective as expected by the Shogunate authorities in prohibiting the introduction to Japan 
of the Western religion, so long as the Japanese were allowed to navigate the open seas. In the 10th year of the Kanyei 
Era (1633, A..D.), lyemitsu Tokugawa issued orders prohibiting Japanese from leaving the country to trade with the 
outside world, except on the " shain-sen," the vessels specially granted by the Shogunate authorities. In the 13th year of 
the same Era Japanese were totally prohibited from leaving these shores even on the " shuin-sen." Several hundred 
Japanese men and women who had the mixed blood of Europeans were taken to Macao. The Japanese Catholic believers, 
some fifty thousand in number, at Shimabara, Arima, Amakusa and other districts in Kyushu rose in tumult against the 
Shogunate authorities, having established their headquarters at the Hara castle at Shimabara in Hizen province. In the 
14th year of the Kanyei Era (1636, A.D.), lyemitsu sent a powerful expedition against the insurgents, who were suppressed 
the following year. This is known as the insurrection of Shimabara. 

After the Shimabara insurrection the Bakufu adopted further rigid measures against the introduction of Western 
religion, with the result that witli the single exception of the Dutch all other Europeans were prohibited from landing on 
these shores. During a period of two hundred and twenty years, from the Kanyei to the Kayei Era, the policy of seclusion 
was carried on by the Bakufu, and in this interval the Japanese advanced in culture and accomplished various lines of 
science and arts peculiar to them. In fact, civilization was carried to a state of perfection. 

The second period covers the reigns of Emperor Gokomyo, Gosaiin, Reigen, Higashiyama, Nakamikado and 
Sakuramachi. 

lyetsuna Tokugawa, the fourth Shogun, maintained oflSce for thirty years in perfect tranquillity. Tsunayoshi 
Tokugawa then succeeded lyetsuna as the fifth Shogun. From the Genna Era (1615, A.D.) the people showed a tendency 
for luxurious living, and this became all the more remarkable in the Genroku Era under the reign of Emperor Higashiyama, 
from 1688 to 1703, A.D. Among leading Japanese scholars on Chinese classics were Rauzan Hayashi, Toju Nakaye, 
Banzan Kumazawa, Jun-an Kinoshita, Jinsai Ito, Sorai Ogyu and Yekken Kaibara. Conspicuous among dramatists was 
Monzayemon Chikamatsu who wrote various master-pieces. Tannyu Kano and Mitsuoki Tosa figured prominently as 
painters. Moronobu Hishigawa was also a clever specialist in drawing pictures known as " ukiyo-ye." It was during the 
Genroku Era that the famous Forty-Seven Ronin of Ako avenged the untimely death of tlieir Master. 

Tsunayoshi died after his thirty years' administration and was succeeded by lyenobu Tokugawa, the sixth 
Shogun. By securing the services of a scholar named Hakuseki Aral as an Adviser to the Shogunate Administration, 
lyenobu introduced reforms in the administration, but he died after maintaining the office of Shogun for only four years. 
lu the seventh year of the Hoyei Era (1710, A.D), Hide-no-Miya, younger brother of Emperor Nakamikado, established 
the Kan-in-no-Miya, The Bakufu presented a large tract of laud in favour of the Kan-in-no-Miya. Hitherto the 
Imperial family comprised Fushimi-no-Miya, Kyogoku-no-Miya and Arisugawa-no-Miya, Emperor Kokaku was a member 
of Kan-in-no-Miya, from whose lineage is descended the present Emperor. 

lyenobu was succeeded by lyetsugu Tokugawa as Shogun, but the latter died after four years' administration, 
Yoshimune Tokugawa, grandson of lyeyasu Tokugawa, in Kishu, assumed oflSce as the eighth Shogun and encouraged 
domestic industry and agriculture by establishing model experimental stations for sugar cane, potatoes, wood wax, herbs 
for medicine, etc. 0-oka Yechizen-no-kami, as the " Machibugyo " (Governor) of Yedo, was famous for his sound judgment 
in dealing with civil and criminal cases. 

In the second year of the Yenkyo Era (1745), Yoshimune retired from office and was succeeded by lyeshige Tokugawa. 
Yoshimune continued to exercise his authority for seven years. Yoshimune caused his two sons to reside at Tayasu and 
Hitotsubashi in order to further strengthen the foundations of the Tokugawa Administration. The ninth Shogun also 
caused one of his sons to reside at Shimidzu for the same purpose. The above three special houses of the Tokugawa family 
are known as " Gosankyo," 

In the third period, Emperor Kokaku, the 118th Sovereign, governed the State for thirty-eight years, namely, from 
the eighth year of the Anyei Era (1779, A.D.) to the 14th year of the Bunka Era (1817, A.D.). Emperor Ninko, the 
109th Sovereign, administered State affairs from the first year of the Bunsei Era (1818, A,D.) to the 11th year of the Tempo 
Era (1840, A.D.), 



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lyeharu Tokugawa, the tenth Shogun, was not so clever as was Yoshimune, and died in the sixth year of the Temmei 
Era (1786, A,D.). He was succeeded by lyenari, great grandson of Yoshimune, belonging to the Tokugawa family at 
Hitotsubashi. The eleventh Shogun, though young, was sagacious and appointed Sadanobu Matsudaira, Lord of Shirakawa 
Clan, Mutsu province, " Kochu " in order to assist the eleventh Shogun. Under his military administration there was a revival 
in commercial and industrial circles. In the eighth year of the same Era (1788, A.D.) the Imperial Palace in Kyoto was 
destroyed by a conflagration. Thereupon lyenari, with the advice of Sadanobu, started the work of re-building a new 
Palace on a larger scale than in past years. The Shishii-den, Seiryo-den and other buildings were at the same time re- 
constructed after the pattern of those in the Heian Period, The whole work was completed in the autumn of the second 
year of the Kansei Era (1790, A.D.). Emperor Kokaku and the retired Emperor Gosakuramachi highly appreciated 
lyenari and Sadanobu for their loyalty to the Throne thus far exhibited in a practical manner. His Majesty presented 
lyenari with a poem composed by himself, while Sadanobu received an Imperial sword and other articles. 

In the fourth year of the Kansei Era (1792, A.D.) a Russian Envoy arrived at Nemuro, Hokkai-do, having with 
him several Japanese shipwrecked-men and asked the Bakufu (Military Government) for permission to engage in trade 
with Japan. The Bakufu instructed the Envoy to proceed to Nagasaki and then approach the Bakufu on the subject. 
Sadanobu, in compliance with instructions from the Shogun, visited the coast districts and took measures to strengthen the 
national defence. The prosperity of Yedo was then at its zenith and civilization reached a stage of perfection. Among 
scholars of the day were Hakuseki Arai, Muro Kyuso, Ritsuzan Shibano, Nishu Bito and Seiri Koga. In the Japanese 
national literature Adzumamaro Katano, Mabuchi Kamo, Norinaga Motowori and Atsutane Hirata were conspicuous and 
these scholars urged the necessity of upholding the principles of loyalty to the Throne and patriotism. This culminated 
in the Restoration of 1868. Among novel-writers were Bakin Takizawa and Kyoden Santo. The printing business was 
extensively carried on at the time. 0-kyo Maruyama and Buncho Tani are famous as clever painters of the day. Hokusai 
Katsushika is universally known as a painter of " ukiyoye." From the days of Yoshimune Tokugawa European science was 
introduced to the country and as a result there were many specialists on astronomy, mathematics and Western military 
science. The costumes of men and women were more elegant and fashionable than during the Genroku Era. All classes 
of the people, however, began to gradually feel the economic pressure. During the Bunka Era another Russian Envoy 
arrived at Nagasaki to sign a commercial treaty, but without result. Russia, therefore, attacked Northern Japan, but 
through the good offices of a Japanese merchant, named Kahei Takataya, peace was restored. Meanwhile a British 
vessel penetrated Nagasaki without any previous notice and thus trouble arose. In the eighth year of the Bunsei Era 
(1825, A.D.) the Bakufu issued orders to all Daimyo in the coast districts to assault and expel all foreign vessels approaching 
these shores. 

Mitsukuni Tokugawa in Mito, with the aid of scholars, drafted a Japanese history known as the Dainihonshi. In 
these days there were not a few who were irritated witii the autocratic system of the Bakufu and who urged the necessity 
of restoring the Administration to the Imperial House. In the Kanyei Era there were many loyalists, among them 
Hikokuro Takayama and Kumpei Gamo. Through the medium of various books written by Rei-Sanyo and Nobunaga 
Motowori the principle of loyalty to the Throne was largely encouraged and later became universal. lyenari maintained 
office for 51 years, and was appointed by tiie Imperial Court Dajodaijin (Premier) with the Court rank of Juichii. In tiie 
seventh year of the Tempo Era (1836, A.D.) lyenari resigned and was succeeded by lyenobu Tokugawa. 

Emperor Komei, the 120th Sovereign, governed the Empire for 21 years, from the third year of the Koka 
(1846, A.D.) to the second year of the Keiwa Era (1866, A.D.). During this period the administration of the State was 
practically restored to the Imperial House. 

On June 3rd in the sixth year of the Kayei Era (1853, A.D.) Commodore Perry, with his Squadron, comprising 
four warships, arrived oflf Uraga and approached the Bakufu to open the country for international trade. Commodore Perry 
was received by a representative of the Shogun, to whom he handed a facsimile letter from the President of the United 
States. An arrangement was made that Commodore Perry should again visit Uraga the next year, when the Bakufu 
would sign a commercial treaty with the United States. Thereupon the Commodore left Uraga after a stay of ten days, 
lyeyoshi died ten days later and was succeeded by lyesada Tokugawa. Russia again sent her Envoy to Nagasaki to sign a 
commercial treaty, but the Bakufu asked him to come again in a year or two. In February of the first year of the Ansei 
Era (1854, A.D.), Commodore Perry, with seven warships, again entered Uraga and thence came to Kauagawa, threatening 



( 86 ) 

to steam up to Tokyo. The Bakufu was, therefore, obliged to sign a treaty of " friendship " with the United States, thereby 
agreeing to open Shimoda, of Idzu peninsula, and Hakodate for trading purposes. This was followed by the signii)g of a 
similar treaty with Russia, Great Britain and Portugal. 

After the arrival at Uraga of Commodore Perry, to force Japan to open her doors for international trade, public 
opinion was in favour of rejecting Europeans and Americans from landing on these shores, the Bakufu being censured for 
its weak policy in dealing with foreigners. Nariaki Tokugawa at Mito took the lead in starting a general demonstration 
against the Bakufu. Masaatsu Abe, who then held tlie office of " Rochu " in the Bakufu, maintained the view that it 
would be wise for Japan to open the country for international trade. Later he resigned office and was succeeded by 
Masahiro Hotta, who was of the same opinion as Abe in dealing with foreign affairs. The U.S. Consul-General Harris was 
permitted to enter Yedo and have an interview with the Shogun, to whom he submitted a proposal to sign a commercial 
treaty in addition to the treaty of friendship. The Imperial Court at Kyoto was, however, in favour of the anti-foreign 
agitation and rejected the application of the Bakufu for permission to conclude a commercial treaty with the United States. 
The Bakufu was consequently placed in a most awkward position. lu the fifth year of the Ansei Era (1858, A.D.), 
Naosuke li, Lord of the HikoTie Clan was appointed " Tairo " on the recommendation of Hotta in order to face the difficult 
situation. li saw the necessity of opening the country to international intercourse and appointed a Commission to hold 
negotiiitions with Mr. Harris on the subject. At Kanagawa, on June 19th of the same year, an American-Japanese 
Commercial Treaty, comprising 14 Articles, was signed, to come into force from June of the fullowing year. A similar 
treaty was then signed with Great Britain, France, Russia and Holland. These treaties remained in force until the 27th 
year of the Meiji Era (1894, A.D.) when Japan, witli the consent of the five countries, revised the treaties. In the treaties 
it was stipulated that within a certain period measures be taken to open Kanagawa, Nagasaki, Niigata and Hyogo to 
foreign trade, and that concessions be provided in Yedo and Osaka for the benefit of foreign merchants, while the system of 
extraterritoriality be inaugurated at the same time. 

lyesada having no heir, Yoshikatsu Tokugawa of Owari and otliers advanced a proposal that Yoshinobu Tokugawa 
of Hitotsubashi should be elected as his heir. li, however, rejected the proposal and recommended Yoshitomi, belonging to 
the Tokugawa family of Kishu, as heir. To this, lyesada gave consent This fact, coupled with the signing of commercial 
treaties with the foreign countries under li's management, greatly irritated various clans in the country. Agitations 
were started against li by the Mito Clan and in other quarters because of his autocratic actions. 

On March 3rd of the first year of the Manyen Era (1860, A.D.), li was assassinated by several " roshi " (samurai) of 
Mito at a point outside the Sakurada Gate leading to the Imperial Palace of to-day. 

Upon the death of lyesada in August of the fifth year of the Ansei Era, Yoshitomi was appointed Shogun, and his 
name was changed to that of lyemochi. In the first year of the Bunkyu Era (1861, A.D.) lyemochi married Princess 
Chika-ko the younger sister of Emperor Komei, the marriage being arranged through the medium of Nobumasa Ando, who 
held the office of "Rochu," and of Naotada Kujo who maintained the office of " Kampaku." Naosuke li, before he met 
his untimely death, expressed the hope that the Shogun would marry a Princess of the Blood in order to establish a union 
between the Imperial Court and the Bakufu By order of the Imperial Court, the Bakufu issued instructions to various 
Daimyo to attack foreign vessels on and after May 10th of the third year of the Bunkyu Era (1863, A.D.). Thereupon the 
Nagato clan bombarded foreign vessels in the Bakan Straits. In August of the first year of the Genji Era a united 
Squadron of Great Britain, the United States, France and Hollaud bombarded Bakan in retaliation. A peace treaty was 
signed between the Bakufu and the four countries, by which the Bakufu promised to pay indemnity. This is known as the 
Shimonoseki afiair. 

Prior to this, a British subject named Mr. Richardson was killed and two others were wounded at Namamugi near 
Kanagawa by some samurai belonging to Hisamitsu Shimadzu of Satsuma, for the reason that they did not pay due respect 
to an Imperial messenger whom Hisamitsu was escorting to Yedo. In June of the third year of the Bunkyu Era 
(1863, A.D.) a British Squadron entered Kagoshima Bay and bombarded Kagoshima. The Satsuma Clan paid an indemnity 
to England and thus peace was restored, the Bakufu having supplied the clan with necessary funds. This is generally 
known as the Namamugi affair. 

In the first year of the Keiwo Era (1865, A.D.) the Squadrons of Great Britain, America, France and Holland 
entered Osaka Bay and demanded the opening of Hyog) to foreign trade as pre-arranged. The Imperial Court became 



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aware of the fact that it was impossible to carry out its designs to keep foreigners away from tiiese shores. In the third 
year of the Keiwo Era (1867, A.D.) Hyogo (present Kobe) was opened to international trade. 

In the second year of the Keiwo Era, lyemochi died and was succeeded by Yoshinobu Tokugiiwa as the fifteenth 
Shogun. 

In December of the same year Emperor Komei died at Kyoto, when the Crown Prince, Mutsuhito Shinno, ascended 
the Throne on January 9th, of the third year of the Keiwo Era. A union was effected between the Satsuma and < Ihoshu 
clans, which were antagonistic to each other, and then a scheme wis mooted to upset the Bakufu Government and 
re-establish an Iraperinl regime. On the side of the Siitsuma Clan were Takamori Saigo (Elder Saigo) and Toshimichi 
0-kubo, wiiile the Chosliu Clan was represented by Ko-in Kido. Sliojiro Goto of the 'I'osa Clan, in his capacity as a special 
Commission, was dispatched to Kyoto, where Yoshinobu Tokugawa, tlie fifteenth and last Shogun, was then staying, and 
urged upon the latter the advisibility of returning the reins of Government to the Imperial Court. On October 14tli of the 
third year of the Keiwo Era (1867, A. D.) the Shogun acceded to tliis argument and returned the administrative riglit to the 
Throne. The following day the Emperor accepted the return to the Imperial House of the administrative power, thus 
marking the end of the Siiogunate. 

CHAPTER XII. 

THE PRESENT PERIOD. 

(The Meiji and Taisho Eras.) 

The Meiji Era covers a period from the third year of the iCeiwo Era (1867, A.D.) to the 45th year of the Meiji 
Era (1912, A.D.). The Taisho Era was inaugurated in tiie summer of the 45th year of the Meiji Era, when Meiji Teiiuo 
died and the present Emperor ascended the Throne. 

Upon the return to the Imperial Court of the administrative power. Emperor Meiji, being desirous of inaugurating 
a new Government, summoned to Nijo Palace, Kyofo, a number of influential Kuge, or Court nobles, among them Tomomi 
Iwakura and Tadayasu Nakayama, as well as powerful Daimyo comprising Yoshikatsu Tokugawa of the Owari Clan, 
Yoshinaga Matsudaira of the Echizen Clan, Toyoshige Yamanouchi of the Dosa Clan, Tadayoshi Shimadzu of the Satsuma 
Clan, and Nagakoto Asano of the Aki Clan. On December 9th of the third year of the Keiwo Era (January 3rd, 
1868 A.D.), an Imperial Edict was issued announcing the Restoration of the Imperial Regime. At the same time all the 
offices of the Shogunate Administration were abolished and there was inaugurated three new offices known as the Sosai, 
Gitei and Sanyo. H I.H. Prince Taruhito Shinno Arisugawa-no-Miya was appointed Sosai. To the office of Gitei were 
appointed H.I.H. Prince Yoshiaki Shinno Ninnaji-no-Miya (later known as Akihito Shinno Komatsu-no-.Miya), and 
H.I.H. Prince Akira Sliinno Yamashina-no-Miya, three Court nobles comprising Tadayasu Nakayama, Sanenaru Ogimachi 
and Tsuneyuki Nakaraikado, and five Daimyo, Yoshikatsu Tokuguwa, Nagakoto Asano, Toyosliige Yamanouchi, Yoshinaga 
Matsudaira, and Tadayoshi Shimadzu. Other Court nobles, including Tomomi Iwakura and Siiigenori Ohara, were 
appointed Sanyo. The leaders of the five clans, including Takamori Saigo and Toshimichi Okubo, representing the Satsuma 
Clan, Shojiro Goto and Takachika Fukuoka, representing the Tosa Clan, were also appointed Sanyo, i hus tlie new Meiji 
Government was established. 

The Boshin Campaign.— A number of " Daimyo," including Kataraori Matsudaira, of the Aidzu Clan, and 
Sadanori Matsudaira, of the Kuwana Clan, with tlia backing of the hatamoto samurai and others siding with the Shogunate 
Government, rose against the Imperial Court. For the organization of the new Imperial Government neither Yoshinobu 
Tokugawa nor the " Daimyo " of the Aidzu, Kuwana and other clans were invited to Kyoto, and this fact greatly irritated 
the Daimyo in opposition to the restoration of the Imperial regime. On January 3rd of the first year of the Meiji Era 
(1868), a battle was fought at Toba and Fushimi, near Kyoto, between the Imperial and the Shogunate forces, the latter of 
whom forced Yoshiraobu Tokugawa, who was then staying at Osaka, to lead the campaign against the Imperial Court. 
After four days' fighting, the Shogunate force was defeated and Yoshinobu Tokugawa, together with Kataraori Matsudaira 
and Sadanori Matsudairs, left Osaka f)r Yedo on a warship. For the purpose of crushing the remnants of the Shogunate 
force the Imperial Court appointed Prince Taruhito Shinno Commander-in-chief of the Imperial armies. Taruhito Shinno, 
with Takamori Saigo as Chief of the Staff, made a descent upon Yedo through the Tokai-do, Tosan-do and Hokuriku-do. 
Yoshinobu took refuge at the Kanyei temple at Uyeno (now Uyeno Park), ia Yedo and sent Awa Katsu to the headquarters 



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of the Imperial forces to tender an apology for his hostile action taken against the Imperial House while in Osaka. In 
April of 1868 the Imperial forces entered Yedo and took possession of the Yedo castle (now Imperial Palace) and warships 
belonging to the Shogunate gcvernment. Yoshinobu was then taken to, and detained at, Mito in Hitachi province. Under 
the direction of the Imperial Court, lyesato Tokugawa (now President of the House of Peers) of Tayasu succeeded the main 
house of tlie Tokugawa family and was granted 700,000 hoku of rice annually, raised in Suruga and Totomi provinces, for 
the maintenance of the house. He then resided at Sliidzuoka. The remnants of the Shogunate force organized a party 
called the Shogitai, stationed at Uyeno, Yedo. Kamajiro Enomoto, in command of eleven warships, including the Kaiyo 
and Kaiten, belonging to the Shogunate force, fled to Hakodate from Yedo. Keisuke Otori in command of the remnants in 
Yedo and elsewhere fled to Shimo«a province. Katamori Matsudaira of the Aidzu Clan, with the Wakamatsu castle as his 
headquarters and with the backing of several other Daimyo in Sendai, Yonezawa, Morioka, Nagaoka and otlier district-, 
opposed the Imperialists. On May 15th of 1868 the Imperialists attacked the Shogitai force at Uyeno, with the result that? 
the latter was crushed and the Kanyei Temple burnt. The Imperialists then besieged the Wakamatsu castle, which was 
occupied by the besiegers in September. Meanwhile Keisuke Otori and other remnants joined Kamajiro's naval force at 
Hakodate. With Goryokaku as their headquarters the remnants made their last stand there against the Imperial force, but 
were defeated. The whole of the battles are known as the Bosliin-no-yeki, or Boshin campaign. 

The Meiji Administration. — Being desirous of informing the people of the Empire and the rest of the world as 
to the basic principle for the Rtstoration, His Majesty the Emperor on March 14th, 1868, proceeded to the Shishiiden, 
Kyoto, and took an oath before the gods and ancestors of the Imperial House for the exercise of the following Five Great 
Principles : — 

1. Public meetings shall be organized, and administrative aflfairs shall be decided by general deliberation. 

2. Governors and governed alike shall devote themselves to the good of the nation. 

3. All the civil and military officials shall endeavour to encourage individual industries in all classes, and to call 
forth their active characteristics. 

4. The defective customs hitherto prevailing shall be corrected. 

5. Useful knowledge shall be introduced from the outside world, and thus the foundations of the Empire shall be 
aggrandized. 

On August 27th of the first year of the Meiji Era (October 12th, 1868, A.D.), the Enthronement was conducted at 
the Shishiiden. On July 18th an announcement was made by the Imperial Court that the seat of the new Government 
be removed from Kyoto to Tokyo. Jn September a new Era called the Meiji was inaugurated. 

On October 13th the Emperor arrived in Tokyo and entered the Yedo castle, which was converted into the Palace 
and re-named the Tokyo castle. In December, His Majesty left Tokyo for Kyoto, where an Imperial wedding ceremony was 
performed between the Emperor and Princess Haru-ko, third daughter of Tadaka Ichijo, one of the Five Court Nobles. 
In March, 1869, Their Majesties the Emperor and the Empress left Kyoto for Tokyo. In July of the same year, there were 
inaugurated two offices, one named the Shinki-kan and the other Dajo-kan, while six Departments of State were also 
established, comprising the Imperial Household, Foreign Affairs, Finance, War, Civil and Criminal. The Shinki-kan, 
pertaining to the Gods and Imperial ancestors, was the highest of all, and the Dajo-kan controlled the six Departments of 
State. In the Dajo-kan there were the offices of Sadaijin, Udaijin, Dainagon and Sangi. The office of Sadaijin was left 
unoccupied and Sanetomi Sanjo, as the Udaijin, administered the affairs of State. Later the Civil and Criminal Departments 
were converted into the Departments of Home Affairs and Justice. The War Department was divided into the Navy and 
Army. The new Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, Education and Communications were established. In the 18th 
year of the Meiji Era (1885, A.D.) the present system of the Cabinet was organized. 

The Abolition of Feudalism. — In compliance with the suggestion made by Toshimichi 0-kubo and Ko-in Kido, 
the Daimyo of the Satsuma and Choshu clans were the first to return their fiefs to the Imperial Court, and this was soon 
followed by the Daimyo of all other clans in the Empire. In June of the same year the Imperial Court accepted the 
surrender of tlie fiefs by all the Daimyo, who were appointed magistrates of the districts where they had formerly exercised 
their autonomic power. The old system of fiefs was then changed to that of Fu (comprising Tokyo-fu, Kyoto-fu and 
Osaka-fu) and Ken (Prefecture), all of which were placed under the direct control of the Imperial Court. The three 



( 89 ) 

distinguished classes of Old Japan, comprising Kugyo, Kuge and Daimyo, were aboliahed and converted into Peers. The 
gamarai in Tarious clans were also abolished and converted into a class named "sbizoku." The quantity of rice raised in 
the Empire at the time totalled 33,300,000 koku and there was a population of 33,600,000. On July 14th of the fourth 
year of the Meiji Era (1871, A.D.) an Imperial Edict was issued abolishing the fiefs and inaugurating Ken or Prefecture, 
with the result that the Daimyo who were appointed magistrates of the districts within tiieir jurisdiction, as stated above, 
were released from the new office and replaced by local Governors. At the same time, three Fu comprising Tokyo-fu, 
Kyoto-fu and Osaka-fu were formally inaugurated, while 72 Prefectures were also inaugurated. Thus the feudalism which 
had been in existence for several hundred years was totally abolished. In the 22nd year of the Meiji Era (1889, A.D.), the 
72 Prefectures were reduced to 43 Prefectures. 

The Envoy to Europe.— In October of the fourth year of the Meiji Era (1871, A.D.) the Emperor sent Tomorai 
Iwakura, First Assistant Premier, to Europe and America as an Envoy, for the purpose of studying the conditions in 
tiiose civilized countries and revising the treaties signed with the various Powers during the Ansei Era. His suite com- 
prised Koin Kido, Chancellor of the State, Toshimichi Okubo, Minister of Finance, and Hirobumi Ito, Vice-Minister of 
Public Works. In the Ansei treaties it was provided that the treaties might be revised after the lapse of 171 months, and this 
was one of the reasons why the Envoy was dispatched to the West. The Envoy was courteously received by the Governments 
and people of the countries he visited, but the time was still premature for Japan to revise the treaties. Therefore, the 
Envoy simply studied the organization of Governments and conditions in the Western countries and returned home in 
September, 1873. The result was the introduction of Western civilization and matters concerning military science, 
education, taxes and laws were remoulded on the Western lines. In the second year of the Meiji Era (1869, A.D.) the 
telegraph service was first inaugurated between Tokyo and Yokohama, while the railway service was first opened between 
the two cities in 1872. The postal service was inaugurated in 1871 and post-cards issued in 1873. All classes of the 
people other than the samurai, wlio were accorded the title of " Shizoku," were called " heimin," or commoners. The 
people belonging to the ex-samurai and other classes were prohibited from wearing the sword, as during the feudal days. In 
November, of the fifth year of the Meiji Era (1872, A.D.) the old lunar calendar was abolished and the Western calendar 
was adopted. In this connection an announcement was made that December 3rd of the same year. should be generally 
regarded as January 1st of the sixth year of the Meiji Era in accordance with the Western calendar. 

His Majesty the Emperor, as Grand Marshal, assumed the command of the naval and military forces which 
were organized on AVestern lines. Four Military Divisions were established in Tokyo, Sendai, Osaka and Kumamoto. 
Aritorao Yaraagata, Vice-Minister of War, and others, visited Europe and a conscription service system was adopted in 
January, 1873. Two more Divisions were inaugurated in Nagoya and Hiroshima. Awa Katsu, a leading figure on the 
side of the Shogunate before tiie Restoration of 1868, was appointed Vice-Minister of the Navy. In 1874, Naval Stations 
were established in Yokosuka and Kagoshima. 

In the last days of the Shogunate the Kingdom of Korea discontinued the custom of sending to Japan its Envoy at 
regular intervals. After the Restoration of 1868, the Meiji Grovernment dispatched a special mission to Korea to renew the 
old custom, hut this proposal was flatly rejected. The result was the starting of an agitation against Korea. General 
Takamori Saigo was the first to advance a proposal to send an expedition to Korea in order to conquer the peninsula. This 
proposal was endorsed by five Chancellors of State, namely Shojiro Goto, Taneomi Soyejima (Minister of Foreign Afiairs), 
Shinpei Eto (Minister of Justice) and Taisuke Itagaki. On the other hand, two Chancellors of State, Shigenobu Okuma 
and Takato Ogi, and Awa Katsu were opposed to tiie proposal. After a series of Ministerial Conferences a resolution 
was finally passed in favour of the proposal, but it was agreed that until tiie return of Toraomi Iwakura, the Japanese Envoy, 
from Europe the dispatch of an expedition to Korea be postponed. Meanwhile the Envoy returned home and urged the 
necessity of adjusting internsl afTairs instead of sending an expedition to the peninsula. Thereupon Takamori Saigo resigned 
office and returned to Kagoshima, his native country. This was in 1873. Shojiro Goto, Taneomi Soyejima, Shimpei Eto 
and Taisuke Itagaki followed suit. Major-Generals Toshiaki Kirino and Kunimoto Shinowara also resigned office and re- 
turned to Kagoshima. Hirobui Ito, Awa Katsu and Munenori Terashima were appointed Chancellors of State. Under the 
guidance of Tomomi Iwakura, the three new Chancellors of State, together with Chancellors of State Toshimichi Okubo, Shige- 
nobu Okuma and Takato Ogi, conducted Stateaffairs. The office of Dajo-Daijiu (Premier) was maintained by Sanetomi Sanjo. 

Formosa and Saqhalien. — In 1871, a party of the people in theLoochoo archipelago was shipwrecked and landed 
in Formosa, The party was massacred by the Formosans. In the early days of the Tokugawa administration the Loochoo 
was subjugated by the fchimadzu family of Kyushu and has since remained a territory of Japan. In 1872, " King " Sho 



C 90 ) 

of the Loochoo was created a Japanese Peer and has since resided in Tokyo. The Loochoo Clan was abolished and converted 
into Okinawa Prefecture. Several Japanese from Oda Prefecture were later massacred by the natives of Formosa. The 
Japanese Government then referred the massacre affairs in Formosa to the Peking Government, when the latter replied 
that the aborigines who massacred the Japanese shipwrecked-men were totally outside the sphere of China's influence. 
In April, 1874, therefore, an expedition, under the command of Lieut.-General Tsukumichi Saigo (younger brother 
of Takamori Saigo), was sent to Formosa. China raised objection against the sending of Japan's expedition to Formosa. 
Toshimichi Okubo, Minister of Home Affairs, was dispatched to Peking as an Envoy to explain the reasons for the 
sending of the Japanese expedition to Formosa. Tiie British Minister in Peking intervened, and the result was that 
China yielded to Japan's contention for the dispatch of her expedition. In December of the same year the expedition 
returned home. In sending the expedition the Japanese Government purchased from abroad 13 steamers which, after the 
return of the expedition from Formosa, were placed at the disposal of the Mitsu Bishi & Co., the forerunner of the Nippon 
Yusen Kaisha, in order to encourage navigation. 

Since the days of the Shogunate no definite boundary had been established between Russia and Japan. In order to 
settle this outstanding question, in May, 1875, Japan issued instructions to Takeaki (Kamajiro) Enomoto, Japanese 
Minister in Russia, to discuss and solve this question with the Northern Power. Arrangements were then made to tiie 
effect that the whole of the Kurile group be regarded as a territory of Japan, while Saglialien belonged to Russia. 

The Civil War. — Prior to the outbreak cf the Satsuma Rebellion, or Civil War, in the tenth year of the Meiji 
Era (1877, A.D.), there were in the districts many minor disturbances created by tliose who were antagonistic to the Meiji 
Administration. In February, 1874, the malcontents of the Saga Clan in Kyushu revolted, with Shinpei Eto, ex-Chancellor 
of State, as their leader, and took possession of the Prefectural Office building. An expedition was sent thither and the 
uprising quelled, Shinpei Eto being taken prisoner and executed. In October, 1876, a party of samurai, called the Jinpu- 
ren, belonging to the Kumamoto Clan in Kyushu, rose in tumult and killed the Commander of the Kumamoto Division, but 
the uprising was soon suppressed. 

In January, 1877, the War Office Intended to remove the plant for manufacturing shells from Kagoshima to Osaka. 
To this, the samurai class under Toshiaki Kirino, Kunimoto Shinowara and other leaders objected. Takamori Saigo seems 
to have been swept away by the tide of enthusiasm on the part of the samurai, who were anxious to have Takamori as their 
chief leader in starting a rebellion. On February 15th of the same year a rebellion was actually started in Kagoshima, in 
Satsuma province. His Majesty the Emperor, who was then in Kyoto, appointed H.I.H. Prince Taruhito Bhinno 
Commander-in-Chief of the expeditionary forces against the rebellion. His Highness being assisted by Lieut.-General 
Aritomo Yaraagata in the land campaign, and by Vice-Admiral Kawamura in the naval warfare. The expeditionary 
forces numbered over 60,000 and the insurgents 40,000. The insurgents besieged the Kumamoto castle, the headquarters 
of the Kumamoto Division, under the command of Major-General Tateki Tani, who withstood the siege until strong 
reinforcements arrived and dispersed the besiegers. After seven months' fighting the insurgents retreated to Shiroyama in 
Kagoshima, where they made their last stand. On September 24th the final battle was fought there between besiegers and 
insurgents, with the result that Takamori Saigo and other leaders were either killed or died at their own hands. The 
rebellion was thus brought to a close. The Government spent over ¥40,000,000 in suppressing the rebellion. After the 
civil war decorations, ranging from the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum to the Eighth Class Imperial Order, were 
accorded the officers and men who distinguished themselves during the campaign. 

Takamori Saigo, Ko-in Kido and Toshimichi 0-kubo are regarded as the three great men of the Restoration period. 
Ko-in Kido died during the Satsuma rebellion, while Toshimich 0-kubo was killed in 1878 by an assassin who was an 
admirer of Takamori Saigo. 

The Constitution. — In the seventh year of the Meiji Era (1874 A.D.), the opinion was advanced by several leaders 
in Government circles in favour of inaugurating a National Assembly on Western lines. Among the advocates of this 
system of administration were Taneomi Soyejima, Shojiro Goto, Taisuke Itagaki and Shimpei Eto. Ko-in Kido was the 
first to propose the enactment of a fundamental law of administration, namely a Constitution. In 1875, a Gubernatorial 
Conference was for the first time convened in Tokyo for the purpose of improving various lines of administration and 
developing commerce and industries. Under the leadership of Taisuke Itagaki, those in favour of opening a National 
Assembly memorialized the Government on the subject. On October 12th, 1881, an Imperial Edict was issued announcing 
the opening of a National Assembly at no distant future. Another special announcement was later made that in the 23rd 



I 



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year of the Meiji Era (1890 A.D.) a National Assembly be actually opened. lu 1882, Hirobumi Ito was sent to European 
countries to study the Constitution and systems of Government there. The following year he returned home and started the 
work of drafting a Constitution. On July 20th of the same year Tomomi Iwakura, died. He was really the leading pillar 
in building up the new Japan. In 1884, a Peerage embodying the five ranks of Prince, Marquis, Count, Viscount and 
Baron was inaugurated. 

In 1885, radical reforms were introduced in the oflScial organization of various Departments of State. The Dajo-kan 
Office was abolished and replaced by a Cabinet. Tiie offices of Dajo-Daijin, Sadaijin, Udaijin, Sangi and other branches 
of administration were abolished, and there were inaugurated the new offices of Premier and Ministers of State comprising 
Foreign Affairs, Home Affairs, Finance, War, Navy, Justice, Education, Communications, and Agriculture and Commerce. 
The Imperial Household Department was inaugurated at the same time. Upon the resignation of Prince Sanetomi Sanjo as the 
Dajo-Daijin (Premier), Count Hirobumi Ito was appointed Premier of the new Cabinet. The Grand Keeper of the Imperial 
Seals was also appointed and taken up by Prince Sanetomi Sanjo. In 1888, the Privy Council was inaugurated as the 
Highest Board of Advisers to the Throne. Count Hirobumi Ito was appointed President of the Privy Council, being released 
from his former office. Count Kiyotaka Kuroda was appointed Premier. Count Hirobumi Ito, with the iielp of Ki Inouye 
and Miyoji Ito, then proceeded to Natsushima, Soshu, to draft a Constitution. Upon the compilation of the draft Constitution, 
it was submitted to the Privy Council for discussion and approved. The Constitution of the Empire of Japan was thus enacted. 

In ] 873, the Imperial Palace in the compound of the Yedo castle was destroyed by fire and Their Majesties removed 
to the Akasaka Detached Palace, the grounds of which were formerly owned by the Tokugawa family of Kishu. In 1884, 
a plan was drawn up for constructing new Palace buildings at Nishimaru in the compound of the Yedo castle, and the work 
on the new Palace was completed in October, 1888. In January of the following year, Their Majesties removed to the new 
Palace. On February 11th of the same year, the anniversary of the accession of the first Emperor Jimmu, the new 
Constitution was promulgated. Their Majesties, on this auspicious occasion, received greetings from members of the 
Imperial family, Ministers of State, Privy Councillors, the Corps Diplomatique in Tokyo, Peers, and a large number of high 
officers and officials. A Military Review was held the same day at the Aoyama Parade-ground. Imperial messengers were 
sent to the Great Shrine at Ise, and the Mausolea of the first Emperor Jimmu and Emperor Komei, the father of Meiji 
Tenno, to report the great event. Amnesty was granted and posthumous honours were accorded leading loyalists and 
patriots in the country. 

With the promulgation of the Constitution the Imperial House Law whs drafted and enacted, thereby strengthening 
the foundations of the Imperial House. On November 3rd of the same year Prince Yoshihito Shinno was officially proclaimed 
as Heir Apparent. In 1890, the Diet was first convoked in Tokyo. On February, 19th, 1891, Prince Sanetomo Sanjo died. 
He, together witli Tomomi Iwakura, constituted a pillar of the new Japan and during his life-time lie was accorded the 
highest court rank of Jo-ichii. 

The Tkeaty Revision. — In the 27th year of the Meiji Era (1894, A.D.), Viscount Munemitsu Mutsu, Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, opened, through Viscount Shuzo Aoki, Japanese Minister in London, negotiations with the British Govern- 
ment for revising the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation. The text of a revised Treaty was then exchanged between the two 
countries on condition that the new agreement should become operative after the lapse of five years computed from the date 
on which it was signed. The other countries followed the example set by Great Britain, and in 1897 the revision work was 
completed. The result was the abolition of extraterritoriality in Japan, whose people came to enjoy the same right as 
Europeans and Americans. The revision of the Treaties with the other Powers was not an easy task for Japan, because 
her position among the Powers was not so well recognized as at the present time. After the re-organization of the 
administrative machinery in 1885, Count Hirobumi Ito, who held the office of Premier at the time, with Count Kaoru 
Inouye, Minister of Foreign Affairs, approached the various Powers with a proposal to revise the Treaties, but witliout 
result. During the Kuroda Administration, Count Shigenobu Okuma, Minister of Foreign Affairs, made another attempt 
for the same purpose but was unsuccessful. 

The Sino-Japanese War. — The war with China in 1894-95 had its origin in political strife in Korea (later 
Chosen), which had been the bone of contention between Japan and China. 

In September, 1875, — after the proposal advanced by Elder Saigo to subjugate Korea had been disapproved by tiie 
Tokyo Government — a Japanese warship was suddenly fired upon by a Korean garrison at the Koka Island in Korean 
waters. Japan, therefore, sent an Envoy to Korea and demanded an explanation. The following year a treaty of 



( 92 ) 

friendship was signed between the two countries, and the Korean Government tendered an apology for the offence committed 
against a Japanese man-of-war. Japan then recognized Korea as an independent country. At that time the Progressives 
in Korea were eager to improve the system of administration under Japan's guidance, but the Conservatives in the 
peninsula relied upon China for the purpose. In 1882, the conservatives attacked tlie Japanese Legation and concession in 
Seoul. Yoshimoto Hanabusa, Japanese Minister in Seoul, barely escaped with his life and returned home. The Japanese 
Government dispatched to Korea a naval and military force which escorted Yoshimoto Hanabusa as far as Chemulpo, or 
Jinsen, where a conference was held between the Minister and the representatives of the Korean Government. A treaty was 
signed between the two countries and is known as the Chemulpo treaty, according to which Korea paid Japan compensation 
for losses of, and damage to, lives and property of the Japanese. In 1884, another collision occurred in Seoul between a 
Japanese and Chinese force, the latter of which liad been specially invited by the conservatives in Korea from China in 
order to suppress the influence of Japan in the peninsula. The Japanese Legation building in Seoul was burnt by the Chinese 
force, who killed many Japanese. Shin-ichiro Takezoye, the Japanese Minister in Seoul, effected his esc»pe to Chemulpo. 
In 1885, the Japanese Government sent to Korea Count Kaoru Inouye, Minister of Foreign Affairs, as an Envoy under a 
strong guard of the navy and army. After a series of negotiations the Korean Government apologized for the offence and 
paid compensation therefor. Yuan Shih-kai, who was stationed in Seoul as China's Representative, went so far as to 
interfere with internal affairs in Korea. For the issue of the collision between the Japanese and Chinese forces in Seoul, 
Japan was of the opinion that China should to a certain extent he held responsible, and in 1885 Count Hirobumi Ito, the 
Minister of the Imperial Household, was dispatched to Cliina as an Envoy to hold negotiations on the subject At Tientsin a 
conference was opened between the Envoy and the Li Fung-chang, at which an agreement was reached that neither Japan 
nor China should in future station her troops in Korea, and that if necessity arose for either party to dispatch its force to 
the peninsula each should communicate the matter to tiie other. This agreement is known as the Tientsin treaty. 

In 1894, a disturbance was created by a party of Koreans called the Togaku-to. The Korean Government was power- 
less to suppress the disturbance. Availing himself of this opportunity. Yuan Siiih-kai, Cliinese Minister in Seoul, induced 
Korea to ask China to send her forces in order to quell the disturbance. In June of the same year a Chinese force, under the 
command of the military Governor of Chihii Province, landed at Gazan, Korea. Thereupon Japan also sent a strong 
force to Korea to guard the Japanese Legation and the Japanese residents in Seoul and elsewhere. Japan then approached 
China with a suggestion to co-operate and introduce radical reforms in the peninsular administration. To this China 
objected. Keisuke 0-tori, Japanese Minister in Seoul, advanced a suggestion to the Emperor of Korea to introduce 
radical reforms in the administration. The Emperor gave consent to the suggestion and asked the Japanese Minister to 
take prompt measures to drive the Chinese forces from the peninsula. Meanwhile the Peking Government sent a strong 
force to Korea. En route Chinese forces, under the escort of Chinese warships, encountered a Japanese Squadron off the 
Hoto Island and an engagement ensued, with the result that the Chinese suffered a defeat. This affair occurred on July 
25th, 1894. Shortly afterwards a land battle was fought at Gazan, KoreH, between the Japanese and Chinese forces, in 
which the latter were defeated. On August Ist Japan declared war against China, and in September His Majesty left 
Tokyo for Hiroshima, where the headquarters were established and where the Emperor stayed during the war. The 
General Staff Office, under charge of General H.I H. Prince Akihito Shinno, organized the First Corps under the command 
of General Count Aritomo Yamagata, comprising tlie troops of the Fifth Division, under Lieut.-General Viscount Michitsura 
Nodzu, and the Third Division, under Lieut.-General Taro Katsura, while the Second Corps, under the command of General 
Count Iwao Oyama, was composed of the First Division under Lieut.-General Baron Motoharu Yamaji, the Second 
Division under Lieut.-General Baron Samata Sakuma and the Sixth Division under Lieut.-General Taraemoto Kuroki. 
Landing at Chemulpo, these forces advanced upon Peking, and by March, 1895, the whole of Korea and the Liaotung 
peninsula were taken possession of by Japan. The United Japanese fleet, under the command of Vice- Admiral Yuko Ito, 
had an engagement with the Chinese fleet in the Yellow Sea, the result being the crushing defeat of tlie latter. In 
February, 1895, the Japanese navy, in co-operation with the army, attacked the Chinese naval base at Weihaiwei, which 
was soon captured. The result was the destruction of the Chinese navy and Admiral Ting Ju-chang, in command of the 
Chinese fleet, committed suicide. Japan then occupied the Pescadores and Formosa. 

On March 16th, an Imperial Edict was issued announcing that a Special Staff Office, called theSeishiii-Dai-S;)toku-fu 
(Grand Governor-General's Office for conquering China) be inaugurated at the front in order to take possession of Peking. 
General H.I.H. Prince Akihito Shinno was appointed Governor-General of the new Office. 



( 93 ) 

Seeing that further resistance against Japan in arms was useless, China proposed to sue for peace, and appointed Li 
Fung-chang as an Envoy to conduct peace negotiations. Thereupon the Japanese Government notified China that the peace 
conference be held at Shimonoseki. As the result of the conference, at which Japan was represented by Count Hirobumi 
Ito, the Premier, and Viscount Muneraitsu Mutsu, Minister of Foreign Affairs, a peace treaty embodying eleven Articles 
was signed on April 17th, 1895. China thus recognized the independence of Korea and agreed to concede to Japan 
the Liaotung peninsula, Formosa and Pescadores, besides paying 200,000,000 taels as indemnity. This is known as the 
Shimonoseki Treaty. Russia, France and Germany approached Japan with a proposal to return to China the Liaotung 
peninsula, contending that the permanent possession by Japan of the peninsula would prove a menace to the peace of the 
Far East. Japan asked Russia to re-consider the proposal and referred the matter to Great Britain and the United States, 
but none of tiiese Powers made a favourable reply. Under the triple pressure, therefore, Japan returned the Liaotung 
peninsula to China on May 10th of the same year, and received from China 30,000,000 taels as compensation therefor. 
During the war Japan sent to Formosa an expedition, comprising the Imperial Body-guard under the command of Lieut.- 
General H.I.H. Prince Yoshihisa Shinno Kitashirakawa-no-Miya and the Second Division under Lieut.-General Maresuke 
Nogi, to take possession of the Island. In the midst of the sweeping operations Prince Yoshihisa Shinno contracted a 
malady to which he finally succumbed. General H.I.H, Prince Taruhito Shinno also died at the headquarters at 
Hiroshima during the oampaign. Upon tlie conclusion of the war, decorations, including the Orders of the Golden Kite 
and the Peerage, were conferred on officers and privates as well as civilians who had rendered distinguished services to the 
State during the operations. 

In January, 1897, H.I.M. Empress Dowager Eisho died at the Aoyama Detached Palace and her remains were 
buried at Nochino-tsukinowa, Kyoto. Her Majesty was a daughter of Lord Naotada Kujo, who held the oflBce of 
" Kampaku " (Grand Chancellor of the Kraperor). 

In May, 1900, the Crown Prince (Yosiiiliito Shinno) married Princess Sadako, the fourth daughter of Prince 
Michitaka Kujo. The wedding ceremony was conducted at tiie Imperial Palace in the presence of Their Majesties the 
Emperor and Empress, at which were present members of the Imperial family, Ministers of State, the Corps Diplomatique 
in Tokyo and a large number of high officers and officials. 

The interference of Russia, France and Germany, whereby Japan was obliged to return the Liaotung peninsula to 
China, stimulated the minds of the Japanese so greatly that they recognized tiie necessity of enlarging the navy and army. 
Under a ten-year programme, the navy was expanded from 1896, while the army was enlarged from seven to thirteen 
Divisions. At the same time measures were taken to develop commerce and industries. With the vessels purchased from 
abroad during the war with China, new lines of steamers were opened between Japan and Europe, America, Australia and 
other quarters under charge of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha and Osaka Shosen Kaisha. The Toyo Kisen Kaisha was 
established soon after the close of the war. 

The Boxer Trouble. — The Sino-Japanese War disclosed the fact that China was in a helpless condition in arms 
and other organizations. Taking advantage of this, Germany secured from China the lease of Kiaochow, Russia of Port 
Arthur and Dairen (Daluy), Great Britain of Wei hai-wei and France of the Kwanchow Bay. The situation in China 
was sucli that she might be partitioned among the Powers. In 1899, anti-foreign agitations were started in Chihli, 
Shantung and other districts, with the result that many foreigners, including missionaries, were killed. The insurgents 
then besieged the Legation quarters in Peking. A united force was, therefore, organized by Great Britain, Russia, France, 
America, Germany, Italy, Japan, Austria-Hungary, Spain, Belgium and Holland. Japan dispatched to China the troops 
of the Fifth Division under the command of Lieut.-General Baron Motoomi Yamaguchi. On August 14th the united force 
reached Peking and saved the Legations. This anti-foreign agitation is known as the Boxer trouble. In September of 
tlie following year agreements were reached to the effect that China shall pay the foreign countries concerned 450,000,000 
taels as indemnity. In suppressing the Boxer uprising the efficiency of the Japanese soldiers was universally recognized 
among the Powers. 

The Anglo-Japanese Alliance and the Russo-Japanese War. — The Boxer trouble gave Russia an op- 
portunity to carry into effect her Far Eastern policy. Having secured from China the lease of Port Arthur and Dairen, 
Russia devised various plans in Manchuria for the realization of her end and stationed strong forces there. At the same 
time, Russia tried to implant her influence in Korea and drive Japan from the peninsula, thereby menacing the peace of 
the East. Japan, therefore, approached Russia with a proposal not to interfere with the internal affairs of Korea and the 
two countries agreed to refrain from interfering with Korea. 



( 94 ) 

In January 1902, an Alliance was established between Great Britain and Japan with a view to maintaining the 
peace of the Far East and preserving the integrity of China and Korea. Thereupon Russia declared that the Franco- 
Russian Alliance in force be applied to the Extreme East. 

Russia continued to push forward her aggressive policy in the East to such an extent that the independence of Japan 
was threatened. On February 6th, 1904, Japan severed diplomatic relations with Russia, when a united fleet under the 
command of Vice- Admiral Heihachiro Togo left Sasebo Naval Station for Port Arthur to attack the Russian Squadron 
stationed there, the battleship Mikasa being used as the flag-ship. A Russian Squadron then stationed in Chemulpo was 
attacked and annihilated by a detachment of the Japanese united fleet. 

Field Marshal Marquis Iwao Oyama was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese armies, with General 
Baron Gentaro Kodama as Chief of Stafi". The first army corps under General Baron Tamemoto Kuroki won the initial 
victory over the Russians on the Yalu and advanced westward. The second army corps under General Baron Yasukata 
Oku landed at the Liaotung peninsula and after sweeping away the enemy from the peninsula, joined the Kuroki army. 
The first and second armies then advanced northward. The third army corps, under General Baron Maresuke Nogi, 
besieged Port Arthur. The fourth army corps, under General Count Michitsura Nodzu, constituted the main force. 
Liaoyang was occupied by the combined Japanese forces in September and Shaho in October. General Kuropatkin, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Russian forces, retreated to Mukden. The Russian Squadron in Port Arthur was bottled 
up by Togo's fleet. In January, 1905, Port Arthur capitulated and General Stoessel, in command of the Russian 
garrison in the stronghold, surrendered. The four Japanese armies then made a descent upon Mukden, where the Russian 
forces comprised over eleven Divisions, 500,000 strong, with 1,300 guns. The Japanese armies consisted of thirteen 
Divisions and other auxiliary forces of all arms, numbering altogether 350,000, with 1,100 guns. On February 27th the" 
Japanese forces assumed the offensive and on March 10th Mukden was occupied. In this battle, the Japanese lost 40,000 
in killed and wounded, while the losses sustained by the Russians numbered 100,000 in killed and wounded, 40,000 Russians 
being taken prisoner. 

Meanwhile the Baltic Squadron, comprising 38 vessels, under the command of Admiral Rozhdestvensky, was approach- 
ing Japan, coming via the Cape. On May 27th a memorable battle was fought in the Japan Sea between the Japanese and 
Baltic fleett, the latter of which was annihilated. Only two Russian warships efiected their escape and reached Vladivostock. 
Admiral Rozhdestvensky and six thousand Russians were taken prisoner. In this engagement, not a single vessel was lost on 
Japan's side. A Japanese force was later dispatched to Saghalien and the whole of the Island was occupied. In June, 
1905, President Roosevelt of the United States advanced a proposal to Japan and Russia to conclude peace. This proposal 
was accepted by the belligerents and Japan appointed Baron Jutaro Komura, Minister of Foreign AflTairs, Chief Com- 
missioner to conduct peace negotiations with Russia. Kogoro Takahira, Japanese Minister in Washington, waa 
appointed a Commissioner to assist Baron Komura in the negotiations. Russia appointed Count Witte Chief 
Commissioner, Baron Rozen, the Russian Minister in Washington, being appointed a Commissioner. Peace negotiations 
were conducted at Portsmouth and a peace treaty was signed in October. On the 14th of the same month the treaty was 
ratified by the Emperor of Japan. It provides, among other things, that Russia shall recognize Japan's special right in 
Korea and hand over the concessions at Port Arthur and Dairen, together with the southern half of Saghalien. 

The Japanese naval and military forces then leturned home in triumph. In November, 1905, the Emperor visited 
the Imperial Great Shrine at Ise and reported to the gods enshrined therein the brilliant victory won by Japan over Russia 
in the war. This was followed by a naval review in Tokyo Bay and a military review at Aoyama Parade-ground to 
celebrate the victory. The war funds spent by Japan amounted to ¥1,508,000,000. 

The Post Bellum Administration.— Upon the conclusion of peace, Japan established at Port Arthur the 
Governor-General's Office of Kwantung Province which comprises Port 'Arthur, Dairen and neighbouring districts. The 
South Manchuria Railway Company was at the same time organized to work the railways and other enterprises south of 
Changchung which were received from Russia. In Japanese Saghalien, or Karafuto, the Civil Administrative Office was 
established. In view of the fact that the outbreak of the two wars with China and Russia had its origin in Korea, Japan 
concluded in November, 1905, a special treaty with Korea, according to which Japan established in Seoul the Governor- 
General's Office in order to deal with diplomatic affairs of Korea and maintain peace in the peninsula. Marquis Ito 
was appointed the Governor-General of Korea. The Emperor of Korea schemed against Japan to free his country from 
the Japanese administration, but the plot was disclosed. In July, 1907, the Emperor abdicated by way of repentance and 



C 95 ) 

the Crown Prince ascended the Throne. Marquis Ito concluded another treaty with Korea and thus secured for japan tbe 
right of controlling all internal aflairs in the peninsula. In October of the same year the Crown Prince (Yoshihito Shinno) 
of Japan (present Emperor) visited the Court of Korea and as a result the Crown Prince of Korea (now Prince li) came to 
Japan for the prosecution of his studies under the protection of the Japanese Imperial Court. In Japan, various commercial 
and industrial enterprises were started and by the end of 1905 the total length of railways in Japan Proper reached 5,000 
miles. After the Russo-Japanese War, the Japanese Government recognized the necessity of nationalizing railways in the 
country, and thus nearly all the private railways were purchased by the authorities. The army was enlarged from six to 
nineteen Divisions comprising 1,500,000 men, while the navy is represented by over 600,000 tons. 

In August, 1905, the Anglo-Japanese Alliance was renewed for the second time and in June, 1907, au Agreement 
was signed between France and Japan for the purpose of protecting mutual interests on the Asiatic Continent and 
maintaining peace in the Orient. In August, 1907, a similar Agreement was concluded with Russia. In 1908 another 
Agreement was effected with the United States for the preservation of peace. 

The Annexation of Korea. — On October 26th, 1909, Prince Ito was assassinated at Harbin by a Korean who 
was backed by many anti-Japanese elements. He was succeeded by Viscount Sone as Governor-General of Korea. 
In May, 1910, Viscount Sone resigned office and was succeeded by General Viscount Masakata Terauchi, who on August 
>22nd of the same year carried out the annexation of Korea to Japan. With the annexation of Korea, its name was altered 
to that of Gliosen. 

The Death of Empebok Meiji Tenno. — On July 30th, 1912, H.I.M. Emperor Meiji died in Tokyo at the age of 
sixty-oue, having ruled the Empire for more than forty years. During his reign, Japan secured a position among the Powers 
as a first class Power and several important Imperial Edicts were issued for encouraging science and industries. On October 
13th, 1910, an Imperial Edict, known as the Boshin-Shosho, was made public, warning the people to exercise thrift and 
strive hard for the promotion of the country's position. The funeral of Emperor Meiji was conducted at Aoyama, Tokyo on the 
night of September 13th in accordance with ancient customs. His remains were buried at Momoyama, Kyoto, on the 15th of the 
same month. His Majesty composed hundreds of thousands of poems, which are quite sufficient to indicate that the Emperor 
was really an enlightened Sovereign. Among the Imperial poems is one which reads : — " Tokoshiye-ni tami yasukare-to 
inoru-naru, waga yo-o mamore Ise-no 0-gami " (We always pray that Our subjects will enjoy peace and tranquillity for 
ever. Oh, Our Great God of Ise ! May Our Empire be safe under Your protection). 

While the Imperial hearse containing the remains of Emperor Meiji was leaving the Imperial Palace on the night of 
September 13th, Count and Countess Nogi committed suicide at their residence in Tokyo to follow the spirit of the deceased 
Emperor. General Count Maresuke Nogi was a great loyalist and patriot of modern Japan and he is universally regarded 
as the hero of the Port Arthur siege. 

Immediately upon the deatli of Emperor Meiji the Crown Prince Yoshihito ascended the Throne and the name 
of the Meiji Era was changed to that of the TaisliS, An Imperial Edict was issued announcing that H.I.H. Prince 
General Sadanaru Shinno Fushimi-no-Miya and H.I.H. Prince Admiral Takehito Siiinno Arisugawa-no-Miya should assist 
the new Emperor in carrying on the administration. His Majesty also granted a similar message to the Genro, comprising 
Field Marslial Prince Aritoino Yamagata, Field Marshal Prince Iwao Oyama, General Prince Taro Katsura, Marquis 
Masayoshi Matsukata and Marquis Kaoru Inouye. 

The Death of Empress Dowager Shoken. — On April 11th, 1914, H.I.M. Empress Dowager Sliokeu died in Tokyo 
at the age of sixty-four. After the funeral of Her Majesty had been conducted at Aoyama in a manner similar to that of 
Emperor Meiji, Her remains were taken to Kyoto and buried at Fushimi-no-Momoyama-no-Higashi, near the mausoleum of 
Emperor Meiji. 

The War with Germany. — In the summer of 1914, war broke out among European nations on account of 
Germany's ambitions to conquer the whole of Europe. In strict accordance with obligations imposed on her by the terms of 
tiie Anglo-Japanese Alliance, Japan declared war against Germany on August 23rd of that year. An expedition consisting 
of the troops of the Eighteenth Division and other contingents drawn from various Divisions, under the command of 
Lieut.-General Mitsuonii Kanno, was dispatched to Shantung Province, China, to capture Tsingtao, the German nival and 
military stronghold in the Far East. The Second Squadron under Vice-Admiral Sadakichi Kato was at the same time 
dispatched to Kiaochow to blockade the Bay, where several German warships, togetlier with an Austrian man-of-war, 



( 96 ) 

were statione;!. In November, the stronghold was stormed and occupied by the Japanese forces. Admiral Waldeck, in 
command of the German garrison there, with his staff, was taken prisoner. Japan then inaugurated a military administra- 
tion in Kiaochow. ■ The Japanese navy, wliile engaging in sweeping operations in the Pacific and elsewhere, took 
possession of the group of the Marshal and Caroline Islands in the South Pacific, which belonged to Germany. 

New Treaty with China. — In May, 1915, there was signed between Japan and Ciiina a new treaty, according to 
which China agreed to extend the lease of Port Arthur and Dairen to 99 years in Japan's favour, besides recognizing the 
special rights and privileges of Japan in South Manchuria and East Mongolia. It was further arranged that China siiall 
not permit other countries to either lease or secure the islands and the coast lines of Shantung and other Provinces, while 
China shall not permit the other Powers to establish naval and military stations along the coast of Fukien Province. All 
these agreements with China were effected during the Okuma Administration. In the autumn of 1915, the entiironement 
of the present Emperor was conducted at Kyoto, at which Count Okuma, representing the whole of the Japanese people, 
had the honour of tendering greetings to His Majesty on the great national event. 



AFTERMATH OF THE ENTHRONEMENT CEREMONIES IN 1915. . 

SpHE Enthronement and other festivities were originally arranged to be conducted in the Autumn of 1914, the period of 
tS mourning for the death of H.I.M. Emperor Meiji Tenno having expired on July 30th, 1913. Owing to the death of 
H.I.M. Empress Dowager Shoken on April 11th, 1914, the above programme had to be postponed for a period of one year 
and thus the Enthronement ceremonies were performed in the Autumn of 1915. 

The Commission of the Grand Ceremonies of the Enthronement comprised the following : — 

H.I.H. Field Marshal Prince Sadanaru Shinno Fushimi-no-miya, Commissioner-in-Chief of Grand 
Ceremonies. 

Prince Hiromichi Takatsukasa, Grand Chamberlain to the Emperor, President of Commission. 

Other members of Commission were : — 

Baron Junjiro Hosokawa, Privy Councillor; Viscount Miyoji Ito, Privy Councillor; Dr. Tasuku Egi, 
Chief Secretary of the Cabinet; and Mr. Kenzo Ishiwara, Vice-Minister of tlie Imperial Household. 
Following are leading members of other departments inaugurated in regard to the festivities : — 

Count Ujitaka Toda, Chief of the Department of Festivities. Prince Hirokuni Ito, Assistant Chief of the 
same Department. 

Mr. Saburo Baba, Chief of the Department of Supplies. 

Mr. Tokuma Katayama, Chief of the Department of Construction. 

Viscount Kototada Fujinami, Chief of the Department of Vehicles. 

Dr. Hanjiro Furukawa, Chief of the Department of Railways. 

Mr. Yuko Hamaguchi, Chief of the Department of Accounts. 

The expenditure of the Enthronement and other festivities was ¥8,000,000. 

In honour of the grand ceremonies of the Enthronement posthumous honours were bestowed upon a large number of 
the deceased royalists and patriots. 

The sum of a million yen was granted to all Prefectures in Japan Proper and over-sees territories for charitable 
purposes. 

An amnesty was granted and a number of prisoners released. 

Decorations ranging from the highest to the seventh class order were presented to officers, officials, business men, 
bankers, journalists, educationalists and others. Among the recipients were members of Embassies and Legations in 
Tokyo. Aged persons above 80 years of age, numbering 374,698 in all, were granted certain sums of money and a sak6 
cup bearing tlie Imperial Crest. 

Several persons were created peers, with the title of Baron, in appreciation of services rendered to the State as 
officials, scholars and business men. 



C 97 ) 



ERAS OF THE REIQN* OF THE VARIOUS EMPERORS OF JAPAN. 







je.D. 






A.D, 




A.D. 






A.D. 


1st Year 


ofTaika 


645 


6th Year of Yoro 


722 


18th Year of Yenryaku .. 


799 


I8th Ye 


ar of Jogan 


876 


2nd 


» »» 


646 


7th 


„ „ 


723 


19th 


800 


1st 


„ Gengyo 


877 


3rd 




647 


1st 


„ Jinki 


724 


20th 


801 


2nd 




878 


4th 


» )» 


648 


2nd 


„ ,, 


725 


21st 


802 


3rd 




879 


5th 




649 


3rd 




726 


22nd 


803 


4th 




880 


l8t 


, Hakuchi 


650 


4th 




727 


23rd 


804 


5th 




881 


2nd 


» ») 


651 


5th 


)t n 


728 


24th 


805 


6th 




882 


3rd 


» i» 


652 


Ist 


„ Tembyo 


729 


Ist „ Daido 


806 


7th 




883 


4th 




653 


2nd 


,, J, 


730 


2nd 


807 


8th 




884 


5th 


, „ 


654 


3rd 


»i »» 


731 


3rd 


808 


1st 


„ Ninna 


885 


Ist 


, Saimei Teniio 


655 


4th 




732 


4th „ 


809 


2nd 




886 


2nd 


, ,, 


656 


5th 


,j ,, 


733 


1st „ Konin 


810 


3rd 




887 


3rd 


t »» 


657 


6th 


» »» 


734 


2nd „ 


811 


4th 




888 


4th 




658 


7th 




735 


3rd 


812 


Ist 


„ Kanbei 


889 


5th 


, ^j 


659 


8th 


»» i» 


736 


4th 


813 


2nd 




890 


6th 


, ,, 


660 


9th 




737 


5th 


814 


3rd 




891 


7th 


, j^ 


661 


10th 




738 


6th 


815 


4th 




892 


Ist 


, TenjiTenno... 


662 


ath 


»i )i 


739 


7th 


816 


5th 




893 


2nd 


^ ,, 


663 


I2th 




740 


8th 


817 


6th 




894 


3rd 




664 


I3th 




741 


9th 


818 


7th 




895 


4th 




665 


14th 


„ ji 


742 


10th 


819 


8th 




896 


5th 




666 


15th 




743 


11th 


820 


9th 




897 


6th 




667 


16th 




744 


12th 


821 


1st 


„ Shotai 


898 


7th 




668 


17th 




745 


13th 


822 


2nd 




899 


8th 




669 


18th 


II i» 


746 


14th 


823 


3rd 




900 


9th 




670 


19th 




747 


1st „ Tenoho 


824 


Ist 


„ Yengi 


901 


10th 




671 


■JOth 




748 


2nd „ „' 


825 


2nd 




902 


Ist 


, Kobun Teiino 


672 


1st 


„ Tembyo Shoho 


749 


3rd 


826 


3rd 




903 


Ist 


, Temmu Tenno 


673 


2nd 




750 


4th 


827 


4th 




904 


2nd 


, ,j 


674 


3rd 




751 


5th 


828 


5th 




905 


3rd 




675 


4th 




752 


6th 


829 


6th 




906 


4th 




676 


5th 


t> i» 


753 


7th 


830 


7th 




907 


5th 




677 


6th 




754 


8th „ 


831 


8th 




908 


6th 




678 


7th 




755 


9th 


832 


9th 


jj 


909 


7th 




679 


8th 


)i II 


756 


lOth 


833 


loth 




910 


8th 


, ^, 


680 


Ist 


„ Tembyo Hoji... 


757 


1st „ Jowa 


834 


nth 




911 


9th 




681 


2nd 




758 


2nd 


835 


12th 




912 


10th 




682 


3rd 




759 


3rd 


836 


I3th 




913 


11th 




683 


4th 


„ ,, 


760 


4th 


837 


14th 




914 


12th 


^ ,, 


684 


5th 


ij J, 


761 


5th „ „ 


838 


15th 




915 


13th 




685 


6th 


,, 


762 


6th 


839 


16th 




916 


1st 


, Shucho 


686 


7th 




763 


7th 


840 


17th 




917 


Ist 


, Jito Tenno ... 


687 


8th 




764 


8th 


841 


I8th 




918 


2nd 




688 


1st 


„ Tembyo Jingo 


765 


9th 


842 


I9th 




919 


3rd 




689 


2nd 


,1 „ 


766 


tOth 


843 


20th 




920 


4th 


J ,, 


690 


1st 


„ Jingo Keiun... 


767 


11th 


844 


21st 




921 


5th 




691 


2nd 




768 


I2th 


845 


22nd 




922 


6th 




692 


3rd 




769 


I3th 


846 


Ist 


„ Yencho 


923 


7th 




693 


Ist 


„ Hoki 


770 


I4th 


847 


2nd 


J jj 


924 


8th 




694 


2nd 




771 


1st „ Kajo 


848 


3rd 




925 


9th 




695 


3rd 




772 


2nd 


849 


4th 




926 


10th 




698 


4th 


„ 1, 


773 


3rd 


850 


th 




927 


1st 


, Mommu Tenno 


697 


5th 




774 


1st „ Ninju 


851 


6th 




928 


2nd 


J 


698 


6th 




775 


2nd 


852 


7th 




929 


3rd 


, 1 


699 


7th 


„ 1, 


776 


3rd 


853 


8th 




930 


4th 




700 


8th 





777 


1st „ Saiko 


854 


1st 


„ Shohei 


931 


1st 


, Daiho 


701 


9th 




778 


2nd 


855 


2nd 




932 


2nd 


j_ 


702 


lOth 





779 


3rd 


856 


3rd 




933 


3rd 




703 


nth 




780 


Ist „ Tennan 


857 


4th 




934 


1st 


, Kyoun 


704 


Ist 


„ Tenwo 


781 


2nd 


858 


5th 




935 


2nd 


, ij 


705 


1st 


„ Yenryaku ... 


782 


1st „ Jojan 


859 


6th 




936 


3rd 




706 


2nd 




783 


2nd 


860 


7th 




937 


4th 




707 


3rd 




784 


3rd „ 


861 


Ist 


„ Tengyo 


938 


1st 


, Wado 


708 


4th 




785 


4th , 


862 


2nd 


^j ,, 


939 


2nd 


, _, 


709 


5th 


J, 


786 


5th 


863 


3rd 




940 


3rd 


, ij 


710 


6th 




787 


6th „ 


861 


4th 




941 


4th 




711 


7th 




788 


7th 


865 


5th 




942 


5th 




712 


8th 


j^ 


789 


8th 


866 


6th 




943 


6th 




713 


9th 




790 


9th 


867 


7th 




944 


7th 




714 


loth 




791 


lOth 


868 


8th 




945 


let 


„ Reiki 


715 


11th 




792 


nth „ 


869 


9th 




946 


2nd 


, ^, 


716 


12th 


„ 


793 


12th 


870 


1st 


„ Tenryaku 


947 


1st 


„ Yoio 


717 


13th 




794 


13th 


871 


2nd 


^, 


948 


2nd 


, ,j 


718 


I4th 




795 


Uth 


872 


3rd 




949 


3rd 


, ,1 


719 


15th 




796 


15th 


873 


4th 




950 


4th 


J jj 


720 


16th 




797 


16th 


874 


5th 




951 


5th 


, „ 


721. 


17th 


., ,. 


798 


I7th 


875 


6th 




952 



• The name was first ordered in the dynasty of the 36th Emperor Kotoku Tenno , A.D. 645. 



C 98 ) 
ERAS OF THE REIGN OF THE VARIOUS EMPERORS OF JAPAN, 



7th Year of Tenryaku 
8th 



9th 
10th 
Ist 
2nd 
Srd 
4th 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
Ist 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
Ist 
2nd 
Ist 
2nd 
3rd 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
1st 
2nd 
Ist 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 
1st 
2nd 
1st 
2nd 
Ist 
2nd 
1st 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 
6th 
7th 
8th 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 
Ist 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
1st 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 
6th 



Tentoku 



Wowa 



Koho 

»t 

Anwa 
Tenroku . 

Tenyen . 

)» 

Jogen 

Tengen . 

)» 

») 
Yeikau . 

»t 
Kanwa 

n 

Yeiyen 

Yeiso 
Siioryaku. 

n 
») 
'» 

»» 

Chotoku . 

Choho - '. 
II 
») 
»> 

Kanko 



Chowa 



Kannln 



Jian 



Manju 



Chogen 



A.D. 

953 

954 

955 

956 

957 

958 

959 

960 

961 

962 

963 

964 

965 

966 

967 

968 

969 

970 

971 

972 

973 

974 

975 

976 

977 

978 

979 

980 

981 

982 

983 

984 

985 

986 

987 

988 

989 

990 

99] 

992 

993 

994 

995 

996 

997 

998 

999 

1000 

1001 

1002 

1003 

1004 

1005 

1006 

1007 

1008 

1009 

1010 

1011 

1012 

1013 

1014 

1015 

1016 

1017 

1018 

1019 

1020 

1021 

1022 

1023 

1024 

1025 

1026 

1027 

1028 

1029 

1030 

1031 

1032 

1033 



7th Year of 

8th 

9th 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

Ist 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

1st 

2nd 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

6th 

7th 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

6th 

7th 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

Ist 

2nd 

3rd 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

6th 

7th 

Ist 

2nd 

1st 

1st 

2nd 

1st 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

1st 

2nd 

Ist 

2nd 

1st 

2nd 

Ist 

2nd 

3rd 

1st 

2nd 



Chogen .. 

Choryaku.. 

>» 

»» 
Choky fi , 

»» 

Kantoku . 

Yeijo 



Tengi 



Kohei 



Jiryaku 
*i 

Yenkyu 

)) 

5» 
H 

Joho 

Joryaku 

1) 
YeihS 

t* 
Wotoku 

ti 

Kanji 



Kaho 

Yoicho 
Jotoku 

»i 
Kowa 



Choji 
Kajo 
Tennin 
Tenyei 

n 
It 

Yeikyu 



A.D. 

1034 
1035 
1036 
1037 
1038 
1039 
1040 
1041 
1042 
1043 
1044 
1045 
1046 
1047 
1048 
1049 
1050 
1051 
1052 
1053 
1054 
1055 
1056 
1057 
1058 
1059 
1060 
1061 
1062 
1063 
1064 
1065 
1066 
1067 
1068 
1069 
1070 
1071 
1972 
1073 
1074 
1075 
1076 
1077 
1078 
1079 
1080 
1081 
1082 
1083 
1084 
1085 
1086 
1087 
1088 
1089 
1090 
1091 
1092 
1093 
1094 
1095 
1096 
1097 
1098 
1099 
1100 
1101 
1102 
1103 
1104 
1105 
1106 
1107 
1108 
1109 
1110 
1111 
1112 
1113 
1114 



3rd Year of Yeikyu 

4th 

5th 

1st „ Genyei 

2nd 

1st „ Hoan 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

1st „ Tenji 

2nd 

1st „ Taiji 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

Ist „ Tenjo 

1st „ Chojo 

2nd 

3rd 

1st „ Hoyen 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

6th 

Ist „ Yeijl 

Ist „ Koji 

2nd 

1st „ Ten-yo 

1st „ Kyiian 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

6th 

Ist „ Nirabyo 

2nd 

3rd 

Ist „ Kyuju 

2nd 

Ist „ Hogen 

2nd 

3rd „ „ 

1st „ Heiji 

Ist „ Yeiryaku 

1st „ Woho 

2nd 

1st ,, Chocan 

2nd 

1st „ Yeiman 

1st „ Nin-an 

2nd 

3rd 

1st „ Kawo 

2nd 

1st „ Joan 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

Ist „ Angen 

2nd 

1st „ Jisho 

2nd „ 

3rd 

4th 

1st „ Yowa 

1st „ Juyei 

2nd 

3rd 

1st „ Bunji 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 

1st „ Kenkyu 

2nd 

3rd 

4th „ „ 

5th 

6th 



A.D. 




1 


A.D. 


1115 


7th Year of Kenkyn | 


1196 


1116 


8th 


,1 


1197 


1117 


9th 




1198 


1118 


1st 


„ Shoji 


1199 


1119 


2nd 


jj „ 


1200 


1120 


1st 


„ Kennin 


1201 


1121 


2nd 




1202 


1122 


3rd 




1203 


1123 


1st 


„ Genkyfi 


1204 


1124 


2nd 


^_ 


1205 


1125 


1st 


„ Kenyei 


1206 


1126 


1st 


„ Shogen 


1207 


1127 


2nd 


,^ ji 


1208 


1128 


3rd 




1209 


1129 


4th 




1210 


1130 


1st 


„ Kenryaku ... 


1211 


1131 


2nd 




1212 


1132 


1st 


„ Kempo 


1213 


1133 


2nd 




1214 


1134 


3rd 




1215 


1135 


4th 




1216 


1136 


5th 




1217 


1137 


6th 




1218 


1138 


1st 


„ Jokyu 


1219 


1139 


2nd 




1220 


1140 


3rd 




1221 


1141 


1st 


„ Jowo 


1222 


1142 


2nd 




1223 


1143 


1st 


„ Gennin 


1224 


1144 


1st 


„ Karoku 


1225 


1145 


2nd 




1226 


1146 


1st 


„ Antei 


1227 


1147 


2nd 





1228 


1148 


Ist 


„ Kanki 


1229 


1149 


2nd 





1230 


1150 


3rd 


_, 


1231 


1151 


1st 


„ Joyel 


1232 


1152 


1st 


„ Tempuku 


1233 


1153 


1st 


„ Bunryaku ... 


1234 


1154 


1st 


„ Katei 


1235 


1155 


2nd 




1236 


1156 


3rd 




1237 


1157 


1st 


„ Ryakunin .. 


1238 


1158 


1st 


„ Yenwo 


1239 


1159 


1st 


„ Ninji 


1240 


1160 


2nd 




1241 


1161 


3rd 




1242 


1162 


1st 


„ Kangen 


1243 


1163 


2ud 


^, 


1244 


1164 


3rd 


1, 


1245 


1165 


4th 


... 


1246 


1166 


Ist 


„ Hoji 


1247 


1167 


2nd 





1248 


1168 


1st 


„ Kenoho 


1249 


1169 


2nd 


,^ ,j 


1250 


1170 


3rd 




1251 


1171 


4th 




1252 


1172 


5th 


^1 „ 


1253 


1173 


6th 




1254 


1174 


7th 




1255 


1175 


1st 


„ Kojen 


1256 


1176 


let 


„ Shoka 


1257 


1177 


2nd 




1258 


1178 


Ist 


„ Shogen 


1259 


1179 


1st 


„ Bunw6 


1260 


1180 


1st 


„ Kooho 


1261 


1181 


2nd 


^^ ,j 


1262 


1182 


3rd 


_j 


1263 


1183 


Ist 


„ Bunyei 


1264 


1184 


2nd 


jj J, 


1265 


1185 


3rd 




1266 


1186 


4th 




1267 


1187 


5th 




1268 


1188 


6th 




1269 


1189 


7th 


ti it 


1270 


1190 


8th 




1271 


1191 


9th 




1272 


1192 


lOth 




1273 


1193 


nth 




1274 


1194 


1st 


„ Kenji 


1275 


1195 


2nd 


It !• 


nn 



I 



( 99 ) 
ERAS OF THE REIGN OF THE VARIOUS EMPERORS OF JAPAN. 



' 


. 1 


A.D. 




1 


A.D. 






A.D. 


yu 


1 


A.D. 


3rd Year of Kenji '. | 


1277 


1 3th Year of Shohei ... ...| 


1358 


Uth Year of Yeikyo | 


1439 


mhYearofYelsho 1 


1520 


Ist 


„ Koan 


1278 


14th 




1359 


12th 




1440 


1st 


„ Dalyei 


1521 


2nd 




1279 


I5th 




1360 


1st 


„ Kakitsu 


1441 


2nd 




1522 


3rd 


») i» 


1280 


t6th 




1361 


2nd 


,j jj 


1442 


3rd 




1523 


4th 




1281 


I7th 




1362 


3rd 




1443 


4th 




1524 


5th 




1282 


18th 




1363 


Ist 


„ Bunnan 


1444 


5th 




1525 


6th 




1283 


19th 




1364 


2nd 




1445 


6th 




1526 


7th 




1284 


■iOth 




1365 


3rd 




1446 


7th 




1527 


8th 


»» 11 


1285 


21st 




1366 


4th 




1447 


Ist 


„ Kyoroku 


1528 


9th 




1286 


22nd 




1367 


5th 




1448 


2nd 




1529 


10th 


^, ,, 


1287 


23rd 




1368 


1st 


„ Hotoku 


1449 


3rd 




1530 


Ist 


„ fc-howo 


1288 


24th 




1369 


2nd 




1450 


4th 




1531 


2nd 




1289 


Ist 


„ Kentoku 


1370 


3rd 




1451 


Ist 


„ Tenbun 


1532 


3rd 


»» )» 


1290 


2nd 




1371 


Ist 


„ Kyotoku 


1452 


2nd 




1533 


4th 




1291 


1st 


„ Bunchu 


1372 


2nd 


^, ,j 


1453 


3rd 




1534 


5th 




1292 


2nd 




1373 


3rd 


^^ ^^ 


1454 


4th 




1535 


Ist 


„ Yeinin 


1293 


3rd 




1374 


1st 


„ Kosho 


1455 


5th 




1536 


2nd 




1294 


1st 


„ Tenju 


1375 


2nd 




1456 


6th 




1537 


3rd 


») »» 


1295 


2nd 


J, ,^ 


1376 


1st 


„ Choroku 


1457 


7th 




1538 


4th 


»» i» 


1296 


3rd 




1377 


2nd 




1458 


8th 




1539 


5th 




1297 


4th 




1378 


3rd 




1459 


9th 




1540 


6th 


It )» 


1298 


5th 




1379 


Ist 


„ Kansho 


1460 


10th 




1541 


1st 


„ Shoan 


1299 


6th 




1380 


2nd 




1461 


Uth 




1542 


2nd 


J, ,, 


1300 


1st 


„ Kowa 


1381 


3rd 




1462 


12th 




1543 


3rd 


»t )» 


1301 


2nd 


,, ,, 


1382 


4th 




1463 


13th 




1544 


Ist 


„ Kengen 


1302 


3rd 




1383 


5th 




1464 


Uth 




1545 


1st 


„ Kagen 


1303 


1st 


„ Genchu 


1384 


6th 




1465 


15th 




1546 


2nd 


»» »» 


1304 


2nd 




1385 


1st 


„ Bunsho 


1466 


16th 




1547 


3rd 




1305 


3rd 




1.386 


1st 


„ Onin 


1467 


17th 




1548 


Ist 


„ Tokuji 


1306 


4th 




1387 


2nd 




1468 


18th 




1549 


2nd 


») t> 


1307 


5th 




1388 


Ist 


„ Bummei 


1469 


19th 


J ^, 


1550 


1st 


„ Yengyo 


1308 


6th 




1389 


2nd 




1470 


20th 




1551 


2nd 


i» ») 


1309 


7th 




1390 


3rd 




1471 


21st 




1552 


3rd 




1310 


8th 




1391 


4th 




1472 


22nd 




1553 


1st 


„ Ocho 


1311 


9th 




1392 


5th 




1473 


23rd 




1554 


1st 


„ Showa 


1312 


1st 


„ Meitoku 


1393 


6th 




1474 


1st 


„ Koji 


1555 


2nd 


»» )» 


1313 


1st 


,, Oyei 


1394 


7th 




1475 


2nd 




1556 


3rd 


i» It 


1314 


2nd 




1395 


8th 




1476 


3rd 




1557 


4th 




1315 


3rd 




1396 


9th 




1477 


1st 


„ Yeiroku 


1558 


5th 


M 1» 


1316 


4th 




1397 


10th 




1478 


2nd 


^^ 


1559 


1st 


„ Bumpo 


1317 


5th 




1398 


Uth 




1479 


3rd 




1560 


2nd 


i» »» 


1318 


6th 




1399 


12th 




1480 


4th 




1561 


1st 


„ Genno 


1319 


7th 




1400 


13th 




1481 


5th 




1562 


2nd 


»» T» 


1320 


8th 




1401 


14th 




1482 


6th 




1563 


1st 


„ Gengo 


1321 


9th 




1402 


15tn 




1483 


7th 




1564 


2nd 




1322 


10th 




1403 


16th 




1484 


8th 




1565 


3rd 




1323 


Uth 




1404 


17th 




1485 


9th 




1566 


1st 


„ Shocbii 


1324 


12th 




1405 


18th 




1486 


10th 




1567 


2nd 




1325 


13th 




1406 


1st 


„ Chokyo 


1487 


11th 




1568 


Ist 


„ Karyaku 


1326 


Uth 




1407 


2nd 




1488 


12th 




1569 


2nd 


*» t) 


1327 


15th 




1408 


1st 


„ Yentoku 


1489 


1st 


„ Genki 


1570 


3rd 




1328 


I6th 




1409 


2nd 




1490 


2nd 




1571 


1st 


„ Gentoku 


1329 


17th 




1410 


3rd 




1491 


3rd 




1572 


2nd 




1330 


J 8th 




1411 


1st 


„ Meiwo 


1492 


1st 


„ Tensho 


1573 


1st 


„ Genko 


1331 


19th 




1412 


2nd 




1493 


2nd 




1574 


2nd 


t» t» 


1332 


20th 




1413 


3rd 




1494 


3rd 




1575 


3rd 




1333 


21st 




1414 


4th 




1495 


4th 




1576 


1st 


„ Keramu 


1334 


22nd 




1415 


5th 




1496 


5th 




1577 


2nd 


)» ft 


1335 


23rd 




1416 


6th 




1497 


6th 




1578 


1st 


„ Yengen 


1336 


24th 




1417 


7th 




1498 


7th 




1579 


2nd 


J, J, 


1337 


25th 




1418 


8th 




1499 


8th 




1580 


3rd 


»» )) 


1338 


26th 




1419 


9th 




1500 


9th 




1581 


4th 




1339 


27th 




1420 


1st 


„ Bunki 


1501 


10th 




1582 


Ist 


„ Kokoku 


1340 


28th 




1421 


2nd 




1502 


Uth 




1583 


2nd 


»i )» 


1341 


29th 




1422 


3rd 




1503 


12th 




1584 


3rd 




1342 


30th 




1423 


Ist 


„ Yeisho 


1504 


Uth 




1585 


4th 


»» »i 


1343 


31st 




1424 


2nd 




1505 


Uth 




1586 


5th 




1344 


32nd 




1425 


3rd 




1506 


15th 




1587 


6th 




1345 


33rd 




1426 


4th 




1507 


16th 




1588 


1st 


„ Shohei 


1346 


34th 




1427 


5th 




1508 


17th 




1589 


2nd 


,, j^ 


1347 


1st 


„ Shocho 


1428 


6th 




1509 


I8th 




1590 


3rd 


•* »» 


1348 


1st 


„ Yeikyo 


1429 


7th 




1510 


19th 




1591 


4th 


»» »» 


1349 


2nd 




1430 


8th 




1511 


1st 


„ Bunroku 


1592 


5th 


»» »» 


1350 


3rd 






1431 


9th 




1512 


2nd 




1593 


6th 


)» »» 


1351 


4th 






1432 


10th 




1513 


3rd 


^ 


1594 


7th 




1352 


5th 






1433 


Uth 




1514 


4th 




1595 


8th 


„ ,, 


1353 


6th 






1434 


12th 




1515 


1st 


„ Keicho 


1596 


9th 


»» »» 


1354 


7th 






1435 


13th 




1516 


2nd 




1597 


10th 


»» i» 


1355 


8th 






1436 


14th 




1517 


3rd 




1598 


11th 




1356 


9th 






1437 


I5th 




1518 


4th 




1599 


12th 


ti »» 


1357 


LOth 


It 




1438 


16th 


tt tf 


1519 


5th 


« »» 


1600 



( 100 ) 
ERAS OF THE REIGN OF THE VARIOUS EMPERORS OF JAPAN. 



■ 


A.D. 




1 


A.D. 




1 


A.D. 




II 


A.D. 


6th Year of Keicho 


1601 


2nd Year of Tenna | 


1682 


L3th Year of Horeki | 


1763 


1st Year of Koka || 


1844 


7th 


1602 


3rd 




1683 


1st 


„ Meiwa 


1764 


2nd 




1845 


8th 


1603 


1st 


„ Jokyo 


1684 


2nd 




1765 


3rd 




1846 


9th „ „ 


1604 


2nd 


^j ,, 


1685 


3rd 




1766 


4th 




1847 


10th 


1605 


3rd 




1686 


4th 




1767 


Ist 


„ Kayei 


1848 


11th „ 


1606 


4th 




1687 


5th 




1768 


2nd 




1849 


12th 


1607 


1st 


„ Genroku 


1688 


6th 




1769 


3rd 




1850 


13th 


1608 


2nd 




1689 


7tn 




1770 


4th 




1851 


14th „ „ 


1609 


3rd 




1690 


8th 




1771 


5th 




1852 


15th 


1610 


4th 




1691 


Ist 


„ Anyel 


1772 


6th 




1853 


16th „ „ 


1611 


5th 




1692 


2nd 


J, ,, 


1773 


1st 


„ Ansei 


1854 


17th „ „ 


1612 


6th 




1693 


3rd 




1774 


2nd 




1855 


18th 


1613 


7th 




1694 


4th 




1775 


3rd 




1856 


19th 


1614 


8th 




1695 


5th 




1776 


4th 




1857 


Ist „ Genua 


1615 


9th 




1696 


6th 




1777 


5th 




1858 


2nd 


1616 


lOth 




1697 


7th 




1778 


6th 


I ,j 


1859 


3rd 


1617 


nth 




1698 


8th 




1779 


1st 


„ Manyen 


1860 


4th 


1618 


12th 




1699 


9th 




1780 


1st 


„ Buukyu 


1861 


5th „ „ 


1619 


13th 




1700 


Ist 


„ Temmei 


1781 


2nd 


^j ^, 


1862 


6th 


1620 


I4th 




1701 


2nd 




1782 


3rd 


^^ ,^ 


1863 


7th „ „ 


1621 


15th 




1702 


3rd 




1783 


1st 


„ Genji 


1864 


8th 


1622 


I6th 




1703 


4th 




1784 


1st 


„ Keiwo 


1865 


9th 


1623 


1st 


„ Hoyei 


1704 


5th 




1785 


2nd 


,, ,, 


1866 


1st „ Kanyei 


1624 


2nd 




1705 


6th 




1786 


3rd 


^, ,, 


1867 


2nd 


1625 


3rd 




1706 


7th 


ji 


1787 


1st 


„ Meiji 


1868 


3rd 


1626 


4th 




1707 


8th 




1788 


2nd 




1869 


4th 


1627 


5th 


,, „ 


1708 


Ist 


„ Kansei 


1789 


3rd 


^, „ 


1870 


5th 


1628 


6th 




1709 


2nd 


^^ ^^ 


1790 


4th 


^^ j^ 


1871 


6th 


1629 


7th 




1710 


3rd 




1791 


5th 




1872 


7th „ „ 


1630 


Ist 


„ Shotoku 


1711 


4th 




1792 


6th 




1873 


8th 


1631 


2nd 




1712 


5th 




1793 


7th 




1874 


9th 


1632 


3rd 




1713 


6th 




1794 


8th 




1875 


10th 


1633 


4th 




1714 


7th 




1795 


9th 




1876 


nth 


1634 


5th 




1715 


8th 




1796 


10th 


j^ 


1877 


12th 


1635 


1st 


„ Kyoho 


1716 


9th 




1797 


nth 




1878 


13th 


1636 


2nd 




1717 


10th 




1798 


I2th 




1879 


14th „ 


1637 


3rd 




1718 


nth 




1799 


13th 




1880 


15th 


1638 


4th 




1719 


12th 




1800 


14th 




1881 


16th 


1639 


5th 




1720 


1st 


„ Kyowa 


1801 


15th 




1882 


17th 


1640 


6th 




1721 


2nd 




1802 


16th 


j^ ^, 


1883 


18th „ 


1641 


7th 




1722 


3rd 




1803 


I7th 


^^ ^, 


1884 


19th 


1642 


8th 




1723 


1st 


„ Bunka 


1804 


18th 




1885 


20th „ 


1643 


9th 




1724 


2nd 




1805 


L9th 




1886 


Ist „ Shoho 


1644 


10th 




1725 


3rd 




1806 


20th 


^^ ^j 


1887 


2nd 


1645 


Llth 




1726 


4th 




1807 


21st 




1888 


3rd 


1646 


I2th 




1727 


5th 


... 


1808 


22nd 




1889 


4th 


1647 


I3th 




1728 


6th 




1809 


23rd 




1890 


1st , Eeian 


1648 


I4th 




1729 


7th 




1810 


24th 




1891 


2nd 


1649 


15th 




1730 


8th 




1811 


25th 




1892 


3rd 


1650 


16th 




1731 


9th 




1812 


26th 




1893 


4th , 


1651 


I7th 




1732 


10th 




1813 


27th 




1894 


1st , Showo 


1652 


18th 




1733 


llth 




1814 


28th 




1895 


2nd 


1653 


I9th 




1734 


12th 




1815 


29th 




1896 


3rd 


1654 


20th 




1735 


13th 




1816 


30th 




1897 


1st , Meireki 


1655 


1st 


„ Genbun 


1736 


14th 




1817 


31st 




1898 


2nd 


1656 


2nd 




1737 


Ist 


„ Bunsei 


1818 


32nd 




1899 


3rd 


1657 


3rd 




1738 


2nd 




1819 


33rd 




1900 


Ist '„ Manji 


1658 


4th 




1739 


3rd 




1820 


34th 




1901 


2nd 


1659 


5th 




1740 


4th 




1821 


35th 




1902 


3rd 


1660 


1st 


„ Kampo 


1741 


5th 




1822 


36th 




L903 


1st „ Kanbun 


1661 


2nd 


1 


1742 


6th 




1823 


37th 




1904 


2nd „ 


1662 


3rd 




1743 


7th 




1824 


38th 




1905 


3rd 


1653 


1st 


„ Yenkyo 


1744 


8th 




1825 


39th 




1906 


4th „ 


1664 


2nd 




1745 


9th 




1826 


40th 




1907 


5th „ „ 


1665 


3rd 




1746 


LOth 




1827 


41st 


»i »» 


1908 


6th „ 


1666 


4th 




1747 


nth 




1828 


42nd 


»i i» 


1909 


7th „ 


1667 


Ist 


„ Kanyen 


1748 


L2th 




1829 


43rd 


u n 


1910 


8th „ 


1668 


2nd 




1749 


1st 


„ Tempo 


1830 


44th 




1911 


9th 


1669 


3rd 




1750 


2nd 




1831 


1st 


„ Taisho 


1912 


10th 


1670 


1st 


„ Horeki 


1751 


3rd 




1832 


2nd 




1913 


nth „ 


1671 


2nd 


^ 


1752 


4th 




1833 


1 3rd 




1914 


12th „ 


1672 


3rd 




1753 


5th 




1834 


4th 


M II 


1915 


1st „ Yerapo 


1673 


4th 




1754 


6th 




1835 


; 5th 




1916 


2nd 


1674 


5th 




1755 


7th 




1836 


6th 




1917 


3rd 


1675 


6th 




1756 


8th 




1837 


7tb 


II II 


1918 


4th 


1676 


7th 




1757 


9th 




1838 


8th 


II II 


1919 


5th 


1677 


8th 




1758 


LOth 




1839 


9th 


II II 


1920 


6th „ 


1678 


-Jth 




1759 


llth 




1840 


10th 


II » 


1921 


7th „ ; 


1679 


LOth 




1760 


I2th 




1841 


llth 




1922 


8th 


1680 


Llth 




1761 


13th 




1842 


12th 
53th 


»l »l 


1923 


Ist „ Tenna 


1681 


I2th 


»» ti 


1762 


14th 


»» »» 


1843 


»t » 


1924 



i 



( 101 ) 

CELEBRATION IN THE EMPIRE. 

CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS TO THE THRONE BY FOREIGN RESIDENTS 

OF YOKOHAMA. 

May It please Your Most Gracious Majesty. 

E, British subjects residing iu Yokohama, most respeotfully venture to express to Your Majesty our sincere and 
lieartfelt congratulations on the auspicious occasion of Your Majesty's formal accession to the Throne of the Empire. 
We fervently hope that health anil prosperity may continue to be bestowed upon Your Majesty throughout Your reign, and 
that tlie destiny of the Great Empire handed down to Your Majesty from times immemorial may, under Your wise and 
gracious rule, continue to advance towards a great and glorious future. 

Under the enlightened rule of Your Majesty's illustrious predecessor. His late Majesty the Emperor Meiji Tenno, the 
Empire of Japan, till then an almost unknown land to the peoples of the West, was thrown open to the trade and commerce 
of the world, and in a short space of time unparalleled in history rose to the position of one of the Great Powers of the world. 
In His late Majesty's reign British merchants were first permitted to reside in Japan, and throughout the whole of that Era 
were enabled to engage in trade and commerce in the country in tranquillity, peace and security. It is therefore with 
abundant conBdence that we look to our future in Japan under Your Imperial Majesty's wise and beneficent rule, feeling 
that, although we are strangers sojourning in a foreign land, the fullest protection will aways be accorded to us by Your 
Imperial Majesty's Government in all our lawful undertakings. 

At the present moment, when our country is engaged in a life-and-death struggle for its existence as a nation, we, as 
British subjects, cannot but feel the liveliest sense of gratitude for the great assistance rendered by Your Majesty's forces on 
land and sea in the protection of our commerce and. in the destruction of the enemy's strongholds in the Far East. The 
memory of it will remain perpetually engraved upon the heart of the British nation, and we sincerely trust that witli the 
conclusion of the present war -the bonds which now unite Japan and Great Britain as Allies against a common enemy may 
be drawn still closer and lead the peoples of the two nations to advance together to greater prosperity with friendship, 
harmony and mutual esteem. 

On the present occasion of Your Imperial Majesty's Coronation, we once again with the deepest respect tender to 

Your Imperial Majesty our sincerest wishes for the perpetual well-being of Your Majesty and for that of the Imperial 

Family, trusting that peace, prosperity and honour may constantly attend upon Your Majesty throughout Your reign, 

leading to the growth and progress of Your Realm and to the advancement and welfare of the people over whom Your 

Majesty rules. 

(Signed) F. H. BUGBIRD, 

Chairman of the British Association of Japan. 

Representing the British Community of Yokohama. 



CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS TO THE THRONE BY FOREIGN RESIDENTS OF KOBE. 

May it please Your Imperial Majesty. 

The Foreign Residents of Kobe of nations allied and friendly to the Empire of Japan, on the auspicious occasion of 
Your Imperial Majesty's Coronation in Kyoto, wish respectfully to convey their sincere felicitation, coupled with the earnest 
hope that Your Imperial Majesty may live long to rule over the Empire in whicii so many foreigners have settled and made 
their homes. The community represented by the signatories to this address, living under the Imperial protection, desire to 
place on record their deep respect for Your Imperial Majesty's August Person, and to express their unanimous wish that 
tiie era of Taisho, which began with Your Imperial Majesty's accession to the Throne, may, under the benevolent and 
enlightened rule of Your Imperial Majesty, be marked by progress and prosperity in the same degree as the era of the 
illustrious Meiji Tenno. 

(Signed) ALF. WOOLLEY. 

Chairman of the International Coronation Committee. 



( 102 ) 

FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES WHO ATTENDED THE CEREMONY 

OF ENTHRONEMENT. 




H.E. THE KT. HON SIR CONYNGHAM GKEENE 

G.C.M.G., K.C.B., AMBASSADOR OF 

GREAT BRITAIN. 




I 



H.E. GEO. W. GUTHRIE, AMBASSADOR EXTRA- 
ORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY OF 
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 





LADY LILY, WIFE OF H.E. THE BRITISH AM- 
BASSADOR, SIR CONYNGHAM GREENE. 



MRS. GEO. GUTHRIE, WIFE OF H.E. THE 
AMERICAN AMBASSADOR. 



( 103 ) 




S. Exc. M. E. REGNAULT, AMBASSADOR EXTRA- 
ORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY 
OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC. 




Mme. REGUAULT, WIFE OF. H.E. THE FRENCH 
AMBASSADOR. 




MARQUIS 6UICCI0LI, AMBASSADOR EXTRA- 
ORDINARY AND PLENIPOTENTIARY 
OF ITALY. 




H.E. N. MALEWSKY MALEWITCH, AMBASSADOR 
EXTRAORDINARY AND PLENIPOTEN- 
TIARY OF RUSSIA. 



( 104 ) 





H. Exc. G. O. WALLENBERG, ENVOY 

EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTER 

PLENIPOTENTIARY OF SWEDEN. 



H.E. F. DE SALIS, ENVOY EXTRAORDINARY AND 

MINISTER PLENIPOTENTIARY OF 

SWITZERLAND. 





I 



Mme. WALLENBERG, WIFK ui- ri.iii, 
THE SWEDISH MINISTER. 



Mme. DE SALIS, WIFE OF H.E. 
THE SWISS MINISTER. 



( 106 ) 





H.E. PHRA CHAMNONG DITHAKAR, ENVOY 

EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTER 

PLENIPOTENTIARY OF 8IAM. 



H.E. COMTE DELLA FAILLE DE LEVERGHEM, 

ENVOY EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTER 

PLENIPOTENTIARY OF BELGIUM. 




H.E. BARON D. D AsBECK, ENVOY EXTRA- 
ORDINARY AND MINISTER PLENIPOTEN- 
TIARY OF THE NETHERLANDS. 




H.E. B. D'ANKER, CHARGE D'AFFAIRES 
OF NORWAY. 



( 106 ) 





HIS Exc. DON FRANCISCO J. HERBOSO, ENVOY 

EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTER 

PLENIPOTENTIARY OF CHILE. 



H.E. LOU TSUNG YU, ENVOY EXTRAORDINARY AND 

MINISTER PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE 

REPUBLIC OF CHINA. 





SEJ^ORA HERBOSO, WIFE OF H.E. 
THE CHILEAN MINISTER. 



Mmk. LOU TSUNG YU, WIFE OF H.E. 
THE CHINESE MINISTER, 



SECOND PART. 



JAPAN OF TO-DAY. 




THE CABINET. 

t>HE Constitution of the Empire of Japan was promulgated on February 11th, 1889. (The provisions contained 
therein are printed in the First Section.) 

The Empire of Japan is ruled and governed by the Emperor, whose lineage, as recorded in history, 
remains unbroken. His Majesty, in compliance with provisions of the Constitution, exercises the Sovereign right and 
administers all affairs of the State. The Emperor is sacred and inviolable. Ministers of State are held responsible for 
carrying on the administration of the country, and the Cabinet is composed of Ministers of State. 

All affairs relating to the Imperial Court are dealt with by the Imperial Household Department, which is placed 
under the control of the Minister of the Imperial Household. This Department has nothing to do with administrative 
affairs. At the Court is the Office of Grand Keeper of the Privy Seal, and the Grand Keeper of the Privy Seal has charge 
of Imperial Seals and attends to tlie business relating to Imperial Ordinances and other affairs at the Palace. 

In addition, there is the Privy Council, which discusses all important affairs of the State, in compliance with Imperial 
order, and which is in reality an organ for ratification. It is entirely independent of all other Departments of State. 

Ministers of State assist the Emperor in currying on the administration. Among offices which are under the 
direct control of His Majesty are the Governor-General of Chosen, Chief of General Staff, Chief of the Naval Staff, 
Superintendent-General of Military Education, and Commander-in-Chief of the Tokyo Garrison. The Board of Auditors 
is also under the direct control of the Emperor and is independent of Ministers of State. 

THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CABINET. 

The Cabinet is composed of Ministers of State. 

Tne Premier, as the head of the Cabinet, submits to the Throne reports on important State affairs, and acting under 
the Imperial orders lie maintains harmony among all Departments of the ailministration. 

The Premier reserves the riglit of suspending such administrative dispositions and orders as he deems necessary, and 
of awaiting the Imperial sanction tlierefor. 

By virtue of his office or by special trust the Premier can issue Cabinet Orders. 

The Premier gives instructions to, and exercises control over, the Chief of the Metropolitan Police, the Governor 
of the H>)kkaiiio-Clio and the prefectural Governors on matters under bis jurisdiction. If the Premier deems any orders 
or dispositions of these officials illegal, inimical to the public interests, or in excess of the limits of their competence, he can 
suspend or withdraw them. 

The following matters must have the approval of the Cabinet Council: 

Law and Budget Bills. 

Treaties with foreign countries and important international matters. 

Official Organization and the Imperial Ordinances relating to regulations and the execution of laws. 

Differences between Departments regarding the limitation of their respective competence. 

People's petitions, either submitted by the Emperor or forwarded by the Imperial Diet, 

Disbursements not estimated in the Budget. 

The appointment and resignation of the officials o{ ehokunin rank and of prefectural Governors. 

In addition to the above, all important matters relating to higlier administration of Departments must have the 
approval of the Cabinet Council. 

Ministers of State may, if they deem it necessary, refer any affairs to the Premier, who will convene a Ministerial 
Conference to discuss them. 

Military orders and secrets must be reported to the Premier by either the Minister of the Navy or the Minister of 
War, except those which, though submitted to the Throne, have been referred to the Cabinet by order of the Emperor. 

The Premier, when unable to discharge his functions, shall ask other Ministers of State to carry on the business in 
his place. 

Ministers of State, when unable to attend to their duties, shall appoint acting Ministers of State to discharge their 
functions. 

In addition to Ministers of State, some officers or officials may, by special order of the Emperor, be allowed to join 
the ranks of the Ministry. 



( 2 ) 
• I— FIRST ITO CABINET. 
Organized on Decembkk 22nd, 1885. — Resigned on April 30th, 1888. 



Premier 

*Mini8ter 

Minister 

Minister 

Minister 

Minister 

Minister 

Minister 

Minister 

*Minister 

♦Minister 

Minister 

Minister 



Portfolios. 

of Foreign Affairs . 
of Foreign Affairs , 
of Home Affairs 
of Finance 

of War 

of the Navy ... 
of Justice 
of Education ... 
of Agriculture and 
of Agriculture and 
of Agriculture and 
of Communications 



Names. 

Count Hirobumi Ito / 

Count Kaoru Inouye 

Count Shigenobu Okuma 

Count Aritomo Yamagata 

Count Masayoshi Matsukata 

Count Iwao Oyama 

Count Tsukumichi Saigo 

Count Akiyoslii Yamada 

Viscouut Ariuori Mori 

Commerce ... Viscount Tateki Tani 

Commerce ... Viscount Hisamoto Hijikata 

Commerce ... Count Kiyotaka Kuioda 

Viscount Takeaki Enomoto 

Chief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Mitsuaki Tanaka. 



Age. 


Names of Prefectures 


45 


Yamaguchi. 


51 


Yamaguchi. 


48 


Saga 


48 


Yamnguchi. 


51 


Kagosliima. 


44 


Kagoshima. 


43 


Kagoshima. 


42 


Yamnguchi. 


39 


Kagoshima. 


49 


Kochi. 


53 


Kochi. 


46 


Kagoshima, 


50 


Tokyo. 



2.— THE KURODA CABINET. 
Organized on April 30th, 1888. — Resigned on December 24th, 1889. 



Premier 
Minister 
Minister 

Minister 
Minister 
Minister 

♦Minister 
Minister 

♦Minister 
Minister 
Minister 

♦Minister 
Minister 



Portfolios. 

of Home Affairs .. 
of Foreign Affairs, 
of Finance 

of War 

of the Navy ... 
of Communications 
of Communications 
of Agriculture and 
of A griculture and 

of Justice 

of Education ... 
of Education ... 



Names. 

Count Kiyotaka Kuroda 

Count Aritomo Yamiigata ... 

Count Shigenobu Okuma 

Count Miisayoshi Mat.-iukata 

Count Iwao Oyama' 

Count Tsukumichi Saigo 

Viscount Takeaki Enomoto ... 

Count Shojiro Goto 

Commerce ... Count Kaoru Inouye 

Commerce ... Mr. Michitoshi Iwamura 

Count Akiyoslii Yaraada 

Viscount Arinori Mori 

Viscount Takeaki Enomoto ... 

Chief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Masanari 



Kge. 


Names of Prefectures 


49 


Kagoshima. 


51 


Yamaguchi. 


61 


Saga. 


54 


Kagoshima. 


47 


Kagoshima. 


46 


Kagoshima. 


53 


Tokyo. 


51 


Kochi. 


54 


Yamaguchi. 


49 


Kochi. 


45 


Yamaguchi. 


42 


Kiigoshima. 


53 


Tokyo. 



Komaki 



3.— FIRST YAMAGATA CABINET. 
Organized on December 24th, 1889. — Resigned on May 6th, 1891. 



Portfolios. 

Premier 

Minister of Home Affairs ., 
Minister of Foreign Affairs . 
Minister of Finance 

Minister of War 

Minister of the Navy ... 
Minister of Communications 



Names. 
Count Aritomo Yamagata ... 
Count Tsukumichi Saigo 

Viscount Shuzo Aoki 

Count Masayoshi Matsukata 

Count Iwao Oyama 

Viscount Sukenori Kabayama 
Count Shojiro Goto 



Age. 


Names of Prefect 


52 


Yamaguchi. 


47 


Kagosliima. 


46 


Yamnguchi. 


55 


Kagoshima. 


48 


Kagoshima. 


53 


Kagoshima. 


52 


Kochi. 



Resigned. 



( 3 ) 



Portfolios. 
Minister of Agriculture and Commerce 

Minister of Justice 

Minister of Education 



Names. 
Mr. Munernitsu Mutsu ... 
Count Akiyoslii Yamada 
Mr. Akimasa Yoshikawa 



^ge. 


Names of Prefectures, 


47 


Wakayama. 


4(5 


Yainaguchi. 


49 


Tokusliima. 



Ciiief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Kohei Sufu. 

4,— FIRST MATSUKATA CABINET. 
Organized May 6th, 1891. — Resigned August 8th, 1892. 



Portfolios. 



Premier 

♦Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
^Minister 
♦Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 



of Home Affairs 

of Home Affairs 

of Foreign Affairs 

of Finance (Additional) 

of War 

of the Navy 

of Communications 

of Agriculture and Commerce 
of Agriculture and Commerce 
of Agriculture and Commerce 

of Justice 

of Education 

Chief Secretary 



Names. 

Count Masajioshi Matsukate 

Viscount Yajiro Shinagawa 

Count Taneomi Soyejima ... 

Viscount Takeaki Enomoto 

Count Masayoshi Matsukata 

Viscount Tomonosuke Takashiraa 

Viscount Sukenori Kabayama 

Count Shojiro Goto 

Mr Munemitsu Mutsu 

Mr. Togama Kono 

Viscount Tsunetaini Sane 

Viscount Fujimaro Tanaka 

Count Takato Ogi 

of the Cabinet — Mr. Shigenobu Hirayama. 



4-ge. 


Names of Prefectures. 


57 


Kagoshima. 


49 


Yamaguchi. 


64 


Saga. 


56 


Tokyo. 


57 


Kagoshima. 


48 


Kagoshima. 


55 


Kagoshima. 


54 


Kochi. 


49 


Wakayama. 


48 


Kochi. 


71 


Saga. 


47 


Aichi. 


61 


Saga. 



5.— SECOND ITO CABINET. 



Organized on August 8th, 
Portfolios. 



1892. — Resigned on September 



Premier 

♦Minister of Home A ffaiis 

♦Minister of Home Affairs 

Minister of Home Affairs 

Minister of Foreign Affairs 

♦Minister of Finance 

Minister of Finance 

Minister of War 

♦Minister of the Navy 

Minister of the Navy 

♦Minister of Communications 

♦Minister of Communications 

Minister of Communications 

♦Minister of Agriculture and Commerce 

Minister of Agriculture and Commerce 
♦Minister of Justice 

Minister of Justice 

♦Minister of Education 

♦Minister of Education 

Minister of Education 

Minister of Colonization 



* Resigned. 



Names. 

,. Count Hirobumi Ito 

,. Count Kaoru Inouye 

.. Viscount Yasushi Nomura 

.. Count Taisuke Itagaki 

,. Mr. Munemitsu Mutsu 

,. Mr. Kuiiitake Watanabe 

Count Masayosiii Matsukata 

,. Count Iwao Oyama 

.. Viscount Kagenori Nire 

.. Count Tsukuinichi Saigo 

Count Kiyotaka Kuroda 

.. Viscount Kunitake Watanabe ... 

Mr. Sen-ichi Shirane 

Count Shojiro Goto 

.. Viscount Takeaki Enomoto 

Count Aritoino Yamagata 

Mr. Akimasa Yosliikawa 

Mr. Togama Kono 

Mr. Ki Inouye 

Marquis Kimmociii Saionji 

Viscount Tomonosuke Takashima 

Chief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Miyoji Ito. 



18th. 1896. 




Age. 


Names of Prefectures. 


52 


Yamaguchi. 


58 


Yamaguchi. 


53 


Yamaguchi. 


60 


Kochi. 


50 


Wakayama. 


47 


Nagano. 


62 


Kagoshima. 


51 


Kagoshima. 


52 


Kagoshima. 


50 


Kagoshima. 


53 


Kagoshima. 


50 


Nagano. 


53 


Yamaguchi. 


55 


Kochi. 


57 


Tukyo. 


55 


Yamaguchi. 


52 


Tokushima. 


49 


Kochi. 


49 


Kumamoto. 


44 


Kyoto. 


53 


Kagoshima. 



( 4 ) 

6.— SECOND MATSUKATA CABINET. 

Organized on September 18th, 1896. — Resigned on January 12th, 1898. 



Premier 
Minister 

*Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 

♦Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 



, Names. 

Count Masayoslii Matsukata ... 
. Count Sukenori Kabayama 

Count Shigenobu Okuma 

Baron Tokujiro Nishi 

Count Masayoslii Matsukata ... 

Viscount Toraonosuke Takashima 

Marquis Tsukumichi Saigo 

Viscount Yasushi Nomuni 

Viscount Takeaki Enomoto 

Baron Noburaichi Yamiida 

Mr. Keigo Kiyoura 

Marquis Moohiaki Haciiisuka 

Mr. Arata Hamao 

*Ciiief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Kenzo TnkMiiashi. 
Chief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Shigenobu Hirayama. 

7. -THIRD ITO CABINET. 
Organized on January 12th, 1898. — Resigned on June 30th, 1898. 



Portfolios. 

of Home Affairs 

of Foreign Affairs 

of Foreign Aflfairs 

of Finance (Additional) 

of War 

of the Navy 

of Communications 

of Agriculture and Commerce 
of Agriculture and Commerce 

of Justice 

of Education 

of Education 



Lge. 


Names of Prefectures 


62 


Kagoshima. 


60 


Kagoshima. 


59 


Saga. 


50 


Kagoshima. 


62 


Kagoshima. 


53 


Kagoshima. 


54 


Kiigoshima. 


55 


Yamaguchi. 


61 


Tokyo. 


64 


Kumaraoto. 


47 


Kumamoto. 


51 


Tokushiraa. 


48 


Hyogo. 



Premier 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 

♦Minister 
Minister 
Minister 

♦Minister 
Minister 



Portfolios. 

of Home Affairs ... 
of Foreign Afiairs 

of Finance 

of War 

of the Navy 

of Communications 
of Agriculture and 
of Agriculture and 

of Justice 

of Education 
of Education 



Names. 

Marquis Hirobuini Ito 

Viscount Akimasa Yoshikawa 

Baron Tokujiro Nishi 

Count Kaoru Inouye 

Viscount Taro Katsura 

Marquis Tsukumichi Saigo 

Baron Kencho Suyeniatsu 

Commerce ... Mr. Miyoji Ito 

Commerce ... Mr. Kentaro Kaneko 

Mr. Arasuke Soue 

Marquis Kimraochi Saionji 

Mr. Shoichi Toyama 

Chief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Takenosuke 



A-ge. 


Names of Prefectures 


58 


Yamaguchi. 


58 


Tokushima. 


62 


Kagoshima. 


64 


Yamaguchi. 


52 


Yamaguchi. 


56 


Kagoshima. 


44 


Fukuoka. 


42 


Nagasaki. 


46 


Fukuoka. 


50 


Yamaguchi. 


50 


Kyoto. 


51 


Tokyo. 



Sameji 



8.— FIRST OKUMA CABINET. 
Organized June 30th, 1898. — Resigned November 8th, 1898, 



PortfolioB. 

Premier 

Minister of Home Affairs 

Minister of Foreign Affairs (additional) 

Minister of Finance 

Minister of War 

Minister of the Navy 

Minister of Communications 

Minister of Agriculture aud Commerce 



Names. 
Count Shigenobu Okuma 
Count Taisuke Itagaki ... 
Count Shigenobu Okuma 
Mr. Masahisa Matsuda ... 
Viscount Taro Katsura ... 
Marquis Tsukumichi Saigo 

Mr. Yuzo Hayashi 

Mr. Masami Oishi 



Age. 


Names of Prefectures 


61 


Saga. 


62 


Kochi. 


61 


Saga. 


54 


Saga. 


52 


Yamaguchi. 


56 


Kagoshima. 


57 


Kochi. 


44 


Kochi. 



* Resigned. 



( 5 ) 



Portfolios. 
Minister of Justice 
♦Minister of Education ... 
Minister of EJucation ... 



Names. 

,. Mr. Gitetsu Ohigashi 

,. Mr. Yukio Ozaki 

.. Mr. Tsuyoslii Inukai 

Cliief Secretary of tlie Cabinet — Mr. Tokitoshi Taketomi. 

9.— SECOND YAMAGATA CABINET. 
Organized on November 8th, 1898.— Resigned on October 19ih, 1900. 

Names. 

,. Marquis Aritomo Yaraagata 

.. Marquis Tsukumiclii Saigo 

Viscount Sliuzo Aoki 

. Count Masayoslii Matsukata 

Viscount Taro Katsura 

Vice- Admiral Gombei Yamamoto 

. Viscount Akimasa Yoshikawa 

Mr. Arasuke Sone 

. Mr. Keigo Kiyoura 

. Count Sukenori Kabayaraa 

Chief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Ban-ichiro Yasuhiro. 

10.— FOURTH ITO CABINET. 
Organized on October 19th, 1900. — Resigned on June 2nd, 1901. 



Age. 


Names of Pref 


67 


Shiga. 


40 


Miye. 


44 


Okayama. 





Portfolios. 


Premier 


Miu 


ister of Home Affairs 


Min 


ister of Foreign Affairs 


Min 


ister of Finance 


Min 


ister of War 


Min 


ister of the Navy 


Min 


ster of Communications 


Min 


ister of Agriculture and Commerce 


Min 


ister of Justice 


Min 


ster of Education 



Age. 


Names of Prefectures 


61 


Yaraaguchi. 


56 


Kagoshiraa. 


55 


Yamaguclii, 


64 


Kagoshitna. 


62 


Yamaguchi. 


47 


Kagoshima. 


68 


Tokushima. 


50 


Yaraaguchi. 


49 


Kuraamoto. 


62 


Kagoshiraa. 



Pren 
Min 

Min 
Min 

*Min 
Min 
Min 

*Min 
Min 
Min 
Min 
Min 



Portfolios. 

lier 

ster of Home Affairs 

ster of Foreign Affairs 

ster of Finance 

ster of War 

ster of War 

ster of the Navy 

ster of Communications 

ster of Communications 

ster of Agriculture and Commerce 

ster of Justice 

ster of Education 

Chief Secretary 



Names. 

Marquis Hirobumi Ito ... 

Baron Kencho Suyematsu 

Mr. Takaaki Kato 

Viscount Kuiiitake Watanabe 

Viscount Taro Katsura 

Baron Gentaro Kodama 

Vice- Admiral Gombei Yamamoto 

Mr. Torn Hoshi 

Mr. Takaslii Hara 

Mr. Yuzo Hiiyashi 

Baron Kentaro Kaneko 

Mr. Masahisa Matsuda 

of the Cabinet — Mr. Takenosuke Samejima. 



A.ge. 


Names of Prefectures 


60 


Yamaguchi. 


46 


Fukuoka. 


41 


Aichi. 


65 


Nagano. 


54 


Yamaguchi. 


49 


Yamaguclii. 


49 


Kagoshima. 


51 


Wakayama. 


45 


Iwate. 


59 


Kochi. 


48 


Fukuoka. 


56 


Saga. 



II.— FIRST KATSURA CABINET. 
Organized on June 2nd, 1901. — Resigned on January 7rH, 1906. 



Portfolios. 

Premier 

^Minister of Home Affairs 

Minister of Home Affairs ... 

Minister of Foreign Affairs ... 

Minister of Finance 

♦Minister of War 

* Resigned. 



Names. 


Age. 


Names of Prefect 


Viscount Taro Katsura 


55 


Yamaguchi. 


Baron Tadakatsu Utsumi 


59 


Yaraaguchi. 


Viscount Aki'mnsa Yoshikawa 


61 


Tokushima. 


Baron Jutaro IComura 


47 


Miyazaki, 


Mr. Arasuke Sone 


53 


Yamaguclii. 


Baron Gentaro Kodama 


50 


Yamaguchi. 



Portfolios. 

Minister of Wfir 

Minister of tlie Navy 

♦Minister of Communications 

Minister of Communications 

♦Minister of Agriculture and Commerce 

Minister of Agriculture and Commerce 
♦Minister of Justice 

Minister of Justice 

*JIinister of Education 

Minister of Education 



( 6 ) 

Names. 
Lieut. -General Masakata Terauchi 
Vice-Admiral Gombei Yaraamoto 
Viscount Akimasa Yoshikawa 

Mr. Kanetake Oura 

Baron Tosuka Hirata 

Baron Keigo Kiyoura 

Baron Keigo Kiyoura 

Mr. Yosliinao Hatano 

Baron Dairoku Kikuclii 

Mr. Yudzuiu Kubota 



Age. 


Names of Prefectures 


50 


Yaraaguchi. 


50 


Kagoshiraa. 


61 


Tokushima. 


52 


Kagosliinia. 


53 


Yaniagata. 


52 


Kumamoto. 


52 


Kumamoto. 


52 


Nagasaki. 


47 


Okayama. 


65 


Ilyogo. 



Chief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Kamon Shibata. 



12.— FIRST SAIONJI CABINET. 
Orgamzed on January 7th, 1906. — Resigned on July 14th, 1908. 



Portfolios. 

Premier 

Minister of Home Affjiirs 

♦Minister of Foreign Affiiirs 

Minister of Foreign Affairs 

Minister of Finance 

Minister of War 

Minister of the Navy 

♦Minister of Communications 

Minister of Communications 

Minister of Agriculture and Commerce 
♦Minister of Justice 

Minister of Justice 

Minister of Education 



♦Chief Secretary 
Chief Secretary 



Names. 

Marquis Kimraochi Saionji 

Mr. Takashi Hara 

Mr. Takaaki Kato 

Count Tadasu Hayashi 

Dr. Yoshiro Sakatani 

Lieut-General Masakata Terauchi 

Vice-Admiral Makoto Saito 

Mr. Isaburo Yaniagata 

Viscount Masayasu Hotta 

Mr. Yasukowa Matsuoka 

Mr. Masahisa Matsuda 

Baron Takatomi Senge 

Mr. Nobuaki Makino 

of the Cabinet — Mr. Toshikadzu Ishiwiitari. 
of the Cabinet — Mr. Hiroshi Minami. 



i-ge. 


Names of Prefectures 


58 


Kyoto. 


51 


Iwate. 


47 


Aichi. 


57 


Chiba. 


44 


Okayama. 


55 


Yanfiaguchi. 


49 


Iwate. 


50 


Yamaguchi. 


59 


Shiga. 


61 


Tokushima. 


62 


Saga. 


62 


Shiraane. 


46 


Kagoshima. 



13.— SECOND KATSURA CABINET. 
Organized on July 14th, 1908. — Resigned on August 30th, 1911. 



Portfolios. 

Premier 

Minister of Home Affairs 
Minister of Foreign Affairs 
Minister of Finance (additio 

Minister of War 

Minister of the Navy ... 
Miiiister of Communications 
Minister of Agriculture and 
Minister of Justice 
Minister of Education ... 



Names. 

Marquis Taro Katsura 

Baron Tosuke Hirata 

Count Jutaro Komura 

nal) Marquis Taro Katsura 

Viscount Masakata Terauchi 

Baron Makoto Saito 

Baron Shimpei Goto 

Commerce ... Baron Kanetake Oura 

Viscount Nagamoto Okabe 

Mr. Eitaro Komatsubara 

Cliief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Kamon Shibata. 



^e. 


Names of Prefectures 


62 


Yamaguchi. 


60 


Yamagata. 


54 


Miyazaki. 


62 


Yamaguchi. 


57 


Yamaguchi. 


51 


Iwate. 


52 


Iwate,. 


59 


Kagoshima. 


55 


Osaka. 


57 


Okayama. 



• Resigned. 



( 7 ) 



1 4-— SECOND SAIONJI CABINET. 
Organized on August 30th, 1911. — Resigned on December 218t, 1912. 



Premier 

Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
^Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 
Minister 



Portfolios. 

of Home Affairs 
of Foreign Affaiis . 
of Finance 

of War 

of War , 

of the Niivy ... 
of Communications 
of Agriculture and 
of Justice 
of Education ... 



Names. 

Marquis Kiroraochi Saiouji 

Mr. Takashi Hara 

Viscount Yasuya Uchida ... .. 

Mr. Tatsuo Yamamoto 

... Baron Shinroku Ishimoto 

Biiron Yusaku Uyehara 

Baron Makoto Saito 

, Count Tadiisu Hayashi 

Commerce ... Baron Nobuaki Makino 

, Mr. Masaliisa Matsuda 

, Mr. Sumitaka Haseba 

Chief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Hiroshi Minami. 



Age, 


Names of Prefectures. 


63 


Kyoto. 


52 


Iwate. 


47 


Kumamoto. 


56 


Oita. 


58 


Himeji. 


56 


Kagoshima. 


54 


Iwate. 


62 


Tokyo. 


51 


Kagoshima. 


67 


Saga. 


58 


Kagoshima. 



15.— THIRD KATSURA CABINET. 
Organized on December 218t, 1912. — Resigned on March 20th, 1913. 



Portfolios. 

Premier 

Minister of Home Affairs 

Minister of Foreign Affairs 

Minister of Finance 

Minister of War 

Minister of tiie Navy 

Minister of Cunmunications 

Minister of Agriculture and Commerce 

Minister of Justice 

Minister of Education 



Names. 
Prince Tare Katsura 
Viscount Kanetake Oura 
Baron Takaaki Kato 
Mr. Reij'ro Wakatsuki ... 
Baron Yasutsuiia Kigoshi 
Baron Makoto Saito 
Baron Sliimpei Goto 
Mr. Ren Nakaslioji 
Mr. Itasu Matsumuro ... 
Mr. Kamon Shibata 



Chief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Tasuku Egi. 



16— THE YAMAMOTO CABINET. 



kge. 


Names of Prefectures. 


66 


Yamaguchi< 


63 


Kagoshima. 


53 


Aichi. 


47 


Shimane. 


59 


Ishikawa. 


55 


Iwate. 


56 


Iwate. 


47 


Yamaguchi. 


61 


Fukuoka. 


51 


Yamaguchi. 



Organized on March 20th, 1913. — Resigned on April 16th, 1914. 



Portfolios. 

Premier 

Minister of Home Affairs 

Minister of Foreign Affairs 

Minister of Finance 

*Minister of War 

Minister of War 

Minister of the Navy 

Minister of Communications 

Minister of Agriculture and Commerce 



Names. 

Count Gombei Yamamoto 

Mr. Takashi Hara 

Baroii Nobuaki Makino 

Baron Korekiyo Takahashi 

Baron Yasutsuna Kigoshi 

Lieut.-General Saehiliiko Kusuiiose 

Baron Makoto Saito 

Mr. Hajime Motoda 

Mr. Tatsuo Yamamoto ... ... ... 



Age. 


Names of Prefectures. 


62 


Kagoshima. 


58 


Iwate. 


53 


Kagoshima. 


60 


Miyugi. 


60 


Ishikawa. 


56 


Kochi. 


56 


Iwate. 


56 


Oita. 


58 


Oita. 



Besigned, 



( 8 ) 



Portfolios. 
*Minister of Justice 

Minister of Justice 
^Minister of Education ... 

Minister of Education ... 



Names. 

Mr. Masahisa Matsuda 

Dr Yoshito Okuda 

Dr. Yoshito Okuda 

Mr. Ikuzo Ooka 

Cliief Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Ichiji Yamanouchi. 



Age. 


Names of Prefectures 


69 


Saga. 


55 


Tottori, 


54 


Tottori. 


58 


Yamaguchi. 



17.— SECOND OKUMA CABINET. 
Organized on April 16th, 1914. — Rksiqned on October 9th, 1916. 



Portfolios. 



Premier 



*Miu 


ister 


of Home Affairs (additioi 


al) 


*Min 


'ster 


of Home Affairs 




Min 


ster 


of Home Affairs 




*Min 


ster 


of Foreign Affairs ... 




Min 


ster of Foreign Affairs 




*Min 


ster 


of Finance 




Min 


ster 


of Finance 




*Min 


ster 


of War 




Min 


ster 


of War 




*Min 


ster 


of the Navy 




Min 


ster 


of the Navy 




*Min 


ster 


of Communications 




Miu 


sler 


of Communications 




*Min 


.ster 


of Agriculture and Commerce 


Min 


ster 


of Agriculture and Commerce 


Min 


ister of Justice 


■ ■• 


*Min 


ster of Education .. 


. *■ 


Min 


ister of Education 


• i-. 








Chief 



Names. 
... Count Shigenobu Oku ma 

... Count Shigenobu Okuma 

... Viscount Kanetake Oura 

... Dr. Kitokuro Ikki 

Baron Tnkaaki Kato 

... Baron Kikujiro Ishii 

Mr. Reijiro Wakatsuki 

... Mr. Tokitoshi Taketomi 

Lieut.-General Ichiaosuke Oka ... 

Lieut.-General Ken-ichi Oshima... 

Vice-Admiral Rokuro Yashiro 

Vice-Admiral Tomosaburo Kato ... 

Mr. Tokitoshi Taketomi 

Mr. Katsundo Minoura 

Viscount Kanetake Oura 

Mr. Hironakii Kono 

... Mr. Yukio Ozaki 

... Dr. Kitokuro Ikki 

Dr. Sanaye Takada 

Secretary of the Cabinet — Mr. Tasuku Igi. 



Age. 


Names of Prefectures 


77 


Saga. 


77 


Saga. 


66 


Kagosliima. 


48 


Shidzuoka. 


55 


Aichi. 


50 


Chiba. 


49 


Shimane. 


60 


Saga. 


55 


Kyoto. 


59 


Gifu. 


55 


Aiclii. 


55 


Hiroshima. 


60 


Saga. 


62 


Oita. 


65 


Kagoshima. 


67 


Fukushima. 


56 


Miye. 


48 


Shidzuoka. 


56 


Saitama. 



18— THE TERAUCHI CABINET. 
Organized on October 9th, 1916. 



Portfolios 



Prem 



*Miii 
Mill 

*Min 
Min 
Min 
Min 
Min 
Min 
Min 
Miu 
Miu 



ler 
ster 
ster 
ster 
ster 
ster 
ster 
ster 
ster 
ster 
ster 
ster 



of Foreign Affairs (additional) 

of Foreign Affairs 

of Finance (additional) 

of Finance 

of Home Affairs 

of the Navy 

of War 

of Justice 

of Education 

of Communications 

of Agriculture and Commerce 



Names. 
Count Masakata Terauchi 
Count Masakata Terauchi 
Viscount Ichiro Motono 
Count Masakata Terauchi ... 

Mr. Kadzuye Shoda 

Baron Shimpei Goto 

Admiral Tomosaburo Kato ... 
Lieut.-General Ken-ichi Oshima. 

Mr. Itasu Matsumuro 

Mr. Ryohei Okada 

Baron Kenjiro Den 

Mr. Ren Nakashoji 



Age. 


Names of Prefectures 


65 


Yamaguchi. 


60 


Yamaguchi. 


55 


Saga. 


65 


Yamaguchi. 


48 


Ehime. 


60 


Iwate. 


06 


Hirosiiima. 


59 


Gifu. 


65 


Fukuoka. 


53 


Shiilzuoka. 


62 


Kyoto. 


51 


Yamaguchi. 



Chief Secretary of the Cabinet — Count Hideo Kodama. 



Resigned. 



( 9 ) 



PREMIERS OF JAPAN. 



SINCE THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FIRST CABINET IN 1885. 






COUKT KURODA. 



PRINCE YAMAGATA. 



MARQUIS MATSUKATA. 




MARQUIS OKUMA. 





MARQUIS SAIONJI. 



PRINCE ITO. 






PRINCE KATSURA. 



COUNT YAMAMOTO. 



COUNT TERAUCHI, 



( 10 ) 
OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF VARIOUS BUREAUX ATTACHED TO THE CABINET. 

In the Cabinet there is a Chief Secretary who, in accordance with instructions of the Premier, takes charge of important 
and secret documents and controls the general afiairs of the Cabinet. He is further empowered with the authority of appoint- 
ing or dismissing officials below the hannin rank. Besides the Chief Secretary are three Secretaries, aud several 
subordinate officials. The Secretaries, acting under instructious from the Premier or the Chief Secretary, deal witli matters 
relating to the issue of Imperial Ordinances and other laws and regulations, the preservation of original drafts of the 
Constitution of the Empire of Japan and the laws and Imperial Ordinances, etc. Under the direct control of the Cabinet 
are Bureaux of Legislation, Statistics, Decoration, Pensions and Printing. The Printing Bureau controls the printing 
and sale of the Official Gazette, complete editions of laws and regulations, and lists of Government Officers and Officials, 
besides the printing of postal and revenue stamps and Government bonds. Tiie other Bureaux deal with the respective 
business indicated in their titles. In addition to these, commissioners are appointed for the examination of higher civil 
services. National Defence Council and Imperial Government Railways, all of which are under the control of the Cabinet. 



GENERAL RULES FOR THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF 

ALL DEPARTMENTS. 

fHE present Rules apply to all Departments of Foreign Affiiirs, Home Affairs, Finance, War, the Navy, Justice, 
Education, Agriculture and Commerce, and Communications. 

The Ministers of Departments, are responsible for the discharge of business under their respective charge. 

As regards business which concerns more than two Departments, its jurisdiction is fixed by the Cabinet Council. 

In case any necessity arises for the enactment of laws and Imperial Ordinances, or their abolition or amendment, the 
Ministers concerned shall submit the matter to the Cabinet Council. 

The Ministers of Departments can issue Departmental orders on matters under their jurisdiction by virtue of their 
powers and special trust. 

The Ministers of Departments can issue orders and instructions to the Chief of the Metropolitan Police, the Governor 
of the Hokkaido-Cho, and Governors of various prefectures on the matters under their respective jurisdiction. 

The Ministers of Departments control the Chief of the Metropolitan Police, the Governor of the Hokkaido-Cho and 
Governors of all prefectures on business under their respective jurisdiction. When they deem the orders issued and 
dispositions made by the Chief of the Metropolitan Police, the Governor of the Hokkaido-Cho, or Governors of prefectures 
as illegal, detrimental to the public interests, or exceeding their powers, they can suspend or cancel such orders and 
dispositions. 

The Ministers of Departments control the officials over whom they are placed, but the appointment or dismissal of 
officials o{ aonin rank is submitted to the Throne through the Premier; they can arbitrarily effect the appointment or 
dismissal of officials of hannin rank. 

The appoiptment or dismissal of officials of aoniii rank in the local Governments is submitted to the Throne by the 
Minister of Home Affairs, tiirough the Premier. 

The Ministers of Departments submit, through the Premier, to the Throne matters relating to the conferment of 
rank on or decoration of officials under their orders. 

The procedure specified in the foregoing paragraph is observed in the case of conferment of rank on and decoration 
of local officials. 

A Minister, when he is unable to discharge his official duties, can temporarily make the Vice-Minister act for him in 
all matters except countersigning laws and Imperial Ordinances, attending the Cabinet Council, and issuing Departmental 
Orders. 

A Minister's Secretariat is provided in various Departments. 

The Minister's Secretariat takes charge of the following business : 
Secret matters. 

The appointment and dismissal of officials. 
The custody of the official seals of the Minister and the Department. 



t 11 ) 

The receipt and despatch of official documents and draft measures. 
The compilation of statistical reports. 

The compilation of official documents and their presei VHtioii. 

The Budget for the expenditure and revenue of the Department, and matters regarding settled and general accohnt^. 
Audit of accounts. 
. The official property and articles of the Department. 
Matters provided in the official regulations of the Department as belonging to the Minister's Secretariat. 

According to the convenience of the Departments, various Bureaux may be made to transact the business belonging to 
the Minister's Secretariat. 

The business to be transacted by special Bureaux shall be defined by the official Regulations of the Department, 

The Minister's Secretaiiat and sections of various Bureaux are fixed by the Minister. 

The Sections in the Departments of War and the Navy are defined by the Official Regulations of the Department. 

All Departments have the following officials : 

Vice- Minister, Councillors, 

Sanseikan, Private Secretaries, 

Vice-Sanseiican, Secretaries, 

Chiefs of Bureaux, Subordinate Officials, 

The Department has one Vice-Minister of chokunin rank. 

The Vice-Minister assists the Minister in adjusting the Departmental business, and controls the business of various 
Bureaux. 

The Department lias one Sanseikan of chokunin rank. 

The Sanseikan deals with matters relating to the Imperial Diet and assists the Minister in the Legislature. 

The Department has one Vice-Sanseikan of chokunin rank, who transacts the business relating to the Imperial Diet, 
acting under instructions of the Minister. 

Every Bureau has one Director of chokunin rank, who takes charge of the business of his Bureau, acting under 
instructions of the Minister, and who also directs and superintends the business of various sections in his Bureau. 

The Councillors are officials of aonin rank, who deliberate on affairs and draw up bills under the Minister's instructions. 
According to the convenience of the Department to which they belong, the Councillors, in addition to their offices, 
discharge the duties of various Bureaux or Sections by order of the Minister. 

The Private Secretaries are of sonin rank. They take charge of secret matters, and sometimes assist others in the 
discharge of their duties by order of the Minister. 

The Secretaries are of sonin rank. They take charge of the business of the Minister's Secretariat, by order of the 
Minister, and assist in the discharge of business of various Bureaux. 

Every Department has one special Private Secretary, but the Department of Foreign Affairs may have two 
special Private Secretaries. 

Every Department has special Counjillors and Secretaries, not exceeding nine in number, and their fixed number is 
defined by the Official Organization of the Department. 

The Departments of Foreign Affairs, Home Affairs, Finance, Agriculture and Commerce, and Communications may 
have special Councillors and Secretaries, not exceeding 14 in number. 

The Minister's Secretariat, or every Section in the Bureau, has one Chief of eitlier sonin or hannin rank. The Chief 
takes charge of the business of his section by order of his superiors. 

The Chief of sections in the Departments of War and the Navy are provided for in the Official Organization of the 
Departments. 

The zoku (subordinate officials) are of hannin rank ; they transact various business by order of their superiors. 

The number of /ia»wim officials is fixed by the Official Organization of various Departments. When there arises a 
necessity for more officials than provided for in the present Rules they are defined by the Official Organization of various 
Departments, 



< 12 ) 

THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT 

OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 

SpHE Minister of Foreign Affairs attends to administrative affairs relating to foreign countries, the protection of the 
tS tommercial interests of the Empire in foreign countries, and matters relating to Japanese subjects resident in foreign 
countries ; he also controls diplomatic and consular officials. 

The Minister of Foreign Affairs superintends matters relating to Kwangtung province. 




DEPARTMENT OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS. 



The Minister's Secretariat takes charge, in addition to matters defined in the General Rules, of business relating to 
diplomatic and consular oflacials of foreign Powers, the decoration of foreigners, the preservation of treaty documents, and 
the tranilation of documents. 

The fixed number of Councillors, Private Secretaries and Secretaries is two, two and nine respectively. 

The Department of Foreign Affairs has three Secretary Translators oisonin rank, who attend to the translation of 
documents. V 

The fixed number otzoku, or subordinate officials of the Department of Foreign Affairs, is 63. 

The Department of Foreign Affairs has five El^ve Translators of hannin rank, who attend to the translation of 
documents and interpretation, by order of their superior officials. 

The Department of Foreign Afiairs has four experts, who attend to the telegraph and repairing business, by order of 
their superior officials. 

There are two Bureaux in the Department of Foreign Affairs : 

The Political Affairs Bureau. The Commercial Affairs Bureau. 

The Political Affairs Bureau takes charge of business relating to diplomatic affairs and that relating to Kwangtung 
province. 

The Commercial Affairs Bureau takes charge of business relating to commerce, navigation and emigration. 

The Commissioners for conducting the examinations for diplomatic and consular officials are appointed in the 
Department of Foreign Affairs. 



( 1» ) 

THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICES. 

The term diplomatic official is applicable to an Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Councillor of Embassy, Minister Resident, First-class Secretary of Itmbassy, 
Second-class Secretary of Embnssy, Third-class Secretary of Embassy, First-class Secretary of Legation, Second-class 
Secretary of Legation, Third-class Secretary of Legation, and Attach^. 

An Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary holds the shinnin rani?, and Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary, Councillor of the Embassy, and Minister Resident hold the chokunin rank, wliile other 
diplomatic officials hold the sonin rank. 

A Gonsul-General, Consul, Vice-Consul, and El^ve-Consul are called Consular officials. 

A Consul-General, Consul, Vice-Consul, and ElSve-Consul hold the sonin rank. 

The Minister of Foreign Affairs can appoint a Councillor of the Embassy in the Legation in China when he deems 
it necessary. 

Diplomatic Commissioners can be appointed to places where no diplomat is accredited. 

Consular officials can hold the post of Diplomatic Commissioner in addition to their proper duties. 

In a place where no Consular official is provided, a Commercial Commissioner, Honorary Consul-General, Honorary 
Consul, or Honorary Vice-Consul can be appointed. 

A Commercial Commissioner is an official of sonin rank, while the treatment accorded to an official of sonin rank is 
accorded to an Honorary Consul and Honorary Vice-Consul. 

Chancellors are appointed to the Embassy, Legation, Consulate and Commercial Commissioner's Office. 

Chancellors are officials of hannin rank. 

In Embassies and Legations, where interpreters of foreign languages, except English, French and German, are 
required. First-class and Second-class Secretary Interpreters can be provided. 

First-class and Second-class Secretary Interpreters of Embassy and Legation are officials of sonin rank. 

In Embassies, Legations, Consulates, and Commercial Commissioners' Offices where interpreters of foreign languages, 
except English, French, and German, are required, El^ve-Interpreters can be provided. 

El^ve-Interpreters are officials of hannin rank. 

Diplomatic or Consular Officials, who are temporarily released from their service abroad, are placed on the 
waiting list. 

Diplomatic and Consular officials on the waiting list can be made to temporarily engage in the business of the 
Department of Foreign Affairs. In such cases, the regulations governing officials on the active list are applied. 

Three years constitute the time-limit for Diplomatic and Consular officials being on the waiting list. At the expiration 
of this time-limit they are relieved of their offices. 

In the case of diplomatic officials on the waiting list, who additionally hold the post of Vice-Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, Director of the Political Affair* Bureau, or Diiector of the Commercial Affairs Bureau the provisions in 
the foregoing paragraph are not applied during the time such additional post is held. 

Diplomatic and Consular officials on the waiting list cannot be ordered on the retired list. 

The provisions specified in the foregoing clauses are applied to Commercial Commissioners, and First-class and 
Second-class Secretary Interpreters of Embassy and Legation. 



( 14 ) 

. THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT 

OF HOME AFFAIRS. 

f? HE Minister of Home Aflfairs takes charge of matters relating to the shrines, local administration, the election of 
t members of various assemblies, police, engineering, sanitation, publication, copyright, geography, charity, relief, and 
colonization, and controls the Chief of the Metropolitan Police, the Governor of the Hokkaido-Cho, and prefectural 
Governors. The Minister of Home Affairs also superintends matters relating to Chosen, Formosa and Karafuto. 




DEPARTMENT OF liuME AFFAIUS. 

There are five Bureaux in tlie Department of Home Affairs : . ^ 

The Shrine Affairs Bureau. The Local Affairs Bureau. 

The Police Affairs Bureau. The Engineering Affairs Bureau. 

Tiie Sanitary Affairs Bureau. 

The Shrine Affairs Bureau transacts the following : — 

Matter? relating to the Imperial Shrines, State shrines. Government shrines, village shrines, the Shokonsha 

(shrines for those killed in war) and other shrines. 
Matters relating to the Shinto priests. 

The Local Affairs Bureau transacts the following : — 

Matters relating to the election of various Assemblies. 

Matters relating to the Prefectural Assemblies, prefectural economics, and other prefectural administration. 

Matters relating to the County Assemblies, county economics and other county administration. 

Matters relating to economics of the City, Town and Village Assemblies, public guilds and associations and 

administration of City, Town, Village Assemblies, public guilds and associations. 
Matters relating to charity and relief. 
Matters relating to Prefectural and public Alms-houses, Hospitals for the Blind and Deaf-mutes, Lunatic 

Asylums, Orphanages, and other charitable institutions. 
Matters relating to conscription and requisition. 
Matters relating to the forestry and colonization of the Hokkaido and such items concerning the Hokkaido as 

do not fall under the jurisdiction of any other Bureau. 
Matters relating to Chosen, Formosa and Karafuto. 



. 



( 16 ) 

The Police Affairs Bureau transacts the following : — 

Matters relating to police administration. 

Matters relating to higher police affairs. 

Matters relating to the publication of books, and copyright. 
The Engineering Affairs Bureau transacts the following : — 

Matters relating to tiie engineering works under tlie direct control of the Department. 

Matters relating to the engineering works of prefectures and public engineering works. 

Matters relating to investigations concerning the cost of engineering works under direct control of the Depart- 
ment and the payment of subsidies for the engineering works of prefectures. 

Matters relating to reclamation of foreshores. 

Matters relating to the expropriation of land. 

Matters relating to investigations of work connected with rivers, roads, harbours and embankments. 
The Sanitary Affairs Bureau transacts the following : — 

Matters relating to the prevention of infectious diseases, and endemic diseases, vaccination and all other public 
sanitation. 

Matters relating to quarantine and detention of ships. 

Matters relating to the business of physicians, pharmaceutists, and to the control of drugs and patent medicines. 

Matters relating to sanitary associations and local hospitals. 



(f^ 



THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE FINANCIAL 

DEPARTMENT. 



t^ HE Minister of Finance superintends the financial affairs of tlie Government, controls the business relating to the 
t'. accounts, receipts and disbursements, taxation, national bonds, coinage, deposits, articles in custody, trusts and banks 
and superintends the financial affairs of prefectures, districts, cities, towns, villages, and other public organizations. 




DEPARTMENT 



FINANCE. 



There are six Bureaux in the Financial Department : 
The Accounts Bureau. 
The Financial Bureau. 
The Mint. 



The Revenue Bureau. 
The Banking Bureau. 
The Monopoly Bureau. 



( 16 ) 
THE ACCOUNTS BUREAU. 

The Accounts Bureau takes cliarge of the following : — 

Matters relating to the General Budget and General Settlement, 

Matters relating to the Budget and Settlement of special accounts. 

Matters relating to the Budget for disbursements. 

Matters relating to the registration in the Accounts' Books. 

Matters relating to the compilation of books for annual revenue and expenditure. 

Matters relating to the provisional examination of various account books 

Matters relating to the superintendence of the cashiers and their sureties. 

Matters relating to tiie disbursement of reserve funds. 

Matters relating to the carrying forward of fixed amounts and to the disbursement of funds before the fiscal 

year commences. 
Matters relating to items of revenue and disbursement. 
Matters relating to the unification of accounts. 
Matters relating to tlie annual budget of prefectures, districts, cities, towns, villagers, and other public 

organizations. 

THE REVENUE BUREAU. 

The Revenue Bureau takes charge of the following : — 

Matters relating to the levy and collection of national taxes. 

Matters relating to the control and superintendence of taxation affairs. 

Matters connected with alterations to private lands. 

Matters relating to cadastres. 

Matters relating to various revenues, except those under the jurisdiction of the Financial Department. 

Matters relating to tlie revenues of prefectures, districts, cities, towns, villages and other public organizations. 

Matters relating to the levy and collection of customs and tonnage dues, and various customs revenues. 

Matters relating to the control and superintendence of Customs administration. 

Matters relating to the control of vessels engaged in foreign trade, and export and import goods. 

Matters relating to the control and superintendence of bonded warehouses, Customs' temporary dejwsitories, and 

Customs warehouses. 
Matters relating to the investigation of the conditions of foreign trade and the Customs tariff. 

THE FINANCIAL BUREAU. 

The Financial Bureau takes charge of the following : — 

Matters relating to the employment, receipt and disbursement of National funds. 

Matters relating to the receipts and disbursements of the National Treasury. 

Matters relating to coinage. 

Matters relating to the monetary circulation in general. 

Matters relating to National Bonds, 

Matters relating to sinking funds for the relief of sufferers from natural calamities. 

Matters relating to deposits, articles in custody and lield in trust. 

Matters relating to pensions. 

Matters relating to public loans of prefectures, districts, cities, towns, villages and other public organizations, 

THE BANKING BUREAU. 

The Banking Bureau deals with the following : — 

Matters relating to banks established by special orders and rules. 
Matters relating to ordinary banks. 
Matters relating to savings banks. 



( 17 ) 

Matters relating to the business of credit tnobilier. 

Matters relating to mujin (private credit and savings system). 

Matters relating to bonds similar to paper money. 

Matters relating to juridical persons having relations with banks. 

Matters relating to bank debentures. 

Matters concerning subsidies and special allowances granted to banks. 

THE MINT. 

The Mint is situated in Osaka and is placed under the direct control of the Minister of Finance. It undertakes the 
coinage of gold and subsidiary coins, re-moulding of old coins, manufacture of medals and seals, refining of bullion and 
analysis of various minerals and metals. 

THE MONOPOLY BUREAU. 

The Monopoly Bureau is under the control of the Finance Minister and deals with the following: — 

Matters relating to the Cultivation, inspection, harvest, manufacture, sale, import, export, examination and 

appraising and control of tobacco. 
Matters relating to tiie Manufacture, sale, import, export, inspection, appraising and control of salt. 
Matters relating to the Manufacture, sale, export, inspection, appraising and control of camphor and camphor oil. 



THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT. 

^HE Minister of War superintends the military administration, controls military officers and men and civilians attached 
J* to the Army, and attends to the afiairs of various departments under his jurisdiction. 




DEPARTMENT OF WAR. 



There are six Bureaux in the Department of War : 

The Personal Affairs Bureau. 
The Ordnance Bureau. 
The Medical Bureau. 



The Army Affairs Bureau. 

The General Accounts and Supplies Bureau, 

The Judicial Affairs Bureau. 



( 18 ) 

The Personal Affairs Bureau, which is sub-divided into two sections of Appointment and Honours, manages the 
appointment of officers, the keeping of rolls, and grant of lionours, furloughs and pensions. 

The Army Affairs Bureau, which is also sub-divided into several sections, controls the organization of different units, 
the disposition of troops, military etiquette, military education, mobilization, manoeuvres, requisitioning, and all other 
matters relating to all departmeots of the Imperial Army. 

The Ordnance Bureau undertakes the manufacture, examination, supply, and up-keep of ordnance and general 
military requisites, and is also sub-divided into sections. 

The General Accounts and Supplies Bureau, which is also sub-divided into sections, has under its charge all matters 
relating to military revenue and expenditure, the supply of clothing and foodstuffs, and the construction and maintenance 
of all Army buildings. 

The Medical Bureau has also two sections and maintains general supervision over the health of the troops and the 
medical treatment of the sick and wounded. The conscription examination of youtiis is also undertaken by the Bureau. 

The Judicial Affair Bureau deals with matters relating to military legislation, to military management, records, 
personnel in charge of prisons and other affairs relating thereto, prisons, amnesty and extradition. 

In addition the following special establishments are placed under the charge of the Department of War: — 

The Military Arsenals. The Ordnance Works. 

The Board of Technical Affairs. The Gendarmerie Headquarters. 

The Horse Supply Bureau. The Horse Administration Board. 

The Board of Fort Construction. The Clothing Supply Works. 

The Forage Supply Works. 

The Army General Staff Office, the Board of Military Education, and the Office of the Commander-in-Chief of the 
Tokyo Garrisons are also part of the military administration system, but they are independent of the Department of War 
and under the direct control of the Emperor. 



THE GENERAL STAFF OFFICE. 

^HE General Staff Office deals with affairs relating to national defence and tactics. The Chief of Staff is appointed from 
Oi among Generals or Lieut.-Generals, is placed under the direct control of the Emperor, and superintends all affairs of 
the Bureau. 

The Chief of Staff controls staff officers under him and superintends education pertaining to strategic science; the 
Military Staff College and the Land Surveying Section are placed under his charge. 

The sectional chiefs attached to the Staff Office, in compliance with instructions of the Chief of Staff, direct their 
subordinate officers and discliarge other duties devolving on them. 

The organization of the Staff Office is effected in accordance with special rules. 

The present Chief of the Army General Staff is Baron General Uyehara. His predecessors were : — 

Names. 

General H.I.H. Prince Taruhito Shinno Arisugawa-no-Miya 

General H.I.H. Prince Akihito Shinno Komatsu-no-Miya 

General Viscount Soroku Kawakami 

Field Marshal Marquis Iwao Oyama 

Field Marshal Marquis Aritomo Yamagata 

General Viscount Gentaro Kodama 

General Baron Yasukata Oku 

General Viscount Yoshimichi Hasegawa 

Baron General Yusaku Uyehara ... .„ ... 



Age. 


Names of Prefectu-res. 


Appointed 


55 


Kyoto 


1889 


50 


Kyoto 


1895 


55 


Kagoshima 


1898 


68 


Kagoshima 


1899 


67 


Yamaguchi 


1904 


55 


Yamaguchi 


1906 


61 


Fukuoka 


1910 


63 


Yamaguchi 


1912 


60 


Miyazaki 


1915 



( 19 ) 

CHIEFS OF THE ARMY GENERAL STAFF OFFICE. 




GENERAL 
VISCOUNT KAWAKAMI. 




FIELD MARSHAL 
PRINCE YAMAGATA. 




GENERAL H.I.H. 
PRINCE TARUHITO SHINNO. 





FIELD MARSHAL 
PRINCE OYAMA. 




GENERAL 
VISCOUNT KODAMA. 



FIELD MARSHAL H.LH. 
PRINCE AKIHITO SHINNO. 






FIELD MARSHAL 
COUNT OKU. 



FIELD MARSHAL 
COUNT HASEGAWA. 



GENERAL 
BARON UYEHARA. 



( 20 ) 

THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

fHE Department of the Navy is controlled by the Minister of the Navy, whose duty it is to supervise naval administra- 
tion, control all staffs of the Imperial Navy, and take charge of all bureaux and boards in the jurisdiction of the 
Department. 







DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY. 



There are seven Bureaux in the Department : — 



The Military Affairs Bureau. 

The Material Bureau. 

The Medical Affairs Bureau. 



The Personnel Bureau. 
The Machinery Bureau. 
The General Accounts and Supplies Bureau. 
The Judicial Affairs Bureau. 



The Military Affairs Bureau, which is sub-divided into two sections, takes charge of the organization of all branches 
of the service, military discipline, education, martial law and requisitioning, naval etiquette, the supervision of forts, 
communication, fleets, schools, flags, and defence zones, habours, watch towers, the maintenance of order on seas, and other 
matters. 

The Personnel Bureau manages all affairs relating to the appointment and dismissal of officers and men, decorations, 
pensions, personal affairs, mobilization, manoeuvres, etc. 

The Material Bureau, which is sub-divided into sections, has under its charge the manufacture and preservation 
of arms and machinery, adjustment of arms and ammunition, matters relating to arsenals, steel works and building materials, 
coal mines, oil wells, supply of other necessaries, expenditure thereof and relief organizations. 

The Machinery Bureau takes charge of all matters concerning the use of machinery, Engineering Schools, etc. 
The Medical Bureau controls the medical affairs of the Imperial Navy, including the maintenance of Naval Hospitals, 
and the education or training of Naval Surgeons. 

The General Accounts and Supplies Bureau supervises all matters relating to the revenue and expenditure, the 
training of paymasters, provisions, materials for uniforms, purchase of all necessaries, and expenditure needed for the 
construction of stations, etc. 

The Judicial Affairs Bureau controls Naval Prisons, and Court-martials and ether matters pertaining thereto. 

In addition there are the Council of Admirals, the Board of Naval Education, the Technical Department, the 
Hydrographic Bureau, Arsenals and Naval Works. The Naval Staff Office is also a part of the Naval administration 
system, but it is quite independent of the Department of the Navy and is under the direct control of the Emperor. 



( 21 ) 



THE NAVAL STAFF BOARD. 



The Naval Staff Board ia under the direct control of the Emperor and manages the defense of the country and direction 
of units in war. All the decisions reached by the board are reported directly to the Throne by the Chief of the Board, and 
when the Imperial sanction is obtained they are sent to the Minister of the Navy to be executed. 

In war time, the Imperial Headquarters not being created for the direction of campaigns, the Chief of the Naval 
Staff Board draws up plans of campaign and sends them to the fighting units. 

The present Chief of the Naval Staff Board is Admiral Baron Hayao Shimamura. His predecessors were : — 

Names. 

Vice- Admiral Viscount Kuranosuke Nakamuda 

Vice Admiral Viscount Sukenori Kabayama 

Admiral Viscount Yuko Ito , 

Admiral Count Heihachiro Togo 

Admiral Baron Goro Ijuin 

Vice-Adrairal Hayao Shimamura 



Age. 


Names of Prefectures. 


Appointed. 


57 


Saga. 


1893 


58 


Kagoshimn. 


1894 


53 


Kagoshiraa. 


1895 


60 


KagoshimH. 


1905 


58 


Kagosliima. 


1909 


57 


Kochi. 


1914 



CHIEFS OF THE NAVAL STAFF BOARD. 






VICE-ADMIRAL 
VISCOUNT NAKAMUDA. 



ADMIRAL 
COUNT KABAYAMA. 



ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET 
COUNT ITO. 






ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET 
COUNT TOGO. 



ADMIRAL 
BARON IJUIN. 



ADMIRAL 
BARON SHIMAMURA. 



t 22 ) 

OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. 

SPHE Minister of Justice controls the Law Courts and Procurators' Offices, directs tlie business of prosecution, and 
ts superintends the civil, criminal, law of procedure in non-contentious matters, census registration, prisons, the protection 
of ex-convicts and all other judicial administration. 




DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. 



The Minister's Secretariat takes charge of the social functions of officials attached to the law-courts, and barristers, in 
addition to matters given in the General Rules. 



There are two bureaux in the Department of Justice : 
The Judicial Affairs Bureau. 



The Prison Affairs Bureau. 



The Judicial Affairs Bureau transacts the following : — 

Matters relating to the establishment, abolition and districts under jurisdiction of law courts. 

Matters relating to civil and criminal cases and the law of procedure in non-coutentious matters. 

Matters relating to trials and prosecutions. 

Mttters relating to amnesty and the execution of sentences. 

Matters relating to extradition. 

Matters relating to census registration. 

Matters relating to notarial business. 

Matters relating to barristers' associations. 

The Prison Affairs Bureau transacts the following : — 

Matters relating to prisons. 

Matters relating to the release on bail and the protection of ex-convic's. 

Matters relating to discrimination in the treatment of criminals. 

The Commission is under the control of the Minister of Justice and drafts laws relating to civil and criminal 
affairs in accordance with his instructions. 



( 28 ) , 

THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT 

OF EDUCATION. 

IjrHE Minister of Education superintends matters relating lo Education, Sciences and Arts, and Religion. 

^' The Minister's Secretariat takes charge of tiie following, in addition to business specified in the General 

Rules : — 

Matters relating to the faculty of Public Schools, construction and repairs, the sanitation of schools. Exhibitions, 
rewards and prizes. 

There are three Bureaux in the Department : 

The Special School Affairs Bureau. The General School Affairs Bureau. 

The Religious Affairs Bureau. 



mm 




DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. 



The Special School Affairs Bureau takes charge of the following: — 

Matters relating to the Imperial Universities and High Schools. 

Matters relating to Special Schools and Industrial Schools. 

Matters relating to Schools of various kinds corresponding to the above-mentioned institutions. 

Matters relating to the despatch of students and teachers abroad for the prosecution of their studies or for 

inspection. 
Matters relating to the Infectious Diseases Laboratories. 

Matters relating to the Astronomical Observatories, meteorological observatories and meteorological stations. 
Matters relating to the encouragement and investigation of science^and arts. 
Matters relating to the Geodesy Committee and the Committee for the investigation of means of protection 

against earthquake. 
Matters relating to the Imperial Academy (Gakushi-kai-in). 
Matters relating to Scientific Associations. 
Matters relating to degrees or titles. 
Matters relating to the examination of medical practitioners, and examination of pharmaceutists. 



( 24 ) 

The General School Affairs Bureau takes charge of the following : — 
Matters relating to Normal School education. 
Matters relating to Middle Schools. 
Matters relating to Primary Schools and Kindergartens. 
Matters relating to Higher Girls' Schools. 
Matters relating to schools for the blind and dumb. 
Mutters relating to schools similar to the above-mentioned institutions. 
Matters relating to the compilation, publication and inspection of books. 
Matters relating to Common Education and Educational Associations. 
Matters relating to school attendance of Cliildren of School-age. 
Matters relating to Libraries and Museums. 

The Religious AfFnira Bureau takes charge of the following: — 

Matters relating to various sects of Shintoism and Buddhism, temples and shrines and other religious affairs. 
Matters relating to the preservation of old shrines and temples. 
Matters relating to priests and preachers. 



THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT 
OF AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCE. 

P HE Minister of Agriculture and Commerce controls the business relating to agriculture, commerce, industries, marine 
3 products, forestry, mining, geology and the execution of the Factory Law. 




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCE. 



The Minister's Secretariat takes charge of the business relating to foreign and domestic exhibitions, in addition to 
the matters specified in the General Rules. 

There are the following five Bureaux in the Department of Agriculture and Commerce : 

The Agricultural Affairs Bureau. The Commercial and Industrial Affairs Bureau. 

The Forestry Affairs Bureau. The Mining Affairs Bureau. 

Aquatic Products Affairs Bureau. 



( 25 ) 

The Agricultural Affairs Bureau takes charge of the business relating to agriculture, sericulture, tea industry, live- 
stock, cattle sanitation, hunting and shooting. 

The Agricultural Affairs Bureau has the Cattle Disease Investigation Office, which takes charge of the business 
relating to the investigations and examination of the diseases of cattle, and the manufacture and distribution of serum. 

The Commercial and Industrial Affairs Bureau takes charge of the business relating to commercial and industrial 
matters, the execution of the Factory Law, and weights and measures. 

The Commercial and Industrial Affairs Bureau has the Commercial Museum, in which are collected and displayed 
samples of foreign and home merchandise, and articles for reference for the inspection of the public. The Bureau also takes 
charge of correspondence relating to foreign and domestic trade. 

The Commercial and Industrial Affairs Bureau has the Central Weights and Measures Inspection OflSce, which takes 
charge of the inspection of weights and measures. 

The Forestry Affairs Bureau takes charge of tiie business relating to forests and lands. 

The Forestry Affairs Bureau has the Forestry Experimental Station, which takes charge of the investigation and 
experiments in matters relating to the development of forestry products. 

The Mining Affairs Bureau takes charge of business relating to mining. 

The Mining Affairs Bureau has the Geological Investigation Station, which takes charge of business connected with 
investigations to ascertain the properties of soil. 

The Aquatic Products Affairs Bureau takes charge of the business relating to aquatic products. 

Under the control of the Minister of Agriculture and Commerce there are also the Patent Bureau, Steel Foundry, 
Marine Products Institute, Technical Experimental Institute, Plants and Trees Inspection Stations, Silk and Habutae 
Conditioning Houses and Fancy Mattings Inspection Bureau. 



THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT 

OF COMMUNICATIONS. 

f*HE Minister of Communications controls the mails, parcels-post, telegraphs, telephones and lighthouses, takes charge of 
i matters relating to generation of eletricity and hydraulic power, and superintends matters relating to electricity, ship- 
building, transport on land and sea, and steamship lines, vessels iind seamen. 




DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATIONS. 



There are four Bureaux in the Department : 

The Posts and Telegraphs Bureau. 
The Marine Affairs Bureau. 



The Electric Exploitations Bureau. 
The Postal Money Order and Saving 



Bureau. 



( 26 ) 

The Posts and Telegraphs Bureau transacts the following : — 

Matters relating to mails, parcels-post, telegraphs and telephones. 
Matters relating to the control of land transportation. 

The Electric Exploitations Bureau transacts the following : — 
Matters relating to the control of electricity. 
Matters relating to the inspection of scales for electricity. 
Matters relating to the generation of electricity and hydraulic power. 
In the Electric Bureau is established the Electric Experimental Office, which takes charge of business connected with 
electrical experiments. 

The Marine Affairs Bureau takes charge of the following: — 
Matters relating to light houses. 

Matters relating to steamship lines, vessels, seamen, transportation by water, and control over subsidized 

shipping companies and institutions. 

The Postal Money Order and Savings Bureau is under the control of the Minister of Communications and deals with 

matters relating to postal money orders, savings, the granting of pensions, receipts collected by the various Departments of 

State and the disbursement of annual expenditures. In addition, there are Marine Courts and Local Communication 

Bureaux where mails, telephones and telegraphs are dealt with. 




( 27 ) 

THE IMPERIAL HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT. 

^HE Imperial Household Department is under the control of the Minister of the Imperial Household, who, in addition to 
*S supervising all affairs relating to the Imperial Household, and controlling all officials in his department and the Peers 
of the realm and of Chosen, has authority to recommend the revision or abolition of the Imperial Household Law, lay down 
bye-laws relative to the enforcement of the Imperial Household Law, issue decrees relating to the affairs in his jurisdiction, 
issue instructions or orders to local authorities, carry out Imperial commends relating to honours, gifts, or donations, take 
charge of the appointment of the officials in the department, recommend to the Throne the grant of Court ranks to the 
officials in the department and Peers of tlie realm and Chosen, create various commissions or boards in the department 
for tlie deliberation of matters in his jurisdiction, sign all documents or announcements stipulated by the Imperial Household 
Law, or report important affairs concerning the Imperial Household, and supervise the accounts of the Imperial Household. 

In the Imperial Household Department the Vice-Minister is appointed as Lieutenant to the Minister of the House- 
hold, In some matters he can act as deputy for the Minister of the Household. In addition to these high dignitaries 
there are the following officials in the Department : — 

Private Secretaries. Secretaries. 

Translators. Clerks. 

Chief Expert Experts. 
Assistant Experts. 

The divisions of the department are as follow : — 

The Board of Chamberlains. The Board of Ceremonies. 

Tiie Bureau of the Imperial Family and Nobles. The Bureau of Imperial Treasury. 

The Bureau of Imperial Archives. The Bureau of Court Physicians. 

The Bureau of Imperial Cookery. The Bureau of Imperial Tombs. 

The Bureau of Imperial Palaces. The Bureau of Works. 

The Bureau of Imperial Stables. The Bureau of the Hunt. 

The Bureau of Supplies. 

In the Secretariat Bureau under the direct control of the Minister of the Household the appointment of officials in 
the department, the keeping of signatures, all affairs relative to the Imperial trips and outings, the grant of honours, 
presents, and donations, all affairs relating to the council of the household, and various other matters are managed. 

All affairs relative to His Majesty's chambers are controlled by the Board of Chamberlains, the members of which 
daily attend or wait upon His Majesty. The Board is controlled by the Grand Chamberlain and the Vice-Grand 
Chamberlain. 

The Board of Ceremonies, which is controlled by the Grand Master of Ceremonies and the Vice-Grand Master of 
Ceremonies, manage all ceremonial affairs of the Court. Under the control of the Board there are Boards of Ritualists and 
of Music. 

Tlie Bureau of the Imperial Family and Nobles is under the control of the Director of the Imperial Family and 
Nobles, and manages all affairs relative to the different ramifications of the Imperial Family and Nobles. The Imperial 
Treasury Bureau supervises the revenue and expenditure of the Household, and the property of the Imperial Household is 
placed under its charge. ' 

The Bureau of Imperial Archives chronicles and safeguards the Imperial Genealogy, takes charge of all laws, 
rescripts, edicts, and other records, compiles all histories of the Imperial Family and the old princely families of Chosen, 
and has charge of the Imperial Library. 

The Bureaux of Court Physicians and Cookery undertake the functions the names signify, while the Bureau of the 
Imperial Tombs superintends the up-keep and inspection of the Imperial tombs. The Bureau of tlie Imperial Palaces is a 
special establishment with the Imperial Police Force under its control. It has charge of the Imperial Palaces and guards 
all the palace grounds. 

The Bureau of Works takes charge of the construction of palaces and up-keep of gardens, together with gardening, 
horticultural works, and the laying of electric cablej. Tha Bureau of the Imperial Stables supervises the Imperial Stables. 



( 28 ) 

The Bureau of the Hunt has charge of the Imperial Preserves and hunting, while the Bureau of Supplies attends to 
the purchase and supply of various requisites in the Imperial Household, together with the control of the Imperial Au- 
tomobile Garage. 

Ill addition there are the Household of H.I.M. the Empress, the Household of H.I.H. the Crown Prince, the Board 
of Imperial Auditors, the Board of Imperial Forests and Estates, the Imperial Bureau of Poetry, the Peers' Schools, the 
Imperial Museums, the Imperial Pastures, and the Household of Prince Yi of Clioseu under the control of the Minister of 
the Imperial Household. The Present Minister is Baron Hatano. His Predecessors were : — 



Names. 




Age. 


Names of Prefectures. 


Appointed 


Count Hirobumi Ito 




45 


Yamaguchi 


1885 


Viscount Hisamoto Hijikata 




. ... 65 


Kochi 


1887 


Viscount Mitsuaki Tanaka 




56 


Kochi 


1898 


Prince Tomosada Iwakura 




. ... 59 


Kyoto 


1909 


Viscount Chiaki Watanabe 




. ... 68 


Nagano 


1910 


Baron Yoshinao Hatano 




. ... 64 


Saga 


1914 



MINISTERS OF THE IMPERIAL HOUSEHOLD. 






PRINCE ITO. 



COUNT HIJIKATA. 



COUNT TANAKA. 






PRINCE IWAKQRA. 



COUNT WATANABE. 



BARON HATANO. 



( 29 ) 



THE GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION OF JAPAN. 



ipHE Japanese Empire is divided into the following parts according to the geographical situation of her 
" territories : — 



Japan Proper 



Colonies 



r The Main Land 
■j Kyushu. 
^ Loochoo. 



Shikoku. 

Hokkaido. 

Chishiraa. 



(■Taiwan or Formosa. 
... < Karafuto or Japanese Saghalien. 

V. Chosen. Pescadores. 



All these divisions are of an insular character except Chosen. Particularly Chishima, Pescadores, and Loochoo are 
only general names for groups of many small islands. The other parts are comparatively large islands, but they, too, have 
a number of smaller islands along their coasts. The following are some of these : — 



Sado. 

Bonin Islands. 



Oki. 
Iki. 



Awaji. 
Tsushima. 



Below are the official statistical returns showing the geographical situation of the Empire, the areas of its component 
parts, the population, etc. : — 

GEOGEAPHICAL SITUATION OF JAPAN. 

( Extreme E. E. Longitude 153° 32' Extreme S. N. Latitude 21° 45' 



Empire 


... 


Jl( 




w. 


Mainland 


... 


... j 


ft 


E. 
W. 


Shikoku 


... 


... j 


ft 


E. 
W. 


Kiushii 


... 


... 1 


ft 
If 


E. 
W. 


Riukiu 


... 


... 1 




E. 
W. 


Hokkaido ... 


• •• 


... 1 


ft 


E. 
W. 


Cliishima 


... 


... 


*t 
f> 


E. 
W. 


Chosen (Korea) 


... 


... 1 


ft 


E. 
W. 


Taiwan (Formosa) 


• •• 


... 1 


tt 
It 


E. 
VV. 


Hokoto (Pescadores) 


... 


... 1 


i> 
»t 


E. 
W. 


Karafuto (Japanese Saghalien) 


... • 


• 1 


W. 



119° 18' 



N. 



50° 56' 



142° 14' 
130° 44' 




S. 

N. 


ft 

If 


24° 14' 
41° 33' 


134° 49' 
131° 59' 




S. 
N. 


It 

»f 


32° 42' 
34° 34' 


132° 04' 
128° 15' 




S. 

N. 


f 
ff 


26° 59' 
33° 58' 


128° 15' 
122° 45' 


II 


S. 

N. 


It 

If 


24° 06' 
27° 04' 


146° 07' 
139° 11' 




S. 

N. 


ti 
ff* 


41° 21' 
45° 30' 


156° 32' 
145° 21' 


f 


S. 

N. 


It 
ft 


43° 38' 
50° 56' 


130° 54' 
124° 18' 


ft 


S. 

N. 


ft 

II 


33° 12' 
43° 02' 


122° 06' 
120° 02' 


f» 

If 


S. 
N. 


fl 

ft 


21° 45' 
25° 38' 


119° 43' 
119° 18' 


If 
ft 


S. 
N. 


ft 
If 


23° 10' 
23° 46' 


144° 55' 
141° 51' 


fl 
fi 


8. 

N. 


fl 
ff 


45° 54' 
60° 00' 



( 80 ) 



EXTENT OF AREA. 



Principal Islands. 



Mainland 

Sliikoku 

Kiiishu .. 

Hokkaido (excluding Chisliima) 

Cliishima or Kurile Islands (31 islands) 
8ado 

Vyxkl ••• ••• ••• ■•• ••• •■■ ••■ ■• 

Awaji 

Xivl ••• •>■ ••• ••• •■• ••• ••• •• 

Tsushima 

Riukiii (55 islands) 

Ogasawarajima or Bonin Islands (20 

' XOtflfl ••• ■•• ••• (•> ••• 

Chosen (Korea) 

Taiwan (Formosa) 

HokotS (Pescadores) 

Karafuto (Japanese Saghalien) 

Grand Total 



Number 

of 
Adjacent 

Small 
Islands. 



167 
74 

150 
13 



Area. 



412 

7 
12 



Principal 
Islands. 

8q. Ri 

14,492.21 

1,151.24 

2,311.86 

5,056.78 

1.011.49 

56.33 

21.88 

36.55 

8.65 

43.95 

156.91 

4.50 



Adjacent 

Small 
Islands. 

Sq. Ri 
78.91 
29.43 

305.68 
27.09 



0.01 
0.14 
0.08 
0.77 



24,352.25 

2,318.51 
4.17 



442.11 

5.60 
3.82 



Total. 

Sq. Ri 

14,571.12 

1,180.67 

2,617.54 

5,083.87 

1,011.49 

56.33 

21.89 

36.69 

8.63 

44.72 

156.91 

4.50 



24,794.36 
14,123.00 

2,324.11 
7.99 

2,208.92 



Propor- 
tion. 
(Per cent.) 



33.53 
2.72 
6.02 

11.70 
2.33 
0.13 
0.05 
0.08 
0.02 
0.10 
0.36 
0.01 



57.05 

32.50 

5.35 

0.02 

5.08 



431 



26,674 93 



451.53 



43,458.38 



100.00 



Note : 



(1) Small islands with a coast-line of less than one Ri, unless inhabited or serving as sea-marks, are not included in 
this table. 

(2) The figures for Iwojima (Volcano Island) are not accessible. 

i?i = 2.44030 Miles. Sq. i?t=5.95505 Square Miles. 



POPULATION OF THE EMPIRE. 





Year. 


Japan Proper. 


1907 (3l8t December) 


1908 ( 


Do. ) 


1909 ( 


Do. ) 


1910 ( 


Do. ) 


1911 ( 


Do. ) 


1912 ( 


Do. ) 


1913 ( 


Do. ) 


1914 ( 


Do. ) 


1915 ( 


Do. ) 


1916 ( 


Do. ) 



Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Average In- 
crease per 100 
Inhabitants. 


Population 
Per Sq. Ri. 


24,645,028 


24,174,627 


48,819,630 


1.36 


1,968 


25,046,380 


24,542,424 


49,588,801 


1.58 


2,000 


25,387,023 


24,867,454 


50,254,471 


1.34 


2,026 


25,759,347 


25,225,505 


50,984,844 


1.45 


2,056 


26,152,214 


25,601,731 


51,753,934 


1.51 


2,087 


26,544,759 


25,978,808 


52,522,753 


1.49 


2,118 


26,964,586 


26,398,096 


53,362,682 


1.60 


2,152 


27,395,920 


26,820,466 


54,216,485 


1.60 


2,187 


27,834,255 


27,249,593 


55,083,949 


1.60 


2,222 


28,279,603 


27,685,586 


55,965,292 


1.60 


2,257 



( 31 ) 



Year. 



Chosen (Korea). 



1907 ( 


'31st December) 


1908 ( 


: Do. ) 


1909 ( 


: Do. ) 


1910 


: Do. ) 


1911 ( 


: Do. ) 


1912 ( 


: Do. ) 


1913 ( 


: Do. ) 


1914 ( 


; Do. ) 


1915 


; Do. ) 


1916 ( 


Do. ) 


Taiwan (] 


''ormosa). 


1907 ( 


'31st December) 


1908 ( 


Do, ) 


1909 ( 


: Do. ) 


1910 ( 


: Do. ) 


1911 


: Do. ) 


1912 ( 


: Do. ) 


1913 ( 


: Do. ) 


1914 


; Do. ) 


1915 


; Do. ) 


1916 ( 


: Do. ) 


Kaeafuto 


(Japanese Sa 


1907 ( 


[31st December) 


1908 ( 


Do. ) 


1909 ( 


Do. ) 


1910 ( 


Do. ) 


1911 ( 


: Do. ) 


1912 ( 


: Do. ) 


1913 


[ Do. ) 


1914 ( 


: Do. ) 


1915 ( 


; Do. ) 


1916 ( 


Do. ) 



lien). 





Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Average In- 
crease per 100 
Inhabitants. 


Population 
Per Sq. Bi. 


6,926,375 


6,114.326 


13,040,701 


0.14 


923 


• • 


6,942,836 


6,128,341 


13,071,177 


0.23 


925 


.. 


6,952,269 


6,138,587 


13,090,856 


0.15 


927 


.. 


7,057,458 


6.255,559 


13,313,017 


1.70 


943 


.. 


7,397,994 


6,657,875 


14,055,869 


5.58 


995 


.. 


7,732,404 


7,094,697 


14,827,101 


5.49 


1.049 


., 


8.032,982 


7,425,881 


15,458,863 


4.26 


1,098 


,, 


8,375,187 


7,742,224 


16,117,411 


4.26 


1.141 


• • 


8,731,970 


8,072.043 


16,804.013 


426 


1.190 


•• 


9,103,952 


8,415,.913 


17,519.864 


4 26 


1,240 


1,706,172 


1,517,796 


3,223,968 


•_ 0,95 


1,382 


• •* 


1.718,620 


1,533,969 


3,252,589 


0.89 


1,394 


• • 


1,735,984 


1,554,202 


3,290,186 


116 


1,410 


.. 


1,760.019 


1,581,198 


3,341,217 


1.55 


1,432 


«• 


1,794,052 


1,616.786 


3,410,838 


2.08 


1,462 


,, 


1,825,518 


1,651,161 


3,476,679 


1.93 


1,491 


.. 


1,857,694 


1,685.859 


3,543.553 


1.93 


1,520 


.. 


1,893,547 


1,718,397 


3,611.944 


1.93 


1,549 


.. 


1,930,092 


1,751.562 


3,681,654 


1.93 


1,579 


•• 


1,967,343 


1.785,367 


3,752,710 


1.93 


1,609 


12,458 


8,011 


20,469 


65.59 


9 


•• 


14,933 


11.460 


26,393 


28.94 


12 


,, 


14,723 


11,513 


26,236 


(Dec.) 0.59 


12 


,, 


17.693 


13,324 


31,017 


18.21 


14 


.. 


20,741 


15,984 


36,725 


18.40 


16 


,, 


23,903 


18,235 


42,138 


14.74 


18 


,, 


24,573 


19,783 


44.356 


5.26 


20 


., 


25,865 


20,824 


46,689 


5.26 


21 


,, 


27,226 


21,919 


49,145 


5.26 


22 


,, 


28,658 


23,072 


51.730 


5.26 


23 



Note : — 



(1) For 1912 and the years subsequent to 1914 inclusive in the case of Japan Proper and for the years subsequent to 
1914 inclusive in the case of Taiwan, Chosen and Karafuto, the figures of the estimated population is given here 
respectively. 

(2) The figures for the population of ChOsen, Taiwan and Karafuto represent the number of persons actually domiciled 
or resident there. 

(3) The figures for the population of Chosen in 1909 represent the number of persons actually domiciled or resident 
there on May 10th, 1910. The reliable figures prior to 1908 inclusive are not procurable. 



( 32 ) 

LEGISLATION. 

' HE power of legislation is vested in the Teikoku Gikai, or Imperial Diet, which consists of two Chambers, the House of 
Peers and the House of Representatives. 




IMPERIAL DIET.2(Temporary Building). 

They are organized as follows : — 

The House of Peers is organized of tiie following members : — 

The Princes of the Blood (of age). 

The Crown Prince is legally recognized as of age when he attains his 18th year, while the other members of 
the Imperial Family reach maturity in their twentieth year. 

The Princes and Marquises above the 25tli year. 

The representatives of the Counts, Viscounts, and Barons. 

The Peers of those grades above the 25th year are empowered either to elect their representatives or be 
elected to a seat in the House. The representatives of the Counts are stipulated to be 17; the Viscounts are 
represented by 70; while the Barons can send 63 representatives to the House. All of these representatives 
must be selected from among themselves. 

The members nominated by the Emperor from among learned persons or persons who have rendered 
meritorious services to the State. 

'Ihe number of the Imperial Nominees is limited by law to 125. 

The representatives of the highest rate-payers in tlie realm. 

Fifteen rate-payers who are above 30 years and, being the heads of their families, pay large direct taxes 
form an electoral college in every prefecture and send a member to the House of Peers. The persons who form 
the electoral colleges are called the " Higliest Rate Payers," and the Members they send to the House are 
classed as " Highest Rate Paying Members." As the law does not recognize the formation of an electoral 
college in the Hokkaido the number of the members of this class corresponds to the number of prefectures. 
Law prohibits the number of the Imperial Nominees and the representatives of the Highest Rate-Payers to 
exceed the number of the representatives of the Peers. 

The representative members are elected for a term of seven years, but the other members are entitled to their seats 
for life. The President and tlie Vice-President are appointed by the Emperor from among the candidates elected by 
the House. 

Tiie House of Representatives is composed of the representatives sent by the constituencies throughout the Empire. 
The constituencies are of three kinds. Municipalities are made independent constituencies, along with islands, while the 
rural parts of the prefectures form separate constituencies. As all municipalities incorporated up to the time the present 



( 33 ) 



Electoral Law was laid down are raa'le independent constituences even very small cities can send their own representatives 
to the House. Tiie three Wards in Hokkaido are also made independent constituencies, as semi-municipalities, in view of 
their importance as towns. Thus the municipal constituencies at present number 56, and the total number of their represen- 
tatives is 75. 

The rural constituencies number 48, including Hokkaido. The number of their representatives is fixed in proportion 
to their population. A deputy is elected by every 130,000 men, and the total number of the rural members is 202. The 



insular constituencies num- 
islands which have a po- 
are lacking in the means 
main laud are made such, 
members of the House of 
Franchise is given to 
qualifications : — 

Male subjects of 

25 years. 
Having domiciles 
over a year 
Paying direct na- 
year. Land 
twelve months, 
uess taxes 
years. 




THRONE 



HOUSE 



ber only 4, as only those 
pulation above 100,000 and 
of communication with the 
Thus the total number of 
Representatives is 381. 
males having the following 

the Empire of Japan above 

within a given constituency 
and continuing to do so. 
tional taxes above 10 yen a 
taxes must be paid over 
while the income and busi- 
must be paid over two 



All subjects of the Empire of Japan above thirty years can be elected to membership of the House of Representatives 
provided that they are not legally recognized as unfit for the control of their own properties, or deprived of their civil 
rights, and there are no restrictions whatever in way of tax payment on the present rights of Japanese subjects. The heads 
of Noble families and military men on active service are proliibited either to vote for others or be elected themselves as 
members of the House of Representatives. Among those who are forbidden to stand for membership of the House are also 
Shinto priests, Buddliist priests, teachers of elementary schools, contractors to the Government, and officers of corporations 
which make it tiieir main business to enter into contracts with the Government. 

In the election of members of the House of Representatives the open ballot system is adopted, and all candidates who 
obtain one fifth of the whole number of votes in a constituency are ofiicially recognized as returned, but when the candidates 
thus returned are more than the stipulated number for a giveu constituency the men who have secured smaller votes are 
rejected and given the right to fill vacancies in the House if vacancies occur within a year from the date of the election. 

The tenure of office for members of the House of Representatives is four years. Tiie President and the Vice- 
President of the House are appointed by the Crown from among the candidates elected by the House. 

No laws of the realm can be framed by the Government without the approval of both Houses of the Imperial 
Diet. The creation of new taxes or tiie increase of existing taxes is stipulated by law, and the Imperial Diet is authorised 
either to approve or disapprove it. Tiie revenue and disbursements of the realm must be submitted to the Imperial Diet 
every year in the form of a Budget. In case the scheme framed by the Government is not passed by the Imperial Diet, 
and the Government has no legal Budget, the Government must carry on administration on the basis of the previous year's 
Budget. 

The Budget must be submitted to the House of Representatives first, but in other respects there is no difierence in the 
functions of the Chambers. They can either frame laws or memorialize their views to the Government. An appeal to tiie 
Throne can also be made by the two Chambers. 

Any bill rejected by one of the Houses can not be taken up for discussion by tlie other during the same session. 
When bills approved by either one of them are rejected or amended by the other they are referred to a joint conference of 
botli Houses, and the joint conference is authorised to draw up an eclectic measure, which then is submitted to the two 
House). When, however, one Chamber approves the decision of the other this proceeding can be eliminated. 



( 34 ) 

SECRETARIAT BUREAU. 

(The Offices in the House of Peers and in the House op Representatives). 

(The Following Official Organization is Applied to the Offices of Both Houses). 

^HE Office, the Chief of which is the Chief Secretary to the House, conducts all afTairs relative to the House. It is 
ts divided into the Sections of Deliberation, General Affairs, Committee Meeting, and so forth, and every section is 
managed by a Secretary, 

The Chief Secretary to the House, who is the Head of the Office, is of the Chokunin rank, and, under the 
direction of the President of the House, keeps general supervision over the affairs of the House, signing all papers the 
House issues or retains. 

Under the Chief Secretary there are three Secretaries, who are all of the Sonin rank. They, as the Heads of the 
different Sections, attend to the preparation of all records of the House, the printing of the records of deliberation in the 
House, accounts, and all other affairs under the general direction of the Chief Secretary. 

There are in addition a number of petty officials in the office. Among others a staff" of stenographers is kept in the 
bureau. They record the daily proceedings of the House and prepare them for the printers. Sergeants are always on duty 
in all parts of the House to keep order in the sacred place of legislation. 

HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF THE HOUSE OF PEERS AND 
OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

On October 14th, 1889, the Temporary Office of the Imperial Diet was established in the Cabinet for transacting 
matters relating to various preparations, and Mr. Ki Inouye, President of the Legislation Bureau, was appointed Head 
of the Office. 

On July 10th of the following year, the offices of the House of Peers and of the House of Representatives were 
established and the Temporary Office of the Imperial Diet was abolished on August 3rd of the same year. 

Prior to this, Mr. Kentaro Kanko, a Secretary of Privy Council, was appointed Chief Secretary to the House of 
Peers. On his transference to another post the late Mr. Juichi Nakane was appointed to the post. The tliird Chief 
Secretary to the House was the late Mr. Mineaaburo Ota, who died after only a few years in office. The present Chief 
Secretary, Mr. Kunio Yanagida, is the fourth of the line of Chief Secretaries. 

The first Chief Secretary of the House of Representatives was Mr. Arasuke Sone, formerly Secretary of the Legisla- 
tion Bureau, whose appointment to the post synchronized with that of Mr. Kentaro Kaneko. Since his resignation the post 
has been held by Messrs. Jun Midzuno, Yoshito Okuda, Kinosuke Yamada, Kametaro Hayashida and Kuniorai Okazaki. 



DOMESTIC ADMINISTRATIONS. 

ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS. 

W HE administration districts in Japan proper are, generally speaking, divided into Fu (urban prefectures) and prefectures. 
tsS The Hokkaido and Japanese Saghalien (Karafuto) are called Cho. The following gives the details : — 
Two Cho : — Hokkaido, Karafuto. 
Tliree Fu : — Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka. 

Forty-three prefectures: — Kanagawa, Hyogo, Nagasaki, Niigata, Saitaraa, Gumma, Cliiba, Ibaraki, Tochigi, 

Nara, Miye, Aiciii, Shidzuoka, Yamanashi, Shiga, Gifu, Nagano, Miyagi, Fukushima, Iwate, Aomori, 

Yamagata, Akita, Fukui, Ishikawa, Toyama, Tottori, Shimane, Okayaraa, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, 

Wakayama, Tokushima, Kagawa, Ehime, Kochi, Fukuoka, Oita, Saga, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, Kagoshima, 

Okinawa. 

As regards the population of the Fu, Tokyo stands first on the list with 3,140,000, Osaka second with 2,460,000, and 

Kyoto third with 1,280,000. As for prefectures, Hyogo has the largest population with 2,140,000 and Tottori the smallest 

with 470,000. The other prefectures have populations ranging between 700,000 and 1,000,000. In the Hokkaido there 

^re 1,810,000 inhabitants, while in Karafuto there are only 44,000 regular residents. 



( 35 ) 
THE OFFICIAL ORGANIZATION FOR PROVINCIAL OFFICIALS. 

The Chief of the prefectural officials is called the Governor, who is an official of Cliokunin rank. In each prefecture 
there are, under the Governor, the Director of the Home Affairs Department, the Director of the Police Department, 
rijikan (Councillors), Police Superintendents, Teciinieal experts, Educational Inspectors, zoku (subordinate officials), 
Police-Inspectors. In Tokyo Fu alone the police affairs are conducted by the Metropolitan Police, which is under direct 
control of the Minister of Home Affairs. In Tokyo Fu, therefore, no Director of the Police Department, Police 
Superintendents, and Police Inspectors are appointed. 

Tiie Governor, who is under the control of the Minister of Home Affairs, either executes tlie laws and orders or controls 
the administrative affairs in the prefecture over which he is placed. Consequently he is empowered to issue prefectural orders 
to the whole or a section of his prefecture in regard to the transaction of administrative affairs, by virtue of his official 
function and by special trust. As regards the merits or demerits of the officials of sonin rank under his control, the Govenor 
must report them to the Minister of Home Affairs, but he can appoint or dismiss the officials of hannin rank at his discretion. 
In case of an emergency which requires the use of military force, or military protection, the Governor can refer tiie matter 
to the Commander of the Army Division with a view to applying for the despatch of troops. In Tokyo Fu, however, the 
powers in this connection are vested in the Chief of the Metropolitan Police. 

The Chief of the Cho is not called the chiji or Governor, but is called chokan, or Chief official. The official functions 
of the chokan are practically the same as those of the chiji. Tiie organization of the Cho is also almost the same as that of 
the prefecture. In the Karafuto Cho, however, the railways are also placed witiiin the jurisdiction of the chokan, and a 
Railway Affairs Office is specially provided. 

The Local Assemblies. — In the Fu there is the Fu Assembly, and in the prefecture, the Prefectural Assembly. This 
institution discusses the Budget for the annual expenditure and revenue, and matters relating to the collection of prefectural 
taxes. The fixed number of a Fu or Prefectural Assembly is 30 for prefectures having a population of less than 700,000. 
Ill prefectures having a population between 700,000 and 1,000,000, one member is added for every 50,000, and in 
prefectures possessing a population of over 1,000,000 one member is added for every 70,000. The citizens who pay direct 
national taxes amounting to over ¥10 have the right to be elected members of the Prefectural Assembly, while those 
citizens paying direct national taxes amounting to ¥3 have the right of electing them. The term of office of the members 
of the Prefectural Assembly is four years. 

As Karafuto is a newly-acquired territory, it has neither Fu nor prefectural system. The Karafuto Government 
lias no local Assembly. 

In tlie Hokkaido, there is the Do Assembly, equivalent to a Prefectural Assembly. The rights for electing or of 
being elected members of the Assembly are the same as tliose of a prefecture. 

In Fu or prefectures, inclusive of tlie Hokkaido, a Prefectural Council is provided. The Prefectural Council consists 
of the Governor, two high officials, and members of the Prefectural Assembly, who are elected from among the members of 
tiiat body. The fixed number of the Council in the case of Fu is eight, and in the case of prefectures six. The functions 
and limits of competence of the Prefectural Council are as follows : — 

To discuss matters coming within the jurisdiction of the Prefectural Assembly, which are entrusted to the 

Council. 
To discuss matters coming within the jurisdiction of the Prefectural Assembly, which are deemed too urgent by 

tlie Governor to admit of the delay necessary in convoking the Prefectural Assembly. 
To lay their views before the Governor as to the Bills to be submitted to the Prefectural Assembly. 
To discuss important matters concerning the administration of property and buildings within the scope fixed by 

the Prefectunil Assembly. 
To discuss the regulations Governing the execution of engineering work to be undertaken out of prefectural 

expenditure, except those otherwise regulated in the Laws and orders. 
To discuss matters relating to appeal?, complaints and mediation concerning the prefecture. 
To discuss any other matters which belong, by virtue of the Laws and Orders, to the jurisdiction of the 

Prefectural Council. 
In addition to the above, the Prefectural Council can elect a committee from among its members to audit the 
receipts and disbursements of the prefecture. 



( 36 ) 

The Division of "Fu" (urban prefecture) and Prefectures. — Botk Fu and Prefecture are divided into Gun 
(county or district), whicli consist of many towns and villages. In many Fu and prefectures, there are cities, besides Cfnn 
(districts). The city, which is a large town, is under the direct control of the Fu or prefecture. The four cities of Tokyo, 
Osaka, Kyoto and Nagoya are divided into Ku (wards) Gun, city, town, village and Ku are all judicial persons, but city, 
town and village may be regarded as purely self governed bodies. Tlie chiefs of the city, town and village are elected by the 
city, town and village assemblies respectively, but the chief of Gu7i or district is not elected by the district assembly; he is 
appointed by the Cabinet, through the Minister of Home Affairs, on tlie recommendation of the Governor of the Fu or 
prefecture concerned. Nor is the chief of Ku or ward elected by the ward assembly, but is nominated by the Mayor. 

The islands, which are almost equal to a district in point of area and population, have the To Clio, or Island 
Government OflSce, the chief of which is called Toji. These islands are the Bonin Islands, Hachijo-jima, and Oshima, 
(Tokyo Fu), Oki (Shimane prefecture), Tsushima (Nagasaki prefecture), Oshima (Kagoshima prefecture). Among the above 
islands, in Oki Island alone the town and village system is enforced ; in other islands, no such system is yet inaugurated. 

Of all the prefectures, Okinawa prefecture alone has a system somewhat different from that enforced in the other 
prefectures. Though the prefectural system is in force in Okinawa prefecture its Prefectaral Assembly has no Prefectural 
Council. The cities in this prefecture are specially called Ku. Though the Ku Assembly is provided, the chief of the Ku 
is not elected by the Ku Assembly, but is nominated by the Governor. In all the towns and villages, too, the town and 
village systems differ from those enforced in towns and villages in other prefectures, and the chiefs of these towns and villages 
are appointed by the Governor. 

The local system in the Hokkaido is also different from that in other prefectures. Though the Do Assembly is 
established it has no Do Council. The cities in the Hokkaido are called Ku, and though autonomy, pure and simple, is 
enforced therein the districts, except Ku, are properly divided, and in every division is established a Branch Government 
Office, the chief of which is appointed by the Cabinet, through the Minister of Home Affairs, on the recommendation of the 
Governor of the Hokkaido. Karafuto is divided into several administrative districts, each of which is governed by the 
officials of the Karafuto Government Office. No systems equivalent to the i^M or prefectural system, and city, town and 
village systems are yet enforced. 

The District, City, Town, and Village Assemblies. — Every district has a District Office, and is governed by 
the chief of the district. A District Assembly is also established therein. The fixed number of the members is generally 
between 15 and 30, but according to the conditions of the district concerned the number of members can be increased to 
40 by permission of the Minister of Home Affairs. The residents of the town or village, who have citizenship and who have 
paid direct national taxes amounting to over ¥3 for a year, have the right to elect members of the District Assembly, 
while those who pay direct national taxes amounting to over ¥5 have the right to be elected members of the District 
Assembly. The term of office of a member of the District Assembly is four years. 

The city, town and village have their respective Offices, and Assemblies. The fixed number of members of these 
Assemblies is not equal. It depends upon the populations of the city, town or village. In the case of cities, those having a 
population of less than 50,000 have 30 members, and those having a larger population have a larger number of members in 
proportion to their populations. In towns and villages the number of members composing the Assemblies is fixed at between 
8 and 30. Those who possess the rights of electing or being elected members of these Assemblies are called citizens. The 
qualifications of a citizen are as follow : — 

Male subjects of the Empire of over 25 years of age, who have been resident in the city, town or village for 
the past two years, and have helped to bear the burdens of the place, and who pay over two yen in land taxes or in other 
direct national taxes are called citizens of these cities, towns and villages. Those persons who have received relief out of the 
public funds within two years, those persons who have been declared incompetent or quasi-competent persons, or those who 
have been sentenced to penal servitude for more than six years, or imprisonment, are denied citizenship. Even those who 
have not lived in the place over two years can acquire citizenship on the vote of the City, District, or Village Assemblies. 

According to the amount of taxes they pay, the citizens or electors are divided into three classes in the case of cities, 
and into two classes in the case of towns and villages. In the former case, each class elects one-third of the members and 
in the latter each class elects half the number of the members. The term of office of the members is four years. The term 
of office of the chiefs of the city, town and village elected by these members is also four years. 



( 37 ) 



The Number op Small Administrative Districts. — The number of the districts Gun, cities, towns and villages, 
which form the small administrative districts and self-governing bodies in the Fu and prefectures, except Okinawa 
prefecture, are : — 

Gun (districts) 543 ; To Cho (Island Government Offices) 6 ; Cities 67 ; Towns 1,242 ; Villages 10,351. 

In Tokyo there are fifteen wards, in Kyoto two wards, in Osaka four wards and in Nagoya four wards. 

As aforementioned, the system enforced in Okinawa prefecture is somewhat diflfereut from that in other prefectures. 
In the Hokkaido, there are 87 Gun or districts, but they do not constitute administrative districts. As administrative 
districts, the Hokkaido is divided into Ku or Branch Governmental districts. We give below the number of various 
administrative districts in the Hokkaido and Okinawa prefecture. 

-t\.U •■• ••• ■•• •■• *•■ •■• ••• 

Shicho (Governmental Branch) ... 

Districts 

Towns 

Villages 
The districts of Okinawa prefecture include two Island Government Offices 
The Karafuto Government is divided into four administrative districts. 



Okinawa. 


Hokkaido. 


2 


3 


— 


14 


5 


— 


1 


21 


52 


197 



COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION. 

SPHE administrationin the newly acquired territories or Colonies greatly differs from that in Japan proper. 

tS The new territories, or colonies, of Japan are Formosa, Chosen and Karafuto (Japanese Saghalien). We will 

here give particulars regarding Formosa, Chosen and Karafuto. 



FORMOSA. 

Powers of the Governor-General. — The Government-General of Formosa 
The Governor-General is an official of Shin-nin rank, and a General or Lieut.-General 
with prefectural Governors, he has 

The Governor-General con- 
powers vested in him. He con- 
acting under instruction of the 

The Governor-General is sub- 
or the Naval Minister in regard to 
personnel of military and naval 
attached to the Army and Navy, 
bilization programmes he is under 
Army and Navy General Staffs, and 
is under the Superintendent-General 

The Governor - General can 
virtue of his official functions or by 
guity persons to penal servitude and 
ing one year, and to detention or 

The Governor-General takes 
the regions under his jurisdiction. 

The Governor-General can use 
it necessary in order to maintain peace 
jurisdiction. 

In case such a step is taken, 
to the Ministers of Home Affairs, GOVERNOR-GENERAL, 

the Army and Navy General Staffs. GENERAL BARON TEIBI ANDO. 




controls Formosa and the Pescadores, 
is appointed to the post. Compared 
far greater powers, namely : — 
trols the Army and Navy — within the 
ducts various administrative affairs, 
Minister of Home Affairs, 
ject to the control of either the War 
the military administration and the 
officers and men, and also civilians 
In regard to the defence and mo- 
the direction of the chiefs of the 
in reference to military education he 
of Military Education, 
issue Government-General Orders by 
special trust. He can also sentence 
imprisonment for a period not exceed- 
fines not exceeding ¥200. 
charge of the defensive matters in 

the military power in case he deems 
and order in the regions under his 

the fact must immediately be reported 
War and the Navy, and the Chiefs of 



( 38 ) 



In cnB8 of necessity the Governor-General can order the garrison troops, or military officers stationed in Formosa, to 
attend to the civil administration in addition to their customary duties. 

The powers vested in the Governor-General in connection with the control of the officials under liis orders are far 
greater than those wielded by prefeetural Governors. Judicial affairs are also placed under the control of the Governor- 
General. In short, tlie Governor-General may well be called the Viceroy in the colony. 

The Organization of the Government-Generai,. — There are three Departments in the Formosa Government- 
General, namely, the Civil Administration Department, the Military Affairs IJepartment and the Naval Affairs Department. 

takes charge of all administrative and 
Administration superintends the matters 
Governor-Geueral. There are the follow- 
Administration Department : — 
The Communication Affairs Bureau. The 



The Civil Administration Department 
judicial matters. The Chief of the Civil 
under his jurisdiction by assisting the 
ing Bureaux and sections in the Civil 

The Financial Affairs Bureau. 
Colonial Affairs Bureau. 

The Engineering Affairs Bureau, 
Section, the Legal Affairs Section and the 

The Military Affairs Department 
the districts under the jurisdiction of the 
composed of the following sections : — 
The Staff Officers Section. 
The Judicial Officers Section. 
The Medical Section. 

The Director of the Military Affairs 
Staff, and a Major-General is appointed 
the Governor-General and participates in 
affairs. It is his duty to see that the 
and tliat they are properly enforced. He 
Department. 




CHIEF OF THE CIVIL 

ADMINISTRATION. 

MR. HIROSHI SHIMOMURA. 



the Police Headquarters, the Local Affairs 
Educational Affairs Section. 
takes charge of all Military matters in 
Formosa Government-General, and is 

The Adjutants Section. 

The Accountants Section. 

The Veterinary Surgeons Section. 
Department is called the Chief of the 
to the post. The Chief of the Staff assists 
the discussion of important military 
orders are conveyed to the proper quarters 
also adjusts the geneial affairs in the 

takes charge of the naval affairs of the 



\ 



The Naval Affairs Department 
Formosa Government-General, and is composed of the following : — 

The Chief of the Staff. Staff Officers, Adjutants. The Chief of the Staff is under the control of the Governor- 
General. He assists the Governor-General in regard to the naval administration and naval commands. He also controls 
the affairs of the Department. A Captain is appointed to the post. 

The Local Districts System. — The regions under the jurisdiction of the Formosa Government-General are divided 
into the following twelve administrative Districts, called Cho : — 

Taiwan, Giran, Toyen, Shinchiku, Taichu, Nanto, Kagi, Ako, Tainan, Taito, Karenko and Hoko. 

The Chief of the Cho is appointed by the Cabinet on the recommendation of the Governor-General, and is an official 
of sonin rank. Though he is lower than the prefeetural Governor in rank, his powers are practically the same. Every Cho 
has some Branch Cho, equivalent in nature to the District Office and the Police Station in Japan proper combined. 

The smaller administrative districts are called Ku. Formerly, there were Gai, Sho and Ska in Formosa. Gai 
corresponded to the town in Japan proper, Sho, to the village and Sha was the name given to the aborigines' villages. On 
the basis of these Gai, Sho and Sha, administration is enforced only in such villages where the natives have already 
sworn allegiance and become completely submissive. The Chief and clerks of the Ku are appointed by the Chief of the Cho 
from among the residents in the Ku. 

Thougli autonomy is not yet applied in Formosa there is practical autonomy in regard to the police system. This 
is ciilled the Hoko system. About ten houses form one Ko and about 10 Ko form one Ho. The Cliiefs of both the Ko and 
the Ho are chosen by election but receive no remuneration. It is the duty of the Ho and Ko to maintain peace and order 
in the region under their jurisdiction. They also attend to the business of taking the census and the adjustment of removal 
of residents. They take upon themselves the task of keeping the youths in order. 



( 39 ) 

Judicial system though the three-Courts system is adopted in Jnpan proper, the judicial system in Formosa comprises 
only two Court, viz., the Local Court and the Appeal Court. The local Courts are established at Taihoku, Taichu and 
Tainan, and are presided over by one judge; the Appeal Court is in Taihoku and is composed of three judges. , 

In regard to civil suits, the Civil and Commercial Laws of the Japanese Empire and other attached laws are put 
in force in cases concerning Japanese and foreigners, while in the case of the Islanders and Chinese they are tried 
according to the old usages. The Criminal Law and the Codes of Criminal or Civil Procedures are enforced equally in 
all cases. As regards disputes concerning riglits to land, even the Japanese and foreigners are governed by the old usages. 

Finances. — Formosa formerly received financial help from tlie Japanese Treasury in the shape of a large annual 
subsidy, but after the lapse of ten years from tiie acquisition of tlie Island, that is in 1905, it became independent of the 
Japanese Government, financially. The income from the Government enterprises and the Government properties forms 
the greater part of tiie annual revenue of the Island, this reaching an annual sum of over ¥28,000,000, which means over 
70 per cent, of the total annual income. In Formosa, tlie camphor and campiior oil business is monopolized by the 
Government-General. Besides the above, the salt fields, the cutting of timber and other profitable enterprises are 
undertaken by the Government-General, 

CHOSEN. 

Powers of the Governor-General. — The Governor-General of Chosen is of shin-nin rank and a General or 
Admiral is appointed to the post. He is under the direct control of the Erajjeror, and superintends the Army and 





GOVERNOR GENERAL. 
COUNT YOSHIMICHI HASEGAWA. 



INSPECTOR-GENERAL. 
MR. ISABURO YAMAGATA. 



Navy within the powers vested in him. He also takes charge of the defence of Chosen. Of course he controls various 
administrative affairs and obtains the Imperial sanction for his measures through the Premier. 

The Organization of the Government-General of Chosen.— Under the Governor-General is the Inspector- 
-General of Political Afiairs, who is an oflacial of shin-nin rank. He assists the Governor-General in supervising 



( 40 ) 

the affairs of the Government-General, and controls various affairs in different Ddpartments. The Governraent-General 
has the following four Departments : — 

The Internal Affairs Department. The Financial Affairs Department. 

The Agricultural and Commercial Affairs Department. The Judicial Affairs Department. 

Every Department is divided into Bureaux or Sections. 

The Director of the Department or the Bureau is an official of the Chokunin rank. 

Local Administrative Districts and System. — The Administrative districts of Chosen consist of the f )llowing 
thirteen Do : — 

Keiki-do. South Keisho-do, 

North Chusei-do, Kokai-do. 

South Chusei-do. South Heian-do. 

North Zenla-do. North Heian-do. 

South Zenla-do. Kogen-do. 

North Keisho-do. South Kankyo-do. 

North Kankyo-do. 

The Chiefs of Provinces are for the most part of the chokunin rank and in some cases of the sonin rank. The sphere 
of their authority is similar to that of local Governors in Japan Proper. The police affairs are placed under the direct 
control of the Government-General in Seoul and in each Province there is the Director of Police Affairs, wiio is independent 
of the local civil administration. Each Province is sub-divided into three sections, namely jPu (city), Gun (district) and 
To (island). The number of jPm in the peninsular total 12 and 2b applies to large islands, of which there are only two. 
There are various Provinces which do not possess Fu and To, but each Province has more than 20 districts. The total 
number of districts in the peninsula are put at 618. In each Fu there is an administrator called Fuin, while Gun and To 
have magistrates called Gunshu and TosM respectively. The latter two offices correspond to chiefs of districts in Japan 
proper. In each Fu there is specially inaugurated an official organization pertaining thereto and it is of a juridical 
person system. Fui7i, like Gunshu and Toshi, is appointed on recommendation by the Government-General and is in reality 
an official appointed by the Cabinet. Gun and To are sub-divided into men, the number of which total 2,521 and their 
administration corresponds to that of cities and villages in Japan Proper, no autonomy being granted. The chiefs of men 
are generally appointed by the local Governors of the Provinces. 

The Judicial System. — The court organization in Chosen is of the Three Courts System, viz., the Supreme Court, 
the Appeal Court and the Local Court. The Local Court has some Branch Courts. 

Trials in the local court are conducted by one Judge, but when the object of suit involves a sura of over ¥1,000 or the 
defendent is liable to penal servitude or imprisonment for over one year such case is tried by three judges. Tlie number of 
local courts is eight, and branches of local courts 55. Tiie Appeal Courts are in Seoul, Heijo and Taikyu. In the Appeal 
Court both Criminal and Civil suits are tried by three judges. The Supreme Court is, of course, situated in Seoul, and all 
suits coming into that court are tried by five judges. 

The laws applied in these courts are, on the whole, those enforced in Japan proper. In regard to civil cases, however, 
tlie laws relating to competence, relatives and inheritance are not applied to Koreans, but former conventions and usages are 
put in force. As regards the kinds and efficiency of the rights in rem relating the immovable property, tlie former usages in 
Chosen are applied in all cases except for the rights in 'lem provided for in the Civil Law. In regard to criminal suits, the 
former Korean Criminal Law is enforced against Koreans in cases of murder and burglary alone, for the time being. For 
the rest, the Criminal Law in Japan proper is applied. 

Finances. — Needless to say, the finances of the Government-General of Chosen belong to the Special Accounts. The 
annual revenue and expenditures concerning the Chosen railways and forestry are made independent of the Accounts of the 
Government-General of Chosen. 

In regard to the finances of the Government-General a colossal sum in subsidies has been annually defrayed out of 
the National Treasury since the annexation of Chosen. la the financial year of 1916, these subsidies amounted to over 
¥5,000,000, and the finances of the peninsular are thus not yet independent. 

Besides the above subsidies, all the expenditures relating to the garrisons and Army Divisions in Chosen are provided 
from the National Treasury. 



( 41 ) 
KARAFUTO. 

(See Domestic Administrations). 

The island territory is administered by a Chokan, or Chief Official, who is authorized to control the administration of 
the territory, issue decrees, which are law within the territory under his jurisdiction, and manage postal, telegraphic, 
and telephonic services, as well as revenue affairs within the teiritory under his control, under the direct supervision of 
the Ministers of State, particulnrly the Minister of Home Affairs. 

Tlie Karnfuto Administration Office under him is divided into four departments of the Seretariat, the Internal 
Administration, the Development, and the Police. The Internal Administration Department controls educational, 



Station was established simultaneously 
with the above institution, and under 
the direct supervision of the Develop- 
ment Department controls or directs 
the line of industry in the island. The 
cattle farming industry is in a fairly 
well developed state; meadows, either 
owned by private persons or possessed 
in common, number 64, and according 
to the census taken at the end of 1914 
the number of animals reared amounts 
to 2,500 in round figures. 

The Development Department 
has also a fishery experimental station 
under its control, which conducts 
investigations into the possibilities in 
the Northern waters on behalf of the 
fishing enterprise. Tlie whole coast of 
the island, indeed, teems with many 
kinds of fish, but the principal varieties 
are herring, trout, and salmon. Even 
during the Russian occupation this line 
of industry was considerably developed in the island, but uuder the new regime it has been more systematized and many 
fishing stations have been establislied along the coast, which, at tlie end of 1914, numbered 355 with 3,109 fishing vessels. 

As auxiliary organs for industry and commerce railways, shipping, and other facilities are also maintained more or 
less under the supervision of the Government. The railway, which is a steam light railway line, is maintained by the 
Karafuto Administration Office and the total length amounts to 67.9 miles. The trunk line, with a total mileage of 32.9 
miles, runs across the vast plains of Suzuya and Naibuchi, connecting Otomari with Toyohara, the capital of the island. 
It has a branch line between Onuma, a station on the trunk line, and Kawakami, where a coal field is worked with 
considerable success. The branch line has a total mileage of 7.7 miles. 



commercial, meteorological, revenue, 
communications, and other affairs. The 
Development Department is actively 
engaged in promoting different in- 
dustries in the island territory, having 
jurisdiction over the disposition of 
uninhabited lands, mines, forests, 
agriculture, cattle farming, and fisheries. 
The activities of the department have 
been most conspicuous since the in- 
auguration of the Imperial regime 
because of the brilliant results achieved. 

Tiie Karafuto Agricultural Ex- 
perimental Station was established in 
September, 1908, and under the 
supervision of the Development Depart- 
ment actively directs the agricultural 
enterprises in the island. Thanks to 
the efforts of the station, the agricultural 
population in the island had increased 
at the end of 1914 to 16,474. 

The Karafuto Cattle Farming 




GOVERNOR AKIRA SAKAYA. 



KWANTUNG PROVINCE. 

Kwantung Province is not a Colony but a leased territory. As the territory is, however, under the jurisdiction 
of the Residency-General specially established, we will give the gist of the systems enforced there. 

Powers of the Resident-General. — The Resident-General is personally appointed by the Emperor, and a General or a 
Lieut.-General is eligible for the post. He superintends the affairs in Kwantung province. He not only takes charge of the 
protection and control of railways in South Manchuria, but also controls the troops uuder his jurisdiction. He also directs 
various political affairs, by order of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, and by special order negotiates with the provincial 
authorities in China. He acts under the orders of the Minister of War in matters relating to the military administration 



( 42 ) 

Riid tiie personnel of tlie Army, and of the Chief of the Army General Staff in matters relating to tactics and mobilization 
schemes, and of the Inspector-General of Military Education in matters relating to the education of troops under his 
jurisdiction. It belongs to the functions of the Resident-General to superintend the business of the South Manchuria 
Railway Company. 

The organization of the Residency-General. — The Residency-General is situated at Port Arthur, and under the 
Resident-General serves the Chief of the Civil Administration, the Chief of Foreign Affairs, and the Chief of Police Affairs, 
all of the chokunin rank. All the other officials are of the sonin rank and downward. 

Administration and Jurisdiction. — In regard to administration. Civil administration offices are provided in Port 
Arthur and Dniren, and police stations are established in important places. Port Artiiur and Dairen alone are made cities, 
and autonomy is applied in them. The Mayors for these cities are elected by their respective Municipal Assemblies. 

So far as jurisdiction is concerned, it is on the two-Courts' system, consisting of the Higher Court and Local Court. 
However, the Civil Administration Office conducts the legal procedures of the First Instance in regard to Civil suits 
involving sums not exceeding ¥200, and criminal cases involving detention and fines. 



THE JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION. 

^APAN adopts the threefold system of judicature and her Courts consist of the following three grades : — 

f Chiho Saibansho, or Local Court. 2nd grade... Kosoin, or Court of Appeal. 

"" 1 Kusaibansho, or District Court. 3rd grade... Taishiii-in, or Court of Cassation. 

The Kusaibansho, or District Courts, are auxiliary organs of judicature to the Chiho Saibansho, or Local Courts, and 
handle petty cases, both criminal and civil. In the latter only claims for sums not exceeding ¥500, disputes regarding 
boundaries, possessory cases, and non-judicial cases are tried ; in the former petty crimes which can be punished summarily 
are alone handled. 

In the District Courts all cases are tried by a single judge. Each Court is provided with a staff of Public 
Procurators, whose duties are, however, in some cases discharged by police officers, forestry officers, or gendiirraes. At 
present there are 242 District Courts throughout the country. 

The Chiho Saibansho, or Local Courts, are the first grade courts in Japan and handle practically all kinds of civil 
and criminal cases not coming under the purview of the Court of Cassation and the District Courts. Tiiey also hear appeals 
from the District Courts. All cases of bankruptcy are placed under the jurisdiction of the Local Courts. 

In the Local Courts all cases are heard by three judges, of whom one is appointed Presiding Judge. Judgments are 
pronounced on all cases after consultation among the three judges. 

Every Local Court has its own staff of Public Procurators. The Chief of tiie staff is called Kenjisei, or Chief Public 
Procurator, and controls all affairs relative to the staff under him. 

The Courts are established in every prefecture and have sometimes one or several branches. The total number of 
Lociil Courts at present is 50, and their branches number 64. 

The Koso-in, or Courts of Appeal, are the second of the three grades of Courts in Japan and hear appeals from the 
Local Courts. The Court of Appeal in Tokyo deals in addition with all civil cases relative to the Princes and Princesses 
of the Blood uader its charge. 



( 43 ) 

The Courts of Appeal have civil and criminal departments, each one of which is organized with three judges, 
including the Chief or Presiding Judge, and cases heard are decided upon after deliberation among them. In the Court of 
Appeal in Tokyo a department of three judges deals with civil cases in wiiich the Imperial Household is involved, and when 
an appeal is made against the judgment pronounced by the department a special department of five judges is created to hear 
the appeal. 

In each of the Courts of Appeal a staH of Public Procurators is established, and its head, called Keujicho, or Chief 
Pul)lic Procurator, has control of the whole staff. 

The Courts of Appeal are established in Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and Hakodate. The country 
is divided iuto five divisions which supervise tiie districts under the jurisdiction of the Local Courts, or Chiho Saibansho. 

Tiie Taishin-in, or Court of Cassation, the supreme judicial court of the Imperial realm, is established in Tokyo and 
hears appeals from the Courts of Appeal aud against the decisions on the appeal cases by the Local Courts. Its judgment 
or verdict is final and has the highest and absolute authority as to the interpretation of law. 

In addition the Court of Cassation has jurisdiction over all classes of crime against the Imperial Household, attempts 
against the life of the Princes and Princesses of the Blood, riotous acts committed to overthrow the Government, usurpation 
of part or all of the Imperial realm, disturbances, preliminary plots towards riots, or co-operation in such plots. 

The Court of Cassation has departments, civil and criminal, composed of five Judges and all cases are heard by those 
departments under a Presiding Judge. A staff of Public Procurators is also established in the Court of Cassation and the 
Public Procurator-General takes charge of it. 

Besides this ordinary system of Courts there is the Court of Litigation. Tiiis directly belongs to the Emperor and 
tries aud gives verdicts on all cases relative to administrative affairs. 



THE MILITARY AFFAIRS. 

fHE Army and Navy ar^under the command of the Emperor, and the Ministers of War and of the Navy take charge 
of their respective Departments. They control the military and naval personnel and civilians attached to the two 
Services, and superintend various departments under their respective jurisdiction. They are members of the Cabinet, as 
State Ministers, aud assist the Emperor, holding themselves responsible for the transaction of administrative affairs under, 
their respective jurisdiction. 

Besides the War and Naval Departments, there are the A rmy General Staff, and the Naval General Staff. These 
are under the direct control of the Emperor and participate in the transaction of important affnirs. They take charge of 
the programmes relating to national defence and tactics. 

There exists the Board of Marshals and Admirals of the Fleet as the supreme Advisory Body to the Emperor on 
military affairs. The Board consists of Generals and Admirals of supreme ability and experience, upon whom the title of 
either Field-Marshal or Admiral of the Fleet is conferred. There is another advisory body, a little wider in scope, namely, 
the Military Council. The Military Council is composed of Field Marshals, Fleet-Admirals, the Chiefs of the 
Army and Naval General Staffs, the Ministers of War and the Navy, and the Generals and Admirals specially nominated 
by the Emperor. The members of the Military Council are charged with the duty of submitting to the Emperor 
replies to various questions put to the Council on important military affairs. This Council also tries to harmonize military 
matters, from the view point of national defence and tactics. Besides the above two Advisory Bodies, another important 
military organ was established in 1914. This is the National Defence Council. This Council is under tiie superintendence 
of the Premier aud discusses important matters relating to military and naval schemes. The Ministers of War and the 
Navy submit to the Premier reports on important military and naval schemes, and then the Premier submits them to the 
Council for deliberation. The Premier is Chairman of the Council, which consists of tlie Ministers of Foreign Affairs, 
Finance, War, and the Navy, and the Chiefs of the Army and Naval General Staffs. 

In war-time, the Imperial Headquarters are established, being attended by the Chiefs of the Army and Naval 
General Staffs. They take part in the discussion of tactics and military operations, aud effect co-operation between the 
Army aud the Navy. 



( 44 ) 
ARMY. 

The Standing Army. — The Standing military strength in Japan is, generally speaking, represented by twenty-one 
Army Divisions. They are the Imperial Bodyguard Division and the Army Divisions from the First to the Twentieth. 
The Nineteenth and the Tweutietli Divisions were established with the approval of the session of the Diet last year to replace 
the Garrisons iiitlierto despatched to Chosen, Though tlie Nineteenth Army Division has already been brought into 
existence the Twentieth is not yet formed. 

An Army Division is generally composed of two Brigades (four Regiments), a regiment of Cavalry, a regiment of 
Artillery, a battalion of Engineering and a battalion of commissariat troops. In addition to the above, however, there are 
four Brigades of Cavalry, two Brigades of Field Artillery, two Brigades of Heavy Artillery, and a Brigade of Communica- 
tion Corps, including Telegraphy, Railway and Aviation. These are provided in some Array Divisions according to 
convenience. In Tsushima a Garrison is specially provided. Garrisons are stationed in Colonies and in South 
Manchuria, and these are despatched from the Army Division in Japan proper. In Formosa, there are stationed two 
Garrison Corps, and in Chosen a Garrison Headquarters, in addition to the newly established Nineteenth Army Division. 
In South Manchuria, there are the Manchurian Division and one Independent Garrison Corps, in Tsingtao one Garrison 
Corps, and in North and Central China Garrison detachments. 

The Coast Defence. — Besides the above-mentioned military equipments, there are fifteen fortifications to defend the 
coasts of the Empire and leased territories. In Japan proper, there are fortifications at the following ten places, viz., 
Tokyo Bay, the Kitau Straits, the Shimonoseki Straits, Hiroshima Bay, the Geibi Straits, Maidzuru, Saseho, Nagasaki, 
Tsushima and Hakodate. In Formosa, fortifications are provided at Keelung and the Pescadores, and in Chosen, at Chinkai 
Bay and Yeiko Bay, There are also fortifications at Port Authur. The Independent Heavy Artillery Corps above referred 
to are detailed to these fortifications. 

The fortifications in Japan proper belong to the Army Divisions nearest to them. Those in Formosa belong to the 
Government-General of Formosa, the one at Port Arthur to the Government-General of Kwantung province, and tiiose in 
Chosen to the He&dquarters of the Chosen Garrisons. 

War-time Organization. — The war-time Army is organized into the Field-Armies, who engage in field operations, 
the Besieging Armies, and various other troops, on the basis of the Standing Military strength. As regards the Field- 
Armies, several Divisions may be formed into one Army Corps, when necessity arises, and to each Army Corps are attached 
Cavalry Corps, Artillery Corps, Communications troops. Besieging troops and special troops. 

CONSCRIPTION SYSTEM. 

After the Restoration, Japan enforced the conscription Law in 1872 for the first time in her history. The system 
tlien put into force was, however, very limited in scope, and there were provided many exceptions. This was gradually 
revised, until in 1889 the new Conscription Law covering all the male population of the country was enforced. Thus, it 
became the duty of all able-bodied men to enlist in the Army or Navy. In other words, all the male subjects of Japan, 
between 17 and 40 years of age, became liable to military service, except in cases where deformity or disease exempt them 
from enlistment. These men are divided into four kinds, viz., the Standing Army (active service and first reserve), the 
second reserve, the conscript reserve, and the militia. In the Standing Army the term of active service is three years, and 
men of the age of 20, who are required for military service, are called upon to serve during that term. The term of the first 
reserve is four years and four months, during which time those who have finished active service are required to serve. The 
term of the second reserve is ten years, and those who have gone through the terra of the first reserve are regarded as being 
in this service. The term of the Conscript reserve service is 12 years and four months, and this service is applied to those 
wlio are exempted from active service. The militia are divided into two classes. The first militia consists of those who have 
finished the second reserve service or those of the conscript reserve service who have finished their terms. The second 
militia consists of those who do not fall under the above description and who are between 17 and 40 years of age. As is 
above-iiientioned, the term of active service is, generally speaking, three years, but the term difiers in some cases. For 
instance, the term for transport auxiliaries is only three months, and that of infantry is two years. Students of schools of 
middle grade and above are exempted from military service until they finish the course in their schools. The graduates of 
these schools are privileged to be one-year volunteers. 



( 48 ) 

THE NAVY. 

W AVAL STATIONS. — Yokoauka, Kure, Saseho, and Maidzuru are the four naval ports of Japan, and each port has a 
&S) Naval Station. The Naval Station has charge of the preparations for the despatch of Armies, the programmes of 
defence, and the Guard of the Naval districts, except those districts belonging to the Secondary Naval port, and controls the 
troops attached to them. The Commander-in-Chief of tlie Naval Station is under the direct control of the Emperor, and 
superintends the squadron under his command. He takes charge of tlie naval administration by order of the Naval Minister. 
The headquarters of the Naval Station consist of the Commander-in-chief, Chief of the Staff, staff ofScers and other staff. The. 
Naval Station is divided into various departments, such as Naval Personnel, Harbour Affairs, Naval Arsenal, Naval 
Hospitals, Accounts, Court-Martial, Naval Division, Naval Prison, Vessels, Garrisons, Signal Station, and Naval Wireless 
Telegraphy. Besides the above mentioned departments, the Saseho Naval Station has the Naval Colliery, the Kure 
Naval Station the Briquette Manufactory, and the Yokosuka Naval Station the Naval Aerial Corps. 

Secondary Naval Stations. — Besides the Naval Stations, there are the following Secondary Naval ports, which 
have their respective Secondary Naval Stations 

Ominato Secondary Naval Station (Aomori prefecture). Mako Secondary Naval Station (Pescadore Islands). 

Takeshiki Secondary Naval Station (Tsushima in Nagasaki Port Arthur Secondary Naval Station (Port Arthur), 

prefecture). Chinhaiwan Secondary Naval Station (Chosen). 

Yeiko Secondary Naval Station (Chosen). 

The Secondary Naval Station takes charge of its defence and tiie guard of the seas in its vicinity. It also has charge 
of supplying munitions of war. The Commander-in-chief of the Secondary Naval Station is under the direct control of 
the Emperor, superintends the Squadron under his command, and takes charge of the naval administration by order of the 
Naval Minister. The apportionment of officers and non-commissioned officers needed in the Secondary Naval Station and 
the troops belonging thereto, and the supply of required articles and materials fall within the jurisdiction of the Naval 
districts wherein the Secondary Naval Station is situated. Each Secondary Naval Station has vessels, garrison troops, the 
Naval Signal Station and the Naval Wireless Telegraphy. The Ominato, the Mako and the Port Arthur Secondary 
Naval Stations each has a Repairing Factory. 

FIK8T NAVAL DISTRICT. 

Boundaries. — The surface of the seas from the boundaries of the Ugo and Mutsu provinces to the boundary of 
Minami-muio district in Kii province along the eastern and southern coasts of Japan proper. The seas about the Bonin 
Islands, the Hokkai-do, and Karafuto (Japanese Saghalien). 

Jurisdiction. — This District is under the jurisdiction of the Yokosuka Naval Station, under whose jurisdiction 
also falls the Ominato Secondary Naval Station. 

SECOND NAVAL DISTRICT. 

BouNiMRiES. — The seas between the boundaries of Minami-Muro and Higashi-muro districts of Kii province, and 
tiie boundary of Toyoura district in Nagato province, and between the boundaries of Tooga and Munekata districts, in 
Chikuzen province, and the boundaries of Hyuga and Osumi province along the coast of the eastern coast of Kyushu. The 
seas about Shikoku and the Inland Sea. 

Jurisdiction. — This District falls under the jurisdiction of the Kure Naval Station. 

THIRD NAVAL DISTRICT. 

The seas between the boundaries of Tooga and Munekata districts in Chikuzen province and the boundaries of Hyuga 
and Osumi provinces along the western and southern coasts of Kyushu. The seas about Iki Island, the Loochow Islands, and 
Formosa and the Pescadores. 

Jurisdiction. — This District is under the jurisdiction of the Saseho Naval Station. The Mako Secondary Naval 
Station is situated within this District. 



C 4d ) 

FOURTH NAVAL DISTRICT. 

BouNDABiES.^The seas between the boundaries of Otsu and Toyoura districts in Nagato province, and the 
boundaries of Ugo and Rikuzen provinces along the western coast of Japan proper. The seas about Oki and Sado Islands. 
Jurisdiction. — This District is under the jurisdiction of the Maidzuru Naval Station. 

FIFTH NAVAL DISTRICT. 

Boundaries. — The seas about Tsushima Island and Chosen. 

Jurisdiction. — This District is under the jurisdiction of the Saseho Naval Station. The Chinhai and the Yeiko 
Secondary Naval Stations are situated in this District. 

KWANTUNG PROVINCE NAVAL DISTRICT. 

Boundaries. — The seas of Kwantung province. 

Jurisdiction. — This District is under the jurisdiction of the Saseho Naval Station. The Port Arthur Secondary 
Naval Station is situated within this District. 

THE SQUADRON. 

The Squadron consists of two or more warships, and in case of necessity the fleets of destroyers, torpedo-boats and 
submarines are added to it. Tiie Commander-in-Chief of the Squadron is under the direct control of the Emperor, and 
commands the fleets under his orders. He takes charge of various matters relating to his Squadron. As regards the 
Naval administration, he conducts, it acting under instruction of the Naval Minister. The Rules for allotting duties 
governing the Commander of Independent Squadrons are similar to those above described. 

THE 



Battleships 

Battleship-cruisers 

Ist-Class Cruisers 

2nd-Class Cruisers ... 

Ist-Class Coast-Defence-ships 
2nd-Class Coast-Defence-ships 

Ist-Class-gun-boats 

2nd-Cla8s-gun-boats 

Total 

Destroyers 

Torpedo-bouts 

The Personnel of the Navy and civilians attached thereto. 

NAVAL MEN ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 

Admirals, Vice-Admirals, Rear-Admirals and their ranking officers 

Captains, Commanders, Lieut-Commanders and their ranking officers 

Lieutenants, Sub-Lieutenants and Second Sub.-Lieutenants and their ranking officers 

Cadets 

Nou-Commissioned Officers. 

Petty Officers 

Bluejackets 

Total 



NUMBER OF WARSHIPS. 






Number. 


Tonnage. 


Horse Power 


12 


231,707 


264,014 


8 


166,700 


343,500 


9 


81,783 


144,388 


12 


51,415 


172,349 


3 


38,839 


44,678 


13 


52,053 


52,462 


3 


3,863 


20,500 


5 


1,961 


5,480 


65 


628,321 


1,047,371 


60 


27,666 


444.371 


26 


3,317 


70.000 



99 

1,261 

3,080 

173 

1.257 

11,333 

40,532 

57,735 



( 47 ) 

CIVIL OFFICERS. 

High officials ... 121 

Officials of Aawiw rank 871 



Total 992 

Personnel. — The Naval non-commissioned officers and bluejackets are raised, on the whole, by the conscription 
system, but a portion of them are volunteers. 

The men who are raised is accordance with the conscription system are mostly those living in the provinces 
contiguous to the sea and various islands. According to their avocations, they are classified into sailors, stokers, workmen, 
etc ; and these are chosen by means of drawings. 

The volunteers are chosen from among those not falling within the scope of the first and second reserves as follows : — 

Sailors, and Engineers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... between 17 and 21 

Artisans, Medical and Stewards ... between 17 and 26 

Naval bands between 16 and 19 

The non-commissioned officers and bluejackets, who are raised by the conscription system, are divided into the active 
service, the first reserve and the second reserve. The term of both the active and second reserve services is four years each, 
while that of the second reserve service is five years. In the case of volunteers, it is divided into the active service and the 
first reserve service. The term of the active service in this case is six years, while that of the first reserve service is twelve 
years, inclusive of the years of active service. After completing this service, they are regarded as militia until they attain 
the age of forty. Irrespective of the conscripted sailors and volunteers they can serve in the Navy again after going 
through their active service, the term of re-service being three years. Those who are over thirty-six years have no 
capacity for active service. 



DIPLOMATIC AFFAIRS. 

fOWARD the middle of the 16th century the Tokugawa Shogunate closed all ports of Japan to foreign intercourse, and 
this policy was strictly maintained, with tiie exception of the Chinese and Dutch permitted to trade at Nagasaki 
under heavy restrictions. Thus Japan stood out of the comity of nations for nearly three centuries. 

In 1854, however, the United States knocked at the closed door of Japan and was successful in inducing her to 
throw it open to all nations of the world. A treaty was concluded with the United States, the Netherlands, Great Britain, 
Russia, France, and other countries, as a provisional measure, and in 1858 formal treaties of commerce and navigation were 
arranged to replaca it, thus establishing formal diplomatic relations with all nations of the world. 

Japan entered the comity of nations only sixty years ago. The treaties of commerce and navigation then signed 
were unfavourable to Japan, as those treaties provided for the extra-territoriality of all foreign residents within the Empire 
of Japan, and the restriction of the import tarifi" at the ports of Japan to or under 5 per cent. To eliminate these 
humiliating clauses in the treaties, Japan intensely endeavoured for over two decades with extremely scanty chances 
of success. 

In 1897 Great Britain consented to amend these clauses in the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between Japan 
and herself, and the other countries followed suit during the following few years. The new treaties of commerce and navigation 
thus arranged were on quite equal terms, and all the humiliating clauses providing for the extra-territoriality of foreigners 
in this country and the restriction on the import tariff" were altogether eradicated. The treaties of commerce and navigation 
now iu force have been almost all revised once or twice since. 

At first Japan was only in communication with countries in Europe, the United States, China and a few other 
countries, but later entered upon friendly intercourse with more and more countries in the West, and now even the republics 
in South America stand in friendly relations with this country, treaties being in existence between them and Japan. 



( 48 ) 

At present the States in the Balkan Peninsula, the countries in Central Asia and Asia Minor, and the republics in 
Central America are all that have no treaties with Japan. Even in Africa the Congo Free State has had a treaty of 
Commerce and Navigation with Japan for years. Germany and Austria have no treaties of Commerce and Navigation 
now, but that is merely the result of the State of War existing between them and Japan. 

At first Japan exchanged no Ambassador with the countries with which she opened communication, but her importance 
was acknowledged by the world when she was victorious over Russia a decade ago, and Great Britain, the United States, 
Russia, France, and Italy consented to exchange Ambassadors with Japan. Austria aud Germany also sent their 
Ambassadors to Tokyo, and Japan sent hers to Berlin and Vienna. The other countries still send their Ministers to Tokyo, 
and Japan despatches her Ministers to those countries. 

Embassies are established by Japan in the following countries at present : — 

The United States. France. 

Great Britain. Italy. 

Russia. 

In the following countries Legations are established : — 

Belgium. . Brazil. 

Chili. China. 

Spain. Mexico. 

The Netherlands. Siam. 

Sweden. Switzerland. 

The Minister to Chili takes charge of Peru and Argentine, that to Spain of Portugal, tliat to the Netherlands of 
Denmark, and that to Sweden of Norway. 

Japan has eighteen Consulates-General overseas and some of them have branch offices within their jurisdiction. In 
addition there are two Consulates-General taken charge of by Honorary Consul-Generals. Ordinary Consulates number 
thirty-three. Besides there are thirty-eight honorary Consulates. 

The Consulates-General are located as follows : — 

Calcutta. Canton. 

Chientao. Hankow. 

Harbin. Hongkong. 

Honolulu. London. 

Moscow. Mukden. 

New York. Ottawa. 

Snu Francisco. San Paulo. 

Shanghai. Sydney. 

Tientsin. Wladivostok. 

i Among others the Consulate-General at Mukden has one branch and that at Chientao three branches. 

The Consulates-General taken charge of by Honorary Consuls-General are situated as follows : — 

Genoa. Cliristiania. 

Paris, 
Ambassadors are of the Shinnin rank and are appointed by His Majesty the Emperor in person. Ministers, 
Councillors in the Embassies, and Chargfi d'Affaires are of the CJwkunin rank and are appointed tiiiough the Imperial 
nomination. The other diplomatic officers, including Consuls-General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, and ElJve-Consuls are all 
of the Sonin rank and are appointed by the recommendation of the Government. 

There are no restrictions on the appointment of Ambassadors, but the other grades of diplomatic officers must first 
pass the State examination for the service. An examining committee is established in the Foreign Office, and at an 
interval of twelve mouths an examination is held. All who have passed the examination are first appointed El^ve- 
Consuls or El^ve-Secretaries, and after a stipulated period of service, either at Consulates or Legations, they are 
promoted by degrees. 



( 49 ) 

FINANCE AND ECONOMICS. 

fTATE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.— Judged from the results of the past ten years, Japan's annual expendi- 
ture, including ordinary and extraordinary items, amounts to ¥600,000,000 in round figures. The annual 
revenue is slightly more than tliat figure, and sometimes the excess reaches from ¥50,000,000 to ¥100,000,000. In the 
general Budget for the year 1916/17 revenue is placed at ¥1,300,000 less than expenditure, but that is an 
exceptional case brought about by ihe exigencies of the war. When compiling the present Budget the Government 
expected to see a falling-off in revenue under tiie unfavourable influences of the war, at the same time over-estimating 
expenditure in view of the war's expenditures. 

Judged from the result of revenue obtained so far, various items of revenue are surpassing the Budget estimates, in 
spite of the authorities' rather too pessimistic anticipations, and there is already good reason to believe that by the end of 
the fiscal year the bnlance will become favourable, as usual, to revenue. 

In the following tables the annual State revenue and expenditure for several years are shown on the basis of the 
ofiicial report for the year 1916 : — 

ANNUAL STATE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. 







Revenue. 






Expenditure. 




Surplus. 




Financial 
Year. 


Ordinary 


Extra- 
ordinary. 


Total. 


Ordinary. 


Extra- 
ordinary. 


Total. 


Deficit. 


1912-13.. 


552,085,582 


135,306,898 


687,392,480 


416,895,091 


176,701,354 


593,596,445 


93.796,035 


— 


1913-14.. 


575,428,048 


146,547,437 


721,975,484 


415,635,805 


157,998,120 


573,633,925 


148,341,559 


— 


1914-15.. 


536,342,502 


198,305,553 


734,648,055 


399,225,402 


249,195,008 


648,420,409 


86,227,640 


— 


1915-16.. 


526,837,693 


81,431,574 


608,269,267 


405,003,228 


197,607,491 


602,610,719 


5,658,548 


— 


1916-17... 


531,793,152 


69,145,245 


600,938,397 


397,755,609 


204,507,363 


602,262,972 


— 


1,324,575 



Note : — 

(1) The figures for the financial years from 1912-13 and 1913-14 represent the settled accounts, those for the financial 

year 1914-15 the actual account on October 3ist, 1915, and those for the financial years 1915-16 and 1916-17 
the budget estimates. 

(2) As a sum of ¥1,324,575 is to be left unused of the total expenditure for 1916-17 in consequence of the disbursement 

of the special war expenditure, the net expenditure amounts to ¥600,938,397. 



Sources of Revenue. 



In the list of ordinary revenue accounts the leading positions are occupied by income 
State properties. The second position is lield by the sake tax and the land tax. The revenue 
income tax is large, but scarcely reaches half the income from the sah^ tax or land tax. 

In the following the sources and amounts of revenue are listed on the basis of the 
1916/17 :— 

1916-17 
(Estimated). 

Yen. 

312,993,160 

72,592,350 

33,438,186 

20,090,877 

2,853,302 

4,869,954 

... ■ ... ... 2,958,781 



from official enterprises and 
from customs duties and the 



Ordinary : — 
Taxes 
Land Tax 
Income Tax 
Business Tax . 
Succession Tiix . 
Travelling Tax . 
Mining Tax 



Tax op the Issue of Bank Nofes 



1,060,138 



le basis of the 


general Budget 


for the year 


1915-16 


Comparison. 


(Estimated). 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


316,454,735 


— 


3,461,575 


73,268,169 


— 


675,819 


35,266,116 


— 


1,827,930 


18,644,602 


1,446,275 


— 


2,299,186 


554,116 


— 


4,789,326 


80,628 


— 


2,606,957 


351,824 


— 


1,107,322 


-T^ 


47,184 



( 50 ) 



Sources of Revenue. 

Dedinaky : — 

Tax on Liquors... 

Tax on Soy 

Sugar Excise 

Consumption Tax on Textile Fabrics... 

Consumption Tax on Kerosene Oil ... 

Tax on Bourses 

Customs Duties ... 

Tonnage Dues ... 

Other Taxes 

Stamp Receipts 

Receipts from Public Undertakings and State Property. 

Postal, Telegraph and Telephone Services ... 

Forests 

Profits of Monopoly Salt 

Profits of Monopoly Camphor ... 

Profits of Monopoly Tobacco 

Profits of the Steel Foundry ... 

Other Receipts from Public Undertakings and State 

Property 

Transferred from Special Account for Deposits... 
Transferred from Special Account for Government- 
General of Ch5sen ... ... 

Transferred from Special Account for Government- 
General of Taiwan 

Other Miscellaneous Receipts 

j-Otai ... ... ... ... ,.« 

Extraordinary : — 

Proceeds of Sale of State Property 

Chinese Indemnity Receipt 

Receipts from the Issue of Public Loans 

Forestry Fund transferred 

Local Contributions to Expenses incurred by the State 

for the Benefit of Certain Prefectures... 
Surplus of the Preceding Year transferred 
Fund belonging to Special Account transferred 
Temporary Loans ... 

Transferred from Warships and Torpedo-boats Re- 
plenishment Fund 

River Improvement Works Fund transferred ... 
Other Extraordinary Receipts 

Total 

Totiil Revenue 



1916-17 


1915-16 
(Estimated). 


\^ompa 


nson. 


(Estimated). 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


91,719,091 


90,553,953 


1,165,138 


— 


4,908,432 


4,933,264 


— 


24,832 


25,339,357 


23,836,997 


1,502,360 


— 


15,144,115 


13,910,304 


1,233,811 


— 


1,457,021 


1,433,492 


23,529 


— 


3,716,483 


2,998,907 


717,576 


— 


32,024,415 


39,987,961 


— 


7,963,546 


572,919 


553,474 


19,445 


— 


247,739 


264,705 


— 


16,966 


28,991,699 


30,431,307 


— 


1,439,608 


165,702,494 


154,280,213 


11,422,281 


— 


63,775,300 


61,095,862 


2,679,438 


— 


10,659,246 


10,675,773 


— 


16,527 


8,951,336 


10,773.575 


— 


1,822,239 


49,248 


72,308 


— 


23,060 


58,802,746 


60,167,986 


— 


1,365,240 


10,830,981 


3,002,413 


7,828,568 


— 


12,633,637 


8,492,296 


4,141,341 


— 


11,926,859 


10,396,641 


1,530,218 


— 



5,011,606 



6,401,340 



1,389,734 



4,071,399 
3,095,935 


5,716.921 
3,156.536 


— 


1,645,522 
60,601 


531,793,152 


526,837,693 


4,955,459 


— 


3,740,201 
2,633,177 
1,550,000 
2,692,113 


11,705,129 
2,537,839 
1,550,000 
2,495,985 


95,338 
196,128 


7,964,928 


2,346,390 

24,437,759 

7,000,000 

1,000,000 




15,791,660 



3,000,000 


2,346,390 
8,646,099 
7,000,000 


2,000,000 






23,745,605 


12,000,000 

8,748,310 

23,602,651 


142,954 


12,000,000 
8,748,310 


69,145,245 


81,431,574 


— 


12,286,329 


600,938,397 


608,269,267 


—. 


7,330,870 



( 51 ) 



In the following table the classifications and amounts of expenditure are shown on the basis of the general Budget for 
the year 1916/17 :— 

Branches of Expenditure. 

Ordinary : — 

Imperial Household 

Foreign Affairs 

Department Proper 

Embassies, Legations and Consulates abroad 

Other Expenses.,. 
Home Affairs 

Department Proper 

Prefectures (Do, Fu and Ken) 

Other Expenses.,. 
Finance 

Department Proper 

Interest on Deposits and Charges for its Payment ... 

Cabinet and Privy Council 

House of Peers and House of Representatives 

Court of Administrative Litigation and Board of 
Auditors 

Custom-houses .,. 

Expenses for the Collection of Inland Taxes.,. 

Transferred to National Debt Consolidation Fund „. 

Transferred to Warships and Torpedo-boats Replenish- 
ment Fund ... 

Other Expenses... 
Army 

Department Proper 

Expenses for Military Affairs 

Other Expenses.., 
Navy 

Department Proper 

Expenses for Military Affairs... 

Other Expenses... 
Justice 

Department Proper 

Judicial Courts 

Prisons ... 

Other Expenses ... 
Public Instruction. .- 

Department Proper ... 

Educational Institutions and Library... 

Otlier Expenses... 
Agriculture and Commerce 

Department Proper 

Forestry Expenses 

Other Expenses... 
Communications .,. 

Department Proper 



1916-17 


1915-16 
(Estimated). 


\jom 


)arison. 


(Estimated). 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Yen. 


Yen, 


Yen. 


Yen. 


4,500,000 


4,500,000 


— 


— 


4.551,542 


4.114,682 


436,860 


— 


715,488 


712,251 


3,237 


— 


3,804.527 


3,375,835 


428,692 


— 


31,527 


26,596 


4.931 


— 


12,788.981 


12.709,327 


79,654 - 


— 


376,210 


372.603 


3,607 


— 


9,699,418 


9,454.778 


244,640 


— 


2,713,353 


2.881.946 


— 


168,593 


154.548,414 


173,119.775 


— 


18,571,361 


2,011,664 


779,093 


1,232,571 


— 


11,926,859 


10.396,641 


1,530,218 


— 


616,867 


531,114 


85,753 


— 


1,617,554 


1.904,782 


— 


287,228 


275,383 


270,296 


5,087 


— 


1,080,849 


1,054,702 


26,147 


— 


9,212,741 


9,199,521 • 


13.220 


— 


118.640,603 


123,742,888 


— 


5,102,285 





12,000,000 


— 


12,000,000 


9,165,894 


13,240,738 


— 


4,074,844 


78,855,757 


74.039,918 


4.815,839 


— 


396.265 


383,085 


13,180 


— 


72,924,132 


70,034,759 


2,889,373 


— 


5.535,360 


3,622,074 


1,913,286 


— 


46,496,165 


43,112,320 


3,383,845 


— 


332,059 


330,583 


1,476 


— 


46,141,195 


42,758,826 


3,382.369 


— 


22,911 


22,911 


— 


— 


11,588,000 


11,386,855 


201,145 


— 


134,101 


133,555 


546 


— 


5,789,395 


5,664,729 


124,666 


— 


6,603,417 


5,529,337 


74,080 


— 


61,087 


59,234 


1,853 


— 


9,774,432 


9,621,880 


152,552 


— 


704,131 


535,989 


168,142 


— 


5,932.951 


5,733,757 


199,194 


— 


3,137,350 


3,352,134 


— 


214,784 


7.130,440 


6,861,913 


268,527 


— 


553,016 


500,487 


52,529 


— 


4,385,075 


4,385,178 


— 


103 


2,192.349 


1.976.248 


216.101 


— 


67,521.878 


65,536,558 


1,985,320 


— 


654,950 


632.381 


22,569 


— 



( 52 ) 



Branches of Expenditure. 



1916-17 


1915-16 
(Estimated). 


Comparison. 


(Estimated). 


Increase 


Decrease. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


29,676,693 


29,599,826 


76,867 


— 


36,557,669 


34,681,350 


1,876,319 


— 


632,566 


623,001 


9,565 


— 


397,755,609 


405,003,228 


— 


7,247,619 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


2,253,600 


2,296,600 


— 


43,000 


34,641,248 


36,497,004 


— 


1,855,756 


65,282,302 


74,308,363 


— 


9,026,061 


15,457,357 


10,875,278 


4,582,079 


— 


55,747,761 


52,376,637 


3,371.124 


— 


992,664 


648,627 


344,037 


— 


823,777 


813,271 


10,506 


— 


13,408,081 


6,878,900 


6,529,181 


— 


15,900,573 


12,912,811 


2,987,762 


— 


204,507,363 


197,607,491 


6,899,872 


— 


602,262,972 


602,610,719 


— 


347,747 



Ordinary : — 

Communication Expenses 

Pensions and Annuities 

Otiier Expenses 

Total 

Extraordinary : — 
Foreign Affairs 

Home Affairs ... ... ... 

Finance 

Army ... ... 

Navy ... 

Justice 

Publiclnstruction 

Agriculture and Commerce 
Communications ... 

Total 

Total Expenditure 

Japan's National Indebtedness.— Previous to the Russo-Japanese war the obligations ot the Empire were 
scarcely above ¥500,000,000, but during and after the war the total amount increased with great rapidity, because Japan 
mainly depended on foreign and domestic loans for the financing of the expeditionary forces in Manchuria and the post-war 
readjustment of administration. At the end of 1911 the total amount of indebtedness reached ¥2,650,000,000. 

Since that period, however, the old obligations have been steadily refunded at the rate of ¥50,000,000 a year, and 
there has been no flotation of new loans. At tiie beginning of the fiscal year 1916/17 the total was as low as ¥2,490,000,000. 
In the course of the present fiscal year, moreover, it is planned by the Government to refund foreign obligations to the extent 
of ¥150,000,000. 

In the following table the classes and amounts of Japan's national indebtedness are shown in detail on the basis of 
the official report published at the beginning of the fiscal year 1916/17 : — 

Kinds of Loan. 
Internal Loans : — 

Old Public Loan ... 

Five per cent. Loans ... 

Five per cent. Loan (Mark Ko) 

Five per cent. Loan (Special) ... 

Five per cent. Loan (Onshi) ... 

Four per cent. Loan ... ... ... 

Chosen Public Works Exchequer Bonds 

Railway Notes ... 

Total ... 

Foreign Loans : — 

Four and half per cent. Sterling Loan of 1st Issue ... 
Four and half per cent. Sterling Loan of 2ud Issue. .^ 
Four per cent. Sterling Loan of 2nd Issue ... 
Five per cent. Sterling Loan ... 

Four per cent. Loan (Issued in Paris) 

Four per cent. Sterling Loan of 3rd Issue 



i 



1915. 


1916. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


1,509,379 


1,293,753 


51,697,550 


58,729.050 


460,267,350 


460,245,600 


148,137,500 


148,131,200 


30,000,000 


30,000,000 


269,919,800 


269,692,050 


30,000,000 


30,000,000 


— 


30,000,000 


991,581,578 


1,028,091,653 


275,782,295 


263,578,645 


275,796,744 


263,592,994 


244,070,900 


244,070,900 


224,544,509 


224,544,314 


174,146,711 


174,146,711 


107,392,805 


107,392,805 



( 53 ) 



Kinds of Loan. 
)reign Loans : — 

Exchequer Bonds (Issued in Paris) 

Debentures of the Purchased Railway Companies ... 


1915. 
Yen. 

77,400,000 
13,668.200 


1916. 

Yen. 
77,399,807 
13,668.200 


Total ... 

Grand Total 


1,485.550,664 
2,477,082,242 


1,461,142,774 
2,489,234,427 



The total indebtedness of the nation, if assigned to every individual citizen, is ¥32.50 per capita. 

The national loans are classified according to the objects for which they have been floated as follows : — 

REORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. 



Feudal Government's Debts Consolidated. 

Yen. 

Old Public Loan 1,293,763 



Total 



1,293,753 



Grand Total 

ECONOMIC 
Railway Construction. 

Yen. 

Five per cent. Loan 37,316,578 

Five per cent. Loan (Mark ko) 460,245,600 

Four per cent. Loan of 1st issue 21,208,700 

Four per cent. Loan of 2nd issue 12,248,043 

Railway Notes 28,480,054 

4^ Sterling Loan of 1st issue 27,240,592 

Debentures of the Purchased Railway 

Companies 13,668,200 

\% Loan (issued in Paris) ... 26,276,075 

4^ Sterling Loan of 3rd issue 32,707,328 

Exchequer Bonds (issued in Paris) 71,207,822 

Total 730,598,992 

Grand Total 



Feudal Pensions Capitalized. 

Five per cent. Loan 

Four per cent. Loan of 1st issue 

Four per cent. Loan of 2nd issue 

^% Loan (issued in Paris) 

^% Sterling Loan of 3rd issue 

Total 

97,875,754 

UNDERTAKINGS. 



Yen. 

2,841,100 
17,288,837 
28,640,098 
46,583,276 

1,228,690 

96,582,001 



Harbour, Drainage, Road, Steel- Works, 



Mining, Telephone, etc. 


Yen. 


Five per cent. Loan 


7,001,578 


Four per cent. Loan of 1st issue 


2,049,217 


Four per cent. Loan of 2nd issue 


3,208,767 


\% Sterling Loan of 1st issue 


12,456,513 


^% Loan (issued in Paris) 


7,033,525 


4^ Sterling Loan of 3rd issue 


10,657,321 



Total 



773,005,913 



Expansion of Armaments. 
Four per cent. Loan of 1st issue 

Four per cent. Loan of 2nd issue ... . 

^% Sterling Loan of Ist issue 

\% Loan (issued in Paris) 

4_^ Sterling Loan of 3rd issue ... . 

Total 

Grand Total. 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 



Yen. 

5,839,258 

3,029,957 
51,136,544 
l.S,252,883 

7,861,427 
81,120,069 



War. 



Five per cent. Loan 

Five per cent. Loan (special)... 
Four per cent. Loan of Ist issue 
Four per cent. Loan of 2nd issue 
^\% Sterling Loan of 1st issue 
4i^ Sterling Loan of 2nd issue 
^% Sterling Loan of 2nd issue 

fi% Sterling Loan 

4^ Loan (issued in Paris) ... 
\% Sterling Loan of 3rd issue 

Total 

, 1,405,046,478 



42,406,921 



Yen. 

7,644,650 

148,131,200 

104,275,481 

27,587,761 

263,578,545 

263,592,994 

212,271,699 

212,045,669 

40,776,012 

44,022,398 

1,323,926,409 



( 54 ) 



Annual revenue and expenditure of municipal corporations : The annual revenue and expenditure of local 
administrative divisions, or municipal corporations are as follows: — 







Prefectures (Do, Fu & Ken). 






Cities. 








Revenue. 




Expenditure. 




Revenue. 




Financial Year. 


Rates. 


Receipts from 
Other Sources. 


. Total. 


Rates. 


Receipts from 
Other Sources. 


Total. 




Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


1915-16 


, 63,217,889 


17,999,552 


81,217,441 


81,202,225 


21,217,159 


65,095,763 


86,312,922 


1916-17 


, 64,876,326 


20,637,013 


85,513,339 


85,505,881 


— 


— 


— 








Towns and Villages. 










Expenditure. 




Revenue. 




Expenditure. 


Grand Total. 


Financial Year. 


Rates. 


Receipts from 
Other Sources. 


Total. 


Revenue. 


Expenditure. 




Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


1915-16 


, 83,393.909 


83,684,534 


31,244,745 


114,929,279 


114,847,134 


286,755,540 


283,746,924 


1916-17 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



Note: — The figures for the financial years 1914-15, 1915-16, and 1916-17 in the case of prefectures and those for the 
financial years 1914-15 and 1915-16 in the case of cities, towns and villages represent the budget estimates 
respectively. 

The following are the classifications and amounts of obligations borne by municipal corporations : — 

AMOUNT OF LOCAL LOANS. 

Loans, for the Raising of which the Approval of the Government is requird. 



At the 
End of:— 

1915 



Loans of 
Prefectures. 



Loans of 
Districts. 



Loans of 
Cities. 



Loans of 
Towns. 



Loans of Loans of Local 
Villages. Associations. 

4,366,866 6,286,569 



54,275,038 1,907,622 256,557,104 4,341,036 

Loans, for the Raising of which the Approval of the Government is not required. 



At the Loans of Loans of 

End of: — Prefectures. Districts. 

1915 146,000 34,100 



Loans of 
Cities. 



Loans of 
Towns. 



Total. 



1,207,853 822,230 

ECONOMICS. 



Loans of Loans of Ldcal 
Villages. Associations. 

2,617,539 2,330,277 7,157,999 



Total. 
327,734,2-35 



Grand 
Total. 

334,892,234 



Foreign Trade. — The Foreign trade of Japan is on the increase, and the main feature previous to the war was a 
great excess of imports over exports, but now the reverse is the rule as a result of the war in Europe. 

In the following table the statistical returns of imports and exports during several years are given : — 



Year 


Exports. 

1 




Imports. 




Total of Exports 


& Imports. 


Excess of 

Exports over 

Imports. 


Excess of 

Imports over 

Exports. 




Total Value. Per Head. 


Total Value. P< 


;r Head. 


Total Value. : 


Per Head. 




Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


1913 .. 


. 632,460,213 


11.85 


729,431,644 


13.67 


1,361,891,857 


25.52 


— 


96,971,431 


1914 ... 


. 591,101,461 


10.9 


595,735,725 


10.98 


1,186,837,186 


21.88 


— 


4,634,264 


1915 .. 


. 708,306,997 


12.86 


532,449,938 


9.85 


1,240,756,935 


22.71 


175.857,059 






Note : — 

(1) The figures of exports for 1906 and subsequent years do not include those of articles for ship's use. 

(2) In this table are not included the figures for the foreign trade of Chosen and Taiwan. This explanation is 

applicable to the following tables. 



( 66 ) 

In the following table the values of commodities exported to various countries are shown : — 

Countries. 
Asia : — 

China 

Kwantang Province 

British India 
Hongkong ... 
Straits Settlements 
Asiatic Russia 
French Iiido-China 
Dutch Indies 
Philippine Islands... 

Siam 

Other Countries ... 

Total 

Europe : — 

Great Britain 

France 

Germany 

Italy : 

Belgium 

Austria-Hungary 

Switzerland 

Netherlands 

Russia ... 

Norway ... ... 

Sweden 

Spain 

Turkey 

Denmark ... 

Portugal ... 

Other Countries ... 

Total 

America: — 

United States of America 
Argentine ... 

British America 

Mexico 
Peru 

Chili 

Other Countries ... 

Total 

All Other : — 

Australia 

Cape Colony & Natal 

Egypt 

Hawaii 

Total 15,476,822 18,075,569 26,178,311 



1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


154,660,428 


162,370,924 


141,122,586 


29,836,345 


22,270,387 


22,200,802 


29,873,414 


26,048,337 


42,202,460 


33,621,978 


33.277,063 


27,401,346 


10,141.558 


9,129,816 


12,639,623 


4,271,413 


10,413,147 


78,299,178 


1,055,194 


803,545 


637,346 


5,148,686 


5,479,285 


8,437,986 


6,283,556 


6.769,109 


7,771,471 


1,035,293 


563,091 


777,739 


— 


— 


43,855 


275,927,865 


277,124,704 


341,534,392 


32,869,657 


33,086,274 


68,494,011 


60,229,619 


31,209,330 


42,293,232 


13,131,709 


9.962,093 


5 


29,416,729 


11,096,897 


3,011,668 


3,705,592 


2,361.468 


— 


937,537 


544.795 


— 


322,187 


59.257 


44,367 


669,343 


531,296 


42,031 


4,897,420 


1,967.802 


11,239,224 


4,314 


7,913 


1,171 


73,920 


38,185 


138,947 


433,048 


342,630 


349,529 


183,801 


194,968 


2,193 


335,564 


369,811 


452,864 


15,041 


18,765 


13,260 


— 


— 


3,894 


147,225,481 


91,791,374 


126,086,396 


184,473,382 


196,539,008 


204,141,844 


1,422,567 


308,578 


1,128,680 


5,090,018 


4.994.125 


7,024,068 


525.296 


230,918 


13,458 


117,759 


137,859 


134,799 


131,492 


63,845 


170,362 


— 


— 


577,316 


191,760.514 


202,274,333 


213,190,527 


8,637,974 


10,868,595 


18,098,301 


474,625 


492,549 


1,000.036 


1,371,112 


1,822,616 


984,858 


4.992,111 


4,891,809 


6,095,116 



( 56 ) 



Countries. 



Other Couutries ... 
Unknown... 

Total Exports 



1913. 


1915. 


1915. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


1,655,891 


1,541,852 


936,527 


414,640 


293,629 


380,844 


682,460,213 


591,101,461 


708,306,997 



1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


6,892,150 


9,017,029 


24,466,898 


10,075,621 


12,709,985 


15,402,023 


13,709,123 


13,416,197 


1 1,934,355 


15,915,475 


12,470,052 


12,092,461 


14,314,409 


13,923,056 


14,308,542 


562,086 


325,692 


372,203 



In the following the values and classes of exported and imported goods during the past tliree years are shown :- 

Articles. 
Exports : — 

Grains, Flours, Starches and Seeds 

Tea 

Marine Products ... 

Sugar, Confectioneries and Sweetmeats ... 

Beverages and Comestibles 

Tobacco 

Skins, Hairs, Horns, Tusks and Manufactures 

thereof 4,178,480 3,234,357 6,021,548 

Drugs, Chemicals, Medicines, Pigments and 
Coatings 25,578,985 23,819,711 32,825,053 

Oils, Fats, Waxes and Manufactures thereof ... 8,531,789 - 8,397,506 10,146,513 

Tissues, Yarns and Materials thereof: — 

Of Silk 247,896,361 206,366,934 . 207,414,456 

Of Cotton 108,878,520 117,528,716 108,968,247 

Another 7,756,166 8,376,794 29,277,630 

Clothing and Accessories ... 25,899,833 23,876,372 36,532,349 

Paper and Manufactures thereof 5,434,984 4,705,724 6,351,536 

Minerals and Manufactures thereof 24,998,992 25,765,379 22,191,233 

Ores and Metals ... 31,455,256 31,649,178 64,719,377 

Metal Manufactures 3,584,662 3,490,470 7,769,036 

Earthenware, Porcelain, Glass and Glass Manu- 
factures 10,068,149 8,914,886 12,857,089 

Machinery 6,448,046 5,260,060 10,031,193 

Miscellaneous 60,281,126 57,853,363 74,634,255 

Total 

Imports : — 

Grains, Flours, Starches and Seeds 
Sugar, Confectioneries and Sweetmeats ... 

Beverages and Comestibles 

Animal Products (skins, bones, &c.) 

Drugs, Chemicals and Medicines 

Dyes, Pigments and Paints ... 

Oils and Waxes 

Tissues, Yarns and Materials thereof: — 

Of Cotton 

or Wool 

OfSilk 

Of Flax, Hemp, Ac ... 

All Other 

Clothing and Accessories 



632,460,213 



79,225,896 
36,967,538 
7,491,469 
8,968,208 
39,603,318 
11,342,542 
20,210,687 

244,528,541 
38,644,849 
2,119,943 
8,698,981 
3,587,521 
1,365,646 



591,101,461 



53,717,067 

21,833,483 
7,039,033 
8,165,062 

37,372,761 
8,080,797 

17,077,725 

224,754,039 

29,261,656 

2,494,318 

9,253,452 

2,616,468 

897,938 



708,306,997 



24,802,559 
14,912,886 

5,204,255 
12,622,144 
30,596,116 

7,373,468 
17,276,336 

222,369,433 

34,764,123 

4,476,245 

9,148,398 

2,530,888 

. 369,285 



( 57 ) 



Articles. 
Imports : — 

Paper and Stationery 

Minerals and Manufactures tiiereof 

Ores and Metals : — 

Iron ., 

All Other Metals 

Metal Manufactures 

Earthenware, Porcelain, Glass and" Glass Manu- 
factures ... 

Machines and Machinery... 

Miscellaneous 

Total 

Total of Exports and Imports 

There are five classes of banking establishments in Japan. The first is the central bank of the Empire, that is, the 
Bank of Jjipan. The second consist of those special banks, including the Yokohama Specie Bank, which is a financial 
organ for foreign trade ; the Hypothec Bank of Japan, which is an organ for industrial and agricultural workers of small 
means and makes it a specialty to make loans on the security or immovable properties ; the Industrial Bank of Japan, 
which undertakes the financing of industries and accepts and sells loans ; the local Credits Mobiliers, whicli are practically 
local branches of the Hypothec Bank of Japan; the Hokkaido Colonization Bank, which finances the development of 
Hokkaido; the Bank of Taiwan, which is the central banking organ in Taiwan ; and the Bank of Chosen, which is the 
central jnonetary organ in Chosen. The third class comprises all ordinary banking establishments. The fourth class 
consists of Savings Banks, which are stipulated by law to be joint stock companies. The last description are the lottery 
clubs, which act an important part in the financing of the poor. 

In the following table the positions of the banks are shown on the basis of the official returns published in 1914 : — 



1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


13,038.452 


10,445,891 


9,786,359 


14,312,364 


15,369,933 


9,321,564 


58,349,094 


41,662,950 


36,232,296 


14.313,787 


12,136,539 


22,437.421 


15,345,669 


8,468,400 


4,118,158 


4,008,358 


2,894,584 


1,252,006 


51,042,092 


34,404,150 


14,707,887 


56,266,789 


47,789,479 


48,148,111 


729,431,644 


595,735,725 


532,449,938 


1,361,891,857 


1,186,837,186 


1.240,756,935 



Bank of Japan 
Yokohama Specie Bank 
Hypothec Bank of Japan 
Industrial Bank of Japan ... 
Agricultural and Industrial Bank 
Hokkaido Colonial Bank 
Ordinary Banks 
Savings Banks 



Capital. 

Yen. 

60,000,000 

48,000,000 

40,000,000 

50,720,000 

17,500,000 

5,000,000 

513,124,000 

190,749,000 



Paid up Capital. 
Yen. 
37,500,000 
30,000,000 
25.000,000 
45.095,000 
17,500,000 ■ 
4,988,000 
357,685,000 
119,065,000 



Reserve. 

Yen. 

30,225,000 

21,3i0,000 

5,538,000 
20,293,000 

1,925,000 

1,651,000 

132,288,000 

41,213,000 



The number and capital funds of " mujin " (credit association) companies are not yet definitely known, because of 
the fact that a law pertaining thereto was put into force from October, 1915. 

Tlie various lines of industries are steadily expanding. In the following tiie number and position of industrial 
companies are shown on the basis of the official report for 1914 : — 

Agricultural. Industrial. Commercial. 



1914. 
Joint Stock Companies ... 
Limited Partnerships . . 
Ordinary Partnerships ... 


No. 

... 198 
... 202 
... 91 


Paid-up 

Capital. 

Yen. 

20,826,692 

2,892,257 

3,516,448 



Paid-up 
Reserves. No. Capital. 

Yen. Yen. 

1,401,884 1,929 750,255,427 

70,561 2,267 49,602,405 

316,(53 1,070 33,711,427 



Reserves. No. 

Yen. 

94,758,193 4,367 

10,852.344 3,787 

4,965,848 1,769 



Paid-up 
Capital. 

Yen. 

771,302,237 

65.704,991 

137,013,431 



Total 



491 27,235,397 1,788,598 5,266 833,569,259 110,576,385 9,923 974,020,659 







( S8 ) 
Transportation. 




Total. 

1 




Reserves. 

Yen. 

364.204,515 

30,208.470 

40,538,272 


No. 

559 
494 
125 


Paid-up 

Capital. Reserves. 

Yen. Yen. 

227,998,588 59,267,760 

4.194,548 781,994 

1,768.022 138,515 


No. 

7,053 
6,750 
3,055 


Paid-up 
Capital. 

Yen. 

1,770,382,944 

122,394,201 

176,009.328 


Reserves. 

Yen. 

519,632,352 

41,913,369 

45,958.788 



1914. 
Joint Btock Companies ... 
Limited Partnerships 
Ordinary Partnerships ... 

Total 434,951,257 1,178 233,961,158 60,188,269 16,858 2,068,786,473 607,504,509 

CURRENCY SYSTEM. 

Coinage. 

The present coiimge system is based on the Coinage Law, issued in 1897, which established the gold monometallic 
system. Its principal points rany be summarised as follows : — 

1. The coinage unit is 2 fun (0.75 grammes) of pure gold, tiiat is. one-half of the former gold unit. 

2. The standard gold coins are of three denominations, namely, five yen. ten yen, and twenty yen ; the former gold 

coins pass for double their nominal value. 

3. The subsidiary silver coins are of tiiree denominations, namely, ten sen. twenty sen. and fifty sen ; the former five 

sen. ten sen, twenty sen, and fifty sen silver pieces are allowed to circulate. 

4. Tiie other subsidiary coins are the nickel five sen pieces and the brorze one sen and five riu pieces ; the former two 

sen, one sen. five rin, and one rin copper pieces are allowed to circulate. 

Coins in Circulation. 
At the 
end of: — 

i^io ..^ ... ... 

CONVERTIBLE BANK-NOTES. 

In May. 1884. the Convertible Bank-notes Law was issued, which provided for the issue by the Bank of Japan of 
bank-notes which were to be convertible into silver; but upon the adoption of the gold standard in 1897. the existing bank- 
notes became convertible into gold. The principal points may be summarised as follows : — 

1. Tiie Bank of Japan is required to hold as conversion reserve against the issue of notes, gold and silver coins and 

bullion to the same amount as that of the notes issued ; and the total value of silver coin and bullion must not 
exceed one-fourth of the entire conversion reserve. 

The Bank of Japan may. in addition to the notes specified in the preceding paragraph, specially issue 
bank-notes to an amount not exceeding ¥120.000,000 (£12,291,304) on security of Government loan bonds, 
treasury bills, and other reliable securities or commercial bills. 

Should it be deemed necessary, on account of the condition of the market, to increase the amount of money 
in circulation, bank-notes may, in addition to those specified in the preceding two paragraphs, be issued with the 
permission of the Minister of Finance on security of Government loan bjnds, treasury bills, and other reliable 
securities or commercial bills ; in such case an issue tax must be paid at the rate of not less than five per cent, per 
annum of the amount so issued. 

2. The bank-notes are of seven denominations, namely, one yen, five yen, ten yen, twenty yen, fifty yen, one hundred 

yen, and two hundred yen. 

The following table shows the amount of notes in circulation during the past ten years: — 1906, ¥341,766,164; 
1907, ¥369,984,111; 1908, ¥352,734.272; 19(t9, ¥352,763,201; 1910, ¥401,624.928; 1911, ¥433,399,116; 1912, 
¥448.921,708; 1913, ¥426,388.708; 1914. ¥385,589,096; 1915, ¥430,138,010. 



Gold. 


Silver. 


Nickel. 


Bronze. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


37,112,103 


1 14,232,513 


9,084,710 


9,011,398 



( 8& ) 



COMMUNICATIONS: LAND TRANSPORTATION. 

^ AILWAYS :— It was in 1869 (second year of Meiji) that Japan laid her first railway between Tokyo and Yokoliama. 
eJj) As the nation was still a stranger to the facilities railways afford, no private capital could be utilized in building 
the first line in this country, and the Government financed the novel undertaking. Daring the first years of Meiji 
the Government followed the same policy of nationalizing the undertaking, and additional lines were laid. 

After a decade the first private undertaking was promoted, and the Government was induced to partially give 
up the nationalization policy. Since that time a number of private lines have been constructed in various parts of 
the Empire, but in 1892 the Government promulgated the Railway Construction Act, with a view to building all trunk 
lines at the expense of the Government, though the Government could not raise the required funds unless loans 
were floated. 

The business boom after the Sino-Japanese War proved a great fillip to this line of undertaking, as it placed 
cheap money at the disposal of business enterprises. A large number of new lines were constructed one after another in 
all parts of the country, and the total mileage of private lines almost doubled the Government lines. 

A new epoch was marked for the railways in Japan in 1906 when the Government, apparently on the strength 
of the experience obtained in the Russo-Japanese war, effected the wholesale nationalization of railways in Japan, 
except only a few insignificant lines connecting provincial towns. 

Thus only a small mileage of unimportant lines is now controlled by private concerns, the greater part of the 
railways in the Empire being in the hands of the Government. In the following table the mileage of railways open to 
traffic is shown : — 

Miles. 

State Railways 5,686.26 

Private Railways 1,44 L45 

Total 7,130.71 

When the first line was laid between Tokyo and Yokoliama the narrow gauge of 3.6 feet waa adopted as 
standard in this country, and this has since been followed except in some lines in tlie colonies. In view of the limited 
carrying capacity of tlie railways in the country, it has been argued as desirable to adopt the standard gauge of 
4.8i feet on all trunk lines — this often forming a bone of contention in the Imperial Diet — but no final decision has yet 
been reached on the problem, mainly for financial reasons. 

On the private railways the same gauge as the State railways has been mainly adopted, but now on many local 
lines a narrower standard is adopted, in accordance with the provisions of the Light Railway Law the Government 
promulgated in 1910. In the following year another law was adopted, in which the grant of bounties was provided for 
lines which yield a rate of profit insufficient to distribute dividends at 5 per cent, per annum to the proprietors. Thanks 
to this encouragement, the construction of light railways is steadily carried out in local districts. 

In the following table the financial condition of State and private railways in this country are shown on the basis of 
the official returns for 1916 : — 



Financial 
Year. 



1905-06 
1906-07 
1907-08 
1908-09 



Receipts. 



State. 

Yen. 

24,056,140 

35,478,317 

69,775,161 

79,821,583 



Private. 

Yen. 

44,977,025 

2,446,380 

f 43,192,598 
I* 3,215,407 

J 11,819,182 
{ * 138,441 
3,866,992 
31.934 



(. 



{■ 



Total. 

Yen. 

69.033,165 

2,446,380 

78,670.915 
3,215,407 

81,594,343 
138.441 

83,688,575 
31,934 



( 60 ) 



Receipts. 





Financial 
Year. 






r 

State. 


Private. 


Total. 












Yen. 


Yen. 


Y 


en. 






1909-10 ... 








82,236,436 


[ 4,180.227 
* 32.015 


86,416,663 
* 32,015 






1910-11 








89,336,592 


4,473 317 
, * 68.5B2 


93,809,909 
* 68,582 






1911-12 ... 








100,179,818 • 


4,921,973 
. * 265,424 


105.101,791 
* 265,424 






1912-13 ... 


... 





108,025,638 ■ 


5,729.606 
* 760,365 


113.755,244 
* 760,365 






1913-14 ... 








1 13,477,055 • 


■ 7,135,516 

* 927,279 


120,612,^71 
* 927.279 


, 


- 


1914-15 ... 








112,169,616 - 


8,582,319 
.* 1,254,483 


120.751,935 
* 1,254,483 




u^i r\ttw\m a 1 




Expenditure. 






Net Profit. 




Working Expenses 

for Every ¥100 of 

Receipts. 

A 


V inauciai 
Year. 


State. 


Private. 


Total. 


State. 


Private. 


Total. 


State. 


Private. 




Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


Yen. 


1905-06 .. 


.... 11,129,154 


24,078,076 


35,207,230 


12,926,986 


23,345,329 


36,272,315 


46.30 


46.75 


1906-07 .. 


.... 18,247,601 


25,202,968 


43,450,569 


17,230,716 


21,205,037 


38,435,753 


51.43 


50.99 


1907-08 .. 


.... 35,751,943 


7,507,286 


43,259,229 


34,023,218 


'4,450,337 


38,473,555 


51.24 


52.34 


1908-09 .. 


.... 44,708,436 


2,298,517 


47,006.953 


35,113,147 


1,600,409 


36,713,556 


53.69 


51.91 


1909-10 .. 


.... 72,202,382 


2,484,613 


74,686,995 


10,034,054 


1,727,629 


11,761,683 


51.15 


51.25 


1910-11 .. 


.... 76,509,849 


2,672,201 


79,182,050 


12,826,743 


1.869,698 


14,696,441 


48.41 


47.91 


1911-12 .. 


.... 79,927,654 


2,947,412 


82.875,066 


20,252,164 


2,239,985 


22,492,149 


45.69 


48.80 


1912-13 .. 


.... 88,393,579 


3,835,035 


92,228,614 


19,632.059 


2,626,066 


22,258,125 


46.30 


53.43 


1913-14 .. 


... 93,682,740 


4,624.805 


98,307,545 


19,794,315 


3,367,035 


23,161,350 


48.07 


53.37 


1914-15 .. 


.... 97,927,049 


5,934,061 


103,861,110 


14,252,667 


3,736,395 


17,990,062 


50.97 


55.67 



Electric Tramways : — Steam railways are all controlled by the Imperial Railway Board, including private 

lines, but electric tramways are placed under the charge of the Home and Communications Departments, in accordance 

with the provisions of the Tramway Act. Tlie first electric tramway in Japan was constructed in Kyoto soon after 

the country went to war witii China, to give facilities to visitors to the Domestic Industrial Exhibition then held in 

the city. This example was followed by Tokyo and Nagoya, and on the strength of the success achieved in those 

cities tramways have been laid in many other cities and towns. At present over seventy municipalities and companies 

run electric tramways, the mileage of lines being as follows : — 

Miles. 

Mileage of lines completed ... ... ... 914.22 

Mileage of lines under construction ... ... ... ... .,. ... 286.76 



The financial side of the undertakings is shown in the following : — 

Gross amount of capital invested 

Paid up capital 

Reserve funds ... ... 



Yen. • 
307,593,165 
273,696,062 
7,126,702 



MARINK TRANSPORTATION. 

Mercantile Marine: — Previously to the Imperial Restoration of Meiji the coast-wise trade only was carried on 
with sailing boats, and it was only when the Meiji Government gave encouragement in various ways to this line of business — 
to wrest the trnde from foreign shipowners— that Japan had her own mercantile marine and began her career as a sea- 
faring nation. 



( 61 ) 

Shortly after the Satsuma Rebellion, shipbuilders began their activities and built or imported many steamships. 
Thus Japan could at least carry on her coast-wise trade with her own ships alone, and when the Sino-Japanese war broke 
out, Japan had enough ships to carry out her ambitious scheme of military transportation with her own ships. 

The war marked a turning point for Japan's mercantile marine, for shortly after the war the Government pro- 
mulgated the Shipping Encouragement Law and stimulated the ocean trade with more energy and determination. Thanks 
to the past efforts of the Government and private siiipping companies, Japan now has regular services established almost 
all over the world, and everywhere in the world ships are seen under the flag of the rising sun. 

In the following table the strength of Japan's mercantile marine is shown in detail on the basis of the official 
report for 1916 : — 





Steamers. 

.... * 


I- 
Tonnage 


Sailing Vessels. 


' Capacity. 

„ A _.... 


Average Capacity of Vessels. 




Capacity. 


" Koku ' 


1 ■ 
Steamers. 


Sailing ' 
. * 


CT-.__-l-, 


At the 
End of:— 


Number. 


Gross 
Tonnage. 




Number. 


Gross 
Tonnage. 


Number. 


" Koku." 


Tonnage. 


" Koku." 






Tons. 




Tons. 




Koku. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Koku. 


1906 


... 2,103 


1,041,569 


4,547 


354,356 


22,632 


2,695,832 


495 


78 


119 


1907 


... 2,223 


1,116,945 


4.811 


366,950 


20.635 


2,561,088 


502 


76 


124 


1908 


... 2,304 


1,160,440 


5,379 


384,481 


21,707 


2,817,230 


504 


71 


130 


1909 


... 2,866 


1,198,194 


5,937 


404.089 


22,734 


3,013,494 


506 


68 


133 


1910 


... 2,545 


1,233.909 


6,392 


413,720 


22.643 


3,141.371 


485 


66 


1.39 


1911 


... 2,844 


1,386,534 


8,192 


451,520 


21,817 


2,994.219 


488 


55 


137 


1912 


... 3,064 


1,442,884 


10,601 


500,042 


21,014 


2,795,501 


471 


47 


133 


1913 


... 3,286 


l,5z'8,264 


13,169 


570,319 


19,358 


2,577,817 


465 


43 


133 


1914 


... 3,487 


1,593,404 


14,552 


609,160 


19,028 


2,434,282 


457 


42 


128 


1915 


... 3,487 


1,621,205 


17,498 


671,273 


17,429 


2,255,408 


465 


38 


129 



Note : — Exclusive of figures for sailing vessels under 5 tons and 50 koku. 

The different shipping companies which have contributed to the progress of the trade have been more or less under 
official protection. At present protection is given in the form of subsidies to regular mail seivices. In the following table 
the position of those companies and the official mail services are shown in detail on the basis of the official report 
for 1916 :— 



STEAMSHIP COMPANIES. 



Vessels. 



Year. 



1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1916 



No. of 


Authorised 


m panics. 


Capital. 




Yen. 


13 


50,569,000 


16 


59,969.000 


18 


66,669,000 


20 


67.319,000 


20 


67,399,000 


20 


67.664,000 


18 


67,064,000 


23 


70,484.000 


24 


80,234,000 


24 


78,234,000 



Paid-up Reserve 

Capital. Fund. 

Yen. Yen. 

43,167,000 19,702,760 

57,135,170 20,480,230 

59,271,500 22,019,382 

60,050,188 24,225.084 

61,442,577 26,504,488 

61,636,302 30,653,675 

60,651,016 37,771,365 

62.484,000 45,196.012 

65,258,000 51.650,386 

66,796,500 41,742.901 



No. 



344 
537 
543 
538 
535 
454 
419 
582 
578 
608 



Gross 
Tonnage. 

Tons. 
491,258 
527,766 
561,179 
575,872 
600,042 
648.866 
702.738 
785,190 
841,931 
895,615 



( 62 ) 



REGULAR MAIL SERVICES. 



Vessels on the Line and their Departure. 

European Service.— Antwerp Line :— 

11 vessels employed ; 7,500 to 12,000 tons gross each ; speed, 1.5-16 knots ; 
service, once every fortnight 

North American Service.— Puget Sound Line :— 

6 vessels employed ; 5,500 to 9,700 tons gross each ; speed, 14-16 knots ; 
service, once every fortnight 

North American Service.— San Francisco Line :— 

3 vessels employed ; 12,500 to 13,500 tons gross each ; speed, 18-20 knots ; regular 



Periods during which the 

Government Order 

takes effect. 



Recipients of 
Order. 



regular \ Commencing with January, 1916 f Nippon Yusen 
I and ending in December, 1917. 1 Kaisha. 



regular ' 



service, once or more every four weeks 



:'i 



South American Service.— West Coast Line :— 

3 vessels employed ; 6,000 to 9,700 tons gross each ; speed, 13-15 knots ; regular \ 
service, once in two months J 

Australian Service.— Melbourne Line :— 

3 vessels employed ; 5,000 to 7,500 tons gross each ; speed, 15-17 knots ; regular "I 
service, once a month J 

Java Line :— 

4 vessels employed ; over 3,000 tons gross each ; maximum speed, over 11 knots ; ) Commencing 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



■ N.y.K. and 
O.S.K. 



{Toyo Kisen 
Kaisha. 



Do. 



{Nippon Yusen 
Kaisha. 



regular service, once or more every four weeks 



with April, 1916 f Nanyo Yusen 
J and ending in March, 1918. \ Kaisha. 



China Service.— Shanghai-Hankow Line :— 

6 steel steamers employed ; over 2,000 tons gross each ; maximum speed, over 11 1 
knots ; regular service, four times or more a week from March to December >• 
and six times or more every fortnight in January and February J 



10) 
nd[ 



China Service.— Hankow-Ichang Line :— 

2 steel steamers employed ; over 1,500 tons gross each ; maximum speed, over 
knots ; regular service, six times or more a month from April to September and 
five times or more a month from October to March of the following year 

China Service.— Hankow-Siangtan Line :— 

2 steel steamers employed ; over 800 tons gross each ; maximum speed, over 7 "j 
knots ; regular service, eight times or more a month, except in the period during [• 
which the water of the river is diminished in volume ) 

China Service.— Hankow-Changtu Line :— 

1 steel steamer employed ; over 800 tons gross ; maximums peed, over 7 knots ;| 
regular service, twice or more a month, except in the period during whibh the 
water of the river is diminished in volume 



'!i 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



{Niishin Kisen 
Kaisha. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Shanghai Line : — 

Kobe-Shanghai line ; 2 vessels employed ; over 3,000 tons gross each ; maximum 1 Commencing with October, 1915 f Nippon Yusen 
speed, over 14 knots ; regular service, once or more a week J and ending in March, 1918. ( Kaisha. 

Yokohama-Shanghai line; 2 vessels of over 2,500 tons gross each, having the"| 
maximum speed of over 14 knots, and additional ships are employed on a 1- 
regular service twice or more a week J 

North China Line :— 

Kobe-Newchwang line ; 4 vessels employed ; over 1,500 tons gross each ; maximum 1 
speed, over 12 knots ; regular service, once or more a week > 

Yokohama-Newchwang line ; additional to the above line ; 3 additional ships are \ 



employed on a regular service once or more every fortnight 



Line connecting Hokkai-do with Mainland : — 

2 vessels employed ; over 700 tons gross each ; 
regular service, once or more every day 

Dairen Line : — 



maximum speed, over 10 knots ; 



•:} 



Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



Do. 

Do. 
Dd. 



f Kita Nippon 
\ Kisen Kaisha. 



vessels employed; over 2,000 tons gross each; maximum speed, over 14 knots;! Commencing with April, 1916 /Osaka Shosen 



regular service, twice more a week 
Sea of Japan Service.— Karafuto Line :— 

2 vessels employed ; over 700 tons gross each ; maximum speed, over 10 kftots ;■) 
regular service, thrice or more in April, five times or more a month from May [■ 
to November and twice or more in December j 



... i and ending in March, 1918. \ Kaisha. 



Do. 



j Nippon Yusen 
I Kaisha. 



( 63 ) 



Vessels on the Line and their Departure. 
Sea of Japan Service.— Tsuruga-Vladivostock Line :— 



Periods during which the 

Government Order 

takes effect. 



Recipients of 
Order. 



1 vessel employed; over 2,000 tons gross; maximum speed, over 14 knots ; I Commeneing with April, 1916 f Osaka Shosen 
regular service, once or more a week J and ending in March, 1918. \ Kaisha. 



Sea of Japan Service.— Otaru-Vladivostock Line:— 

Direct line ; 1 vessel employed ; over 1,400 tons gross ; maximum speed, over 11 \ 
knots ; regular service, once or more a month, January being excepted / 

Circuitous line ; the same vessel is employed on a regular service once or more a 

month from March to August ... 

The services of the above two lines are to be carried on alternately ... . 

Line connecting Naha with Kagoshima : — 

1 vessel employed ; over 1,000 tons gross ; maximum speed, over 10 knots ; 1 
regular service, six times or more a month J 



•} 



Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



TELEGRAPH, POST, AND TELEPHONE SERVICES. 

Japan had a primitive method of postal comraunications previous to the Imperial Restoration of Meiji. In 1871 the 
old system was replaced by a new institution based on the European system. The telegraphic service was also inaugurated 
in the same year between Yokohama and Tokyo. Since that time the new system has developed with wonderful vitality, 
and now almost in every town, village, and city there are offices handling postal and telegraphic services. 

Tlie telephone service was inaugurated nearly two decades later in Tokyo, but its development has not been less 
vigorous than that of the other two services. At present there are telephone offices almost all over the country, numbering 
more than 2,400. 

In addition the wireless telegraph service has been lately inaugurated, and at some important points there are 
wireless offices handling international messages. 

All these services are carried on by the Government, and the actual control is placed in the hands of the Department 
of Communications. 

In the following tables the development of these services during recent years is shown in detail on the basis of the 
official report for 1916 : — 



Posts 







Ordinary Posts 






Parcel Posts. 




At the 
End of :— 


Number of 

Offices open to 

the Public. 


Postal 
Routes. 

Ri. 
24,458 


* Number 

of 
Messages. 


Number of 

Offices open 

the Public. 


to P°»'*^ 
^ Routes. 

Ri. 
25,077 


* Number 

of 

Parcels. 


1905-06 


6,237 


1.256.691,581 


6.234 


13,795,163 


1906-07 


6,449 


24,051 


1,244,810.913 


6,448 


24,629 


15,145,215 


1907-08 


6,709 


24,862 


1,391,489,861 


6,708 


24,906 


17,868,463 


1908-09 


6,878 


24,297 


1,475,763,973 


6,877 


24,925 


19,646,380 


1909-10 


6,946 


23,682 


1,493,807.070 


6,945 


23,659 


20.476,666 


1910-11 


7,086 


23,655 


1.526.121,284 


7,085 


23,744 


22,445,448 


191112 


7,166 


23,407 


1.654,238.537 


7,165 


23,412 


23,442,540 


1912-13 


7,268 


22,683 


1.652,942,779 


7,267 


22,597 


24.702,039 


1913-14. 


7,268 


22,282 


1,816,544,603 


7,267 


22.169 


25,717,509 


1914-15... ... ., 


7,266 


21,726 


1,816,144,272 


7.265 


21,666 


25,473,020 



C 64 ) 



Telegraphs. 

, ,,^—.^—^— > 

At the Number of Length Length 

End of: — OflBces open to of of 

the Public. Lines. Wires. 

Ri. Ri. 

1905-06 2,600 7.901 37,144 

1906-07 2,815 8,690 38,245 

1907-08 3,183 9,030 39,973 

1908-09 3,571 9,186 40,852 

1909-10 3,951 9,373 41,598 

1910-11 4,268 9,669 42,849 

1911-12 4,657 9,950 44,122 

1912-13 4,779 10,222 45,445 

1913-14 4,806 10,243 45,651 

1914-15 4,936 10,502 47,047 



Telephones. 

« 



23,772,950 
24,413,965 



27,761,798 

f 27,766,449 
1 1 4,480 

(■28,185,955 
U 7,817 

f 29.887,533 
It 15,343 
f 32,450,664 
It 27,701 

I 33,724.154 
It 34,147 
f 3.3,688,? 
It 35,.^ 
( 33,750.4^ 

I I 36,0^ 



341 
546 
481 
0.57 



1,949 ) 
t659| 

2,256 ) 
t 654 I 

2,.321 I 
t676J 

2.404 I 
t 679 ) 



Wires. 
Ri. 



* Number Number of Length Length 

of OflSces open to of of 

Messages. the Public. Lines. 

f 2621 
ltl59| 

( 45n 
11219 I 

7231 

t274| 

1.1411 

t382| 

l,5i9) 
t463[ 



1,314 


51,023 


1,526 


66,176 


1,956 


71,940 


2,272 


86,118 


2,359 


107,695 


2,578 


128.275 


2,740 


159,388 


3.032 


187,794 


2,851 


201,137 


2,978 


215,997 



* Number 

of 
Messages. 

150,171,687 
164,815,291 
265,341,880 
324,867.546 
423,339,467 
558,352,969 
766.205,606 
857,385,960 
927,637.826 



THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. 

xiv LL affairs relating to education are placed under the control of the Department of Education. There are two bureaux 
■*is in the department and one has under its control all universities, high schools, technological schools, and collegiate 
schools, along with the astronomical observatory, meteorological observatories, and other scientific institutions, while the 
other exercises general supervision over elementary schools, middle schools, higher female schools, normal schools and 
all other schools of intermediate grades, together with libraries, museums, and other educational institutions. 

All educational institutions founded by the Government are placed under the direct control of the Depaitment of 
E-iucation, and all important affairs are managed with the sanction of the Department. Institutions established by 
municipal or prefectural authorities and those founded and maintained by private individuals or corporations, are only 
indirectly controlled by the Department through the prefectural Governors, with the exception of collegiate schools, 
which are directly controlled by the Department. 

A Board of School Inspectors is attached to the Bureau of Common Education, and all grades of educational 
institutions are regularly inspected ; but schools established by municipal or prefectural authorities are mostly placed under 
the control of school inspectors attached to the local governments, and no direct inspection is made by the School 
Inspectors in the Department of Education. 

The scholastic system of Japan is as follows : — • 



COMMON EDUCATION. 



Ordinary Elementary Schools 
Higher Elementary Schools ... 



f Middle Schools — Higher Normal Schools. 
" l High Schools for Girls — Higher Normal Schools. 

f High Schools for Girls — Higher Normal Schools. 
■■■ I No 



formal Schools — Higher Normal Schools. 

Normal schools include those for both boys and girls, and sometimes also separate institutions for boys and girls 
respectively. i .. — -^i ...... '..-i . .. 



( 65 ) 

LIBERAL EDUCATION. 

High Schools — Imperial Universities. 

Collegiate Schools. Lower grade technological schools. 

The lowest class educational institutions are divided into higher grade technological schools, lower grade technological 
schools, and artizans' or apprentices' schools. 

Outside of this general system there are a number of special educational institutions. For the dumb, deaf, and blind 
there are two Government institutions in Tokyo and several in the provinces. Tiie Peers' Sciiool in Tokyo, which is divided 
into the Boys' and the Girls' Departments, is an educational institution for the Princes and Princesses of the Blood and 
sons and daughters of noblemen, and is quite independent of the general educational system. 

In Tokyo, also, there are the Tokyo Mercantile Marine School and the Government P'ishery Institute. Both of these 
are of the collegiate grade, but they are not placed under the control of the Department of Education. The former belongs 
to the Department of Communications and the latter to the Department of Agriculture and Commerce. 

All educational aflFairs relating to the Army and Navy are controlled by the Boards of Military and Naval 
Education, and have no connection with the general educational system of the country. 

Tlie Elementary Schools are of two grades, Ordinary and Higlier. The course of study at the ordinary elementary 
schools is compulsory and covers six years. All children must go to one of these schools as soon as they reach full six 
years, except the lunatic, idiotic, or disabled. The higher elementary schools are institutions auxiliary to the ordinary 
elementary schools, and their course of study covers two years, which can be extended to three years at the option of local 
authorities. 

Every city, town, and village is required to establish ordinary elementary schools by law, because the compulsory 
system is adopted, and the number of the schools within the same administrative district is determined in proportion to the 
number of children of school age in such district. Private elementary schools are also in existence, but their number is 
quite limited, and fully 94 per cent, of the whole is maintained by local administration. 

Tiie number of Elementary Schools in 1913 was as follows : — 

Ordinary Elementary Schools ... 11,379 

Ordinary and Higher Elementary Schools ... ... ... ... ... ... 9,367 

Higher Elementary Schools ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ••- 403 



X0l8ii ■•■ ••• ••■ ••• ••• ••• •■• ••• ••• ••• ^i|LTt!7 

Of this total, 148 were private institutions, 67 in Tokyo, 12 in Osaka and the remainder in other districts. 

The total number of children of school age throughout the Empire is 7,400,000 in round figures. Nearly 99 percent, 
of this number attend schools in some prefectures, and the average percentage does not fall below 95 per cent. 

The Middle Schools are established for the education of boys who desire to prosecute their studies after graduation 
from Ordinary Elementary Schools, and the course of study provided is higher than that of Higher Elementary Schools. 
The whole course of study covers 5 years. In some schools a course of a year is provided for boys desiring to prosecute their 
studies further after graduation from the regular course. 

Middle Schools are mostly established by local governments. Of the whole number of 318, private institutions 
number only 74. The total number of students in the middle schools is 139,000, and every year nearly 20,000 graduates 
are turned out. 

Girls' Higii Schools correspond to middle Schools for boys, and the regular course ranges between 4 and 5 years. 
They can also provide post-graduate courses of 2 or 3 years for their graduates. A special course of domestic economy is 
also provided in some schools. 



( 66 ) 

la addition there are Girls' High Schools giving lessons in domestic economy, commercial science, or some other 
practical art or science. Their regular course covers 4 years, but the term is shortened for graduates from Higher 
Elementary Schools. 

This class of school is also maintained by local governments, but there are also a number of private institutions where 
special courses are mostly provided. Throughout the Empire there are 213 Girls' High Schools, and according to statistical 
returns at the end of 1913 the total number of students was 68,000. They turn out nearly 1,200 graduates every year. 

Normal Schools are a special class of educational institution established for the training of teachers, and are divided 
into the two classes of Ordinary Normal Schools and Higher Normal Schools. The former trains teachers for elementary 
schools and the latter teachers for middle schools and girls' high schools. 

Boys and girls who have graduated either from higher elementary schools or middle schools and girls' high schools 
are admitted into ordinary normal schools, and after training for a period of from 2 to 4 years they are qualified as 
elementary school teachers. 

Ordinary normal schools number 86, and according to statistical returns at the end of 1913 the total number of 
students was 27,000. Every year these schools turn out nearly 7,300 teachers for elementary schools. 

Higher Normal Schools are established and maintained by the Government and there is one each for boys at Tokyo 
and Hiroshima and one each for girls at Nara and Tokyo. Graduates from middle schools and girls' high schools are 
admitted, and after 4 years' training they are turned out as qualified teachers for middle schools, ordinary normal schools, 
and girls' high schools. According to the statistical returns at the end of 1912 the whole number of students at tlie higher 
normal schools for men was 1,000, in round figures, while the total number of students at the institutions for women was 
nearly 700. 

High Schools are established and maintained by the State for the twofold purposes of training middle school 
graduates in technical or literary pursuits and of preparing men for education in universities. Practically, however, the 
schools serve only as preparatory schools for universities at present, the former function being mostly carried out by 
collegiate schools. 

Middle school graduates are admitted into the High Schools after competitive examination, and according to the 
branches of learning they are desirous of pursuing they are assigned to the different courses. In three years the regular 
courses are finished and the graduates are sent to universities. 

These number eight, and according to the statistical returns for 1913 the total number of students was 6,300, and 
every year 1,700 graduates are turned out. 

Universities are maintained by the Government and private corporations, but those founded and controlled by the 
Government are alone recognized by law as such, all the like institutions founded and maintained by private individuals 
and corporations being only collegiate schools in the eyes of the law. The universities controlled by the Government are 
termed Imperial Universities and consist of seminaries and colleges. In the case of the most complete they are composed 
of the Colleges of Law, Medicine, Technology, Literature, Science, and Agriculture, but in some cases the Colleges of 
Science and Technology are united into a college of science and technology. 

At present Imperial Universities are situated in Tokyo, Kyoto, Fukuoka, and Sendai. The Tokyo Imperial 
University is a complete institution, but the Kyoto Imperial University is still far from completely organized, for it does 
not have a college of agriculture and its college of technology is still attached to the College of Science. 

The University at Fukuoka, which is styled the Kyushu Imperial University, is not yet completely organized, and 
is lacking in the Colleges of Literature, Science, Agriculture, and Law. The University at Sendai is, too, far from being 
complete, having only Colleges of Medicine, Science, Agriculture, and Technology. 

Every college is divided into courses, and in the College of Agriculture in the Tokyo Imperial University a special 
course is provided in addition for the training of teachers in local agricultural schools. Graduates from high schools are 
admitted into tlie colleges, and after three years' tuition they are turned out as graduates, or " Gakushi," except in the case 
of the College of Medicine, where the courses are to be finished in four years. 



Munici 


pal. 


Private. 


Total. 


2 




9 


16 


— 




11 


11 


— 




12 


13 


— 




23 


23 


1 




— 


2 

1 
1 


- ,, 




1 


— 




1 


8 


— 




— ■ 


9 



( 67 ) 

In every university the " Daigakuin " is kept for the guidance of graduates trying to prosecute their studies further. 

According to the statistical returns made up at the end of 1912 the total number of students in the different 
universities was 9,572. 

Collegiate schools, or " Semmon Gakko," train graduates from middle schools and girls high schools, or those boys 
and girls who are recognized to have the same amount of knowledge as the graduates from those schools in science or 
technical arts. They provide usually preparatory courses for fresh students. The regular courses cover three years, and 
only those who have finished the preparatory courses are admitted. Post-graduate courses are also maintained by some 
schools. Some of these schools are maintained by the Government, but the majority is maintained by private corporations 
or local administration. 

In the following the classes and number of collegiate schools are shown in detail on tlie basis of the statistical 
returns at the end of 1912 : — 

Government. 
Medical 5 

J-J** VV •■■ ••• w« ■■■ ••• ••■ "^^ 

Literature ... ... ... 1 

Eeligion — 

Fine arts • ... 1 

Music ... 1 

Athletic ... ... ... ... ... — 

Technology 7 

Fishery ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Lower grade commercial and technological schools which provide three years' courses in agriculture, commerce, or 
technology admit graduates from ordinary elementary schools and turn out competent assistants for industrial and 
commercial workers. Their number is slightly over 200. 

Artisans' schools are established throughout the country for the training of young boys graduated from ordinary 
elementary schools in technical arts. The courses at the schools are easy and cover from 6 months to 4 years. At present 
there are 113 of these, of which one is maintained by the Government and 108 by corporations and four by private 
individuals. 

Apprentices' schools are organized to give lessons in various lines of technical knowledge to young apprentices, or 
boys graduated from ordinary elementary schools at odd hours. They are mostly attached to elementary schools, but 
sometimes are independently maintained. No limitations are legally set down as to the age of pupils or terms of study. 
The classes and number of this lower grade of educational institutions are as follows : — 

Industrial 

Agricultural 

Commercial 

Fisheries 

Others 

« 

Special privileges are granted to the students and graduates ot higher grade schools. All the students in schools 
above middle schools are exempted from conscription till they have graduated, even if they reach age. After graduation 
they can apply for one year's service if they bear all the expenses during their service. Especially the graduates from 
normal schools are privileged to serve only during six weeks. 

Law also gives privilege to the graduates from universities and collegiate schools to apply for State examination for 
civil service, medical practice, apothecaries' business, the bench, and the bar. Particularly, graduates from the Colleges of 
Law iu the Imperial Universities can obtain certificates without examination for legal practice and be appointed Judges and 
Public Procurators. Graduates from the Medical Colleges in the Imperial Universities can also practice witliout 
examination. Graduates from collegiate and medical schools specially sanctioned by the Education Department participate. 



rnment. 


Public. 


Private. 


Total. 


3 


155 


16 


174 


— 


5,813 


219 


6,032 


1 


180 


22 


203 


— 


122 


5 


127 


— 


1,431 


. 46 


1,477 



( 68 ) 

Opinion now obtains in Japan that the present system of education should be modified and made more practical and 
workable. In the Imperial Diet, also, the question has been frequently discussed and the results have been memorialized to 
the Government. In view of this tendency of public opinion, the Government appointed a special commission some time 
ago in the Department of Education and has since been endeavouring to draw up a better system. 

The nation apparently desires not only to improve the methods of teaching, and nature of lessons, but to shorten the 
terms of education, at the same time raising the position of private colleges to the same level as the Imperial Universities 
without regard to division of the institutions into colleges according to the number of colleges they have. The commission 
has not yet succeeded in drawing up a plan which will satisfy all, but sooner or later some scheme will be devised and 
carried out. 



RELIGION. 

fN Japan there are at present three religious systems, viz., Shintoism, Euddhism, and Christianity, and each of these has 
a large body of believers. Each of them also has many sub-divisions or sects. 

Shintoism is, briefly speaking, a system of ethical precepts based on ancestor-worship. It worships as deities the 
pioneers of the Empire and their followers, and teaches men to follow the precepts handed down from them. Some of the 
sects retain the traditions of the olden times, and their tenets are reflective of the ideas of the world and humanity conceived 
by the ancestors of the nation, but the others were founded in the middle ages. A few have even been created during the 
past few decades. The sects inaugurated in the later ages are not genuinely Japanese, but distinctly show the influence of 
foreign religions, particularly Buddhism. 



In the following the sects of Shintoism and the number of tiieir temples are shown : — 



Sects. 




Shinto 


Sect 


Kurozumi 




Shusei 




Taisei 




Shinshu 




On take 




Misogi 




Shinri 




Fuso 




Taisei 




Jikko 




Konko 




Tenri 





Total 



Temples or Chapels 

512 
. 482 

347 

183 

281 

544 
31 

180 

234 

269 

159 

460 
2,826 



6,508 



No census is obtainable as vto the number of believers, but the respective influences of the different sects can be 
gathered from the number of their temples or chapels. 

Among others the Shinto Sect is lacking in religious colour as it only teaches men to follow the traditional ethical 
precepts handed down from the founders of the Empire, and its tenets have no element of religious belief. Therefore, its 
believers sometimes believe in other sects of Shintoism or Buddhism and its teachers look upon this with toleration. 

Buddhism is an exotic religion brought from China through Chosen during the 5th century. At first it was rejected 
by the influential families in the country, but when it obtained the support of some members of the Imperial family its 
influence was firmly established in this country, and after a few centuries even Emperors and Empresses were among its 
believers. Thus Buddhism became almost the State religion of Japan, but still could not overthrow Shintoism, and 
Buddhist priests tried to avert its opposition by adopting some traditions of Shintoism as main items of their tenets. 



( 69 ) 

During the first few centuries there was no division among believers and their teachers, but later some sects 
belonging to the Mahayana division were introduced from China, and they obtained strong support among the learned 
classes or the Court nobles. In the 12th century new sects were also inaugurated by some Japanese priests and replaced 
all former divisions. Thus the Buddhistic sects in Japan at present are all the modified forms of the Mahayana divisions 
of Buddhism imported from China. 

In the following the different sects of Buddhism and their temples are shown : — 

Sects. Temples, 

Tendai Sect ,„ 4,570 

Shingon Sect 12,836 

Jodo Sect 8,352 

SodoSect 14,226 

Rinzai Sect 6,082 

Ohbaku Sect 525 

Shinshu Sect 19,642 

Nichiren Sect 5,022 

Ji Sect 495 

Yuztinembutsu Sect ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 361 

Hosso Sect 43 

Kegon Sect 32 

All these sects are sub-divided and every one of them has many temples of its own, in addition to lecture or preaching 
halls, which number 5,355. Though Buddhist temples are so many, and almost all the nation are their followers, not all of 
them are believers of Buddhism. Rather they only subscribe their names as followers of one or the other sect because they 
have the tombs of their ancestors in the grounds of Buddhist temples. Accordingly the priests belonging to these sects are 
not necessarily the propagandists of Buddhism, but only the warders of cemeteries. 

Christianity was first introduced into Japan during the 16th century by Portuguese Jesuits. Owing to their jealous 
propaganda Catholicism gained a firm footing in Kyushu, and even some daimyos believed in the religion, but as it was 
known by the authorities in the Shogunate Government that these Jesuit priests were only working in Japan to gain 
territories it was exterminated, and in the 17th century there waa not a single Christian believer in the whole Empire. 

In 1860 the country was opened to foreign intercourse again, but the freedom of belief was not openly granted. Only 
after the restoration of the Imperial regime the propagation of the new religion was tolerated by the Government, and a host 
of foreign missionaries began their activities. 

At present, thanks to the jealous propaganda of able missionaries during the past fifty years, Christianity has gained 

a firm footing in Japan and, as shown in the following table, there are many churches or chapels belonging to a number of 
denominations : — 

Denominations. Churches or Chapels. 

Roman Catholicism ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 191 

Orthodox Church of Russia 132 

Japan Presbyterian Church ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 243 

Japan Episcopal Metiiodist Church ... ... ... ... ... ... 187 

Methodist Protestant Mission ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 18 

Evangelical Association of North America ... ... ... ... ... 23 

Evangelical Lutheran Church ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Scandivanian Japan Alliance ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Christian and Missionary Alliance ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Scandinavian Alliance Mission ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Japan Universalist ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Congregational Church ... ... ••• ... ... »• 132 



( 70 ) 



Denominations. 

Japan Episcopal Church.. 

Baptist Church 

Friends ... 

Church of Christ 

Hepzibah 

Seventh Day Adventist .. 

Salvation Army 

Others 

Independents 



Churches or Chapels. 

213 
68 

5 
13 

4 

3 
38 
37 
32 



The freedom of belief is granted by the Imperial Constitution, and all denominations of religion can preach or 
propagate their teuets without any constraint so far as they do not disturb order. 

The official control of religion was at first undertaken by the Department of Home Affairs, but now the Department 
of Education has general supervision over religious sects or divisions. Practically no direct official intervention is made in 
the internal administration of any sect, and the management of their affairs is placed in the hands of the iieads elected by 
the sects themselves. 

Shinto shrines are apparently places of worship, but they are not treated officially as religious establishments. In the 
eyes of the law they are the sanctuaries dedicated to national heroes, and they should be respected as objects of national 
veneration. They are placed under the charge of the Department of Home Affairs. 



. > -.n :.: . -.U.,) 



( 71 ) 



BAMKIMO SECTION. 



NIPPON GINKO. 

(THE BANK OF JAPAN.) 



I.— BANKING SYSTEM PRIOR TO THE FOUNDA- 
TION OF THE BANK. 

FROM the outset of its organization, the Government 
of the Meiji Era deemed it so urgently necessary to 
utilize the radical changes that had tiikeii place in the 
national polity by introducing various institutions from 
Occidental countries, that it could find no leisure to essay 
any extensive scrutiny into the different methods and 



these National Banks of issue having been established all 
over the country under the auspices of the Government. 

But since the trade silver dollar was minted together 
with the standard gold coin, and subsequently the former 
was permitted to circulate in the interior, a change had 
been brought about in the monetary system, in which silver 
now was to be the actual standard, while the gold standard 
remained only nominal. As to paper money, both an in- 




BANK OF JAPAN. 



systems pursued by the most civilized nations with a view 
to determining their adaptability to the conditions existing 
in this country. Monetary and banking systems were no 
exceptions. They were directly copied from the systems of 
the United States of America ; a money standard was fixed 
—one yen in gold — that is, nearly equal to one dollar ; and 
the Government not only issued paper money, but also 
authorized each National Bank to issue its own bank notes. 



crease of the Government issues, consequent upon the 
pressing needs of the State, and an increase of the notes, 
issued by the National Banks, had accelerated inflation to 
such an enormous amount as to bring about a not incon- 
siderable premium as between silver and paper. This at 
once affected and greatly disturbed economic circles. And 
yet none of the National Banks was capable to do the work 
of re-adju8tment, for they had established themselves in 



( 72 ) 



various parts of the country and each had only a very 
small capital. Accordingly monetary transactions were 
far from being smooth, and the ruling rate of interest was 
very high. 

II.— FOUNDATION OF THE BANK OF JAPAN. 

At this juncture, Marquis Matsukata, the then Minister 
of Finance, devised the establishment of a central bank after 
the fashion of tlie banking system in Europe with a view of 
facilitating monetary transactions in all parts of the country 
and lowering the rate of interest of the benefit of productive 
industries, of consolidating the privileges of note issue for 
the strengthening of credit, and of transferring the Treasury 
business from the Government in order to prevent the 
State's finances from being thrown into a chaotic state. 
The plan finally took shape in 1882 and the Bank of Japan 
was founded. But just at the time of its establishment 
convertible bank notes could not be issued, there being a 
shortage in the supply of hard cash throughout the country. 
Later on, however, with the progress of financial adjustment 
the amount of specie was gradually augmented to such an 
extent as to allow sufiicient to be kept in reserve against 
note-issues, and at the same time, with the enactment of 
the Convertible Bank Note Regulations in May, 1884, the 
issue of such bank-notes was inaugurated. 

III.— RELATION OF THE BANK TO THE 
GOVERNMENT. 

Soon after the Bank had been organized in accordance 
with the intent and purposes of its establishment, the 
Government entrusted to it the business of handling part of 
the State funds, a privilege which was followed by the 
concession to employ the funds belonging to the Treasury 
Deposit Bureau, and since July, 1886, the business in 
connection with the National Debt. After the Rules of 
the Treasury had been enacted in 1890, and ever since, the 
Bank has been authorized by the Government to transact 
the business of receiving and disbursing State funds in 
general, and is now in a position to conduct all transactions 
in connection with State funds together with their distribu- 
tion, and the issue and redemption of National Loans. 

IV.— RELATION OF THE BANK TO THE 
YOKOHAMA SPECIE BANK. 

The Yokohama Specie Bank was originally established 
as an organ of our overseas trade and has many branches 
abroad, so that the discounting of Foreign Bills as part of 
the Bank's business can be done not only through this bank, 
but also through the Yokohama Specie Bank, whose 
branches in foreign countries are recognized as Foreign 
Agencies for the Bank of Japan. 



v.— WORK AND SERVICES DONE 
BY THE BANK. 

Of the work and services done by the Bank a few facts 
may be mentioned. At the time of the organization of the 
Bank, it accomplished not a little in establishing the 
convertible note system and also rendered many services 
for the work of Currency Reform in 1897. Again, at the 
time of the wars both with China and Russia, the Bank 
rendered valuable service to the State by assuming the 
function of receiving and disbursing the War Expenses, 
transactions which were regulated so as not to prejudice 
the money market. Especially during the war with Russia, 
the Bank itself not merely financed the operations very 
substantially but also undertook all business connected 
with the supply and distribution of the funds under its 
own management. The Bank's management in this matter 
having been so satisfactorily carried out, the convertible 
note system was kept intact without any injurious distur- 
bance of the money market. 

VI.— DEVELOPMENT OF THE BA.NK. 

Since the foundation of the Bank, it has made rapid 
strides in the growth of business. The Bank, for instance, 
was organized with a capital of ¥10,000,000, but within a 
few years the insuflSciency of its resources was so felt, tiiat, 
in 1887, its capital was increased to ¥20,000,000. This 
was followed by another increase in 1895 to ¥30,000,000. 
Still another increase was made in 1910 in order to meet 
the needs of the times, the capital now standing at 
¥60,000,000. Tlie expansion of business transacted by the 
Bank is further illustrated by a comparison of the figures 
shown in the following tables : — 

1. — The Amount of Note Issues and Specie Reserve 
ON Hand at the Close of Each Year. 





Note 


Specie 




Note 


Specie 


Year. 


Issue. 


Reserve. 


Year. 


Issue. 


Beserve. 




Yen. 


Yen. 




Yen. 


Yen. 


1885. 


.. 3,956,161 


3,311,461 


1901 . 


..214,096,766 


71,358,371 


1886 . 


.. 39,549,815 


23,855,237 


1902. 


..232,094,376 


109,178,817 


1887 . 


.. 53,454,803 


31,579,904 


1903. 


..232,920,563 


116,962,182 


1888 . 


.. 65,770,580 


45,022,871 


1904. 


..286,625,752 


83,581,226 


1889 . 


.. 79,108,652 


57,409,299 


1905. 


..312,790,819 


115,595,026 


1890. 


..102,931,766 


44,622,413 


1906. 


..341,766,164 


147,202,125 


1891 . 


..115,734,545 


63,178,333 


1907. 


..369,984,110 


161,742,131 


1892 


..125,843,363 


81,158,265 


1908. 


..352,734,271 


169,504,513 


1893 . 


..148,663,128 


85,928,516 


1909 . 


..352,763,201 


217,843,275 


1894 . 


..149,813,700 


81,718,291 


1910 


..401,624,928 


222,382,465 


1895 . 


..180,.336,815 


60,370,797 


1911 . 


..433,399,116 


229,154,220 


1896 . 


..198,313,896 


132,730,192 


1912 . 


..448,921,708 


247,023,380 


1897 


..226,229,058 


98,261,473 


1913 . 


..426,388,708 


224,365,880 


1898 . 


..197,399,901 


89,570,239 


1914 . 


...385,589,096 


218,237,000 


1899, 


..250,562,040 


110,142,169 


1915 . 


..430,138,011 


248,417,800 


1900. 


..228,670,032 


67,349,129 









( 73 ) 



1. — The Total Transactions of the Bank. 



Year. 


Yen. 


Year. 


Yen. 


1882 (for 83 days 




1898 ... . 


. ... 9,019,330,231 


from Oct. lOtl. 




1899 ... . 


9,313,930,754 


to Dec. 31.) ... 


5,762,270 


1900 ... . 


. ... 9,748,987,192 


1883 


157,639,150 


1901 ... . 


. ... 10,576,036,318 


1884 


585,558,379 


1902 ... . 


. ... 14,092,646,956 


1885 


882,315,837 


1903 ... . 


. ... 12,698,858,693 


1886 


1,637,955,188 


1904 ... . 


17,668,041,283 


1887 


2,657,655,063 


1905 ... . 


. ... 29,156,254,123 


1888 


2,791,391,454 


1906 ... . 


. ... 35,798,678,906 


1889 


2,767,516,603 


1907 ... . 


. ... 38,592,499,868 


1890 


1,213,369,812 


1908 ... . 


. ... 26,729,214.687 


1891 


1,944,126,218 


1909 ... . 


. ... 28,836,481,539 


1892 


1,888,088,536 


1910 ... . 


. ... 38,702,112,955 


1893 


1,811,666,901 


1911 ... . 


. ... 35,631,308,366 


1894 


2,393,387,072 


1912 ... . 


. ... 35,025,97,3,331 


1895 


3,013,921,2.33 


1913 ... . 


. ... 38,528,907,804 


1896 


5,320,534,186 


1914 ... . 


. ... 31,185,493,075 


1897 


9,015,139,833 


1915 


. ... 34,074,112,431 



VII.— PRESENT CONDITION OF THE BANK. 
The Bank, as pointed out before, is now the only bank 
of issue in the country, and transacts the business in con- 
nection with State funds and National Debts in addition 
to ordinary banking business. The administration of the 
Bank is in the hands of the Administrative Board which 
consists of one Governor, one Vice-Governor and four 
Directors. The Governor presides over the Administrative 
Board and executes the resolutions passed at the meetings 
of the Board. At present, the Governor is Viscount Yataro 
Mishima and the Vice-Governor Kesaroku Mizumachi, 
Esq , Hogakuliakushi. 

The business at tiie Head Office of the Bank is at 
present conducted through the following divisions under the 
management of a Chief Officer at each division : — 

1. Inspector's Bureau, 5. Secretary's Department, 

2. Banking Department, 6. Security Department, 

3. Cash Department, 7. Accountant Department, 

4._ Treasury Department, 8. Economic Research Department, 
9. Private Secretary's Bureau. 
The Bank lias eleven Branches which are respectively 
located at Osaka, Saibu (Moji), Kyoto, Nagoya, Otaru, 
Hakodate, Fukushima, Hiroshima, Kannzawa, Niigata and 
Matsnmoto. 

VIII.— THE BANK'S REPORTS. 
The Bank publishes a half-yearly balance sheet in 
February and August in every year, when the General 



Meetings of Shareholders aro to be held, and at the General 
Meetings of February it also publishes a Business Report 
for the preceding year. In addition to these reports the 
Bank publishes on every Wednesday a weekly balance 
sheet. The balance sheet at the close of last year is shown 
as follows : — 

BALANCE SHEET, DECEMBER SIst, 1915. 

LIABILITIES. 

Yen. 

Notes Issued 4,30,138,010.500 

Government Deposits 168,656,966.372 

Government Railways Deposits 4,810,809.576 

Deposits for Payment of Principal and Interest of 

National Debts ' 58,481,846.590 

Funds for Payment of Mint Certificates 1,442,246.354 

Current Accounts 8,978,862.130 

Deposits Receipts 2,602,500.000 

Bills Payable 213.110 

Due to Other Banks 31,619.910 

Suspense Receipts 2,328,426.550 

Authorized Capital 60,000,000.000 

Reserve Fund 29,890,000.000 

Reserve for Depreciation of Bank Premises 335,000.000 

Profit brought forward from Last Half- Year 1,905,022.808 

Net Profit for the Current Half- Ye.ar 2,743,979.093 

Total 772,345,502.993 

ASSETS. 

Yen. 

Statutory Advances to Government 22,000,000.000 

Loans 1,950,000.000 

Advances on Foreign Bills 20,787,358.870 

Advances on Current Accounts 837,132.680 

Bills Discounted 34,913,700.000 

Deposits 42,469,780.520 

Government Bonds 4.3,951,131.920 

Bullion 161,896,076.760 

Due from other Banks 45,931.100 

Foreign Agencies Accounts 267,678,168.112 

Agencies Accounts for Government Railways ... 4,810,809.576 

Agencies Accounts for National Debts 55,507,989.885 

Sub- Agencies Accounts 437,088.911 

Suspense Payments 1,708,941.241 

Office Grounds and Buildings 2,568,005.339 

Uncalled Capital 22,500,000.000 

Cash on Hand 88,283,378.079 

Total 772,345,502.993 



C 74 ) 



NIPPON KWANGYO GINKO. 

(THE HYPOTHEC BANK OF JAPAN, LIMITED.) 



THE Bank was established by virtue of Law No. 82, 
1896, with the object of advancing capital for the 
development and improvement of Agriculture and Industry. 
The Head Office of the Bank is situated at No. 1, Uchiyama- 
shita-cho Itchome, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo. The Bank has 
a capital of Forty Million yen (£4,000,000) divided into 
200,000 shares of ¥200 (£20) each. This amount, however, 
may, subject to the approval of the Government, be increased 
by the decision of a general meeting of shareholders. It is 
incorporated for a period of one hundred years from the 
date of its establishment, 1897, but the term may, subject to 
the sanction of the Minister of Finance, be extended by the 
decision of a general meeting of shareholders. 

The Governor 
of the Bank is 
G, Shimura, Esq., 
the Vice-Governor 
U. Yauagiya, Esq., 
and the Directors 
Messrs. N. Kawa- 
kami, J. Kawa- 
mura and K. Kato. 
The Auditors are 
Messrs. K. Matsuo, 
K. Otani, and K. 
Mizuno. The 
Governor and Vice- 
Governor are ap- 
pointed by tlie 
Government for a 
term of five years 
from among those 
shareholders holding at least one hundred shares. The 
Directors are also appointed by the Government for a term 
of five years from among the candidates elected at a 
general meeting of shareholders from among shareholders 
holding at least fifty shares. The Auditors are elected at 
ai general meeting of shareholders for a term of three years 
from among shareholders holding at least thirty shares. 
The Governor, Vice-Governor and Directors are not 
allowed to engage in any other profession or business 
under any circumstances whatsoever, although exceptions 
may be made by special permission from the Minister of 
Finance. 




THE HYPOTHEC BANK 



The business of the Bank is as follows : — 

1. To make loans, on the security of immovable 
property, redeemable in annual instalments within a 
period of 50 years. 

2. To make loans, on the security of immovable 
property, or fishery rights, redeemable at a fixed time 
within a period of 5 years. 

3. To make loans, redeemable in annual instalments, 
on the security of loans redeemable in annual instalments 
made by Agricultural and Industrial Banks together 
with the mortgages connected therewith. 

4. To make loans without security to prefectures, 
counties, cities, towns, villages and other public 

bodies organized by 
law. 

5. To take up 
Agricultural and 
Industrial Deben- 
tures. 

6. To make loans 
without security to 
Arable Land Read- 
justment Asso- 
ciations con- 
forming with the 
law for the Read- 
justment of Arable 
Lands, or to per- 
sons carrying out 
such readjustment 
on their joint re- 
sponsibility, Indus- 
trial Associations, Fishery Associations, Forestry Associa- 
tions, Livestock Associations or Unions thereof. 

7. To receive deposits and to accept for safe deposit 
gold and silver bullion and negotiable instruments; 
provided, however, that the total amount of the former 
deposits may not exceed the paid-up capital. 

8. To make loans, on the security of " the mass of 
property " belonging to factories or light railways, redeem- 
able in annual instalments within a period of 50 years, or 
redeemable at a fixed time within a period of 5 years. 

9. To engage in other business prescribed for this 
Bank by law. 



JAPAN. 



( 76 ) 



The rate of interest ou all loans is determined by the 
officers of the Bank within limits approved by the Minister 
of Finance. The Bank is not permitted to engage in any 
business not prescribed by the law according to which it 
was established. 

In order to meet the demand, the Bank is authorized 
by the said law to issue special Debentures (Kwangyo- 
Saiken), with or without premiums, up to >\n amount not 
exceeding tea times its paid up capital, and these are 
redeemed by means ofsemi-annual drawings within a period 
of 50 years. The Debentures with premiums, this being 
the exclusive privilege of the Bank, are at present of the 
value of Ten yen (£1) each and carry five per cent, interest, 
while those without premiums are issued in denominations 
of ¥50 (£5), ¥100 (£10), ¥500 (£50), ¥1,000 (£100), 
¥5,000 (£500), ¥10,000 (£1,000) each, and carry interest 
at the rate of from 5 to 7 per cent, per annum. 

The premiums are divided into several classes, the highest 
being ¥2,000 (£200) and tiie lowest Five yen (10/-). The 
sanction of the Minister of Finance is a necessary prelimi- 
nary to the issue of Debentures, the amount of the premium 
and tiie manner of their payment. During the 1904-5 war 
the Bank issued Savings Debentures, redeemable within 
twenty years by means of drawings, subject to the " Law 
relating to Savings Debentures " of 1904. The Savings 
Debentures are of Five yen each and carry three per cent, 
interest. The premiums are divided into five classes, the 
highest being ¥500 (£50) and the lowest Two yen (4/-). 

Tlie Minister of Finance exercises a general control 
over the business operations of the Bank, and can suspend 
sueli operations as he may deem to be contrary to the law, 
the orders or the Articles of Association of the Bank, or 
injurious to the public interest. The Bank must obtain the 
sanction of the Minister of Finance, should it desire to make 
any alteration or amendment in its Articles of Association, 
and when it fixes the rate of dividend to be distributed 
among it shareholders. The Government specially appoints 
officials to supervise the business operations of tiie Bank. 

The statement of accounts of the Bank for the half year 
ending December 31st, 1915, is as follows : — 

BALANCE SHEET. 

December 31st, 1915. 37th Report. 

Liabilities. 

Yen. 

Capital 40,000,000.000 

Loss, Equalization and Special Reserve... 5,538,400.000 



Dividends unclaimed 

Total Issue of Debentures 

Total Issue of Savings Debentures 

Deposits and Current Accounts 

Due to Other Banks 

Unclaimed Interest and Premiums of 

Debentures 

Unclaimed Interest and Premiums of 

Savings Debentures 

Fund for the Payment of Premiums of 

Debentures 

Fund for the Redemption of Savings 

Debentures 

Provisional Receipts 

Amount brought forward from the Last 

Account 

± ronts ••. ••• ... ,,, ... .,., ,,_ 



Total 



AeSETTS. 



Capital unpaid 

Loans redeemable in Annual Instalments 

Loans guaranteed by Agricultural and 
Industrial Banks redeemable in An- 
nual Instalments or at fixed time ... 

Loans redeemable at a fixed time 

Agricultural and Industrial Bank Deben- 

111(63 ••• ••• •,« ■«« ••« ••• ••■ 

Short Term Loans 

Bills discounted 

Deposits at the Deposit Bureau of the 

Department of Finance 

Deposits at other Banks and Postal 

Savings Offices 

National Bonds 

Difierence between face and issue value 

of Debentures 

Agencies Accounts 

Bank Building and Fixtures 

Immovable Properties 

Provisional Payments 

Cash on hand 



Yen, 

10,840.610 

202,915,150.000 

17,287,960,000 

5,336,205.097 

75,279.290 

3,374,124.480 

675,917.160 

831,417.080 

124,959.000 
146,698.290 

109,525.552 
1,794,545.904 



278,221,022.463 



Yen. 
15,000.000.000 
72,944,485.199 



148,773,356.790 
2,965,773.120 

526,199.000 

3,000.000 

2,824,006.000 

20,936,980.000 

9,137,034.572 
2,347,173.000 

669,265.000 
1.603.820.196 
62,163.000 
200,201.360 
116,310.108 
111,255.118 



Total ... 



278,221,022.463 



( 76 ) 



NIPPON KOGYO GINKO. 



OHE 



INDUSTRIAL BANK OF JAPAN, LIMITED) 



THE Bank was promulgated by law No. 70, on the 
22nd of March, the 33rd year of Meiji (1910), being 
a joint stock company having its Chief Office in Tokyo. 
The capital is seventeen million five hundred thousand yen, 
whicl) amount may be increased with the sanction of the 
Government. The amount of each share is fifty yen, and 
the term fifty years, which may be extended. 

There is a Governor, one Vice-Governor, three or more 
Directors, and Auditors. 

The Governor and Vice-Governor are appointed by 
the Government from among shareholders owning at least 
two hundred shares, for a term of five years, also the 
Directors are ap- 
pointed by the 

Government from ; 

among candidates 
elected at a Ge- 
neral Meeting of 
Shareholders, 
being owners of 
at least one hun- 
dred shares. 

The term of 
office of a Direc- 
tor is three years. 
Auditors are ap- 
pointed by elec- 
tion at a general 
meeting from 
among share- 
holders owning at 
least sixty shares, 
for a term of two years. 

The Governor, Vice-Governor and Directors may not 
engage under any circumstances whatsoever in any other 
profession or business. An exception may be made, 
however, by special ptrmission of the Minister of Finance. 

The Governor, Vice-Governor and Directors during 
their respective terms of office shall be required to deposit 
with the Auditors shares of the Bank owned by them, — two 
hundred shares in the case of the Governor and Vice- 
Governor respectively, and one hundred shares iu the case 
of each Director, the shares thus deposited not being 




INDUSTRIAL BANK OF JAPAN. 



returned to their owners even on the latter's retirement 
from office until all the documents mentioned in Article 190 
of the Commercial Code shall have been presented to a 
General Meeting of Shareholders and accepted. 
Tlie business of the Bank is as follows: — 

1. To make loans on the security of National 
loan-bonds, prefectiiral and municipal loan-bonds, or 
debentures and shares of Companies. 

2. To subscribe for, or take over by transfer, National 
loan-bonds, prefectural and municipal loan bonds, or 
debentures of Companies. 

3. To receive deposits of money and undertake the 

custody of goods 

^^fr^?^" ' entrusted to it 

for safe keeping. 

4. To under- 
take trust busi- 
ness, to discount 
bills and to make 
loans on the se- 
curity of estates 
created by virtue 
of special laws. 

5. To buy and 
sell bills of ex- 
change and docu- 
mentary bills of 
exchange. 

The Bank may 
make loans on the 
security of land 
and buildings be- 
longing to factories as well as on the security of 
land and buildings in cities and in towns assigned by 
imperial Ordinance, provided tiie total sum of these loans 
should in no case exceed half the amount of its paid up 
capital, and the bank may devote its unemployed funds to 
the purchase of National loan-bonds, prefectural or 
municipal loan-bonds or the debentures and shares of 
companies or gold and silver bullion. 

The Bank may issue debentures subject to the restric- 
tions of the law. 

At the end of each business year, the Bank shall set 



( 77 ) 



aside eight per cent, or more of the net profit as a reserve 
for making up any deficit in its capital, and two per cent, 
or more of the net profit for maintaining an even rate of 
dividend. 

The Minister of Finance may suspend any act of the 
Bank should such act be regarded by him as either Cv)ntrary 
to Laws, Ordinances or By-Laws, or injurious to the public 
interest. 

The trust business comprises : — 

1. Undertaking duties of administration, settlement 
etc., with reference to money, securities, moveable and 
immoveable properties. 

2. Managing matters with reference to public loans 
and loans or shares of companies ; such as issuing bonds 
or debentures, paying principal, interest, dividends, etc. 

3. Managing matters with reference to mortgaging 
debentures or to giving guarantees on behalf of debtors. 

The officers are as follow : — 

Tetsujiro Shidachi, Esq Governor. 

Yeijiro Ono, Esq Vice-Governor. 

BALANCE SHEET. 
For the term Ending December Slst, 1915. 

Liabilities. Yen. 

Capital Subscribed 17,500,000.000 

Reserve Account ... 1,783,000.000 

Reserve for Equalizing Dividends 142,000 000 

Dividend 85,104.850 

Amount of Debentures Issued 64,208,500.000 

Fixed Deposits 14,423,124.890 

Current Deposits 1,947,860.732 

Special Current Deposits 406,539.663 



Special Deposits 

Drafting Deposits 

Trust Currency 

Due to other Banks 

Provisional Receipts 

Semi-Annual net profit 

Total 

Assets. 

Fixed Loans , 

Temporary Loans 

Loans on Property 

Discount Bills 

Current Deposits 

Corresponding Deposits 

Special Deposits 

Advanced Loans 

Differential Rnte of Debentures... 

National Bonds 

Local Bonds 

Companies Bonds and Sliares 

Due from other Banks 

Reserve Fund for Various Payments 

Properties and Buildings 

Safe and Fixtures 

Various Properties 

Provisional Pnyraeuts 

Postage Drafts 

Subvention 

Convertible Notes 

Total 



Yen. 

. 1,556,299.410 

39,610.100 

. 11,240,222.773 

10,090.670 

862,755.700 

. 621,673.504 

.114,826,782.292 

Yen. 

. 27,827.113.640 

5,692.240 

. 1,292,800.000 

. 29,310,446.990 

497,207.307 

. 11,493,300.000 

1,463.260 

6.950 

. 2,023,158.020 

. 14,616,570.650 

. 9,559,862.987 

. 5,330,729.289 

79,780.760 

. 12,102,710.921 

96,636.200 

2,091.-525 

366,229.360 

3,477.480 

50,617.750 

3,622.963 

163,264.000 

,.114,826,782.292 



YOKOHAMA SHOKIN GINKO. 

(THE YOKOHAMA SPECIE BANK, LIMITED.) 



IN November 1879, Mr. Michita Nakamura and twenty- 
three gentlemen acting as promoters made application 
to the Government to be allowed to organize a bank under 
the name of the Yokohama Specie Bank with a capital of 
Silver ¥3,000,000 in accordance with the National Bank 
Law, its object being to start a foreign exchange business 
and also to devote its work solely to the facilitating of the 
provision of money for foreign trade. The promoters 
received official sanction to their application in December 
of the same year, the Government at the same time sub- 



scribing one-third of the Bank's capital. The Bank was 
accordingly first opened for business on the 28th February 
of the next year, 1880. n 

The original capital of the Bank was ¥3,000,000, 
and in conformity with the subsequent expansion of business 
the capital was successively increased on four occasions, 
and on September, 1911, it stood at ¥48,000,000, of ■.vliieii 
¥30,000,000 was paid up, with a reserve fund amounting 
to ¥20,400,000. 



( 78 ) 



BRANCH OFFICES AND AGENCIES. 

The first branch office of the Yokohama Specie Baiik 
was opened in Kobe in June 1880, the base of business 
operations being thereby strengthened, and at the same 
time Bank representatives were sent out to various places 
of importance in Europe, America and other foreign coun- 
tries to look after the interests of the Bank ; but with the 
opening of a branch office in London in September 1884, 
other branches and agencies were gradually established in 
Lyons, New York, San Francisco, etc., and, later on, in the 
various Oriental countries. 

The following is a complete list showing the places 
where the Bank has Branches and Agencies, viz : — 
Bkanch Offices in 

Japan: — Tokyo, 

Osaka, Kobe and 

Nagasaki. 

Branch Offices 
Abboad : — London, 
Lyons, San Fran- 
cisco, Hawaii, Bom- 
bay, Hongkong, 
Shanghai, Hankow, 
Tientsin, Peking, 
Newchwang, Dairen 
(Dalny), Fengtien 
(Mukden). 

Bank's own Agen- 
cies : — New York, 
Ryojun (Port Ar- 
thur), Liaoyang, 
Tiehling, Antung- 
hsien and Chang- 
chun, Calcutta, 
Tsingtau, Sydney, Harbin, 
The officers are as follow : — 

J. Inouye, Esq , 

Y. Yamakawa, Esq. ... , 

THE ENACTMENT OF A SPECIAL LAW. 

The Yohohama Specie Bank was first established in 
accordance with the National Banks' Act, but as there 
were many features differing in the nature and scope of 
the business handled by the Bank from those of the 
ordinary national banks, and as the laws framed for 
the regulation of the latter could not be satisfactorily 
extended to govern the former, a special Act called the 
Yokohama Specie Bank Regulations was newly passed in 
July, 1887, whereby the nature and the scope of business 
to be conducted by the Bank were for the first time made 
clear and definite, and, subsequently, following the example 




YOKOHAMA SPECIE BANK 



President. 
Vice-President. 



set in the case of the Bank of Japan, the Government 
appointed an official overseer for the supervision of the 
Bank's management. 

ISSUE OF BANK NOTES AND REDEMPTION 
OF WAR NOTES. 
With the gradual growth and expansion of the business 
of the Bank, permission^was obtained from the Government 
for the issuance of the Bank's Demand Notes in various 
places in China, and commencing with the issue of such 
Notes in Tientsin in November, 1902, was followed by other 
issues of the Bank's Dollar Notes and Tael Notes in 
Shanghai, Newchwang and other places in China ; and, 
on the breaking-out of the war witli Russia in 1904, 

these Demand Notes, 
along with the war 
notes, were used and 
circulated everywhere 
in Manchuria, and 
notably gained the 
favour and confidence 
of the Chinese trading 
communities. On the 
conclusion of tlie war, 
theGovernment trans- 
ferred to the Bank 
unredeemed War 
Notes to the amount 
of ¥15,250,000, and 
appointed the Bank 
to undertake the work 
of redeeming these 
notes, while, at the 
same time, the name 
of the Bank's Demand 
Notes was altered to that of Bank Notes. An Imperial 
Ordinance was issued in September, 1906, promulgating the 
laws regulating the issuance of these Notes, which have since 
been circulating in Manchuria, as a sequel to the War 
Notes, and have now acquired a solid standing in the 
local currency. 

It is now thirty-seven years since the Bank was first 
opened, during which time it has not only acted as a 
national financial agency under the direction of the Govern- 
ment, but has also made every effort to promote the 
interests of commercial communities by providing funds 
necessary for foreign exchange business. Thus its busi- 
ness has gradually expanded, and as an Exchange Bank 
the Yokohama Specie Bank now holds a world-wide 
reputation, and its banking business is still unceasingly 
developing. 



( 79 ) 



TAIWAN GINKO. 

(THE BANK OF TAIWAN, LIMITED.) 



THE Bank is a joint-stock company, promulgated by 
Law No. 38 on the 30th March, 1897, and opened 
to business in March, 1899, its head office being at Taiwan. 
The business of the Bank includes : — 

1. Discounting bills of exchange and other mer- 
cantile bills. 

2. Collecting bills for companies, banks and mer- 
chants. 

3. Making loans on securities of a reliable 
nature. 

4. Receiving deposits and advancing money on 
current account. 



candidates, holding at least fifty shares, elected at a general 
meeting. 

The Bank annually sets aside, as a reserve fund, at 
least eight per cent, of its profit, for the purpose of making 
good any loss of capital, and at least two per cent, for the 
equalization of dividends. 

The capital of the Bank is ¥20,000,000, divided into 
200,000 shares of ¥100 each. 

The ofiicers are as follow : — 

Tetsutaro Sakukai, Esq President. 

KojURo Nakagawa, Esq Vice-Pre«ident. 




BANK OF TAIWAN. 



5. Undertaking the safe custody of gold and silver 
coins, precious metals and negotiable securities. 

6. Buying and selling gold and silver bullion. 

7. Undertaking trust business. 

8. Acting as business agents for other banks. 

Ihe Bank may also purchase national and local bonds. 
Hypothec debentures. Agricultural and Industrial deben- 
tures, etc. 

The President and Vice-President are appointed by 
the Government for a term of five years from among share- 
holders holding at least one hundred shares. Directors are 
appointed by the Government for a term of four years from 



BALANCE SHEET, 3l8T DECEMBER, 1915. 

Liabilities. Yen. 

Capital Subscribed 20,000,000.000 

Reserve Fund 4,150,000.000 

Notes in Circulation ,. ... 17,611,315.000 

Current Accounts, Fixed Deposits, Etc. ... 74,580,180.055 
Bills Payable, Acceptances and other Sums 

due by the Bank 56,338,753.580 

Premium on new shares offered for public 

subscription 333,443.000 

Balance brought forward from Last Account. 250,509.460 



( 80 ) 



Net Profit for the past Half-year 
Total 



Assets. 



Cash in hand 
Cash at Bankers ... 
Loans to Government 



Yen. 

861,819.840 

...174,126,020.925 

Yen. 

... 8,640,133.665 
... 3,919,210.000 
... 6,148,467.000 



Bills Discounted, Loans, Advances and other 



Sums Due to the Bank 

Government Bonds, Etc 

Bullion and Foreign Money 

Capital Uncalled 

Banks Premises, Properties, Furniture, Etc 



.134,930,348.360 
. 8,332,013.760 
. 2,462,519.130 
. 7,500,000.000 
2,193,329.010 



Total 



...174,126,020.925 



CHOSEN GINKO. 

(THE BANK OF CHOSEN, LIMITED.) 



THE Bank of Chosen is the outgrowth of the Bank 
of Korea, the central banking organ for the Korean 
Government before Korea's annexation to Japan. 

In October, 1909, the Bank of Korea came into 
existence and in November of the same year actual opera- 
tions were commenced. Under the control of the ofScers 
appointed by the Japanese and Korean Governments the 
bank's business thrived, and even under the administration 
of the Govern- 
ment-Gen er a 1 
after Korea's 
annexation to 
Japan in 1910 
the bank main- 
tained its old 
name and orga- 
nization for some 
time. 

The bank as- 
sumed the pre- 
sent style in 
August, 1911, in 
accordance with 
the Bank of Cho- 
sen Act prom- 
ulgated by the 
Government in 
March the same year, and as the successor of the Bank 
ol Korea took over its rights and obligations. 

The authorised capital of the Bank of Chosen is 
¥10,000,000, divided into 100,000 shares, of which 30,000 
are taken up by the Government. The whole amount of 
the capital Sias already been paid iu, calls having been 
made several times since its organization, as with the pro- 




gress in Chosen's commerce and industry demands upon the 
bank have strikingly increased. 

The Bank is authorised to issue notes on the security 
of gold coin, bullion, and the Bank of Japan notes, and also 
to issue notes to an extent not exceeding ¥30,000,000 on 
the security of national loan bonds, gilt-edged securities, 
and commercial bills. The Bank is also authorised to issue 
notes beyond the prescribed amount, with the sanction of 

the Chosen Gov- 
ernment-General, 
on the security of 
national loan 
bonds, gilt-edged 
securities, and 
mercantile bills, 
when the Bank 
is required to pay 
an issue tax to 
the Government 
at the rate of 5 
per cent, per 
annum of the 
excess issue. The 
bank's notes are 
passed as legal 
tender in Chosen. 



BANK OF CHOSEN. 



In Manchuria 
Especially since 
Daireu, Mukden, 



also the Bank's notes are in circulation 

the bank's branches were opened in 

Chanchung, and elsewhere the circulation of the Bank's 

notes has been extended and, with the notes issueil by the 

Yokohama Specie Bank and the Bank of Japan, facilitate 

commercial dealings there. 

The Bank is also authorised to act as the National 



( 81 ) 



Treasury in Chosen for the Government, At present the 
Bank has the Main Treasury in Seoul and Branch Trea- 
suries at 23 important towns. There are also twelve 
agencies to transact business at more remote provincial 
towns. The disposition of old Korean currency was 
entrusted to the Bank, which function was successfully con- 
cluded in March, 1911. 

The lines of business undertaken by the Bank, in addi- 
tion to those enumerated above, are as follows : — 

1. Discounting bills of exchange and other mer- 
cantile bills. 

2. Collecting bills for companies, banks, and firms 
with whom the Bank has accounts. 

3. Remittances. 

4. Making loans on aecuritiee of a reliable nature. 

5. Receiving deposits and advancing money on cur- 
rent account. 

6. Undertaking the safe custody of gold and silver 
coins, precious metals, and negotiable securities. 

7. Buying or selling bullion and exchanging coins. 

8. Buying national loan bonds, provincial loan bonds, 
and otiier gilt-edged securities, subject to the sanction of 
the Government, 

The Bank may advance money to public bodies with- 
out security or act us agent for other banks, subject to the 
sanction of the Government. 

The Bank lias a staff of inspectors, who are authorised 
to investigate tiie financial and other conditions of the 
peninsula, together with the economic situation in Man- 
churia, Siberia, and elsewhere. The results of those investi- 
gations are published every montli in magazine form. 



The Bank's affairs are controlled by the officers 
appointed by the Government, comprising a Governor and 
three or more Directors, and the results of their working 
are examined by two inspectors selected by the meeting of 
shareholders from among the holders of over fifty shares. 
At present the Courts of Directors and Inspectors are 
composed of the following gentlemen : — 

Shunkichi Minobe, Esq Governor. 

Taro Mishima, Esq Director. 

YUJI KiMURA, Esq „ 

Saburo Ota, Esq „ 

Chojiro Ito, Esq Inspector, 

KiNTARO Hattori, Esq „ 

The Bank has its head office in Seoul and over twenty 
branch offices in Chosen, Japan, Manchuria, and elsewhere. 
The following figures of the Bank's earnings and dis- 
bursements since tiie foundation show the rapidity with 
which the Bank's business has expanded : — 

Gross Gross Balance 

Year. receipts. disbursements. 

Yen. Yen. Yen. 

2nd half, 1909... 61,502.45 153,805.41 92,-302.96 

1st half, 1910... 597,806.90 571,566.82 26,240.08 

2nd half, 1910... 695,611.04 655,753.52 39,857.52 

1st half, 1911... 772,849.93 699,020.32 73,829.61 

2nd half, 1911... 785,491.51 650,320.54 135,170 97 

1st half, 1912... 976,787.36 816.259.99 160,527.37 

2nd half, 1912... 1,504,566.84 1,299,162.02 205,404.82 

1st half, 1913... 1,643.155.86 1,420,071.88 223,083.98 

2nd half, 1913... 1.942,296.96 1,691,903.99 247.392.97 

1st half, 1914... 1,983,014.64 1,583.686.30 399,328.34 

2nd half, 1914.., 2,120,198.03 1,706,885.58 413,312.45 



HOKKAIDO TAKUSHOKU GINKO. 

(THE HOKKAIDO COLONIZATION BANK, LIMITED.) 



THE Hokkaido Colonization Bank, is a joint stock 
company, established in iiccordance with Law No. 
76 in 1899, for tiie purpose of lending out capital for 
the benefit of colonization industries in the Hokkaido. 
The Bank has its head office at No. 7, Nishi Sanchorae, Odori 
Sapporo, and branches at Hakodate, Otaru, Asaliigawa, 
Kushiro, Tokyo, and also one branch and two agencies in 
Saghalien, besides correspondents in various places at home 
and abroad. The authorised capital of the Bank is five 
million yen, divided into 100,000 shares of fifty yen each, of 
which 4,500,000 yen is paid up. 



The Bank transacts the following business : — 

1. To advance loans on the security of immovable 
properties. 

2. To advance loans on mortgage of shares and 
debentures of joint-stock companies organised for the 
purpose of colonising the Hokkaido, and undertake the 
issue of debentures on behalf of such companies. 

3. To advance loans on the security of Bills of 
Exchange, drafts and products of the Hokkaido. 

4. General and trust deposits. 

5. To discount Bills under proper security. 



( 82 ) 



The Bank may advance loans without security to cities, 
towns, villages and other public corporations organised by 
law ill the Hokkaido. It also makes advances without 
security to any reliable association of not less than twenty 
agriculturists or manufacturers, and to industrial guilds. 

The Bank is authorised to issue debentures under 
certain restrictions and with the consent of the Minister of 
Finance. TheGovernment supervises the business operations 
of the Bank, and the sanction of the Minister of Finance is 
necessary before making any amendment to the Articles of 
Association, or declaring the rate of dividend. 

The President of the bank is Masatsune Midzukoshi, 
Esq. -....- ':r ■ ,; 



Reserves against various payments of 

Agencies .„ ... 

Due from other Banks ... 

Compound property and Buildings ... ^ ... 

Utensils ... 

Loaned to Agencies 

Property 

Provisional payments 

Cash in hand 

lotal ... ... ... .«• ,,, ... ... 

Liabilities. 

Subscribed Capital 

Reserve against Losses 

Dividend Equalization Reserve 




HOKKAI-DO COLONIZATION BANK. 



BALANCE SHEET SHOWING SEMI-ANNUAL 
TERM OF 1915. 

Assets. Yen. 

Uncalled Capital 500,000.000 

Installment Loans 22,404,787.500 

Specially Mortgaged Loans 115,750.000 

Fixed Loans 1,217,473.800 

Discount Bills 1,759,702.260 

Bills of Exchange on goods ■ 264,526.880 

Forwarded Current Deposits ... 515,110.460 

Current Deposits ... 2,687,258.770 

Fixed Deposits 681,675.950 

Special Deposits 2,039,619.389 

National Bonds 629,759.250 

Certificates and Company's Debentures ... 80,000.000 

Difference in Debenture rate 760,600.000 



Yen. 

57,854.965 

187,618.730 

604,471.360 

54,542.070 

268,214.150 

385,317.340 

6,501.870 

654,741.213 

36,290,059.957 

Yen. 

5,000,000.000 

992,000.000 

294,700.000 



Special Reserve 


183,000.000 


Dividend 


12,134.420 


Amount of issued Debentures 


19,344,180.000 


Current Deposits 


1,051,083.180 


Special Current Deposits 


1,950,580.920 


Fixed Deposits ... ... 


5,814,229.520 


Special Deposits 


407,695.557 


Money Orders Payal)le 


44,162.260 


Due to other Banks 


249,092.410 


Securities of Agencies Loans 


268,214.150 


Accounts of tiie Hypothec Bank of Japan ... 


1,025.365 


Accounts of the Industrial Bank of Japan... 


312.980 


Provisional Receipts 


343,340.130 


Brought from last Account 


65,242.855 


Net profit for the Current Term 


269,066.210 


Total 


36,290,059.967 



( 83 ) 



BISAN]lNOKO GINKO. 

(THE BISAN AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL BANK.) 



THE Bisan Agricultural and Industrial Bank, Nagoya.in 
Aichi prefecture, came into existence in 1898 and has 
a capital of ¥4,000,000 and reserve funds of over ¥720,000. 
The bank accommodates both short and long term loans for 
the development of agriculture and industry ia the 




THE BISAN AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL BANK, 
NAQOYA, AND ITS PRESIDENT. 

perfecture. The Bank has on twenty-two occasions issued 
debentures, amounting to ¥8,117,000, each issue being a 
signal success. Loans advanced, including those negotiated 
for the Hypothec Bank of Japan, have amounted to 
¥16,837,000. 

Profit and Loss Account for Half-Ykar 
Ending June 30th, 1916. 

Credit. 

Sundry interests 

Fee for an Opinion 

Commissions 

Commission for the Advancement of Loans ... 

Literest on negotiable instruments and 

Dividend 



Sundry profits 

Profits from Negotiable Instruments 



Yen. 

4,677.534 
17,072.470 



Total ... ... ... 845,985.986 

Brought forward from the previous half year.. 44,306.093 



Total 



... 890,292.079 



Debit. Yen. 

Sundry interests 323,427.776 

Salaries, remunerations and allowances 14,882.660 

Various taxes 37,387.850 

Various commissions 9,760.350 

Travelling expenses 1,456.370 

Expenditure for the issue of Debentures ... 9,580.162 

Sundry expenses 12,546.236 

Interest on Agricultural and Industrial 

Debentures 246,076.980 

Fee for an Opinion Refunded 108.250 

Redemption for the value of the Debentures... 3,200.000 



Total 

Profit for tiie half year 

Total 

The officers are as follows : — 



•lEAR 


Gi 


HEi Ito, E^q. 




S. 


MiYATA, Esq. ... 


Yen. 


c. 


Takeda, Esq. ... 


751,524.466 


s. 


Amano, Esq. ... 


1,719.000 


K. 


Takahashi, Esq. 


13,836.296 


A. 


ISHIKAWA, Esq. 


29,085.180 


Y. 


Ito, E-q 




T. 


YosHiDA, Esq.... 


28,071.040 


R. 


Hayakawa, Esq. 



661.426.634 
228.865.445 

890,292.079 



Director and 
President. 

Director. 



Auditor. 



( 84 ) 



GUMMA-KEN NOKO GINKO. 



(THE GUMMA PREFECTURAL AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL BANK.) 



THE bank was floated in March, 1898, in accordance 
with the provisions of Law No. 83 of the year 1896, 
at Hou-cho, Mayebashi, Gumma prefecture, and its object was 
laid down in the bank's articles of association as supplying 
capital at the lowest possible rate of interest to farmers and 
artizaus in the prefecture of Gumma. 

The bank's capital was originally ¥500,000, but was 
increased later by the issue of new shares and now it stands 
at ¥1,000,000 of which ¥625,000 is paid up. 




THE GUMMA AGRICULTURAL AND 
INDUSTRIAL BANK. 

The actual operations were started by the bank in May, 
1898. They are generally the same as those of the 
Hypothec Bank of Japan. In consonance with the Lnw 
governing the bank's organiziition and working the bank is 
authorised to issue long-teimed bonds or debentures to the 



amount of five times the paid-up capital and not exceeding 
the sum total advanced on the condition of annual 
liquidation. At present the bank's total obligation stands 
at ¥2,389,030. 

The bank's advances to farmers and artizans are made 
against the security of immovable property and to be 
liquidated by means of yearly installments within thirty 
years. But when borrowers are civic bodies, industrial 
guilds, forestry guilds, fishing guilds, or a party of more 
than twenty persons the bank is bound by the law govern- 
ing its working to make loans without security. The bank 
also receives deposits part of which can be employed in 
discounting bills and notes or making short-term loans on 
the security of marine or industrial products. 

The bank also acts as Central Treasury for the Gumma 
Prefectural Oflice and manages the receipt and custody of 
the prefectural revenue. In all lines of business the bank 
is autliorized to conduct, th6 result so far achieved has been 
fairly good and encouraging. At the end of June, 1916, 
the bank held deposits to the amount of ¥602,618 in 
round figures and the total amount of advances stood at 
¥5,064,339.403, including loans made as agent for the 
Hypothec Bank of Japan. 



Tlie officers are iis follows : — 

Ryohei Sato, Esq , 

Keizabuko Ehaea, Esq 

Chiyokichi Homma, Esq. 

Fdkutaro Ozawa, Esq 

JuNZABURO Takahashi, Esq... 
KiKUJiRO Machida, Esq. 

JlTSUHEI MiNAGUMO, Esq. 

SoHEi Ozawa, Esq .. 

KiiCHiRo Wakatabi, Esq. .. 
Kyuyemon Otsuka, Esq 



President. 
Director. 



Auditor. 



( 85 ) 



SHIDZUOKA NOKO GINKO. 

(THE SHIDZUOKA AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL BANK) 

THE Bank was established in 1896 in accordance with 
Act No. 83 of the law at Shidzuoka City, Shidzuoka 
Prefecture and was opened to business on January 9th, 1897. 

Its object was laid down in the bank's articles of associa- 
tion as supplying capital at the lowest possible rate of 
interest to farmers and artizans in the prefecture of 
Shidzuoka. 

The bank also acts as Central Treasury for the Shidzuoka 
Prefectural Office and manages the receipt and custody of 
the prefectural revenue. 

The condition of the Bank as it stood on September 
1st, 1916, is shown in the following table : — 

Liabilities. 

Capital (paid up) 

Reserve 

Deposits 

Debentures issued 



Assets. 
Loans 

Deposits 

The latest dividend on shares 

The bank's officers are as follows : — 

En-ichiro Nakamura, Esq 

Yasuhiko Matsunaga, Esq 



Yen. 

1,000,000.000 
504,150.000 
851,901.796 

1,640,700.000 

Yen, 
5,000,288.914 

910,547.724 

• 8t1j%' p.a. 



f Director and 
( President. 
Director. 




THE SHIDZUOKA AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL 
BANK AND ITS PRESIDENT. 



Naosaku Wakatsitki, Esq. 
EiiTSU KoGA, Esq. 
Seiichi Nakayama, Esq. 
JiNsHiRO Sasano, Esq. ... 

Ihei Ozaki, Esq 

Shokichi Tomita, Esq. 
Dentaro Wada, Esq. ... 
Ju-BEi Kuroda, Esq. ... 



Director. 



Auditor. 



A I CHI GINKO. 

(THE AICHI BANK.) 



THE Bank was organised in April, 1896, and has a 
capital of ¥2,000,000 paid up, with reserve funds 
amounting to ¥1,030,000. Deposits at the end of June 
last amounted to over ¥22,804,825, and loans totalled over 
¥31,061,342. The Bank has its head office in Tamaya-cho 
Nishi-ku, Nagoya City, and branches in Temma-cho, 
Habashita, and other districts in the city, and also in 
Handa, Toyohashi, Okazaki, Tsushima, Ichinomiya, Tsu, 
Yokkaichi and Tokyo. 

Profit and Loss Account for the Half- Year 
TO June 30th, 1916. 



Profit for the Term 

Brought over from tiie Previous Term 

Total 

Loss for the Term 

NetProfite 



Yen. 

1,082,087.605 
48,206.822 

1,130,294.427 
954,329.673 
175,964.754 



To be distributed as follows : — Yen. 

Legal Reserve Fund 20,000.000 

Special Reserve Fund 30,000.000 

Dividend on Siiares at over 9-nr per cent. 

per annum 66,800.000 

Carried forward to the next term 49,164.754 

The officers are as follows : — 

YosHiRO Watanabe, Esq President. 

SosuKE Okaya, Esq Director. 

MoRiHiKO Sekido, Esq, ... 
Yoshitaro Ito, Esq. 

KUROSABURO FUKIHARA, Esq 

Jibozayemon Ito, Esq Auditor. 

Ryoyemon Okaua, Esq. ... 
Sukesaku Katagiri, Esq. 



( 86 ) 



DAI HYAKU GINKO. 

(THE ONE HUNDREDTH BANK. LIMITED.) 



^T~'HE bank carae into existence in September, 1878, 
I under the style of the 100th National Bank as one 
of many national banks then established in accordance with 
the National Bunk Act. 

At first the bank had a capital of ¥200,000, which was 
subscribed by Marquis Ikeda, the Daimyo of Tottori, and 
his retainers, who at the same time founded a similar 
banking institution at Tottori, and issued bank notes to the 
extent of ¥160,000 against the security of public bonds 
deposited with the National Treasury. 

In May, 1883, the National Bank Act was amended 
and the bank notes 
issued by the bank 
had to be redeemed. 
In August, 1898, when 
the redemption of all 
the notes issued was 
completed and the busi- 
ness terra of the bank 
expired, the institution 
was coverted into an 
ordinary commercial 
bank. Since then the 
business principle has 
been the facilitation of 
commercial capitaliza- 
tion and the furtherance 
of foreign trade. 

Wiih the progress 
of the bank's business 
the capital has been 
enlarged by degrees 
and at present it stands 
at ¥10,000,000, the dates and extent of the enlargements 
effected in the past being as follows : — 

Date. Increase. Result. 

August, 1878 — 200,000 

April, 1887 ... 200,000 400,000 

February, 1903 100,000 500,000 

July, 1903 100,000 600,000 

February, 1907 1,400,000 2,000,000 

August, 1912 8,000,000 10,000,000 

At present th« bank has the head office at No. li 




THE O^E 

1. Main Bank. 

3. Branch at Kyoto. 



Yorozu-cho, Nihombashi-ku, Tokyo, and branch offices 
at Yokohama, Tottori, Kyoto, Osaka, and Ginza, 
Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo, and Torihatago-cho, Nihombashi- 
ku, Tokyo. There are also a large number of agencies 
both at home and abroad. Therefore, clients can avail 
themselves of the bank's services almost anywhere in 
the world. 

The bank's business policy is known to be conserva- 
tive with careful attention to the requirements of its 
clients. Its head and branch offices onduet general 
banking and foreign exchange business in addition 

to trust company 
business, and issue 
travellers' letters of 
credit, available in all 
parts of the world, open 
commercial credits, sell 
drafts, and deal in 
cable transfers. At the 
Yokohama office the 
safe deposit institution 
is also opened to affi)rd 
safe custody for all 
kinds of valuables. 

The stability of 
the bank's position and 
the success so steadily 
won may be seen from 
the statistical returns 
of its affiiirs made up 
at the end of December, 
1915. 

Summary of Business Transaoxed for the Half 
Year ended December 31st, 1915. 

Yen. 

Total Sum Cashed 

Deposits : Current, Fixed, and Sundry. 

Loans and Overdrafts 

Drafts Drawn 

Drafts Paid 

Bills Discounted 

Bills Collected 

Letters of Credit Issued 



HUNDREDTH BANK, TOKYO. 

2. Branch at Yokohama 
4. Branch at Osaka. 



1,898,147,358.67 

394,573,508.84 

64,011,148.83 

9,772,168.93 

22,765,638.45 

104,774,688.20 

38,819,875.35 

3,224,073.18 



( 87 ) 



BALANCE SHEET, DECEMBER '61st, 1915. 



Liabilities. Yen. 

Capital 10,000,000.00 

Reserve Fund 4,000,000.00 

Deposits 44,348,704.28 

Due to Correspoudents 1,263,742.39 

Profits for the Half Year 227,475.03 

Dividend Unpaid 230.00 

Due to the Bank of Japan 3,860,000.00 

Balance brought Forward from the Pre- 
vious Half Year 74,956.37 

Total 63,775,108.07 

Assets. Yen. 

Capital Unpaid 6,000,000.00 

CashonHand 4,750,116.26 

Government Bonds, Shares, and Deben- 
tures 3,772,327.50 

Loans and Overdrafts 6,905,922.90 

Bills Discounted 39,059,642.99 

Charges to Correspondents 1,783,036.63 



Deposits with the Bank of Japan 

Land, Buildings, and Furniture of the 
Head Office and Branches 

Total 



Yen. 
527,981.59 

976,080.20 
63,775,108.07 



Statement of Profits tor the 

Second Half of 1915. Yen. 

Net Profit for the Half Year 279,731.40 

To Reserve .30,000 00 

Dividends Ht 10 per cent, per annum 200,000.00 

Carried to Next Account 49,731.40 

The responsible officers of the Bank are as follows : — 
Kenzo Ik EDA, Etq ...President. 

H. Choh, E^q Managing Director. 

8. Okubo, Ei^q MaiiHger, Yokohama Branch. 

S. Yamanaka, Esq... „ Tottori Brunch. 



K. Okamoto, Esq. ... 
S. Hayashi, Esq. ... 
Y. Shiratori, Esq.... 
T. Matsumoto, Esq... 



Tori-Hatago-cho Branch. 
Kyoto Branch. 
Kyobashi Branch, 
Osaka Branch. 



DAI-IGHI GINKO. 

(THE FIRST BANK, LIMITED.) 



THE history of the Din-Ichi Ginko is, in the main, the 
rise and development of the banking institutions of 
Japan, for ever since its establisliraent it has taken the 
initiative in every movement of banking interests. 

The National Bank Act was put into force on the 15th 
of November, 1872. By the Act, four National banks were 
incorporated in that year, namely, the First National Bunk 
(Tokyo), the Second National Bank (Yokohama), the 
Fourth National Bank (Niigata) and the Fifth National 
Bank (Kagoshima). 

When the National Bank Act was framed the Govern- 
ment urged the prominent merchants of Tokyo, Osaka, and 
elsewhere to organize the banks in accordance with the 
same. 

The original National Bank Act was not successful, 
for, owing to fluctuation in the price of gold and silver, 
redemption was demanded to sucli an extent that tlie 
national banks could not keep notes in circulation ; as fast 
as they were issued they were returned. 

By the revised Act of August, 1876, the establisliing of 
the National banks was made very much easier. From the 



time the revision was announced, in fact, the number of 
these increased to 153 in four years', and tiie First National 
Blink, with its Capital of ¥1,500,000 was entitled to issue 
bank-notes to the amount of ¥1,200,000 «nd consequently 
able to extend iis business. It began now to perform real 
banking business, discounting bills and causing bills of 
exchange to be used more extensively. For the first time 
it introduced the system of letters of credit and circular 
notes. By these means the Bank secured the confidence of 
the peiple and the business was greatly enlarged, branches 
being opened in the North-Eastern part of the country, 
which is especially productive in rice and silk. 

Seeing the number of banks continually increasing, the 
First National Bank proposed in 1877 to form a Bankers' 
Association, to meet once a month in the building of the 
First National Bank with the object of becoming better 
acquainted with each other and exchanging views. This 
proposition met with general approval and was adopted, the 
Association becoming a very important and influential body 
among bankers. Thus the present Bankers' Association of 
Tokyo originated. , _. 



( 88 ) 



In 1882, the Government established the Bank of 
Japan for the Management of the paper money and the 
unification of the monetary system. The National Bank 
Act was again revised. According to the revised act a 
national bank could not continue as such longer than 20 
years from its establishment ; after the expiration of this 
term it could only exist as a private bank. 

As the business of the First National Bank became 
more extensive, it was necessary to increase the capital and 
place the bank on a firmer basis. Accordingly, in 1887, it 
was decided at the shareholders' general meeting to increase 
the capital by ¥1,500,000, to make a total of ¥3,000,000 ; 
but of this just ¥750,000 was actually added, the capital 
thus becoming ¥2,250,000. 

The revised National Bank Act of 1876 had authorized 
the Bank to transact banking business for twenty years. 



The Bank having increased its capital to ¥5,000,000, 
it was unanimously resolved to add to the capital 
¥5,000,000 so as to make the total capital ¥10,000,000. 

The capital was ir.creased to ¥22,700,000 on December 
19th, 1916. 

The relation between this Bauk and Korea has 
existed from quite early times. In 1878, the First National 
Bank petitioned the Japanese Government to establish a 
branch oflSce at the port of Fusan, wiiich permission was 
immediately granted. Since then, the First NatioDal Bank 
lias rendered valuable services as the chief financial organ 
of the Japanese-Korean trade. 

BALANCE SHEET ON THE 3Ist DECEMBER, 1915. 

Liabilities. Yen. 

Fixed Deposits 41,661,492.97 

Current Deposits 47,885,306,66 




THE FIRST BANK, TOKYO. 



which term would expire on the 19th of May, 1896, and a 
general meeting was convened to consider the question of 
continuing business as a private bauk, and resolutions 
were: — 1. That we make changes in our By-Laws and 
continue our business under the name of Kabushiki- 
Kaisha Dai-Ichi Ginko (the First Bank, Limited). 2. That 
we take ¥2,250,000 out of several kinds of reserve fund 
and apply that amount to the payment of new capital, so 
as to make the total capital ¥4,500,000. 3. That after 
deducting ¥2,250,000 for the additional capital and clearing 
off doubtful debts out of the reserves, the remainder, 
¥140,130, be held as the reserve fund of the Bank. Thus 
the First National Bank was dissolved and the Dai-Ichi 
Ginko incorporated under the new Bank Act. 



Various Deposits 4,174,309.18 

Bills Payable 157,835.41 

Redemption Funds for Bank Notes 5,516,000.00 

Suspense Accounts of the Main Office and 

Branches ;. 1,427,458.89 

Due to other Banks ... 2,162,752.41 

Authorized Capital 21,500,000.00 

Reserve Funds 9,200,000.00 

Reserve Funds for New Branches 50,000.00 

Suspense Dividend 11,158.78 

Profit brought forward from last term ... 757,243.42 

Net profit for the current half-year 781,236.48 

Total 135,284,794.20 



( 89 ) 



Assets. Yen, 

Loans 11,509,059.79 

Overdrafts 6,737,330.32 

Discounting Bills 67,883.996.13 

Documentary Bills 1,439,979.89 

National and Local Bonds 21,036,347.42 

Share-certificates and Debentures of Com- 
panies 3,530,049.17 

Due from other Banks 1,916,080.58 

Uncalled Capital 8,062,500.00 

Bank's premises, property, and Furniture... 2,361,284.30 

Expenditure for new building 18,621.85 

Deposits 1,069,305.69 

Cash in hand 9.720,239.06 

Total 135,284,794.20 

PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT. 

For half-yearly period ending the 31st December, 1915. 

Ceedit. 

Discounting Commissions 1,803,083.87 

Commissions 71,750.54 

Interest on public and Companies Bonds ... 441,429.62 
Redemption of interest on public and Com- 
panies Bonds 1,296.00 

Miscellaneous Interests 22,690.74 

Balance brought forward from last term ... 757,243.42 

Total 3,097,494.19 

Debit. Yen. 

Interest 1,086,394.76 

Salaries 141,399.63 

Travelling Expenses 14,246.57 

Various Taxes 97,307.01 

Repairing Expenditures 15,362.34 

Miscellaneous Expenses 200,297.15 

Loss, Miscellaneous 4,006.83 

Profit for the current half-year 1,538,479.90 

Total ...• 3,097,494.19 



Gross Profit and Loss for Half Year 
Ending 318t December, 1915. 

Profit. Yen. 

Main Office 1,082,652.50 

Branch Offices 1,264,588.12 



Total 



Main Office ... 
Branch Offices 



Loss. 



Total 

Distribution of Profit. 

Net profit for the current half-year 

Balance brought forward from last Account. 



Total ... 



••• ••• 



Distribution. 

■"vIlVlH ■«« •«» a«* ••• ••* ••* ■«■ ••« 

Pension and remuneration of Officers 

Eeserve Fund 

Dividend for the old shares (¥2.50 per 

share, 10^ per year) 

Dividend for the New shares (¥0.625 per 

share, 10^ per annum) 

Balance brought forward from last current 

wCrill ••• aaa ••• ••• ••« ••• ••• ••• 



2,347,240.62 

Yen. 

676,550.12 
889,454.02 

1,566,004.14 
Yen, 

781,236.48 
757,243.42 

1,538,479.90 

Yen. 

39,060.00 

15.620.00 

100,000.00 

537,500.00 

134,375.00 

711,924.90 



Total 

The Officers are as follows : — 

Y. Sasaki Esq 

Baron H. Mitsui 

T. KuMAGAi Esq 

Y. KusAKA Esq 

S. Sasaki Esq 

Prince Y. Tokuqawa 

T. DoGi Esq 

J. Odaea Esq 



1,538,479.90 



President. 
Director. 



Auditor. 



( 90 ) 



DAI-SAN GINKO. 



(THE THIRD BANK. LTD.) 



THE Bank 18 the outgrowth of the Third National Bank 
established in December, 1876, in accordance with 
the provisions of the National Bank Act, and at first a 
capital of ¥200,000 was subscribed. Asa National Bank 
the house was authorized to issue bank notes on the security 
of negotiable securities deposited with the National 
Treasury. The capital was increased to ¥300,000 in June, 
1878, and the scope of business was much enlarged. In 
July, 1882, the bank amalgamated the 44th National Bank 
and with it the capital was enlarged to' ¥1,000,000. 

In November, 1896, simultaneously with the expiry of 
the business term as a National Bank, the house was 
converted into a joint stock concern and assumed the present 
style, when the capital was doubled to ¥2,000,000. Again, 
in June, 1902, the 82nd Bank, Ltd., was amalgamated and 



amounted to ¥53,056,135.869 at the end of May, 
1916, while the general loans advanced amounted to 
¥40,973,322.39 at the same date. 

The bank has its head office at Sanchome, Kobuna-cho, 
Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, and thirteen branches at important 
cities in the country. 

The following are the bank's officers : — 

Director and 



Zenshiro Yasuda, Esq. 

Zenhachiro Yasuda, Esq. 
Zennosuke Yasuda, Esq. 
RiYEMON Nagai, Esq. ... 
Kyubei Ogura, Esq. ... 
Torataro Harada, Esq. 
Tamejiro Oqawa, Esq. 



f Direc 
■■■ ( President. 
... Managing Director. 
Director. 




THE THIRD BANK, TOKYO. 



the capital was augmented to ¥2,400,000. At present 
the bank has an authorised capital of ¥5,000,000, as the 
proprietary passed a decision in September, 1910, to 
increase it to that figure in view of the ever-growing 
dimensions of the bank's business. 

The bank is practically under the control of the 
Yasuda family, one of the greatest financial houses in the 
country, and follows the business principle of that house in 
every dealing. 

At present, of the authorised capital ¥4,350,000 is paid 
up and against it reserves of ¥3,400,000 are hehi. The 
splendid confidence the public places in the house is 
testified to by the fact that the deposits at the bank 



Shinkichi Miyajima, Esq 
Tadanao Akiyama, Esq. 
Zenzaburo Yasuda, Esq. 



Auditor. 



... Superintendent. 
Profit and Loss Account, June 30tii, 1916. 

Net profit for the term 291,597.57 

Brought over from last account 43,553.05 

Total 335,150.62 

To be distributed as follows : — 

Dividend on shares at 12^ per annum 261,000.00 

Bonuses for officers 25,000.00 

Carried forward to next account 49,160.62 



( 91 ) 



DAZAI GHOZO GINKO. 

(THE DAZAI SAVINGS BANK.) 



'T^HE Bank, with a capital of ¥500,000, carries on 

*- ordinary savings bank transactions at tlie head oflSce 

at No. 3, Shinyemon-cho, Nihorabashi-ku, Tokyo, and the 




MR. B. DAZAI. 



city branch at No. 76, Higashi-Kata-machi, Hongo-ku, 
Tokyo. The former was opened on April Ist, 1912, and the 
latter on December 1st, 1915. 

The Bank is of a comparatively recent origin, but enjoys 
a high degree of confidence and its business progresses with 
wonderful rapidity. This singularly rapid success won by 
the bank may be traced to the personal influence of the 
President and the business ability of the General Manager. 

The President, Mr. Bunzo Dazai, is a millionaire in 
Fukushima prefecture and, besides controlling the Bank in 
Tokyo, manages the Gomeikaisha Dazai Bank in his native 
prefecture. He is also connected with a number of business 
establishments in various capacities, the following being 
only a few of them : — 

The 107th Bank, Fukushima Prefecture; The Chiyoda 
Life Insurance Company, Tokyo; The Federated Co- 
operative Societies of Fukushima Prefecture. 

Mr. Hirosiii Kuga, the Director and General Manager, 
is a graduate of Meiji University and in banking business 
his ability is generally recognised. 



JUGO GINKO. 

(THE FIFTEENTH BANK, LIMITED). 



■"pHE Bank is often called the " Peers' Bank." Ori- 
ginally, indeed, the bank was organized by Peera of 
the Realm and controlled by their representatives. 

In 1876, when the Kinroku public bonds were issued 
and the lords of clans and Court nobles were given new 
bonds in exchange for their fiefs, it was proposed by the late 
Prince Iwakura, who was then a Minister of State, that a 
banking house should be established with capital contributed 
by those nobles who obtained a vast amount of public bonds, 
and his proposal was carried out. 

When the bank was established next year it was styled 
the 15th National Bank, as one of the semi-official banking 
houses initiated under official protection on the American 
model. According to the National Bank Act the Bank was 
enabled to issue bank notes to the extent of 80 per cent, of 



the bank's capital against the security of public bonds 
deposited with the Government. As specie reserve against 
the issue of notes, currency to the extent of 20 percent, of 
the capital was also to be kept, Government inconvertible 
notes inclusive. 

Immediately after the establishment of the house the 
Satsuma rebellion broke out and military operations on a vast 
scale was necessitated. The bank advanced ¥15,000,000 
to the Government to assist in financing the large Army. 
In 1881, again, the bank served the State by financing the 
Japan Railway Company, which was then organized to lay 
railways in the North-Eastern Provinces and develop the 
great area of land under the auspices of Prince Iwakura. 

When the Japan-China war broke out and necessitated 
the Government floating a loan to the extent of ¥150,000,000 



( 92 ) 



at home, the bank took the lead to assist the success of the 
loan by taking up ¥17,000,000. The same patriotic tradi- 
tion was observed when the country went to war with Russia 
in 1904, the national loan then floated being subscribed to 
by the bank to the amount of ¥50,000,000. Then the 
shares of the bank were given the special privilege of being 
counted with the entailed properties of noble families on the 
same level as real estate. 

The original amount of the bank's capital was 
¥17,826,190, but when the National Bank Act was abolished 
the bank was renamed the Fifteenth Bank and the 
capital was increased to ¥18,000,000. However, in 1913 
the capital was further increased to ¥40,000,000. 

BALANCE SHEET, 31st DECEMBER, 1915. 

Debit. Yen. 

Capital 40,000,000.000 

Reserve Fund 5,240,000.000 



Account with Bank of Japan and other Yen. 

Banks ... 2,241,214.170 

Government Bonds (face value 

¥33,037,550.000) 21,148,422.500 

Other Securities 4,648,474.510 ; 

Credit Account (per contra) 2,760,150.080 

Due from other Banks and Agents 316,850.980 

Bank Premises, etc 445,^10.360 

Cash 4,879,995.130 

TotHl 83,973,934.590 

The latest profit and loss account is as follows : — 

Yen. 

Gross receipts for the term 2,461,638.040 

Gross disbursements for term ... 1,300,778.090 



Balance (net profit) 
Brought over from last account 



1,160,859.950 
952,558.220 




THE FIFTEENTH BANK, TOKYO. 



Deposits, Current Accounts, etc. 

Bills Payable 

Acceptances 

Due to other Banks and Agents 

Dividends Unpaid 

JrrOIlt ••• ... , „ 

Total 



Credit. 

Capital Unpaid 

Loans on Securities and Bills Discounted... 31,033,916.860 



Yen. 

33,409,984.270 

20,827.190 

2,760,150.080 

368,059.700 

1,495.180 

2,173,418.170 

83,973,934.590 

Yen. 

16,500,000.000 



Dividend equalization fund... 
Total 



60,000.000 
2,173,418.170 



This last amount is to be distributed as follows : — 

Reserve 100,000.000 

Fees for Directors and Auditors 58,000.000 

Dividend at 9 per cent, per annum 1,057,500.000 

Carried forward to next term 957,918.170 

The oflScers of the bank are as follows : — 

Hon. Iwao Matsukata President. 

Masayasu Naruse, Esq Vice-President. 



( 93 ) 



KAJIMA GINKO. 

(KAJIMA BANK.) 



UNDER the business style of the Kajima-ya the bank 
began its operations three hundred years ago in 
Osaka as financiers. While financing the Shogunate and 
different clans the house conducted the conversion of old 
coins and the dealings in coins and bullion in the old feudal 
times. After tlie Imperial Restoration the house made it 
its speciality to act as money changers. 




MR. Y. HOSHINO. 

It was in December, 1887, that the house was 
registered as a bank under the new banking act. While 
transacting general banking business the bank was ordered 
by the Government to act as agent for the National 
Treasury and managed the State Treasury business in 
Osaka. 

The bank i\as originally started as a private concern, 
but in June, 1893, it was converted into a limited partner- 
ship in accordance with the provisions of the old Com- 
mercial Code. In 1913 the bank enlarged its business 
scope by starting trust company business. 

Tlie bank has its head ofiice at Itchome Tosabori, 
Osaka, and branqhes at the following localities : — 
Minami Branch Osaka. 



Fukushima Branch 

Dotombori Branch 

Matsuyacho Branch 

Kawaguchi Branch 

Taishobashi Branch 

Takatsuki Branch 

Tokyo Branch 

Kyoto Branch 

Kobe Branch 

Okayama Branch 

Fukuyama Branch 

Tokuyaraa Branch 

The officers are as follows ; 

Keizo Hirooka, Esq 

YuKiNORi HosHiNO, Esq. , 
Seijiro Gion, Esq. ... . 



Osaka. 



Tokyo. 

Kyoto. 

Kobe. 

Okayama. 

Fukuyama. 

Tokuyama. 



President. 
Managing Director. 
Director. 



The financial standing of the house stood at the end of 
June, 1915, as follows : — 

Yen. 

Capital 1,000,000 

Reserve 1,400,000 

Deposits 42,847,182 

Loans 31,039,178 

Public bonds, debentures, and shares owned ... 9,18,0669 



Mr. Yukinori Hoshino, Managing Director of the bank, 
was born in Nagasaki prefecture in 1871, second son of 
Yukiyoshi Hoshino, a samurai of Shimabara Clan. 

When young he went to America, and gained much 
commercial experience. After iiis return home, he entered 
the Hirooka & Co. ; subsequently lie joined the Kajima 
Bank, where he maintains tlie present office. 

He wrote several books, among them a book called " The 
"Various Courses of the Development of Financial Resources 
in Germany " is widely read by the public. 

He is now interested in the Daido Life Insurance Co. 
and tlie Osaka Electric Lamp Co. in addition to the bank. 



( 94 ) 



KiSHIMOTO GINKO. 

(THE KISHIMOTO BANK.) 



a'^HE bank was founded by the late Mr. Toyotaro 
Kishimoto, M.P., in 1894 and was at first his private 
enterprise. Owing to the rapid increase in its business it 

was in 1913 converted "into a 
joint stock concern, however, and 
its capital was increased to 
¥1,000,000. 

According to the latest 
report, deposits with the house 
amount to ¥9,338,185, which 
represents more than nine times 
the capital of the bank and shows 
how great is the public trust 
in the house. The reserve, how- 
ever, is comparatively small, be- 
cause only three years have 
elapsed since its conversion into 
a joint stock concern. 

The bank has its head office 
at No. 14, 2-chome Minato-cho, 
Kobe, with branches in various 
localities. 




MR. S. KISHIMOTO. 



Kobe Branch 

Minato Higashi Branch , 

Fukiai Branch , 

Minami Branch 

Nishi Branch 

Okayama Branch ... , 



Kobe. 



Okayama. 



The bank also has a large number of correspondents 
throughout the country and in Chosen. 

The bank's management, which consists of the following 
well-known business men in Kobe, has quite successfully 
conducted its afiaiis and its business ability is generally 
thought to be of an uncommon order. 



The Officers are as follows : — 

Shintaro Kishimoto, Esq. 
KoTARO Kishimoto, Esq. 
JiNSUKE Kishimoto, Esq. 

KiSABUEO Tanaka, Esq 

Buhei Kinoshita, Esq 

Eikichi Hibaho, Esq 



President. 
Director. 



Auditor. 



Profit and Loss Account for the Six Months 
Ending 31st December, 1915. 

Yen. 

Gross receipts for the terra 307,981.510 

Gross disbursements for the term 263,574.920 

Balance (net profit) 54,406.590 

Brought over from last account 3,975.170 



Total 



58,381.760 




THE KISHIMOTO BANK, KOBE. 

To be distributed as follows : — 

Reserve fund 

Keserve for depreciation of Bank Premises ... 

Dividend on Shares 

Pension fund for Officials 

Carried forward to the next term 



Yen. 

30,000.000 
2,000.000 

20,000.000 
2,000.000 
4,381.760 



( 95 ) 



KYOTO SHOKO GINKO. 

(THE KYOTO COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL BANK.) 



THIS Bank, which carries on general banking transac- 
tions on a very large scale in the old capital of the 
Empire, exercises great influence over the business circles 




THE KYOTO COMMERCIAL AND 
INDUSTRIAL BANK. 

in that city. It is also one of the oldest establishments in 
that city, for it was founded there in October, 1886, and 



has since enjoyed an unbroken record of prosperity and 
expansion. 

At present the bank has an authorized capital of 
¥3,000,000, of which ¥1,800,000 is paid up. Against 
this amount the bank keeps a reserve of ¥535,000 in 
round figures. 

The bank has its head office at Rokkaku Minamiiru, 
Higashinotoin, Kyoto, and branches in various localities : — 



Nishijin Branch 
Matsubara Branch 
Osaka Branch ... 



... Kyoto. 



.. Osaka. 



This banking establishment is managed by the 
following business-men, widely known as representative 
commercial men in the city : — 

Gentaro Tanaka, Esq. ... 
JiNZABORO Naiki, Esq. ... 

RisuKK Inoue, Esq 

Inosuke Watanabe, Esq. 
Shoshichi Matsui, Esq.... 
JlHEI NiSHIMUKA, Esq. ... 
Shozaemon Kubota, Esq. 
Kazuha Tanaka, Esq. .. 



President. 
Director. 



Auditor. 



MEIJI GINKO. 

(THE MEIjI BANK.) 



THE Meiji Bank of Nagoya was established in Decem- 
ber, 1896, by prominent business men of the city 
including Messrs. M. Okuda, S. Suzuki and T. Kondo. In 




THE MEIJI BANK, NAGOYA. 



January, 1908, Mr. Kinnosuke Kanno assumed the pre- 
sidency which post he has held up to the present time. The 
bank was organized with a capital of ¥3,000,000; with an 
amHlgaraation with the Atsuta Bank the capital was in- 
creased to ¥3,600,000, of which ¥2,340,000 was paid up. 

BALANCE SHEET, JUNE 30th, 1916. 

Assets. Yen. 

Loans 374,639.210 

Overdrafts 1,944,840.025 

Bills Discounted 12,958,500.130 

Documentary Drafts 285,077.310 

Foreign Bills 13,452.460 

Deposits 20,280.479 

Current Deposits in the Bank of Japan ... 31,880.030 

Loans Due from Other Banks 2,692,562.210 

National Loan Bonds 3,247,769.900 



( 96 ) 



Local Loan Bonds 
Debentures 
Share Certificates 
Capital Unpaid ... 
Land and Buildings 

Specie 

Convertible Notes 
Cheques and Bills 

Total 

Fixed Deposits ... 
Current Deposits 
Special Deposits... 
Bank Bills 



Liabilities. 



Yen. 
127,400.000 
293,800.000 
483,500.000 
1,260,000.000 
398,238.000 
12,340.777 
709,837.000 
268,284.900 

25,122,402.431 

Yen. 

5,867,542.820 

9,996,430.595 

644,805.153 

34,435.560 



Yen. 

Bills Payable 1,600,000.000 

Due to Correspondents 2,708,679.810 

Discount Received and Interest Unpaid ... 100,136.690 

Capital 3,600,000.000 

Legal Reserve Fund 414,000.000 

Special Reserve Fund 20,000.000 

Reserve Fund for Pensions 1,000.000 

Dividend Unpaid 1,480.000 

Profits for the Half Year 133,891.333 

Total 25,122,402.431 

The following are the bank's officers : — 

KiNNOSUKE Kanno, Esq President. 

Narataro Omiwa, Esq Vice-President. 



MITSUBISHI GOSHIKWAISHA GINKOBU. 

(THE MITSUBISHI GOSHIKWAISHA BANKING DEPARTMENT.) 



THE department is the outgrowth of the 119th National 
Bank, which was founded in the early days of the 
Meiji Era in accordance with the National Bank Act. The 
Mitsu Bishi Company purchased the whole establishment in 
May, 1885, but the concern was maintained under the old 



ment's capital has been ¥1,000,000 since its creation, but 
its reserve now amounts to ¥8,800,000. 

The department's head office is situated at No. 1, 
Itcliome Yayesu-clio, Kojimachi-ku, Tokyo, branch offices 
being located in other Cities". 




THE MITSUBISHI BANKING DEPARTMENT, TOKYO. 



style up to October, 1895, when it was converted into a 
department of the Mitsu Bishi Company. 

The department transacts general banking business, 
foreign exchange business and trust dealings. The depart- 



Fukagawa Branch Tokyo. 

Osaka Branch and Nakanoshima Branch. Osaka. 

Kobe Branch Kobe. 

Kyoto Branch Kyoto. 



( 97 ) 



The partners in the company are Barons Koyata 
Iwasaki and Hisaya Iwasaki, but the department's affairs 
are managed by the following officers : — 

Manzo Kushida, Esq Manager. 

KiKUO AoKi, Esq Sub-Manager. 

ToRU Otobe, Esq 

KiYOMA Kawazoye, Esq. 

SoBUN Yamamuro, Esq. ... 

The position of the department which is most sound, as 
is clearly seen in its recent statements of accounts, whicli 
are fully reproduced under : — 

BALANCE SHEET, SIst DECEMBER, 1915. 



Interest on Bonds and Securities 
Sundry Profits 



215,420.88 
13,366.47 



Liabilities. 
v/apitai ... ... ..( ... ... ... ... ... 

Deposits 

Bills Payable 

Due to other Banks 

Bills re-DiscouDted 

Brought forward from Last Profit and Loss 

Account 

Net Profit for the Half- Year 

Total 

Assets. 

Advances 

Overdrafts 

Bills Discounted 

Government Bonds 

Other Bonds and Securities 

Due from other Banks 

Cash on Hand and in Banks 



Yen. 

1,000,000.00 

65,819,251.04 

21,907.24 

167,047.74 

1,500,000.00 

8,271,074.47 
321,175,23 

77,100,455.72 

Yen. 

14,998,736.77 

4,674,196.73 

46,272,411.50 

2,739,011.27 

3,679,012.85 

158,293.20 

4,578,973.40 

Total 77,100,455.72 

Profit and Loss Account for the Half- Year 



Ending 31st December, 1915. 

Interest 

Commission 

Discount 

Current Expenses including Salaries, Taxes 
and other Charges 

Sundry Losses 

Transferred to the General Account of the 
Company as Profit for the Half Year at 
the rate of 10 per cent, per annum 

Balance carried forward to next Account... 



Yen. 
1,611,676.69 
677.37 
113,360.38 

200,778.68 
56.94 



50,000.00 
8,542,249.70 



Total 

Balance brought 

Account , 

Interest 

Commission 

Discount 



forward from Last 



10,518,799.76 

Yen. 

8,271,074.47 

731,661.51 

32,963.38 

1,254,310.05 



Total 10,518,799.76 

BALANCE SHEET, 30th JUNE, 1916. 

Liabilities. Yen. 

Capital r. 1,000,000.00 

Deposits 78,614,032.53 

Bills Payable 31,760.63 

Due to other Banks 354,672.11 

Bills re-Discounted 1,500,000.00 

Interest Accrued on Deposits 285,990.49 

Rebate on Bills Discounted not yet due ... 263,620.52 
Brought forward from Last Profit and Loss 

Account 8,542,249.70 

Net Profit for the Half- Year 391,241.18 



J.Ul'H'l ••• ••• ••• ••• ■•■ 

Assets. 

Advances 

Overdrafts 

Bills Discounted 

Government Bonds 

Other Bonds and Securities 

New Building 

Due from other Banks 

Cash on Hand and in Banks 



90,983,567.06 

Yen. 
7,975,048.37 
8,616,281.32 
59,693,130.61 
4,733,421.76 
3,745,651,65 

85,000.00 
2,054,149.05 
4,080,884,30 



J.01H1 a** ••• ••• ••• ••• ••* ••• 

Profit and Loss Account for the 
Ending 30th June, 1916, 

Interest 

Commission 

Discount 

Current Expenses including Salaries, Taxes 
and other Charges 

Sundry Losses 

Transferred to tlie General Account of the 
Company as Profit for the Half- Year at 
the late of 10 per cent, per annum 

Balance carried forward to next Account... 



90,983,667.06 

Half- Year 
Yen. 
1,997,583.84 
40,477.44 
366,098.37 

183,970.12 
13,228.93 



50,000,00 
8,883,490,88 



Total 11,534,849.58 

Balance brought forward from Last Yen, 

Account 8,542,249.70 

Interest ,.. 919,960.93 

Commission 77,879.07 

Discount 1,474,833.24 

Interest on Bonds and Securities 353,218.58 

Profit from the Sale of Bonds and Securities. 156,858.86 

Sundry Profite 9,849.20 



Total 



11.534,849.58 



( 98 ) 



MITSUI GINKO. 

(THE MITSUI BANK, LIMITED.) 



rriHE Mitsui Bank, reconstituted as a Joint Slock 
JL Company, is one of the oldest and largest institu- 
tions in the Empire of Japan. It has grown out of 
the Mitsui Exchange House founded at Kyoto, Osaka and 
Yedo (now Tokyo) by Takatoshi Mitsui over two centuries 
ago. The celebrated financier invented and organised for 
the first time in Japan a special banking system^ and this, 
be it remembered, was done when the knowledge of banking 
or bills of exchange was entirely lacking in this country, 
and wiien in England the business of modern banking was 
first introduced by the New Fashioned Goldsmiths or 
Bankers in London, It is to be noted that the Bank of 
England, which has been the principal bank not only in 



authorised by the Government to issue convertible notes 
amounting to three million yen, and subsequently the 
Hokkaido notes for two and a half million yen. At 
that time, the Mitsui Exchange House had already been 
projecting the transformation of its institution into a central 
bank of Japan, but in the meanwhile, the Government 
adopting the American banking system, the National Bank 
Act was promulgated. In 1872, the First National Bank 
was established at Tokyo, and the Mitsuis became its 
principal shareholders. Thus although the Mitsuis had to 
abandon their project, they never ceased to be a prominent 
power in the financial dominion of the country. In 1876, 
the Mitsui Bank was organized upon a joint stock system, 




THE MITSUI BANK, TOKYO. 



England but in the whole world, was projected by William 
Paterson and incorporated in England just three years after 
the appointment of Takahira, the eldest son of Takayoshi, 
by the Tokugawa Shogunate as its Exchange Controller in 
1691. With the Restoration of 186S an important epoch 
was opened in the history of the firm. While the govern- 
ment under the direct control of the Crown was in process 
of consolidation, the Mitsuis acted as its principal financial 
agents, and it was in a great measure due to this that the 
country was enabled to bridge over a great crisis with which 
it was then threatened from within and without. In 1871, 
three years after the Meiji Bestoratiou, the firm was 



having revised and enlarged not only the oriental business 
of the Exchange House, but also its general banking 
transactions, which were increased to a vast extent. In 
1893, by the enactment of the Commercial Code, it was 
remodelled as an unlimited liability concern. 

RECENT DEVELOPMENT. 

The financial development of late years has necessitated 
the reconstitution of this partnership as a joint stock 
company to meet the requirements of the present situation. 
Thus, from November 1st, 1909, it waa transformed into a 
joint stock bank under the style of The Mitsui Bank, 



( 99 ) 



Limited, in the same place of business and under the same 
management as before, with a fully paid-up capital of 
Twenty Million yen. The great improvements made of 
late in the management of the Bank have more and more 
strengthened its foundation, aud have given it a distinct 
position and unrivalled credit, and it stands foremost 
amongst Japanese banks in the magnitude of its business. 

By means of an ample reserve of liquid assets the bank 
is enabled at all times to meet the demands of depositors and 
to protect its own safety in case of emergencies. The 
striking growth of deposits since 1904 is an ample evidence 
of its credit and fame. 

Always bearing in mind the possible requirements of 
its clients, the Bank decided in 1913 to inaugurate a 
Foreign Department to provide facilities for its over-sea 
clients. This was done after a careful investigation of 
foreign trade relations, and the scheme has proved to be a 
complete success. The Department has an adequate world- 
wide system of foreign agents and correspondents, among 
whom will be found leading Banks in London, New York, 
Paris, etc., and the service has been brought up to the 
highest standard consistent with modern banking. 

BUSINESS TRANSACTED. 
The bank conducts not only every kind of general 
domestic banking business, but foreign exchange operations, 
and other international business, of which the more important 
items are as follows : — 

1. Receiving Deposits. 

2. Discounting Bills. 

3. Making Loans and Advances. 

4. Operating in home and foreign exchange business. 

5. Safe Deposit, Collection. 

6. Floating, or underwriting National Loan Bonds, 
Debentures, and the Shares of Companies. 

7. Making acceptances of Bills and giving guarantees 
on Securities. 

8. Undertaking Trust Business with reference to 
Mortgage debentures. 

The bank is now controlled by the following gentlemen 
who are universally recognized as among the ablest bankers 
in Japan : — 

Baron Taeayasu Mitsui ... 

Senkichiro Hayakawa, Esq. 

Seihin Ikeda, Esq 

Umekichi Yoneyama, Esq... 
MoRiNOsuKE Mitsui, Esq. ... 

Takuma Dan, Esq 

Senjiro Watanabe, Esq. ... 
ToKUEMON Mitsui, Esq. 
Shogoro Hatano, Esq. 
Ken Hayashi, Esq 



f President and 
( Director. 
Managing Director. 



Director. 



The following accounts show the latest condition of the 
bank's affairs : — 

BALANCE SHEET. 



(Ending June 30tb, 1916). 
Liabilities. 



Capital 

Reserve Fund 

Deposits 

Time 66,421,269.09 

Demand 57,372,895.08 

Due to other Bunks 

Due to Foreign Correspondents 

Miscellaneous Accounts 

Balance Brought Forward 

Net Profit for the Half-year 



Yen. 

20,000,000.00 

7,800,000.00 

123,794,164.17 



496,770.55 

4,419,020.71 

54,791.19 

353,133.40 
1,274,886.15 



Auditor. 



Total 


•*• .** 


168,192,766.17 


Assets. 




Yen. 


Cash in hand and with other Banks 


*■• ... 


12.800,115.98 


Loans and Advances 


.•• ... 


118,114,188.79 


Loans & Overdrafts 46,259,951.34 




Bills Discounted 57,536,246.13 




Foreign Bills 14,317,991.32 




vjrovernraent Bonds 





14,669,974.65 


Consols 


••• ••• 


2,822,564,10 


Shares and Debentures 





4,581,150.00 


Due from other Banks 




106,713.15 


Due from Foreign Correspondents 





353,172.73 


Miscellaneous Accounts 


••• ... 


10,347.47 


Landed Property & Bank Premises 


••• ••• 


4,734,539.35 


X0(8>1 «•• ••• ••• ••• ••« 


158,192,766.17 


PROFIT AND LOSS 


ACCOUNT. 






Yen. 


By Net Profit for the Half-year... 


■•• •■• 


1,274,886.15 


By Balance Brought Forward ... 


*•• ••• 


35^133.40 


Total 


1,628,019.55 


Distributed as Follows : 








Yen. 


To Reserve Fund 





600,000.00 


„ Bonuses and Allowances 


.•• ... 


127,400.00 


„ Dividend 





500,000.00 


Balance Carried Forward 





400,619.55 



Total 



1,628,019.55 



C i«o ) 



NAGOYA GINKO. 



(THE NAGOYA BANK.) 



rriHE Nagoya Bank is vpell known as one of the three 

-*- great banks in Nagoya. It came into existence as 

far back as 1889. The bank has a capital of ¥3,000,000 




MR. K. TSUNEKAWA. 

(¥2,280,000 paid up) and reserve funds amounting to 
¥1,500,000. Deposits at the end of June last amounted to 
over ¥23,973,281 and loans over ¥20,804,165. The bank's 
officers are a| follows:— 



Tf.isukb Taki, Esq 

JoYEMON Kasugai, Esq. ... 

HEIYEMON/rAKI, Esq. 

HiKOBEi Kato, Esq 

Zenshichi Morimoto, Esq. 

KOSABURO TsUNEKAWA, Esq. 

Shobei Koide, Esq 

KiHEi Watanabe, Esq. ... 



President. 
Director. 



Auditor. 



BALANCE SHEET, JUNE 30th, 1916. 

Assets. Yen. 

Loans 593,200.160 

Overdrafts 2,398,069.466 

Bills discounted 17,524,460.620 

Documentary drafts 278,436.120 

Deposits 1,603,275.587 

Current deposits 259,267.070 

Due from 1848 correspondents 1,382,738.050 

National and Local loan bonds 3,402,015.890 

Foreign loan bonds 351,500.000 

Debenture stocks and share certificates ... 862,320.200 

Land and buildings 572,805.287 

Furniture 8,681.630 

Expenditure for the establishment of branch 

offices 18,662,140 

Capital to be paid up 720,000.000 

Cash on hand 1,638,178.843 



Total 



Liabilities. 



The bank has the head office in Temma-cho, Nishiku 
and branches in various localities. 



Public deposits 

Fixed „ 

Current „ 

Petty current deposits 

Special deposits 

Bank bills 

Bills payable 

Interest unpaid 

Unexpired discount 

Due to 1580 correspondents ... 

Capital 

Reserve found 

Special reserve fund 

Profit for the half year 

Total 



.31,613,611.063 

Yen. 

. 511,548.070 

. 9,194,041.546 

. 8,060,460.158 

. 5,709,061.163 

. 495,590.888 
2,581.260 

. 100,000.000 

. 109,158.500 
80,803.390 

. 2,661,950.485 

; 3,000,000.000 

. 1,260,000,000 

. 190,000.000 

. 238,415.603 

.31,613,611.063 



( 101 ) 



NANIWA GINKO. 

(THE NANIWA BANK, LIMITED.) 



THE Naoiwa Bank is one of the greatest banking 
establishments, not only in Osaka, where it has 
its headquarters, but tliroughout the country. It was 
established in December, 1877, as the 32nd National Bank 

in accordance with tiie 
National Bank Act, 
and had its head ofBce 
in Osaka and brancli 
offices in Tokyo and 
Sakai. The actual 
operations were, how- 
ever, opened in the 
early part of the 
following year with a 
capital of ¥360,000. 

Simultaneously 
with the conversion 
of tlie concern into a 
private corporation in 
January, 1898, tlie 
bank changed its style 
to the Naniwa Bank, 
Ltd., at the same 
time incorporating the 
5th National Bank. The capital of the bank was in- 
creased as the result of these changes to ¥1,800,000, and 
the offices of the incorporated bank were converted into 
branch offices. 

Soon the bank's capital grew to ¥2,400,000. Another 
extension was effected in February, 1899, to ¥2,700,000, 
when the Osaka Meiji Bank was amalgamated, and its 
offices in Osaka were made branch offices. In March of the 
same year the Kobe branch office was created. In July, 

1901, the Osaka Kyoritsu Bank was incorporated and the 
capital was again increased to ¥3,700,000, and in June, 

1902, it rose to ¥4,000,000, as the Osaka Commercial and 
Industrial Bank was amalgamated. 

During the following few years branch offices were 
established in Hyogo and Kagoshima prefectures. In 
Wakayama, too, the bank extended its business by incor- 
porating the Wakayama Bank and converting it into a 
branch office in 1909, when the bank further increased its 
capital to ¥7,000,000. In July, 1914, another extension 
was effected in the bank's scope of business by the incor- 




MR. M. MATSUKATA 



poration of the Tennoji Bank. Now the bank has an 
authorised capital of ¥14,000,000, and according to the 
report made at the close of the first half of 1916 deposits 
amounted to ¥53,410,000, while reserve funds readied a 
total of ¥2,800,000. General loans totalled ¥45,560,000 
and the half year's net income ¥500,000, enabling the 
bank to distribute a dividend at 9 per cent, per annum. 

The Board of officers consists of the following business 



President. 
Managing Director. 
Director. 



Masao Matsukata, Esq. ... 

Kanesato Aiko, Esq , 

RiNNosuKE Yamanaka, Elsq 

TOKUHEI Taku, Esq „ 

Naoteru Kataoka, Esq „ 

Chikaakira Takasaki, Esq ... „ 

Tatsurokuro Yamamoto, Esq. ... „ 

Masayuki Hirata, Esq Auditors. 

Keizo Ukita, Esq „ 

The head office is situated at Nichome Awaji-cho, 
Higashi-ku, Osaka, and the bank has seven branch offices 
in Osaka, two branch offices in Tokyo, one at Sakai, one at 
Wakayama, two in Kobe, one at Fukuoka, and tiiree in 
Kagoshima prefecture. 



Mr. KhuesHto 
the bank, wiis 
born in Kagoshima 
in November, 1862, 
a son of a samurai 
of the Kagoshima 
Clan. From his 
early days he has 
always been con- 
nected with Banking 
and other lines of 
business. He is now 
interested in the 
Kagoshima Electric 
Tramway Company, 
the Kagoshima 
Steamship and Fish- 
ing Company, and 
other companies, in 
addition to the bank. 



Aiko, Managing Director of 




MR. K. AIKO. 



( 102 ) 



- M I G I N K . 

(THE O-MI BANK.) 



THE bank was founcJed iu March, 1894, by a group of 
influential business men hailing from Omi Province 
with an authorized capital of ¥500,000. The head office 
was established at 2-chorae Bingo-machi, Higashi-ku 
Osaka, in spite of its business style, and in Omi Province 
only a branch office was opened at Echigawa. The 
bank's affairs were fairly favourable and in July, 1895, 
another branch office was established in Kyoto. 




THE OMI BANK, OSAKA. 

In 1896 when Mr. Shinsuke Koizumi was the President 
of the house tiie bank's authorized capital was increased to 
¥1,000,000 and everything seemed to go on quite well with 
the house, but then a serious reaction set in to the boom 
after the war and the bank was involved in it. 

The bank had to reduce its capital fund and introduce 
a thorough reform in its management, thereby endeavouring 



to tide over its financial difficulties. Thus the bank was 
able to adjust its business. 

After the thorough reform the branch office at 
Notogawa, Omi Province, was established and business 
operations at all offices were conducted on more active and 
business-like lines. 

In 1901, another reform was carried out with success 
and the public confidence in the house steadily in- 
creased. Deposits began to come in iu increasing amounts 
and the concern was entirely restored to its former healthy 
condition in 1905 when the Nagahama Bank at Nagahama, 
Omi Province, was incorporated and converted into a local 
branch of the bank. 

In June, 1906, the Koto Bank at Takamiya, Omi 
Province, was amalgamated and converted into a branch 
office, and the bank's authorized capital was increased 
to ¥2,000,000, another branch being inaugurated at 
Yokaichi. 

Later the Hino and tHe Otsu Banks, local banking 
houses in Omi Province, were incorporated and when 
Mr. K. Ikeda became the President in July, 1910, the house 
became one of the leading banking establishments in Osaka 
and districts. By degrees branch offices in Osaka were 
increased and in 1915 another was inaugurated in Tokyo. 

Now the bank's capital stands at ¥4,000,000 and in 
every respect it compares favourably with any of the first 
rate banking houses in the Empire. The bank now holds 
deposits to the amount of ¥45,000,000 in round figures. 



OSAKA CHOCHIKU GINKO. 

(THE OSAKA SAVINGS BANK.) 



ryHE Bank is one of the foremost savings banks in the 
JL country, its operations extending over a period of 
twenty-six years. 

The bank lias a reerve of ¥1,750,000 against 
its capital of ¥500,000. Tlie deposits amount to 
¥24,618,545.448. 

The highest degree of prudence is shown by the bank's 



management in the investment of deposits, ¥16,135,856 
being pliiced in public bonds, according to the latest report 
of the bank, which figure represents nearly 80 per cent, of 
the whole liabilities. In discounted bills ¥3,767,873.31 is 
invested, while in less liquid debentures and shares only 
¥1,301,000 is placed. 

The bank has its head office at 3-chorae Fushimi-cho, 



( 103 ) 



Higashi-ku, Osaka, and its management consists of the 
following well-known business leaders in Osaka : — 




KicHiROBEi Yamaquohi, Esq. 

MiNAO HiRASE, Esq 

Kasuke Koshino, Esq. 

SUTEZO TOYAMA, Esq. 

ToKUHEi Taku, Esq 

JUNZASaRO ASHIDA, Esq. ... 



President. 
Managing Director. 
Director. 

ft 
Auditor. 



Profit and Loss Account for the Half- Year 
TO June 30th, 1916. 

Yen. 

Profit for the Term 916,478.601 

Brought over from the Previous Term ... 158,184.883 



THE OSAKA SAVINGS BANK. 



Total 

Loss for the Term 

Net profits 

To be distributed as follows : — 

Legal Reserve Fund ... 

Special Reserve Fund 

Pension fund for officials 

Bonuses and allowances to officials 

Dividend on Shares 

Carried forward to the next term 



1,074,663.484 
840,601.816 
234,061.668 

20,000.000 
80,000.000 
10,000.000 
9,800.000 
14,680.000 
99,581.668 



SANJU-SHI GINKO. 

(THE 3 4TH BANK.) 



THE bank was founded in March, 1878, as a national 
bank in accordance with the National Bank Act 
then promulgated. In September, 1897, it was decided to 
convert it into a private bank and the authorized capital of 
the bank was increased from ¥375,000 to ¥1,500,000. 

Immediately after its conversion into a private banking 
house it amalgamated the 12l8t Bank, Ltd. and at the same 
time increased its capital to ¥2,100,000. Again in April, 
1899, the Nippon Churitsu Bank, Ltd., and the Nippon 
Kyodo Bank, Ltd. were amalgamated and in December, 
1901, the Yugyo Bank, Ltd. was bought up, wiien the 
bank's capital was augmented to ¥5,000,000. Further, 
in March, 1912, the bank's capital was increased to 
¥10,000,000, which was fully paid up in July, 1914, thus 
making the house one of the greatest banking houses in 
Japan. 

The bank transacts ordinary banking business, at the 
same time carrying on trust business. Foreign exchange 
business is also conducted. A new feature worth special 
mention is the Industrial Capitalization Department the 
bank has lately created for the purpose of financing various 
industries in need of help. 



The bank's head office is situated at Shichome Korai- 
bashi, Higashi-ku, Osaka, and it has the following branch 

ofiices : — 

Minami Branch and Terama Branch 

Zakoba Branch and Horie Branch 

Nipponbashi Branch 

Tokyo Branch 

Kyoto Branch 

Kobe Branch and Hyogo Branch... 

Hiroshima Branch 

Tokushima Branch 

Nara Branch 

Taihoku Branch and Tainan Branch 

The management of the bank is conducted under the 
able control of Mr. Kenzo Koyama. 

Following is a summary from latest accounts: — 

Deposits 

General Loans 

Negotiable Securities (mostly Government 

Bonds) 

Cash on Hand including Deposits with the 

Bank of Japan ... 

Capital ' 

XbcScFvc ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• *•• 



Osaka. 

,1 

<■, 
Tokyo. 
Kyoto. 
Kobe. 
Hiroshima. 
Tokushima. 
Nara. 
Taiwan. 



47,410.000 
42,000,000 

13,310,000 

6,590,000 

10,000.000 

4,000,000 



( 104 ) 



SHNU GINKO. 

(THE 40TH BANK.) 



THE Bank was organized in November, 1878, in 
Tatebayashi, Gumma Prefecture in accordance 
withjthe National Bank Act, branches being subse- 
quently' established in various localities. The capital of 

¥150,000 was gra- 
dually increased until 
in 1913 it reached 
¥2,000,000. In July 
of 1898 the term of 
business of the na- 
tional banks expired 
when the bank was 
reorganized into 
a joint stock com- 
pany in accordance 
with the special act 
providing for the dis- 
posal of these banks. 
Simultaneously with 
this the bank removed 
its head office to 
Kiryumachi, chang- 
ing the office in 
Tatebayashi into a 
branch. The capital at the reorganization of the bank 
was ¥840,000. But in March, 1906, it was decreased by 
¥160,080. In the ensuing month it was increased by 
¥120,080, amounting thus to ¥800,000 in all. In August, 
1909, the capital was increased by ¥400,000, and in February 
1913 by ¥800,000, totalling ¥2,000,000. 
The bank's officers are as follows : — 




MR. S. MORI. 



S. Mori, Esq. 
F. OSAWA, Esq. 

E.AoKf, Esq. 



President and Director. 

Managing Director. 

Assistant Managing 
Director. 

Director. 



S. Ayuba, Esq 

R. KoMURO, Esq „ 

S. Chiba, Esq „ 

K. KoBOTA, Esq „ 

Z. Takahashi, Esq „ 

BALANCE SHEET. 
For the period January Ist, 1916, to June 30th, 1916. 
Assets. Yen. 

Fixed Loans 639,371.590 

Overdrafts 1,089,684.730 



Yen. 

Bills Discounted 5,691,032.050 

Documentary Drafts ... 5,499.520 

Deposits 167.179.370 

Sundry Accounts 5,091.190 

National Loan Bonds 165,807.470 

Various debentures 26,580.000 

Various Shares 13,300.000 

Due from 156 Correspondents 99,577.950 

Capital to be Paid Up 400,000.000 

Land and Buildings for Business Purposes.. ] 55,431.600 

Furniture 6,770.000 

Land and Buildings 37,560.530 

Forfeited Pawned Articles 15,454.270 

Cash on Hand 11,467.710 

Paper Money 242,827.000 

Bills and Cheques 66,130.330 

Total 8,838,765.310 




THE FORTIETH BANK, KIRYU. 



Yen. 



Liabilities. 
Deposit of the Principal of and Interest on 

the National Loans 38.320 

Public Deposits 17,680.509 

Fixed Deposits 2,331,940.110 



( 105 ) 



Current Deposits 

Petty Current Deposits 
Special Current Deposits 

Special Deposits 

Bills Payable 

Fixed Loans 

Bills Rediscounted ... . 
Due to 239 correspondents 
Interest Unpaid 



Yen. 

1,578,205.177 Unexpired Interest 

908,556.350 Capital 

46,518.920 Reserve Fund 

1,119,163.784 Special reserve fund 

20,348.390 Fund for Retiring Allowances 

100,000.000 Dividend on Shares Unpaid , 

9,900.000 Brought forward from the Previous Period. 

168,730.630 Net Profits for the Period 

6,979.150 Total 



Yen. 

32,569.360 

2,000,000.000 

245,000.000 

105,000.000 

10,000.000 

312.130 

84,903.630 

53.018.850 

8,838,765.310 



SODA GINKO. 

(THE SODA BANK AND THE SODA SAVINGS BANK.) 



THE SOila Bank is a partnership founded with an 
authorised capital of ¥300,000 in September, 1895. 
Under the able management of the late Mr. Kinsaku Soda, 
the founder and Pre- 
sident, the bank's busi- 
ness thrived and public 
deposits increased so 
much that in 1915 its 
capital was increased to 
¥1,000,000. 

The Soila Savings 
Bank was founded as 
a joint stock concern 
in January, 1900, with 
an authorised capital 
of ¥50,000. This esta- 
blishment also met with 
a ready support in 
January, 1915, and the 
authorised capital was 
increased to ¥500,000. 

The rapidity of the 
banks* expansion is shown in the following table, showing 
the public deposits : — 




sOda. 



End of June, 1901 
End of June, 1906 
End of June, 1911 
End of June, 1916 
August 10th, 1916 



Soda 

Bank. 

Yen. 

1,148,850 

5.059,383 

6,718,642 

11,113,651 

12,265,047 



Soda 

Savings Bank. 

Yen. 

172,343 

1,650,206 

3,225,937 

5,750,304 

6,128.856 



The founder of these banks, the late Mr. Kinsaku SOda, 
was born at Oniishi, Gumma prefecture, in the last years of 
the Shogunate regime, and in his thirteenth year came up 
to Yokohamn. 



In 1895 he established the Soda Bank, and on the 
strength of its success he inaugurated the SOda Savings 
Bank, in 1900. His prudent yet enterprising management 
made the banks under his control a signal success and in 
1915 the capital of the establishments was increased enor- 
mously. He was all the time interested in public afiairs, 
and in 1906 was recommended for membership in the 
House of Peers by the largest ratepayers of Kanagawa pre- 
fecture ; while in office he was decorated with the Fourth Class 
Imperial Order of the Sacred Treasure. He died in March, 
1915, prior to which he was granted the Court rank of Ju- 
Rokui in recognition of his public services. 

On the death of his father Dr. Eiichiro Soda assumed 
the Presidency of the banks and is still in office. After his 
graduation from the Tokyo Higher Commercial School in 
1904 he went to Europe via America to prosecute his 
studies. After a tour he settled down at Cambridge, 
England, and studied Economics. In 1905 he went to 
Germany and stayed there till the Spring of 1912, studying 
economics, law, and philosophy. He also studied in 
France. Before he returned home in 1913 he received the 
degree of doctor in Germany. At home just before he 
assumed the presidency of the banks he received the degree 
of Hogaku Hakushi. 

Dr. ^ oda is assisted in the management of the bauks 
by Messrs. Toichi Ssda and Shinzaburo Soda. The former 
is his brother-in-law and his present capacity in the banks 
is Active Member and Manager of the Soda Bank and 
Director of the S5da Savings Bank. 

The Soda family conducts another enterprises besides 
the banks. The Yokohama Merchandise Warehouse Com- 
pany, Ltd. was originally organized as a partnership, but 
recently it has been converted into a joint stock company 
with an authorised capital of ¥1,000,000. 



C 106 ) 



TANAKA GINKO. 

(THE TANAKA BANK.) 



THE Tanaka Bank was establised in 1883 with the 
capital of ¥300,000. When tlie capital of the bank 
was increased to ¥500,000 in 1893 the bank was changed 
to a limited partnership from a joint stock company. 
Mr. Heihachi Tanaka is the President of the bank. 
The bank's head office is situated at No. 7, Sakamoto- 
cho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, branches being established in 
Yokohama and Otaru, Hokkaido. 



BALANCE SHEET, ON 30th 

Liabilities. 

Various Deposits 

Due to Other Banks 

Authorized Capital 

Various Reserve Funds 

Brought over from last Account... 
Net Profit for the Term 

Total 



JUNE. 1916. 

Yen. 

... 3,586,467.160 

6,859.710 

500,000.000 

825,894.650 

30,504.120 

39,380.330 



4,989,105.970 



Assets. Yen. 

Loans and Overdrafts 1,447,658.720 

Bills Discounted 2,777,936.410 

Government Bonds 446,000.000 

Due from Other Banks 611.020 

Land, Building, and Furniture of the Bank.. 28,999.640 

Casli on Hand and Deposits 287,900.180 

Total 4,989,105.970 

Profit and Loss Account fob the Half Year 
ENDING 30th June 1916. 

Net Profit for the Term and Brought over Yen. 

from Last Account 69,884.450 

To be distributed as follows : — 

Legal Reserve Fund 12,000.000 

Bonus for Officials 4,000.000 

Dividend on Shares 8 per cent, per Annum. 20,000.000 

Carried forward to tlie Next Term 33,884.450 



YASUDA GINKO. 

(THE YASUDA BANK.) 



THE Yasuda Bank wns founded in January, 1880, as a 
private concern by Mr. Zenjiro Yasuda. To tiike 
over and modernize the business he inaugurated and 
managed it under the style of the Yasuda Shoten. At first 




^^^^^^/V 



THE VASbDA BANK, TOKYO. 



the authorised capital of the house was only ¥200,000, but 
it is now ¥10,000,000, and is a joint stock company with its 
capital fully paid up. 

The bank is still controlled by Mr. Zenjiro Yasuda as 
General Superviser and the business is 
conducted in a manner characteristic of 
tliat financial magnate. Soundness and 
conservative solidarity are the two pro- 
minent features of the business method the 
bank pursues. 

The bank's head ofiice is situated 
at Kobuna-cho, Nihombashi-ku, Tokyo, 
branches being established in Fuku- 
shima, Utsunomiya, Akita, Aomori, 
Sendai, Wakamatsu, Morioka, Nakamura, 
Koriyama, Yokote, Honjo, Yonezawa, 
Sakata. 

The bank conducts ordinary banking 
transactions, foreign exchange business, 
and trust business, and the result has 
■••••■ been very good, thanks to the prudent 
and sound management of all transac- 



( 107 ) 



tions, aa shown in tlie latest statement of accounts 
given below : — 



BALANCE SHEET. 

Assets. 

Advances and overdrafts 

Bills discounted and documentary bills 

Due from other banks 

Negotiable securities and bullion 

Real estate 

Office grounds, buildings, and furniture 
Cash on hand and deposits 

Total 



Liabilities. 



Capital .. 
Reserve .. 



Yen. 

17,696,682.960 

24,918,297.960 

1,293,040,640 

22,190,963.600 

30,977.700 

224,530.840 

7,944,894.528 



74,299,378.228 

Yen. 
10,000,000.000 
2,400,000.000 



Deposits 

Remittance bills 

Due to other banks 

Net profit for the term 

Brought over from last account 

Total ... 

Tlie following are the bank's oflBcers :- 



Yen. 

57,296.514.618 

577,117.630 

3,423,741.130 

549,797.550 

62,207.300 

74,299,378.228 



Zennosuke Yasuda, Esq. 
Zenshieo Yasuda, Esq... 
Zenqoro Yasuda, Esq.... 
YosHio Yasuda, Esq. ... 
Zenzaburo Yasuda, Esq. 
Zenjiro Yasuda, Esq. ... 



... President. 

... Director. 

... ,, 

... Auditor. 

... Superintendent. 

... Adviser. 



YUSHiN GINKO. 

(THE YUSHIN BANK.) 



THE Yushin Bank was established in July, 1895, at 
Yanagi-cho, Kofu, Yamannshi Prefecture, with a 
capital of f 30,000, as a Favini;s Bank. The business has 




steadily developed, with the result that the capital is now 
¥1,200,000, the reserve fund being ¥123,000 and deposits 
over ¥1,800.000. Since April, 1911, the bank has trans- 
acted all kinds of banking business. It has four branches 
in the provinces and two agencies in the city, with many 
correspondents in various places. 

Tanimura Branch Yamannshi Prefecture. 

Ichikawa Branch „ 

Otsuki Branch „ 

Yoshida Branch „ 



THE YUSHIN BANK, KOFU. 



The list of oflScials is as follows ; 

Kyomei Oki, Esq 

Zennosuke Kawaguchi, Esq.- 

Uhei Naito, Esq 

Chuzaburo Terada, Esq. ... 

KiHEiJi Terada, Esq 

Hachiyemon Kobayashi, Esq. 
SkWAJiRO Watanabe, Esq. ... 
Masatomo Maki, Esq 



President. 
Director. 



Auditor. 



Manager. 



( 108 ) 



TOKYO GINKO SHUKAUO 



(THE TOKYO BANKERS' ASSOCIATION.) 



THE origin of the Tokyo Bankers' Association dates 
back to 1877, when Mr. (now Baron) Eiichi 
Shibusawa, the then President of the First National Bank, 
established an association called " the Takuzen Kwai " 
with a view to effecting co-operation among banks in the 




President, 
MR. S. HAYAKAWA. 




Vice-President, 
MR. Y. SASAKI. 



Vice-President, 
MR. I. MATSUKATA. 



city. The Association was composed of national and 
private banks, eleven in number, the First National Bank, 
the Fifteenth Bank and the Mitsui Bank being Directors. 
These banks held a conference once a month in the office of 
the Association established in the First National Bank. 
The number of members gradually increased to 30, when 
the Takuzen Kwai was dissolved and the Tokyo Bankers' 
Association was organized by a committee previously 
appointed, consisting of the Third, Sixth, Twentieth, Thirty- 
third, and One Hundredth National Banks. That was in 
September 1880. In December, 1886, the Association 
commenced the publication of a monthly called the Ginko 
Tsushin-roku (Bankers' Reports) for the mutual benefit of 
the members, giving in it valuable reports contributed 
by them. The monthly published by the Association was 
highly welcomed by business men in general. Owing to 
the gradual increase in tiie number of members the Associa- 
tion later established the Bankers' Club for the recreation of 
the members. Some time afterwards the Association 
appointed Baron Eiichi Shibusawa President, and Messrs. 
Ryohei Toyokawa and Kokichi Sonoda Vice-Presidents, 
when the members numbered 144, representing 54 banks. 



In December, 1910, the Association was reorganized into a 
corporate juridical person, and at the same time articles of 
association were drawn up. The total amount of the funds 
is fixed at ¥150,000. Directors are composed of one 
President and two Vice-Presidents, who are to be elected 
from among the members. An ordinary general meeting 
is called in January and July each year, and an extra 
general meeting may be convened whenever deemed 
necessary by the Directors. Only those banks having head 
or branch offices either in the Capital or Yokohama are 
qualified for membership. 

In order to meet the increasing expansion of the 
business, a site was chosen at No. 5, Nichome Yurakucho, 
Kojimachi in October, 1913, for the construction of a new 
and larger building. The office was completed in Septem- 
ber of the following year and opened on September 26th, 
1916. At present the Association is affiliated with 67 banks. 
The monthly published by the Association, referred to above, 
was at first intended for circulation among bankers only, 
but constant eflTorts to improve it and keep in line with the 
best magazines of the world, won for it such popularity that 
it was welcomed by all business men throughout the land. 
In 1897, at a meeting of the Tokyo Bankers' Association a 




THE TOKYO BANKERS' ASSO;'! ATIO.N. 

resolution was passed to further improve the magazine both 
in its style and contents. Since then, wiiile giving full 
records of all domestic topics of material interest to bankers 
it has devoted a large share of its space to the economic and 
financial outlook of the world at large. 



( 109 ) 



BCVCRAGCS AND PROVISiOMS. 



DAI-NIPPON BEER KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE DAI-NIPPJN BREWERY CO, LTD.) 




THERE was not a single beer brewery in Japan until 
about 18T3, when Mr. Copland, an American, opened 
a brewery at Yokohama in the name of the Spring Valley 
Co. The demand for beer in Japan gradually grew and 
the importation of beer from abroad increased year after 
year. Hence the rise of beer-brewing in Japan was a 
foregone conclusion. In time various Japanese brewery 
companies were organized, and their future development 
is hopeful. The brewing of beer now occupies an 
important place in the 
industrial activity of 
Japan. It is especially 
noticeable that the 
Dai - Nippon Brewery 
Co., Ltd., as referred 
to in these pages, 
stands at tiie head of 
all the various Japan- 
ese beer breweries in 
respect to lis large 
scale of operations and 
its principle of con- 
stantly endeavouring to 
improve its products. 
A HISTORY OF 
THE COMPANY. 

The Dai-Nippon 
Brewery Co., Ltd., 
whose head office is 

located at Meguro-mura in the suburbs of Tokyo, Was 
established in April, 1906. The Company under the present 
title is a new concern, but its organization was effected by 
the combine of three big Companies, the Nippon, Sapporo 
and Osaka Brewery Cos. The history of these old Com- 
panies is described below : — 

The Nippjn Brewery Co,, Ltd. — This Company was 
established in Tokyo in 1887 with a capital of ¥150,000 
(£15,000). The amount of capital was increased to 
¥450,000 (£45,000) in 1889 and the brewery enlarged, but 






THE MEGURO BREWERY, TOKYO. 



owing to the commercial depression of the next year the 
capital was reduced to ¥300,000 (£30,000). Mr. Kyohei 
Makoshi assumed the Presidentship of the Company, and 
under his management the market was extended. Again, 
after the 1894-5 war, the demand for beer increased very 
much, and the business of the Company was still further 
improved. The amount of capital was increased several 
times up to 1897, when it reached ¥1,300,000 (£130,000). 
The Company erected additional works and built a malt- 
house, while sending 
experts to Europe and 
America to study and 
investigate the busi- 
ness. As its business 
operations developed, 
the Company was able 
to declare a 20 or 30 
per cent, dividend per 
annum from 1897, and 
the annual output ex- 
ceeded 40,000 koku, 
(1 koku = 39.7033 
gallons). The name of 
"Yebisu" Beer, 
brewed by this Com- 
pany, became very 
popular both at home 
and abroad. In 1906, 
the Company was 
amrtigamated with the Sapporo and Osaka Brewery Cos. 
under the name of the Dai-Nijipon Brewery Co., Ltd. 

The Sappoho Brewery Co , Ltd. — This was the first 
l)rewery opened by Japanese in this country. In 1876, the 
Hokkaido Colonization Boart), finding that Hokkaido was 
suitable for the cultivation of the barley and hops necessary 
fur the brewing of beer, established a brewery at Sapporo, 
while encouraging tiie production of ihfse materials. 'Ihis 
Government brewery, the origin of the Sapporo Brewery 
Co., was transferred to Messrs. Okura & Co., upon the 



-m.^ 



( 110 ) 



closing of the Colonization Board. In 1888, Mr. K, Okura, 
in co-operation with Baron E. Shibusawa, ISfr. S. Asaiio and 
others, organized the Sapporo Brewery Co., Ltd., with a 
capital of ¥70,000 (£7,000), Baron Shibusawa having been 
recommended as President of the Company. In 1894, Mr. 
S. Uyemura entered the Company as Managing Director 
and endeavoured to extend the market. In consequence of 
the increased demand for beer after the 1894-5 war, the 
scope of the Company's business was further extended. In 
1896, the Company increased its capital to ¥300,000 
(£30,000). At that time the output of the Company not 
only met the increased demand at home but was also ex- 
ported to Korsakoff, Vladivostock, Fusan, Port Arthur, 
Dalny, Newchwaug, Tientsin, Shanghai, Manila, Singapore, 
etc. In 1899, the capital was increased to ¥600,000 
(£60,000) according to another expansion programme. 
The Company then established a bottle factory and erected 
an additional building in the malt-house at Sapporo. In 
1903, a brancii brewery was constructed in Tokyo, and in 
the next year the capital was finally increased to one 
million yen (£100,000) for a still further extension of the 
business. The Company had always been exerting the 
utmost care to improve the quality of its product, the 
" Sapporo " lager-beer gaining a specially favourable 
reputation. The Company was combined with the Nippon 
and Osaka Brewery Cos. in 1906 to form the Dai-Nippon 
Brewery Co., Ltd, 

The Osaka Brewery Co., Ltd, — The establishment 
of this company was formed in Osaka with a capitrtl of 
¥150,000 (£15,000) in 1887, one month later than the 
Nippon Brewery Co., Messrs. K. Torii and S. Toyama of 
Osaka acting as promoters. On account of the inactivity in 
economic circles in Japan at that time, the Company was 
unable to open business until towards the end of 1891, when 
it commenced brewing beer as well as manufacturing malt. 
The next year, the Company began selling the " Asahi " 
Beer, which was favourably received by consumers, who 
voted its quality excellent. In view of the great success of 
its sales the Company increased the amount of its capital to 
¥2.50,000 (£25,000) in 1893. A bottle factory was erected 
in the same year. In 1895, the capital was again increased 
to ¥400,000 (£40,000), while additional works were con- 
structed and new plants installed. On account of the 
activity of commerce after tlio 1894-5 war and in con- 
sequence of tiie position of the Company being convenient 
for the exportation of its product to China, Korea and other 
foreign countries the market was steadily extended. The 
Company's capital was increased to one million yen 
(£100,000) in 1896 and further to li million yen (£150,000) 
in 1905. While the Company was preparing to meet the 
increasing demand after the 1904-5 war, the combine with 



the Nippon and Sapporo Brewery Co. was effected — in 1906 
— leading to the organization of the Dai-Nippon Brewery 
Co., Ltd. 

The three big brewery companies in Japan, hitherto 
engaged in strong competition, were thus harmoniously 
combined under conditions that promised a great develop- 
ment of their business. As already stated, the beer brewing 
industry in Japan was started only recently, and though its 
progress has made comparatively great strides, this industry 
is yet far behind the industry in Europe and America, so 
that the existence of minor companies and the subsequent 
competition between them are detrimental to the develop- 
ment of their respective businesses, as to the progress of the 
general industry in Japan. This is the reason why the said 
three big companies were amalgamated and, therefore, the 
beer-brewing industry in Japan may be said to have been 
nearly monopolized by the Dai-Nippon Brewery Co. 

DEVELOPMENT AFTER THE COMBINE. 

The combination of the three companies having been 
effected in 1906, the Dai-Nippon Brewery Co., Ltd., 
purchased the whole property and business right of the 
Tokyo Beer Brewery Co. in January of the next year and 
installed a new plant in that brewery. In 1908, the capital 
was increased to twelve million yen (£1,200,000). The 
Company possesses works at Meguro, Azuraabashi, Suita, 
Sapporo and Hodogaya. The arrangements in the different 
works may be briefly described as follows : — 

MEGURO WORKS. 

The Meguro Works, located in the village of Meguro, 
about four miles from Tokyo City, covering over AfiOO Uubo, 
were the property of the late Nippon Brewery Co. which 
here brewed the famous "Yebisu" Beer. The annual 
output is 50,000 koku (1 koku='69.70S8 gallons). The malt- 
house attached to the present works uses germinating pots 
according to tlie " Galland " system instead of the ordinary 
"floor" system. Barley steeped in water is put into large 
cylindrical pots, each of about 20 koku capacity. In 
these pots the barley is artificially germinated by moisture 
and heat properly arranged by a speciHl process. The 
operations under this system are free from dirt, which is 
inevitable in the " floor " process, and produce malt of the 
best quality. In the brewery compound is the Yebisu 
Garden, covering 3,000 Uubo, which can accommodate large 
parties of visitors. The Yebisu railway station is near the 
brewery, afibrding facilities for visitors, who, as a matter of 
fact, are attracted to the garden in large numbers, 

AZUMABASHI WORKS, 
Located at Mukojima, Tokyo, along the famous river 
of Sumida, these works command a fine view. During the 



( in ) 



cherry season in the spring, crowds visit the locality. The 
present works, the branch brewery of the late Sapporo 
Brewery Co., are engaged in brewing " Sapporo " Beer, 
etc. This brewery is now able to produce 50,000 hoku a 
year. The location of tlie brewery was formerly the site of 
Lord Satake's mansion and comprises a picturesque land- 
scape garden, called Koyo-en. This garden is known 
among foreigners under the name of the Satake Garden. 
It is constantly used for the reception of distinguished 
foreign visitors, being an ideal place for garden parties. 

SUITA WORKS. 

The works are erected along the trunk line of the 

Tokaido Railway to the north of Suita Station, seven miles 

from Osaka, many trains passing the brewery daily. This 

brewery, owned by the late Osaka Brewery Co., brews, 
exclusively, " Asahi " beer, A bottle-factory is attached 
to the brewery. 

SAPPORO WORKS. 

This brewery, located at Sapporo, Hokkaido, was 
originally established by the Hokkaido Colonization Board 
and later transferred to private management. The works 
became the property of the late Sapporo Brewery Co. in 
1888 and now possess a bottle-factory, a malt-house and a 
hop plantation. 

HODOGAYA WORKS. 

The works at Hodogaya, three miles west of Yokohama, 
were the property of the late Tokyo Brewery Co., the 
brewers of " Tokyo " Beer, but are at present manufacturing 
" Citron," a refreshing beverage, as a factory of the Dai- 
Nippon Brewery Co. 

OUTPUT OF THE BREWERIES. 

The total area of the above five works is about 160,000 
Uuho (1 <8m6o = 3.9538 square yards) and the buildings cover 
about 27,000 tsuho. Tlie aggregate annual output of beer 
is over 270,000 koku (1 Ao/fcM= 39.7033 gallons). The 
following are the manufactures of the Company : — 

" Yebisu " Beer ; " Asalii " Beer ; " Sapporo " Beer ; 
" Sapporo " Lager-Beer ; " Peace " Beer ; " Miinchen " 
Beer; "Asahi Special Light;" and "Citron," a new 
temperance drink. 

MARKETS. 
The Company's markets are in Taiwan, China, Chosen, 
the Philippines, Java, the Straits Settlements, Bangkok, 
Saigon, Australia, New Zealand and India as well as through- 
out Japan. The total value of beer exported from Japan 
during the year 1908 was about ¥1,200,000 (£120,000), of 
which about one million yen (£100,000) was exported by the 



Dai-Nippon Brewery Co., representing a little more than 70 
per cent, of the whole exports. In the domestic market the 
Company's manufactures represent 74 per cent, of the total 
consumption. 

HONOURS WON BY THE COMPANY. 

Tlie Company is patronized by the Imperial Household 
and by the Imperial Army and Navy. On the occasion of 
Prince Heinrich's visit to Japan, the Company liad the 
honour of presenting samples of its beer at his table and 
received an autograph letter of appreciation from His 
Highness. The Company is not only favoured with eulogies 
from the British and American Far Eastern Squadrons 
whenever they visit Japan, but has also been awarded 
medals of merit at various Exhibitions, both at home and 
abroad. The principal prizes received by the Company 
are :— Gold Medal at the World's Fair, Paris, 1900 ; Gold 
Medal at the Hanoi Exhibition, 1902 ; Grand Prix at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 190 i, and Grand 
Prize at the Anglo-Japanese Alliance Exhibition, 1910, the 
Tokyo Taisho Exhibition, 1914, the Colonial Exp. Semarang, 
1914, and Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 1915. 

Many testimonials have been granted to the Company 
by warships and others, appreciating the excellence of 
quality of its beer or certifying that the Company's 
manufactures have never been affected by tropical heat. 

FINANCES. 
Returns for 1900 show the Company's financial con- 
dition as follows : — 

Yen. 

Capital subscribed 12,000,000 

7,520,000 

675,000 

800,000 

14^ 

PERSONNEL. 
Now that the past and present of the Dai-Nippon 
Brewery Co., Ltd., have been given, the personnel of the 
foremost brewery in Japan may be introduced as follows : — 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 
K. Mako8HI, Esq Chairman Director. 



Capital paid up... 
Legal reserves 
Special reserves 
Dividend 



S. Uyemura, Esq. 
K. Okawa, Esq. 
M. Doi, Esq. ... 
S. Ohashi, Esq. 
T. Taku, Esq. ... 
S. Takasugi, Esq. 
W. Otsuka, Esq. 
J. Katsuka, Esq. 
H. Okawa, Esq. 



Managing Director. 
Director. 



Auditors. 



( 112 ) 



KABUTO BEER KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE KABUTO BREWERY CO., LTD.) 



THE Kabuto Brewery Co., Ltd. is one of the most 
active and enterprising companies of the isind in this 
country. The company is situated at Ginza, Tokyo. It 
was originally floated under the style of the Maru San 




: JltTlON OF THE HANDA BREWERY. 

Beer Brewery in 1886 by the Nakauo family, which is 
one of the largest and wealthiest brewers in Handa, 
Aichi prefecture, where the particular line of business has 
been maintained for many years on a great scale because of 
the excellence of the water produced there. The enterprise, 
which was then a private concern, was taken over just after 
the China-Japanese war by a group of business men in that 
district from the Nakano family and was organized as a 
joint stock company with a capital of ¥600,000. But still 
the name of " Maru San " was retained. 

The new company installed many up-to-date German 
machines in its factory at Handa, which was also rebuilt on 
a large scale, and when the remodelling of the plant and 
factory was effected both the brewing department and the 
engine department were placed under the control of able 
German experts. In 1899 the manufactures of the new 
company were for the first time placed on the market with 
the mark of " Kabuto," or helmet. 

Though it was of comparatively recent origin, it stood 
competition from the older establishments, and when the 
business boom came after the Russo-Japanese campaign the 
company increased its capital from ¥600,000 to ¥3,000,000. 
At the same time the company's head office was moved to 
Tokyo and branch ofiices were established in Osaka and 
Nagoya, the head office at Handa being converted into a 
factory. 

After the enlargement of the business scope the control 
of the company was placed in the hands of Mr. Kaichiro 
Nezu, and the whole energy of the company's staff, some of 



whom were in America to study the business, was concent- 
rated on the improvement of the manufactures. As the 
result the sales strikingly increased and another extension 
was necessitated. 

The factory at Handa covers an area of ground esti- 
mated at 12,000 tsubo and is equipped with five boilers, 
three engines, three motors, and many other machines of 
the latest types. A railway siding is laid between Handa 
Station and the company's grounds for the transportation 
of manufactures and raw materials. 

" Kabuto " beer is one of the best produced in Japan 
and its reputation at home is quite established. Overseas 
it has secured a market in Chosen, China, British India, 
Persia, Africa, Siam, the South Sea Islands, Australia, and 
otiier countries. In view of the ever-increasing demand, 
the company is despatching its employees to these countries 
and completing its connection with agents. 

The company has been 
granted many medals and 
prizes by industrial exhibi- 
tions, the following being 
a few of the most pro- 
minent : — Gold Medal, In- 
ternational Fair, Paris ; 
Ist Class Medal, 2nd Do- 
mestic Industrial Exhibi- 
tion ; Prize of Honour, 
Japano-Korean Mer- 
chandise Exhibition, Fusan; 
Gold Medal of Honour, 
Competitive Exhibition of 
Japanese Products ; Grand 
Prize of Honour, Nagoya 
Competitive Exhibition in 
commemoration of the Imperial Enthronement. 

The following are the officers of the company : — 

Kaichiro Nezu, Esq President. 

Ryokichi Nakano, Esq Director. 

Seiichi Iida, Esq „ 

Manjiro Suzuki, Esq „ 

ToRAJiRo Nakane, Esq. „ 

Ihei Nakajima, Esq „ 

Sen Suda, Esq „ 

Sadamu Murakami, Esq Auditor. 

Genzo Satake, Esq „ 




NEZU. 



( 113 ) 



KIRIN BEER KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 



(THE KIRIN BREWERY CO., LTD.) 



TO the newcomer who has only heard of Yokohama as a 
Japanese port, the spectacle of the extensive and 
flourishing works on the Bluff of the Kirin Brewery 
Co., Ltd., cannot fail to afford an agreeable surprise, and on 
hearing that Kirin Beer represents the recognised standard 
of beer in the East, and bids fair to contend with the best 
beers brewed in Germany or Austrin, one will not hesitate 
to admit that beer-brewing is now one of the most successful 
industries implanted in tliis country. It is not too much 
now to say that the brewery is carried on on the largest 
scale in the East, but it was some considerable time before 
it won its present prestige. Credit is due, in the first place, 
to the few far-sighted men who realised what may be called 



a few statistics : — The Company was originally registered in 
Hongkong in 1885 under the style of the Japan Brewery 
Company ; its capital amounted to some £5,000, and its 
possible output was limited to 75,000 gallons annually, 
which is even less than the output for one month of the 
present operations. Before that time two or three breweries 
had been started on a small scale, but their products having 
been much below the proper standard, they were driven out 
by beers imported from abroad, and in 1888 the total 
import amounted to some £46,000. But once the excellent 
quality of Kirin Beer btcame known among consumers, the 
importation vastly retrograded, and the road was paved for 
the successive establishment of the Yebisu and Asabi 




THE BREWERY, YOKOHAMA. 



tlie possibilities of beer in Japan, and the Far East generally ; 
and who had the courage to inaugurate the brewing industry 
in Yokohama on its present site ; and secondly, to the 
members of the business public, both foreign and domestic, 
who made possible the continual development by acquiring 
shares in the new undertaking. 

It may be well doubted, nevertheless, whether the 
original promoters of the brewery actually anticipated the 
extraordinary popularity soon to be attained by beer as a 
national beverage in Japan, almost superseding " sake " in 
the favour of the thirsty public. Nothing can better 
illustrate the astonishing strides made by this concern than 



Breweries in Tokyo and Osaka respectively. It is the privi- 
lege of this company to liave Kirin Beer consumed in the 
Imperial Household and among the upper classes of Japan in 
general. In 1899, the Company was registered in Japan 
under the name of the Japan Brewery Co., Ltd. ; its capital 
was increased to some £60,000, which amount was doubled 
later on, in 1906. In January, 1907, a technical change was 
made in the style of the Company, which became the Kirin 
Brewery Company, Ltd. Its capital amounts to about 
£250,000, which is fifty times the original amount, while 
the works are capable of producing 4,000,000 gallons 
annually, which is about fifty-three times the original output. 



( 114 ) 



lu view of these striking figures, bearing eloquent 
testimony to the energy and ability of the Directors and 
shareholders, it would be idle to set bounds to the future 
ramification of the Brewery's activity, or to the consumption 
of the celebrated Kirin Beer. 

The local and domestic trade of early days has now 
begun to conquer foreign markets. Kirin Beer finds 
buyers in China, Hongkong, Manila and Korea, on a scale 
which may seem rather limited to the European, American, 
and Japanese residents of these places, but still not to be 
despised. It is significant that the Chinese, unlike the 
Japanese, have not yet become totally converted to beer- 
drinking ; but should such a consummation ever be realised, 
as there is every indication to believe that it will, it is 
unquestionable that the business of this concern would 



receive a mighty impetus. A few years ago, a brewery was 
started in Tsing-tao, China, and another brewery is organised 
in Hongkong, and ere long the time will come when the 
Brewery must face heavy competition. What the future 
will be is a closed book, but it looks as if the Company 
which produces the best beer would hold the winning hand. 

The Company mostly owes its remarkable expansion to 
the ability of its sole-agents, Gomel Kaisha Meidi-ya, 
impor-ters and exporters, who iiave from the beginning done 
their utmost to push the sale of the beer throughout the 
country and China, under strenuous conditions. 

The business of the Company is conducted by a board 
of Directors, of which Mr. G. Youei is Managing Director 
and is assisted by Mr. S. Ida, Director and General 
Manager. 



MORINAGA SEIKA KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE MORINAGA CONFECTIONERY CO., LTD.) 



THIS Company is the largest of all confectionery con- 
cerns in the Orient and lias a capital of ¥500,000 
fully paid up. It is now managed on a joint stock basis, 
but was originally started as a private concern in 1899 by Mr. 
Taichiro Morinaga, the present President of the company, 

Mr. Morinaga went to America in 1888. At first he 
learnt his business at a San Francisco bakery, but after a 
stay of over four years he moved to a concern in New 
Orleans where he learnt how to manufacture many sorts of 
candy. Believing that he was well posted in the arts of 
American confectionery he returned to Japan in 1899 and 
started a small factory at No. 3, Tameike, Akasaka-ku, 
Tokyo. 

Thus the beginning of the colossal business was made, 
and in February, 1902, he was able to enlarge his works. 
The new factory, too, was found too small to handle the ever- 
increasing business in 1907, and the erection of the present 
factory at No. 12, 1-chome Tamachi, Shiba-ku, Tokyo, was 
necessitated. 

In 1910 the concern was converted into a joint stock 
company by Mr. Morinaga, with the support of many of his 
friends, in view of the necessity of further enlarging the 
business, and a branch was erected at 5-chome Koraibashi, 
Higashi-ku, Osaka, 

The company has two factories at present. One is 
situated at No. 12, 1-ohome Tamachi, Shiba-ku, Tokyo, and 



the other at Kitasliinagawa, a suburb of Tokyo. The area 
of land covered by these two factories amounts to over 4,000 
tsubo. At the factories 40 employees conduct business 
affairs and 20 experts manufacture many kinds of confec- 
tionery, the hands numbering over 3,000. 

At present the factories turn out all kinds of candy, 
bonbons, biscuits, and chocolates, besides the famous " Milk 
Caramel." The goods for the domestic market are produced 
to the extent of 25,000,000 pounds a year, while the 
products for the foreign market amount to 5,000,000 pounds 
a year. 

In Japan the company's manufactures are seen almost 
everywhere. Overseas also the market is steadily extending 
in Chosen, Manchuria, China, British India, Australia, 
Siam, and the South Sea Islands. 

The excellence of quality and the extensive sale of the 
company's manufactures are now very well appreciated, not 
only at home but overseas as well, the proof thereof being 
the number of medals the company has been awarded by 
more than twenty industrial exhibitions. The following 
are a few arranged in the order of date : — Grand medal of 
honour, Anglo-Japanese Alliance Exhibition, London ; 
Silver medal of honour, Tokyo-fu Industrial Exhibition, 
Tokyo; Grand medal of honour, Tokyo Taisho Industrial 
Exhibition, Tokyo ; Grand medal of honour, Samarang 
Industrial Exhibition, Java. 



( 116 ) 



TEfKOKU BEER KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 



(THE TEIKOKU BREWERY CO., 



'~r~*HIS company was started in 1910. On May 26tli, 
■^ 1912, the general meeting of organization was held 
in Moji and the company was legally brouglit into being on 
the 7th of the following month. The construction of the 
works was started on the 18th of the same month and 
completed in April 1913, and the brewing was operated on 
the 16th idem. The beer was first put on the market in 
July, 1913, under the name of " Sakura Beer." It was 




THE SAKURA BREWERY. 

soon in great demand and in view of the favourable situation, 
the company effected the first extension. As a result, the 
productive capacity increased from 15,000 to 51,000 koku 
(1 A;oiM= 39.7033 gallons). On October 30th the second 
instalment of shares was paid up, bringing the paid-up 
capital to ¥1,000,000. 

Following the outbreak of war in 1914, trade was 
dull, but with the advent of 1915, the market recovered 
its activity and with it the demand abroad increased. In 



President. 

I Managing 
\ Director, 

Director. 



Auditor. 



LTD.) 

order to meet the growing demand, the company effected 
the third extension in August, 1916. The present pro- 
ductive capacity is represented by 72,000 koku. 

The board of directors consists of the following : — 

Retsu Oka, Esq 

Iqahiko Sumida, Esq 

Masajiro Miyamoto, Esq 

ToRATAEo Udaka, Esq 

FuFDTARO Sekiya, Esq 

KOZABUEO KiSHI, Esq 

JlEO FUKUNAGA, Esq 

YosHio Kawai, Esq ... „ 

Kameichi IsHinA, Esq „ 

SOZABURO HiRANO, Esq „ 

The Company's markets are Taiwan, Chosen, Hong- 
kong, Straits Settlements, South India, Australia, etc., in 
addition to Japan. 

Tlie company is patronized by the Imperial House- 
hold and by the Imperial Army and Navy. The com- 
pany is not only popular among consumers in the 
above mentioned districts but has also been awarded 
Silver Medals and certificate of merit from the Tokyo 
Taisho Exhibition, 1914 ; two First Class Honourable 
Medals from the Okinawa Industrial Competitive Exhibi- 
tion of Kyushu, 1915 ; Gold Medal at the Panama Pacific 
International Exhibition, 1915. The company had the 
honour of receiving gracious Messages from the Throne for 
the encouragement of the National industry in November, 
1916, when grand military mauuoeuvres took place in 
Kyushu. 



( 116 ) 



TEIKOKU KOSEN XABUSHIKI KAISHA. 



(THE IMPERIAL MINERAL WATER CO, LTD.) 



THE above Company, whose principal stores are located 
in Tokyo and Osaka, are the owners of the spring 
of "Mitsuya" and "Peacock" brand Hirano Water. 
They were awarded a Gold Medal at the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition, 1904, a Commemoration Medal at the 
International Sanitary Exhibition, Dresden, a Prize of 
Honour at the International Exhibition, Milan, a Gold 
Medal of Honour at the Panama Pacific Exhibition, San 
Francisco, and a Gold Medal at the Tokyo Taisho Exhibi- 
tion, Tokyo. 

Mitsuya and Peacock brands of Hirano Water, being 
the first brands called Hirano Water, are prepared from a 
pure mineral water which flows from a spring in the valley 
of Hirano-mura, Kawabe-gun, Hyogo Prefecture, about two 
miles from Ikeda station on the Hankaku railway line, at 




PORTION OF THii MITSUYA CIDER FACTORY. 

the rate of over 600,000 gallons per day, while 28,000 
cubic feet of natural carbonic-acid gas is given ofi" daily. 

HISTORY OF THE SPRING. 
Tiie spring was first discovered by Miuamoto-no- 
Mitsunaka, a descendant of Emperor Seiwa, in the first 
year of the Tenroku Era, 939 years ago, and it was then 
proved to have great virtue. It is related that Raiko, a 
son of Minamoto-no-Mitsunaka, recovered from a serious 
illness on bathing in this spring, and that the Great Taiko 
once paid a visit to this district and was highly impressed 
by its wonders. Above all, in modern times the spring's 
" fortune," so to speak, was made by a favourable report by 
Prof. Gurlan, in the year 1873, be certifying that the 
water from the spring is a most appropriate beverage for 



table use. This imparted a great impetus to the bottling 
business of this spring, and since then the mineral water 
has grown in public favour as a beverage both at home and 
abroad. 

SUPERIORITY OF THE MITSUYA AND PEACOCK 
BRANDS OF HIRANO WATER. 
These brands of Hirano Water only contain natural 
carbonic-acid gas produced from the spring bottled according 
to a special method invented by the company, whilst other 
brands often contain artificial carbonic-acid gas. So the 
former produce a most refreshing effect, while the latter 
impart merely a fictitious stimulation, wiien served. 

EFFICACY OF THE MITSUYA AND PEACOCK 
BRANDS OF HIRANO WATER. 

It may be worth mentioning that there are three kinds 
of mineral water, namely, Alkaline, Saline and Chalybeate, 
each qualified as an excellent beverage. Now, the water, 
according to the analytical certificate made by Dr. C. Enoch, 
belongs to the class of Alkaline water, yet possesses a trace 
of both Saline and Chalybeate, so it is beneficial in cases of 
several diseases such as : — 

Catarrh, Nephritis, Constipation, Scrofula, Anfcraia, 
Laryngitis, Bronchitis, etc. 

Another analysis made by W. Lee Lewis, A. B., 

Instructor in Ciiemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, 

Wn., shows as under : — 

Seattle, Oct. 20th, 1903. 

The analysis of the sample of Mitsuya Hirano water 

submitted to the chemistry department of the University of 

Washington, October 11th, 1903, shows it to be a very pure 

water highly charged with carbon dioxide, making it a 

refreshing and wholesome drink. It also contains medicinal 

salts in solution, which rank it with the best natural mineral 

waters on the American market. 

Parts per M. 

684.994 

... ... 194.100 

15.220 

324.010 

737 

87.715 

320 

90.156 

080 

65.333 

1,283.734 



Solids dried at 125 degrees C. 

Loss on ignition 

Silicic acid 

Sodium chloride 

Potassium sulphate 

Potassium carbonate 

Ferric and aluminium oxides 

Calcium carbonate 

Magnesium carbonate 

Semi-combined carbon-dioxide 
Free carbon-dioxide 



( 117 ) 



THE GLIFFORD-WILKINSOH TANSAN MINERAL 

WATER GO. LTD. 



TANSAN is a palatable, effervescing drink and blends 
with spirits, wines, stout or milk. 
It has recently been proved that " Tansan " contains a 
higher percentage of " Radium " than any known mineral 
water. The Japan Advertiser, a Journal printed in Tokyo, 
recently contained the following article, which speaks for 
itself: 

HIGH RADIO ACTIVITY OF WILKIN- 
SON'S TANSAN. 

Interesting Discovery Made by Dr. Hattori of 
Imperial University. 

" Dr. Hattori, professor of pharmacology in the medical 
department of the Im- 
perial University re- 
cently visited the 
springs of the Clifford- 
Wilkinson Tansan 
Mineral Water Co., at 
Takaradzuka and has 
made a very interesting 
discovery of the high 
radio activity of Tansan. 

The examination of 
the water was made by 
means of an electroscope 
and the method of cir- 
culating air currents. 
On comparing the result 
with the standard 
(Curie's bottle) Tansan 
was found to contain 
a radium emanation of 
1147 X 109 Curie's (31 
macho) per litre at 17C. 

Most of the famous mineral table waters of the world 
have been subjected to a similar test and no water of this 
kind has been found to contain an emanation of more than 
17 mache. In the opinion of scientists an emanation of 28 
mache of radium is the minimum necessary for the radium 
in the water to be of benefit to health, the Tansan emana- 
tion being well above this minimum. In view of the well 
known properties of radium and its growing use in medical 
science, it is gratifying to know that a water of such high 
content should be found in Japan," 

American medical men know the value of " Tansan," 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF THE MOUNTAIN FROM THE DEPTH 

OF WHICH TANSAN FLOWS. 

THE BOTTLING WORKS COVER NEARLY 4 ACRES. 



for as long ago as 1909 (before the discovery of Radium) it 
was found so useful in the Hospitals specialising in intestinal 
troubles that Congress considered an extraordinary petition 
from the foremost American Medical Authorities (some two 
hundred in number), requesting remission of duty upon 
"Tansan" on account of its great value to the general 
public health. The Memorial was printed as Senate Docu- 
ment No. 124, and a copy of it, with the signatures attached, 
is framed in the Company's offices at Kobe. 

In view of all that has recently been said and written 
concerning " Tansan," a representative of the Kobe Herald 
made it his business to visit Takaradzuka, and see for him- 
self liow a modern and 
a model bottling works 
is conducted. 

Entering the works 
my first impression was 
of spaciousness, my next 
of all pervading ac- 
tivity. 

Tlie question of 
what to see first was 
settled by the manager, 
who conducted me 
through the bottle shed, 
with the remark that 
there were something 
over a million bottles, 
and led me thence to the 
bottle washing depart- 
ment. . . From the 
bottle washing depart- 
ment a little tramway 
runs'} to the bottling 
machinery, wliere the bottles are filled and corked by the 
most modern and approved machinery, and thence are 
carried to shelves where they lie till they are labelled, 
examined, and packed for export to one of the many ports 
between Vladivostock and Melbourne, Port Said and New 
York where Tansan finds favour. 

" Now come and see the Spring." ..." The great 
advantage we enjoy," said my guide, "is that the Spring is 
high above the level of the works. Consequently the water 
flows down to the machines, and no pumping, baling or 
handling is required. From first to last it is never touched 



( 118 ) 



by humau hand, and there is no possibility of contamination ; 
it flows from the Spring right into the bottles." .... 
Higher up the Hill, above the Spring, we looked down on 
the buildings below, across the river at the Tansan Siding, 
where no fewer that nine large trucks were being loaded, 
and down the river to the village where so many 
convalescents come to find fresh health and strength in tlie 
wonderful Niwo Baths. And as I looked, and remembered 
that Tansan was the delight not only of thousands of exiles, 
in China, in Singapore, in India, in the Philippines and in 
other more or less unhealthy climes, but was equally 
appreciated by the people of Australia, Canada and the 



United States, I felt what a debt of gratitude the World, or 
at any rate one half the world owed, and continues to owe 
to Mr, J. Clifford Wilkinson who discovered this wonderful 
water. To his foresight, to his determination in the face of 
manifest difficulties, to his unwearying labour, we are 
indebted for that greatest of all boons — an excellent water ; 
or as the Americans with their gift for felicitous phrases 
have it, for the choicest of all choice waters. 

Tansan has won the higliest awards at the Japan- 
British Exhibition, 1910; Liege, 1911; Cebu, 1914; 
Iloilo, 1914; Samarang, 1914; Taisho, Tokyo, 1914; 
Panama-Pacific Exhibition, 1915. 



YUSHUTSU SHOKUHIN KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE EXPORT FOODSTUFF CO., LTD.) 



T'HE seas around the island empire abound in finnish 
tribes, which number considerably more than 700. 
Seaweeds are also found to the number of over 400. From 
time immemorial these ricli natural resources in the seas 




MR. T. NABESHIMA. 



have been exploited by the people of the island empire. 
Japan has nearly always depended on foreign countries for 
part of her supply of foodstuffs but the people have never 
been in need of a foreign supply of marine products. Even 



in the time of the Tokugawa Shogunate marine industries 
were much developed and under Government protection the 
export to China was maintained. 

A^t present the annual output of marine products 
amounts to between ¥80,000,000 and ¥100,000,000. The 
export of marine products and manufactures thereof also 
comes up to over ¥10,000,000, in spite of the comparatively 
undeveloped state of the manufacturing department of the 
industry. 

The Export Foodstufi' Company was founded in 1912 
with an authorised capital of ¥250,000 with a view to 
improving the manufacture of foodstuffs, marine products in 
particular, and building up an overseas trade in this de- 
partment. The company now owns four fishing stations in 
Kamchatka, Russia, and produces canned red salmon and 
crabs. The products of the company are being taken in 
increasing quantities by London, Liverpool, and other 
European markets, as well as the South Sea islands. Thus 
in only a few years the company has already attained its 
aim and object. 

At present the company works with a paid-up capital 
of ¥187,500, and during the past terms dividends between 
10 and 20 per cent, have been distributed, with the result 
that it has attained a very stable reputation. The Com- 
pany is situated at No. 9 4-chome Hon-cho, Nihonbashi-ku, 
Tokyo, and the business of the concern is managed by 
Mr. Kinroku Ono, President and Mr. Taido Nabesbima, 
Managing Director. 



( 119 ) 



GCMCNT SCOTIOIN. 



AICHI CEMENT KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 



(THE AICHI CEMENT CO., LTD) 



THE Aiehi Cement Co., Ltd., stands at No. 184 
Higashiniaehi, Atsuta, Minarai-ku, Nagoya, over 
six cho from Atsuta Station on the T5kaid5 line. 

About thirty years ago Mr, Hansaku Tamura, 




THE ATSUTA WORKS, NAGOYA. 

established cement works at Atsuta. This concern, called 
the Kyogi Shokai, was the origin of the present Aichi 
Cement Company. Afterwards the Company was sold to 
Mr. K. Takashima, Yokohama; Mr. Y. Hattori, Nagoya; 



and Mr. H. Sakata, Tokyo ; who were fully convinced of the 
promising nature of tiie cement industry, and the business 
of cement manufacture was begun in April, 1888 and 
reorganized into a joint stock concern with a capital of 
¥120,000 in May, 1890. In 1897 the capital of the 
company was again increased to ¥500,000. At present the 
site of the works covers on area of over 25,000 tmiho. The 
subscribed capital is ¥1,200,000, of which ¥920,000 is paid 
up. The annual output amounts to 500,000 barrels. 
Specialities of the Aichi cement are the beautiful colour 
and fineness of quality. The works employ 800 hands. 
As for the materials, they are all produced in the districts 
not far from the works. Limestone abounds in the regions 
of Akasaka, Gifu prefecture, and clay in Chita-gun in 
Aichi prefecture. The cement is marketed in Japan, 
China, Southern isjands and Australia. 



The company's officers are as follows : — 



Kahei Takashima, Esq. ... 

KoJUKo Hattori, Esq. ... 

IsAO OiWA, Esq 

Koz5 FuJii, Esq 

Seisuke Kataoka, Esq. ... 



f President and 
[ Director. 
Director. 

If 

[ Director and 
[ Chief Manager. 

Auditor. 



ASANO CEMENT KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE ASANO CEMENT CO., LTD.) 



^P'HE Manufacture of Portland Cement was for the first 
-*- time started in Japan by the Asano Cement Manu- 
facturing Co , Ltd. The Restoration of Meiji brought about 
surprising changes in everything in Japan, and, along with 
the advancement of commerce and industry, all descriptions 
of foreign made articles were imported in huge bulk year 



tendency in foreign trade and to establish on a sound basis 
the national industrial independence, the authorities set 
about the manufacture of those articles which promised to be 
in great demand in Japan. Portland cement was included in 
the list of these articles, and, in 1871, the Government 
commenced its manufacture at Kiyosumi-eho, Fukagawa-ku, 



after year. Being desirous to do away with this unfavourable Tokyo. Owing to lack of proper experience, however, the 



( 120 ) 



running of the works incurred losses every year, and at last 
it was wound up. 

Subsequently, Mr. Asano, recognising the profitable 
nature of the industry, which at the same time conferred 
a good deal of benefit upon the nation, applied to and was 
granted from the Government the right of operating the 
works in April, 1881. In 1883, he purchased the whole 



1i 




\t\ I i B 



WTT lit mr t ' >^Tf»r" 



r-T-^Tr^» III I M n". 

r.'-if t r' 







. , THE FUKAGAWA WORKS, TOKYO. 

of the works and continued to carry on the industry. When 
two years had passed, the business condition of the works 
was very much improved as was also the quality of the 
produce. 

In order to meet the ever-growing demand for cement a 
further notable extension of the works was effected in 1885 
and a number of engineers were sent to V urope and America 
to investigate the condition of the cement manufacture there, 
or to prosecute studies on applied mechanics. In 1883, when 
the engineers returned from Europe and America, various 
effective alterations were introduced in the plant. These 
improvements were at once attended with success, and 60,000 
casks or thereabouts were constantly delivered to markets, 
the manufactured article being favourably comparable with 
the foreign make in quality and its popularity quickly 
increased. To meet the increasing volume of orders, the 
works established a branch in the city in 1888, and a 
branch at Moji in the course of the same year. The port of 
Moji produces materials for the manufacture of cement, such 
as lime-stone and sand, in plenty. 

As an outcome of the Chino- Japanese war, all industries 
were expanded in 1897, and the supply by all the cement 
manufacturing concerns fell far short of the demand. Just 
then Mr. Asano, who was on a tour of observation in Europe 
and America, obtained a plan by which a company could 
turn out several hundred casks of cement a day, and on 
returning to Japan, consulted with Baron Shibusawa and 
Messrs. Yasunishi, Okawa and Otaka, and transformed the 



system of the works into a limited partnership with a capital 
of ¥800,000 under the style of the Asano Cement Manu- 
facturing Co., Mr. Asano supervising the business of the 
company as managing director. 

Simultaneously with the completion of the extension of 
two other branch works, further improvements in the method 
of manufacture and more attentive selection of materials 
were instituted. Furthermore, machine tube mills were 
additionally provided. 

The conclusion of the Russo-Japanese war further 
accentuated the demand for cement, and in May of the same 
year, tlie capital was augmented to ¥5,000,000, and at the 
same time the branch works were enlarged to a considerable 
extent. 

The adoption of the latest machinery and the assiduity 
of the engineers and operatives of the company made its 
business more and more prosperous, and gradually the fame 
of Asano Cement was known far and wide, and it was 
exported abroad in ever increasing quantities. Thereupon, 
the company was changed into a joint stock concern and, 
with a paid-up capital of ¥5,000,000 at its disposal, the 
consolidation of its foundation was completed. Furthermore, 
the company erected a great factory at Oshima-Shinden, 
Tajiraa-mura, Tachibanaki-gori, Kanagawa prefecture. The 
site of the factory is situated on the sea-beach facing Tokyo 
Bay at a distance of some two miles from the town of 
Kawasaki and covers an area of 104,000 tsnbo. Besides the 
present area of land available, reclamation work to the 
extent of 2,500,000 tsubo is now being steadly pushed on. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



As a result of the amalgamation with the Hokkaido 
Cement Manufacturing Company the capital of the company 
has been enlarged to ¥7,180,000 and the annual output 
to 3,000,000 casks. 

The factories run by the company at present number 
five in all, viz., Tokyo, Moji, Hakodate, Kawasaki, and 
Takao (in Taiwan). 



( 121 ) 



SAKURA CEMENT KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE SAKURA PORTLAND CEMENT CO., LTD.) • 



THIS company easily ranks among the foremost 
Portland cement mills in Japan, though it is com- 

pMrativeiy of recent origin ; it enjoys a very prosperous 

overseas triule. 

It was establislied iu Osaka with a capital of ¥800,000 

in April, 1907, when 
the Portland cement 
market in this coun- 
try was booming after 
the great earthquake 
in San Francisco. At 
first twenty shaft 
kilns were installed 
witli the intention of 
producing 10,000 
barrels a month. At 
the same time the 
factory was equipped 
with a plant for the 
production of cokes. 

In February the 
following year the 
factory was cora- 

MR. M. SAKAMOTO. P^**®^. ^^^ ''^'""l 

operations viqtp com- 
menced ; limestone was taken from 
Shirosaki-mura, Hidaka-gun, Waka- 
yaraa Prefecture and Sekimae-mura, 
Ochi-gun, Ehime Prefecture, while 
clay was obtained at Akashi, Hyogo 
Prefecture and Tsushi-mura, Awaji 
province. Tlie manufactures of the 
company were soon acknowledged 
by the public as among the best in 
the market. 




In 1914 the company effected a radical reform in the 
company's mill ; the old shaft kilns were abolished and new 
rotary kilns, which are the largest in this country, and 
their accessories, coal pulverizers and electric automatic 
thermometers, were installed in their stead. Thus the 
purely mechanical processes of working were introduced 
instead of the rather out-of-date system of working adopted 
before. In the colour of the manufactures a great improve- 
ment was made at the same time, acting on the advice of 
buyers overseas. 

Accordingly the company's manufactures are best 
suited for the requirements of overseas buyers, which fact 
is well acknowledged by the consumers in British India and 
the South Seas islands. At present the company main- 
tains the constant supply of its goods to Bombay, Colombo, 
Calcutta, Rangoon, Madras, Singapore, Manila, Sourabaya, 
Batavia, Samarang, etc. 

The operations at the company's mill, which are on the 
most advanced line, were once inspected by His Majesty the 
Emperor, in November, 1914, while His Majesty was on a 
visit to the city. As a result of the adoption of the most 
up-to-date working system, the company can now produce 
200,000 barrels a year. 

The company is controlled by the following Well-known 
business men : — 



In 1912 a branch office was 
opened in Osaka and there the 

Export and the Retail Departments were inaugurated in 
the following year. At the same lime a show room was 
established to show how portland cement could be used for 
building purposes, and there has since been displayed 
artificial building stone. Another brancii office was also 
opened in Tokyo as a sales department, handling business 
in Tokyo and district. 




THE SAKURA CEMENT WORKS, OSAKA. 

Bin Hiraga, Esq 

MiNOMATsu Sakamoto, Esq. 

Teikichi Tanabe, Esq 

Dr. Kaichi Watanabe 

Keizo Hirooka, Esq 

KoiCHiBO Kagami, Esq 



President. 

f Managing 
\ Director. 

. Director. 



Auditor. 



( 122 ) 



DRY GOODS SCGTIOM. 



C H I K I R I - Y A . 

(THE CHIKIRI-YA DRAPERY STORE) 



THE Cbikiri-ya Drapery Store is one of the greatest 
and oldest establishments of the kind in Kyoto and 
has many ramifications among which are the fiimous dry 
goods stores called Nishimura. 

During the last quarter of the I6tli century the 
store was inaugurated by the 
ancestor of the Nishimura family 
at Muromachi-dori, Kyoto, when 
the manufacture of priests' 
robes and Court nobles' robes 
was made its speciality. Later 
the operations were enlarged and 
" Nishijin " silk tissues, dyed 
silk crapes, and various other 
costly textiles were handled. 

At present the store handles 
principally "Nishijin" silk 
tissues, " Yuzen " crepes, em- 
broidered goods, and other costly 
silk goods, as the manufacture 
of priests' and Court nobles' 
robes was stopped shortly after 
the Imperial Restoration. 

The position of the store in 
the line of business has been of 
great importance since its in- 
auguration. Before the Imperial 
Restoration the store was the 
manufacturer of drapery to the Imperial Court, and when 
the capital was removed to Tokyo the store was ordered to 
open a brancli in Tokyo and continue tlie supply of 
drapery to the Court. 

The proprietors of the store have accordingly been 
highly respected by the citizens of the old Imperial capital 
and had a great influence in public affairs there. The pre- 
sent proprietor, Mr. Jihei Nishimura, is still young, having 




MR. J. NISHIMURA. 



been born in February, 1888, but occupies a leading position 
in the business community of Kyoto. Besides controlling 
his dry goods store he has a seat on the boards of the Shoko 
Savings Bank and Kyoto Shoko Bank. 

The father of the present proprietor, the late Mr. Jihei 
Nishimura, was one of the greatest business men the present 
day Kyoto had produced. He undertook travels in Europe 
and America several times and studied the textile industry 
over tiiere. The fruits of these tours were applied to the 
conduct of textile mills in Kyoto, and a grent development 
of Nishijin goods was brought about. 

Mr. Nishimura also worked hard to promote business 
in the capital and was instrumental in inaugurating 
many business enterprises there, among which were such 
important companies and banks as the Kyoto Shoko Bank, 
the Kansai Railway Company, the Kyoto Weaving Com- 
pany, the Oriental Colonization Company, aud others. He 
was also interested in almost all the educational or other 
public institutions in the city and many of them owed much 
of their usefulness to Mr. Nishimura's disinterested en- 
deavours. 

The citizens of the city appreciated his meritorious 
services in their cause and sent him several times as their 
representative to the House of Representatives. The busi- 
ness community, too, elected him the President of the 
Chamber of Commerce and generally followed his lead. He 
was often despatched by the Government as one of the elder 
business men of tiie country to represent the country in 
international afiairs. In 1916 he was decorated with the 
Fifth Class Imperial Order of the Rising Sun. 

He died in December, 1911, previously to which he 
was granted by the Court the rank of Jurokui. He was 
also granted years before his death the Order of the Yellow 
Ribbon in recognition of his public spirited endeavours. 
Many honours were bestowed on him by public institutions 
which profitted by his useful work. 



( 123 ) 



D Al CH U. 

(WHOLESALE DRAPERY.) 



THE Dai Chu is the trade uame under which Mr, 
Tsuji Churobei carries on his extensive wholesale 
business in general drapery, and its head ofBce is situated at 
Kami-Suwa-cho, Gojo-minatni-e-iru, Suwa-cho-dori, Shimo- 
kyo-ku, Kyoto. The Dai Ciui is well-known all over the 
country as one of the wealthiest drapery concerns in Kyoto, 
and was founded by Mr. Churobei Tsuji, an employee of 
the Inouye Dai Maru, one of the largest drapery stores in 
Kyoto, in 1807. 

Tlie founder of the Dai Chu firm was apprenticed to Mr. 
Shichiyeraon Inouye (proprietor of the Inouye Dai Maru) 
just after the latter's inauguration of his business. With 
characteristic honesty and industry he assisted his 
master to develop the business and was appointed the 
Manager. 



In 1807 he retired from the management of his 
master's business and started as a wholesale cotton goods 
dealer in Shinmachi-dori. At first the concern was con- 
ducted on quite a small scale, but by dint of indefatigable 
application he soon won the confidence of his buyers and 
weavers, and in 1812 he moved his office to a larger build- 
ing at Gojo, Muromachi, Kyoto. 

With this extension his business further expanded and 
in 1823 he again removed to his present quarters. 

The founder's business methods and principles are em- 
bodied in his four works handed down to his successors. One 
is his autobiography and another the collection of his 
rhymed precepts. Still another contains the exposition of 
commercial methods based on his life-long experience, while 
in the last work he explains his own moral teaching. 



DAIKOKU-YA. 



T 



(MR. S. 

HE Daikoku-ya is the trade uame under which Mr. 
Saburobei Sngiura carries on his business. 




MR. S. SUGIURA. 



SUGIURA, WHOLESALE DRAPERY.) 

The firm is one of the leading wliolesale drapers in 
this country, and specially interested in " Nishijin " 
drapery crapes, plain and dyed ; diflferent descriptions of 
silk piece goods produced l>y Kwanto weavers; striped 
cotton cloths ; sheetings ; shirtings ; printed cotton cloths ; 
cotton flannel ; and other kinds of tissues. 

The firm was founded nearly two hundred and thirty 
yeafs ago as brokers of Kyoto textiles. Because of the 
firm's sound business principles, the excellence of the goods, 
the cheapness of price, the straightforwardness of dealings 
wliich are closely followed, it made its way rapidly to the 
prominent position it has so long occupied in the drapery 
trade. 

At first the firm had an office only at Nakano-cho, 
Yanaginobaba-higashi-e-iru, Sanjo-dori, Kyoto, but soon 
opened a branch at No. 23, Shichome Honkoku-cho, NihoB- 
bashi-ku, Tokyo, both of which are maintained at present. 

The firm has many good connections in Tokyo and 
district, and at the same time carries on an extensive 
overseas trade with Manchuria and Chosen, which was 
started in 1911. 



( 12< ) 



DAIMARU 60FUKUTEN. 

(THE DAIMARU DEPARTMENT STORE.) 



r I "'HIS Department store is known all over the country 
--*- for its honest and straight forward dealings, and is 
also one of the oldest establishments of the kind in the 
country, having been founded more than two centuries ago 
by Mr. Hikoyemon Shimoraura, of Fushimi. 




MR. S. SHIMOMURA. 

Mr. Hikozayemou Shimoraura, the founder of the store, 
was a man of learning and amazing energy. When he 
started business at the close of the 17th century he adopted 
the motto " Righteousness above gain." 

In view of the increasing trade from Osaka, he opened 
a branch there in 1726, and a few years later, in 1728, 
another in Nagoya. In Yedo ("now Tokyo), the seat of the 
Tokugawa Shogunate, a large branch store was opened in 
1743. Thus his business influence was practically extended 
all over the country within half a century. 

Since the founder's time more than two centuries have 
elapsed and the store has witnessed the passing of eleven 
generations of proprietors, but the motto laid down by the 
ancestor has always been observed, while the methods of 
management have been constantly modified and adapted to 
the needs of the times. At present the store enjoys the highest 
degree of prosperity as the result of the strict observance 
of the business principle " Righteousness above gain " over 
two centuries, a good example of the victory of honesty 
over unfair dealings. 

The present proprietor, Mr. Shotaro Shimomura, 
effected a complete reform soon after his assumption of 
proprietorship in succession to his father in 1889. 
Branches were either abolished of enlarged, and at the 
stores retained every modern appliance was introduced. 



Again, in 1911, he remodelled the main store in Kyoto 
on the modern department store system, as the result of 
his extensive travel overseas. The rebuilt store, which is 
situated at the corner of Takakura, Shijodori, Kyoto, is one 
of the finest specimens of Saracenic architecture in Japan, 
and Kyoto people are justly proud of it as one of the many 
sights in the old Imperial capital. 

The main building has three storeys, being 82 feet high 
from the base to the tower which is modelled after the 
tower of Taj Mahal, Agra, India, while it covers an area of 
1,076 tsubo. As additional attractions the store provides 
art galleries, dining-room, roof garden, photographic studio, 
and tea-room. The dyeing department is famous for the 
well-known " Dairaaru Dyed Goods." 

At the branches at Itchome Shinsaibashi, Osaka, and 
Shichome Motomachi, Kobe, similar modern appliances are 
adopted, while practically all the features so eminently 
maintained at the main store in Kyoto are provided. 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW UF CITY OF KYOTO (THE 

DAIMARU STORE STANDS IN THE 

HEART OF THE CITY). 

By these radical reforms and changes, which have 
nearly been completed, Mr. Shotaro Shimomura, the pro- 
prietor, has succeeded in enlisting a large buying public 
in favour of his stores and on this point, too, his stores 
can successfully rival the Mitsukoshi Department store in 
Tokyo. 



( 126 ) 



E I R A K U - Y A. 

(GENERAL WHOLESALE DRAPERY.) 



rpHE Eiraku-ya is the trade name in which Mr. Ihei 
-*- Hosotsuji carries on his business. 

The firm, which 
is situated at Uniechu- 
niachi, Karasumaru- 
higashi-e-iru, Sanjo- 
dori, Kyoto, is well- 
known in the old 
imperial city, being, 
according to old chro- 
nicles, founded in the 
9th century. 

In the early part 
of the 17th century 
the ancestor of Mr. 
Iliei Hosotsuji laid 
the corner stone of 
tiie present vast busi- 
ness by opening trade 
between the old im- 
perial city and dif- 
ferent provinces. 




MR. I. HOSOTSUJI. 



At first the firm traded in all kinds of drapery, bat 
ill the early part of the 19th century the then proprietor 
decided to make a specialty in cotton goods only, and this 
line has been followed to the present day. 

Once, just before the Imperial Restoration, a panic 
threatened in the Kyoto business circles and many well- 
known firms came to grief, and the firm also was on the 
verge of ruin, but this historic firm was saved from 
downfall by the present proprietor, Mr. Ihei Hosotsuji, who 
was then a young man of twenty. With the assistance of 
his many employees he energetically readjusted the finances 
of the firm and within a few years it was again placed on a 
working basis. 

The firm, thanks to the prudent management of the 
pre.sent proprietor, Mr. Ihei Hosotsuji, is now on a sound 
working basis and his two sons conduct the management of 
the business, which is increasing in its proportions. At 
present the firm pays the best attention to linings and 
muslin tissues, importing raw materials from England to 
maintain the highest standard of excellence. 

The firm makes it a point to be always ready to fill 
its clients' orders with promptitude. 



MR. FUJII ZENSHICHI. 

(DRAPERY WHOLESALE DEALER.) 



MK. FUJII, ZENSHICHI, carries on an extensive 
wholesale business in drapery under the trade name 
of'Maru Ike" at Takoyakushi Sagaru, Muroraaehi-d iri, 
Kyoto. 

He is a self-made man in the truest sense of the term. 
While a boy he was apprenticed to a wholesale draper at 
Muroinachi-dori, Kyoto, and served his master industriously 
for over twenty-five years. After his long apprenticeship 
he set himself up in his thirty-eighth year. 

Being honest and industrious he overcame all difficulties, 
and in the management of his business brought his com- 
mercial genius into full play. Soon his store enjoyed a 
large patronage. He, however, was not contented with 
what was then achieved and quite neatly followed up the 
success won till his store has become one of the leading 
houses in Kyoto. 

During the past few decades Japan has seen many 
fluctuations in her fortunes and each time the business com- 



munity has been badly affected, but he adroitly avoided all 
of them and the stability of his firm is quite well known. 

At present he 
manages not only his 
store in Kyoto, but 
successfully runs a 
branch ofiice at 4- 
chome Kitakyu-taro- 
cho, Osaka, with the 
co-operation of his em- 
ployees, numbering 
over a hundred. Mr. 
Fujii is a man of a 
philanthropic turn of 
mind, and has done 
many acts of benevo- 
lence toward the poor 
FUJII. and needy. 




( 126 ) 



H A S S A K U. 

(WHOLESALE DEALER IN CRAPES, PLAIN SILK CLOTH, RAW 

SILK AND SPUN SILK.) 



ri'^HE Hassaku is the tiade name in which Mr, Sakuhei 
J- Nobashi carries on his business. 

The firm wliich is 8ituate(l at Sanjo-kita-e-iru, Ryogai- 
machi, Kyoto, was founded during the last quarter of the 18tli 
century as importers of Chinese silk tissues. Fifty years 




MR. S. NOBASHI. 



ago the late Sakuyemou Nobashi, the father of the present 
proprietor, Mr. Sakuhei Nobashi, adopted the present lines 
of business, at the same time dropping the old line and 
strenuously endeavoured to improve the business. He also 



made strong efforts to develope the silk weaving industry 
in this country and founded the silk spinning line here. 
He also devised the process of producing variegated designs 
on crapes, gauze, and other tissues. 

Tiie present proprietor took over the management 
of the firm from his father in 1889 and started the overseas 
trade, which has proved a splendid success. At present he 
almost monopolizes the export of variegated eilk tissues and 
" kabe" crapes, and the annual trade in these goods is said 
to run into a huge figure. 

He founded a weaving mill in Tango province some 
time ago to produce good tissues to work on, and this has 
also proved a signal success, for he has been thus enabled 
to produce various lines of textiles of a very superior quality 
and of novel designs. 

As the wholesale dealer in spun silk he acts as agent 
for the Fuji Spinning Company and the Kanegafuchi 
Cotton Spinning Company, the greatest of all spinning 
mills in this country, and the goods he handles are the best 
in the market. 

Mr. Nobashi is also known as a public-spirited man 
and has often been elected Member of the Kyoto Chamber 
of Commerce, the Kyoto Municipal Assembly, and other 
public institutions. At present he assumes the presidency 
of the Association of Crape Wiiolesale Dealers, at the same 
time sharing in the Marumine Transportation Company 
as Director. 



HOSODA GOMEI KAISHA. 

(HOSODA PARTNERSHIP COMPANY, MANUFACTURERS OF 

LADIES CLOTHING.) 



ri^HlS firm, situated at Oike Agaru Tominokoji, Kyoto, 



1 



carries on an extensive business in Japanese ladies 

clothing, " han-eri " in particular. The manufacture of 

these articles is conducted at Kyoto, and they are sold at 

the branch offices in Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya and Osaka. 

The firm is a partnership composed of members of the 



Hosoda family, with Mr. Zenbei Hosoda as the President, 
but originally it was managed by the father of the present 
president, the late Mr. Zensuke Hosoda, as a private 
concern. The late Mr. Zensuke Hosoda was a son of a 
cotton dealer at Hino, Shiga Prefecture. In his sixteenth 
year he lost his father and had only ¥10 in his purse, but 



( 127 ) 



with this scanty means he started his itinerary business in 
millinery in his seventeenth year. His steadfastness and 
diligence were remarkable. This boy peddler with a small 
assortment of clothing made a round of many neighbouring 
provinces and in spite of many hardships secured a large 
circle of customers. Soon, however, he started a wholesale 
business in " han-eri " on the itinerary system. 

In this line his business expanded with wonderful 
rapidity, and in 1868 he opened his store in Kyoto. He 
then further developed his business and in 1884 opened a 
branch in Tokyo. 

In 1891 he handed over this prospering concern to his 
eldest son, Mr. Zenbei Hosoda, and retired from active life. 
The present head of the concern is a business man at once 
enterprising and prudent. In May, 1910, he converted the 
private business handed down from his father into a 



partnership into which he admitted five members of his 
family. 




MR. Z. HOSODA. 



ICHIDA BUNJIRO SHOTEN. 

(MR. B. ICHIDA, WHOLESALE DEALER IN NISHIJIN 
DRAPERY AND DYED SILK.) 



THIS firm, wliioh extensively deals in Nishijin drapery, 
dyed silk, and other kinds of textile goods, was 
founded in the beginning of the 19th century in Kyoto, 




MR. B. ICHIDA. 



It at first made a specialty of Kyoto drapery in Kwanto 
(Yedo and vicinity), but half a century ago the wholesale 
business in Kwanto drapery was started. 

At first only an agency was established iu Yedo (now 
Tokyo) to handle the business, but in 1885 a branch oflfice 
was founded at Shin-norimono-cho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, 
when the wholesale business in Kwanto drapery was abolished 
and the whole energy devoted to the sale of Kyoto goods. 

In conjunction with the model weaving mill officially 
controlled years ago in Kyoto, the firm endeavoured to 
check the import of Chinese satin, and alieady in the early 
years of Meiji this object was partially attained. Designers 
and dyers in Kyoto were also encouraged by the firms in 
those days to produce new and improved goods. 

As the result of these endeavours the goods handled by 
the firm are now ranked among the best in the market. 

The proprietor, Mr. Bunjiro Ichida, was born in March, 
1887, in Kyoto, being the fourth son of the late Mr. Bun- 
jiro Ichida, On the death of his father he succeeded in the 
maKagement of the firm and assumed tlie hereditary name 
of Bunjiro Ichida in April, 1908. The firm's head office is 
situated at Sakaimaohi-dori, Oike-Minami, Kyoto. 



( 1281) 



iCHIDA SHOTEN. 

(ICHIDA & CO., WHOLESALE MERCHANT IN KYOTO DRAPERY.) 



ri'^HE firm has its head office at Saiijo Agaru, Higashi- 

J- no-toin, Kyoto. Its office building is a unique one 

in that quarter, where most conservative business firms are 




THE LATE MR. Y. ICHIDA IN HIS GARDEN. 

concentrated, being a solid fire-proof edifice. It looks as if 
it symbolized the business principle of progress and stead- 



fastnes.s the firm follows. It is, indeed, this principle now 
followed that has made the firm wliat it is. 

The firm was originally founded as a private concern 
by the late Mr. Yaichiro Ichida, who was adopted by Mr. 
Yasoyemon Ichida of Kyoto, while a young man, because of 
his business ability. He was a broker in drapery produced 
by Kyoto weavers and often came up to Tokyo to negotiate 
directly with Tokyo buyers. 

In 1873, when he was in Tokyo on business, he 
resolved, in view of the ruling tendency in the business 
community, to found a firm in Tokyo, which resolve was 
soon realized. At first the new firm thus opened at 
Yokoyama-cho, Nihonbashi-ku, was confronted with many 
difliculties, but by his indefatigable application and 
diligence these were soon overcome and the firm became 
one of the leading wholesale drapers in Tokyo and Kyoto. 

In 1897 the business was handed over to his sou, tiie 
late Mr. Yaichiro Ichida, and under the new proprietor's 
management the prosperous course was still followe(i, but 
he also^died in 1913, leaving only a young daughter. 

In January the following year the firm was converted 
into a partnership, with a capital of ¥500,000, and under 
the joint management of the Ichida family began its 
prosperous career anew. 

At present the firm has its head office in Kyoto and 
branch offices at Tadokoro-cho, Niiionbashi-ku, Tokyo, and 
Sanchome Minami-Hou-cho, Higashi-ku, Osaka. 



IIDA & CO.-TAKASHIMAYA. 



rriHIS firm is one of the greatest dry goods stores in 
J- Japan mid conducts an extensive export trade, its 
headquarters and branches being as follows : — 

Head Office, Karasumaru, Takatsuji, Kyoto ; Kyoto 
Branch, Karasumaru, Takatsuji, Kyoto — Japanese 
drapery. Embroideries and velvets, Kimonos, etc. etc. 
Osaka Branch, 2-chome Shingaibashi, Osaka — Japanese 
drapery. Kobe Branch, 2-chome Moto-machi, Kobe — 
Japanese drapery. Tokyo Branch, 1, Nishikouya-cho, 



Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo — Japanese drapery, Export and 
Import departments. Yokohama Branch, 81, Yamashita- 
cho, Yokohama — Export and Import departments, 
Retail departments. All silk goods, embroideries, velvets. 
Kimonos, etc. etc. Overseas Branches in London, Lyon, 
and Tientsin. 

The firm was established in 1837 by the late Mr. Shiu- 
shichi lida, under whose enterprising and diligent manage- 
ment the business flourished and its credit increased. His 



( 129 ) 



grandson, Mr. Shinshichi lida, now conducts the colossal 
business as President. In view of the radical cliange the 
country lias been undergoing the present head inaugurated 
a policy of progress and expansion and the business is now 
carried on on the most advanced lines. With a view to 
establishing tiiis principle of business Mr. Shinshichi lida 
sailed to France in 1889 and inspected not only the world's 
fair then opened in Paris but the particular lines of business 
at nearly all important centres in Europe and America. 
The knowledge and experience obtained during liis travels 
were all made use of in improving the business methods of 
the firm. 

About this time a separate department was established 
in Kyoto to conduct the export of silk goods, embroideries. 



" Nishijin " silk tissues, velvets, " Yuzen," and other 
artistic products of Kyoto weaving mills to foreign countries. 
The originality and excellence of designs, the exquisite 
workmanship, and richness of colouring evidenced in the 
articles supplied by tlie firm have accordingly been 
acknowledged both by Japanese and foreigners, the marks 
of their appreciation being given in large numbers of awards 
by industrial and other exhibitions. 

The following list comprises only a few of the most 
prominent : — 

Silver medal by the International Exhibition at 
Barcelona, 1889 ; Two gold medals by the World's Fair 
at Paris, 1889 ; Gold medal by the Universal Exposition, 
Antwerp, 1894 ; Five medals by the Colombus Inter- 




THE TAKASHIMA-YA, KYOTO. 



drapery, and other articles. It soon proved a splendid 
success. The Osaka and Kobe Branches were then opened. 
It was on the strength of the success won by these branch 
establishments that other branches at Tokyo, Yokohama, 
London, Lyons, Tientsin, Sydney, and elsewhere were 
opened in succession. 

At present the enterprises of the firm are many and 
diverse, including the wholesale and retail business in 
drapery for domestic consumption, the export of dry goods, 
etc. Branches and departments are also numerous. But 
the firm is mainly interested in drapery and other kindred 
articles. Particularly as the representative supplier of 
Kyoto silk tissues the firm makes it its specialty to market 
the best possible silk goods at home and export embroideries. 



national Exposition, Chicago, 1894 ; Grand prize by the 
World's Fair at Paris, 1900; Grand prize by the Inter- 
national Exposition, Hawaii, 1902; Gold medal of 
honour by tlie Fifth Domestic Industrial Exhibition, 
Osaka, 1903 ; Three grand prizes and two gold medals 
by the International Exposition, St. Louis, 1904 ; Two 
gold medals and Diplome d'Honneur by the World's 
Fair, Liege, )905; Grand prize by the Alaska Yukon 
Exhibition, 1909 ; Grand prize by the A nglo- Japanese 
Alliance Exhibition, London, 1910; Grand prize and 
gold medal by the International Exhibition, Torino, 
1911; Grand prize by the Semaraug Exhibition, Java, 
1914 ; Grand prize and two medals of honour by the 
World's Fair, San Francisco, 1915. 



( 130 ) 



The firm has been appointed makers to the Imperial 
Household, the Imperial Army, the Imperial Navy, the 
Imperial Decoration Bureau, the Imperial Railway Board, 
and other Government offices. The Kyoto Chamber of 
Commerce has also recognised the important position of the 
firm as exporters and elected a special member of the 
institution. 

The eminent services Mr. Shinshichi lida, the head of 
tlie firm, has rendered to the cause of industry in this 
country have also been acknowledged by the State. In 
1888 the " Yellow Ribbon " medal was granted, and in 
1893 the " Blue Ribbon " was added to it. In February, 
1902, liis eminent services were recognised with the 6tli 
Class Imperial Order of Merit. 

Takashimaya, lida & Company, is a partnership of the 
lida family, the representative of which is Mr. Shinshichi 



lida. He succeeded his father while still young and 
devoted all his energy to the conduct and extension of his 
business. The present prosperity of the firm is in a great 
measure due to his foresight and strenuous activity, though 
the smooth co-operation and untiring diligence of the other 
partners have also counted much in the steady enhancement 
of the firm's prosperity. 

The representative members of the partnership are as 
follows : — 



Shinshichi Iida, Esq. 
Masanosuke Iida, Esq. 
ToJiRO Iida, Esq. 
Tasaburo Iida, Esq. .. 
Chuzaburo Iida, Esq. 
Naojiro Iida, Esq. ... 



President. 
Partner, 



INOUYE DAIMARU GOFUKUTEN. 



(THE INOUYE DAIMARU DRY GOODS STORE.) 



TFIHE Inouye Daimaru Gofukuten is the trade name in 
-*- which Mr. Shichiyemou Inouye carries on his here- 



ditary business. 




TIIK INorVK 



DAIMARU STORE, 



KYOTO. 



This dry goods store, situated at Gojo Minami-e-iru, 
Shinmachi-dori, Shimokyo-ku, Kyoto, is one of the many 



ramifications of that giant dry goods store in Kyoto, the 
Dai Maru Dry Goods Store, and was founded more than 
a century ago by an old employee, Mr. Shichiyemou 
Inouye. 

The founder of this firm was allowed to have a store 
under the same trade name as his master's on account of 
faithful services rendered by him for many years. He 
strictly maintained the principle of the old Daimaru Goods 
Store and has thus been successful in business. 

The present proprietor is the seventh of the line of 
Inouyes, and underwent a severe training in the line of 
business at the wholesale drapery store kept by Mr. Cliurobei 
Tsuji. The business policy of his ancestor is closely 
followed in accordance with the injunction of the founder, 
though the store was rebuilt and the management was 
reformed some time ago to cope with the changes in the 
public taste and the general trend of aflfairs, and the store 
now enjoys a high degree of prosperity. 



C 181 ) 



ITO CHOBEI SHOTEN. 



(MR. C. ITO, DEALER IN 

KYOTO is known not only for its beauty spots but as 
the centre in Japan of tlie artistic tissue weaving 
industry. The best of what is produced at the old Imperial 
city is the tapestry presented by the Imperial Japanese 
Government to the Peace Palace at The Hague. Tiiat is the 
kind known as " tsuzure-no-nishiki " and uotliing surpasses 
its beauty and exquisite workmansiiip. 

The famous damask cloth in the East, and France's 
pride, Goberin, are only comparable with the pride of Kyoto, 
the old capital of the Mikado, but in exquisite design and 
lifelike imitation of nature the last is the greatest and none 
can rival it. 

The sumptuous cloth can best be used as window hang- 
ings, wall hangings, table cloths, or other ornamental articles 
in parlours, salons, and palaces, and for those purposes no 
other tissue can equal it. 

" Tsuzure-no-nishiki " ia sold at the store kept by 
Mr. Chobei Ito at the corner of Ayanokoji, Muro-machi, 
Kyoto, who make it their specialty to deal in artistic 



' TSUZURE-NO-NISHIKI.") 

tissues or cloths. Their articles are known as the best in 
the market and are marked with a " Butterfly." 



^.>0!^ -^.-l* 


:^^ A 


"^a^ ^ 


The Picture 
shows the 


the Imperial 
Court at the 


lining for 
" haori " 


BK^ 


^mr 


Enthronement 
Exhibition 


(Jap&nese 






which was 


Over-coat) 
purchased by 






held in 
Kyoto, 1915. 


^ -^^^^ 


^^^^^^^Hk 3^^^ 


^^^ ^^ 




HIkaHr 







ITO MAN SHOTEN. 

(MR. M. ITO, ITS EXPORT DEPARTMENT, I HE USHU YOKO.) 



ri^HE proprietor of the fiim, Mr. Mansuke Ito, 
_L- born in Osaka in 1852 as t!ie third son of the 
M r . Nakayemon 
Ito, a wholesale 
merchant. Wliile 
a boy he was ap- 
prenticed to his 
elder brother, Mr. 
Kuhei Ito, who 
then kept a woollen 
piece goods store at 
K a r a m u o-niachi, 
Osaka. In January, 
1883, he set himself 
up at Minami Hon- 
inachi, Osaka, and 
carried on a woollen 
piece goods trade 
under the trade name 
of the Ushu-ya, or 
the Ito Man Shoteu, MR 



was 
late 




Owing to the expansion of business he effected an 
enlargement of his office several times. In August, 1913, 
he built a new office at the present site, Shichome Azuchi- 
machi, Higashi-ku, Osaka. On the outbreak of the war in 
Europe he opened an overseas trade department under the 
conviction that, owing to the shutting oflF of the Germans 
and Americans from the world market, a chance, very rare 
and priceless, was offered to Japanese merchants and 
manufacturers for the extension of their commercial 
interests overseas. 

By the foresight and wisdom thus shown he took full 
advantage of the opportunity the war presented. Under 
the trade name of the Ushu Yoko he opened direct dealings 
with Shanghai, Hankow, Tientsin, and Manchuria. 

The firm is principally interested in cotton flannel, 
printed calico, and other woollen and cotton piece goods. 

The export department ia now under the management 
of Mr. Usaburo Ito, the eldest son of tlie proprietor, 
Mr. Mansuke Ito. 



( 132 ) 



MR. KAMIKAWA GENYEMON. 

(WHOLESALE DEALER IN PIECE GOODS AND DRAPERY.) 



MR. KAMIKAWA, GENYEMON, carries on an ex- 
tensive wholesale business in piece goods and 
general drapery. He has his head office at Sanjomiuami, 
Goiio-raacbi, Kyoto, 
which deals principally 
witli Kyusiiu pro- 
vinces, and a branch 
office at Enokizu- 
machi, Nagasaki, which 
conducts au extensive 
trade with Manchuria, 
Chosen, and Taiwan. 

Mr. Kamikawa's 
firm is one of the oldest 
of the kind in Kyoto, 
having been founded in 
1657 by his ancestor, 
who hailed from Omi 
province. Mr. Kami- 
kawn, who is the 




THE KAMIKAWA STORE, KYOTO. 



twelfth of the line of Kamikawa, is a very enterprising 
business man, and under his management the firm's busi- 
ness has been steadfastly enlarged, for he keeps closely to 

his ancestor's business 
principle and tries to 
cope with the changes 
in the public taste and 
the general tendency of 
affairs. The branch at 
Nagasaki, which con- 
ducts foreign trade, 
was established by him 
in the early days of the 
Meiji Era. After the 
Restoration of 1868, he 
thought it necessary to 
develope the country's 
foreign trade, and es- 
pecially with the 
Asiatic Continent. 



MITSUKOSHI GOFUKUTEN. 

(THE MITSUKOSHI DEPARTMENT STORE.) 



THE Mitsukoshi Gofukuten, or Mitsukoshi Department 
Store, Ltd., is the pioneer department store in 
Japan, having set an example to others in introducing 
modern improvements in business methods. It is also the 
largest and finest not only in Japan but in the whole East. 

The store was originated as a private concern by the 
Mitsui Family, one of the wealthiest and largest families in 
this country, over two centuries ago at Suruga-cho, Nihon- 
baslii-ku, Tokyo, the present site of the store. Then it was 
known as the Echigoya Dry Goods Store. In 1893 it 
assumed the style of the Mitsui Dry Goods Store, being 
converted into a partnership. Tlie last metamorphosis was 
undergone by the store in 1904, when it was converted into 
a joint stock company and assumed the present style. 

The building of the store is modelled after the most 
fashionable department store in the West, and it is a veri- 



table palace of pleasure and comfort. It was completed in 
November, 1914, after many years' work. At the base it 
covers an area of something like 1,000 tsubo, and each of 
its seven floors comprise 650 tsubo. 

At tlie store almost everything a liome requires can be 
obtained in addition to dry goods. A mere list of depart- 
ments into which the store is divided is extraordinarily 
long, including Dry Goods, Tailoring, Toilet Articles, 
Travelling Necessaries, Hosiery, Millinery, Precious 
Articles, Shoes and Boots, Umbrellas, Clogs, and Sticks, 
Toys and Other Articles for Children, Stationery, Japanese 
Furniture, Foreign Furniture, Pliotographic Apparatus, 
Art Treasures, Provisions, Japanese Kitchen Utensils, 
Foreign Kitchen Utensils, Tea, Dried Bonito, Sea AVeeds, 
Flowers, All Kinds of Presents and Gifts. 

All these departments are made to work harmoniously, 



( 133 ) 



and every modern office appliance is in evidence at the 
store. Visitors are carried from tlie base to tlie top floor 
by a number of elevators. Ventilation in Summer and 
warming of rooms in Winter are also efiected with the most 
up-to-date machines worked with electricity. The building 
itself is also made proof against fires or earthquakes. 



r-: if .c:™Ji^jr«"ws;7 




THE MITSUKOSHI DEPARTMENT STORE, TOKYO. 

At the Mitsukoshi visitors can buy anything with per- 
fect ease and without any trouble, because every effort is 
made by the management to supply the best possible goods 



at the lowest prices, and give every possible assistance to the 
visitors in their selection of required goods. At every nook 
or corner of the store guides are stationed to direct visitors 
to the department to which they desire to go, and the depart- 
ments themselves are so arranged as to meet every 
requirement. 

Also the store deals with orders from all classes of 
people from every locality in the world. The store faith- 
fully and promptly attends to orders from the provinces. 
For distinguislied visitors the store has a set of rooms. In 
■ the past many distinguished foreign guests have been 
received in the rooms, among them being H.H. Prince 
Arthur of Connaught, H.H. Carl Anton Hohenzollern of 
Germany, H.H. the Crown Prince of Siam, Miss Roosevelt, 
Mr. Bryan, late Secretary of State ot the United States, 
and General Kuropatkin. All of them showed their satis- 
faction at the up-to-date and complete provision made by 
the management. 

The Mitsukoshi hold a number of exhibitions or special 
sales all through the year, and at every sale special attrac- 
■ tions are offered. 

The Store also has branches at Osaka, Kyoto, Seoul, 
Dairen, and Kiryu where every facility the main store 
offers is given, though on a somewhat smaller scale. 
The officers of the company are as follows : — 

HiRATA WozAKi, Esq President. 

TsuNEKiCHi AsABUKi, Esq Director, 

RiKiTARO Nakamura, Esq I, 



NISHIO SOSHICHI SHOTEN. 



(MR. S. NISHIO, TRADER IN COTTON TEXTILES.) 



'nn*HIS firm, owned and controlled by Mr. Nishio, 
■*■ Soshichi, one of the most experienced and enter- 
prising men in the cotton textile trade, is situated at 
Shichome, Minami-Hon-machi, Higashi-ku, Osaka. 

Being prompt and reliable in all business dealings, the 
firm has won the confidence of the public as one of the most 
trustworthy in this line of business and enjoys an ever- 
increasing trade at home. Of late export business has also 



been initiated, and already good connections have been 
secured in China and other countries where Japanese cotton 
goods are known. 

The firm principally handles cotton flannel, cotton 
crepes, and all other cotton textile goods, and the volume of 
its annual trade in these goods is said to run into a huge 
figure. In overseas transactions the firm uses " Marusho 
Osaka " as its telegraphic address. 



( IS* ) 



MATSUMURA JINYEMON SHOTEN. 



(MR. J. MATSUMURA, MANUFACTURliR OF COTTON 

PRINTED COTTON CLOTH) 



FLANNEL AND 



MR MATSUMURA, JINYEMON, is one of the 
greatest manufacturers and wholesale dealers of 
cotton flHnnel and printed cotton textiles in Kyoto, and is 
especially known as the producer of the "Nikoniko" chop 
printed cotton tissues. 




MA.TSUMURA. 



His main office is at Muro-raachi Higns!n-iru Nishiki- 
no-koji, Shimokyo-ku, Kyoto, and a branch at No. 5, 2-chome 



Horidome-cho, Niliombashi-ku, Tokyo, which latter carries 
on business under the style of the Kanaya Shpten. 

The cotton flannel and printed cotton tissues the firm 
produces and sells have a large market not only in this 
country but overseas as well. China, Manchuria, Mongolia, 
and other parts in Northern Asia patronized Mr. 
Matsumura's firm even before the outbreak of the present 
war in Europe. Now, Manchester goods being scarce in 
British India, the South Sea islands, and Australia, those 
Southern countries have also come to buy tlie excellent 
articles Mr. Matsumura's firm supplies. 

Mr. Matsuraura, Jinyemon, the proprietor of this 
flourishing firm, was born in June, 1860, in Gifu, and in 
his early days moved to Kyoto, where he started the present 
enterprise. He is recognized as one of the representative 
business men in Kyoto and has been appointed to many 
public offices, the following being only a few of the most 
prominent :^ 

Member of the Kyoto Ciiaraber of Commerce, Ex- 
aminer of the Business Tax Assessment, member of 
the Income Tax Assessment Committee, member of the 
Business Tax Assessment Committee, member of the 
Committee reporting on the Natural Resource?. 

He was also despatched by the Government to China, 
Manchuria, and Mongolia to investigate the industrial 
possibilities in those parts, as a member of tiie Committee 
reporting on the Natural Resources. 



MIYAMOTO GISUKE SHOTEN. 

(MR. G. MIYAMOTO, WHOLESALE DEALER IN KYOTO SILK 

TISSUES AND CLOTHS.) 



THIS firm deals in all kinds of " han-eri," or women's 
neck cloth, fine " Nishijin " sash cloths, all grades 
of figured crepe, dyed crepe, "omeshi" crepe, plain silk 
tissues, and other qualities of fine silk tissues and cloths 
produced especially in Kyoto, and as such the firm is very 
widely known both at home and abroad. 

At present the firm has its main oSice at the corner of 
Akezunomon, Matsubara-dori, Shimokyo-ku, Kyoto, and a 



branch office at No. 17, Torinbura-cho, Nihonbashi-ku, 
Tokyo, where an extensive wholesale business is conducted. 
The firm was founded by the father of the present 
head of the firm, Mr. Glhei Miyamoto, at the site of the pre- 
sent head office in Kyoto nearly seven decades ago as whole- 
sale dealers in " han-eri." The founder was a man of broad 
views and many-sided tastes. He devised many new designs 
for his manufactures and always led the fashion. Accord* 



( 185 ) 



ingly soon after his initiation of business he attained the 
highest degree of prosperity in his line, and in his latter 
days his firm ranked among the foremost of Kyoto silk 
tissue wholesale dealers. 

A striking trait in his character was progressiveness. 
As soon as he saw the needs of the times he at once met 
them. It is one of the many proofs of his trait that he 
enlarged the scope of his business so as to include all 
descriptions of silk tissues produced in Kyoto. By 
this courageous move a strong impetus was given 
to the firm's affairs, which then expanded at a rapid 
rate. 

In 1889 a branch oflice was opened to deal with Tokyo 
and vicinity, and the firm also exports to Chosen, 
Manchuria, South Ciiina, Hawaii, South Sea Islands, 
Asiatic Bussia, and other foreign countries. The secret of 



this success lies in the excellence of the articles produced 
by the firm. 

The sumptuousness or excellence of the firm's manu- 
factures are deeply appreciated both at home and abroad, 
which fact is well demonstrated by the number of medals 
awarded by exhibitions, industrial or otherwise, during 
past years, the following being only a few of the most 
prominent : — Medal ot improvement by the Kyoto In- 
dustrial Exhibition, 1877 ; Medals of merit by the Internal 
Industrial Exhibition, 1881 to 1907 ; 2nd prize medals by 
the Federated Industrial Competitive Exhibitions of 
Kwansai Prefectures, 1886 to 1907 ; Ist prize gold medal 
by the Federated Foreign Trade Exhibition, 1900 ; Medal 
of honour by the Colombus Memorial Industrial Exliibi- 
tion, 1892; Gold medal by the Anglo-Japanese Alliance 
Exiiibition, 1910. 



MR. NISHIMURA SOZAYEMON. 

(MANUFACTURER OF EMBROIDERIES, FANCV^ , GOODS, FANCY 
CUTVELVETS, AND OTHER SILK GOODS.) 



MR. NISHIMURA, SOZAYEMON, is the owner of 
the greatest and oldest dry goods stores in Japan, 
and not only carries on a large retail trade but an immense 
wholesale and export business in embroideries, fancy cut- 
velvets, and all other descriptions of silk goods. 

Tiie Nishimura family is known as one of the v 
oldest iti the old Imperial capital. According to the 
history of the frtmily, the ancestor of the family 
moved to the place when the great Emperor Kwammu 
fixed his capital 
there in the 8th cen- 
tury, but the firm 
was not founded 
until 1604, a few 
years after the 
Shogunate Govern- 
ment was inaugurat- 
ed by Tokugawa 
lyeyasa in Yedo. 
Ever since it has 
been known as one 

of the greatest dry goods stores in Kyoto under the trade 
name of " Chikiriya " or " Chiso." 

During the Shogunate regime the firm supplied silk 
goods to the princely^families, Buddhist temples, and noble 




DRY GOODS STORE, KYOTO. 



families, while^selliug costly Kyoto drapery wholesale to 
Yedo and Osaka. With the Imperial Restoration this 
business policy had to be changed, and the firm began the 
retail and wholesale trade in " Yuzen " dyed silk and 
crapes. Later an overseas trade was inaugurated when 

that was made pos- 
sible under the new 
Imperial rule. 

At present the 
firm has the main 
oflice at Sanjo-Dori, 
Karasumaru, Kyoto, 
and a branch office 
at No. 10, Yama- 
shita-cho, Kyobashi- 
ku, Tokyo. 
The firm supplies the Household Department as 
purveyor to the^.Imperial Household, at the same 
time undertaking Government commissions for decora- 
tive works. Almost all the decorations at the Im- 
perial Palaces have been supplied by the firm, and the 
gold brocade banners and other decorations at the 
Enthronement in 1915 were also manufactured by the firm. 
The firm has never failed to exhibit its manufactures 
at industrial exhibitions at home and abroad, and every 



EXPORT DEPARTMENT. 



( 136 ) 



time they Iiave won the highest honours, the following 
being the list of some of the foreign medals and prizes won 
in the past : — 

A Medal — luternatioual Exhibition in Philadelphia, 
1876 ; Silver Medal — Universal Exhibition in Paris, 
1878 ; A Medal — International Exhibition in Sydney, 
1879; Gold Medal — Universal Exhibition in Barcelona, 
1883 ; Grand Prix— Universal Exhibition in Paris, 1889 ; 
A Medal— World's Fair in Chicago, 1893 ; Grand Prix- 
Universal Exhibition in Paris, 1900 ; Grand Prize — 
World's Fair in St. Louis, 1904 ; Grand Prix — Universal 
Exhibition in Liege, 1905; Grand Prize — International 
Exhibition in St. Petersburg, 1908 ; Grand Prize — 
World's Fair in Seattle, 1909 ; Medal of Honour — Japan- 
British Exhibition in London, 1910. 

The Proprietor of the firm was decorated by the 
Imperial Government in 1893 with the Medal of the Green 



Ribbon. In 1902, he was decorated by H. M. the Emperor 
with the Sixth Class Imperial Order of the Sacred Treasure. 




MR. S. NISHIMURA. 



OKAMOTO SENSUKE SHOTEN. 



(MR. S. OKAMOTO, WHOLESALE 

MR. OKAMOTO, SENSUKPD, is one of the leading 
silk tissue wholesale dealers in Kyoto having his 
own dyeing yard. He handles almost all varieties of silk 




MR. S. OKAMOTO. 

tissues and drapery, but is especially interested in habutai, 
crapes, " yuzen " crapes, "kinsha" crapes, silk gauze, and 
other kinds of silk textiles. 



DEALER IN "YUZEN" CRAPES.) 

His main office is situated at Akuoji-machi, Gojo-agaru, 
Karasumaru-dori, Kyoto, branches being located at 3-chome, 
Hon-machi, Osaka and 2-chonie Odemma-cho, Nihombashi- 
ku, Tokyo and the dyeing yard, Shijo, Bojo-dori, Kyoto. 

Mr. Okamoto began his career as an apprentice at the 
drapery store kept by Mr. Hirooka at Muromachi-dori, 
Kyoto, and in 1872 set himself up as a wholesale dealer in 
dyed silk ; in 1884 he started the present wliolesale business. 
Mr. Okamoto is known as a most enterprising and resource- 
ful business man. He never missed any opportunity to 
extend his business and even a national war was for him a 
chance to put his business genius into full play. When the 
Chino-Japanese and the Russo-Japanese wars broke out he 
at once produced warlike designs in his crapes or " yuzen " 
goods and reaped a splendid result. 

Especially in the colouring of his goods Mr. Okamoto 
displays his genius, and in the past many new colours and 
dyestuffs have been discovered by him. Thus at present he 
is known as the foremost of " yuzen " wholesale dealers and 
his firm enjoys the patronage of a large buying public. 

As an exporter of crapes and habutai he has many good 
connections in Chosen, Manchuria, Hawaii, and elsewhere, 
and liis annual trade runs up into a very large figure. He 
is recognised as an upright man of enterprise and strenuous 
endeavour. 



( 137 ) 



MR. TANAKA RISHICHI. 

(EXPORTER OF EMBROIDERY AND WALL HANGINGS.) 



TV ,T R. TANAKA, RISHICHI'S, ancestors engaged in 

■'- -*■ manufacturing embroidered goods for temples and 

shrines, together with religious robes, and were known as the 

foremost manufacturers of these goods. As early as 1854 




MR. S. TANAKA. 

the late Riyemon Tanaka, the grandfather of Mr. Rishichi 
Taiiaka, made the first attempt at opening direct dealings 
with foreign merchants in embroidered screens, wlien lie 
went down to Nagasaki and succeeded in obtaining foreigners' 
views on the possibility of his new attempt. 

He endeavoured to improve embroidery on silk screens 
so as to attract foreigners' attention, and in 1864 a certain 
Englishman undertook for him the tentative export of his 
manufactures to England. This experiment turned out to 
be a success, for soon a large order was received from 
England and elsewhere in Europe, and the family could 
devote all attention to the new undertaking. Thus the late 
Mr. Riyemon Tanaka was the pioneer in the line of business 
which now figures in Japan's foreign trade, which fact was 
acknowledged by the Government in his life time and he 
was granted a " Blue Ribbon Badge" in 1896. 

While perfecting embroidery screens Mr. Tanaka taxed 
his brain to manufacture rich gold brocade and goberiue as 



wall hangings, table cloths, and other parlour ornamente. 
He also remodelled looms and produced wider cloths. 

The present head of the firm, Mr. Rishichi Tanaka, 
several times visited Europe and America and studied the 
requirements of foreign buy«rs, and many improvements 
have been introduced by him in embroidery for export. His 
overseas trade in embroidered goods and gold brocade has 
expanded strikingly, and the public has recognized his 
services by appointing him to various high official positions. 

The medals and honourable mentions Mr. Tanaka has 
secured at industrial or art exhibitions both at home and 
abroad number more than a hundred, the following being 
a few of the most important : — Silver medal, Industrial 
Exhibition, Germany, 1885 ; 2nd gold medal. World Fair, 
Paris, 1887; Silver Badge, Exhibition, Barcelona, 1888; 
Copper Medal, Colorabus Exhibition, Chicago, 1893 ; Silver 
Medal, International Exposition, Paris, 1899 ; Grand Prize 




THE TANAKA STORE, KYOTO. 

of Honour & Gold Medal, Internationial Exposition, St. 
Louis, 1904 ; Grand prize of honour, International Exhibi- 
tion, Liege, 1905; Gold Medal, International Exhibition, 
Portland, 1905. 



( 138 ) 



R. TSUDA TSUNESHICHI. 

(DEALER IN SILK PIECE GOODS.) 



A 8 a wholesale dealer in silk piece goods Mr. Tsuda 
■^^ ranks among the foremost. This success ii) business 
has been achieved by Mr. Tsuda by foresight and constant 
endeavour. In the early years of the Meijl era dyed crapes, 




MR. J-. TSUDA. 



printed crapes, and dyed silk piece goods, in which his firm 
principally dealt, went out of favour with the public, and 
his confreres all gave up their trade, but he firmly believed 



in the future of his trade and adhered to it, at the same 
time constantly endeavouring to improve his manufactures 
or introducing novel designs. He was right in his belief, 
and after a decade or so the public fashion again changed 
and his trade flourished once more, wiien he enlarged the 
scope of his business so as to handle all kinds of silk goods. 

Besides his Kyoto head office he now maintains a 
branch office at Wakamatsu-cho, Nihombashi-ku, Tokyo, 
which was opened in 1909. His firm now publishes a 
periodical, styled " Heian," which is devoted to the study of 
the silk market and is sent out to the firm's customers. 
The circulation of the periodical has constantly increased 
since its first appearance, thus marking the progress of the 
firm's business. 

Mr. Tsuda, who is a very progressive and enterprising 
business man, is very public-spirited and has done much 
service to the cause of his city and philanthropic under- 
takings. He not only has exhibited his manufactures but 
often rendered signal services at the industrial exhibitions, 
thus acquiring many marks of honour and acknowledge- 
ment. He has also been a member of the Chamber of 
Commerce and other public institutions. 



YASUMORI SHOTEN. 

(YASUMORI & CO., WHOLESALE DEALERS IN COTTON TISSUES.) 



' I "HE firm is one of the biggest cotton tissue wholesale 
dealers and exporters in this country, the volume of 
business amounting to ¥2,000,000 every year, while many 
promiRent business men in China, British India, and the 
South Sea islands are in constant communication with thefirm. 
The firm was established by the father of the present 
head, Mr. Zembei Yasumori, nearly a century ago, to deal 



in all kinds of cotton tissues. At first a variety of difficul- 
ties had to be encountered, but the founder well endured 
them and to his last days followed his principle of 
honesty and strenuous activity, thus securing the good will 
of all who had dealings with him. All the time his business 
was extended and stabilized, and his place in the cotton 
trade became one of importance. 



( 189 ) 



When the present head, Mr. Zembei Yasumori, took 
over the flourishing business from his father he found the 
firm to be one of the biggest in the line, with a colossal 
capital and a stafi" of able men. In view of the trend of 
the business situation, the new head converted his private 
concern into a partnership, into which all his family 
were admitted in 1902. The new partnership, financed by 
the Yasuiuori family to the amount of ¥200,000, assunaed 
the style of Yasumori & Company. It has the main oflSce 
at No. 458, Matsubara-Minami-e-iru, Akezumon-dori, 
Shimokyo-ku, Kyoto, and deals in cotton tissues, domestic 
and foreign, printed cotton tissues, dyed cotton tissues, 
striped cotton tissues, mixed tissues, etc. 

The volume of business has been brought up to over 
¥2,000,000 a year, and the margin netted is very large, 
but the major part of tlie profit is added every year to the 
reserve funds for the purpose of further stabilizing the 
financial position of the firm. The export business has also 
been steadily enlarged and at present the firm has 
a large number of constant buyers in China, British 
India, and South Sea islands. A prominent feature 



of the business the firm conducts is its constant ex- 
pansion and progress. 




MR. Z. YASUMORI. 



THE firm, situated at Funaya-machi, Oike-kita-e-iru, 
Higasliinotoin, Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto, is widely 
known as one of the leading wholesale dealers in dyed silk 
and Kwanto drapery. It was founded by Mr. Seibei Naiki 
ill 1784. At first the firm was managed on a small scale, but 



Z E N I S E I. 

(MR. S. NAIKI, WHOLESALE DEALER IN DYED SILK AND GENERAL DRAPERY.) 

method is still seen in a big signboard over the doorway of 
the firm, which bears four big Chinese characters signifying 
" Low Prices always maintained." 

His successors have followed the same enterprising 
methods a d the business scope of the firm has continued to 
expand. 

Even when the market was thrown into disorder in the 
last days of the Tokugawa Shogunate on account of the 
political disturbances, the firm not only escaped the bad 
efllect of the panic but expanded its scope by adapting its 
method to the requirements of the times, at the same time 
commencing the wholesale business in Kwanto drapery. 

The present proprietor, Mr. Seibei Naiki, took over 
the management of the firm from his father, Mr. Jinzaburo 
Naiki, because the latter devoted himself to the public 
interests, and as one of the elders of Kyoto has done 
unparalleled service to the muicipality and the country. 

The firm deals in silk piece goods, hemp or linen cloth, 
and other kinds of drapery, particularly all kinds of textiles 
produced at Kiryu, Ashikaga, Hachioji, Echigo, and other 
weaving centres in the Eastern provinces of the country. 
"Nishijin" drapery is also dealt in extensively, and the 
firm has special connections with leading weavers in the dis- 
tricts. Crejies are also handled by the firm on a large 
scale. 




.lliiiliiiil 

'mum 



THE ZENI SEI STORE, KYOTO. 

soon it began to expand rapidly because the management 
of the firm by the founder wiia at once enterprising and 
steadfast, close attention being paid to the requirements of 
bis customers. The evidence of the founder's wise business 



C 140 ) 



DYIING AND DYC-STUrPS, 



AOKI SENKOJO. 

(THE AOKI DYE WORKS.) 



THIS concern, which ranks among the foremost dye 
houses in Tokyo, was founded by Mr. Naoji Aoki 
in 1887 and is still owned by him. It is situated 



at 




PORTION OF THE AOKI WORKS, TOKYO. 
MR. M. TANAKA, CHIEF EXPERT, MANAGER. 

Yanagishima-Yokokawa-cho, Honjo-ku, Tokyo, and covers 
a large area of ground, being divided into many departments. 



This was the first dye house in Japan to use Indian 
indigo and indigo pure in printing and dyeing textiles. The 
result of this pioneer work whs a splendid success, and 
brought a high degree of prosperity. In 1904 again the 
works started a new departure ahead of all others by 
initiating the mercerising of cotton tissues and silket and 
the sclireiner finish of all kinds of textiles. In these lines 
the works still stand foremost. 

Mr. Aoki, the enterprising proprietor, then inaugurated 
the printing department and the manufacture of cotton 
pongee, which was soon followed by another ambitious 
scheme of manufacturing and dyeing Italian cloth, Venetian 
cloth, and other kindred textiles. In all these new ventures 
he was the pioneer and his success has been a great fillip to 
all in his line. 

The Aoki Dye Works at present make it its specialty 
to produce dyed and printed cotton textiles, bleached cotton 
cloth, Italian cloth, pongee, and other descriptions of 
mercerised goods, its annual production amounting to 
24,002,000 yards. 



HANANOYA ENOGU SEIZOSHO. 

(THE HANANOYA COLOURS FACTORY, LTD.) 



THE factory was erected as a private enterprise in 
1885 at No. 23, 2-chome Midori-cho, Honjo-ku, 
Tokyo. It covers an area of 200 tsubo. By dint of years' 
incessant experiments and earnest eflTorts toward the perfec- 
tion of manufaclures, the factory has succeeded in bringing 
up the line of industry in this country to the present 
standard of excellence and eflSciency, and its products 
enjoy a very high reputation. 

With the perfection of its manufactures there was a 
gradual increase in the sale of all kinds of goods the factory 
produced, and the enterprise was converted into a joint 



stock concern, with a capital of ¥120,000 fully kinds up, in 
October, 1914. The factory now stands first among the 
colours manufacturers in JapHn. 

Not only are moist water colours and different kinds of 
pigment and lake produced, but coloured pencils and chalk 
as well. All of these are manufactured with most up-to-date 
machines and under the supervision of able and competent 
experts and, therefore, they can be used by draughtsmen 
and artists with perfect satisfaction. The factory can turn 
out something like 125,000 pounds a year, which is valued at 
¥180,000 or upwards. The market for the manufactures 



( 141 ) 



of the factory was limited to Japan before the war, but now 
they are taken in iocreasing quantities by Chosen, Man- 
churia, China, British India, Australia, Russia, and the 
South Sea islands. 




(1). INTERIOR OF THE WORK. 




INTERIOR OF THE WORK. 



Various honours have been conferred on the goods 
turned out by the factory at the different industrial and 
educational exhibitions at home and in some of Japan's 



possessions. The following are only a few of the principal 
honours obtained : — Letter of eulogy, Tokyo Prefectural 
Industrial Exhibition, July, 1907; 3rd cla« medal of 
honour, let Japan Stationery and School Equipments Ex- 




INTERIOR OF THE WORK. 



hibition. May, 1911 ; Gold medal of honour, Tokyo Taisho 
Industrial Exhibition, July, 1914 ; Silver medal of honour, 
Taiwan Industrial Competitive Exhibition, May, 1916. 



INABATA SENKOJO. 

(THE INABATA & CO.) 



THE INABATA & CO. is situated at Nichorae 
Junkei-machi, Minaroi-ku, Osaka, Mr. Katsutaro 
Inabata being President. Mr. Inabata spent many years 
in France studying the dyeing business, and established a 
dyeing factory in October, 1896. By dint of his efforts the 
business steadily developed and before many months had 
elapsed his factory produced various kinds of dyeing 
which had been considered beyond reach of domestic 
works. Foremost amongst these is the dyeing of various 
kinds of figured raousseline for the manufacture of girls' 
hakama. The manufacture of black cloth for covers of 
export umbellas is another achievement worthy of mention. 
After hard study and many experiments Mr. Inabata 
succeeded in producing the khaki colour, and in the Russo- 
Japanese War of 1904-5 the factory rendered valuable 
services to the army in dyeing uniforms. 



With a view to extending the scope of business the firm 
was reorganized in March, 1905, into a Goshi Kaisha, 




INTERIOR OF THE INABATA WORKS, OSAKA. 



( 142 ) 



the limited partnersliip consisting of Messrs. KatsutarS 
luabata Kokinji Takashima and KihachirS Okura. Tlie 
present partnership consists of Mr. K. Inabata investing 
¥96,000, Mr. N. Onaka and Mr. S. Inabata each ¥2,000. 

In order to meet the ever-increasing demand, it is 
intended to extend the works and equip them with new 
machines by trebling the amount of the existing capital. 
Since 1911 Mr. Inabata, President of the firm, has been the 
chief of the Osaka Guild of Djers, and since 1914 he has 



held the post of Vice-President of the Osaka Chamber of 
Commerce. Besides he holds such important ports as the 
Presidency of the Mousseline Kabushiki Kaisha and 
auditorship of the Japan Dye-Stuff Manufacturing Co , Ltd. 

The company has been awarded medals by many exhibi- 
tions both at home and abroad. 

There are two branch offices, one in 1-chome Horidome 
Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo and the other in tlie Japanese Con- 
cession, Tientsin. 



ITO SENKOJO. 



(THE ITO 

THE Ito Dye Works stands at Azuma-machi, Minami 
Katsushika-gun, near Tokyo and is under the 
management of Mr. Kotozo Ito. The site covers an area of 
about 83 acres. The mill employs over 300 operatives, and 
enjoys a world-wide fame for perfection in the art of dying, 
thus figuring prominently among the works of the kind in 
Japan. 

The works are chiefly engaged in Dying, bleaciiing and 
finishing cotton and linen fabrics. It boasts, among other 
things, of its excellent finishing machines. 

Meritorious services rendered and being rendered by 
the mill in the cause of the country, during her war witli 
Russia in 1904-5 and of the Allies now fighting the 



DYE WORKS.) 

Teutonic powers testify to its inexhaustible manufactnring 
capacity and the world-wide credit that it has won. In the 
case of the Ru^so-Japanese war the works met more than 
half of the demand for khaki uniforms and 90 per cent, of 
the demand for tents. Since then the mill has constantly 
been favoured with large orders for uniforms and other war 
supplies from the army and navy of Japan and other coun- 
tries. The factory is now working to its fullest capacity 
on contracts for uniforms, tents, etc., which are in demand. 
The works' supplies are not confined to military 
articles. They are ready at all times to respond to orders 
for dyeing, bleaching and water-proofing linen and cotton 
cloths of all degrees of thickness. 



NIPPON KATAZOME KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE JAPAN COTTON PRINTING & DYEING WORKS, LTD.) 



THE Japan Cotton Printing and Dyeing Works, Ltd. 
is a big dye house near Hamamatsu, which prints 




JAPAN COTTON PRINTING AND DYEING 
WORKS, HAMAMATSU. 



and dyes cotton tissues and exports them to China, British 
India, Australia, and other countries, besides supplying 
fresh and novel descriptions of printed or dyed cotton 
tissues to the domestic market, tlie annual production of all 
kinds of cotton goods amounting to over ¥2,000,000. Tlie 
company was floated in 1900 by a number of Hamamatsu 
business men with a capital of ¥125,000, when it was 
styled the Cotton Printing Company, Ltd. As it was a 
splendid success it was moved to a bigger factory in the 
suburbs of the city toward the close of the same year and 
renamed the Japan Cotton Printing and Dyeing Works, 
Ltd. 

After repeated extensions the company's capital now 
stands at ¥1,525,000. After the Russo-Japanese war the 
plant was further enlarged with the addition of several 
printing presses, and designs of figures were made fresh and 
novel. At the same time several of the company's officers 



( 143 ) 



were despatched to Manchuria to study the requirements of 
the Chinese in the Northern provinces, and as the result of 
their investigations the manufacture of special export 
goods was initiated. 

When the cotton trade with Manchuria was visited 
with a reactionary deprtssion for after several years the war 
most of cotton goods exporters gave up their market 
there, but the company alone maintained the trade 
built up thus far and even adopted a positive policy 
of stationing one or other of the Directors there to control 
or supervise the whole operations of the company there. 

As the result of this policy the company now 
occupies a stable position in the cotton trade with Man- 



churia and China, and always has big orders from there in 
hand. 

In the domestic market changes in public taste are 
always attended to, and fashionable designs and styles are 
turned out. Often the company has been commissioned to 
manufacture specially-designed goods by the Imperial 
Household Department. Because of the excellence of its 
goods a large number of prizes and medals have been re- 
ceived at industrial exhibitions. 

The company's officers are as follows : — 
JiNSHiCHi Miyamoto, Esq President. 

RoKUNoeuKE KoTAKE, Esq I ^i'^ulr^ 

KiiCHiKO Kamo, Esq Manager. 



NISSHIN SEMPU GOSHI KAISHA. 

(THE NISSHIN DYE WORKS.) 



'■ I ^HE Nisshin Dye Works is a limited partnership 
■*- situated at Yanagishima, Yokokawa-cho, Honjo-ku, 
Tokyo, and one of the oldest dye works managed on modern 
lines in Japan. In 1884 the late Mr. Gentaro Izumi 
installed a complete set of dyeing and mercerising 
machines, which were then of the latest and most improved 
types, and this factory was then known as the only house 
which could produce perfect goods in Tokyo and district, 
and in 1903 the Silver Medal of Honour was granted at the 
Fifth Domestic Industrial Exhibition. 

In January, 1907, Mr. Izumi's firm was converted into 
a joint stock company with a capital of ¥1,500,000. The 
works were then styled the Nisshin Dyeing Company and 
Mr. Sojiro Okada became its President and Mr. Izumi the 
Managing' Director. 

Within five years both the President and the 
Managing Director were dead and the company was wound 
up in 1913, just when Mr. Shigeru Hamano had returned 
from a trip to Europe and America and proposed to take 
over the business. In April, 1913, the company was 
transferred to Mr. Hamano's ownership and assumed the 
present style. Now Mr. Shigeru Hamano personally con- 
trols the works as President and Mr. Mansuke Hamano 
assists him as Manager. At first the works concentrated 
its operations on market goods, but now the dyeing and 
mercerising of export goods are also undertaken. Water- 
proof dyeing is also conducted by the works for the Imperial 
Army. 

The last-named operations are conducted in the 
patented processes. All sorts of cotton fabrics are made 



water-proof without being coated with paint. The works 
are also contractors to the Imperial Government Railways 
and the Department of Communications. 




Manager, 
MR. M. HAMANO. 



President, 
MR. S. HAMANO. 



THE NISSHIN DYE WORKS, TOKYO. 

The works dyes and mercerises export cotton goods for 
China, British India, the Dutch East Indies, and other 
countries in the East, and on account of the excellent finish 
of the goods supplied the public demand on the works is 
daily increasing. 



( 1« ) 



SHIBATA SENRYO SHOTEN. 

(THE SHIBATA DYE-STUFF STORE.) 



THE Shibata Dye-Stuff Store was first opened by 
Mr. Tobei Shibata, father of the present proprietor, 
in 1869. The business stsadily developed until the firm 




MR. S. SHIBATA. 



reorganized itself into a partnership in 1887 and opened 
branches in Kyoto and Osaka. Mr. Seinosuke Shibata has 
represented the firm since 1882, in whicli year he became an 
adopted son of Mr, Tobei Shibata. 

Formerly the store dealt in dye-stuffs and chemicals 
under the firm name of Katsuraya. To Mr. Seinosuke 
Shibata's strenuous efforts the store largely owes its present 
prosperity. Being a man of great ability and inexhaustible 
energy he is connected with many large establishments, and 
is a director of the Tokyo Sulphuric Acid Works Ltd., Daid5 
Indigo Co., Ltd., Nippon Rubber Co., Ltd., Nippon Dye 
Works Ltd., Osaka Acetic Acid Co., Ltd., etc. Besides he 
is a Director of the Dai Nippon Textile Association and 
member of the Tokyo Chamber of Commerce. At this time, 
when the nation is suffering heavily from the scarcity of 
dye-stuffs and various other chemicals consequent on the 
check of their import since the outbreak of hostilities, the 
efforts of a man of Mr. Shibata's ablity and renown will 
no doubt prove highly serviceable in properly meeting the 
situation. 



YAMADA GOMEI KAISHA. 

(THE YAMADA DYE-STUFF CO.) 



^ I ^HE Yamada Gomel Kaisba is situated at No. 9, 
Nichome Kyutaro-raachi, Higashi-ku, Oiaka and is 
presided over by Mr. Ichirobei Yamada. Established in 
1854, the company chiefly does wholesale business, dealing 
in paints, dye-stuffs, chemicals etc. The business is not 
confined to the domestic market, but is extended to Chosen 
and China. There are branches in Tokyo, Kyoto, Chosen, 
etc. Mr. Yamada, proprietor of the firm, was born in 
May of 1851 in DSmyoji Village, of Kawachi Province, as 
the third son of Mr. Yajihei Nakano. In 1876 he was 
adopted into the family of Mr. Yamada, a dealer in the 
above-mentioned articles, and succeeded to the business. 
In 1915 the firm was reorganized into a Gomei Kaisha 
(Partnership). In 1880 Mr, Yamada opened trade with 



tlie Southern Islands, and his strenuous efforts as manager, 
extending over many years, have brought the Yamada 




MR. I. YAMADA'S GARDEN. 



( 145 

Gomei Kaisha to its present iminent position. In 1900 he 
organized in co-operation with a few interested men an 
indigo company under the title of the Goshi Kaisha Tohan 
Seiran-Gumi and was appointed a Director. Thus he 
practically brought under his control the business of 
artificial Indigo in Japan. In 1906 he opened up an outlet 
in China and Chosen for dye-stuffs and chemicals for use 
in industries. In 1900 he dissolved the Tohan Seiran- 
Gumi and at the same time established the Daido Indigo 
Co., Ltd., and was appointed a Director. In 1912 he 
organized the Higashinari Land and Building Co., Ltd., 
being himself President. Prior to this, in 1900, he was 
elected member of the Ward Council of Higashi-ku and 
General Director of the Guild of the Dealers in Paints and 
Dye Stuffs of Osaka. Both posts he has held up to the 
present. In 1913 he was elected member of the Osaka 
Chamber of Commerce. In the same year he was appointed 
to the Committee on the Business Tax Investigation 
representing Higashi-ku. Besides he has established the 
Osaka Boyeki Gogakko (Osaka Trade Language School) 
which has proved of great service in the cause of trade. 
It will thus be seen that besides making the best possible 



) 

efforts for the promotion of his own business Mr. Yamada 
has never been behind others in zeal for the advance- 




MR. I. YAMADA. 
ment of public interests. His meritorious services have 
been many times recognized by the Authorities. 



( 146 ) 



CbCOTRIGAl^ SCCTIOIN. 



CHICHIBU DENSEN SEIZOSHO. 

(THE CHICHIBU ELECTRICAL WIRE MANUFACTORY, LTD.) 



TT TITB the expansion of electric enterprises, wire 

• * manufacturers have increased apace of late in 

Japan, and in the market a large number of different 




INTERIOR OF THE CHICHIBU ELECTRICAL WIRE 
WORKS, TOKYO. 

brands are offered for sale. Among the best are those 
branded with Maxwell's cork screw rule. They are turned 
out by the Chichibu Electrical Wire Manufactory at Shimo- 
shibuya, a suburban town of Tokyo. 

The manufactory was founded at Aoyama, Akasaka-ku, 
Tokyo, in 1906, by Mr. Sadaiiaru Chichibu as a private 
concern for the purpose of making special classes of electrical 
wires, for wliich he took out patents, and these were manu- 
tured on a large scale. The enterprise soon proved to be a 
success, as the public learnt to appreciate the fine quality 
of the goods supplied by the manufactory. 

In 1911 the manufactory was moved to the present 
site, and its plant was at once enlarged and improved. The 
output was also increased enormously, and besides supply- 
ing Goveriimt'nt offices, electric companies, mines, and 



various manufacturing companies the goods were exported. 
Especially since the outbreak of the present war in Europe 
the market for the manufactory's goods has steadily in- 
creased. On the strength of this success the manufactory 
was converted into a joint stock company in 1915 and the 
plant was further enlarged and improved. Dr. Ohsuke 
Asano, an eminent authority on electricity, has been 
engaged by the company as its Adviser. 

At present the company manufactures the following 
lines of goods : — 

Magnet wires, Signal wires, Telephone wires, Mili- 
tary wires. Power wires, Cables, Cords, Insulating 
compounds, Insulating paints. Cable boxes, etc. 

Some of these goods are manufactured by the company 
with special processes for which the company has patent 
rights. Especially the wires known as " Chichibu wires " 
are coated with compounds instead of rubber, and the 
compounds are again protected with compressed Japanese 
paper bands and certain other materials. Thus they are 
proof against the action of acids, dampness, salts, and 




gases. In addition the manufactory's supplies have many 
features which are universally acknowledged. They are 
also very cheap, because almost all materials used are 
produced in this country. 



( 1" ) 



DAI-KIPPON DENKYU KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE DAI-NIPPON ELECTRIC BULB CO.. LTD.) 



THE Company is situated at Hiramatsu, Sugamo near 
Tokyo. It was organized in August, 1915, with a 
sliare capital of ¥1,000,000. The company is engaged in 
the manufacture and sale of sumera bulbs (tungsten) and 
filament. Besides tungstenic bulbs it also manufactures 
carbon filament bulbs. The works consists of three sections, 



company aims at becoming a leader in the world of this line 
of industry in Japan, by using home made materials as much 
as possible, while keeping close touch with the situation of 
the industry in the countries of the west. It is sparing no 
effort for the accomplishment of this noble ambition. This 
is certainly a matter for congratulation not only for the 




THE DAI-NIPPON ELECTRIC BULB CO., TOKYO. 



viz.. Kiln, Filament, and Bulbs. The annual production 
amounts to about 3,000,000 bull)S, at 10,000 per day. Tlie 
market covers the homeland, Chosen and China. 

The sumera bulb is of the company's own invention 
and is registered by the Imperial Government as the 
patented article No. 26,704. It stands unrivalled in every 



sake of the company but also for the sake of this industry 
in Japan. The Company's future development therefore 
is full of interest. 

The board of directors consists of the following : — 

Shintaro Ohashi, Esq President. 




WORKSHOP IN OPERATION. 

respect. It consumes only one third of the quantity of 
electricity required by the carbon filament, but is effective 
for 1,000 hours. It, gives a white and clear light. 

Though only about a year has elapsed since its establish- 
ment, the company lias already attained to prosperity and 
the works are in full swing executing large orders. The 



THE COMPANY'S WORKSHOP, 
Tetsunosuke Yoshimura, Esq, 

TOMOYE H ATA NO, Esq 

Shimichiro Tanabe, Esq. ... 

Sadaji Madarame, Esq Ciiief Expert. 



Managing Director. 



(Chief of the 

\ Business Section. 



( 148 ) 



DENKI KAGAKU KOGYO KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE ELECTRO-CHEMICAL INDUSTRY CO., LTD.) 



THE company was floated in May, 1915, to manufacture 
various chemicals by the patented processes dis- 
covered by Mr. Tsuneichi Fujiyama, who manages the 
company as Managing Director. It has an authorized 
capital of ¥5,000,000, of which ¥2,000,000 is paid up. 

Mr. Fujiyama is a recognized authority in this branch 
of industry, having identified himself with the production of 
carbide ever since his graduation from the Polytechnic 
College of the Tokyo Imperial University. On his learning 
that in Germany a new process of manufacturing nitro- 
genous fertilizers from carbide was being successfully devised 
he went over to Europe and prosecuted his study of the 
particular branch of industry both in Germany and Italy. 




THE HOKKAI CARBIDE WORKS, HOKKAIDO. 

On his return he organized a company called the Japan 
Nitrogenous Fertilizer Company and began to manufacture 
nitrogenous fertilizers and other chemical products, but there 
was a defect in the method. Mr. Fujiyama's energy was 
then devoted to the elimination of this defect. He began 
his experiments and after a year and a half succeeded in dis- 
covering a method by which the manufacture of calcium 
nitrate could be made a continuous process. The result, of 
course, w;is beneficial and the company could both enlarge 
its capital and increase its dividend rate. 

But in January, 1912, Mr. Fujiyama withdrew from 
the company owing to a difference of opinion with another 
director, and witli the support of the Mitsui Company 
esuiblishtd a factory in Hokkaido which has been transferred 



to the company now under review. At present the company 
owns eight patent rights, all of which have been taken out 
by Mr, Fujiyama. Particularly his invention of making 
nitrogenous compounds out of carbide is protected by patent 
in Great Britain, the United States, France, Italy, Austria, 
Switzerland, and Canada, besides Japan. By these patented 
processes the company now manufactures calcium carbide, 
calcium Cyanide, sulphate of ammonia and other chemical 
products, but the main product is sulphate of ammonia. 

At present the company manages three factories at 
Tomakomaki, Hokkaido ; Omuda, Fukuoka prefecture ; and 
Fushun, Manchuria. The first-named factory produces 
yearly 8,000 tons of the main product with 3,500 kilowatts 
of power. 

The factory at Omuda produces 20,000 tons of the 
same annually with over 10,000 kilowatts of power. 

The Fushun works run the manufacture of sulphate of 
ammonia by a special arrangement with the Sonth Manchuria 
Railway Company. The yearly production at the mill is 
over 16,000 tons. 

Owing to the gradual decline in the import of these 
goods the company's manufactures are steadily gaining a 
market both at home and abroad, and the company's finan- 
cial position is improving apace. 

Accordingly a dividend at 15 per cent, per annum was 
recommended by the Board at the meeting for the term, 
after providing amply fir all reserve funds. 

The officers of the company are as follows : — 



KyoHEi Magoshi, Esq. 
JuGORO Otaguro Esq 

Tsuneichi Fujiyama, Esq ... 

Shintaro Ohashi, Esq. 
Chozaburo Umemura, Esq. 

Tamaki Makita, Esq 

GiNjiRO Fujiwara, Esq. ... 
Kamenosuke Fujino, Esq ... 

YoKi Majima, Esq 

JiROKiCHi Nakamigawa, Esq. 



••■{ 



President. 

{Managing 
Director. 

Managing 
Director. 

Director. 



Auditor. 



( 149 ) 



FUJIKURA DENSEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE FUJIKURA ELECTRICAL WIRE CO., LTD.) 



f"! "'HE Company was started as far back as 1884, 
Although the electrical industry in Japan was then 
in the elementary stage, the founder of the Company, the 
late Mr. Zenhachi Fujikura, was already manufacturing 
the cotton covered and silk covered copper wires. In the 
year 1888 the works were developed and extended, and 
commenced to manufacture paraffined wires, weather-proof 
wires and flexible cords, in addition to the above wires. 
In order to meet the ever increasing demands for the goods, 
it was found necessary to make a fuither extension of busi- 



cambric, vulcanised bitumen, asbesto?, the patent okerite 
and minerite, etc. ; lead encaged cables, dry core telephone 
cables, paper cables for electric light and power, weather- 
proof wires and all other classes of electric cables. These 
have been supplied for many years to the largest consumers 
both at home and abroad, to an annual value which exceeds 
six million yen. 

For some years the company has endeavoured to 
manufacture insulated paper at a separate works, and can 
now produce the best Manila paper suitable for use as the 
dielectric of cables. 




THE FUJIKURA ELECTRICAL WIRE CO., TOKYO. 



ness, and the present joint stock Company was formed in 
the year 1889, under the title of The Fujikura Densen 
Kabushiki Kaisha, with Mr. Tomekichi Matsumoto as 
President. Thus the Company was placed on a sound 
footing, and by painstaking effort and careful study, the 
Company gradually and steadily developed until at last it 
has attained the present prosperity. High grade rubber 
wires and every kind of electric wires and cables have been 
added to the list of its manufactures. Specialities com- 
prise cables and wires insulated with rubber varnished 



The works are chosen as regular suppliers by the 
Departments of Communications, of War, and of the Navy, 
the Imperial Government Railways and other Government 
ofBces and principal electrical works in Tokyo, Osaka and 
other cities. 

A few years ago the works started the export of its 
manufactures to China, Russia, Straits Settlements, British 
India and Australia, and they are very highly spoken of 
both at home and abroad, and command a large sale on 
account of the superiority of their quality and finish. 



( 160 ) 



FUJI SUIDEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE FUJI HYDROELECTRIC POWER CO., LTD.) 



rriHE Fuji Hydro-Electric Power Company is one of the 
JL leading companies of the kind in Japan and is 
conspicuous for its sound business condition and well- 
regulated management. It was established in 1909 by a 
number of business men connected with Shizuoka prefecture. 
The company utilizes the river Shiba, a tributary of the 
great river Fuji, for the generation of power. At the foot 
of Mount Fuji there are three fountain heads, which form 
a river called the Shiba. Along its course also there 
are many similar fountain heads which flow into the river 
Sliiba. According to the latest investigation the fountain 
heads make over five hundred heads along the river until it 
joins the great river Fuji. 




THE INOKASHIRA POWER STATION. 

The river Shiba is, it is true, only a small stream with 
a length of 6 miles, but its head measures above 2,000 feet 
in all, with large water falls which can be utilized for the 
generation of power. The river, moreover, shows no 
fluctuation in the volume of water all the year round 
because the real fountain head is found in Mount Fuji. 
Another feature of the river is quite valuable, viz., it is 
quite free from landslides or other similar troubles. This 
ideal stream is fully utilized by the Fuji Hydro-Electric 
Power Company by establishing many power stations along 
the whole course of the stream. Above the Shiraito fall 
there are three power stations which generate 11,000 horse 
power when fully built. Below the fall there are two power 
stations which are rather smaller but can generate 1,400 
horse power. 



The company has established three transformer stations 
at Yoshiwara, Ejiri, and Kambara for the purpose of 
regultiting the supply of power to the general public. The 
two other transformer stations at Iriyamase and Kajima are 
maintained for the purpose of regulating the supply of 
power to the Fuji Paper Manufacturing Company. These 
latter stations are built on the latest German models, and 
their plants are of the finest of the kind in this country. 

Besides supplying power to the Fuji Paper Manu- 
facturing Company and several other companies in Shizuoka 
prefecture and vicinity the company supplies light to 
eight important towns and thirty villages in the prefecture. 

The company supplies power and light at very low 
rates, but its financial condition is sound and strong, as 
nsay be seen in the following account for the latter half of 
1916:— 

Yen. 

Total profit 631,548.788 

Redemption of fixed capital 12,000.000 

Extraordinary redemption of fixed capital ... 362,000.000 

Balance (net profit) 257,548.788 

Balance brought over 8,989.173 



xuiai ... ... ... ... ..« 

Legal reserve , 

Loss reserve 

Dividend at 12^ per annum 

Special dividend at 8^ per annum 

Bonuses for oflicers 

Carried forward 



266,537.961 
13,000.000 
13,000.000 

131,700.000 
87,800.000 
11,000.000 
10,037.961 



The receipts of the compiiny are steadily increasing, and 
the rate of dividend at 12% per annum has been steadily 
maintained. Besides the company has often distributed 
special dividends. Though the chemical works have been 
handed over to a new company the company's business out- 
look has been little impaired, because by the amalgamation 
of the Suuzu Electric Railway Company it has enlarged 
its sphere of influence into Kanagawa prefecture. The plant 
and business bought up are very promising, and the area 
of supply comprises three towns and thirty-seven villages. 

The oflScers of the company are as follows : — 

KiNROKU Ono, Esq President. 

Managing 



Shintaro Shibai, Esq. 



Director. 



( 161 ) 



ISHIWATARI DENKI SEISAKUSHO. 

(THE ISHIWATARI ELECTRICAL VyORKS.) 



THE ISHIWATARI ELECTRICAL WORKS stand 
at No. 6, Fujimi-cho, Azabu, Tokyo, and is engaged 
in the manufacture and sale of the Ishiwatari safety sockets 
and other electrical apparatus. Mr. Konosuke Ishiwatari, 
the founder and proprietor of the Works, was born in 
August, 1865, in Matsumine, Yamagata Prefecture. In 
1888 he came up to the capital and entered the Kokugakuin 
(College of Japanese Literature), and after finishing school he 
entered the Mining School of Sado. On graduating there- 
from in 1893 lie obtained a position in the Mining Bureau 
in the Agricultural, Commercial and Industrial Department 
of Korea. After the assassination of the Korean Princess 
he resigned the ofSce and came back to Japan. Returning 
to his native province of Yamagata, he tried for a time the 
digging of alluvial gold and then went to the island of 
Sado to work in the silver mines, as a member of the staff of 
the Mining Department of the Mitsubishi Co. ; not remaining, 
however, long in the service, he devoted himself to inventive 
works. Among many things invented and patented by him 
are artificial grindstone, artificial granite, paper shades, 
Ishiwatari Safety Sockets, etc. Articles patented and 
registered as utility models number 55 in all. He has now 
been engaged for many years in the manufacture of electrical 
apparatus, and is held in high respect as a magnate in this 
line of industry. The manufactures all siiow novel designs 
made by this inventive genius. Mr. Ishiwatari is also 



engaged in the manufacture of coal-tar, cokes and dye-stufis. 
The equipments of the electrical works at Tokyo leave 
nothing to be desired. The works turn out yearly as many 
as 3,800,000 apparatus and produces, as a by work, electrical 




MR. K. ISHIWATARI. 



apparatus made of artificial granite which are not only 
supplied to the home market but also exported to Great 
Britain, Ciiina, India, Russia and other countries. 



K K S H A. 

(MR. K. ITAMI AND HIS BUSINESS.) 



r I ^HE Kokosha is engaged in designing, supervising 
-'- and contracting electrical works and the sale of 
electrical machines and apparatus. The firm is situated at 
No. 18, Hachikan-ch5, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo and is under the 
management of Mr. Kichijiro Itarai. Soon after graduat- 
ing from the College of Engineering in the Tokyo Imperial 
University in 1893, Mr, Itami was engaged by the Tokyo 
Electrical Works as Chief Expert, whose duties consisted in 
designing and manufacturing various electrical machines. 
From 1894 to 1896, Mr. Itami, as the expert of the works, 



completed the power houses and wire works for the Seudai 
Electrical Light Co., Ltd., the Tsu Electrical Light Co., 
Ltd., and Takamatsu Electrical Light Co., Ltd. In 1898, 
he organized with interested men a joint stock company 
for the establishment of the Daishi Electric Railway in 
Kanagawa Prefecture, thus setting the first example of this 
line of work in the K wan to districts. This is the origin of 
the present Keihin Electric Railway Co., Ltd. In 1898, 
he entered into the service of the Daishi Electric Railway 
Co. as chief expert. On the completion of the railway in 



( 162 ) 



1900, he resigned and took the position of supervising 
expert of the working section of the Tokyo Electric Light 




MR. K. ITAMI. 



Co, Ltd. In 1901, he supervised the equipment of the 
increased power house of the Bakan Electric Light Co., Ltd. 
On the completion of the work, he resigned his office and in 
September of the same year he opened an industrial office 
styled Kokosha at Nishi-Konya-ch5, Kyobashi-ku, for de- 
signing, supervising and contracting electrical works and for 
the sale of electrical machines and apparatus. Later the 
office was removed to the present address. In 1902, he was 
entrusted with the designing of works of the Tamagawa 
Electric Railway Co., Ltd. In 1905, he was appointed 
chief expert of the same company. On opening the busi- 
ness of the company in March, 1907, he resigned his office. 
Since then he has devoted himself to the development of 
the business of his own office, the Kokosha. Mr. Itami de- 
votes himself heart and soul to the cause of the develop- 
ment of this line of industry for the sake of the nation, as 
is amply testified by the sincerity and steadiness which 
marks the business of the KSkosha. 



KUROSAKI DENKI SEISAKUSHO. 

(THE KUKOSAKI ELECTRICAL APPARATUS WORKS.) 



THE Kurosaki Electrical Apparatus Works stand at 
No. 9, Sato-cho, Kitano, Kita-ku, Osaka. Tlie 
store is located by Shinauo Bridge, Nishi-ku, Osaka. The 
factory came into being in 1897 in Kinokuni-machi, 
Higashi-ku, Osaka, for the manufacture of electrical 
apparatus. 

With the growing development of electrical business 
tlie factory proved too narrow, and was removed to the pre- 
sent address in 1907. The new factory is doing its utmost 
for the improvement in quality of the articles. The 
European war has given a great stimulus to Japan's manu- 
facturing industries, especially the electrical industry. It 
has brought home to those concerned the necessity of 
independence. Encouragement of the manufacture of 
national products is voiced by intelligent men. Fully 
realizi'-g this situation, the Kurosaki factory is devoting 
itself he;irt and soul to the development of this important 
industry. As the result of many years' experience and by 
the best possible attention in selecting materials, the works 
are now able to manufacture articles of perfection. Before 



being placed on the market all the apparatus are put to 
strict test, so that their reliability is well warranted. They 
claim the following characteristics: small development of 




MOTOR GENERATOR SET MADE BY THE FIRM. 

heat, substantial structure of every part of the apparatus, 
superiority in nature peculiar to electricity, and cheapness 
in cost. The works are punctual in the execution of orders. 



( 153 ) 



KYORITSU DENKI DENSEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE KYORITSU ELECTRICAL MACHINE AND ELECTRICAL WIRE CO., LTD.) 



' I ^HE Company is an amalgamated concern of the 
-*- Electrical Machine Company called Sekisansha 
and the Abe Electrical Wire Company which were 
established about thirty years ago. The Company is 
situated No. 39, Fujimi-cho, Azabu-ku, Tokyo and the 
store, No. 24, Uneme-cho, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo. At first, 
the Company ran on a capital of ¥250,000, but in 
October, 1913, the capital was increased to ¥500,000 
and efforts were made to complete the equipments 
of the factory and to turn out goods of superior 
quality. In view of the infancy of the electrical machine 
manufacturing industry in this country, the company has 
made very effort to secure its development for the purpose 
not only of checking the importation of the goods from 
abroad but of contributing to the advance of the national 
economics. It is to the credit of the Company that it has 
received orders from the Department of War, the Depart- 
ment of the Navy, and the Department of Communications 
for electrical maciiiues and various kinds of electrical 
wires. Since the outbreak of the war, the importation of 
European goods has stopped and there is a growing 
demand for home-made goods. The Company is, there- 
fore, redoubling its efforts to turn out the highest-class 
goods. The factory is provided with six kinds of motor 
machines, numbering 18, and other machines, numbering 



over 400 in all. Fourteen experts, over twenty clerks and 
over 540 workmen are employed. 




THE KYORITSU ELECTRICAL MACHINE AND 
ELECTRICAL WIRE CO., TOKYO. 

The Directorate of the Company : — 
Keizaburo Ishiguro, Esq 

Takichi Motoyama, Esq 

ToRAzo KiDA, Esq ... 

KoKiCHi Ohashi, Esq. ... ' 

Shin Kurosaki, Esq 

Tetsunosuke Yoshimuka, Esq. ... 

RoKURO AoYAMA, Esq 

Tomoyemon Sato, Esq 



r Managing 
I Director. 

Director. 



Auditor. 



Advisor. 



MEIJI DENKI KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE MEIJI ELECTRICAL CO., LTD.) 



THE Meiji Electrical Co., Ltd. is located at No. 10, 
1-chome Ta-maohi, 8liiba-ku, Tokyo. The company 
was organized in March, 1910, with a capital of 
¥100,000 by taking over the whole business of the 
Ishida Electrical Works (Partnership). It is engaged 



switches and many other electrical machines. The principal 
customers are the Department of Communications, the 
Department of War and Department of the Navy and 
Electric Light Companies and Electric Railway Companies 
in various localities. The articles are also exported to a 



in the manufacture of generators, motors, switchboards, considerable amount to Chosen, Taiwan and China. The 



( Managing 
\ Director. 



( 154 

excellent quality of its manufactures has earned for the 
Company a good reputation, and the business is steadily 
developing. The Company's officials are as follows : — 

Seitaro Yamaguchi, Esq President. 

Kyuji Kobayashi, Esq.... 

Eenji Nishiwaki, Esq Director. 

They are all able business men to whom is due the 
present prosperity of the Company. 

Specialities. — Motor generator set for railway 
service, Motor generator set for Electrical-chemical pur- 
pose. Belt driven 3 phase alternating current generator, 
direct coupled with exciter, direct current interpole 
motor with starter, Type MW 3 phase induction motor, 
direct coupled motor pump set, Meiji Denki single phase 
induction motor. Motor-generator set and switchboard, 
Belt driven direct current generators. Type MW 3 phase 
induction motors and starters, single phase oil trans- 
formers, Switchboards for motor-generators set, low 
tension alternating current switchboards, 3-pole high 
tension switch, 66,000 volts 3 pole line switch outdoor 



) 
type, 115,000 volts single pole line switch indoor and 
outdoor type, controller for direct current motor, direct 
current vertical motois, switchboard for alternating 




KOBAYASHI. 



current generator, electric heater, alternating current 
drill motor, direct coupled motor-pump set. 



NAGOYA DENTO KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE NAGOYA ELECTRIC LIGHT CO., LTD.) 



''ipHE Nagoya Electric Light Co., Ltd. is located at 
■*■ Shiuyanagi-machi, Naka-ku, Nagoya in the Prefec- 
ture of Aiciii. The company was organized in August, 
1888, with a capital of ¥78,800, and opened business in 
December of the following year. In March of 1896 the 
company combined with the Aichi Electric Light Co., Ltd. 
with a capital of ¥75,000, and at the same time increased the 
capital to ¥300,000. In order to cope with enormous 
activities following the termination of the war with China 
the company again increased the capital in October of the 
same year to ¥500,000. In April of the following year 
the capital was again increased to ¥1,000,000. In October 
of 1904 the company inaugurated the supply of day power 
to be used in factories. In January, 1907, the company 



purchased tiie Tokai Hydro Electric Light Co., Ltd. with a 
capital of ¥250,000 and as a result the capital was in- 
creased to ¥1,250,000. Thus the company opened the 
hydro-electrical business by operating electric-motor power 
houses at the rivers Tonioe and Tashiro, formerly owned by 
the Tokai Hydro-electric Light Co., Ltd. Soon afterwards 
the capital was increased to ¥5,250,000. Simultaneously 
the company decided to establish two hydro-electric power 
houses, one at the river Kiso and tlie other at the river 
Nagara. The latter was completed in February, 1910. 
About this time there came into being the Nagoya Electric 
Power Co., Ltd. witii a capital of ¥5,000,000 generating 
electricity by means of the river Kiso. Finding it unwise 
to compete with this new rival concern the company com- 



( 155 ) 



bined with it in October, 1910, and at the same time in- 
creased the capital to ¥7,500,000. As a result of the 
stf ady development of business the company increased the 




capital to ¥16,000,000 in April, 1911. In May of 1912 
the present office was completed. 

Of the capital of ¥16,000,000 the sum of ¥10,537,500 
is paid up. Besides the supply of lighting and electric 
power the company is preparing for the inauguration of the 
chemical industry. It is also preparing for the transmis- 
sion of electricity as far as Osaka. 

The company's oflBcials are as follows : — 

f President and 
( Director. 



MOMOSUKE FUKUZAWA, Esq. 



Tamiyoshi Shimode, Esq. 



(M 
"(Di 



Managing 



I rector. 



Distribution of profit for the first half of 1916 is as 



THE NAGOYA ELECTRIC LIGHT CO. 



under : — 




Yen, 


Net Profit for the Term 


••• 


545,289.648 


Brought over from the Previous Term 


•• 


20,372.743 


Total 


... 


565,662.391 


To be distributed as follows : — 




Yen. 


Legal Reserve fund 




28,000.000 


Bonus for officials ... 


... 


13,000.000 


Dividend on Shares 9 per cent, per Anni 


am. 


497,250.000 


Carried forward to the Next Term ... 


... 


27,412.391 



OANA SEISAKUSHO. 

(THE OANA WORKS.) 



''T^HE Oaua Works are situated at Tamahime-cho, 
1 Asakusa-ku, Tokyo. It is one of the leading 
factories manufacturing electric machines. It is particu- 
larly known among 
industrial workers as 
the manufacturer of 
excellent generators, 
motors, transformers, 
switchboards, radio 
telegrapli apparatus, 
X ray apparatus, 
railway signals, high 
frequency generators, 
potential detectors, 
air-tight transformers, 
and other kinds of 
machinery which re- 




MR. OANA AND HIS WORKS, TOKYO. 



giaduate of the Technological College in the Tokyo 
Imperial University. He has ample experience in electric 
works as he obtained a position in the Tokyo Electric 

Power Company aa 
soon as he graduated 
from the College and 
undertook the con- 
struction of the com- 
pany's water power 
plant. When the 
company combined 
with the Tokyo Elec- 
tric Light Company 
he joined the stafi of 
the Asano Portland 
Cement Company and 
undertook conversion 



quire high technical skill and ample experience. 

The proprietor of this works is Mr. Hideichi Oana, a 



of the power from steam to electric. 

Next he had experience in the construction of electric 



( 156 ) 



tramways, as he was engaged by the Fukuhaku Electric 
Tramway Company to supervise the construction of its lines 
as Chief Expert and Manager. In December, 1910, he 
went to Germany for the purpose of prosecuting his studies 
of electric science, under Prof. E. Arnold, of the Technische 
Hochoshule, Carlsruhe, Baden. During his stay in Europe 
he also travelled extensively in Austria, Sweden, France, 
Switzerland, Norway, Russia, Italy, and other countries, 
and inspected machine-shops, power-plants, electric tram- 
ways, electric chemical manufactories, and other lines of 
electrical industry. 

After two years' stay in Europe he went to America 
and for over six months worked at the machine shops of the 
General Electric Company, the Westinghouse Electric 



Manufacturing Company, and other well-known electric 
machine works there, in order to gain practical knowledge 
of the subjects he had studied in Germany. 

On his return home he inaugurated the present works 
at Asakusa-machi, Asakusa-ku, Tokyo, and besides turning 
out the most advanced types of electric machines he has 
devised or perfected many electric apparatus, for which he 
has taken out patents. In January, 1917, he moved his 
shops to the present site and at the same time effected a 
great extension. 

In addition to the control cf the present works he 
teaches in the Technological College in Waseda Univer- 
sity, where his technical knowledge and skill are highly 
appreciated. 



ODA DENKI KOJO. 

(THE od;a el'ectrical machine works.) 



rp^HE Oda Electrical Machine Works, under the man- 
agement of Mr. Sokichi Oda, stand at No. 11, 10- 
chome Higashi-Nakadori, Tsukijima, Kyobaslii-ku, Tokyo. 
The shop is situated at Minarai-Iida-machi, Kyobashi-ku. 
The works were established in 1904. Mr. Oda threw himself 
into the manufacture of electrical machines as far back as 
1884, when this line of industry in Japan was in its infancy. 
In 1897 he went over to America, where he stayed many 
years studying the designing of electrical machines at the 
Westinghouse Electrical Manufacturing Co. in Pittsburg. 
After returning home, he served first in the Hioshima 
Electric Light Company as chief expert, and then in the 
electrical car section of the Kobu Railway Company. In 
1904 he established his own factory. Owing to his strenuous 



efforts and rare ability, the business gradually expanded 
and the works were enlarged many times. The present 
works at Tsukijima are among the most prominent electrical 
works in the land, measuring over 2,000 tsubo in the area of 
the site and above 500 tsuho in the building area. As for 
the accommodations, they leave nothing to be desired ; work- 
men in the service number over 100. The sales amount 
yearly to ¥500,000. The superiority of the manufactures 
are generally acknowledged, and the prosperity attained 
is solely due to the indomitable energy and ability dis- 
played by Mr. Oda. The outbreak of the European war 
has caused great activity in various branches of industry 
in this country, and Mr. Oda's works are in full swing ex- 
ecuting large orders. (Note. — 1 <aM6o = 3.9538 square yards.) 



( 157 ) 



OKUMURA DENKI SHOKAI. 

(THE OKUMURA ELECTRIC ENGINEERING CO.) 



r M HE company, at Okazaki-machi, Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto, 
is one of the oldest electric engineering firms in 
Kwansai, having been founded in Osaka as a partnership 
in 1885 by Mr. Takeshi Okumura, who controls the com- 
pany's affairs as President at present, and Mr. Torajiro 
Okumura, who now assists as Director in the control of the 
big business. 

At first the manufacture of electric machines and 
apparatus was conducted by the company, but in 1895, 
when the main oflBce was moved to the present site in Kyoto, 



Generators, motors, transformers, switchboards, water 
mills, various descriptions of pumps, ventilators, cranes, 
elevators, chimneys, iron tubes and pipes, iron bridges, iron 
towers, etc. 

The fine quality of the company's manufactures is well 
acknowledged by the public, who place profound confidence 
in the company. Already the company has been appointed 
makers to the diflerentn aval works, army arsenals, and 
many water power companies, and these have testified that 
the machines supplied by the company have worked 






THE OKUMURA ELECTRIC ENGINEERING CO., KYOTO. 



the scope of the company's works was much enlarged so as 
to turn out many other kindred articles. In January, 1912, 
again the company had to enlarge its working scope owing 
to the rapidly increasing demands, when several partners 
were admitted and it became a much larger concern. 

At present the company has branches at Tokyo, Osaka, 
Kobe, Kanazawa, Toyaraa, Fukui and Hakata, and the 
working staflt" at tliese ofiices and factories comprises more 
than a thousand men, including several professors at the 
Kyoto Imperial University, who act as Advisers to the 
company. After the repented extensions effected the 
company's working scope has been much extended and 
includes the following articles among its manufactures : — 



admirably. Theycompany can turn out motors to the 
capacity of 2,500 horse power. 




PORTION OF THE OKUMURA WORKS 
FOR MOTORS. 



( IS8 ) 



OSAKA DENKYU KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE OSAKA ELECTRIC LAMP CO., LTD.) 



rpiHE company was floated in February, 1907, with a 
-I- capital of ¥300,000 for the purpose of manufactur- 
ing electric lamps and their accessories. The actual opera- 
tions were first begun by incorporating private concerns in 
Osaka and district. A patent right was at the same time 
taken out by the company for the invention made by the 
company's experts for the repair of oldi bulbs. 




THE OSAKA ELECTRIC LAMP CO. 

The present factory at Daini, Sagisu, Nishinari-gori, 
Osaka prefecture, was then erected and a plant of the 
latest type was installed. In January, 1910, the company 
acquired patent rights for the manufacture of S.I. system, 
bulbs, and with the assistance of a foreign expert engaged 



a few years ago began to enlarge its operations. The 
annual production of the company has already reached 
5,000,000 bulbs and lamps of various descriptions, and the 
quality of the goods produced is universally acknowledged 
as the highest, having the following prominent features: — 
brightness of light, durability of illumination, beauty of 
shape and outline, great economy of power, and strength 
shown in resisting all kinds of shock. 

The company's capital has been enlarged during these 
years to ¥1,000,000, of which ¥650,000 is paid up. It 
has been necessary to extend its factories owing to the ever- 
increasing demand for the company's goods, not only from 
domestic electric companies, but from Manchuria, Chosen, 
and other foreign countries. A standing agreement exists 
between the company and the Osaka Electric Light Com- 
pany for the sale of bulbs and lamps. 

The business results have been improving year after 
year since its flotation, and at the end of 1913 the rate of 
dividend was increased to 15 per cent, per annum. At the 
close of last half year the rate was again raised to 20 per 
cent, per annum, and all indications point to the possibility 
of the figure being enhanced further at no distant date, 
when the company's proposed new factory is completed and 
the annual production is expected to rise to 12,000,000 
bulbs. 

The present controller of the company is Mr. Shu 
Watanabe, and Mr. Kinji Uchimura is the Manager. 



OSAKA DENTO KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE OSAKA ELECTRIC LIGHT CO., LTD.) 



THE Osaka Electric Light Company, Ltd., was 
established in 1887 with a capital of ¥200,000. The 
company commenced its operations two years after the 
foundation in 1899, but at first did not meet the apprecia- 
tion of the public it deserved, because the use of electric 
power was little known among the people and many 
difficulties had to be overcome by the management. 

However, the company was able to pursue its original 
plan owing to the plentiful supply of cheap coal from 



Kyushu and the use of alternate current generators. The 
rapid progress of industries in Osiika also helped the com- 
pany to steadily augment the scope of its business, and at 
present ¥21,600,000 is the total amount of capital paid up. 
The position of the company has been strikingly im- 
proved, and it now ranks among the foremost electrical 
concerns in the East. According to the returns made up at 
the close of 1915, the number of lights, which were not 
more than 500 when operations were commenced, amounted 



( 159 ) 



to more than 890,000, and the supply of power amounted 
to considerably more than G.OOO^liorse power. 

The company has its headquarters at Nakanoshima, 
Osaka, and branches at Temtna, Kodzu, Saiwai-oho, Sakai, 




Hirano, Tengajaya, Maidzuru, and Saseho, while power 
stations are established at Honden, Saiwai-cho, Nishi-Doton- 
bori, and Ajikawa with transformers at Sakai, Kasumi-cho, 
Horikawa, Noninbashi, Itachibori, Kitahama, Kodzu, and 
Saiwai-cho. 



cables amounted to 217 ri in round figures in Osaka, and 
12 ri in round figures in the provincial business quarters. 
Besides, the company had 0.3 mile of underground cables 
and over 30 miles of high pressure overhead cables. 

The company also owns a machine shop at Nishinoda, 
Osaka, where generators of various types, transformers, and 
all other kinds of electric appliances are manufactured, the 
following being the principal articles made at the work- 
shops : — 

Alternate and direct current generators and motors, 
transformers, switchboards and switch board panels with 
all their accessories, extra high tension testing transformers, 
ceiling and desk fans, arc lamps, electric sign flashers. 

The company's machine shops also turn out all appli- 
ances and tools required for electic light and power, the 
total value of the production being ¥63,804 in round 
figures, exclusive of the production at the branch shop at 
Sakai, which amounted to ¥5,704 in round figures at the 
end of 1915. The production at the branch shop is princi- 
pally cables and wires. 

In the following tables the business condition of the 
company at the end of 1915 are shown in detail : — 
Assets Accounts for thk Latter Hai.p of 1915. 

Yen. 
Proceeds from the Company's Property ... 4,017.570 

Sale of Houses 66.070 

Profit from Securities Held 3,951.600 

Losses in the Company's Property 330,000.000 

Redemption of Plants 119,297.101 

Depreciation in Cables 102,509.696 

Depreciation in'Indoor Appliances ... 81,736.108 




AJIKAWA POWER HOUSE OF THE OSAKA ELECTRIC LIGHT CO. 



The total area of the compounds, including both the 
main and branch offices, is about 130 acres, which are 
appraised at ¥1,310,314 in round figures. According to the 
returns made up at the end of 1915 the company's overhead 



Depreciation in Buildings 

Depreciation in Furniture 

Depreciation in Warehoused Materials.. 
Balance in Favour of Losses 



12,645.472 

4,430.458 

9,381.165 

325,982.430 



( 160 :) 



Business Account. Yen. 

Business receipts 2,937,866.491 

Receipts from Light Supply 2,278,772.747 

Receipts from Power Supply 303,010.420 

Receipts from Electric Fans 110,163.702 

Receipts from Miscellaneous Sources and 

Interest on Deposits 176,410.261 

Receipts from Workshops 63,804.673 

Receipts from Sakai Shops 5,704.688 

Business Expenses ... , 1,278,169.583 

Balance (Business Profit) 1,659,696.908 

Final Accounts. Yen. 

Gross Receipts 2,981,114.517 

Gross Disbursements 1,608,169.583 

Balance (Net Profit) 1,372,944.934 



This last amount was very prudently distributed, and at 
the end of the business term of 1915 the company had 
reserves as follows ; — 

Yen. 

Legal Reserve 1,134,000.000 

Special Reserve 70,000.000 

Secondary Reserve 190,000.000 

The Court of Directors is composed of the following : — 
MiCHio Doi, Esq President. 

Tetsujiro Sakano, Esq { oYrecfor ^ 

JiNYOMO Terada, Esq Director. 

Bin Hiraqa, Esq „ 

ToKuzo Shima, Esq Auditor. 

TOKUJIRO FujiTA, Esq „ 

NiSUKE Naqata, Esq „ 



OSAKA DENTO KABUSHIKI KAISHA SEISAKUSHO. 

(THE OSAKA ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY'S ENGINEERING WORKS.) 



T I iHESE works, situated at Kaneiiira-machi, Nishinoda, 
-*- Kita-ku, Osaka, manufacture and sell electric 
machinery, and are practically an auxiliary establishment to 
the Osaka Electric Light Company, having been founded 
by the company with its own capital. 

Just after the Sino- Japanese war, the Osaka Electric 
Light Company founded a repair works at Tamaye-cho, 
Osaka, for tlie purpose of carrying on the repairs to its plant. 
Later tlie management of the works was entrusted to 
Mr. N. Kajime, when they were renamed the Kajima 
Electric Engineering Works and assumed the appearance of 
an independent concern. In 1897 it was placed under the 
direct control of the company, when it once more assumed 
the present title. 

With the heavy increase in demand for electric 
machinery in Japan after the Russo-Japanese war the works 
were much enlarged and moved to the present site. At 
present a branch is erected at Ryujinbashi-dori, Sakai, and 
its working capital is estimated at ¥5,000,000, which 



the management of the company intends increasing by 
¥3,000,000 shortly. The factories turn out ¥3,000,000 
worth of goods annually. 

The specialities : — 

Rotary Electric Machinery, Slatic transformers, 
automatic and hand operated oil air break switches, switch- 
boards and their attachments, measuring instruments and 
electric heaters and domestic appliances, electric-driven 
hoist pumps, blowers, cranes, elevators and apparatus for 
wireless telegraphs, etc. 

The works are placed under the control of Mr. Sennosuke 
Hashimoto, Chief Expert of the Osaka Electric Light 
Company, who is assisted by the following officers : — 



Mr. Zensuke Ozawa, Esq. ... 

Mr. Takizo Matsuzawa, Esq. 
Mr. Usaku Mori, Esq 



( Business Manager 
... ■< and Deputy 

(_ Director. 

... Cliief Expert. 

f Manager of the 
••• \ Sakai Branch. 



( 161 ) 



SAWAFUJI DENKI KOGYOSHO. 

(THE SAWAFUJI ELECTRIC ENGINEERING WORKS.) 



' I ""HESE works manufacture telephone apparatus, induc- 

-*■ tion coils, insulators, electric light appliances, 

automatic gas burning appliances, high tension magnet 




MR. C. SAWAFUJI. 

generators, and so forth, and are managed by Mr. Chuzo 
Sawafuji, at No. 52 Nishi-Goken-cho, Ushigome-ku, 
Tokyo. 

Mr. Sawafuji is an electric engineer of great ability 
and has invented a large number of useful electric 
apparatus, including telephone receivers for long distance 
and " Sawafuji's high tension magnet igniters." 

He was born on January Ist, 1878, at Fukuoka, 
Niuohe-gun, Iwata prefecture. While a boy he studied 
science in Tokyo and devoted himself to educational works. 
He held the post of instructor at various middle sciiools, and 
when the Russo-Japanese war broke out, and he was called 
out to active service, he was an instructor of science at the 
Tochigi Prefeetural Agricultural School. 

He was with the late General Nogi's Army all through 
the campaign in Manchuria, and several times distinguished 



himself. On the conclusion of the war he was granted a 
pension and a decoration. The experience he obtained 
during the campaign in Manchuria induced him on his 
release from military service to study electricity. 

In 1912 the present works were established by 
Mr. Sawafuji to produce his inventions, which numbered over 
ten up to that date, under his own supervision. He was at 
once the manager and the chief expert to the new works, 
and his extraordinary genius as an engineer and business 
organizer was fully displayed in the rapid development of 
the enterprise. 

In view of the fact that motors for automobiles and 
flying machines were not made in this country, while they 
are indispensable for military operations in the future, his 
study was directed to the completion of important 




THE SAWAFUJI ELECTRIC ENGINEERING 
WORKS, TOKYO. 

mechanical appliances. Already his study has produced 
that important device known as "Sawafuji's high-tensiou 
magnet igniter.'' 



( 162 1) 



SHIBAURA SEISAKUSHO. 

(THE SHIBAURA ENGINEERING WORKS, LTD.) 



THE Shibaura Engineering Works are located on the 
shores of Shibaura, Kanasugi Shinhama-cho, Shiba- 
ku, Tokyo. The locality is a celebrated " moonviewing " 
resort, named Shibaura. The works were estabablished in 
1875, being the oldest establishment of the kind in Japan. 
The arrangements were on a very small scale at the outset, 
but have been gradually enlarged since November, 1893, 
when the works came into possession of the Mitsui family, 
representative millionaires of Japan. At present the works 
are known at home and abroad as the largest in the Orient. 
At the time when the Mitsui family took over the works, 
Mr. R. Fujiyama was the Manager of the works. He was 
tlien attached to the Industrial Department of the Mitsui 
family. He was succeeded by Mr. T. Ono as Manager in 
May, 1896, and the latter was replaced by Mr. S. Wakayama 



and the organization was changed to a joint-stock company, 
in which members of the Mitsui family became shareliolders. 
The Company immediately started the building of a large 
iron-framed workshop, several other shops, warehouses and 
offices, in addition to the old premises. It also installed 
various plants of the latest pattern. The construction work 
was effected by December, 1909, after which the manufactur- 
ing capacity remarkably increased. 

In 1909, the capital was again increased to two million 
yen. At the same time the works entered into an agreement 
with the General Electric Company, the largest electrical 
factory in the world, and thus obtained the exclusive right 
to manufacture all the patent goods of that company. 

In July, 1911, Mr. Otaguro, managing director, was 
replaced by Messrs. K. Kishi and S. Kobayashi. Progress 




THE SHIBAURA ENGINEERING WORKS, TOKYO. 



in 1897. Upon the closing of the Mitsui Industrial Depart- 
ment in November, 1897, the works were put under the 
control of the Mitsui Mining Co. as a branch of the 
Company. In January, 1899, Mr. Wakayama died and 
Mr. T. Nishimatsu was appointed Acting Manager, In 
May of the same year, when Mr. Nishimatsu was transferred 
to anotiier post, the post of Manager was abolished and the 
works were brought under the direction of Mr. J. Otaguro. 
Mr. Otaguro, soon after the assumption of his post, carried 
out reforms and endeavoured to employ able men, while 
extending the market of the articles manufactured by the 
works, in consideration of the situation. It consequence of 
his readjustments, business has been steadily developed. In 
order to meet tiie increasing demand tiie capital of the works 
was increased to one million yen (£100,000) in July, 1904, 



has been steadily made, and in 1913 the capital was again 
increased to iive million yen in order to extend the factory. 
The works have become purely electrical mai:ufactures. In 
August, 1913, the Ginza store was established for the purpose 
of introducing the company's manufactures to the public. 
In the next year, the extension works were completed, and 
with the increased manufacturing capacity, the works have 
made great strides. 

The present organization is as follows : — Secretary, 
General Affairs Section, Accounts Section, Cash Section, 
Engineering and Manufacturing Department, Commercial 
Department. 

The principal articles now being manufactured are : — 
Generators, Motors, Transformers, Switchboards and their 



accessories. 



( 163 ) 



SHIMOHA DE 

(THE SHIMOHA 



THE Head Office of the Shimoha Electric Co. is 
located at No. 1, Sliinbori-cho, Shiba-ku, Tokyo. 
A branch office stands at Hojo-maclii, Awa-gun, Chiba 
prefecture and the works at No. 85, Kuruma-cho, Taka- 
nawa Shiba-ku, 
Tokyo. The Company 
also has the Porcelain 
Works, at Gojo-Nishi- 
gawa, Higashiyama- 
sen Shimokyo-ku, 
Kyoto. 

The company is 
under the manage- 
ment of Mr. Tora- 
kichi Siiimoha and is 
chiefly engaged in 
the manufacture and 
sale of electrical ap- 
paratus. At the age 
of 14, Mr. Shimoha, 
the present proprietor, 
came up to Tokyo 
and entered the ser- MR. T. SHIMOHA. 

vice of the Tateoka Electrical Works, as an ordinary 
workman. 




NKI SHOKAi. 

ELECTRIC CO.) 

In addition to working in the factory he found time to 
attend the electrical class in the Industrial Supplementary 
School established by the Tokyo City. After finishing wiih 
the school he established a factory for himself, and at the age 
of 20 he manufactured an electrical foot-warmer and had it 
registered as a utility model. Two years later lie invented 
sockets for two and three lights and had tliera registered as 
utility models. Later he named them the Shimoha Improved 
Sockets and had them patented. As soon as they were put 
on the market there was a large demand for them. The 
works are kept constantly busy executing orders from 
electric light companies in China and Chosen as well as at 
home. Later he invented a plug called the perpendicular 
cluster for two lights. Besides these, he has made six other 
inventions for the patent rights for which he will shortly 
apply to the Patent Bureau. This amply testifies to his 
inventive fuculty. In February of 1913, Mr. Shimoha 
made a tour of inspection of the electrical business in 
Vladivostock, Manciiuria, Peking, Tientsin and Cliosen. 
He greatly benefited by this trip and secured large orders 
besides establishing many new connections. He now 
contemplates promoting the Tokyo Electric Apparatus 
Manufacturing Company Ltd. with a view to largely 
manufacturing special and refined articles by means of the 
patent rights obtainable. 



TEIKOKU DENKYU KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 



(THE IMPERIAL ELECTRIC-LAMP BULB 



THE Company was established in December, 1909, and 
has for its object the manufacture and sale of bulbs 
for electric-lamps. In 1903, the late Mr. Kawakatsu started 
this business independently, and when it showed signs of 
development he organized a company in partnership with 
Mr. Zengo li, in May 1907. The business witnessed a steady 
development, until in 1909 the present company was 
established with a capital of ¥200,000. Every arrangement 
was made to meet the requirements of the times by extending 
the business, with Mr. Zengo li as Managing Director, 
Messrs. Tomekichi Matsumoto, Eokuro Aoyama, Yujiro 
Tachikawa, Yoshio Sliinjo, J. R. Geary and C. E. Randall 
as Directors, and Messrs. Bunnosuke Fukuuaga and Kanji 
Nakamura as Auditors. Recently, great improvements were 
introduced in the factory and consequently tiie quality of 
the goods produced has been much improved, to the high 
approval of the general public. 



CO.) 

The company manufactures 
tungsten and carbon bulbs, and 
both are of very superior quality, 
and have met with a warm recep- 




MR. Z. II, THE IMPERIAL ELECTRIC BULB CO. 



( 164 ) 



tion from the general consumers, an extended market 
being opened for the goods. The annual output is 
some 2,000,000 pieces, the total value aggregating over 
¥700,000. In 1913, the company conceived the idea of 
making tlie tungsten, the patent goods of the General 
Electric company, largest electrical factory in America, 



and as the necessary agreement was entered into in 
February, the same year, the goods are manufactured at 
present in large quantities. The dividend of the company 
at every business term is not less than 20 per cent. The 
Head Office is at No. 53, Fujimi-cho, Azabu-ku, 
Tokyo. 



TOKYO DENKi KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE TOKYO ELECTRIC CO., LTD.) 



THE past history of the Tokyo Electric Company, 
manufacturers of Mazda lamps in Japan, may be 
said to typify the process of the development of this 
industry in the country. In the year 188i Prof. I. Fujioka, 
now President of the concern, was despatched by the 
Government to the United States, where he paid a visit to 
the World's Fair, Chicago. There it was that his attention 
was attracted by certain inventions of the famous Edison. 
The idea of starting an electric industry must have flashed 
upon him when he was scrutinising them, mingled in a 



honour of being the pioneer of the industry in Japan. 
Later, in 1890, the business was turned into a limited 
partnership by enlisting the late Mr. Shoichi Miyoshi in 
the enterprise. It was known by the name of the 
Hakunetsu-sha. But owing to the rudimentary technique 
and the smalluess of demand on the part of the public, their 
concern was far from successful in the beginning. By 
April 1896, however, it was reorganized into a joint-stock 
company, with a capital of ¥150,000. In order, therefore, 
to cope with ths situation more effectively, its management 




THE TOKYO ELECTRIC CO., KAWASAKI. 



crowd of curious visitors. Upon returning home, this 
idea materialized. In 1888 he established a work -shop and 
began the manufacture of electric utensils on a small scale. 
In the same year, when the Imperial Household found it 
advisable to g' t the Palace served with electricity. Prof. 
Fujioka went over to England to study such matters at the 
Swan Eltciric Lamp Works, After several months he 
came buck to Japan ThereupDn he started the making of 
iucandesotnt lamps at Minarai-Nabe-cho, Kyobashi-ku, 
Tokyo, where he established a aiuall plant ; he deserves the 



decided to introduce some improvements into the system of 
their business. The change of its name to the present one, 
in February, 1899, marked an epoch in tiie history of its 
evolution. Still, its producing power was not sufficiently 
large to drive away the German goods. 

At present the Tokyo Electric Company maintains 
three factories in and near Tokyo. Their sites and building 
areas are as follows : — 

Ohi factory (9,118 isubo), 48,538 sq. ft. ; Fukugawa fac- 
tory (748 tsiAo) 27,266 sq. ft. and Kawasaki factory (28,363 



( 165 ) 



tmho) 179,442 sq. ft. Altogether 113 engineers and 1,745 
hands are employed. Tlie chief products are the G.E. 
Mflzda lamps, the G.E. carbon filament lamps, the Mazda 
nitrogen lamps, sockets and shades, attaching plugs X-niy 
tubes, glass for lens, etc. Especially the "G.E. Mazda" 
and the "G.E. Nitrogen" are reputed to represent the 
non plus ultra in lamp-making in Japan. The "G.E. 
Nitrogen " lamp, which is the latest invention of the 
American Conipany, in especially adapted for lighting 
parks, theatres, depots, stations and other public places, 
where electric lamps of very high candle power are 
preferably installed. Also, it is very suitable for use at 
moving-picture theatres and photographic studios which are 
open at night. 

The Tokyo Electric company is now able to turn out in 
a day 35,000 " Mazda Lamps " and 15,000 " Carbon 
Lamps" and 75 per cent, of the total lamp business in 
Japan is handled by this Company. In passing, it may be 
added that Japan annually demands from 15 to 16 million 
lamps, of which only 10 per cent, comes from abroad. 

As for tlie marketing system, the Company has its own 



stores at Owari-cho, Kyobashi, Tokyo, Awabori, Osaka and 
Isezaki-cho, Yokohama. Messrs. Bagnall & Hilles, of 
Yokohama, are its agents, and there are others at Tokyo, 
Shizuoka, Nagoya, Kyoto and Osaka, Moji, Dairen and 
Otaru. At the last named place the Mitsui Bussan Kaisha 
has its own branch office and works tlie whole Hokkaido as 
sales-agents for the Tokyo Electric Company. 

The present directorate is composed of the following : — 



L FujtOKA, Esq. 
J. R. Geary, Esq 



Auditors. 



A. L. Bagnall, Esq. 
C. E. Randall, Esq. 
Y. Shin JO, Esq. ... 
y. Kawasaki, Esq. 
N. Nagatomi, Esq 
Y. Tachikawa, Esq. 

Mr,. Y. Shinjo controls the engineering and sales 
department, and the remarkable success of the Company 
must be partly attributed to this gentleman's untiring efibrts 



President and 
Managing Director. 

Vice-President. 

Director. 



TOKYO DENTO KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 



(THE TOKYO ELECTRIC LIGHT CO.. LTD.) 



'T^HE c(»mpany was established in 1873 with a capital 
-*- of ¥200,000. By amalgamating other companies 

the capital was increased to ¥1,000,000 in July, 1879, and 
n January, 1880 amalgamation with the Nippon Electric 



Electric Light Co. and established the Shiba Electric 
Power House. Again in September, 1905, the company 
amalgamated the Fukagawa Electro-Light Co., the capital 
being increased to ¥7,150 000. In January, 1906, the 




THE KOMABASHI POWER STATION. 



Light Co. brought the capital to ¥1,300,000. In March, 
1885, further increase was effected, bringing the capital to 
¥2,000,000. The company then bought the Shinagawa 



Hachioji Electric Light Co., Ltd., was purchased and tlu' 
company obtained a monopoly of the electric lighting busi- 
ness for the entire city of Tokyo and suburbs. 



( 166 ) 



The company then determined to construct hydro- 
electric plants, and the capital was increased to 
¥18,000,000. Various investigations were carried out, and 
use was made of the river Katsura-gawa, in Yamanashi 
Prefecture to generate 22,500 brake horse-power and the 
company was enabled to entirely dispense with its former 
steam power. Owing to the rapidly increasing demand for 
electric lighting, the company has found even its present 
large liydro-electric plant insufficient, and it has been 
decided to secure a second source of hydro-electric power. 
In consequence the company has again increased its capital 
to ¥24,000,000. The additional work required three years 



for completion, and the result yielded a further generating 
capacity of 50,000 brake horse-power. 



The officers of the company are : — 
Tamizo Wakao, Esq President. 

Kyoichi Kanbe, Esq | Di3r".^ 

IwASABURO Nakahara, Esq Director. 

Taohisaburo Koshiyama, Esq „ 

Shohachi Wakao, Esq „ 

The present subscribed capital of the company is 
¥50,000,000, the amount paid up being ¥42.200,000. 



TOKYO TANAKA SHOKAI. 



(H. , S. TAN^ 

HS. TANAKA & CO. engage in the direct import, 
. manufacture and sale of electric and various 
machines. The works are located at No. 12, 4-chome Ginza, 
Kyobashi, Tokyo. 
Tlie company is pre- 
sided over by Mr. 
Tsunesaburo Horiye. 
It is one of the oldest 
establishments of its 
kind in Japan. Men- 
tion must be made of 
its founders, the late 
Messrs. Hisashige 
Tanaka and his son. 
Mr. Tanaka (Senior) 
was gifted with me- 
chanical skill, and 
his genius was first 
manifested when he 
rendered great ser- 
vices by fulfilling the 
task of manufacturing 
arms for the Lord of 

Saga, MarquisNabeshima, atthetimeof the visit of the Ame- 
rican vessels to Uniga some seven decades ago, which gave 
rise to a loud outcry throughout the nation on the pressing 
necessity of providing for national defence. Guns then 
placed in the fortresses at Shinagawa were of his production. 
In 1873, Mr. Tanaka, accompanied by his eldest son, came 
up to the Capital. There the father and son jointly manu- 
factured the Morse telegraph instruments in response to the 
order of the Government. The articles were admirable in 
every way. This was the first record of the manufacture 




MR. T. HORIYE. 



KA & CO.) 

of electric machines for practical use in this country. By 
this the authorities were convinced of the fact that what was 
possible for westerners was equally possible to the Japanese. 
This also eventually led to the establishment of the Shibaura 
Engineering Works, the largest manufacturers of electric 
machinery in the Orient, and of H. S. Tanaka & Go. The 
first electric light was seen in Japan when the company 
placed some lights in its shop window in 1878. When the 
Government decided, at the first conference of national 
defence, to manufacture in the home land all the submarine 
mines and fish torpedoes required the company undertook 
this onerous task. 

Since the death of the late Mr, Hisashige Tanaka 
(Junior), the company has been presided over by Mr. 
Tsunesaburo Horiye, who had been the Managing Director. 




MR. H. TANAKA. MR. H. TANAKA. 

(Senior). (Junior). 

The company acts as'an agent by special contract for 
the Shibaura Engineering Works referred to above. 



C 167 ) 



TONE HATSUDEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE TONE HYDRO-ELECTRIC CO., LTD.) 



THE Tone Hydro-Electric Company, situated at No. 
65, Horikawa-cho, Maebsshi, Gumma prefecture, 
was founded in May, 1909, for the purpose of supplying 
electric light and electric power, running electric tramways, 
and supplying gas. 




THE POWER HOUSE OF THE COMPANY, 
GUMMA PREFECTURE. 

At present the company hns an authorized capital of 
¥6,100,000 and is steadily increasing its business scope. 
The supply of power and light is not only maintained in 
Gumma prefecture, but in Tokyo, Saitama, Tochigi, 
Ibaraki, and Chiba prefectures as well, and the maximum 
capacity of generating power at the different power stations 
is brought up to 15,250 kilowatts. 

The company has four power stations, the first of which 
is situated at Iwamuro, Shirasawa-mura, Tone-gori, Gumma 
prefecture, and can supply the maximum amount of power 



at 2,400 kilowatts. The second station, which also has the 
capacity of producing 2,400 kilowatts, is situated at 
Kamikuya, Tone-gori, Gumma prefecture The third station 
is the smallest of all, producing only 350 kiloWMtts. It is 
situated at Takatsudo, Kawuuchi-mura, Yaraada-gori, 
Gumma prefecture. Tiie last one is situated at Fukuoka- 
mura, Yamada-gori, Gumma prefecture, and generates 500 
kilowatts of power. 

The position of the company's transmission line is 
almost ideal, being free from wind and water damages, and 
there is practically no break-off in the supply of power 
which is quite common in some electric undertakings. The 
underground electric wire system has been adopted in a 
large measure, and special provisions are made for cases of 
emergency. Special telephone lines have also been con- 
structed along the transmission line to add to the com- 
munication facilities. 

The company has established sub-branch oflSces, the 
following being only a few of them : — 

Numata Office, Numata, Gumma Prefecture; Ise- 
zaki Office, Isezaki, Gumma Prefecture ; Ota Office, Ota, 
Gumma Profecture; Tatebayashi Office, Tatebayashi, 
Gumma Prefecture; Kiryu Office, Kiryu, Gumma 
Prefecture, Ashikaga Office, Ashikaga, Tochigi Prefec- 
ture ; Sano Office, Siino, Tochigi Prefecture ; Tochigi 
Office, Tochigi, Tociiigi Prefecture; Oyama Office, 
Oyama, Tochigi Prefecture ; Satte Office, Satte, Saitama 
Prefecture ; Oji Office, Oji, Tokyo Prefecture. 
The company is controlled by the following: — 

Rizo Hazomi, Esq President. 

SuoTARO KoBAYASHi, Esq Managing Director. 

Sozo OsAWA, Esq „ „ 



TOYO DENKI SEISAKUSHO. 

(THE TOYO ELECTRICAL WORKS.) 



WITH the growth of electrical business in Japan the 
manufacture of electrical machines is greatly 
developing. But the manufacture of insulators has been 
neglected, the imports amounting yearly to over 
¥1,000,000. It was for the purpose of meeting this 
lamentable situation and supplying the best possible 
articles at the cheapest price that the Toyo Electrical 



Works was established in December, 1912, by Mr. Tokuma 
Tanaka The works were originally built at Sekigaliara 
Oi-machi, Ebara-gun, near Tokyo, chiefly for the mHiiu- 
facture of mica insulators. In January of the following 
year the works applied to the Department of Communica- 
tions for the examination of the manufactures. The result 
was that the articles were proved far superior to the imports. 



( 168 ) 



As soon as they were put on sale the articles won a very 
favourable opinion, and the demand steadily increased. In 
order to meet a rapidly increasing demand, Mr. Tanaka 
reorganized the company into of limited partnership in 
November, 1914. Simultaneously with this a far larger 
workshop was established at No. 161, Moto-machi, 
Yanagishima Honjo-ku, Tokyo, to take the place of the old 
one in the suburbs, and many new machines were installed 
in addition to the old ones. Thanks to unsparing efforts 
to improve the manufactures, the works are now favoured 



with orders by army and naval arsenals, the Imperial 
Government Railways, and such prominent private 
establishments as the Mitsubishi Dockyani, Kawasaki 
Dockyard, Siiibaura Engineering Works, etc. The business 
is daily growing in prosperity. 

The Company's partners are as follows : — 

T. Tanaka, E?q Representative. 

Viscount K. NrRE Partner. 

8. Kawakami, Esq „ 

T. Sasaki, Esq „ 



UJIGAWA DENKI KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE UJIGAWA ELECTRIC CO., LTD.) 



RECENTLY hydro-electric enterprises have been started 
in many places throughout the Empire, with the 
progress of the lines of industry requiring electricity as 
driving power. The Ujigawa Electric Company is one of 
the most important of these. It was promoted by a group 
of Osaka business men, with a capital of ¥4,500,000, with 
the object of generating electric power by utilizing the water 
of Lake Biwa, the largest of all lakes in Japan, and manu- 
facturing and selling electric apparatus. At the same time 




THE UJIGAWA POWER HOUSE OF THE COMPANY. 

two other companies were promoted in Tokyo and Shiga 
prefecture. After prolonged negotiations the latter were 
fused in the first-named concern, and the capital of the 
company was increased to ¥12,500,000. 

Tlie whole enterprise was divided into several stages, 
and immediately after the foundation the realization of the 
first pait was commenced. It was completed in July, 1913, 
and the supply of power to Osaka and Kyoto was inaugurated. 
At Ishiyama, Shiga prefecture, running water was drawn 



from Lake Biwa at the rate of 2,000 cubic feet per second 
and was conveyed to Ujimachi, eight miles from Kyoto, by 
means of open canals or tunnels, which liave a total length 
of 36,486 feet with an incline of 1 in 2,000. At Uji-machi 
a head of 205 feet is thus maintained, and at the power 
station erected there it is employed to generate 48,600 horse 
power, which is distributed to Kyoto and Osaka, the latter 
of which is 22 miles from the station. 

At the Uji power house a mill, having a capacity of 
8,100 iiorse power, and six motors, each with a capacity of 
5,400 kilowat amperes, are installed, and power thus 
generated is distributed to Osaka and Kyoto by overhead 
cables. The power conveyed to Osaka is transformed first 
by the Noe Transformer and supplied to factories in the 
vicinity, and then the remnant is conveyed to the Ebie and 
the Dotombori Transformers underground, where it is 
supplied to customers in the city. The power conveyed to 
Kyoto is directly sent to the Transformer of the Kyoto 
Electric Light Company, Higashi Kujo, a suburb of Kyoto, 
and thence it is supplied to customers in the city. 

Since the inauguration of business the public demands 
on the company have increased with striking rapidity, and 
according to the report made up at the end of March, 1916, 
the supply of driving power has increased at the average 
rate of 1064. 75 H.P. per month. With the increase tiius 
achieved in the sale of power the total length of cables laid 
has also increased. In the vicinity of Osaka there are 
trunk lines to the number of six, and they reach even 
Sakai, Amagasaki, and cities in Osaka Prefecture. At 
present the mileage of the cables laid totals 776,972 miles. 

The company lias its main office at 2-chome Sonezaki, 
Kita-ku, Osaka, and a branch office at 2-chome Nishi- 
Dotorabori-dori, Nishi-ku, Osaka. The affairs of the 
company are controlled by Mr. Tokugoro Nakahaslii, ex- 
President of the Osaka Shosen Kaisha, who is now the 
president of the company. 



( 169 ) 



MR. YAI SAKIZO. 

(INVENTOR AND MANUFACTURER.) 



MR. YAI, SAKIZO, was born in 1863 in Nagaoka, 
Ecliigo Province. He came up to the capital 
when 22 years of age, and stulied for some time in the 
School of Physics: English, mathematics and Chinese 
Classics. In 1891 he succeeded iu inventing a dry battery, 
but failed to take out a patent therefor until three years 
later, or he might have achieved world-wide fame as the 
originator of the dry battery. This battery proved of great 
service to the Imperial army in the China-Japan war, and 
from that time the fame of the " Yai Dry Battery " spread 
and the demand for it increased. In 1910 Mr. Yai built 
the present shop at 1-chome Nishiki-cho, Kanda, and 
established a large factory at Kamiyoshi-cho, Asakusa-ku. 
Mr. Yai's own productions now enjoy a high reputation. 
Not satisfied with this, however, he has long bent his 
energies upon the invention of an air-tight dry battery. 
Recently this was successfully accomplished, and he has 
applied to the Governments of European countries and 
America for patent rights. Mr. Yai has already patented 
many articles of his own invention, the principal ones 
being: dry battery, continuous electric light, electric 
exchange connection, electric resistor, small size portable 
electric light, induction coil, electric connector, electrical 
measuring instrument, wireless telegraphy, battery terminal, 
mechanical automatic machinery control, etc. The works 



at Asakusa turn out annually over 500,000 dry batteries 
and many other electrical apparatus. Chiefly owiug to the 
war in Europe, the export of batteries and electric bulbs 
has shown marked activity, large quantities of batteries 




MR. SAKIZO YAI. MR. SABURO YAI. 

THE OFFICE. 

being sent to Russia, the bulbs going chiefly to Great 
Britain. Tiiese goods are also exportcl to America, China 
and other countries. 



YOKOHAMA DENSEN SEIZO KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 

(THE YOKOHAMA ELECTRIC WIRE WORKS.) 



CABLE-MAKING in Japan is one of the industries 
in the country which have undergone a most 
remarkable development and reached their present state 
of perfection within a comparatively short period, a fact 
which is explained by the existence in the country of an 
abundant supply of water power, due to the natural 
configuration, wliicii confers upon the island empire 
peculiar advantages for electrical industries rarely met 
with elsewhere. 

Foremost among the cable makers of Japan stands the 
Yokohama Electric Wire AVorks. It is established on a 
strong financial basis, the management being placed under 



the direct control of the Furukawa family, the copper King 
of Japan. The factories of the Yokohama Electric Wire 
Works have received almost yearly extensions since their 
inception, comprising now the Main Works at Yokohama, 
the Branch Works at Osaka, and the Paper Cable Works 
at Yokohama, which last is equipped with the latest and 
most advanced type of machinery. 

The Yokohama Electric Wire Works counts among its 
customers the Imperial Household Department, the Depart- 
ments of Communications, the Imperial Army and Navy, 
and the Board of Railways, and is supplying nearly the 
whole of the light, traction, and power cables used in the 



( 170 ) 



interior. Its products are now fast finding their way to 
foreign markets. Paper cables for power and telephone 
services, insulated cables for light, power and telephone 
services, lead tubing and India rubber goods are among the 
principal items of manufacture. Expert foreign service 
has hitherto been freely availed of, and the Works' staff of 
engineers is kept in close touch with the progress of the 
industry in Europe and America by dispatching them 
abroad. Cables of special construction made here have 



The offices and factories of the Yokohama Electric 
Wire Works are located as follows : — Head Office : No. 6, 
Nichome Takashima-cho, Yokohama. Main Works ; Ura- 
Takashima-cho, Yokohama. Cable Works : Nishi- 
Hiranuma-cho, Yokohama. Osaka Branch Works : 
Araagasaki, Hyogo Prefecture, 

The Management comprises : — 
Baron Kumakichi Nakashima, Esq.... President. 




THE MAIN OFFICE, 
YOKOHAMA. 



THE CABLE WORKS. 



OSAKA WORKS. 



always attained most excellent results, a recent instance 
being a submarine cable of great length which has con- 
clusively established the Works' superiority in this class of 
work. Until a short time ago Japan had to import annually 
a considerable quantity of cables of all descriptions, and for 
those of special construction was entirely dependent upon 
foreign supply, but her wants are now filled by the 
domestic industry — a matter for congratulation, for which 
the Yokohama Electric Wire Works may justly claim a 
very large measure of credit. 



SuEKiCHi Nakagawa, Esq. 

Kahei Otani, Esq 

RiKisABURO KoNDo, Esq., Kogaku-Hakushi 

KoKiCHi Sakurai, Esq 

YuTAKA Kawai, Esq 

Takayo.shi Nakata, Esq 

RYOJiO HlRANUBfA, Esq 



f Managing 
"■ I Director. 

Director. 



Auditor. 



( 171 ) 



CXOIiAINQCS AND BROKERS. 



TOKYO KABUSHIKI TORIHIKIJO. 

(THE TOKYO STOCK EXCHANGE.) 



THE Tokyo Stock Exchange is the oldest of all the 
stock exchanges in Japan and its scope of business 
is by far the largest. The list of the House made up at 
the close of May, 1915, indeed, includes 9 public bonds, 1 
foreign security, 14 provincial bonds, 105 debentures, and 
227 shares, the brokers exclusively belonging to the 
exchange numbering 78. 

The establishment was officially organized in May, 
1878, and on June 1st the same year actual dealings were 
opened. At first only the old and new bonds, inheritance 
bonds, the shares of the 
Tnkyo Exchange, and a few 
otiier descriptions of shares 
were open to transactions, 
but in October, 1879, deal- 
ings in gold and silver coins 
were inaugurated and added 
much to the prosperity of 
the market. 

This prosperity, how- 
ever, was destined to soon 
die away, for in the latter 
half of 1881 a depression 
commenced which lasted far 
into the Winter of ]885, 
and the House had a 




THE TOKYO STOCK EXCHANGE. 



very bad time of it. In the early part of 1886, how- 
ever, the first signs of the return of activity were observable 
in the market with the complete redemption of inconvertible 
notes. In May, 1887, a new exchange regulation was 
promulgated, wiien the famous controversy over the bourse 
system arose, and the regulation newly formulated was very 
much affected by the question at issue. It had a baneful 
influence upon the stock market. However, the unfavour- 
able efiects of the bourse controversy were soon eliminated 
and the stock market regained its stability when the Stock 
Exchange Act was thoroughly amended in March, 1893. 

At first the Exchange had a capital of only ¥200,000. 
Soon after the promulgation of the amended Stock Exchange 



Act the enlargement of the capital was decided upon, but 
the total amount after the increase was only ¥300,000. In 
March, 1896, a more ambitious scheme was launched in 
view of the wonderful development in business circles, 
under the beneficial influences of the Chino-Japanese 
campaign, and the capital was doubled to ¥600,000. 

Ill June, 1897, again the capital was enlarged and the 
total amount reached ¥1,250,000. But then a heavy blow 
was dealt to the Exchange by the promulgation of an 
Imperial Ordinance providing for the limitation of time 

bargains. It was called 
by jobbers the Exchange 
destruction regulations. 
When it came into efiect on 
July 1st it created a panic 
on the stock market and a 
sustained depression ensued. 
It was only in August 
of the following year that 
the market recovered from 
the shock. The Govern- 
ment, too, then became 
alive to the injustice of the 
regulations, and the ob- 
noxious regulations were 
abolished. 

During the Russo-Japanese war sharp fluctuations were 
witnessed on 'Change, and often there were spectacular 
fluctuations of gambling enthusiasm, but the trouble usually 
attending such sharp variations was averted owing to the 
quiet tone maintained throughout by the money market, 
and the settlement of accounts was smoothly carried out 
each month. 

The end of the war was a signal for speculators to 
gamble more actively, and tliere was another remarkable 
boom on 'Change, which necessitated a further increase in 
capital. Then the total capital reached ¥4,000,000. The 
same reason caused the House to increase the capital to 
¥12,000.000 in March, 1907. 



( 172 ) 



At the close of the same year " jiki " brokers were 
created, in addition to ordinary licensed brokers, for the 
purpose of extending the scope in that kind of dealings, but 
in May, 1911, this special group of brokers was abolished, 
because the Government policy changed and the "jiki" 
dealings were either stopped or restricted. 

In March, 1914, the Exchange Law and its supple- 
ment, the Exchange Tax Law, were amended, and both 
were brought into effect in September the same year. As a 
result the House was compelled to modify its Articles of 
Association and by-laws, and in July, 1915, the Exchange 
opened dealings under the new regime. 



The officers of the Exchange at present are as 
follows : — 



Baron Seinosuke Go 
Shimpei Tsunoda, Esq. ... 
KoMANOSUKE Eguchi, Esq. 
Unosuke Yamaguchi, Esq. 
Tahei Maekawa, Esq. ... 
Raita Fujiyama, Esq. ... 
MoRiTOMi Saegusa, Esq... 
Naozo Uchida, Esq. 
Hyosuke Sekiya, Esq. ... 



President. 
Director. 



Auditor. 



FUKUSHIMA SHOKAI. 

(F U K U S H I M A & CO.) 



MR. FUKUSHIMA, NAMIZO, was president of 
Messrs. Fukushima & Co., and received a broker's 
license in 1891 from the Department of Agriculture and 
Commerce. Two years later he was appointed a member of 
the Committee of the 
Tokyo Stock Ex- 
change. In 1899, the 
Tokyo Stock Ex- 
change instituted the 
custom of awarding 
silver cups annually 
to the brokers who 
had transacted the 
largest volume of 
business on the 
market, and since 
then Mr. Fukushima 
has never failed to 
win one of the prizes. 
In 1905, Mr. Fuku- 
shima introduced for 
the first time nearly 
fifty million yen of 
First Exchequer 
Bonds on foreign markets. It is noticeable that the number 
of foreign investors in railway and industrial shares have 
of late remarkably increased, and most of them placed their 
orders with Mr. Fukushima. The firm of Fukushima & 
Co. was organized with a branch in Yokohama, and with 
a view to improving their business management the Com- 




MR. N. FUKUSHIMA. 



pany sent a representative abroiid some time ago to be 
trained in the offices of brokers in New York, London and 
Paris. 

Tlie Company undertake to furnish on application 
detailed and reliable information concerning the business 
conditions and standing of various leading companies and 
corporations in Japan. 

The Head Office of the Company is situated at No. 24, 
Aomono-cho, Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, in the business centre 
of the capital. 

The Company's business comprises : — 

Bond Department. — Domestic and foreign Govern- 
ment Loans, municipal bonds, debentures, stocks, shares 
and other securities, bought and sold. Daily and weekly 
quotation list and reports issued both in English and 
Japanese. 

Financial Department. — Makes loans on collateral, 
on mortgages and other securities. Act as financial agents 
for individuals and corporations. 

Trust Department. — Underwrite and guarantee the 
issue of loans, municipal bonds, debentures and other 
securities ; and act as agents in charge of the business 
connected therewith. Assume entire charge of real and 
personal estates. Make investments in behalf of estates, 
trust funds and corporations. Act as executors, ad- 
ministrators, trustees, assignees and receivers. Act, by 
request, as patent agents between the Japanese Government 
and foreign applicants, and as agents for foreign insurance 
companies and mercantile houses. 



( 173 ) 



MR. HOSONO DENJIRO. 

(DEALER IN SHARES AND LOAN BONDS.) 



T\ /r R. HOSONO, DENJIRO, is a self-made man. His 
father was a lantern maker in Nagoya, and when 
his son started for the capital a 50 sen piece was all that he 
could give him for travelling expenses. Mr. Hosouo arrived 
in Tokyo in 1904 and picked up his living at Kabuto-eho, 
Japan's Wall Street, by serving as an errand boy for this 
or that broker. His life in the Exchange quarter was then 
a miserable one. Sometimes he had nothing to eat for a 
whole day. However, he was not discouraged and tried to 



learn business on 'Change. His endurance and courage 
were at last rewarded, and in 1908, when the stock market 
was plunged into a vortex of mad bulling and bearing, his 
brilliant manoeuvres secured for him a fortune of ¥600,000. 
With the success of his enterprise he turned his 
attention to the sugar industry, but that produced no 
tangible result and he decided to remain in the Exchange 
quarter. He now manages a big oflSce at Kabuto-cho, 
dealing in loan bonds and shares on a gigantic scale. 



KOBUSE SHOTEN. 

(BROKERS ON THE TOKYO STOCK EXCHANGE.) 



THE firm is one of the oldest and most flourishing 
brokers on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. The 
proprietor, Mr. Shinzaburo Kobuse, was born in Takanaslii- 
mura, Kamitakai-gun, Nagano prefecture, in December, 
1845, the second son of Tamizo Kobuse. In his tenth year 
he came up to Yedo (now Tokyo) and served as an oflice boy 
at a wholesale paper store. Soon after the Imperial Restora- 
tion he moved to Yokohama and obtained employment in 
a Chinese firm, where he was quickly promoted and soon 
appointed Manager of the overseas trade department. 

In 1878 he left the Chinese firm and set up as a broker 
in old coins, in which line he was well versed as he managed 
the trade in Japanese coins with the Chinese firm. Several 
years after he moved to Tokyo and obtained a license as 
broker on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. 

As Mr. Kobuse was very conscientious and honest in 
his dealings with his clients he obtained the confidence of 
the speculating public and his business witnessed a rapid 
expansion. His popularity among his confreres on 'Change 
rapidly grew, and not many years after tiie inauguration of 
his business lie was appointed their Head. Mr. Kobuse 
was invited to share in the management of the House as 
Auditor, and later as Advisor to the Board. He was also 
elected a Member of the Tokyo Chamber of Commerce in 
1889. 



He has two oflices separately managed at Kabuto-cho, 
both of which conduct a very extensive business. In June, 
1913, Mr. Kobuse was presented by the Tokyo Stock 




MR. S. KOBQSE. 

Exchange with a vase in lecognition of his conscientious 
and active contribution to the prosperity of the Exchange 
for over thirty years. 



( 174 ) 



MR. KOIKE KUNIZO. 

(PRESIDENT OF KOIKE & CO.) 



MR, KOIKE, KUNIZO, was born the fifth son of 
Mr. Tomohachi Asakawa, on April 10th, 1866, in 
Yanagi-machi, in tlie city of Kofu, Yamanashi prefecture. 
In 1884 he was adopted into the late Mr. Shinsuke Koike's 
family. 

After studying the rudiments of reading, writing and 
arithmetic with a local teacher, he apprenticed himself at 
the age of 13 to the 
house of the famous 
Wakao Ippei, silk 
magnate and native 
of the same prefec- 
ture. The boy was 
honest and intelligent 
and soon won the 
confidence of the 
master and respect of 
his fellow - workers. 
When he grew older 
he often accompanied 
his master to the 
neighbouring pro- 
vinces for the purchase 
of silk thread. These 
frequent business trips 

gave him opportuni- 

,. ^ , f^. MR. K. KOIKE, 

ties to show his rare 

business ability. When Mr. Wakao started mining in the 

Kokeizan gold mines he left the entire business in charge of 

the worthy employee. Thanks to his strenuous efforts, the 

business showed splendid results, which in turn formed a 

solid foundation for his present brilliant success. When 

later the Wakao Bank was established he also rendered 

valuable assistance in the promotion of the business. 

He had long wished to make a figure in the business 
centre of the metropolis. Record activity in the financial 
world following the close of the Japan-China War provided 
an opportunity for him to realize his plan. So he went to 
his master and told him all about his desire when the master 
highly admired his noble ambition and accepted his re- 
signation, granting uncommon rewards for his meritorious 
services. 




On coming up to the capital he entered into the service 
of a certain stock broker's office. After serving there for 
three years he established himself in the business of a stock- 
broker for the Tokyo Stock Exchange, in April, 1897. 
Unlike many dealers in this line of business, who only aim 
at their own profit, he followed strictly tlie line of promoting 
i)is clients' interests. This, coupled with his farsightedness 
and rare ability, soon won for him a great reputation and 
also brought him vast wealth. In April, 1907, he organized 
the Koike Goshi Kaisha (Limited Partnership) with a 
capital of ¥1,000,000, to engage in the sale of negotiable 
instruments, trust business and also in direct transactions 
with Great Britain, America, France and other countries. 
Up to about this time the Government had not allowed bill 
brokers to take up the flotation of public loans, entrusting 
this business exclusively to the banks. Deeply regretting 
this discrimination, Mr. Koike availed himself of the 
occasion of the issue of 4 per cent, loan bonds to raise a 
loud outcry against the partiality of the Government in 
granting the exclusive favour to banks. The authorities at 
last saw the reason in his argument, and allowed the brokers 
to participate in the business. The result produced a great 
improvement in the social position of the brokers, for the 
amount of loans subscribed through them far exceeded that 
done through the bankers. Later he purchased the Shoyei 
Bank Ltd. and inaugurated banking, with himself as 
President. He has managed and developed the new business 
with admirable success without the least pecuniary assistance 
from others. In August, 1909, he joined the party of 
Japanese representative businessmen and made a tour in 
the U.S.A. While making the best possible efforts for the 
strengthening of the bonds of friendship between thebusiness- 
raen of the two nations he made a minute inspection of the 
economic and financial conditions of the States. He is now 
a member of the Tokyo Chamber of Commerce and chairman 
of the committee of the guild of stock brokers. 

In November, 1915, he organized the Nippon Chemical 
Paper Materials Company, Limited, in Ochiai, Karafuto, 
with a capital of ¥3,000,000. The factory is expected to 
be completed in time to turn out the materials early next 
year. Thus he is making his efforts, side by side with those 
of the Government, to turn to account to the best possible 
extent the occupation of this northern territory. 



( 175 ) 



MR. NAMBA REIKIGHI. 

(BROKER ON THE TOKYO STOCK EXCHANGE.) 



MR, NAMBA, REIKICHI, is one of the most 
prominent brokers ou the Tokyo Stock Exchange, 
having been Chairman of the Committee of the guild of 
stock brokers for many years. He was born in Nagoya in 
May, 1873, as the elilest son of the late Mr. Dennai 
Namba, a samurai of the Nagoya Clan. His ambition in 
youth was to succeed as a business man. 

He came up to Tokyo after finishing his preliminary 
education in his native city and entered Keio University to 
study political economy. After his graduation from that 
institution he apprenticed himself to a broker on the Tokyo 
Stock Exchange to gain experience in dealings on 'Change. 
Having been equipped with a full knowledge of modern 
science, he soon acquainted himself witli the dealings in the 
stock market, and was known as a mnst resourceful and 
alert man. 

He started business on 'Change in conjunction with 
Mr. Mankichi Imai, another rising star on the market, and 
soon made their brokerage one of the greatest by dint of 
strenuous endeavours. In 1903 he seceded from the part- 
nership and started his own firm, under the style of the 
Kanemau Shoten. 

Mr. Namba is a gentleman of culture and his business 



methods are characterised by sincerity, steadfastness, and 
faithfulness. His clients are dealt with most loyally and 
sincerely. They trust him accordingly, and his firm is 
always patronized by investors and capitalists of the first 
water. 




MR. R. NAMBA. 



Besides controlling his own firm he is interested in the 
Meisho Printing Company. 



MR. ODA SHOJIRO. 

(BROKER ON THE TOKYO STOCK EXCHANGE.) 



]\ /r R. ODA, SHOJIRO, Broker on the Tokyo Stock Ex- 
■^^ ^ change, was born in Wakayama in March, 1855, a 
son of the late Mr. Shobei Oda. In his twenty-first year he 
came up to Tokyo for the purpose of starting his career as 
a business man, but he had no means with which to begin. 
He picked up his living for a time either by serving as an 



office boy or by seeking a position as a sort of private 
secretary to some business magnates. Mr, Oda was too 
ambitious to be satisfied with such humble positions, and 
determined to get rich quickly by gambling in rice, and with 
his scanty means started gambling on the Tokyo Rice and 
Product Exchange. The system of the exchange was then 



( 176 ) 



too conservative and complex for a man of such poor means 
to deal to advantage there, but he overcame all incon- 




MR 



veniences and difficulties to attain his purpose in life, v\i., 
succeeding as a business man. 

When his resources became thus sufficiently large he 
started as a broker on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and the 
masterful strokes he carried out with wonderful ingenuity 
won for him a great reputation among his confreres and 
clients as one of the greatest operators on 'Change. 

Now Mr. Oda ranks among the foremost of brokers and 
his firm enjoys a high degree of prosperity. His important 
position in the particular circle is such that he is elected 
Auditor of the Tokyo Stock Exchange each term. He is a 
philanthropic man, and there are not a few instances of his 
generosity recorded in the papers. During the Chino- 
Japanese and the Russo-Japanese Wars he donated money 
several times toward the funds for the relief of the poor and 
suffering, for which act he was rewarded by the Imperial 
Court with the grant of a set of cups. 



SONO SAKUTARO SHOTEN. 

(BROKERS IN PUBLIC LOAN BONDS AND SHARES, KYOTO.) 

'"P'HE firm owned and managed by Mr. Sakutaro Sono 



is one of the largest of the kind in Kyoto, and is 
situated at Shijo-Minaraieiru, Tera-machi, Kyoto. 

Mr. Sakutaro Sono was born in Hyogo prefecture, a 
son of the late Mr. Kahei Hirouchi, in November, 1876, 
While still a young man he was adopted into the Sono 
family. Since the foundation of the Kyoto Stock Exchange 
he had been a licensed broker on the exchange, but now he 



conducts only spot transactions in public bonds and shares. 
The extent and importance of his business is well demon- 
strated by the fact that the direct tax lie pays annually on 
account of his business in public bonds and shares amounts 
to over ¥2,200. 

Mr. Sono is at present an Auditor of the Kyoto Stock 
Excliauge. 



MR. SUZUKI TSUNESUKE. 

(BROKER ON THE TOKYO STOCK EXCHANGE.) 
R. SUZUKI, TSUNESUKE, an eminent broker on He was born in January, 1876, at Utsumi, Chita-gori, 

the Tokyo Stock Exchange, is a man of self-reliance Aichi prefecture. While still a small boy he lost his parents, 

and unusual strength. He started his business without any He was brought up by his uncle and received only an 

assistance beyond that of his own strong character and elementary education at his native town. At the age of 

ability, and yet he has achieved an amazing success. eleven he was apprenticed to a sak6 retailer in Nagoya, but 



M 



( 177 ) 

he had no desire to learn the trade, and after five years admire hiui. 

came up to Tokyo and sought employment. After some 

trials he obtained employment and [worked hard to save 

money wherewith to »tart his own business. At the age of 

twenty-one he started his career on the Tokyo Stock 

Exchange. 

He began to gamble through Mr. Seibei Kambe, a 
licentiate on 'Change, who eventually asked him to join his 
own firm as partner in recognition of his client's foresight 
and wonderful ability. Mr. iSuzuki accepted his offer. He 
began to accumulate experience in the line of business which, 
coupled with his natural ability, enabled him to push to the 
front. In May, 1909, he had a chance to set up for himself 
as broker on 'Change when Mr. Kambe retired from the 
business. He started his brokerage in June the same year, 
and with his brilliant manoeuvring won a success, which 
startled even veterans on 'Change. 

He is full of courage and of a gallant spirit, and in 
many instances he helped distressed persons out of difficulty 
at his own cost. All who know him can not help but 



He is a self-made man in the truest sense^of 
the terra, and his future is full of promise. 




MR. T. SUZUKI. 



MR. TAMATSUKA EIJIRO, 

(BROKER ON THE TOKYO STOCK EXCHANGE.) 



MK. TAMATSUKA, EIJIRO, who is now ranked 
among the foremost licensed brokers on the Tokyo 
Stock Exchange, is a self-made man who has risen from 




TAMATSUKA. 



the humblest position in life by dint of self-reliance and 
steadfast economy. 

While a boy he was apprenticed to a wholesale sugar 
dealer at Sakai-cho, Nihombashi-ku, Yedo. When he 
attained his eighteenth year his master failed in business 
and he was forced to pick up his living by selling old fans 
at the road-side. His past economy and thrift then proved 
helpful to him, for his odd savings became his capital in 
business. When Summer was gone and no one cared to 
buy old fans he began to sell any other odd things his small 
means could secure. This small enterprise of his was 
successful, and in a few years he secured a fairly large 
amount of money to start a more honourable and remunera- 
tive business. 

Since then all he has undertaken has proved successful, 
as he planned carefully before executing every scheme, and 
WHS ever steadfast and thrifty. Thus he has built up the 
colossal business lie now carries on in the Exchange quarter. 

Recently Mr. Tamatsuka founded a society called the 
Temposenkai, to encourage thrift and economy among 
young men and women. 



C 178 ) 



OSAKA DOJIMA BEIKOKU TORIHIKIJO. 



(THE OSAKA DOJIMA 

'T~^HE Osaka Dojima Rice Exchange is located at 
-*- No. 39, 1-chome Hama-dori Dojima, Kita-ku, 
Osaka. Having been opened for above 280 years the 
rice market at Dojima is the oldest market of the kind 
in Japan. When it was organized in 1871 the father 
institution of the present rice exchange was called the 
" Beikaisho " (Rice Meeting Place). In the succeeding 
year it was reorganized in accordance with the regulations 
for the " Beishokaisho " (Rice Dealers' Meeting Place) then 
promulgated. Succeeding to the business of tlie former, tlie 



RICE EXCHANGE.) 

for the steady development made by the exchange. The 
total amount of the cereal handled at the exchange in 1914 
reached over 25,580,000 koku. The Osaka Dojima Exchange 
represents the Western districts of the country precisely as 
does the Tokyo Exchange the Eastern districts. It is 
expected that the former will surpass the latter in the 
scope of business at no distant date. According to the 
latest returns of the exchange, the paid-up capital amounts 
to ¥1,600,000, and reserve funds ¥307,000, and tlie rate 




THE OSAKA DOJIMA RICE EXCHANGE. 



new institution was opened to business under the title of the 
Beishokaisho with a capital ¥75,000. 

With the promulgation of the law on excliange, the 
Beish5kaisho was reorganized and at the same time changed 
its name to the present title. At the time of its inaugura- 
tion the exchange had a capital of only ¥150,000, but this 
was increased for the fourth time in 1913, when it reached 
¥2,000,000. This yearly increase of capital speaks volumes 



of dividend per annum is over 14 per cent. The list of 
officials is appended : — 

ToHEi Takakura, Esq. 
Masatoshi Fujino, Esq. 
Yasutaro Motode, Esq. 
Yahei Uyeda, Esq. 

Seijiro Gion, Esq 

Terumichi Hamazaki, Esq. 
Keisuke Miy^azaki, Esq. 



Chief- Manager. 
Manager. 



Auditor. 



( 179 ) 



NIMO SHOTEH. 

(BROKERS ON THE OSAKA DOJIMA RICE EXCHANGE.) 



nn HE Nimo Shoten is one of the oldest brokerage concerns 
on the Exchange, having been founded more than a 
century ago. The proprietor, Mr. Mosuke Futakawa, is 
known as a business man of strong cliaracter and rectitude, 
and the business method of his firm is impressed deeply with 
the stamp of his personality. His firm never opens dealings 
with a client unless he comes with a letter of introduction 
from one of the many friends of the firm, but once business 
is opened every attention is given to the interests of the new 
client. Thus the firm enjoys the greatest confidence, and 
among its clients are many well-known business men, both 
Japanese and foreign. 

Mr. Futakawa is a leading figure among the licensed 
brokers on the exchange, and has occupied the post of 
the Chairman of the Committee of tlie Guild of Rice 
Exchange Brokers for many years. He is also on the 
Executive Committee of the Federated Associations of 
Rice Exchange Brokers. A very commendable feature 
in his personality is his public-spiritedness. He has 
founded a commercial school at Dojima and has himself 



endeavoured to train many employees. Thus in every 
respect Mr. Futakawa's firm is deservedly called the 
leading brokers on the Dojima Rice Exchange. 




THE NIMO SHOTEN, OSAKA. 



( 180 ) 



HOSIERY SDOTIOIN 



DAITOKU GOSHI XAISHA. 

(DAITOKU&CO.) 



THE Daitoku Co., Limited Partnership, is one of the 
largest suppliers of knitted cloth and hosiery goods in 
Osaka. Its factory, where excellent knitted cloth and 
hosiery goods are produced in large quantities, is situated 
at Urae, Sagisu, a town in the suburb of Osaka, the 
business office being situated at I-chome Tosabori-dori, 
Nishi-ku, Osaka. 

For many years the manufacture of hosiery goods was 
conducted by workers of small means, and in many respects 
their products were unsatisfactory. However, while they 
were made only for the domestic market it did not greatly 
matter. But now that they are turned out for the interna- 
tional market the troublesome irregularity in Japanese 



hosiery goods is no insignificant blot on the country's 
business honour. 

The Daitoku Co. was founded some years ago to 
eradicate this drawback in the line of industry by supply- 
ing knitted cloth to small manufacturers. The manufacture 
of hosiery goods was only started a few years ago, in the 
hope that witli the constant improvement in the quality the 
company would be able to outrival American, German, or 
English made goods in foreign markets. 

At present the Daitoku Co. exports its manufactures 
to Great Britain, British India, Australia, the Netherlands 
Indies, and other countries, and everywhere the company is 
securing a good footing. 



MR. HIRANO FUSAKIGHI. 

(MANUFACTURER OF HOSIERY.) 



M 



R. HIRANO, FUSAKICHI'S firm, manufacturers 
of worsted knitted goods, is located at No. 4, 




MR. F. HIRANO. 



Kamei-clio Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo. The company was 
originally opened in Fukuda-cho, Kanda-ku, in 1886 for 
the manufacture of worsted mittens. In 1892 the firm 
removed to the present address. Simultaneously it started 
the manufacture of improved worsted jackets which were 
the firm's invention. This proved a great success, 
and the articles soon became the fashion throughout the 
land. In the Japan-China and Russo-Japanese Wars the 
firm rendered great services in the cause of the State 
by supplying the Army and Navy with a large amount 
of jackets. In 1906 the firm made waistcoats for 
practical use and registered them as utility model articles. 
Since 1907, Mr. Hirano, head of the firm, has been twice 
appointed councillor of the guild of dealers in knitted goods 
of Tokyo. From October, 1912 to December, 1913 he held 
the post of Vice-President of the same guild. The firm 
has been awarded honours by many exhibitions. It is 
now chiefly engaged in the manufacture of knitted gloves 
and jackets for protection from cold. These are exported 
through foreign firms in Yokohama to London, Africa, 
Australia and other countries. 



( 181 ) 



HOJO KIMO SEIKOBU. 

(THE HOJO NAPPING WORKS) 



THE napping industry is one of the most important, 
and at the same time most difficult, of all auxiliary 
works in the woollen and knitting mill line. The line must 
be conducted on a large scale, but its profits are limited. The 
greatest care also must be taken in preventing accidents, 
because the slightest negligence of handling will set the 
whole factory on fire. 

Accordingly the line was little developed here up to 
the time when Mr. Eishichi Hojo, the proprietor of the 
Hojo Napping "Works, No. 477, Minami-doshin-machi, 
Nitaku, Osaka, started his business with a view to finishing 
the work, to check the import of foreign knitted goods, 
begun some time ago by Osaka Manufacturers. 

When he opened his works the Osaka manufacturers of 
knitted goods and hosiery received it with gratitude and were 
ready to back up his enterprise with large orders. Since 
then his undertaking has gone on increasing in scope and 
importance. 

At present his works are equipped with four napping 
machines. His two other branch factories are also equipped 
with four napping machines each. Thus Mr. Hojo can well 
afford to undertake the napping and polishing of knitted 
goods for almost all manufacturers of knitted goods and 
hosiery in Osaka. 

Especially because of his careful and prompt conduct 
of business his works are regarded as quite indispensable as 



an auxiliary^ force to the trade now conducted by Osaka, 
and has a great share in tiie general prosperity enjoyed by 
knitted goods manufacturers under the war's influences. 




MR. E. HOJO. 



HORIKAWA CHOBEI-"KYOCHO SHOTEN." 

(EXPORT AND IMPORT OF HOSIERY GOODS). 



" TV'YOCHO SHOTEN" is the trade name under 
J- V. which Mr. Chobei Horikawa carries on his 
extensive export and import trade in hosiery and sundry 
other goods. Mr. Horikawa started his business as 
a miscellaneous wholesale dealer in 1882 at the present 
office at No. 10, 2-chome Hon-cho, Nihombashi-ku, Tokyo. 
After several years he initiated the manufacture of hosiery 
goods. 

Though his import department has been almost entirely 
paralysed on account of the European war, his export de- 
partment is steadily and rapidly enlarging its business 
scope, because the war has turned out to be a powerful fillip 
to Japan's overseas trade, and Mr. Horikawa is sufficiently 



alert to take advantage of this splendid opportunity. At 
present he operates a knitting factory at Oji-machi, a 
suburb of Tokyo and a sewing factory at Yokoami-cho, 
Honjo-ku, Tokyo. Tlie former occupies an area of ground 
estimated at 1,500 tsubo and the latter covers an area of 
500 tsubo, where a total of 1,200 hands are employed. 

The manufactures, which are excellent, are exported 
to Russia, Great Britain, Australia, and other countries in 
increasing quantities. At home the firm is also recognized 
as one of the best producers of hosiery goods and has been 
appointed for some time past Makers to the Imperial 
Household Department, the Imperial Army, and the 
Imperial Navy. 



C 182 ) 



■ TO SHO SHOTEN. 



T 



(S. ITO & CO.) 

HIS firm, situated at No. 11, 4-cliome ERrano-machi, 



Higashi-ku, Osaka, carries on the manufacture and 
export of knitted goods, crepe hosiery, and net work under- 
wear on a fairly large scale. 

It was founded in 1874 by the present proprietor, 
Mr. S. Ito, who is the inventor of a knitting machine 
best suited for Japanese operatives and is respected by his 
confreres on that account and for his earnest efforts to 



bring about the organization of the Association of Knitted 
Goods Merchants in Osaka. 

Mr. Ito once started with his friends a company styled 
the Osaka Knitted Hosiery Company and himself controlled 
the company's affairs as Managing Director, but the concern 
proved a failure after a few years, and he resumed the 
management of his own firm. 

At present his goods are accorded a market not only 
at home but in China, British India, and other countries, 
principally on account of their durability and cheapness. 



WAHASHI SHIGEO SHOTEN. 

MANUFACTURERS OF HOSIERY.) 



T' 



HIS firm, situated at 2-chome, Nishi-Dotonbori, 
Nishiku, Osaka, is well known as manufacturers of 
all shades of hosiery and crepe goods and carries on an 
extensive export trade. 

An outstanding feature of the Izuoka & Co., which 
was the forerunners of the Iwahaslii Shigeo Shoten was the 
production of woollen and mixed goods. Crepe shirts were 
also manufactured by the company for the first time in 
this country. 

At present not a few hosiery manufacturers in this 
country supply crepe goods, but none of them can rival 
this firm in respect of excellence of manufacture. 
The " Shake Hand Brand " crepe shirts the firm produce. 



therefore, are universally received as the best in the market. 
At first tlie present proprietor, Mr, Shigeo Iwahashi, 
managed the affairs of the firm as partner, but on the 
retirement of Mr. Izuoka, Active Member, he took over the 
management of the business and changed the trade name 
as Iwahashi Shigeo Shoten (S. Iwahashi & Co.). 

Since the outbreak of the war in Europe the firm has 
expanded its export trade rapidly and at present nearly 
80 per cent, of the whole products of tlie firm is shipped 
overseas. At first orders came only from Australia, China, 
and other countries, but now England and Russia also place 
large orders with the firm, quite well appreciating the 
excellence of the firm's products. 



( 188 ) 



IWAI WAKiCHI SHOTEH. 



(W. IWAI 
ri^HE firm, situated at No. 4, Genzo-cho, Kita-ku, 
-*- Osaka, manufactures and exports the best qualities 
of woollen underwear and hosiery goods, also knitted gloves, 
stockings, and towelling on an extensive scale. 

In July, 1901, the firm was started by Mr. Wakichi 
Iwai at the present site for the purpose of manufacturing 
and supplying woollen underwear and general hosiery goods 
to the domestic market. During the Russo-Japanese war, 
however, the enlargement of the business was planned. 

At first business was conducted through Chinese and 
Iiulian buying agents here, bnt in 1914 direct trade with 
overseas buyers was started. Of late the market has 
extended further, and now tlie fir(n'8 goods go to China, 
British India, Great Britain, Russia, and the Dutch East 
Indies. 

At the firm's factories, which have been enlarged 
lately to cope witii the evei-iiicreasing demand from over- 
seas, a complete set of most up-to-date machines is installed, 
and over a million yen worth of goods is produced annually. 



& CO.) 

The firm handles no goods other than the manufacture of 
its own factories and, therefore, a uniformity of quality is 
maintained, 




MR. W. IWAI. 



K0SU6I GOMEI KAISHA. 

(KOSUGI & CO.) 



nHE Company has its Head Office at Hasegawa-cho, 
'■^ Nihonbashi-ku, Tokyo, and brnnches in Nichome 




TRADE MARK FOR.COTTON 
CLOTH AND FLANNEL. 



TRADE MARK FOR 
JAPANESE SOCKS. 



Kyutaro-machi Higashi-ku, Osaka, Suyehiro-cho Hakodate- 
ku, Hokkaido and Irifune-cho Otaru-ku, Hokkaido. The 
partnership consists of Messrs. Gorozaemon Kosugi, Saemon 
Kosugi, Keitaro Kosugi and Yohei Nishi-mura. The origin 
of the Company was the dry goods business carried on as far 
back as the era of Genroku (1688-1703). In October of 
1915, the Company established an inspection department 
for the export of hosiery goods with a view to improving 
tlie qualities of the articles. The staff is composed of over 
120 members. Specialities: knitted underwear of all kinds, 
gloves and stockings, cotton cloth and cotton flannel. The 
market abroad covers Great Britain, Cliina, India, the 
South Sea Islands and Australia. 



( 184 ) 



MR. KURIYAMA YASUHEI. 



rpiHE firm is presided over by Mr. Yasuhei Kuriyama. 
JL He established himself in the dry goods business as 



(MANUFACTURER AND DEALER IN HOSIERY.) 

early as 1873. In 1881 he took up the hosiery business, 
and in 1884 settled at Shichome Tachibana-cho, Nihonbashi- 
ku, Tokyo, and at the same time opened connections with 
the dealers concerned in Osaka and extended the market to 
the North Eastern Districts. During the China-Japan war 
lie manufactured underwear, stockings and gloves to the order 
of the Army and Navy Departments. In 1896 he succeeded 
in constructing machines for the manufacture of towels, and 
in 1902 manufactured short pants acceptable to cyclists. In 
May of the same year he was chosen by the guild of dealers 
in hosiery goods of Tokyo to represent exhibitors of hosiery 
goods in the Fifth Domestic Industrial Exhibition, The 
following year he has appointed an assistant judge for the 
same exhibition. In 1904 he was elected as Vice-President 
of the guild. From 1912 to 1913 he held the post of 
President. In 1914 he was appointed a judge for the TaishS 
Exhibition. He was awarded a medal of the first class by 
the Fifth Domestic Industrial Exhibition and silver medal 
KURIYAMA. by the Hanoi Exhibition in French Indo-China. 




MR. MAKINO TERUSABURO. 

(MANUFACTURER OF KNITTED GOODS.) 

MR. MAKING, TERUSABURO, 1-chome Min.imi- 
ityutaro-machi, Higashi-ku, Osnka, is one of the 
leading hosiery manufacturers in Osaka and has his own 
factories at 6-chome Tenjinbashisuji, Kita-ku, Osaka, and 
Daini-Shinmichi, Kita-ku, Osaka, where all kinds of cotton 
knitted goods, gloves, and other cotton goods are manu- 
factured on a large scale. 

Mr. Makino started his business at the present site in 
1906, since when he has strenuously endeavoured to develope 
his undertaking, and as a result the firm has attained the 
present stage of development. 

The principle of Mr. Makino's business is producing the 
best possible goods at the smallest possible cost. His 
principle is fully carried out and the goods he turns out are 
known as the best and cheapest in the market. 

His goods are now principally shipped to Oceania, 
China, South Africa, Great Britain, Russia, and other 
countries, besides being supplied to the domestic market. MR. T. MAKINO. 




( 185 ) 



KAGAWA ISAKU SHOTEN. 



(MANUFACTURERS AND 

MR. NA KAGAWA, ISAKU, is a self-made man who 
lias built up his fortune by dint of his own 
endeavours and indefatigable application. From the small 
beginning which was made by him just before the outbreak 
of the Russo-Japanese war he has during these eighteen 
years built up a big manufacturing and export business, 
whicii may be said to rank among the foremost of the 
hosiery firms. He now directs his colossal business at his 
head ofiice at Shinsaibashisuji, Minamihon-machi, Osaka, 
while his brother directs the factory at Kitawatanabe-cho, 
Osaka. His manufactures have a special feature, which 
may be said to be the impress of his personality. They are 
manufactured of the best obtainable materials and witii the 
utmost care, and are therefore regarded by the trade as of 
excellence and durability. Mr. Nakagawa has succeeded in 
extending his market, and his manufactures are widely dealt 
in not only in Japan but China and also iu Russia. 

Below are a few of the most prominent public acknow- 
ledgments he has received : — 2nd class silver medal, Domestic 
Products Exhibition, 1904; 2nd class medal. Victory Com- 
memoration Exhibition, 1906 ; 2nd class copper medal. 
Design and Utility Model Exhibition, 1906 ; Silver medal, 
second Patented Goods Exhibition, 1908; 1st class gold 



DEALERS IN HOSIERY.) 

medal, Domestic Products Exhibition, 1910 ; Ist class 
gold medal, Osaka Staple Goods Exhibition, 1912; Ist 
class gold medal, 7tli Japan Industrial Exhibition, 1915. 




NAKAGAWA. 



NISHIfiUiA SHIN YOKO. 

(S . N I S H I M U R A & CO.) 



THIS firm makes it a speciality to manufacture and 
export hosiery goods and does not cater for the domes- 
tic market. Its manufactures are of peculiar pattern and 
qualities, Particularly underwear with vertical stripes are 
manufactured only by this firm and the process of manu- 
facturing is patented. Many bold designs are also woven 



At first the firm exported its goods to China, British 
India, the Netherlands East Indies, and other parts of Asia, 
but now, owing to the withdrawal of European goods from 
the world market, they are sent also to Russia, Africa, and 
other parts. Of late England, too, has taken the firm's 
goods. 




MR. NISHIMURA, HIS 
iu some of the goods the firm supplies. The general ofiice 
is situated at 2-chome Kawachi-machi, Kita-ku, Osaka, and 
the factory at Kaminakano, Honjo, Toyosaki-cho, Nishinari- 
gun, Osaka prefecture, both of which were establisiied 
in 1897. 



OJ^FICE 
Mr 



AND WDKKS, 

S. Nishimura, 



the proprietor of the firm, is 
experienced in the line of business, having been connected 
witli it over twenty-six years, and particularly devotes his 
attention to the maintenance of his own standard of excel- 
lence in view of the up-keep of the national honour overseas. 



( 186 ) 



JIRO SHOTEN. 



ri'^HE firm, situated at No. 31, 2-chome Minamikyutaio- 
machi, Higaslii-ku, Osaka, is owned and controlled by 




MR. B. NISHIZAWA. 



(NISHIZAWA & CO.) 

Mr. Bunjiro Nishizawa, hailing from Shiga prefecture. It 
was started in 1897 at Nagasaki as wholesale dealers in 
drapery, but in May, 1907, a branch office was opened at 
Shinsaibashi-dori, Osaka, and as a side line the export of 
knitted goods, piece goods, and notions was inaugurated. 

The head office in Nagasaki was later abolished and the 
Osaka office, which was then moved to Kitakyutaro-machi, 
was converted into the head office. Since 1910 the firm's 
business has continued to be favourable and a fairly large 
return on its capital has been reaped. With the extension 
of business the office was moved to the present site in the 
early part of 1916. 

Now the firm's goods, bearing the trade mark of an 
infantry man charging, are seen not only in the domestic 
market but in China and the Straits Settlements, and 
everywhere they are received with satisfaction. 



NIWA SHOTE 

(MANUFACTURER AND EXPORTER OF HOSIERY GOODS.) 

At present the firm has its business office at 3-chome, 
Oimatsu-cho, Osaka, and factories at Wakayama and 
Osaka, where tiers, children's underwear, knitted socks, and 



THE firm was founded by the late Mr. Shoiclii Niwa, 
tiie father of the present proprietor, Mr. Shojiro 
Niwii, in 1883, when he made it iiis speciality to manufac- 
ture knitted gloves. Thus Mr. Niwa's firm is one of the 
oldest in tlie hosiery trade in Japan. After a few years the 
late Mr. Shoichi Niwa started the manufacture of stockings 
and knitting machines. Both machines and manufactured 
goods were then exhibited at many exhibitions and every 
time Mr. Niwa obtained marks of appreciation. 

After his death the present proprietor stopped the 
manufacture of knitting machines and devoted his whole 
energy and capital to the manufacture and improvement of 
hosiery goods. In 1906, he started tlie manufacture of 
knitted " tabi " or Japanese socks, which are known as 
" Yamani Tabi " tliroughout tlie country. He took out 
a patent for the process of knitting the socks. 

The manufacture of tiers which are known as " Yamani 
Tiera " was also started by a process for which he has a 
patent right in 1912. Now the goods are sold almost every- 
where in this country and since 1916 tiiey have been ex- 
ported extensively to British India, China, the Dutch East 
Indies, and other countries. 



other goods are manu- 
factured, the annual 
production amounting 
to a total of over 
¥200,000. 

Thefirm'sexportde- 
partmenthandk s only 
tiers and children's 
underwear, and makes 
it a point to supply the 
best possible goods to 
the market. The firm 
also handles only its 
own manufactures for 
the purpose of prevent- 
ing the possibility of 
inferior goods being 
included in its supply 
MR. S. NIWA. to the market. 




( 187 ) 



OSAKA BOYEKiHIN MERIYASU KAIRYO OOSHI KAISHA. 

(THE OSAKA HOSIERY IMPROVEMENT CO.) 



THE Company is situated at No. 375, Sanchome 
Fukushima, Kita-ku, Osaka. It was established in 
November of 1914 aud is presided over by Mr. Tasaburo 
Fukui, who has many years' experience in the hosiery busi- 
ness. The cause of the establishment of the Company was 
the work on a policy of the development in South China 
and Southern Islands published by the Bank of Taiwan. 
This timely volume so deeply impressed Mr. Fukui, who had 
already established himself as a dealer in hosiery goods for 
a number of years, that he resolved to extend the market to 
those quarters. For tlie accomplishment of the purpose he 
joined bauds with the dealers concerned closely connected 
with him and established the present Company by the 
support of the principals of the Bank of Taiwan. That 
was, as stated above, in November of 1914, wheu the 



Imperial troops reduced the Tsingtao fortress. For the 
comparatively brief space of time since its organization the 
Company has shown a marked development in opening 
up markets in South China and the Southern Islands. 
Since last year the Company has opened connections with 
great success. Besides exporting underwear, stockings and 
all kinds of knitted goods, the Company responds to orders 
for various kinds of miscellaneous goods. In compliance 
with the desires of exporters abroad, and in view of 
a principle of mutual benefit, tlie Company is also 
engaged in the importation of tallon and drugs 
from South China, dye-stuffs aud copra from the 
Soutiiern Islands and bristles from Russia. At pre- 
sent the imports are so active that they far exceed 
the exports. 



MR. OZAKI KUNIZO. 

(KNITTED HOSIERY GOODS MANUFACTURER AND EXPORTER) 



MR. OZAKI, KUNIZO, who carries on an extensive 
trade in knitted hosiery goods with China and 
other countries, has his head office at Kotoura, Kojima- 
gori, Okayania prefecture, and a branch oflBce at No. 53, 
2-chome Azuchi-niachi, Higashi-ku, Osaka. At the head 
office in Okayama prefecture he manufactures, sells, and 
exports cotton yarns, cotton piece goods, and "tuitaitze" 
(a kind of garter for Chinese), while at the branch office at 
Osaka he manufactures and sells cotton piece goods and 
knitted hosiery goods on an extensive scale. His factory 
is situated at No. 6, 2-chome Oimatsu-cho, Kita-ku, 
Osaka, where excellent knitted goods are produced, including 
underwear, stockings, tuitaitze, etc. These manufactures 
are supplied to the market both at home and abroad with 
the following registered trade marks : — Miyoshi woman 
brand ; Bow and arrow brand ; Bow and arrow boy brand ; 
Pheasant brand ; Two swords bearing men brand ; Woman 
brand. 

Since the outbreak of the present war the export trade 
has especially been expanded and not only has the direct 
export been increased, but the volume of business with 
export firms at Osaka and Kobe has witnessed an enormous 
increase. The firm's affairs at the head office are 



controlled by Mr. Kunizo Oznki, but the branch office at 
Osaka is under the management of his younger brother, 
Mr. Katsuji Ozaki. 




MR. K. OZAKI. 



( 188 ) 



MR. SHIMIDZU HIKOSABURO. 

(MANUFACTURER AND EXPORTER OF HOSIERY GOODS.) 



MR. SHIMIDZU, HIKOSABURO, who is recognized 
by Ills associates as one of the leading hosiery 
goods manufacturers in Tokyo, only started his business in 
1884 and at first managed 
a big factory at Iriya- 
machi, Shitaya-ku, city, 
which was equipped witli 
not only knitting ma- 
chines but spinning ap- 
pliances and a complete 
set of machine tool manu- 
facturing machines. On 
the conversion of the 
plant into a limited 
partnership he started 
another on a bigger scale 
at Midori-cho and Kame- 
zawa-cho, Honjo-ku, 
Tokyo, which was later 
moved to the present 
site, Yokokawa-cho, 
Honjo-ku, Tokyo, MR. H. SHIMIDZU. 

His head office is now at No. 18, 1-chome Yokoya ma- 
cho, Nihombaslii-ku, Tokyo, where he conducts a big export 




business with China, the Netherlands Indies, British India, 
Australia, England, and America, the latest estimate of his 
business being over a million yen. 

Mr. Shimidzu has contributed much to the progress of 
the industry in this country by inventing many new devices 
for the knitting of hosiery goods. Soon after his inaugura- 
tion of business he invented a machine for the weaving of 
rims. The perfection of the machines for knitting seamless 
stockings was also due to the inventive genius of Mr. 
Shimidzu. By this invention he saved much labour and 
expense for hosiery goods manufacturers. 

A new thread frame was invented by him in 1896, at 
the same time a power-driven knitting machine being 
made. The starching of knitted goods was perfected by 
him about this time in imitation of habutai weavers' 
starching processes. 

Naturally his manufactures are of the best quality and 
second to none in the market. Therefore, he has so far 
received over a hundred medals and prizes at exhibitions at 
home and abroad. For many years he has been the 
President of the Association of the Hosiery Goods Manu- 
facturers in Tokyo. 



MR. TAKIMOTO TAMEO. 

(MANUFACTURER OF WORSTED KNITTED GOODS.) 



rriHE firm, owned and managed by Mr. Tanimoto, 
Tameo, stands at No. 26, Shichome Temmabashisuji, 
Kita-ku, Osaka. The firm came into existence in 1896 
chiefly for the purpose of manufacturing worsted knitted 
goods. Prior to this, Mr. Tanimoto had had ten years' 
practical experience in this line of business. In order to 
meet the increasing demand in recent years the firm 
has inaugurated in addition the manufacture of cotton 
hosiery goods. The undershirts, which are the results of 
the proprietor's own invention, are acceptable to every 
customer, as they meet every requirement, especially 



practical purposes. Characteristic features of the business 
consists in the best possible care, honesty, and promptness 
with which orders are executed. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



Specialities. — Worsted and cotton knitted stocking?, 
knitted waistcoats, underwear, sweaters. These goods are 
exported to Russia, South Sea Islands, North and South 
America, South Africa, China, and India. 



( 189 ) 



SHIROKANE MERIYASU SEIZOSHO. 



THE works are located at Kami Osaki, Osaki-machi, 
Ebara-guii, near Tokyo. Tlie Compnny was ori- 
ginally estHblislied in 1906 by the Iwai Company, Ltd. for 



(THE SHIROKANE HOSIERY WORKS. LTD.) 

tory of over 1,500 tsubo on a site covering an area of above 
2,300 tsubo in Totsuka-mura. There is a plan for a further 
extension of the business by increasing the capital from 
¥200,000 to ¥1,000.000. The works have hitherto directed 
their energies chiefly towar.i the manufacture of articles for 
home consumption, but they are now making efforts to 
export. Tlie goods are sent chiefly to the South Sea Islands 
and Australia, through the firm of Iwai Company. In 




TRADE 



y^ 



M4.RK. 



THE SHIROKANE HOISERY WORKS, TOKYO, 
the roanufucture of hosiery goods. To meet the growing 
development of the business the company later built a fac- 



December. 1916, the firm became independent of the 
mother institution, or the Iwai Company. Simultaneously 
with this Mr. Yuzuru Yasuno was appointed President and 
Mr. Saburo Nagata, Managtr. These able directors are bend- 
ing their energies for the improvement of the articles and 
the development of the business. The annual production 
is valued at about ¥350,000. After the increase of 
capital is effected the output will reach more than 
¥1,000,000, 



TOKYO YUSHUTSU SHOKAr. 

EXPORTS & CO.) 



(TOKYO 

rilHE manufacture and export of hosiery in this country 
JL have witnessed a striking expansion lately, but so 
far only cheap goods have been handled by Japanese 
manufacturers and, therefore, the demand for better goods 
in the East has been filled by European manufacturers. 
This, however, does not signify that Japanese manufacturers 
are unable to produce high grade goods. Mr. Taiichi 
Okuda, one of the leading hosiery manufacturers in Tokyo, 
has recently pursuaded six of his friends to combine into a 
corporation whose specialty it is to export high grade goods 
to foreign countries and demonstrate the fact that Japanese 
manufacturers can compete with Europeans in the excellence 
of their goods. The Tokyo Export Company is controlled 
by Mr. Okuda as Manager. Since the foundation of the 
firm the business has steadily expanded and already 
necessitated the company enlarging its factories. 

The head oflSce is at No. 3, Matsui-cho, 1-chome, 
Honjo-ku, Tokyo, and there are eight factories in various 
localities. 

The manufactures of the company include practically 
all grades of hosiery goods, pants, stockings, gloves, under- 
wear, and Burmas. 



Because of their excellent quality they are received 
favourably in Australia, British India. Africa, China, 




MR. T. OKUD-A. 
Russia, the United States, Canada, South America, and 
other countries. 



( 190 ) 



UYEMURA KINUMERIYASU KOJO. 

(THE UYEMURA SILK HOSIERY WORKS.) 



THE Uyemura Silk Hosiery Works, owned by Mr. 
Jundo Uyemura, are located at No. 352, Ryusenji- 
mnclii, 8hitaya-ku, Tokyo. Organized in November, 1884, 




MR. J. UYEMURA. 



the works have been noted as the pioneer manufacturer of this 
line of goods in the Orient. From 1890 to 1912 the works 
were gradually equipped with many machines representing 
the choicest English, American and German makes. 
Specialities comprise silk knitted underwear of various 
descriptions, stockings and gloves. 

In 1898, the works had the honour of manufacturing 
undershirts and stockings to the order of the Department of 
the Imperial Household, In 1903, they manufactured for 
for the first time jackets and hoods for the use of soldiers in 
cold weather. These proved very useful in the war witii 
Russia. The annual production is estimated at about 
¥200,000. The market abroad covers the South Sea 
Islands, India, China, Australia, Russia and Africa. 

Mr. Uyemura, the proprietor, is a leading figure in 
the hosiery industry in Japan. In 1904 he was appointed 
Chairman of the Organization Committee of the guild of 
dealers in knitted goods in Tokyo. In the following year 
he was elected its President. 



( 191 ) 

HOTCl> SEGTIOIN. 



FUJIYA HOTEL. 



THE Fujiya Hotel stands at Mijauoshita, in the 
Hakone mountains. Hakone is one of the famous 
pleasure resorts in Japan on account of its invigorating 
mountain air, salubrious thermal-springs, and delightful 
scenery. In the mountains these are what have been com- 
monly called " Seven 
hot-springs at 
Hakone ": viz. Yu- 
moto, T o n o s a w a 
Dogashimn, Miyano- 
shita, So k ok urn, 
Kiga and Ashino- 
yu. And to these 
five new ones : Ko- 
wakidani, Yuno- 
hanazawa, Sengoku- 
bara, Gora and 
Ubako. Of these the 
most popular pleasure 
resort is Miyanoshita, 
1,377 feet above sea level. 

The place is easily reached from Yokohama by the 
TSkaido Railway to Kozu (IJ hrs.); thence by motor (50 
mins.) to Fujiya Hotel. Or, from Kozu an electric tram- 
car can be taken to Yumoto (1 hr.); thence by jinrikisiia 
(2 coolies necessary) 4 miles up the valley of the Hayakawa 




FUJIYA HOTEL, MIYANOSHITA. 



accommodations, and natural hot-springs. Hotel porters in 
uniform meet all trains at Kozu and Trams at Yumoto. 

The Hotel is taken charge of by Mr. S. I. Yamaguchi, 
President and Mr. H. S. K. Yamaguchi, Managing Director. 
Principal places of Interest : — 

Sengenyama, 
about 2,150feet above 
sea level ; Kiga Hot- 
spring, 15 minutes 
from Miyanoshita. 
DOgashima Hot- 
spring, 15 minutes' 
walk below Miyano- 
shita. Miyagino, a 
delightful IJ hours' 
walk. Kowakidani 
Hot-spring, 1^ liours' 
walk. Gora Hot- 
spring, 2,300 feet 
above sea level, 4 



hours' walk. Ojigoku, or Big Hell, 3,478 feet above sea level; 
5 miles. The whole gorge reeks with sulphurous furats. The 
Cascade of Yumoto, 4 miles along the road to Yumoto from 
Miyanoshita. Ashinoyu, 2,870 feet above sea level, 4 miles 
uphill from Miyanoshita. Hakone, 2,378 feet, above sea level, 
6J miles via Ashinoyu. It is a pleasant village, situated 




PANORAMIC VIEW FROM KUKAKAKE.-DISTANCE m MILES FROM THE FUJIYA HOTEL. 



to Miyanoshita (1 hr. and 20 n)ins.) and by motor (20 
mins.). Or, one can go direct from Yokohama to Miyano- 
shita by motor in about 2 hours and a half. From Gotem- 
ba on the Tokaido line it can be reached by motor in 1 
hour and a quarter. The Hotel is equipped with excellent 



in a dip of the most famous pass on the TSkaido, at the head 
of a beautiful lake, «ith a summer palace of the Emperor 
at one end, and the glorious summit of Mt. Fuji at the 
other, towering over the Hakone mountains. Otome-toge, or 
'.' Maiden's Pass," 3,276 feet above the sea level, 7i miles. 



( 192 ) 



HASHIMOTO HOTEL. 



THE Hashimoto Hotel is one of the finest buildings in 
the •watering place of Ikaho standing at the foot of 
the mountains. Ikaho is reached in less than six hours 




HASHIMOTO HOTEL, IKAHO. 

from Uyeno Station Tokyo, via Takasiiki or Mayebashi. 
The place is noted not only for its salubrious thermal springs 



but for beautiful scenery and climate which attract to it 
vast numbers of visitors. It is an ideal resort all through 
the year. In the autumn the mountains surrounding the 
town are adorned with deep crimson tints. Besides, visitors 
can feast their eyes upon many sights lying near by the 
town, such as Haruna Lake, Haruna Shrine, Benten fall, 
Miharashiyama, etc. The hotel is provided with European 
accommodiition and the cuisine is highly spoken of by every 
visitor. Charges are moderate and there are special rates 
for families and long stay. If the visitor sends a note 
beforehand the Hotel will send a porter either to Mayebashi 
or to Takasaki to meet him. 

The master of the hotel twice visited England. The 
first visit was made when he was appointed to take charge 
of the cooking for a party of officers and men of the 
Imperial Navy ordered to proceed to England to bring 
home the Kashima and Jfa^ori constructed there in England. 
His second visit was made when he was ordered to join the 
crew on board the squadron dispatched to attend the corona- 
tion of King George V. of Great Britain. 



IKAHO HOTEL. 







VIEW 



FROM 



THE 



HOTEL. 






THE Ikaho Hotel, owned by Mr. S. Kogure, has been 
established for more than thirty years. Standing 
on a spot about 2,700 feet above the sea level in the 
middle of Mt. Haruna 
the Hotel commands 
excellent views of 
mountains, valleys and 
streams far and near. 
It is no exaggeration 
to say that it occupies 
the best place in 
Ikaho. The Hotel has 
thirty rooms with 
every accommodation 
acceptable to the 
guests. Ikaho is 
reached in only five 
hours and a half from 
Tokyo by rail via 
Takasaki from which 
the passengers can 
take electric car if 

they please. It is one of the distinguished watering places 
in this country. The mineral water found in abundance 



DINING ROOM OF THE 
IICAHO HOTEL. 



is excellent for the health, as is attested by many specialists. 
To add to tiie attractions of the place, visitors can feast 
their eyes on beautiful mountain scenery all around, 

rarely enjoyed in 
other places of thermal 
springs throughout 
Japan. Moreover, the 
air is pure and cli- 
matic conditions ex- 
ceedingly pleasant. 
Even in midsummer 
the thermometer never 
rises beyond 85°. On 
an average the tem- 
perature in the hot 
season is 10 degrees 
lower than in the 
capital. It is warm 
in winter, partly be- 
cause of the hot springs 
and volcanic veins, 
and partly because the 
ranges of mountains behind protect the place from cutting 
winds. Ikaho is a veritable paradise in the Far East. 



"W *-^tf^E*r^•■^^ 


WMC 


mm 


Iff' 


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1 




Ai 




1^ 


















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9 


m 





( 193 ) 



TOKYO STATION HOTEL. 



'~I~'HE Tokyo Station Hotel is a branch of the Seiyoken 
Hotel, an hotel of the first standing in Japan situated 
in Tsukiji, Tokyo. It is under the direct supervision of the 
Imperial Government Railways, is of the most modern con- 
struction and is luxuriously furnished. It occupies the first 
and second floors of the Tokyo Station Building ; the most 
convenient place for commercial and residential sojourn. 
The Hotel commands a very beautiful view facing the 
famous Nijubashi (Double Bridge) at the front gate of the 
Imperial Palace. The arrangements are unique for comfort, 
and it is one of the most commodious hotels in the 
Orient, with every modern convenience, being equipped 
throughout with electric light, good ventilation, cold and hot 
water supply, elevators, electric fans in summer and steam- 
heating in winter, etc. On the first floor many of the first 
class shops in the city display their merchandise for tlie 
convenience of guests. The Bar, Billiard-room, Barber, 
etc., are also on the same floor. Rooms are single, double, 
or en suite, with or without bath-room. Excellent cuisine. 
Long experienced chef always endeavours to give every 
possible satisfaction to guests. Service a la carte or table 
d'Hote obtainable in the hotel dining room. 



Meals can be obtained at any time from 6 a.m. to 11 
p.m. in the hotel restaurant situated on the ground floor of 
the north end of the building. Both American and Euro- 
pean plans are adopted. 




ENTRANCE TO TOKYO STATION HOTEL AND 
SITTING ROOM. 

Rates are moderate, and can be obtained by hour, half 
day and whole day. Automobile garage, carriages an<l 
Rikishas are attached to the hotel. 



YuKicHi Sen'o, Esq , 

ToMisABURO Sawano. Esq. 



Managt-T. 
Sub-Manager. 




THE TOKYO STATION. 



( 194 ) 



THREE HOTELS AT NIKKO. 



^T^HERE is a Japanese proverb which says : — " Do not 
-*~ say ' kekko ' (magnificent) till you have seen Nikko." 
Those who have visited Nikko all testify to the truth of this 
saying. For Nikko and its vicinity are truly superb in 
mountain scenery, to which are added the dazzling beauty of 
the mausoleum of the first Shogun lyeyasu, the founder of 
the Tokugawa dynasty, and tliat of the third Shogun lye- 



be reached from Tokyo in 4 or 4i hours, and from Yoko- 
hama in 6 hours, changing cars at Shinagawa and Akabane ; 
but as these connections often fail, time and trouble may 
be saved by going on to Tokyo Central, and driving thence 
across Tokyo to Uyeno Station. The cryptomeria avenue 
leading to Nikko along the railway line afl'ords an inter- 
esting and pleasant ride by rikisha. 




SACRED BRIDGE AT NIKKO. 

mitsu. Its temples are the most beautiful in Japan and it 
lies 2,000 feet above the sea level. It is a delightful resort 
in spring, summer and especially in autumn, when the 
whole hills and mountains are ablaze with glorious tints. 
No less delightful is it to visit Nikko in the hot season. 
For, besides lying high above the sea there are no less than 
25 to 30 cascades within a radius of 15 miles. Nikko can 



GREAT AUENUE OF CRYPTOMERIA TREES, 
EXTENDING 25 MILES. 

PRINCIPAL PLACES OF INTEREST. 

Nikko Temples, 1 mile from the station, either by 
rikisha or by tram car. 

Sacred Red Bridge, on the approach to the temples over 
the Daiya river. This bridge is not for use. Should the 
Emperor visit the shrines, liis sacred feet might tread its 
scarlet arch — his, but no others. He would have to walk 




ENTRANCE TO THE THIRD 
SHOGUN'S TOMB. 



YOMEI GATE, 



ENTRANCE TO THE FIRST 
SHOGUN TEMPLE. 



( 196 ) 



alone, as of old the Shoguus walked; for the bridge is too 
lioly for unanointed feet. The bridge which was erected in 
1636 was washed away in the great flood of 1902 and was 
restored in 1907. 

Public Garden. A large and beautiful garden in 
landscape style by the side of the Nikko Hotel. 



Five Storied Pagoda, richly decorated in harmonious 
colours, rises to a height of 104 feet at the left side of the 
Torii, or stone gate. 

Mausoleum of the first Shogun, five minutes' walk from 
the Kanaya Hotel and ten minutes' walk from the Nikko 
Hotel. The splendid gate-ways, shrines, store-houses, bell- 




KIRIFURI WATERFALL, NIKKO. 

The Sambutsudo, or the Hall of the three Buddhas, 
three minutes walk from the Nikko Hotel. On tlie left of 
the Sambutsudo is the Bell Turret, on wliich the hours are 
struck daily. Hard by is a pillar called Sorinto, a lofty 
copper column of a black colour. 



GAMMAN-GA-FUCHI, NIKKO. 

towers and other structures are all decorated with the most 
intricate wood carvings of flowers, birds, beasts and other 
objects, many relics of the Shoguns and presents received by 
them from Daimyos and sovereigns of foreign countries are 
preserved here. 




KEGON WATERFALL, 250 FEET 
HIGH, CHUZENJI. 



LAKE CHUZENJI. 



i L'TAARA TEMPLE, 
CHUZENJI 



( 196 ) 



Mausoleum of the third Shogun. 15 minutes' walk from 
the Kanaya Hotel. The oratory and chapel are less elaborate 
than those of the first Shogun, but are still extremely beauti- 
ful. The two red lacquered buildings on the left, standing 




NIKKO HOTEL. 

together and connected by a covered gallery are called 
Futatsu-do. Passing under the gallery ascending the 
avenue, one arrives at the resting-place of Jigen-Daishi, 
Abbot of Nikko, who lived in the days of the first Shogun. 

Water-falls : Of many falls Urami and Kegon and Kiri- 
furi are most distinguished. Urami-ga-laki, or back fall, 
is 4 miles from the Kanaya Hotel and can be reached in an 
hour on foot or by rikisha from the Nikko Hotel. The 




KANAYA HOTEL AND SACRED 
BRIDGE, NIKKO. 

fall is 50 feet high and so named because formerly one was 
able to pass behind and under the fall. This is no longer 
possible, as the overhanging rock from which the waters fall 
were demolished by the great inundation of 1902. Kegon 



Fall, near lake Chuzenji, is 250 feet high. It is the iiighest 
of all the falls in Nikko and presents the most beautiful 
view. Kirifuri-no-taki, mist falling cascade, is 3} miles 
from the Kanaya Hotel. A tea-house are the hill above 
commands a picturesque view of the fall. 

Lake Chuzenji, 7i miles from Nikko, rikisha, chairs 
or horses available and tramway part way. Being 4375 
feet above tlie sea, the lake is one of the principal objects of 
interest for visitors to Nikko. It is about eight miles in cir- 
cumference and abounds in salmon, trout, iwana and other 
fish. The lake lies at the foot of Mt. Nantaisan, being 
surrounded on the other sides by comparatively low hills 
covered with trees to their summit. Several small temples 
visited by pilgrims add to the picturesqueness of its shore. 
On the side of the lake stands the Like Side Hotel. 




LAKE SIDE HOTEL, CHUZENJL 

Yumoto Hot-spring, 6i miles from Chuzenji Lake. 
Ti.e village of Ynmoto Hot spring is 5,000 feet above the 
sea level. The hot sulphur baths available to visitors are 
well-known for their curative properties in rheumatic and 
gouty affections. There is a lake called Yumoto lake. 

Hotels. There are three large and famous foreign style 
hotels in Nikko, viz. Nikko Hotel, Kanaya Hotel and Lake 
Side Hotel. All of them provide excellent accommodation. 
The Nikko Hotel is twenty minutes from the Station and 
adjoins the ground of the celebrated temples. The pro- 
prietor is Mr. H. Arai. The Kanaya Hotel is situated in 
the middle of the town and is only 15 minutes' walk from 
the Station, 100 feet above the famous Sacred Bridge, and 
commands a magnificent view of the celebrated temples and 
of the Chuzenji mountains. The Lake Side Hotel is situated 
by the side of lake Chuzenji. The addition of the Bund has 
made this delightful spot still more popular as a hot-weather 
rendezvous. 



( 197 ) 



IINSURANGE SCGTIOIN. 



AIKOKU SEIMEI HOKEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 



(THK AIKOKU LIFE INSURANCE CO., LTD) 




THERE is a three-storied brick buildiug with the mark 
of a golden mirror over the gate- way near Ilibiya 
Park. It is the main office of the Aikokii Life Insurance 
Company, Ltd. The company is managed by Dr. Manjiro 
Suzuki, M.P. for Tokyo, 
and supported by the 
guilds of confectioners. 
This rather strange com- 
bination of a doctor and 
confectioners has been 
formed by an incident 
which must be narrated 
in tracing the company's 
origin. 

On July 1st, 1885, 
a new tax, principally 
affecting confectioners, 
was promulgated by the 
Government which pro- 
duced a severe effect on DR. M. SUZUKI. 
the trade, many being driven out of business. The 
leaders of the trade several times petitioned the Govern- 
ment to abolish this legislation, but their voices 
were not heeded up to the Autumn of 1890, when 
the Imperial Diet was first convened in Tokyo. The 
confectioners' guilds filed a petition with the House of 
Representatives for the abolition of the legislation and when 
this petition was brought up for discussion in the House it 
secured a most earnest supporter in the person of Dr. 
Manjiro Suzuki, who then represented Fukushima prefecture, 
iiis native place, in the house. Thanks (o Dr. Suzuki's 
endeavours the legislation was discontinued in 1896, 
and confectioners breathed freely. At a dinner they held 
to celebrate this event they did not forget to invite their 
benefactor. Dr. Suzuki, to the function and express their 
gratitude. Thus friendly relations were first established 
between the doctor and confectioners, and since the doctor 
has been called " Confectioners' Suzuki.'' 

Later tliis event was commemorated by the doctor and 
the confectioners by establishing this company for their 



mutual aid. The company's authorised capital was first 
fixed at ¥300,000, which was all subscribed by doctors and 
confectioners. Thus on February 11th, 1895, the company 
was formally organized. Dr. Suzuki was to be the first 
President of the company, but he declined the offer made by 
the majority of shareholders and recoramendeii Dr. Bunkai 
Totsuka, one of the elder members of his profession, who 
was then given tlie presidency. Dr. Suzuki himself 
controlled the company's affairs as Managing Director, 
Messrs. Shimidzu and Nakano, representatives of the con- 
fectioners, were appointed his associates as Directors. 
Years after the company opened a branch in Osaka and 
Dr. Suzuki himself assumed the presidency, while Mr. 
Nakano was appointed his successor as Managing Director. 
The company now runs the following lines of assurance : — 




THE AIKOKU LIFE INSURANCE CO., TOKYO. 

Ordinary life insurance ; Life insurance with instalments 
within a certain period ; Old age pension ; Old age pension 
with instalments within a short period; Old age pension 
with dividend ; Insurance for education, marriage, etc., etc 



( 198 ) 



The company is now in its 20th business term and the 
value of policies issued amounts to over ¥45,000,000, while 
reserves for payment of claims, dividend, etc., reach 
¥9,050,000. It is especially worthy of notice that the 
annual payment of claims amounts to ¥435,000 while 
the premium receipts total ¥1,850,000. 

The company is now controlled by the following: — 
Manjiro Suzuki, Esq President. 



MiNORu Nakano, Esq. ... 

HiKOJiRO Shimidzu, Esq. 
Ryu Koedzuka, Esq. 
GiROKU ASAYAMA, Esq. ... 

Chu Miyamoto, Esq. 
Shintaro Tamamidzu, Esq. 
Saburo Shim ADA, Esq. ... 
Yoshinori Hyodo, Esq. ... 



I Managing 
\ Director. 



Director. 



Auditor. 



DAIDO SEIMEI HOKEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA. 



(THE DAIDO LIFE 

THE Daido Life Insurance Co., Ltd. is situated at 
No. 9, Itchome Edobori-dori, Nishi-ku, Osaka. 
The company was organized in July, 1902, by tlie 
amalgamation of tliree life insurance companies, the 
Asahi, Hokkai and Gokoku. The company is under the 
management of the house of Hirooka, whose firm name 
" Kajimaya " has been identified with the merchant prince 
of Osaka from the days of the Tokugawa Shogunate. 
Mr. Kyuemon Hirooka, the first President, died in June, 




irrr 




wz 



"^■' ^ fls- . 



Mi iMiW 





THE DAIDO LIFE INSURANCE CO., OSAKA. 
1909, and was succeeded by Mr. KeizS Hirooka, the 
pres