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Oriental Series 

Limited to Seven hundred fifty numbered and registered copies 
of which this is No. tf 7 

A D A \ 






A P A N 























INDEX 379 



The Goddess of Fortune (Benzaiten) . . . Frontispiece 

Group of Monkeys 36 

Wooden Statue of Manjusri . ' 96 

Eleven-faced Kwannon in Shrine; Fourteenth Century . 160 

Sword Guards 256 

Modern Ivory Statuettes 320 




Chapter I 


JAPAN'S victorious war with the neighbouring 
Empire in 1 894-1 895 showed the world that she 
was something more than a kind of pretty toy 
country, where the trivial tourist might enjoy 
the sight of people using paper pocket-handkerchiefs, 
feeding themselves with two sticks instead of a knife 
and fork, and living in houses without windows ; and 
where the dilettante might find art treasures as charm- 
ing as they were novel. Up to the eve of that war, 
the average European or American bestowed upon 
her no more attention than he accorded to some new 
phenomenon in the world of physics. A sentiment 
of curiosity, perhaps academical, perhaps ethnographi- 
cal, but certainly languid, was awakened in his breast 
by the intelligence that an Oriental nation had under- 
taken not merely to discard its Oriental garments, but 
also to prove that they had always been a misfit. 
He watched the result much as he would have 
watched the experiments of a horticulturist seeking 



to make peonies blow on a briar stem. In the field 
of art, however, his estimate of her capacities was 
different. He could not hide from himself that the 
revival of decorative art in Europe had been stimulated 
and guided by the study of first-class Japanese work, 
and that types of the highest aesthetic quality were to 
be found among Japanese chefs d'&uvre. 

But what, after all, was Japanese art ? Must it be 
regarded as simply decorative, or might it also be con- 
sidered representative ? That question pressed for an 
answer. People were unwilling to admit that a new 
star of the first magnitude had really risen on the 
horizon. They found something slight, something 
trivial, in Japanese pictures; a lack of emotion-inspir- 
ing motive ; an absence of massiveness and breadth of 
treatment. It could easily be detected that the range 
of the painter's fancy was limited by a logical canon ; 
that he forbade himself to transfer to his canvas any 
scene too extensive to be revealed by a single glance 
of the eye ; that, in short, just as Japanese poetry never 
rose to the dignity of an ode but stopped short at a 
couplet, so Japanese pictures, instead of telling a com- 
plete story, merely suggested an incident. But that 
they displayed remarkable directness of method and 
strength of line; that the artist knew exactly what he 
wanted to draw and drew it with unerring fidelity and 
force ; that the very outlines of the picture were in 
themselves a picture, and that the whole was pervaded 
by an atmosphere of tenderness and grace indicating a 
refined conception of everything beautiful in nature, 
these were facts that forced themselves upon the at- 
tention of every close observer. 

What, then, was the fundamental difference between 
this art and the art of the Occident ? It seems a little 


strange that the question should have remained un- 
answered for any length of time, inasmuch as a visit 
to a Japanese dwelling should have immediately sug- 
gested the reply. A Japanese picture is not painted 
simply for the sake of representative effect ; it is part 
of a decorative scheme. There is no such thing in 
Japan as a picture gallery a place whither people re- 
pair to look at pictures merely for the sake of pictures. 
The painter, so far as the ultimate uses of his work 
were concerned, ranked with the joiner, the plasterer, 
and the paper-hanger. His object was to beautify 
some part of the domestic interior. Originally the 
scope of his art was chiefly religious, but from the 
fifteenth century he may be said to have had three fields 
for the exercise of his genius : first, screens from the 
broad-faced tsuitate that stood in the vestibule, with 
its boldly limned design such as a passing glance could 
appreciate, to the little two-leaved biyobu that formed 
an elbow of glowing tints and delicate fancies to em- 
brace the pillow of the lady of the household ; 
second, the panels of the sliding doors that separated 
rooms, or gave access to cupboards and quaintly con- 
trived nooks ; and, third, the alcove recess, where a 
hanging picture occupied the background with a cen- 
ser, supported on a stand, in the middle distance, and a 
flower vase and an okimono 1 balancing each other in the 
foreground. Screens and door-panels, whatever their 
position or use, do not rise above the rank of articles 
of furniture : the designs applied to them must be 
purely decorative. But a picture hanging in an alcove 
seems at first sight to occupy a higher place and to 
offer a worthier opportunity for the display of repre- 
sentative art. In the Japanese system, however, the 

1 Sec Appendix, note I. 


alcove picture was primarily an alcove ornament. It 
had to take its place in a decorative scheme ; had to 
harmonise with, not to eclipse, its surroundings ; to 
accompany them, not to stand apart from them. The 
European or American hangs his pictures with re- 
gard simply to the wall space at his disposal and 
the direction of his lights. The picture is the sole 
object of his consideration ; everything is sacrificed 
to it. He builds a special gallery for the exhibition of 
these treasures, if he is so fortunate as to possess a suffi- 
cient number, and he takes care that nothing in the 
gallery shall clash with its prime purpose, the dis- 
play of the paintings. But a Japanese never shows 
more than one picture, or one set of pictures, at a 
time. If he has a large collection, he keeps them in 
his fire-proof storeroom, and gives to each in turn a 
temporary place in the alcove recess. Hanging there, 
a picture must satisfy the same canon as the objects 
associated with it : the eye must find equal pleasure in 
regarding it from every part of the room. Thus it is 
at once radically differentiated from the picture of 
Occidental art, the picture which must be seen from 
one special point of view and with light coming from 
one fixed direction. 

Thus, also, linear perspective and cast shadows are 
necessarily excluded. Vanishing points, horizon lines, 
and such things mean that only one aspect of a pic- 
ture is delightful ; every other, painful. The Jap- 
anese artist perceived these things intuitively. It has 
been said of him reproachfully that he remained per- 
petually ignorant of perspective, and that he never 
discovered the theory of shadows. Certainly it is 
true that his knowledge of linear perspective con- 
tinued to be very imperfect until modern times ; but 



it is also true that he always had a full understanding 
of aerial perspective ; and if it were possible to imagine 
for a moment that the presence of cast shadows 
escaped the observation of one so deeply versed in 
every other detail of nature's portraiture, the delusion 
would at once be dispelled by examining his repre- 
sentations of fishes, where each scale is accompanied 
by its due shadow, and of foliage where leaves and 
branches occupy their proper places in an accurate 
scheme of light and shade. But the fact is that he 
never allowed his artistic fancy to obscure the logic of 
his purpose. His prime function was to ornament a 
flat surface, and he recognised that scenes demanding 
the realistic effects produced by relief and differences 
of plane are entirely discordant with such a function. 
He considered that his picture, whether it represented 
landscape, seascape, figures, flowers, birds, or what not, 
was intended to produce, not an illusion, but a har- 
mony. Very seldom did he make the mistake of 
pasting what people of the Occident call " pic- 
tures " upon walls, screens, doors, or ceilings. Aerial 
perspective and foreshortening were permissible, and 
he used them with admirable skill : linear perspective 
and cast shadows he carefully eschewed. 

It is easy to conceive that a tendency to what the 
West calls " suggestion " would be developed by such 
conditions. A temple would be represented by the 
torn that spans its avenue of approach ; a town, by 
two or three roof-ridges emerging from mist ; a tree, 
by one bough ; a river, by a sinuous stroke ; the sea, 
by the curves of a few wave-crests. Some have said 
of Japanese art that it is essentially impressionist. 
That is true, with the limitation that the impres- 
sions produced are those of facts, not of fancies ; 


of realities, not of ideas. Appreciation depends on 
education. Occidentals have learned to esteem paint- 
ing for the sake of its beauty independently of its 
environment ; the Japanese esteems it for its beauty 
in subordination to its environment. As to which 
is the greater effort of art, need there be any discus- 
sion ? The purpose of the artist in each case is 
radically different. When he steps out of the com- 
paratively narrow limits imposed by decorative 
canons ; when, by the aid of cast shadows, perspec- 
tive, and a delicate gradation of " values," he shows 
his public not merely an exquisite scene from nature, 
but also the poetical aspects that it presents to his 
own refined imagination, is not the spectator in the 
presence of one of the greatest achievements of 
, genius, one of the noblest results of intellectual de- 
velopment ? Still the merits of the decorative system 
also must be recognised ; above all, such a system as 
the Japanese elaborated by centuries upon centuries 
of subtle effort. The "picture" obliges its viewer 
to isolate himself from his surroundings ; to gaze 
through an open window without any consciousness 
of the room in which he is standing. The decorative 
painting invites him to view it as part of a whole, 
and to value it in proportion as it enhances its en- 
vironment. Japanese art may be said to end where 
European art begins, that is to say, European art 
subsequent to the sixteenth century. 

This broad difference recognised, it is found that 
the Japanese artist accepted every suggestion offered 
by nature within the limits of its adaptability. His 
observation was extraordinarily keen, perhaps because 
he never assisted it artificially. He knew nothing of 
animate models. It would have appeared quite irra 



tional in his eyes to take a drawing of a danseuse from 
a posed girl, or to gather the idea of a bird in flight 
from a stuffed specimen with extended wings. " Ob- 
jects at rest can never seem to be in motion," would 
have been his thought, " however their limbs be 
disposed or their muscles stretched." Therefore he 
painted moving objects according to his impression 
of the appearance they presented when in motion, 
and it was such a correct impression that his birds 
seemed to be flying out of the canvas, his dancers 
moving across the field of vision. In that feature of 
his art he found few equals and no superiors. The 
nude had no place in his repertoire of subjects. To 
hang a drawing of an undraped female in an alcove 
would have been judged as intolerable a violation of 
propriety as though a host should discard his clothes 
to receive a visitor. How much the Japanese lost, 
how much they gained, by excluding such subjects 
from their pictorial art, need not be discussed here. 
But reference may be made to the fact that the question 
is now actively agitating public opinion. Two or 
three painters, disciples of the Occidental School, 
have invited a conclusive decision by exhibiting pic- 
tures of the nude, and the nation hesitates whether 
to welcome or to taboo the innovation. It must be 
confessed that the challenge has been very rudely is- 
sued. The paintings upon which judgment is to be 
based have hitherto been entirely without the atmos- 
phere of refinement and idealism which alone can veil 
the gross features of such representations. Were the 
circumstances ever so favourable, however, it is prob- 
able that more than one generation must come and 
go before Japanese taste can be even partially recon- 
ciled to pictures of the nude. At all events, there has 



been nothing of the kind as yet in the country's art. 
It is an easily understood corollary that anatomical 
studies never occupied the artist's attention. That 
defect in his education often forces itself painfully 
upon observation, especially in his delineation of hands 
and feet. Perhaps for the same reason he fails sig- 
nally in his attempt to draw animals, horses, oxen, 
foxes, tigers, elephants, wolves, dogs, and so forth. 
Strange that the accuracy of his observation, conspicu- 
ous in other things, should be so markedly defective 
in this field. He can limn a fish, a bird, an insect, qr 
even a fluffy little puppy-dog to perfection, but when 
he has to trace outlines that depend for their correct- 
ness on knowledge of the bony and muscular structures 
beneath, he errs perpetually. Directness of method 
and power of line are among his chief merits. As 
to the latter quality, its genesis may be attributed to 
the use of the ideographic script. The training that 
every Japanese child receives from a tender age in 
tracing ideographs, educates a brush-using facility 
which has become in some degree hereditary. It 
may be laid down as axiomatic that an intimate rela- 
tionship exists between Japanese calligraphy and Jap- 
anese painting, and that the Japanese eye detects in 
brush strokes an aesthetic beauty too subtle to appeal 
to men living outside the ideographic pale. Touch, 
as has been well said by a great connoisseur of Jap- 
anese pictorial art, is not by any means the most 
important quality in a picture, but it nevertheless 
contributes largely to the flavour and vitality of an 
artist's work. When a Japanese speaks of " power 
of pen " (hitsu-riyoku), there presents itself to his mind 
a combination of delicate grace, infallible accuracy, 
and unostentatious verve which every intelligent ob- 



server is expected to recognise. He himself, if he 
has any pretensions to be a connoisseur, is familiar 
with sixteen different styles of touch for painting 
scenery, thirty-six for painting foliage, and nineteen 
for painting drapery, which constitute the classics of 
the. brush, each having its own distinctive name 
and clearly established characteristics. To Western 
intelligence these facts suggest mannerism and for- 
malism. Such analytical elaboration seems incongru- 
ous with the spirit of true art. Yet tricks of brush- 
manipulation are not allowed to impair the expression 
of the pictorial motive in Japan. These peculiar 
strokes, when traced by the hand of a master, do not 
obtrude themselves at the expense of congruity. 
They may, of course, be exaggerated so as to become 
startlingly obtrusive. Hokusai's work often shows 
that fault. His use of the " swift-wave," otherwise 
called the " holly-leaf," style in drawing drapery 
sometimes degenerates into an impertinent man- 
nerism, whereas outlines of the same class appear 
natural and appropriate when traced by the brush of 
Utanosuke or Shiutoku. But the point to which at- 
tention may be directed is not the merits or defects 
of such styles for pictorial purposes so much as the 
fact of their accurate differentiation and faithful em- 
ployment by Japanese experts. The observer is thus 
carried into a field practically unexplored by Euro- 
pean and American artists who associate with the best 
line drawing no qualities other than strength, deli- 
cacy, and directness. 

Passing from the calligraphic training of the hand 
to the hand itself, it is seen that nature has endowed 
the Japanese people with hands singularly supple and 
sensitive. Manual dexterity ought to characterise 



such a nation. Thus, if they are found wielding the 
artist's brush with admirable strength and accuracy, 
one may look also to find them revelling in micro- 
scopic elaboration of detail ; if at one time they 
suggest a whole repertoire of facts by a few bold 
touches, at another they may be expected to lavish a 
whole mine of minutiae upon the working out of a 
few facts. And so indeed it is. Side by side with 
sketches which astonish by the suggestive wealth of 
half-a-dozen salient brush-strokes, pictures are seen 
which almost eclipse the illuminated missals of me- 
diaeval times, so conscientious is their detail, so profuse 
their elaboration. What perplexes many students, 
too, is that the same brush dashes out at one moment 
a design of colossal boldness, and devotes itself, the 
next, to work of marvellous detail. By way of illus- 
tration, reference may be made to Nobuzane and 
Hokusai, names very familiar to Western connoisseurs. 
If the average Japanese dilettante be asked to describe 
Nobuzane's characteristics, he will reply, delicacy of 
touch, illimitable minutiae of detail, and exquisite 
harmony of tints. Yet it is a fact established beyond 
query that the genuine works of Nobuzane show him 
to have been a master possessing noble vigour, and 
place him incomparably above the illuminator of a 
missal or the painter of a peacock's tail. So, too, if 
the average American or European collector had to 
define Hokusai's style, he would speak of bold out- 
lines, of wonderfully realistic figures, and of a wealth 
of humorous conception. Yet there exist pictures by 
Hokusai which rank with the finest etching in the 
matter of minutiae, and with the most delicate en- 
graving in the matter of mechanical accuracy of line. 
It is scarcely possible to conceive that the laborious 



limner of such works can be identical with the daring 
artist of the Man-gwa (ten thousand sketches) or the 
poetical painter of the Hundred Views of Fujiyama. 
Some may say, perhaps, that the Japanese hand is a 
product of the ideograph ; that the manipulation of 
the brush through long centuries has modified the 
shape of the ringers and caused a special adjustment 
of muscles. That is a question beyond the range of 
art discussion. It has concern for those that advocate 
the displacement of the ideographic script by the 
Roman alphabet, but here it will suffice to notice the 
three factors that belong to this context, factors which 
must be recognised by every one desiring to appreciate 
Japanese art, namely, a hand singularly supple and 
sensitive, a brush manipulated with skill and strength 
beyond any Occidental standard, and a hereditary 
perception of quality in touch with which only an 
ideographist can fully sympathise. 

The brush (fude} itself is not an ideal contrivance 
for artistic purposes. It is a stiff-haired pencil which, 
in ordinary hands, presents a difficulty to be overcome 
rather than a helpful instrument. This comment may 
be appropriately extended to the general question of 
the Japanese artist's materials. It is said that unless 
one has actually worked with those materials, the 
difficulty of manipulating them cannot be realised. 
The rapidly absorptive quality of the paper, as pre- 
pared for use, necessitates damping of the whole sur- 
face in order to apply a wash, and, of course, aftd 
the damping process has been repeated three or four 
times, the sizing of the paper perishes, or the prepa- 
ration of the silk disappears, if silk is employed. 
Moreover, the colour first applied is assimilated so 
largely that unless it be opaque there is little possi- 



bility of working over it even when dry : it seems to 
swallow up all shades which are not very much darker 
than itself. Practically, therefore, one wash is the 
limit. On the dry paper, too, the work has to be done 
quickly and with sweeping, finished strokes ; if the 
brush leaves the paper, there is a hard line without 
recourse. Correction is practically impossible, and the 
result of every brushful of colour must, therefore, be 
foreseen to a nicety. On the other hand, the paper 
and silk especially the latter of the Japanese 
artist repay these technical difficulties by the delicate 
softness that they impart to a colour, and, in the case 
of silk, exceptional effects are produced by applying 
the pigments at the back of the drawing so that they 
show through the material. 

There is another feature of Japanese pictorial art 
which, though apparently little appreciated by West- 
ern connoisseurs, must really be regarded as funda- 
mental. It is that the position of the painter with 
regard to his picture influences the whole character 
of his line work. Instead of standing upright before 
his easel so that the axis of his lines is either on the 
mahl-stick or at his shoulder, he kneels on the floor 
with his paper or silk beneath him so that the axis 
of his sweep is the lower part of the leg, and the 
whole body from the knee upward becomes the 
arm with which the lines and curves are produced. 
Whether this mechanical difference constitutes an 
advantage or a disadvantage is a difficult question. But, 
as a very astute critic has remarked, " Japanese draw- 
ing so depends on its lines, its character is so wrapped 
up in them, that if the lines changed their sweep and 
flow, that character would be lost." 

It will be easilv inferred from what has thus far 




been written that the mannerisms of Japanese art are 
numerous. The decorative limits within which it is 
for the most part confined render such a result almost 
inevitable. In the course of time certain tricks of 
delineation have received the cachet of great masters 
and been recognised as the ne plus ultra of forceful 
suggestiveness. A fatal temptation to learn these 
tricks without attempting to acquire the spirit that 
suggested them besets the average student. It is so 
comfortable, so reassuring, to know that waves, bam- 
boos, clouds, flowing water, hair, rock, and a multi- 
tude of other objects may be depicted by lines, curves, 
and washes combined and arranged in ways capable 
of being memorised as accurately as an ideograph or 
a syllabary. The result is painful ease of reproduction. 
The observer is lost in admiration of the directness 
and facility of a Japanese artist who seats himself 
among a group of onlookers and paints a dozen pic- 
tures in an hour, each presenting some points of 
excellence. But it may very well happen that a year 
or two later the same observer is invited to attend a 
seance where the same artist performs the same tour de 
force by producing exactly the same pictures in the 
same time. Of course this criticism applies to the 
rank and file alone of the profession, the men who, 
being without originality of conception, are obliged 
to substitute skill of pencil, and who find in the mere 
processes of the great masters a sufficient equipment 
for the purposes of every-day art. Unfortunately such 
mechanists of the brush have abounded in every era. 
Their skill as copyists constitutes a barrier to foreign 
appreciation of true Japanese art. How many col- 
lectors or connoisseurs in Europe or America have 
had an opportunity of examining genuine works of 



great Japanese painters ? How many Japanese in 
Japan have had such an opportunity ? Their com- 
bined number might probably be counted on the 
fingers of two hands. Copies, imitations, forgeries, 
they have seen in abundance, but to authenticated 
originals they have had little access. 

What has already been said about picture galleries 
may be recalled here. In Europe and America one 
can visit collections, private or public, where examples 
of all the celebrated artists of France, Italy, Germany, 
and so on are displayed. There is nothing of the 
kind in Japan, and there never has been anything of 
the kind. Japanese pictures are hidden away among 
the heirlooms of temples or in the storehouses of 
noblemen and wealthy merchants. They are practi- 
cally inaccessible. A not uninterested or unintelligent 
observer may have lived for years in Japan before the 
trivial estimate he has formed of Sesshiu, of Shiubun, 
of Motonobu, of Ch5 Densu, of Tanyu, or of the 
other masters, is rudely disturbed some morning by a 
revelation that startles him into a new belief. He 
may never have that revelation at all. The chances 
are a thousand to one that it never comes to a resi- 
dent of a foreign settlement. Certainly some of the 
European authors whom the world accepts as true 
exponents of Japanese art have never been introduced 
to genuine representatives of many of the historical 
schools that they describe. They have utilized their 
limited opportunities with diligence and ability, but 
it was impossible that they could speak discerningly 
of what they had not seen, or had viewed only 
through copies scarcely ranking above caricatures. 
In this reflection is to be found, perhaps, a sufficient 
explanation of the great divergence between views 



submitted to the public on the subject of Japanese 
art. Chamberlain can scarcely conceal his contempt 
for it : he finds that it " stops at the small, the petty, 
the isolated, the vignette," and that the chief lesson 
it has taught the world is " the charm of irregularity." 
Fenollosa, on the other hand, talks of Motonobu as 
" scaling the heavens and battling with Titans ;" of 
" the depth and intensity which startle us like the 
voices of the Gods from the mellow-toned sheets of 
Shiubun, Noami, Jasoku, and Masanobu;" of "the 
draught of immortality that all late artists have sought 
to drink from the well of Sesshiu's irrepressible 
vigour," and of "Yeitoku, whose heart burns with 
the internal fire lit from the torch of the Sung 
genius." It is impossible that two men of very much 
more than average intelligence can speak of the same 
thing with voices so dissentient. The truth is that 
their verdicts are based on different evidence. 

The remarks made above with reference to the 
decorative limitations of Japanese art apply with 
clearer truth to secular than to religious paintings. 
In the latter field work is occasionally found that does 
not suggest any consideration for the plane of its dis- 
play or the nature of its environment. Some of the 
earliest masters are known chiefly, if not entirely, by 
the pictures that they painted for Buddhist temples or 
Buddhist priests, and these pictures would deservedly 
rank high in any country. They show loftiness of 
conception, massiveness of treatment, and vigour of 
method that rival the achievements of the Italian 
mediaeval celebrities. Yet they cannot be cited as 
witnesses against the general theory enunciated above, 
for they are without either linear perspective or cast 


Japanese pictorial art is permeated with Chinese 
affinities. The one is indeed the child of the other, 
and traces of this close relationship are nearly always 
present in greater or less degree. To discern the 
marks of consanguinity is, however, a difficult task at 
times, not because of their actual obscurity, but be- 
cause means of identification are defective. Imper- 
fect as is the Occident's knowledge of Japanese 
pictorial art, it compares favourably with its knowl- 
edge of Chinese. Of the latter virtually nothing was 
known by Western connoisseurs until they were in- 
troduced to it through the medium of the former ; 
for, strange as the fact may seem, fine Chinese pictures 
are very much more accessible in Japan than in 
China. Japan is perfectly frank in acknowledging 
the debt she owes to the neighbouring empire. She 
does not pretend for a moment that her own painters 
have ever surpassed their models, the great masters 
of the Tang, the Sung, the Yuan, and the Ming 
dynasties, and she treasures the latter' s works with all 
the reverent love that an Occidental virtuoso feels for 
the gems of Rubens, of Angelo, of Titian, or of 
Holbein. It may, indeed, be fairly claimed for the 
Japanese that in some branches of painting their 
modifications deserve to be regarded as efforts of 
original genius, and that, speaking generally, their 
work is superior to that of the Chinese in tender- 
ness, grace, and, above all, humour. But, for the rest, 
they sit at China's feet. Korea should also be in- 
cluded among their masters, for there is evidence that 
Korean influence preceded Chinese. But the earliest 
really great Japanese artist Kose no Kanaoka is 
an unalloyed product of Chinese inspiration, and 
stands at the crest of a flood of Chinese influence that 



inundated his country in the eighth and ninth centuries. 
Two hundred years before his time (850-880 A.D.), 
Buddhism had become established in Japan, and the 
best efforts of her artists were soon devoted to the 
service of the new faith. Thus the most ancient 
painting now extant is a mural decoration in the 
temple Horiu-ji, near Nara, which is believed to date 
from the opening years of the seventh century, and 
it may be stated at once that in no country has the 
spirit of art been more closely connected with religion 
than in Japan. Not merely did painting, architec- 
ture, and sculpture make their entry in the train of 
the Indian creed, but close study shows that the 
development of the various sects may often be traced 
by their influence on the artistic features of their 
respective epochs. To Buddhism also are due the 
Grecian affinities distinctly traceable in Japanese art, 
for the conquests of Alexander brought Grecian 
civilisation to northern India, whence Buddhism set 
out for China, Korea, and Japan. 

Concerning the history of Japanese art, the best 
authorities refer its genesis to the reign of the Em- 
press Suiko (563567 A.D.), when Chinese court 
fashions, literature, and etiquette were introduced, 
and with them came applied art for decorating the 
Buddhist temples then beginning to be built. The 
accuracy of the date need not be insisted upon, for 
the evidence is traditional ; but certainly the seventh 
century bequeathed to posterity a few specimens 
which show that the casting, and chiselling of metal, 
and the manufacture of lacquer were already practised 
with considerable skill; that fine examples of em- 
broidery had been imported from China, if not 
produced in Japan, and that painting, though still 

VOL- VH. - 2 


crude and elementary, had made some progress. A 
great deal of ingenuity and close research have been 
devoted to tracing fine lines of division between the 
periods of Japanese development in those early days, 
but the resulting differentiation is too subtle to be 
practical. The problem of real interest is to separate 
foreign inspiration from native originality ; to deter- 
mine whether this art, which has so greatly .pleased 
the world in modern times, is a mere by-product of 
inspiration emanating in the first place from Greece, 
and becoming more and more deflected from the line 
of identity as it passed through the refracting media 
of Indian, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese assimilations, 
or whether any part of it may be regarded as the un- 
mixed offspring of Japanese genius. With that object 
in view it would certainly be helpful to trace the 
record back to its very alphabet. But unfortunately 
the materials are not sufficient for accurate analysis. 
If the most profound students take the latter half of 
the sixth century as the opening era, it is not because 
they believe the preceding cycles to have been 
entirely barren, but because the spread of Buddhism 
at that time supplied the first elevating impulse, as 
well as the first means of preserving and transmitting 
the art products of the time. There is no apparent 
possibility of determining, however, whether the 
scanty specimens transmitted from the sixth century 
and the first half of the seventh were the work of 
Japanese, Chinese, or Korean hands. Not until the 
end of the seventh century does solid ground present 
itself, and Japan is then found in such close contact 
with China that a full tide of civilisation flowed from 
the latter to the shores of her neighbour, civilisa- 
tion which, so far as its artistic side is concerned, was 



permeated with Indo-Grecian influences. The mate- 
rials for study now cease to be few and apocryphal. 
A very considerable number of authenticated sculp- 
tures, several paintings, and a remarkably full assem- 
blage of examples of applied art, illustrate the culture 
of the epoch. 

To this time belongs the celebrated collection pre- 
served in an imperial storehouse called the Shoso-in 
at Nara. Nara was the capital of Japan and the resi- 
dence of the Imperial Court from 709 to 784 A.D. 
During that interval the priests of Horiuji, to which 
temple the Shoso-in is attached, received from the 
Palace various memorial relics, so that the Shoso-in 
collection ultimately comprised specimens of the 
ornaments, utensils, robes, musical instruments, etc., 
used by three Emperors and three Empresses. This 
collection, supplemented by temple treasures, brings 
the student into intimate touch with the civilisation 
of the era. He can speak of it confidently. As to 
sculpture, the point of excellence to which it had 
been carried is attested by several statues which form 
part of the Nara temple relics. No critic can deny 
to these works a high place in any scale of artistic 
conception and technical skill. Tradition assigns 
some of the best of them to anonymous Chinese or 
Korean sculptors. But no such sculptures have hith- 
erto been found in either Korea or China. Here is 
presented one of the difficulties besetting every effort 
to decipher the alphabet of Japanese art. Work- 
ing in the service of religion, the Japanese artist 
buried his individuality in his purpose ; and, on the 
other hand, since Korea originally transmitted Bud- 
dhism to Japan, and China, during several centuries, 
remained the sole source of its exegesis, the priests 



and propagandists of the faith were naturally disposed 
to claim the cachet of Korean and Chinese artists for 
the decoration and equipment of sacred edifices. The 
artist effaced himself; his employers ignored him, and 
posterity was probably betrayed into the error of at- 
tributing to foreign masters much that Japan had a 
just title to call her own. The tendency of modern 
research is to throw doubt upon the foreign prove- 
nance of several important works hitherto attributed to 
Chinese or Korean artists. Men that could conceive 
and construct the colossal bronze figure of Lochana 
Buddha at Nara, and the numerous images preserved 
in the temple there, cannot have experienced much 
necessity to employ Chinese or Korean hands. Nev- 
ertheless, though the glyptic art, the lacquerer's art, 
and the inlayer's art unquestionably attained a high 
stage of development in this epoch, the pictorial art 
remained in a secondary place and a careful examina- 
tion of the Shoso-in collection shows that even in the 
field of decorative art the features which constitute 
the chief charm, as well as the specialty, of Japanese 
genius in later ages had not yet been evolved. With- 
out exception the decoration seen in the Shoso-in 
specimens is geometrically distributed. There is no 
evidence that the Japanese had yet begun to fathom 
the secret of natural proportion, or to study the lesson 
they afterwards acquired so perfectly, namely, that to 
conceal, while preserving, the geometrical relations 
of part to part, to obtain equilibrium while apparently 
despising equipoise, is the fundamental axiom of 
graceful symmetry. But as sculptors they unquestion- 
ably stand at the head of Far-Eastern artists, and al- 
though the degree of their supremacy varied from 
age to age, the fact could never be questioned. What 



has been said above of painting applies with equal 
truth to sculpture. In both alike the impress of 
Japanese genius shows itself chiefly in tenderness, 
grace, and, above all, humour. It is doubtful whether 
the Japanese pictorial artist ever scaled the heights on 
which the greatest of the Chinese masters stood. It 
is virtually certain that the converse is true in the case 
of sculpture. But these are mere differences of 
degree. Not until the characteristics of humour, 
tenderness, and grace are considered does the distinc- 
tion become radical. 

A few words may be said here about Chinese art, 
since it occupies such an important place in the vista 
of the retrospect. While accepting the indisputable 
truth that the art of Japan in its greatest phases is but 
a reflection of the art of China a reflection fre- 
quently vying with its original in vigour and vitality, 
but more frequently displaying the weaknesses inci- 
dental to imitations in general it is necessary to 
avoid the inference that the native genius of the 
Chinese artist was wholly responsible for his successes. 
The fact is that in both countries pictorial art drew 
its best inspiration from the same fount, Buddhism, 
and in both derived some of its most striking techni- 
cal features from the same source, calligraphy. The 
Chinese doubtless had pictures long before the days 
of Apelles and Zeuxis, but their artists failed to attract 
any national attention until Buddhism, coming in the 
third century of the Christian era, brought to them 
Graeco-Indian suggestions which soon raised to the dig- 
nity of an art what had hitherto been nothing more than 
a branch of calligraphy. By a slow process of evolu- 
tion this reformed art gradually attained, in the eighth 
century, a culminating point at which stands the figure 



of Wu Tao-tsz. 1 Speaking broadly, the painters of 
his epoch the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) are 
believed to be the most powerful and original their 
country has produced, but it is difficult to determine 
how much that verdict owes to Oriental reverence for 
the antique. If the works of Wu Tao-tsz, Wong 
Wei (Japanese O-i), and Han Kan (Japanese Kan- 
Kan) served as splendid models to the first Japanese 
painters of note, Kose no Kanaoka and his imme- 
diate successors, the pictures of the Sung (9601 205 
A.D.) masters 2 were even more esteemed and copied 
by subsequent Japanese artists, and continuously in 
later eras 3 the influence of the various Chinese schools 
made itself felt in the neighbouring empire. Turning 
to the general characteristics of the art, the first point 
to be noted is that strength, directness, decision, 
and delicacy of stroke ranked above all other quali- 
ties. Outlines were frequently traced, the fact that 
they do not exist in nature being deliberately ig- 
nored. Doubtless for the same reason, accuracy of 
drawing was often sacrificed to conventionalised beau- 
ties of curve and contour, and nature's effects were 
translated into the language of decorative manner- 
isms. Linear perspective was either absent altogether 
or present in a form that violated European canons. 
Cast shadows did not appear. Colours were used 
very sparingly in the earlier eras, the best works 
being in black and white, pure monochrome, or 
pale tints relieved by an occasional touch of brighter 
hue. No subject was too trivial for representation, 
but if pictures were often produced which, so far as 
concerns the objects depicted, would rank only as 

1 See Appendix, note 2. "See Appendix, note 3. 

See Appendix, note 4. 



studies in the Occident, their narrowness of range 
was redeemed by remarkable subtlety of suggestion, 
and in the case of landscapes there was a really noble 
power of representing space and atmosphere. These 
remarks apply to secular rather than to religious paint- 
ings. In the latter, figure subjects predominate, and 
are treated not only with grandeur of conception but 
sometimes also with gorgeous wealth of decorative 
detail. The religious pictures of China and Japan 
are scarcely distinguishable. That is not strange 
when the identity of their motives and calligraphic 
methods is remembered, as well as the fact that in 
early days the Middle Kingdom stood towards the 
island empire in nearly the same relation as that oc- 
cupied by Italy towards western Europe in mediaeval 
and modern times. China was the bourne of the 
Japanese art student as well as of the Japanese littera- 
teur, and to have sat at the feet of the Tang, Sung, or 
Yuan masters or philosophers was counted the high- 
est possible education, whether aesthetic or scholastic. 
Representing the same subjects and inspired by the 
same devotional instincts, the Buddhist paintings of 
the two countries might well resemble each other to 
the point of identity. But it is strange to find 
among the secular works of Chinese artists exact 
prototypes of drawings that hang in the alcoves of 
thousands of Japanese houses, or form the decorative 
bases of innumerable Japanese objects of virtu. The 
perched hawks and roosting pigeons of Hwei Tsung ; 
the swooping cranes and curling waves of Mih Yuen- 
chang ; the beetling cliffs, dashing waterfalls, and 
rugged trees of Wu Tao-tsz ; the ferocious dragons 
of Ch'en So-ung ; the marvellously bold and vital 
sketches of Muh Ki, herons flying from the silk and 


boughs waving on the paper ; the vivid, crisp figure- 
subjects and the exquisitely delicate suggestions of 
still life and landscape by Li Lung-yen ; the bamboos 
of Yuh Kien, every leaf drinking the sunny air and 
every spray instinct with lustiness ; the eager, timid 
wild-fowl and wood-birds of Wan Chin and Wang 
Lieh-pan ; the tender glimpses of scenic gems by 
Liu Liang and Lu Ki, like choice stanzas from a 
great poem these and many another graceful 
conception, delineated with such fidelity to the first 
canon of art that a maximum of effect is produced 
with a minimum of visible effort, reveal the gallery 
where Japanese painters found their inspiration from 
century to century. Nothing has ever been written 
that sums up more happily and justly the facts now 
under discussion than the following extract from 
the work of that most accurate and discriminating 
student of Far-Eastern pictorial art, the late Dr. 
William Anderson : 

There is, perhaps, no section of art that has been so com- 
pletely misapprehended in Europe as the pictorial art of 
China. For us the Chinese painter, past or present, is but 
a copyist who imitates with laborious and undiscriminating 
exactness whatever is laid before him, rejoices in the display 
of as many and as brilliant colours as his subject and remu- 
neration will permit, and is original only in the creation of 
monstrosities. Nothing could be more contrary to the fact 
than this impression, if we omit from consideration the work 
executed for the foreign market, work which every educated 
Chinese would disown. The old masters of the Middle 
Kingdom, who, as a body, united grandeur of conception 
with immense power of execution, cared little for elabo- 
ration of detail, and, except in Buddhist pictures, sought 
their best efforts in the simplicity of black and white, or in 
the most subdued of chromatic harmonies. Their art was 



defective, but not more so than that of Europe down to the 
end of the thirteenth century. Technically they did not go 
beyond the use of water colours, but in range and quality of 
pigments, in mechanical command of pencil, they had no 
reasons to fear comparison with their contemporaries. They 
had caught only a glimpse of the laws of chiaroscuro and 
perspective, but the want of science was counterpoised by 
more essential elements of artistic excellence. In motives 
they lacked neither variety nor elevation. As landscape 
painters they anticipated their European brethren by over a 
score of generations, and created transcripts of scenery that 
for breadth, atmosphere, and picturesque beauty can scarcely 
be surpassed. In their studies of the human figure, although 
their work was often rich in vigour and expression, they 
certainly fell immeasurably below the Greeks; but to counter- 
balance this defect no other artists, except those of Japan, 
have ever infused into the delineations of bird life one tithe 
of the vitality and action to be seen in the Chinese portrait- 
ures of the crow, the sparrow, the crane, and a hundred 
other varieties of the feathered race. In flowers the Chinese 
were less successful, owing to the absence of true chiaro- 
scuro, but they were able to evolve a better picture out of a 
single spray of blossom than many a Western painter from 
all the treasures of a conservatory. If we endeavour to 
compare the pictorial art of China with that of Europe, we 
must carry ourselves back to the days when the former was 
in its greatness. Of the art that preceded the Tang dynasty 
we can say nothing. Like that of Polygnotus, Zeuxis, and 
Apelles, it is now represented only by traditions, which, if 
less precise in the former than in the latter case, are not less 
laudatory ; but it may be asserted that nothing produced by 
the painters of Europe between the seventh and thirteenth 
centuries of the Christian era approaches within any measur- 
able distance of the works of the great Chinese masters who 
gave lustre to the Tang, Sung, and Yuan dynasties, nor 
to draw a little nearer to modern times is there anything 
in the religious art of Cimabue that would not appear tame 
and graceless by the side of the Buddhist compositions of 
Wu Tao-tsz, Li Lung-yen, and Ngan Hwui. Down to the 


end of the southern Empire in 1279 A.D., the Chinese were 
at the head of the world in the art of painting, as in many 
other things, and their nearest rivals were their own pupils, 
the Japanese. 

The question to be now considered is what ad- 
vantage Japan took of her access to the pictorial 
treasures of her neighbour. That she came into 
possession of these there can be no doubt, for by the 
priests whose enthusiastic zeal impelled them to make 
frequent visits to the source of Buddhism, the Middle 
Kingdom, sacred images and sacred paintings were 
constantly brought back, 1 to be placed in temples or 
presented to the Palace. Further, that already in the 
eighth century she possessed a gallery well stocked, 
whether by her own artists or with imported pictures, 
is attested by the registers of an ancient temple, To- 
dai-ji, where fifty painted screens are entered as having 
been among the sacred belongings at that time ; by 
the treasure-book of the temple Saidai-ji, where there 
is mention of religious pictures of great size, one 
having a height of 4-3 metres with a width of 3 
metres, and by the catalogue of Daio-ji, where 
ninety portraits of Buddha's disciples are referred to. 
Some of these pictures appear to have been landscapes, 
others purely decorative drawings, and others of an 
essentially religious character ; but all were either of 
Chinese origin or in strict accord with the models 
and methods of the Tang masters. Unfortunately few 
of them survive. Such authentic examples as have 
been handed down, however, not only resemble 
Chinese pictures so as to be distinguishable by experts 
only, and by them with hesitation, but also indicate 
that decorative motives were borrowed at that epoch 

1 See Appendix, note 5. 



from almost every country of continental Asia as well 
as from Egypt and Greece. In short, Japan's picto- 
rial and decorative art had not yet developed any dis- 
tinctive character. Her painters were still living in 
the Chinese studio, not, however, as altogether im- 
mature pupils, for if any of the surviving examples 
may be attributed to them, as to which nothing can 
be affirmed with absolute certainty, the fact that 
they had acquired much technical skill, at all events, 
is placed beyond question. 

Originality they began to show, according to the 
judgment of their own connoisseurs, from the date 
(794) of the transfer of the Court to Kyoto. In his- 
tory, however, there is nothing to suggest any special 
reason for a new departure at that time. Intercourse 
with China, especially through Buddhist channels, 
had grown even closer than before, and the over- 
shadowing influence of Chinese civilisation found 
expression in the plan of the new capital itself, which 
was a replica of the Tang metropolis. It is true that 
the removal of the Court to Kyoto was partly due to 
the Emperor Kwammu's revolt against the excessive 
sway established by Buddhism at Nara. But the effect 
of that policy upon art if, indeed, it exercised any 
effect would not have been to encourage originality 
so much as to diminish the vogue enjoyed by relig- 
ious paintings and to divert men's thoughts to secular 
pictures. Perhaps that is all that happened, for it is 
certain that the seeds of originality said to have been 
sown at the close of the eighth century did not 
immediately bear any palpable fruit. Kawanari, 
descended from a Korean immigre, was the sower, and 
of Kawanari's work nothing is known save what 
tradition tells. His skill is exalted to miraculous 



proportions by legends which show incidentally that 
he painted landscapes, portraits, and other natural sub- 
jects, but the sole and somewhat doubtful outcome of 
his brush that survives is a set of insignificant religious 
sketches. Nevertheless his countrymen insist that to 
him and his immediate successor, Kose no Kanaoka, 
the merit of founding a native school must be as- 
signed. Kanaoka has been placed by many histori- 
ans at the beginning of Japanese pictorial art, but the 
logic of evolution is better consulted by putting him 
near the climax of an epoch, for talent such as he 
seems to have possessed cannot reasonably be asso- 
ciated with any initiatory stage of art development. 
Unhappily he too is known to posterity by reputation 
only. Several pictures are indeed ascribed to him, 
and, from the evidence they furnish, two descriptions 
of his style have been confidently adduced : the first 
declaring that delicacy and minuteness were his 
characteristics, and that he aimed at decorative effect 
rather than at boldness or vigour ; the second affirm- 
ing that, like the great Chinese artist Wu-Tao-tsz, 
upon whom he modelled himself, his conceptions 
were as broad and lofty as his style was masculine 
and direct. Either or both analyses may be correct, 
for the truth is that none of the pictures attributed 
to Kanaoka can be viewed without great distrust. 
The ablest judges agree that all must be set aside as 
apocryphal, and that no materials exist for an estimate 
except annals which speak with profound enthusiasm 
of the portraits, landscapes, and representations of ani- 
mals painted by him. It will be perceived, too, that 
there is nothing in all this to indicate a departure 
from Chinese models. The Tang masters also painted 
landscapes, portraits, and animals, and painted them in 



a manner never surpassed by the Japanese. In sum, 
therefore, nothing can be confidently affirmed except 
that from the close of the eighth century secular pic- 
tures began to be painted in Japan with sufficient 
success to command the warm admiration of connois- 
seurs whose judgment had been formed by study of 
Chinese masterpieces. 

Nor must it be imagined that because Kawanari 
and Kanaoka laid the foundations of a Japanese 
school of secular painting, the religious picture of the 
Chinese school fell out of public favour. On the 
contrary, it held its place almost as firmly as ever. 
Buddhist priests became famous artists as well as ethi- 
cal teachers, and, visiting China in constantly increas- 
ing numbers, saw models there which they hastened 
to copy or procured pictures which they carried to 
Japan. The central figure of these enthusiasts was 
Kukai, better known by his posthumous title of Kobo 
Daishi (790-840), the greatest priest in Japanese his- 
tory. Repairing to China to complete his religious 
studies, he had an opportunity of witnessing the 
civilisation of the Tang dynasty, and on his return 
to Japan he set himself to propagate, under official 
auspices, a doctrine (the Mikkio}, which depended 
largely on appeals to the sensuous side of human 
nature, and enlisted in its services whatever aids were 
furnished by the beautiful, the gorgeous, and the 
picturesque. In painting and in sculpture alike he 
attained high renown, and his century is further 
illuminated by the names of Saicho (commonly called 
Dengyo Daishi), Jitsuye, Yenchin, and one or two 
other priests reputed to have been great artists. But 
posterity knows them in the pages of history alone. 
Their works have not survived. Not more than three 



pictures now remaining, or at most four, can be con- 
fidently attributed to the gallery of the ninth century, 
and among them one alone is identifiable as the produc- 
tion of a particular artist. It is from Kukai's brush, 
a portrait of his hierarch, Gonso, painted with suffi- 
cient vigour and feeling to show that already in the 
ninth century the religious artists of Japan stood on a 
plane of high achievement, and that the enthusiastic 
eulogies bestowed by tradition on their secular con- 
temporaries, Kawanari and Kanaoka, were doubtless 
not undeserved. 

It may be noted here of all Japanese painters down 
to the twelfth century, perhaps even down to the 
thirteenth, that they regarded the religious picture 
as the field of highest achievement, and that, when 
their subject was a Buddhist divinity, a Nirvana, an 
Arhat, or a Rishi, they sought inspiration either 
directly from the Chinese masters or indirectly from 
the latter's most famous disciples. Religious paint- 
ings, like religious propagandism, appeal either to the 
intellect or to the senses. Pictures of the former class 
are, of course, the exception ; those of the latter, the 
rule. The characteristics of Japanese Buddhist paint- 
ings in general are the characteristics of the illumi- 
nated missal ; a rich display of gold and of glowing 
but harmonious colours, with conventional drawing, 
complete absence of chiaroscuro, apparent errors of 
anatomy, and faithful observance of traditional types. 
Sometimes, however, just as the noble thoughts of a 
great preacher impart new and lofty aspects to the 
familiar faith he inculcates, so Buddhist pictures from 
a master hand cease to be a mere repetition of hack- 
neyed types, and reveal glimpses of a world of divine 
inspirations and emotions Thus it happens that 



several names above all, those of Hirotaka and 
Meicho (commonly called Cho Dense) are specially 
celebrated for paintings of this class, but the student 
will find that Japan's best artists in all ages contrib- 
uted their quota to the pictorial treasures of the 
temples, and that not until after the twelfth century 
did the secular picture rise to a place of fully equal 
importance with the sacred. 

Considering what a small number of authenticated 
pictures offer themselves for examination, an attempt 
to distinguish between the technical characteristics of 
the religious, or Chinese, and the secular, or Japanese, 
schools at this early stage may seem unwarranted. 
The distinction is made, however, by Japanese 
connoisseurs, and finds confirmation in later evidence. 
The secular artist, they say, held his brush oblique, 
and aimed at a light and fine style of delineation, 
choosing simple and tender colours. The religious 
artist held his brush perpendicular ; sought accuracy 
before everything ; did not attempt to vary the 
thickness of his strokes, and used stronger colours 
than his secular confrere. Such a verdict, it may be 
remarked, harmonises exactly with the indications 
furnished by the calligraphical styles of the Chinese 
and the Japanese. Both starting from the same 
point, one nation preserved the square, formal, and 
mathematically exact type of ideograph, whereas the 
other developed a cursive, graceful, and unconventional 

The divergence of the Japanese secular artist's 
brush from strictly Chinese lines gradually became so 
marked that, in about a hundred years from the time 
of Kanaoka, that is to say, in the middle of the 
tenth century, the public clearly recognised the 


existence of a native school, and called it Tamato-riu y 
or Waga-riu, synonyms for " Japanese style." The 
reported founder of the school was Kasuga Motomitsu, 
but from what has been related here it will be seen 
that his genius represented the outcome of a tendency 
rather than its origin. He did not suggest the new 
route, but showed rather what could be achieved by 
following the route that Kawanari and Kanaoka had 
already indicated. Artists are necessarily swayed in 
their choice of motives by the circumstances of their 
era. As the city of Kyoto grew in wealth and 
luxury, its social life gradually ceased to be over- 
shadowed by religious influences, and for the decora- 
tion of screens and sliding doors in palaces and 
mansions people began to desire representations of 
natural scenery, of festivals, of flowery landscapes, and 
of such other subjects as might reflect and harmonise 
with the refined and voluptuous habits of their ex- 
istence. It is thus in the direction of motives, not of 
technique, that the new departure can be traced most 
clearly, the artist no longer seeking inspiration in the 
field of sacred mythology, but turning rather to the 
realm of every-day life, court ceremonials, legendary 
lore, incidents in the biographies of celebrated men, 
episodes suggested by poetry or history, and scenic 
gems. In short, decorative beauty had to be con- 
sidered by the Yamato artists at least as much as 
pictorial excellence, one consequence of which neces- 
sity was that they gradually began to use fuller-bodied 
tints, and to contrive that a picture should produce 
a general effect as well as a special ; in other words, 
that when seen from a distance too great to distinguish 
details, it should still be delightful as a scheme of 
harmonised colours. In the hands of great masters 



a picture often assumed this dual character with 
admirable success, but the abuses of the conception 
were sometimes shocking. They grew more marked 
as the school advanced in age, and ultimately the 
elements of a painting came to be disposed with such 
care for decorative effect that the coloured areas con- 
veyed a suggestion of diapers or brocaded patterns. 
Such freaks, however, did not obtain vogue until the 
sixteenth century, and were confined chiefly to what 
may be called the book illustrations of the time ; 
namely, paintings on interminably long scrolls in- 
scribed with historical or biographical records. 1 

The Yamato artists are often said to have failed 
signally in their delineations of the human figure ; to 
have followed traditional types, generally ungraceful 
and unnatural, and to have drawn faces, legs, and 
arms that seldom approximated to correctness. That 
criticism must not be accepted too implicitly. It is 
certainly true when applied to the work done by the 
rank and file of the school ; but in the case of the 
masters close examination generally reveals that 
the outlines of their figures diverge, not from the 
standard of absolute correctness, but from the standard 
which the critic himself has been accustomed to 
regard as normal. They show lines which assuredly 
exist in nature, but which are not the lines that 
Europeans and Americans have taught themselves to 
consider salient. 

The Yamato school is sometimes spoken, of as the 
Kasuga, after its alleged founder Kasuga Motomitsu, 
and sometimes the Kasuga is regarded as a branch of 
the Yamato. From the middle of the thirteenth 
century the name was changed to Tosa-riu, the prin- 

1 See Appendix, note 6. 

VOL. vii. 3 o 


cipal representative of the academy at that time 
having been honoured with the title of Tosa Gon-no- 
kumi. Thenceforth through every era the successive 
artists of the school bore the family name " Tosa." 
Japanese connoisseurs maintain that for a time the 
styles of the Kasuga and the Tosa could be clearly 
differentiated, the former being distinguished by its 
fine and flowing brush-work, the latter by the bold- 
ness, firmness, and directness of its touch. But these 
differences soon became imperceptible, and that they 
had ever existed was forgotten by all except the 
keenest critics. The characteristics of the Tosa 
masters were magnificent combinations of colours 
and remarkable skill of composition. They may be 
called decorators and illustrators rather than painters 
of pictures as the term is generally understood, for 
their best work is found on screens, sliding doors, and 
historical or legendary scrolls. Indeed, as historical 
illustrators they are quite peerless, for in no other 
country can be found pictorial annals such as those 
with which they enriched Japan during the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries and the first half of the 
fourteenth. A long list of illustrious names belongs 
to that era, culminating in the fourteenth century 
with Takashima Takekane, of whom his countrymen 
allege that among all the crowded scenes of court, 
camp, and domestic life depicted on his scrolls, no two 
show the same grouping. 

Although the records indicate that Kose no Kana- 
oka followed Kawanari in popularising secular, or 
Japanese, pictures, the Kose school subsequently came 
to be regarded as representing the Chinese style, the 
works of its masters being in marked accord with what 
were known as classical canons. Several of those 



masters had the honour of holding the position of 
" painter laureate " (edokord), a post created in the year 
808. After Kanaoka the greatest artist of the school 
during the Heian epoch namely, from the ninth 
to the twelfth century was Hirotaka, a prince of 
the blood, whose works are said to have stood out 
from the canvas like living pictures. He occupied 
himself chiefly with religious pictures, whereas two 
other masters of the school at the same epoch, Kintada 
and Kimmochi, became celebrated for landscape paint- 
ing, the former choosing Chinese scenes, the latter 
Japanese. Other renowned artists of the Kose school 
in the same epoch were Koreshige and Nobushige. 

A branch of the Kose school, namely, the Takuma, 
is distinguished by Japanese connoisseurs, but in truth 
the only appreciable difference is that the Takuma mas- 
ters, following the methods of the Sung painters of 
China, carried the decorative features of their relig- 
ious paintings to a degree of unprecedented splendour 
and elaboration. Takuma Tamenari founded the 
school in the middle of the eleventh century, and his 
greatest work, still extant though much defaced by 
time, was the decoration of the walls and doors of 
the temple Biyodo-in at Uji, on which occasion he 
chose for subjects the nine circles of the Buddhist 
paradise and eight effigies of Shaka. The bold and 
brilliant style thus inaugurated found great exponents 
in later ages, but can scarcely be said to have preserved 
its individuality after the fourteenth century. 

These different schools the Kose, the Takuma, the 
Kasuga, and the Tosa have been mentioned here 
because their names are on the lips of every Japanese 
connoisseur. But, for purposes of intelligent under- 
standing, the qualities and characteristics of the four 



may be synthesised into a statement that their works 
had one of three objects, to promote religious pur- 
poses, to decorate the interiors of temples or mansions, 
and to illustrate scrolls or illuminate missals. The 
picture for its own sake did not yet exist. 

In the twelfth century was born a style of art en- 
tirely independent of foreign inspiration. It con- 
sisted of humorous sketches, in which not merely the 
motives but also the drawing was burlesqued. The 
Japanese have never been notably skilful caricaturists. 
Even in modern times their attempts to produce comic 
publications after the fashion of Punch or Life are not 
successful, owing to their persistent inability to pre- 
serve a likeness while distorting it. In the Toba-ye t 
as humorous pictures were called after their origina- 
tor the Priest of the Toba Monastery (Toba Sbjo), 
otherwise Minamoto no Kakuyu particular emo- 
tions were emphasised by exaggerating the part of 
the body affected by them, so that accuracy of draw- 
ing, in the Occidental sense of the term, became a 
secondary consideration. Kakuyu, though generally 
remembered only as the father of this school, distin- 
guished himself highly as a painter of religious and 
secular (Tamato) pictures, and the authenticated speci- 
mens, a very few rolls, of his comic drawings that 
have been handed down to posterity, show much 
power of brush and play of fancy. He had a host 
of successors in every age, the majority immeasurably 
inferior, some even greater than himself, and many 
whose style differed so essentially from his that they 
had nothing in common with him except a keen 
sense of humour. To appreciate the work of this 
school, it is necessary to have an intimate knowledge 
of Japanese legends, folk-lore, proverbs, history, and 


By Sosen. 


customs, all of which the Toba-ye artist illustrated. 
It is also necessary to remember the art axiom that in 
naturalistic drawing accuracy of proportion and beauty 
of line are properly sacrificed to the appearance of 
life. From the time of Toba Sojo to the days of 
Hokusai and Kyosai, the Japanese humorous painter 
always recognised that his first duty was to give the 
character the burlesque, laughter-provoking char- 
acter of the objects he depicted, and that if he suc- 
ceeded in conveying a strong and immediate impression 
of that character, his purpose was accomplished, 
even though his lines were classically incorrect. In 
short, his work forcibly illustrates the principle that 
whereas line in classic drawing is generally attained 
at the expense of life, life in naturalistic drawing is 
often attained at the expense of line. 

In the fourteenth century Japanese art reverted to its 
old source of inspiration, China. This movement 
was headed by Josetsu, who took for models the mas- 
terpieces of the Middle Kingdom's artists at the close of 
the Sung and the beginning of the Yuan dynasty, so that 
to the school thus established was given the name of 
So-gen (Chinese, Sung-yuari). Josetsu was a priest of 
the Zen sect of Buddhism, just then beginning to 
gain disciples on a large scale in Japan, and he is also 
said to have been of Chinese origin. There are some 
close students who deny to him the title of having led 
the Chinese renaissance in Japan. They claim that 
honour equally for another naturalised Chinese artist, 
Shoga Shiubun, and for a predecessor of both, Nen 
Kawo. The fact is, that the tendency of the time was 
responsible rather than the genius of an individual. 
Readers of Japanese history know that feudalism was 
established in the thirteenth century, and that in the 



fourteenth all society had become permeated with 
the military spirit. The canons of the bushi were 
the ethics of the era, and the austere philosophy of the 
Zen creed commended itself to a large section of the 
educated class. It was natural that this change should 
be reflected in the region of aesthetics, and since Chi- 
nese art happened to be passing at the time through 
a phase which accorded excellently with Japan's 
mood, the old relation of pupil and teacher was re- 
established insensibly without a strong initiative on 
the part of any special artist. The style of painting 
then inaugurated found its chief expression in mono- 
chromatic, or lightly coloured, landscapes and sea- 
scapes of great delicacy, fidelity, and beauty, and in 
wonderfully lifelike, vigorous sketches of birds, 
flowers, and foliage. 

It is characteristic of this school, which has had 
numerous representatives in every era since its foun- 
dation by the emigrant monks of Kyoto, that its 
motives, like its style, were generally exotic. Until 
modern times, the Japanese usually loved to derive 
examples of chivalry, of statesmanship, of warlike 
prowess, of philosophy, of filial piety, of feudal de- 
votion, and of legendary folk-lore from the annals 
of the Middle Kingdom. Hence the artists of the 
fourteenth-century renaissance, and their followers in 
almost every era, chose Chinese motives for their pic- 
tures, and instead of drawing inspiration direct from 
the exquisite scenery of their own country and the 
noble acts of their own countrymen and country- 
women, were content to copy Chinese ideals of land- 
scape, and to devote themselves to illustrating Chinese 
traditions. It is easy to conceive what a despotism 
of methods, of mannerisms, and of conventionali- 



ties would reign in such a school. Just as West's 
great picture of Wolfe's death was supposed to vio- 
late all the proprieties of art because the figures were 
depicted in eighteenth-century coats and hats instead 
of in Grecian " drapery " or Roman togas, so the 
Japanese disciple of the Chinese school had to obey 
canons which cramped his originality and were only 
saved from becoming anachronistic by the imme- 
morial conservatism of the Chinese nation. Con- 
cerning the excellences of this school, it may be said 
that, apart from force, directness, and delicacy of line, 
which are common to all Japanese masters, there is a 
really remarkable sense of " values ;" a subtle atten- 
tion to colour gradations and atmospheric conditions, 
which would have given almost perfect results had 
the principle been uniformly recognised that nature 
does not show accented outlines, that edges are never 
the deepest notes of colour in her landscapes and sea- 
scapes. A very appreciative paragraph from An- 
derson's " Pictorial Arts of Japan " may be quoted 
here : 

The Chinese artist was often remarkably felicitous in the 
renderings of the wilder forms of picturesque beauty in land- 
scape. Silvery cascades ; tranquil pools and winding streams ; 
towering silicic peaks and rugged headlands ; gnarled fan- 
tastic pines and plum-trees, side by side with the graceful 
forms and feathery foliage of the bamboo ; mansions or 
pavilions, gorgeous in vermilion and gold, crowning the 
heights or bordering the expanse of an inland lake, and 
rustic cottages with straw-thatched roofs nestling in the cul- 
tivated valleys : these were elements that the painter could 
assort and reconstruct into a thousand pictures of never- 
failing interest and beauty. The Japanese painters of the 
classical schools, seduced by the charm of the foreign ideal, 
were often led to neglect the familiar attractions of their own 



scenery, and without having beheld any of the spots depicted 
by the old landscape-masters of China, squandered an infin- 
ity of talent and ingenuity in building up new creations of 
their own with the material borrowed at second hand from 
their neighbours. 

Connoisseurs are wont to divide into three great 
streams the flood of Chinese renaissance that invaded 
Japan in the fifteenth century ; the purely Chinese 
stream, just spoken of as springing from Josetsu and 
Shiubun ; the Sesshiu stream, springing from Sesshiu, 
whom many count the most colossal figure in Jap- 
anese art ; and the Kano stream, springing from 
Masanobu and Motonobu, who, whether they rank 
above or below Sesshiu, certainly founded the chief 
academy of Japanese painters. The reader will at 
once seek some explanation of the reasons underlying 
this division. It is difficult to give any that can be 
called satisfactory. As to Sesshiu, some Japanese con- 
noisseurs claim that he developed a peculiar style of 
his own, untrammelled by classical conditions. To 
Occidental eyes, however, this independence is not 
easily apparent. He adhered to Chinese motives and 
Chinese methods as faithfully as did Shiubun and his 
disciples, and no dictum appears truer than that Sesshiu 
was " the open door through which all contemporary 
and subsequent artists looked into the seventh heaven 
of Chinese genius." Masanobu and Motonobu, the 
founders of the Kano school, were not less " classic " 
than Sesshiu. In the works of all three masters, 
though in varying degree, there are found the noble 
breadth of design, the subtle relationship of tones, the 
splendid calligraphic force and the "all-pervading 
sense of poetry " that constituted the highest features 
of Chinese pictorial art in the Tang, Sung, and Yuan 



epochs. For all purposes of true appreciation it 
seems sufficient to say that the fifteenth century was 
the culminating period of Chinese pictorial art 
in Japan, and that its giant figures, Shiubun, 
Sesshiu, Masanobu, and Motonobu, though they 
stand at the head of three distinct lines of artists, 
drew their inspiration from the same source and 
set before themselves the same ideals. Motonobu's 
masterpieces had the special excellence of being free 
from the hard outlines which in Sesshiu's pictures 
offend against natural laws ; but this superiority is 
partly balanced by loss of vigour and massiveness. 

The immediate object of these notes being to trace 
the development of Japanese art itself, not the his- 
tory of Japanese artists, reference is omitted to the 
names of several great disciples upon whom the mantle 
of the four renaissance masters fell, and the reader is 
invited to pass at once to the closing years of the 
sixteenth century, when a new departure was made by 
two leaders of the Kano school, Eitoku and Sanraku. 
It has been shown above that pure Chinese influence 
reached its first culminating point in the ninth century, 
when Kose no Kanaoka won immortal fame, and that 
his classical style continued to monopolise the field of 
pictorial art until the eleventh century, when Moto- 
mitsu founded the Yamato, or Japanese school, which 
subsequently developed decorative characteristics, and 
finally, in the hands of the Tosa masters, became 
more remarkable for rich colour harmonies and gor- 
geous illuminations than for any of the qualities rec- 
ognised by classical canons. So, too, it is found that 
the rebirth of Chinese influence in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, which speedily reached the zenith of its glory 
in the hands of Sesshiu, was followed, within less 


than two hundred years, by a decorative impulse pre- 
cisely analogous to that represented by the genesis and 
growth of the Yamato school. Eitoku and Sanraku 
introduced this decorative method in the Kano acad- 
emies at the close of the sixteenth century, just as 
the internecine wars by which the country had been 
tortured for five hundred years were drawing to a close, 
and feudal castles and noblemen's residences of un- 
precedented massiveness and magnificence were begin- 
ning to be built throughout the Empire. Eitoku 
created, perhaps, the greatest purely decorative style 
of painting that the East has ever produced. His 
style accurately reflected the fashions and tendencies 
of his time, when, under the rule of Hideyoshi, the 
administrative power began to be associated with dis- 
plays of imposing magnificence, and when aestheticism, 
officially inspired, found expression in the lavish adorn- 
ment of castles, temples, and palaces, and in the 
construction of beautiful parks. On the walls and slid- 
ing-doors of these edifices, Eitoku, Sanraku, and their 
fellows produced pictures glowing with gold and rich 
colour-harmonies. The decorative artists that preceded 
them had used the precious metal sparingly for pick- 
ing out designs, whereas they employed it to form 
wide fields on which they painted episodes of war, 
phases of aristocratic life, or subjects taken from the 
kingdom of flowers and foliage, the ensemble conveying 
a suggestion of rich gems clustered in broad areas of 
mellow gold. 

Perhaps it should be added here that though the 
decorative mode represented by the Yamato-Tosa 
school undoubtedly preceded that of the Kano school, 
the former began to be strongly conspicuous almost 
simultaneously with the development of the latter, 



and both are to be traced to the political and economic 
conditions of the time rather than to any independent 
art impulse. The whole period of the Tokugawa 
Regency's sway that is to say, the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries and the first half of the nineteenth 
was marked by profound peace and by the spread 
of luxurious habits hitherto confined to the great 
administrative families in the Imperial capital. The 
applied arts certainly attained their highest develop- 
ment during those centuries, and it is probably safe to 
say that in no other country nor at any other epoch, 
ancient or modern, were the services of pictorial art 
so widely and so successfully employed for decorative 
purposes. Further, from the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, a patriotic reaction can be traced 
against the slavish adherence of the classical schools 
to Chinese motives and methods, and a growing 
impulse to favour the work of the Kano and Tosa 
masters, who chose Japanese subjects and attached to 
the decorative quality in their pictures importance 
which brought them into close touch with the archi- 
tectural developments of the time. Doubtless this 
taste for exquisite harmonies of colour and glowing 
yet tender tints, grand illustrations of which may be 
seen in the interior decoration of temples, palaces, 
and mansions, owed something to a contemporaneous 
change in Chinese pictorial methods, a change from 
the noble simplicity and force of the Tang, Sung, and 
Yuan monochromes to the strong, full-bodied colours 
and microscopically elaborate style of the later Ming 
pictures. But the influence of Chinese artists was not 
a prime factor in the movement : it must be regarded 
rather as a reflection of the development of Japanese 
civilisation under the Tokugawa Regents, the ten- 



dency, if not the aim, of whose policy was to culti- 
vate the growth of an effeminate, splendour-loving 
mood among the aristocratic classes in lieu of the 
fiercely ambitious temper of mediaeval militarism. 

The sequence of development arrives now at the 
Ukiyo-ye Riu, or " Popular school," as it has been 
generally called by Western critics. The word ukiyo 
literally signifies "floating world ;" that is to say, this 
transient world, or every-day life. Hence, when a 
Japanese speaks of ukiyo-ye (ye signifies picture) he 
means simply genre paintings representations of 
persons and things that belong to the ephemeral 
scenes among which the artist moves. It is generally 
alleged that the so-called Popular school owed its 
origin to Iwasa Matahei, a painter who flourished in 
the second half of the sixteenth century. But the 
statement is somewhat misleading. A careful reader 
of what has been written above will see that, from 
the beginning of the thirteenth century, incidents of 
national life furnished to the Tosa masters their chief 
motives, and that, down to the Chinese renaissance in 
the fifteenth century, artists did not hesitate to seek 
subjects for delineation in the daily doings of the 
plebeian classes. Even the great founders of the 
Kano school, men whose works support comparison 
with the masterpieces of Chinese genius, had no fear 
of degrading their art or alienating aristocratic 
patronage when they depicted episodes from the 
kitchen, the stable, the farmyard, and the workshop. 
The truth is, that in the rise and development of the 
Popular school must be traced, not a new artistic 
departure, but simply a reflection of the changes 
which the civilisation of the era was undergoing. 
From the end of the sixteenth century, the actor, the 



courtesan, and the danseuse began to occupy an un- 
precedented place in every-day life, and became the 
centres of a voluptuous aestheticism which constantly 
presented new spectacular attractions for dilettanti, and 
made new appeals to the artistic as well as the sensu- 
ous instincts of the people. Matahei caught the first 
note of this innovation and fixed it pictorially with 
wonderful fidelity. The figure-subjects which con- 
stitute his specialty are instinct with refined sensuality 
and graceful abandon. He introduces his public to a 
life where dancing, music, and sybaritism in every 
form are beginning to take the place of politics and 
war, and where even the strong contours of the male 
figure show a tendency to merge into the soft curves 
of the female. He did not succeed, however, in 
transmitting his inspiration to any of his pupils or 
immediate successors, and it was not till the close of 
the seventeenth century, when Hishigawa Moronobu 
employed the art of wood-engraving to bring the 
ukiyo-ye within reach of the masses, that the Popular 
school began to assume a really important place, and 
to associate itself directly with the production of 
chromo-xylographs which are now the wonder and 
the delight of Western collectors. The story of the 
chromo-xylographic development and of the wealth 
of artistic treasures and technical triumphs that it has 
bequeathed to Japan, deserves an independent treatise, 
but it is not possible here to note more than the most 
salient facts. 

There is some uncertainty about the origin of 
wood-engraving in Japan. It is generally attributed 
to the ninth century. That would make it fully a 
hundred years subsequent to the introduction of block- 
printing, which came from China certainly not later 



than the middle of the eighth century. Nothing 
like proficiency was attained, however, until the time 
(1320) of a priest named Ryokin, and even his pro- 
ductions a few of which are extant derive interest 
from their period rather than their quality. 1 All the 
motives of the early woodcuts were religious. The 
blocks, being preserved in temples, served for printing 
pictures of deities which were distributed to pilgrim 
worshippers. Apparently the idea of using engrav- 
ings for illustrating printed matter did not suggest 
itself until the sixteenth century, but from that time 
woodcuts began to be freely inserted in the pages of 
historical romances, poetical anthologies, and other 
kinds of literature. These pictures were not remark- 
able. Draughtsmen of talent did not concern them- 
selves in their production, and it was not until the 
last quarter of the seventeenth century that xylogra- 
phy began to be applied to really artistic purposes. 
Hishigawa Moronobu and Okamura Masanobu were 
the two artists who supplied drawings for this new 
departure. Their work was vigorous, their composi- 
tion clever, and the engraver did his part so well that 
woodcuts of really high merit were produced. 
Almost immediately the potentialities of this branch 
of art were recognised, and a number of very beauti- 
ful albums appeared, chiefly from the brushes of Ooka 
Shunboku and Tachibana no Morikumi. They con- 
tained accurate copies of pictures by the great Chinese 
and Japanese masters of previous eras, as well as 
lessons for young painters and suggestions for decora- 
tive designs covering the whole range of applied art. 
Another extensive field for the employment of wood- 
cuts was the popular novel, which grew out of 

1 See Appendix, note 7. 



the monogatari, or historical romance. Nearly all the 
great artists of the Ukiyo-ye school assisted in the 
illustration of these books, though it is plain that they 
did not consider the task worthy of their best efforts. 
Much more elaborate work appears in the pages of 
the "illustrated accounts of celebrated places" (meisho- 
zuye), several of which were compiled in each im- 
portant city or province, for the purpose of depicting 
the scenic features of the locality and recording every- 
thing of topical interest. In fine, before the middle 
of the eighteenth century, Japanese xylography had 
attained a stage of development much higher than 
that reached at the same epoch in Europe. 

Very soon after the woodcut had begun to be used 
artistically for purposes of illustration, the practice of 
colouring it by hand came into vogue. At first, only 
two colours were used, orange and green, but yellow 
was subsequently added. It is evident that the painter 
desired to preserve the quality of the line engraving, 
and that he subordinated these broad, decorative 
effects of colour to the character of the black and 
white drawing. Among hand-coloured prints two 
kinds are sometimes mistaken for chromo-xylographs. 
They are the tan-ye, or orange picture, and the urushi- 
ye, or lacquered picture. The former derived its name 
from the fact that orange was the dominant colour, 
yellow the secondary ; and the latter was so called 
because of the addition of black lacquer, which helped 
to emphasise the delicate lines of the engraving, 
though occasionally it threw the other colours out of 
scale. In some cases the heaviness of the black lac- 
quer was relieved by a sprinkling of gold leaf. All 
this work, though it produced many beautiful exam- 
ples, needs only cursory mention. 



China could have taught chromo-xylographic pro- 
cesses to Japan while the latter was still content with 
hand-coloured engravings. No sufficient explanation 
has ever been offered of the fact that the Japanese 
were so slow to borrow from their neighbours in this 
field. Probably the truth is that the Chinese chromo- 
xylograph never appealed to Japanese taste, and never 
deserved to appeal to it. At all events, the Chinese 
understood colour-printing early in the seventeenth 
century, whereas the Japanese did not begin to practise 
it until nearly the middle of the eighteenth. 1 Their 
first essays were simple, the colours used being only 
two, red and green. The artists whose names were 
connected with this innovation are Torii Kiyonobu 
and Torii Kiyomasu, followed immediately by Oka- 
mura Masanobu, then an old man, and by Torii 
Kiyohiro, Torii Kiyomitsu, and Torii Kiyoshige. 
These prints received the name of beni-ye (vermilion 
pictures), in consequence of the red predominating in 
the scheme of colour. Many of them are admirable 
examples of skilful massing, disposing, and contrasting 
of colours. The artists evidently appreciated at its 
full value the technical superiority of colour printing 
over hand painting, namely, steady, even tints and 
absence of bewildering gradations of tone. The 
next step was from the " vermilion picture " to the 
print of three, or even four, colours. Some ten or 
twelve years had elapsed before the change took place, 
and during that time the artists had fully mastered 
the basic principles of colour composition for such 
purposes, and had learned the subtleties of balance 
and harmony. Torii Kyomitsu now produced beauti- 
ful prints, in which secondary colours were developed 

1 See Appendix, note 8. 


by superposition of primary, so that, while still using 
only three blocks, red, blue, yellow, purple, and green 
were obtained, which, with the black and white of 
the print, gave a scheme of seven colours. At this 
point (about 1760) Suzuki Harunobu appeared. By 
many connoisseurs he is counted the greatest master 
of nishiki-ye^ and the title rests on at least three 
solid foundations, namely, the delicacy of his line 
drawing, the delightful softness and music of his 
colours, and the atmosphere of fresh innocence with 
which he envelops his female figures. But Ha- 
runobu's conceptions of life and its graces recall the 
declining day of Heian civilisation, when " cloud 
gallants " painted their eyebrows, powdered their 
faces, and aped femininity. His work is never robust ; 
his men are scarcely distinguishable from women ; he 
deforms hands and feet to make them slender, and he 
knows only one type of female beauty which he pro- 
duces and reproduces unceasingly. Nevertheless to 
him undoubtedly belongs the credit of having inau- 
gurated a new and almost final departure in Japanese 
chromo-xylography. He abandoned the drawing of 
actors to which his contemporaries had hitherto con- 
fined themselves, a limitation which, in turn, con- 
fined their public to the lower middle classes, since 
the theatre and everything appertaining to it belonged 
essentially to vulgar life, and he set himself to 
design chromo-xylographic pictures of ladies and gen- 
tlemen amid the luxuries of their lives and the re- 
finements of their pastimes. Further, he included 
backgrounds in his scheme of colours ; multiplied the 
number of blocks so as to produce a variety of tints, 
strong, light, and soft; changed the shape of the 

1 See Appendix, note 9. 



paper, and added embossing, which greatly increased 
the representative capabilities of the art. From his 
time no marked advance was made. None, indeed, 
was possible. There was elaboration, but no important 
innovation. In the same category with Harunobu 
stand a large school of brilliant artists, great in a pic- 
torial as well as a decorative sense : Koriusai, Katsukawa 
Shunsho, Ippitsusai, Buncho, Katsukawa Shunyei, 
Utagawa Toyonobu, Utagawa Toyoharu, Kitao Shi- 
gemasa, Kubo Shunman, Torii Kiyonaga, Shuncho, 
Chobunsai, Yeishi, Kikugawa Utamaro, Utagawa To- 
yokuni, Hokusai, Hokkei, and Hiroshige. They 
cover a space from 1750 to 1850, just a century. As 
to which of them deserves to be placed on the throne 
of chromo-xylographic art, there are differences of 
opinion, but the honour certainly belongs to one of 
these four, Utamaro, Kiyonaga, Harunobu, and Koriu- 
sai. Some hold that everything culminated in Kiyonaga 
(17801795), that everything subsequent to him was 
a degeneration, and that everything good in contem- 
porary or later art was due to his influence. But the 
longer the chromo-xylographs of Japan are studied 
and the wider the student's range of acquaintance 
with them, the more does Kikugawa Utamaro force 
himself into the first place, alike for vigour, for ver- 
satility, for tenderness, for truth of line, and for beauty 
of colour harmonies. 

After Hiroshige, whose landscapes are among the 
finest pictures of the chromo-xylographic gallery, 
nothing good was produced. Indeed the era of deca- 
dence had set in long before Hiroshige designed his 
last prints (1855), though the end was postponed by 
several admirable artists. At one time (1842), and 
that not by any means the golden age of the art, the 



Yedo government, in a mood of economy, deemed it 
necessary to issue a sumptuary law prohibiting the 
sale of various kinds of chromo-xylographs, single- 
sheet pictures of actors, danseuses, and " dames of the 
green chamber" : pictures in series of three sheets or 
upwards, and pictures in the printing of which more 
than seven blocks were used. The prohibition held 
for twelve years only, but it certainly contributed to 
hasten the decadence which had already begun. As 
to that decadence, not much need be said. Its 
features force themselves upon the attention of the 
most superficial student. From the exquisite pic- 
tures of Utamaro, Kiyonaga, Harunobu, and their 
rivals, to the meritless, meretricious work of later 
artists there is an immense interval in quality though 
a brief interval of years. It would be a misconcep- 
tion to assume, however, that the ability to produce 
beautiful chromo-xylographs has been lost. It is 
there still, as was recently proved by a notable revival 
with which the names of Ogata Gekko, Watanabe 
Seitei, Kiyosai, and Kansai were connected. But the 
art has been vulgarised. The coloured print has be- 
come chiefly a child's toy. Artists can no longer 
afford to superintend the technical processes of its 
production, and cheap flaring, violent pigments im- 
ported from abroad have taken the place of the deli- 
cate, rich, and costly' colours of old Japan. 

One of the facts which the student of the Far East 
soon learns to expect is that Occidental precedents 
must be reversed to suit Japanese methods. In Eu- 
rope or America the engraver on wood must be able 
to express light and shade by line or dot, and to 
distinguish between textures by means of his " line." 
It is frequently necessary for him to reproduce the very 

5 1 


brush-marks of the artist in order to retain the char- 
acter of the original. Hence the credit of the pic- 
ture does not belong solely to the artist, but is 
shared by the engraver. In Japan the engraver has 
no honour; he is a mere artisan. This interesting 
point will be understood from the following descrip- 
tion of the Japanese chromo-xylographic process (fur- 
nished by Mr. S. Tuke, one of the most zealous 
students of the subject) : 

In the first place, the artist will compose his original de- 
sign somewhat in this fashion. He commences with a small 
rough sketch, perhaps on an odd scrap of paper. Next he 
proceeds to make an outline drawing with a brush dipped in 
very thin and pale Indian ink on a sheet of paper of the 
requisite size. Having corrected this and satisfied himself 
with his performance, he will carefully and accurately draw 
in the whole outline in black ink. If this outline is not en- 
tirely satisfactory, he will make a corrected tracing upon thin 
paper. In this case he may partially paint the original pic- 
ture with the colour printing. 

At this stage the wood-engraver's services are called in. 
Having procured a block of cherry wood of the desired 
dimensions and sawn with the grain (not across the grain, 
as is our habit in the West), the original drawing, or the 
tracing as the case may be, will be pasted face down upon 
the block. If the drawing cannot be distinctly seen through 
the back of the paper, its upper layers will be very carefully 
rubbed off with a wet hand or cloth, until the outline can 
be clearly seen through the thinnest possible film of paper. 
Having received the requisite instructions from the artist, 
the engraver will commence to carve out the space be- 
tween the black portions of the design, leaving the black 
outline alone in relief. This operation concluded, and the 
fragments of paper having been removed with a brush, the 
outline having been made, the first stage will be completed. 
In the case of an ordinary print in black and white the 
engraver's labours are now ended, but in the case of a 



colour print he still has duties to perform, as will be pres- 
ently seen. 

The printer's services are now required, and a certain 
number of copies will be printed, on thin paper, from the 
outline block one copy at least for each colour which is to 
appear in the finished picture. The artist's help will now 
again be needed, and if he has not already coloured portions 
of the original drawing, he will colour, entirely or in part, 
one of these printed copies as a model for the finished pic- 
ture. Then he will paint, possibly by tracing on another of 
these outline copies, all portions of the picture that are of the 
same colour ; on another copy, in the same way, the parts of 
the picture that are of another colour, and so on, until he has 
thus painted as many single-colour copies as there are colours 
in the finished picture. Each of these coloured copies is 
now pasted on a separate block of cherry wood. The en- 
graver then resumes work. He carves away the whole sur- 
face of each block, including the outline, leaving only in 
relief the coloured part of the design. In each case he also 
carves at the corner and edge of the block a rectangular nick 
and a guiding line, which correspond exactly to a similar 
nick and guiding line in the outline block. A separate 
block having thus been produced for each colour, the remains 
of the paper copies will be removed, and unless any altera- 
tions are required, the engraver's work is concluded. Al- 
though it is difficult to overrate the amount of skill 
often exhibited by the Japanese wood-engraver, it is easy to 
see from this description how thoroughly subordinate he is 
to the artist. 

Printing is the next process. The various blocks now 
pass into the hands of an operator of little less importance 
than the engraver in point of skill, and requiring much 
greater artistic talent. In a work of any importance the 
artist, having selected his paper and directed the mixing of 
the various colours, will probably superintend the printing 
of the first proofs. But there is no printing-press. The 
outline block is placed face upwards upon a stool or upon 
the floor, and the portions in relief are carefully painted 
with an ink brush. A sheet of paper is then placed upon 



the block, one of its corners in the rectangular nick, its edge 
against the guiding line, and retained in position by one of 
the printer's hands. He will next proceed to pass a flat 
padded disc over the back of the paper with his other hand, 
exercising the requisite amount of pressure with his arm. 
The whole of this process will be repeated until he has 
printed off the number of outline proofs required for the 
first issue. He then replaces the outline block with one of 
the colour blocks, and applies the colour to the portions of 
the surface that are in relief. Should any shading be 
required, he will carefully wipe the colour in gradation par- 
tially off the requisite portions with either his hand or a 
damp rag. This shading, of course, requires very nice ma- 
nipulation, but it is a process not unknown to English etchers. 
One of the outline proofs is now placed on the colour block, 
its corner in the nick, and its edge against the guiding line, 
so that the coloured portions take their right position in the 
picture. The padded disc is now passed over the proof, 
after which it is removed and fresh colour having been 
applied, another proof takes the place of the former. This 
process will be continued until the proofs of the first issue have 
all been printed in one colour. Then the process is simi- 
larly repeated with each colour block in turn, and the first 
issue of our nishiki-ye is now finished and ready for the 
market. It will probably be a small issue, to the end that 
the artist, should he not be contented with the result, may 
be able to make alterations before the outline block has lost 
its freshness. Such alterations may be effected in several 
ways, either by an entire redistribution of colour on the old 
colour blocks, by the substitution of new colour blocks for 
old, or by an increase in their number. 

It is not unusual to employ a block carved with a design 
of some sort which is not coloured, but serves to stamp a 
pattern in relief. In printing from such blocks extra 
pressure is resorted to. Some of the effects thus obtained 
are very attractive. 

To obtain good prints it is necessary, in the first place, 
that the nick and guiding lines should be exactly in their 
right place on each block, and, in the second, that the 



printer should exercise very great care in placing each sheet 
accurately in position on each successive block. Otherwise 
the colours will overlap the outlines of one another. 

Of course, in the greater number of cases the artist will 
leave many of the duties here assigned to him to his subor- 
dinates. In recent times, this must have to a great extent 
been the case, and both engraving and printing, to say 
nothing of the arrangement of the colour blocks, must have 
been left to the supervision of a pupil, or even in the hands 
of the engraver, or, more likely still, in those of the publish- 
ing printer. 

What arc the special charms which have won for 
the paintings, woodcuts, and chromo-xylographs of 
the uklyo-ye masters such applause in Europe and 
America ? How is it that a branch of pictorial art 
which Japanese connoisseurs have always regarded 
with a certain measure of contempt, evokes the 
unstinted admiration of Occidental critics ? Some 
answer the question by reference to the motives of the 
pictures. Here, they say, we have accurate repre- 
sentations of the people's occupations and pastimes, 
of domestic life with all its graces and conventions, 
of the fete and the festival, of love, of battle, of the 
chase, of elf-land, of the theatre, of the dameuse, of 
the demi-monde, of highway scenes, and of street pan- 
oramas. Some, again, reply by pointing to the 
immense mine of decorative wealth that Western 
designers may find in the detail of the nishlki-ye. 
Such comments are doubtless true, but they appear 
very unsatisfying. It is not to obtain information 
about Japanese fashions and habits, nor yet to find a 
novel pattern for a book cover or a wall-paper, that 
the collectors of New York, of Boston, of Paris, and 
of London eagerly seek and jealously preserve these 
specimens of Japanese art. Other reasons present 



themselves. Chiefly to harmony of colour does the 
ukiyo-ye owe its charm. There is no ground for sup- 
posing, indeed it may be confidently denied, that the 
Japanese ever approached the problem of colour from 
a scientific point of view ; that they knew anything 
about the law of complements and contrasts ; that 
they possessed a definite idea about the relief of warm 
colours by cool, or the blending of similar notes and 
tones by gradation. But their practice shows that 
they fully appreciated the prime qualities of colour 
symphony, richness, accordance, and mellowness. 
There is never a shrill or strident note in these musi- 
cal pictures. The primitive colours are there suffi- 
ciently to produce strength and volume, but always 
delicacy of shade and softness of hue are the pervading 
characteristics, and the broken tones blend gently with- 
out jar or conflict. If the chromo-xylograph be con- 
sidered in the sequel of the magnificent monochromes 
of Shiubun, Sesshiu, Jasoku, the Kanos, and other 
giants of the classical schools, where the painter's 
appreciation of " value " amounts almost to an un- 
erring instinct, the student is led to conclude that 
Japanese artists did not attempt to elaborate scientific 
theories, but went direct to nature for their teaching, 
thus discovering and applying the fundamental law 
that every shade of colour has its proper place in a 
scene, and must hold a fixed relation to its associates 
in the general scale. The ukiyo-ye seems, in short, 
to have arrived in the regular order of evolution, for 
the artist passed from a knowledge of low keys and 
simple colour compositions, developed in the Chinese 
schools, to a profound sense of the wider scope and 
fuller harmony of high diversified colours, and thus 
succeeded in combining the flame and glow of sun- 



shine brilliancy with the tenderness and refinement 
of twilight tints. 

But while admitting his greatness as a colourist, 
many critics have condemned his drawing. They 
complain that the linear character of the objects he 
depicts is not accurate, that anatomical laws are often 
violated in his figures, that he appears to be without 
any exact knowledge of form. It would scarcely be 
correct to endorse that criticism unreservedly. A 
more discerning verdict is that the Japanese artist, to 
whichever of the schools he belonged, sacrificed truth 
of detail to truth of mass. His first aim was to obtain 
the appearance of life ; accuracy of proportion seemed 
a secondary consideration. Each painter had his type 
which he idealised more or less, his idealism not being 
confined to the face but extending to the physique 
and even to the anatomy of his figures. If the details 
of the drawing violate accepted canons, complaint is 
silenced by the sense of life that pervades the whole ; 
by the perfect naturalness of every attitude, every 
movement, every gesture ; by the eloquence with 
which the character of the objects speaks from the 
picture. In short, accuracy is sacrificed to the indi- 
viduality that everything in nature possesses, the 
individuality which, in actual experience, impresses 
itself upon the attention of the observer and excludes 
all thought of linear exactness or anatomical truth. 
Kiyosai, the greatest modern representative of the 
Popular school, used to say exactly what Veron has 
said, namely, that nothing in nature pauses to be por- 
trayed ; that there is motion everywhere, if not 
actual motion in the object itself, then motion of the 
light falling on it or of the atmosphere surrounding 
it ; that without elasticity of line the sense of life 



cannot be obtained, and that elasticity of line is 
incompatible with what the classicists call strict 
accuracy. Kiyosai, as his sketch books showed, 
knew all about the structure of the human hand and 
foot, but the hands and feet that he drew in his 
pictures would have been wholly condemned by a 
Bouguereau or an Ingres. 

There has already been occasion to note, as a gen- 
eral criticism, that in Japanese pictures not except- 
ing those that delight by their fleeting impression of 
life and movement, by the appearance of reality and 
character they convey a discord is often created by 
the intrusion of accentuated outlines among natural 
surroundings. This defect is least observable in the 
paintings and chromo-xylographs of the Popular 
school, because their motives are usually human 
figures and drapery, subjects which not only permit 
but require some recognition of outline ; and if, occa- 
sionally, the student is disposed to quarrel even with 
Kiyonaga, Harunobu, Utamaro, Toyokuni, or Yeishi 
for their emphasis of outlines, he forgives them 
readily for the sake of the charm of manner, the 
exquisite grace of gesture, and the superb rhythm of 
movement that their figure subjects display. 

Passing, further, to the question of composition, 
it may be said that in this feature the ukiyo-ye 
paintings stand on a very high level. More unstinted 
praise has indeed been bestowed on them, but when 
" composition " is here spoken of, reference is made 
to the perfect arrangement to which all the factors of 
pictorial art must contribute their share, not merely 
flow and force of line, harmony of colour and due 
relation of tones, but also linear perspective and 
chiaroscuro. Some of the artists of the Popular 


school understood linear perspective sufficiently not 
to offend by obvious disregard of its rules, but they 
neglected chiaroscuro, and that defect disqualified 
their composition to be called a faultless achievement, 
which epithet would otherwise be often applicable to 
their admirable grouping of pictorial elements. 

This brief analysis may be closed by referring to 
one fault conspicuous in all these artists' work : they 
did not understand the light-suggestions without 
which textures and surfaces cannot be rendered. 
They relied upon line and colour to produce effects 
which are due in nature to the uneven distribution, 
absorption, or reflection of light. Hence, while they 
show with admirable accuracy the folds of drapery 
and the patterns winding and flowing through all its 
plies, they fail to tell whether the surface repre- 
sented is that of velvet or of silk or of cotton. It 
has been well said that in judging pictures one 
must consider what the painter succeeds in doing, 
and not be forever critical about what he fails to do. 
The ukiyo-ye artists achieved so much that much 
may be forgiven to them, but since genre pictures 
are certainly the proper field for the display of 
texture painting, the absence of this quality in the 
ukiyo-ye work cannot be left unnoticed. 

The naturalistic tendency of which the pictures 
of the Popular school are the most characteristic 
outcome, found very refined and beautiful expression 
in the works of Maruyama Okio (born 1733, died 
1795), a Kyoto artist, who must be regarded as one 
of the greatest painters Japan ever produced. Okio 
is generally spoken of as the founder of the Shi-jo 
school (Shi-jo is the name of a part of Kyoto), and 
his contemporary Kishi Doshi (known artistically as 



" Ganku ") is placed at the head of a separate school, 
the Ganku Rtu. But though the individuality of 
each master impressed itself on his style sufficiently, 
perhaps, to justify this independent classification, both 
are nothing more than great representatives of the 
naturalistic sentiment of the era, and both are differ- 
entiated from their Ukiyo-ye contemporaries chiefly 
by the fact that they never devoted their talents to 
the purposes of the woodcut or the chromo-xylo- 
graph. In force, grace, tenderness, and accuracy of 
line Okio has no superior among Japanese artists. 
He went direct to nature for instruction, but into all 
his exquisite pictures of birds, flowers, grasses, fish, 
insects, quadrupeds, and figures, he introduced a sub- 
jective element as eloquent as it is indescribable. It 
has been said that his drawing of the human figure 
showed all the anatomical errors of his predecessors, 
but it must also be said that the question of anatomy 
never presents itself for a moment in connection with 
his pictures, and that one has no more inclination 
to criticise his manner of articulating bones and 
moulding muscles than one has to remember the sur- 
gical solecisms of Michael Angelo or Delacroix. 
With the exceptions of Mori Sosen and Kano Tanyu, 
no artist has ever been so assiduously copied in Japan 
as Okio. Forgeries of his works exist in hundreds, 
but the originals remain always unapproachable. 

An eminent critic calls Ganku " stupendous," and 
describes him as " the only artist of recent times 
worthy to be ranked on a level with the great masters 
of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries." Probably not 
many will be found to confirm that verdict from their 
own observation. Ganku died just sixty-three years 
ago (1838). Numbers of his works remain. The 



best of them seem to be those that show most clearly 
the impress of the naturalistic tendency to which Okio 
so powerfully contributed ; but if his countrymen be 
asked to indicate his title to fame, they invariably 
refer to his delineations of the tiger. Now it may 
safely be asserted that Ganku never saw a real, live 
tiger ; never had an opportunity for studying its anat- 
omy and proportions. He formed his own idea of 
" a snarling, crouching, treacherous mass of energy," 
and he painted that idea with force and effect, but 
yet with so little resemblance to nature's original 
that the distortion of the modelling impairs all appre- 
ciation of the essence of the thing. He had, how- 
ever, seen a tiger's skin, and a tiger's skin is just the 
kind of texture that lends itself readily to linear repre- 
sentation, and consequently comes within full range 
of the Japanese artist's brush. Ganku's tiger skins 
are marvels of brush work. Mori Sosen (born 1747, 
died 1821), one of the greatest of the Shi-jo masters, 
is as celebrated for his delineations of the monkey as 
Ganku is for his paintings of the tiger. But Sosen 
studied the monkey in nature, and acquired an ex- 
traordinarily intimate knowledge of its habits and 
attitudes. He may be called the Landseer of Japan ; 
for though his fame rests chiefly on his pictures 
of the monkey, he has left paintings of deer, of 
badgers, of rats, of fishes, and of hares that would 
have won for him a great reputation even without 
his remarkable studies of simian life. 

The reader will understand that no attempt is 
here made to separate the Shijo and the Ganku 
schools ; their differentiation is scarcely a practical 
problem. He will understand, also, that if special 
reference is not made in this section to such painters 



as Gekkei, Keibun, Hoy en, Kikuchi Yosai, Korin 
and Bunrin, it is for the same reason that has com- 
pelled the omission from other sections of any de- 
tailed account of the works and styles of scores of 
other famous masters, from the early Tosa and Kano 
celebrities to Tani Buncho and Hokusai. 

What is the present condition of pictorial art in 
Japan, and what are its prospects ? The former 
question has been answered more than once in a 
pessimistic strain. Japan is said to have outlived the 
manners and customs from which her old art derived 
vitality, and to have entered upon a phase of existence 
so permeated with Occidental influences that her 
artists, like her tailors and her barbers, cannot resist 
the change. Surely that is a superficial view. It 
involves the assumption that her art has no elements 
permanently worthy of preservation, no intrinsic 
merits fit to survive independently of environment. 
The fact is that if the present era is without giants 
of the brush, like Okio or Sosen, it is not with- 
out masters of great talent and high technical skill. 
Twenty years ago, Bunrin died in Kyoto : an artist of 
whom it has been well said that he " fixed upon 
paper and silk with exquisite refinement and sugges- 
tiveness the most striking of the atmospheric effects 
that cast a fairyland glamour over the scenery of 
Japan." At a yet more recent date died Shbfu 
Kiyosai, a genre painter of immense versatility, force, 
and humour, who has left a gallery of pictures show- 
ing a wide range of conception and study. Still 
more recently these strong representatives of the 
Shi-jo and the Popular schools, respectively, were 
followed to the grave by Ganki, generally known as 
Chikudo Ganki, who ranks not much below Ganku, 



the founder of his school. These three artists are 
sufficient in themselves to redeem the Meiji era from 
any charge of hopeless decadence. Nor is the 
present time without 'painters that will certainly be 
remembered by posterity. Kawabata Gyokusho, 
Hashimoto Gaho, Ogata Gekko, Imao Keinen, Taki 
Katei, Kumagaye Naohiko, Nomura Bunkyo, Wata- 
nabe Seitei, and Araki Kwampo, not to speak of 
others whose talent seems full of promise, make a 
group of artists inheriting many of the highest qual- 
ities of the various schools they represent. 

But while the old art flourishes, quietly and 
steadily enriching the nation with its products, there 
flourishes also a most pernicious outgrowth of foreign 
influence, a great crop of wretched pictures ; weak, 
hurried examples of brush tricks which constitute the 
sole equipment of the purely conventional copyist. 
It is not implied that such efforts of mere mechanical 
dexterity have been suggested by contact with the 
art of the West. The wave of Western ideas, pene- 
trating, as it has done, to the very heart of the nation, 
could not fail to be felt in the region of the national 
art. It has been felt, as will be presently explained. 
But the comment to be made here a comment that 
extends to the whole range of modern Japanese art 
whether pictorial or applied is that the mercantile 
demand resulting from foreign intercourse has created 
an essentially mercantile supply. Multitudes of people 
whose purses can never bring objects of Western art 
within their reach, and who lack either innate taste 
or educated liking for such things, are tempted by 
cheapness and novelty to purchase Japanese pictures, 
and naturally the shrewd trader and the needy 
draughtsman take care that this undiscriminating 



public shall be satisfied. Dozens of studios are 
devoted to the manufacture of painted parodies which 
no Japanese connoisseur would regard as pictures, 
and not a bric-a-brac store is without rolls and albums 
of weak daubs poured out from these workshops. On 
the evidence of such paintings it is that the great 
majority of foreign critics base their estimate of 
modern Japan's pictorial ability, ignorant that they 
have before them merely a staple of foreign trade, not 
an effort of Japanese art. 

Apart from this commercial taint, which, after all, 
is a mere accident, the influx of Western ideas shows 
itself in two directions : it has called into existence a 
school based solely and faithfully on the art of the 
Occident, and it has given new vitality to a school 
which, while using the old materials and following 
the old lines, recognises the value of Western princi- 
ples as to perspective and chiaroscuro, and endeavours 
to engraft them upon the traditional art of the 

Concerning the purely Western school, a few 
words will suffice. Its students have virtually neither 
patrons, nor opportunities, nor instructors. There is 
no place in a Japanese house for their paintings. 
There are no studios which they can attend, no gal- 
leries which they can visit. Their means, with very 
rare exceptions, are altogether too scanty to permit 
travel in Europe or America, and at home they are 
without teachers to guide their hand or examples to 
educate their eye. Finally, public sentiment is 
opposed to their radicalism. Yet for thirty years 
they have struggled with such extraordinary courage 
and perseverance against these terribly adverse cir- 
cumstances that it seems impossible to doubt their 



ultimate success, mediocre as have been the results 
hitherto obtained. 

The modern hybrid school has been spoken of 
above as a revival rather than a new creation. Such 
a form of speech will perhaps be challenged, for more 
than one writer of high authority has denied that 
any marked traces of Western art are visible in Japan- 
ese pictures painted before the opening of the country 
forty years ago. It is admitted that in the field of 
copperplate engraving some aid was received from 
the Dutch at the close of the eighteenth century, and 
that a few of the later artists of the Popular school 
obeyed the laws of linear perspective ; but even such 
an astute critic and accurate historian as the late Dr. 
Anderson speaks with surprise of the " want of recep- 
tiveness " of Japanese artists, and surmises that it was 
chiefly due to the low grade of the European pictorial 
works coming under their observation during the era 
of restricted foreign intercourse. There is another 
explanation, an explanation vividly illustrated in the 
story of an artist who had hitherto received singularly 
inadequate notice from foreign essayists. On the 
23rd of November in the year 1840 died by his 
own hand, in Yedo, Watanabe Kwazan. He was a 
member of the patrician [shizoku] order. During the 
last two decades of his life Japan had begun to turn 
slowly but surely towards Occidental civilisation. 
It is customary to speak of the restoration in 1867 
as the period when this change of sentiment first 
made itself distinctly manifest. But the calculation 
is nearly a century late. Officialdom, indeed, still 
adhered firmly to the traditional policy of seclusion 
handed down from the days when the intemper- 
ance of Christian propagandists and the jealousies of 

VOL. vii. 5 6 


warring creeds lent to foreign intercourse a startling 
and deterrent aspect. But in spite of officialdom, 
with its iron rule and pitiless penalties, intrepid 
reformers among the people stealthily studied Occi- 
dental systems and with wonderful patience strug- 
gled to emerge from the intellectual isolation to 
which their country had been condemned for more 
than two centuries. Watanabe was among these 
pioneers. He fell under suspicion, and his pictures 
helped to bear witness against him, eloquent witness, 
for the talent they displayed could scarcely fail to 
popularise the heresy they represented. He received 
the fatal order which every samurai was bound to 
obey unflinchingly, the order to commit suicide. 
But his work survived. It would have been more 
consistent with the heroic methods of those days had 
every picture painted by him been burned, or buried 
with his decapitated corpse. That extremity was not 
resorted to, however, and on the fiftieth anniversary 
of his death " new Japan " did homage to his mem- 
ory by bringing together a large collection of his 
works at the Reigan temple in Tokyo, and exhibiting 
them for two days while the priests chaunted litanies 
and recited masses for the repose of the ill-fated 
painter's soul. At the edge of the dais supporting 
the high altar lay an object of sad interest. It was 
the sword with which Watanabe had committed 
seppuku, and it rested on the same tray of white pine 
from which the artist had taken it at the supreme 
moment. Beside it was placed the document written 
by him on the eve of the final act, a simply worded 
and brief confession that he had erred in the sight of 
the law, and that his transgression involved the 
further crime of taking the life which he owed to his 



parents and ought to have preserved for their sakes. 
A strangely sounding voice from the past must this 
have seemed to many of those who had come to burn 
incense at the painter's tomb, men in whose mem- 
ory the events of his last days were still fresh, 
though the epoch itself might have been centuries 
removed, so great a change had come over the politi- 
cal complexion of the times. The collection of 
Watanabe's works comprised many hundred pictures 
and studies. Of some it would be difficult to speak 
too highly. The combined vigour and delicacy of 
their execution, the excellence of their composition, 
and the life breathing from their lines showed that 
the anti-foreign prejudices of his era inflicted few 
heavier losses on the country than the untimely death 
of such a master. It is not of the purely Japanese 
pictures, however, that special mention should be 
made in this context, but rather those showing traces 
of Western influence. There are many such. The 
subjects were not distinctly foreign, if some studies of 
animal life be excepted ; but evidences that the artist 
had imbibed the spirit of Occidental linear perspec- 
tive and chiaroscuro were apparent in several pictures, 
otherwise purely Japanese. This was notably true of 
a portrait, half-life size, of a well-known Buddhist 
priest. It might have been painted by a Western 
artist, and would have done credit to any European 
brush of Watanabe's era. Is it not easy to understand 
the reason of the " want of receptivity " to which Dr. 
Anderson alludes ? The penalty of being receptive 
was out of proportion to the apparent reward. 
Undoubtedly Hokusai felt the influence obeyed by 
Kwazan with such fateful results. Many of the 
works of the great ukiyo-ye master bear traces of 


foreign methods. But he did not carry this tendency 
to the length of attracting political censorship. He 
showed it rather in the undefined though still palpa- 
ble manner of the modern master Watanabe Seitei, 
who enjoys in Europe and America the highest, though 
not, perhaps, the most highly deserved, reputation of 
any living Japanese artist. The hybrid school of the 
present day, however, goes far beyond the dubious 
adaptations of Hokusai or Seitei. It has proposed to 
itself the same problem that Watanabe Kwazan par- 
tially solved sixty years ago, the problem of pre- 
serving the characteristics of Japanese painting while 
adopting all the technical teachings of the West. 
Hashimoto Gaho stands at the head of this school. 
He has talent sufficient to secure partial success for 
any effort. But if there be any justice in the esti- 
mate here set down of the distinctive characteristics 
of Japanese pictorial art, the conclusion must be that 
to marry it to the art of the West would be to deprive 
it of its individuality, and therefore of much of its 


Chapter II 


First Period From Early Times to the End of the Eighth Century 


are proofs that the ancient Japanese 
attached much importance to industrial occu- 
pations. It is not possible, indeed, to speak 
with confidence as to the quality of their 
manufactures except in so far as the contents of burial 
mounds convey information. But history seems to 
indicate that the early settlers, the progenitors of the 
Japanese proper, were an industrial people rather than 
an agricultural ; for whereas the records are almost 
silent on the subject of farming, they contain many 
references to handicrafts. It would appear that the 
whole of the people, apart from the administrative 
and military classes, were engaged solely in industrial 
pursuits, and that there existed a species of tribal 
division founded on differences of occupation. Thus 
the annals speaks of yuge-be (bow-makers) ; yahagl-be 
(arrow-makers) ; tatenui-be (shield-stitchers) ; kura- 
tsukuri-be (saddlers) ; ori-be y hatorl-be and kinu-be 
(weavers and tailors) ; ko-taukmi (carpenters) ; kanu-be 
(blacksmiths) ; nuri-be (lacquerers) ; ishi-tsukuri (stone- 
cutters) ; and hashi-be (bridge builders). The number 
and variety of these organisations are alone sufficient 
to imply a tolerably advanced state of industrial activ- 
ity, although the skill possessed by the artisans can- 


not have been of a uniformly high order. Occupa- 
tions were hereditary, and it thus resulted that families 
generally bore the names of the industries they prose- 
cuted. Over each organisation a chief presided, his 
title being Tomo-no-Miyatsuko (corporation master) 
or Tomo-no-O (corporation head). But these artisans 
evidently did not receive much public consideration. 
They generally formed part of a noble's household, 
and occupied there a position not greatly better than 
that of vassals in whom their patrons enjoyed a right 
of property. Not until the fifth century of the 
Christian era were they released from this state of 
bondage and granted the status of ordinary subjects. 

The testimony of written records and that of relics 
exhumed from sepulchres indicate that the Japanese 
passed through two periods, a bronze age and an iron 
age. 1 As to the time when the former commenced, 
it seems certain that the art of casting bronze, remote 
as was its origin on the Asiatic continent, did not lie 
within the knowledge of the aboriginal inhabitants 
of Japan, but was brought thither by immigrants from 
the mainland ; that is to say, by the progenitors of 
the Japanese proper. It follows that the oldest 
bronze castings in Japan do not date from a period 
more remote than the sixth century, or, perhaps, the 
seventh before the Christian era, and that no special 
title to antiquity can be set up on their behalf as 
compared with corresponding works in various other 

On the other hand, if the Japanese cannot claim 
any distinguished antiquity for their knowledge of 
the art of bronze casting, they can certainly claim to 
have escaped any period of art degradation such as that 

1 Sec Appendix, note 10. 



through which Europe passed after the destruction 
of the Roman Empire. While Occidental nations 
now in the van of civilisation were still awaiting the 
impulse from Byzantium which in the middle of the 
tenth century inspired their earliest achievements in 
artistic metal work, the Japanese were busily produc- 
ing many masterpieces of sculpture and metallurgy. 
The continuity of her artistic capacity thus becomes 
a notable feature of Japan's story. Her record is 
practically unbroken, and the progress of her art 
motives and methods can be studied in uninterrupted 
series during some fifteen centuries. 

Throughout a period of four or five hundred years 
after the advent of the immigrants mentioned above, 
bronze apparently continued to be the sole metal used 
in the country, and the only purposes it served were 
the manufacture of sword-blades and arrow-tips. 
Many bronze swords have been found in the barrows 
which formed the resting-places of the dead in those 
early ages. They are straight, two-edged weapons, 
some having a hilt of more or less elaborate work- 
manship cast in one piece with the blade ; others 
having hafts, or tangs, presumably for passing into 
wooden hilts. These castings were made in stone 
moulds, a few of which still survive in Japan, though 
their antiquity is, of course, a matter of conjecture. 1 
Arrow-heads are found associated with the swords, 
but no ornamental castings of any kind have been 
discovered, and it may reasonably be conjectured that 
none such existed. 

From about the second century before the Chris- 
tian era, iron began to be applied to purposes hitherto 
served by bronze, and, at the same time, evidences 

1 See Appendix, note 1 1 . 



are afforded of a higher type of civilisation ; for not 
only are the simple burial barrows of the first settlers 
replaced by megalithic dolmens and highly special- 
ised forms of chambered tumuli, but also a decora- 
tive tendency is displayed in the application of thin 
sheets of copper, coated with gold, to the handles of 
swords and to the bits and trappings of horses. From 
the time when the Japanese learned the uses of iron, 
they abandoned bronze as a material for sword blades, 
though they continued to employ it for casting arrow- 
heads. Spears with iron heads were now added to 
their weapons of war, and they began to cast bronze 
mirrors (kagamt) and small bells (suzu). Mirrors had 
their origin abroad ; they came either from China 
or Korea. The form of the imported specimens was 
a circular disc, with or without a handle, the face 
polished and quicksilvered, the back covered with 
decorative designs in relief, the character of which 
as well as the quality of the casting indicated a de- 
gree of artistic and technical skill beyond immediate 
attainment by the Japanese. But within a brief 
period these foreign models were rivalled and even 
surpassed by purely Japanese castings. 

As for the bells of that early epoch, they are 
peculiar objects, without any exact counterpart in 
foreign countries, so far as is known. Hollow 
spheroids, with a slight cut in the lower part, they 
contained a piece of metal, or of some other hard 
substance, to serve as a tongue ; and they were cast 
in groups of three or five round the rim of a metal 
plate, having a tang which served to attach it, as an 
ornamental appendage, to horse trappings, ceremonial 
robes, or hilts of swords, or to fasten it to a wooden 
staff which was carried in the hand and shaken so as 



to produce cymbal-like notes. These little bells were 
often plated with gold, and occasionally they were 
cast with a decorative design in relief. Their use as 
pendants for ornamental purposes corresponds with a 
similar employment of the well-known maga-tama 
(bent jewels), or crescent-shaped pieces of steatite, 
jasper, quartz, or other stones, which were attached 
to garments, trappings, musical instruments, and sword- 
hilts by the ancient Japanese, and of which numerous 
specimens may be seen in any collection of Far 
Eastern antiquities. 

Among the early iron castings of Japan there are 
objects whose use remains to this day uncertain. At 
first sight they suggest the idea of bells, their shape 
being that of a truncated pyramid, with two ribbon- 
like flanges running up the sides and arched over 
the top so as to afford a means of suspension. The 
surface is usually divided by vertical and horizontal 
bands in relief, and groups of circular discs protrude 
from the flanges at regular intervals. There is 
great variety of dimensions, some being as small as 
an inch in height, others as large as five and one-half 
feet ; in every case the thinness of the metal is re- 
markable, one-sixteenth of an inch, for example, 
where the height of the object is fifty- four inches 
and the diameter at the base twenty inches, and 
the workmanship indicates considerable skill. These 
curious objects are found buried in the earth in the 
provinces of Yamato, Kawachi, and Totomi, localities 
which help to connect them with the early Japanese 
immigrants. There are no indications that they 
served as bells, and the great thinness of the metal 
is in itself sufficient to preclude that theory. Since, 
further, they belong to a period prior to the intro- 



duction of Buddhism, they cannot be supposed to 
have been part of temple paraphernalia. Perhaps the 
most tenable supposition is that they served for the ex- 
ternal decoration of the first buildings made in Japan 
after Chinese models, having been suspended from 
the corners of the eaves in the manner of the bell- 
shaped pendants of pagodas. Already in the seventh 
century of the Christian era they had become antiqui- 
ties, and it seems natural to infer that the fashion, 
architectural or otherwise, with which their employ- 
ment was connected, went out of vogue in the first or 
second century. Occasionally there are cast upon the 
surfaces of these bells decorative designs indicating a 
very crude stage of pictorial art ; for example, figures 
even more rudimentary in outline than the conventional 
sketches of ancient Egypt. 

There is evidence that by the time of the Emperor 
Nitoku (313-399) considerable skill had been developed 
in the use of bronze, iron, and gold for decorative pur- 
pose. Gold plating was applied with dexterity to 
bronze and iron alike ; decoration not without deli- 
cacy and grace appears upon the hilts of swords, and 
cleverly conceived motives, modelled and chiselled 
with ability, are seen upon the pommels, motives 
indicating that the artists of that early epoch had 
passed the stage of merely copying natural objects 
and had learned to conventionalise them. Helmets 
formed of numerous thin iron plates riveted together 
and overlaid with gold, had bands of incised orna- 
mentation and peaks chiselled 2? jour, and were alto- 
gether objects of fine workmanship, though the 
incised ornamentation conventionalised fishes, birds, 
and animals, enclosed by borders of undulating lines 
showed very imperfect command of the graving- 



tool, and gave no earnest of the remarkable ability 
that Japanese artists were destined ultimately to dis- 
play in this line. Reference must also be made to 
delicate cable-pattern gold chains with leaf-shaped 
pendants and pearl ornaments, objects of which the use 
has not been clearly divined, though the generally re- 
ceived idea is that they were suspended from the helmet. 
It is thus seen that, on the whole, the Japanese metal- 
worker of the fourth century was a handicraftsman 
of no mean skill, though the applications of his art 
had a narrow range. 

The advent of Buddhism in the sixth century 
introduced a new standard of art conception, though 
commensurate attainment did not immediately fol- 
low. After the year 552 religious statues began 
to arrive from Korea in some numbers, and these, 
as well as the bronze images modelled in Japan dur- 
ing the next sixty or seventy years, show sculpture 
which has not yet fully emerged from its primitive 
stage. Not only are traces of the chisel shallow and 
uncertain, but the facial expression of the deities and 
their poses are mechanical and lifeless. It is easy to 
see that the tools available were rudimentary, the 
sculptor apparently being provided with nothing 
better than a straight chisel. The relationship of 
these statues to the rude stone-images of early and 
mediaeval Japan is unmistakable. There is in both 
alike the same geometrically formal disposition of 
the drapery, offering no suggestion of the great skill 
subsequently acquired by Japanese sculptors in the 
representation of still life, and the method of con- 
struction is that practised by the metal-workers of all 
countries in the initial stage of their art, namely, cast- 
ing or beating by the repousse process into the required 



shape two thin plates of metal, one for 'the back, the 
other for the front, of the projected figure, and sub- 
sequently riveting them together at the edges. Many 
examples of a similar style of workmanship are seen 
in Korea, and confirmation is thus incidentally fur- 
nished of the tradition which assigns to Korean 
artists the credit of having been Japan's original 
instructors in the sculpture of religious images. Yet 
no name of any of these Korean teachers has been 
preserved. The first sculptor mentioned in Japanese 
annals is Shiba Tachito, a Chinese immigre, who is 
said to have come to Japan in the year 560 A. D., and 
to have received from the Emperor the title of kurat- 
sukuri no obito, or head architect. His son, Shiba 
Tasu-na, succeeded to the office, and it is recorded 
that many sacred effigies were chiselled in wood either 
by these artists thenselves or under their instruction. 
They also superintended the building of Buddhist 
temples which, though solid and imposing edifices, 
did not, at that remote era, receive the wealth of 
interior decoration in glyptic work, lacquering and 
painting, for which Buddhist places of worship subse- 
quently became remarkable. No authenticated speci- 
mens of sculpture by either Shiba Tachi-to or Shiba 
Tasu-na are now in existence, but from the time of 
Shiba Tori, grandson of Shiba Tachi-to, credible exam- 
ples survive. This sculptor, generally known as Tori 
Busshi, attained extraordinary fame. His skill, which 
seems to have completely overshadowed that of his con- 
temporaries or predecessors, receives from posterity a 
significant tribute, namely, that every fine carving 
possessing any claim to great antiquity is habitually 
ascribed to him by ignorant people, and some have 
not even hesitated to regard him as the painter of 



a fine example of mural decoration at the temple 
Horyu-ji, though such a theory is untenable. His- 
tory first speaks of Shiba Tori in connection with 
three images which he carved in wood to order of 
the Emperor Yomei, in the year 586 A. D. ; namely, 
an effigy of Shaka, sixteen feet high, with two attend- 
ant Bodhisattvas of smaller dimensions. These were 
placed in a temple specially built for their reception 
at Minabuchi, the temple and the images being an 
offering to invoke heaven's healing grace for the sick 
Sovereign. No vestige of these sculptures remains. 
Shiba Tori is also said to have chiselled many wooden 
images to order of the Emperor Yomei's son, Prince 
Shotoku remembered by posterity as Shotoku Taishi. 
Shotoku never came to the throne. He filled the 
post of regent during the reign of the Empress Suiko 
(56 3-6 28). The earliest Japanese historiographer and 
Buddhist commentator, he left an unequalled reputa- 
tion for learning, piety, and statesmanship, and among 
all the factors making for the spread of Buddhism in 
that era, his influence had probably most efficacy. 
Many sculptures in wood, said to be from his chisel, 
are preserved at various places in Japan, but there is 
reason to think that a majority of them are apocry- 
phal. One, however, is regarded as authentic by 
connoisseurs. It is a statue of Kwannon, the goddess 
of mercy, six and a half feet high, its comparatively 
defective technique redeemed by considerable grace 
of pose and passionless refinement of feature. Shiba 
Tori's work, of which fully authenticated examples 
are preserved in the temple Horiu-ji, betrays greatly 
inferior development of artistic instinct, his images 
being squat, ill-proportioned, and deficient in dignity. 
They are apparently Chinese modifications of Indian 



types. Contrasted with these figures, Shotoku's Kwan- 
non shows that already at this early period Japanese 
genius had begun to break away from the mechanical 
formalism of Korea. On the other hand, as might 
be expected from the evidence of objects found in 
dolmens, the decorative metal work of Prince Sho- 
toku's time is of a more advanced character than the 
sculptor's art. The halos of sacred effigies and the 
ornaments attached to objects of temple furniture or 
used for the decoration of the temples themselves, 
show considerable skill in chiselling a jour as well as 
in repousse, and the designs indicate an already advanced 
conception of decorative motives as well as a just sense 
of proportion and orderly arrangement. Notable 
among illustrative specimens is a pendant of gilt 
bronze destined originally to hang from the ceiling 
of the temple Horiu-ji. It is 6.96 metres long, and 
consists of six sections united by hinges, each section 
having a pierced design of plants, flowers, clouds, and 
emblems, the whole constituting a fine piece of 
decorative work. 

From the second half of the seventh century 
progress became very marked, and, at the same time, 
the character of the sculpture suggests emancipation 
from Korean influence and closer approach to Chinese, 
with evident elements of Indian style, as is under- 
stood by recalling that China under the Tang dynasty 
had very intimate relations with India. The history 
of the epoch furnishes an explanation of these 
changes, for it tells that Japan's intercourse with 
China became altogether direct without any Korean 
intervention. But although, on the one hand, the 
sculptor evidently feels Indo-Grecian inspiration, 
although the winged steeds and griffins of Assyria 



make their appearance in decorative schemes, as do 
also conventionalised plants and foliage, especially the 
acanthus, and although the wide inter-relations of 
Asiatic countries and their occasional contact even 
with Greece and Rome find evident expression, on the 
other hand, the realistic and grace-loving genius of the 
Japanese begins to show itself very distinctly. Many 
authenticated relics of the period survive. They 
indicate a development of technical skill scarcely 
credible by comparison with the rudimentary essays 
of the preceding cycle, and they indicate also a con- 
ception of majestic beauty wholly unpredicted by any 
examples of earlier statuary, except, perhaps, the 
Kwannon of Prince Shotoku. It is to this epoch 
that posterity owes two groups of bronze statues 
justly regarded with admiration. One is the three 
Amidas of Koriu-ji ; the other Yakushi and his 
two acolytes in the temple Yakushi-ji. Compara- 
tively small figures, 0.32 metre in height, the 
central effigy of the three Amidas is seated, the two 
others stand on lotus flowers, the stalks of which 
rise from a dais having for background a reredos on 
which Buddhist figures are cast in medium relief. 
This remarkably graceful and beautiful object is tech- 
nically far superior to anything of the previous epoch, 
and the majestically benign repose that pervades the 
figures belongs to a high range of artistic conception. 
It is known that these statues were executed by 
order of Tachibana, spouse of the Emperor Tenchi 
(668-671), but the name of their artist has not been 
preserved. The Yakushi group is of even greater 
excellence. Its central figure (Bhaichadjya-guru) 
4.25 metres in height is seated on a dais, also of 
bronze, the faces of which have demons cast in relief 



and the borders are decorated with dragons, swans, 
phoenixes, tortoises, serpents, and vine-scrolls. The 
Sun and Moon effigies stand on either side. They 
measure 3.94 metres with the lotus flowers that form 
their pedestals. There is no question about the essen- 
tially Grecian type of the faces of this group ; and 
the spirit and vigour of the work show that the wave 
of Occidental culture which flowed into China dur- 
ing the period of the Six Dynasties reached Japan 
also and found there more faithful interpreters than 
those of China herself. A popular fallacy, endorsed 
by more than one writer, describes the materials of 
these figures as sbakudo, an ebony-like compound 
peculiar to Japan, but shakudo had not yet been 
invented ; the images are of dark bronze. 

The statues of this period are no longer composed 
of two repousse plates fastened together at the edges : 
they are cast by the clre-perdue process. In the pre- 
ceding epoch earthen moulds were used, but the 
Japanese had now become acquainted with the in- 
comparably more effective method of a wax shell. 
That alone constitutes a remarkable advance in tech- 
nical knowledge, an advance made, doubtless, under 
Chinese instruction, and the statues described above 
show further that the users of the chisel had become 
very skilled, all the details of the figures themselves, 
of the drapery, and of the accessories being worked 
out forcibly and with artistic feeling. 

The only sculptors of this period whose names 
are remembered are Oguchi, Kimara, Yakushi, and 
Kanashi, but as none of their works has been identi- 
fied, little interest attaches to the names. 

Early Japanese sculpture reached its first culminat- 
ing period in the eighth century ; that is to say, the 



century immediately subsequent to the era of Tori, 
Ouchi, Shotoku, and the unknown modellers of the 
three Amidas and the Yakushi Trinity just described. 
Among the masters who illumined this golden era 
the names are recorded of Gyogi, a Buddhist priest 
immortalised by his contributions to every branch of 
material progress in his time ; Hien Wantsz, whose 
nationality is uncertain, some calling him a Korean, 
some an Indian, and some a Chinese ; Kimimaro, the 
founder of a colossal effigy of Buddha, the well- 
known " Nara Dai-Butsu," which stands in the tem- 
ple Todai-ji ; the three artists, Takaichi Makuni, 
Takaichi Mamaro, and Kakino Moto-no-Otoma, who 
assisted Kimimaro in his great work, and finally, 
two brothers, Keibunkai and Keibunkomi, generally 
known in their time as the Kasuga sculptors, since 
they came from a district called Kasuga-mura. 

Speaking broadly, the eighth century is remem- 
bered by Japanese students as the " Nara epoch," 
because the custom previously observed of changing 
the capital with each change of sovereign was aban- 
doned at the beginning of that century, and Nara 
continued to be the residence of the Court through 
seven generations. Comparatively little is known of 
the Nara Palace, though many of the articles and 
ornaments used by its inmates survive in a celebrated 
collection which during nearly twelve hundred years 
has been preserved in a storehouse connected with 
the Shoso-in at that place. But some of the seven 
massive and beautiful temples erected in the days of 
the city's greatness stand still intact, and their graceful 
proportions, together with the sculptures and paint- 
ings they contain, speak eloquently of a refined and 
even luxurious civilisation. Nothing is more re- 

VOL. VII. 6 8 I 


markable about the Nara epoch than the vigorous 
growth of the Buddhist creed. Throughout the 
reign of all the Sovereigns that held their Court 
there, no expenditure was thought excessive in the 
service of religion. All the artistic resources of the 
time were devoted to the embellishment and furnish- 
ing of the temples. The priests attached so much 
importance to art as a means of appealing to the 
emotional side of human nature, that several of the 
greatest among them were themselves skilled painters 
and sculptors, contributing even more to the material 
and artistic development of their time than to its 
moral elevation. It may, indeed, be truly said, that 
the spread of Buddhism was synchronous with the 
rise of art and science in Japan. Carpenters, from 
the practice acquired in building temples, learned 
how to construct large edifices ; sculptors and metal- 
lurgists became skilful by casting or graving idols of 
bronze, wood, and gold ; painting, decorative weaving, 
the ornamentation of utensils, and the illumination 
of missals owed their expert achievement to the pa- 
tronage and instruction of Buddhist monks ; almost 
the first real impetus given to the potter's art is 
associated with the name of a priest, in short, 
nearly every branch of industrial and artistic de- 
velopment stood more or less indebted to the in- 
fluence of the creed. It is impossible to endorse 
the verdict of Japanese critics when they hold Bud- 
dhism responsible for decadence and retrogression 
which in reality marked, not the evil effects of the 
creed itself or of its propagandism, but a temporary 
diminution of its beneficent influence. Many abuses 
grew out of the arrogance, avarice, and ambition 
of the priests towards the close of the Nara epoch, 



but nothing could efface the work they had already 

In his conception of an ancient Japanese Imperial 
city like Nara, the reader must not be guided by 
Western models. He must not imagine a vast ag- 
glomeration of buildings, warehouses, stores, theatres, 
residences, hotels, and so forth, from which the Palace 
is separated by its surrounding park. He must rather 
conceive two entirely independent towns : the one 
composed of lowly wooden cottages, clustered closely 
together and sheltering an industrious, cheerful, but 
profoundly humble population ; the other an assem- 
blage of structures colossal by comparison, the temples 
of the gods, looking out upon beautiful landscapes, 
and sheltered by hills that slope softly downward to 
crystal lakes, forest glades, and parterres of glowing 
blossom. In this second, or sacred, city stood the 
Palace, and the gulf that divided the quietly toiling ple- 
beians in the one quarter from the nobles and courtiers 
in the other was bridged only by the benevolence and 
philanthropy of the Buddhist priests. To be pros- 
perous in business here, to be relieved hereafter from 
the pain of perpetual inferiority, these were the 
blessings that the commoner associated with piety, 
while for the upper classes it meant successful sway, 
victory in arms, and prosperity. 

One notable result of this religious fervour was that 
the sculptor's chisel found perpetual employment in 
producing images for the seven great temples erected 
at Nara and for other scarcely less important edifices 
in the surrounding provinces. The art of sculpture 
thus reached its apogee in fertility of conception and 
beauty of execution. Hundreds of specimens survive 
from the epoch, and it becomes possible to speak of 



its productions with considerable confidence. The 
proportions of the various figures, their attitudes and 
their draperies show great fidelity of observation ; the 
faces have a character of combined majesty and seren- 
ity ; the technique is generally excellent, and the ar- 
tists have succeeded in effecting a happy union of 
idealism and realism. Wood carvings of really fine 
type make their appearance now for the first time, 
and the epoch is also remarkable not only for colossal 
castings such as no other Oriental country has pro- 
duced, but also for statues in clay and in dry lacquer. 

The clay statues, sun-dried, not baked in a furnace, 
were modelled on a wooden core wrapped in straw 
which carried a coating of earth and boiled rice. 
For the surface work the material employed was 
potter's clay and talc, and to the finished figure 
colours were applied. It is not improbable that the 
idea of such a method was suggested by the cire- 
perdue process of casting. But although very fine 
results were obtained during the Nara epoch, model- 
ling in clay was not much practised in later times, 
and ultimately the fashion became limited to keram- 
ists and puppet-makers. 

The dry-lacquer process presented many difficul- 
ties and demanded great care. Two methods are 
described by Japanese writers. In one, the upper 
part of the statue having been modelled in clay, a 
hollow mould was taken from it, and into this was 
poured a coating of fine lacquer destined to form the 
outside of the figure. Into the interior, lacquer of 
gradually increasing thickness was run in layers, and 
the statue, having been ultimately drawn from the 
mould, was overlaid with a composition of incense, 
leaves, and bark of the Illicium religiosum (shikimi), 



dried and reduced to powder, decayed earth from the 
bed of a pond, and potter's clay. The head and torso 
thus constructed were then fixed on a wooden frame 
wrapped in cloth, and finally the arms and legs, hav- 
ing been modelled independently, were fastened in 
position with lacquer. The second method was much 
simpler. In this the sculptor commenced by chisel- 
ling a statue in wood, to which he applied a coat of 
tolerably coarse lacquer, and then a layer of cotton 
material, on which, finally, a coat of fine lacquer was 
superposed. Delicate work was not possible by this 
second process. 

At the head of all the sculptures of the eighth cen- 
tury it is usual to place a huge bronze image of 
Lochana Buddha, known as the "Nara Dai-Butsu." 
It certainly deserves that distinction in some respects, 
for it is fifty- three feet high, and the difficulty of 
making such a casting must have been immense. 
But however beautifully proportioned the colossal 
idol may have been originally, clumsy restorations in 
the sequel of conflagrations and other accidents have 
so marred it that it can no longer be compared with 
many smaller examples of contemporary sculpture. 
The intellectual energy and technical resources of the 
artist that conceived and executed such a work com- 
mand admiration, but the measure of artistic success 
he attained is now a matter of conjecture only. Other 
specimens of the time convey fuller information. A 
series of clay statuettes preserved in the temple 
Horyu-ji show, in a very marked degree, evidence 
of the humour for which Japanese sculpture became 
famous many hundred years subsequently ; humour 
which is conspicuously absent in the works of China 
and Korea alike. On a much higher plane of art, 



however, stand four clay statues of the Deva Kings, 
which are among the treasured relics of T6dai-ji. 
Trampling on the demons they have subdued, the 
faces of the four Devas display four different phases 
of combat, from fierce defiance and strong effort to 
stern resolve and calm triumph ; their attitudes are 
modelled in consonance with these moods ; the details 
of their armour and costume are skilfully rendered, 
and their proportions betray no anatomical errors. 
Even greater force of conception is attributed by 
Japanese connoisseurs to a clay statue of Shikong5 
(Vadjrapani), belonging also to the gallery of the 
eighth century and kept in the same temple, Todai-ji. 
This statue has suffered much from the effects of 
time, and the condition of its right arm greatly im- 
pairs the general effect ; but such as it is, it certainly 
deserves much of the praise bestowed on it since the 
public began to discover that early Japanese statuary 
merits attention. Among eighth-century works in 
dry lacquer, undoubtedly the most notable are the 
Hokke-do Trinity, by the priest Roben. These 
figures present a marked contrast to the four Devas 
and the Shikongo mentioned above. Brahma and 
Indra, whose effigies form the acolytes of the group, 
are shown in an attitude of prayer, the expression 
of the faces majestically and profoundly serene, and 
even the folds of their garments modelled so as to 
accentuate the idea of passionless piety. A wide 
interval separated these figures from the conventional 
Indian deity which threatened at first to impose its 
type upon the Japanese sculptor. There is here 
nothing whatever of the curiously modelled torso, 
the massive sensuous cast of features, and the jewelled 
tiara which some of the earliest Japanese sculptures 



recall. The one fault is excessive breadth of shoulders 
and consequent lack of grace. As to statues carved 
in wood, the most celebrated is that of the Eleven- 
faced Kwannon preserved in the temple Hokke-ji. 
Nine of the eleven faces form a circlet for the head 
of the goddess, and are divided into groups of three, 
one group smiling, the second ironical, and the third 
gentle ; and placed above them all is a somewhat 
larger head breathing perfect calm. There has been 
attributed to this statue extreme beauty of composi- 
tion and execution ; but the very obvious faults of ill- 
proportioned limbs, a squat figure, and somewhat 
clumsily chiselled drapery disqualify the statue for 
such applause. It shows, indeed, little superiority 
to the bronze Kwannon of Yakushi-ji, cast about a 
century earlier. 

If any confident judgment may be based on the 
articles in the Shoso-in collection, it would appear 
that the applied art of Japan had already reached a 
high stage of development in the eighth century. 
The collection comprises more than three thousand 
specimens, bells, swords, mirrors, desks, musical 
instruments, censers, objects of virtu, articles of cos- 
tume, chess-boards, vases, glass utensils, tissues, paint- 
ings, books, and reliquaries. Many of them exhibit 
workmanship of remarkable delicacy and skill ; so 
much so that a certain measure of credulity is required 
on the part of any one attributing them to Japanese 
artists and artisans. Yet when, in the year 756, the 
Emperor Shomu donated a majority of these objects 
to the temple Todai-ji, they were accompanied by a 
list in which it was recorded that several swords and 
screens were Chinese and that a reliquary and a screen 
were Korean, the inference obviously suggested being 



that all the rest were Japanese. If that deduction be 
warranted, the Japanese of the eighth century could 
do these things : they could sculpture metal deli- 
cately and minutely, using a number of chisels and 
burins, and thus showing a long step of progress from 
the sixth-century time of few and ineffective imple- 
ments ; they could inlay metals with mother-of-pearl 
and amber ; they could apply cloisonne decoration to 
objects of gold, the cloisons being of silver and some- 
what clumsy ; they could work skilfully in lacquer, 
black, and golden; they could encrust gold with jew- 
els ; they could chisel metal in designs lijour or in the 
round, both with much skill ; they could cast bronze 
by the cire-perdue process, showing detailed work as 
clear as though it had been finished with the chisel ; 
they could encrust wood with ivory, plain or col- 
oured, and inlay it with mother-of-pearl, gold, or 
silver ; they could weave rich brocades ; they could 
paint decorative or pictorial designs on wood, over- 
laying them with translucid varnish which preserved 
the colours fresh for centuries ; and they could manu- 
facture coloured glass. The difficulty which the 
student encounters in assigning these beautiful objects 
to Japanese artists is that in not one instance do the 
decorative designs bear a purely Japanese character, 
and that in many instances they are essentially Chi- 
nese, Indian, or Persian. It is of course conceivable 
that Japanese decorative artists may not yet have 
emerged from the copying stage, and that they bor- 
rowed motives frankly and faithfully from foreign 
sources. But, on the other hand, if these objects had 
been of native production, would the Nara Court 
have placed them among the treasures of the princi- 
pal temple ? It seems more reasonable to believe 



that they were rare articles of foreign provenance, 
and that they indicate nothing beyond the refined 
taste of the Japanese of that epoch. 

Two specimens of art workmanship may, however, 
be specially referred to as indisputably illustrative of 
eighth-century Japanese skill. One is a gong framed 
in the coils of four dragons, which rise from entwin- 
ing a pillar poised on the back of a Dog of Fo, the 
whole in bronze ; the other is a richly lacquered 
drum, set in a frame of gilt bronze chiselled a jour 
in a design of dragons and phoenixes, and surmounted 
by a radiant sun. The Japanese obtained the dragon 
and the Dog of Fo (s bis hi} from China, as well as 
the idea of using the latter by way of pedestal ; but 
there are points about this beautifully designed bronze 
gong which prove its Japanese provenance, and the 
central decorative scheme on the lacquered drum 
a triple combination of the male and female princi- 
ples is essentially Japanese. To the makers of such 
objects a high degree of artistic and technical attain- 
ment must be conceded, though there is not sufficient 
reason to credit them with the varied exercise of skill 
shown by the Shoso-in specimens. 

Among Japanese commentators and antiquarians 
there is a tendency, followed by several foreign 
students also, to detect strong traces of Chinese and 
Korean influence in the works described above, and 
even to attribute some of the best of them to Korean 
or Chinese sculptors. But before accepting such a 
theory this question has to be answered : If a Korean 
or a Chinese expert working in Japan before the close 
of the eighth century was capable of modelling fig- 
ures like the four Deva Kings and the Brahma of 
Todai-ji, why did none of the numerous Chinese and 



Korean sculptors who worked to meet the demands 
of the Buddhist religion in their own countries, suc- 
ceed in producing a single masterpiece comparable 
with these effigies ? Tradition is so confident about 
the debt owed by Japan's artists to the neighbouring 
continental countries that the broad fact may not be 
doubted, especially as there are internal evidences of its 
partial truth. But the amount of the borrowing is 
open to query. It is contrary to the suggestions of 
reason or the teachings of precedent that countries 
supposed to have been the parents and teachers of a 
particular art as well as the fields of its earnest exercise 
through long centuries, should not be able to show 
any products of that art corresponding with the 
admirable examples attributed to their emigrant ex- 
perts working under alien patronage in a neighbouring 
island. Such was not the case in the field of picto- 
rial art, nor yet in that of keramics, nor yet in that of 
textile fabrics, and the apparent inference with regard 
to sculpture is that, though the Japanese obtained tech- 
nical instruction from their continental neighbours, 
and motives from the creed which the latter were in- 
strumental in propagating, their own genius soon car- 
ried the practice of the art beyond the range of 
Chinese or Korean conception. 

Before pursuing the historical sequence of the 
development of the sculptor's art in Japan, some 
special subjects must be briefly discussed. 

The chiselling of stone images was practised by 
the Japanese from an early period of their art history, 
but it does not seem possible to determine with even 
approximate accuracy the date when this class of work 
had its origin. Nor is there much to encourage 
research. Japanese sculptures in stone have always 



been of very mediocre quality, not for an instant 
supporting comparison with the studies in marble 
bequeathed to the world by the ancient Greeks. 
Should time have in store for Japan vicissitudes such 
as overtook the prehistoric world of the West, it is 
not difficult to imagine that some race of explorers, 
thirty or forty centuries hence, discovering the stu- 
pendous masonry and the huge granite blocks of the 
Tokyo and Osaka castles, may draw an inference 
similar to that suggested by the ruins of Tirynth and 
its sister cities of Argolis, and may conclude that 
Japan was once inhabited by a race of giants. But 
they certainly will not find anything to suggest that 
the men who applied granite to such colossal uses 
understood the value of the imperishable material 
suggested by Nature herself as a medium for trans- 
mitting artistic conceptions to posterity. The most 
reasonable explanation of the inferiority shown by the 
Japanese in this respect is that the quality of the stone 
generally available in their country defied any fine 
exercise of glyptic skill. Japan is not without stores 
of good marble, which are now beginning to be suc- 
cessfully utilised for purposes of sculpture. But in 
remote ages their existence does not appear to have 
been suspected, and the artist, being supplied only 
with granite and coarse sandstone, was not encouraged 
to attempt work inconsistent with the quality of the 
material. Some critics maintain, indeed, that the 
technical difficulties attending sculpture in stone 
proved insuperable to the Japanese. But such a 
theory can scarcely be reconciled with the singular 
ability they showed in bringing still more refractory 
substances within artistic control. Further, the evi- 
dence furnished by their ancient tombs shows that, in 

9 1 


times as remote as the beginning of the Christian 
era, they knew how to hew stones and join them 
into the forms of sarcophagi, so perfect in shape that 
some of them, when exhumed in later epochs, were 
regarded as palanquins in which demigods had 
ridden, or as boats in which they had sailed the seas 
during the age of Japan's government by divine 
beings. Still more conclusive proof of ability to 
fashion stone into given shapes is afforded by objects 
for personal adornment found in these tombs, carved 
jewels (maga-tamd} of agate or jadeite; tubular jewels 
(kuda-tama') of light green stone; hexagonal jewels 
( kiriko-dama ), and triple-ring jewels ( mitsuwa-dama ) 
of quartz ; and already in the fourth century of the 
Christian era, one of the sections of artificers em- 
ployed by the Government had the name of Tama- 
tsukuri-be, or sculptors of ornamental minerals. In 
the face of these facts it is impossible to doubt that 
the cutting, shaping, and polishing of stone fell well 
within the competence of Japanese artisans in very 
early times, and that had they recognised it as a 
material suitable for sculpturing objects of high art, 
technical difficulties would not have deterred them. 

In China and Korea the custom of erecting huge 
memorial tablets of marble or granite existed in 
ancient ages. But the Japanese were slow to adopt 
it, and never reconciled themselves to the use of orna- 
mental sculpture on such objects. History contains 
a poem attributed to that personage of somewhat 
apocryphal achievements, the Empress Jingo (201 
269 A. D. ), in which words occur indicating apparently 
that a stone monument was set up to the deity Sukuna. 
But the first unequivocal record of stone sculpture is 
found in the annals of the Emperor Keitei's reign 



(507531 A. D.), when there flourished in Chikushi 
a local magnate remarkable for his extravagant style 
of life and ultimately for rebelling against the Imperial 
authority. It is stated that he adopted the Chinese 
custom of causing a grand tomb to be erected for 
himself, and that he collected a number of skilled 
workers in stone for the purpose. Encircling and 
guarding the tomb were placed sixty stone effigies of 
warriors each seven feet high and each with a stone 
shield planted beside him. In a recess on the south 
of the tomb a figure was set up representing a judge, 
before whom a naked culprit kneeled to receive 
sentence for stealing four wild-boars, which also were 
sculptured in the same material, and close at hand 
stood three horses with a background of two stone 
edifices. Some traces of this elaborate monument 
remain, but even in their complete absence the record 
is sufficiently explicit to show that the chiselling of 
natural objects in stone was understood at that remote 
time, though the manner of applying the art was alien, 
and its products were probably very crude. Moreover, 
after the abolition of the barbarous customs of bury- 
ing alive the chief vassals of a prince or noble at the 
time of his interment, a reform effected at about 
the commencement of the Christian era, images 
of stone were sometimes used as substitutes for these 
living sacrifices, though in ordinary cases rudely 
shaped effigies of sun-dried clay were deemed suffi- 
cient. Excavations recently made near the tumulus 
of the Emperor Kimmei (540571 A. D.) brought to 
light a number of stone images of men and animals, 
and similar objects have been found buried at other 
places under circumstances which suggest great antiq- 
uity. But not one of the specimens hitherto found 



indicates that the sculptor aimed at beauty of form or 
accuracy of proportion, and it need scarcely be added 
that none of them had any direct connection with 
religious rites, for the deities of the Shinto cult, which 
alone prevailed in Japan in those times, were never 
represented in effigy. In comparatively modern eras, 
when it became the habit to erect over the resting- 
places of the dead handsome bronze monuments and 
to surround them with stone fences, the chisels of 
great glyptic artists were sometimes employed to cut 
upon the pedestals of these monuments, or on the 
panels of gates giving access to their enclosures, scenes 
of religious import, such as the entry of Buddha into 
Nirvana or episodes from the careers of the Arhats. 
But these were quite exceptional applications of 
glyptic art. 

The use of stone for sculpturing Buddhist idols 
commenced in the reign of the Emperor Bidatsu 
when (585 A. D.) two envoys whom he had sent to 
Korea brought back a stone effigy of the Buddhist 
deity, Miroku. From that time, whenever images 
had to be erected in the open air, stone seems to 
have suggested itself as a suitable material, and the 
traveller in Japan often sees, set up by the roadside 
or enshrined at the elbow of a mountain track, little 
stone images of Jizo (K'shitigarbha), the protecting 
deity of wayfarers, the gentle god who encourages 
unhappy children in purgatory to pile up pebbles un- 
til the heap shall be high enough to raise them to 
the plains of the blessed. Scarcely less frequent are 
effigies of foxes seated on pedestals before the rustic 
shrine of Inari, the god of food, where the peasant 
prays for rich harvests. But none of these objects 
deserves attention as a specimen of sculpture. They 



are mere suggestions. Eloquence of form did not 
enter into the thought of the humble mason that 
hewed them, nor, indeed, did their purpose or their 
surroundings usually encourage any fine effort of 

The perception of the Japanese is nothing if not 
congruous. He has an instinctive sense of the fitness 
of things within his own range of experience, and it 
would seem to him a solecism to erect a delicately 
chiselled, elaborately ornamented image among the 
mosses and shadows of a forest or the dust and con- 
tamination of a roadside. When, however, a stone 
carving was destined to form part of the entourage 
of an important temple or mausoleum, greater care 
was bestowed on its modelling. It then usually took 
the form of the Kara-shishi (Chinese lion, i.e. Dog 
of Fo), to which the Japanese sculptor often succeeds 
in imparting an aspect of much vigour and vitality. 

The Emperor Gotoba, in the year 1187, had a 
pair of stone shishi chiselled to stand inside the inner 
gate of the temple Todai-ji at Nara, and effigies of 
two Bodhisattvas and the four Heavenly Kings, also 
in stone, to stand within the building. It is recorded 
that he entrusted the execution of this work to a 
Chinese sculptor, Lo Ku, who was assisted by three 
Japanese. Lo pointed out that the stone procurable 
in Japan was not fitted for the purpose of fine sculp- 
ture, and the Emperor caused stone to be imported 
from China at a cost of about ^3,000. 

There are preserved in a cave at the back of the 
temple Nippon-ji, in Awa province, fifty-three stone 
effigies of Buddhas, said to have been sculptured in the 
days of the Emperors Shomu (724748 A.D.) and Hei- 
zei (806809 A. D.), and these were supplemented, in 



1775, by a thousand figures, namely, five hundred 
Buddhas and five hundred Arhats, the whole consti- 
tuting the most numerous assemblage of stone images 
in Japan. Many other ishi-botoke, as a stone Buddha 
is called, may be seen here and there throughout the 
country, but the general verdict with regard to them 
all is that they cannot be described as objects of art. 
The experience of the Emperor Gotoba shows that 
want of good stone was fatal to the development of 
sculpture in that material, and in any case it is not 
improbable that the Japanese glyptic artist would al- 
ways have preferred metal and wood, as better adapted 
to the wooden temples he was invited to people with 
images. Indeed this latter consideration may have 
been paramount. It is easy to conceive that had the 
Parthenon been constructed with pine or the temples 
on the Acropolis of Selinus with oak, posterity would 
not have inherited marble pediments or tufa metopes. 
Mirrors are among the concrete evidences from 
which knowledge is derived of the ability of early 
Japanese workers in metal. These objects are usually 
simple castings without any trace of the chisel. 
They possess much value in the eyes of Japanese 
dilettanti, who regard them as among the oldest 
examples of their country's artistic metal work. 
From the description already given of the curious 
bell-shaped iron castings found under conditions 
which refer them to a period more remote than the 
beginning of the Christian era, the reader will have 
derived the impression that grace of form and a meas- 
ure of decorative effect were contemplated and 
achieved by Japanese metal-founders even at that 
remote time. That impression is confirmed by the 
mirrors preserved in many Japanese collections of 


The renowned Bodhisattva. By Unkei. 1180-1220. 


antiquities; they indicate a decorative sense by no 
means rudimentary on the part of their makers 
and users. Many of the mirrors thus preserved 
are unquestionably Chinese, and others are frank 
copies of Chinese models, while all are so much alike 
that doubts have been raised as to the possibility of 
distinguishing their provenance, or of confidently 
attributing any of them to Japanese workers. That 
objection might be serious had there not been found 
in ancient Japanese tombs mirrors having attached to 
their circumference bells of the bivalve, tongueless 
kind peculiar to Japan, whereas nothing similar has 
ever been found in China or Korea. It may there- 
fore be assumed that ability to manufacture such 
objects existed at an early date in Japan, though the 
source of inspiration was doubtless Chinese. Briefly 
described, the mirror was a bronze disc, having one 
side polished or quick-silvered as a reflector and the 
other ornamented with designs in relief. 1 The 
metal varied considerably in composition. Its prin- 
cipal ingredients were copper and tin, the former 
constituting from seventy-five to ninety-five per cent, 
the latter from twenty-three to one-half per cent. 
Lead was frequently present, with occasional mixture 
of silver and traces of gold. 

From the remarkable cleanness of casting shown 
by some of these mirrors, it has been inferred that 
the cire-perdue process was employed by their makers. 
But that is exceedingly doubtful. As to the reflecting 
surface, though probably obtained at first by polishing 
alone, it soon came to be coated with an amalgam of 
tin and quicksilver, and as Japan had no quicksilver 
of her own, she must have had recourse to China, or 

1 See Appendix, note 12. 

VOL. VII. 7 gj 


to Korea, China's pupil. The same information is 
furnished by the gilding and silvering found on cop- 
per plates which formed decorative adjuncts of sword- 
hilts and horse-trappings from the beginning of the 
iron age (200 B.C.). Hence it may be affirmed on 
the evidence furnished by relics of art industry that, 
in the first or second century before the Christian era, 
Japan was in contact with Chinese or Korean civili- 
sation, and that she learned from one of her continen- 
tal neighbours the process of obtaining reflective 
surfaces by means of mercury. 1 

The Japanese mirror attracted much attention 
at one time among foreigners, owing to a curi- 
ous property it sometimes possessed, namely, that 
the pattern on the back was reflected by the 
polished surface in front. The effect was best 
seen by double reflection, that is to say, when 
light cast on the surface of the mirror was reflected on 
some other flat surface. So strange did this feature 
seem that it received the epithet " magical," and for 
many years it was considered the " correct thing " 
that every collector should include a Japanese " magic 
mirror " among his treasures. Of course the Japan- 
ese themselves knew that their mirror possessed this 
property, but they did not understand it and did not 
indulge in many conjectures about a phenomenon 
which seemed inexplicable. So soon, however, as the 
scientist of the West approached the problem, he dis- 
covered a simple solution. It is a structural accident. 
When a mirror, laid face upwards, is subjected to 
pressure by the hand of the artisan polishing its sur- 
face, it necessarily rests on the salient points of the 
arabesque or other design that decorates the reverse, 

1 Sec Appendix, note 13. 


and the portions of the face lying in the interstices of 
these points become more or less depressed, so that 
light falling on the surface is broken up and unevenly 
reflected. Dr. Anderson has suggested that the 
" magical " feature has another explanation ; namely, 
that the contraction of the fused metal when cooling 
in the mould was influenced by the comparative 
thickness or thinness due to the convexities and con- 
cavities of the pattern. That is probable enough, 
but it has been demonstrated by experiment that the 
property in question can be produced at will, by a 
process founded on the former theory. The Japan- 
ese, whether manufacturers or users of these mirrors, 
never regarded their freaks of reflection as an admira- 
ble quality, and Western virtuosi might wisely adopt 
the same attitude towards the phenomenon. 

Japan's temple bells deserve notice for many rea- 
sons, not the bell-like objects of thin cast iron 
found buried in the ground in certain provinces, 
objects whose purpose has never been clearly as- 
certained, but the bronze bells actually used as such 
from the eighth century onward. The metallic 
voices that summon worshippers in the West can 
seldom be counted sounds of gentleness and harmony. 
Even cathedral carillons of Europe and America 
have too often a clash and a clang little suggestive of 
" the peace that passeth understanding." But the 
tsuri-gane (suspended bell) of Japan gives forth a voice 
of the most exquisite sweetness and harmony a 
voice that enhances the lovely landscapes and seascapes, 
across which the sweet solemn notes come floating 
on autumn evenings and in the stillness of summer's 
noonday hazes. The song of these bells can never 
be forgotten by those that have once heard it. Their 




notes seem to/have been born amid the eternal restful- 
ness of the Buddhist paradise, and to have gathered, 
on their way to human ears, echoes of the sadness 
that prepares the soul for Nirvana. Some of them 
are giants among bells. The Sanjusangen-do in 
Kyoto, where stand the 33,333 images of the Goddess 
of Mercy, has a bell fourteen feet high, nine feet in 
diameter, ten and three-fourths inches thick, and 
weighing fifty-six tons. It was cast in the beginning 
of the seventeenth century. At the temple Chion-in, 
in the same city, there is a bell ten feet ten inches 
high, nine feet in diameter, nine and one-half inches 
thick, and weighing forty-three tons. It was cast in 
the year 1633. Still older than either of these the 
oldest bell in Japan indeed is that of Todai-ji at 
Nara. Cast in 732 A. D., it is twelve feet nine inches 
high, eight feet ten inches in diameter, ten inches 
thick, and its weight is forty-nine tons. At innu- 
merable places throughout the country, bells of 
smaller but still noble proportions toll the passing 
hours or summon the people to special services. But 
they are never heard at funerals. The glory and 
credit of having cast these wonderful bells belong 
exclusively to the Japanese, for though they took the 
shape originally from China, they soon surpassed her 
in the size and quality of their castings. Peking 
boasts a bell cast in 1406, by order of the great Ming 
Emperor Yung-lo. It was long supposed to be the 
biggest bell in the world by persons ignorant of 
the Tsar Kolokol and its smaller sister at Moscow. 
The Peking bell weighs fifty-three tons, and is there- 
fore four tons heavier than the Nara bell, but the 
latter was cast six hundred and seventy-four years 
earlier than the former. The second biggest bell of 



China that of Nanking weighs only twenty-two 
tons, a size reached and surpassed by numerous bells 
in Japan. Dimensions apart, however, there is abso- 
lutely no comparison in the matter of beauty and 
grandeur of tone between the bells of China, the 
teacher, and those of Japan, the pupil. In what 
kind of esteem the notes of a really fine bell are held 
by the Japanese may be gathered from the fact that 
among the " Eight Beauties " (Hak-kei} of the cele- 
brated Lake Biwa, the sound of the evening bell of 
Mii-dera stands fourth. Some have sought the secret 
of the Japanese bell's sweetness in the method of 
ringing ; that is to say, not with a clapper, metal 
clashing against metal, but with a beam of wood 
swung horizontally so as to strike a boss on the outer 
surface of the bell. That may contribute to the 
result, but cannot, of course, be the reason of it. An 
eminent writer, discussing the bells of Europe, says 
that as celebrated violins an Amati or a Stradivarius 
are the outcome of innumerable experiments, ex- 
tending over centuries, so the " perfect " bells of 
Holland, cast by the masters of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, " disengaged themselves after 
ages of empirical trials as the true models, and 
supplied the finished type for all succeeding bell- 
workers." The rules thus evolved and still implicitly 
obeyed were that the metal should be a mixture of 
copper and tin in the proportion of 4 to i, that the 
thickness of the bell's edge should be one-fifteenth of 
its diameter, and that its height should be twelve 
times its thickness. Every one of these rules was 
ruthlessly violated by the founders of Japanese bells. 
As to the composition of the bell metal, there does 
not seem to have been any accurate formula. The 



great Todai-ji bell is said to have been made of cop- 
per and tin in the proportion of 36 to i, but the 
record is probably an approximation only. It is at 
all events certain that no care was taken to maintain 
any hard-and-fast ratio of mixture in later times. 
The casting of a temple bell constituted a species of 
festival. People thronged from all parts of the parish, 
carrying offerings, mirrors, and other metal orna- 
ments, which were thrown into the melting-pots 
without any question as to the nature of the metal 
composing them. Not infrequently copper coins 
supplied the chief, if not the only, material. Thus, 
for a bell cast at Kamakura in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, 330,000 coins were used. Mr. Gowland's 
analysis of the old copper coins of Japan shows their 
composition to have been, copper, 77.30; tin, 4.32; 
lead, 15.33; arsen i c i-H; antimony, 0.31; iron, 
i.oi ; silver, 0.06 ; sulphur, 0.52, and gold a trace, 
a compound very unlike the ideal bell-metal of the 
European experts. With regard to dimensions, three 
of the big bells of Japan give the following figures : 

Todai-ji bell, thickness, one-tenth of diameter ; 
height, 15*4 times the thickness. 

Kyoto Dai-Butsu bell, thickness, one-tenth of 
diameter; height, 15^ times the thickness. 

Chion-in bell, thickness, one-eleventh of diam- 
eter ; height, 13^ times the thickness. 

The first two of these bells seem to suggest a 
definite rule of ratios, but the third upsets the idea 
altogether, and all depart widely from the principles 
of the Dutch experts. In section Japanese bells 
show a shape different from that of European bells. 
The former have the rim thickened internally, so that 
the mouth is slightly restricted, and to that construction 



has been attributed the gentle rising and falling tone 
of their boom. It would be curious if experiments 
should prove that this simple device sufficed to secure 
results which European bell-founders were at such 
pains to achieve by accurate composition of metal 
and strict ratios of dimensions. That the Japanese 
could not only produce a monster bell of magnificent 
tone, but were also able to manufacture bells having 
their consonants in musical sequence, is proved by 
sixteen bells preserved at Nikko. Rein writes of 
these bells that, although exactly alike externally in 
form and size, they yield distinctly and with the 
finest effect all the notes of two octaves. It is quite 
conceivable, however, that these bells were cast in 
accordance with rules obtained from the Dutch traders 
at Deshima. No similar bells are found elsewhere in 

The form adopted for the hanging bells of Japan 
has always been, approximately, that known as " mitre- 
shaped " in mediaeval Europe. Elaborate ornamenta- 
tion of the surface was not resorted to in the case 
of large bells. They sometimes carry lines of ideo- 
graphs cast in low relief, verses from the sutras, 
Chinese apothegms, or more or less detailed lists of 
the names of the donors of the bell and the date of 
casting, and in rare cases they have medallions 
of dragons or phoenixes. Small bells, however, are 
often elaborately decorated with kylin, shishi (dogs 
of Fo), figures of angels (ten-jin\ and long inscrip- 
tions in prose or poetry. 

Those that have any knowledge of the difficulties 
connected with bell hanging in Europe and America, 
of the trouble of oscillating towers and defective 
leverage, will be curious to hear how the Japanese 



hang the monster bells spoken of above. It is a very 
simple process. The bell is suspended from a low 
framework of powerful timbers, the uprights leaning 
slightly towards cross-beams connecting their upper 
ends. Slung by ropes or chains in an independent 
framework is a massive beam which oscillates horizon- 
tally, and is adjusted so as to strike full and square on 
the boss of the bell. These unpretentious belfries 
make no claim to architectural beauty or structural 
grandeur. The bell is everything. It hangs fully 
en Evidence, nothing being suffered to dwarf its pro- 
portions or interfere with its notes. 

The " gong," which alike in name and conception 
is of purely Chinese origin, was manufactured from a 
very early date in Japan. Chinese metallurgists under- 
stood, and taught the Japanese how to temper and 
anneal bronze, which, when suddenly cooled from a 
cherry-red heat, becomes sufficiently soft for easy 
manipulation, and can afterwards be hardened by 
reheating and slow cooling. The commonest kind 
of gong is the well-known discoid, with a rounded 
central boss ; but another form, called the " alligator's 
mouth " (ivani-guchi), is familiar to every temple- 
goer. It consists of two discoids, strung together so 
that a wide aperture separates them. A third kind 
of gong is hemispheroidal, a bowl of beaten metal, 
which, instead of being suspended like the wani-guchi 
or the ordinary gong (dora), is insulated by being 
placed on a cushion. This variety goes by the name 
of kin or rin, the former appellation being given to 
the larger sizes. There is finally the kei, a ^-shaped 
plate of bronze, suspended from the apex. All these, 
with one exception, are beaten with a short stick 
having a leather-covered pad at one end. The ex- 



ception is the " alligator's mouth." It hangs in the 
vestibule of temples and shrines, and is sounded by 
means of a thick rope which hangs in contact with 
its surface, and is swung against it by worshippers to 
attract the presiding deity's attention. It cannot be 
said that the Japanese developed any remarkable skill 
in the manufacture of these objects. The kin often 
emits a prolonged musical note, tender and soft, and 
Japanese connoisseurs of sound make enthusiastic 
distinctions between one kei and another as to timbre 
and purity of voice ; but it does not appear that the 
manufacture of these objects ever made any special 
claim on the attention of experts. In the matter of 
gongs there can be no doubt that Korea stands far in 
advance of Japan. Neither country, however, pos- 
sesses a large supply of fine gongs. Long and patient 
search for such treasures may often prove fruitless. 
But if the searcher is so happy as to find a Korean 
gong of the best type, and he is just as likely to 
find it in Japan as in Korea, he has an instrument 
of grand sounding capacities, which sends forth wave 
after wave of complex vibrations, mellow, sonorous, 
and sweet. 


Chapter III 


Second Period From the Ninth to the Middle of the Sixteenth Century 

WITH the transfer of the capital from Nara 
to Kyoto, at the close of the eighth 
century, began the Heian epoch, marked 
at the outset by the founding of large 
monasteries, especially those of Hiyei and Koya, and 
by the spread of esoteric Buddhism. This was the 
time when the Tang dynasty of China, ruling an 
empire that touched the boundaries of Persia and 
included Korea, Mongolia, and Tartary, developed a 
civilisation such as Asia had never previously wit- 
nessed in historical eras, and furnished models of 
literature, art, and administration which the eclectic 
genius of Japan was not slow to adopt. Yet the 
early part of the epoch did not produce any remark- 
able sculptures. The tendency of the artist was to 
devote attention solely to the ensemble of his statues, 
and to sacrifice accuracy of form on the altar of 
idealism. Japanese connoisseurs ascribe this tendency to 
the influence of esoteric Buddhism. Sculpture, they 
say, falling entirely into the hands of the priests or 
passing under their control, aimed uniquely at giving 
outward expression to the moral attributes associated 
with each divinity, and paid little attention to ana- 
tomical accuracy or technical excellence. Thus the 

1 06 


ninth century and a great part of the tenth are dis- 
tinguished as a period of amateur work, when reli- 
gious zealots, insufficiently instructed in the art of 
sculpture, modelled statues with majestic and beau- 
tiful faces, but neglected truth of proportion and 
decorative accessories. Emergence from that imper- 
fect conception of artistic purpose was due to Kosho, 
who worked at the close of the tenth century, and 
above all to his son Jocho, whose genius made the 
beginning of the eleventh century one of the most 
notable epochs of Japanese sculpture. There is a curi- 
ous resemblance at this point between the history of 
pictorial art and that of sculpture in Japan. In the 
former, Kawanari, the immediate predecessor of Kana- 
oka, figures as a great painter, the first really great 
painter of his country, and the originator of an art im- 
pulse which culminated, some sixty years later, in the 
celebrated Kanaoka. But none of Kawanari's typical 
pictures survive, and Kanaoka's skill also is known 
by tradition only. So in sculpture the annals speak 
of Kosho as the leader of a renaissance carried to a 
high altitude immediately afterward by Jocho. But 
there are no specimens of Kosho's work, and the 
greatest of Jocho's perished almost immediately after 
their completion. What these men achieved for art 
was to add virility to the idealism of their immediate 
predecessors, and to insist upon accuracy of propor- 
tion, skill in the use of the chisel and the attainment 
of decorative effect. Living in a time of excessive 
refinement and voluptuousness, their style necessarily 
reflected something of this mood. Thus the bodies 
of their figures are full, and the contours rounded ; 
the faces are circular rather than oval, the eyebrows 
are finely pencilled, and the folds of the drapery soft 



and flowing. It remained for the sculptors of a later 
era to rescue the art from these traces of effeminacy 
and carry it to its point of culmination. To Jocho 
and his school, however, belongs the credit of having 
clearly indicated the route along which their coun- 
try's artists were to travel to greatness. Of the kind 
of work that Jochb was privileged to execute an idea 
is furnished by annals describing the temple Hojo-ji, 
built by the celebrated Fujiwara Regent Michinaga. 
Upon the statues for that edifice, unfortunately de- 
stroyed by fire thirty-seven years after its completion, 
Jocho expended the efforts of a lifetime. The prin- 
cipal idol, an effigy of Dainichi Nyorai sitting upon a 
hundred-petalled lotus, measured thirty-two feet in 
height ; and grouped about it were a Shaka, twenty 
feet high, and numerous other figures nine feet in 
height. All these were in wood covered with gild- 
ing. In each of the five great halls stood a Fudo, 
twenty feet high, and four statues of Taison, sixteen 
feet in height. In the Amida hall were nine gilded 
statues of Mida, each sixteen feet, and the Shaka hall 
was peopled by a hundred effigies of the Buddha. 
There was, indeed, no lack of employment for the 
religious sculptors of that superstitious era. The four 
Emperors Shirakawa, Horikawa, Toba, and Shutoku 
(1071 to 1141) built six great and many small 
temples, and the sculptors Ensei, Choen, Inkaku, 
Kenyen, Kojo, and Incho filled them with statues. 
But it will readily be conceived by any student of 
Japanese history that art could not escape the influ- 
ences which carried society to the extreme of sensu- 
ous luxury in the closing years of the Fujiwara 
epoch. By degrees the sculptor, abandoning the 
virile style of the Jocho school, made delicacy and 



refinement his chief aims, and by excessive striving 
after grace, fell into effeminacy and pettiness. To 
his demons as well as to his divinities he gave a mien 
soft as that of an infant, delicate as that of a woman, 
and even his monsters looked benign and gentle. 
Following also the example of the Sung artists of 
China, he sought extreme elaboration of detail and 
magnificence of decoration, so that some of his effigies 
became dazzling coruscations of gold and gems. 
The contrast between Jocho's style and that of the 
artists at the close of the Fujiwara (or Heian) epoch 
is well illustrated by the great sculptor's statues of the 
Four Deva Kings, preserved in the Hokuyendo at 
Nara, and the Senju Kwannon (many-handed Kwan- 
non) preserved in the temple Chomei-ji. 

Kosho, Jocho, and their descendants and chief 
pupils are generally known as the " Nara Bussbi," or 
" Buddhist sculptors of Nara," though they lived in 
Kyoto, and though most of their best work was exe- 
cuted for temples in Kyoto or in localities remote 
from Nara. They are also spoken of as "Masamune 
no Busshi" the prefix " Masamune " being intended 
to indicate that they exhibited as sculptors talent not 
inferior to that of Masamune as a swordsmith. The 
names of the best-remembered sculptors of the Heian 
epoch are : 

780 TO 950 

Enso Koun priest). 

Tari-maro Kobo Daishi (priest). 

Takao-maro Dengyo Daishi (priest). 

Ko-maro Shisho Daishi (priest). 

960 TO 1185 

Eshin (priest) 960 

Kansei 970 



Kosho (987-1011). 



Raijo. Injo. 

Kojo. Inkaku. Incho. 

I I 

Kocho. Inson. 

N. B. Jocho received the art title of Hokyo (bridge of the law), 
being the first sculptor to be so honoured. His most illustrious 
descendants had the same title. They worked in the Seventh Avenue 
(Shichijo) of Kyoto, and were consequently termed the " Seventh 
Avenue Academy." 


Chosei (pupil of Seicho). 



/""" ~^N 

Chuen. Choen. Kenyen. 


N. B. Chosei had the art title of Hoin. He and his descendants 
worked in the Third Avenue (Sanjo) of Kyoto, and were called the 
" Third Avenue Academy." 

Ganku (priest). Myojun (priest). 

From the time of the establishment of military 
feudalism (i 192) by Yoritomo at Kamakura until the 
days (1580) of Hideyoshi, an interval of nearly four 
centuries, may be regarded as the Kamakura epoch 
from the point of view of the sculptor's art, and may 
also be regarded not only as the greatest period of the 



art, but also as the final era of vigorous originality in 
religious sculpture. The greatest masters of the time 
are generally said to have been Kwaikei and his pupil 
Unkei, but undoubtedly the finest surviving specimen 
of sculpture in wood is from the chisel of Jokaku, a 
pupil of Unkei, and among all Japanese sacred effi- 
gies in bronze, the noblest and most majestic is the 
Dai-Butsu of Kamakura, modelled and cast by Ono 
Goroyemon in the year 1252. When Kwaikei and 
Unkei began to work, the samurai had become the 
nation's type of admirable manhood, the bushido was 
regarded as comprising all the canons of chivalrous 
morality, and the doctrines of the Zen sect of Bud- 
dhism had been accepted by the educated classes as the 
philosophy of irreproachable life. These facts are 
illustrated by the works of the era. The round, sleek 
shapes of the Jocho school are replaced by nervous, 
energetic forms instinct with strong, martial vitality. 
The sculptor, knowing nothing more worthy of imita- 
tion than a stalwart soldier, goes to human life for 
inspiration, and models the muscles and contours of 
his statues with unprecedented anatomical fidelity. 
Every stroke of the chisel bites deep and direct. The 
drapery is simple. The attitudes are carefully studied. 
The faces are profoundly expressive. For the first 
time strict rules are elaborated, and are so carefully 
followed in determining proportions that this feature 
alone suffices to differentiate the school from all its 

It is only within recent times that exhaustive re- 
searches and intelligent criticism have accomplished a 
clear classification of many great sculptures which for 
centuries stood comparatively neglected at Nara and 
elsewhere. As a striking illustration of the confu- 



sion previously prevailing, the case may be quoted of 
two magnificent life-size statues in wood preserved at 
the temple of Kofuku-ji. The subjects are Brama and 
Indra, the Deva Kings (Ni-o). These deities are 
usually placed in niches flanking the outer gate of 
Buddhist temples which they are supposed to guard. 
The sculptor's constant aim is to give prominence to 
the fierce energy, implacable resolve, and superhuman 
strength which are the chief attributes of the demon- 
quelling guardians, and the success achieved in the 
Kofuku-ji figures is unequivocal. Time has almost 
completely obliterated the pigment l that once covered 
them, and has produced other defacements, so that 
the images now present a battered and mutilated 
appearance. But nothing could destroy the grandeur 
of their proportions or impair the majesty and dignity 
of their pose. Their anatomy is perfect, and had 
they emerged from the ruins of some Grecian city, 
they would be known and admired by every Western 
student of art. These statues have hitherto been 
attributed to a nameless Korean immigrant sculptor 
at the beginning of the seventh century, and they are 
still so attributed by more than one standard author. 
If such an identification were admitted, hopeless con- 
fusion would be introduced into the whole history of 
Japanese sculpture. Work which is essentiallyjapan- 
ese and which unmistakably proclaims itself to be of 
the Unkei school in the thirteenth century, would 
become that of a Korean artist seven hundred years 
earlier, and it would be necessary to admit that, by 
some inexplicable freak of fate, a Korean visiting 
Japan at a time when sculpture in Korea, Japan, and 
China was still in its infancy, produced a master- 

1 See Appendix, note 14. 



piece unapproached by any Korean or Chinese worker 
in any era, and presenting all the most obviously 
characteristic features of the best school of Japanese 
sculpture in the thirteenth century. There is no 
occasion to do such violence to reason and history. 
The figures are from the chisel of Jokaku, a pupil of 
Unkei. Two other statues of Deva Kings may be 
instructively examined side by side with Jokaku's 
masterpiece. They are colossal images twenty-six 
and one-half feet high, which stand beside the gate 
of Todai-ji. Awe-inspiring and stupendous, they 
have been taken by nearly all subsequent sculptors as 
a classical type of the Two Guardians, and they well 
deserve that distinction. But the exaggerations which 
the artists (Unkei and Kwaikei) have resorted to in 
order to emphasise special attributes reduce the 
figures to a lower plane of achievement than the 
supreme eminence on which Jokaku's Devas stand. 
The " Watch Dogs " of Tamuke-yama shrine are 
another example of Tokei's bold imagination and 
powerful chisel. His conception of these super- 
human animals is at once original and grand. Kokei, 
a contemporary of Kwaikei and Unkei, left some 
works which are particularly interesting as examples 
of the realistic spirit animating the artists of the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and the great care 
which they bestowed on all the accessory details of 
their sculpture. Koben's " Demon-lantern-bearers " 
of Kofuku-ji are justly celebrated, and side by side 
with the savage perplexity of one imp and the vacu- 
ous stolidity of the other, may be placed a statue of 
Monjushiri, dating also from the thirteenth century, 
which, as a type of serene and contemplative benevo- 
lence, ranks not far below the Kamakura Dai-Butsu. 

VOL. VII. 8 I 1 3 


This last magnificent specimen of religious sculpture 
is among the first objects towards which the traveller 
turns his feet on arriving in Japan, and perhaps among 
all the charmed impressions he carries away from 
that fair country, none survives longer than his mem- 
ory of the majestic benignity and ineffable repose 
breathed by the noble statue. 

Outside the sphere of purely supernatural motives, 
the Japanese religious gallery contains some sculp- 
tures which may be justly compared with the cele- 
brated busts of Perikles, of Homer, of Sophokles, and 
other famous men of old. Not that there ever was 
such a thing as a bust among Japanese sculptures. 
That curious outcome of Roman practicality would 
have greatly offended Japanese taste. Yet the sculp- 
tures here spoken of may be compared to the bust in one 
respect, namely, that they derive their characteristics 
chiefly from the face. Such works are Unkei's statue 
of Vimala-Kirtsi Japanese Yuima, a contemporary of 
Gautama ; the figures of Muchaku and Seshin in the 
Kofuku-ji at Nara, the statue of Seitaka-doji at Hozan- 
ji, and a few others. These are not likeness effigies, 
though their remarkable realism suggests that idea. 
It is possible that the artists were assisted by Chinese 
pictures, but however that may be, these sculptures 
compel admiration as great creations of art. The 
supernatural endowment of the soul within, the al- 
most divine characteristics of these immortal teachers 
and preachers of Buddhist mysteries, are here elo- 
quently revealed by some subtlety of the sculptor's 
art which speaks of the men's achievements and not 
merely of their personality. Unfortunately such 
works are very rare in Japan. Of likeness effigies 
there are several, but ideal creations of art outside 



the domain of deities and demigods are exceedingly 
few, and the excellence of those that exist render this 
paucity the more regrettable. 

Portrait statues, in the Roman sense of the term, 
do not seem to have suggested themselves to the 
Japanese sculptor. He chiselled a few likeness 
effigies of celebrated personages founders of sects 
or temples, renowned warriors and great administra- 
tors and some of this work shows the suggestive- 
ness that distinguishes refined sculpture from mere 
accuracy of imitation. But the likeness effigy was 
not for the purpose of setting up in public. It was 
hidden away in a mausoleum or a shrine. 1 

From the fourteenth century a strong tendency to 
substitute elaboration for idealism made itself ap- 
parent. The sculptor, while preserving something 
of the serenity of the Jocho school, lost the vigour, 
energy, and austerity of the Unkei ideal, and wasted 
his strength upon an infinity of ornamentation exe- 
cuted with the utmost delicacy. He reverted also to 
the graceless dumpiness of the early workers, and 
sought vainly to compensate this radical fault by 
such artifices as elongated drapery and innumerable 
pendants. A fourteenth-century statue of the Eleven- 
faced Kwannon preserved at a temple in Kyoto illus- 
trates this depraved style. From the fifteenth century 
commenced the custom of covering religious statues 
with lacquer carrying magnificent decoration in 
gold. Independently of the principal images per- 
petually exposed to public gaze in temples, there had 
always been preserved minor statuettes enclosed in 
shrines called zushi, or butsugan. These shrines and 
the images they enclosed now became objects of great 

1 See Appendix, note 15. 



splendour and beauty, the exterior of the receptacle 
richly lacquered, its hinges and metal mountings elabo- 
rately chased, its interior refulgent with gold foil and 
profuse carving, while the statuette itself, mounted 
on a delicately sculptured pedestal, sometimes offered 
a contrast of plain white wood or dark bronze, and 
sometimes outshone the shrine in grandeur. 1 

The names of the most eminent sculptors from the 
end of the thirteenth century to the end of the fif- 
teenth are as follows : 

From the End of the Twelfth to the Beginning of the Fourteenth Century 

Kwaikei, Kokei (teacher of Unkei), Kaikei, Unkei (son of 
Kaikei), Tokei (son of Unkei), Jokaku (pupil of Un- 
kei), Koun (priest), Kanyen (son of Koun), Koben, 
Kosho, Koyo, Koson, Koyu. 

Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries 

K5shun (thirteenth in descent from Jocho), Koyei (son of K6- 
shun), Kotan (son of Koyei), Kokitsu (son of Kotan), 
Koyei (son of Kokitsu), Koshin (son of Koyei) Korin 
(son of Koshin). 

From the End of the Twelfth to the Beginning of the Fourteenth Century 

Joyen, Senyen, Inko, Injin, Inbo, Inken, Inku, Inso, In- 
shu, Injo, Inchu, Inyu, Unga, Unsho. 

Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries 

Shunkei (priest), Rwaiken, Eiyen, Koshu (son of Korin of 
the Western School), Kosei (son of Koshu), Kosei (son 
of Kosei). 

1 Sec Appendix, note 16. 



N. B. Many of the above artists had titles bestowed on 
them in recognition of their skill. Such titles were Hogen 
(eye of the law), Hoin (sign of the law), and Hokyo (bridge 
of the law). 

The vast majority of the glyptic works executed in 
early and mediaeval times were intended for temples. 
The same remark applies, as already seen, to pictorial 
art, but in the case of sculpture it may be illustrated 
by reference to historical records. Thus, in the reign 
of the Emperor Shirakawa eleventh century 
three thousand sacred images were ordered by his 
Majesty for enshrining in temples ; in the thirteenth 
century the Emperor Kameyama placed thirty-three 
thousand images in the Sanjusangendo in Kyoto, 
namely, a thousand figures of the Goddess of Mercy 
(Kwannon), each five feet high, with thirty-two 
thousand smaller effigies mounted on the foreheads, 
hands, and halos of the larger figures ; and in the 
seventeenth century, the Shogun Hidetada issued an 
edict requiring that every household throughout the 
land must possess a Buddhist image. Several times, 
too, in the annals of early eras, references occur as to 
scarcity of the precious metals among which cop- 
per was included owing to extravagant piety on 
the part of sovereigns and nobles, who did not hesi- 
tate to throw vast quantities of coin into the melting- 
pot when the service of heaven called for such 
sacrifices. From the twelfth century, however, wood 
became the material commonly used for statues. 
They were usually covered with gold foil, and it is 
easy to conceive the magnificently imposing effect 
produced by such a concourse of gilded images as 
those of the Sanjusangen-do ; a forest of glittering fig- 



ures, rising tier upon tier in the solemn obscurity of a 
vast hall, three hundred and eighty-nine feet long and 
fifty-seven feet high. Of course this lavish multipli- 
city of production could not fail to stifle originality of 
conception. Where the object was to inspire awe by 
means of a countless concourse of deities, it would 
have been essentially faulty art that certain figures 
should detach themselves saliently from the phalanx. 
Thus, although the names of such celebrated sculp- 
tors as Unkei, Kokei, Shichijo, and Koyei are associ- 
ated with the carving of the principal images in the 
Sanjusangen-do, it cannot be said that any of the 
effigies stand on a high plane of glyptic art. No two 
are precisely alike. The sculptors were careful that 
each should be invested with sufficient individuality 
to avert the impression of mere iteration. But be- 
yond that feat, which is achieved chiefly by mechani- 
cal means, diverse arrangement of the figures' hands 
and of the emblems held in them, there is nothing 
to relieve the monotony of type and execution. 

In Europe and America there is a general tendency 
to dismiss the ancient sculpture of the East, including 
that of Japan, as barbaric in character, without any 
sentiment of idealism and with little or no regard for 
material beauty. A high place is indeed conceded 
to Japanese decorative sculpture, but it is held that 
in the more important branch of the art she never 
emerged from the barbaric or indigenous stage. That 
verdict must surely be based on ignorance of the 
work done by Japan's ancient and mediaeval sculptors ; 
ignorance not at all surprising when it is remembered 
how inaccessible are representative examples of her 
art and how few have made any serious attempt to 
study them. 



It has been shown above that sculpture owed its 
origin in Japan to Buddhist influence. Whatever 
preceded the advent of Buddhism was too crude 
to deserve consideration. Buddhism came to Japan 
from India through China. The art of sculpture that 
it brought to China in its train did not receive any 
notable development in the latter country. It re- 
tained its Indian characteristics. The style was semi- 
barbaric ; symbolism took the place of idealism ; the 
power and attributes of divinity were expressed by 
distortions of the human figure or by colossal dimen- 
sions, and statuary never assumed shapes of beauty. 
The motives of the art were purely religious. It 
was an agent for enforcing a supernatural creed, not a 
medium for producing types of beauty. 

In Japan, on the contrary, the art made great 
advances, but without any material change of direction. 
The sculptor rose to much higher ideals, but his 
types remained the same. He continued to be bound 
by a rule which naturally grew out of such a system, 
the rule that all essentially human features should be 
avoided as far as possible. The influence of that rule 
was radical. It created at once an essential difference 
between the object of sculpture as conceived in Greece 
and endorsed in Europe, and its object as pursued in 
the East. The Grecian sculptor kept' the beautiful 
always in view. Whatever elements of beauty and 
symmetry were discernible in the human form, these 
he sought to combine for the creation of his divine 
ideal. But the Japanese sculptor had nothing to do 
with beauty. His aim was to represent certain attri- 
butes which are virtually independent of graces of 
form, being essentially intellectual. What a statue 
of the Buddha has to suggest is majestic serenity and 



eternal, passionless repose. Something of that idea 
may be contributed by the posture of the limbs, but 
nothing by a display of nude symmetry. It is not 
possible to tell how Pheidias would have sculptured 
a Buddha had the task been assigned to him, but 
neither his chryselephantine Zeus nor the Jupiter of 
the Vatican suggests that any Grecian or Roman 
artist could have produced a figure expressing more 
perfectly the attributes of Buddha than they are 
expressed by the Dai-Butsu of Kamakura. If this 
noble figure be examined closely, a combination of 
Egyptian and Grecian elements is found. It has the 
colossal size of Egyptian statues, and it exhibits also 
plain evidences of attention to the perpendicular and 
horizontal lines suggestive of eternal stability. On 
the other hand, the graceful beauty of the contours 
and the harmonious flow of the drapery belong to 
the domain of Grecian rather than of Oriental art. 
Still more characteristic is the Japanese sculptor's 
manner of representing Kwannon (Kwan-yin), the 
Deity of Mercy. The traits to be emphasised are 
limitless benevolence, a spirit elevated beyond the 
range of any ignoble sentiment, and profound sympa- 
thy guaranteed against anxious emotion by assurance 
of omnipotence to save. That combination of traits 
is scarcely conceivable in either male or female of the 
human species. Therefore the Kwannon of the 
Japanese sculptor does not seem to belong to either 
sex. It has the gentle graciousness of a woman, 
the placid resolution of a man, and the ineffable 
purity of a sexless being. 

Human intelligence has never conceived an intelli- 
gent, sentient being in any shape other than human. 
The gods and goddesses of the Greek sculptor were 

1 20 


merely perfected types of human beauty, and the 
logic of his canon is easily appreciated. The Japan- 
ese sculptor, however, conceived for his deities coun- 
tenances which, though in no sense repellent or 
unnatural, do not conform with the ordinary attri- 
butes of comeliness. The chief point of divergence 
is an enforcement of the line of the eyebrow. It is 
in the countenance that nature shows special beauties 
of profile, and one of the most graceful is the curve 
of the eyebrow, which is often so finely treated in 
Greek statues. This the Japanese sculptor empha- 
sised, so that while its grace of form was much 
enhanced, the face received an etherealised expression, 
removing it from the normal human type. His 
treatment of the ear constituted another distinction. 
Appreciating the potentialities of its elaborate con- 
junction of curves, he exaggerated them, as in the 
case of the eyebrow, and thus produced a feature 
which helped materially to differentiate the face. In 
short, his interpretation of the aspect of divinity was 
to give salience to those elements of the countenance 
which, in his opinion, distinguished it specially from 
the animal type. Another point in which his 
method differed from that of the Greeks was that 
whereas the latter avoided any expression of emotion, 
since it interfered with the repose and dignity of 
their ideal, the Japanese sculptor frankly represented, 
and even emphasised, the emotions by which his 
semi-divinities were supposed to be animated. His 
figures of the Deva Kings are conspicuous examples. 
Not merely the expression of their faces, but also 
every limb and every muscle is instinct with fierce 
energy and implacable purpose. Such works, though 
splendidly vigorous and imposing, are not "beautiful " 



in the Grecian sense of the term, and consequently 
find no parallels in Grecian sculpture. But it is 
surely extravagant to allege that they sin against the 
principles of glyptic art. If Grecian masterpieces 
suggest that all violent expression should be excluded 
from the province of sculpture, and that where truth 
cannot be combined with beauty the former must be 
subordinated to the latter, does it follow that the 
canon is final and conclusive? An answer seems to be 
furnished at once by some of the Japanese sculptor's 
representations of the Deva Kings, the Four Maha- 
rajas, the deities of thunder and storm, and other cog- 
nate creations. These statues do not satisfy the 
standard of classical beauty, but they command 
profound admiration, and just as perfect Grecian 
sculpture is an ideal combination of all the highest 
elements of beauty presented by the human form, so 
these Japanese sculptures are ideal combinations of all 
the qualities that typify superhuman strength, resolu- 
tion, and supremacy. They are great works, not to 
be excluded from the art gallery because they depart 
from classic conventionalism, but rather to be ad- 
mitted as proofs that the convention is not final. 

Such works prepare the student to find that the 
duty of subordinating truth to beauty did not impel 
the Japanese sculptor to invent graceful or pictu- 
resque representatives of human passions and excesses. 
Instead of devising Satyrs, Nymphs, Fauns, Centaurs, 
Maenads, and so forth, to typify the lower instincts 
of humanity, he interpreted the spirit of vice and 
mischief as an ugly demon, not indeed as hideous as 
the Satan of Christian art but still a monster. It is 
scarcely credible that even the Greeks, though shrink- 
ing from everything repulsive, would have failed to 



sculpture a devil had they believed that the doomed 
are tortured and that their sufferings are superintended 
by such a being. But since they entertained no such 
belief, since their conception of the eternal conse- 
quences of sin was very trivial, there is no reason to 
infer that they excluded the demon from their art 
gallery merely because his ugliness disqualified him 
for admission. The truth is that they never con- 
ceived him. Buddhism, however, introduced a devil 
to Japan with appropriate furniture of horns, claws, 
and fangs. But he did not find a place in the gallery 
of sacred sculpture, nor did any of the celebrated 
artists of ancient or mediaeval Japan attempt to chisel a 
demon, if the deities of thunder and tempest, who are 
certainly demoniacal types, and the impish lantern- 
bearers of Kasuga, be excepted. On the other hand, 
if the devil's place in Japanese sacred sculpture was 
almost as rare as that of the Harpies in Grecian art, 
it is not to be assumed that he was ostracised because 
of his ugliness. He figures prominently in Japanese 
secular carving, which dates from a later epoch, and 
there can be no question that in the eyes of the 
Japanese his ugliness had a beauty of its own, as 
indeed all fully developed types have. 

Nevertheless it is necessary to conclude that, on 
the whole, the range of the art sculptor in Japan was 
narrow. He was the exponent of a system of reli- 
gious belief rather than of the heroic and the pathetic 
in humanity. He had no rich source of motives like 
that wide domain peopled by Grecian imagination 
with mythological heroes and heroines, with Dryads 
and Hamadryads, with Nymphs and Fauns, with Naiads 
and Nereids, with Satyrs, Centaurs, and Minotaurs, 
representatives of noble and tender fancies or pictur- 



esque vices. In the field of minor sculpture netsuke 
and sword-furniture he drew from a large reper- 
toire of motives ; from the pages of history, of legend, 
of folk-lore, and of every-day life. But such work 
dates from a comparatively late period. In all his 
early and mediaeval sculpture the types were few, and 
his treatment of them ultimately became conventional 
and uninteresting. This requires a word of explana- 
tion. At first sight it seems as though the large 
population of the Buddhist and Shinto pantheons 
should have furnished practically unlimited motives. 
The Indian creed with its broad liberality of eclecti- 
cism, and Taoism with its numerous excursions into 
elf-land and gnome-kingdom, appear to offer a mine 
sufficiently rich for any artist. But religion made 
from these a strict selection, and prescribed almost in- 
variable methods of treatment. The Nine Phases of 
Amitabha, for example, a formula suggesting varied 
developments, signifies, after all, nothing more than 
nine images distinguished solely by the positions of 
their hands and fingers. The legion of genii that 
exercise supernatural power in mystic regions of space 
appear to invite an endless play of poetic and artistic 
fancy. But their orthodox representatives, whether 
in painting or sculpture, are generally paltry in con- 
ception and disappointingly deficient in the dignity 
of apotheosis. It fared with the sculptors of Japan as 
it had fared with those of Byzantium. Bound by 
conventions which religion, not art, dictated, and 
which superstition enforced, they did not venture to 
follow ideals of their own, or to introduce strongly 
subjective elements into their work. 

It will further be observed that the cardinal point 
of difference between Japanese and Grecian methods 



was that in Japan the divine nature was never allied 
with the human form, and thus the attributes of the 
former found no expression in the beauties of the 
latter. Japanese deities were always draped wholly 
or partially. The Deva Kings and demoniacal beings 
in general had much of the body exposed, because a 
display of muscular force entered into the artistic con- 
ception of such statues. But a nude Buddha or a 
nude Kwannon would have been an intolerable sole- 
cism in Japanese eyes. The peculiar conditions that 
directed artistic attention in Greece to the graces of 
the human form did not exist in Japan, where ex- 
posure of the person was permitted to the lower 
orders only, and then for purposes of toilsome labour 
or ablutions. That the nude should be tabooed in 
art under such circumstances was inevitable. 

Before continuing the story of the development of 
sculpture, it will be well to speak briefly of the 
physical character of Japanese bronze, and of the 
methods adopted in modelling and casting. 

" Bronze " is known in Japan as kara-kane (Chinese 
metal), a term clearly indicating the source whence a 
knowledge of the alloy was derived. It is a copper- 
tin-lead compound, the proportions of its constituents 
varying from seventy-two to eighty-eight per cent 
of copper, from two to eight per cent of tin, and 
from four to twenty per cent of lead. It also con- 
tains small quantities of arsenic and antimony, as well 
as zinc, varying from a trace to as much as six 
per cent. There is a tradition that some ancient 
bronzes had a considerable admixture of gold, but no 
analysis has showed more than an occasional trace 
of the precious metal, and not more than two per 
cent of silver has ever been found. Lead was ex- 



eluded from bronze destined for the manufacture of 
swords and other weapons in which strength and hard- 
ness were essential, but it always found a place in 
bronze intended for artistic castings. An interesting 
fact is that the ancient bronzes of Egypt, Rome, and 
Greece were alloys in which the principal constitu- 
ents varied similarly, though these Occidental bronzes 
differed from the Japanese in being entirely free from 
arsenic and antimony. It must not be assumed, 
however, that the presence of the latter metals in 
Japanese bronze of later times was due to defective 
processes, whatever may have been the case formerly. 
The cause is to be sought in the addition of a pseudo- 
spiese (called shirome) ; an alloy of copper, arsenic, 
' lead, and antimony, obtained as a by-product in 
separating silver from copper by liquation with 
lead, a process introduced into Japan by the Portu- 
guese in the sixteenth century, but subsequently altered 
by the Japanese so that " the results achieved with it 
far surpassed in economy and in completeness of separa- 
tion of the respective metals anything that had been 
accomplished in its original form." l Alone shirome 
is worthless, but the Japanese discovered that by em- 
ploying it as a constituent of bronze, the latter ob- 
tained greater hardness without impairment of fusibil- 
ity, so that it took a sharper impression of the mould. 
From the early part of the seventeenth century 
shirome was constantly added to bronze destined for 
ornamental or useful castings, since, in addition to the 
advantages mentioned above, it facilitated the produc- 
tion of a deep gray patina, which was thought spe- 
cially suitable for silver inlaying. Competent experts 
have decided that Japanese bronze is eminently 

1 See Appendix, note 17. 



adapted for art castings, not only because of its 
low melting-point, great fluidity, and capacity for 
taking sharp impressions, but also because it has a 
particularly smooth surface and readily acquires a rich 

Concerning the quality of Japanese bronze, Mr. W. 
Gowland, in a paper read before the Applied Art 
Section of the Society of Arts, makes the following 
interesting remarks : 

The chief characters on which the value of the Japanese 
copper-tin-lead alloys, as art bronzes, depend, may be briefly 
stated as follows: 

1. Low melting-point. This is of especial importance 
to the Japanese founder, owing to the fusible nature of the 
clays and sands of which his crucibles and moulds are 

2. Great fluidity when melted compared with the sluggish- 
ness of copper-tin bronzes. 

3. Capability of receiving sharp impression of the mould. 

4. Their contraction on solidification is not excessive. 

5. Their peculiar smooth surface. 

6. The readiness with which they acquire rich patinas of 
many tints when suitably treated. 

The advantages resulting from the above properties will 
be obvious to all artists in bronze. They are chiefly the 
result of the use of lead as one of the chief constituents of 
the alloys. The low melting-point of these bronzes, their 
fluidity when melted, and the facility with which they acquire 
certain patinas are indeed entirely due to the use of this 
metal. The fine velvety surface and sharpness of the cast- 
ings depend in a great measure on the structure of the 
mould and its comparatively high temperature when the 
bronze is poured into it, although partly also on the influ- 
ence of the lead. These alloys are, however, not without 
some disadvantageous properties, and these are also due to 
the lead which they contain. They are often low in te- 
nacity, and offer but little resistance to bending and torsion 



when compared with simple copper-tin bronzes, even when 
they contain sufficient tin to enable them to hold more lead 
in solution than they would otherwise do. Their use is 
hence almost limited to the production of objects of art. 
And even for those art castings, such as, for example, large 
equestrian or other statues, where a considerable strain has 
to be borne by certain parts, their use is unadvisable. But 
in most art castings of moderate size and even in many 
of colossal proportions, where the position of the centre of 
gravity of the mass does not cause excessive tension in any 
part it is not necessary that the metal of which they are 
cast should possess great tenacity ; for all such, these alloys 
are eminently adapted, and especially so, as by no others can 
the work of the artist's hand with all its delicate and mas- 
terly touches, be so readily and perfectly reproduced. 

The above remarks apply to the ordinary bronze 
of temple images and utensils. There is also a yel- 
low bronze called sentoku because the first specimen 
of it reached Japan in the Shuntish (sentoku, in Japan- 
ese pronunciation) era of the Ming dynasty. Accord- 
ing to Japanese traditions, this alloy was accidentally 
obtained when the Chinese melted together the 
bronze and gold vessels of the conquered Mongols. 
But gold does not enter into the composition at all; 
the presence of the precious metal is ignorantly im- 
agined because of the golden colour of the alloy. 
Copper, tin, lead, and zinc, variously mixed by dif- 
ferent experts, are the ingredients. Its beautiful golden 
colour and glossy texture made it a favourite material 
in some workshops, and it is largely used in modern 
times. One very charming variety has a surface like 
aventurine lacquer (nashiji, or " pear ground," as it is 
called in Japan) : that is to say, specks or flecks of gold 
seem to float up from the depths of the metal. This 
effect is obtained by heating the alloy many times in 



the furnace, and sprinkling it while hot with sulphate 
of copper and nitric acid. 

With regard to the method of casting, Mr. Gow- 
land's description of a typical operation witnessed by 
himself is this : 

The bronze was melted in a cupola furnace. Charcoal 
was used as fuel, and the blast was produced by a " tatara " 
(kind of bellows) worked by eight persons. 

From an early hour in the morning, and whilst the melt- 
ing was proceeding, the foundry staff was engaged in prepar- 
ing the moulds for the reception of the metal by heating 
them to redness. This was effected in the following manner : 
The mould was placed on five or six bricks, to raise it above 
the earthen floor of the melting-room. Its ingates were 
closed with stoppers of clay, and conical tubes were fitted 
over its air outlets to prevent any fuel from falling into 
them. A wall of fireclay slabs was now built up around it, 
the slabs being kept in position by hoops and bands of iron 
and an external luting of clay, a space about three inches 
wide at its narrowest part being left between the inside of 
the wall and the outside of the mould. A charcoal fire was 
then made on the floor below the mould, and the space be- 
tween the wall and the mould was completely filled with 
burning charcoal which was mixed with fragments of bricks 
and crucibles to prevent the heat from becoming too intense. 
The interior of the core was also partly filled with the same 
mixture, and two clay tubes were fitted above it to serve the 
purpose of chimneys. The temperature of the interior was 
regulated by partially or entirely closing the upper openings 
of these tubes with tiles. The mould was kept at a red heat 
for more than two hours, by which time the metal was nearly 
ready. The wall of clay slabs and the draught tubes were 
now rapidly taken down and the fire was raked away. The 
bricks supporting the mould were carefully removed and the 
holes through which the wax had run out stopped up with 
fireclay. During their removal the floor below was sprinkled 
with water and softened by shovelling, and on this the 
mould was allowed to rest. Large stones were now piled 
VOL. vii. 9 1 20 


around its base to steady it, and the stoppers were removed 
from the ingates. The ingates, of which there were seven 
four about the middle of the mould and three at the top 
were fashioned in the form of small cups of fireclay, about 
two inches in diameter, each having three apertures half- 
inch in diameter opening into the channel leading into the 

The mould was now ready for receiving the metal. On 
looking into it through one of the ingates it was seen to be 
at a dull red heat. The bronze was then tapped into four 
iron ladles, each of which was held by a workman, and a 
small quantity of wood ashes was thrown upon its surface. 
The workmen then took up their positions opposite the 
lower ingates, and on a signal being given poured the con- 
tents of their ladles simultaneously into the mould. The 
quantity of metal had been very accurately estimated as it 
just reached about half-way up each ingate. These ingates 
were then closed with clay stoppers luted in with fireclay. 
Three of the ladles were filled again and poured in the same 
manner as before, but into the upper ingates, completely fill- 
ing the mould. During pouring very finely powdered rice 
bran was thinly sprinkled on the metal as it flowed from the 
mouths of the ladles. The mould was allowed to stand for 
six hours before breaking it from off the casting. Several 
other smaller moulds were then filled in a similar manner, 
and as one ladleful of metal was sufficient to fill each, they 
had only one ingate and one air outlet. Whilst the bronze 
was being poured into them they were rather vigorously 
tapped with a short stick to dislodge any air bubbles which 
might have adhered to their sides. 

For castings of very large size ladles are not used, but 
the bronze is run from one or more cupola furnaces, first 
into a receptacle lined with fireclay, and then from this through 
an aperture in its bottom into the mould. The outflow is 
regulated by means of a plug, so that a considerable depth 
of metal is always retained in the receptacle in order that 
scoriae and oxidised scums may be prevented from entering 
the mould. To prevent oxidation as far as possible, the 
surface of the metal is kept carefully covered with a layer of 
charcoal or of partially carbonised straw. 



A subsidiary but often necessary part of the founder's 
work, and one in which the Japanese exhibit very great 
skill, is the repairing of any defects that the castings may 
show on their removal from the moulds. Thus, for 
example, occasionally the rim or other part of a vase may be 
imperfect, owing to the retention of air in the mould when 
the metal was poured in. In this case the imperfect part is 
carefully remodelled in wax on the defective casting, a clay 
mould is made over it in the usual way, and the wax is 
melted out. A certain quantity of metal is then poured in 
and allowed to run out until the edges of the defective part 
have been partially melted, when the outlet is stopped and 
the mould allowed to fill. When it has solidified, the clay 
mould is broken away and the excess of metal filed off. 

Handles and ornamental appendages, which have been 
separately cast, are frequently attached to objects in this 
manner. Separate parts of complicated groups and often 
figures are similarly united, and often this is so skilfully 
done that it is impossible to say whether the whole is a true 
single casting or is composed of several pieces which have 
been separately cast. 

Rude as the appliances and methods of the Japanese art 
founder, which I have just described, may seem to us, he 
has produced with them castings in bronze on all scales, 
which, with all the modern equipments of our foundries, it 
would be difficult for us to excel. The simplicity, adapta- 
bility, and portable character of his appliances have been of 
special advantage to him in his remarkable achievements in 
colossal castings. Thus, when a huge image of a Buddhist 
divinity or a bell of unusual weight was required for a tem- 
ple or any locality, the whole of the operations were con- 
ducted on the spot. Temporary sheds for the modelling 
were erected in the temple grounds. The furnace and 
blowers were transported thither in segments ; sometimes 
the latter were even made by the local carpenters. If the 
casting had to be made in one piece, the necessary number 
of cupola furnaces, each with its blower, were erected around 
the mould. The cost of the blast was nil, as the services of 
any number of eager volunteers, from the crowds which 
congregated at the temple festival on the day of casting, 


were readily obtained for the meritorious work of treading 
the blowing-machines. In this way the great bells and 
colossal images were cast. 

It may be interesting to note here, that the methods of 
heating the mould and of repairing defective castings were 
in use in Europe during the tenth and eleventh centuries, 
and doubtless at a very much earlier date. They are de- 
scribed by Theophilus in his valuable treatise, " De Diversis 
Artibus," written in the early half of the eleventh century, 
and his description is practically identical with that I have 
just given of them as they are practised in Japan. 

What is here stated about the subsidiary processes 
employed for uniting the parts of colossal figures or 
complicated groups, has a special bearing on the 
"work of ancient Japanese casters. The great image 
of Lochana Buddha at Nara is fifty-three feet high. 
It is in a sitting posture. Were it standing erect, it 
would measure 138 feet, approximately. Tradition 
says that the metals used were 500 pounds of gold, 
16,827 pounds of tin, 1,954 pounds of mercury, 
and 986,180 pounds of copper; but the statement is 
evidently inexact, since it omits lead. The gold and 
mercury served, of course, for gilding purposes only. 
This, figure was cast not in one piece, but in a 
number of segments, plates measuring ten inches 
by twelve superficially, and six inches in thickness. 
The same method of construction was adopted in the 
case of the huge Amida at Kamakura, which has a 
height only three feet less than that of the Nara Dat- 
Butsu. History tells that the plan pursued by the early 
Greeks, as illustrated in the Spartan statue of Zeus de- 
scribed by Pausanias, was to hammer bronze plates over 
a model and subsequently to rivet them together. Not 
until the sixth century before the Christian era was 
the art of hollow casting discovered. Now, although 



the huge images of Japan, like the very much smaller 
statues of ancient Greece, were finally built up with 
plates of bronze, these plates were not originally ham- 
mered into shape : they were cast. The building-up 
process was evidently resorted to because it would 
have been scarcely possible to cast such gigantic 
figures in situ, neither could the mechanical genius of 
the age have furnished any means of transporting and 
elevating upon its pedestal an image weighing five 
hundred and fifty tons, as the Nara Dai-Butsu did. 
It is thus apparent that the Japanese of the eighth 
century understood and practised with marked success 
the process which is regarded as the highest develop- 
ment of the caster's art, namely, the employment of a 
hollow, removable core round which the metal is run 
in a skin just thick enough for strength without waste 
of material. The object was first roughly modelled 
in clay on a hollow wooden core. Then, over the 
clay, a skin of wax was applied, and in this the artist 
worked all the details, whether of form or of decora- 
tion. Thereafter a thin layer of clay was applied 
with a brush, and when it had dried, other layers 
were similarly superposed, until coats of coarser clay 
could be added so as to obtain the requisite strength 
of mould. Then the mould was dried slowly by 
means of gentle heat, and the wooden core having 
been removed, the wax was melted out, leaving a 
hollow space into which the molten bronze could be 
poured, the outer envelope and the inner skin of clay 
being ultimately broken up and removed. A bronze 
casting obtained by this process was evidently a shell 
without any break of continuity, whereas for great 
images, like the Dai-Butsu of Nara and Kamakura, it 
was necessary to cast the shell in a number of small 



and easily manipulated segments. Records say that 
the plan pursued by the artists of the Nara Dai-Butsu 
was to gradually build up the walls of the mould as 
the lower part of the casting cooled, instead of con- 
structing the whole mould first and making the cast- 
ing in a single piece. On that supposition it appears 
that the mould was constructed in a series of steps 
ascending twelve inches at a time, and as the head, 
which with the neck measures some twelve feet in 
height, was cast in one shell, it follows that the body 
must have been made in forty-one independent layers. 
The labour and risks of such a process are evidently 


Chapter IV 


IT is evident from what has been written above 
that up to the middle of the sixteenth century 
the resources of applied art were employed almost 
entirely for religious purposes, the modelling 
or casting of sacred images, the lacquering and inlay- 
ing of pillars and beams, the pictorial decoration of 
door panels or ceiling coffers, and the chiselling of 
ornamental metal mountings and temple accessories. 
But from the days of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi the 
services of applied art began to be enlisted for secular 
purposes even more largely than for sacred. The 
prime cause of this change was foreign intercourse. 
Contact with the Dutch and the Portuguese suggested 
the substitution of large solidly constructed castles for 
the flimsy wooden edifices that had previously served 
as military strongholds, and it soon became difficult 
to reconcile the simplicity of old-time domestic 
interiors with the lives of the lords of such massive 
structures. Hideyoshi's tastes greatly promoted this 
sequence of ideas. Though the scenes and struggles 
of his career were not at all calculated to develop 
artistic proclivities, he was found to be an impassioned 
lover of the beautiful and the refined when he rose to 
power, and he not only encouraged art effort in every 


form, but also converted the once simple tea-ceremony 
into a vehicle for promoting the collection of costly 
objects of virtu. It was undoubtedly in this respect 
that he produced the greatest and most permanent 
effect on his country ; for whereas the unvarying 
habit of the nation, even in the days of Fujiwara 
magnificence, had been to cultivate beauty without 
display, Hideyoshi introduced the custom of associat- 
ing beauty with display. He may be said to have 
extended the -range of decorative art from accessories 
to principals, and to have made splendour the perpet- 
ual accompaniment of life, not merely a feature of its 
occasional incidents. It thus becomes necessary to 
speak henceforth of applied art according to the fields 
of its employment, not, as hitherto, in connection 
with religion alone. 

Up to the thirteenth century the Japanese did not 
use iron caldrons for boiling rice. They employed a 
vessel of baked clay, sinking it in a hole in the ground 
and applying heat from above. The manufacture of 
iron vessels for such purposes commenced under cir- 
cumstances of which no record exists, but it is known 
to have been inaugurated by Shichirozayemon, a de- 
scendant of the second son of the Hojo Regent Yoshi- 
toki. Had it not been for the skill of this man and 
his descendants as iron-casters, the tea-clubs established 
under the auspices of Yoshimasa,.at the close of the 
fifteenth century, might have found difficulty in ob- 
taining urns adapted to their taste. But Nagoshi 
Yashichiro, great-grandson of Shichirozayemon, was 
able to meet the novel demand. The term "urn" 
is somewhat misleading in this context, for the cha- 
gama of Japan partakes rather of the nature of a cal- 
dron. Roughly described, it is a spherical vessel 


B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

encircled by a broad flange, so that while the lower 
hemisphere is sunk into a charcoal furnace, the upper, 
supported on the flange, remains above the level of 
the matted floor. But that is indeed a rough descrip- 
tion, for the cha-gama engrossed the skill of the best 
artisans, and designs for its shape and ornamentation 
were furnished by the greatest artists. Yashichiro's 
models were sketched by the painters that helped 
Yoshimasa to elaborate the details and utensils of the 
tea ceremonial, and a metal-caster himself had the 
honour to be appointed metal-caster and sculptor to 
the Imperial Household, the Ise Shrine, and the Sbo- 
guns family. He received the art name " Miami," 
and from his time the iron tea-urn occupied a place 
of great importance. Japanese connoisseurs recognise 
and appreciate infinitesimally small differences in 
shape, in quality of metal, and in surface decoration, 
and though the foreign amateur can scarcely emulate 
such discrimination, he finds no difficulty in admiring 
the refined taste, the ingenuity of form and design, 
and the elaboration of nomenclature that are lavished 
in Japan on utensils which, in other parts of the 
world, would be regarded as little better than kitchen 
furniture. Sesshiu, the celebrated painter, furnished 
designs for cha-gama in the fifteenth century, and 
when the tea ceremonial, under the patronage of 
rulers like Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, assumed national 
dimensions, the manufacture of iron urns became a 
branch of high art, and continued to have that rank 
throughout the whole of the Yedo epoch. The cha- 
gama, however, has no honour outside Japan. Being 
inseparable from the purpose it serves, it has never 
commended itself to the European or American 
collector, nor has any writer undertaken to compare 



the relative merits of the amida-do, the maru-gama, the 
dai-unryo t the sbo-unryo, the shiri-bari, and a multitude 
of other shapes esteemed by the tea-clubs. But there 
is interest in knowing that the manufacture of the 
tea-urn gave impetus to metal work in general, and 
that the kama-shl (urn-maker), though proud to be 
so called, did not by any means confine himself to the 
production of kama . His work extended to all kinds 
of metal utensils for the use of the tea-clubs or the 
furniture of temples, and he cast not only bells and 
pedestal lamps but even cannon. The Nagoshi fam- 
ily attained the highest reputation as kama-sbi. In 
the sixteenth century the representatives of the sixth, 
seventh, and eighth generations, Joyu, Zensho, and 
Sansho (known also by his art name, Jomi), as well 
as the latter's brother (Sanehisa or Ittan), were con- 
spicuously famous. Sansho cast a great bell for the 
temple of the Kyoto Dai-Butsu, and received the 
title of Ecbizen no Sbbjo ; and Sanehisa manufactured 
a bronze image sixteen feet high for the same temple. 
These artists, having enjoyed the patronage of the Taiko 
and received from him the honorific appellation of 
Tenka Icbi (first under the sun), refrained from serv- 
ing the Tokugawa Shoguns. But Sanehisa's younger 
brother, lyemasa (or Zuiyetsu), was not influenced by 
such scruples. The Yedo Government conferred on 
him the title of Etcbu no Shojo, and in conjunction with 
his pupils, Onishi, Josei, and Joho, he founded a 
school of artists who executed many beautiful works 
in bronze and iron during the seventeenth, eighteenth, 
and nineteenth centuries, were munificently supported 
by the Tokugawa Shoguns, and had titles of rank be- 
stowed on them ; a point not unworthy of note, since 
European writers have denied that Japanese art- 

B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

founders ever rose above the grade of common 

The Tokugawa era (1620-1850) is justly regarded 
as the golden period of the bronze-caster's art in 
Japan. It was marked, not by any specially con- 
spicuous achievements like the founding of the colossal 
Buddhas at Nara and Kamakura, but rather by a long 
series of beautiful works executed for the mausolea 
of the Tokugawa in Yedo and Nikko, and for other 
temples and shrines throughout the Empire. These 
works consisted of thupas, pedestal and hanging 
lamps, vases, pricket-candlesticks, censers, pagodas, 
reliquaries, gates, fonts, figures of mythological ani- 
mals, images of deities and saints, pillar-caps and 
other objects of an architectural character. The thupas 
were never highly ornamented : they depended chiefly 
on chaste simplicity of outline and graces of form. 
The same remark applies in part to the vases, censers, 
and pricket-candlesticks placed before altars and 
tombs. 1 These showed continual fidelity to tradi- 
tional models. The vase had the familiar " beaker" 
shape of China, and its ornamentation consisted only 
of vertical bands scalloped in high relief and of medal- 
lions enclosing Paullownia leaves. The censers, too, 
had plain surfaces broken by two, or at most three, 
similar medallions, their lids surmounted by a Dog of 
Fo and their feet modelled to represent the head of 
that animal. The pricket-candlestick invariably took 
the form of a stork standing on a tortoise, or on a lotus 
calyx, supporting with its beak a leaf of lotus which 
formed the pricket-receptacle. These objects, though 
finely modelled and skilfully cast, lose much of their 
interest owing to their wearisome uniformity. It is 

1 See Appendix, note 1 8. 



in the casting of pedestal lamps (toro) that greatest 
progress was made. Here much beauty of form is 
found with elaborate decoration, both incised and in 
relief. The pedestal lamp had long been an essential 
article of temple paraphernalia, and from a celebrated 
octagonal lantern preserved at the temple Todai-ji it 
is learned that, already in the twelfth century, Japanese 
artists had conceived, or received, the idea of castings 
a jour with high-relief decoration suspended in the 
network. But the splendid series of fbrb (pedestal 
lamp) cast from the beginning to the end of the Yedo 
era show a remarkable development of artistic and 
technical skill, every variety of decoration being used 
successfully for their ornamentation decoration in 
sunken panels, decoration in high, low, and medium 
relief, and decoration incised. It is commonly asserted 
that this kind of work was suggested by Korean ex- 
amples. Certainly there is a broad difference between 
the methods of the Chinese and the Korean metal- 
caster : the former confined himself entirely to scrolls 
and arabesques in low relief; the latter preferred high- 
relief effects and modelling in accordance with natural 
forms. But it is impossible to accept the theory that 
bronzes brought from Korea to Japan by the Taiko s 
forces at the close of the sixteenth century were the 
first specimens of that nature ever seen by Japanese 
artists, for in the temple Hokke-ji there are preserved 
two bronzes of the year 1325, copied accurately from 
a well-known form of Chinese celadon vase having 
peony scrolls in relief. These make it clear that 
although the fashion of bronze-casting in Japan may 
have derived a marked impulse from contact with 
examples of Korean workmanship in the time of the 
Taiko, an entirely new style was not suggested by that 


B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

event. Associated with the fine castings then made 
is the name of Jiyemon Yasuteru of the Nakaya 
family, who is commonly but erroneously supposed 
to have been the first in Japan to decorate bronzes 
with designs in high relief, taking for motives flowers, 
birds, figure-subjects, dragons, etc. The Taiko be- 
stowed on him the art distinction of tenka ichi (first 
under the sun), exempted him from taxation and gave 
him the title, Dewa no Daijo. It is to the experts of 
this family that Japan owes the beautiful bronzes 
of the Tokugawa mortuary shrines in Yedo (Tokyo) 
and Nikko. Jiyemon Yasuteru's great-grandson, 
Jiyemon lyetsugu, cast the bronzes for the mausoleum 
of lyemitsu, the third Tokugawa Shbgun in 1651, as 
his father, Jiyemon Yasuiye, had cast those for the 
shrine of lyeyasu, and every representative of the 
family down to Kameyama Yasutomo, whose son 
is now working in Kyoto, was honoured with an 
official title, whether Dewa no Daijo or Ise no 
Daijo or Tamato no Daijo. Some of the choicest 
work of these experts is seen in reliquaries, and a 
better idea of their skill may be gathered from the 
accompanying plates than from any verbal description. 
Two features may be mentioned, however, since no 
picture can do more than suggest them ; namely, the 
fine texture of the metal and the beautiful patina 
it develops in the course of years. This question of 
patina will be referred to in future pages. 

Towards the middle of the seventeenth century an- 
other new departure was made : bronze-casters turned 
their attention to objects for use in private houses. 
Hitherto they have been seen devoting their best 
efforts to work of a religious character ; they now 
began to cast alcove-ornaments, flower-vases, and 



censers for the tea-clubs as well as for the public in 
general. Such objects were not manufactured for the 
first time at so late a date as the seventeenth century. 
Splendid examples in iron, in silver, and in other 
metals had been chiselled in previous eras by sculptors 
of sword-furniture. But the works referred to here 
are bronze. Not until a comparatively recent date 
did the art of casting that metal become so refined 
and delicate that its products began to rank with the 
forged and chiselled works of silversmiths and chis- 
ellers of sword-furniture (to be spoken of presently). 
Some authorities maintain that " parlour bronzes " 
were first manufactured by Nakayama Shoyeki, popu- 
larly called Yojuro, an armourer of Takata in Echigo, 
who settled in Kyoto in 1573, and was equally suc- 
cessful in chiselling iron and in casting bronze. Cer- 
tainly Shoyeki's descendants were highly skilled 
bronze-casters. But no authenticated casting of his 
survives, and it is consequently usual to speak of a 
female expert, Kame, of Nagasaki (1661 to 1690), as 
the pioneer of this kind of work. By some authori- 
ties, generally well informed, the great error has been 
committed of attributing to Kame the first use of 
the cire-perdue process, which, as the reader knows, 
had been commonly employed by Japanese metal- 
casters for many centuries before her time. The fact 
is that the excellence of Kame's modelling, she was 
especially noted for censers in the form of a quail, 
the fine surface of her bronze and the clean sharpness 
of her casting, attracted so much attention that her 
methods were regarded as a new departure. Another 
common error is to say that Kame's era was immedi- 
ately antecedent to that of Seimin, a bronze-caster 
whose name is known to all Western collectors. 


B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

Seimin's date was fully a century subsequent to that 
of Kame. He was born in Nagasaki in 1769, and 
though, before he moved to Yedo in 1805, he doubt- 
less studied the methods which Kame and her father, 
Tokuye, practised so successfully in Genya-machi in 
Nagasaki, it does not appear that he gained any 
distinction until, having undergone a course of train- 
ing in the workshop of an urn-caster in Yedo, he 
settled in the Kameido suburb and devoted himself 
to producing flower-vases, censers, and alcove-orna- 
ments. Seimin had five pupils, Toun, Masatsune, 
Teijo, Somin, and Keisai, and by this group of artists 
many brilliant works were turned out, their general 
features being that the motives were naturalistic, that 
the quality of the metal was exceptionally fine, that 
modelling in high relief was most successfully em- 
ployed, and that, in addition to beautifully clean 
castings obtained by highly skilled use of the cera-per- 
duta process, the chisel was employed to impart deli- 
cacy and finish to the design. Seimin preferred the 
golden coloured bronze, Sentoku, to all other alloys, 
and his specialty was the modelling of tortoises, just 
as Kame's reputation rests chiefly on her censers in 
the shape of quails, and Toun is regarded as one of 
the greatest casters of dragons that Japan ever pos- 
sessed. Seimin did not work for the general market : 
he aimed at producing chefs-tfceu'vres only, whereas 
the most renowned of his pupils showed more of the 
mercantile instinct. Masatsune, a slow and infinitely 
painstaking artist, shared Seimin's exclusive views, as 
did also Keisai and Somin ; but Teijo, though much 
of his work is not inferior to that of Masatsune, often 
aimed at quantity rather than quality. These six men 
gave exceptional 6clat to the first half of the present 



century. Not less expert were their contemporaries 
Suwara Yasugoro (art name Zenriusai Gido), Takusai, 
and Hotokusai. Gido excelled in casting alcove- 
ornaments in the form of the Dog of Fo (shishi), 
figures of Hotei, the Genius Gama, and such things. 
Takusai, who worked in Sado, produced only small 
objects, chiefly paper-weights, pen-rests and other 
desk-furniture, imparting to them a beautiful patina ; 
and Hotokusai affected designs in medium relief 
which he cast and chiselled admirably. 

It is often said that after the era of the above ten 
masters, the last of whom, Somin, ceased to work in 
1871, no bronzes comparable with theirs were cast. 
That is an error. Between 1875 and 1879, some of 
the finest bronzes probably the very finest of their 
kind ever produced in Japan were turned out by a 
group of experts working in combination under the 
firm-name "Sansei-sha." Started by two brothers, 
Oshima Katsujiro (art name Joun) and Oshima Yasu- 
taro (art name Shokaku) in 1875, this association 
secured the services of a number of skilled chisellers 
of sword-furniture who had lost their metier owing to 
the abolition of the sword-wearing custom. Nothing 
could surpass the delicacy of the works executed in 
the Sansei-sha's atelier at Kobinata in the Ushigome 
quarter of Toky5. Unfortunately such productions 
were above the standard of the customers for whom 
they were intended. Foreign buyers, who alone 
stood in the market at that time, failed to distinguish 
the fine and costly bronzes of Joun, Shokaku, and 
their colleagues from cheap imitations that soon began 
to compete with them, so that ultimately the Sansei- 
sha had to be closed. This page in the modern 
history of Japan's bronzes needs little alteration to be- 


B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

come true of her applied art in general. Foreign 
demand showed so little discrimination that experts, 
rinding it impossible to obtain adequate remuneration 
for high-class work, were obliged to abandon the 
field altogether or to lower their standard to the level 
of common appreciation, or to have recourse to 
forgeries. Joun has produced, and is thoroughly 
capable of producing, bronzes at least equal to the 
best of Seimin's masterpieces, yet he has often been 
induced to put Seimin's name on objects for the sake 
of attracting buyers that attach more value to cachet 
than to quality. Even in the manufacture of the 
beautiful golden-patina bronze (ki-sentoku) for which 
Seimin was famous, Joun shows no inferiority. His 
vases are generally of medium size with decoration in 
high relief, carp swimming in water, sprays of flowers, 
mythological beings, and so on. His pupil Nogami 
Yataro (art name Riuki) is a scarcely less skilled 
caster, especially clever in modelling insects and 
tortoises in Seimin's style. 

Among modern bronze-casters the names of Suzuki 
Chokichi, Okazaki Sessei, Hasegawa Kumazo, Kanaya 
Gorosaburo, and Tomi Yeisuke, in conjunction with 
those mentioned above, take rank as masters of their 
art and perpetuate its best traditions. Suzuki Choki- 
chi has the title of Gigei-in, or expert to the Imperial 
Court. He has emerged from the days of false stan- 
dards when he manufactured some pieces remembered 
by him to-day with shame notably a huge censer 
now in the possession of the South Kensington Mu- 
seum, a type of the meretricious confused style often 
adopted by Japanese artists in obedience to their 
mistaken conception of Western taste and he now 
casts bronzes that comply with the pure canons of 



Japanese art, where the naturalistic modelling is 
always duly subordinated to the decorative design. 

In connection with the name of Okazaki Sessei, a 
special kind of casting should be mentioned. The 
tomb of lyeyasu, first Tokugawa Shogun, at the 
Shiba mausolea is approached by a magnificent bronze 
gate the doors of which are solid castings with large 
medallion ornaments moulded in relief in a field of 
delicately traced diapers. This grand specimen of 
bronze-casting is known in Japan as Chosen Karakanemon 
(the Korean bronze gate), in recognition of the fact 
that the panels were brought from Korea among the 
spoils taken by the Taikos troops. No panels of 
comparable magnitude are found in any other mau- 
soleum of the Tokugawa, and the plain inference, 
supported by traditions and endorsed by modern 
bronze-workers, is that a casting of the kind was 
beyond the capacity of Japanese experts in the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. Okazaki Sessei en- 
joys the distinction of being the first to accomplish 
such work. In 1890 he cast two magnificent door- 
panels, their height 7.2 feet, their width 4.5 feet, and 
their decorative designs ascending and descending 
dragons (agari-riu and kudari-riu) modelled in high 
relief, the former rising from waves, the latter emerg- 
ing from clouds. The casting of such large panels is 
regarded as a most difficult tour-de-force. Many other 
beautiful works in bronze have emerged from Sessei's 
hands, an eagle in the act of alighting, its outspread 
wings measuring seven feet across ; a figure (8.7 feet 
high) of one of the Heavenly Kings trampling on a 
dragon, and other fine conceptions. He is now 
engaged on a colossal figure, thirty-three feet high, 
of the great Buddhist teacher, Nichiren, which is to 


B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

be set up in a temple at Hakata. Of Hasegawa 
Kumazo there is not much to be said. He follows 
the fashions of Seimin and Toun, and many of his 
pieces are not at all inferior to the best works of 
those artists, but he has never been induced to forge 
the cachet of any of the old masters. 

Occidental influence has been felt, of course, in 
the field of modern Japanese bronze-casting. At a 
School of Art officially established in Tokyo in 1873 
under the direction of Italian teachers, a school 
which owed its signal failure partly to the incompe- 
tence and intemperate behaviour of some of the for- 
eign professors, partly to a strong renaissance of pure 
Japanese classicism, one of the few accomplish- 
ments successfully taught was that of modelling in 
plaster and chiselling in marble after Occidental 
methods. 1 Marble statues are out of place in the 
wooden buildings as well as in the parks of Japan, 
and even plaster busts or groups, though less incongru- 
ous, have not yet found favour. Hence the skill 
undoubtedly possessed by several graduates of the 
defunct Art School notably by Mr. Ogura Sqjiro 
has to be devoted chiefly to a subordinate purpose, 
namely, the fashioning of models for metal-casters. 
To this combination of modellers in European style 
and metal-workers of such force as Suzuki Chokichi 
and Okazaki Sessei, Japan owes various memorial 
bronzes and likeness effigies which are gradually 
finding a place in her parks, her museums, her shrines, 
or her private houses. There is here little departure 
from the well-trodden paths of Europe. Studies in 
drapery, prancing steeds, ideal poses, heads with 
fragments of torsos attached (in extreme violation of 

1 See Appendix, note 19. 



true art), crouching beasts of prey, all the stereo- 
typed styles are reproduced. The imitation is excel- 
lent. That is all that can yet be said, though some of 
these works suggest that Japanese artists will by-and- 
by attain distinction in the new field. 

The reader will not have failed to observe that 
whereas, in speaking of the early developments of 
sculpture in Japan, it has not been possible to draw a 
clear line between the carver of wood and the caster 
of bronze, the latter has chiefly figured in subsequent 
pages of the story. It is, in truth, often difficult to 
distinguish them so far as their place in the records 
of sculpture is concerned. The bronze-caster some- 
times made his own models in wax, sometimes chis- 
elled them in wood, and sometimes had recourse to 
the aid of the wood-carver. So, too, in modern 
times, the best wood-sculptors of the era as Mitsu- 
boshi Riuun and Takamura Koun lend their chisels 
to carve models for metal-casters, just as pictorial artists 
like Hashimoto Gaho, Kawabata Giyokusho, and 
Nomura Bunkyo, paint subjects to be copied by gold- 
smiths and enamellers. These interactions are some- 
times recorded, sometimes ignored by the Japanese 
themselves, who appear to have always attached 
more importance to the result than to the processes 
by which it was reached. There is, however, a 
certain field of work where the wood-carver stands 
alone, namely, architectural decoration for interiors. 

The Buddhist temple buildings of Japan in ancient 
times, though their architectural outlines were grace- 
ful and imposing, had nothing of the elaborate deco- 
ration which characterises the sacred edifices of 
subsequent centuries. Thus the temple Horiu-ji, 
reconstructed in the eighth century, while in many 


B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

respects a beautiful model, was without sculptured 
decoration in the interior, the only features that re- 
lieved its simplicity being dragons coiled round the 
four pillars supporting the eaves of the third storey, 
and mural paintings. This comparatively plain struc- 
ture offers a marked contrast to the wealth of decora- 
tive work which, in such buildings as the mausolea 
of Nikko and Shiba, the later temple of Kyoto and 
many of the mediaeval castles, astonishes and delights 
foreign visitors, and will always be classed among the 
most attractive achievements of artistic conception 
and technical skill that the world possesses. It is 
with these specimens of wood-carving that Japanese 
sculpture is chiefly associated in the mind of Occi- 
dental students, and there would be much interest in 
determining the exact date and nature of the impulse 
that led architects to depart from the comparatively 
austere precedents of early eras. Buddhism itself does 
not supply an explanation. It is true that from the 
first day of its advent in Japan, Buddhism imparted to 
religious observances many elements of splendour and 
richness which were entirely absent from the Shinto 
ceremonial. The gorgeous vestments of the priests ; 
the glowing radiance of the altar and its furniture ; 
the elaborate beauty of the temple utensils ; the im- 
pressive majesty of the monster images and the glory 
of the multitudinous smaller idols with their mys- 
terious attributes and varied aspect; the mystic in- 
comprehensibleness of the sutras, and the sensuous 
solemnity of the services of chaunted litany and float- 
ing incense, all these things stood in sharp contrast 
to the ascetic simplicity and unbending severity of the 
Shinto cult. But the Buddhist temple itself, though 
its architects had free recourse to the artist's brush for 



painting door panels, ceiling coffers, and even walls, 
and to the lacquerer's hand for decorating pillars and 
beams with golden hues and glowing mother-of-pearl, 
did not at first excel the Shinto shrine in the matter 
of ornamentation so much as it was itself excelled by 
the temples and mausolea of the seventeenth century. 
In these a profuse wealth of architectural decoration 
gave almost boundless scope to the genius of the 
painter, the sculptor, the lacquerer, and the worker in 
metals. The middle of the sixteenth century is gen- 
erally regarded as the approximate date of this new 
departure, and undoubtedly the taste for grandeur and 
magnificence fostered by Hideyoshi, the Taiko, was 
largely responsible. Japanese annalists, indeed, at- 
tribute to Nobunaga, Hideyoshi's captain, the first idea 
of employing sculpture for the architectural decora- 
tion of interiors, and are even so precise as to fix the 
very incident that marked the innovation, namely, No- 
bunaga's employment of two wood-carvers, Mataemon 
and Yuzayemon, to chisel dragons upon the pillars of 
a pagoda erected by him. But when it is considered 
that within a very few years of Nobunaga's death 
(1582), the magnificent ornamentation of the temple 
Nishi-Hongwanji in Kyoto was completed, and that 
of the mausoleum of lyeyasu at Nikko was com- 
menced, and when it is further considered that noth- 
ing in the whole range of Japanese decorative art 
reaches a higher level of beautiful and skilled elabo- 
ration than the pictorial and sculptured work of 
these buildings, strong doubts are suggested whether 
an idea which had its birth in the second half of the 
sixteenth century could have ripened to full maturity 
by the beginning of the seventeenth. It seems more 
reasonable to conclude that the great carver Hidari 


B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

Jingoro (left-handed Jingoro), who flourished from 
about 1590 to 1634, and who is counted the prince 
of Japanese decorative sculptors (miya-shi or miyabori- 
shi, as distinguished from busshi, the sculptor of 
images), stood, in the natural order of evolution, at 
the head of a line of artists whose work, though for 
lack of opportunity it made no memorable display, 
helped to educate a taste for architectural decoration 
and to prepare the way for enterprises which gave 
full scope to the genius of Jingoro and his successors. 
There is, however, no certainty about these matters. 
Broad limits only can be fixed. Thus, while it is 
known that the celebrated Silver Pavilion (Ginkaku-ji), 
built by Yoshimasa in 1479, and the even more re- 
nowned Golden Pavilion (Kinkaku-ji) of Yoshimitsu 
(constructed in 1397) were entirely without sculp- 
tured decoration, it is also known that the temple 
Nishi-Hongwan-ji, erected in 1592, and the mau- 
soleum of lyeyasu at Nikko (commenced in 1616) 
have an unrivalled richness of such ornamentation. 
It should be explained clearly, again, that reference is 
not made here to architectural applications of pictorial 
art. From very early times the services of the painter 
had been placed at the disposal of the architect. 
Indeed, the reader will have learned from what has 
already been written of Japanese pictorial art, that the 
painter, whether his picture was to hang in an alcove 
or to find its place on the walls, sliding doors, or 
screens of an interior, always regarded his work as the 
decoration of a panel, and was careful to observe the 
limitations as to chiaroscuro and linear perspective that 
separate applied art from realistic. The oldest sur- 
viving example of pictorial art employed for decora- 
tive purposes which dates from the eighth century may 


be seen in the ancient temple Horu-ji at Nara, where 
the walls of the principal hall have distemper paint- 
ings, described as follows by the late Dr. Anderson in 
one of the official catalogues of the British Museum : 

The central figure represents a Buddha seated upon a 
lotus-throne which is supported by a number of crouching 
dwarfs. The aspect of the Divinity and the position of the 
hands (right hand raised, both palms directed forwards) are 
in accordance with the image of Amitabha described in a 
well-known Japanese work, " Nichi-gwatsu To-myo-Butsu." 
On each side of the Buddha stands a Bodhisattva with hands 
clasped in prayer. In the foreground are two martial figures 
of Deva Kings, and between them two conventional lions. 
Four other persons appear behind the Trinity, two of them 
having the aspect of Deva Kings, and two that of Arharts, 
but the details have become so indistinct from the effects of 
time and exposure that identification is very difficult. . . . 
The half-obliterated remains still manifest the touch of a 
practised hand, and in colouring and composition bear no 
small resemblance to the works of the old Italian masters. 
The painting is probably the oldest specimen of Buddhist 
or other pictorial art extant in Japan, and has, moreover, a 
special interest as being one of the very rare examples of the 
application of a coloured design directly to the surface of the 
plaster wall (the ordinary mural decoration being usually 
executed on paper which is afterwards affixed to the wall by 
paste). It is not, however, a true fresco. 

It was through Buddhism, then, that the Japanese 
learned the use of applied pictorial art for purposes of 
architectural decoration, and they employed it freely 
though not in the sense of fresco-painting, for they 
never understood the art of mural painting upon 
freshly laid plaster lime with colour capable of resist- 
ing the caustic action of the lime. They attained 
much proficiency in the preparation and application 


B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

of wall plaster, colouring it with delicate taste, em- 
ploying many dexterous devices to vary its surface, 
and moulding it into diapers, arabesques, and other 
designs of much beauty. But painting with colour 
mixed with lime remained unknown to them, and 
when it is remembered that this method was in use 
in Egypt from the very remotest era of that country's 
monumental history, that it passed thence to Italy and 
Greece, that its extraordinary durability was under- 
stood as early as the days of Vitruvius, and that traces 
of Grecian influence are plainly discernible in Japan- 
ese art, the fact that such an aid to architectural 
decoration did not become familiar to the peoples of 
the Far East is certainly curious. It would seem, 
too, that the distemper painting at Horiu-ji was an 
exotic method which never took root in Japan, for 
only two other examples of similar work are known 
to exist. 

The Golden and Silver Pavilions alluded to above 
offer good illustrations of the point to which interior 
decoration had been carried before the sixteenth 
century. The former had three storeys. The lowest 
was quite plain, its milk-white timbers and unadorned 
walls forming a chaste setting for gilt statuettes of 
deities and an effigy of Yoshimitsu himself, which 
formed its only furniture. The ceiling of the second 
storey was painted with angels (tennin) encircled by a 
border of floral scroll. The third storey was com- 
pletely gilt, walls, floor, ceiling, and balcony being 
covered with gold foil. 1 The Silver Pavilion, or, to 
speak more correctly, one of its associated buildings, 
showed a partial approach to the decorative style 
of later eras. The walls had Indian-ink sketches 

1 See Appendix, note 20. 



painted not direct on the plaster but on its paper 
covering and the sliding doors were decorated with 
figure subjects, landscapes, river-scenes, and birds. But 
there was no sculpture, whereas the State apartments 
of the great temple Nishi Hongwan-ji in Kyoto, 
built at the close of the sixteenth century, show a 
stage of architectural decoration almost on a level 
with that reached by the designers of the mausolea 
at Nikko and Shiba (Tokyo), and show also that there 
devolved on the sculptor of that era duties scarcely 
less important than those of the painter. Each room 
is an independent study, all details subordinated to a 
general design. Thus in one chamber the sliding 
doors and the lower mural spaces are covered with 
paintings of peacocks and cherry-trees in bloom, while 
the upper mural spaces are occupied by massive 
wooden panels (ramma}, boldly carved in open-work 
designs of phoenixes and wild camellia, which stand 
out with realistic effect against the dimly transmitted 
light of adjoining chambers or corridors. In another 
room the pictorial decoration takes the form of 
Chinese landscapes on a gold ground, and the upper 
parts of the walls have panels carved in a design of 
wistaria. The fashion of the decoration may be 
sufficiently inferred from these descriptions pictorial 
below, sculptured above. If to these details a coffered 
ceiling be added, each coffer enclosing a painted or 
carved panel, a general idea is obtained of the archi- 
tectural decoration of the sixteenth century as applied 
to interiors. 

Twenty-five years later, the mausoleum of lyeyasu, 
the first Tokugawa Shogun, was erected. There, in 
memory of this " Orient-illuminating Prince" (Tosho- 
gu), all the decorative and architectural resources of 


B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

the time were employed to construct a mortuary 
chapel at the dedication of which, in 1617, an 
Imperial Envoy presided and the Sutra of the Lotus 
of the Law was recited ten thousand times by a mul- 
titude of priests. This mausoleum, together with the 
chapel in memory of the third Tokugawa Shogun, 
lyemitsu, also at Nikko, and the mausolea of the 
other potentates of the same line at Shiba and Uyeno 
in Tokyo, are certainly among the most wonderful 
efforts of decorative art that the world possesses. 
Words are quite inadequate to convey a just idea 
of the combined glory and elegance of the structures, 
both externally and internally. Innumerable motives 
are represented, in painting, in sculpture, in lacquer 
and in metal work, and though the details are so 
varied and multitudinous that their description would 
fill a large volume, the arrangements and congruity 
are so perfect that no sense of confusion or bewilder- 
ment is ever suggested. Every available spot or space 
has some feature of beauty coffered ceiling, em- 
bossed column, sculptured surface, carved bracket 
and beam, silver-capped pendant, gold-sheathed pillar- 
neck and beam-crossing, gilded roof-crest and termi- 
nal, painted mural space, lacquered door, recesses 
crowded with elaborate carvings, gates rich with 
sculptured diapers and arabesques and deeply chis- 
elled panels the catalogue is endless. Sometimes, 
as in the Haiden of the Tosho-gu mausoleum at Nikko, 
the ceiling is divided into innumerable coffers, each 
filled with the minutest decoration, the whole form- 
ing a collection of choice miniatures in rich frames. 
Sometimes, as at the temple Nanzen-ji in Kyoto, 
a ceiling sixteen hundred square feet in area is painted 
with one huge dragon in black and gold. 



The fertility of the minds that designed these 
decorations, the skill of the hands that executed 
them, will be as memorable a thousand years hence 
as they are to-day. It has sometimes been alleged 
that the designer and the sculptor were generally 
two, the former being the pictorial artist, the latter 
a mere artisan, ranking little higher than a common 
carpenter. There are no means of determining how 
far that dictum may be trusted. In the Occident the 
name of every one connected with such works would 
be handed down for respectful remembrance by suc- 
ceeding generations ; but in Japan the art-artisan has 
always been self-effacing and the nation has quietly 
acquiesced in his effacement. His work lives : that 
is deemed sufficient. 

Among the sculptors engaged upon the splendid 
mausolea of the Tokugawa SKoguns and other archi- 
tectural achievements of the seventeenth century, 
which was certainly the golden era of decorative 
carving, not half a dozen names have been preserved. 
At their head stands Hidari Jingoro (left-handed 
Jingoro). His very appellation indicates the scanty 
consideration extended to him. It is as though an 
artist in America or England should be generally 
spoken of as " Left-handed Bill " or " Wall-eyed 
Tom." There is nevertheless an element of justice 
in the measure of esteem extended to Jingoro and 
his fellow-sculptors, for although as carvers of flowers, 
foliage, and birds, they have no superiors in other 
lands, it is certain that their representations of figure 
subjects and animals would not have won for them 
in Western countries greater renown than they received 
in Japan. 

Among the carvings that decorate the mausoleum 


B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

of lyeyasu at Nikko, for example, a sleeping cat and 
two elephants are shown as remarkable specimens of 
Jingoro's skill. He must not be held responsible for 
the grotesquely false shapes and proportions of the 
elephants : no Japanese artist has ever drawn an 
elephant that resembled the real animal, and Jingoro 
merely followed designs by the celebrated painter 
Kano Tanyu. But if neither Tanyu nor Jingoro 
ever saw a live elephant or had any opportunity 
of studying its true shape, that excuse cannot be 
pleaded in the case of the cat, and it must be frankly 
stated that Jingoro's celebrated cat would never attract 
admiring attention were it removed from the panel 
where it has slept for nearly three centuries in a 
bower of buds and leaves. 

Another much belauded work from Jingoro's chisel 
is the Chokushi-mon (Gate of the Imperial Envoy) at 
the Nishi-Hongwan temple in Kyoto. On the 
outer panels the sculptor has depicted figures of 
Taoist Rishi ; on the inner, the Chinese sage who 
washed his ear because it had been polluted by a 
proposal that he should ascend the throne of his 
country, and the equally austere cowherd who quar- 
relled with the sage for thus defiling a river. These 
figures are not fine sculptures : the most benevolent 
critic cannot be blind to their defects. Yet on the 
panels of a gate every part of which has its place in a 
general scheme of decoration, the carvings are admir- 
able objects. That is the first point to be noted about 
all the sculptured work in the decoration of Japanese 
temples and mausolea. Sometimes the realistic illu- 
sion is complete. Peonies glow with lusty life in a 
coffer ; chrysanthemums raise slender tendrils from a 
cornice ; cranes, wild fowl, or phoenixes actually fly 



from their wooden niches, and plum-trees seem to 
grow on a panel. But the general rule is that the 
sculptures do not gain by independent scrutiny. It 
is in their subordinate role that they command 
charmed enthusiasm. The statement is in itself a 
high tribute to the decorative genius of the Japanese, 
but it involves also the conclusion that the subjective 
element had to be almost entirely abolished from the 
work of the sculptor, and that his highest success was 
achieved when his efforts showed least individuality. 

As to the general character of the designs chosen 
by painters and sculptors for the adornment of these 
temples and mausolea, an excellent criticism is con- 
tained in the introduction to Mr. J. Conder's unpub- 
lished work on Japanese architecture : 

Behind the general impression of harmony produced by 
the decorated architecture as it existed and still exists in the 
best examples of the Buddhist style, there is revealed, upon 
careful analysis, a combination of curiously incongruous ele- 
ments. The weird and the grotesque are blended with the 
severe and the natural. Archaic forms, which one must follow 
back to Indian creeds for their original meaning, are quaintly 
combined with free and flowing natural forms. Demons, 
monsters, and crude conventional representations of foreign 
or imaginary animals are painted side by side with the birds, 
flowers, and landscapes of the changing seasons. The sub- 
tle elements of wind, cloud, water, and spray are in one place 
represented in definite conventional lines which convey but a 
vague idea of their respective force and motive, and in an- 
other place by soft dreamy touches and blurred effects. 
There is everywhere to be traced the influence upon an 
artistic Oriental mind of the beautiful forms and colours of 
the mundane universe, combined with the external influence 
upon his imagination of the Buddhist religion, dictating awe- 
inspiring shapes and mysterious symbols which he accepted 
and depicted as a portion of his superstitious belief and 


B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

homage. Decoration was developed in buildings of different 
type in accordance with a system by which it was divided 
into three or four degrees of elaboration, the highest degree 
of richness being reserved for the temples and mausolea. 
The painter's art appears in the delicate forms and soft tints 
of birds and blossoms cushioned in the white wood-work of 
princes' chambers, and it may be seen also in deeper bolder 
tones, amid a pandemonium of saints and demons, sacred 
monsters, celestial flowers and symbols, set in gilded and 
lacquered framing, adorning the gloomy interior of religious 

Colours were freely used in these decorative 
schemes. Thus, in the sanctuary of the Tosho-gu 
mausoleum at Nikko, wide fields of silver and gold, 
occupying the lower parts of the walls, underlie beams 
diapered in vermilion, leaf-back green, cerulean blue, 
and dead white. Broad frieze spaces in deep rich 
red are interrupted by oval medallions enclosing 
delicately chiselled designs of birds and flowers picked 
out with red, gold, green, blue, and touches of white. 
Above these and stretching from capital to capital of 
the pillars, are formal diapers in green, red, and gold, 
with intervening floral scrolls in gold and green on a 
chocolate-brown ground ; the pillars, whose capitals 
have belts of fern-fronds in red, green, blue, and white, 
and fillets of blue and gold, support golden beams, 
and above the latter rises an arched entablature pro- 
fusely carved and decorated, and brilliantly coloured 
in all the hues mentioned above. Finally, this 
wealth of soft tints and elaborate fancies is separated 
from the ceiling by a concave cornice uniformly gilt, 
through which runs horizontally a solid ribbed beam 
of noir-mat lacquer. The ceiling is coffered with a 
framework in gold and black. The coffers, of 
which the ground colour is gold, have a border of 

1 S9 


cloud scroll in green, white, and red, and the centre 
of each is occupied by an elliptic medallion in purest 
cerulean blue, enclosing a golden dragon and having 
for border two narrow rings of white and chocolate- 
brown. This is little more than a mere catalogue of 
colours. It conveys not even a shadowy idea of the 
beauty and brilliancy of such a decorative masterpiece, 
glowing and palpitating with luxury of tint and pro- 
fusion of detail from floor to architrave, until in the 
ceiling medallions the spectator seems to be gazing 
into the blue profundity of a sky where glittering 
monsters sweep through space. But the reader will 
gather even from such an imperfect description some 
notion of the profusion with which colours and 
sculpture were employed in the architectural decora- 
tion of interiors. It does not appear that the Japanese 
artist had any definitely formulated theories about the 
use of colours. He does not even seem to have ex- 
plicitly recognised the differences of primary, second- 
ary, or tertiary, or to have possessed any clear rules 
about chromatic equivalents. Yet it would be possi- 
ble to deduce from his practice many of the princi- 
ples that are now regarded as fundamental in the 
science of Occidental decorative art. Thus his idea 
of distribution was so just that, in using the primary 
colours, he limited the areas and quantities of their 
application by careful consideration of the total space 
to be decorated, in order that the requisite balance 
and support might be obtained by proportionately 
larger masses of secondary and tertiary tints. It may 
be objected that he neglected this principle in the 
exterior decoration of some of his sacred edifices, as 
the pagodas at Nikko, for example, where a massive, 
towering structure is robed from base to summit in 

1 60 



(See pag. 139.) 

B R O N Z E-C A S T I N G, ETC. 

vermilion red. But any criticism of that nature is 
silenced at once when these edifices are considered 
with reference to their environment, a profusion of 
green foliage, which effectually balances the primary 
colour of the pagoda. It is found, also, on careful 
examination of the mausolea at Shiba, Uyeno, and 
Nikko, that the primary colours appear on the upper 
parts of objects, the secondary and tertiary on the 
lower ; that proportion is successfully preserved be- 
tween the volumes of full and low tones ; that the 
art of separating coloured ornaments from fields of 
contrasting colour is thoroughly understood ; that the 
solecism of mutually impinging colours is strictly 
avoided ; that the tone of ground colours is in excel- 
lent harmony with the quantity of ornament, and 
that the ensemble presents that neutralised bloom which 
indicates perfect blending of tones and tints. 

As already stated, there are few records of great 
sculptors connected with architectural or religious 
carvings in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
although such remarkable work was accomplished. 
Hidari Jingoro died in 1635. Among his successors 
the best remembered are Hidari Eishin (1632-1700), 
Shoun (i66o-i7c5),Tancho (1630-1 695), and Hidari 
Katsumasa (1670-1727). Other names are included 
in an appended list, but the recorded number of 
artists is quite insignificant when compared with the 
quantity of fine work executed from the beginning 
of the seventeenth to the middle of the nineteenth 
century. The subordination of the individual to 
achievement is specially marked in the field of deco- 
rative carvings for temples and mausolea. 


Chapter V 


IN a previous chapter some account has been given 
of the origin and development of the sacred 
mime, of its connection with the bucolic dance, 
and of the gradual rise of the den-gaku and the 
saru-gaku. From the second half of the fourteenth 
century, when the Ashikaga Shogun Yoshimitsu ruled 
in Kyoto, the saru-gaku became an almost necessary 
feature of all social entertainments among the upper 
classes; and in the time of Yoshimasa (1449-1472) 
four families, Kwanze, Kamparu, Hosho, and Kongo, 
were publicly recognised as the possessors of all the 
best traditions and methods of the mimetic art. The 
great captain, Oda Nobunaga, and his still greater 
contemporary, Hideyoshi, the Taz'&o, were ardent 
patrons of the saru-gaku, dancing it themselves with 
the utmost earnestness. The Taiko, studied under 
Gosho, the master expert of his era, and danced to 
the accompaniment of a song specially composed (the 
Akechi-uchi koya-mode} in commemoration of his vic- 
tory over the traitorous slayer of Nobunaga. Thence- 
forth to be able to take a part in the saru-gaku or 
the No, as these dances were usually called in later 
times became an absolutely essential accomplish- 
ment of every feudal chief, court noble, or samurai of 
rank. It has to be remembered that although the 
Japanese are intensely fond of spectacular displays, 



the public theatre did not come into existence until 
the seventeenth century, and never, until quite recent 
times, was regarded as a proper resort for the upper 
classes. By way of compensation private theatri- 
cals had extensive vogue, not private theatricals 
in the Occidental sense of the term, but mimetic 
dances representing historical, mythological, poetical, 
and legendary scenes, or ideal renderings of natural 
phenomena. Such were the stately and picturesque 
no-gaku y supplemented by farcical interludes called 
no-kyogen. From the sixteenth century the canons 
of refined hospitality prescribed that every one with 
aristocratic pretensions should be able to offer to his 
guests an entertainment of that nature, or to take part 
in it himself when bidden elsewhere. Nothing could 
exceed the magnificence of the costumes worn by the 
performers or the richness of all the accessories ; 
and since complete disguise was absolutely essential 
to the realistic effect of such mimes, the mask 
possessed paramount importance. Reference may be 
made en passant to a misconception endorsed by more 
than one student of Japanese customs, namely, that 
the use of the mask in the theatre was a habit in 
Japan as it had been in Greece. The mask in Japan 
is not a theatrical adjunct, its employment is limited 
to the sphere of mimetic dances. The professional 
actor never wears a mask except for the purpose of 
figuring in the dances that often occupy the intervals 
of the drama. It is commonly believed in Japan that 
wooden masks were used at times as remote as the 
seventh century, and that the earliest of them repre- 
sented the features of Uzume, the divine danseuse 
whose spirited performance drew the Sun Goddess from 
her cave. But the oldest surviving specimens date 



from the ninth, tenth, and twelfth centuries. They 
are preserved in a temple on the sacred island of 
Miyajima (now called Itsukushima), and they show 
that even in such remote eras the sculptor possessed 
great skill in delineating the human countenance 
under the influence of emotion. To later eras, how- 
ever the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries belong a wonderful series of masks which 
constitute a special outcome of Japanese sculpture. 
Every aristocratic household and every Buddhist or 
Shinto parish possessed a store of these masks. It is 
difficult to conceive any type of face, any display of 
passion, any exhibition of affection, of fury, of cruelty, 
of benevolence, of voluptuousness, of imbecility, that 
these masks do not reproduce with remarkable real- 
ism. Japanese catalogues set forth two hundred and 
sixty masks, each of which has a distinguishing ap- 
pellation and is recognised as the work of an 
expert. The art of the sculptor was not exercised 
merely in modelling the features. His work was 
counted imperfect unless he fashioned the mask 
so that it could be worn by any one for a lengthy 
period without discomfort. There can be no doubt 
that the great success achieved in carving masks and 
the moving effect of their skilled use in association 
with the highly trained gesticulation and posturing, 
the splendid costumes and the weird music of the 
saru-gaku and the no-gaku, exercised a potent influence 
on the methods of the professional actor of the 
theatre proper. He did not wear an artificial mask, 
but he sought to mould his features into a mask-like 
picture of concentrated emotion, thus establishing a 
vivid link between his performance and the classic 
mime of aristocracy. 


Masks carved by celebrated experts are among the 
most valued treasures of aesthetic Japan. They are 
wrapped in silk and preserved in lacquered boxes with 
all the care appropriate to fine works of art ; and they 
deserve such attention, for in this class of sculpture 
Japan stands unequalled and unapproached by any 
other country. Miniature reproductions of classic 
types, carved in ivory, wood, or metal, sometimes 
merely as examples of skilled sculpture, sometimes 
in groups of two or more to form netsuke, presently 
to be spoken of, and sometimes as ornaments for 
sword-furniture, are included in many foreign assem- 
blages of Japanese art-objects, but the finest masks of 
the mimetic dance have seldom come within reach 
of Western collectors. 

The names and dates of celebrated mask-carvers 
are these : 

M* k~ L tent ^ centur y- Only a few masks by these ex- 
Y h I perts are extant. 

Bunzo thirteenth century. A Buddhist priest. 

Hibi Munetada (called Hibi because he worked at Hibi 
in Etchiu) fourteenth century. Carved meagre faces 

Echi Yoshifune fourteenth century. 

Koushi, or Kiyomitsu fifteenth century. 

Shakuzuru (called also Yoshinari and Ittosai, art name) 
fourteenth century. Celebrated for faces of warriors. 

Ishikawa Riuyemon Shigemasa fourteenth century. Cele- 
brated for masks of women and children. 

Tokuwaka Tadamasa fifteenth century. Specially skilled 
in planting hair. 

Sanko fifteenth century. A Buddhist priest. 

N. B. The above are distinguished as Jissaku, or " true 



Soami Hisatsugu fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (said to 

have lived in the time of Yoshimasa). 
Chigusa sixteenth century. Celebrated for masks of 


Fukurai Masatomo fifteenth century. Masks of old men. 
Horai Ujitoki fifteenth century. Masks of female faces. 
Haruwaka Tadatsugu sixteenth century. Masks of young 

Uwo Hyoye sixteenth century. Masks of old men and 


N. B. The above, from Soami to Uwo, are called the 
" Six Sculptors " (Roku-saku). 


Jiunin sixteenth century. 
Miyano sixteenth century. 
Sairen (a priest) sixteenth century. 
Kichijo-in (a priest) sixteenth century. 
Kaku-no-bo sixteenth century. Had the art title of Ten- 
ka-ichi y and is counted an eminent sculptor. 

Boya Magoiiuro ) , . 

r^ J , J > date uncertain. 

Dansho j 

Gunkei twelfth century. 

Kasuga Tori eightn century. A celebrated sculptor of 

Buddhist images who is supposed to have carved masks of 


Tankai Rishi (or Hozan) seventeenth century. 
Shimizu Rinkei a pupil of Tankai. 
Shoun ( 1 647- 1 700). 


Deme Jikan Yoshimitsu. Called also Ono, or Kizan or 
Sukezaemon sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Ori- 
ginally an armourer of Echizen, he became a sculptor of 
masks after moving to Yamashiro. In 1595 received the 
art title of Tenka-icbi from the Taiko. Entered the 
Takugawa service and died in 1616. 



Deme Yukan Mitsuyasu seventeenth century (d. 1652). 
Son of Jikan. Called also Sukezaemon. 

Deme Tohaku Mitsutaka seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies (d. 1715). 

Deme Tosui Mitsunori seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies (d. 1729). Called also Mokunosuke, Manku, and 

Deme Hokan Mitsunao eighteenth century (d. 1743). 
Called Hanzo. 

Deme Yusai Yasuhisa eighteenth century (d. 1766). 

Deme Choun Yasuyoshi eighteenth century (d. 1774). 
Called also Makunosuke. 

Deme Toun Yasutaka nineteenth century. Called also 

Deme Hanzo Yasukore nineteenth century. 


Deme Jirozaemon Mitsuteru sixteenth century. 
Deme Jirozaemon Norimitsu seventeenth century. 
Deme Jirozaemon Yoshimitsu seventeenth century. Called 

also Genjiro. 
Deme Gensuke Hidemitsu seventeenth century. Called 

also Joshin, or Jokei. 
Deme Genkiu Mitsunaga seventeenth century (d. 1672). 

Son of Jokei. Called also Ko-Genkiu (the old Genkiu) 

and Manyei. 
Deme Genkiu Mitsushige seventeenth and eighteenth 

centuries (d. 1719). 

Deme Genkiu Mitsufusa eighteenth century (d. 1758). 
Deme Genkiu Mitsuzane eighteenth and nineteenth cen- 
turies (d. in 1812). 
Deme Naka Mitsuyuki nineteenth century. Called also 


Deme Gensuke Mitsuakira nineteenth century. 
Deme Genri Yoshimitsu seventeenth century (d. 1625). 
Deme Genri Toshimitsu seventeenth century. 



Izeki Kawachi lyeshige seventeenth century (d. 1646). 

Yamato Mamori (a pupil of Kawachi). 

Izeki Jirozaemon eighteenth century. Had the rank of 

Kazusa-no-suke and was also called Chikanobu and Kiu- 

shiu. He was accorded the honorary title of Tenka-icbi. 
Omiva Yamato Bokunyu seventeenth century (d. 1672). 

Had the honorary title of Tenka-icbi. 
Kodama Omi Mitsumasa seventeenth century (d. 1624). 

Had the title of Tenka-ichi and was called also Mansho. 
Miyata Chikugo (a pupil of Mansho). 
Kodama Choyemon Tomomitsu seventeenth century (son 

of Omi). 

Kodama Choyemon Yoshimitsu eighteenth century. 
Senshu Yashamaru fifteenth century. Had the rank of 

Tama-no-Kami and the additional name of Yorisada. 
Senshiu Yoriyoshi fifteenth century. Had the rank of 

lyo-no-Kami. This artist was the younger brother of the 

priest Sanko, mentioned above. The two Senshiu were 

the ancestors of the Deme family of Echizen. 
Ariyoshi Nagato rib Sbo nineteenth century. A samurai 

of the Miyatsu fief, who attained distinction as a chiseller 

of masks. 

Several amateurs gained distinction as carvers of 
masks, but no accurate list of their names has been 

Belonging strictly to the category of costume, but 
elevated to the rank of art-products by the beauty of 
their workmanship and the wealth of fancy lavished 
on their modelling and ornamentation, the netsuke, 
ojime, kagami-buta, kana-mono y and kuda-kusari must be 
accorded a high place in any account of Japanese 
sculpture. The dress of the Japanese having no 
pockets, except the recesses of the sleeves, which 
could not be used for anything heavy, it has been the 



custom, from a remote era, to attach to the girdle 
various objects of every-day service. The most an- 
cient of these is the kinchaku, or money-pouch. Of 
course in the days when media of exchange were 
practically limited to strings of copper cash much too 
bulky and cumbrous to be carried on the person, a 
money-pouch was a useless article to the middle and 
lower classes. But to aristocratic and wealthy folks, 
who made their payments with gold dust or coins of 
the precious metals, the kinchaku was more or less 
necessary. After a time, however, it ceased to be 
much employed as a monetary receptacle, its place 
being taken by a kind of pocket-book carried in the 
bosom. The kinchaku did not go out of vogue, 
however. It now became a part of a child's costume, 
and served to contain an amulet and a wooden ticket 
on which were inscribed the name and address of the 
child's parents, the little one being thus placed under 
the protection of heaven, on the one hand, and of 
kindly folks who might find it straying or in trouble, 
on the other. That is now the chief function per- 
formed by the kinchaku, though its original use as a 
money-bag is still perpetuated by old ladies. As part 
of a child's toilet it is often a very beautiful affair, 
made of richly embroidered silk or costly brocade, 
and the method of attachment to the girdle is simply 
by tying. But tradition says that when men used the 
kinchaku, they preferred to keep it in its place by the 
aid of a kind of button. The strings of the pouch 
being fastened to this button, the latter was passed 
under the girdle and brought out above it so as to 
offer an effective obstacle to the withdrawal of the 
pouch without the owner's cognisance. The pouch 
itself may have been a simple affair in ancient times. 



There is no information on that subject ; but when 
the elaborate and beautiful character of Japanese cos- 
tume at so remote a date as the eighth century is 
remembered, there seems reason to suppose that the 
quality and ornamentation of the kinchaku were not 
incongruous with the garments it accompanied. At 
all events it is known that by the middle of the 
seventeenth century the choice of material for the 
manufacture of the kinchaku and of the other objects 
suspended from a gentleman's girdle objects known 
generically as sage-mono , or suspended things had 
become a business demanding as much delicacy of 
judgment and causing as great a mental strain as a 
Western belle's selection of her first ball-dress. It is 
mentioned, in a Chinese record of old-time official- 
dom and its functions, that the duty of collecting 
various kinds of furs and skins in the autumn, and 
presenting them to the Imperial Court in the spring, 
occupied the constant attention of an important bu- 
reau. The Japanese Imperial Court was never suffi- 
ciently wealthy or sufficiently luxurious to follow that 
example ; but the extraordinary development of re- 
fined taste among aristocratic classes under the feudal 
system is aptly illustrated by the fact that in records 
dating from the seventeenth century, no less than 
ninety-three different kinds of leathers and furs are 
enumerated and carefully described as orthodox ma- 
terials for sage-mono. Of these, ten were of Japanese 
manufacture, the others being imported from China, 
India, Persia, Ceylon, Luson, Russia, Holland, and 
elsewhere. No attempt has ever been made to iden- 
tify these leathers, and even if sufficient inducements 
offered, the task would scarcely be possible, seeing 
that many of the skins, after reaching Japan, were 



subjected to processes which must have effectually 
obscured their provenance. For example, one kind, 
having been macerated some ten times with juice 
extracted from the bark of the peach-tree, was then 
dyed with a solution of gall-nut and sulphate of iron, 
after which it was polished with a pumice-stone, 
treated with plum-juice, and finally softened by hand- 
rubbing. Reference to these materials is made here, 
not for the purpose of discussing their origin or char- 
acteristics, but solely because they illustrate the care 
and taste bestowed on the sage-mono. It must not be 
supposed, however, that all these curious and pretty 
materials were imported or manufactured for the sake 
of the kinchaku alone. The kinchaku is given a 
prominent place among the sage-mono because it seems 
to have been the oldest of such objects. In impor- 
tance it was quite secondary to the tobacco-pouch and 
pipe-case. Tobacco-pouches and pipe-cases, how- 
ever, are comparatively modern affairs. Whether the 
Japanese learned to smoke tobacco when Hideyoshi's 
troops invaded Korea, or whether they received it 
from their first Occidental visitors, the Portuguese, 
they certainly knew nothing of the virtues and vices 
of the leaf until the closing years of the sixteenth 
century, nor was it till the middle of the seventeenth 
that the pouch and the pipe began to assume the 
dainty and highly ornate forms now so familiar. To- 
bacco did not originally commend itself to polite 
society in Japan. Sir Ernest Satow, quoting from 
the family records of a certain Dr. Saka, describes 
that, in the year 1609, the dissipation of tobacco- 
smoking led to the formation of two associations in 
Edo (Tokyo), the Bramble Club and the Leather- 
breeches Club. Their members were roistering blades 

j A p A N" 

who loved to indulge in the pastime known as 
" painting the town red," or, still better, to fight 
with each other, when the toughness of the leather- 
breeches " was supposed to be more than a match for 
the tenacity of " brambles." The pipes used by 
these swashbucklers were from four to five feet long. 
They thrust them into their girdles after the manner 
of swords, and employed them as cudgels when occa- 
sion offered. No transition could have been more 
signal than the passage from these monster pipes to 
the tiny little kiseru of later eras, which held about 
as much tobacco as could be piled on the nail of a 
young lady's little finger, and were perfect bijoux in 
the matter of shapeliness and decoration. Even after 
several vain official attempts to check the spread of 
the tobacco habit had been abandoned as abortive and 
unnecessary, some time elapsed before polite folk be- 
gan to carry pouches and pipes at their girdles, for 
smoking in the open air was not practised, and on 
entering a friend's home the visitor expected to have 
a tobacco-tray set before him, and would as soon have 
thought of smoking a pipe of his own tobacco as of 
taking from his sleeve a packet of tea and a teapot to 
brew his own beverage. Were it known exactly 
when the habit of attaching pipes and pouches to the 
girdle became fashionable, the origin of the beautiful 
ornaments connected with this class of sage-mono 
might be discussed with some confidence. But there 
are pictures extant which show that, as late as the 
middle of the seventeenth century, a lady's pipe 
for by that time ladies had fallen victims to the se- 
ductive habit was so long that it had to be carried 
by an attendant, and the inevitable conclusion is that 
the miniature pipe and its charming concomitants 



case, pouch, toggle (netsuke), cord-clutch (pjime), and 
so forth did not come into existence till the close 
of that century. 

There is another girdle-pendant [sage-mono] long 
antecedent to the pipe and pipe-pouch, a pendant to 
which some authorities assign a greater age than even 
that of the kinchaku, namely, the inro. Origi- 
nally, as its name implies, a little bag or wicker- 
work receptacle for holding the seal (in signifies seal, 
and ro, a bamboo basket) which in Japan took the 
place of a written signature, the inro was subsequently 
made of wood, lacquered black ; and thereafter being 
converted into a tiny medicine chest, took the form 
of a tier of segments, each fitting into the other verti- 
cally, so that the whole, when put together, became a 
many-receptacled little box, from three to four inches 
long and two or two and a half inches wide, its 
corners rounded and its thickness reduced so that it 
was always handy and never obtrusive. There have 
been enthusiastic collectors of inro y both foreign and 
Japanese. It is a taste with which every virtuoso must 
sympathise, for as specimens of exquisitely artistic 
and infinitely painstaking decoration in lacquer, in- 
laying, and sculpture, these tiny medicine-boxes de- 
serve unstinted praise. For the moment, however, 
attention may be directed to the appendages of the 
inro rather than to the inro itself. The edges of the 
two long faces carried a little cylinder, just large 
enough to admit a silken cord, the ends of which 
were passed, immediately above the inro y through an 
bjime, or cord-clutch. There is reason to think that 
the ~ojime was the first highly ornate appendage of 
both the inro and the kinchaku, for it occupies in the 
latter also the same place as in the inro and serves the 



same purpose. As a general rule it was simply a 
bead of some substance regarded as precious by the 
Japanese, though occasionally it was made of cloisonne 
enamel, porcelain (Chinese), gold, silver, shakudo, 
shibuichi, ivory, wood, or the kernel of a peach, mi- 
croscopic sculpture being added in the case of the 
last seven substances. No less than sixty-four differ- 
ent kinds of minerals and other matters were used to 
form these beads when the beauty of the substance 
alone was relied on. Among them were coral (pink, 
white, and black), amber, lapis lazuli, pearl, rock- 
crystal, aventurine, agate, marble, garnet, malachite, 
the skull of the crane, and prehnite. These details 
are mentioned for the purpose of showing how large 
a measure of care was bestowed on the appurtenances 
of the inro, and how unlikely it was that the button 
in which the ends of the silken cord were united for 
passage through the girdle would have been less 
ornate than the bead just spoken of. In point of fact 
the button of the inro did assume the form of the 
beautiful object called netsuke (ne means " root " or 
" end," and tsuke, to fasten) as early as the end of the 
fifteenth century, when the dilettante Sbogun Yoshi- 
masa set to the nation an example of luxury and 
elegance in almost every department of daily life. 
There has been circulated in Europe a theory that 
the introduction of tobacco in the sixteenth century 
called the netsuke into existence, its original use being 
to serve as a button for the tobacco-pouch ; and it 
has further been suggested that the chiselling of the 
netsuke would never have been carried to such a 
degree of elaboration had not a great number of idol- 
carvers found themselves without occupation during 
the second half of the seventeenth century. The 



latter idea is based on the fact that the second Toku- 
gawa Shogun, Hidetada (1605-1623), in connection 
with his crusade against Christianity, ordered every 
household throughout the realm to furnish itself with 
a Buddhist idol, and that when the extraordinary de- 
mand thus created had been satisfied, the busshi, being 
without employment, turned their attention to chisel- 
ling tobacco-pouch buttons. But Japanese authori- 
ties are agreed that the netsuke became fashionable as 
an appendage of the inro long before the tobacco- 
pouch began to be suspended from the girdle. An- 
other error which has found currency in the same 
context, and which has helped to build up the theory 
connecting the netsuke with the sculptor of Buddhist 
idols is that many netsuke-sbi (makers of netsuke] lived 
and worked at Nara, the chief home of idol-makers. 
It is certainly true that Nara may be called the birth- 
place of Japanese sculpture, and that, from the 
twelfth century onwards, the name " Nara " came to 
be associated with religious sculpture, just as in later 
times pottery was called seto-mono after the place 
(Seto) of its chief production. It is also true that 
among the celebrated productions of Nara the Nara 
meibutsu, as they are called there have long been 
included miniature images known as Nara ntngyo 
(Nara puppets) which might easily be supposed to 
have suggested the earliest form of the netsuke. But 
the Nara ningyo were not connected with the netsuke, 
and as for the assertion that many netsuke-shi lived at 
Nara and that the carver of Buddhist images turned 
his chisel to the netsuke in default of other work, it 
is enough to say that the records, down to the end 
of the eighteenth century, do not contain the name 
of more than two netsu&e-c&rvers who resided at 



Nara, and that they include only one sculptor of the 
busshi class. With exceptions so rare as to prove the 
rule, the netsuke-sbi had their workshops in one of 
" the three cities " Yedo, Kyoto, and Osaka and 
confined themselves mainly to ornamenting the ap- 
pendages of sage-mono. Reference may be made here 
to another strange theory which has been advanced 
by more than one European writer, that many netsuke- 
makers were dentists whose skill in the use of the 
chisel was acquired by carving false teeth. In the 
long list of early netsuke-shi there are only two 
who were in any way connected with the dentist's 

It may appear that disproportionate attention is 
here devoted to the question of the origin of the net- 
suke and the ojime, but the fact is that no objects of 
art found in Japan are more essentially Japanese, 
whether their range of fanciful motives be considered, 
or the extraordinary dexterity of their carvers, or their 
originality. India, borrowing the art from Persia, 
developed much skill in carving, piercing, and inlaying 
long before the Japanese netsuke came into exist- 
ence, and the Chinese, from an early epoch, sculp- 
tured tusks and slabs of ivory in the most elaborate 
manner, carrying their craft to the extent of cutting 
puzzle-balls, one inside the other, out of a single piece 
of ivory. But the Japanese netsuke and djime belong to 
an entirely different category from the productions of 
India, China, or Persia. No one thinks of making 
a collection of the latter : half-a-dozen specimens 
suffice to illustrate the art of each country ; a greater 
number would be wearisome. In the case of the 
netsuke, however, it is scarcely possible to possess too 
many. Inevitably the same subject is often repeated 


without marked variation of treatment ; but the 
range of conception is so large, the motives display 
such a wealth of fancy, realistic, conventional, grave, 
humorous, and grotesque, that the collector perpetu- 
ally finds some new source of admiration, instruction, 
or amusement. If Japan had given to the world 
nothing but the netsuke, there would still be no diffi- 
culty in differentiating the bright versatility of her 
national genius from the comparatively sombre, 
mechanic, and unimaginative temperament of the 
Chinese. These delightful statuettes often represent 
deities, figures from the myth-land of Taoism, Bud- 
dhism, and Brahmanism, demons, gnomes, and other 
subjects already found in the gallery of familiar sculp- 
tures. But they also represent scenes from the 
homely, every-day life of the people, so simply and 
realistically treated that they play in glyptic art the 
same role as genre painting does in pictorial. Their 
carvers drew further inspiration from the whole range 
of natural objects. Birds, animals, reptiles, leaves, 
flowers, fishes, and insects all were reproduced with 
extraordinary fidelity and artistic taste. The netsuke, 
the ukiyo-ye, and the chromo-xylograph, which have 
already been discussed, and the sword-furniture which 
will be presently described, prove conclusively what 
a profound sense of beauty and instinct of art must 
have permeated the whole mass of the Japanese 
people, and how the best qualities of the decorative 
artist were educated to such an extent as ultimately 
to become innate in craftsman and critic alike. 

Ivory has been spoken of above as though it were 
the principal material of the netsuke. But the best 
work was done in wood cherry-wood, boxwood, 
sandalwood (shitari), or ebony (kokutari). Bone, horn 

VOL. VII. 12 iy-7 


(deer, antelope, or ox), vegetable and walrus ivory, 
peach-stones, walnuts, and the skull of the crane 
(hoten} were also used. Perhaps the finest carving is 
to be found in cherry-wood netsuke, though those in 
boxwood derive special beauty from the silky texture 
assumed by the surface when carefully polished. 
Walnuts and peach-stones were generally chiselled in 
low relief, the favourite subjects being semin (Taoist 
genii), arhats (disciples of Buddha), the Seven Deities 
of Fortune, Benten and her children, and other 
motives involving a number of figures. The skull of 
the Chinese crane, which resembles snow-white wax 
marked with fine hair-lines, receives a certain myste- 
rious admiration from ignorant Japanese, who, judg- 
ing by its name, the heavenly phoenix, associate 
it with the fabulous hoo (phoenix). It has always 
been comparatively rare, and was a favourite material 
for carving masks, especially that of the jolly, sensu- 
ous goddess Uzume, or the fabulous Bacchanalian man- 
monkey, Shojo the blood-red plates on either side 
of the skull being cleverly brought into the scheme 
of the carving so as to represent the hair of the divin- 
ity or the monster. 

The earliest carvers of netsuke were evidently 
influenced by considerations of utility. They saw 
that to serve its purpose of sustaining the girdle- 
pendant the netsuke should have greater length than 
bulk, and they accordingly took their designs from 
old legends telling of supernatural or monstrous 
beings, flying dragons, lamp-bearing demons, the 
dragon god, the demon-slayer (S/iofa), Kwan Yu (the 
Chinese god of war), the klrin, the Taoist genii, and 
such things. Their figure subjects were always amply 
draped, the nude being tabooed by the sculptor as 



well as by the painter. Great skill was exercised in 
the treatment of the drapery and the pose of the 
figure. But it was on the chiselling of the face that 
the artist expended most care, and the result justified 
his toil ; for he succeeded in producing wonderful 
conceptions of the wrinkled recluse, the semi-savage 
and wholly appalling dragon-deity, the relentless yet 
beneficent demon-slayer, the malevolent ogre, the 
phrensied thunder-god, and the inane elf of the moun- 
tains. Very soon he extended his repertoire of motives. 
Masks naturally suggested themselves as capable of 
being grouped into various shapes, and netsuke of that 
form are often of the highest quality. Then followed 
carvings of the Seven Deities of Fortune, sometimes 
singly, sometimes grouped together ; of saru-gaku 
dancers ; of fishes and aquatic plants ; of mermaids ; 
of men in armour ; of the twelve signs of the zodiac ; 
of barn-door fowl, and so forth. Foreign influence, 
in the beginning of the eighteenth century, seems to 
have temporarily checked the development of Japan- 
ese fancy in this branch of art, for it became fashion- 
able to use the handles of Chinese seals, and sometimes 
the whole seal, as a netsuke. The Japanese, when 
they obey their own instincts, are seldom guilty of a 
solecism. They would not have appended a seal to 
a tobacco-pouch as a proper adjunct. But if the fact 
be recalled that the inro was originally a receptacle 
for a seal and for a little box of vermilion-ink paste, 
it is easy to understand how Chinese seals came to be 
regarded as appropriate toggles for the inro, and how 
their employment in that capacity was extended to 
the tobacco-pouch. In Chinese work of this descrip- 
tion there is a total absence of the naturalistic pathos, 
playful idealism, and human interest, which charac- 



terise the Japanese. The Chinese sculptor is not 
without humour, but his fancy seems to be always 
trammelled by grim practicality and narrow conven- 
tionalism. His influence upon Japanese sculptors 
was not wholesome, and they soon rebelled against it. 
Here, however, there is one point that attracts atten- 
tion. The Chinese had a certain appreciation of the 
nude in sculpture. Among these seal-handle carv- 
ings which, it must be remembered, were consid- 
ered worthy of the finest workmanship that could be 
bestowed on them and of the costliest material 
available nude female figures occur not infrequently. 
But it would be very difficult to determine whether 
grace of form or sensuous suggestion was the sculp- 
tor's objective in choosing such motives. His man- 
ner of treatment leaves the question exceedingly 
doubtful. At all events, he found no imitators in 
Japan. The nude never appealed to the Japanese 
sculptor. His realistic creed often appears in his 
manner of disposing the drapery of a peasant mother's 
dress or the skirts of a lady caught in a gust of wind 
and rain, but it is evident either that he failed to 
appreciate the exquisite curves of the female form, 
though in all other directions beauty and force of 
line constitute his special excellence, or that he 
associated the nude with the erotic. There is a por- 
nographic side to his work, but it is of the most 
unequivocal character. He never stood upon that 
hazy border line of aestheticism and voluptuousness 
that runs through the whole of Occidental art from 
the times of Tanagra to the days of Giacometti and 
Hermann Fran9ois. 

By the end of the seventeenth century and the 
beginning of the eighteenth, the range of the netsuke- 



carver's motives had extended into the every-day life 
of the people, into the realm of birds, flowers, insects, 
shells, and all other natural objects, and into the sphere 
of history. It is hopeless to attempt any classifica- 
tion. Nor, indeed, would anything be gained by 
such an effort. The netsuke derives its value, in the 
first place, from the skill of the sculptor ; in the 
second, from the nature of the motive. It would be 
as impossible to lay down hard-and-fast rules for the 
collector's guidance as to construct a useful formula 
for judging the merits of a picture. Many people 
attach great importance to the age of a netsuke, and, 
possessing specimens which they believe to be old, are 
complacently confident that nothing new can be good. 
That is a pure delusion. A netsuke gains nothing from 
age. It is true that ivory, like bronze, develops in 
time a patina, a soft-brown glow, which is justly 
prized. But the same colour can be produced by 
" treatment," the same superficial texture by friction, 
and, as a matter of fact, both are produced abundantly 
in the workshop of the forger. On the other hand, 
there are a score of artists in modern Japan who can 
carve a netsuke not inferior in any respect to the best 
types of former times. The skill has not been lost ; 
it is merely exercised in other directions. Age, then, 
is valuable solely as an assistance to identifying the 
work of celebrated masters who flourished in past 
centuries. Imitations were less frequent in former 
eras than in the present, and if a netsuke bearing the 
signature of Miwa, of Tomochika, of Issai, or some 
other great expert, is unquestionably old, its age 
becomes a partial justification for crediting the 
genuineness of the signature. Only partial, how- 
ever, for from the time a hundred and fifty years 



ago when the names of netsu fa-carvers were first 
thought worthy of historical record, their works 
began to be copied, even to the signatures, and 
though a little care should guarantee the collector 
against mistaking for old masterpieces the begrimed, 
medicated, and comparatively rough forgeries of 
modern times, a combination of age and the cachet 
of a renowned master does not prove that the work 
is not an imitation, and should never be deemed 
sufficient evidence of excellence. Quality is every- 
thing. There must be not only delicacy and finish, 
together with strength of line and accuracy of detail, 
but there must also be eloquent vitality, simple direct- 
ness of treatment, grace of conception, and, in a 
majority of cases, an element of humour. Certain 
favourite designs have been produced again and again, 
a group of rats or rabbits ; Shoki, the demon-slayer ; 
an imp hiding under Shoki's discarded hat ; the fight 
of the three blind shampooers ; a wild bear among 
reeds ; Watanabe and the demon ; Daruma roused 
from his pious reverie by a rat ; a monkey with its 
paw caught by a giant clam ; an old man sneezing ; 
a mountain elf (fengu) emerging from an egg-shell ; 
the fight between Benkei and Yoshitsune ; Urajima 
and the casket of longevity ; New-Year mummers 
(manzai) ; groups of tortoises ; saru-gaku dancers ; 
the Dog of Fo (shishi] and peonies ; a boy peeping 
through the mouth of a shishi mask ; a cicada on a 
dead twig ; a snail crawling on its shell ; a peasant 
woman carrying a child ; wrestlers ; Otafuke, the 
vulgar Venus, washing her neck at a tub ; Kagura 
dancers ; monkeys and peaches ; a bee on a gourd ; 
the Lady Tokiwa and her three children journeying 
through the snow ; an owl on a decayed stump ; a 



puppy dog and a dragon-fly ; the badger-bewitched 
pot ; a rat gnawing a candle ; a cicada shell on a 
walnut ; the Seven Wise Men in the bamboo grove ; 
frogs in all kinds of positions ; a cock perched on a 
tile or a drum each and every one of these used to 
exist by scores in Japan before dilettanti from Europe 
and America came to carry them away. But among 
a dozen specimens representing the same motive a 
little accuracy of observation will soon enable the 
connoisseur to recognise that one is incomparably 
superior to the other eleven. There is no special 
difficulty in carving rats, or rabbits, or cocks and 
hens, or imps, but the difference between a group of 
rats or rabbits by Rantei, for example, or Terutsugu, 
and the same group chiselled by a modern copyist 
who manufactures for the Western market, is that in 
one case the animals are instinct with life and motion ; 
in the other, they are tame and nerveless. The same 
criticism applies throughout. Even a tortoise by 
Tomokazu is a vital, crawling creature, just as the 
discarded shell of a cicada by Rakuchika is seen to be 
a mere shell before its hollowness has been observed. 
No wise collector will trouble himself about names 
and dates until he has first become convinced that a 
netsuke has artistic claims to such attention. 

For the satisfaction of collectors special mention 
may be made of a variety of netsuke which has caused 
some perplexity, though as an object of art it has no 
merit whatever. The subject is an uncouth figure, 
from three to six inches high and therefore of un- 
usually large dimensions, wearing a strange costume 
and obviously intended to represent a foreigner. The 
material is generally of lacquered wood or bone, but in 
rare instances ivory is used, and the size of the netsuke 



* V 

has induced some persons to suppose that it did not 
serve for supporting a girdle-pendant. But, as will 
be seen just now when pipes and pouches are spoken 
of, there are certain classes among the lower orders 
of Japanese who affect everything on a large and ob- 
trusive scale. These persons found a big ponderous 
netsuke quite to their taste, and were moreover pleased 
that it should have a rude, portentous aspect. The 
carver, therefore, had recourse to the popular idea of 
a foreigner, a Dutchman for the most part, and 
endeavoured to impart to the figure a suggestion of 
all the solecisms of dress and manners that the outer 
barbarian was supposed to perpetrate. If the average 
Japanese connoisseur be asked to identify these gro- 
tesque figures, he replies off-hand that they are Nam- 
ban-jin, or " southern barbarians," a term originally 
applied to all aliens coming from regions southward 
of Japan, but ultimately used with special reference 
to the Spaniards, the Portuguese, and the Dutch. But 
the fact is that the Japanese recognised several con- 
ventional types of half-civilised outsiders, and often 
borrowed the characteristics of three or four to form 
a specially unlovely and confused compound. There 
was the " Orangai " of the Amur region with his 
sack-like garment of woolly hide, his feathered and 
furred cap, and his Chinese face. There was the 
" Ezo-jin," with his hirsute visage, monstrous features, 
semi-Occidental costume, and savage aspect. There 
was the " Dattan " of Tartary, a ferocious edition of 
the " Orangai," with voluminous ears, repulsively ugly 
features, fur-bristling robes, bow of vast strength and 
arrows three feet long. There was the " Taiwan- 
jin " of Formosa, with whiskers, moustache, and im- 
perial ornamenting a vacuous face ; his costume a 



skull cap, a necklace, and a loin cloth ; his weapon 
a spear. There were the people of " Kochi" (Cochin 
China) and Tonkin, with tonsured pates, long robes, 
expansive pantaloons, bare feet, and a peculiar kind 
of short, double-barbed spear clasped in their arms. 
It would appear that a general idea of these various 
" barbarian" characteristics floated in the mind of 
the Japanese sculptor, and that he combined them 
according to the dictates of his fancy when required 
to carve netsuke for the portly pouch and ponderous 
pipe of the professional stalwart. 

A word must be said about the general form of 
the netsuke. Speaking broadly, there are only two 
kinds. There is first the netsuke whose shape is de- 
termined by that of the object represented. This is 
the most frequent and also the finest type. The net- 
suke is then a statuette, and the modelling must be 
perfect from every point of view. The second kind 
may be called the " button netsuke " (known in Japan 
as manju or riusa). It is either a solid circular disc 
of ivory, wood, or bone, covered, more or less pro- 
fusely, with designs sculptured in high or low relief; 
or it is an unornamented disc of the same materials 
framing a metal plate to which alone the decoration 
is applied. The chiselling of these metal plates 
(kagami-buta} fell to the task not of the netsuke- 
maker but of the goldsmith (kinzoku-shi), to whom 
there will presently be occasion to refer. As to the 
first kind of button-netsu&e, it varies greatly in size, 
some being as much as three inches in diameter, and 
others not more than one inch. The common size 
is about an inch and a half. In the case of these 
netsukes the artist had to decorate a surface only ; a 
much easier achievement than the chiselling of the 


stztuette-netsu&e. But with that reservation his work 
merits high admiration, and is, further, more uni- 
formly excellent than the work of the statuette sculp- 
tor. Wonderful skill is shown in producing effects 
of space and gradations of distance by varying the 
degree of relief or incision, and the most delicate 
elaboration of detail is found in combination with 
purity of design and directness of method. 

The netsuke and the ojime are not the only objects 
of beauty connected with girdle-pendants. Quite as 
much artistic skill was lavished upon the inro. This 
gem of workmanship properly belongs, however, to 
the category of lacquer manufactures, and will be 
again referred to in that context. The glyptic artist 
did not, as a rule, apply his talents to its decoration. 
But there are many exceptions ; notably inro in ivory. 
Sometimes the whole surface of an ivory inro is cov- 
ered with a deeply chiselled design of flying cranes, 
or a herd of monkeys, or a mob of horses. Some- 
times it is made of strips of ivory woven after the 
fashion of a bamboo basket ; sometimes of ebony or 
shitan (red sandalwood), 1 chiselled in landscapes, 
diapers, arabesques, battle-scenes, or mythological 
subjects ; sometimes the inro itself fits into a thin 
metal shell, with decoration elaborately chased or 
chiselled in relief and pierced throughout so as 
to reduce the weight and show the inro within. 2 It 
would be an endless task to make detailed reference 
to the innumerable happy conceptions of the Japanese 
craftsman in this branch of his work. One of the 
delights of collecting Japanese objects of virtu is that 
surprises may always be expected. The repertoire of 
novelties is never exhausted. 

1 Sec Appendix, note 21. 2 See Appendix, note 22. 



Much that has been said above about the tnro and 
the netsuke applies also to the pipe (kiserii), the pipe- 
case (kiseru-zutsu), and the tobacco-pouch (tobacco-ire). 
The pipe, from having originally been a ponderous 
clumsy affair, sometimes carried over the shoulder 
and serviceable as a weapon, gradually dwindled to 
tiny proportions, and began to command the attention 
of the decorative artist. It must be noted, however, 
that the aristocratic pipe is never a highly ornate 
affair. Its most approved form has always been a 
central joint of polished reed, carrying a long mouth- 
piece and a diminutive bowl, both of gold, silver, or 
one of the compound metals which the Japanese 
manufacture with such unique skill. The bowl and 
mouthpiece occasionally have decoration, engraved 
or inlaid pictures, diapers or arabesques, translucid 
enamelling in cloissons, or chaste designs in low 
relief, but in the great majority of cases the metal 
sections, with the exception of the end of the mouth- 
piece, have their surface uniformly hammered in one 
of the "stone-grain" diapers by-and-byto be described. 
There have passed into foreign collections a number 
of massive and comparatively large pipes, some- 
times made entirely of silver, or of the greyish white 
metal called shibuichi ; sometimes having a central 
joint of reed on the decoration of which the chisel 
of the sculptor has been employed to produce strik- 
ingly ornate effects. Such pipes are never used by 
gentlemen and ladies in Japan. They have always 
been the exclusive property of the wrestler, who loves 
to have everything colossal ; of the professional gam- 
bler and the swashbuckling chevalier <? industrie ; of 
the foryb y who stands at the head of a guild of work- 
men in virtue of his expert muscles and courageous 



masterfulness ; and of that peculiar clan of stalwarts, 
represented in feudal times by the otoko-date, a genuine 
redresser of wrongs and champion of the weak, but 
in modern days by the greatly degenerate soshi, who 
aims at being a political reformer, but seldom rises 
above the level of a hireling bully. The pouches 
that accompany these big pipes are of correspondingly 
large dimensions, and have metal clasps which, as 
specimens of fine glyptic work and clever designing, 
deserve the special attention that collectors have 
bestowed on them. 1 The same remark applies to the 
clasps of smaller pouches, carried by every-day folks. 
But as the chiselling of these objects falls to the task 
of the maker of sword-furniture, they will be further 
noticed in the latter context. 

The pouch itself was generally of leather, fur, skin, 
or some rare textile fabric. There were nearly a hun- 
dred recognised varieties of choice material, each hav- 
ing its duly defined points, and each designated by a 
special name. Attention may be directed here to a 
feature which will be further illustrated by-and-by, 
the extraordinary wealth of nomenclature presented 
by the Japanese vocabulary of decorative art. How 
many kinds of leather, or cloth, or silken fabric, 
suitable for the cover of a tobacco-pouch or a 
pocket-book, could an American or European expert 
indicate by means of a terminology that would be 
immediately intelligible to the person addressed ? A 
score and a half would probably exhaust the list. 
Yet, in a well-known Japanese work compiled at the 
close of the eighteenth century, no less than ninety- 
three varieties are separately designated and described. 
There is, of course, no occasion to enter into any 

1 See Appendix, note 23. 

1 88 


detailed account of the nature and appearance of 
these materials. What is interesting is to note, first, 
the lesson taught by their great variety, the immense 
care bestowed by the Japanese upon an article com- 
paratively so unimportant as the tobacco-pouch, 1 
and secondly, that they were the means of introducing 
some distinctly foreign elements into Japanese deco- 
rative art. For the great majority of these materials 
were imported, from India, from Holland, from 
Persia, from China, from Siam and other countries, 
and the designs impressed, woven, or embroidered 
upon them not only were emphatically alien, but 
also in many instances represented bizarre conceptions, 
crudely worked out, and falling far below the stan- 
dards of decorative excellence to which the Japanese 
had themselves attained. But there has always been 
in Japan an affection for the quaint and the archaic. 
It owes its origin to the cult of the tea-clubs, and its 
effect upon the art of the country was in some respects 
vitiating. Thus in the case of these imported leathers 
and stuffs, when the materials themselves were not 
actually employed, their designs were occasionally 
taken by the glyptic artist as the most appropriate 
motive for decorating the surface of the pouch or the 
pipe-case, and the result is that these objects, when 
made of wood, ivory, horn, or bamboo, sometimes 
present a style of decoration without any Japanese 
affinities and with very little to recommend it from 
an artistic point of view. On the whole, however, 
the use of hard substances bamboo, ebony, shitan, 
betel-nut, palm, ivory, or horn for the manufacture 
of pouches was exceptional. In the case of ivory, a 
favourite though seldom practised method was to cut 

1 See Appendix, note 24. 



the material in fine strips and weave them in basket 
meshes, the technical difficulty constituting the chic 
of the article. An ivory, ebony, or bamboo surface 
carved so as to be indistinguishable from basket work 
was also prized, and, for the rest, many quaint and 
pretty methods of sculpture and decoration were 
employed ; but, on the whole, the tobacco pouch it- 
self, apart from its appendages, was the least ornate of 
the girdle-pendants. 

The pipe-case (kiseruzutsu) is another of Japan's 
glyptic triumphs. M. Gonse justly says that there 
are few objects on which Japanese artists have ex- 
pended more consideration and taste. In form it is 
very simple a slightly flattened tube, the upper por- 
tion of which slips into the lower in such a manner 
as to be gripped more tightly the further it is in- 
serted. The material is ebony, bamboo, sandalwood, 
horn, ivory, lacquered wood, and sometimes metal. 
Carved with exquisite care and taste in high relief, 
elaborately engraved, inlaid with various substances, 
or overlaid with applied ornaments, the pipe-case is 
unquestionably a charming specimen of decorative 
art. It must not be supposed, however, that richness 
and profusion of ornamentation are regarded as evi- 
dences of excellence in 'Japan. M. Gonse, in an out- 
burst of enthusiasm, refers to a pipe-case in the Gon- 
court collection as le roi des etuis b pipe passes, presents 
et futures, and describes it thus : " It is a bamboo 
tube, the rotundity slightly flattened, covered with 
a flight of dragon-flies. One cannot imagine any- 
thing more marvellously captivating, more sumptu- 
ous than this decoration, half in relief, half incised, 
enriched with enamel, with mother-of-pearl, and 
with coloured ivory ; with gradations and effects of 



background, obtained by the contrast between dragon- 
flies simply sculptured and dragon-flies of enamel and 
mother-of-pearl in the foreground." Such work is 
doubtless very beautiful to Western eyes, but a classi- 
cal Japanese connoisseur would turn from it with dis- 
dain. Some thirty years ago, there lived a sculptor, 
named Hashi-ichi, then in his old age. His spe- 
cialty was to imitate bamboo : to reproduce in box- 
wood, in ebony, or in shitan the joints, the texture, 
the graining, and all the other characteristics of the 
bamboo. If one of Hashi-ichi's unadorned pipe- 
cases together with M. Gonse's " king of past, of 
present, and of future pipe-cases," were offered to a 
Japanese connoisseur, he would choose the former 
unhesitatingly, for the profuse decoration which 
appeals to Occidental eyes represents a comparatively 
modern period of Japanese art, and is not always 
in harmony with the best Japanese canons. Some 
specimens there are, indeed, in which wealth of 
design and purity of conception are happily com- 
bined, and the decoration is nobly rich without 
any hint of meretriciousness. But seldom, very sel- 
dom indeed, did a Japanese craftsman of the first class 
attempt to build up designs with such a melange of sub- 
stances as mother-of-pearl, coloured ivory, and enamel. 
In operations of that patchwork, dovetailing, finikin 
kind there was no room for vigour and directness of 
line or strength of chisel, nor could the decorator 
look to satisfy the highest canon of his art, large 
effect with small effort. It will be readily under- 
stood that the pipe-case, the netsuke, the tobacco- 
pouch, and its appendages and ornaments were all 
en suite, all formed part of the same decorative 
scheme. They do not necessarily lose interest or 



beauty by separation, though sometimes the story 
their design tells does not bear to be divided into 
fragments. There is nothing to be added in this 
context to what has already been said about the 
range of the netsu&e-carver's decorative motives. The 
same craftsman undertook the chiselling of the netsuke 
and the pipe-case, and derived his designs from the 
same sources. 

Mention may be conveniently made here of two 
objects which, although they have no connection with 
girdle-pendants, received their decoration from the 
hands of the latter's craftsman. They are the kiyoji- 
tate and the kbgo. The kiyoji-tate, though a very beauti- 
ful little affair, may be dismissed with a few words. 
It is a miniature vase, from three to four inches high, 
generally hexagonal in section, used for holding the 
delicate silver instruments of the incense-burning pas- 
time. Made of silver, gold, silver-gilt, and sometimes 
shakudo or shibuicbi, its sides are almost invariably chis- 
elled in reticulated diapers, scrolls, or arabesques, but 
it owes its attraction rather to grace of form, highly 
finished technique, and delicacy of decorative design 
than to excellence of sculpture. The kogo is a tiny 
box for holding cakes of incense. Like the inro y it 
belongs primarily to the domain of lacquer manufac- 
ture. But there are many specimens in metal or 
ivory with sculptured decoration, incised or in relief, 
of such fine design and choice workmanship that they 
deserve to be classed among the best chefs-d'oeuvre of 
glyptic art. 

Who were the men that carved these beautiful 
objects, so essentially Japanese, and what inspiration 
led the glyptic artist in the seventeenth century to 
make a departure analogous to that made by the 



pictorial artist of the Toba-ye in the twelfth ? There 
is no escape from the general conclusion that Japan- 
ese art derived its motives and its methods from foreign 
sources, but, on the other hand, both in sculpture and 
in painting it shows developments which owe nothing 
to alien suggestion, and must be placed to the sole 
credit of Japanese genius. That distinction has 
already been noted with regard to the Ukiyo-ye ( genre- 
picture), and its truth in the realm of sculpture is 
established partly by the works of Joch5 and his 
successors in the religious school, and completely by 
the carving of netsuke and girdle-pendants in general. 
The netsuke is a combination of the Toba-ye and the 
Ukiyo-ye. It shows all the humour of the former 
without the grotesque exaggerations of form, and it 
has all the naturalistic graces and human interest of 
the latter. There is nothing exactly corresponding 
to it in the sculpture of any other country, and one 
imagines that the first appearance of such an object 
ought to be historically recorded. But the difficulty 
that confronts the student in tracing any school of 
Japanese pictorial art to its source, presents itself in 
the case of the netsuke also : public attention was not 
directed to the new departure until its success had 
become conspicuous, and in the meanwhile the 
pioneers had passed out of sight and memory. There 
is a vague Japanese tradition that the first sculptor 
who made a specialty of netsuke-czrv'mg was one Ri- 
fu-ho of Kyoto. He is said to have flourished from 
1 625 to 1 670. " Ri-fu-ho " is not a family name or a 
personal name. It is one of the professional appella- 
tions which Japanese experts generally take. Nothing 
is known of the man or of his work. He is referred 
to also as " Hinaya," and some English writers have 

VOL. VII. 13 I QO 


assumed that the latter was an alternative name. But 
" hina-ye " signifies " a maker of hina ; " that is to 
say, of the puppets set up at the Girls' Fete on the 
fifth day of the fifth month. These little figures did 
not call for much exercise of glyptic skill. Their 
costumes and all the accessories of the various char- 
acters they represented were of the most accurate and 
elaborate nature. Processions of feudal chiefs with 
every miniature squire and man-at-arms caparisoned 
exactly as he would be in life, and with all the para- 
phernalia of travel reproduced microscopically ; wed- 
ding ceremonials, from the feast with its refined 
conventionalism when the loving-cup was exchanged, 
to the bride's first return to the abode of her parents ; 
scenes from the history of filial piety or from the 
pages of mythology, folk-lore, or fable ; in short, an 
endless repertoire of subjects offered itself for the 
choice of the maker of hina, and since these little 
figures with their accompaniments are exact repro- 
ductions of Japanese costume, customs, weapons, 
armour, household utensils, and what not, they are 
greatly and deservedly prized by foreign collectors. 
But they cannot be called works of art : they are 
simply the most elaborate and naturalistic dolls ever 
made in any country. Generally the figures were of 
wood, but in the choicest specimens ivory was used 
for the faces, hands, and feet. Sums corresponding 
to many hundreds of sovereigns were occasionally 
expended upon these hina by great and wealthy 
families, in order that some pet daughter might 
celebrate her fete with sufficiently triumphal delight ; 
for it must be observed that the little ladies, wearing 
gala frocks, visited each other's displays of hina during 
many days, and that the " grown-ups " of the district 



took scarcely less pride and pleasure in this feature of 
the fete. Nothing was more natural than that a 
maker of hina should turn to the more artistic but 
somewhat cognate pursuit of netsuke-czrvmg. For 
the rest, however, nothing can be predicated about the 
traditional Ri-fu-yo. No specimens of his work are 
known to have survived, and if he took the elaborate 
hina as a model, his immediate successors did not 
follow his example. According to an appendix to 
the Soken Kisho (Treatise on Sword-Furniture), com- 
piled by Michitaku and published in June, 1781, the 
first carver of netsuke was the well-known painter 
Tosa Mitsuoki, who died in the year 1691. He had 
the rank of Hogen, and his art name was Shuzan. 
The Sbken Kisho says of him : 

Hogen Shuzan lived at Shima-no-uchi in Osaka. All the 
netsuke carved by this artist are coloured. Many imitations 
have been made, but none has the qualities possessed by 
works from the artistic hands of the skilled painter. 

Note by Kinshi Hozan, son of Shuzan : " My father, who 
is artistically known as Hogen Shuzan, was called Mitsuoki, 
or Tansenso, and enjoyed a high reputation as a painter. 
He was very fond of carving, and loved to reproduce, with 
due alterations of enlargement or reduction, the quaintest 
and most unusual figures shown in the Sankaikyo (shapes 
from the mountain and the ocean) or the Ressaiden (annals 
of Rishi). In fact, any figure that he fancied took shape 
under his chisel. His scheme of colouring was so excellent 
that ordinary folks can have no conception of it. But as 
he ceased to carve after reaching middle life, his works are 
very scarce and of correspondingly high value. Ina Michi- 
taku, a friend of mine, who has been recently engaged com- 
piling the Shaken Kisbo, with an appendix on netsuke^ has 
asked my permission to publish some of my father's 
carvings, together with those of some other artists. I desire 
to comply with his wishes, but unfortunately these old and 



rare carvings are not to be obtained easily, being preciously 
treasured up by their possessors. Hence there is nothing 
at hand really suitable for publication. I have thought, 
however, that since my father carved only as a pastime in 
the intervals of his work as a painter, his reputation will 
suffer no injury by letting the public see even such mediocre 
specimens of his glyptic work as happen to be available. 
Hence I have sketched a few and sent them to my 

It will be observed that already in the year 1 78 1 
the netsuke carved by Shuzan were very scarce, that 
all his works were coloured (from which it may 
be inferred that the only material employed by him 
was wood), and that imitations were numerous 
even during the lifetime of the immediately suc- 
ceeding generations. Indeed, the fact that a netsuke 
carries the name of one of the early celebrities 
ought generally to inspire distrust, and to suggest 
possibly the work of an inferior craftsman without 
either reputation or skill to justify the use of his 
own name. 

It is frequently alleged that no good netsuke have 
been made in modern times : a conception derived, 
doubtless, from the fact that after the opening of the 
country to foreign intercourse in 1857, the netsuke 
ceasing, on the one hand, to be valued by the Japanese 
themselves, and becoming, on the other, an object of 
curiosity and admiration to foreigners, hundreds of 
inferior specimens were chiselled by inexpert hands, 
purchased wholesale by treaty-port merchants, and 
sent to New York, London, and Paris, where, though 
they brought profit to the exporter, they also dis- 
gusted connoisseurs and soon earned discredit for their 
whole class. But it was a mistake to conclude from 



these parodies that the sculptor had lost his old 
ability. He still retained it, though its exercise was 
circumscribed, and in Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto 
netsukes of high quality continued to be produced. 
During recent years the artists have turned their 
attention to a somewhat different class of object, 
the okimono, or statuette, but it is not to be supposed 
that they are a whit inferior to the old-time experts 
in conception and execution. The collector may 
be satisfied that a netsuke bearing the signature of 
a comparatively modern artist is not necessarily in- 
ferior to a genuine specimen by Seibei, Tomtoda, 
Miwa, or Issai. 

The passing reference already made to Nara ningyo 
(puppets of Nara) requires to be briefly supplemented. 
Visitors to the celebrated temples of Nara find for 
sale there some roughly chiselled wooden figures, two 
or three inches high, generally representing the old 
couple of Takasago and a few other familiar motives. 
The figures are painted in two or three colours. 
They can scarcely be called art objects, but belong 
rather to the category of toys. Yet they are con- 
nected with a once flourishing industry which occu- 
pies a prominent place in the history of Japanese 
wood-carving. In 1588, when the Taiko had the 
honour of receiving a visit from the Emperor in the 
newly constructed " Palace of Pleasure " at Fushimi, 
he ordered the sculptors of Nara to exert their ut- 
most skill in producing a congratulatory carving 
which should stand in the alcove of the reception 
chamber. The form of such an object was limited 
by tradition to the shimadai, or " island-stand," a mo- 
tive derived from the Japanese cosmogony in which 
the creator and the creatrix, Izanami and Izanagi, are 



supposed to have begotten the island of Onokoro, 
when the male and female principles first came into 
active existence. The divine feat is represented in art 
by a gracefully shaped stand, more or less elaborately 
decorated, on which are placed two figures of an aged 
man and woman, as well as a group of plum, bamboo, 
and pine trees, with accessories in the shape of cranes 
and tortoises. The figures are the spirits of the ancient 
pine-trees of Takasago and Sumiyoshi, and the whole 
combination is emblematic of longevity, prosperity, 
happiness, and undying affection. The TalKo s com- 
mission to prepare this alcove ornament was given to 
Yemon Tazayemon, a sculptor of Nara, and the 
shima-dai there produced Nara-dai, as it is often 
called is popularly said to have been the origin of 
the afterwards celebrated Nara-ningyo. But here, 
again, the student detects a tendency common in 
Japanese art-annals, the tendency to mistake the first 
public recognition of an industry for its origin. The 
plum, the pine, the bamboo, the tortoise, the crane, 
and the spirits of the ancient trees, of Sumiyoshi and 
Takasago, had symbolised long life, prosperity, and 
enduring conjugal love for centuries prior to the 
building of the ill-fated Momoyamagoten at Fushimi, 
and innumerable shima-hai 1 had been prepared for 
wedding ceremonies before Hideyoshi gave a com- 
mission to the Nara sculptors. Indeed, close exami- 
nation of the records shows that Nara-ningyo were 
manufactured as early as the year 1 135, on the occa- 
sion of the first great Kasuga festival, when the image 
of the god Waka-miya was moved to a new shrine ; 
and tradition says that in their origin which was 
not later than the middle of the tenth century 

1 See Appendix, note z$. 



these little figures partook of the nature of amulets, 
having been carved out of the old timbers of the 
sacred bridge leading to the temples, when the bridge 
was renewed for the first time. It was an article of 
popular faith that all these little figures were made 
from bridge-wood which had been hallowed during 
long years by the tread of priests and the passage of 
festival processions, but since the bridge did not re- 
quire renewing more than once in fifty years, whereas 
every pilgrim visiting Nara carried away one of the 
images, faith must have been substituted for fact in 
an immense number of cases. Let the timber be 
what it might, however, the sculptor had to observe 
one rule unfailingly : he was required to fashion the 
object with a minimum use of the chisel. Perfect 
success in that respect was supposed to be attained 
when the tool was never applied a second time to the 
same place. 1 Thus the Nara-ningyo stood to sculp- 
ture in the same relation as that of the Indian-ink 
sketch to painting. These figures do not appear to 
have attracted much attention in aesthetic circles until 
the Taiko's example, as described above, being followed 
by the nobility as well as by wealthy commoners, gave 
a great impulse to the art of the himono-shi? From 
that time the chiselling of Nara-ningyo became a flour- 
ishing industry, the range of motives being gradually 
extended and the colouring executed with care and 
taste. Some of these figures were richly lacquered, 
and when thus decorated they received the name of 
Negoro-ningyo. In the early part of the nineteenth 
century, an expert sculptor named Okano Hohaku 
gave a wider range to his art by chiselling characters 
from the classic mimes, the bugaku, the gigaku, 

1 See Appendix, note 26. 3 See Appendix, note 27. 

I 99 


and the nogaku, and in 1830 Kambayashi Rakki- 
ken, a cha-no-yu celebrity, who resided in Uji, at- 
tracted attention by chiselling representations of 
girls engaged in the processes of tea-manufacture. 
These Uji-ningyo t as they are called, often stand on 
a very high plane of artistic feeling and technical 

The latest development of figure-sculpture in Japan 
prior to the Meiji era was the Asakusa-ningyo, so called 
from the name of the place (Asakusa in Yedo) where 
the sculptor, Fukushima Kagan, lived, and where his 
works were usually exhibited. The Asakusa-ningyo 
was generally a life-size figure, representing some his- 
torical or mythical character. Draped in appropriate 
garments, these ningyo were grouped so as to form 
traditional scenes, and admission to the gallery where 
they stood could be obtained on payment of a small 
fee. This was the Madame Toussaud's of Japan. 
Generally the ningyo were modelled in clay, 1 but 
whatever the material, they were little better than 
large puppets, raised above doll level by the clever 
modelling of their faces and hands. Such a branch of 
technical sculpture would scarcely deserve notice save 
for its association with Matsumoto Kisaburo (1830- 
i 869), who is frequently spoken of by Western connois- 
seurs as the greatest wood-carver of modern Japan. 
Certainly he was the most realistic, for he carved human 
figures with as much accuracy as though they were des- 
tined for purposes of surgical demonstration. Consider- 
ing that this man had neither education nor anatomical 
instruction, and that he never enjoyed an opportunity 
of studying from a model in a studio, his achieve- 
ments were remarkable. He and the craftsmen of 

1 See Appendix, note 28. 



the school he established, completely refute the 
theory that the anatomical defects commonly seen in 
the work of Japanese sculptors are due to faulty ob- 
servation. Without scientific training of any kind, 
Matsumoto and his followers produced works in which 
the eye of science cannot detect any error. But it is 
impossible to admit within the circle of high-art pro- 
ductions these wooden figures of every-day men and 
women, unrelieved by any subjective element and 
owing their merit entirely to the fidelity with which 
their contours are shaped, their muscles modelled, and 
their anatomical proportions preserved. They have 
not even the attraction of being cleanly sculptured in 
wood, but are covered with thinly lacquered muslin, 
which, though doubtless a good preservative, accen- 
tuates their puppet-like character. Nevertheless Mat- 
sumoto's figures marked an epoch in Japanese wood 
sculpture. Their vivid realism appealed strongly to 
the taste of the average foreigner ; a considerable 
school of carvers soon began to work in the Matsu- 
moto style, and hundreds of their productions have 
gone to Europe and America, finding no market in 
Japan. The greatest of these modern experts is 
Yamamoto Fukumatsu. He reaches the level of 
Matsumoto Kisaburo. 

Midway between the Matsumoto realistic school 
and the pure Japanese style of former times, stand a 
number of wood-carvers headed by Takamura Koun, 
who occupies in the field of sculpture much the same 
place as that held by Hashimoto Gaho in the realm 
of painting. Koun carves figures in the round, which 
not only display great power of chisel and breadth 
of style, but also tell a story not necessarily drawn 
from the motives of the classical school. This de- 



parture from established canons must be traced to 
the influence of the short-lived academy of Italian 
art established by the Japanese Government in 1 874. 
In the forefront of the new movement are to be 
found men like Yoneharu Unkai and Shinkai Take- 
jiro, the former of whom chiselled a figure of Jenner 
for the Medical Association of Japan when they 
celebrated the centenary of the great physician, and 
the latter has carved life-size likeness effigies of 
Princes Arisugawa and Kitashirakawa who lost their 
lives in the war of 1894-1895. The artists of the 
Koun school, however, do much work which appeals to 
emotions in general rather than to individual memo- 
ries. Thus Arakawa Reiun, one of Koun's most 
brilliant pupils, recently exhibited a figure of a swords- 
man in the act of driving home a furious thrust. The 
weapon is not shown. Reiun sculptured simply a man 
poised on the toes of one foot, the other foot raised, 
the arm extended, and the body straining forward in 
strong yet elastic muscular effort. This carving em- 
phasises the advantage of not working from a model. 
A posed figure could not possibly suggest the alert 
vitality and high muscular tension of the swordsman. 
A more imaginative work by the same artist is a 
figure of a farmer who has just shot an eagle that 
swooped upon his grandson. The old man holds his 
bow still raised. Some of the eagle's feathers, blown 
to his side, suggest the death of the bird ; at his feet 
lies the corpse of the little boy, and the horror, grief, 
and anger that such a tragedy would inspire are de- 
picted with striking realism in the farmer's face. 
Work of that nature has close affinities with Occi- 
dental conceptions. Its chief distinguishing feature 
is that the glyptic character is preserved at the ex- 



pense of surface-finish. The undisguised touches of 
the chisel tell a story of technical force and direct- 
ness which could not be suggested by perfectly 
smooth surfaces. To subordinate process to result 
is the European canon. To show the former with- 
out marring the latter is the Japanese ideal. Many 
of Koun's sculptures appear unfinished to eyes trained 
in Occidental galleries, whereas the Japanese con- 
noisseur detects evidence of a technical feat in their 
seeming roughness. 

Architectural decoration in Europe and America 
ought to provide much employment for the Japanese 
wood-carver. In his own country temples, shrines, 
and mausolea used to offer a wide field for his chisel ; 
but since feudalism fell and since the State turned its 
back upon religion, the greatly reduced revenues of 
sacred edifices barely suffice for their support and 
leave no margin for their embellishment. There has 
not, however, been any diminution of the old glyptic 
skill and originality. On the contrary, at least as 
much talent as ever is now available. Formerly a 
large part of the decorative sculpture for temples and 
mausolea was done in sections, which were after- 
wards pieced together with nails and glue. Ex- 
amples of that method may be seen in some of the 
most effective carvings of the Nikko mausolea. The 
head and neck of a phoenix, for instance, are sculp- 
tured in three or four segments, and the tail-feathers 
in five or six. Elaborate chiselling in relief on a 
solid ground was seldom attempted in wood, admi- 
rable as was the work of that kind achieved in metal. 
But at glyptic exhibitions in Tokyo during recent 
years beautiful specimens of solid carvings in relief 
have been shown. Such work, if judiciously applied 



to the interiors of foreign buildings, must be highly 
attractive, and the cost would be comparatively small, 
for a very slender remuneration still satisfies the Japan- 
ese art artisan. Intelligent enterprise should find an 
opportunity here. 


Chapter VI 


OF the three fields in which Japanese art may 
justly claim to have shown original genius, 
namely, the art of genre painting with its 
correlated achievements in chromo-xylog- 
raphy, the field of netsuke carving, and the field of 
sculpture as employed for the decoration of weapons 
of war, it is probably correct to say that the most 
remarkable work is found in the last. 

There is a common belief that the decoration of 
arms and armour did not reach a high grade of excel- 
lence until the twelfth century of the Christian era. 
Japanese traditions, on the contrary, allege that the 
inlaying of armour with gold and silver began in 
the fourth century, but there is nothing to support 
the assertion. The armour found in dolmens shows 
no trace of inlaying, or of any elaborate ornamen- 
tation, and it may be said that the contents of these 
peculiar tombs, which represent the burial-places of 
Japanese chieftains and sovereigns down to, probably, 
the fifth century of the Christian era, did not give 
much promise of the extraordinary skill afterwards 
attained. Nevertheless it is certain that the sculptor 
must have occupied himself diligently with the 
decoration of armour long before the Gem-pei wars 
of the twelfth century, for a suit of mail worn by 
Yoshitsune, the hero of that time, which is preserved 



in a temple at Nara, exhibits features of considerable 
decorative beauty. It is a combination of plate and 
chain defence, and the chiselling of the helmet, 
breastplate, and brassarts indicates that Japan possessed, 
at that comparatively early era, workers in metal not 
unworthy to rank with the sculptor of the Siris 
Bronzes. Indeed Yoshitsune's armour forcibly recalls 
that celebrated relic of the school of Praxiteles, for 
just as the Grecian artist adorned the shoulder-pieces 
of the armour with repousse pictures of a combat 
between an Amazon and a warrior, so on Yoshitsune's 
shoulder-pieces the Japanese craftsman affixed repousse 
representations of the Dog of Fo, and on the helmet, 
flying pheasants. These adjuncts, however, are a 
minor feature in the case of the Japanese suit of mail. 
The chief characteristic is a wealth of designs 
peony sprays, the well-known combination of plum, 
bamboo, and pine, chrysanthemum scrolls, and birds 
in high relief, "a jour, and in low relief. The crafts- 
man who could execute such work had not much 
room for improvement, and indeed it is not surpris- 
ing to know that a family which through many 
generations gave Japan her greatest artists in iron 
the Miyochin family was founded by an armourer, 
and had a celebrated representative in the second half 
of the twelfth century. 

While, however, this fine work was lavished on 
the decoration of armour certainly from the twelfth 
century and probably from an earlier date, the adorn- 
ment of the sword did not receive commensurate 
attention until the fifteenth century, a curious fact 
from the point of view of mere incongruity, but 
doubly curious when it is remembered that whereas 
armour was worn only on special occasions, the sword 



had a perpetual place in the girdle, and possessed, 
moreover, a value which seems romantic until some- 
thing is learned of its really wonderful capacities. 
The sword itself, not being an object of art, will not 
be discussed here, great as is the interest otherwise 
attaching to it. What has to be spoken of is sword- 
furniture. There it was that the Japanese worker in 
metals won his crown of skill. In the decoration 
that he lavished on the guard, the hilt, and other 
parts of the sword's mountings, he gave to the world 
peerless specimens of sculpture in metal and of metal- 
lurgic processes. There is nothing in the cognate 
work of any other nation that surpasses, perhaps noth- 
ing that equals, the masterpieces of Japan in this 
line. The scarabs of Etruria have been mentioned as 
in some degree parallel, just as the Tanagra statuettes 
have been classed with the netsuke. If it be permissi- 
ble to place on the same artistic plane a terra-cotta 
figure cast in a mould and a carving in wood or ivory, 
then also it may not be extravagant to compare the 
pictures sculptured and painted no other term can 
be justly used on metal by decorators of Japanese 
swords to the intaglios of Etruscan gem-cutters. 
These are matters of taste not profitable to discuss, 
nor will any one who has had an opportunity of exam- 
ining a really representative collection of Japanese 
sword-furniture experience the least difficulty in form- 
ing a final opinion. He will recognise that he is 
dealing with pictorial art applied to metal, and the 
longer he studies the subject the greater the charms 
it develops and the more numerous the surprises it 
affords. This eulogy is not intended to imply that 
there are to be found among articles of Japanese 
sword-furniture monumental specimens of decorative 



metal-work worthy to be classed with objects such as 
the silver altar of the Florence baptistery, the candela- 
brum of the Milan Cathedral, the mediaeval rejas of 
Spanish churches, and many of the other magnificent 
achievements of European artists in metal. The two 
classes of work are not comparable. One might as 
well place in the same category the dancing maidens 
of the walls of Herculaneum and the most delicate 
miniature paintings on ivory. It has, indeed, been 
asserted that the extraordinary labour of mind and 
hand lavished by the Japanese artist upon objects the 
biggest of which can be enclosed within a circle three 
inches in diameter, justifies the criticism that he 
belonged to a nation great in little things and little 
in great things. But if the Japanese sculptor of 
sword-furniture is to be accused of moral smallness 
because he applied himself to the production of tiny 
ornaments, the same charge may be preferred against 
Benvenuto Cellini, since so much of his fame rests on 
his enamelled jewelry. Whatever quality of mind 
the fact indicates, it is indisputable that the Japanese 
artist or art-artisan is the most conscientious in the 
world. He loves to expend the finest and most 
patient effort upon the least conspicuous portions of 
the object he ornaments, partly because loyalty to his 
art dictates such a sacrifice of labour, and partly 
because he thus enters a kind of noble protest against 
any suspicion of decorative ostentation which the 
beauty and richness of his work might otherwise 
suggest. That habit of craftsmanship is well illus- 
trated in sword-furniture. The delicacy of chiselling 
and infinitely careful finish betowed on every detail 
delight the connoisseur as much as they astonish him. 
Admirable as is the netsu fa-carver's work, the art of 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

the sword-ornamenter has greater range and freedom. 
That, indeed, is a necessary result of the well-recog- 
nised law that the more direct and complete the 
imitation effected by any art, the less the range and 
the number of the phenomena it can imitate. The 
netsuke being, for the most part, a sculpture in the 
round, the actions, expressions, and accessories repre- 
sented by it must be limited by the principles of sta- 
bility and simplicity that govern the " space-arts ; " 
whereas, in the decoration of sword-furniture, the 
artist may introduce a much wider range of objects 
and a much greater complexity of actions. The 
student of these beautiful creations finds that Japanese 
sculptors have exercised to the full their proper lati- 
tude of motives and methods. The carver of sword- 
furniture did, in fact, make " pictures " in metal ; that 
is to say, pictures within the limitations found appli- 
cable to all Japanese pictorial art, wherein such sub- 
tleties of appearance as are due to the incidence of 
light and shade find scarcely any place. 

The Japanese samurai carried two swords in his 
girdle. They are spoken of collectively as dai-skb 
(long and small), and separately as katana (the long 
sword) and ivakizasbi (the companion sword, that is 
to say, the short sword). There were four other kinds 
of sword ; namely, ( i ) the tachl (called also jintachi, 
or " war " tachi), a long curved blade carried by 
samurai of high rank; (2) the tsurugi, a straight, 
double-edged sword used in ancient times (the katana, 
the wakizashi, and the tacbi were all one-edged) ; (3) 
the aikuchi, a dagger (without guard), used originally 
for stabbing or decapitating a prostrate foe, and sub- 
sequently worn by the samurai when the dai-sbo 
were removed (as on entering a friend's house) ; and 

VOL. VII. 14 2O9 


(4) the kaiken (lit. bosom sword), a dagger (without 
guard) worn by women. 

The furniture of the sword, that is to say, of the 
katana and the ivakizashi, commencing from the 
top of the hilt, consists of 

The kasbira (tip) a metal cap placed upon the top of the 
hilt (kasbira literally means " head," and in this case is an 
abbreviation of tsuka-gashira, or the " head of the hilt "). 

The menuki (rivet) a piece of metal placed under the 
Trapping of the hilt to improve the grasp. The origin of the 
menuki will be explained presently. A menuki being placed 
on either side of the hilt, these ornaments always occur in 
pairs and have decoration en suite. 

Thefucbi a metal ring encircling the hilt immediately 
above the guard. The ornamentation of the fucbi and that 
of the kasbira is always en suite. 

The tsuba the guard. 

The seppa a small plate through which the haft of the 
sword passes before entering the guard. 

The habaki two flanges (forming a single piece), which 
grasp the sides of the blade immediately below the seppa. 
The seppa and the habaki never carry decorative designs of 
any kind, but are mentioned here for the sake of com- 

The kozuka a knife inserted in the scabbard of the 
"companion sword" (wakizasbi). The tip of the knife's 
hilt lies opposite an opening in the guard through which it 
is drawn when required for use. It is generally supposed 
that the term kozuka applies to the hilt only of the knife or 
dagger, the whole being called the kogatana (little sword). 
But by kozuka the Japanese understand the knife attached to 
the scabbard of a sword, and by kogatana any knife, such as 
that used by a wood-carver, for example. 

The kogai a skewer inserted in the scabbard of the 
"companion sword" (wakizasbi), on the side opposite to 
the kozuka. The kogai t like the kozuka^ is drawn through 
an opening in the guard. It thus results that the guard of 
the " companion sword" has always two oval holes, whereas 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

the guard of the katana is either without these holes, or has 
them filled with removable plates. The kogai served the 
samurai as a kind of hair-pin for fastening on his official cap 
(kammuri). In time of war it was put to a different use, 
being thrust into the head of a slain adversary for purposes 
of subsequent identification so that the victor might claim 
the honour due to his prowess. The kogai sometimes takes 
the form of a pair of skewers. 

The Kurigata an oval knob fastened on one side of the 
scabbard, and having a hole through which the pendent cord 
(sage-o) is passed. The sage-o^ which is always a strong 
braid of silk, is twisted round the scabbard like a sword-knot, 
but its chief use is to tie back the long sleeves of the surcoat 
during a fight. In the case of the curved sword (tachi\ how- 
ever, the sage-o served to fasten the scabbard to the girdle. 

The soritsuno a piece of metal fixed on the scabbard of 
the " companion sword " below the kurigata to prevent the 
scabbard from slipping (sori) in the girdle. 

The kojiri a metal cap sometimes placed on the end of 
the scabbard. 

The furniture of the curved sword (tachi) has a dif- 
ferent nomenclature from the above. Its various parts 
are as follows : 

Kabuto-gane (lit. helmet-metal) the cap on the hilt, cor- 
responding to the kashira of the ordinary sword. 

Musubi-gane (lit. knot-metal) a ring attached to the cap 
for the purpose of receiving a small knot. 

Tsuka-ai (lit. hilt-companions) corresponding to the 
menuki of the ordinary sword. 

Ichi-no-asbi and ni-no-ashi (lit. the first foot and second 
foot) two bands with rings encircling the scabbard to 
receive the sword-knot (sage-o). 

Sbiba-biki the lowest ring on the scabbard. 

Isbi-zuki the " boot " of the scabbard. 

In order to reach the standpoint from which the 
Japanese view these decorative objects, to learn how 
they were regarded by connoisseurs in the country of 



their manufacture, and to discover what aims the best 
artists proposed to themselves in chiselling them, it is 
desirable to translate the words of the author of the 
Soken Kisho y a critical writer whose treatment of the 
subject is full and appreciative : 


As a general rule it is not so difficult to judge the quality 
of the carving on a menuki^ a kozuka, and so forth as to pro- 
nounce an accurate verdict on the quality of the sword-blade. 

One must commence by studying the chisel-marks on the 
works of the thirteen successive generations of the Goto 
family the iye-bori, as they are called until one has ac- 
quired a thoroughly clear perception of the characteristics of 
each master's style. This must be done with such diligence 
that in the end the distinguishing features of each artist's 
work can be recognised at a glance. Thus equipped, the 
amateur will, of course, be in a position to discriminate be- 
tween the iye-bori work and that of all other sculptors. It 
is not enough, however, to be able to identify the manner- 
isms of the chisels. The informing spirit of the work and 
its art quality must also be earnestly studied. This is the 
shortest and only route to become a competent connoisseur. 
For the sculpture of a genius, whether he belongs to the 
iye-bori or not, is invariably permeated by a lofty spirit, 
whereas that of the artisan, whatever be its technical beauty, 
lacks elevation of tone and is consequently quite inferior. 
When once the connoisseur's mind is furnished with an in- 
telligent standard of refined loftiness, there will not be the 
least hesitation in detecting any low or vulgar features pre- 
sented by a work. 

The kozuka and kogai 1 of the first Goto masters (iye-bori), 
as well as of the experts of early eras, invariably have the 

1 It will be observed that the kozuka and kogai are the only parts of the 
sword-furniture referred to. These, in fact, were the parts on which the 
great sculptors originally expended their skill. The guard (tiuba'), to which 
the place of honour is given by foreign connoisseurs in general, did not hold 
the same artistic rank as the kozuka and kogai until a later epoch. 



ground covered with fish-roe 1 (nanako) diaper that is to 
say, very small granulations like the roe of a fish. It was 
formerly a point of etiquette not to wear, on occasions of 
ceremony, swords of which the kozuka and kogai were without 
the fish-roe ground. Those having the isbime (stone-grain) 
ground or the ji-migakii (polished ground) were not con- 
sidered suitable for such occasions. But among the works 
of the later iye-bori there are many that have not the nanako 
ground. It is to be observed that the fucbi and the kasbira 
are not included in the rule. 

NOTE. The fucbi and the kasbira do not properly belong 
to the class of sword " ornaments," being, in fact, essential 
parts of the mounting. They form with the seppa and the 
habaki inseparable elements of the mounted sword. The term 
nanako is derived from the resemblance that the microscopic 
granulations bear to fish-roe. In the language of old Japan, 
" fish " was called na, and this with the suffix ko (egg) made 
the compound na-no-ko, or nanako. 

None of the early representatives of the Goto family (iye- 
bori} made a business of carving anything but kozuka, me- 
nuki, and kogai. Only from the time (1570-1631) of Tokujo, 
the fifth representative, did they occasionally sculpture fuchi, 
kasbira, and tsuba. Specimens of their work in these latter 
lines are very rare, and should be correspondingly prized. 
In recent times it is occasionally found that a gold crest 
(coat of arms) originally chiselled on a kozuka or kogai of 
old make has been detached and fixed on the fuchi and 
kashira, or on the fuchi alone, or on the tsuba; and in other 
cases gold-plated crests or incised designs have been newly 
attached to, or cut on, the original ground. Such objects 
are very rare, nor would devices of the kind have been 
employed by the masters except in compliance with orders 
that could not be disobeyed. 

1 There can be little doubt that the Japanese took this idea of " fish- 
roe " granulations from Chinese porcelain. One of the most admired tours 
de force of the Chinese keramist was a glaze completely covered with tiny 
granulations which he compared to millet seed. Crackle of the finest and 
most regular character was known in the Middle Kingdom as "fish-roe" 
crackle, and these much esteemed grounds must have inspired the nanako of 



It is a saying of the philosopher Amamori Hoshiu that 
" in art there are four grades, the inferior (heta), the skilled 
(kosha), the expert (jozu), and the master (meifnt),' and that 
" the same classification applies to the conduct of the gentle- 
man." In such wise, also, may be distinguished the merits 
of carvers. Adopting that principle in compiling this work, 
I have divided the carvers of sword-furniture into three 
ranks. Natural talent combined with the skill acquired by 
long practice constitutes the " master," who stands at the 
highest point of his art. Next comes the " expert," con- 
cerning whom, however, a triple subdivision must be made : 
namely, the expert who ranks next to and immediately after 
the master ; then the expert who, though originally of " in- 
ferior" ability, has nevertheless by zealous and patient effort 
developed the skill which ought to be the aim of every stu- 
dent ; finally, the expert who by conceiving and executing 
some attractive novelty, obtains the passing plaudits of a curi- 
ous public, but whose works ultimately lose their charm and 
stand revealed as unworthy of lasting admiration. All artists 
that do not rise to the rank of " master " or " expert " may 
be classed as " common." There are certainly gradations 
among these last, but the sum of the matter is that they be- 
long to the " inferior " order and are persons of vulgar 
endowments. In every art the idea is first conceived, and 
the hand thereafter moves in obedience to the mind. The 
loftier the mind, the nobler the execution. An artist who 
produces inferior work should be ashamed rather than proud. 
The connoisseur of art objects must apply the same principle 
in forming his judgments. Nobility of mind, absolute im- 
partiality, and entire disinterestedness are the three essentials 
of a sound critic. 

The old-time carvers set out by learning from their mas- 
ters how to handle the chisel, and when they had acquired 
skill in the technical processes, they made their own designs 
and sought to develop a special style. Thus, even those 
that did not rise to the level of " experts " often produced 
works showing skill, force, and graces of composition. So 
degenerate, on the contrary, are modern carvers that if they 
find an old work of fine quality, they carefully copy it by 
taking an impression. But their unskilled use of the chisel 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

easily betrays them, for their execution is invariably prolix 
and awkward. None the less when, after long toil and 
much pain, they have succeeded in carving, polishing, and 
colouring, they fondly imagine themselves great artists, 
and with consummate silliness inscribe their names on these 
productions, pointing the finger of scorn at other sculptors. 
It is with the carver as with the painter. The good pictorial 
artist, after acquiring a thorough knowledge of the uses of 
the brush as taught by his master, copies many fine old 
pictures and studies them earnestly, so that, when he comes 
to paint independently, he has always before his mind's eye 
a model showing the inimitably exquisite points of the great 
chefs-tfceuvre of the past. But he never prostitutes his 
natural talent so far as to make slavish imitations. Thus 
every touch of his brush is eloquent of original talent, and 
the true critic cannot fail to detect the merits of his work. 
Very different is the practice of the " inferior " painter. 
His solicitude is almost entirely about the motive of his 
picture, scarcely at all about the brush-work. He is not 
versed even in the rudimentary art of using the " charred 
stick " (yaki-fude] to change the scale of a drawing, or to 
alter the shape of the figures. He prefers to make tracings 
of old pictures and to reproduce them with elaborate accu- 
racy. There are not a few of these imitators, and the 
connoisseur, whether of painting or of sculpture, must needs 
be on his guard lest he deceive others as well as himself. 

One naturally supposes that men like J5i, Somin, Toshi- 
hisa, Yasuchika, and other masters, who, by giving birth to 
a glyptic style of their own, achieved world-wide fame, and 
whose doors were thronged by eager applicants for their 
productions, must have amassed much wealth. But it is 
impossible for a man to be great in art and mercenary at the 
same time. The common craftsman, as he bends over his 
task, is for ever estimating the wage it will bring. Thus the 
taint of covetousness is inevitably transferred to his work, 
constituting a feature which becomes more and more repel- 
lent as time goes by, and finally banishes the specimen to 
some degraded shop of a dealer in old metal. The true 
artist, though conscious that he toils for a living, has his 
recollection of the fact effaced by love for his work. At 

215 ' 


times he will lay aside his chisel for months if he finds that 
his heart is not in his work. When the inspiration arrives, 
however, he becomes so completely absorbed in his task that 
he cannot bear to lay it aside, day or night, until it is fin- 
ished. There is vitality in the result : it is surpassingly 
good. But if the question of gain be considered, it is found 
that although the productions of the master fetch a high 
price, the profit to him is not as great as that accruing from 
inferior work quickly executed and cheaply sold. The 
poet Basho says, " Pity it is that the sbira-uo (a tiny river- 
fish of silvery transparency and almost colourless) should 
have a price." A great artist is injured when the price of 
his work is discussed : it should be above price. Business 
men would do well to lay this precept to heart : " Only to 
accumulate gold and silver is to be their slave." The true 
aim should be to develop an extensive trade and to achieve 
a great career, just as the artist cherishes and strives for the 
reputation of his art rather than of himself. 

The chefs-d'oeuvre of the thirteen Goto masters as well as 
those of other celebrities are, for the most part, treasured as 
precious heirlooms in the families that possess them. They 
seldom come into the hands of the dealer. On the rare 
occasions, however, when one of these gems does pass into 
a merchant's keeping, some one is always charmed by it, and 
has a great mind to buy it, but cannot readily persuade him- 
self to pay the price, and so asks the dealer to let him keep 
it for a time, during which he privately consults the opinions 
of other dealers as to the proper figure. That man's chief 
aim is to come into cheap possession of a great work, and 
happily he is almost always disappointed. He does an 
injustice to the work. The nobility that gives greatness 
to an artist's efforts, the quality that brings genuine success 
to the trader, the appreciation that enables us to acquire fine 
objects of virtu, these things are inaccessible unless the 
mind be set upon a high ideal. Sometimes valuable master- 
pieces are found among specimens supposed to be common, 
and a fortunate discovery is called "unearthing a treasure" 
(horidashi). The discoverer boasts of it, but if he had true 
elevation of mind and refinement of taste, he would be above 
such pettiness. It is the luck of the mere trader. 




Fugitive references to the fact that swords have been more 
or less ornamented from ancient times are found in old rec- 
ords, and it is said that some learned antiquarians claim to 
have information about the matter. But it is exceedingly 
difficult to ascertain the exact circumstances relating to the 
origin of the ornaments known under the general name 
kodogu (small furniture). Doubtless they were suggested at 
the outset by some idea of utility. It is only possible to 
state here the views embodied in mediaeval annals and enter- 
tained by scholars of modern times. In old families of 
artists and among persons that give professional instruction 
in polite accomplishments many opinions have been handed 
down traditionally. Sometimes these opinions are kept 
mysteriously secret, but of course they become known at last, 
and then too often they are found to be conflicting or to be 
based on some silly theories about the " Five Elements " of 
Chinese philosophy. Everything of that kind is excluded 
from this volume. 


The menuki was originally a species of "nut" into which 
were inserted the ends of the rivet (mekugf) used for attach- 
ing the haft of the sword to the hilt. Thus the menuki not 
only held the rivet in its place, but also covered its ends (vide 
the learned Hakuseki's treatise on arms and armour). But 
in later days the mekugi and the menuki became quite distinct. 
An old-time poet writes : " Whose son is he, girding on a 
sword with silver menuki, that walks the streets of Nara 
city ? " from which it may be inferred that the tachi (curved 
sword) of the Nara epoch (eighth century) had sometimes 
silver ornaments. Again, in the Annals of the Kamakura 
Era, mention is made of an " ox-shaped menuki" but noth- 
ing is said of its material or of its maker. The menuki chis- 
elled in high relief, as used in the present day, is supposed to 
have been first made by Goto Yujo (1439-1512), but whether 
there were any such before his time is not known. Tradi- 
tion affirms that before Yujo's era there lived an artist called 



Ichikawa Hirosuke, who, working with three kinds of chisel 
only, originated the decorative sculpture of sword ornaments 
as it is now known. However that may be, the world cer- 
tainly recognises Yujo as the father of the art. Possibly the 
natural pride of the Goto family is in some degree respon- 
sible for this fact, but their pre-eminent achievements have 
silenced too close scrutiny into dates. It is beyond question, 
however, that so far as the menuki are concerned, the idea of 
giving to them various shapes according to the fancy of their 
owner was already in vogue during the time (1334-1573) 
of the Ashikaga SHbguns sway in Kyoto, and continued to 
be in fashion until the menuki became objects of artistic 
rivalry. Whether anything of the kind existed in China is 
not known. 


It is not certain when the kozuka first came to be carried 
in the scabbard of the companion sword (wakizashi). In 
the Taira Annals (Taibei-ki) there is a description of the 
assassination of Prince Oto by Fuchibe, chieftain of Iga 
(1335 A.D.) : " Drawing the katana of the companion sword, 
he plunged it twice into the heart of the prince." The katana 
here mentioned seems to have been the present kozuka. . . . 
On the whole, it may be concluded that the custom of carry- 
ing the kozuka in the scabbard of the short-sword had its 
origin in the Ashikaga era (fourteenth century). 


The word kogai is another way of pronouncing kamikaki 
(hair comb.) There is ample evidence to prove this, as well 
as to show that the kogai was actually used in old times for 
combing the hair. When helmets were worn, the hair 
naturally became dishevelled, and the kogai consequently 
became an essential of the warrior's equipment. 


There is no explanation of the custom which commonly 
groups these objects together and speaks of the fuchi-gashira 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

as though they were necessarily associated. They are essen- 
tial parts of the sword, and though now highly ornate, they 
cannot be properly classed as sword ornaments. 


This term is derived from the name of a kind of cotton- 
spinning spindle which had a ring fixed on it. The tsuba of 
course existed from a very ancient epoch. It is mentioned 
in annals compiled in the eighth century, and is often spoken 
of as neri-tsuba (wrought-iron guard). The sword of Takauji, 
preserved at Atago-san, has a guard of wrought iron, and in 
the Taira Annals (Taihei-ki) gold guards are referred to. 

N.B. Sometimes a specimen which does not bear a name 
indicating that it belongs to the class of either iye-bori (carvings 
of the principal Goto family) or domyo-bori (carvings of the 
branch Goto families), but which is nevertheless of such fine 
workmanship as to suggest that it came from a master's 
chisel, is sent to the Goto family for inspection, and returned 
with a written statement, " found inferior on examination 
and not identified by us." The dealers call such specimens 
" rejects " (nagerareshi), and it is said that the Goto experts 
put a chisel mark the gimmi-tagane on all these pieces, 
so that they can be at once recognised if submitted again for 
examination, but where the mark is placed the family never 

N.B. The double kbgai (wari-kbgai), which is usually 
decorated with carvings of a plum-tree and a brushwood 
fence, or of bamboo, flowers, and plants, generally goes by 
the name of tayukogai, because its reputed originator (Kahei) 
became a skilled singer and received the musical title 

N.B. In the chiselling of the fish-roe ground (nanako) 
slight differences are observable between the works of the 
artists of Yedo, Kaga, Kyoto, Awa, and so on. A good 
judge of carving must be familiar with these differences, but 
it is useless to attempt any written description of them. 




1. Yujo" the founder of the family, true name Masa- 
oki Shirobei held the title of " Sado-no-kami " (lord of 
Sado). A native of Mino, he served in a military capacity 
under the Ashikaga chieftain, Yoshinori. Born in 1439, ne 
died in 1512, at the age of seventy-three. Yujo obtained 
many of his designs from the celebrated painter Kano Masa- 
nobu. He is regarded as the founder of the school of 
sword-decorators, and his works possess great value. He 
invented the style of chiselling called taka-bori (carving in 
high relief), and his work is almost supernatural ly skilled. 
It may be compared to the "exquisite view of Gobi's snow- 
clad peak towering lofty in the sky " (from a Chinese poet), 
or to the weeping-willow in the Imperial garden as it waves 
in the soft breeze, or to the lovely lotus in the fairy lake 
washed by pearls of dew. So elevated is the tone, so delight- 
fully chaste the character, of the carving that one cannot look 
at it without emotion. The traces ofthe chisel are at once 
bold and delicate, and every part of the work stands out 
vivid and almost divine. Yuj5 may truly be called the 
" Saint of the Art." 

2. Sojo, true name of Takemitsu Shirobei, was the son of 
Yujo. He received the art title Hogen. Born 1486 ; died 
1564. His work resembles that of his father so closely as 
to be almost indistinguishable. The carvings of the two 
masters may be compared to the iris and the sweet flag, dis- 
tinct plants which nevertheless bear a strong likeness to each 
other in colour, fragrance, and even time of flowering. 

3. Joshin, true name Yoshihisa Shirobei, was the son of 
Sojo. Born 1511; died 1562. The marks of the chisel 
are sharp ; the relief very high and the depression deep. It 
is strong work. In making a menuki of sbakudo or gold, he 
beat it into the desired form, and then added the plating in 
colours. This method was called uchidashi (repousse), and 
the addition of the coloured metals without fracturing the 
ground was known as uttori. This style obtained much 
vogue in Joshin's time, but is less fashionable now. The 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

art of inlaying (zogan) y as applied to sword ornaments, was 
also inaugurated by Joshin, and his productions are the most 
varied and peculiar of the iye-bori works. His work may be 
compared to a brave warrior who is not only a strong guar- 
dian but also a trusty councillor ; for while it has boldness 
and strength, it has also something of delicacy and soft- 
ness. He bore a different art-flower, but the same fruit as 
his predecessor. 

4. Kwojo, called also Mitsuiye, was born in 1530, and 
died in 1620. He was a son of Joshin. His work re- 
sembles that of Yujo in style. It is noble and dignified, 
neither too strong nor too weak. The impression it con- 
veys is that of resting under the green shadow of a patri- 
archal pine and looking out on a glow of cherry bloom. 
Or it may be compared to a noble lady standing beside the 
brushwood gate of a rustic dwelling. 

5. Tokujo, called also Mitsutsugu, was the son of Kwojo. 
Born 1549; died 1631. Hideyoshi, the Taiko, conferred 
an estate on him in the year 1580. His work has the 
characteristic of strong surface modelling, and many speci- 
mens are scarcely distinguishable from those of his father 
Kwojo. Looking at his designs, one is reminded of white 
sails scattered near and far over the wide bosom of the sea 
when the brooding breath of spring softens their outlines. 
It was in Tokujo' s time that the custom originated of issu- 
ing certificates of authenticity (orikami) with the works of 
the Goto family. One of his sons, Chojo, became the foun- 
der of a branch of the family known as the " Shimo-Goto" 
(lower Goto). 

6. Yeijo, called also Masamitsu, the son of Tokujo, was 
born in 1574 and died in 1617. His work combines the 
finished skill of both Kwojo and Tokujo, and has, at the 
same time, a certain quality of richness, tenderness, and rest- 
fulness. One may find a comparison in the view of a little 
boy driving an ox to pasture on a verdant plain ; or the 
carriage of a nobleman standing beside a rustic fence over 
which convolvulus blossoms cluster. 

7. Kenjo, called also Masatsugu, was a son of Tokujo. 
He represented the family during the minority of his 
nephew Sokujo, and was promoted to the rank of Hokkyo. 



Born 1585; died 1663. His manner of using the chisel 
greatly resembled that of Kwojo. One is reminded of 
a pine-tree and a bamboo covered with snow : they present 
a delightful contrast, but at heart retain the same changeless 
green. The fidelity and chastity of his work force them- 
selves into notice. During the Kwanyei era (1625-1643) 
his services were engaged by the feudal chief of Kaga, who 
gave him a pension 01150 koku of rice annually (about 1,500 
yen\ and he made it a custom thenceforth to live in Kaga 
every second year. 

8. Sokujo, called also Mitsushige, was the son of Yeijo. 
Born 1603 ; died 1631. His style resembles that of Kenjo, 
and is characterised by directness, strength, and vigour. 
Connoisseurs are wont to class the works of Yujo, Kojo, and 
Kenjo as the " three cbefs-tfaeuvre " (sansaku], but specimens 
by Sokujo are exchangeable with those of Kenjo. There 
is a notion that something of the value attaching to Sokujo's 
works is due to their rarity, for as he died at the early age of 
twenty-eight, his productions were not numerous. But that 
is a mistake. He was a veritable genius, and to that fact 
alone is due the esteem in which his carvings are held. It 
is believed by good judges that had he lived longer and 
attained the mastery of technique which many years of 
effort can alone give, he would even have surpassed his an- 
cestors, and a sympathetic perception of his latent capacities 
has something to do with the rank accorded to him by pos- 
terity. In the same way connoisseurs often class the works 
of Tsujo (eleventh representative), Sokujo, and Kwojo as the 
three chefs-d'oeuvre, declining to include the sculptures of 
Yuj o, whom they place in a rank by himself as a divine and 
matchless master. That is a point of delicacy. 

9. Teijo, called also Mitsumasa, the son of Kenjo, was 
born in 1603, and died in 1673. He represented the family 
during the minority of his nephew Renjo. He was pro- 
moted to the art rank of Hokkyo. His works are at once 
charming, noble, and dignified. It is impossible to deny 
their title to be called masterpieces. Though his time was 
not very remote from our own era (1781), his carvings have 
the peculiar aspect of age presented by the work of Kwojo 
and the other early masters. The chisel-marks are some- 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

what deep, clear, and strong. His designs suggest the feel- 
ing experienced when, looking out under the bamboo blinds 
from the upper room of a lofty riverside dwelling, one sees 
the moon rise on an autumn evening. This artist succeeded 
to the pension of his father Kenjo, and used to live in Kana- 
zawa (chief town of Kaga) every second year. In the house 
that he inhabited there may still be seen a stone garden-ewer 
with the figure of Hakuga (a Chinese poet) engraved on it 
by the chisel of Teijo. It is said that during Teijo's time 
the Goto family employed a number of Kyoto chisellers to 
do rough work. 

10. Renjo, called also Mitsutomo, son of Sokujo, was 
born in 1626 and died 1708. His work is gentle and mag- 
nanimous in tone. It reminds one of the quiet, subdued 
style in which the story of Akashi is told by the author of 
the Minamoto Annals (Genji Monogatari). He lived to 
a ripe old age and had many pupils, so that his works are 
often found. A son of his called Mitsuyoshi gave promise 
of future greatness, but unfortunately died young and few 
specimens exist from his chisel. 

11. Tsujo, called also Mitsutoshi, was the son of Senjo 
and grandson of Teijo. He did not belong to the elder 
branch of the family. Born in 1668, he died 1721. His 
works are classed among the " three c hefs-d oeuvre (san-saku)." 
His style is somewhat showy. One can almost smell the fra- 
grance of the flowers he chiselled, his birds seem to be on 
the point of flying or in actual flight, and his human figures 
smile as though words hovered on their lips. His sculp- 
tures are in truth beautiful beyond expression. Chinese 
annals tell of a puppet presented by a certain artist to a great 
monarch, and describe how the figure sang and danced auto- 
matically. That was a mere mechanical contrivance for the 
amusement of the moment. Very different is the air of 
vivid vitality imparted to his sculpture by the master-artist. 
There is no actual motion to strike the eye of the common 
observer, but there is a latent force that imparts to every- 
thing the element of motion, and creates a precious picture 
to be for ever esteemed and admired. 

12. Jujo, called also Mitsumasa, son of Tsujo, was born 
in 1694 and died in 1742. His work differs from that of 



Tsujo. It resembles the best productions of Mitsutaka, 
the present (1781) representative of the family. One is 
reminded of a man reaching his goal by steadily treading 
the right road. There is also an element of balanced 
strength that suggests the fabulous serpent of Jozan, which 
could defend itself equally with either end. 

13. Yenjo, called also Mitsutaka ; son of Jujo, was born 
in 1720 and died in 1784. Criticised unreservedly, his 
works seem to vary in quality. The best are not unlike the 
productions of Tsujo, for which they may easily be mis- 
taken. The lustre of his house is not tarnished, nor the 
long-sustained reputation of his family impaired, in his 

Since the death of Yujo, the founder of the family, two 
hundred and sixty years have passed. During that time the 
works of the masters from generation to generation have 
found their way into the hands of the great and the noble, 
who treasure them as precious possessions, their value aug- 
menting as time rolls on. That is because the art of the 
illustrious ancestor has been adorned by the achievements 
of his descendants, every one of whom was himself a master. 
These happy results are mainly due, however, to the peace- 
ful sway by which we are blessed, and to the tranquil times 
when men have leisure to show their respect for the dignity 
of a sword by the decoration they lavish on its mountings. 

14. Keijo, called also Mitsumori, son of Yenjo, was born 
in 1739, and * s st ^ living (1781) in the Kyobashi district of 
Yedo. The work of this artist has the beauty of his grand- 
father Tsujo's carving, together with the well-balanced ar- 
rangement of his predecessors. His style is his own. There 
is a tender suggestiveness about his designs that reminds 
one of a light shower sweeping across the verdant slope of 
a mountain, or a soft haze resting on the bosom of a limpid 
lake. His work always shows that noble elevation of tone 
which belongs to the true artist and can never be imitated. 

N. B. Here follow facsimiles of the certificates orikami 
(Jit. "folded paper") given by the Goto experts, but such 
documents convey no information to foreign readers, and, 
moreover, have been so often and so successfully forged that 
to distinguish the true from the false is now almost as diffi 



cult as to judge the qualities and identify the sculptor of the 
art objects to which they refer. 

The reader will agree that these commentaries from 
the pen of a Japanese connoisseur convey a truer and 
more trustworthy idea of the attitude of the Japanese 
mind towards the work of the sculptor of sword- 
ornaments, and, indeed, toward art in general, than 
could possibly be gathered from a foreign analysis. 
Even the most intelligent and least prejudiced foreign 
student has much, nay, insuperable, difficulty in trac- 
ing the exact processes of Japanese intelligence. The 
Japanese are quiet folks. They never expatiate upon 
beauties presumably as obvious to others as to them- 
selves; never enter into perfervid disquisitions about 
the " features " of a natural or an artificial picture. 
To do so would be to slight the eloquence of the 
picture itself and to insult the intelligence of the ob- 
server. A Japanese collector, unless his habits of 
thought and speech have been radically modified by 
intercourse with Occidentals, will show the whole ojf 
his treasures if, indeed, he can be induced to show 
them at all without making, from first to last, the 
briefest comment on their " points." The sole ex- 
ception is in the case of an object which claims the 
reverence of association, an object once honoured 
by the ownership of some celebrated warrior, states- 
man, or litterateur, and hallowed by the " odile " (ko- 
taku} of his touch. Concerning the origin of such a 
treasure he will volunteer some information, its story 
being otherwise untraceable. But whatever is within 
the unaided reach of expert observation, he leaves to be 
observed. His silence has been greatly misinterpreted. 
The ordinary foreigner construes it as evidence either 
of undeveloped speech or of an unfurnished mind. 

VOL. vii. I 5 22 C 


Strange conclusions surely, the one involving the hy- 
pothesis that the silent vocabulary of a people's shaping 
art may be richer than the spoken vocabulary of the 
idealism informing that art ; the other, the still more 
unreasonable assumption that a nation can be blind 
to the beauties of its own creation. Michitaka's com- 
ments on the works of the Goto sculptors dispel all 
these delusions. Some of his comparisons may sound 
even extravagant. They are not extravagantly ex- 
pressed, however. Nothing could be simpler than 
the language in which they are couched. Nature 
speaks to the Japanese in words of clearest meaning. 
Other eyes drink in just as deep a draught of enchant- 
ment from sunset on " the happy autumn fields " or 
from moonlight bathing a cherry grove in spring ; but 
it may be truly said of the Japanese that in the course 
of long centuries of refined civilisation, they have 
gradually grouped together nature's fairest combina- 
tions into a series of ideograms each of which has come 
to be intimately associated with conceptions and emo- 
tions which the physical aspects of the scene alone 
could not suggest or inspire. There exists a wide field 
of thought which, though open to poetry, is closed to 
the arts of manual imitation. But from what does 
poetry derive its special sway over regions of the mind 
that lie beyond the direct influence of imitative art ? 
Is it not from its power of invoking from the recesses 
of the heart feelings and experiences to which the 
painter or sculptor can appeal only by accidental asso- 
ciation ? In Japan, however, poetry has so constantly 
and faithfully drawn its inspiration from nature's im- 
ages, and has been so loyally content to limit itself to 
appreciated interpretations of their suggestions, that 
mere mention of a particular combination of natural 



beauties summons to Japanese sight a picture of con- 
crete loveliness and to the Japanese mind a poem of 
abstract ideas. Thus, when Michitaka speaks of " a 
light shower sweeping across the verdant slope of a 
mountain," or of " a soft haze resting on the bosom 
of a limpid lake," or of " white sails on a wide sea, 
their outlines softened by the brooding breath of 
spring," he knows that he is recalling to educated 
minds, not only delightful images, but also certain 
subtleties of artistic conception and certain shades of 
emotion which convey his meaning with accuracy 
such as no mere verbal analysis could achieve. 

The above remarks apply to the style and the tech- 
nique only of the art. The author of the Soken Kisbo 
seldom makes reference to decorative motives, unless a 
sculptor's fame is connected with some special depar- 
ture in that direction. The quality of the chiselling 
is, in fact, the first point to which the Japanese con- 
noisseur directs his attention. On the other hand, 
the decorative design is the prime object of the Occi- 
dental dilettante's admiration. In "L'Art Japonais" 
that most appreciative critic, M. Gonse, says : 

On se blase vite sur 1'adresse technique des ciseleurs 
Japonais, tant elle semble chez eux un don de nature ; mais 
on eprouve une jouissance toujours nouvelle dans 1'etude du 
decor lui-meme. Quel tact, quelle souplesse ! Comme les 
deux cotes so completent harmonieusement ! Car, bien sou- 
vent, le sujet se continue sur le face et sur le revers et presente 
dans chacune de ces parties le meme interet. Quelquefois 
meme il chevauche sur le grand et le petit sabre. On verra 
Shoki, sur la grande garde poursuivant le diable qui se cache 
sur la petite ; dans Tune, Komachi nous apprait jeune et re- 
splendissante de beaute; dans 1'autre, vielle et courbee par 
1'age, &c. L'etude du microcosme de cet art pourrait con- 
duire a 1'infim. 



The standpoint of the French connoisseur's eulogy 
is as far removed as possible from the standpoint of 
the Japanese themselves. The fact is that M. Gonse, 
who must be taken as representing the most intelli- 
gent class of Occidental students of Japanese art, rivets 
his attention on the work of the painter rather than 
on that of the sculptor ; considers the pictorial motive 
in preference to the glyptic method. Now, as a rule 
with very rare exceptions, the decorative motives of 
Japanese sword-furniture were always supplied by 
painters. There exist innumerable volumes of de- 
signs from the brushes of more or less renowned 
artists, and to these the sculptor habitually referred for 
inspiration. All classes of art-artisans possessed such 
volumes, and were prepared to submit them for a 
customer's choice of motive. Hence it is that the 
Japanese connoisseur draws a clear line of distinction 
between the decorative design and its technical exe- 
cution, crediting the former to the pictorial artist, the 
latter to the sculptor. The enthusiastic eulogies and 
poetic comparisons of the Sbken Kisho refer, not to 
the pictures chiselled on sword-guards, dagger-hafts, 
or hilt-tips, but to the manner of their execution. 
Michitaka, in common with all Japanese connoisseurs, 
detected in the stroke of a chisel and the lines of a 
graving-tool subjective beauties which appear to be 
hidden from the great majority of Western dilettanti. 
He never fell into the mistake of confusing the 
inspirations supplied by the decorative artist with 
the technical achievements of the sculptor himself. 
However elaborate may be the decorative design, 
however interesting the motive, the Japanese con- 
noisseur never forgets to look first to the chisel work. 
By its quality alone he estimates the rank of a speci- 



men, just as the critic of pictures judges the authen- 
ticity of a painting by the force, directness, and 
delicacy of the brush strokes. This becomes more 
easily comprehensible when it is remembered that 
vigour and grace of line-drawing are the prime essen- 
tials of fine art in the eyes of a Japanese, and that his 
almost instinctive appreciation of those qualities in a 
picture equips him with a special standard for judging 
the excellence of sculpture such as is found upon 
sword-furniture. The Japanese dogu-bori used thirty- 
six principal classes of chisel, each with its distinctive 
name, and as most of these classes included from five 
to ten sub-varieties, his cutting and graving tools aggre- 
gated about two hundred and fifty. This fact alone 
suffices to suggest the delicacy and elaborateness of 
his work. 

There are certain technical facts a knowledge of 
which is necessary not only to the connoisseur of 
sword-ornaments, but also to the student of Japanese 
metal work in all its admirable developments. In 
the first place, the nature of the metals employed has 
much interest, as well for the sake of the insight it 
affords into the metallurgical ingenuity of the Jap- 
anese as for its bearing upon this branch of the 
country's art. 

Japan did not at any time possess an abundance of 
gold. The principal source of supply was river sands, 
and in washing out the precious metal processes were 
employed which, though apparently rough, have been 
proved by Western experts to be profitably applicable 
to gravel yielding only six cents worth of gold per 
cubic yard. 1 If the descriptions of Japan penned 
by Koempfer and other early writers were accepted 

1 See Appendix, note 29. 



literally, it would be necessary to conclude that gold 
was exceptionally abundant and profusely used for 
ornamental purposes. But the truth is that although 
the Japanese loved the rich glow of the noble metal 
and utilised it largely in the adornment of temples, in 
domestic architecture, and for various ornaments and 
utensils, they thoroughly understood the art of making 
a little go a long way, and many objects which a 
casual observer might readily mistake for solid gold, 
were nothing more than gilded copper. 1 Still, as 
the gold-leaf employed for gilding 2 purposes was 
thicker than that serving the same end in the Occi- 
dent, the quantity of the precious metal required for 
coating Buddhist images (whether of bronze or wood), 
temple utensils, and architectural ornaments must have 
been considerable. Table utensils of gold or silver 
did not exist, with the exception of cups for drinking 
wine and vessels for mulling it, together with small 
kettles, censers, and other minor objects to be spoken 
of by-and-by. For the manufacture of sword-orna- 
ments, however, especially menuki, and pouch- 
mountings, pure gold was constantly used. Guards 
of solid gold are scarcely ever found, except in the 
case of the aikuchi (a short dagger-like weapon carried 
by the samurai and used to cut off the head of a fallen 
enemy). It is true that several collectors in Europe 
and America possess, among their art treasures, large 
tsuba (guards) of pure gold, ornamented with the 
utmost elaboration of detail. But these, with few 
exceptions, were made expressly for sale to foreigners, 
and never formed part of a Japanese sword. The 
term " pure gold " is not used here in an absolutely 
literal sense. In former times the Japanese were not 

1 See Appendix, note 30. a Sec Appendix, note 31. 



familiar with the delicate assaying methods in vogue 
in the West, and could not determine the quality of 
either gold or silver with the extreme accuracy attained 
at an American or European mint. They used a 
touchstone only, a small plate of black siliceous shale, 
but used it with such skill that their results accord- 
ing to an eminent authority, Mr. W. Gowland 
did not show a maximum difference of more than one 
per cent from assays made by Occidental methods. 1 
Their success with silver was not equally marked, 
but they were able to obtain it so pure that five hun- 
dred and fifty-five specimens_of old silver assayed in 
recent years at the Imperial Osaka Mint were found 
to contain an average of 99.3 per cent of pure metal. 
It is, perhaps, scarcely necessary to note that for manu- 
facturing purposes pure gold or silver was never used, 
the former being alloyed with silver and copper and the 
latter with copper, not with the idea of debasement, 
but in order to obtain greater hardness and freedom 
from vesicular cavities when casting. If, however, the 
Japanese metallurgist possessed and practised highly 
skilled methods of freeing the precious metals from im- 
purities, he was also remarkably clever in " surfacing " 
either gold or silver so as to obtain an appearance of 
absolute purity. The question here is not of patina, 
a legitimate and beautiful feature which Japanese 
craftsmen had exceptionally ingenious devices for 
imparting to all the metals used in objects of art, 
but to a process originally elaborated in connection 
with debased coins, and sometimes resorted to by art- 
artisans of low class, though no kinzoku-shi (gold- 
smith) of repute ever descended to such deception, a 
process of dissolving out the impurities from the 

1 Sec Appendix, note 32. 



upper layers of a gold or silver alloy until the surface 
assumed the appearance of pure metal. 1 

Gold and silver, though here spoken of in some 
detail, played a subsidiary rather than a principal part 
in the manufacture of sword-ornaments, being used 
chiefly to pick out the details of the decorative design. 
The ground metals were iron, copper, and, above all, 
shakudo and shibuichi y two alloys invented by the Japan- 
ese and never used by any other people. Owing to the 
great beauty of the patinas that can be given to them, 
these alloys are uniquely excellent for art purposes. 

Shakudo (literally, " red copper ") is an alloy of gold 
with excess of copper, the approximate proportions 
being three per cent of gold to ninety-seven of cop- 
per. The alloy, when it emerges from the furnace, 
presents no special features, being simply dark-col- 
oured copper. Its value for artistic purposes depends 
on the fact that a glossy black patina with violet 
sheen may be produced on its surface by suitable 
treatment. Mr. W. Gowland, who has devoted 
special research to this subject, says : 

The alloy has been long known to the Japanese, but 
there are no records of its first use, and the date of its origin 
cannot be even approximately determined. Perhaps the least 
doubtful of the earliest specimens known to us are the mounts 
of the sword of Ashikaga Takauji, who held the position of 
SKogun from 1335 to 1337, which is preserved in the temple 
of Itsukushima. There may be earlier examples, but it was 
certainly not known in the ninth century. The oldest speci- 
men of Buddhist art-metal work in the decoration of which 
shakudo appears, so far as I have been able to trace, is a reli- 
quary containing fragments of the bones of St. Nichiren in 
tne famous temple of Minobu (date 1 580). In many temples 
there are statues of divinities and saints which are said to be 

1 See Appendix, note 33. 



composed of this alloy, but those I have had the opportunity 
of examining were all of ordinary copper- tin-lead bronze. 
In the seventeenth century it was extensively employed, 
but the finest examples of it as a decorative alloy are found 
in the guards and other furniture of the swords of the last 
century and the first half of the present. The addition of 
gold to bronze in order to obtain a black patina has been 
long known to the Chinese. It is hence possible that the 
Japanese may have learned from them this peculiar property 
of gold ; but the pure alloy of copper and gold, of the true 
shakudoy is essentially Japanese, and is unapproached in the 
beauty and richness of its patina by any alloy of the Chinese, 
either of old or recent times. Its rich deep tones of black, 
and the splendid polish which it is capable of receiving, ren- 
der it alike a perfect ground for inlaid designs of gold, silver, 
and copper, and for being similarly inlaid in them. This 
alloy, too, possesses physical properties which are of extreme 
importance to the worker in metals, and enable him to 
manipulate and fashion it as he desires. It can be cast into 
any form ; can be hammered into sheets and drawn into 
wire. No large castings, however, have been made of it. 
The method by which the black patina is produced is as 
follows : The object is first boiled in a lye prepared by lixivi- 
ating wood ashes ; after which it is carefully polished, if 
necessary, with charcoal powder. It is then immersed in 
plum-vinegar containing common salt in solution, and, after 
being washed with a weak lye, is placed in a tub of water to 
remove all traces of alkali. After this treatment it is digested 
in a boiling solution of copper sulphate, verdigris, and water, 
to which sometimes potassium nitrate is added, and the 
desired patina is produced. 

It is roughly stated above that shakudo is composed 
of 97 per cent of copper to 3 of gold. But, in truth, 
no less than fifteen grades of the alloy are used by 
Japanese craftsmen. The lowest of them called 
chiusho contains only traces of gold, and the highest 
has as much as 7 per cent of the precious metal. 
Analyses of seven specimens of shakudo made by Mr. 














O.I I 





0. II 





















Gowland, Mr. Kalischer, and Mr. Atkinson gave the 
following results : 


Iron. Arsenic. Total. 


Trace Trace 99-89 




99 .8z 

Another alloy peculiar to Japan and of at least 
equal importance with shakudo for artistic purposes, is 
shibuichi, a term literally signifying "one part in four;" 
that is to say, one part of silver by weight to three of 
copper. That, doubtless, was the original composition 
of the alloy. Indeed Japanese records state definitely 
that the ordinary variety of shibuichi contained 10 
momme (5.8 grs. Troy) of copper to 2} momme of 
silver. But, as a matter of fact, the shibuichi employed 
for sword-furniture and other artistic work was usually 
the kind known as sambo-gin, which consisted of one 
part of silver to two of copper. In the Sbken Kisho 
three varieties of shibuichi are enumerated, the first 
containing one part (by weight) of silver to three of 
copper ; the second, one part of silver to two of cop- 
per ; and the third, six or seven parts of silver to ten 
of copper. Concerning the third variety the author 
says : " This is the best quality of shibuichi. It was 
always used by Somin, Soyo, and other great masters 
as a ground metal. Soyo, however, employed a kind 
of shibuichi having a dark hue, obtained apparently 
by an admixture of shakudo, though the compounding 
of these two alloys presents serious technical difficul- 
ties, and it is not known how he overcame them. 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

Speaking generally, a greyish patina and silvery lustre 
are regarded as the most attractive features of shibuichi, 
but Soyo's compound presents even choicer qualities. 
In the course of years the finest kind of shibuichi de- 
velops a peculiar lustrous dappling, like the marking 
of a tiger's skin or the ground of aventurine (nashi-ji} 
lacquer." It is unnecessary to reproduce here any 
analytical table of shibuichi. If to what has been 
already said the fact be added that it contains a small 
quantity of gold from 0.08 to 0.12 per cent its 
composition is sufficiently described. Mr. Gowland 
says of shibuichi : 

The value of this alloy in decorative metal work is, like 
that of sbakudo, entirely dependent on its patina. It pos- 
sesses no special beauty when cast, its colour being that of 
pale gun-metal, or a common pale bronze ; but when its 
surface is subjected to appropriate treatment, it assumes a 
patina of charming shades of grey, which gives it an unique 
position among art alloys. No other affords the artist such 
a delicate, unobtrusive, and effective ground for inlaid designs 
of gold, silver, or other metals. It was not known to the 
Japanese in mediaeval times. In fact, it does not appear to 
have been used until much later than shakudo. The descrip- 
tions given of the ornamental appendages of historical swords 
even as late as the seventeenth century do not mention it, 
and the first record we have of the alloy only dates from the 
beginning of the eighteenth century (1706 A.D.), when it 
was used in the Government Mint for the preparation of 
debased silver bars, termed chogin (trade silver), which were 
used for commercial purposes. There are several examples 
of its use in sword-guards about the same date, but it seems 
then to have been chiefly employed as a substitute for a 
richer alloy, a pure silver surface having been given to it by 
the process already described, and not the fine grey patina of 
later times. The patina is produced by precisely the same 
operations which are practised for shakudo, the solution in 
which the objects are boiled having the same composition as 



that used for the arsenical bronze, with the addition of i c. c. 
of plum-vinegar to each litre. The finest grey tints are ob- 
tained only with alloys containing from 20 to 50 per cent of 
silver. By the use in his design of both these classes of 
alloys, shakudo and sbibuicbiy together with gold, silver, 
copper, and iron, the Japanese craftsman has achieved results 
in colour which are unrivalled in the metal work of the 
world. The white of silver, the black of shakudo, the yellows 
of golds of various grades, the greys of sbibuicbiy and the reds 
and browns of copper, all he employs in harmonious com- 
binations to enrich the effect of his sculptured work, and 
shows himself in all to be a true master in the art of metal 

Copper was largely used in the manufacture of 
sword-mountings. In fact the earliest sword-guards 
found in Japan were made of copper thinly plated 
with gold. Not until a comparatively recent date, 
however, probably the seventeenth century, did 
Japanese artists discover and put into successful prac- 
tice the patina-producing methods which impart such 
beauty to their work in copper, and enable them to 
combine it so admirably with other metals for decora- 
tive purposes. They obtain copper surfaces showing 
not merely a rich golden sheen with charming lim- 
pidity, but also red of various hues, from deep coral to 
light vermilion, several shades of grey, and brown of 
numerous tones, from dead-leaf to chocolate. 1 

Until the days of the Goto masters iron was the 
metal exclusively used for manufacturing sword- 
mounts, but Goto Yujo's fine chiselling of shakudo, and 
the beautiful nanako ground that he devised for Kbgai 
and kozuka of that compound, gave it a vogue which 
continued uninterrupted down to modern times. Nat- 
urally a sculptor who contemplated the expenditure 

1 See Appendix, note 34. 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

of much labour and skill on a small object like a guard 
or a dagger-haft, was careful to use iron of the highest 
quality only, and to anneal it by processes of which 
each great artist made a specialty. But no less atten- 
tion was bestowed on the production of patina. The 
guards of early experts the Miyochin masters down 
to Nobuiye, and the Umetada prior to Muneyuki 
show a curious patina called moyashi, which suggests 
the effect that would be produced by boiling a super- 
ficial film of the metal. But from the seventeenth 
century onwards, the patina changes, and the surface 
of the metal shows a fine satin-like texture constitut- 
ing one of the most beautiful features of the object. 
It is, indeed, a matter of constant wonder to the un- 
initiated that such a surface could have been imparted 
to iron, and the patina-producing recipes " rust- 
summoning processes " (sabi-dashikatd), as the Japanese 
call them of the great experts would have much 
interest were they accessible. But these things were 
among the hiden, or " secret traditions," of each family 
of artists. No public record of them exists. Modern 
experts, however, though they no longer chisel sword- 
mounts, treat iron for artistic purposes in a manner 
which is at least equal to that of the old masters, and 
the patina-producing process for which they claim the 
finest results may be described here. The first step is 
to obtain a mixture of finely sifted clays, red and 
black, which is placed in an open vessel and exposed 
to the action of the elements for a space of two or three 
years. Blue vitriol and sulphur, having then been 
heated together, are added to a portion of this sea- 
soned earth, and the compound forms a paste, which 
is applied to the surface of the metal, this process being 
repeated time after time, at intervals of from four to 


five days, and occupying altogether about two months. 
If the expert judges that a good patina has been ob- 
tained, he now washes the metal carefully and polishes 
it with a brush (tawasbi] of rice-straw. This pre- 
liminary polishing is a long business, and when it has 
been carried far enough, the final burnishing is done 
with dried spikelets of the pine-tree, after which it 
remains only to damp the object repeatedly with an 
infusion of tea-leaves during four or five days. Such 
is the method pursued by Ito Katsumi, a modern 
expert of the highest skill. Another plan, more 
curious and said to be very efficacious, is to substitute 
for the mixture of red and black earth mentioned 
above some charcoal ashes taken from beneath the 
gridiron on which eels have been roasted. Into an 
open vessel containing this ash a small bag of sulphur 
is inserted, and the mixture is exposed in the open 
air for two or three years, by which time the ash has 
become thoroughly impregnated with sulphur. Re- 
peated coats of it are then applied to the iron object 
at intervals, for about two months, after which polish- 
ing and burnishing are effected as before. Tradition 
says that the early Miyochin masters burnished their 
iron with a cotton cloth dipped in the juice of the 
lacquer-tree, but there is no certainty as to that point. 
It is understood, of course, that the processes here de- 
scribed are peculiar to certain experts. Many quaint 
recipes might be obtained by setting down the alleged 
hiden of this family or that. But it is plain that the 
published accounts of these methods are intended to 
deceive rather than to instruct. 

Scarcely less important in Japanese eyes than the 
chiselling of the decorative design itself is the prepa- 
ration of the field to which it is applied. This part 



of the subject has hitherto received little attention 
from European and American commentators, possibly 
because it has a technical rather than an artistic 
character. The translation given above from the 
Soken Kisho shows that nanako (fish-roe grounds) were 
counted de rigueur for kbgai or kozuka from the time 
(1469) of Goto Yujo, and that grounds in the ishime 
(stone-pitting) or jimigaki (polished) style were not 
considered proper for swords worn on ceremonial 
occasions. These remarks do not apply to iron 
sword-mounts. In the case of iron the patina alone 
was esteemed. Sometimes, though very rarely, the 
coarsest kind of ishime (arashi-ishime) was employed 
even on iron guards to heighten the effect of recessed 
chiselling, but it is generally true that shakudo was 
the favourite metal for nanako grounds, and shibuichi 
or copper for ishime. 

As a broad definition it may be said that nanako is 
obtained by punching the whole surface, except the 
portion carrying the decorative design, into a texture 
of microscopic dots. The first makers of nanako 
did not aim at regularity in the distribution of these 
dots : they were content to produce the effect of 
millet-seed sifted, hap-hazard, over the surface. But 
very soon certainly by the time of Goto Yujo 
the punching of the dots in rigidly straight lines 
came to be considered essential, and the difficulty in- 
volved in this tour de force was so great that nanako- 
making took its place among the highest technical 
achievements of the sculptor. When it is remem- 
bered that the punching-tool was guided solely by 
the hand and eye, and that three or more blows of 
the mallet had to be struck for every dot, some idea 
may be formed of the patience and accuracy needed 


to produce these tiny protuberances in perfectly 
straight lines at exactly equal intervals and of abso- 
lutely uniform size, so that a magnifying-glass can 
scarcely detect any variation in their order or size. 
Nanako disposed in straight parallel lines has always 
ranked at the head of this kind of work, but a new 
style was introduced in 1560 by Matabei, the second 
representative of the Muneta family. It was obtained 
by punching the dots in intersecting lines, so arranged 
that the dots fell uniformly into diamond-shaped 
groups of five each. This is called go-no-me (some- 
times gu-no-me) nanako, because of its resemblance to 
the disposition of chequers in the Japanese game of go. 
A century later (1640), another representative of the 
Muneta family Norinao, known in the art world 
as Doki invented a new style of nanako to which 
the name of daimyo-nanako was given, doubtless be- 
cause its special excellence seemed to reserve it for 
the use of the great nobles (daimyo) only. In this 
variety the lines of dots alternated with lines of pol- 
ished ground. 

Ishime may be described briefly as diapering. A 
diapered ground is known in Japan, however, by the 
special term ivari-ishime (i.e. ishime distributed in pat- 
terns). There is scarcely any limit to the ingenuity 
and skill of the Japanese expert in diapering a metal 
surface. Thus one may see a silver teapot having 
its surface recessed in forty or fifty leaf-shaped panels, 
each panel filled with a different diaper of minute 
and delicate workmanship. But the ishime used on 
the fields of sword-mounts does not belong to the 
diaper class, according to Japanese nomenclature. 
There are, first, the zara-maki (broad-cast), some- 
times called tatsuta-maki, in which the surface is 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

finely but irregularly pitted, after the manner of the 
face of a stone ; second, the kashiji (pear-ground) 
ishime, which gives a surface like the rind of a pear ; 
third, the hari-ishime, where the indentations are so 
minute that they seem to have been made with 
the point of a needle (hart) ; fourth, the gama-ishime , 
which is intended to imitate the skin of a toad 
(gama) ; fifth, the tsuya-ishime (lustrous), produced 
with a chisel sharpened so that its traces have a bril- 
liant appearance ; sixth, orekuchi (broken-tool) ishime, 
a peculiar kind obtained by fracturing a chisel and 
hammering the surface of the metal with the jagged 
tool (this last variety is spoken of as arashi-ishime, 
a generic term applied to all rough work) ; and 
seventh, gozame-ishime , so called because it resembles 
the plaited surface of a fine straw-mat. These details 
may seem insignificant, but without some knowledge 
of them it is impossible to appreciate the quality of 
Japanese metal work. 

A word must also be said about the different 
methods of chiselling. Of these the most important 
is taka-bori, or chiselling in relief. The Japanese 
distinguish three varieties of relief carving, namely, 
atsu-niku-bori (high relief ), or alto relievo ; chiu-niku- 
bori (medium relief), mezzo relievo ; usu-niku-bori (low 
relief) or basso relievo. These expressions explain 
themselves. But it may be added that, in the opinion 
of the Japanese expert, they occupy the same respec- 
tive rank as the three kinds of ideographic script 
occupy in the realm of calligraphy. High-relief carv- 
ing corresponds with the kai-sho, or most correct 
and classical form of writing ; medium relief, with 
the gyo-sho, or semi-cursive style ; and low-relief, 
with the so-sho t or grass character. Passing to incised 

VOL. VII. 1 6 2AI 


chiselling, the commonest form is ke-bori, or " hair 
cutting," which may be called engraving, the lines 
being of uniform thickness and depth. Very beauti- 
ful results are obtained by the ke-bori method. But 
incomparably the finest work in the incised class is 
that known as kata-kiri-bori. In this kind of chisel- 
ling the Japanese expert claims to be unique as well 
as unrivalled. It is easy to see that the idea of the 
great Yokoya experts, the originators of this style, 
was to break away from the somewhat formal monot- 
ony of ordinary engraving, where each line performs 
exactly the same function, and to convert the chisel 
into an artist's brush instead of using it as a common 
cutting-tool. They succeeded admirably. In the 
kata-kiri-bori every line has its proper value in the 
pictorial design, and strength and directness become 
prime elements in the strokes of the burin, just as they 
do in the brush-work of the picture-painter. It may 
be said, indeed, that the same fundamental rule applied 
whether the field of the decoration was silk, paper, 
or metal: the artist's tool, be it brush or burin, had 
to perform its task by one effort. There must be no 
appearance of subsequent deepening, or extending, or 
re-cutting, or finishing. Kata-kiri-bori by a great ex- 
pert is a delight. One is lost in astonishment at the 
nervous yet perfectly regulated force and the unerring 
fidelity of every trace of the chisel. 

Low-relief chiselling does not easily lend itself to 
the production of striking effects, but the skill ex- 
hibited by many Japanese experts in this kind of 
work was even more remarkable than that of its 
great Italian master Donatello, and when combined 
with kata-kiri chiselling it gave exquisite pictures. 
Another variety much affected by artists of the seven- 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

teenth century and subsequent eras was called shishi- 
ai-bori t or niku-ai-bori. In this the surface of the 
design was not raised above the general plane of the 
field, but an effect of projection was obtained by 
recessing the whole space immediately surrounding 
the design or by enclosing the latter in a scarped 
frame. Again, in many sword-guards the design was 
modelled on both faces so as to be a complete sculp- 
ture. This fashion was always accompanied by 
chiselling "a jour (sukashi-bort), so that the sculp- 
tured portions stood out in their entirety. All fully 
modelled work, whether for guards, menuki, or other 
purposes, was called maru-bori (round carving). 

Inlaying with gold or silver was among the early 
forms of decoration. There were two principal 
kinds of inlaying : the first called hon-zbgan l (true 
inlaying) ; the second nunome-zogan (linen-mesh inlay- 
ing. As to the former, the Japanese method did not 
differ from that seen in the beautiful iron censers 
and vases inlaid with gold which the Chinese pro- 
duced with notable success from the Shun-tieh era 
(14261436). In the surface of the metal the 
workman cut grooves wider at the base than at the 
top, and then hammered into them gold or silver 
wire. Such a process presents no remarkable feat- 
ures, except that it has been carried by Japanese ex- 
perts to an extraordinary degree of elaboration. The 
nunome-zogan is much more interesting. Suppose, for 
example, that the artist desires to produce an inlaid 
diaper. His first business is to chisel the surface in 
lines forming the basic pattern of the design. Thus, 
for a diamond petal diaper the chisel is carried across 
the face of the metal horizontally, tracing a number 

1 See Appendix, note 35. 



of parallel bands, divided at fixed intervals by ribs, 
which are obtained by merely straightening the chisel 
and striking it a heavy blow. The same process is 
then repeated in another direction, so that the new 
bands cross the old at an angle adapted to the nature 
of the design. Several independent chisellings may 
be necessary before the lines of the diaper emerge 
clearly, but throughout the whole operation no meas- 
urement of any kind is taken : the artist is guided 
entirely by his eye, though the slightest failure to 
estimate the dimensions correctly, or the slightest 
deviation of hand or chisel would at once destroy the 
work. The metal is then heated, not to redness, but 
sufficiently to develop a certain degree of softness, 
and the workman, taking a very thin sheet of gold, 
hammers portions of it into the salient points of the 
design, thus clearly marking out the spaces. In 
ordinary cases this is the sixth process. The seventh 
is to hammer gold into the outlines of the diaper ; 
the eighth, to hammer it into the pattern filling the 
spaces between the lines, and the ninth and tenth to 
complete the details of the pattern. Of course the 
more intricate the design the more numerous the 
processes. The expert uses magnifying-glasses, but is 
said to depend more on the delicacy of his own sense 
of touch than on the power of the glasses. It is 
scarcely possible to imagine a higher effort of hand 
and eye than this nunome-zogan displays, for while 
intricacy and elaborateness are carried to the very 
extreme, absolutely mechanical accuracy is obtained. 
Sometimes into the same design gold enters in three 
different hues, obtained by varying the alloy. 

A third kind of inlaying, peculiar to Japan, is sumi- 
zbgan (ink inlaying), so called because the inlaid 



design gives the impression of having been painted 
with Indian ink beneath the transparent surface of 
the metal. The difference between this process and 
ordinary inlaying is that for sumi-zogan the design to 
be inlaid is fully chiselled out of an independent 
block of metal, with sides sloping so as to be broader 
at the base than at the top. The object which is to re- 
ceive the decoration is then channelled in dimensions 
corresponding with those of the design-block, and the 
latter having been fixed in the channel, the surface 
is ground and polished until absolute intimacy seems 
to be obtained between the inlaid design and the metal 
forming its field. Very beautiful effects are thus pro- 
duced, for the design seems to have grown up to the 
surface of the metal field rather than to have been 
planted in it. Shibuichi inlaid with shakudo used to 
be the commonest combination of metals in this class 
of decoration, and the objects usually depicted were 
bamboos, crows, wild-fowl under the moon, peony 
sprays, and so forth. 

It remains to refer to a variety of decoration spe- 
cially affected by the early experts and subsequently 
carried to a high degree of excellence, namely, 
mokume-ji, or wood-grained ground. The process in 
this case is to take a thin plate of iron if iron is to 
be treated and beat into it another plate of similar 
metal, so that the two, though welded together, re- 
tain their separate forms. The mass, while still hot, 
is coated with hena-tsuchi (a kind of gray clay) and 
rolled in straw ash, in which state it is roasted over 
a charcoal fire raised to glowing heat with the bel- 
lows. The clay having been removed, another plate 
of metal is beaten in, and the same process is re- 



This is done several times, the number depending 
on the quality of graining that the expert desires to 
produce. The manifold plate is then heavily punched 
from one side so that the opposite face protrudes in 
broken blisters, which are then hammered down until 
each becomes a centre of wave propagation. In fine 
work the apex of the blister is ground off before the 
final hammering. It will be evident that the wood- 
graining is obtained on one face of the metal only by 
this process. Hence, when there is question of a 
sword-guard, two plates have to be separately prepared, 
and afterwards welded together, back to back. Iron 
was used exclusively for work of this kind down to 
the sixteenth century, but various metals began to be 
thenceforth combined. Perhaps the choicest variety 
is gold graining in a shakudo field. By repeated ham- 
mering and polishing the expert obtains such control 
of the wood-grain pattern that its sinuosities and 
eddies seem to have developed symmetry without 
losing anything of their fantastic grace. Another 
method of producing mokumejl was to take the plate, 
composed of various laminae as described above, set 
it on its edge and hammer it so that it spread in a 
direction perpendicular to its original face. The new 
plate was then fixed on a different edge and once 
more hammered flat. By these devices graining with 
elongated curves was produced. Sometimes the ex- 
pert, having welded together the several sheets of 
metal, fixed the plate on edge at an angle more or 
less acute, and beat it out by a series of blows which 
had the effect of peeling the surface and re-distribut- 
ing it in a kind of wave diaper. Such work demanded 
much skill and care. The rings and caps of hilts 
were often decorated in the mokume style. In these 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

cases the plate of grained metal was bent to the 
required shape and veneered to a base of thicker 
metal. The metal-workers of Nagoya, from the 
middle of the eighteenth century, produced excellent 
mokume grounds. Their favourite plan was to weld 
four or five lamina* of different metals iron, shakudo, 
copper, shibuichi, silver and sometimes gold into a 
sheet. The corners of the latter were then cut off, 
and the plate, having been reheated, was placed verti- 
cally on each of the four sections in succession, and 
beaten flat by strokes delivered from the opposite 
section. These Nagoya experts were also successful 
with a special kind of mokume known as tama-mokume. 
The different metals, having been reduced to spheri- 
cal form, are loaded like bullets into an iron cylinder, 
which is brought to a red heat, placed vertically on 
the anvil and hammered into a plate. In this kind 
of mokume the contours of the graining take a circular 

One other variety of decoration has to be mentioned. 
It is called guri-bori, and its model is taken from the 
well-known tsui-shiu (or tsui-koku} lacquer, which 
shows a formal diaper cut deeply into several coats of 
superposed lacquer, the channels being narrower below 
than above, so that the slope of their sides enables the 
various strata of the lacquer coats to be clearly seen. 
To produce this effect in metal, alternating plates of 
two metals, or perhaps three, were welded together, 
and when they had been shaped into the form of the 
projected object, the design was deeply chiselled, the 
channels ultimately presenting horizontally streaked 
sides. The guri-bori exhibits technical skill only, but 
it is worth noting that although in nearly all the 
processes of decorative metal work modern Japanese 



experts are at least as skilled as their predecessors, 
they fail to produce this particular kind successfully. 
The experts of former times seem to have possessed 
some secret for welding together their sheets of 
metal so that each sheet preserved its individuality 
though intimately joined to its companions above 
and below. Experts of the present day are compelled 
to resort to solder, and it is evident that to lay solder 
in an absolutely even coat over the surface of a metal 
plate is almost impossible. Somewhere there is a 
break of continuity, and a flaw results when the pile 
of plates is channelled. 


Chapter VII 


IT is certainly a close approximation to the truth 
to say that before the time of Yujo, the first of 
the Goto masters, that is to say, before the 
year 1469, when he began to develop the style 
for which he afterwards became so famous, chisel- 
ling in relief was not applied to the decoration of 
sword-ornaments in such a manner as to command 
public admiration. Some investigators carry the 
statement still farther : they allege that Goto Yujo 
actually invented relief carving. Possibly the asser- 
tion is true if it is understood in the sense of relief 
without the aid of the repousse process. Decoration 
in relief had been applied to armour by the Miyochin 
masters for certainly three centuries, and perhaps four, 
before Yujo's era. But lightness being of prime 
importance in the case of armou.r, the artist naturally 
had recourse to the repousse method for the raised 
parts of the decorative design, and though he used 
his chisel for finishing off the work, he never 
attempted to cut the design out of the solid metal. 
It was left to Goto Yujo to develop the potentialities 
of that method. An element of confusion has been 
introduced into this chapter of history by writers 
who represent the celebrated Kaneiye as having 
chiselled sword-guards with designs in relief before 
the time of Hujo. M. Louis Gonse, for example, 



says that Kaneiye worked at the close of the four- 
teenth century, and describes guards by him which 
show that chiselling in relief was then practised. 
Kaneiye certainly did employ the method of relief 
chiselling in manufacturing guards. He worked, 
however, not at the end of the fourteenth century, 
but at the beginning of the sixteenth. There is, 
indeed, a little uncertainty about his date. Some 
records call him a pupil of Nobuiye, which would 
place him about the year 1520 ; others assign him to 
a slightly earlier epoch. At all events Goto Yujo had 
been working for at least twenty or thirty years be- 
fore Kaneiye's time, and the true historical relation 
in which the two men stand to each other is that 
Yujo invented relief chiselling and Kaneiye was the 
first to apply it to sword-guards. 

For Goto Yujo was not a guard- maker. He never 
chiselled a guard, but devoted his attention solely to 
the smaller mounts, namely, the menukt, the kogai, 
and the kozuka. It has been stated by European 
writers that from the artistic stand-point the guard is 
the most important part of the sword's furniture. 
That view would not be admitted by any Japanese 
connoisseur. In Japan, from the time when glyptic 
artists began to occupy themselves with the decora- 
tion of sword-mounts, a clear distinction was always 
drawn between the essential and the ornamental parts. 
The former comprised the guard, the ring, and the 
crown (fuchi and kashira) of the hilt ; the latter, the 
menuki, the kogai, and the kozuka. Until the seven- 
teenth century the three last were known as the kit- 
su-dokoro (three parts), and though the distinction 
ceased to be rigid in later times, it was carefully 
observed by the early Goto masters as well as by their 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

contemporaries, and every connoisseur knows that on 
the mitsu-dokoro are to be found the most delicate 
workmanship and the most elaborate decorative effects 
in the whole range of Japanese metal work. The 
guard has special attractions which cannot be im- 
parted to such comparatively petty objects as the 
Kogai or the kozuka, but it is not to the guard alone 
or chiefly that the student must look for the history 
of this branch of Japanese art. 

Goto Yujo's skill was expended almost solely on 
the menuki and the kogai. So far as concerns the 
menuki, he cannot be credited with much originality. 
During certainly two, and probably seven, centuries 
before his time, the menuki had received attention at 
the hands of glyptic experts, and had been variously 
decorated according to the fancy of the swordsman 
or the genius of the artist. Yujo merely brought to 
the chiselling of these little objects a new quality of 
skill, and to the designing of their forms, in his later 
years, a new wealth of fancy derived from the 
co-operation of the renowned pictorial artist Kano 
Masanobu. Besides, although the beauty of the me- 
nuki was incalculably increased by Yujo, he made no 
radical change in the method of chiselling it. In 
his hands it remained what it had been in the hands 
of his predecessors, either repousse work with fine 
surface chiselling, or, in rare cases, a solid carving. 
It has been argued that since the kozuka and the 
kogai had a place in the scabbard of the ivaki-zasbi 
for at least two centuries before Goto's time, and 
since such unrivalled armourers as the Miybchin no 
yudai (the Ten Miyochin generations) as well as two 
of the Six Giyoshi, were his predecessors, the orna- 
mentation of these portions of the sword-furniture 



must have occupied the hands of experts prior to the 
fifteenth century. Critics holding that view would 
place Yujo at the apex of an art movement rather 
than regard him as its originator, and would derive 
his great reputation from his excellence rather than 
from his originality. It must be admitted that such 
a theory is not inconsistent with facts which con- 
front the student in other developments of Japanese 
art. However, the sum of accessible knowledge 
seems to be that never until Yujo began to work did 
the art of chiselling in relief become a really ad- 
mirable accomplishment. Concerning the question 
whether Yujo was a great expert, the answer given 
by many foreign connoisseurs is negative. While 
granting that he stood at the head of a school, they 
allege that it was the classical school ; in other 
words, a school which did not conceive the possibil- 
ity, or perhaps admit the propriety, of aiming at such 
qualities as softness, delicacy, and pictorial ideality in 
the decoration of metallic surfaces, especially when 
the object to be decorated formed part of a weapon 
of war. Some even go so far as to assert that the 
severe formality and narrow range of the early Goto 
experts are as far removed from the graceful tender- 
ness and wide repertoire of the eighteenth-century 
artists the Hamano and the Ishiguro, for example 
as are the three chisels of Ichikawa Hirosuke 
from the three hundred of Kashiwaya Nagatsune. 1 
Now it is quite true that Yujo conceived the dragon 
and the Dog of Fo (shisht} to be the most appropri- 
ate objects for representation on arms and armour. 
The dragon pre-eminently occupied his attention. 
He devoted infinite care to the modelling of every 

1 See Appendix, note 36. 



part of the monster, and elaborated for himself exact 
rules as to the shape and dimensions of the claws, the 
horns, the scales, the teeth, the ears, and the arma- 
ture. There are points here which probably lie 
beyond the appreciation of a foreign connoisseur, who 
regards the dragon as on the whole an ugly reptile, 
and can scarcely accept it as an agreeable element of 
any decorative scheme. But to a Japanese artist or 
lover of art the dragon, with its fierce vitality and 
mysterious suggestions, is a creature of the highest 
interest. The painter and the sculptor alike under- 
stood the immense difficulty of depicting or chiselling 
it so that it should have the semblance of ferocious 
vigour and implacable malignity, not the appearance 
of a limp, fantastic worm. All the Goto masters 
made a close study of the dragon. They showed it 
in various shapes and positions, and in chiselling it 
they acquired certain mannerisms from which skilled 
connoisseurs in later ages constructed an alphabet of 
identification. Thus, at the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century, there was published a two-volume 
book (Kinko Kantei Hiketsu, or the secrets of judging 
works in gold), containing minute analyses of what 
are known as the hiden (secret formulae) of the first 
fifteen Goto masters. It is a compilation of interest, 
as showing the lovingly appreciative attention be- 
stowed upon such objects by Japanese connoisseurs. 
But almost everything is based upon the dragon, and 
certainly an exceptional instinct is required for under- 
taking a careful study of that fabulous and repellent 
monster, from the contours of his curves and the 
angles of his claws to the length of his antennae, the 
set of his ears, and the section of his horns. If an 
estimate of the Goto family's work were derived from 



the contents of that brochure alone, it would be 
necessary to endorse the verdict which accuses them 
of classical severity and narrow range of motive. 
But there is other and more trustworthy evidence 
the Manpo Zensho (complete treatise on all precious 
things), published in 1 7 1 1 , as well as a manuscript 
handed down through six generations of a family 
whose successive representatives were professional 
connoisseurs of sword-blades and sword-furniture. It 
will be worth while to quote from these compilations 
some of the information furnished about the works 
of the first six Goto masters, because not only is an 
insight thus obtained into Japanese views about these 
products of art, but also much is learned about the 
decorative motives chosen by these six experts be- 
tween the years 1460 and 1631: 

1. Among authenticated specimens of the first six Goto 
masters, there are not any that have a copper ground with 
trees, reeds, shrubs, or flowers chiselled in relief 

2. Specimens decorated with various kinds of Crustacea, 
or with landscapes in which living creatures do not appear, 
are considered of inferior quality. The same remark applies 
to kbgai and menuki chiselled with scattered-leaf designs 

3. Each stroke of the chisel must be clean and even, 
showing everywhere strength and directness. 

4. With regard to the objects depicted, it is essential to 
observe that the faces of human beings must faithfully reflect 
the sentiments supposed to animate them. Under painful 
circumstances the faces portrayed by the Goto masters are 
always distressed ; in joyful conditions, they are merry. 
Such is seldom the case in the works of the carvers of the 
branch houses (laki-bori) y or of men that make a com- 
merce of their art (Machi-bori, or street-carvers, and Inari- 
bori y a term of uncertain origin). The Goto oxen are 
always sleek and fairly proportioned, not the gaunt, bony ani- 


mals of lesser experts. Their horses are full-girthed, strong, 
and spirited. Their crows, even the blackest, have a peculiar 
light-hued mark at the stem of the feathers, and their white 
herons a gold point under the eye. The chiselling of the 
dragons' faces constitutes a special distinction, and the same 
remark applies to the Kara-shishi (Dog of Fo). Water 
from which a dragon emerges is always rough and has many 
wave-crests, but water above which the ama-ryo flies has few 
crests ; and water over which the moon shines is calm, with 
only occasional ripples. The carp also springs from quiet 
water, and where flower-rafts are shown floating on a lake or 
river, the whole scene, from the placid water to the softly 
contoured rocks, is restful and smiling. Association of 
blossom-boats with beetling cliffs, angry waves, and swirling 
currents, is the false conception of a bad artist. Flowers 
and shrubs, however, do not appear much on the works of 
the Goto masters, or, if they appear, belong to a compara- 
tively low grade of chiselling. Still there is a fine specimen 
of Yujo's work that forms an exception to this rule. It is 
a kbgai of shakudo, having a single chrysanthemum carved 
in relief, and a tanzaku (tablet) on which the following coup- 
let is inlaid with gold : 

" Until the dew flake, 
Beading this blossom's gold, 
Swells to a broad lake, 
Age after age untold 
Joy to joy manifold 
Add for thy sweet sake." 

Other exceptions are the following specimens, which, if the 
great masters' works be divided in three classes with three 
grades in each class, must stand in the first grade of the sec- 
ond class, (i) A kbgai by Yujo, on which the design is a 
rain-pipe with a wistaria clasping it. The chiselling is in 
high relief, the creeper and the pipe are plated with gold, 
and the other parts are in sbakudo. (2) A kozuka of shakudo 
by Yujo, having for design a tuft of susuki (Eularia Japonica) 
in silver and gold under a shibuichi moon. The scene 
represents the Moor of Musashi. (3) A kbgai of shakudo by 


Yujo, on which the design is a bamboo water-pipe, having 
beside it eight Kiri (Paulownia) blossoms within a circle. 

An idea of the extreme delicacy of Yujo's chiselling may be 
formed from a celebrated work of his, a peach-kernel upon 
which he carved the twenty-one Shrines of Sanno, standing 
among trees peopled by a multitude of monkeys. 

A favourite form of menuki chiselled by the Goto masters 
was a dragon coiled round a two-edged sword (called kuri- 
kara-ryu). In good specimens of these menuki the sword 
passes perfectly straight through the coils of the dragon, 
and the blade flashes. The slightest deviation from the 
straight line is a blemish. 

Among authenticated specimens of the first six 
Goto masters' works the following may be men- 
tioned : 

1. A kogai, kozuka, and a pair of menukij en suite, by Yujo. 
Each of the menuki is a group of five dragons ; on the kozuka 
and kogai ten dragons each are chiselled. This is a splendid 

2. A pair of menuki, the design being Tawara Toda rid- 
ing on a dragon to meet the giant centipede, which is seen 
emerging from a mountain. 

3. A kogai y kozuka and pair of menuki by Yujo, decorated 
with thirty shishi, five on each of the menuki, and ten each 
on the kozuka and kogai. A splendid work. 

4. A kogai having a spray of peony chiselled in relief and 
a cat playing with a butterfly. 

5. Menuki by Yujo ; a group of crows. 

6. A kogai, having for design a hen keeping her chicks 
warm under snow-laden bamboos. 

7. A kogai, having a cock-fight chiselled in relief. 

8. A kozuka ; the design a hawk striking a pheasant, and 
a hunter carrying a game-bag. The menuki, en suite, are in 
the form of game-bags containing pheasants. 

9. Menuki in the form of an eagle swooping on a 

10. A kogai having five wild geese chiselled on it. 


3 -b 

- 5 




11. A kbgaiy having for design a sea-scape (Akogi-no-ura), 
with a fishing-boat in the foreground, the fisherman throw- 
ing a net. 

12. A kbgaiy having for design the scene in the Gem-pei 
wars, where Kumagaye flies from Atsumori. 

13. A kozuka with the Funa-Benkei design (i. e. the scene 
where, Yoshitsune's boat being overtaken by a storm during 
his flight from Yoritomo's emissaries, Benkei reads a verse 
from a sutra to still the waves and exorcise the ghost of Taira 
no Tomomori, which hovers over the water.) 

14. Menuki in the form of Taiko-bo seated on a rock and 
fishing with a straight hook. 

15. A kozuka, having the design of a wrestling-match 
between Daikoku and Hotei, with Yebisu acting as umpire 
and Fukurokujin looking on ; all have laughing faces. 

1 6. Kogai and menuki en suite ; the kogai having for design 
a mermaid, with human face and the body of a fish ; the 
menuki being in the form of the dragon deity and an 

17. A kozuka y by Yujo; the design, Shoki (the demon- 
slayer) riding on a tiger, pursuing with drawn sword the 
imps of pestilence (yakujiri). A splendid work. 

1 8. A kogai y with Daruma crossing the sea on a rush-leaf 

19. A kogai and menuki en suite. On the kogai is chiselled 
the celebrated priest Hijiri. He has taken off his wallet and 
is sitting on a rock tying his sandal. The menuki show him 
in pursuit of the demon of Adachi-ga-hara. 

20. A kozuka with Fukki (prehistoric Chinese Emperor) 
and Shinno (the first physician) chiselled in relief. Fukki 
has a girdle of leaves, and Shinno is tasting an herb. 

21. A kogai showing the omkizashi of the courtesan Tora, 
who being summoned to a feast by the great Wada Yoshi- 
mori, and desired to hand the wine-cup to the person she 
deemed most honourable, gave it to Jinro, one of the Soga 
brothers, then a humble ronin (samurai out of service). 

22. A kozukay showing the capture of Tosabo (Yoshit- 
sune's would-be assassin) by Benkei. The latter has leaped 
upon Tosabo's horse from behind, and is in the act of draw- 
ing Tosabo's sword to kill him with his own weapon. 

VOL. vii. 17 2C7 


23. Menuki in the form of Idaten pursuing Sokushiki, who 
has stolen some Buddhist relics. 

24. Menuki ; one representing Watanabe no Tsuna in full 
armour, drawing his sword as the demon seizes his helmet ; 
the other, a battle-steed without a saddle. 

25. Kogaiy by Yujo, on which is chiselled a night view of 
the celebrated landscape Shojo in wet weather. Two figures 
are seen, both wearing straw rain-coats. The foremost, a 
young man, carries a torch ; the other, an old man, follows. 
A splendid work. 

26. Menuki, one representing the fabulous Nuye (a mon- 
ster with the head of a monkey, the body of a tiger, and the 
tail of a serpent) ; the other, Yorimasa, with bow and arrow. 

27. Menukiy by Yujo; the Sambaso a dancing figure 
in high relief; the design on the surcoat, sprays of Paulow- 
nai in relief to represent embroidery ; the pattern on 
the skirt, pines and cranes, inlaid to represent dying. A 
very fine work. 

28. Kogaiy having the koshin design (the three sacred mon- 
keys). Yujo's second-class work. 

29. A kogai; the design, three silver trout strung on a 
spray of willow. 

30. Menuki, a spider catching a bee. 

3 1 . Kozuka, the genji-guruma : a cart drawn by an ox and 
laden with a basket of convolvulus flowers. 

32. Kozuka, a fisherman drawing up the image of Yaku- 
shi in his net. 

33. Menukiy by Yujo; the story of Anchin and Kiyo- 
hime, represented by a bronze bell with a gold dragon 
coiled round it. A splendid work. 

Many other specimens are mentioned, the Dragon 
King riding on a carp ; a tenniu reading a sutra ; 
fishing with cormorants at Nagara ; Asaina and the 
demon trying their strength ; fishing by flash-light ; 
a child catching a crab ; Fukurokuju feeding his 
crane ; Kengiu and Shokujo ; Choryo and Sekiko ; 
No dancers ; long-armed apes clutching at the moon's 
reflection ; lobsters ; insects of various kinds ; a rat 



trapped by a clam ; cats catching rats ; rats eating 
mochi ; puppy dogs playing with empty shells or hold- 
ing fans in their teeth ; a child setting a dog at a 
blind man ; bulls fighting ; oxen ploughing ; flower- 
rafts floating down rivers ; carp leaping up water- 
falls ; various scenes from the twenty-four acts of 
filial piety, and so on. In short, these records show 
that the first six Goto masters had a very large reper- 
toire of subjects, and that it is altogether a mistake to 
speak of their productions as severely classical, or of 
their range of decorative motives as limited. They 
differed, of course, in the quality of their work, the 
third representative, Joshiu, being notably the coarsest 
and roughest chiseller among them. It is a theory 
implicitly believed in Japan that an artist's moral 
nature is reflected in his productions. Joshiu was a 
big, stalwart soldier. He fell in battle, the end he 
had always desired, and there is certainly something 
of the bluff man-at-arms in his style of carving. 
His most elaborate effort is said to have been a pair 
of menuki in the form of a procession of golden ants 
carrying silver eggs. But he preferred fierce dragons 
and angry s his hi. His son Kwojo, the fourth repre- 
sentative, who worked from 1550 to 1620, is distin- 
guished for precisely the quality which his father 
lacked, extreme accuracy of detail and delicacy of 
style. Up to Kwojo's time, that is to say, during the 
era of the first three Goto masters, the iroye (literally, 
colour-picture) process, or " picking out " with metal 
different from that of the general design, was some- 
what clumsy. The preparation of efficient solder not 
being understood, the expert had to pin each tiny 
plate of gold, silver, or copper in its place. He 
accomplished this with such dexterity that the rivets 



were not visible, but really delicate work could not be 
done. In Kwojo's time a solder was discovered so 
good that a piece of metal fixed with it could be 
afterwards chiselled in loco. The use of this ro (liter- 
ally, wax), as the Japanese called it, made an immense 
difference in the quality of detail chiselling, and the 
uttorl iroye (riveted plating) of the first Goto experts 
was finally abandoned. 

It is unnecessary to enter into any further analysis 
of the Goto masters' work. What has been said 
above of the first six generations applies to the meth- 
ods of all their successors. The influence exercised by 
the family and its branches in this particular sphere 
of Japanese art was enormous. Until the time of 
Kwojo and Tokujo sword-mounts were valued solely 
for their uses : the idea of collecting and treasuring 
them as objects of art does not appear to have occurred 
to any dilettante. But when the reign of peace 
inaugurated by the Tokugawa regents gave people 
leisure to think of the sword's furniture as much 
as of its blade, it began to be the fashion to make 
collections of the beautiful specimens of sculpture in 
metal, then produced in large quantities in the capitals 
of many of the fifes ; and from that era until the pres- 
ent, it was always considered that the basis of every 
good collection must be a series representing the 
works of the first fourteen Goto experts, from Yujo 
to Keijo. Any careful student of the subject who 
has had an opportunity of examining the splendid 
works of other great masters, will be disposed to rebel 
against the factitious prominence thus assigned to the 
productions of the Goto, the tye-bori, or " carvings 
of the family/' as they are called. Yet the Japanese 
verdict is probably correct, for the foundation of this 



branch of art is undoubtedly relief-chiselling, and 
whether the Goto masters originated that style or 
merely raised it from a condition of tentative inferior- 
ity to a state of the highest perfection, the credit 
belongs to them of having demonstrated its capabilities, 
and thus opened to Japanese sculptors a path leading 
to results absolutely unrivalled in the corresponding 
work of other nations. It is worth while to note 
here that at the beginning of the present century a 
kbgai, a kozuka or a pair of menuki authenticated as 
fine specimens of an early Goto master, commanded 
a price of from ^8 to ^40. 

Recapitulating the art relations of the Goto's work, 
the broad facts are that they introduced the style of 
carving in relief without the aid of repousse ; that they 
invented, or, at all events, raised to an admirable grade, 
the nanako grounds which form such beautiful fields 
for metal sculpture of every kind; that they devised 
the method of " picking out," or plating with vari- 
ous metals in order to produce pictorial effects ; and 
that they carried the process of gold inlaying to a 
point of delicacy far beyond the conception of previ- 
ous artists. It is curious that this last development 
should stand chiefly to the credit of the third repre- 
sentative, Joshiu, otherwise a comparatively rough 

Not until the time of Tokujo, the fifth of the Goto 
masters, who worked from 1561 to 1631, is there 
any evidence that guards or fuchi-gashira were among 
the productions of the family, and, on the whole, 
their work in that particular line may be dismissed as 
inappreciable. In fact, guard-making remained for a 
long time the special business of the armourer, and 
the method of decoration adopted was either to impart 



to the outline of the guard some quaint shape, or to 
weld it in such a manner that the surface presented the 
appearance of wood graining, or to decorate it with 
designs chiselled a jour. As to the first method, noth- 
ing need be said : it was a device within the range 
of the most ordinary skill. But the wood-grain 
(mokume) surface must be classed among the remark- 
able achievements of the Japanese armourer. It seems 
impossible to determine when this curious tour-de-force 
had its origin. The oldest examples of it spoken of 
by Japanese connoisseurs are from the hands of Miyo- 
chin Munesuke, who worked from 1 1 54 to 1 1 85 A. D. 
Munesuke is generally regarded as the founder of the 
great Miyochin family of armourers. He was, in 
fact, the twentieth representative, the founder hav- 
ing been Munemichi, who flourished in the seventh 
century. But Munesuke stands so far above all his 
predecessors that he justly deserves to be called the 
father of Japanese armourers. He is the first of the 
Judai, or ten great generations of Miyochin experts, 
ending with Muneyasu in 1380. It was he that 
forged Yoshitsune's magnificent suit of armour. Many 
of his iron guards are fine examples of the mokume-ji t 
or wood-grain forging which has already been de- 
scribed. Munesuke marked these guards Shinto go- 
tetsu-ren, or " five-times-forged iron of the sacred 
way," and it may here be added that, in common 
with the great experts of his family, the ideographs 
used in his inscriptions for guards are of the kind 
called kabuto-ji t or " helmet characters ; " that is to 
say, the grass script (sosbd) with curled strokes ; an 
ornamental style of writing always employed in mark- 
ing helmets. From the time of Munesuke down to 
the present era the production of wood-grain effects 



has been among the remarkable achievements of 
Japanese workers. The Miyochin master used iron 
only. As to guards having designs chiselled a jour 
(sukashi-bori), it is generally believed that up to the 
close of the fifteenth century they were more or less 
roughly executed. Some connoisseurs claim that 
Miyochin Nobuiye, who worked during the early part 
of the sixteenth century, was the first to carry this 
method of decoration to a point of really high excel- 
lence. Nobuiye was third of the Nochi no San-saku t 
or " Three Later Masters," of the Miyochin family, 
and it is scarcely credible that his two immediate pre- 
decessors, Yoshimichi (1530) and TakayoSni (1490), 
the other two of the renowned trio, who worked 
during the epoch when the Goto family's skill had 
given new importance to the decoration of sword- 
mounts, can have failed to produce fine guards in the 
sukashi style. Indeed many delicately chiselled and 
artistically conceived guards exist in Japan which 
are attributed, with apparent reason, to makers of 
earlier eras than Nobuiye's. But the question need 
not be discussed here. Nobuiye himself did not 
generally approve of weakening a guard by pierced 
carving of such an elaborate character as was subse- 
quently adopted, nor must his methods be inferred 
from the numerous specimens bearing his name, since, 
in the first place, many of them are forgeries by 
makers of later epochs, and, in the second, two other 
experts of the same name one of Aki, the other of 
Kishiu manufactured guards some of which have 
been confounded with the work of the Miyochin 
master. In Nobuiye's finest guards there are found 
two styles : first, line engraving combined with 
chiselling in very low relief ; and secondly, decoration 



a jour. Guards of the former class have the surface 
covered with an engraved floral scroll (karakusa\ 
among which are leaves and blossoms (generally of the 
Paulownia or the evening gourd) in slight relief. 
These works plainly show the influence which the 
Goto family's methods had already exercised upon the 
fashion of the time. In the guards with pierced 
decoration, the commonest designs are a network 
pattern (ami-gata}, or a kikko diaper (tortoise-shell 
tessellation), and occasionally verses of poetry occur, 
the ideographs cut right through the metal so accu- 
rately and delicately that each character seems to be 
written by a skilled penman with white ink on the 
russet patina of the iron. Among specimens of No- 
buiye's guards preserved in Japan, the sacrifice of 
solidity to decorative design is carried farthest in one 
which has in the centre a torii (sacred bird-perch) 
within a frame of mokko-gata (four-arched outline). 
The torii alone is solid, all the remaining space within 
the frame being cut out. Another remarkable guard 
by the same maker, which the inscription shows to 
have been forged for the notorious Anayama, has the 
surface covered with deep pitting, the depressions and 
elevations alternating on the two faces. All the 
guards of the Miyochin experts, from Munesuke 
to Nobuiye, are slightly rough to the touch, though 
they present the appearance of finely finished work. 
This peculiarity called by the Japanese moyashi, or 
fermentation is the result of the patina-producing 
process. It need scarcely be said that the patina was 
a point of the greatest importance. The most prized 
variety had the colour of the azuki bean, or dark 

The chisellers of guards with decoration a jour 



showed a fertile fancy in choosing and inventing de- 
signs. Naturally their work was not uniformly good. 
The great majority of the inferior samurai and all the 
common foot-soldiers (ashigaru) had to be content 
with weapons on which little decorative labour had 
been expended. But with the nobles and the officers 
of rank the case was different. At their order the 
great armourers, and subsequently the chisellers of 
sword-mounts, worked with ever-increasing rivalry to 
produce fine guards which, while presenting an ap- 
pearance of lightness and delicacy, nevertheless pos- 
sessed all the elements of strength and durability 
necessary in a soldier's weapons. Many of these 
guards are interesting and valuable for the sake of the 
decorative ability and extraordinary technical skill that 
they display ; but they belong, of course, to a class 
of artistic workmanship distinct from that of the sur- 
face-chiselled sword-mounts of later times. It may 
be well here to dismiss, once for all, a theory some- 
times advanced by writers in Europe that many of 
the elaborate guards of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries were of cast iron. That cast-iron guards 
had no existence cannot be affirmed ; they may 
sometimes have been made for weapons of the most 
inferior description. But the Japanese themselves 
deny that cast iron was ever regarded as a suitable 
material for a sword-guard, its liability to fracture 
being a fatal objection. The connoisseur and every 
samurai was something of a connoisseur in matters 
concerning his sword attached more importance to 
the tempering of the metal than to the fashion of the 
ornamental chiselling, and in every record of great 
armourers skill in forging iron heads the list of their 
achievements. There is a story told of a celebrated 



swordsman of Owari, Yagiu by name, who in the 
sixteenth century had fifty fine sword-guards made by 
the best experts of the time. He placed all the guards 
in a mortar, pounded them with a heavy pestle, and 
used only those that survived the ordeal. Subsequently 
Yagiu's guards came to be the fashion, and were pre- 
ferred to much finer work which had not undergone 
the same test. There is, however, an explanation of 
the cast-iron theory advanced by European writers. 
Many of the guards sold to foreign collectors in re- 
cent times have been of cast iron, made expressly 
for the unwary curio-hunter. From these a decep- 
tive inference has been drawn as to the nature of the 
genuine old work. 1 

In describing briefly the progress of the art from 
the time of its early prosperity until the present day, 
the most convenient method will be to follow the 
method of division into centuries. 


Two eminently great names of this century are 
Nobuiye (Miyochin) and Kaneiye, but enough has 
already been said about their work. It may be added 
here, however, that although the great Kaneiye cer- 
tainly flourished at the close of the fifteenth and the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, Japanese tradi- 
tions refer to an earlier expert of the same name 
whom they distinguish as O-shodai Kaneiye, or the 
" remote first-generation Kaneiye." Nothing accu- 
rate is known about him, and the few specimens 
attributed to him are of such inferior quality that no 
interest attaches to their history. 

1 Sec Appendix, note 37. 



Concerning the Miyochin family, it is to be noted 
that they did not contribute much to the decora-, 
tion of sword-furniture. There were essentially 
armourers, though they produced also many objects 
which do not belong to the category of arms or 
armour, for example, censers, alcove-ornaments, 
metal mountings for palanquins, and so forth. The 
list of Miyochin masters who worked in the sixteenth 
century includes many names, Katsumasa, Katsuiye, 
Nobuyoshi, Nobusada, Muneaki, Kunishige, Mune- 
haru, Munenori, Munehisa, etc., but as makers 
of sword-mounts they may be dismissed with the 
remark that they confined themselves to chiselling 
iron guards with pierced decoration or with wood- 
grained surface. The name of one, Miyochin Fusa- 
yoshi, has been handed down to posterity on account 
of his skill in cutting chrysanthemums a jour ; and 
lyefusa, a pupil of Nobuiye, became celebrated for 
similar work. 

In nearly all cases where an artist achieved success as 
a worker in metals, a number of students flocked to his 
workshop, and these, together with his own sons and 
descendants, founded a line of experts perpetuating 
the family's name and its style from generation to 
generation. The Goto and Miyochin houses are 
conspicuous examples, but scores of other families 
swell the list. Several had their origin, and attained 
special fame, in the sixteenth century. Reference 
has already been made to the Umetada family, whose 
representative, Shigeyoshi, became famous at the end 
of the fourteenth century, working for the Ashikaga 
Shogun, Yoshimitsu. A much more highly skilled 
artist of the same house also called Shigeyoshi (art 
name, Miyoju) chiselled guards with decoration 



jour in the middle of the sixteenth century, thus 
bringing the Umetada family into greater repute 
than ever. There was a third Shigeyoshi (art name, 
Meishiri) y who, though he flourished in the seven- 
teenth century (1630), may be mentioned here for the 
sake of distinctness. This last, working for the Court 
in Yedo, received the honorary title of Ho-kyo, and 
added chiselling in relief to the a jour decoration 
which alone had been practised by his predecessors. 
Thus it may be said that the Umetada family had 
three epochs, its debut upon the art stage at the be- 
ginning of the eleventh century when its then noble 
representative, Tachibana no Munechika, became 
the renowned swordsmith known through all time as 
Sanjo rib Kokaji ; its earliest remarkable connection 
with guard-chiselling in the days of the first Shige- 
yoshi (1400); and its attainment of high rank in that 
line when (1630) the third Shigeyoshi (Meishiri) 
worked for the second Tokugawa Shogun. This 
somewhat tedious analysis is made because great con- 
fusion has crept into the writings of European con- 
noisseurs in the matter of the Umetada family. The 
reader will understand that the family did not cease 
to produce skilled experts after the third Shigeyoshi, 
but it is impossible to find space here for detailed 
reference except in the case of great celebrities. 

The Muneta family, which gave to Japan another 
long line of experts, was founded in Kyoto in 1520 
by Matazayemon. At first the Muneta masters con- 
fined themselves to working in silver, but Matabei 
(1560), grandson of Matazayemon, having invented 
the style of nanako called go-no-me (as already men- 
tioned), he and his successors, down to the middle 
of the century, are chiefly remembered for their skill 



in that kind of work. Muneta Naomichi (1660) 
art name, Dochoku was the first of the family to 
attain great distinction for chiselling in high relief 
and in the shishi-ai-bori method (recessed carving). 
He and his sons, Naoshige and Naomine, worked in 
Osaka, and are among the most celebrated experts of 
that city. 

The Aoki family also came into notice in this cen- 
tury. It was founded (1580) by Jubei (art name, 
Tetsujin, i.e. worker in iron), who entered the service 
of the feudal chief of Higo, and settled at Hasuike 
in that province. Jubei is often spoken of as the 
successor of Kaneiye, apparently because he resembled 
the latter in style and was not much inferior to him 
in skill. He also has the credit of introducing brass 
into the decorative designs on iron sword-guards. 
But the latter specialty is more correctly associated 
with the name of Jingo, who worked at Yatsushiro, 
in the same province of Higo, in 1630. Jingo's 
guards have brass decoration, boldly chiselled in very 
high relief. They were always greatly appreciated 
in Japan, though their workmanship scarcely seems 
to merit that distinction. Jingo-tsuba came to be 
the generic term for all guards having brass decorative 
designs on an iron ground. 

The Soami family was founded at the end of the 
fourteenth century by Masanori, but its work did not 
attract public attention until the time (1410) of 
Takatsune, who lived in Kyoto and chiselled guards 
with pierced decoration. Representatives of the 
family were working in various parts of the country 
in the sixteenth century, but their productions had 
not yet become remarkable. 

Towards the close of the century Hideyoshi, the 



Taiko, built at Fushimi, overlooking the beautiful 
valley of the Yodo River, a castle of unprecedented 
magnificence. The best artistic resources of the time 
were devoted to the interior decoration of this 
" Palace of Pleasure," as it was called, and a host of 
skilled artisans and artists assembled in Fushimi in 
connection with the enterprise. Few of the works 
executed for the Palace have survived, but the chisel- 
ling of the silver mounts on two state palanquins 
which stood in the vestibule show that even on such 
objects the highest skill of the time was expended. 
It is known incidentally that many experts great in 
the decoration of sword-mounts worked in Fushimi 
during the brief period some ten years of its 
prosperity, but the name of one only has been trans- 
mitted as directly associated with the place. This 
artist, Kanaya, evidently belonged to the artisan class, 
for his family name is unknown. He attained re- 
nown for chiselling landscapes, birds, foliage, and the 
long, feathery moorland grasses so much affected by 
Japanese painters and sculptors. His work is com- 
pared by Japanese connoisseurs to a moon-lit water- 
scape seen through an opening in a pine forest. 


The seventeenth century was a period of marked 
development. For the first time during five hundred 
years the country enjoyed almost complete rest from 
civil wars, and there sprung up among the various 
fiefs keen rivalry in the fields of art and industry. 
One of the fiefs (Kaga) must be specially mentioned 
in this context. The feudal chief of that province at 
the time was Mayeda Toshiiye. When the Taiko 



turned his arms against the celebrated warrior Shibata 
Katsuiye, the issue of the combat depended largely 
upon the attitude of Mayeda Toshiiye, then a feuda- 
tory of only the second rank. Mayeda espoused the 
Taikb's cause, and as recompense for his fidelity re- 
ceived in fief the whole province of Kaga, thus becom- 
ing at once one of the wealthiest and most puissant 
feudatories in the Empire, while, at the same time, 
the remote and comparatively inaccessible position 
of his fief rendered him virtually independent of the 
government in Kyoto or Yedo. Not unnaturally, 
therefore, when the tide of political fortune began to 
set against the Taiko's son, and when Fushimi ceased 
to be a centre of prosperity, a number of the artists who 
had settled there turned their faces to Kaga. They 
were received most hospitably and liberally by Mayeda 
Toshiiye. Kanazawa, the chief town of Kaga, be- 
came thenceforth one of the principal centres of art 
production in Japan, and has retained that distinction 
down to the present day. The most renowned of the 
families established there by artists emigrating from 
Fushimi or Kyoto were the Kuwamura, the Goto, 
the Mizuno, the Koichi, the Nagayoshi, the Kuninaga, 
the Yoshishige, the Katsugi, the Tsuji, the Mune- 
yoshi, and the Tadahira. To every one of these 
houses the Kaga chief granted liberal pensions, vary- 
ing in amount from the equivalent of 3,500 yen to 
250 yen annually. All the early representatives of the 
Kuwamura family were pupils of the Goto masters 
and worked in the Goto style, namely, relief chisel- 
ling in various metals with addition of gold inlaying. 
Moriyoshi, a pupil of Goto Kenzo, was the first re- 
corded member of the house, but it attained the sum- 
mit of its reputation in the time (1630) of Hiroyoshi, 



who, under his art name of Koko, stands in the fore- 
most rank of sword-mount chisellers. The same de- 
scription applies to the Mizuno family. Its founder, 
Yoshinori, learned his art under Goto Yenjo, and 
neither he nor his successors made any departure from 
the methods of the Kyoto masters. It may, indeed, 
be said that the glyptic movement in Kaga was entirely 
permeated by Goto influence, and that the greatest artists 
of this school in the seventeenth century were Hiro- 
yoshi (Koko), who has just been mentioned ; Kuninaga 
(the first, not the second, of the name) ; Yoshishige l 
(1620), a younger brother of Kuninaga's, who, as 
well as Kuninaga, had studied under Goto Takuzo ; 
and Uji-iye (1630) of the Katsugi family, who had 
the official title of Gon-dayu. On the whole, how- 
ever, the characteristic feature of the Kaga work may 
be said to have been profuse inlaying with gold. 
Many Japanese connoisseurs are accustomed to credit 
Kuninaga with having been the first to use gold in- 
laying in the decoration of sword-furniture. That 
is an historical inaccuracy. But it is certain that 
Kuninaga's inlaying was so fine as to become pro- 
verbial, the term yirosaku-hori Jirosaku was Kuni- 
naga's personal name being used to indicate spe- 
cially delicate specimens of that nature, to whatever 
expert they owed their manufacture. Perhaps it will 
be correct to say that groove-inlaying (hon-zbgari), 
as distinguished from surface damascening (nuno-me- 
zogari), began to be practised with marked success at 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, for it ap- 
pears that while Kuninaga was winning admiration 
for such work in Kaga, Goto Kiyoshi, his contempo- 
rary, was becoming equally famous in the same line 

1 Sec Appendix, note 38. 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

in Yedo. The Nagayoshi family of Kaga, who began 
to work when Kuninaga was at the zenith of his 
fame, made groove-inlaying a specialty, and devoted 
themselves through thirteen successive generations 
almost entirely to that branch of the art, so that they 
are generally spoken of as the Kaga Zogan-ko (In- 
layers of Kaga). It must be noted, further, that 
Kuninaga, Goto Kiyoshi, and the Nagayoshi experts 
of Kaga were not the only famous inlayers of the 
epoch. Shoami Masanobu (1620), an artist of 
Kyoto, produced iron guards with gold-inlaid pictures 
of the Eight Views of Omi (Lake Biwa), which were 
the marvel of his time; and Hosono Masamori, also of 
Kyoto, working at a still earlier date, the end of the 
sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, showed such skill in hair-line inlaying (kebori- 
zogan) that by some authorities he is regarded as the 
originator of that kind of work. Masamori would 
have been remembered for his chiselling in relief, even 
though he had not distinguished himself specially as 
a zogan worker. A contemporary of his, Shoami 
Nagatsugu, who lived at Hino in Goshiu, was the 
first to inlay brass with gold, silver, and shakudo y so 
that inlaying of that kind came to be known as 
Yoshiro-fu (Yoshiro style), Yoshiro being Nagatsugu's 
personal name. The use of brass as a field for gold 
or silver damascening does not, when cursorily con- 
sidered, suggest fine results. But the soft and tender 
effects of the combination are admirable. Altogether 
it may be said that the development of inlaying was a 
feature of art progress at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century. 

The history of this century contains so many inci- 
dents of importance that it is difficult to marshal 

VOL. vii. 18 277 


them in clear sequence. Certainly one of the most 
important was the founding of the Yokoya family in 
Yedo by Soyo, who worked from 1621 to 1643. 
Soyo is supposed to have invented the style of chisel- 
ling called kata-kiri, that is to say, cutting the lines 
of a design in channels of varying depth and width, 
so as to suggest brush-work rather than chiselling. 
It is impossible to say whether Soyo really invented 
this style or whether he merely brought it into 
public notice by his great skill. At all events, its 
extensive practice dates from his time, and it was 
unquestionably one of the most potential additions 
made to the art in any era. Speaking broadly, incised 
chiselling, which had hitherto been mere etching, 
became thenceforth painting. The Japanese stand 
quite solitary in this work. They alone among the 
glyptic artists of the world have carried the element of 
directness so thoroughly into the ornamental chiselling 
of metallic surfaces that every line is completed by a sin- 
gle stroke of the tool, and that each line has its own spe- 
cial value in the scale of modelling. Soyo received a 
handsome pension in perpetuity from the Yedo Court. 
He did not confine himself to kata-kiri work, but carved 
in relief also with grand force. His fame is eclipsed, 
however, by that of his grandson Somin (16801733), 
whom many connoisseurs count the greatest chiseller 
of metal that Japan ever produced. He scarcely 
deserves such unqualified praise, but he was certainly 
a grand artist, and in some directions he has never 
been surpassed. Beginning life with the position of 
chiseller to the Yedo Court and an annual allowance 
hereditary since the time of his grandfather Soyo 
equivalent to about 2,011 yen yearly, he voluntarily 
resigned the distinction and its associated emoluments, 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

and devoted himself to machi-bori (literally, street 
carving), or working to general order. This step 
seems to have been inspired by pure pride of art : he 
desired to establish an entirely independent reputation 
for himself, and to owe nothing to the reputation of 
his family. Like Goto Yujo, who had obtained 
designs from the great painter Kano Motonobu, 
Somin sought assistance from two artists famous in 
his time and in all time, Tanyu and Hanabusa Itcho. 
His reproductions of the drawings of these masters by 
the kata-kiri and kebori processes were so admirable 
and striking that the public unanimously gave him the 
credit of having originated the " engraved pictorial 
style " (yefu kebori\ though the conception of such 
work undoubtedly came from his grandfather Soyo 
and was adopted by his father Sochi. It is difficult 
to speak too highly of Somin's chiselling. There is 
life in everything that he produced. A spray of 
peony carved by him contrasts with similar work by 
other artists as a real blossom contrasts with a paper 
flower. Accurate examination of his floral work 
shows that the style of the petal and leaf carving is 
essentially his own, but that his stalks and branches 
combine the methods of the Goto and Soyo schools. 
Somin often worked in silver, especially in chiselling 
kozuka. It may be mentioned here that from the 
days of the early Goto masters it became a common 
custom to give a backing of pure gold to kozuka of 
high quality. Somin's work has always been so 
much valued by Japanese connoisseurs that few gen- 
uine specimens seem to have passed into foreign hands. 
A noble example was lately sold by the principal art 
auctioneers in London, but so little did they appreci- 
ate it that they grouped it with several ordinary 



kozuka and sold the whole en bloc ! It is possible that 
many English collectors may thus be entertaining 
angels unawares. 

The celebrated Nara family, which deserves and 
has received at least as much honour as the Yokoya, 
had its origin in the century under review. " Nara " 
is in this case a family name, not the name of a 
place. Toshiteru, an expert of Kyoto and a pupil of 
the Goto school, was the first metal-chiseller of the 
family. He moved to Yedo in 1620, but it was not 
until the time of his son Toshimune (art name, 
Sotei) that the Nara workers began to be famous. 
Their style was then severe and simple, their favourite 
designs being crows perched on a withered branch, 
mandarin ducks in water, birds beside a stream, and 
such things. Toshiharu (art name, Soyu, date 1680) 
abandoned this narrow range of subjects, and became 
a landscape carver of such consummate skill that the 
Yedo Court conferred on him the title of Techizen no 
Kami, and he was thenceforth known in the world of 
art as Techizen. The Nara family gave to Japan 
three of her greatest artists, Toshiharu (1680), Toshi- 
hisa (1720) and Yasuchika (1730). The last two do 
not belong to the seventeenth century, but are men- 
tioned here for the sake of convenience. These three 
are commonly spoken of as the Nara Sambuku-tsui, 
or " three pictures en suite of the Nara family." No 
artists stand higher in Japanese estimation. Toshiha- 
ru's art name was Soyu ; Yasuchika's was To-u, and 
Toshihisa is often called Tahei, but these appellations 
are not found upon their works. Yasuchika belongs 
really to the Tsuchiya family, but was adopted into 
the Nara. He ranks as the greatest of the three. 
They all carved in relief, but Toshihisa and Yasu- 



chika combined the Yokoya style with their own, 
and carved figures, plants, flowers, birds, and landscapes 
with extraordinary delicacy and force. Yasuchika is 
sometimes called the " Korin " of carvers, his qualities 
of boldness, directness, and originality being not less 
marked than those of the great painter Ogata Korin. 
His works as well as those of Toshihisa have been 
largely imitated, but, as a Japanese connoisseur of the 
eighteenth century justly says, the imitations differ 
from the originals as widely as glass differs from 
diamond. The difference may be illustrated by say- 
ing that prior to the Meiji era a good sword-guard by 
one of the " Three Pictures " sold for the equivalent 
of from two hundred to four hundred yen, whereas an 
imitation, however skilful, was appraised at about as 
many sen. 1 It should be noted that a great deal of 
confusion exists between Toshihisa, and his teacher 
Toshinga. That is partly due to the fact that the 
second ideograph of the former's name may be read 
naga y but also to the fact that Toshinaga, though he 
has received less recognition than Toshihisa, can 
scarcely be called an inferior artist, and that, owing to 
the number of his pupils, he exercised a lasting influ- 
ence on the fame of the family. Toshinaga's art 
name was Chikan. No less than forty-four experts 
of the Nara school worked between the beginning of 
the seventeenth and the middle of the nineteenth 
century, though only six of them were actual repre- 
sentatives of the family. 

The century was remarkable for a great develop- 
ment of the art of chiselling a jour. That kind of 
decoration, as already shown, represented almost the 
only style of the early forgers of sword-guards, and 

1 See Appendix, note 39. 



was practised by them with much success. But they 
treated the guard as though it were a block of card- 
board, and were content with the simple operation of 
piercing, so that the decorative design appeared in 
outline only. At the end of the sixteenth century, or 
the beginning of the seventeenth, a new departure 
was made by adding surface modelling to pierced 
work. The difference thus produced can be easily 
explained by saying that whereas a design of cherry 
petals, for example, took the form of a mere diaper 
according to the old method, it became, according to 
the new, a cluster of accurately shaped blossoms and 
leaves suspended within the circumference of the 
guard. Under this artistic impulse the guard soon 
ceased to have the character of a frame, or field, for 
the design, and was wholly absorbed into the latter. 
An immense variety of beautiful and cleverly con- 
ceived specimens then came into existence. The rim 
of the guard, ceasing to be rigidly circular, square, or 
oval, adapted itself to the demands of the design ; and 
the carver, while taking care not to sacrifice the pro- 
tective purpose of his work, allowed himself wide 
latitude and irregularity of shape. Thus the " ascend- 
ing " and " descending " dragons, together with the 
clouds among which they fly, were disposed so that 
the backs of the monsters formed the rim of the 
guard ; and a procession of rats pursuing each other 
in a circle filled all the space surrounding a central 
haft-socket ; or a branch of cherry-bloom, or of plum- 
blossoms, or of pine-branches, or a cluster of all three 
combined, was skilfully bent into a circular medallion. 
Wreaths of iris, sheaves of rice, circlets of intertwined 
serpents, loops of crayfish, garlands of bean-sprays, 
it would scarcely be possible to enumerate the 



multitude of notions adopted by the carvers of this 
school. One of the principal centres of manufacture 
was the province of Choshiu, the Yamaguchi Pre- 
fecture of the present day. As early as the close of 
the fourteenth century, an expert called Mitsune (art 
name, Jokan Insht] began to work at Suwo in that 
province, and founded the Nakai family. This artist 
and his immediate successors made no special contri- 
butions to the art ; they followed the old style of 
decoration applied to a flat surface. But at the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century Nobutsune, a scion 
of the family, moved from Suwo to Hagi in the same 
fief, and the work of the Nakai experts thenceforth 
began to attract wide attention. Nobutsune's grand- 
son, Tomoyuki (1660, the first of that name, i.e. 
Zensuke, as distinguished from the second, Zembei), 
and above all his great-grandson, Tomotsune (1680), 
stand in the front rank of chisellers. They carved 
iron guards with the most elaborately chiselled designs 
a jour, involving both faces of the guard, their motives 
being warriors, mythological figures, birds, animals, 
flowers, landscapes, fish, insects, in short, every natural 
object that could be utilised for such a purpose. 
While Tomoyuki was approaching the zenith of his 
fame, an expert of the Umetada family, named Meiju, 
moved from Kyoto to Hagi, and his grandson Nobu- 
masa (1690) established the Okada family, which 
contributed several good artists to the Choshiu school. 
Another and more important family whose represen- 
tatives also worked at Hagi, was the Okamoto, 1 of 
which there were two branches, one founded at the 
end of the sixteenth century by Tomoharu; the other, 
a hundred years later, by Tomotsugu. Yet another 

1 See Appendix, note 40. 



family was the Fujii, founded contemporaneously with 
the later branch of the Okamoto by Kyokaze. No 
detailed reference need be here made to the experts 
that bore the names of these families. Their work 
was nearly all in the same style, chiselling a jour with 
surface modelling ; but in comparatively modern 
times some of them abandoned that fashion and be- 
came highly skilled in relief carving of the Kyoto 
school. The material used by the Choshiu artists 
was invariably iron, which they tempered and treated 
with marked ability, the Satsuma workers alone being 
counted their peers in that respect. Inlaying and 
picking out with gold were freely resorted to in the 
decoration of elaborate specimens. 

But it is to the Kinai family of Yechizen that the 
seventeenth century owes its finest examples of chisel- 
ling a jour. Remarkable as were the achievements 
of this family, its record is somewhat obscure. The 
best authorities agree, however, that the first Kinai 
expert worked about the year I68O, 1 and that he 
was succeeded by five generations of the family. 
They all used the mark Kinai, prefixing the ideograph 
Yechizen or Yechizen no Kuni, and their productions 
are thus far indistinguishable. But the second Kinai 
(1660) was incomparably the greatest expert of the 
family. It will scarcely be too much to say that he 
stands at the head of all Japanese sukashi chisellers. 
He carved designs a jour in iron with as much deli- 
cacy and elaboration as though the material were 
paper. Of course a sword-guard, which must have 
a certain degree of solidity and thickness, does not 
offer the best field for such work. It is in censers 
especially clove-boilers and incense boxes that the 

1 See Appendix, note 41. 



most wonderful examples of Kinai's skill are found. 
These utensils he could cast of wafer-like thinness, 
decorating them afterwards with pierced patterns fine 
as lace. Many exquisite specimens were made by 
him to order of the feudal chief of Yechizen, who 
presented them to the Court in Yedo. Thus Kinai's 
chefs-d'oeuvre came to be called Kenjo Kinai (pre- 
sentation Kinai), a term generally applied in later 
times to all art productions of superlative excellence. 
The Kinai experts are specially spoken of for supple- 
menting pierced decoration with surface modelling. 
After the fame of the family had been established, all 
the sukashi-bori work produced in Yechizen, whether 
from the Kinai ateliers or not, was generally classed 
as Kinai-bori, though Kanemori (1680) and Chiusaku 
1700), working independently, turned out many ex- 
amples so good as to deserve distinct mention. 

The Akao family of Yechizen must also be referred 
to. Its founder, Yoshitsugu, was a contemporary of 
the first Kinai, and worked in the same style. But it is 
on account of his son, also called Yoshitsugu, that the 
family chiefly deserves to be remembered ; for this 
artist (1670) was the first to employ chiselling a jour 
in the decoration of shakudo guards. Such work had 
hitherto been confined to iron, but from Yoshitsugu's 
time it came to be applied to all metals, shakudo, shi- 
buichi, silver, gold, and brass. This new departure 
may almost be said to mark an epoch, for by skilful 
employment of the sukashi process the artist was 
able to produce effects of atmosphere and space 
which immensely enhanced the beauty of a design. 1 
Yoshitsugu 2 subsequently settled in Yedo, and was 
succeeded by experts of the Akao family through 

1 See Appendix, note 42. * See Appendix, note 43. 


several generations, but none of them attained special 

At the time of the second Kinai, the province of 
Echizen possessed another artist, Kogitsune, who en- 
joys a great reputation in Japan. Local tradition 
says that, being ordered to carve a lifelike dragon for 
the chief of the province, he sat for ten days and 
nights in the open air at Mikuni, watching the 
whirlwinds for which that place was remarkable. 
At last he imagined that he saw a dragon in one of 
the revolving storms, and the impression was so vivid 
that he was able to reproduce the monster in iron 
exactly as he had seen it, a very unusual kind of 

Before dismissing the subject of chiselling a jour in 
the seventeenth century, reference must be made to 
Umetada Muneyuki (1650), a Kyoto expert, who did 
magnificent work of that nature, several of his master- 
pieces being made to order of the Shogun's Court in 
Yedo ; and also to the Ito family, founded by Masanobu 
in 1670. Masanobu, commonly called Tsuboya 
Tasuke, or " Tasuke the guard-maker," lived in Kyoto, 
and won a high reputation. His son, Masatsune, how- 
ever, was the artist of the family par excellence. He 
settled in Yedo, received the appointment of guard- 
maker to the Shogurfs Court, and was scarcely inferior 
to the second Kinai as a chiseller of decoration a jour. 
Representatives of the Ito family continued to work 
in Yedo down to the Meiji era, and one of them, to 
whom further reference will be made, now ranks 
among the masters of the era. The Ito chisellers 
followed the lead of Akao Yoshitsugu, and worked in 
shakudo y shibuichi, etc. as well as in iron. 

In this context reference must be made to a school 



of experts who worked at Hikone in Omi province. 
Their style was moulded on that of Kitagawa S5den 
(circ. 1640), who forged large iron guards having 
curved edges, and decorated them with chiselling 
a jour as well as surface modelling. The peculiarity 
of these guards was that the figures generally sculp- 
tured were those of Dutchmen, Chinese, or some of 
the uncouth-looking foreigners depicted in ancient 
Japanese encyclopedias of ethnography. The chisel- 
ling was more or less crude and clumsy, and gold 
damascening was usually added. Soden used the mark 
Soheisbi, which is vulgarly pronounced Mogarashi. 
Thus his guards, and those subsequently produced at 
Hikone in the same style, are commonly spoken of as 

Among the families which contributed materially 
to make the seventeenth century remarkable for 
masterpieces of chiselling in all grades of relief and in 
the round, with occasional additions, in later times, 
of the kata-kiri method of the Yokoya masters, a high 
place must be assigned to the Yoshioka of Yedo, 
founded by Shigehiro at the close of the sixteenth 
century, and brought into prominence by his son 
Shigetsugu, who was appointed to work for the Yedo 
Court in the year 1600 and died in 1653. The 
Yoshioka was a noble family of Fujiwara descent, and 
its early representatives had the titles of Bungo-no-suke 
and Buzen-no-suke. They did not use these titles in 
marking their works, but they did frequently use the 
title Inaba-no-suke. Attached to the employment of 
the latter there was a restriction characteristic of 
Japanese customs. The Inaba branch of the same 
family had a hereditary though conditional right to 
the high post of court councillor (goroju^, and when- 



ever an Inaba noble held that office, the Yoshioka 
artists were precluded from putting Inaba-no-suke 
on their works. The restriction happened to be in- 
operative in the days of Shigehiro (called also Moro- 
tsugu, and, in art circles, Sotoku) and Shigetsugu (art 
name, Soju), the latter of whom is commonly spoken 
of, with reference to his carvings, as Inaba-no-suke. 
His forte was extreme delicacy and fineness. Among 
the heirlooms of his family is a peach-stone carved 
by him after an elaborate drawing of a Japanese festi- 
val. The preparation of the stone reduced it to about 
two-thirds of its natural size, and on the scanty sur- 
face that remained Shigetsugu carved eight boats each 
carrying an elaborate festival-car, and each manned by 
thirty-three monkeys. Beside the water on which 
the boats floated there stood a grove of pine-trees, and 
under their shadows mandarin ducks sailed, as em- 
blems of love and constancy. Another well-known 
example of his skill may be seen at the temple Zojo-ji, 
in the Shiba Park (Tokyo). It is a carving on stone, 
representing the Nirvana of Buddha (Nehan-ko^ and 
it was executed immediately after the death of the 
second Tokugawa Shogun (posthumous name, Tai-toku- 
in-deri} t when Shigetsugu was in his seventy-third year. 
The Yoshioka family have continued to work in Yedo 
through successive generations down to the present 
day, and a branch was founded in Sendai in the 
middle of the seventeenth century by Kiyotsugu. No 
novel features are presented by the Yoshioka carvings : 
they combine the styles of all the schools. 

The Isono family, which came into note in the 
days of Jochiku (1630), commonly called Masuya 
Bunyemon, ranked with the Yoshioka masters for 
minute and delicate chiselling, but were distinguished 



by more profuse use of gold inlaying. Jochiku is 
considered one of the greatest chisellers of insects that 
Japan ever produced. His daughter, Jotetsu, whose 
works are spoken of as musume-bori (the girl's carvings), 
was very successful in the same line, as were also 
several of his pupils and descendants. 

It was in the early part of this century (1620) that 
Hikoshiro, founder of the Hirata family, began to 
apply verifiable enamels in the decoration of sword- 
furniture. Technical knowledge of the enamelling 
processes existed in Japan before his time, nor does 
any inventive credit belong to him except in the 
matter of opaque white enamel, which he was the first 
to manufacture and which remained a specialty of his 
family down to recent times. All the other enamels 
employed by him green, yellow, blue, red, and 
purple were translucid (suki-jippo). Parts of the 
design were cloisonned, so as to receive the enamels, and 
much brilliancy of decorative effect was thus produced. 
The Hirata experts cannot be ranked with Japan's 
best glyptic artists. The only member of the family 
who deserves to be called a great chiseller was Haru- 
nari (i 8 1 o). For the information of collectors it may 
be mentioned that sword-mounts having enamel 
decoration and bearing the Hirata mark are not 
necessarily identifiable as products of the Hirata 
family. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, 
the term Hirata was used to designate a style rather 
than a family, and artisans often carved it on guards 
in the former sense. 

In addition to the families of experts already spoken 
of as having made their debut in this century, the 
following may be noted without any detailed refer- 
ence : the Tsuji of Yedo, founded by Masachika 



(1660), which produced several generations of skilled 
experts ; the Nomura, also of Yedo, founded by Masa- 
oki (1650); the Wakabayashi of Toyama in Yetchiu, 
founded by Kaneko Denzaburo (1690); the Inouye 
of Kyoto, founded by Saburozayemon (1650); the 
Yasui of Kyoto, founded by Mitsusada (1650) and 
made specially famous by the incomparable chiseller 
Nagatsune (1770), commonly called Ichi-no-mtya Te- 
chizen ; the Chiyo of Tsuyama (in Mimasaka), founded 
by Kinsuke (1680), whose experts produced magnifi- 
cent silver work ; the Kaneko of Kii, founded by 
Kichinojo ( 1 640) ; the Uyemura of Kyoto, founded 
by Yasunobu (1600) and made celebrated by Masuya 
Kuhei (1600), and Masuya Kichibei (1720); and 
greatest perhaps, of all these, the Iwamoto of Yedo, 
founded by Chiubei (1680), a pupil of Yokoya Somin. 
The century closed when Yanagawa Naomasa, one of 
the most renowned masters in the whole history of 
the art, was perpetuating in Yedo the noble style of his 
teacher Somin. 


An immense quantity of beautiful work distin- 
guished this century, and the names of many great 
experts appear in its annals, but it added nothing to 
the methods already practised. Scores of skilled 
chisellers devoted themselves to perfecting the processes 
of their predecessors without inventing any new 
technical mode, and, on the whole, it may be said 
that the distinguishing features of the century were 
elaboration of detail and splendour of decorative 
effect. Such developments were consistent with the 
spirit of the time, for the country had now enjoyed a 



hundred years of unprecedented peace, and the various 
principalities throughout the empire, ceasing to be 
disturbed by problems of military expansion and 
perils or projects of aggression, had become competi- 
tive centres of art production. 

At the opening of the century Gorobei of Kyoto is 
found chiselling iron guards with decoration & jour so 
skilfully that the term kinai, which had previously 
been used to designate particularly delicate and elabo- 
rate work of this description was now replaced by 
Daigoro-saku, a name obtained by compounding the 
first ideographs of Daimonji-ya, as the artists' atelier 
was called, and " Gorobei." Contemporaneous with 
Gorobei was Shoyemon, called also Tomoyoshi or 
Yuki, who has had few peers as a maker of mokume 
grounds. Shoyemon is generally known as Nomura 
Masa-ya. 1 He entered the service of the feudal chief 
of Awa, and founded a branch of the Nomura family 
in Tokushima, the capital of that fief. It should be 
noted that Yedo was the seat of the elder branch of 
the Nomura family, which was founded by Masatoki 
(1660), and gave to Japan a number of well-remem- 
bered experts, Masanori (art name, Itoku, 1790), 
Masayoshi (art name, Stubtku, 1760); Masatsugu 
(1760); Masayoshi (art name, Katoji, 1790), and 
others. All these experts excelled in the production 
of mokume, but were also appreciated for their chisel- 
ling in relief. The most celebrated of all the Nomura 
masters was Jimpo (1750), commonly called Tsu 
Jimpo. He took his designs from the pictures of 
Tanyu, the greatest artist of the preceding century, 
and his chiselling shows extraordinary minuteness and 
delicacy. Numerous imitations of his work were 

1 See Appendix, note 44. 



produced in the second half of the eighteenth century. 
Scarcely less renowned was another member of the 
same family, artistically known as Hiyobu-jo or Tusen 
(1790). His literary talents were as great as his 
glyptic skill, and he received from the Yedo Court the 
honorary title of Hogen. 

It is observable that in this century the artists 
showed a disposition to make a specialty of particular 
fields of design. Thus Shoami Tempo (1700), of 
Kyoto, confined himself almost exclusively to chisel- 
ling peonies and chrysanthemums tossed by the wind. 
Kikugawa Muneyoshi (1720), of Yedo, commonly 
called Chobei, carved chrysanthemums so admirably 
that Chobei- kiku (Chobei chrysanthemums) came to be 
a synonym for exceptionally fine work of this class. 
Nara Ichibei (1730), pupil of the great Nara Yasu- 
chika, became so celebrated for chiselling the land- 
scapes of Omi that his contemporaries spoke of him 
as Miidera l Icbibei. Nara Masanaga ( 1 740) obtained 
equal fame for his moor-scapes with a praying 
mantis and tufts of soft feathery susuki (Eularia ja- 
ponica} in the foreground. Uyemura Munemine 
(1720) of Kyoto excelled in the chiselling of warriors. 
Yasuyama Motozumi (1760), of Mito, one of the 
greatest masters of any era, who was known in art 
circles as Sekijoken or Togu chiselled mythological 
Chinese figures with extraordinary force and delicacy, 
his favourite metal being shibuichi. Shinshichi, of 
Osaka (1730), chose a fishing-rod and river trout as 
his specialty. Noda Yoshihiro (1730), of Yedo, 
chiselled groups of fishes with admirable fidelity. 
Tamagawa Yoshihisa (1790), of Mito, made himself 
famous by his dragons. Fujita Katsusada (1700), of 

1 See Appendix, note 45. 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

Osaka, is remembered for his wonderful masks and 
cuttle-fish. Kikuoka Mitsuyuki (1780), of Yedo, ar- 
tistically known as Dopposai or Saikaon, an artist of 
the highest ability, is held to have equalled Somin as 
a carver of peonies; and Shoami Morikuni (1730), 
of Matsuyama (lyo province), has had few equals as a 
chiseller of dragons and clouds. This list might be 
greatly prolonged, but such distinctions are apt to be 
misleading, since in many cases they suggest a nar- 
rower range of motives than the artists in question 
really selected. 

The Nara family made large contributions to the 
finest productions of this century. Toshihisa and 
Yasuchika, who worked during the first half of the 
century, have already been spoken of, and with them 
must be bracketed Joi (art name, Issando Nagaharu, 
1720), who by many connoisseurs is regarded as the 
peer of the " Three Nara Pictures." It is not cer- 
tain whether Joi belonged originally to the Nara 
family or was adopted into it. He learned carving 
from Nara Hisanaga (art name, Zenzo), who, in turn, 
was a brilliant pupil of the celebrated Nara Toshinaga. 
Joi excelled in the shisbi-ai style of carving. His 
work was singularly soft without sacrificing strength, 
and he chose elaborate subjects, using gold freely for 
purposes of damascening and picking out. He drew 
his motives chiefly from martial history, 1 but he 
chiselled flowers, also, and landscapes with consum- 
mate skill. Three other members of the Nara family 
deserve a place in this context. They are Masanaga 
(1740), his son Masachika (1760), and Masanobu. 
Masanaga (art name, Seira&u)was a pupil of Toshihisa. 
Reference has already been made to his celebrated 

1 See Appendix, note 46. 

VOL. VI! IQ 189 


landscapes with a praying mantis and tufts of Eularia 
japonica in the foreground. His son, Masachika, 
became a pupil of Joi in the latter's old age, and took 
the art name of Jowa. He did not reach the high 
level of either his teacher or his father, but he was 
undoubtedly a grand expert. Nara Masanobu (1750) 
had the art names of Kikuju-sai and Kiko. His 
works are greatly prized by Japanese connoisseurs, but 
as his specialty was the carving of the amariyo (the 
rain-dragon), he does not appeal strongly to foreign 

At the close of the seventeenth century and the 
beginning of the eighteenth, Nagasaki's experts were 
brought into prominence by Kizayemon, artistically 
known as *Jakushi. Nagasaki, from time immemo- 
rial, had been permeated by Chinese influences, being 
the centre of trade and intercourse between Japan and 
the neighbouring empire. Hence its chisellers of 
sword-mounts affected designs generally called kwanto- 
gata y or Canton style, many examples of which may 
be seen throughout the whole field of Japanese deco- 
rative art. The familiar " willow-pattern " is the 
worst specimen of this type. Its features are stiff 
figures of Chinese warriors, court ladies, mandarins or 
historical personages, set in a stereotyped garden with 
architectural accompaniment ; or little children 
the well-known kara-ko (Chinese children) with 
tonsured heads, playing various out-door games ; or 
dragons of more or less conventionalised shape. 
Jakushi carved dragons, but he also chiselled land- 
scapes, bamboos tossed by the wind and other designs 
of flowers and foliage, and his skill was so conspicu- 
ous that in Nagasaki people learned to use the term 
Jakushi-bori as generally distinctive of beautiful work. 



The use of kivanto-gata motives are not confined to 
Nagasaki experts. Goto Kiyonori, who worked in 
Yedo contemporaneously with Jakushi, became cele- 
brated for similar carving, and examples of it are not 
infrequently found among the productions of inferior 
experts. These kivanto-tsuba, and the mogarashi tsuba 
already described, are, perhaps, the least interesting 
of all the ko-dogu. 

The artists thus far noticed as belonging to the 
eighteenth century were all representatives of families 
established at an earlier date. Families which not 
only gave lustre to the century but also had their 
origin in it, are the Hamano, the Omori, the 
Iwamoto, and the Okamoto. These houses produced 
experts who may be said to have carried the art to 
its zenith. 

The Hamano family of Yedo first came into note 
in the days of Masayori (1730), a pupil of the great 
Nara Toshihisa. Masayori is always known as Shozui, 
the alternative pronunciation of the ideographs form- 
ing his name. He had many art titles Otsuriuken, 
Miboku Rifudo, etc. He worked chiefly in shakudo, 
but often in iron, not making any departure from the 
Nara style, but using his chisels with extraordinary 
strength yet at no sacrifice of grace and delicacy. 
The Soken Kisbo says that the lines of his carving are 
like " the storm of a tiger's roar or the wind of a drag- 
on's rush through the clouds." It may be truly said 
of the Hamano family that it did not give one in- 
ferior artist to Japan. Shozui himself was probably 
the greatest, but his pupils Moriyuki and Noriyori, 
and his successors Masanobu (1780) and Norinobu 
(1790) rank almost as his peers. 1 The Hamano 

1 See Appendix, note 47. 



artists achieved their greatest successes in figure sub- 
jects, but among specimens by Shozui there are found 
some exquisitely delicate and lifelike carvings of bees, 
spiders, fireflies and herons. 

The Omori family of Yedo is generally supposed 
to have been founded by Shigemitsu, who worked in 
the opening years of the eighteenth century, but his 
father, Shirohei, a samurai of Odawara, was really the 
first Omori carver. Chronologically, therefore, the 
family should have been referred to in the notice of 
the seventeenth century ; but it is placed in the eigh- 
teenth because it did not begin to be famous until the 
days of Shigemitsu. The latter had the advantage of 
studying under two of the great Nara masters, Ichibei 
mentioned above as "Miidera Ichibei" and 
Yasuchika. He carved with great skill in the Nara 
fashion. It was by his pupil Terumasa, however, that 
the style of the Omori family was fixed namely, 
a combination of the Nara and Yokoya methods, 
with extreme elaboration of detail and profuse use 
of all decorative adjuncts, such as inlaying and pick- 
ing out with gold, silver, copper, etc. Terumasa 
received instruction from the great Somin (Yokoya) 
as well as from Shigemitsu, and would doubtless be 
remembered as a most distinguished artist had not 
his fame been completely eclipsed by that of his 
adopted son, Teruhide (1748-1798), known in art 
circles as Ittosai or Riu-u-sai. Teruhide was a grand 
chiseller. Some of his high-relief peony sprays in 
gold on shakudo are not inferior to Somin's master- 
pieces. He is said to have been the first to carve 
wave diaper in high relief, and to him was due a splen- 
didly decorative ground of shakudo inlaid with gold 
in the aventurine pattern. The So ken Kisho, says of 



Teruhide : " His chiselling has force that would rend 
a rock. His wave diapers deeply carved in shibuicbi 
are magnificent, and nothing could exceed the beauty 
of his peonies in high relief on aventurine grounds. 
He seems to have based his method of carving flowers 
on Somin s celebrated ichirin-botan (single-blossom 
peony). His martial figures also are grand." It 
may be said that peonies and Dogs of Fo (shishj) were 
Teruhide's specialties. Among ten choice examples 
of his work in a Tokyo collection, only two are with- 
out peony flowers either in the principal or a subor- 
dinate place. Many artists bore the family name after 
Teruhide's time, but although their work was of the 
finest quality from a decorative point of view, they 
scarcely merit special mention on account of their 
glyptic skill. 

Concerning the Iwamoto family of Yedo the same 
remark applies as that made about the Omori, namely, 
that although founded in the seventeenth century, it 
did not become famous until the eighteenth. The 
founder was Chiubei (1680), a pupil of the celebrated 
Yoko-ya Somin, and the family's greatest master was 
Konkwan (17601801), who is counted one of 
Japan's most skilled chisellers of fishes of all kinds 
(especially Crustacea), but who also carved with ad- 
mirable ability wild-fowl, insects, flowers and even 
figures. Konkwan had three art names, but he seems 
to have always marked his pieces Iwamoto Konkwan. 
The productions of the Iwamoto experts were not 
so elaborately decorative as those of the Omori, but 
as an artist Konkwan is certainly not inferior to Teru- 
hide. It is recorded that during the latter years of 
his life the Iwamoto master was so besieged by clients 



that he finally hung out this sign : " Orders cannot 
be quickly executed. Importunity is deprecated." 

The Okamoto family of Kyoto was a branch of 
the great Okamoto of Hagi (Choshiu), already 
alluded to. It was founded in 1750 by Harukuni 
(originally called Kuniharu), who is known in art 
circles as Tetsuya-ya Dembei (Dembei the Iron chisel- 
ler). Harukuni worked in iron. Although the rep- 
resentatives of his family in Choshiu were celebrated 
chiefly for chiselling a jour, he reduced that kind of 
decoration to a subordinate position, and relied more 
upon relief carving in all its grades, as well as upon 
the kata-kiri method. Indeed, by Dembei's time 
the experts of Kyoto and Yedo had ceased to make 
h jour chiselling the principal feature in a decorative 
scheme. They preferred to utilise such work with 
reference to its pictorial suggestiveness. Thus a de- 
lightful effect of space and atmosphere is produced 
by clouds chiselled a jour, with a silver moon strug- 
gling through them, its disc revealed in the open 
spaces and concealed by the solid rack ; or the sheen 
of water is obtained by a delicate outline of transpar- 
ent carving ; or the leaves and branches of a tree are 
projected against the sky by cutting out all interven- 
ing portions. Even when the a jour feature predomi- 
nated, it was always associated with decoration carved 
in the round, so that it served chiefly to detach the 
sculptured object from the flat surface. 


Chapter VIII 



ONE of the most illustrious artists of this 
century, or indeed of any century, was 
Kashiwaya Nagatsune (1750-1786), called 
in art circles Sefsuzan or Ganshoshi. It 
is difficult to conceive a higher standard of force, 
accuracy, and grace than he attained. He seems 
to have worked almost entirely on shakudo and 
shibuichi bases, but he used gold, silver, and copper 
freely for decorative purposes. In his early days the 
objects that he preferred to chisel were frogs, snails, 
beetles, and so forth, and generally he added a tuft of 
the grass called tsukushi (a species of horse-tail). But 
he subsequently extended his range to dragons, figures, 
demons, masks, and other objects, and among his nu- 
merous works, all of which are highly valued in 
Japan, there is not one of inferior quality. His 
Deva Kings, chiselled in high relief in shakudo with 
gold decoration, may be compared to the celebrated 
wooden statues at the temple Kofuku-ji. Japanese 
connoisseurs liken the nobility and purity of Nagat- 
sune's style to " the moon rising over Obate moun- 
tain." In recognition of his exceptional talent he 
was honoured by the Kyoto court with the title of 
Daijo of Ichi-no-miya in Yechizen. His son, Naga- 



yoshi, did not fall greatly short of Nagatsune himself 
in ability. Both worked in Kyoto. 

The only remaining names that need be especially 
referred to in the history of the eighteenth century 
are those of Kusakari Kiyosada (1790), generally 
known as Kusakari Hachisaburo, who is said to 
have been the greatest inlayer that ever worked in 
Sendai ; Shichibei (1700) of Kyoto, whose fame as 
an inlayer procured for particularly fine work of that 
nature the term Zoshichi ; and Ito Kiyoyasu (1750) 
of Yedo, the first to become celebrated for the variety 
of inlaying called sumi-zogan. 


By more than one Western critic of Japanese 
metal-work it has been asserted that a period of 
decadence set in before the middle of the nineteenth 
century, and that all productions subsequent to the 
year 1835 or 1840 show evidences of deterioration. 
It would be very difficult to discover any valid 
grounds for such a statement, nor is it endorsed for 
a moment by Japanese connoisseurs. Everywhere 
dilettanti may be found whose estimate of the 
merits of a work of art ascends with the cycles that 
have elapsed since its production. But that kind of 
picturesque romance belongs to a special domain of 
Aesthetic education, and while its contentions are par- 
tially admissible so long as they refer to a Somin, a 
Yasuchika, a Naomasa, or a Kinai, they must be set 
aside ruthlessly when they do flagrant injustice to the 
numerously peopled school of fine artists in metal 
who worked for Japan during the first seven and a 
half not the first three decades of the nineteenth 



century. And in speaking of the first seven and a 
half decades, it is not intended to suggest that the 
year 1875 saw the end of her artistic metal-work. 
On the contrary, the reader already knows that the 
art has merely developed new phases in modern 
times, and that not only are its masters as skilled 
now as they were in the days of the Goto, the Nara, 
the Yokoya, and the Yanagawa celebrities, but also 
that their productions must be called in many respects 
greater and more interesting than those of their 
renowned predecessors. If sword-mounts alone be 
considered, the year 1876 may be taken as the time 
of the art's demise, for in 1876 the wearing of 
swords was interdicted and purchasers of their furni- 
ture were at once reduced from hundreds of thousands 
of samurai and privileged persons, to a few scores of 
foreign curio-collectors. Thousands of grand speci- 
mens found their way at once to the melting-pot for 
the sake of the modicum of precious metal that 
could be extracted from them, and in an incredibly 
short time the multitude of master-pieces that must 
have existed in 1876 disappeared almost completely. 
The fate of that great assemblage of beautiful objects 
is indeed a mystery. Hundreds of skilled experts 
had been engaged continuously during five centuries 
on their production ; millions of samurai had taken a 
pride in their possession, and the objects themselves 
were imperishable. Yet in less than thirty-five years 
they virtually ceased to be procurable in Japan. It 
is true that a considerable number went to Europe 
and America, and that an equal, or perhaps even a 
larger, number remained in Japanese collections. 
But what comparison can be set up between the petty 
fraction thus accounted for and the vast multitude 



that must have existed at the moment when the edict 
of 1 876 went forth ? This is one of the most curious 
pages of the iconoclastic chapter opened simultane- 
ously with the opening of Japan to foreign intercourse. 
As the old order changed, the beauties it had be- 
queathed to the country were swept away with the 
blemishes it had begotten ; and if the process was some- 
times slow in the latter case, it was often almost miracu- 
lously rapid in the former. Incredible though the fact 
may seem, it is nevertheless a fact that when, about the 
year 1880, United States' collectors began to interest 
themselves keenly in Japanese sword-mounts, and to 
acquire them in the resolute manner of New York 
and Chicago, the supply of genuine specimens could 
not meet this fitful and comparatively paltry demand, 
and the forger drove a brisk trade for a season, cast- 
ing where he could not chisel, and substituting flash 
and profusion of ornament for force and delicacy of 
sculpture. To-day, an amateur applying himself in 
Japan to make a representative collection of fine 
sword-mounts could not hope for more than very 
partial success. Those that are already fortunate in the 
possession of such objects may therefore congratulate 
themselves, for while in every other branch of Japan- 
ese art no serious break has occurred in the continuity 
of successful production, the sword-mount is altogether 
a thing of the past and will never again occupy the 
attention of great sculptors. 

As to the assertion made above that sword-mount 
experts continued to work with undiminished skill 
down to the year 1876, a better illustration cannot 
be adduced than that of Goto Ichijo. The reader 
will probably have observed that, in these records of 
centuries, no reference is made to the Goto family. 



It is not to be inferred, of course, that the omission 
indicates absence of merit or of celebrity. But at the 
outset considerable space was devoted to the Goto 
masters, and it has not seemed necessary to speak sub- 
sequently of the various experts born in the branches 
of the family ; for although many of them were great 
carvers, they did not originate any new style, and the 
indications given in the appended list of Glyptic 
Artists are probably sufficient to show the Gotos' 
share in the development of the art. It may be ex- 
plained here, however, that in addition to the princi- 
pal family and its two great branches in Kyoto the 
Kami-Goto and the Shimo-Goto there were in 
that city two minor branches ; in Kaga a branch 
founded by Ichiyemon, a pupil of Kenjo, in 1610; 
and in Noto a branch founded in 1550 by Jinyemon, 
a pupil of Takujo. Goto Yeijiro, afterwards known 
as Goto Ichijo, was born in 1791 and died in 1876. 
The second son of the fifteenth representative of the 
principal family, he was adopted into the branch 
house of Hachirobei (art name, Kenjo), to whose 
hereditary pension of fifty koku of rice he succeeded in 
1805, taking the names Mitsuyo and Hachirobei. 
When only nineteen years of age he received a com- 
mission to carve mounts for a sword belonging to the 
Emperor Kokaku, and he succeeded so well that the 
title of Hokkyo was accorded to him, together with a 
reward of twenty pieces of silver and five bundles of 
silk. In his thirty-fourth year he was invited to 
Yedo by the Tokugawa Court, received a house and 
a perpetual pension of ten rations, which was after- 
wards increased from time to time, until, in 1862, he 
attained the highest art rank, that of Hogen. Ichijo 
had no less than fifty pupils, all of whom worked 



with considerable success. Among them was occa- 
sionally numbered Natsuo, who probably deserves to 
rank next to Ichijo among the masters of the nine- 
teenth century. Ichijo has left it on record that in 
his youth he made a habit of praying at the shrine 
of Fushimi Inari that the deity would grant him skill. 
One night after his devotions, he fell asleep and saw 
in a dream a dragon carved by his illustrious ancestor, 
Goto Yujo. Thenceforth he had before his eyes a 
perfect model of a dragon. His workmanship, how- 
ever, was finer than anything done by Yujo. Jap- 
anese connoisseurs say that it combines the soft style 
of Goto Kwojo with the microscopic minuteness of 
Goto Kenjo, and a story is told that a party of skilled 
experts being challenged to name the maker of a set 
of sword-mounts by Ichijo without seeing the name 
carved on the back, were divided in opinion as to 
whether the work should be ascribed to Kwojo or to 
Kenjo. These details furnish some indication of the 
career of a great Japanese carver, and of the honours 
extended to him. There was, indeed, no limit to 
the appreciation he received. Among the archives 
of Ichijo's family there is a letter addressed to the 
artist by Okubo Toshimitsu, one of the leading states- 
men of the Restoration. It is couched in terms of 
the most profound politeness ; it speaks of Ichijo's 
work as beautiful enough to " move the gods to 
tears ; " it declares that the specimens just completed 
at the writer's request shall be treasured by him and 
his heirs so long as the house of Okubo lasts. The 
incentives that talent found in those days can thus be 
appreciated. Ichijo certainly deserved to be famous. 
He excelled in every kind of chiselling, though most 
of his finest work is in relief; he knew how to pro- 



duce admirable decorative effects by combining metals 
of various colours ; his range of motives was almost 
limitless, and the poetic feeling of some of his de- 
signs gives them a charm quite independent of their 
grand technique. 

The difficulty experienced in attempting to set 
down any record of the metal-workers in the nine- 
teenth century is that quite an embarrassing number 
of artists reached a standard entitling them to notice. 
The greatest do not stand as far above the general 
level as did the masters of preceding epochs, but, on 
the other hand, the general level in the nineteenth 
century was higher than it had ever been before. 
It can be said with confidence, however, that no 
school of experts contributed so much to the treas- 
ures of the time as did the representatives and dis- 
ciples of the Ishiguro family. According to strict 
chronological order, this family should have been 
included in the annals of the eighteenth century, for 
its founder, Masatsune, who also must be called one 
of its greatest representatives, was born in 1757 and 
died in 1828. He is placed here, however, not only 
because much of the finest work of his mature years 
was executed in the nineteenth century, but also 
because all his successors and pupils flourished during 
the latter. The Ishiguro family carried the art to 
an extreme standard of elaboration. No subject was 
too intricate or too difficult for them, and it is proba- 
ble that their works figure largely in foreign collec- 
tions, for technical beauty and richness of general 
effect are qualities which appeal at once to the 
average dilettante. Masatsune had three art names 
yimiyo, Tbgakushi, and yikokusai and during his 
youth he called himself Koretsune. He is thus often 



confounded with his second son, Koretsune, an 
equally great artist, the confusion being augmented 
by the fact that among Koretsune's seven art names 
Togakuski, Ritsumeiy Shinryo, Hogyokusai, Gisbinken, 
Kounken, and Ichiyeian the first was identical with 
one of Masatsune's. No less than forty-two experts 
belonged to the Ishiguro group, and every one of 
them contributed some good specimens to the treas- 
ures of the century. After Masatsune and Koretsune, 
the most renowned were Koreshige (art name, Icbio), 
a pupil of Koretsune ; Koreo (art name, Hakuunshi), 
also a pupil of Koretsune ; Yoshitsune (art names, 
Senyushi, Gammon, and Tominsai), grandson of Masat- 
sune ; Masayoshi (art name, Jikosai), a student of 
Masatsune ; Koreyoshi (art names, Jikakushi and 
Kwansai], son of Masayoshi ; Yoshisato (art name, 
yitekisai}, a pupil of Masayoshi who worked in Hizen; 
Haruaki, who received the highest art title of Hogen ; 
Masahiro (art names, Gantoshi, Keiho, Kivakujusai, and 
Korinsha), a pupil of Masatsune ; Masakiyo (art name, 
yikiyokusai] ; Masaharu and Kiyonari (art name, Giyok- 
kosai). All of these, with the one exception noted in 
its place, worked in Yedo. 

With the Ishiguro experts must be bracketed, in 
point of technical skill, the three families of Omori, 
Hamano, and Iwamoto. The origin of these has 
already been spoken of, and it will be sufficient to 
note here the celebrities that they severally contrib- 
uted to the nineteenth century, namely : 




Hidetomo ; art name, Riuriusai. Yedo. 

Hideyoshi ; art name, Ittokusai. Yedo. 

Hideyori. Hirado (Hizen). 

Hidenori. Hirado. 

Hidetomi. Sendai. 

Hidekiyo. Yedo. 

Kazutomo ; art name, Kenkosai. Yedo. 

Tomochika; art name, Riunsai. Yedo. 

Tomotsune. Yedo. 

Terumoto. Yedo. 


Shunzui, or Haruyori. Yedo. 
Juzui, or Hisayori. Yedo. 
Shuzui, or Hideyori. Yedo. 
Kiuzui, or Hisayori. Yedo. 


Konju. Yedo. 

Kwanri (end of eighteenth and beginning of nineteenth cen- 
tury). Yedo. 

Yeishu, or Yasuchika Shinsuke (end of eighteenth and be- 
ginning of nineteenth century). Celebrated for Katakiri 
chiselling. Mito. 

Riyoyei, or Suzuki Kinyemon. Celebrated for carving fish. 


Shoho, or Buto Gempachi, marked his works Konkwan-mon. 

The productions of the four families, Omori, 
Hamano, Iwamoto and Ishiguro, stand to the master- 



pieces of the early metal-carvers in much the same 
relation as the genre pictures (ukiyo-ye), which had 
their development contemporaneously with the work 
of these families, stand to the paintings of the classical 
school. In reviewing Japanese pictorial art it has 
been shown that the popular school of painters, the 
Ukiyo-ye artists, were a natural outcome of the social 
evolution of their era, and that they reflected the 
nation's passage from the comparatively austere canons 
of a military age to the voluptuous ease and refine- 
ment of the later Tokugawa epochs. Similar evi- 
dence of the changes of the times might be expected 
to present themselves in the field of glyptic art. They 
do present themselves. The formal designs and uni- 
form methods of chiselling a jour practised up to the 
middle of the fifteenth century represent the pure 
Chinese style, or, at any rate, were suggested by the 
classical spirit which then permeated every branch of 
the national civilisation. By and by, when the im- 
mortal painters Kano Masanobu and Kano Motonobu 
raised their art into a new realm of national inspira- 
tion, a corresponding impulse was felt in the domain 
of metal carving, and the Goto masters, shaking 
themselves partially free from classical fetters, began 
to seek decorative motives in the pages of recent his- 
tory or among the natural objects that surrounded 
them. The work of the early Goto experts cannot, 
however, be assigned purely to any one academy. In 
their representations of historical scenes, warriors, and 
animals they followed the Tosa school with almost 
slavish accuracy. In their carvings of flowers, birds, 
and incidents from the daily life of the people, they 
took the Kano artists for models. And in their 
chiselling of dragons, Dogs of Fo, Kylin, phoenixes, 


and supernatural beings, they saw nothing higher than 
Chinese types. They preserved, indeed, a closer 
touch with the Chinese school than with any other, 
for each scion of the family and each student in its 
ateliers commenced his education by learning how to 
carve a dragon, and in every Japanese collection of 
Goto masterpieces the shisbi, the kirin, and the ho-o 
repeat themselves persistently. But even Yujo him- 
self did not recognise any limit to his range of motives, 
and, as has been already seen, he and his descendants 
must undoubtedly be credited with having opened 
a new vista to their art. The Nara school was the 
next link in the chain of evolution. Faithful to the 
fashions of the era in which it had its birth, it made 
a still wider departure from the classical style than the 
Goto experts had attempted, and drew its inspiration 
from the Kano and the Tosa schools only, combining 
the strength, realism, and softness of the former with 
the decorative splendour of the latter. The Yokoya 
masters went a step farther. It is true that they may 
be said to have revived the Chinese spirit, since linear 
force, directness, and vitality became, in their hands, 
paramount elements of glyptic skill. But in that 
respect they stand to their own branch of art as the 
Kano painters stood to theirs ; if they followed the 
technical methods of the Chinese school, they derived 
their motives chiefly from Japanese life and annals. 
Side by side with the Yokoya masters, and in many 
respects closely connected with them, the Yanagawa, 
Kikuoka, Kikuchi, Yoshioka, and Kikugawa families 
produced works which correspond with the pictures 
of the naturalistic school of Kyoto, the Shijo academy, 
which had its greatest representative in Maruyama 
Okio. Then finally came the four families forming 

VOL. VII. 2O 3O5 


the popular school, the Omori, the Hamano, the 
Iwamoto, and the Ishiguro, to whom Goto Ichijo must 
be added as an unsurpassed master of their style. It is 
difficult to convey in words any general idea of the 
luxury of decoration, delicacy of chiselling, poetry of 
motive, and, withal, simplicity of subject exhibited in 
the masterpieces of experts like Omori Teruhide, 
Iwamoto Konkwan, Hamano Noriyuki, Ishiguro 
Masatsune, and many of their disciples and followers, 
as well as their contemporary artists of the naturalistic 
school. Perhaps the best plan is to describe briefly 
a few specimens which may be regarded as fairly 
illustrative. Here, for example, is a kozuka by Ishi- 
guro Koreyoshi. The metal is shibuichi and the ends 
are tipped with gold. It may be noted, en passant, 
that many of the finest kozuka produced in the eigh- 
teenth and nineteenth centuries have their ends and 
backs of gold, though the face is shakudo, shibuichi, 
or even copper. The kozuka in question is made 
throughout of shibuichi, except the gold-shod ends, but 
the back is richly inlaid with gold in the style called 
kiribaku (cut leaf) ; that is to say, tiny squares of 
gold are scattered evenly over the whole field. On 
the face is chiselled, in high relief, a hawk which has 
just lighted among the branches of a blossoming 
plum, and in the distance a sparrow is seen flying 
away. The hawk's grey plumage is excellently sug- 
gested by the patina of the shibuichi, and its feathers 
and crest are etched with a delicate damascening 
of gold. The plum blossoms are softly chiselled 
in silver, and the sparrow's russet colour is well 
rendered by the copper in which it is modelled. 
The reverse has this couplet engraved in cursive 
script : 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

" Gone the old year, 
Gone to his death ; 
Tears for his tomb. 
Yet from his bier 
Stealeth spring's breath 
Of wafted plum." 1 

Here, again, are two kozuka by Goto Ichijo. The 
first is of copper backed with gold. On the face, 
beautifully modelled in medium relief, are two golden 
mummers of the New Year, dancing, instinct with 
life, and above their heads the conventional decora- 
tions of the season hang, incised. On the back these 
lines are engraved : 

" Endless the ages shed on earth 
Their gems of joy. Once more in truth 
The jewel of a year's new birth, 
Flashes the light of laughing youth 
From fount and well. Each quickened tree 
Gives pledge of leafy luxury. 
A myriad signs of gladsome springs 
And years untouched by pain or ruth 
For you, my prince, this sunrise brings." 

The second kozuka is of sbakudo, wrought on both 
faces with fine-grained nanako. The design, chiselled 
in low relief and painted, no other term applies to 
the skill of the manipulation, painted with gold, 
silver, and bronze, is the rustic gate of a country cot- 
tage, overhung by pine-trees, and standing among 
feathery grasses of autumn. The tender restfulness 
of the picture is delightful. On the back are these 
lines : 

1 The plum-blossom is the emblem of spring. 


" One are our hearts, my wife's and mine. 
Beyond the reach of withering years, 
Beyond the sound of falling tears, 
To skies spring sunshine always fills 
The music of our love notes thrills, 
Through the linked branches of the pine." l 

Reference may finally be made to a kozuka and a 
kbgai chiselled by Watanabe Hisamitsu, a prominent 
representative of the popular school. Here the de- 
signs correspond exactly with pictures by Kiyonaga or 
Utamaro. On the copper face of the kozuka, chis- 
elled in relief, is the celebrated " lady of the green 
hall," Takao. She is magnificently apparelled, and 
gold, shakudo y silver, and shibuichi are used with the 
most refined skill to indicate the rich brocades and 
crepes that she wears. On the Kbgai the same cour- 
tesan is shown in gentle dalliance with the ascetic 
Daruma. The backs of the kozuka and Kbgai alike 
are of shibuichi, carrying the following inscriptions : 

Buddha sells doctrine. The expounder sells Buddha. The 
priest sells the expounder. You sell your five feet of 
body to nurture the lusts of humanity. Green is the 
willow ; crimson the flower ; many-coloured the ways of 
the world." 

" A thousand nights, a thousand eves, 
The soft moon sails the lake above ; 
No trace of her caresses leaves, 
In the cold depths no ray of love." 

In this century the Hirata family spoken of 
already as the first to employ verifiable enamels in 
the decoration of sword-mounts had its greatest 
master in the person of Harunari. One of his pupils, 

1 The pine-tree is one of the emblems of longevity. 

S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

Uchino Harutoshi (art name, Ichigenshi), was scarcely 
less celebrated, and four others helped, in a lesser 
degree, to perpetuate his fame. Later in the century 
Yedo produced an artist of the very highest skill, 
Kano Natsuo. He worked from 1850 to 1895, 
and certainly deserves to be called one of the most 
admirable chisellers of incised designs that Japan 
has known in any era. Natsuo learned the art, from 
Aoka Harutsura, of Ky5to, himself a skilled ex- 
pert ; and Harutsura's teacher, Kajutsura, deserves to 
be mentioned as an exceptionally successful chiseller 
of insects. Natsuo's early works were chiefly chiselled 
in medium relief. His range of subjects was wide. 
He could represent a group of autumn flowers, a spray 
of plum, or a tiny insect as skilfully as a mythological 
figure or a historical scene. After fame and pros- 
perity had come to him, he ceased to carve in relief, 
and confined himself to incised and kata-kiri chisel- 
ling, with results of which it would be difficult to 
write in too laudatory a strain. He did not easily 
accept an order or make any effort to produce largely. 
Genuine specimens of his work are therefore rare, 
and when one comes into the market, it is purchased 
by Japanese connoisseurs at a great price. Contem- 
porary with Natsuo in the latter's early years was 
Honjo Yoshitane, of Yedo. He not only chiselled 
the mounts of swords but also forged their blades, and 
he is placed by his countrymen in the very foremost 
rank of artists. Yamagawa Koji, of Kanazawa (in 
Kaga), was another of the most prominent figures in 
the nineteenth century. He worked from 1830 to 
1877, cmen *y m tne kebori and kata-kiri styles, and in 
his later years he received the name of " Kanazawa 
Somin " in recognition of his great abilities. 



The Mito school was very active in the first half 
of the century. Several well-known experts were 
connected with it as Kwaizantei (Motomichi) and 
his numerous pupils ; Ontaiken (Motochska) ; Chooken 
(Motonari) ; Tosuiken (Sadahisa), and others. The 
workshops in Aizu also turned out many specimens, 
but what has already been said of Mito and Aizu 
work in earlier times applies to the productions of the 
nineteenth century also : it was decorative rather than 
artistic. Many other names might be set down ; 
notably those of Yoshioka Tadatsugu, of Yedo, whose 
pupils constituted a large and brilliant group ; Tanaka 
Kiyohisa, of Yedo ; Okano Kijiro, of Yedo, widely 
known under his art name of Toriusai, whose repro- 
ductions of some of the choicest old masterpieces are 
probably treasured by many Occidental collectors as 
originals; Kawarabayashi Hidekuni (i 860), of Kyoto ; 
and Oda Noaki (1830), of Satsuma, a splendid chis- 
eller of decoration a jour. But the task of discrimina- 
tion becomes exceedingly difficult in the nineteenth 
century, for although the general level of expert skill 
was higher than it had been in any previous era, few 
artists can be said to have attained conspicuous pre- 
eminence. An immense number of fine specimens 
were produced during the first seventy-five years of 
the century, and it is probable that if a careful exam- 
ination were made of the best collections of Japanese 
sword-mounts in Europe and America, a great major- 
ity of the examples they comprise would be found to 
date from the epoch 1/70 to 1780. 

Special mention must be made of a group of five 
artists Shuraku, Temmin, Riumin, Minjo, and Min- 
koku who, in 1864, formed a guild (called go-nin- 
gumi) for the purpose of producing objects beyond the 


S W O R D-F U R N I T U R E 

strength of other experts. Their style was chiefly 
kata-kiri y and in addition to sword-furniture they 
turned out a quantity of kana-mono, that is to say, 
minor metal work of all descriptions. These men 
were all of the highest force. 

Chapter IX 


NO special reference has hitherto been made to 
a class of experts who performed prepara- 
tory work for glyptic artists. These were 
called uchi-mono-sbiy or hammerers. Some- 
times their names were cut upon a specimen side by 
side with those of the chisellers, but, as a rule, their 
work, being of a subordinate character, received no 
such recognition. Nevertheless their skill was often 
remarkable. Using the hammer only, some of them 
justly claimed ability to beat out an intricate shape as 
truly and delicately as a sculptor could carve it with 
his chisels. Ohori Masatoshi, an uchi-mono-shi of 
Aizu (D. 1897), made a silver cake-box in the form 
of a sixteen-petalled chrysanthemum. The shapes of 
the body and of the lid corresponded so intimately 
that whereas the lip could be slipped on easily and 
smoothly, without any attempt to adjust its curves to 
those of the body, it always fitted so closely that the 
box could be lifted by grasping the lid only. Another 
feat of his was to apply a lining of silver to a shakudo 
box by shaping and hammering only, the fit being so 
perfect that the lining clung like paper to every part 
of the box. Among the uchi-mono-shi now living, 
there is none that Japanese connoisseurs recognise 
as fully the peer of Masatoshi, but it must be con- 
fessed that the work of such men as Suzuki Gensuke 
and Hirata Soko does not seem capable of being sur- 



passed. Hirata S5ko recently exhibited in Tokyo a 
silver game-cock with soft plumage and surface-mod- 
elling of the most delicate character. It had been 
made by means of the hammer only. 

Suzuki Gensuke's name is associated with a tour-de- 
force which not only shows high skill but also gives 
very beautiful results. It is a process called kiri-bame 
(insertion). The decorative design, having been com- 
pletely chiselled in the round, is then fixed in a field of 
different metal in which a design of exactly similar out- 
line has been cut out en bloc. The result is that the 
picture has no blank reverse. For example, on the sur- 
face of a shibu-ichi box-lid are seen the backs of a flock 
of geese chiselled in silver, shakudo, and gold, and when 
the lid is opened, their breasts and the under-sides of 
their pinions appear. The difficulty of such work 
can be easily appreciated. It is necessary that micro- 
scope accuracy should be attained in cutting out the 
space for inserting the design, and further that the 
design should be soldered firmly in its place, while 
not the slightest trace of the solder, or the least sign 
of junction, must be discernible between the metal of 
the inserted picture and that of the field in which it is 
suspended. Suzuki Gensuke is not the only expert 
who works in this style, but to him it owes its 

In order to avoid confusion of nomenclature it will 
be well to refer here to another kind of work 
called kiri-kame-zogan (inserted inlaying). Of this 
the originator was Toyoda Koko. The gist of the 
process is that a design chiselled a jour has its outlines 
veneered with some other metal which serves to 
emphasise them. Thus, having pierced a spray of 
flowers in a thin sheet of shibuichi, the artist fits a 


slender rim of gold, silver, or shakudo into the petals, 
leaves, and stalks. The rim has to be fitted exactly so 
that it shall seem to be a natural growth, not an 
artificial addition. The effect produced is that of 
transparent blossoms tipped with gold, silver, or dark- 
purple shakudo. Another achievement of Suzuki 
Gensuke is designated maze-gane t or " mixed metals." 
It is a singular conception, and the results obtained 
depend largely on chance. Shibuichi and shakudo are 
melted separately, and when they have cooled just 
enough not to mingle too intimately, they are cast 
into a bar (called namako) which is subsequently 
beaten flat. The plate thus obtained shows acci- 
dental effects of clouding, or massing of dark tones, and 
these patches are taken as the basis of a pictorial 
design to which final character is given by inlaying 
with gold and silver. Such pictures partake largely 
of an impressionist character, but they attain much 
beauty in the hands of the Japanese artist with his 
large repertoire of suggestive symbols. 

Yet another device practised by Suzuki Gensuke is 
to mix two kinds of shibuichi, and having beaten them 
together, to add a third variety, after which the 
picture is completed by putting in rocks, trees, birds, 
etc., by the kata-kiri process. This method did not 
originate with Suzuki. It was employed by eigh- 
teenth-century experts, who gave to it the name of 
shibuichi-doshi. But Suzuki has carried it to a point 
of unprecedented excellence. The charm of the 
shibuichi-doshi and of the maze-gane processes is that 
certain parts of the decorative design seem to float, 
not on the surface of the metal, but actually within it, 
an admirable effect of depth and atmosphere being 
thus produced. 



In describing the various processes of decorative 
metal-work for sword furniture, reference was made 
to sumi-zogan or so-called " sepia-inlaying " 
which differs from ordinary inlaying in the fact that 
the decorative design, instead of being produced 
chiefly by means of gold or silver outlines, is first 
chiselled in complete form and afterwards bedded in 
the basic metal, its surface being finally ground down 
and polished, so as to produce not only perfect in- 
timacy between the metals, but also an effect of high 
lights. The Japanese understood the value of lights 
in sculpture of all kinds. Even in deeply incised 
work like kafa-klri, one of their methods was to use 
a specially sharp chisel in certain parts of the design 
so as to convey the effect of polishing. The " sepia- 
inlaying " is a marked example of this theory, a 
peculiar glossiness being obtained by the high light 
of the polished surface, just as the ancient Greeks and 
Romans used to give to the nude parts of a statue a 
considerable degree of polish. The most remark- 
able development of the process is seen in the togi- 
dashi-zogan (ground-out inlaying) invented by Kajima 
Ippu. In this exquisite and ingenious kind of work, 
the design appears to be growing up from the 
depths of the metal, and effects are produced which 
render it scarcely possible to believe that the picture 
has not been painted with the brush on some pe- 
culiarly receptive surface. As to the technique of 
togi-dashi-zogan, the metal generally shibuichi 
is first treated as though for nunome damascening, the 
principal and secondary designs being carefully out- 
lined. It is then passed through the furnace until it 
assumes a coppery hue, after which the design is 
overlaid with a thin film of ao-gin (specially prepared 


gold), which bites into the nunome, and then with a 
wafer-like layer of silver. Next another equally 
slight coat of silver is beaten over the whole surface, 
the result being that the design shows out with a faint 
golden hue in a silver field, the detail, however, not 
being discernible, and the picture looking as though 
the artist had roughly dashed in a rudimentary design 
with light-gold pigment. The next step is to ham- 
mer or punch the details of the design so as to em- 
phasise them, and finally the expert proceeds to 
polish the surface with strips of toisbi (honing stone) 
bound together into a brush. The use of this pe- 
culiar instrument is tedious and demands delicate 
manipulation. Thus the various layers of metal are 
gradually ground down until the design emerges 
showing tints of all the metals employed shibuichi y 
gold and silver. The shibuichi outlines assume the 
appearance of sepia drawing, and the general effect 
is that of a sepia picture in a silver field with a flush 
of gold looking out here and there. An impression 
of atmosphere and of water is obtained by this pro- 
cess with remarkable realism. Fishes appear to be 
swimming in silver water, some in the foreground, 
some in the background, and some in the middle- 
distance, and so perfect is the illusion that the body 
of a fish is sometimes seen partially emerging, par- 
tially disappearing, in the silvery fluid ; flowers and 
sprays appear glowing in sunlight ; birds beat the 
air with their wings, and landscapes lie bathed in soft 
hazes. The process not only entails great labour, but 
also demands an exercise of skill which does not ap- 
pear to be within reach of any of the artists of the 
present day except Kajima Ippu. 

Any account of metal-work in Japan must include 



the uses to which pewter was put. Japanese pewter 
resembled that of England, being composed of eighty 
parts of tin to twenty of lead, without any antimony, 
zinc, nickel, arsenic, or cobalt. In China this alloy 
seems to have been employed from time immemorial, 
and although the first authentic reference to pewter 
in Japan does not take the student back farther than 
the second half of the eighth century A. D., the fact 
then recorded is not the introduction of the metal, 
but the substitution of Japanese tin for Chinese in 
its composition. The earliest purposes to which it 
was applied were to inlay lacquer in combination 
with mother-of-pearl and to make rims for lacquer 
boxes. By and by it began to be employed for mak- 
ing vessels especially those used at marriage cere- 
monies and it was then sometimes inlaid with 
gold, silver, brass, or even bronze. Many pewter tea- 
canisters are found, as well as vase-shaped wine bottles 
for placing before Shinto shrines. These tea-jars were 
frequently of very beautiful form and had cleverly 
executed decorative designs incised or pierced. The 
most interesting feature, however, of Japanese pewter 
is its patina. It has been shown that " when an alloy 
is in the act of cooling, several definite alloys, in 
which the molecules of the metal are differently 
grouped from those of the mass, fall out at definite 
temperature, so that the solidified metal does not con- 
sist really of one alloy, but is a mixture of several, 
more or less regularly diffused throughout its mass." 
This property is especially marked in the case of 
pewter. The Japanese had no thermo-electric pyro- 
meter to enable them to discover it, but they detected 
it by observation sufficiently to take practical advan- 
tage of it. Thus their pewter jars have a very fine 



surface consisting of dark grey patina over which 
darker patches are scattered, forming a clouded 
pattern. Some of these utensils are very valuable, 
more so even than the same weight of silver, espe- 
cially when the mottlingis uniform and well developed. 
The vessel is never polished, but only rubbed from 
time to time with cotton or silk cloth, the result 
being that the surface gradually becomes coated with 
a fine grey patina of two tints, the lighter forming 
the ground. The action of the air and the gentle 
rubbing make visible one or more of the alloys which 
have fallen out in cooling. 1 

Reference must also be made to a recently intro- 
duced alloy consisting of eighty-five parts of lead and 
fifteen of antimony. The compound is largely used 
to manufacture cheap and gaudy utensils, such as 
flower-vases, cigar-trays, tobacco-ash-holders, etc., 
which are loaded with decorative designs in the re- 
pousse style, gilded in parts or otherwise coloured. 
This " antimony ware " is cast in brass moulds. Its 
effect is not unpleasing, but it can scarcely be classed 
among art-products. The inventor (1885) was Su- 
zuki Kichigoro. 

The Japanese artist, or artisan, may be generally 
described as modest, unassuming, and unavaricious. 
The gain that his works bring is the last thing he con- 
siders. Affluence comes to him rarely, but to gird at 
the companionship of poverty would be to proclaim 
himself not an artist but a tradesman. 2 The records 
of all these men and the traditions relating to them 
indicate the prevalence of a rooted belief that to be 
great in art a lofty and benevolent disposition is 
essential. Kaigyokusai's habit of giving away all his 

1 See Appendix, note 48. 2 See Appendix, note 49. 


money in charity was regarded as an indication of 
his artistic sense, and it is confidently believed that 
Yasumoto Kamekichi's carving is inferior to that of 
Matsumoto Kisaburo because the latter was profusely 
generous whereas the former has none of the milk of 
human kindness. The Japanese artist is content to 
work amid the humblest surroundings and to live in 
the most frugal manner. He attaches no special 
value to the products of his skill, regarding them 
merely as studies preparatory to better efforts. Many 
art-artisans rose to fame from the lowliest positions. 
Teijo was originally a barber ; Kuribara Keishi kept 
a bean-curd booth ; Okazaki Sessei served as a com- 
mon menial in his youth. Innumerable instances of 
that kind might be quoted, but there is not any exam- 
ple of an artist who was ashamed of his insignificant 
beginnings. Shame seems to have been confined to 
association with inferior work. Hojutsu, the cele- 
brated ivory-carver, destroyed many works on the eve 
of completion, and it was Zengoro Hozen's habit to 
bake three examples of every fine piece of pottery or 
porcelain, keeping only the best of the three and 
breaking the other two. 

With regard to the training of the art-artisan, it 
was generally obtained by apprenticeship in the atelier 
of some master. Naturally there were cases of men 
who began to work without any instruction. Matsu- 
moto Kisaburo commenced his career by making a 
statue of an idiot woman whom he saw begging in 
the streets of Kumamoto ; Ikko was counted an im- 
becile up to the age of nineteen, but subsequently 
became a famous carver without studying under any 
master ; Ogino Shomin, Tomochika, Hojutsu, all 
were denied the advantage of a teacher, and Itao 



Shinjiro had not received any training when he exe- 
cuted his first work, a model of a foreign steamer 
which he saw coming into port. The general rule, 
however, was a long apprenticeship. The sculptor 
of wood commenced his course in the atelier by chis- 
elling a decorative pattern of formal type, in order 
that he might acquire skill in spacing. He then 
passed to the carving of floral scrolls, especially the 
leaves of the asa (hemp-plant). The next stage was 
to shape a Daikoku deity of affluence and then an 
Tebisu (deity of fortune). These figures were in the 
form known as deki-ai-butsu (ready-made Buddha) : 
the hands and arms were not shown and the drapery 
was roughly blocked out. Thereafter the student passed 
to the chiu-butsu (middle-class Buddha), showing the 
hands and arms ; and finally he arrived at the jobutsu 
(first-class Buddha), complete in every detail. This 
course occupied from seven to ten years, and the 
student was now regarded as ichinin-maye, or an adult 
artisan. Under no circumstances was he allowed to 
use rule or compass : everything had to be done by 
eye. The modeller in wax for purposes of bronze- 
casting, equally with the sculptor of metal or wood, 
had no guide except a sketch drawn by himself or 
furnished by some pictorial artist. There was no 
question of pins to map out the surface, or of a 
pointer to transfer contours. Further, it was always a 
supreme test of the artist's skill that he should be able 
to achieve the desired result with a minimum of labour. 
Thus the ivory-carver Tomochika received applause 
for his ability to block out a statue by means of a hatchet 
only, 1 finishing it orF with the knife (ogatana); whereas 
lesser experts used the kogatana from the first. 

1 See Appendix, note 50. 



(See page 155.) 

1. Old man drawing the first water of the New Year. 

2. Farmer. By Udagawa Kazuo. 


In a great majority of cases the Japanese art-artisan 
deemed it essential that he should go through a 
course of pictorial training in the studio of some 
famous artist ; that he should study the composition 
of poems, and that he should be versed in the cult of 
the tea-clubs as well as in the science of flower- 
arranging and incense-judging. The possession of 
these accomplishments did not, however, interfere 
with his discharge of the rougher duties of his craft. 
It will often be found that a man working daily as a 
common carpenter or joiner can not only design and 
execute, but also sketch with accuracy and grace, an 
elaborate decorative composition. 

As to the source from which the Japanese sculptor 
obtained designs, it is probably correct to say that, as 
a general rule, he relied on the pictorial artist. This 
statement does not apply, of course, to all the great 
masters of early, mediaeval or modern times. It is 
recorded that Takahashi Kinai fell into disgrace 
because he sold a hen supplied as a model by the 
feudal chief of Echizen ; that the same artist refused 
to chisel a centipede on a sword-guard because he had 
already committed the sin of killing dozens of these 
insects for the purposes of a previous carving ; that 
Kogitsune sat for ten days and nights in the open air 
at Mukuni in order to see a dragon in a whirlwind; 
that Natsuo placed a peony in his garden as a study 
but found no inclination to chisel a copy of the 
flower until he chanced to see it, one day, tossed by 
the wind. These and many other instances showed 
that renowned experts often went direct to nature for 
models. On the other hand it is recorded with at 
least equal frequency that recourse was had to con- 
temporary painters even by the greatest masters, and 

VOL. VII. - 21 


the conclusion is that the average sculptor, especially 
in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, seldom 
looked beyond the pages of some album of designs 
drawn by pictorial celebrities. 

It is the more necessary to insist upon the high 
moral character of the Japanese artist or art-artisan 
because Americans and Europeans seldom have an 
opportunity of judging him by direct intercourse. 
There is always a middle-man whose cupidity reacts 
upon the artist's reputation. Nor can it be denied 
that his relations with the modern middle-man as 
well as the greatly changed nature of the clients 
whose tastes he has to consult have more or less im- 
paired the art-artisan's morals. In former times, the 
sculptor of sword-furniture, for example, had direct 
contact with the great nobles, statesmen, and soldiers 
of his time. He received art-titles venerated since 
the earliest epochs ; he was munificently rewarded 
by official recognition if he made any signal success ; 
his fame was not merely his own but belonged also 
to the fief claiming his allegiance ; a liberal pension 
placed him beyond the chill of poverty and enabled 
him to devote the labour of love to his work. All 
these conditions underwent a radical alteration after 
the fall of feudalism. The numerous principalities 
which had supported their own artists and vied with 
one another to attract and retain the best skill in each 
era, ceased to exist. The patrician class, munificent 
and appreciative patrons of art in all ages, stepped 
down from their commanding positions to make way 
for the merchant and the manufacturer. The repre- 
sentatives of the feudal nobility ceased to maintain 
throughout the empire splendid dwellings palaces 
they might be called for whose interior adornment 



the services of the artists had always been in keen 
request. The sword and all its trappings, the suit of 
armour and its elaborate decoration, which during 
long centuries had offered an unlimited field for the 
exercise of glyptic skill, were discarded permanently. 
The temple and the mausoleum no longer demanded 
the services of sculptors, metal-workers, lacquerers, 
architects, and painters. To keep in even partial 
repair a few of these magnificent structures seemed to 
overtax the liberality of a generation whose fore- 
fathers had bequeathed to them such noble monu- 
ments of art and refinement. Virtually the only 
clients that offered themselves under the new regimen 
were foreigners, to whom Japanese art was an un- 
known land ; whose standards of excellence were 
greatly at variance with Japanese standards ; who in 
most cases approached every Oriental production with 
a strong pre-disposition to hold it in light esteem, 
and to insist that wherever its features differed from 
their own tastes, the fault lay with the features, and 
who generally regarded the whole question from a 
mercantile point of view, preferring to dispense with 
really fine artistic qualities rather than to obtain them 
at the risk of trafficking in costly articles. It will be 
understood that these remarks apply mainly to 
foreign communities who settle in Japan for com- 
mercial purposes, and only in a limited degree to 
connoisseurs in Europe and America. The former 
certainly helped to find a market for a certain class 
of Japanese art-products in the years immediately 
subsequent to the fall of the old system. But for 
a long time it was a market which exercised a most 
vitiating influence on those that catered for it. The 
foreign exporter worked through the Japanese middle- 



man, and by the latter, generally an ill-educated, 
vulgar person, artists and art-artisans were taught to 
interpret in undeservedly low terms the requirements 
of the foreign trader and, vicariously, the tendencies 
of foreign taste. They were taught something else 
also. It became their business to devote the resources 
of their skill not merely to imitating, but also to 
forging, the works of the old masters. Imitation is 
fair enough so long as it is frank ; but when its pur- 
pose is to pass off a counterfeit for a genuine object, 
the artist himself suffers more than the purchaser. 
The latter acquires at any rate a specimen of fine 
workmanship, but the former learns to think that 
successful simulation is the highest aim of his art, that 
it is hopeless to win fame by his own unequivocal 
efforts, and that, even though conscious of being able 
to surpass the masters whose productions he is required 
to imitate, he must subserve his talents to the demands 
of an avaricious middle-man and an undiscerning pub- 
lic. The science of forgery in Japan was not invented 
in modern times. The reader has seen that among 
the noted experts of former eras, some are remem- 
bered for their skill in re-producing old masterpieces. 
Craft of that kind will always be practised so long as 
humanity is human. But in no pre-Meiji period did 
there exist an organised conspiracy to deceive the 
public ; its discovery would have been inevitable. 
The element needed to make such a thing possible 
was a foreign market. The foreign buyer is an ideal 
victim. He has no direct access to the artist and 
cannot form any accurate conception of the latter's 
capacities or make any scrutiny into the methods he 
is pursuing. The statements of the middle-man are 
his gospel statements transmitted through an inter- 


preter who himself takes an interested hand in the 
game. Add to this that the average foreign tourist 
carries with him to Japan, and the average foreign 
resident retains throughout his sojourn there, a secret 
conviction that art-treasures are lying around waiting 
to be picked up by any really astute gleaner, and that 
the gathering must be done privately lest others enter 
the field. The situation is perfectly gauged and adroitly 
exploited by the Japanese middle-man. He knows 
well that the pride of acquisition influences many 
collectors more than the merit of a specimen, and 
that nine bric-a-brac hunters out of every ten are ready 
to be persuaded that fortune treats them with special 
favour, and that for them alone gems of applied art 
have been waiting swathed in brocade and laid by in 
the recesses of a dealer's strong room. Some of the 
best experts are in the exclusive employment of 
a middle-man. They obey their employer reluctantly 
but faithfully, and at his request devote their abilities 
to forging " old masterpieces " with which he de- 
lights credulous collectors. It does not follow that 
the collector is seriously victimised. The specimens 
he acquires are almost if not quite as good from an 
artistic or a technical point of view as the originals 
they simulate, and though more costly than frankly 
modern objects, they are cheaper than genuine old 
ones. The artist is the chief sufferer, since he is 
obliged to efface himself for the sake of a fraud, and 
the art since its progress is checked for the sake of 
dishonest gain. Fortunately this evil state of affairs 
is disappearing. A new class of middle-men have 
appeared who eschew deception and rely upon clients 
that patronise good work without regard to its 



There are objects generally excluded by their na- 
ture from the catalogue of art productions, but never- 
theless often showing in Japan many fine features of 
decorative sculpture. These are nail-hiders 1 (kagi- 
kakushi^ screen-mounts, door-pulls, drawer-handles, 
and wardrobe hinges. When the Taiko built the 
Palace of Pleasure at Fushimi and the Castle of 
Osaka, the celebrated dilettante Kobori Masakazu 
undertook to make designs for these objects, and 
Kacho, an expert worker in metals, reproduced the 
drawings in silver, gold, bronze, iron, shakudo and 
shibuichi. Considering the great skill that had al- 
ready been attained by sculptors of sword-furniture, 
it is not wonderful that a metal-worker at the close 
of the sixteenth century should have been able to 
chisel nail-hiders in the form of daffodils with leaves 
of silver and blossoms of gold, or door-pulls in the 
shape of Crustacea, cherry-petals, junk-rudders, and 
such things. But Kacho's productions, judged by 
specimens preserved in the Kyoto Detached Palace, 
were of a type that has seldom been surpassed by any 
of the innumerable sculptors subsequently employed 
in the decoration of Japanese interiors. He was fol- 
lowed by a long line of skilled metal-workers down 
to the present day, but their productions do not lend 
themselves to any special analysis. Kacho is the first 
artist whose name has been transmitted to posterity 
in connection with work of this class, but there are 
relics which show that the skill of the metal-chiseller 
was employed for the architectural decoration of 
interiors as early as the beginning of the twelfth 
century. Notable examples are the gilt-bronze or- 
naments of the ventilating panels at the temple 

1 Sec Appendix, note 51. 



Chiuson-ji (founded in 1109). In the centre are 
plaques with repousse designs of phoenixes and angels, 
and the borders have floral diapers, vajras, and bells 
sculptured a jour. From such work to the use of 
wood-carving for interior decoration, as seen in 
temples and mausolea from the close of the six- 
teenth century, the transition is easily conceived. 


The term " enamel decoration " is here used to 
indicate a design expressed by means of vitrified 
pastes of various colours applied to a base usually of 
metal but sometimes of wood or porcelain. Oxide 
of lead and silica, mixed in the ratio of 35 to 50, ap- 
proximately, with small quantities of lime and soda 
and a very small admixture of magnesia, form the 
paste, and colour is obtained by adding oxide of 
copper, iron, cobalt, gold, tin, silver, antimony, or 
some other substance. The paste thus produced is 
of two kinds, translucid or opaque, and is applied to 
the base in one of two ways, namely, by channelling 
the parts of the design into which the paste is to be 
inserted, or by framing them with thin ribbons of 
metal. The former kind i.e. where the spaces to 
receive the enamel paste are recessed is called cham- 
p/eve ; the latter is known as cloisonne. For these 
terms the best English equivalents are, perhaps, " en- 
causted " and " applied," respectively, but since the 
French words are much more explicit and expressive, 
they will be used here. Doubtless the champleve pro- 
cess preceded the cloisonne, but in Japan, as in 
Europe, there is no certainty on that point. 

32? ' 


Neither is it possible to determine with any accu- 
racy the time when the art of enamel decoration 
began to be practised in Japan. Among the relics 
of the Nara Court preserved in the Shosb-in there is 
a mirror having on its back a floral design executed 
in cloisonne enamel. The inclusion of this mirror in 
the Sbbso-in treasures shows that it dates from a 
period certainly not later than the eighth century, 
but connoisseurs are not agreed in regarding it as 
Japanese workmanship. The cloisons, or metal rib- 
bons framing the limbs of the designs, are of gold; 
the colours of the enamels are blue, yellow, green, 
and brown, and the edges of the cloisons project 
above the paste, indicating that the surface of the 
work was not ground down, or polished, after firing. 

A few words have to be inserted here about the 
technique of enamel decoration. The object to be 
decorated having been fashioned in thin copper 
sometimes in gold or silver is handed to the 
enameller, or to a draughtsman, who traces on it 
with Indian-ink a facsimile of the design to be exe- 
cuted. The next step is to make the cloisons and 
fix them in position. This is one of the most deli- 
cate parts of the work. A narrow ribbon of copper 
or gold is cut into sections of various lengths, and 
these having been curved into the required form, are 
soldered to the surface of the object so that the de- 
sign is ultimately outlined by a thin wall, following 
every line exactly and enclosing the space to be deco- 
rated. The various enamel pastes are then packed 
into the parts within this wall, and the vessel, having 
been placed in the oven, is subjected to heat sufficient 
to vitrify the pastes without affecting the metals form- 
ing the base and the cloisons. It will of course be 



understood that when the base is of wood, the enamel 
design, separately manufactured, is inserted, when 
complete, in the wood. The melting process re- 
duces the volume of the enamel paste, so that, when 
the vessel emerges from the oven after the firing, 
the spaces within the cloisons are found to be only 
partially filled. An additional quantity of paste has 
to be inserted, and once more the object is placed in 
the oven. This process has sometimes to be repeated 
several times before the cloisonned spaces are suf- 
ficiently full. Moreover, since all the pastes do not 
fuse at the same temperature, there is here another 
reason for independent firings, and risks are thus in- 
troduced which sometimes prove fatal after an object 
has been almost completed. Finally, the vitrified 
pastes having completely filled the cloisonned spaces, 
the whole surface is ground and polished with great 
care until it becomes perfectly even and shows a soft 
lustre. Thus finished, the enamel is known in Japan as 
kazari-jippb (ornamental enamel). The grinding and 
polishing process is often dispensed with, especially 
when translucid pastes are employed. Enamel deco- 
ration of the latter class is called nagashi-jippo (poured 

The term shippo (jippo in composition) literally 
signifies " seven precious things/' It was used origi- 
nally to designate gold, silver, and various jewels 
about the names of which there is some uncertainty. 
In China the use of jewels to decorate vessels of 
gold, silver, or bronze was practised at a remote epoch, 
and to such objects the designation shippo was applied. 
There can be little doubt that verifiable pastes were 
soon employed as a substitute for jewels in this kind 
of decoration, and that cbampleve enamelling thus 



came into vogue, the cloisonne method being a subse- 
quent modification. Unfortunately no distinctive term 
was devised for the paste jewels. They also received 
the name shippo, and a source of error was thus 
introduced, later generations having no means of 
discriminating whether a vessel described as being of 
s hippo had decoration of the " seven precious things " 
or of vitrified enamels. 

The mirror referred to above as forming part of 
the Shoso-in collection dating from the eighth century * 
has decoration in nagashi-jippo, namely, the unpolished 
style, and is of comparatively crude manufacture. It 
is the earliest known specimen of cloisonne enamel 
preserved in Japan, but there can be little doubt that 
vitrified pastes had been previously employed in the 
same manner. Among the contents of the dolmens, 
which certainly do not belong to a period more 
recent than the fourth or fifth century of the Chris- 
tian era, great quantities of coloured glass beads are 
found, and it is thus evident that long before the 
Shoso-in collection was formed, the Japanese under- 
stood the manufacture of vitrifiable paste. But there 
are apparently no means of determining the exact date 
when chample've or cloisonne enamel had its origin in 

One thing, however, is certain ; namely, that until 
the nineteenth century enamels were employed by 
the Japanese decorators for accessory purposes only. 
No such things were manufactured as vases, plaques, 
censers, or bowls having their surface covered with 
enamels applied either in the champleve or the cloisonne 
style. In other words, none of the objects to which 
European and American collectors give the term 

1 See Appendix, note 52. 



" enamels " was produced by a Japanese artist prior 
to the year 1838. It is necessary to insist upon this 
fact because one of the most notable exponents of 
Japanese art, the late Mr. J. L. Bowes, who alone 
has hitherto undertaken to discuss Japanese enamels 
at any length, fell into the serious error of imagining 
that numerous enamelled vessels which began to be 
exported to Europe from the year 1865, were the 
outcome of industry commencing in the sixteenth 
century and reaching its point of culmination at the 
beginning of the eighteenth. In his work " Japan- 
ese Decorative Art," Mr. Bowes divided these objects 
into three classes, " early, middle-period, and modern," 
and he subsequently supported his views in an elabo- 
rately reasoned thesis called " Notes on S hippo." 
There is not the slenderest ground for such a theory. 1 
It certainly seems somewhat strange that whereas 
vases and censers of cloisonne enamel manufactured in 
China came to Japan during the latter part of the 
Ming era and throughout the whole of the Tsing 
in other words, from the sixteenth century to the 
nineteenth similar works were not executed by the 
Japanese. The explanation is that these specimens 
did not appeal strongly to Japanese taste : they never 
won the approval of the tea-clubs, which was essen- 
tial to the recognition of any object as an art treasure. 
For such purposes as the decoration of kugi-kakushi 
(metal ornaments used to conceal the heads of nails 
in the interiors of houses), beads (ojime} and clasps 
(kagami-buta or kana-mono) for pouches, recessed han- 
dles of sliding-doors, or metal plates and caps on wood- 
work, vitrifiable pastes, whether translucid or opaque, 
seemed suitable. The artists employed by the Taiko 

1 See Appendix, note 53. 



to decorate the interior of the " Palace of Pleasure" 
at Fushimi, and those engaged upon the mausolea 
of the Tokugawa, used enamels very effectively 
in subordinate positions. It has been suggested that 
the work of this kind was entrusted by the Taiko 
to Korean experts, and there is no doubt that the 
process of cloisonne enamelling was well understood by 
the Koreans in the sixteenth century, if not earlier. 
They used twisted wire to form the cloisons, in which 
respect their technique ranked below that of the 
Japanese ; but they obtained finer colours, their pur- 
ple especially being remarkable for purity and richness. 
Considering how large a debt Japanese applied art 
owed to Korean assistance at the close of the sixteenth 
century, and considering that, with the exception of 
the mirror of Shomu, mentioned above, there is 
scarcely any evidence pointing to the use of cloisonne 
enamels for decorative purposes in Japan prior to that 
epoch, 1 it would certainly be rash to dismiss the 
theory of Korean instruction. Another suggestive 
fact is that the employment of enamels in the decora- 
tion of sword-furniture began at the same time. Its 
originator was Hirata Hikoshiro (art name Ddniri), 
and the representatives of his family, down to modern 
times, continued to use enamel in that way, their 
productions finding considerable favour. Indeed, the 
name " Hirata " became so intimately associated with 
work of this nature that in later times an erroneous 
theory found credence to the effect that Donin was 
the inventor of cloisonne enamel in Japan. The only 
credit justly belonging to the Hirata artists was that 
they applied enamels to sword-furniture, and that 
they alone could produce a white paste successfully. 

1 Sec Appendix, note 54. 



White enamel has always been the most difficult of 
all the pastes to obtain perfectly pure, and purple 
stands next on the list. Ability to produce a fine, 
speckless white constituted the only specialty of the 
Hirata family, and because they jealously guarded the 
secret of the process, tradition magnified their share 
in employing enamels generally. It is undeniable, 
however, that they showed great skill in decorating 
sword-furniture with vitrified pastes. They never 
covered the surface of a sword-guard or a dagger-haft 
with such ornamentation, but merely used the enam- 
els to fill in floral designs, arabesques, scrolls, or 
mosaics enclosed in small medallions. Generally the 
pastes were polished (kazari-jippo} but occasionally 
they were of the nagashi-jippo style. Nor were they 
always fired in situ. A not uncommon method 
(called ji-ita-jippo) was to complete the enamel design 
independently and then embed it in the metal field. 
By recourse to the latter device enamels could be 
used for decorating lacquered objects having a wooden 
base, and they were so used from the middle of the 
eighteenth century, especially in the ornamentation 
of inro (medicine-boxes suspended from the girdle). 
It may be added that the vitrified pastes of the Hirata 
family, and of other artists who freely imitated their 
work and even used their signatures were some- 
times opaque (doro-jippo) and sometimes translucid 

Kaji Tsunekichi, a samurai of Owari fief, was the 
first Japanese to manufacture cloisonne enamels of the 
kind known in the Occident by this name ; that is to 
say, plates, vases, and censers having the surface en- 
tirely covered with vitrified pastes disposed in designs 
by means of cloisons. Like many other samurai Kaji, 



finding his official income insufficient for the wants 
of his family, sought to supplement it by pursuing 
a handicraft, and at twenty years of age he was 
born in 1802 he took up the occupation of a metal- 
plater. According to his own account of his career, 
he chanced, in 1830, to read in a book of the six- 
teenth century that the materials for shippo decoration 
were coral, lapis lazuli, mother-of-pearl, agate, amber, 
tortoise-shell, and rock-crystal. There was here no 
question of vitrified pastes, but actually of the " seven 
precious things." The idea suggested to Kaji Tsune- 
kichi seems to have been that these substances were 
actually used for making vitrifiable pastes, but his 
misconception was corrected two years later by ex- 
amination of a specimen of Chinese cloisonne enamel * 
which he obtained from a merchant, Matsuoka Kahei, 
of Nagoya. He now applied himself with patient assi- 
duity to work of this kind, and succeeded, in 1 839, in 
making a plate, six inches in diameter, which he sold 
to Matsuoka for five riyo. This achievement in- 
spired still greater efforts. Various articles were 
turned out, chiefly pen-rests, desk-screens, cups, and 
such small specimens, and in 1839 he had the honour 
of seeing his productions presented to the Tokugawa 
Court in Yedo by the feudal chief of Owari as exam- 
ples of the technical achievements of the fief. Orders 
now came to Kaji and he enjoyed a time of compara- 
tive prosperity. In 1853 he began to take pupils, 
and made known the manufacturing processes to sev- 
eral persons. Thus, during twenty years previous 
to the re-opening of the country to foreign trade in 
1857, cloisonne enamelling had been applied in the 
manner now understood by the term, and when for- 

1 See Appendix, note 55. 



eign merchants began to settle in Yokohama in 1858, 
several experts were working skilfully in Owari after 
the methods of Kaji Tsunekichi. Up to that time 
there had been little demand for enamels of large 
dimensions, but when the foreign market called for 
vases, censers, plaques, and such things, no difficulty 
was experienced in supplying them. Thus, about the 
year 1865, there commenced an export of enamels 
which had no prototypes in Japan, being destined 
frankly for European and American collectors. From 
a technical point of view these works had much to 
commend them. The base usually of copper 
was as thin as cardboard ; the cloisons, exceedingly 
fine and delicate, were laid on with care and accu- 
racy ; the colours were even, and the design showed 
artistic judgment. Two faults, however, marred the 
work : first, the shapes were clumsy and unpleasing, 
being, in fact, copied from bronzes where solidity 
justified forms unsuited to thin enamelled vessels ; 
secondly, the colours, sombre and somewhat impure, 
lacked the glow and mellowness that give decorative 
superiority to the technically inferior Chinese enamels 
of the later Ming and early Tsing eras. Very soon, 
however, the artisans of Nagoya (Owari), Yokohama, 
and Tokyo where the art had been taken up 
found that faithful and fine workmanship did not pay. 
The foreign export merchant desired many and cheap 
specimens for export rather than few and costly. 
There followed then a period of gradual decline, and 
the enamels exported to Europe were products of 
a widely different character and of different makers. 
The industry was threatened with extinction and would 
certainly have dwindled to insignificant dimensions 
had not a few earnest artists, working in the face of 



many difficulties and discouragements, succeeded in 
striking out new lines and establishing new standards 
of excellence. The main features of this fresh de- 
parture were, first, that the character of the decorative 
designs was changed, and, secondly, that the quality 
and range of the colours underwent great improve- 
ment. Three clearly differentiated schools came into 
existence. One, headed by Namikawa Yasuyuki, of 
Kyoto, took for its objects the utmost delicacy and 
perfection of technique, richness of decoration, purity 
of design, and harmony of colours. The thin, clum- 
sily shaped vases of the Kaji school, with their uni- 
formly distributed decoration of diapers, scrolls, and 
arabesques in comparatively dull colours, ceased alto- 
gether to be produced, their place being taken by 
graceful specimens technically flawless and carrying 
designs not only free from stiffness but also executed 
in colours at once rich and soft. 

The next school may be subdivided, Kyoto repre- 
senting one branch, Nagoya, Tokyo, and Yokohama 
the other. In the products of the Kyoto branch the 
decoration generally covered the whole surface of the 
piece ; in the products of the other branch the artist 
aimed rather at pictorial effect, placing the design in 
a monochromatic field of low tone. 1 Many exquisite 
specimens of cloisonne enamels have been produced by 
each branch of this school. There is nothing like 
them to be found in any other country, and they 
stand at an immeasurable distance above the works of 
early Owari experts represented by Kaji Tsunekichi, 
his pupils and colleagues. 

The second of the modern schools is headed by 
Namikawa a Sosuke, of Tokyo. It is an easily traced 

1 See Appendix, note 56. * See Appendix, note 57. 



outgrowth of the second branch of the first school, 
just described ; for one can readily understand that 
from placing the decorative design in a monochro- 
matic field of low tone, which is essentially a pictorial 
method, development would proceed in the direction 
of concealing the mechanics of the art in order to 
enhance the pictorial effect. Thus arose the so-called 
" cloisonless enamels" (musen-jippo}. They are not 
always without cloisons. The design is generally 
framed, at the outset, with a ribbon of thin metal, 
precisely after the manner of ordinary cloisonne ware. 
But as the work proceeds the cloisons are hidden, 
unless their presence would contribute to give neces- 
sary emphasis to the design, and the final result is 
a picture in vitrified enamels. This remarkable tour 
de force has created some discussion. There are those 
that question whether the principles of true art are not 
violated when an attempt is made to produce pictorial 
effects by the aid of such materials as vitrified pastes. 
The purist may find that objection unanswerable. 
Yet it seems to be opposed to the practice of artists 
in all ages. Neither in ancient nor in modern 
Europe has any canon been obeyed that sets limits to 
the range of decorative motives. If the sculptor may 
apply to a frieze or the keramist to a vase subjects of 
which the technical and artistic quality is estimated 
by their fidelity to nature, why should similar latitude 
be denied to an artist working with enamels ? At 
all events it is certain that fine specimens of musen- 
jippo are beautiful objects. They are imperishable 
pictures in vitrified pastes, remarkable as to technical 
skill, harmonious and at the same time rich in colour- 
ing, and possessing pictorial qualities which could not 
reasonably have been looked for in such material. 

VOL. VII. - 22 


The characteristic productions of the third among 
the modern schools are monochromatic and trans- 
lucid enamels. All students of the keramic art know 
that the monochrome porcelains of China owe their 
beauty chiefly to the fact that the colour is in the 
glaze, not under it. The keramist finds no difficulty 
in applying an uniform coat of pigment to porcelain 
biscuit and covering the whole with a diaphanous 
glaze. The colour is fixed and the glaze set by sec- 
ondary firing at a lower temperature than that neces- 
sary for hardening the pate. Such porcelains lack 
the velvet-like softness and depth of tone so justly 
prized in the genuine monochrome, where the glaze 
itself contains the colouring matter, pate and glaze 
being fired simultaneously at the same high tempera- 
ture. It is apparent that a vitrified enamel may be 
set to perform, in part at any rate, the function of 
a porcelain glaze. Acting upon that theory, the 
experts of Tokyo and Nagoya have produced, during 
recent years, many very beautiful specimens of mono- 
chrome enamels, yellow (canary or straw), rose du 
Barry, liquid-dawn red, aubergine purple, grass or 
leaf green, dove-grey, and lapis lazuli blue. These 
pieces do not quite reach the level of Chinese mono- 
chrome porcelains, but their inferiority is not marked. 
The artist's great difficulty is to hide the metal base 
completely. A monochrome loses much of its attrac- 
tiveness when the colour merges into a metal rim, or 
when the interior of a specimen is covered with crude, 
unpolished paste. But to spread and fix the paste 
so that neither at the rim nor in the interior shall 
there be any break of continuity or any indication 
that the base is metal not porcelain, is a tour de force 
demanding extraordinary skill. 



The translucid enamels of the modern school are 
generally associated with decorated bases. In other 
words, a suitable design is chiselled in the metal base 
so as to be seen through the diaphanous enamel. Very 
beautiful effects of broken and softened light combined 
with depth and delicacy of colour are thus obtained. 
But the decorative designs which lend themselves to 
such a purpose are not numerous. A gold base deeply 
chiselled in wave-diaper and overrun with a paste of 
aubergine purple, is among the most pleasing. A 
still higher tour de force is to apply to the chiselled 
base designs executed in coloured enamels, finally 
covering the whole with translucid paste. Admirable 
results are thus obtained. Through a medium of 
cerulean blue bright gold-fish and steel-backed carp 
appear swimming in silvery waves, or brilliantly 
plumaged birds seem to soar among fleecy clouds. 
The artists of this school show also much skill in 
using enamels for purposes of subordinate decoration 
for example, suspending enamelled butterflies, birds, 
floral sprays, etc., among the reticulations of a silver 
vase chiselled a jour (this kind of work is called 
hirado-jippo} ; or filling with translucid enamels parts 
of a decorative scheme sculptured in iron, silver, gold, 
or shakudo. 

The reader will perceive at once what great strides 
Japanese workers in cloisonne enamels have made since 
the days when they sent to Europe specimens such 
as those carefully classified and illustrated in " The 
Decorative Arts of Japan." It is not incorrect to say 
that the art of cloisonne enamelling in Japan was 
developed during the last quarter of the nineteenth 
century from a condition of comparative crudencss 1 

1 Sec Appendix, note 58. 



to one of unparalleled excellence. There was no 
reason to anticipate that the Japanese would take the 
lead of the world in this branch of applied art. They 
had no presumptive title to do so. Yet they cer- 
tainly have done so. 

There has been discussion among Occidental con- 
noisseurs about the relative merits of the cloisonne 
enamels of China and Japan. It has been main- 
tained that Japanese productions look sombre and 
flimsy, and that the advantage is with the Chinese in 
restful solidity, as well as depth, purity, and harmony 
of tone. The criticism appears just so long as Japan 
is represented solely by the works of the school 
founded by Kaji Tsunekichi and maintained by his 
pupils and successors down to the year 1880. But at 
the latter date the Japanese expert entered an entirely 
new field where he completely distanced his Chinese 
rival. The artists of the two countries now work on 
lines so different that accurate comparison is scarcely 
possible. But it must not be assumed that the Jap- 
anese expert would find difficulty in adopting the 
Chinese methods. There has been practical proof 
to the contrary. Between the years 1850 and 1870 
Maizono Genwo of Kanazawa, a pupil of Kaji Tsune- 
kichi and subsequently of a Chinese expert in Naga- 
saki, produced several specimens of cloisonne enamels 
in the pure Chinese style. They were of small 
dimensions, chiefly sa&e-cups and bowls ; the cloisons 
were of gold or silver, and the colour and quality of 
the paste as well as the general technique were indis- 
tinguishable from the finest Chinese work. Some 
experts of the present time, also, have conceived the 
idea of adding the Chinese style to their various 
accomplishments and have succeeded thoroughly. 




It has been held by many critics that lacquered 
objects stand highest among the products of Japan's 
applied art, first because the quality of the lacquer as 
to hardness, durability, and lustre, is unparalleled, and 
secondly because the decorative genius of her artists 
has been exercised in this field with most conspicuous 
success and with marked independence of foreign 
influence. Certainly the lustre of Japanese lacquer 
appeals to the least educated eye, so much so that a 
box or tray of fine black lacquer without ornamenta- 
tion of any sort possesses an indescribable charm, and 
tempts the spectator not merely to gaze at it, but 
also to feel arid caress it. Durability and hardness, 
too, though they are not qualities that enter into a 
normal estimate of beauty, have much to do with the 
artistic developments of Japanese lacquer, for had it 
not possessed these attributes, it could never have 
been considered worthy of the magnificent and costly 
decoration lavished upon it. It resists the action of 
boiling liquids and of alcohol, so that a lacquered cup 
can be used for tea, for soup, for hot sake, and in fact 
for all table purposes, being in that respect equal to 
porcelain, while it is superior to porcelain in security 
against fracture and in non-conducting properties. 
There are now standing in the Tokyo Museum of 
Arts specimens of lacquer which, having lain at the 
bottom of the sea for some years in a sunken steamer, 
were found, when recovered, to still retain much of 
their original beauty. And in the collections of 
Japanese connoisseurs there are numbers of lacquered 
objects many centuries old, which have withstood all 


the effects of time, and are now as perfect as when they 
emerged from their makers' hands. This admirable 
durability, especially remarkable considering that the 
base used by the lacquerer is wood of exceeding thin- 
ness and frailty, must be attributed in part, of course, 
to the preservative properties of the lacquer varnish 
itself, but largely also to the skill of the experts by 
whom these fine specimens were produced. 

Japan derived the art of lacquer manufacture from 
China. There can be no doubt of that. The tools 
used in both countries are almost identical and the 
methods have such a likeness that their common 
origin is unquestionable. But as the time of the 
art's introduction into Japan was pre-historical, the 
date cannot be fixed accurately. Certainly, how- 
ever, it was not later than the beginning of the 
sixth century, and it will probably be right to 
conclude that, like many other products of civilisa- 
tion, this also came in the train of Buddhism. At 
first the art does not seem to have extended beyond 
the manufacture of plain black lacquer, but antiqua- 
rians allege that from the early years of the eighth 
century ornamentation with dust of gold and mother- 
of-pearl began to be practised. There is a measure 
of conjecture in this statement, for the oldest speci- 
mens of artistic lacquer known to exist in Japan are 
two boxes, one of which was made to order of the 
celebrated priest Kuki, better known as Kobo Daishi, 
at the close of the ninth century, for the purpose of 
containing the Shingon Sutra which he had conveyed 
from China, and the other is a receptacle for jewels 
believed to date from approximately the same period. 
Both objects are decorated after the manner called 
maki-kin-iro ; that is to say, gold and silver dust hav- 



ing been scattered over the surface of the lacquer, a 
design is added, and the whole is then delicately 
polished. The decorative motive of the sutra-case is a 
troop of karyobin (birds with angel's torsos) flyingamong 
flowers ; that of the jewel-box is an elaborate floral 
diaper. In the former the artist carefully followed 
Chinese models ; in the latter he partially obeyed 
the naturalistic tendency of Japanese genius. These 
works show too much technical skill to be attributed 
to the beginning of a period of art development, and 
it seems a reasonable inference that lacquers simi- 
larly decorated had been produced since an earlier 

The tenth century saw a further extension of the 
range of motives : landscapes and religious scenes 
began to be included in the lacquerer's repertoire. 
It is on record that the Emperor Kwazan (985) exe- 
cuted with his own hand a design of Horai-zan (the 
mountain of elysium) on a lacquer writing-desk, and 
there are authenticated specimens of twelfth-century 
lacquer in which the decorative designs take the 
forms of a figure of Shaka among flowers and birds, 
of Arhats worshipping a dragon, of phoenixes, and 
even of human figures. From the eleventh century, 
also, the use of lacquer ceased to be limited to boxes, 
desks, and minor objects of furniture: it was applied 
to columns, beams, and other parts of the interiors of 
temples, and the processes hitherto adopted were sup- 
plemented by inlaying with mother-of-pearl and with 
gold. The decorative artist now quickly passed to 
elaborate and delicately executed landscapes as well as 
intricate and tasteful designs, which he was certainly 
able to depict with marked skill during the thirteenth 
century, if not during the twelfth. He further em- 



ployed incrustation with gold foil, and some speci- 
mens dating from the Kamakura epoch show an 
affinity with the pictorial scrolls of the time, their 
decorative designs being chosen so as to illustrate 
verses of poetry traced in golden ideographs beside 
the picture. To the Kamakura era belongs also a 
new departure, namely, the application of vermilion 
lacquer to objects having their wooden surfaces carved 
in diapers or arabesques. This kind of work 
called Kamakura-bori (Kamakura carving) appears 
to have been suggested by the red lacquer of China 
which has designs cut in the lacquer itself. The 
Kamakura-bori belongs to a palpably inferior grade of 
work, but some interest attaches to it as it probably 
helped to suggest an important development with 
which the Ashikaga epoch is credited. 

That development was the production of wha. is 
called taka-makiye (lacquer in relief). Hitherto artists 
had confined themselves to hira-makiye (flat lacquer), 
that is to say, lacquer having the decorative design in 
the same plane as the ground. The sole exception 
had been the Kamakura-bori, just spoken of, in which 
effects of relief were obtained by carving the wood to 
which the lacquer was applied. Now, however, ex- 
perts undertook surface modelling in the lacquer itself. 
It is not possible to fix the exact date of this notable 
addition to the art, but it certainly reached a point 
of high development in the time of the Shogun Yoshi- 
masa (14491490). There has been frequent occa- 
sion to allude to Yoshimasa in these pages, and to the 
extraordinary impulse that all branches of art received 
from his establishment of the tea-clubs and from his 
munificent patronage. The taka-makiye, which from 
his era became famous, constitutes one of the distinc- 



tive features of Japanese lacquer. It is not found in 
the lacquers of either China or Korea. With it, in 
that respect, may be classed aventurine lacquer, called 
"pear-ground" (nashi-ji} in Japan. This, too, has 
never been produced elsewhere. Briefly, nashiji may 
be described as a surface presenting the appearance 
of golden sand pervaded by a faint glow of russet 
brown. The gradual emergence of such a type from 
the gold dusted fields of earlier epochs is not difficult 
to conceive, but to the experts of Yoshimasa's era 
belongs the credit of having indicated the possibilities 
of this beautiful decoration. 

No lacquerers prior to the days of Yoshimasa, that 
is to say, the second half of the fifteenth century, 
attained sufficient renown to be remembered by pos- 
terity. Then for the first time the annals speak of 
Hidetsugu of Nara, who constructed tea-boxes after 
designs by the celebrated chajin Joo, and whose de- 
scendants continued to work through several genera- 
tions; of Hadagoro of Kyoto, whose lacquers were 
known as Hokkai-nuri-mono from the name of the 
locality where he resided ; of Koami Docho, who 
obtained designs from Tosa Mitsunobu, from Noami 
and from Soami, and who excelled in all the pro- 
cesses of flat lacquer as well as lacquer in relief, 
bequeathing his art to his descendants, of whom his 
great-grandson Sozen, the latter's son Sokei, and his 
grandson Sohaku were all famous lacquerers; of 
Koami Dosei, the second of the Koami family; of 
Taiami and Seiami and of Igarashi Shinsai, who also 
founded a long line of skilled artists. It is plain that 
from the era of Yoshimasa commonly spoken of in 
art circles as "Higashi-yama " the expert lacquerer 
began to rank with the pictorial artist or the sculptor. 



Until its closing years the sixteenth century showed 
no marked progress in the process of lacquer produc- 
tion, a fact doubtless attributable in the main to the 
exceedingly disturbed state of the Empire. But when 
the Taiko had restored peace, and had inaugurated the 
fashion of lavishing all the resources of applied art on 
the interior decoration of castles and temples, the ser- 
vices of the lacquerer were employed to an extent 
hitherto unknown, and there resulted some very fine 
work on friezes, coffered ceilings, door-panels, altar- 
pieces, and reliquaries. At first, when, tranquillity 
having been established, the lacquer experts returned 
to Ky5to from their retreats in the provinces, speci- 
mens produced by them showed defects of technique, 
and came to be classed for that reason under the name 
of Karasumaru-mono, Karasumaru being the locality of 
their manufacture. But the rapidly growing demand 
for fine work in architectural decoration soon raised 
the standard of skill, and all the processes of the 
Higashi-yama era were employed with newly added 
graces of design and excellency of finish. Surviving 
specimens do not indicate that decoration in the taka- 
makiye style (relief) was largely practised. The taste 
of the time found more faithful expression in a new 
fashion introduced by Anami Kwoyetsu (15901637), 
of which the characteristic features were remarkable 
boldness of decorative design, free use of conventional- 
ised forms, and the employment of gold, silver, lead, 
and mother-of-pearl in solid masses. This style re- 
ceived fuller development at the hands of Ogata 
Kworin, who is accounted one of the greatest decora- 
tive artists of the seventeenth century. It must be con- 
fessed, however, that the mannerisms of Kworin are 
not always pleasing. His conventionalisms sometimes 



become so extreme as to lose suggestiveness, and the 
balance of his decorative scheme is disturbed by un- 
duly large masses of metal or mother-of-pearl. When 
he avoids these faults his work deserves the admira- 
tion it received in his time, as well as the homage of 
a numerous school of imitators down to modern eras. 
Certainly prior to his epoch no expert of applied art 
had formed any comparable conception of the effect 
of skilful spacing and the charm of irregularly yet 
symmetrically distributed decoration. Yet, even in 
that respect, neither Kwoyetsu nor Kworin can be 
called an originator. The source from which they 
derived inspiration is easily discovered by any one ex- 
amining the illuminated sutras of the twelfth century. 
The Tokugawa times were the golden era of 
lacquer production. Not only did the universal 
popularity of the tea-clubs and the incense cult 
create a keen demand for the finest work, but also 
the interior decoration of the mausolea at Shiba and 
Nikko offered an unprecedented field for the art. In 
these mausolea are to be found the most splendid ap- 
plications of lacquered decoration that the world has 
ever seen, nor is it at all likely that anything on a 
comparable scale of grandeur and beauty will ever 
again be produced. Japanese connoisseurs hold that 
the summit of development was reached at the end 
of the seventeenth century under the rule of the fifth 
Shogun, Tsunayoshi (1680-1709), that famous era 
of Genroku y memorable for so much that was bad 
and so much that was good in Japanese civilisation. 
Such was the reputation acquired by work of that 
time that whenever in later days a date had to be 
assigned to any specimen of exceptionally fine quality, 
the disposition of connoisseurs was to refer it to the 



days of Joken-in (the posthumous name of Tsu- 
nayoshi). It cannot be said, however, that the art- 
ists of the epoch had any new inspiration. With 
the exception of Ogawa Ritsuo, they merely carried 
the methods of their predecessors to the highest point 
of technical excellence and decorative refinement. 
Ritsuo, called also Haritsu, flourished during the first 
half of the eighteenth century. He followed the 
style of Kwoyetsu and Kworin in introducing masses 
of metal into his decorative schemes, but he added 
also ivory, and, above all, faience. It was for this 
last addition chiefly that he became famous, for al- 
though the idea of inlaying a lacquered surface with 
faience medallions sounds bizarre, the effect was un- 
questionably beautiful. 

Many exquisite examples of lacquer are to be 
found in inro produced during the Tokugawa times. 
The inrOy owing to its small size and comparative 
cheapness, has attracted the attention of foreign col- 
lectors, and numerous specimens of great beauty are 
among the treasures of European and American dilet- 
tanti. It shares with the netsuke the charm of offer- 
ing an almost unlimited field of decorative motives, 
landscapes copied from great painters, battle-scenes, 
incidents from daily life, from history and from my- 
thology, birds and insects of every description, and 
innumerable studies of flowers and foliage. Almost 
all the renowned lacquerers from the sixteenth cen- 
tury downwards occupied themselves, occasionally, 
with the making of inro, but the artists of the Koma 
and Kajikawa families, through several generations, 
were especially connected with this class of work, 
and their signatures are found most frequently. 
Since, however, the inro is merely one of the objects 



to which the lacquerer mainly devoted his attention, 
everything that has been said of his art applies to it, 
nor does it call for any separate discussion. 

A frequently published assertion is that modern 
Japanese lacquerers are far inferior to their predeces- 
sors, and that nothing now produced will support 
comparison with the work of bygone times. That 
is an error. There has not been any loss of skill. 
Shibata Zeshin, who died in 1891, was, perhaps, as 
great an artist in lacquer as ever existed, and there 
are men living to-day who have all the skill of the 
best eras. The only change is in the conditions of 
production. Fine lacquer is exceedingly costly. It 
demands not only great outlay of expert toil, but also 
the use of very expensive materials. The Japanese 
art-artisan, however, is generally poor ; or, at any 
rate, his circumstances are too humble to warrant the 
expenditure of large sums on specimens which have 
the less chance of finding a purchaser the higher their 
price. All the finest pieces of former times were pro- 
duced to order, whereas at present few persons are 
disposed to give a commission, the tendency of those 
that can afford to possess rich lacquer being rather to 
seek old specimens of which the durability is already 
guaranteed, than to take the risk of having new 
made. But there has been abundant proof that the 
experts of the time can do quite as skilled work as 
any of their predecessors did. 

In the manufacture of Japanese lacquer, three dis- 
tinct processes have to be noted. The first is the 
extraction and preparation of the lac; the second, its 
application, and the third decoration of the lacquered 
surface. 1 

1 See Appendix, note 59. 



The lac is obtained from a variety of the sumach, 
called in Japan urushi-no-ki (Rbus vernicifera). A 
horizontal incision is made in the trunk of the tree, 
and in a few minutes this channel becomes filled 
with a greyish-white emulsion which, on exposure 
to the air, changes to light brown and ultimately to 
black. This juice may be taken from the tree at 
any time from April to October, but midsummer 
is the best season. The yield of one tree varies from 
twenty-seven to fifty-four grammes, and to obtain that 
quantity it is necessary to destroy the tree. It ap- 
pears from official figures that at least a million trees 
must be sacrificed annually to the needs of the manu- 
facturer, and readers will not be surprised to learn that 
of late years a demand has arisen for Chinese lac, which, 
since it can be sold in Japan at a lower price than that 
of the domestic product, is used for inferior classes of 
work. According to analyses made by Korschelt and 
Rein, the substance thus obtained from the lacquer-tree 
contains from 60 to 85 per cent of lac acid (CuHi 8 O 2 ) ; 
from 3 to 6^ per cent of gum arabic ; from 1.7 to 
3.5 per cent of albumen; and from 10 to 34 per 
cent of water. To prepare it for use, it is first pressed 
through cotton-cloth to remove extraneous bodies, 
as bits of bark, wood, etc. ; it is then ground in a 
wooden tub for the purpose of crushing the grain 
and obtaining uniform liquidity ; subsequently it is 
again strained, and finally the water it contains is 
expelled by exposure to the sun's rays or to artificial 
heat. 1 While the drying process is going on, various 
ingredients are added according to the kind of 
lacquer to be produced, gamboge for nashi-ji (pear- 
ground) lacquer; perilla oil and plum-juice for 

1 See Appendix, note 60. 



shunkei (reddish-yello.w) lacquer ; yegoma oil and cin- 
nabar for shu-uruishi (red lacquer) ; acetous protoxide 
of iron for ro-iro-urushi (mirror-black lacquer) ; dust 
of gold or silver for kin-iro (golden) or gin-iro (silver) 
lacquer ; and so on. The preparation of the lac up 
to this stage is the function of a special class of 
workmen, whose task ends when the liquid is ready 
for use. 

Passing now to the duties of the nuri-mono-sbi, or 
lacquerer, let it be supposed that the object to be 
lacquered is a box made of hi-no-ki (Retinispora 
obtusd] > a white pine, which, owing to its fine grain and 
freedom from knots and resin, is considered specially 
suitable. The box having emerged from the hands 
of a skilled joiner, its walls are as thin as paper and its 
parts beautifully fitted. The lacquerer's first task is to 
apply a lute, called kokuso, which consists of rice-paste 
and lac mixed with fine cotton wadding. This he 
pastes with a pointed spatula over all lines of join- 
ing, wooden pin heads, knots, or other imperfections, 
having previously pared down these places with a 
knife. Next he spreads a thin coat of lac-sizing over 
the whole surface, the object being to solidify the 
latter by filling up the natural pores of the wood as 
well as all accidental fissures. Then follows another 
operation of luting, the putty used being compounded 
of ground pottery, rice-paste, and lacquer. Each of 
these processes is separated by an interval long enough 
to thoroughly dry the lacquer. After the second 
operation of luting, the surface is burnished to perfect 
smoothness by means of a special kind of sandstone. 
The next process is one of the most important. The 
whole object is covered with a layer of Japanese paper 
the long-fibred variety known as mino-gami or of 



thin hempen cloth. To fix this covering, the surface 
is painted with a thin pulp of rice-paste and lacquer, 
and when the paper or cloth has been smoothly 
pressed into this adhesive bed, a thin coat of lacquer 
is applied. The danger of warping is thus effectually 
averted, and exudations from the wooden surface are 
prevented from reaching the ultimate coats of lacquer. 
The surface of the paper or cloth is then subjected to 
processes somewhat similar to those employed in the 
case of the wooden surface. First it is over-spread, 
once, twice, or even three times, with a putty of rice- 
paste, lacquer, and pottery-dust, each coat, when dry, 
being rubbed down with sandstone. Then another 
kind of pulp differing from the last in the proportion 
of the ingredients and in the addition of pulverised 
ochre is laid on, and carefully polished after dry- 
ing. Next follows a light coating of pure lacquer, 
and then another application of " stiffening," the 
putty in this case consisting of pulverised ochre and 
lacquer with or without pottery dust. Indian ink is 
now rubbed into the surface by means of a ball of 
cotton, and thereafter black lacquer, specially pre- 
pared, is applied with a flat brush, the object being 
then carefully dried. 1 A very troublesome and tedious 
process ensues. It is that of "rubbing down." This 
is done with a special kind of fine-grained charcoal. 
Many days are devoted to the work, and the surface 
finally obtained is perfectly smooth, lustreless, dark 
grey, or greyish black. The preliminary operations 
are now completed, and the object is ready to 
receive whatever coats are destined to give it its final 

The reader will observe that in this method of 

1 See Appendix, not 61. 



preparation, the basic material disappears altogether 
from view, and the lacquerer ultimately works on a 
surface of paper or cloth. Such is not the invari- 
able process, however. In two favourite varieties of 
lacquer kiji-nuri and shunkei-nuri the grain of the 
wood is shown, no veneer of paper or cloth being 
employed. To produce these the wood is first " con- 
solidated " by a pore-filling paste ; it is then covered 
with pure translucid lacquer and polished. There- 
after, in the case of the shunkei-nuri, a light coat of 
yellow dust is applied, omitted in the case of kiji-nuri. 
The latter presents the appearance of highly polished 
mahogany or rosewood ; the former suggests maple. 

An object which, by the various processes described 
above, has developed a perfectly smooth, lustreless, 
greyish-brown surface, is said to have reached the 
" medium " stage (naka-nuri}. It may now be fin- 
ished by the application of a single coat of lacquer, 
without any subsequent burnishing, the result being 
nuri-tate, the commonest kind of lacquer, so called 
because the striations (tate) produced by the strokes 
of the brush with which the last coat is applied, 
are clearly visible. It may here be stated that in 
fine lacquer no semblance of brush-marks should be 

When the artisan desires to produce a better class 
of lacquer than the nuritate, he has merely to expend 
more material and more labour : additional coats of 
lacquer and additional rubbing and polishing. All 
this is only a question of patience and manual dex- 
terity. Indeed, Japanese lacquers may be conven- 
iently divided into " artisan lacquers " and " art 
lacquers;' 1 the former comprising all varieties that 
owe their beauty solely to the quality of the ground 

VOL. VH. 23 oro 


lacquer ; the latter, those distinguished by surface 
decoration. Of the former there are many kinds, 
from the monochromes mirror-black, vermilion, 
cinnabar, and other hues of red, yellow, brown, and 
green to grounds ornamented with dusting of gold, 
silver, mother-of-pearl, tin, or bronze ; inlaid with 
mother-of-pearl ; marbled ; grained like wood, and 
so forth. Of the " art lacquers " also there are many 
kinds, but the distinguishing feature of all is that 
they have passed through the hands of the decorative 
artist, and by him have been ornamented with pic- 
tures which take them completely out of the rank of 
mere technical excellence. 

It is not necessary to dwell upon " artisan lacquers." 
Some of them are very attractive, but, after all, they 
belong to the class of varnishes, and have little to do 
with applied art. 

The artist by whom the decoration of art lacquer 
is undertaken has the name of maki-ye-shi y which 
signifies " an expert that strews pictures." This term 
is derived from the fact that strewing with dust of 
gold was the earliest method of lacquer decoration. 
At first the expert merely sprinkled gold powder 
sparsely over the surface, subsequently polishing the 
latter. Such lacquer was called beijin. The next 
stage of progress gave the maki-kini-ro, in which gold 
dust having been thickly strewn over a black field, a 
coating of translucid lac was superimposed, careful 
rubbing with charcoal and polishing being the final 
steps. Sometimes the gold dust was sifted so thickly 
that its particles lost their individuality, and a golden 
ground (kin-ji} resulted, showing soft lustre and a 
charming play of broken light. At a later era " pear- 
ground " (nashi-ji), or aventurine, was obtained by 



strewing gold dust over a field of russet brown. The 
most highly esteemed variety of nashi-ji was termed 
giyobu-nashi-ji, after the name of the artist (Giyobu) 
who invented it at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. In this variety the surface is evenly covered 
with tiny squares of gold-foil, laid one by one in 
their places, a work demanding infinite patience, 
accuracy, and delicacy of manipulation. The sense 
in which the term makiye-shl came to be applied to 
the decorator of art lacquer will be plain from these 
facts, indicating, as they do, that his task originally 
was limited to sifting gold dust over the lacquer. 

It may be stated as an almost invariable rule that 
either ktn-nashi-jt, kin-ji, or giyobu-nashi-ji is found asso- 
ciated with the finest lacquer, whether it enters into 
the decorative scheme, or appears on the reverse of 
the object. A ground of golden wood- grain (kin- 
moku-me) y which costs the artist much trouble and 
requires not less skill than the giybbu-nashi-ji, ranks 
also among choice varieties of secondary decoration. 
But the most difficult task of the makiye-shi is, of 
course, the application of the decoration. The variety 
of motives is virtually unlimited, ranging from elabo- 
rate landscapes, sea-scapes, battle-scenes, figure sub- 
jects, flowers, foliage, birds, insects, fish, and animals, 
to formal designs of scrolls, arabesques, and diapers. 
His palette includes several colours, red, green, 
blue, silver, and gold being the principal, but in all 
fine lacquers gold predominates so largely that the 
general impression conveyed by the object is one of 
glow and richness. Not infrequently the most elabo- 
rate part of the decoration is found on some com- 
paratively inconspicuous part of the object. This is 
especially true of letter-boxes (bunko} and writing- 



boxes (suzuri-bako], which with book-stands (shodana} 
and medicine-boxes (inro) have in all ages been con- 
sidered deserving of the makiye-shis highest skill. 
Thus it often happens that the decoration on the 
outside of a bunko or a suzuri-bako is not nearly so 
rich and elaborate as that on the inside of the lid. 
At first sight such a distribution of skill seems a mere 
caprice of luxury ; but the logic of the decoration 
becomes evident by reflecting that when these boxes 
are in use, the lids are always removed and placed 
with their faces downwards on the mats, so that the 
decoration on the reverse side is chiefly seen. Never- 
theless it is an inviolable rule that every part of a 
fine lacquer object must show beautiful and highly 
finished work, whether it be an external or an 
internal part. 

As for the process of applying a decorative design, 
the object first receives all the treatment, as already 
described, necessary to produce a perfectly finished 
ground, and upon the latter the makiye-sbi sketches the 
design, working with fine brushes and a paste of white 
lead. Having thus obtained an outline drawing, he 
fills in the details with gold and colours, superposes a 
coat of translucid lacquer, and finally subjects the 
whole to careful polishing. If parts of the design 
are to be in relief (taka-makiye}, a putty is used for 
foundation. It consists of black-lacquer, white lead, 
camphor, and lampblack, and after being laid on the 
surface of the object, it receives the necessary mod- 
elling, is polished with charcoal, and thus enters into 
the field for the decorative scheme. No special diffi- 
culty attends the taka-makiye process, and the results 
produced are wonderfully rich and effective. Many con- 
noisseurs, however, will find at least equal beauty in fine 



examples of hira-makiye (flat makiye^ especially those 
distinguished as togi-dashi ; that is to say, pieces 
where the pictorial design is brought out by repeated 
processes of rubbing, so that all outlines disappear, 
and the decoration seems to float in a field of semi- 
translucid lacquer. When masses of metal or ivory 
enter into the decorative scheme, they have to be 
chiselled independently and afterwards embedded in 
the lacquer. The same is true in a modified degree 
of mother-of-pearl, though fragments are used to 
build up designs with the aid of paste in a manner 
not possible where metals are employed. The fashion 
of mother-of-pearl mosaics was inspired from China, 
and some work of that class shows almost incredible 
microscopic accuracy. A majority of the lacquers 
manufactured in modern times for the foreign market 
have mother-of-pearl (from the shell of the haliotis) 
and ivory in the decorative scheme. That style was 
brought into vogue by Shibayama Dosho in the second 
half of the eighteenth century. He cannot be said 
to have invented it, but, as has been observed of many 
other Japanese applied arts, the perfecting of the 
method was mistaken for its origin. It would be 
impossible to overstate the richness and decorative 
magnificence of many objects manufactured in modern 
workshops by combining lacquer grounds with elabo- 
rately constructed designs in mother-of-pearl, ivory, 
faience, gold, and silver. Screens, cabinets, boxes, and 
plaques in this fashion have been sent abroad in great 
numbers during the past thirty years, and now embel- 
lish many Western salons. But they have few attrac- 
tions for Japanese connoisseurs, being, in fact, a 
product of foreign demand. In the works of Kwo- 
yetsu, Kworino, and Ritsuo some virility and chasteness 



of taste always save the decoration from becoming 
meretricious. Shibayama himself was not unfaithful 
to true canons. But the later disciples of his school 
fall perpetually into the error of imagining that .the 
chief ends to be attained are profusion of detail, an 
infinite display of manual dexterity, and brilliant wealth 
of material. The merit of magnificence cannot be 
denied to their works, but they can scarcely be called 
art lacquer. 

There are some special varieties of lacquer which 
are too interesting to be left unnoticed. Two, well 
known to all collectors, are tsui-koku and tsui-shu. 
Both are similarly produced. The ground having 
been duly prepared in the orthodox method, coats of 
cinnabar and dark-brown lacquer are applied succes- 
sively until a considerable thickness has been obtained, 
and then, while the lacquer is still soft, designs are cut 
into it, the channels made by the chisel being V-shaped, 
so that their sloping sides afford a plain view of the 
alternating layers of red and dark-brown lacquer. 
When the ultimate layer is dark-brown, the term tsui- 
koku is applied; when red, the term tsui-shu. Such 
works belong obviously to what are here classed as 
"artisan lacquers." Another variety of tsui-shu has a 
ground of incised arabesques or diapers, supporting a 
deeply chiselled decorative design of flowers, foliage, 
birds, insects, landscapes, etc. In such work the 
lacquer is not applied in alternating layers of red and 
black ; it is usually pure red. Japanese artists have 
never been remarkable for successful production of 
this last variety of tsui-shu. The lac of China lends 
itself better to such purposes, and the choicest speci- 
mens are Chinese. 1 

1 See Appendix, note 62. 



Two other very attractive kinds of lacquer, though 
they do not belong to the artistic class, are called 
Tsugaru-nuri and Wakasa-nuri, names derived from 
the districts (Tsugaru and Wakasa) where they are 
produced. These lacquers are not of the makiye 
kind. The decorative design, in which several col- 
ours appear, presents an appearance of marbling or 
leaf-pattern, sometimes, however, being in regular 
stripes, and sometimes in an apparently fortuitous 
melange of clouding and spotting. It has been sup- 
posed that the Tsugaru and Wakasa patterns are man- 
ufactured by pressing leaves or twigs of plants into 
the soft surface of the lacquer and removing them 
when the latter is dry, various processes of coating 
and polishing being subsequently applied to the ground 
thus obtained. But though that method is adopted 
in some instances, the general plan is to spread upon 
a naka-nuri base a pattern of putty, over which coats 
of coloured lacquer are laid black, yellow, red, and 
green in the case of Tsugaru-nuri, with addition of 
golden yellow, orange and brown for Wakasa-nuri, 
the whole being then covered with translucid lac, and 
finally polished in the usual way. Like the " trans- 
mutation glazes " of Chinese porcelain, the disposition 
of the colours on these curious lacquers is in a meas- 
ure accidental, for the salience of any part of the 
design determines the amount of friction to which it 
must be subjected before reduction to a plane surface, 
and consequently determines also the colour that 
emerges from the superincumbent layers. Cognate 
with these lacquers is the so-called "tortoise-shell," 
known in Japan as "rubbed off lacquer" (suri-hagashi- 
nuri), which need not be described further than to say 
that the upper coat of black or amber-brown lacquer 



is polished away in places so as to expose the under 
coat of vermilion red. There is also a variety called 
chin kin- bori, of which, as its name implies, the distin- 
guishing feature is that a design generally of ara- 
besques or scrolls is scratched upon black lacquer, 
and gold-foil is then rubbed into the lines. This is a 
subsidiary decoration seldom seen in combination with 
fine work. "Shark-skin lacquer" (same-gawa-nuri) 
is another kind which used to be greatly employed for 
covering the sheaths of swords. It is obtained by 
pressing shark-skin into the ground of the article to 
be lacquered, a layer of rice-paste having previously 
been spread over the surface. The skin is then filed 
down to an even plane, and a coating of lacquer is 
superposed, with the usual polishing and rubbing. 
There results a black surface covered regularly with 
small white circles. 

M. Louis Gonse says, and Mr. E. Gilbertson 
endorses his dictum as " a simple truth," that "Japan- 
ese lacquered objects are the most perfect works 
that have issued from man's hands." 


Hidetsugu, of Nara. Second half of fifteenth century. 

Hadagoro, of Kyoto. Second half of fifteenth century. 
His works are known as " Hokkai-nuri-mono." 

Taiami, of Kyoto. Time of Ashikaga Yoshimasa. Cele- 
brated for togi-dashi and taka-makiye (which he is said 
to have invented). He founded a long line of expert 

Koami Choan (15601603), eighth representative of the 
Koami family. 

Anami Kwoyetsu (1590-1637). A celebrated artist; intro- 
ducer of the style afterwards carried to perfection by 



Ogata Kworin, a renowned lacquerer and painter of the 
seventeenth century (died 1716), remarkable for the 
bold freedom of his style. 

Yoji Hidetsugu (called also Noji Zenkyo), second half of 
sixteenth century. 

Seiami (called also Shoho), second half of sixteenth century. 

Koami Sozen, grandson of Kbami Docho. 

Koami Sokei, son of Koami Sozen. 

Koami Sohaku, son of Koami Sokei. 

Koami Dosei, son of Koami Docho. 

Igarashi Shinsei, a celebrated lacquerer patronised by the 
Sbogun Yoshimasa (second half of fifteenth century). 
Many of his descendants became famous. 

Koami Choho, worked under patronage of lyeyasu in Yedo 
(beginning of seventeenth century). 

Koma Kiui, worked for lyemitsu in Yedo (first half of 
seventeenth century). Eleven generations of the Koma 
family worked for the Tokugawa. 

Koami Nagashige, tenth generation of the Koami family. 
A celebrated expert who worked mainly for the Toku- 
gawa SKbguns in Yedo (1620-1651), as did also his 
descendants through nine generations. 

Koami Nagafusa, son of Koami Nagashige. 

Koami Chokyu, son of Koami Nagafusa. 

Koami Masamine, son of Koami Chokyu, beginning of 
seventeenth century. 

Igarashi Doho, worked in Kaga. 

Yamamoto Shobei, worked in Nagoya ; end of eighteenth 

Yamamoto Shunsho, worked in Kyoto (died 1682). 

Shunsho, name by nine descendants of Yamamoto Shunsho, 
who were all lacquer experts. 

Shibara Ichidayu, worked in Kaga (middle of seventeenth 

Koma Kiuhaku, son of Koma Kiui (end of seventeenth 
century). Eleven generations of the Koma family worked 
for the Tokugawa Shoguns in Yedo. 

Tatsuki Chobei, worked in Kyot5 in second half of seven- 
teenth century, and became very renowned. 



Kajikawa Kaijiro (1661-1684), a celebrated lacquerer of 
Yedo ; had the art title of tenka-ichi. His descendants 
continued to work for several generations. 

Seigai Kanshichi (1680-1710), celebrated for designs of 
waves : hence his name seigai (the blue sea). 

Ogawa Ritsuo, called also Haritsu. Worked in Yedo and 
died in 1747. Celebrated for using faience in the deco- 
ration of lacquer. 

Shoami Masanari, worked in Kyoto (1716 1740); celebrated 
for togi-dashi. 

Nagata Tomoharu (1720-1750), an expert of the Kworin 

Yamamoto Rihei (1735-1766), worked in Kyoto. 

Izuka Toyo, called also Kwan Shosai ; worked in Awa 
(1760-1780). Made inro only, for which he was very 

Ninomiya T5tei (1790-1820), worked in Yedo, and was 
specially skilled in producing chinkin-bori. He used the 
teeth of rats for engraving designs of peonies, flowers, 
and foliage. 

Koma Kansai (1800-1845), pupil of Koma Kiuhaku, fifth 
representative of the Koma family, received permission 
to take the family name in consideration of his skill. 
He worked in Yedo and among his pupils was the 
celebrated Shibata Zeshin. 

Shibata Zeshin (1835-1891), the most celebrated of modern 
lacquer experts. Worked in Yedo and followed the 
style of Kworin. Pupil of Koma Kwansai. 

Tamakaji Zokoku (1830-1870); worked at Takamatsu in 
Senuki. He is celebrated for a style of lacquer called 
after him (Zokoku-nuri), which was obtained by carving 
designs in bamboo or wood and filling the lines with red, 
yellow, and blue lacquer. 

Hara Yoyusai, called also Kozan (1804-1840). Worked in 
Yedo and attained high renown. 

Nakayama Komin (1840-1871), pupil of Yoyusai. Worked 
in Yedo. 

Ogawa Shomin (still living). A pupil of Nakayama Komin. 
Works in Tokyo. 



Hanzan (1743-1790), pupil of Haritsu (Ogawa Ritsuo). 

Worked in Yedo and adopted the style of his master. 
Y5sei ; a contemporary of Hanzan, and a follower of Ritsuo's 

Chohei (first part of nineteenth century). School of Ritsuo. 

Worked in Yedo. 
Kakosai, pupil of Izuka Toyo. 
ShSkwasai, a fellow-worker with Shibayama Dosho in 

Shibayama Dosho (second half of eighteenth century). 

Worked in Yedo and is celebrated for his success in 

introducing ivory into the decoration of lacquered 


Jokasai (first part of nineteenth century); worked in Yedo. 
Shirayama Shoya (still living). 
Kawanobe Itcho (still living). 
Uyematsu Homin (still living). 




NOTE I. Lit.j a " placed thing ;" that is to say, an object of art, 
such as a vase or statue, serving merely for ornamental purposes. 

NOTE 2. Pronounced " Go Dashi," according to the Japanese 
sound of the same characters. 

NOTE 3. The greatest of these men whose names are household 
words in Japan, were Li Lung-yen (Japanese Ri Riumin), Ma Yuen 
(Japanese Bayen), Muh Ki (Japanese Mokkei), Hia Kwei (Japan- 
ese Ka-Kei), and Ngan Hwai (Japanese Ganki). 

NOTE 4. For detailed lists of Chinese artists of the Yuan 
(1260-1367), Min (1368-1646), and later eras the reader is rec- 
ommended to consult Dr. Anderson's " Catalogue of Japanese 
and Chinese Paintings in the British Museum." 

NOTE 5. The prelate Kukai is recorded to have carried from 
China in the year 806 no less than thirty-six paintings of supernatural 
scenes as well as portraits of patriarchs, and other priests enriched 
their country to an almost equal extent in the same century. 

NOTE 6. Every collector knows these maki-mono, or pictorial 
scrolls. Sometimes the long series of pictures told their own tale, but 
generally the drawings served only to illustrate a chapter of history or 
legend written in their intervals or on their margins. 

NOTE 7. It will be observed that this record assigns to wood- 
engraving in Japan an antiquity nearly six hundred years greater than 
that attributable to the beginning of the art in Europe. 

NOTE 8. Dr. Anderson assigns 1700 as the time when colour- 
printing began in Japan, and Mr. S. Tuke has fixed the date at 1710. 
But the most exhaustive researches assign it to about 1740. 

NOTE 9. Literally u brocade picture," but the term nisbiki 
(brocade) had long been used in Japan in the sense simply of " many- 
coloured." Another term originally applied to these pictures was 
iuri-mono (print), but the name subsequently came to designate little 
single-sheet chromo-xylographs which were sent to friends at the New 
Year, and also black-and-white prints. Sheets in sequence two, 
three, five, seven, or even twelve which were first introduced by 



Torii Kiyonaga in 1775, are called tsuzuki-mono. Of nearly con- 
temporaneous origin was the hashira-kakushi-ye (post-concealing pic- 
ture), a long narrow chromo-xylograph ; and to Katsukawa Shunsho 
(1789) is due the hoso-ye (slender picture), which often shows remark- 
ably clever examples of designing. 

NOTE 10. Practically all knowledge hitherto collected of the 
sepulchral relics of Japan is due to the patient and scientific researches 
of Mr. W. Gowland, and to those of the late Baron Kanda and Pro- 
fessor Tsuboi of the Imperial Japanese University. 

NOTE IT. Similar moulds exist in Korea, a fact which helps to 
establish the theory of an industrial connection between Japan and 
that part of the Asiatic continent in early ages. 

NOTE 12. It is noteworthy that the mirrors of the ancient 
Greeks were exactly similar to those of China and Japan, with the 
exceptions that the Greeks did not use quicksilver and that their 
decorative designs were engraved. 

NOTE 13.' It is interesting to compare these facts with the 
historical records on which the Japanese themselves have hitherto 
been accustomed to rely. Their oldest tradition tells that the Sun 
Goddess gave a mirror to her grandchild, bidding him worship it as 
her invisible soul no less fervently than he had previously worshipped 
her visible presence. There is not any serious attempt to state 
arithmetically the time when that event occurred, but it necessarily 
antedates the era of Japan's terrestrial sovereigns, and must therefore 
be referred to the seventh or eighth century before Christ. Yet 
Japanese archaeologists speak of the art of metal casting as having 
been acquired from Korea in the first century before the Christian 
era, and even record the names of two Korean experts Mai Jun 
and Sho Toku-haku who came to Japan to teach the process. 
In other words, they represent the first exercise of the art as having 
taken place six or seven hundred years after its products had come 
into actual use. There is not any irreconcilable contradiction, of 
course. The Japanese historian may maintain that the mirror had 
been in his countrymen's possession and had been regarded by them 
as a rare and wonderful object, long before they understood the 
processes of its manufacture. But, as a matter of fact, he does not 
appear to have yet noticed the discrepancy between attested facts 
and the statements he advances. 

NOTE 14. Indra and Brama are generally coloured red and green, 

NOTE 15. It is significant that painting also was not applied to 
purposes of portraiture in Japan. A few artists made portraits of 
themselves, but the professional portrait-painter had no existence. 



NOTE 1 6. These zushi have been carried away in great numbers 
to form articles of decorative furniture in foreign houses, for which 
purpose they are now expressly manufactured. It is a fancy which 
to Japanese eyes appears as incongruous as the use of a reredos for 
an over-mantle or of a monstrance for an epergne would seem to 

NOTE 17. Gowland, in the " Journal of the Society of Chemi- 
cal Industry," Vol. XIII. 

NOTE 1 8. A vase, a censer, and a pricket-candlestick formed a 
set, and were collectively called mitsu-gusoku, or " the three articles of 

NOTE 19. The credit of this success belongs to Signer Ragusa. 

NOTE 20. The method of applying the gold was to " lay it thickly 
over varnish composed of hone-powder and lacquer upon hempen 
cloth." (Satow.) 

NOTE 21. Shitan is a favourite wood in China and Japan. It 
is the material used by the Chinese for making reading-desks, book- 
cases, vase-stands, and many other objects of furniture or decora- 
tion. In its natural state its colour is red, but before it emerges 
from the workman's hands it is stained black, and under the fric- 
tion of use it develops a beautiful glossy surface. It is hard, 
close-grained, and almost knotless, being thus specially adapted for 

NOTE 22. This device has been utilised in recent years for 
making metal (silver or shibuichi) cases to contain match-boxes. 

NOTE 23. From about the year 1830 the use of huge tobacco- 
pouches obtained much vogue among the artisan classes. Generally 
these pouches had silver chains for attaching the netsuke, which was 
of the button (manju) variety and proportionately large. Sometimes 
the silver chains numbered as many as fifty, and to such an extent 
was this extravagance carried that a man wearing clothes worth ten 
yen would have a tobacco-pouch worth one hundred yen. 

NOTE 24. In families whose ancestors had the honour of serv- 
ing the Tokugawa Court, there are preserved and treasured long rolls 
of brocade consisting entirely of tobacco-pouch covers sewed together. 
These serve primarily to illustrate the extraordinary variety and beauty 
of the stuffs used for covering pouches, and incidentally to record the 
long service of the families possessing them, for each pouch was a 
New Year's gift from the Shdgun. 

NOTE 25. The shima-dai itself is generally of pure white-pine, 
and the trees, crane, and tortoise which it supports are of silver and 
gold ; but the figures of the old man and the old woman are invariably 

VOL. VII. 4 


NOTE 26. Such chiselling was called itto-bori, or " single-stroke 

NOTE 27. Manufacturers of all small wooden objects were 
generically called himono-shi. 

NOTE 28. From the close of the seventeenth century, wor- 
shippers at the shrines of Sugi-no-Mori Jinja in Yedo fell into the 
habit of presenting an image of clay or wood on the occasion of mak- 
ing a vow or returning thanks to the deity. There were eight 
houses where these images were manufactured, and where, also, the 
puppets used in festival processions were modelled, the material em- 
ployed for the latter being usually a variety of paper called mino- 
gami^ which can be worked up to the consistency and strength of 
planking. The nature of these puppets will be apparent from the 
fact that the most remarkable among them were the Denshichi-migyo 
which had movable eyes. They derived their name from that of 
their maker, Takeoka Denkichi, who, in 1873, constructed with 
mino-gami an exact copy of the Kamakura Dai-Butsu for the 
Vienna Exhibition. The Takeoka family, now represented by 
Takeoka Gohei, were inspired by the example of Matsumoto 
Kisaburo to effect great improvements in the manufacture of these 

NOTE 29. This has been demonstrated by experiments con- 
ducted in Yezo by Professor H. S. Munroe, an American mining- 

NOTE 30. Reference may be made to two huge carp, about nine 
feet in height, which stand at either extremity of the roof-ridge of 
Nagoya Castle. According to popular belief they are made of pure 
gold, but they are in fact copper plated with the precious metal. 

NOTE 31. The gilding process is thus described by Mr. W. 
Gowland, formerly Assayer at the Imperial Japanese Mint, in one 
of a series of valuable essays read before the Society of Chemical 
Industry : u The object of copper or bronze to be gilded was 
immersed in vinegar made from the juice of unripe plums until a 
clean metallic surface was obtained. It was then washed with water 
and dried over a brazier, and mercury was applied to it while it was 
still warm. When the surface had thus been amalgamated, the gold 
was laid upon it in the form of leaves. A stronger heat was then 
applied, the mercury was volatilised, and the gold left perfectly adhe- 
rent." Japanese accounts add that tonoka (freestone powder) was 
mixed with the mercury for application to the surface of the metal ; 
that the process of plating was repeated two, three, and even four 
times, and that polishing with tonoko was finally resorted to. They 
also mention another method: the metal, having been boiled in lye, 



was carefully polished, first with charcoal and afterwards with emery 
powder, a brush of split bamboo (called sasard) being employed for 
the purpose. It was then immersed in plum-juice, afterwards 
covered with a mixture of mercury and gold-dust, and finally heated 
to volatilise the mercury. Polishing by friction with steel needles, 
and, if necessary, u colour-finishing " (troage) were the final processes. 
These descriptions apply to silver plating also. 

NOTE 32. This statement indicates that refining processes of 
great efficiency were adopted in Japan. That is the case ; and con- 
siderable interest attaches to the fact, for these processes seem to 
have been devised, in great part, by the Japanese themselves. Mr. 
W. Gowland says : " When gold was found to contain an undue 
proportion of silver, it was submitted to a curious process for the 
separation of the latter metal. It was first reduced to a coarse pow- 
der by heating it to near its melting-point and then rubbing it on an 
iron plate with a stone or iron rubber. The coarsely powdered gold 
was then mixed with common salt, and a certain proportion of clay, 
and piled up in the form of a cone on an earthen dish. The whole 
was then placed in a furnace containing charcoal fuel, and was kept at 
a red heat for at least twelve hours, by which means the silver was 
converted into chloride. The dish with its contents was then 
removed, washed with hot brine and water, the silver chloride was 
dissolved, and the gold left in a purified state." The test for silver was 
made with the touchstone, but the test for copper was effected by a 
method " unique in assaying operations." The metal was heated to 
redness over a charcoal fire, and when at the proper temperature, was 
rubbed with a stick of hinoki (the wood of the Thaya obtusa) and then 
immersed in water. The presence of copper and its approximate 
amount were determined by the colour and appearance presented by 
the part to which the stick of wood had been applied. So successful 
were the old operators in the application of this test that it is rare to 
find more than 0.25 to 0.35 per cent of copper in the old gold coins. 
If the test showed an excess of copper, it was removed by cupellation 
with lead. 

NOTE 33. In the case of gold this was effected by painting the 
object with a mixture of iron sulphate, copper sulphate, potassium 
nitrate, calcined sodium, chloride and resin, made into a paste with 
water. It was then carefully heated on a grating over a charcoal 
fire, subsequently immersed in a solution of common salt and then 
washed with water, the silver being dissolved out of the upper layer 
of the alloy and a surface of pure gold left (Gowland). In practice, 
the kinzokushi obtained his nitrate of potash by using gunpowder. In 
the case of silver, the following interesting account is given by Mr. 

37 1 


Gowland : " When bars of debased silver (i.e. silver containing undue 
proportions of copper) were cast, a practice which unfortunately was 
not seldom followed, even in the old mints especially for commer- 
cial bars if the military rulers of the country were in need of 
money, a special mode of procedure was adopted. The silver was 
poured into canvas moulds, which were set in troughs of hot water, 
the reason for this being that the alloy contained so much copper 
that, if cast in the ordinary way, the bars would be coated with a 
black layer of oxide from the action of oxygen of the air on the cop- 
per, and this was difficult to remove. By placing the moulds under 
water this oxidation was prevented, and castings with a clear metallic 
surface were obtained. The bars were, however, of a coppery hue, 
and this required removal. They were therefore heated to redness 
over a charcoal fire, and then plunged into vinegar made from the 
juice of unripe plums containing common salt in solution. After 
digestion in this for some hours, they were washed with water and 
then boiled in plum vinegar without salt for one or more hours, 
when they were washed with boiling water and dried. By these 
operations the copper in the alloy was removed from the surface lay- 
ers and a coating of pure silver left." 

NOTE 34. Professor Rein, in his great work u The Industries of 
Japan," describes the method adopted by the celebrated artist Goro- 
saburo of Kyoto to produce a dark coffee-brown patina on copper 
and bronze : tt Equal weights of green vitriol, copper vitriol, and 
sulphur are mixed with water. The copper article is then dipped in 
this bath, which must be often stirred on account of the finely dis- 
tributed sulphur, and then rinsed in a second bath prepared in the 
same way but very much thinner. This process is repeated until the 
necessary corrosion is recognised by long practice. The vessel is 
then brought to the brazier and heated on an iron grate, whose bars 
are from eight to twelve centimeters distant from each other, and 
with frequent turning. In order not to endanger the soldering, these 
bars are sprinkled from time to time with water in which kariyasu 
(Calamagrtstis baknais) has been boiled. The vessel is now rubbed 
with a cloth; then painted lightly with lacquer, rubbed again with the 
cloth, painted once more, and now heated until the sprinkled kariyasu 
water, rolling away in balls, indicates the amount of heat. The 
copper article is then taken from the grate with a pair of tongs and 
coated with a mixture of raw lac and lamp-black. It is then heated 
again up to the point where the water rolls awav in balls, brushed 
over and painted anew with the lac mixture, and so on, till colour 
and lustre have the desired shade, whereupon the work is finished 
and the article is set aside for a second cooling." 



NOTE 35. In bon-zogan^ or true inlaying, a distinction is made be- 
tween b:ra-zogan (flat inlaying), where the inlaying is level with the 
surface of the field, and taka-zogan (relief inlaying), where the out- 
lines of the inlaid design are in slight relief. 

NOTE 36. M. Gonse, in UArt Japonais, dismisses the Goto 
family in a single paragraph, and sums up their style thus : Levrt 
dicors sent mtnotonts pmcifs et fun gout un peu chinois ; Uur invention 
tit pauvre. 

NOTE 37. There are some misapprehensions among European 
collectors with regard to this pan of the subject. Errors of date are 
seldom of much importance in such matters, but occasionally they 
are worth noticing when they affect the history of the art's develop- 
ment. Thus M. Gonse depicts, among the oldest guards to which 
he refers, one by Toshiharu (of Yedo), and assigns it to the end of 
the fifteenth century. But Toshiharu was one of the a Three Mas- 
ters " of the Nara family, and worked in the last quarter of the seven- 
teenth century. Again, M. Gonse puts Kaneiye at the close of the 
fourteenth century, whereas he flourished a hundred years later. He 
also shows a guard by Nagayoshi (of Yamashiro) M incrusted with 
bronze and gold of different tones," having a design of monkeys and 
a vase of flowers which, according to M. Gonse, shows plain 
evidence of Persian influence, and in that context the French critic 
explains that Namban-tetsu means u iron of Persia." Now this 
guard belongs to a comparatively modern class known in Japan as 
Hfian-ttuba (guards of Heian), and justly condemned as most in- 
ferior specimens. They have no connection with any chapter of the 
art's history, but simply represent bad, vulgar workmanship. The 
design is borrowed from a Chinese picture. As for the term Namban- 
tetsu, it has nothing whatever to do with Persia, but was formerly 
applied to all iron imported from Occidental countries. The guard 
referred to by M. Gonse bears the date u 1498," but that seems to be 
a capricious addition on the part of the maker. He might with equal 
truth have written " 1948." Further, speaking of the use of trans- 
lucid enamels in the decoration of sword -furniture, the same author 
accredits the innovation to Kunishiro, whom he places at the end of 
the sixteenth century. Kunishiro was an insignificant workman of the 
eighteenth century. There is no record of his having employed 
verifiable enamels for such a purpose, and if he did, he had been long 
anticipated by the Hirata family. M. Gonse also makes Kinai of 
Yechizen a contemporary of Nobuiye, and puts them both at the 
end of the sixteenth century. But Nobuiye flourished in the first 
part of that century, and the great Kinai in the second half of the 
seventeenth. These comments are made simply in the interests of 



accuracy, and not with any intention of criticising an author whose 
knowledge, considering the circumstances under which it was ac- 
quired, must be pronounced remarkable, and who has brought so much 
light to bear on every branch of Japanese art. 

NOTE 38. Runinaga and Yoshishige are described by tradition 
as the first really skilled artists of Kaga. Their personal names 
were respectively Jiro and Goro, and their carvings were known as 
yiro-saku and Goro-saku. 

NOTE 39. A kozuka by Toshihisa was sold fifty years ago for a 
sum which would now represent 1200 yen. It was made of iron, and 
the design, chiselled in high relief, represented the Chinese celebrities 
Liu Pei, Chu Koh-liang, and Kwan Yu. 

NOTE 40. Not to be confounded with the Okamoto family of 
Kyoto, founded by Harukuni in 1740, the second representative 
of which is the celebrated Naoshige, known in the art world as 
" Tetsugen." 

NOTE 41. The meagre nature of the information contained in 
Japanese records with regard to the Kinai experts is remarkable. 
They are spoken of merely as " Kinai," neither their family names 
nor their dates being given. The writer of these notes caused spe- 
cial investigations to be made in Yechizen, and found that the first 
Kinai was called Ishikawa, the second Takahashi, and that the family 
was a branch of the Miyochin. The tomb of Ishikawa Kinai shows 
that he died in 1680, and that of Takahashi Kinai, that he died in 
1696. There is in Yechizen a tradition that the feudal chief of the 
province ordered the second Kinai to carve a pair of iron menuki in 
the shape of mandarin ducks. Kinai did not complete the work 
until three years had passed, and, almost immediately afterwards, one 
of the menuki was lost during the chiefs journey to Yedo. Kinai, 
being required to replace the missing menuki, chiselled a substitute in 
one day, and was then severely rebuked for having previously taken 
three years to accomplish a work which could easily have been finished 
in as many days. His answer was : " Put those two menuki in 
water and observe the difference." That being done, the new me- 
nuki sank at once, but the original one floated, so delicately had it been 

NOTE 42. It has been found by measurement that lines cut in 
guards of iron shakudo^ etc., have a width not exceeding 3/100 of 
an inch. The tool used for such work is scarcely imaginable. 

NOTE 43. Yoshitsugu's personal name was Kichiji, and he re- 
ceived the appellation of " Kichiji Kinai " from contemporary con- 
noisseurs, who placed him on the same level as the great Kinai. 
NOTE 44. Not to be confounded with Masu-ya. There were 



four well-known experts whose ateliers went by the name of Masu- 
ya. They were, Uyemura Kuninaga (1680), of Kyoto, known as 
" Masu-ya Kuhei ; " Uyemura Kichibei, of Kyoto, known as 
41 Masu-ya Kichibei ; " Torii Jokwo, of Osaka, known as Masu-ya 
Uhei ; and Uyemura Muneminc (1720), or Masu-ya Kihei. 

NOTE 45. Miidera is the name of a famous temple on the shore 
of Lake Biwa in Omi. An autumn evening on the lake while the 
bell of the temple tolls is one of the " Eight Views " of Omi. 

NOTE 46. One of Joi's guards (shakudo) carries the picture 
known as Munetaka no Matsu. On the face, Yoshitsune, in full 
armour, rides to his final victory over the Taira ; on the reverse, a 
troop of armed men with halberds and banners, appear partially above 
the rim of the guard so as to suggest distance and numbers. This 
guard was sold forty years ago to a Japanese provincial magnate for 
the equivalent of about 500 yen in the currency of the present time. 

NOTE 47. The attention of collectors should be drawn to one 
point connected with the Hamano experts. It is that among the 
eleven art names used by Shozui, four (Otsuriuken, Miboku, Rifudo, 
and Kankyo) appear upon the works of Masanobu, and two (Otsuriu- 
ken and Miboku) upon the works of Norinobu. Thus a specimen 
cannot be exactly identified merely because it bears one or more of 
these names. Another point is that Masayoshi, a pupil of Shozui, 
was called " Shozui Bozu " (old man Shozui), and being exceptionally 
skilful as an imitator of old masterpieces, did not hesitate to copy the 
works of his teacher and to mark them Shtizui. 

NOTE 48. These details were first published by Mr. W. 

NOTE 49. It is related of Hidari Jingoro that when a friend 
recommended him to exercise more caution with the view of emerg- 
ing from a condition of extreme poverty, he replied, " Pleasure lies 
hidden in poverty. Does not the plum blossom in snow ? " 

NOTE 50. This was called nata-gake^ nata being the term for 

NOTE 51. Round the four sides of a Japanese chamber, at a 
height of six feet, runs a horizontal beam of finely grained knotless 
timber, nailed at intervals to similar vertical beams. The beauty of 
the timber being a cardinal feature, it is necessary to conceal the nail- 
heads. That is effected by fastening over them pieces of metal 
chiselled in various shapes and designs. 

NOTE 52. The mirror is said to have belonged to the Emperor 

NOTE 53. Mr. Bowes maintained his views with remarkable 
firmness. No Japanese collection, public or private, contained any 



specimen of the wares which he supposed to have been produced 
and preserved in temples and noblemen's residence during nearly 
three centuries. No Japanese connoisseur had any knowledge of 
such objects having been manufactured previously to 1837. All 
the circumstances under which their production had commenced at 
the latter date, were well known and had been officially recorded. 
The artisan who had originated the work was living and had received 
a reward from the Government for his invention. Some of the 
specimens which Mr. Bowes attributed to the seventeenth century 
were unhesitatingly identified by artisans of the present time as their 
own work, and the signatures which certain of these specimens bore 
were claimed by the men who had actually signed them. But none 
of these things shook Mr. Bowes' faith. He thought that he could 
detect in the wares themselves technical evidence, or signs of wear 
and tear, justifying his theory, and he clung to that theory with a 
tenacity which, considering the testimony on the other side, is 
probably unique. 

NOTE 54. A possible exception is a Koto (musical instrument) 
said to have belonged to the poet Chomei in the twelfth century. It 
has mosaics of cloisonne enamel on the face and sides. 

NOTE 55. Kaji supposed that the specimen was Dutch. There 
can be little doubt that it was a Chinese enamel imported by the 
Dutch at Nagasaki. 

NOTE 56. It will be at once understood that such a method, to 
be successful, implies great command of coloured pastes. Indeed, 
no feature of enamel manufacture is more conspicuous than the 
progress made by the Japanese in that respect during the past twenty 
years (1880 1900), and much of it is due to the assistance of a 
profoundly skilled German expert, the late Dr. Waagener. 

NOTE 57. It is a mere accident that the representatives of the 
Kyoto and Tokyo schools are both called Namikawa. There is no 
relationship. Moreover, the Kyoto Namikawa is himself an expert 
of the highest skill ; the T5kyo Namikawa is only an enterprising 
and resourceful employer of experts. 

NOTE 58. In connection with the question of technical processes 
a fact of some interest may be mentioned. Up to the year 1 890 the 
cloisons were attached to the base with solder which, when repeatedly 
exposed to the heat of the furnace, showed a tendency to "boil," 
thus causing holes in the enamel. Hence it often happened that 
vases or plaques upon which great labour had been expended, were 
found to be disfigured by pittings and scars when they finally emerged 
from the fire. These defects were usually hidden with wax, the 
result being that a specimen showing a glossy uniform surface at the 


time of purchase, was subsequently found to lose its lustre and 
develop unaccountable blemishes. From 1890, when the choicest 
kinds of enamels began to be manufactured, a glue obtained from the 
root of the orchid (ran) was substituted for brass solder, the danger 
of flaws being thus avoided at some expense of durability. 

NOTE 59. The most scientific and exhaustive information with 
respect to lacquer manufacture is to be found in the "Industries of 
Japan" by Professor Rein, who studied the processes by engaging in 
them with his own hands. The practical experience he thus gained, 
supplemented by scientific knowledge, enabled him to publish the 
first really satisfactory monograph, to which free recourse has been 
made for the details here given. 

NOTE 60. The process of evaporating the moisture is constantly 
seen in the streets of cities. The lac is put into large pans, and 
these being placed in an inclined position, their contents are stirred 
for several hours with a large spatula. 

NOTE 61. The drying of lacquer is not effected by heat: a 
damp, cool atmosphere is essential. The object is usually enclosed 
in a wooden chest of which the sides and cover have been saturated 
with water. 

NOTE 62. Many collectors have been betrayed into purchasing, 
as genuine tsui-shu, specimens which are simply carved wood overlaid 
with red lacquer, in the manner of the Kamakura-bori mentioned in 
the text. Note must also be taken of imitation tsui-shu, of which the 
surface is a putty, composed of lacquer, ochre, glue, and wheat- 
flour, having a decorative design impressed on it. This kind of 
lacquer is largely applied to articles of wood or porcelain, such as 
trays, tobacco-boxes, vases, lecterns, etc. 





A JOUR, early use of chiselling, 74 ; 
bronze castings, 1 40 ; develop- 
ment of chiselling, 277282. 

Akao family, sword-decorators, 281. 

Aki, Miyochin, armourer, 263. 

Alcove recess, decorative purpose of 
picture in, 3. 

Alloys used in Japanese art, 23 2 236, 
317; antimony ware, 318. Sft 
also Bronze. 

Amida, seventh-century bronze statue 

of, 79- 

Anami Kwoyetsu, lacquerer, 346, 

Anatomy, Japanese art attitude, 8, 
33, 57, 200. 

Anderson, William, on Chinese pic- 
torial art, 24-26; on the Japanese 
Classical school, 39 ; on an ancient 
mural painting, 152. 

Aoki family, sword- decorators, 269. 

Applied art, Shoso-in collection, 20, 
87-89 ; first evidence, 72 ; shrines, 
115; religious monopoly, 135; 
rise of secular, 135. See also 
Bronze, Enamel, Interior decora- 
tion. Iron, Lacquer, Metal- 
work, Sculpture, Sword-furniture. 

Arakawa Reiun, wood-carver, 20 i. 

Araki Kwampo, painter, 63. 

Architecture, character of early Bud- 
dhist temples, 148. Set also In- 
terior decoration. 

Ariyoshi Nagato-nl>-Sbe, mask-carver, 

Armour, beginning of decoration, 74, 
205 ; Yoshitsune's, 205. 

BELLS, ancient, 72, 99 ; tone, 99, 
101 ; dimensions, 100; metal, 

Bells (continued): 

101 ; proportions, 102 ; form, 
103 ; decoration, 103 ; method of 
hanging, 103. 

Bowes, J. L., mistake on Japanese 
enamels, 331, 375. 

Boya Magojiuro, mask-carver, 166. 

Bronze, Japanese, introduction of cast- 
ing, 70; use in weapons, 71 ; 
stone moulds, 7 1 ; early mirrors 
and bells, 72, 96 ; method of 
constructing early statues, 75 ; 
early temple ornaments and deco- 
rations, 78 ; statues of the seventh 
century, 79 ; introduction of the 
(ire-perdue process of casting, 80 ; 
Nara Daibutsu, 85, 132-134; 
objects in the Shoso-in collection, 
88, 89; temple bells, 99-104; 
gongs, 104; Kamakura Daibutsu, 
III, 114, I2O; composition, 
125; quality, 127; yellow, 128; 
process of casting, 129-134; Na- 
goshi family of art founders, 136- 
138; development of casting in 
Tokugawa epoch, 139141 ; fora 
1 40 ; manufacture of parlour 
bronzes, 141144; modern cast- 
ings, 144147 ; Occidental influ- 
ence, 147 ; relation of the sculptor 
and founder, 148. Set also Fine 
Arts, Sculpture. 

Bronze age in Japan, 70. 

Brush, Japanese painting, 1 1 . 

Buddhism, influence on Japanese art, 
17-19, 29, 75, 82, 106, 119- 
125; influence on Chinese art, 
21 ; character of religious paint- 
ings, 30 ; religious zeal of em- 
perors, 1 08 ; temples monopolise 


Buddhism {continued}: 

sculptures, 117; character of early 
temples, 148-150; ceremonial 
splendour, 149. 

Buncho, chromo-xylographer, 50. 

Bunrin, painter, 62. 

Bunzo, mask-carver, 165. 

Buto Gempachi, sword-decorator, 

Button for girdle-pendants. See 


CARICATURES, character of Japanese, 

Castings. See Bronze, Iron. 

Chamberlain, B. H., on Japanese 
pictorial art, 15. 

Cbampleve, variety of enamel decora- 
tion, 327. See also Enamel. 

Chiaroscuro. See Light and shade. 

Chigusa, mask-carver, 166. 

Chikanobu. See Izeki Jirozaemon. 

Chikudo Ganki. See Ganki. 

China, relation to Japanese art, 16 
24, 3740, 78, 367 ; prehistoric 
contact with Japan, 98 ; character 
of sculpture, 119. 

Chiselling, varieties of chisels, 229 ; 
methods, 241-243, 247, 274. 
See also Metal-work, Sculpture, 

Chiyo family, sword- decorators, 286 

Cho Dense. See Meicho. 

Choan, Koami, lacquerer, 360. 

Chobunsai, chromo-xylographer, 50 

Choen, sculptor, 1 10. 

Chohci, lacquerer, 363. 

Choho, Koami, lacquerer, 361. 

Chokyu, Koami, lacquerer, 361. 

Chosei, sculptor, 1 1 o. 

Chbshiu province, school of sword- 
decorators, 279. 

Choshun, sculptor, no. 

Choun Yasuyoshi, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Chromo-xylography. See Wood. 

Chuen, sculptor, no. 

Civilisation, Japanese, European at- 
titude toward, i ; gradual influence 
of the Occident before the Revo- 
lution of 1867, 65; ancient, in- 
dustrial rather than agricultural, 
69 ; prehistoric contact with 
China and Korea, 98 ; art instinct, 
177 ; attitude toward art and na- 
ture, 225-227. 

Classical school of pictorial art, char- 
acteristics, 38-40; branches, 40. 
See also Kose school, Pictorial art. 

Clay statues, technique, 84 ; famous, 
86. See also Sculpture. 

Cloisonne, variety of enamel decora- 
tion, 327. See also Enamel. 

Colour in art, Chinese use, 22, 24; in 
religious pictures, 30 ; in decora- 
tions of the Kano school, 42; hand- 
coloured prints, 47 ; development 
of chromo-xylographs, 4850 ; 
Japanese knowledge and use, 56, 
1 60 ; in interior decorations, 159. 

Conder, J., on character of Japanese 
decorative designs, 158. 

Copper, use in sword-decorating, 236. 

Costumes. See Sage-mono. 

DAIBUTSU, Nara, 85, 132-134; 
Kamakura, III, 114, 1 2O. 

Dansho, mask-carver, 166. 

Deme family, mask-carvers, 166, 167. 

Dengyo Daishi, artist- priest, 29, 109. 

Deva Kings (Shi-Tenno), eighth- 
century clay statues of, 86 ; (Ni-o) 
temple Kofuku-ji statues, 1 1 2 
temple Todai-ji statues, 113. 

Distemper, use in Japanese decora- 
tion, 152. 

Docho, Koami, lacquerer, 345. 

Door, panel paintings, 3. 

Dosei, Koami, lacquerer, 345, 361. 

Dragon in Japanese art, 253. 

Drama, popularity of the No, 162; 
use of masks, 163 ; influence on 
the theatre, 164. 

Drawing. See Line. 



ECHI YOSHIFUNE, msk-carver, 165. 

Economic condition, ancient, 69. 

Eishin, Hidari, decorative-sculptor, 

Eitoku, painter, 42. 

Eiyen, sculptor, 1 1 6. 

Enamel, as sword-decoration, 285; 
composition, 327 ; varieties, 327 ; 
introduction, 328, 329, 332; 
technique, 328, 376; former uses, 
33~333 375; modern develop- 
ment, 333-340; Japanese and 
Chinese, compared, 340. 

Engraving. See Metal, Wood. 

Ensei, sculptor, 1 10. 

Enso, sculptor, 109. 

Eshin, sculptor-priest, 109. 

FENOLLOSA, E. F., on Japanese pic- 
torial art, 15. 

Feudalism, influence on Japanese art, 
38, in. 

Fine arts, Japanese, genesis, 1719, 
193 ; influence of Buddhism, 29, 
82, 106, 119-125; continuity of 
development, 70 ; character of 
artists, 156, l6l, 318; instinct, 
177; attitude toward the nude, 
1 80; canons, 191, 203; consci- 
entiousness, 208 ; Japanese attitude 
toward, 225-227, 229; effect of 
the Revolution of 1867 and a for- 
eign market, 322-325. See alto 
Bronze, Enamel, Interior decora- 
tion, Lacquer, Metal-work, Picto- 
rial art, Sculpture, Sword-furni- 

Forgery in Japanese fine arts, 324. 

Fresco painting not employed by Jap- 
anese, 152. 

Fujii family, sword-decorators, 280. 

Fukurai Masatomo, mask-carver, 
1 66. 

Kagan, figure-sculptor, 




Miyochin, armourer, 

GANKI, painter, 62. 

Ganku, painter, 60. 

Ganku, sculptor-priest, no. 

Gekkei, painter, 62. 

Genjiro. See Jirozaemon Yoshimitsu. 

Genkiu Mitsufusa, Deme, maik- 
carver, 167. 

Genkiu Mitsunaga, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Genkiu Mitsushige, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Genkiu Mitsuzane, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Genre painting, development, 44. 

Gcnri Toshimitsu, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Genri Yoshimitsu, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Gensuke Hidemitsu, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Gensuke Mitsukira, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Gilding, method, 370. 

Girdle pendants. See Sage-mono. 

Girls' fete, dolls, 194. 

Gold, use in Japanese art, 74, 229 
231 ; surfacing debased, 231, 371 ; 
method of gilding with, 370 ; pro- 
cess of refining, 371. 

Golden Pavilion, decoration, 153, 

Gongs, origin, 1 04 ; varieties, 1 04 ; 
tone, 105. 

Gonse, Louis, on Japanese pipe cases, 
190; on motives in sword-deco- 
ration, 227 ; on Japanese lacquer, 
360 ; on the Goto family, 373 ; 
misapprehensions on sword-decora- 
tors, 373. 

Gorobei, sword- decorator, 287. 

Goto family, sword-decorators, 2 1 2, 
219-225, 298; skill and motives 
of early masters, 252260, 373 ; 
art influence, 260, 261, 272; 
branches, 299. 

Gowland, W., on quality of Japanese 
bronze, 127; on method of cast- 



Gowland (continued} : 

ing bronze, 129132; on Japanese 

alloys, 232, 235 ; on method of 

gilding, 370; on refining processes, 

371; on " surfacing ' ' metals, 371. 
Graining of metals for art use, 245- 

247 ; origin, 262. 
Greek art and Japanese art, 1719, 

78, 80, 1 19-1 22, I 24, 368 ; and 

Chinese art, 21. 
Guard, sword, 219; development of 

decoration, 250, 261265, 277; 

materials, 265. 
Gunkei, mask-carver, 166. 
Guri-bori, variety of metal decoration, 

Gyogi, sculptor-priest, 81. 

HADAGORO, lacquerer, 345, 360. 
Hamano family, sword-decorators, 

291, 33. 3 6 375- 

Hammering of metal, 312. 

Han Kan, Chinese artist, 22. 

Hanzan, lacquerer, 363. 

Hanzo. See Hokan Mitsunao. 

Hanzo Yasukore, Deme, mask-carver, 

Hara Yoyusai, lacquerer, 362. 

Haruaki, Ishiguro, sword-decorator, 

Harukuni, Okamoto, sword-decora- 
tor, 294. 

Harunari, Hirata, sword-decorator, 
285, 308. 

Harunobu, Suzuki, chromo-xylog- 
rapher, 49, 50. 

Haruwaka Tadatsugu, mask-carver, 
1 66. 

Haruyori. See Shunzui. 

Hasegawa Kumazo, art-founder, 145, 

Hashi-ichi, sculptor, 191. 

Hashimoto Gaho, painter, 63 ; west- 
ern influence upon, 68. 

Heian epoch, and the beginning of 
secular pictorial art, 2729 ; char- 
acter of sculpture in, 106109. 

Hibi Munetada, mask-carver, 165. 
Hidekiyo, Omori, sword-decorator, 

Hidenori, Omori, sword-decorator, 

Hidetomo, Omori, sword-decorator, 


Hidetsugu, lacquerer, 345, 360. 
Hideyori. See Shuzui. 
Hideyori, Omori, sword-decorator, 

Hideyoshi, Omori, sword-decorator, 

Hideyoski, the Taiko, as an art 

patron, 135, 150, 162; Palace 

of Pleasure, 270. 
Hien Wantsz, sculptor, 81. 
Hikoshiro, Hirata, sword-decorator, 

Hirata family, sword-decorators and 

enamellers, 285, 300, 312, 332. 
Hiroshige, chromo-xylographer, 50. 
Hirotaka, painter, 31, 35. 
Hiroyoshi, Kuwamura, sword -dec- 
orator, 272. 

Hisayori. ;; Juzui, Kiuzui. 
Hishigawa Moronobu, xylographer, 


Hogen, art title, 117. 
Hoin, art title, 1 10. 
Hokan Mitsunao, Deme, mask-carver, 

Hokke-do Trinity, famous group of 

dry lacquer statues, 86. 
Hokkei, chromo-xylographer, 50. 
Hokusai, art characteristics, 9, I o ; 

chromo-xylographer, 50 ; traces 

of Western influence upon, 67. 
Hokyo, art title, 1 1 o. 
Honjo Yoshitane, swordsmith and 

decorator, 309. 

Horai Ujitoki, mask-carver, 166. 
Horu-ji, temple, ancient distemper 

painting in, 152. 
Hosho family, No dancers, 162. 
Hosono Masamori, inlayer, 273. 
Hotokusai, art-founder, 144. 



Hoyen, painter, 62. 
Hozan, mask-carver, 166. 
Humour in Japanese sculpture, 85. 
See aho Caricatures. 

ICHIBEI, Nara, sword-decorator, 288. 

Ichijo, Goto, sword-decorator, 298- 
301 ; specimens of his work, 307. 

Ichikawa Hirosuke, alleged sword- 
decorator, 218. 

Ideographa, influence on pictorial art, 
8, 11, 31 ; helmet characters, 

Igarashi Doho, lacquerer, 361. 

Igarashi Shinsai, lacquerer, 345, 361. 

Illustrations, freaks, 33 ; of the Tosa 
school, 34 ; development of wood 
engraving, 4547 ; hand-coloured 
prints, 47 ; development of col- 
oured prints, 4851 ; technique of 
coloured prints, 5155. See also 
Pictorial art. 

Imao Keinen, painter, 63. 

Inaba-no-suke, title used by Yoshioka 
family, 283, 284. 

Incho, sculptor, Iio. 

Inchu, sculptor, 116. 

Industry in ancient Japan, 69. 

Injin, sculptor, 1 1 6. 

Injo, sculptor, no, 116. 

Inkaku, sculptor, no. 

In ken, sculptor, 116. 

Inko, sculptor, 1 16. 

Inku, sculptor, 1 1 6. 

Inlaying, in sword-decoration, 220, 
272; varieties, 243245; in- 
serted, 313; sepia, 315; ground- 
out, 315. 

Inouye family, sword-decorators, 286. 

Inro, girdle pendant, original and 
acquired use and fashion, 173 ; its 
cord-clutch, 173; decoration, 
1 86. 

Insertion in metal work, 313. 

Inshu, sculptor, 1 1 6. 

Inso, sculptor, 1 1 6. 

Inson, sculptor, 1 1 o. 

Interior decoration, decorative pur- 
pose of Japanese pictures, 3, 34, 
42; growth of demand, 32, 42, 
43 ; seventh-century temple, 78 ; 
early use of pictorial, 149, 151 
153; development of sculptured, 
1 50 ; pictorial, of the Golden 
and Silver Pavilions, 153 ; pictorial 
and sculptured, of Nishi Hong- 
wan-ji, 154; pictorial and sculp- 
tured, of the Nikko mausoleum, 
1 55~ I 57; general and particular 
aspects, 157 ; character of designs, 
158; use of colours, 159; use of 
metal- carvings, 326. 

Inyu, sculptor, 116. 

Ippitsusai, chromo-xylographer, 50. 

Iron, displaces bronze in swords, 71 ; 
ancient bell-shaped castings of un- 
known use, 73 ; first manufacture 
of vessels of, 136; tea-ceremonial 
urn and its influence, 136138; 
in sword-decoration, 236; patina, 
237. See aho Bronze, Metal- 

Iron age in Japan, 70. 

Ishiguro family, sword-decorators, 
301, 306. 

Ishikawa Riuyemon Shigemasa, mask- 
carver, 165. 

Isono family, metal-carvers and 5n- 
layers, 284. 

Ito family, sword-decorators, 282, 

Ittan. See Sanehisa. 

Ittosai, mask-carver, 165. 

Iwamoto family, sword- decorators, 
286, 293, 303, 306. 

Iwasa Matahei, painter, 44. 

lyefusa, Miyochin, armourer, 267. 

lyemasa, Nagoshi, art-founder, 138. 

lyetsugu, Jiyemon, art-founder, 141. 

lyeyasu, Shogun, mausoleum, 154. 

Izeki Jirozaemon, mask-carver, 168. 

Izeki Kawachi lycshige, mask-carver, 

Izuka Toyo, lacquerer, 362. 


JAKUSHI. See Kizayemon. 

(ikan Yoshimitsu, Deme, mask- 
carver, 1 66. 

Jimpo, Nomura, sword- decorator, 287. 

Jingo, Aoki, sword-decorator, 269. 

Jingoro, Hidari, decorative- sculptor, 
151, 156, 157. 

Jirozaemon Mitzuteru, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Jirozaemon Norimitsu, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Jirozaemon Yoshimitsu, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Jitsuye, artist-priest, 29. 

Jiunin, mask-carver, 166. 

Jiyemon family, art- founders, 141. 

Jochiku, Isono, metal-carver, 284. 

Jocho, sculptor, 107, no; record 
of his work, 168 ; titles, 109, no. 

Joho, art- founder, 138. 

Joi, Nara, sword-decorator, 289 ; 
specimen of his work, 375. 

Jokaku, sculptor, ill; his Deva 
Kings, 113. 

Jokasai, lacquerer, 363. 

Jokei. See Gensuke Hidemitsu. 

Jomi. See Sansho. 

Josei, art-founder, 138. 

Josetsu, artist-priest, 37, 40. 

Joshin. See Gensuke Hidemitsu. 

Joshin, Goto, sword-decorator, 220, 

Jotetsu, Isono, metal-carver, 285. 

Joun. See Oshima Katsujiro. 

Joyen, sculptor, 1 1 6. 

Joyu, Nagoshi, art-founder, 138. 

Jubei, Aoki, sword -decora tor, 269. 

Jujo, Goto, sword-decorator, 223. 

Juzui, Hamano, sword- decorator, 303. 

KACHO, metal-carver, 326. 

Kaga province as an art centre, 270. 

Kaikei, sculptor, 1 1 6. 

Kaji Tsunekichi, enameler, 333. 

Kajikawa Kaijiro, lacquerer, 362. 

Kakino Moto-no-Otema, sculptor, 81. 

Kakosai, lacquerer, 363. 

Kaku-no-bo, mask-carver, 166. 

Kakujo, sculptor, 1 1 o. 

Kakuyu, Minamoto no, caricaturist, 

Kamakura epoch. See Military epoch. 

Kambayashi Rakkiken, figure-sculptor, 

Kame, art-founder, 142. 

Kameyama Yasutomo, art-founder, 

Kamparu family, No dancers, 162. 

Kan- Kan. See Han Kan. 

Kanaoka, Kose no, painter, Chinese 
influence on, 16, 22 ; position, 28 ; 
style, 28; no surviving pictures, 
28 ; and the Kose school, 34. 

Kanashi, sculptor, 80. 

Kanaya, metal-carver, 270. 

Kanaya Gorosaburo, art- founder, 145. 

Kanazawa as an art centre, 271. 

Kaneiye, sword- decorator, 250, 266. 

Kaneko family, sword-decorators, 286. 

Kano Natsuo, sword-decorator, 309. 

Kano school of pictorial art, branch 
of the Classical school, 40 ; devel- 
opment of the decorative method, 
42. See also Pictorial art. 

Kansai, chromo-xylographer, 5 1 . 

Kansai, Koma, lacquerer, 362. 

Ktnsei, sculptor, 109. 

Kanyen, sculptor, 1 1 6. 

Kashiwaya Nagatsune, metal- carver, 

Kasuga Motomitsu, painter, alleged 
founder of the Yamato school, 32, 


Kasuga Tori, mask-carver, 166. 
Kasuga school of pictorial art, 33. 

See also Pictorial art, Yamato school. 
Kata-kiri style of incised chiselling, 


Katsugi Uji-iye, sword-decorator, 

Katsukawa Shunsho, chromo-xylog- 
rapher, 50. 

Katsukawa Shunyei, chromo-xylog- 
rapher, 50. 



Kitsumast, Hidan, decorative-sculp- 
tor, 161. 

Kawabata Gyokusho, painter, 63. 

Kawanari, painter, traditional skill 
and originality, 27. 

Kawanobe Itcho, lacquerer, 363. 

Kawarabayashi Hidekuni, sword- 
decorator, 310. 

Kazutomo, Omori, sword-decorator, 

Kcibun, painter, 62. 

Keibunkai, sculptor, 81. 

Kcibunkomi, sculptor, 81. 

Keijo, sword-decorator, 224. 

Keisai, art-founder, 143. 

Kenjo, Goto, sword-decorator, 221, 


Kenyen, sculptor, 110. 
Kichijo-in, mask-carver, 1 66. 
Kijima Ippu, inlayer, 315. 
Kikuchi Yosai, painter, 62. 
Kikugawa Utamaro, chromo-xylog- 

rapher, 50. 
Kimara, sculptor, 80. 
Kimimaro, sculptor, founder of the 

Nara Daibutsu, 81. 
Kimmochi, painter, 35. 
Kinai family, sword-decorators, 280, 


Kincbaku, different uses, 169 ; method 
of wearing, 169. See also Sage- 

Kinonaga, Torii, chromo-xylographer, 

Kintada, painter, 35. 

Kishiu, Miyochin, armourer, 263. 

Kitagawa Soden, sword -decorator, 

Kitao Shigemasa, chromo-xylogra- 
pher, 50. 

Kiuhaku, Koma, lacquerer, 361. 

Kiui, Koma, lacquerer, 361. 

Kiushiu. See Izeki Jirozaemon. 

Kiuzui, Hamano, sword-decorator, 

Kiyohiro, Torii, chromo-xylographer, 

Kiyoji-tate, shape, use, and decora- 
tion, 192. 

Kiyomasu, Torii, chromo-xylogra- 
pher, 48. 

Kiyomitsu, mask-carver, 165. 

Kiyomitsu, Torii, chromo-xylogra- 
pher, 48. 

Kiyonaga, Torii, chromo-xylographer, 

Kiyonari, Ishiguro, sword-decorator, 

Kiyonobu, Torii, chromo-xylogra- 
pher, 48. 

Kiyosai, chromo-xylographer, 5 1 ; 
on motion in art, 57 ; as a genre 
painter, 62. 

Kiyoshige, Torii, chromo-xylogra- 
pher, 48. 

Kizan. See Jikan. 

Kizayemon, sword -decorator, 290. 

Koami family, lacquerers, 345, 360, 

Koben, sculptor, 113, 116; his 
Demon-lantern-bearers, 113. 

Kobo Daishi, artist-priest, 29, 109 ; 
no surviving pictures, 30 ; brings 
pictures from China, 367. 

Kocho, sculptor, 110. 

Kodama Choyemon Yoshimitsu, mask- 
carver, 1 68. 

Kodama Omi Mitsumasa, mask- 
carver, 1 68. 

Kogai, origin, 218; origin of decora- 
tion, 251. See also Sword-furni- 

Kogitsune, metal-carver, 282. 

K'ogb, use and decoration, 192. 

Koji, Yamagawa, sword-decorator, 

J 9 ' 
Kqjo, sculptor, 1 10. 

Kokei, sculptor, 113, 1 1 6. 

Kokitsu, sculptor, 1 1 6. 

Koko. See Hiroyoshi. 

Koma family, lacquerers, 361, 


Ko-maro, sculptor, 109. 
Kongo family, No dancers, 162. 



Konju, Ivvamoto, sword-decorator, 

Konkvvan, Iwamoto, sword-decorator, 

Korea, influence on Japanese art, 16- 

19, 76; prehistoric contact with 

Japan, 98. 
Koreo, Ishiguro, sword-decorator, 


Koreshige, painter, 35. 
Koreshige, Ishiguro, sword-decorator, 

Koretsune, Ishiguro, sword-decorator, 

Koreyoshi, Ishiguro, sword-decorator, 

302 ; specimen of his work, 306. 
K5rin, painter, 62. 
Korin, sculptor, 116. 
Koriu-ji, temple, bronze statues of 

seventh century in, 79. 
Koriusai, chromo-xylographer, 50. 
Kose no Kanaoka. See Kanaoka. 
Kose school of pictorial art, Chinese 

style, 34 ; object of its work, 36. 

See aho Pictorial Art. 
Kosei, sculptor, 1 1 6. 
Koshin, sculptor, 116. 
Kosho, Heian-epoch sculptor, 107, 

110; tides, 109. 

Kosho, Military-epoch sculptor, 1 1 6. 
Koshu, sculptor, 1 1 6. 
Koshun, sculptor, 1 1 6. 
Koson, sculptor, 1 1 6. 
Kotan, sculptor, 116. 
Koun, Heian-epoch sculptor-priest, 

Koun, Military -epoch sculptor-priest, 

1 1 6. 
Koun, Takamura, sculptor, 201 ; 

school, 20 1. 

Koushi, mask-carver, 165. 
Koyei, sculptor, 116. 
Koyo, sculptor, 116. 
Koyu, sculptor, 1 16. 
Kezuka, origin of wearing, 218; 

origin of decoration, 251. See 

4/ftf Sword-furniture. 

Kubo Shunman, chromo-xylographer, 


Kukai. See Kobo Daishi. 
Kumagaye Naohiko, painter, 63. 
Kuninaga, sword-decorator, 272,374. 
Kusakari Kiyosada, inlayer, 296. 
Kuwamura family, sword-decorators, 


Kwaikei, sculptor, ill; his Deva 

Kings, 113. 
Kwanjo, Iwamoto, sword-decorator, 

Kwannon, goddess of mercy, Shoto- 

ku's statue, 77 ; wooden statue in 

temple Hokke-ji, 87. 
Kwanri, Iwamoto, sword-decorator, 


Kwanze family, No dancers, 162. 
Kwojo, Goto, sword-decorator, 221, 

222 ; style, 259. 
Kyoto, capital of Japan, influence on 

art development, 32. 

LACQUER, statues, 84, 86 ; qualities, 
341 ; introduction, 342; develop- 
ment and use, 343345, 346, 
349 ; early master lacquerers, 
34 5; modern conditions, 349 ; 
technique, 349-354, 377 > deco- 
ration, 354358; special varieties, 

Lapidary work, ancient Japanese, 92. 

Leather used in girdle-pendants, 170. 

Light and shade, in Japanese pictures, 
5> *5 3> 595 in Chinese pic- 
tures, 22, 25. 

Line, in Japanese art, influence of 
ideographs, 8 ; styles of touch, 9 ; 
influence of artist's position while 
painting, 12; precedence, 12, 57, 
58, 229; in Chinese art, 22; in 
religious pictures, 30 ; in carica- 
tures, 36 ; development in incised 
chiselling, 274. 

Mambi. See Tosui. 



Manku. See Tosui. 

Mannerisms and copying in Japanese 

pictures, i 3 . 

Mansho. See Kodama Omi. 
Manual dexterity of Japanese artists, 

9-1 1. 

Manyei. See Genkiu Mitsunaga. 
Maruyama Okio, painter, founder of 

the Shi-jo school, 59, 60. 
Masachika, Nara, sword-decorator, 

Masaharu, Ishiguro, sword-decorator, 

Masahiro, Ishiguro, sword- decorator, 

Masakiyo, Ishiguro, sword-decorator, 


Masamine, Koami, lacquerer, 361. 
Masamitsu. See Yeijo. 
Masamune no Buss hi, sculptor, 

Masanaga, Nara, sword-decorator, 

288, 289. 
Masanobu, painter, founder of the 

Kano school, 40. 
Masanobu, Nara, sword-decorator, 


Masatsugu. See Kenjo. 
Masatsune, art-founder, 143. 
Masatsune, Ishiguro, sword-decorator, 


Masatsune, Ito, sword- decorator, 282. 
Masayori, Hamano, sword- decorator, 


Masayoshi, Ishiguro, sword-decora- 
tor, 302. 
Masks, use in the No dance, 163; 

as works of art, 165 ; celebrated 

carvers, 165-168. 
Masu-ya, artists called, 375. 
Matabei, Muneta, sword-decorator, 


Matacmon, wood-carver, 150. 
Matazayemon, Muneta, sword-deco- 
rator, 268. 
Matsumoto Kisaburo, figure- sculptor, 


Mayeda Toshiiye, chief ot Kaga, 
career, 270 ; art patron, 271. 

Maze-gane, process in metal work, 

Medicine box. See Inro. 

Meicho, painter, 31. 

Meishin. See Shigeyoshi (Meishin). 

Menesuke, Miyochin, armourer, 262. 

Menuki, sword-mount, origin of dec- 
oration, 217, 251. See alia 

Metal work, early development of 
decoration, 74, 78; in the Shoso- 
in collection, 8789 ; inlaying, 
243-245, 272 ; graining, 245- 
247 ; hammering, 312; insertion, 
313; inserted inlaying, 313; 
maze-gane, 314; sbibuitbi-doshi, 
314; sepia-inlaying, 315; ground- 
out inlaying, 315 ; in architect, 
ural decoration, 326. See also 
Alloys, Bronze, Gold, Iron, 

Michitaka, Sok en Kisbb on sword- 
decoration, 212225. 

Military epoch, virile character cf 
sculpture, 1 10 ; specimens of reli- 
gious sculpture, 111114. 

Ming dynasty, China, character of 
pictorial art, 43. 

Minjo, sword-decorator, 310. 

Minkoku, sword-decorator, 310. 

Miroku, mask-carver, 165. 

Mirrors, ancient, 72, 96, 368 ; mag- 
ical, 98 ; antiquity, 368. 

Mitsuiye. See Kwojo. 

Mitsumasa. See Jujo, Teijo. 

Mitsumori. See Keijo. 

Mitsune Nakai, sword-decorator, 279. 

Mitsushige. See Sojuko. 

Mitsutaka. See Yenjo. 

Mitsutoshi. See Tsujo. 

Mitsutsugu. See Tokujo. 

Miyano, mask-carver, 166. 

Miyata Chikugo, mask-carver, 168. 

Miyochin family, armourers, 262, 


Miyoju. See Shigeyoshi (Miyoju). 

Mizuno family, sword-decorators, 

Mogarashi. See Kitagawa. 

Mokunosuke. See Tosui Mitsunori. 

Money-pouch. See Kincbaku, 

Monjushiri, thirteenth-century statue 
of, 113. 

Mori Sosen, painter, 61. 

Moriyoshi, Kuwamura, sword-deco- 
rator, 271. 

Morotsugu. See Shigehiro. 

Motochska, sword-decorator, 310. 

Motomichi, sword- decora tor, 3 1 o. 

Motonari, sword-decorator, 310. 

Motonobu, painter, founder of the 
Kano school, 40. 

Muneta family, sword-decorators, 

Muneyuki, Umetada, sword-decora- 
tor, 282. 

Myojun, sculptor-priest, no. 

NAGAFUSA, Koami, lacquerer, 361. 
Nagasaki as an art centre, 290. 
Nagashige, Koami, lacquerer, 361. 
Nagata Tomoharu, lacquerer, 362. 
Nagatsune, Yasui, metal-carver, 286. 
Nagayoshi family, sword-decorators, 

Nagoshi family, art-founders, 136, 

Naka Mitsuyuki, Deme, mask-carver, 


Nakai family, sword-decorators, 279. 
Nakayama, Komin, lacquerer, 362. 
Nakayama Shoyeki, art-founder, 142. 
Namikawa Sosuke, head of a school 

of enamelers, 336, 376. 
Namikawa Yasuyuki, enamelcr, 336, 

Naomichi, Muneta, sword-decorator, 

Naomine, Muneta, sword-decorator, 

Naoshige, Muneta, sword- decorator, 


Naoshige, Okamoto, sword-decorator, 

Nara, capital of Japan, art objects, 

1 9 ; condition of pictorial art in 

Nara epoch, 26 ; civilisation, 8l; 

aspect of the city, 83. 
Nara Buss hi, 109. 
Nara family, sword-decorators, 276, 

289, 305. 
Nara ningyo, and the netsuke, 175; 

form, 97, 199; history, 197-199, 

3 6 9 370- 

Nature, Japanese attitude toward, 226. 

Nen Kawo and the Chinese renais- 
sance in Japanese art, 37. 

Netsuke, origin, 174176; decora- 
tion, 176; designs in decoration, 
177-185, 191; material, 177; 
criterion of value, 181 183, 196; 
form, 185; uniqueness, 193; 
sculptors, 193, 195-197. 

Nikko, mask-carver, 165. 

Nikko mausoleum, interior decora- 
tion, i54,_ 159. 

Ninomiya Tu:ei, lacquerer, 362. 

Nishi Hongwan-ji, temple, interior 
decoration, 154. 

Nobuiye, Miyochin, armourer, 
sword-guards, 263. 

Nobunaga as an art patron, 150, 162. 

Nobushige, painter, 35. 

Nobutsune Nakai, sword-decorator, 

Nobuzane, painter, characteristics, 10. 

Nogami Yataro, art-founder, 145. 

Nomura Bunkyo, painter, 63. 

Nomura family, sword-decorators, 
286, 287. 

Nude in art, Japanese attitude toward, 
7, 125, 178, 180; Chinese atti- 
tude toward, 1 80. 

ODA NOAKI, sword-decorator, 310. 
Ogata Gekko, chromo-xylographer, 

51, 63. 

Ogata Kworin, lacquerer, 346, 361. 
Ogawa Ritsuo, lacquerer, 348, 362. 



Ogawa Shomin, lacquerer, 362. 
Ohori Masatoshi, hammerer of metal, 


O-i. See Wong Wei. 

Ojime, fashion, 173. 

Okamoto family of Hagi, metal- 
carvers, 279, 374. 

Okamoto family of Kyoto, sword - 
decorators, 294, 374. 

Okamura Masanobu, xylographer, 
46, 48. 

Okano Hohaku, figure-sculptor, 199. 

Okano Kijiro, sword-decorator, 310. 

Okazaki Sessei, art-founder, 145. 

Omori family, sword-decorators, 292, 

33> 3 6 - 

Omiva Yamato Bokunyu, mask- 
carver, 1 6 8. 

Ono. See Jikan. 

Ono Goroyemon, sculptor and 
founder of the Kamakura Dai- 
butsu, in. 

Ooka Shunboku, xylographer, 46. 

Oshima Katsujiro, art-founder, 144. 

Oshima Yasutaro, art-founder, 144. 

Ouishi, art-founder, 138. 

PATINA, of bronze, 126, 127, 372 ; 

of Japanese alloys, 233, 235 ; of 

copper, 236, 372 ; of iron, 237 ; 

of pewter, 317. 
Perspective, in Japanese pictures, 4, 

15, 58 ; in Chinese pictures, 22, 


Pewter, composition, 317; use, 317; 
patina, 317. 

Pictorial art, Japanese, character, 2 ; 
decorative purpose, 3, 6 ; effect 
of purpose on characteristics, 4, 
32 ; impressionistic, 5 ; motion, 6; 
exclusion of the nude, 7 ; igno- 
rance of anatomy, 8 ; influence of 
ideographs, 8, II, 31 ; styles of 
touch, 9 ; manual dexterity, 9 
1 1 ; materials, 1 1 ; position of the 
artist while painting, 1 2 ; man- 
nerisms, 1 3 ; multiplication of 

Pictorial art (continued): 

copies, 1 3 ; effect on criticism of 
inaccessibility of originals, 14 ; char- 
acter of religious paintings, 15, 23, 
30; relation to Chinese, 16, 21- 
24, 26, 37-40; influence of 
Buddhism, 17, 29; beginning of 
secular, 27-29 ; continued pre- 
cedence of religious, 29, 30 ; 
technique of religious and secular, 
3 1 ; first native school of secular, 
31 ; Yamato school, 32, 33 ; Tosa 
school, 34 ; Kose or Classical 
school, 34; Takuma school, 35 ; 
objects of the work of these schools, 
36; caricatures, 36; renaissance of 
Chinese influence, 3741 ; periods 
in development, 41 ; development 
of the decorative mode, 42 ; re- 
action against the Classical school, 
43 ; genre painting and the Popular 
school, 44; development of wood- 
cuts and coloured prints, 4551 ; 
analysis of the work of the Popular 
school, 5559 ; branches of the 
Popular school, 59-62 ; present 
conditions, 6264 effect of West- 
ern ideas, 64-68 ; in architectural 
decoration, 151-155, 158; an- 
cient distemper painting, 152; no 
frescos, 152; no portraits, 368. 
See also Fine arts. 

Picture-galleries, why none in Japan, 

4, H- 

Popular school of pictorial art, devel- 
opment of genre, 44; development 
of xylography, 4551 ; Occiden- 
tal popularity, 55 ; use of colour, 
56 ; drawing, 57-59 ; absence ot 
texture painting, 58. See also 
Pictorial art. 

Portraits, statue, 115; no pictorial, 

Puppets of Nara. Set Nara ningjo. 

RAIJO, sculptor, no. 

Refining metals, Japanese process, 371. 



Rein, J. J., on patina, 372. 

Relief, early designs in, 72 ; in 
bronze castings, 140 ; origin and 
development in metal-carving, 
220, 249, 261 ; varieties in metal 
carving, 241 ; in lacquer, 344. 

Religious paintings, Japanese, 15, 23, 
29, 30 ; technique, 31. See also 

Renjo, Goto, sword-decorator, 223. 

Repousse, process in early statutes, 
75 ; in sword-decoration, 220. 
See alto Relief. 

Ri-fu-ho, traditional carver, 193. 

Rihei, Yamamoto, lacquerer, 362. 

Riuki. See Nogami. 

Riumin, sword-decorator, 310. 

Riyoyei, Iwamoto, sword-decorator, 


Roben, artist-priest, 86. 
Rwaiken, sculptor, 116. 
Ryokin, wood-carver, 46. 

SADAHISA, sword-decorator, 310. 

Sage-mono, money-pouch, 169171 ; 
tobacco outfit, 171, 187191 ; 
medicine-box, 173, 186; origin 
of the netsuke, 174-176; its 
decoration, 176-186; en suite 
designs, 191. 

Saicho. See Dengyo Daishi. 

Sairen, mask-carver, 166. 

Sanehisa, Nagoshi, art-founder, 138. 

Sanko, mask-carver, 165. 

Sanraku, painter, 42. 

Sansei-sha, firm of art-founders, 144. 

Sansho, Nagoshi, art-founder, 138. 

Screen painting, 3. 

Sculpture, Japanese, question of foreign 
influence, 19, 76, 78, 89, 193 ; 
superiority, 20 ; primitive con- 
ditions, 75; first sculptors, 76; 
wooden images by Tori and 
Shotoku, 77 ; bronze statues of 
seventh century, 79, 80 ; sculptors 
of the seventh century, 80 ; early 
culmination in Nara epoch, 80, 83, 

Sculpture (continued} : 

85-89 ; influence of Buddhism, 
82, 83, 106, 117-125; clay and 
dry-lacquer statues, 84 ; stone 
statues, 9096 ; character of Heian 
epoch, 106109; sculptors of the 
Heian epoch, 109 ; character of 
Military epoch, 110115; por- 
trait, 114, 115; sculptors of 
the Military epoch, 1 16 ; narrow 
range of motives, 123 ; the nude 
ignored, 125, 180; relation of the 
sculptor and bronze-caster, 1 48 ; 
development of wood-carving in 
interior decorations, 1 49- 151, 
154161 ; mask carving and carv- 
ers, 164168 ; of the netsuke, 
176186, 193 ; of the inro, I 86 ; 
of the pipe-case, 1 90 ; origin of 
netsuke carving, 193196 ; figure, 
197200 ; modern realism, 200 ; 
modern Koun school of wood- 
carvers, 201-203 > s kiU ar >d de- 
mand in modern wood-carving, 
203 ; Japanese knowledge of lights 
in, 315; training of sculptors, 
3 1 9-3 2 1 ; source of designs, 321. 
See also Bronze, Fine arts, Sword- 

Seiami, lacquerer, 345, 361. 

Seicho, sculptor, no. 

Seigai Kanshichi, lacquerer, 362. 

Seimin, art-founder, 142. 

Senshiu Yoriyoshi, mask-carver, 168. 

Senshu Yashamaru, mask-carver, 168. 

Senyen, sculptor, 116. 

Sesshiu, painter, 40. 

Seventh Avenue academy of sculptors, 
lio; in Military epoch, 1 1 6. See 
also Sculpture. 

Shadows. See Light and shade. 

Sbakudo alloy, composition, 232, 
233; antiquity, 232; properties, 


Shakuzuru, mask-carver, 165. 
Shiba Tachito, sculptor, 76 ; builds 

temples, 76. 


Shiba Tasu-na, sculptor, 76. 
Shiba Tori. See Tori Busshi. 
Shibara Ichidayu, lacquerer, 361. 
Shibata Zeshin, lacquerer, 349, 362. 
Shibayama Dosho, lacquerer, 357, 

3 6 3- 

Sbibuicbi, composition, 234; prop- 
erties, 235 ; antiquity, 235. 

Sbibuicbi-dosbi, process in metal- 
work, 314. 

Shichirozayemon, founder, 136. 

Shigehiro, Yoshioka, metal-carver, 
283, 284. 

Shigemitsu, Omori, sword-decorator, 

, . 2 92- 

Shigetsugu, Yoshioka, metal-carver, 

^ 283, 284. 

Shigeyoshi, Umetada, sword-decora- 
tor, 267. 

Shigeyoshi (Meishin), Umetada, 
sword-decorator, 268. 

Shigeyoshi (Miyoju), Umetada, 
sword-decorator, 267. 

Shi-jo school of pictorial art, 59. 
See also Pictorial art. 

Shikongo, clay statue of, in temple 
Todai-ji, 86. 

Shimizu Rinkei, mask-carver, 1 66. 

Shinkai Takejiro, wood-carver, 202. 

Shirayama Shoya, lacquerer, 363. 

Shisho Daishi, sculptor-priest, 109. 

Sbitan wood, properties and use, 369. 

Shoami Masanari, lacquerer, 362. 

Shoami Masanobu, inlayer, 273. 

Shoami Nagatsugu, inlayer, 273. 

Shobei, Yamamoto, lacquerer, 361. 

Shoga Shiubun, painter, 37, 40. 

Shokaku. See Oshima Katsujiro. 

Shoko, Iwamoto, sword-decorator, 

, _33- 

Shokwasai, lacquerer, 363. 

Shoso-in collection of objects of ap- 
plied art, 19, 87-89. 

Shotoku, Prince, character, 77 ; as a 
sculptor, 77. 

Shoun, decorative- sculptor, 161. 

Shoun, mask-carver, 166. 

Shoyemon, Nomura, sword-deco- 
rator, 287. 

Shozui. See Masayori. 
Shuncho, chromo-xylographer, 50. 
Shunkei, sculptor-priest, i 16. 
Shunsho, Yamamoto, lacquerer, 361. 
Shunzui, Hamano, sword-decorator, 


Shuraku, sword -decorator, 310. 
Shuzan. See Tosa Mitsuoki. 
Shuzui, Hamano, sword-decorator, 

Silver, use in Japanese art, 231 ; 

surfacing debased, 231, 372. 
Silver Pavilion, decoration, 153. 
Soami Hisatsugu, mask-carver, 166. 
Soami family, sword-decorators, 269. 
Sohaku, Koami, kcquerer, 345, 361. 
Sojo, Goto, sword-decorator, 220, 


Soju. See Shigetsugu. 
Sojuko, Goto, sword-decorator, 22-2. 
Sokei, Koami, lacquerer, 345, 361. 
Soko, Hirata, hammerer of metal, 


Somin, art-founder, 143. 

Somin, Yokoya, sword-decorator, 
_ 274-276. 

Sotoku. See Shigehiro. 

Soyo, Yokoya, sword-decorator, 274, 

Sozen, Koami, lacquerer, 345, 361. 

Statues. See Bronze, Sculpture. 

Stone statues, mediocre, 90, 93 ; un- 
satisfactory material, 91, 96 ; Jap- 
anese skill, 92 ; ancient monument, 
92 ; buried effigies, 93 ; images, 

Suggestion in Japanese pictures, 5 ; 
in Chinese pictures, 23. 

Sukezaemon. See Jikan Yoshimitsu, 
Yukan Mitsuyasu. 

Sumptuary laws on chromo-xylo- 
graphs, 51. 

Sung dynasty, China, character of its 
pictorial art, 22. 

Surfacing debased metals, 231, 371. 

Suwara Yasugoro, art-founder, 144. 



Suzuki Harunobu. See Harunobu. 

Suzuki Gensuke, hammerer of metals, 
312; originates process of inser- 
tion, 313. 

Suzuki Chokichi, art-founder, 145. 

Suzuki Kichigoro, invents antimony 
ware, 318. 

Suzuki Kinyemon, sword-decorator, 


Sword -furniture, Japanese, early dec- 
oration, 74 ; skill in decorating, 
207 ; character of decoration, 208 ; 
articles, 210, 211, 217-219, 
250, 251 ; Japanese commentary 
on decoration, 212-225; Goto 
family of decorators, 212, 219- 
225, 252261 ; identification of 
decorators, 212, 213, 219; styles 
of metal ground, 213, 238-241 ; 
grades of decorators, 214; high 
ideals of master carvers, 215, 216 ; 
antiquity of decoration, 217; tech- 
nical skill and motives in decora- 
tion, 227-229, 252260, 288 ; 
chisels used, 229 ; metals employed, 
230, 232, 236 ; methods of chisel- 
ling, 241-243, 247, 274; inlay- 
ing, 243-245, 272; graining, 
245-247 ; beginning of relief carv- 
ing, 249; early field of decoration, 
250-252 ; development of guard 
decoration, 261265 ; decoration 
in the sixteenth century, 266270 ; 
decoration in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, 270-286 ; enamel decoration, 
285, 332 ; decoration in the eigh- 
teenth century, 286-296 ; decora- 
tion in the nineteenth century 296- 
33 38 3 1 1 ; termination of pro- 
duction, 297 ; social influence on 
decoration, 304306; specimens of 
nineteenth-century work, 306308; 
guild, 310. See also Metal-work. 

Swords, bronze, 71 ; iron, 72 ; varie- 
ties, 209 ; disappearance of samurai, 
297. See also Sword-furniture. 

Symmetry, axiom of, in art, 20. 


pher, 46. 

Taiami, lacquerer, 345, 360. 
Takaichi Makuni, sculptor, 81. 
Takaichi Mamaro, sculptor, 81. 
Takamura Koun, sculptor, 201 ; 

school, 201. 

Takao-maro, sculptor, 109. 
Takashima Takakane, painter, 34. 
Takatsune, Soami, sword-decorator, 

Takayoshi, Miyochin, armourer, 


Taki Katei, painter, 63. 
Takioka family, puppet-makers, 370. 
Takuma Tamenari, painter, school, 

35 ; religious pictures, 35. 
Takuma school of pictorial art, 35. 

See also Pictorial art. 
Takusai, art-founder, 144. 
Tamakaji Zokoku, lacquerer, 362. 
Tancho, decorative-sculptor, 161. 
Tang dynasty, China, character of 

its pictorial art, 22. 
Tankai Rishi, mask-carver, 166. 
Tari-maro, sculptor, 109. 
Taioyemon. See Naka. 
Tatsuki Chobei, lacquerer, 361. 
Tea-ceremonial, Hideyoshi's influ- 
ence, I 36 ; urns, I 36. 
Teijo, art-founder, 143. 
Teijo, Goto, sword-decorator, 222. 
Temmin, sword-decorator, 310. 
Tenaka Kiyohisa, sword-decorator, 

Teruhide, Omori, sword-decorator, 

Terumasa, Omori, sword-decorator, 

Terumoto, Omori, sword-decorator, 


Tetsugen. See Naoshige (Okamoto. ) 

Texture not shown in Japanese pic- 
tures, 59. 

Theatre, influence of the No dance, 

Third Avenue academy of sculptors, 



Third Avenue academy (ctntinued) : 
no; in Military epoch, 116. 
See also Sculpture. 

Toba Sojo. See Kakuyu. 

Tobacco, introduction, 171 ; clubs, 
171; early pipes, 172; modern 
fashion in outfit, 172, 187-191 ; 
en suite decoration of outfit, 191. 
See also Sage-mono. 

Tohaku Mitsutaka, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Tokei, sculptor, 116. 

Tokugawa epoch, influence on art, 

43.J39. 2 7o. 

Tokujo, Goto, sword-decorator, 221. 
Tokuwaka Tadamasa, mask-carver, 


Tomi Yeisuke, art-founder, 145. 
Tomochika, Omori, sword-decorator, 


Tomoharu, Okamoto, sword-deco- 
rator, 279. 

Tomotsugu, Okamoto, sword- deco- 
ra tor, 279. 

Tomotsune, Nakai, sword-decorator, 

Tomotsune, Omori, sword-decorator, 

Tomoyuki, Nakai, sword-decorator, 

Tori Busshi, sculptor, skill, 76, 77 ; 

wooden statues, 77. 
Torii family, chromo-xylographers, 

48, 50. 

Toriusai. See Okano Kijiro. 
Tory, development of casting, 140. 
Tosa Mitsuoki, netsuke carver, 195. 
Tosa school of pictorial art, 34-36. 

See also Pictorial art. 
Toshiharu, Nara, sword-decorator, 

Toshihisa, Nara, sword -decora tor, 

276, 374. 
Toshinaga, Nara, sword-decorator, 

Toshiteru, Ntra, sword -decorator, 


Tosui Mitsunori, Deme, mask-ctrver, 


Toun, art-founder, 143. 
Toun Yasutaka, Deme, mask-carver, 


Toyoda Koko, metal-worker, achieve- 
ments, 313, 314. 
Toyoharu, Utagawa, chromo-xylog- 

rapher, 50. 
Toyokuni, Utagawa, chromo-xylog- 

rapher, 50. 
Toyonobu, Utagawa, chromo-xylog- 

rapher, 50. 

Tsuji family, sword-decorators, 285. 
Tsujo, Goto, sword-decorator, 222, 

Tuke, S., on the chromo-xylograph 

process, 52-55. 

UCHINO HARUTOSHI, sword-decorator, 

Umetada family, swordsmiths and 

decorators, 267, 282. 
Unga, sculptor, 116. 
Unkei, sculptor, ill; his Deva 

Kings, 1 1 3 ; his Watch Dogs, 113. 
Unsho, sculptor, 116. 
Untaro. See Toun Yasutaka. 
Utagawa family, chromo-xylogra- 

phers, 50. 

Uwo Hyoye, mask-carver, 166. 
Uyematsu Homin, lacqucrer, 363. 
Uyemura family, sword-decorators, 


WAKABAYASHI family, aword- decora- 
tors, 286. 

Watanabe Hisamitsu, sword-decora- 
tor, specimen of his work, 308. 

Watanabe Kwazan, secretly studies 
Occidental methods, 66 ; ordered 
to commit suicide, 66 ; commem- 
oration, 66 ; Western influence on 
his paintings, 67. 

Watanabe Seitei, painter, 51, 63; 
influence of Western methods on, 



Weapons, bronze, 71. Set also 

Wong Wei, Chinese painter, 22. 

Wood, development of wood-engrav- 
ing, 45-47, 367 ; development of 
chromo-xylographs, 48-5 I ; tech- 
nique of chromo-xylographs, 51 
55 ; early wooden statues, 7678 ; 
Nara-epoch statue, 87 ; Heian- 
epoch statues, 108 ; the Deva 
Kings, 112; favourite material for 
statues, 117; carving in interior 
decoration, 150, 154158 ; carved 
masks, 163, 165 ; netsuke carv- 
ings, 177 ; puppets, 194, 197- 
200 ; modern carving, 200204. 

Wu Tao-tsz, Chinese painter, 22. 


YAKUSHI, sculptor, 80. 

Yakushi, seventh-century bronze 

statue of, 79. 

Yamagawa Koji. See Koji. 
Yamamoto Fukumatsu, figure- sculptor, 


Yamamoto family, lacquerers, 361, 


Yamato Mamori, mask-carver, 168. 
Yamato school of pictorial art, 32, 

34-36. See also Pictorial art. 
Yasha, mask-carver, 165. 
Yashichiro, Nagoshi, founder, invents 

tea-ceremonial urn, 136 ; honours, 

Yasuchicka, Nara, sword-decorator, 

Yasuchika Shinsuke, sword- decorator, 


Yasui family, sword-decorators, 286. 
Yasuiye, Jiyemon, art-founder, 141. 
Yasuteru, Jiycmon, art-founder, 141. 
Yechizen. See Toshiharu. 

Yeijiro. See Ichijo. 
Yeijo, Goto, sword-decorator, 221. 
Yeishi, chromo-xylographer, 50. 
Yeishi, Iwamoto, sword-decorator, 


Ycnchin, artist-priest, 29. 
Yenjo, Goto, sword -decorator, 224. 
Yoji Hidetsugu, lacquerer, 361. 
Yojuro. See Nakayama Shoyeki. 
Yokoya family, sword- decorators, 

274 35- 
Yoneharu Unkai, sculptor, 202. 

Yosei, lacquerer, 363. 

Yoshimichi, Miyochin, armourer, 263. 

Yoshinari, mask-carver, 165. 

Yoshinori, Mizuno, sword-decorator, 

Yoshioka Tadatsuga, sword-decora- 
tor, 310. 

Yoshisato, Ishiguro, sword-decorator, 

Yoshishige, sword-decorator, 272, 

Yoshitsugu, Akao, sword-decorator, 


Yoshitsune, Ishiguro, sword-decora- 
tor, 302. 

Yoshitsune, Minamoto, his armour, 

Yujo, Goto, sword-decorator, 217, 
218, 220, 222 ; and relief carving, 
249 ; field, 250, 251 ; skill, 252; 
specimens of his work, 255, 256, 

Yukan Mitsuyasu, Deme, mask- 
carver, 167. 

Yusai Yasuhisa, Deme, mask-carver, 

Yuzayemon, wood-carver, I 50. 

Zcnsho, Nagoshi, art-founder, 138. 
Zuiyctsu. See lyemasa. 











B. =: Buddhist School. 
Ko. = Kate School. 
Ka. n Kasuga School. 
Ta. = Takuma School. 
To. == Tobaye School. 
S.Y. = Sun f -Yuan School. 

C.R. =s Chinese Renaissance School. 
M.C. = Modern Chinese School. 

K. = Kano School. 

T. = Tosa School. 

S. = Shij'o School. 

U. = Ukiyoye School. 

Aimi. i oth cent. Ko. 

Akimotp Soyu. (Living.) K. 

Ando Hirochika. (Living.) T. 

Andp Hiroshige. (d. 1858.) U. 

Aoki Suizan. (Living.) 

Arai Kanchiku. (d. 1751.) K. 

AraiTonan. (d. 1761.) K. 

Araki Kwampo. (Living.) S. 

Araki Kan-ichi. (b. 1827.) (Living.) 


Arihisa. i4th cent. Ko. 
Arimune. I2th cent. Ko. 
Ariyasu. (d. 1333.) Ko. 
Ariiye. (d. 1320.) Ko. 
Asukai. (Court lady.) I7th cent. T. 
Asuke-no-Tsunenori. loth cent. B. 
Atom! Gyokushi. (Woman.) (Living.) 


Atomi Kakei. (Woman.) (Living.) S. 
Awadaguchi Takamitau. (d. 1426.) T. 
Awadaguchi Tsunematsu. (d. 1420.) T. 
Baishun. (Son of Shunsho.) K. 
Baiyei. (Son of Nobuyuki.) K. 
Bamoki. (Kitagama Kango.) (d. 1820.) 


Bokusen. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 
Bonyo. I5th cent C. R. 

Chikanobu. (Son of Tsunenobu.) K. 

Chin Nampin. (d. 1772.) M. C. 

Chinkai. nth cent. B. 

Chisen. 9th cent. B. 

Chiusan. nth cent. B. 

Chiyo (or Mitsuhisa). (Wife of Kano 

Motonobu.) K. 
Cho Chikuseki. (Nagamochi.) (d. 1828.) 

M. C. 

Ch5 Gesshii. (d. 1832.) M. C. 
Cho K5ran. (Female.) (d. 1879.) M - c - 
Cho Shunt5. (Living.) M. C. 
ChSdensu (or Mincho). I5th cent. S. Y. 
Choson. 1 5th cent. S. Y. 
Doki Tobu. (d. 1541.) C. R. 
Doki Tomikage. (d. 1468.) C. R. 
Dokura. i4th cent. S. Y. 
Donho (or Shuo). I5th cent. C. R. 
Eien. nth cent. B. 
Eiga. 1 3th cent. Ta. 
Eiri. I oth cent. B. 
Eisan. igth cent. U. 
Eisen. igth cent. U. 
Eiahin (IsenorGenshosai). (d. 1828.) K. 
Eishin. iithcent. B. 
Eitoku. i Qth cent. K. 
Eitoku Kuninobu. (d. 1582.) K. 


Eitoku Takanobu. (d. 1794.) K. 

Fuchino Shinsai. (d. 1823.) M. C. 

Fugai. (d. 1710.) K. 

Fujii Shorin. (Living.) S. 

Fujita Gako. (d. 1885). M. C. 

Fukuda Chokujo. (Living.) S. 

Fukuda Hanko. (d. 1864.) M. C. 

Fukuhara Yoeaku (TaigadO.) (d. 1776.) 
M. C. 

Fukushima Ryuho. (d. 1889.) M. C. 

Furuya Kogan. (Living.) T. 

Furuyama Moromasa. (Son of Furu- 
yama Moroshige.) U. 

Furuyama Moroshige. (Pupil of Hi- 
shigawa Moronobu.) U. 

Fusanobu. (Son of Shunsui.) K. 

Fuwa Sod5. (Living.) K. 

Gagaku. (d. 1895.) M. C. 

Gakusai. 15111 cent. T. 

Ganku (Kishi). (d. 1838.) S. 

Ganrei (Kishi). igth cent. S. (Son-in- 
law of Ganku.) 

Ganryd. (Son-in-law of Ganku.) S. 

Gantai. (Son of Ganku.) S. 

Geiami. (d 1466.) C. R. 

Genki. (d. 1797.) S. 

Genryuyen Kuninawo. (Pupil of the 
second Toyokuni.) U. 

Geppo. (d. 1839.) M. C. 

Gesha. (Pupil of Toriyama Sekiyen.) 

Gessen. 1 5th cent. C. R. 

Gessen. (d. iSn.) S. 

Gi Nankai. (d. 1751.) M. C. 

Go Shunmei (Igarashi) or Koku. Second 

half of 1 8th cent. K. 
Gototei Knnisada. (Pupil of the second 

Toyokuni.) U. 
Gugyoka. 1 5th cent. C. R. 
Gyokuraku or Soyu. (Fellow-student of 

Motonobu.) K. 

Hada-no-Mushitaro. 8th cent. B. 
Hagawa Chincho. (d. 1754.) U. 
Hakuga. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 
Hakusei. i8th cent. K. 
Hakuyen. I7th cent. 1C 
Hanabusa Ippo. (Adopted son of 

ItchO.) K. 

Hanabusa Itcho. (d. 1724.) K. 
Haneda Gesshu. (Living.) S. 
Hara Arinaka. (d. 1837.) M. C. 
Harazaichio. igth cent. T. 
Haruki Nanko. (d. 1839.) M. C. 
Harumasa. (Son of Hokkel) U. 
Hashimoto Gah5. (Living). K. (Kano 

style modified in accordance with 

Western ideas.) 
Hasegawa Gyolcujun. (Living.) S. 

Hasegawa Nobuharu. (Son of Hase- 
gawa Tohaku.) C. R. 

Hasegawa Settan. (d. 1843.) M. C. 

Hasegawa Tocho. i7th cent. K. 

Hasegawa Tohaku, ) 

called the 5th > 1 6th cent. C R. 
Sesshu. ) 

Hata-no-Mome. nth cent. B. 

Hata-no-Munesada. 1 1 th cent. Ko. 

Hayami Tsuneaki (Shungyosai). (d. 
179-) U. 

Hayamizu Tsuneaki. (d. 1775.) U. 

Hayase Kansen. (d. 1888.) M. C. 

Hayashi Banka. (d. 1845.) M. C. 

Hayashi Konyen. (Pupil of Fukuhara 
Gogaku.) M. C. 

Hayashi Sh5rin. (d. 1792.) M. C. 

Hida-no-Tokoami. 9th cent. Ko. 

Hidemaro. (Pupir of first Kitakawa 
Utamaro.) U. 

Hidenobu. (d. 1635.) K. 

Hidenobu. (d. 1710.) K. 

Higuchi Tangetsu. (b. 1822.) (Living.) 

Hineno Taizan. (d. 1865.) M. C. 

Hirafuku Suian. (d. 1890.) S. 

Hirochika. (Son of Ryusho.) U. 

Hirohisa. (d. 1828.) T. 

Hirokage. (Son of Ryusho.) U. 

Hiromori. (d. 1775.) T. 

Hiroshige. (Son of Ando Hiroshige.) 

Hiroshige. (d. 1858.) U. 

Hirotaka. nth cent. Ko. 

Hirotsura. (d. 1864.) T. 

Hiroyasu. (d. 1750.) T. 

Hiroyuki. (d. 1811.) T. 

Hishigawa Morofusa. (Son of Moron- 
obu.) U. 

Hishigawa Morohira. (Son of Hishiga- 
wa Moronobu.) U. 

Hishigawa Moronaga. (Son of Moro- 
nobu.) U. 

Hishigawa Moronobu. (d. 1714.) U. 

Hishigawa Moroyoshi. (Son of Hishi- 
gawa Moronobu.) U. 

Hitomi Kwangetsu. (d. 1797.) M. C. 

Ho Hyakusen. (d. 1755.) M. C. 

Hoashi Kyou. (d. 1878.) M. C. 

Hokkei. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 

Hokuba. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 

Hokusai (Katsushika ShunrS, Son, Tat- 
sumasa, Tait5, or Manr5jin). (d. 
1849.) U. 

Hokusen. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 

Hokushun. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 

Hokrusu. (Pupil of Hokusai) U. 


Hokutai. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 

Hokuun. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 

Honarai Kwoyetsu. 1 7th cent. T. 

Honda Kado. (d. 1879.) S. 

Hosoda Eishi. (d. 1810.) U. 

Hotta Shuko. (d. 1822.) S. 

Ichijusai Kunimasa. (Pupil of the sec- 
ond Toyokuni.) U. 

Ichimosai Yoshitora. (Pupil of Ichiyu- 
sai.) U. 

Ichiyeisai Yoshitsuya. (Pupil of Ichi- 
yusai.) U. 

Ichiyensai Kunimaru. . (Pupil of the 
second Toyokuni.) U. 

Ichiyusai Kuniyoshi. (d. 1861.) U. 

Ifukin. (d. 1811.) M. C. 

lijima Koga. (Living.) S. 

Ijusai Yoshikazu. (Pupil of Ichiyusai.) 

Ike Taiga (or Mommei). 1 8th cent. M.C. 

Ikeda Hansen. (b. 1825.) (Living.) M. 

Ikeda Koson. (Pupil of Hoitsu.) T. 

Ikeda Shinsai. (Living.) S. 

Ikehara Jitsunan (Living.) M. C. 

Ikkiu. 1 5th cent. C. R. 

Ikkosai Yoshimori. (Pupil of Ichiyu- 
sai.) U. 

Imakoji Yuzan. (d. 1845.) M. C. 

Imayo Sanyo. (Living.) M. C. 

Imose Tonei. (Living.) M. C. 

Ippitsusai Buncho. (d. 1775.) U. 

Ipposai Kuniyasu. (Pupil of the second 
Toyokuni.) U. 

Ipposai Yoshitsuna. (Pupil of Ichiyu- 
sai.) U. 

Ishida Gyokuzan. (d. 1812.) M. C. 

Ishida Gyokuzan. (d. 1812.) U. 

Ishikawa Kozan. (d. 1869.) M. C. 

Ishikawa Toyonobu. (d. 1785.) U. 

Issai Yoshinobu. (Pupil of Ichiyusai.) 

Issan. (d. 1763.) K. 

Isshi. isth cent. S. Y. 

Itaya Hiromasa (Keishu.) (d. 1797.) T. 

Ito Jakusai. (d. 1800.) M. C. 

Ito S6t6. (Pupil of Yu Hi.) M. C. 

Ittosai Yoshifuji. (Pupil of Ichiyusai.) 

Iwai Seisai. i9th cent. M. C. 

Iwase Hamma. (d. 1885.) M. C. 

Iwase KySden. (d. 1816.) U. 

Iwase Matahei. (d. 1630.) U. 

Iwashima. 8th cent. B. 

Izumi Morikazu. (d. 1780.) U. 

Jitsuye. 9th cent. B. 

Jonin. 1 3th cent. Ta, 

Josen. (d. 1728.) K. 

Tpsetsu. (d. 1420.) C. R. 
Kaburagi Baikei. (d. 1803.) M. C. 
Kaga no Chiyo. (Woman.) (d. 1775.) 

M. C. 

Kaihoku Yusetsu. (Son of Yusho.) K. 
Kaihoku (or Yusho). (Pupil of Eitoku.) 

(d. 1615.) K. 

Kakimoto Scsshin. (d. 1839.) S. 
Kakuhan. nth cent. B. 
Kakuyu; Toba no Sojo. 1 2th cent. To. 
Kamada Gansho. (d. 1859.) S. 
Kameda Bosai. (d. 1826.) M. C. 
Kami-no-Suguri Hikaji. 8th cent. B. 
Kami-no-Suguri Uskikai. 8th cent. B. 
Kan Tainen. i8th cent. M. C. 
Kanai Ushu. (d. 1857.) M. C. 
Kanaye Shungaku. (d. 1811.) M.C. 
Kanda Koun. (Living.) M. C. 
Kandensu. i5th cent. S. Y. 
Kaneko Kinryo. (d. 1817.) M. C. 
Kano Ansen. (b. 1823.) (Living.) K. 
Kano Koi. (Pupil of Mitsunobu.) (d. 

1673.) K. 

Kano Oshin. (Living.) K. 
Kano RySsen. (Living.) K. 
Kano Shogyoku. (Living.) K. 
Kano Tanbi. (Living.) K. 
KanoYeitoku. (d. 1891.) K. 
Kansai. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 
Katagiri Ranseki. (d. 1831.) M. C. 
Kato Bunrei. (d. 1782.) K. 
KatoYentaku. (d. 1730.) K. 
Katori Nobiko. (d. 1782.) M.C. 
Katsuda Chikuo. (d. 1659.) K. 
Katsukawa Shinsai. (Son of Katsu- 

kawa Shunsui.) U. 

Katsukawa Shunko. (Pupil of Katsu- 
kawa Shunsho.) U. 
Katsukawa Shunsho. (d. 1801.) U. 
Katsukawa Shunsui. (Son of Miya- 

gawa Choshun.) U. 
Katsukawa Shunsui. (d. 1738.) U 
Katsukawa Shunyei. (d. 1819.) U. 
Kawabata Gyokusho. (Living.) S. 
Kawabe Mitate. (Living.) K. 
Kawamura Bampo. (Pupil of Ganku.) 

Kawayeda Toyonobu (Rakkatei.) (d. 

I735-) U. 

Kei Shoki. (d. 1345.) T. 
Keisai. Yoshioku. (Pupil of Ichiyusai.) 


Keishin. loth cent. B. 
Keishun. 1 5th cent. Ka. 
Keishyoki (called also Shokei, or Hinra- 

kusai). 1 5th cent. C. R. 
Ken Ryotai. (d. 1774.) M. C. 
KiBaiteL (d. 1812.) S. 


Ki Tokumin. (d. 1801.) M. C. 
Kikuchi Hobun. (Living.) S. 
Kikuchi Yosai. (d. 1878.) M. C. 
Kikumaro. (Pupil of first Kitakawa 

Utamaro.) U. 
Eimura Nagamitsu. (Pupil of Kano 

Motonobu.) K. 

Kimura Ritsugaku. (d. 1889.) K. 
KinKado. (d. 1802.) M. C. 
Kin Kempo. (d. 1774.) M. C. 
Kinmochi. loth cent. Ko. 
Kinoshita Itsuun. (d. 1866.) M. C. 
Kinoshita Roslm. (d. 1879.) M. C. 
Kintada. loth cent. Ko. 
Kishi Chikudo. (b. 1826.) (Living.) S. 
Kishi Kyugaku. (Living.) S. 
Kita Busei. (d. 1856.) M. C. 
Kitagawa Utamaro. (d. 1805.) U. 
Kitagawa Utamaro. (Second genera- 
tion.) U. 
Kitao Katsunaga. (Son of Kitao Ma- 

sayoshi.) U. 
Kitao Masayoshi (or Kawagata Keisei). 

(d. 1824.) U. 
Kitao Seitan (same as Iwase KyOden). 


Kitao Shigemasa. (d. 1819.) U. 
Kiuhaku. (d. 1653.) K. 
Kizan Setsugai. (Living.) M. C. 
KoFuyo. (d. 1784.) M. C. 
Ko Ryuko. (d. 1858.) M. C. 
K6 Sukoku (Takahisa, or Toryuo, or Ga- 

kushisai). (d. 1804.) K. 
Kobu Shunman (or Toshimitsu). (d. 

1815.) U. 

Koikawa Shuncho. (d. 1789.) U. 
Koike Tensho. (d. 1800.) M. C. 
Koizumi Danzan. (d. 1854.) M. C. 
Koka (2d son of Sumiyoshi Jokei). (d. 

I773-) T - 

Komatsubara Suikei. (d. 1834.) M. C. 

Kondo Kyoharu. (d. 1720.) U. 

Kono Bairei. (Living.) S. 

Kono Ry5sho. (Living.) M. C. 

Koreshige. nth cent. Ko. 

Korehisa (Hidano Kami), (d. 1320.) T. 

Koryusai. (d. 1770.) U. 

Koryuko. igth cent. T. 

Kose-no-Kanaoka. 9th cent. Ko. 

Koshiba Morinao. (d. 1760.) K. 

Kotei. 1 5th cent. C. R. 

Koze Kinki. (Living.) S. 

Kubota Beisen. (Living.) S. 

Kubota Kogi. (Living.) S. 

Kudara Kawanari. gth cent. Ko. 
(Not generally included in the School 
of Kose, but he certainly set the 
style which Kose followed.) 

Kukai. gth cent. B. 

Kumagaye Naohiko. (b. 1828.) (Liv- 
ing.) S. 

Kumayama Gyokusho. iSthcent. M. C. 

Kuni Unsen. (d. 1811.) M. C. 

Kuniaki. (Pupil of the second Toyo- 
kuni.) U. 

Kunichika. (Pupil of the second Toyo- 
kuni.) U. 

Kunimasa. (d. 1860.) U. 

Kuninobu. igth cent. K. 

Kunisada. (Son of first Toyokuni ) 
(d. 1864.) U. 

Kunisada. (Son of first Toyokuni.) 
(d. 1870.) U. 

Kunitaka. (d. 1272.) T. 

Kuniteru. (Pupil of the second Toyo- 
kuni.) U. 

Kuniyoshi. (d. 1861.) U. 

Kuratani Rokuzan. (d. 1833.) M. C. 

Kure Toshiaki. (d. 1781.) M. C. 

Kurokawa Kigyoku. (d. 1814.) M. C. 

Kusaba Haisen. (d. 1867.) M. C. 

Kushihashi Yeishun. (d. 1765.) K. 

Kushiro Unsen. (d. 1811.) M. C. 

Kuwagata Keisai. (d. 1826.) M. C. 

Kuzumi Morikage. (Pupil of Tanyu.) 

Kwai Getsudo (Doho, or Ochi). (d. 
1725-) U. 

Kyozen. nth cent. B. 

Kyuyen. i7th cent. K. 

Kyuzan. I7th and i8th cent. K. 

Maruyama Okio. (d. 1795.) S. 

Masanobu. (d. 1490.) K. 

Masanobu. (d. 1662.) K. 

Matsumoto Fuko. (Living.) M. C. 

Matsumura Keibun. (d. 1844.) S. 

Matsumura Gekkei (or Goshun). (d. 
1811.) S. 

Matsuno Baizan. Second half of i8th 
cent. K. 

Matsuno Baizan. (d. 1857.) M. C. 

Mayeda Kwangyo. (Living.) T. 

Megata Banson. (d. 1880.) M. C. 

Michinobu. (d. 1792.) K. 

Mikuma Katen. (d. 1794.) M. C. 

Minagawa Kien. i8th cent. M. C. 

Minamoto Musashi. (d. 1645.) K. 

MitaniToko. (d. 1775.) M. C. 

Mitsuaki. (d. 1348.) T. 

Mitsuaki. i3th cent. T. 

Mitsuaki. i4th cent. T. 

Mitsubumi. i8th cent. T. 

Mitsuchika. i5th cent. T. 

Mitsuhide. i3th cent. T. 

Mitsuhiro. 1 5th cent. T. 

Mitsukiyo. (d. 1764.) T. 


Mitsukuni. isth cent. T. 
Mitsukuni. i6th cent. T. 
Mitsumasa i4th cent. T. 
Mitsumochi. 1 5th cent. T. 
Mitsumoto. (d. 1569.) T. 
Mitsunaga. I2th cent. Ka. 
Mitsunobu. (d. 1473.) T - 
Mitsunobu (called also Ukyo-no-Nashin). 

(Son of Eitoku.) (d. 1608.) K. 
Mitsuoki. (d. 1693.) T. 
Mitsuroku. i8th cent. T. 
Mitsusada. 1 8th cent. T. 
Mitsushige. (d. 1393.) T. 
Mitsushige. isth cent. T. 
Mitsusuke. (d. 1710.) T. 
Mitsutoki. 1 8th cent. T. 
Mitsuyasu. (d. 1322.) Ko. 
Mitsuyori. (d. 1710.) T. 
Mitsuyoshi. (d. 1613.) T. 
Mitsuyoshi. (d. 1772.) T. 
Mitsuzumi. i8th cent. T. 
Miyagawa Chdshun. (d. 1730.) U. 
Miyagawa Shunsui (or Shosen). (Son 

of Miyagawa Choshun.) U. 
Miyake Yeisai. (d. 1878.) M. C. 
Mizuo Rypzen. (d. 1832.) M. C. 
Mochizuki Gyokusen. (d. 1755.) M. C. 
Mochizuki Gyokusen. (Pupil of Gek- 

kei.) (Son of first Mochizuki.) 

(Living.) S. 

MokuFuyo, (d. 1816.) M. C. 
Mokwan. i4th cent. S. Y. 
Momoda Ryuyei. (d. 1698.) K. 
Mori Kwansai. (Living.) S. 
MoriRansai. (d. 1801.) M. C. 
Mori Shuho. (d. 1823.) S. 
Mori Sosen. (d. 1822.) S. 
Mori Tetsuzan. (Adopted son of Mori 

Sosen.) S. 

Mori Yeishun. igih cent. S. 
Morikawa Chikuso. (d. 1829.) M. C. 
Morikawa Sobun. (Living.) S. 
Morinobu, vide Tanyu. 
Motomitsu. nth cent. Ka. 
Motonobu. (d. 1559.) K. 
Mototoshi. (Son of RyOjo.) K. 
Munehisa. i3th cent. Ko. 
Munenobu. (d. 1562.) K. 
Muneyoshi. i2th cent. Ko. 
Murakami Shodo. (d. 1841.) S. 
Murase Chotci. (d. 1818.) M. C. 
Murase Gyokuden. (Living.) S. 
Myogyo. 1 1 th cent. B. 
MySjun. nth cent. B. 
Myotaku. i4th cent. S. Y. 
Nagaari. i3th cent. Ko. 
Nagaharu. i4th cent. T. 
Nagasawa Rosctsu. (d. 1799.) s - 

Nagayuki. i3th cent. Ka. 
Nakabayashi Chikudo. (^.1853.) M.C. 
Nakagawa Royetsu. (Living.) S. 
Nakanishi Koseki. (d. 1883.) S. 
Nakano Kimei. (Living.) T. 
Nakaye Ranko. (d. 1830.) M. C. 
Naonobu (Jitekisai). (d. 1650.) K. 
Nen Kao. Mth cent. S. Y. 
Nishimura Nantei. (Pupil of Okio.) 

(d. 1834.) S. 
Nishimura Shigenaga. (Pupil of Torii 

Kyonobu.) U. 

Nishina Kinsen (d. 1830.) M. C. 
Nishiyama Hoyen. (d. 1867.) S. 
Niwa Kagen. (d. 1786.) M. C. 
NSami. (d. 1450.) C. R. 
Nobuharu. i4th cent. Ka. 
Nobusada. i2th cent. Ka. 
Nobushige. j nh cent. Ko. 
Nobuyuki. i7th cent. K. 
Nobuzane. i3th cent. T. 
Noguchi Yukoku. (Living.) M. C. 
Noguchi Shohin. (Woman.) (Living.) 

M. C. 

Nomura Bunkyo. (Living.) S. 
Nomura Sotatsu. (d. 1630.) T. 
Norinobu. (d. 1731.) K. 
Noro Kaiseki. (d. 1828.) M. C. 
Nukina Kiaoku. (d. 1863.) M. C. 
ObaGakusen. (b. 1820.) (Living). M.C. 
Oda Chikkoku. (d. 1830.) M. C. 
Oda Hyakkoku (Kaisen). (Pupil of Gek- 

kei.) (d. 1862.) S. 
Odagiri Shunko. (Living.) T. 
Ogata Kenzan (Shinsei, or Shisui, or 

Reikai, or Toin). Brother of Ogata 

Korin. T. 
Ogata Korin (Jomei, or Kosei, or H6- 

shuku). (d. 1716.) T. 
Ogata Korai. (d. 1716.) K. 
Ogen. nth cent. B. 
Ogura T5kei. Early igth cent. M. C. 
Oguri Sotan. (d. 1440.) C. R. 
OkadaBeisan. (d. 1818.) M.C. 
Okada Hanko. (d. 1846.) M. C. 
Okada Kanrin. (d. 1845.) M - c - 
Okada Tameyasu. (d. 1863.) M. C. 
Okada Tameyasu (Reizei Saburo). (d. 

1844.) T. 

Okamoto Shuki. (d. 1861.) M.C. 
Okamoto Toyohiko. (Pupil of Gekkei.) 

(d. 1845.) S. 

Oku Bummei. i9th cent. S. 
Okubo Shibutsu. (d. 1837.) S. 
Okumura Masanobu. (d. 1730.) U. 
Okumura Sekiran. (Living.) S. 
Okura Ritsuzan. (d. 1846.) M. C. 
Onishi Chinnen. (d. 1847.) M. C. 


OnoTsu. (d. 1580.) C. R. 

Ooka Shunboku. (d. 1760.) K. 

0-Riu. (Female artist.) (d. 1735.) u - 

Oshikatau. 8th cent. B. 

Oshima Fuyo. i8th cent. M. C. 

Otokashi. 7th cent. B. 

Otsu Matahei. (d. 1725.) U. 

Rai Sanyo, (d. 1832.) M. C. 

Raisho. nth cent. B. 

Raishu. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 

Raito. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 

Rakaku Jakusai. 1 5th cent. T. 

Renzan. (Adopted son of Ganku.) S. 

RySjo. (d. 1620.) K. 

RySnin. nth cent. B. 

Rydshiu. nth cent. B. 

Ryoson. I3th cent. Ta. 

Ryotaku. (Son of Suyeyori.) K. 

Ryu Rikyo (Yanagisawa Kien). (d. 

1758.) M. C. 

Ryusho. (Son of Ando Hiroshige.) U. 
Sadahide. (Pupil of the second Toyo- 

kuni.) U. 

Sadanobu. (d. 1673.) K. 
Saga Chokuan. i6th cent. C. R. 
Saga Nichokuan. (Son of Chokuan.) 

C. R. 

Saicb.6. 9th cent. B. 
Saito Hokusai. (Son of Hokusai.) U. 
Sakai Hoitsu (Bunsen, or Ishin, or 

Torin, orOson, or Teihakushi). (d. 

1828.) T. 

Sakurai Sekkan. (d. 1790.) M. C. 
Sakuma S5yen. (d. 1828.) S. 
Sanraku. (d. 1635.) K. 
Sansetsu. (d. 1651.) K. 
Sasaki Seitsu. (d. 1856.) M. C. 
Satake Yeikai. (d. 1874.) M. C. 
Sat5 KwSbi. (d. 1857.) M. C. 
Sawaki Sushiki. (d. 1772.) K. 
Seisen (Kwaishinsai). (d. 1846.) K. 
Seki Sashu. (d. 1875.) M. C. 
Sekicho. (Pupil of Toriyama Sekiyen.) 


Sekkoyen. (d. 1805.) M. C. 
Sen HittO. igth cent, (early). M. C. 
Sesshu. (d. 1506.) C. R. 
Sesson. (Pupil of Sesshu.) C. R. 
Settaku. ifth cent. C. R. 
Sha Buson. (d. 1783.) M. C. 
Shiba Kokan. (d. 1818.) M. C. 
Shiba Kokan. (d. 1818.) U. 
Shiba Jijo. 1 5th cent. Ka. 
Shiba Kwanshin. (d. 1437.) T. 
Shiba Kwanshin. i5th cent. Ka. 
Shiba Rinken. 1 5th cent. Ka. 
Shiba Sonkai. i5th cent. Ka, 
Shibata Gikin. (d. 1819.) S. 

Shibata Zeshin. (d. 1895.) S. 

Shigeto. nth cent. B. 

Shikimaro. (Pupil of first Kitakawa 

Utamaro.) U. 

Shimada Motonao. (d. 1830.) S. 
Shimasaki Umpo. (d. 1828.) M. C. 
Shimizu Kyokuka. (d. 1819.) M. C. 
Shimokawabe Jusui. (d. 1820.) U. 
Shinsai. (Pupil of Hokusai.) U. 
Shinsho. (Son of Suyeyori.) K. 
Shirai Naokata. (Pupil of Okio.) S. 
Shiyo. (Pupil of Toriyama Sekiyen.) U. 
Shoga. 1 3th cent. Ta. 
Shojo Gyosai. (d. 1889.) M. C. 
Shojo (or Shosho o), called Shokado. (d. 

1639.) K. 

Shokatsu Kan. (d. 1780.) K. 
Shokei. 1 5th cent. Ta. 
Shosei. 1 1 th cent. B. 
Shosen. (d. 1880.) K. 
Shoyei (called also Naonobu). (d. 1592.) 

Sh6yei. (4th son of Naonobu.) (d.i6is.) 

Shoyei. (5th son of Shoyei) (Naonobu). 

(d. 1620.) K. 
Shubun. (d. 1420.) C. R. 
Shuga. (Son of Kansai.) U. 
Shugetsu. (Pupil of Sesshu.) C. R. 
Shuko. iithcent. Ko. 
Shuko. (Fellow student of Sesshu.) 


ShunshO. 1 7th cent. K. 
Shunsui. (Son of Shunsh5.) K. 
Shusen. i8th cent. K. 
Shutoku. (Pupil of Sesshu.) C. R. 
So Shigan. (d. 1770.) M. C. 
So Shiseki. (d. 1774.) M. C. 
So Shizan. (d. 1790.) M. C. 
Soami. (d. 1515.) C. R. 
Soga Jasoku. (d. 1467.) C. R. 
Soga Shohaku. (d. 1783.) M. C. 
Soga Shdhaku (Iki or lyasoku-ken, or 

Kishinsai). (d. 1783.) K. 
Sokuyo. i8th cent. K. 
S5ritsu. (Pupil of Oguri Sotan.) i5th 

cent. C. R. 

Sosen (Kano Sosen, not to be con- 
founded with Mori Sosen). I7th 

cent. K. 

Soyei. 1 5th cent. C. R. 
Soyen. (Pupil of Sesshu.) C. R. 
Sugai Baikan. (d. 1844.) M. C. 
Sugawara Hakuryo. (Living.) M. C. 
Sumiye Buzen. (d. 1810.) M. C. 
Snmiyoshi Gukei. (d. 1705.) T. 
Sumiyoshi Jokei. (d. 1620.) T. 
Sumiyoshi Keion. (d. 1202.) T. 


Sumiyoshi Keinin. ijth cent. T. 
Sumiyoshi Naiki. igth cent. T. 
Suyeyori. (Son of Motonobu.) (d. 

1571.) K. 

Suzuki Fuigen. (Living.) S. 
Suzuki Gako. (d. 1870.) M. C. 
Suzuki Haninobu. (d. 1770.) U. 
Suzuki Hyakunen. (b. 1827.) (Living.) 

M. C. 
Suzuki Hyakunen (Taichin). (Living.) 


Suzuki Hyakusen (Shonen). (Living.) 


Suzuki Kiitsu. (Pupil of Hoitsu.) T. 
Suzuki Nanrei. (Pupil of Toyo.) (d. 

1844.) S. 

Suzuki Nanrei. (d. 1847.) M. C. 
Taaka Nikka. (Pupil of Okamoto 

Toyohiko.) S. 

Tachibana Minko. (d. 1765.) U. 
Tachibana Morikuni. (d 1624.) K. 
Tachibe-no-komaro. 7th cent. B. 
Tachiwara Kyosho. (d. 1840.) M. C. 
Tadanobu. igth cent. K. 
Taiso Yoshitoshi. (Pupil of Ichiyusai.) 


Takachika. 1 2th cent. Ka. 
Takahashi Kyoson. (d. 1868.) M. C. 
Takahisa Aigai. (d. 1843.) M. C. 
Takakane. i3th cent. Ta. 
Takamitsu. 1 5th cent. T. 
Takamori. (d. 1300.) T. 
Takamori. I4th cent. T. 
Takanobu (or Ukoon Shogen.) (d. 

1618.) K. 

Takanobu. izth cent. Ka. 
Takashima Chiharu. (d. 1859.) T. 
Takashima Takakane. (d. 1309.) T. 
Takata Eiho. Second half of i8th 

cent. K. 

Takayoshi. nth cent. Ka. 
Takeda Harunobu (or Shingen.) i6th 

cent. K. 

Takehara Shuncho. (d. 1730.) U. 
Takehara Shuncho. (d. 1745.) U. 
Takehara Shunsen. (d. 1770.) U. 
Taki Katei. (Living.) S. 
Tamate Shoshu. (d. 1875.) M. C. 
Tamenari. i2th cent. Ta. 
Tameto. 1 2th cent. Ta. 
Tanaka Nikka. (d. 1841.) S. 
Tanaka Totsugen. (d. 1823.) T. 
Tanaka Yubi. (Living.) S. 
Tanboku. (d. 1832.) K. 
Tani Buncho. (d. 1841.) M. C. 
Tani Bunitsu. (d. 1820.) M. C. 
Tangyu. (d. 1714.) K. 
Taniguchi Aizan. (Living.) M. C. 

Tanjo. (d. 1756.) K. 

Tanomura Chikuden. (d. 1835.) M - c - 

Tanomura Chokunyu. (b. 1817.) (Liv- 
ing.) M. C. 

Tanrin. (d. 1777.) K. 

Tansen. (d. 1728.) K. 

Tansetsu. (Son of Tanyu.) K. 

Tanshin (Morimichi). (d. 1835.) K. 

Tanshin (Morimasa). (Son of Tanyu.) 

Tanyen (Morihisa). i8th cent. K. 

Tanyen (Morizane). (d. 1853.) K. 

Tanyu (Kano Morinobu). (d. 1674.) K. 

TasakiSoun. (b. 1815.) (Living.) M. C. 

Tateba Shdcho. (d. 1813.) M. C. 

Tatebayashi Kaseki (Shirai). i8th cent. 

Teij5. 1 1 th cent B. 

To Kyujo. (d. 1802.) M. C. 

T5Toy5. (d. 1839.) S. 

Todo Ry6un. (d. 1887.) M. C. 

Toichi Og6. (Living.) M. C. 

Tokinobu. (d. 1678.) K. 

Tokuta Chikuin. (d. 1755.) K. 

Torii Kiyofusa. (Son of the fourth 
Torii Kiyomitsu.) U. 

Torii Kiyomasa. (Son of Torii Kiyo- 
nobu.) U. 

Torii Kyomitsu. (Son of Torii Kiyo- 
masa.) U. 

Torii Kiyomitsu. (Grandson of Torii 
Kiyomasa.) U. 

Torii Kiyomitsu. (Great grandson of 
Torii Kiyomasa.) U. 

Torii Kiyomitsu. (Great-great-grand- 
son of Torii Kiyomasa.) U. 

Torii Kiyomune. (Son of the third Torii 
Kiyomitsu.) U. 

Torii Kiyonaga. (Son of the first Torii 
Kiyomitsu.) U. 

Torii Kyonobu. (d. 1730.) U. 

Torii Kiyotsune. (Son of Torii Kiyo- 
naga.) U. 

Toriyama Sekigen. (d. 1768.) U. 

Tosa no Sh5i. (d. 1612.) U. 

Toshitsugu. 8th cent. B. 

Toshun. 1 5th cent. C. R. 

Toshun (Yoshinobu). i8th cent. K. 

Totoki Baigai. (d. 1804.) M. C. 

Totoki Baikei. (d. 1803.) M. C. 

Toun (Suwagadai Kano). (Pupil of 
Tanyu.) K. 

T6y5. (Pupil of Sesshu.) C. R. 

Toyokiyo. (Son of Utagawa Toyohiro.) 

Toyonobu. (Pupil of the first Kunisa- 
da.) U. 

Tsubaki Chinzan. (d. 1854.) M. C. 


Tsugimaro. 8th cent. B. 
Tsukioka Settei. (d. 1786.) U. 
Tsukioka Settei. (d. 1786.) M. C. 
TsunemotO. i2th cent. To. 
Tsunenobu. (d. 1713.) K. 
Tsunetaka. ijth cent. T. 
Tsurugawa Tanshin. (Living.) K. 
Tsuruzawa Tanzan. (d. 170x3.) K. 
Tsutsumi Masakatau. (d. 1780.) U. 
Ukita Ikkci (Kai). (Pupil of Tanaka 

Totsugen.) (d. 1859.) T. 
Unkaku Togan. (d. 1585.) C. R. 
Unkaku Toeki. (Son of Togan.) C. R. 
Unkaku Toyo. (Son of Unkaku Toeki.) 

1 7th cent. K. 
Unkei. (d. 1505.) C. R. 
Unshitsu. (d. 1827.) M. C. 
Uozumi Kwangyo. (d. 1896.) T. 
Uragami Gyokudo. (d. 1820.) M. C. 
Uragami Shunkin. (d. 1846.) M. C. 
Utagawa Kuniyoshi (Itchinsai). (d. 

1861.) U. 

Utagawa Toyoharu. (d. 1814.) U. 
Utagawa Toyohiro. (d. 1828.) U. 
Utagawa Toyokuni (or Kunisada). (It- 

chosai.) (d. 1825.) U. 
Utagawa Toyokuni (Kochoro, or Goto- 

tei; the third Toyokuni). (d. 1864.) 


Watanabe Cental, (d. 1822.) M. C. 
Watanabe Kwazan. (d. 1829.) M. C. 
Watanabe Kyoshi. (d. 1855.) T. 
Watanabe Rogaku. (d. 1813.) S. 
Watanabe Shiko. (Contemporary of 

Okio.) T. 

Watanabe Shoka. (d. 1887.) M. C. 
Yagi Sonsho. (d. 1836.) M. C. 
Yamada Bunko. (Living.) S. 
Yamada Doan. i6th cent. C. R. 
Yamada Hpshu. (d. 1814.) M. C. 
Yamaguchi Sekkei. (d. 1730.) K. 
Yamaguchi Soken. (Pupil of Okio.) S. 
Yamana Kwangi. (Living.) T. 
Yamamoto Baiitsu. (d. 1857) M. C. 
Yamamoto Jokoku. (Living.) S. 
Yamamoto Joshun. (d. 1783.) M. C. 
Yamamoto Sotei. (Pupil of Tanyu). K. 
Yamamoto Yoshinobu. (d. 1772.) U. 
Yamato-no-Ataye. 7th cent. B. 
Yamawaki Toki. (Pupil of Gekkei.) 

(d. 1842.) S. 

Yamazaki Tosen. (Living.) S. 

Yasuda Beisai. (d. 1888.) M. C. 

Yasuda Rozan. (d. 1883.) M. C. 

Yasunobu. (d. 1798.) K. 

Yasunobu. (d. 1685.) K. 

Yeigaku. (d. 1836.) K. 

Yeihaku. i8th cent. K. 

Yeijo. 1 8th cent. K. 

Yeikyo. (d. 1755.) K - 

Yeini. (d. 1697.) K. 

YeiryS. i8th cent. K. 

Yeisen. (d. 1790.) K. 

Yeisen. (d. 1731.) K. 

Yeisetsu. igth cent. K. 

Yeisho. (d. 1710.) K. 

Yeishu. 1 5th cent. T. 

Yeishun. i8th and igih cent. K. 

Yenchin. 9th cent. B. 

Yendo Kwanshu. (b. 1829.) (Living.) 


Yogetsu. (Pupil of Sesshu.) C. R. 
Yokoyama Kwazan. (Pupil of Ganku.) 

d. 1839. S. 
YSsen. (d. 1808.) K. 
Yosha Busan (called also Shunsei or 

Yahantei). (d. 1783.) M. C. 
Yoshichika. loth cent. B. 
Yoshimaro. (Pupil of first Kitakawa 

Utamaro.) U. 
Yoshimitsu. (d. 1301.) T. 
Yoshimura Kokei. (Pupil of Okio.) (d. 

1836.) S. 

Yoshimura Shuzan. i8th cent. K. 
Yoshimura Tansen. (d. 1778.) K. 
Yoshitaka. loth cent. B. 
Yoshizawa Setsuan. (Living.) M. C. 
Yuge Tosatsu. (Pupil of Shugetsu.) 

C. R. 

Yuhi (Kumashiro). (d. 1772.) M. C. 
Yukihide. isth cent. T. 
Yukihiro. I4th cent. T. 
Yukimaro. (Pupil of first Kitakawa Uta- 
maro.) U. 

Yukimitsu. (d. 1359). T. 
Yukinobu (or Utanosuke). (Son of Ma 

sanobu.) K. 

Yukitada. i4th cent. Ko. 
Yuyeki (Tomomasu). 1 7th cent. K. 
Yuzen. (d. 1720.) U. 







N.B. A few of the names in this list appear also in the List of Sword-Furniture 
Chisellers. That is because of the general character of their work. 

Aichiku. igthcent. (d. 1896.) A wood- 
carver of Echizen. 

Akiyama. Present day. Wood-carver 
in the style of Matsumoto Kisaburo, 
whom he accompanied to Tokyo 
from Kumamoto. 

Anraku. igth cent. (d. 1893.) A net- 
suke-carver of Osaka, pupil of 

Arakawa. Beiun. Present day. A 
skilled wood-carver of Tokyo, mid- 
way between the old and the new 

Araki. Kihei. i;th cent. Pupil of Na- 
goshi Masataka. Metal-founder. 

Ariyoshi. Nagato. igth cent. (d. 1890.) 
Originally a mask carver of great 
skill, he became a worker in metals 
after 1870. Some fine netsuke in the 
form of masks were produced by 
him. His art name was Mori Ryoken. 

Aaada. Sahichi. Present day. A 
highly skilled worker in cloisonne 
enamel, chiefly remarkable for trans- 
luced pastes run over gold and sil- 
ver, which are chiselled in various 
designs, or carry subjects worked in 
enamels of stronger colours. 

Asahi. Sho. iQth cent. (d. 1890). A 
carver and engraver of Tokyo. 

Asahi. Meido. Present day. A skilled 
ivory -carver of Tokyo ; pupil of 
Gyokkin of Kyoto and Ishikawa 
Mitsuaki of Tokyo, 

Asahi. Gyokuzan. Present day. A 
netsuke-carver of Kyoto, celebrated 
for chiselling skulls. 

Asai. Hidejiro. Worker in cloisonne 
enamels; pupil of Hara Fujio. 

Asai. Bansaburo. A worker in cloi- 
sonne enamels ; pupil of Kaji Tsune- 

Awada-guchi. A mark found on net- 
suke of Miwa's time. It has not 
been identified. 

Bazan. Present day. A highly skilled 
wood-carver of Gifu. He has carved 
a string of cash on a straw rope so 
that each cash moves. 

Benkichi. i9th cent. (d. 1865.) A 
wood-carver of Ono in Kaga. He 
excelled in chiselling a multitude of 
cranes, deer, etc., in relief on a flat 
field. Also made mechanical toys. 

Chiujiro. (d. 1800.) Metal-founder. 

Chounsai. igth cent. (d. 1885.) A net- 
suke-shi of Yedo (Tokyo) ; pupil of 

Daikokuya. Toyemon. i8th cent. A 
netsuke-carver of Kyoto. 

Dome. Uman. i8th cent. The Soken 
Kisho says : " Deme was a native of 
Yedo, and a mask-maker by profes- 
sion. It appears that this artist 
carved as a pastime only. He had 
a natural gift for carving netsuke in 
the form of a mask, and none could 
surpass him in. gugh work, There 



was also a sculptor named Deme Jo- 
man, supposed to be a son of Deme 
Uman, who possessed great glyptic 
ability. No carvings except those 
of masks bear the name " Deme." 

Doki. Minasuke. Worker in cloisonne 
enamels; pupil of Hara Fujio. 

Donin. i7th cent. Metal-founder. 

Doraku. igth cent. (d. 1895.) A net- 
suke - carver of Osaka ; pupil of 

Doya. 1 7th cent. Called also Yaichiro 
or Yazayemon. Art names, Yoshi- 
toshi and DSya. Metal-founder. 

Doya. 1 7th and i8th cent. Called also 
Yaichiro or Yazayemon. Art name, 
Doya. Metal-founder. 

D5ya. i8th cent. Called also Yaza- 
yemon, or TomoyoshL Metal- 

D5ya. i8th cent. Ryoshin. Metal- 

Doya. 1 8th cent. Shichiyemon. Metal- 

Doya. i Qth cent. Shichiyemon, or Ya- 
zayemon. Metal-founder. 

f Workers in cloi- 

Fugita. Shigeo. I sonne enamels; 

Fugita. Yonejiro. | pupils of Hara 
[ Fujio. 

Fukawa. Kazuo. Present day. An 
eminent metal-sculptor. 

Fusa. 1 8th cent. (d. 1776.) A carver of 
Nara-mingyo. Called also " Kogan 
Shoyei Shinji," and commonly 
" Manzoku." 

Garaku. i8th cent. A skilled netsuke- 
carver of Osaka and pupil of Tawa- 
raya Dembei. 

Gechiu. 1 8th cent. The Soken Kisho 
says : " Nothing is known of this 
artist, but his name appears upon 
some fine carvings." 

Genryosai. i8th cent. An ivory-carver 
of Kyoto ; one of the best of the 
early netsuke-shi. A contemporary 
of Miwa, who worked in wood. 
Genryosai and Miwa were called the 
nifuku-tsui (pair of pictures) of their 

Gessho. 1 8th cent. (end). A netsuke- 
carver of Nagoya. Bold and some- 
what rough in style. 

Gido. i Qth cent. (d. 1837.) A great 
bronze-caster of Yedo. Zenriusai 
Gido was his art name ; Suwara 
Yasugoro, his ordinary name. 

Giji. (d. 1776.) Hikokuro. Metal-caster. 

Gohei. (d. 1782.) Metal-founder. 

Gorozayemon. (d. 1786.) Metal-founder. 

Gyokkin. i9thcent. (d. 1885.) A skilled 
netsuke shi of Kyoto. 

Gyokumin. igthcent. (d. 1861.) A net- 
suke-shi of Osaka. 

Hada. Kusaroku. Present time. Pupil 
of Shiho Ampei. A great expert of 
Kaga, where many of the finest mod- 
ern bronzes are made. 

Hakuriu. igth cent. (d. 1873.) A net- 
suke-carver of Kyoto. He was a 
samurai of Unshiu, and his favorite 
subjects were dragons, tigers, and 
Dogs of Fo (shishi). 

Hananuma. Masakichi. Present day. 
A wood-carver of Yokohama who 
works for the foreign market. 

Hara. Fujio. Worker in cloisonne en- 
amels ; pupil of Hara Kiyozaburo. 

Hara. Kiyosaburo. A worker in cloi- 
sonne enamels ; pupil of Isaburo. 

Haruchika. iSth cent. A skilled net- 

Hasegawa. Kumazo. Present day. 
A highly skilled metal-founder of 
Tokyo ; works in the style of the 
great bronze casters Seimin and 

Hata. Tomofusa. i8th cent. A net- 
suke-carver of Mimasaka. He was 
a lacquerer by profession, and his 
netsukes are all lacquered. 

Hayashi. Shogoro. A worker in cloi- 
sonne enamels; pupil of Kaji Tsune- 

Hidari. Jingoro. i6th and i7th cent, 
(d. 1635.) One of the greatest of 
Japanese wood-carvers. 

Hidari. Soshin. i7th cent. Son of 
Hidari Jingoro, and an almost equally 
skilled sculptor in wood. 

Hidari. Katsumasa. i;th and iSth 
cent. Grandson of Hidari Jingoro. 
A renowned sculptor in wood. 

Hidari. Issan. iSth cent. (end). A 
skilled carver of wooden netsuke 
who worked in Yedo. 

Hijikata. Tobioye. A worker in cloi- 
sonne enamels ; pupil of Kaji Tsune- 

Hirata. Soko. Present day. A skilled 
uchimono-shi of Tokyo. 

Hiratsuka, Mohei. i gth cent. (d. 1840.) 
A worker in cloisonne enamel who 
used translucid pastes with success 
for making ojime, Kagami-buta, and 


Hiratsuka. Kinnosuke. Present day. 
Son of Hiratsukt Mohei. A skilled 
worker in cloisonne enamels. Re- 
markable for having introduced 
(1887) the style known as Hirata- 
jippo ; namely, enamel designs sus- 
pended in the reticulations of silver 
vases chiselled d jour. 

Hitotsuyanagi. Kisuke. A worker in 
cloisonne enamels; pupil of Kato 

Hojutsu. igth cent. (d. 1885.) A net- 
suke-shi of Kyoto, one of the 
greatest in Japan. He had a com- 
petence of his own as a samurai, 
and his profession was that of 
instructor in military science, as 
was the case with Ogino Shomin, 
but his passionate love for carv- 
ing compelled him to take it up. A 
pupil of Ogino Shomin, and after- 
wards of Shibayama Soichi, he 
learned from the latter the art of 
inlaying with mother-of-pearl and 
decorating with gold lacquer; and 
many of his productions were thus 
distinguished. Art name, Mei- 

Hori. Yosai. (d. 1796.) Said to have 
been a pupil of Yamashiro Hori 
Joho. Metal-founder. 

Hoshin. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Kyoto. The Soken Kisho says : 
" He worked in ivory, and made 
a specialty of carving a partially 
opened clam with buildings inside, 
and other subjects of that class." 

N.B. The buildings in the clam are supposed 
to be the palace of the dragon king Riu-no-jo 
at the bottom of the ocean. This motive his 
often been copied. 

Houn. i gth cent (d. 1858.) A busshi 
of Yedo (Tokyo) ; brother of Hozan. 

Hozan. igth cent. (d. 1860.) A skilled 
busshi of Yedo (Tokyo). 

Ichiraku. i8th cent. A netsuke-maker 
of Sakai in Izumi. The Soken 
Kisko says : " His family name was 
Tsuchiya, and his art-name Botoken. 
He was the first to make girdle- 
pendants by plaiting rattans or fine 
wistaria. His calabash-shaped net- 
suke of these materials are well- 
known." (This style of plaiting 
was suggested originally by Chinese 
snuff-bottles. It is called " Ichiraku- 
gri," after the name of its Japanese 

Ikkan. igth cent. (d. 1885.) A net- 
suke-carver of Nagoya. 

Ikko. I9th cent. (d. 1858.) A net- 
suke-carver of Kyoto, who worked 
also in the Shibayama style. He is 
said to have been regarded as an 
imbecile, and to have been unable 
to tie his own girdle up to the age 
of 19. Nevertheless, without re- 
ceiving any instruction, he became a 
great carver. 

Ikkosai. igth cent. (d. 1880.) A net- 
suke-carver of Yedo ; pupil of To- 

Insai. 1 8th cent. A netsuke-carver of 
Osaka. The Soken Kisho says : " He 
became famous for carving ivory 
netsuke representing the Sarumaw- 
ashi (monkey-leader). 

Isaburo. A worker in cloisonne enam- 
els ; pupil of Kaji Tsunekichi. 

Ishikawa (Mitsuaki). igth cent. (d. 
1835.) A wood-carver of Kyoto. 

Ishikawa (Toyomitsu). Present day. 
An ivory carver of great skill ; pupil 
of Kikugawa Masamitsu. He was 
the first to receive the title of Gigei- 
in (artist to the Imperial Court) in 
1890. Father of Ishikawa Mitsuaki. 
Works in Tokyo. Called also 

Ishikawa. Mitsuaki. Present day. One 
of the leading ivory-carvers of the 
era. His ancestors, through seven 
generations, were sculptors. His 
specialty is the carving of barn-door 
fowls, monkeys, human figures, etc., 
which he fastens into wooden plaques. 
Mitsuaki is a teacher in the Fine 
Arts School, and has a large atelier 
of his own in Tokyo, where many 
netsuke and ivory alcove ornaments 
are produced for the foreign market. 

Ishikawa. Katsuyemon. igth cent, 
(early part). A skilled decorative 
wood-carver (miya-bori-shi) of Yedo. 
He executed the carvings on some 
of the gates of several temples and 
mausolea; notably those of Nikko, 
Hongwan-ji,and Shiba. Grandfather 
of Ishikawa Mitsuaki. 

Ittan. igth cent, (middle). A net- 
suke-carver of Nagoya. 

ItO. Tosuke. A worker in cloisonne 
enamels ; pupil of Kaji Tsunekichi. 

ItO. Katsumi Masataka. Present day. 
(b. 1829.) Originally called Shosai. 
A metal sculptor of the highest skill ; 


loth representative of the Ito family, 
founded by Ito Masanaga, who with 
all his descendants down to the pres- 
ent representative, were makers of 
sword-guards for the Tokugawa 
Shoguns. A pupil of the celebrated 
Toriusai; he was adopted into the 
Ito family in 1860, his rival for that 
honour being Kano Natsuo. After 
1867 he began to carve plaques, 
paper-weights, etc. He uses the 
marks Katsumi and Taikiu. 

Ito. Kojiro. Present day. A jade- 
carver of Echizen. 

Itsumin. Present day. A netsuke- 
carver of Nagoya, skilled in the 
style called Jidai-bori (ancient car- 
ving) ; i.e., the greatest effect with 
the smallest use of the chisel. 

lyemasa. (d. 1626.) Called also Ya- 
goro and Zuiyetsu. The third son 
of Nagoshi Zensho. Granted the 
rank of Etchiu no Shojo. Being 
appointed founder to the Tokugawa 
Shoguns, he repaired every year to 
Yedo. Metal-founder. 

Izamiya. (1765-1800). Netsuke-carver. 

Jinnosuke. 1 7th cent. Pupil of Nago- 
shi Masataka. Metal-founder. 

Jirobei. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Osaka. He was famous for pipe- 
cases of horn, having dragons chis- 
elled on them. 

Jitsugyoku. igth cent. (d. 1892.) A 
skilled netsuke-carver of Tokyo ; 
pupil of Hojustsu. 

Jiuzo. 1 8th cent. A netsuke-carver of 
Wakayama, Kishiu. The Soken Kisho 
says : " He is very skilful. His work 
resembles that of Ogasawara Issai, 
and he will doubtless improve much 
as he grows older." 

Jochi. 1 7th cent. A pupil of Nagoshi 
Masataka (q. v.). His family name 
was Hori. Metal-founder. 

JSgen. There were three of this name. 
All had the common name of Seiye- 
mon, and lived in the i8th cent. 

JSkiu. (d. 1685.) A celebrated metal- 
founder. Son of Onishi Josei. He 
cast tea-urns decorated with pine 
sprays in relief; others in the form 
of folded paper, a gourd, a rice-bag, 
an old-woman's mouth, etc. 

Jorin. (d. 1727.) An eminent founder. 

Joriu. igth cent. (d. 1835.) A net- 
suke-shi of Osaka. 

Josci. 1 7th cent. Family name Onishi. 
A metal-founder of Kyoto. 

Jdsetsu. 1 8th cent. Sanyemon. Metal- 

Joun. A pupil of Onishi Josei (q. v.). 
Seiyemon. Metal-founder. 

Jugyaku. igth cent. (d. 1893.) A 
skilled netsuke-shi of Tokyo ; pupil 
of the second Riukei. 

Jukwa. (First half of igth cent.) Net- 

Jutei. (End of i8th cent.) Netsuke- 

Kagetoshi. (igth cent.) (d. 1868). A 
netsuke-carver of Kyoto. Highly 
skilled in the style called Kanton- 
bori (Canton carving), that is to say, 
work of microscopic delicacy, as 
landscapes and mythical scenes 
chiselled inside a clam shell, the 
whole in solid ivory. He carved a 
view of Itsukushima shrine within a 
space of two inches, so accurate in 
detail that the sacred bell swings in 
its frame. 

Kaigyokusai. igth cent. (d. 1892.) A 
netsuke-carver of Osaka, one of the 
greatest that Japan has produced. 
His name was Yasunaga Kizayemon. 
At first he used the mark " Masat- 
sugu," but by and by he changed 
it to "Kaigyoku Masatsugu," and 
finally to " Kaigyokusai." He ab- 
solutely declined to carve anything 
that did not take his fancy, but 
when he had commenced a work, 
he scarcely laid it aside until it was 
finished. He gave all his carvings 
to charitable purposes. 

f Workers in 

_. . r, cloisonne en- 

Kamuma. Zenzayemon. I 

Kainuma. Kozayemon. j Qf j^ji Tsu- 
I nekichi. 

Kaji. Tsunekichi. igth cent. (d. 1883.) 
A worker in cloisonne enamels at 
Nagoya. He was the first to pro 
duce objects of any size decorated 
wholly with cloisonne enamels. 

Kaji. Sataro. Present day. A worker 
in cloisonne enamel, grandson of 
Kaji Tsunekichi. He adopts the 
Chinese style. 

Kamata. Sadakuni. A worker in cloi- 
sonne enamels ; pupil of Kaji Tsune- 

Kamaya. Higo. i8th cent. A great 
netsuke-carver of Osaka. He was 


originally a maker of peep-show 
boxes, but afterwards devoted him- 
self to carving artificial teeth and 

Kame. lyth cent. Called Kame-jo (the 
woman Kame). A skilled bronze- 
caster of Nagasaki, 

Kameyama. Josetsu. Present day. One 
of the best wood-carvers of Osaka ; 
pupil of Kyoyen (V. Morikawa). 
Kanaya. Gorosaburo. 1 7th cent. Set- 
tled in Kyoto in 1625, and soon 
acquired an unrivalled reputation for 
skill, not only in casting and chisel- 
ling bronzes, but also for patina, 
called Gorosa-iro (Gorosa color). 
There have been ten generations of 
the Kanaya family, all called Gorosa- 
buro. They are distinguished only 
by their posthumous names. The 
following is the list : 

Gorosaburo (i). (d. 1660.) Posthu- 
mous name, D5yen. 

Gorosaburo (2). (d. 1716.) Posthu- 
mous name, Nichizui. 

Gorosaburo (3). (d. 1779.) Posthu- 
mous name, Sokuyen. 

Gorosaburo (4). (d. 1772.) Posthu- 
mous name, Enshin. 

Gorosaburo (5). (d. 1817.) Posthu- 
mous name, Ichiryo. 

Gorosaburo (6). (d. 1825.) Posthu- 
mous name, Soyen. 

Gorosaburo (7). (d. 1848.) Posthu- 
mous name, Ichijo. 

Gorosaburo (8). (d. 1873.) Posthu- 
mous name, Nichiyen. 

Gorosaburo (9). (d. 1889.) Posthu- 
mous name, Ryoki. This was one 
of the greatest of the family. He 
enriched his country with many 
beautiful works. 

Gorosaburo ( i o). Present time. 
Kanchi. Miyazaki. (d. 1728.) Hiko- 
kuro and Naoyoshi. Metal-founder. 
Kanchi. Miyazaki. (d. 1773.) Nao- 
nobu Shoshin. Known in Kaga, 
where he worked, as " Zeni-ya Kan- 
chi" (Kanchi, the coiner). A great 

Kanchi. I7th and i8th cent. Family 
name, Miyasaki, and personal name, 
Hikosaburo. Called also, Giichi, 
and generally spoken of as Niudo 
Kanchi. (d. 1712.) Said to have 
been a pupil of Nagoshi Sansho, 
but as the latter died in 1638, the 
statement is apocryphal. Worked 

in Kaga. A celebrated metal- 

Kaneda. Kanejiro. Present day. An 
ivory-carver of Tokyo. Some re- 
markably large works have been 
turned out in his atelier, notably 
ivory eagles, measuring 5 feet across 
the wings. The heads of these 
birds were chiselled by Ishikawa 
Mitsuaki (q. v.). Kaneda's ariizans 
have all been trained by Ishikawa or 

Kanjuro. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Osaka. The Soken Kisho says : 
" He carved human figures having 
the faces and limbs of ivory and the 
costume, etc., in ebony. 

Karamono-ya. Kiubyoye. i8th cent. 
A netsuke-carver of Sakai, in Izumi. 
The Soken Kisho says : " This artist 
was by profession a bronze-founder 
(Karamono-ya). His netsukes are 
of bronze, and generally take the 
form of the Kuwara-netsuke (vide 
note under Riusa's name) or suigara- 
ake, "pipe-ash-holder," (vide note 
under Toshinaga's name). 

Kashiu. i8th cent. The Soken Kisho 
says: "Nothing is known of this 
artist beyond the fact that the abo^ 
ideographs, supposed to represent 
his name, are engraved on some fine 

Kato. Tamejuro. A worker in cloi- 
sonne enamels ; pupil of Kato Ya- 

Kato. Heishichi. A worker in cloi- 
sonne* enamels ; pupil of Kato Ya- 

Kato. Yasubiyoye. A worker in cloi- 
sonne enamels ; pupil of Kaji Tsu- 

Kawai. Yoritake. i8th cent. A net- 
suke-carver of Kyoto. The Soken 
Kisho says : " He was a sculptor of 
idols by profession. His netsuke 
are exceedingly clever and well fin- 
ished, and always show some pecul- 
iarity of style. He may be classed 
as an artist of special originality, and 
his works will certainly increase in 
value as years go by. 

Kazaoka. Renyemon. A worker in 
cloisonne enamels; pupil of Kaji 

Kempaku. (d. 1820.) Joyetsu. Metal- 

Kensai. I9th cent. (d. 1592.) A net- 


suke-carver of Nagoya; pupil of 

Kichibiyoye. i8th cent. A netsuke- 

Kikugawa. Masamitsu. Present day. 
A skilled ivory-carver of Tokyo. 

Kimura. Heiji. Vide Toun. 

Kimura. Yokichi. Worker in cloisonn^ 
enamels; pupil of Hara Fujio. 

Kobayashi. Shokei. Present day. A 
netsuke-carver of Nagoya ; pupil of 

Kodani. igth cent. (d. 1865.) A net- 
suke-shi of Osaka. 

Kohosai. iQth cent. (d. 1882.) A net- 
suke-carver of Osaka ; pupil of Mit- 

Kojiro. (d. 1778.) Metal-founder. 

Kujutsu. i gth cent. (d. 1890.) A 
skilled netsuke-shi of Tokyo; pupil 
of Hojutsu. 

Kokei. Nine generations of this family 
lived and worked in Yedo, where 
they were regarded as highly skilled 
busshi. The Yedo family, a branch 
of the Nara Kohei, goes back to the 
middle of the i7th century. Its 
records are obscure, but the repre- 
sentatives are said to have borne the 
names Kohei and Zenkei in alternate 
generations. Several of them had 
the art rank of Hokyo. The ninth 
representative was the teacher of 
Hozan and Houn. 

KSmin. I9thcent (1865.) A netsuke- 
shi of Osaka. 

Konoki. Tokutaro. Present day. Wood- 
carver in the style of Yamamoto 
Kisaburo (q.v.) ; the inventor of a 
species of very durable lacquer for 
covering sculptures. Works in To- 

Koyoken. Yoshinaga, i8th cent. A 
netsuke-carver of Kyoto. 

Kozui. 1 7th cent. Pupil of Nogoshi 
Masataka. Metal-founder. 

Kuhei. 1 7th cent. Family name Nish- 
imura, and commonly called lyehisa. 
A pupil of Jomi (Nagoya Sansho). 

Kuribara. Keisai. 1 9th cent. (d. 1868.) 
A skilled bronze-caster of Yedo. 

Kurobei. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver. 
The Soken Kisho says : " He lived in 
Nagamachi, Osaka, and produced 
colored netsuke, imitating the glyptic 
style of Shuzan, to whom, however, 
he was much inferior." 

Kuwamura. Tsunejiro. Worker in 

cloisonne enamels ; pupil of Hara 

Maizono. Genwo. i9th cent. (d. 1870.) 
A worker in cloisonne enamels of 
Kanazawa (in Kaga). Celebrated 
for his enamels in the Chinese style. 

Manjiya. Hisayasu. 1 7th and 1 8th cent. 
A skilled wood-carver of Toyama. 
The successive representatives of 
this family followed the profession 
of wood-sculptors until modern times. 

Masaharu. (d. 1880.) Yagoro. Metal- 

Masakazu. igth cent. (d. 1885.) A 
netsuke-carver of Nagoya; highly 

Masakira. (d. 1828.) Kemmei or Ip- 
pusan. Metal-founder. 

Masamichi. (d. 1762.) Yagoro. Metal- 

Masanao. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Kyoto. The Soken Kisho says : 
" His skill in carving was great. He 
worked in both ivory and wood, and 
his productions are much prized." 

Masanobu. iQth cent. Netsuke-carver. 

Masataka. (d. 1851.) Gonjiro and Ya- 
goro. Metal-founder. 

Masatoshi. igth cent. (d. 1880.) A 
netsuke-carver of Nagoya. 

Masatsugu. Present day. A netsuke- 
carver of Osaka ; grandson of Kai- 

Masatsune. iQth cent. (d. 1846.) A 
celebrated bronze-caster of Yedo. 

Masayoshi. (d. 1865.) Yagoro. Met- 

Masayoshi. cent. (d. 1859.) A 
netsuke-shi of Osaka. 

Masayoshi. (d. 1746.) Yagoro. Met- 

Masayuki. i9th cent. (d. 1894.) A 
netsuke-carver of Osaka ; pupil of 

Matsuda. Ryocho. igthcent. Netsuke- 
carver of Takayama is Hida. 

Matayemon. i8th cent. A netsuke- 
carver of Kishiu. The Soken Kisho 
says : " He had skill of a very high 
order, and even now (1781), when 
good netsuke are found, dealers are 
fond of attributing them to Mataye- 
mon of Kishiu. 

Matsumoto. Kisaburo. (d. 1890.) A 
wood-carver of remarkable force; 
originator of the natural school (vide 


Matsumoto. Ryozan. igth cent, (d 
1860.) Called also Kimbei ; con- 
temporary of H&un (q. v.). Wood- 
carver. Carved the figure of Fudo 
at Naruta (hence received the name 
of " Fudo Kimbei " ), and the figures 
of 500 Rishi in the Naruta temple. 

Meikei. First half of iyth cent. Net- 
suke -carver. 

Miao. Yeisuke. Present day. A bronze- 
founder of Yokohama. 

Michimasa. (d. 1690.) Yagoro. Metal- 

Minko. There were three netsuke-shi of 
this name. The first was a contem- 
porary of Miwa, and is separately 
noticed. The second, a woman, 
worked in the Tempo era (1830-43), 
and the third, Tsunohan Minko, was 
a great sculptor, who died about the 
year 1850. 

Minko. 1 8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Tsu in Ise. The Soken Kisho 
says : " His skill in wood-carving is 
very remarkable, especially in the 
production of ingenious and interest- 
ing figures. For example, he will 
carve a Daruma with eyes that turn 
in the head. His works are much 
liked, and his skill may be inferred 
from the fact that though he is still 
(1781) living, there are many imita- 
tions of his netsuke." 

Mitsubashi. Riuun. igth cent. (d. 
1897.) A wood-carver of Tokyo, 
highly skilled in chiselling designs in 
medium relief. Much of bis work 
was done for bronze-casters, so that 
few specimens remain. 

Mitsuharu. iSth cent. A netsuke-car- 
ver of Kyoto. " Several fine netsuke 
bear his name." Soken Kisho. 

Mitsuhiro. igth cent. (d. 1865.) A 
netsuke-carver of Osaka; one of the 
greatest experts of the century. He 
could chisel ideographs as though 
they were traced by a great penman. 

Miwa. i8th cent. A celebrated net- 
suke-carver. The Soken Kisho says : 
" The other names of this artist are 
unknown. He lived and worked at 
Sekiguchi, in the street called Suido- 
machi, in Yedo (Tokyo). His skill 
was of the highest, and he specially 
distinguished himself in carving such 
figures as kodomo shishi-asobi (chil- 
dren masquerading as Dogs of Fo), 
take-ryoshi (catchers of cuttle-fish), 

etc. His netsuke were all of nncol- 
oured cherry wood, and the holes 
through which the cord passed were 
lined with horn, stained light green. 
He did not work in ivory." 

N.B. Miwa is one of the names with 
which venders of bric-a-brac are wont to con- 
jure. To account for the very considerable 
number of " Miwa "netsuke offered by them 
for sale, they have devised a legend indicat- 
ing that several generations of the Miwa 
family followed the profession of netsuke- 
carver, and they do not hesitate to assign to 
the chisel of "Miwa the First," netsukes 
elaborately coloured and even lacquered, 
though the author of the Soken Kisko explic- 
itly notes that Miwa's work was entirely in 
uncoloured cherry wood. Some well known 
European writers on Japanese art, failing to 
notice this point have been betrayed into 
obviously false identifications. 

Miyao. Kyosei. Present day. Ivory- 
carver of Tokyo. 

Miyazaka. Hakuryu. First half of i gth 
cent. Netsuke-carver. 

Miyochin. Yoshihisa. i7th cent. (d. 
1664.) Common name Yazayemon. 
A celebrated armourer, kinzoku-shi 
and chiseller of sword-furniture. A 
son of Miyochin Munehisa. Origi- 
nally he worked at Kamakura, but 
subsequently moved to Yuki (Shim- 
otsuke province), and ultimately took 
up his abode at Fukui in Yechizen. 
A great expert. 

Miyochin. Yoshihisa. I7thcent. (Sec- 
ond of that name.) (d. 1675.) The 
most celebrated of the Miyochin 
masters for works outside the range 
of armour and sword-furniture. He 
forged dragons, craw-fish, and crabs 
with universal joints, birds with mov- 
able plumage, and other objects of 
iron showing extraordinary skill. 
The maker of an iron eagle now in 
the South Kensington Museum. 
This eagle was originally in the pos- 
session of the Matsudaira family 
(feudal chief of Yechizen), where 
some masterpieces by the same ex- 
pert are still preserved. Miyochin 
Yoshihisa's methods of manufacture 
were carried on by a son and grand- 
son of the same name, the former of 
whom died in 1680, the latter in 

I73 2 - 

Miyogaya. Seishichi. iSth cent. A 
netsuke-carver, of whom the Sokett 
Kisho says : " He lived near the 
temple Nishi-hongwan-ji in Bingo- 
machi, Osaka. He was by profession 


a carver of ventilating panels (ram- 
ma), but he also excelled in produc- 
ing elaborately chiselled netsuke. 
His carvings are never coloured or 
of ivory." 

Mori no Koriu. Present day. Carver in 
ivory of Tokyo. 

Mori. Yasokichi. Worker in cloisonne" 
enamels ; pupil of Hara Fujio. 

Morikawa. Toy en. igth cent. (d. 
1892.) A highly skilled wood-carver 
of Nara and Kyoto. 

Morikawa. Kyoyen. igth cent. (d. 
1 890.) A highly skilled wood-carver 
of Osaka ; son of Morikawa Toyen, 
but died before his father. 

Nagai. Rantei. igth cent. (d. 1853.) 
A netsuke-carverof Kyoto, originally 
a Samurai of Unshiu. It is related 
that being asked by the Court to 
chisel a thousand monkeys on a wal- 
nut, he finished the work in ten 
years, and the officials appointed to 
receive it had to put dots of red ink 
on the monkeys in order to count 
them. He received the art title of 
Hokkyo and a present of 30 riyo. 
He is said to have been a very proud 
man. If the slightest fault was 
found with his work, he refused to 
deliver the specimen. When he re- 
ceived the price, he spent it at once 
on sake. 

Nogami. Yataro. Present day. A 
skilled bronze-caster of Tokyo; art 
name, Riuki. 

Nagamichi. igth cent. (d. 1855.) A 
netsuke-shi of Osaka. 

Nagao. Taichiro. The Soken Kisho 
says : " This artist was a Samurai of 
Wakayama in the province of Kishiu. 
He studied carving under Ogasawara 
Issai (mentioned as the best liv- 
ing netsuke-carver, of the era when 
the Soken Kisho was written). His 
works are clearly chiselled and elab- 
orate, almost equal to those of his 

Nagoya. Shichirozayemon. i3th cent. 
Metal-founder. (Second son of the 
Hojo Vicegerent Yoshitoki. Had 
the rank of Shikibu-no-jo and was 
also called Asataki.) 

Nagoya. Yashichiro. (d. 1471.) There 
were three of this name, but nothing 
is known of the two first. Yashichiro 
cast tea-utensils for the Ashikaga 
Shogun Yoshimasa, and was ap- 

pointed founder of bronze and iron 
to the Shoguns, the Imperial Court, 
and the eight princes of Ise. 
Nagoya. Yashichiro. i6th cent. Chu- 

ami. Metal-founder. 
Nagoya. Yashichiro. (d. 1535.) Metal- 

Nagoya. Yashichiro. (d. 1593.) Made 
tea-utensils for Ota Nobunaga, and 
received a pension of 3,000 koku of 
rice. Metal-founder. Art name, 

Nagoya. Yagoro. (d. 1600.) Metal- 
Nagoya. Yashichiro. (d. 1606.) Art 

name, Joyu. Metal-founder. 
Nagoya. Yashichiro. (d. 1619.) Art 
name, Zenshi. Metal-founder. Very 

Nagoya. Yayemon. (d. 1638.) Art 
name, Sansho. Called also Jomi, 
and distinguished as " Ko Jomi " (the 
elder Jomi). Cast a bell for the 
temple of Daibutsu at Nara, and 
received the rank of Echizen no 
Sh5j5, being named metal-founder 
to the Tokugawa Shoguns. 
Nagoya. Yayemon. (d. 1639.) Masa- 

taka. A great metal -founder. 
Nagoya. Yayemon. (d. 1708.) Masa- 

nori and Jomi. Metal-founder. 
Nagoya. Yayemon. (d. 1722.) Masa- 
haru and Santen Jomi. A great 
Nagoya. Yayemon. (d. 1759.) Masa- 

mitsu and Jomi. Metal founder. 
Nagoya. Yayemon. (d. 1784.) Masa- 

naga. Metal-founder. 
Nagoya. Yayemon. (d. 1800.) Mas- 

aoki and Jomi. Metal-founder. 
Nagoya. Masanobu. (d. 1820.) Metal- 

Nagoya. Yashichiro. (d. 1674.) Younger 
brother of Masataka. Metal-foun- 

Nakao. Sotei. igth cent. (d. 1835.) 
A metal-caster of Osaka. His son 
continued the work. The family 
produced several artizans, as Nabeya 
Chobei, Kihan, Kamacho, etc., and 
all used the mark Nakao Sotei. 
These bronzes were the first exported 
from Japan in modern times. 
Nakatani. Toyokichi. Present day. A 
skilled wood-carver of Osaka. Art 
name, Shogo. Son of Nakatani 
Nakatani. Seisuke. igth cent. (d. 



1870.) A wood-carver of Hiroshima. 
Art name, Shisetsu. 

Nakaya. Jiyemon. Yasuteru. 1 6th and 
I7thcent. (d. 1623.) Called also, 
Shoyeki. Received art title of Tenka 
Ichi, and rank of Dewa no Daijo 
from the7a*/6<7, who further exempted 
the Nakaya family from all taxes. 
This artist, originally an armourer, is 
said to have been the first to orna- 
ment bronzes with flowers, birds, 
figures, etc., in relief. He was asso- 
ciated with Nagoya Sansho in the 
casting of the Daibutsu bell at Nara. 

Nakaya. Jiyemon. Shigetomo. I7th 
cent, (early). Joyeki. Had rank of 
Dewa no Daijo, and enjoyed ex- 
emption from taxation. Metal- 

Nakaya. Jiyemon. Yasuie. i7th cent, 
(early). Received art title of Tenka 
Ichi and had rank of Dewa no Daijo. 
Was also known as Somai-boin, and 
on gongs cast by him the mark 
" Tenka Ichi Somai " is found. 
Metal-founder. Called also Joyeki. 

Nakaya Jiyemon. lyetsugu. 1 7th cent. 
Succeeded to headship of Nakaya 
family in 1635. Had rank of Hitachi 
no Daijo. Cast bronze utensils, etc., 
for the mausoleum of lyemitsu 
(1651), and a representation of the 
death of Buddha for the Koya temple. 

Nakaya Kuroyemon Muneakira. i/th 
cent. Succeeded to headship of 
Nakaya family in 1663. Cast bronzes 
for the mausoleum of lyetsuna 
(1680), and produced many censers, 
alcove ornaments, figures, etc. One 
of the most skilled casters of the 
1 7th century. Had rank of Dewa 
no Daijo. Called also Joyeki. 
Takaya. Kichi-no-jo. Akisada. 1710 
and 1 8th cent. Succeeded to head- 
ship of Nakaya family in 1701, and 
had rank of Dewa no Daijo. Cast 
bronzes for mausoleum of Tsuna- 
yoshi (1709), and made many bronzes 
for temples of the Shingon sect. 

Nakaya Sanyemon. Yasuakira. iSth 
cent. Cast bronzes for mausoleum 
of lyetsugu (1716), and for the 
temple Kobuku-ji, as well as many 
Buddhas and images. Joyeki. 

Nakaya Kameyemon. Yasusada. i8th 
cent Cast all the bronze utensils 

for the Ise Dai-jin-gu in 1769, and 
many alcove ornaments, flower- vases, 
etc. Joyeki. 

Nakaya Kameyemon. Yasumune. iSth 
cent. Cast bronze vessels for mau- 
soleum of lyemoto (1779), and for 
the mausoleum of lyeharu (1786). 
Also founded bronzes for the Ise 
Dai-jin-gu in 1789. Joyeki. 

Nakaya Kameyemon. Yasunari. i9th 
cent. Received rank of Ise no Daijo 
in 1851. Employed by the Toku- 
gawa Shoguns to cast bronzes for 
the temple Senyu-ji in 1813. Cast 
bronzes for the mausoleum of lye- 
nari(i84i). Cast the large standard- 
lantern for the Daishi-do at Kama- 
kura in 1840 ; also that which stands 
on Chikubu-shima in Lake Omi, and 
that for Kitano Temman-gu ; also 
the bronze caps for the balustrades 
of the Haiden of Inari-jinja, the 
utensils for Yokoku-ji in Yanagitani, 
and many bronze cisterns, images, 
etc. Received the art title of HSkyo 
in 1847. Joyeki. 

Nakaya Kameyemon. Yasutomo. iQth 
cent. Received the rank of Yamata 
no Daijo in 1863. Made (1848-53) 
altar bronzes for Komiyo-ji, standard- 
lamp for Kitano Temman-gu, effigy 
of Ohito-nushifor Yokoku-ji ; image 
of Kobo Daishi for To-ji (in Kyoto), 
many bronze sotoba, images, etc. 
Called also Joyeki. 

Nakaya Wasuke. Yasuyuki. (d. 1847.) 
Worked with his father, Nakaya 
Yasuyuki. Metal-founder. Called 
also Joyeki. 

Nakaya Kameyemon. Yasuharu. Pres- 
ent representative of the Nakaya 
family, but has changed his family 
name to Hasegawa. Works in 
Kyoto, and has cast several large 
temple images (12 feet high) of 
Shaka, Fudo, etc. Called also 

Nakayama. Yamato. iSth cent. A 
netsuke-carver of Yedo. The Soken 
Aisho says : " This woman was 
celebrated for her remarkable skill 
in engraving with the point of the 
burin extraordinarily minute designs 
of shishi or dragons upon kuwara- 
netsuke (vide Ruisa) of ivory." 

Nando. Matashiro. igth cent. (d. 
1860.) A netsuke (wood) carver of 
Kanazawa in Kaga. 


Naotatsu. Miyazaki. (d. 1799.) Metal- 
founder. Hikokuro. 

Naotomo. Miyazaki. (d. 1799.) Metal- 
founder. Hikokuro. 

Naoyuki. Miyazaki. (d. 1786.) Metal- 
founder. Hikokuro. 

Negoro. Sokiu. 1 8th cent. A netsuke- 
carver. The Soken Kisho says : 
" He lived in Kyomachi, Osaka. 
He showed skill in the making of 
artificial teeth, and was also an 
expert netsuke-carver." 

Negishi. Suketaro. Present day. A 
skilled carver of Kyoto, who works 
in ivory and wood. 

Nishimura. Donin. 1 7th cent. Father 
of the celebrated Kuhei lyehisa. 

Ogasawara. Issai. The Soken Kisho 
says : " A native of the province of 
Kishiu, he is the master, par excel- 
lence, of the present day (1781), and 
although he is still alive, his works 
are not easy to procure. He carves 
in ivory, walrus ivory, etc., so deli- 
cately and skilfully that his achieve- 
ments seem beyond human capacity. 

Ogino. Shomin. iSth and igth cent, 
(d. 1830.) A great wood-carver of 
Kyoto. A Samurai who never 
studied carving under any teacher. 
In cooperation with Ishikawa Mit- 
suaki he carved the Dewa Kings for 
the temple of Myobu. He lost the 
use of his eyes, and was tended until 
his death by Shibayama SoichL 

Ogura. Sojiro. Present day. A mod- 
eller of likeness effigies in plaster of 
Paris for the use of bronze-casters 
and metal-sculptors. 

Ogura. Sojiro. Present day. A sculp- 
tor in European style, who has pro- 
duced some fine works in plaster of 
Paris and marble. 

Okano. Shoju. Present day. Carver 
in wood and ivory of Tokyo. Called 
also Yasunori, and art name, Bunkei. 
Son of Yamada Koretaka. 

Okatomo. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Kyoto. 

Okazaki. Sessei. Present day. A cel- 
ebrated bronze-founder of Tokyo. 
Renowned for large castings. (See 

Omiya. Kahei. 1 8th cent. A netsuke- 
carver of Osaka. 

Onishi. JoseL (d. 1682.) Gorozayemon 
and Muranaga. He worked in com- 

pany with lyemasa (q. v.). A great 

Ono. Ryomin. igth cent. (d. 1875.) 
A great netsuke-shi of Tokyo ; pupil 
of Rakumin ; carved chiefly in wood. 

Ono. Hakujitsu. Present day. Ivory- 
carver of Tokyo. 

Onoura. Kichigoro. igth cent. (d. 
1880.) A busshi of Tokyo; teacher 
of Mitsuboshi Riuun. 

Oshima. Katsujiro. Present day. A 
skilled bronze-caster of Tokyo ; art 
name, Joun. 

Oshima. Yasutaro. Present day. A 
skilled bronze-caster of Tokyo ; art 
name, Shokaku. Yasutaro and his 
brother Oshima Katsujiro established 
the Sanseisha (firm name) in Tokyo, 
where, between 1873 and 1879, some 
of the finest bronzes ever produced 
in Japan were turned out. 

Ota. Kihichi. A worker in cloisonne 
enamels ; pupil of Hayashi Shogoro. 

Otsuki. Shunzo. A worker in cloi- 
sonne" enamels ; pupil of Isaburo. 

Rakumin. igth cent. (d. 1865). A 
great netsuke-shi of Tokyo. Not 
originally a carver, but a curio-dealer, 
he was induced to try sculpture for 
the purpose of imitating the fine 
netsuke that passed through his 
hands. He produced some excel- 
lent imitations of Miwa's netsuke. 

Rakushiku. First half of igth cent. 

Rammei. igth cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Kyoto ; pupil of Nagai Rantei. 

Rankwa. igth cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Kyoto ; pupil of Nagai Rantei. 

Ransen. igth cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Kyoto ; pupil of Nagai Rantei. 

Ranshi. igth cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Kyoto ; pupil of Nagai Rantei. 

Riujo. Present day. A skilled wood- 
carver ; pupil of Riumin. 

Riukei. There were three netsuke-shi 
of this name ; the first worked from 
1804 to 1830; the second, from 1830 
to 1850; the third died in 1885. 

Riumin. I9th cent. A great netsuke- 
carver of Kyoto. 

Riumondo. Beginning of igth cent. 
Metal-founder of Kyoto. 

Riusa. A netsuke-carver of Yedo. The 
Soken Kisho says : " He was a turner 
by profession, and he showed re- 
markable skill in making Kuwara- 
nttsuke, which were lathe-turned, and 


particularly suitable for gold lacquer 
inro, because the lacquer received no 
injury from contact with the net- 


N.B. The term Kmvara-netsuke signifies 
round netsuke with smooth edges, commonly 
known in Japan as manju-netsuke, because 
of the resemblance its shape bears to a rice- 
dumpling (manju). Such netsuke are also 
called riusa. after the name of their origi- 

Sadanosuke. (d. 1795.) Metal-founder. 

Sahei. 1 6th cent. C elebrated for cast- 
ing tea-urns having " brush-mark " 
decoration. Metal-founder. 

Saihojutsu. First half of igth cent. 

Sakata. Chikuyen. Present time. A 
wood-carver of Osaka ; pupil of 
Morikawa Kyoyen. Celebrated for 
carvings of sparrows. 

Sakunai. Tsunejiro. A worker in cloi- 
sonne enamels ; pupil of Isaburo. 

Sanehisa. (d. 1603.) Yojiro. Second 
son of Nagoya Yashichiro (Zensho). 
In 1584 cast an image of Buddha 
1 6 ft. high for the Dai-butsu temple 
in Kyoto. Cast many celebrated 
tea-urns. Metal-founder. 

Sanko. igth cent. (d. 1860.) A net- 
suke-shi of Osaka. 

Sanko. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver of 
Osaka. The Soken Kisho says : 
" His technical skill as a carver was 
great, and he was a faithful copyist, 
but unfortunately his works are de- 
ficient in tone." 

Satake. Sohichi. i8th cent. A net- 
suke-carver of Osaka. The Soken 
Kisho says : " An architectural sculp- 
tor by profession, he was also very 
skilled in carving netsuke, in ivory 
and in wood, both coloured and 

Sano. Koichi. Present day. Ivory- 
carver of Tokyo. 

Sato. To. Present day. Ivory-carver 
of Tokyo. 

Sato. Hirashi. i7th cent. Pupil of 
Nagoshi Masataka. Metal-founder. 

Sawaoka. Chiuhei. igthcent. (d. 1836.) 
A wood-carver of Kanazawa. 

Seibei. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Kyoto. The Soken Kisho says : 
" His skill was so great that the 
epithet Seibei bori (Seibei carving) 
came to be applied to all glyptic 
work of beauty and refinement, 
whether from his or other hands. 

Many imitations of his netsuke are 
now (1781) to be found. 

Seimin. Present day. An ivory-carver 
of Tokyo; pupil of Rakumin. Up 
to 1876 he carved netsuke only, but 
thereafter he produced the small 
alcove ornaments which have found 
so much favour with foreign collec- 
tors. Among his netsuke the repre- 
sentations of frogs were so good 
that people called him " Kayeru 
Seimin" (frog Seimin). 

Seimin. i8th and igth cent. (b. 1769, 
d. 1840). A celebrated bronze-caster 
of Yedo, specially skilled in pro- 
ducing the golden-yellow bronze 
called " Sentoku." 

Sekku. i gth cent. (d. 1890.) Art 
name of a wood-carver of Mikuni; 
son of Shima Sessei. 

Shibata. Ichirobei. i8th cent. A net- 
suke-carver of Osaka. 

Shibayama. Saichi. igth cent. A 
skilled wood-carver of Kyoto. 

Shiho. Ampei. i8th cent. (d. 1842.) 
A highly skilled metal-caster who 
worked for many years in Kaga. 
Art name, Ryumondo. 

Shikida. Otajiro. Present day. A 
carver of netsuke and alcove orna- 
ments in Kyoto. Highly skilled. 

Shima. Sessei. igth cent. (d. 1888.) 
A wood-carver of Mikuni, celebrated 
for minute work. Had the art rank 
of Hokkyo. 

Shima mura. Ryomin. igth cent. (d. 
1896.) A skilled ivory -carver of 

Shimamura. Homei. Present da/. 
Ivory-carver of Tokyo. 

Shimizu. Tahei. i7th cent. Pupii of 
Nagoya Masataka, Metal-founder. 

Shinkai. Taketaro. Present day. A 
wood-carver of Tokyo, who works in 
the modern style. 

Shinshi. Sairyukei. (First half of igth 
cent.) Netsuke-carver. 

Shiugetsu. i8th cent. A netsuke- 
carver of Yedo. Had the art title of 
Hogen. The Soken Kisho says: 
" A skilled pictorial artist, he has 
received the title of ' Hogen ' in 
recognition of his talents. He also 
carves netsuke which are of great 

N.B. This Shiugetsu is not to be con- 
founded with the celebrated pupil of Sesshiu, 
who Nourished in the i6th cent. 



Shiukai. Present day. Wood-carver of 
Tokyo. ( Vide Yamazaki.) 

Shiura. Itataro. Present day. Wood 
and ivory carver of Tokyo. 

Shokiusai. igth cent. (d. 1860.) A 
skilled netsuke-shi, much of whose 
work has gone abroad, as it was 
originally produced for low prices. 

Shoko. Present day. A netsuke-carver 
of Takayama ; pupil of Sukeyuki. 

Shomin. Vide Unno Sh5min. 

Shominsai. End of i8th cent. Net- 

Shosai. Hidemasa. 19111 cent. (d. 1875.) 
A netsuke-shi of Yedo (Tokyo). 

ShStoku. 6th and 7th cent. Gen- 
erally spoken of as Shdtoku Taishi 
(Prince Shotoku). Said to have 
been a skilful wood-sculptor. 

ShSun. Present day. An expert sculp- 
tor of wood or ivory alcove orna- 
ments in Kyoto. 

Shuzan. i8th cent. The first recorded 
carver of netsuke ; had the art tide 
of HOgen, on account of his skill as 
a painter. He was, in fact, the 
painter Mitsuoki. (Vide text.) 

Sobei. 1 8th cent. A younger son of 
Nagoya Santen. (q. v.) Metal- 
founder. His family name was 
Shimoma, and his personal name 

Sobei. 1 8th cent. Son of above. Art 
name, Mijo. Celebrated for the 
manufacture of urns in the shape 
of tortoises, demons, cicada, etc. 

Sobei. 1 8th cent. Art name, Misen. 
Son of Sobei Mijo. Jakiu. Metal- 

Sokwa. Heishiro. i8th cent. A net- 
suke-carver of Osaka. The Soken 
Kisho says : " By profession an archi- 
tectural carver, he derived his soubri- 
quet, Sokwa (plants and flowers), 
from the remarkable ability he dis- 
played in chiselling leaves, blossoms, 
etc. He was an adept carver of net- 
suke, but his works are very rare." 

Somada. Nobuyoshi. lyth and iSth 
cent. A wood-carver who orna- 
mented his work with a delicate 
inlaying of mother-of-pearl, and 
was consequently known as Aogai 
(Mother of pearl) no Somada. 

SSmin. igth cent. A great bronze- 
caster of Tokyo, pupil of Teijo and 
Seimin. Somin is his art name. 

Suginaga. Chikayuki. (d. 1882.) Net- 
suke-carver of Tokyo. His work 
is called Asakusa-ningyo as he lived 
at Asakusa in Tokyo. 

Sukenaga. iQth cent. (d. 1855.) A 
skilled netsuke-carver of Takayama. 

Sukeyuki. igth cent. (d. 1885). A 
, netsuke-carver of Takayama, son of 

Suwara. Seizayemon. i8th cent. (d. 
1783.) A bronze-caster of Yedo. 

Suwara. Hatsugoro. i8th and i9th 
cent. A bronze-caster of Yedo. 

Suwara. Matagoro. i8th and igth 
cent. (d. 1818.) A bronze-caster of 

Suwara. Hatsugoro. I9th cent. (d. 
1836.) A bronze-caster of Yedo. 
Another bronze-caster of the same 
name worked in Yedo sixty years 
later, (d. 1892.) He was a great- 
grandson of the above, and had the 
art name of Judo. 

Suwara. Kitaro. igth cent. (d. 1871.) 
A skilled bronze-caster of Tokyo. 

Suwara. Yasugoro. F/oVGido. 

Suzuki. Kamekichi. Present day. A 
wood-carver of Tokyo, who produces 
masks for the foreign market. 

Suzuki. Kichigoro. Present day. In- 
ventor of the antimony waie now 
largely produced in Japan. 

Suzuki. A worker in cloisonne enamels. 
There were two of this family name, 
and both were pupils of Kaji Tsu- 
nekichi. Their second names were 
Shinbyoye and Seiichijiro. 

Suzuki. Chokichi. Present day. A 
skilled metal-founder of Tokyo. 

Suzuki. Heijiro. Present day. Wood- 
carver in the style of Matsumoto 
Kisaburo, (q. v.) whose pupil he 

Suzuki. Masakichi. Present day. A 
bronze-founder of Tokyo. 

Suzuki. Seven generations of this family 
lived and worked in Yedo, the 
seventh, Suzuki Gensuke being the 
present representative. The first six 
manufactured chiefly metal pen-cases 
(yatate) for the girdle, incense-boxes, 
etc. They used the mark Genshin. 
The present representative is a skilled 
metal-worker (uchi-mono-shi). His 
art names are Reigensai and Su- 

Tadatoshi. igth cent, (beginning). A 
netsuke<arver of Nagoya. 



Takabatake. Toyejiro. Present day. 
A worker in cloisonne enamel of 
Kanazawa (in Kaga) ; remarkable 
for his imitations of the Chinese 

Takamura. Koun. Present day. A 
wood-carver of Tokyo, regarded as 
among the greatest of the century ; 
pupil of Toun. He stands between 
the old school and the new. 

Takasaki. Takaichiro. Present day. 
A skilled worker in cloisonne enamel. 

Takeda. Nobuhide. igth cent. (d. 
1845.) A great wood-carver of Kan- 
azawa. Art name, Yugetsu. Cele- 
brated for chiselling eagles, birds, 
and flowers, etc., in relief on the 
panels of letter-boxes. He had a 
pension of a hundred koku of rice 
from Mayeda, leudal chief of 

Takeda. 1 9th cent. (d. 1865.) A mask - 
carver of Kanazawa ; son of Takeda 

Takehara. Torakichi. Present day. 
A skilled netsuke-shi of Osaka. Art 
name, Chikko. He has made some 
excellent imitations of Shuzan's net- 
suke (vide Shuzan). 

Takcnouchi. Yasuhei. i8th cent. A 
netsuke-carver of Wakayama, Kishiu. 
His netsuke are coloured. 

Takeoka. Gohei. Present day. Maker 
of wooden figures, masks, etc., for 
the foreign market, as well as for use 
in Japanese festivals, puppet shows, 
etc., in the style of Matsumoto Kisa- 
buro (q. v.). Several generations of 
the Takeoka family were employed 
in the manufacture of votive images 
and puppets, from 1688 to the pres- 
ent day ; as Takeoka Dengon (d. 
1847), Takeoka K6z5, and Takeoka 

Takeshita. Shoju. Present day. Met- 
al-sculptor. Pupil of Unno Shomin. 
f Workers in cloi- 

Taketa. Seikuro. I sonne enamels; 

Taketa. Tsunesuke. j pupils of Tsuka- 
l_ moto Kaisuke. 

Takusai. igth cent. (d. 1885.) A 
skilled bronze-caster of Sado. He 
cast principally small objects, and 
was specially skilled in producing a 
fine, purple patina. His son of the 
same name is now working. 

Tamaii. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Kyoto. 

Tametaka. i 8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Nagoya. The Soken Kisho says : 
" He devised a new style of carving ; 
namely, chiselling vine scroll (kara- 
kusa) decoration in relief on the cos- 
tumes of human figures. Hence his 
name is well known. 

Tametaka. First half of igth cent. Net- 
suke-carver celebrated for chiselling 
figures and flowers. 

Tanchosai. Jikaku. iQth cent. A 
bronze-founder of Yedo, contempo- 
rary of Seimin. 

Tatsugoro. A worker in cloisonne enam- 
els ; pupil of Kaji Tsunekichi. 

Tatsuki. Kanzo. i8th cent. A net- 
suke-carver of Osaka. His netsuke 
are very rare. 

Tawaraya. Dembei. i8th cent. A 
netsuke-carver of Osaka. He was a 
pupil of Kanjuro, and carved in 
ivory and wood. 

Teijo. 1 9th cent. (d. 1861.) A great 
bronze-caster of Yedo ; pupil of Sei- 
min. Teijo was his art name, his 
real name being Kunibara Yahei. 

Tokoku. Present day. A wood-carver 
of Tokyo ; works almost entirely in 
hard wood, called Sabita, which is 
obtained from Hokkaido, and which 
is almost as good a field as metal for 
engraving purposes. 

Tomochika. ipth cent. (d. 1873.) An 
ivory-carver of Yedo (Tokyo), not 
only one of the greatest but also one 
of the most prolific carvers of the 
iQth cent. Younger brother of Ogi- 
no Shomin, like whom he never re- 
ceived any instruction in sculpture. 
His art name was Chikuyosai. Most 
of his fine netsuke were chiselled be- 
tween 1 830 and 1870. 

Tomochika. Present day. A netsuke- 
shi of Tokyo. Son of an adopted 
son of the celebrated Tomochika, 
but of far inferior skill. 

Tomokazu. igth cent. (d. 1867.) A 
netsuke-shi of Gifu and Osaka, cele- 
brated for skill in chiselling rats. 

Tomotada. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Kyoto. The Soken Aisho says : 
" He obtained renown as a sculptor 
of oxen, and his work was spoken of 
throughout the whole of the Kwanto 
district (eight provinces eastward of 
Hakone). There are hundreds of 
imitations, but the originals are ad- 
mirably clever." 


Tomotane. 1 8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Kyoto. 

Toshi. End of i8th cent. Netsuke- 

Toshimaya. Ihyoye. i8th cent. A 
netsuke-carver of Osaka. The Soken 
Kisho says : " He was celebrated for 
a kind of netsuke which served to 
hold the glowing ashes of the pipe 
so that they could be used to light 
the latter after refilling. These net- 
suke were made by plaiting silver or 
copper wires after the fashion of the 
celebrated Ichirakuori (a kind of rat- 
tan plaiting called after its inventor, 
Ichiraku). Some of his netsuke take 
the shape of a calabash." 

N.B. The Japanese pipe, holding only a 
pinch of tobacco, requires to be often re- 
charged. The smoker's habit is to deposit 
the glowing ashes in some convenient place 
that they may serve for lighting the re-filled 
pipe. These calabash-shaped netsuke of 
woven wire are common. 

Toun. I9th cent. (d. 1841.) A cele- 
brated bronze-caster of Yedo, espe- 
cially skilled in moulding dragons. 
Toun was his art name, his real name 
being Kimura Heiji. The mark 
Heiji is found on some of his early 

T6un. 1 9th cent. (d. 1879.) A skilled 
wood-carver of Tokyo. Originally a 
busshi, he began to carve secu- 
lar subjects from the time of the 
first French exhibition. Pupil of 

Toyama. ChSzo. Present day. Carver 
in ivory of Tokyo. 

T5yen. 1 9th cent. (d. 1893.) A skilled 
wood-carver of Nara, who sculptured 
masks of great excellence. 

Tsuji. 1 8th cent. A netsuke-carver. 
He carved in wood only, not in 

Tsukamoto. Kaisuke. Present day. A 
worker in cloisonne enamels. 

Tsukuda. Shukiyo. Present time. A 
skilled metal-sculptor, celebrated also 
for combining metals so as to pro- 
duce fine effects of colour harmonies. 
He has made some fine iron plaques 
with designs in high relief. 

Tsunekawa. A worker in cloisonne 
enamels. There were four bearing 
this family name. All were pupils 
of Kaji Tsunekichi, and their second 
names were Tatsuzayemon, Yoshiro, 
Bunzayemon, and Seisuke. 

f Workers in cloi- 

Uchikawa. Yoshiro. I sonne enamel ; 

Uchikawa. Sabioye. | pupils of Kaji 
(^ Tsunekichi. 

Unjyu. End of i8th cent. Netsuke- 

Umpo. Kajun. 1 8th cent. A netsuke- 
carver of Osaka. The Soken Aisho 
says : "He was a religionist, and 
carved strange Chinese figures. 
None of his work is without colour 
or made of ivory." 

Unju-doin. Shimemaru. 1 8th cent. A 
netsuke-carver. The Soken Kisho 
says : " His other names are un- 

N.B. The reference here is to the fact 
that "Unju-doin" is not a personal name, 
but a Kaimiyo ; that is to say, a Buddhist 
name taken by a person of the better classes 
on retirement from active affairs. 

" This man lived at Kamishima 
in Osaka and was a theologian. He 
had remarkable glyptic skill, but 
never exercised it except by request, 
so that few of his works survive and 
his name is not much known. All 
his carvings are of the style called 
Kiji-bori (i.e., uncoloured wood), or 
if they carry colour, it is only just 
sufficient to mark the folds of the 
garments," etc. 

Wariu. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver. 
The Soken Kisho says : " A native 
of Yedo and probably a pupil of 
Miwa. Most of his carvings re- 
semble those of Miwa." 

Washoin. i8th cent. A netsuke-carver 
of Osaka. The Soken Kisho says 
that he was a religionist and that his 
carvings are coloured, resembling 
those of Umpo Kajun (i.e., wooden 
statuettes of mythical Chinese fig- 
ures) . 

Watafugi. Senzo. A worker in cloi- 
sonne enamel ; pupil of Hayashi 

Yahei. (d. 1715.) Metal-founder. 

Yamada. Heizaburo, or Mampei. igth 
cent. (d. 1843.) A great sculptor of 
Nara-ningyo, nearly as celebrated as 
his father, Heiyemon. He was also 
called Jakugan Jonen Shinji. His 
art name was Bokuko and he used 
the mark Shoju Tsunenori. 

Yamada. Mampei. igthcent. (d. 1889.) 
A skilled sculptor of Nara-ningyo; 
brother of Yamada Tsunenori. 


Called also Jippoken Taiyo, or Shoju 

Yamada. Heiyemon. i8th and igth 
cent. (d, 1810.) A celebrated 
carver of Naraningyo. Commonly 
called Hohaku, and also Shinniu 86- 
jun Zenjomon. The carving of Nara- 
ningyo is said to have reached its 
zenith in his time. He used the 
mark Shoju. Being adopted into 
the Yamada family, he and his de- 
scendants used that name. 

Yamada. Heiyemon. i8th and igth 
cent. (d. 1825.) The most cele- 
brated of all the carvers of Nara- 
ningyo. Called Sempo Doyen Shinji, 
and also ChOkoku no Shoju Vasu 
hisa (Shoju Yasuhisa, the sculptor). 
His art name was Gyogetsu. The 
painters, Nagasa Rosetsu and Mori 
Sosen, lived for a time in his house 
in order to study the forms of mon- 
keys and deer at Nara, 

Yamada. Shomin. Present day. A 
netsuke-carver of Nagoya ; pupil of 

Yamada. Gorobei Munemitsu. Pres- 
ent day. A metal-sculptor of Kaga 
celebrated for skill in repousse work ; 
tenth in descent from Yamada Ichi- 
yemon lyemasa (q. v.). 

Yamada. Gorobei Muneyoshi. Present 
day. Son of Yamada Munemitsu. 

Yamada. Ichiyemon lyemasa. i6thand 
1 7th cent. An armourer of Kana- 
zawa (Kaga), specially skilled in 
inlaying with gold and silver. The 
Yamada family continued to work as 
armourers through nine generations. 
The present representative makes 
vases, etc., decorated in the repousse 
style with addition of inlaying. The 
eight generations after Tyemasa were : 
Yamada lyetada Jiyemon (d. 1630). 
" lyesada Gorobei (d. 1655). 
" lyetsugu Ichiyemon (d. 


" Iyenagajinyemon(d. 1720). 
" Nagakatsu Gorobei (d. 

" Nagamoto Sanyemon (d. 


" Nagayo Gorobei (d. 1840). 
" lyemitsu Gorobei (d. 1860). 

Yamaguchi. Okamoto. igth cent. (d. 
1875.) A netsuke-carver of Kyoto, 
highly skilled in carving rats, puppies, 
snakes, quail, etc. 

Yamaguchi. Tomochika, First half of 
iQth cent. A great netsuke-carver. 

Yamashiro. 17th cent. A contempo- 
rary and fellow-worker of Yamada 
lyemasa (q. v.). Commonly known 
as Hori Joho, Hori being his original 
family name before he adopted that 
of Yamashiro. He was also called 
Yasuke or Yagoro. A great metal- 

Yamashiro. (2 A) i7th cent. Art 
name, Joyei ; common name, Ya- 
suke. Metal-founder. 

Yamashiro. (jd.) i7th cent. Art 
name, Jomin. Called also Hori Yo- 
sai. Metal-founder. 

Yamashiro. Ichibei. i8th and igth 
cent. Younger brother of Hori 
Yosai. Metal-founder. 

Yamashiro. Tobei. 1 8th and i oth cent. 
Younger brother of Hori Yosai. 

Yamazaki. Choun. Present day. A 
wood-carver of Tokyo. 

N.B. Shiukai, UnKai, Reiun, and Choun, 
follow European methods, making their 
models in plaster of Paris before proceeding 
to carve the subject in wood or stone. 

Yasui. Yahioye. A worker in cloi- 
sonne enamel ; pupil of Tsukamoto 

Yasumori. igth cent, (d 1845.) A 
worker in cloisonne enamel. 

YasumotO. Kamehachi. Present day. 
Wood-carver of Kumamoto who 
works in the style of Yamamoto 
Kisaburo (q. v.). 

Yemen. Tazayemon. i6th cent. A 
wood-carver of Nara, commissioned 
by the Taiko to carve a shima-dai 
for the entertainment of the Emperor 
at the Palace of Pleasure. A maker 
of Nara-ningyo. 

Yemen. Tazayemon. 1 2th cent. Called 
also Uyemon Taro. A wood-carver, 
said to have been the first to chisel 

Yoneharu. Unkai. Present day. A 
sculptor of Tokyo, modern school. 
He works in wood, and also in a 
stone called Kansei-seki (found in 
Mito), which is of fine texture and 
can be chiselled so as to give strong 
effects of light and shade. 

Yoshida. Munetoshi. Present day. 
Ivory -carver of Tokyo. 

Yoshida. Suketomo. igthcent. Wood- 
carver of Yedo. 


Yoshimitsu. Miyazaki. (d. 1802.) 
Metal-founder. Called also Hiko- 

Yoshimoto. 1 8th cent. The Soken Kisho 
says : " Nothing is known of this 
artist, but his name appears on some 
good netsuke." 

Yoshimura. Taiji. A worker in cloi- 
sonne 1 enamel ; pupil of Kaji Tsune- 

Yoshitsugu. Miyazaki. (d. 1773.) Met- 
al-founder. Called also Hikokuro. 

Yuchiku. Present day. A wood-carver 
of Echizen ; son of Aichiku (q. v.). 

Yuchiku. Present day. A netsuke- 
carver of Nagoya. 

Yumemaru. End of iSth cent. Net- 

Zenyemon. i?th and iSth cent. (d. 

1 734.) A celebrated carver of Nara- 

ningyo. Called also Yugaku Josho 

Zenyemon. i?th and iSth cent. <d. 

1738.) A skilled carver of Kara- 

ningyo. Called also Joyei Shinji. 

Had the art rank of Hogen. 
Zenyemon. iSth cent. (d. 1762.) A 

carver of Nara-ningyo. Called also 

Shinji Zenjomon. 
Zenyemon. i8th cent. (d. 1765.) A 

carver of Nara-ningyo. Called also 

Joko Shinji. 
Zeraku. iSth cent. A netsuke-carver 

of Yedo. 


Adachi. Yusai. i9th cent. Yedo. 

Akao. Family name : -vide Yoshistugu 

Akihiro. 19 cent. Yedo. 

Akushi. Tamagawa. 1700. Founder 
of the Tamagawa family of Mito. 

Aoki. Family name : vide Harastura. 

Aoyagi. Family name : vide Yoshi- 

Arakawa. Ikki. igth cent. (d. 1895.) 
A Tokyo metal-chiseller of the high- 
est skill. 

Arichika. Kimura. 1850. A skilled 
artist of Tokyo, pupil of Yasuchika 
(the 6th generation from T6-u). 

Arinobu. 19 cent. Owari. 

Aritsune. igthcent. Yedo. Art name, 

Asanji. Watanabe. 1780. Toyama. 

Atsuoki. 1 8th and igth cent. Art 
name, Sensai. 

Atauoki. Sasayama. 1860. Art name, 
Ichigyosai. A Kyoto expert of high 
rank. One of the best carvers of 
the 1 9th cent. 

Ayabe. Masayuki. igth cent. Yedo. 

Bikwan. Vide Katahiro. 

Bunji. 1 700. An expert ; in the service 
of the feudal chief of Owari. 

Bun jo. Goto. 1690. Kyoto. 

Bunsui. Yoshida. 1650. At first called 
Nomura Rokubei. A pupil of Goto 
Renjd, an expert of the first rank. 
Specimens bearing his name are 
found not infrequently, but they are 
all forgeries, as he is known never to 
have marked any of his work. 

Buzen. Yoshioka. 1740. An artist 
who worked for the Tokugawa 
Court. Yedo. 

Chiba. Tomotane. igth cent. A metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Chikaatsu. Yoshioka. 1690. Otojiri. 

Chikatomo. Yoshioka. 1670. Waki- 

chi. A pupil of Kiyasugu. (Yoshi- 
oka.) Yedo. 

Chikatsugu. Yoshioka. 1700. Yedo. 

Chikayoshi. Ishiguro. 1840. Manno- 
suke. Yedo. 

Chikuzanken. Vide Matosada. (Oga- 

Chiruiken. Vide Takahiro. (Yasui.) 

Chitomo. Chiyo. 1760. Called also 
Chiusuke. An expert of Tsuyama. 

Chiubei. Iwamoto. 1680. Founded 
the Iwamoto family of Yedo. 
Worked in Yedo. 

Chiubei. Tokaya. 1700. A pupil of 
Somin. Yedo. 

Chiubei. 1650. Saburohei. A skilled 
artist of Kaga, in the employ of the 
feudal chief of that province. 

Chiusaku. 1700. An artist of Yechi- 
zen, who worked skilfully in the 
Kinai style. 

ChSbei. Kikugawa. 1720. Muneyoshi. 
An artist of the highest skill in the 
Shizumebori style. He chiselled 
flowers, especially chrysanthemums, 
with such ability that the term 
Chobei-Kiku (Chobei chrysanthe- 
mum) came to be generally applied 
to fine work of that class. His son 
and grandson had the same name 
and worked in similar style. 

Chojo. Goto. 1590. Commonly called 
Shichibei. Son of Goto Kojo and 
founder of the Kami-Goto family, 
Kyoto, and afterwards Mino. 

Chokuzui. Vide Naoyori. 

Chokwaku. Goto. 1700. Nothing cer- 
tain is known about this expert. He 
is said to have been adopted into 
the Shoami family, and he worked 
in Kyoto. 

ChdSken. Vide Motomori (Nemoto). 

Choroku. Shoami. 1820. An expert 
of Aizu. 

Chdaendo. Vide Te.rumitsu (Omori). 


Chounsai. Yoshitane. igth cent. A 
metal-worker of Yedo. 

Daimonji-ya. Vide Gorobei. 

Daisuke. Shoami. 1530. Founder of 
the Oshiu branch of the Shoami 
family. Morioka (Nambu). 

Dempachi. Muneta, 1650. Kyoto. 

Den jo. Goto. 1570. Called also Mit- 
suhiro, son of Goto Tokujo. Kyoto. 

Dennai. ShSami. 1600. An expert of 
Akita (in Dewa). 

Denzaburo. Wakabayashi. 1690. Called 
also Kaneko. Toyama. 

Denzaburo. Kaneko. 1690. A pupil 
of Goto Tsujo. Worked at Toyama 

Denzaburo. Yokoya. 1780. Called 
also Tamotake, Yedo. 

Donin. Vide Hikoshiro. (Hirata.) 

Dopposai. Vide Mitsuyuki. (Kiku- 

Doriu. Hasebe. 1640. A pupil of 
Gioto Yechijo. Residence uncer- 

Fucho. Dainichi. 1750. An expert of 
Osaka, whose work is much admired 
by Japanese connoisseurs for chaste- 
ness and delicacy. He had some 
reputation as a poet. 

Fujii. Masahiko. Present day. Metal 
sculptor. Pupil of Unno Shomin. 

Fujiki. Vide Masayuki (Tsuji). 

Fujiwara. Kiyotoshi. igthcent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Fukawa. Kazuo. Present day. An 
eminent metal-sculptor. 

Fukushige. ShSami. 1580. Worked 
in Owari, after the style of Yama- 

Fuko. Vide Takanaga (Yasui). 

Fumiyo. 1890. Art name, Kansai. A 
pupil of Natsuo ; considered one of 
the best recent chisellers of iron 

Funada (Katsutani). Nakazawa. igth 
cent. Skilled metal-worker of Yedo. 
Art name, Ikkin. 

Funakoshi. Shummin. Present day. 
A great metal-chiseller who adopts 
the styles of Matsuo and ShSmin. 
A pupil of Ikedo Minkoku, who had 
been taught by Haruaki (q. v.). He 
took the two ideographs Haru (Shun) 
and Min to form his art name of 
Shummin. His chiselling is very 
fine, and he is admirably skilled in 
repousst work. 

Fusamitsu. Vide Yeiju. 

Fusanao. Fujiki. 1690. Called also 

Kobachi. A pupil of Goto Shujo 

(Mitsutaka), Yedo. 
Fusanori. Miyochiu. 1560. A skilled 

expert. Kamakura. 
Fusayori. Hamano. 1790. Kiuzo. 

Known also as Yeizui. A skilled 

expert of Yedo. Art name, Riyo- 

Fusayoshi. Miyochin. 1550. A great 

expert. Especially celebrated for 

chiselling chrysanthemums a jour. 

Worked in Kozuke and also in 

Gakan. Fuse. 1610. A pupil of Goto 

Yeijo. Kyoto. 
Gammon. Vide Yoshitsune. 
Ganshoji. Vide Nagatsune. 
Gantoshi. Masuhiro. 
Geki. 1 750. A skilled expert of Sendai, 

where chiselling is very delicate. 
Gekkindo. Vide Masatatsu. 
Gembei. Uyemura. 1720. A pupil of 

Munemine. His house was known 

as Masuya. Kyoto. 
Gempachi. Goto. 1620. Kyoto. 
Gempachi. Mizuno. 1650. A skilled 

expert, but died very young. Kaga. 
Genchin. Furukawa. 1680. Kichijiro. 

Also called Shoju. A pupil of 

Somin. He carved admirably in his 

master's style. (Katakiri.) Yedo. 
Genji. Mizuno. Vide Teruyoshi. 
Genjo. Goto. 1550. Younger brother 

of Kojo, the 4th Goto master. A 

great expert, generally spoken of as 

Goto Kumbei. Kyoto. 
Genj5. Goto. 1550. Kyoto. 
Genjo. Goto. 1690. Called also Mit- 

suyoshi and Kambei. Kyoto. 
Genjo. Goto. 1630. Sometimes called 

KakujS. Kyoto. 
GenjS. Vide Narimasa. 
Genju. igth cent. Metal-worker of 

Yedo. Art name, Taizanken. 
Genjuken. Vide Motoharu (Katoji). 
Gen-no-jo. Goto. 1670. Kyoto. 
Genroku. Mizuno. Vide Mitsumasa. 
Genshichi. Mizuno. 1650. A skilled 

expert, but died very young. He 

and Gempachi were sons of Yoshi- 


Gentaro. Goto. 1690. Kyoto. 
Genyemon. Goto. 1690. Called also 

Mitsuhisa. Kyoto. 
Gishinken. Vide Koretsune. 
Giyemon. Kimura. 1670. A pupil of 

Goto Kambei. Kyoto. 


Giyokuriuken. Vide Katsushiro. 

Gokokuzan. Mitsunaka. iSthandigth 
cent. A skilled worker of Yedo. 

Gon-no-j6. 1780. A pupil of Iwamoto 
Kwanri, and a skilled expert. Sen- 

Gorobei. 1700. His house was called 
Daimonjiya. A celebrated guard- 
maker, whose decoration <i jour was 
of the most elaborate and delicate 
character. His works came to be 
called " Daigoro-tsuba," a term sub- 
sequently synonymous with particu- 
larly choice open-work chiselling. 

Goro-saku-bori. Vide Yoshishige. 

Goroyemon. Ukai. 1740. A skilled 
expert of Osaka ; the teacher of 

Goto. Yoshinori. i8th and igth cent. 

Goto. Mitsuyoshi. Vide Yenjo. 

Goto. Denjo. igth cent. Yedo. 

Goto. MitsubumL igth cent. Yedo. 

Goto. T6j5. igth cent. A skilled 
worker of Yedo. Received the art 
title of H5kyo. 

Goto. Yoshitoru. Present day. A 
skilled metal-chiseller of Osaka, 

Gyokkeisha. Vide Masayori. 

Hachibei. Tokita. 1630. A pupil of 
Goto Yekijo and a fine expert. 

Hachirobei. Goto. 1790. An expert 
of one of the Kyoto branch families 
of the Goto. Art name, Kenjo. 

Hakuhotei. Vide Kankwan. 

Hakuunshi. Vide Koreo. 

Hakushusai. Vide Masanaka. 

Hamano. Chiku-yuki. igth cent. A 
metal-worker of Yedo. 

Hambei. Inouye. 1750. A pupil of 
Inouye Shigeyasu. Kyoto. 

Hankeishi. Vide Masayori. 

Haruaki. Kono. 1830. Chuizo or 
Bunzo. Art names, GeisuS, Sanso, 
Taio. A pupil of Yanagawa Nao- 
haru. Had no fixed place of abode, 
but worked chiefly in Yedo. A 
contemporary of Goto Ichijo and 
one of the greatest experts of the 
i gth century. Attained the title of 

Haruchika. i8th and igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Haruhiro. Nakamura. 1820. Itahei. 
A pupil of Harunari (Hirata). Yedo. 

Haruhisa. Nishimura. 1820. Ginjiro. 

A pupil of Harunari (Hirata). 

Harukuni. Okamoto. 1760. Dembei. 
An artist of great reputation, whose 
skill in manipulating iron was such 
that he received the name of Tetsuya 
Dembei (Dembei the iron-worker). 
He founded the Okamoto family of 
Kyoto, and was the teacher of the 
still more celebrated Tetsuya Gembei. 
In early life he called himself Kuni- 
haru. Kyoto. 

Harumasa. Otsuka. 1820. Shichibei. 
A pupil of Harunari (Hirata). 

Harunari. Hirata. 1810. Hikoshiro. 
Eighth and best of the Hirata ex- 
perts. Called also Tomokichi. Yedo. 

Harushige. Yanagawa. 1860. A 
skilled expert of Yedo ; teacher of 
Koji of Kanazawa. 

Harutomo. Omura. 1820. A pupil of 
Harunari (Hirata). Yedo. 

Harutoshi. Uchino. 1820. Tojiro. 
called also Ichigenshi. A pupil of 
Harunari and a skilled expert. Yedo. 

Harutsugu. 1820. A pupil of Harun- 
ari (Hirata). Yedo. 

Harutsura. Aoki. 1830. A Kyoto ex- 
pert of the very highest skill. 
Teacher of the celebrated Natsuo. 
His works are among the finest of 
the 1 9th century. 

Haruyori. Hamano. 1810. Ginjiro. 
A skilled expert generally called 
Shunzui. Yedo. 

Hashimoto. Isshi. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo ; very skilful and 

Heisuke. Shoami. 1770. Heishichi. 
An expert of Tsuyama in Mimasaku. 

Hideaki. Ishiguro. 1850. Kinjiro. 

Hidechika. Nomura. 1779. A pupil 
of Masahide (Nomura). His real 
name was Ichikawa Magohei. Yedo. 

Hidekatsn. Shoami. 1770. An expert 
of Matsuyama in lyo. 

Hidekiyo. Komatsu. 1800. Senno- 
suke. A pupil of Teruhide(Omori). 
A celebrated expert. Yedo. 

Hidekuni. Kawarabayashi. 1860. A 
Kyoto expert of great skill. Art 
name, Tenkodo. 

Hidemasa. Shoami. 1 740. An expert 
of Matsuyama in lyo. 

Hidemasa. Nomura. 1780. Denzaye- 
mon. Original family was Yano. 


Hidemitsu. Omori. i9th cent Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Hidenori. Vide Soden. According to 
some authorities, Hidenori and So- 
den were distinct, and both worked 
in the same style at Hikone. 

Hidenori. Shiraishi. 1800. Denkichi. 
A pupil of Teruhide (Omori). 
Worked at Hirado in Hizen. 

Hideo. Naomaru. Vide Onishi. 

Hideoki. Omori. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Hidesaburo. 1760. One of the pupils 
of the Akao family, who carved in 
the style of Yoshitsugu Kohei. 

Hidesbige. Tsuchiya. i8th cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Hidetake. Yoshioka. 1670. Kizayemon. 
Generally known as Yoshioka Kizay- 
emon. A pupil of Yoshioka Kiyo- 
tsugu, and a skilled expert. Sendai. 

Hidetomi. Kusakari. 1800. Kiuzo. 
A pupil of Teruhide (Omori). 

Hidetomo. Omori. 1800. Sadabei. 
Called himself Riurinsai. A pupil 
of Teruhide (Omori), and a skilled 
expert. Yedo. 

Hidetsugu. Uyemura. 1740. Ihei. 
A pupil of Takafusa (Uyemura). 

Hideyasu. igth cent. Metal-worker of 

Hideyori. Hayata. 1800. Heishiro. 
A pupil of Teruhide (Omori). 
Worked at Hirado in Hizen. 

Hideyori. 1810. Commonly called 
Shuzui. Yedo. 

Hideyoshi. Omori. 1800. Kitaro, and 
sometimes called Sakai Itsuki. 
Called himself Ittokusai. A pupil 
of Teruhide (Omori), and a skilled 
expert. Yedo. 

Hikokoro. Vide Yasuyuki. 

Hikoshiro. Hirata. 1620. Called Do- 
nin. The first to employ cloisonne 
enamels in the decoration of sword- 
furniture. Such work became thence- 
forth a specialty of the Hirata fam- 
ily. Yedo. 

Hikoshiro. Wakabayashi. 1740. Son 
of Kokusui, and an expert of note. 
Toyama (Yetchiu province). 

Hirakuni. 1650. Sanyemon. Kaga. 

Hirakuni. Akao. 1810. An expert of 
Sendai who carved in the style of 

Hirata. Soko. Present day. A skilled 
uchimono-shi of Tokyo. 

Hirayori. Hamano. 1810. Commonly 
called Kiuzui. Yedo. 

Hiroaki. Ishiguro. 1850. Zenkichi. 

Hiromasa. igth cent. Metal-worker of 
Yedo. Art name, Toju. 

Hirosada. Miyochin. 1850. Art name, 
Kingyokudo. A skilled expert of 
Yedo. Remarkable for making sha- 
kudo dragons with rounded scales. 
Often used the mark Cofu Saishin. 

Hirotoshi. Otherwise called Kwanri. 

Hirotoshi. Uchikoshi. 1810. Yenzo. 
Originally known as Konishi Bunshi- 
chi. Art name, Ichijosai. A great 
expert of Kyoto. Studied under 
Yoshinaga (Tamagawa). 

Hiroyoshi. Kuwamura. 1630. Sazaye- 
mon. A great expert. Pupil of 
Goto Teijo. He was appointed to 
work for the Daimyo Daishoji Hida- 
no-Kami, and had an annual allow- 
ance of 100 Koku of rice. He called 
himself Koko, and afterwards Joku. 

Hiroyori. Murata. 1750. Ikujiro. 
Known also as Kwanzui. Called 
himself Ichiyoken. Yedo. 

Hisachika. Ishiguro. 1840. Kanejiro. 

Hisaharu. Suzuki. 1810. Tetsujiro. 
A pupil of Kiyohisa (Tanaka). Yedo. 

Hisakiyo. Hamano. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Hisakiyo. Goto. 1670. Shichibei. A 
skilled expert. His carvings of grapes 
and bees on fuchi and kashira are 
celebrated. Kaga. 

Hisamitsu. Watanabe. 1810. Chiu- 
goro. Art name, Tokosai. A pupil 
of Kiyohisa (Tanaka). Yedo. 

N.B. The name is also pronounced To- 

Hisanaga. Nara. 1710. A pupil of 
Toshihisa. Some of his carvings 
are marked Denzo. An expert of 
great skill. Yedo. 

Hisanori. Nara. 1770. Signed many 
of his works Unteido. Yedo. 

Hisateru. Kunesake. 1810. Ginjiro. 
A pupil of Kiyohisa (Tanaka). 

Hisatsugu. Takahashi. 1820. Kane- 
jiro. Art name, TSunsai. Aizu. 

Hisatsugu. Yoshioka. 1640. Rizaye- 



mon. At first called Shigeyoshi. 
Third son of Shigetsugu. Yedo. 

Hisayori. Nara. 1760. Yedo. 

Hisayori. Hamano. 1800. HanaL 
Commonly called Juzui. Yedo. 

Hiyobu. Hogen. Nomura. 1790. Pos- 
thumous name, Minamoto Masayori. 
Artistically known as Yusen or Hi- 
yobu-jo. and called in literary circles 
Shjoishi-gekkaan-koo. Eldest son 
of Masahide (Nomura). He received 
the honorary title of Hogen in recog- 
nition of his artistic skill. 

Hiy5ji. Kawakami. 1770. Toyama 

Hdgiyokusai. Vide Koretsune. 

H6JO. Vide Mitsuaki (Goto). 

H6 jo. Goto. 1670. Mitsukata. Ky- 

Hoju. Vide Tomihisa. 

Hokiusai. Vide Naofusa. 

Honjo. Vide Narikado. 

Horiaki. igth cent. Metal-worker of 

Horiuken. Vide Takani. Yeiji. 

Hosuiken. Tsuchiya. i8th and igth 
cent. Metal-worker of Kaga. 

Hozanken. Vide Motonori (Yasuyama). 

Huzui. Vide Yasuyori and Toyoyori. 

Ichibei. Nara. 1730. PupU of the 
celebrated Yasuchika. He was 
known as " Miidera Ichibei," on 
account of the beauty of the land- 
scapes of the temple of Miidera 
carved on hvsfuchi and kashira. 

Ichiga. Yamazaki. 1770. Niziyemon. 
There were five experts called Ichiga. 
The first flourished in 1670, and was 
a pupil of Goto Shujo; the fifth, at 
the close of the i8th cent. All 
were fine carvers. Kyoto. 

Ichigenshi. Vide Harutoshl 

Ichigyosai. Vide Atsuoki. 

Ichijiusai. Vide Mitsutatsu. 

Ichijd. Goto. One of the greatest ex- 
perts of the igth cent. Born, 1791 ; 
died, 1876. Taught in Kyoto, but 
worked in Tokyo. Received the 
title of Hokyo in recognition of his 

Ichiju. Takeshima. 1600. Tozayemon. 
A pupil of Goto Tsujo. A splendid 
artist, standing in the highest rank. 

Ichimudo. Vide Terutoki. (Omori.) 

Ichirobei. Yamada. 1700. An expert 
of Nagasaki who made guards of the 
Kanto-tsuba style ; namely, decorated 

with Chinese figures and land- 

Ichiroyemon. Tanaka. 1700. A skilled 
artist of Satsuma. 

Ichiruisai. Vide Tomoyoshi. (Kiku- 

Ichiso. Kawada. 1720. A Satsuma 

Ichiunsai. Vide Masayoshi. 

Ichiyeian. Vide Korestune. 

Ichiyemon. 1610. A pupil of Goto 
YetsujS. A skilled expert. Kaga. 

Ichiyodo. Vide Mitsuyori. 

Ichiyoken. Vide Hiroyori. 

Ichizayemon. Fukui. 1660. A pupil 
of Goto YetsujO. A skilled artist. 

Ichizo. Vide Nariyuki and Narisuke. 

Ihei. Inouye. 1750. A pupil of In- 
ouye Shigeyasu. 

Ikedo. 1 9th cent. (d. 1897.) A great 
metal-chiseller of Tokyo. One of 
the last carvers of sword-furniture. 

Ikken. Present day. A skilled metal- 
chiseller of Tokyo. 

Ikkin. Funada. 1840. Shosuke. An 
artist of skill who studied for some 
time under Goto Ichijo and finally 
worked in Kyoto. 

Inaba-no-suke. Yoshioka, A title borne 
by four celebrated artists of the old 
Yoshioka family ; namely, Shige- 
hiro (1600), Yasutsugu (1610), Kiyo- 
tsugu (1630), and Terutsugu (1680), 
and by those of lesser note in modern 
times. The mark " Inaba-no-suke " 
was not permitted to be used when- 
ever a member of the noble family 
of Inaba (distinct from the Yoshioka 
family) happened to hold the posi- 
tion of Councillor of state (Goroju). 

Inagawa. Family name. Vide Naoka- 
tsu and Yoshikatsu. 

Injo. Goto. 1620. Mitsutomi. Kyoto. 

Iranken. ShSamL 1570. An expert of 

Ishin. ShOami. 1800. An expert of 
Matsuyama in lyo. 

Issai. Vide Tokiakira. 

Isshiken. Vide Okinari. 

Issho. Nakagawa. 1860. A skilled ar- 
tist of Yedo. 

Isshunan. Vide Masyori. 

Itao. Shinjiro. Present day. A highly 
skilled metal-chiseller of Kagawa 
(in Kishiu). He manufactures iron 
dragons, eagles, crabs, etc. with uni- 
versal joints, as skilfully as did the 


great Miyochin Yoshihisa, and many 
of his masterpieces have been sold 
in foreign markets as Miyochin's 
work. Formerly he was employed 
solely by Yamanaka, the well-known 
dealer of Osaka, and subsequently 
by Sano of Tokyo. 

Ito. Vide Masanaga and Masatsune. 

ItO. Shoyei. Present day. Metal-sculp- 
tor. Pupil of Unno Shomin. 

Ito, Katsumi. Masatatsu. Present day. 
A metal sculptor of the highest skill. 
Tenth representative of the Ito fam- 
ily founded by Ito Masanaga, who 
with all his descendants, down to 
the present representative, were ma- 
kers of sword guards for the Toku- 
gawa Shoguns. A pupil of the cele- 
brated Toriusai, his early years (he 
was born in 1829), were devoted to 
chiselling sword-furniture. In 1 860, 
he was adopted into the Ito family, 
his rival for that honour having been 
the equally celebrated Kano Natsuo. 
From 1864 he was directed by the 
ShOguns to inscribe the name Kat- 
sumi upon his guards, etc., but in 
later years he used the mark Taikiu. 
After the Restoration (1867) he de- 
voted his chisel to carving metal 
objects suited to the changed tastes 
of the time ; as plaques, paper- 
weights, book-markers, etc. 

Itoku. Vide Masanori. 

Ittoku. Tsuji. 1750. Gendayu. Art 
name, Ransuido. An expert of Omi. 

Ittosai. Vide Teruhide (Omori). 

Iwama. Masayoshi. igthcent. A metal 
worker of Yedo. 

lyefusa. Miyochin. 1560. Pupil of 
the celebrated Nobuiye, and a great 
expert. Odawara. 

lyehisa. Miyochin. 1600. A great ex- 
pert. Sagami. 

lyemori. Shoami. 1 790. A kyoto ex- 
pert skilled in inlaying with gold. 

lyenori. Saotome. 1550. A pupil of 
the celebrated Nobuiye and a skilled 
expert. Hitachi. 

lyesada. 1560. Highly skilled for chis- 
elling & jour. Said to have been a 
pupil of Nobuiye. 

lyesada. Sh<3ami. 1670. An expert of 
Matsuyama in lyo. 

lyetaka. Vide Shigeyoshi Tsunetada. 

Izawa. Tadatsura. igth cent. (d. 1875.) 
A metal-worker of Nagoya, particu- 
larly skilled in producing the tama- 

mokume grain ; which is obtained by 
putting balls (tama) of different 
metal into a cylinder, heating the 
latter red, and then beating the 
whole mass together. 

Jakui. Vide Katsuhisa. (Kuwamura.) 

Jakushi. Vide Kizayemon. 

Jichikuken. Vide Motonaga, (Ogawa). 

Jidayu. Wakabayashi. 1710. Ozawa. 

Jikakushi. Vide Koreyoshi. 

Jikiyokusai. Vide Masakiyo. 

Jikokusai. Vide Masatsune. 

Jikosai. Vide Masayoshi. 

Jikyo-sai. One of the art names of 
Ishiguro Masayoshi. 

Jimiyo. Vide Masatsune. 

Jimpo. Nomura. 1750. Tsu Hachiye- 
mon. Generally known as Tsu 
Jimpo. A pupil of Masanori. (No- 
mura.) A grand artist ; one of the 
greatest masters. He died in 1762 
at the age of 52. Kyoto. (Many 
imitations of his work exist.) 

Jingo. 1630. A guard-maker of Yat- 
sushiro. His specialty was inlaying 
iron with brass designs in high 
relief. Hence guards in that style 
are called jingo-tsuba. 

Jinyemon. Vide Mitsuaki. 

Jinyemon. Goto. 1550. Founded the 
Noto branch of the Goto family, but 
afterwards lived and worked in 
Kaga. A great expert. 

Jiriuken. Vide Teruaki. (Yokoya.) 

Jiriuken. Miyaki. 1720. A pupil of 
Soyo. His early work is mediocre, 
but in his later years he carved 
grandly. Yedo. 

Jiriuken. Vide Tsuneyuki. 

Jiriusai. Vide Toshiharu. 

Jiriyusai. Vide Tsuneyuki. 

Jiro-saku-bori. Vide Kuninaga and 

Jitekisai. Vide Yoshisato. 

Jitsujo. Goto. 1660. Kyoto. 

Jiujiro. Suzuki. 1840. A skilled ex- 
pert of Tokyo. 

Jiuyemon. Kurose. 1650. A pupil of 
Goto Renjo. Kyoto. 

Jizaburo. Tamagawa. 1800. Worked 
in Mito. 

Jizan. Vide Nagayoshi. 

Jochi. Sasaki. 1630. Shobei. A pupil 
of Goto Yen jo. Kyoto. 

Jochiku. Isono. 1630. Originally called 
Matsuya Bunyemon, but afterwards 
Kozayemon. A celebrated expert 


both as a carver and as an inlayer. 

Jochin. Furukawa. 1790. A skilled 
expert, even better than his father 
Genchin. His carving is generally 
incised, but sometimes in relief. 

Jochiu. 1640. A pupil of Jochiku and 
almost as fine an expert. The works 
of the two men are often confounded. 
He was subsequently adopted by 
Jochiku. Kyoto. 

Joha. Goto. 1580. Mitsunobu. Kyoto. 

Johaku. 1640. Wasuke. A pupil of 
Jochiku and a skilled expert ; after- 
wards changed his name to Shoyei. 

Joi. Nara. 1720. One of the greatest 
masters. A pupil of Nara Zenzo 
(Hisanaga). He displayed extra- 
ordinary skill in shishi-ai carving, 
and is considered the peer of the 
"Three Nara Masters." (Vide 
Toshihisa. He sometimes marked 
his works Issando Nagaharu. Yedo. 

Jokan Inshi. Vide Mitsutsune. 

Joken. Goto. 1680. Mitsuyoshi. Kyoto. 

'oku. Vide Hiroyoshi. 
okwo. Torii. 1740. Uhei. Com- 
monly known as Masuya Ukei- 

Jotni. Yeizuke. Present day. A great 
metal-worker of Kyoto, (b. 1839.) 
Celebrated for vases of woven 
metals ; for various beautiful patinas ; 
and for plaques with elaborately 
chiselled landscapes. Jomi is his 
art name ; Yasuchika his personal 

JSrin. Goto. 1630. Uhei. A skilled 
expert of Osaka. Called also Mit- 
sunari. Kyoto. 

Joriu. 1640. A pupil of Jochiku. 

JSsen. Goto. 1620. Kyoto. 

Joshin. Goto. 1 540. The third of the 
great Goto masters. Kyoto. 

Joshiu. Vide Mitsutomo. 

Jotetsu. Isono. 1660. A daughter of 
Jochiku. Her work is generally 
spoken of as Musume-bori, or "the 
girls' carving." Kyoto. 

Jotoku. 1650. Date uncertain. A 
Yedo expert, supposed to have been 
a pupil of Jochiku. 

JSunsai. Vide Shiratoshi. 

JSunsai. Vide Kwanri. 

J6wa. Vide Masachika (Nara). 

Joyeiken. Vide Takakiyo (Sakawa). 

Joyeiken. Vide Yoshihisa. 

Joyen. Goto. 1600. Kyoto. 

Joyen. Fujii. 1660. A pupil of Goto 
Ren jo. Kyoto. 

Joyen. Fujinaka. 1700. A pupil of 
Masanori Nomura. Yedo. 

Joyo. Goto. 1670. Mitsuchika. Kyoto. 

Jozui. Vide Sukeyori. 

Jubei. Aoki. 1 580. Generally regarded 
as the second generation of Kaneiye. 
Was employed by the feudal chief 
of Higo and settled at Hasuike. 
Art name, Tetsujin. A great ex- 
pert, remarkably skilled in the mak- 
ing of iron guards. He inlaid some 
of his guards with brass. 

Jugyokusai. This art name was origi- 
nally used by Katsuyoshi, and is 
now employed by his pupil Yoshi- 
kawa Issei ; both metal-chisellers in 
the Ishiguro style. 

Jujo. Goto. 1720. The twelfth Goto 

Junjo. Goto. 1650. Called also Mit- 
suakira. Kyoto. 

Juzo. Vide Kiyotoshi. 

Juzui. Vide Hisayori. 

Kagawa. Katsushiro. Present day. A 
highly skilled metal-chiseller of 
Tokio ; pupil of Mori Ryoken and 
of Matsuo. He spent five years chis- 
elling a five branched Paullownia 
within a square of 0.18 in. side for the 
furniture of a sword belonging to the 

Kagawa. Katsushiro. Present time. 
A highly skilled worker in metal. 
Famous for chiselling naturalistic 
subjects as plaques, vases, etc., using 
several metals. Has been employed 
to carve sword furniture for the 

Kageiye. Mtyochin. 1560. A cele- 
brated expert. Sagami. 

Kahei. Mori. 1 700. A pupil of Yana- 
gawa Naomasa. Yedo. 

Kaigunshi. Vide Kaneyuke. 

Kaijo. Goto. 1620. Mitsutsune. Kyoto. 

Kaijo. Goto. 1660. Mitsukatsu. Kyoto. 

Kaizantei. Vide Motochika. (Hayama.) 

Kajima. Ippu. igth cent. (d. 1860.) 
A metal-chiseller of Yedo, who 
made kanamono, ita-gusari, cyime, 

Kajima. Ippu. Present day. One of 
the greatest metal-workers of the 
century. From 1855 to 1887, he 



produced only sleeve links, bracelets, 
broaches, etc., for the foreign market, 
making them of iron inlaid with gold 
in the Nunome style. But from 
1887, he began to manufacture the 
now celebrated Toge-dashi-zogan. 
(See text.) 

Kajima. Yeijiro. Present day. A metal- 
worker of Tokio, skilled in inlaying. 
A cousin of the much more cele- 
brated Kajima Ippu. Yeijiro's father 
of the same name produced some 
fine specimens of inlaid armour. 

Kajutsura. 1820. A skilled expert of 
Kyoto ; teacher of Harutsura. Cele- 
brated for chiselling insects. 

Kako. Vide Hirayoshi (Kuwamura). 

Kakujd. Goto. 1590. Mitsunobu. With 
Mitsusato and Mitsumasa (which 
see), he makes the three Mino-bori 
(Mino carvers) of the Shimo-Goto 
Family. Mino. 

Kakuriyo. Tsuji. 1780. Heishiro. 
Called himself Shisuido. An expert 
of note. Omi. 

Kakutci. Vide Aritsune. 

Kambei. Goto. 1670. Mitsutoyo. The 
Kami-Goto Family. Kyoto. 

Kambei. Goto. 1690. Vide Genjo. 

Kampei. Nishigaki. 1730. A carver of 

Kanamaru. So-no-shin. An unidenti- 
fied artist. 

Kanaya. 1600. An artist of Fushimi. 
Celebrated for his carving of land- 
scapes, birds, foliage and prairie- 
grasses. His work is compared by 
Japanese connoisseurs to a moonlit 
waterscape seen through an opening 
in a forest. 

Kaneatsu. Takao. 1640. Kichizaye- 
mon. A pupil of Umemura Suke- 
saburo and a skilled expert. Kaga. 

Kanehide. igth cent. Yedo. 

Kaneiye. 1500. A celebrated guard- 
maker whose date is somewhat un- 
certain. He marked his work Yam- 
ashiro-no-ju. His tempering and 
chiselling of iron were counted ex- 
traordinarily good, and in subsequent 
generations special luck was sup- 
posed to attend the possession of 
his guards, so that they commanded 
great prices. Japanese connoisseurs 
consider that the Kaneiye family 
forged guards before the time of the 
above, and they are accustomed to 
speak of the older work as " Osho- 

dai Kaneiye " (the very old genera- 
tion of Kaniiye). Vide Jubei (Aoki). 

Kaneko. Vide Ujiiye. 

Kanemori. 1680. An expert of Yech- 
izen, who worked skilfully in the 
Kinai style. 

Kanemori. ShOami. 1550. An expert 
of Kaneda in Dewa. 

Kanenori. Nomura. 1720. Saburoji. 
Called himself Kanyeishi. A skilled 
expert. Hikone. (Omi.) 

Kanesada. 1600. Supposed to have 
been a pupil of Aoki Jubei. 

Kanetaki. Yoshikawa. 1680. Called 
also Tamayoshi. Worked at Hikone. 

Kanetomo. Iwata. 1810. Bennosuke. 
Art name, Toyosai. Pupil of Kiyo- 
hisa (Tanaka). Aizu. 

Kaneuji. Shoami. 1750. A Kyoto ex- 

Kaneyasu. Masatoshi. Metal chiseller 
(Kinzokushi) of present day. A 
pupil of Toriusai (q. v.) and adopted 
son of Ito Katsumi (q. v.) 

Kaneyori. Amano. 1760. Son of Sho- 
zui, and commonly called Kenzui. 
Art names, Kaigenshi, Miseki, and 
Seishin. Used also the marks Otsu- 
riuken and Miboku. ( Vide Shozui.) 
A celebrated artist. Yedo. 

Kaneyuki. Hamano. 1670. Called him- 
self Kaiganshi, and afterwards Mi- 
boku. A son of the celebrated 
Sh5zui. Yedo. 

Kankyo. Vide Masayori and Masanobu. 

Kanshikan. Vide Terukazu. 

Kanshiro. Nishigaki. 1750. A carver 
of Higo. 

Kanyeishi. Vide Kanenori (Nomura). 

Kanzayemon. Nishigaki. 1770. A 
carver of Higo. 

Kariuken. Vide Yoshinori. v 

Kasetsuken. Vide Tomonao. 

Katahiro. Nomura. 1760. Bikwan. 

Katatomo. Nakano. 1830. A skilled 
forger of swords and chiseller of 
sword-guards. Especially remark- 
able for combining various metals. 

Katsu. 1700. A female expert of Yedo. 
Her work is good, but nothing defi- 
nite is known about her. 

Katsuchika. I9th cent. A great metal- 
worker of Yedo, and chiseller of 

Katauhira. igth cent. Yedo. 

Katsuhisa. Kuwamura. 1650. Gen- 



zayemon. Called himself Jokui. 
An expert of great repute. Kaga. 

Katsuiye. Miyochin. 1550. A great 
expert. Kozuke. 

Katsukata. Shoami. 1670. Chiuzaye- 
mon. Worked at Wakamatsu in 

Katsukuni. 1 8th and i gth cent. Mito. 

Katsukuni. Shinozaki. 1750. Tokuro. 
A skilled expert ; one of the best 
of the Mito artists. (Vide Yasu- 
hira.) Mito. 

Katsumasa. Miyochin. 1540. A great 
expert. Kozuke. 

Katsumi. Ito. 1860. A great artist, 
still living, but now better known for 
miscellaneous work than for sword 

Katsumori. I9th cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. 

Katsunari. Shoami. 1620. Worked 
at Wakamatsu in Aizu. 

Katsusaburo. ShSami. 1700. There 
were two experts of this name, father 
and son, the latter being also called 
Gorobei. They worked at the close 
of the 1 7th and the beginning of the 
i8th century, and were skilled silver- 
smiths. Tsuyama (in Mimasaka). 

Katsushiro. i8th and igth cent. A 
skilled metal-worker of Yedo. Art 
name, Giyoku-riu-ken. 

Katsutada. Fujita. 1700. An artist 
of Osaka, notably skilled in carving 
masks and cuttle-fish. 

Katsutane. Kanasugi. igth cent. Art 
name, Shokatei. Yedo. 

Katsuyoshi. igth cent. Art name, Ra- 
kurakusai. Yedo. 

Kawada. Family name. Vide Ichizo. 

Kawaji. Tomomichi. iSth and igth 
cent. Choshiu. 

Kawasaki. Tashiro. Present day. A 
skilled metal-chiseller of Tokyo. 
Pupil of Natsuo. Remarkably clever 
in working out naturalistic designs, 
as carp, ai (river trout), etc., for 

Kazuharu. Ishiguro. I9th cent. Met- 
al-worker of Yedo. 

Kazunori. Omori. i9th cent. Yedo. 

Kazutani. Kanasugi. igth cent. Art 
name, Kenkosai. Yedo. 

Kazutomo. Omori. 1810. Yetsusuke. 
Called himself Kenkosai. A skilled 
expert. Yedo. 

Kazutoshi. Kishiba. I9thcent. Yedo. 

Kazutsune. Omori. igth cent. Met- 

al-worker of Yedo. Son of Kazu- 
tomo ; and same art name as his 

Kazuyuki. Kumagaye. 1840. Goro. A 
pupil of the celebrated Goto Ichijo, 
and a skilled expert. Yedo. 

Keiho. Vide Masahiro. 

Keijo. The fourth representative of the 
Goto family. Vide Mitsumori. 

Keirinsai. Vide Yasuhisa. 

Keisai. Vide Masatsune. 

Keito. Vide Masayori. 

Kenjd. Goto. 1610. Seventh of the 
great Goto Masters. Kyoto. 

Kenkosai. Vide Kazutomo, Kazutani, 
and Kazutsune. 

Kensui. Vide Masanao. 

Kenzui. Vide Kaneyori and Hisayori. 

Kichibei. Uyemura. 1720. Commonly 
called Masuya Kichibei. A pupil of 
Munemine (Soho), Kyoto. 

Kichibei. 1730. One of the pupils of the 
Akao family. 

Kichiguro. Tamagawa. 1820. Worked 
in Mito. 

Kichijuro. Tamagawa. 1780. A pupil 
of Yoshihisa of Mito and a skilled 
expert, though his works are little 

Kigu. 1750. Family, etc., unknown, 
and date uncertain. The name is 
often found on good specimens hav- 
ing carp, craw-fish, etc., in relief on 
a polished ground. 

Kihei. Inouye. 1750. A pupil of In- 
ouye Shigeyasu. Kyoto. 

Kihei. Goto. Vide Zenjo. 

Kijusai. Vide Terumitsu (Omori). 

Kikkodo. Vide Naoyasu. 

Kiko. Vide Masanobu. 

Kikuchi. Family name ; vide Tsunekat- 
su, Tsunemitsu, etc. 

Kikuda. Mitsugiyoku. Present day. A 
highly skilled metal-chiseller of To- 
kyo; employed by the Imperial 
Court. He carved a celebrated sil- 
ver hand-warmer (Shuro) for the 
Emperor, decorated with designs of 

Kikugawa. The name of a great family 
of metal-chisellers. The first began 
to work in the second half of the 
1 8th century; the fourth is now work- 
ing in Tokyo. The second (Tomoy- 
oshi), who nourished up to about 
1840, was specially celebrated. He 
used the mark, Ichiriusai Kikugawa. 
In addition to beautiful specimens of 



sword-furniture, kanamono, etc., he 
carved netsuke in the round from 
shakudo or shibuichi. 

Kikuju-sai. Vide Masanobu (Nara). 

Kikuoka. Family name. Vide Mitsu- 

Kinai. Ishikawa. 1640. An expert of 
Ichizen who belonged originally to 
the Miyochin family. He was cele- 
brated for chiselling iron guards with 
designs d jour, his favorite designs 
being dragons and phoenixes. His 
works are marked Yechizen no Kuni 
Kinai. He died in 1680. 

Kinai. Takahashi. 1660. The second 
of the same name and the greatest 
of the family. His pierced decora- 
tion on guards is admirably delicate 
and fine, and he imparted to the iron 
a soft, brown patina of great beauty. 
His works were known as Kenjo Kin- 
ai, or " Presentation Kinai ; " that is 
to say, worthy to be presented to the 
Sovereign. He prefixed to his name 
the words, Yechizen no Kuni. He 
died in 1696. 

Kinai. Much of the work produced in 
Yechizen after the time of the two 
great Kinai masters is spoken of as 
" Kinai," meaning that it is in the 
Kinai style. Vide Chiusaku, Yoshi- 
tsugu, and Kanemori. The succes- 
sive representatives of the Takahashi 
family produced good work in the 
same style. 

Kingenshi. Vide Sadayoshi. 

Kingyokudo. Vide Hirosada. 

Kinkado. Vide Mitsutaki. 

Kinriuzan. Fumoto. Vide Shigemitsu 

Kinshichi. Tsuchiya. 1650. A pupil 
of Katsuhisa (Kawamura). Kaga. 

Kiriusai. Vide Muneyuki ; also Somin. 

Kiriusei. Vide Soyoyuki. 

Kiso-Hogen. Vide Koriusai. 

Kiujo. Goto. 1630. Mitsutada. Ky- 

Kiukiuken. Vide Tamagawa Yoshihisa. 

Kiusuke. Chiyo. 1680. There were 
three experts of this name, father, 
son, and grandson. They worked 
chiefly in silver. Tsuyama (in Mi- 
masaka) . 

Kiusuke. Chiyo. 1680. A silversmith 
of Tsuyama. His son and grandson 
of the same name succeeded him. 

Kiuzayemon. Chiyo. 1740. Called al- 
so Kansei. An expert of Tsuyama. 

Kiuzo. Vide Mariyuki. 

Kiuzui. Vide Hisayori. 

Kiyohisa. Tanaka. 1860. Bunjiro ; 
commonly called Fujiwara Bunjiro. 
An expert chiseller, celebrated for 
his skill in reproducing the works of 
the old masters. Yedo. 

Kiyokaze. Fujii. 1700. Gembei. A 
pupil of the great Kaneko Yukinaka. 

Kiyonori. Goto. 1700. Rihei. Cele- 
brated for making Kanto-tsubo ; that 
is to say, guards ornamented with 
Chinese figures and landscapes. 

Kiyosada. Kusakari. 1790. Hachisa- 
buro. Generally known as Kusa- 
kari Hachisaburo. Regarded as the 
greatest inlayer of Sendai. Cele- 
brated for dragons (amaryo), land- 
scapes, flowers, especially convol- 
vulus, etc. Sendai. 

Kiyosai. Vide Nagatake. 

Kiyoshige. Tanaka. 1830. Mino- 
matsu. Son of Kiyohisa and a 
skilled expert. Yedo. 

Kiyoshige. Ito Katsumi ( Vide). While 
still a pupil of Toriusai, was granted 
the art rank of Hokkyo, and used 
the mark Seiu Hokkyo Kiyoshige. 

Kiyotaku. Inouye. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Kiyotoshi. Ito. 1840. A celebrated 
expert of Yedo. Art name, Juzo. 
Had rank of Hogen. 

Kiyotsugu. Yoshioka. 1660. Had the 
title of Inaba-no-suke. Founded the 
Sendai branch of the Yoshioka 

Kiyoyasu. Ito. 1750. Celebrated for 
inlaying in the Sumi-ye (sepia paint- 
ing) style. Yedo. 

Kiyoyori. Kusakari. 1830. PupD of 
Teramitsu (Omori). Yedo and 

Kiyoyoshi. Goto. 1690. (Called also 
Seirei.) Common name, Shichibei. 

Kiyoyoshi. Goto. 1630. A pupil of 
Goto Seijo. Remarkably skilled in 
inlaying iron with gold, and in copy- 
ing old masterpieces. Yedo. 

Kiyoyoshi. Shiwamura. 1710. Cele- 
brated as a maker of nanako. 

Kizayemon. 1700. Jakushi. A cele- 
brated artist of Nagasaki. Like 
many of the Nagasaki experts, he 


affected figures taken from Chinese 
pictures (called " Canton style " or 
Kwanto-gata), but he also chiselled 
landscapes and seascapes with ad- 
mirable effects of distance, dragons 
(the amaryo type), bamboos tossed 
by the wind, etc., with the greatest 
skill. He used his chisel so deftly 
that its trace resembles the brush 
strokes of a painter. His work has 
been largely imitated, and so well 
recognized is his tender, delicate, yet 
strong style, that the term " Jakushi" 
has come to be commonly applied 
to that class of carving. Na- 

Koami. Kikuchi. 1650. Yagoro. A 
pupil of Goto Renjo, and an artist 
of the highest order. He combined 
the force and directness of the Goto 
style with the elaborateness of the 
Mito. Worked in Mito. 

Kogitsune. 1670. A celebrated expert 
of Yechizen, famous for chiselling 

Kogyosai. igth cent. Art name also 
Gessan. Yedo. 

Kdji. Yanagawa. 1860. A great ex- 
pert of Kanazawa, pupil of Yana- 
gawa Harushige. He died in 1877. 
Was commonly called Kanazawa 

K6J5. Goto. 1550. Fourth of the 
great Goto masters. Kyoto. 

Kokusui. Wakabayashi. 1720. Roku- 
bei. Toyama. 

Komai. Matsuhiro. igth cent. Yedo. 

Komai. Otajiro. Present day. A metal- 
worker of Kyoto highly skilled in 
inlaying iron with gold by the Nu- 
nome process. 

Komai. Seibei. igth cent. (d. 1861.) 
A metal- worker of Higo, skilled in 
inlaying iron and sword furniture 
with gold. 

Konju. Iwamoto. 1800. Kingoro. 

Konkwan. Iwamoto. 1770. Kisaburo. 
At first called Asai. A pupil of 
RiySkwan, and an expert of the high- 
est merit. Celebrated for carving fish 
of various kinds, especially crusta- 
ceans, and for the beauty of his 
compositions. Used the marks 
Hakuhotei, ShunshodS, and Nampo, 
as well as his own name. Died, 
1801. Yedo. 

Konuki. Vide Masaharu. 

Koreo. Ishiguro. 1840. A pupil of 
Koretsune. Called himself Ho- 
kuunsai. A skilled expert. Yedo. 

Koreshige. Ishiguro. 1840. Ichiyo. 
A pupil of Koretsune. Yedo. 

Koretsune. Ishiguro. 1840. Shukichi. 
Called himself Togakushi, Ritsumei, 
Shinryo, Hogiyokusai, Gishinken, 
Kounsai, and Ichiyeian. Second 
son of Masatsune (Ishiguro), the 
first, and an artist of superb skill. 

Koreyoshi. Ishiguro. 1850. Kwanjiro. 
Called himself Jikakushi and Kwan- 
sai. An expert of the highest skill. 

Koriusai. I9th cent. (d. 1879). A metal- 
chiseller of Owari. Koriusai was 
his art name, his real name being 
Toyokawa Mitsunaga. 

Koriusha. Vide Masahiro. 

Koriyama. Mitsunaka. igth cent. A 
metal-worker of Yedo. 

Kosen. Tanikawa. 1820. Chiuzaye- 
mon. Art name, Kounsai. Yedo. 

Kosetsuken. Vide Tomonao. 

Koten. Supposed to have been a pupil 
of Aoki Jubei (q. v.). A skilled 
expert of Higo. He worked in the 
style of Kaneiye. 

Kounsai. Vide Kosen. 

Kounsai. Vide Koretsune. 

Kozui. Vide Mitsuyori. 

Kuhei. Inouye. 1750. Bunjiro. A 
pupil of Inouye Higeyasu. Com- 
monly known as Sammonji-ya. 

Kunichika. 1910 cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. 

Kuniharu. Tetsuya Dembei. Vide 

Kunihiro. 1670. Kihei. Kaga. 

Kunihiro. 1690. Yozayemon. Kaga. 

Kunihisa. 1640. Jiuzayemon. A son 
of Kuninaga of Kaga. 

Kunihisa. 1660. Jiuzayemon. A 
grandson of Kuninaga of Kaga. 

Kunihisa. 1700. Yozayemon. Kaga. 

Kunimasa. 1710. Yozayemon. Kaga. 

Kuninaga. 1620. Jirosaku. A pupil 
of Goto Kakujo. He worked origi- 
nally in Kyoto and moved to Kaga 
in 1620. His finest work was in 
inlaying. He is counted the earli- 
est maker of inlaid sword-mounts in 
Kaga. His carving is known as 

Kuninaga. 1740. Yozayemon. Kaga. 

Kuninaga. Uyemura. 1680. A skilled 



artist of Kyoto, generally known as 
Masuya Kuhei. 

Kunishige. Miyochin. 1570. A great 
expert. Kozuke. 

Kunitada. 1760. Gonzayemon. Kaga. 

Kunitomo. Kobayashi. 1700. Date 
uncertain. A pupil of the Shoami 
experts in Kyoto. 

Kuniyasu. Yozayemon. A pupil of 
Kuninaga Jirosaku. Kaga. 

Kurokawa. Eisho. Present time. A 
Kinzoku-shi (metal-chiseller), cele- 
brated for his skill in joining differ- 
ent metals to form a decorative 
design, and also for the Kiri-hame 
process (vide text), by means of 
which the artist produces plaques 
showing exactly the same decoration 
on face and back. 

Kuwamura. Family name. Vide Hiro- 
yoshi, etc. 

Kuwamura. Yensuke. igth cent. (d. 
1877.) A skilled metal-chiseller of 

Kwaizantei. Vide Motomochi (Hi- 

Kwakujusai. Vide Masahiro. 

Kwanjo. Goto. 1640. Mitsunaga. 

Kwanj5. Iwamoto. 1790. Shosuke 
or Shoshichi. Yedo. 

Kwanju. Hamada. 1720. Toraizo. 
Art name, Gyokuriusai. A pupil of 
Joi, and a skilled expert. Shinshu. 

Ewanri. Iwamoto. 1780. Kijiro. 
Called also Hirotoshi. Adopted 
son of Iwamoto Konkwan. Yedo. 
Art name, Jounsai. 

Kwansai. Vide Koreyoshi. 

Kwanzui. Vide Hiroyori. 

Kworin. Otsuki. 1400. There is some 
uncertainty as to the date of this 
expert ; but most authorities agree 
in placing him at the end of the 
fourteenth century. His work is 
excellent, though severe in style. 
Some of his pieces are marked 
" Nagoya no riyoshuku ni Kore 
wo tsukuru" (made in an inn in 

Kwoyetsu. Fujimoto. 1660. Denjuro. 
A pupil of Goto Yetsujo. A skilled 
expert. Kaga. 

Masaaki. Noda. 1820. Risuke. A 
skilled expert. Yedo. 

Masachika. Tsuji. 1660. Genyemon. 
This artist came to Yedo in the year 
1659, and four years afterwards was 

taken under the patronage of the 
Prince of Mito. He and his pupils 
and descendants worked thenceforth 
in Yedo. They were the younger 
branch of the Tsuji of Omi (vide 
Mitsumasa). Masachika did not 
mark his pieces, but the specimens 
attributed to him are very fine. He 
had no less than seven pupils, all of 
whom acquired some reputation ; 
namely, Masanori, Masayuki, Masa- 
toshi, Masamori, Masaoki, Masatomo, 
and Masataka. 

Masachika. Tsuji. 1780. Gengoro. 
Grandson of the first Tsuji Masa- 
chika, used the mark Toun-sai. 

Masachika. Nara. 1760. Seiroku. He 
became a pupil of Joi and called 
himself Jowa. During two or three 
years after the death of his father, 
Masanaga, he used the latter's name 
on his works. He is not the peer of 
Masanaga, but nevertheless stands 

Masachika. Ishiguro. 1840. Toyojiro. 

Masachika. Hirata. 1750. Ichizaye- 
mon. A pupil of Tsu Jimpo. 
Worked in Awa Province. 

Masachika. Tsuchiya 1840. Art name, 
Sekiyenshi. An expert of fair skill. 

Masachika. Tsuchiya. igth cent. 
Metal-worker of Yedo. 

Masachika. I to. 1760. Matakichi. A 
Yedo expert, who carved in the 
Masatsune style. 

Masafusa. Shimada. 1720. Shojiro. 

Masafusa. Shimada. 1660. Ken-ni 
ShSjiro. A pupil of Morisada 
(Katsugi). A skilled expert. Toy- 
ama (Yetchiu). 

Masafusa. Fujiki. 1670. 

Masafusa. Shoami. 1570. An expert 
of Kameda (in Dewa). 

Masafusa. Vide Masayuki (Tsuji). 

Masaharu. Nomura. 1740. Kasuya 
Genshiro. Yedo. 

Masaharu. 1750. Marked his pieces, 
Rinfudo. Family unknown and 
date uncertain. Yedo. 

Masaharu. Tamagawa. 1800. Yuz5. 

Masaharu. Tamagawa. 1840. Jugoro. 
Called himself KonukL A skilled 
expert. Yedo. 


Masahide. Ishiguro. 1840. Called 
Shogutei. Yedo. 

Masahide. Nomura. 1 8th cent. Metal- 
worker of Hikone. 

Masahide. Nomura. 1780. Hidegoro. 

Maaahide. Nomura. 1770. Sadashiro. 
Pupil of Masatsugu (Nomura). 

Masahide. Nomura, igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Masahira. 1730. Kanshichi, successor 
of Shigetsugu Kihachiro. Kaga. 

Masahiro. Ichiguro. 1820. Matakichi. 
Called himself Gantoshi, Keiho, 
Kwakujusai, and Koriusha. A grand 
artist. Yedo. 

Masahiro. Ito. 1850. An expert of 

Masahisa. Tamagawa. 1790. Bumpei. 

Masakata. Ito. 1730. Genjiro. Son 
of Masatsune (Ito), and scarcely 
inferior to his father as an expert in 
carving hjour. Yedo and Bushiu. 

Masakatsu. Minagawa. 1840. Gen- 
jiro. Yedo. 

Masakatsu. Okada. 1740. Zenzaye- 
mon. Hagi. 

Masakazu. Okamoto. 1730. Kohei. 

Masakazu. Tsuji. 1810. Genzo. 

Masakiyo. Ishiguro. 1830. Wasaburo. 
Called himself Jikiyopusai. A skilled 
expert of Yedo. 

Masakiyo. Shoami. 1690. Worked 
at Wakamatsu in Aizu. 

Masakuni. Nomura. 1770. Pupil of 
Masatsugu (Nomura). Yedo. 

Masamichi. Nomura. 1730. Chotaku. 
Carver to the feudal chief of Awa. 

Masamitsu. Nomura. 1760. Mago- 
shichi. A pupil of Masatsugu. A 
celebrated expert. Yedo. 

Masamitsu. Vide Yeijo. 

Masamitsu. Kanedo. 1630. Kichi -no- 
jo. A celebrated Shitabori-shi, or 
preliminary chiseller who blocked 
out designs for the finishing expert. 
Kanazawa (Yedo). 

Masamori. Hosono. 1600. Sozaye- 
mon, or Yoshimasa. An expert of 
Kyoto, celebrated for having been 
the first to develop the capabilities 
of Kebori-zogan.or hair-line inlaying. 
His chiselling in relief is also very 

fine, and, on the whole, he belongs 
to the highest rank of artists. 

Masanaga. Ito. 1700. Jingozayemon. 
Founder of the Ito family, which 
thenceforth enjoyed the distinction 
of making sword-guards for the 

Masanaga. Tamagawa. 1780. Bumpei. 
Lived first in Mito (Hitachi) and 
afterwards in Yedo. A great expert, 
not inferior to his father Yoshinaga. 

Masanaga. Ishiguro. 1840. Yeisuke. 

Masanaga. Nara. 1730. Shichiroza- 
yemon. A pupil of Toshinaga 
(Chikan). A celebrated expert. 

Masanaga. Nara. 1750. Pupil of 
Toshihisa. Used the mark Masa- 
haru at first and afterwards that of 
Seiroku. An expert of the highest 
repute. His autumn landscapes, in 
which a mantis and eularia (suzuki) 
occupy the foreground, are cele- 
brated for strength and delicacy. 

Masanaga. Nara. 1740. Son of Mas- 
anaga, the first of the Nara family, 
but not so skilled as his father. 

Masanaka. Nara. 1750. Pupil of 
Masachika. (Nara.) Yedo. 

Masanaka. Kuwabara. 1750. Toku- 
zayemon. A pupil of Nara Masa- 
naga. Yedo. 

Masanaka. igth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. Art name, Hakushusai. 

Masanao. Nomura. i8th and igth 
cent. Metal-worker of Hikone. 

Masanao. Shimada. 1740. Kensui 
Shodayu. A great expert. Toyama 

Masanao. Nomura. 1720. Originally 
Wakabayashi Masagoro. A pupil 
of Masamitsu (Nomura). Yedo. 

Masanari. Ito. 1820. An expert of 

Masanobn. Ito. 1680. Commonly 
called Tsuba-ya Tasuke, or " Tas- 
uke, the guard maker." A skilled 
expert of Kyoto. Not a member of 
the Ito family proper. 

Masanobu. Goto. 1630. Adopted by 
the painter Tanyu, and raised to the 
rank of Hokkyo in recognition of 
his excellence. Signed some of his 
work Toun. Kyoto. 

Masanobu. 1750. Kambei. Son of 
Masahira Kanshichi. Kaga. 

Masanobu. Nara. 1750. Zenji. Called 



himself Kikuju-sai, and Kiko. His 
first name was Masatsugu, then 
Masayuki. and finally Masanobu. 
A great expert, celebrated for his 
carvings of the Amariyo (a kind of 
dragon). Lived first in Yedo and 
afterwards in Osaka. 

Masanobu. Shoami. 1620. Celebrated 
for having produced the eight views 
of Omi Lake on iron guards inlaid 
with gold. Kyoto. 

Masanobu. Hamano. 1790. Tarobei. 
A skilled expert. Used four of Sho- 
zui's art names : Otsuriuken, Mibobu, 
Rifudo, and Kankyo. 

Masanori. Ito. 1830. An expert of 

Masanori. ShSami. 1400. Ichirobei. 
Nothing certain is known of this 
artist, even his date being more or 
less speculative. He lived in Kyoto, 
and a large number of experts in 
various provinces claim him as their 
ancestor. His immediate descend- 
ants do not appear to have con- 
tinued the work ; at all events, no 
record of them is extant. The 
family resumes its place on the list 
of sword-mount experts in 1480, the 
time of Takatsuhe. ( Vide.) 

Masanori. Murakumi. 1640. Tadu- 
shichi. Younger brother of the 
celebrated Jochiku, and a skilled 
carver and inlayer. Yedo. 

Masanori. Hashibe. 1630. A pupil of 
Goto Teijo. Kyoto. 

Masanori. Nomura. 1700. Shoye- 
mon. Called also Itoku. A highly 
skilled artist. Yedo. 

Masanori. Okada. 1720. Hikozaye- 
mon. Nagato. 

Masanori. Tsuji. 1680. Katsunosuke. 
Pupil of Tsuji Masachika (the first). 

Masanori. Tsuji. 1680. Pupil of Tsuji 
Masachika (the first). Called Jusa- 
buro. Yedo. 

Masanori. Nara. 1730. Pupil of the 
first Masanaga. He marked his 
works Masatsugu or Masayuki, as 
well as Masanori. Yedo. 

Masaoki. Ishiguro. 1810. Sadakichi. 

Masaoki. Tsuji. 1680. Hamada Kiichi. 
Pupil of Tsuji Masachika (the first). 

Masasada. Takita. 1810. Seisuke. 

Masasada. Hamano. 1740. Called 
also Masakazu. Personal name, Ma- 
sazane. A pupil of Shozui. 

Masashige. Shoami. 1650. A Kyoto 
expert, skilled in inlaying brass with 
silver, shakudo, etc. 

Masashige. Nara. 1700. Pupil of 
Masachika (Nara). Yedo. 

Masasuke. Tsuji. 1760. Mohachi. 

Masatada. Nomura. 1730. Shoyemon. 

Masataka. Okamoto. 1690. Saye- 
mon. Called also Kozen. A skilled 
artist. Hagi. 

Masataka. Tsuji. 1680. Gengoro. 
Pupil of Tsuji Masachika (the fiisi). 

Masataka. Tsuji. 1790. Genyemon. 

Masatani. Ito. 1800. Matazk. An 
artist of Yedo. 

Masatatsu. Wada. 1850. Art name, 
Gekendo. A highly skilled artist 
of Kyoto. 

Masatatsu. Present day. A skilled 
metal-chiseller of Osaka. 

Masatoki. Nomura. 1660. Kozaye- 
mon. The first of the Nomura 
family to attain distinction. Kyoto 
and Yedo. 

Masatoki. Yamazaki. 1820. Ishi- 
matsu. Art name, Seiseisai. Worked 
at Sukura in Shimosa. 

Masatomi. Okada. 1760. Hikobei. 

Masatomo. Tsuji. 1680. Yamada 
Masahachi. Pupil of Tsuji Ma- 
sachika (the first). Yedo. 

Masatomo. Tsuji. 1830. Genzo. Yedo. 

Masatomo. Umetada. 1660. Hikobei. 

Masatomo. Ito. 1700. Yaiichi. Second 
son of Masanaga (Ito) Bushiu. 

Masatomo. Okada. i8th cent. Metal- 
worker of Choshiu. 

Masatoshi. Tsuji. 1680. Seijiro. Pupil 
of Tsuji Masachika (the first). Yedo 

Masatoshi. Ishiguro. 1810. Yasusuki. 

Masatoshi. Ito. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Masatoyo. Wada. i8th and igih cent. 
Metal-worker of Yedo. 

Masatoyo. Nomura. 1770. Pupil of 
Masamitsu (Nomura). Yedo. 

Masatsugu. Shoami. 1720. Date un- 
certain. Kyoto. 



Masatsugu. Umetada. 1700. A Kyoto 
expert, famous for inlaying shakudo 
with gold. He always marked his 
work " Yamashiro." 

Masatsugu. Nomura. 1760. Mago- 
shichi. His original family name 
was Nakamura. A great expert. 

Masatsugu. Vide Kenjo. 

Masatsune. Nomura. 1800. Masagoro. 
A nanako expert. Yedo. 

Masatsune. Ishiguro. 1780. Shusuke. 
Called himself Kimiyo, Togakushi 
and Jikokusai. He was also known 
as Koretsune. One of the greatest 
artists of modern times. Born 1759, 
died 1 828. Celebrated for his bronze 
carvings as well as for his sword- 
mounts. Yedo. 

Masatsune. Ishiguro. 1800. Tamino- 
suke. Son of Togakushi, and nearly 
as great an artist as his father. Yedo. 
Art name, Keisai. 

Masatsune. Ito. 1710. Jinyemon, or 
Jinzaburo. A celebrated Yedo ex- 
pert, guard-maker to the Shoguns' 
Court. His decoration a jour is 
marvellously delicate, not inferior 
to that of the best Kinai work. 

Masatsune. Igarashi. 1680. A skilled 
expert of Higo ; supposed to have 
been the ninth in descent from Ka- 
neiye. His art name was Tetsu- 

Masatsune. igth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. Art name, Seisai. 

Masaya. Nomura. 1700. Shoyemon. 
Called also Tomoyoshi or Yuki. A 
great expert, celebrated for his com- 
bination of metals forming the rare 
and beautiful mokume (wood-grain) 
grounds. He entered the service of 
the feudal chief of Awa and settled 
in Tokushima. 

Masayasu. Ikagawa. 1800. Genshi- 
chi. He called himself Yoshodo. 
Celebrated for chiselling ornamental 
designs on the blades of swords. 

Masayasu. Hirata. 1720. Yahachiro. 
A maker of iron guards inlaid with 
gold. Awa Province. 

Masayori. Hamano. 1740. Tarobei. 
His name is generally pronounced 
Sh5zui. A pupil of the celebrated 
Nara Toshihisa, whose fame he 
rivals. He did not create a style of 
his own, but his work is strong, 

delicate, and full of artistic beauty. 
He called himself, Otsuruiken, Mi- 
boku, Kankyo, Rifudo Shijun, Yuko- 
tei, Shuhosai, Hankeishi, Isshunan, 
Gyokkeisha, and Keito. Worked in 
Yedo and died in 1769. 

Masayori. Vide Hiyobu Hogen. 

Masayoshi. Nomura. 1710. Kahiro. 
Called also Suihaku. Yedo. 

Masayoshi. Nomura. 1790. Kotoji. 
Called also Ichiunsai. A great ex- 
pert. Yedo. 

Masayoshi. 1820. Isuke. A Samurai 
who became a pupil of Tomomasa 
Daishido. Yedo. 

Masayoshi. Tsuchiya. 1770. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Masayoshi. Ishiguro. 1830. Shdz5. 
Called himself Jikosai. A pupil of 
Jimiya, and a skilled expert. Yedo. 

Masayoshi. Nara. 1750. Called com- 
monly Shozui Bozu (the old man 
Shozui). A pupil of Masayori (Sh5- 
zui), celebrated for imitating old 
works. Yedo. 

Masayoshi. Ito. 1750. Jinyemon or 
Matakichiro. An expert of Yedo, 
grandson of Masatsune (Ito). 

Masayoshi. Nomura, igthcent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Masayuki. Nomura. 1710. Shojiro. 
Called also Riyoyen. Yedo. 

Masayuki (sometimes called Masafusa). 
Tsuji. 1680. Shojiro. Pupil of 
Tsuji Masachika (the first). Yedo. 
He founded a branch family, that of 
Fujiki, and took the name of Fujiki- 
kohachi. Afterwards he called him- 
self Ryo-yei. 

Masuya. Kuhei. Vide Kuninaga. 

Masuya. Kichibei. Vide Kichibei. 

Masuya. Yohei. Vide Yohei. 

Masuya. Uhei. Vide J5kw5. 

Masuya. ) Vide J6chiku 

Bunyemon. } 

Masuya Kuyemon (or Kihei). Vide 

Matabei. Muneta. 1540. There were 
three of this name in the family. 
The second (1560) is celebrated as 
the first maker of Go-no-me nanako. 
The third used the mark Doi. Vide 
also, Norinao and Naomichi. Kyoto. 

Matashichi. Muneta. 1560. Pu&also, 
Naoshige. Kyoto. 

Matashichi. Sh5ami. 1700. The date 
is uncertain. An expert of Chikuzen. 

Matazayemon. Muneta. 1520. There 


were three of this name. The second 
Matazayemon (1560), and the third 
(1600). The last sometimes used 
the mark Uosei. Kyoto. 

MatsumotO. Kanjiro. Present day. 
One of the pioneers of the school of 
modern craftsmen who have carried 
to a high pitch of excellence the art 
of inlaying iron, bronze, shibuichi, and 
ihakudo with gold and silver. Works 
in Tokyo. 

Matsumura. Shoami. 1850. Bunye- 
mon. An expert of Aizu. 

Meiju. Umetada Okada. 1640. Origi- 
nally an artist of Kyoto, but moved 
to Hagi in Choshiu, and founded the 
Okada family of that place (vide 
Nobumasa) . 

Meishin. Vide Shigeyoshi Umetada. 

Miboku. Vide Masayori and Kaneyori, 
Norinobu and Masanobu. 

Minjo. 1 9th cent. (d. 1864.) A great 
metal-chiseller of Yedo. 

Minkoku. iQth cent. A great metal- 
chiseller of Tokyo, who worked in 
conjunction with Shuraku, Temmin, 
Riumin, and Minjo, forming the 
gonin-gumi (five men company), who 
produced many splendid works be- 
tween 1854 and 1860. Minkoku is 
now too old to work. 

Hindu. 1 8th and iQth cent. Great 
metal-worker of (Tokyo) Yedo. 

Mitane. Shigeyoshi. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Mitsu. The second ideograph of this 
name is disguised, and cannot be 
read, nor has it been identified as 
the mark of any expert. The name 
is found, however, on very beautiful 
rings and tips of shakudo, with finely 
polished ground, delicate decoration 
of herons, river scenes, etc. Proba- 
ble date, 1730. 

Mitsuaki. Goto. 1850. Sixteenth rep- 
resentative of the Goto family. 
Called Hojo. Yedo. 

Mitsuaki. Ishiguro. 1850. Tetsugoro. 

Mitsuaki. Goto. 1570. Jinyemon. 

Mitsuchika. Vide Reijo. 

Mitsuchika. Vide Joyo. 

Mitsufusa. Hayata. 1830. Zennosuke. 
A pupil of Terumitsu (Omori). Hi- 
rado (Hizen). 

Mitsufusa. Vatobe. Tamagawa. 1790. 
Hikoroku. A celebrated artist of 

Mito. His name is commonly pro- 
nounced Tsuju. Father of the great 
Yoshinaga of Mito. 

Mitsuharu. Goto. 1670. Kyoto. 

Mitsuharu. Vide Yekijo. 

Mitsuharu. Goto. 1710. Commonly 
called Kambei. Kyoto. 

Mitsuhaya. Shoami. 1810. A guard- 
maker of Kyoto. 

Mitsuhide. Vide Yenjo. 

Mitsuhiro. Goto. 1700. Kyoto. 

Mitsuhisa. Vide Taijo. 

Mitsuhisa. Vide Genyemon. 

Mitsuhisa. Yatabe. 1740. Hikoroku. 
A skilled expert of Mito, pupil of 

Mitsukata. igthcent. Metal-worker of 

Mitsukatsu. Vide Kaijo. 

Mitsukuni. Vide Yetsujo. 

Mitsukyo. Vide Senjo. 

Mitsumasa. Vide Shoyd. 

Mitsumasa. Goto. 1620. One of the 
three Mino-bori (vide Kakujo). Mino. 

Mitsumasa. Goto. 1720. The twelfth 
Goto Master. KyotS. 

Mitsumasa. Vide TeijS. 

Mitsumasa. Mizuno. 1660. Genroku. 

Mitsumasa. Kikuoka. 1770. Brother 
of Mitsuyuki Kikuoka. 

Mitsumasa. Tsuji. 1750. Tanji. 
Called himself Rinsendo. An ex- 
pert of the highest rank, skilled in 
every kind of work, takabori, kebori, 
zdgan, etc. His work is compared by 
Japanese connoisseurs to a spray of 
plum-blossom in a beautiful vase. 
He worked chiefly in Omi province, 
but lived for some time in Yedo with 
S6yo. He died in 1776, at the age 

of 53- 
Mitsumichi. Ishiguro. 1810. Sanjiro. 

A pupil of Jimiyo. Yedo. 
Mitsumori. Goto. 1760. The four- 
teenth Goto Master. Called Keijo. 


Mitsunaga. Vide Kwanjo. 
Mitsunaga. Vide Shunjo. 
Mitsunaga. Vide Seijo. 
Mitsunami. Goto. 1690. Kyoto. 
Mitsunari. Goto. 1600. Kihei. Vide 

Zen jo. Kyoto. 

Mitsunobu. Goto. 1690. Kyoto. 
Mitsuoobu. Vide Kakujo. 
Mitsunobu. Miyagawa. 1830. Kichi- 

jo. A pupil of Terumitsu (Omori). 



Mitsunori. Goto. 1860. Seventeenth 
representative of the Goto family. 
Called Tenjo. Died 1879. The 
last of the Goto exprts. Yedo. 

Mitsunori. Goto. 1760. Kyoto. 

Mitsunori. Goto. 1680. Kyoto. 

Mitsunori. Vide Keijo. 

Mitsunori. Goto. 1670. Kyoto. 

Mitsunori. Vide Joren. 

Mitsunori. Vide Zenjo. 

Mitsuoki. Goto. 1680. Kyoto. 

Mitsusada. Vide Renjo. 

Mitsusada. Murakami. 1750. To- 
dayu. Toyama. 

Mitsusada. 1720. lyemon. A pupil 
of SSmin. 

Mitsusato. Goto. 1610. One of the 
three Mino-bori (vide Kakujo). 
Celebrated for deeply chiselled 
landscapes. Mino. 

Mitsusato. i gth cent. Metal-worker of 

Mitsushige. Vide Sokuj5. 

Mitsushima. Goto. 1660. Shichizaye- 
mon. Kyoto. 

Mitsushiro. Otsuki. i gth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Mitsusuke. Goto. 1670. Kyoto. 

Mitsutada. Goto. 1610. Kyoto. 

Mitsutada. Vide Kiujo. 

Mitsutaka. Vide Yenjo. 

Mitsutaka. Saito. 1830. Ginzo. Pupil 
of Teramitsu (Omori). Sendai. 

Mitsutaka. Morimura. 1840. A highly 
skilled expert of Yedo. Celebrated 
for chiselling insects. 

Mitsutaka. Vide Shujo. 

Mitsutake. Goto. 1640. Kyoto. 

Mitsutaki. Kikuoka. i gth cent. Met- 
al-worker of Yedo. Art name, 

Mitsutatsu. iQth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. Art name, Ichijiu-sai. 

Mitsutatsu. Omori. i gth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Mitsuteru. Mikami. 1730. A pupil of 
Yanagawa Naomitsu. Yedo. 

Mitsutoki. Kakinuma. 1830. Shinzo. 
A pupil of Terumitsu (Omori). 

Mitsutomi. Vide Injo. 

Mitsutomo. Vide Renjo. 

Mitsutomo. Goto. 1720. Rihei. Kyoto. 

Mitsutomo. 1 9th cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. 

Mitsutoshi. Vide KwanjS. 

Mitsutoshi. Kikuoka. igthcent. Met- 
al-worker of Yedo. 

Mitsutoshi. Vide TsQj6. 

Mitsutoyo. Vide Shuj6. 

Mitsutoyo. Vide Shujo and Kambei. 

Mitsutsugu. Yoshioka. 1740. Kaye- 
mon or Munehiro. Yedo. 

Mitsutsuke. Goto. 1760. Kyoto. 

Mitsutsuna. Vide Kaijo. 

Mitsutsune. Otsuki. 1750. Yamash- 
iro-ya Kihachi. Said to be the nine- 
teenth in descent from Kworin. 

Mitsutsune. Nakai. 1590. Founder of 
the well-known family of Hagi (vide 
Nobutsune) guard-makers. Fre- 
quently used the mark Jokan Inshi. 

Mitsutsune. Nakai. 1390. The found- 
er of the Nakai family. He worked 
at Suwo in Yamaguchi, and his art 
name was Sakan Inshi. 

Mitsuyori. Vide Ritsujo. 

Mitsuyori. Murata. 1760. Hanjiro. 
Called also KSzui. Used the mark 
Ichiyodo. Yedo. 

Mitsuyoshi. Goto. 1830. Fifteenth 
representative of the Goto family. 
Called Shinj5. Yedo. Art name, 

Mitsuyoshi. Nishimura. 1750. Sas- 
aya Genzuki. A good expert pupil 
of Mitsutsune (Otsuki). Kyoto. 

Mitsuyoshi. Vide Joken. 

Mitsuyoshi. Vide GenjS. 

Mitsuyoshi. Tachibana. 1840. A 
skilled expert of Yedo. Art name, 
Shojo, indicating his love of wine. 

Mitsuyuki. Vide Unj6. 

Mitsuyuki. Kikuoka. 1760. Ritoji. 
Called himself Dopposai and Saika- 
an, which names are found on his 
works. A pupil of Yanagawa Nao- 
mitsu, and an expert of the highest 
order. He carved in the Yokoya 
style, and Japanese connoisseurs, 
speaking of the delicacy and strength 
of his chiselling, say that it resembles 
feather-grass drooping heavy with 
dew, but not touching the ground. 

Mitsuyuki. Goto. 1680. Kyoto. 

Mitsuzane. Vide Rinjo. 

Miyasaka. Yoshimasa. Present day. 
Metal-sculptor. Pupil of Unno Sho 

Miyochin. Family of armourers and 
workers in metal. The genealogy 
of the family extends back to the 
second century of the Christian era, 



but as armourers their history may 
be said to commence with the six- 
teenth representative, Munemichi. 
The names are as follows, in chrono- 
logical order : 

Miyochin. Munemichi. 640 A.D. 

Miyochin. Munetsugu. 670. Said to 
have forged armour for the Emperor 

Miyochin. Munetoshi. 690. 

Miyochin. Munematsu. 720. 

Miyochin. MunemorL 760. 

Miyochin. Munemaro. 800. Armourer 
to the Emperor Kwamma and Seiwa. 

Miyochin. Muneshima. 820. 

Miyochin. Munekuni. 840. 

Miyochin. Munetora, 860. 

Miyochin. Muneyori. 880. 

Miyochin. Muneshimo. 890. 

Miyochin. Munemori. 910. 

Miyochin. Munetoshi. 930. 

Miyochin Munezane. 980. Said to 
have forged a shield of gold for Mi- 
namoto no Mitsunaka. 

Miyochin. Munekazu. 1010. 

Miyochin. Munekuni. 1030. 

Miyochin. Munenaka. 1060. 

Miyochin. Munetsune. noo. Known 
in the artistic world as Go-Munet- 
sugu, or the " second Munetsugu," 
having changed his name to Munet- 
sugu in his late years. Said to 
have forged iron armour decorated 
with eight varieties of dragons (hachi- 

Miyochin. Muneyoshi. 1140. 

Miyochin. Munesuke (i). 1154 to 
1185. Called also Masuda. Had 
the rank of Idzumo no Kami. 
Worked first in Idzumo for Yori- 
tomo ; then in Kyoto, and finally for 
the Minamoto in Kamakura. He 
is said to have forged the suit of 
armour worn by Yoshitsume, and 
now preserved at the Kasuga Temple. 
Commonly he is spoken of as the 
first representative of the family, but 
the fact is that the art of decorative 
forging first became admirable in his 

Miyochin. Munekiyo(2). 1200. Worked 
at Kamakura. Had the rank of Gi- 
yobu Taiyu. 

Miydchin. Muneyuki(3). 1215. 
Worked at Kyoto. Had rank of 
Giyobu Taiyu. 

Miy5chin. Munemasu (4). 1225. Worked 
at Katsuyama in the province of 

Kii. One of the greatest of the 
Miyochin artists. Had the rank of 

Miyochin. Muneyoshi. 1200. Second 
son of Munesuke. 

Miyochin. Munehide. 1200. Third son 
of Munesuke. 

Miyochin. Muneyasu. 1200. Fourth 
son of Munesuke. 

Miyochin. Yoshikiyo. 1220. Son of 

Miyochin. Yoshitsugu. 1220. Son of 

MiySchin. Munenao. 1230. Second 
son of Munekiyo. 

Miyochin. Muneshige (5). 1240. Lived 
at Odawara. Had the rank of Sak- 
yo no Tayu. 

Miyochin. Munekane. 1240. Second 
son of Muneyuki. 

Miyochin. Munesumi. 1250. Third son 
of Muneyuki. 

Miyochin. Muneto. 1240. Second son 
of Munemasu. 

Miyochin. Munetada(6). 1270. Worked 
at Sano in Mino. Had the rank of 

Miy5chin. Shigeiye. 1270. Second son 
of Muneshige. 

Miyochin. Yoshishige. 1270. Third 
son of Muneshige. 

Miyochin. Munetsuna (7). 1300. 
Worked in Kyoto. Had rank of 
Sakon no Tayu. 

Miyochin. Muneyoshi. 1310. Second 
son of Munetada. 

Miyochin. Munemitsu (8). 1320. 
Worked in Kyoto. Had rank of 
Hyobu Taiyu. 

Miyochin. Munenori. 1330. Second 
son of Munetsuna. 

Miyochin. Munemasa (9). 1330. 
Worked in Kyoto. Had rank of 
Sakon no Tayu. 

Miyochin. Muneyasu (10). 1380. 
Worked in Kyoto. Had rank of 
Hyoye-no-Suke. Made a gold helmet 
for the Shogun Yoshimitsu. He re- 
ceived large estates in recognition of 
his skill. 

The first ten generations of the 
family, from Munesuke in the twelfth 
century to Muneyasu in the four- 
teenth, are known as " Miyochin no 
Judai," or the " Ten generations of 
MiySchin." They occupy in the his- 
tory of armour-forging a place some- 
what analogous to that occupied by 



the fourteen generations of Goto 
masters in the history of sword- 
mount decoration. Muneyasu, the 
tenth representative, is specially cele- 

Miyochin. Munetoki. 1380. Second son 
of Munemasa. 

Miyochin. Yoshihiro (n). 1400. 
Worked in Kyoto. Had rank of 
Sakyo no Tayu. 

Miyochin. Yoshitada (12). 1420. 
Worked in Kyoto. Rank, Sahiyoye 
no Jo. 

Miyochin. Yoshinori (13). 1440. 
Worked in Kyoto. Called also Goro- 

Miyochin. Yoshinaga (14). 1450. 
Worked in Kyoto. Rank, Shikibu 
Tayu. One of the greatest of the 

Miyochin. Yoshiari(i5). 1480. Worked 
at Kamakura. Called also Shinjiro. 

Miyochin. Yoshiyasu (16). 1520. 
Worked at Fuchiu in Hitachi and at 
Odawara. Called also Samuro-dayu. 
The six representatives from (u) to 
(16) are known as the Rokudai, or 
the " Six Generations." They are 
also called Giyoshi, or the " Honour- 
able Masters." The names are : 
Yoshihiro, Yoshitada, Yoshinori, 
Yoshinaga, Yoshiari, and Yoshiyasu. 

Miyochin. * Takayoshi. 1450. Sec- 
ond son of Yoshinori, and not a rep- 
resentative of the main line, but one 
of the most celebrated of the Miyo- 
chin artists. Worked at Kamakura. 

Miyochin. Yoshihisa. 1460. Second 
son of Yoshinaga. 

Miyochin. *Yoshimichi. 1500. Second 
son of Yoshiari. Worked in Kyoto. 
Not a representative of the main 
line, but a renowned master. 

MiySchin. Katsuyoshi. 1510. Third 
son of Yoshiari. 

Miyochin. *Nobuiye (17). 1520. Orig- 
inally called Yasuiye. Worked at 
Shirai in Joshiu. One of the most 
celebrated of the Miyochin Mas- 

The three names marked with an 
asterisk, Takayoshi, Yoshimichi, and 
Nobuiye are those of the " Nochi 
no Sansaku," or " Three Later 

Miyochin. Narikuni. 1470. Worked 
at Yawata in Joshiu. Son of 

Miyochin. Kunichika. 1420. Son of 

Miyochin. Narichika. 1420. Son of 
Yoshihisa. Worked in Joshiu. One 
of the great Miyochin Masters. 

Miyochin. Narishige. 1500. Son of 
Narichika. Worked at Yawata in 
Kozuke. One of the great Miyo- 
chin Masters. 

Miyochin. Kunihisa. 1530. Son of 

Miyochin. Hisaiye. 1550. Son of 
Kunihisa. Worked at Kamakura. 
One of the Miyochin celebrities. 

Miyochin. Fusanobu. 1530. Son of 

Miyochin. Munehisa. 1580. Grandson 
of Yoshiyasu. 

Miyochin. Katsumasa. 1580. Grand- 
son of Yoshiyasu. Worked in 
Joshiu. One of the great Miyochin 

Miyochin. Yoshihisa. 1630. Son of 
Munehisa. Worked at Kamakura. 
One of the great Miyochin Mas- 

Miyochin. Yoshishige. 1620. Son of 

Miyochin. Sadaiye (18). 1550. Worked 
in Odawara and Iga. Called also 
Hachiro and Heiroku. 

Miyochin. Fusaiye. 1540. Second 
son of Nobuiye. Worked in Joshiu. 
A great master. 

Miyochin. Fusamune. 1550. Third 
son of Nobuiye. Worked at Oda- 
wara. A celebrity. 

Miyochin. Muneiye (19). 1580. Worked 
in Omi. Manufactured a celebrated 
helmet for Tokugawa lyeyasu. 
Called also Kindaro. 

Miyochin. Munenobu (20). 1600. Son 
of Mnneiye. Worked in Yedo and 
Osaka. One of the great Miyochin 

Miydchin. Munekiyo. 1620. Second 
son of Muneiye. 

Miyochin. Munenaga. 1620. Third 
son of Muneiye. 

Myochin. Kunimori (21). 1620. Worked 
in Yedo. Son of Munenobu. Had 
rank of Nagato no Kami. Called 
also Kunimichi. 

Miyochin. Harunobu. 1620. Second 
son of Munenobu. 

Miyochin. Muneshige (22). 1640. 
Worked in Yedo. Had rank of 
Nagato no Kami. 



Miyftchin. Munetoshi or Kunimichi. 

(23), 1650. Worked in Yedo. 
MiySchin. Munenushi. 1650. Second 

son of Muneshige. 
MiySchin. Munemasa. 1650. Third 

son of Muneshige. 
Miyochin. Munesuke (24). 1710. 

Worked in Yedo. Had rank of 

Osumi no Kami. 
Miyochin. Munemasa (25). 1730. 

Second son of Munesuke. Worked 

in Yedo, and had rank of Osumi no 

Miyochin. Munemasa (26). 1740. 

Worked in Yedo. Had rank of 

Nagato no Kami. Called also 

Miyochin. Munetaye (27). 1760. Had 

rank of Osumi no Kami. 
Miyochin. Pupils of Yoshimichi. 1500. 


1. Yoshikatsu. 

2. Yoshimichi. 

3. Yoshiiye. 

Miyochin. Pupils of Nobuiye. 1520. 

1 . lyefusa. 

2. Nobutada. 

3. Nobuyuki. 

4. Nobumasa, 

5. Nobutsuna, 

6. Nobumitsu. 

Miyochin. Pupils of Narishige. 1500. 

1. NariyoshL 

2. Naritada, 

3. Naritsugu. 

4. Munehisa. 

5. Munetoki. 

MiSju. Vide Shigeyoshi Umetada 


Miznno. Family name. Vide Yoshishige. 
Mizuno. Gesshiu. Present day. A 

skilled sculptor in metal. Pupil of 

Unno Shomin. 
Mogarashi. Vide Soden. 
Mori. Joken. igthcent. Metal-worker 

of Tokyo. Also skilled as a wood- 
Moriaki. Ishiguro. 1820. Torajiro. 

Moriakira. Kuwamura. 1640. Jihei. 

A great expert. Son of Morihiro. 

Morichika. Inouye. 1860. A skilled 

expert of Tokyo. Pupil of Arichika. 
Morihira. Katsugi. 1720. lyemon. 


Morihiro. Kuwamura. 1620. Jihei. 
Art name, Riyoyu. A skilled expert, 
not inferior to his brother Morikatsu. 

Morikata. Yoshishige. 1690. Gen- 
shiro. Kaga. 

Morikatsu. Kuwamura. 1620. Mat- 
sushiro, and afterwards Choyemon. 
A celebrated carver. Art name, 
Riyoyu. Kaga. 

Morikatsu. Murata. 1780. A pupil of 
the Shoami family of lyo. Used 
the mark Murata Ro, or the " old 
man Murata." 

Morikuni. Katsugi. 1740. Tozaye- 
mon. Kaga. 

Morikuni. Katsugi. 1770. Tozaye- 
mon. Some very beautiful iron 
guards by this expert are in exis- 
tence. Kaga. 

Morikuni. Shoami. 1730. S5sho. A 
great master in carving dragons and 
clouds. Matsuyama (lyo). Marked 
his work Shoami Sosho. 

Morimichi. Kuwamura. 1660. Zenji. 
A celebrated expert, not inferior to 
his brother Moriyuki. Kaga. 

Morimichi. Sato. 1810. Yaichiro. 

Morimine. Sh5ami. 1600. Founded 
the lyo branch of the Sh5ami family, 
and is therefore sometimes spoken 
of as the " Second Founder " of the 
family (vide Takatsune and Nori- 
sada). Worked at Matsuyama. 

Morimine. Shoami. 1640. Worked at 
Matsuyama in lyo. 

Morimitsu. Katsugi. 1650. Hachibei. 
A pupil of Morisada Hanshiro. 

Morimitsu. Kuwamura. 1660. Kin- 
shiro. A good carver. Pupil of 
Koko. Kaga. 

Morimitsu. Katsugi. 1680. Kanye- 
mon. A skilled expert : at first an 
inlayer, and afterwards a carver. 
Worked originally in Kaga, and then 
entered the service of the feudal 
chief of Toyama. 

Morimura. Yukimori. igth cent. 
Metal-worker of Yedo. 

Morisada. Katsugi. 1690. Yoshiro, 
and afterwards Hanshiro. A 
skilled artist ; grandson of Morisada 
Yozayemon. He entered the ser- 
vice of the feudal chief of Toyama. 
His son of the same name (Han- 
shiro) succeeded him. There were 

4 6 


thus four Morisadas of the Katsugi 

Morisada. Katsugi. 1640. Yozaye- 
mon. A highly skilled artist. He 
worked first in Fushimi and after- 
wards entered the service of the 
feudal chief of Kaga, receiving an 
annual allowance of fifty bags of rice. 

Morisada. Katsugi. 1660. Yoshiro. 
Son of Morisada Yozayemon and 
counted of equal skill with his father. 
His son, of the same personal name, 
succeeded him. Kaga. 

Morishige. Kuwamura. 1640. Sei- 
shiro. Kaga. 

Moritsugu. Vide Soyo. 

Moritsugu. Katsugi. 1690. Genzaye- 
mon. Kaga. 

Moriyoshi. Katsugi. 1670. Sozaye- 
mon. Kaga. 

Moriyoshi. Kuwamura. 1610. Yos- 
hiro. The founder of the Kuwa- 
mura family. 

Moriyuki. Kuwamura. 1640. Jirosa- 
buro. A very celebrated artist. 

Motoaki. Morioka. 1800. Heizaburo. 
Pupil of Kaizantei. Mito. 

Motoakira. Suzuki. 1780. Shinsuke. 
Called himself Tankasai. A great 
expert. Pupil of Sekijoken. Mito. 

Motochika. Hiyama. 1780. Hanroku. 
Called himself Kaizantei. A skilled 
expert. Pupil of Sekijoken. Mito. 

Motochika. Fujita. 1800. Jisaku. 
Called himself Ontaiken. A skilled 
expert. Mito. 

Motoharu. KatSji. 1780. Jiyemon. 
Called himself Genjuken. Pupil of 
Sekijoken and a great expert. Mito. 

Motohide. Sato. 1830. Gensuke. A 
pupil of Seiunsai. Mito. 

Motohiro. Shimizu. 1800. Yeikichi. 

Motohiro. 1780. Shinzaburo. Pupil 
of Sekijoken. Mito. 

Motohisa. Nakamura. 1810. Mago- 
shichi. Mito. 

Motohisa. Yoshikawa. 1800. Yogoro. 
Called himself Tokaken. A pupil 
of Chikuzanken and a skilled expert. 

Motokore. Ishikawa. 1780. Shoye- 
mon. Mito. 

Motokyo. 1 9th cent. Metal-worker of 

Motomichi. Yasuyama. 1790. Kin- 
jiro. Mito. 

Motomitsu. Gunji. 1800. Sozaburo. 

Pupil of Kaizantei. Mito. 
Motomochi. Hiyama. 1810. Nihei. 

Called himself Kwaizantei. A 

skilled expert. Mito. 
Motonaga. Nanjo. 1780. Shinzaburo. 

Pupil of Sekijoken. Mito. 
Motonaga. Yamamoto. 1800. Shiko- 

hachi. Pupil of Kinzantei. Mito. 
Motonaga. Ogawa. 1800. Chingoro. 

Called himself Jichikaken. A 

skilled expert. Mito. 
Motonobu. Hanawa. 1780. Shinzo. 

Motonobu. Watanabe. 1810. Tsune- 

kichi. A pupil of Ontaiken. Mito. 
Motonori. Kurozawa. 1810. Ichijiro. 

A pupil of T5hoken. Mito. 
Motonori. Nemoto. 1800. Shinraku. 

Called himself Chooken. A skilled 

expert. Mito. 
Motonori. Onose. 1780. Shinraku. 

Pupil of Sekijoken. Mito. 
Motonori. Yasuyama. 1700. Shin- 
suke. Called himself Hozanken. 

Originally of the Yokoya family. A 

pupil of Chobei (Kikugawa), and, 

like his teacher, famous for carving 

chrysanthemums. Father of Seke- 

Joken. Mito. 
Motosada. Ogawa. 1780. Shingoro. 

Called himself Chikuzanken. A 

pupil of Sekijoken. Mito. 
Motosada. Tarn. i9th cent. Metal- 
worker of Osaka. 
Motoshige. Sakamoto. 1780. Genza- 

buro. Mito. 
Motoshige. Mimura. 1810. Juzaburo. 

Called himself Seiunsai. A skilled 

expert. Mito. 
Motoshige. Ogawa. 1800. Genji. 

Mototaka. Nagayama. 1810. Moto- 

hachi. A pupil of Tohoken. Mito. 
Mototaka. 1810. A pupil of Jichiku- 

ken. Mito. 
Mototera. Yasuyama. 1780. Yeisuke. 

Mototomo. 1780. Joi. Called himself 

Seishinken. A skilled expert. Mito. 
Mototoshi. Yamagata. 1820. A Mito 

expert. A pupil of Seishinken. 
MotOtsune. Gunji. 1780. Shimpachi. 


Motoyama. Munehide. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 
Motoyasu. Uchikishi. 1800. Shobei. 

Pupil of Kaizantei. Mito. 



Motoyasu. Yasuyama. 1790. Yasujiro. 

Motoyori. Hida. 1810. Ichijiro. A 
pupil of Tohoken. Mito. 

Motoyoshi. Yamagata. 1810. A pupil 
of T5hoken. Mito. 

Motoyoshi. Sasaki. 1780. Chiuji. 
Pupil of Sekijoken. Mito. 

Motoyuki. Watahiro. 1780. Hikosa- 
buro. Mito. 

Motoyuki. Suzuga. 1800. Gensuke. 
Pupil of Tankusai. Mito. 

Motozumi. Yasuyama. 1760. Shin- 
zayemon. Also called Sekijoken, 
and afterwards Togu. An artist of 
the highest skill, celebrated for chis- 
elling figures in Chinese and Japa- 
nese style in shibuichi. He also 
carved mountain genii (sennin) with 
grand power and delicacy in the style 
of Joi. It is on record that he cop- 
ied many of the old masterpieces. 
Lived in Mito, but often visited 
Yedo. Died at the age of 90 ( 1 79 1 ), 
and worked vigorously on his 88th 
birthday. His son Tozaburo (also 
called Shinyemon) carved in the 
same style but with inferior ability. 

Mukai. Shoko. Present day. An ex- 
pert sculptor in metal. Pupil of 
Unno Shomin. 

Muneaki. Nomura. 1730. SSkuro. Art 
name, Jumeishi. Hikone. 

Muneaki. Nomura. 1730. His name 
is also pronounced SSken. Called 
also Yumeishi. A pupil of Kane- 
nori (Nomura). Worked at Hikone. 

Munechika. Miyochin. i8th cent. Metal- 
worker of Matsuye (in Haruta). 

Munechika. Tachibana and Fujiwara. 
1000. At first called Nakamune. 
The founder of the Umetada family. 
A nobleman who employed his leis- 
ure in forging swords, and thus came 
to be called Sanjo no Kokaji (the 
amateur forger of Sanjo). There is 
no evidence that he made sword- 
furniture, but he is included in this 
list as he founded one of the fami- 
lies of repute. He was born in 960 
and died in 1030. The name Ume- 
tada was not adopted until the nine- 
teenth generation after Munechika, 
namely, the time of Shigemune. 

Munefusa. Fujita. 1650. Date uncer- 
tain. Younger brother of Fujita 
Munehisa and a skilled expert. Kaga. 

Munehiro. Vide Sokwan. 

Munehisa. Fujita. 1640. Date uncer- 
tain. Danyemon. A skilled expert. 
Younger brother of Umetada Nobu- 
fusa. Kaga. 

Munehisa. Soami. 1650. Yumeishi. A 
pupil of Soden. Worked at Hikone. 

Munemasa. 1710. Kaheiji. A pupil 
of Somin. Carver to Matsudaira, 
feudal chief of Hizen. 

Munemasa. Inouye. 1650. Kyoto. 

Munemime. Uyemura. 1720. Kuye- 
mon or Kihei. A great expert. 
Called also Soho, and commonly 
Masuya Kihei. Renowned for car- 
ving warriors. Kyoto. 

Munemochi. Alternative pronunciation 
of Soyu. Vide Toshiharu (Nara). 

Munenaga. 1690. Kuroji. Son of 
Munetsugu Jiro. Kaga. 

Munenori. 1770. Bennosuke. A pupil 
of Tetsuya Gembei. Kyoto. 

Munenori. Miyochin. 1540. A maker of 
guards. He was remarkably skilled 
in tempering iron. His guards gen- 
erally have, on the face, Tosa no 
Kuni-ju Miyochin Munenori (Miyo- 
chin Munenori residing in Tosa), 
and on the reverse, Shinto Gotesu- 
ren (five times wrought iron, Shinto). 

Munenori. Alternative pronunciation of 
Soden (q. v.). 

Munenori. Vide Nobutsugu. 

Munenori. 1770. Bennosuke. A pupil 
of Tetsuya Gembei. Kyoto. 

Munesuke. Ki. 1640. Known as Mi- 
yochin Osumi no Kami (Miyochin 
Lord of Osumi). A descendant of 
Nobuiye and a skilled expert. Yedo. 

Muneto. Family name. Vide Naomichi. 

Munetoki. Umetada. 1830. Shichiza- 
yemon. Representative of the thirty- 
fifth generation of the Umetada 
family. Worked in Yedo. 

Munetoshi. Nara. 1720. Son of Tosh- 
inaga, fourth representative of the 
Nara family. 

Munetsugu. 1670. Jiro ; son of Mune- 
yoshi HiySbu. Kaga. 

Munetsugu. Yoshioka. 1690. Chojiro, 
or Ch5yemon. Afterwards called 
Sokei. Yedo. 

Munetsugu. Yoshioka. 1820. Bungon. 

Muneyoshi. 1650. Hiyobu. Went from 
Fushimi to Kaga in the year 1645. 
A great expert. Received an allow- 
ance of one hundred bags of rice 

4 8 


yearly from the feudal chief of 

Muneyoshi. Umetada. 1670. Mune- 
taka. Date uncertain. He had the 
tiJe of Kazuma-no-suke and lived in 
Osaka. His work, which is of high 
quality, carried the inscription, Tach- 
ibana Muneyoshi. 

Muneyuki. Umetada. 1640. Represen- 
tative of the twenty-eighth generation 
of the Umetada family. Celebrated 
for chiselling guards with pierced 
decoration. He worked for the 
Tokugawa Court in the time of the 
third Shogun, lyemitsu, but resided 
in Kyoto. By him the first ideo- 
graph of the name Umetada was 
changed from Ume (to bury) to Ume 
(Plum), and the Umetada artists 
thenceforth marked their pieces with 
a plum blossom above the ideograph 
Tada. The representatives of the 
family worked during thirty-six gen- 
erations, and their record was com- 
piled in 1830 by Munetoki, the 35th. 

Muneyuki. 1 8th and igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. Art name, Kiriusai. 

Nagaatsu. Suga. 1720. A pupil of 
Narikado (Hirata) and a skilled ex- 
pert in enamel decoration. Yedo. 

Nagafusa. Hirata. 1760. Ichizaye 
mon. A pupil of Masatsugu (No- 
mura). Worked in Awa. 

Nagafusa. Hirata. 1760. Ichizayemon. 
Takashima. (Awa.) 

Nagahide. Hirata, 1770. Shingo. 
Worked in Awa. 

Nagahisa. 1650. Shichibei. Kaga. 

Nagahisa. 1660. Genzayemon. Kaga. 

Nagakiyo. 1720. Kanroku. Kaga. 

Nagakiyo. Tazawa. 1620. Original 
family name Katsugi, but changed 
it subsequently to Tazawa, and re- 
ceived a yearly salary from the 
feudal chief of Kaga as a skilled 

Nagakuni. Koichi. 1700. Yazayemon. 

Nagamasa. Koichi. 1650. Saburoye- 
mon. An expert in inlaying. Kaga. 

Nagamine. 1730. Jirozo. A grand artist, 
celebrated for his fine chiselling of 
men in armour, the figures full of 
life and motion, and even the faces 
animated. His father of the same 
name was also a good expert. Kyoto. 

Nagamitsu. 1760. Hambei. Kaga. 

Naganobu. 1670. Rokuyemon. Kaga. 

Naganobu. 1680. Kichidayu. Kaga. 

Nagasada. 1730. Jisuke. Kaga. 

Nagasone. Akao. iSoo. Saichi. A 
guard-maker who worked in the 
Akao style, but used iron approxi- 
mating to steel. Yedo. 

Nagashige. 1720. Kuroyemon ; succes- 
sor of Munenaga Kuroji. Kaga. 

Nagashige. Koichi. 1650. Shirazaburo. 
An inlayer and carver of Kaga. 

Nagatake. Imai. 1850. Art name, Ky- 
osui. Kyoto expert of great skill. 

Nagatsugu. Shdami. 1600. Yoshiro. 
Said to have been the first to inlay 
brass with gold, silver, shakudo, etc. 
Hence such work is commonly 
known as the " Yoshiro style " ( Yos- 
hiro-fu). Worked at Mino. 

Nagatsugu. Yoshioka. 1640. Choza- 
buro. Yedo. 

Nagatsugu. 1780. Toyotsugu. Kaga. 

Nagatsugu. Koichi. 1760. Yazayemon. 

Nagatsugu. Koichi. 1740. Yazayemon. 

Nagatsugu. Koichi. 1670. Yazayemon. 

Nagatsune. Yasui. 1670. Ichinomiya, 
Echizen. A great expert. Pupil of 
Yasui Takanaga. Kyoto. 

Nagatsune. Kashiwaya. 1770. Chiu- 
hachi. He marked his works Setsu- 
zan or Ganshoshi. In recognition of 
his extraordinary ability he received 
the title of Yechizen no Daijo, and 
was generally known as Ichi no 
Miya. He has few rivals and prob- 
ably no superiors. A favorite design 
on his early carvings was the tsu- 
kushi (a kind of horse-tail grass) 
with addition of frogs, snails, etc., 
and his skill in producing these 
natural objects was extraordinary. 
Subsequently he chiselled dragons, 
shishi, figures, etc., with equal facility 
and accuracy. His artistic spirit is 
compared by Japanese connoisseurs 
to the moon rising over mountains ; 
it is at once so high and so pure. 
He died in 1 786. Kyoto. 

Nagayori, Azuma. 1760. Matajiro. 
Commonly called Yeizui. A pupil 
of Noriyori (Hamano) and a skilled 
expert. His art name was Tsutembo. 

Nagayoshi. Kashiwaya. 1790. Son of 
Nagatsune, and almost equal to his 
father in skill. Kyoto. 



Nagayoshi. 1690. Chozayemon. Kaga. 

Nagayoshi. Ichikawa. 1710. Kinai. 
Not to be confounded with the great 
Kinai. Kaga. 

Nagayoshi. 1750. Kiujiro; son of Na- 
gashige Kuroyemon. Kaga. 

Nagayoshi. 1640. Kanyemon. Kaga. 

Nagayoshi. Ishiguro. 1840. Called him- 
self Jizan. A skilled expert. 

Nakagawa. Yoshizane. Present day. 
A skilled metal-chiseller of Bizen. 

Nakahara. Yukitoshi. iSth and i9th 
cent. Metal-worker of Choshiu. 

Nakayama. Shoyeki. i6th and I7th 
cent. Common name Yojuro. Orig- 
inally an armourer, he settled (1585) 
in Kyoto, and acquired a high repu- 

Nakazato. Norinaga. Present day. A 
skilled metal-chiseller of Tokyo, who 
now devotes himself largely to 
cameo-cutting in shell. 

Namekawa. Sadakatsu. Present day. 
Kinzoku-shi. A pupil of Shomin. 
Remarkably skilled in chiselling fig- 
ures in relief and incised on iron, 
silver, shibuichi, etc. 

Nampo. Vide Konkwan. This mark 
was used by one of the nineteenth 
century Kikugawa artists also. 

Nanjo. 1780. A pupil of Chokuzui. 

Nomura. Family name. Vide Sotoku 
and Masatoki. 

Naoaki. Oda. 1830. An expert of 
Satsuma, highly skilled in tempering 
iron and chiselling designs a jour. 

Naofusa. 1780. Tetsuya Bunjiro. A 
pupil of Tetsuya Gembei. Kyoto. 

Naofusa. Hamano. 1800. Art name, 
Hokiusai. A skilled expert. Yedo. 

Naokata. Okamoto. 1780. Chobei the 
adopted son of Tetsuya Gembei, 
whose name he afterwards took. 

Naokatsu. Inagawa. 1720. Bunshiro. 
A pupil of Naomasa (Yanagawa) 
and a skilled expert. Yedo. 
Naomasa. Yanagawa. 1690. Sanye- 
mon. A pupil of Somin. A cele- 
brated artist. His carvings of shishi 
(Dogs of Fo), horses, etc., are splen- 
didly executed, and his nanako 
grounds are superb. His work is 
compared by Japanese connoisseurs 
to a waterfall among autumn foli- 
age. In his later years he called 
himself Sdyen. Yedo. 

Naomasa. Ozaki. 1770. Magozayemon, 
or Kizayemon. Art name, Kichosai. 
A celebrated expert of Kyoto. 

Naomichi. 1770. Sh5suke. A pupil of 
Tetsuya Dembei. Kyoto. 

Naomichi. Muneta. 1660. Matabe. 
Called also Dochoku. A celebrated 
expert. Worked chiefly in Osaka. 
His favourite subjects were human 
figures chiselled in the shishi-ai-bori 
and high-relief styles. Imitations 
abound, but are markedly inferior to 
the originals, which have been scarce 
ever since 1770. 

Naomine. Muneta. 1660. Jisuke. 

Naomitsu. Yanagawa. 1720. Rihei. A 
pupil of Naomasa, after whose death 
he took the name of Naomasa. A 
grand expert. Every stroke of the 
chisel is direct and strong. His 
work can scarcely be distinguished 
from that of Naomasa. Yedo. 

Naonori. Konakamura. 1720. Kinchiro. 
A pupil of Naomasa. Yedo. 

Naoshige. Kimura. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Naoshige. Okamoto. 1770. His com- 
mon name was Tetsuya Gembei 
(Gembei, the worker in iron), but as 
he grew famous, men called him 
" Tetsugen," and sometimes " Tet- 
sugendo." He was a pupil of Haru- 
kuni, who was known as Tetsuya 
Gembei. Many of his works are 
marked Shoraku, and some have 
Toshiyuki, his early name. He is 
held to be one of the greatest of 
Japanese artists. His method of 
tempering iron and of producing 
patina is spoken of by Japanese 
writers of the eighteenth century as 
skilful beyond precedent. He worked 
also with consummate expertness in 
gold, silver, shakudo, and shibuichi. 
The Soken Kisho says that his work 
recalls the well-known couplet : 
" How lovely is the cherry bloom 
touched by the morning sunbeams 
as they glance through the boughs 
of a pine tree!" He died in 1780, 
at a comparatively early age. 

Naoshige. Muneta. 1680. Matashi- 
chi. Kyoto. 

Naotaka. 1700. A pupil of Naomasa 
(Yanagawa). Yedo. 

Naotmo. 1 780. Ihei. A pupil of Tet- 
suya Gembei. Kyoto. 



Naotoshi. Shimamura. 1 700. A pupil 
of Naomasa (Yanagawa). Yedo. 

Naotsugu. Shimizu. 1700. Jinyemon. 
A pupil of Naomasa (Yanagawa). 

Naoyasu. igth cent. Metal-worker of 
Yedo. Art name, Kikodo. 

Naoyori. Toyama. 1770. Denzo. An 
expert of note, who worked in Yedo, 
and afterwards Shinano and Yechi- 
zen. Called also Chokuzui (another 
pronunciation of Naoyori). 

Naoyoshi. Sano. 1730. Rihachi. A 
pupil of Naonori ; highly skilled. 
Carved for the Daimiyo Akimoto. 

Naoyuki. Yanagawa. 1700. Koheiji. 
A pupil of Naomasa. Some of his 
works are marked Yanagawa Nao- 
masa. Yedo. 

Narichika. 1 8th and igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Narihisa. Hirata. 1650. Hikoshiro. 
Third representative of the Hirata 
family. Yedo. 

Narikado. Hirata. 1700. Hikoshiro. 
Fifth representative of the Hirata 
family. Called also Henjo and 
Yeijo. Yedo. 

Narikata. Umetada. 1740. Kajiye- 
mon. Son of Naritsugu. Yedo. 

Narikazu. Hirata. 1630. Hikoshiro. 
Second representative of the Hirata 
family. Yedo. 

Narimasa. Hirata. 1840. Hikoshiro. 
Called also Riyozo and Genj5. Yedo. 

Narisuki. Hirata. 1790. Hikoshiro. 
Called also Ichizo. Seventh of the 
Hirata experts. Yedo. 

Naritsugu. Umetada. 1720. Kajiye- 
mon. A Yedo expert of the highest 
skill. His carving is usually on a 
ground of shibuichi with profuse use 
of gold in the decorative design. 
Born in 1696, died 1/35. 

Nari wo. Shoami. i8th and igth cent. 
Metal-worker of Matsuyama (lyo). 

Nariyuki. Hirata. 1740. Hikoshiro. 
Called also Kiuzo and Ichizo. The 
sixth representative of the Hirata 
family, and generally considered one 
of the best of the Hirata experts. 

Nariyuki. Hirata. 1880. Hikoshiro. 

Natsuo. (d. 1894.) A metal -chiseller of 
Tokyo, who is justly reckoned one 
of Japan's greatest experts. 

Nihei. Muneta. 1560. The first mak- 
er of nanako grounds in the Muneta 
family. Kyoto. 

Nishimura. Family name. Vide Mit- 

Nizayemon. Muneta. 1540. Kyoto. 
There was a second Nizayemon 
(1580) in the same family. 

Nobuaki. 1530. A pupil of Nobuiye. 
Celebrated for chiselling guards <J 
jour, and for the beauty of his patina. 
Kuwana (Ise). 

Nobuchika. Hirano. 1810. A pupil 
of Ontaiken. Mito. 

Nobufusa. Miyochin. 1540. A great 
expert. Kai. 

Nobufusa. Umetada. ^640. Date un- 
certain. Sei-no-j6. Supposed to 
have been a pupil of one of the early 
Kuwamura artists. A fine expert. 

Nobuhide. Sumitomo. 1750. Senno- 
suke. A pupil of Masanobu (Zenji). 

Nobuhiro. Miyochin. 1560. A great 
expert. Kamakura. 

Nobuiye. Miyochin. 1520. One of 
the Nochino Sansaku (Three Later 
Masters) of the Miyochin family. 
Worked principally as an armourer, 
but also chiselled guarda. Joshiu. 

Nobuiye. Fujiwara. 1670. A guard- 
maker of Aki. His work was in 
the pierced style, and he is cele- 
brated for guards in the Mokko 
shapes with omodaka leaves chiselled 
ci jour. His pieces are constantly 
confounded with those of Miyochin 

Nobuiye. 1700. A guard-maker of 
Kishiu. Not a good expert, but his 
work is often mistaken by ignorant 
collectors for that of Miyochin 

Nobukatsu. Kikuchi. 1730. SeijirS. 
Art name, Gitoken and Soriuken. 
A pupil of Naokatsu (Inagawa) and 
an expert of great skill. Yedo. 

Nobumasa. Okada. 1690. Zenzaye- 
mon. A grandson of Meiju Ume- 
tada, who changed his family name 
Okada. Hagi. 

Nobusada. 1530. A pupil of Nobuiye 
(Miyochin) and a skilled expert. 

Nobushige. Okada. 1700. Hikozaye- 
mon. Hagi. 

Nobutaka. Nara. 1730. Ihachi. 


Younger brother of the celebrated 
Masanaga, whose name he some- 
times used. Yedo. 

Nobutatsu. Hayashi. igth cent. 
Skilled metal-worker of Yedo. Art 
name, Tokai. 

Nobutsugu. Yoshioka. 1710. Choye- 
mon. Called also Soin. A great 
expert. According to the Soken 
Kisho he was called Munenori. 

Nobutsune. Nakai. 1620. Bunyemon. 
The first of the Nakai family who 
worked in Hagi, Nagato province, 
and therefore the originator of the 
celebrated Choshiu guards (iron). 

Nobuyasu. Saotomo. 1530. A pupil 
of Miyochin Nobuiye. Worked in 
Mito, where for many generations 
his family enjoyed the reputation of 
skilled armourers. 

Nobuyoshi. Washizu. igthcent. Skilled 
metal-worker of Yedo. Obtained 
the art title of Hogen. 

Nobuyoshi. Miy5chin. 1550. A cele- 
brated metal-worker. Kamakura. 
Received the title of Hokkyo, and 
afterwards of Hogen. 

Noriaki. Noda. 1815. Shirobei. Called 
himself Saiyoshin. A skilled carver 
and an able painter. Yedo. 

Norikuni. Miyochin. 1560. A well- 
known expert. Kozuke. 

Norikyo. Goto. 1650. Shichibei. Kaga. 

Norimasa. Nakagawa. 1750. A pupil 
of Noriyuki (Hamano). Yedo. 

Norinao. Muneta. 1640. Matabei. 
Art name, Doki. A celebrated ex- 
pert. He invented a special and 
particularly difficult style of nanako 
called daimiyo -nanako, in which the 
lines of nanako alternate with lines 
of polished ground. He is supposed 
to be the only expert who succeeded 
thoroughly in such work. Kyoto. 

Norinobu. Hamano. 1790. Kimbei. 
A skilled artist. Used two of the 
art names employed by Shozui, viz., 
Otsuriuken and Miboku. 

Norisada. Shoami. 1500. A Kyoto 
expert. His era is uncertain, and he 
is sometimes spoken of as the second 
founder of the Shoami family, though 
that position is more commonly as- 
signed to Takatsune (q. v.). 

Norishige. Miyochin. 1 560. A skilled 
expert. Kozuke. 

Noriyori. Hamano. 1750. Chiugoro. 

A pupil of Shozui, and a celebrated 
expert. A carving by him on the 
stone gate of Tentoku-ji cemetery of 
the Unshiu Daimiyo is one of the 
finest works of the kind in Japan. 
It represents the sixteen Disciples of 
Buddha, and was designed by the 
painter, Sasawa Hoin. Yedo. 

Noriyuki. Hamano. 1740. A pupil of 
Shozui (Masayuki), but his style re- 
sembles that of Joi. An artist of 
the highest skill. Yedo. 

Noriyuki. Nakamura. 1770. Gensuke. 
A pupil of the celebrated Nakahara 
Yukinori. Nagato. 

Ogiya. Katsuhira. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. Art name, Seiriyo- 

Ohori. Masatoshi. igthcent. (d. 1897 ) 
A celebrated Uchimonoshi (metal- 
hammerer) of Tokyo. 

Oishi. Akichika. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Okada. Setsuga. Present day. A highly 
skilled metal-chiseller of Tokyo. 
Has carved sword-furniture for the 
Emperor, and also diadems for the 
Emperor and Empress. 

Okando. Vide Teruhiko (Murata). 

Okazawa. Yeiseuke. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Choshiu. 

Okimichi. Tokioka. 1680. Tosuke. 

Okinari. Horiye. 1750. Yajiuro. Art 
name, Isshiken. A pupil of the cele- 
brated Shozui. An artist of the first 
rank. Yedo. 

Okiyoshi. 1770. Horiiye. Yaichiro. 
Son of Okinari, and a skilled artist. 
Served the feudal chief of Awa and 
worked in Yedo. 

Okutsugu. Yoshioka. 1670. Hide-no- 
suke. Yedo. 

Onishi. Hideo Naomura. i9th cent. 
Metal-worker of Yedo. 

Ontaiken. Vide Motochika (Fujita). 

Osaki. Toshiaki. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Otsuki. Family name. Vide Kworin. 

Otsuriuken. Vide Masayori, Kaneyori, 
Norinobu, and Masanobu. 

Rakurakusai. Vide Katsuyoshi. 

Rakusuido. Vide Tsunenari. 

Ranzan. Vide Tsuneyuki. 

Reijo. Goto. 1650. Mitsuchika. Kyoto. 

Rengetsutei. Vide Toshikage. 

Renjo. Goto. 1650. Tenth of the 
great Goto Masters, 


Rifudo. Vide Masayuki. 

Rifudo. Vide Masayori and Masanobu. 

Rinfudo. Vide Masaharu. 

Rinjo. Goto. 1650. Mitsuzane. Kyoto. 

Rinsendo. Vide Mitsumasa. 

Risai. Motokawa. 1780. A Kyoto 
expert of the highest skill. 

Risho. Iwamoto. 1800. Kinjiro. 
Called himself also Toshimasa. 

Risuke. Uyemura. 1720. A pupil of 
Munemine. Kyoto. 

Ritsujo. Goto. 1600. Mitsuyori. Ky- 

Ritsumei. Vide Koretsune. 

Riujo. Goto. 1650. Mitsusada. Kyoto. 

Riutnin. 1 9th cent. (d. 1863.) A splen- 
did metal-chiseller of Yedo, who pro- 
duced not only sword-furniture but 
all kinds of objects. Art name, 

Riurin-sai. Vide Hidetomo. 

Riusen. Fujiki. 1660. Yojibei or 
Shigenori. Pupil of Goto Renjo 
and father of Masafusa (Fujiki). 

Riushatei. Vide Takeaki. 

Riu-un-sai. Vide Tomochika (Omori). 

Riu-u-sai. Vide Teruhide (Omori). 

Riydkwan. Iwamoto. 1750. Yohachi. 
Teacher of the celebrated Konkwan, 
and himself a skilled expert. Yedo. 

Riyonenshi. Yasuyobi. igth cent. 
Metal-worker of Yedo. 

Riyoyei. Iwamoto. 1770. Suzuki 
Kinyemon. Pupil of Iwamoto Kon- 
kwan. Remarkably good at carving 
fish designs. Yedo. 

Riyoyen. Vide Masayuki. 

Riyoyu. Vide Morikatsu and Morihiro. 

Riyozo. Vide Narimasa. 

Rizui. Vide Toshiyori. 

Rokuyemon. Saito. 1800. A skilled 
inlayer of Sendai. 

Saburoyemon. Yamanaka. 1630. Pupil 
of Goto Yekijo, and a grand artist. 

Saburozayemon. Kurose. 1630. Pupil 
of Goto SeijS. Kyoto. 

Saburozayemon. Inouye. 1650. Founded 
the house called Sammon-ji-ya, and 
developed an original style of carv- 
ing called Oike-bori, from the name 
of the street (Oike-dori) in which he 
lived. Kyoto. 

Sadachika. Nogi. 1790. Mohei. A 
pupil of Terusada (Yamamoto). 

Sadahide. 1840. Yasokichi. A pupil 
of Jikyokusai. Yedo. 

Sadahiro. Shoami. 1560. Worked in 
Owari, following the style of Yama- 

Sadahisa. Morita. 1810. Sogoro. 
Called himself Tosuiken. A pupil 
of Chikuzanken, and a skilled ex- 
pert. Mito. 

Sadahisa. Takahashi. 1800. Masabei. 
Called himself Shosensai. A pupil 
of Chikuzanken and a skilled ex- 
pert. Mito. 

Sadakage. 1650. Shinyemon. Kaga. 

Sadakatsu. Taneda. 1630. Kichinojo. 
A pupil of Goto Yenjo and a skilled 
expert. Kaga. 

Sadakatsu. igth cent. Metal-worker of 

Sadasuke. Inuma. 1800. A Mito ex- 
pert, pupil of Chikuzanken. 

Sadatoki. 1630. Heihachi. A skilled 
expert who worked originally in 
Fushima, and moved to Kaga in the 
year 1625. He received a grant of 
three hundred koku of rice annually 
from the feudal chief of Kaga. 

Sadatsugu. 1680. Kichirokuro. Kaga. 

Sadatsugu. Yoshioka. 1780. Kichi- 
jiro. Yedo. 

Sadatsugu. 1800. A pupil of Sada- 
chika (Nogi). Yedo. 

Sadayoshi. Fujita. 1840. Anshi. Called 
himself Kingenshi. Yedo. 

Sadayoshi. 1770. A pupil of Nagat- 
sune. A skilled expert. Yamashina 

Sadayuki. 1840. Kinjiro. A pupil of 
Jikyokusai. Yedo. 

Saihaku. Vide Masayoshi. 

Saijiro. Goto. 1630. Kaga. (Vide 

Saika-an. Vide Mitsuyuki. (Kiku- 

Saiyoshin. Vide Noriaki. 

Sakuma. 1600. Date uncertain. Noth- 
ing is known of this expert, but 
some very fine specimens of iron 
guards bearing his signature are 

Sakuyemon. Chiyo. 1700. A pupil of 
Kuisuke of Tsuyama. Succeeded 
by his son of the same name. 

Sakuyemon. Chiyo. 1700. There were 
two artists of this name, father and 
son. They worked at Tsuyama. 

Sammonji-ya. Vide Saburozayemon 
and KuheL 




Sano. Naotsune. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Sano. Takachika. Present day. A 
metal-chiseller of Tokyo. 

Saotomo. Vide Nobuyasu. 

Sasaki. Family name. Vide Shigekata, 
Tadatsura, etc. 

Sato. Yoshi. 1 9th cent Metal-worker 
of Yedo. 

Seibei. Shoami. 1760. Worked at Ni- 
honmatsu in Aizu. 

Seijiro. Goto. 1630. A great expert; 
but not well known. Kaga. 

Seijo. Goto. 1630. Mitsunaga. Kyoto. 

Seimin. Murata. 1820. Sozaburo. A 
celebrated chiseller, but chiefly re- 
markable for his skill in casting 
bronzes. Yedo. 

Seiriyoken. Vide Ogiya Katsuhira. 

Seiroku. Vide Masanaga (Nara) and 
Masachika (Nara). 

Seiseisai. Vide Masatoki. 

Seishichi. Shoami. 1840. A guard- 
maker of Osaka. 

Seishinken. Vide Mototomo. 

Seiunsai. Vide Motoshige (Mimura). 

Seiunsai. Vide Taki Yeiji. 

Seiunsha. Vide Toho. 

Seizayemon. Goto. 1670. An artist 
of remarkable skill. Kaga. 

Seki. Yoshinori. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Sekibun. Shoami. 1820. Shichiroye- 
mon. Art name, Yurosai. Worked 
at Shonai in Dewa. 

Sekiguchi. Ichiya. i9thcent. (d. 1895.) 
A skilled metal-chiseller of Tokyo. 
One of the last of the carvers of 

Sekijo. Goto. 1570. Mitsutsune. Son 
of Goto Takujo. Kyoto. 

Sekijoken. Vide Motozumi (Yasuyama). 

Senjo. Goto. 1620. Mitsukyo. Kyoto. 

Sensai. Vide Atsuoki. 

Senshichi. Nishiyama. 1640. A pupil 
of Goto YenjS. Kyoto. 

Senshisai. Vide Shoami. 

Senyushi. Vide Yoshitsune. 

Setsuju. 1780. A skilled expert of 
Mito, said to have been connected 
with the Miyochin family. 

Setsuya. igth cent. Art name of a 
Yedo metal-worker. 

Setsuzan. Vide Nagatsune. 

Shiatsu. Shinji. Present day. Metal- 
sculptor. Pupil of Unno Shomin. 

Shichibei. 1700. A renowned inlayer. 
His skill was so great that the name 

Zoshichi came to be applied to par- 
ticularly fine damascening. Kyoto. 

Shichirobei. Shoami. 1710. A pupil 
of Katsusaburo. Worked at Tsuya- 
ma in Mimasaka. 

Shigeaki. igth cent. Metal-worker of 

Shigechika. Machida. 1740. Kinzo. 
A pupil of Soyo, and a skilled ex- 
pert. His father, also called Kinzo, 
worked in the same way but with 
less skill. Yedo. 

Shigechika. Yokoya. 1720. Called 
also Machida. KuizS. 

Shigeharu. Nara, 1710. A pupil of 
the first Toshinaga. Common name, 

Shigehiro. Yoshioka. 1580. Morot- 
sugu. Called also Sotaku. He had 
the title at first of Buzan-no-suke 
and afterwards of Inaba-no-suke. 
Founded the Yoshioka family. Yedo. 
With regard to the title Inaba-no- 
suke, which is found on some of the 
works of the Yoshioka family and 
not on others, the explanation is that 
its use in such a manner was inter- 
dicted when a member of the noble 
family of Inaba happened to hold 
the office of Goroju. The Yoshioka 
family worked for the Yedo Court 
and had a yearly allowance of two 
hundred koku of rice and eighteen 

Shigekata. Sasaki. 1630. Common 
name not known. A Kyoto expert 
of some repute. 

Shigekuni. Miyochin. 1560. A great 
expert of Kozuke. 

Shigemichi. Shoami. 1760. A Kyoto 
expert, celebrated for chiselling 
guards with clam-shell decoration it 

Shigemitsu. Omori. 1710. Shiroye- 
mon or Bunshiro. He also called 
himself Kinriuzan Fumoto. A cele- 
brated artist ; generally regarded as 
the founder of the Omori family, but 
his father, Shirobei, a Samurai of 
Odawara, was the first carver in that 
family. Yedo. 

Shigemitsu. Nara. 1720. Yedo. 

Shigemitsu. i8th cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. Pupil of Nara Yasuchika. 

Shigemoto. Kubo. 1780. Commonly 
known as Tetsuya Kimbei. A pupil 
of the celebrated Tetsuya Dembei, 
and himself very famous. Many of 



his works are marked Takenori. 

Shigemune. Shoami. 1840. An ex- 
pert of Yedo. 

Shigemune. Umetada. 1400. Known 
as Hiko no Shin. Said to be the nine- 
teenth representative of the Umetada 
family, but probably identical with 
the first Shigeyoshi (vide). He re- 
ceived the name Umetada from the 
Emperor Shoko. 

Shigenaga. 1680. Shinshichi. Suc- 
cessor of Tomotsugu Saburoyemon. 

Shigenaga. Yoshioka. 1640. Rizaye- 
mon. Afterwards called SSrin and 
Shigemoto. Yedo. 

Shigenobu. 1780. Kitaro. A pupil of 
Tetsuya Dembei. 

Shigenori. Miyochin. 1560. An ex- 
pert of Kozuke. 

Shigesada. Shoami. 1690. A pupil 
of Goto Tsujo. Worked at Akita 
in Dewa. 

Shigesada. Yoshioka. 1840. The 
ninth representative of the Yoshioka 
family. Yedo. 

Shigetaka. Hirata. 1680. Hikoshiro. 
Fourth representative of the Hirata 
family. Yedo. 

Shigetsugu. Yoshioka. 1620. A mem- 
ber of the noble Fujiwara family. 
Had at first the title of Bun-gon-no- 
suke. Also called Soju. He be- 
came carver to the Court of the 
Yedo Shogun in the year 1600, and 
died in 1653. In the temple Zojo-ji, 
at Shiba (Tokyo), there is a stone 
carving by him representing the 
entry of Buddha into Nirvana. The 
inscription shows that it was carved 
in his 73d year. 

Shigetsugu. Iwai. 1650. Moyemon. 
A pupil of Goto Renjo. Kyoto. 

Shigetsugu. 1700. Kihashiro. Son 
of Shigenaga Shinshichi. Kaga. 

Shigetsugu. Nara. 1720. A pupil of 
Toshinaga the second. 

Shigetsune. igth cent. Metal-worker 
of Choshiu. 

Shigetsune. Sh5ami. 1720. Worked 
at Wakamatsu in Aizu. 

Shigetsune. Shoami. 1650. An expert 
of Akita in Dewa. 

Shigeyasu. Inouye. 1740. Bunjiro. 
A celebrated expert. Kyoto. 

Shigeyoshi. Umetada. 1400. A cele- 
brated sword-smith, who is said to 

have made guards for the Ashikaga 
Shogvn, Yoshimitsu, the great art 
patron and dilettante of mediaeval 
Japan. Kyoto. 

Shigeyoshi. Umetada. 1560. Hiko- 
jiro. He also used the name Miyoju 
for marking his pieces. An expert 
of very high order. He forged 
sword-blades which are held in the 
greatest esteem, and made guards 
and other mounts with equal skill. 
He was employed by Yoshioka, the 
last of the Ashikaga Shoguns, by 
Hideyoshi, the Taiko, and by Hidet- 
sugu. He worked from 1 5 50 to 1 600. 

Shigeyoshi. Umetada. 1630. Hiko- 
jiro. He marked his pieces Meishin, 
or more commonly, lyetaka. He 
was counted a great sword-smith as 
well as a skilled carver, and received 
from the government the honorary 
title of Hokkyo. He worked in 
Kyoto and Yedo, and it is supposed 
that the various provincial artists 
calling themselves by the family 
name of Umetada were either pupils 
of his or descended from his pupils. 

Shigeyuki. Shoami. 1820. One of 
the Yedo branch of the Shoami 

Shiko. Shoami. 1700. An expert of 
Kyoto who worked in the style of 

Shimada. Family name. Vide Masa- 
f usa and Masanao. 

Shinjo. Vide Mitsuyoshi (Goto). 

Shinryo. Vide Koretsune. 

Shinshichi. 1730. A skilled expert of 
Osaka, commonly known as Hori- 
mono-ya Shinshichi (Shinshichi, the 
carver). His favorite design was a 
fishing rod and river trout, which he 
chiselled beautifully. 

Shintoken. Vide MitsuyoshL 

Shijun. Vide Masayori. 

Shiratoshi. Iwamoto. iQthcent. Skilled 
metal-worker of Yedo. Used the 
marks Kwanri and Jounsai. 

Shirobei. Muneta. 1650. Kyoto and 
Gifu (Mino). 

Shisuido. Vide Kakuriyo. 

Shiuko. 1 9th cent. Metal-worker of 

Shoami. Vide Masanori. 

ShSbei. Goto. 1570. A pupil of Goto 
TokujS. Lived at various places, 
but chiefly Noto and Kyoto. 



Shogoro. 1790. A pupil of Tashichi 
(Akao), and a skilled worker in the 
Akao style. Yedo. 

Shoho. Iwamoto. 1830. Buto Gem- 
pachi or Masakatsu. An expert of 
considerable note. Many of his 
pieces are marked Konkwan-mon, 
i.e., pupil of Konkwan. Yedo. 

Shdjd. Goto. 1610. Mitsumasa. 

Shdjd. Goto. 1530. Younger brother 
of Goto Sojo. Celebrated as a 
maker of nanako grounds. Kyoto. 

Shoju. Tamagawa. 1760. Saburohei. 
A pupil of Tsuju, and a great expert. 
Yedo and Mito. 

Shdkatei. Vide Katsutane. 

Shomin. igth cent. A celebrated 
metal-worker of Tokyo, now living ; 
art name, Senshisai. 

Shosensai. Vide Sadahisa (Takahashi). 

Shotayu. Vide Masanao. 

Shoyei. 1640. He called himself 
Johaku. A pupil of Jochiku, and a 
skilled expert. Yedo. 

Sh5yei. Vide Johaku. 

Shdzayemon. Yoshioka. 1630. Sec- 
ond son of Shigetsugu. Carver to 
the Shogun's Court in Yedo. 

Shozayemon. Nomura. 1530. A pupil 
of Goto ShSjo. Kyoto. 

Shizui. Vide Masayon. 

Shuchin. Furukawa. 1820. Son of 
Jochin and a skilled expert. Yedo. 

Shuhosai. Vide Masayori. 

Shujd. Goto. 1620. Mitsutoyo. Kyoto. 

Shujd. Goto. 1690. Mitsutaka. 

Shumin. igth cent. (d. 1866.) A 
highly skilled metal-chiseDer of 

Shungetsu. Vide Haruaki. 

Shun jo. Goto. 1640. Mitsunaga. 

Shunshodo. Vide Konkwan. 

Shunzui. Vide Haruyori. 

Shuraku. igth cent. (d. 1860.) A 
great metal-chiseller of Yedo : pupil 
of Temmin and of Shugetsu. 
Many beautiful specimens of his 
work are extant in sword-furniture, 
pouch-clasps, and chains (kuda-gus- 
ari), etc. He used the marks Taido 
Shuraku, and Shuunsai Shuraku. 

Shuzui. Vide Hideyori. 

SQchi. Yokoya. 1640. Tsugusada. 

Sdden. Kitagawa. 1649. Originally 

called Hidenori. Celebrated as a 
maker of iron sword-guards, elabo- 
rately decorated with figure designs 
chiselled a jour. He used the mark 
Soheishi, and this being commonly 
misread " mogarashi," the guards of 
S5den's type are known as mogara- 
shi-tsuba. They are exceptionally 
large, and generally have the edge 
curved. He belonged to the Shoami 
family, according to some authori- 
ties, and to the Kitagawa according 
to others. Worked at Hikone, and 
originated the Hikone style. 

Soheishi. Vide Soden. 

Soho. Vide Munemine. 

Soin. Yoshioka. His name is some- 
times pronounced Munenori. A 
great expert. Yedo. 

Soin. Vide Nobutsugu. 

S6J5. Goto. 1520. The second of the 
great Goto Masters. Kyoto. 

Sdju. Vide Shigetsugu (Yoshioka) 

Sdju. Vide Genchin. 

Sdkan. Vide Toshimitsu (Nara). 

Sokei. Vide Munetsugu. 

Soken. Ozaki. 1630. Jiubei. A 
pupil of Goto Teijo. Kyoto. 

Soken. Vide Muneaki. 

Sokuseui. Goto. 1660. Kyto. 

Sdkwan. Iwamoto. 1750. Kohachi. 
Yedo. A great expert. (His name 
is also pronounced Munehiro.) 

Somin. Yokoya. 1760. Tomatsugu. 
Grandson of the great Somin. A 
skilled expert. Yedo. 

Somin. Kiriusai. 1770. Representa- 
tive of the fourth generation of the 

Somin. Yokoya. 1710. Tomotsune, 
or Jihei. Art name, To-an. One of 
the most celebrated experts of any 
era. Worked from designs furnished 
by the painters Tanyu and Hana- 
busa Itcho. Much of his finest 
work was in the Kebori (hair-line 
engraving) style, and he thus came 
to be known as the originator of the 
Ye-fu-kebori (engraved pictures). A 
Japanese connoisseur of the eigh- 
teen century says that the impres- 
sion produced by Somin's work is 
that of wooded hills reflected in the 
blue waters of a placid lake as the 
evening moon rises over their sum- 
mit. True name, Tomotsune. Yedo. 
Many of his pieces are marked 


SonjS. Another name for Goto 

Sonobe. Yoshiteru. i8th and igth 
cent. Metal-worker of Yedo. 

Sonobe. Yoshitsugu. igth cent. 
Metal-worker of Yedo. 

Son. Yokoya. 1710. A pupil of 
Somin. Yedo. 

Sorin. Vide Shigenaga. 

Soriusai. Vide Yoshinori. 

Sotei. Vide Toshimune (Nara). The 
name Sotei is sometimes pronounced 

Sotetsu. Fujinaka. 1600. A pupil of 
Goto Yeij5. Kyoto. 

Sotoku. Nomura. 1580. Pupil of 
Goto Takujo. Founded the Nomura 
family. Kyoto. 

Soyei. Iwamoto. 1800. Heijiro. 

Soyen. Vide Naomasa. 

Soyo. Yokoya. 1740. Tomosada. 
Art name, Kiriusai. Son of Somin, 
and almost as skilled as his father. 

S6y5. Yokoya. 1630. Founder of the 
Yokoya family. Worked for the 
Court in Yedo. True name, Mori- 
tsugu. Yedo. A celebrated artist. 
Had a yearly allowance of two hun- 
dred bales of rice and twenty rations 
from the Yedo Court. 

Soyu. Vide Toshiharu (Nara). 

S5yu. Vide Teruaki (Yokiya). 

Sugiyama. Toshiyoshi. i8th and igth 
cent. Metal-worker of Mito. 

Sukesaburo. Umemura. 1640. A 
pupil of Tomihisa (Kawamura), and 
a skilled expert. Kaga. 

Sukeyori. 1800. Commonly called Jo- 
zui. A pupil of T5zui. Yedo. 

Sumpei. Ichiju. Present day. Metal- 
sculptor. Pupil of Unno Shomin. 

Sunagawa. Masayoshi. igth cent. 
Metal-worker of Yedo. Art name, 

Suzuki. Gensuke. Present day. A 
skilled uchimcmo-shi of Tokyo. Art 
names, Reiunsai and Suzu-gen. 
Seven generations of this family 
lived and worked in Yedo (Tokyo), 
the seventh, Suzuki Gensuke (q. v.), 
being the present representative. 
The first six manufactured chiefly 
metal pen-boxes for the girdle, (ya- 
tate), incense-boxes (ko^o), etc. They 
used the mark Genshin. 

Suzuki. Katsuyasu. iQth cent. Metal- 

worker of Yedo. Son of Ogiya Kat- 

Tadahira. 1630. Saburohei. Went 
from Fushimi to Kaga. 

Tadakyo. 1 650. Shdtaro ; son of Tada- 
hira Saburobei. Kaga. 

Tadamichi. 1700. A Kyoto expert. 
Family unknown. 

Tadashige. Ishikawa. 1820. Jiujiro. 
A pupil of Tadatsugu (Yoshioka). 

Tadasuke. Tsuji. 1770. Used the 
mark Teisuido. A highly skilled ex- 
pert. Worked in Omi. 

Tadatsugu. Yoshioka. 1800. Daijiro. 
Yedo. A great expert. 

Tadatsugu. Shoami. 1670. A Kyoto 

Tadatsune. WakabayashL 1820. Hi- 
koshiro. A pupil of Tadatsugu (Yo- 
shioka). Yedo. 

Tadatsura. Susaki. 1680. Saburohei. 

Tadayasu. 1750. A curio-dealer of 
Yedo. Ito Saburohei by name, had 
a quantity of fine sword-mounts 
carved with the inscription Tadaya- 
su, a combination of ideographs 
corresponding to his name. The 
work is in the style of Hamano 

Tadayori. Hamano. 1790. Samuro- 
suke. A skilled expert. Generally 
known as Tozui (another pronuncia- 
tion of Tadayori). Yedo. 

Tadayoshi. Nomura. 1740. Hanshichi. 

Tadayoshi. A pupil of Tsu Jimpo. 

Tadayoshi. 1750. Common name un- 
known and date approximate. Speci- 
mens bearing his name are some- 
times found. The ground is pol- 
ished, and the design is an official 
cap (kammuri) and an umbrella 
chiselled in relief. The same name 
is found on guards evidently by a 
different hand. 

Tadayoshi. Nomura. 1750. Commonly 
known as Tsuji Heihachi. A pupil 
of Tsu Jimpo and a skilled expert. 

Tadayoshi. Akao. 1840. A pupil of 
the Akao family, and a skilled guard- 
maker. Yedo. 

Tadayuki. Asagawa. 1820. Miyagoro. 
A pupil of Tadatsugu (Yoshioka). 



TagUChi. Katsuo. Present day. Metal- 
sculptor. Pupil of Unno Sh5min. 

TaijO. Goto. 1660. Kyoto. 

Taijo. Goto. 1660. Mitsuhisa. 

Taizanken. Vide Yenju. 

Takaaki. Ishiguro. 1850. Mankichi. 

Takafusa. Uyemura. 1740. Kuhei. A 
great expert. Kyoto. 

Takahiro. Yasui. 1690. Heiyemon. 
His house was called Kashiwaya, 
and he marked his works Chiriuken. 
A skilled artist. Kyoto. 

Takaiishi. Shigeyoshi. Present day. 
(b. 1838.) Originally a chiseller of 
sword-furniture, renowned for his 
skill in cutting kiri-mon (i.e., designs 
on the surface of sword blades), but 
now celebrated for the production of 
iron dragons, craw-fish, crabs, etc., 
with universal joints after the man- 
ner of Miyochin Yoshihisa. Many 
of his productions have been sold as 
genuine examples of Miyochin's 
work. His hawks, eagles, etc., chis- 
elled in silver and inlaid with gold 
are among the finest specimens of 
metal work ever produced. 

Takakiyo. Sakawa. 1800. Gensaburo. 
Called himself J5yeiken. A skilled 
artist. Mito. 

Takakusai. Vide Yoshihisa. 

Takamitsu. ShSami. 1620. Founder 
of the Aizu branch of the Shoami 
family. Marked his work " Matsu- 
mura Genshichiro." Worked at 

Takanaga. Yasui. 1670. Torabei. A 
pupil of Yasui Yoshinaga. Used 
the mark Fuko. Kyoto. 

Takasu. Yeiji. iglh cent. Skilled 
metal-worker of Yedo. Art name, 

Takatsune. Shoami. 1480. Jirohachi. 
A Kyoto expert, who resumed the 
profession of ornamental metal- 
worker commenced by his ancestor 
Masanori (vide), and is consequently 
known as the second founder (cAiuko 
kaizari) of the Shoami family. 

Takeakira. Masabayashi. 1800. Date 
uncertain. Personal name, Zusho, and 
art name, Riushatei. A skilled expert 
of Kyoto. A man of noble family. 

Takechika. Sano. 191(1 cent. A skilled 
metal-worker of Yedo. Used the 
marks Issai Hoshu Gend5-jin and 
Shuki Hozan Issai. 

Takemitsu. 1760. Uhei. A pupil of 
Tetsuya Dembei. Kyoto. 

Takenori. Vide Shigemoto (Kubo). 

Takenori. Okamoto. 1780. Uhei. 

Takenori. igth cent Metal-worker of 

Takeshima. Family name. Vide Ichiju. 

Takeshita. Shoju. Present day. Metal- 
sculptor. Pupil of Unno Shomin. 

Takeyama. Mahiko. Present day. A 
metal-chiseller of Osaka. 

Taki. Yeiji. igth cent. Skilled metal- 
worker of Yedo. Art name, Sei-un- 

Takuj5. Goto. 1570. The fifth of the 
great Goto Masters. Kyoto. 

Tamagawa. Joyei. i9thcent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Tanaka. Family name. Vide Ichiroye- 

Taneda. Family name. Vide Sadakatsu. 

Tankai. Vide Toshikage. 

Tankasai. Vide Motoakira. (Suzuki.) 

Tansai. Hirata. 1620. Founded the 
Hirata family of Awa. Nothing is 
known of his work and his date is 

Tanzendo. Vide Yoshitatsu. 

Tashichi. Akao. 1 780. Generally known 
as Akao Yoshitsugu, but not to be 
confounded with Akao Yoshitsugu 
Kohei. A skilled expert of Yedo, 
remarkable for his chiselling h jour, 
and his production of patina. 

Tatsufusa. Nara. 1730. A pupil of 
Yasuchika. Yedo. 

Tatsujo. Goto. 1650. Mitsufusa. 

Tatsumasa. Nara. 1710. A pupil of 
Toshinaga. Yedo. 

Tatsunari. Arakawa. 1790. Tatsuzo. 
Brother of Terutoki (Omori). 

Tazayemon. Nomura. 1660. A pupil 
of Goto Ren jo and a skilled artist. 

TeijS. Goto. 1630. The ninth Goto 

Teikan. igth cent. Metal-worker of 

Teisuido. Vide Tadasuke. 

Temmin. igthcent. (d. 1845.) A Yedo 
metal-chiseller of the highest skill. 
He was a pupil of the second Kiku- 
gawa and a contemporary of Riu- 
min, with whom he often worked 
conjointly, the two putting their 
names on the same specimen. Tern- 


min used the marks Okina Temmin 
(i.e., old man Temmin) ; Shojo-okina 

Tempo. Shoami. 1700. A Kyoto ex- 
pert, celebrated for carving flowers 
and leaves tossed by the wind. His 
pieces are generally marked Yama- 
shiro no Kuni Tempo. 

TenjO. Vide Mitsunori. Goto. 

Tenkodp. Vide Hidekuni. 

Teruaki. Yokoya. 1730. Originally 
known as Ishikawa Kiuhachi and 
afterwards called himself Jiriu-ken 
and Yumin. A great carver, but he 
devoted much of his labour to copy- 
ing the masterpieces of others. A 
Japanese connoisseur of the eight- 
eenth century writes : " No one 
could equal him in ease and rapidity 
of working. If he were asked to 
make a carving of some particular 
object on a kozuka, he would at 
once take up his chisel, did he hap- 
pen to be in the mood, and would 
not cease till he had produced sev- 
eral exquisite specimens, working, 
all the while, in the simplest, most 
unconcerned way." Yedo. 

Teruaki. Yokoya. 1700. lyemon. 
Subsequently called himself Soyu. 
A skilled expert, but his works are 
very rare. Yedo. 

Teruhide. Omori. 1760. Kisoji. Called 
himself Ittosai and Riu-u-sai. A pu- 
pil of Terumasa (Omori). A splen- 
did expert. The Omori style (carving 
in high relief on grounds inlaid with 
gold in the aventurine pattern) be- 
came widely popular in his hands. 
The Soken Kisho says of him : " His 
chisel marks have a force that would 
rend a rock. His fuka-bori (deeply 
incised) waves, etc., on a ground of 
shibuichi are magnificent, and noth- 
ing can exceed the exquisite beauty 
of his high relief peonies on nashiji 
(aventurine ground). He seems to 
have based his method of carving 
flowers on Somin's celebrated ichi- 
rin-botan (single-blossom peony). 
His martial figures are grand." 
Yedo. (Said to have been the first 
to carve wave diaper in high relief.) 

Teruhiko. Murata. 1800. Bennosuke. 
Called himself Okando. Pupil of 
Teruhide (Omori). Yedo. 

Teruhisa. Kuwamura. 1780. Kiuhei. 
Pupil of Terumasa (Omori). Yedo. 

Teruiye. Omori. 1780. Denro. Pupil 

of Terumasa (Omori). Yedo. 
Terukazu. Omori. 1760. Jisuke. 

Called himself also Kanshikan. 

Terukuni. Omori. 1810. Yagohei or 

Yajiuro. A great chiseller of nanako. 

Terumasa. Omori. 1730. A skilled 

expert, generally regarded as the 

originator of the Omori style. A 

pupil of Naomasa (Yanagawa). Art 

name, Yoichi Kambun. Yedo. 
Terumitsu. Omori. 1820. Kisoji or 

Manzo. Called himself Chosendo 

and Kijusai. A great expert. Yedo. 
Terumoto. Omori. 1810. Tatsuzd. 

Terunaga. Omori. 1790. Shirobei or 

Shigetsugu. Yedo. 
Terusada. Yamamoto. 1780. Kambei. 

A pupil of Terumasa (Omori) and a 

skilled expert. Yedo. 
Terushige. Yokoya. 1750. Minosuke. 

Sometimes marked his works Nobu- 

sada. Yedo. 
Terutake. Suguira. 1780. Dembei. 

Pupil of Terumasa (Omori). Yedo. 
Terutoki. Tokuno. 1780. Genjiro. 

Called himself also Ichimudo. A 

pupil of Terumasa (Omori) and a 

highly skilled expert. Yedo. 
Terutoki. Omori. 1750. A pupil of 

Terumasa (Omori). Yedo. 
Terutsugu. Yokoya. 1780. Yedo. 
Terutsugu. Yoshioka. 1680. Rizaye- 

mon. Called also Hidesaburo, and 

had the title of Inaba-no suke. Yedo. 
Terutsumu. Yoshioka. igth cent. 

Metal-worker of Yedo. 
Teruuji. Omori. 1800. Yojiuro or 

Teruchika. Yedo. 
Teruyoshi. Mizuno. 1660. Genji. 


Tessai. Vide Yoshitatsu. 
Tetsuya. Gembei. Vide Naoshige. 
Tetsuya. Gembei. Vide Naoshige. 
Tetsuya. Kimbei. Vide Shigemoto 

Tetsuya. DembeL Vide Kuniharu and 


Toan. Vide Somin. 
Tddaya. Vide Mitsusada. 
Togindo. Vide Yoshiteru. 
Tdgokushi. Vide Masatsune and Koret- 


Togu. Vide Motozumi (Oyama). 
Tohoken. Vide Motohisa (Yoshikawa). 



T5ji. Tamagawa. 1820. Ginjiro or 

Ginsaburo. His works are often 

marked KatsuzumL A skilled artist. 


Toju. Vide Hiromasa. 
Tokai. Vide Nobutatsu. 
Tokakusai. Vide Yoshihisa. 
Tokiakira. 1850. Art name, Issai. A 

Kyoto expert of great skill. 
Tokihide. Kato. 1680. Jisuke. Kyoto. 
Tokisada. 1630. Heihachi. A great 

expert. He received three hundred 

koku of rice annually from the feudal 

chief of Kaga for whom he worked. 
Tokasai. Vide Hiramitsu. 
Tokuoki. igth cent. Metal-worker of 

T5mei. Present day. A skilled metal- 

chiseller of Osaka. 
Tomejiro. Wakabayashi. 1790. Son 

of Masanao (Nomura). Yedo. 
Tomihisa. Makita. 1760. Yayokichi, 

called also Hoju. Yedo. 
Tomihisa. Kuwamura, 1630. Koshiro. 

A skilled expert of Kaga. The son 

of Moriyoshi. 

Tominsai. Vide Yoshitsune. 
Tomishige. Shoami. 1580. Date un- 
certain. Worked in Owari. 
Tomisuke. Uyemura. 1750. Sahei. 

A pupil of Uyemura Takafusa. 

Tomoakira. 1820. Date uncertain. An 

expert of Bizen, skilled in the Sumi- 

zogan process. 

To mob u mi. igth cent. Skilled metal- 
worker of Yedo. Art name, Yush- 

Tomochika. Omori. 1820. Denza- 

buro. Called himself Riu-un-sai. A 

skilled expert. Yedo. 
Tomoharu. Okamoto. 1590. Sojiro. 

Hagi. Founded the Okamoto family 

of Hagi. 
Tomohiro. Takenouchi. 1810. Kuma- 

yemon. Called himself Ichigyoku-do. 

Pupil of Hidetomo (Omori). Yedo. 
Tomokata. Okamoto. 1750. Kuma- 

no-jo. Hagi. 
Tomokiyo. Uyemura. 1700. Hikoza- 

yemon. A skilled expert. Kaga. 
Tomomasa. Hasegawa. 1810. Yas- 

unosuke. A pupil of Hidetomo 

(Omori). Yedo. 
Tomomasa. Daishinto. 1810. Tokichi. 

A Samurai who became a pupil of 

Hidetomo (Omori) and developed 

much skill. Yedo. 

Tomomichi. 1820. Vide Yoshiaki 

Tomomichi. 1 8th and igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Choshiu. 

Tomomitsu. Onishi. 1810. Sadasuke. 
A pupil of Hidetomo (Omori). Yedo. 

Tomomitsu. Okamoto. 1630. Saye- 
mon. Hagi. 

Tomonao. Yanagawa. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. Art name, Koset- 

Tomonobu. Nakai. 1700. Hikozaye- 
mon. Hagi. 

Tomonori. Hirose. 1810. Yoshiguro. 
Pupil of Hidetomo (Omori). Yedo. 

Tomosada. Vide Soyo (the 2d). 

Tomoshige. 1630. Sukekuro. Pupil 
of Tsuji Yamashiro no Kami. 

Tomotake. Yokoya. 1750. Yedo. 

Tomotoshi. Okamoto. 1730. Kohei. 

Tomotsugu. Vide Somin (the 2d). 

Tomotsugu. Okamoto. 1690. Toza- 
yemon. An amateur who became 
very famous. Hagi. 

Tomotsugu. 1650. Saburoyemon. Son 
of Tomoshige Sukekuro. Kaga. 

Tomotsugu. Tsuji. 1700. Saburoye- 
mon. A skilled expert of Kaga. 

Tomotsune. Omori. 1830. Keijiro. 
Yedo. Some of his works are 
signed Hirano Tomotsune. 

Tomotsune. Nakai. 1680. Zensuke. 
The most celebrated of the Choshiu 
guard-makers of the Nakai family. 
His iron guards chiselled in high 
relief in full sculpture and ^ jour 
are of the highest grade, and were 
selected by the feudal chief of 
Choshiu for presentation to the 
Tokugawa Government. Hagi. 

Tomotsune. Nakai. 1640. Sahei. 
Hagi. Not to be confounded with 
his celebrated grandson of the same 

Tomotsune. Vide Somin. 

Tomoyoshi. Okamoto. 1670. Kohei. 

Tomoyoshi. Okamoto. 1720. Jinza- 
yemon. Son of Tomotsugu. Hagi. 

Tomoyoshi. Hitotsuyanagi. 1780. 
There were two of this name, father 
(1750) and son. They worked at 

Tomoyoshi. Hirano. 1730. Izayemon, 
Riyosuke. A master among the 
Mito artists. Pupil of Yasuhira 



and employed by the feudal chief of 

Tomoyoshi. 1820. Vide Yoshiaki. 

Tomoyoshi. Kikugawa. igth cent. 
Skilled metal-worker of Yedo. Art 
name, Ichiriusai. 

Tomoyuki. Nakai. 1700. Zembei. 

Tomoyuki. Nakai. 1660. Zensuke. 
First of the Nakai family to carve 
figures, birds, animals, etc., and 
therefore the originator of the elabo- 
rately chiselled iron guards of Chos- 
hiu. Hagi. 

Toriusai. Okano. 1850. Kijiro. A 
Yedo expert of the highest skill. 
One of the greatest sculptors of 
sword-furniture in the nineteenth 
century. In 1846 he received the 
art rank of HSgen. Called also 

Toshichi. 1720. A pupil of Masu-ya 
Kihei. Kyoto. 

Toshiharu. Nara. 1680. Employed 
by the Yedo Court. Famous for 
carving landscapes. Officially known 
as Echizen, and called Soyu in his 
old age. One of the three celebrated 
masters of the Nara family, who are 
commonly spoken of as " three pic- 
tures en suite " (san-buku-tsui), 
namely, Toshiharu, Toshihisa, and 

Toshihisa. Nara. 1760. Son of the 
celebrated Toshihisa. Yedo. 

Toshihisa. Nara. 1720. Tahei. An 
artist of the highest fame. He is 
included with Toshiharu and Yasu- 
chika in the group of the three Nara 
. Masters, known as the " three pic- 
tures en suite" (san-buku-tsui) . The 
Soken Kisho says of him : " His 
style was not that of either the 
Yokoya family or his own family. 
He carved plants, flowers, birds, etc., 
with the utmost delicacy, and is uni- 
versally credited with having struck 
out a style of his own. The Nara 
school has found many imitators, but 
there is about Toshihisa's work an 
individuality that defies imitation. 
Nevertheless we find specimens 
carefully chiselled and marked 
Toshihisa.' They cannot be com- 
pared to the genuine work any more 
than glass can be compared to dia- 
monds." Yedo. 

Toshikage. igth cent. Skilled metal- 

worker of Awaji. Art name, Tankai 
and Rengetsutei. 

Toshikatsu. Nara. 1740. Called Chi- 
kugo in his old age. Yedo. 

Toshimitsu. Watanabe. igth cent. 
Metal-worker of Yedo. Pupil of 

Toshimitsu. igth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. Not to be confounded 
with Nara Tosh'imitsu. 

Toshimitsu. Nara. 1720. Shichiroza- 
yemon. Subsequently called Sokan. 
An expert of considerable fame. 

Toshimitsu. Vide Hisamitsu (Watan- 

Toshimune. iyth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. 

Toshimune. Nara. 1630. Son of 
Toshiteru. The first of the Nara 
experts to obtain distinction, and 
therefore often called the founder of 
the family. Called Sotei in his old 
age. Yedo. 

Toshinaga. Nara. 1710. A pupil of 
the first Toshinaga. Yedo. 

Toshinaga. Nara. 1700. Shichizaye- 
mon. An artist of considerable 
skill. Called Chizan in his old age. 

Toshinaga. 1700. An artist whose 
family and date are uncertain. His 
name is found on finely chiselled 
pieces, having a decoration of a cat- 
fish (numazu) and water-grasses in 

Toshinaga. Fujita. 1840. An expert 
of Aizu, who worked in very elabo- 
rate style, but showed the inartistic 
features of the Aizu and Mino style. 

Toshinao. Nara. 1750. Yedo. 

Toshinobu. lyth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. Art name, Unsuiken. 

Toshioki. Kaneko. 1650. Carver to 
the feudal chief of Kishiu. 

Toshisada. 1720. Family, etc. unknown. 
A guard-maker of Sado; highly 
skilled whether in chiselling bjeur or 
in relief, and in tempering iron. 

Toshishige. Nara. 1720. A pupil of 
the second Toshinaga, Yedo. 

Toshitayo. iQth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. 

Toshiteru. Nara. 1620. Founder of 
the Nara family of metal-workers. 
Moved to Yedo in 1621. Yedo. 

Toshitsugu. i gth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. 



Toshitsune. Nara. 1770. Yedo. 

Toshiyoshi. igth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. 

Toshiyoshi. Hamano. igth cent. 
Metal-worker of Yedo. 

Toshiyori. Hamano. 1790. Nanjo. 
Commonly called Rizui. Yedo. 

Toshiyuki. 1750. A pupil of Nori- 
yuki (Hamano). 

Tosuiken. Vide Sadahisa (Morita). 

Tou. Vide Yasuchika (Nara). 

Toun. Vide Tamagawa Yoshihisa. 

Tounsai. Vide Masachika (Tsuji). 

Tounsai. Vide Hisatsugu. 

Toyoda. Koko. Present day. A skilled 
metal -chiseller of Tokyo ; the in- 
ventor of the process called kiri- 
bame-zogan (vide text). 

Toyokawa. Mitsunaga. Present day. 
A metal-chiseller of Tokyo scarcely 
less skilled than Shomin ; son of 
Koriusai (q. v.). He has made some 
magnificent specimens, in which 
every kind of metal work is em- 

Toyomasa. 1 8th and 1 9th cent. Metal- 
worker of Choshiu. 

Toyomitsu. Goto. 1720. Matsusa- 
buro. Kaga. 

Toyosai. Vide Kanetomo. 

Toyotaka. igth cent. Metal-worker of 

Toyotomi. Minota. 1830. Yuho. Pupil 
of Terumitsu (Omori). Yedo. 

Toyoyori. Hamano. 1770. Hikogoro. 
Generally known as Hozui (another 
pronunciation of Toyoyori). Art 
name, Tsugensai. Yedo. 

T6zui. Vide TadayorL 

Tsu Jimpo. Vide Jimpo. 

Tsuchiya. Family name. Vide Kin- 

Tsugensai. Vide Toyoyori. 

Tsugusada. Vide Sochi. 

Tsuji. 1630. Y a m a s h i r o-no-Kami. 
Went from Fushimi to Kaga in the 
year 1625. 

Tsuji. 1700. Vide Tadayoshi. 

Tsuj5. Goto. 1690. Eleventh of the 
great Goto Masters. Kyoto. 

Tsuju. Vide Mitsuhisa. 

Tsukuda. Shukiyo. Present day. A 
skilled metal-sculptor, celebrated also 
for combining metals so as to pro- 
duce fine effects of colour-harmonies. 
He has produced some magnificent 
iron tablets with designs in high 

Tsunagawa. igth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. 

Tsunayoshi. Shoami. 1780. Worked 
at Wakamatsu in Aizu. 

Teunehisa. Kajima. 1810. Yeijiro. 
A pupil of Kiyohisa (Tanaka). Yedo. 

Tsunekatsu. Kikuchi. 1 730. A pupil 
of Naokatsu (Inagawa). Celebrated 
for skill in chiselling in relief and in 
the Kibori style. One of the great 
artists of the Yanagawa school. 

Tsunekazu. Nara. 1720. Kiraku. A 
pupil of Yasuchika. Yedo. 

Tsunemitsu. Kikuchi. 1740. lyemon. 
A pupil of Tsunekatsu. Highly 
skilled in Kibori chiselling, but his 
work lacks strength. 

Tsunenaga. igth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. 

Tsunenao. 1770. Kiubei. A pupil of 
Nagatsune. Kyoto. 

Tsunenari. Tsuji. 1760. Used the 
mark, RakusuidS. A great carver in 
the style of Rinsendo. He died 
young (Omi province). 

Tsunenori. Nakai. 1600. Shinzaye- 
mon. Suwo. 

Tsunesada. 1740. Yedo. 

Tsuneshige. Nara. 1730. A great ex- 
pert, celebrated for combining high 
and low relief. Used at first the 
mark Sekiguchi Ryoka, and after- 
wards that of Kawamura Ichiyemon. 

Tsunetsugu. Yoshioka. 1770. Riza- 
yemon. Called also Hidesaburo, and 
had the title of Inaba-no-suke. Yedo. 

Tsuneyuki. igth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. Art name, Jiriuken and 

Tsuneyuki. igth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. Art name, Jiriyusai. 

Uhei. Vide Jokwo. 

Ujiharu. Wakabayashi. 1720. Uhei. 
A skilled artist. Originally of the 
Katsugi family, he changed his name 
to Wakabayashi, and became carver 
to the feudal chief of Toyama in 

Ujihira. Katsugi. 1770. Hachirobei. 

Ujihiro. Katsugi. 1720. Kichirobei. 
Celebrated for his nanako work. 

Ujiiye. Katsugi. 1630. Gondayu. 
Moved from Fushimi to Kaga in the 
year 1625. A pupil of Goto Kenjo 



and a skilled expert. He received 
an annual allowance of fifteen rations 
from the feudal chief of Kaga. 

Ujiiye. Katsugi. 1650. Ichibei, son of 
Ujiiye Gondayu. Kaga. 

Ujiiye. Kaneko. 1670. Ichibei, son of 
Ujiiye Katsugi, but subsequently 
changed his family name to Kaneko. 
A famous carver. Kaga. 

Ujiiye. Katsugi. 1670. Ichiroyemon, 
younger brother of Ujiiye Ichibei. 
An artist of high repute. Kaga. 

Ujiiye. Miyochin. 1560. First named 
lyeyoshi and afterwards Nobuiye. A 
great expert, but not to be con- 
founded with the still greater Nobu- 
iye, the seventeenth representative 
of the Miyochin family, who worked 
in Joshiu. Ujiiye worked in Kai. 

Ujikata. Katsugi. 1710. Kakunojo. 

Ujikiyo. Katsugi. 1690. KakubeL 

Ujimune. Katsugi. 1730. Saburo. 

Ujinaga. Katsugi. 1630. Kihei. Pupil 
of Ujiiye Gondayu. Kaga. 

Ujinaga. Katsugi. 1650. Kihei, son 
of Ujinaga Kihei. Kaga. 

Ujinao. Hirata. 1650. Ichizayemon. 
A pupil of the Shoami experts of 
Kyoto. A maker of iron guards 
inlaid with gold. Awa province. 

Ujinari. 1670. Jihei, a pupil of Ujiiye 
Ichiroyemon. Kaga. 

Ujinobu. Katsugi. 1670. Buhei; son 
of Ujiiye Ichibei. Kaga. 

Ujinobu. 1670. A pupil of Ujiiye Ichi- 
royemon. Kaga. 

Ujitada. 1670. A pupil of Ujiiye Ichi- 
royemon. Kaga. 

Ujiteru. Wakabayashi. 1790. Kichi- 
robei. Originally of the Katsugi 
family, he afterwards changed his 
name to Wakabayashi. Kaga. 

Ujitsugu. Katsugi. 1670. Rokuro. 

Ujitsugu. Katsugi. 1790. Yenshichi. 

Ujiyasu Hirata. 1680. Yohachiro. 
A maker of iron guards inlaid with 
gold. Awa province. 

Ujiyasu. Katsugi. 1730. Kichirobei. 

Ujiyasu. Katsugi. 1750. Kichirobei. 
Kaga. (Second of the same name.) 

Ujiyasu. Katsugi. 1760. Kichirobei. 
Kaga. (Third of the same name.) 

Ujiyasu. Katsugi. 1780. GonkichL 
Kaga. (A pupil of Goto Yenjo.) 

Ujiyoshi. Katsugi. 1750. Gonnojd. 

Ujiyoshi. Katsugi 1690. Ichinojo; 
son of Ujiiye Ichiroyemon. A cele- 
brated artist, who combined delicate 
chiselling with rich inlaying. Kaga. 

Ujiyoshi. Katsugi. 1790. Jihei. Kaga. 

Unjo. Goto. 1680. Called also Mitsu- 
yuki. Kyoto. 

Unno. Nenokichi. A highly skilled 
metal -chiseller of the present day. 

Unno. Shomin. Present day. One of 
the greatest workers in metal that 
Japan has produced. Originally a 
chiseller of sword-furniture. Has 
made many objects for the Imperial 
Court, and is famous for combining 
repousst and chiselling in iron, as 
well as for sculpture in the round, 
and for incised chiselling in the kata- 
kiri style. 

Unno. Shoshiu. Present day. Metal- 
sculptor. Pupil of the Unno Shomin. 

Unsui. Katsura. 1720. Nagatoshi. 
A pupil of Fusayoshi (Yokoya), and 
an artist of the first rank. Yedo. 

Unsuiken. Vide Toshinobu. 

Unteido. Vide Hiranori. 

Watanabe. Sukekuro. Vide Yasuyuki. 

Watanabe. Hisamitsu. igth cent. Met- 
al-worker of Yedo. 

Watanabe. Jizan. igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Yagami. i8th and igth cent. Metal- 
worker of Yedo. 

Yahei. Kishimoto. 1780. A pupil of 
Goto Shichiroyemon, and a skilled 
artist of Kyoto. 

Yamada. Gorobei. Muneyoshi. Pres- 
ent day. Son of Yamada Gorobei 

Yamada. Gorobei. Munemitsu. Pres- 
ent day. A metal-sculptor of Kaga, 
celebrated for his skill in repoiissl 
work. He is the tenth in descent 
from Yamada Ichiyemon lyemasa, 
who, as well as his descendants up 
to the time of the father of the pres- 
ent representative of the family, 
forged armour and iron stirrups in- 
laid with gold. 

Yamada. Ichiyemon lyemasa. i6th 
cent. An armourer of Kanazawa 
(Kaga), specially skilled in inlaying 
with gold and silver. The Yamada 
family continued to work as armour- 


ers down to the present representa- 
tive, who manufactures vases, etc., 
decorated in the repousst style with 
addition of inlaying. The names of 
the representatives of the family 
after lyemasa are : 

Yamada. lyetada Jiyemon. 1630. 
Sword-smith as well as armourer. 

Yamada. lyesada Gorobei. 1655. 

Yamada. lyetsugu Ichiyemon. 1685. 

Yamada. lyenaga Jinyemon. 1720. 

Yamada. Nagakatsu Gorobei. 1760. 

Yamada. Nagamoto Sanyemon. 1810. 

Yamada. Nagayo Gorobei. 1840. 

Yamada. lyemitsu Gorobei. 1860. 

Yamagata. A name given to the mark, 
meaning " mountain shape." The 
maker of the specimens thus marked 
has never been identified. They 
are generally decorated with herons, 
moorland views, spools of yam, etc., 
in relief on a polished ground, picked 
out with gold (not plating but solid 
gold). The maker cannot have 
lived at a later date than the middle 
of the eighteenth century. 

Yamagawa. Koji. igth cent. (d. 
1897.) A skilled metal-chiseller of 

Yamashiro-no-kami. Tsuji. 1630. 
Originally an artist of Fushimi, he 
moved to Kaga and received an al- 
lowance of one hundred and fifty 
koku of rice yearly from the feudal 
chief of that province. 

Yamayoshi. Shoami. 1540. One of 
the old experts, contemporary with 
Nobuiye (MiySchin). He made 
guards with the design pierced d, 
jffur, but did not polish the iron. 
Worked in Owari. 

Yamayoshi-bei. Shoami. 1570. Son 
of the first Yamayoshi. Worked in 
his father's style, but polished the 
iron carefully, and gave a recurved 
rim to his guards. Worked in 

Yamazaki. Family name. Vide Ichiga. 

Yanagawa. Family name. Vide Nao- 

Yasayobi. Vide Riyonenshi. 

Yasuchika. Tsuchiya (sometimes 
spoken of as Nara). 1730. Yago- 
hachi. A great artist, one of the 
" Three Nara Masters " (vide Toshi- 
hisa). His work resembles that of 
Toshihisa, but is bolder in style, and 
has a markedly subjective character. 

He had been called the Kw5rin (vide 
pictorial art) of glyptic artists. Imi- 
tations of his work have been numer- 
ous ever since the middle of the 
eighteenth century, but the essential 
features of his style are inimitable. 
Some of his pieces are marked Tou. 

Yasufusa. Hirata. 1700. Ichizaye- 
mon. A maker of iron guards inlaid 
with gold. Awa province. 

Yasuhira. Shinozaki. 1650. ShSye- 
mon. One of the most celebrated of 
the Mito experts. The Mito carving 
is more elaborate than artistic, but 
the technique is often admirable. 

Yasuhisa. Shingaku. 1770. Tomo-no- 
jo. Artistic name, Keirinsai. Sen- 

Yasukawa. Sanyemon. igth cent, 
(d. 1887.) A skilled metal-chiseller 
of Takaoka. 

Yasunobu. Nara. 1730. Son of Yasu- 
chika. Called at first Yasunobu. An 
artist scarcely inferior to his father, 
To-o. The representatives of the 
Yasuchika family worked generation 
after generation in Yedo, up to the 
sixth generation in 1850. 

Yasunobu. Noda. 1600. Chiuzaye- 
mon. A skilled expert of Kyoto. 

Yasushige. Fuse. 1630. Shozaburo. 
A pupil of Goto Sakuj5. Kyoto. 

Yasutomi. Shibayo. 1730. Ihei. A 
pupil of Yokoya Teruaki. One of 
the earliest of the Sendai experts. 

Yasuyemon. Komori. 1700. A pupil 
of Goto Kambei. Kyoto. 

Yasuyori. Hamano. 1770. Yenjuro. 
At first called Naoyuki, and gener- 
ally known as Hozui (another pro- 
nunciation of Yasuyori). Yedo. 

Yasuyuki. Tsuji. 1750. An artist of 
note. Had various names Masa- 
yuki, Watanabe, Sukekuro, and 
Hikokoro. Yedo. 

Yeiji. Nayemura. 1820. A Kyoto 
expert, skilled in carving dragons 
among waves. 

Yeijo. Vide Narikado (Hirata). 

Yeijd. Goto. 1600. Sixth of the great 
Goto Masters. Kyoto. 

Yeiju. Takase. 1780. Izayemon. 
Pupil of Sekijoken. 

Yeisendo. Vide Yoshinori. 

Yeishu. Iwamoto. 1780. Yasuchika 
Shinsuke. Pupil of Iwamoto Kon- 

6 4 


kwan. Celebrated for skill in Kata- 
kiri chiselling. Worked first in 
Yedo and afterwards in Mito. 

Yeizui. Vide Fusayori. 

Yekijo. Goto. 1630. Mitsuharu. 

Yenjd. Goto. 1630. Mitsuhide, and 
commonly known as Kambei. 

Yenjo. Goto. 1760. The thirteenth 
Goto Master. 

Yetsujo. Goto. 1660. Mitsukuni. 

Yohei. Umemura. 1710. Commonly 
called Masuya Yohei. A pupil of 
Soho. Kyoto. 

Yokoya. Family name. Vide Teruaki. 

Yoritoshi. Nomura. Pupil of Hiyobu 

Yoritsune. 1580. Nothing is known 
about this artist, but an inscription 
on his work shows that he lived in 
the time of the celebrated master 
of tea ceremonial, Sen no Rikiu. 

Yoshiaki. Tanaka. 1720. Gozaye- 
mon. A pupil of Goto Rihei. A 
skilled expert. Yedo. 

Yoshiaki. 1810. An expert of some 
note. Studied in Mito and settled 
in Yedo. Commonly called Unno 

Yoshiaki. Ishiguro. 1850. Kichigoro. 

Yoshichika. Tsuchiya. i8th and igth 
cent. Metal-worker of Kaga. 

Yoshida. Family name. Vide Bunsui. 

Yoshiharu. Kaneko. 1550. Kichi-no- 
jo. A man of noble origin, who 
studied carving under Goto Kwojo, 
and attained such skill that he 
adopted the work as a profession, 
and founded the Kaneko family of 
artists. Kyoto. 

Yoshiharu. 1840. Sentaro. Yedo. 

Yoshihide. Mikami. 1840. Wajiuro. 
Called Kosanya. Yedo. 

Yoshihiro. Kuwamura. 1620. Yosa- 
bei. A skilled expert with a pecul- 
iarly soft style. Adopted son of 
Koko. Kaga. 

Yoshihiro. Noda. 1730. Uhachi. A 
pupil of Yasuchika (Nara). Cele- 
brated for carving groups of various 
kinds of fish. His work is tender 
yet strong. Yedo. 

Yoshihiro. Iwamoto. 1750. Chiuye- 
mon ; afterwards Yohachi. Called 
also Kikwan. Father of the cele- 

brated Konkwan (Iwamoto). He is 
sometimes spoken of as belonging to 
the Shoami family. Kyoto. 

Yoshihisa. Umetada. 1700. The 
thirty-first descendant of Tachibana 
no Munechika. On his work is 
found the inscription Umetada 
Tachibana no Nanigashi, or " A 
certain member of the Tachibana 
family." A Kyoto expert. 

Yoshihisa. 1810. Onominokichi. Art 
name, Tokakusai. A pupil of Kyo- 
hisa (Tanaka). Aizu. 

Yoshihisa. Tamagawa. 1770. Saburo- 
shiro. A skilled expert. Employed 
by the Daimiyo of Mito and after- 
wards worked in Yedo. Art name, 

Yoshihisa. Tamagawa. 1790. Tashi- 
chi. Called himself Joyeikan. A 
nephew of Yoshihisa Saburoshiro. 
Celebrated for his skill in carving 
dragons. Yedo. 

Yoshihisa. Shoami. 1750. Heisuke. 
Worked first at Tsuyama in Mino- 
saka, and afterwards in Kyoto. 

Yoshikawa. igth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. 

Yoshikatsu. Inagawa. 1740. Carved 
in the style of Naomasa (Yanagawa) 
and attained a high reputation. 

Yoshikatsu. 1840. Yeijiro. A pupil 
of Jikosai. Yedo. 

Yoshikatsu. Okamoto. 1740. Tozay- 
emon. A skilled artist. His work 
was presented by the feudal chief of 
Choshiu to the Yedo Court. Hagi. 

Yoshikazu. Shoami. 1620. An expert 
of the lyo branch of the Shoami 
family. Matsuyama. 

Yoshikuni. Yoshishige. 1660. Mago- 
yemon. Kaga. 

Yoshikuni. Yoshishige. 1710. Choye- 
mon. Kaga. 

Yoshikyo. Goto. 1630. Yoshishige. 
Employed at the Mint (Kobantd). 

Yoshimitsu. Kaneko. 1660. An ex- 
pert of Kii, sixth descendant of 
Yoshiharu Kichi-no-jo. Art name, 
Jogen. A skilled artist. 

Yoshimitsu. Aoyagi. 1740. Yeigoro. 
Called also Mitsunari. A pupil of 
Inagawa Yoshikatsu, and a skilled 
expert. Yedo. 

Yoshimune. iQth cent. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. Art name, Hiyaku-ji-ken. 


Yoshinaga. Wao. 1740. A Yedo ex- 
pert, who worked in the style of 
Yoshitsugu Kohei. 

Yoshinaga. Yasui. 1660. Sahei. A 
pupil of Goto Mitsusadt Riujo. A 
great expert. Kyoto. 

Yoshinaga. Tamagawa. 1780. Sabu- 
rohei ; also called Bumpei. One of 
the greatest of the Mito artists. 
Mito (Hitachi). 

Yoshinaga. Furukawa. 1650. Sahei. 
A pupil of Goto Riujo. A fine art- 
ist. Kyoto. 

Yoshinaga. Umetada. 1650. Shichi- 
zayemon. One of the early Umetada 
workers. His tsuba are solid but of 
various shapes ; some are chiselled 
& jour. A few have gold inlaying in 
the numone style. Yoshinaga used 
the ideograph time in marking his 
work. Vide Muneyuki. 

Yoshinari. Ogawa. 1840. Minosuke. 
A pupil of Jikosai. Yedo. 

Yoshinobu. 1750. Called himself Hi- 
yaku-ju-ken and marked his works 
Yoshinobu. A very skilled expert. 

Yoshinori. Yoshishige. 1630. Shoku- 
ro. Pupil of Yoshishige Gorosaku. 

Yoshinori. Mizuno. 1630. Genji. 
Kaga. Founder of the Mizuno fam- 
ily. A pupil of Goto Yenjo (Mitsu- 

Yoshinori. Tsuji. 1780. Shinshiro. 
Art name, Yeisendo. An expert 
of the very highest skill. Worked 
in Omi. Also called Kariuken. 

Yoshinori. Seki. 1820. Naokichi. 
Art name, Soriusai. A great artist. 
Yedo. Called also U mi-no Yoshi- 

Yoshioka. Family name. Vide Shiget- 

Yoshisada. Goto. 1630. Saijiro. Ka- 

Yoshisato. Ishiguro. 1850. Called 
himself Jitekisai. Nagasaki. 

Yoshishige. Mizuno. 1630. Genji. 
A pupil of Goto Yenjo and very 
skilled. Kaga. 

Yoshishige. 1620. Gorosaku. Brother 
of the celebrated Kuninaga of Kaga 
and pupil of Goto Tokujo. Goro- 
saku and his elder brother, Jirosaku 
are equally famous. Their works 
are commonly spoken of as Gorosaku- 
bori and Jirosaku-bori, and they are 

regarded as the originators of the 
Kaga school of experts. Gorosaku 
is said to have been taught painting 
by the artist, Sosa. He and his 
brother, Jirosaku, received an annual 
allowance of fifty bags of rice each 
from the feudal chief of Kaga. His 
descendants, his pupils and their de- 
scendants took the name Yoshishige 
as a family name. 

Yoshitada. 1840. Chiuzaburo. A pupil 
of Jikosai. Yedo. 

Yoshitaka. Ishiguro. 1850. Kintaro. 

Yoshitake. Shoami. 1660. Tsutsui. 
A pupil of Soden. Worked at Hik- 

Yoshitane. HonjS. 1850. Kameno- 
suke. A celebrated expert of Yedo, 
skilled not only as a sword-maker, 
but also as a chiseller of sword- 
mounts. One of the greatest work- 
ers of the nineteenth century. 

Yoshitatsu. Fujiwara. Metal-worker 
of Yedo. Art names, Tessai and 

Yoshiteru. Sonobe. 1840. Art name, 
Togindo. A skilled expert of Kyoto. 

Yoshitsugu. Sakai. 1850. Sakujiro. 

Yoshitsugu. Shoami. 1800. Jiyemon. 
An expert of Aizu. 

Yoshitsugu. Okamoto. 1760. To-no- 
shin. An elaborate carver with a 
wide range of designs, being himself 
a painter. Hagi. 

Yoshitsugu. Yoshishige. 1740. Hachi 
tayu. Kaga. 

Yoshitsugu. Akao. 1640. Gonzaye- 
mon. First expert of the Akao 
family. Lived at Fukui in Yechizen. 
Worked in the Kinai style. 

Yoshitsugu. Akao. 1670. Kohei or 
Kichiji. Celebrated as the first to 
apply pierced decoration to guards 
of shakudo. Born in Yechizen, but 
worked in Yedo. Commonly known 
as Kinai Kichiji. 

Yoshitsugu. Akao. 1720. A tolerably 
skilled expert who worked in the 
style of Yoshitsugu Kohei. Yedo. 

Yoshitsune. Ishiguro. 1850. Ginno- 
suke. Grandson of Jimiyo. Called 
himself Senyushi, Gammon and To- 
minsai. A celebrated expert. Yedo. 

Yoshitsumu. 1830. A fine expert of 
Tokyo, teacher of Toriusai. 

Yoshiyasu. Kato. 1670. Jihei. Kyoto. 



Yoshiyuki. Kumagaye. 1820. Em- 
ployed by the Hosokuwa Daimiyo, 
for whom he carved a celebrated 
silver vase encircled by a bronze 
dragon. Worked in Yedo, and 
attained great repute. 

Yoshiyuki. Akao. 1750. A Yedo ex- 
pert, who worked in the style of 
Yoshitsugu Kohei. 

Yoshodo. Vide Masayasu. 

Yozaburo. Yokoya. igthcent. Metal- 
worker of Yanagawa. Called also 

Yuj5. Goto. 1460. The first of the 
great Goto Masters. Kyoto. 

Yuki. Vide Masaya. 

Yukinaga. Fujii. 1720. Gembei. His 
sword-mounts are profusely and del- 
icately chiselled. Hagi. 

Yukinao. Nakahara. 1710. Kichibei. 
Kyoto. Founder of the Nakahara 

Yukinori. Nakahara. 1760. Kichibei. 
Called in his youth Yukhisia. A 
celebrated artist. It was his custom 
to carve all the mountings of a sword 
with designs en suite. He moved 
from Kyoto to Nagato, by invitation 
of the Prince of ChSshiu, and thence- 
forth worked in Hagi. 

Yukitada. Nakahara. igthcent. Metal- 
worker of Choshiu. 

Yukitaka. Fujii. 1750. Genyemon. An 
artist of high repute. Son of Yuk- 

inaga (Fujii), he carved in the elabo- 
rate style of his father, but with more 
spirit. Hagi. 

Yukitoshi. Nakahara. 1780. Genza- 
yemon. Son of Yukinori, and 
scarcely inferior to his father. He 
also attained to considerable repute 
as a painter. Hagi. 

Yukiyoshi. Nakahara. 1800. Hambei. 

Yukotei. Vide Masanori. 

Yumeishi. Vide Muneaki. 

Yuinin. Vide Teruaki (Yokoya). 

Yurosai. Vide Sekibun. 

Yusen. Vide Hiyobu Hogen. 

YushintO. Vide Tomobumi. 

Zaisui. Funada. 1720. Shohachi. 
Teacher of the celebrated Nara 
Yasuchika, and a great expert. 
Worked at Shonai in Dewa. He 
was followed by his son of the same 

Zeju. Iwamoto. 1830. Pupil of Iwa 
moto Konkwan. Yedo. 

Zembei. Shibaya. 1750. A skilled 
inlayer of Sendai. 

Zenjin. 1700. Date uncertain. Some 
fine specimens of his work exist, 
marked Akashi Yechizen. 

Zenjo. Goto. 1600. Mitunari, or Kihei. 

Zenjo. Goto. 1650. Mitsunori. Kyoto. 

Zenshiro. 1610. A carver of Satsuma. 
Pupil of the Goto family. 

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