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Full text of "Japan's fight for freedom; the story of the war between Russia and Japan"

PURCHASED FOR THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 

FROM THE 

CANADA COUNCIL SPECIAL GRANT 



FOR 

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JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM 



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JAPAN'S FIGHT 
FOR FREEDOM 



The Story of the IVar Between Russia and Japan 



By H. W. WILSON, m.a. 

Author of " With the I'iag to Pretoria^' ^' Iroticlads in Action," &'c., &'c. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH MANY PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN ON THE FIELD OF BATTLE AND 
AUTHENTIC SKETCHES BY FAMOUS ARTISTS. 



Vol. I. 



LONDON 

The amalgamated PRESS, Limited 

1904 



sn 



Printed for the Proprietors, 
AND Published bv B. W. Young, Carmelite House, 
Carmelite Street. London E.G. 



^^^ 1 1 1974 \ 



THE MEANING OF THE WAR. 



-o-0>«s>- 



THE issue of the first six months of the war in the Far East may be said to mark a turning- 
point in the history of the world. 

For the first time within the recollection of men, an Asiatic Power is facing a European 
Power of the very first rank, and facing it with complete success. So far the record of the conflict 
has been a continuous record of Japanese victories, unbroken by any serious disaster, except, perhaps, 
the loss of the Hatsuse, which, however, must be regarded as an accident, seeing that it was caused by 
a distinct breach of the laws of war as hitherto understood. 

At sea, Japan has twice defeated the Russians in actions on blue water, though on neither occasion 
was her victory complete or decisive. At Round Island, Admiral Togo met the Russian battle-fleet 
sallying from Port Arthur, inflicted on it severe losses, scattered its ships, and drove several of them 
into neutral ports, where they have been disarmed, and will be detained till the close of the war; while 
he compelled the bulk of the fleet to return to the port from , which it had striven to escape, and in 
which its presence means a heavy consumption of food and coal, thus embarrassing the garrison and 
limiting the resistance of Port Arthur. 

In the battle of the Korean Straits, Admiral Kamimura met the Vladivostock squadron, sank one 
of its best ships, and inflicted terrible loss and damage on the other two. In the actions off Port 
Arthur the Japanese have invariably held the upper hand, though the damage which they inflicted has 
proved capable of repair with the means at the disposal of the dockyard authorities in Port Arthur ; and 
the Russian battleship Petropavlosk is the only large ship in the Port .Arthur force which, iip to the date 
of writing this preface, has been completely destroyed. 

On land, Japan has surprised even those who realised her great qualities. F^ew thinkers anticipated 
her complete success, unless the Siberian railway broke down. But, far from breaking down, the Siberian 
railway has surpassed all anticipations and calculations ; and a steady stream of picked troops has 
flowed from European Russia to the Far East. Yet, notwithstanding this, Japan has been able to put 
into the field an army which has not only besieged Port Arthur, and delivered assault after assault upon 
that great fortress, but has also proved its high fighting quality by forcing a Russian force of over 300,000 
men to retreat from Central Manchuria. At the Yalu, at Nanshan, at the Motien, at VVafangkou, at 
Tashichao, at Haicheng, and at Liaoyang the Japanese have invariably beaten their opponents, and 
this though in many of these battles they have been positively inferior in force. The immen.se difficulty 
of transporting supplies, before they had captured the railway, limited the size of their armies ; and thus 
they were not able in the first stage of the war, which closes as this preface is written, to achieve 
decisive results. " Only numbers can annihilate," and numbers on their side have been lacking. 

But in the near future the numerical preponderance should pass to Japan. She hopes to place in 
the field 600,000 men by the close of the present year, and over 1,000,000 by the middle of next 
year. The strain on her finances and organising power will be great, but she has given such proof of 
genius, patriotism, and determination that she should be equal to the effort. Even the Russians are 



vi The Story of the JVar. 

now beginning to admit that lier endurance and numerical strength have been grossly under-estimated. 
It is known that 700,000 Japanese volunteered to go to the front, so that, had her Government chosen, 
she could have fought this war without resorting to compulsion. With a gigantic force it will be 
possible for the Japanese generals to employ enveloping tactics, and to obtain decisive success. 

There is only one element of danger. If Russia could regain command of the sea, disaster for 
Japan must result And with the Baltic fleet in being, there is always the chance that it may be able 
to reach Far Eastern waters before Port Arthur has fallen, or before the Port .Arthur ships have been 
destroyed or driven into' neutral ports. For Japan, then, the destruction of the Port Arthur fleet is 
absolutely vital, and any sacrifices in accomplishing it would be justified. If tlie Port Arthur fleet were 
out of the reckoning. Admiral Togo would be free to fling himself with fury upon the Baltic fleet ; and 
the despatch of that force to the East could only mean a fresh and terrible disaster for Russia. 

To us, British onlookers, it appears that Japan must win, and deserves to win. She is fighting for 
a righteous cause, for her national independence. If defeated, she must cease to e.xist, and accept the 
miserable fate of a Finland or Poland. She is fighting in the cause of civilisation ; for whatever nonsense 
is written about the " Yellow Peril," it cannot be denied by thinking men that she, rather than 
Russia, represents civilised ideas, the freedom of human thought, democratic institutions, education and 
enlightenment — in a word, all that we understand by progress. It is Russia who stands for barbarism and 
reaction ; and while the great mass of the Russian army must be acquitted of any tendency to inhumanity, 
it has yet to be admitted that the Cossacks and certain of the Asiatic auxiliaries employed by the 
Russians in the field have shown at times grave disregard for the laws of war, and that outrages on 
their part have been far from uncommon. On the Japanese side, the war has been carried on with 
exemplary kindness and humanity to the Russians. 

The faith and devotion of the Japanese people in this their hour of trial may well read 
Englishmen a lesson. An island state, Japan has made immense sacrifices to provide herself with a 
strong army. Her citizens have not shrunk from the burden of compulsory service when they felt it 
to be necessary for the safety of their fatherland. Taught from their earliest youth that their country 
has the first claim upon their lives, and that to her they owe a great duty, they have displayed a 
valour and devotion in the field which are not to be matched in the annals of any past war. It is 
perfectly correct and no mere figure of speech to say of a Japanese army that it enters the combat 
prepared to conquer or die. Of Japanese surrenders there have been none, even when the odds have 
been hopeless. 

A people with this spirit of duty and devotion will go far ; and whatever the present, the future is 
to Japan. The same intense earnestness which has given her victory in war will bring her success in 
the competition of peace. In commerce, as in battle, she will win, because she deserves to win, and 
because her citizens are not intent on bodily enjoyment or pleasure, but are swayed by a spiritual 
force such as moved the West and England in England's greatest days. 

The victory of Japan is the victory of men who are prepared to die for great ideals ; it is the 
triumph of character over brute force and materialism. 

October ijth, i(/>^. H. W. WILSON. 



CONTENTS OF VOL I. 



CHArTER I.— THE COMING OF THE BLACK SHH'S TO JAPAN. 

A fateful visit-First Russian alarm-Commodore Perry's demand-Japan opens the door-The Samurai-First impressions of the / caVV^ </i 

Japanese- Japan and Western ideas- 1 he Marquis Jto-Japan studies naval war—The new Japan-Japan's first navy— The Japane« army Cj-ij ) 

CHArTKK II.~THE JAPAN-CHINA WAR. 

Danger from Russia— Japan and Korea— Japan's declaration of ™r— Russia's reply to Japan-Russia's march on Korea-TIie'war of 
1894 begins— Naval ™r between Japan and China-Japan's victorious navy-Names of the fiBhtins ships-Captain Togo's famous action 
-The attack on Asan-An heroic bugler- Japan mobilises-The battle of Phyong Yang— Naval battle of the Yahi-The greatest fight 
since Irafalgar— Atemblehre— The Russo-Japanese dispute told in three cartoons-The attack on the « Matsushima "-The efficiency 
of the Japanese navy— 1 he storming of Port Arthur-The attack on Wei-hai-wei harbour— Storming the Chinese forts-The torpedo 
^■^^^l^f^""^" ") \\<!'-ha;-wei harbour— rhe sinking of the "Ting Yuen "—Torpedoing the Chinese ships-The death of Admiral 
ling — I he terms of peace — Japan yields to Russia .... ... ■ 



^3-3i 

CiLVPTER III.— THE BUILDING OF THE TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILWAY. 

The Germans seize Kiao Chau— Russia at Port Artliur— The making of the T rans-Siberi an Railway— The Czar orders the railway— 
The first stone laid— 1 he construction of the line— The breat on the railway^:;:EEe Uaikal— first sertlon opened— The railway east of 
Lake Baikal— The Manchurian railway— Completion of the line— Defects in the permanent way— The railway and the war ... 36-46 

Chapter IV.— THE BOXER INSURRECTION. 

The control of Korea— Korea's independence acknowledged— The Boxer insurrection— The faithlessness of Russia in 1900— Taking of 
the Taku forts — Japan offers 25.000 troops— The march to Pekin— Civilised and uncivilised troops— Russian sharp practice— Russian 
conduct in war and peace— Russia's promise to evacuate Mancliuria— Japan's alliance with England— The full recognition of Japan . . 47-56 

C^^APTER v.— RUSSIA'S ADVANCES IN MANCHURIA AND KOREA. 

Russian conduct in Manchuria— Russia advances towards Korea — Russian and Japans;^ naval preparations — Japan's fleet Russia's 

fleet — Russia's \N'ar Minister visits Manchuria and Japan — Russia's precipitation — Japan's ultinutum to Korea S7-bf> 

Chapter VI.— THE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN JAPAN AND RUSSIA. 

Japan's negotiations with Russia — Russia refuses a neutral zone — First movements of thi fleet — The story of the negotiations 

Japan's military and naval activity — October 8th passes — Further negotiations — Russia's procrastination — Japan's new cruisers — The Czar 
and the Japanese Minister — How Japan prepared for war — Disorder in Korea — A Russian ruse — On the eve of war — Rupture of negotia- 
tions — The Czar at the tlieatre — The Russian war vessels — .\dmiral Stark's entertainment — The " Variag " and the '• Korietz " at 
Chemulpo — Japan's first captures^The Japanese ffeet — The first'act of war— The scattered Russian fleet 67-94 

Chapter VII.— THE RIVAL NAVIES AND ARMIES. 

I'ort Arthur as a harbour — The forts of Port Arthur — The town of Port Arthur — Defects of Port Arthur — Stores at Port Arthur — The 
Vladivostock fleet — Yladivostock harbour — \'ladivostock town — 'The coal difficulty — Personnel of the Russian Navy — Admirals A lexeieff and ^^ . 

Stark — Russia's total naval force — 'I'he Russian soldier — Russia's I'ar-Eastern army — Japan's navy — Admiral Togo — Japan's squadron of "*'' ' '*^''^ ■ 

six armoured cruisers — Japan's fast protected cruisers — Japan's older cruisers— The Japanese torpedo flotilla — Smaller torpedo-boats — 
Japan's torpedoes — Japan's splendid dockyards — How geography favours Japan — The general staff — ^Japan's weak cavalry — The spirit of • 

the Army — The " Nisshin " and '■ Kasuga " — Tlie voyage to Japan — Rejoicings in Japan 94-133 

Chapter VI 1 1.— THE BATTLE OF CHEMULPO. 

The Port of Chemulpo — Russian naval plans — Captain Byelayeff " Ready '" — Japanese fleet at Chemulpo — The " Asama " — The 
"Variag" — The " Korietz " — Face to face — Japanese disembarkation at Chemulpo — Ultimatum to the "Variag" — 'The " Variag " steams 
out — A dramatic moment — The " Asama's" first shot — The tiring — Exploding the ammunition — Ten shots a minute — ''A living hell '" — 
The losses — the figlit of the " Korietz " — Removing the wounded — The ''Korietz" blown up— Scuttling the •• Variag " — Burning the 
" Sungari " — The firing — No Japanese killed — The value of good armour — Faults of Russian administration — The question of the wounded 
— Russia's protest — Russia's methods — Japanese troops at Seoul — -M. Pavloff leaves Korea . ... 'jj-^^^ 

Chapter IX.— THE TORPEDO ATTACK ON THE RUSSIAN FLEET. 

The Japanese fleet sets out — Togo on the bridge — .\n anxious night — A fleet ready for action — February Sth. looj — The fleet of 
destroyers — Togo's signal — The destroyers steam in — Japanese fighting tiualities — The arrival at Port Arthur — The Russian fleet — The 
destroyers challenged — An important safety-pin— I'iring the torpedoes — Japanese destroyers unharmed — The IDalny torpedo divisions — 
Results of the fight — What an eye-witness saw— Madame Stark's entertainment — After the circus — The evening of the fight — On board the 
" Columbia " — The invisible destroyers — The damage to the " Tzarevitch " — The " Retvisan's " and " Pallada's " damage — The " Tzarevitch " 
described — The " Retvisan " and " Pallada " — Torpedo's damage — Torpedoed ships — Four Russian vessels damaged — The morning of 
February 9th ..,.....- ^ . • ■ • 165-194 

Chapter X.— THE FIRST BOMBARDMENT OF PORT ARTHUR. 

The Russian fleet puts out— Names of the Russian ships— The Japanese fleet approaches— The Japanese plan— Work for the heavy 
guns— Underestimating Japanese valour— The first shell falls— The steamer "Manchuria" captured— The "Mikasa's" first shot— An 
English witness of the' fight— Panic in Port Arthur— The " Novik " steams out— Disaster to the '•' Poltava "-Damage to the •• Askold," 
" Diana," and " Novik "—Results of lialf-an-hour's firing— The Russian fire— The " Columbia's " risky run— Why Togo drew off— Effect 
on the Russian forts— A shell bursts in the fort— A terrible uproar— Damage in the basin— Loss of life— A victory for the " Yellow Dwarf " 194-216 

Chapter XL— THE JAPANESE FLEET AND THE BOMBARDMENT. 

An epoch-making action— Splendid Japanese firing— Damage to the " Mikasa "—The " Asahi," " Fuji," and « Ilatsuse "— Four killed, 
fifty-four wounded -Fabulous Russian reports— Japanese land in Korea— Further panic m Port Arthur— Clearing the harbour entrance— 
A missed opporUinity— The damaged Russian vessels— The steamer " Fuping"- Japanese refugees at Port Arthur---Admiral Stark 
superseded- Cienci-al Kuropatkin appointed— Electro-mechanical mines— The " Yenesei " blown up— A terrible moment— A gallant crew- 
Wreck of tlie " Boyarin " — A terrible week's work • • • 216-237 



\1I1 



Cotttents. 



PAGES 

Chapter XII— TFTK SORTIE OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK SQUADRON AND THE 
SECOND TORPEDO ATTACK OX PORT ARTHUR. 

The VUdivuMock ships— AlexeiefTs blunder— Attack on ]a|>anes9 stKuners— A bad incident— Sinking tlia " Nakanoura ''—Fate of 
the crew— I>angCT to neutral ships— A second torpedo attack— IJestroyers in a blizzard— The " Asagiri's ' pluck— The " Hayatori s 
exploit— IX>ublful results— A brilliant feat K<7-'^>fi 

CHAi-ThK XIII.— rilE FIRST ATTEMPT TO BLOCK PORT ARTHUR HARBOUR. 

Splendid Tolunteers- The explosion ships— Discovered !— Threa ships disabled- Th3 " Jinsen Maru "—The " Hokoku's " fate— A 
darinccrew — The result — Officers share their heads — Russian delusions— Incredible darinj .... 24S-258 

Chaptkr XIV.— THE SECOND ATTACK ON PORT ARTHUR. 

February 24th — Togo's programme, I'ebruary 25th — The Japanese fleet advancing — I'loating mines at I'ort Arthur— A naval duul— 
The " Novik," -AskoW," and" Bayan" struck— The" Retvisan's" patch— Chasing Russian destroyers— Firing at the " Retvisan "— The 
RuMJan gunboat "Mandjur" ...... 259-266 

Chapter XV.— THE ADVENTURES OF ADMIRAL VIRENIUS— BOMBARDMENT 
OF VLADIVOSTOCK. 

Russian ships at Jibutil — Molestinff British ships — Russia seizes neutral ships — Russian illegalitifs — To Vladivostock— A winter 
voj-age — .\n heroic deed — Firing at the forts— Fifty-five minutes' firing — Kaminuira retires — Tempting the Vladivostock fleet — Results of 

Jaiian**^" hre .......... ... .,..,. ... 267-281 

Chaptkr XVl.—THE DESTROYERS' DUEL. 

At Port Arthur — The " Retvisan " abandoned — Admiral Makarov arrives — Japanese place mines — A destroyer's duel— Japanese bravery 
— Japanese board a destrojrer — Sinking of the " Stereg\ischtchi " — Makarov's false start — Russian losses 281-291 

Chapter XVII.— LONG-RANGE ATTACK ON PORT- ARTHUR. 

Togo's plan — Effect of Japanese shells — The Russians return tire — Makarov's futile sorlie — Attack on the harbour — An eye-witness's 
story^Effects of the firing 291-3°' 

Cm.vpter XVIII.— the JAPANESE ADVANCE IN KOREA— CHEMULPO TO THE 
VALU. 

The Japanese in Korea — The road to the Valu — Arrival at Chemulpo— A Japanese ruse — The Ping Vang garrison— Russian advanc? 
to Pins Vang — A critical moment— The Russians retire — Disembarkation at Chinnampo — Japanese organisation — Japan's treaty with 
Kona — The affair of Chongju— Japanese occupy Wiju — Russia's us-'less enterprises .... 302-321 

Chapter XIX.— THE PORT ARTHUR FLEET GAINS THE OPEN SEA— SECOND 
ATTEMPT TO CLOSE THE HARBOUR. 

Watching Port Arthur — Adventures of the '■ Hanyei Maru " — The four steam'jrs — Captain Vatsushiro's speech — Tlie steamers get out 
— Discin-ered I — Din and tumult — On board the '■ Petropavlosk " — A furious fire— J'he fate of the " I'ukui Maru " — Hirose's heroism — The 
Japanese spirit — The attempt unsuccessful — Taking soundings under fire — The Russian fleet goes out — Warship collision — Russians at 
Newchwang ... ... 321-342 

Chapter XX.— ADMIRAL MAKAROV'S LAST CRUISE— SINKING OF THE 
" PETROPAVLOSK." 

Early das'* of April — The " Times " boat — Looking for the Japanese base — Laying Japanese mines— The " Koryu's " task — Makarov's 
anxious night — The '• .Strashny's '' mistake— The " Strashny " sinks — The " Bayan " retires — The Russian fleet goes out — Japanese feign 
flight — Togo's fleet sighted — Makarov retires— On board the " Petropavlosk " — The " Petropavlosk " destroyed — .'i lieutenant's adventure — 
The Grand Duke's adventure— Duke Cyril's narrow escape — A signalman's story — Makarov's and Verestchagin's fate — 570 killed — The 
RuMians in a panic— The " Petroiavlosk " — Kxplanation of the catastrophe — A steel tomb— The damage to the '■ Pobieda " — Admiral 
iilakaroT — The Japanese sorrow — 'The news in Russia — Russian lawlessness ... 342-36S 

Chapter XXL— SECOND SORTIE OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK SQUADRON- 
SINKING OF THE "KINSHIU M.\RU"— THIRD .ATTEMPT TO 
SEAL PORT ARTHUR. 

l.ooking for the Russian licet — Fleets in a fog — At (Jensan — Vladivostock fleet's sortie — Boarding the " Goyo " — The " Kinshiu 
Maru " missing — Looking for the '• Kinshiu " — The attack on the " Nakamura " — Discovering the " Kinshiu " — Refusing to surrender — 
Japanese heroism— Th-- scene on the " Kinshiu " — " Sayonara ! " — The " Kinshiu " goes down — Attack on Vladivostock^Third blocking 
attempt — Twelve steamers prepared — The start — K storm — The Russians alarmed — Sinking the " Mikawa" — Bravery of the " Sakura " — 
Discipline on the ■' Totomi ■' — The second batch of ships — On the rocks — Togo's commendation — Result — Superlatively brave . 36S-412 

Chapter XXU.— THE JAPANESE CROSS THE YALU. 

Japanese at Wij-i — Islands on the \'alu — The lie of the land — .\nju to Chensong — A wonderful screen — Deluding the Russians — 
• Position t-A Russian forces — Movements of the Japanese — Operations b'igin April 23rd^Kinteito Island .seized — The key to Kulien — 
Tiger Hill and V'ulchawon abandoned — A turning movement— Bridging at Sukuchin— Across the Valu — The Kinteito battery — The 
position on April 30th — A *olcmn moment ... ... . 413 



End of Volume I. 



1 




A RUSSIAN COSSACK. Drawn by Georges Scott. 




JAPAN'S FIGHT 

FOR 

FREEDOM. 



-~ss- 




A Fateful Visit. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE COMING OF THE BLACK SHIPS TO JAPAN. 

IT was upon a winter's dav of 1853 that Japan was suddenly startled from her long seclusion of centuries — 
a seclusion in which she had dwelt as unconcerned with what was happening in the outside world as 
" a frog in a well," according to the Japanese proverb. But in that year the terrible event happened 
against which the wise among her people had warned her. 

Over the grey sea into the exquisite Bay of Uraga came a proce.ssion of ships — ships with black sides, 
towering funnels, and immense paddle-boxes — with portholes in their sides through which peered guns of a 
size never before seen by man in this far-off island. On the decks of these strange craft, 
which seemed to the Japanese to be bearing to their shores beings from another world^ 
walked huge creatures with red hair and long noses, like the demons at fear of whom every Japanese child 
shuddered. They had green eyes and a savage aspect ; they were unlike anything the people had ever seen 
before, for the Dutch, who in those days did all the foreign trading w'th Japan, were shut up in one small 
factory, and not permitted to come near the sacred residence of the Tyc ion, or Shogun, the city which is now 
Tokio, but which then was Yeddo. 

As the ships drew near to the shore the fire-bells began to ring loudly, and at all the temples prayers 
were offered up to the gods 
of Japan for salvation from 
these terrible beings. For 
from their first paroxysm 
of terror the 

^'""^^ intelligent 
Russian 
Alarm. among the 

Japanese — 

and almost the whole 

people was intelligent — 

understood that the 

strangers were irresistibly 

strong. Vague stories had 

filtered through the Dutch 

settlement of the strange 

weapons and crafts of that 

outside world — stories that 

seemed like fairy-tales, but 

v\hich yet impressed this 

people with a sense of its 

helplessness face to face 

with the witchcraft of 




THE RUSSIAN FLEET IN PORT ARTHUR 1904 



. 1 )r;nvn by CharU-s I'ixt)!.. .';.l, 
BEFORE THE OUTBREAK OF WAR. 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1853 




JAPANESE RECRUITS IN 1894. DRAWN BY A JAPANESE ARTIST. 

the West Dimly men remembered how fifty years before a Japanese student had told them that to 

the north of them dwelt a people called the Russians, who would draw ever nearer and nearer, and 

had urged them to build black ships like this people, and to erect, batteries round their coasts. And in 

due course the Russian ships had appeared from time to time, and then their visits had ceased. It seemed to 

the Japanese that the danger had passed, and that they could rest secure in their isolation, ha]ip\' in 

their primitive and joyous mode of life. They ordered that all foreign ships drawing near the coast 

should be fired upon, and even the white men who were from time to time wrecked on the islands 

were harshly treated, that they might have no desire to return. 

So things had gone for a half century, liut now in a moment Japan had lost her 

Commodore Peppy s seclusion. It was the American Commodore Perry, with four ships and 560 men, who 
Demand. ■' ' 

had accomplished the change, and he came to demand satisfaction for the ill-treatment of 

certain American sailors. There was no putting him aside with threats or vague talk ; and agitated councils 




JAPANESE TROOPS MARCHING THROUGH TOKIO, 1904. 



1853 



COMMODORE PERRY ARRIVES. 



were held by the Japanese as to what was to be clone. The people were divided amongst themselves. -The 
islands were cut up into hundreds of petty states, governed by nobles, or daimios, who out of their revenues 
maintained fighting squires, or samurai. It was as in the England of the day of Stephen or John, except 
that the Japanese had learnt the use of firearms. But now, for the first time within the memory of the 
people, a great danger threatened from without ; and they rallied as one man to their ICmpcror, who for 
generations had been virtually deposed by the Tycoon, or hereditary General-in-Chief of the Japanese 
Army, and made a puppet in the Tycoon's hands. The cry in all mouths was : " Revere the ruler — 
e.xpel the foreigners ! " But the question was — how to expel these formidable aliens ? 




[Drawn by W. B. Wollen. 



COSSACK OUTPOST PROTECTING THE MANCHURIAN RAILWAY. 
The vigna™:e required ,o pro.ec, ,hU Z^L of railway is >-ery great, as Japanese engineers di.gui..ed as coolies wi„ n,...c every aUe.p. ,o cu. and destroy ... 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1853-8 



Many plans were mooted at the .anxious councils. .Some were for fighting then and there, in tiie 
temper of men who go to a hopeless deatii, but who are prepared to die becau.se the_\- believe it to be their 
duty. Others were (or fighting if only that the people generally might learn the uselessness of all resistance 
Others, again, were for a pt)licy of craft — admitting these horrible strangers, studying their ways and magic, 
and then turning the wejipons of the West against the West. Yet others — but the.se a very small minority of 
gifted and enlightened men — were for frankly accepting the new situation and becoming Western, since the 
West was all-conquering. 




JAPANESK BATTLESHIPS AND CRUISERS HUILT IN GREAT BRITAIN. 



"MIKA.SA." •' TAKA.SAGO." "ASAMA." "SHIKISHIMA." "FUJI." "ASAHI." 

(Rirrow) (Klswick) (EUwick) (Th.imes) (Thames) (Clyde Bank 

Eighleen out of the f«)rl\-i.ix l>^itllt;s)iips and cruisers which Japan possessed at the beginning of the war with Russia were British buiit. 



There is no need to recapitulate what happened. The two last parties predominated, and treaties were 

made with the various Powers, opening the ports of Japan to the " hairj' strangers." The word went forth 

that everything must be changed — that all that was old and dear to the Japanese must 
Japan Opens the .,-, f.i ^ ■ .- -..i 

Door. ^°' A he feudal sovereign must give up his sovereignty ; the samurai, or retainer, must 

lose his martial privileges ; the people must accept innovation or perish. And all 
classes rose to the immensity of the sacrifice. " Changes came as great earthquakes came — the transforma- 
tion of the daimiates into prefectures, the suppression of the military class, the reconstruction of the whole 
social system." We who have seen the storm evoked, the fearful pictures conjured up, at the bare 
suggestion of an alteration in our fiscal system, can imagine what meant this upheaval to a primitive race. 

But the Japanese were a people schooled from their youth to devotion and se' i-sacrifice, and when they 
were told by the wisest of their wi.se men that they must accept the changes or perish, they accepted them with 
a dim terror at heart, as of a child who goes out into the blackness of night foreboding fearful things. To the 
men of the .soldier cla.ss — the samurai — it .seemed that their country must be wholly at the mercy of the 
•stranger till such time as .she had learnt the foreign arts. And a great and passionate desire filled them to 
lift her up from this place of subjection, to regain for her her glorious independence, to save all that was best 
and noblest in her old life of abnegation and poverty, and to build upon this foundation a new structure. 



1853-8 



THE DISCIPLINE OF THE SAMURAI. 



They were equal to the occasion, for they had learnt from boyhood upwards to tliink nothing of them- 
selves or of their own lives and well-being. Ihey were inured to Spartan discipline. As children, they were 
compelled to go alone at midnight to the execution ground, and fetch therefrom 
malefactors' heads, that no dread of the sight of blood or the dead might possess them. 
They were fed lightly; and when the weather was cold were bidden to plunge their arms in ice or water, 
or their bare feet in the snow. They were shown the use of the small sword alwavs in their girdle, and 



The Samurai. 




Admiral Togo 

LS the Captai 



THE HERO OF THE DAY: ADMIRAL TOGO. 

,„i „t .h- lannnc^f Fleet which has already crippled the Russian Navj-. He is a great fighter, and a man of striking initiative;. 
:p!^i:"^t'1fLcJ:^-J2^n!lw^^^ his eany naval education on the K.ghsh training-ship the "Worcester. 



Hr 



8 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1853-b 



the function of which was to cut out their own bowels whenever the cocic of Japanese honour demanded 
it There are many tales of the devotion of the \'ounjj samurai, and one of the strangest is that of a 
youth who was asked by a prince: " Is that really the head of your father?" The newly-severed head was 
placed lx!fi)re the child, and he saw forthwith that it was not his father's. Yet, had he given any 
sign that the prince had been misleil. his father must have been in deadly peril. The lad " saluted the head 
with everj- sign of reverential grief, and suddenly cut out his own bowels." On this the prince was 
convinced ; the father escajxjd ; and the child obtained an innnortality in Japanese verse. 




I860 




iZ^S : Japanese War-galley. 



THE -NAVY OF OLD JAPAN. 



iS6o ; War-galley of the Prince of Wasiiiia. 



So the young samurai grew to manhood, fearless, revering only the gods, and believing with his whole 
heart that man should always do his duty, whatsoever the consequences. Cold and heat were nothing 
to him ; he could march through the mnuntains fort}- miles a da\- ; pleasure was nothing, he hardly knew 
the meaning of the word. Life was a terribly earnest thing ; and when his prince ceased to have any 
claims upon him — when the princes were abolished — he transferred his soldierly devotion to his nation. 
It mattered little to him that he lost everything b\- tiic change, or that wealth and an honoured position were 
taken from him ; he accepted it because of his teaching, and went out into the world to make his wa\-. 
if the foreigners who first landed in Japan made upon the Japanese a strangely repellent impression, 
quite otherwise were the impressions of the first Englishmen who saw this richly-favoured island group. 
Coming for the most part from China, the first Englishmen to visit- the land were 
the Jaoanese -struck, " not by the similarities, but by the violent contrasts which •(fee two peoples 
presented. These visitants had left behind them filth and sq|i&lor ; they met 
cleanliness and tidiness of an extreme t>^pe. They left behind \agucncss of thought, slovenliness of action, 
and they encountered pedantic precision. They left behind them indifference and stolidity, with ignorance 
cherished as a proud possession ; and they encountered a keen and intelligent appetite for knowledge. 
These features met the stranger before even his ship had cast anchor or he had set foot on s'.iure. On 
entering the inner harbour he would .see boats full of men, who looked like women, pushing off" to his ship ; 
and then a po.sse of officers, each armed with two sharp swords, would come on board. They, by means of a 
very imperfect interpreter, would at once ply the master with questions on every conceivable subject, as if he 
were competing in an examination on universal knowledge. The tedious catechism, with its admixture of 
seeming frivolities, would have been exasperating but for the imperturbable suavity of the catechists. Every 
answer was promptly yet deliberately committed to writing. Such was and is the custom of the race. 

What was hapfxjning was that the Japanese were endeavouring to find out the secret of Western .success. 

They imported Western teachers ; they .studied Western books ; though for generations they had forbidden 

their youth to travel, they began to make j'ourneys to foreign lands, to see the strange 

Ideas. ogres in their own homes. And the Westerners looked down ujion them with indulgent 

contempt ; they had a " veneer of civilisation " ; they were " mere copyists " ; they could 

" imitate, and nothing else." The Japanese did not disabuse them ; only they went on quietly acquiring 



1867-77 



CIVIL WARS IN JAPAN. 



knowlcc!5,^e, .stud)-,nff the strangers, and, above a]l, striving to obtai.i tiic military strength without which they 
saw tliat they could not remain independent. For they had come to beHeve, after seeing something of the 
West, that its only law was force ; that it cared for no people so long as that people was weak ; and that the 
one way to wm its respect was to be strong and bold. 

The progress of Japan in the arts of the West was checked from time to time by outbreaks of disorder 
There were moments «hen even the samurai could not brook the haughty insolence of the Westerner and 
when they drew on him their sword. Epidemics of assassination occurred, in which the victims were aIwa^•s 
Westerners who had wittingly or unwittingly offended against the customs of the Japanese. Then came twa 
civil wars, the first in the first year of Meiji, or the epoch of enlightenment, from which modern Japan dates 
her history, 1867. Through the winter of 1867-8 the two parties-the one of progress and the other of 
reaction-fought fiercely ; but the party of progress prevailed. A .second and as fierce rebellion occurred in 
1877, when the men of the Satsuma clan, the very flower of fighting Japanese, and now armed with rifles 
and modern cannon, rose against the Emperor. In that short war one third of those who fought were killed 
or wounded, so hotly was the issue disputed. But the conflict finally and for ever broke the power of the 
clans or daimiates, and made the Emperor supreme. Henceforward the internal peace of Japan was 
untroubled, and she was free to press forward along the path of Western progress. 




[Copyright, R. J. W. Haines. 
JAP.\XESE USING A QUICK-FIRING GUN OX THE ARMOURED CRUISER "ASAMA," BUILT AT ELSWICK. 

In her adxance she was guided by Ito Hirobumi, a samurai of the Choshiu clan, and now the far-famed' 
and honoured Marquis Ito. As a boy, he learnt English and studied Christianity ; and when lie came to- 
realise more clearly even than his countrymen the terrible nature of the power that the 
strangers posse.ssed, he feared for the future of Japan. It seemed to him that she must 
lose her independence, and pass under Russian or English sway. He boldly expre.ssed his belief in the need 
for yet bolder innovations, and for this was obliged to leave his country. Shipping as a seaman before the 



The Marquis Ito. 



10 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1867-77 



The New 
Japan. 



mast ill a Jiritisli vessel, he took 
refuge in London, and there began 
to understand the ways of the 
West as had no Japanese before. 
'' Slowh' a purpose shaped itself 
in his mind — a purpose which was 
to make him in after years a leader 
and teacher — to strive with all his 
might for the conservation of all 
that was best in the ancient life, 
and fearlessly to oppose further 
introduction of anything not es- 
sential to national self-preserva- 
tion." Finall}' he was recalled 
and made one of the Emperor's 
chosen advisers. 

His purpose he has now 
fulfilled. Happy, indeed, was 
Japan that in the hour of her trial 
she found such a guide. 

Railways, telegraphs, roads 
were built ; all the Western ap- 
pliances were obtained ; 
arsenals and work- 
shops were established ; 
and, rightly seeing that education 
was at the root of everything, the 
lunperor and his advisers made it 
universal and compulsory. A 
university was established at 
Tokio ; the calendar was Euro- 
peanised ; an Imperial post was 
established ; newspapers were per- 
mitted to exist, and granted great 
freedom of criticism. The Government was remodelled after the pattern of Europe, first with a deliberative 
assembly, under the absolute Emperor, who was not only the ruler by Divine right, but also was regarded 
by the Japanese as himself the very Son of God, and tlie embodiment of all that was dear and sacred in 
their past. Then, finally, the great plunge was made, and democratic government under a constitution 
with a parliament was conceded. At each change it was as though a limb had been lopped away, yet the 
nation gained rather than lost by the amputation. The surgery was bold and wise. Japan began to 
gather strength, and the first sign of this was that her progress inspired uneasiness in Russia. 

In 1863 she had sent officers to Holland to study naval war. About the same time emissaries visited 

France, then held to be the leading military nation of Europe, to examine into the French Army and obtain 

instructors. A warm friendship united England and France at that date — a friendship 

*''^" War^^ ^''^ which has happily returned after many )-ears of estrangement — and both watched 

sympatheticall)' the advance of this gifted people. From England naval advisers were 

obtained, among them officers such as Admirals Ingles, A. K. Wilson — now in command of the British Home 

Fleet — and Douglas, who were masters of their profession, and who willingly placed their knowledge and 

experience at the disposal of the l^mperor's Government. Japanese naval cadets were .sent to England by 

the permission of the British Admiralty, and in 1870 many Japanese officers were serving in our ships. 




RUSSIAN TROOI'S EMIiAKKING AT 



|I)r;t\vn by Krnest Prater. 
ODESSA FOR THE SCENE OF WAR. 



1866-90 



GROWTH OF JAPAN'S NAVY. 



11 



Japan's First Navy. 



The new Navy thus grew up, as it were, the child of the British Navy. It inherited its great 
traditions without its obsolete prejudices; it reflected the spirit of Nelson, and learnt from his . successors 
that victory is only to be won by perpetual effort. I'^en in the early days of tlie Japanese Fleet, acute 
observers among the British officers prophesied that the child would be worthy of the parent. The 
material upon which the teachers had to work was of the best. The Japanese officers came from the 
great Satsuma clan, which has always been famous for its heroic courage ; the men were quick, 
intelligent, educated, obedient. No charge of want of courage or dishonourable conduct was ever brought 
against any of the Japanese personnel. 

The first ships acquired by the Japanese Navy were feeble little craft com|)ared with the monsters 
which to-day fly the flag of the Rising Sun. The first ironclad was the Ston i:\v.\LL J.VCKSON, built for 
the lucl less Confederacy, and purchased from the United States in 1866. Originally 
named the S'iONEWALL Jackson, she was rechristened the Adzuma. Then, in 1877 
a small ironclad — for Japan was very poor — was built in England — the FU.SOO, which fought at the Yalu. 
She was followed b\' the small ironclads Koxc.O, IlnKi, and RiOJO — all launched before 1880, and 
all long since obsolete. A few year-- later Japan purchased two powerful cruisers, the first vessels of her 
modern fleet — the Naniwa and Takachiiio, which did splendid service in the war with China. Then 
came a large programme of cruisers built in France; and in 1890 the Government laid before the 
Japanese Parliament a considerable naval programme, including some first-class battleships — ships of a type 
which hitherto Japan had been without. Great foresight was shown in bringing forward this programme, for 
had it been sanctioned Japan would 
never have had to submit to the 

humiliation of 1895, when she was 
driven out of Port Arthur. But 

the Japanese Parliament thought 

itself wiser than its advisers, and 

declined to vote the necessary 

funds. 

As the years went on, the 

Japanese under their Fnglish tutors 

acquired the art of working their 

ships, and began to feel that they 

no longer stood in need of tutelage. 

One by one they dispensed with 

their foreign instructors, not un- 
gratefully, for they fully recognised 

their debt to those who had 

served them unselfishly and faith- 
fully, but because they were deter- 
mined to be able to stand by 

them.selves. They trained their 

captains to handle their ships 

vWthout assistance; their admirals 

gained experience in manoeuvring 

fleets, though as yet the fleets were 

small ; their engineers proved their 

capacity to get the utmost out ot 

the machinery of their new cruisers. 

There were some mischances at the 

outset, as was only to be expected. — ,,,,,, 

' ^ * ,I»r;ivMi by John Cli.irll'i 

Once a fast ship was .set steaming, the kvks of the j.vpanese .vkmy; c.walry scouting. 




12 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



[1866-90 



m-M 


M 


I 


w\ \\] 


^*^^1 






ifi 


^1 



The Japanese Army. 



GENKKAI. KUKUrArKlN, 



and those in charge of her were for some time unablc 
to stop her. But the Japanese learnt wisdom from their 
very mistakes, and among the officers of the British Na\y 
the value of their fleet was ciuick!\- recognised. Outside 
our Navy they were regarded as " monkeys," or spoilt 
children, with a spirit of contempt, from which there was 
soon to be a rude awakening. 

The progress of the Japanese Army was similar in 
all respects to the progress of the Japanese Fleet, 
except that the Army was drilled by Germans and per- 
vaded by German ideas, after the collapse of France 
in 1 870. Compulsor)- service was 
introduced, and the young Japanese 
were taught from youth up what the samurai had learned, 
that their first dut\- was not to themselves but to tlieir 
country, and that for her they must be prepared to give 
everything, even life itself A strangely heroic temper 
filled the people, and in their bitter poverty they stinted 
i^w Ku»ia.. .MiniMcr uf War, no»v c..Q.mander.m.chief of the t.oop. themseKes of farthiiigs that their Navy and their Arm\- 

in Majichuria. Tin; ^eticnil was Skt'Ijclcfl > lioutcnam. is llie Russian o ^ ^ 

KiidKixri. might not lack anj'thing. The Army, like the Navy, 

was small at first, but it was e.xcellent ; its officers came from the other great Japanese clan, the Chioshu, 
and were a.s brave and intelligent as the Satsuma men who filled the ranks of the Nav\'. Tactics and 
wea|)ons were the best that Europe could supply, and from their German instructors the Japanese early 
learnt the all-imjxjrtance o( thorough preparation for war, and of knowledge of their possible enemies. 
They .saw that numbers were useless without organisation, as the e.xample of China showed, for she had 
numbers, but not organisation. With a fast-growing population, which in 1890 numbered something 
over 40,000,000, the Japanese did not want men and with organisation and the Western spirit, the)- 
lelt that they could take a 
proud place in the world. 

Wealth came to them 
but slowly. The highesl 
capacity in the country 
was engaged in organis- 
ing, in the Army and in 
the Fleet, so only the 
second best went into 
commerce. Vet even iiere 
the development and e.\- 
pansion were astounding. 
Cotton mills arose as il 
by magic, and began to 
pay high dividends ; a 
large steam-shipping ap- 
]x:ared, and in trade within 
their own gates the 
Japanese, by the fact that 
they were ready to work 
for infinitely less than the 

|l)ra\Mi (ly Hfiiri 

Westerner, speedily sup- co.\>cku'iio.\. ui<.\wi.n(; lots i ok .Mu.ir.vkv si:k\ick i.\ klssi.aj 

t , II* 'f*i ... 4 . Whc? ihcrt arc more men in a district than are rc<|iiired for military service lots are drawn to decide Mio shall. ser\ 

plantCU nnn. 1 nc e.\{K»rtS -j-li^ lollery-«hccl is shown above. Ihosc who draw " luckv " numbers are e.\en-.ul. 




1861-73 



THE STRUGGLE WITH RUSSIA BEGINS. 



13 



and imports of the country rose by leaps and bounds. 
The exports were but ;^3,8oo,ooo in 1874; in 1894, the 
year of the war with China, the)- had risen to 
;^ 1 1,000,000. In 1900 they had doubled once more. 



CHAPTER II. 
THE JAPAN-CHINA WAR. 

ALL through these early years the danger from 
Russia continued, though at that time the 
Japanese feared England nearly as much, since 
she was the Power with which they had most to deal. In 
1 861 a Russian naval force appeared at the island group 
of Tsu.shima, in the Straits of Korea, a group romantic in 
its sequestered beauty, and containing 
Russia superb harbours, in one of the finest 

strategic positions in the world. The 
Russians, who had but lately .seized Vladivostock, having 
wrested that place from the inert hands of China, had 
already discovered that its harbour was frozen over in 
the winter, and had determined to acquire some ice-free 
port in more southerly latitudes. This, then, was the 
opening of Russia's forty years' struggle for an open 
water port in the Far East, and the first .serious admonition to Japan of what was to be her great future 
danger. The Japanese applied to the British naval commander, and he, by dint of .some persuasion, 
succeeded in inducing the Russians to withdraw from Tsushima. But the incident led to .some unpleasant- 
ness between Russia and England. 

When the Russians evacuated Tsushima, they called upon the British Government for a declaration 
that it would never seize these islands, which drew from that Government a reminder that it had propo.sed 




IJKUTK.NAN'l-llK.NKk.XI. '] KkAlCIII, J.AI'.WKSK .MINISIKK 
OF WAR. 

Suidied military science in France. H,^s been Director of the |a|)ane>c 
-Military University. Was decorated for service in the C'hiti.-i War. 



Japan and Korea. 



some time before to make a treaty binding England and the other Powers under no 



circumstances to acquire or anne.\ territory in Japanese waters. Notwithstanding 
these experiences, the Russians at Vladivostock, being now near neighbours of Korea, began to turn their 
eyes to the superb ports which abound on the Korean coast, and from about 1870 onwards caused the 
Japane.se great anxiety. Japan, realising that it was hopeless for such a weak Asiatic State as Korea to 

withstand Russia, strove to induce the 
Koreans to reform, and to make the 
same changes as Japan had made. 

These efforts, however, were quite 
unsuccessful, though even at this earlv 
date they aroused the jealousy of China. 
In 1874 the Japanese were compelled 
to invade Formo.sa, then nominally under 
China, as the Formosans had ill-treated 
the crew of a Japanese .ship, and no satis- 
faction was to be obtained. The Chinese, 
however, were induced by England to 
meet the Japanese demands, but only 
grudgingly and late. 

Drawn by F. C. Dickinson] [From a jjholo by tiie ■■ J up.cal " i'ri'ss AjjeiiL;. 

A RUSSIAN UNDERGROUND MILITARY SCHOOL IN .MANCHURi.\. Meantime, to the Horth the Russians 




OO 



< 

O 

z 
u 

en 

I 
f- 

O 



>- 

Q 
OS 

s 




1875-85 



TROUBLE IN KOREA. 



15 



drew nearer and nearer, with a slow, impcrceijtililc, .t(Iacier-likc afhance, whicli caused ever-increasing 
apprehension in Japan. In 1875 the Japanese were coinpelled to cede to Russia the south of 
the Island of Sa<;halien, receiving in exchange the worthless Kurile Islands. 

Russian ships appeared in the Korean harbour of Port Lazareff, surveyed it, and .seemed to be on the 
point of seizing it. In 1876 the Japanese concluded a treaty with the Korean.s of friendship and amity, 
by which they hoped to be able to meet the Russian designs. In 1 882 there was one of the usual palace 
plots in Korea, and a savage mob was turned loose on the Japanese Legation, as the result of which a 
number of Japanese were killed. It has always been suspected, though there is no positive proof, that 
Russian agents caused the affair. The Chinese, who claimed the suzerainty of Korea, foreseeing that the 
Japanese would be driven to intervene, on this landed a force, seized the Korean Emperor, and comjjelled him 
to give guarantees for his good behaviour; and in 1885 the Japanese concluded with China a treaty 
by which both Powers 
pledged themselves not 
to send troops to Korea 
without the other's con- 
sent. In that same year 
the British Government 
had difficulties with 
Russia over the Afghan 
frontier, and, being in- 
formed that Russia in- 
tended to .seize the island 
of Port Hamilton, off the 
south of Korea, forestalled 
the Russians by taking 
possession of it before 
they could arrive. But 
two \ears later, when 
solemn pledges were 
given by Russia that she 
" would not occupy 
Korean territory under 
any circumstances what- 
ever," the British flag was 
hauled down. 

This incident made a 

great impression on the 

Japanese. 

Russia's H i t h e r t o 

March on ^ , 1 j 

Korea. they had 

been inclined 
to regard luigland with 
almost as much suspicion 
as Russia, but now they 
saw that it was true that 
the British sought to 
acquire no territory in 
their v/aters. From that 
date on they began to 
think of England as a 




[Drawn by G. .Vlliaiu 
JAPAN'S TWO NEW WARSHIPS. . . ^ , 

These are the "Kasuea" and "NLsshin," purchased from the Argentine, and built at Genoa. They were painted a dark 
These are the liasuga a ^^^^ , h^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ g^^^^ ^^^^^^ ,^^j. ^^^^ sketched. 



i6 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1894 



friend rather than as an enemy. On the other hand, the Russian advance continued steadily. Russian 

consuls were appointed to Korean towns where not a single Russian had c\er been seen within the 

memorj' of man. Russian telegraphs entered Korea ; and all the machinery of acquisition was .set 

to work. At each forward Russian step the terror of Japan grew. Korea was absolutely vital to 

her ; with it in the hands of a strong and aggressive power, such as Ru.ssia, she felt that her 

independence was doomed. She therefore, in the nineties, determined to take fresh steps to bring 

about Korean reform, and to induce the corrupt and incapable Korean Court to mend its ways, before the 

Russian railw.iy acro.ss Siberia, began in 1891, should be complete. 

Some have ascribed to a fresh Russian intrigue the events which precipitated the war of 1894. In the 

spring of that year an insurrection broke out in Korea, and the Korean Government at once applied to China 

for asssistance. A large party in China opposed sending assistance, not so much because 
Th6 W&r of 18d4i 

Besins °^ ^^^ treaty with Japan, but because it was feared that Russia or some other P^uropean 

Power would u.se any Chinese movement as a pretext for interference. But finally a 

force of Chinese troops, ::.;oo strong, was despatched, and Japan was informed of the action. The 




(Drawn fn.ni a .Sketch by i'aul ■J'liirial. 

A W.^R CORRESPONDENT ARRIVES AT SEOUL-KOREA'S CAPITAL. 
J The two men on the right arc Korean Guards in their new uniform 

Japanese had been embittered by the contemptuous manner in which they had been treated by the 
Chinese, and by the fact that the Chine.se Government had barbarously murdered a Korean exile of 
strong Japanese sympathies ; they were sick, too, of the misrule and anarchy of Korea. So they despatched 
a strong Japanese force to Korea, simultaneou.sly with the Chinese expedition, and the Japanese force 
marched swiftly to Seoul and camped near that city. Then the Japanese proposed to China that, as the sole 
.safeguard against Ru.ssia in the future, Japan and China should take in hand the regeneration of Korea. 

But the Chinese at this date were too pleased with themselves to think that any regeneration was 
necessar>' in a State which so closely resembled China. They despi.sed the Japanese as " Yellow Dwarfs," 
and as traitors to Asia. The question at issue was really whether Japan should civilise Korea, or whether 
China should preserve barbarism there. It could only be answered by war, and war speedily came as the 
result of an act of Chinese treachery. Without giving any warning to Japan, the Chinese Government .sent 



1894 



A NAVAL DUEL. 



|7 



more troops into Korea o\erland, and also began to sliip them by sea, against the earnest protests of Li- 
Hung-Chang, the old Chinese statesman. 

The Japanese had taken their precautions, and knew exactly what China was able and likely to do. 

Their agents were everywhere in China, and had every Chinese secret in their keeping. Hence the Japanese 

Government was aware of the intended movements long before the)- were made, and 

Naval War ^ooj^ g^gp^ ^q ^^^^ ^i^^^^_ q^^ j^,y ^3, ,894, the Japanese at Seoul seized the 

and China. person oi the Korean Emperor, as they had received information that China 

intended war. Two days later the First Division of the Jajianesc I'lect, under Rear- 

Admiral Tsuboi, consisting of the cruisers YOSIIINO, Naniwa, and Akit.SUSIIIM.\, the three fastest vessels 

in the Japanese Navy at that time, arrived off the Korean port of Asan. As they drew near the low, rocky 

islands of that difficult coast, they saw two Chinese warships, the Tsi Yuen and Kwang Yi, steaming 

towards them. The Chinese shijjs did not salute, but cleared for action, and a few minutes later suddenly 

fired on the Japanese, using guns and torpedoes. The Japanese had probably been prepared for such a 

reception, if lhe\- did not 

themselves, as is alleged 

by the Chinese, open fire 

first. They retaliated with 

some terrible broadsides, 

which took all the fight 

out of the two Chinese 

ships. 

The Tsi Yuen was 
struck in various parts by 
Japanese shells, and her 
■deck cleared of men. Her 

conning-tower 

was pierced, 

her gun-turret 

riddled, and 
huge holes were blown in 
her sides. The big guns 
■were jammed ; the officers 
working the ship were 
killed or mortally wounded. 
She hoisted the white flag 
■and Japanese colours as 
a sign that she had 
:struck, when the Japanese, 
without troubling to take 
possession of her, turned 
to attend to the Kicnng Yi. 
But just as they turned 
the Tsi Yuen made a bolt 
for freedom, and, notwith- 
standing the white flag, 
put on all steam and ran 
for the nearest Chinese 
.harbour — Wei-hai-wei. 

The Japanese seem to 
«ha\c been so surprised by 



Japan's 

Victorious 

Navy. 




RUSSIAN ARTILLERY ON THE M.\RCH IN 



[Dr.iwn by K. Citoii Woudville. 

MANCHURLV. 



18 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1694 



licr action thai they ditl not for some minutes pursue. But then the Yosilixo went in chase of iicr^ 
and followed her for some miles, hut without overtaking her. 

As for the Kwangi i7, that little vessel was speedily compelled to run ashore, when the Japanese 
torpedoed and destroyed her. A third vessel, a small despatch-boat, was also caught by them and taken. 
Thus war had begun, and in the very first action the Japanese had scored an important success, sinking one 
Chinese ship, ca|)turing another, and inflicting on a third such damage that she was not at sea again for 
another month. The daring of Japan created great astonishment throughout the world, for at that date 

China was supixjsed to be immensely strong, and the Chinese Navy very formidable. 
Flffhtf^cr'shiiw Like the Japanese Xavy it had had the advantage of British instructors, and while the 

Japanese had no powerful armoured battleships, the Chinese had two. It was therefore 
supposed that Japan would be speedily crushed. 




IKruiu a contemporary print. 
J.\PAN OPENS ITS IJOOKS TO THE WORLD. 

Commodore Perry meets the Japanese Imperial Conimlssioncri at Yokohama. " The rudimentary treaty he made was little more than a covenant to supply wood 

and water to needy ships, and to Iw merciful to their crews." 



The following were the important ships on either side at that date : 

JAPAN. PROTl-XTED CRUISERS: 

Y(JSIUX(J, 23 knots, 4,150 tons ; four 6in., eight 47in. quickfirers ; coal capacity, 1,000 tons. Crew, 360. 
Akit.SUSHIM.\, 19 knots, 3,150 tons; four 6in., six 47in. quickfirers; four torpedo tubes; coal capacil)-, 

500 tons. 
NanIW.'V, 18J knots, 3,650 tons; two loin., si.x 6in. guns; four torpedo tubes. Crew, 357. 
TaKACHIIIO, i8j knots, 3,650 tons; two loin., six 6in. guns; four torpedo tubes. Crew, 357. 
MatSUSHIM.V, 17! knots, 4,277 tons ; one I2'5in., twelve 4'7in. quickfirers. l^leven incii armour on barbette. 

}• as the " Matsushima," but with one less 47in. gun. Speed slightly less than the Matsushima.. 
HA.SHIDATK ) t/ fa 1 fe / 

CUIYODA, I9i knots, 2,450 tons ; ten 47in. quickfirers. Armoured belt 4jin. thick. 



1894 



THE RIVAL NAVIES. 



19 



These eight vessels, all 
•cruisers, without an)' ar- 
mour except on their 
decks, represented the 
whole modern fleet of 
Japan. 

There were two 
old ironclads, of little 
value, the FUSOO and 
HlVEl, a number of other 
old ships, and eighteen 
good torpedo-boats. But 
it was held by naval 
authorities that this 
whole fleet could easih- 
be destroyed by the 
Chinese ironclads. 




(Drawn by Geor>jc Soj)cr from a phutugrapb. 
MAKING THE LINE BETWEEN SEOUL AND FUSAN, KOREA. 
This line is not yet completed. It is subsidised by the Japanese, and it will connect the capital with the Sooth Coast of 

Korea at Fusan. 



King Yuen 
Lai Yuen 



The important ships of the Chinese Fleet were as follows, and all of them fought at the Yalu : 
BATTLESHIPS : 
Ting Yuen jeach of 141 knots, 7,430 tons ; 12 to I4in. armour-plating on their guns and side. Four i2-5in., 
Chen Yuen (two 6in., ten smaller guns. Coal capacity, 1,000 tons. 'I'wo launching carriages for fish torpedoes, 
each of i6h knots, 2,850 tons; 7 to Qin. of armour; Sin. armour on their barbettes; two 8in., 
two 6in. guns. Coal capacity, 325 tons. One fixed tube for discharging fish torpedoes, three 
launching carriages for fish torpedoes. 
CRUISERS: 
Citing Yuen \ ^^^'^ °^ '^ knots, 2,300 tons; three Sin., two 6in., seventeen smaller guns ; loin. armour on 
Chih Yuen I t)^'''^'^"^^. Coal capacity, 450 tons. Four fixed tubes for discharging fish torpedoes. Both 

[ ships were launched in 1S86. 
Tsi Yuen, 15 knots, 2,355 tons; two Sin., one 6in. gun. Protected steel deck 3in. thick. Crew, 180. 
Ping Yuen, 10 knots, 2,100 tons ; one loin., two 6in. guns. 5in. armour on barbette. Sin. armour-belt. 

Besides the above there were some old gunboats, and a dozen torpedo-boats. But the whole fleet was 
in wretched order, and was really no more than a paper force. After dismissing their English officers, 

the Chinese had allowed it to go to ruin, and it is .said 
that some of the captains of the ships even went so far 
as to pawn their guns to raise mone)'. 

The second incident of the war, which occurred on 

the same da)-, was the fight between the crui.sers of the 

two sides. As the Naniwa, Captain Togo, was coming 

back from the chase of the Chinese cruiser Kwang Yi, 

she sighted a large steamer making 

for Asan, and steamed towards her. 

The vessel flew the British flag, and 

^vas the merchant steamer Kowshing, emplo)'ed as a 

transport by the Chinese Government, with a cargo of 

Chinese soldiers on board. The Naniwa ordered her 

to stop and anchor, and then sent an officer on board, 

who instructed her to follow the Naniw.V to Japan. 

The English officers on board were ready to do this. 

but the Chinese soldiers would nbt jsermit them to obe\-, 

and seized the ship. After giving repeated warnings to 




Captain Togo's 
Famous Action. 



From stL-ie.ii;r.ip'i- 



, LunJon, tS: N.^ . 



CHEMULPO HARKOUK, KOREA. 



Taker, from the Chemulpo Club. Here the Japanese landed troops en route 
to Seoul. 



20 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1894 




JAIAN Ol'ENS IHE UO'JK TO (;i<KAT liKlTAlX -1 858. 

(I> Tmk 1mkkv1i;« liliTWEEN THE Eakl OF ELGIN AND THE Pkime MINISTERS OF Japan. "He hastened the entry of 

into the family of nations." 



porary print, 
the Land of the Rising Sun 



them, the Japanese captain was obliged to fire at her. Me could not send a boat and remove the Europeans^ 
as his boat's crew would have been liable to be o\erwhelmed and murdered by the Chinese. The- 
Kini'shiiig sank at once, but, with great risk to the Japanese officers and men, most of the Europeans on 
board were rescued. The Chinese, as the ship sank, fired from her on the Japanese boats. Much 
indignation was cau.sed at the time by false reports of this action in luigland. In it Captain Togo, the 
present admiral, behaved with the utmost humanity antl consideration. In view of the fact that the 
Chinese would not surrender, and were prepared to fight to the death, he had no course but to sink 
the ship. 

The events of this first day of war showed that the Japanese knew how to strike hard, and caused 
not a little surprise, though their astonishing superiority to the Chinese was as )'et understood b)- but 




(2) Exchange OP Fui-l Powers betu 1 I. .kloi i':r.t,i\ \-.\> 1: 1 j ' ii 

"Within ibe short ipnce of fourteen da)-s trom his arrival in the bay a treaty was concluded. . . Three of the chief ports of the Empire were oiiened. 

to foreign trade within one year, and two more at later dates." 



1894 



AN HEROIC JAPANESE BUGLER. 



21 




[Copyright Adelphi Press Agency. 
DAMAGES TO THE SHIELD OF THE STERN FOURTH GUN OF A 
JAPANESE GUNBOAT AKAGI, AT THE BATTLE OF THE VALU, 
IN THE WAR OF 1894. An ofTlcial J.ipanese photograph. 



few. They followed up their blows at sea with 

an energy and courage which were mo.st 

impres.sive ; 2,500 of the 

The Attack on , ^ 1 . . 

Asan. Japane.se troops who had 

occupied Seoul at once 

marched .south to attack the Chinese, who were 

entrenched at Asan. The inarch was difficult, 

for no transport was to be had, as the Chinese 

coolies decamped, leaving the Japanese without 

carriers. Delay occurred, and the commander of 

the Japanese advanced guard, Major Koshi, feeling 

that his honour was imperilled by the fact that his 

men had not moved faster, committed suicide. 

On July 28 the Japanese arrived in front of the 

Chinese, who were behind earthworks in a most 

formidable position. The Chinese were armed with 

magazine rifles and smokele.ss powder, whereas the 

Japanese had only single-loaders, so that the 

task of attacking was not simple or easy. It was 

decided to make a night assault, w'hich issued in a 

complete victory and the capture of eight Chinese 

guns. The loss of the Japanese in officers was 

heavy, owing to the fact that they expo.sed 

Of the Chinese some escaped and marched round to the 



themselves with the most heroic courage 
north of Seoul. 

It was at Asan that the bugler Shirakanii Genjiro met his death. He was sounding the charge for 

the final advance when a bullet passed through his lungs, throwing him down by its shock. A comrade, 

An Heroic Bugler ^^*^'"^ ^^"^' ^^ '^^ thought, dying, strove to pluck the bugle from his hands to sound 

once more the charge, when Genjiro by a supreme effort raised the instrument to his 

lips, sounded the charge, and fell dead. 

He became the first hero of the war, and 

in the words of the fiery Japanese verse : 

Comrade, beyond the peaks and seas, 

Your bugle sounds to-day. 
In forty million loyal hearts, 
A thousand miles away. 
The spirit of Genjiro is the spirit of the 
whole of Japan. When presents were 
sent to his family by the Emperor, 
Genjiro's father answered in the temper of 
a Spartan : " We rejoice that our son has 
been loyal to Japan, even to the point of 
shedding his blood in defence of her honour." 
And now the mo- 
bilisation began in 
Japan. War loans were raised by the 
voluntary effort of her people; societies 
were formed to nurse the wounded and ^_^____ 

supply comforts to the soldiers; crowds [Cnp>-right Adelphi Prws Agency. 

, , . DAMAGES TO THE STARBOARD QUARTER-DECK OF A JAPANESE GUNBOAT, 

welcomed the men at every station, not akagmn the war of 1894. An official japane« photograph. 



Japan Mobilises. 




22 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1894 



with riotous demonstration, but with heartfelt prasers for the success of the gallant army that was going 
forth to fight in the cause of civilisation. The mobilisation proceeded with unexampled ease and celerity, 
and it soon became clear that the Japanese War Office had improved upon the lessons taught by the 
Gennans in i S70. But when the army had gathered and stood ready to strike there came a lull. The 
world, which knew not, and was not permitted to know, what was happening in Japan, supposed that the 
Japanese mobilisation had collapsed. But really Japan was waiting to gain command of the sea. 

On August 10 Admiral 
I to, the capable com- 
mander of the Japanese 
Fleet, who must not be 
confused with the Marquis 
Ito, suddenly showed him- 
self off Port Arthur and 
Wei-hai-wei, the two great 
Chinese fortresses at either 
side of the entrance to the 
Gulf of Pechilli, and ex- 
changed fire with the 
batteries. The Chinese 
Fleet, under Admiral Ting, 
displayed no wish to come 
out and fight ; its ships 
lay within the anchorages 
sheltered by the powerful 
guns which the Chinese 
had mounted in these two 
positions. But while Ito 
was bombarding, and while 




I.N THE HARBOUR OF PORT ARTHUR. 



Here the Russian ships were torpedoed by the Japanese. The vessels in the photograph are those of the 

Manchurian Railway Co. 



The Battle of 
Phyongr Yangr. 



Europe was complacently remarking upon his folly, the Japanese army was pouring in transports across the 
Korean Straits and landing in Korea. 

At Chemulpo, at Fusan, at Gensan, the divisions were disembarking in silence and with celerity, and 
about mid-August they began to move swiftly north, converging upon Phyong Yang, where the Chinese 
army was in position, behind the line of the River Taidong. The Japanese 
had determined to cut off this force and to capture it by an attack in front, 
where two columns coming from the south were to threaten it, while a third from 
Gensan struck at the Chinese line of retreat. The Chinese were very strongly entrenched, and were 
atxjut l2,OCX> strong, and they were better armed than the Japanese, though they were miserably 
commanded. On September 1 5 the battle began. The Japanese were in superior force, and displayed the 
utmost bravery. By nightfall the Chinese, utterly beaten, were in panic-stricken retreat, leaving behind them 
2,000 killed and 600 wounded. The Japanese loss was only 633. With this action the campaign in Korea 
ended, and the Japanese were left in undisputed possession of that country. They pushed forward slowly 
towards the River Yalu, and made ready to enter Manchuria. 

Learning that the Japanese were advancing in Korea, the Chinese woke from their slumber, and, much 
against his will. Admiral Ting, the commander of the Chinese Fleet, was ordered to convoy a number of 
transports to the mouth of the Yalu. He reached that river with his whole fleet on 
August 16, disembarked the men, and on the 17th was preparing to steam back- to 
Port Arthur, when suddenly his look-outs reported thick clouds of smoke to the .south- 
west. His fires were banked, so that he could not at once proceed at high speed, and his men were at 
dinner. But he stood slowly towards the clouds of smoke, and saw that they proceeded from the funnels 
of a large fleet which was moving towards him. The fleet was evidently the Japanese ; it came on in 



Naval Battle of 
the Yalu. 



1894 



THE BATTLE OF THE YALU. 



23 



single line, maintaining excellent order, anri at the sight of it Ting's heart must have sunk witiiin lii::i. 
For though personally brave, no man knew better the weakness of the Chinese Navy; its want of discipline; 
its deplorable gunnery ; its peculation and corruption, which meant that ammunition would run short. 

The Japanese Fleet, under Admiral Ito, had seen the smoke of the Chinese while scouring the Hay of 
Korea. Unfortunately, Ito had not e.xpected to meet the Chinese Fleet at sea, as, after daring them to come 
out, off Port Arthur and Wei-hai-wei, he supposed them unwilling to fight. He had, for this reason, left 
behind him his torpedo-boats, and some useful fighting ships, while he had brought with him a number of 
vessels of very little value, an old gunboat, the Akagi ; an armed merchant steamer, the Saikio, and two 
very old and feeble ironclads, the HlYEI and FUSOO. But though he had not his full force, he rightly 
determined to fight then and there. He moved towards the Chinese, ordering his ships to clear for action as 
they drew nearer, and about 12.5 could make out the formation of the Chinese Fleet. 

In a single line abreast were eleven warships, with the two big Chinese battleships in the centre. They 

approached at a very low speed, about nine knots, while the Japanese were steaming about ten. Ito ordered 

his two weakest ships, the Akagi and Saikio, to leave his line, .seeing that a trial of 

S^nee'^rafalc-M' strength was imminent. His van was formed by the First or Fast Squadron, under 

Rear - Admiral Tsuboi, consisting of the cruisers YOSHINO, Takachimo, 

Akitsushima, and Naniwa, all good for sixteen knots at sea. Then came Ito's flagship heading the 

Main Squadron, the MatSUSHIMA, followed by the ChiyoDA, ItSUKUSHIMA, HaSHIDATE, FuSOO, and 

HlYEl. The Fast Squadron headed at first for the enemy's centre, as if about to deliver a blow there, and 

then stood away for his starboard or right flank. The first shot in the greatest .sea-fight since Trafalgar was 

fired by the Chinese about 12.50, at 6,000 \'ards. It fell short of the Japanese ships, which did not as yet 

trouble to reply. 




AD.MIRAL ALEXEIEFF REVIEWINti RUSSIAN TROOPS .\T TORT ARTHUR. 



As the Fast Squadron swerved it increased speed, and, passing 3,000 yards off" the Chinese flank, opened 
a terrible fire. For the first time in a battle at sea quick-firing guns were used that day, and their effect on 
the old Chinese ships was striking. Clouds of splinters flew from the targets : presently smoke began to 



24 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1894 




A Terrible Fire. 



(I >v'iu the Chicago "Tribune." 

L JAPAN TO THE GREAT BEAR: 

* TvtnUc, iwinkle, Hllle star ! How 1 wonder what you are 
up to ! ** 



shell, weighing 72 5lbs., 
where the wounded had 
nxjin filled with flame 
all those in it perished ; 
down her mizzenmast ; 
on deck and killed many 
and an utter wreck, she 
ture, when the Fast 
up at its best speed to 
the Chinese Fleet, while 
Main Squ.idron. Their 
Aka(;i and the Saikio, 
danger as the HlYEI, 
very nearly as much 



pour up from them, and it was seen that the Chao Yong and 
Yang Wei were burning furiously. After the Fast Squadron 
came the Main Squadron and pelted them with shells ; a dense 
cloud of smoke hung like a pall round the Chinese ships, while the 
Japanese, using smokeless powder for the most part, with the 
wind carrying their coal-smoke down upon the enemy, were 
subject to no such hindrance. The Chinese slowly turned, as 
the Japanese F"leet passed across their front, and attempted to cut 
off the weak ships in the Japanese rear, which were falling behind. 
.So great was her danger that, to avoid being rammed, the 
llivi'.l had to turn and charge straight through the Chinese line. 
She passed close to their big battleships, and at short range 
received from them a terrible fire. Two 
torpedoes came hissing at her, and both 
missed her ; but the projectiles from the heavy guns of the 
Chinese ships hulled her again and again, and had the Chinese 
ammunition been in good order she must have been blown out of 
the water. Even as it was she suffered severely. A 1 2-inch 

burst in the wardroom, 
been carried. The whole 
and smoke, and almost 
another shell brought 
and yet another explod-ed 
of her gunners. On fire, 
seemed in peril of cap- 
Squadron came steaming 
her help on one side of 
on the other came the 
approach saved the 
which were in as great 
and which had suffered 
damage. 



r «: 1> 1 


1 


v_. 


Y 

m 




L 


1 1 


i^-^^nfTl Eb 


i^--m^ 


lr 


V-nlSi^^H^ 


^■N. w I'C J 




^^"^^ 











[P'rom " La Reforme.' 
n. THE ARGUMENT. 
Japan : " I say, that's my sister !" (Korea). 
Russia : " Rubbish ! She's my wife ! " 



Having caught the Chinese between two fires, the Japanese 
plied them with shot and shell. Smoke began to pour up from 
the hulls of two or three .ships ; both the big Chinese battleships 
were seen to be on fire; while on the left wing of the Chine.se 
there was disgraceful cowardice, the Tsi Yuen bolting from 
the fleet and runmng for safety. The Chih Yuen also left the 
Chinese line, but not to run away. She dashed at the Fast 
.Squadron and strove to ram the VoSHINO. The Japanese 
cruiser poured quick-firing .shells into her, tore her side open on 
the water-line, set her on fire, wrecked her upper works, and sent 
her to the bottom, ere she ccjuld achieve her purpose — the first 
vessel in the fight to be .sunk by gun fire. 



THE RUS^O-JAPANESE DISPUTE TOLD IN THREE CARTOONS. 




111. 



Two other Chinese ships, the Lai Yuen and King Yuen, 
were now seen to be burning fiercely ; it was the object 
of the Japanest- to overwhelm them before the crews could extinguish the fires, and they rained 



IFruin the " Minne.ipolis jimriial." 
JAPAN'S KEI'LV; "WAR!" 



1894 



BURNING THE CHINESE SHIPS. 



25 




.("npyrinlit Aclelnhi Press At'cix.y. 
1 111; CKEAT CHINESE WARSHIl' -TlNtJ YUEN," 7,430 TONS. 

This vessel was damaged, as shown in the photograph, by the Japanese torpedo-boats, oflf Liukung Island in 1895, The photograph was taken by means of a 

telepholographic lens by the Japanese Ordnance Survey. 

projectiles upon them. The King Yuen under this fire began to list over to port ; the merciless. 

shells struck her water-line, and the list increased, while the flames could be seen rising high from her hull. 

Then for a second her bottom showed above the surface ; unmanageable, she whirled round like a 

stricken beast ; her ram rose and stood straight up out of the water, and, with a roar like the explosion of 

a magazine, she disappeared in a cloud of smoke and flame, following the Chih Yuen to the bottom. 

The Lai Yuen had already retired from the line, and her crew could be .seen attempting to get the fires, 

on board her under. 

The Ching Yuen was also on fire, and incapable of fighting. But with the instinct of true .seamen, 

the Japanese left the injured ships alone, and turned their whole attention to the two Chine.se battleships. 

Circling round and round them, they directed upon them an extraordinarily fierce 

'^!'.^i/l*^°^-*"^ *^^ attack. Their sides were riddled by Japanese projectiles like colanders ; but the 
ill B. t sus n 1 ni ^. 

armour kept the vitals and the guns intact, and they still fought on. About this 
point the Japanese Main Squadron closing, in a desperate attempt to disable them, received a severe 
blow. As the MatsusHIMA was passing the Chen Yuen, one of that ship's serviceable 1 2-inch shells 

of which she had but three or four — struck the Japanese flagship. It smote a 4.7-inch gun, hurled it 

from its mount, and brought up against the barbette of the big Canet 12^-inch gun which the Japanese 
ship carried. There it burst, exploding a heap of ammunition. 

" When it came," said a Japanese seaman, " the shock threw men in the air two feet high. At the 
same moment all became 
dark — you could not see 
your hand. We had forty 
men kilk-^ , iasfentl}', and 
many monlf'-\j(abifo<:fed ; no 
man escaped in that part 
of the ship. The deck 
was on i'ir<j, itf l*e had to 
fight ang, v«)rk to put the 
fire out at the same time. 
Even badly wounded men, 
with the skin blown from 
their hands and faces, 
worked as if they felt no 
pain ; and dying men 
helped to pass the water.' 
The gunnery officer was 
blown to pieces; the ship ' the likst capture ok port akihuk. 

The laoanese captured the then Chinese naval stronghold in 1894. The drawing is by a Japanese artist, and U 

listed heavily, the maga- •■ ■• v r .^ ^^^ possession of Mr. a. i.. Liberty. 




26 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1894 




BARON KOMURA. 
Jatanese Minister of Foreign Affairs. 
ScuJied at Harvard Univcr^ily. Negoliated 



Alliance, foe whi 



the Anglo- 
h he was decomled and made a 
Karon. 



7,ines were in dansjer from the fire, but the men within them, 
without flinching, closed the door.s, and when the glow showed 
through the cracks in the damaged plates, stuffed their clothing 
into the crevices. Their action showed how coolly and bravely 
the Japanese Navy could meet adverse fortune. The 

MatsusHIMA sheered off with 113 men, or one-third of her 
crew, out of the combat, but as she went she dealt the Chinese 
flagship one parting blow with her big gun. 

There was more firing after this incident, but Ito was 
apparently running short of ammunition, and the evening was 
at hand. The Chine.se had torpedo-boats ; he had none ; and 
his .searchlights were shattered. He wisely decided to draw off, 
well satisfied with his day's work. He had destroyed the 
Chinese Navy as a fighting force. Five of its ships were at the 
bottom or in flames ; four more had fled ; only the two battle- 
ships were left, and they were in such a state that it was clear 
they could not be again at .sea for weeks. The Japanese, on 
the other hand, with the exception of the damage done to the 
M.\TSUSHIM.\ and their old ships — which were of no importance 
or value— had suffered but little ; all their other ships were intact 
total loss in men was only 298, while the Chinese had lost at 



and ready to renew the fight Their 
least 700 men. 

The battle was the first revelation to the world of the astonishing efficiency of the Japanese Navy. 
With unarmoured ships it had confronted and defeated decisively a fleet containing several good armoured 

ships. The tactics of its officers, the bravery of its seamen, had been above reproach. 
Jananese'^Navv * before the battle it had been feared in Japan that the Satsuma men, who manned the 

fleet, would be reckless in their courage, 
and would be liable to run too great risk. But Ito showed 
that he combined caution with daring, and courted no 
excessive danger. When the thunder of the guns died 
away. Japan had become a Great Power. The effici- 
ency of her fleet was a reminder to Europe that she 
must thenceforward be counted by the world in settling 
the destinies of the Far Fast. The battle settled the 
i.ssue of the war, and opened the heart of China to attack. 
If the Japanese had not been prevented by the European 
Powers from landing and at once advancing on Pekin, 
they would have struck at the Chinese capital. But as 
it was they were forbidden to do so, and did not think 
it wise to disobey. They had then no ally. 

Failing Pekin, they could attack 

the Chine.se naval bases, and Port 

Arthur was the first marked down for 
capture. A long pause in the operations followed, while 
the plans and preparations were being made. Marshal 
Yamataga with one army corps crossed the Yalu, driving 
the Chinese army before him in Manchuria, and treating 
the ijeople of Manchuria with a kindness and sense of 

■ '^ VICE-ADMIRAL BARON YAM.\M0T0. 

ju.stice .such as they had never before experienced, while Japanese minister of the naw. 

I 1 •»* ■ ^1 r\ L I J • Has travelled round the world, and served on a German warship. 

a second army, under Marshal Oyama, embarked in vice-admiral 1898. 



The Stormingr 01 
Port Arthur. 




1894 



THE SIEGE OF PORT ARTHUR. 



27 



transports and proceeded b\- sea to the 

mouth of the Hun Yuan River, to the 

west of Port Arthur. Here, on October 24, 

a small party of marines from the fleet 

stole ashore before dawn, and seized a 

commanding position. The army then 

rapidly disembarked, without any resist- 
ance on the part of the Chinese, and on 

the 2Sth began its march upon Fort 

Arthur. Kinchow was stormed on 

November 6, a prixate distinguishing 

himself by going forward in a terrific fire 

and planting a case of gun-cotton close 

to the main-gate. Talienwan, where now 

stands Dalny, was taken next day, and 

the fine forts passed into the hands of the 

Japanese, almost without striking a blow. 

The siege of Port Arthur now began. '- — 

None of the Chinese ships were in the 

harbour ; they had withdrawn t(j Wei-hai-wei, when the)' discovered 

what was coming. The Port Arthur forts offered a most 

indifferent resistance, and the Chinese, who had slowly tortured to 

death a number of Japanese prisoners, behaved with the utmost 

cowardice. On November 21 Port Arthur was carried by 

storm, and the stormers, finding the mutilated bodies of their 

comrades displayed on posts when they burst into the town, 

were carried away by a desire for vengeance, w hich no army in the 

world could have withstood. They cut down e\ery Chinaman 

they found, and a day passed before their officers could get them 

under control. It was a sad incident for the honour of Japan, 

since she who had conducted this campaign with e.xcinplary mercy 

for. her enemy, was now accused of barbarous savagery. But events 

which the future held in store for China were to show that Japanese 

" savagery," compared with the tenderness of many Christian European nations, was gentleness itself. 

I'hc fall of Port .Arthur cau.sed a 
prodigious panic at Pekin ; the 
fortress had been regarded as im- 
pregnable, not only by the Chinese, 
but also by many Europeans who 
had e.xamined its powerful works, 
armed with the latest pattern ol 
heavy gun. 

After this success, the Japanese 
Army in Manchuria pushed s\\ iftly 
forward towards Mukden, through 
country buried in snow, inflicting 
repeated small defeats upon the 
Chinese, who, contrary to the 
general belief of Europe, fought 
extremely well. It was finallj- 




iCribb ptioto. 
THE TORPEDO NET. 
Showing how the iitt is rolled on a Jap;inese warship 
when nut in use. 




ITRINC A WnrrEHEAU TORl'KUO. 



ICribb photo. 



Torpedoes of a larRer pattern than this were used by the Japanese in the attacks on the RussUan Oeet at 
F*i>rt Arthur with tremendous effect. 



28 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM, 



1895 



brought to a stop 80 miles south of the capital of Manchuria by the extraordinary se\erity of the 
winter. Nothing was to be gained by a further advance in this terrible climate ; it must have involved 
hea\y loss of Hfe from exjx>sure to eold. 

But while resting on their oars in Manchuria, the Japanese turned their attention to Wei-hai-wei, the 

last remaining stronghold of the Chinese in the tiulf of Pechili. Thither the sorry reftmant of 

the Chinese Fleet had retreated after the Battle of the Yalu, and there it lay 

Wei-hai-weL° u'^ler the guns of the great fortress. The Japanese determined to destroy or 

capture the last Chinese ships, when they would be secured against any attack from. 

the Chinese battleships, directed against their rear. 

On January 18, 1895, three Japanese cruisers appeared off the coast some miles to the east of 



Wei-hai-wei, and opened fire on a 
object was to divert the attention of 
which was to be the real objective. 
i by the bulk of the Japanese 



Chinese fort at Tengchow. Their 
the Chinese from Wei-hai-wei, 
Next day fifty transports, con- 
Fleet, left what is now Dalny^ 
force ; on January 26, the disem- 
Japanese force began its advance 
on Wei-hai-wei, which place was. 
already being shelled occasionally 
at long range by the fleet. A 
summons to Admiral Ting to 
surrender was sent in by a British 
ship, but was indignantly re- 
pulsed by Admiral Ting. Inside 
the harbour were the Chinese 
battleships Cken Yuen and Ting 
Yuen, with the cruisers Tsi Yuen,. 
Lai Yuen, Ping Yuen, Ching Yuen,. 
and the small ships Kwang Ping,. 
Wei Yuen, Kang Chi, si.x gun- 
boats, and eleven torpedo-boats — 
on paper a formidable force. 
The two entrances to the- 
harbour were closed by booms 
of steel-hawsers and timber-baulks, 
moored so as to obstruct the- 
channels and prevent torpedo 
attack. The vital point for the: 
Chinese was the island of Liu- 
Kung Tau, on which were the- 
naval workshops. 

On January 30, the Japanese Army, supported by the fleet, stormed seven of the Chinese forts on the- 
mainland commanding the harbour. The guns were found to be in good order, and were forthwith |iirned 
upon the Chinese Fleet and the forts on the island of Liu-Kung Tau. That very night- 
Chinese" Forts *'^*^^' ^''^^ "P°" -some ves.sels which were observed near one of the Chinese booii;s, not; 
knowing that these vessels were their own torpedo-boats. Warned of this, tl;c Japanese 
Army was prepared to support a second attack of the torpedo-boats on the night of the 31st. But the 
weather was so inten.sely cold and stormy that the attack had to be abandoned, and not till February 2 did 
it -clear -sufficiently to jjcrmit of operations. The interval was used by the Chinese seamen to .strengthen 
their |X)sition. They were now lying in their own harbour, expo.sed ^o the fire of the guns of their own forts, 
with a ctrong blockading fleet outside, and with not a foot of dry ground to call their own, except the island: 




' '].\:i:;ht Adelphi Press -Agency. 
THK CHINESE MAN-OK-WAR "WEI-YUEN" 
This wM sunk off lh« pier at Liu Kung Isl.-ind in 1895. 



1895 



THE WAR WITH CHINA. 



29 




The Torpedo 
Attack. 



THE CAPTURE OF PING YANG BY THE JAPANESE ARMY, 1894. 
The Chinese were strongly entrenched behind the River Taidong, but the Japanese were in superior force. The Chinese lost 2,000 killed, and 600 wounded. 

See page 22. 

ot Liung Kung Tau, on which, from its precipitous coast, the Japanese could not effect a landing. Their 
situation was desperate, but it was thought that they might hold out some weeks, till their food was 
exhausted. 

On the night of February 3, the Japanese torpedo flotilla made a fresh attempt to get at the Chinese. 
They went to work on one of the booms with a.xes and dynamite, but were not able to make a sufficiently 
wide opening to admit of their passage. Far on in the night, however, they discovered 
that close in-shore among the rocks the boom was not so strong ; and here they at last 
cleared a way for the onset of next day. Late in the night of the 4th the Japanese 
came on, piloted by Captain Togo, the present Admiral, who with two small gunboats opened fire to divert 
the attention of the 
Chinese. The boats were 
formed in three flotillas, 
from four to six strong, 
and the second and third 
flotillas were engaged, the 
third leading the way. 

The ten boats pushed 
safely through the gap at 
the inshore end of the 
boom, and then searched 
in the pitch darkness ' for 
the Chinese ships. A light 
from the porthole of one 
of these betrayed the 

G 




A JAPANESli SKETCH OK 



AX ENGAUK.MKXT I'.ETWKKX A JAPAXEsK AND A CHIXKSK 
SHIP IN THE WAR OF 1894. 



30 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1895 




IDr^vvii by K. C;ilun Woodvillc. 
CHINESE TROOPS TRYING TO SAVE THEIR ARTILLERY AFTER THE BATTLE OF PING-YANG. 




quarry, and tlie ten boats, with a simultaneous movement, steered for 
tiie Ting Yuen. 

But now a serious difficulty was encountered b\- them ; 
owing to the extreme cold, their torpedo-tubes had choked with 
ice and frozen spray, so that the torpedoes could not be fired. No. 6 
failed with both her torpedoes, as the tubes stuck ; No. 9 steamed to 
within a few j-ards of the Ting Yuen, fired her torpedoes, and hit the 
big ship, but an instant later was herself smitten b\- a shell. 



FIELU- 

MARSHAL 

\A.V1AGATA. 

Was Japanese 
Commander - in ■ 
Chief in the 
War of 1894. 
He in vaded 
M a n c h u r i .T . 
treating the 
pcopjewitn great 
consideration. 



which burst in her boiler-room, killing or 
wounding all her engine-room hands. 
She lay helpless, and rather than fall into 
the hands of the Chinese, who, as the 
Japane.sc well knew from their experience 
at Port Arthur, would put them to death 
with torture, her officers and crew were 
preparing to kill themselves, when No. 19 
lot)me<l up out of the night to their relief. 




liLACK. 1LA( 



llOU.N MIM 
IIAKUOUK. 



1895 



SINKING OF THE "TING YUEN. 



31 




THE BATTLE OK THE YALU— THE GREATEST SINCE TRAFALGAR. 



Foundering of Chinese Warship "Chih-Yuen." 



'The Japanese cruiser poured quick-firing shells into her, tore her side open on the water-line, set her on tire, 
and sent her to the bottom." See page 24. 



and took the living men on board. No. lo fired another torpedo at 
the Ting Yuen, which was thought to have exploded under the Chinese 
.ship, though actually it appears to have mis.sed. No. 5 fired two 
torpedoes at the Lai Yuen, both of which missed ; 
No. 22 fired three torpedoes without result. The 
harbour of Wei-hai-wei was now full of Japanese 
boats, some disabled, some eagerly seeking targets ; 
but the intense cold, which probably affected the mechanism of the 
torpedoes, prevented this gallant attack from making a complete end 
of the Chinese. Si.x of the boats were more or less injured from the 



Japanese 

in Wei-hai-wei 

Harbour. 





THE "CHIH-VUEN" AFTER THE BATTLE OF YALU. 
H.M.S. "Alacrity" visiting the scene. 



ADMIRAL 
ITO. 
He was 
Com mander 
of the Jap- 
anese Fleet 
in the War 
with china, 
1894-5. 



Chinese fire or from striking the rocks ; 
but all were got out of the harbour 
except No. 9, which sank as she was 
being towed off. 

In this onset the Chinese battleship 
Ting Yuen was hit by No. 9. There 
was a " heavy, quivering shock, such as 



32 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1895 




>rii.;i uiiM.^K riAiM. i;ki(iri 



in the mud. But the fires in her boilers were not put out by the water till 
late in the afternoon of the sth. She was now helpless and useless — a mere 
wreck, with onl>' her deck showing above water. Thus, what the Japanese 
jjuns had failed to effect as the result of a whole day's firing in the Battle 
of the Valu, the Japanese torpedoes had accomplished in a few moments, at 
insignificant cost in money and in life. 

Before delivering this attack the crews of the Japanese boats had been 
warned to prepare for death. They left all their property on board the big 
.ships of their fleet, made their last dispositions, and went in as men who do 
not e.xpect to come out alive. Yet the loss of life was not heavy — twenty 
men were scalded or frozen to death, and about as many were wounded. 
A fresh attack was ordered most reluctantly by Admiral Ito to take 
place the ne.\t night. He began to fear that he was sending men to certain 



an earthquake would be 
like. The sound of the 
explosion was a loud, dull 
thud. A column of water 
dashed on 
The Sinking ^oard, and 

of the 
" Ting Yuen." ^"^''^ "'^^ ^ 
faint, sickly 

smell." The ship at 

once began to settle in 
the shallow water ; ever)' 
watertight door leaked as 
the result of the violent 
shock ; and she was 
headed for the shallow as 
the water rose inside her, 
and there she took the 
L;round and slowly sank 




ll'liolo by II. S. MeiidulsMilin. 
ADiNURAL TINt;. 
The Chinese Admir.il in tlie War of 
1894-5, who died by his own h.ind, .-ifter 
he had hoisted the white flag, rather than be 
taken by the Japanes*^ 




^i* I 




ThU is on the road to Seoul, and was burnt down in 1H94, during the battle which bears its name. 



1895 



TORPEDOING THE CHINESE SHIPS. 



33 




AXOTHER INCIUENX AT THE liAXTLE OF I'ING VAN(i. STORMINC A CHINESE rOSlTION. 



death for little or no result, as the fact that the Ting Yuen was completely disabled was not yet known 
■ to the Japanese. Commander ^lochihara, who was in charge of the whole flotilla, addressed his men that 
day, the 5th ; told them once more that there was little chance of escape, but that the time had come 
to die for Japan ; and with the words : " Our boats and our bodies are the enemy's," led the first flotilla in as 
the night of the 5-6th was drawing to dawn. 

Once more the attack was pressed with the most extraordinary resolution. " Take no chances, close in 

on the big ships before letting go \'our torpedoes," were the orders ; and they were obeyed to the letter. 

No. 23 charged the boom at full speed and cleared it — a terrible trial to her crew and 

Chinpsp Shin<! hull. No. 23 approached the Wei Yuen, fired a torpedo at her, saw the sea ri.se 

mountainously, and then the Chinese ship disappear. The KoTAK.\ clo.sed on the 

Lai Yuen, and at the closest quarters fired at her a torpedo, whereupon the Chine.se ship began to fill, heeled 

sharply over, and capsized, with all her crew on board. The living men in her were left alive as she floated, 

bottom up, in the harbour, and were heard 
knocking on the roof of their steel tomb. 
F^ffbrts were made in vain to cut through 
the metal and release them, but they 
perished miserably before help could 
arrive. Yet another torpedo exploded 
under a Chinese launch and flung half 
the vessel upon a wharf The Citing 
Yuen is said to have been hit on this night, 
though the evidence for this is most 
doubtful ; and if the torpedo did strike her, 
it caused no damage. The only powerful 
Chinese ships left intact were the battleship 
iPhoto Topical Press Agency^ '^^'^« ^"'" and the cruiser Tsi Yuen. All 
TO JAPAN (1894^5)1^ °^ CHINA'S WAR the Japanese boats escaped with little los.s. 



PAYABLE IN THE PUBLIC DRAWING OFFICE. 



. ^f ////r 



M. 



/J/ yn «-y ■Sevf~x K. /<9^^ 




^h^d^MS 



photo<;kai'h (u 



IHK CHEQUE WHICH PAID PART OF CHINA'S WAR 
IXUE.MNITY 



34 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1895 



Tlic end of Wei-hai-wei now came quickly. On the 9th the damaged Chiiig Yuen was sunk hy a 
shell, and on the 12th Ting, in aw utterly hopeless position, hoisted the white flag. He paid no attention to 



The Death of 
Admiral Ting. 



a chivalrous and touching 

which calle<l 

to the Japan- 

the regenera- 

own hand, with many of his 

reputation of the war on the 

took pos.session of the place 

Chinese torpedo craft had 

bolt for freedom, and had all 

.\11 possible honour and 

Japanese to the dead Chinese 

The fall of W'ci-hai-wei pro- 

that when, immediately after 

once more to advance in 

(jovernment at length sued 

signed at 

"'filler °' by the ten.s 
Formosa, the 
Peninsula, on which stands 
of ^^32,000,000. Until the 
to occupy Wei-hai-wei. Korea 
China as independent. But 
signed when a new force ap- 




l.lKUrKN.AM-ljfcNKKAL li.VRON VAMAGUCHI. 

Is Commander of the Japanese Fifth Division. This distinguished 

otlicer was Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Relief Expedition 

during the Siege of Pekin, 1 900. 



appeal from Admiral Ito, 
upon him to surrender alive 
ese, and with them to work for 
tion of China, but died b}- his 
officers, leaving the one noble 
Chinese side. The Japanese 
and the ships in it, thougli the 
previously made a desperate 
been captured or destroyed, 
respect were shown b_\" the 
admiral. 

duced such an effect in China, 
it, the Japanese Army began 
Manchuria, the Chinese 
for peace. A treaty was 
Sliimonseki, on April 17, 1895, 
of ^vhich Japan was to receive 
Pescadores, the Liao-tong 
Port Arthur, and an indemnity 
indemnity was paid, she was 
was to be recognised by 
scarcely had the treaty been 
pcarcd on the scene. Sud- 



denly the Japanese learnt that an alliance had been formed between Russia, Germany, and France, with 
the e.vpress object of compelling them to surrender their gains. A forcible note from the Russian 




JAPANESE TROOPS PASSING THROUGH TUNG-CHAU DURING THE WAR OK 1894-5. 



1895 



JAPAN SURRENDERS PORT ARTHUR. 



35 




JAPANESE SEIZURE OF PORT ARTHUR, 1894. 
Advancing through main street, they found it strewed from end to end with debris. 



[Drawn by Melton Prior. 



Government informed Japan that her occupation of Port Arthur was 

integrity of China and the independence 

of Korea." She was told in .so manv 

words to " get out," or to look for war. 

And in the offing appeared the powerful 

.squadrons of the three nations — Russia, 

France, and Germany — cleared for 

action, and seemingly intending to strike. 

In her agony Japan turned to 
England for hel|). But England was 
undecided and unready. She counsellcil 
the Japanese to yield, but told them that 
the British Fleet would prevent any 
attack upon them if they did. 

Exhausted by 
TruSS"^ the war, with her 
treasury empt\-, 
with no modern battleships in her 
fleet, with no friends and allies, still a 
pariah among the nations, Japan deter- 
mined to give way. Her people, her 
.seamen were for fighting, but the wiser 



deemed a " menace to the 




THE GATEWAY TO Till; liiKj'jIui hll'AklMlNT AT PORT ARTHUR. 
Taken :itter its sei/urc by tile JitpanirM;, 1894. 



36 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1895-7 




HOW JHK CHINESE AKMV WA.S DISCIJ'LINEIJ ON THE .MARCH. 



and cooler heads of tlie 
Marqui.s Ito and the men 
\vh(i lia\e .since become .so 
famous as the Elder 
Statesmen, pointed out 
the foil}- of such a course. 
It mi^ht have been heroic ; 
it must ha\e spelt disaster 
for Japan. Far better 
for her to accept \\hal 
s^^ains she was permitted 
to retain, and to wait. 
She signified her intention 
to yield ; she applied the 
indemnit}' which she had 
received from China, and 
which had been increa.sed 
in amount to ;^37,ooo,ooo 
so as to compensate her 
for the loss of J'ort 
.Arthur, to the construc- 
tion of a ^reat naval j^ro- . 
L^ramme ; she reorganised 
her Arm)' ; and she con- 
tinued vif^cjroush- upon the 
l^ath of reform. She had 
now proved her worth and 
valour in battle — that 
worth and \alour would 
in the fulness of time, 
she well knew, bring her 
allies. 



rHK SINKINf. OF THE CHINESE 

.MAN-OF-WAR "CHINCl YUEN," 

IN WEI-HAl-WEI HAKROUR. 

The sky w.-is overcnst at the moment the 
photogr.iph was taken. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE BUILDING OF THE TRANS- 
SIBERIAN RAILWAY. 

E 'VENTS moved .swiftly in the Far East. 
Seeing China prostrate, the West deter- 
mined to carve for it.self portions out of 
the carcase which it had not permitted Japan 

to appropriate. In Novem- 
TheGemans ^^ ^^^^^ .^i,^^,;,^^ ^^ ^„ 

Klao Chau. excuse the murder of 

certain missionaries, a 

German Squadron suddenly appeared off the 




1897-8 



RUSSIA AT PORT ARTHUR. 



37 




JAPANKbE I.NIAMRV, UNDER COLONEL SATO, ATTACKING CHINESE I'OSjTIOX AI-TER CKOSSlNli T}iE RiVER VAI.U. 



magnificent Chinese iiarbour of Kiao Chau and calmly seized it, informing the Chinese th^t " common- 
sense must tell them on which side lay superior force, and that, therefore, tliey would be wise to gi\c 
way without resistance." 

That same winter, the moment the Japanese evacuated Fort Arthur, a Russian Sc[uadron dropped 

anchor there. England and Japan asked for explanations, and were told that it was " merely spending the 

winter " ; it would, " of course," depart as soon as the spring came. But, notwithstanding 

Ru-sia at j^ ^^ |] ^j api)earance of Russia at this point struck deep alarm into the hearts of 

Port Arthur. > i i i i 

the Japanese. They knew tiiat Russia, when once at Port Arthur, would want Korea, 

if only as a link between Liao-tong and Vladivostock, and they felt that the\- had been treated by ICuroiie 

with the bitterest injustice. Here was their own acquisition, which Russia and France and Germany had not 




This is on 



RESULT OK THE JAl'ANESE ATIACK ON FORT I'ELSHANTSUV, 
the North Coast of Wei-hai-wei. The island in front is Liukung Island. The guns are Krupp guns. 



38 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1897-8 



permitted them to 'retain, 
on the pretence that it 
menaced China, seized 
witiiout a protest from 
anybod)', except a few 
faint shrieks of feeble 
alarm from England, by 
the strongest and most 
aggressive Power in the 
Far East. Their dealings 
with Russia told them that 
the Russian ships would 
never depart except at the 
bidding of superior force 
— and such force they did 
not as yet possess. The 
next step was that Eng- 
land — not altogether with- 
out their suggestion — took 
possession of Wei-hai-wei, 
and pretended to convert 
it into a naval station, 
only dropping the pretence 
some )-ears later, when 
much money had been 
wasted on a half-hearted 
policy. 

All through these years 

after the 
The Making: 

of the war, Japan 

Trans-Siberian ^^^s feeling 
Railway. 

more and 

more the power of Russia. 
At every turn she found 

herself thwarted by the Muscovite diplomacy. If she attempted to induce China to reform— a 
policy in which she was 
to some extent supported 
by England — she en- 
countered Russian 
resistance. But the 

gravest menace to her 
future was the continued 
advance of the Russian 
railways across Northern 
Asia. 

Towards the close of 
the 'nineties the Trans- 
Siberian Railway began 
to approach the waters 
of the Pacific, thus placing 




JAPANESE OFFICERS INTERROGATING CHINESE PRISONERS AFTER THE BATTLE OF 

PING VANG. 




CAPTAIN MATSUZAKI LEADING HIS MEN ACROSS A RIVER DURING THE ADVANCE ON 

SONG-HWAN. A Japanese sketch. 



1872-80 



THE COMING OF THE SIBERIAN RAILWAY. 



39 




SINKING OF CHINESE TROOPSHIP " KO\V-SHIN'(; " 1!V JAPAXKSK CRUISER -NANIWA." 

This was sunk by Captain (now Admiral) Togo. It was a British ship used by the Chinese, and had English oflicers on board. But, ignoring their ad\icc 

the Chinese refused to surrender. See page 19. 

European Ru.ssia in direct communication with this remote quarter of Asia. From the Japanese standpoint, 
each mile of this line that was laid and opened to traffic brought Ru.ssia nearer to their doors and increased 
the peril for them. 

It was in the early 'seventies that the 
Russian Government first began to 
contemplate the construction of a railway 
across Northern Asia which should do 
for Russia what the Union Pacific was 
then about to achieve for the United 
States. In the years 1872-4 Government 
surveys were made in Western Siberia, 
but little more than the rough mapping 
of the route was accomplished. There 
were financial difficulties in the way, and 
much of the country which would be 
traversed was still desolate, unsettled, and 
almost unknown. 

The Russian railway system crossed 
the Urals and entered Asia in 1880, 
when the construction of a line from 
Ekaterinburg to Tiumen was taken in 




JAPANESE UK.METERY ON THE ITKI.i) UI- IIATTLK. 
TO DE.\D COMRADES. 



.MILITARY HONOURS 



1891 



LAYING THE FIRST STONE OF THE RAILWAY. 



41 



The Czar Orders 
the Railway. 



hand. But, after this, for some \ears nothing more was done. A report, drawn up by Count Ignaticff, tlie 
Vice-Governor of Siberia in 1885, declared: "I must own with shame and grief that until now the 
Government has attempted Httle towards satisfying the needs of this rich but neglected 
country." At that date, however, few could be induced to believe that Siberia was 
rich, or that in its fertile soil and magnificent mineral deposits were treasures not to 
be equalled in any other territory in the world. In 1887 the Czar Alexander III., whose attention had been 
drawn to this opinion of his subordinate, ordered that as quickly and cheaply as possible two lines should 
be built. One was to run from Tomsk to Irkutsk and Lake Baikal ; the other from Lake Baikal to the 
point at which the navigation of the Amur became practicable. These two railways when constructed would 
give a means of communication by railway and river between Russia in Europe and the Far Last. But 
this would only be during about three months of the year, when the rivers were free from ice and the Arctic 
Ocean from floes and pack. 
The construction of 
these railways was taken 
in hand in a leisure!)' 
fashion, but while they 
were still in a very ele- 
mentary stage the success 
of the Cana- 

^. J*!® dian Pacific 

First Stone 

Laid. Railway led 

the Czar and 
his advisers to entertain 
more ambitious projects. 
They now contemplated a 
complete and unbroken 
railway, 5,500 miles long, 
from Moscow to Vladivo- 
stock, which was then the 
centre of Russian power 
in the Far East. In 1890 
the Czar ordered a 
Russian main line, which 
had now been pushed to 
Zlatoust, in the heart of 
the Urals, to be advanced 
into Siberia, and in March. 
1 89 1, an Imperial rescript 
finally directed the con- 
struction of the Trans- 
Siberian Railway, starting 
from Zlatoust. The Czare- 
vitch, who was then on a 
visit to the Far East, 
was ordered to lay the 
first Ktone of the line at 
Vladi\ostock, for the con- 
struction of the new system 
was to be carried forward 
both from the east and west 




1,5 Kn 



OERM.\N SOLDIERS EXECUTING CHINESE SOLDIERS. 
Daring the trouble in P^kin the Germ.->n Minister, Baron von Ketteler, w.-,s killed by tl.e .soldiers sent .o 



escort him to the V.imeii. In revenge 



for this the (.lernians killed all their prisoners. 



42 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1894-6 



The 

Construction 
of the Line. 



simultaneously. On May 19 of that year the first sod was cut. and the first stone of the great railway, that 
was to change the face of Asia, laid. Rather more than a year later a large sum was appropriated for the 
building of the line and dates fixed for the completion of the first sections of it. On the accession of the 
Czar Nicholas, in 1894, the work was prosecuted with increased energy, and throughout it was built with 

Russian material and by 
Russian engineers. 

The gauge of the new 
line was five feet ; its con- 
struction was prinn'tive, to 
avoid expense and accel- 
erate the date of com- 
pletion. All the engineer- 
ing work was as far as 
possible simplified, and 
embankments and tunnels 
were avoided, with the 
result that 
the gradi- 
ents and 
cur\es are 
often severe. The road 
was lightly ballasted, and 
to this cause and the very 
light pattern of rail used — 
541b. to the }ard instead 
of 90lb. or loolb. as in 
England — is due the fact 
that high speeds cannot be 
obtained by the trains 
without great danger. 

Moreover, defective as 
was the orginal design, it 
became worse in practice 
owing to the corruption of 
the engineers er gaged in 
making the railway. The 
rails actually laid were of 
lighter pattern than had 
been proposed, because 
lighter rails cost less, and 
the savings went into the 
engineers' pockets ; the 
bridges were not of steel 
or stone, as they should 
have been, in many in- 
stances. Work was scamped, or charged for and not accomplished. But the construction proceeded with 
rapidity. 

The first section was opened to regular traffic in 1896; it ran from Cheliabinsk to the crossing of the 
River Obi, and was 881 miles long. Acro.ss the Obi an immen.se steel bridge had to be thrown, 930 yards 
long and some 50 feet above the stream when it is in flood. The bridge was built on the spot, and is 




K.STKKINO THE EASTKKN GATE OF PEKiN 



I I)r;ivvti l.y ICrriest Prate 
FOR ITS RELIEF. 



THE JAHA.NE.'iE 

Th« Japanese relief force numbered 10,000, and most of the heavy fighting was done by them. When they reached 
the East Cfate of llie city they were met by a furious fusillade from the gate and wall, but they succeeded in blowing 

up the gate at nine o'clock. 



1898-9 



TRANSIT ACROSS LAKE BAIKAL. 



43 




of lattice-girder pattern. The central 

section of the line, i,i68 miles long, 

from the Obi to 

First Section i i » i . 

Opened. Irkutsk, was opened 

— with the exception 

of two bridges over the Selenga and 

Yenesei — in January, 1898. It brought 

the capital of Siberia, in the very heart of 

Asia, into touch with the outer world, 

and reduced the time required to reach it 

from six weeks to as many days. Two 

more gigantic bridges had to be built in 

this section of the railway, crossing the 

Rivers Yenesei and Selenga, each about a 

mile long. These bridges are of steel, on 

stone piers. In the eastern part of this 

section the appearance of the country 

changes. The monotonous plains, covered 

in the summer with flowers, are at last 

broken with hills, which rise to the south 

to a . great mountain-chain. Immense 

and melancholy pine forests cover these 

remote uplands. It is a country of vast 

distances and infinite loneliness. 

East of Irkutsk the line was opened 

to Lake Baikal, some 45 miles away, in 



BIKirS-EVE VIEW SHOWING THE TAKU FORTS 

AND THE ROUTE OF THE ADVANCE TO 

TIENTSIN AND PEKIN. 

1899. Here, owing to the amount of 
tunnelling and bridge-work that would 
ha\e been necessary, had the railway been 
carried unbroken round the stormy and 
precipitous south coast of the lake, it 
was decided for the time being to rest 
content with a ferry-steamer, which conveys 
the whole train across the lake in the 
spring and summer, from Baikal Sta- 
tion to the town of 
The Break on the Missovaia, on the east 

J , D -1 ' 1 side of the lake, where 

Lake Baikal. ' 

the line begins once 
more. This is now the only break in the 
continuous railway between the Atlantic 
and Pacific. In the winter, the lake, 
which is of fresh water and extraordinarily 
deep, freezes about November, and though 
at first a special ice-breaking steamer 
can force its way through, the thickness 
of the ice soon increases to such an extent 




HOW SIR CLAUDE MACDONALD DEFENDED THE LEGATION AT PEKIN 
All the troops and members of the various Legations had to retire within the British 
Legation walls, the last line of defence, which had no barricades to speak of, no loopholes, 
hardly any sandbags or any other cover ; and, moreover, could easily be breached in any place 
by artillery fire. Sir Claucle Macdonald, the British representative, was Commander-in-Chief. 



44 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM 



1904 




as to bring even the ice- 
breaker to a stop. In some 
}-ears the ice reaches eight 
or ten feet. In the depth 
of winter what traffic there 
is has to pass in sledges 
across the lake, which is 
often a dangerous business, 
as earthquakes are 
common, cracking the ice 
and piling it up in masses 
mountain high. The 
steamer journey takes four 
hours in fair weather, 
when the lake is free from 
ice, but storms — and very 
violent one s — a r e 
common. For the present 
war the Russian Govern- 
ment has laid a railwav 
across the ice, which will 
be used for the transport 
of stores but not of 
troops. 

Lake Baikal is the 
most serious obstacle on 
the Siberian Railwa}', and 
so long as it is frozen o\er 
it is calculated that not 
more than an average of 



THE RELIEF OF THE BESIEGED PEKIN LIGATIONS. 
" Forty Rajpuls, f.llowed later by a handful of British, made their entry, and were 
greeted by the frantic hurrahs of the white men, women, and chiklien awaiting them with 
open arnis at the gate of the Legation." The British entered Pekin by means of a sluice, 

or water-gate. 

four or five trains can be worked over the whole line each 
day. East of this great lake the country becomes 
exceedingly mountainous over the wide distance of 673 

miles, from Missovaia to Stretensk, where 
The Railway East ^j^^ upper waters of the Shilka, in steamer 

communication with Vladivostock, are 
at last reached. This section was opened in 1900. The 
Yablonoi Mountains, with their strangely rounded contours, 
were crossed at 3,600 ft. without any great difficulty, e.xxept 
from the frozen soil, which only thawed during a brief 
part of the .summer. In this part of the line the Russian 
engineers committed one of their gravest errors, carrying 
the road through swampy valleys and not alcing the sides 
of the hills. One consequence is that the permanent wax- 
is constantly subsiding or being washed away in the rainy 
season, and that miles of rails have been seen floating down 
the rivers on the sleepers. 




iriioto W. iS: 1). Uowngy. 



MARQUIS ITO. 

The maker of mc"lern Japan, and its greatest statesman. Formulated 

the Japanese Constitution. 



1904 



THE MANCHURIA N RAILWAY. 



45 



It is in this section of the line, at 
Kaidalovo, that the rail\va\- throu<jh 
Mancliuria, which is now the main line, 
diverges for Harbin and \'Iadivostocl<. 
This is beh'e\ed to have been secretl_\- 
planned wiicn the Siberian railway was 

first projected, but 
The Manehurian ,- , , 

Railway. I'^urope heard no- 

thing of it until 
1896, when the concession for the Man- 
ehurian raihva}- ^\•as obtained from the 
Chinese Government b\- M. Pavloff. Yet 
stealth}- sur\eys are known to have been 
made b\- Russian engineers alcjiig the 
mute of tlie line some \-ears before the 
concession was granted, from which it 
would appear that the Japanese made 
their first dasli at Port Arthur not a 
moment too soon. In .April, 1897, the 
first undisguised party of Russian 
engineers appeared in Manchuria, with a 
strong guard of Cossacks, and began 
the construction of the short cut across 
. Manchuria to Vladivostock. When, at 
the close of 1 897, a Russian Fleet entered 
Port Arthur to winter there, yet another 
line to that point, diverging at Harbin 
from the Vladivostock railway, was begun. 

The older route, as laid down in the plans which were made known to Europe, was to have pa.ssed down 

the Amur Valley, through wild forest country as far as Vladivostock, and would have been about 1,800 

miles long from Stretensk. But a gap has been left of 1,333 miles in the mo.st difficult 

the Line. region, between Stretensk and Khabarovsk, to which point a line 486 miles long was 

opened in 1897 from Vladivostock. The railway through Manchuria to Port Arthur 

was working in 1902, and was actually completed in September, 1903, when for the first time the mails for 

the Far East were sent by the new route. The time taken to go by express from Moscow to Dalny or Port 

-Arthur is twelve and a half days, and the fare, first class, ^^39 or £40. 




RUSSIAN SOLDIERS GUARDING THE AIANCIIL. KIAN RAILWAY. 




Major 
iernikofi. 



Brl^^.-Geii 
Pjapunoff. 



Capt. 
Dtniydow. 

SOME NOTAI'.LF. OFFICERS IN THE RUSSIAN ARMY. 



( icnt^ral 
Kcbiiider. 



46 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 



Long before the railway across Asia — 4,047 miles from Cheliabiiisk co Port Arthur — was ready for 

through trains, the defects in the permanent way were discovered to be serious, and in 1898, when the 

western part of the line had only just been opened, ;^ 10,000,000 was appropriated for 

Beiects In the ^^^ improvement of the road. Two years later it was decided to relay the central and 

eastern sections with 721b. rails instead of 541b., to ballast the line, and to replace 1,429 

wooden bridges with more permanent structures. At the same time additional sidings were to be provided, 

giving one passing place for trains everj' 24 miles. 

These modifications were to have been completed by 1908, so that in the present year, 1904, they 
cannot have been carried out. It was also decided in 1903 to double the line. Its total cost up to 
1903 was over ;^84,ooo,ooo. 




SOME ENE.MIES OF THE .MANCllLKlAX KAU,UA\. 
These are the Chunchuses, the nomads of Manchuria, a fearless people who have given the Russians much trouble alrc-idy by damaging the railway. 



It is not too much to .say that upon the success or failure of this line depends Russia's prospect of 

victory or defeat in the war with Japan, which has been seen so long to be approaching, and which has now 

come at last. The railway is the artery vital to Russian power in the I'ar ICast. But 

the War ^^^ problem of maintaining in the field a great army, at a distance from the real base of 

well over 4,000 miles, by a single, poorly-laid line of rails is one almost incapable of 

solution. It is something like the problem of supplying a great city with water through a one-inch 

pipe. 

Force an excess of traffic upon the line, and there must be a breakdown ; force too much water into the 
pipe, and it will burst. Yet the railway remains a grandiose monument of Russian energy and foresight. 
and the day will assuredly come when a vast Russian population will fill the boundless plains through 
which it passes. 



1898 



THE QUESTION OF KOREA. 



47 




LTupical Press Agency. 

TRAIN CROSSING OS RIVER-BED TRACK OF THE SUNGARI, 
WHILE BUILDING THE BRIDGE. 



CHAPTER IV. 
THE BOXER INSURRECTION. 



A 



S they watched the Russian railhead 

creepin^r nearer, ever nearer, the sense of 

their danger grew within the hearts <jf 

the Japanese. Russian influence was more and 

more felt by them in Korea, and it .seemed that 

all the blood shed by them in the struggle of 

1894-5 had been fruitlesslv 
The Control of 1 r .1 ■ 

Korea. poured forth upon the ground. 

In .sorrow and disillusionment 

passed these years. Desperate efforts, as the time 

was so short, were made by Japan to reform 

Korea, and as is often the ca.se when men are 

hurried, the Japanese strove to go too fast. 

Change after change was introduced at their 



instigation, but they were only building a 
castle on the sand. Their very energy 
provoked a reaction, for the Koreans hated 
progress as e\il hates good. The collapse 
of the reform movement in Korea followed, 
.with the general discrediting of the 
Japanese; and in 1896, not altogether to 
the liking of the Japanese people, Japan 
and Russia concluded an agreement with 
regard to Korea by which each Govern- 
ment was to build certain telegraph lines, 
and jointly to control the Korean 
Government, taking steps to secure 




[Topical Press Agency. 
.SCENE AT THE SUNGARI BRIDGE DURING CONSTRUCTION. 




[Topical Press Agency. 
THE GREAT RAILWAY BRIDGE ON THE SUNGARI RIVER 
AT HARBIN. 



certain important reforms. It would seem that 
this agreement was due to a w ish to work honestly 
with Russia ; but all agreements require two 
parties to keep them. 

Russia did not observe her share of the 
compact; instead, she landed troops at Chemulpo, 
and got the Korean Emperor 
into her hands. At the same 
time Japan received news 
from Europe, in 1898, that 
the Russian Government had decided to build a 
large fleet specially for the Far East, not taking 
the trouble to conceal from anj-one the fact that it 
was intended to coerce Japan. These events com- 
pelled Japan to reconsider her position. In 1898 
she made it clear to Russia that she must 
recognise the integrity of Korea or fight, and 



Korea's 

Independence 

Acknowledged. 



46 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1900 




"' RKATKKINBrUO 



I H E R I A 



OMSK 




ipllel "'^^ ISMIWAV l<iTi»uxk OMSK 

«- _,l(0OMtHS — 






THIS JIAP SHOWS THE COURSK OF THE— 



The Faithlessness 
of Russia 
in 1900. 



K u s s I a 
ijavc \va\'. 
A treat\- 
w as c o n - 
eluded at 
Tokio, by 
whicli both 
c ountries 
a c k n o w - 
led 5^ c d 
K o r e a n 
i n depend- 
ence, and 
pledged themsches not to meddle with the politics of the country. 
Russia further admitted Japan's rii^ht to exploit the countr)- 
commerciallw 

Ajjain this treaty was disregarded by Russia. In the spring of 
1900 it became known to the Japanese Govern- 
ment that Russia was endeavouring to obtain a 
coaling and naval station at Masanpo, on the 
Straits of Korea, almost in sight of Japanese 
territor)-. This was an open breach of the treaty, but Japan had by 
this time ceased to look for good faith in Ru.ssian dealings. She always received assurances and promises, 
couched in a .somewhat contemptuous form, when she protested ; but the assurances were never fulfilled or 
the promises executed. She was too much alarmed on this occasion to rest content with Russian words, 
and at once took steps to prevent the Korean Government from granting the required concession. More 
than this, she mobilised her fleet and proceeded to hold great mantjeuvres ; while for some weeks peace and 
war hung in the balance. Her navv was now growing in strength, and she might have fought with every 
chance of success, when events in China up.set all calculations and diverted her energies to a new quarter, 
where she was a .second time to prove her prowess on the battlefield. 

Suddenly, violently, with the fury of a pent-up volcano, the North of China erupted, when the Bo.xers 
directed all their energy again.st all foreigners. The \ irtual partition of their country had goaded the Chine.se 
to desperation. " Get rid of the barbarians ! " was the cry of the mob ; and the German 
Insurrection Minister at Pekin, who was responsible for the seizure of Kiao Chau, with the Chancellor 

of the Japanese Legation, who was held accountable for the war of 1894, were murdered 
in June, 1900. The Legations were beset on June 20, and were in imminent peril. Held by a small force 
of 407 men, they appealed to the navies of the Powers 
for help. Admiral Seymour, with all the available 
men from the British and American .squadrons and 
detachments from the fleets of other Powers, had already 
started to their aid from Tientsin on June 10. It was 
understCKxl that the Chinese regular troops, who were 
formidable, would not prevent the passage of this small 
force if they were not directly attacked. The British 
.Squadron was left almost helpless, without trained 
.seamen. 

.Scarcely had the force started when the f(jreign 
admirals, who had remained behind, met, and determined 
to attack the Taku Forts, thus dooming .Admiral 
.Seymour's force to probable destruction, as it was 



'rom stereographs copy- 
Underwoocl & Under- 
London iS: Ne 

TRANS-SIBERIAN 
LWAY TRAIN AT 
UKDEN ST.VriON. 




1900 



THE MARCH TO PEKIN. 



49 



EAST 




I I{ E R I A 



NIKOLAIEVSKJ 

\Ml?H FKOVINCK 

IA8A(y)VSK 
vxAnT 




/ M A N C H U H I A 

TSnSIIIAR 

O IIAHI'I 




— TRANS-SIliERIAN RAILWAY FROM ST. PETERSBURG TO PORT ARTHUR 



Taking of the 
Taku Forts. 




certain 
that the 
Chinese 
woiikl re- 
gard this 
as an act 
() f w a r . 
W hoever 
was re- 
sponsible 
for the 
d e c i s i o n 

must be held guilty of a grave error of judgment ; and it was fortunate 
tliat the consequences were not more serious than they actually were. 

Though the Taku Forts were easily stormed and 

captured, Admiral Seymour was at once attacked. 

and was brought to a stand and himself besieged 
to the west of Tientsin in June. Here he was relieved with great 
difficulty by a combined force on June 27. But the problem was 
now how to relieve Pekin and the small band of foreigners immured there. 

I'Vom what quarter was help to be obtained before the Legations feH — to hew a way through the hordes 
of Chinese rebels and, perhaps, of Chinese regulars ? 

Not from Japan. The Russian Minister in the United States declared that Russia could not entrust 
■Japan with the task of saving the Europeans in Pekin, because to do so would be to cede her place to Japan 

and lose her prestige in the East. In mid-June the Japanese Minister in London 

oc^i^^T- ^^^ informed the British Government that Japan would send men to rescue Admiral Se\mour 
25,000 Troops. -^ ' ■ 

if England approved ; and a few days later Lord Salisbury begged her to intervene with 
a large force. But she hesitated, fearing the Russian alliance, and aware that to strike a heavy blow at China 
would simply play the Russian game. She was poor, and she wanted guarantees that the expenses of her 
ojjerations would be repaid her. Lord Salisbury gave her assurances that England would support her, and 
applied to the Czar to know if he would approve of the landing of 25,000 Japanese in China, appealing also 
to Germany to do her utmost to reassure Japan. The Czar gave a vague, ambiguous answer ; the Kai.ser 

declared that he would not undertake the responsibility of 
supporting Japan. These two replies might have meant the 
horrible doom of every white man in Pekin had not England acted. 
Of her own responsibility she promised to guarantee the expen.ses 
of Japan, and to aid her with a British force, though then our Army 
was engaged in South Africa. 

The Japanese acted with marvellous energy and celeritv'. 

They were the true Christians, since they were going to give 

their lives to save German and Russian subjects. 

They disembarked 20,000 men at Tientsin 

with surprising speed and without uttering 

any menaces against the Chinese. As for Germany, she shipped a 

considerable force, which moved too late, after it had been addressed 

by the Kaiser and ordered to " kill and slaj- like the Huns " ; to 

grant no quarter to the Chinese — and this from a Power whose 

Press had expressed its indignation at the Port Arthur massacre ! 

A British-Indian force, under General Gaselee, reached Tientsin in 




The March 
to Pekin. 



M. G1RCH.M4NN', 
Russian Constructor of the Manchuriaii Railway. 



time to march to the relief of Pekin. 



50 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Civilised and 
Uncivilised Troops. 



The force which actually took the field for the relief of Pekin consisted oi 10,000 Japanese, 4,000 
Russians, 3,000 British, 2,000 Americans, and 900 of other nationalities. It began its forward movement 
from Tientsin on August 4, 1900, and most of the heavy fighting fell to the lot of the Japanese. The 
Japanese and all the foreign officers had been against an advance before September, on the ground that at 
least 60,000 men would be required to reach Pekin. But General Gaselee stated that his instructions were 
definite; he was to save the men and women beleaguered in the Pekin Legations, and if the other allies 
would not support him, he must go alone. On this the Japanese and American Generals both promised him 
tlieir support, and the other allies decided to throw in their lot with him. Yet it was afterwards believed 
that the Japane.se and Russians had been right in their view, and that the march with so weak a force was 
successful only because that summer was an abnormally dry one, so that there was little water in the water- 
courses, and the Chinese defence was greatly weakened. 

In this campaign the Japanese under General 
Vamaguchi were everywhere in evidence, and performed 
brilliantly. They seldom looted, and they were guilty 
of fewer e.xcesses than any other of the Western troops, 
except the British and Americans, 
while the Russians massacred coolies 
by the hundred at Taku, and Chinese 
by the thousand at Blagovestchensk. The progress of 
the Germans was marked by fire and sword. Even 
the French gave way to their passions. It was said by 
an American officer of rank who saw the deeds done in 
this expedition, that " You can divide the troops in China 
into two classes — the civilised and the uncivilised. The 
civilised are the English, Americans, and Japanese." In 
the quarters of Pekin occupied by the last three 
nationalities the Chinese quickly settled down ; the German 
and Russian quarters remained deserted. 

THK TR.VIN FEKKV. 
'Ihcrc is a great gap in the Trans-Siberian Railway, madt: 
by l.akc Baikal. Across this the trains have to be ferried ni 
tbc *-csscl shown above, which, before the ice is too hard, 
breaks the ice as it travels. Its track through the ice is shown 
in the second photograph. The train ferry " will break through 
ice 34 inches thick, and her bow is made with a curve, so that 
when the ice is thicker, she can be backed, and then go full 
steam at the ice, partly climb on it with her impetus, and then 
crush it with her weight." At present a railway has been laid 
across the ice. 

Even here the Russians did not 
behave fairly to their comrades-in-arms. 
Anxious to steal a march on the other 
allies by forcing his way into Pekin alone, 
the Russian General Linievitch, without 
informing the other generals, made a night 
march to the gates of Pekin, but got into 
difficulties, was repulsed in an assault on the walls, and lost heavily. By a just retribution the British, 
who had throughout acted fairly, were the first to get into the city next day, though their success was 
greatly due to the courage of the Americans and Japanese, who delivered simultaneous attacks, and suffered 
considerably. 

Nor was this by any means the last instance of Russian sharp practice in this war. It was decided by 
the allied generals that a triumphal march through the conquered city should take place on August 28, and 
there was much controversy as to which nation should lead the way. The Russians were determined by 





THK TK.\CK. OK 



TRAIN IKKKV I.\ THK ICK. 



1900 



RUSSIA'S SHARP PRACTICE. 



liook or by crook to obtain this post of honour, realising 

tile prestige it would give them with the Chinese. Finally, 

it was determined that the nation with the most troops 

on the spot should lead the way. 

Russian Sharp ti,. * , t- t i . , 

Praetiee. ^ nation was Japan, who had 

ii,ooo men in the Pekin Expedition. 

]5ut General Linievitch was quite equal to the occasion. 

Turning to the Japanese General, Yamaguchi, he said 

to him : " How many troops have you ? " With a 

literal regard for the truth, the Japanese soldier answered : 

" Eleven thousand." " Well, I have fourteen thousand," 

was General Linievitch's reply ; " that settles it." 

Four days later the same Russian General admitted 

that he had not more than S,000 men. Thus, by fraud and 

m inve- 







i" N. V. Anicrnjan. ■ 
THE MKANING OF "TEMPOKAKV." 

"And what do you mean," asked llie Mikado, "when you say 
your occupation is to be teni(>orar>- y " 

" Why," replied the suave C/^r, " we mean that we don't expect 
to be here through all eternity." 




t" Minneapolis Journ.^I." 
THE OPEN DOOR. 
Viewed from within Why it is closed. 

rising 
spread to Manchuria, the Russian e.xcesses there were 
fearful. " In war, burn and slay," was the order given 
by General Gribsky, who is still in command. In those 
hours the East learnt that Christianity had another side, 
and that the highest civilisation might not prevent the 
slaughter of thousands of innocent men, women, and 
children. 

When, after the fighting, an attempt was made to 
compel China to punish those who were guilty of 
instigating the Bo.xer excesses, Russia intervened. She 
officiously dissociated herself from the other civilised 
Powers, and asked of China as her price for this favour 
additional concessions in Mongolia and Chinese Turkestan^ 
while .she also demanded the right to occupy with her 



presen- 
tation the Russians had obtained the first place 
in the march through Pekin. " I am astonished to 
hear that you have sent away 9,000 men in the last few- 
days," said an American officer to General Linievitch, when 
he heard the admission made as to Russia's true force. 
But the incident was typical of Russian conduct in the 
Far East before and after the relief of Pekin. It may 
also explain why Japan has since paid not the smallest 
attention to Russian statements and assurances. " Once 
bitten, twice sh\-." 

The Japanese carried home from this war a more 
profound belief than e\er that certain States of the 

West respected nothing but brute 
'wlfa'dmce!" f--; that their ruling principle in 

dealing with Japan was " one law 
for me, another for thee," since they had committed 
atrocities far worse than those at Port Arthur, against 
which such an outcry had been raised. When the 
Boxer 




,<<*"-' 



["Minneapolis Tribune." 
AN OLD TRICK. 
The Bear : " I'll go in backwards, and make them think Vm coming out." 



1901 



RUSSIA IN MANCHURIA. 



53 




THE CZAR INSPECTING THE GUARDS REGIMENT OK THE NAVV 

EMBARKATION 

Events were drawing China closer 
to Japan ; and the resistance of the 
Japanese diplomatists at I'ekin to these 
Russian demands, backed b\- America 
and England, prevented the Chinese 
Government from giving way at all points 

to Russia. Finally, an 

agreement with Russia 

was signed by China 

in which Russia pro- 
mised, " if no further rebellion occurs, and 
action on the part of the Powers does 
not interfere," to evacuate Manchuria by 
April 8, 1903, a date which was subse- 
quently altered by Russia to October 8. 

She had taken 



il;iilla I'liolu. 
DEFORE 



troops the whole province of 
Manchuria. As at the very 
beginning of the Chinese 
disturbances she had given 
herself, and obtained from 
Other Powers, guarantees 
against everything conducing 
to the partition of the Chinese 
lunpire, this was an act of 
remarkable perfidy. At the 
same time, she claimed an 
indemnity on the basis of the 
number of men she was sup- 
posed to have employed in the 
field, and multiplied the actual 
figures by two, thereby de- 
frauding China of a large sum. 



Russia's Promise 
to Evacuate 
Manchuria. 



[Bulla Photo. 
GUARDS REGI.MENT 
OF THE RUSSIAN NAVV 
WAITING THE INSPEC- 
TION OF THE CZAR 
BEFORE EMBARKATION. 



possession of 
that province in 
the cour.se of the 
operations, 
and was now 





Wt. IK^-W9^ 


^f^^ 


n|i 


^ JD i- < •', 


' If "' 




Mi 


frr-ff""^ - ■ ' ■*"" 


1 



1 Hull.i Photo. 
OFFICERS OF THE GUARDS REGI.ME.NT OF THE N.WV WAITING 
THE CZAR'S ARRIVAL. 



, .*' »«- ,^. '•:• m, ,^. *^. i*,, ,^j. ,J ~ ;. ■. _ ' t 



-^ ^ > 



1,^ ^ 



I ill 'li'i 



/•/'- 1 




54 



lAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1901 





FATHKF iMiiN 'PI 1 KOXSTADT m,K^>K> AhMIKAl, MAKAKdIi w.n 
HIS DKPAKTfKK TO K)KT AKTHUK TO SL'CCEKI) AlJ.MIkAL STARK AS 
COMMANUEK OK I HK PORT ARTHUR KLKKT. 



Japanese artist. 



hastened Xo complete her niilwa} s ihiough 
it. The Japanese foreboded trouble, but 
they received the invariable Russian 
assurances that Manchuria would be given 
up in due course. At the same time 
Russia began in late 1901 to make 
oxertures to the Japanese. Realising the 
fact that they were becoming formidable, she 
attempted to draw Japan into an alliance 
against England, whose hands were then full 
with the South African War. Proposals were 
made to the effect that Japan should 
abandon all hope of expansion in Asia, 
and look oversea, to the Malay Archipelago^ 
and to the weak and defenceless colonies 
of Australia. With these proposals in 
his pocket, in 1901 the Marquis Ito \isited 
ICngland. Japan must have an alh ; she 
could not stand alone face to face with the 
I'riple Alliance in the Far East. Was 
her ally to be England or Russi.ij.^ She 
leant to England, desired ardently the 
friendship of luigland. 

In Januar)-, 1902, like the shock of an 
earthquake, came the 
news of the alliance 
between lingland and 
Japan. It was of the utmost value to 
ICngland, as affairs in .South Africa were 
going none too well, and the danger of 
intervention had not passed ; it forthw itli 



Japan's A'lianee 
with England. 



56 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1902 



.« 





\I>MIK.VI. .M.\KAkl>;"K. IN COMMAND OK THE RUSSIAN 

KLEK.T AT PORT ARTHUR. 
Bom 1^8 ; was a Lietilcnaiil in lb« KuMo-Turki-sh War ; was wttli 
Slofaclefl in Turkman ; inxTnlwl ihc icc-brcakins \'«»*el, and pcTMHially Iciletl 
it in the Arctic Sca^ 

contractiiifj Power should come to the assistance 

of that all}-, and conduct war and make peace 

in common. 

In Knjjland the Treaty was \iewed with 

satisfaction ; in Japan with enthusiasm. Both 
British Parties loyally ac- 
cepted it, and there was an 
honourable absence of any 
attempt to make party 
It was one of the causes of the 

speedy end of the South .African War, while it 

strengthened the hands of Japan immeasurably. 

There was no hostile purpose behind it. It 



The Full 

Recognition 

of Japan. 

capital out of it. 




sounded the knell of the Boer hopes that some foreign 
Power would come to the aid of the Republics. To 
Japan it was of equal value. It guarded her rear and 
prevented a combined attack from being made upon her 
by an alliance ; and she had reason to apprehend such 
an attack. Its terms were simple and concise. The 
First Article declared that neither Power entertained 
any aggressi\-e ideas, but that either was at liberty to 
take any measures required to protect its special 
interests in China or Korea. The Second Article 
ordained that if either Power, while taking those 
measures, should become involved in v\ar, the other 
would maintain neutrality, and use its efforts to induce 
others to do the same. The Third and all-important 
Article laid down that if any other Power or Powers 
should ioin in hostilities against one alh-, the second 




RKAk-AOMIkAL .vrARK. 



I of the RuaMan VUxt at Hort Ailhitf when it wa» attacked 
It ■• iMd that a ball wa> beins heki in honour of his »-ifc'« 
• Ike attack waa nade. Ha> been >upcr>eded by Admiral .Makaroff. 
Adatnl Stark wa> burn 1846. 



V1CK-A1>.\111<AI. Al.iCXElEKK 

Is Viceroy of the Russian Dominions in the Ear East. Was responsible fur Russia's 

refusal of the Japanese terms, aud is in supreme command of the Russiiui Eorces. 

Has been Russian Naval .-\ttache at Tokio. 

merely contained a warning that Japan might fight 
if her interests in Korea were menaced ; and it should 
have cleared the air. It was the full and final 
recognition of Japan as a great and civilised Power, 
and the foresight of England has rarel_\- been more 
clearly shown than when this Treaty was concluded. 
For while others were deriding the Japanese as a 
race of mere imitators, of children, of semi-civilised 
savages, she whose sons had trained the Japanese 
Navy, and had fought side by side with the Japanese 
troops in the advance to Pekin, alone recogni.sed the 
great qualities of the new race. Both parties to the 
Treaty attempted to obtain an amicable understand- 
ing with Russia, the more an.xiously as England 
was now reconciled with France, and sincerely desired 
to avoid a quarrel with the friend of her new friend. 



1902 



RUSSIAN DUPLICITY IN MANCHURIA. 



57 




CHAPTER V. 
RUSSIA'S ADVANCES IN MANCHURIA AND KOREA. 

RUSSIA did not meet these advances in a friendly manner. IJer 
conduct in Manchuria was that of a conqueror ; she behaved as 
though the country belonged to her, and speedily made it clear 
that British traders would not be permitted to enter the province 

Russian Conduet ^" "^ "^t '''^'' "''"" ^'""" ""^ "'I^'''^''^^ '"" 
in Manchuria. -Vlanchuria, British trade had been paramount ; now 

the British merchant was driven from the scene 

without so much as an apology, though all the time in ]-:urope Russian 



A J.\P,\XESE C.WALRYMAX. 

representatives were talk- 
ing vaguely to British 
statesmen of evacuating 
Chinese territory as soon 
as order was restored, 
and respecting the rights 
of other Powers. When- 
ever Russian ministers or 
ambassadors Were asked 
about Manchuria, it ap- 
peared that the Russian 
troops were just on tiie 
\ery point of leaving 
that country. But weeks, 
months, and years pa.s.sed, 
and the troops were still 
there. Between Russian 



[Ijiuwn by C 
SHIPPING COAL AT CARDIFF FOR THE SCENE OF WAR 
iiefore the outbre.ik of War. between October and Janu.yy, over 300,000 tons of coal were shipped from 

to Russia and Japan. 



W. Wyll 
Cardiir : 



58 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1902-3 



words and acts there was an impassable gult ; and even the patience of the British Government began 
tc grow wean-. 

From the first England had been prepared to concede to Russia certain rights in Manchuria, such as 
those which she exercised herself in Egypt, though the conditions under which the two countries had been 
acquired by the two Powers were altogether different ; but she asked that, if Russia remained in Manchuria 

tcmporaril}-, she should, like 
ICngland in l'".g}pt, allow equal 
liicilities to the trade of all nations. 
ICvcii Japan, with her great trade 
interests in Manchuria, was ready 
lo allow the Russian occupation to 
continue under conditions, the 
most important of which was that 
Russia should concede to Japan a 
position in Korea similar to that 
which she held herself in Man- 
churia. 

The whole of 1902 passed in 
long- protracted negotiations, with- 
iiut other result than to draw 
China closer to Japan, as Russia, 
not content with the possession of 
Manchuria, now began to assert 
claims to the Chinese province of 
Pechili, in which stands Pekin 
itself, and to send troops into 
Mongolia, thus terrifying the 
Chinese, while at the same time the Russian agents on the Korean frontier redoubled their activit)-. 

In the spring of 1903 reports reached Pekin and Tokio that a Russian force had crossed the River Yalu, 

which formed the boundary between Manchuria and Korea, and showed every intention of establishing a 

permanent settlement in Korean territory. Russia had managed to extort from the w eak 

Towards Korea. I^orean Government a concession to cut timber in the valley of the Yalu ; but when 

challenged at this point, her representative alleged, first, that the Russians in Korea had 

no armed men with them, and, .secondly, that if there were armed men, these were wanted to protect the 

tree-cutters against Korean bandits. This was a violation of the Russian treaties and understandings w ith 

Japan, while it was at the .same time calculated greatly to alarm the Japanese, who, it was well known, 




THE UITEK BIT: THE Rf.SSI.VX MINE TR.\NSPORT 



I Drawn b> .-. 1.. 
'YENESEI." 



Thtf »how» the vcjisel ile|}ositinf; n mine through its port. W'hcn a passing ship touches .iny of the 
stud.* in lh« head of the_ mine, the mine explodes. The " Venesei" was dc.troyed by one of her own 
mines at I>alDy. "Observing a Boating mine, it appro.tched it to lire on it, and drifted on to a neighbouring 
mine, which explude^l under the vesseKs bows." 




K!s;j^vgj«j|kaj^^r«i5«li ^ 



■-•■— rs^' 




li 




MINES AND COUNTER-MINKS K\1»L01»ING. 



IPhoto Symonds & Co., rortsnioutli. 



1903 



THE NAVAL PREPARATIONS. 



59 



•would never permit Korea to pass under 
Russian domination. 

Alread}' irritated at the manner in which 
Russia had seized Manchuria, at the time 
"when the Japanese troops were marching 
to Pekin to save the Legations, they saw in 
this nianceu\re an attempt to repeat in 
Korea the tactics which had succeeded so 
well in the north of China. Under co\er 
•of a cloud of promises and assurances, 
Russia was invading and occup\ing Korean 
territory As for the Korean Government, 
the Japanese well knew that this was too 
■weak to offer effecti\e resistance to an\- 
Power with a couple of regiments at its 
service. 

What increased the Japanese anxiety was 
the steady augmentation of the Russian 
Naval Forces in the Far East. In 1898, 
the Czar, as we have seen, had ordered a 
special naval programme to be taken in 
hand, about the time when he con\ened tiie 
Peace Congress. Si.x battleships, ten 
cruisers, and fifty tor- 
pedo craft had been laid 
down, as was given 
out, expressly for the 
Far East. Now these ships began to draw- 
near completion, and as each was com- 
pleted it left always for the I'acific. 

On their part the Japanese had strainerl 
ever}- nerve, and spent ever>' penn_\- which 
the>- could sjjare by the utmost self-denial, 
in the construction of battleships and 
cruisers, and the training of their Navy. 
They had accumulated immense stocks of 
guns and reserve ammunition, and it was 
noted as a sign of their foresight and 
intelligence that the pattern of their ammu- 
nition was the same as that of the British 
Na\-\-, so that, if the tw-o forces had had to 
act together, either could ha\e drawn upon 
the supi)lies of the other -and this though 
much of the ammunition had been ordered 
years before the alliance. The Japanese 
Army also had been doubled, and raised to 
the highest point of efficiency. As a fight- 
ing Power Japan had made gigantic strides 
between 1894 and 1903. 

There was a race between the two navies 



Russian and 

Japanese Naval 

Preparations. 




60 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1903 




Japan's Fleet. 



SHIPPING CATTLE ON LIGHTERS 

AT CHEFOO FOR THE 

RUSSIANS AT PORT ARTHUR. 

unending; stream : the 
battleships Peresviet, 
Petropavlosk\ Poltai'a, 
Sevastopol, and the 
cruisers Gromovoi, Rossia 
and Riirik, were, in 
March, reinforced by a 
number of destroyers and 
b\- the fast crui.sers Vitriaf^ 
and Aikold. The first- 
named had been .sent on 
the voyage out to show 
ner four funnels in the 
1'er.sian Gulf; and it is 
said that the |x;ople of 
the Gulf were greatly im- 
pressed by this prodigious 
di.splay of smokestack.s. 
She was a new Amcrican- 
built fast crui.scr; the 
Askold, which rejoiced in 
an even grc-atcr number of 
funnels, was German-built, 
and, like the V'ariag, of 
high speed. 

In May came a fine 
battleship, built in the 
United States, the Retvizan, 



Japanese and Russian, in the building of ships, and the 
Japanese won. In 1897, the first of their battleships 
arrived, the Y.\SHIM.\ and Fuji, from England. 
Between then and 1902, the battle- 
.ships Shikishima, As.Mii, Hatsuse, 
and MlK.\S.V, and the armoured crui.sers .\.sam.\, 
TOKIWA, IDZU.MO, IWATE VAKU>ro, and AozUMA, came 
out, and Japan found herself in possession of twelve fine 
and modern armoured ships — a squadron for fit^hting 
power nowhere excelled in the world. In 1902 she was 
far superior to Russia, whose programme was not then 
complete. .She might have struck with overwhelming odds 
in her favour. The fact that she did not is conclusive 
evidence that she did not wish for war, and that she still 
hoped to settle her difficulties with Russia amicably. 

In 1903 the balance of naval pow(;r on paper began 
to incline, at first slowly, and imperceptibly, and then 
markedh', in Russia's favour. The new Russian ships were 
sent out one by one, or in small squadrons, so as to cause 
as little alarm as possible. But they came on in an 




[Drawn by Johji Charlton. 
DETRAINING JAPANESE CAVALRY REMOUNTS AT A DEPOT 



1903 



RUSSIA'S FLEET. 



61 




Neucnwanz wa; 



Russia's Fleet. 



accounted, after the Mikasa, the best warship in 
the Far l^Last ; and with her were more cruisers, 
the Diana and Pallada, and the \essel Novik, 
of pecuHar type, built for the special purpose of 
destroying the venomous 
destroyer. In June the cruiser 
Bogatyr, of a powerful type and \ery high speed, 
and the Boyarin, similar to the Novik, were added 
to the fleet of Vice-Admiral Stark, the Ru.ssian 
Naval Commander-in-Chief In July the battle- 
ship Pobieda — but just completed— arrived, and, 
but for the fact that accidents had happened, she 
should have been accompanied by her sister-ship, 
the Oslabia. But this vessel on the way out touched 
a rock and suffered considerable injury, which 
detained her in an Italian dockyard for rejjairs, 
while at the same time other troubles developed 
in her machinery. 
Hy the summer 
of 1903 Russia 
had upon the 



RUSSI.VN C.U-AI.RV AT THE TREATY PORT OF NEWCHWAM,. 

captured by the Japanese in 1895, but restored to China under pressure of FraiTce and Russia. 



il'rawn by O. Cerlach 



ENTERING THE PORT OF 

NEWCHWANG. 

The Custom House of Newchwang is in 
the hands of the Russians. The photo was 
taken from the bridge of the steamer 
Yochow 



spot si.x battleshifis of the latest tj-pe— or as many 
as Japan— three large crui.sers, half a do/.en small 




[Stereographs copyright Underwood & Underwood, London & N.V. 

3 * 



62 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1903 




AkMOURKU CRUISER '■ BAVAN.' 



. pftrt in dvktuimn Port Arthur from the first attack by the Japanese. It was washinj;-tlay when this pholoi^rapli 

was taken. 



and a flotilla of destroyers. 
Marly in the suminer 
(iencral Kuropatkin, the 
Russian Minister of War, 
proceeded to the I'ar 
East, probably to a.scer- 
tain by personal examina- 
tion of the Russian forces 
whether the time had 
come for throwing off the 
mask and openly annex- 
ing Manchuria. There 
were reports, vague but 
not improbable, that 
Russia intended to do 
tills, and to apply her 
severe protective tariff to 
all foreign goods entering 
Manchuria, depriving all 
foreign subjects — Ikitish, 




iHL CKEW OK THK JAPANKSE CRUlSKk • ASAMA. " 



(i'hoto .\brahanis, Uevonport 



1903 



RUSSIAN OFFERS TO JAPAN. 



63 



Japanese, and Americans — of the various concessions and rights which they had years before acquired 
in the country. But such action on Russia's part might be expected to produce war, and probably the 

War Minister was sent to find out whether Russia was ready for it 
A great war council was held at Port Arthur in July, at which all the 
chief Russian officials in the I-"ar Kast were present. 
Their deliberations have not been disclosed to the 
world, but they probably had reference to the 
approaching war, and a plan of campaign is supposed 
to ha\e been settled, b)- which the Russian Govern- 
ment at home would endeavour to gain time, while the representatives 
of Russia in the Far East would push forward slowly in Korea. A 

MAJOR-OKNKRAL 1>FLI'(;. . . . , , ,-^ , 

Chief of the Military swffiit Port. \n!un. Saying ol (icneral kuropatkms to the effect that "We are ready was 




Russia's 

War Minister 

Visits Manchuria 

and Japan. 



much quoted at the time. 
Further naval reinforce- 
ments were to be sent out, 
and it was thought that if 
the conflict could be de- 
la\'ed till the close of 1904 
or rather more than another 
year, when the new Rus- 
sian battleships T::arevitclt, 
Alexander III., Borodhio, 
Orel, and Suvarov would 
to be complete, in addition 
to the .seven battleships 
which Russia had then out 
in the East or on the way 
thither, a Russian victor\- 
would be absolutely 
assured. 

General Kuropatkin 
visited Japan, and once 
more renewed to the 
Japanese Government the 
suggestions which had 
been made on the eve of 
the alliance with England : 
that Japan should abandon 
her friendship with Eng- 
land and turn her eyes to 
the islands of Malaysia. 
Whether the.se offers were 
sincere may be doubted ; 
they were probabl\' in- 
tended to disarm the 
suspicions of the Japanese 
and to keep them quiet 
till Russia had completed 
her naval programme. 




ilJrawii by U. Catoil Woodvillc. 
ALARM TORCH .\T A CO.S.SACK POST IN MANCHURIA. 
This Is an ancient form of fielii telegraph in modern war. 



64 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1903 




THK KlNt; OK KOREA PASSIM! THROUGH THK STRKKTS OF HIS CAI'lTAL-SEOUL. 

Th« King U s«, and ha- reigned 40 years. His firsl wife was ass.-issinaled in 1895- Mr. Angus Hamilton says that the Imperial procession presents 

"elements, strangely suggestive of hurlcsque romance and the humours of a pantomime, and looks quite metlia^val." 




*<t0^' 



mttiUa'-'- 



1 












HI IIKMMiK 

\ U- Jrttniilicii hi Jnpu'i' 

;J.>«f-l.^ rwTlI^^ 






When the propo.sal.s were repul.sed, General Kuropatkin did nut take tlie trouble to conceal the utter 
contempt which he felt for the Japanese and their militai}- power. 

Possibly it was this contempt for Japan which led Russia to act with unusual precipitation, when to 
remain inactive and do nothing to cause alarm would have been the wiser course from the Russian point o* 
view. In the .summer of 1903, the Japanese Government, with the support of the whole Japanese nation 
behind it, protested strongly against various Russian aggressions in Korea, and complained that the 

concession to cut 

Russia's timber was being e.\- 

Preeipitation. ^ 

panded in a thor- 
oughly illegitimate manner, as Russia now 
claimed that it covered the whole valley of 
the Yalu, and had established a settlement 
at Yongchon, near the Korean port of 
Wiju. 

At the same time Japanese agents in 
Manchuria reported the stealthy concen- 
iiation of a considerable Russian force at 
.\ntung, a Manchurian town upon the 
^■;llu. The Russians began to connect 
tlieir new .settlements with the Manchurian 
s)'stem of telegraphs, and when the 
Koreans cut down their telegraph poles, 
laid a submarine cable to Antung. At 
Yongainpho, to the stnith of the Yalu, 
earthworks were rising which looked very 



^ 



lilRUS-fcVK VltW OK III 
BKIIMjK 



\\ RAILWAY 
\S\> NhlGMBOURHOOD 



AT THE SUNOAki 



66 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1903 




JAPANESE KXC.IXKKRK LAVINii A MILUAUV TKl.KdKAFH IN KORKA. 

be grantetl to Russia. M. Hayashi, the 

Japanese Minister, 

Japans Ultimatum i,,^,,^,^^.! Korea that 
to Korea. 

if the lease were 

jjrantetl, Japan would susjiencl diplo- 
matic relations and " take action t<i 
protect her own interests." In other 
words, she would resort to force. 

The Korean Government, terrified 
bv this menace, issued |Xjmpous orders 
that further Russian encroachments were 
to lie prevented ; but no one paid the 
sli}jhtest attention to them, as Korea had 



much as though they were 
intended to mount guns 
and command the anchor- 
age ; more Russian soldiers 
arrived, though the Russian 
diplomatists explained they 
w ere really " wood-cutters," 
armed with rifles and 
Ijayonets for their own 
protection. 

More alarmed than 
ever, Japan in August 
addressed an ultimatum 
to the Korean Govern- 
ment, and on the same 
day that the Russian 
Minister in Korea, M. 
I'avloff, demanded that a 
lea.se of Yongam)3ho should 





TMK PULICKMEN OK SKUUI. A.ND SOMK OK rrs CIVILIANS. 



PLANTING KICK NKAK CHKMULPO. lAdclphi Press .\gency. 

The black bunches .irt hiin<Iles ..f rict plants. All the ^;Iler.^tions are dune in water. 

no means whatexcr of eiiforcing 
obedience. But japan, with the 
support of luigland and the United 
.States, took more efficacious means 
to counteract the Russian plans. 
.She required the opening of VViju 
and Yongampho to the trade of the 
Powers. Needless to state that 
M. i'avloff, Russia's agent in the 
Korean capital, offered the most 
determined resistance to this pro- 
ject, and the Korean Court was 
swayed in one direction or the other 
from day to day, according as the 
RussianorJapane.se parties obtained 
the upper hand. Hut the Ru.ssians 
remaincfl in Korean territory. 



I lioL-ik. 



1903 



THE STRUGGLE FOR KOREA. 



67 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN JAPAN AND 

RUSSIA. 

ON August 12, exasperated b\- these tactics, the 
Japanese Government attempted to arrive at soine 
understanding^ with Russia by direct negotiations. 
A proposal was made by it to the Russian Government, 
b\' which botii Russia and Japan were to recognise the 
independence and integritj- of China and Korea, and the 
principle of the "open door" to the trade of all nations 
in both countries, while Japan on her part admitted 

Russia's special in- 





M. KURINO 

Was the J.-ipanesc Minister at St. Petersliurg win. carried i.n 

the negotiations before the outl)reak of war. He it was who 

eiideavoureti to hasten tlie Russian repi>-. 



M. I'AVLOFl' 

Was Russian Minister to Korea, but failed to enlist 
its sympathy for Russia. Left Korea after the war 
l>egan, being escorted to the c»>ast 1>\- Japanese troops. 



the Russian ^ ^^^^^^^^^K/IF \ 

railway enterpri.ses in 
Manchuria, and Rus- 
sia's right to take 
action to protect those 
interests, requiring, as 
an equivalent, that 
Russia should recog- 
nise Japan's special interests in Korea and her right to protect tho.se 
interests. This was a fair and statesmanlike 

Japans proposal ; it meant that if Russia was to remain 

Negotiations • t.t i • t 
with Russia. '" Manchuria, Japan must be permitted to exercise 

a protectorate over Korea. Immediately, as if 
ill answer to this proposal, on August 13, appeared a Russian 
proclamation, constituting Admiral Alexeieff, the arch-enemy of 
Japan, Viceroy 
of the Ear East 
with the widest 
possible military, 
naxal and diplo- 
matic authoritv. 



It was an open hint to Japan that Russia had no 
intenti(jn of accepting the Japanese scheme of 
settlement. 

Japan was anxious that the negotiations should be 
conducted at St. Petersburg, if only to expedite them, 
as it was clearly understood by the Jajjanese that each 
day gained told in favour of Ru.ssia. But the Russian 
Government made various excu.ses to prevent this, and 
finally thev were carried on at Tokio. 

All through August and September no answer to 

the Japanese offer could be obtained from Russia, and 

more Russian troops arrived at 

Russia Refuses a w , u-i ..u 1 i 

Neutral Zone Vongampho, while the overland 

Russian telegraph was recon- 
structed. At last, on October 3, the Russian Government 
broke its long silence. Ear from recognising Japan's 








LT.-GEi\KRAL STOSSEL. 

Commaiidaiit of Port Arthur. Is to command the Third SilH:rian 
Army Corps. Declared that Port Arthur would never surrender. 



66 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1903 



superior interests in Korea, or admitting the 
principle of the "open door," it asked Japan 
to declare Manchuria and its coast to be 
entirely outside the Japanese sphere of 
interest. In Korea, Russia proiwsed a 
•• neutral zone " north of the 39th parallel of 
latitude, which included the whole of the 
north of Korea, and the valuable ports of 
Chinampho, Yongampho, and Wonsan. In 
the south of Korea, Jajjancse interests would 
be acknowledgetl. and Japan might send 
tn>ops to that [lart of the countrj*. But she 
was not to use any part of the country for 
strategic purposes, or to fortify any of the 
j»rts. 

Practically this meant that the whole of 
the north of Korea was to be given over to Russia, 
establish themselves securely ; while at the same time 





iCnI.l. l'li..l.i. 

and that in the south the Japanese were not to 

all the Japanese interests, trade and investments in 

M a n c h uria 
First 



Movements 



were to be 



of 
the Fleet. 



a ba ndoned. 
The Japanese 
Government could not for 
one moment admit such a 
settlement, aiid, as a hint to 
Russia, it sent a Japanese 
warship to Yongampho. 
The Russian reply was not ' 
long in coming. 

In October the two 
powerful new Russian war- 
ships, Tzarevitch and Bayan, 
started from Toulon for 
the I-"ar East. The 

Tzarcvitch was the finest 
and fastest battleship in 
the world, the Bayan was 
a splendid armoured crui.ser. 
It was plain that the arrival 
of these ships in the Far 
ICast would greatly modify 
the balance of power, and 
no one would have felt 
any surpri.se had Japan 

rWO VIKWS OF JAPAN'S MOST 

POWKUFUL BATTLESHIP, 

THE "MIKASA." 

It w.'is built at IJarrow-in-Furne.ss ; 
is of 15,200 tons; has a coal endur- 
ance of almut 3,000 miles at full speed. 
These photos were taken in I'orts- 
mouth Dock. 



1903 



RUSSIAN PREPARATIONS FOR WAR. 



69 




JAPANESE TROOPS LANIJING AT CHE.MUl.PO, KOREA- 1904. 
"The Times" correspondent says that "the landing excited the admiration of ail professional witnesses." 

replied to the news of their despatch by an uhimatum. But once again she showed her singular patience 

and anxiety to avoid a conflict with a terrible adversary. 

A new scheme was submitted by the Japanese Government to Russia on October 30. It declined to 

acknowledge that Japan had no interests in Manchuria, and it proposed to Russia that if a neutral zone were 

established in Northern Korea, 

The Story of the .. 1 u u r 1 

Negotiations. ^^""^ •'^'^°"1^ ^^ °"e °f ^^^^a' 

breadth in Manchuria. To this 

no reply whatever was returned by Russia until 

December 1 1. Six weeks passed, during which again 

and again Japan pressed for an answer, but always in 

vain. 

In the meantime the Tzarevitcli and Baymt 
arrived ; the Siberian railway was blocked with trains 
carrying troops to the Far East ; every available steamer 
was taken up by Russia and freighted with Welsh coal 
for the Far East ; the Russian Volunteer cruisers left 
weekly, laden with troops and military stores for the 
Far East ; and the new battleships building in the Baltic 
were pressed forward with all possible speed towards 
completion. In early December, the Russian Govern- 
ment attempted to buy two very powerful battleships 
which had just been completed in England for Chili. 
Alarmed at the disturbance in the balance of naval 
power which would have been caused by such a purchase, 

.^-,.._, ... [Stereographs copyright Underwood & Underwood, London & X. \'. 

the British Government stepped m and acquired the ships. qn xhe wharf ax chemulpo. 




I 



70 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1903 




October 8 Passes. 



The Russian repl)- of December 1 1 
made no reference \\hate\er to 
Manchuria, and renewed the objectionable 
Russian demands w itii 
regard to Korea. 
Japan was asked to concede everything; 
Russia was to give notiu'ng. The 
anno\-ance of Japan was tiie greater, as 
the date had ah'eady passed on which 
Russia had promised to evacuate the 
southern provinces of Manchuria. 
October 8 was the day, but, as if to show 
their scornful disregard for their treaty en- 
gagements, on October 28 Russian troops 
had re-entered Mukden, alleging that the 
Chinese were unable to maintain order. 
The situation had thus grown steadil)- 
worse. ImmediateK- tiie Russian repl)' 
was received, Japan requested Russia to 
reconsider it, with the intimation that 
she could not for one moment accept its 
terms. On December 11, the Japanese 
Diet was dis.solved, as it had passed a \ote 
of want of confidence in the Japanese 
Ministry for its 
conduct of the 



UK WAK. J.\1'.\NESK bOLJJIEKS lAKEWKl.l, lO HIS F.AMILY. 



n ego tiations, 

w h i c h w a s 

thought to be 

too weak. 

Efforts were made in the next few weeks by England and France to bring 

about a compromise, and the British Government is believed to have wamec 

Russia that Japan was thoroughly in earnest, and that her Navy and Army were 

highly efficient The warning was, however, disregarded. Towards the close 

of December the Japane.se Navy was mobilised, and the 

and^NavarAcUvity JaP'i"ese Government received authority to expend all 

available funds upon military preparations, if such were 

required. Two powerful armoured cruisers which were building for the Argentine 

Government in Italy, and which were ready for sea, were purchased by Japan, and 

•crews to take them to the Ear East were obtained in England and sent 

overland to Genoa. This was a reply to the news that the Russian battleship 

Oslabia, armoured crui.ser Dmitri Donskoi, protected cruisers Aurora and Almaz, 

and eleven torpedo craft had been ordered to assemble in the Mediterranean and 

proceed to the Ear East. 

Each side was now visibly preparing for war, though the Russians protested 
that nothing was further from their thoughts than a conflict, and alleged that 
their concessions were such as to satisfy every reasonable Japanesa They 
claimed that because they owned Manchuria they could not permit Japan to 
predominate in Korea, forgetting that the\- had themselves no right whatever 
to be in Manchuria, and that, indeed, if their own diplomatists' as.sertions could be 




[Haines photo. 
A JAPANESE MARINE. 



TYPES OF RUSSIAN AND JAPANESE SHIPS. 



71 




THE RUSSIAN CRUISER "ROSSIA," ONE OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK FLEET. 



IC riljb plioto. 




ICribl) pi'olo. 



THE JAPANESE BATTLESHIP " SH1K.1SHL\IA" PASSING OUT OF PORTSMOUTH HARBOUR. 








[Cribh photo. 



THE RUSSIAN BATTLESHIP "POBIEDA." ONE OF THE PORT ARTHUR FLEET. 



72 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 



believed, they were not 

there at all ! 

A Russian note of 

Januan* 6, sent in answer 

to the Japanese request 

that Russia should re- 
consider the Japanese 

demands, was wholly 

unsatisfactor}'. It blandly 

reiteratetl the inadmissible 

proposals of October 30, 

with only this "conces- 
sion": That Russia, 

while requiring from 

jajwn an admission that uMui-ho^o.; 

Manchuria wa' outside the Japanese sphere, would allow Japan and other 
Powers to exercise within that territory any rights 
they might ha\e already acquired by treaty from 
China. But Japanese settlements were to be excluded, which meant that no 

Japanese would be permitted in Manchuria except by Russia's leave — and that leave would not be 

forthcoming. Even so, Japan was required, as the price of this precious " concession," to admit the Russian 

demands with regard to a neutral zone in Korea,^ 
and to give a promise on her part to abstain from 
fortifying any point on Korean territory. The 
negotiations were, after five months, exactly 
where they had begun. What made the Russian 
tactics particularly irritating to the Japanese 
was that the Continental, and particularly the 
German, Press insisted that such extraordinary 
moderation had been shown by Russia that war 
was now absolutely out of the question. 

A week followed during which the Japanese 



Further 
Negrotiations- 




I'HE CZ.\R VISITS 

I HE RED CROSS 

NURSES WHO ARE 

GOING TO THE 

FRONT. 




THE CZAR OF ALL THE RUSSIAS. 
Nephew of King EdwarJ VII. 

Government considered this Russian missive, while 
further Russian reinforcements left daily for the Far 
East, and it became known that Admiral Alexeiefif was 
contracting for the delivery of 200,000 tons of coal at 
Port .Arthur in the spring of 1904, since he is believed 
to have fixed the summer of 1904 for his war. On 




[From the "Minneapolis Times." 

AN AMERICAN VIEW OF RUSSIA'S P.ACIFIC INTENTIONS 
BEFORE THE WAR. 



1904 



RUSSIA'S DIPLOMATIC DELAYS. 



73 




THK EMPKROK OF JAPAN. 

It is not permitted to photograph the Mikado, but tiiis ih an excellent portrait. 
He is making great personal sacrifices to rai.se funds for the war. 

properly belongs to the war operations. There were 
reports that Japan would declare war immediately 
after receiving the Russian reply, but nothing of the 
kind happened. . Meantime Russia, who had kept Japan 
waiting for weeks and months when Russian replies 
were in question, now began to complain that the 
Japane.se did not instantly answer the last Russian 
note, and to allege that the Japanese were gaining time 
to complete their preparations. This was not a little 
reminiscent of the fable of the Wolf and the Lamb, 
since the truth was that Russia had been employing 
the long intervals which she had gained in perfecting 
her armaments. On January 13, however, Japan 
invited the Russian Government to reconsider its 
attitude, couciiing the Japanese note to St. Petersburg 
in such a form that it was clear to anyone that the 
only alternatives were concession by Russia of the 
original Japanese demands or w ar. 

And now the Russian Govern- 

Procrastination. '"^"*' ''^^^' ''^" '^^ complaints of 
Japanese delays, gave a fine 
example oi the art of procrastination. Day followed 
day, week followed week, and there was no Russian 
reply. The Japanese minister at St. Petersburg, 
M. Kurino, pres,sed not once but repeatedly for a 
plain answer. He was put off with evasive words, 



Japan's New 
Cruisers. 



their part the Japane.se were not inactive, nor 
did they allow their preparations to be out- 
stripped by the Russian. On January 8, the two 
armoured cruisers purchased 
from the Argentine, and re- 
named the NiS.SHiN and 
KasUGA, left Genoa. The e.xtraordinary rapidity 
with which they were got to sea speaks volumes 
for the organising capacity of the Japanese. In 
charge of them were two officers of tiie British 
Naval Reserve, Captains Lea and Paynter, which, 
of course, was no violation of neutrality so long as 
war had not been declared. It now remained to 
be seen whether the numerous Russian ships in 
the Mediterranean would attempt to intercept 
them ; but their progress through the Medi- 
terranean and Red Sea, though eventful enough, 
was untroubled by attack. It will be dealt with in 
greater detail in a future chaj^ter, as it more 




[ Hames photo. 
VISCOUNT HAVASHI AND VICE.ADMIUAL IJUIN, OF THE 
" ASAMA." 

The Japanese Minister to Great Britain negotiated the Treaty between 
Japan and Great liritain 



74 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 



Now Count Lamsdorff 
was just about to resume 
control of the negotiations 
— and he was supposed 
to be in favour of f)eace — 
now this point or that had 
to be referred to Admiral 
Alexeieff at the other end 
of Asia. It might almost 
have been supposed tiiat 
the Russians were ignorant 
of the art of telegraphy. 

What was happening in 
these weeks of final delay 
was that a great struggle- 
was proceeding between 
the peace and war party 
in the Czar's entourage. 
One of the chief advocates- 
of war was a certain 
M. Be/obrazofl". one of the Czar's most trusted councillors, who was deeply interested in the Yalu timber- 
cutting concession. Another was the Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovitch, a near relative of the Czar, and 
General-Admiral or Admiral-in-Chief of the Russian Navy. On the side of peace were supposed to be 
M. Witte. the famous Mini.ster of Finance, and Count Lamsdorff. with General Kuropatkin. But even they 




CKNt l.N IHK .■~rKKKTS OF TOKIO WHEN WAR PICTUKKS WKRE EXiniUTEU. 




THK OL'TBKKAK OK UAk. KXCITIM, M h.NhS WKkK WlTNKS.lKI) kOU.Ml JHK WiNrtK PALACE AX ST. PETEKSUUKG. 
THK CZAK'S KKSIDENCE, WHEN WAK W.VS UECI.AREn. THE POLICE AFTERWARDS PROHIBITED THE CROWDS, FOR 

POLITICAL REASONS. 



1904 



RUSSIA'S ATTITUDE TO JAPAN. 



75 




IStereographs copyright Underwood & 
Underwood, London & N.Y. 

THE OLD WALL ROUND SKOUL. 



With the Germans, when they 
occupied Kiau-chau, they would 
probably have said to Japan, if 
they had spoken the inmost 
thoughts of theirmind, "common- 
sense must show }ou the necessity 
of yielding to superior force." 

On the Russian New Year's 
Day, January 14 in the Western 
calendar, the Czar received the 
ministers of the various Powers in 




only sinight to postpone the struggle till Russia was ready 
for it. At times it seemed that they might win over the 
Czar ; and when AI. Ikzobrazoff took a journey " for his 
health " it was supposed that he was in disgrace. But 
suddenly at the last moment the Czar changed his attitude. 
From being pacific he became bellicose, and his decision 
meant immediate war. 

Apparently it was decided to delay indefinitely before 
replying to Japan, .so as to give Admiral Ale.xeieff the 
maximum of time to complete his preparations. The Admiral 
had all tiirough pretended that under no circumstances 
would Jajjan fight, but that her attitude was •' bluff," and 
nothin;; else. He had succeeded to .some extent in indoc- 
trinating the Czar and the Russian authorities with this 
comforting delusion ; indeed, the mere idea of a wretched 
little country like Japan venturing to face in arms the immense 
might ot the Czar .seemed to most Russians absolutely 
ridiculous. The question of right did not occur to them.. 




and the Japanese 
Minister. 



Hi; I'KLMK AHNISTER OF KOREA. 



IMtreo-r.ipli r, ,,,yn,L;lil ].y l'iid,TU.,i.il .-i r,HU-rw.«.,l, l,..iul..ii ,\ N.\ 
KOREA SOLDIERS .MARCHINO I'AST THE PAL.\CE GATE AJ' SEOUL. 

the famous Great White Hall of the Winter Palace. There was. 
general curiosity as to the reception which he would accord to the 
Japanese minister, M. Kurino. But the Czar 
The Czar went up to himj and, addressing him in the 

friendliest manner, declared that Russia 
.sought to establish the most amicable relations 
with Japan, and that he, the Czar, hoped that a settlement 
favourable and just to both nations would be reached. It 
was afterwards said, however, that amid these kindly words was a 
covert menace in an allusion to the immense power and infinite 
resources of Russia. To the other diplomatists the Czar declared 
on the same occasion : " I intend and wish to do all in m_\' power 
to maintain peace in the Far P^ast." At the same time Admiral 
Alexcieff announced in a General Order to the Russian troops in the 
Far East that it was the Emperor's will that peace should be preserved... 



76 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




These assurances for the 
moment inspired confidence. But 
da\'s passed. There was no Russian 
re])!)' to the Japanese note, and 
Russian troops and ships continued 
stea(hl_\- to move Eastwards. Men 
once more began to ask themselves 
whether this pacific attitude was 
not a mere pose, adopted to screen 
the Russian armaments. In the 
Far ]Cast ficsh compHcations iiad 
been caused by the fact that 
China iiad opened to international 



Haino FtHXa.} 

J.\P.\NESK BLUEJACKETS AS 
BARBERS 0.\ THE "MIK.XS-V" 

trade as treaty jxjrts the 
Manchurian towns of 
Mukden and Antung, 
despite the resistance of 
the Russian agents, while 
Korea was preparing to 
open Wiju, which place 
was then in Russian 
occupation. At the same 
time it was openly an- 
nounced that a Russian 
rifle regiment had left for 
Korea, which was a fresh 
and audacious contraven- 
tion of Russian treaty 
engagements with Japan 
A Ru.ssian general in the 
Czar'simmediate entourage 
described the position thus 
in the middle of January : 
'• Japan and Russia," be 
said. " are like two prize- 
fighters, each stripped and 
ready in the ring, waiting 
for the fight. Kach knows 
tliat the fight will be a 
hard one, and that he is 
going to be se\erely 
punished. I'-ven the 
stronger man, who feels 
that he is going to win, 
is reluctant to draw first 
Wood." 

Meantime the irritation 




I Ill-awn l.y K. Catoil Woodvillc 
A RUSSIAN FIELD RAILWAY CROSSING AN ICEBOUND RIVER. 
In Ciscs like this the sleepers are very long, so th.tt the weight may be well distributed 




No. <. 



78 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




KOREAN REFUGEES FLEEING SOUTHWARDS. 

Mr. F. .McKeiuit;, the " D.iily Mail** War Correspondent, on his journey north from Seoul, telegraphed: "It 

» a ino»t pitiful spectacle to sec the Korean lefugeeii fleeing southwards, women with babies on their backs, 

and men carrying household furniture, tramping through the heavily falling snow." 

commanding the standing squadron had in October before been replaced 
by the most capable and dashing officer in the Japanese Navy, Vice- 
Admiral Togo, who was now being given time to train his captains. 
At Sasebo waited the six battleships, as many armoured cruisers, a 
large fleet of protected crui.sers, and the flotilla of destroyers and torpedo- 
boats, painted their war colour, fully manned, cleared of all woodwork, 
and in perfect readiness for battle when the statesmen should give the 
word. It was such a force as the Far Kast had never seen before, and 
the Japanese migbt be t^rdoned for a feeling of pride when they looked 
upon this fruit of their efforts itind self-sacrifice, and reali.sed that latent in 
this superb fleet was that all-precious possession — the command of the 
sea. In the fleet itself orders had been given that there was to be no 



in Japan was growing 

daily. The whole nation 

felt that it was a case 

of " now or 
How Japan ,^^^,^^~. ^^^^^ 



Prepared 



the Russian 



for War. 

promises were 

worthless, and that each 
(lay's delay told in 
favour of Russia and 
not of Japan. Ominou.s 
denunciations were heard 
of the procrastination of 
the Cabinet and Elder 
.Statesmen, and the cry 
was even raised that the 
time had come for the 
Marquis Ito to die, since 
lie above all others was 
identified with the policy 
of waiting. But, as a 
matter of fact, the 
J a p a n ese Government 
was working hard and 
making every preparation 
for war, should Russia^ 
as now seemed probable, 
refuse to grant the 
Japane.se demands. The 
arsenals were busy ; 
steamers were taken up 
to serve as transports ; a 
large army concentrated 
at Hiroshima on the 
Inland Sea ; the admiral 




Leader of thi; Pruyrcssivi: J'arty in Korea. An 
American Graduate and a Commercial Expert. 



1904 



THE CONFLICT IN KOREA. 



79 




GENERAL KUROPATKIN IN HIS LIBRARY. 



[Bulla Photo. 



surrender to the battle-squadron of the Czar. Her consorts had instructions to fire upon any Japane.se 
vessel that hoisted the white flag. 

In Korea these last weeks and days passed in a pantomimic performance which supplied the relief to 
the tragic side of the quarrel with Russia. - _^_ A fierce and evenly-sustained 

conflict proceeded at the Korean Court |tes|^ssS|&|^^^_|IM between the Japanese and 
Russian Ministers, in which the Japanese f^KtB^^KI^/^^^^^ were generally supported by the 




GENERAL KUROPATKIN'S BOUYGUARIJ, WHICH ACCOMPANIED III.M TO THE WAR. 



[Bulla Photo. 



80 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




British and American Ministers. A 

similar conflict was in progress at 

Pekin. Now the Korean Emperor 

would protest his at- 

Disorder in t-^chment to Russia, 
Korea. 

and now again, stricken 

with panic, he would insist upon his 
devotion to Japan, and produce by 
the ream ordinances of reform, to 
which no one paid the slightest 
attention. In all directions disorder 
appeared. The Tonghaks, who had 
risen in 1894, and so brought on 
the war between Japan and China, 
once more broke forth into rebellion ; 
the crowds in the capital menaced 
all foreigners, and guards were 
hurriedly obtained for the various 
foreign Legations. The wildest 
stories were in circulation and were 
credited. Now it was .said that Japan 
was pouring disguised soldiers into 
Korea ; now that the Russian 
" woodcutters " in the north were 
moving south. From hour to hour 
war appeared certain to break out, 
but still Ru.ssia procrastinated, and 
Japan kept the peace with a patience 
which was veritably heroic. 

War would probably have come 
in January but for a fresh Russian 
ru.se. The Japanese Government 
was informed that a Great Council 
would be held in St. Petersburg; on 
January 28 to decide Russia's 
answer, and that as the members of 



^^^^^^^E' J^^' 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^% ^^^1 

^^^^^^^^^^B 

^^^^^H ^^^^^B 

ii._ 





A KOREAN PRINCE, MIN YONG QUAN, 

The Lovelace of the Court, who, with Prince 
Yi Chay Soon h a leader of Korean Society. 



PRINCE YI CHAY SOON, 

The confidant of the Korean 

Kmperor. Known a<k the fat 

prince** 



19 



THE OFFICKRS OK THE JAPANESE BATTI.E- 
SHM' "MIKASA," MOST OK THEM WEARINC. 
THE CHINA MEDAL. THEV INCI.UIIK CAPT. 
G. HAVASAKl AND COMMANDER NISHIGAMA. 




Jan. 28, 1904 



RUSSIA'S RUSE. 



81 



A Russian Ruse. 



the Council would have to be summoned in some 
cases from distant points, no earlier meeting 
could be held. But January 28 and the following 
day passed, and there was 
still no answer, nor could 
M. Kurino extract any promise of a definite 
date for the reply from the Russians. On the 
other hand, it began to be openly reported that 
more of the Grand Dukes had joined the War 
Party, including the Grand Dukes Vladimir and 
Sergius ; that permission had been given to 
Admiral Alexeieff to begin hostilities when he 
liked, and that a " paternally worded " Note to 
Japan was in preparation which would blandly 





THK MAN OK FI 
A Russian friest 



•;ack and the instru-Mext ok war. 

on board a man-of-war, of which he is chaplain. 



ONE OF THE RUS.SIAN VljLlaV- 

TEER FLEET COALING AT 

PORT ARTHUR. 

[Stereographs copyright Underwood & 
Underwood, London and N.Y. 



refuse to concede her re- 
quests and inform her that 
Russia also had a minimum 
beyond which she was not 
disposed tc go. The 
French and German Press, 
however, was filled by 
Russian agents with absurd 
stories that the Russian 
reply would be found to 
grant everything, and .so 
obviate war, the object of 
this falsehood being 
to prevent French and 
German holders of Russian 
securities from getting rid 
of their Russian stock and 
thus sending its price 
down. 

On February 3, war 
became certain. That day 
the Elder Statesmen and 
members of the Japanese 
Cabinet held a prolonged 
council, at which the lead- 
ing Japanese soldiers and 
seamen were present. At 
this council the decision 
was reached to break off 



82 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 5, 1 90^ 



PORT ARTHUR. THE RUSSIAN 



HKAIIQUARTKRS- 

Nava! iK: Military 
Hcatliiu.artcrs. 



Torpedo 
n.>ck. 




On the Eve of 
War. 



nc^'otiations with Russia on the 6th, if no replx- was 
received before, and to put the fleet in motion, after a brief 
respite, to give the Russians fair opportunity 
to make their last preparations. Orders 
were telegraphed to Singapore for the two 
armoured cruisers K.\SLG.\ and XlSSHIN to leave without fail on 
February 6 and proceed straight to Japan. The Council was 
probably sitting when the news came in from Japanese agents 
that the great Russian Fleet at Port Arthur was also on the 
move. Its battleships and cruisers were being warped and 
towed out of port all January 31, February i, and the following 
day. There was every indication that Adiniral Alexeieft was 
getting ready to make use of the power which had been 





-'/•If.? ' ' 



Liaoi.ishan Channel 



..aajg- 



PORT ARTHURS DALNI 

KDgliMh llii«b 

'; s IL It 

i M ^ . w Rajlwatl. X Aitchorajiit 



[Topical I'rcsh. 
THE SILENCER OY THE 
PRESS. 

This is Captain Hiraoka, who has 
been so successful in maintaining 
the silence of the Press as to 
J.apan's actions. He learned the 
value of silence in the Hoer War, 
as he was Japanese Military Attache 
in that war. 



granted him — to begin 
the war. 

After the Council, the 
naval c(jminan(]ers at 
Sasebo made every 
necessar)' preparation 
for putting to sea, to 
fight, as they may well 
have supposed, one of 
the fiercest naval battles 



C. Philip L ■Sen, m, i^ HM Sf London 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF PORT ARTHUR. 



83 



—PORT ARTHUR, THE RUSSIAN HEADQUARTERS. 

Scene of First 
Torpedo Attack. 



Dockyard and Inner 

Harbour. The Main Fort. 



Signal 
Station. 




Shallow water, which dries in 
patches at low tide. 




Fort. 



West 
Fort. 



Tiger's 
Tail. 



Outer Harbour, where Russian ships East Port Basin 

were disabled by the Japanese. and Dockyard. 

BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF PORT ARTHUR. 



[Drawn by Howard Penton. 



84 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 6, 1904 




of all time. There was little to be done 
at the last minute ; the Japanese organisa- 
tion was so perfect that nothing had been 
overlooked or forgotten, and the plans 
were all laid and worked out. As in 
the hearts of some of the Japanese, 
though not in their leaders, there still 
lurked a vague, indefinite belief, dating 
back to the days before the era of 
enlightenment, that the white man had 
some mystic power which would enable 
him to i)revail against even the greatest 
heroism and skill, it had been decided to 
open the war with a night attack on the 



KKTRAINlNi; WITH STORKS AT DAL.W. 

Russians by torpetlo craft, in the handling 
of which the Jajjanese excelled, as they 
had had great e.\[Jerience of these little 
ves-sels in actual warfare. Togo himself had 
been present at the affairs at Wei-hai-wei, 
and he had not forgotten that there more 
damage had been done by the torpedo, 





WAITING 1 V TRAIN. 

with infinitely less loss, than in the whole 
day's furious fighting at the Battle of the Yalu, in 
which also he had played a prominent part. 

On the 4th another council of the Elder 

Statesmen was held, and the order was sent to 

M. Kurino to break off nego- 

NegotSons. 'i^^-^^ ^'^h Russia, and to 
leave St. Petersburg, unless 
the Russian reply was forthcoming by the 6th. 
On the 6th, accordingly, he made formal applica- 
tion for his passports, as no Russian reply to 
the Japanese demands was forthcoming. He 
added the usual conventional expressions ot 
regret that such a situation had arisen. The 



A HALT. 

following day the Ru.ssian official Pre.ss announced 
the rupture to the world, and instructions were 
.sent by the Russian Government to its Minister at 
Tokio to withdraw. Thus all relations between the 
two Powers had cea.sed. If report can be believed, 
the War Party in Russia were thunderstruck at 
the fact that japan had acted at last instead of 



KLSSIAN TROOPS IN MANCHURIA. 
Sccrcosraphft cop^-ritiht Unil^woocl K Vudcrwinnl, l.undon & N.V. 




MARCHING ALONG THK MANCHURIAN RAILWAY 



Feb. 6, 1904 



WAR DECLARED. 



85 




Oribb Photo.] 

JAPANESE BLUEJACKETS AT RI1''I,E-DRILL ON THE "MIK.ASA." 

waiting indefinite!}^ ; the}- seem to have imagined that they 

could amuse her for months while they were completing their 

preparations. There was talk of inviting Germany to mediate, 

but the Czar and his ad\isers must ha\e been jjerfectl}' well aware that the 

hour for mediation had passed and the moment for action arrived. The 

Russian Government professed that on the 5th it had sent off its reply to 

Japan, and that the Russian Minister at Tokio had just been about to 





>v» 



tlnuwu by Frank Ij.idd, R.l 
JAPANESE JNFANTKV SCOUTS. 

Cavalry beiiiK scarce in Japan, the infantry are trained to be very effective scouts. 



CAPTAIN KEITZHENSTEIN, 
In command of the Vladivostock Squadron. 

present it when the news of 
the rupture of the negotia- 
tions arrived. It is, how- 
ever, doubtful whether the 
Note was not sent off after 
it was known what action 
Japan had taken, in a 
cium.sy attempt to make it 
appear that Japan was in 
the wrong, and was acting 
with i)recipitation. 



86 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8, 1904 




KACSIMII.K OK A SKKTCH UV A JAI'ANKSK WAR ARTIST, SHOWINO THE FIRING Of A (iUN ON A MAN-O-W AK IJUKINU ACTIOX. 

M. Kurino had informed the Russian Government on tlic 6th that J apan " intended to take independent 
action to secure her interests." Telegrams from British correspondents in the Far East stated with one- 
accord in the British newspapers of Mon- 
day, February 8, tiiat war w as imminent ;. 

the British Press. 
The Czar at the j [ ^,^^ ^,^ ^\^.^^. 

Theatre. ' 

da)' that the Japanese,. 

|j_\- breakinji; off netj^otiations, had practic- 
ally declared war, and that "immediate 
hostilities must be expected." But it was. 
noticed at St. Petersburg on Saturday 
evening, when the Czar and Czarina were 
present at a theatre, that the Czar seemed 
to be more cheerful than usual, though 
that very night artillery was entraining in the Russian capital for the Far East, and the town was kept 
awake by the rolling of guns and cai.s.sons through the streets. It .seemed as though the Russiam 




\ - y.l 
hNTKANCE TO THE OLU PAl.VCE .\T SEOUL. 




THE J.\P.\NE.SE CRUISER "ASAMA," WHICH, UNDER AD.MIRAI, URIU, SANK THE " VARIAG. 



Feb. 4. 1904 



THE RUSSIAN FLEET. 



,87 




Government still entertained some hope that at the last minute Japan 
might show the \\ hite feather. And it would appear that tio proper steps 
had been taken by the Russian authorities in the I-'ar ICast to get 
ready for instant war. Admiral Alexeieff and hi.s naval subordinate 
\'ice-Admiral Stark were both accustomed to scoff at the Japanese 
Fleet and to deride the possibility of its success. Hence, perhaps, the 
;,. fatal negligence whih brought ujjon Russia the first and not the least 
disaster of the war. 

The Russian Fleet, after warping out of Port Arthur, put to .sea on 

F'ebruar}' 4. F^\en so, it .seems to have been short 

The Russian War r . i^^i 1 • -i n ■ ^ 1 c- . ^ / , • 1 

Vessels battleships, ihe I'cresznet iind Sevastopol, which 

remained inside the harbour at Port Arthur, accord- 
ing to some accounts, because the\- had grounded on the mud and could 



A RUSSI.\N Dk.AGOON. 

not be mo\ed in time. 
That left under Admiral 
Stark the five new battle- 
ships, Czarevitch, Rctvizan, 
Poltava, Petropavlovsk, and 
Pobieda, \\ith the new 
armoured cruiser Bayaii, 
and the protected crui.sers 
Askold, Diana, Pallada, 
Boyariri, and iVovik. He 
had also eleven destroyers, 
three transports — two of 
which were fitted for the 
laying of mines — and one 
or two old ships and gun- 
boats. F'our hundred miles 
off, at Chemulpo, were 
-stationed the new cruiser 




[Drnwii l»y .Arthur Garralt, from .1 photoginpti. 
RUSSIAN CO.M.MlSS.\Kl.\T KOR TKOOPS ON THK TR.\NSSn!ERl.\N K.MLW.W 



88 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 4. 1904 




CAPTAIN ZA1>.\KKNSYI, 
C\>mnialhl(rr of ihc " i'obictia."' 




CAl'TAIN (lUltiOROVITCH, 
("ommanJcr of llie "Czarevitch." 




CAl'TAIN SCHTSHESNOVITCH. 

Coniniander of the " Retvizan.'' 



I'ltring and the little gunboat Koriet:;. The (Jtlier ships of the Russian Squadron were scattered elsewhere^ 
and could not be counted upon to co-operate with him. 

This fleet, twenty-six ships strong, steamed out in jjood order, and crui.sed slowly eastwards in the 
direction of the Korean coa.st. It was .seen on the 4th from Wei-hai-wei, apparently engaged in practising 
evolutions, and, according to Russian statements, the crews were kept at quarters and the ships were 
cleared for action as though a battle were expected forthwith. Its voyage, however, did not last long. 
Possibly the Russians received information from their secret service that a large Japanese Fleet was o\\ 




THE i;kitisH .mkrciiant vk.sski, "AikLn:" ovekiiaui.i:ij and hoakdku \;\ \ Russian ckuiskk in tiik kku ska. 

AAer ihc ".\irlie" bad been fti^rmllsd to lie to, Kussian oflicers weitt alxxirtl her and examined her papers, to inake sure of her nationality and that 
fthe carried no cuntrnlMind of war. The Ku^stans then a|>ologised, and allowetl the vessel to proceed. 




< 

UJ 
DC 

H 



a 
z 

5' 
cc 
o 

H' 
Z 

< 

Z 



UJ 
UJ 

Z 

< 

< 



^ 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8. 1904 




'CO.MINi; THKO' THK (KOREAN) KVK 



•*0o our »Tiy to a Korean couiur>- house we saw a row of heads passing through a field in single file. Each was adorned with the quaint Korean hat, 
and each smoked a long pi|ic. The sight was very curious, as the lx>dies of tlie men were completely hidden from view." 

"the point of sailing from Sasebo, and feared an encounter. They returned to Port Arthur on the 5th, and 
anchorefl out.sidc the harbour, under the guns of the powerful batteries which defend the port. The news 

that the fleet was tiiere was permitted by the Russian authorities to be telegraphed, 
Entertainment ''"*^' •iPP'^'"'^*^' '" various newspapers the following day. Certainly the Russian naval 

officers took the best pains to inform the Japanese as to their movements and dispositions 
On the nights of the 6th, 7th, and 8th, the fleet returned to the same position, and, as the evening of the 8th 
fell, the light which showed the entrance to Port Arthur was left burning. That night there was a great 
entertainment given by Admiral Stark in honour of his wife, whose name-da)- it was, and the captains and 
many of the senior officers of the fleet were absent froin their ships to be present at it. The date of this 
■entertainment had been known long beforehand, and there was nothing to prevent the Japanese, whose secret 
service was perfection, from being aware of it. On the afternoon and evening of the 8th some of the 



riM:.tin5 l>,..l. 




I. PANORAMIC VIEW OF VI.ADIVOSTOCK. 



Admiralty Ituildings. 



Feb. 6. 1904 



THE "VARIAG" AND "KORIETZ." 



91 



Russian ships were practising the sending of wireless 

messages, thus notifying every ship cruising in the 

Gulf of Korea of the whereabouts of the fleet. 

It was characteristic of the general negligence 

that no steps had been taken to secure the safety 

of the two ships at Chemulpo. The Variag and 

Koriet.': were left in the air, exposed to attack and 

destruction. Yet it must have been obvious that, as 

the Japanese virtually con- 

The "Variag" and trolled the telegraphs in Korea, 

the "Korietz' , , , , , 

. _, , they would not be ready to 

at Chemulpo. ' 

forward warning messages from 
Admiral Alexeieff to Captain Rudineff, who com- 
manded the Variag, after negotiations had once 
been broken off, though, as a matter of fact, no 
warning was sent. 
The Russians ought 
to have taken these 
ships away the mo- 
ment the situation 
became strained. But 
they did nothing 
whatever, and the re- 
sult was a catastrophe 
that inight easily have 
been averted. 

As for the Japanese, 
their fleet, under Vice- 
some hours after the 
It consisted of the 
AsAni, Fuji, and 
ToKiWA, Idzu.mo, 
of four 23-knot ships, 
the slower, protected 





Admiral Togo, steamed out of Sasebo on the 6th 

(j>\^^_^,_,^ , rupture of official relations, in unending array. 

y ^^^^ /^K-'^-^^ yix battleships, MlKAS.\, HATSUSK, SHIKISHIMA,, 

-, Or ' Yashima ; the si.x annoured cruisers, AsA.\lA>. 

J C^'' /f-^B-O , IWATE, Yakumo, and Adzuma; a fast division 

O the Takachiiio, YOSHINO, Ciiito.se, and Kas.uh ; 

AD.\UR.\I. TOCIO WHEN A YOUTH . .. .,. ^t,. . a-,,.,.^,^, , 

ON BOARD THE "WORCESTER." Crulsers, SUMA, ISLSHIMA, MllAkA, ClIUODA,. 





Eastern Bosphorus Strait 
(one entrance to the harbour). 


Mount Russkik, 
Dundns Island. 


Larionoff Point (another 
entrance to the liarbour). 






Mount SemenofF 
Fort and Hattery. 




















ti 


^0. n 


— - 








BSI 




V- 




-•T-f' 


*'w- 


•^^i^^c. , • 


-^ ^~° 


'i^ 




^BE:-r^ri^Ba^^^Bl 


^^ — ■ * • 




0>mm, 


?- 






wO^m 


m^k 


^-^^^izm 






■■ 






_^=-^ ■ 



II. panoramic: view of VLADIVOSTOCK— continued. 



Tepininu.s of the 
Trans-Siberian Railway. 



92 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 7, 1904 




The Japanese 
Fleet. 



N A N I4V A, and 1" A K A c n I u o ; 
eighteen destroyers, in five divi- 
sions ; and half a dozen fast trans- 
ports, with troops 
on board. As it 
was quite uncer- 
tain at wliat point the Russian 
Fleet might be encountered, the 
course steered was towards 
Mok])o, 240 miles from Sasebo, 
where Togo exiJoctcd to meet 
the cruiser AkasHI, which had 
been detached some time before 
to ascertain the position of the 
Russian Fleet. At the .same time 
other of the older cruisers, with 
a number of armed merchant 
steamers, proceeded to the Korea 
Strait to la)' iiands on a flotilla 
of .so-called Russian " whalers," 
which were really small steamers 
in the Russian Intelligence Service, 
and which had been hovering 
about the Japanese islands of 
Tsushima for weeks, watching 
every movement of the Japanese 
Fleet. 

On the /th, the Japanese 
Meet was passing the Korean 
Archipelago, when a large steamer 



Japan's First 
Captures. 



THK t/.Vkll.-A III Kl "1 \ 1N>I I.CTINO THE PREPAKArioN> I OR THK DKP.^RTUKK 
OF THE FlKSr OOVEK.N.MK.M HOSPITAL TRAIN FOR 1 1 Mi FAR EAST— Febriwry 24111. 

Thirtcrn tuachc* constitute a complete ambul.ince, and contain 

upcratinK-foom, wards, pharm.ic>', &c. ^^^ 



was .sighted by the Japanese crui.ser ASAMA. 
The A.sama instant!)- gave chase, and, 
approaching the .ship without difficulty, 
saw that it was a 
Russian vessel, the 
Ar^iiti. Two blank 
.shots were fired, and the Russian ship 
hove-to. Then followed a dela)- of two 
hours, during which the As.\M.\ applied 
for and received orders by wireless tele- 
graphy from the Japanese commander-in 
chief as to what should be done with the 
Argun. Finally, the gunboat CmUAYA 
apjxiared, and to her the Argun was handed 
over. In this charge the Argun remained 
all that night, but the following morning 
she was again transferred to the care of 




(Bolak Photo. 
RUSSIAN RED CROSS TRAIN GOING TO THE FRONT. 



Feb. 8, 1904 



THE WAR BEGINS. 



93 



an armed Japanese liner, and tofjether the two 
vessels steamed to Sasebo. Here were found the 
big Russian Volunteer cruiser EkaUrtnoslav, a 
ship of 10,500 tons and 13 knots speed, which 
Admiral Alexeieff had permitted to go steaming 
about in Korean waters on the eve of war, and 
two other vessels, the Rossia and Mukden, both 
captured off the Korean coast. 

At Mokpo the Akashi reported that two 
Russian ships were at Chemulpo and the rest of 
the fleet at Port Arthur. Admiral Togo made 
his dispositions accordingly. 
The main part of his fleet 
was to proceed to Port Arthur, 
and a division, under Rear- Admiral Uriu. to steer 
for Chemulpo. This latter division was off 



The First Aet 
of War. 





[Stereographs copyright Underwood & Underwood, J.ondon & N.Y. 
A JAPANESE SHOE-SHOP IN TOKIO. 

Chemulpo early in the morning of 
February 8, when the Russian steamer 
Sungari, belonging to the Manchurian 
Railway Company, entered the port and 



BOOT-TR.'VDERS IN SKOUI,. 
These shoes or sandals are made of straw. 

informed Captain Rudinefi, of the Variag, that she had 
seen at sea, approaching from the south, the smoke of 
a large number of ships, and that this must be the 
Japanese Fleet. At once the gunboat Korietz was 
ordered to put out cautiously and reconnoitre, when 
she discovered that the approaching vessels were un- 
doubtedly Japanese. Among them could be made out 
the armoured cruiser ASAMA, the protected cruisers 
Ak.\.shi, Naniwa, and Takachiho, and eight torpedo- 
boats. The Naniwa was the ship which had fired the 
first shot on the Japanese side in the war with China, 
and in these very waters. Thus does history repeat 
itself The Korietz found that a large vessel from this 
squadron was bearing down upon her, and one of her crew, 




[Stereographs copyright Underwood & Underwood, London & N.Y. 

COOLIES LOADING RICE AT THE RAILWAY 
STATION, SEOUL. 



94 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8, 1904 



r^ mm 


■■^^te_ "^^ r 


vr 






K^^^^^Bk ^Bk l^^^^^v vA^^H 




IBii^v^ 


r-f 


t^A-: 


Ik '^ ~" 



accidentally, as her captain claims — and the claim is 
probablv founded on fact, since such a ship was hardly- 
likely to provoke a contest — fired a jjun. This was the 
first act of war, and opened the strut;gle at 1 1 a.m. of 
the 8th. As the Japane.se could not know that the 
i;un was dischari,'ed b)- accident, they naturally retaliated 
and aimed one or more torpedoes at her. The Korietz 
at once retired into the harbour, and there the Japanese 
left her for the moment. 



A' 



i >tirtoj;r.tijh^ i.ipjrijjht I'ndcrwoixi t"^ riultrwkiuil. London ,'v: N.\'. 

KOREA'S MlNl.STER OF W.\R, YLX-WOO.VG-NIEL. HIS 



SON AM) CRASDCHILDREN. 

yet arrived, while for some reason or other only part of 

the fleet in the Far East was con- 

The Scattered ,-^.„trated at Port Arthur. At 
Russian Fleet. 

Algiers was the fast cruiser Almnz. 

In the Red Sea were the new battleshi[j Oslabia, the 
armoured cruiser Dmitri Donskoi, of trifling value, the 
protected crui.ser --iwrorrt, and eleven destroyers or torpedo- 
boats, hovering about the French port of Jibouti, with 
the Volunteer steamers Saratoff and Orel, and one or 

two colliers. 
Had this force 
proceeded 
eastwards after 
the war began, 
it would ob- 
viously have 
been in danger 
of capture or 
destruction. 
Hence the 
Russian Gene- 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE RIVAL NAVIES AND ARMIES. 

T the moment when the first shot was fired by the 
Koriftz, the Russian Fleet in the Far East was 
still ill-prepared for war, though this was in great 
measure the result of corruption or of the negligence 
of its commanders. Of the naval reinforcements which 
had been ordered out in December and January, 
none 
had 




4 


■I^V^Ehsri! 


Wd 




I^^B 




n^. -iirll:::^? 




ips? ^jljg^ 




E . -. 




pis' 





ral Staff" at 
once issued 
orders to it to wait at Jibouti unti 



XHE KOKEA.N EiMi^EKOR AND HIS SON. 
The Emperor Vi-Hi .issuined tlie title of Emperor in 1897. 

reinforcements should 



THE KOREAN COM.MANDER-IN.CHIEF, PRINCE 
MINVIXHLAX. 



reach it from the Baltic. No one appears to have asked 
whether a prolonged stay in a neutral port was permitted by 
international law ; and here disagreeable surprises awaited the 
Russians. 



Feb., 1904 



PORT ARTHUR. 



95 




OFFICERS OF THE IMPERIAL GUARD LEAVING ST. PETERSBURG FOR THE FRONT. 

The main Russian Fleet at Port Arthur has already been described. But this force, though strong on 

•paper, was faced by sei;ious difficulties. The harbour at Port Arthur is both small and shallow, and the 

e.xit from it e.xtremely narrow and awkward of navigation. In the old days when it 

HarDour ""^^^ ^ Chinese port a basin had been constructed, the depth of water in which was 

just sufficient to accommodate the battleships of the Russian P'leet : but this basin was 

•of small size — only 500 yards long by 350 yards wide — and space was wanting for a large fleet. 

Opening off the basin was the single dock, 440 ft. long, 90 ft. wide, and with 32 ft. of water over the 
•dock-sill, or entrance. It was in process of being enlarged when the war broke out, but the work had not 




THE RUSSIAN MOUILISATION-A REVIEW OF MEN FOR THE FRONT. 



[Bulla Photo. 



96 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb., 1904 




CLEARING FOR ACTION. A VIEW FROM THE MAIN FIGHTINGTOI' 

been sufficiently advanced to enable it to take the larger cruisers in the Russian Squadron. Thus, fronv 
in.sufficient dock accommodation, the Russian Fleet could not be kept in good order or the hulls cleaned ; 
andonmanyof the battleships growths of seaweed and barnacles had accumulated, reducing the speed 

seriousl)-, and increasing the coal consumption. 

Three large docks were in course of construction,. 
and had the}' only been completed there would have 
been little trouble. The West Port, which bulks .so 
large on the maps and plans of Port Arthur, was still in 
process of being dredged out to a depth sufficient to- 
give mooring-places for battleships and cruisers, and 
the work was not in a sufficiently forward stage in the 
early months of 1904 to solve the difficulties which 
confronted the Russian admirals. Round the basin were 
the usual repairing-shops and slips to be found yi a 
dockyard, in which a large number of skilled Chinese 
labourers were employed by the Russians. 

The channel leading into the harbour and basin is 

I ather over i ,000 yards long, and at its two narrowest 

points the deep-water fairway is 

only 70 yards wide. On the west 

side of it runs the narrow peninsula 

known as the Tiger's Tail, which extends northwards 

Co«manding tht Russian Fi«t at vudivosiock. from the Pinnaclc and the Wei Yuen heights. On 




The Forts at 
Port Arthur. 



Feb., 1904 



THE JAPANESE ENSIGN. 



97 



the east side rises Golden Hill, or, in Chinese, Hwang-chin-shan, the summit of which is 410 ft. high. The 
Tiger's Tail, the Wei Yuen Hill, and Golden Hill are crowned with forts and batteries, mounting the 
heaviest and most modern guns. On the Tiger's Tail, raking the entrance, stands a fort in which are 
mounted six 6-in. quick-firing guns, with a large number of small weapons specially intended to put any 
torpedo craft attempting to enter the harbour out of action. 

The main forts, which are \er\' numerous, are said to mount thirty or more 12-in. and fifty 6-in. guns, 
with a large number of smaller quick-firing weapons ; they are placed high on granite cliffs, and arc; difficult 




AN ENTHUSIASTIC BEARER OF THE JAPANESE ENSIGN. 



98 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb.. 1904 




of access. They sweep with their fire the 
whole roadstead of Port Arthur, and 
forbid access to a hostile fleet. Many 
of the guns in the forts were seized by 
the Russians and taken from the Taku 
l-'orts or the Tientsin Arsenal during 
the advance to Pekin, and were thus 
calmly appropriated for the purpose of 
rendering the great Russian base secure. 
Others were hurriedly brought from 
Kronstadt and Sebastopol. 



.ST. PETERSBrRC. T.\KES .\N 

INTERE_ST IN THE W.\R 

PICTVRES. 



The town of Port 
Arthur was a mi.serable 
collection ofChine.se huts, 
with some fine new Rus- 
sian buildings of brick or 
stone. The Chinese part 
was, however, in process 
of demolition when the 





THEATRE STREET, TOKIO. 



L.S. Smith, Photo. 



war began, as it was intended to sweep it away and 

replace it with more shapely and sanitary structures. 

The numerous wooden buildings rendered the place very 

inflammable and liable to be set on 

'^^^ J?^^ °^ fire by shells thrown into it from a 
Port Arthur. •' 

distance. The Manchurian railway 

enters the town at its western end, and has a large 

red-brick station, with sidings and sheds for locomotives. 

The general appearance of the port is something like that 

of Plymouth when viewed from the .sea, but the colours 

are brighter, as the granite near Port Arthur, when 

weathered, takes a brilliant yellow hue. There is an electric 



JAPANESE PATRIOTISM CALLS FOR ITS 

N.\TIONAL KLAG IN LARGE NUMBERS. 

HERE IS A VENDOR. 

searchlight station under Golden Hill, pro- 
tected by batteries. The entrance to the 
port can be clo.sed by a heavy boom of 
iron-shod beams and steel-wire haw.sers, 
while there is a .second and additional 
boom which can be thrown acro.ss the 
entrance to the basin. As a further 
defence there, was the mine-field, which 
was supposed to render access by an enemy 
impossible. 




[lierliner IlUtstrations Gesellschaft. 
RED CROSS AMBULANCE ON A SLEDGE EN ROUTE TO THE 
STATION FOR THE FRONT. 



Feb., 1904 



DEFECTS OF PORT ARTHUR. 



99 



1 




^^^^v^ ^^HB^^^T 


i 


HL ^ 


Wk- 


'1 


p^j^HMpPl, 




i K* '/l^^l 





stores at 
Fort Arthur. 



Inside the town and dockyards were immense magazmes 
and depots, where vast quantities of food and ammunition 
were supposed to have been stored. An inspection by 
Admiral Alexeieff, however, on the eve of war, disclosed 
the disagreeable fact that a large part 
of these stores were non-existent. 
The usual Russian system of pecula- 
tion and corruption had here, as elsewhere, wrought the 
most disastrous effects. Further supplies had been ordered 
from the United States, but had not arrived when the 
war began, and for the most part fell into the hands 
of the Japanese. 

Of Welsh coal there was but an indifferent 
supply for the warships, for though several colliers 
had arrived in the last month before the war, some 
1 50,000 tons which had been ordered was still 
on the way, or in P'ngland and not yet shipped. 
Purchases had been made of Chinese coal and of 
Japanese ; but both these types of fuel have this defect : 
they produce much smoke, and so betray the 



COUNT K.AT.SUKA, 

Japan's Minister President. He won great distinc- 
• tion in the Chino-Japanese war. Became Count on 
the conclusion of the .^nglo- Japanese Alliance. 

movements of a fleet, while the}' 
do not give so high a speed as 
Welsh fuel. 

The grave defects of Port Arthur 
were, in the first place, its want of 

space ; and, in the 

Defects of J 1 

r. ♦ A^u second place, its 
Port Arthur. ^ 

vulnerability to 
long-range shell fire, which could 
be directed against it either from 
the waters to the south-east of the 
port, or from the neighbourhood 
of Pigeon Bay, on the other side 
of the narrow peninsula on which 
it stands. A far better and more 
commodious port was the new 
Russian town of Dalny, situated 
on Talienwan Bay, but as yet 
incompletely protected and liable 
to freeze over m winter, owing to 
the construction of a breakwater, 
at great expense, by the Russians. 
At Dalny vast sums had been 
spent by the Russian Government 



THE FIRST .\CT OF THE WAR. 

One of the crew of the " Korietz," a Russian gun- 
boat, accidentally — so its captain says — fired llie 
first shot in the war between Rii.ssi.i and Japan. 




ADMIRAL TOGO AT WORK. 



101 




ADMIRAL TOGO. IN COMMAND OF THE JAPANESE FLEET, ON DUTY. 



No. 



102 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 



r 













J 



. ■ "" [Facsimile skelcli Ijy Melton Prior. 

TRAINED JAPANESE NURSES LEAVING TOKIO FOR THE WAR. 
..n«. march-J im. lik. »ldi.rs" «ys Mr. Prior, "in s.ep and with swinging arms Their cap is, white calico with a red cross i„ front. They have short, 
Tb«> marched Jl«l IIM soiaier^ vij pleated, black dres.ses and white gloves." 

ill the work of constructing a fine commercial harbour, 
and a great city had been built which only lacked 
inhabitants. Both Dalny and Port Arthur must, 
however, be difficult to hold, unless the Power which 
possesses them commands the sea. The Liao-tong, or 
Kwang-tung, Peninsula, on the shores of which they 
stand, narrows at more than one point, and the.se necks 
of land could be easily seized by a comparatively small 
army, when the chance of relief reaching the garri.son 
would be small, .so that hunger could be trusted to do 
the work of reducing the troops in the peninsula. 

Three Russian warships had been left by Admiral 
Alexeieff on detached duty, expo.sed to, attack if war 
broke out. Two of these, the I'an^i^ and Koridr., as we 
have already seen, wei-e stationed at Chemulpo ; the 
third was the small gunboat Mandjur, an old and not 

very serviceable vessel of i,200 tons, armed with two 

(St.,. ,:r..ph.,-.-.:ht Underwood &underw«xi, London & N.v. ,,' • > 6- iu. gun, acting as RussiaH guardship 

THE JAPAN»K VOLCANO ASAMI VAMA IN ERUPTION. Old »-m. ancl OUe o ^ , fc. 

Th. uiii«bip •■A«n»" u named after thi« volcano, which is here ^^ Shanghai. He had taken over and armed as auxiliary 

MCn wilb tmoke iuuing from the crater. o 




1904 



THE VLADIVOSTOCK FLEET. 



103 



•cruisers two of the steamers of the Volunteer 
Fleet, the Moskva, renamed the Lena, and the 
Kherson, renamed the Angara. Both were large 
new vessels of over io,000 tons, capable of 
steaming 20 knots. The Lena had been sent to 
Vladivostock ; the Angara was at Port Arthur. 

At Vladivostock he had stationed four of 
the best of his cruisers, for what reason remains 
unknown, except that possibl)- there was no 

room for them at Port 
The ^^^^^^^t^'^l^ Arthur. The best of these 

ships was the Gi'oniovoi, a 
large modern vessel of 12,336 tons, protected by 
armour 6-in. thick, capable of steaming 20 knots 
an hour, and having a coal supply of 2,100 tons, 
which gave her great power of keeping the sea. 
Ne.vt to her came the new protected cruiser 
Bogatyr, of 6,750 tons, but recently arrived in the 
Far East, and the fastest ship on either side, since 
she was able to maintain at sea for some hours 
a speed of 22 knots ; she was one of the ver}- 
'i&w Russian ships with an absolutely efficient 
engineer staff, while her fighting qualities were 
remarkable, as she carried twelve 6-in. guns, 
besides a large number of smaller weapons. She 
had, however, little armour protection, except a 
steel deck over the lower part of her hull. Her 




THE COMiM.ANDKR-I.N-CHlEK OK THE J.\P.'\NESE .'VK.MV, 
R^ro^ Kod.imn, who autographed the sketch for .Mr. Sheldon Williams, the artist. 




[Drawn by J. J. Waugb. 
BUYING THE WAR NEWS IN ST. PETKRSBURG. LATE NEWS IS SOLD IN THE FORM OF PAMPHLETS. 



104 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 



\% 



^ 



P 



'J 



mh^^^^' 



" sit?! 



- > ' ^ 



^ 



\ 




con] supply was large for 
so small a vessel, beiiij; 
1,430 tons. She was of 
(jennan build, and had 
Ljiven e\cr\' satisfaction. 

The third large cruiser 
was the famous Ross/<t, of 
1 2,200 tons, capable of 
steaming about 18 knots, 
\\ ith a very large coal sup- 
ply — 2,500 tons. She had 
a belt of lO-in. armour on 
the water-line, with above 
it 4-in. of steel, but her 
guns were left unprotected. 
.\t either end of the battery 
in which they were carried 
was a wall of 6-in. steel, 
running across the ship 
and preventing her from 
being raked. The A'«/7X' 
was similar, but older and 
smaller, with an actual 
speed of only 14 knots in 
1904. 'Jhe three big ships, 
(jro)iiovoi, Koss/ii. and 
Riirik each carried fc)ur8-in. 
:'.nd sixteen 6-in. guns. The 
cruiser squadron was under 
the orders of Commodore 
Reit/.enstein. 

The position of this 
squadron was awkward in 

THK JAH.XXKSK .\RMV Sl.VKl' 

lii;n.l)lNO, TOKIO, KROM 

W HUH IHK KOUCKS ARK 

l>n<KCIKn. 



(Drawn by Melton Prior. 
KF.JOKI.\<; IX TOKIO .\T THE NEWS. OF THE DEFEAT OF THE 
KCSSI.XX FI.EKT .*T PORT .\KTHUK. \ TORCHIJGHT PROCESSION. 

the extreme. It was distant no less than 1,060 miles from 
Fort Arthur, and to get to Poet Arthur it would have to pass 
along the whole length of Japan, exposed at every moment to 
attack by the Japanese Fleet. As the ice in the winter and 
early spring extends .jn a line, from the neighbourhood of 
Vladivostock to the Japanese island of Yezo, there was no 
possibility of going north. ^The only means of passing out of 
the'5ap^j^Sf«, .'^^herc the squadron was ^" cribbed, cabined 
and confined," would Ije to steam through the Tsugaru 
Straits, which were narrow enough to be easily watched by 
the Japanese torjjedo- boats and rendered \ery dangerous ; or 




1904 



VLADIVOSTOCK HARBOUR. 



V05 



through the Korea Straits, 
where the Japanese Fleet 
was fair!}' certain to be met 
in great force. Wherever 
they went, the Russian 
cruisers would find no hos- 
pitable port and could 
obtain neither shelter nor 
coal. On the west coast 
of Japan they could do 
little damage beyond inter- 
ferint^ somewhat with the 
transport of rice, which 
is carried on in small 
Japanese \csscls plying 
between tiie north of the 
island of Hondo and the 
ports in the south of that 
island. Moreover, tiiis 
coast is difficult to those 
who do not know it well — 
the Japanese had \ery 
prudently kept their splen- 
did charts of it to them- 
sehes — and if the Russian 
cruisers apiieared off it, 
they might find on their 
return to Vladtvostock that 
the Japanese Fleet had 
appeared off that place and 
cut them off. 

\"ladi\ostock itself is a 
finer harbf)ur than Port 
Arthur. To begin with, it 
lias two deep-water en- 





VIEW 01' VLADIVOSTOCK. TOWN I KO.M JTIK liAV. 



IW.-irnebold, ll.'iiiibui-; 



LADIES WORKING FOR THE RUSSIAN 

SOLDIERS 

The Czarii-.a has opened one of the halls of the St. 

I'etershurg Winter Palace as a workroom, where ladies 

in:ike garments and hospital requisites for the soldiers 

in the Far FLast. 

trances, so that it can onlj- be 
blockaded with great difficult}-, and 
it runs no risk of being shut up 
altogether b\- the expedient of 
sinking old 
\essels in the 
entrance ; in 
the second place, there is abund- 
ance of space in it ft)r a very large 
fleet. Its one defect is that in 
winter it is apt to be frozen up. 



Vladivostock 
Harbour. 



106 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




but never very seriously, or to sucli an extent that 
an ice-breaking steamer, such as is kept there, 
cannot force a clear passage out to sea. The 
entrances are from Amur Ba\-, a deep inlet to 
the west of Vladivostock, and from the Japan Sea 
by way of the Eastern Bosphorus, which again 
gives access to ancjthcr deep inlet, the (lolden 
Horn, on which stand the town and dockyard. 
Here, until the seizure of Port Arthur, the Russian 
Navy in the Far V.ASt had its headquarters ; and 
one large dock 625 ft. long, capable of containing 
the biggest warship afloat, was already constructed 
and in service. Besides this there was a floating 
dock, capable of taking a moderate-sized cruiser, 
and yet a third dock under construction. The 
workshops afforded facilities for all kinds of 
ordinary repairs. The port is better off than 
Port Arthur in respect of its coal supply, since 
only 60 miles off, in Russian territory, are mines 
of anthracite, w hich is fairly satisfactory when used 
on shipboard, though not to be compared with 
Welsh coal. 

The town itself, founded in i860, is large, with 
a population of over 20,000, but most of the 
buildings are of wood. It has a picturesque and 
pleasing appearance from the .sea, though the 
streets are wretchedly kept and are so full of 
holes and even deep pits that 
driving in them is a painful 
experience. Inland from the 
town the Siberian Railway runs up the peninsula 
on which the port is situated — for Vladivostock 
like Port Arthur is placed on a long, narrow 
tongue of land. The railway closely follows the 
coast of Amur Bay for many miles, and is, there- 
fore, liable to attack and interruption b\' the fleet 
of a Power cominanding tue sea. When the bay 
is left, the line follows the course of the Sui Fun 
River as far as the small town of Nikolskoe,. 
where the older Siberian line from Kl>-ibijrovsk 
j(jins the newer railway from Kharbiii, ^hich 
gives through connection with ICurope. At the 
opening of the war the town was insufficiently 
garrisoned ; the defences needed strengthening, 
though they were formidable ; and if reports, which 
reached the outer world from neutral sources, 
,;^ould be trusted, there was a great want of sup- 
plies to enable the place to stand a long siege. 

Reinforcements for the Russian Meet in the 
Far East could only reach the scene of. war 



Vladivostock 
Town. 



106 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




\ WHITKHKAIl iOUl'KlHl IKDM 



SHII'> SIDE. 



provided the coal difficulty could Ix; overcuinc. and warships proceetiin^' frum I'.urope to Port Arthur or 
X'ladivostock could be coaled at sea. I'roin the Black .Sua no shijj could be sent without xiolatint; 
International treaties and brinj,'inL; Kutjiaud into the field ; in the Baltic no modern battleship was 
ready, though, in February, the Alexander III. was nearint; completion, and the Borodino was well advanced. 

!n a more backward stage were 
the new battleships Slava, Orel, 
and Siivarofl, and the cruisers 
Olcg, Jivntcliiig, and Iziiniriid ; 
while the old battleships Navarin 
and Sissoi ]^cliki, which were 
undersjfoing repairs, might ha\e left 
in February but for this question 
of coal. It is the rule in war for 
neutrals onl)- to give a belligerent's 
warship so much coal as is required 

to take her 
The Coal i i . .^i 

Diffleulty. ^''^^' ^° the 

nearest port 

of her own countr)-, and no further 
suppl\- within the s])ace of six 
months. J'"or infringements of this 
princi[)le during the American 
Civil War, England was con- 
demned to pay a hea\y indemnit)- 
to the United States b)- a court of 
arbitration, so that the risks of any 
departure from the rule are con- 
siderable. 

Russia had no coaling stations 

of her own on the whole line of 

12,000 miles from Kronstadt to 

I'ort Arthur, while there was a 

ivvesi I'hoio. a'lP <jf about 4,000 miles between 




T0kl'tr)0 KXPLOSION. ULOWINO LI' A UGAT. 



1904 



THE RUSSIAN NAVY. 



109 




A WHITEHEAD TORPEDO, SUCH AS USED BY THE JAPANESE. 



lOibl) I'hot.). 



the coaling stations of hei 
ally PVance, at Djibouti, 
at the mouth of the Red 
Sea, and Saigon in Indo- 
China. That is a gap too 
great to be crossed by an\- 
but a very few Russian 
warships, even supposing 
that France were willing 
to show herself lax in 
observing her duties as a 
neutral. Hence it was 
probable that the war would 
have to be fought out with 
the ships which were on 
the spot. 





Personnel of the 
Russian Navy. 



ICribb Photo. 
'I UK PROPELLER AND STEERING DEVICE OF THE 
WHITEHEAD TORPEDO. 

Tlie torpcdu ij expelled by compressed air, but when it touches the water is 
driven by its own engine. 



DESTROYERS GOING INTO .VCTIOX. 

As for the personnel of the Russian Navy, it 
had a high reputation, and, notwithstanding the 
continued friction between England and Russia, 
the ofificers of the two coun- 
tries were always the best of 
friends. There was a fine 
Intelligence Department which knew the .secrets 
of every foreign Navy ; there was a General Staff 
of apparently competent thinkers ; the ships were 
of excellent design ; the seamen .seemed to be 
well trained ; the shooting of the gunners was 
reported on good German authority to be of the 
best, so that the fleet might have been expected 
to render a good account of itself in war. But it 
had one serious defect : it spent most ol its time 
in harbour, and its squadrons were seldom at sea. 
The standard of seamanship was thus low, and to 
get in and out of such a harbour as Port Arthur 
the large vessels were placed in charge of pilots, 
not navigated by their own ofificers, and had 
always the help of tugs. Of fleet drill at sea there 



110 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 



appears to have been 
little : the Russian l''ar 
Eastern I'^Jeet generally 
remained at I'ort Arthur 
or made short cruise-; in 
the vicinity of tiiat for- 
tress, from time to time 
detachinij vessels to visit 
the Chinese, Korean, and 
Japanese ports. 

Of the officers in 

command, Vice-Admiral 

Stark came from the Baltic 

Provinces, and had made 

a reputation during the 

fighting with China in 1 900. 

He was a quiet, reserved 

man, with little of the 

Russian iinpetuousness of disposition. His superior, Admiral Aie.xeieff, the Viceroy, had general authority 

over both Army and Navy. A big, burly, bearded man, he was thoroughly acquainted with the Far East, 

where he had held a responsible position during the war of 1894-5 between Japan and 

Admirals Alexeieff q]^Ij^^ j^^j again in 1900, during the Allied operations against China. He was indefatigable 
And dtai*K. 11 ■ 1 

in working for what he thought to be the interests of Russia, and was ready totalis with 

all comers in the freest and frankest stvle. But those who knew him well doubted whether he possessed 




lllkl>.N-KVL VltW OF I.AKK BAIKAL, SHOWING WHKRK IT IS CROSSED BV THK 
IKOOPS EN ROUTE TO THE WAR. 




KU.SSIAN KNOIXKKKS LAVI.Sl, IHK l.l.NE ACROSS L.\KE BAIKAL. 
rbc break 'm ibc Siberian Railway caiucd by Lake Baikal is bridged by ice in winter, and bv the use of a ship which carrier the irsin in suniniet 



1904 



THE NAVIES COMPARED. 



11 



the mental qualities re- 

<iuired for such a position 

as he held, and from his 

dail\- con- 
Russia's Total ' . ■ 
Naval Force. ye^'^ation 

it was 
plain that he under- 
estimated the Japanese to 
a danq^erous extent. 

The total naval force 
of Russia a\ailable in the 
Far East on the outbreak 
of war can be summed 
up thus, as compared with 
the Japanese : 

J.ipan. Russia 

Modern battle- 
• ships ... 6 7 

Modern a r- 

m o u r e d 

crui.sers ... 6 2 
Larjre belted 

cruisers ... o 2 
Fast protected 

cruisers 
Older cruLsers 
Destroyers . . . 
Other torpedo 

craft ...' 6o(?) I2(?; 

Russia, it will be .seen, was 
far weaker than Japan in 
armoured ships, of which 
Japan had twelve to the 
Russian nine. 



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19 
19 



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INSIDE THE REFRESH.MENT .S.\1.00X, .MIDWAV ON THE 

ICE BETWEEN THE SHORES OK L.^KE BAIKAL. 

This shelter is made of wood and lined with felt. It has double doors as a 

further protection against the intense cold. 

In other cruisers of modern type the two 
sides were on a footin-,*^ of practical equality ; in 
old ships the Japanese had a great preponder- 
ance, while in torpedo craft of all sorts they were 
overwhelmingly superior. Calculating upon a system 
invented by a well-known British naval writer, Mr. 
F. T. Jane, the Russian strength in fighting shijjs 
might be valued at 105 points, and the Japanese at 
128. Japan, then, had a slight naval preponderance. 

Tiie Russian Army in the Far East at the 
opening of 1904 consisted of 150,500 officers and 
men, with 266 guns, to the east of Lake liaikal. Of 
this total 108,000 were infantry, 22,500 cavalrv. and 



112 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 



36 batteries, with 1 1 .000 men, 
artillcn-. The rest of the force 
was made up of engineers, train 
and supply department, and the 
\-arious technical branches which 




[Cribb Photo. 
THE JAPANESE CRUISER "TOKIWA." 
Built at the Elxwick Works. 

upon the various reserves in the Far East ; while 
the movement from Eurtjpe of a complete army 
corps, the loth, totalling .some 42,000 men, with 
172 gun.s, was ordered in January. The distance 
to be covered was, however, 
so enormous that it is doubt- 
ful whether it could have 
arrived before the beginning of March, if by 
then. Kut with these additional troops the 
Russian forces in the Far I'-ast would number 
about 230,000 men, of whom quite 60,000 would 
be required for the purjxjse of guarding the 
railway and garrisoning the Russian fortresses. 



The 
Russian Soldier. 



THE RUSSIAN' PKOTEITKD CRU>SKR "EOGATYR," 0,500 TONS. 
One of the Vl.'idivostock Fleet. Launched 1900 at Stettin. 

must accompanx' an army in the field. The best 

troops were probably the Cossacks, who are something 

between cavalry and mounted infantry, armed with 

rifles, and e.xcellent horsemen. 



Russia's 
Far Eastern Army. 



well mounted. But, in addition to 
them, there was a considerable force 
of regular mounted infantry. The Russian artillery 
was armed, in part, with a new pattern of quickfiring 
field-gun of great power, said to be capable of dis- 
charging twenty shots a minute, though this is prob- 
ably an exaggeration. The shell weighs i Slb., and 
the effective range is 5,500 yards. The Russian rifle 
is the Mouzin of 1891 pattern, which carries five 
rounds in the magazine, and is loaded with a clip. 

In addition to the above Russian troops, about 
40,000 men may have been raised locally by drawing 




: 6f^*" 



THE CAPTAIN (Jt IHt "AUKASA." CAPTAIN iJlCH*. 



114 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




bikds-eyf: view of vi.adivostock and its harbour. 

The Harliour is ap|)ro;iched by ihe Kastern Bosphorus Strait. 

The Russian soldier is excellent, inured to hardship, personally brave, of good physique ; but he 
i.s unintelligent and slow of understanding, lacking entirely in initiative, and with no recent war experience 
again.st a dashing enemy. The Turks, in the war of 1877-8, rarel}' or never attacked, and were so 
indifferently organi.sed and badly led that they were, in comparison with the Japanese, a contemptible 
foe, though brave and hardy, as are indeed the Japanese. The Russian generals have the reputation of 
knowing their business well, but the inferior oiificers are ill-educated and untrustworthy, from the national 
habit of {lecuiation. The tactics ofj^the < Russians are of the antiquated type common before the Boer War 
iilu.strated and proved the stopping power of the modern rifle. I""rom highest to lowest the Russian Army 




lilt KUb.^lA.N VI.ADIVOSTOCK FLEKT TAKING SUPPLIES ON BOARD. 
ThU picture shows the sledgCK drawn on the ice to the ships' side. 



1904 



ADMIRAL TOGO. 



115 



had been trained to despise the 
Japanese ; and contempt for your 
adversary is a \er\- dant^erous 
equipment with which to enter 
upon a great war. 

The Japanese Navy in 1904 
was strong in ships, in men, and 
in repairing faciUties, which are 
of the utmost importance, as the 
modern warship is intensely 
susceptible of injury. It included 
six battleship.? — MlKASA, Hasuse, 
AsAHi, SiiiKi.siii.viA, Fuji, and 
Yasiii.MA — all of British design, 
and built in England, resembling 
in their particulars the British 
Majestic class, with, however, many 
improvements. These six .ships 
were similar in that they were all 





Japan's Navy. 



POST A.ND TELEGR.VPH OFFICES .\T 
VLAUIVOSTOCK.. 



fWarnebold, Hanilnirti. 
CHINESE H.\RliOUR -\NU ZAMPANS AT VLADIVOSTOCK. 

armed with four 12-inch guns apiece, mounted in pairs in 
barbettes, behind strong shields. All carried as their auxiliary 
battery from ten to fourteen 6-inch quickfiring guns. The 
squadron steamed from 15 to 161^ knots at .sea, or one to two 
knots more than the Russians, and could be 
trusted to maintain that speed for hours and 
for days. The battleships were well protected by armour, and 
were accustomed to exerci.se together at .sea, .so that the\' were 
admirably trained for battle. The shooting was good, and the 
Japanese had practi.sed at long ranges of from 4,000 to 8,000 
yards, realising that in modern war the ships which can hit her 
enemy at a great distance has the odds in her favour. 

This fleet was under the orders of Admiral Togo, with his 



Admiral Togo. 



flag on board the MiKA.SA. He was an 
officer of great experience. As a boy he 
had served in the British training-shi[) 
Worcester, and in the 
British Navy ; had 
studied in the \aval College at Green- 
wich ; and in the war with China had 
held the command of the cruiser Naniwa, 
in which vessel he had fought in the first 
action off Asan, and had sunk the 
Kowshing. At the Yalu he handled his 
ship admirably, and won general praise in 
his service. Of Samurai descent, a fight- 
ing man by birth and inclination, he was 
about fifty years of age at the outbreak 
of war, short and thick-set in appearance, 




^^.^^ 



THE RUSSIAN ARMOURED CRUISER "GROMOBOI." 
Commodore Reitzenstein's Flagship at Vladivostock. 



116 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




[UrawH from a pliotugrapli. 
FAREWELL TO GKNKRAL KUROPATKIN AT ST. PETKRSBURt). 

ships of older date. They were probablj- quite as good as the Russian 

battleships of the /'<>///»t'fl class. They were capable of steaming 19 knots 

at sea, and two of them, under favourable condftions. 

Japans Squadron cquUI manage 21. The\' were among the most for- 

1 J n I „_, midable eleinents in the Japanese Fleet, and had 

Armoured Cruisers. ■' ' ' 

attracted general admiration in England, where four of 
them had been built, as about the most powerful ships of their size 
ever produced. Capable at once of hitting hard and taking a great deal 
of punishment, they formed an ideal fast squadron. 

The third, or fast, Japanese squadron of protected cruisers (which 
differ from armoured cruisers in this, that they ha\e only a flat or curved 

deck of steel, dividing the ship horizontally at the 
Prot^tEd CruUers. 'evel of the water-line, and preventing shells that may 

burst in the up|jer part of the hull from injuring the 
engines, boilers, and magazines, which are kept below the water-line and 
under the armour-deck ; while the armoured cruiser has this kind of deck as 
well as steel armour on her sides and guns), was composed of four ships, 
nominally good for 23 knots, and actually for about 21 — the Kasagi, 
Tak.,vs.\go, Chitose, and Y0.SHIN0. The first three carried each two 
8-inch and ten 47-inch quickiirers : the Yoshino. four 6-inch and eight 



with piercing, black e\'es, 
and a black beard and 
moustache. 

The second item of 
importance in the Japanese 
Fleet was the squadron of 
six armoured cruisers — 
ASAMA, TOKIWA, IDZUMO, 
IWATE, Yakumo, and 
Adzu.M.\ — under the com- 
mand of Vice-Admiral 
Kamimura. These six 
cruisers each mounted four 
8-inch quickfirers, with 
from twelve to fourteen 
6-inch weapons. They 
were plated with Krupp or 
Harve\'ed steel, varying in 
thickness from five to 
seven inches, on their 
water-lines, sides, and guns, 
and were little inferior in 
protection to most battle- 




CAI'TAIN .MATSUMOTO, 
Captain of the Japanese Hattleship " Fuji." 



1904 



JAPAN'S CRUISERS 



117 




jai'am;sk i;ai n.icsmi' ■fuji." Jiiuii.r ox thk Thames. 



IC'ril. 



47-inch guns. They were comparathel}- small vessels, but well armed, and with their high speed were 
well adapted for sc(juting, attacking hostile torpedo-boats, and watching blockaded ports. The\- are 
believed to have been under the 
orders of Rear-Admiral S. Dcwa. 
Two were of Mnglish build, and 
two had been constructed in the 
United States, but this latter pair 
had not given entire satisfaction. 

The older Japanese cruisers, 
I T S U K U.SMniA, M A T SUSHI M A, 

Hashidate, Namwa, Cuivoda, 
Tak.\chiho and Akitsushima 
liad all fought at the Yalu, and 
were still useful .ships for coast- 
defence work 

Old/rTuis'ers. --' ''^""ti"- 
though with 

years their speed had fallen, and 
the)' were no longer cajjablc of 
fighting in line. The old Chinese 
ironclads ClllN Yen (C7ien Yiicii) 
and .Sai Yen {'fsi V/u-//) had been 
refitted and added to the Japanese 
Fleet, where, with the obsolete 
Japanese ironclad Fr.soo, the\- 
were of little u.se for anything 
but work on the coast.s of Japan 
and Korea. Another cruiser, the 
lozu.MI, purchased from Chili in 
1895, and twent)- years old, was in 
much the same case, though in her 
own day she had been a most 
remarkable ves.sel, since, under the 
name of the Esmeralda, she had 
been the progenitor of the well- 
■ known type of protected crui.ser. ii.raw,, i„ Tokic,,bysh.id,.n wiiii:t,n.s. 

•^ ' _ A JAPANKSK SOLDIER'S FAREWELL. OliEISANCES IN' A TEMPLE. 

Ol.\ small last cruisers (^ A II fAK.V, Tins represtMUs the interior of the Y.isukuni Temple, whicli vv.is built to commeinomte soldiers fallen in b.Tttle. 




118 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




JAPANKSE RFXRl'ITS KOI.LOVVINU A SERGKANT TO THK RENDEZVOUS AT T0K.10 AFTKR THE OUTBREAK OF WAR. 

Tsushima. Suma. Akashi, MiyakO, and Yaevama) for scouting work completed the list of effective 
ships. The Japanese also had a large number of old gunboats, worn-out cruisers, and miscellaneous 
craft, which might, under conditions, be capable of rendering useful ser\ice in war, and, in addition, they 
armed fifteen or twenty merchant steamers. 

The Japanese torpedo flotilla was an exceptionally powerful one. Their own experience at VVei- 
bai-wei had taught them the power of this new weapon, in the use of which they excelled, and for the employ- 
ment of which Far Eastern waters and the Japanese seas are peculiarly suited. They 

"^^ iiad a large steamer, purchased from the merchant service, the Tovahashi, to carry 

Japanese , , , ■ ,., , , , -,- 

Tomedo Flotilla torpedo stores, torpedoes and mmes. 1 here were two torpedo gunboats, the 1 ATSUTA 

and ChihayA, each steaming 2i knots, and carrying five torpedo-tubes. Hut the main 
strength of the flotilla for attack lay in its magnificent .squadron of destroyers. Of the.se nineteen were 

com])lete in 1904. Fifteen of them had been constructed in 
luigland by Messrs. Yarrow and Thornycroft, whose fertile 
brains first conceived the idea of these deadly little craft, 
which are much larger than a torpedo-boat, and for that 
rea.son far better able to keep the sea in rough weather, 
or make long voyages. Such good .seaboats are these craft, 
indeed, that there are occasions upon which 
the British destroyers in the Mediterranean have 
kept the .sea when French battleships have been 
driven to their ports for shelter. The Japanese 
boats .steamed from 30 to 31 knots on trial, 
whicii meant tlial they could be trusted to do 25 
knots in ordinary .service ; they each carried two 
torpedo-tubes, firing the i8-in. torpedo, and were 
manned by crews of from 54 to 57 men. Accus- 
tomed to run in and out among the islands on the 



ADMIRAL BARON 
INOUYK. 



of ihc 

VoliuMca Naval Si£. 

tion. One of ihc mcni 

pofniUr met) in ih*: 

Japanese Navy. 




1904 



JAPAN'S TORPEDO BOATS. 



119 



Smaller 
Torpedo-Boats. 



coasts of Japan and Korea, the officers and men in 
charge of theni thoroughly knew the waters in 
which they might be called upon to operate. 

Of smaller torpedo-boats there ^\v^S a \'ery 
large number, as the flotilla vvhich- had been in 
existence during the war with China, and which 
had been reinforced by the boats captured from the 
Chinese, had been greatly in- 
creased since 1895. It is 
difficult to say exactly how 
many of these boats were fit for service in 1904, 
but probably the number was about 60. Thirteen 
more boats were building, and some of these may have 
been completed by the outbreak of the war, as it 
is certain that the Japanese would make every 
possible effort to have the maximum of force ready 
against ^.he Russians. The Japanese torpedo-boats 
were in many cases vessels of considerable size, and 
but little inferior to destroyers, though slower and less 
able to face bad weather. They were quite capable 
of operating against such points as Port Arthur 
and Vladivostock from bases seized near at hand, 
and would be invaluable for keeping Russian 




LWariicbold, Hamburg. 
A RUSSIAN SUBJECT FROM THK AMOUR RIVER. 

A Oiliac worker 111 the gold mines. 




[Drawn by C. Dixon, K.I. 



BIG RUSSIAN GUNS ON THK WAY TO THE FRONT-A SNOWSTORM EN ROUTE 



120 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




ll'opical Presh Agency. 
CHI\K>^K SOLIMEKS DRILLED BV JAPANESE. NOW STATIONED NEAR THE GRE.\T WALL 
TO PRESERVE THE NEUTRALITY OF CHINA. 



tions were .sent by rail fnun the Black 

Sea to the Far East siiortly after the 

bejjinning of the war. 

The torpedo ii.sed b)- the Japanese 

toqxxio-boats is the 14-in., and by the 

destroyers tlie l8-in. The i4-in. is a far 

less formidable \\ea]X)n than the i8-in., 

since it only contains /gibs, of j^iin-cotton, 

ajrainst the 171 or 

Japans ,00 lbs. in the larger 

Torpedoes. ^ 

pattern. Just before 

the war the Japanese had ex|>erimented 

with an infinitely more powerful tori)edo 

than cither of these, the 24-in. runnin^j 

3,000 yards, and carrying 200 to 250 lbs. 

of "iun-cotton ; and it is believed that a 



cruisers awa)' from the 
Japanese ports. 

It was unfortunate 
that neither side at the 
outset possessed sub- 
marines, so that this new 
and tLM-rible weapon could 
not be tested in war. 
Japan, however, is re- 
ported to have had two 
building in the Japanese 
ports, while there are 
rumours that six Russian 
submarine-boats in .sec- 





THE END OK THE OKEVI WALL OF 
Tbc Chinese are inaMing troops here, as it is the 



[Topic<^l I'rtss .\gt;vcy. 
CHINESE SOT.niKRS TRAINED liY ENGLISH OFFICERS. 

^IcT) of the 1st Chinese Reyinient at our Chinese possession — Wei-li:ii-\vei. 

few of these torpedoes were in use in one or two of the 
arger Japanese ships. 

V\ liat doubled the real force of the Ja])anese I-'lcet was 
the su|)erb s\'stcin of docks and dockyards which Japan 
possessed. Her dockxards, indeed, were su])crior to 
anything in the Far J'Last, both for organisation and 

accommodation, while all 
her modern ships were 
specially built with dock- 
ing keels, .so that when 
the\' entered dock they 
did not need to undergo 
the comi)licated process 
of shoring-up, but had 
sinii^ly to steam in and 
i.N. 1'. K.i.v.ir<ui'iioto. lie there till the water 

CHINA AT SHAXHAl-KWAN. ■ a 4. 

frontier between Manchuria and China. ^^'''^ pUmpetl OUt. /\t 



1904 



JAPAN'S DOCKYARDS. 



121 



Tt-^4 \ 





Hakodate was one lar^e 

dry dock, capable of 

taking a battleship : at 

Yokohama 

•'aP^"'^ «ere tuo 
Splendid 

Dockyards. ^'''S^ '^"e'^; 

at Tokio, 

one 'small one ; at the 

Goseninieiit \arcl oC 



IN. P. Kdwards Photu. r 
WEI-HAl-WEI. 
A Chinese port to the east of Chifu, 
leaseil by the British. 

Yoko.suka, one larLje and 
two small ; at Kure, two 
large ; at L'raga Bay, one 
very large and two of 
moderate size ; at Kobe- 
one of moderate .size ; at 
O.saka, eight small ; at 
Nagasaki, one large and 
two smaller ; at the great 
Japanese na\al station of 
Sasebo, n(Jt far from 
Nagasaki, three large docks 
and one small one. 




sttreo^raiihs copyright] CHIKU H.ARllOUR AT KVK.XINO. I Underwood & Undcrivoud, London & N.\'. 




KISSIAN OFFICERS irRCH.\si.\0 KKIMiKER l.\ SIHERIA FROM THE CHUNCHUS-ES FOR TRANSPORT PURPOSES. 



122 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




There were thus eleven large docks, 
capable of containin<j battleships, or almost 
enoujjh to hold all the Japanese battleships 
and armoured cruisers at the sair.e time, 
while the docks capable of taking smaller 
cruisers and torpedo craft were no fewer 
than seventeen. Their stud\' of naval war 
had convinced the Japanese that injuries to ships would be 



[Berliner lltu^lrations Oescllschafl. 
RUSSIANS REAKINC; THE LATEST NEWS KKOM 
THE WAR. 



frequent, and that the Power which could most speedily effect 
repairs after a 
great battle 
would have the 
game in its 
hands. There- 
fore all their 
prepara tions 
aimed at the 



rapid making of repairs. Against the two Russian docks of 
large size, at Port Arthur and Vladivostock, Japan had eleven. 
If the Russians ventured out and fought a great battle, there 
was no port where the)- could effect the necessary repairs, 
while the Japanese could be at .sea again in a month, with 
their ships in good order. Nor was it an insignificant 
advantage that Japan had an ample supply of good coal, 
mined in her own territorj'. This fuel, though inferior to 
Welsh coal, was better than anything the Russians possessed. 

Nature, too, favoured the Japanese. For two thousand 

miles the islands under the rule of the Emperor of Japan front 

the coast of Asia, in an almost unbroken 

How Geography ^.^^jp^ „.jj|, numerous fortified positions 

connected by telegraph. An enemy 

approaching from Europe would have to pass along this chain 

of positions, at any point in which the Japanese Fleet might be 

found, resting on its ba.ses, with abundance of coal and 





—■3? 



THE JAPANESE NAVY DEHARTMENT, TOKIO. 



[IJerlintT ll!ll^lr;ltio^s Geselisch.'ift. 

RUSSIAN TROOPS .MARCHINd TO THE 
STATION FOR THE FRONT 

ammunition near at hand, and 
with friendh' ports within reach. 
First in this long chain of positions 
come Formosa and the Pescadores, 
right in the line of approach from 
Hong-kong, with a fine harbour 
and coaling station at Kilung. 
From Formosa, the Riu-kiu 
Islands run northwards to the 
main group of Japane.se islands. 
A fleet whose approach was 
announced from P'ormcsa could be 
attacked by a Japanese squadron 
moving from Sasebo so as to hold 



1904 



JAPAN'S ADVANTAGES. 



123 



the entrance to the Korea 
Strait or the Gulf of 
Pechili. 

Little could be achieved 
by an enemy against Japan 
Itself The important 
places are all well fortified. 
Of the three entrances to 
the Inner Sea, which gi\es 
access to the inmost heart 
of Japan, the Straits of 
Shimonoseki and the Kii 
Channel are strongh- forti- 
fied, while the Bungo 
Channel is to some extent 
defended by mines, and on 
the eve of war fortifica- 
tions are believed to have 
been erected on the shal- 
lows commanding the en- 
trance. Thus the Inland 
Sea gives the Japanese a 
short cut between the 
Pacific and the Korean 
Straits, and enables them 
readily to move their forces 
backwards and forwards. 
It also affords an admirable 
point of assemblage for a 
fleet of transports, and from 
Kure and Hiroshima most 
Japanese expeditionary 
forces formerly sailed. 

In the Korean Straits 
the Japanese 
own the strongly 
fortified island 



LIEUT.-GENL. 
KASKGAWA. 

This officer aroused 
General Kuropatkin's 
admiration during his 
visit to Tokio, on 
account of his m.tg- 
nificent physique. 





COSSACKS OF THE IMI'KKIAl, RUSSIAN GUARD. 

group of Tsushima, which is an admirable station for torpedo craft 

guarding the straits, while in the present war they have seized 

advanced bases where they needed them on the Korean coast. Owing 

to the peculiar configuration of the Yellow Sea, which narrows 

between Chemulpo and Wei-hai-wei, the\- can easih* watch it from 

their Korean ports. Thus by Nature the\' are 

admirably equipped for a naval war against such a 

Power as Russia. 

But the Japanese had reinforced Nature by 
art. The personnel of their Navy was admirable ; 
its officers scientific, well educated, perfect masters 
of their profession, and inimitably brave. The men 
were obedient, educated, resourceful, disciplined 



124 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM 



1904 



111 their good qualities they are held by 

British naval officers to be little, if at all, 

jehind that fine t\'pe 

Personnel of the „,- f^^^^^- .^.^.^/the 

Japanese Navy. '^ '^ 

British bluejacket, 

whose uniform lhc\- have copied. 

TIk- obser\er on the deck of a 

ipanese battleship might 

sujJiKJse from the drill and 

appearance of the men, as 

seen at a little distance, 

that he was standing 

in a British vessel. 

There is the same 

neatness, the 

same familiar 

ippearancc' 

due ill part, 

no doubt, 

to the 

I'jiglish 

'". build 

of 




tlicir 

vessels 

and the 

Knglish 

iinifonn. 
The Jajja 

nesc (jeneral 

Staff, at the heaci 

«if which is Admiral 

Ito. is the equal of anv 

in the world, while there 

are no secrets from the 

Japanese Intelligence Depart- 
ment, it 
The General ■ 

Staff. '^"^■'' ^'■^'^> 

detail of the 

Russian Fleet ; every particular about 
Vlatlivostock and Fort Arthur. Not 
content with secondhand information, 
HUiny of the Japanese <jfficers hafl .seized 
the opjxjrtunity of acquainting themselves 
with the Russian arsenals by taking service 
there in the humble guise of hairdressers ant 
valets. It is said that a Japanese Intelligence 
officer used daily to shave .Admiral .\le.\eieffs 
staff at Port .Arthur, and probably the knowledge 



A JAPANESE BLUEJACKET'S UAKING UELU. 

This Japani-sc liluejackct jumpeil from liis ir:ift on lioard the " SlL-rtKusclitchi." 

He f.,und the KusMan captain jiiM omiins out from his cabin. He cut him across 

the head with his cutlass, and he fell !■< the deck. When he .igain attempted to 

ri.se to continue the figlit the jap.'inese Ijhiejacket kicked him o^■crhoard. 



1904 



THE JAPANESE ARMY. 



125 




JAPANESE SOLDIERS RECEIVING THEIR KITS AT TOKIO. 



[Drawn from photo liy S. Smith. 



which he thus picked up was an ample compensation for the humiliations he had to endure. Finally, the 
whole personnel of the Japanese fleet was animated with a fanatical spirit of patriotism, and had 
learnt to long with ardour for a war w ith Russia. " It was too easy," said the officers and men who came 
back from the Valu and Wei-hai wei. They desired opponents better worthy of their steel than the Chinese 
Xaw of 1894 provided. 

The Japanese Army 
had bee.i thoroughly 

reorganised 

a f t e r its 

triumphs in 

the war with 
China. It is the doctrine 
of Japan as of most great 
states, that the first duty 
of every able - bodied 
citizen is to defend his 
country. The army is 
recruited by compulsory Japanese soldiers on the .march through tokio. 



The 

Japanese 

Army. 




[Sidney Smith Photo. 



126 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




JAI'ANKSK SOl.nlERS PACKING SUPPI.IKS AT THE DEPOT NEAR TOKIO FOR EXTR/VINMENT. Li. Smith Photo. 

service, but only about 6o,000 men a year 
out of 250,000 who reach the age of 
service, are taken. The active army is 
organised in thirteen divisions, each ol 
which consists of two infantr\' brigades, or 
twelve battalions of 12,000 men; one 
cavalrj' regiment of 570 men ; and si.v 
batteries of artillery, with 36 quiclv-firipg 
guns. It is believed that each division 
has been further strengthened for the 
present war by the addition of a reserve 
brigade of infantry 6,000 strong, and an 
additional batter}- of artillery, in which 
case the strength would be about 22,000 
men, with 42 guns. Besides the 13 
divisions there is an independent division 

Ci. Sinith Plioto. 
JAPANESE SOLDIERS BREAKING A MILITARY 

PONY TO HARNESS. 











^^Ifekli^^^^^^^^^^l^H^^Htafe 


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19^^ 




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W0^^^^m 


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Ji 



G. dniith Photo. 
JAPANESE MILITARY PONIES 
GOING TO THE STATION KOK 
THE FRONT. 



of cavalry 2,200 men 
strong. The total force 
available in the first line 
for active service is 288,000 
men and 798 guns. In 
the second line, available 
for garrison or other duty, 
is the territorial army, 
l22,oco men strong, with 
312 guns. In the third 
line are another 100,000 




1904 



THE SPIRIT OF JAPAN'S ARMY. 



127 




JAPANESE SOLDIERS 



ROUTE TO THE STATION AT TOKIO 



RICKSHAWS. 



Japan's Weak 
Cavalry. 



men, who serve as militia, and who are being organised in regular brigades 
and divisions. 

The great weakness of the Japanese army lies in its cavalry, which is 
numerically weak and badly horsed. The Japanese horse is a wretched 
animal, and even the artillery is not very efficiently 
equipped with draft animals. This, it need scarcely be 
said, is a very serious matter, and though great efforts 
had been made by the Japanese Government to improve the breed of 
horses, the outbreak of war found Japan with a very small number of serviceable 
horses, whereas Russia had an enormous supply. It has yet to be seen 
whether the Japanese weakness in this direction may not have an unfavourable 
influence upon the land campaign, though it is true that the inferiority of the 
Japanese cavalry is atoned for to some extent by the extreme mobility of the 
infantry. Instances are known in which regiments have marched 40 miles, 
and it is claimed that 20 miles can be covered by them day after day. The 
arm of the infantry is a light magazine rifle, the Midjii, similar to the 
Mannlicher, and carrying five rounds in the magazine, with a clip load. The 
cavalry have a carbine of the same pattern. The arm of the artillery is the 
Arisaka quick-firing gun, similar to the latest Krupp gun, and discharging a 
lO-lb. shell. 

All that has been said of the zeal and spirit of the Japanese Navy 

applies with equal force to the Japanese Army. The 

the Armv officers devote their whole attention to their profession, and 

are unquestionably among the most competent in the 

world. The soldier is well educated, sober, hardy — with an absolute contempt 

for death, which makes him a formidable antagonist. In fighting qualities 

he is more than a match for the Ghoorkas, whose prowess has endeared them 




JAPANESE 



[Haines Photo 
MARINE. 



128 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




JAPANESE SOLDIERS ON THE TOKIO PARADE GROUND, MARCHING. 



[S. Smith Photo. 



to British regiments. Add that he is swayed in the present war by the deepest and strongest of all passions, 
devotion to his country and love for his Emperor, and that he knows Japan to be fighting for her life, and 
the world will understand what may be expected from the Japanese soldiery. 

When the first shot was fired by the Korietz, the two large armoured cruisers purchased from the 
Argentine by Japan were still on their passage from Singapore to Yokosuka. These two vessels had been 




[Drawn by a Japanese Artist. 
THE DEPARTURE OF tHE JAPANESE EMPEROR FROM TOKIO, AT THE TI.ME OF THE CHINO-JAPANESE WAR, FOR 
THS HEADQUARTERS AT HIROSHIMA. ACCOMPANIED BY THE IMPERIAL GUARDS, CALLED KONOVEHEl 



THE VOYAGE OF THE " NISSHIN " AND " KASUGA." 



129 




(S. Smith Photo. 
A TOKIO HOUSE DECORATED IN HONOUR OF THE CREWS OF 
THE ".NISSHIN" AND "KASUGA." 



which the ships had been built. The two 
vessels received their guns and ammunition 
before they left Italy, but they were too weakly 
manned to make much of a fight had they been 
attacked on the way out. 

They were hastily completed for sea and 
left on Sunday, January lo. Quite early their 
troubles began, as they had no papers and no 
status ; no owners and, as yet, no country. 
They had difficulty in obtaining a bill of health 
from the authorities at Genoa, though such a bill 
was necessary to procure their admission even 
at British ports. 
After the bill 
had been sent. 



acquired at the close of 1903, and in the early 

days of January, 1904, were rapidly completed 

for sea at Genoa. Ten 

The "Nisshln" «- , 

and"Kasuga." oncers and 120 men were 

obtained in England to take 

them out to Japan, and despatched by train 

to Genoa. All the men were British subjects, 

and many of them had served in the Naval 

Reserve. The officers in charge were Captain 

Lee commanding the NisSHiN and Captain 

Paynter commanding the Kasuga. Both were 

on the emergency list of officers for the Navy, 

and were somewhat unfairly struck off it by the 

British authorities for rendering this service to 

Japan. The rest of the crews were made up 

of a few Japanese seamen, with half a dozen 

Japanese officers to superintend proceedings, and 

a number of Italians taken on from the yard in 





/l 1 J--. 




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^IMM 


'" ' y ' -i - ^ '^ 






E 


\ 




'A 

"1 i»i^^^^ 


•i-^i^ g= 


qj 


1 




THE JAPANESE CRUISER "NISSHIN" IN GENOA HARBOUR, WHERE SHE WAS BUILT. 
This photoerapb was taken the day before she started for Japan. 



[S. Smith Photo. 
WAITING FOR THE ARRIVAL OF THE CREWS OF THE 
■NISSHIN" AND " KjVSUGA." 



the Russian Consul 
brought pressure to bear 
so that the Italian au- 
thorities asked for its 
return. Fortunately, 

Captain Lee managed to 
lose it, though it turned 
up again so soon as he had 
got away to sea. The 
ships quitted Genoa at 
night, and ne.xt day, 
hoisting the Japanese 
naval flag — to which, 
strictly speaking, they had 
no right — their course was 
set for Suez. It now 
remained to be seen 



130 



lAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




A JAPAXESK UK-WMNl. 



or lUE WELCOME IN TOKIO TO THE CREWS WHICH BROUGHT THE " KASUGA 
"NISSHIN" FROM GENOA TO JAPAN. 
There was a fete iii their honour in the Hioiya Park, Tokio, Feb. 19, 1904. 



AND 



whether the Russian Squadron in the Mediterranean would attempt to intercept them. Just 
before they left an attempt to destroy one of them was discovered. The electric lighting wires in the 
magazine of the NiSSHiN had been tampered with, so as to cause a short circuit. A fire in the magazine 
might easily have been the result, when the ship would have been wrecked. As it was, no damage was 
done. 

The Russian fleet was stationed as follows : At Suda Bay, in Crete, a point near the route to Port Said 
and the Suez Canal, were placed the cruisers Aurora and Dtnitri Donskoi, with seven destroyers. The 
battleship Oslabia was at Bizerta with two more destroyers ; while at Algiers was 
uf Janan^^ yet another pair. At Ferrol, in case the ships passed out into the Atlantic, were the 
old battleship 
Nicolai I. and the gunboat Abrek, with 
the new fast cruiser Almas, on her 
way to Algiers. As soon as the 
cruisers sailed, the Russian ships from 
Suda Bay made for Port Said, and on 
the way thither sighted the Japanese 
vessels. It must have been a moment 
of grave anxiety on either side, most of 
all to the Japanese who did not know 
whether the Russians might not intend 
to begin the war there and then, while 



they were well aware of their own 
weakness in point of men. The 
Russians, on the other hand, could not 
but be struck by the formidable 
appearance of these ships, and be 
doubtful of their own power to capture 
them. None of the Russian ships had 
armour on their guns, while the 
Japanese cruisers were admirably 
protected. 1 he Japanese cruisers 

dipped their flags, as is the custom 
at sea; the Russians sulkily made no 
reply, and the cruisers drew fast away, 
unmolested, but with the smoke of the 




r 


r 


. 










^ ^ ^ v> ♦ * ♦ 


# ^ 


♦ * ♦ 




^^^■^ V 






1 




W 


riHfl 


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wtS^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^m 




iiH 



SNAPSHOTS 



[S. Smith Plioto. 
TAKEN AT THE FETE TO THE BRITISH SAILORS IN TOKIO. 



132 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




IFrom materials suppUeti by ihe Caplaiii of the "Kasuga."' 
THE EMPEROR OK JAPAN RECEIVINC, THE CAPTAINS OF THE CRUISERS "NISSHIN" 

AND "KASUGA." 

Mr. Boyle, the represenlative of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., and the captains of the two ships were 
iccett'ol in private audience. The Emperor shook hands with them, and decorated them with the 4th Qrder of the 
Rising Sun, which is only be4to«-ed on his own officers after twelve years' service. He also gave them very beautiful 

presents. 

whose services were urgently required to 
deal with the cruisers, was still delayed 
and had not arrived. The Russian idea, 
apparently, was to place the Japanese 
cruisers between two Russian forces, but 
alone the Dmitri Donskoi would probably 
have been sunk had she attempted to 
interrupt their progress. However, once 
more nothing happened. The two ships 
reached I'erim without incident, shook off 
the Russian pursuit, and, proceeding to 
Colombo, coaled there, and made for 
Singapore. In Eastern waters there would 
be some danger for them, as if the Russians 
had played a bold game it might have 
. been possible to send a squadron to attack 
them, though in that case Admiral Togo, 
who all these weeks was closely watching 
the Russians, would no doubt have had 
something to say. On February 2 the two 
ships reached the last neutral coaling 
station, Singapore, and there made good 
certain minor defects in the machinerj- 
while coaling. They had behaved very 
well, and had proved themselves good 
sea-boats in the heavy weather which 
they had encountered in the Indian Ocean. 
Though the cruisers had orders to sail 



Russians following behind. 
An absurd fable was 
spread to the effect that 
the cruisers had reached 
Port Said under the escort 
of a Briti.'^h fleet. This 
yas probably due to the 
fact that they were seen 
at sea in the midst of this 
Russian Squadrdn. As a 
matter of fact, from first to 
last they sighted no 
Hritisli sliip of war in the 
Alcditcrr.uiean. 

At Port Said they 
coaled, and at once passed 
through the Canal, pre- 
ceded b>' the Dmitri 
Donskoi, while the Aurora 
and the destroyers re- 
mained at Port Said. 
The battleship Oslabia, 




NATIVE MARKET NEAR bi'.uLl,, kuKI',;\, 



1904 



THE BATTLE OF CHEMULPO. 



133 



as soon as they had coaled — which process, it was hoped, would 

be completed on February 4 — they were delayed by trouble 

with their crews, who seemed annoyed that 

^^^Ja^af ^^ ^'^^y '^^'^ ""''''^'''' ^ ''Sht, and by bad 
weather. On February 5 they had not 
completed their coaling, when fresh and peremptory orders 
reached them to put to sea at all costs on the 6th, and 
proceed straight to Japan. On the 6th, accordinrjly, they 
sailed northwards, some twent\-four hours before the seizure of 
the^-ir^''//« by the Japanese fleet, and ten days later, when the war 
was in full swing, they dropped anchor in Yokosuka Harbour. 

The officers and crew re- 
ceived a great ovation from 
the Japanese. Captains Lee 
and Paynter and the chief- 
engineers were decorated by 
the Emperor, and presents 
were bestowed upon them. 
They had added to the 
Japanese fleet two units of 
immense value, and had thus 
e.xerted an appreciable in- 
fluence upon the course of 
the war. 

The NiSSHIN and Kasuga are ships of 7,700 tons, with a speed at 
sea of 17 knots, and on trial of 20. They are entirely sheathed in 6-in. 
Krupp steel amidships, where they carry fourteen 6-in. gun.'- apiece in a central battery. In two turrets at 
either end of the ship are four 8-in. guns, two guns in each turret, though the KasuGA had in her forward 
turret one lo-in. gun, instead of two 8-in., and thus differed slightly from her sister ship. The full war crew 
of these vessels is 500 ; the Japanese showed excellent judgment in purchasing them, since they are 
well fitted by their design and armament to act with the six armoured cruisers which took so large a 
share in the opening operations of the-war. The arrival of the Kasuga and NiSSHIN raised the Japanese 
strength in armoured ships, fit for the line of battle, to fourteen. 





ONE OF THESE POSTCARDS WAS PRESENTED 

TO EACH OF THE ENGLISH SAILORS WHO 

TOOK THE "KASUGA" AND "NISSHIN" TO 

JAPAN. 



CAPTAIN YAMADA, OF THE JAPANESE 
BATTLESHIP "ASAHI." 



THE JAPANESE CRUISER 
"KASUGA" TAKING AM- 
MUNITION ON BOARD IN 
GENOA HARBOUR, PRIOR 
TO SAILING FOR JAPAN. 




CHAPTER VIIL 

THE BATTLE OF CHEMULPO. 

AT the head of a long and difiicult inlet, 
through which twice a day pours a 
ooisterous tide, rising and falling in 
some months so much as 37 feet, stands 

the Korean 
Treaty Port 
Chemulpo. 
The channel which gives, 
access to it is exceedingly 
narrow and has to be 
navigated with extreme 
caution. The place had 
for twenty years been. 



The Port of 
Chemulpo. 



134 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




THK RUSSIAN CRUISER "VARIAG" STEAMING OUT OK (JHE.MULPO HARBOUR iOK iiit. FIGHX. 



(-i 



opened to the trade of the West, but it had not developed greatly till after the war between China and 
Japan. In the words of Mr. Angus Hamilton, who visited it on the eve of the present conflict, " it boasts a 
magnificent bund (or esplanade), wide streets, imposing shops, and a train service which connects 
it with the capital (Seoul). Its sky is threaded with a maze of telephone and telegraph wire ; there are 
several hotels conducted upon Western principles ; and there is also an international club." In particular, 
there was a large Japanese settlement, as the Japanese did most of the trade and owned the railway punning 
to Seoul. It was a regular calling place for the German steamers of the Hamburg-American line, though with 

true British apathy none of our steamer lines thought it 
worth their attention. It was also an important meeting 
point for the fleets of the Great Powers in the Far East ; 
and in February the British cruiser Talbot, the French 
cruiser Pascal, the American gunboat Vicksburg, and the 
Italian warship Elba were lying there. 

It has already been noted that the Russian authorities 
had stationed the fast cruiser Variag and the gunboat 
Korietz at this point, and had failed 
to recall them when negotiations 
were broken off by the Japanese. 
The fast cruiser Boyarin had also been there, obtaining 
charts of the anchorage and approaches to Chemulpo, 
but had left on the eve of war. It is believed that it 
was the intention of Admiral Alexeieff to send the whole 
Russian Fleet thither from Port Arthur, when it moved 
out of harbour, and to land from transports a large force 
of men and seize Seoul. The Variag and Korietz, if this 
was really the plan, were intended to act as the advanced 
guard, and to preclude resistance on the part of any 
Japanese ships that might be lying in the harbour. 
The small Japanese cruiser Chiyoda had been there 
early in February, but slipped away on the night of 
February 7. It was noticed that in an entertainment 
which, shortly before her departure, her Japanese captain 
gave to the officers of the foreign warships, he placed the 

CAPTAIN RUOINEFF, THE COAIMANDER OF THE , • r ^i rr • i • • w i • i 

"VARIAG." captam of the Variag on his right, and paid gpeat attention 




Russian Naval 
Plans, 



1904 



CAPTAIN BYELAYEFFS LETTER. 



135 




CHEMULPO— THE KOREAN TREATY PORT— THE SCEXE OF THE FIRST NAVAL FIGHT IN THE WAR. 

to his future antagonist. It has been said that the Russian officers did not expect war, but that is a 
fiction countenanced by Admiral Alexeieff and the Czar, without real foundation. The departure of the 
ClllYODA was a clear sign of the imminence of war, and was so understood by the other neutral officers. 
And, as a matter of fact, Captain Byelayeff of the Korietz had written to a friend on January 9 in the 
following terms : " I am ready to go to sea at any moment. From day to 



Captain Byelayeff 
" Ready." 



day we are looking for a tussle with the Japanese ; we expect a sudden attack 
without any declaration of war. All our woodwork is being removed and placed 
ashore. Though I have no armoui on my ship, we are strong enough to attack, have plenty ot 
ammunition, and our men are in the best of spirits. We Russians are wont to trust to this temper 
of our men to do the work for us, but possibly that plan will not succeed here. I shall do all that I 
find necessary, and if they shoot us down and kill us, hold us in honourable memory." 

The intended departure 

of the main Russian Fleet 

for Chemulpo was stopped 

by a direct 

tel eg ram 



Japanese 
F eet at 
Chemulpo, from St. 

Petersburg, 
which forbade Admiral 
Alexeieff to attempt any 
such move, probably be- 
cause the immense risk 
of such a proceeding was 
more fully understood in 
the Russian capital than 
at Port Arthur, and be- 
cause Russia wished to 
gain time, to complete her 
preparations and bring 
out from the Red Sea the 
battleship Oslabia and the 
two cruisers which were 
on their way to the Far 
East. But the Japanese 
commanders were to the 
last moment uncertain 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF CHE.MULPO AND THE KO.VD TO SEuLL, Tilt. CAl'IIAL OF KOREA. 



136 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 



^V '-^ 




whether they would not 
find the Russians in great 
strength in Korean waters, 
in which case a terrible 
disaster to the Japanese 
squadron could scarcely 
be averted. 

The Japanese force, 
which had been ordered 
to proceed to Chemulpo, 
was composed of the large 
armoured-cruiser ASAMA, 
the smaller cruisers Chi- 
\ODA, which had reached 
the rendezvous from Che- 
mulpo, Naniwa, Taka- 
CIIIHO (flying the flag 
of Rear-Admiral Uriu), 
Akashi, Niigata,. the 
MiYAKO, and Chihaya, 
and eight torpedo-boats, 
with five transports 

carrying a force of 3,000 Japanese troops. They parted company with Admiral Togo's main fleet 
on the evening of February 7, and as they drew away from Togo, that Admiral signalled : " I 
congratulate you in anticipation of your success." Uriu replied : " Thanks for your kindness." Nothing up 
to this point had been seen of the Russians, nor was it definitely known where their main fleet was. Late 
on the 7th, as has been already narrated, Uriu's squadron came upon the Argun, took possession of her, and 
detached the torpedo gunboat Chihaya to guard her. It then proceeded on its way to execute its mission, 
which was to effect the capture or destruction of any Russian ships at Chemulpo, and then to land the 
troops, who were at once to move upon Seoul and 
occupy that place. 

The information received by the Japanese squadron 
from the CmvODA'S captain seemed to show that the 







JAPANESE OFFICERS OF THE "ASAMA," WHICH DESTROYED THE 



|H:ilnc 
'VARIAG.' 



I'hoto. 



The "Asama." 



Variag and Korietz alone were in 



the harbour for which the fleet 
was bound. If so. Admiral Uriu had an immense 
superiority in force as against these two vessels. To 
begin with, the ASAMA was well protected by armour, 
while neither of the Russians had any on their sides or 
guns. On the waterline the Asama was plated with 
7-in. of hardened nickel steel, with above that a strake 
of 5-in. steel ; her heavy guns, which consisted of four 
8-in. quick-firing weapons, each capable of firing three 
shots a minute, were placed in two barbettes protected 
by 6-in. steel, while in addition she had ten 6-in. quick- 
firing guns, which were similarly protected. Four more 
6-in. guns were upon her upper deck, with only shields 
to .shelter their gunners. She could fire on the broad- 
side four 8-in. and seven 6-in. guns, discharging at each 
round i./oolb. weight of metal. She was manned by 




CHART SHOWING TlUi POSITIONS OF THE RUSSIAN 

VESSELS "VARIAG" AND "KORIETZ" AND THE 

JAPANESE FLEET DURING ACTION. 



ADMIRAL URIU 



137 




ADMIRAL URIU-THE HERO OF CHEMULPO. 



His age is 46. Received his early training in America. Has spent most of his time on the Headquarters StaflT of the Navy at Tokio. 



138 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




[S. Smith Photo 
MR. MELTOS PRIOR SKETCHING THE COMMISSARIAT 
WAGGONS AT TOKIO STATION. 

Uriu to do his work without the slightest risk 
from the Russian guns, since the most powerful 
weapons carried in the Russian ships — the new 
6-in. quick-firer and the old pattern 8-in. gun — 
could not be trusted at long ranges to penetrate 
5-in. armour. 

As for the Russian ships, some account of 
the V'ariag has already been given. She was a 
ship in which everything had been .sacrificed to 
speed, and was meant for 
scouting rather than fighting. 
She had the usual steel deck, from 2 to 3 in. 
thick, protecting the lower part of the hull ; her 
main battery was comjxjsed of twelve 6-in. quick- 
firing guns, so mounted that six could be fired on 
either broadside. Her guns were without the steel 
shields which are usually fitted to exposed 
weapons where no armour is carried, probably 



500 officers and men, and had steamed on trial 
23 knots, while she had kept her speed, and was 
far fastei than the Variag in service, though the 
Russian ship had done 24 knots on her trials. 

The As.\M.\ had been designed by Mr. Watts, 
the present Chief-Constructor of the British Navy, 
and was herself far more than a match for the 
Variao and Korietz. The other Japanese cruisers 
do not appear to have taken any serious part in 
the battle, but they were all well armed for their 
size, and between them they carried four lO-in. 
guns of old pattern. 20 6-in., and 16 47-in. quick- 
firers of the most modern type, so that had their 
services been needed they might have intervened 
with great effect. But they lacked the excellent 
armour of the ASAM.V, which enabled Admiral 



The "Variag." 






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[S. Smith Photo. 
MR. MELTON PRIOR, WAR ARTIST OF "THE ILLUSTRATED 
LONDON NEWS," AT WORK IN HIS ROOM AT THE 
IMPERIAL HOTEL, TOKIO. 



JAPANESE NEWbUOYS. 



because the pr;esence of shields had been found disastrous 
by the Spaniards at Santiago six years befoie. 

She had four very tall funnels, of peculiar appearance, 
as the funnel-casings were not carried up to the top of 
her smokestacks ; her conning-tower was exceedingly weak, 
plated only with 3 in. of steel, which would not keep out a 
6-in. shell. Her boilers had given trouble, and she could 
no longer maintain the 24 knots with which she was 
credited on her eight hours' trial in America. Indeed, her 
pace is said to have fallen below i S knots. She carried a 
crew of 570 officers and men. Of torpedo-tubes she had 
six, of which four were above water 

The Korietz was a feeble little gunboat of anticjuated 



140 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



1904 




The "Korietz. 



tvpe, masted and rigged for 
service in distant waters. She 
was of 1,213 tons, and carried a 
crew of 160 men. She had been 
built for tiie Russian Navy in 
„ Sweden in 1 886, 
and had been 
past serious service for years. 
But Russia, like England, per- 
sisted in keeping a large number 
of inefficient ships in commission, 
which, in the event of war, were 
certain to become coffins for theii 
crews, if assailed by an enemy. 
The Mandjur was another of the 
same type, and equally helpless. 
The battery of the Korietz con- 
sisted of two old 8-in. guns, slow- 



:>. Miiitii I'll..!.,. 

lAPANESE RED CROSS SOCIETY 

NURSES MARCHINT. THROUGH 

THE STREETS OF TOKIO. 

firing, of short range, incap- 
able of hitting anything — 
and about as useful as 
the muzzle-loaders which 
only a year or two ago 
vanished from the British 
Fleet — with a 6-in. gun of 
old pattern, and one or two 
small quick-firers. The 
speed of the ship had once 
been 13 knots, but in 
1904 did not exceed 8 or 
10. The only protection 




111; OPKUATINCkOOM IN A RUSSIAN 1 




ME^IHERS OF THE ki 



ll.i'i I.LAVINi, ~l, ri. I l.kSliUKi., III:. 111. 



lOSI'IIAI, JRAIN. 

for her crew was a deck 
of ^-in. steel, and weak 
shields over her heavy 
guns. 

She was commanded 
by a brave and capable 
officer. Commander 
Byelaicff, who deserved a 
better fate than to be sent 
out to fight modern sJiips 
in this old Noah's Ark. 

According to his own 
account, M. Pavloff, the , 
Russian Minister in Korea, 
and the cause of much of 



Feb. 8, 1904 



THE FIRST SHOTS. 



141 



the trouble between 

Russia and Japan, on 

nearing of tlie Japanese 

preparations, had directed 

Captain Rudineff, of the 

Varing, to be 

Face to i r n 

Face, '""""^y ^°\ ^" 

eventualities, 

and had sent a number of 
despatches to the captain 
ot the Korietz on the 
evening of Sunday, Feb- 
ruary 7 for transmission 
to the Russian Fleet at 
Port Arthur, as the land 
telegraphs had been cut 
early on the 7th. The 

Koriets was thus about to proceed to sea when on the 8th she received the Su/igari's 
report of the approach of the Japanese, and went out to reconnoitre. She found that a large 
force was approaching and from the first minute must have seen that resistance was hopeless, the 
more so as the ASAMA was taken at first for a battleship. A long line of Japanese warships was steaming 
up the narrow channel, cleared for action, and prepared, if she caused trouble, to send her and her consort to 
•the bottom. She fired two shots, by accident, owing to the gun-crews misunderstanding an ordei 




THE CONSCRIPTS PARADE. 
When men are called to the colours in Japan their comrades make ,a parade in their honour. 



[G. Smith Photo. 




JAPANESii MILITARY UK lACIlMKXTS AM> I'uXlKS GOINl. ASHORE AT CHEMULPO. 



142 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8, 1904 




Disembarkation 
at Chemulpo. 



INDEPENDENCE ARCH 
Bulk in remembrance of the formal removal oi Chinese 
suzerainty from Korea. 



absolute silence. Great fires were 
kindled ashore and fed with paraf- 
fin, so as to give a brilliant light, 
and from the ships a steady stream 
of infantry in grey uniforms, witli 
white putties and sheepskin mufflers, 
poured ashore, while an American 
photographer took flashlight photo- 
graphs of tlic 
Japanese landing. They 

carried knap- 
sacks, and were 
in heavy marching order. Such 
silence and discipline was preserved 
that it might have been a landing 
of ghosts. The moment they were 
ashore the men marched ofl" into 
the town, took possession of the 
station, or were led away to their 
billets in the Japanese quarter. 
The second Japanese invasion of 
Korea in modern times had begun, 
little less than ten years after the 
first, and at the same place. 

In command of this Japanese 
vanguard was General Kigoshi, a 
tall, soldierlike figure, in a " dark. 
scarlet-lined cloak, high boots, and 
a dark blue uniform." The. three 
transports laden with troops had 
disgorged their burden by mid- 
night ; then the disembarkation of 



given b)- an officer on the bridge, but if the Japanese story 
can be trusted — and it is confirmed by the British officers on 
board the Ta/l>o/, who watched all the proceedings— the Japanese 
made no reply of any kind, and did not even fire torpedoes at 
her, which the Russians allege that they did. They did, 
however, compel her to retire to the anchorage, and followed her 
there with four torpedo craft and the cruisers Chiyoda, Niitak.\, 
and MlVAICO, anchoring in such a position that they could sink 
the Russian ships with their guns, in case they attacked the 
transports. The Russians were informed that they might remain 
until the morning if they did not interfere with the transports ; 
if they did interfere they would be sunk then and there. 

The transports stood into the harbour at dusk. All 
preparations had evidently been made by the Japanese ashore 
to be ready for them. The Japanese quarter in Chemulpo was 
lighted with lanterns, and lanterns appeared as if by magic on 
the landing-stage. The big transports took up their position, 
lowered lighters and sampans, and the disembarkation began in 




ON GUARD 1 A lAPANESE SENTRY AT PINO VANG. 



144 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9. 1904 




iHt 



iKUTKCTEI) RUSSIAN CRUISER ■VARIAG.' 
I>c»lro>*cd by the Japanese off Chemulpo, Feb. 9. 



Ultimatum to the 
" Variag. " 



the supplies, carried in the two othei 
vessels, began, with the same order and 
method. Long before day broke all was 
over, and the Japanese were moving by 
train to take possession of Seoul leaving 
only a modest garrison to hold Chemulpo. 
The Koreans offered no resistance what- 
evei indeed, a touch of humour was given 
to the grim proceedings by the fact that 
the Korean police helped to maintain order 
in the town and to disperse tne crowd 
which rapidly gathered when the coming 
of the Japanese was known The trans- 
ports steamed out of the harbour with all 
the warships except the Chiyoda. which 
remained to watch the Russians. 

The landing having been thus accom- 
plished while the Russian ships looked on, it remained for the Japanese Admiral to take steps to deal with 
his enemies. The captain of the Chivoua sent a message soon after daybreak of the 9th to inform 
the Russian senior officer. Captain Rudineff, of the Variag, that a state of war 
existed, and that unless the Russian ships surrendered or left the harbour before noon 
he would be compelled to attack them there. He promised, however, not to take 
action before four o'clock in the afternoon, and thus gave his enemies an ample margin of time to arrive 
at their decision Neutral ships were warned that they remained at their peril. 

The first eflfort of the Russians was to entangle the numerous neutral ships in the haroour in 
hostilities with the Japanese. They induced Captain Bayly, of the British ship Talbot notwithstanding the 
fact that England was bound by an alliance with Japan, to hold a conference of neutral officers in his cabin, 
and send out to the Japanese a stronglv worded remonstrance, " protesting energetically " against their 
attacking the Russian ships in a neutral port. The launch of the Talbot was despatched to Admiral Uriu 
with this missive, to which the Japanese Admiral naturally paid very little attention, other than to explain 
that if the Russian ships came out there would be no need to attack them in the port. The right and 
proper course for the neutral ships, under such circumstances, would have been to put to sea. or to hold 
absolutely aloof from such manoeuvres. The American officer commanding the Vicksburg refused, with good 
reason, to take any part in 
this protest 

Finding that Admiral 
Uriu was not to be frightened 
by talk, the Russian cap- 
tains next proposed to the 
neutral officers that the 
neutral ships should escort 
them out ol the anchorage. 
Fortunately, the neutra! 
officers refused this further 
favour which, if granted, 
might well have entangled 
other Powers in the war ; 
but, unless rumour is wholly 
false, the British captain 
was ready to grant the Rus- 




'KORIETZ," SUNK 



XHE BATTLE 



CHEMULPO. 



Feb. 9, 1904 



THE VARIAG STEAMS OUT. 



143 




KILLED AT CHEMULPO. 

Midshipman Count Nirod, of the 
" Variag." 



For weeks the Japanese 

had been stripped for the 

war which might come any 

moment ; they knew these 

waters as 
A Dramatic ,, ,, • 
Moment. "■^" ^^ '•^^"' 
own seas ; 

and they were superior in 
numbers and absolute!}- 
confident of the result. 
.About 1 1.30 a.m. the 
crews of the. Variag and 
the Koriets assembled on 
deck. To the men of the 
Variag Captain Rudineff 
made the following speech : 
" Brothers, 1 ha\ e 
received from the Japanese 
Admiral orders to leave 
the roadstead, or other- 
wise he will attack us 
there with the whole of 



his .squadron, the strength 
of which we do not know. 
But that does not matter. 
We must fight to sustain 
the honour of the Russian 
flag. Remember, brothers, 
we must fight to the last. 
We will not surrender. 
You must all do your duty. 
In case fire should break 



sians what thev asked, again at the cost of his country's ally. Finally 
the captain of the Variag decided to go out, and got up steam, at the same 

time jettisoning all his woodwork. He ordered the 
steams Out. Korietz to remain and sink herself when the issue of 

the action which was now impending was seen : he 
regarded her as too weak to be risked against the Japanese squadron. 
But with a high courage, which does him every credit, Captain Byelaiefif 
determined to share his comrade's fate. 

In the early hours of the morning the Japanese ships had taken up 
their positions for battle. Seven miles from the anchorage, off the island 
of Yodolmi, lay the big crui.ser As.-VMA. cleared and ready, with her crew 
at quarters, and her great battery of guns trained on the channel, .so as to 
rake any ship which attempted to come out. Beyond her were the smallei 
Japanese cruisers and the torpedo craft, all in perfect readiness for action. 

COOLIES BRINGING MEDICAL STORES .\SH0RE .\T CHEMULPO. 

[Drawn from a photo tjy R. L. Dunii. 




146 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904 




AN IN( IliKM WHICH I)H) NOT HAPPEN. 
This is an imaginary Russian picture of the sinking of a Japanese battleship at Port Arthur. 

out on the ship extinguish it, and quietly repair any damage that may be done to the ship by the enemy's 
shell. I rely especially upon the gunners. Do not be in a hurry. You gunners must see that ever)' 
shell discharged from the Vartag hits the mark. May God help us ! Let us cross ourselves and go boldly 
into this fight for our Faith, 
our Czar, and our Father- 
land. Hurrah!" 

Then the stirring strains 
of the Russian National 
Anthem were heard ; and 
the foreign warships in the 
harbour knew that the two 
doomed vessels were goinj,' 
out to fight. Smoke poured 
from the tall funnels of the 
Variag as she led the way, 
with her gallant little con- 
sort astern. In one com- 
mon impulse of respect for 
brave men who were about 
to give their lives in vain, 
the crews of the foreign 




SUUMEkGKU TOKPKljO-TUliK <^N A JAi'ANK.SE liATlLKSHU', 

done by compressed J 
Whitenead torpedo. 



Socb M it fitted to the " FujL" The firing is done by compressed air. The lower sketch shows the tail of s 

;ene! 




THE END OF THE RUSSIAN GUNBOAT "KORIETZ." 

The "Koiietz" was blown up. There were two explosions — one forward, and another aft. 



148 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9. 1904 



The "Asama's' 
First Shot. 



warships broke out into loud and repeated cheers. It was a 
superb spectacle as the Russians steadily neared the big 
Japanese cruiser, in her dull-grey war-paint, lying in menacing 
pre|>aredness. To some it seemed that the chances of the 
Varidg were not utterly hopeless. She had a high speed, 
on paper, and a big torpedo armament. 
If she resolutely attempted to close with 
the Japanese, she might use her torpedoes 
with deadly effect. But it soon became clear that the Japanese 
were not going to give away any chances. About a quarter 
to twelve, at a range of 9,000 yards, there was a heavy 
report, and the ASAMA at last fired the first shot — a 250-lb. 
shell from one of the 8-in. guns of her fore-turret. It was 
an admirable shot, but it just missed the Variag. A minute 
or two later she fired again, and then again. The third shot 
struck the Russian cruiser amidships, as she was turning to 
leave the narrow part of the channel, A dense cloud of 
smoke rose from her, and she already seemed in distress. Up 
to this point she had not attempted to reply, for the reason 
that her guns were not fitted with telescopic sights, and that 
the range was too great for her gunners to do any damage 
with the ordinary sights. But now, just about noon, she 





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JAPANKSE MILITARY BALLOON. 





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JAPANESE SOLDIERS— »th INKANXKY REGIMENT (WESTERN>-FLYING A BALLOON. 




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150 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9. 1904 




(Facsimile sketch by Melton Prior. 
M.\KyUIS 1X0 LE.WING TOKIO TO CONDUCT NEGOTIATIONS WITH KOREA. 




The Firing. 



opened fire, and the flash of her guiLs was thenceforth incessant. .She steamed round and round in a small 
circle, making no endeavour to close, and playing into her enemy's hands, while the Korictz, close to her, 
circic<J in the same manner. 

The rest of the Japanese Fleet followed the e.vample of the As.\MA and opened fire at long range, 
forming in line of battle some distance further out than the big armoured cruiser, w hich w as to do the chiet 
part of the work. They made no attempt to close, but were clearly anxious to destroy their opponent by 

long-range fire, for which their guns 
were sighted, and at which their 
gunners excelled from frequent practice. The Variai^ 
made the mistake of firing almost entirely at the Asama, 
off the vital parts of which, owing to the strong steel 
armour, her puny projectiles glanced like peas. Quite 
early in the fight one of the Japanese shells struck the 
bridge of the Variag and exploded, completely wrecking 
it and damaging the conning-tower at the same time. 
On the bridge were Captain Rudineff, the commander, 
Count Nirod, and four seamen. The captain was slightl) 
wounded, the count was blown to fragments, and all the 
seamen were killed or mortally wounded. 

At this juncture a catastrophe 

befell the Variag. To enable her 

quick-firing guns to maintain their rate 

of fire, a large supply of projectiles and ammunition had 

lS(cm>gra|itMcopyrigbi,Uad«rinxxi&i;iidcrwoo(i, London &N.V. been brought up and placed on deck beside her after-pair 

J.\PANKSE AUCTIONEER SELLING FISH ON THE , , . , , ,, r , a i- 1^ I f fl 

WHARF OF CHEMULPO. of 6-m. guns. A shell from the A.SAM A alighted at the 



Exploding the 
Ammunition. 



Feb. 9, 1904 THE DESTRUCTION OF THE " VARIAG.* 



151 



foot of the mainmast, and exploded near the great heap of ammunition, with the most terrifyincj 
effect. Instantly a white sheet of flame rose from the Russian cruiser as higli as her fighting-top, and 
the concussion in the air was plainly felt on board the neutral ships some miles away. Dense clouds 
of smoke poured from her hull, and it was plain that she was badly on fire. Two men had their 
clothes set on fire, and were burned to death in the sight of their horrified comrades. Her crew had to be 
called away from the guns to put the fire out, and in the interval she was struck on the water-line by a s'.iell 
which blew a large hole in her side, but which failed to penetrate the armour-deck or to injure the engines. 




REMOVING THE WOUNDED !• RO.M THE " VARIAG.' 



The Japane.se were using their new high explosive, the invention of Dr. Shimose, the effects of which 
were appalling. In quick succession other shells struck the vessel ; one burst on the forecastle, killing all 
the men but one at the two 6-in. guns which were mounted there ; another burst at the base of her foremast ; 
and yet another shattered her third funnel. Fire broke out forward amid the wreckage and debris of the bridge 
;ind charthouse, and for some minutes the men had once more to be called away from the guns to fight the 
flames. The rate of her fire diminished, while the hail of Japanese .shells increased ; they could be seen by 
spectators from the neutral ships lashing the water to foam about her, or bursting just short of her in the air 
.and sea flinging shrapnel bullets and splinters among her hapless crew. 



152 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 19G4 




Ten Shots a 
Minute. 



(Ci. Smith photos, 

A TOKIO SWORD-SWALLOWER AND JUGOLER GIVING A SPECIAL EXHIBITION FOR OUR 

PHOTOGRAPHER. 



After extinguishing the 
fire forward, the Vnn'a^ 
once more repHed uitli 
vigour to 
her oppo- 
nents. So 
far, she did not appear to 
have touched the Japanese 
ships, though the Russian 
captain was convinced that 
one of his shells had hit 
the Asama's fore-bridge 
and demolished it liut. 





'A Living Hell." 



the Japanese fire did not 

abate; it continued 

steadily at the rate of 

about ten shots per 

minute, and, though 

many of these failed to 

hit, none went very wide 

of the mark. It was a 

magnificent piece of 

target - practice for the 

Japanese, but it was nothing more, and they afterwards owned that the Chinese ships in the first battle off 

Asan, which began the war of 1894, had made a far better fight than did the Russians. Yet for this Captain 

Kudineff is not to be blamed, but the administrators who sent his ship to sea without telescopic sights. 

The Varing was now a complete wreck aft, and burning fiercely, ki the words of an eye-witness : " The 

ship was a living hell ; the red-hot shell-plating burnt the flesh of tlie men horribly, and tiie absence of gun- 
shields left the crew exposed, causing 
unnecessary loss. The concussion 
and noise were stupefying and deafening, and the men 
were dazed and benumbed, yet kept on working the 
guns." A lieutenant declared after the battle : " There 
was blood, blood, blood everywhere ; severed limbs, torn 
bodies, and ripped flesh. It was a horrible end ! " 

The losses on board had been very heavy ; of some 
150 men who manned the guns on deck, 107 were killed 
or wounded, most of them by the 
storm of splinters which swept the 
ship from the Japanese shell-bursts. The thin steel side 
above water was riddled with holes, caused by the 
splinters, like a nutmeg-grater ; the scuppers were 
running blood. Yet only four of her twenty-four heavier 
weapons were damaged" one 12-pounder was struck by 
a Japanese shell and flung clean across the deck. Of 
escape from the enemy there remained not the smallest 
chance though below the armour-cleck the engines and 
boilers were intact, notwithstanding the trial to which 
the ship had been subjected, and not a man in that 



U/ 






U"-*"^ / Con.-. ""'' 



,<f' 



S 



*„^f>jtfn 



The Losses. 



Cfhilip i Soil Lf.il ritet 5! London 
WAP SHOWING CHEMULPO AND ROUTE TO SEOUL. 



153 




THE "VARIAG" RECEIVING HER DEATH-BLOWS FROM THE JAPANESE FLEET. 

The disl.iiice of the first Japnncse vessel from tlie " Varbj;" here shown w.-is 4,000 yards. 



154 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904 




WATER-CARKIEkS AT btOLL. 



part of the ship had been nijured. It is true that 
in one of her five «;tokeholds the water had risen 
to the level of the furnace-doors, leaking through 
the coal-bunkers from a shot-wound in her uppci 
deck, but at least twenty of her thirty boilers 
remained intact. Her resistance ended whei\ about 
12.40 a Japane.se shell struck the steering-gear, 
and rendered the ship for a few minutes un- 
manageable. Then at last, with a heavy list, and 
witl) one funnel gone, she turned back, and crawled 
to the anchorage which .she had left little more 
than an hour earlier in the day, a battered wreck, 
incapable of further fighting. As she retired .she 
fired at the Japanese ships, which, however, made 
no reply. 

The fight of the Korict:: had ended 'even sooner. 

The Japanese, realising her insignificance and jjower- 

lessne.s.s, |)aid little attention to her manoeuvres, and allowed her for some minutes to fire her old guns, 

without an)' reply on their part, as she circled round and round some distance nearer to 

"Korietz" Chemulix) than the Variag. Her projectiles all fell short. Presently the Japanese shells 

b^an to drop round her, and she was struck once or tw ice, but not in such a manner as 

to cause her any loss or damage. She retired before tlie Variag fell back, as her captain reali.sed the utter 

futility of further efforts to harm the Japanese. He was as helpless against them as a man armed with a 

bow and arrow would Ix; against a well-trained soldier with a modern rifle. Both ships, .so soon as thcv 

regained the anchorage, sent a me.s.sage to the Russian Consul to the effect that they were ready to put out 

again, but thought it hopeless and u.seless in view of the portion. 

As .soon a^ the I'ariag cAvne to anchor, boats were .sent from the neulr.il ships, as she had none of her 

own available, to remove the wounded. It is not clear why the Ja])anesc did not follow up their 

victory and 

pursue her 
into the harbour, when 
they must have been able 
to take possession of her, 
since Captain Rudinefl" 
would .scarcely have blown 
her up with himself and 
all his men on board. 
He had no means of 
escape, as all his boats 
except the steam-pinnace 
were shattered, and the 
.steam-pinnace could not 
be hoisted out. It would 
seem, then, that the 
neutrals, though, perhaps, 
unwittingly, enabled the 
Russians to carry out 
their plan of destroying 

... , . .... liISADVA.NTAfJKS OF TlIK 1M<;JAII.. 

the two ships, and did „ , , ,..,>. ^ .u u 

' liow SIX railw.iy-wrcckcrs were Kept togclhtr by the Kussi.ins. 




Feb. 9. 1904 



SCUTTLING THE " VARIAG." 



155 




THE JAPANESE CRUISER 



[Built and photographed by Sir W. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. 
■ASAMA," WHICH PLAYED SO PROMINENT A PART IN THE B.\TTLE OF CHEMULPO. 



tlie Japanese a great dis-scrvice, of which Admiral Uriu might quite legitimately have complained, 
though it is also possible that Admiral Uriu feared the arrival of the main Russian Meet and 
wished to keep his line of retreat open. .Sixt\'-four wounded men and 2 officers were speedily removed 
from the Vat'iag ; the bodies of 40 men and one officer who had been killed were left on board. There 
were ten or fifteen casualties in the Korietz. all of a slight nature. 

The removal of the wounded was a difficult and harrowing business. " Most of them,' w rites an eye- 
witness, " were hurt in several places, and the wounds were unspeakably horrible." The men 
showed fortitude, and there was perfect order and discipline. Great difficult}-, however, was experienced in 
getting them into the 
boats. After the badly 
wounded, about 60 men 
who had only sustained 
slight injuries or con- 
tusions were taken off 
and finally the able- 
bodied and unwounded 
were transferred to the 
various foreign warships. 
This was a fresh and 
serious infraction of 
neutrality in view of 
the circumstances The 
foreign ships had no 
right to convey a large 
number of Russian sea- 
men, who stood in no 
risk of losing their lives, 
beyond the reach of 
the Japanese. At 3.30 
it was decided to scuttle 
the Vnriag, her crew 
having been thus dis- 
po.sed of in the foreign 
ships, while it was 
thought best to set the 
Konetz on fire, conncct- 




THE AliLE-lJOniED AND UNWOUNDED SAILORS WERE TRANSFERRED FRO.M THE 
TO THE VARIOUS FOREIGN WARSHIPS. 



156 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9. 1904 



The "Korietz" 
Blown Up. 



fuses. 
Koriets 



A fc« 
blew 




THK -'VARIAG" AT 4.15p.m., Fcl.ruary 9lh. 
The complete iiniueri>iun of Ihe ship did not lake place till 6.io p.m. 



ing fusc.< with her magazines. When 
Admiral Uriu's fleet appeared in the 
channel, about 4 o'clock, apparently 

intending to enter 

tiie iiarbour, the 

Ru.ssians fired the 

minutes later the 
up with a terrific 
uproar. There were two explosions, 
one forward and another aft ; a iiia.ss 
of flame rose from her to a heiglif of 
some hundreds of yard* in the air; 
her decks openetl, and a iiail of small 
fragments fell in all directions. The 
ship's jiajx:rs were carried up in the 
air by the e.\ plosion and fell three 
miles out to sea, where they were afterwards .secured b)- the Japanese. As tlie Korietz blew up the Russians 

on board tlie neutral ships sang their national anthem. 

Meantime, the Va ring did not sink, but remained, apparently little the 
worse, in the position where she had been abandoned. It was clear that 
something had gone wrong with the plans laid for her destruction. Rut 
for the accommodating help of neutrals, Captain 
Rudineff could have done nothing more to her ; he 
had no boats antl no means of getting any. Neutrals, 
however, in this strange affair, .seemed ready to assist him in e\cr}' way, 
and the captain of the French crui.ser Pascal is .said to have placed a 
hVench launch at his disp(jsal, so that the Variag might be sunk. In 
this French boat, with a French crew — rf reports from those on the spot 
can be believed — the Russians boarded her afresh and set her on fire. Thex- 
also took more effectual steps to .send her down, and she .soon began slowly 
to sink in the water, with her upper works blazing. The Russian captain 
had previously asked the captain of the Talbot to fire at her water-line and 
destroy her. Such were the ver)' remarkable ideas on neutrality which 
the Russians entertained ! 

These proceedings had given legitimate cause for complaint to the 
Japanese, who kept their temper in a wonderful manner. Seeing that the 
A'c/7tV.c had been destro\ecl and that the I'ariaj; was evidently sinking, 
the Japanese did not steam in, but drew off once more and left her alone. 




Scuttling the 
" Variag." 



A JAHA.NK.^K HKKO. 

Cim i iw YaouuDMo, one of the olliceTS of the 
Vqoadrua which tank the Kiu»i.in crutacrs at 
CbohiIdo. had the mre honour of being 
nctnra by the Kmpcrfjr. who v:i:rcely ever 
givca an audience to the offxctn nf his 
Army and Nav>-. after the battle. Cintaiii 
VaiaaaKMo took with him to Chio^Ia Cai^tle for 



fmMntataoa to the Ktnperor the fla^s of the two 
%«Mclft, the **Variaj{" and " Konetz." He i» 



b anat{ 
irtfl known in this cr^nlr 



V, and t<M>k part in 
■he naval proccMion of our U te (^een*» funeral. 




illK WkKtK OK THE -X.Xkl.M.' .N- -l-.l-.N i KO.M THE '■PA^C.M.. (JAKLX 1;\ A .N.WAI. I'lllU.i^j 




THE BLOWING UP OF THE "KORIETZ, 



158 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9. 1904 




The Firing. 



.As the flames spread on board, a succession of small explosions, 

caused by the heaps of i2-pounder ammunition, was heard; her 

Hst to port grew, and she heeled slowly till all her gear fell with a 

tremendous crash across her decks, just as the sun of that eventful 

day went down. She finally settled in the water, a hissing mass 

of flame, went right under, and lay with her starboard side alone 

just showing above the surface, her guns pointing skywards, and 

her torpedoes in the tubes, ready, with the war pistols on the 

lieads. The fire did not spread sufficientlj' before she sank to 

attack the magazines, and she foundered practically intact in all 

her vital parts. 

When she had been disposed of, it was the turn of the 

steamer Sinigari, which the Russians had determined to destroy, 

in order that she might not fall into the hands of the Japanese. 

She was set on fire, after her passengers and 

Burning the crew had been removed, and far into the night 
"Sungarl. ' *> 

she continued to illuminate the sky. Finally, 

she, too. went to the bottom about 2.30 in the morning of the 
lOth. and the three wrecks in the harbour were the only 
trophies of which the Japanese were able to boast. 

The Russians claimed that they had sunk in this battle a 
Japanese torpedo-boat and the cruiser Takachiho, and that 
the)- had put the ASAMA out of action by 
hitting her on the bridge. Their whole story 
was fanciful and based on nothing better than the belief that, as 
they had fired for some time at the Japanese, they must 
have done some damage. In all, they discharged about 180 rounds, while the Japanese fired 500. The 
Japanese made ten or fifteen hits oh the Variag's hull, two or three of which were from the 8-in. gun and the 
_rest from the 6-in. The [Percentage of their hits was thus over 2, which is creditable for long-range fighting, 
.and about the same as that recorded in the action between the American and Spanish fleets off 
i^antia^ro. It was much lower than the percentage of hits scored by the Japanese at the Yalu, but then 
this last battle was fought at a far shorter range than the Chemulpo encounter. The Japanese percentage 
of hits may .seem small to those who know that at prize-firing, in crack ships of our Navy, scores of 70 or 
e\'en 80 |)cr cent, of hits are not unknown. But it must be remembered that the range at prize-firing is 
-short, only i ,800 yards, whereas here it was 5,000 to 8,000; that the target is stationary, whereas here it 
■was in rapid 
motion ; and 
chat at prize- 
firing there is 
jio one firing 
back at the 
ijunners. 

That none 
of the Japanese 
ships were 
serioasly hurt 
is proved not 
only by their 
own state- ic.iii.i)i'ii.,io. 

r.<^» k f I ''^"'^ "KOKIKTZ" AFTER THK EXI'I.OSIO.V. THK HE.\D .\NU .STERN WERE III.OWN yUITE OVV. 

jncnt.s, Dut also the bow (shown on the right) turned co.mpletelv over. 



<0.\IMAX1>ANT BEi..AIEhE, CO.MMANUER OF 
THE "KORIETZ." 



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Feb. 9, 1904 



THE LOSS OF LIFE. 



159 



by the fact that the two large ships mentioned as having been put out of action were at sea some days 

later, while neutrals who watched the fighting saw no evidence whatever of any serious 

Killed. injury to the Japanese. That the ASAMA was even struck by any of the Variag's shells 

is not certain. The Japanese noticed that the Russian powder seemed indifferent, and 

that the shells did not penetrate or do any damage, whence it would seem that there were some hits. There 

was not a single officer or man killed or wounded on board the Japanese ships, and so slight was the exertion 

required of tlie Japanese gunners that they fought in their overcoats. On the other hand, the loss of the 

Russians was 41 killed, 66 seriously and about as many more slightly wounded. The serious casualties were 

thus 107 in a crew of 570, or much less than a fifth of the wiiole crew. But it must be remembered that of 

the 570 men, at least 400 would be below the water-line at work in the engine-rooms or stokeholds, or 




i;bkuarv 9. 



passing ainmunition from the magazines. The loss was thus very great among those e.xposed to the 
Japanese fire. In the fighting-tops all the men were killed or wounded, and one man in the foretop had 
his leg so nipped in the fractured steel of the top that the flesh had to be cut a\\a\- to liberate him. There 
were five fires on board ; one in the flour-tank could not be put out, as it caused such dense smoke that no 
one could approach it. 

The. Japane.se did their work with admirable judgment and discretion. They had an ample, an 
overwhelming force — but it is the first axiom in war to be stronger than your enemy — and they destroyed 
the Russian ships without risk or danger to themselves. Their judgment and foresight in equipping their 
fleet with powerful armoured cruisers, armed with a heavy battery, was singular))' vindicated, for without 



160 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 10. 1904 




Variag 



the AsAMA the 
would have been ahnost a 
match alone for the rest ot 
the Japanese squadron. 
Nothing is more striking in 
modern naval war than the 
immense superiority which 
the possession of good 
armour gives 
a ship, and 



The Value 

of Good 

Armour. 



.\^ IKk t Ht.\ll l.i'O: Kl>>l.\N .-.AU.OKS l).\ IliK -.NAM S.\M." CHKEKl.Nc; THK " AMl'HrrRlTK. 



The MirvivofS of the "Variag" and " Korieti" were taken up by H.M.S. 
Italian "Elba." The men on the "Talbot" were transhipped to H.M.S. 



'Talbot/' the French "Pascal," and the 
'' Amphltrite" and thence to the "Nam 



Sang," which took Ihcm to Colombo. When the "Nam Sang," starting on her vo\*age, passed the " Amphitrile," 
the Kiu&ians crowded to her sides and cheered again and again, to show their gratitude to their Hritish comrades. 



Mr. Watts 
might well be 
proud of the fine perform- 
ance of this product of his 
brain. Viv wiping out the 
Vatiag from the Russian 
Navy List, Admiral Uriu 
removed one of the most 

jerious dangers to the Japanese fleet of transports, for this fast crui.ser, with her large coal supply, in 

daring hands would have been capable of much mischief He al.so gained for iiis country the prestige of 

a great succe.ss, and showed the laoanese .seamen that they had little to fear from the gunnery of their 

enemies. 

It is probable that the Variag will be raised and repaired, since her damage was not of a .serious nature, 

and preparations ha\e already been made with a view 

to salving her. Lying, as she does, only just below 

water at high tide, she should be recovered without 

any great difficult}', and added to the Japanese Fleet. 
To the Russians the fight was not particularly 

creditable, though the officers and men showed great 

courage when caught thus, like rats in a trap, and 

deserve all our .sympathy. Yet, as the)' failed to leave 

their marks upon their enemj-, 

^AdminitSn" ^^eir bravery was of little service 

to their country. The blame for 

the misfortunes of the Variag and Korietz must, 

however, be laid ujwn the shoulders of Admiral 

Alexeicff and the Russian Admiralty. The one 

placed these ships in a post of great danger ; the 

other failed to equip them in such a manner that they 

would be able to meet their foes with credit. 

Captain Rudincff after the battle was made one of his 

per.sonal aides-rle-camp by the Czar. 

On the following day the Jajjanese squadron took 

possession of the harbour, and called ujxin the neutral 

warships to hand over to them tiie wounded and 

unwounded Russians. The situation was in some 

ways a peculiar one, as Chemulptj was in name a 

neutral port, though for all practical purposes Korea 

.stood to Japan in much the same relation as Egypt to ki ssiax saii.oks akkivim, on i!OA]<i) ihk ■ 

Kngland. The American captain of the Vicksburg '•^°-^' »'"'^- "^'"'"'^HKMiLPor''" '"'' 




NAM SANt; ' 
I'lGHT AT 



162 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 10. 1904 




KUSSIAN SAILORS ON BOARD THE "NAM SANU." 



was of opinion that the men: 
should be given up, and in this- 
he was right ; indeed, had the 
Japanese chosen to stand upon 
their strict rights 

The Question they could have 
of the ^ 

Wounded, insisted upon the 

surrender of the 
crews. But, finalh-, after 

much correspondence, an agree- 
ment was arrived at under 
which the Russians were to give 
their parole not to serve again 
in the war, and were to be con- 
veyed to Hong Kong and Saigon 
in the French and British ships. 
The more seriously wounded 
were sent asliore to the Japanese 
hospitals, which had alread)- 
been established at Chemulpo, 
where they were treated with 
the utmost kindness and attention. The incident, however, showed the risk which attends unnecessar)' 
neutral interference in hostilities, and suggests that strict orders should be given by their Governments to 
captains not to meddle or protest without cause. The American captain was the only one whose behaviour 
thrr)ughout was perfecth- correct. 

The affair was made the subject of a Russian protest to the Powers. A Note issued by Count 
Lamsdorff on February I2 complained in pitiful tones that "Japan had landed its troops in the independent 
Kmpire of Korea, before the opening of hostilities against Russia, though Korea was 
independent, and with a division of its fleet made a sudden attack on the 8th — three 
days before the declaration o\ war — on two Russian warships, which were in the neutral port of Chemulpo, 
and who.se commanders had not been notified of the rupture of relations, as the Japanese maliciously stopped 
the delivery of Rus.sian telegrams by the Danish cable, and destroyed the Korean Government's telegraphic 
communications." 

In view of the fact that Ru.ssia herself had provoked the war by sending troops "before the opening ot 
hostilities with Japan into the independent Empire of Korea," this [protest was foolish, and was 
greeted in Japan and the 
United States with the 
indifference which it de- 
served. Its misrepresenta- 
tion of facts was peculiarly 
Russian ; from the das' 
when Count Muravieff pro- 
mised that Port Arthur 
should be an " open port," 
Russian diplomatists have 
seemingly come to believe 
that any story is good 
enough for the outside 
world. 

No telegram was scut ""■' '^'^^"'^ ''•'"' ^"•^^'"^ " ^' "^^^y^"''''' 



Russia s Protest. 




\\.\> .lUNk Xi> ESCAl'K ;HK 



Feb. 8, 1904 



THE MARCH TO SEOUL. 



163 



Russian Methods. 




THE FRKNCH CRL'ISI:k i A.-l,.\ 
"VARIAG" 



Ki.v^KlVING THK SAILORS TROM THK 
AND- ' KORIETZ." 



to recall the J^iviag and Korictz : 

they are now known to have been 

at Chemulpo as the achanced guard 

of Admiral Stark '.s 

fleet ; the attack 

wa.s not unexpected, since the letter 

of the captain of the KoHcta has 

already been quoted, to show that 

the Russians anticipated an attack. 

It was the invariable custom of 

Russia herself in the past to o])eii 

hostilities without giving her enemies 

time to prepare to meet her blows ; 

in 1 877 her declaration of war was 

-onl}' communicated to the Turks at 

the moment when her troops were 

crossing the Turkish frontier, while she began the Crimean War without an)- declaration. Apparently, 

she blamed Japan for taking a les.son from her methods, and for striking hard, as everyone who had 

followed the conflict of interests clusel\- from the first was certain that Japan must ana would strike if 

she could not obtain satisfaction. The Russian Government knew of the growing e.Kasperation in Japan 

■cau.sed by its tactics of procrastination ; and if it pretended to be surpri.sed, that was a mere pose, 

adopted for the pur]5ose of dragging J'rance into the conflict, and finding some excu.se at home for the 

gro.ss mismanagement which had pro\oked a terrible war with a most formidable adversar\-. 

On the night of the 8-9th, the first detachment of Japanese troops, 1,500 strong, had arrived in Seoul, 

and quietly occupied that jjlace, so as to prevent an\' disorder among the Koreans, such as it was feared 

might occur. At the same time small Japanese forces landed at Fusan and Mokpo, to take possession ot 

these important strategic ixmits and fortif)- them, so as to secure landing-places for the main army. A 

host of engineers and 

coolies was landed and .set 

to work (jn the railway 

linking up 

Japanese Seoul and 
Troops at 
Seoul. Fusan, anrl 

w i t h such 
extraordinary energ\- and 
expedition was this line 
pressed forward that there 
were hopes that it might 
be ready for traffic in 
-Ma)'. As soon as the 
occupation of Chemulpo 
was known, other trans- 
ports left for that point, 
I onveying the Japanese 
• iuards, 10,000 strong, 
to it. 

It remained, after the 
battle of Chemulpo and 
the occupation of Seoul, 

WOUNDED RUSSIANS FROM THE 'KORIETZ" AND "VARIAG" GOING ON HOARD THE ^ ^ . , /- ht i-. i n- 

FRENCH CRUISER "PASCAL." to get rid of M. ravloff. 




164 



(APAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 12. 1904 




[Topical Press Agency. 
KINLANDERS TRAINING FOR THE RUSSIAN NAVY— SIGNALLING. 
The EiniK have ».plcndid eyc>ij;hi, and are peculnrly fitted for the work of signalling. 



M Pavloff 
Leaves Korea. 



The Russian Minister was in a state of 
consternation at the result of his 
manoeuvres. Only a few months before 
he had casually in- 
formed a British visitor 
to Seoul that Russia 
intended to predominate in Korea as in 
Thibet and China, and that then, of course, 
there would be no possibility of England 
remaining in India. That country, he 
explained, would naturally fall to Russia. 
This pretty castle in the air had thus 
been unceremoniously tumbled to earth 
by the guns of Admiral Uriu's squadron, 
and now he was invited, with the e.xtremest 
politeness, to remove from Korea. He 
decided to withdraw, and on February 1 2 
he quitted Seoul, under a Japanese guard 
of honour, took the train for Chemulpo, 
and there embarked on board the French 
cruiser Pascal for his return home. Mdme. 
Pavloff was observed to be weeping at her 
departure ; perhaps, because she recalled 
the fact that her husband had been the 
chief agent and actor in the seizure of 
Port Arthur, and that at Seoul he had 
not ceased to intrigue against the British 
and Japanese or to stir up disorder. With 



the departure of the Pavlofifs the period of Russian ascendency in Korea may be said to have ended> 
and the Hermit Kingdom to have become a tributary of Japan. 




IHK sUKVIVOkS OK THK -KOKIfcTZ' A.ND "VAKIAG" PARADED AT 0DES.SA ON THEIR RKTUR.V. 



Feb. 7. 1904 



THE JAPANESE FLEET SAILS. 



165 




SURVIVORS OF THE CHEMULPO FIGHT—THE CREWS OF THE "VARIAG" WELCOMED AT ODESSA BY THE GOVERNOR, 

GENERAL KAULBARS. 
Each man is weiring the cross of St. George, awarded in recognition of the " Variag's" gallant struggle. 

CHAPTER IX. 
THE TORPEDO ATTACK ON THE RUSSIAN FLEET. 
While these events were in progress at Chemulpo, yet more momentous occurrences had been recorded 
at Port Arthur. When on the afternoon of February 7, Admiral Uriu parted company with Admiral Togo's 

fleet, it was for Port Arthur 
that Admiral Togo steered. 

The weather in the 

Yellow Sea was of the 

worst ; high 

^^® seas, driven 

Japanese Fleet 

Sets Out. t>efore an icy 

gale, ran be- 
neath stormy skies, but 
through them ploughed the 
long line of battleships and 
armoured cruisers, witii the 
destroyers scouting in ad- 
vance, disposed fan-shape, 
so as to cover the widest 
possible extent of sea* 
These little craft, the inven- 
tion of British brains, gave 
the utmost possible satisfac- 
tion b\- their behaviour ; 
tcrpedo-boats in that swell- 
insr sea would have caused 




SURVIVORS OK THE Hi, 111 Af (_ HEM L i.l'i i. ll'l:,,iu lllus. I'l 
Russiaii Naval prisoners on parole at the Consulate of Shanghai, 



s^ IJureai:. 



166 



JAPANS FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 7, 1904 




SOME OK THE WAR CORRESPONDENTS IN TOKIO. 
t^itc of the moftl rcmarkaMe features of (his war M-as ihnt ihc Japanese detained the war correspondents in Tokio for a long period while their plans were inamrtd. 

trouble or have been compelled to put back to port. The flestroyers, however, kept station perfectly, and 

rode upon the stormy waves like petrels. The pace (jf the fleet was about I2 knots; the distance to be 

covered 580 miles from Sa.sebo to Port .Arthur. It was \ital to arrive off the great Russian na\al 

ba.se at nifjht. and .so. if possible, to take the cncm\- by surpri.se. The Japanese .Secret .Scr\ice hatl 

given strange information of the utter want of care and \igiiancc in the Ru.ssian fleet, and even the 

signals, which the Russian ships made when returning to harbour from cruising at sea, were known. 

to the Japanese. They iiad ob.served that a white light above a red was shown on such occasions 

It wa.s impossible for the 

Japanese to be off Port 

Arthur on the night of 

the /th, as 

Tcgo on the .. ^, . , , 

Brtdge. *^=*' "°"''' 

have i n - 

volvcd a higher s|xx;d than 
their engines would give, 
and .so the pace was re- 
gulated to bring them to 
their destination by the 
night of the 8th. The 
force with Togo cf)mpri.se(l 
all .six battle.ships, five <>i 
the armoured crui.sers, thi 
four fastest protected 

. . , DIFFICULTIES OF THE W.\R C0KRKSl'O\l)KNTS IN J.\H.\N. 

U acrs, ctnu Clgnieeu Newspaper rcpreMinlativeft asking for facilitie.s from the J.Tpanese aiitbf)rities at Tokio, exjilaining where they want tu go. 





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Feb, 7. 1904 



THE NIGHT RFJORE THE ATTACK. 



167 



destroyers. As his ships steamed northwards through the twilight, Togo paced the bridge of the 
great Mikasa, which led his line, in anxious meditation. He was daring immensely — risking everything 
upon the bold guess that the Russian main fleet was still at Port Arthur. If it had moved a terrible 
catastrophe might be in store for Japan. There was nothing to prevent Admiral Stark steering well to the 
north and keeping in the curve of the Gulf of Korea, when he might steal past the Japanese fleet and strike 
the detachment at Chemulpo. In that event the loss of the great crui.ser As.VMA and of the flotilla of 
transports was assured. Or again Stark might pass out to .'^ea and steer for Vladivostock, thus uniting the 
Russian naval forces and taking up a position where he would be able to cause great trouble. The night 
was passed on board the flagship in overpowering anxie'.y ; officers and men knew that the fate of their 
country was at stake, and that upon the success or failure of Admiral Togo's guess might depend 
victory or defeat in the war. 

On this movement the Japanese ships carried no lights except a screened lamp astern by which each 

ship showed to her successor in the line the course of the fleet. The big ships moved closed-up ; searchlights 

were not to be brought 

into play, as the sweep 

of their 

An Anxious ..^rful 

Night. ' 

beams 

across the sky might 
have indicated to the 
enemy the approach of 
the Japanese, and thus 
have lost for them all 
the advantage which 
they hoped to reap 
from a surprise. Like 
a host of .shadows the 
Japanese Fleet stole 
across the wide surface 
of the Yellow Sea, pass- 
ing silently through the 
night, and each moment 
expecting the call to 
quarter or some report 
from the destroyers 
ahead that the Russians 
were drawing near. 

Only those who have 
taken part in such a 
movement can reali.se its 
intense excitement, as 
the darkness of night 
gives way to the dull 
grey of rainy daylight ; 
as the anxious watchers 
on the bridges hour by 
hour and minute by 
minute sweep the indis- 
tinct horizon with their 

... c I.U C RUSSI.\N LAI'U,.b l..V\l, lllE OFFICERS OF THE "V.\RIAG" AND "KORIErZ" AN 

nignt-glasses tor the tirst enthusiastic reception when ihey re.^ched Moscow. 




168 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8, 1904 




IFruin photo by S. Smith. 
THE NEWSBOYS OF TOKIO WAITING FOR THEIR PAPERS OUTSIDE THE PAPER OFFICE. 



sign of a hostile destroyer 
onset, or pore over the 
shaded compass and 
charts in the chart-house, 
where the faint glow of 
light alone betrays life 
and movement, while 
beneath them the ship 
throbs gently with the 
measured beat of the 
engines and from the 
bows rises a cloud of 
spray. Ahead the vast 
waste ot the seas ; astern 
the long procession ot 
heaving masts and fun- 
nels, lost in the gloom, 
moving in complete 
silence with not a flash 
of the signal lamp or a 
blast on the steam siren. 

With day the tension decrea.ses and the danger of torpedo attack passes. The line of ships returns to life, 

and signals pass to and fro. 

All the ships in the Japanese Fleet were clear and ready for battle ; thej- carried no impediment of any 

kind ; all woodwork had been removed, and the space between decks emptied as far as possible. The 

simplicity of life of the Japanese and his habit of squatting, not sitting, rendered 

for Action unnecessary the tables and seats which cumber European warships. The destroyers in 

particular were stripped to the utmost. Their crews, all picked men — for in all navies 

the submarine and destro_\cr service is the field of the greatest danger and of the boldest enterprise — 

had left all their belongings with 

their depot ship at Mokpo, to 

which p<iint the_\' were ordered 

to return after the first action. 

Each ounce of weigiit shed b)- 

these vessels increases their speed 

and adds to their fighting power ; 

the Japanese have never believed, 

as apparently do some Admiral- 
ties, in loading their warships up 

with old junk and odds-and-ends, 

and thus wasting precious weight 

that might be given to guns or 

engines. 

At dawn of the 8th, no sign 

of the Russians had been seen, but 

the |)ossibility none the less 

remained that they might have 

stolen past in the night and 

evaded the outl(X)k of the 

destroyers. Such action on their 



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THE JAPANESE DECLARATION OF WAR. A Facsimile. 
The translation of the Declaration runs thus: 
** The Kmpcror of Great Japan, seated on the Throne hy the Grace of Heaven, occupied by one 
and the same lineage from tune immemorial, doth show fortn to all Our loyal and brave subjects: 

*' We hereby declare War asainst Russia. Our Army and Navy shall carry on hostilities against 
Russia with their full sirenKtn, and all Our authorities shall do everything in pursuance of their 



functions, according to their powers, to attain (he atm of the nation. 
und<Mie in their every effort within the limits of the I..aws of Nations." 



■k 



iCy shall leave nothint; 



Feb. 8. 1904 



APPROACHING PORT ARTHUR. 



169 



part would have fitted in 

well with the knowledgi 

which the 

February t o „ p. „ g s e 
8th, 1904. J a P a n e s c 

possessed, that 
for days before the rupture 
of negotiations Admiral 
Alexeieff had been medi- 
tating a raid on Chemulpo, 
and that such a measure 
had been quite openly dis- 
cussed by the Russian 
naval officers at Port 
Arthur. The Japanese 
ships, to guard as far as 
possible against the risk of 
such a Russian move, stood 
somewhat to the north, and 
instead of steering direct 
for Port Arthur made a 
curve which took them 
into the Gulf of " Korea, 
and thus drew near to Port 
Arthur from the east in- 
stead of the south-east. 
The hours drew on to even- 
ing without sight or sound 
of the enemy ; the sea 
seemed deserted of Russian 
ships, and as the day- 
declined the weather grew 
stormier and the waves 
rolled higher. The sun 
went down in a storm of 
rain : the hour had come 




JAPANESE VOLUNTEERS LEAVING SAN FRANCISCO TO JOIN THK ARMY. 
Throughout the United States of America, and Tparticularly in California, there are many Japanese settlers of the 
poorer class. These are employed as laundrymen, masons, coolies, and domestic servants. On the outbreak 
of war between Russia and Japan large numbers of these volunteered for service, and left San Francisco on board 

the steamship " China." 



to strike, and the destroyers slowed' 
to receive their last message from their 
admiral. 

Eighteen destroyers, we have said, 
accompanied Togo. These were formed 
in five divisions, known by numbers. 
The composition of the divisions was as 
follows : 




JAPANESE DESTROYER 



CHEMULPO TOWING STORES. 



The British officer who sent this photo says: "The picture shows a Japanese destroyer towing a 
lighter full of stores out of Chemulpo, to provision the Japanese Fleet of cruisers and destroyers 
who are guarding the route from Japan along which the transports are bringing troops to 
Chemulpo. The transports were coming in two at a time, and to the number of about six a 
day while I was at Chemulpo, showing the advaiuage of sea power." 



The Fleet 

of 
Destroyers. 



No. I. 

ASASHIO. 

Kasanumi. 

Shirakumo. 

Akatsuki. 



No. 2. 

Ikadsuchi.. 
Oboro. 

IXAZU>fA. 



170 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8. 1904 




Ni>. 3. No 4. No. 5. 

USUGOMO. ASAGIRI. AKKBONO. 

ShinonomI';. H.w.vtori. Yugiri. 

S.\Z.\N.\Mli. MUR.\KUMO. KAGERO. 

SllIRANUHI. HaRUSAME. 
Of these vessels all hut three had been 
built in England b\' the famous firms of 
Yarrow or Thornycroft ; the slowest of 
them had steamed more than 30 knots on 
her trial, the fastest had done 33 knots. 
The general features of these boats are 
well known; they are 210 to 220ft. long, 
drawing but little water, so that they can 



ITopical Press .\gency, 
L.\XD1NC R.MLS AT FU'S.W, FOR THF. RAILW.W TO SEOUL. 

run for safety from tlic attack of big ships into shoal water, or 
pursue torpedo-boats tliither. Their hull is of the frailest 
description — the thinnest steel plate stretched on the lightest 
framing. All weights in the hull and engines are cut down to the 
lowest point. They have four slender funnels and one light 
mast for signalling purix)ses. Forward is a low conning-tower 
for u.se in action, protected by thin plating, which is proof against 
onl\' the lightest shells. Their gun armament consists of one 
1 3-pounder, carried aft, and five 6-pounders. All the guns are 
quick-firing, and can discharge about ten shots a minute apiece. 

• The main armament of the boats, however, lies in their two 
tori)edo-tubes, which are carried abaft the funnels and which fire 
the powerful 18-in. torpedo. This type of Whitehead weighs a little 
under half a ton. has an efifective range, without gyroscope, of 800 
yards, runs at 30 knots, and in its head carries a charge of 1711b. 
of guncotton, a weight of explosive which is sufficient to inflict 




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GENERAL VIEW OK FUSAN, S. COAST OF KOREA. 



G e a d ly [Stereographs copyright, Underwood & Underwood. 

. . London & N.Y. 

injury how they work in korea. 

11 Eleven coolies are required to pull one spade when digging. 

the most powerful warship afloat, and against 
which no device has so far been discovered to 
afford protection. 

It was uncertain whether the whole Russian 
fleet would be found at Port Arthur, as it was the 
custom for some of the Russian cruisers to lie 
at Dalny. By the plan which had been pre- 
pared and discussed before 
the Japane.se Fleet left Sasebo, 
three di\isions of destroyers were to steer for Port 
.Arthur and work all the destruction possible ; the 
other two divisions were to carry out the same 
tactics at Dalny. About 5 p.m. Admiral Togo made 
his last signal to the boats, dismissing them upon 
their all-important mission. " Go in and sink the 



Togo's Signal. 



Feb. 8, 1904 



THE DESTROYERS STEAM IN. 



171 




encm\'s fleet ; I pra\- for 
}our success ! " was his 
parting message. 

The Japanese fleet 
was now si.xty miles from 
Port Arthur, and con- 
tinued to move slowly 
towards that point, so as 
to support thf» boats in 
the event of their being 
attacked. The destroyers 
increased speed as 
the signal 

The 1- e a c h e d 

Destroyers , , 

Steam In. them, and 

drew fast 

awa_\- tnrough the dusk. 

I'Lach division steamed 

in single line ahead, and 

all five divisions were in 

h'nc at the outset ; the}- 

showed no lights e.xcept 

a screened lamp aft, 

which was only visible to 

the boat immediatelv 

astern, and which was 

necessary to avoid, collisions and to enable the flotilla to keep station. The speed was slowly 

raised to 22 knots, which would bring them to Port Arthur about eleven o'clock that night. There was still 

no sign of the Russians, though the boats were now entering the zone of danger, where the enem\-'s .scouts 

were e.vpected to be encountered. 

Sending up sheets of foam as their bows clove the rising w aves, the boats drew nearer to their prey, 

w ith torpedoes in the tubes and all read\' for the attack. " There are," says one of the correspondents of the 

Times, " probably no people better qualified than 

the Japanese for desperate 
Japanese Fighting . . r ^1 ■ 1 • j -n. 
Qualities. enterprises of this kind. The 

instinct of self-pre.servation 
does not weaken their strength of purpose." 
It was the old heroic temper which led their 
.Samurai to prefer death to dishonour — that de- 
\otion which the Buddhist training gi\es to 
fighting men. " Lifted high abo\e his sur- 
roundings, he is prepared to meet every fate with 
indifference. Whatever analysis p.sychologists 

may apply to this mental condition, its attainment 
. seems to be a fact in the case of the 
Japanese soldier to-day, producing ... in 
him a high t\-pe of patriotic courage," writes 
Captain Brinkley in his great work on Japan. The 
forefathers of the men who were now steaming 
to assail the huge Russian battleships had, seven 



I From photo by S. Smith. 
0-\K OF OUR PHOTOGRAPHERS TOOK A PHOTOGR.APH OF THIS .SOLDJKR HURRYING 
INTO TOKlO ST.'VTION, JUST AS HIS TRAIN' WAS LEAVI.NG. 




Is. smith Photo. 

YOUNG JAPAN IN AR.VIS. 

These boys were pbying soldiers in Tokio, when our phutogr.iplier slopped them, 
aiicl sn.'ippeW them. 



172 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8, 1904 



centuries before, gone out In small boats and fought their way on board the great junks of the Mongols, and' 

the same indomitable spirit lived in their descendants. Once more they were to prove the truth of the 

judgment of the greatest student of Japan : " The Japanese Samurai is the best fighting unit in the 

Orient — probably one of the best fighting units the worid ever produced." 

As the long line of destroyers neared its goal, two divisions, Nos. 4 and 5, mustering eight boats, parted 

company and bore away to starboard into the night, with Dalny as their objective. The other ten steered 

steadily for Port Arthur. Presently, far ahead, out of the gloom loomed up the outline 

The Arrival at j- ^^^ ^-^ rocky coast through a cleft in which passes the entrance to the sheltered 
Port Arthur* t> ^ o 

water of Port Arthur. A light could be seen burning — the bright light on the Pinnacle 

rock — at the very entrance to the port. But now the question was : Was the Russian fleet there, or had it, 

as Admiral Togo had feared, stolen off on some enterprise against the Japanese ? A few minutes later that 

question was answered. Gradually the eyes of the destroyer captains grew accustomed to the patch of heavy^ 




IHE AKKiVAL AT ODESSA OF THE SHIP BRINGING HOME THE SURVIVORS (it iHh KORIhXZ" AND " VARIAG." 

shadow under the cliffs and made out in it the masts and funnels of a great concourse of .ships. The- 
Russian fleet was there. 

It was drawn up in wedge-shaped order, with the huge new battleship Tzarevitch at the head of the line, 
and supporting her astern the Retvisan, Pobieda, Petropavlosk, Peresviet, Poltava, and Sevastopol, with the large 

cruiser Askold acting as guardship, and steaming slowly to and fro well out from the 
Fleet. ^" fleet; with the other cx\x\=,&x^, Bayan, Pallada. Diana, Novik, and Boyarin, all ready 

out the harbour and with the whole flotilla of fifteen destroyers lying under steam. It 
seemed that Admiral Stark was perfectly prepared for attack. For days the Russians had been boasting of 
their readiness for war, and therefore the Japanese had every reason but one to anticipate a warm reception. 
That one reason was the knowledge they had of two entertainments to be given that evening in the town. 
A great feast was to be held at Madame Stark's residence in honour of her name-day, which is the Russian 



174 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8, 1904 




ONE OF THt BOAl'a OK THK '■ \ AklAU," SHOWING THE LFFECT OF THE NEW JAPANESE 

HIGH EXPLOSIVE INVENTED BY DR. SHIMOSE. 

Minute round holes are made by the tiny fragments of Shimose powder. 



equivalent of the 
English birthda)-. 
It had also been 
announced that a 
special perform- 
ance was to be 
given at a circus 
which had arrived 
ill Fort Arthur, 
under " the patron- 
age of the officers 
of the Imperial 
Navy." 

The destroyers 
came on, and as 
they approached 
tlieir prey the 
great c miser 
Askold moved to- 
wards them. Her 
officers had marked 
the " bone in the 
mouth " of the 



The Destroyers 
Chailengred. 



leading boat — the white fringe of foam under the bows as the boat clove the water at 1 5 knots — and were 
anxious to know what these craft were. The Russian destroyers, it would seem, had 
been out that night, engaged in scouting or manceuvres. This happy fact saved the 
Japanese. They were making ready to torpedo the big cruiser, when chance once 

more came to their help. The ^j/Wo' hailed them in Russian ; in Russian the destroyers are said to have 

replied. The Askold called on them to make the usual signal ; instantly a white light was shown above a 

red. That satisfied the Russian 

captain. But one of his 

officers was not so easily 

hoodwinked ; looking closely 

on the destroyers as they 

faded away into the darkness, 

and only the beat of their 

racing engines came over the 

water, he strongly insisted that 

they were Japanese, and called 

upon his captain to open fire. 

They were still engaged in a 

heated debate w hen tiie nature 

of the vessels was proved be- 
yond any possibility of doubt, 

by their action. 

On passing the Askold, the 

Japane.se destroyers, now onl) 

some hundreds of yards from 

the big ships of the Russian 

Fleet, increased speed, "and ^ ^lose snapshot of the ke.mains of the • vari..o." 




Feb. 8, 1904. 



THE TORPEDOES ^T WORK. 



175 




[C'upyrighi pliolo, R. L. IHiiui. 
M. PAVLOFF (RUSSIA'S REPRKSENTATIVE IN KOREA) AND HIS WIFE ON THE WHARF AT CHEMULPO, DEPARTING 

FROM KOREA. 

simultaneously their long line divided. The first division steered for the shadow of the cliffs 
to the west of the fleet; the second and third divisions for the east, so as to approach as closely 
as possible to the big ships of the Russian Fleet under cover of the shore. The torpedo-tubes 
were manned and ready; it was no new experience for those in charge of the flotilla, since Japan, 
almost alone among the great navies of the world, had practised her torpedo flotilla four times a year in the 
firing of live Whiteheads. Other navies, and even the British, had been content that their men should 
practise with torpedoes which carried only dumm\' heads, and which could be trusted not to explode, where 
the risks were consequently far less. 

At first it was reported, but subsequentl)' the report was denied, that a mistake had been 
made in many of 
the Japanese de- 
stroyers. Each 
torpedo is fitted 
with a number of 
safety appliances 
to prevent its pre- 
mature explosion. 
The most import- 
ant of these is a 
little fan that 
pre\ents the striker 
of the pistol from 
detonating the 
charge till the fan 
has unscrewed 
itself, which it does 
automatically b}- 
the wash of the 
water when it is 
di.seharged. The 




M. PAVLOFF AND HIS P.VRTV GOINU TO THE FRENCH CRUISER 



(Photo, R. L. Dunn. 
• PASCAL." 



176 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8, 1904. 




THE UAY BEFORE THE FIRST ATTACK ON PORT ARTHUR BY THE JAPANESE. 

SEEN IN THE ROADS OUTSIDE THE NARROWS. 



1 1'hoto Nouvelles. 
THE RUSSIAN FLEET IS HERE 



fan is held and prevented from revolving before discharge by a safety-pin, which is only withdrawn at the 
very last minute. This pin was said to have been forgotten by the Japanese — or, at 
S l'"'' ,* least, the Russians afterwards alleged tliat this was the case — and it is quite possible 

for such an oversight to occur in the rush of an impetuous attack, when the crew of a 
tor|)edo-bDat expect each moment to be their last, and look every second for the blaze of the search- 
lights and the flash of the guns from 
the battleships. 

The orders were given in the boats,. 

" 500 metres range " ; the boats stood 

slowly in to that 

t'^Z^J^! distance, till the 

Torpedoes. ' 

hulls of the Russian 
ships loomed high overhead, and the 
dim figures of officers and men could 
be made out on their decks passing to 
and fro. There was still no sign 
whatever of mi.sgiving in that unwary 
fleet ; only the Russian cruiser Pallada 
could be seen flashing her search- 



lights slowly hither and 
thither. Then suddenly 
came a dramatic change. 
Out of the silence of night 
rang forth a series of dull, 
muffled reports as each 
boat fired her two tor- 
pedoes; the Whiteheads 
plunged hissing into the 
water ; and the noise of 
heavy explosions shook 
the air and sea, and stirred 
the slumbering crews to 
action. In an instant, as 






0. Philip i Son, L«. 32 Fleet. Sf. London 






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VIEW OF PORT ARTHUR, TAKEN FROM THE HOTEL DE FRANCE. 



178 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8, 1904 




THE NIGHT ATTACK liV THF. JAI'ANKSK TOkl'KDO.lIOAT.s 0\ PORT ARTHIK. 
" Sending up ibceu of foom a. their bows tlovt the rLiiiiK wavra, the boats dashed nearer to their prey, 

with torpedoes in their rubes." 

in opposite directions away from the fleet. Only the Lnazuma delayed ; 

one of her tubes missed fire at the first discharge, and she had to turn if 

she was to fire it a second time. The nerves of her 
Japanese Destroyers . . - . 

Unharmed. captain were proof against any vain alarm. He calmly 

wheeled, and fired the tube a second time, witli 

success; and it would .seem that one of his torpedoes went home. In 

the act of mana.'u\ ring thus he collided with the Oboko, which had fallen 

out of her station just aliead, but no .serious damage was done to 

either boat. Then both alike fled from the anchorage, leaving behind 

them the Russian Fleet, and marked as the>' passed out of sight the glare 

of the lights and the flashes of the guns. 



if by magic, .searchlights 
streamed out of the 
darkness ; their beams 
l^layed hither and thithei 
to seaward ; the rapid 
crepitation of the small 
quick-firing guns was 
heard, mingled with the 
orders of ofificers and the 
shouts of surprised sea- 
men. The Russian Fleet 
awoke to panic and to 
life ; the heavy guns 
were cleared for action ; 
all hands manned and 
armed ship, and in con- 
fusion a furious fire was 
directed seaward towards 
a quarter where there 
were no Japanese. 

Through the tumult 
of searchlight beams 
and falling .shells, the 
J a p a n e s e destroyers 
steered unharmed. They 
kept near the land, under 
the shadows ; it is 
doubtful if the}' were 
seen by a single Russian 
sh'p after they had once 
passed the Askold off 
the harbour ; they in- 
creased speed t(j the 
utmost that their engines 
would give, and headed 




REAR.AliMlkAI. JKSSEN, 
Junior Flag .Vdmjral at Port Arthtir. 



180 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8, 1904 




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A«x(/<wo |j|^ 







DIAGRAM SHOWING FORMATION OF THE JAPANP.SF. 
FLEET AS IT SAII.KI) TO PORT ARTHUK. 



|(.:ril)li I'Uolo 

JAPANKSK BATTLESHIP "ASAHI," WHICH TOOK PART IN THK FIRST 
ATTACK ON PORT ARTHUR, BEING TOWED OUT OF PORTSMOUTH 

HARBOUR. 

As the destroyers fled seawards, new antagonists came 
into siglit. Immediately on hearing the explosion of the 
torpedoes and the roil of the firing, three Russian destroyers 
had steamed out to sea looking for the Japanese boats. In 
their retreat the Japanese flotillas came upon them. The 
Ru.ssians may have been taken aback by the fact that their 
adversaries were apparently steaming from the harbour and 
may have mistaken them for Russian boats ; that is the only 
reasonable explanation of their inaction, for they made no 
attempt to cut their enemies off, and, even when the Japanese 
opened fire, did not reply. Untouched, without the loss of 
a single man, the three destroyer flotillas withdrew, and. 
according to their orders, steered for Mokpo, leaving the 
big ships of their fleet to complete the work which the)- had 
so gloriously begun. 

The two divisions which had made for Dalny had no 
such liigh fortune as their comrades. They entered that 
harbour about midnight, and found it void of shipping. No 
trace was to be seen of the two Russian cruisers which 
were reported to be there. Whether the)- had concealed 



i^SBUr 




THE JAPANESE CRUISER " TAKASAGO," WHICH TOOK PART 



IN THE FIRST ATTACK ON PORT ARTHUR. 



heb. B, iyU4 



AN AUDACIOUS ENTERPRISE 



181 




themselves inshore, or 

whether they had joined 

the main fleet at Port 

Arthur, is to 

The Dalny thj, moment 
Torpedo 
Divisions. uncertain, 

but the 
latter is most probable 
since the destroyers made 
a thorough and careful 
search of the whole Bay of 
Talienwan, on which stands 
tiie town. They also re- 
turned to Mokpo, there 
rejoining the rest of the 
flotilla, and reported their 
uneventful cruise. 

As an example of the 
desperate and determined 
spirit which actuated the 
Japanese Navy, it may 
be mentioned that the 
instructions, given b_\- 
.Admiral Togo to the 
torpedo flotilla before the 
attack, directed the officers .^^^^ ^^,^„ p^^^, ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

of anV boat that mis^ht There was a rush out of rioors : the glare of the searchhghts in the sky and the rapid discharge of guns told 

o plainly that some startling event had occurred." 

be ^ completely 
disabled to run 
her ashore at 
the nearest point, 
land all her crew 
under arms, and 
make a dash for 
the nearest Rus- 
sian fort, which 
they were to seize 
and hold till 
assistance a r - 
rived. Fortu- 
nately for the 
crews there wa.s 
no necessity to 
attempt the e.xe- 
cution of such 
an audacious en- 
terprise, though 
the very boldness 
- of the plan sug- 

IHK RUSSIAN CRUISKR ".\SKOLI)" CH.\LLKNGI.NG THE JAPANESK DESTROVI'.KS. . 

" The ' Askold ' hailed them in Russian. In Russian the leader of the destroyers is said to have replied." geStS t ll a t It 




182 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8. 1904 




Results of 
the Fight. 



ON BOARD THE "YASHIMA" UATJLEbHII' AT PORT ARTHUR. FIRING A 6-IN. GUN 

might have been crowned with a measure of success, since in war the desperate man who 

for his life is a terrible 

antagonist 

The divisions which iiad 
made the attack at Port 
Arthur retreated without 

ascertaining 

exactly 

what was 
the damage done. The}' 
only knew that three of 
their torpedoes had ex- 
ploded, and that, therefore, 
some of the Russian ships 
had suffered. What those 
ships were they had no 
means of finding out, and 
this all-important fact wa- 
only disclosed by Admiral 
AlexeiefTs despatch to the 
Czar describing the affair. 
This was published on the 



[Haines Plioto. 

has no fear 




' PEKtbVIET, 



ARTHUR FLEET. 



Feb. 8, 1904 



RESULTS OF THE FIGHT. 



183 



followiiio" day, and was 
conceived in these 
terms : 

" I most regretfull)' 
inform your Majesty 
that about midnight on 
the night of February 
8-9, Japanese torpedo- 
boats made a sudden 
attack b\- means of 
torpedoes upon the 
squadron in the outer 
roads of the fortress of 
Port Arthur, in 'which 
. the battleships Rctvisnii 
and Tzarevitch, and 
the cruiser Pallada 
were damaged. 

" An inspection is 
being made to ascertain 
the character of the 
damage. 

" Details are following 
for your Majesty." 

Thus the Russian 
Fleet in the Far East 
had received a stagger- 
ing blow, which left it Japanese marines drilling ox board thi; warship 
in a position of marked inferiority to the Japane.se, and deprived it of any possibilit}- of commanding the 
sea. Tlie torpedo attack had had incalculable results. 

But how was it that the success was so signal ? For that we must turn to the accounts of eye-witnesses 
in the Russian t'leet or on board ships in the harbour at Port Arthur. 

An American correspondent who was on board the steamer Columbia, which was waiting in the outer 
roads, right in among the Russian Fleet, saw the whole affair. " Everything," he said, " was tranquil. A 

Russian official told us 
that he ex- 

What an pected the 
Eye-witness 

Saw. Japanese 

Fleet in 
three or four days. The 
lighthouse was lighted and 
guiding-lights (to enable 
ships to enter the harbour) 
were also burning. Only 
one of the Russian war- 
ships was using her 
searchlights in a very 
leisurely fashion. Three 
destroyers were patrolling 

THE RUSSIAN HATTI.ESHII' • SAVASI OPOI,.' OM-; OF THE PORT ARTHUR Ff.EKT. the OUtskirtS of tile fleet. 




[Hiiines Photn 
'MIKASA 




164 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8. 1904 




rwiiKwiie vii-w L/i 



IHli KUsblAN TLEET FORMING IN LINE OF IJATTLE, 
TO REPEL THE JAPANESE ATTACK. 



THE MORNING OE EEBKUAKY 1), 



Madame Stark's 
Entertainment. 



After the Circus. 



All the other torixxlo craft were inside the basin." Of the senior officers of the fleet a very larj^c number, 
including, it is said, Admiral Stark himself, were ashore at Madame Stark's entertainment, .\fter Russian 
custom, there were Huge potations at this party, and when it broke up, which it did 
some time tjefore the hour of tiie attack, many ot the officers had had more sweet 
champagne than was good for them. The same night, too, the great performance at 
the Circus Borovsky had been announced, and many of the officers went on to it froin Madame Stark's. 
Hence that lady told the truth when shfe asserted that it was not her party that prevented the officers 
from being on tward their ships. The performance at the circus began at nine and ended at midnight, 
and though orders had been issued that every officer must be on board his snip at eight, the front row was 
filled with captains, commanders, and lieutenants, who openly defied discipline. It is said by the Japanese 
that Admiral Ale.xeieff himself was among those at the circus; at lO p.m. one of his orderlies entered the 
house and gave him a telegram which stated that the Japanese had begun the war. lie put it in his 
pocket, meaning to publi.sh it next day. 

The performance was just over, and the officers were drinking in the circus bar, when suddenly the 
thunder of heavy firing was heard. There was a rush out of doors ; the glare of the searchlights in the sky 
and the rapid discharge of guns told plainly that some starfjing event had occurred. 
Hut the officers explained it all at first by the confident assertion that the Black Sea 
Fleet had arrived, and then by the story that manoeuvres were in progress. It is at least possible that they 
themselves believed these tales since the Ru.ssian officer is credulous and careless, while he certain!)' does not 
fail in devotion to his country and his Czar. His life on the Far Eastrt-n station was dreary and monotonous 
to a degree, which led him to seek with desperate anxiety any relaxation, however frivolous or incompatible 

with his duty. And the 

visit of a circus was a rare 

event in the 

The Evening annals of 

theWht. I'ort Arthur. 

In the 

roads outside the 

harbour the Russian 

.sailors had chanted their 

evening hymn at eight 

that night, and the sweet, 

sad strams of the music 

hung over the water and 

echoed from the frowning 

rocks on which rose tier 

on tier of batteries. Though 

out at r,eii the weather had 

been bad, in the harbour 

itselt the sunset was fine, 

i?bolu Waiiicbold, Hamburg. .,nrl rtn rain fr*\] hllfr a licrht 
THE CHINESE H.\K1J0LR AT PORT ARTHUR. '^"° "° '^'" "-"' ""'' ^ "to'"- 





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]86 



JAPANS FIGHT FOR FREtlDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904 




haze rendered distant objects 
indistinct and aided the Japanese. 
From eight to midnight nothing 
alarming occurred ; the ships were 
dark and silent ; absolute stillness 
brooded over the roadstead. It 
was just upon midnight when the 
silence was broken by three distinct 
muffled explosions, which seemed 
to come from under the surface of 
the water. All the ships in the 
road vibrated with the violence 
of the explosions, yet neutral 
observers had but little idea of the 
catastrophe which had befallen the 
Russians. 

A correspondent on board the 
Colniiibia writes : " Instantly after 
the explosions) firing with 12- 
pounders and 3-pounders began. 
Searchlights were used, but with- 
out much method. I watched 
the operations, thinking the\' were 
onh'- manceuvres, till midnight, 
when the firing had almost ceased. 
It stopped altogether at 3 a.m. 
About one o'clock two large battle- 
ships and one large cruiser passed 
us, coming towards the harbour 
entrance. The battleships then lay 
across the narrows at the en- 
trance, where both are now 
aground, \er)- close together, but 
not blocking the entrance except 



TORPEDOI.Vt; THE " TZAREVITCH." 



The " Tzarevitch " was stnick b)- the Whitehead torpedo 
aft, and lb' explosion drove a bu^e hole in her, 
adflulting Ibe ica to ber stccnng.«nginc compartment. 

for ships of heavy draught. 

"The Peresviet CactualK- the 

sliip was the Rct- 
On Board the i.- 1 

"Columbia.- ^"''"' ^^^^"^'^ "-^^ 

mistaken for the 

Peresviet, probably owing to a 

general similarity of appearance) 

had been torfxxloed forward, the 

Tzamitch aft . . At 2.40 

Russian naval officers came on 

board the Columbia in a state of 

great excitement, .saj'ing that the 

Vicerov had ordered us not to 




nil JilsblAN CKbl.^l, 



.\~KiilI..- WIIH 11 ( llAl.LI.NGED THE JAI'ANESL; 

X0KrEb0-i;oArs. 



Feb. 8, 1904 



THE INVISIBLE DESTROYERS. 



Itt7 




attempt to leave, their object apparently being- to prevent us from 
giving information to the Japanese concerning the extent of the 
damage. Up to this we thought that the operations were only 
mancEuvres or a scare, but now we began to suspect something 
serious, especially when at daybreak we saw the strange and pathetic 
appearance of the two torpedoed battleships. ... It seemed 
curious, for though the searchlights were whirling wildl)- and the 
lighthouse light was now extinct, no firing took place after three. 
The moon was shining, but no enemy was visible. 

" After daybreak a strange apathy seemed to possess the 
Russians. The 



PRINCE UKHTOMSKI, 
Second in Command of the Russian Fleet at Port Arthur. 



of white- 
gaping men 




crews 
faced, 
crowded the fore- 

• castles of the damaged vessels. I saw through the glass 
the crew of the Peresviet (Retvisan) calmly throwing out 
slops, and the men in the other ships carefully washing the 
■anchor cable while weighing anchor." 

Apparently the Japanese destro}-ers were not actually 

seen from any of the ships in the roadstead. They 

•came and went undetected, and for at least two hours 

after they 
The Invisible u , ^ 

Destroyers. ^^^ ^^"" 

ished panic 

prevailed and firing con- 
tinued. The failure to 
locate them is quite in- 
telligible to those who have 
seen torpedo attacks in 
manoeuvres. There is 

always a tendency in any 
crew when the alarm 
" Man and arm ship ! " — 
which is the order to cast 
-loose the lighter guns and 
bring them into action for 
the purpose of repelling 
torpedo-boat attack — has 
been given, to fire wildly 
at imaginary targets, and 

• even the steadiest crews 
often make this mistake. 
Repeatedly, for example, 
in the Spanish-American 
War, the alarm, " Torpedo 
boats ! " was given in 
Admiral Sampson's flleet 
off Santiago, and that 
fleet opened fire on what 

■ turned out, upon closer 



[Drawn by F. T. Jane. 
THE ATTEMPTED DESTRUCTION OF THE DAMAGED RUSSIAN' " TZAREVITCH," DURING 
THE BATTLE OF FEBRUARY 8, AT PORT ARTHUR. ON THE LEFT THE RUSSIAN 
FLAGSHIP "POLTAVA" IS SEEN ADVANCING TO THE RESCUE. 



188 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8, 1904 




THE NIGHT SURPRISE OF PORT ARTHUR, FEliKUARY 8-9. 
The Japanese torpedo-boats crept in under cover of a cloudy night. 



The Damage to 
the " Izareviteh." 



inspection, to be masses of seaweed or other inoffensive objects floating in the water. At suca moments, 

searchlights, unless handled with the utmost care, do more harm than good. They are apt to be turned 

upon friends, when they dazzle the gunners and render them incapable of correct shooting for whole minutes. 

As for the damaged Russian ships, the two battleships, Tzarevitcli and Retvismi, were so seriously 

injured that to make them fit for further service a thorough reconstruction, 

occupying about three months, would have been necessary. It was solely due 

to the fact that shallow water was near at hand, in 

which they were able to beach themselves, that they did 

not then and there founder. The Tsarevttch was struck 

by the Whitehead aft, and the explosion blew a huge hole in her. admitting 

the sea to her steering-engine compartment. She had been specially built to 

resist torpedo attack, and d'ffered from all other battleships afloat, outside the 

Russian Navy, in that she had a bulkhead or partition of i i^^-in. steel carried 

down from her armoured deck to her double bottom, which it was hoped 

would be proof against the explosion of a torpedo. This bulkhead, however, 

did not withstand the terrific shock, and proved of little service. 

The Retvisan was struck amidships, in the compartment which carries her 
pumps. In her ca.se, also, a huge hole was seen to have been torn by the 
torpedo. The Pallada was hit upon her engine compart- 
" Panada's "oamaga '"'^"'^' ""^ probably sustained the most serious injury oi 
the three, but in her case repairs could be more easily 
effected, since .she was small enough and light enough in draught, even when 
damaged, to enter the one completed dock at Port Arthur. 

The loss, ev;en for a time, of these three ships was a terrible blow to the 

Russians. Had the Japanese carefully picked out the ships to be destroyed, 

as there is .some reason for thinking that they did, they 

^^'^DelcrlS.^'*" '^""'"^ ""* '^^^'^ (:\\o'-,Qx\ better. The Retvisan and 

, Tzarcvitch were incomparably the best battleships in the 

Russian Fleet. The Tzarevitch in particular, with her high speed — she had made 

■MIDDY- WHO WAS KILLED. °" *'''^' '9 knots, and had kept it up with ease — was faster than any battleship 

D!I^C".I^^'^*(iiJkd*o5'thr£fiil". ^^ Japanese possessed, except, perhaps, the Hatsuse, and was the best armed 

danjw fe« aiuck on Port ^^^ afmoured vessel under Admiral Stark, carrying as .she did four 12-in. and 



■Hau 



190 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8. 1904 




WOUNDED RUSSIANS IN THE JAPANESE HOSPITAL, AFTKR THE CHKMULPO FK;HT. 



The "Retvlsan" 
and -Pallada." 



twelve 6-in. guns in her 
eight turrets, all of the 
very latest pattern, and 
firing projectiles with a 
high velocity. She had 
given some little trouble 
on her arrival, as her 
electric ammunition-hoists 
had not worked well, but 
the failure was not of a 
serious nature, and could 
easily have been put right. 
She was the newest unit in 
the Russian Fleet, and was 
at the same time the 
largest vessel in the Port 
Arthur Squadron. 

The Retvisan was a little 
smaller and a little slower, 
with the same battery as 

the Tsarei'itch,z.n6 armour protection almost as good, but had given more trouble. Together these two ships 

had cost somewhere about ;^2, 500,000, and they had been put out of action by the Japanese at a cost ol 
less than ;^ 10,000, and without the slightest loss of life or damage on board the Japanese 
flotilla. The power of the torpedo could not be more signally illustrated. The Russian 
admiral, however, had courted the disaster which befell him by leaving his fleet 

thus exposed to attack in the outer roads, when it has for years been a maxnn that a fleet which 

is found at anchor in an unenclosed anchorage by the enemy's torpedo flotilla is a fleet doomed 

to suffer. 

The cruiser Pallada was a far less valuable vessel than the two battleships, since she had no armour, and 

her fitjhting power was small. But she steamed 20 knots, and had a large coal supply, so that for scouting 

she was of great importance, the more so as the Russians at Port Arthur were extremely weak in good 

cruisers, and had little chance of effecting a junction with the four ships detached at Vladivostock. 

which might have remedied the 

weakness. 

The business of repairing a 

topedoed ship is a very serious 
one. The ex- 
plosion of an 
i8-in. Whitehead 

not only blows a large hole in 

the side, but also shakes and 

strains the whole structure of 

the vessel expo.sed to it. Bulk- 
heads far away from the 

compartments actually breached 

show signs of weakness and 

begin to leak ; the alignment 

of the shafting is deranged, and 

the engmes are apt to be ,vj{ officer who w.^s woumjeu at port arthur. 

thrown out of acljU.Stment In Second-Lieutenant S, 'J'akahaslii, of the ;irmourcd cruiser "Iwate." w.is wounded during the first .-itt.'ick on 

^ ' ' Port Arthur. February 8. This picture was taken in the hospital at Saset»o. 



Torpedo's 
Oamacre. 




lORPEDO ATTACKS. 



191 




THE EFKECT 



lOKrElJO EXl'I.OSION. 



To show the effect of the discharge of a modern torpedo against a battleship, the well-known artst 

M. Ehrmann watched some expermients in Cherbourg Harbour. Having photographed the effect of a 

torpedo explosion against a dummy vessel, and also photographed a Ijattleship on the sane scale, 

M. Ehrmann combined the two in his drawing, with this result, 

the assistance of a well- 
equipped dockyard. 

In the Chinese battleship 
Ting - Yuen, 



the ca.se of the Brazilian 
battleship Aquidaban, 
which was struck by the 
far less formidable 14-in. 
Whitehead, an examina- 
tion showed that the 
torpedo '' had blown a hole 
19 or 20 ft. long and 
6)4 ft. broad, and at either 
end the steel skin of the 
ship had been further torn. 
The tear extended 6 ft. 
longitudinally, past the 
bulkhead dividing the 
third and fourth coijipart- 
inents. The watertight 
doors in this bulkhead had 
been loosened by the 
shock, so that the fourth 
compartment, which was a 
very large one, had filled 
as well as the first three. 
Inside everything was 
smashed beyond recogni- 
tion. The armoured deck 
liad been driven out a 
little, just over the place 
where the explosion oc- 
curred, and numerous rivets 
in the skin had been 
loosened. . . Only the 
shoals had saved her from 
foundering.' This ship 
was afterwards repaired 
but the re- 
pairs re- 
quired 
months and 



torpe|doed 

by the 

Japane.se at 

Wei-hai-wei, 

one of the 

engines stuck, indicating 

that the shafting had been 



ICribb Photo. 

FIRING A 12- 

POU.NDER GUN 

ON A 

TORPKUO-BOAT 

DESTROYER. 

The Japanese de- 
stroyers carry one 12- 
"pounder, carried aft, 
and five 6-pounders. 




/ 



192 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 8. 1904 




THE RfSMAN BATTLESHIP " RETVISAN." BUILT AT PHILAUELI'HIA, 1900. "PIERCED 
AND SHATTERED" AT PORT ARTHUR BV THE JAPANESE IN THE FIRST ATTACK. 



thrown out of line ; the 
ship " was so shaken 
structurally that both bulk- 
heads and 

doors were 
rendered practically use- 
less " : a hole which was 
certainly more than 5 It. 
in diameter — -it could not 
be thorouf^hh' examined 
or accuratel)' measured, 
owing to the fact that the 
ship had sunk in the 
mud, and only the top oi 
the hole emerged from 
the mud — was blown in 

the side, and the armoured deck was damaged. Still more instructive is the lesson of experiments made 
in England with the 18-in. Whitehead on the null of the Belleisle, with the object of ascertaining exactly 
what amount of damage would be done under conditions similar to those prevailing when the Russian 
ships were torpedoed. Practically everything was blown away below the armourea deck, in the neighbour- 
hood of the explosion, and the wreckage of the ship was complete. It is plain from these actual examples 
that the damage inflicted by the Japanese torpedoes must have been very great indeed, and that there is 
small prospect of either the T::arevitcli or the Retvisan taking the sea this year. It may, however, be 
po.ssible to rebuild the Pallada in dock. 

The difficulty of repairing the Retvisan must be increased by the damage she sustained in the subsequent 
actions, and b\- the fact that when her wound had been patched once, the patch gave way. She was not 
removed from the entrance to the harbour till March ; the Taarroitch, however, was tugged off the mud at an 
earlier date and roughly patched, but was in such a state that she was incapable of service outside the 
harbour. 

According to the accounts of eye-witnesses yet another Russian vessel sustained serious damage in the 
torpedo attack. 
This was the 
volunteer cruiser 
Angara, which is 
stated to have run 
ashore near the 
Pallada for safety. 

Four Russian 
Vessels Damaged. 

It is clear that 
four ships were 
damag^ed, since 
Admiral Togo, 
who carefully ob- 
served the Russian 
Fleet in the bom- 
bardment of the 

J. THE "RETVISAN a-IImre. PHOTOdKAl 1 1 1 i . Ilii MilMVC AFTER THE TORPEDO ATTACK. 

ptn, SpeaKS OI lOUr ^jie "Rcivlsan" was Mruck amidships in llie conipartjnem which carries her pumps. 




194 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904 




as out of action, and there 
is independent evidence to 
the effect that some other 
ship was on the beach. 

CHAPTER X. 

THE FIRST 

BOMBARDMENT OI' 

PORT ARTHUR. 

Behind the Japanese 
destro\'ers which had de- 



rut BATTLESHII- - TZARKVrrCH. " rORl'EOOKIi Al lOKI AKIHlk. lllll<lAk\ 



livered the nijjht attack on 

the Port Arthur Fleet. 

followed in support a 

squadron of 

protected 
cruisers — the Kasagi, 
Chitose, Takasago, and 
YoSHiNO — all vessels 
capable of showing their 
heels to any Russian ship, 
and ' by reason of their 
formidable artillery strong 
enough to protect the re- 
treat of the torpedo craft, 
in case the Russians were 
found on the alert, and 











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THK CRLISKk " PAI.I.ADA," TORPEDOKI) Al i i m j ! I IIRUARY 8. 

The " Pallada " wai bit upon her enninc compartment. She had no armour. 



I OK mm; milk IHL iOKl'KlJO ATT.\CK. 



pursued their diminutive assail- 
ants. As yet, it was quite un- 
certain whether the Russian Fleet 
was at Port Arthur. The de- 
stroyers, in conformity with their 
orders, had not rejoined Admiral 
Togo, so it was not known what 
measure of success had attended 
their action. 

In the small hours of the 
morning ot February 9, however. 
all doubts as to the position of 
the Russians were at last set at 
rest. From out of the night came 
a wireless message in Russian, 
containing an order for the 
Askold, which was rapped out on 
the Japanese instruments, and 



Feb. 9, 1904 



THE RUSSIAN FLEET PUTS OUT. 



195 



■which in a flasli convened tlie intelh'gence sought bj- Adinii-gl Togo. As he knew 
that the Askold fornied jmrt of the Port Arthur fleet, the message indicated 
that she was at Port Arthur, and if she was there the probabilities were 
•overwhehning that ti'.e rest of the fleet was also there. 

About 9 a.m. of the morning of the 9th, looking out to sea, the Russians 

saw far away, ngainst the red raj's of the morning sun, the 
'^^' Puts'out^'^^' ^'^^'^'^'^ ^'i*^ funnels of three- cruisers The fourth was linking 

up the advanced squadron with the main Japanese Fleet. 
They passed slowly across the Russian port, and as they passed, on their masts 
could be made out through good glasses the Rising Sun, the battle standard 
of Japan. For many minutes they hovered on the horizon, apparentlv fnaking 
careful note of the condition of the Russian Fleet ; their officers noted that 





"THEV AL.SO SERVE WHO ONLY STAND AND WAIT." 

This picture show.s a group of people of all cla.s.ses in St. Petersbi rg inquiring for the bulletins or sailors and 
soldiers killed and wounded in the war. These bulletins are the oi^ly means of publishing the casualties. 



IS. Smith Photo. 

A RESULT OF THE WAR. 

The premises lately occupied by the 

Russo.Chinese Bank in Tokio are 

"to let." 

four ships were out of 
action or aground — two 
of them battleships — but 
one of the four was the 
transport Angara, of 
small fighting \alue. 

While the)' were still 
watching the scene, the 
order was given in the 
Russian Fleet to clear for 
action, weigh anchor, and 
put to sea to engage them. 
I'orthwith, on board the 
Russian ships, the capstans 
creaked ; the cables came 
up, link by link ; specta- 
tors ashore and on board 
the neutral vessels in the 
harbour could see the 
woodwork being jetti- 
soned ; and, finall}', after a 
long delay, the fleet got 
under way and moved 
timidly out towards its 
adversaries. 

The torpedoed ships _ 
were hard and fast 
aground, and remained 
behind, but even without 



1% 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904 




Names of the 
Russian Ships. 



THfc h.Ml'hkUK Oh JAl'.W Oi'fc.M.NG THE WAR PAKI.IA.M KNT. J H K PKIs.MlER HANDING HIM THE SPEECH TO DELIVER, 

MARCH 20, 1004. 

their aid Admiral Stark had under his orders a formidable array: the five battleships, Petropnvlosk,. 
Poltin'a, Sevastopol. Peresviet, and Pobieda ; the five cruisers, Bayan, Askold, Diana, Novik, and Boyarin ; 
and the fifteen destroyers, Vnimatelni., Vlastny, Boevoi, Beztraschni, Be::poschtchadni, Vnnshitelni,^ 
Vninostivi, Grosovoi, Razyaschtchi, Ryeshitelni, Silni, Stereguschtchi, Storozlievot, Siiiyeli, and Serditi — 

twenty-five pennants m all, which, ni good hands, boldly 

handled, might have gone far to redeen) 

the disasters of the first night of war. 

So soon as the Russians had got under 

way, however, and begun to move slowly out of the 

shelter of the forts commanding the roadstead, the Japanese 

cruisers vanished. There was only the merest pretence of 

a pursuit, the Russians steaming after them within easy 

reach of land, so as to have a secure retreat in the direction 

of Dalny. 

The Russians did not move far, nor was a single shot 
e.xchanged between the two enemies. 

^''Vp^oach^es^'^^' ^^^^' remaining about an hour under 
way, the battleships and most of the 
cruisers returned to the anchorage at Port Arthur, and 
took up their old positions there. They had no other 
choice, as the entrance to the inner harbour for the time 
being was blocked by the hulls of the torpedoed ves.sels,, 
so that none but destroyers or small cruisers could pass. A. 




("Chicago Record-Herald." 

DISADVANTAGE OF BEING GREAT. 

".There'* one bad Uiinc about being to big- -the other 
fdlo« geu all Uic tympatby." 




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198 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 




SALVING THE " VARIAG " AT CHEMULPO. 
The " Varing " was sunk by the Japanese, but was not seriously damaged. Attempts are being made to raise her. 



little later the Russian signal-station at Dalny announced that the main Japanese Fleet was approaching from 
the east It was stated to consist of five first-class battleships and as many armoured cruisers, though, as a 
matter of fact, this estimate was below the truth, since Admiral Togo had si.x battleships and five armoured 
cruisers with him. It is, however, possible that he may have detached a battleship with orders to rejoin him 

before Port Arthur, hoping that the Russians would be 
induced, by the seeming weakness of his force, to come out 
and give battle to him. About lo in the morning he received 
from his advanced squadron information of the precise 
condition of the Russians, and that they had four ships out of 
action. He forthwith ordered his crews to take their dinners, 
and, joining his officers, drank succe.ss to the Japanese Fleet 
in champagne. The dinner hour past, he hoisted a signal 
reminding his men that the issue of the war de[)ended on 
the deeds they were about to perform, and that the whole world 
had its eyes upon them. 

The plan to be followed had previously been imparted to the 

captains. It was known that Admiral 

Togo had been strictly ordered by his 

Government not to hazard his ships in close 

action with the batteries of Port Arthur, supposing the Russians 

were found sheltered under them, but that he was to use only 

long-range fire, as it was of great importance to preserve 

intact his precious battleships and armoured cruisers, the more 




^fi 



The Japanese 
Plan. 




CAPTAIN TERAi.'.t.I, 



Of Ibe JapancK btudohip " Shikishima." whk:h look pari iu 
ihe firu attack on Fort Arthur. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 



HOW THE JAPANESE ATTACKED. 



199 



Wafer line alter 



SO in view of the possibility that Russia 
might attempt to send further reinforce- 
ments to the Far East. If the Russians 
came out of Fort Arthur, he was again to 
fight at long range, since the constant 
practice of his crews at extreme distances 
would, it was hoped, give them a great 
advantage over the Russians, whose gunnery 
was good, but vastly inferior to the Japanese 
standard. 

The Japanese Fleet approached the 
Russians in single line ahead, the MiKASA leading, 



AN IMPORTANT 
SAFETY-PIN. 

In the torpedo a 
little fan (o) prevents 
the striker of the 
pistol from detonat- 
ing the charge. The / ' 
fuse is held hy a *" 
safety-pin (w), which 
only withdraws at the 
very last moment. 
The detonating 
charge is at K, and 
the primer charge, E. 



Injury to Aquidaben by Torpado. 







DLigram showing 
the damage by tor- 
pedo to the Bra* 
ziiian vessel "Aqui* 
da baa." 
(Sec page 191.) 




and following her the ASAHI, Fuji, HatsusE, 

ShikISHIMA, and Yashima. Astern ot 

the battleships followed 
Work for the ,. „ „ „ , , , 

Heavy Guns. *^^ armoured cruisers, led 

by Vice-Admiral Kami- 
mura's flagship, the IDZUMO, with, astern 
of her, the TOKIWA, IWATE, Yaku.mo, 
and Adzuma. Astern of them again, 
and further out to sea, were the four fast 
protected cruisers. The orders were for 
all the ships to use only their heavy 
guns, i2-in. and 8-in., and fire at the 




CREW OF THE " VARIAG " MARCHING THROUGH ST. PETERSBURG. 



tl'h(.)tg Nuuvelles A£etu:y. 



200 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9. 1904. 




Under-estimating 
Japanese Valour. 



(Cribb pboto. 
THK •• BELLEISLE," USED FOR TORPEnO EXPERIMENTS. TO ASCERTAIN WHAT DAMAGE WOULD BE DONE UNDER 
CONDITIONS SIMILAR TO THOSE PREVAILING WHEN THE RUSSIAN SHIPS WERE TORPEDOED. (See page 192.) 

Russian .ships and forts, directing some shells against the dock and workshops which could be reached by 
the heavy guns at one point opposite the harbour mouth. The range would be too great for the 6-in. 
guns, which were not to fire unle.ss the Russians came out. Thus no use could be made of a great part 
of the ships' batteries. 

Oil returning to their anchorage, the Russians had detached two crui.sers to scout in the direction from 

which the Japanese were approaching, and to keep a close watch on the 
movements of the Japanese Fleet. No one on board 
the Russian ships anticipated an attack by the 
Japanese. It was thought that they would never 
venture within range of the formidable batteries of Port Arthur, notwith- 
standing the daring torpedo attack of the previous night. The men in 
the forts stood to arms, but nothing more than a Japanese reconnaissance 
was expected, so greatly did the Russians under-estimate the valour and 
energy of their enemies. The first indication that there was to be 
serious fighting was when the Boyarin came steaming in from the east, in 
which direction she had been on the look-out, with smoke pouring from 
all her three funnels, with a white rush of spray from her bows, and 
with all the guns in her battery which would bear astern firing rapidly. 
She signalled : " The enemy are at hand ; they are very numerous." Two 
or three minutes later, specks came into view on the horizon, and 
gradually, as the specks drew nearer, they were made out to be a fleet of 
fifteen battleships and cruisers, in fighting order. 

" The day was bright and warm," says a Russian officer in one of the 





Hf ^v ^H 


'^"' ^HcH^ »-*^-,* mk 


^ji^^T^^^;:;?H 


HHbmI 



.MR. J. A. R. GILCHRIST, 

A Scoich engineer, who is reported to have 

rcpftircd cbc dalnaged Rumiaq war vessels at 

Port Arthur. 



batteries. " Some specks 

showed on the horizon ; 

they grew 

sleUFaTll 'arRer; then 
we could 
make out fifteen of them. 
They became lines, instead 
of mere specks ; nearer 
and nearer they came, 
changing fnm grey to 
dun-colour; they stopped 



.£j 


\ 




^^^Pt 


'1 . ., ' f ■ 


•m 


' ~~^^ . , _ ^^wg^j^^Ka 









[Ciibtj jjhoto. 
THE "BELLEISLE," AFTER ITS BATTERING, BEING TAKEN INTO HARBOUR. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 



THE SLOW RUSSIANS. 



201 




ONK EFFECT OF A JAPANESE SHELL AT PORT ARTHUR. "'"'" ' ^''■'"' ""' '=>"^-»"""^- 

During the first bombardment a horse, drawing a cart full of soldiers' uniforms, was killed, the cart being smashed. 

when five miles away. There was a white cloud. Boom ! We looked anxiously to see where the shell 
would fall." At the same moinent the Russian battleships began once more to weigh. They had moored, 
and did not, as they 
.should have done, at 
once slip and put their 
ships in motion, but 
slowly and painfull)- 
heaved their cables up 
— a ten or fifteen 
minutes' task in a 
smartly handled fleet, 
and one demanding 
anything up to an 
hour in a fleet where 
the seamanship is in- 
different. Once more, 
to their utter amaze- 
ment, spectators in the 
neutral ships in the 
anchorage, which were 
bu.sy getting under 
way and withdrawing effects of the first bombardment on the new town of port arthur. 




202 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 



Tne Steamer 

"Manchuria" 

Captured. 



from the midst of the Russian Fleet, noted that large parties of seamen were 
on the Russian forecastles in leisurely fashion preparing to cat the anchors, 
and washing the cables with the hoses as they came up link by link, while 
others were pitching all kinds of encumbrances overboard through the 
|K)rtholes and from the upper deck. 

It was a strange spectacle, this fleet which had for weeks been avowing 
its perfect preparedness for war and its contempt for the Japanese, caught 
thus in complete disorder. A hubbub of noises rose from it ; through the 
clear, still air came the creak of the capstans, the sharp orders of the officers, 
and the banging of hammers knocking away the pins which held the 
stanchions and the davits, and folding these down so as to give a clear field 
for the fire of the guns. To the observers it seemed as though the Japanese 
Fleet would be right upon the Russians before these latter would be ready, so 
fast did Admiral Togo's ships come on. 

As the Japanese Fleet drew near, the protected cruisers which had 
effected the reconnaisance in the morning fell back, so as not to approach 
within range of the heavy Russian guns. Having no 
armour on their hulls, they were not to be risked, but 
were to remajn in the offing, ready to give assistance 
to any damaged vessel, ^or to deal with the Russian cruisers 
if these attempted to slip out to sea. The Takasago, while with the 
protected cruisers, sighted the Russian mail steamer Manchuria attempting 
to get into Fort Arthur before the Japanese closed on the port, and after 
a sharp run captured her without any resistance being offered by the Russians. 
At 10.55, by the time of the neutral ships, the first shot was fired by the 
Japanese. It came from one of the great 12-in. guns in the fore barbette of 
the M IK ASA, the 
Japanese flagship, 
and is said to have 
been aimed by Prince Kasho, of the 
Imperial House of Japan. It was 
accurately aimed, at a range of about 
8,000 yards, and fell close to the Retvisan and fifteen destroyers 
which were lying bunched up hard by the entrance of the harbour, 
sending up a great cloud of spray as it struck the water. At once 
the Russian torpedo cr^ft with the gunboat Gilyak, which was 
among them, got under way and retired into the harbour, apparently 
as the result of orders from Admiral Stark. The Japanese Fleet 
closed in slightly, and opened a slow and steady fire from the 
heavy guns, to which the Russian forts and ships immediately 
replied, but with little order or method. The forts ashore for the 
most part used smoky powder, so that the harbour was speedily 
veiled in clouds of smoke, which drifted down on the anchorage and 
veiled the scene from the eyes of spectators ashore. 

At this moment Captain Gray, of the British steamer Fuping, 
which was lying in the harbour awaiting permission to proceed to 
sea, was rowing in his boat among the Russian ships ; he reports 
that just as the first shell struck the water one of the Ru.ssian ships 

disappeared, sinking with all hands. In this, however, he seems to captain fujii, 

have been mistaken, as no such incident was observed from the ^^ ''"^^ Japanese armourci cruiser •• Adzuma, • whk* 

, -s^ .w^ ..v^i.* ni\, attacked Port Arthur. 




The "Mikasa's" 
First Shot. 



[Bolak photo. 
H.H. PRINCE KASHO. 

At I he first battle of Port Arthur he 

was in charge of a i2in. gun on the 

" M ikaw." ^ and was much praised by 

the captain for his cflicient firing. 




Feb. 9. 1904. 



PORT ARTHUR IN PANIC. 



203 



Japanese Fleet, while the Russian official despatches make no mention 

of the loss of a ship, nor is there any of their more powerful units 

which remains at this hour unaccounted for. The 

An English Witness ^^^^^ g,^g,[ ^^^^^ injured one of the Chinamen rowing 

of the Fight. - ■' "^ 

Captain Gray's boat, and the rest of the crew 

hurriedly jumped overboard and made for the shore, which was close at 

hand. The Englishmen in the boat followed them and took shelter 

behind a rock, whence they watched the rest of the battle. 

Meantime, shells were beginning to fall in the town, among the 

batteries, and in the harbour. In the 

town there was 
Panic in u \ ^ 

Port Arthur. absolute panic. 

Crowds of frightened 
non-combatants, men and women, be- 
sieged the railway-station, begging for 
places in a train which was standing 
there, but which was not to start till 





C0.MM.\NDER OF THE 
Captain Essen. 



' NOVIK.' 



CAPTAIN FRAN-Z M.A.T0VSS1EV1TCH, 

Commander of the torpedo-boat squadron at 
Port Arthur. 



the afternoon: others fled to the hills for protection? . In the Russp- 
Chinese bank all the paper money was taken out and hastily burnt ; 
the specie was placed in carts and driven away to the interior ; it seemed 
the general belief that a landing of the Japanese was at hand. From 
over-confidence the Russians had passed to demoralisation. At the same 
time telegrams were sent north recalling the troops who had a few hours 
before been hurried away from the town to Liaoyang, thence to march 
to the Yalu. Every few minutes there came whistling through the air the 




IHh Ktb»l.\.\ CkUlSEK 



'NOVlK" ON THK .MORNINCJ OF FEBRUARY il, AllKR THK .NIGHI SURPRISE OF PORT 
ARTHUR, STEAMED OUl FROM THE REST OF THE FLEET. 



204 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 



The "Novik" 
Steams Out. 



huge projectiles of the Japanese, Sin. and 1 2in., which fell, digging deep holes in the ground, and shattering 
c\-er}'thing at hand when the explosion followed. The coal piles on the wharves and near the station were 
scattered by the bursting of the shells ; the windows of the town were broken by the violent concussion, yet, 
after all, the damage done was not great, though the moral effect of the bombardment was stunning 
Through all this turmoil moved Admiral Alexeieff and his staff, striving to restore order and confidence with 

but indifferent success, 
while the streets were full 
of troops moving off at a 
brisk march to their posi- 
tions in the f( r.s and works 
round Port Arthur. 

The Russians for some 
time made no attempt to 
move out and meet the 
Japanese attack, perhaps 
because of the long delay 
in weighing anchor ; per- 
haps be- 
cause .'Ad- 
miral Stark 
did not dare to venture 
away from the shelter of 
the forts. The small 
cruiser Novik, however, 
steamed a little distance 
from the rest of the fleet 
to the westward, keeping 
always under the cover 
of the forts, and the 
battleship Pcresviet, with 
Rear -Admiral Prince 
Ukhtomsky's flag, followed 
her example. They drew 
the attention of the 
Japanese upon themselves, 
and received a heav)- fire 
but most of the projectiles 
went over them and struck 
the clifts of the batteries 
just behind them. The 
Russian cruisers AskoUl, 
Bayan, and Diana, also 

steamed out some little distance, attempting, so the Japanese thought, to draw the Japanese battleships 
and crui.sers over the mine-field off Port Arthur, or to a point commanded by the cross-fire of the fort^. 
A volunteer cruiser came out furthest of any of the Russian ships, but had so warm a reception that she 
speedily put about and retired. 

The Ru.ssian battleships had not even now completed the process of weighing anchor. The Poltava 
was just preparing to cat her anchor, with some twenty men engaged in that troublesome business, when 
suddenly a Japanese .shell struck the ship on the bows, just at the point where the hawse-pipe enters the ship. 
A dense cloud of black smoke caused by the high explosive in the shell blotted out the scene for some 




I-. Vinci pliulu, .Suihduu 

THE IXVE.VrOR OF THE WHITEHEAD TORPEDO. 

The inventor of the Whitehead lorpe lo Is now an aged man ; but while he is in retirement in the <iuict of the 
country liis invention is altering the fate of nations in the Far Ea^t. 




THE "POLTAVA" STRUCK. 

The " Poltava " was just p.epnring to cast her anchor, when suddenly a Japanese shell struck the ship on the bows, just at the point where the hawse-pipe 

enters the ship. 



206 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904 




rnii HK>T ATJACK ON PORT ARTHUR, AS DRAWN 

This is vivid, but not correct 



A JAPANESE ARTlSi. 




IHb i-okl ARTHUR UGHT— UY AN EYEWITNESS. 
■ ibe«d (i-»-i) indicates KuMian »hip that were torpedoed by the Japanese and the different positions 
■'U by ibe KuMian battlc«hi|M in the effort to float and repair them, F indicates the forts, and tlie 

■' in /e«t- ( ) indicates the courK taken by Japanese torpedo-boats during tiieir attack 

KuMtian fleet. ^ (— >) indicates course of Japanese torpedoes when fired and uliere the Russian 
y them. B S, battlc^ihips. C, cruisers. T, Japanese torpedo boats. Drawn by Engineer 
D. Osuander, of Ibe sleaniship " ri«:ades," at Port Arthur during the fight of February 8 and 9. 



instants ; and, as it cleared' 

away, it could be seen that 

the Poltava was badly 

damaged forward, her plating 

torn open down 

Disaster to to the water- 

^^^ r 111 

"Poltava." I'lie, while she 

appeared to be 
on fire. A minute later the 
Petropavlovsk was hit by a 
shell at the base of her fore- 
funnel, but the projectile, 
striking on her armour, did 
her no serious harm. Then 
it was the turn of the 
Pobieda to be hit in the same 
manner, once more without 
receiving injury. At each 
shell-burst a great cloud of 
thick, black smoke rose in the 
air, and all the Japanese 
projectiles appeared to ob- 
servers to explode. 

Little damage had so far 
been done to the Russian 
l'"leet in the action, but now 
the Japanese began to 
concentrate their attack on- 



Feb 9. 1904. 



" ASKOLD " DAMAGED. 



207 




(yuilt and photographed by Sir W. G. Armstrong & Whitworth. 
THE JAPANESE CRUISER " IDZUMO." 

This took part in the first attack on Port Arthur, and was Admiral Kamimura's flagship. 

the protected cruisers. They struck the Askold two or three times, once on the water-line, making a 

large hole in her thin plating and setting her on fire ; then on her after-funnel, a part 

Damage to the Qf which was carried away by a projectile, and then again on her mainmast, bringing 
** Askold " ** Diana ** 

and " Novik " ' "^'o^^'" the maintopmast. She withdrew behind the battleships, where her crew 

strove with success to extinguish the fire. The cruiser Diana was next 

injured by a shell amidships on the water-line, and also took fire and withdrew from the action, while last of 




DEFENDING PORT ARTHUR FROM THE JAPANESE ATTACK.. 



208 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 




nil I l\l I I NM I i 1 !• ( Kri>l.K "A.--K01.U" UKIM-i MADK l-AbT IN THt INNKR HAKliOL'K. 



(Taken just alter the light, j 




( \J'1\IN I AKII'MKI. ( ^ iMMAMiKl) 
1 »1 K A K M (> U K K U C K U I S K R 
"IWATE," WHICH PLAVED A 
PROMINENT PART IX 
THE FIRST ATTACK. 



to their own structure 
than to the Japanese. 
Indeed, it is probable 
that the difficulty of 
subsequently repairinfj 
the injury inflicted on 
them by the Japanese 
torpedoes was great!)- 
increased by this foolish 
use of their batteries. 
'I'he other battleships 
remained in confusion 
and disorder; they 



all, the Novik, after approaching too close to the Japanese Fleet, was 
compelled to retreat by the concentrated fire that was directed upon her, 
and while returning to the harbour at full speed was hit several times 
astern, the last shot disabling her rudder, so that her captain had to steer 
back to shelter with his screws alone. Before she retreated, however, 
she fired two torpedoes at the Idzu.mo at e.xtreme range. These 
missiles passed within a short distance of the Japanese armoured cruiser 
— one thirty yards ahead, and the other fifty yards astern, leaping in 
the water as though they had been porpoises. 

Such was the posture of the Russian Fleet after less than half-an- 

hours firing on the part of the Japanese. .Ml the 
Results of^ Half an u„armoured cruisers, except the Boyarin, were out of 

action ; of the battleships, one could not move, as her 
wound forward admitted so much water that fears were entertained for her 
safety, while the torpedoed ships were hard and fast aground, and could 
do nothing but fire their guns wildly at the Japanese, which strained 
their hulls and seriously risked their safety, doing infinitely more harm 




lAPANESE CRUISER 



tIJuilt and photograpiied 1>>- Sir W. (j. Armstrong, Wliitworih & Co. 
■YOSHINO" TOOK PART IN THE FIRST ATTACK ON PORT ARTHUR. 



210 



lAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 




The Russian 
Fire. 



THE JAPASEsK ATTACK. O.V PORT ARTHUR. THE RUSSIAN SQUADRON 1.11-3 lu illK hVA'T OF THE PICTURE. 

displayed no tactical qualities, but simply steamed slowly round and round in a circle, while among them 
every instant splashed the huge shells from the Japanese guns. 

Their fire was quite ineffective ; what hits were made upon the Japanese ships appear to have been 
inflicted by the coast batteries. The explanation of the ineffectiveness of the Russian gunnery probably lay 
in the fact that, unlike the Japanese, they had not taken the precaution to practise at 
long ranges, so that their gunners, accustomed to fire only at targets i,200 or 2,000 
yards away, were puzzled and disconcerted when it was a matter of making hits on the 
dun-coloured outlines of the Japanese battleships and cruisers at ranges of 6,000 and 8,000 yards. Or it 
may be that the Russians lacked telescopic sights for their guns, as was the case with the Variag at 
Chemulpo. Their projectiles could be seen falling in the water, many hundred yards short of the Japanese. 

and the result of this bad shooting in the 
Russian Fleet was a complete loss of confidence. 
In the midst of the action the British mer- 
chant steamer Columbia, 
The "Columbia's" ^^.j,;^,, , , ;„ ^^ ^f 

Risky Run. 





















fio^o ..<>-C«Volio 



Ao«o-feoL»%»L'P» 




THE tlKbX NEWS OK THE WAR IN JAPANESE. 
OF THE "JIJl SHI.MPO." 



FACS1MU,E 



tile Russian Meet, ran for 
safety. She was shaken at each instant from 
stem to stern by the concussion of the e.x- 
ploding shells which dropped about her, drench- 
ing her deck and upper works witii sjiray. 
Once a shell burst so close to her that all on 
board fancied for a moment that she was hit, 
and as good as di.sabled. She had on board a 
Russian guard, who forbade the captain to 
move ; but as it was a question of the safety ot 



FeD. 9, 1904. 



THE "COLUMBIA'S" RUN. 



211 




THE TORPEDOED " RETVISAN " LYING ACROSS THE ENTRANCE TO PORT ARTHUR. 



the ship and a large 
number of passengers 
on board, the captain 
disobeyed. It was quite 
characteristic of the dis- 
order prevaihng in the 
Russian Fleet that no 
attempt was made to 
prevent his taking French 
leave ; gradually the 
Columbia gathered speed, 
and drew away from 
the Russians, while, as 
though to hasten her 
departure, fragments of 
shells struck her, terrify- 
ing the Chinese seamen 
on board, so that they 
fell prostrate on the deck 
and prayed aloud. Over 
her sailed the Japanese 
projectiles, aimed at the 
forts, and they could be 
seen rolling in the air, 
indicating that their force 
was almost spent, . and 
when they struck and 
burst, sending up clouds 
of smoke and splinters 
of steel and rock. As 
the group of ships at the 







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XHE PANIC OF THE CHINESE ON THE "COLUMBIA.' 

•* They fell prostrate on the deck, and prayed aloud." 



212 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 



harbour mouth receded in 
the distance, the engage- 
ment abrupt])- ceased. The 
Japanese had concluded 
their attack after only 
forty minutes firing, and 
were drawing off. 

They had the Russian 

Fleet at their mercy if the}- 

had been 
Why Togo . , . f 
Drew Off. ^°'^ ^" '^*^'^ 
some risk or 

to imperil their precious 

battleships. Admiral 

Togo may well have looked 

and longed, but the danger 

from the Russian forts 

and mines was too great 

to be encountered with the narrow margin of 

gained a stunning victory by standing close in 





A RUSSIAN BATTLESHIP CHASES A NEUTRAL STEAMSHIP, 
A gun U fired acrou the bow. 



THK CHINESE .MARKET AT PORT ARTHUR. 

advantage which Japan possessed at sea. He might have 
to 2,ooo yards, instead of merely skirmishing with his enemy 
and inflicting only slight damage, but 
his orders were peremptory, and pro- 
bably wise, since the e.xperience of 
the past is emphatic on the danger of 
risking ships in action with forts. Nelson 
at the Nile had no formidable forts to 
encounter when he destroyed the French 
fleet ; he had no mine-field to fear ; and 
behind him were powerful reserves, so 
that the loss of the battle would not have 
meant the defeat of his country. 

In the forts little damage was done by 
the Japanese fire. A Russian officer 

who watched the 

Effect on the ^^ i r i 

Russian Forts. ^"^^1^ f™'" °"^ °' 

the works on Golden 

Hill, 300 ft. above the sea, gives this 

vivid picture of the battle at its 

height : " Beneath us is the Admiral's 

battleship, the Peresviet. Crash ! A 

large column of water rises, and the wind 

separates the particles into spray, which 

the sun tints with all the colours of the 

rainbow. The deck of the ship is 

covered with water, and the men begin 

to swarm up over it. A second cloud of 

steam, and a terrible noise overhead. 

Crash ! This time it is behind us, and 

there is an explosion. Another cloud. 

We pass a terrible minute. I feel 



Feb. 9, 1904, 



A TERRIBLE UPROAR. 



213 



like a man who has no 
weight. I ask myself, 
' Have they fired ac- 
curately ? ' It is straight 
at our battery. The 
first shot fell short ; the 
second was too far. 
The gunners who tried 
to find our range have 
split the difference, and 
the shell must fall in our 
midst. Imagine our 
position. 

" There is smoke, 
steam, and dust, and I 
hear a groan. It comes 
from a soldier whose 

nose has 
A Shell Bursts i . 

in the Fort, been torn 

off by a 

splinter of a shell. 

Someone lays a hand 

on my shoulder, and I 

turn and see at my 

side a soldier, dead- 

white, with trembling 

lips. He tries to speak, 

but the tongue does 

not obey the will. He 

points with his finger, 

and I see what has 

happened. 

" Under the cliff we 

have a battery of small 

quickfirers to defend 

the forts against any 

disembarkation by the 

enemy. The uproar is 

at its height ; the shells 

are bursting round us like fireworks at a festival, when there is a whistle, a hiss, a sharp ringing sound, 

then smoke and a smell of burning while the sand dances from the earth. In the midst of the 

quick-firing battery a shell bursts. One soldier is disembowelled ; another is wounded in the head ; 

and a third is screaming in a delirium of terror." 

A Russian naval officer on board the Pobieda declares : "We were only 5,500 yards off the Japanese 

when the first shot was fired from the leading Japanese ship. We replied instantly. So fearful was the 

uproar which followed, that never before or since have I heard anything to compare with 
A Terrible • j ^ r 

Uproar. '^' "'^'^ could I imagined anything .so terrible. It was infernal. The shells flew over 

our ship, whistling and moaning like flocks of wounded birds. They burst short of us 

or beyond us, and threw in all directions hundreds of splinters from out of the midst of dense columns of 

smoke. Slowly the shells came nearer us, and began to strike u.s. Fifteen hit our ship; one started a fire 




ox BO.\RU THE RUSbl.\N VESSEL "POblEDA" THREE GUNNERS WERE KILLED AT ONE 

OF THE QUICKFIRERS. 



214 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9 1904. 




TWO JAPAN KSE 

OFFICERS ON THE 

" ASAMA." 




Hamti |ili«o.J 



[Copyright photo J. H. H;iie. 
JAPANESE SUPPLIES ARRIVING AT 
TOKIO STATION FOR DESPATCH TO 
THE FRONT. 

in the officers' quarters ; three 
gunners were killed at one of our 
quick-firers, but fortunately most of 
them struck us on our armour and 
did not perforate it." 

In batteiy No. 13, a gunner who 
was .severely wounded distinguished 
himself by returning to his gun 
after his wounds had been dressed, 
and afterwards received the Cross 
of St. George for his bravery. 
But the losses in the batteries were 
not heavy. Only one man was 
killed and six wounded, according 
to the Russian report, which, pro- 
babl}', slightly under-estimated the 
casualties. One or two guns were 
struck and dismounted, and the forts 
presented a very battered appearance 
after the action, but they were 
substantially undamaged. 

In the basin a shell fell on board 
a hospital-ship which was being fitted 
up for the Rus- 
sian Fleet, but 
did not burst, 
and so caused but little damage. 
Another .shell is said to have injured 
the caisson closing the entrance to 
the dock ; in the town .several 
Chinamen were struck and killed, 
yet the casualties among the Ru.ssians 
were few and far between. The 
Hritish steamer, Wusung, which was 



Damage in the 
Basin. 



Feb. 9. 1904. 



THE RUSSIAN LOSS. 



215 



lying right inside the harbour, was hit by numerous fragments of shell, and made an attempt to 
put to sea, following in this the example of the Columbia, which was better placed, however, since 
she was lying outside when the battle began. But the Wusung drew so heavy a fire when she 
came out that, fearing she would be sunk, her captain thought it wiser to return. She suffered a 




IN THE FIGHTING-TOP OF THE " MIKASA." 
A big shell struck the fighting-top of the " Mik.-isa," exploding and doing considerable damage. 

considerable amount of damage, while the Foxton Hall, which was also inside the harbour, was hit by 
shell, and deserted by her Chinese crew in panic. 

The loss in the Russian Fleet was not heavy, and was mainly confined to the cruisers and the Poltava. 

Twenty-two men were killed— among them no officers — and 64 men wounded, including one officer. It is 

probable that this figure includes the loss of the Russians in the torpedo attack of the 

OSS o 1 e. previous night, wiiich was seven men killed or drowned and eight wounded, most of 

whom died as the result of inhaling the gun-cotton fumes caused by the e.xplosion of the torpedoes. 



216 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904 




A KUD(;KT DKIiAll. IN THK JAPANESE PARLIAMENT 
Uic Finance Minister is in the Tri)»uii'-, whrrc all Mem)>erh l;-- l^' ^p .il . 



The damage to the 
Russian ships was not of a 
\ery serious description, 
though temporarily the 
Poltava, Diana, Askold, 
and Novik were put out 
of action. The Peresviet 
was struck by three shells, 
but while she had some 
casualties among her crew, 
she was not disabled, even 
temporarily. At the long 
range at which the fighting 
took place, the Japanese 
shells did not pierce even 
moderate armour, which 
no doubt explains why 
the Russian battleships did 
not suffer more. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE JAPANESE 

FLEET AND THE 

BOMBARDMENT. 

IT now remains to follow 
the fortune of the 
Japanese Fleet in the 
action. As their object 
was to draw the Russians 
out, they may be said to 
have failed, but their failure 
was due entirely to the 



inertness of their antagonists, and 

the battle gave the Japanese seamen 

immense confidence in themselves. 

Up to this en- 
A Victory for the » ... 

"Yellow Dwarf." counter there 

had been a lurk- 
ing doubt in some minds, even 
among the Japanese, whether the 
Oriental wa.s not inferior in some 
subtle manner to the Western races. 
The Russians might fairly argue 
that the torpedo afifair of the previous 
night wa.s not a fair test, inasmuch 
as in all torpedo work much depends 




THE JAPANESE DIET, TOKIO. 



Feb. 9. 1904. 



AN EPOCH-MAKING ACTION. 



217 



upon chance and the- 
power of surprising 
your enemy. But now 
the Russian Fleet, hav- 
ing a friendly port 
under its lee, and a 
powerful flotilla of 
destroyers at hand — 
which the Japanese 
lacked since their boats 
had returned to the 
base — had been chal- 
lenged to battle in open 
day by a not greatly 
superior force of 
Japanese ships. The 
challenge had been 
declined, and for the 
NEWSBOYS WAITING FOR KXTRA SPECIALS IN TOKio. ' " flfst time a white race 

and that one of the proudest on the face of the earth, had had to submit to the humiliation of confessing that it 
could not meet in combat the men whom a few hours before its officers had been deriding as " yellow dwarfs." 




IJ. H. Hare photo. 




HOW THE " IWATE ' W.\S 1JAM.\GED. 
A huge projeclile from the Russian forts fell in the officers' quarters astern, and, bursting, wrecked the wardroom, starting a small fire, which was easily extinguished.. 



218 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 




THE JAPANESE BUND AND CUSTOM HOUSE, CHEMULPO. 



An Epoch- 
making Action, 



Thus in a sense this action off Port Arthur was yet more epoch-making in the world's history than the 
torpedo combat, though its actual consequences in damage done were so inferior. Every one of the Russian 
ships injured in the fight was again at sea within four weeks ; not one of the torpedoed 
ships had been repaired four months after the date when they were disabled. It had 
been thought that the Russians would at all costs take the offensive and dash forth even 
to destruction. " No one," Napoleon has said, " can foretell the issue of a pitched battle," and in such 
a resolute offensive there might at least have been some chance of so damaging the Japanese ships as to 
make the way smooth and easy for the voyage of the Russian Baltic Fleet to the Far East. But once again 
Admiral Stark proved unequal to the emergency. 

The Japanese sWps only executed one movement at low speed across the Russian front, maintaining a 
distance from the forts which never was less than 6,ooo yards, and, generally, was about five miles. They 
kept their single line formation ; in the battleships the men were placed as far as possible under 

cover, while the big guns 
in the barbettes main- 
tained a steady fire, 
shaking the ships from end 
to end at each discharge. 
The fleet might have been 
at target practice, so calmly 
was the attack carried out. 
From the tops the mid- 
shipmen gave the distance 
by mechanical indicators 
to the men in the bar- 
bettes ; the hydraulic lifts 
IS. Smith phoio. brought up the huge 

EMPEROR'S PALACE AFTER HIS RETURN FRO.M . ..i j „„ ,i „ 

KOREA. projectiles and powder 




THE MARQUIS ITO DRIVING TO THE 



Feb. 9. 1904. 



THE JAPANESE FIRING. 



219 



charges from the depths of 

the magazine to the smoking 

breeches 
Splendid Japanese „ r . t 
Firing. ° ' "^ " ^ 

g u n s ; 

faint smoke rose from the 

funnels as the ships ploughed 

. through the water ; and the 

only sign of war was that over 

the sea from Port Arthur 

came the line of splashing 

Russian projectiles, drawing 

ever nearer, as the Muscovite 

gunners slowly found the 

distance. 

One big Russian i2-in. 

shell fell near the AsAHl and 

drench ed 

the officers 

on her fore- 
bridcre where they were watch- refugees from korea in shanghai. iPhoto by j. a. Archibald. 

ing the battle. Each vessel in the Japanese line fired for about ten minutes, so that never more than 
four were firing at the same time. The first Russian hit was effected when a big shell struck the 



Damage to the 
" Mikasa-" 





JAi-A.NLSE TROOP-TRAIN CROSSING THE HANG RIVER, KOREA, OX THK SEOUL-CHEMULPO RAILWAY. 



220 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 




KKCKl'llON AT KOiili, JAPAN, XO TROOPS OKF FOR THK FRONT. 



[Photo J. H. Hare. 



fighting-top of the MiKASA's mainmast, exploding and doing considerable damage. 

A number of staff-officers on the after-bridge just below were wounded. 

Lieutenant Kitsuo Matsumara was struck by a splinter on the thigh and 

dangerously wounded ; Mr. Yoshimura, the legal adviser of Admiral 

Togo, Midshipman Sawamoto, and a second-class 

signalman were also more or less seriously 

injured by this shell. Other splinters 

and fragments tore up the Mikasa's 

deck, but she sustained no 




JAPANESE TROOPS EN ROUTE TO THE FRONT 



IPhotO J. H. Hare. 



Feb. 9. 1904. 



THE ATTACK ON PORT ARTHUR. 



221 




" Fuji," anl 
'• Hatsuse" 



1 I'llotu R. L. Dunn. 
JAPANESE SOLDIERS AS CARPENTERS ERECTING STAIJLES AND BARRACKS BETWEEN CHEMULPO AND SEOUL. ' 

important injury : at tlie close of the action her guns and her vitals were intact, and she was as fit as ever 
for battle. It was noticed that few of the Russian shells exploded, and that the quality of the Muscovite 
ammunition seemed extremely bad. 

The second battleship in the line, the ASAIII. was not hit at all, and suffered no 
The "Asahi,* damage, even of a trivial kind. The third ship, however, the Fuji, was struck several 
times, once on the fore funnel, and had a comparatively heavy casualty list. Two 
midshipmen, Tatsuo Namura and Kan Ito, were .severely wounded ; a large number 
of warrant officers and seamen were slightly wounded, and several men were killed. Lieutenant- 
Commander Yamanaka was hit by a fragment of shell and killed; and the same fate befell Sub- 
Lieutenant Yofu Miura. 
The Russians had time 
to get her range, and 
seem to have concen- 
trated their fire upon 
her, perhaps taking her 
for an armoured cruiser. 
In the battleship 
Hatsuse, which fol- 
lowed fourth, Midship- 
man Fumio Kajimura 
was killed, several blue- 
jackets were wounded, 
and the admiral's cabin 
was wrecked. The 

SllIKISHIMA. however, 
was more fortunate, 
though the Russians 
reported, and really 
seem to have believed, 
that they had sunk her. 
They struck her more 
than once and profess 

















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KOREAN FUGITIVE, 



iPhoio R. L. Dunn.. 
CARRYING HIS HOUSEHOLD EFFECTS AND CHILD, SO THAT THE 
SOLDIERS WILL NOT COMPEL HIM TO WORK. 

No. X.. 



222 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904 



to ha\-e seen dense clouds of smoke and steam escaping from her, but though she undoubtedly was injured, 
having, as would ap[>ear, one of her three funnels shot away, the damage was not of a grave nature, since she 
was again at sea in a few days. There were no serious casualties on board the Yashima, though she was 
struck. 

The flagship of the armoured cruiser division, the IDZUMO, was not touched by the Russian shells. The 




TYPES OF KOREANS IN NORTH KOREA. 
These are too old to work. 



I Photo R. L. Dunn. 



IWATE, however, was not quite so fortunate. A huge projectile from one of the forts fell in the officers' 

quarters astern and, bursting, wrecked the wardroom, starting a small fire which was 
FlftV-four Wounded ^^^"X extinguished. This part of the ship is unprotected by armour and contains 

nothing vital, so that the injury was not at all serious, though it rendered the ship most 
uncomfortable in the bitterly cold weather which was then prevailing. Several officers and men were hit by 
splinters and slightly wounded, among them Sub-Lieutenant Setsuo Takahashi, while watching the battle 
from the port of the sternmost 6-in. casemate, and Midshipman Aoki, who was in charge of one of the 
i2-pounders on the upper deck. The Azuma was not hit at all, and the Yakumo and TOKIWA sustained 
no damage, though they were touched by the Russian shell. The total Japanese loss in all the ships was 
four killed — three of whom were officers — and 54 wounded, most of the latter so slightly that it was not 
necessary to send them back to hospital. 

With these small losses, and with, as he reported, the fighting value of his fleet undiminished. Admiral 
Togo broke off the battle, after once passing across the Russian front. Mis withdrawal was interpreted by 

the official Russian Press as an indication that he had suffered a defeat, and 
Reports. fabulous reports were circulated by the Russian organs in the Far East of the heavy 

losses in ships which he had sustained. According to the most sanguine of these 
reports he had lost four ships, two of them battleships or armoured cruisers, which had been seen to founder 
by passing Chinese junks, Iii actual fact there was no reason why he should have sent back any of his 



Feb. 9. 1904. 



JAPANESE LAND IN KOREA. 



223 




JAPANESE SAPPERS AND MINERS EN ROUTE FOR SEOUL. 



[Photo R. L. Dunn 



ships for repairs, but he thought it best to detach the Shikishima and the IWATE, as their presence was not 
urgently required, to Sasebo, to have their injuries made good. With the rest of his fleet he steamed awav 
to his rendezvous in the islands to the east of Port Arthur, where he kept his fleet concealed, but ready to 
attack if the Russians should venture to sally forth. 

The all-important news that the Russian Fleet had been challenged to give battle and had declined was 
sent to Tokio, where, however, it had been preceded by Admiral Alexeieff's official report to the effect that 

four Russian ships had been put out of action on the 9th. At once, on receipt of this 
'^Kopea^" ^ news, steps were taken to move a large Japanese arm^' to Korea. It had previously been 

intended to ship the troops to Fusan, which lies close to Japan, whence they would have 
had a long and painful march through Korea to Seoul and Pingyang. It was now thought safe to send them 
straight to Chemulpo, whence the distance to be marched was small. Thus the command of the sea, 
wrested by the Japanese seamen from the inert hands of the Russians, was turned instantly to account. 

Meanwhile at Port Arthur panic prevailed. A Japanese disembarkation in great force upon the coast 
was ex- 
pected at 
every 
moment, 

Further 
Panic In 

Port 
Arthur. 

though only 
thee.xtreme 
south of the 
L iao tong 

now THE JAPANESE HAVE LANUEU IN KOREA, 
peninsula Steam-launch towing six lighters crowded with Jap-Tnese soldiers. 




224 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 




[Sketch (facsimile) by Melton Prior 
A '• HATOBA, • OR LANDING-PLACE, FOR THE DEBARKATION OF JAPANESE INFANTRY AT CHINNAMPO. 

was clear of ice, and even in Dalny Ray the sea was frozen tliick inshore. All preparations were made 
with the object of removing the Russian headquarters from Port Arthur to Mukden. Wild reports that 
the Japanese were landing were in every mouth. 

The most important task, however, was to clear the entrance to the harbour, so as to permit of 
the entrance of the rest of the Russian battleships, which, if left outside, would have been exposed ta 




(Photo R. L. Dunn. 
PONTOON LANDING, HURRIEDLY BUILT BY THK JAPANESE FOR LANDING HORSES .\T CHEMULPO. 



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226 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 9, 1904. 




JAPANESE TROOPS ON THE MARCH, 



I I'holo J. H. Hare. 

further torpedo attacks. The first step taken was to remove the 

Tzarci'itch, as it could be seen that the injuries of the Retvisan were 

such as to prevent her being towed ofif without effecting preliminary 

repairs, for which the time was wanting. Nine 
Clearln? the . u u^ ^ i .i ^ • / ■ 

Harbour Entrance. ^^ ^^^""^ brought to work on the Fz, revitch imme- 



drag her afloat. 



diately after the battle, and finally managed to 
Collision-mats had been placed over her wounds and 



i.r.Ni-.KAi. KLkOPATKIN. 
io charge of the Russian forcea in Manchuria, 



hundreds of workmen were sent from the dockyard to make her 
watertight. She entered the harbour about 2 p.m., almost colliding 
with a Norwegian merchant steamer as she came in. 

The cruiser Pallada was also towed off and taken into the harbour, 
where her repairs were begun. Many of the Russian ships, however,. 
were not able to enter the harbour that day, and were forced to spend 
the night outside. This was a signal opportunity for the Japanese had 
they known of it, and it was the one great chance of the war which 
they threw away. No doubt a second torpedo attack would have 
found the Russians on their guard, but even so the demoralisation in 
the Russian Fleet was so great, as the result of the disasters of the 
previous twenty-four hours, that one or two more ships might have been 
placed hors dc combat with little or no loss to the Japanese. 

It is probable, however, that the destroyers after the hard work of 
the 6th — 8th were not in fit condition to go into action, because their \ 
crews needed rest. Their sufferings had been almost ' 
incredible, owing to the severity of the weather on 
the 7th, and the intensity of the cold, which was 
cruelly felt in these small craft. It was found impossible to keep the 
boats dfy or warm, and for two days the crews had slept with snow 



A Missed 
Opportunity. 



Feb. 10, 1904. 



JAPANESE BRAVERY. 



227 



lying deep in their bunks 
forward. The officers 

suffered scarcely less ; they 
were few in number and 
were compelled to be 
constantly on deck in the 
bitter weather, repeatedly 
drenched by the icy seas 
which froze on the deck 
and rails ; while they had 
also to endure the moral 
strain of attacking the 
Russian Fleet under a 
terrific fire. They had 
accomplished all that 
could be asked of gallant 
men, of accomplished sea- 
men, and Admiral Togo's 
reluctance to make further 

demands upon them can well be understood. Moreover, a torpedo flotilla if worked too hard is apt quickly 
to deteriorate. Yet, when all is said, an opportunity was missed on the night of the 9th. 

On the loth a careful survey was made of the damaged Russian vessels. Little could be done to 
the Tzarevitch till the repairs on the ships damaged in the action of the 9th had been completed. She was 

allowed to remain close to the Palltrda, in the western part of the harbour, and in 
Russian Vessels, "^''^''y '"^s bad a case, while the fallacious story was circulated by the Russians that 

her complete repair would only occupy a few days. This was, doubtless, intended to 
deceive the Japanese, but they had their own sources of information in Port Arthur, and were under no 




DRAGGING UP A BIG FORTRESS GUN AT PORT ARTHUR. 
The gun was put on r.iils, and hauled up to its position by a number of men. 




RUSSIAN TROOPS E.NTKKING PORT ARTHUR AFTER THEIR LO.NG JOLRNEV 0\ ER THE TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILWAY. 



228 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 10. 1904. 




JAl'ANESK CAVALRYMEN LANDING AT CHEMULPO. 



tl'hoto R. L. 1)111111. 



delusions as to her condition. The Retvisan was moved somewhat by the tugs on the loth, but she was 
in miserable plight, with her bows completely covered at high water, and extensive injury to her hull. The 
basin was crowded witli ships disabled in the fighting, and it could be seen that the Askold had a huge 
hole on her water-line. There were reports that she sank shortly after the battle, but these were quite 
untrue. The Novik was docked and repaired, while the Diana and Poltava were also taken in hand. 

After the bombardment the British steamer Fuping attempted to leave, but was not permitted to do so 
until the afternoon of the loth. In the meantime, refugees in hundreds poured on board the ship — sixteen 

whites and 500 Chinamen — in their desperate desire to escape from this doomed city. 
"FuDinir" ^^^^ captain was summoned to the office of the agents, and, before he could obtain 

permission to go, was compelled, under threats, to sign a promise not to disclose what 
had occurred. Though the Russian authorities had no right or power to e.xtort such a promise, considerable 
allowance must be made in this case for them ; it was vital for Russian interests that the Japanese should 
not be informed exactly what damage their fire had done. The war had come so suddenly that the 
conditions were somewhat abnormal, and the captain of a ship which enters a naval base during the period of 
extreme tension must be prepared to run some risks, and, perhaps, to be roughly treated. The rough 
treatment was forthcoming. 




(Huilt and photogr.iphed by Sir W. G. Armstrong, \\'liilw(jrtli .K: Co 
JAPANESE CRUISER " IWATE." 
A huge projectile fell into the officers' qii.irtcrs and WTecked the w.irdroom. 



Feb 10, 1904. 



THE " FUPING " INCIDENT. 



229 



As the Fuping left the west basin, with the British ensign 
flying at the main, the Russian guardship Rasboymk, Captain 
Prince Lieven, without the smallest warning sent a shell whizzing 
over her deck, and then, without waiting, fired twice again, 
striking the Fuping forward, well above the water-line. Five 
Chinese on board were cruelly wounded as the result of this act ; 
one Chinaman had his arm torn off; an unfortunate girl lost a leg ; 
and another man had a part of his back carried away. 

The Fuping at once stopped and returned to harbour after 

this incident, which revealed the disorder and demoralisation on 

board the Russian ships. Prince Lieven sent for 

Japanese Refuarees ^j^^ captain, but only remarked that " It was all 
at Port Aithur. '^ ' ■' 

a mistake," and that the Fuping might proceed 

to sea. On her second journey out she passed unmolested. The 

British steamer Wenchoiv, which had gone to Port Arthur to 

bring away the Japanese there, was almost as severely treated. 

Some two hundred Japanese were confined on board her under 

the eye of Russian sentinels, and were detained there without 

food or water. The captain could not obtain permission to sail, 

and it looked as though these hapless refugees would be starved to 

death ; finally, in response to repeated appeals made to Admiral Ale.xeieff, a small quantity of rice and an 

utterly inadequate supply of water was doled out to them. Other refugees arrived at Port Arthur from Harbin 

in a lamentable condition, having been robbed of all their belongings by the Cossacks, and left absolutely 

penniless. The state of affairs on board the ship was terrible, but not until the 14th was she allowed to go. 



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[Adelplii Press .Agency. 
BRONZE STATUE OF SAIGO TAKAMORI. 
A famous Japanese Rebel Chief. 




COSSACKS AS NAV.VL SCOUTS. 
At Port Arthur the Cossacks patrol the shores to give warning at the approach of the Japane.se torpeJo boats. 



230 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Ftb. 7, 1904. 




NINE TUGS WERE BROUGHT TO WORK OX THE " TZAREVITCH " IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE BATTLE, AND AFTER 

MUCH EFFORT SUCCEEDED IN SHIFTING HKR POSITION. 

One of the first results of the defeat of the Russian Fleet was the supersession of Achniral Stark. He 
was in bad health, and had committed the crime, unpardonable in a coininaiuler. of being worsted, yet it 
would appear that he was not altogether to blame for the dispositions adopted. It was Admiral AlexeiefT, 
not Admiral Stark, who had stationed four of the best Russian ships at Vlatli\ostock, in a position where 

it was almost impossible 




Admiral Stark 
Superseded. 



ADMIRAL MAKAROFF'S ARRIVAL AT PORT ARTHUR. 

hU >ketch, drawn before tli« Admiral't dcilh, U .t lapiincsc skit, showing the fish 

a» a guard of honour, rcariy to conduct bim to the Kuiwian fleet beneath the sea. 



for tiicni to join the rest 
of the Russian Fleet with- 
out running the risk of destruction. Admiral 
Stark was replaced by Admiral Makaroff, 
by far the boldest and most distinguished of 
Russian seamen. Hut weeks would necessarily 
elapse before the new commander-in-chief 
appeared upon the scene. Till his arrival^ 
orders were given to the Russian Fleet not 
to risk further defeats at the hands of the 
J apanese. 

.\t the same time General Kuropatkin, 
the Russian War Minister, was appointed 
to command the Russian forces on land. 
1 le was under no delusions as to the task 
to be accomplished, as he had seen something 



Feb. 



1904. 



GENERAL KUROPATKIN APPOINTED. 



231 




of the strength of the Japanese 

during his visit to the Far East 

in the pre- 

He rebuked 

the generals at St. Petersburg who 

talked in an air)- fashion of ending 

the campaign in a few months by 

marching to Tokio — which these 

officers seemc' to have supposed 

could be reached b\' land — and 

there dictating a peace that would 

avenge the " treacherous action " 

of the islanders of the I'^ar East. 

The disasters of February 8 and g were not, however, the last by any means that the Port Arthur Fleet 

was destined to suffer. On P'ebruary 1 1 the special mining transport Yeiiesei (see page 58), which was fitted 

for the speedy laying of mines, was despatched to Dalny, to place 400 mines in the bay 

Eleetro-meehanieal there, so as to prevent the Japanese from using it for a landing. The type of mine to be 
Mines. 

laid was the electro-mechanical. These mines are steel or iron vessels, anchored to 

the bottom, containing a large charge of guncotton or other explosive, and are fired by an electric current 

generated by a battery in the mine the moment the mine is tilted, as happens when a ship runs up against 

it. To prevent premature e.xplosion while the mine is being handled and placed in position, it is fitted with 

a circuit-breaker, which keeps the battery out of action by interposing a layer of melted sugar between the 

two ends of the wire that complete the circuit. So long as this sugar is dr\-, the mine cannot explode. When 



A JAPANESE DESTROYER DEVOURING RUSSIAN SHIPS. A JAPANESE CARTOON. 




THK HUGE HOLE BLOWN IN THE SIDE OF THE RUSSIAN CRUISER 
A photograph taken after it was docked for repairs. (See page i88.) 



232 



JAPANS FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. II, 1904. 




the mine is dropped into 
the water the sea enters 
the part of the mine 
containing the sugar, and 
the sugar is dissolved, 
whereupon the mine be- 
comes active. With a 
little ingenuity the time 
required for the mine 
to become active can be 
varied from a few seconds 
to some hours. It need 
scarcely be added that 
these are extremely 
dangerous weapons to 
handle, and that to 
manipulate them with 
success experience and 
care are required. Such 
experience and care ap- 



The "Yenesel" 
Blown Up. 



DKSTKICTION OK THK " VliNKSKl." 

Th« boilers of the " Yencsei " burst when the water poured 

into the boiler-rooms, and there was a desperate rush of the 

wounded stokers and engineers fur the hatchways. 

pear to have been lacking among the 
ill-educated seamen of the Russian Fleet. 
The Yenesei. however, proceeded to 
Dalny, and laid a large number of mines 
without misadventure, so placing the 
mines as to leave 
only a narrow and 
winding channel lead- 
ing into the harbour. Captain Stepanoff, 
who was in command of the ship, had 
prepared the plan by which the mines 
were to be sown, but the report is not 
true that no one else in the Russian 
Fleet or in Dalny had any idea of what 
the plan was. A duplicate was in the 
hands of the Russian Admiral. 398 mines 
were placed without mi.sadventure, and 
now only two more remained to be laid. 
The 399th was flung overboard from the 
special port fitted for the purpose, when, 
to the surprise of all on board, it came 



Feb. 11 1904. 



SINKING OF THE " YENESEI." 



233 




THE SINKING OF THE "YENESEI." 

Thr crew behaved wiili the utmost gallantry. Captai:; StepanofF insisted upon remaining tiil the last, and gave instructions that the married men were to 

embark first. 



234 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 11. 1904. 



A Terrible Moment. 



to the surface and floated, instead of keeping its proper depth. It had broken away from the sinker 
which held it down. As such a floating mine was a danger of the gravest description to ships in Dainy, 
Captain Stepanofl" at once took steps to sink it. He opened fire on it with his hght guns and discharged 
several rounds at it. While he was thus engaged, one of two things happened — either another mine broke 
away and floated near to the ship, or the ship in firing at the loose mine steamed over the mine-field which 
she had just laid. A man on the look-out shouted that the vessel was close to a mine, and, foreseeing the 

inevitable catastrophe, leapt overboard. 
There was no time for the captain to alter 
his course ; a second later the Yencsci 
struck the mine, when a fearful explosion 
followed. The transport was torn open, 
and probably her magazines took fire, as 
some of the survivors spoke of a series of 
explosions. 

Most of those in the stokehold and 
engine-rooms perished by one of the most 
fearful ends conceivable. We can picture 
the scene below : the 
vessel moving slowly 
ahead ; then suddenly the engine-room 
telegraphs indicating full-speed astern, to 
escape the mine ; and, without any other 
warning after that, the inrush of smoke 
and fire and fragments of steel ; the 
heavy trembling of the ship as her very 
structure dissolved ; the instant bursting 
of the boilers as the result of the water 
pouring into the boiler-rooms ; the des- 
perate rush of the wounded stokers and 
engineers for the hatchways : and then, 
sweeping down on the tumult, the 
inpouring sea ending the battle for life. 

Of the officers on the bridge. Ensign 
Drijenko was killed by the explosion, 
which was terribly violent. A midship- 
man was mortally wounded. A third 
officer. Ensign Khrouschtchev, was by 
their side, but was not touched. It was 
seen at once that the ship's side had been 
torn open and that she was doomed to 
sink, and then the terrible fact dawned 
upon those on board that her boat 
accommodation was quite inadequate. 
Apparently, in clearing for action during 
the Japanese attack on Port Arthur, she had landed sorr.e of her boats, and had not again taken them 
on board when she started on this mission. 

The crew behaved witli the utmost gallantry. In conformity with the rules of ever}' great navy, 

A Gallant Crew Captain Stepanoff insisted upon remaining till the last, and gave instructions that the 

married men were to embark first. The boats after placing them ashore were to return 

for the rest of the crew. Before they could get back, however, the vessel disappeared in the icy depths. 




WATER UNOEK 5H)P. 



A.S ,\MMU.MT10N HOIST. 

On the modern battleship one of the most ingenious cf the contrivances is the ammunition 

lioBt which bnngs up the shells from the magazine to the guns. The hollow masts are 

utilised for the purpose of hoisu for the fighting-tops. 



Feb. 12. 1904. 



WRECK OF THE " BOYARIN." 



235 




RUSSIA'S DISABLED FLEET. 
This sketch shows at a glance the Russian vessels lost or damaged between February 8 and I2. 

Khrouschtchev, who had remained with .Stepanoff, when he saw that there was no hope, destroyed all the 

secret plans and papers, and then attempted with a few others to swim asnore. But the cold was so intense 

that, though he and one other 

man gained the coast, they died 

soon afterwards from exposure. 

The boats, when they returned 

to the place where the ship had 

sunk, saw nothins^ but a great 

swirl in the water. 

Immediately after the 
disaster, on the morning of 
February 12, the small cruiser 

B oy ar i n 

was sent 

from Port 
Arthur to examine the mine- 
field, as it was reported from 
Dalny that many of the mines 
ucr" breaking loose. That day 
the weather was extremely 
rough and the sea ran high. 
On reaching the harbour oi 
Dalny, the Boyarin's crew found 
that it was filled with loose 
mines, so that the danger of 
approachir.g it was immense. 
The Boyprin, however, was on 
the point of entering, for the 
purpose of securing or destroy- 
ing the loose mines, when 
several drifted towards her. 



Wreek of the 
"Boyarln."' 




THE ONLY MARRIED MAN AT SUNAN. 



I Photo R. L. Dunn 



He is fourteen years of age ; too young to be forced to work. He clings to Japanese soldiers for food. 
His wife is twenty-five years of :»,4e, and lias left him. 



236 



JAPAN'S FlGHl FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 12, 1904. 




A Terrible 
Week's Work. 



PORT ARTHUR : ALARM Of A JAl'ANKSK .VITACK. 

In her efforts to avoid them she ran upon the rocky coast, and could not be got afloat again. 
The wind steadily freshened to a violent gale, and she became a complete wreck, and had to be abandoned by 
her crew, being the second Russian vessel to be destroyed, directly or indirectly, through a mine. Her 
loss was a serious matter for Admiral Alexeieff. She displaced 3,200 tons, and on her trials had done 23 ^^ 
knots ; she carried a crew of 334, and an armament of six 47-in. guns, with five torpedo tubes. The other 
ship lost at Dalny, the Yenesei, was of 2,500 tons and 17 knots, with only a few light guns. 

Thus, between the 8th and the 12th of February, in less than a week, the Fort Arthur fleet had lost 
altc^cther, or had temporarily disabled, the battleships Tzarevitch, Retvisan, and Poltava ; the cruisers 

, Va}-iag, Ask old, Pa/lada, Diana, 
Novik, and 
Boyarin ; 
the %VA\- 
hodit Koriets ; and the mining- 
ship Yenesei, by a succession 
of disasters unparalleled in the 
history of any navy, and, for 
the most part due to grave 
mismanagement or incapacity ; 
and these losses had been 
suffered without the infliction 
of crippling injury upon a 
single Japanese ship. Without 
heavy reinforcements from 

(MkIc and photographed by Armslrong, Whitworlh & Co. Flirnnp the nlicrVif nf tllf 

6-INCH GUN, USED ON ALL THE JAPANESE BATTLESHIPS. r.urope, UlC pu^ni OI Uie 

Showing breech open, and shield. Russian Meet in the I-'ar East 




Feb. II, 1904. 



RUSSIAN FLEET AT VLADIV03T0CK. 



237 




OFF TO THF; front : RUSSIAN SOLDIERS' FAREWELLS AT THE RAILWAY. [Drawn by (Jeoraes Scott. 



had become desperate, and it was thenceforward 
unable to exercise any serious influence on the 
war, other than to prevent a Japanese movement 
towards Newchwang, which would have brought 
the Japanese transports past Port Arthur, within 
striking range of the Russian torpedo flotilla — a 
risk not lightly to be run. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE SORTIE OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK 

SQUADRON, AND THE SECOND 
TORPEDO ATTACK ON PORT ARTHUR 

IMMEDIATELY after the first Japanese 



torpedo attack upon the Port Arthur fleet, 
the Russian cruisers at Vladivostock received 
orders to put to sea. These ships w^ere four 
in number, under the com- 
mand of Commodore 
Reitzenstein, consisting of the 
•great armoured cruiser Groinovoi, the belted 
cruisers Rossia and Rnrik, and the protected 
crui-ser Bogatyr. They carried a very large 



The Vladivostock 
Ships. 




BISHOP NICOLAI, HEAD OF THE RUSSIAN GREEK CHURCH 

IN JAPAN, AND HIS JAPANESE INTERPRETER, 

The Bishop is the only Russian now in Japan. 



238 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb 9, 1904. 




supply of coal in their 
bunkers, and had shipped 
an additional cargo on 
their decks, so as to be 
able to proceed as great 
a distance as possible 
without re-coaling. What 
orders were issued to 
them remains to this hour 
uncertain, but it is prob- 
able that they were in- 
structed merely to make 
a demonstration against 
the Japanese seaboard, to 
harry Japanese commerce, 
and, in particular, to 
bombard Hakodate. 

To escape from the 
Japan Sea, in which they 
were confined as in a huge 
cage was practically im- 
possible. The La Perouse 
.Straits to the north were 
still frozen hard ; the 
Tsugaru Straits between 
the Japanese islands of 
Nippon and Yezo were 
known to have been care- 
fully mined, so that their 
passage would have been a 
most perilous undertaking ; 
while to steam south by 



Rf.SSIAN ST.\KK OFFICKK I'M : \ \ ~l lll'klAN K.\li.\VA\ 

TO KKCKIVK KKHOKTS. 

TbcM bic>*dcs are u»e<l by the gcntlarmcric of the Russian railways on lours of inspection. 

the Korea Straits, now that the Japanese Navy commanded the 
.sea, would have brought almost inevitable defeat and disaster. 
Moreover, if the Russians moved in that direction, they must 
cither repair to Port Arthur or to .some neutral port, supposing thej- 
.succeeded in passing the straits and eluding the keen vigilance of 
Admiral Togo. But at Port Arthur there was no room for them, 
and if they had put in to any neutral harbour, they must have been 
detained there till the clo.se of the war. 

The prospects of the squadron were thus not bright, nor could 
it hope to exercise any substantial influence on the course of 
events. We have already noticed the fact that its detachment was 
a blunder of the first magnitude committed by Admiral Alexeiefif. 




A RUSSIAN INFANTRY SOLDIER. 



Feb. 11. 1904. 



VLADIVOSTOCK CRUISERS AT SEA. 



239 



AlexM-fTs 
Blunder. 



On February 9, the boom of three guns 
announced to the inhabitants of the Russian 

port the opening of 

the war, and at the 

same time served as 
the signal for the mobilisation of the 
army corps of the Amur, which had its 
neadquarters at Vladivostock. That same 
day the Russian cruisers put to sea, passing 
out of the harbour by the channel which 
had been cleared by the ice-breakers of 
the port. They shaped their course for 
the Tsugaru Straits, distant 420 nautical 
miles from Vladivostock, and then, from 
the western entrance to these straits, 
turned somewhat to the south. The 
weather was thick and foggy, with a 
violent gale blowing from the south-east, 
before which icy waves raced over the surface of the gloomy sea. When off Cape Henashi, at the south- 
western entrance to the straits, at 11.30 a.m. of F"ebruary 11, they suddenly sighted through the fog a 
little ship painfully steaming north at a speed of about six knots. 




THK K.\1LWAV 



(N. P. Edwarii.> photo. 
STATION AT HARlilN, THE RUSSIAN HEADQUARTERS 
IN MANCHURIA. 




now RUSSIAN SOLDIERS TRAVEL TO THE FRONT ON THE SIBERIAN RAILWAY. 

They travel in wh.at may be called horseboxes, only four per cent, of which contain stoves. Each truck has forty men. The shelves will sleep ten men, 

while the rest He on the floor. 



240 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 11. 1904. 




Attack on 
Japanese Steamers. 



This vessel was the small 
Japanese coasting steamer of 
1,084 tons, Nakanoura Maru, 
built in 1865, 
and on a 
voj'age north 
from Sakata to Otaru. She 
carried a cargo of 10,000 bales of 
rice, with a quantity of rope, and 
had on board a crew of 39 officers 
and men, and four passengers. 
She was close upon the Russian 
ships before she could discover 
their identity, and escape was ot 
course out of the question, owing 
to her very low speed. Almost 
E.*ST GATE OF THE sACRKu ciTv u[ Ml Kii N, 1 HE RUSSIAN heaimj ; i<s. ^j. jj^^g same moment another 

and yet smaller Japanese vessel hove into view, the Zensho MarU, of 310 tons, engaged in the 
coasting trade between the two large Japanese islands. The Zensho Maru, however, fortunately for 
herself, was nearer to the coast, and a little faster, so that she was able to make a run for freedom, and, 
though she was fired at, she succeeded in making her escape, and bringing news of the fate of the 
Nakanoura Maru. 

The Russians at once signalled to the NAKANOURA : " Follow us, and all will be well ! " emphasising 
their order with a blank shot from the Gromovoi. The great Russian cruiser then steamed in closer, and 
gave a second order : " Abandon your ship at once ! " and next, as the NAKANOURA 
did not show any intention of complying with this command, a third injunction: 
" Leave your ship within fifteen minutes ! " On this the Nakanoura's captain, 
supposing that it was the intention of the Russians to turn him adrift in a small boat in heavy weather 
replied with the request that the Russians would take him and his men on board. He ordered his crew to 
take to the boats. Passengers and men, when first the Russians appeared, had fallen in on deck ready for 
whatever might happen. The ^ww^^zw replied to- this appeal with the signal: "We are going to rescue 
you." 

The signal mu.st have been meant ironically, for the moment it had been hoisted the four big Russian 
cruisers steamed round and round the Nakanoura, firing at her water-line. Their 
shells caused two casualties as the boats were being lowered ; two seamen were hit, fell 
into the .sea, and were drowned. It was a quite needless piece of brutality, as the 
Russians had the vessel completely at their mercy. The other occuj^ants of the boats had the narrowest 



A Bad 
Incident 



Sinking the 
"Nakanoura." 




\1],WAV hlAIlON OCT.'^ll.il. .vlLKDh-N, GENhRAI. KLK< >I'A I KJ N'S HEA1 KJUAR lEKS 



Feb. 11. 1904. 



FATE OF THE " NAKANOURA." 



24 1; 




\\ TRANSPORT IN MANCHURIA. 



[Drau-ii by Georj^cs Scott, from a photo. 



Crew. 



of escapes. The boats made for the shore, as the Japanese imagined that the Russian intention was to kill] 
them, but the cruisers steamed after them, fired at them, and compelled them to return. Finally, in despair, 
they rowed to the Gromovoi. on board which vessel they were taken, the captain and crew being placed in 
confinement in one cabin, and the passengers in another. The Nak.\NOUI<A went down slowly, stern 

foremost, under a hail of Russian shells. 

The Nakanoura's men were treated with great and unnecessary 

severity. They were first searched and relieved of all their valuables 

y' the Russian seamen. For food they were 

lowed nothing but black bread and tea. The 

lussian ships headed towards the entrance of the Tsugaru Straits,. 

intending, as would appear, to bombard 
the strongly fortified port of Hakodate, 
but then, thinking better of such an 
enterprise, and meeting a terrific snow- 
storm, in the face of which they could 
scarcely make any progress, turned away 
to the west-south-west. They were 
sighted off Kashiwazaki, in the south of 
Nippon, but theZENSHO Maru had given 
the alarm, and no more Japanese ships 
were to be seen at sea. From this 
point they turned north-westwards and 
(Topical Press. stood acfoss to the harbour of Port 

IN .M.\NCHURIA, NOW IN THE OCCUPATION ^, ,/•,-• t- . ir 

OF RUSSIAN TROOPS. Chestakoft, m Eastern Korea, again. 




A CHINESK TE.MPLE 



242 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. II, 1904. 




W, l:. Wolk-n. 



RUSSIAN TKOOI'S EN ROUTE TO VI ADlVOo iuClv. 



without encountering any Japanese 
vessels, and thence returned to Vladi- 
vostock on the 14th. 

Their raid had no effect whatever upon 
the course of the war, and inflicted only 
the most insignificant damage upon the 
Japanese. On reaching the Russian base, 
the prisoners were landed and locked in a 
filthy room, but otherwise they were kindly 
treated, and the Russian Government 
paid their passage home in a neutral 
vessel which happened to be lying in 
Vladivostock harbour. The Russian 
ships suffered some small damage at sea 
in the heavy weather. The only result of 
these operations was that the Japanese 
took greater care in sending their small 
merchantmen to sea, and moved certain 
of their older warships, which could best 
be spared, round to the West Coast of 
Japan. But as yet they made no attempt 
to settle with the Vladivostock ships, 
wisely concentrating all their efforts upon 
their task at Port Arthur. 

The Russians at Port Arthur appear to 
have remained in a very demoralised state 
for some days after 
the battle of the 9th. 
Neutral ships, which 
anchored in the harbour with cargoes of 



Danger to 
Neutral Snips. 



coal, were fired upon by the Russian batteries on the 
nth, in much the same manner as was the Fuping. 
The firing produced the general impression that another 
Japanese attack was in progress, and a Russian battle- 
ship lying in the roads was struck by projectiles from 
the forts, and had a narrow escape from severe injury. 
The German ship Pronto was hit by four shells close 
to the water-line, and had more shots through her boats, 
ventilators and skylights, while her mainmast-top was \ 
carried away. The Chingping, another German vessel, 
was hit about ten times, shells from the forts dropping 
all round her, so that her crew supposed she was being 
made the target of the Japanese ; and then she had as 
narrow an escape from the mines at Dalny, whither she 
was sent by the Russians, on the day following the 
Yenesei catastrophe. That harbour was almost inac- 
cessible, owing to the drifting mines, but the Russians, 
with a touch of grim humour, utilised it for neutrals, who 
were allowed to take Its dreadful risks. 




lAdclphi Press Agency. 
AN OLD WATCH TOWER .-^T TOKIO, IN WHICH A 
MAN USED TO BE STATIONED DAY AND NIGHT. 



Feb. 13, 1934. 



SECOND TORPEDO ATTACK. 



243 



A Second 
TorpjUo Attack. 



Meantime, Admiral Tof^o nad determined to stir up the Russians once more by a fresh torpedo attack. 
The destroyers selected for the duty were the Fourth and Fifth Divisions, composed — the Fourth Division of 
the Shinonome, Yugiri, Shiranui, and Kagero, and the Fifth of the Hayatori, 
MURASAME, ASAGIRI, and Harusame. These two divisions had not been under fire in 
the first attack on Port Arthur, but had been engaged that night in searching Dalny 
Harbour. Having issued his orders to the boats, which were to attack on the nigiit of February 13-14, 
Admiral Togo proceeded to Mokpo with the bulk of his fleet, leaving only the fast cruiser squadron to 
support the attack, as there was very small probability of the Russians venturing to put to sea after the 
severe punishment they had received. 

The eight boats were under the orders of Captain Nagai, a veteran of the heroic attacks delivered by 




THE VLADIVOSTOCK FLEET PASSING OUT OF THE CHANNEL WHICH HAD BEEN CLEARED BY THE ICEBREAKERS 

OF THE PORT. 

the Japanese torpedo boats upon the Chinese battleships at Wei-hai-wei. Unfortunately, on the 13th the 

weather, which had been continuously bad in the Yellow Sea and Gulf of Korea from the 

BHzz^'^d ^ ^^'^y beginning of the war, became worse than ever. The cold was intense ; the sea ran 

mountains high, and a furious snow blizzard raged. This was the same gale as helped 

to complete the wjeck of the Boyarin, so that it worked good as well as harm for the Japanese. 

Leaving their rendezvous in the dusk of the evening of the 13th, the eight boats speedily lost touch of 
one another. The screened stern-lights were hard to see through the storm, and when once lost to view, 
there was little or no chance of re-discovering them. The obscurity was such that it was impossible to see 
more than a few feet ahead. Swept from stem to stern at each moment by the waves, now lost in the 
trough of the sea, now riding on the crest, with racing screws emerging from the foam, the eight boats sped 
on tneir way. Their task on this occasion, however, was far harcier than it had been on the night of the 



244 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 13. 1904. 




THE SINKING OK THK JAI-ANKSK MEKCHANTMAN " NAKANOURA iMARU " BY THp; RUSSIAN CRUISERS. 
Four cruisers of tbc Vladtvoslock Fleet attacked two little merchantmen. The smaller one escaped ; but the *' Nakanoura Maru " was sunk. 

8th. The Russians, warned by calamity, had taken the precaution of extinguishing all lights at Port 
Arthur at dusk, so that even on a fairly clear night it was not easy for small craft to make the harbour. 
With a tremendous gale and snowstorm ragfing even the finest seamen might be found at fault. Four of 
the boats in the two divisions missed the coast altogether, or found them.selves at a considerable distance 
from Port Arthur. Two others, one of them the Kagkko, suddenly heard ahead, through the blackness of 
the night, the heavy booming of the breakers on the iron-bound coast as they were tearing through the sea. 
The instant reversal of their engines .saved them from a terrible catastrophe, at the risk of severe strains ta 
their machinery and hull. They found it impossible to execute their mission, not knowing where they 
were, and had, perforce, to return to 
the rendezvous. IP 

Of the eight boats, only two 

reached the harbour, and these two 

made two 

'^'"J^ct''" different and 
distinct attacks, 
separated by a considerable interval 
of time. The ASAGIRI stood for- 
ward into the very entrance of the 
harbour in the impenetrable gloom. 
Before her, above her, frowned the 
precipices fringed with batteries ; the 
air was thick with clouds of snow. 
"A premature explosion, the in- 
cautious exposure of a lamp, would 
spoil all and bring death nearer 
than glory. In she crept, silently, 




THE AkMOUKKl) CKUISKR 
Launched 1893 ; i9'5 knots. 



KUKIK," 1(1, '150 TONS. 
It has a crew of 7^ 




THE "ASAGIRI' 



.STOOD INTO THE VERY ENTRAN'CE OF THE HARBOUR IN THE IMPENETRABLE GLOOM. 
Alx>ve her frowned the precipices, fringed with batteries. The air was thick with clouds of snow. 



246 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 14, 1904. 




JAl'ANESli XOKI'l-DO-liOAT Uh>lKO\EK •• bUl^o.^'OME," 
Buat'by■Thome)•c^)ft,'-Chiswiok,-wluch■ tookpart in the first attack on Port Arthur. 



gropingly, until the 
half- frozen look-out 
man descried the black 
masses that must be 
the enemy. Quiet 
orders. Stealthy pre- 
parations. A vivid 
crack in the Cimmerian 
darkness, a breathless 
pause, and then, where 
the shadow was, a 
flaming, e.xaggerated 
obelisk of fire and 
smoke, and a din to 

! 

make a boiler-factory 
ashamed of itself" 

The ASAGIRI, under 
a heavy fire from the 

Russian guns, launched a torpedo at the dim form of a Russian ship, and saw the torpedo, as her men 
thought, explode; then tore away through the night; as she fled, exchanging fire with a Russian launch 
which appeared at the harbour mouth as soon as the alarm was given, and 
sinking it According to Japanese accounts, a number of Russian destroyers 
at the narbour entrance, amidst the confusion of the attack, with searchlights 
playing in all directions and guns firing wildly out into the night, opened fire 
upon one another %nd did themselves considerable harm. In view of the wild 
manner in which the guns of the forts fired at neutral ships on the nth, 
the statement is not at all improbable. The As.\GlRl's attack was delivered at 
three in the" napj^ing of the 14th, after which her captain. Commander Isakavva, 
steamed away to the rendezvous. 

The Hav.^TORI, Commander Takanouchi, was the other Japanese destroyer 
to reach Port*A*rthur. She arrived upon the scene two hours after the retreat of the ASAGIRI, having seen 
nothing of her jor of the other Japanese boats, and was, in consequence, ignorant of the fact that one 
attack had'aiready been delivered. She steamed in, greeted by a heavy fire as soon as she drew near to 

the fortress ; but, passing unscathed 

through a stornl of projectiles, which 

probably were not 

aimed at her, since 

she does not seem 

even to have been seen by the Russians,' 

she neared a point at the harbour 

entrance, where a cruiser was lying. 

At this cruieer she fired one torpedo, 

and observed, beyond possibility of 

doubt, that the torpedo had e-xploded. 

Then she also fled and left the Russians 

busy at their guns, cannonading the 

emptiness of night. 

What Russian vessels were injured 
on this occasion, remains uncertain. It 
is possible that the torpedoes exploded 




THE INVENTOR OK THE 

SHIMOSE GUNPOWDER : 

DR. SHIMOSE. 




The " Hayatori's " 
Exploit. 



COMMANUfcK Of THE " BAY AN." 
CAFTAIN VIKEN 




LIEUTENANT TADEO HIROSE. 



Feb. 14. 1904. 



THE TORPEDO ATTACK. 



247 



against the rocks in the harbour entrance and so did not really hit the target. The night was so 
•dark and the storm so violent, that at 500 yards, the range to which the two Japanese destroyers closed, 
accurate observation was difficult. But the Japanese officers were absolutely convinced 
that they had done some damage, and it may be that they were right, and that the\' 
sank one of the smaller Russian gunboats. At the time the Bayan was mentioned as the ship which had 
been put out of action, but as she was seen at sea only a few days later, this was clearly impossible. The 



Doubtful Results. 











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■""i 












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i^Msm 


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ji^^^^BMI 



TOkH-.LlU-liUATS MAKING tUK P(Jki ARTHUR, tEBRUAKY 1^. 
They were swept from stem to stern at each moment by waves. A tremendous gale and snowstorm were raging. 

Boyarin was afterwards claimed, but in her case there is good evidence to sh6w:„tbat she had been previously 
wrecked at Dalny. The Russians denied absolutely that any of their vessels had been touched, ydt, as they 
asserted that there had not been any torpedo attack and in the same breath claimed to have sunk a 
Japanese torpedo-boat, the wreck of which was afterwards found in the harbour, the denial was not 
con\incing. It is even likely that the supposed Japanese torpedo-boat was really the Russian launch sunk 
by the Asagiri. The Ja^nes© cruisers appeared off the harbour after the dawn of^Hay, and discharged a 
few shells at the Russian ships inside.'one of which struck the Volunteer cruiser Kazan, lying in the harbour, 
causing a fire on board her, which-, however, was extinguished without any great difficulty. 

The second torpedo attack was«therefore unsatisfactory, in that no important Russian ship was disabled ; 
but this was mainly due to the fact that the Russian Fleet was inside the harbour, so that 
there was nothing for the boats to hit. But, as a test of endurance and seamanship, 
tlVe second attack .made even severer demands upon the heroism of the destroyer crews than the first, and 
the officers and men of the ASAGIRI and Hayatori deserve the warmest praise for their energy and 



K Brilliant Feat. 



248 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb 14, 1904. 




■5 THE CZAR RECEIVING THE SURVIVORS OF CHEMULPO OUTSIDE THE WINTER PALACE, ST. PETERSBURG. 

persistence. It was a brilliant feat to have navigated these two boats to Port Arthur, and to have brought 
them away without misadventure, when the decks and rails were covered with a coating of ice, and when the 
salt sea froze as it splashed upon their upper works, rendering the handling of the torpedoes and torpeda 
tubes a matter of the utmost difficulty. Officers and men were in constant peril of being frozen to death,. 
while the knocking about of the boats in the heavy sea prevented them from obtaining proper rest or cooked 
meals. The destroyers returned to their base, and were given a rest before being again employed in action. 

# ■ ■ 

CHAPTER Xlll. 

THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO BLOCK PORT ARTHUR HARBOUR. 

As the entire Russian Fleet was now inside the harbour, showing no intention as yet of coming out,. 
Admiral Togo determined to put into practice a new stratagem for its discomfiture. The entrance to the 

-i- 




k..:^Lx 



A JAPANESE rOKE: ADMJ-'AL .ALEXEIEFF INSPECTS THE SUNKEN WARSHIPS, AND REPORTS "SLIGHT DAMAGK. 



Feb. 24. 1904. 



BLOCKING PORT ARTHUR. 



249 




[Adelphi Press. 

THE GRAND DUCHESS OLGA 

OF RUSSIA, WHO HAS GONE 

TO THE FRONT TO NURSE 

THK WOUNDED. 

for the work by filling 
them with cement and old 
iron rails. A number of 
small charges of explosive 
\yere placed in the bottom 
of the hulls, so that when 
fired the water would be 
instantly admitted and the 
ships would sink. 

The vessels selected for 
this attempt were the 
Tenshin Maru, of 
2,943 tons ; JinsenMaru, 
of 2,332 tons; HOKOKU 

Maru, of 
Splendid ^ „„^ ^ 
Volunteers. ^^776 tons; 
B U S H u 
Maru, of 1,245 tons ; 
and BUYO Maru, of 
1,163 tons. They were 
all old iron vessels of eight 
to ten knots speed, and on 
board each was placed an 
executive officer, an en- 
gineer, and ten to fifteen 
stokers and seamen. When 
volunteers for this purpose 
were called for from the 
Meet by Admiral Togo 
nearly the whole personnel 
of his squadron applied for 



Togo's Stratagem. 



harbour was so exceedingly narrow that if the Ja-panese could sink' one 
or two ships right in the channel, they would block it until the wrecks 
of the ships could be removed, and such removal must obviously be a 
matter of time and trouble, diverting the Ru.ssians 
from the repair of their damaged vessels. A'similki 
attempt had been made by Admiral Sampson in the Spanish-Americaii 
War, under similar conditions, to close the entrance to Santiago harbour', 
and thus shut in the Spanish Fleet. In that instance the plan failed, 
mainly because the ship sunk was not properly equipped and prepared. 
In yet earlier days the United States Nav^';"during the American Civil 
War had attempted to close one of the Southern harbours by sinking 
fourteen schooners laden with stone in the channel, while in the 
Napoleonic war the British Government meditated executing a similar 
design against Brest. The Japanese determined to make their attempt 
on a considerable scale, and selecting five small steamers, prepared them 




1'hotoi;r.\i>him; the wounuku (j.n riii. -a.saii!." 

The man WTapped in a mat was so placed that he might be photographed. 



250 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 24, 1904. 




ONE OK THE JAPANESE ROYAL PRINCES SHARING THE SAILORS' MEAL ON BOARD A WAKmh 

the honour, many of the office.s and men, after the old Samurai fashion, writing their applications in their 
own blood. The crews selected were the very pick of the Fleet, among the officers being Lieutenant 
Hirose, of the ASAHI, by common consent among all who had met him, whether Japanese or foreigners, a 
man marked out by his accomplishments and his magnificent courage for the highest command. He had 
been naval attache to the Japanese Legation in Russia, where he had made many friends, and acquired 

a deep admiration and 
respect for the Russian 
character. In the war he 
had already rendered 
Admiral Togo the greatest 
service by working out 
the Russian cypher an 
interpreting the Russian 
signals. Not less brave 
or able was Commander 
Arima, who was given 
charge of the expedition- 
The upper decks of the 
Japanese ships were laden 
with coal drenched in 
petroleum, perhaps with 
the object of destroying 
the Retvisan, which still 
■N- lORi'EDO-BOAT NO. 100. lay 'i^rd and fast at the 




252 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 24. 1904. 



harbour mouth, after they had been placed in the 
channel, and sunk till only the upper portion of 
their hulls stood above the water. 

Accompanying the steamers were five torpedo- 
boats, charged with the duty of rescuing the officers 
and men on board the explosion-vessels when 

these had done their work. 
The Explosion j^^ ^^^^^^^ ^f ^^^^ ^.^^^ 
Snips. 

four destroyers, to make- 
certain that the roads outside the harbour entrance 
were clear of Russian ships. The orders to the 
explosion-ships were to creep along the coast 
from the southwards, after first making the 
Laotishan promontory, from this point keeping 
within the heavy shadow of the cliffs. It was 
afterwards thought that the better course would 
have been to make a bold dash for the harbour 
mouth, steaming in from the open sea. The night 
of February 23-24 was chosen for the attempt; 
the vessels were to wait till the moon had set, 
and then make their rush. To mislead the 
Russians and induce them to co-operate in the 
sinking of the vessels, the e.xplosion-ships were 
disguised to represent battleships by rigging extra 
canvas funnels and fitting sham tops to the masts. 
The Fleet steamed to Fort Arthur from the 
secret rendezvous in the islands to the east of the 
Russian fortress, and, as night came on, was off 
the harbour, w:ith no lights showing. The 

destroyers carried out a reconnaissance and reported the roads clear of shipping. They are said to have 

fired a torpedo at a Russian ship, but of this there is no authentic evidence. About 2.30 a.m. of the 24th 
the Russian sentries, looking out to sea, perceived a 
black mass upon the horizon. The alarm was given ; 

shots were fired ; and the searchlights swept the surface of the water with 

their beams. They picked up this black mass, as it came on slowly, in 

absolute silence and darkness. In the glare of the projector-beams it 

was resolved into five ships, steaming straight towards the Reivisan and 

the mouth of the harbour. Forthwith the whole of the forts and the 

batteries opened a tremendous fire — 12-in. and 6-in. guns and the smaller 

quick-firers pouring in their projectiles with the utmost rapidity — upon the 

silent targets, which were taken in the blaze of the .searchlights for battle- 
ships attempting to force a way into Port Arthur, and to ram the Reivisan. 

The Retvisan was specially active with her battery, which could play full 

on the approaching craft. The air was alive with shells ; an infernal 

uproar disturbed the calm of night. 

Through the rain of shells, which at first went wide of the mark, 

with the most magnificent courage and persistence the Japanese took 

their old steamers in. They carried their lives in their hands ; few, if any, 

of the officers and men looked to escape ; they regarded themselves as 

men already lost to the world. The Tensuin Maru led the way, and 




■ HOUSONS •' WUO 



IKIEU TO 
FEBRUARY 



These officers, from left to right, are : Lieutenant Saito, who commanded the 

hulk." Jinsen Maru" (2,331 tons and twenty-seven years old); and Lieutenant 

MaAaki, -who commanded the " Buyo ilaru " (1,163 tons). 



Discovered ! 




A LILUTENANT WHO WAS K11.1.KU. 
Lieutenant Miura (born 1878), who s.a.i killod 
in ihc first battle of Port Arlbiir, %w.s of 
Samurai rank, and graduated in IJccL-iiibcr, 
J903. He was a great favoiuite with his 
messmates. 



Feb. 24, 1904. 



SINKING THE JAPANESE SHIPS. 



253 




THE 



ATTEMPT TO BLOCK. THE HARBOUR MOUTH OF 
Destruction of the Japanese fireships. 



PORT ARTHUR. 



was the first to be disabled. When a long distance from the entrance either she was struck by a Russian 

shell, or the officer in charge of the wheel was dazzled by the glare of the searchlights, 

Disabled^^ playing right upon his face and blinding him, as she ran ashore on the rocks, and 

blew up. Seeing that she had completely missed the entrance, the other four vessels 

altered course, so as to steer rather to the north-east, but almost as soon as they changed their direction. 






JAPANESE "HOBSONS" WHO TRIED TO BLOCK PORT ARTHUR WITH FIVE HULKS, FEBRUARY 24. 



Captain V. Arima, was in charge of the 

" Tenshin Maru " (2,943 tons and seventeen 

years old). He is the chief of the " Resolvel- 

to-die " party. 



Engineer Kurita drove the " Hokolcu Maru" 

(2,^ tons and thirty-four ytars old) ashore 

at Port Arthur, ana escaped safely to the 

torpedo flotilla. 



2nd.-Lieutenant-Engineer Oishi (son of a late 

Minister of Commerce), was on board the 

hulk " Buyo Maru" (1,163 tons), and 

escaped. 

11 * 



254 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 24, 1904. 




CUMMAMJKk VAMANAkA. 

One of the seventy-seven officers and men 

(including sixty-one engineers) who vohniteered 

for the dangerous task of sinking the hulks at 

Port Arthur on February 24. 



the BUSHU Maru was hit in her steering-gear, and, becoming unmanage- 
able, ran aground not far from the Tenshin Maru, when her crew set her 

on fire and took to their boats. Some of them were picl<ed up by the 

torpedo craft which had been told off to effect the rescue ; others missed 

the torpedo flotilla and made for Chifu. The third ship, BUYO Maru, 

was struck by shells on the water-line, and began to leak. While she 

was still more than a mile from the entrance, her crew." felt the vessel 

foundering beneath them, and were compelled to take to their boats, but 

not before they had lighted the fuses to complete her destruction. 

Of the five ships which had steamed in to make the attempt, three 

were already gone long before the entrance had been reached. Two 

only were now left — the HOKOKU Maru and the 

" Jlnsen Maru ■' JlJ^SEX Maru. Upon these two vessels, which came 

on resolutely, a perfect tempest of projectiles was 

concentrated bv the Russians, while, far out at sea, with deep anxiety the 

men of the Japanese cruiser squadron watched the flash of guns and 

the sweep of searchlights across the sky, and heard the terrific roar of 

the cannonade. A thousand yards from the entrance the searchlights 

showed up the hull of the JiNSEN so plainly that shell after shell struck 

her ; the big Russian projectiles swept her deck and pierced her hull, yet it is a strange fact that not a man on 

board her was touched up to. this point. She began to sink from water-line injuries; six hundred yards 

from the entrance she foundered, just giving her officers and men time to take to their boats, with a 

resonant cheer, which was heard above even the 
fury of the firing, as they lighted the fuses which 
exploded the charges in her hull. 

Now only the HoKOKU was left. Through the 
hail of shrieking projectiles, \\ith the blaze of the 
searchlights ever in his eyes, 
Hirose, who commanded her, 
forced the ship towards the 
flashing hull of the Retvisan, alongside which he 
was to sink the infirm old steamer. The battle was 
now at its height ; every gun in the Russian 
J>atteries ashore or on board the Russian vessels 
near the entrance was firing at its fastest at the 
HoKOKU, but with the tenacity and heroism which 
marked the Japanese character her crew never 
flinched. They reached the Retvisan ; her great 
guns vomited fire and smoke upon the explosion- 
ship only a few feet away ; the air was shaken with 
the blast of heavy weapons, so that parts of the 
rigging of the HOKOKU were blown away by the 
concussion. Yet some Providence seemed to shield 
the small band of heroes working her. Not ena as 
yet was seriously touched ; this tornado of steel 
and iron rove the air in vain ; the task seemed 
all but accomplished ; and the order was given to 
the engineers and stokers, working calmly in the 
depths of the ship, to come on deck and stand 

FIVE OF THE JAPANESE " RESOLVED-TO-DIE " PARTY. 

Th«« officers .wi men Wong to ihc " .\wina." ready to take to the boats. Hirose headed from 




The 



' Hokoku's ' 
Fate. 



Feb. 24, 1904. 



A DARING CREW. 



255 




TROPHIES TAKEN FROM THE RUSSIAN 

WARSHIPS " VARIAG " AND " KORIETZ " 

AT CHEMULPO, NOW ON VIEW AT THE 

MUSEUM OF ARMS, TOKIO. 

shore there. The order was given 
to the crew to take to their boats, but 
of the boats in the last few seconds 
all but one had been shot away, and 
the one that remained began to fill 
with water when lowered. Yet into 
it with absolute calm and discipline 
the fourteen men who formed the 
crew dropped one by one, after lower- 
ing four wounded. Bailing and 
rowing in turn, they steer.ed from the 
mouth of the harbour, leaving behind 
them their ship aflame from stem to 
stern, the blaze of the searchlights 
and the heavy concussion of the guns, 
which still continued firing. They 
fled along the coast of Laotishan, in 
the pitch darkness, with a stormy sea 
rising upon them and threatening 
their lives at each instant, and felt in 
the (Cimmerian darkness for the 
torpedo-boats which had been charged 
with the mission of achieving their 
rescue. 

The fierceness of the fire had driven 
most of the torpedo-boats back, as 
the Russians picked them up with 
the searchlights and turned upon 
them many of their lighter guns. 
Only one boat remained, burning 
flares, and after two hours of in- 
credible suffering in the bitter cold 
and tempestuous sea, Hirose and his 



the Retvisan eastwards, and ordered the 
helm to be ported to bring the HOKOKU 
right across the channel and seal the 
entrance to the port. 

But at this instant fortune, so far 
friendly, turned against the Japanese. 
.As the order was 
given, the wheel- 
ropes and rudder were shot away, and 
the ship was left helpless. Unable to 
control her movements, the Japanese saw 
her head swing round towards the 
Pinnacle rock, and an instant later she 
ran with a loud crash violently on the 



A Daring Crew. 



[Aticlplii Press Agern:>, 




[Drawn by C. J. de Lacy. 

HOW A SUNKEN SHIP IS A MENACE TO TRAFFIC. 

This picture gives an idea of how the hulks sunk by the Japanese at Port .\rthur would inipede 

traffic. Much of tlie water about Port Arthur is very shallow. .\ steamer of the size of the 

hulks recently sunk by the Japanese would be from thirty feet to fifty feet from deck to keel 



256 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 24, 1904. 




Tehlran ^"^ 

y f B S I A 



VOMoJ Statu 



Geafye Philip 
liKOWTH OK THE RUSSIAN EMPIRK IN WESTERN ASIA. 



i. Son LV 



The Result. 



men were picked u]) by her and 
made their report. 

The attempt had failed ; all 
their devotion and heroism had 
been wasted ; tlie only thing that 
could be said was that the loss ot 
life in the 
J a p a n e s e 
vessels had been small. About 
3 p.m. the crew were on board the 
battle-Heet, but 29 officers and 
men from the JiNSiON Maru 
and BuSHU Maru were still 
missing. It was at first feared 
that they had been lost or 
captured, but, as a matter of 
fact, only four men appear to 
have been killed. The 29 had 
made for the Chinese coast in 
small boats, missing the torpedo craft in the intense darkness. They rowed away from the harbour 
of Port Arthur, without seeing anything of the Japanese Fleet, and at daylight found themselves far out at 
S3a, with the gloomy headland of Laotishan away to the north. 

The wind blew strongly and saved them from drifting into the Gulf of Fechili. All day they rowed, 
suffering greatly from exhaustion and from the intense cold, and towards evening came in sight of the 
Miaotao Islands, which lie in the swirl of the currents, well to the south of Port Arthur. 
Here they landed, and were hospitably treated by the islanders, who lent them a small 
junk in exchange for their boats, and in this, junk, without further adventure, they 
succeeded in reaching Tengchau, a Chinese city near Chifu, whence they sent information to the Japanese 
Consul at Chifu, and on his giving a pledge that they would take no further part in the war, were permitted 
by the Chinese authorities to 
return to Japan. As a sign of 
their sorrow all the officers shaved 
their heads. 

• Meantime, the Russians at Port 
Arthur were at first under the 
impression 
that the>' had 
sunk a sub- 
stantial partof the Japanese Fleet. 
A message reached Europe next 
day to the effect that a great 
Russian victory had been won, 
and four Japanese battleships with 
two torpedo craft sunk. A few 
Japanese prisoners, however, were 
taken who told the real truth, 
while upon the body of an officer 
in one of the Japanese vessels, 
who had committed suicide when 
he saw that he had failed in his 



Offlceps Shave 
Their Hea:ls. 



Russian 
Delusions. 







Ceorge Philip i. Son C^- 
GROWTH OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN THE FAR E.\ST. 
These maps illustrate the gradual growth of the Ru-ssian Empire at various periods. 



258 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 24, 1904. 




SEARCHLIGHTS OF FORT ARTHUR SEARCHING THE HORIZON. 

mission, a detailed . plan of the attack was found, which made matters absolutely clear. Two o£ 
the Japanese ships were to approach the Retvisan, as she lay aground, and sink to the east ot 
her, close beside her; a third was to push further into the entrance and sink in the very centre 
of the channel ; the fourth was to go down a little astern of the third, closing the eastern side of 
the ehannel. The fifth steamer, it appeared, was to take the place of any of the other ves.sels 
that might be disabled. 

In all, there were yj officers and men on board the explosion vessels, of whom ten seem 

to have been captured, killed, 
or drowned. The channel, 450 
feet wide at the entrance — though 
the actual width of water deep 
enough to permit battleships 
and large cruisers to pass is only 
70 or Xo feet, 
or just sufficient 
to allow of the 
passage ot one ship at a time — 
remained clear ; and only the 
Japanese wrecks and the fittings of 
the destroyed vessels drifting about 
in the waters of the roads served 
to mark the fact that an attempt of 
almost incredible daring had been 

A LIKUTEXANT OF THE JAP.ANESE NAVY WITH HIS WIFE AND CHILDREN. mac.C, and had failed. 




Incredible 
Daring-. 



Feb. 24 1904. 



SECOND ATTACK ON PORT ARTHUR. 



259 




photo 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE SECOND ATTACK ON 
PORT ARTHUR. 

ON the night following the 
attempt three divisions 
of Japanese clestro\ers 
were instructed to proceed to 
Port Arthur, well fin ad\ance 
of the main fleet, and search 

pj u A JAPANESE TORPEUO-BOAT DESTOVEK. 

February 24th. ^, .,,. t^..^^,,, ,, ,^., 

— on the west ol the Liatong Peninsula — Dalny harbour, and the roads of Port 

Arthur. At Pigeon Bay and Daln\' no Russian ships were found ; at Port .-Arthur, none of the warships 

were outside the harbour. 

Four of the destrovers steamed close in to the entrance under a heav}- fire, and discharged torpedoes, 

but with what result their officers could not sa\-. The Russians acknowledged no loss whatever, and even 

claimed to have sunk one of the destroyers — a claim which had no foundation. The Russian torpedo 

flotilla put to sea as the Japanese boats were retiring, and the Novik, Bayan, and Askold ^ot under steam — 

this being the first appearance of the Xovik and Askold after the damage received in the action of February 9 

had been repaired — and followed in support of their destroyers, but the pursuit was not carried far. The 

Japanese boats fell back on the main fleet which was now coming up from the east, prepared once more to 

bombard I'ort Arthur. 




nil'. sKVKlNG OF THE "HOKOKL'." 
]t was with absolute calm and discipline that the fourteen men who formed the crew dropped one by one after lowerin.c four wounded. 



260 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM 



Feb. 25, 1904. 




HOISTING A BIG GUN ON A RUSSIAN BATTLKSHIP ON THE NEVA. 
This is a 12-inch gun for the " Kni,-!/. Souv.-iroff." 

It was the morning of the 25th, and Admiral Togo had drawn up an excellent programme for tiic 

proceedings. The fleet was to proceed in single line ahead, the six battleships leading, with, astern ot 

them, all the six armoured cruisers — for Vladivostock was left severely alone, so far as 

Feb 25 *' ^^^ powerful ships of the Japanese Navy were concerned — and two of the four fast 

cruisers. These two were ordered, as Port Arthur came into sight, to proceed far to 

the west and search the coast and Pigeon Bay for the 29 men from the explosion vessels who were still 




THL KU.'J.SIA.N BALIIC 1 LEE I .MANCEUVRING 



[Bulla photo. 



Feb. 25. 190^ 



TOGO'S PROGRAMME. 



261 



missing, and who, Admiral Togo supposed, 
might have landed and made a dash for 
some point on the Russian coast-line, and 
there be awaiting help. 

Each of the Japanese divisions was in 
close order, with a distance of ten cables 
(one mile) between the divisions. When 
nine miles off Port Arthur they were 
ordered to prepare to form line abreast, 
to advance in that order to a distance less 
than lo,ooo yards from the harbour en- 
trance, and then together to turn to 
starboard and all to fire with their i2-in. 
and 8-in. guns at the entrance, which, it 
was hoped, would enable them to drop 
heavy shells into the arsenal and East 
Basin and do serious damage to the 
enemy. It was known to the Japanese 
that the Retvisan still obstructed the passage sufficiently to render a sortie for the big Russian ships 
extremely difficult, though it was just possible to pass her with the help of tugs. The Russian Fleet 
was therefore not at all likely to be encountered in any force, if it were not found outside. 




TYPES OF KOREANS— YOUNG AND OLD. 



[Bolak photo. 




SIGNALLING FOR TilK TORI'KDO-BGATS WITH FLARKS. 

After sinking their vessels the Japanese escaped, but the boat containing Hirose was not picked up till after two hours of incredible suffering in a bitter cold 

and tempestuous sea. 



262 



JAPANS FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 25, 1904. 




The morning was ex- 
ceedingly clear and bright, 
so that distant objects 
could be 



The 
Japanese 

Fleet 
Advancine'. 



THE HILLS ROUND PORT ARTHUR AS SEEN FROM THE CHINESE QUARTER. 



seen from 
thejapanese 
\'essels with 
the most 
wonderful distinctness. As 
the fleet approached, a 
forest of Russian masts 
and funnels could be made 
out, bunched together in- 
side the harbour, with the 
Retvisan still hard and 
fast aground. Smoke was 
rising from the Russian 
funnels, indicating that 
their ships were under 
steam, and through power- 
ful glasses dozens of men 
could be seen busily at 



Floating Mines at 
Port Arthur. 



work on the Retvisan. The Russians, indeed, had just completed patching her side, and hoped 
that very afternoon to get her off the rocks ; they had pumped some thirteen feet of water out of her. The 
Japanese ships steadily advanced in line ahead, when the Russians suddenly noted signs of great confusion 
in the line. Ships seemed to stop, turn, break from their station, and for a moment to fall into utter disorder. 
But it was over in a minute or two, and the fleet turned and passed in stately procession across the 
harbour mouth, keeping at a respectable distance. 

What had happened was that as the Japanese Fleet was nearing Port Arthur the commander of the 
ASAHI in the conning-tower suddenly saw a huge mine floating in the water a short distance ahead. With 

instant decision he put the ship's helm over, and his prompt action saved her from a 

fearful fate. Seizing the megaphone, 

he rushed from the conning-tower and 
shouted to the next astern, the Fuji, warning her also 
of the danger, and she altered course likewise. .^i 
instant later the crew of the ASAHI saw the cause of all 
the danger pass al<;^ their starboard side, not lOO ft. 
away. It was a black, grim-looking mechanical mine, 
with tubes sticking up out of it in all directions, and it 
had perhaps drifted away from Dalny harbour. Indeed, 
the torpedo flotilla had reported that mines were loose 
in all directions, some of them " drifters " set afloat by 
the Russians, which compelled Togo to approach Port 
Arthur with the extremest caution. The movements 
made by the Japanese to avoid the mine were the 
source of the confusion noted by the Russians. 

As the result of this incident, it was decided not to 
approach the forts in line abreast, in which a fleet has 
less manoeuvring power, but to retain the line ahead. 
Pa«i<iing across the Russian front to the west, and makmg japan-s highest mountain-fujiyama. 




Feb. 25. 1904. 



A NAVAL DUEL 



263 



a long detour, so as to support the cruisers in Pigeon Bay and pick up wireless signals from them, 

Togo turned once more to the east, so soon as Port Arthur bore west-north-west. 

All this time the three Russian cruisers, Bayan, Askold, and Novik had been following the Japanese 

armour-clads, keeping seven miles away from them, close in shore. When exactly I0,000 yards off the 

entrance, the ball was 

opened by the Japanese 

flagship, the 
ANavalDuel. j^^^^g^ 

firing a signal shot. The 
Fuji then discharged the 
two big i2-in. guns in her 



the 
ap- 




fore barbette, and 
Russians, who had 
parently been waiting this 
moment, all likewise 
opened with every gun 
that would bear ashore 
or afloat. There was a 
fearful din of heavy artil- 
lery in action, but the 
damage done was insig- 
nificant on either side. 
The Japanese shells 
dropped in the town and 
dockyard, and were seen 
to have caused at least 
two fires ; some of them 
exploded in the batteries, 
but without causing many 
casualties. On the other 
hand, the big Russian 
shells could be seen from 
the fleet, sailing towards 
the ships, and dropping 
in the water in the wake 
of the M IK ASA, or splash- 
ing from 300 to 800 yards 
ahead of her. The dis- 
tance was much too great 
for accurate shooting, and 
the Russians made no hits. 

At this point Admiral 
Togo gave orders for his 
whole fleet to fire at the 

Russian cruisers, which in an instant were the centre of clouds of foam and spray from the falling shellsv 

Some minutes later the Novik was seen to have been hit ; she fled like a wounded 

The "Novik," animal to its burrow, and took refuse inside the port. Then the Askold was 

" Bavan " 'struck struck, and was seen to lose her maintopmast as she turned and withdrew; while, last 

of all, the armoured Bayan was struck, and compelled to retreat. No serious 

damage, however, was done to any of these ships, but, probably, their captains came to the conclusion. 



A TALISMAN FOR A J.A.PANESE SOLDIER. 

.\ correspondent writes : " In Kobe women are seen about the streets with long, narrow p'eces of cotton stuff, in 
which they invite other women to put a fe.v stitches. On each piece of cloth are a thousanj black dots, and when 
each dot h.is had a thread passed through it by a different woman, the stuff" is believed to have power to protect the 
wearer from all dangers in war. Very often quite a little crowd of eager women gathers in the streets round someone 
who is anxious to obtain the necessary stitches for a husband, a son, or a sweetheart. 



264 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREtDOM. 



Ftb. 25, 1904. 




THE JAPANESE HOSPITAL BflLDINC. AT CHK.MUI.PO, 
WOUNDED RUSSIAN SAILORS. 



WHICH RKCEIVED THE 



when shells began to fal' 
round them and to hit them, 
that it was folly to risk them 
further in battle against large 
armour-clads. 

After one run to the 
north-north-east, the MiKASA 
turned and was followed by 
the rest of the Japanese 
Fleet, but just at this point 
the Russians began to get 
the range, and, in succession,, 
pitched three l2-in. shells 
only 1 50 yards away from 
the starboard side of the 
ASAHI. The projectiles 
ricochetted and flew over 
the big Japanese battleship, 

which had a somewhat narrow escape from serious injury. It was not Admiral Togo's intention to run any 

great risk ; his orders on that point were peremptory, whatever his own personal inclinations may have been, 

and there was little to be done, now that the Russian ships had been driven inside the harbour, by facing 

the guns of the batteries any longer. He drew off and the battle was over after some twenty-five minutes 

of slow firing. 

The Russians assert that they intended to put out and follow him, but just as they were preparing to do 

so an accident happened. The patch which had bean placed o\-er the 40-ft. rent in the hull of the Retvisan 

gave way, admitting the water, and as there was no chance of moving her the other 

Patch*^"* Russian ships did not stir. The Russians were under the impression that they had 

disabled at least one of the Japanese ships, since they reported that they saw clouds of 

smoke on board her, indicating that she had been set on fire. In this, however, they were quite mistaken, as 

no harm was done to Admiral Togo's F"Ieet. 

The Japanese cruisers which had steamed round to Pigeon Bay sighted off Laotishan promontory two 

Russian destroyers returning from the 

pursuit of the Japanese destroyers in 
the early morning. 
They pushed their 
engines _to the ut- 
most, and attempwIPto cut them off. 

One of the destroyers succeeded in 

getting ahead of -the approaphing cruisers 

and reaching the entrance of the harbour, 

where she gained safety. 

The other, the Vnushitelni, was less 

fortunate. The. cruisers cut off her 

retreat and drove her to the westwards, 

following her at full speed. She fled 

before them under a heavy fire to 

Pigeon Bay, with the cruisers still in 

close pursuit. There her crew beached 

her. and iMwrriedly fled ashore, while 

the Japanese ships approached closely. 



Chasing Russian 
Destroyers. 




A JAPANESE CARTOON. 



tFrom the *' Jiji.' 



A Russian went down at Port Arthur and became a crab, weeping at the sight of so many 
' sunken Russian bulls. 




< 



z 

u 

I 

H 

CC 
O 



< 

< 
O 
< 

z 



o 

u. 
O 

z 

5 

a: 
< 

CQ 

>" 

s 

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til 
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266 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 25. 1904. 



r 















ENTRANCK TO I UK I.AOI.KLTSUV KOKi, I'ORT ARTHUR. 
Tbis photo was taken by the Japanese after the (1894) attack on the town. 



and opened fire on her 
with their heavy guns, 
at the same time ex- 
changing a few shots 
with the Russian bat- 
teries protecting the baj', 
which were not of a 
formidable nature. They 
hit the Vtuishitelni again 
and again, and practically 
shot her to pieces. At 
a later date Admiral 
Togo found her dilapi- 
dated and rusting hull 
still lymg on the beach 
of the bay. But the 
Russian despatches 
maintained an obstinate silence as to her loss, and, indeed, went so far as to deny it. 

On the night after the bombardment a fresh destroyer attack was made upon the Retvisan, with the 

object of inflicting further injury upon her. A division of Japanese destroyers steamed into the roads, 

taking cover behind a junk which was entering the harbour, but was discovered 

"Retvisan" before it could do any serious damage, and, meeting a very heavy fire from the 

batteries and the .^^r/z/waw, retired. The Russians were now too much on the alert to 

be easily caught by torpedo attacks, while, owing to the placing of a boom over the harbour entrance at 

night, it was impossible for the Japanese craft to penetrate into the harbour and repeat their performance at 

Wei-hai-wei in the war with China. 

Meantime the Japanese had been engaged in the work of disposing of another enemy at Shanghai. The 
Russian gunboat iJf««^«r had been stationed there on the eve of the war, and after the Japanese engage- 
ments with the Port Arthur fleet, shipped a large quantity of coal, and made every 
The Russian preparation to put to sea. It is the custom in naval war for neutrals to request 
belligerent ships to withdraw within twenty-four houf^^f the outbreak of war. but the 
Chinese Government was so weak that the Russians' paid no attention to its demand 
that the Mandjtir should quit Shanghai. 

To hasten a decision the Japanese Government despatched the cruiser Akitsushima to 
the port, and requested the Chinese 'authorities to take steps to oblige the Mandjur to obey 
the law. The affair dragged 



Gunboat 
••llandjur.' 



on till well into March(*hen the 
Mandjur was still in port. It 
was then at last agreed by both 
Russians and Japanese that the 
t)reech-blocks of the Mandmrs 
guns and part of her machinery 
should be landed and placed 
in the custody of the Chinese, 
while : the crew should leave 
for Russia, giving a written 
pledge not to serve in the 
war. On March 29 this was 
carried out, and the AKITSU- 
SHIMA at once left for Japan 



r 



THE PIER OF THE 

TORPEDO STATION AT 

PORT ARTHUR. 




Feb. 18, 1904. 



RUSSIAN SHIPS AT JIBUTIL. 



267 




I 111, OFFICERS SHAVED Jllilk HEADS. 
As a sign of their sorrow, for being unsuccessful the Jap.inese officers who tried to blbck Port Arthur shaved their heads. 



Russian Shipi&J&t 
Jibuti!. 



CHAPTER XV. jr 

<■ 

THE ADVENTURES OF ADMIRAL VIRENIUS 
—BOMBARDMENT OF VLADIVOSTOCK. 

AT the outbreak of war the Russian squadron under 
Admiral Virenius, consisting of the new battleship 
Oslabia, the old aaj^ptired cruiser Dmitri Donskoi, 
the protected cxwXse^ Aurora, the VolShteer cruisers Orel 
and Saratoff, and a number of torpedo-boats and destroyers, 
.^- -. sll under orders to proceed to the 
Far East and reinforce Admiral Stark's 
fleet, had been instructed, as we have 
seen-,- te-remain- at -the -French port of Jibutil, opposite 
Aden. There the Russian authorities appear to have 
intended to keep it until powerful reinforcements could be 
sent out to it from the Baltic, where the old battleships 
Navarin, Sissoi Veliki, and Alexander II. — none of them 
vessels of any great fighting force — were making ready for 
sea in February. But as it was contrary to international 
law for a neutral to permit a belligerent fleet to remain 
for an indefinite period in one of its ports, the French 
Government, after considerable delay, was reluctantly 
compelled to make representatians to the Russians, as the 



441 e ■ tpi* 




.The 



[A Japanese Cartoon. 
THE RUSSIAN GUNBOAT DISARMED BY JAPAN. 
"Manjur" remained at Shanghai till the Japanese Government 
insisted th.it it should be disarmed. 



268 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 18. 1904. 



result of which Admiral Virenius was requested to coal his ships and depart. Even so, the French Govern- 
ment incurred serious responsibilities by permitting the Russians to remain eight or ten days after the outbreak 
of war, whereas it is usual to require a departure witiiin forty-eight hours of war, and by supplying them with 
an indefinite quantity of coal, whereas the supply granted should only have been just sufficient to carry them 

to the next coaling station. The Russians left Jibutil on February i8, and entered the 
■olsst n^ Brltlsb j^^j g^^^^ where, in defiance of legal rights, they set to work to search and molest ship- 

ping on its way to the Far East. In 1900 the British Government had given way to a 
German protest against the conduct of British cruisers, acting from a British base at Aden, in searching for con- 
traband of war destined for the Boers, German shipping on its way to South African ports and had promised that 




The coimnander of the 



WARNING AGAINST THE .MINES. 
* Asahi," seeing a huge mine in the water, shouted to the *' Fuji " astern, warning her of the danger. 



no ships should be searched so far away from the scene of hostilities as the Red Sea. But on this occasion it 
watched with apathy the searching of British ships, at a point far more remote from the scene of war in 
the Far Flast, by Russian vessels which were acting from a neutral base, and which were thus openly 
transgressing maritime law. The failure of the British authorities to take any steps for the protection of 
their shipping or to make any remonstrance excited not unnatural surprise in Japan, but did not in any 
way harm the Japanese ; had it been of disservice to them they would have had the right of claiming 
damages from England, since it is a principle of international law that a neutral must not allow its 
neutrality to be violated, and must secure proper respect for it 



Feb., 1904. 



RUSSIAN ILLEGALITIES. 



269 




DESTROYING A RUSSIAN DESTROYER. 
The Japanese hit the " Vnushitelni " again and again, and practically shot her to pieces. 



Russia Seizes 
Neutral Ships. 



The Russian ships steamed slowly up the Red Sea towards Suez, examining all vessels that passed, 
though not always boarding them. They formed a line abreast with wide intervals, so that they were 
able to sweep the whole area of the sea. They hove-to the British 

India steamer Mombasa, and searched her; they 

chased and stopped the British mail steamer Mongolia ; 

and they seized and affected to consider as their 
prizes the British steamers Oriel, Frankby, and Ettrickdale, which were 
laden with coal. Coal the Russians had proclaimed contraband, though 
on previous occasions they had protested against it being so 
considered. Hence they argued that neutral ships laden with 
coal were liable to seizure. The captains of these steamers were 
given the choice between the following alternatives : They might 
themselves pledge their word to take their cargoes to Sevastopol, 
or, if they would give no pledge, the Russians would navigate the 
ships to that point, putting prize crews on board ; or, again, if they did 
not accept either of these proposals, the Russians would sink the ships. 
These strange proceedings seem to have been inspired by a complete 
ignorance of international law, or a belief that the British Government 
would tolerate any interference with British shipping. Yet, had the 
Russians sunk the ships, even the British Government must have been 

\u XII. 




KNUlNEEk .MINAMISAWA, 

Of the torpedo-boat destroyer '* Kasumi," 

was wounded severely during the fight of 

March lo. 



270 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb.. 1904. 





roused from its torpor. But as the matter liad 
now gone far beyond a joke, the Egyptian Govern- 
mcwt made the announcement tiiat it would not 
permit any prizes to be taken through the Suez 
Canal, and, paral)'sed by this order, the Russian.-- 
released the British ships on February 28. Nt 
protest was made by the J^ritisli Government, 
which accepted these acts, and declined to send 
warshijis for the protection of British interests in 
the Red Sea. 

The voyage home of this Russian l-'lect was 
attended by numerous misadventures. The British 
ships chased in the Red .Sea noted that the Russian destroyers, new and nominally good for 30 knots, could 
not exceed sixtcc... When the Russians reached Sue--^, two of the torpedo boats and the cruiser Dutitri 
DoHskoi were in such a condition that they stood in urgent need of repairs. On the 
passage through the Canal one of the boats was carelessly navigated, and collided with an 
Egyptian revenue cutter, sinking her and blocking the Canal for twenty-four hours. At 
Port Said the Dmitri Donskoi and torpedo boat No. 222 applied to the Egyptian authorities to be allowed to 
make all necessary repairs at Alexandria, and after some delaj-, permission was conceded. In this probabl\- 
ii mistake was made which may render the Egyptian Government liable to damages in the future, should these 
vessels inflict any loss on Japanese commerce. 



THK INVKNIOR OK TIIK 

IJUI.N HSK: KKAR-AI'MIN M 

iJUlN. 



THK. INVENTOR OK THK 

MIVAltARA TUItUI.AR HOM.KK : 

ENGINKKR KKARADMIRAI. 

MIVABAKA. 



Russian 
Illegalities. 




BEACHING A RUSSIAN DESTROYER. 
The RuMtans beached her «n(l hurriedly- fleU^ashure, whilst the JaiKiiicse opened fire on her with he.ivy guns. 



Feb., 1904. 



JAPANESE ACTIVITY. 



27 




lCoi»yrii(lil in U.S.A. by " Cullicr'i. \\'cckly." 
CZAR BIDDING GOOD-BYK TO HIS LITTI.K UROTHERS BOUND FOR THE FRONT. 

After undergoing repair and coaling, the.se vessels proceeded to search neutral shipping in the 
Mediterranean — a further and serious infraction of international law — and again the 15ritish Government 
•took no action of any kind. Indeed, the Russian gunboat Khnxbry made Crete her permanent base, fr(jm 
which she e.xamined Jkitish mail steamers, and even asserted the right to seize the Japanese mails on board 
Ihem, as when in May she stopped and examined the Osiris. To the surprise of the Japanese, their ally 
tolerated this Russian action, as also a proclamation of cotton as contraband — another .seemingly illegal 
action on Russia's part, in which, however, the British Ministry was brought to acquiesce by the Russian 
assertion that only cotton for the manufacture of gun-cotton was affected, as though it were possible to 
.distinguish between the different kinds of raw cotton. Finally, most of the Russian ships returned to the 
Baltic ; but the Khrabry, in defiance of international law, 
■remained in the Mediterranean till far on in the summer. 

Notwithstanding the activity of this Russian squadron, a 
Jarge number of Japanese ships, which at the outbreak of 
war had been in British or other neutral ports, succeeded in 
.reaching the Far East without the slightest difficulty, 
bringing with them large cargoes of Welsh coal and 
<jther war material. Skilfully navigated by bold Japanese 
officers, they never ran any great risk from the Russians, 
the less .so as they stole singly round the Cape or by the 
J lorn route to Japan. Owing to the want of fast crui.sers 
with a large coal supply it was impossible for the Russians 
to interfere with them. 

While these events were occuring in the West, in the Far 
JCast the Japane.se continued active. Immediately after 
the Russian raid from Vladivostock, which ended in the "' "" ■'"'"'""' CbirdnSmTf vbSl^r.'"''' "•""'' " "" 




272 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb., 1904. 




i L-titiyosmii 



1MUB.SHI /'^;^'' 




V.SSIUI 



lilY 



BIRDS-EYE VIEW 
AND ITS 



at that Russian port. 
Kamimura, the second 
take with him the 
TOKIWA, and ASAMA, 
ships Chitose and 
ships, the name of which 
Chin Yen, and a 
eastern coast of Korea to 
offer battle to the Russians 



^/iMi 



nsKumEep it 

I 1 Sf I 



\ \ 
\ \ 

1 



OF VLADIVOSTOCK 
BOMBARDMENT. 



destruction of the little 
Nakanouka Maru, the 
Japanese authorities de- 
ter m i n c d 

„, ,. . , to make an 
Vladivostoek. 

attempt to 
bring the Viadivostcck 
squadron to battle, and 
at the same time care- 
fully to examine the 
condition of the defences 
and the state of the ice 
Accordingly, at the end of February, Admiral 
in command of the Japanese Fleet, was directed to 
armoured cruisers IDZUMO, carrying his flag, IWATE,. 
all four of the fine and powerful ASAMA class, the fast 
Kasagi, with apparently one of the Japanese battle- 
was carefully withheld, but which was probably the 
division of destroyers, and to proceed north along the 
Vladivostoek, where he was to shell the fortress and 
The Japanese wished to ascertain whether there was any truth in the tales which 
had reached them of Russian movements in the direction of Possiet Bay and the extreme north of Korea, 
where a Russian army was vaguely reported to be advancing southwards in the direction of Song-chin. 
There was a chance that the Russian ships might be encountered at sea, and if so. Admiral Kamimura 's 
force was so strong that he would be certain of defeating and destroying them. But the Russian cruisers 
had shown so httle energy or enterprise that the hope of a battle cannot have been very great. 

Admiral Kamimura's cruise was accomplished under the most difficult circumstances. In winter the 
Japan Sea is a gloomy and forbidding expanse of water, shrouded in dense fogs or swept by furious. 




-vstr 



y 












c 


4.4^ **■ 


%* , . I'ir / Vfi J''/> 


m 


^^^ 


npfgnipilll^ S 






. ' 


; *^«^.. ''' '"^ \\ 


\^' 'mmmr' 


m^^TfP^ij^h 





nil, ( /Ak A.M> His IRCJOI';-,. [Copyritjht i;i L.,- 

Departure of the First Volga Regiment of Terek Cussackb from Kreinentschug, May 4. 




A JAPANESK SEAMAN'S BRAVE DEED, 
'ihc circulating aischarge pipe became blocked with ice; but a seaman volunteered to be lowered by a rope to clear the vaive. 



He succeeded, but lost bis life. 



274 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 6, 1904. 




WAR I-KINI 



PETERSBURG. 



\laiinlly exaggerated pictures have been sold in Russia, illustralinK in every case great Russian victories. 

lapanese joMier l)eing thrashed. 



The picture shown by the vendor represents a 




A Winter 
Voyage. 



NAPOLEON .\NI) rHK JAI'.WKSK OFFICKRS. 



Tbt* cartoon a having a large nale in Kuv^ia. 
///f thunderbolt agaitm Kii»ta failed. 



The inscription runs : " Shade of Napoleon : 
what can yellow-faced dwarfs like you expect ? ' " 



.snovvstorm.s and tremendous gales. As 
he voj-aged north the coast of Korea was 
white with snow ; a strong gale blew and 
the sea ran high ; the 
spray froze like iron 
on the decks of the 
ships, and tlie exposure of the bare 
flesh to the biting blast brought instant 
frost-bite. Nothing of interest was seen 
on the Korean coast ; there was no trace 
of the Russians, and nearing Vladivostock 
the water gave way to a vast expanse of 
thin ice extending four or five miles from 
the shore, heaped here and there in 
hummocks. Skirting the ice the fleet 
steered for A.skold Island, which lies to 
the south-east of Vladivostock, a hump 
of rock snow-covered, with only the 
dark lighthouse showing against the 
mantle of white ; and about g a.m. of 
March 6 it was sighted by the Russian 
look-outs, and its coming signalled to 
Vladivostock. The strength of the 
Japanese Fleet was greatly exaggerated ;. 
according to the first Russian reports it 
mustered four battleships with a large 



March, 19U4. 



AN HEROIC DEED. 



275 



number of cruisers. The 
news was at once despatched 
to St. Petersburg and to 
-Admiral Ale.xeieff. 

On the last stage of the 

voyage to Vladivostock, an 

heroic deed was 

AnHerolc accomplished 
Deed. ^ 

by a Japanese 

bluejacket on board the 
ASAMA. The sea was running 
high and t.he cold was intense, 
when the valve of the circulat- 
ing discharge pipe became 
blocked with ice. To main- 
tain the speed of the ship, it 
was necessary to remove the 
ice, which would naturally be a 
work of e.xtreme danger from 
the cold and sea. Neverthe- 
less, one of the seamen volun- 
teered for the task, and 
accomplished his purpose. He 
was lowered by a rope to the 
aperture of the pipe, and had 
just cleared the valve when a 
great wave caught him and 
instantly carried him away. 
He vanished in the gre)-, 
cold depths far astern, and it 
was impossible to give him 
help. The frost was so bitter 





'W-E'Jw^v^\J^rM 



KEAK.AD.M1R.\L NAUAI 



Comrn.nnde<l "No. 4" destroyer flotilla during 
the second attack on Port Arthur. 



JAPANESE T0RPED0-B0.\T LAVING ELECTRO-.MECHANICAL iMINES OUTSIDE 

PORT ARTHUR. 

that the thermometer registered 24 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. As 
the Japanese ships drew near, they felt on their wireless telegraphy 
instruments the impact of the Herzian waves from the Russian stations,^ 
and could learn something of the disquietude which their sudden advent 
had inspired. 

Breaking a way through the ice which skirted the shore, the Japanese 
squadron advanced from Askold Island, detaching two of its armoured 
cruisers to the west of the island, so as to watch the second of the two- 
entrances to Vladivostock Harbour, by Amur Bay, and to prevent the 
e.xit of the Russian Fleet by that route. It steamed up Ussuri Bay, 
which lies to the east of Vladivostock, and approached the Russian 
fortress from that side. At this point, the Japanese ships altered therr 



276 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March, 1904. 



formation accorotng to the Russian 
accounts, the change being probably due 
to the wish to bring the battleship to the 
head of the line. Im 

^""'ports. ^''^ mediately after this 
the ships were ob- 
served by the Russians to fire se\"eral 
rounds of blank ammunition from their 
guns, the object of this again being 
undoubtedly to warm the weapons and 
render their shooting accurate. They 
closed in upon the Russian forts at the 
eastern entrance to the Golden Bosphorus ; 
and these appeared on a careful examina- 
tion to be without their heavy armament 
There were circumstantial reports flyini; 
about in the Far East at the time that 
guns had been sent wholesale from Vladi- 
vostock to Port Arthur, which seemed to 
derive support from what could be seen. 
The squadron steamed in single line ahead 
to a distance of 7,000 yards off the shore, 
and opened a slow and steady fire from 



■;'^, 








llJraun hy iMeUon I'rior 
SOLDIER'S GOOD-BYE TO HIS FAVOURITE THILD. 



AT THE HOUSK OF A JAPANESE FORTUNE-TELLER. 
Parents, wives, and other relatives co:uulting tlic fortune-teller to know the fate of their 

relatives. 



the heavy guns, as it advanced nortli, 
upon Forts Suvarov and Linievitch, and 
the town and dockyard. The latter were 
out of sight, but could easily be reached 
by high-angle fire, and presently projec- 
tiles were dropping right and left among 
the houses, barracks, and workshops. 

According to the Russians, none of the 
shells exploded, but there is good reason 
for saying that this 
was afiction circulated 
for military reasons, 
and that the Japanese shells for the most 
part burst with considerable effect. The 
Russians made no reply whatever, though 
troops could be .seen in the batteries. 
Their silence has been explained in several 
ways ; it is possible that it was due to 
the want of guns or suitable ammunition. 



Fifty-Five Minute3' 
Firing. 



278 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March, 1904. 




THK WOUNDED KNGIN'EER. 
Engineer MinamUawa, of the " Kasumi," was severely wounded, and displayed magnificent bravery, standing calmly to his post in the engine-room. 




WKITTKN 



Dl.OOl). 



Iftlicn Admiral Togo aftkcd for volunteer* for the vessels to block F^ort 
Anbar Harbour, 2,000 applicaliotis were made. Some were sent written 
in Uood. The above is a faoiimile of that by Second.Class W.irrant 
OAotr Moupei Hayasbt, who wrote : " Being desirous of participating 
in ibe vohintcer corp« now beioK raised, I entreat you to select mc, 
hereby icndins in application written with my own blootl." The 
Kmpcror of Japan BMt kept the original of this rfmarkabif document. 



There were other reports that the ammunition supplied 

\va.s a millimetre too large for the gun.s, and could not be 

u.sed ; while yet another version ran to the effect that 

the guns were of antiquated pattern and could not reach 

the Japanese ships ; and a fourth that Admiral Kamimura 

kept his vessels in the dead angle, where the guns ashore 

would not bear. The last report is not at all probable, 

while it is not likely that the Russians deliberately refused 

to answer the ships' fire. There was nothing whate\er 

to be gained by allowing the Japanese to pitch shells 

into Vladivostock, and the forts ought to have been able 

to inflict severe damage on the ships. 

After fifty-five minutes of firing, the Japanese drew 

off, having caused a fire in Vladivostock and carefully 

examined the coast. The Russian 

Kamimura wireless signals continued busily, and 

Retires. " ■' 

the moment Kamimura fell back, 

the bows of the fast Russian cruiser Bogatyr showed 

round the corner of the entrance to the harbour. She 

came out very slowly and cautiously, observing the 

movements of her enemies. Behind her, from the 

sternmost Japanese vessel, four other Ru.ssian ships 



280 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 7, 19C4 







■*■■. 

: 1 






I ^ 


k. 







ONE MAN WAS KILLED WHILE CARRYING AMMUNITION. 



could be seen, one of which was evidently the armed Volunteer cruiser Lena; the others the Rossta, 
Rurik; and Groinovoi. Masses of dense black smoke rose from their funnels, but they gave not the 
slightest indication of wishing to fight ; and as darkness was now drawing on fast, and the Japanese did 
not care to run the risk of remaining for the night within reach of the Russian torpedo flotilla in the 

fortress, Kamimura in- 
creased speed and hurried 
well out to sea. 

At dawn of the 7th, he 
returned. Again the 

s<[uadron divided, one 

.section go- 
Tempting ; , A 
the "^ Amur 

Vladlvostock Bay, which 

Fleet. .^ . , 

it entered, 

carefully examining the 
coast for indications of a 
Russian movement south- 
wards by land against 
Korea. It pushed up to 
tlie very head of Amur Bay, 
without drawing the Rus- 
sian ships out to sea. 
The other section of the 
squadron made as careful 
an examination of Ussuri 

Bay to the east of Vladivostock, again without detecting any signs of an important movement 

Finally, both Japanese divisions concentrated off 

Askold Island, and once more approached Vladi- 
vostock, attempting to draw the fire of the batteries, 

or to induce the Russian ships within to come 

out, but on this occasion with no greater success than 

before. 

Seeing that the Russian Fleet was inside the port, 

so that there was no chance of waiting for it and 

intercepting it upon its return. Admiral Kamimura 

proceeded southwards to Possiet Bay, where he made 

a demonstration that produced astonishing effects on 

Russian nerves. Wild reports circulated that he had 

landed a large army, and that this army was marching 

on Kirin or Harbin. As he was ordered to rejoin 

Admiral Togo by a certain definite date, unless he found 

the Russian cruisers at sea, he then returned to 

Japan. He was watched till nightfall at a safe 

distance by the fast Ru.ssian cruiser Bogatyr, which 

came out of Vladivostock Harbour so soon as he 

drew off ; and as this vessel was speedier than any 

of the cruisers in his fleet, he did not attempt to 

interfere with her. 

The Japanese had no casualties in this affair ; 

the Russians acknowledged that five seamen had been koreans on a '{,RrTisH'°BATTfESHiP:"'"''''''' 




March, 1904. 



THE DESTROYERS' DUEL. 



281 



slightly wounded by the 

explosion of a shell in the 

courtyard of the naval 

bar racks, 

Results and that a 
of Japanese 

Fire. woman was 

killed in the 
town. It is believed, how- 
ever, that the real losses 
were much heavier, and 
that considerable damage 
was done by the Japanese 

fire to two of the forts commanding the entrance to the Eastern Bosphorus. It is possible that this 
demonstration was made to cover a Japanese landing on the eastern coast of Korea, which was reported to 
have occurred about this date ; it also served to remind the Russians of the risks that would attend the 
despatch of troops south along the coast road into Eastern Korea. 




THE JAPANESE DESTROYER '■ KASUMl 
Which was engaged in the hand-to-hand fight 



CHAPTER XVI. 
THE DESTROYERS' DUEL. 

OEF Port Arthur the Japanese still maintained a close watch on the Russians, even when Admiral Togo 
disappeared with his main fleet to refit at his base, and the inactivity of the Russian Squadron was 
such that its commanders failed to profit by the.se repeated opportunities. They might have sallied 
forth boldly, and threatened 'or attacked the Japanese transports on their way to 
Chemulpo, which place was only 300 miles from Port Arthur, or just one day's steaming 
for the Russian Fleet. They might at least have employed their fast cruisers, such as the Askold, Bayan, 



At Port Arthur. 




A HANU-TO-llAN'D KiUHT UY THE DESTROYERS ; MARCH 10. 



282 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 8, 1904. 



and Noi'ik in this kind of work, with the support of their larjje destroyer flotilla. But, as a matter of 
fact, the Russians did nothing whatever ; their utmost was to stand out some ten or fifteen miles from 
the harbour, and then hurriedly return when any smoke was seen upon the horizon. 

On March 8, after 
many efforts, they suc- 
ceeded at last in drag- 









.ynit 



the 



^i^~-3 




CONrKREXCE OF J.VPANESt PRIESTS AND JEACUERS QV 

RELIGIONS AT TOKIO. 
A thousand delegates declared that the war was one waged in the interests of justio 



THE OLU AND NEW 

humanity, and peace. 



Ketvisan oft 
the rocks 
at the en- 



The 

" Retvisan " 
Abandoned, trance to 

the har- 
bour. She was towed 
into the basin — the dock 
was too small to take 
her — and there attempts 
were made to repair the 
damage. But it was 
found that the rivets on 
the hull had been torn 
loose by the firing of her 
guns when afloat, and 
that her plates every- 
where admitted the water. 
On her bow was a hole 
40 ft. long, made by the 
torpedo, admitting water 
to seven compartments. 
It was clear that the work 
of repairing her would 
occupy weeks or months, 
if it were practicable at 
all. The difficulty of 
effecting repairs was in- 
creased by conflicts be- 
tween her captain, the 
commander-in-chief of 
the fleet, and the port 
authorities, who all 
quarrelled among them- 
selves ; and after .some 
days of disputing, it was 
finally determined to re- 
move certain of her 6- in. 



guns and mount them in the batterie.s. On the 8th, Admiral Makarov, who.se coming had been impatiently 

exjjected by the fleet, at last arrived. He at once took steps to improve the defences and the morale 

of the Russians. The two old gunboats Giliak and Gremiastcliy were ordered to 
Admiral Makarov u .i. . . , , . , , ,, 11c 

Arrives. anchor m the entrance, at a ponit where their guns could sweep the roads antl hie 

with effect against the Japanese torpedo craft ; a boom was thrown across the harbour 

mouth at night, so as to cIo.se it effectually against these craft, and on the 9th two Russian steamers, the 

Hailar and Harbin, were sunk at the entrance in such a position that tliey would obstruct approach, and 




A DKSPKRATK 1)KK1>. 



The Japanese seamen leapt on board the Russian destroyer. The first man on her shished with his cutlass at an ofTicer who was just coming up from below 

and hurled him overboaril 



284 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 10, 1904. 



so, it was hoped, prevent 

tlie Japanese from re- 

])eatiny' with success their 

previous attempt to 

" corl< " the mouth cf the 

harbour. 

These measures were 

not taken one moment 

too soon. 
Japanese p. . . 
Place Mines. ^^ " \ ^^ 
same night 

the Japanese destroyers 
in two divisions aj)- 
])roachcd tile roads of 
Port Artliur aljout mid- 
night, but saw no sign 
of tile encm}'. The 
Russian searchlights 
sweeping the liorizon 
showed uj) the dim forms 
of several Japanese 
cruisers far out to sea, 
but did not, apparentl)', 
detect tiie destroyers lor 
some hours. Tlie 
Japanese torpedo craft 
had been sent in on a 

sijecial mi.ssion ; their duty was to lay a nuinber of electro-mechanical mines, of the type invented by 

C'aptain Oda of the Japanese Navy, .so as to block the entrance. This, at least, was the effect of Admiral 

Togo's rejx)rt. But it would seem that he had devised a very astute plan- — the mines to be laid were of a 

harmless pattern, so as to give the Ru.ssians a contempt for the Japanese weapons, and lead them to 

disregard mines in future. The forts fired on the destroyers while these were laying the real or bogus mines, 

without, however, damaging them or even 

hitting them. 

Noting the presence of the Japanese 

torpedo craft. Admiral Makarov, as the 
night drew towards 
morning, gave orders 
to six Russian boats to 

get under steam and put to .sea, for the 

purpo.se of driving them off. The Russian 

destroyers went out in two divisions, the 

first, four boats strong, under Captain 

Matussevitch. The Japanese, however, 

had already fallen back, and the Russians 

steamed after them to the .south of the 
l^otishan promontory, where in the dark 

they suddenly came upon the three ii;,ri<i spin, iii. 

lapanese destroyers ASA.SHIO, Kasumf, Japanese armol'REU cruiser "idzumo" being towi u into 

■' '^ . THE SUEZ CANAL. 

and AKATSUKI, which rushed upon them Ihis vessel took pan in the bomliardmem of VtodivoMock. 




HEATH liEKOKE CAPTURE, 
kti-vsian s.'kilors on the destroyer *' .Stereguschlchi " jumped into the icy sea rather than surrender to tlie J.npanese. 



A Destroyers' 
Duel. 




March 10, 1904. 



A DUEL 



285 




A i.w>l PRIZE. 

On March lo the Japanese captured the Russian destroyer " Stereguschtchi," but it was leaking so badly and the sea was so rough that it was abandoned 

and afterwards sank. 




with furious energy, as wolves upon lambs, and attacked them at the closest 
quarters. The Japanese used their i2-pounder and 6-pounder quick- 
firing guns with deadly effect against the Russian '2 and 3-pounders 
concentrating their projectiles upon the 
Russian conning-towers, and very quickl}' 
obtained the upper hand. The Japanese 
shells tore through the frail, thin plating 
of the Russian boats ; fires could be seen 
breaking out ; clouds of steam escaped ; 
and through the night came the terrible 



cries of wounded men in agony. The 
Vlastny fired a torpedo against the 
Japanese, but failed to make a hit, and 
had her rudder jammed by a shell. 
Having had very much the worst of the 
encounter, though they were superior in 
numbers and in force, the Russian boats 
hurriedly retired in a battered state under the guns of Port Arthur, 
pursued by their enemies to the very entrance of the harbour. 

On their part the Japanese did not come off b)' any means 
scatheless. The destroyer Akat.SUKI, which had gallantly closed in with 
ihe Russians till she almost touched them, had a steam pipe severed b)' 



COMMANDER TSL'EHIVA, 
Of the second torpedo-boat destroyer flotilla. 




THE CAHTAIX OF THE "ASASHIO." 

Captain Matsunaga commanded the destroyer 

'* As&shio," which played a prominent part in 

sinking the Russian destroyer " Stereguscntchi," 

on March lo. 



286 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March lU, 1904. 




Japanese 
Bravery. 



WOMEN OF THE JAPANESE ARISTOCRACY MAKING LINT AND BANDAGES AT THE 
HOUSE OF THE PRINCESS KOMATSU. 

Tb« Japanese Red Cross Society is under the direct patronnge of the Empress. 



a Russian shell, and the- 
escape of steam scalded 
four of her crew to death. 
E ngi neer 
M i n a m i - 
sawa, of the 
Kasumi, was severely 
wounded, but displayed 
magnificent bravery, stand- 
ing calmly to his post in. 
the engine-room. In all,. 
se\en men were killed and 
eight wounded. None of 
the Japanese destroyers 
were seriously injured, and 
the AKATSUKlwas able to 
effect repairs without re- 
turning to Japan. Scarcely 
had this combat closed: 
when, just as day was at 
hand, about 7 a.m., the 
second Japanese divisioa 




■AS : SALE FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE FREE HOSPITALS. 

M Melton Prior uyt : " AH Mitt rf thin»» ate being done for the benefit of the wounded. At the remnant sales the women su and chat while making theic- 

selections, and then go to the counter to pay." 



March 10, 1904. 



DESTROYERS' DUEL. 



287 



of destroyers, composed of the Akebono and Sazanami, under Commander Tsuehiya, sighted two 
Russian destroyers, wliicli had put to sea after Captain Matussevitcli, and which were now returning to 
harbour, having failed to support him in his encounter with the other Japanese division. 

The Japanese boats instantly pounced on these two luckless destroj'ers, which were the Bestrachni and 
Stereguschtchi, and opened on them a terrific fire. The Russians put on all steam and ran their hardest for 




HOW TWO RUSSIAN BLUEJACKETS DIED. 
Two men locked themselves in the aft cabin of the " Stereguschtchi " and could not be induced to come on deck, so they went down with the boat. 

port, and the Beztrachni, which was ahead, being in some degree protected from the Japanese fire by the 

hull of the Stereguschtchi, managed to escape, considerably damaged, abandoning her comrade to the enemy. 
The Stereguschtchi, as the Japanese shells struck her and riddled her, began to lose 
her speed and drop astern ; while, seeing her plight, the Japanese concentrated their 
fire upon the men on her deck, and upon her waterline. The Russians showed no 

skill but immense bravery. They fired wildly and were rapidly shot down, till the Stereguschtchi' s deck 

was heaped with killed and wounded. 



Japanese Board 
a Destroyer. 



288 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 10, 1904. 



The Russian commander w.is killed ; a lieutenant who succeeded him had both his legs shot off ; the 
sub-lieutenant followed, and was also killed ; while the man at the wheel was mortally wounded. On the 
other side, the Akebono was hit on the waterline, and dropped astern, as two of her compartments filled at 
once, wetting her ammunition. A Russian i2-pounder shell struck her forward gun-platform, hitting a man 
and sweeping the bridge, on which her lieutenant, sub-lieutenant, and signalman were standing, but without 
injuring them. In the Saz.\nami one man was killed while carrying ammunition. 

After an hour's hot firing the moment had come when the Japanese could board. The S.\zanami ran 
in close, till her nose touched the Russian vessel ; the Japanese seamen leapt on board, encountering no 
serious resistance. The first man on her slashed with his cutlass at an officer who was just coming up from 
below, and, as the Russian officer still resisted after the blow, hurled him overboard. The sight on board was 




RUSSIAN KOKTS KIRINt 



The (ab* lighu were rigged up on rough rafts, and the lights were hung to represent those of .i ship. 

then let drift with the tide. 



IX liV THK JAI'.\NKSK. 

They were twwet! into position Ijy lurpcdu-lji 



horrible. Thirty corp.ses, dreadfully mutilated, cumbered the deck. Most of the men who were left alive on 
board the Russian boat jumped into the icy sea rather than surrender to the Japanese, and but two of them 
<:ould be picked up ; two more who were badly wounded were made prisoners. 

A tow-rope was secured from the Sazanami to the Stereguschtchi, and the Japanese attempted to tow 
her away from the roads, as the light was now distinct, and the little group of vessels lay exposed to the 

artillery of the Russian forts. In this, however, thej' did not succeed ; just as they 
"Steretruschtchi " '^S^" *° move off the Russian boat, which was so honeycombed with shot-holes that her 

hull looked like a colander, rapidly filled and began to sink, while the hawser parted. 
To stay and attempt to plug the shot-holes in her injured hull was impossible, as the forms of two large 
Russian ships could be seen approaching. Yet a Japanese seaman, as she went down, gallantl}- went back to 
her and removed the Japanese flag. 



290 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 10. 1904. 




DAMAGE LiV LONU-KANGK I-IRE. 
A tzaia just entering Port Arthur Station was hit, the engine shattered, and the stoker severely injured. 

move, and had sent a stronger force to the assistance of 
Admiral Makarov retreated without making aii)- attempt to 
seen the Japanese flag flying on board her, and to have taken 
his otherwise almost inexplicable action. 
He steamed back into the harbour, with- 
out engaging the Japanese ships, while 
the two Japanese destroyers which had 
accomplished this brilliant feat of arms 
hurried out of the range of the batteries. 

In this second aflair the Japanese lost 
three men killed and four wounded, 

among the wounded 

being Sub-Lieutenant 
Shima. Sub - Lieutenant Yamazaki 
specially distinguished himself by leading 
the boarding party of Japanese seamen 
and hoisting the Japanese flag on the 
Russian destroyer. The Japanese boats 
were not damaged by the enemy's fire, 
and the general result of these two 
actions was to increase the confidence of 
the Japanese torpedo flotilla, which had 
proved its capacity of defeating the 
Russians in equal or superior force. The 
Russian loss was returned by Admiral 
Makarov at 24 killed and wounded, in 



Admiral Makarov, so 

soon as he saw that the 

Japanese destroyers were 

gaining the upper hand, 

had given 
Makarov's 1 i lu 

False Start. ^""^^''^ *« ^he 
Novik and 

Bayan to get under steam 
and proceed to the assistance 
of the Stereguschtchi, hoist- 
ing his own flag on board 
the Novik. But it was 
some time before the 
Russian vessels could ne- 
gotiate the narrow passage 
leading from the inner 
harbour, and when he ap- 
peared upon the scene five 
Japanese cruisers were 
observed to be coming up 
fast from the south to 
support their destroyers. 
Admiral Togo had observed 
or anticipated the Russian 

his boats, and before the Japanese cruisers 
assist the Stereguschtchi. He seems to have 

her for a Japanese boat, which may explain 



Russian Losses. 



hi » It IX e> «z nr c 9 v> a ;(i* o a' 
•i 1^ li * W ft* tt -e ^ « k; «« 




THE ENTHUSIASM OF THE JAPANESE. 



This Japanese cartoon is intended to sliow that all Japan is in arms— even the wooden sp.>on 

and the cat. 



March II, 1904. 



ATTACK ON PORT ARTHUR. 



291 



which figure the men drowned or killed on board the Stereguschtchi were not included. As her crew- 
numbered 55, the total Russian loss was 79, or thereabouts. Among the Russian wounded were two 
officers. It was said in Port Arthur after this affair that two Russian seamen on board the Stei'egnschiclii 
had gone below when they saw that the capture of the destroyer was certain, and had opened the 
sea-cocks, preferring to perish with the boat rather than survive and see her in the hands of the 
Japanese ; and the story is 
not improbable, as the 
Japanese state that two 
men locked themselves in 
the cabin aft, and could 
not be induced to come 
on deck, so that they went 
<lown with the boat. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

LONG-RANGE 

ATTACK 

ON PORT ARTHUR. 

THE main Japanese 
Fleet, under 
Ad'miral Togo, as 
■soon as the morning of the 
1 1 th broke, proceeded to 
Pigeon Bay, on the west 
-coast of the Kvvangtung 
Peninsula, where from 
•deep water it was in- 
tended to bombard the 
Port Arthur forts at long 
xange, attacking them on 
their reverse, or most 
vulnerable, side. The dis- 
tance from Pigeon Bay to 
•the Russian forts was 
•between six and seven 
miles. The first cruiser 
■squadron of five ships was 
to lie ofif Port Arthur and 
-watch the fall of the Russian sappers throwing up entrenchments round port Arthur. 

projectiles, signalling the result to the admiral, who would be out of sight and on the other side of the 

•peninsula, by means of wireless telegraphy. Yet another detachment of cruisers was ordered to steam to 

Dalny and destroy the signalling station on the Island of Sanshan, from which the Russians were able to 

watch and report the Japanese movements along the coast. 

Two other fast vessels had orders to proceed in advance of the main fleet and make a careful search of 

the western coast of the Kwangtung Peninsula. These vessels were the Takasago and Chihaya ; the\- 

carried out their orders, and detected no sign whatever of any Russian vessels in that 
TofiTo's Plun 

direction, except only the battered wreck of the Vnushitelni, which lay on the shore, 

Jialf submerged and red with rust, where she had been shot to pieces by the Japanese a fortnight before. 




2U 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 



1904. 



Sir Oaude 
Macdoiiald 



About lo a.m. tnc oattieships were in their appointed position and ready to open fire Then the 

bombardment began, the big guns only being used, and being trained so that tneir shells would lall on the 

other side of the lofty ridge which looked down on Pigeon Bay, among the Russian 

" ShelS''*"^^* ships in the harbour, in the town, and in the forts. In particular, efforts were made to 

injure the Rehfisan, and one of the first projectiles struck her and exploded on board 

her as sne lay in the basin, killing or wounding 20 men. Another struck the Sevastopol, exploding against 

her armour-deck, and causing about the same number of casualties. Shells fell in all directions, and no 

place was safe, so that there was a panic in the town. A train which was just entering the station was hit, 

the engine was shattered, 
the driver killed, and the 
stoker severely injured. 

As each shot was fired 
the Japanese cruisers off 
the harbour mouth sig- 
nalled by wireless tele- 
graphy the point where it 
had fallen, so that the 
battleships were able to 
adjust their aim. One 
i2-in. projectile fell in the 
Golden Hill fort, to the 
east of the entrance, and 
exploded a magazine, 
doing great damage to 
the works, and killing or 
wounding a large number 
of men. The Mantow 
Hill fort, to the west of 
the entrance, was hit 
several times, and when 
examined from the sea 
after the bombardment,, 
showed signs of injury ; 
the works were torn down, 
the earth scattered, and 
guns dismounted. In the 
New Town, a suburb of 
Port Arthur, the falling 
shells caused numerous 
fires and considerable loss 

of life, though as quickly as possible all civilians got under cover or fled to the country beyond the town. 

A leading advocate, a Russian colonel's daughter, and other women and children were killed by the shells. 

Immense clouds of smoke rose from the beleaguered city and drifted seawards, obscuring the vision of the 

inferno within, glowing red with flames and the blaze of the shells. 

As the Japanese bombardment progressed the Russians endeavoured to make some sort of reply, though 

the task was difficult for them, since the Japanese ships were quite out of sight, and it was, in consequence,. 

^ necessary, as a preliminary, to organise a service of signals, by which the fall of the shots 

Return Fire. could be announced to the gunners in the forts and ships. The heavy guns of the 

Retvisan were brought into play, and fired over the hills ; while one or two of the forts. 

which mf)unted big. long-range weapons, and which could bring these weapons to bear in the direction of 




ENGLISH MILITARV ATTACHES BKINO KECKIVKI) liV THE JAPANESE EMPEROR 
liEKORE LE.WING FOR THE WAR. 



March 



1904 



FIRES IN PORT ARTHUR. 



293 




DIAGRAMMATIC VIEW. SHOWINl, HOW THK JAPANESt, liAl TLISHII'^ IlKKI) 0\ Kk THK Hll.LS INJO I'OKT ARTHUR. 
Tlie npproximate position of the earlier etigagenients with destro>er> is sliown by crossej swords. 

Pigeon Bay, also replied. Shots began to fall near the Japanese Fleet, but vvithout causing it any damage 
whatever. After firing five rounds from each of their i2-in. guns, thus discharging 120 projectiles, each 
weighing 850 lb., the Japanese battleships withdrew, their object having probably been to force the Russian 
Fleet to come out and to give their gunners some long-range practice. The fleet steamed off to its secret 
rendezvous in the islands to the east of Port Arthur, and as it went three oillars of smoke could be seen 
mounting high in the sky from the fires in the Russian city. 

When the Japanese Fleet retired, the Russian F"leet, under Admiral Makarov, began to leave the 
harbour, and manoeuvred so as to draw the Japanese ships under the fire of the fortress. In this, however, 
it was unsuccess- 
ful, since Admiral 
Togo was much 
too wily a com- 
mander to be 
caught by su 
transparent a de- 
vice. The Novik\ 
with Makarov's 
flag, steamed out 
.some distance 
from the roads to 
.•econnoitre, but 
there was no at- 
tempt to attach 
the Japanese, who 
on their part 
would have been 
only too pleased 
to catch tliL 
Ru.ssians a w a \- 

from the shelter 
N" xin. 




JAl'A.NESK HORSES AKKIVINC. FOR THE FRONT. 



Ij. H. Hare photo. 



294 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 12, 1904. 




JAPANK^K SOLDIERS FENCING IN HAKKACKS. 



of their land batteries. The 
Japanese squadron of cruisers 
wbiich had been sent to Dalrly 
accomplished its work, destroying 
the signal and mine station 
there ; but its action was followed 
by protests in the Russian Press 
to the effect that it had infringed 
the law of nations by shelling 
the lighthouse and life-saving 
station. For these protests, how- 
ever, there appears to have been 
no real foundation, as the Japanese 
action was perfectly justified in 
\ lew of the fact that the Russians 
used the Sanshan Islands for 
military purposes. The Russians 




A COMPANY OF JAPANESF; INFANTRY ON THE MARCH 



[Adelphi Press Agt^ncy. 



all^e that in the fighting of this day the 
Japanese cruiser Taka.sago was severely injured, 
and that a battleship was struck and compelled 
to retire, but, as usual, their claim rested on 
no solid foundation. Apart from the destroyers, 
which were all in service within a week, there 
were no casualties and no damage in the 
Japanese Fleet. 

, On the 1 2th, as the Japanese Fleet was 
nowhere to be .seen, at 
dawn Admiral Makarov got 
under way and proceeded 
cautiously to sea with six large Russian ships, 
among them the battleships Petropavlosk and 
Peresviet, most of the cruisers which remained 
.serviceable, and his destroyers. He kept within 
sight and signalling distance of Port Arthur, 



Makarov's Futile 
Sortie. 




(S. Smith photo. 
COMMISSARIAT CARTS UNLOADING AT THE SHINBOSHI 
STATION, TOKIO. 



March 16, 1904. 



RUSSIAN DESTROYER LOST 



295 




and carefully explored 
the neighbouring waters, 
searching the Miaotao 
Islands, some distance 
to the south of Port 
Arthur, in which it was 
erroneously reported that 
the Japanese destroyers 
were in the habit of 
lurking. He carried out 
manoeuvres at 14 knots. 



[S- Smith photo. 
JAPANESE COMMISSARIAT 
CARTS WITH STORES FOR 
THE FRONT. 

which was a high speed 
for the Russian Fleet, 
and saw nothing of the 
Japanese, though he 
went some thirty miles 
from the port. Towards 
nightfall he returned, 
apparently under the 
impression that the 
Japanese Fleet was 
either afraid to give 
battle, or else had been 
much damaged during 
the bombardment. It 
is probable, however, 
that the Japanese were 
perfectly informed of his 
proceedings, and wished 
to draw him far out, b\' 
inspiring him with a 
delusive confidence, in 
order that they might 
practise against him 
some such stratagem as 
that which a month later 
issued in such complete 
disaster to his fleet. 

On March 16 the 
Russians lost a destroyer, 
erroneously reported at 
the time as the Skori. 
She struck a mine as 



TAKING HOUSES ON BOARD THE JAPANESE SS. 

OF KOBE. 



'SHINSHIU MARU' 



[From a photograph. 
AT THE WHARF 



2% 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 21-2. 1904. 





i:i:ssAN>'r 

_ 't oifsait 



Sex or 

J4PAN 



^^.* 




she was entering the 

roads after a reconnai- 

sance, and was wrecked, 

with the loss of a great 

part of her crew. 

After a little more than 

a week's absence, the 

Japanese Fleet once more 

approached Port Arthur 

on the 

Attack on ■ , . ,<- 

the Harbour. "'^'^^ °^ 

Mar. 21-2, 

preceded as usual by the 
destroyers, which steamed 
into the roads and laid 
sham or real mines under 
a desultory fire from the 
forts. The Russian 
searchlights were turned 
upon them, and the gun- 
boats Bobr and Otvnjnjy 
which were acting as 
guardships at the entrance 
to the harbour, opened a 
heavy cannonade upon 

them,but,as was generally |i^£^^^^^2BE%|f^ the case, without making any hits or inflicting any 
damage. With daylight |N^S|^^^aflflK|gtt^ the Japanese battleships arrived and proceeded to 
I'igeon Bay, where the battleships Fuji and Yashi.ma began a bom- 

bardment of the harbour and landward side of the defences. 

" \ was fast asleep,'' writes a Russian correspondent in Port Arthur, " w hen I was awakened by an 
uproar so terrific that it seemed to me as if the w hole house in which 1 was sleeping was collapsing. 
However, the house was 
uninjured, and after a 
moments reflection I dis- 
covere<! that a Japane.se 
p-in, .shell had just burst 
It must be 
that these 
more than 
three feet high, and are 
charged with high explo- 
sive, which tears the mass 
of steel into hundreds of 
fragments that are hurled 
in all directions, sometimes 
to a di.stance of 6oo yards. 
. . . I hurried to the 
harbour ; from all direc- 
tions s^jidiers and Chinese, ,k. ,,. „,,„. ,ho.o. 

wives of officers -inr-l lifl.L PACKS CARRVIXi; HKAVV OVKRCO \TS AND HT-ANKKTS TO THK JAPAKP;sE 

i.ci.'), diiu bOLUIKKS IN KOKKA WHO ADVANCKl) .\OKTH WITHOUT THK.M. 



^lose to US. 
remembered 
shells stand 




March 22 1904. 



ATTACK ON PORT ARTHUR 



297 




JAPANESE CONSTRUCTING A ROAD FOR THEIR TROOPS THROUGH T^E KOREAN RICE-FIELDS. 

civilians employed in Port Arthur, were rushing up. A heavy thunder filled the air with uninterrupted 

vibration. At each instant columns of dark smoke rose from the water, and from out of the centre of 

the smoke sped with a whistling and roaring sound splinters of steel. One after another our ships weighed 

anchor and moved out against the enem\-. The Retvrsatt and Taarevitch remained in the basin, but they 

also played a part in 

the action. Pointing the 

huge muzzles of their 

i2-in. guns towards the 

sky, they hurled their 

ponderous projectiles 

over Mount Laotishan 

against the Japanese. 

Notwithstanding the 

uproar of the cannonade 

from the shore we could 

hear the stirring strains 

of the Russian National 

Anthem from the crew 

of the Petropavlosk as 

she left the harbour. 

" I now determinea to 
go to one of the batteries 
on Golden Hill, whence 




KOREAN COOLIES WAITIN(; FOR WORK. 



[F. McKenzie photo. 



298 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 22, 1904. 



the whole horizon can be seen. 

. . . Under my eyes I had an 

incomparable panorama. Fai 

away in the distance the sea 

melted into 

An Eye-Witness's , , 

Story. '^y' '^"d 

there, on the 

very line of the horizon, could 

be seen tiny ships, like children's 

toys or diminutive flat-irons, in 

regular order. They were the 

Japanese cruisers, ten in number. 

" ' How far av\ ay are they ? ' 

I asked the commander of the 

battery. '13,000 to 16,000 

yards,' he replied. ' Since the 

attack of February 9, they do not 

venture within close range of our 

batteries. They are content to 

try and draw our fleet out to 

sea, while our ships in turn 

u.selessly endeavour to tempt them within range of our forts.' Beneath the precipices, at our feet, we saw 

our cruisers and battleships appear one by one, led by the Novik, whose daring has made her famous 

in the Fleet. At once the Japanese began to fire with perfect accuracy upon the harbour entrance. 

Projectiles began to fall, now in front of and now to the rear of our batteries. ... A shell passed close 

t&4is.-and a few seconds later we heard the roar of its explosion in the port. . . . Our squadron had now 




[F. McKenzie photo. 
KOREANS WATCHING THE APPROACH OF JAPANESE VESSELS TO CHEMULPO. 




LANDING JAPANESE .SOLDIERS AT CHINNAMPO. 



[J. H. Hart photo. 



March 22, 1904. 



JAPANESE RETREAT. 



299 




LANDING JAPANESK TROOPS ON THE KOREAN COAST. [J. H. Hare photo. 

gained the roads in formation of battle, and moved towards the Japanese. Seeing this, the Japanese ships 
began to draw ofif eastwards, and at the same time we saw their six battleships, one by one, conift,out of 
Pigeon Bay and threaten our flank. The last Japanese ship was far behind the others, and a telephonic 
message informed us that a shell from the Retvisan had fallen on her deck and caused a fire in her." 

According to Admiral Togo's report, the number of Russian ships that came out was five battleships, 
four cruisers, and a number of destroyers. It was therefore evident that the injuries to the Poltava, Askold, 



► 




JAPANESE CROSSING TATUNG RIVER FOR PING YANG, 



[R. L. Dunn photo. 



300 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 22, 1904. 



Effects of 
the Firing. 



and Diana had been com- 
pletely repaired, and that 
the Sevastopol had not 
.suffered serious damage 
from the 
shell which 
had struck 
her in the previous bom 
bardment. The Russian 
Fleet opened an indirect 
fire upon the Japanese 
battleships, but without 
inflicting any serious 
injury on Admiral Togo. 
The Russian loss in this 
affair was officially re- 
turned at 7 killed and 12 
wounded. The damage 

done in the town was 

j.xH.ANKSE iNFANTRVMEN RESTING. [Adeiphi Pres. Agency. again Considerable. Thcrc 

was much discussion as to the reasons which led the Japanese to attempt these repeated long-range 
bombardments, but probably the real truth was that Admiral Togo wished to force the Russian Fleet out, 
and at the .same time to test and discover the points from which the Russian fortress could be most 
effectually attacked. 





JAPANESE SOLDIERS ANU KOREAN COOLIES. 



IR L. Dunn photo. 



F.'h., 1904. 



EN ROUTE TO PING YANG. 



301 




tk. 1-. Dunn photo. 



COOLIES EX ROUTE TO PING YANG— A PORTION" OF 5.000 COOLIES IN LINK. 




JAPANESE CAVALRY SCOUTING NEAR PING YANG. 



[R. L. Dunn photo. 



302 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb.. 1904. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
THE JAPANESE ADVANCE IN KOREA— CHEMULPO TO THE YALU. 

THE Japanese detachment, landed at Chemulpo on the evening of February 8, was but the 
advance guard of the 1 2th Division, which was intended to follow it so soon as the Russian Fleet 
had been driven into the harbour of Port Arthur, and placed under the care of Admiral Togo's 
squadron. With extraordinary foresight the Japanese" Gov'ernment on the eve of war had taken every 
possible precaution to assure its hold upon Korea. Japanese reservists' had been 
KmroaL*^ stationed at Seoul and Chemulpo, and along the main roads running north and south 

from Seoul. They were without uniforms, but rifles and ammunition had been provided 
for them, and deposited with Japanese residents who could be trusted. Thus the small advance guard 




<*^ 




« t*s 




JAPANESK TROOPS CROSSING A RIVER ON THE WAV TO THE YALU. 



LR. L. Dunn photn. 



was rapidly reinforced, and was able speedily to secure all the important strategic positions near the 
Korean capital. 

It was known that the Russians had a considerable force on the north bank of the Yalu, with detach- 
ments to the south of the river ; and in the early days of the war the Japanese feared a bold dash on the 

part of the much-vaunted Cossacks upon Seoul. From Seoul to the Yalu is a distance 
Yalu. '^^ ^3° miles by road ; the country is hilly and difficult, abounding in excellent defensive 

positions, where a handful of skilfully-directed horsemen, such as the Cossacks were 
supposed to be, might have delayed for days a large army, with but insignificant risk to themselves. The 
roads were either slippery with ice, or, in the occasional thaws, rivers of mud ; and, under either condition, 
were excessively trying to heavily laden men and transport animals. Sea transport could not be employed 
to the north of Chemulpo, as in February the inlets and harbours on the coast were still inaccessible by 
reason of the ice. Till the spring drew nearer and the northern harbours were open, the Japanese did not 



Feb. 12. 1904. 



ARRIVALS AT CHEMULPO. 



303 




JAPANESE AN'D KOREANS MAKING THE SPECIAL ROADWAY ACROSS THE TATUNG RIVER. """ P '">"- 

contemplate placing a large force in Korea ; all that they intended was to secure the country up to the Yalu 
by the end of April. This task was entrusted to the First Army, under the command of General Kuroki, 
composed of three Divisions — the Guards, 2nd, and I2th — each about 25,000 strong, with their reserve 
brigades, which, however, did not take the field till after the first few weeks of war. 

On February 12, the second detachment of the I2th Division, which led the invasion of Korea, began 
to arrive at Chemulpo, and from that date onwards to the close of the month the movement of the division 
with its baggage and stores to Korea steadily continued. Seventy-five transports entered at Chemulpo 
during the month of February with a displacement of 130,000 tons. The landing was effected under the 




[R. I.. Dunn photo. 
LIEUTENANT-GENERAL INOUVE, COMMANDER OK THE JAPANESE I2TH DIVISION AND STAFF AT SEOUL. 



304 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM 



FeK. 1904. 




J\I'AM.--K -dl.DIKKS I'.AllllM, IX 1C.\' UAII.K. 
As ihe lrooi» nurched from Seoul to Ping Yang they washed their clothes and some batlied in an icj- river 




Arrival at 
Chemulpo. 



(Faoimile «!tclch hy ShciJon ^^ i.luiliK. 
THE HRST SKIKMIMI XKAK I'lXO NAM;, 



superintendence of Colonel Sakakibara, 
who was charged with all the arrange- 
ments. The difficultier, to be faced 
were great; at 
Chemulpo the tide 
is extremely strong, 
and ships ha\e to anchor at a distance 
of nearly two miles from the shoic. But 
the Japanese displa)'ed on this occasion, 
as on others, their usual method and 
foresight. JCach of their transports 
carried a number of large, fiat-bottomed 
sam])ans, or' native boats, while a host 
of small steam launches anri tugs arrived 
from Jai)an, contemijonmeousl)- with the. 
coming I if the trans|)orls. 'J"he launches 
were to tow the sampans against the 
strong tide. To carrj' provisions and 
.ammunition for the troops when placed 
ashore, a number of two - wheeled 
Japanese carts, each dragged by two or 
tl'.rce military coolies, were brought in 



306 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb., 1904. 




JAPA.NKSE EN ROUTE FOR PING VANG. 



IR. L. Dunn photo. 

the ships, packed cleverly, with the wheels removed and tied across the carts, so that they took up little space. 
With them were .some larger carts, drawn by Japanese or Korean ponies. Of field artillery there was little, 
since the Korean roads were too bad for guns of weight and power; but the I2th Division's guns were 




XKANSPOKT CRO.SSING A l'(i.\l(M)\ i;KIIi(;i' 



I. lATUNG RIVER. 



M-i^j 



r.ii fy 



:ih>'i 



\j^: . 



v-'i i*t 










308 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb., 1904. 




i.l-.M KAI, INiilVI-.. 
Commander of tbe Japan:»e 13th Division. 

already a large Japanese garrison in that place. 
He allowed himself to be taken prisoner by the 
Cossacks, making an ineffectual attempt to escape. 
The Russians examined his papers, and jumped 
to the conclusion that they had captured a most 
important prize, as it never occurred to them that 
the letters and despatches might have been 
specially concocted to mislead them. This, 
however, actually was the case, and it was 
because of Major Togo's papers that the Russian 
forward movement was conducted with such 
extreme caution, at a time when there was 
nothing to resist the Cossacks had they dared to 
take some risks. 

To support the documents which had been 
allowed to fall into the hands of the Russians, it 
was necessary for the Japanese 
to place at least a pretext 
of a garrison in Ping Yang. 
It would have been impossible for the troops 
landed at Chemulpo to march to the 
town in time, so a small detachment 
of 250 infantryman was landed at 
Haiju, the nearest port which was 
free from ice. In a direct line, the 
distance was 85 miles over bad 
roads, through difficult country, and 
the weather was terribly severe. 
Nevertheless, such was the magnificent 



mainly of the mountain pattern, carried on mules or pack- 
horses, which, no doubt, was one of the reasons why 
this force had been selected as the vanguard. To assist 
in moving the stores and supplies to the front, a host of 
Korean coolies were engaged by the Japanese at wages 
which were fabulously high for the Far East. These 
Koreans were capable of carrying with ease 150 lb, 
weight upon their backs for a long day's march. 

As fast as each Japanese unit arrived, it was hurried by 
train to Seoul, and thence pushed forward in the direction 

of Ping Yang, the strategic centre of 

A Japanese Ruse. ,, ^u i^ r- ^ ^\ 

>«orthern Korea. Great was the 

Japanese fear that the Russians would anticipate them 

by seizing this point. As there were circumstantial 

reports, early in February, that the Russians were crossing 

theYalu in force, the Japanese re.sorted to a very ingenious 

ruse. An officer of the General Staff, Major Togo, with a 

little detachment of eight men, was sent north to Wiju. 

He had upon him what looked like important papers — 

the outline of a plan for moving 75,000 men to Ping Yang, 

and letters which appeared to show that there was 



The Pingr Yang 
Garrison. 




[Adelphi Press Agency. 
A TYPICAL JAPANESE INFANTRYMAN OF THE FIRST RESERVE. 



310 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 20, 1904. 




spirit of the Japanese 
troops that they accom- 
plished their march in 
four days, and in the very 
nick of time entered Ping 
Yang. Not one man fell 
out of the ranks during the 
march, notwithstanding the 
long distance covered, the 
snowstorms, the bivouacs 
in the frost and ice. The 
moment the city had been 
seized, the handful of 

Japanese set to work to fortify it and to repair the breaches in its ancient walls. The order had been given 
to them that they were not to surrender, but to fight to the last, and it was no idle boast, as they were 
prepared to a man to fulfil it. With all possible speed a Japanese brigade was hurried up from Chemulpo, 
to reinforce this small but heroic advance guard ; yet, despite the most strenuous efforts, it was still a 
day's march off when the Russians appeared before Ping Yang. 

This was one of the most critical moments of the campaign. But bravery and judgment brought the 
Japanese through it with success, at the e.xpense of^he sagacity and the fighting power 
of the much-vaunted Cossacks. On February 20, four hundred Cossacks, detached 
from a force under General Mistchenko, which had crossed the Yalu at Wiju, entered 
the little Korean village of Sonchong, distant somewhat over a hundred miles from Ping Yang, and 



A GL1.MPSE .\T PING VA.Nu I UjM illL. Rn tK JAILM.,. 
Ic is now occupied by the Japanese, and was the scene of an important battle between the Chinese and Japanese. 



Russian Advance 
to Ping Yangr. 




C.VKIUKt BY THE JAPANKSK OF THE GATE OF PING YANG, FEBRUARY 28. 



Feb. 28, 1904. 



A THRILLING MOMENT. 



31 




JAP.VNESE OFFICER RIDING AN OX, 
,• And led by a soldier, enteiing Ping Yang. 

the telegraph which Japanese agents had cut, and made 
Anju, only 50 miles off Ping Yang, his headquarters. 
Thence, on February 28, five strong Russian detachments 
were pushed south, up to Ping Yang, to ascertain whether 
the reports that a large Japanese force was there were 
really correct. 

It was a solemn moment in the campaign, and in the 
annals of the world, when over the snow-clad hills to the 

north, the Cossacks in their dull green 

A Critical -r ■ ,, ■ u^ c ^u 

Moment uniforms came into sight of the 

ancient and holy city of Korea — the 

city that had seen many generations of mortal men and 

such strange vicissitudes in human affairs. It had risen 

to greatness in the days when David and Solomon ruled 

over the people of Israel. Its records stretched back 

unbroken for over three thousand years. And now its 

historic walls were to witness the rolling back of the 

tide of the Western invasion, which throughout the 

nineteenth century had seemed to threaten the life of 

A.sia with submergence. As the Cossacks came on, the 



marched on to Chongju. It was^ 
followed by two whole regiments of 
Cossacks with seven mountain guns, 
while behind this force again came 
Russian infantry. The object of 
this formidable column had originally 
been to seize Ping Yang ; but alarmed 
by the tone of the papers found on 
IVIajor Togo, and without any in- 
formation from his own Intelligence 
Department, General Mistchenko had 
determined to make his advance 
very cautiously. He had much 
baggage with him, whereas the 
Japanese had marched unencum- 
■ bered, and he himself rode in a 
carriage. As one result of this, his- 
movements were deliberate in the 
extreme. As he moved, he repaire 



[R. L. Dunn photo. 
KOREAN SENTRY AT THE GATE OF PING YANG 
WHEN THE JAPANESE TROOPS ENTERED. 



312 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Feb. 28, 1904. 




[R. L. Dunn photo. 



JAPA.NESE ENTERING THE GATE OF PING YANG. 



liandful of Japanese 
manned the northern wall 
of the city, and opened 
upon them the most rapid 
fire possible with magazine 
rifles. The roar of the 
fusillade seemed to betoken 
the presence of a large 
force, and, without more 
ado, the Russian officer in 
command closed up his 
telescope and gave the 
order to retire. The dark 
columns recrossed the 
snow-clad hills, and for 
the Japanese the crisis 
had passed without a 
single man on their side 
being killed. 

So bold a front had 
been shown by this little 
band of Japanese heroes, 
so deep an impression had 
Major Togo's papers 
wrought on General 




THE JAHAM^h hKCuNO DIVISUJN ENTEKING PING VANG. 
ThU division was commanded by Baron Nishi and consisted of 2o.ooo"men. 



Feb., 1904. 



RUSSIANS RETIRE. 



313 




JAPANESE PIONEERS (5TH DIVISIONS BUILDINC. A liklUGE AT VOSHl.MA. 



The Russians 
Retire. 



Mistchenko's mind, that he seemed from this moment to be seized with panic, which was not allayed when 

the rumour reached him that a strong Japanese force had landed at Gensan, on the east coast of Korea, 
a hundred miles away, and was marching over bad mountain roads to cut him off. 
Yet this force had no substantial existence ; it was anotlier of the chimeras artfullx' 
created by the Japanese Staff to terrif}' the Russians, which worked with admirable 

effect. To their stupefac- 
tion, the people of Chongju 

saw the Russian columns 

hurrying northwards, back 

to the Yalu, though only 

a few days before thev' 

had been vaunting their 

determination to deal a 

heavy blowat the Japanese. 

The Russian privates re- 
ported that they had been 

to look for the Japanese 

and had not found them ; 

their officers sadly declared 

that reinforcements which 

had been expected had 

failed to arrive, and that, 

ill consequence of a change- 
in the plan of campaign, 

they were returning ndrth 

. A. u ■ I) 1 THE FIRST JAPANESE RESERVES M \RCHlN(i THROUCH 

to Manchuria. But when en route for the front 




[Drawn In' Slicldori Williams. 
STREETS OF TOKIO 



314 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March, 1904. 



Sonchong was reached, the 
Russians halted and 
stopped their retreat. 
Their communications 
were no longer in serious 
clanger, and they waited 
for the coming of the 
Japanese, pushing out 
small patrols to the south, 
to . ascertain what was 
happening in that quarter. 
Meanwhile, the Japanese 
were pouring every avail- 
able man into Ping Yang, 
and earl)' in March were 
in an absolutely secure 
position. 

Having seized Ping 
Yang, there was a pause 
in the Japanese move- 
ments till the ice upon the coast should thaw, and a landing at some point nearer the Yalu than Chemulpo 
become practicable. Early in March the ice broke at Chinnampo, a port on the Tatung 
ChinnamDo River, close to Ping Yang, and hither the Guards and 2nd Division were at once 

despatched and disembarked, completing General Kuroki's army. Even so, they 
did not bring with them their heavier artillery ; that was left on board the transports, to be moved by 




[l)i.ivMi from uii olTicial pfiotograph. 
.I.\1'.\.NKSE SOLDIERS AT TRKl,cLI.Ml,liNG DRILL. 




JAPANESK TkOOl'S ENTERING A 



VILLAOE. 



tK. L. Dunn photo. 



March 12, 1904. 



JAPANESE ORGANISATION. 



315 




RETREATING COSSACKS FIRED AT BY JAPANESE 
This incident toOK qiace on Marcli 28, after the Japanese had razed the castle of Cliongju. 

sea as close as possible to the Yalu, and thus avoid the exhausting journey by land over the execrable 
Korean roads. Chemulpo was for all practical purposes abandoned, and a new base was created — one 
of the results of the command of the sea being that an army advancing parallel with the coast can 

perpetually shorten its line of communications by seizing 
fresh bases as the advance proceeds. On March 12 a 
Japanese detachment was pushed forward to Anju, after 
an interchange of shots with the Russians at Pak-chon on 
the 8th, without any serious fighting, and began to bridge 
the river there. 

In the advance the Japanese moved unencumbered with 
baogage, and suffered great hardships, having to sleep at 
night, wet through, on the snow, so 
Japanese ^^^^^ many fell out with dysentery or 

pneumonia. Yet every possible pre- 
caution was taken for their welfare, and they themselves 
showed the noblest spirit. They were well clad to face 
the cold, and each carried a thick blanket, in addition 
to a heavy greatcoat. All along the line of their advance 
depots of food appeared as if by magic, illustrating the 
care and forethought of the Japanese commissariat. 
European observers were startled b)' the evidence of 
organising power which they saw, and by the extra- 
ordinary efficiency of the troops. There was no shouting 
A MEMBER OF THE JAPANESE ARMrMEDicAT CORPS, of ordcrs among the Japanese; there was no display; 




316 JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. March 28, 1904, 

no military bands accompanied the dark blue legions as they streamed northward to meet the forces of the 
Czar; the Japanese host seemed almost to move by stealth. A veil of profound obscurity hid even the 
smallest incidents from the outside world ; the Japanese nation was not conducting this war for the benefit 
of newspaper readers, but to safeguard its very existence. Correspondents were not welcomed, or allowed 
to telegraph any but the veriest trivialities. It was Asia, Westernised and reformed, going forth to battle, 
and from of old Asia has preferred silence to talk. And the effectiveness of this policy of silence and 
secrecy was greatly increased by the deficiencies of the Russian Intelligence Department, which remained in 
almost complete ignorance of the movements of the Japanese. The Russian maps were defective, while the 
Japanese were perfection ; the Russians lacked interpreters, and so were at the mercy of every rumour, while 
the Japanese iiad taken care to train for this purpose a large number of their own citizens. 

As it is one of the excellent customs of the Japanese, while hoping for success, to make every preparation 
for defeat, in the rear of the advancing army strong fortifications were constructed at Ping Yang, and on the 

high ground to the south of that town, between it and Seoul, upon which a beaten army 
With Korea *-"ould retire and receive reinforcements by sea. At the same time the construction of a 

light railway between Seoul and Ping Yang was taken active!}- in hand. After 
prolonged negotiations, on February 23 a Treaty between Japan and Korea liad been signed, which \irtually 
placed Korea under Japanese protection and rendered it a Japanese province. Suggestions were made by, 
various Eurofiean Powers to England and the United States that the\- should protest against this course of 
action on the part of the Japanese, but neither Government would take any step likely to embarrass Japan, 
and these suggestions were gently but firmly declined. One curious result, however, this Treaty did produce^ 
The Russians got wind of the negotiations before the Treaty was signed, and claimed that, since Korea had: 
joined Japan as an ally in the war, the case provided for under the I'ranco-Russian Treaty of Alliance had 
ari.scn, and France was bound to support Russia. This, it need scarcely be said, would have brought 
England into the field forthwith, under the terms of her Treaty with Japan, aiul the consequence of the 
Russian action was a great panic on the I'rench Stock Exchange on February 20, accompanied by the 
failure of one or two French firms. But the French Government wisely declined to interxene, so that after 
this crucial test it was evident that foreign intervention in the w'ar was little to be feared. This was the first 
great service which Japan reaped from her foresight in concluding the Alliance w itii Great Britain. 

Late in March, after con.siderable delay, due to the badness of the roads and the severitx" of the 
weather, the Japanese advance was resumed from .Anju, and on the 17th the outposts of the two armies were 

in touch on the little river Chengchong, which flows just to the north of Anju ; a week 
Cnone^u" ° later, on March 23, there was a brush between 100 Cossacks, wiio were scouting on this 

river, and 30 Japanese cavalr)'. .A few volleys were exchanged, and the Japanese lost a 
couple of men, while .some small loss was inflicted upon the Russians. The latter, on .seeing that Japanese 
reinforcements were coming up, fell back towards Chongju, while the Japanese advance guard seized the line 
of the Chengchong, and fortified a strong position along it. The Russians had now withdrawn all their 
infantry and artillery across the Yalu, and w ere rejjorted to be strongly fortifying a position on the mountains 
north of that stream, near Kuliencheng ; a thousand Cossacks remained to the south to watcli the Japanese 
movements. 

On the 28th the first combat of the land war took phicc at Chongju. Tiiat day 600 of the Transbaikal 
Cossacks were .sent south by General Mistchenko, under General Pavloff, tcj .ittack a small detachment of 
Japanese repjrted to the south of Chongju, which place was understood not as vet to have been seized by 
the Japanese. The Russians reached Chongju, and occupied it, but took no piecautions tf) place it in a 
.state of defence. It is an ancient walled citv, which has fallen into decay, and which contains large open 
spaces within its walls. Just as the Russians had effected their entrance, a number of Japanese scouts, 
.supported by a small bfjdy of mounted men, appeared outside the south gate of the city, and, apjjroaching 
.somewhat incautiously, were received with a heav)- fire. Their position was for some hours precarious, when 
fortunately for them a strong detachment of Japanese infantry, which was moving against Chongju from the 
cast, arrived outside the east gate of the town, opened fire on the Russians, and seiz>ed an important 
eminence, from which the Japanese could threaten the retreat of the Russian.s. Noting tin's moxcmcnt, tiie: 



318 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 4, 1904. 




BRIDGE-MAKERS OK THE RUSSIAN ARMY. 
The 6th Pontoon Battalion of the Engineers. 



Cossacks, in fear of being 
cut off, hurriedly 
evacuated the town, 
falh'n^ back on a wood 
outside it. Here they 
were repeatedly attacked 
by the Japane.se, who 
charged them with the 
utmost determination, 
and finally drove them 
back with a loss of some 
20 officers and men 
killed or wounded. The 
Japanese loss was i6, 
though it was absurdly 
exaggerated by the 
Russians, who pretended 
that 40 Japanese had 
been buried and 100 
wounded carried off. 
The performance of the Cossacks in this encounter was not a verj' satisfactory one, and the}' abandoned 

a strong position with insignificant loss, though b)' holding it resolutely they might have caused the 

Japanese some inconvenience. Indeed, the Japanese were amazed at the apathy with 

'' Wiiu '^ which the Russians permitted them to occupy position after position, almost without 

firing a .shot, and to move forward, practically unresisted, from Chemulpo to the Yalu. 

After the affair at Chongju, the Japanese rapidly advanced, with all their three divisions concentrated, ready 

to accept battle if the Ru.ssians offered it ; but once more there was no real resistance, and on April 4, at 

1 1 a.m., they entered the 

town of Wiju, which 

stands on the banks of 

the Yalu, opposite the 

Chinese city of Kulien- 

cheng. The first stage 

of the land war was over, 

and the Japanese were ii) 

undisputed possession of 

Western Korea. No 

Russians remained to the 

south of the Yalu, but on 

the opposite bank a 

formidable position could 

be made out which had 

been entrenched, though 

the works were not as yet 

of a strong nature. There 

were reports that an army 

of 40,000 Russians, under 

General Sassulitch, was 

stationed there to dispute 

the pas.sage, but the Russian troops off to the front. 




(J. F. J. Aicltibald (>li.Au. 



320 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 25, 1904. 




Russian stren 



Russia's Useless 
Enterprises. 



Japanese 

were not m 

these tale 

taincd ths 

w.Ls betwe 

only a moderate amount of artiller)', and that there regiment of kussian i.nfamkv on the .march. 

\va.s no prospect whatever of its being reinforced in the immediate future. They set to work to prepare the- 

crossing of the river — always a difficult and dangerous tasl< in the face of an active and well-handled enemy,, 

but the preparations involved some weeks' pause in the operations. 

As for the Cossacks withdrawn from Western Korea, they appear to have retired northwards, and then- 

to have made a wide sweep and crossed the Yalu at Chosan, with the object of making a fresh southward 

movement in Eastern Korea. At the 
same time, according to Russian tele- 
grams and reports, ^ 
large Russian force 
was assembling on 
the River Tumen, which marks the 
boundary between Korea and Siberia. It 
was destined to move southward along 
the east coast, and threaten Seoul. liut 
as this army only e.-^isted in the im- 
agination of the Russians, being actually 
represented at this date by a few 
hundred Cossacks, the Japanese paid littlb 
or no attention to its doings, and com!- 
placently permitted it to waste its energies- 
in this remote field of the war amongst 
the snowy mountains and uninhabited 
wastes of north-eastern Korea. On 

March 25 the Cossacks were reported! 
at Pukchon, some distance to the north- 
cast of Gensan, where the Japanese had |i 
garrison, and they burned the Japane.-e 
settlement at the little Korean port qf 
Songchin. These achievements were of 
no serious importance, and had no in- 
fluence on the course of the war other 
than to weaken the Russian forces in 
Manchuria, where it was vital for them 





M 












1 

1. — 



IHfc .\LWsl'Al'KK COkkkSPO.NlJliNr CONCtALEU HIMSELK IN IHE 
SHAKT.JUN.NEL OF THE " HANVEI MARU." 



March 25, 1904. 



AT PORT ARTHUR. 



m 




TROOP OF URAL COSSACKS 



THE FIELD. 



[Bolak photo. 

to be strong. The Japanese were perfectly aware that tlie Russians could not do an)- 

real damage or advance to any great distance, since the roads by which they and their trains of waggons 
-would have to move ran along the coast, so that at any moment it chose the Japanese Fleet would be able 
to cover a landing which would cut off the Russian retreat. Thus the Russians were left free to 
•commit mistakes and to dissipate their forces in useless enterprises. 

CHAPTER XIX. 
THE PORT ARTHUR FLEET GAINS THE OPEN .SEA— SECOND ATTEMPT TO 

CLOSE THE HARBOUR. 
After his bombardment of Port Arthur on March 22, Admiral Togo left the Russians for some days tt> 
their own devices, while he prepared four ships for another attempt to close the harbour. Yet, though the 




THE JAPANESE BLOCKINi;-PARTV. 

'.riiese apc the crcv of the " Hokoku Maru," who participated in the first attempt to block Port Arthur under Comm.inder Hirose, who sits third from the right 

in the front row. 



322 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 26. 1904. 




Illi: MiiDN ^IMNi: I'.KIi^HTI.V A^ 1 UK JAI'A\K>K Fl.Kirr SI'KAMiOII TOWARDS PORT ARTHUR ON TIIK SKCON'H 

BLOCK.1NU EXPEDITION. 

Japanese had to all appearances disappeared from the waters of the Gulf of Korea, they kept Port Arthur 

Watching Port under occult observation, and Admiral Makarov was able to move nowhere without 

Arthur. their being aware of his absence from his base. How exactly this close surveillance 

wa.s accomplished remains something of a mystery, and there are good reasons why the veil should not 

for the present be lifted. 
But in the following days 
the Japanese had one 
moment of extreme 
anxiety. 

On March 26 it was 
known that Admiral 
Makarov had put to sea 
from Port Arthur, and was 
steaming southwards, ap- 
])arently with the intention 
of running along the 
Chinese coast for the open 
sea and Vladivostock. 
Many Japanese officers 
with Admiral Togo's fleet, 
which was stationed in 
the Hall Archipelago, on 
the Korean coast, were in 




RUSSIAN 



.\ND NURSES ON THEIK UAi lu iilL lUO.M. 




THE SFXOND ATTEMPT TO BLOCK PORT ARTHUR. 

kuiisian sbios and battferies repelling Admiral Togo's second attempt to seal up Port Arthur by sinking merchaut ships. Four mercbantmeii were sent in by the 

Japanese, accompanied by six lorDeilo-boats. 



324 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Mar;h 26. 1904. 




fa\our of steamiiifj 
forthwith for the 
Straits of Korea to 
intercept his passage. 
But Admiral fogo, 
with the cahn and 
balanced' judgment 
which is the greatest 
endowment a com- 
mander-in-chief can 
possess, argued that 
Makarov would never 
dare so greatly ; that 
he could not abandon 
Port Arthur, leaving 
in it two battleships 
and a cruiser unfit for 
s^a ; and that, though 

the wisest course for him would have been to quit Port Arthur, political reasons and the fear of incurring 
the Czar's displeasure would prevent his taking so bold a step. In this opinion subsequent events proved 
that Admiral Togo was triumphantly correct, and once more demonstrated his supreme excellence as a 
leader in war. 

As a matter of fact the Russians did not venture far afield. They were burning Japanese coal, which 
makes dense clouds of smoke, so that their course could be easily followed from a 
distance, while the Japanese used only Welsh coal, which costs double or treble as much, 
but makes no smoke at all. Hence the Japanese had secured invisibility, and could 
watch tneir enemj-, them.selves unseen. The Russians put to sea early on the morning of March 26 with 
the battleships Peresviet, Pctropavlosk, and Pobieda, and the cruisers Bayan and Askold, and searched the 
Miaotau Islands for any traces of Japanese destroyers. They were thus engaged inside Chinese waters when 
suddenly a small steamer came into view. The ves.sel was the Hanvei M.\ru, and had been engaged by a 
Tokio newspaper, the" Asahi," whose correspondent she had on board. Seeing several destroj-ers, and, in the 
far distance, the forms of numerous large warshijjs, her crew jumped to the conclusion that this was Admiral 
Togo's fleet, and stood 



(Photo by Charles Urbitn Trading Co., Ltd., London ; 
C0.MM.\ND1NG OFFICERS OF THE BAIKAL COSSACKS. 



Adventures of the 
'• Hanyei Maru." 



boldly towards the 
strangers. The\' were still 
within the Chinese terri- 
torial limit when the de- 
stroyer Vnimatelny closed 
with them, and discerning 
her Russian flag, they 
discovered what a serious 
mistake they had made. 
It was too late to run. 
The Russian \essel came 
up, fired a shot over 
them, and then boarded 
the Hanyei Maru. The 
Japanese captain hid in 
the bunker ; the corres- 
pondent concealed himself 



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THB 23nl BATTERV OK RUSSIAN AKTILLERV LEAVING GATSCHINA, 
NEAR ST. PETERSBURG. 



326 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 26, 1904. 




KORTS OF PORT ARTHUR. 

in the shaft-funnel, while another of the crew hurriedly got under coils of rope that were lying about, and 
so escaped discovery. 

The rest of the crew, some seventeen in number, were taken off by the Russians, w ho now, supposing 
there was no one left on board, began to fire at the Hanyei Maru to sink her. The men hidden on board 
found themselves in the most unenviable predicament. They could hear the shots striking, and expected 
each moment to be their last. P'ortunately for them, their trial did not last long ; signals were made from 
the fleet for the Russian destroyer to return, and she steamed off, leaving the Hanvei Maru, with a dozen 
holes on the water-line, slowly filling. The Japanese emerged from their hiding-places, and saw, to their 
great relief, that a Chinese junk was coming up a.stern ; with some difficulty they persuaded her crew to 
receive them on board. The seventeen Japanese prisoners taken by the destroyer were liberated and placed 
on another Chinese junk, which was encountered by the Russian Fleet as it was returning to Port Arthur. 

When this exploit had 
been accomplished, the 
Russians returned to Port 
•Arthur, after steaming for 
an hour or two in the 
direction of Wei-hai-wei. 
Though they made no 
attempt to run for Viadi- 
vostock, the Japanese de- 
termined, if possible, to 
deprive them of any chance 
of repeating their --orties. 

That same evening the 
Japanese Fleet, consisting 
of two battleships — the 
others were on detached 
duty, or undergoing 
overhaul — si.x armoured 
cruisers, lour protected kussia.v artillery in ca.mpaioning outfit in manchukia. 




328 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM 



March 26, 1904. 




THE SOLDIERS' CANTEEN HALF WAY 



,l';..a., Ll...;lc» Uilj.ui liuduii; Co., Lid., Lu 
.\CROSS LAKE BAIKAL. 



cruisers, and sixteen torpedo craft, including destroyers and the large new torpedo boats with whicli the 
Japanese Fleet was equipped — vessels almost equal in their fighting qualities to destroyers — set out from 

the naval base, convoying four merchant steamers which had been prepared for sinking 
Steamers. '" ^'^^ fairway. The vessels, as before, were filled with stones and old rails, over which 

liquid cement had been run, converting the contents of their holds into huge monoliths of 
-Stone and steel, almost indestructible, except by heavy and prolonged blasting. Their names were the 
FCKUI M.\RU of 2,944 tons, the Chiyo M.aru of 1,746, the Yonevama Maru of 2,693, 'i"cl the 
Yahiko Maru. All were old vessels of small value. On this occasion they were armed with a few old 
Hotchki.ss quick-firing guns, for use against the Russian torpedo craft. In command of the vessels were 
the same officers as on the previous occasion ; they had claimed it as a right, and Admiral Togo had felt 
him.seir unable to refuse. The crews, however, were changed. Commander Arima was in charge of the 




[Photo Charles Urban Trading Co., Ltd., London and Paris. 
TR.^NSPORT SLEDGES FOR TRANSIT ACROSS LAKE BAIKAL. 



March 26. 1904. 



A FINE SPEECH. 



329 



attempt, while under him was the gallant Hirose, now promoted to 
commander's rank, for his bravery in sinking the HOKOKU Maru in the 
previous expedition. Hirose was in the FUKUI Maru, the best and 
fastest of the steamers employed ; he had sworn to close the entrance 
this time or to perish in the attempt, and he fulfilled his vow. 

The seamen and stokers of the explosion ships were picked from all 
the vessels of the Japanese Fleet. As an example of the spirit that moved 

the fleet, this speech made by the ASAMA'.S com- 
YatsusMro^'speeeh. '^^'i^^i'iS officer. Captain Yatsushiro, to the volunteers 

selected on board the As.\MA for the first attempt to 
close the harbour may be quoted. It deserves to live in the memory of 
man for its note of splendid devotion and chivalry : 




COMMANDER HIKOSE, THE BRAVE JAPANESE WHO LOST HIS LIFE 
LOOKING FOR HIS FRIEND SUGINO. 

>et pray that this one might be chosen to face death in the 
performance of a mission so glorious. You, my dear comrades, 
have been honoured with the discharge of this great duty. I 
adjure you to work — to work, though wounded and maimed, to 
the very end. And above all, fail not in instant and strict 
obedience to the orders of those who are set over you. 

" I do not ask you to sell your lives cheaply ; I do not say that 
you will gain fame by sacrificing them needlessly ; nor need I 
tell you that you must be prepared to fall in the interests of 
honour and duty. You will not shrink from death if that duty 
demands. I give you wine to take with you ; you will not use 
it to fill your hearts with courage, but only and solely for the 
injured and wounded. You represent the men of the ASAMA ; 




WARRANT-OFFICER SUC.INO LOST 
HIS LIFE IN THE ATTACK ON 
PORT ARTHUR ON MARCH 27, 
THOUGH HIROSE DID HIS BEST 
TO SAVE IlIM. HE AND HIROSE 
HAD RECEIVED DIFFERENT 

CLASSES OF THE ORDER OF 
THE GOLDEN HAWK THE DAY 
BEFORE THEIR DEATHS. 



" In ordering you upon this mission," 
he said, " I feel as I should if I were 
sending my own beloved children to 
their certain death. Yet had I a 
hundred children, I could not but 
wish that they might all have the 
privilege of undertaking an errand so 
heroic ; had I but one child, I should 




CHILDREN OF THE WAR 
SUGINO, FOR WHOM HIROSE 
WHEN HE LOST HIS 



RANT-OFI'ICER 
WAS LOOKING 
LIFE. 



330 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 26, 1904. 




THE CREW OF COMMANDER HIROSK'S VESSEL. 



These men belonged to the ship on which the commander lost his life. 
of the Master-of-Arms Sugino, for whom Hirose was searching. 



The two small boxes held by one man cont.iiii the remains of Commander Hirose and 
A is the Chief Engineer Kurila, who was wounded, B and C are seamen's coflins. 



do not forget that it would be an exceeding disgrace were it said that they risked their lives onl\' 
under the glow of excitement which wine gives. I long for the glorious moment when you mas- 
return to us, if the Almighty so decrees, after the successful fulfilment of your duty. Then shall we testifv- 
our joy by drinking to you in that same wine which you now take with you. 

" Go, therefore, dear and brave comrades, with perfect faith in the grace of Heaven and courai;c(His 
submission to the will of God ; go, and with serene confidence discharge the great task now entrusted to 
you." 

•At dusk the Japanese Fleet drew near to Port Arthur. The evening was a perfect one ; the sea calm 
and smooth ; and far away in the gloom the intensely bright glare of the Russian searchlights could be 
discerned, as from minute to minute they swept the horizon, searching for signs of the Japanese torpedo 

flotillas. The moon shone 

brightly dur- 
i n g the 
earlier part 
of the night, but was due to sot 
at midnight. Two hours after 
that time the attempt to close 
the harbour was to be made. 
'Ihc steamers, with their escort 
of tor[)edo boats, parted company 
with the main Japanese Fleet, 
and steamed as close as was 
possible without coming within 

MARU," ON WHICH THE CO.MMANDER LOST ,- , „ • , ,• , 

HIS LiFF ' range of the Russian searchlights. 




The Steamers 
Get Out. 



HIKOSE'S SHIP, THE " FUKUl 



March 27, 1904. 



A FRUITLESS SEARCH. 



331 




HIKOSK RETURNED TO THE FAST-SINKING HU^K OF ^HE ^- KUKU. MAKU_^^C^m, .V THE M.AMES OF THE 

RUSSIAN GUNS AND THE GLARE OF THE SLARCHLIGH lb. 



332 



jafan;s fight for freedom. 



March 26, 1904. 




Then they waited 
quietly for the 
moon to set and 
the hour for ac- 
tion to arrive. 

They watched 
the play of the 
great beam of 
flame on Golden 
Hill, which ever 
and anon made 
its slow circuit, 
and then as the 
moon went down 
they began to 
move, at first 
slowly, then at 
full speed, to- 
wards their goal, 

the harbour mouth. For some distance they advanced undiscovered, with the torpedo craft ahead. The 
Chiyo Maru led, the FUKUI came second, the Y.\SHlKO third, and the Yonevam.a. last. The heights 
on which stand the Russian forts now loomed up not far ahead ; the Russian searchlights 
showed plainly the direction in which to steer, when suddenly the beam of the immense 
projector on Golden Hill caught the masts and funnels of the steamers, now only two miles away. It swerved 
from them, and instantly returned ; the glare of it came full in the eyes of Captain Arima, blinding him 
completely, and in an instant blotting out the cliffs and shore. Then it flashed to and fro as if to signal tc 
the garrison that a new attack was opening ; a single gunshot rang out, breaking the silence of night 
and the echo reverberated and died away among the mountains. Forthwith the Russians stood to arms 
and a circle of fire glowed where but a moment before the silent and dark forts had been. The sea was ton 



HIROSE'S BODY ON A GUN-CARRIAGE IN THE STREETS OF TOKIO. 



IS. Smith photo. 



Discoverel ! 




THE SCENE IN TOKIO AT THE FUNERAL OV CO.M.MAXUER HIROSE. 



LS. Smith photo. 



March 27, 1904. 



BLOCKING PORT ARTHUR. 



333 




IS. Smith photo. 
SHINTO PRIESTS ENTERING THE SHRINE AT AOYAMA FOR THE FUNERAL OK COMMANDER 

HIROSE. 



Din and Tumult 



with a tempest 
of projectiles; 
the air was 
shaken with the 
concussion of 
innumerable 
heavy guns firing 
with the utmost 
rapidity; the 
searchlights no 
longer played at 
random over the 
wide sea, but 
kept their beams 
concentrated 
upon the oncom- 
ing ships. 

Through all 

the din and tumult the Japanese officers steered their ships, with eyes steadily fixed upon the point 
a little to the left of the searchlight station, where the entrance lay. The men on board them 
stood ready by the boat-falls, prepared to lower the boats when the order was given ; 
the uproar was so terrific that no sound could be heard but the crash of the cannonade 
and the loud explosion of the shells and shrapnel. It was a fearful melee, yet, strange to say, the four ships 
suffered little injury from the hail of Russian projectiles. The men on board were soaked by the spray of 
the falling .shells, but the storm of steel passed idly over their heads or struck the sea beneath their ships. 
Further out to .sea the Japanese torpedo craft, which had now dropped back astern, replied to the Russian 
fire with their smaller guns, aiming their shells at the searchlights and seeking to attract the attention of the 
Russian gunners. 

On the Russian side the onset of the steamers is thus described by an officer on board the Petropavlosk : 
" At 2.25," he writes, " the batteries opened fire. Three minutes later Admiral Makarov was on the 

Petropavlosk' s deck, where I met him. He 
took me and Lieutenant Kredoff with him, 
and all three of us 
jumped into a steam 
launch, to see what 
. Through the blackness 
of night we saw the blaze of the guns in 
our batteries and on board our gunboats, 
which were engaged in patrolling the 
entrance to the harbour. Just as we 
reached the entrance, the destroyer Silny 
passed out into the outer harbour, followed 
a few minutes after by the Retshitelny. 
Five hundred yards away, towards Golden 
Hill, the outline of a huge Japanese ship 
showed up through the night as she turned 
and swung across the channel, and when 
she had reached the centre of it she let 
[Adeijihi irev. Agency. go her aHchoH We could hear the loud 

THE COFFIN OF LIEUTENANT-COMMANDER HIROSE BEING , ,,• \, c ^U Ul 

CONVEYED INTO THE AOYAMA TEMPLE, TOKio. metallic crash of the cable running out. 




On Board the 
"Petropavlosk." 

was happening. . . 



334 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 27, 1904. 




THE FATHER OF COMMANDER 
HI ROSE. 

fire, in order to prevent 
an explosion, while he 
remained himself on 
board the Bobr. As the 
launch left upon this 
errand the scarchli','hts 
revealed three Japanese 
boats, only a thousand 
yards from us. Their 
men were rowinij hard 
and attempting to regain 
the torpedo flotilla. At 
once our batteries and 
ourgunboats concentrated 
a furious fire on these 
boats, and they became 
at the same time the 
target of all the rifles of 
the infantrymen who had 
been stationed along the 
works of the Tiger Penin- 
sula. Projectiles fell all 
round them, and soon 
we saw them disappear, 
though it was not certain 
that they had been sunk, 
a-s, in the shifting play of 
the searchlights, now 
they were .seen as though 
in the light of day, and 
now again they disap- 
peared in the blackness 
of night Moreover our 



We waited, expecting every instant to see her blow up, but no explosion 
came. Then on our left, right under Golden Hill, a great column of 
water and fire rose to heaven, and our boat was violently shaken. Clearly 
a torpedo had exploded. We moored our launch close under the Bobr, 
which was firing all her guns that would bear ahead upon the Japanese 
torpedo vessels. These were in the full glare of our searchlights, which 
showed up plainly the whole coast-line ; they answered our fire for some 
time, and then ceased firing. 

"At this very moment a great blaze was seen on board the large 

Japanese steamer that had just been sunk across 

the channel. The admiral ordered the launch which 

had brought him to the scene to proceed to the steamer and put out the 



i 











ll>T:iun 1,)- .\Itll.,II l'n.,r. 

THE REMAINS OF CO.M.MANDER lllROSE RECEIVED AX TOKIO. 



March 27. 1904. 



THE '• FUKUl MARU. 



335 









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fire could not have been very deadly, as it was impossible to 
see how the shots fell or to take aim, and our shells were fired 
very much at random. 

" In the meanwhile the fire on board the Japanese ship had 

been extinguished, and Lieutenant Pelle, of the Si/fty, came 

on board the Bodr to report that his torpedo craft had destroyed 

a Japanese steamer under Golden Hill. Immediately after 

this the Si/njy had been attacked by five Japanese destroyers ; 

had been struck in the engiae-room by a shell which burst, 

killing the engineer and six men ; had her commander, 

Lieutenant Krinizki, and several seamen wounded, and owing 

to the injury to her machinery, had been compelled to run 

aground under Golden Hill. . . . The cannonade now 

diminished in intensity, though again and again the Japanese 

torpedo craft came close in, attempting to ascertain whether 

the effort to close the entrance to the harbour had succeeded 

or failed. Soon after 4 a.m.. Lieutenant Kredoff reported 

that the Japanese steamer sunk in the entrance did not close 

it; the ship, he said, was laden with coal and stone, but the fire 

had been put out, and by using tugs it might be possible to 

move her stern sufficiently to haul her into a position wiiere 

she would cause little'- obstruction." j 

On the Japanese side the'CHlYO Maru successfully accomplished her mission, which was to anchor and 

blow up just under Golden Hill in the deep water, a hundred yards from the coast. She 

"Fukul Maru." reached her position without being seriously damaged, and her officers and crew pushed 

off from her just in time, without any casualties. The FuKUl Maru was to anchor 

next to her in mid-channel ; she also reached her station, and let go her anchor, being the vessel whicli 







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SPECIMEN PAGE OF JAPANESE TESTAMENTS 
SPECIALLY PREPARED FOR PRESENTATION 
TO JAPANESE OFFICERS ON THEIR WAV TO 
THE FRONT. 







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BAIKAL COSSACKS CROSSING THE FROZEN 



[Plujtu cileries Urban Trading Cu., Ltd., LouJoQ aild P. 
RIVER AT PETROWSK. 



336 



JAPAN'S KIGHJ- FOR FREEDOM. 



March 27, 1904. 





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Hlrose's Heroism. 



THE CREW OF THE " FUKUI MARU " TAKING TO THE BOATS. 

1he Russian officers ob.served swinging athwart tlie fairway. But at this instant the St/fij fired a torpedo 
into her, which sank her, indeed, but not thoroughly ; the explosion of the Whitehead disconnected the 
firing-gear of the charges fitted inside her, which were to blow her bottom out and completely to wreck her. 
At the moment when the torpedo hit her, Petty Officer Sugino, with whom Commander Hirose had 
sworn blood-brotherhood, was below, as he had volunteered to go down into the hold at the last critical 
moment and fire the charges in the ship, even at the cost of his life. When the torpedo 
exploded, blowing the vessel open, he must have been struck by a fragment of steel and 
liave been killed or mortally wounded. In the meanwhile Hirose had ordered the boats to be lowered, as 
his work was done, and directed the crew to take to them. So fearful was the uproar that every order had 
to Ije conveyed by signs ; the voice of man could not be heard in the tremendous tumult. ]5ut when the 
boat was reached, Hirose looked round him and saw that Sugino was missing. This was enough for him. 

Without an instant's hesitation, he returned 
to the fast-sinking hulk of the FUKUI 
Maru, lighted only in his progress over her 
shattered deck by the flashes of the Russian 
guns and the glare of the searchlights, 
lie groped in the darkness for his lost 
comrade; then returned to the boat to 
discover whether his friend had appeared, 
and once more, with iron resolution, went 
back to the hold, and shouted and looked 
in vain. Thrice was his fruitless search 
repeated ; thrice he came back to the 

RUSSIAN TROOPS ENTRAINING THEIR HORSEsl^"^ "^"^ ^^^< 0"'y qU'tting the FUKUI MARU whcn 




338 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 27. 19C4 



her deck was now flush 
with the water, and all 
hope had passed away. 
Yet his vow remained 
to be fulfilled, and he 
was not the man to flinch 
in the last heroic moment 
of his life. The hail of 
shells splashed above 
and about him ; the crew 
rowed for their safety, 
when he stood up de- 
liberately, and as he 
rose was struck on the 
head by a shell. Portions 
of his uniform were 
thrown by the explosion 
on to the boat, but he 
himself vanished in the 

waters, having given up his gallant life for his comrade and his country. His body in full uniform was 

found some days later by the Russians floating in the harbour, and by them was buried with the honour 

which so brave a man deserved. 

Few deeds in the war were more heroic than his. To some it might seem that he threw away his life, 

but such is not the true reading of his act. By such devotion the Japanese officer showed his men that he 

would stand by them to the last ; that he regarded it as his sacred duty to share their fate, and to take 

risks even greater than 

theirs. Throughout the 

whole Japanese Navy ran 
this noble 




(Photo by Charles Urban Trading Co., Lid., London and Paris. 
CHINESE LEAVING H.-VRBIN. 



The 

Japanese 

Spirit. 



spirit, ren- 
dering it 
invincible in 
the hour of action, for 
^each officer and man could 
feel that his comrades 
would not flinch before 
any trial. It was the 
temper of the Elizabethans 
and of the great English 
soldier and seaman who 
wrote in an hour of danger 
the order : " You shall 
find me at Punto de Gallo, 
dead or alive, and if you 
find not my ships there, 
yet there you shall find 
their ashes, for I will fire 
the galleons if it come to 
extremity, but run away I 
will never! " And rightly 




•IlIE JAPA.NESE CAL.MLV MADE SOUNDINGS AND MEASUKF.I) 1111'; WIDIII (Jl' IHK 
CHANNEL AFTER SINKING THE VESSELS IN THE MOUTH OK I'ORT ARTHUR 11 AKliOUl-:. 



March 27, 1904. 



JAPANESE BRAVERY. 



339 




THE BATTLESHIP " PETROPAVLOSK " COLLIDING WITH THE "SEVASTOPOL.' 



to him was a State funeral 
granted by the Japanese Govern- 
ment, that the people for which 
he had died might remember 
his name and his deed to all time. 
While these stirring events 
were happening about the wreck 

oftheFuKUl 
The Attempt i\/r , „ n ^u„ 
Unsuccessful. ^^''^' ^^^ 

Yahiko had 

run into the western side of the 
channel and sunk successfully 
under the Pinnacle Rock. The 
fourth steamer, the YONEYAMA, 
had the difficult task set her of 
closing the gap which yet re- 
mained. As she headed for it, 
suddenly a four-funnelled Russian 
vessel, spouting flame from funnels 

and from guns, loomed up right in her way ; she brushed against the vessel with a crash ; its guns 

poured shell into her hull, and with their flash scorched the seamen at the boat-falls, bursting the 

drums of their ears with the violent concussion. Sub-Lieutenant Shimada.on the bridge, was struck by 

a shell-splinter, and rendered unconscious ; Lieutenant Masaki was severely wounded, but in the intense 

excitement of the attack was unaware of his injury. The YoNEYAMA sank, as her opponent disappeared 

in the night, but, to the surprise of her officers, a stretch of channel still remained open. Unknown to the 

Japanese the configuration of the entrance had changed ; the Russian dredging, patiently pursued for many 

months, had widened the navigable channel, so that four vessels would not suffice to close it. The attempt 

had been made with an insufficient number of ships, and all would have to be done over again. 
Taking to their boat, to which Lieutenant Masaki 

carried Shimada in his arms, the crew of the YONEYAMA, 

with astonishing coolness, proceeded carefully to examine 

the channel, singing war-songs the 

'^^^UnderXe"^' while, and this despite the heavy 

fire from the Russian works. They 

calmly made soundings and took exact measurements 

of the width, which proved beyond doubt that the 

entrance was both wider and deeper than the Japanese 

charts showed. Then they rowed off towards the torpedo 

boats TSUBAME and AOTAKA, which were quietly 

waiting a mile from the entrance, and which had just 

engaged the St/nj and driven that boat ashore in a 

very damaged condition, after a short but sharp encounter. 

The roar of escaping steam could plainly be heard as 

sought safety under Golden Hill. The Russian report that 

had fought five Japanese destroyers with success was a 

invention ; as a matter of fact, she had been worsted by twc 

boats, which, taken together, were of smaller tonnage than 

much less heavily armed. There were other Japanese torpedo vessels at 

hand, it is true, but they were not able to get into action with her. The 

Kasagi and Kari came up and took the YONEYAMA'S men on board, as the 




mere 



[Stereographers' copyright. 
Underwood 8: Underwood, London 
and New York. 

THE RIVKR AT NEW. 
CHWANG. 



340 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



March 27, 1904 



TSUBAME already had the men from the Chiyo and Yahiko on board her. The FUKUIS crew were 
taken off in the destroyer Kasumi. Until day was at hand the dauntless little band of torpedo vessels 
remained, examining the roads and placing mines, undisturbed by the Russian fire, which did no damage 
at all, though it made an amazing amount of noise ; then as the glow of dawn could be faintly seen in 
the east over the sullen grey waters of the Bay of Korea, they steamed off to regain the main fleet and 
bring word of their adventures. 

In his report on this brilliant affair, Admiral Togo gave the casualties at Commander Hirose, 
Sugino, and two other men killed, and three officers and six men wounded. Of Hirose he said : 
*' He was always an exemplary officer, and by his gallant behaviour on this occasion he has left behind 
him an imperishable example to the remotest posterity." He added that the attempt had failed, and 
that a gap had been left between the Yahiko and Yoneyama. 

The Russians did not wait long before making use of this gap, which could not be closed till fresh 
explosion-vessels had been prepared, and that, of course, meant some delay. As the Japanese torpedo flotilla 




[.Drawn from a photo by J. V. J. ^\rchibald. 
COOLIES MOVING A 131G GUN AT NEWCHWANG. 

drew off. Admiral Makarov gave orders for the Russian Fleet to get under way and steam out, to confront 
the Japanese ships which could be made out in a long, menacing line upon the horizon. The fact that 
his enemy had but two battleships may have been reported to him from his signal stations. The Bayan^ 

Novik, and Askold led the advance, and the battleships followed. As the Russian 
Goes Out ships came out, they opened fire on the Japanese at extreme range, but there was no 

reply. The Japanese slowly fell back towards the east, probably to Hai-yungtau 
Island, which they had seized on February 29, as they desired to draw the Russians out to a good distance 
from port before engaging. On his part Admiral Makarov was not inclined to risk a battle away from the 
shelter of the forts, and he was content with a mere demonstration. When he had seen the Japanese safely 
out of sight to the Far East, he returned westwards and approached the Miaotau Islands, where his 
destroyers proceeded to scout. 

As the Russians were entering Port Arthur after this affair, the battleship Petropavlosk collided with 
the Sevastopol, doing considerable damage to the latter ship, and knocking a great hole in her forward, which 
it took some weeks to repair. Thus the Russian Fleet was temporarily reduced to four effective battleships,. 



342 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April, 1904. 



Warship Collision. 



as the Tzarri'itch and Retvisiin were still quite unfit to take the sea. On the 2Sth the Russians were out 

once more, in diminished force, and searched a neutral steamer which was on the voyage to Xewchwang. 
But to the surprise of the Japanese they made no attempt to move against the 
Japanese base, or even to ascertain its location ; on the contrar}-, they nc\er ventured 

out of signalling distance from Port Arthur, and their little cruises had absolutel)- no effect upon the course 

of the war. 

Towards the end of March, as there were rumours that the Japanese intended to land at Xewchwang. 

the Russians began to construct fortifications at that neutral port, and to concentrate troops there, when 

the ice began to break up and a disembarkation became feasible. The neutral Powers 

N "^*h*"^ made no protest ; a British and an American gunboat which had been stationed there 

for the protection of subjects of these two nationalities were withdrawn. On the whole, 

Japan gained by the fact that Xewchwang was not held neutral, so that she had no reason to be dissatisfied. 

The Russians only had another 
point to guard, diverting their 
troops from other quarters, while, 
so soon as Xewchwang fell into 
the hands of the Japanese, which, 
sooner or later, it was morally 
certain to do, it would be of the 
utmost value to them as a base, 
shortening their line of com- 
munication with the sea as their 
army moved forward. If it had 
been regarded as a Chinese port, 
the)' could not have made an}- 
use of it. Therefore the\' mas- 
have smiled to themselves when 
tiiey heard of the fresh political 
blunder which the Russians had 
committed in holding and forti- 
f\ing it. Thus does bad faith 
ultimately recoil upon the heads 
of those who are guilty of it, for in 
the first instance the Russians 
had .seized Xewchwang by 
treachery, and b)- their cor.- 




CAkkVlNi; .\ MINE CABLE. (Photo by J. V. J. Arrlubald. 

The Rttuians UUI mincn m the mouth of the Liao River, on which Newchw.ing is situ.ited. The rablc 



contlecting the mines with the town defences was carried by a long line of soldiers. 

tinued occupation of the town they had violated all their promises and pledges. 



CHAPTER XX. 
AD.MIRAL MAKAROV'S LAST CRUISP:— SIXKIXG OF THE " PETROPAVLOSK." 

DURIXG the early days of April the Japanese left Admiral Makarov very much to his own 
devices, while they concerted fresh plans for his destruction. They desired to inspire him with 
confidence, and as far as possible to convey to his mind the impression that they were afraid to 
meet him at .sea. And therefore it suited their designs exactly that he should day after day put out with 
a few of his ships and cruise to and fro in the waters of the Bay of Korea. In their 

Fa ply Dqvc of 

April. \i'A'X, at the Hall Islands they were on the course which he must steer if he strove to 

move from Port Arthur to Vladivostock, and their fast cruisers constantl)- patrolled 
the hundred-mile wide strait between that group and the Shantung promontor>'. 



April 12, 1904. 



NEWSPAPER BOATS. 



343 



Meantime, the Russian cruisers searched neutral shipping which they encountered in their voyages 

off Port Arthur, and boarded the " Times " despatch boat Haiinuu, which, fitted with wireless instruments, 

was cruising in the Yellow Sea in search of news. The Baynn overhauled her and examined her 

messages ; a few days after this examination Admiral Alexeieff issued an order that any 

Boat neutral steamer caught in the zone of operations with wireless telegraphy instruments and 

correspondents on board would be seized as a lawful prize, and her correspondents treated 
as spies. But as the Russian Navy was from this time onward generally blockaded in Port Arthur, the 
order was not of much consequence. It should, however, be said that newspaper boats may be a great 
source of danger to combatant fleets in war, and combatants would probably be justified in seizing them- 
But the threat to treat correspondents as spies, and to put them to death, was a barbarous one, besides being 
a violation of the laws of war as laid down by the Hague Conference. The explanation probably was 
that the Russian Government had conceived a dislike for the Times, because of its courage in publishing 
the truth about Russian doings. 

On April 1 1 the Japanese preparations were completed, and that day the whole fleet left its base, and 




ENTRANCE TO THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN'S PALACE, TOKIO. 
The palace is invisible to the people, as it is within a walled enclosure and surrounded by a moat. 



[Adelphi Press Agency 



proceeded towards Port Arthur, off which its destroyers and fast cruisers were timed to arrive early in the 

night of the 1 2th- 13th. On the morning of the 12th, Admiral Makarov issued orders to 

Looking' for the -^^i^^. Ryg^ian destroyers to proceed to the Elliot Islands, and examine them to discover 
Japanese Base. ^ ^ ^ 1 t^i , 1 , t 

if the Japanese Squadron had its base there, as was reported. Should the Japanese 

Fleet be detected there, the boats were ordered to deliver an attack. They steamed off accordingly to the 

islands, which are distant about 90 miles from Port Arthur, and after searching unsuccessfully for any 

indication of the Japanese, returned towards evening, and were slowly steaming back when night fell. The 

weather was thick and intensely cold ; an icy drizzle obscured all vision, and in the pitchy darkness two 

of the Russian torpedo craft separated from their comrades. 

That same night, according to their arrangements, the Japanese fourth and fifth destroyer flotillas, 

composed of the Shinonome, YuGiRi, Shiranui, Kagero, Murasame, Havatori, Asagiri, and 

HarUSAME, \\ith the fourteenth torpedo boat flotilla, numbering four modern torpedo boats, and the mining 



344 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 13, 1904. 



ship KoRVL" Marc, reached the mouth of Port Arthur Harbour at midniglit. The KORVU AIaku was a 
steamer of 4,120 tons, specially fitted to act as a nurse to torpedo craft, and to lay mines. She carried 
on board a very large number of mechanical mines, the invention of Commander Oda, who was acting as 
her captain. These mines were of the most powerful type, and possessed several 



Laylngr Japanese 
Mines. 



advantages, the chief that they could be quickly placed in position, as they automatically 
adjusted themselves to the depth of water, and no changes in the length of cable 
or sinkers had to be made in their case at the last minute. They contained charges of 100 lb. or 200 lb. 
of Shimose explosive. Their destructiveness had been proved by actual e.\periment to be terrible ; it 
was speedily to be tested in action against the Russian Fleet. 

As the KORVC neared Port Arthur, the glare of the si.x Russian searchlights on Golden Hill could be 

faintly seen through the cold sleet. The sea ran high, rolling in from the south, as the transport stood 

in to a distance of about two miles from the harbour mouth. Almost at once she 

* Tasl?'" * ^°^^ sight of the destroyers and torpedo boats in the darkness. Yet the men on 

board her knew that the Japanese seamen could be trusted to keep their station, 

while the thick night was of immense advantage, screening the Japanese movements and preparations from 

the Russians. The KORYU 
carried many tons of the 
most powerful explosive 
u.sed in war ; a single 
successful shot from the 
Russian batteries, and there 
must have been one of the 
most fearful catastrophes 
in human record. She had 
to do her work in darkness, 
showing no lights to the 
Russians, and this rendered 
her task difficult as well as 
dangerous. 

The Japanese had ob- 
served that 
Admiral 




UPEKAriNO IHt JAPANESE FIELD TELEPHONE IN 



I I . Uiinii pliutu. 
A HUX AT SUNAN. 



Makarov's 
Anxious 
Night- M a k a r o V 

always en- 
tered and left Port Arthur by a certain course. They had taken the exact bearings of this course, and laid 
it down uix)n their maps ; across it they intended to sow many lines of mines, so arranged as not to explode 
until several hours had elapsed. To find the place, the Russian searchlights were required ; they served as 
beacons to the Japanese, and thus, unconsciously, the Ru.ssians helped in accomplishing the destruction of 
their own flagship. As the mine-laying proceeded, there were moments when the Russian searchlights seemed 
to the Japanese on board the transport to rest upon the KORVU'.S masts and rigging. At such instants they 
held their breath, and waited for the alarm-gun to ring out— the .signal for their own instant destruction. But 
always the searchlights pa.ssed off the KORYU so soon as they seemed to have found her, continuing their 
wide sweep of the sky, and no sound save the splash of the mines disturbed the silence of night. Yet 
ashore the Russians had noted suspicious movements, and alarmed Admiral Makarov ; the doomed com- 
mander-in-chief had hurried on board the cruiser Diana, which he ordered to get up steam, and there passed 
the weary hours in anxious vigil, with eyes steadfastly strained out into the black gulf beyond the harbour 
mouth. Now he and those about him thought they saw the forms of ships, and now again the forms melted 
away ; again, they caught glimp.ses of lights, as they supposed, but as they gazed the faint glow disappeared. 
They may have .seen the dim forms of the Japanese torpedo craft, as the.se, without ceasing, patrolled 
the roads, and covered the KoRYU in her dangerous work. But if so, no order was given to open 



April 13, 1904. 



THE "STRASHNY" SINKS. 



345 




UKSPATCH nOAT ■ H ALM L'N " FITTKIl W II H WIRKLK 
OPKUATOR ELONGATIX(; HIS WIRKb. 



INSTKUMKXIS : 



The "Strashny's" 
Mistake. 



fire, perhaps be- 
cause the supply 
of ammunition in 
Port Arthur was 
already beginning 
to run somewhat 
low. At four in 
the morning the 
and of this un- 
quiet watch came. 
Makarov left the 
Diana for his flag- 
ship, and strove 
to snatch some 

hours of rest. There was now no sigii of the Japanese outside. The enem}- liad gone after firing a 
few departing shots at the Russian searchh'ghts. 

The second Japanese destroyer flotilla, which had followed some distance behind the KoRVU and her 
escort arrived off the Laotishan promontory towards the break of day. As it steamed to that point through 
the mist and fog, the Japanese were aware of a strange destroyer which had joined 
company with them. For .some minutes she was taken for a stray vessel from one of 
the other flotillas, which might have missed her comrades in the night ; then she began 
to make signals, which were read at once as Russian. She was the 27-knot boat Strashny, which had taken 
the four Japane.se boats for friends, committing the most disastrous of mistakes. Her plight when she was 
discovered was absolutely hopeless. One boat against four, she could achieve nothing, and the foui 
Japanese dashed upon her as wolves upon a timid lamb. With their small quick-firers they opened fire, 
and poured into her a perfect hail of shell.s. From the Fort Arthur forts the flashes of the guns could 
be seen and the rattle of the cannonade heard, drawing nearer, as the luckless boat fled at full speed 
towards the forts for help and shelter. The noise was heard, too, on board the large armoured cruisei 
Bayan, which had been ordered by Admiral Makarov to move out at daybreak to search for the missing 
Russian destroyers, two of which had not returned, and, if need be, to give them support. She increased 
ipeed and stood through the icy mist to the point where at moments, as the banks of fog lifted, the flashes 
:ould be seen in the grey light. At the same time the other Russian destroyer, which had gone astray in 
the night, appeared making for the harbour, and the Japanese flotilla strove to cut it off. 

The Strashny was speedily worsted in the gun encounter. After about five minutes' firing, in wnich hei 
frail hull was riddled with shell, and her crew suffered terrible loss, a projectile .struck her boiler-room, and 

exploded there, disabling her engines. An instant 
later, as she ceased to move through the water, 
another shell caught her in the torpedo-room, where 
the heads of her Whitehead tor- 
'^*'^ sfnkf'^"^" Pedoes were stored with their 
gun-cotton charges. Tnere was 
a violent e.xplosion, tearing her side open and throw- 
ing up her deck, as though it had been made of 
paper, and then she sank. In less than ten minutes 
from the moment when the first shot was fired all 
was over, and she had vanished in the depths, leaving 
five or six men .struggling in the water. The 
Japanese destroyers, with magnificent gal lantrj-, strove 
Ships (iffi,:er. c.ip.:,in Coi.iuiumn, Mr. j.ick London. to savB their encmics, and ran immense risk in so 

Interpreter. Na\;i! Correspondent. . 17-1 r i_ • .ill 

CORRESPONDENTS ON BOARD THE " HAiMUN." douig, as the Bayau was now fast commg up and had 



Mr. Browne, 

Wireless Operator. Mr. D. Fraser, 



Capt. L. Jnmes. 




346 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 13, 1904. 




[Le\-itsky photo. 
GRAND DUKE CYRIL, WHO 
ESCAPED FROM 
THE " PETROHAVLOSK." 

challenging Admiral 

Makarov to battle. 

It was the opportunity 

for which the Russian 

admiral had 

The Russian lone been 
Fleet , , . 

Goes Out. looking. 

Here wjre 

the Japanese in weak force, 

with no supports visible 

on the horizon, and he at 

once gave orders to his 

fleet to get under way 

and leave the harbour. 

The battleships Petropav- 

losk, with his flag, and 

Poltava, and the cruiset 

Askold accordingly put 

out about 7 a.m., and 

joined the other cruisers 

and Russian torpedo boats 

outside. The weather in- 



already opened on them with her lighter guns. They were forced to retire, 

and they steamed off at full speed, showing ;i clean pair of heels to the great 

cruiser, which followed astern of them, firing rapidly. This timely 

diversion saved the other Russian destroyer; she was able to make the 

harbour in a damaged condition. The Japanese destroyers only had two 

men wounded slightly in this affair. 

As the Bayan gave chase to the destroyers, the fast Japanese cruiser 

squadron, under Rear-Admiral Dewa, composed of the AsAMA, TOKIWA, 

Chitose, K.-VSA(;i, Takasago, and Yoshino, came up at full speed to 

their succour. The Bayan had now slowed, and lowered 
The ** Bavan " 

Retires ^^"^ boats to save the few survivors of the Straslnifs 

crew who could be seen struggling in the water. Only 

five in all were recovered ; three Russian officers and 55 men were killed 

in the action or drowned after it. While the Bayan was thus engaged, 

the Japanese cruisers rapidly neared her, and opened fire upon her with 

their heavier guns. Shells burst all round her, and fragments from them 

covered her decks ; she had several casualties, and .seeing that he was in 

some peril of being cut off, her captain hoisted in his boats and retired 

to Port Arthur at his best speed. At the same moment the Diana and 

Novik came out of harbour to his help, whereupon the Japanese fell back a 

little, but remained in plain view of the Russian Fleet off the port as if 




f^ 



mask 



H 



il 



PLAN SHOWING THK ATTACK ON PORT ARTHUR, APRIL 13. 

TbU plan was sketched by Mr. Sheldon Williams, one of our special artists at Tokio, from information obtained 
from the highest official sources, which, he says, " it is not advisable ti> disclose." The bird's-eye view was drawn 
from a iketch made in diagram by a British officer on the spot on February 8. The letters and numerals in the 
sketch are explained thus : (A) " Petropavlosk " blowing up near Lutin ^M) rock, about one mile south-east of the 
mouth of Port Arthur ; (B) " Pobieda, torpedoed amidships ; (C) Russian baitle.ships retiring from pursuit of (J)) 
Japanese cruiser squadron (six ships) three miles east of Port Dalny on sighting (K) Japanese principal Imitle.ship 
squadron (which failed to get within range) emerging from fog ; (R) the " Bayan," which attacked the Japanese 
destroyer flotilla (G) after the latter had sunk a Ku.ssian four-funnel scout destroyer at (X) and had engaged 
retiring scout destroyer (H) at long range ; (K.) mines laid by Japanese on night of April 12, which they forced 
the Rus-sian battleships to sail through twice. Noticing the Russians always hugged the shore, the Japanese 
presumed they had mined the centre, and they therefore minetl the sides, and laid the trap that led to the 
" Petropavlosk " disaster ; (L) presumed Ru.ssian mines ; (M) sunken Japanese merchantmen ; (i) I'ort Arthur, old 
town ; (2) Port Arthur, new town ; (3) railway ; (4) anchorage ; (5) dry dock ; (6) 'J'iger Tail peninsula ; (7) Hsien* 
sang promontory ; (8) Liaotieh prom':intory ; (F, F, F) forts. 



April 13, 1904. 



RUSSIANS PASS OVER MINES. 



347 



"■'X 




I 



THK LATE VICE-ADMIRAL MAKAROV, 

Drowned on board the " Petropavlosk " when in command of tlie Russian Port Arthur Fleet. Born in 1848, he commanded the cruiser *' Constantine " 

in the Russo-Turkish War in 1877. in 1S81 he was on the staff of General Skobeleff, and greatly distinguished himself He served in the Far East during 

the Chino-Japanese War, and was, till he went to Port Arthur, Commandant-General of Cronstadt. 

shore was now clear, but out at .sea there was a sHght mist, which hTted from time to time, so that it 
was impossible to see far ; there was little or no wind, but the cold was intense, and the officers 
and men on board the Russian ships were in their heaviest winter clothing, swathed in furs and 
thick overcoats. The admiral ordered full speed, and steamed rapidly towai'ds the Japanese, the 
Uayan taking her place at the head of his line. The Japanese saw the Russians pass without 
misadventure over the lines of mines laid — a result which had been arranged — and then, after 
allowing the Russian ships to approach just within range, fell back rapidly to the .south-east. The 



iu 



348 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 13, 1904. 



Japanese had so often be- 
fore retired before his fleet 
tliat this time Admiral 
Makarov was deceived, 
and really imagined that 
they were afraid to en- 
counter him. His ships 
tore thnjugh the water 
at a speed of 14 knots, 
w hich was the utmost his 
two battleships could 
make, even by forcing 
their e n g i txe^s. ' The 
Russians were in high 
hopes of gaining a victor}-, 
as the Jajjanese cruisers, 
whicJi could at any mo- 
ment they liked have 
increased speed sufficiently 
to race out of sight, per- 
mitted their enemy slowly 
to gain. 

Sudden!)-, the two Japanese armoured cruisers opened a most accurate fire from their 8-in. turret guns 

upon the Bayan, as she led the Russian line. Though they and the Baynn were moving fast, they found the 

range with marvellous rapidity, and before the big four-funnelled cruiser could even 

Flfeht. ^ ^" reply, were bursting shells against her bows and on her deck. Seeing that she was in 

real peril — ^for she could only oppose one 8-in. gun to the four Japanese guns of that 

calibre — Makarov ordered her to drop back, and with his two battleships moved to the head of the line, at 

the same time opening fire with his huge 12-in. guns upon the Japanese. The shots went wide. But the 

Japanese had no desire whatever, without urgent necessity, to encounter battleships with armoured cruisers. 

They instantly increased their speed, and shot out of range. At the same time they noted that the Russians 

were now over 1 5 miles from Port Arthur, and their wireless instruments began to fling messages through the 

air to Admiral Togo, who was lurking with the whole Japanese battle-squadron and the two new armoured 

cruisers NISSHIX and KasUGA thirty miles away, under cover of the mist, near the Miaotau Islands. He 

was informed that the moment had come for him to move and intercept the Russian retreat. Meanwhile the 

Japanese crui.sers continued their pretended flight, and dense volumes of smoke poured from the funnels of 

the Poltava and Petropai'losk as the two battleships attempted to force the pace. 




rm. KLSSI.W DESTROVF.R "STR.'kSHXV UOKS DOWN. 
The Japanese shells caught her in the torpedo room, and then she sank. 




JAI'ANKSK BATTI.KSHIP " VASHIMA.' 
Built and photographed by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitu'orth & Co. 



April 13. 1904. 



MAKAROV RETIRES. 



349 



Togo's Fleet 
Sig-hted. 



But at this juncture chance, which all through the war had favoured the Russians, came to their aid 
once more. At the most critical moment Admiral Togo emerged from his hiding-place and began to 
race with his six great battleships and two cruisers to place himself between the 
Russians and their port. As his fleet, in admirable order, pressed its boilers and engines 
to the utmost, and tore through the sea at eighteen knots, as below in the engine- 
rooms jets of water played on the bearings, and the dials in the stokeholds called each instant for " more 
steam," suddenly there came a puff of wind, and the mist lifted from off the surface of the sea. The 
signallers at the Russian station on the Laotishan promontory, which commands the whole stretch of water 
south of Port Arthur, caught a glimpse of this menacing array of fighting ships moving swiftly upon 
Makarov's rear, and forthwith their wireless instruments signalled to the Russian admiral the news that Togo 
Was upon him, and that he must either run or fight against overwhelming odds. 




TllK MA-. ,,iiO..I, .MACllliNE .>AMv TUE " PETROPAVLOSK." 
This represents Captain Oda (and his wife), the inventor of the Japanese mine which destroyed the ' 



Petropavlosk." 



Makarov Retires. 



I 



He had not a moment to lose. As he turned, the funnels and masts of the hostile battleships came 
into view, and he saw that he could only just reach Port Arthur in time to avoid being cut off. The 
Japanese cruisers also turned behind him and followed in pursuit, firing continuously 
with their heavy guns, and striving to damage the cruisers Bayan and Novik, which 
came last in the Russian line. In this, however, they failed, though they made some hits, and they had the 
mortification of seeing their enemy escape from their clutches and enter the zone protected by the frowning 
batteries of Port Arthur.' At that very instant Admiral Togo's battle squadron appeared on the scene, with 
the national colours flying, presenting a magnificent appearance of strength, as the sea was riven into clouds 
of spray by the rams of the great fighting ships. 

And now the Japanese Fleet checked its pursuit, and, turning, cruised in sight of Port Arthur, eight 
miles off the stronghold, waiting to see what would happen, and whether this time the mines would work. 
Far away the officers and men on board could see the little knot of Russian ships nearing the harbour, the 

Xo. XV. • 



350 



JAPAN'S FIGKT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 13, 1904. 




ADMIKAI. MOI.AS 

Admiral Makarov's colleague, who went Uuwn 
on the " Petroixivlosk." 



Petroptri'losk now at the head of the line. As the Russian squadron 

steamed in, three other battleships stood out to meet it — the Pobicdn, 

Peresviet, and Sevastopol — but either tliese three crossed the mine field 

without touching any of the mines, or the mines were still inert. The 

Russian Fleet was now about two miles from the entrance, when the 

Petrop(n-losk signalled to reduce speed to six knots, preparatory to 

entering the harbour. Immediately astern of her was the Poltava, with 

the Diana, Askold, Noink, and Bayan following her. On the starboard 

or right side of the Petropavlosk was another column of Russian ships, 

headed by the Peresviet, with the Pobieda and Sevastopol following her. 

The admiral signalled to them to form one line ahead with his own 

ships, in order to negotiate the narrow entrance. The Petropavlosk was 

covered with signal flags, and her orders could be made out without great 

difficulty by the Japanese through the powerful telescopes on board their 

ships, as they watched anxiously to see what was going to happen — 

needless to recount that they had bought the secret Russian signal-book. 
At this instant, according to the evidence of survivors of the Petro- 

pavlosk's crew, an officer told Admiral Makarov that he thought he saw 

a mine floating just ahead of the ship and in her course. The admiral took no notice of tiie warning, 

and ordered the vessel to make for the entrance. He him.self was at tiiat moment 

*' Petrooavlosk " sta'iding on the bridge, near the chart-house, on the left or port side of the ship. 

His Chief-of-the-Staff, Admiral Molas, a very distinguished Russian officer, was at 

his side, and a number of aides-de-camp and inferior officers were with him. On the right of the 

bridge, looking ahead at the supposed mine-field, was the Grand Duke Cyril, who was a member 

of his staff. The greater part of the crew were below at breakfast, and the bulk of the officers were in the 

ward-room. It was thought that all danger had passed, and the admiral was even smiling at the rapidity 

with which he had divined the Japanese stratagem and by his movement foiled the enemy's plan for his 

destruction. Thin clouds of smoke rose frdm the two 
huge funnels of the battleship, as lier stokers ceased 
plying the shovel below ; steam escaped from her 
steam-pipes, and her hull throbbed gently under the 
slow, measured pulsations of the two engines, as her 
speed fell. It was 9.43 in the morning. 

It was now that spectators ashore, watching the 

imposing sight of the entry of the fleet into harbour, 

saw a strange thing happen. A 

great 

smoke and fire and spray shot up 
from under her bows, and there was the roar of a 
fearful explosion. For a moment those on shore 
thought that she was firing a broadside, but then, as a 
puff of wind blew aside the veil of smoke, it could be 
<.cen that her foretopmast was falling. Next, great 
tongues of flame shot up from her deck ; the fore- 
funnel came down with a crash ; the after-funnel 
tottered and collapsed ; the deck itself rose in the air, 
parting from its supports, as it seemed ; the bridge 
flew up ; the heavy structure of the foremast moved 
through the air; one of the 6-in. gun turrets was 

THE COMM.\NDER OF THE "PETROPAVLOSK.' , ■ , i . • i t ^u u- u ^u 

cpuin Yakovwr, «mi from the .hip sccn to be projected high above the ship by the 




'^^'^ DlSro?!r°^^" S'^""^ '^°'"'"" "'" ^''''^'•' >'^"°'^ 



352 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 13. 1904. 



terrific violence of the explosion, and fresh spurts of flame rushed up from the space between her two 
funnels. There was a contused uproar of continued heavy explosions, above which coukl be lieard 
fearful sounds like the rending and tearing of steel. The air seemed in an instant to be thick with 
fumes of ether; a green haze settled round the hull of the doomed flagship, from which still rose 
streams of fire and huge clouds of smoke. She settled visibly to starboard, showing a furnace glowing be- 
neath the feet .of her crew as her deck inclined ; then her bows plunged downwards and her stern came into the 
air. First the rudder appeared above water, and next the two screws, racing as they emerged from the depths. 
A mushroom-shaped pillar of smoke rose from the surface, and finally, to the horror of all, she vanished 
into the water, leaving nothing but wreckage where but two minutes before a great battleship had floated. 

She sank with incredible swiftness, and of those on board, few escaped w ith their lives. Lieutenant 




THE POSITION OF THE FLEETS WHEN THE 



" Asahi " " Hatsuse." " Shiki*hirH.i." 

" Fuji." "VVashinui. 
' PETROPAVLOSK " WENT DOWN. * 



Unkoflski, the only survivor from between decks, was seated in the wardroom when the catastrophe occuircd. 
" Sudden!)-," he says, " there was a crash. The deck seemed to subside beneath me ; the electric light 

went out. I rushed to the companion-ladder, wiiicli was already crowded with a 
Adventure struggling mass of humanity. Gaining the upper deck, 1 found it heeling over so 

that I nearly fell overboard. Recovering my footing, I crawled along the slope on hands 
and knees, a.sking myself whether it would be best to jump overboard or to stand by the ship. As I moved 
the slope of the deck steepened till it became vertical, and I grasped the fact that the Petropavlosk was 
plunging foremost into the depths. It was now or never for me. Smoke and fire were about me ; 1 cros.sed 
myself and threw myself into the water, and instantly was drawn down far, to the very bottom of the sea, as 
it seemed to me. With a desperate effort I recovered myself and rose to the surface, where I touched 
something soft. I clung to it, till I felt my strength fail, and abandoned myself to God. I knew nothing 
more till I found myself being carefully tended on board the Gaidainak." 



April 13, 1904. 



GRAND DUKE'S ADVENTURE. 



353 



The Grand Duke Cyril had an even narrower escape, as most of those on the bridge were killed by 
the first two explosions. He stated that the first explosion was terrible ; the whole structure of the ship 

trembled and seemed to dissolve. It was as though the end of the world had come. 
Adventure ^ ^ I'rom the sea beneath his feet, as he stood high above it on the bridge, a cloud of 

blinding flame seemed to dart upward, which burst with a deafening roar into acrid, 
choking fumes. Then came a second explosion, far less violent than the first, but followed by the upheaval 
of a pillar of smoke and fire, which rose, as it appeared to him, to the height of hundreds of feet above the 
ship. The funnels fell with a horrible crash, crushing the unfortunate men who happened to be just under 
them. A second later, and the deck was dripping with blood. Three seconds after the first explosion the 
ship's starboard bow was already under water, and dead bodies were floating off the forecastle as the sea rose 




Xlih KUoSIAN BATTLESHIP " PETROPAVLOSK," SUNK BV JAPANESE MINEb Ai TORT ARTHUR. 



354 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 13, 1904. 



up it Recovering himself from the first stunning shock of the explosions, he grasped the fact that the 

magazines had been fired by the explosion of a mine, and that all was lost beyond hope or effort. He ran 

to the left side of the bridge, and as he did so stumbled over several bodies. Stooping over one, he raised 

its head and saw that it was Admiral Molias, horribly injured — Admiral Makarov's Chief-of-the-Staff. There 

was nothing to be done for him ; so the Grand Duke left him where he lay and vaulting over the rail of the 

bridge, attempted to lower 

himseli from it to the deck 

below. 

But the deck had already 

vanished beneath the 

surface of the sea, and he 

fell with a splash through 

fire and 

Duke Cyril's smoke into 
Narrow 
Escape. the icy 

water. The 
ship was still moving 
slowly ahead, and as he 
rose to the surface after 
his unexpected plunge he 
was caught by her wash^ 
and swept forcibly against 
the port 6-in. turret, into 
which the water was now 
pouring through the gun- 
ports. The shock was 
violent and almost stunned 
him ; the suction of 
the inrush held him fast 
against the turret for some 
terrible seconds; the 
sinking ship slowly carried 
him down with its hull. 
Then as though by magic 
a great swirl of the water 
caught him, whirling him 
round with it, but tearing 
him away from the fatal 
turret, against which he 
saw others pinned in the 
THE FAMOUS Ru.ssiAN pAiNTKR OK WAR picTURKS, WHO LOST HIS LIFE ON THE Same manner. Alternately 

•• PETROPAVLObK," WHERE HE WAS SKETCHING INCIDENTS IN THE WAR. j^g ^^^g thrOWn Up and 

drawn down — it seemed to him as though in this torturing process every atom of air was sucked out 
of him by the draught of the water ; then he felt the whirlpool once more dragging him down, and he gave 
himself up for lost. Realising his desperate peril, he made a last furious struggle for life ; he was an 
accomplished swimmer and of immense strength, yet he could not overcome the irresistible force. At 
the very moment when breath seemed to fail him, as the water was beginning to enter his nostrils 
and mouth, the certain precursor of death by drowning, by one last effort he extricated himself and returned 
from the green, icy depths to the clear light of day. 

Yet his trials had only begun. The sea was bitterly cold, and he himself was heavily clad ; the rigour 




A FAMOUS RUSSIAN PICTURE. 



355 




[By permission Berlin Photo Co., New Bond Street, W, 
NAPOLEON IN THE KREMLIN OF MOSCOW RECEIVES BAD NEWS FROM HOME. 
This picture was painted by Verestchagin. 



356 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 13, 1904. 



of the temperature seemed to 
numb his limbs and paralyse his 
strength just as he thought 
himself within reach of safety. 
Dashed to and fro, buffeted 
against the debris which floated 
on the surface, he contrived to 
reach a boat that was floating 
bottom up, and to it he clung. 
Long though it appeared to 
him that he had been in the 
water, it can only really have been 
some seconds, for even now, as 
he gazed upon the surface of 
the sea, he could see the last of 
his ship. Only her stern now 
emerged. As he looked, flame 
and smoke poured from it and 
about it ; the steam rose hissing 
from the sea where the hot steel 
dipped into the water. That 
same instant the stern plunged 
and disappeared. About him 
were a dozen horror - stricken 
swimmers in much the same 
plight as himself. Near him 
was Captain Yakovleff, the ship's 
commander, severely wounded, 
and unable to swim ; one of the 
seamen in the water gallantly 
went to his aid, seized him, and 
dragged him to the boat, to 
which the survivors frantically clung. Help came to them speedily ; the boats of the Gaidainak were 
already on the way, and these took them on board, and carried them to the Russian destroyers, where 
they were carefully tended. 

Signalman Bockhoff, another survivor, who was in the chart-house, declared that " suddenly the ship 

shook violently. I heard a fearful explosion, immediately followed by another and then another. They 

seemed to me to be directly under the bridge. I rushed to the door of the chart-house, 

ftwy^*" * but the quartermaster got in my way and I could not pass him. I sprang to the window 

and leapt out. The ship was listing heavily, and I feared each instant that she would 

capsize. I saw an officer prostrate on the bridge ; I went to him and found it was Admiral MakaroVj 

weltering in his gore. He lay face downward. I grasped his shoulder and tried to raise him, while beneath 

my feet the ship seemed to fall, and from all sides flew fragments of metal. I heard a deafening screech — a 

frightful din. Smoke rose in dense clouds and flames seemed to leap towards the bridge where I was 

standing beside the admiral. I jumped on the rafl of the bridge and was washed off, but succeeded in 

getting hold of something. Then I was sucked down. I can remember falling masts and nothing more. 

On board our ship was an old man with a beautiful white beard, who had been good to the men. He had a 

book in his hand, and was sketching. He was Verestchagin." 

The evidence is conclusive that Admiral Makarov was killed before the ship went down. He appears 
not to have been seriously hurt by the first explosion, since he threw off his heavy coat, and prepared to 




LIEUTENANT UNKOFFSKTS ADVENTURE. 
" The slope of the deck of the *' Petropavlosk " steepened till it became vertical.' 



April 13, 1904. 



DEATH-ROLL. 



357 



plunge into the sea, when the second explosion came and killed him. Verestchagin was by his side ; the 
famous Russian painter had been invited on board by the admiral as. his guest, with the promise that he 

should be shown a battle. He had been busy making sketches during the sortie of 
Vere^tchag-lns Fate *^^ fleet, and had not finished when the Petropavlosk returned to the roads. He 

had had a curious presentiment of danger, and in a letter to his wife, which reached 
her long after his death, he told her how he dreamed always of some great and terrible catastrophe. 
And men who knew Makarov well have since asserted that he, too, went to the Far East with a heavj' 
presentiment weighing upon his heart. 

The officers on board the ship who were sa\ed were Captain Yakovleff, severely injured ; Commander 
tne Grand Duke Cyril, badl}- injured and much burned and bruised ; Commander Vassilieff, who had 

received so terrible a shock that on the following day he died of heart disease, when 

passing the place where the Petropavlosk had been moored — affected, it is supposed, by 
the dreadful thought of the doom which had overtaken his comrades ; Ensigns Schmidt and Schlippe, and 
Lieutenants Unkoffski and Venitch. Two admirals, two colonels, three commanders, three lieutenants, 
seven ensigns, three engineers, and five paymasters, priests, and pilots, perished on board her, with about 540 
seamen and stokers. The e.xact number lost was never known, or, if it was known, was not published, as 



570 Killed. 




THE r.RAND DUKE CYRIL'S E.SCAPE. 
He vaulted over the rail-aud attempted to lower himself from it to the deck below. 

the strength of the crew was not that laid down \>y the Russian regulations, but had been raised beyond the 
establishment. T\k& Petropavlosk was nominally manned by 650 officers and men, and as 7 officers and 73 
men were rescued, at least 570 were killed in this the greatest naval catastrophe in modern history. Of the 
officers and men saved a few afterwards succumbed to their injuries 

After this stunning disaster, having seen their flagship vanish in the sea, struck by some invisible enemy, 
•he Russian ships remained for some minutes as if paralysed. On shore the spectators reverently lifted their 



358 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 13, 1904. 




GRAND DUKE CYRIL SAVES HIMSELF. 
As he clung to a boat that was floating bottom up he could see the last of his ^hip, 

caps and prayed for the souls of the valiant Russian dead. Then the torpedo gunboat Gaidauial\ which had 
steamed into the outer roads with the second detachment of the fleet, moved swiftly to the scene of the 
catastrophe and lowered her boats. Admiral Makarov's greatcoat was found floating in the water, but no 
other trace of him was to be seen ; the few survivors were taken on board the various ships and destroyers. 
AH this time Japanese shells were falling among the Russians, as it was impossible, from the dense clouds of 
smoke, for Admiral Togo's men to see exactly what had happened. Then, demoralised and terrified, the 
Russian ships began to move slowly towards the harbour. 

At this juncture the .second catastrophe of that day occurred. The Pobieda was now leading the line, 
and as she began to move a huge pillar of smoke and flame shot up from the water under her amidships, and 

she instantly listed. There were even fears that she would share the terrible fate of the 
Panic Petropavlosk. But some seconds passed and there was no further e.xplosion. At this 

moment someone in the Russian Fleet gave the alarm that Japanese submarines were 
in the anchorage, firing torpedoes at the Ru.ssian ships. The alarm was probably caused by fragments of 
wreckage from the Petropavlosk, which were floating on the surface, and which may have looked like the 
peri.scopes of .submarines. There was a terrible panic in the Russian Fleet. The ships began to fire 
frantically to right and to left into the water about them, and to the Japanese it seemed that they had been 
seized with madness. For twenty minutes this furious firing continued, and then slowly ceased when it was 
seen that no more .ships had been attacked. The alarm was in part, no doubt, to be explained by the fact 



April 13, 1904. 



THE CATASTROPHE EXPLAINED. 



359 



that some days previously the Russian look-outs had reported from Laotishan the appearance oft Port 
Arthur of a submarine vessel some miles out. In real truth, however, the Japanese had no submarines in 
their fleet, as they placed little or no reliance upon these vessels. 

Defeated and dismayed, the Russian Fleet a little before eleven began to enter the harbour, and by noon 
all its units had vanished within. The Japanese saw them safely inside, and then drew off to a rendezvous 
on the open sea, where they would be secure from attacks by the Russian destroyers. Thus the day ended 
in the complete discomfiture of the Russians, and in the destruction or disablement of two of their best 
fighting units. 

The sunken battleship Petropavlosk was a vessel of 10,950 tons, and had been laid down at St. 

Petersburg in 1892. She was built of steel, and heavily armoured, carrying plates of Harveyed steel, 15-in. 

thick on the water-line and lO-in. thick on her heavy gun turrets. She was armed with 
The 
"Petropavlosk." '""'^ 12-in. guns of the most modern pattern, two in each of her big turrets, and twelve 

6-in quick-firers, eight of which were placed in pairs in four small turrets on either 

beam, behind s-in. steel, and the other four in casemates, similarly protected. She had no fewer than six 




A JAPANESE SKETCH OF THE SINKING OF THE " PETROPAVLOSK.^ 



torpedo tubes. Her speed had once been 1 7 knots, but during the war she had not been able to make 
more than fourteen, as her boilers were old and worn, and the ship was foul and in bad condition. She 
carried 1,000 tons of coal, and had cost when new a little over a million sterling. 

As to the explanation of her rapid disappearance, there can now be no doubt whatever that her 
magazines were exploded either by the flame from the Japanese mine or by the violent shock to the hull 

which it caused. All the survivors speak of a continued series of detonations, which 
the Catastponhp confirms this conclusion. She probably had loaded torpedoes in her six tubes, as 

she had just come back from facing the Japanese, and it is no unreasonable supposition 
that these went off in quick succession. The first explosion, that of the mine, was clearly forward, near the 
forward magazine for the heavy 1 2-in. guns, which contained thousands of pounds of smokeless powder and 
two or three hundred huge 800-lb. shells, some of which were charged with melinite. All these seem to have- 
exploded. The strong smell of ether noticed as she went down points in the same direction, as the Russian 



360 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 13, 1904. 



powder when burnt gives forth fumes which cannot be distinguished from ether b\' their smell. The great 
rush of flame between the funnels was probablx' caused by the explosion of the boilers, which at the time of 
the catastrophe were all under steam. 

The disaster, in fact, was closely similar to that which befell the American battleship Maine, destroyed 
in February-, 1898, in Havana Harbour b)- a m\'sterious explosion or series of explosions. It is of the 
utmost importance in naval history, as being the first definitely ascertained instance in which the magazines 
of a battle-ship have been detonated by a mine fired under her. In the case of the Maine, the conclusion of 
a \-ery able Court of Inquiry of American naval officers was that a Spanish mine had exploded beneath her 
and fired her forward magazine. This was disputed at the time, as it was said that the flame could not pass 
through the water and steel into the magazines of a ship. In the case of the Maine the phenomena were 




'R. L. Dunn photo. 
JAPANESE TROOPS IX POSSESSION OF A KOREAN TEMPLE AT SUNAN, USING IT AS A STABLE. 

jxactly similar to what occurred in the Petropavlosk. First there was a heavy shock, and then a terrible and 
violent explo.sion— a continued series of convulsions, as though the ship were being rent in pieces, followed 
by a crash and a list of the vessel to port. All lights went out ;. the deck flew up " like the edge of the 
crater of a volcano" ; officers and men were hurled in all directions or stunned, and the loss of life was vei)- 
heavy. 

No one from the engine-room or lower part of the ship survived in the Petropavlosk, so we have no 
means of knowing what happened there. In the similar case of the Maine, only one man escaped from this 
quarter of the ship, and he knew little except that he saw through an open door in a 
bulkhead a blue flash by the engine-room lamp, and felt a " continuous trembling — a 
terrible report — and a sensation as though the whole earth had opened up." The engineers and stokers 
would have great difficulty in getting to the upper deck, as the gratings and armoured doors in the protective 
deck were closed ; the watertight doors in the bulkheads were also fast, and the ship was under battle 



A Steel Tomb. 




L 



362 JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. April 13. 1904. 

conditions. They must ha\-e perished, immured in tlieir steal tomb, by one of the most terrible of deaths ; 
but their suflerings would not be prolonged, from the extraordinary rapidity with which the Pctropavlosk 
went down. In the case of the Maine, which sank more slowly, those who escaped retained, and will retain 
to their dying day, the grim impression made upon them by the shrieks from the submerged compartments, 
" the awful scenes of consternation, despair, and suffering" — to quote her captain's words — "down in the 
compartments forward, of men wounded or drowning in the swirl of the water or confined in a close 
compartment gradually filling." 

In an official report made to the Czar, after a Court of Inquir\' had e.xamined into the circumstances of 
the ship's lo-ss, Admiral Ale.xeieff stated that the verdict was to the effect that the ship had "undoubtedly 
touched a mine laid by the enemy in the course usually steered by our fleet when leaving the harbour. The 
explosion of this mine beneath the bows and shell-rooms of the Petropavlosk was followed by the explosion 
in quick succes.sion of the gun-cotton contained in the torpedoes and in the i2-in. .shells on board. A 
further consequence was the explosion of the main magazines and of the cylindrical boilers. All these 
explosions occurred in a space of about two minutes, after which the battleship, swathed in flames, 
disappeared in the depths." 

As for the Pobieda, the mine which damaged her exploded under her almost amidships, breaching three 
of her lai^est compartments, and several of the smaller ones. Of her Belleville boilers, one .set was so 
damaged as to be rendered useless, and new boilers had not been obtained when Port 
th "p'bt^d ^" Arthur was cut off, so that she could not be thoroughly repaired. She was structurally- 
shaken, and though preparations were at once made to patch with thin sheet steel the 
huge gaping hole in her bottom, she remained incapable of steaming more than thirteen or fourteen knots, 
and this could only be done with risk. Moreover, the alignment of her shafting is believed to have been 
affected. This injury to her was a matter of great consequence to the Russian Fleet, as she was a far more 
powerful ve.ssel than \\\q Petropavlosk. Launched .so recently as 1900, she was of 12,674 tons and 19 knots 
nominal .speed. She carried 9-in. steel on her water-line, lo-in. on her turrets, and 5 -in. over her smaller 
g^ns. Her battery was composed of four lO-in. and eleven 6-in. quick-firing weapon.s, besides si.x torpedo 
tubes. 

With the loss of the Petropavlosk and the temporary disablement of the Pobieda, the number of 
undamaged Russian battleships in Port Arthur was reduced to three, the Poltava, Sevastopol, and Peresvict, 
and the two first of these had sustained slight injury. As for the Retvisan and Taarevitch, though they were 
roughly patched up, they were quite unable to put to sea or to fight a serious engagement, as whenever their 
guns were fired the thin plates which had been used in their repair gave way and began to admit the water, 
while their speed had fallen to such a degree, as the result of the various injuries they had received, that they 
were not able to make much over ten or eleven knots. The fighting value of the fleet had therefore sunk to 
a very low ebb, and, failing serious disaster to the Japanese, it was quite incapable of meeting Admiral 
Togo's squadron at sea. 

But the greatest loss of all was Admiral Makarov. His personal influence was so great that in a few 

weeks he had been able to raise the officers and men of the fleet from the depths of dejection and despair to 

something like confidence. Moreover, he knew all the plans which had been fonned b\' 
Admiral Makarov. , ,1 . , , . , , , , 

the Russian Admiralty, and was perhaps alone competent to carry them out. He was 

56 years old, and had served forty years in the Russian Navy. In the war with Turkey of 1877-8 he had 

greatly distinguished him.self in command of a fast steamer, which was rigged up to carry small torpedo 

launches, and with which he succeeded in torpedoing four Turkish ships. He was an officer of the highest 

scientific attainments, and had invented the collision-mat, which is used in all the navies of the world to stop 

leaks in iron or steel ships, and the ice-breakers employed to keep open the Russian ports in winter. His 

own nature was a noble and generous one. Unlike most of his countrymen, he was incorruptible and 

absolutely honest in all pecuniary affairs ; to the officers and men he commanded he was alwa)s considerate 

and generous; he lived with them as though they had been his children, and to them he was known by thj 

familiar and affectionate name of " Stepan Josipovitch," and not by the more ceremonious title of 

"Excellency," commonly used by inferiors in rank to an admiral. He died gallantly at his post, and though 



364 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 13, 1904 




XUE WAK. 



i {. 1 1 arc photo. 



he does unquestionably 
deserve blame for the 
stubbornness with which 
lie refused to take precau- 
tions against mines, his 
country will forgive him 
for the great love and 
devotion which in those 
last days of his heroic life 
he showed in her cause. 

As the Japanese torpedo 
flotilla saw far away the 

great battle- 
The Japanese , ■ • , 

Sorrow. ^'^'P ^'"^^ 
below the 

surface, for a moment their 

crews cheered as they had 

never cheered before. But 

when the full news of 

Admiral Makarov's death 

arrived they held a solemn 

service according to their 



KNTK.VIMXG J^VPAMiSE HORSES 1 OI' 

rites for the dead man, and gave no sign of exultation. A -touching procession was held at Nagoya, 
where vast crowds of Japanese carried lanterns inscribed with prayers for the souls of the Russian dead, 
and banners bearing this 
inscription : " We sorrow 
unceasingly for the 
gallant Makarov and 
his men." In his official 
report of the affair. 
Admiral Togo ascribed 
his success to the ICm- 
peror. " The fact," he 
wrote, " that during this 
prolonged engagement 
the combined fleet was 
able to achieve some 
success without losing 
a .single man is due to 
the illustrious virtue of 
his Majesty. The officers 
and men fought bravely 
throughout the engage- 
ment, and discharged 
their duty faithfully ; yet 
there remains much in 
our success which cannot 
, be attributed to human 
agency. We cannot but 

... , ... IWO lAI'A.NKSE SPIES CAl'TUKKll 1!V RUSSIANS. 

beheve that it is due ,, , , , x, i. 

llicsc Japanei*, drcvscu in llama i> skins, were taken in a .M.inchurian camp. 





^^^^^^^^^^^^^K 




m 






^^nJKm 


bv V ViuU^BH 




.■■■■■■3M^ ;f<^^ 




w 



REAR-ADMIRAL KAMIMURA. 



365 




REAR-ADMIRAL KAMIMURA, 

Who defeated the Russian Vladivostock Fleet. 



3bb 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 14, 1904. 



Lieut. Manmmn. 



Cnptmn T: ' 




i.icul.-C'uiiimaiulcr Matsuinura. Chief KiiHinecr Kaino. 

OlUCKkb OF THE JAHAN'ESK UATTLESHIP "NISSHIN." 



The News In 
Russia. 



Admiraltv. 



solely to providential help that the 

numerous warships cruised both night and 

day on the sea, on the surface of which 

many mechanical mines prepared by the 

enemy were floating, without sustaining 

any damage." 

This was the first occasion upon which 

mines had been employed in the attack 

upon a hostile fleet, and no praise is 

too great for Admiral Togo's brilliant 

stratagem. The whole action illustrated 

the terrors and wonders of modern naval 

warfare — the potent engine of destruction 

hidden from sight in the sea ; the 

whispering through the air of wireless 

instruments ; the instant and terrible 

dis.solution of a superb battleship, and 

the hurried flight into harbour of the rest 

of the Russian Fleet. 

Immediately after this affair, orders were sent from St. Petersburg that the Port Arthur fleet was not 

again to venture out to sea until its new commander-in-chief, Admiral Skrydloff, arrived. He was appointed 
so soon as the news of the hapless Makarov's death reached the capital. The tidings 
made a most painful impression upon the Court and the people. The Czar was greatly 
moved ; the Emprfes is said to ha\e dissolved into tears ; and there was dismay at the 
Among the peasants circulated a strange tale that Admiral Makarov lived a ghostly life under 

the water at Port Arthur, 
and that at night the 
surface of the shallow 
roads glowed with the 
lights of his -ship, and the 
sound of hymns rose from 
the sea ; they told each 
other that he would rise 
again and lead the Russian 
Fleet forth to victory, so 
strong a hold had he 
obtained by his deeds upon 
their simple minds. 

As for the Japanese, 
they made preparations 
that evening at their 
rendezvous off Port Arthur 
for a bombardment on the 
i5lh. I.ate in the night 
of the 14th, three destroyer 
flotillas and one torpedo- 
boat flotilla headed for the 
roads and laid more mines 
in them. At daylight they 

ADMIKAI. SKKVI)I,OJ I LEAVING THE WI.NTEK I'AI.ACI., S r. I'ETEkSIiUUI ., All IK ••IK f 

BEING APPOINTEU TO COM.MAXU THE kUSSEW ELEEX AT I'OKT ARTHUR. WCre JOmed by the last 




April 15, 1904. 



RUSSIAN LAWLESSNESS. 



36Z 



cruiser squadron, to draw the Russians 
out. But this time the Russians refused 
to be drawn, and no ship of theirs showed 

its nose outside the 
Lawlessness. harbour. Behind the 

cruisers came the 
Dattleshlps, and on their way to Port 
Arthur they found tiiat the enemy had 
attempted to use against them the very 
stratagem that they had employed, but 
in a lawless manner. The Japanese had 
laid their mines within three miles from 
the coast, that is to say, in Russian 
waters, where neutrals would go at their 
own risk. The Russians, on the other 
hand, had placed three floating mechanical 
mines many miles out at sea, in a highway 
of traffic used by the innocent merchant steamers of all nations. Fortunately for themselves, the Japanese 
sighted these mines and promptly destroyed them. They then despatched the two new armoured cruisers 
NlSSHlN and KasugA, the gun-mounts of which were specially adapted for high-angle fire, to the 
neighbourhood of Pigeon Bay, whence they directed a high-angle fire upon the ships and batteries 
of Port Arthur, after first with a few shots completely silencing the new Russian fort that had been built 
overlooking the bay. The Russians replied with indirect fire, but failed to strike the two cruisers, which 
kept constantly on the move. In the afternoon the fleet drew off and returned to its base, whence ne.xt 




f 




DIAGK.'VM TO SHOW HOW NAV.VL GUNS ARE PLACKlJ 1-OK HIUHAXGLE HKIXG. 



368 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 16. 1904. 




A DESERTED KOREAN VILLAGE-KUNAN. 
The people — except the old — fled south. The houses have been partly destroyed for firewood. 



(A. 1,. llmiii !>hoto. 



day, April i6, Admiral Togo detaclied the greater part of his armoured cruisers to make a fresh .uteinpt 
to bring the Russian Vladivostock fleet to battle. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

SFXOXD SORTIE OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK SQUADRON— SINKING OF THE "KINSHIU 
MARU"— THIRD ATTEMPT TO SEAL PORT ARTHUR. 



T 



HE division of armoured cruisers which Admiral Togo had detached under Vice-Admiral Kamimura's 
orders to attack the Vladivostock squadron lost no time in moving to the Japan Sea. On 
April i6 it parted company with Admiral Togo. It appears to have been composed of four of the 



ves.sels of the ASAMA class, with four of the fast cruisers which had 
Port Arthur, and two of the older type ships, the Naniwa and 




THE JAPANESE TRANSPORT "KINSHIU MARU 



ijl.uicliard. 
RUSSIANS. 



Tbi* wa% on«_ of the vcsmU that fell into ihc hands of the Vladivostock .Squadron on their visit to Gensan. 

The " Kinkhiu Maru,*' 2,389 tons, was stopped off Iwon by the Russian Squadron The ship's captain 

and three otJier olpcers went on board the Russian ship " Rossia.'* The soldiers on Iraard refused to 

fturrcndcr. and the ship was torpedoed and sent :o the bottom. 



done such sterling service before 

Takaciiipo. In addition there 

were two torpedo-boat or destroyer 

flotillas at- 

Lookinsr for the .^^i^,, ._ :. 

Russian Fleet. ^'''^''"' ^° "• 

It was thus a 

\ery powerful force — so powerful 
as to be certain of beating the 
Russians, if it had encountered 
them. ]5ut the difficulty was to 
catch the Russians at sea, away 
from the guns of Vladivostock. 
Admiral Kamimura's intention 
was to steer first for Gensan, 
where the Japanese maintained 
a small garrison, and had con- 
structed fortifications, which 
rendered the place secure from a 
Russian raid. 

There he arrrivcd on April 23, 



April 23, 1904. 



A FATAL FOG. 



369 




KI.I-XTKIC 1 RAM 



.llKLl-.Ib UF Sl-.UUL. 



eail\- in the morning, and learnt from the com- 
mander of the place that Japanese refugees 
from Songchin, a Korean port some distance to 
the north, who had been removed a week 
before by the little coasting steamer Haginouka 
Maru, reported that a force of Cossacks had 
ridden into Songchin and raided the town, while 
later rumours had reached Gensan that the 
enemy were continuing their advance towards 
the south. The commander of Gensan therefore 
proposed to the admiral that a small force 
should be despatched to reconnoitre along the 
coast, and that the steamer KiNSHlu Maru, 

which accompanied Kamimura, carrying spare stores and coal, should be employed for that purpose. 

Kamimura acceded to the proposal, and detached the nth Torpedo-boat Flotilla for her protection ; as he 

himself intended to move northwards against Vladivostock, and would so cover her reconnaissance, it did not 

apj^ear necessary to give 

her a stronger escort, nor 

was it indeed advisable, 

for military reasons, to 

weaken his force. He 

then departed northwards 

during the morning. 

The weather was clear 

inshore as he steamed 

away, but almost imme- 
diately after leaving the 

coast his 
Fleets in a 
Fog. 



fo5 



ships ran 
into a dense 
Notwith- 



bank of 
standing this, he stood 
northwards, hoping to pass 
out of the fog, which is 
\ery local and patchy in 
the Japan Sea at this 
season of the year. But 
the further he went the 
thicker grew the fog, until 
it was quite impossible 
from the deck of one ship 
to see the next astern, and 
the vessels had to proceed 
with the utmost caution, 
tov.ing fog-buoys astern 
so as not to lose touch of 
each other. Even so, it 
was e.xceedingly difficult 
for them to ma:intain con- 
tact. It speaks highly for 




TWO RUSSIAN OFFICERS BOARDED THE "GOVO MARU" AND EXAMINED HER 
PAPERS IN THE CAPTjVIN'S CABIN. 



JAPAN'S FlGHl- FOR FREEDOM. 




KL'b^IANS COMPELLING JAPANESK PASSENGERS TO LEANE THE '-GOYO MAKU," WHICH THEY SANK 




(.Drawn from a pliutugrapli. 

JAPANESE CAVALRYMEN AT EXERCISE BREAKING IN HORSES 



the seamanship of the 
Japanese that the 
squadron pursued its 
dangerous journey with- 
out accidents of any 
kind. And though the 
Japanese (Hd not know 
it, the situation was a 
thrilling one. Through 
that same fog at the 
very same time the 
Russian cruisers of the 
Vladivostock s(]uadron 
were also passing, so 
that at any moment the 
two enemies might have 
come into sudden col- 
lision, neither being 
aware of the proximity 
of the other. ]5ut as 
Fortune would have it— 
and throughout she was 
unfavourable to the 
Japanese — the two 
forces passed each other 



April 26, 1904. 



A STARTLING REPORT. 



371 



At Gensan. 



in the fog without sighting one another. 
We will deal first with the fortunes of the 
Japanese squadron. 

All the 23rd the Japanese proceeded 
north, while the fog thickened instead 
of disappearing. In the afternoon of the 

24th a position only 

70 miles south of 
Vladivostock was reached, when the 
weather was still so thick that the admiral 
decided to turn southwards, as fighting- 
was quite out of the question. After 
covering i 50 miles he found himself in the 
same belt of fog, and on the 25th, at 
6 a.m., resolved to steam back to Gensan. 
Notwithstanding the difficulties caused 
by the weather, the whole fleet had kept 
together — not a ves.sel was missing. Not 
till the morning of the 26th did the fog clear from off the surface of the \\ater. Soon after noon the fleet 
was off Gensan, and when it entered the port the Japanese Consul came on board and made a startling report. 
At noon of the previous day, the 25th, four strange warships of large size had appeared off the 
harbour. With them were two torpedo-boats. They were taken at first for Japanese vessels of Admiral 




[ Kenny & Son pholo. 
AX AMHUI.AXCE DOG FOR MANCHURIA. 

This has been specially trained by Major Richardson for finding the wounded. 




A RUSSIAN DE.'ilKOVKR FIRED A TORl'EUO AT THK " GOYO .MARU," WHICH SENT HER TO THE BOTTO.VI. 



372 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 25, 1904 




HOW COSi^ACKS SECURE COVER DURING A SKIRMISH. THEIR HORSES KEEl' STILL UNDER THE HOTTEST KIRE. 

Kamimura's division, but on their closer approach it was seen that they were Russians — the Grojiiovoi, Riirik, 

Rossia, and Bogatyr, with two destroyers. The town was defended by hastily 

Fleet's Sortie. •'^'^^'J '"''ts, but no attempt was made to open fire from them upon the Russians, as 

most of the property in the place belonged to the Japanese, and any offensive action 

would have resulted in a Russian bombardment and the probable destruction of the town. In the harbour 

were two steamers. 
One, the Govo 
Maru, a small 
Coasting vessel 
laden with fish, 
could be plainly 
seen from outside 
the harbour, where 
the Russians were 
now lying ; the 
other was well in- 
side the harbour, 
not easily to be 
seen, and in some 
degree .screened 
by the thickness 
of the weather. 
Jhis saved her. 

All the non- 
combatants 




COMPANY OK JAJ'AXESE INFANTRY ON THE .MARCH. 



[J. H. Hare photo. 



ON BOARD A TORPEDO-BOAT. 



37> 




XVI. 



JAPANESE OFFICER WATCHING THE FLIGHT OF A TORPEDO. 



374 



JAPAN'S FlGHl FOR FREEDOM^ 



April 25. 1904. 




Boarding the 
"Goyo." 



[Facsimile sketch by Sheldon W'iliiains 
RUSSIAN COSSACKS RETREATING 



luirriedly abandoned the town, in ex- 
pectation of a bombardment. The 
garrison stood to arms, and the crew of 
the Govo prepared 
for the worst. The 
Russian destroyersi 
after examining the entrance to tlie port 
for mines, entered the harboui, and each 
despatched a boat to the Govo. Two 
Russian ofificers with eight men boarded 
her. and, going to the captain's cabin, 
examined her papers. Then they 
ordered the crew to retire on shore. 
The order was: obeyed, and as the crew 
took to their boats the end of the GoYO 
came. One of the destroyers fired a 
torpedo at her. which sank her almost 
instantly, tearing in her side a hole 12 ft. . 
wide and 24 ft. long. She went to the 
bottom in shallow water — only 24 ft. deep 
— so that her recovery was a matter 
of no great difficulty. She was of 
601 tons, and had only arrived at Gensan 
three hours before. 

It was this brilliant exploit that the 
Japanese Consul reported. After the 
destruction of the GOYO, the big Russian 
cruisers entered the harbour ; but 
they made no attempt to engage the 



The 

"Kinshiu 

Maru" 

Missing. 



forts, and retired about 
5 p.m., .steam- 
ing off in a 
northeasterly 
direction, and 
detaching the Rurik with 
news to Vladivostock. 
Strange to relate, the little 
Japanese steamer Taiski 
Maru, which was proceed- 
ing along the coast south 
from Tanchong to Gensan, 
saw nothing of them, 
and reached Gensan safely 
a little before Admiral 
Kamimura's ships. The 
most serious fact, how- 
ever, was that the 
KiNSHlu Maru had 
not returned, nor was there 
any sign of her escort 




JAPANESE INFANTRY MAKCHIM. NOklll THROUGH THE I'EKIN PASS. liETWEEN 

SEOUL ANIJ THE YALU. 



April 25, 1904. 



SEARCH FOR THE "KINSHIU." 



375 




tCupyriglit, 1904, by "Collier's Weekly.' 

JAPANESE TRANSPORT HORSES IN MANCHURIA. 



That something had 
happened to her was 
almost certain ; the ques- 
tion was whether she had 
gone ashore on that difficult 
coast in the fog, or had 
been caught and captured 
by the Russians. The 
armoured cruisers and 
destroyers at once made 
ready to put to sea and 
follow the Russians, when, 
just as they were leaving 

Commander Takebe with the INADZUMA, the flagship of the nth Torpedo Division, and the boats of that 

division, arrived and made a most disquieting report. 

The KINSHIU, he said, had reached Iwon, where it had been determined to land her troops, at noon on 

the 25th ; the troops had landed and reconnoitred, and had re-embarked about 6 p.m. They were preparing 

to put to sea when the 

weather became very 

threa ten i n g. The 

barometer had been falling, 

and there was every sign 

of a violent storm. The 

commander therefore de- 
cided to spend the night 

with his boats close under 

the coast, in one of the 

Korean harbours, and in- 
formed the officers of the 

KiNSHIU of his resolve. 

No one appears to have 

thought for a moment 

that there was any danger 

to be apprehended from 

the Russians, and the 

KiNSHlu'S captain decided 

to return to Gensan with- 
out his convoy. He 

steamed off into the night 

and was soon lost to sight. 

Nothing giore was seen 

of him by the flotilla, but 

on reaching Gensan the 

torpedo craft were ordered 

at once by Kamimura to 

sail and examine the coast 

to ascertain what had 

become of the missing ship. 
Up the rocky coast-line, 

with the mountains on Japanese on the march to manchuria. crossing a river in junks, 




376 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 27, 1904. 




THE RUSSIAN CRUISER "ROSSiA" TURNED HER SEARCHLIGHTS UPON THE "KINSHIU," AND TRAINED HER GUNS 
ON THAT SHIP, WHILE HER BOATS WERE SENT TO CUT THE "KINSHIU" OFF. 

their left still white with snow, the torpedo craft steamed, while the fleet stood well out to sea, as it was 
Kamimura's intention to make a straight line for Vladivostock, in the hope of cutting the Russians off and 

bringing them to battle when they returned to their port. Both detachments of the 
^'^''innsWu •* fleet on the morning of the 27th discovered signs that a catastrophe had befallen the 

KiNSHIU. Kamimura's vessels found a junk which the KiNSHlu was known to have 
been towing drifting upon the sea, with nothing in but a naval belt and some naval clothing. On seeing 
it Admiral Kamimura detached the torpedo gunboat Chihaya to join the torpedo flotilla and inform them, 




THE JAPANESE TROOPS ADVANCINO INTO MANCHURIA. 



378 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 27, 1904. 



in order that they might search the coast with the utmost care. 
The boats, meantime, learnt from a passing vessel that the 
KiNSHIU had encountered the enemy, and had been sunk, and 
that only a handful of men had escaped. 

Here the story is taken up by the survivors on board that 

ship. The Russians had learnt from the 
""^^"NaSSu^a."**^ Koreans during their call at Gensan that 

four Japanese torpedo boats and a transport 
had proceeded north the same morning, and had steered to 
intercept them. On their way north they fell in with another 
little Japanese trading steamer, the Nakamura Maru, and, 





A RUSSIAN AMAZON. AN OFFICER'S WIFE IN COSbACIi UNIFORM AX MUKDEN. 



THE WIFE OF GENERAL 
KUROKI. MANAGER OF THE 
RED ■ CROSS ASSOCIATION 
OF VOLUNTEER LADIES. 

stopping her, removed her 
crew of 27 men, after which 
they sank her, the whole 
process occupying but a 
few minutes. The pretext 
for this violent action was 
that she had war-stores 
on board, though actually 
this was not the case. 
After this fresh exploit, 
they steamed north through 
the mist which now lay 
heavy upon the coast, 
keeping a sharp look-out 
for the transport. Their 
own despatches give a 
totally incorrect version 
of the cruise, pretending 
for some reason or other 
that the squadron returned 
to Vladivostock on the 
evening of the 25th, and 
only put to sea again on 
the 26th, meeting the 
KiNSHIU on the night of 
that day. On board the 
KiNSHIU the soldiers re- 



April 25, 1904. 



THE " ROSSI A'S " ATTACK. 



379 



tired to rest about 8 of 
the 25th, and all was quiet. 
Late in the evening, a little 
after 10 p.m., the watch 
suddenly saw a number 
of large ships only a short 
distance away through 
the mist, and, taking them 
for Japanese, signalled : 
" We have your coal." 
The Russian reply was, 
" Stop instantly ! " where- 
upon the Japanese dis- 
covered the grave nature 
of their mistake. 

The cruiser Rossia 
turned her searchlights 
upon the KiNSHiu, and 
trained her guns on that 
ship, while her boats 
were sent to board the 

Japanese vessel. At the same time the two Russian destroyers took up positions which would enable 
them to cut the KiNSHlu off, in case she attempted to escape. But no such attempt was made ; the 




THE MEN FROM THE "KINSHIU" TRYING TO ESCAPE THE "ROSSIA." ONLY THREE 
ROWED, WHILE THE OTHERS CROUCHED AT THE BOTTOM OF THE BOAT. 




[Fac^iniilc ut j,kt.-tch In' -Mcltoii Triul. 

THE JAPANESE SCIENTIFIC CORPS EN ROUTE FOR THE FRONT. FIELD TELEGRAPH SECTION LEAVING TOKIO. 



380 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 25, 1904. 




THE SINKING OF THE " KINSHIU MARU." JAPANESE SOLDIKRS FIKINU UPON THK •• ROSSIA 




Discovering the 
" Kinshiu." 



A KOREAN KEST-HOUSE. 



undertaking would have been a hopeless 
one, and must have resulted in the instant 
destruction of the vessel. The Rossta 
closed to within 50 yards, and her captain 
from the bridge gave 
instructions to Captain 
Yagi of the KiNSHlu 
to send a boat on board the Russian 
cruiser. At this point the bluejackets 
on board the KiNSHlU made one effort 
to gain safety. Lowering a boat they 
rowed for the shore, but were at once 
cut off by a Russian steam-cutter and a 
destroyer, and were compelled to surrender. 
The Russians shouted that they would 
give an hour's grace to the men on board 
to abandon the ship, after which they 
intimated that they would sink her. 
Another boat, in which were Commander 
Mizoguchi, Captain Yagi, an interpreter, 
and a few bluejacket^, now proceeded to 
the Rossta, to endeavour to obtain terms 
for the Kinshiu, and to arrange for the 
landing of the men on board her upon 
the Korean coast. As they were im- 
mediately made prisoners, and not per- 
mitted to make any report to the Japanese 
Government, it is not certain what 
happened, but one fact is clear — that 
their mission was unsuccessful. 



ii 




D - 

Qi S 
< ■§ 



X " 
Z -5 



^ 



X 

H 

u. 
O 

Q 
Z 

LJ 

U 

I 

H 



382 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 25, 1904. 




JAl'AXKSK Mll.llIKKS lAKKVINi; SUl'lM.lES Ol' RICK. 



What followed 
tliereafter is told 
us in the Russian 
and Japanese ac- 
counts, which sub- 
stantially agree. 
The Russians state 
that the)- .sent a 
number of men on 
board to search the 
Japanese vessel^ 
that these men 
found the vessel 
apparently aban- 
doned, but when they went below discovered six infantry officers locked in a cabin, who surrendered to 
the Russians, and that, on making further search, 130 infantrymen were discovered who flatly refused to 
surrender. Upon the Russian boat leaving the ship it was fired upon by the soldiers, whereupon the 

Rossia retaliated by attacking 
the KiNSHIU. Certain 
Japanese non - combatants 

who escaped 
Refusingr to , r 

Surrender. ^^^^^ "^^'^ ^'^^'^ 
the departure 

of the boat with their naval 
officers all remained quiet on 
board. There was no one on 
deck, but at the stern was a 
Japanese sentinel before the 
officers' quarters, who told 
them that the officers and 
men had determined to share 
tlie fate of the ship. There 
were in all five officers, 119 
soldiers, and 18 bluejackets. 
The non-combatants were 
told that they might leave if 
they could, and they forthwith 
proceeded to lower the boats. 
While they were going off 
to the Kossia, nine men 
climbed stealthily down into 
one of the boats and deter- 
mined to make an attempt to 
get away. Their first trouble 
was to elude the attention 
of a destroyer which was 
standing sentry on the star- 
board side of the KiNSHIU — 
the Rossia was on her port 

J.\PANES£ SOLDIERS CO-M-MITTING SUICIDE ON HOARD THE "KINSHIU MAkU ' . ^ l,' fl ■ 

XO AVOID CAPTURE BY THE RUSSIANS. '''^^ — ''"'' ^° °° '^'"^ "^^-^ 




April 25, 1904. 



A LUCKY ESCAPE. 



383 




INomelles pliut'i 
HOW THE CORRKSl'ON'DKNTS PASS THPMR TIME AT THE RUSSIAN' HEADQUARTERS. AN' AMERICAN REPORTER 
AMUSING CHINESE CHILDREN WITH SLEIGHTOI' -HAND TRICKS. 

decided to pretend to be rowing to the Rosshr. Her searchlights illuminated the scene and showed them 
up plainly to view, while, to add to their difficulty, the mist had now cleared off and a bright moon was 
shining. They rowed some little way towards the Rossia, and then turned to escape the beams of the 
searchlight ; only three men rowed, very quietly and stealthily, while the others crouched at the bottom of 
the boat. Just at this \ery critical moment, a cloud passed over the moon, obscuring its light, and in 




^^'g^- 



J.\PANESE BAGGAGE-TRAIN ON MARCH IN JIANCHUR1.\. 



ICup) iij;lil, ty<j4, by "Collier's Weekly. 



384 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM, 



Apn 25, 1904. 




the darkness they managed to get cleai 
away from the doomed ship. As they 
retired, they lieard a dull, heavy explo- 
sion, and then a rapid cannonade for 
the space of about twenty minutes. They 
counted about 150 shots from iieavy guns. 
Then there was silence ; the searchlights 
vanished ; and the grim forms of the 
Russian ships faded away into the black- 
ness of night. They were safe and free. 
On board the KiNSlilU in those last 
minutes a scene of extraordinary heroism 
had been enacted. The troops on board 

were of one of the 
Japanese Heroism. . . 

regiments of the 

Oshima division, a battalion of which was 
said to have shown the " white feather " 
on the battlefield many years before, 
so that it had passed into a saying that 
the Oshima men were cowards. The 
troops in the KiNSHIU were determined 
to redeem the reputation of their city 
by a last great act of self-devotion. As 
the period of grace granted by the 
Russian cruisers drew towards its close, 
the officers on board informed the men 
that they were free to act as they wished, 
and that they were no longer under 
military orders. But they stated that 
they themselves had made their own 
decision. No one doubted what this 
meant. The officers were determined to 
take their own lives, and in the hour of 
dismay to prove the depth of their love 
and devotion for Japan and the Emperor 
— for the sacred national cause in which 
they were fighting. 

At this last strange meeting there was 
no talk of surrender. The plight of the 
ship was hopeless, but 
not a man in all that 
company flinched 
before the prospect. Death with honour 
was, in their eyes, a source of glory, not 
of fear. Silently and undemonstra- 

tively they received these last instructions, 
and even as the word was given the end 
came. A Russian officer, who had come 
on board to examine the ship, found the 
soldiers under arms, fled in alarm back to 



The Scene on 
the "Kinshiu." 



386 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 25, 1904. 




nil. ■IHi^LMr' UKblKOVl.NG HKIKTI.NG .MINKS J.KI J.OO.SK 1)\ T)1K KUSSl.W.S .\K.\K VI..\lllVOSXOCK ll.AKIlOUk. 

the boat, and gave a bugle-signal to the Ross/a. Then he hurried back to her, and a.s he hurried the Russian 
cruiser let fly an i8-in. torpedo. There was a violent explosion; the next instant the men in the KiNSHlu 
could hear the water pouring r- 



into the hold. Determined 
to sell their lives dearl\-, 
they hurried up the com- 
panion-way, and, forming up 
on deck, opened fire, shouting 
the national cry of " Banzai 
Nippon ! " and singing their 
regimental war-song. At 
once the Rossia dropped back 
and replied with her quick- 
firers, while one of the de- 
stroyers aimed a second tor- 
pedo at the sinking transport. 
The KiNSillU was now 
fast going down. The 

heroes on her deck, undis- 
mayed, fired steadily, while 
bloody lanes were torn 
through their ranks by the i^^ 
hail of Russian shells. All 




LONG MNES OF JAPAXESK i'.\i k-ilok.--l,:i j.i^i:N'.l\G 1 1' .tL I'I'i.lK.i, 



April 25. 1904. 



AMAZING JAPANESE BRAVERY. 



387 



was over ; the utmost resistance had been offered, and offered, it might seem, without avail. In full sight 
of his men Captain Shina cut open his bowels, after the ancient fashion of the Samurai. Lieutenant Terauda 
and Yokota, with most of the non-commissioned officers, followed his example ; of the men, many shot each 
other, or slew themselves with their bayonets, first tearing off their shoulder-straps so that the Russians 
should obtain no informa- 
tion as to the disposition 
of the Japanese forces. 
Defiant even in death, the_\- 
won the admiration and 
respect of the whole world. 
The Oshima man could 
thereafter walk proudly ; 
his kinsmen had wiped 
out the stain of dishonour. 
" Sayonara ! " " Fare- 
well for ever ! " is the 

parting of the Japanese; 

and these soldiers, who 

had gone 
"Sayonara!" ^ 

forth with 

all the heroic spirit of a 
gallant race — to fight for 
their country in this her 
desperate struggle for life 
against an immensely 
powerful foe. that they 
might save her from the 
fearful fate of a Finland 
or a Poland — had never 
looked to return. They 
went out. not merely 
avowing their will to 
struggle, to the end, but 
carrying that fixed deter- 
mination deep in their 
hearts. And though they 
died, as might seem to 
the Western observer, 
vainly and by the wayside, 
yet the terrible fanaticism, 
the sublime devo'tion which 
they displayed in the.se 

their last hours, were evidence to Russia and the world that Japan could never be conquered. Slain her 
legions might be in the field ; but not for them the white flag, that emblem of the soldier's dishonour. 
Reversing the famous saying of Bandiera — with which he, too, went out like these men to give his life — 
that " Italy would never live until Italians knew how to die," it might be said that " Japan would never die 
because her sons cared nothing for life. And when the tidings of the disaster reached Japan, the news of 
iiow these men had met their end converted defeat into triumph. The story of the KiNSHlU Maru 
remains, and will remain, among the glories of modern Japan, and the memory of those who fell will read 
to future generations an imperishable lesson of self-sacrifice and faith which is steadfast to the \ery end. 




lAPANKSK COUNCH. OK W,\K ON THE KlKLlJ. 
This is bein,i; lield in one of the nati%e str.Tw huts. 



388 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 25. 1904. 



The ship went down before all the soldiers had 
accomplished their purpose. A little band of living 
men was thrown into the sea. With extreme and 

unnecessary severity the Russian 
^'coes'Down" ' cruisers steamed away and left them 

in the water — to drown like dogs, or 
Japanese. Some 46 men of those in the water succeeded 
in reaching the damaged boats which were floating on 
the surface, though even then it was difficult to restrain 
them from suicide. They had no wish to survive their 
comrades, and at least one man leaped deliberately into 
the sea and was drowned. The others safely gained tiie 
shore, after enduring unutterable hardships on the icy 
water, in dense fog. Once they heard a sound like the 
whi stle of a destroyer, and thought that the Russians were 
again upon them, but found that the strange noise 
proceeded from a seal, which rose to the surface and 





AN UNUSUAL SALUTATION IN JAI'AN: Jill, I.LKwl'I.A.N ilA.NUbllAKK. 

Mr. Mellon Prior wrila : " The other day, when cavalry and infantry were halted or. the road 
Id the railway station, 1 observed two men from different regiments leave the ranks and advance to 
meet each other. After (he customary bows, they grasped each other's hands in true Kuropean 
style. As this was a very exceptional proceeding, 1 .sent over my interpreter to know the reason, 
wnercupon I learned that these^ two men had I>een chums all their lives, and were row going to 
the front,_ one as a non-commissioned officer, the other as a private. This might probably be their 
lau iDceiing. So rare ii the handshake among the Japanese that I thought it worthy of a sketch." 



[.■\delphi Press .Agency. 
THE GRAVE OF WILL ADAMS, 
The first Englishman in Japan. He went there in 1599. 

sccmcil to watch them. Five of the 
survivors managed to keep their rifles, 
notwithstanding ail their troubles. 

Of those on board, according to the 
Russian reports, 198 were taken 
prisoners and carried off on board 
the Rossia, while 81 soldiers are known 
to have been killed. About 20' 
bluejackets and non-combatants must 
be added to the list of casualties, while 
54 soldiers and non-combatants 
reached the shore. The soldiers who 
escaped were anxious to be sent 
against the enemy, that they might 
end their lives gloriously in battle, 
and prove that fear of death was not 
the cause which had prolonged their 
existence. 

The loss of the ship cannot be 
ascribed to anything but •ill-luck. 
The probability that the Russians 
would be encountered was small, and 
the Japanese naval force was not 
sufficient to permit of warships being 
detached to convoy each transport. 
Even if the torpedo flotilla had been 
with tiic steamer, it is doubtful whether 
it would have succeeded in averting 
the disaster, as against four large 
cruisers and two destroyers it would 



April 26, 1904. 



KAMIMURA'S ACTIVITY. 



389 




COMMANDER HAVASHI, 
Commander of the Third Blocking Party. 

some, and on the morning 
of the 29th, with ten cruisers 
and six destroyers, he ap- 
peared off Askold Island. 
During his approach the 
Russian squadron had been 
at sea, on its way once 
more to attack Gensan, 
but, taking in on its wire- 
less instruments a Japanese 
signal, had been alarmed 
and returned to its base. 
When the Japanese steamed 
in to reconnoitre, they found 
the Russians verj' much on 
the alert. 

For the first time during 
the war the Russians took 
the offensive, and two 
destro)-ers steamed out 
towards the Japanese as 
though intending to use 
their torpedoes. The)' were 
received with so heavy a 
fire that they at once re- 
tired. There was a haze 
on the .sea, and the Japanese 
waited for it to clear, which 
it did as the morning ad- 
vanced. Then the armoured 
cruisers fired a few shells 
at the forts, to which the 

No. xvii. 



have been completely outmatched. Admiral Kamimura 
was blamed for what had occurred, but most unjustly. 
There was little fault to be found with his dispositions. 
The fact was that the Japanese Navy was insufficient 
at one and the same time to blockade both Port Arthur 
and Vladivostock, and the Japane.se authorities acted 
w isely in concentrating the bulk of their force against the 
main squadron of the Russians. 

As for Admiral Kamimura, he had left Gensan for 
the second time on the evening of the 26th, proceeding 
north, and during the afternoon of the 
27th he once more entered the fog- 
bound area, and found the weather .so 
thick that he thought it safer not to approach Vladi- 
vostock. On the 28th, however, the fog was le.ss trouble- 



Attack on 
Vladivostock. 




low PORT AKTULR LOOKED TO SHU'S THAT PASSED l.N THE NIGHT. 



390 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 2, 1904. 



Third 
Blocking 
Attempt. 



forts replied, ten projectiles falling about the IDZUMI, but doing her no harm. It was quite evident that the 
forts were now armed and properly supplied with ammunition. Observing the Russian Fleet within the harbour, 
the Ja|ianese retreated, as Kamimura had orders to rejoin Togo by A certain date, which was near at hand. 
On his wa\- back to Gensan, he found that the Russians had turned drifting mines loose on the sea, and 
several of these were destroyed by the lu/.UMl. He had thus failed to bring the Vladivostock ships, which 
were now under the command of Admiral Jessen, to action. The reticence of the Japanese official reports 

prevents us from knowing 
exactly what was his aim, 
but, whatever it may have 
been, it was not attained. 

In the Yellow Sea pre- 
parations were now com- 
plete for a final attempt 
to seal the entrance to 
Port Arthur. 
This was to 
be made so 
soon as the 
Japanese First Army, 
which all through April 
had been gathering on the 
Yalu, was ready to cross 
that river and attack the 
Russians in Manchuria. 
That the fleet might be 
free to cover the landing, 
it was- essential that it 
should have perfect liberty 
of action. Three divisions 
under General Oku had 
sailed from Japan to the 
Hall Archipelago in the 
last week of April, and 
were waiting there for 
General Kuroki's advance 
to give the signal for 
action. Since the catas- 
trophe to the Petropavlosk, 
the Russian Fleet had 
remained inactive in Port 
Arthur, the only event of 
importance recorded being 
a terrible mine explosion 
which occurred while a 

number of Ku.ssian Iaunche.'5 were placing mines in the outer harbour, and as the result of which Lieutenant 
Pelle and twenty men were killed, and a launch was sunk. On May 2, Admiral Togo learnt that the Yalu 
had been cro.s.sed by the Japanese, and that the moment for action on his part had arrived. 

At the Japanese naval ba.se in the Hall Archipelago twelve steamers had been assembled to take part 
in the attempt. Of these twelve, only eight were eventually taken into the channel and sunk there ; their 
names were the MiKAWA Maku, of 1,967 tons; the Sakura Makc, of 2,978; the TOTOMI Mai^U, 




l,OOKIN(; 



I'OR 



R.MLWAV liKKAKERS IN M.\NCHUR1A. 
'• Is il ilynamite ? " 



May 2, 1904. 



THE TWELVE STEAMERS. 



391 



of 1,952 ; the EDO 

Maru, of 1,724; the 

Otaru Maru, of 2,547 ; 

the Saga XI I 



Twelve 
Steamers 
Prepared. 




Maru, of 

1,926; the 

A I K o K o 
Maru, of 1,781 ; and the 
Asagao Maru, of 2,464. 
All had been specially 
prepared for the work by 
filling them with stones 
and rails, and running 
liquid cement over the 
mass, while a number of 
powerful charges of gun- 
cotton had been placed 
along tlieir bottoms, con- 
nected with the bridges, so that by pressing a button the vessels could be instantly sunk when they had 
reached their appointed stations. The large number of vessels employed was to provide against all possible 
mischances ; of twelve ships, it was argued correctly, three or four would be certain to reach the entrance to 
the harbour, which had been so much narrowed by previous attempts that a few vessels would be able to 
close it. As in their previous attempts the Japanese had experienced great difficulty in finding the harbour 



THE LAST TRAIN OF REFUGEES FROM PORT ARTHUR, AFTER TBk DISRAILMENT 

AT TIE-LIN. 




THE RUSSLW DEFENCES OF PORT ARTHUR AS KNOWN TO THE JAPANESE INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT. 



392 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 2, 1904. 




THK KOAUSTEAI) OK I'OKT ARTHUR. 



The Start. 



mouth in the darkness, on this occasion five of the leading vessels were equipped with searchlights, which 

they were to play upon the gap between the precipices that gave access to Port Arthur. 

Commander Hayashi, an exceptionally able officer, was in charge of the explosion squadron. The 

twelve ships were convoyed by a large number of the smaller craft, detached from the Japane.se Fleet, and 

the gunboats Akagi and Chok.m ; the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Destroyer Flotillas, 

and the 9th, loth, and 14th Torpedo-boat Flotillas ; totalling some 22 torpedo 

vessels. The}- left tiie Hall Islands at noon of May 2, with the knowledge that the main strength of the 

fleet would follow later in the evening, .so as to arrive off the port after the attack had been made. The fast 

cruisers, which had been detached for the attack of the Vladivostock squadron, were due to rejoin Admiral 

Togo next day. The weather that evening was calm ; the night was lit by a bright moon ; and only a light 

haze hung on the surface of the water. The conditions were e.xactly what the Japanese desired them to be; 

they were aware that they must be more easily discovered in the moonlight; but they wished to be able to 

.see clearly enough to carry the ships to their 

appointed positions, and for the sea to be 

calm, so that the boats, when they left the 

e.xplosion ships, might have no difficulty in 

reaching the torpedo craft ordered to wait 

outside the harbour for their rescue. 

Unfortunately, as the evening advanced, 

the Yellow Sea proved its treacherous 

nature. The barometer fell, a south-easterly 

wind began to blow, 
A Storm. , , , 

and towards eleven 

o'clock it freshened to a gale. The sea 

rose in response, and the weather became 

thick and about as unfavourable as could 

be. As one result of this sudden storm, 

the Japanese vessels lost touch of each 

other and of the commanding officer, and 

were scattered in all directions, so that, 

though Commander Haya.shi signalled, not 

once, but repeatedly, to abandon the 

attempt that night, his signal was seen only 

by four of the ships, which dropped back, 

LIEUTENANT-COMMANDKR SHIRAISHI. ^ ' ' 

Con,n«n<icr of the " .Sakura Maru." accordiug to liis orders. The other eight. 




May 3, 1904. 



COMMANDER HONDA'S EXPERIENCE. 



393 



the names of which have been 
given above, with the greater 
part of the torpedo flotilla, pro- 
ceeded into the roads, which 
they reached about 2 a.m. of 
the 3rd. Though their officers 
were aware of the immense in- 
crease in the risk and difficulty 
of the work which the bad 
weather would bring, they never 
flinched. They knew that the 
blocking operation was the 
essential preliminary to the 
landing in force of the Japanese 
army on the Liaotong Peninsula, 



OFFICERS ON I50ARD THK "TOTOMI MARU," THE BLOCKING SHIP. 




I.IEUT.-CO.MMANDER 
HONDA, CAPTAIN. 



F.NdlNEER 
TAKENOUCHI 



FIRST SUIi-LIEUTENANT 
MORINAGA. 




TIIK ".MIKAWA" STRUCK AGAINST THE liOOM AND SHATTERED IT 
THOUGH IT HAD BEEN MADE OF PACK-THREAD. 



One of our correspondents writes: " I had the ple.isure of meeting here Lieutenant-Commander Honda a 
few days ago. He was in charge of the *' Totomi .Maru " during the last blocking expedition, and gave me a 
graphic account of the expedition in which he played such an important part, and the particulars of which 
are already known. The commander bears remarkable evidence of the effect of screaming projectiles and 
the din of naval warfare, even on an unarmed vessel, for it is with difficulty that he can hear at all, the 
drum of both ears being seriouslv damaged Tlie rest of the crew suffered similarly, and the commander ' 

told me he experienced great difficultv on board , 
in making his orders heard. He is undergoing 
medical treatment in Tokio, and has been told that ! 
he will recover his hearing. His brain -v.xs also ' 
affected by the concussions, and he has t.een : 
confined to his bed owing to this. He \va.s only ! 
slightly wounded in the left arm. He told me , 
his vessel was loaded with cement, rubble, and ' 
sand in proper proportions to form a concrete , 
mass shortly after immersion in water. The wheel- 
houses on all these blocking steamers ar- pro- 
tected by an armoured shield, but notwithstanding 
this the man at the 'Totomi Maru's' wheel was 
disabled, and the commander had to take it. When 
they were ready to leave the sinking vessel they 
found their boat riddled and the rudder attach- 
ment broken. They pluggeil up the holes with 
blanketing, and the commander had to steer by 
stiffening the rudder with his buttocks, no easy 
task with his wounded arm. The plucky man 
carries in his countenance unmistakable evidence 
of having been into the jaws of death and out 
again." 



and they were determined to 
accomplish their orders at what- 
ever cost. But it was un- 
fortunate that they had been 
dispersed by the storm, since this 
prevented them from coming on 
together and sinking in a 
compact mass in the channel, 
when its clearance would have 
been a far more serious task for 
the Russians than it actually 
proved. Here, as so often before 
in the naval war, luck was all 
against the Japanese. 

About two the alarm was 
given to the Russian gunners by 
the strange spectacle of a beam 
from a searchlight, apparently 
far out at sea, playing right on 
the harbour mouth. The great 
searchlights on Golden Hill at 
once began to sweep the horizon 
for traces of the as yet invisible 
foe approaching. The moon was 



394 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 3, 1904. 



obscured by clouds, and a heavy sea, 

rolling in, broke violently on the coast, 

drowning any sounds that might otherwise 

have reached their 
The Russians r ^.i 

Alarmed. ^^""^ ^'°"' ^'^^ on- 

coming steamers. 

Five Japanese torpedo-boats were almost 
at once seen in the roads, and fired 
upon by the small gunboats Gilyak, 
Otvajny, and Grcmiaschtchi, whereupon 
they retired. For the moment the 
Ruissians supposed that the light came 
from a Japanese cruiser, and waited to 
allow her to approach within close range 
before opening fire ; then as they descried 
the MiKAWA Maru, commanded by 
Lieutenant Sosa, which led the explosion 
ships, they opened upon her a terrible 
cannonade, discovering in the glare of 
their searchlights that she was a merchant- 
man and not a warship, and divining her 
purpose. Lieutenant Sosa had seen the 
flashes of the Russian guns as these 
directed their fire upon the torpedo flotilla, 
and imagined that the rest of the ex- 
plosion vessels had already gone in, and 
that he was the last. He put on full 
steam and rushed for the entrance, though, as one of the torpedo-boats' crews afterwards related, the air 
seemed thick with the rain of projectiles. New batteries had been constructed and armed by the Russians 




ill'.ROr.S 0|- Till-; THIRD r.I.OCK.\DIN'("; FLEET. 

I. Lieutenant-Commander Honda, Captain of the blocking steamer " Totomi Maru." 2. 
Captain Hayashi, Commander-in.Chief of the blocking party. 3. Lieutenant Sosa, Captain 
of the blockmg steamer " M ilea wa Maru." 4. Lieutenant tfchida, Captain of the "Aikoko 



Maru." 



5. Chief-Engineer Serashima, on board the " Sakura Maru." 
on board the " Olaru Maru." 



6. Lieutenant Kasahara, 




KUS.'ilAN TKtJOI'S EN ROUTE TO MUKUE.N. 



ij. 1- . Arciiibald piiuto. 



396 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 3, 1904. 




ICopjriglit pholo J. H. H:ire. 

JAPANESE RED CROSS MEDICAL AND SURGICAL SUPPLIES EN ROUTE FOR ARMY IN 

KOREA 

entered tlie narrow channel wliich <,n'ves admittance to the harbour. 



on both sides of the low 
ground, immediately at 
the foot of the cliffs, near 
the entrance, and from 
these issued a steady 
stream of i2-pounder pro- 
jectiles, while from the 
forts poured a hail of 
heavier shells. 

The uproar and confu- 
sion were terrible, but 
Sosa never flinched, though 

he speedily 
Sinking tlie , • , 

••Mikawa." discovered 

his mistake, 
and saw that he was rush- 
ing to death alone. With 
such speed did the 
Mikawa advance that she 
passed without serious 
injury through the tempest 
of shells, and actually 
There she struck violently 




■•' I XI'I.OIilJ' rMjI.R -lllj., "AlK(jKO MARK," AMI AX IMMP'.NSl': COLUMN OF \VA-|'liR 
l;osl-. IKO.M IIN'DEK HEI< WITM A TKRRII'IC CRASH. 



May 3, 1904. 



THE "MIKAWA'S" DASH. 



397 



against the boom, shattered it as though it had been made of paci< -thread, and not of the stoutest 
steel hawsers procurable, steamed far up the channel, further than any of the Japanese explosion vessels 
had previously penetrated, and, amid the ringing cheers of her men and the uproar of exploding mines, 
swung across the fairwa\-, fired her charges, and rapidly sank. Sosa and the survivors of the crew, still 
cheering, took to the boats, which were lowered as the ship dropped across the channel, and attempted to 
steer out to the torpedo craft. But as they fled the Russian searchlights picked them out, and a fearful fire 
was concentrated upon them. They iiad done their work with incredible heroism and gallantr)-, but in the 




COMMAXTIER TAK.\VA<JI, 



WHlLk; Sl.^Mll.NU ON i HK liklDGK OK IHh ■■ hUO .\IAKU, 
WHICH ALMOST CUT HIM IN TWO. 



\VA> SiRUCK BY A SHELL 



true Japanese spirit they refused to raise the white flag or to surrender to the Russians. Shot after shot 
dropped near the little boats ; then a shell struck one of them and she disappeared, with her freight of living 
men, and all was over. The other was so fortunate as to regain the flotilla. 

Immediately after her, the Sakura Maku made her dash. What happened to her is a little uncertain, 
as of her devoted crew none returned. But a vessel resembling her was seen to pass, apparently unscathed, 



398 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 3, 1904. 




A J.U^ANE.-^K DKAWl.Wl, SHOWING A iNAVAL A.MUULANXK. 



through the storm of fire, and to enter the channel just under the Pinnacle Rock. There she was sunk by 

her crew. Her boats must have been shot away, since the Russians saw her seamen mount the rigging 

when the hull of the vessel vanished below the surface of the water. There they burnt flares to show their 

comrades the channel, and cheered repeatedly. The Russian fire was directed upon 

'^Sak^ra." ^ them, and first one and then another was seen to fall. From the forts men shouted 

to them to surrender ; they replied with words and acts of defiance, firing revolvers, 

and plainly showing their resolve to fight to the death, with the magnificent spirit of heroism which 

has animated the Japanese throughout this war. 

The third steamer to approach was the TOTOMI Maru. Like her predecessors, she advanced at full 
.speed, while the Russian fire grew in intensity ; but through all the torrent of projectiles she won her wa)-. 
" Never," wrote a Russian eye-witnes.s, " have our gunners worked as they worked this night. Wherever 

the searchlights showed up 
the enem}', shells poured 
upon him." Astern of the 
ToTOMi could be seen 
other vessels 
s t e adf ast ly 
a d v a n c i n g, 
and the tor- 
l)edo-boats keeping their 
station fi.xedly, some 2,ooo 
\ ards behind, as though it 
liad been a parade move- 
ment, and as if there had 
been no storm of wind 
and fire to face. The 
courage and coolness of 
the Japanese drew tributes 
even from the Russians ; 
tliey seemed as men 
THK CREW OF THE "SAKURA MARU." Unafraid of death. Now 




Discipline 

in the 
"Totomi." 



May 3, 1904. 



THE "AIKOKO MARU/ 



399 




THE "SAGAMI MARU STRUCK A MECHANICAL .MINE JUST OUTSIDE THE HARBOUR MOUTH. 



i 



the TOTO.MI iicared the harbour mouth, and 



I 




[Berliner lilustratiuns, Gcsellschafl, 
A RUSSIAN SENTINEL. 
All ihe sentry-boxes are marked in this striking manner. 



as she neared it, struck violently against some obstacle — 
what obstacle remains uncertain, but possibly it was a 
portion of the already broken boom ; an instant later 
there came another and equally violent shock, and she 
burst her way into the narrowest part of the channel. 
There, with wonderful skill and coolness, Commander 
Honda sent her to the bottom. As she sank, her 
crew formed up to take to the boats ; they could be 
seen in the glare of the searchlights calmly discharging 
their duty, maintaining the most perfect order and 
discipline, and at the sight a thrill of admiration and 
sympathy ran through the veins of the onlookers, and 
even the gunners in the batteries ashore, who were 
taking their lives, could scarce refrain from cheers. 
Then, as the ship sank, the searchlights passed from off 
her to the next comer ; the vision of those heroes 
faded away into the night, and all the thought of the 
Russians concentrated upon the destruction of the fourth 
ship, the AlKOKO Maru. A thousand yards from the 
entrance, as the shells fell about her and the continual 
explosions shed a lurid glare on her, which supplied 
relief to the bluish-white blaze of the searchlights, an 



400 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 3. 1904. 




immense column of water rose from under 
lier with a terrific crash ; the water gave 
place to flame and steam ; a powerful 
observation mine had been exploded 
under her, and slie went down in a few 
seconds. Of her crew fifteen escaped, and 
nine perished or were taken prisoners. 

After these four \essels had delivered 
their attack, there was a pause. The 
otlier four \esscls, which had parted 
compan\- from their comrades in tlie 
storm, were late in 
arriving, and the 
Russians had time 
to gain breath and cool their guns. 
Then, just as dawn was at hand, just as 
the first orange flush of day could be 
descried in the east, the second batch 
of explosion ships made their rusli. The 



The Second Batch 
of Ships. 



KL'SSI.XS SOLUIKKS 11.\LL1NU 

UP THE .\RT1LLERV WAf; 

GONS FRO.M LAKE BAIKAL 

TO THE RAILWA. 

ElX) Maru led tliem, 
and she, too,, pas.sed 
through the shell -swept 
zone without any fatal 
injury, and reached the 
entrance. There she was 
about to drop her anchor, 
when her officer in charge. 
Commander Takayagi, 
while standing calml)- on 
the port-side 'of the bridge, 
was struck by a shell under 
the left arm. The pro- 
jectile almost cut him in 
two ; a bluejacket, going 
to his help, found him 
*'>''"&• ^^'th pra)ers for 
Japan upon his lips. His 
place was instantly filled 
bj- Lieutenant Nagata, tlic 
.second in command, by 
whose orders the anchor 
wa-s dropped, and the 
charges in the hull ex- 
ploded, sinking the vessel. 
Then in perfect order the 




HOW JAPANESE SOLDIERS KEEP THEMSELVES COOL BY USINC! FANS. 



I 




402 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 3, 1904. 




Irit Wfc.V OK THfc -ASAOAO WAkU ' ktl'LlEI) XO XHli RUSSIANS WITH SHOUTS OF DEFIANCE AND REVOLVER SHOTS. 



crew took to the boats, 
fourteen of them suc- 

The Rus- 
rush. Slie 



ing to a Rus- 



batteries, 
H ot c h kiss 




THK 



IKON 



' l» TO f;ENKKAI, KUKOPATKIN liV ST. I'ETERSIiURr; 
An ikun is a boly piciuri. Ikoni art to be found in every boiiht in Russia, ami c-ven 

rooms al the stations. 



carrying with tlieni tlie dead body of their fallen leader, and 
ceeded in rejoining the torpedo flotilla. 

sian fire grew still hotter as the sixth ship made her 
was the OxARU Maru, Commander Nomura. Accord- 
sian witness, " She advanced directly towards our 
lighted by our projectors, answering our fire with her 
guns. Projectiles fell all about her but did not strike 
her. Her great size — she was the 
largest, save one, of the explosion 
vessels — rendered her far more dan- 
gerous than the others. 
At last, their eyes evi- 
dently blinded by our 
her crew headed her in 
the wrong direction and drove her on 
the rocks. Our men at once aimed 
their fire at the boats which put off 
from her and tried to get clear of the 
coast. It was marvellous to see how 
the Japanese seamen toiled. Now 
they stopped rowing and remained 
motionle.ss, as though they had all 



On 

the Rocks. 

searchlights. 



J 



in waiting- 



May 3, 1904. 



A RUSSIAN DESCRIPTION. 



403 




iCopyright by "Collier's Weekly" in U.S.A. 
THE CZ.^K OF RU.SSIA E.KHiniTING AN IKON TO DEPARTING TROOPS. 

been killed ; now, profiting by their momentary rest, they again exerted themselves to the utmost. From 
minute to minute their number decreased, and at last in the boats only bodies were left. Just at this 
point, after the destruction of the si.xth explosion vessel, our searchlights discovered a Japanese torpedo- 
boat. Almost at once she was hit by our shells, and enveloped in an immense white cloud of 
steam ; and when the cloud vanished the boat had gone." A Chinese spectator ashore speaks of the 
tiirilling aature of the scene. "The Russian troops," he says, "opened fire from every direction, and 




LIEUTENAM NAKIMOTO CAME TO IIIK RESCUE OV No. 05, ANJ) DRAGGED KV.R OUT OK THE XONE OK FIRE. 



404 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 3, 1904. 



mechanical mines were exploding everywhere. Tlic j^laro of the firing disclosed vi\i(l picliircs on board the 
steamers, where the Japanese officers and seamen could be descried fighting desperatch." 

The seventh steamer, the Sagami Maru, Commander Yuasa, failed to reach the entrance. As she 
came on she divergeti .somewhat from the course which the other explosion vessels had taken, and struck a 
Russian mechanical mine just outside the harbour mouth. The result was a fearful explosion ; after which 
she appears to have sunk almost instantaneoush-, carrjing dow n with her many of her officers and men. 

I'roni her no boat and no 
sur\ i\ ors returned ; if any 
did escape the explosion, 
they were captured by th<; 
Russians or drowned in 
the sea. The body of one 
of her stokers, a volunteer 
from tlie ItSUKUSHIMA, 
was all that was recovered 
from her. The eighth 
ves.sel, the AsAGAO Maru, 
was not more fortunate. 
.She was struck b)' a shell 
on her rudder, and, becom- 
ing unmanageable as she 
neared the entrance, she 
drove ashore just under 
Golden Hill, where her 
crew sank her. The men 
in the Russian batterieSj 
not a stone's throw off 
called to her seamen to 
surrender ; the only replies 
made here, as elsewhere, 
were shouts of defiance 
and revolver shots frcjni 
tile ja[5ancse. 

" Our adversaries," sa\'s 
the Russian witness already 
quoted, "showed extra- 
ordinary braver)', and 
refused to surrender. A 
Japanese who had been 
dragged out of the water 
by (jur men tried to strangle 
himself with his neck- 
cloth. The few prisoners 
who were rescued b\' our 
men were at once w rapped 

in warm blankets and carefully attended, but most of the Japanese, who had taken refuge in their small 
boats, died under our very eyes to the last man, without one making the signal of surrender. In one boat 
which ran aground in the harbour and was overpowered there were 22 men, 1 5 of whom were wounded. 
When they saw that they were prisoners, they attempted to strangle them.selves. All the Japanese wounded 
had been hit on the head or the hands. With eight other men, whom we rescued from the rigging of the 




Rf.SSI.\S C.W.M.KV CkOSSINO .\ KIVEK. 
licic the loose ice is floating. The Cossacks are staiiOins in the saddles with their feet in shortcjicd stirrui>s. 




i 



PRAVIXC, FOR A WOTTNjnED POLDIKR-A PICTUKKSQUE JAPANESE CUSTOM. 



The suppliant must Ijc m a wbitu cu^tuiuc, iMil before wjr li'i^ her prayer shi must fill the iron poLs with water. When the water is hot she must sprinkle 

ii-rs;lf with a few drops from each vessel. 



406 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 3, 1904. 



Togo's 
Commendation. 



ships, these were all that were .saved ; and when one ot our w hale-boat.s approached an explcsion \ es.se) 
just after she had sunk, and tried to rescue her crew, the Japane.se refused all help ^nd .oj^cncd fire on 
those who were .striving to rescue them." 

The Russians are to be honoured for the humanity which on this occasion they attempted to show to 
their heroic enemies ; the Japanese, for a gallantry and devotion unsurpassed in the annals of any nation. 
" This blocking operation," wrote Admiral Togo in his official report, " was incomparably 
more hazardous than either of those that preceded it, the storm adding to the 
difficulties. ... It is most unhappily impossible to learn any details of this their (the 
S.\KURA'S, SAG.\Mrs, Otaru's, and As.\GAO's) last great act of daring; but I believe that their heroism 
will long stand in the pages of their country's history. The destroyer squadrons and the torpedo .squadrons, 
battling against the violent wind and the high seas during the night, did their duty well." In the flotilla 
there were several casualties ; the boats .Aotaka and Hayabus.v each lost a man ; while No. 65, commanded 

by Lieutenant Taira, had 
one of her steam-pipes 
hit, and lost three of her 
crew. .She was evidently 
the torpedo-boat which 
tlie Russians saw en- 
veloped in a cloud of 
steam, and which the)- 
fancied had been sunk ; 
but, as a matter of fact, 
in the midst of the uproar 
and storm, No. 75, Lieu- 
tenant Narimoto, came 
gallantly to her rescue, 
took her in tow, and 
dragged her out of the 
zone of fire, so that she 
escaped. The Aotaka 
sustained some slight 
damage to her machinery. 
Some small parties 
of Japanese landed under 
the forts and defended 
themselves to the last, 
i'luis ten swam ashore to 
tlie Mantow Hill and there 

died, declin- 
The Loss • . 
of Life. '"- to raise 

the white flag, 
and twelve landed at 
Golden Hill, and actually 
made a rush on the forts. 
In all, 157 officers and 
men went in on board 
the explosion steamers ; 
of these 1 3 are known to 

A TKAVKLI.I.S'O KITCHE.N -I UK KU»bI.\N CAkT lOk COOKING 0.\ TliK .M.\KCH. ttaVC JCCl \ 

TiM boUer hold* about forty gallom. It has a collapMbk chimney. haVe died of thcir WOUnds ; 





■r/ii ' rrtif 



408 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 3, 1904. 




Result. 



COALING ANO LOADING JAPANKSE TRANSPORTS IN SHIMONOSEKI HARBOUR. (Drawn by Melton Prior. 

4 severely, 14 slightly wounded, and 36 uninjured men escaped to tlie torpedo 
flotilla in the boats ; and 90 were missing. Of the 90 missing 30 were taken 
prisoners by the Russians, so that the actual loss of life to the Japanese in the 
explosion vessels was 73. It is safe to say that but for the storm this loss would 
have been reduced by two-thirds. 

The day was high in the sky before the firing ceased, but with dawn a heavy 
mist had fallen over the surface of the sea, veiling from the sight the scene of 

that tremendous conflict. At 6 a.m. the 
Japanese fast cruiser squadron arrived to 
cover the retreat of the torpedo-boats and 
to .search the coast for sur- 
vivors, and three hours later 
Admiral Togo was on the spot. He 
steamed in as near as he possibly could, 
but the fog thickened as the morning 
advanced, and it was impossible even to 
make out the cliffs which fringe the 
entrance to I'ort Arthur. The small 
craft, however, stood close in and reported 
that the masts of the sunken vessels 
showed in a line across the entrance, so 
that it was probably closed. The Russian 
Fleet within gave no sign of activity,and few 
swKAki.xu Ks A .MuiuMMKi.A.N khcKuii lu 1 KiiiT loR TiiK ( ZAR. of its vcssels appeared to bc Under .steam. 




SHOOTING A SPY. 



409 




JAPANESE SOLDIERS SHOOTING A KOREAN SPY WHO HAS GIVEN INFORMATION TO THE RUSSIANS. 



410 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 3, 1904. 



As a matter of fact the entrance had been temporarily closed for any vessel larger 
than a destro)-er, and e\en destrojers could not make 
except with extreme difficulty, as three of the Japanese vess 
were sunk well in the centre 
was necessary first to make 
turn to the south-east, 
and then anotherequally 
sharp one to the west, 
while even then the 
wrecks further out in 
the entrance to the 
channel impeded navi- 
gation. Weeks passed 
before the Russians 
could blast a wax- 
through the wrecks, and 
after all their engineer- 
ing operations the 
mouth of the harbour 
remained difficult. Thus 
the purpose of the 
Japanese w as attained — 
for a period, at all events. 

In the words of a Far ICasteni writer, " To utter an\- eulogy of such heroism seems almost an 




[Cribb photo. 
A BOATFUL 
OF OUSERVA. 
TION MINES. 




i>rawn t'rom a phoro l)y Karl Lewi.',. 
VOCNG JAPAN'S WELCOME TO THE TROOPS ON THEIR ARRIVAL AT TOKIO TO E.MIIARK AT YOKOHAMA. 

XbU was a schoolboys' accordion band. 



May 3, 1904. 



AN AMAZING INCIDENT. 



411 



impertinence. In this war tlie Japanese are showing splendid quah"ties. They are proving themselves 
to be not onl\- brave in a superlati\e degree but also exceptionally competent. The little incident 
of the torpedo-boat No. 65 is an eloquent illustration. . . . And consider the work upon which the.se 



I 




TWKLVK JAH.WESE LANI'KU AT GOLDEN HILL, AND ACTUALLY JLVDE A RUSH ON THE FORTS. 



412 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 3, 1904. 




(lestio\er,sand torpedoers 

h;ue been engaged for 

the past tlirce months. 

Think of 
Superlatively . . 



Brave. 



ISidiiev Sinilh jjhoto. 
TROOPS ON THEIR WAV TO E.MBAKK FOR PORT ARTHUR FROM YOKOHAMA 



e ni 
a g a i n 
and again steaming in 
pitch}- darkness, with- 
out a tight burning, 
and often in heavy seas, 
eitlier to attack the 
enemy or to escort 
steamers engaged on 
duty of the deadliest 
[jcril, yet never once is 
there a fatal collision 



or an accident of any 
kind that can be attri- 
buted to faulty sea- 
manship or careless hand- 
ling . . If they were our 
own countrymen we 
should be proud and 
thankful. We do not see 
how seamen of that calibre 
are to be beaten." 

Late in the afternoon 
of May 3, Admiral Togo 
left a crui.ser division to 
watch Port Arthur, and 
with the rest of his fleet 
steamed oflf to the Hall 
Islands, to cover the 
landing of General Oku's 




JAPANESE TROOPS GOING ABOARD AT YOKOHAMA FOR PORT ARTHUR. 



ifllKwli^' 


^^ESf'^fc.-i^ /'■■■k^ 


^ 


jL.^^ 


rfafcp^^-- 


33 


^^^H||^j(Kt]^ n f 1 


B«.RV.E^^p^|HM 


1 




^^^7^»^^^^^^^H 




'" i^J 


lET .r^^ff^^^^^^s^ 


^^n 


1-^- — -^i^^ v^'^" 


1 



( ANAL SCENE IN TOKKS. 



(G. Smilh photo. 



army. One task had 
been well performed, 
but the discharge of 
another was just be- 
ginning. He moved at 
high speed, for hours 
were of moment, and 
reached the rendezvous 
before daylight on the 
4th. It now remains to 
trace the movements on 
the Yalu which had 
paved the way for this 
new landing. 



JAPANESE IN KOREA. 



413 



\ 




JAPANESE PATROLLING PARTY IN A KOREAN TOWN SPYING OUT THE LAND. 



414 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 4, 1904. 



Japanese at 
Wlju. 



CHAPTER XXII. 
THE JAPANESE CROSS THE YALU. 

WHEN the Japanese of the advanced guard reached W'iju on 
April 4 they found the River Yalu still impassable, by reason 
of the masses of floating ice which were borne down-stream in 
its turbid flood. The Russians had destroyed the bridges of boats, b\- 
which they had made their south- 
ward move- 
in e n t into 
Korea, and 
from the lower slopes of the snow- 
gg-_^ _ ;^^~- clad heights on the western shore of 

X^tf^~^S^^tKl^lB^ i ^'^^ stream watched attentively the 

Japanese proceedings. 

The river at Wiju flows in a bed 
nearly 7,000 yards wide, but the 
width of the actual waterway is 
broken by innumerable large islands, 
sandy and scrub-covered in normal 
seasons, but from time to time 
submerged in heavy floods. In 
spring the islands were not under 
water. Between Wiju and Kulien- 
cheng are two large islands, the one 
nearest Wiju known ais Kinteito, 
several miles long, and at its 
broadest point a mile and a half 
wide. The channel which parts it 
from Wiju is narrow, and can be forded waist-deep except when the river is in flood. Beyond Kinteito and 
the next island, Kingting — or, as the Russians called it, Somalinda — is the main channel, which is deep 
and rapid, and from 700 to 1,000 ft. wide. The island of Kingting is even larger and wider than that of 
Kinteito, and lies close under Kuliencheng, at the junction of the River Aiho and the Yalu, sending up its 
northern apex far into the .'Mho, and dominated in this direction by the towering blufi" of Hushan, or Tiger 
Hill, which rises on the western bank of the Yalu, just above the point where one channel of the River 

Aiho joins it. The channel 
between Kingting and the 
Manchurian bank can be 
forded with difficult}' at 
one or two points. 

To the north of Kulien- 
cheng, along the west bank 
of the Aiho, runs a line 
of heights, difficult and 
precipitous, facing Hushan 
and the height of Yulcha- 
won, which rises on the 
cast bank of the Aiho, 
to the north of Hushan. 
.Above the two big islands 
(.i-..s(.KAi. KiKOKi AM) HIS sTAiK. of Kintcito aud Kingting 




l.fc.NKk.AI, KLROK.I, IN COMMAND 

or THE JAPANESE TROOhS 

AT THE YALU KIVER 




GENERAL FUlll, CHIEF OK GENERAL 
KUROKl'S STAFF. 




416 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April, 1904. 




Islands on the 
Yalu. 



CHINNAMPO HARIiOCR, WITH JAPANESK TRANSPORTS ARRIVING. 

are the smaller ones of Oseki and Kiurito, higher up the river. Finally, after stretching for many miles, 
the islands end near Sukuchin, ten miles above Wiju, where is a small one, unnamed, and where the 
breadth of the main channel is only 700 ft. Opposite Sukuchin is very rough, broken 
ground, which at first sight appears impracticable for troops. Ridge on ridge of 
mountains come down from the lofty ranges of Manchuria, and here and there the 
frowning faces of the cliffs are relieved by small patches of pine-forest. 

To the south-west of Wiju the islands continue for some distance, the most noteworthy being Ransito, or 
Lanjado, which is as large as Kinteito, and which fits neatly into Kingting and Kinteito Islands, parted only 
from them by narrow channels, which, however, are deep and difficult. Opposite its western extremity, on 
Manchurian soil, lies the town of Antung, where there had been a ferr\-. Below Ransito the islands continue 
for some distance and then disappear, and the river widens out into an immense estuary, two to three miles 
wide, which is exceedingly difficult of navigation by reason of sandbanks. At Yongampo, a town 
on the Korean bank, there are more small islands, but here there is deep water close inshore, so that 
tcansports can land stores and troops without aii}' difficulty. 

Though the Russian positions near Kuliencheng overlooked tne level plain through which the river 
flowed, and the entire valley to the south of the stream as far as the heights which rise at and just to the 
.south of Wiju, the configuration of the country on the whole favoured the Japanese. The narrow 
channels between the islands and the Korean bank of the Yalii were shrouded by willow growth from 
inquisitive eyes, while numerous dongas 
and patches of bu.shes in the ap- 
parently coverless islands might .serve 
to harbour and conceal a large force under the very 
guns of batteries on the heights to the north of Kulien- 
cheng. The elevations north of Wiju offered ideal 
positions for modern long-range artillery, which could 
direct its fire upon every point in the Kuliencheng 
position. But the real key to the passage was the height 
of Hushan with the ground to the north of it ; when 
this was once in the hands of the Japane.se, the Russian 
position would become untenable. Finally, the numerous 
channels offered great facilities to the Japanese for the 
preparation of their pontoons and bridging material, 
while the broken ground immediately behind Wiju would 
conceal a vast army. 

The first step which the Japanese took after their hold 
upon Wiju was assured was to detach a brigade of the 
1 2th Division, under Major-General Sasaki, to make a 
wide turning movement This division being equipped 



The Lie of the 
Land. 




OK.NKKAL MISTC;HENKO, 



Who was stationed near AntunK lo prevent the Japanese crossing 
the \'alu. 



418 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 20, 1904. 




4-7-ta. OUN ON FIELD CARRIAGE, 
Such as used by the Japanese. Made and photographed by Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. 



European troop.s ; the men 
had to make tlieir own 
roads, as tlie Korean tracks 
were mere mountain foot- 
paths. Yet by April 20 
this difficult and toilsome 
march had Ijeen accom- 
plished with success. At 
the same time reports were 
purposely spread by the 
Japanese that two or three 
divisions were moving to- 
wards points jet liigher 
up the Yalu, thus com- 
pelling the Russians to 
watch the whole river front. 
The rest of the 1 2th Divi- 
sion was posted between 
Sukuchin and Chensong '< 
and the whole division, 
forming the Japanese right, 
was directed to concen- 
trate at Sukuchin on 
the 28th. 

Meantime at Wiju great 
preparations had been 
made by the Japanese 
engineers, w ho had secured 
the .services of large num- 
bers of Korean cooKes. 
Along all the roads leading 
to Wiju and the various 
strat^ic points which 
General Kuroki wished to 
occupy elaborate .screens 
of straw and boughs had 



with mountain artillery was 

specially adapted for a difficult 

and toilsome march tlirout^h 

mountains 
Anju to , , 

Chensong. '"^^' '^'°"^" 

execrable 

roads. It was ordered to ino\e 

from Anju to Chensong, which 

lies 45 miles higher up the Yalu 

than Wiju. The distance to 

be covered from Anju \\as over 

80 miles through wild forest 

country, impracticable for 




[Copyricht 1904 hy " Collier's Weekly." 
JAPA.NESE TROOPS RESTING BEFORE CLIMlii.\(i iHKOUGH THE TONGSAN MOUNTAINS 
BETWEEN SEOUL AND PING YANG. 



April 10, 1904. 



A WONDERFUL SCREEN. 



419 



A Wonderful 
Screen 



been constructed. So artfully were these devised that they completely concealed the movement of troops 
along the roads. Even the passes leading down to Wiju were masked in the same clever fashion by a 
series of what looked like triumphal arches. Viewed from in front, and from a distance, 
the road disappeared from sight, and there was only a ravine covered with an abundant 
growth of foliage. Thus the Japanese Army would be able to concentrate, without the 
Russians obtaining the slightest idea of its strength. It could move backwards or forwards on the Korean 
bank of the Yalu, and its movements would be invisible. It could thus employ the deadliest weapon in 
the arsenal of the general 
—surprise. 

General Kuroki had de- 
cided to force a passage 
near Kuliencheng; but now 
his first object was to lead 

the Russians 
Deluding the 
Russians. ^^ 

that he 

meant to cross lower 
down. To convey this 
illusion to his enemy it 
was necessary to make a 
great display in the direc- 
tion of Yongampo. Con- 
sequently troops were 
disclosed there, and on 
April lO a Japanese 
squadron, composed of 
the old wooden cruiser 
KaimoN, two shallow- 
draught gunboats, and a 
number of old torpedo- 
boats and armed launches, 
appeared in the mouth of 
the river, under the orders 
of Admiral Hosoya, and 
set to work to remove the 
Russian mines placed in 
the stream, to reconnoitre 
thoroughly, and to prevent 
the Russians from landing 
small parties of scouts to 
the south of the stream. 
It was vital for the 
Russians to obtain e.xact 
information of the Japanese 
plans, and to do this they 




WHEN JUNK MEETS JUNK. 

A junk full of Japanese soldiers meeting a similar junk full of Russians compelled the latter to leave their boat and 
bolt for the shore, with a loss of three killed or wounded. 



were bound to cross the river. But on the Japanese side there was a strong determination that the 
enemy should know nothing whatever of all that was happening, and the watch kept both by army and 
navy was vigilant in the extreme. 

Continuous skirmishing proceeded between the Japanese outposts lining the bank of the river and the 
Russian scouting parties, and from time to time the Japanese navy intervened in these affairs.. On April lo 



420 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 10. 1904. 



Sub-Lieutenant Yamagu- 
chi, of the Japanese Navy, 
while reconnoitrinjj the 
river in a junk, discovered 
a number of Russians on 
board another junk m\- 
ijaged on the same work, 
and a sharp skirmish 
followed, as the result of 
which the Russians were 
compelled to abandon their 
vessel and to bolt for the 
shore, with a loss of three 
killed or wounded. During 
the following da\'s the 
Japanese heavy artillery 
arrived at Yongampo, and 
was landed there by night 
without the knowledge of 
the Russians. General Sas- 
sulitch, who commanded 
at Kuliencheng, had been 
positive from the first that 
the Japanese could bring 
against him nothing but 
mountain artiller\', which 
was not inuch to be feared, 
from the shortness of its 

COSSACKS SURPRISING AND ATT.'iCKING A JAPANESE CONVOY ON THE YAI.U. i , . 

range. In this delusion 
he was confirmed by the reports of the Cossacks who had raided Korea, and who stated that the Korean 





•^?«Sf 



'T ^^ f #^ 




iCiipyri^iiii r»y "Cuiwcrs 'vVccKiy in v ..-' 

JAPANESE TROOPS ADVANCING BEHIND BA.MBOO SCREENS TO AVOID THE OBSERVATION OK THE RUSSIANS. 



April, 1904. 



DELUDING THE RUSSIANS. 



421 




I'OXTOONS <;OIN(; lO W Ijr. a HAI.T on the road. ICopyrig'il " Collitr's WV.Hy." 

roarls were quite hopeless for lart^e Ljiins. His firm belief, as the Japanese had hoped, was that 
the attempt to cross would be made IjjIow Antuiii;- and not above Wiju, and when he saw pontoons 
in the neighbourhood of Yongampo, and noted the presence of the naval flotilla at the inouth of 
tlie river, he was more than ever confident that he had been right, and accordingly stationed part 
of General Mistchenko's dixision of Cossacks near Antung, supporting it with the 3rd Russian Rifle 
Division. As for any po.ssibility of an attack on his left in front of Hushan, he dismis.sed it, in 
the complacent belief that the Japanese would never adventure them.selves in the terrible inountain 
country which intervened between his flank and the Valu, while he further suppo.sed that the River Aiho was 
unfordable, and would prove an impassable obstacle to his enemy. 

Nevertheless, as Japanese troops were reported at Sukuchin, he detached a battalion in that direction to 
oKserve their movements, placed outposts in the various islands, occupied Hushan with a small force, planted 




nRiiH'.ixi, iMi. ^•\l^ 1 iih i)\x i;Kini,'K riiK i;\rTl.K. 



422 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 21. 1904. 




RUSSIAN OUTPOST SKIRMISHING ON THK YALU. 



Position of 
Russian Forces. 



his field artillery on a bowl-shaped eminence just to the north of Kuliencheng, which commanded the 

valleys of the Aiho and Yalu, stationed the iith, i2th, and 22nd Regiments, each three battalions strong, 
on the line of heights to the west of the Aiho Valley, and in the neighbourhood of 
Kuliencheng, and reported that his position was impregnable, and that he would defy the 
Japanese to effect the passage of the stream. As the first sign of the Japanese attack, 

he waited for news that the foreign attaches had left Tokio for the front ; but when this news did not come, 

he seems to have supposed with a good many Russians that the Japanese might, after all, be content to remain 

on the Yalu, safeguarding their acquisition of Korea. But he made attempts to penetrate the Japanese screen 

of outix)sts in the direction of Yongampo, and on April 2i directed the scouts of the i ith Rifle Regiment to 

cross the Yalu with four Korean barges, find out what they could, and destroy a number of Japanese junks 

and vessels collected at the 

mouth of the Paingma 

rivulet. Captain Zemiet- 

sen, with 34 officers and 

men, was entrusted with 

this mission. The party 

of Russians crossed the 

river without misadventure 

and landed two scouts on 

the Korean bank, who 

almost at once came into 

collision with a Japanese 




Kl.l'.OW FORT, ON THK VALU. 



|U. C. Kiiwa 



phnti. 



424 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April, 1904. 




JiATTLE OF VAI.f. JAHANESE SOLUIEKS CARRYING WATER I'ROM THK RIVER TO IHKIK COMRADES IN THE ITRING LINK. 

outfxjst. Kcinforcements rapidly reached the Japanese, and they poured in upon tiie Russians a deadly fire, 
which wounded the captain and several of his officers and men. To add to Captain Zemietsen's troubles, it 
was difficult to get the boats, which had grounded on a inud-bank, afloat again, and the Japanese, seeing their 
plight, began themseKes to push off in boats to effect their capture. The Russians had lost eighteen men, 
and were in a most critical position, when one of the Russian batteries on the Manchurian bank of the river 
noticed their danger, and came to their aid by opening a long-range fire on the Japanese, who thereupon 
withdrew, as the}- did not wish to run .serious risks or to di.sclo.se to the Russians their own artillery positions. 
The Russians .sailed off in very battered plight, and made no inore attempts to reconnoitre in this quarter. 

At the same time the Japanese Fleet began to threaten various points on the Manchurian coast. Now i 
it was reported to General Sassulitch that th§ lights of a large number of transports had been .seen off' 

Tatungkau, near the mouth of the Yalu ; now, that parties of Japanese had landed and 
J ^ that warships were hovering off Takushan, wiiich lies further to the west. In actual fact 

a great fleet of Japanese transports was ready in the Gulf of Korea, so as to be able to 
move the three divisions forming the Second Army, under General Oku the ist, 3rd, anrl 4th wherever 




^..: .i;\i..-l, i:i\<jL.il.- M-,.\i; wi.iL. 



April, 1904. 



JAPANESE AT WIJU. 



425 



their presence might he required. The Russi;ms were forced to send detachments along the Manciiurian 
coast to guard against the possibility of a fresh landing, and this necessarily weakened General Sassulitch at 
the critical point. But he was told that he might expect strong reinforcements, if he could prevent the 
Japanese from crossing the river, and he remained serenely confident at Kuliencheng. 

All these days Japanese troops were pouring into VViju, where pontoons, bridging material, and heavy 
artillery were secretly collected. Guns, troops, and depots were cleverly hidden away in folds of the hills, so 
that an observer could obtain no idea of the Japanese force actually present. The Russians put it at about 
one division, whereas actually there were two. No drums beat ; no bugles blew ; no loud orders could be 
lieard echoing in the hills ; there was no fuss or displa\', but in this deep stillness the preparations for 







THE TURNING MOVKMKNT OF THE JAPANESE 12th DIVISION WHICH DECIDEO IHK IJATTLE OV THE VAI.U. 

An the Russians »vere falling l)ac!< on Kiu Lien Cheng they were attacked by the Japanese 12th Division, which had cnta^ed the Valu unobserved, and poured 

a terrific storm of lead into the left flank. 



426 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 23, 1904. 



"lire v.-jft conceo^afcJ lo n»gl«eT o^ Co*tnt Inouyes 
t i....K.i»g iTOvcmcnr roMoJ Ttgcr Mill AnA acroftfi 



ov/r> men during aovdncc 



ANTUNO- 




|;1K1ISK^K VIKW OF THE B.\TTLEFIEL1) OK Kl Ul.IKNCHKNC, WITH THK OPERATIONS 1 X I )lt A IKI > l\ DKIAII.. 

bridging the stream were actively pushed forward. The total force under General Kuroki's coniniand 
consisted of about 6o,000, men, with 120 field and mountain j^uns, while in addition he had t\\ent\-four 
47-in. howitzers and a dozen 47-in. guns. As all movements of the Japanese train and artillery were made 
by night, the Russians were in complete ignorance of the strength and location of the batteries that would 
soon be opposed to them. 

On April 19 General Kuroki reported to Tokio that he was ready to begin operations so soon as the 

word was given, and on the 23rd the order was issued to the 4th Regiment of Guards to e.xpel the Russians 

from the Island of Kiurito. That night, with remarkable courage, an officer and four 

^^^'^April^i^^^ '"^" ^^^*'" ^^^ southern channel of the "I'alu. The night was cold and the water icy ; 

two of the party died oi exposure, but the other three carefully e.xamined the Russian 

positions in the darkness, and returned with invaluable information, to the effect that the Russians were in 

considerable strength. The width of the channel was measured, and it was decided to use steel boats, a 

certain number of which were 

I carried in the train of the 

(li\ision, to effect the first 
passage. Early in the morn- 
ing of the 26th, before the da\' 
had dawned, eleven of these 
boats, containing 200 men, 
put off from the Korean bank 
for the island. The first three 
were discovered long before 
they gained the further baiJ<, 
and were received b)' the 
Russians with a heav)- fire, 







!■'. McKcrizic i>lioto. 
YONOAMI'O, KOkMKkLV A OkKAT RUSSIAN BASE IN N»XTHEKN KOREA. 

When the RiiMians Irfi, the Korejm^ gutted the houws, takint; away everything [wssible. The place is now 
a Jap.incK traruporl and commissaruit base. 



428 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 26, 1904. 




which killed or wounded one-third of the men 

on board. The three boats, none the less, 

dashed for the shore, and the men in them 

reaching it, replied to the Russians, at the 

same time singing their war-song ; the rest of 

the boats came up quickly, and with the help 

of the men on board them the Russians were 

driven back in some confusion towards Tiger 

Hill, where thej- were co\ered by a Maxim 

and the fire of a force of Cossacks on the 

Manchurian bank. The Russians had an 

insufficient number of boats to take their troops 

across, and for a moment it looked as though 

they were going to fall into a panic ; but, 

rallying, they managed to escape without heavy 

loss. The Japanese, on their part, had 41 

casualties. Though the Russians could be 

plainly seen with the naked eye on the slope of 

Tiger Hill in close formation as they fell back, 

the Japanese artillery did not open upon them, 

but remained silent, preferring to conceal its 

position till the final attack came. Yet about 

100 Russian horses were killed by rifle fire, 

and several Russians were killed or wounded. 

Later in the daj' the ne.xt step was taken. 

riie Guards had now planted themselves 

firmly in Kiurito, and the turn of the 2nd 

Division had come. It was 
Kintelto Island ^^j^^^^, ^^ ^^^^^j^ ^^^ 
Seized. 

Russian outposts in Kin- 

teito Island, which it did, forcing them back 
with little difficulty, and securing its hold of 
the island. The construction of bridges across 
the narrow channel of the Yalu, parting the 
island from the shore of Korea, was instantly 
taken in hand. The Russians shelled the 
Jajjanese from the high ground over Kulien, 
but did not draw any reply ; they threw a 
few projectiles into Wiju and .set several of 
its houses on fire, without, however, doing 
any great damage ; and they cannonaded a 
bridge which the Japanese were ostentatiously 
building near Wiju, with the express object 
of deceiving the enemy, very effectually dis- 
persing the Koreans who were working upon 
it under Japanese direction. While the Russian 
guns were firing at this, the real bridges were 
quietly and comfortably built lower down. 
At nightfall the Japanese howitzers began to 
move across into the island, and were placed 



April 27, 1904. 



SWIMMING THE YALU. 



429 



in pits which had been dug for them, where they were quite in\isible. To hide the flash and the dust pro- 
duced by their discharge, screens of fohage were erected in front of them. Si.x batteries of field-guns were 
al.so moved over the southern channel and stationed in the island, in positions where they could fire either 
upon Kulien or Tiger Hill, and sweep every point in the Russian line of entrenchment. Thus two 
important positions in the Russian defences had been carried by the Japanese with but insignificant less. 

On the 27th the Japanese pushed further forward. Lieutenant Sakamoto of the Guards swam the Yalu 
to Tiger Hill, as no sign 
of any Russians could 
be discovered at that 
point, and, returning, 
brought the news that 
the enem)' had evacuated 
it, whereupon a company 
was sent across the river 
in boats to seize it. All 
day the building of 
bridges went on, while 
the gunboats lower down 
the river did their best 
to draw the attention of 
the Russians away from 
Wiju. The courage of 
the Japanese pioneers 
engaged in the bridge 
work aroused general 
admiration ; they paid no 
heed to the Russian 
shrapnel which from time 
to time was directed 
against them, and did 
their difficult work calmly 
and coolly. The bridges 
were built of material 
obtained on the spot from 
the forests near at hand ; 
the pontoons were re- 
served so that they might 
be available when the 
further channel had to 
be crossed. 

By the night of the 
27th two bridges had 
been built by the 2nd 
Division, one from the 

Korean shore to the. Island of Kinteito, and another from Kinteito to Ransito. The Guards had also 
built two bridges, one from the Korean shore to Kiurito Island, and another from Kiurito to Oseki Island, 
just under Tiger Hill. At Sukuchin the 12th Division was concentrating, and had its bridge material 
all ready for the moment when its last detachments should have completed their march from Chensong, far 
up the river. 

Late in the night the Guards pushed forward a small detachment from the force which was already 




JAl'AM-.sK INFAXrUV AllACKINi; Jill, kL>MA.NS (_)N TICKR 1111. 1.. 



430 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 28. 1904. 




WAR CORRESPONDENT'S TENT AT THE VALU KIVKR. 



holding Tiger Hill, to secure 

the important height known 

as Yulchawon, to the north 

of the hill. 
The Key to ,, 
Kulien. ^^>' '^ ^""""^ 
coincidence 

the Russians had simul- 
taneously made a move- 
ment against the same 
position. As the Japanese 
neared the eminence, ad- 
vancing cautiously, they 
came into contact with the 
Russian part)', which was of 
about the same strength as 

their force. A brisk skirmish ensued, as the result of which the Russians were forced back with a loss of , 

at least five killed, and with no casualties to the Japanese, whose straight shooting made them almost 

invincible in this outpost fighting. It was a source of great surprise to the Japanese that they had been 

permitted thus easily to possess themselves of the key to the Kulien position ; but the real truth appears to 

have been that the Russians disbelieved in the possibility of their pushing troops in any force through 

the tangled hills and ravines to the east of the Aiho, and so neglected their left. 

But as the Japanese were congratulating themselves upon their cheap success, the Russians early on the 

morning of the 28th developed an attempt to retake the position. The Japanese on Tiger Hill and 

Yulchawon were only about 1 50 in strength, and against them moved a whole Russian 

Tiger Hill and battalion with half a battery. As it was now daylight the Japanese could not well be 

reinforced without bringing on a great battle, the preparations for which were not yet 

complete. Accordingly, they received orders to fall back to the Yalu. They retired, 

skirmishing with the Russians, suffering about as much loss as they inflicted, swam the stream, and 

reached the Island of Kiurito. Tiger Hill 

and Yulchawon once more fell into the 

hands of the Russians. But the effect of 

their easy, success was to mislead them. 

General Sassulitch seems to have thought 

that from the smallness of the Japanese 

force engaged near Tiger Hill, and the 

failure of General Kuroki to give it 

support, the main crossing was to be 

made elsewhere, lower down the river, 

and that the movement against Tiger 

Hill was only a feint ; and so he withdrew 

the detachment which had expelled the 

Japane.se. On the night of the 28th, Tiger 

Hill and Yulchawcii were once more 

abandoned by the Russians, and left at 

the mercy of any detachment bold enough 

to seize them. 

That .same day, notwithstanding an 

incessant fire from the Russian artillery, 

which sent the Korean labourers scuttling 

,,,.,. .IT ... GENERAL SASSULITCH, 

in all directions, the Japanese pushed the ,„ „,„,^,d „f .h. R^,i^„ ..^p, ,. .^e vaia. 




432 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 29. 1904. 




A IKANM'OKT JUNK. [V. A. McKc-jizie plioto. 

The lapancM use iiol oiily thz niost ino:tcrn hul alsu tlii! oldest means of transport to 

' -•--■- This Chinese junk is employed to ca ry stores between Yonganipj 



slippi 



lamp 
ly ihci 



army, 
and I 



the great mreall Meamcrs lyijg at the mou 



ry ston 
til of t 



he Yalu. 



advance of tlieir skirmishers in tlie southern 

part of the Island of Kingting, which hes 

close under Kuliencheng. They met with 

but a feeble resistance 

Movement^ '"''°'" ^^^ Russian out- 

posts, who fell back 
hurriedly. As evening came on preparations 
were made to carry a bridge from Kinteito 
to Kingting, in readiness for the general 
attack which was to be carried out next day. 
All the afternoon of the 28th the Japane.se 
naval flotilla had been hard at work on the 
Lower Yalu, and the incessant boom of its 
guns had echoed among the hills which 
overlook the river. All that day, too, the 
1 2th Division had been making ready at 
Sukuchin for its crossing, which was to be 
effected on the 29th. It was to move one 
day in advance of the rest of the army, 
as the distance which it would have to cover 
in order to accomplish its turning mo\enient 

would be far greater than that to be marched by the Guards and 2nd Division. 

The first pa.ssage in force of the river was effected on the 29th by the 1 2th Division at Sukuchin. At 

dawn scouts swam the river, reconnoitred, 

made their rcix)rt, and when it proved to 
be satisfactory, the ad- 
vance of the division 
began to pass in boats. 

The weak Russian pickets in this direction 

were speedily driven in upon the main force, 

and at 2 p.m. the bridging began. There 

were many difficulties to be encountered — the 

supply of ix)ntoons was insufficient, but this 

was made good by using timber obtained on 

the spot and prepared in readiness ; then the 

pontoon anchors proved to be too weak, 

owing to the great vehemence of the swollen 

stream, and fresh anchors had to be pro- 
cured. But by evening the bridge was 

complete and ready for traffic, and 20,000 

men with fifty guns filed across it in the 

dusk, and advanced rapidly throe miles from 

the river into the hills, where they bivouacked. 

This was a very critical operation. Had the 

Russians shown vigour they might have fallen 

upon the first detachments as these gained 

the further bank, and perhaps have inflicted 

upon them a momentary check. But General 

Kuroki had calculated the risks carefully. 

He knew that the mountains to the east of 



Bridgrlngr at 
Sukuchin. 




TliE .MAIN STKliiiT OF 
The huge ornamental posts are tradesmen's advertisements. 



A. McKcii/ic ptiutu. 



April 29, 1904. 



ACROSS THE YALU. 



433 



the Aiho would impede a Russian couiitcrstrokc, while he held the rest of his army read)- instantly to strike 

at Wiju did he note any signs of an intention on the part of the Russians to take the offensive. The day 

passed, however, uneventfully, and General Sassulitch remained rooted at Kulien. By nightfall all danger 

had vanished, as the I2th Division, when assembled on the north bank of the Yalu, was strong enough to 

make a good fight, if attacked by the enemy. 

While this movement was in progress four scouts of the Guards reconnoitred Tiger Hill and found it 

unoccupied, whereupon 

tlic Guards began to 

cross in considerable 

numbers 
Across the ^, ^, ^^ 
Yalu 

move 

upon the hill. They 
easily obtained a footing 
there, notwithstanding 
the spasmodic fire of the 
Russian artillery, and as 
the day advanced com- 
pleted the construction 
of the last bridges be- 
tween Osel.-i and Kiurito 
Islands and the main- 
land. That morning, 
for the first time, the 
Japanese artillery replied 
to the Russian guns, but 
even now the fire of the 
big howitzers and 47's 
was withheld, and only 
field batteries were 
brought into action. 
Covered by a vigorous 
bombardment of Kulien, 
the 2nd Division ad- 
vanced in Kingting 
Island, and presently the 
Russians fired the Man- 
churian Custom-house 
and the collection of 
miserable hovels which 
stood on the island. A 
dense cloud of smoke 
hid the landscape and 
covered the retirement. 

There was still nothing more than skirmishing, as it was not General Kuroki's intention to bring on 
the great battle as yet ; and only small bodies of troops were employed on either side. The Russians 
could be seen at work entrenching the position north of Kulien, fronting the Aiho, and, so far as the 
Japanese could make out, were attempting a change of front at the last moment. Night came down 
before the skirmishing had ended, and under cover of darkness a strong advance guard of the 2hd Division 
crossed to Kinteito Island. The utmost care was still shown in hiding the Japanese movements from the 




KUSSI.VN .SCOUTS ON THE V.VLU. H.M.T KOR RKFRESHMKNT.S. 



434 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 29, 1904. 



Russians. That no sound might reach the enemy's ears, the brid-res were heavily packed with straw, 
so that the foot of man and horse and the wheels of the artillery and caissons passed noiselessly 
o\-er them. From Kinteito they moved forward across the main stream, now securely bridged, to 
Kingting, and here the same precautions were taken, though the roar of the stream in flood was sufficient 
to drown the heavy tramp of marching men. 

Higher up the river a similar scene had been enacted, where the bulk of the Guards and part of the 
2nd Division were now passing steadily into the islands of Kiurito and Oseki, there to wait till the following 
evening before deploying in force on the crest of Tiger Hill. In all directions the 
troops were going forward, while the navy continued its invaluable aid by making 
demonstrations, flashing searchlights, and firing guns in the direction of Takuslian 
and the reaches of the river below Antung, and kept the Russian right on the alert, thus prevent- 
ing it from reinforcing the now-threatened centre and left. All the night, too, fresh Japanese how itzers 



The Kinteito 
Battery. 




COSSACK OUTl'Ohl- 



The Position on 
April 30. 



were arriving and taking up their positions, and by daylight of the 30th the annament of the immense 
batterj' in Kinteito was completed. 

The morning of April 30 broke upon a magnificent spectacle. The day was brilliaiUly fine ; the 
snow-capped Manchurian mountains, as the sun rose, changed from pink to pure white and deep blue, 
with the brown rocky slopes immediately above Kulien and the Yalu broken by the 
flush of rhododendrons. The valley of the Yalu glowed green and gold under the 
sunlight ; at intervals amidst the maze of reeds and bushes that \eiled its bed tiie 
river showed, of the deepest sapphire set in the dazzling yellow of the s^nds. On the south side the 
plain through which the river flowed was .seemingly bare of men ; batteries and battalions were 
cunningly hidden in the many folds of the ground or in the violet-sprinkled grass and patches of bush. 
Yet here and there could be seen the dark uniforms of the Japanese as a stray patrol showed. To 
British observers fresh from the Boer War the Russian position presented much, the same appearance 
as that held by the Boers at Colen.so ; the difficulty of assailing it was the same, enhanced in either 
case by the clearness of atmo.sphere. In either case a deep river ran under a lofty chain of precipitous moun- 



April 30, 1904. 



AN HISTORIC DAY. 



435 



tains ; and in either case the left flank appeared absolutely secure. The parallel must have inspired some 
uneasiness in the minds of friends of Japan, yet the real difference in the situation was very great. The British 
in Natal had taken the field with indifferent artillery, inferior to that of the Boers, whereas the Japanese artillery 
was modern and overpowering ; the marching of the British troops was such as to place them at a grave 
disadvantage face to face with a mounted enemy, whereas here the Japanese could move more rapidly than 
the Russian footmen ; the generalship at Colenso had been faulty, and the British commander was unprepared 
to face a long casualty 
list, while here the 
Japanese commander- 
in-chief would shrink 
from no sacrifices, know- 
ing that Japan, with her 
system of compulsory 
service, had no lack 
whatever of men, and 
could speedily fill the 
gaps caused by battle in 
her fighting line. At 
Colenso the British had 
not reconnoitred the 
Boer position; here 
gallant and enterprising 
scouts had swum the 
river, closely examined 
the Russian position, and 
ascertained the enemy's 
force and the emplace- 
ment of his batteries, so 
that no surprise was 
possible for the Japane.se. 
The implements of the 
Japanese Army were of 
the best ; its pontoons 
were so easily handled, 
so facile of transport, 
that they put the anti- 
quated contrivances of 
the British War Office 
to shame. Its artillery 
was numerous, of the 

very highest quality, and amply supplied with ammunition. The stealth and caution with which this army had 
made its approach were in striking contrast with the carelessness displayed by the Ikitish Army, which went 
forward in broad daylight, in the open, disdaining concealment. In one respect there was no difference. The 
British were as brave as the Japanese ; but in modern war bravery must be mated to science to reap success. And 
it might truly be said that the Russians by their sublime confidence resembled the British rather than the Boers, 
while in numbers they were enormously inferior to the Japanese, who, without any great difficulty, could bring 
to bear five men to their one. Yet, just as the recoil of the Russians from Ping Yang was one of the solemn 
moments of the campaign, so was this, when for the first time on land a Japanese armj' measured itself in force 
against a European foe, another. On the Japanese side there was no uneasiness ; the troops were exalted to 
the last degree, and were in very truth resolved to fight to the death rather than surrender. Their generals had 




RUSSl.^N KECO.NNOITRING P.\RTV RETURNING WITH NEWS FROM THE V.\LU. 



436 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 30, 1904. 



for years been preparin<j for this moment, and now that it had come it found them cahn and cool. They 
had not to unlearn the habits acquired in peace, but to put into practice on the battlefield what they had often 

rehearsed in manoeuvres. The)' directed a fighting machine almost perfect in its work- 
Moment '"^' ^<i^"^t^> ^^'^11 equipped, composed of men educated, trained for war, and imbued 

with an ardent patriotism which would respond to any conceivable demands. European 
observers with the army noted that the work of the day was taken as quite an ordinary performance. " There 
were no signs of exultation among officers and men. There was a coolness and an absence of emotion that 




THI.*! KOKK.W KI>HKK.\I.\.N, HAVINCJ A G )01) CATCH, SMILES WHn,E JAPAN FIGHTS FOR ITS FREEDOM. 

seemed uncann\-. There is something of the relentlessness of Fate about this army that carries out its work 
with such deliberation, and knows not fear nor passion." The Russians had leapt upon what they supposed 
to be a timid lamb, to discover beneath the sheep's fleece the keen claws and strong teeth of the tiger. 

" To force the pas.sage of a great river in the presence of a hostile army," said the greatest master of war, 
\apf)leon, " is the most difficult operation that can be conceived." The Japanese were about to accomplish it 
in the face of an army hitherto reputed the most formidable in the world, and to accomplish it by a series of 
movements that will long stand in military history as examples of the most perfect generalship and science. 



o 



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DS Wilson, Herbert Wrigley 

517 Japan's fight for freedom 

W55 

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