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Full text of "Japan's fight for freedom; the story of the war between Russia and Japan"

PURCHASED FOR THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 

FROM THE 

CANADA COUNCIL SPECIAL GRANT 

FOR 
HISTORY 






JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM 



rKlNTKI) l-f>K TIIK PkOI'KIHTORS, 
AND I'lHI.ISIlKl) r.V IS. \V. VolNC, CakMKI.ITK lldUSE 

CAKMKi.rn; Stkkkt, I.onuon, 1;.C. 




THE l,ASSO AND BOULDERS 



WARFARR. 



iSee pages 740-1.) 



JAPAN'S FIGHT 
FOR FREEDOM 



The Story of the IFar Between Russia cmd jfapan 



By H. W. WILSON, m.a. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH MANY PHOTOUKAPHS TAKBN ON THE FIELD OF BATTLE AND 
AUTHENTIC SKETCHES BY FAMOUS ARTISTS. 



Vol. II. 



LONDON 

The amalgamated PRESS, LiMiitD 

1905 




D 



I 

^ 



a 
p 



CONTENTS OF VOL II. 



:ha1'TF.R XXIII. THK B.\TTLK Ol' KLI.lK\Clli:XG. 

Kurtiki in Cuniniand — Japanese Extraordinary I'ire — ^I'he Russians Siirpriswl— -ICrtt'ct on the Russians — I'lie I'nrnnig Movunient — 
The Ku»uan l)is|)ositions— At llie .Mho River — Japanese l)is|«)sitions — The' Scene at Wijn — Tlie I'isl't liegins — Ihe Infantry's Brilliant 
.\d%Tince — The Russian 1-ire llet-ins — The Jaiwnese Rushes— On liowl Hill — Ihe Russian I'osition Taken — Jlie \'alu Crossed — The 
Japanese I'ursuit^The Ja|)am~.e Turninn Movement — Tha l"ii;ht at llaniatan— J'he Russian llehicle — A lirave I'riest — The Japanese 
I jck o( Cavalry — Jht Kussi^tn Loss of Life — The Russian (ieneralshiij — Japanese March in .\ntung — A Surprise for the World — A Fight 
IUrt«t*n Russians — On the Stricken Field — The Jaiwnese .Anihulaiice — Kuroki — Round the Camp I'ires — A Turning Point in History — 
The Kiivtian Force . . 437-^Sj 



Cli.M'TKR XXIV. 



-THK ADVAXCK 
.ARTHUR. 



INTO M.AXCIIL'RI.A. — ISOL.ATIOX OF PORT 



After the Victory — Kuroki's General Order — Kaohman .ADandonect — Japanese Outtlankins — .-\t l-'enghwanji; — Spring in Nlanchnria — 
Kii»ians .Vttack .Vnju — (Jeneral Oku's .\rmy — At thi Klliot Islands — Landiuij at Fitsjwo— The RnssiansMisled — Difficulties of Landing 
— I.anding. May 5 — March to Hulantein — Train Escapes from Port Arthur — .\buse of the Red Cross — Cutting the Railway — Reirairing the 
Railway — Scouting; with an Engine — lilowinK up I)alny Docks — Kuropatkin's Wait — The llunhuses .Active — .\t Terminal Point — 
Japanese at Mount ^mpson ...'.. 



4S2-511 



Cii.UTER XXV.— BLACK DAYS FOR JAI>A\— THK JAI'ANICSK NAVAL DISASTKRS. 

In Port .\rthur — .stoessel's Order — Clearing Kerr Bay of Mines — How Mines are Cleared — Torpedo-Boat Blown Up — Loss of the 
* Miyako" — Russian Illegality — The " .Amur " Places Mines — The" ^'oshino " Rammed — The '• \"oshino's" Heroic Captain — Loss of Life — 
History of the '* Voshino " — Damage to the " Kasugu " — 'To Cut the Railway^ — Disaster to the "llatsuse" — 'j'he " Vashima's " Fate — 
Admiral Togo's .Account — The .sh<K:k on the " llatsnse " — 'J'he " llatsuse *' in 'Low — The Second L'xplosion — Bre;\king into Halves — 'The 
" llatsuse "^ Goes Down — The Loss of Life — .Struck by the Mainmast — Russians' Poor .Attack — Details of the '* Hatsuse " — Philosophy of 
Mine I.ayinK — A Crime aiiainst Jiumanity— The iQuestion of International Ijrw — Summary of Loss — Effect on the Russians — Shelling 



Kinchau 



5'>2-554 



C11APTKR XXVI.— THK ISOLATION OF PORT ARTHUR— BATTLK OF NANSHAN. 

Oku's .\d\-ance — Kinchau — Kinchau and Hand Bays — Importance of Mount .Sampson — The Attack Begins — Stotssel's I'eeblc 
Resistance — Examining Nanshan — Stakes. Barbed Wire. I.;ind Mines— Oku Attacks — The Russian (iims — The Japanese I'orces — The 
Itattle Begins — Storming the Russian Works — In Kinchau Bay — In Hand Bay — 'The 'Taking of Kinchau — 'The .\ttack on Nanshan — 
The Jaiianese I'ire — Russian Bravery — A Russian Description — 'To Cover Retreat — .\ Battalion .Annihilated — .Attack by the '• Bohr " 
— Firing fr<mi the Hay — Indomitable Oku — lirave Japanese A'olunteers — The Wire Entanglement — \ I'ight in the .Sea — How the 
Japanese .Advanced — Nanshan Won — A Russian Description — .Sixteen Hours I'nder .Arms — The JajMnese Dead — Nanshan as a Military 
Feat— The Loss of Life 



554-5y7 



Chapter XXVII.— THK ADVANCK ON PORT ARTHUR, AND DKVKLOPMKNT OF 

THK JAPANKSK ARMIKS. 

Advance on Nankwanling — To Dalny — The 'Bohr" Disappears — Japanese ICnter Dalny — The Value of Dalny — Cjeneral Oku Advances 
Against Telisse — (ieneral Nodzu .Arrives — Capture of .Siujen — (ieneral Kuroki's Movements — The Russian Forces 



597-60S 



Chai'TEr XXVIII— BATTLK OF TKLIS.SK, OR VVAFANGKOU. 

Russian Miscortceptions — General Oku's Advance — I'our Japanese Columns — General .Stakelberg Attacked — Night Marches- 
Mistake — .\ Stream of .shells — Ammunition Runs Out — Fighting with Stones — .V Chagrined Colonel — .A (ieneral's Blunder — J'he J 
Advance.— Retreat by 'Irain — I'ailure to Relieve Port Arthur — Spoils of War — .After the Battle— A Missed Opportunity 



A Bad 

Japanese 



608-629 



CnAi-TKK XXIX.— SKCOND SORTIK OF 
OF THK "HITACHI" 



THK VLADIVOSTOCK 
AND "SADO." 



FLl'.I'.T— SINKING 



A .Sortie— The Vladivostock Fleet — A False Report — 'Oie " Idzumi Maru " — Kamimura Moves — Firing on the " Idzumi "— The 
Japanese Transports — rhc *• Hitachi " Attacked— Slopping the " .Sado" — The " Sado " J'orpedoed— i'iring the " Idzumi " and •• Hitachi " 
— Colonel Suchi — Esca|>es from the Wrecks — The •' Sado's " .Safety — Casualties — Kamimunas Chase — Kamimura Goes 'J'owards 
\'ladivmtock — The Russian Tor|iedo- boats — ^The Return to Vladivostock — Effect of the Raid— Russian Fleet at f iensan— 'J'he Jhird 
Rnasian Raid .... ... 



629-652 



Chaitkr XXX. 



NAVAL OPKRAITONS BKFORK PORT 
.SORTH-: Oi- THK RUSSIAN FLKKl. 



ARTHUR -THK JUNE 



Port .\rlhur llarUiur — A Mine Explodes — Japanese Fleet at 'Tashantau — Re|>airing the Russian I'leet — Russians Plan a -Sortie — A 
Torpedn DmI— The Russian lleet Comes Out — Admiral \'itgefl Surprised — I'ulile Torijedo Attacks — The " Peresviet " Torpedoed — 
Jajaneie Casualties — How \ itgeft FaiUxl — Russian Destroyer's Esca|)e— Loss of the " Kaimon " . 



654-<i66 



Conte?its. 



Chapter XXXI.— THE JAPANESE ADVANCE IN MANCHURIA- 
MOTIEN. 



-BATTLES OF THE 



The Three Armies— Japanese Co-ordhiation— -The Motien Pass — Kuroki and Oku Attack — Attack on the Motiei— TaUnR f'lss 
Seized— The Fenshuling Pass — Nodzu's Plan — A Difficult Task — Fenshuling Captured — Defending the Yangtzeling — A Hand-to- 1 Und 
Encounter — In the SinkaiHng Pass — General Keller Attacks — Second Attacks on the Motien— Positions of the Forces-- Attack".! in a 
Fog — The Fog Tifts — A Withering Fusillade — Russian Flight in Disorder— Shelling the Russians — The Russian Retr jat — The Two 
Wings— Attack on Hsiamatang — Losses in the Battles — Effect of Keller's Defeat — Marshal Oyama takes Command 



666-6g? 



Chapter XXXII.— THE JAPANESE ADVANCE IN MANCHURIA — BATTLES OE 

TASHIHCHAO AND HSIHOYEN. 

General Oku's Advance— En route to Kaiping — Kaiping Occupied — Russians at Tashihchao — General Nodzu's Force— Kuropatkin's 
Force — The Battle Begins — The Russian Fire — Russian Shrapnel — The Russians Retire — Russians Firing Stores — Losses in the Battle — 
Russians Leave Newchwang — Japanese Arrive — Russian Insults — Loss of the " Sivutch "—Japanese Advance to Simucheng — Russians at 
Chautoa — Japanese .Advance to Chautoa — A Missed Opportunity — The Russians Attack — Russian Tactics — Japanese Turning Movement 
— Hiraoka's Wild March — The Russians Defeated — The Loss of Life . . 



691-721 



Chapter XXXIII.— THE RUSSIANS DRIVEN INTO PORT ARTHUR. 

Nogi's Arrival — Effect of Russian Raid — The Value of Port Arthur — Thirteen Miles to Port Arthur — The Attack on Kenshan — 
Kenshan Captured — A Night Attack — Nogi's Message — The Triple Peak Position — The Attack Begins— A Nerve-shaking Ordeal — An 
Amazing Incident — Japanese Driven Bvck — Capture of Triple Peak— Japanes ,' Lossss — FenghwangsUxn Captured— Shelling Port .Arthur 
—Assault on Panlungshan — Capture of Panlungshan. Kentashan, and Wolf Hill — .-\ttack on Takushan and Shahkushan — .\ Terrific 
Bonilnrdinent — Driven Down the Slojjes — Through Wire Entanglements — Troops Fired on by Cruisers — 'I'aktishan Abandoned — 
Capture of Shahkushan . . . . . , 



721-761 



CiiAPTKR XXXIV.— FOURTH RAID OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK CRUISERS. 



Admiral Jessen's Instructions- 
ss. " Calchas " — Kamimura's Fleet- 



-Russians Sink Ships — Case of the " Knight Commander" — British Government's Negligence- 
Lawless Russian Cruisers — Seizure of the P. & O. " Malacca " — Russian Thefts at Sea . 



■The 



761-776 



Chapter XXXV.- 



-SECOND SORTIE OF THE PORT ARTHUR FLEET.- 
OF THE BATTLE OF AUGUST 10. 



-OPENING 



The " Hipsang" Sunk— .\ Brilliant Exploit — X Japanese Reconnoitre — The " Retvisan " Damaged— A Council of War — A Sortie 
Ordered — The Japanese Fleet — Russian Naval Sortie — Vitgeft's Fear — The Russian Fleet — Togo's Orders — Vitgeft's Signal — " Engage I " — 
The First Shots— The Japanese Fire — The " .Askold " Hit — The "Pobieda " Damaged — Japanese Damages 



776-796 



Chaptkr XXXVI.— the B.\TTLE OF AUGUST 10— THE TWO FLEETS CLOSE. 

A Delay — The Japanese Sfjeed — The Russian Fire — The Japanese Fire — The " Mikasa " Hit — The •' Tzarevitch " Battered — Vitgeft's 
Death — " Tzarevitch's " Funnels Destroyed— A Mob of Battleships— Fateful Moments — Togo on the Bridge — Togo's Gallantry — A 
Torrent of Shells — "Follow Me!'' — Terrific Fire on the " Retvisan "—Help for Kamimura— -Ships Back at Port .Arthur — Destroyers at 
Kiaochau — Escape of the " Askold " — Tlie"Burny" Str,anded — The " Reshitelny " — .\ Dramatic Incident— .\ Stormy Interview — The 
" Reshitelny" Captured — The Nett Result — Japanese Losses — Russian Losses — Damage to the '• Askold '—Failure of Torpedoes 



796-82S 



Chapter XXXVII.— THE DEFEAT OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK CRUISERS. 

The Fleet Sets Out— Kamimura's Fleet— Kamimura's .Action — Crossing the T— Firing on the " Rurik " — The " Rurik '' Disabled — 
A Terrible Fire — Blowing up the " Rurik" — Opening the \'alves — The " Rurik" Goes Down— Japanese Humanity — The " Rossia "— 
The " Gromovoi " — Kamimura Turns — The Losses — The " .Novik " — The " Novik's " Vogage — The '■ Novik " Sighted — The " Novik " 
on Fire — The " Novik" Sunk. . . . . 829-852 

Chapter XXXVIIL— CLOSING IN ON LI AOYANG -BATTLE OF TOWA.N. 

Kuroki's Dual Plan— The Russian Position at Towan— July 30th— Colonel Ohara's Column- Kuroki's Headquarters — Russian 
Emplacements — .An Artillery Duel — Japanese Infantry Advance— .\' Hail of Shrapnel— The (Juards Retire— Keller's Death— Russian 
Trenches Rushed — Lost Guns .... S52-S6S 



€n3'^F )^QLUAIE) (ip 



437 




(Drawn by Sydney P. Hall from a sketch from life by Walter Kirton. 
GENERAL KUROKI-THE HERO OF KULIENCHENG. ' 
The artist writes: "General Kuroki is an inveterate cigar smoker, and is seldom seen without a weed in his mouth. He is singularly unassuming and 
unostentatious, and can often be seen walkmg up and down in front of his quarters in his very plain uniform, and wearing the comfortable Japanese clippers 
I do not remember ever to have seen him wearing a sword. Beyond the three stars and certain stripss of narrow black braid on the sleeves, his kit is devoid of 

any ornament, and is identical with that of any other officer's uniform." 




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FATEFUL APRIL 30. 



439 




CiENKKAL KUROKl iuLnjUiXU THE BAiil.K i- kuJxI 1 Hi-, HElUHTb OF WIJU. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

THE BATTLE OF KULIENCHENG. 

AS the fateful April 30 broke, the boom of the guns on board the Japanese flotilla disturbed the 
stillness of early morning. Then little parties of men began to move forward over the flat stretch 
of the islands held by the Japanese Guards — Oseki and Kiurito — and demonstrated in the 
direction of Tiger Hill. On an eminence near Wiju, whence the whole field of battle was in plain view, 
General Kuroki could be seen pacing quietly to and fro, as if even his unemotional 
Co^mM^ temperament felt the thrilling nature of the occasion. Telephones and telegraphs 

connected him with every part of the field and with his subordinate generals. He 
could control the fight over seventeen miles of front as Napoleon could never control it over seventeen 
hundred yards. In the folds of the islands, hidden from the Russians, and in the hills near Wiju, thousands 




CORRESPONDENIS ANU NATlVi-S WATCHl.Nl, IHK PASSAGE OF THE YALU BY THE JAPANESE. 



440 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 30, 1904. 




of Japanese infantry were resting, waiting 
the order to put themselves in motion. 
Away on the further bank of the river 
the dari< outlines of Russian guns could 
be made out on Bowl Hill above Ku- 
liencheng. Suddenly tongues of yellow 
flame and sparks darted from them ; 
there was the sound of distant reports, 
the sharp whirr of shells came through 
the air, and the Russian shrapnel began 
to search the ground held by the Japanese. 
It was nearly lo a.m. 

A shot was heard from one of the 

Japanese guns in battery to the north of 

Wiju ; then followed 

ExtraSnaryFire. ^^^ ^ three sighting 
shots, after which, 
with a heavy roar, the Japane.se field 
artillery began to sweep with a storm 
of shrapnel the hills north of Kulien. 
Their fire was of extraordinary accuracy ; 
they appeared almost instantly to get 
the range. Finally, with a yet louder 




THE LIGHT SUMMKK UNIFORM Ol lilK JAl'A.NKSK AUM 



(Coiiyright l.y " Collier's Weekly." 



April 30, 1904. 



THE JAPANESE FIRE. 



441 




crash, the masked batten 

of 24 heavy howitzers in 

Kinteito Island and the 

47 battery near Wiju 

opened on the astonished 

Russians a storm of fire, 

hurhng common shell and 

shrapnel alternately into 

the Russian position, and 

specially concentrating 

their projectiles upon the 

guns visible on Bowl Hill. 

" I was impressed with 

the astonishing accuracy 

of the Japanese fire," 

writes Major McHugh, 

a correspondent with the 

Japanese Army. " Once 

the range was obtained 

every shell seemed to 

burst at exactly the same 

spot. The gun-laying 

was perfect ; but that 

alone would not secure 

the wonderful evenness 

of the Japanese fire. I 

am inclined to give a 

good share of the credit 

for the excellence of the 

practice to the new 

Japanese powder." " The 

Japanese fire was realh' 

terrible to look on," says 

another correspondent, 

" so deadly was its ac- 
curacy With their 

howitzers and field-guns 

the Japanese apparently knocked the defences on the hill to pieces in fifty minutes." 

What added to the deadliness of this fire from a great mass of guns — some seventy or eighty pieces 
were firing together on the same target — was that it took the Russians completely 
by surprise. They had supposed that the Japanese Army was particularly 
weak in artillery, and had not expected it to put in line 
anything so large as a field-gun. But here they were being 
crushed by weapons such as had never before been brought 
into the field by any army except in South Africa. Moreover, the new Japanese 
quick-firing field-gun, even apart from the howitzers and heavy weapons, proved 
itself better at most points than the Russian field-guns, \^■hich throughout 
the engrajferrent srave trouble and shot more slowly. The Shimose explosive 

THE I.WENTOR OF THE t. & b 

AKisAKA Rin.E USED BY in the Japanese projectiles gave the most deadly results, and showed itself far 

THE JAP.ANESE - MAJOR. • . , jjv n U 11 U ^ Vl V ■ ■ ^ \ A A 

GENERAL AKISAKA. Superior to lyddite. Common shells charged with it were riven into hundreds 



XHi 



vLD HOWITZERS OX KINTEITO ISLAND DURING THE BATTLE Of THE 

YALU. 




The Russians 
Surprised. 



442 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 30. 1904. 




of small razor-like sjjlinters, 
which killed everj'one in 
the neighbourhood of the 
explosion, while the effect 
of the concussion upon the 
troops in the Russian 
trenches was nerve-shaking. 
They speedily became dazed, 
and lost all confidence in 
themselves, though they 
clung bravely to their 
position. 

Upon the range west of 

the Aiho, where the Russian 

positions lay, broke clouds 

of dark 

Effect on the brown smoke, 
Russians. 

thrown up 

b)' the bursting of the high 
explosive shells, while over- 
head against the blue sky 
showed white puffs of smoke 
and red flames from the 
shrapnel. About Bowl Hill 
the explosions were so con- 
stant that for whole minutes 
the Russian guns vanished 
from view, yet when eddies 
of wind carried off the 
smoke the gunners could be 



IITKSIANS BRIXr.lKC UP THE GUNS TO PREVENT THE 
CROSSING OF THE VAI.U. 

seen still serving their guns. But as they had failed 
to locate the Japanese batteries, their fire, such as it 
was, was delivered \cry much at random, and did 
but insignificant damage to men and material. At 
last, after twenty minutes, the Japanese shells had 
slai^tered so many Russian horses and men, and 
wrecked so many guns and exploded so many 
caissons, that signs of a retirefncnt could be seen on 
the hill far away. The Russians were attempting 
to withdraw their guns. In a moment the Japa- 
nese artillery caught the meaning <>( the .scurry on 
the crest Howitzers, heavy guns, and field-guns 
fired at their fa-stest ; spouts of earth and flame 
and smoke rose incessantly round the black sjiecks 
moving on the sky-line ; showers of shrapnel 



[Berliner Illustrations Gesellschaft. 
COUKT.MARTIAL ON THE FIRST JAPANESE OFFICERS 
MADE PRISONERS BV THE RUSSIANS. 



April 30, 1904. 



JAPANESE TURNING MOVEMENT. 



443 



bullets and sparks descended upon them from the sky. " Three black objects appeared on the slope. .... 
They were three guns and their teams. How slowly they seemed to move through the smoke and flame 
and dust, as the shrapnel rained upon them and the common shell rent the earth about them, as in some 
mighty convulsion of Nature," writes the Standaj-d correspondent. " Not a step did they move but the hail 
of lead and iron swept over them like a hurricane. Now I could see a horse roll over, and now a man 
stumble. Still the storm burst about them — one second the blue smoke in the air that told of shrapnel, 
and the next a fountain of brown dust that marked the explosion of common shell. The scene caught one 
by the throat and choked one's breath. How long it lasted I could not tell — to me as to the brave gunners 
it was an age of agon\-. Life had departed from these three dark objects ; they lay upon the hillside 
motionless — the dead gunners and their guns." 

While this duel was 
raging, a long dark line 
could be made out from 
the heights south of Wiju, 
deploying far away, and 
mounting 

'i^vIS.^ the rough 
slope away 
from the Russians on the 
crest which rises to the 
east of the Aiho. It was 
the 1 2th Japanese Division 
pushing its advance on the 
Russian flank. It crept 
slowly up the precipitous 
slopes, quite unmolested 
and unresisted, its men 
climbing like goats. Then 
a few shells were fired by 
the Russians at it, as they 
seemed suddenly to be- 
come aware of its approach ; 
whereupon the Japanese 
artillery, to cover its ad- 
vance, redoubled their 
efforts, and replied with a 
storm of projectiles upon 
the Russian batteries, which 
rendered accurate shooting 
on the enemy's part out 
of the question. 

As this advance de- 
veloped, some small parties 
of Cossacks appeared in 
front of the Japanese line, 
and fired a hamlet of 
wretched houses which lay 

m the hills. They ex- [Copyright, tjo*, ly " CoUxr-. we,:i<iy.- 

changed rifle-fire ^^•ith the bridging thk yalu before the battle of kul.encheng. 

Three days before the battle of the Yalu the .sheet-iron sections of the pontoon-bridge were thirty-five miles 
Q.clvancin*^'' ItinaneSe but distant, but they were moved forward by an "army of coolie ants" grotesquely hidden, as one correspondent says, 

^ J i ■ » "behind the huge iron boxes painted a bright blue without and a brilliant red inside." 




JAPANS FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 30. 1904. 



< ^■ ' ■i ' .^.-j^M-xm^m 



r: r. r E r r - . 

- r- If r r r - • ■ 

WWW ■" ■ "" ■'^ " ■'1 

T--T--r- 




The Russian 
Dispositions- 



there was no serious fighting in this 
quarter ; and, to their own astonish- 
ment, the Japanese quite early in 
the morning were permitted to gain 
;i secure footing on the east bank 
of the Aiho. The I2th Division, 
pushing swiftly forward, joined 
hands with the Guards and held 
the whole mountain crest to the 
east of the Aiho by nightfall, the 
front in this quarter stretching from 
just below Tiger Hill to a point 
six miles to the north, and threaten- 
ing the Russian left and rear. The 
battle died down, and the transport 
of the 1 2th Division began to move 
behind the advance of the force. 

The Japanese casualties in the 
artillery duel were only two killed 
and 2 5 wounded ; in 
the infantry fighting 
some small loss was 
sustained in addition to the above. 
As the fight drew to its close, the 
Japanese began to throw their shells 
right over the heights fronting 
them, at points where they knew 
that Russian bivouacs lay, and the eflfect of the fire at extreme range was afterwards ascertained to 
have been most destructive. It is indeed probable that nearly a third of the total Russian loss was 
incurred on this day, in which ca.se the Russian army had some 8oo men killed and wounded. Of the 
Russian guns eight were put out of action and had nearly all their teams killed ; at nightfall they were 
withdrawn some distance from Bowl Hill to the rear, but were not removed altogether from the 
field, as no one in the Russian force appears to have supposed that the Japanese would promptly 
follow up their blow. The baggage and the rest of the guns, with the exception of si.x serviceable weapons, 
were sent to the rear, to the village of Hamatan, 
four miles from Kuliencheng, where also the 
Russian reserves were posted. At this point 
four roads converge from Kuliencheng, Antung, 
Fenghwangcheng, and the mountainous country 
to the east of the Aiho. In the evening 
General Sassulitch, finding that the Japanese 
gave no sign of attacking his rigiit, moved one 
of his regiments from Antung to the neighbour- 
hood of Kuliencheng, and with these di.spositions 
he waited to see what course the Japanese 
would follow. 

He would have been wiser to have instantly 
retreated, in which case he would have brought 
off by far the greater part of his force intact. 
He must have known that a laree laoanese 

laigc Jd|jaiICbe RUSSIAN SrM.UIEkS : COSSACKS OF THE LINE. 



JAPANESE INFANTRY AND MOUNTED INFANTRY. 




EXAMINING RUSSIAN SHELLS. 



443 




JAPANESK ACUMEN IN' PROCURING .MILITARY INFORMATION: INFERENCE FROM SHELLS. 
Thif- picture represents Japanes*; ofticers at the Yalu examining fragments of Russian shells in order to iliscover the calibre of the enemy's gins. g* 



446 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



April 30. 1904. 




llJrawii i>y t itforjji; Super from a hketcll by W. 1 >. Mraight. 

THB JAPANESE SOLDIER IN THE FIELD: A RED CROSS SUiNAL STATION. 
Uk* iIm f«at ot tlw Ja|»aeM military otzaniution, their arratiKemenu for dealing with thc^ wounded are admirable. Japan, tlie 
• tucM of tb« OfTM l\ »w m to aocodc to too Geneva Convention, U amonj; the foremost in bringing her hospitals, ambulance, e.c , up 

to the most mO€lcrn standard of efficiency. 

uith the redoubtable Rusi-ian infantry, 
while the seeming strength of his posi- 
tion may have misled him and con- 
tributed to his disastrous decision to 
stay where he was and await reinforcc- 
mentx. 

On the Ja|«nc'c >i<ic it «as still 
uncertain whether troo|>s could ford the 
Aiho river, on the east bank of which 

the 1 2th Division 

was now mar- 
iJialled. and along which, under cover 
of darkness, the Guards were deploying. 
The fwds var)' at different seasons 
of the year and according to the 
amount of rain. It was a question 
whether the stream uould not have 
to be bridged under fire — a very difficult 
aiMl dangcrou<« -operation — or whether 
pontoons aiul barrels would not have to 
be provided to enable the men to get 



force, the whole 
1 2th Division, 
which in itself 
was stronger 
than his army, 
was now across 
the Yalu, and 
that this division 
was threatening 
his flank and 
rear. But his 
confidence was 
unabated, even 
after the events 
of the day, 
though he had 
seen his artillery 
crushed by an 
over \v h e 1 m i n g 
fire. The truth 
seems to have 
been that he 
despised the 
Japanese, and 
never imagined 
that they would 
dare to come to 
close quarters 



At the Alho River. 




Itopyrighl !))■ 
THE MUSICAI, JAPANESE BUGLERS WITH GENERAL 



•Collier's Weekly. 
KUROKI. 



The effects of the Japanese buglers with a marching column is very beautiful. First the 
leading sr|uad of buglers blow a rally, which is taken up by th? succeeding Sfiu.lds, who are 
interspersed down .t column. 



April 30, 1904. 



THE JAPANESE ORGANISATION. 



447 



across. Another proposal made was that volunteers should carry 
lines of rope over with them and fix these lines to the western 
bank, when it would not be difficult for infantry to pass. But 
while the discussion was in progress a number of officers carefully 
examined the stream, using every possible precaution so as not 
to attract the attention of the Russians. The result of their 
investigation was most satisfactory ; several fords were discovered, 
and though these were found to be of great depth they were just 
l)racticable. They were marked, and the necessary instruct ons 
were issued. 

That same eventful night the whole of the 2nd Division marched 
into Kingting Island, and took up its position behind hastil}' 
constructed entrenchments, under the very 
shadow of Bowl Hill. The movements of 
the Japanese troops were accomplished with 
the usual silence and secrecy ; all the approaches to the bridges 
were carefully screened, and the bridges 
themselves were padded with straw or 
mats. The orders and organisation were 
perfect ; nothing was overlooked ; no 
detail was too small for the attention of 
the Japanese Staff. The pontoons 
followed the troops, in readiness to build the bridges as soon as 



Jaoanes? 
Dispositions. 



[F. McKenzie photo. 
CAPTAIN ORADA, WHO 

HAS 

THE CARE OF FOREIGN 

CORRESPONDENTS. 

He took p.irt in the Pekin Ex- 
pedition. 





THE JAPANESE 1 2TH DIVISION CROSS THE AIHO. 










*jr J 









X 




■5 V 



450 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May I, 1904. 




The Scene at 
WUu. 



MLKNCINO A RUSSIAN GU.N ON TUiER HILL. 

the final passage had been won. The disposition of the divisions was as follows : The Guards were in the centre, 
to deliver the frontal attack on the Russian position facing Tiger Hill ; on their left was the 2nd Division. 
fronting Kuliencheng ; and on their right, away out of sight, the 1 2th Division, to attack the Russian left and rear. 
By 4 a.m. of Sunday, May i, the Japanese dispositions were complete, and General Kuroki was ready 
to strike his blow. The 
scene at W'iju was one 

of deep 

peaceful- 

ness ; the 
stillness of early morn- 
ing was almost disquiet 
ing, and of the great 
army gathered for thi 
assault there was littl< 
sign in the bush of the 
islands and on the 
broken ground of th< 
heights above the Aiho. 
Under the first rays of 
daytheYalu ran deep- 
blue through a stretch |<,„pyr,Kh,, ,,04, -CulL^r., Weeklv. 

of ercen and vello - ammunition train tacking down the ridges of a millet field. 

K yeiiOW 7(„ ,„i„ !,„ |,f, ,1,, ,^| j„ ,^j forcgroutitl and is crossing tlie field in the direction «f the ridges. 




Mav 1, 1904. 



FIGHTING ON MAYDAY. 



451 



sand ; the Manchurian mountains shimmered in the morning mist ; away to the east wave on wave of 
billowy forest descended from the remote uplands of Korea. Once more General Kuroki was at his post 
above Wiju, where the maze of telegraph wires centred, waiting the moment to let his army go. Some 
delay was required to permit the I2th Division to get into its position ; its march the previous night had been 
one of extreme difficulty, making the severest demands upon the physique and endurance of the men. But 
soon after four the message that its valiant infantrymen were in their place came over the wires, and instantly 
the Japanese artillery was set to work to bombard the Russian position, and to clear the way for the assault. 
With a roar the howitzers and heavy guns and fieldpieces opened, the howitzers leading the way. 
Systematically, carefully, they battered every inch of the high ground where the Russian positions were 
known to lie, but without drawing any response from the Russian infantry or artillery. At times, indeed 




A JAPANESE MESSENGER CH.\SED BY COSSACKS. 
The J.-\paiiese cm[jloy a large number of army cyclists, who act as rapid message bearers on the Manchurian roadways. 



452 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 1, 1904. 




INIANIKV CROSSING VALU ON MAV I, UNKKR KNIC.M YS IIRK. 

it seemed a& though the enemy had gone, and as though tlie Japanese gunners were wasting their projectiles 
upon the \-oid. Patiently the Japanese continued their work ; fresh batteries joined in from behind Tiger 
Hill and far away on the Russian left, and took up the bombardment, maintaining a 
slow fire on the points where the entrenchments had been. Even the reverse of the 
slopes fronting the Japanese was searched with high-angle fire, till the hills now glowed red with the blaze 
of the shells, and now were lost in the dense clouds of smoke and dust, and it seemed that they could 
harbour no living thing. 

Then the word was given by General Kuroki for the infantry to go forward. Presently, long lines of 
men in dark blue showed, as though they had fallen from the skies, along the sandy Island of Kingting,. 




kIN(,INO i.N IHK WOUNUKD t RO.M TIIK IIATTI.K OF THK V\I,U TO THK IIKI.D IIOSI'ITAI.. 



454 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 1, 1904. 



The InfaDtrys 
BrUlUuit Advance. 




[Stereographs copyright Underwood and Underwood, London and N.\'. 
RUSSIANS ADVANCING ALONG THE MANCHURIAN RAILWAY. 



extended, but in somewhat close order ; and 
simultaneously on the heights to the east of 
the Aiho appeared masses 
of men. In front went 
the skirmishers, scattered 
in little groups; behind them came the fifjhting 
line; and behind that again the supports. 
To the rear the reserves remained under good cover. The sharp, snapping note of the Japanese rifles could 
be heard through all the din of the artillery fire. Then the Japanese lines began to move steadily against the 
heights which rose beyond the Yalu and Aiho. Down into the Aiho valley swept the Guards and the men 
of the 1 2th Division, still unmolested by the Russians; while the Japanese artillery accelerated its rate of fire 
as the final moment of assault drew near, timing its shells perfectly, and seeming to burst every one 
accuiatcly over the Russian works. As the infantry charged, they e.xecuted a most brilliant movement, 
requiring superbly trained troops, by which they successively reinforced their right, each division as it advanced 
slanting oflT a little in that direction. The aim of the movement was, after leading the Russians to suppose 

that their right and centre 
were to be the points of 
assault, to bring the main 
Japanese force to bear on 
the centre and left. The 
move was executed with 
machine-like precision, and 
the waves of Japanese 
infantry neared the Aiho 
and came into full view 
of the Russian line. Up 
to this point, though plainly 
\isible to the observers 
near Wiju, they had been 
in some degree sheltered 
from the Russians by the 
lie of the ground ; but 
now in the open, only 1,500 
yards away from the 
Russian position, they 
entered the deep and 
swiftly-flowing stream. 

This was the moment 
for which their enemies 
had been 
waiting; 
the Rus- 
sians were there in force, 
and their trenches were 
held. Under all the 
storm of shells which 
searched every inch of their 
lines, tearing limb from 
body and covering the 
hills with gory wreckage 




The Russian 
Fire Begins. 



JATANESE ARTILLERY OF 



May 1, 1904. 



A TEMPEST OF STEEL AND LEAD. 



455 




JAPANESE bOLUlERS WRITING UP THEIR UlAKIES AFTER THE FIRST DAVS 

FIGHT AT THE YALU. 

from which the Russians 
were firing. Under cover 
of this storm it was seen 
that in the centre and on 
the Japanese right the 
small blue figures were 
going forward ; one by 
one men emerged from 
the stream of the Aiho ; 
gradually long lines be- 
gan to scramble up the 
steeps on the farther side 
of the river, and though 
the water ran red with 
blood, and the passage 
was fatal to many a gallant 
soldier, there was no hold- 
ing back. 

Now the left, after its 
brief check, opened out 
and went forward again. 



of human forms, they had 
restrained their fire. But 
now the continuous roar 
of rapid rifle-firing from 
the Russian works was 
added to the indescribable 
tumult, swelling in volume 
till it became one pro- 
longed, heavy thunder. 
The blast of fire caught 
the Japanese left, still in 
the open ground on the 
Island of Kingting ; men 
fell right and left, and the 
advance stopped. Then 
the front line fell back a 
little, taking shelter as it 
could, and, preserving per- 
fect order, waited for 
the gunners to complete 
the work that they had 
begun. The Japanese 

artillery now poured in its 
most rapid fire ; a tempest 
of steel and lead from the 
muzzles of a hundred 
weapons, many of the 
largest size and all quick- 
firing, lashed the ridges 




RUSSIAN GUNS CAPTURED BY GENERAL KUROKl'S ARMY. 



456 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 1. 1904. 




'IJutla photo 

RUSSIAN CADETS ACTING AS OFFICERS IN THK WAR WITH JAPAN. 

the men singing their war-song; officers could be seen in front calling tiie men on. They charged by .short 

rushes, each rush covered by the fire of the rest of the line, and they rapidly gained ground. Nor, a.s they 

closed, did the Ru.ssian fire increa.sc in deadliness. The nerve.'; of the Muscovite mark.smen were 

shaken by the fiery ordeal through 

which they were passing ; no human 

being could fire coolly and steadily 

when about 
The Japanese • • . 

Bushes. '^"^ ^"^ "^^'■- 

head shell and 

shrapnel were bursting at the rate 
of ten or twenty a minute. At 
each point where a rush was made 
the Japanese artillery from every 
point of the field concentrated its 
fire with a skill and facility of 
direction that excited the warmest 
admiration from professional judges. 
Yet behind the advancing lines of 
Japanese infantry little dark dots 
could be seen, and well in the rear 
came the stretcher-bearers, bringing 
instant succour to the wounded, 
anti demeaning themselves with a 
courage worthy of their heroic race. 
About 8 a.m. the infantry be- 
gan to show near the crest of Bowl 
Hill, the key to the Ru.ssian posi- 
tion and the point where on the 
previous day the Russian artillery 
had been stationed. Further to the 
Japanese right the assailants were 
fast nearing the sun:mit of the 
iiciifhu which look down upon 




May I, 1904. 



A TRAGIC ACCIDENT. 



457 



the Aiho, and were in the dead angle, sheltered from the Russian fire, gathering for the final rush. The 
rain of shells from the Japanese guns interposed a screen of fire which shielded them effectuallv in 




JAPANESE KILLEJ/ BY THEIR OWN SHELLS. 
The Japanese had gained the summit of Bowl Hill, Kuliencheng, when a shell from one of their own howitzers fell among them and killed sixteen. 



458 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 1, 1904. 




JAFA.VESE GENERAL A.S'U STAKK CROSSING THE YALU, MAY 1. 
Ccneral Kuroki and his staff led their horses across the bridge. 

their advance. Still the guns fired, and still the infantry drew nearer to the crest ; risks had to be taken on 
both sides— gunners to face the possibility of slaying friends, and infantry cheerfully to accept the chance 
of so being slain, for any intermittance of the artillery fire at such an instant would 
On Bowl Hill. ^^^^ ^^^ deadly beyond belief to the assailants. Half the failures in the assaults of the 
Boer War were due to the artillery ceasing its fire too soon from fear of wounding its own men, and there 
the Ic-s-son had been learnt 
by the Japanese that it was 
necessar>' to fire to the last, 
even at the risk of killing 
comrades. 

So now, just as the 
Japanese line reached the 
trenches on Bowl Hill, a 
crater seemed to have 
opened under it There 
was an upward spout of 
earth, dust and flame ; 
and then another. The 
Japanese howitzers had 
flung two of their common 
shdls into the midst of 
their own infantry, and as 
the smoke cleared away 




^f^f%^ 



^Jfr 



«^«, 





JAPANESE FIELD HOSPITAL ON THE DANKS OF THE VALU. 



460 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 1, 1904. 




A jAPANfcSK OKHCfcR FRKVKMS THE FALL OF HIS COUNTRY'S COLOURS, 



the flag was shot dead while :n the act of 



planting 
upon thi 



it on the summit of the hill at Kuliencheng. His comrade seized it and placed it 



upon tne captured position. 



sixteen prostrate figures dotted the slope of the hill. Fortunately, just at this very critical moment the 
Russians took to flight. They could be seen on the sky-line pouring along the track which led to the 
rear, and as the\' fled the Japanese guns sought them out and followed them up with their pitiless fire. 




_ ICopyiight, iQoii by "Collier's Weekly.' 

jArA>h.^fc CAVALRY VEDETTES HURRYING ACROSS A TEMPORARY BRIDGE- 



May 1, 1904. 



THE YALU GAINED. 



451 




{Copyright, 1904, by " Collier's Weekly." 
JAPANESE TRANSPORT HORSES CROSSING A YALU TR/BUTARY. 

Smoke and flame crowned the hilltop ; through it passed dark figures in their flight and vanished from 

view. Now one stopped and seemed to call or look back for a comrade. Then the whole summit was 

aswarm with the dark blue of the Japanese ; a white flag was unfurled, and as it 

Position Taken spread to the wind the red Rising Sun cf Japan showed upon it. The standard 

waved, and in an instant the sound of the hoarse cheering of thousands of men smote 

the air. The Russian position was taken. 

It was a thrilling moment. The passage of the Yalu was gained beyond dispute ; the Russian 
entrenchments were in Japanese hands. Over a front of ten or fifteen miles the Japanese infantry were 



■#■ 



>^ 



^ 





No. XX. 



THE LAST STAND OI' XllE RUSSIAN REARGUARD AT THE YALU. 
The Russians surrounded on the Hamalan Kill on the evening of May i. 



462 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May I. 1904. 




passing the crest of the hills, and now the din 

had subsided as if b}' magic, and only the 

distant sputtering of rifle-fire could be heard. 

Instantly the reserves 
The Yalu Crossed. ' , , ^ , 

were pushed forward to 

support the advance ; the field-guns on 
Kinteito Island limbered up and hurried over 
the pontoon-bridge, rapidly thrown by the 
pioneers and engineers across the last stretch of 
water which flowed between the islands and 
the Manchurian shore. Carts, transport of all 
kind, pack-horses, and coolies went forward ; 
the sand of the estuary was black with human 
ants ; banners waved ; an army had started 
from the ground where all the morning it had 
been lying in ambush. The first stage of the 
battle was over, but it still remained to take 
up the pursuit and gather in the fruits of 
victory. 

Almost unopposed the I2th Division had 
crossed the Aiho, far up on the Russian left, 
and now it advanced with 
^^pSr'^ the utmost rapidity to- 
wards Hamatan, where it 
was known that the Russian reserves were 
stationed, and where the stream of Russians 
retiring from Kulien must pass. The Guards 
marched straight forward in the same direction, 
but met with constant resistance from the 
Russian reinforcements, who strove to check 
what threatened to degenerate into a rout and 
cover the retreat. The Japanese 2nd Division 
parted from the other two divisions and pushed 
along the Yalu in the direction of 
Antung, after taking possession of 
Kulien. It drove rapidly back the 
Russian troops of General Mistchenko's 
brigade, which retired westwards, keep- 
ing good order and skirmishing with 
the Japanese advance. Again and 
again the Japanese dashed forward, not 
using the bayonet, but employing rifle- 
fire at close quarters, which was found 
to be more deadly ; again and again the 
Russians were forced to give ground. 
The fight continued, steadily receding, 
over the whole stretch of country to the 
rear of Kulien, and from time to time 
the Japanese machine-guns, which alone 
had been able to keep up with the 




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464 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 1 1904. 




The Jacanese 
Turning Movement. 



ICopjTighl, 1904, "Collier's Wceklj." 
BRINGING CAPTURF.I) RUSSIAN GUNS INTO ANTUNG FROM 
HAMATAN, MAY 1. 



march, opened fire. In this fighthig the 
Russians lost much more heavily than 
the Japanese. Their custom of shooting 
with baj-ynets fixed rendered their fire 
uncertain, while they displayed little 
cnerg>- and initiative. But like wounded 
wild beasts they fought to the last with 
desperation. 

They might have escaped with com- 
paratively small loss but for the terrible 
surpri.se A'hich befell 
them when they 
reached Hamatan- 
As the infantry neared this place, march- 
ing now in close formation along the 
dusty road, with the rearguard holding off 
the Japanese pursuit in the rear, suddenly 
a storm of bullets struck the battalions 
on their flank, from the ground to the 
north of the road. The advance guard 
of the Japanese I2th Division, forcing 
its way over country which the Russians 
imagined to be impassable, had reached a 
point beyond Hamatan, and ii only it had been able to bring up its artillery, the Russian army would have 
been doomed to complete destruction. But the efforts required to move' infantry to the point across the 
mountain roads had been prodigious, and on the rough goat-tracks which led through precipitous ravines 
and over almost inaccessible heights, the mountain-guns had perforce been left behind. So it was that 
the Japanese troops had not the support of their artillery. 

The Russians, finding their retreat thus menaced, and what appeared to be a large force in their rear, 

were compelled to halt and collect men to force their way through. Desperate fighting at the closest 

quarters between Russians and Japanese began. One company of Japanese infantry 

Ham^am which had succeeded in throwing itself directly across the Russian line of retreat, and 

which was some 
way in advance of 
the rest of the 
12th Division, was 
attacked by the 
Russians with des- 
perate fur)'. Upon 
it fell the full brunt 
of the Russian 
as.sault, while its 
comrades of the 
J 2th Division were 
pressing their 
march eagerly to 
come to its support. 
Many troops would 

\e raise< the Russian M)i,mi'.[rs ■c\pTrp.ET' ai tiik !;atii.i-; of koliknchexg 




May I, 1904. 



A TERRIBLE FIGHT. 



465 




JAi'A.NJ.M, ALUiHUNU U.N .MANL H L Rl A.N i.KULAU U.N THE .\FXERNOO.N OK THE ];A111.E ut THE \ALU. 

white flag then and there, but not so the Japanese. They fought steadily for two hours, until their 
ammunition was entirely exhausted, until one captain and two lieutenants had been killed, and only one 
commissioned officer remained alive ; and though of the men half were killed or wounded, they continued the 
battle to the last. Then, fixing bayonets, the little band prepared to die, and just before the final charge 
began to sing the regimental war-song. Above the crack of the Russian rifles their death chant was 
answered by e.xultant cheers from a fresh regiment ofJapane.se troops, who appeared upon the field just in 
time to save this gallant remnant. As battalion after battalion and regiment after regiment raced up at the 




V.N (,L'.Nb I).\MA(.E|J V,\ J.VPA-NK.'^E SHELLS 



466 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 1, 1904. 



The Russian 
Debacle. 



quick-march, it was seen that 
these heroes had not given 
their lives in vain. The Russians 
had been delayed sufficiently to 
enable the pursuers to get home. 
Two batteries of Russian 
guns, sixteen pieces in number, 
were in- 
volved in 
the debacle 
at Hamatan and cutoff. Guns, 
waggons, horses, and hundreds 
of weary infantry were now 
collected in one of the worst 
positions conceivable, massed 
beneath two steep hills held by 
the Japanese, whose mountain- 
guns were just beginning to arrive. Huddled together, the Russians were mown down by the rifle-fire 
from the high ground. But the two Russian batteries maintained a steady fire and prepared to sacrifice 
themselves to tear a way for the rest of the force through the Japanese. These batteries, which were 
the 3rd of the 3rd Brigade, and the 2nd of the 6th Brigade, opened their most rapid fire upon the 




TRKNCHEii AT ANTUKC. BUILT BV THE RUSSIAN ARMV, 
GENERAL KUROKl'S DIVISION. 



AND CAPTURED BV 




A JAPANESE PONTOON-TRAIN. 

Japanese infantry as it in skirmishing formation dashed at them. Seventy-two horses of the 3rd Batter)' 
and no of the 2nd Battery were killed in a few minutes. The Russian gunners were shot 
down ; only two men were left to each weapon, while the Japanese still came on in overwhelming force. 
The order was given to the gunners to disable fifteen of their weapons, and the sixteenth gun, which 
alone could be horsed, gal- 
loped away under cover of 
the fire of eight machine- 
guns. Taking sledge- 
hammers, the Russians 
shattered the sights and 
damaged the screw-thread 
of the breech-blocks; then 
the few survivors waved 
white handkerchiefs in token 
of the fact that their 
resistance was over. 




HOUSES AT ANJU liUkNT liV RUSSIANS IN KETREAl. l.ii'. cmNKslr. 
TO EXTINGUISH THE FLAMES WITH BROOMSTICKS. 



AKE TRYING 



May I 1904. 



A BRAVE PRIEST. 



467 



Fifteen quick-firing guns, with limbers, waggons, and caissons, and eight machine-guns, fell into the hands 
of the Japanese. 

Meanwhile the nth East Siberian Rifle Regiment, while attempting to cover the retreat of the guns, 




riiK Ku^i.siAX I'Rii:.-^! ichkki;aIx()vskv lkaiiim; iiik tkoui's ki i;\itij.. 

"Forward!" he exclaimed. "Your holy duty for the Emperor, the Fatherland, and Victory 1" 

found itself cut off and surrounded. To clear a way through the Japanese a bayonet: charge was the only 
possible course remaining. The officers called upon their men, but the troops were shaken and weary 
after hours of desperate and unsuccessful fighting. Then as a last expedient the priest of the regiment 



466 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 1, 1904. 




JAPANESE ATTACK ON THE RUSSIAN POSITION AT ANTUNG BY THE 2NU D1V1>^10N OK THK HKbi ARMY. 

Father Tcherbakovsky, stood up, holding the crucifix, and called upon the men to rise and go forward. 
Under a terrible fire, he headed them himself, and, responding with a cheer, they followed him. Twice was 
he wounded ; he fell, was given up for dead, and was carried off by his servant. But 
some small portion of the regiment forced a way through the masses of rifles surrounding 
it and escaped, shattered and sadly reduced in numbers, to Fenghwangcheng. In the opinion of Russian 
officers who had served in the Turkish War, the fighting on this occasion was far severer than even that at 
Plevna, and the Japanese fire much more deadly than that of Osman Pasha's men. 



A Brave Priest 




JAPS AND COOLIES LANDING AT ANTUNG. 




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470 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May I, 1904. 




The Japanese 
Lack of Cavalry. 

In the retreat 
the Russian 
General Kashta- 
1 i n s k y w a s 
wounded by a 
shell -splinter; 
there were even 
reports that he had 
been killed. The 
impetuous Jap- 
anese pursuit 
only ended with 
nightfall, when the 
infantry were re- 
called. Had 
General Kuroki 

JAP.VMESK TRANSPORT TRAIN LEAVIXO ANTUNO 1 OK THE FROMT. ^^^^ noSSCSSed a 

strong cavalry brigade to take up and continue the chase of the beaten foe, the disaster must have been 

even greater than it actually was, but here the one serious Japanese weakness proved the salvation of 

what rcfnained of General Kashtalinsky's division. Still, when the harvest of spoil was reckoned up, 

it proved to be very great indeed. Of guns, the Japanese took six, which were found disabled, on Bowl 

Hill, while fifteen were captured at Hamatan, all of the latest type, long and powerful weapons. They 

also captured eight Maxims, 88 waggons, i,ooo rifles, and 350,000 rounds of ammunition. The Russian 

kws was officially rejxjrted by General Kuropatkin at 70 officers and 2,324 men killed and wounded, of 

M-hom 1,363 were killed, since that number of dead were found and buried by the Japanese. 

It would appear that either the Russian report did not include the slightly wounded, or the 

proportion of killed in the battle was unusually high. In past wars the proportion has been almost invariably 

from three to four wounded for each man killed, which would have given from 3,900 to 
The Russian 
Loss of Liffr 

5,300 Russian 
wounded alone, 
and a total Russian 
loss of between 
5,000 and 6,500. 
Among the 
prisoners were a 
large number of 
wounded officers 
and men ; the un- 
woundcd, it should 
be said ibr the 
honour of the 
Russian Army, 
were (ew and far 
between. The 

lA.N GUNS AT ANiUNO 




May 1, 1904. 



THE RUSSIAN GENERALSHIP. 



471 



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^."•"•o '~_'^Sfr-J •l-?*^.//'-/^ 



.Mr. Frederick V^illiers. 



.Mr. .Melton I'rior. 



"A BRUSH ON THE FRONTIER: A DRAWN AFFAIR." 

Mr. Mellon Prior, the famous war-.irtist, ha.s gone East to represent the "Illustrated News" 

with the Japanese Army. 
Mr. Frederick ViUiers, another celebrated war-artist, has left to 'oin the Russian forces on 

behalf of the same paper. 

and instructions ; that he 
was not seen during the 
pursuit ; and did not 
reappear until his arm)- 
had been rallied at Feng- 
hwangcheng. General 
Kashtalinsky, his subor- 
dinate, showed personal 
bravery, but none of the 
higher qualities of a com- 
mander ; and after utter- 
ing the atrocious re- 
mark some weeks before 
the battle, that his troops 
" carried swords not ropes," 
and they would take 
no prisoners, by a very 
just retribution he narrowly 
escaped capture 

The 2nd Japanese Divi- 
sion in its march to Antung 
encountered 

Japanese ijttie resist- 

Mareh 
to Antung. ance. Bom- 
barded by 
the Japanese gunboats and 
assailed by the Japanese 
infantry, the Russians set 
fire to the town and fell 
back in haste. Among 
the spoils which passed 
into the hands of the 
Japanese in this quarter 
were three small steamers, 
the largest of 300 tons. 
They had been used by 



total number of prisoners 'was 18 oflficers 
and 595 men, of whom 475 were wounded. 
Eight officers of rank were taken, includ- 
ing two colonels of artillery and one colonel 
of Cossacks. 

The generalship on the Russian side 
was beneath contempt. General Sassulitch, 
who commanded the 
2nd Siberian Army 
Corps, the force en- 
gaged, took practically no part in the 
battle. His soldiers complained that he 
disappeared from the field on the eve of 
•rthc final action, without giving orders 



The Russian 
Generalship. 




WOUNDED RUSSIAN SOLDIERS RETREATI^c. 

After the battle of Kuliencheng the wounded and disabled soldiers of the Russian Army retired towards 
Feiighwangcheng, and afterwards through the pass to Liaoyang. 




472 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May, 1904. 




Ki --IAN SOl.DIKK^ U(Jl'Mil,|i Ai Jill. KATTLli OK THE \.\l.l 

the Russians for moving troops up the Yalu. The crews before quitting them took care to disable tlie 
machinery and to do as much damage to them as possible. 

The Japanese loss in the battle was 223 killed and 816 wounded. The 2nd Division, which stormed 
Bowl Hill, suffered most, and about 450 of the casualties were in its ranks; the 12th Division came ne.xt 
with about 380, and the Guards had the smallest total of casualties, losing one officer and 20 men killed and 







"I I'll! UMiM,! I, Al IHl'. liATlLli OK XllK YALU. 



474 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May, 1904. 




JAPANESE PRISONERS OF WAR. 
The cliflTerence in tlie heicht of the opponents was very notictfabl^ 



1 29 wounded. There can be no disputing the lact that tnis loss was extraordinarily small in view of the 
magnificent success achieved, of the great strength of the Russian position, and of the long distance to be 
covered without shelter of any kind before the Japanese could come to handgrips with their enemy. 

The battle was a great surprise for the world. Outside England, where the Japanese Army was 




A JAPANESE ARTISrS CONCEPTION OF A SEVERE ENGAGEMENT. 



May, 1904. 



THE WORLD'S SURPRISE. 



475 



estimated at its true 
worth, as the result of the 
favourable reports upon 
it made by the British 
attaches, 

M"''^''1h°'' ^vho re- 
the World. 

garded it 
as composed of the best 
fighting material in the 
world, no one had antici- 
pated the easy victory 
of the Japanese on land. 
It had been thought 
that their infantry were 
inferior in ph\-sique and 
fighting power to the 
Russians, while their 
artillery was considered 
to be distinctly less effec- 
tive, and their cavalry 
not worthy of compari- 
son with the Russian. 
But as a matter of fact 
the artillery of the 
Japanese had asserted 
in this first battle a 
predominance which it 
maintained throughout 
the earlier weeks of the 
campaign, while the 
want of cavalry did not 
seriously hamper General 
Kuroki, except in the 
pursuit ; and even there 
his agile little infantry 
showed themselves to 
be capable of covering 




JAPAXKSK ESCORTING RUSSIAN PKISONKRS AFTER THE BATTLE OF THE VALU. 




[APANLr,]-. ARTILLERY AFTER THE YALU VICTORY RESTING ON THE NORTH SIDE 01 



476 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



Mav. 1904. 



ground nearly as fast as Cossacks. 

KvxM when the battle was over the 

end had not come to the long 

•leries of misfortunes under which 

the Russian army on the ^'alu was 

suflering. A detachment of fugi- 

ti\-es, while retiring during the 

night, was mis- 

A Fight taken b \' 

Between Russians. ^ » k e n d j 

another party 

of Russians for a Japanese force. 
In the darkness the two detach- 
ments opened a heavy fire upon 
each other, as the result of which 
many in either were killed or 
wounded, and not till the losses had 





A jAPAKtSE SOI.OIKR GIVING A WOUNDED RUSSIAN RKFRF.SIIMENT AND CK;m i i I 



l^opyright by "Collier's Weekly" in U.S.A. 
JAPANESE BRINGING IN TROPHIES 1 ROM THE liATTLEFlELD. 



reached a figure of 180 
was the error discovered. 
Thi.s curious fight between 
Ru.ssians was witnessed by 
the Chinese, who reported it 
to the Japanese, and their 
story \vas corroborated by 
the large number of graves 
discovered bj' the Japanese, 
which proved that the 
Russian losses had been 
.'■evere. 

On the stricken field the 
scenes were terrible. Upon 
the summit of Bowl Hill 
the bloodstained wreckage 
of the Russian battery, 
which had been annihilated 
in a few minutes of firing 
by the Japanese, attracted 
general atten- 
tion. The lead- 
ing limber had 
been hit by a 
shell which exploded it ; 
behind the limber lay si.K 
guns and their limbers, a 
heap of shattered wheels 
and carriages, with the 
bodies of men and horses 
all about. The guns them- 
selves were examined, and 
proved to be of excellent 



On the 

Stricken 

Field. 



May, 1904. 



THE JAPANESE AMBULANCE. 



477 




pattern, marked on the breeches " 1902 " ; they were the latest type of Russian 
quick-firer, turned out by the arsenal at St. Petersburg. They were long, of 
great range and heavy weight. 

On all sides the Japanese ambulance corps and medical staff were now at 
work. Here, as in other directions, the organisation of the Japanese army was 
simply perfect. " Field hospitals," says Mr. McKenzie, the 
" Daily Mail " correspondent, " were run up ; the German- 
trained medical men, alert and cool, opened their cases of 
instruments, and the quick work began. No time for dainty delay or finicking 
hesitation here. . . . Cossack in grey shirt lay still beside his erstwhile adversary 
in blue coat. The Japanese was carried along in the stretcher close to the 
Siberian infantryman, the one shot through the leg, the other in the side. . . . 



The Japanese 
Ambulance. 



[Copyright, 1904, by 
"Collier's Weekly." 

BRINGING WATER FOR 
THE HORSES. 



" Here lay a young 
infantryman, his face 
wearing in death a look 
of childish wonderment, 
his bayoneted rifle close to 
him, where it had dropped 
from his sharply-paralysed 
hand. . . . Here was a 
Russian officer, his silver- 
laced coat ripped off" and 
thrown by the doctors 
lightly over him, his face 
graved with pain, every 
half- conscious thought 
merged in the one deter- 
mination not to show signs 
of his agony before his 
nation's foes. . . . Close 
to him lay a German- 
speaking Russian shot 
through the shoulder and 
through the head. His 
mind went back to the 
smoke curling from his 
own little kitchen, and to 
the one woman in the 
world praying there that 
night for him, and waiting 
for his return. ' Meine 
liebe,' he moaned — ' my 
love, my kne ! ' His voice 
sank to a muttered prayer. 
Then he started up and 
strove to raise himself. 




A SOLDIERS GRAVE. AN INCIDENT IN THE RUSSIAN RETRE.4T FROM THE VALU. 
"The Japanese discovered a large number of graves, which proved that the Russian losses had been seve«e." 



478 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 1. 1904. 




ICDpyritjIu by "Collltr's Weekly" In II. S. A. 

JAPANESE TROOPS WATCHING ONK OF THEIR NUMBER IMITATING THE DANCING OK A GEISHA. 

Wasser, wasser,' his hoarse and scarcely audible voice croaked. A Japanese soldier ran to fill a tin 

IKinnikin." 

The British correspondents gathered that evening at General Kuioki's headquarters to congratulate him 
upon .so brilliant a victory. In the courtyard of a Chinese house he stood, a man of middle height, with a 
face as of bronze, tanned by the sun and wind, the face of a man who lives only for his 
country. His hair was grey; an iron-grey moustache veiled the stern lines of the 
mouth; the impenetrable eyes seemed to twinkle with good nature. He wore slippers, and was dressed in 
dark-blue uniform, with the usual peaked cap of the Japanese. In his mouth glowed always a cigar — like 
('•rant, it was his habit to smoke incessantly as he fought. There was no fuss and no excessive ceremony 
about him, but his perfect manners and his air of command might well have impressed even the most careless 
of men. He listened gravely to the congratulations. 



KnrokL 




[Copyriglit by "CuUier's Weekly" in U.S.A. 
LOW-CLASS CHINAMEN ARRKSTKH HV JAPANKSK FOR TAMPERING WITH THE FIELD-TELEGRAPH. 



May 1, 1904. 



AFTER THE BATTLE. 



479 



Camp-fires were burning in the 

courtyard, and by their light the 

Russian prisoners were being 

examined ; the general himself 

followed the examination ; while 

at his side stood a prince of the 

oldest ruling house in the world 

— a member 

Round the Camp- ^f the Japan- 
Fires. -" ' 

ese Imperial 

Family, and so in the eyes of 
Japanese a veritable descendant 
of the gods. Three tall Russian 
officers, their examination con- 
cluded, talked as comrades with 
their conquerors. There was no 
hatred and no illwill ; neither 
victors nor vanquished felt or 
showed animosity. War, indeed, 
reconciles rather than alienates, 
contrary to the belief of the well- 
meaning humanitarian. Behind 
the group round the camp-fires 
moved in the dim glow figures of 
armed soldiers, battle-stained, 




JAPANESE ill 



ARRYING WOUNDED FROM 



ICopyright, 1904, by 
- •■•■'■■ fi-iE ■ 



Collier's Weekly.' 
B.\TTLE1'IE1.D. 




CHINESE COOLIES DRIXGING IX RUSSIAN WOUNDED SOLDIKKS AFTER THE BATTLE OF THE VAI.r, 




480 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOiM. 



May 1, 1904. 




A COSSACK OUTPOST SURPRISED BY A JAPANESE RECONNOITRING PARTV. 
"The Ruuian cavalry were looking for the Japanese base near Anju." 

grimy with smoke and dust, but silent and impassive. It was a picture such as the dead Verestchagin 
would have loved to paint. Even as the party sat there in the flickering light the news of the crowning 
success at Hamatan and the capture of the fifteen Russian guns came in. With the faintest possible 
signs of satisfaction in his luminous face, the general permitted the correspondents to lengthen their 
messages. But cheers or waving of caps and helmets there were none. It seemed as though the Japanese 
had counted upon their success beforehand. 

The week of fighting on the Yalu marks a turning-point in history. The complete and easy victory of 

the Japanese over a Western army 

was the first clear proof that there 

is no reason 

^KSr* why the Asiatic 

should not 

match, or even master, the European 

in the arts of war. The days of 

Plassy and Geok Tepe had passed 

for ever away ; the success of Japan 

was visible and tangible evidence 

that the Oriental was not racially 

handicapped in the conflict for 

power. The Yalu, then, may be 

said to have made an end of Asia. 

It was the final triumph of the 

A RUSSIAN BATitKY WAiiiNu iiiE oKutK TO FIRE. •''^~ *■ ■■^•■" Western spirit in Japan, and the 








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o 

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482 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 




JM-AN CKLtUKATI.NU lla VICTORY BY DECORATING ITS ELECTRIC CARS. 



May 3. 1904. 

Samurai might look back 
witli deep satisfaction upon 
their heroic sacrifices made 
in the national interest dur- 
ing the thirty yeai-s of the 
reform era, and feel that 
all had been well. The 
harvest liad been reaped at 
last, and Japan thence- 
forth stood forth as a great 
Power on land as well as 
sea. 

As for the Russian force. 
it is now known to have 
been composed of si.xteen 
battalions of infantry, three 

each of the 
The Russian , , 

Force. -^ ' 

iith, 1 2th, 

and 22nd East Siberian 
Rifles, and one battalion 
of the 24th Regiment, 

supported by five batteries, each of eight quick-firing guns, with eight machine-guns, a regiment of Engineers. 
and two regiments of Cossacks, totalling in all .some 20,000 men. Of these, however, half were on detached 
duty or deployed in the direction of Antung, and took little or no part in the actual battle. The Russian 
force in the direction of Antung was able to fall back without suffering serious loss, and remained practically 
intact 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
THE ADVANCE INTO MANCHURIA— ISOLATION OF PORT ARTHUR. 

GENERAL KUROKI was not the man to rest upon his laurels after the great victory of May i 
Rapidly concentrating his force, he pushed his outposts forward with all possible speed towards. 
Kaoliman, in front of which place his cavalry arrived, without encountering any serious resistance 
on the part of the Russians, on May 3. After his disaster on the Yalu, General Sassulitch was recalled, and 
his succcs.sor appears to have received imperative orders to run no more risks, and to fall back as speedily as 
(xissible. With a powerful cavalr\' 
the Japanese might have been 

able to cut 

him off, but, 

probably be- 
cause of the exhaustion of the 
divisions which had been employed 
in forcing the passage of the river, 
and which had been continuou.sIy 
at work for the best part of three 
days, with little opportunity for 
re»t and sleep, the Ru.ssians were 
not molested in their retreat. 

On his entry into Manchuria, 
General Kuroki addressed to his 



After the 
Victory. 







1 


■b 



l.LKCIkK, i Mis l\ TOKIO n.l.U.MINATliU TO CKLICHKATK VRTOkV. 



May, 1904. 



KUROKI'S GENERAL ORDER. 



483 



Kuroki's General 
Order. 



men a general order, which deserves to be recalled, 
as it illustrates admirably the spirit of the Japanese 
Army. 

" War," he said, " is a struggle between State 
and State. Irts object is solely to measure strength 

with an enemy. Therefore, 

so long as no hostility is 

displayed towards our army, 
the utmost consideration should be extended not 
only to private individuals, as a matter of course, 
but also to such of the enemy as may surrender. 
These latter should be well received and kindly 
treated. As for the people of the country, every 
care should be taken to inspire them with con- 
fidence. On no account should their property be 
injured. Above all, it must be remembered that we are not carrying on this war in an enemy's land ; that the 
people we are among are not our foes. They are deserving of all .sympathy in that they have had to receive 
two armies, one after the other. In view of that fact the greatest kindness should be e.xercised towards them. 
" It is a fine act and a thing without precedent that soldiers of the Yamato race .should march to cross 
swords with the Slav. The peoples of the world are earnestly observing the issue. There is no ambiguity 




TOKIO HORSE-TRAM ILLUMINATED. 




TOKIO EN FKI 



« AR. 



484 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 3, 1904. 




about the object of the conflict. It is set 
forth plainly in the Imperial Rescript. 
Upon us devolves the duty of exhausting 
the resources of loyalty and valour to 
the end, that the blessings of peace may 
Idc restored. Should we fail, incalculable 
calamities will befall our country. In 
truth it is a crucial time. Who, then, will 
pause to choose between the honour of 
advancing to meet death and the ignominy 
(){ retreating to save life? Breast to 
lireast, shoulder to shoulder, it is for us to 
achieve the lasting greatness of our 
country and the universal renown of our 
Sovereign." 

The Japanese troops responded ad- 
mirably to the order. Their behaviour 
was exemplary, and contrasted most 
favourably with that of the Russians, 
who had committed terrible depredations 
on the Chinese during their retreat from 
the Yalu, burning villages and houses, 
and commandeering food without making 
payment for it. 

The Japanese were much surprised to 
find that the Russians made no resistance 
in the strong position previously prepared 

at Kaoliman. Here the road between the Yalu and I^enghwangcheng crosses a mountain range, offering 

e.Kcellent opportunities of defence. Earthworks of formidable trace had been thrown up on the hills 

to the north and south of the village, which, so far as could be ascertained from 

Abandoned ^ reconnaissance, were held in force by artillery. There were also reports, probably 

purposely spread by the Russians to prevent a close pursuit, to the effect that General 

Kuropatkin had detached strong reinforcements to the help of General Sassulitch. But when the Japanese 

cloiiely examined the place, it proved to have been evacuated. The Russians had gone, and had not even 

uaited to bum the town, such had been the 

hurry of their retirement. The Japanese 

cavalry now advanced cautiously in the direction 

of I'enghwangcheng, which, according to 

rumour, was held by a great Russian force, 

and which it was important for the Japanese to 

take as speedily as possible, in order to control 

the numerous roads which centre there and to 

reach out a hand to the new army that was 

c\en then disembarking on the Manchurian 

coast. 

In their movement against Fenghwangcheng 

the Japanese, as usual, employed outflanking 

stratqjy. One of their divisions marched by 

circuitous mountain tracks and approached the 

town from the north-east, so as to threaten the Japanese cavalrym.\n examining^Torsk4'°stkmn^d"fJkeleg. 



ICopyright by *• Collier's Weekly.' 
WOUNDED JAPANESE SOLDIER BEING CARRIED TO QUARTERS 
AfTER E.\TRACTION OF BULLET EROM HIS LEG. 




485 




Colone 
N). XXI 



EXECUTION OF TWO JAPANESE OFFICERS AT KHARBIN. 

I Ukoko and C;iptaiii Otti wert caught attempting to blow up the railway-bridge over the River None, in Manchuria. One asked that 

his eyes should not be bandaged. 



466 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 6, 1904. 




JAI'ANK>K Mil.lUlK^ (.lAKIMNC I'HE (JATK OK FKXGH UAXCCIl l.Nl ;. 

retreat of any Russian force that might be holding it. The two other divisions pushed along the 
" mandarin road " — the main high-road from the Yalu — and on the 6th were close to Fenghwangcheng- 

Careful reconnaissances established the fact that the Russians were not holding the town, 
Out^^'lfln'r ''"^ '' **^^ **' o"^^ occupied by the infantry of the I2th Division, approaching from the 

north. With such haste did the Russians retire that they left behind them 180,000 
rounds of small arms ammunition, a large number of shells for their mountain-guns, some two thousand 
greatcoats, their reserves of entrenching implements and telegraphic stores, and great quantities of 
bread, bean-cake, and forage. But they succeeded in removing their wounded, and no prisoners were made 
by the Japanese. 

The town of Fenghwang is situated in the centre of a rich, cultivated plain, and is commanded on all 
sides by steep, cone-shaped mountains, which rise about it. Like most Chinese cities, it is enclosed b}' four 
walls, built facing the four points of the compass, twenty feet high and sixteen feet thick, and therefore 




1 i 1 1 I.M .IIWANI.CIII'.M. 



May 12. 1904. 



AT FENGHWANG. 



487 




[Copyright t>y "Collier's Weekly. 
MAJOR FUKADO, OF GENERAL KUROKI'S STAFF AT FEXGHWAN'GCHKNG, EXPLAINMN'G TO THE FOREKJN MILITARY 
ATTACHES THE TACTICS EMPLOYED BY THE JAPANESE IN THE HATTLE OF THE YALU. 



At Fenghwang:. 




capable of offering some resistance to artillery fire. It had been a prosperous place before the war, and 
the Russians had fully intended committing -it to the flames, but abandoned their 
intention when the Japanese suddenly debouched from a quarter in which their 
presence was never expected. Before falling back the Cossacks exploded one of their ammunition depots, 
without, however, doing much damage. 

As a strategic point, Fenghwang is one of the most important places in Manchuria. Here meet roads 
from Haicheng, Liaoyang, Takushan, the Yalu, Saimatse, Aiyang, and Kwantien, all of which were to play 
an important part in the 
forthcoming operations. 
Here the Japanese head- 
quarters were established 
on May 12, and hither 
immense quantities of 
supplies were moved up 
by cart from Antung, 
which had now become 
the Japanese base on the 
Yalu. Once more the 
wonderful method and or- 
;^anisation of the Japanese 
impressed themselves upon 
the Europeans with the 
irmy. " Every detail 

seemed to ha\e been 
carefully thought out and 
timed, .so that transport 

-inrl c,,.^r^,i;„„ I til i'. ^ilMKUur illLLTER NEAR FENGHWANGCHENG ABANDONED BY 

ancJ .supplies should always on the approach of the iapanese. 




I I'liulo Nuiivelles. 
[HK RUSSIANS 



468 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 12. 1904. 




[Copyright by *" Collier's Weekly." 
J.VPANKSt MfcMOKlAL SEKVICE AX FENGHWANGCHENG. WAITING KOR THK SERVICE TO, BEGIN. 

be in readiness at the exact spot and time they were needed for the advancing army. There never 
sctmcd to be an_\' delay through waiting for tardy transports ; never confusion or a hitch in the 
l»rej«rations," wrote .Mr. Knight, a correspondent with General Kuroki. 

.-\s the army advanced, spring was already upon the country. The fruit trees were in full bloom ; 

fluwers carpeted the \crdant soil ; the trees were clad with the freshest foliage. The atmosphere was clear 

and exhilarating ; the country struck all who saw it as magnificent, rich alike in soil 

Manchuria ^"^ '" minerals — a white man's land, and a prize worthy of a great conflict. The 

|x>verty-stricken villages of Korea had vanished. Instead of swampy rice-fields there 

were great areas given up to the culture of millet and mealie. Instead of the stunted Korean pony, there 

were the sturdy Manchu horses ; the quaint, unspeakably lazy and dirt\- Koreans had gi\en way to the 

hardworking Chinese and the powerful-looking Manchu. 




JAPANESE TROOPS MASSED IS THE PLAIN AT FENGHWANGCHENG FOR A 'SuTlAL S^RvLe!''''''"' '''"''''■ ' 



490 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 10, 1904. 




lAI'ASKSK SOI. nil K> Al liAVONKT KXERCISK. 



During the for- 
ward movement 
of the army news 

Russians Attack 
Anju. 

arrived, to the in- 
tense amusement 
of General Kurol<i 
and the Japanese 
staff, that t h c 
Russian cavalry 
were looking for 
the Japanese base 
near Anju. A 
body of 6oo Cos- 
sacks had crossed 
the Yalu high up 

the river, at Pyokdong, 55 miles above Wiju, on April 23, capturing the village, with its small Korean 
garrison. They had then moved south by the bad mountain roads towards Anju, which lies on the 
Korean side of the river, some 75 miles from Wiju. They found on their march no trace whatever of 
Japanese trains and transport, the fact being that the base had been moved first to Yongampo and 
then to Antung. They next unsuccessfully attacked Anju, which place was held by a company of 
infantn.-. The Japanese lined the walls, and without any difficulty beat off the Russians, after a prolonged 
skirmish, lasting all the afternoon of May 10. The Cossacks retired seeing that strong reinforcements 
were on their way to join the garrison, and left behind them thirteen killed, and some wounded and 
prisoners. They had with them twelve days' provisions, and lived by looting Korean houses and farms. 
They fell back by the American gold mines at Unsan, having effected nothing, and never even caused the 
Japanese staflT a minute of uneasiness. But the country to the north of Anju remained for some 
weeks infested by small bands of Russians, who, however, were too weak in force to attempt any serious 
military operation. While the First Japanese Army was marching upon Fenghwang, the Second 
Army, under General Oku, had begun its movement. Held back until the passage of the 
Yalu had been forced, and until Port Arthur should be effectively sealed, in the event of its assistance 
being required by General Kuroki, it was now free to act, and on the night of the 3rcl received (Mclers to 




, ICupyrislil, 1904, by ''Collier' Wucklj. 

b'tRVIMU OUT KEW SUMMKR UNIFORMS TO THE JAPANESE AT FE.NGHWAxNGCHENG. 



May 3, 1904. 



TOGO'S BASE. 



491 



General Oku's 
Army. 



effect its disembarkation near Pit- 
sewo, on the coast of Manchuria. 
It had been waiting in perfect 
preparedness 
for many days 
in the Gulf of 
Korea, with its headquarters at 
Chinampo, where the extremest 
precautions were taken by the 
Japanese to prevent any news of 
its intentions reaching the Russians. 
During the period of its stay in 
that port, martial law was proclaimed 
there, and no person was permitted to leave the town, on any excuse, however good. Mustering 70,000 
men, closely packed on board 83 transports, the huge armada moved during the night of the 3rd-4th to the 




iiui s Weekly." 



THE RUSSIAN CEMEIKRV AT KENGHWAXGCHEXli. 



At the Elliot 
Islands. 



Hall Islands, where Admiral Togo's battle-scarrerl 
taneously with the report that Port Arthur was 
that the landing could be carried out in safety, 
fleet of transports and warships proceeded in 
toa Bay, distant 160 miles, where the landing was 
Though the blocking of Port Arthur might 
ito give perfect security, no precaution was omitted 
The transports brought with 
material for making a huge 
long, 
to protect the waters where 
the fleet would be lying 
from Russian attacks. The 
boom was to be carried from 
the mainland to Kwanlung- 
tau, the most westerly of 
the Elliot Islands, while 
smaller booms had alreadx- 
been placed in position, 
closing the other gaps be- 
tween the islands of the 
group, and thus rendering 
approach from Port Arthur 
exceedingly difficult. A 
powerful installation of 
searchlights was also pro- 
vided, to be set up on the 

shore, so as to facilitate the work of disembarking 

and to discover any torpedo-boat that might show 

herself forthwith. It was significant that the 

.searchlights were even more powerful than those 

j^ in the permanent Ru.ssian station at Port Arthur 

^^B In .selecting Yentoa Bay and Pit.sewo as the 

^H points of disembarkation, the Japanese General 

■ 




fleet arrived simul- 
closed at last, and 
I-'orthw ith the whole 
the direction of Yen - 
to take place, 
have been thought 
by the Japanese, 
them from Sasebo 
boom eight milfes 




-Staff had been guided by several considerations. 



FRO.M THE VAI.U TO 
LIAOVANG. 

A Ijird.seye view of llie 

country through which the 

JaiKinese p.issed en nmte to 

■ Kenghwaijgcheng and 

Liaoyang. 



492 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 4, 1904. 




WAR C'OkKESPONUIiNTS SALUlIN't; RUSSIAN PRISOiNliRS, 

Aft MtMn. W, Kinoa ami Knight were on their way to Fenghwanccheng they came upon a number of Russian prisoners in a iiouse by ttie wayside. W lien 

Ihcy saluted the prisoners the Japanese camp-followers were greatly impressed. 

They were near Port Arthur, but not so near as to be dangerous!}' close. Sixty-five miles a\\a\- b\- sea 

fr»>m the Russian naval base, Pitsewo was much further by land, and it was some miles from the railway, 
so that the Russians would not find it eas)-, without running excessive risks, to 
PUsewo* concentrate rapidly there a force sufficient to drive back the first Japanese landing- 

part)-. It was, moreover, known not to be held in an)' force b)- the enem)', and 

though a battery had been constructed there, it had not been armed. Nor had the attention of the: 

Russians been drawn to it, as it had 

never been mentioned among the 

numerous points at which the 

Japanese might disembark. La.st]y, 

it was the meeting-place of five 

roads. One ran to Takushan and 

Siuyen, along the coast, east; to 

Kaichau, two roads ran north ; and 

the fourth and fifth r<jads left in a 

westerly directi(jn for Ililanticn and 

Port Arthur. The.se numerous roads 

would prevent the Russians from 

knowing exactly in what direction 

the Japanese intended to strike, and 

would facilitate communications with 

(jcneral Kuroki. 

The Russians had expected the 

Jajwncse to land m Kerr Bay, and ic„,,,i,,„ ,,. .Coiii.rs weeWy.- 

had in consequence thicklv strewn captain ohada in onk ok thk trenches deserted by the 

Luiisc^uciiic inicKiy sirewn Russians at kenghwangcheno. 




May 4, 1904. 



RUSSIANS MISLED. 



493 



the coast there with mines. Their attention was also diverted by stories which were spread by the Japanese 
to the efiect that they were about to move against Newchwang, and by circumstantial tales that came in 

f''om neutral observers in the Yellow Sea, to the effect that ten Japanese warships 
Misled. ^^'•^ ^^^^^ ^^^''' convoying thirty transports in that direction. Yet the Japanese never had 

the slightest intention of landing at Newchwang at this stage in the war. Such a move 
uould have brought their whole transport fleet and the vessels engaged in carrying supplies to the front past 







A 



'' f ■ ■♦.A- >, 












^^^ .'^H^.j 



VV Tk 



r.r^ 



M.> 



CAMP-POSTS OF THE JAPANESE ENGINEERS WITH GENERAL KUROKrS ARMY IN MANCHURIA. 

Ihe view shows a Japanese soldier reaiHng one of the marking -posts which define the boundaries of the various regimental camping-grounds. The smaller 
lettering reads ; *' 2nd Section of No. 1 Company of No. 2 Battalion Engineers." The three larger words give the local designatioD, 
^ presumably of a village near at hand. G 



494 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May, 1904. 




TAKING \VOLNn]:ii Kl>.SI.\N- PKISONKRS INTO KENGHVVANGCHENG. 

the Russian base of Port Arthur, within striking distance of tlie Russian destroyer flotilla, and would have 
imposed upon the Japanese navy the gravest anxiety. It is indeed doubtful if the fleet was strong enough 




jAi-ANfcSt CUN3TKUCTI.NG A MIUTARY ROAD AND BOMB-PROOF SHELTKR NEAR sriMATSE, 



[Copyright by "Collier's Weekly." 



May 5, 1904. 



LANDING AT PITSEWO. 



495 



Difficulties of 
Landing. 



for the work of maintaining so close 

a blockade of Port Arthur as to 

prevent the ingress and egress of 

torpedo vessels. 

A further advantage was that in 

1894 the Japanese had made great 
use of Pitsewo, 
disembarking 
part of their 

force there, though the bulk of it 

was landed further to the east, 

at Hwaiyuen. But there were many 

difficulties to be faced. The coast 

of Yentoa Bay is exceedingly 

shallow. At Pitsewo the beacTi is 
muddy, and the tide goes out several miles, so that the distance to be covered between the anchorage for 
large ships and the actual dry land is seven miles. At Hwaiyuen ships can lie only three miles out. For 
many days before the Japanese disembarkation, the smaller vessels of the Japanese Fleet had been busy 
all along the coast, reconnoitring closely every part of it from the Yalu to Kerr Bay, keeping the Russians 
busy, distracting their attention, and obtaining information as to the force available to repel landings and 
the state of the coast defences. Small Japanese parties had been put ashore, and these had verified the 
surveys on which the excellent Japanese maps were based. They found that only a few hundred Cossacks 
watched the coast east of Takushan, and that fortifications of serious value were conspicuous by their absence. 
At daylight of May 5 the transports, still convoyed by part of Admiral Togo's fleet, were "off Pitsewo. 
Tlie rest of the Japanese Fleet kept the most vigilant watch possible upon the Russian vessels in Port 




(Photo Bulla. 



A PHOTOGRAPHER UNDER FIRE. 
Common shell and shrapnel were bursting .ill around me." 




CAPTAIN OHADA, 



[Copyright by "Collici .-. \W^W.y,' 
WHO is IN CHARGE OF THE FOREIGN CORRESPONDENTS, PHOTOGRAPHED IN THE TRENCHES. 



4% 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 




RL'SslAN DtsPATCH-KIDKKS PASSING KACH OTHKK ()\ IHIJR WW I'O AMI IKOM 11 liAljyUARTKRS ON THE 

FEN(;HWAXGCHtNG iMILIfARY ROAD. 

Arthur, but these as yet gave not the faintest sign of activity, though loud explosions were heard from 
time to time in the harbour, which indicated that the Russians were already at work, attempting to clear 



1 .^^^^ 


'. *"' f ; 


n« 


F^f^^i 


\-_ ,.- ^-.^ 




LhM 




mm* v; 1 


i 


^^K^^V^ w^4^.^7 





JAPANf-'SE INFANTRY CROSSING A klVEK. 



[F. McKenzie photo. 



4% 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. . 



Mav 5, 1904. 




Laadln;, May 6- 



{Drawn from a sketch by Frederick Villiers. 
A JAPANESE TRANSPORT SEEKING SAFETY IN THE "CERTAIN PLACE" OF ADMIRAL TOGO'S DESPATCHES 

AMONG THE ELLIOT ISLANDS. 

away the obstructions in the harbour mouth. At 5.30 a.m. the 7th Division of the Japanese Fleet, 

composed of the small crui.sers and gunboats OSHI.MA, Akagi, Chokai, Maya and Ujl, with the 20th 

Torpedo Flotilla and the transports Nippon Maru and Hongkong Maru were in 

Yentoa Bay. Russian sentinels were seen far away on the heights overlooking the 

sea, but were speedily driven off by the fire of the small guns. Then instructions were given for the Naval 

Brigade, compo.sed of seamen, to land, under the orders of Captain Nomoto. Owing to the shallows, they 

had to wade breast deep for a thousand yards, and did not reach the shore till close on 7.30. With all 

possible speed they seized and entrenched the high ground, hoisting on it the Japanese flag. 

Meanwhile the Akagi, Oshi.ma, and Chokai made vigorous demonstrations to right and left of the 

ix>ints where the troops were to land, so as to divert the attention of the Russians. The Akagi found a 

party of 100 Cos.sacks, and shelled them heavily 

with her 4.7-in. guns, dispersing them in utter disorder. 

At 8.50 the main body of the 
March to i . ^ u ^ • 

Pulantien Japanese transports began to arrive, 

and started landing their men. A 

]3ier was built with amazing despatch, and pontoons 

laid out into the deep water, so that the men could march 

ashore without the long and difficult wade through the 

mud. By nightfall several thousand men were ashore, and 

General Oku was in a position to detach a flying column 

of a couple of thousand men to move on Pulantien and 

cut the railway between Port Arthur and Mukden. The 



KLIIOT Oftoup 




OLOMOC OROUP 



PLAN OF THE ELLIOT GROUP, SHOWING AU.MIRAL 
TOG9-S BA.SE. 



May 6, 1904 



MARCH TO PULANTIEN. 



499 




troops detailed for this 
enterprise were ordered to 
march for some distance 
along the coast before 
turning inlandto Pulantien, 
the object of this probably 
being to mislead the Rus- 
sians as to their intentions. 
They were to fall back and 
await reinforcements if 
they encountered the 
Russians in any strength. 
Hut as there were reports 
that General Kuroki was 



I'UNERAL OF RLiSlAN 

OFFICERS CONDUCTED BV 

JAPANESE. 

advancing rapidly from the 
Yalu on Liaoyang and 
Mukden, with an army the 
strength of which was 
persistently exaggerated, 
and uhich was believed by 
the Russians themselves 
to total 1 20,000, instead 
of 6o,000, the actual 
figure, it was not very 
probable that much re- 
sistance would be en- 
countered. 

On the morning of the 
6th, the Japanese reached 
the neighbourhood of Pu- 
lantien, and found 400 
Russian infantry of the 
Railway 

„ • . ' THE CHAM- 

Guards, with pagne crew : 

, LAVISH 

100 cavalry, Japanese 
holding an ,^^^^1^. 
eminence to n^-Nx^. 

A number of 
the south of '"'"S" correspon- 

dents and others 
4-Uis *-. 1 1 o c were t:iken to the 
me place. KIHot islands by the 
wrU'l 1 ■ Japanese (iovern- 

VV hi le Sk 1 r- mem, and they were 

entertained at 



mishinf^ was ^'""*--'' by the jap- 

" anese admiral. 

proc( 
and 



nrnref-flJncr " ^^ ^''^ entered the 
pi vji^^^v^i^iii^, dmmg-room, writes 

Mr. VilHers, " Jap- 



j-room, writes 

, Mr. VilHers, "Jap- 

t n e anese sailors weie 

drawn up with 

Japanese champagne - bottles 

•' •■ at the shoulder. At 

u/f^rf^ rur^'\A\\T ^ ^iven signal ihey 

were rapiaiy ^1^^ ;„, ^nd kept 

J . . the guests' glasses 

d r I V 1 n J^ well filled during 
the eveni'ig." 

back the 




500 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 6, 1904. 




^^-^mSSSSSSff^ 




FIlsKWO, ON THK LIAOTUNG PENINSULA, THE bCENE OF THE JAPANESE LANDING ON MAY 5. 

Russians, the noise of a train was heard coming from the south, and a few seconds later the train itself 
came into view. There was some excitement among the Japanese, as it was thought that Admiral 

Alexeieff himself might be on board it, though, as a matter of fact, the admiral, with 
from Port^/^lhur *^^ Grand Duke Boris, had hurriedly quitted Port Arthur the day before, foreseeing 

what must happen, and not at all liking the idea of being made a Japanese prisoner. 
As the train steamed up, the Russian Railway Guards signalled and shouted to the driver to stop, and told 
htm that the Japanese were already at Puiantien. That they spoke the truth was evident : even as the 
train slowed the crackle of rifle-firing could be heard, and a long line of Russian skirmishers was seen falling 
biack before the Japanese. The officer in command of the train, however — Colonel Ouranofif — decided to 




PITSKWO. ON THE LIAOTUNO l'i,MNbi;LA, WIIEKE lUE JAPANESE LANDED IHE AUMV WHICH CUT OFF 

PORT ARTHUR. 
Sixty traiuports landed xo,ooo troops in a ftw hours on M.iy 5. 



502 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 6, 1904. 




KINCHAf 1!A\, WITH TKAXbPOKTS. [I'hoio liolak. 

go forward, and to get through resorted to a most disloyal device. Two of the carriages in the train 
contained sick and wounded. On the strength of this he fixed the Red Cross flag to the train, though it 
had on board a number of combatants and a quantity of treasure from Port Arthur. He then instructed 
the engine-driver to proceed at full speed. 




JAPAXE.SE NAVAL BRIOAUE LANDING UNDER FIRK AT i'lT.SKWO 



May 6, 1904. 



ESCAPING FROM PORT ARTHUR. 



503 




The train raced along the track, and 
speedily was within range of the Japanese. 
I'hese, not seeing or understanding the 
Red Cross flag, at 

""Re^d'cross'' °"- ^P-^^^ fire, and 
the train passed 
through a pericct hail of bullets. The 
passengers flung themselves on the floor ; 
the Russian soldiers in this remarkable 
Red Cross train fired back at the Japanese 
through the windows. It was soon, how- 
ever, out of danger, with a loss of only 
three wounded among those on board. It 
will scarcely be credited that the Russians 
saw fit to charge the Japanese with a 
violation of the laws of war for firing or 



\ 



• 



THK MtCAPHU.XE IN USb 

BY A JAPANESE SIGN.'X.L- 

LING PARTY. 

This was used with much effect 

in landing on the Liaotung 

Peninsula. 

this train. The Japanese 
Government at once, and 
quite rightly, replied b_\ 
pointing out that there 
were combatants in it, 
and that the Red Cross 
flag had been grossl\- 
abused. But this was 
not the first or the last 
time that Russians mis- 
used the one emblem 
which is commonly held 
sacred by all civilised 
peoples. 

.When the train had 
passed, the Japanese 
forced their 

PLANTING THE 

way into Japanese v\.ac, 
ON THE liao- 
Pulantien tunc 

peninsula. 
with a lo.ss 






. ily^^.f' te-if*^ t^ ft 



tM.IU.X. *.v^f- 



4rt^.., C.**w* fitU •-% 



504 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 9, 1904. 




of only five killed and wounded, 

and took possession of the place. 

A bridge near it was destroyed, 

and four unin- 

engines were 
captured in the station. As they 
could not as yet be used, essential 
parts were removed from them, so 
as, at least, to prevent the Russians 
from carrying them off. On the 
following day a second Japanese 
detachment proceeded to Sanshilipu, 
a station on the railway between 
Pulantien and Port Arthur, and 
there once more cut the railway 
and broke the telegraphs. For the 
first time in the war the land 
communications behind Port Arthur 
were severed. At the same time 
reports reached the Russians that 
a large Japanese force was landing at Pulantien. The mythical thirty transports, supposed to be on their 
way to Newchwang, turned up at this place in the vague stories which reached the. Russian headquarters. 
The reports, however, were simply due to the appearance of the Japanese force at Pulantien, and to the fact 
that some of the smaller Japanese warships, which were supporting it and co-operating with it, had been 
sighted on the west coast of the Liaotung Peninsula. 

The Russians speedily recovered from their first panic. There were as yet no signs of a vigorous 
Japanese advance from Fenghwang, and it was observed that the Japanese force at Pulantien and Sanshilipu 
did not increase in strength. On the contrar_\% their detachments fell back a little distance after some 
hkirmishing with the Russians, 



Cufiprichl by '• Collier 'i Weekly" in U.S.A.] 

RUSSIAN HOSPITAL TRAIN PRESENTED BV THE 



!C. O. Bulla pl'oto. 
DOWAGER-EMPRESS. 



though they 

remained on 

thehigh ground 

railway. The 



Repairing: the 
Railway. 

overlooking the 
weather in the Gulf of Korea was 
exceedingly bad all the 6th, 7th, 
and 8th, and the disembarkation of 
the Japanese army was much im- 
|)eded by it, so that it was not easy 
for General Oku to push forward 
reinforcements to his detachments 
on the line, while his chief atten- 
tion centred upon getting into 
touch with General Kuroki. On 
the morning of the 9th the Russians 
made a successful attempt to reopen 
the railway. A train was despatched 
■south from Mukden with a large 
cargo of ammunition and searchlight 
machinery on board and with all 




Copyright by "Collier'f Weekly" in U.S.A.] ic. O. Bulla ph.;io. 

OPERATINGROO.M IN THE RUSSIAN HOSPITAL TRAIN. 



May 9, 1904. 



SCOUTING WITH AN ENGINE. 



505 






^'5"M!l^*'A?-' " ." ,'5 -^TT ^'''' ^j^^n'TB 




Scouting with an 
Engine. 



GENERAL KUROPATKIN'S HEADQUARTERS Al ll\(i\A\i,. 

tlie appliances needed to repair tiie breaks. These were not of a very formidable nature, as the Japanese 
had not done any great amount of damage, no doubt because they were mindful of the fact that the time 
was fast approaching when they would themselves need the help of the railway for their forward movement 
on Kaichau. 

The train from Mukden was in charge of Colonel Spiridonoff of the 4th Railway Battalion. His orders 
were, in case the Japanese appeared in overwhelming force, to blow up the train and to use every possible 

means to prevent its contents falling into the hands of the enemy. Simultaneously a 

train with two 

engines was des- 
patched from Port -Arthur, under 
Captain Odintzoff, with the object of 
examining the break in the line. The 
Port Arthur train ran rapidly north- 
wards, past Kinchau, where the isthmus 
narrows, and where frowning earth- 
works showed that the Russians were 
busily adding to the defences of the key 
of Port Arthur. General Fock, who 
was in command there, reported no 
signs of a Japanese advance. The 
train, advancing cautiously, now entered 
the danger zone, and reached Sanshiliini 
without misadventure. Here the 
railway-station was found intact, though 
there were evident signs of a recent hospit.\l tk.m.n returning to li.vovang with wounded kussian- 





506 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 9. 1904. 




CofiH^l by ••Collier'. Weekly" in i;.S.A.| IC. O. Bulla photo. 

THE WASHHOUSE IX THE RUSSIAN LAUNDRY TRAIN 



Japanese occupation, if only in the 
fact that Japanese cleanliness had 
replaced the barbaric dirt of a 
Manchurian railway-station under 
Russian management. Moreover, 
as the train entered the station 
three mounted men were seen riding- 
off into the hills. Chinamen stated 
that the Japanese were in full pos- 
session of the railway above San- 
shilipu, and that they were burning 
the stations beyond it. On this 
Odihtzoff ordered one of the engines 
to be detached, and, leaving the 
rest of the train and the troops 
behind, proceeded with it to scout 
cautiously up the line. He had 
been absent for three hours, when 
the party left behind saw smoke in 
the distance. At first this was 
thought to come from a burning 
station, as it did not appear to 
But then the smoke approached, and it was clear that it 



move, and Odintzoff was given up for lost. 
proceeded from an engine. 

Even now some alarm was felt, as there were reports that the Japanese had with them railway engines 

and trains to fit the Russian gauge. It was feared that the approaching train — for it could be seen that the 

engine had trucks behind it — was Japanese. Steaming towards it, however, the Russians 

Blowingr up found it stop|)ed on the further side of a long bridge which its occupants were cautiously 
inspecting, and field-glasses showed that those on board it wore Russian uniforms. It 
was Colonel Spiridonoff, who was 
moving south from Mukden, and 
had covered the gap, passing Captain 
Odintzoff. As for Colonel Spiri- 
donoff, he made the trip without 
any seriou.s adventure, seeing 
nothing of the Japanese except the 
burnt and ruined station of Pulan- 
tien and the gap in the line, that 
remained to tell of their handiwork. 
The hills above the line were ap- 
parently abandoned, though, as a 
matter of fact, the Japanese were 
there watching, without disclosing 
their presence. At Kinchau he 
handed over the train to General 
Fock, and as it steamed past Dalny 
the heavy thunder of explosions 
could be heard away towards that 
city. The Russians were blowing 

, , , , I U -1 r Copyright ty "Collier's Weekly" if. U.S.A.) IC. O. Bulla photo. 

up the dock.s, piers, and buildings Tm.; e.kterior of the Russian laundry or disinfecting train 




May 11, 1904. 



KUROPATKIN WAITS. 



507 




Mukden 



ORE A BAY 



^poFq- Arj^hub^ 



..[A'' 't '.rt^N 



BIKDSEYE VIEW OF THE LIAOTU.N'G PEXIN'SULA. 

in preparation for the coming of the Japanese. The railway remained open during the forenoon ot the 
1 0th, on which day the Russians got through more ammunition to Kinchau. On the nth, iiowever, 
the Japanese began to develop an advance in considerable force in the direction of VVafangtien, a station 

on the railway twenty-five miles to the north of Pulantien, where Russian detachments 
Wait were concentrating. They also forced back the Russian patrols scouting the direction 

of Pitsewo, exchanging fire with them, and inflicting upon them considerable loss. 
In short, it became clear that they were being steadily reinforced. At the same time General Kuroki 
threw forward one of his divisions from Fenghwangcheng, which occupied the countrj' to the north of 
Takushan, and endeavoured to make contact with General Oku. This aim was not, however, attained for 
some weeks, and in consequence the Russians were given a great opportunity, which they signally failed 
to use. Had 
General Kuropat- 
kin fallen with all 
his fo r ce on 
General Oku, he 
might well have 
gained a magnifi- 
cent victory, since 
be ought to have 
been able to attack 
before the entire 
Second Japanese 




JAI'.\NESE ARTILLERY 



PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AT FENGHWANGCHENG. 



506 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 12, 1904. 



Army had landed. But General Kuropatkin remained inactive, awaiting reinforcements, and giving out 
his intention of not taking the oflensivc until he had under him a force sufficient to drive the 
Japanese into the sea. This " infantile theory of strategy," as a French general not unfriendly to the 
Russians called it, lost the Russian army its one real chance of gaining a great victory. The landing of 
the Ja[>anese army proceeded with extreme speed all the second week in May, and at its close General 
Oku was in a position to take care of himself 

On the 1 2th the Japanese, after hovering for some days in the neighbourhood of Fulanticn, re-entered 
the station and once more broke the railway, this time finally. A train with non-combatants from Port 

Arthur, which was slowly moving northwards, was compelled to return. On the night 
Active. of the I2th the Russians were obliged to abandon Wafangtien, so that for a distance 

of 25 miles the line was in the hands of General Oku's men. Contemporaneous!}- with 
this advance the bands of Hunhuses throughout Manchuria began to show great activity, especially in the 
neighbourhood of Yentai, a station between Mukden and Liaoyang, thus adding enormously to the dangers 
and preoccupations of the Russians. There were reports that these bands w ere led by Japanese, which were 




WHEN RUSS MEETS JAP THEM COMES THE TUG OF WAR. 




GENERAL OKU. 

One of the heroes of the Battle of Liaoyang. He also distinguished himself in the Chino-Japar.ese War. Was a Major in the Imperial Forces during the Sa^uma 
Rebellion. .After being besieged four months in a castle, penetrated the enemy's lines of investment, and joined the Imperial Troops. An invincible soldier. 

No. XXII. c; 



510 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 13, 1904. 




not improbable, since the Japanese had a 
perfect right to make use of the hostiHty 
to the Russians of the population of 
Manchuria. At the same time, in all 
directions, attacks on the railway began, 
under the direction of officers of the 
Japanese General Staff, who, for this 
purpose, carried their lives in their hands. 
Two such officers had been caught by 
General Kuropatkin in April, and 
promptly executed. There wcs no doubt 
as to their mission, since they had upon 
them a large quantity of dynamite, fuses, 
and tools for breaking the line. They 
behaved with marvellous dignity and 
bravery, and met their death with a 
fortitude which wrung unwilling admiration 
even from their captors. Such unrelenting 
determination as moved them, indeed, 
could not but inspire uneasiness in the 
minds of the Russians. If all Japanese 
were like this, was a Russian victory in 
this war conceivable ? 

On the 13th the Russian scouts reported 
that the Japanese advance against the 
railway was developing steadil)', and that considerable forces were now near it. Their outposts were 
seen at Erlungshan, the mountain which rises east of Pulantien ; the searchlights of their warships lighted 
up Pulantien. Their infantry were steadily taking up positions along the high 
ground between Pulantien and Pitsewo, where the Liaotung Peninsula narrows to 
twenty-two miles. These positions were immediately entrenched and secured. The 
Jajianese line ran along the valley of 
Tashaho to Erlung, preventing any move- 
ment in force, whether from the north or 
south. Yentoa Bay, which lies well under 
the shelter of Terminal Point, was now 
made the base of supplies, and here the 
transports found a good anchorage. Ter- 
minal Point rises sharply above the sea 
with cliffs 600 feet high, so that from its 
summit the Japanese could easily watch 
any movement of the Ru.ssian torpedo 
flotilla along the coast. Their fleet of 
warships had its base close at hand in the 
Elliot Isles, connected- both by wireless in- 
struments and submarine cable with Japan. 
General Oku's headquarters were linked up 
with this .system, which was also connected 
with General Kuroki's headquarters at 

_ s JAI'.Y.M .-1. .^PY. 

renghwang, SO that perfect concert between „l-,^,,. ■ u c ■ , n . ■ i. x. , .■ ■ 

•* ^' "^ On the right of tlie picture, in the front, is a Japanese Captain who has made many trips in 

thf TartsnoGO armi^c anH fl»»»>t ii'ac acciii-fx^ h" Chinew disguise to Mukden and other places in Russian occupation. 

Uie Japanese armies ana neel was assured. Japanese officers, except the Chinese interpreter on the right. 



THE HEAD CHIEF OF THE HUNHUSES. 

The orntnl figure is the chief named Chin, said to he in Japanese employ. Is a well-known 

terror throughout ManchurLi. The Japanese on the right is an intelligence ofKcer, who 

worked at Newchang during the Russian occupation as a shoemaker. 



At Terminal 
Point 




The Others arc ' 



May 16, 1904. 



AT MOUNT SAMPSON. 



511 




Japanese at 
Mount Sampson. 



[Copyright " Collier's Weekly." 

HOW RUSSIANS DEAL WITH THE 

HUNHUSES WHO DESTROY THE 

RAILWAY. 

An execution at Mukden. 



Though the railway was once 
more broken, the Japanese had 
not as yet pushed their advance 
right up to 
the sea on the 
west of the 
Liaotung Peninsula, and the 
Russians were able to maintain 
touch with Port Arthur, by means 
of despatch riders and light carts, 
by way of I'uchau, for some two 
or three days longer, till on the 
i6th the gap was closed, when, 
after a brisk fight with four 
Russian battalions, supported by 
eight guns, the Japanese suc- 
ceeded in making themselves 
masters of the ridge of Mount 
Sampson, the height which rises 
to the east of Kinchau. 




[Copyright. 1904, by " Collier's Weekly." 
RECAPTURED BUSSIAN PRISONERS BOUND TO A TELEGRAPH POLE. 



512 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 5, 1904. 




THE CZAR'S ON I 1 



HlvV 1 III 



LIFE GUARDS. 



iiiii rREoL;KA,.i_,i;L.\..iv\ klgi.mlm' of 




J.\ EAST MONGOLIA. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

BLACK DAYS FOR 

JAPAN— THE 

JAPANESE NAVAL 

DISASTERS. 

WHILE the Jap- 
anese Second 
Army was land- 
ing at Pitsewo, the 
armoured cruisers kept 
the closest possible watch 
over the remnant of the 
Russian Fleet in Port 
Arthur, and even made 
demonstrations against the 
fortress. The spirits of 
the Russians within the 
town had 
sunk to a 
very low ebb, and after 
the hurried flight of Ad- 
miral Ale.\eieff on May s, 
in obedience to a uka.se 
of the Czar, which directed 
him to turn over the naval 
command to Admiral 
Witgeft, General Stoessel 
issued a general order to 
his men : 

"On April 30 and May i 
the enemy crossed the 
Yalu in great force, and 
our troops fell back on 
positions which had been 
previously selected. Yes- 
terday the enemy effected 



In Port Arthur. 



May 5, 1904. 



STOESSEL'S ORDER. 



513 













1 


^Kl' S^Bb 


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an important 
landing on the 
Liaotung Penin- 
sula, south of 
Pitsewo, and in 
the vicinity of 
Kinchau Bay. 
Now our work 
is beginning. 
Naturally, the 
enemy will de- 
stroy railway 
communication, 
and endeavour to 
drive our troops 



JAPANKSK ARMY FENCING 
SCHOOL. 



back to Port Arthur, and 

besiege this fortress — 

Russia's bulwark in the 

Far East Defend it until 

the arrival 
Stoessel's r., . 
Order. of the troops 

which are 
coming to relieve us ! I 
consider it my duty to call 
upon you to display un- 
ceasing vigilance and 
caution. You must be 
ready at all times to 
demean yourselves towards 
your general with the 
dignity and order beseem- 
ing the glorious troops 
of Russia. No matter 
what happens, you must 
not lose your heads, but 
remember that everything 
is po.ssible in war, and 
that we shall be able, with 
the help of God, to cope 
with the arduous task 
imposed upon us." 

At the same time the 
general delivered a spirited 
address to the troops, to 
which we read that " the 
men replied with cheers." 
The actual strength of the 




JAPANESE SOLDIERS SURPRISED BY THE RUSSIA.N.-^ WHILE BATHING. 



314 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 12, 1904. 



garrison is believed to have been 30.000 troops, while in addition there were some 10,000 seamen belonging 
to the fleet, making a grand total of 40,000 men a\ailable for the defence of the fortress. 

A day or two later the Japanese battle-fleet, which had temporarily disappeared, as we now know, to 

co\-cr the landing at Pitsewo, was again cruising off" the port. Every morning it steamed up from the Elliot 

Isles, and every evening retired. During the night the duty of watching the port was 

Clearioff Kerr Bay ija^de^j over to the fast Japanese cruisers and torpedo-boats, supported by a certain 

number of armoured cruisers, as Admiral Togo did not care to face the ri.sk of a 

Russian torpedo attack on his battleships. On May 12 one of the divisions of the fleet, under Rear- Admiral 

Kotaoka. >vas ordered to clear Kerr Ba)-, which lies a little distance from Dalny Bay, and is a secure 




"THE SOLDIER PAYS." 
So writes Mr. F. McKenzic in .ending us this gruesome photograph of a dead Russian soldier stricken on the field of battle. 

anchorage in most states of the weather, the object of the Japanese evidently being to use it as their base in 
their operations against Kinchau. Accordingly, the armoured cruiser NISSHIN, with the old-type protected 
cruiser ITSUKUSHIMA, the despatch-boat MiKAYO, and several torpedo-boats were sent thither. The whole 
bay was known to be full of mines, so that operations would be difficult and dangerous ; the water would 
have to be carefully swept under the enemy's fire, as the Russians had constructed a work of some strength, 
mounting field-guns on the heights of Takushan, overlooking the entrance to the bay. 

The work of clearing an area of water of mines is accomplished in several ways. The quickest is to 
lay a fresh line of mines across the enemy's mine-field and explode them, when they destroy the field and 

clear the water. Much in this work depends upon the coolness of the operators. The 
Cleared. ^'"^ ^'^ mines is hurriedly placed in position by boats of such small size as to pass safely 

over the hostile mines — which, if of the contact type, are set for larger ve.ssels — and then 
exploded, clearing a definite .section. The process is repeated till a channel has been opened. A second 
plan, where observation mines are laid, is to steal close inshore, and then to drag m'th an explosive-grapnel 
for the enemy's cable connecting the mines with the shore. The grapnel is exploded as soon as the 



516 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 12, 1904. 



cable is hooked, when it destroys the cable. 
Yet a third plan, the simplest of all, is to 
drag or sweep for mines, heavy charges 
being attached to the drag, which are 
exploded when any obstruction is en- 
countered. It is usual when carrying out 
such an operation to watch the surface at 
low water for indications of mines, and to 
destroy any that appear by firing at them 
with small guns. 

The three large Japanese ships opened a 
sharp fire on the Russian work, occupying 




A RUSSIAN RESERVIST LEAVING HIS VILLAGE FOR THE FRONT. 
" For our God— for our Little Father— for our Soil ! " 



THE JAPANESE FIELD 

TELEGRAPH AT WORK ON 

THE BATTLEFIELD. 



its attention, as far 

as possible, while the 

torpedo-boats ran into the 

bay and began sweeping 

the water. The electric 

cable to the mine-field was 

discovered 
Torpedo-Boat i ^ . 

Blown Up. "y ^ ^ 
J apanese, 

and a party of one officer 

and four men landed and 

cut it, under fire. Then 

the hunt for mines of the 

mechanical type, which 

e.xplode on mere contact 

with an enemy, began. A 

large number of them had 

been laid in the bay. 

Three were discovered and 

safely destroyed by the 

torpedo-boats, when Nos. 

46 and 48 discovered a 

fourth. They fired at it 

for some seconds without 

effect ; then, apparently, 

No. 48 approached to 

secure it. Just as she 



518 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM, 



May 13, 1904. 




A I'HOTOGKAl'HKK UK VKI.Ol'l NT. HIS PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE KIELD 
UNDER BIKKICULTIES. 



I^t to it, it expK>de<i \x ith terrific violence^ 

blowing her in two, killing one oflFicer and 

six of her men, and wounding seven more. 

She sank instanti)-, and was a total loss. 

This was the first vessel which the Japanese 

had lost in the war, but, unfortunate!) . 

it was not to be tiie last. No. 48 was a 

nearly new boat, launched in 1900, and 

displacing 1 10 tons. She .steamed 26 

kiH)ts. and was manned by 23 officers 

and men, of whom onl)- nine escaped 

unhurt. She carried two torpedo-tubes. 
While the torpedo-boats were at work, 

the MiYAKO entered Deep Bay and shelled 

a company of Russian infantry and a 

detachment of caxalry, who were seen. 

She discovered and bombarded a 

Russian work to the north-west of Cape Robin.son, driving back 2,000 men who occupied it. 

On the 13th and 14th, undeterred b)- their loss, the Japanese continued their sweeping operations 

in the bay, while their larger ships, 

keeping well outside the mine-zone, 

bombarded the Russian work, which 

had now been furthei 

Loss of the strengthened, and in 

"Miyako." , . , , , 

which more guns had 

been mounted. Five mines were 

destroyed on the 14th, and it seems 

to have been supposed that the 

channel into Kerr Bay was clear. 

With less than their usual caution 

the Japanese sent the MlVAKO in 

to examine the bay and to test 

its safety. She was not of any 

great fighting value, though she 

was a good and useful little ship, 

and it would have been wiser to 

have employed one of the older 

vessels on such a dangerous mission. 

She entered the bay, whereupon 

there was a violent explosion, as 

the result of which she was seen to 

be sinking. The loss of life was 

but small ; only six of her crew 

were wounded, though two had 

been killed by the Russian fire 

during the action with the battery 

on Takushan Headland. She 

became a total loss, but as she does 

not lie in deep water, it may be 

possible to raise her. She was a - 




HITINC; 



l'.ATTI.F,SnU"S RAM. 



fCribfi photo. 



May 14, 1904. 



LOSS OF THE " MIYAKO." 



519 



vessel of i,8oo tons, launched in 
Japan in 1899, and had steamed 20 
knots. She carried two 4.7-in. guns 
and ten 3-pounders, while her crew 
numbered 200. 

The glare of the explosion and the 
roar of the report were seen and 
heard at Dalny, some miles distant, 
so it would seem that the MlVAKij 
was not destroyed by an ordinary 
mine. There were, indeed, Russian 
reports that she had been sunl< by a 
mine laid by a midshipman, who had 
stolen out of Fort Arthur on the 
previous night in a small launch and 
placed the deadly engine in the 
channel which the torpedo-boats 
had cleared. It is impossible to say 
whether or not this story is true, but 
there are circumstances connected 
with her loss which render it at least 
plausible. The event had disastrous 
results for the Japanese, as it put 
fresh heart into the Russians at Port 
Arthur, and led them to attempt 
a similar enterprise against the main 
Japanese Fleet. 

It has been said that each morning- 
the Japanese fleet of battleships 
approached Port Arthur from the 
Elliot Islands, returning each night. 



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1 



A NEAR VIEW OF THE "BRITANNIA'S" GREAT RAM. 
Note the size in relation to that of a man. 



(Cribb photo. 




[Copyright by "Collier's Weekly' 
THE JAPANESE SUM.MER CAP AND NECK-PROTECTOR. 



in U.S.A. 



The Japanese kept well out 
to sea, in open waters, no 
doubt relying upon the fact 
that it is not a lawful strata- 
gem to place 
iSftyr -ines adrift on 
the high seas, 
where they may sink and kill 
innocent non-combatants, and 
believing that the Russians 
would conduct the war in a 
civilised fashion. Their con- 
fidence was, however, very 
much misplaced, and it was 
a fatal mistake to go and 
come always by the same 
course. The Russians had 
noted carefully the course. 



520 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15. 1904. 




and b\- the night of the 14- 15th 
had sufficient!)' cleared the channel 
at Port Arthur to allow of the 
egress of small ships. The mine- 
ship Amur was set to work to clear 
a way out to sea through the 
Japanese lines of mines laid inside 
territorial waters, close to Port 
Arthur, and in this was assisted 
by a number of Russian destroyers, 
of which two, whose names are 
unknown, were sunk in the process. 
With complete disregard for neu- 
trals, a large number of drifting 
mines were towed out of the 



KU^Si.\N SUUMAKINK 
MINES RECOVKKICII 
BY THE JAPANESE. 

harbour and set 
adrift by the 
Russians in waters 
which were used 
as a highway of 
traffic by the ships 
of all nations. 

Early in the 
morning of the 
15th, under cover 
of a dense but 
patchy fog which 
hung over the 
waters of the 





•lL's.-.I.\. ..vkl.l' LI' H,OATlN(; OFF PORT ARTHUR \i\ iHK HRITISH 

SHrP ■WKNCHOW.- IT WAS SLUNG OVER THE STERN AND CARRIED TO 
NEWCHANC;, WHERE IT WAS GIVEN OVER TO THE JAPANESE. 



JAPANESE BOAT WITH RECOVERED 
RUSSIAN MINE. 

Yellow Sea, the Amur pushed 
out into the open water, some ten 
miles from the shore, through 

which the 

The " Amur" , , „ „ 

Places Mines. Japanese 

bat 1 1 eships 

daily steered, and laid a large 

number of drifting mines. With 

her were the gunboat Bobr and a 

half-dozen Russian destroyers. 

Chinese junks were also employed 

under the Chinese flag to carr^- 

mines yet further out and turn 

ihem adrift. Thus the wide 

waters of that sea \\ere strewn 

with engines of death. It helped 

and furthered the Ru.s.sian plans 



I 




522 



lAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 




May 15, 1904. 

that during that 
same morning a 
dreadful catastro- 
phe had befallen 
the Japanese Fleet, 
so that for some 
hours the port was 
unwatched. 

The fast pro- 
tected cruiser 
YOSHINO was one 
of the vessels 
selected to support 
the Japanese de- 
stroyers and watch 
Port Arthur, under 



KXAMININli THK 
•WKNCHOW" MINE 

ON A 
JAPAN'ESR GUNBOAT. 

Admiral Dewa. 
With him were the 
other fast, light 
cruisers Tara- 
SAGO, CHITOSK. 
and Kasagi, and 

The"Yoshino ' 
Rammed. 

the new armoured- 
cruiser Kasuga. 
He was steaming 
westwards from 





MOKI-. kU'SSIAN MINKS. 



KKCOVKKKU 
RUSSIAN MINES. 

Port Arthur, just 
after dawn, when 
suddenly his 
squadron entered 
a patch of dense 
fog. A mine ap- 
pears to have been 
sighted by the 
YoSHiNO, just 
ahead, floating in 
tlie water, where- 
upon she stopped. 
The fog was so 
thick that it was 
impossible to .see 



May 15, 1904. 



THE "YOSHINO'" RAMMED. 



523 




(CopjTight by " Collier's Weekly " in U.S.A. 
WOUNDKD RUSSIANS BEING BROUGHT INTO THP; DRESSING ST.\TION I\ 

A TEMPLE. 
A Japanese doctor is giving directions to the bearers. 

extreme gallantry. A 
collision-mat was at once 
got over the gaping 
wound in 



from one ship to another in the 
line-ahead formation, though fog- 
buoys were towed astern, so as to 
enable the ships to keep together. 
But as the Yo.sn I \(J stopped, a 
huge form loomed up out of the fog 
astern, on her port quarter. It was 
the armoured cruiser KasU(;a. There 
was no time to avert a collision, and 
the ram of the Kasuga crashed into 
the protected-crui.ser, tearing open 
her side and admitting a flood of 
water to her dynamo-room. The 
lights instantly went out, and the 
YOSHINO began to heel heavily over 
to the starboard side. 

Her officers and crew displayed 



The 
"Yoshino's 
Heroic 
Captain 



the side, 
but it ut- 
terly failed 
to stop the inrush. The 
vessel slowlv and steadily 
settled in the water, and, 
to add to the peril of 
her crew, the Kasuga, 
her next astern, and the 
Chitose, her next ahead, 
had vanished in the fog 
completely. Their power- 
ful searchlights failed to 
penetrate it. It became 
clear that the ship must 
be abandoned, and Cap- 
tain Sayegi ordered the 
crew to the upper-deck. 
The boats were manned 
and lowered, five on the 
.starboard side and one to 
port, as the tilt wa'S so 
great that the other boats 
on the port side could 
not be got into the water. 
The crew were directed 
to take their places on 
board them, and did so 




CHECKMATE. 



cture shows an actual inci 



looking too far ahead. The Japanese quickly 



ident. The Japanese soldier crept up without being seen by his opponent 
apanese quickly inserted his gun in a gap under the rock and fired on his o 



who was 
opponent. 



524 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15, 1904. 




CHINESK LUUKING AX RUSSIAN PKlSONEKi.. 



[i''rom a sketch by Frederic \\ li!titij;. 



with perfect quiet and order. All this time, as the vessel sank lower and lower, the captain and the 
YosHlxo's commander, Hirowateri, stood calmly on the bridge, giving orders in a firm and clear tone, 




A VIKU) l'()ST-(JIHCl:. 
The flag indicates the arrival of a " home " mail. 



I From a sketch by W. D. Straight. 



526 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15, 1904. 




JAi'ANEsK lUVKR GOI.NG JJOWN IN THE VOKUSAKA UOCK.VAKI). 

tremendous lurch to starboard and capsized. As she turned right over her masts 
the flotilla of boats alongside and shattered five of them completely. 



and setting a mag- 
nificent example 
by their courage 
and coolness. Both 
refused to take 
their place in the 
boats, and they 
were seen to shake 
hands in a last 
farewell. As the 
boats were just 
preparing to row 
away from the 
YOSHINO, Captain 
Sayegi waved his 
hand to them with 
the shout of 
"Banzai Nippon!" 
These were his last 
words. At that 
instant the Yo- 
SHINO gave a 
and funnels caught 




WOUM^tD RUSSIANS CAPl'UiUiU BY JAPANESE. 



iCwpyriijut, iyo4, by " Collier's Weekly." 



May 15, 1904. 



THE "YOSHINO." 



527 




Loss of Life. 



CAPTAIN SAYEGI OF THE 
" YOSHINO." 

Who went down with the ship. 



Seeing disa.ster imminent, Lieutenant Naito, who had up to the actual 
moment of the overturning of the ship kept his place on deci<, cHmbed 
out on the port side, leaped overboard, and swam to the sole remaining 
boat, the cutter on the port side, which rowed through 
the darkness and fog to the point where the KasUGA 
was thought to be. He found her, and returned with three of her boats ; 
the greater part of her crew were busy at work getting out collision-mats 
to cover the injuries which her collision with the YoSHINO had caused her. 
These boats picked up many of the men swimming in the water, amongst 
them one man who had borne from the YOSHINO'S ward-room the sacred 
picture of the Emperor, by Captain Sayegi's special order. Six men were 
rescued by the ChiTOSE, but the rest of the crew went down with the ship, 
and the Navy of Japan lost on that sad morning the services of Captain 
Sayegi, Commander Hirowatari, eight lieutenants, five midshipmen, seven 
engineers, a surgeon, a paymaster, eight warrant-officers, and 203 men. 

The YoSHiNO was a ship which had done magnificent service, though at 
the date of her loss she was growing old, and was nearly worn out in her 
boilers. Launched in 1892 at Elswick, she was in her day the finest 
protected cruiser of moderate size in the world. She steamed nearly 24 knots, and carried a powerful quick- 
firing battery, four 6-in. and eight 4.7-in. guns. At the Yalu she played a very 
His^ry of the brilliant part, serving as Admiral Tsuboi's flagship, and leading the Flying Squadron. 
Her full crew numbered 300 in peace-time, but is believed to have been somewhat 
strengthened during the war, so that only 
about 100 of tho.se on board her escaped. Yet, 
as in the similar catastrophe which befell the 
British battleship Victoria, sunk in 1893 by a 
touch of the Camperdown' s ram, the behaviour 

of her officers and men in this hour of death ^^^^^^^^KT - -W \ 

and dismay converted disaster into triumph. 
Of her, as of the Victoria, it may be said that 
" the order and discipline maintained was in 
the highest degree honourable to all concerned, 
and will ever remain a noble example to the 
Service." 

What damage the Kasuga sustained in this 
collision was very judiciously concealed by 
the Japanese authorities. As ske was armour- 
plated forward, right up to 
Damage to the ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ had collided 
K.asug'a. 

with a much smaller and 

quite unarmoured ship, the injury was probably 

not of a very serious nature. But she had to 

be sent back to the naval base of Sasebo for 

repairs, and for some days did not figure on 

the Japanese fighting list. Thus in a few 

minutes the Japanese had lost entirely one 

of the best protected cruisers, and temporarily 

the services of one of their best armoured 

cruisers. It was a cruel blow, yet one which ^^^^^^^ stoessel. 

any navy that takes the offensive must be in cominand at Port Arthur. 




526 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 




May 15. 1904. 

prepared to meet, 
since the dangers 
and vicissitudes of 
war-navigation are 
always great, and 
it was nothing less 
than miraculous— 
proof of the 
highestprofessional 
capacity — that for 
three months the 
Japanese should 
have manoeuvred, 
fought, and block- 
aded without losing 
a single efficient 
unit. 

Disasters seldom 
come singly. All 

JAI'ANK.-K .soLUlEkS WITH SEARCHLIGHT APPARATUS. thrOUgh this 

gloomy day Fortune went against Japan— Fortune which ought to favour the bold and faithful, but which 

not unseldom smiles upon the faithless and incompetent. Using her opportunity, the Amur had been at 

work, laying her mines on the open sea, while the Japanese cruisers were gathered 

To Cut the ^^ J ^^ sinking YOSHINO, and now, as for a few brief moments the sky cleared and 

Railway. " , , . r t^ i t .. 

the fog vanished, she stole back from her work to the security of Dalny. Just as 

she withdrew, a Japane.se division of three battleships, the Hatsuse, Shikishima, and Yashima, with 
the cruisers Takasago and Kasagi, and the torpedo-gunboat TAT.SUTA, put out from the Elliot Isles, 
under the com- 
mand of Rcar- 
Admiral Nas- 
hiba, whose flag 
was hoisted on 
board the Hat- 
SUSE. Their 
mission was to 
keep at a safe 
distance from 
Port Arthur, 
and to hold the 
channel be- 
tween that 
place and the 
M iaotau Is- 
lands, while a 
flotilla of gun- 
boats and 
smaller ves.sels, 
under Rear- 
Admiral Togo 
M asamic h i, 




LSlereo copyrij^ht Underwood and Underwood, London and N.V. 
SOME JAPANESE VETERANS— THE 2ND HUSSARS, WHO TOOK PART IN THE CHINO-JAPANESE WAR. 



530 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15, 1904. 



passed into the Gulf of Pechili, in order to deliver an attack in the neighbourhood of Kinchau and to cut 

the railway behind the Russian Army operating to the south of that place. The MiKASA, Fuji, and ASAHI 

did not take part in this operation, but remained at the base, probably because they were coaling. 

Of what followed we learn from two different sources — from the Russians, who were watching for the 

success of their lawless device, and from the Japanese, who had excellent reasons for not permitting the 

whole truth to be known. The Russian observers marked the fleet draw near to the 

•MHiSsuse. mine-strewn stretch of water. Nine miles to the south of the Laotishan promontory, 

they suddenly observed a cloud of spray and smoke rising from under the bows of the 

third battleship, which was the Yashima. She stopped dead, heeled over sharply to starboard, clouds of 

steam rose from her, and her bow descended in the water till it was nearly flush with the sea-surface. Two 

cruisers instantly advanced to her assistance and lowered boats. Then she gradually righted herself, and 

appeared to recover her normal trim. The H.\TSUSE moved slowly towards her, when a second mine 

exploded right under the H.\T.siiSE'.s stern, damaging her steering-gear, and sinking her. 

What was left of the 

J a p a n e s,e fleet now 

scattered. The big ships 

were seen by the Russians 

to draw away from the 

,„. mine - field ; 

The ' 

" Yashima's "the J a p - 
Fate. anese de- 
stroyers gathered round 
the sinking HatsUSE, 
and strove to rescue the 
men on board ; while the 
Japanese cruisers covered 
them from an attack which 
was immediately delivered 
by the Russian torpedo 
craft in Port Arthur. 
The attack was beaten 
off, and then, according 
to the Russians, the 
damaged Yashima was 
seen proceeding eastwards, 
very slowly, with a heavy 
list, escorted by thecruisers, 
and in this condition passed 
out of sight. But Chinese 
junks which sighted the 
Japanese ships brought to 
Port Arthur the story 
that they had seen her 
founder some twenty miles 
from the port. 

Such is the Russian 

account, which, it will be 

observed, represents that 

OM THE KVK.M.NCi OF BATTLE: HUMAN i^iki.s OF 1-KEY. ^wo Japanese battleships 

Th« boRon rf lb* bouleficM .rr ituentified bv the Chinese bandits who rob the dying and dead. were SUnk or put OUt of 




May 15, 1904. 



THE "HATSUSE" DISASTER. 



531 



Admiral Togo's 
Account. 



action. It was even alleged that one of the Japanese armoured cruisers of the Asama class had also 

been disabled. The Japanese version of the disaster differs entirely. The 

following is the account given by the survivors of the HatsUSE, and by 

Admiral Togo's official despatches : 

The squadron was taking up its position to the south of Port Arthur, at a distance of ten miles from the 

harbour mouth, when the mishap occurred. The day was clear but windy ; the sea was rough, and a strong 

current ran in the channel between Port Arthur and the Miaotau Islands. So rough was the weather that 




A JAPANESE PATROL CHASED BY A RUSSIAN RECONNOITRING FARIY. 



532 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15, 1904. 




the ships experienced some 
trouble in taking up their 
prescribed formation, and 
it was while manceuvring 
to do so that those on 
board the Hatsuse sud- 
denly experienced a violent 
shock. The officers and 
crew were on the alert, as 
they were in close prox- 
imity to the Russians, and 

the shock found them at 

i 
their posts and with every 

watertight door closed. 
Nothing was to be seen 
on the surface of the water; 
there was no sign of any 
torpedo-boat or submarine; 
and it was practically cer- 
tain from the first that the 
ship had struck a me- 
chanical mine on her port 
quarter. 

The shock was variously 
felt in different parts of 
the ship. Those in the 
officers' cabins on the 
middle deck only noticed 
a slight roll, but the men 
below, in the engine and 
boiler rooms, were thrown 
up in the air towards the 
deck above their heads. 



FAKKSVELL TO RUSSIAN SOLDIERS AT 

THE .MOSCOW RAILWAY STATION, 

ST. PETERSBURG. 

Mr. Garruit, the artist, writes : *' Several trains leave 
Sc P«er>ljure daily for Moscow, from which the troops 
Start for the Par Ea%t. On one vUit I saw (and tlie 
•pcctadc was t>'pical) small groups of officers and others 
of the different Ruv.ian services entraininjj. .4n old 
father, bidding his v>n Kood.bye, made the sign of the 
(.turn oo the young solilier's face before kissing him. 1 
taw an oAccr and a woman (possibly his !>i-stcr or his 
sweetheart or wife) in one long heart-breaking embrace. 
Soch scenes are enacted to the horrible pealing of a 
bell, which is rung in all Russian stations three times as 
the train starts. Perhaps the most wretched sight of 
all ns to note, after the train had left, poor old people 
walking slowly out, the picture of misery. 



Commander Arimori at once took 

charge of the hands on the middle 

and lower deck, and made every 

preparation to 

The Shock on the » »i, • u 

"Hatsuse." ^*°P ^he inrush 

of water which 
had filled the tiller-room, and which 
was now leaking from it into the 



CLOSING A GRAVE OVER A DEAD RUSSIAN. [Copyright by " Collier's Weekly" in U.S.A. 
He was found by one of tlie searcliing and burial parties. 



May 15, 1904. 



THE "HATSUSE" IN TOW. 



533 




other compartments. Captain Nakao, who was 
on the bridge when the explosion occurred, in- 
quired by telephone as to the damage sustained, 
and received the report that the engine-rooms were 
intact. The port engine, however, would no longer 
revolve, and the steering engine would not work. 
This news was at once communicated to Admiral 
Nashiba, who was in command of the squadron. 
He instantly signalled to the Kasagi and Tatsuta 
to close on the Hatsuse and take her in tow. 

Before they could near her, her starboard engine 
was set to work, and she began to move slowly 



BRINGING BODIES ASHORE 
FROM THE "PETROPAVLOVSK.' 



through the water. Owing 
to the strong current, how- 
ever, and the fact that 
her rudder seemed to 



The 

"Hatsuse" 

in Tow. 



have been 
jammed,she 
was quite 
unable to steer, and was 
unmanageable. Her engine 
was therefore stopped, and 
she lay-to with her bows 
pointing due east, drifting 
slowly westwards before 
the strong south-easterly 
wind that blew, and wait- 
ing for the approach of 
the two cruisers. She had 
a heavy list to port, and to 
lighten her and bring her 
trim even her torpedo- 
launch, which she carried 
on her port side, steam- 
pinnace, and two other 
steam-launches were 
lowered. This measure 
righted her, while the boats 
were ready in the water 
in case of 
anything 
happening 
to the ship. 
The boats 
had just been lowered 
when the Kasagi steamed 
up and passed a hawser 

No. XXIII. 



THE LOSS OF 

THE JAPANESE 

BATTLESHIP 

"HATSUSE." 

She struck two 

mines, the second 

of which exploded 

her magazine. 




534 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15. 1904. 




JAPANESE BATTLESHIP " HATSUSE," DESTROYED BY RUSSIAN MINES 
Built and photographed by Sir W, G. Armstrong and Whitwortb. 

on board the battleship. As the Hatsuse was taken in tow, Commander Arimori, who had been 
continuously at work below repairing the injury, came on deck to report to the captain that the damage was 

not serious, and could easily be repaired. Having made his report, he 
hurried once more below, and just at this moment the Kas.\GI'S engines 
began to move ahead, and the H.\TSUSE was dragged slowly through the 
water. 

As she began to forge ahead, a second and far more violent explosion 

was heard. The ship had struck a second mine, and this time the mine 

had exploded right under the magazines at the foot of the mainmast. The 

terrible phenomena which had attended the loss of the 

Petropavlnvsk were repeated in every detail. Flames 

shot from the funnels and from every aperture in the 

sides and deck ; pieces of wood and splinters of steel flew upwards ; 

there was a fearful and deafening crash ; and in an instant the wreck of 

the once splendid battleship was shrouded in a cloud of inky smoke 

which poured up from the port side. The dense blackness obscured from 

the eyes of witnesses the tragical events that were passing on board ; the 

crew of the Kasagi saw nothing but this pillar of smoke ascending, and 

AIiMIKAl, NA>llir.A. . 

Saved from the " HaLsuse " heard uothing but a terrific crash, followed bv a series of lesser explosions. 




The Second 
Explosion. 




JAPANESE GUNROAT " TATSUTA." 
Built and photographed by Sir W, i\ Armstrong and Whitworth. 




THE SINKING OF THE " HATSUSE." 



536 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15, 1904. 




JAPANESE PRISONERS OF WAR ARRIVING AT MOSCOW. 

Of the HatSUSE'S crew by far the greater part were below when the explosion came ; most of them were 
working at the pumps or busy near the damaged compartments, making preparations to place a patch over 
the hole in the side. All the machinery of communication in the ship was destroyed, and the officers on 
the bridge who were left alive had no means of warning the men below or calling them on deck to take to 
the boats — a measure necessary, since the ship was now lost beyond any possibility of hope. 

Blinded by the smoke, the navigating-officer on the bridge, at Captain Nakao's orders, hurried amid- 




JAPANESE PRISONERS MARCHING UNDER GUARD THROUGH MOSCOW. 



538 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15. 1904. 




ships and gave orders 

for the boats to be 

lowered. Already the 

vessel seemed to be 

b r e a k - 
Breaking into ■ ■ 
Halves. ^ 

h a 1 \- e s ; 

the forward bridge was 
rapidly assuming a 
vertical position, and 
the bows of the battle- 
ship stood straight up 
in the air. The ram 
could be plainly seen as 
it rose dripping from 
the surface of the sea. 
^^^^^____^______ The officer saw a sea- 

KUSsiAN MINES RAISED BY TiiK jAPANEsK. j^^i^ standiii" in a 

posture as though he were about to leap for his life, and with a shout warned him not to risk himself in 

the swirl of water that seethed about the wreck ; but, almost before the warning had been given, the vessel 

lurched, hurling all on deck into the sea, 

and at 12.31 p.m., eighty seconds after 

the second explosion, the Hatsuse went 

to the bottom. 

The boats from the K.'VSAGI and the 

Tatsuta were swiftly upon the scene 

of disaster, and the men in them strove 

their hardest to rescue 

'gJs^dJwT' the survivors of the 

HatsUSE'S crew 

swimming in the water. The violent 

explosion had brought on a heavy down- 
pour of rain. Beneath a leaden sky, with kussian .mim.. h^hei, li- in nkwchwang 

a furious sea running, as the wind rose Japanese. 

higher and higher, the rescuers set 
to their perilous work. Admiral 
Nashiba was one of the first to be 
dragged out of the water ; he had 
been flung from the bridge when the 
Hatsuse went down, but First-class 
Signalman Kyona managed to throw 
him a lifebelt at the last moment. 
He was picked up by the Tatsuta, 
and instantly hoisted his flag on 
board her, and from her directed the 
work of rescue. For some minutes 
the Tatsuta was herself in great 
danger. One of her officers, indeed, 
warned the captain that she would be 

A RECOVERED RUSSIAN MINE. 
Thi, nine drifted as far as Ticni.in, where it was picked up by ihe monks of Paitaiho. damaged and WOUld need assistance 






AN HEROIC JAPANESE SEAMAN. 

"A SKiman leant from a oort in the ' Hatsuse ' into the boat, and managed to right her and to help many of his comrades." 



540 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15, 1904. 




The Loss of Life. 



SCENK NEAR TOK.IO STATION SHOWING WOUNDEU ON STRETCHERS KETUKNEU FROM THE WAR. 

in her turn. Her captain, however, declared that he would die with his comrades rather than fail 

them in the hour of need, and himself took charge of the boats which were searching the water where the 

H.\TSUSE had gone down. 

Many of those in the water were terribly burned and injured. The chief-gunner, who had been 

superintending the attempt made to lower the after-boats, had his face and head burned beyond recognition. 

He had been flung into the water by the shock of the vessel capsizing, and had clung 

to a fragment of wreckage. Fortunately, the ship's hammocks had been brought on 

deck, and, being washed away when the ship sank, served as lifebelts for the men who were in the water. 

The navigating-officer was seen clinging to a boat-tank, but when the rescuers approached him, he bade 

them attend first to others less fortunate and to leave him till the last. Captain Nakao, who had also been 

flung into the water, ordered a crowded boat which came towards him first to take the men on board her 

to the Tatsut.\, and then return to his help. " Save the others first," he said. Another officer had a narrow 

escape. He was clinging to a cask when he felt his strength fail him, lost consciousness, and vanished 

below the surface. He was seen, however, and a gallant man from the Tatsuta dived into the water to 

his rescue and saved his life. 

The loss of life was augmented by a great misfortune as the ship went down. One of the boats that 

had been lowered just before the sinking of the Hatsuse was struck by the vessel's mainmast, which fell 

with a crash upon it, 

crushing the boat, and 

killing a number of the 

men on 

Struck by the , , ai, 

Mainmast. '^°''''^- ^'^ 

in it were 

precipitated into the sea. 
Some of them were saved 
by the heroism of a seaman, 
who, seeing what had hap- 
pened, leapt from a port in 
the ship into the boat, and, 
though fearfully burnt 
about the face and hands, 
managed to right her and 
to help many of his com- 
rades back into her, \yhen 
she floated till the Tat- 
suta's and Kasagi's boats 
arrived to the rescue. 




rUXERAL OF VICTIMS OF 



PETROl'AVLOVSK " i'Ah.SJNC^ lHKOU(;ii J'UR]' AKTIin- 



542 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15, 1904. 









WW 


^r°' ^ '^ - 






n^mamiL- ^^^^^^^^^mh^bh 




'^^^^^H^^^^^^^^^F'" - 



A TORPEDO-BOAT FIRING AT NIGHT. 

The HatsusE went down in i8oft. of water, so that there could be little hope of saving her. It is 
practically certain that her destruction was due to the explosion of her magazines, which were fired by the 
explosion of the mine beneath her hull. There perished on board her Commanders Tsukamoto, Arimori, 

and Nire, six sub- 
lieutenants, six 
midshipmen, nine 
engineers, two 
surgeons, and ten 
warrant officers, 
besides 439 petty 
officers and sea- 
men. Of those 
rescued 1 2 had 
received serious, 
and over 50 
slighter injuries. 
The total number 
of saved was a little 
over 300 officers 
and men, includ- 
ing Admiral Na- 
shiba and Captain 
Nakao. 

BIG GUN DRn.L r,N BOARD THE RUSSIAN GrSI.M. MVOLICH," AUKKWAKDS SUNK IN ^^ remained tO 

LiAO RIVER, NEWCHWANG. withdraw the 




544 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15, 1904. 



Russians' Poor 
Attack. 



injured Y.^VSIUMA, as the Russian destroyers were now steaming out of Port Arthur, and preparing 
to attack. If ever there was a time when the Russians should have come on with determination, 
this was it, but they showed their usual indecision and timidity, and failed completely 
to get home. Just at this juncture Rear-Adrniral Togo Masamichi's squadron, which 
was under orders to proceed to the Bay of Kinchau, appeared upon the scene. 
It was composed of the Akitsushim.\, Chivoda, Suma, Oshima, Akashi, Ujr, and the 14th Torpedo 
Flotilla, and was a ver>' serviceable reinforcement. The smaller craft were ordered to proceed upon their 

course, but the rear-admiral 
with the larger cruisers 
steamed towards the 
Russian destroyers and 
gave them so warm a 
reception that they speedily 
retired. The Yashima 
then proceeded towards 
the Elliot Isles, under her 
own steam, with the cruisers 
about her ready to render 
aid. As she vanished 
below the horizon the wind 
freshened, and the sea rose 
mountainously, adding 
greatly to the difficulties 
of her crew. From this 
point onwards there is no 
certain information as to 
what befell her. Accord- 
ing to some accounts, as 
we have seen, she foun- 
dered while on her way to 
the Elliot Islands ; accord- 
ing to others she reached 
that group and was 
beached there for repairs. 
No confirmation or denial 
of her loss was ever issued 
by the naval authorities 
at Tokio, but reading be- 
tween the lines it is 
probable that, if she did 
not sink, she was so 
damaged as to be unfit 
for months to take the 
sea. It is certain that 




A JAI'ANliSK IjKSPAICHKIDER. 
'^*'*** e»traordiiia(> uiivcii figures are the guardian spirits of the villages in Korea. 'J'hey are lupposed to 

frighten away evil Hpirit.s, 



she was not with the fleet when the Russians late in June made their sortie from Port Arthur. 

However this may be, there can be no doubt that here one battleship was lost for ever, and a second 

%-ery seriously injured. As the w hole Japanese force of batUeships numbered only si.x, 

"HaUuse.'' '""'' °^ ^^^ ^^^^ class (the MiKASA, ASAtU, Hatsuse, and SiilKiSHlMA) and two of 

the second class (the Ya.shima and Fuji), this was a dreadful blow. In one moment 

the battle-squadron of Japan had been reduced by one-third and lowered to four ships, so that its superiority 



546 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15, 1904. 



over the Port Arthur fleet was again in doubt. Moreover, 
the Hatsuse was in many ways the best and fastest of 
the Japanese Fleet. Though not quite so new a ship as the 
MiKA.SA she steamed better, and had performed excellently 
in service. She had been laid down at Elswick in 1897, 
and launched in 1899. Her displacement was 15,000 tons, 
so that she was, except for the Mikasa and the Asahi, 
almost the largest battleship in service in any fleet of the 
world. She was plated with Harveyed steel, 6in. to I4in. 
thick, and carried a powerful battery, four 40ft. long I2in. 
guns, capable of firing two shots a minute, in two heavily- 
armoured barbettes, and fourteen Gin. quick-firers. Her 
horse-power was 15,000, and on trial she had steamed 19. i 
knots, a pace which she had almost equalled in service. 
She had three funnels and two masts, and was in every 
respect a perfectly equipped, admirably designed and up-to-date vessel. Her cost had been no less than 
;^ 1, 250,000. She was manned by 741 officers and men. 

The YasHIMA had been laid down at Elswick in 1894, and launched in 1896. She was smaller, 
displacing only 1 2,200 tons, and slower, since, though her speed on trial had been slightly greater than that of 
the Hatsuse, it had fallen considerably in service, as her boilers aged, but she was still able to do 17 knots 
in May, 1904. She was protected by Harveyed steel, 6in. to i Sin. thick, and carried four I2in. guns and ten 




, I. . Cjlliirr's Weekly."! 

ONt. OK iHK RUS.SIAN CHAPELS 
FIELD. 



IN THE 




.SCHOOLBOY VOLLNrEEKS AT YOKOHAMA WATCHING THE PASSAGE OF A BUULE BAND AND KEGLMENTS 

EN ROUTE TO THE FRONT. 



May 15, 1904. 



MINE LAYING. 



547 




JAPANESE TROOPS FOR THE FRONT ON THE WHARF AT YOKOHAMA. 



[Photo Karl Lewis. 



6in. quick-firers. She was the first modern battleship to be acquired by the Japanese Navy. She had two 
fi.mnels, fore and aft, and two masts, and greatly resembled the Asama type, for which, indeed, she was 
mistaken by the Russians. Her crew numbered 6oo officers and men, and, so far as is known, none of 
them were drowned or injured. 

The circumstances under which the.se two vessels were lost demand the closest investigation. They 

were in no way parallel, as the Russians alleged, to 
the circumstances under which the Japanese 
destroyed the Petropavlovsk. The Japanese laid their 
mines at immense personal risk 

of Port Arthur ; they laid them 
in territorial waters, within the Russian sphere, 
where no neutral ship would, or could, venture 
without being aware of the danger which she was 
encountering. The Russians laid their mines with- 
out any personal risk or danger, without exposing 
themselves to attack, in waters which were not 
territorial, which were not even within gun-range 
of their forts, which were used every day by neutral 
shippine, where their action involved the extremest 

(Copyright by '■ Collier's Weekly " in U..S. A. ^^ ^' 

CHINESE CART BRINGING IN FUEL ACROSS A RIVER. danger for third parties. The element of personal 




548 



JAPAN'S KIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15, 1904. 




risk is almost inseparable from 
all legitimate operations of war, 
yet it was wanting in this case, 
which is additional proof of the 
unlawfulness of the proceeding. 
When charged with laying mines 
in open waters, the Russian 
Government characteristically 
pre\aricated, and alleged that 
the mines had been laid by the 
Japanese themselves, and had 
drifted away from their moorings 
off Port Arthur. This audacious 
falsehood seems to have been 
swallowed by certain of the 
Powers which feared Russia, but 
those who have followed this 
narrative will know 

RUSSIAN 

PRACTICE WITH now how com- 

LAND MINKS , , , „ 

NEAR pletely the Russians 

were in the wrong. 

What added to the guilt of their 

action was that Russia had 




RUSS1A.\ SOLDIERS WORSHIPPING IN THE CHURCH AT HARBIN ON THEIR WAY TO THE FRONT 



May 15. 1904. 



"STREWING MINES BROADCAST. 



549 




BACK FROM THE WAR: TELLING ADVENTURES 



[Drawn by .Melton l'ri( 
IN THE STREETS OF HIROSHIMA. 



privately issued a note some weeks before, about the date of the destruction of the Petropavlovsk, 
denouncing Japan for " strewing !nines broadcast," and declaring that " the wholesale scattering of these 
engines of destruction at points where they may easily drift into the path of the marine commerce of 
the world, to the common danger, cannot for a moment be regarded as admissible." Yet the Russians 
omitted to state that long before the loss of the Petropavlovsk they had scattered mines broadcast round the 

coast of the Liao- 
tung Peninsula, that 
these mines had 
constantly broken 
away from their 
moorings, and that 
the Japanese in 
their laying of 
mines had acted not 
as tyros, but as 
masters of the art, 
and had taken care 
that the material 
employed should be 
good, and the mines 
so secured as not to 
be liable to break 

OiHERS WAITING AT SHIBA PARK, TOKIO, TO WELCOME THE JAPANESE 1„r,ep 

WOUNDED BACK FROM THE WAR. lOO.SC. 




Cilll.bKl',.\ 



550 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May, 1904. 




JAPANESE DESTROYER " SHIRAKUMO." 
Built an^i photographed by J. I Thornycroft & Co. 



This sowing the open 
sea with mines has been 
rightly regarded in Eng- 

A Crime ^^"^ ^^ 
Agrainst the " act 
Humanity. ^ 

of an 

enemy of the human 

race," as Admiral dc 

Horsey described it. " A 

crime alike against the 

laws of humanity and of 

nations," was the phrase 

used by a great lawyer. 

" A diabolical act, was the comment of the Press of the United States. And this violence and 

disregard of all the obligations among civilised peoples came with the less propriety from Russia because 

she had herself accused Japan in a Note, 
issued at the opening of the war, of 
treacherous and barbarous behaviour, 
in attacking the Port Arthur fleet and 
the Vartag at Chemulpo without giving 
due notice, because she had throughout 
the war pretended that the conflict was 
one between a civilised and an un- 
civilised Power, and because the Czar 
had figured as a friend of peace and a 
Sovereign who yearned to temper the 
asperities of war. As a matter of fact, 
the contention of Russia that the war 
was between a civilised and. an un- 
civilised State was true, but in the 
opposite sense to that in which she 
intended it. Japan was the civilised 
Power, abiding by all the conventions 
The events of May 15 cover with 



■' 


gUmgi^ 


■ s 


lif -j J^ 




J 


\ "SjoSSk^^^^l 


TO 




iLsK^ 


^a^ 


sHi 



EXGlNt.'- Tjr 



' SHIKAKUMO,' 



iHt JAi'ANt.-,fc iOKl'EDO-liO.\T DESTROY EK 
WHICH ATTACKED PORT ARTHUR. 

On the trial of this boat the mean speed on a three-hour run amounted to 31*30 knots. The 
e n ginei are of the triple expansion fotir cylinder type constructed by Thornycroft, Chiswick. 

and rules laid down by the world ; Russia the barbarous Power 
a stain the honour of the Russian Navy and people. 
Japan did not protest because, now the mischief 
was done and the Powers had tacitly permitted 
Russia to commit such an act, .she determined to 
avail herself of the precedent for use against 

Admiral Witgeft's fleet on 
In2rnSLl"llL. ^^^ure occasions, or against 

the Baltic Fleet. The Powers 
did nothing, though the proper and manly course 
would have been sternly to denounce such action 
by the Russians. Had Japan wrecked two Russian 
battleships in open waters on the high seas b) 
strewing mines there, to the common danger of 
the world, the Continent would have rung with 
outcries against her. But here, as in other affairs, 
the Japanese were coming to learn that the 




SUBMARINE MINES WITH ELECTRIC WIRES LAID BY RUSSIANS 

IN THE RIVER AT NEWCHWANG, AND TAKEN UP BY THE 

JAPANESE. THE CAST-IRON MUSHROOMS AT THE BOTTOM 

ARE TO KEEP THEM IN POSITION. 



May 15, 1904. 



INTERNATIONAL LAW. 



551 



principle of international 
law, as interpreted bj' the 
Powers of Europe, was 
■' One law for me, another 
for thee." Even England 
failed in this matter ade- 
quately to support her ally 
and her own interests, but 
the time was coming when 
she, too, would have to 
pay a bitter price for the 
apathy and timorousness 
with which she watched 
the strange proceedings 
of the Czar's Navy and 
Volunteer cruisers. The 
difficulties of the weak- 
hearted accumulate at 
compound interest, and 
while a word will check a 
trouble at its beginning, 
blows and open war may 
be insufficient when that 
trouble has been allowed 
to grow and develop. But 
the incident of the Hat- 
SUSE, at least, showed 
that international law and 
right among nations does not exist. The only means of obtaining right is by using force- 
which Japan had grasped, and which China is now learning. 

And woe to the Power with insufficient force or without the courage to use it ! 




Photo Viclor Bulla. 



THE RUSSIAN ARMY KITCHEN. 



-a lesson 




[Cop>Tight, " Collier's Weekly.' 
CHINESE COOLIES WADING T HROUGH A RIVER WITH HEAVY TRANSPORT C.\SES. 



552 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May, 1904. 



Summing up the losses of the Japanese Navy from mines or collision, we have the following 
enoimous total of vessels put out of action, either temporarily or permanently, in one week : 

Tons. 

(Sunk) 

(Sunk) 

(Sunk) 

(Temporarily disabled) 

(Sunk) • 

(Disabled) 



Torpedo-boat No. 48 
Cruiser MlVAKO 
Cruiser YoSHiNO .. 
Cruiser K.\SUGA 
Battleship Hatsuse 
Battleship Yashima 





1,800 




4,180 




7.S83 




15,000 




12,300 



.1 r\ i>^ 



40,973 

The loss, temporary or permanent, of this 40,900 tons of shipping had a numbing effect upon the 

activity of the Japanese Navy. No naval force exists which would not feel so terrible a series of 

accumulated blows. It compelled Admiral Togo to redouble his caution, to increase his distance from 

Port Arthur, to keep his battleships as far as possible at their naval base, whence they never moved in 

the next few weeks, unless 

they positively knew that 

the Russians were at sea, 

and to diminish his activity 

just at a 

iTi'^c^ moment 
of Loss. 

w hen his 
ships would have been most 
useful. Neither he nor his 
men can be blamed for the 
disasters ; these were in- 
evitable, and such as must 
■be faced by a naval Power. 
As a matter of fact, our 
own history shows that in 
our past wars our losses 
from maritime casualties 
have been enormous ; and 
there was one fortnight in 
our naval annals when a 
single British fleet lost five 
of its battleships, and had 
its strength lessened in 
much the same ratio as 
Admiral Togo's. Only 
gradually did the Japanese 
recover from the natural 
depression caused by these 
lamentable events, and it 
was fortunate for them that 
their enemy was so sluggish 
and incompetent as to be 
incapable of taking ad- 
iFacsimiie Sketch by M.ii.n I'n.r. Vantage of thcir adversity. 

.\ SUMMONS TO JAPANKSE WARRIORS AT A GREAT POINT OF E.MBARKATION- ^„ .1 „ R„cc;o.-,= th^ 

SOUNDING THE "FALL IN" AT SHIMONOSEKI. O" the KUSSians tnC 




May, 1904. 



RUSSIAN VESSELS LOST. 



553 



effect of these Japanese disasters 
was far-reaching. It was forth- 
with decided by General Kuro- 
patkin to hold the position of 

Kinchau and 

Effect on the ,. „ , „ ,. ^ • , 

Russians. ^° "^ ^ ^ ^ ' " 

Newchwang, 

while orders were despatched to 
General Stoessel not to continue 
the destruction of the works at 
Dalny. The preparations for the 
despatch to the Far East of the 
Baltic Fleet, which had been 
dropped after the disaster to the 
Petropavlovsk, were resumed, and 
instead of falling back on Mukden, 
the whole Russian army in Man- 
churia continued to hold its 
ground along the railway from 
Wafang.tien to Liaoyang. There 
was some small compensation, however, for the Japanese mishaps in two disasters which towards the 
end of May befell the Russian Fleet. The fast cruiser Bogatyr, belonging to the Vladivostock Squadron, 
while returning to port after a cruise, struck one of the mechanical mines which the Japanese had 
laid in territorial waters, and sustained such damage that she had to be instantly run ashore to save 
her from sinking. What ultimately happened to her is uncertain, but as she was injured in close 
proximity to a well-equipped naval port, it is at least probable that she was got afloat again and 
repaired. About the same time the new Russian battleship Orel, a sister of the Tzarevitch, and forming 
part of the Baltic Fleet, ran aground near Kronstadt and sustained serious strains, which threw her shafting 
out of line, and after this she sank in shallow water, through the carelessness of a workman. The result of 
these misfortunes was that the impossibility of sending her to the Far East before the autumn was admitted 
even by the Russian Admiralty. 

As for Rear-Admiral Togo Misamichi, who, at the time of the disaster to the HatsUSE, had been on his 




ll'lioto by .M. ll.ir. 
HOW THE WOUNDED ARE CARRIED ON BOARD A JAPANESE MAN-OK-WAR. 





*?iVl%« 



IN THE RUSSIAN MILITARY HOSPITAL, MUKDRN. 



ILopyright, 1904, by "■ LoIIiu-t ?. Weekly. 



554 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 17, 1904. 




THE BATTLE OF NANSHan 



AMI KiNtiiAU, .MAN .ili—iHK I'ulNI IKuM WHICH THt) lAPANKSE COMMENCED 
THEIR ATTACK. 



Shelling: Kinchau- 



way to the Gulf of Pechili, he proceeded thither with the AkiTSUSHIMA, Chiyoda, Suma, AkasHI, OSHIMA, 
AkagI, and Ujl, and the 14th Torpedo Squadron, after coverinf^ the rescue of the HatsuSE's crew 
and leaving behind him the remnant of the battleship 
.squadron to guard the entrance to Port Arthur. 

He carefully examined the 

coast as far north as Kinchau, 
and shelled some parties of Russians whom he saw 
ashore. Detachments from the ships were landed 
to cut the railway at various points and blow up 
culverts. On May 17, with his squadron, he entered 
Kinchau Bay and fired upon a bridge on the 
railway with great effect, also shelling a train that 
was passing. His small craft pushed right into the 
bay and dragged it carefully for mines, so as to clear 
it and enable the navy effectively to co-operate with 
the army in the approaching operations against the 
Russian position at Kinchau. The same day the main Japanese Fleet from the other side of the 
peninsula bombarded Dalny, and strove to impede the movement of the Russians along the railway. All 
was now ready for the final attack upon Kinchau, which was the next move in the Japanese programme. 





THE WALL OF KINCHAU. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE ISOLATION 
OF PORT ARTHUR— BATTLE OF 

NANSHAN. 

ENERAL OKU'S advance in 
force from Yentoa Bay did not 
begin until May 15, when his 
whole army had been landed, and he was 
in a position to take the offensive. Even 
so, no heavy guns had as yet reached 
him ; his three divisions had with them 
no artillery except their field and mountain 
guns, which were not of a calibre to 



G 



May 15, 1904 



OKU'S ADVANCE. 



555 




Oku's Advance. 



Kinchau. 



THK IJATTLEFIELU OF NANSHAN. 

encounter fortress artillery. It was known that a portion of the Russian army in Port Arthur had occupied 
a strong advance position at Tahosh'ang, or Mount Sampson, a height which rises due east of the Chinese 
town of Kinchau to a level of 2,210 ft. above the sea, and further that they had from 
December, 1903, been strengthening the old Chinese works upon the narrow neck 
of the Kinchau isthmus. 
Both Mount Sampson and 
the isthmus must be cap- 
tured before the road to 
Port Arthur lay open. 

A few words must be 
given to the topography of 
the country in which the 

next great 

battle was 
to be fought. The isthmus 
connecting the Kwantung 
Peninsula, on which stands 
Port Arthur, with Liaotung, 
is only two miles wide, 
just south of Kinchau. 
Kinchau itself is a walled 
Chinese city, built in a 
square, with its four walls 
facing the four points of 
the compass. It stands two 
and a half miles north of 
the narrowest point of the 
isthmus, and has no military 
importance in these modern 
days of long-range artiller\'. 

, ,, , , , BIRDSEYE VIEW OF TlIK SCKXK WHKRK, THE FIGHTS FOR 

Its walls, though strong and nansha.v, anu kinchau took place. 




MOUNT SAMPSON, 



556 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 15, 1904. 



high, could not offer an>- 
serious resistance to field- 
guns, while the interior 
of the city was com- 
manded from Mount 
Sampson, from the hills 
near Lungwangmiao, and 
from the heights of Nan- 
shan. Mount Sampson is 
steep and rocky, and 
dominates the whole 
neighbourhood of the 
isthmus, while to the south 
its spurs offer good artillery 
positions for the long- 
range attack upon Nan- 
shan. 

The Nanshan heights be- 
gin to the southof Kinchau, 
and run for five miles 
almost due south, ending japanesk war material at kinchau. 

at Hoshang on Talienwan Bay. At their highest point they rise about 400 ft. Both to the east and west 
of the line of high ground is a low strip of coast bordering the sea, which on the east runs far up into the 

land in the deep inlet of 





Hand Bay, 
west fringes 

Kinchau and 
Hand Bays. 



CHINESK 



-ICHING THE JAPANi-hl. OI'KKAlIONb tkOM lJl',bl'.kTl!,U 
TRENCHES. 



and on the 
the shallow 
indentation 
of Kinchau 
Bay. On 
either side the isthmus is 
bordered by a belt of 
sand at low tide ; the head 
waters of both these bays 
are shallow, and, con- 
sequently, only small 
vessels of light draught can 
navigate them. Hand 

Bay, on the east, was 
closed to the Japanese, as 
not only was its entrance 
mined, but also it was 
defended by powerful 
works, which the Japanese 
warships found difficulty 
in silencing. Kinchau 
Bay, however, was open, 
as its entrance was too 
wide to be fortified, and ail 
the Russians could do to 
close it to the Japanese 



J 



May 15. 1904. 



MOUNT SAMPSON. 



557 




A JAPANESE CAVALRY OUTPOST. 




t-^ f XZ^ fiuM/ayt ilfmy ^^Jaftan^t Army at Na/ufta/' & ^^tto/ft ntar Mount S«^/»itn, 



No. XXIV. 



KEV TO THE BATTLE OF NANSHAX. 



(Cop^Tight, igoi, by "Collier's Weekly." 

was to sow a certain 
number of mines in it, 
which soon drifted away 
from their moorings. On 
this side, then, the Japanese 
navy could co-operate with 
the land army ; on the 
eastern side, in the same 
way, Russian warships, 
moving from Port Arthur 
under cover of the lines 
of mines and the fortifica- 
tions, could assist those 
who were holding the 
positions on Mount Samp- 
.son and Nanshan. 

The capture of Mount 
Sampson was the essential 
preliminary to the attack 

Importance "PO" the 
of Mount Russian 
Sampson. , , 

works de- 
fending the isthmus, and 
the first Japanese move- 
ments were directed against 
it. On May 15, 2,200 
Japanese infantrj- and 
cavalry were pushed 



558 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 16. 1904. 




A HALT UNDER FIRE. AN INCIDENT OF THE BATTLE OF NANSHAN. 
The Japanese found it impossible to advance under the Russian fire, and therefore lay down behind a railway embankment. 

forward to clear the Russians away from Shihsanlitai, where a small outpost was stationed, and the 

Chinese villages of Yangpaoying, Tsoying, and 
Houying to the south of Mount Sampson, where 
also there were Russian detachments with search- 
lights and machine-guns. Two thousand Russians 
were at Hsiaochinshan, with their outposts holding 
the ridge of Mount Sampson, while on the peninsula 
between Kerr Bay and Hand Ba}' was a small 
Russian fort at Hsuchiashan, mounting a few 
heavy guns and held by Russian fortress artiller)'. 
The task of the Japanese was a difficult one, as 
the Russians had scarped the heights of Mount 
Sampson, constructed good breastworks, and 
measured off the ranges, so that exact shooting 
on their part was easy. 

The Japanese detachment rapidly advanced, and 

about noon of the i6th took possession of 

Shihsanlitai with nothing more than slight 

skirmishing, and later in the 

afternoon their left captured 

the village of Chiulichwang, 

where the Russians offered a stouter resistance. 

There was severe fighting when the Japanese 

moved against the ridge of Mount Sampson, and, 

IK. Mckenzie photo. had the marksmanship or skill of the Russian 

AS ABANDONED RUSSIAN GUN, OVERTURNED IN ATTEMPTING ^ , 1 ^ ..1 • u *1 T 

TO TAKE A SHARP CURVE IN HASTY RETREAT. troops been equal to their bravery, the Japanese 




The Attack 
Begins. 



May 16, 1904. 



A SEA DUEL. 



559 



must have suffered severely. The tactics of General Oku's men were excellent ; they pushed forward against 
the heights by short rushes, one section moving at a time, while the others covered it with a vigorous rifle 




A IIGIU I.\ nil; SEA. AN INCIDLN] 



mi; BATTLE OF NANSHAN. 



560 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 16, 1904. 




JAPANESE OFFICERS TUB UNDER FIRE NEAR PORT ARTHUR. 

fire, and while the mountain-guns shelled the heights. Late in the afternoon the ridge of Mount Sampson 
was won, but not without coij^iderable loss to the Japanese. Nine officers were wounded, among them a 
major and three captains, while 137 men were killed or wounded. The bodies of 30 Russians were found 
and buried on the field, six Russian wounded fell into the hands of the Japanese, and their enemy's total 
loss was estimated at 3CX). The Russians were now driven back to the isthmus, though they still held 
Kinchau to the north of it. 

It has always been a source of wonder that General Stoessel offered so feeble a resistance at Mount 
Sampson, and great astonishment was felt in Japan at its ea.sy capture. Probably, howe\er, the Russian 
general feared to be cut _ 

off from Port Arthur by 
a Japanese landing to his 

rear, and 

hence did 

not dare to 
venture too far afield. 
Moreover, he appears to 
have been absolutely con- 
fident as to his power to 
hold the isthmus, which 
was so strongly fortified 
that an attack upon it by 
the Japanese seemed to 

I « . . [Copyright, 1904, by " Collier's Weekly 

mm to promi.se an ea.sy barbed wire ENTANGiJi.MENTs erected iiv the Russians. 



Stoessel's 

Feeble 
Resistance. 







rAPANESR FURY WITH THE BAYONET THE BATTLE OF NANSHAN. 



562 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 16, 1904. 




h LM-.KAI, 1 



and magnificent victory 
for Russia. His telegrams, 
in the form in which they 
were given out to the 
world by the St. Peters- 
burg authorities, repre- 
sented the fighting of the 
1 6th as a sally on the part 
of the Port Arthur garrison, 
as the result of which the 
Japanese suffered enor- 
mous losses. 

The next few days were 
spent in an examination 

of the 
Examining r „,,;,, „ 
Nanshan. 

position at 

Nanshan. The Japanese 
officers charged with the 
dangerous task of recon- 
naissance could see that the heights of Nanshan were crowned by a long line of permanent works. 
On the summit of the ridge were ten forts containing 70 guns, of which several were of 8 and 6-in. 
calibre, firing 2<X) and lOO-lb. shells, and far heavier than any of the guns with the Japanese army. 
In addition to this formidable array of fortress-guns, there were two batteries of quick-firing field artillery 
and ten machine-guns. 

Under the forts, along the slope of the hill facing the east, tier on tier of shelter-trenches had been 
excavated. The trenches were loopholed and roofed in with timber and earth, .so as to protect the men 

holding them against artillery fire. Below the trenches, again, innumerable deep 
wire Land Mines c"'*^"'^'' P'ts had been dug, and at the bottom of each was a sharp-pointed stake, with 

the point upwards, so as to impale men falling into them. Passages between the pits 
were left, at several points, but beneath them were placed land mines, containing powerful charges of 
explosive , and connected ,' 
with the forts by cable, 
l^astly, at the foot of the 
hill, was a perfect tangle 
of wire fencing, barbed 
wire and wire netting, so 
as to hold assaulting 
infantry as long as possible 
under the fire of the 
shelter - trenches above. 
Every art of the engineer 
had been called into play 
to render the position 
impregnable ; it was held 
by General Fock with the 
Russian 7th Division and 
part of the 4th Division, 
totalling some 16,000 men. 

TIlP*;/* iv#»r#* «tr^nrrfVi/»n.»r1 i- -i-j--f, y-'4. l^y "Collier's Weekly. 

m;»c were swengineneo, Japanese searching for their dead among the Russian pitfalls. 




May 25, 1904. 



OKU'S ATTACK. 



563 



as the Japanese army approached, by strong detachments of bluejackets from the Russian Fleet, by 
Cossacks, and by fortress artillery. The force was ample to defend a small front, and was as large as 
could conveniently be employed. 

It Wcis vital for the Japanese to gain possession of the isthmus and open up the way to Dalny, which 
they intended to use as their base. So, notwithstanding the extraordinarily formidable character of the 
Russian defences, General Oku decided not to wait for his heavy guns, which would 
probably have involved weeks of delay. He determined to attack the moment the 
position had been thoroughly examined, a course which would have the further advantage of preventing the 
Russians from strengthening their works, as each day they were making additions to their system oi 
defences. May 25 was fixed as the day for the attack, and the small craft of the navy were called in to assail 
the Russian rear and centre from Kinchau Bay. On May 20 a skirmish occurred at Hsiaochinshan.in which 



Oku Attacks. 




RUSSIAN MILITAKV PRESS GANG. 
Hunting up the unwilling reservists in Warsaw. 



564 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 24, 1904. 




The Russian Guns. 



The Japanese 
Forces. 



showed that besides the 8-in 
guns (the calibre of which i: 
with ten Canet 37-in. and 
At Hoshang they had four 
weapons which could fire 
and enfilade their line. 
were continually in action, 
field as soon as darkness 
On the 24th the Jap- 
ments along the crest of 
the movement of their 

up the 

Division, 

forming the 
Chenchiatun, the ist 
Fushimi, forming the 
resting on Chiulichwang 
Divieion, under General 
forming the left and resting 
suho. The total strength 
three divisions should have 
a^ut 50,000, as they had not their 
reserve brigades with them, but 
they were forced to leave detach- 
ments to guard their rear, so that 
General Oku was probably not able 
to place more than 40,000 com- 
batants in line, if quite so many. 
His artillery consisted of eighteen 
batteries of field and mountain-guns, 
totalling 108 weapons. 

All the afternoon of the 24th the 
long columns of men clad^ jn khaki 
passed along the dusty roads and 
mountain tracks towards the isth- 
mus, where, from the sapphire depths 
of the water and the golden yellow 



and 6-in. weapons, 
3 -in.). They had 



a small Japanese detachment repulsed a Russian 
force of four times its size, inflicting upon the 
Russians a loss of fifty, as against a Japanese loss 
THE of fourteen, and thus demonstrating 

.struck^by"a anew the immense individual 
suNif AT^PORT superiority of the Japanese infantry 
ARjHUR. as compared with the inert and 
lethargic Russians. 

On the 2 1st, 22nd, and 23rd, the Japanese made 
demonstrations against the Russian works with 
small detachments, so as to 
draw their fire, and ascertain 
the calibre of the Russian guns. Observation 
the Russians had 4-in., 3"6-in., and ordinary field- 
several howitzers of 6-in. calibre on Nanshan Hill, 

two 4"7-in. quick - firers. 
naval guns or fortress 
on the Japanese left flank 
The Russian search-lights 
and swept the whole 
fell. 

anese deployed detach- 
Mount Sampson to screen 
three divisions, which took 
allotted positions, the 4th 
under General Ogawa, 
right and resting on 
Division, under Prince 
centre and 

(Copyright, 1904, by 

" CoUieis Weekly." and the 3rd 

CHINESE p, I- • „ _ 

LOOTER PUN. u s n 1 m a , 
iSHEb BY THE Chait- 

jAPANESE. °" L-nait 

of these 




been 




.1 1 PORT ARTHUR. 



May 25. 1904. 



BATTLE OF NANSHAN. 



565 





£ii 



of the sand, rose the hill of Nanshan, 
frowning with the menace of death. 
Night fell, without serious fighting, 
and as darkness came on the wind 
rose to a gale. Far off through the 
night could be seen the glow of the 
Russian camp-fires, while the great 
beams of the searchlights incessantly, 
uneasily swept the dim outlines of 
the mountains. The orders for the 
assault were issued, and the whole 
strength of the Japanese artillery was 
directed to be ready to turn its fire 
upon Nanshan at daybreak. 

The morning of the 2Sth dawned 
dull and stormy. Dense clouds 
covered the peak of Mount Sampson and veiled its upper slopes. The gale continued, raising thick clouds 
of dust. Eastwards, over the sea, the sun rose in a red and sullen sky. The waters of Kinchau Bay were 





The Battle 
Begins. 



GENERAL VIKWS OF THE SUNKEN JAPANESE liLOCKADING SHIPS AT THE llAkliOlK I.N I RAMI, ni |iil:l AkIllUR. 

TAKEN MONTHS AFTER THEY WERE SUNK. 

lashed by the tempest, and the sea ran so high that naval co-operation was soon seen to be out of the 
(question ; and as the day advanced a message came in from the naval authorities to the effect that, under the 

weather conditions, the Japanese ships 
could not enter Kinchau Bay. The 
attack upon the Russian main 
position had 
therefore of 
necessity to be 
postponed. Without naval help there 
was no prospect of its success. But 
General Oku determined, none 
the less, to carry out an initial 
bombardment of the Russian position, 
accompanying it by a demonstration 
in force, so as to compel the 
Russians to man their defences under 
the Japanese fire. Battery after 
battery went forward in the grey 

No. XXIV.* G. 



w 






^p 


Es- "v ^KK^^K^ 


' ^r^^ W^-^v~■«>C^^^^WB^B|B^B■^Kp^^^M^ 


kt;. 




1 



566 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 25. 1904. 




n,[.|,Ks IIOTNI) KOR THE FRONT. 
A luiii at Irkutsk Statiuii. 



light, through the swirl of dust, and, taking up the predetermined positions, opened a heavy fire. High 
above the Russian works iiovered a balloon, froin which the Japanese movements and dispositions 
were closely observed. The Japanese gunners fired at it, but without success ; it was a difficult target 
against the overcast sky, as it was buffeted to and fro by the violence of the wind. 

Then from the works on Nanshan burst forth tongues of flame. The Russian fortress guns were 
replying to the Japanese fire. The thunder of artillery echoed in the mountains ; shells began to lash the 
.sand in front of the Japanese positions ; here and there Japanese troops showed, waiting under cover, for the 
order to advance. The sth Company of the ist Japanese Regiment, advancing towards Nanshan, ascertained 
that fresh works were being constructed by the Russians at the foot of the Nanshan heights, and that the 
wire entanglements were being further extended. But beyond this exploratory advance, there was no 
Japanese attack ; as the day wore on, overcast and gloomy, turning to rain, the fire on either side gradually 




RUSSIAN TROOPS AT IjU.MMY liAYO.N'hT KXKKCISK. 



May 26, 1904. 



STORMING THE RUSSIAN WORKS. 



567 




storming the 
Russian Works. 



RUSSIAN PRISONERS FROM NANSHAN AND KINCHAU IN A KUUDHIST TEMPLE. 
From a sketch by Mr. F. Villiers, who says : " I have never seen prisoners so thoroughly well cared for." 

languished, until about 3 p.m. the action was broken off, and the infantry fell back, leaving strong outposts 
to watch the Russians. 

As the night came on, the wind rose in fury, howling through the trees near the filthy Chinese villages, 
and whirling sand in clouds. No fires were 
lighted, a precaution which added greatly to 
the discomfort of the troops, but the officers 

shared the privations, 

and the whole of Genera! 

Oku's army supped upon 
rice boiled and dried in the sun. The adv 
vance"in force to storm the Russian works 
was to begin soon after midnight ; at day- 
break the Japanese artillery was once more 
to get to work ; it was decided that the great 
assault should be covered by a prolonged 
bombardment, and that not until the guns 
had done their work should the infantry be 
put in. As the men filed off, a violent 
storm broke upon Mount Sampson, and 
almost at the same instant the Russian 
works began to fire. Streaks of vivid lightning 
rent the heavy air; the village of Chiuli- 




VICTIMS OF THE NANSHAN FIGHT 



[S. Smith photo. 
IN THE TOKIO HOSPITAL. 



568 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1004. 



chwang was repeatedly struck, 
and there were several casualties 
in the Japanese army fnim the 
tliunderstorm. The earth shook 
under the concussion of the 
Russian fire. The glare of the 
arc-lights in the Russian lines 
added to the strangeness of 
the scene, as the two armies 
prepared to meet in mortal 
combat. Presently the firing 
died down, and about 2 a.m. 
the thunderstorm passed away 
to the east, leaving a heavy 
white mist in the level plain. 
Under the cover of this the 
Japanese made their dispositions 
unseen by the Russians, and 
waited for morning to appear 
and for the guns to open the 
battle. 

Day came, and with it rifle- 
firing began, running in ripples 
along the front. But as yet 
the artillery was silent. The 
GENERAL KUROPATKiN Aw.vRDiNG THE CROSS OF ST. GEORGE. mist made it impossible for 

either side to use its guns, and the two armies were compelled to wait for the sun to dispel this obstacle 

to their encounter. Gradually it lifted, and, as it lifted, two grey Japanese warships 

ne au ay. ^.q^j^j \^ ^^^^ standing into Kinchau Bay behind a flotilla of torpedo-boats. The 

boats sounded as they went, and watched for mines ; the warships were that veteran of the naval battle 




GEORGE. 




RUSSIAN HIGH MASS FOR THE DEAD AFTER THE li.vrXLE. 



[Photo by Victor Hulla. 




THE JAPANESE BLOW UP THE GATE OF KINCHAU. 



570 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1904. 




A WULMiKII iU>>l.\N INK.I IHK JAI'AM-.SK LINKS. 
The :»hort bAmbous are like springs. 



of the Yalu, the Akagi, a small vessel drawing only nine feet of water, but carrying four 47-in. guns 
and the Chokaf, which carried one 8'2-in. and one 47-in. weapon. Behind them again and further 
out, for it was ebb-tide and the depth of water was small, could be seen the old ironclad Heiven, 
which had fought on the Chinese side at the Yalu, and which carried one lo-in. Krupp and two 
6-in. modern guns, and the cruiser TSUKUSHI, with two lo-in. weapons and four 47-in. The fifteen heavy 
naval guns thus brought into action were some counterpoise to the huge pieces mounted by the Russians in 
\anshan. But, until the tide rose, they could only fire at extreme range upon the Russian works, and were 
therefore unable to put the Russian guns out of action. 




JAl'ANEbt bAJLOKS AT Dkll.L. tOKiVllNG A SQUARE. 



571 



RusMriii Infantry* 

in verandah 

firing. 



Russian support 

arriving through 

gateway. 



Japanese 
riishine in. 




[From a sketch by Lionel James. 

THE CAPTURE OF KINCHAU BY THE JAPANESE AT THE POINT OF THE BAYONET. 



572 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26 1904. 



In 
Hand Bay. 



As the Japanese gun- 
boats steamed into Kin- 
chau Bay to co-operate 
with General 01<u, on 
the other side of tlie 
isthmus the 
Russian 
gunboat 
^o^r could be seen making 
ready in Hand Bay to 
support the defence, and 
with her were five small 
steamers and launches 
fitted for the rapid trans- 
port of troops across the 
ba)'. The Bobr herself 
was a useful factor, if only 
from the fact that she 
carried a 9-in. and a 6-in. 
gun, and though these 
weapons were of old- 
fashioned pattern, they 
were able to out-range the 
Japanese field artillery, 
and to shell the Japanese 
left as it deployed and 
advanced against Nanshan. 
At the same time the 

Japanese were menaced with a counter-attack from the force which the Russians had embarked in the 

small steamers. 

The first artillery-fire of that eventful day was delivered from the Bobrs 9-in. gun. She opened on the 

artillery of the 3rd Japanese Division, which had taken up a position on the slopes of Mount Sampson, 

slightly to the south of Chiuli- 

chwang, but without any 

marked effect, owing to the 

mist. On 
The Taking of ». .. 

Kinchau. t*^^ ""^^^^ 

flank, the 

Japanese 4th Division rapidly 
pushed forward to the south 
of Kinchau under cover of 
the mist. It had sent a de- 
tachment of the 4th EIngineer 
Battalion forward at midnight 
to blow in the gates of Kinchau, 
but the soldiers of the de- 
tachment were attacked by the 
Russians, and killed without 
quarter being given or asked, 
i neir ixKlies were found horribly hospital tkain keturning to Hiroshima with wounded Japanese. 




SHOT THROUGH THE LEG. 



[Copyright, 1904, by " Collier's Weekly " in U.S.A. 
A JOVIAL RU.SSIAN SOLDIER WHO liECAME POPULAR 
WITH HIS CAPTORS. 




574 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1904. 




mutilated on the morn- 
ing of the 26th, when 
Kinchau fell into the 
hands of the Japanese, 
but a terrible vengeance 
was wrecked upon their 
assailants. Behind the 
4th Division the 1st 
Division pushed forward, 
advancing directly upon 
Kinchau. Four of its 
engineers were ordered 
to blow in the gate of 
the town, and, running 
forward under a heavy 
fire, the\' accomplished 
their task, but were 
severely injured by the 
explosion of the charge 
that they laid, sacrificing 
themselves gallantly for 
the success of their 

country. A battalion of the ist Division dashed through the smoke into the town, and simultaneously 
the Russians, seeing that their retreat was menaced by the advance of the 4th Division, streamed out by the 
western gate. The Japanese pursued fiercely, and, closing in on the Russian flank, drove the 500 infantrj' 
who had composed the garrison into the water of Kinchau Bay, and shot down almost every man of the 
Russians. Only ten were taken prisoners, the rest were killed by the Japanese fire or drowned in the water 
of the bay. It was the first act of the battle, and in it the Japanese success had been complete. 

The mist had now lifted, and the artillery on either side opened, most of the Japanese batteries 

concentrating their fire upon Nanshan. With a tremendous crash the Russian ordnance 

Nans^an °" replied. " From Hand Bay to Kinchau gun after gun joined in," said a Russian 

prisoner captured by the Japanese in the battle, " and all along the hills, where only 

a day before our pickets had been planted, our shells began to burst. Columns of earth and smoke shot up 



It'opyri^ht l.y " Collier's Wc-ckly " 
JAlA.NKsl:. CAVAI.KV CROSSING TEMPOKARY BRIDGK. 




JAI'ANKSK ENGINEERS MAKING A likllJUE. 





V'-^^yfK ^jJSiJ 






< s 

I ■= 

< c 

Z i 



~4 rl * \ 



J. 

e \i 



« ? 



J 4^ 









/' 



"^^ 
















*^ ^^5iv^ 



576 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1904. 




[Copyright, 1904, by " Collier's Weekly." 
JAPANESE MILITARY BICYCLE CORPS OUTSIDE MANCHURIAN BUILDINGS AWAITING OJIDERS. 

to heaven ; the shrapnel exploding stood out against the sky above the hills in fleecy blurs, like the flakes 
of cotton-wool." The Japanese infantry began their advance, the scouts leading in very open formation, so 
that for some time the Russians could see no one, and there was practically no target at which to fire, except 
the Japanese artillery. Then, some 2,000 yards from Nanshan, isolated figures appeared, and were seen to 
be .signalling back to their main force the position of the Russian guns. A Cossack detachment was ordered 
to charge and drive them back. " In an instant not a Japanese was to be seen. Below us the fields and 

[7 \ ~ ] uplands stretched as in a sort of 

panorama, with two or three 
parties of Cossacks galloping out. 
But not a Japanese was in sight. 
Then suddenly a Cossack went 
down. We heard no report, saw 
no smoke, only the man fell, and 
after him another and then another. 
Now a Japanese gun fired. A 
white blur hung in the air above 
the Cossack patrol. Another flash, 
a little dark smoke, and yet 
another blur showed just in front 
of them ; then there were six, 
seven, twelve blurs, and the 
Cossacks disappeared. Spread 
over some 300 yards, a mangled 
mass of men and horses, half the 
Cossacks lay in the grass; the 
other half scattered and strove 
to gallop back, while over them 
hovered continually the white 
blurs. Shrapnel is, indeed, a 
terrible thing." 

As the Cossacks retired, almost 

ICopyright, 1904, by " CoUier'k Weekly." -i •! 1. J 1 a.\ C C 4-U 

JAPANESE GIVING w.\TER TO A WOUNDED Russi.\N. annihilated by the fire ot the 




May 26, 1904. 



RUSSIAN BRAVERY. 



577 




Japanese guns, the Japanese scouts 
recommenced the slow and patient 
advance, signalling steadily. The 

whole of the 

The Japanese t^«^., ^^„ 
Fire. Japanese 

artillery now 

turned its fire upon Nanshan Hill, 

supporting the batteries which 

had already opened. At the 

same moment the four warships 

which had entered Kinchau Bay 

opened upon the Russian batteries. 

" The fire of the enemy," states 

the Novy Krai, Port Arthur's one 

newspaper, " was marvellous in 

its precision. There were no trial 

shots, but a perfect hurricane of 

fire, a tempest of shells, a furious 

storm of iron and steel. The 

enemy's gunboats delivered a 

particularly murderous attack. 

They subjected every inch of our 

position to a cross fire, which they 

continued with such precision and 

vigour that storms of shells literally 

razed the parapets of our en- 
trenchments and hurled their debris among the gunners of our batteries. 

" Over the whole length of our position the fire caused fearful loss. In one battery Gun-pointer Koval 

was terribly wounded. Forgetting his sufferings, after his wounds had received a field-dressing, he dragged 

himself to his gun, grasped the handspike which is used to train the gun, and then fell heavily to the ground. 

Returning to himself, he aimed three shots, and then his mind began to wander. His officer came to 

him. ' Excellence,' he said, ' there are great black flies in my eyes. I see no longer.' And he fell dead." 

" In another battery, a shell 
broke the legs of a gunner. His 
wounds were hastily dressed, and 

the bearers 

Russian Bravery. ^^ . , . 
attempted to 

remove him. But he resisted them 

and strove to go back to his gun. 

' I will fire,' he groaned. The 

bearers kept him back, and carried 

him in a fainting condition to the 

ambulance. Some minutes later 

he regained consciousness, and, 

escaping in the confusion of the 

battle, dragged himself along as 

best he could to his gun, and, when 

he reached it, said : ' If you will 

[Copyright by " CoiHer's Weekly • u, U.S.A. HOt let mc fire, you must kill me.' 
A WOUNDED RUSSIAN RED CROSS MAN. ,. j,., ^ j^ird battery, almost all 

Found on the field by the searching and burial parties 



[Copyrij^bt, 1904, by." Collier 'i Weekly." 
DISTRIBUTING AMMUNITION IN THE FIRING LINE. 




178 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1904. 



the gunners were put out 
of action by the hurricane 
of shells ; all the guns 
but one were dismounted 
or silenced ; the ground 
was covered with dying 
and with dead ; and the 
bearers, as they strove to 
carry away the wounded, 
were themselves cut down 
by the murderous fire. 
Gunner Petrachenko, after 
firing the last shots from 
the gun which still re- 
mained undamaged, went 
to the help of the 
wounded, who were lying 
on the bare earth. He 
comforted them, gave 
them water to drink, 
filled their pipes, and 
helped them to easier 
positions. He worked 
with the bearers till the 
last man had been re- 
moved, then, as though 
carried away by a heroic 
passion, he went back to 
the battery, snatched the 
rifle from a dead man, 
and, entering the en- 
trenchments, fought side 
by side with the Siberian 
Sharpshooters till the 
final retreat was ordered." 
Another witness in the 
Russian lines, speaking 
of this terrible bombard- 
ment, declares " Great 
columns of earth and 
stones rose all along our 
front as though by magic ; 

deep pits vomiting smoke opened suddenly in the hill side. Our captain shouted to us to keep down, and 

we lay in the very bottom of the trench. Then overhead we heard the crash of a shrapnel, followed by a 

heavy patter like that of hail. Almighty ! what was that ? Half of us leapt to our 

Description. ^'^^^ *° ^^^ ' *he other half crouched still lower in the trench shaking with terror. A 

fearful roar deafened our ears, stones were hurled into our trench, and the earth of the 

parapet covered us with an impalpable haze of dust. It was a Japanese shell striking one of our 

mines and blowing a deep hole in the hill, tearing down the wire entanglement and twisting it into 

fantastic wreaths, rending also a great gap in a trench below us. We heard screams from this trench, and 




Captain 

Suzuki. 
Lieutenant 

Omtra. 
Sub. -Lieut. 

Nomura. 
hub.-Licui. 

Kujila. 



JAPANESE CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF NANSHAN 
Officers of Infantry (all wounded). 
Captain Captain 

Iwanaga. Hasegawa. 



Lieutenant 
Dohi. 


Lieutenant 
Tsuchikowa. 


Sub.-Lieut. 
Suka. 


Sub.-Lieut. 
Nakazawa. 


Sub.-Lieut. 
Matsubara. 


Sub.-Lieut. 

Yamada. 



Captain 

Yasui. 

Captain 

Tsutsuini. 

Sub.-Lieut. 

Otsuka. 
Sub.-Lieut. 

Murai. 




ROPED TOGETHER. AN INCIDENT OF ESPIONAGE BEFORE PORT ARTHUR 

■Moff^crll^h^.y'^'^ '^"^ arrested by the outposts, and alter a short trial were bound round the arms and wrists with verv 

the safes' immate fate'''"&-^t"'e''''o"n the hill "o^nX W^ITf ^""TL^-^''^ '"^-^^V] ""^T "'. '"'^ '"° "' P'— ^' like cSU,;"'p|:;P 
F ummate late. Nute on the hill on the right front the Japanese shelters dotted over the knoll, seeming to clinK like if 

ihese shelters are very comfortable and shady." 



strong cords and 

horses. I could 

mpets to a rock. 



580 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1904. 




REGIMENT OF RUSSIAN 
GRENADIERS AT PRAYERS. 



caught a glimpse of a tall man standing on the edge of the gap rocking his body helplessly to and 
fro and weeping piteously." 

Hour after hour these events proceeded in the Russian lines ; mountains of smoke rising ; columns of 
stones and earth shooting up ; parapets wasting away before the great projectiles of the Japanese ships ; 

shrapnel from the Japanese field-guns bursting continuously over the Russian batteries. 
Retreat Nanshan was continually shrouded in smoke and flame, but, notwithstanding the 

intensity of the fire and the immense damage done to the Russian guns, the trenches 
upon it were still resolutely held by the Russian infantry. As the morning wore on, however, the two 
batteries of quick-firing field-guns, which the Russians had brought up from Port Arthur, made a movement 
to the rear and took up a position in rear of the Russian centre overlooking Kinchau Bay, on the lofty 
eminence known as Nankwanling, which rises to a height of more than 8oo ft. Here they were ready to 
cover the retreat. 

A Battalion 
Annihilated. 

The first in- 
fantry attack upon 
Nanshan was de- 
livered by one of 
the battalions of 
the 1st Division. 
Deploying, it 
pushed forward by 
short rushes over 
fields of green 
barley, receiving a 
terrific fire from 
the Russians. 
Under this it 
staggered, as 
officers and men 
went down, and 
the survivors were 
compelled to throw 
themselves flat on 




Clli;,r-r, Ou.NS IN RUSSIAN SERVICE INSPECTION BEFORE GOING l.\TO SERVICE 



May 26, 1904.- 



THE ADVANCE ON NANSHAN. 



581 



the earth. The pause in the advance was only for a few minutes. Then the bugles sounded through the 
dreadful turmoil ; the line of men arose, and recommenced its heroic advance. Once more the storm of 




Xo. x.xv. 



THF. •JERKIIiM-; fJ(;HT AT NANSHAX. 
' The wire entanglement brought them to a deail stop. Men could be seen falling right and left.' 




JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1904. 



bullets caught it. and it split into two halves. Or.e 

half reeled backwards and took shelter in a depression, 

the other half dashed forward towards the Russian 

entanglements. These checked its progress, and, 

before the few survivors could extricate theinselves, 

the)' were shot down almost to a man by the Russian 

rifles, while, as the crowning horror, the gunboat Bobr 

began to throw her great 9-in. shells among them, and 

the Russian naval guns on Iloshang to fire rapidl\' 

upon them. The battalion was practically annihilated, 

though the rest of the 1st Di\ision was thrown into 

the battle to its support. 

'l"he Russians thought that their opportunity had 

come, and showed signs of advancing their right. At 

the same time the Bobr steamed close up to the head 

of Hand Bay, and the five steamers 

Attack by the fyHo^cd her and made as though 
" Bobr." *' 

they were about to land the men 

they had on board, menacing the 3rd Division, which 
formed the Japanese left and which had been slowly 
draw^n into the fight. Part of the Japanese artillery 
was forced to change front and meet this fresh attack, 
which was with some difficulty repulsed. By its fire 
the launches and steamer were compelled to draw- 
off, and the Bobr was several times hit and appeared to 
be damaged. But the heavy shells from the Hoshang 
battery continued to fall among the 1st and 3rd Divi- 
sions, and nothing could be done to silence the 
battery, owing to the fact that it was beyond the 
effective range of the Japanese artillery. The Russians 
on their part poured iresh gunners into their disabled 
batteries, and resumed their fire, which had abated. 
The hour was critical, and as noon approached it 
seemed that the battle had been lost, and that Nanshan 
was too strong to be taken by assault. 

The situation was now as follows : At no point had the 

Russian line been broken. Little parties of Japanese 

infantry had taken cover in the holes made by the 

shells and in the deep pit exca\ated by the Russian 

mine which had exploded, but 

Firing from the ^i^^^ 1^ ^i^ ^.g^e close under the 
Bay. '^ ' 

Russian trenches, the obstacles were 

too serious to permit them to advance under the terrific 

fire that at once greeted any man who \entured to 

emerge from his concealment. The Russian guns on 

Xankwanling were firing over the heads of their 

comrades on Nanshan, and were landing a storm of 

shrapnel upon these devoted Japanese detachments. 

In Kinchau Bay the tide was running out, and the 

TsUKUSllI and HiilVKN had been compelled to retin* 



May 26, 1904. 



THE NAVAL ATTACK. 



583 



to a distance from the shore 
for want of depth. The 
AKAt;i and CllOKAl, how- 
ever, pressed closer in, and 
now gave their wliole atten- 
tion to the Russian field- 
guns on Xankwanling, to 
silence which was a matter 
of urgent necessity. The_\- 
engaged the Russian guns 
in a protracted artiller}- 
duel, inflicting heavy loss 
upon the Russians, but also 
suffering themselves. Early 
in the afternoon a shell ex- 
ploded close to the Chokai, 
and its splinters struck and 
killed on the spot her gallant 
commander, Hayashi, 
severely wounding Lieutenant Sato and three men. No damage was done to the ship, however, and she 
continued her fire with great effect. At the very opening of the fight she had been struck by a shell 
which killed two men and wounded Lieutenant Kino and two others. Captain Hayashi had commanded 
tl-.e fleet of transports in the third attempt to seal Port Arthur, and had won for himself a high reputation 




1 From .1 phutog 
KUSSI.\N" PRISONERS -ARRIVING AT .MATSUVAM.\. 




A PRIEST OF THE GREEK CHURCH HANDING A S.-VCRED PICTURE TO A WOUNDED RUSSIAN SOLDIER TO KISS. 



584 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26. 1904. 



by his brilliant courage and his perfect judgment. He was an officer of as great promise as tlie iieroic 
Hirose. who fell in the second attempt to block the entrance to Port Arthur harbour. 

The day was advancing, and still Nanshan held out ; it was now about 5 o'clock in the afternoon, and 
the Japanese were no nearer success than they had been twelve hours earlier when the battle opened. The 
artillery commanders sent the unwelcome news to General Oku that their batteries had 
Indomitable Oku. ^^^^^^^ exhausted all the ammunition with the guns ; onlj' the reserve rounds remained, 
and a further supply could not be obtained without considerable delay. It was the crisis of the battle, and 
there were voices among the Japanese for a postponement of the assault till the following day. But General 
Oku was equal to the situation ; he was a soldier of true Samurai breed, indomitable in his resolution and 
cner"v, fearless in his decisions : antl he was reads- to leave his whole army on the field rather than confess 




[Copyright, 1904, by '' Collier's NN'eekly " 111 U.S..\. 
GENERAL KUROPATKIN INSPECTS A STORE AND BAGG.\GE TRAIN. 

defeat. It is this stern, uncompromising spirit that prevails in war. He gave the orders for the guns to fire 
their last ammunition away in a final desperate bombardment of Nansnan and for the whole Japanese force 
to advance to the a.s.sault. The three divisions were to be thrown upon the Russian works simultaneously 
in an effort to retrieve the fortunes of the day. 

The 1st and 3rd Divisions moved forward to the support of the small ixutics holding the ground in 

front of the Russian works. Volunteers ran in advance of each regiment to cut the 

Volunteers Russian wire fencing, and to sever the cables to the mines which covered the ground 

in front of Nanshan. When men were called for to execute this dangerous mission, 

whole regiments responded. Almost to a man these volunteers were shot down, but their magnificent 



586 



JAPANS FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1904. 





OF.NEKAI. T»Hil>HAGOFF. 

Commander of ihc troops guarding the Man- 
churian KaiU-ay. 



GENERAL RENNENK.AMPF. 
Russian Cavalry Commander. 



courage bad a groat effect on the 
infantry charging behind. It was 
fortunate, too, that owing to the 
heavy rain of the pre\ious night, the 
ground had .subsided \\here\er mines 
had been laid, so that the troops 
could readily .see the exact position 
of the.-<e dangerous obstacles. Hence 
it was that the Russian mines caused 
little loss, though absurd stories were 
afterwards circulated in Port Arthur 
of whole Japanese battalions having 
been sent flying through the air. 
One mine did, however, inflict heavy 
loss. As the 4th Division' pushed 
forward, there was a violent explosion under a company, which killed twent\--six men. 

The 1st Division on the Japanese left dashed forward gallantl)-, but, when only a few yards from the 

Russian trenches, was arrested by the wire entanglement, and brought to a dead stop. Men could be seen 

falling right and left; a breastwork of bodies swiftly rose in front of the Japanese, but 

The Wire ^j^g troops would not retreat, and the artilleiy, pouring in a terrific fire, strove to give 

them what help it could by checking the vehemence of the Russian fusillade. A furious 

rush of the 3rd Regiment was led by Captain Arisaka, another of the 12th Regiment by Captain Terasaki; 

they closed on the Russians, though gaps were torn in their 
ranks by the hail of bullets from eight Russian machine- 
guns. Most of the men in the rush wei'e killed or 
wounded; both the o.lficers went down. It looked as 
though the final attack 
had converted a repulse 
into a disaster. 

But at this moment 
help came from the 4th 
Division. It was com- 
manded by 
General 
Ogawa, a 
soldier of brilliant tactical 
capacity, who had noted 
that the Russian lines were 
weak to the west, and could 
be turned by an advance 
in that direction. Such 
an advance was possible if 
his infantry waded througji 
the shallows of the baj'. 
His dispositions were 
rapidly made. Under 
c(.\(.r of the gunbf)ats' fire, the 19th Brigade of his Division raced along 
the west coa.st of the isthmus, and, while the attention (jf the Russians 
was concentrated ui)on the frontal attack delivered by the ist and 3rd isy.iney smuh pi"'"- 

... ^ 1,T.-C0L. SURGEON HIRAl. 

Divisions, dashed upon the Russian left and rear, the other brigade in ^j,arge of ti.e Reserve Hospimi, ToUo. 




A Fight in 
the Sea. 



O-IOCHI.NO SA\. 

of the JajKtneftc Red Cross Staff at Matsuyama in 
charge of Kui^ian wounded. 




588 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 




May 26, 1904. 

delivering a frontal 
attack. There were 
many casualties in the 
brigade as it moved for- 
ward ; officers and men 
disappeared in the water 
which rose waist-high ; 
the sea under the setting 
sun took on a crimson 
tint, dyed with blood; but 
the charge was crowned 
with success, and with ir- 
resistible dash the infan- 
try of the 4th Division 
reached the westernmost 
summit of Nanshan. 



tMHARKlNO HORSES AT YOKOHAMA. 



IS. Smith photo. 



A path through the wire entangle- 
ments, which protected the hill on 
this side as in front, was cleared by 
an heroic party 

How the Japanese of 30 engineers, 
Advanced. -^ «> ' 

who volun- 
teered for that object with the firm 
resolve to die in their country's 
cause. The fire of the Russians 
was so deadly that they had to 
approach the entanglement by 
crawling on their 

TWO RU.SSIAN 

stomachs; they cut prisoners 

UNDER GUARD. 

the wires without 
lifting their heads, as any movement 
instantly drew upon them a storm 
of bullets from the enemy's rifles 





JAI'A.Vtbl. sOLDlhK.'s AT Hkl.Nli LXtkCLSt. 



IS. Smith ptioto. 



and machine-guns. With 
terrible loss, however, they 
did their work faithful in 
death as in life ; a gap wa.s- 
cleared, and through this^ 
the moment the news had 
been signalled back, the 
4th Division rushed im- 
petuously and surged upon 
the Russian trenches, the 
8th Regiment leading the 
assault with cries of 
" Banzai " that seemed to 
rend the air, dominating 
even the fierce thunder of 



May 26, 1904. 



NANSHAN WON. 



589 




THE iiUklAl, uh A JAPANtsh utHCtK IN TOKIO. 
A life-size Imlf-length portrait of the officer was earned on the bier. 



LFroni a photograph. 



Nanshan Won. 



the guns and the steady rattle of the rifles. Seeing their success, the ist and 3rd Divisions in emulation 
recommenced their advance, and now neither wire-fences, nor mines, nor the blast of fire from rifles and 
machine-guns could hold them back. The whole Japanese line swept up the front of 
Nanshan ; the flag of the Rising Sun showed here and there along the ridge ; and 
almost before the Japanese General Staff, gazing in admiration upon this supreme attack, was aware 
of it, the lost battle had been converted into a magnificent triumph. There was a brief instant of hand- 
to-hand fighting on the ridge as the Japanese artillery checked its fire on 
the trenches, and began to pour its projectiles right over the height, so 
as to mow down the Russian supports and the fugitives on the further 
slope. The glint of steel could be seen, but the heroic Japanese infantry 
by sheer force of numbers and immense bravery quickly gained the upper 
hand in the struggle. The Russians were hurled back on Nankwanling, 
and the Japanese turned their rifle-fire upon the long column of flying men. 
" Never," wrote a Japanese eye-witness of the battle, " shall I forget 
this magnificent sight. It might be called horrible, though no one 
accustomed to war would have so described it contemplating so wonderful 
a victory. Shells fell like hail upon the enemy ; white smoke filled the 
air, olive-coloured with the curious glow of sunset. Russians were falling 
on every side. Something of the fury of the pursuit may be grasped from the 
GENKKAi, <,KEKOFF^ Statement that one artillery brigade alone fircd 2,000 shclls in twenty minutes." 

Commander of the ^u■^>t Cossack Brigade. '^'''* *- --» 

No XXV • 




590 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1904. 




JAI'ANKSK CA^^L■A1.TIE.S AT THK BATTLE OF NAXSHAX. 

Officers, of Infantry (all killed). 

Major Alada. Major Takata. Lieutenant-Colonel Fujita. 

Capuin SuzukL Captain Shintlo. Captain Hirata. 

CzpUin Miyamoto. Lieutenant Satoh. Lieutenant Oki. Lieutenant Muraoka. 

.Sub.-Lieul. Okumur.1. Sub.-Lieut. Nagasaki. Sub.-Lieut. Satoii. Lieutenant Okaniura. 



In the Rus.s!an lines 

the emotions of the hours 

before the final attack are 

thus told b)- a witness : 

" I saw the 

A Russian j ^^nese 
Description. -' ' 

no longer 

advancing by ones and 
twos, but in a long line, 
behind which followed 
other lines. The whole 
face of the country seemed 
to be covered by small 
black dots. A crash 
behind us, and a great 
gun in a bastion toppled 
over ; a mangled body 
flew up in the air \\ith 
a cloud of dust and 
rolled into our trench. 
The gun had been put 
out of action. We 

manned the loopholes and 
began to fire, yet not for 
an instant did the Jap- 
anese stop ; their thin 
lines came on, ever on- 
ward. Now and again a 
man fell, but it made no 
difference to them. The 
same numbers werealways 
there. Signals were made 
back and the intensity of 
the shrapnel fire grew. 
Shells burst in all direc- 
tions above the trendies. 
The trench below us was 
half-emptied ; we were 
losing fast. No one could 
aim straight, and many 



men crouched in the bottom of the trench without orders. Our fire ceased ; our officers were dead ; 
and there was none to give commands. The uproar of the artillery duel continued ; shells pitched into 
or close to our trench ; the earthworks w ere wrecked ; wounded men crawled and staggered aw ay or cried 
and moaned. 

" Of the four big guns near us, only one was now working. Half a dozen wild-eyed men tumbled over 
the parapet into our trench. They came from the trench below and declared that not a soul was left alive 
there. . . . The reserves came up ; every loophole was manned. Line upon line of Japanese troops were 
advancing, and behind every rock, every stone, every mound^ every tree there was an enemy. 

" They gathered in swarms at the foot of the hill ; gathered in every fold of the earth, where there was 
cover; and as the tide surged and ebbed, with alternate advance and retreat, so they heaved to and ^ro 




in 

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u. 
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a. 
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u 

Q 
z 

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592 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1904. 





JAPANESE LANDING SUPPLIES IN KINCHAU BAY. 

below. The bullets came faster ; we fired furiously ; men fell to right and left ; and overhead above our 
trench the shrapnel burst continuously, until suddenly' it ceased, and in that instant the loud, clear note of the 
bugle rang forth, and the whole mass of Japanese poured forward up the hill. The bayonets gleamed ; the 
men's faces were set and hard ; the officers were in front calling them on. The heavy guns thundered ; the 
machine-guns uttered their ghastly pttle ; lanes were cut through the advancing ranks; and yet the Japanese 
came on, pouring through the gaps torn by the fire in the wire-fencing, or cutting it down with axe and 
knife. They reached the lower trenches ; then our reserves poured into our trench ; the fire increased in 
vehemence ; the second entanglement checked the Japanese. . . . Some flung themselves flat, behind their 
own dead ; others took shelter in the lower trench ; the remnant melted away down the hill. 

" More lines poured upwards, and the Japanese regained strength. Again they surged upwards ; again 
they melted away. I saw an officer cheering on his men with blood streaming from several wounds and his 
right arm hanging useless. He died within twenty yards of us. And then came a change. A Japanese 
brigade wading out to the left began to envelop our left. We had no quickfirers facing the beach, and our 
trenches were few. With very slight losses they reached the beach below .xN^anshan and began to gather for 
the assault. 




MPA.Sh^h KtMOVl.NU XilLlk UK.M, FROM THE WIRE ENTANGLED HEIGHTS OF NWKHAV 
In tb. dghl ,h. gu.« had lo b. approached through a network of wire enunglements, and within this ^one the carnage was tremendo 



594 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1904. 



•• Here, there, everywhere were Japanese, their bayonets gleaming, their laces awful with the lust of 
killing. ... 1 sank down with the shouts of the victorious Japanese ringing in my ears, and two hours later 
\VAs picked up, a prisoner of war." 

As the battle was gained, the sun sank below the sea in a shimmer of gold. Almost, as if by 

enchantment, stillness fell upon the stricken field ; the fire of the gdns and rifles ceased, and only the moans 

of the wounded disturbed that solemn and dreadful scene. At Tafangshan the station 

Sixteen Hours buildings burst into flame and shed a lurid glare on the hills and mountains. Presently 

Under Arms. ^ ^^j,y^„ ^f fl^e and smoke shot up, and with a terrific report, which echoed away and 

died in the ravines of Mount Sampson, a Russian powder magazine exploded. Without a moment's delay 




CHKATING THK JAPANESE: A RUSSIAN RUSE. 

In order to Jivcrt the fire of the Japanese gunboats at Kaiping the Cossacks put up a number of dummies dressed .is soldiers on one of the cliffs. The 

Russian scouts watched with pleasure the success of their trick. 

the Japanese Medical Service set to its sad task of collecting the wounded and counting up the number of 
the dead. 

There was no further pursuit of the Ru.ssians that night. General Oku's gallant army had fought itself 
to a standstill. The men had been sixteen hours or more under arms and in continual battle. They needed 
food and rest, and so were suffered to bivouac in the positions which they had .so gallantly won. 

Of the Japane.se dead, it was found that almost without exception they had been killed in the act of 

moving forward. " Some of them were stretching out their hands as though they were still aiming their 

rifles at the enemy ; others had their eyes open and ablaze with anger. . . . The 

^DeacT"^^^ wounded, except those who had been disabled, refused to be sent back for treatment to 

the field-hospital and asked to be permitted to remain with liicir comrades in the 

fighting line. A military physician was deeply moved by their childlike innocence, and told me that it drew 

tears fron; the stoutest hearts." And certainly greater courage and devotion have never been manifested by 

any armv upon anj- fiehl. 




The 



BATTLKKIELU. 

J • 1 1 «■ K„ f,.„ .-,11 nnlp« rrowned with eversreeii. Between these is stretched a rope of rice or straw, 

he ground where the bier, or altar, .s erected is ntarked "^ 1^^ "'° 'f '' /°'",u"°,^ "I'^ofX ber bears a Japanese inscription equivalent to our " Requiescat." 
with paper streamers, in token that the K/™"'>,'»,'=°7f ™'^f ;. ^ "gn the small table before thT bier is a tiny tablet with^he e,^taph of the deceased. Friends 
The poles carry banners inscribed with the exploits of the J?'''*- O". '"i^^^r '"",, Citimate friends place " Sakaki," a little sprig of evergreen decorated with 
of thi dead lay offerings, in many cases of rice, upon the bier, .»"'!■" /!°"''l'='2°^'V''„\'^f„^^^ fired. No et^logium is delivered, but the Shinto priest 

paper. Officers and men salute the 'l-f^-^";„^;--:3»™;i,;- J'JpTr.cTo^retegbc^rpl^itlon^ecounting his careef. 



5% 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 26, 1904. 



The capture of Nanshan was a military .eat o. the first importance, eclipsing even the great victory of 

the Yalu. The storming of a position prepared for defence by months of labour, and held by white troops 

of the highest quality with the support of an ample artillery, was the clearest evidence 

Nanshan as a ^f jhe magnificent wom/e of the Japanese army, and of its admirable training and 

Military Feat ,^^j^^,^ip j^e trophies were in proportion to the brilliance of the victory. Sixty- 

ei"ht guns, many of them of the largest calibre, ten machine-guns, three searchlights, a dynamo, and a large 

" " quantity of material were 

taken by the Japanese 
upon the field. 

The Japanese loss in 
the battle was 4,204 
killed and wounded, 
thus distributed between 
the three divisions en- 
gaged : 

1st Division, killed, 205 ; 
wounded, 1,152. 

3rd Division, killed, 134; 
wounded, 1,167. 

4th Division, killed, 379 ; 
wounded, 1,081. 

Troops not attached to 
any Divisijn, killed, 21 ; 
wounded, 55. 

The total number of killed 
was 749, of whom 33 were 
officers — a heavy loss, yet 
when the importance of 
the victory 
is c o n - 
sidered, not 
out of proportion to the 
greatness of the success. 
The Russians suffered very 
nearly as heavily — ten 
officers and 664 non- 
commissioned officers and 
men were found upon the 
field and buried by the 
Japanese, while another 
20 or 30 bodies were 
afterwards discovered and 
interred with military 

honours. Adding these in, the total deaths in the Russian ranks were at least 700, while the wounded 
must have numbered another 3,000. It is no e.\aggeration to place the total of those who fell on this 
terrible day at 7,000, or about a tenth of the total force engaged on either side. Yet General 
Stoessel's despatch, as published to the world, admitted only a loss of 30 officers and 800 men killed 
and wounded. It is not going too far to say that this figure was far below the truth, or that, had 
the Russian army really retreated from .such a position with so small a casualty list, it could scarcely 
be said to have justified its high reputation as a fighting force. Moreover, this estimate of the Russian 




The Loss 
of Life. 



(Drawn from . 
WOUNDED SOLDIERS ARRIVING: IN TOKIO, 



, .sLctcli by SliclUuii Williams. 



May 27, 1904. 



ADVANCE ON PORT ARTHUR. 



597 



loss was directly contradicted by 
the evidence of the Japanese and 
of the Russian prisoners. 

Most of the Russian killed had 
fallen victims to the Japanese 
artillery fire, which had done 
terrible execution both during the 
assault and during the retreat. 
The Russian gunners had nearly 
all been killed by their guns. 
They had fought gallantly to the 
last, and the spirit of the Russian 
force was such that even after this 
defeat, after this terrible punish- 
ment, it showed no perceptible 
sign of diminished energy or 
morale. 




CHINESE TROOPS GUARDING THE MANCHUKIAN FKONTIEK. 



THE ADVANCE 



CHAPTER XXVII. 
OX PORT ARTHUR AND DEPLOYMENT OF 
ARMIES. 



THE JAPANESE 




IMPERIAL IJOUVCIAKI) U.N THE PARADE 



<■::. ,.,.: ,V I ,M.,»,..nl. I.. 

GRUU.ND, TUKIO. 



EARLY on the morning^ 
of May 27, the day 
after the battle of 
Nanshan, a regiment of 
General Oku's army ad- 
vanced to Nankwanling, 
while the rest of the Jap- 
anese army prepared to give 
support in case the Russian 
position there was found to 
be strongly held. But 

though 

Advance on ^ankwan- 
Nankwanhng. 

ling offered' 

great advantages for a 
resolute defence, the Rus- 
sians had suffered too- 
severely at Nanshan to- 
renew their resistance as. 
yet. General Nakamura,. 
who commanded the 2nd 
Japanese Infantry Brigade, 
had been charged with the 
task of capturing Dalny ;. 
he occupied Nankwanling 
without any difficulty, 
seeing on his forward 
movement many traces of 



598 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 




bcTiidits, who licrc as cibcwlicic shuwed tiicir 
when they saw others in agony." The\' were 
at once driven off b\- a detachment of Japanese 
infantry and cavalr}', and several wlio had 
been foremost in the work of atrocity were 
seized and executed by the Japanese 
authorities. 

As General Nakamura moved forward, the 
sound of heav}' exp>losions could be heard 

far away in the direction 

of Dalny, and presently 
the station of Sanchilipudze burst into flame. 
It had been set on fire by the Russians anxious 
to prevent the Japanese from getting posses- 
sion of the stores collected in its buildings. 
The Russians themselves had hurriedly abandoned Ualny on the night 



May 28, 1904. 

the heavy punishment which 
the Russians had suffered 
during their retirement from 
Nanshan. " Dead Ijodies 
were piled in mounds and 
blood poured over the 
ground. One artiller)' officer 
had been killed in the act 
of mounting his horse. 
Some of the wounded had 
been preserved from insult 
or injur)- under the Red 
Cross flag, but others had 
been plundered by Chinese 



langc their invariable cowardice for cruelty 



To Dalny. 





after the battle, but as yet the 
Japanese were not aware of 
the completeness of their 
success, and for this reason 
they pushed cautiously for- 
ward. At the same time, 
reports of a southward move- 
ment of the Russians from 
Liao3'ang compelled General 
Oku to turn his attention to 
his rear, and occupied the 
attention of two of his divisions, 
so that only one was left for a 
movement upon Dalny. Two 
more divisions were, however, 
upon the way to reinforce 
him. On the 28th, General 
Nakamura sent a detachment 



JAI'ANKSK DKACdlNG UP 

(lUNS. 
Pliotosrnplis Iiy K. A. McKeii^ie. 



May 28, 1904. 



TALIENWAN BAY OPEN. 



599 



to seize Liuchiatun and Hoshang, wliither 
ran a short branch h'iie from the main Port 
Arthur raihva\-. Tiie forts and barracks at 
those places had been, as far as possible, 
damaged or destro>ed by the Russians, and 
the pier had been demolished. But in the 
large fort at Hoshang. which jiad so annoxed 
the Japanese during their attack upon Nan- 
siian, four heav)- guns with ammunition were 
taken. In the station were 46 waggons 
which had not been destroyed, and TxWch 
became prizes of war. 

With the capture of Hoshang, Talienwan 
Bay lay open to the Japanese navy, and 





JAPANESE DRAGGING vl^'^^^S. '" ''■ ^^ "^''^"■'^• 



Admiral Togo's craft at once pushed into the 
bay and began the difficult work of searching 
It for mines. The Russian gunboat Bo/>r 
which had shelled the Japanese during the' 

The"Bobr" '"'''' ^""'^' ''^'' ''='''■«' 
Disappears. ^° ^^^ bay at the close 

of the fight, and had there 
been blockaded by the Japanese fleet. Of 
her no trace could be found, and it was 
supposed, in consequence, that she had 
struck one of the Russian mines and sunk. 
Though this was denied by the Russians, it 
seems to have been the truth, as the fact 
remains indisputable that she disappeared 
about this date, and one of the Russian 
prisoners taken after Nanshan speaks of seein<^ 




J.V1'.\.NE.S1:, ARll].l.hl<\ 



IPhoto J. H. Hare. 



600 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 29, 1904. 




JAPANESE CAVALRY EXERCISING. {Drawn in Tokio by Sheldon Williams 

From the parade grounJ a fine view of the highest mountain in Japan, Fujiyama (12,400 ft.) is obtained 

her suddenly sink in a cloud of smoke. On the 29th, Nakainura continued his advance, ancV 
that day occupied the line of heights immediately to the west of Sanchilipu, at the same time 
taking possession of Dalny. A small Russian force hovered on the outskirts of the 
Qainv town, but retired, exchanging a few shots with the Japanese and offering little or no. 

resistance. Though a good deal of damage had been done b)- the Russians before 
they evacuated the town, the port had not been laid in ashes, as they had threatened it would be. Many 
of the miiies which they had prepared under the docks and buildings had not been exploded, and at 
the goods depot on the railway the work of c.estruction had been perfunctorily carried out. The 
barrack.s, warehouses, and storehouses, to the number of 100 large modern buildings, were in good condi- 
tion. Both the telegraph -office and the railwa)'- 
station were intact, and 200 trucks were recovered 
in .serviceable condition. All the locomotives had 
been removed. The large pier had been destroyed,, 
but the wharves were in good order. The dock 
was also in good condition, though a small 
steam launch had been sunk at its entrance^ 
and the cais.son at the entrance to the wet 
dock had been slightly damaged. Several of 
the culverts on the railway between Kinchau 
and Sanchilipu had been destroyed by the 
Russians, thus rendering the line useless till it 
could be repaired. 

The capture of Dalny was of the utmost 




JAPANESE COURTS OF JUSTICE, 



l(i. Smitii ph<Ho. 
TOKIO. 



strategic importance to Japan. It ga\c her a 



602 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 30, 1904. 



The Value 
of Dalny- 




DAMAGE CAUSED NKAR DALNV BY THE JAPANESE BOMBARDMENT 



good ice-frec hartx)ur on 
the Manchurian coast, with 
ample wharf and pier ac- 
commodation, so that 
troops and 
guns couhi 
there be dis- 
embarked with perfect ease 
and security. As yet, how- 
ever, Japanese transports 
could not enter the ba\- 
owing to the mines whicli 
had been laid there in 
enormous numbers. Divers 
were requisitioned for the 
work of detecting them 
while the torpedo craft and 
small gunboats of the fleet 

dragged and swept the water all through the early days of June. On June 6, 41 mines liad been fomul 
and destrojed, and with the help of a Chinese pilot, who had been in the Russian service, a channel was 
marked out for the use of light-draft vessels. On June 7 and 8, 21 mines were found and exploded 
without misadventure, and in the process two sunken Russian ships were discovered in the harbour. 'I'hcse 
were supposed to be the cruiser Boyarin and the small merchant steamer Nonni. Possession was taken by 
the Japanese of the island of South Sanshantao, where the lighthouse dynamo was found to ha\e been 
destroyed by high explosives. A hospital on the island had all the woodwork removed, but the roof and 
walls remained intact. By mid-June the harbour was available for the landing of troops, though a 
number of Russian mines still remained out towards the sea and caused the Japanese further casualties. 

Meanwhile, the land forces had made a further advance towards Port .-Arthur, and on May 30 carried 
the northern slope of the Antzeshan ridge, which rises near the eastern end of Kinciiau Ba\-. The 
possession of this height .secured Dalny from attack, and enabled the landing of men and stores tiiere to be 
carried out with complete tranquillity. No further advance was attempted for some days, as General Oku 
was now bu.sy with the Russians in his rear, who showed every intention of attacking him in co-operation 

with the Russian garrison in Port Arthur. Day by day 
there were skirmishes in the Kwangtung Peninsula 
between the Japanese outposts and Russian detach- 
ments which constantly approached the Japanese 
entrenchments, apparently with the intention of dis- 
covering whether they were strongly held. At times the 
Russians were disguised as Chinese, which led the 
Japanese to protest agaiu'^t what they considered to be 
an offence against the laws of war. The Russians were 
made out to be heavily entrenching a chain of positions 
running across the peninsula from Shwangtaikou tt) 
Shwanlinshan, five miles south-west of Daln\'. The 
troops holding this line were marines and rifle regiments 
from Port Arthur. 

Reconnoitring parties, which had been pushed north- 
wards from Kinchau by General Oku after his capture 
of Nanshari; revealed a steady increase in the Russian 

NLMBtKKD BLOCKS KOK I HE ......Lut i. ..1 ,. i - .1 ■, -i-u 1 t 1 

iiALNY. forces along the railway. 1 he enemy appeared to be 




May 30, 1904. 



THE ADVANCt: AGAINST TELISSE. 



603 




ADMIRAL ALEXEIEFF LEAVING THE TZAkll-As HOSPITAL AT MUKllI.N 



U 1 H .N hi- li 



concentrating at the station of Telisse, which lies in a direct line 50 miles north of Kinchau. Their outposts 

were to the south of this point at Liukiatun, where, on May 30, the rearguard of General Oku's army, 

consisting of two companies of infantry, five squadrons of cavalrj-, and a battery 

General Oku ^f artillery, came into collision with them. The Russians, after a sharp skirmish. 
Advances Against , . , . , , , , . , 

Telisse were driven north, not without the Japanese liavmg lost somewhat heavily. 

Twenty-six officers and men were killed and ^-j wounded. On the same day another 

Russian force was found some miles to the south of Liukiatun at Chukiatun, which point it had probably 

reached by marching along the coast road from Kaiping and Fuchau. The Russian detachment was a 

strong one, consisting of 2,oOD infantry with a regiment of cavalry and a battery of artillery. The Japanese 

force entrenched itself, and held its positi6n with the more ease as the Russians were probably engaged in a 

reconnaissance and seem to have had no intention of bringing on a general action. All the reports received 




(Photo by the w;ir correspondents of The Ch.irles Urhan Tr:uUiig Co., Ltd., London .inj P.-tris- 

UE.NEKAL KUKOI'AIKl.\ liKING RECEIVED BY GENERALS RENNENKA.MPE AND GREKOFF AT AN INSPECTION OF 

THE COSS.\CKS. 



604 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 30, 1904. 




A OF DALNV-THK COSTLY COMMERCIAL CITY ERECTKD I!V RUSSL\. 

by the Japanese from their scouts represented the Russian forces as steadily growing in strength. It was 
said that day by day trainloads of troops were arriving at Telisse from I.iao\ang, while these reports were 
tonfirmed by news which came from Europe to the effect that the Czar had ordered General Kuropatkin to 
make a bold advance south, in order, if possible, to relieve Port Arthur and prevent the Japanese from 
cutting it off. General Kuropatkin had promised to take the offensive in May, before leaving Europe for the 
Far East, and now he was held to his word. General Oku, therefore, began a northward movement with the 
3rd and 4th Divisions towards Pulantien, with the object of at once attacking his enemy and covering the 
siege of Port .Arthur. The place of these divisions was taken by two divisions under General Xogi, the 9th 
and nth, forming the 3rd Army, which had arrived from Japan, and which in mid-June 
continued the operations against the great Russian fortress. 

Meantime, a fourth Japanese army had landed on the Manchurian coast, under tlK 
command of General Nodzu, a distinguished veteran of the war with China. The disem- 
barkation was effected at Takushan, a Chinese port thirty miles to the west of the mouth 

of the Yalu, under cover of the Japanese fleet. Admiral 

eHosoya, with the old ironclads Fusoo, H EI YEN, and Saiven, 
the old cruiser TSUKUSIII, and a number of gunboats, ap- 
peared off Takushan early on the 

^'Arrives?''''' ■"°''"''^^' °f ^^^>' '9- The gunboat 
IWAKI opened fire upon a small partv 

of Russians who were seen on shore, and who at once 

retired ; then, as at Pitsewo, a party of bluejackets under 

Lieutenant Takemitsu landed under the guns of the warships 

without encountering any resistance, and, pushing rapidly 

forward, occupied an eminence above the bay, where the 

Japanese flag was planted. Ne.xt the transports steamed uj) 

and began to land men. The weather was most favourable, 

and the disembarkation proceeded with great celcrit)-, the 

Russians causing no trouble. Three divisions in all were 

placed ashore, the 5th, 6th, and loth, mustering a total of 

60,000 officers and men with 140 guns. This army was 

charged with the duty of linking up (jenera! Kuroki's force 

at Fenghwangcheng and General Oku's army now con- 

centratijig at Port Adams. The landing place, Takushan, 

was well chosen, as an army disembarked there was onlj- 

some 75 miles in a direct line from the railway at Haicheng, 

and would, in consequence, menace the retreat of any ^ 

A JAPANKSK WARRioR-OLD STYLE. Russian force to the south of that [ioint. The appearance 





Underwood. 



AFTER IHK BATTLK OK NANSHAN. 



The correspondent who took this photograph writes : " These few feet of earth cost 3,500 lives, yet the Japanese you see here now are ready, every man, 
to add 10 the price if need be. This is at Nanshan, where General Oku's men made their terrifically splendid charge on the Russians, buying victory wiih 
their life-blood. Four of these wooden pillars are temporary memorials to the slain of thai fearful day. The inscription on the right-hand pillar signifies : ' In 
honour of the men of the .Second Army of the Kmperor of Japan killed in the battle of Nanshan Hill, May 26 of the thirty-seventh year of Meiji. The pillar 
next towards the left marks ' the tomb of Tokumatsu Shirai, late first soldier leader of the infantry.' The pillar between the two seated men gives a list of the 
names of various officers killed in the same fierce onslaught. The fourth (towards the left) is inscribed as a memorial to the Mikado's men in the infantry 
rcj^imenls of the Third Division who fell in the blooily assault on Kinchau. The pillar at the extreme left is in honour of ' Ryosuke Usui, late lieutenant o( 
infantry,* .Shoten, a son of General Nogi, was among the killed here at Nanshan ; the news reached the father on the same day as the Mikado's message 
conferring on the intrepid leader the appomtment as commander-in-chief of the land forces moving on Port Arthur. The general said of his lost son who died 
here ; ' 1 am glad he died so splendidly. It was the greatest honour he could have.. As for the funeral rites in his memory, they may as well be posipor.ed 
for a while. A little later on they may bs performed m conjunction with those of the two other members of his family— his brother Hoten and myself.' The 
waters down there in the distance are part of the bay extending between here and Korea, 200 miles eastward." 
No. XXVI. G 



606 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



May 20. 1904. 




Capture of 
Siuyen. 



of the 4th Army compelled 
General Kuropatkin to 
move a very large part 
of his force southwards 
so as to cover the opera- 
tions of General Stakel- 
berg, who was now 
engaged in a desperate 
effort to defeat General 
Oku. 

On May 20, a detach- 
ment from General 
Nodzu's army encountered 
liKNiiRAL OKU ANn HIS STAFF. ^ squadroH of Cossacks a 

few miles to the north of Takushan and routed them, capturing six officers and men and killing nine more, 
with the loss of but one man, while on the following day 1 2 fugitives from this squadron 
were taken or killed. The 4th Army, as soon as its disembarkation was completed, 
moved forward in the direction of Siuyen, a Chinese village 30 miles north-west of 

Takushan and 40 miles west of Fenghwangcheng. In co-operation with General Kuroki's army it 

captured Siuyen on June 8, after an insignificant skirmish with a Russian force of cavalry 1,600 strong, 

assisted by si.x guns. General Kuroki's troops encountered a somewhat stouter resistance, as they found in 

front of them 4,000 Russian troops; but these retired after some hours of skirmishing, in which the losses 

on either side were small. 
From his central position 

at Fenghwangcheng, 

General Kuroki began to 

throw forward columns in 

all directions, but more 
General especially 
northwards 
towards 

Mukden. Cavalry were 

sent towards Aiyang and 

Saimatse, and reconnoi- 
tring parties were pushed 

out from Kwantien, which 

lay far to the east between 

Aiyang and the Yalu. 

The Russians had a con- 
siderable force of Cossacks 

at Saimatse and in the 

neighbourhood, the object 

of which was to annoy 

the Japanese by attacking 

their communications. Its 

strength was put by 

Russian authorities at 

SfXX3 men, under General 

Rennenkampf, but the 

servirps whirH if rfnAf*rd^A iFrom sterco^jrapti copyriclit, Uiicierwood i<; UiKltrwood, London and New York. 

aav.tca wiucn 11 rtnaereO BOMli-l'KOOF I'lT USED i:V THF: RUSSIANS AT KINCHAU. 



Kuroki's 
Movements. 




May 28, 1904. 



THE RUSSIAN FORCES. 



607 



[Stereograph copyright, Untlerwooti & Underwood, London and New Veil 
SOME JAPANESE WOUNDED AT DALNY. 



to General Kuropatkin 

were infinitesimal. Con- 
tinual skirmishing pro- 
ceeded between it and 

the Japanese detachments 

in their advance, though 

there was no fighting of 

a serious nature. On 

May 28, Aiyang was 

occupied ; and on June 7, 

General Sasaki, com- 
manding the 1 2th Brigade 

of the 1 2th Division, 

dislodged the Russians 

from Saimatse, with a 

loss to the Japanese of 

but 27. Thus early June 

found the Japanese hold- 
ing a front of 70 miles 

roughly parallel with the 

railway, from Saimatse on 

the north-east to Siuyen 

on the south-west, and 

distant from the railway 

fifty to sixty miles. Far away on the Japanese left was the 2nd Army con 

centrated at Pulantien preparing to move north along the railway, while the 

3rd Army was ready to complete the investment of Port Arthur. Thus the 

deployment of the main Japanese armies had been effected in five weeks from the date of crossing the Yalu. 

Eleven divisions, or 200,000 men, were in the field about to strike at General Kuropatkin. 

At this date the Russians had 1 50,000 men to the south of Harbin and about 60,000 at Harbin and to 

the north of that place. Of the Russian force 40,000 men or more were in Port Arthur ; at Fengshuling 

were 20,000 men under Count Keller ; 
at Liaoyang, 30,000 under General Kuro- 
patkin himself, with 
strong detachments 
holding the Motien ; 
at Haicheng, 20,000 men under General 
Sarubaieff; and between Kaiping and 
Telisse, 30,000 under General Baron 
Stakelberg. Besides these the Russians 
had cavalry divisions under General 
Rennenkampf near Saimatse and under 
General Mistchenko near Siuyen. The 
great danger for the Russians was that 
the Japanese 1st and 4th Armies might 
push rapidly forward upon the railway 
and cut off General Stakelberg's retreat, 
but, unfortunately, difficulties of supplies 
or cautious counsels at Tokio prevented 

JAPANESE SOLDIERS DEALING WITH CHINESE NEAR NANSHAN. „ , -^ , . j tvt . c 

MILITARY NOTES ARE USED. Gcnerals Kuroki and Nodzu from 






^. 


■^^^^KJ^Ki^^^l^BBHLrfjl 


lyjjj 


j^^^^Hy^^^ ^^^^HBnf i \\ 




^^^^^^^^^K^^y^ ,^^^^^^^1 l^r^^^^^l 





The Russian 
Forces. 



608 



lAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 7, 1904. 



achieving such a :itroke. liefore any 
advance coukl be attempted, sufficient 
food had to be accumuhited and moved 
i'orward to earn- the troops through the 
operations undertaken. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

BATTLK OF TELISSE, OR 

WAFANGKOU. 

THROUGH early June General 
Stakelberg was busy moving troops 
south along the railway from 
A coKNKK OK THK BATTi.KFiK.Lu OF NANSHA.N. Tashichao to Telisse, having been charged 

by General Kuropatkin with the task ot re-opening communications with Port Arthur. That such an 
attempt was ever made was due to the completely erroneous reports of the battle of Nanshan which had 
been received by 




Staft General 
fully under the 
Japanese loss in 
been not less than 
that, with one-third 
r<>w^a/, General Oku 
for mischief The 
Nogi with a fresh 
been so carefully 
Japanese that the 
entire ignorance of 
quite unaware that, 
Japanese in the 
being unable to 
available for action 
70,000 men, so that 
nothing to prevent 




OKNLkAl, OKU ANU 



.vr TIFFIN AFTER THE BATTLE OF 
NANSHAN. 



the Russian General 
Kuropatkin was 
impression that the 
that action had 
15,000 men, and 
of his force hors de 
would be powerless 
arrival of General 
army at Dalny had 
concealed by the 
Russians were in 
it. They were thus 
far from the 
Liaotung Peninsula 
strike, the two armies 
numbered fully 
there would be 
them from watching 



the garri-son of Port Arthur with a sufficient force while the main Japanese strength was turned against 
General Stakelberg's 30,000 men 
slowly assembling at Telisse. 
The move- 

Misconceptions. "^^"^ ^^^^h- 
wards of the 
Russian trains was at times in- 
terfered with by the Japanese 
Navy, which, on June 7 and 8, 
fired upon parties of Russians 
who were seen along the coast 
near Kaiping, and on the 7th 
shelled a military train. Reports 
were spread that a Japanese force 
was about to land at Newchwang, 
and at the news the Russian snapshot of scene ok battle of nanshan. 




610 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 13. 1904. 




General Oku's 
Advance. 



JAPANESE LANDING AT LIUSHUTUN, ON TALIENWAN BAY. 

garrison of that place hurriedly evacuated it. The Russians were kept on the qui vive all down the 
coast, the object of the Japanese clearly being to delay the Russian concentration at Telisse and give 
.General Oku time to assemble as large a force as possible. This object was perfectly attained. 

At the same time, the Russians were strengthened in their delusion as to the weakness of the Japanese 
by the fact that General Oku advanced along several roads, and so did not disclose his force. Complacent 
reports were published by General Kuropatkin, describing insignificant skirmishes with 
the Japanese scouting-parties as great victories. Russian troops were, therefore, hurried 
south, moving by rail as far as Wankialing and then completing the journey by road, 
while the garrison of Newchwang was ordered to return to that place and continue to hold it. A strong 
position was taken up by the Russians on both sides of the railway, immediately to the south of Wafangkou, 
and was excellently entrenched with entanglements in front of it. The Russian works ran along the foot 
of the high ground to the right and left of Wafangkou. General Stakelberg's Chief of the Staff had been 
present on the Boer side at Magersfontein, and hoped to repeat with success against the Japanese the tactics 
adopted by General Cronje on that memorable occasion. The Russians had on their side the advantage of 
numbers, which the Boers had not possessed, and so to their confident minds there seemed every probability 
of inflicting a terrible defeat upon General Oku. To complete the victory, the East Siberian Division 
received orders to be prepared to move eastwards into the hills and to fall upon the Japanese right when 
their attack upon the fortified position had signally failed. 

But the Japane.se were not in the least disposed to run their heads up against a brick wall. On June 13, 
General Oku began his 
march from Pulantien 
with portions of the ist, 
3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th 

Divisions, 

the last 

two de- 
tached for the time from 
the 4th Army. His men 
moved in three columns, 
the right advancing up 
the valley of the Tashaho, 
which ran parallel to and 
to tne east ot the railway ; japane.se troops . resting at liushutun near dalnv. 



Four 
Japanese 
Columns. 




June 13, 1904. 



STAKELBERG ATTACKED. 



611 



f 
\ 








jr 



JAPA-\i,-l 



. I ICERS KECO,\NorrRI.\(J 
TELISSE. 



RUSSIAN POSITION AT 



the centre directly upon Wafangkou ; and 
the left making a very wide detour in 
the direction of Fuchau and moving to 
the village of Wuchiatun, which lay far 
to the right of the Russians. A fourth 
column of Japanese cavalry covered the 
right of the Japanese army advancing 
direct from Pitsewo, where it had landed, 
to Wankialing, ten miles to the Russian 
rear. Thus all General Oku's dispositions 
were made with the object of dealing a 
deadly blow at General Stakelberg's force, 
and enveloping and destroying it. But 
the country was so mountainous and 
difficult that the Japanese were unable to 
advance with any great degree of celerity, 
while in their turning and enveloping 
movements they encountered determined 
resistance from the Russian reinforcements 
which were continually pouring south 
along the railway. 
On the 13th, the central Japanese column met and forced back the Russian outposts, and it became 

clear to General Stakelberg that a battle was at hand. He knew nothing of any Japanese columns except 

the centre one. On the morning of the 14th the Japanese right was at Chaochiatun, 

General Stakelbepg ^^^^ centre at Tapingkou, and the left at Nankwaling, all three points distant about 

eight miles from Telisse. The Japanese scouting and reconnoitring parties brought 

information to General Oku that the Russians were in force just to the south of Wafangkou, holding a line 

four miles long astride of the Fuchau 

River, and that troops were constantly 

joining them from the north, marching 

along the railway. The central Japanese 

column, therefore, advanced during the 

early afternoon, and with its artillery 

opened a heavy fire upon the Russians 

about 3 p.m. Under cover of this attack 

the other columns continued the enveloping 

movement unobserved by their enemy. 
The Russians met the attack with great 

vigour. Finding that they had in front 

of them, as they had been led to expect, 

a very inferior force, since only about one- 
third of the Japanese army was engaged, 

they replied with the fire of g6 guns to 

the Japanese batteries, which were placed 

just to the south of Telisse. Their 

artillery was overwhelmingly superior 

both in number of guns and in weight 

of metal ; but the skill of the Japanese 

gunners stood them in good stead, and 

they held their own in the duel. The 



3HAHP1M 




BAY OF 
KOREA 

^.^ _ ^ Japan* S9 Advwtem 



GCOItOE PHIUP & SON, LTO. 

MAP SHOWING THE MARCH OF THE JAPANESE FROM KINCHAU 
TO TELISSE. 



612 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 14. 1904. 




GENERAL NODZU. 

of the 3nl Japanese Army. 

The centre column re- 
ceived orders to make a 
night march along the 
Russian 

/£il "ght front 
and then to 
climb the steep hills which 
rise north of Tayangkou 
from the bed of the Fuchau 
River, thus threatening 
the Russian right. The 
mountain artillery accom- 




hail of Russian shrapnel preceded and heralded an attempt 
to break through the Japanese line. But when this attempt 
was actually made, the Russians advancing in close formation 
came under a terrible fire and were severely punished. Not- 
withstanding heavy losses they pushed forward with great 
energy and courage, and at the close of the day had forced the 
Japanese centre back a perceptible distance to the south of 
Telisse. Here, however, the Japanese entrenched themselves 
on the high ground, and all the Russian efforts to dislodge 
them from their points of vantage were fruitless. Night came 
down and ended the action before the Russians had achieved 
any decided success. 

Time was required if the Japanese turning movements were 
to succeed, but so strong were the Russian reinforcements 
which could be seen arriving that the Japanese Staff determined 
to attack without further delay on the morning of the 1 5th. 




GENERAL RENNENKAMPF. 
In amnand of ihc Traiubaikal C<»Mck^. 



[Photo by Charles Urljaii Traditij; Co., Ltd., Paris and London. 
GENERAL RENNENKAMPF AND STAFF AT HARBIN. 

panied the column on its difficult march, which was achieved 
with perfect order and success, notwithstanding the roughness 
of the ground. Moving through the mountain glens, the 
Japanese were not seen by the Russian outposts, and soon 
after dawn they were near the appointed position. A thick 
fog had settled on the hills, and this helped to shroud their 
march. At the same time the left column was ordered to 
hasten its movement from the direction of Fuchau upon the 
Russian rear, and the cavalry on the Japanese right was 
moved in so as to threaten the Russian left. 

These night marches necessarily wearied the Japanese 
troops, and the continued resort to them by the Japanese 
was possibly the chief explanation of their failure to achieve 
decisive success. For, by the time that the battle had been 
gained, the men were too weary to pursue. Yet there was 
no other visible means of outmanoeuvring the Russians if it 
were thought necessary to drive them north. A Moltke, 
perhaps, would have aimed rather at cutting his enemy off, 
and would have allowed General Stakelberg to lead the 



614 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 15, 1904, 




A Bad Mistake. 



JAPANKSK AKTlLl.tkV AT IKLLSSK. 

Russian army as far south as he pleased, certain that each mile of advance would carry it further into the 
trap. But the Japanese did not adopt such bold strategy. 

On their part the Russians began their turning movement against the Japanese right, but instead of the 
East Siberian Division marching, as its commander, General Gerngross, had been ordered to do, at dawn, it 
delayed because of the fog until eight o'clock. Hours passed, while General 
Stakelberg watched and waited impatiently for news that it was ready to deliver its 
attack, but no such ne\vs came. At nine o'clock he sent an orderly to inquire what had happened, and at 
the same time conveyed instructions to General Gerngross as to the point on which the army would retire 
in the event of the attack proving a failure. The general received the message and completely misunder 
stood it, taking it to mean that he was at once to retire. He began a retrograde movement, to the 
exasp>eration of the Russian Staff, and when the error had been corrected by fresh and pressing messages, it 
was too late for the turning movement to be executed with the faintest hope of success. 

The Japanese artillery had opened fire almost before the fog cleared, at 5.30 a.m., 

Shells. ^"^ ^^^ Russian guns immediately replied. As yet the turning movement of Genera! 

Oku's left and left centre had not made itself felt, and in its earlier stages the 

battle went by no means well for the Japanese. On the right the Japanese came under the fire of a 




JAl'ANKSK ARl il.l.KkV .NLAR XELI 



June, 1904. 



AMMUNITION RUNS OUT. 



615 




RUSSIAN LAND MINKS. 



large number of Russian quick-firers 
stationed on high ground above Lung- 
wangmiao. The battery had been marked 
down by the Japanese gunners on the 
previous day's fighting and its range 
carefully taken. They now turned upon 
it a stream of shells and shrapnel with 
the utmost accuracy of aim, and in little 
more than fifteen minutes silenced the 
Russian guns and forced them to change 
their position. It was an astonishing 
performance ; nor on this occasion could 
the Russians plead that they had numbers 
of guns or weight of metal against them. 
Both were on their side, yet both failed to 
win success. 

The Russian guns, however, took up 
fresh positions where they could bring 
their fire to bear upon the Japanese right without being so terribly exposed to the Japanese projectiles. 
Simultaneously the East Siberian Division, after its interminable wanderings, at last began to make its 
presence felt in the same quarter of the field. The Japanese force opposed to it was one of the brigades 
of the 5th or Hiroshima Division, which had but just landed in Yentoa Bay and marched rapidly up to 
the front to take part in the battle. It numbered but 6,000 men, and was considerably inferior in strength 
to the Russians, who steadily directed against it a larger and ever larger force. The Japanese advance, after 
making great progress, came to a virtual standstill ; the 5th Division could not win its way forward through 
the tempest of fire that the Russians brought to bear upon it, and was itself in great danger of being 
enveloped. Anxiously its commander looked for the coming of the Japanese cavalry which was to support 
it, but no cavalry appeared, and the position became more than precarious. Yet even so he would not 
think of a retirement. He 
declared that he and his 
men would hold their 
ground to the last, if they 
all died on the field, and 
he fulfilled his promise. 

Towards noon the em- 
barrassments of the 5th 
Division were greatly 
augmented 
by the 
failure of 
the ammunition. The 
Japanese infantry had 
exhausted their supply of 
cartridges in the fierce and 
prolonged combat. 
Fortunately for . them, 
almost at the same moment 
the Russian supply ran 
out, so that in this quarter 
of the field the singular 



Ammunition 
Runs Out. 




DESTROYED IRON BRIDf.E AT TELISSK. 



616 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June, 1904. 



iM HutHan Army 
CZl Japanttt Arrry 

NACHIALWGx/— 



FUNKU 






^ /" ^\\\ \ tUNOTAU/S 



X<:: 



TAYANGKCXJ 



(l 



V-'' 



^^v-'7 



\ (P'l^ l^VUKIATUN 



\\. 




XisUCHuXuKbU 1 f. 







iWUCHIArbN 



\M 




UCHUmJN 



. WENCHIATUN 
TAflNGKOU {(^''0^; 



GEORGE PHILIP II son L" 



SCENE OF THE BATTLE OK TELlbSE. 

supplied, and the Japanese strained every nerve not to be 
the last 

The two hostile forces, as the situation on each side 
and the explanation of the strange silence was understood, 
emerged from cover, though many of the Russians 

refused to stir from their entrench- 
'''^'stone*'^'* ments. It was a question whether 

they could be induced to charge ; 
had they come on boldly with the bayonet, they must 
by sheer force of numbers and weight have forced the 
Hiroshima men back in rout. " As the Japanese waited 
and wondered, they saw the Russian officers and priests 
appealing to the men ; now and again a small number 
would dash forward with levelled bayonets, cheering, but 
long before they reached the point where the Japanese 
were waiting for them, their nerves gave way, and each 
time they fell back without crossing steel. Yet ground 
was gained in these futile rushes. Realising that some- 
thing must be done to relieve the strain on their men's 
nerves, the Japanese officers encouraged the Hiroshima 
troops to throw stones, and in this primitive fashion the 
two enemies exchanged blows, the Russians at once 
replying. Now and agahi a man went down with nothing 
worse than a bruised head, and a roar of laughter ran 
along the two lines. 

Far away to the rear rose clouds of dust from hurrying 



spectacle was witnessed 
of fifteen thousand men 
facing each other in 
absolute silence, a silence 
rendered the more im- 
pressive by the tremendous 
roar of the artillery duel 
proceeding elsewhere. The 
two lines, 6,000 Japanese 
and 9,000 Russians, 
watched each other, barely 
a stone's throw apart, while 
orderlies hurried to the 
rear to order up more 
ammunition, while helio- 
graphs winked, flag- 
signallers plied their flags 
frantically, and the field- 
telephones sent the most 
urgent messages to head- 
quarters. The fate of the 
battle depended upon 
which side should first be 




ICijpyritilir, KuiUik, I.td. 
CHINESE .MEKCUANl AT DALNV. 



618 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June, 1904. 




JAPASKSE TRANSPORTING THEIR VVOUNlJEU DURING THK F1GIH AT TELISSE. 



the 
ammunition 
waggons galloped 
towards the Jap- 
anese position. 
The Russians 
saw what was 
happening, and 
once more called 
on their men 
to advance, but 
called on them 
i n V a i n. One 
s u b-lieutenant 
two or three in 



used his drawn sword on his men when they hung back, cutting down 
quick succession ; and then, realising the hopelessness of such action, he gallantly advanced alone to 
meet the Japanese. He ran towards them till a bullet, one of the last remaining, struck him in the 
stomach; as he fell he stabbed himself with his sword sooner than fall into his enemy's hands. Another 
Russian 
followed 
ing defiance 
anese, and, 
on, a Jap- 
hurried to 
The two 
Homeric 
hand-to- 
sight of the 
and as they 
swords each 
air wit h 
it .seemed 
Russian was 
and the 




of f i c e r 
him, shout- 
to the Jap- 
as he came 
anese officer 
meet him. 
closed in an 
com bat,' 
hand, in 
two armies ; 
whirled their 
side rent the 
cheers. Now 
that the 
w inning, 
Russians 



JAPANESE ARTILLERY ON THE ROAIJ FROM KINCHAU 

thundered applause; now again the Japanese had the upper hand, and hoarse " Banzais ! " rose from the 
Hiroshima infantry. Then the Russian went down before the skilful swordplay of his opponent, and 
a moment later he lay a corpse upon the hill. The Japanese officer ran calmly back to his line and 
took his place at the head of his men amidst a tumult of cheers, and almost at the same moment the long- 
'ooked-for ammunition arrived. 

The star of Japan was 
now in the ascendant. 
The J apane.se troops 
poured a terrible fire into 
their opp<jnents, and in- 
sUntly charged with the 
utmost resolution. For a 
moment the Russians 
stood ; bayonets were 
crossed ; a Japanese 
bayoneted a Russian and Japanese ^RTlLLEHy i^ase at the isa.tle ov tkl.ss,.;. 




June 14, 1904. 



THE JAPANESE SWORDS. 



619 



was immediately impaled on the bayonets 
of the Russian victim's comrades. The 
officers fought with swords and revolvers, 
the Japanese officers making dreadful 
play with their sharp Samurai blades, 
and hewing off the limbs of their less 
skilful antagonists. But the combat was 
too unequal when one side could not use 
the rifle ; the Japanese speedily obtained 
the upper hand, forced the Russians from 
their trenches, and sent them reeling back 
in terrible confusion, while they poured 
into the retreating mass of infantry a 
decimating fire. 

As the Russians fled, a detachment of 

Japanese cavalry appeared upon the 

scene and took up 

the pursuit, while 

the Japanese guns 

poured shrapnel into their defeated 

enemy. The 4th East Siberian Rifles 



A Chagrined 
Colonel. 




lAPANKSK Ol'T-ICERS ON BO.\RD A TR.\NSF0KT. 




JAPANESE LANDINt; AT I.R'SHUTUN NEAR DALNV. 



lost its regimental colours 
and suffered terribly ; its 
colonel, Merstchansky, an 
old man and heavily built, 
had his horse killed under 
him, or, as others say, was 
pulled from it by a 
Japanese cavalry soldier, 
and was taken. He had 



lost his coat and waistcoat in the 
melee ; hot, breathless, and perspir- 
ing, he begged of the fiist Japanese 
officer whom he met a bottle of 
soda-water; but Major Ishizaka, who 
was that officer, was compelled to 
tell him that the Japanese army 
did not carry soda-water with it 
into action. He was deeply 
chagrined at the absurd figure 
which he had cut, though he had 
behaved with distinguished braver}-. 
Four hundred officers and men 
were taken with him by the Japanese, 
and sixteen of the latest quick-firing 
gun.s. 

This great disaster on the Russian 
left was due to a blunder on the 




iCopjTight, Kodak. Lit}. 
CHINESE HOUSE AT DALNY CONTAINING 110 DWELLINGS. 



620 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 14, 1904. 




part of General Gerngross's Brigade, who 

had been ordered to cover the retreat of 

the Russian army and then withdraw. 

About noon General 

A General's stakelberg had given 
Blunder. '^ '^ 

instructions for the 

portable kitchens and heavy transport to 

entrain or retire to the rear, but the cloud 

of dust raised by this movement had only 

revealed the Russian intentions to the 

Japanese in other quarters of the field^ 

and had led them to increase the 

vehemence of their attacks. As the 

result of delaying too long, the exposed 

brigade found itself obliged to pass down 

a valley, the hills on either side of which 

were held by the Japanese, along a road 

dominated by their artillery. The Russians 

had thus to march for more than a mile 

under a terrific fire, and but for the ex- 



i Copyright, KodaK. Lai. 
WRihwl.i^X KL.i.-^lA.N CHURCH, DAf.NY 

haustion of the Japanese infantry after the 
long day of fighting must have been 
annihilated. As it was. General Gerngro.ss 
was severely wounded, and the valley 
littered with dead. The Cossacks who 
brought up the rear, when they had to 
cross this valley of death, protected them- 
selves from total destruction by a disloyal 
ruse. They raised the Japanese flag, and 
the Japanese held their fire, supposing that 
they had surrendered. Under cover of 
this ruse the Cossacks made good their 
escape with relatively little loss. 




.\ RUSSIAN U1,A\ V (.1 N AliANDONKl) AT 
NANSHAN. 

In the centre the Japanese attack met 
with no success until the left had carried 
the Russian positions. Repeated charges 
failed and only brought heavy loss, though 
less than might have been expected 
considering the vehemence of the fire. 
Hut the Japanese infantry had learnt the 
art of taking cover, and managed to push 
forward, rarely showing itself, so that a 
Russian officer who had been 

[Copyright, Kodak, 

''"'• through this battle and the 

CHINESE ^ 

THEATRK, actions which followed it, 

DAI.NV. 

declared that he had been 



June 14, 1904. 



THE JAPANESE ADVANCE. 



621 



The Japanese 
Advance. 



in fifteen battles and yet had never seen a Japanese. On the left the Japanese began their advance 
early in the morning in light order, without knapsacks and overcoats. The weather was b,id, and a 
tremendous hailstorm broke over the division as it moved out, marching through difficult 
country, mountainous and forest-covered. Seeing that the hail was causing the men 
inconvenience. General Naito restored their spirits by a seasonable jest. " When 
you meet the enemy," he said, " take care that you pour your bullets upon him as accurately and incessantly 
as this hail now falls upon you." His grim little speech stirred the men, and they pressed rapidly 
forward, receiving the news that they were to co-operate with the centre in its attack upon the Russian 
position near Tafanshan. At 10.30 they were within sight of Telisse Station, and could plainly see the 
battle proceeding furiously to the south and south-east of that place. They then halted to recover 
breath and fill their water-bottles prior to the advance against the Russians. The day had now become 
parchingly hot, and the valleys and mountain sides were scorched by the rays of a midsummer sun. Yet 
though the march had been a forced one, carried out under very difficult conditions, there were very few 
stragglers on the road. 
The Japanese soldier 
made it a point of 
honour to be with his 
unit when the hour of 
battle came. 

During the halt, scouts 
examined the Russian 
position, which proved 
to be immensely strong. 
To assail it directly the 
Japanese left must cross 
a level plain, which, it 
could be seen, was com- 
manded and swept by 
the Russian fire. A 

direct advance was there- 
fore reluctantly aban- 
doned. The only re- 
maining alternative was 
to work round the 
Russian flank through 
mountainous country 
and emulate the tactics 
adopted by the centre 
column earlier in the 
day. The difficulties 
were great, as the tracks 
through the hills were 
bad, and the artillery 
had great trouble in 
following the infantry, 
while at points the 
Japanese came under 
the fire of the Russians, 
who directed upon them 
a perfect storm of bullets 




THE DEADLOCK. AT TELiSSE. A HAND-TO-HAND FIGHT. 



622 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 16. 1904. 




Retreat by Train. 



DESTROYED RtTSSIAN WAGGON 



U AKAXCKlll' STATION. 



and shrapnel which caused numerous casualties. 
I'A-en when in the afternoon the high ground near 
Wuchiatun had been reached, the Japanese 
artillery was delayed by the difficulty of finding 
suitable positions from which to open fire, while 
the Russians were kept informed of their advance 
by a number of Chinese on the hill sides. These 
were discovered to be signalling to the Russians 
the exact whereabouts of the Japanese forces, and 
it became necessary to ■ deal with them. A 
Japanese cordon was drawn round the height on 
which the Chinese had been observed, and the 
spies were captured and promptly executed on 
the field. 

To delay the Japanese advance against his 
right, General Stakelberg deployed the 34th and 
36th Regiments and the re- 
inforcements that arrived by 
train during the battle parallel with the railway 
and facing westwards. With these troops the 

Japanese were hotly engaged soon after noon, so that their further progress was much retarded. But the 

weather at this juncture opportunely came to their aid. The stifling heat' of midday was broken by a 

tremendous thunder shower ; the rain came down in torrents, and from the hot ridge and simmering valleys 

a dense mist rose, shrouding the movements of either side. Covered by the mist the Japanese gained 

ground, and at 4.30, as 

the sun appeared once 

more, found themselves 

close upon Telisse Station. 

Huddled below them were 

masses of Russian strag- 
glers exposed to a deadly 

fire. The last remnants 

of the Russian rearguard 

had hoped to entrain, and 

two trains were waiting for 

them in Telisse Station ; 

but the rapid advance of 

the Japanese right com- 
pelled these trains to with- 
draw too soon, leaving a 

large number of men cut 

off. This mass of men 

was forced off the railway 

into the hilly country lying 

to the west of the line, 

where it was vigorously 

pursued by the Japanese. 

With the pursuit ended the 

battle of Telisse. 

It was not a decisive 




FULL RETREAT OF RUSSIAN AMMUNITION WAGGONS CHASED IIY JAPANESE. 



June 16, 1904. 



THE RUSSIAN LOSSES. 



623 



success, for the Japanese had failed to attain their aim, which was to surround and capture the 
Russian army. General Stakelberg, instead of being compelled to surrender, had escaped with 

five-sixths of his force, though in a very shattered plight. But the battle sounded 
Port Arthur. *^^ \ine\\ of the Russian hopes that Port Arthur would be relieved by General 

Kuropatkin's army, and was another great victory for the Japanese — the third of 
importance gained by them on land in the war. Their own loss was comparatively small — 7 officers and 
210 men were killed, 43 officers and 903 men wounded, so that the total loss was 1,163 ; while 93 horses 
were also killed or wounded. The Russian loss was far heavier — 1,854 corpses were found and interred by the 
Japanese on the battlefield, while about 200 were subsequently discovered scattered to the rear and flanks of the 
Russian position, thus giving a total of at least 2,000 dead. The Russian official returns, however, only ad- 
mitted a total loss of 3,413 men, of whom 890 were killed,687missing,and 1,836 wounded. Probably the Russian 
figures were too small by half and a total loss of about 6,000 was realh' incurred by General -Stakelberg's army. 




THE TWO OFFICERS CLOSED IN A HOMERIC COMBAT TILL THE RUSSIAN LAY A CORPSE UPON THE HILL. 



624 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 21, 1904. 




Spoils of War. 



CH1NE.SE GOVERNMEM OFFICIAL AT 

liable to occur in war. Not to be behindhand 

all kinds, and with even less reason. 

After the victory of Telisse it 

looked for some days as though 

the 1st and 4th Japanese Armies 

might, by a 
After the Battle. , , 

resolute a d - 

vance, cut ofif General Stakel berg's 
retreat. But, probably owing to 
the necessity of accumulating sup- 
plies and thoroughly co-ordinating 
the movements of the three 
armies, the advance was slow. 
General Oku pushed forward in 
leisurely fashion behind General 
Stakelberg, and on June 2 1 occupied 
the town and station of Siungyo- 
cheng, half-way between Telis.se 
and Tashihchao, while the Russians 
re-formed near Kaiping, and, re- 
ceiving heavy reinforcements, once 
more prepared to dispute th( 
Japanese advance. The 4th, or 



The captures made by the Japanese 
included 16 quick-firing guns, 46 am- 
munition-waggons, 953 rifles, 37,000 
rounds of ammuni- 
tion, entrenching 
tools, camp equipment, and supplies of 
all kinds ; while 400 prisoners were taken. 
One of the Russian Red Cross trains, 
which was standing in the station, was 
accidentally destroyed by the Japanese 
artillery. On the other hand, the Japanese 
bitterly complained of the shelling of 
their field hospital by the Russians, and 
this notwithstanding the fact that the 
hospital was far to the rear, and that the 
Red Cross flag above it was plainly 
visible. It would, however, seem that 
the shelling of the hospital was due to 
accident, the Red Cross flag being 
mistaken by the Russians for the Rising 
Sun of Japan. The Japanese further 
charged the Russians with employing 
dum-dum bullets, and with committing 
atrocities upon the bodies of certain of 
the dead ; and these latter stories seem 
to have had some foundation, though 
such acts of isolated savagery are always 
with the Japanese, the Russians brought counter-charges of 



[Copyright, Kodak, Ltd. 
DALNV. 




CHINESE MINSTREL AT DALNV. [Copyright, Kodak, Ltd. 



626 



JAPANS FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 23. 1904. 




EFFECT OF MINE EXPLOSION AT THE EASTERN WHAKI-, DAl.NV. 



A Missed 
Opportunity. 



Takushan Army, on 
June 23, after a brush 
with the Russians, pushed 
forward some little dis- 
tance from Siuyen on the 
road to Tashihchao, thus 
threatening General 
Stakelberg's rear, and in 
a combat inflicted upon 
the Russians considerable 
loss, as 60 dead bodies 
were buried on the field. 
Preparations were made 
for forcing the Fengshuling 
Pass, on the road between 
Siuyen and Haicheng, but 
this operation was delayed 

by the necessity of attacking at the same moment as the ist Army assailed the formidable Motien 

position, where a vigorous Russian resistance was expected, and where in the war of 1894-5 the Japanese 

army had found that even the Chinese were difficult to dislodge. 

Yet, while granting the necessity of co-ordinating the movements of the different Japanese armies, it 

is certain in the light of subsequent information that a great opportunity was allowed to slip. Corre- 
spondents with the Russian army have since told us that it was wretchedly supplied 
with provisions, without boots and tunics, weak in artillery, and altogether ignorant 01 
the strength and position of its formidable antagonists. A resolute and swift advance 

would have brought the certain fall of Liaoyang in June and the annihilation of General Stakelberg's army. 

But the Japanese Staff appear to have suspected that the Russians were meditating some wonderful stroke 

of strategy, and seem to have seen in the weakness of General Kuropatkin's army and the foolishness of his 

dispositions only a snare set for their own destruction. Just as the Russians had thrown away their great 

chance, so now did the 

Japanese lose their op- 
portunity, and it did not 

recur. Their slow, pre- 
cise, methodic movements 

may have been safe — and 

their generals were charged 

to run no risks. But in 

war the maxim holds 

good that " nothing great 

is achieved without risk," 

and the con.sequence of 

this cautious strategy was 

a whole series of bloody 

but inconclusive battles, 

in which ground was 

gained but not decisive 

victory ; a perpetual drain 

upon the gallant soldiery 

of Japan and her financial 

resources ; and the slow Japanese tkoop<; of the second army landing at pitsewo. 




June, 1904. 



THE VLADIVOSTOCK FLEET. 



629 



concentration of a gigantic 
Russian army under 
General Kuropatkin at 
Liaoyang, which the 
Japanese were ultimately 
only able to force back at 
the cost of enormous sacri- 
fices. And this is not 
written in any censorious 
spirit. Thus, in the light 
of subsequent knowledge, it 
would seem that the Japan- 
ese strategy was wrong, and 
failed for want of boldness. 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

SECOND SORTIE OF 

THE 

VLADIVOSTOCK 

FLEET— SINKING OF 

THE "HITACHI" 

AND " SADO." 




100 200 300 MILES 



RUSSIAN FLEET 

TORPEDO BOATS 



G.Phi/ipiSon.L^ 
M.\P SHOWING THE COURSE OF THE RAID OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK FLEET. 



AFTER its successful cruise in April, the Vladivostock Fleet remained for some weeks inactive. The 
e.xplanation of its inactivity is probably to be found in the fact that one of its best ships, the 
Bogatyr, had suffered serious injury in May through striking a Japanese mine. But in June the 
Russian Admiral, Skr}-dloff, determined to assume the offensive, and gave orders for the Port Arthur Fleet 




A RUSSIAN ARMY FIELD SOUP KITCHEN. 



IPhoto by Bull.i. 



No. XXVII. 



630 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 14, 1904. 




THE DEFEAT OF GENERAL STAKELBERG. 



[From a sketch by Lionel James. 



" The Japanese 34th Infantry regiment made several separate attempts to take Grassy Hill, which was the centre of General Stakelberg's position. All were 
doomed to failure ; but on two occasions the assaulting infantry reached the lower trench two-thirds of the way up, where a sanguinary bayonet struggle took 
place. The Russian supports bayoneted all the Japanese who had gained a footing in the lower trench." 



A Sortie. 



to make a sortie. To prepare the way for that sortie, and, if possible, draw off from the Yellow Sea 

a large part of the Japanese Fleet, the Vladivostock ships were directed to 

steam for the Straits of Korea, and do all possible damage to Japanese shipping. 

According to the Russian reports, the Vladivostock Fleet left that port on June 14. It is certain, 

however, that the date was purposely misstated, and that the departure occurred two or three days earlier. 

The vessels taking part in the sortie were the large cruisers Gromovoi, Rossia, and 

Fleet Rurik, all three under the command of Rear-Admiral Bezobrazoff, the volunteer 

cruiser Lena, and nine torpedo-boats under Captain Vinogradsky. The Lena had 

orders to demonstrate off the coast of Korea ; the torpedo flotilla was to proceed to the Tsugaru Straits 

and threaten Hakodate with bombardment ; the big cruisers were to steam south to the Straits of Korea, 

and there attack the Japanese transports which were known to be daily moving backwards and forwards 

between Japan and the Manchurian coast. The straits were guarded by Admiral Kamimura with a 

powerful squadron of four armoured cruisers, the IDZUMO; IWATE, AdzuMA, and TOKIWA. He had also 

under his orders a number of smaller 
vessels, the cruiser TSUSHIMA, the 
NanIWA, and TakacHIHO, and two 
torpedo flotillas. He himself u.sed I'usan 
as his base ; the torpedo flotillas were 
stationed at the fortified harbour of 
Tsushima, and the small cruisers 
patrolled the straits, east and west, 
keeping up communication with him by 
wireless telegraphy. 

The first sign that the Russians were 

THE JAPANESE TRANSPORT "llUACHl .....i,„. 

Sunk by skrjdiorj Squadroa moving was givcii by a report issued 1)\- 




June 15, 1904. 



THE " IDZUMI MARU.' 



631 




REAR-ADMIRAL KAMIMURA. 



ll'hoto, Bolak. 



Admiral Skrydloff to the effect 

that he, with the whole Vladivos- 

tock Fleet, had steamed to Port 

Arthur on 
A False Report. , 

June lo, but, 

seeing no sign of the Russian 
]'"leet there and only the Japanese 
blockaders, had forthwith re- 
turned. This report was known 
by the Japanese to have been 
untrue, and no attention was 
paid to it. As a matter of fact, 
the three Russian cruisers had 
made no such daring attempt, 
and on the date named were at 
Vladivostock. They now steamed 
quietly down the Japan Sea, 
unmolested and without being 
sighted by a single vessel, since 
Japanese craft for the most part 
kept close inshore, and no other 
shipping except the blockade- 
runners for Vladivostock attempted to pass up those forlorn waters. As night of the 14th fell, the three 
cruisers were a hundred miles to the north of Tsushima, fast nearing the course steered by the Japanese 
transports on their way from the great military base of Moji to Korea. 

At dawn of the 15th the Japanese transport iDZUvri Maru, on her way back to Japan from Manchuria 

was off the little Island 

of Oshima, only a few 

miles from the Straits of 

Shimono- 

The"Idzumi ^ekiandthe 
Maru. 

entrance to 

the Inland Sea, when the 
men on board her heard 
the sound of a gunshot. 
They crowded on deck to 
see what was happening, 
supposing that Admiral 
Kamimura's squadron was 
manoeuvring near at hand, 
when they saw some dis- 
tance away three large 
warships. The warships 
approached rapidly, and 
as they came on fired 
more shots ; with some 
concern the men m the 
Idzumi discovered that 
shells were dropping about 
their ship and ahead of 




.MAP SHOWING THE JAPANESE COURSE IN PURSUIT OF THE 



G.Philip i. Son, i«! 

VLADIVOSTOCK FLEET.. 



G32 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 15, 1904. 




her. An instant later the 
naval officers on board 
made out the strange 
ships to be Russians. 
They were the GroviovoL, 
Rossia, and Rurik coming 
up at full speed — great 
grey hulls, vomiting flame 
from their guns, and with 
crews cheering at the 
plight of the Japanese ship. 
The captain of the IDZUMI 
attempted to alter course 
and to run in close inshore 
for safety, but before the 
helm could be put over 
the ship was repeatedly struck b\' shells, and a large number of men were killed or wounded. 

The TSUSHIM.V was the Japanese cruiser on patrol duty that day in the straits, and at 8 a.m. about the 
time when the Russians were closing on the IDZUMI, she sighted one of them near the little island of 
Okinoshima, which lies midway between Moji and the larger islands of Tsushima, and 
at once sent a wireless signal to Admiral Kamimura. She was herself much too small 
and weak to attack even a single vessel of Admiral Bezobrazoff s formidable squadron, but she hung on to 
the heels of the Russians at a good distance and followed their movements gallantly, reporting all that they 
did to the Admiral. He had instantly given orders to his ships to get under way and concentrate at the 
south end of Tsushima. One of his torpedo flotillas was instructed to cruise between Iki Island and 
Tsushima, warning all vessels that came into sight, and instructing them at once to take refuge in the safe 
harbour of Takeshiki. At the same time he telegraphed to Moji to stop all ships sailing west and recall all 



IHE "KIRIK' 



li iKHo, .-•\ iiiuiids i*i: Co. 
ONE OF THE RUSSI.\N VL.\DIVOSTOCK FLEET. 



Kamimura Moves. 




CRtW OF THE RUSSIAN VOLUNTEER CRUISER "LENA," ONE OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK FLEI T. 




THE RUSSIAN TORPEDO FLOTILLA ON THE LOOK OUT. 



634 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 15. 1904. 




_1.\\ UAiTLLSilll'. 



that were within signalling 
distance. These measures 
having been carried out, 
he steamed at full speed 
for the scene of action 
with his four powerful 
armoured cruisers in perfect 
condition for battle. 

Some hours, however, 

must pass belore he could 

arrive upon the scene, and 

in those 

events were 
to happen. We left the 
Idzl'MI under the fire of 
the Russian ships ; these 
compelled her to heave-to, 
and the men on board 
knew that all was o\er. 

Corporal Yendo, of the Arm)-, who w as a passenger with important papers and despatches, hurried below and 
destroyed them ; then, returning on deck, he plunged into the sea. There were few combatants on board 
— only the crew of the steamer and some half-dozen soldiers returning to Japan. The crew lowered four 
boats on the side where they thought themselves safest from the Russian fire, which still continued. 
notwithstanding the fact that the Idzu.mi had stopped ; but one of the boats was capsized. The other three 
rowed "away from the ship, and were instantly fired upon by the Russians, whether through accident or 

brutal disregard for helpless men remains uncertain. 
.Several of those in the boats were wounded by 
the fire. Waving white flags the crew rowed 
towards the Gromovoi, when the fire ceased, and 
the Japanese were ordered on board the big 
Russian ship. There the injured were sent below 
and received surgical aid : the unwounded were 
severely cross-examined by the Russian officers. 
While the examination was in progress, several 
other ships suddenly came into sight some little 
distance from the Gromovoi. The weather was 
now growing thick and misty, with heavy showers 
(jf rain at short intervals, so that the movements 
of vessels at any distance were exceedingly 
difficult to see. 

The new-comers were the large Japanese 

transports HlT.\CHl Maru of 6,1/5 tons, KiNAi 

Maru of 2,090 tons, Saik) 

Maru of 6,226 tons, Enoura 

Maru and HiNO Maru, 

\\'hich had just left Moji on their way with troops 

and stores for the army of Manchuria. The 

Hitachi was a little in advance of the other ships, 

and had on board 1,095 reservists of the Japanese 




The Japanese 
Transports. 



MMcr-i;i-Ltw. 



Daughter. 




ADMIRAL SKRYDLOFF, COMMANDER OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK FLEET 



636 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 15, 1904. 



Guards Division, in addition to her 
crew of 150, 320 horses, and a 
quantity of bandages, heavy guns, 
ammunition, and general stores for 
the army engaged in the attack 
upon Port Arthur. She must have 
left only a few minutes before 
.Admiral Kamimura's warning that 
the Russians were in the straits 
reached Moji, but it was too late 
to recall her. About 9.30 a.m., while 
steaming through the Japan Sea, 
she suddenly sighted three large 
vessels approaching from the north, 



f" 


^liHBte^!!^^'^'''^"^^'"^^^ 


r^ 






1 kSH^^^^^^^^^^^^^Bj^^fL^^M^^^^R 



bUli.MAKI.NK BOATS MAUK INTO liAl.ES AT HA.MllURG. 
To be forwarded by the Hamburg- Ainericin line to East Asia. 




IN.^IUK A KUS^IAN AMIiULA.NCL TKAI.N 



and an instant later, 
making out that they were 
not Japanese, circled and 
headed to reach safety on 
the Japanese coast line 
which was just visible to 
the south through the mist 
and rain, signalling the 
danger to the KiNAi. The 
KlNAl turned and fled, 
but, in the excitement 
caused by the sudden ap- 
pearance of the strange 
vessels, neglected to signal 
to the Sado, which was 
astern of her, the reason 
why she had turned. The 
Sado proceeded for some 
distance on her course, as 
the Russian ships were 
now hidden in a rain 
squall, but the Enoura 
,ind HiNO took alarm and 
steamed back to Moji at 
their best speed. 

The Hitachi was too 
near the Russians before 
she sighted them to have 

The ^"y ""^^^ 

" Hitachi " chance of 

Attacked. „„;.,„ 

escaping. 

^he was speedily over- 
hauled by the Russians, 
who opened on her a 
well-sustained fire. Her 



June 15, 1904. 



THE "SADO MARU." 



637 




VICE-ADMIRAL 



Who commanded the Vladivostock 
second sortie. 



liEZOBRAZOFF. 

leet in its 



captain, an Englishman named Campbell, who was faithfully serving the 
allies of his country, had often discussed with the Japanese the best coursie 
of action in case such a fate befell his ship as had happened to the 
KiNSMlU Maru, and with them had reached the determination to 
ram the largest of the Russian- vessels, supposing all chance of flight 
were out of the question, in the hope that the troops on board his ship, 
in the confusion caused by so daring an attack, might board and capture 
the enemy. He now turned his transport's head once more, and stood 
straight for the Gromovoi. The troops of the Guards were called upon 
deck to be ready for the onslaught ; they appear to have lain down, as 
from the Gromovoi they could not be seen. The Russians, however, poured 
a terrible fire into the doomed transport, directing shrapnel from their 
heavy guns and shells from 



the smaller guns upon her. 
Their projectiles cut bloody 
lanes through the mass of men upon her deck ; a heavy 
8-in. shell entered her engine-room and exploded there, 
doing great damage, and this was followed by half a dozen 
other heavy shells at point blank range, which killed her 
chief-engineer, an Englishman named Glass, mortally 
wounded her second-engineer, placed hors de combat every 
man in the engine-room, and disabled the engines. The 
ship was left lying like a log upon the face of the sea, and, 
seeing that she was helpless, the Russians passed her, 
intending to deal first with the Sado, which was now at last 
steaming for the Japanese coast at her best speed. 

The Russians speedily overhauled the Sado and compelled 
her to stop her engines. An interchange of signals followed, 
and a Russian officer went on board the Sado M.-VRU. He 
gave the Japanese forty minutes' grace 
"'sado" ^ '" ^^'''''^''' ^^ transfer the non-combatants 
to boats and to send the officers of 
the S.VDO to the Gromovoi. At the expiration of that 
period of time, he said the Russian ships would open fire. 
The Japanese Staff on board tried to induce him to extend 
the time-limit, and declared that .sooner than surrender every 
officer would fight to the last or commit suicide. But the 
Russian remained unmoved ; he pointed out with perfect 
justice that the Russian ships were running great risk by 
conceding even a moment's delay ; they were close to 
Japan, and any minute a Japanese squadron might heave 
in sight. 

The officer left the Sado , taking with him a Japanese 
delegate to interview Admiral Bezobrazoff, and the Japanese 
military authorities ordered all the non - combatants on 
board to quit the ship in the boats. There were some 
6oo, and they left in safety ; 400 soldiers and seamen 
remained, as there was not room in the boats for them, and, 
after taking counsel, they determined to fight to the end 
or commit suicide in the last resort. The period of time 
No. xxvii* 




AD-MIRAL KA.MI.MURA. 



638 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 15, 1904. 




The "Sado" 
Torpedoed. 



granted to the Japanese iiad nearly exi)ired, wlien tlie 
Grotnovoi approached withhi 200 yards ; her decks could 
be seen covered with Russian officers and seamen ; she 
hoisted a red flag ; there was a dull 
report, and instantly the Sado was 
shaken from stem to stern b)- a terrific 
explosion, which hurled officers and men in the air and 
opened a huge hole in the side of the engine-room. The 
Grouiovoi had torpedoed the Japanese transport. It was a 
little before 1 1 a.m. when this happened. The Russian 
cruiser ne.xt fired a large number of projectiles at ner, and 
struck her about i 50 times on or near the waterline, but the 
loss of life caused by this cannonade was small. The ship 
seemed to be sinking, }'et, by promptly closing the water- 
tight doors leading to the engine-room compartment, the 
crew managed to confine the inrush of water to that part 
of the ship alone, and though the Sado settled somewhat 
she did not sink. 

The Russians now left her to attend to the 

Hitachi and Idzumi, both of which were 

floating helpless on the water. They sent a 

party of men to the Idzumi, who set that 

vessel on fire, and seem to have blown holes in her with 



Or.-xwn (from the 
ketch of .1 survi\'or) 
by Sheldon Williams. 

THE SUNKEN 
|.\PANESE 
TK.\NSPORT 
■ S.\DO MARU." 



BRITISH, AMERICAN, KKENCH, GERMAN, AIMkian, AM) 1IA1,1A^ ( okkKM'OMJKN' is liLINU I'KE.sliMEU i;\ 

MR. FREDERIC VILLIERS TO THE KOREAN EMPEROR. 



June 15, 1904. 



FIRING THE "HITACHI." 



639 



charges of dynamite, as she speedily began to sink, blazing furiously. Then the Rossia and Groinoiwi 
approached the Hitachi— her last hour had come. The Japanese troops were seen to be formed up on 

her deck, erect and facing their foe with all the dignity of brave men going to a 

"Id2umr*and ^'°P^'«^ss death for the sacred cause of their country and her freedom. Some few of 

"Hitachi." ^'^^''^ ^^^P*^ overboard during the minutes of the great cruisers' ominous approach; 

then the turrets of the J^ussian ships revolved, the muzzles of their guns turned toward 
the transport, and with a crash every gun that would bear on board the two warships opened fire. The 
Japanese could make no reply, as the small-arms ammunition was deep in the Hitachi's hold and had been 
wetted by the inflow of water caused by the earlier Russian attack. The Russians behaved with great and 
unnecessary barbarity ; they even fired on the men who had leapt into the water — an act worthy only of 
savages. They steadily closed in, while the rush of their terrible shells tore the surging multitude of 
Japanese soldiers on deck into little heaps of battered masses of flesh ; the scuppers ran with blood ; but 




THE "SADO" TORPEDOED HV THE - GROMOVOl." 

" 'I'he ' Sado ' was shaken from stem to stern by a terrific explosion, which nurled officers and men in the air and opened a huge hole in the side of the 

engine-room.' 

still the Guards gave no sign of surrender and calmly faced their fate. Almost to a man these Japanese 
soldiers left behind them in Japan wives and children ; they were older men than the troops of the first line, 
but on their part there was no hanging back. For their lord and master the Emperor Mutsohito, whose 
power it was to raise the rank of the dead, they abandoned life, and strong in their faith passed out into 
the world of shadows from the light of day. 

Now the Russian machme-guns got to work on the human wreckage with murderous effect, and, seeing 

that all was lost, most of the surviving officers committed suicide. The sea about the HITACHI turned to 

scarlet ; the struggling mass of living and dying men in the water was torn with small 

shells from the Russian quick-firers, while the Russians sang " songs of triumph," if the 

Japanese accounts can be credited. Colonel Suchi, one of the ablest young officers in the Japanese army, 

and but lately attached to the Japanese headquarters first destroyed all the records in his possession, and 



640 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 15, 1904. 



then prepared for death. 
He bade his troops 
farewell, and summoned 
the few surviving officers 
to his quarters, when a 
shell entered the quarters 
and, exploding, killed 
most of the officers on 
the spot. Those who 
were only wounded in- 
stantly committed suicide. 
Suchi, however, was left 
unharmed and returned 
to the deck to ascertain 
what had happened as 
the Russian firing had 
ceased ; there he saw- 
only piles of dying and 
of dead. Once more 
going below, he was about 
to kill himself, when 
another shell struck the 
cabin and exploded, slay- 
ing him on the spot. 

Two boatloads of Jap- 
. ahese managed to escape 
from the HiTACni, and 
these, 52 in all, reached 
safety, as the Russians, 
now satiated with 




fif^iicr' 






THE DISABLEO XKAXSPORT " SADO MARU ' 



[Drawn hy H. VV. Koekkoek from a blcetch by Julius ^L Price. 
TUNNEL GUARD ON THE PECULIARLY- SHAPED TUNNELS OF THE CIRCUM-BAIKAL RAILWAY ' 

The line round Lake Baikal which 
is just completed is certainly one of 
the most expen.sive ever undertaken. 
The diiTiculties have been enormous, 
for thirty-eight tunnels and thirteen 
covered galleries in fifty miles ha\e 
liad to be engineered. I was much 
struck with the way the wliole line is 
guarded. At every tunnel and every 
britlge are guards, one at each end, 
night and day, with a post close ac 
hand in case help is required. It was 
bitterly cold and heavy snow was fall- 
ing when I saw the .subject of my 
sketch, who looked particularly dismal 
and lonely at the entrance of the 
weird-looking tunnel. Several of the 
tunnels are built in what arc, I belie\e, 
somewhat unusual shapes, I chose for 
my sketch the most peculiar. I believe 
it is called the " oval" or "rhomboid" 
fcjrm ; it appears to be a favourite 
shape on the line. Owing to the 
geological formation of the rocks, all 
the tunnels liad to be lined through- 
out with masonry. 

—Note by Mr. Prick. 

slaughter, seem to have 
spared them. Captain 
Campbell died with his 
Japanese comrades, the 
first Englishman to perish 
in the service of the alh'es 
of his country. lie leapt 




mm 



[From a sketch by frederic \*illieis. 

BEING TOWED TOWARDS MOJL JUNK 10. 




'""^ SINKING OF THE "HITACHI MARU." JAPANESE TROOPS FORMIN^^^^^S 

LOWERING THE BOATS ' ^^ 



642 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 15, 1904. 



o\-erboard and, doubtless, was slain b\- 

the Russian bullets in the water. Others 

of the J apanese swam 

Escapes from the ^^^ ^y^^ wreckage of 
Wpccks 

the IDZUMI floating 

in the water, and succeeded in getting on 

board certain of iier boats which had 

broken loose as she went down. The 

HlT.\Clu, under the terrific cannonade 

that was directed upon her, soon began 

to sink. She took a heavy list, her 

bows plunged, and she went to the bottom, 

leaving 200 men struggling in the sea. 

The Russians made not the slightest 

attempt to succour these unfortunates, 

manv of whom were non-combatants, but 





A ROUGH RUSSI.AN BIVOUAC. 

CoMibiaed l«lit and "dug oul " prolrction. The Ruuian soldiers' tents stand alx)Ut 31 feet from the ground, and 
arc BopfMnciJ by three po!c* whtcn have joitiu like a 6shing-rod. They are placed over holes dug in the ground, 

and filled with straw. 



1 [A I i.:iit, Kod;ik, Ltd. 
CHl.NtSE JUNK IN D.\LNV' 
HARBOUR. 

Steamed off into the mist 
and rain and were lost 
to view. 

Two fishing boats were, 
however, attracted to the 
spot by the sound of the 
heavy firing. The first 
of these steered towards 
the quarter in which loud 
cries for help could be 
heard, and found many 
wounded and some, un- 
wounded men clinging to 
pieces of wreckage. The 
sight was a lamentable 
one, all the more 
lamentable as there was 
not room in the boat for 
more than 35 men, who 
were taken on board with 
some difficulty. The sea 
was fast rising and be- 
coming rough, when the 
.second boat appeared and 
took another 30 men on 
board. 

The S.\DO still re- 
mained afloat ; and now, 
for the third time, the 
Russians approached her. 
Si.xty or seventy of those 



June 15, 1904. 



THE LOSS OF LIFE. 



643 




on board licr leapt into 
the sea or coinmitted 
suicide ; the 
inained and 



The "Sados" 
Safety. 



JAPANESE SOLUIER-- l;KAKI.\l, .sMAI.i. (_A^KI•.1.S CON'TAUNINU 
VICTIMS OF THE "HITACHI MARU." 



REAIAINS OK 



Others re- 
waited to 
see what 
w as to 
ii a p p e n . 
This time tlie _ Russians 
steamed close to her and 
torpedoed iier on the 
other side to that on 
which she had been al- 
ready injured. The 
second explosion, how- 
ever, did little further 
damage. It opened a 
fresh hole in the engine 
compartment, but, as that 

was already flooded, it did not affect the trim of the ship and she still floated, though she began 

to leak in the neighbourhood of the watertight doors. Then at last the Russians left her and 

steamed northwards, having, it is believed, seen signs that a Japanese fleet was approaching, and 

fearing to delay another minute. The Japanese on board cheered loudly, .and, after taking steps to stop the 

leaks, made ready rafts, on which the majorit)' of the crew took refuge, cutting loose from the hull of the 

S.\DO and drifting on the water. Some few men remained on board and were joined by the boats that had 

escaped from the Hit.ACHI. The men drifting on the rafts were not rescued till late on the i6th, when they 

were picked up hy a passing British vessel and taken to Moji ; the vessel herself was not secured until the 

1 8th, when the Tak.ASAGO towed her back to port for repairs. She was still afloat and seemingly little the 

worse for the two torpedoes which had been fired at her, though the engines had been seriously damaged 

and shifted from their bed bj- the violence of the explosion. 

The total number of casualties among the Sado'S and the HlT.\CHl's crews and passengers was about 

i,000, all of whom were killed. A number of officers, 55 in all, from the IDZUMI and Sado were made 
prisoners by the Russians and taken to Vladivostock. The non-combatants among the 
prisoners were released on the 15th, and were sent on board the little Japanese sailing 

vessel Unko Maru, 

which was sighted and 

captured by the Russians, 

and then permitted to go 

on condition that she 

would convey tlie men 

from the IDZUMI back to 

Japan. 

The sound of the heavy 

firing in the straits was 

heard all the morning of 

the 15th at Moji, and it 

was naturally supposed 

that Admiral Kamimura 

had succeeded in finding 

the Russians and had 

attacked them. Yet, as' 



Casualties. 




THE FUNERAL l. 



HITACHI MARU.' 



644 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 15. 1904. 




NICHOLAS ZOUEFF-A FORT ARTHUR HERO. 

'I be adapted Mjn of a Ru.ssian naval lieuten-jnt wljo was lost in the " Petropavlovsk." Has received 
l«o croMcs of St. George. Carried despatches several times between Port Arthur and Liaoyang when 

Port Arthur was invested. 



a matter of fact, no such good fortune 

befell him. But for the unfavourable 

weather the 
Kamlmura's <- .■ 

Chase. "^■'^•■^^'' ""^ ^'^'^ 

V 1 a divostock 

Fleet must have ended on that day , 

as it was, the heavy rainstorms 

obscured all distant vision and 

rendered the task of locating Admiral 

Bezobrazoffs ships one of extreme 

difficulty. Kamimura had left his 

base about 9.30 a.m. with his four 

fast armoured cruisers, and on nearing 

the southern end of Tsushima was 

joined bj' one of the torpedo flotillas. 

The weather had now become so bad 

and the rain was falling so heavily 

that it was impossible from the 

bridge of the flag.ship IDZUMO to 

see the last ship of the Japanese 

squadron in the line. The Admiral 

himself stood always upon the bridge. 

1 loping to work to the rear of the 

Russians, and thus to cut them ofi 

from Vladivostock, he steamed to 

the north-east of Tsushima, instead 



of proceeding at once to Okinoshima. At noon a wireless message from the TsusHiM.v reached him, to the 

effect that the three Ru.ssian ships were then 1 5 miles south of Okinoshima, steaming in a north-westerly 

direction. The Russians must have taken in the wireless message or .seen the TSUSHI.MA, for it was about 

this time that they suddenly left the S.JiDO M.\RU. Just after this heavy rain came down, and the 

TSUSHI.M.\ lost sight of the Russian .squadron for more than an hour, during which time, however, she clung 

to her patrol work, though the risk which she ran was very great indeed. At 1.30 the rain ceased for soine 

minutes, and once more through the mist 

the Russian ships came into view, this 

time close to Okinoshima. Barely had 

they been sighted when the fog and rain 

closed down again, and the fog became 

so thick that little or nothing could be 

seen from the Tsushim.a. Kamimura, 

who had now reached a point well to 

the north of Okino.shima, on receiving 

the la.st signal of the Tsushima, turned 

.southwards towards the Russians and 

ordered the patrol ship to enter the line 

of battle, as she was plainly running very 

considerable danger. At the .same time, 

a.s the fog was fast growing thicker, and 

his vessels might at any moment find 

themselves in close contact with the 

Russians, he ordered them to remain in 




DAI.XV HARBOUR, WITH 



ICupyrigiit, Kud:ik, Ltd. 
CHINESE JUNKS. 



June 15, 1904. 



KAMIMURA'S POSITION. 



645 



perfect readiness for the combat. So with loaded guns and charged torpedo tubes, stripped for battle and 

with crews at quarters, he ranged the straits between Moji and Tsushima. But of the Russian ships no 

sign could be found ; they had vanished in the mist. 

Kamimura's position was perplexing. He had strict orders to guard the Korean Straits and to prevent 
the passage of the straits by the Vladivostock ships, instructions which hampered him 
seriously. Nevertheless, he now determined to go north towards Vladivostock in the 
hope of meeting the Russians, or overtaking them had they returned thither. The 
weather was so thick that this was a dangerous course, for even had he met the Russians 

in the fog he could scarcely have fought them. Yet he went northwards at full speed, and on the i6th was 

BPI 



Kamimura goes 

towards 
Vladivostock. 




* Colonel Suchi was 



IHE HERO OF THE " HITACHI." 
about to kill himself when another .hell strucV th- cabin and exploded, slaying him on the spit." 



646 



JAPANS FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



J 



une, 



1904. 



far on the way to Vladivostock. The 
weather had cleared up, but still there was 
no sign of the Russians on that vast and 
empty sea. Ahvaj-s himself on the bridge, 
by night and b)- day, with fury in his 
heart, he turned sadly southwards, now- 
fearing that the Russians might after all 
have slipped through the straits in the 
fog, and might be perpetrating fresh 
depredations on the coast of Japan. The 
weather was still fa\ourable, and he 
deployed his vessels on a wide front so 
as to search the sea thoroughly, but with- 
out success. Arriving off Tsushima, he 
received a wireless message to the effect 
that the Russians were in the Tsugaru 
Straits, and, realising that further pursuit 
was useless, he returned to his base, after 
spending four complete days on the bridge 
without more than a few minutes' slee[) 
and rest. As he steamed southwards, he 
was heard by his staff to murmur, 
" Zannen ! zannen 1 " " Regret ! regret ! " 
His sorrow and indignation were greatly 
increased when he learnt of the ravages 
that the Russian cruisers had committed 
upon Japanese shipping. 
As a matter of fact, however. Admiral Bezobrazoff was not in the Tsugaru Straits. The Russian 

vessels sighted there uere the torpedo craft 

from Vladivostock. They hovered about 
the coast all the i jth 
and 1 6th, sending a 
message in to Hako- 

■date that they would bombard that place 

on the 1 8th, and requesting the Japanese 

to withdraw the non-combatants. This 

was a mere piece of " bluff," and it is 

needless to state that the bombardment 

never was attempted. They seized and 

sunk the Japanese sailing vessels Yawata 

and Ansei oflT the island of Hokkaido, 

and though the bulk of the crews of these 

two tiny vessels were saved, two men were 

drowned through the callous carelessness 

■of the Russians. Then the Russian torpedo- 
boats returned to Vladivostock, and their 

exploits were celebrated as a great and 

glorious victory for Russia. 

Meantime, Admiral Bezobrazoff had 

steamed north from the Korean Straits, 




[K. McKenzie pliolo. 
TWO SHINTO PRIESTS ON THE B.-VTTLEFIELD. 



The Russian 
Torpedo-Boats. 




A SHINTO PRIEST FACES THE TROOPS 



[F. McKenzie photo. 
DURING A BURIAL SERVICIi. 



June 16, 1904. 



THE ss. " allanton; 



647 




The "Allanton" ss. 



fF. A. McKc 



A JAPANESE SOLDIER BRING- 
ING THE PRIEST OFFERINGS 
OF FOOD FOR THE DEAD. 

which tlie Russians pre- 
tended ought to be clo.sed 
to British shipping, that 
slie had a larger cargo on 
board than she was per- 
mitted to carry, and that 
she had a Japanese cabin 
boy, the Allanton was 
arrested and carried to 
Vladivostock, where she 
was duly condemned by 
the prize court after a 
farcical trial. The British 
Government did not lift 
a finger to secure her 
release, and her owners 
were left to appeal to the 
St. Petersburg Admiralty- 
Court, which, after inter- 
minable delay, released her 
late in the year, but with- 
out paying a penny of 
compensation for her pro- 
longed detention. 
Damages were claimed by 
her owners, but here again 
the British Government 
was wanting in energy in 
pressing their lawful 
claims, and to the date of 
writing nothing has been 
obtained. 

After this great exploit, 



: pilOlO. 



passing close to Kamimura in the dense fog. 
He did not proceed direct to Vladivostock, 
no doubt guessing that the Japanese would 
attempt to intercept his 
passage home, but steered 
a course which would take him up the west 
coast of Japan. On the i6th, between the 
island of Oki and Noto province, he sighted 
a British steamer, the Allanton, and examined 
her. She was on her way from the Japanese 
town of Muroran to Singapore with a cargo 
of Japanese coal belonging to British subjects. 
But on the excuse that coal was contraband, 
that she was proceeding by the Japan Sea. 




GENERAL KUROKl 



AND HIS STAFF SALUTE XHt DEAD. 
An ancient custom of war. 



648 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 20, 1904. 




KL'SSIAN SUBMARINE MINES TAKEN 



I From stereograph, copyriglit. 1904, Underwoud & I'udciwood, London and N,V. 
KROM THE SEA NEAR PORT ARTHUR LY THE JAPANESE. 



The Return to 
Vladivostock. 



the three cruisers chased a Japanese steamer, which managed to escape, and overhauled and examined' 
another vessel, the Unko Maru, which, however, they released, after putting on board her twentj-two of 
the Idzumi's and Sado'S crews. The Japanese ship Seyei Maru was less fortunate ;. 
she was sighted by the raiders in Wakasa Bay on the i6th, and was promptly sunk by 
them. On the 1 9th they stopped and searched the American schooner James Johnson,, 
but let her go as she had no cargo on board, and under no circumstances could have been meddled 
with without bringing the American Government into the .field — a Government which does not permit 
its subjects to be molested without good reason, when they are engaged in their lawful trade. Finally, on 
June 20, the fleet returned to Vladivostock, and there coaled in preparation for a fresh raid. 

It had done great damage, and inflicted great loss on the Japanese in this cruise, though it escaped 

disaster only by a miracle. Twice had it 
been saved at the critical moment by 
thick weather coming on, while, but for 
the hampering orders 
given to Admiral 
Kamimura com- 
manding him at all costs to hold the 
Korean Straits, it is almost certain that it 
must have been destroyed, since he would 
have steamed straight to Vladivostock, 
and there have waited for its return. 
The Russians had sunk two large ships, 
deranged the Japanese preparations for 
the attack on Port Arthur, killed close 
upon a thousand men, and spread alarm 
on the coast of Japan. But their exploits 
were not of a heroic order, and were only 
rendered possible by the fact that the 
Japanese Fleet was too weak for its work. 
CHAPEL OF THE EtiROPEAN CEMETERY, DALNY " ' • jj ^^f]^ howevcf, the Same preponderance 




Effect of the 
Raid. 




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650 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 30, 1904. 




KUSblAN TROOl'.S ON THE MARCH. 
RKGIMENT OF GRENADIERS. 



over Its 

adversary, the 

Russian Fleet, that the 

British Navy posses.ses over a 

combination of two Powers, so that in war 

England will have to be prepared to face disasters 

as great as or worse than the sinking of the IDZUMI and 

Hitachi and the torpedoing of the Sado Maru. In Japan, where 

Kamimura's diflficulties were not perfectly understood by the common 

people, a great outcry was raised against him, and his house was wrecked by a mob. There were even 

voices raised declaring that the time had come for him to do what every Japanese who fails is expected 

to do — commit suicide. But he was too able and strong a leader to be moved by such abuse, and the 

Kmperor and the Admiralty never wavered in their confidence in him. 

Having coaled and refitted, Admiral Bezobrazoff once more put to sea towards the close of June,. 

intending, if possible, to effect a junction with the Port Arthur Fleet, or to assist that fleet by attacking the 

Japanese transports and 
shipping. The torpedo- 
boats, with the volunteer 

cruiser 
Russian Fleet ^ 
at Gensan. ^^"■'^' ^^^^ 

sent to re- 
connoitre Gensan, while 
the three fast cruisers 
steamed for the Korean 
Straits. On June 30, at 
5.50 in the morning, four 
Russian torpedo - boats 
suddenly steered into 
(Jensan harbour; they 
were speedily joined by a 
fifth boat, and out at sea 
the forms of several big 
ships and of more torpedo- 
craft were made out by 
the Japanese garrison. 
The torpedo-boats bom- 
barded the Japanese settle- 
jAPASfcSE SOLDIERS. AMBULANCE CORPS. mcnt, doing some damage. 




July I, 1904. 



THIRD RUSSIAN RAID. 



651 




!■>. -^ ■ -T [Copyright, 1904, by '"Colliers Weekly.' 

A -RED CROSS- ATTENDANT PLACING A DYING SOLDIER AT THE FEET OF THE BIG JOSSES IN THE BUDDHIS't 

TEMPLE AT KWANTU. 

to it. and sank a small steamer and a sailing vessel which they found inside the harbour. The bom- 
bardment caused two fires in the settlement and wounded four men, but did no other damage. The 
telegraph line between Gensan and Seoul was cut during the Russian attack, probably by Koreans 
in the Russian service. After sinking a large number of mines at the harbour mouth, the Russian 
vessels retired, steaming in a south direction, and speedily vanished in the fog, which came down 
to hide their movements. The Russian torpedo craft apparently returned to Vladivostock, while the 
cruisers moved to the Tsushima Straits, where, in the east channel between Tsushima and Japan, Admiral 
Kamimura, warned from Gensan of their coming, was ready to give them the warmest ot welcomes. He 
had with him his four armoured cruisers, the cruisers TSUSHIMA, Naniwa, and Takachiho and a torpedo 
flotilla. He took up his 
position midway between 
Iki and Tsushima, and 
there waited the arrival 
of the Russians. 

About 6.45 p.m. of 
July I his vigil was re- 
warded. To the north 
three large vessels came 
into sight, attempting 
to pass the channel. 
The weather was again 




JAl'A.N K"^!'^ ll}t<.ir^ifyj-ny>:\i i7c.o 



KUVKR "USUGUMO." 



Built by Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., Chiswick. 



652 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 6, 1904. 



unfavourable to the Japanese, for. whereas it had been clear until the Russians came into \ie\v, it turned 
hazy and rainy immediately the Russians had seen the Japanese, thus veiling their retreat. The 
Russian Admiral at once altered course and steamed north at his best possible speed, closely followed b}' 

the Jap^iese Fleet, which opened fire at the extreme range of i6,ooo yards, without 
The Third producing any effect. The Japanese, therefore, ceased firing, and gave chase in the 

dusk. The torpedo flotilla managed to get within three miles of the Russian ships, 
but that was the nearest point attained, and even then the distance was much too great for a 
torpedo attack. The Russians turned on their searchlights for some minutes and kept th?m blazing 
in the eyes of the Japanese ; then suddenly turned them off, and vanished in the darkness and 




RUSSIAN SOLDIERS MENDING THEIR BOOTS IN THE TRENCHES. 



[Photo, Bulla. 



.rain from the sight of their dazzled enemies. Once more the Vladivostock Fleet had made good its 
.escape, aided by the fact that the Japanese were unable to leave the Korean Straits unguarded. On their 
way back the Russians captured the British steamer Cheltenham, laden with timber and sleepers for the 
Seoul-Fusan Railway, which might lawfully be considered as contraband. She was taken to Vladivostock, 
•where she arrived on July 6, and was, it is almost unnece.ssary to say, condemned by the Russian Court. 
The third Russian raid was thus a comparative failure, as it only resulted in the destruction of two small 
Japanese vessels and the capture of one British vessel, which did little harm to Japan. Its one practical 
result was to prove to the Russians that the Japanese force in the Straits of Korea had been neither 
strengthened nor weakened as the result of the previous raid, and that not a ship had been moved thither 
from before Port Arthur. 



654 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 7, 1904. 




Ali\llk.\l, \IT(.l-.l 1. 
Ill charge of the Port Arthur Fleet. 

once attacked by the torpedo craft, but 
little damage was done to the Russians 
in this way. Continual violent explosions 
within the harbour testified to the fact that 
the Russians were clearing away the 
obstructions in the harbour entrance, and 
making ready for a sortie. Their small 
craft were also constantly at work at- 
tempting to remove the Japanese mines ; 
and while thus engaged on June 4 a 
gunboat of the Gremiastchy type struck a 
mine and instantly went to the bottom. 
Almost at the .same time and in the 
same place another vessel, which appeared 
to be the Gaidaniak, went down. The 
loss of these vessels was reported by the 
Japanese patrol and denied by the 
Russians, so that whether the ships were 
really sunk remains doubtful. 

There was continual fighting between 
the Japanese gunboats and destroyers and 
the Russian forts, in 
which, however, the 
Japanese ves.sels for the most part sus- 
tained only trivial damage and loss. On 
June 7 a serious accident befel the 
Japanese. The mining ship Taiuoku 
Maru was at work laying mines off 

Mo. XXVIII. 



A Mine Explodes. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

X.AVAL OPERATIONS BKFORK 

I'ORT ARTHUR— THE JUNE SORTIE OF THE 

RUSSIAN FLEET. 

THROUGHOUT June the Japanese torpedo flotilla 
maintained its blockade of Port Arthur, steaming 
close to the harbour mouth at nightfall and laj-ing 
mines in the darkness, while by day proceeding some 
distance to .sea. Admiral Togo remained at his base in the 
l-'lliot Islands with his large ships, though one or two 
Japanese cruisers were usually stationed 
to the rear of the torpedo flotilla, so as 
to give it support in the event of the 
Russians emerging. Whenever a Russian ship did come 
out and remain the night outside the harbour, she was at 



Port Arthur 
Harbour 




iimery 'Walk'.ir ?c. 

MAP SHOWING COUNTRY BETWEEN PORT ARTHUR AND MUKDEN. 



June 14, 1904. 



TOGO'S FLEET. 



655 



Port Arthur in the closest possible proximity to the enemy, when a mine suddenlj' exploded, killing 
Commander Masaki and i8 men, and wounding more or less seriously Commander Oda and seven 
men. Commander Oda, who was the famous inventor of the mines used, was only slightly hurt, and, 
strange to say, the Taihoku escaped almost undamaged. 

On June 14, during the hours of daylight, while four Japanese destroyers were at work bombarding the 
Russian defences to the east of Port Arthur, the fast cruiser Novik and ten Russian destroyers suddenly 
appeared on the scene, having stolen out of Port Arthur. The Japanese destroyers were compelled to beat 
an immediate retreat, but did their best to draw their enemy well out to sea, so as to enable Admiral Togo's 
heavier ships to intercept the Russians. The Russians, however, were not to be trapped, and, after shelling 
the Japanese lines and positions in the left attack upon Port Arthur, retired to Port Arthur. The arrival of 




Till-; JAPANESE TORPEDO FLOTILLA LAVING MINES AT NIGHT HEKOKE PORT ARTHUR. 

the Chitose, which was the innermost of the large Japanese ships on the blockade, precipitated their 
retirement. The Russians laid several mines in open water before they withdrew. 

On June 21 the Japanese pickets observed that the Russians were showing redoubled energy in clearing 
away mines, and learnt from Chinese spies that a sortie was imminent, and that Admiral Vitgeft's fleet 
had suffered further losses in the work of preparing for it, two or three small craft 
having been blown up. Admiral Togo was warned, and held his ships ready at his 
base to move at an hour's notice. He had with him only the MiKASA, ASAIII, 
SlllKisniMA, and FUJI, first-class battleships, with the old CHIN Yen, the four armoured cruisers ASAMA, 
Yakumo, Nisshin, and KasuGA, the Takasago, Kasagi, and Chitose, three slow but well-armed cruisers 
of the Matsushima cb.ss, the Akitsushima, SUMA, Akashi, the 19 destroyers, 30 or 40 torpedo-boats, 
and a host of small gunboats, old cruisers, and launches armed with torpedo tubes. The great bulk of this 
formidable force was kept in readiness at the naval base, in a fine natural harbour in the island of 



Japanese Fleet at 
Tashantau. 



656 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 22, 1904. 




Repairing the 
Russian Fleet. 



THE FAST RUSSIAN CRUISER " NOVIK." 



Tashantau, where it was in constant wireless communication 
with the advance squadron closely watching Port Arthur. 

For some weeks reports had been circulated by the 
Russians to the effect that the torpedoed vessels Tzarevitch, 
Retvisan, and Pallada had been repaired and were now 
ready for sea. These reports had not 
been credited, but they were true. The 
battleships Pobieda, damaged by a 
Japanese mine, and Sevastopol, injured by collision, had also 
been put in fighting order. Yet the repairs in the case of 
all tlie ships, except the Tzarevitch, had not been very 
satisfactorily executed. Plates of thin sheet metal had been 
riveted over the external wounds, and the boilers and engines, where damaged, had been, as far as possible, 
patched up. The Retvisan s machinery, however, had been thrown out of line, and her steaming power 
had been so much reduced that she was good only for some I2 knots instead of the i8 of her trial speed. 
Though in Europe it was not generally believed that the Port Arthur fleet was in a condition to put to 
sea, the Japanese h^d better information, and also knew that the obstacles in the harbour mouth had 
been cleared by blasting so as just to permit of the passage of the Russian battleships by daylight 
if ever)* precaution was used. 

Late in the night of June 22-3, the Russian Admiral, Vitgeft, determined to put to sea on the following 
day, in the hope of finding the Japanese off their guard, and attacking their transports, no doubt fired by 
news of Admiral Bezobrazoff's exploits, which had duly been transmitted to him. He 
Russians an a purposed after this achievement to proceed to Vladivostock through the Straits of 
Korea. His first rnove was to send eight destroyers into the outer harbour, where they 
were ordered to keep all Japanese craft at a respectful distance. The Japanese destroyers skirmished with 
the Russian vessels, but as these latter kept close under the shelter of the guns of the forts, could not do 
them much harm. At daybreak the Russian destroyers set to work to look for mines, and were speedily 
joined by the cruiser Novik, which was the first of the larger Russian ships to leave the harbour and enter 
the outer anchorage ; behind her the battleships could be seen moving slowly, whereupon messages went 
through the air to tell Admiral Togo that the Russians were at last in real earnest coming out. As one b)' 
one the Russian ships emerged, the smaller gunboats and tugs dragged for mines, of which two were almost 
at once seen floating on the surface 
of the water, and on the eastern side 
of the harbour ten were discovered 
and exploded at 3 p.m. 

At 1 1 a.m. the six Russian battle- 
ships Tzarevitch, Retvisan, Pobieda, 
Peresviet Sevastopol, and Poltava, 

with the armoured 
A Torpedo Duel. _ 

cruiser Bayan, the 

protected cruisers Diana, Pallada, 
Askold, and Novik, and seven 
destroyers, were drawn up in the 
outer harbour, but not for some 
hours could they put to sea. Off 
the port the Japanese had laid an 
enormous mine-field which required 
to be thoroughly cleared. The 
destroyers set to work to open a 
passage, and almost at once came ^111; Russian battleship '■ sevastoi-ol.- 




June 23, 1904. 



SORTIE OF THE RUSSIAN FLEET. 



657 



into collision with the ist and 4th Japanese Destroyer Divisions and the 14th Torpedo I'lotilla, which closed 
in upon them the moment their mission had been understood, and attacked them with the utmost determina- 
tion and vigour. So furiously did the Japanese boats rush upon the Russian craft, which here as always were 
most indifferently handled, that the Russians were in the utmost peril. One Russian destro)'er was hit 
repeatedly and set on fire, and fell back burning to the interior of the harbour. The other seven were saved 
from further damage by the approach of the cruiser Novik, which steamed rapidly up and drove the Japanese 
off with her 47-in. guns, weapons too formidable for the lightly-armed Japanese craft. With two powerful 
tugs the Novik assisted in the work of dragging for mines, and soon after 3 was able to signal back to 
Admiral Vitgeft that a channel had been cleared. The Russian Fleet got under way and steamed slowly 
southwards, having spent the best part of the day in the two operations of quitting the harbour and opening 
a way through the mine-field. The Japanese destroyers now retired, and the squadron of fast, unarmoured 
cruisers Chitose, Kasagi, and Takasago, under Admiral Dewa, kept close touch with the enemy, and 
strove to draw him in the direction of Admiral Togo's fleet. The Russians steamed out with the Tzarevitch 
and the other battleships and large cruisers in a single line ahead, the Novik and the seven destroyers taking 
post on the starboard beam 
of the big ships, also in 
line ahead. The course 
set was south-east, which 
was the direction of the 
Korean Straits. 

Togo had received the 
alarm at 8 a.m., and had 
at once got under wa\- 

The Russian ^^'th his 
Fleet five battle- 
Comes Out. , . ,^, 
ships (the 

Y.\SHIMA was absent from 
his line), four armoured 
cruisers, and fifteen torpedo 
craft, and taken up a 
position to intercept the 
Russian retreat when 
Admiral Dewa should 
have drawn the enemy a 
sufficient distance out to 
sea. He lay with his 
battleships and torpedo 
vessels just to the south 
of Encounter Island, a 
rocky islet which rises out 
of the water 25 miles to 
the south-east of Port 
Arthur, and which effec- 
tually concealed his posi- 
tion from the enemy. 
About 4 p.m. Admiral 
Dewa closed a little upon 
the Russians, and almost 
at the same time they 
altered course, so as to 




MINE EXPLODED UNDER 



J.\PANESE MINING-SHIP " TAIHOKU M.VRU." 



658 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 23, 1904. 



steer almost due south and pass well to the east of Encounter Island. About 6 p.m., at a distance of 23 
miles from Port .Arthur, the Russians for the first time saw the Japanese fighting fleet. They had supposed 
that many of its ships were away either in the Straits of Korea or undergoing a refit, and had hoped to 
take .Admiral Togo by surprise. But to their consternatign they found him with eleven armoured ships and 
a far larger number of protected cruisers than they had expected. 

Over and above the big Japanese ships they saw before them thirty torpedo vessels covering the sea. 
And at the sight of this formidable fleet, with battle flags flying and in perfect order for the attack, the 

hearts of the Russians failed them. Admiral Vitgeft retired to his cabin and figured 
Admiral itgrelt ^^^ ^j^^ Japanese force in guns as 281 against 138 Russian guns, whereupon he came to 

the conclusion that he would not fight, but would return ingloriously to his anchorage. 
Even the hope of reaching Wei-hai-wei or Kiaochau passed from him ; his terrible enemies were between 




THE RUSSIAN CKUISEK " NOVIK," WITH TWO I'OWKKKUL TUGS, ASSlbThlJ IN Till-, WOKK OK I>KA(_;i,r. , MINIS. 

him and those neutral ports. As he made his calculations, ominoys movements were observed in the 



een 



Japanese Fleet. Admiral Dewa with his fast cruisers and destroyers was manceuvring to work in betw 
the Russians and their base, with the object, so the Russians supposed, of laying drifting mines. At the 
same time Admiral Togo with the battle-fleet steamed out at full speed, steering to pass to the rear of the 
Ku.ssians. 

The Japanese advanced to attack the Russians about 7.30 p.m., adopting a wedge-shaped formation. 
Togo drew within extreme range of the Russian Fleet, but only exchanged a few shots with the heavy guns 
at 14.CXX) yards, which did little or no damage. Immediately the Russian Fleet went about, altering course 
till it headed north. The change was made about 8, just as night was falling ; the Japanese battle-fleet 
forthwith passed from the \vedge formation to line-abreast, executing the change perfectly, and followed on 
the Russian flank, slowly gaining ground. The torpedo flotilla steamed to the rear of Admiral Togo's slnps. 



660 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 23, 1904. 



sheltered by them from the enemy's projectiles. As darkness came on, Admiral Vitgeft with his fleet 
intact neared the shelter of the forts, and could laugh at the Japanese battle-fleet, which had to turn and 

cruise far oflf the port. 

The hour had come for torpedo action, and though the night was bright and clear, with the moon 
shining in the sky, the Japanese flotilla went in to use its terrible weapon. The first assault was delivered 
by the 14th Torpedo Flotilla at 9.30. steaming rapidly in, and firing its torpedoes at the rearmost vessel in 

the Russian line. The 
torpedoes ran erraticall)' 
and missed the Russian 




Futile 
Torpedo 
Attacks. 



STOKING VV. 



vessels. To 
attack ships 
under way 
is always a difficult 
matter, and neither in 
earlier naval struggles 
nor in this war up to the 
date of writing has there 
been any instance in which 
a moving ship has been 
torpedoed. But the attack 
caused great confusion 
and disorder in the Russian 
line, and a sauve qui pent 
followed as Admiral 
Vitgeft's disheartened 
captains strove each to be 
the first to enter the 
anchorage. A few- 

minutes after the first 
attack had been delivered 
and had failed, the 5th 
Japanese Division made a 
fresh onset, at a distance 
of about four miles from 
the harbour. Again the 
torpedoes were discharged 
without result, and about 
I op.m. the Russians reached 
the roads. There they 
anchored in a long single 
line, the bows of the ships 
pointing seawards with 
torpedo-nets down, under 



lilK I UKNACE-ROOM OF A JAPANESE BATTLESItlT 

the shelter of Mantoying Vori and the works on the Tiger Peninsula. Realising the danger which they 
would run from the Japanese torpedo craft, the Russian crews got out spars and timber-baulks, and placed 
them in front of the ships, so as to form a strong boom. It was impossible to enter the harbour in 
the darkness, so that this was the only practicable means of securing the battleships against the torpedo 
attacks, .which, as the Russian Staff" foresaw, the Japanese were certain to deliver. The brightness of 
the night and the strong moon were, however, points in favour of the Russians and against the heroes of 
the torpedo-boats. 



662 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM, 



June 23, 1904. 




J.ipiinese mins. 

[From a sketch by Walter Kirton. 
A RECONNAISSANCE NEAR LIEN-SHAN-KWAN. 

Tfau skirmish was one of the many that took place near the Motienling Pass. The hills in the background were held by Russians, and 
on the left can be seen Japanese scaling the heights, their plan being to threaten the Russian right. 



The Jap- 
anese at- 
tacks were 
all delivered 
by small 
groups of 
boats in 
succession, 
steam ing 
rapidly in 
front of the 
R u s s i a n 
Fleet from 
east to west 
under a 
terrific fire 
from the 
forts and 
from the 
guns of the 
R u s s i a n 

Fleet The innumerable searchlights lighted up the scene till the waters of the roads were as 
brilh'antly illuminated as though it had been broad daylight. Nevertheless, the frail Japanese craft steered 
into the zone of light, into the tornado of fire, with a courage and devotion that have been rarely equalled 
and never surpassed. Strange to relate, notwithstanding all the storm of shells, the Japanese casualties 
were few and far between, and not a single torpedo-boat was put permanently out of action. But if the 
Russians inflicted little damage, so also did the Japanese ; the boom gave good protection to the Russian 
ships, and any torpedoes that passed it were caught in the nets, while the ships ofifered but a small target 
end-on. 

In the excitement and uproar, with searchlights playing in their faces, the Japanese officers could not 

see what injury they inflicted ; they could only make out 
the huge hulls of the Russian vessels, aglow with the 
flame from the muzzles of their countless guns and ablaze 
with searchlights, and do their best 
to get home. Eight attacks had been 
delivered with no success, when, as 
the 1 6th Japanese Flotilla was passing closer than the 
others to the Russian battleships, the Shirataka dis- 
ciiarged in quick succession two torpedoes, as it seemed 
to the officers on board her, into the very bows of the 
great Peresvtet, Admiral Ukhtomsky's flagship. There 
was a rush of flame, a spout of water, and through the 
smoke and glare the Japanese thought that they saw the 
Russian ship go down. The Shirakumo in this daring 
attack "was struck in her ward-room by a shell which 
did considerable damage, and three men on board her 
were killed, while three were wounded. She retired 
from the fight, and as day dawned the attacks ceased. 

Besides the casualties on board the Shirakumo, the 
Chidori was hit in her after-boiler compartment by a 




The "Peresvlet" 
Torpedoed. 



CEKERAL 



NISHI 
THE 



(F, Mciven/ie photo. 
WATCHING THE FIGHTING IN 
MOTIENLING PASS. 



June 27, 1904. 



VITGEFT'S FAILURE. 



663 



Japanese 
Casualties. 



heavy shell, which, fortunately for her, did not explode. Nos. 64 and 66 sustained trivial injury, and 
on board No. 53 a cadet was wounded. The.se were all the Japanese casualties, though 
the Russians reported that two Japanese torpedo-boats had been sunk by the fire of the 
ships and forts. On the Russian side the casualties and damage inflicted were 
insignificant. The Japanese, indeed, were under the impression that they had sunk the Peresviet and 
seriously injured the Sevastopol and Diana, but subsequent information showed that they were wrong. The 
Peresviet grounded on the Tiger Peninsula, possibly becau.se she had sustained some injury in the torpedo 
attack, but on the 24th she was towed off, and taken into the harbour, where any injuries that she may have 
received were quickly repaired. The whole Russian Fleet was within Port Arthur by 4 p.m. of the 24th. 

Thus inconclusively ended the first serious sortie of the Russian Fleet. Admiral Vitgeft on this 
occasion showed a deplorable lack of determination ; with six good battleships, as he himself admitted, to 
his enemy's four good battleships, he had turned tail, instead of closing in a desperate 
encounter which might well have cleared the way for the Baltic Fleet. Japan had 
gained a moral victory, and the proof of this was that the extremest discouragement 
after the battle prevailed among the officers and men of the Russian I'leet. They were jeered at and 



How 

Vitgeft Failed. 



Japanese Front. 
„ Advance 




C.PhiJ,pi.Son. L<f 



MAP SHOWING J.4PANESE ADVANCE TO THE .MOTIEN AND TO LI.WVAXG. 



insulted by the soldiers of the army, who asked how it was that they dared not meet the Japanese, and 
made their lives a burden to them. All confidence in Admiral Vitgeft's leadership vanished, and from the 
Russian point of view it would have been wiser to have then and there removed him from a command for 
which, by rea.son of his want of decision, he was plainly unfitted. 

On the night of June 27 the Japanese torpedo craft discovered a Russian cruiser at anchor outside Port 

Arthur and attacked her, but seemingly without result. A fierce fight with the Russian destroyers in the 

roads followed, in which one of the Russian destroyers sank. The Japanese loss on 

Russian Destroyer's this occasion was somewhat heavy ; Lieutenant Gondo and 13 men were killed, and 

Escape. ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ wounded. On the following night, the 28th, the Russian destroyer 

Lieutenant Burakoff, the fastest of the Port Arthur vessels, and at one time capable of steaming 35 knots, 

ran out of the harbour. The weather at the time was foggy, and she does not appear to have been sighted 



664 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 5, 1904. 




LiENEKAL KENNENKA.MPK AMONG HIb "HUNDRED WOLVEb." 

by the Japanese. Xext day, on her way north to Newchwang, she missed her course and 
grounded in Fuchau Bay. She had just managed to get afloat when several Japanese destroyers were 
seen approaching. Her speed, however, was so much greater than theirs that she managed to escape from 
them, and late in the evening of the 29th she arrived at Newchwang. She brought despatches from Port 

Arthur, and, after having 
discharged her mission, 
she returned to Port 
Arthur on July 3, stealing 
in through the Japanese 
blockading line without 
much difficulty. 

On July 5 the Japanese 
suffered a serious disaster. 
The old gunboat Kai- 
M o N o n 
that da}- 
was cruis- 
ing off Dalny in a 
dense fog, when she 
suddenly struck a 
Russian mine. A terrific 
explosion followed, as 
the result of which she 
sank with her captain 
Commander Takahashi, 
two officers, and 19 men. 

JAP.V.NhSE SOLDlEki IN THE HKINCi Ll.NE AT THE liATTEE OF MOTIENLING. 1 akahashl might haVC 




Loss of the 
"Kaimon." 




s>- 




INFANTRY OF THE 2ND DIVISION ADVANC^^ 



ICo 



.MOUNIAIX; 



ING THROUGH A DEFILE AMONG THlV 1 1 \() I r N( 
From an instantaneous photograpl, by J. H. Hare, special correspondent with General Kuroki's army, ,904 

^^■c^pS'^q:\^^j:'^^1j^:t:i^ ;^- --- - |he^^. Barrier r.,^ S^^:^^^ C-^^' ''"™'^' "^ "^^ '° "'"'=' =" "«= ■^--. 
»oods, which are at this season simply impenetrable except bv a few trafu •„?H h LX "^« Russian railway. The mountains are densely clothed with copse 
are one and all friendly to the Japanese, and won thdr lote and confidence tof vea?s a^'o Th T" °"'>' >,'° ""= '=''"™'''' burners'and woodmen, w?,o 

nformed as to Russian movements an,l have been most deve^in misleldini the Russian? sJeKheSfhi'^r ^^^\^y^l"r'^"cMy kept their friends well 
the attention of the Russians at the main passes, have wandered secueK for , Any weX earn^^^^^^^ "" ^^^'"T\ ^"^ '""'S' ^°"'<^ <=ng--'RinK 

«ores, and when all was ready hav^e appeared over the rangerTu'rn[^^ ^'e"L:S':rT7l^lt,:iT^^^^^^^ and 



666 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June, 1904. 




been saved, but with characteristic gallantry refused to- 
leave his ship, and died at his post on the bridge. The 
Kaimon was a wooden vessel, built in 1882, and was of 
no fighting value. On the night of July 8 the Japanese 
torpedo craft attacked the Russian picket boats in the 
outer harbour at Port Arthur, but without obtaining any 
important result, though they themselves supposed that 
they had torpedoed the Askold. The difficulty of 
inflicting damage on the Russians at this stage of the 
war was great, as they lay behind a boom, with nets down. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

JAPANESE ADVANCE IN MANCHURIA 



T' 



J.\PANE!5E TROOPS RESTING IN THE CORN TO 
OBT.^IN SHELTER FROM THE HE.\T. 



THE 

—BATTLES OF THE MOTIEN. 

'HE third week of June found the Japanese armies 

in Manchuria deployed on a front of about 

120 miles from Saimatse on the east to the 

neighbourhood of Siungyuecheng on the west. The 

Japanese right was formed by General Kuroki with the 

1st Army, now about 60,000 strong ; the centre was 

held by General Nodzu with the 4th Arm\', 50,000 strong ; 

while on the left was General Oku with the 2nd Army, 60,000 strong, in process of being reinforced. 

The total Japanese strength was thus about 170,000 men or rather more, opposed by a force of Russians 

which was about the same in strength or slightly superior. The Russians were 

A I ™^ posted thus : On their extreme left, near Saimatse, was General Rennenkampf with 

a force of Cossacks ; in the centre, holding the passes over the great range of 

mountains known as the Fengshuling or Motienshan, was General Count Keller, commanding the army 

of the East; under him, at South Fengshuling, was General Alexeieff; and further to the south, 

forming the Russian right, were Generals Stakelberg and Sarubaieff, with the Cossacks of General 

Samsonofif. General Kuropatkin 

with a small force remained near 

Liaoyang, whence he directed the 

movements of his scattered army. 

The first task was to withdraw 

Stakelberg from his exposed 

position after the great defeat of 

Telisse, and to manage this 

G e n e r a 1 

CoSnaUon. Kuropatkin 
had to face 
considerable risks and to weaken 
his army in other directions. 
Thus Keller was left with a force 
quite insufficient to hold the 
Motien Pa.ss, and Alexeieff at 
South Fengshuling was not much 
better off. The Japanese, how- 
ever, could not move their armies 
singly, and all advances had to be 




THE 



.\]<)1 IKNI.INi; 



A GREAT FEAT. 



667 




A FP:AT of IXGEN'UITV: JAPANESE GETTING THEIR ARTILLERY INTO POSITION 

The scene is laid on the watershed between the tributaries of the Liao River and those of the Yalu. On these almost inaccessible crests the Russians had u 
strong position, but the Japanese found a way through the mountain passes and got entire command of the Muscovite post, causing the Russians to evacuate 

it without firing a shot. 



668 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 21, 1904. 




JAPANESK TKOOI'S RESTING AkOUNU THE TEMPLE 

MOTIENLING 



[ K. McKenzie pliulo 
AFTER THE BATTLE OF 



executed in combination, 
which involved great 
delay, as when one arm\' 
was ready to ino\e 
another might be ex- 
periencing difficult}- with 
its transport. The roads 
used by General Nodzu's. 
force were, in particular, 
execrable, no better than 
rough bridle paths, and 
generally almost impass- 
able for wheeled artillery 
and \ehicles. In the 
phase of the campaign 
which follows, it must be 
remembered that the 
operations of the three 
armies really form one 
whole ; they alwajs ad- 
vance together and fight 
together so as to prevent 
the Russians from moving 

their men backwards and forwards r.nd first concentrating on one then on another of the three armies. 

The skill with which the Japanese movements were co-ordinated is remarkable in the history of war, but the 

advance on several lines had certain disadvantages, in that opportunities were necessarily missed at times. 
The forward movement of the Japanese armies began late in June. On the 2ist, General Oku 

occupied Siungyuecheng, driving before him the wreck of General Stakelberg's army. It was now the turn 
for the centre and right Japanese armies to advance and seize the passes through the 
great chain of mountains which divides the basins of the Liao and Yalu. This chain, 

known by the names of the Tsien Shan, Moticn, or Fengshuling range, runs roughlx' parallel with the 

railway, and its highest peaks rise more than 

5,(X)0 feet above the sea. The roads crossing 

it are for the most part not roads in the English 

sense, but mere footpaths. The one exception 

is the main highway leading from Fenghwang- 

cheng to Liaoyang through the Motien Pass, 

which has been used from time immemorial by 

the Chinese. 

Here the Russians had marked out, but not 

completely constructed, a double line of defences 

of great natural strength. The first was some 

little distance east of the pass proper, at 

Bunsuirei. The second was in the pass, on the 

veiy crest of the range through \\hich it led. 

Between the two positions the Russians had 

their headquarters at the dirty Chinese village of 

Lien-shan-kwan. A little to the north of the 

Motien Pass was the Siakhaling Pass, a little 

to the south the Sinkailing, neither of which 



The Motien Pass. 




MJI.iiii-.K^ i;ki.\(;im; in SPOILS FROM THE 
BATTLE 07 -MOTIENLING. 



JAPAN'S GREAT GENERAL. 



669 




BARON KUROKI, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE FIRST JAPANESE ARMY. 



670 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 24, 1904. 




[Copyright, 1904, by "' Colliti':. Weeklj."' 
WOUNDED RUSSIAN {JETTING A LIGHT FROM HIS CAPTORS IN 
THE MOTIENI.ING PASS. 



was fortified by the Russians, probably 
because it was never supposed that an 
army could make its way b}- either of 
these two difficult routes which led through 
a perfect sea of thickly-wooded moun- 
tains. Much further away to the north- 
east was yet another pass, the North 
Fengshuling, also knoivn as the Taling 
Pass, a name very common in this part 
of Manchuria. These four passes lay 
along the front of General Kuroki's army. 
Two others, away to the south-west, were 
in General Nodzu's front — the Modulin 
and the South Fengshuling. These were 
the gates giving access to the rich plains 
that surrounded Liaoyang ; to capture 
them was a comparatively simple matter 
now that General Kuropatkin had his 
eyes fixed on Stakelberg's army painfull}' 
retreating and in imminent danger of 
envelopment. Just at this moment, how- 
ever, heavy rains began to fall, some 
weeks before the rainy season was due, 

greatly embarrassing the movements of both armies, as the streams swelled till they became impassable, and 

the tracks were converted into rivers of mud. 

On June 24 the country was dry enough to permit of military movements, and at once the ist and 4th 

Japanese Armies began their advance. General Kuroki attacking the Taling and Motien Passes, while 
General Oku assailed the Fengshuling Pass. The Russian army under General Keller 
had, as the Japanese expected, made large detachments to support Stakelberg, and was 
in very weak force. Moreover, it had drawn in most of its advanced detachments, 

which had originally held the three important passes and the ground in their front, partly because of the 

difficulty of forwarding supplies along steep and muddy roads, partly because the Russians had now come 

to the conclusion that the Japanese did not intend any immediate attack in the Motien direction, but would 

advance rather towards the 

South Fengshuling Pass. 

.Against the Motien two 

Japanese divisions moved, 

the Guards and the 2nd. One 

division took the Motien road, 

throwing out a detachment 

wliich worked its way through 

the Sinkailing Pass, the other 

moved by the Siakhaling Pass 

directly upon the Russian 

rear. The 12th Division at 

the same time pushed north 

through Saimatse, which, after 

changing hands three times 

in as many weeks, now passed 

finally into the possession of 



Kuroki and Oku 
Attack. 




JAI'ANKSK INFANTRY WAITING THE WORD TO ATI AC K AT 



[K. .McKt;n/ie photo 
.MOTIENLING. 



672 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 26. 1904. 




[Photo, Bolak. 
GENERAL QOUNT KELLER. 

Succeeded General Sassulitch after the Russian failure at the Yalu. 



the Japanese, and marched upon the Taling Pass, 
forcing back the Cossacks and inflicting upon 
them considerable loss. 

As the Japanese attack on the Motien de- 
veloped, on June 26, General Keller found himself 
obliged to choose between two alternatives, each 
of them most unpalatable. 

^" M^^fi^!! *^® Kitlier he must abandon the 
jHotien. 

pass, the possession of which 
was of the utmost importance to the Russian 
arm}-, or he must be surrounded if he determined 
to hold it to the last extremity. On the night of 
the 26th the Japanese flanking attacks upon the 
pass progressed with such alarming speed that 
Keller decided to abandon the strongly fortified 
positions on both sides of Lien-shan-kwan. During 
the night he set fire to the stores which had been 
accumulated at his headquarters for his arm\', 
and beat a precipitate retreat. He was only just 
in time. A few hours' delay would have enabled 
the Japanese to work to his rear and have entailed 
the destruction of his whole army. As it was, 
the formidable Motien position fell into the hands 
of General Kuroki with nothing more than slight 
skirmishing. The Japane. e found that emplace- 
ments had been constructed for field guns, roads built so as to permit of the free movement of artillery, 

and trenches of the best pattern dug, giving head-shelter. The Japanese promptly occupied and entrenched 

the line of the pass, while their 

headquarters took up its position 

at Lien-shan-kwan, and waited for the 

completion of the other moves in 

the game. 

After clearing the extreme right 

flank, the 1 2th Division on June 29 

forced back General Grekoff", who 
was holding the 
Taling Pass, 
exactly as 

Kuroki's main army had driven back 

Keller, and seized the pass, thereby 

opening the road to Mukden and 

gravely threatening the retreat of the 

Russian army. Indeed, in the 

opinion of many with either armj-, 

this was the most critical moment 

in the campaign for the Russians. 

A vigorous and rapid advance 

executed by General Kuroki with his 

whole army would have cut the com- 
munications of General Kuropatkin 



Taling Pass 
Seized. 



Scale of Miles 




SIUYEN 



MAP ILLL',STK.\T1NG GKNER.\L 



G Phi/ip S Son L '■'' 
NODZU'S MOVEMENTS. 




to 

CO 

< 

a. 

z 

ul 

H 
O 

u 

I 
H 



u 
H 

z 

D 
O 

U 

z 

U] 

a 

z 
< 

6 

H 
Q 
Z 
< 

X 



674 



lAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 24, 1904. 




fF. McKen/ie photo. 
SPOILS FROM THE BATTLK OK MOTIENI.ING. 



and ensured the destruction of his wlioie force. But General 
Kuroki was not permitted to act upon his own initiative, 
and if the opportunity had ever really existed, it was not 
.seized. General Keller was so indignant with General 
Grekofif at the loss of this important pass, that he remc)\ed 
him from command. 

The.se two reverses to the Russian arms, for such the loss 
of two important positions must be held, were not the 
only blows that fell upon General Keller. As General 
Kuroki moved out against the Motien 
T»»e ^l^ff """^ Pass, General Nodzu had put his arm>- 
in motion from Siuyen and was march- 
ing upon the South Fengshuling Pass, where the Russians 
had prepared strong entrenchments extending over a front 
of more than twenty miles. The works here were quite 
as formidable as tho.se at Nanshan, which had cost General 
Oku so dearly. Good artillery positions had been prepared ; 
deep trenches cut ; roads constructed ; sheltered ways made 
joining the various batteries, and in front of them was a 
maze of wire entanglements, barricades, and pits with 

sharp stakes. Thou.sands of Chinese coolies had been busy upon these works for weeks, with such result 

that a frontal attack upon the Fengshuling Pass was out of the question. But there were very grave 

defects in the Russian position ; in the first place, there were wide gaps in this elaborate .system of 

defences, and there was no visible reason why the Japanese should not make use of the.se gaps instead 

of dashing their heads against the formidable works. In the second place, to hold the line effectively an 

army of 6o,ooo or 70,000 men would have been required, whereas General Alexeieff, who was in command 

had with him not more than 2Q.000 men, and was specially weak in artillery. 

The Japanese force employed consisted of the ist Brigade, detached from the Guards Division of 

General Kuroki's army, the whole lOth Division and a portion of the 6th, the total force being about 40,000. 
As usual, the Japanese delivered their attack from the direction in which it was least 
expected, and took the Russians b}' surprise. On June 24 Nodzu was in front of the 

Russian position, and reconnoitred it with the utmost care. He found that the important height of 

Tisiung.shan was weakly occupied by the Russians, though it lay in the very centre of their line, and though 

guns mounted upon it would com- 
mand the rear of the lines defending 

the Fengshuling Pass. As the hills 

were pine-clad, there was no great 

difficulty in moving a force against 

it under cover of the forests. The 

Japanese dispositions were made 

as follows on the evening of the 

24th: The 1st Guards Brigade was 

to attack the Russian left in front 

and flank, detaching one of its 

raiments to work right round to 

the Ru.ssian rear. A regiment 

under Colonel Kamada was to 

advance towards Tisiungshan and 

seize that eminence. On the 

•|„„ , r^ ^, ., ,- . , .MK. I. .MlKK.NZIKS SNAI'SIIfir OF .\ RUSH OF J AP.WKSK 1\1ANTK\ 

Japanese left the 20th Brigade forward in the motienling pass. 



Nodzu's Plan. 



■^ jUII^^-- 








1 n 


ML' 






^--^^L 


t*4f^ 




■■■■Hl^.- ^^itftiL" 


.--■.^.^■...iC^. ....... 'iW 



June 26, 1904. 



KAMADA'S HARD TASK. 



675 



A\as to deliver a frontal attack, so as to hold the Russians to 

their positions, and at the same time to cover Kamada's 

advance. On the extreme left the 8th Brigade was to turn 

the Russian right and to move in behind the enemy to 

the north of Hsiahata. 

By the evening of June 26 one of the Guards regiments 

had succeeded in working round the Russian left flank, 

and climbing by a difficult track the precipitous mountains 

to the north-east of Fengshulinij. To 
A Difficult Task. , ,, . , , ,. , 

make their way along the dizzy tracks 

the men had to discard their heavy boots, and use straw 
sandals, which gave a firmer grip. The Japanese en- 
countered only two companies of Russians, who offered but 
a trifling resistance and were easily dislodged. Early that 
same night Kamada, with his regiment, managed to scale 
the dominating height of Tisiungshan, ejecting the small 
Russian detachment which had been stationed to hold it. 
The rest of the night was spent by him in bringing up 
mountain-guns and maxims with which to bombard the 
Russians in the Fengshuling Pass. All the 26th the 
Japanese had skirmished in front of the Russian lines, holding 
the enemy's attention, and on the right the Guards had a sharp combat with 2,000 Russians at 
Wungchiaputze. On the left the 8th Brigade encountered stubborn resistance in its frontal attack, but 
did not press the advance till time had been given for the other forces to develop their movements. 

Early in the morning of the 27th the Japanese advanced all along the line, and the Russians, finding 
themselves e.xposed to a hail of bullets from the Japanese detachments which had worked to their rear at 
Tisiungshan and to the north of the Fengshuling Pass, began to show signs of weakening, and about 8 a.m. 
precipitately fell back from the pass to avoid being enveloped. As it was, the Russians were only just in 



' . " •♦ ■ 






' : 7 - 









[Copyright, T904, by *' Collier's Weekly." 

JAPANESE TROOPS RESTING AT LIEN-SHAN-K.WAN, 

WHERE A LONG REST WAS RENDERED NECESS.'VRY 

BY THE RUSSIAN RETRE.'\T. 




[Copyright by " Collier's Weekly.' 

CORRESPONDENTS AT WORK PHOTOGRAPHING THE PANORAMA OF THE HILLS ON THE WAY TO THE 

MOTIEN P.\SS. 



676 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 27, 1904. 



Fengshuling 



time, and here, as at the Motien, they ran considerable risk by holding on too long. The 20th Japanese 
Brigade reached Santaokou, well to the rear of the Russians, before the close of the morning, and compelled 
General Ale.xeieft to set fire to the stores which he had accumulated at Sungtatze. On the right the 
Russians made a more determined resistance, but were driven away from the main ridge before daylight. 

Late in the day, however, 
2,000 fresh troops, with 
two batteries 'of artillery, 
arrived to reinforce this 
wing, and it made a 
counter-attack upon the 
Japanese, only to. be once 
more repulsed. 

The fighting ended at 

nightfall, when, with a 

loss of about 170 men, 

the Japanese captured one 

of the most 

formidable 

Captured. „ 

Russian 

positions on the road to 
Liaoyang. The Russian 
casualties were far heavier, 
as 90 dead were found 
on the main road from 
Siuyen toj Simucheng 
alone, while si.x officers 
and 82 men were taken 
prisoners. In all, General 
Ale.xeieff must have lost 
some 500 men. But he 
displayed great skill in 
extricating his force in 
the face of far superior 
numbers. He had been 
set an impossible task, 
and no surprise can be 
felt at his failure to ac- 
complish it. 

With all the main 
pas.ses in their -hands, 
the Japanese armies now 
halted to permit the 2nd 
Army under General Oku 
to move up into line. 
Once more the weather 
terfered with the movements, as in early July heavy rains fell, rendering the roads impassable for 
two or three days. In the words of a correspondent with the Russian army : " Cart traffic had become 
practically imix)ssible. Twenty-five per cent, of every baggage train lay on the roadside derelict. Cavalry 
were useless, and artillery could not be manoeuvred. . . The troops bivouacked on morasses, and preferred 
to march barefoot to carrying the heavy mud which their boots collected." On the whole the Japanese 




kL.i.^lA.V CAVALRY l.N 



MAN'CHURIA— GENKRAI, ki.NNKNKAMI'l 
"HUNDRED WOLVKS." 



m 



678 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 29, 1904. 




suflered less than the 

Russians from the 

weather. They were in 

the hills, whereas their 

enem\' was in the valleys, 

and the hills dried faster 

than the low ground 

about the river beds. 

In the Motien region 

General Kuroki had 

continued cautiously to 

- push for- 
Defending the ^^,^^,.^ ^j-^^^ 
Yangtzeling. 

occupying 

the main Russian posi- 
tions, and on June 29 his 
scouts were near Yang- 
tzeling, only 26 miles 
from Liaoyang itself 
Here a skirmish was 
fought with General 
Keller's rearguard, and 
the Russians were pre- 
paring for an immediate 
retreat on Liaoyang, 



(Cop)-righl, 1904, by " Collier's Weekly " 
in U.S.A. 
JAPANESE TROOPS STOPPING THE 
ADVANCE OF THE RUSSIANS. 

when fresh troops most 
opportuoely reached General 
Kuropatkin from Europe. He 
therefore despatched strong 
reinforcements to General 
Keller, consisting of the 9th 
and lOth East Siberian 
Regiments, which had pre- 
viously been required at 
Liaoyang, and a part of the 
lOth Army Corps, with several 
batteries of the newest pat- 
tern of quick-firing guns. At 
the same time he ordered 
General Keller to do his best 
to prevent the Japanese from 
capturing the Yangtzeling 
Pass, which would ha\e 
brought them dangerously 
near to Liaoyang. General 
Keller at once suspended his 
retirement and prepared to 




I Victor IJiiUa photo 
RUSSIAN kfcCONNAISSANCE PARTY COMING UP A MAN'CHUKIAN LANE. 



July 3, 1904. 



KELLER'S ADVANCE. 



679 



assume the offensive, 
whereupon the Japanese, 
learning that he had been 
reinforced, and not being 
ready as yet to fight a 
great battle, rapidly drew 
in their detachments to the 
Motion position. Here 
they strongly entrenched 
themselves on the ridge 
which rises high above the 
left bank of the Hsiho 
River, and held the passes 
to the north and south 
of the Motien, so that they 
could always menace a 
Russian force attacking 
the Motien from one or 
other of them. 

With the object of driv- 
ing back the Japanese, 
General Keller on the 
night of July 3 advanced 
eastwards from Yangtze- 
ling with a force of about 
three battalions of infantry, 
his intention being to 
reconnoitre the Japanese 
positions in the pass, and, 
if these were weakly held, 
to seize them. He sent 
part of one battalion south- 
wards from Towan to 
ascertain whether the 
reports which had reached 
him that the Japanese 
were moving up the road 




NO SURRENDER! A JAPANESE SOI.DIFR'S FIi;iri FOR LIFE 




COSSACKS WITH REGIMENTAL COLOURS BEFORE THE CAMERA— EN ROUTE TO LIAOYANG. 



" Lieutenant Kono used his 

sword with such effect that 

the edge was like a saw." 

from the Sinkail- 
ing Pass were true. 
With the other two 
battalions of the 
loth and 24th East 
.Siberian Rifles he 
marched to the 
Motien, reached the 
pass without mis- 
adventure, and then 
and there came 



■ 



680 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 4, 1904. 



upon the Japanese outposts. Soon after 3 a.m. 
of July 4, the Russians bayoneted the Japane.se 
picket, which, mistaking the Russians for a 
Japanese force, was caught off its guard, challenged 
too late, and had not time to give the alarm. 

Behind the picket was a detachment of 36 men 
under a lieutenant in a Chine.se farm. Alarmed 
by the scuffling in the dark, 
^ SncouS;"^"" the detachment leapt to arms, 
and, seizing rifles and am- 
munition, closed with the Russians in a desperate 
hand-to-hand encounter. Instinctively each side 
employed the bayonet, though a few shots were 
fired. After this first brush, the lieutenant with 
20 of his men who remained alive fell back upon 
the supports on the ridge, while the Russians 
deployed and received a steady fire from the little 
band of Japanese. The first supports on thd 
spot were a company of Japanese infantry, who 
fired and then charged the Russian line. Once 
more there was a hand-to-hand encounter ; Lieu- 
tenant Kono, who commanded the Japanese, used 
his sword with -such effect that the edge was nicked like a saw; then as time was gained, more and more 
Japanese arrived and opened fire, driving the Russians back down the western slope of the hills. When 
day brokgj'the loth Russian Regiment was still in scattered order on the slope, while the 24th remained 
formed up in the valley below to give it support and took little part in the fight. The Japanese fire grew 
so deadly that Gfi^ral Keller realised that the only thing to be done was to beat a precipitate retreat. 
The Russians fell back, vigorously pursued by the Japanese, who pushed along the high ground parallel 




.MnrtTARv 



-t 



[Rucldiman Jolinsri)ii photo. 
OKKICKR SPE.\KING TO CAPIURKU 
RUSSIAN. 



to the RilSsian line of march, and inflicted many casualties upon their enemy. 
d ispiritq,d 
force thit "*• 
rega i ned 
the Yang- 
t z e 1 i ng , 
baving left 
behind it 
100 killed 
and 280 
wo unded 
and pris- 
oners, ac- 
cording to 
the Russian 
esti mate. 
The Jap- 
anese found 
and buried 
S3 of the 
R u ss i a n 

GENERAL KUKCJl'ATKIN WITH HIS HEAI)yUAKTERS STAFF. 



It was a shaken and 




[liulla photo. 



July 15, 1904. 



IN THE SINKAILING PASS. 



681 




In the 
Sinkalling Pass. 



I 



MEN PASS. 

The other Russian force, which was composed of three companies of the 22nd Regiment under Colonel 
Garnetsky, was not more successful. After three hours' march in the direction of the Sinkailing Pass it 
found itself in the midst of the Japanese outposts, which at once gave the alarm and 
closed. The Russian Lieutenant Kuchin shot down one of the Japanese sentries, but 
was instantly shot by a comrade, who was bayoneted in his turn. The Japanese were 
forced to fall back on the main body of their troops, whereupon the Russians retired, having, as they stated, 
attained their object and located the Japanese 
positions. On the whole, these reconnaissances 
effected nothing and caused General Keller con- 
siderable loss, without any compensating advantage. 
The Japanese loss at the Motien was 19 killed and 
two officers and 36 men wounded, besides which 
the Russians made two or three prisoners. At the 
Sinkailing the Japanese lost a dozen men. 

In the next few days General Keller received 
strong reinforcements, which greatly improved his 
position, though as yet he had 
only one mountain battery, and 
his new field guns of the quick- 
firing pattern proved to be too heavy for the miry 
tracks round the Motien, and could only be em- 
ployed as position guns. But he felt himself strong 
enough to assume the offensive, and made the most 
careful preparations with that aim. On July 15 he 
reported**© that effect to General Kuropatkin, and 
at once received orders from that general to attack 
the Japanese. It was more than ever necessary for 



General Keller 
Attacks. 




[Copyright, iQ. 14. 



JAPANESE OUTPOST CONCEALED HEHIM) A KOUlill 
SCREEN OF BRUSHWOOD. 



682 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 16. 1904. 




Second Attack on 
the Hotien. 



ICopyrighl, 1904, by '* Collier's Weekly." 
JAPANESE FIXING A TELEPHONE. 



the Russian Commander-in-Chief in Manchuria to move, as the Grand 
♦ Dukes at St. Petersburg, and even the Czar himself, were bitterly 
criticising his prolonged inactivity. The railway was working well 
and pouring troops into Liaoyang, and the Russian army was hour by 
hour gaining strength. 

On the night of July 16-17 Keller's army moved out to attack for 
the second time the Japanese positions in the Motien. General 
KashtaliiTsky, who had commanded the defeated 
troops at the Yalu, was entrusted with the 
direction of the force which was to avenge that 
reverse and to storm the Japanese entrenchments at the Motien, 
Siakhaling, and Sinkailing passes. The total Russian strength 
employed was about 25,000 men ; the total Japanese strength 
actually engaged about 10,000, as large detachments had been 
made from General Kuroki's army to Saimatse and Siuyen, and a 
great part of his force took no part in the battle. The night was 
thick and rainy, and offered great opportunities of surprise. The 
Russian dispositions were as follows : The main body, 1 2 battalions 
strong, moved upon the Motien ; three battalions attacked the 
Japanese force in the Sinkailing Pass, which was posted at the 
junction of the roads, well to the west of the pass ; three battalions 
advanced against the Siakhaling Pass ; and on the extreme Russian 
left a battalion, supported by a detachment of Cossacks, moved 
against the Japanese post to the north-west of Hsiamatang. Thus 
the Russians were assaulting on a front of 12 miles, and the resulting 
action fell into four disconnected combats, in each of which General 
Keller's men were worsted. They were of two different corps — 
the 9th, but recently arrived from Europe, and the East Siberian, 
which had fought upon the Yalu. To support the attack General 
Kuropatkin had greatly strengthened a force which he had stationed 
in a strong entrenched camp near Hsihoyen. 

The Russian columns being some distance apart, it was of the 
utmost importance that they should attack simultaneously, and thus 
prevent the Japanese, after gaining a success in 
Positions of the ^^^^ quarter, from reinforcing another with the 
victori- 
ous troops. But as the 
Russian army had not carried 
the art of co-ordinating its 
movements to the same fine 
pitch as the Japanese, the 



assaults were delivered at wide intervals of time. 

The sharpest fighting was at the Motien, where the Japanese 
positions had been much strengthened since the attack of July 4, 
and were now for all practical purposes impregnable to frontal 
assault. The main Japanese force was stationed on the crest of 
the ridge, heavily entrenched, but without its artillery. A strong 
picket was stationed well in advance, at the very entrance to 
the defile, in the little village of Lichiaputze, with orders to 
retire uphill in case the Russians attacked. The Japanese 




GENERAL KUROKI IN HIS YOUNGER DAYS. 



July 17, 1904. 



RUSSIANS ATTACK THE MOTIEN. 



683 




RUSSIAN COMPANIES SCALINC; THE HILLS NEAR THE MOTIEN PASS. [Bulla photo. 

strength in this quarter was about 4,000 men, with as many more in reserve who could be quickly moved 

up to the pass. For the artillery, however, to reach the ridge would require some considerable time, 

as the slope was exceedingly steep, the tracks up it bad, and the Japanese horses in the most indifferent 

condition, so that that they were incapable of rapid movement. 

The Japanese picket and outposts at Lichiaputze, about 3 a.m. of the 17th, suddenly heard through the 

thick fog the trampling of a host of men, and upon them burst out of the mist a whole army. The fog 

had veiled the sound of the Russian approach, so that their enemy was on them before 

Attacked in a they were aware of 
Fog. 

his coming. But 

not for a moment did they lose presence 

of mind. They instantly opened fire, 

gave the alarm, and began to fall bacK 

very slowly, keeping contact with the 

Russians, and worrying them in every 

way, but not permitting themselves to 

be enveloped. On their part the Russians 

had learnt to dread Japanese cunning, 

and did not advance impetuously. The 

fog, while it veiled their movements, also 

concealed from them the exact strength 

and position of the enemy, so that it was 

not entirely in their favour. They came 

on so slowly that two hours were 

occupied in the advance from Lichiaputze, 

where the first skirmishing had begun, Japanese .military administration outci 




684 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 17. 1904. 



to the first Japanese positions in the 
Motien, though the distance was less than 
three miles. Those two hours were used 
to the best purpose by the Japanese — 
minute by minute troops were moving 
up to the lines in the pass, and the 
generals were making their preparations 
to repel the assault. 

The Japanese fell back from their most 
advanced positions to the west of the 
Motien, and the 
Russians divided into 
two bodies, one of which, that on the 
right, pushed far up the slope just under 
the pass, and reached a temple and a 
grove that lay upon the Japanese left 
centre. The second body, forming the 
Russian left, remained in the valley below, 
apparently ready to support the direct 
attack upon the Motien, or with the 
object of delivering a fresh blow so soon 
as the right had fought its way up to the 
crest of the steep mountain ridge. Such was the posture of the Russians when, as the sun rose 
in the sky, the mist began to lift. Out of the white fog came the stony summits of the mountains, then 
the upper slopes appeared ; and presently the Japanese saw beneath them a long line of Russian infantry, 
formed up almost parallel to the cart-road through the pass, the left of this line resting upon the temple 




r m 1 ta m ^^»Mm»i.^ 



MAP OF THE MOTIEN BATTLE, JULY 17. 




RUSSIAN SHARPSHOOTER CORPS FIRING BAREFOOTED FROM A ROADSIDE BANK. 



LBulta photo. 



July 17, 1904. 



A DEADLY FIRE. 



685 




A Withering 
Fusillade. 



[Copyright, 1934, by "Collier's Weekly" in U.S.A. 
BOOTY RANGED OUTSIDE THE OLD TEMPLE NEAR THE MtfflEN PASS. 

clo.se to the road, the right threatening the pass itself, and at no great distance from the Japanese 

trenches. Below this nothing could be seen ; the mist s'till lay heavily in the valley bottom. 

The position was extremely critical. A single bold rush from the point which the Russians had gained 

under cover of the fog would have brought them in much 

superior force to handgrips with the Japanese detach- 
ment holding the crest. Strong 
reinforcements, it is true, were on 
the way to join the Japanese, but 

many minutes must elapse before they could be upon 

the field, and had the Russians made good use of those 

minutes it might have gone very hard with General 

Kuroki's army. But there was no bold and vigorous 

offensive on the part of the Russians. As the mist lifted, 

the Japanese opened a steady rifle fire upon the Russian 

line, which at once dropped back a little. Simultaneously 

the Japanese on the crest extended their line of skirmishers 

south-westwards, seeing that the Russian extreme right 

was in the air, and gained a position from which they 

could enfilade it with deadly effect. So withering was 

the Japanese fusillade that the Russian line in this 

direction, though constantly fed with reinforcements from 

the valley, dropped back. If the Japanese had been able 

to bring artillery into play they would have annihilated 

their assailants. But their guns were still struggling up 
Vo. XXIX.* 




[Rudtiiniaii John.st(»n photo. 
GENERAL MATSUMOTO, COMMANDER 1ST DIVISION 
2ND JAPANESE ARMY. 

G 



686 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 17, 1904. 




the steep slopes on the 
other side of the pass, and 
could not as yet intervene 
in the fight. Fortunately 
for the Japanese the 
Russians had no guns 
with them, or else this 
fact might have meant 
disaster. 

For two hours a fierce 

rifle fight continued about 

the Motien, during which 

Russian time no gun 

Flig-htin made its 

Disorder. , 

heavy, 

hoarse note heard. Then, 
about 7 a.m., the mist in 
the valleys lifted, disclos- 
ing to the Japanese far 
below a mass of Russian 
troops in the closest order 
making ready to deliver 
an attack on the right of 
the pass. Almost at the 
same moment the first 
Japanese battery, greatly 
delayed by the feeble 
power of its horses, 
reached a lofty eminence 
on the right of the pass, 
the approach to which was 



[Copyright, 1904, liy '■Jolliers Wuekly." 
JAPANESE OFFICERS EXPLAINING THE TACTICS ADOPTED IN THE 



MOTIEN PASS. 



WOUNDED RUSSIAN SOLDIERS IN THE 
BACKGROUND. 



SO exceedingly diflRcult that for guns to reach it seemed out 
of the question. With a roar the six guns opened their 
most rapid fire, using shrapnel on the mass of infantry 
below. The Russians were mowed down by these terrible 
projectiles, which cut lanes through their ranks, and this 
without the possibility of any effective reply on their part. 
Before them rose a bare, steep .slope, the summit held by 
the Japanese infantry, who steadily worked out towards the 
Russian flanks on this side, and presently reached a point 
from which they could open a telling rifle fire upon the 
shaken men below. Flesh and blood could not endure the 
punishment that was being dealt out to the Russians, and, 
as shrapnel after shrapnel came whirring from the Japanese 
guns, the ma.ss of Russian troops suddenly began to retire 
at the double. The shrapnel came faster, and the pace of 
the double was accelerated, until the Russians fled in 




<;ENEKAL OKASAKI [Copyright, "Collier's Weekly." 
On the steps of the temple of Kwantai, near Lien-shan-kwan. 



July 17, 1904. 



THE RUSSIAN RETREAT. 



687 



complete disorder, leaving behind them 
300 dead and a host of wounded. 

On the Japanese left the fight had not 
gone so well. The Russians in the 

neighbourhood of the 
'Sifn?' temple were strongly 

posted and had en- 
trenched themselves, while the temple 
itself was stoutly built, and gave their 
troops good shelter. Their force was 
far too great for the Japanese as yet 
to attempt a counter-attack, and at times 
it appeared to be meditating an advance, 
so that it caused the Japanese com- 
mander great anxiety for his own left 
flank. Reinforcements, however, were 
constantly joining the Japanese, and, as 
the morning advanced, the battery of 
artillery which had cleared the other flank 
was able to intervene with great effect. 
It shelled and shrapnelled the Russian 
line until, before its fire, the Russians gave 
signs of weakening, and about 9 a.m. fell 
back. 

The moment the retreat began the 
Japanese redoubled their fire, and pushed 

steadily forward along 




ICopyrijilu, l^^, b> 'Ci 
JAPANESE WORKING THE FIELD-TELEORAPH. 



,.ly. 



The Russian 
Retreat. 



there was a severe combat among the trees. 



the high ground under shelter of the shrubs which covered the summit of the range. In 
the wood near the temple the Russians made a stand to cover the withdrawal, and 

A Japanese officer leading a company of his men came upon 

a small group of 
Russians, and called 
upon them to surrender. 
Their reply was to drop 
upon their knees and 
instantly fire a volley. 
For the temple there 
was another short but 
fierce struggle, and then 
the Japanese fought their 
way into the enclosure, 
and dead and dying 
Russians lay at the fett 
of the grim Chinese idols. 
But the Japanese could 
not break the Russian 
order or compel General 
Keller's men to hasten 
their retreat. The 

RUSSIAN SOLDIERS RECEIVING TELEPHONE MESSAGES. RuSSianS fell back slowIy 




[Victor Bulla piioto. 



688 



JAPAN'S FIGHl- FOR FREEDOM. 



July 17. 1904. 




|(u|.vii-lii, lU'.,. l.v '■^..lln■l^ U.-.kIv" ill U.S.A. 

JAPANESE BURIAL AND SEARCH PARTIES LOOKING FOR THE DEAD AND WOUNDED AFTER THE FIGHT AT THE 

MOTIEN PASS. 



and without the slightest hurry, though 




THE TOWER OF TOWAN. 

Round this bmdnuu-k much 6|{bting took place. Some 

boffiH Rustiao gum lie at the foot of the Tower. 



they were under a heavy fire. A man in one Russian battalion 
who dropped some treasure was observed coolly to fall out and 
go back and look for it, though all the while at his feet the 
Japanese bullets were throwing up the dust. Had the Japanese 
artillery been more mobile it might have inflicted heavy losses, 
but as it was the Japanese guns could not change position or 
follow the Russians as they retired ; and the Japanese infantry, 
being inferior in number, were kept well in hand, and not 
permitted to.-close with their redoubtable foe. The Russian 
artillery couli3^ be seen in position on the high ground to the 
east of Towfan, with a strong force of infantry drawn up beside 
it, in a position to cover the retreat. One Japanese battalion, 
which pressed too far forward in its eagerness to pursue, came 
within range 'of this force, and was severely punished before it 
could regain cover. 

The attack on the Motien had thus ended in complete failure, 
though the Russians had disclosed a far stronger force than the 
Japanese possessed. It was afterwards de- 
scribed by the Russians as a reconnaissance, 
as is the wayi^'when an army is checked. But, as a matter of 
fact, it is impossible to reconnoitre any position in a thick fog, 
and General Keller unquestionably intended to recapture the 
pass, only hi.?5ieart failed him at the last moment. On the two 
wings the l^ussians were not more successful. The Japanese 
troops holding the Sinkailing Pass pushed forward a company 



The Two Wings. 



^^'-: 



July 17, 1904. 



attack: on hsiamatang. 



689 



of infantry to reconnoitre when the firing began in the direction of the Motien. This company immediately 
came into contact with two Russian battalions. Reinforcements were at once hurried towards it, and the 
Russians fell back, so that the Japanese were able rapidly to advance towards Makumentze ; and it was 
this forward movement, threatening his rear and right flank, that probably decided General Keller to 
withdraw his force from the Motien at the very moment when success seemed to be within its grasp, 
The Japanese near Makumentze fired at the. retiring Russians, and caused them considerable loss. 

On the, Japanese right the battalion stationed in the Siakhaling Pass, near Hsiamatang, had to 
encounter a fierce Russian attack, which opened about 6 a.m., some hours after the fighting in the Motien 
had begun, so that the Japanese were thoroughly on the alert. The Russian force far outnumbered the 
Japanese, but once again the devotion of a handful of men saved the day. 

Hsiamatang lies in a wilderness of steep, bare mountains, covered with thick undergrowth, at the bottom 

of a deep valley, through which roars a mountain stream. The scene recalls the picturesqueness of the 

lower Alps or Jura — 

" a maze of crag and 

ravine, deep hollows and 

lofty spurs, black 

shadows 
Attack on ^^^^ ^^,^ii^ 
Hsiamatang. 

crests." 

At 3 in the morning the 
outposts detected the 
approach of the Russians, 
and sent back news to 
the supports. A bat- 
talion was hurried up 
with all possible speed 
to the help of the men 
upon whom was to fail 
the full brunt of the 
Russian attack. The 
Japanese commander at 
Hsiamatang was in the 
most difficult position 
imaginable. He had 
but a handful of men to 
defend an enormous 
front, and in the fog and 
mist he could not tell 
exactly where the enemy 
would strike. But he 
made his dispositions 
with admirable judg- 
ment. There was a 
lofty hill, cone-shaped, 
which commanded the 
approaches to Hsiama- 
tang, but had the dis- 
advantage of being itself 
commanded by yet 
loftier eminences. On 




DON COSSACKS RESCUliNU 



WOUNDED CO.MR.^UE. 



690 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 17, 1904. 



this he posted one company; the three others of his battalion he held back in reserve. The all- 
important height was connected with the remoter and loftier hills by a knife-like ridge, and was quite 
bare of cover. Only the commander knew " that any Japanese force, however posted, will stay where 
it is placed — stay alive or dead," and on this fact he reckoned. 

As the mist lifted, the Russians in overwhelming force were seen along the razor-edge running up to 
the Japanese position, and not more than a few hundred yards from it. Each side was in the open ; neither 
could or would give way, though cover there was none. The Japanese commander at once hurried a second 
company to the support of the first on the hill, and set his other two companies to work to attack the 
Russian flanks. But more than half an hour elapsed before these troops could come into action, and during 
those thirty minutes the detachment on the hill suffered cruelly. All four officers and 20 of the rank and 
file of the company were killed, while 54 were wounded, out of a total of less than 200 men. But the, 

company held its ground 
and gradually, as the 
minutes passed, the crack 
of Japanese rifles, sharper 
and clearer than the 
larger-calibred Russian 
weapons, was heard on 
the Russian flanks, while 
reinforcements could be 
seen hurrying up to 
Hsiamatang from the 
south. The Russians 
began to waver under a 
heavy cross-fire. If they 
had not been able to 
dislodge 200 men, it was 
scarcely likely that they 
would be able to drive 
back 800. They held 
their ground, however, 
until evening was at hand, 
though suffering severely 
from the Japanese fire. 
About 5 p.m. they retired, 
and being still much 
superior in force were 
permitted to retreat un- 
molested. They fell back, 

having suffered serious loss. On the extreme Japanese right, far to the north, near Chinchiaputze, there 
was yet a fifth encounter between a Russian force from the entrenched camp at Hsihoyen and a Japanese 
detachment, in which the Japanese repulsed their enemy. 

The Japanese loss in this series of actions was four officers and 39 men killed, and 15 officers and 241 
men wounded. The Russian loss was estimated by the Japanese at 2,000 ; and by General Kuropatkin, 
whose habit it was greatly to understate the real casualties, at 1,000. Two hundred 
Russian dead were found and buried, while 51 prisoners, 39 of whom were wounded, 
were taken. On the dead body of a Russian colonel discovered at Hsiamatang his 
men had fixed a visiting-card, on which was written in English characters the words, " We trust that the 
Japanese will treat our dead and wounded tenderly." It is unnecessary to state that this hope was 
fulfilled. 




CtiyfluhflSMi Lf 



MAP OF THE MOTIEN COUNTRY. 



Losses in the 
Battles. 



July 14. 1904. 



OYAMA TAKES COMMAND. 



691 



Effect of Keller's 
Defeat. 



The defeat of General Keller, though without decisive result, influenced the campaign in the most 

important manner, and compelled General Kuropatkin to accelerate the retirement of his troops to the south 
of Liaoyang. Henceforth it was easy for the Japanese to advance upon Liaoyang by 
the Motien Pass, and to threaten the retreat of Generals Sarubaieff and Stakelberg, 
who were engaged in the difficult task of holding back the advance of Generals Oku 

and Nodzu. The Japanese ist Army pushed its advance guards to the neighbourhood of Yangtzeling, and 

prepared to strike a fresh blow. Meantime General Kuroki was moving a large part of his force northwards 

through Saimatse to dislodge the 

Russians from Hsihoyen. His 

divisions were already on the 

march when Keller attacked, and 

the Japanese weakness in men at 

the Motien is thus explained. 
The new movement had been 

ordered by Marshal Oyama, the 
Commander- 

Marshal Oyama i^.chief of 
takes Command. ^ 

the Japanese 

armies in Manchuria, who had 
landed at Dalny on July 14, with 
Generals Kodama and Fukushima, 
in order to take over the supreme 
direction of operations. An 
advance all along the line was to 
feegin. 




CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE JAPANESE ADVANCE 

IN MANCHURIA.— 

BATTLES OF TASHIH- 

CHAO AND HSIHOYEN. 

ON the Japanese left General 
Oku advanced to the 
neighbourhood of Kai- 
ping early in July, in the 
face of heavy rains. The 
Russians had counted upon 
their enemy being greatly 
delayed by the bad weather, 
and were taken by surprise 
by the rapid Japanese for- 
ward movement. For strategic 
rea.sons it was impossible for them as yet to abandon the town of Kaiping, and General Sampsonoff 
received orders to hold it with a division of Cossacks, supported by a small detachment of 
infantry, so as to impede the Japanese march northward as far as possible and give 
^^Adrli^'^"'^ General Stakelberg time to withdraw the shaken remnant of his army, which was not 
as yet in a condition to face the victorious Japanese. The Russians occupied a line of 
positions on the heights immediately to the east of Kaiping, running generally parallel to the railway, and 



'■THE JAPANESE BATTERY KEACHED A LOFTY EMINENCE ON THE RIGHT 
OF THE MOTIEN PASS." 



692 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 6, 1904. 



were threatened not only with a frontal attack by General Oku's army, but also with envelopment by General 
Nodzu's force, which made demonstrations against their rear, advancing westwards from the Shapanling 
Pass and the neighbourhood of Hsiahata. The Russian position was thus an insecure one, and all idea of a 
determined resistance at this point had to be abandoned. 

On July 6 the Japanese, with nothing more serious than a slight skirmish, drove 1,500 Russian troops 
from the heights east of the railway, and occupied their positions, thus opening the road along the coast to 
Kaiping, while at the same time another Japanese detachment cleared the Russian 
cavalry away from the railway. Next day the Japanese reached a defile ten miles .south 
of Kaiping, where the railway passes through a narrow gorge in the mountains, and where 
a vigorous resistance had been anticipated. The Russians, however, were dislodged without great difficulty, 
and the total loss of the Japanese in the two days of skirmishing was only 24. The 8th the Japanese spent 
in reconnoitring the Russian positions which ran^ along the north bank of the Kaiping river for many miles 



En route to 
Kaipingr. 




[Photo, copyright, 1904, by "Collier's Weekly." 
AN ABANDONED RUSSIAN GUN. 
Mr. J. H. Hare, the war pbolograpber, ibowing the United States Miliurv Attache the breech-block of a Russian gun in which the shell still remained, indicating 

the hurried night of the artillerymen. 



694 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 9, 1904. 




Kaiping Occupied. 



[S>ilney Smith photo. 
KEEPING THE CROWD BACK .\T MAR.SHAL OVAM.VS 
DEPARTURE FROM JAPAN TO TAKE COMMAND OF THE 
JAPANESE ARMY. 

of barbed wire in its front, while numerous mines 
that the Japanese would approach. The Russian 
stand at this point. It 
was important for the 
Russian army to retain 
Newchwang, since through 
that place the Russians 
drew an immense quantity 
of supplies, thus relieving 
the Siberian railway and 
setting it free for the 
movement of troops. For 
exactly the same reason it 
was vital for the Japanese 
to di.slodge the Russians 
and get posses.sion of New- 
chwang as a ba.se of supplies. 
As yet the railway to Dalny 
was working badly, since 
locomotives had not arrived 
In sufficient number for the 
traffic, and the cars contain- 
ing food or ammunition 
had to be hauled by hcrses 
or coolies. As they moved 



eastwards from Kaiping to the Tangho. Reinforce- 
ments could be seen arriving by train from the 
north, and it was determined to attack on the 9th all 
along the line. But towards the evening of the 
8th signs of a Russian retreat were observed, indicating 
clearly that the enemy did not intend to make a 
determined stand. 

Karly on the morning of the 9th the Japanese 
attacked the Russian positions in front and on either 
flank. The heights to the south- 
east of Kaiping were stormed 
without any serious difficulty, the Russians falling 
back from point to point, their retreat covered by 
their light artillery. Before noon the town of 
Kaiping was occupied, and about 3 p.m. the Russians 
fell back four miles to the north of the place. The 
Japanese loss was about 150, Major-General Koizu 
being among the wounded. The Russian loss was 
probably much the same, since the engagement was 
at no time of a serious nature. 

The Russian army now concentrated at Tashihchao, 
where a position* of immense 
natural strength had been pre- 
pared, with strong entrenchments, 
bomb-proofs, masked batteries, and the usual tangle 
were placed in the roads along which it was thought 
intention was to make a prolonged and determined 



Russians at 
Tashihchao. 




[Sydney .Smith plioto. 
THE CROWD AT THE STATION TO SEE THE DEPARTURE OF MARSHAL MARQUIS 
OVAMA, BARON KODAMA, AND STAFF. 



JAPAN'S COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF. 



695 




MARSHAL OYAMA. 

Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Forces. 



6% 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 21, 1904. 




MAJUK-GtNi-KAL KUKUSHIMA, 



MarshiJ Oyaroa's right-hand man. is one of the ew Japanese 

officers who have been honoured by_ King Edward, for he was 

made mn Honorary Military K.C.B. in igo2. He was born in 

i8s3, and his stirnamc means Happy Valley, 



north the Japanese temporarily converted the Hne from the 
wide 5ft. Russian gauge to their own narrow 3ft. 6in. gauge 
by the simple process of moving in one rail, A second 
reason why it was important to capture Newchwang was 
that the port commanded the mouth of the Liao river, which 
is one of the great avenues of traffic in southern Manchuria, 
as it is navigable by small craft as far as Tiehling, 140 
miles away. An army making use of this river, with gun- 
boats afloat upon it, could threaten the flank of any force 
defending Liaoyang or Mukden. 

Against Tashihchao the Japanese advanced from two 

directions. General Nodzu's force pushed forward along 

the rough track which crosses the 

°^"®p^L^°^^"'^ mountains between Hsiahata and 
Force. 

Tashihchao at the Panling Pass, 20 
miles south-east of Tashihchao, and on the evening of 
July 21 reached the entrance of the pass, which was found 
to be guarded by a small Russian detachment. Noting 
the movement of the Japanese, who were about a brigade 
strong, and learning that General Nodzu's army was also 
moving forward along the direct road from the Fengshuling 
Pass to Simucheng and Haicheng, Colonel DementiefT, the 
Russian oflficer in charge of this section of the Russian 

defences, did not venture to station a strong force in the pass, as he feared being enveloped. He moved a 

battalion of the 17th Rifle Regiment to the southern entrance of the pass, and waited to see what the 

Japanese would do. He was not long left in uncertainty. The Japanese, observing the weakness of the 

Russian force, at once employed their usual flanking tactics ; that is to say, they placed a small force in front 

of the Russians, which threatened a frontal attack, while with the bulk of their brigade they moved against 

the right and left of the Russians, so that if these held their ground they were certain to be surrounded. 

DementiefT had no choice but to retire, which he did with a loss of about 60 men ; the Japanese casualties 

were only 30. The Japanese 

complained that the Russians 

showed the Japanese flag in their 

entrenchments during the frontal 

attack, and then, when the Japanese 

left cover, supposing that their 

enemy were going to surrender, 

fired upon the troops in the open, 

and were able to escape in the 

momentary confusion caused by 

this discreditable stratagem. 

The Japanese 4th Army was 

now in a position to threaten the 

Russian left at Tashihchao and to 

cover the advance of General 

Oku with the 2nd Army. The 

forward movement of the 2nd Army 

was therefore at once pressed, and 

the Russian position on its front 

reconnoitred. On the 23rd the 




[Sy<iney Sniilli photo. 
MARSHAL MARQUIS OYAMA ARRIVING AT SHINBASHI STATION EN ROUTE 

TO THE FRONT. 




THE RUSSIAN RETREAT AFTER THE BATTLE OF THE MOTIEN PASS. 



698 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 23, 1904. 



Kuropatkin's 
Force. 



2nd Army deployed in front of the Russians, ready for the attack. The Russian army engaged consisted of 
the 1st Army Corps, 25,000 strong, with 60 guns, and the 4th Army Corps, of the same strength, 
but sHghtly weaker in artillery. General Sarubaieff commanded the Russians, under 
the personal supervision of General Kuropatkin, who had come south to defeat the 
Japanese. The ground held by him was rough and hilly, favourable to the defence. 
In front, to the south-west, spread a wide green plain stretching to the sea and the mouth of the Liao. 
To the south and south-east there were many knolls and kopjes, which gradually rose in the distance 
to the lofty chain of the Siyungyuecheng Mountains. The actual front of the Russian army was 
rather over 10 miles, beginning a mile to the west of the railway, and stretching thence across the line 
along the hills to the north of Tangchih and the head waters of the mountain stream Tangho. Tashihchao 

station and junction lay to 
the right rear of the 
Russians, two miles behind 
their positions. On this 
flank, which was very ex- 
posed, they had massed 
their cavalry, so as to hold 
the country between the 
Newchwang branch line and 
the sea. The left wing was 
in the air. 

General Kuropatkin 
appears to have supposed 
that the 4th Japanese 
Army would be content 
to watch the progress of 
the battle without interven- 
ing, and so he took no steps 
whatever to meet its ad- 
vance. He made no dis- 
positions for offensive 
action, and contemplated 
nothing better than a 
passive defence, though in 
numbers he was not in- 
ferior to General Oku's 
army, which had been 
compelled to make con- 
siderable detachments on 
its march north from Telisse. 
The Russian 4th Corps was 
placed on the left, while the ist Corps held the right. The Russian batteries, for the first time in any 
battle in which they had been engaged, were well masked, and the tactics 01 the Japanese were closely 
copied. The guns of the new quick-firing pattern were placed in fields of millet, where even their flash 
was invisible, and were not upon the heights ; they were connected with observation posts upon the 
hills by chains of soldiers, who passed orders and information from the officers directing the fire. 

The Japanese army deployed for the attack on the evening of the 23rd, with orders to advance when 
the day dawned. The forward movement on the 24th was led by the Japanese left wing, which was met by 
the Russians with so heavy an artillery fire that the advance speedily came to a standstill. The 
Japanese guns, indifferently horsed, had not as yet arrived, and probably the infantry were only shown 




ul RUSSIANS RKKUSKL) TO SUkkENDKK, 
THKIR KNEES AND FIRED A VOLLEY. 



BUT DROPPED ON 



700 



lAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 23, 1904. 



to compel the Russians to disclose their positions. Yet the Russian batteries were so skilfully masked that, 
even when under their fire, the Japanese could not exactly locate them. The ground by no means favoured 
General Oku's men ; the gun positions, after the artillery had come up, were not 
The Battle Begins, satisfactory ; so that, before pushing their advance on the left, the Japanese Staff decided 
to wait for the right to come into play. About lo a.m. the Japanese artillery unlimbered near Tapiiig- 
chwang and opened fire, bombarding the Russian batteries just to the south of Tashihchao. A violent 

combat between the guns 
of the two armies followed, 
in which at first, singu- 
larly, little damage was 
done by either, though the 
uproar was terrific, and the 
hills on either side seemed 
to be alive with bursting 
shrapnel. But the guns 
were so well placed and 
protected that the target 
offered was inconsiderable. 
As the morning wore 
on, the day became in- 
tensely hot ; the plain 
boiled in the fierce July 
sun, and the barren hillsides 
reverberated the sultry 
heat. The Russian bat- 
teries now began to obtain 

the upper 
The Russian j^^^^ . ^,^^y 

were su- 
perior in range as well as 
in rapidity of fire, since 
General Oku had not 
brought up any heavy 
guns.. The Japanese 
gunners were compelled 
repeatedly to change their 
positions, and two of their 
batteries are said to have 
suffered heavy losses in 
material. In the centre 
the Japanese infantry 
attack was also at a stand- 
still, owing to the effective- 
(;KNitKAL COUNT NODZu. ngss of the Russian 

artillery fire. Findirig that no headway was being made, General Oku ordered the right to push forward 
and assault the Russian line along its front. In this quarter the Japanese artillery h'ad created more 
impression than oi* the left, and had inflicted severe loss on the 4th Russian Corps, though it had 
altogether failed td*ilence the Russian artillery. Far away from the battlefield the 4th Japanese Army 
was moving, and reports as to its steady advance were already beginning to cause General Kuropatkin 
grave disqu'etude. 




702 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 23, 1904. 




Ctor-g* Ptiiiip tSo' 



MAP OF THE BATTLE OF TASHIHCHAO. 



The Japanese advance was 

met at once with a terrible fire. 

" The Russian shrapnel," wrote 

a correspon- 
Russian Shrapnel. , , ... 
dent with 

General Kuropatkin's army, 
" began to rain down upon the 
spot, where the Japanese were 
seen. The white projectiles 
rushed shrieking through the air 
in big flocks, like vultures, ready 
to swoop down upon their prey, 
tearing them, as it were, with 
their terrible beaks and claws. 
How the guns roar at this 
moment! The smell of sulphur 
and saltpetre ascends stronger 
than ever, and the overheated air, 
which seems saturated with light, 
^ is, as it were, riven and torn 
asunder by the peals of thunder." All the afternoon the. Japanese were stealing forward under this fire, and 
pressing to the assault. Simultaneously the centre advanced to the attack, and flung itself upon the Russian 
positions. 

With heavy losses the centre fought its way into the Russian entrenchments. There was a sharp 
hand-to-hand encounter, and then the Japanese flag waved over one of the Russian works. But the triumph 
was short-lived. The Russian artillery concentrated its fire upon the work, pouring in a perfect tempest of 
shell-s, and the Russian troops delivered a determined counter-attack, under the eyes of their commander- 
in-chief. The Japanese were forced back, and compelled to relinquish their hardly won ground. On the 
right the attack was even more unsuccessful. The infantry could not reach the Russian works, and as 
evening came on were compelled to retire some little distance to the rear, where better cover could 
be obtained. The wire entanglements and obstacles were too formidable to be passed without the support 
of artillery, and the Japanese guns had not been able to obtain the ascendency.' 

Night fell, and the guns on both sides ceased firing. But General Kuropatkin's army was in a 
precarious situation. Vast supplies had been collected at Tashihchao, brought thither at infinite expense 
from the ends of the earth, and now the steady advance of the 4th Japanese 
Army was endangering the position of the Russians, even menacing them with 
envelopment. There could be no mistaking the ominous reports which came in 
from the small Russian force on the Simucheng road. General Kuropatkin could not spare troops 
to liold General Nodzu back without so fatally weakening his line in General Gku's front that 
the Japanese would be able to 
penetrate it. The co-operation 
of the Japanese armies had worked 
its expected result, and to crown 
the Russian commander's embar- 
rassment, news reached him from 
Liaoyang that General Kuroki 
was also pushing forward and 
moving in a direction which 
.seemed to menace Mukden itself. 
Orders were issued for a general 



The Russians 
Retire. 




Scene of the battle of July 24. 



TASHIHCHAO. 
The hill.'i were occupietl by the Russians and stubbornly defended. 



July 25, 1904. 



RUSSIAN RETREAT. 



703 



retirement, as the loss of Tashihchao had to be faced in preference to the graver disaster which would have 
followed had the 4th Japanese Army or General Kuroki succeeded in reaching the Russian rear and cutting 
off the Russian army from its base. 

The Russian retreat was accelerated by a sudden movement of the* Japanese right under cover of 
darkness. The commander in this quarter thought that he saw a favourable opportunity for a night attack, 
and obtained General Oku's leave to attempt one. At 10 p.m. his infantry suddenly rose, and in the 
obscurity charged the Russian line. Notwithstanding a desperate resistance, the first line of works was 
occupied soon after midnight, and early in thfe morning of the 25th the second line of defences, well to the 
rear, was also stormed, though not without heavy loss. The centre, fired by this success, attacked 
vigorously, and just before dawn seized the Russian position in its front. The Russian artillery had already 
fallen back, and a general retreat was in progress. The Japanese left advanced soon after daybreak, and 
met with little or no opposition. 




THE JAPANESE MARCHING INTO TASHIHCHAO, WHICH THE RUSSIANS FIRED WHEN RETREATING. 



704 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 25, 1904. 




COSSACKS FOKIil\<: A --IKIAM AT SIMUCHENG. [Victor Bulla photo. 

The whole of the strong position was now in the hands of the Japanese, who immediately pushed their 
tired troops northwards in pursuit. But the Russians retired in good order under cover of two batteries, 
and left behind them neither guns nor material. The trophies of the victory were 
Russians Firing few. As the Russian cavalry rode out of the town, as the last train steamed from the 
station crowded with wounded, immense clouds of smoke rose to the sky, and presently 
angry tongues of flame leapt upwards. The Russians had set fire to the vast accumulation of stores 
collected at their base ; forage, provisions, clothing, and ammunition were burning fiercely. Into these 
clouds of smoke the Japanese cavalry patrols rode slowly and cautiously, and presently sent back word 
that the Russian quarter of Tashihchao was as a city of the dead. Crowds of Chinese assembled 
outside the area of the conflagration, and watched the destruction of such infinite wealth with 
covetous eyes, rejoicing that misfortune had at length overtaken the Russian army. Other towns and 
villages on the Russian line of retreat were treated in the same way as the Russian quarter at Tashih- 
chao, with far less excuse, and pillars of smoke and flame veiled the Russian retirement. 

The Japanese loss in 

the battle was I2 officers 

killed and 

Losses in the .,,,,„,„,,i„fi 
Battle. 47 wounded. 

Among the 
rank and file 136 were 
killed and 848 wounded, 
giving 1,043 ^^ the total 
number of casualties. On 
the Russian side the 
casualties were estimated 
at 2,000 by the Japanese, 
which figure was probably 
about the truth, though 
Russian accounts placed 
the loss at only 800. The 
Russian General Kondra- 
tovitch is stated to have 




HUNGHUSE BEATtN 



C<issa(;k cami'. 



July 26, 1904. 



JAPANESE ENTER NEWCHWANG. 



705 




[Facsimile sketch by Sheldon Williams. 
SIBERIAN MOUNTED RIH.I S AF NEWCHWANG. 



been slightly wounded. 
The Japanese promptly 
followed up their success. 
Late in the night of the 
Russians ^ 5 -26th a 
Leave message 

Newchwang. , , , 

had been 

sent from the Russian 
lines to Newchwang, warn- 
ing the Russian officials 
there that the day was 
lost and that no course 
remained but to abandon 
the port. As the morning 
advanced, fugitives from 
the Russian army began 
to pour in without rifles 
and accoutrements. The}- 
tore off their shoulder- 
straps and badges, " com- 
mandeered " straw hats 
from the Chinese, and fled 
away into Chinese terri- 
tory. The Russian 

authorities set fire to the Russian settlement, hoisted the French flag over the Russian offices, and for 
the most part hurried off, leaving the town to chaos and Chinese robbers. In vain the British residents 
had begged of the British Government a single British gunboat to grant protection during the period 
of transition. The Russians objected to the coming of the ship, and she was weakly ordered to keep 
awaj'. 

As evening approached, the white population shivered with apprehension of what the night might 
bring forth, knowing that the place was full of Chinese cut-throats. At this hour five weary, draggled 

Japanese cavalrymen rode 
into the outskirts of the 

town. They 
Japanese ^^^^ ^^ 
Arrive. 

deliver it, 

by the terror of the 
Japanese name and by 
the reputation of the 
Japanese army for un- 
swerving discipline, from 
massacre and plunder. 
They were the allies of 
the British citizens living 
in the place, but if they 
had expected an eager 
and enthusiastic welcome 
they were greatly disap- 
pointed. A strange lack 

RUSSIAN BATXEKlhS MOMM, NORTH THROUGH NEWCHWANC AHIK I.VVCL.VTING j- ^eal and patriotism 

THE FORTIFICATIONS AT THE MOUTH OF THE LIAO RIVER. 




706 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 26, 1904. 




seemed to have infected 
the British communit)'. 
No one gave these gallant 
soldiers a cup of water, a 
cigarette, or the slightest 
refreshment. Yet these 
same British residents had 
lavished attentions upon 
the Russian troops. The 
British residents gladly 
enough accepted the pro- 
tection which these 
Japanese soldiers gave, 
and plied thera with 
demands that more men 
should be sent to guard 
British property. The 
Japanese authorities were 
not obdurate. More and 
more men were closing 

in upon the town, and at midnight, on the representations of the British Consul, fifty Japanese 

were detached to preserve order. 

While the first scouts were in the town, the Russian administrator solemnly and publicly hauled 

down the Russian consular flag over his 

office and hoisted in its stead the French 
tricolour. The Jap- 
anese watched, calm 

and impassive, what the Russian intended 

as his crowning insult. A Japanese 

lieutenant speedily afrived to accept the 

surrender, but the Russian declined to 

see him, on the ground that a mere 

lieutenant was not a dignified enough 

person to talk with a Russian Consul. 

■ It was by such bitter insults that Russia 

accumulated at compound interest an 

account which she will have to discharge 

when the day of reckoning comes. The 



THE RUSSIAN UUNBOAX 



'SlVUrCH,' WHICH WAS AB.\ND0NED BY HER CREW 
IN THE LIAO RIVER. 



Bussian Insults. 




Japanese officer was quite equal to the occasion. 




END OK THE KUSSIA.N GUNBOAT " SIVUTCH " AT NEWCHWANG. 



f Tbis voMl'winfcred at Newdiwang, Upon the approach of the Japanese she moved thirty miles up the IJao River. 
Her fnagaziae wai exploded; and the crew m.-«le for Ijfeioyang. 'Vhe natives looted every movable thing.,.. 



KST ARRIVALS OF JAl'ANKSli AT NEWCHWANG. 

He ordered all Russian insignia to be removed, 

and quietly, with the 
utmost politeness, con- 
ve}ed to the Ru.ssian the 
fact that it was time for 
him to depart, and that 
if he failed to go he 
would be forcibly " thrown 
out." The French flag 
was promptly hauled 
down, and the Russian 
offices taken over. 



708 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July. 1904. 




Loss of the 
" Sivutch." 



RUSSIAN FIELD ARTILLERY ON THE GREAT MANDARIN ROAD lEFWEEN NEWCHWANG AND LIAOYANG. 

The next event was that the Japanese set to work to remove the mines in tlie river mouth, 
while at the same time dozens of junks and small craft with supplies for the Japanese army appeared 
as if by magic, illustrating once more the perfect forethought and co-ordination of the wonderful 
Japanese Headquarters Staff. Newchwang was reorganised under Japanese rule, confidence was instantly 
restored, and Japan was rewarded for her success by the profits of the Customs dues, which the 
Russians had previously appropriated, and which now passed to the islanders of the Far East by right 
of conquest. This was a valuable prize, and as the Powers had acquiesced in Russia's usurpation, 
they were estopped from all right of protest. 

The capture of Newchwang brought on the Russians the loss of yet another ship of their 

unfortunate navy. The gunboat Sivutch was lying in the port when the war broke 

out, and she had never been able to leave. At the fall of Newchwang, she steamed 

up the Liao, and on August 6 was destroyed by her own crew. She was a 

gunboatof 950 tons, mounting one 9-in. and one 6-in. gun, and had on trial steamed 123^ knots. 

The advance of the 2nd Japanese Army to Tashihchao was immediately followed by a 
forward movement of the 4th Army under General Nodzu toward Simucheng, to the north of which 
place the Russians were posted in some force. They were in two distinct bodies, with a wide gap 

between, a disposition 

which had serious 

Japanese military de- 

Advanee to fects. The 

Simucheng. 

eastern or 

left Russian wing held the 
road which runs north 
from Simucheng to Hai- 
cheng; the western or 
right wing held another 
road which runs from 
Hsiahata to the same 
place. The total Russian 
force was estimated by 
the Japanese at two 
divisions, with seven bat- 

ANCIKNT NUNNERY ON A HILL NLAK m:\\ Ciiu A-\o_ ■II • - I - • 

A RuMian Uucry of artUIery was in posilion behind the buildings on July 34. teries ol artlllcr)', aiul was 




July 31, 1904. 



RUSSIAN RETREAT TO HAICHENG. 



709 




commanded by General 
Alexeieff, with General 
Mistchenko acting under his 
orders. On July 31 the 
Japanese, after carefully re- 
connoitring both Russian 
positions, advanced simul- 
taneously against them, their 
main effort being to thrust a 
force in between the two 
Russian wings, and thus to 
break into the Russian centre. 
Against the Russian left the 
Japanese gained an easy 
initial success. Thev stormed 



THK CHIEF RUSSIAN 
BARRACKS AT NEWCHWANG. 

the Russian positions, but 
then were brought to a 
standstill by the heavy fire 
of the Russian artillery. 
Repeated attempts to 
press the advance proved 
unsuccessful, and the 
Russians, receiving heavy 
reinforcements, towards 
evening suddenly ad- 
vanced to deliver a counter- 
attack. 

The tables were now 
turned, but the Japanese 
troops displayed great 
coolness and steadiness, 
and, aided by their 
artillery, repulsed the 
Russians, inflicting upon 
them heavy loss. The 
Russians retreated in some 
disorder, yet as night was 
now falling and the 
Russian artillery was un- 
shaken, as moreover the 
Japanese guns owing to 
their indifferent horses 
could not keep up with 
the infantry and give 
proper support, it was 
impossible to pursue. The 
Russian left retired un- 
molested to Haicheng. 
On the Russian right the 




KL?.~IAN 



ARTILLERY FIN.^LLY LEAVING NEWCHWANG. [LTawn from a phou^graph. 



No. XXX. • 



710 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July, 1904. 




THE JAPANESE 

ENTRY INTO 

NEWCHWANG, 

JULY 25, 1004. 

THE 

FRENCH FLAG 

WAS FLYING. 



-J 



Forty prisoners and a large 



Japanese were far more successful ; they speedily worked round 

the flanks of their enemy, and compelled him to retreat to avoid 

being enveloped and captured. As it was, a battery which was 

covering the Russian retirement was unable to escape, and the 

Japanese by a rush carried and captured six field guns. Their 

losses were eight officers and i86 men killed and 24 officers and 

642 men wounded, from which it can be seen that the fighting 

was of a severe nature. The Russian losses could only be guessed 

at, but they were estimated by the Japanese at 2,000 killed and wounded. 

quantity of ammunition were taken by the Japanese upon the field. 

The battles of Simucheng and Tashihchao opened the way to Haicheng, and prepared the ground 

for a general forward movement upon Liaoyang. Meantime, on the other flank of the Japanese army. 

General Kuroki was active. It was part of the Japanese programme that the Russians should 

be simultaneously attacked at each extremity of their enormous line. 

To the north of Lienshankwan, in the Motien country, the Russians had stationed a strong force 

between Hsihoyen and Chautoa, or Kiaotau, for the name is 

spelt either way. This force menaced the Japanese Guards 

and 2nd Division at Lienshankwan, and 

'^ Chautoaf ' ^* ^^^ ^^"^^ ^'"^^ threatened the 1 2th Division 
at Saimatse. Its strength was placed by 
the Japanese Intelligence Department at two brigades of 
infantry, with a number of Cossacks, three batteries of quick- 
firing field guns, and a few mountain guns. These troops 
formed part of the loth Army Corps but recently arrived from 
European Russia. They occupied a position of enormous natural 
strength, which had been skilfully entrenched and prepared 
earlier in the war, during the Japanese movements against the 
Motien, and then had been hastily abandoned. But on the 
arrival of more troops it was once more occupied, and the 
entrenchments modified and improved. 

The lines held by the Russians ran on the right and centre 
along a mountain ridge, which rises precipitously from the deep 
mountain torrent Hsiho. So steep were the slopes, so deep 
the river at their foot, that attack in this direction was most 
difficult. The position continued along the north bank of the 
Hsiho for some little distance north of Chautoa, and was 
secured on this flank by almost inaccessible mountains. At 

ONK (jy IHK HkSl JAfANESE SOLIJIEKS 

WHO ENTERED NEWCHWANG STATIONED the southem extremity of the Russian line rose other peaks. 

BE:-0KE the RUSSIAN administration tu . . ,. . • r 1 

BUILDINGS. Ihe whole country was a "heaving ocean of mountains and 




July 17. 1904 



RUSSIANS AT CHAUTOA. 



71 




[Aliin Uurgoyne photo. 
THE MAIN STREET, NEWCHWANG. 



valleys, clothed in many-shaded greens of 
ripening maize and cotton and indigo." The 
Russians had strong outposts at Pensihu and 
Hsiaosir, while they watched the Japanese at 
Saimatse with a regiment of Cossacks, who 
remained at a respectful distance from the 
Japanese, and never ventured to come to blows. 

On July 17 the Japanese marched out from 
Saimatse with the greater part of the 12th 

Division. One regiment 
Japanese Advance , ■, ^1 .. 1 

to Chautoa. '''^^ P"^'^^^ "o*"''^ through 

Kianchan towards Hsiaosir ; 
the main force took the steep mountain road 
over the North Fengshuling Pass, which leads 
to Chautoa. For forty or fift)- miles this road 
runs through the wildest mountain country, 
traversing the watershed between the Yalu 
tributaries and those of the Liao, and as it 
nears Chautoa descends an alpine ravine, down 
which pours a torrent, crossed repeatedly by 
the track in its zigzag windings. The mouth of the defile is close to Chautoa, and was commanded, 
where it debouched into the valley of the Hsiho river, by the Russian batteries. As they advanced 
the Japanese drove the Cossacks before them without any serious fighting, and on the afternoon of July 18 
their vanguard, one battalion strong, approached the exit from the defile. A second battalion 
simultaneously deployed against the Russian right, taking up a position whence the movements of the 
Russians could be closely watched without the Japanese themselves being clearly seen. The officers 
of this battalion observed heavy clouds of dust behind the Russian positions, and signs which indicated 
that the enemy were sending their heavy baggage to the rear. Presently these indications were 
followed by a distinct movement of troops from the Russian trenches rearwards. The Japanese 
supposed that the Russians either had 
begun their retreat, or were upon the 
point of doing so, and, to hold them, 
prepared to attack, and disclosed a 
part of their force. 

The effect on the Russians was 

magical. All signs of a retreat cea.sed: 

Mounted officers 

Opportunity. were seen scurrymg 
to and fro, and the 
troops poured back into the trenches. 
The Russian guns at once devoted their 
attention to the Japanese, and two 
batteries of 15-pounder quick-firers 
opened fire with considerable effect. To 
this fire the men of the 12th Division 
could make no reply ; their own 
mountain artillery had not as yet 
arrived, and was some distance to the 
rear. Nor were there troops enough 

^, ^ ^ , , . , CONTACT MINE, PICKED UP BY BRITISH STEAMER •• WENCHOW," 

on the spot to support them m the being lowered into Japanese man-of-war launch .at newchwang. 



^ I 




^^^^ 





712 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 18, 1904. 




RUSSIAN BATTERIES PA.'- 



i W i\l M.WLIIW A>- 



event of the Russians de- 
termining to take the offen- 
sive. It was a fine oppor- 
tunity for the Russians, but 
they lost it, as they lost most 
of their opportunities during 
the war, by their complete 
passivity and the reluctance 
which they always showed 
to attack. The Japanese on 
their part knew that their 
only course was to stand their 
ground and wait for their 
comrades to hurry up ; and 
as the note of the guns 
thundered and echoed among 
the mountain valleys, the 
Japanese battalions marching 
to the scene of action ac- 
celerated their pace, and General Inouye, commander of the division, proceeded to the front to 
reconnoitre. 

For two hours the Japanese battalions had to face a fierce bombardment, accompanied by a 

galling rifle fire, delivered by a far superior force. One of its companies lost all its officers. Seeing 

its plight, the Russians at length mustered up sufficient determination to attack, 

'''"'^At'tack^"^ and were preparing to charge, when just at this juncture the first Japanese 

reinforcements arrived upon the scene — a battalion of infantry and some detachments 

of cavalry. The pressure was taken oft" the decimated Japanese vanguard, and the men of the 

1 2th Division bivouacked for the night on the ground upon which they had fought, while the 

Russians determined to postpone their bayonet attack until the middle of the night. 

The first element of a midnight attack should be surprise, but the Russians made no attempt 
to conceal their coming from their enemy. On the contrary, they advertised it by advancing in the 
darkness with bands playing stirring marches and trumpets and drums sounding. The Japanese 
heard their approach, and took measures to beat oft" the attack. Three battalions, which had already 
taken up their position in the cornfields at the bottom of the valley, just under the Russian 
positions, were ordered to hold their fire to the last, unless the Russians blundered upon them, so 
as not to reveal to the enemy exactly where they were posted. The work of repelling the onslaught 
was left to two battalions on the slopes of 
the heights facing the Russians. The 
Japanese in the valley meantime worked 
their hardest to entrench their position, only 
throwing their tools aside when the enemy 
drew very near. 

The Russians carrie close to the torrent in 
the valley, but were re- 
pulsed by the fire of the 
Japanese to the rear. The Japanese working 
at the trenches received a heavy fire, which 
caused 280 casualties ; yet such was their 
self-control that they made no sound, gave 

r.^ .-r.^l.Vot:^r. «f tt,^,V r^,^^^^^^ 1 f • J CHANGING RUSSIAN SIGNBOARDS FOR JAPANESE WHEN THE 

no indication ol their presence, and refrained Japanese troops entered newchwang. 



Russian Tactics. 




714 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 18, 1904. 



BIRD'S-EYE VIEW 

OF NEWCHWANT. 

AND THE 

RIVER LIAl 




Newchwang b an open 
treaty port. The town 
of that name lies fur- 
ther up the River Liau. 



sirlNt - IflNl! 






, l"il '' - 




f4M^'^-i 








*^Ui»inJnn^ 


m 




m 


Kutmm- 


I; 




..... . . . ^. 


»^r 




Snvmf*/ Cmuiui 


'■^^x 


Liau Rirwr Ma 


E 








Wlnrnt .sanj bttn/iA Aj 


^ 








rliirU dri Mtnd 

al Leu nairr Sett 


mud 


^■^^ 




1 ■ / 










~ ---, 






.st-rr mill/ 




Quur or Prs- 


CHItJ 






>«.!l» 



Japanese Turning 
Movement. 



from replying to the pitiless storm of 
builet.s which tore through their rank.s. 
Twice the Russians repeated their 
manoeuvre, each time without success, 
and then finally fell back, leaving a 
number of their musicians and instru- 
ments upon the field. The tactics adopted 
Ijy the Russians on this occasion were 
absurd, but ofificers and men were fresh 
from Europe, and probably were under 
the impression that anything was good 
enough to defeat the Japanese. 

While the Russians were delivering 
these attacks, the object of which may 
ha\'e been to prevent 
the Japanese from 
stealing across the 
river, the Japanese Staff was making its 
dispositions for the battle next day. A 
frontal attack on the Russians was out 
of the question, and therefore the only 
course was to work round the Russian 
flanks. The left flank was well pro- 
tected by the river Hsiho and by 
exceedingly difficult mountainous country. 
The right flank, however, was weaker, 
though to reach it a long detour would 
be necessary, after which a lofty ridge 
of mountains would have to be crossed. 
Colonel Hiraoka, who had accompanied 
the British army in South Africa as 
military attach^, and had learnt much from the methods of the Boers, volunteered to make the 
attempt to turn this flank with his regiment, and his offer was accepted. He was ordered to start 
at daybreak, as daylight was re- 
quired for his perilous and difficult 
climb. Six more battalions, with 
five mountain batteries — for the 
Japanese had with them no field 
guns — were to hold the Russians 
in front. Under cover of darkness 
two of the batteries moved up 
to the crest of an almost inac- 
cessible ridge facing the Russian 
position, while the other three 
were posted lower down the 
slopes near the valley bottom, be- 
hind a temple, in a position where 
they were screened from Russian 
observation. They were under 
the orders of General Kigoshi. '"^^'' J^p.^nesk warship i.^Jj^nkj^hwano harbour acting as 



X 




716 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 19, 1904. 




Hiraoka's 
Wild March. 



1 VIKW. -ROAD NORTH TO HAICHKNG. 



As day broke, Hiraoka 
led his gallant troops into 
the wild fastnesses of the 
mountains, 
and f o r 
hours was 
lost to view. The Russians 
saw nothing of his move- 
ments, and would not have 
understood his purpose 
had they observed it. 
Meantime the Japanese 
opened a sharp fire from 
their batteries. The 
mountain guns on the 
ridge were drawn some 
distance back from the 
crest, but the flash when 
they fired could be seen, 
and the Russians speedily 
located them, and poured 

on them a torrent of shells. The Japanese batteries in the valley, however, escaped notice altogethei 
until the fight was verging to its close, while, when the Russians did locate these guns, their shells 
were ineffective, owing to some defect in the fuse.f, so that the damage done was not great. To the 
Russian troops and guns the Japanese fire caused serious loss and injury. The high-explosive shells, 
charged with 
Shimose powder, 
and fired alter- 
nately with 
shrapnel, produced 
a great moral im- 
pression, and 
shook the nerves 
of the soldiers 
near. Each ex- 
plosion excavated 
a deep pit in the 
earth, and sent up 
to the sky a pillar 
of dense smoke, 
while fragments of 
shell were hurled 
in all directions. 

About 7 a.m. 
the Japanese guns 
slackened their 
fire, and the Jap- 
anese infantry 
began to move 
forward in lontr 

o iHh, 41H SliJtklAN RIFLES MARCHING SOUTH KkOM LIAOYANU. 




J 



July 19, 1904. 



HIRAOKA'S EXPLOIT. 



717 



lines of skirmishers. At once the Russian guns began to pour upon them a terrific fire, and speedily 
brought the advance to a standstill. Thereupon the Japanese guns reopened, firing at their fastest. 
Three separate attacks were made, without being vigorously pressed, since it was not the intention 
of the Japanese to attack in front till the turning movement had had its full effect. General Inouye, 
the commander of the I2th Division, who was upon the field, anxiously watched the hills to the 
rear of the Russian right for sign of Hiraoka's men. Soon after i p.m. he saw indications of a 
retreat in the Russian entrenchments — the guns were being withdrawn, and detachments could be 




COLONEL HIRAOKA'S BATTERIES WERE MOVED UP TO THE CREST OF AN ALMOST INACCESSIBLE RIDGE. 



718 



JAPANS FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 19, 1904. 




<C*LE OF HILES 



■■ Russian fbs/t/'ons 

■ ' Japanese f^sittons 

_-. Japanese /I'nes of advance 



The Russians 
Defeated. 



RUSSIAN TROOPS RETREATING TO THE RIGHT BANK OF THE TAITSE RIVER. 

seen moving to the rear. At this instant there was a pronounced movement in the Russian line 
and suddenly a terrible fire was opened from the enemy's trenches upon some force out of sight 
and to their rear. It was known at once to be Hjraoka's regiment, which had covered nineteen 
miles of difficult country under a burning sun, marching through the mountains. •• Presently the 
Japanese infantry showed upon the sky-line, and, being reinforced by a detachment which had 
bdrried up from Lienshankwan, swept forward against the Russian position. 

^^ -This was the signal for a general advance, and brilliantly it was carried out. The Russians 

concentrated all their attention 
upon Colonel Hiraoka, hoping 
to o ve r- 
whelm him 
before help 
could reach him, and to repeat 
under another sky the victory 
of Nicholson's Nek. But he 
and his men held their ground 
gallantly, and beat off every 
attack, though the losses were 
severe. Hiraoka himself was 
mortally wounded, when the 
determined advance of tlie 
Japanese main force bVought 
assistance to his hard-pressed 
troops. With a tremendous cheer 
the Japanese charged the heights 
from the valley, while their guns 
fired at their fastest and poured 




Gtorg, Phlip tS<^ L'-' 



MAP OF THE RATTLE OF CHAUTOA. 



July 19, 1904. 



THE RUSSIAN FLIGHT. 



719 



a storm of shells upon the Russian lines. There was no holding them back, and presently ihi 
Russians began to waver, then they fell back in good order at the command to break off the battle ; 
and then, as a small Japanese force appeared suddenly and unexpectedly to the rear of the other 
flank, which it had gained by incredible exertion, their courage ebbed, and they fled in disorder, 
exposed to a deadly rifle fire from three different directions. The Japanese mountain guns hurried 




JAPANESE. .SEIZING THE HI^LL AT CHAUTOA. 



720 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 19, 1904. 




[Victor Bulla photo. 



after tlicm, and, gaining a good position, 
opened on them as they fled. Complete 
disa.ster was only averted by the brilliant 
courage and devoted self-sacrifice' of a 
handful of Russians — twenty strong — who 
flung themselves into a house and held 
it to the end. They were called upon to 
surrender, but refused to obey, and were 
killed to a man in the fierce combat that 
followed. But the delay which their 
resistance caused enabled the rest of the 
force to make its escape and retire towards 
Anping. 

The Russians left 131 dead upon the 
field, and carried off between 700 and 

1,000 killed and 

The Loss of I J c- ^ c 

Life wounded. Sixty-five 

prisoners, 33 of them 
unwounded, were taken, with three am- 
munition waggons and a large quantity 
of ammunition. The Japanese loss in 
this combat was Colonel Hiraoka and 
71 officers and men killed, and 449 
RUSsi.\N RECONNAiss.'V.NLr. i-.vKiv. " " officcrs and men wounded, at which cost 

one of the strongest positions to the east of Liaoyang was captured. The victory was of great 

importance, as it enabled the Japanese to threaten the Russian communications between Liaoyang 

and Mukden, and was probably one of the causes of the precipitate retreat from Tashihchao. 
On the day of this 

battle the Japanese in 

the neighbourhood of 

Kianchan succeeded in 

forcing the Russians, who 

were posted immediately 

to the north of that place, 

back over the Taitse 

River, down which valley 

they retreated, followed 

by the Japanese for many 

miles. The Japanese 

loss in this afifair was 

only 17, and the Russian 

loss was probably as 

trifling, but the road to 

Pensihu and Mukden 

was cleared as the result, 

and the Japanese were 

left in command of yet 

another route through the 

mountain country. The 

rmy ad thus kussian retreat through a millet field. 




June 1, 1904. 



THE STORY OF PORT ARTHUR. 



721 



accomplished a most important tasl<, and it now only remained for it to secure the immediate approaches 
to Liaoyang on the eastern side. 




RUSSIAN ARTILLERYMEN IN THKIR TRKNCHES. 



[BulLi photo. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 
THE RUSSIANS DRIVEN INTO PORT ARTHUR. 

AFTER the occupation of the heights south of Dalny a long pause in the Japanese operations 
against Port Arthur followed, owing to the fact that a large force of troops had to be 
diverted from Dalny to fight the battle of Telisse, while some weeks were occupied in 
completing the clearance of Talienwan Bay and in bringing up fresh divisions from Japan. On 
June I General Nogi landed at Yentoa Bay with the iith Division, and a few days later established 
his headquarters at a village seven miles to the west of Dalny. For the- next 
three weeks he held with the 1st and nth Divisions a line stretching right across 
the peninsula, from Militia Head to Taishuhshan, near Dalny. The ist Division formed the right 
wing, and the iith the left. The Japanese anticipated no very severe or protracted fighting before 
they arrived under the forts of Port Arthur. The indifferent defence of the Russian works at 
Nanshan, and the comparative ease with which that enormously strong position had been stormed, 



Nogl's Arrival. 



722 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June, 1904. 




led them to underrate 

the task before them. 

They appear to have 

calculated upon taking 

J'ort Arthur during July, 

and the voyage of the 

Man'ciiu Maru with 

foreign correspondents, 

distinguished visitors, and 

Japanese peers and 

members of Parliament, 

was unquestionably timed 

to coincide with the fall 

of the great fortress. How 

bitterly these anticipations 

were disappointed, how 

many weary months of 

battle and leaguer were 

yet to pass, and what 

terrific sacrifices of life 

and wealth had to be made 

before the great end was 

attained is now a matter 

of history. 

A fact which greatly 

influenced the siege and 

c a used 

Effect of , f 

Russian Raid. "'^^^'^-^ ^^ 

delay was 

the loss of the transports 

sunk by the Vladivostock 

cruisers. One of these 

ENIRY OF THE TOMSK REGIMENT INTO LIAOYANG FOR ITS 1.EFKNCE. veSSels WaS Carrying hcavy 

prepared expressly for the operations against Port Arthur. 



siege guns and light rails and trollies. 
The loss of the ship had an important 
military influence upon the war, as 
months passed before fresh guns could 
be procured, and just when he most 
needed a powerful artillery General 
Nogi was left with only his field guns 
and a few weapons landed by the 
Japanese navy. It is possible that the 
possession of a large number of heavy 
guns would have enabled him rapidly to 
drive in the Russians from their positions 
in front of Port Arthur, and to assault 
with success before the fortifications were 
complete; and, if that be so, the Vladi- 
vostock ships by their raid inflicted 
indirectly upon Japan a loss of some 




li-. .NkKen/le nmto, 

A FORSAKEN RUSSIAN GUN POSITION, SHOWING THE SHRAPNEL 
LEFT BEHIND. 



724 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June, 1904. 



25,000 lives, and caused the failure of the attempt to surround General Kuropatkin. On such 
small causes does success or failure in war hang. 

The capture of Port Arthur was of overwhelming importance to the Japanese, because of the 
fleet which found shelter within its harbour. The fortress itself without the fleet could have been 

safely disregarded ; but so narrow was the Japanese margin of superiority at sea 
Port Arthur ^'"^^ *^^ '°*^ °^ ^^^ HatsUSE, so great was the peril apprehended from the 

coming of the Baltic Fleet, that the General Staff of the Navy declared the 
destruction of the remainder of the Russian battle-squadron to be vital, if the war was to be 
prosecuted with success. The Japanese have been blamed for this decision by careless thinkers, 
but facts proved beyond dispute that they were right. With all their exertions, and notwithstanding 
a relentlessness in attacking never paralleled before in military histor}-, they only captured Port 




Ceorqe Philip it So*^ L *^ 
THE ADVANCK TO PORT ARTHUR. 

Arthur when the Baltic Fleet was well on its way to the Far East. A few weeks of delay or 
hesitation might have meant the loss of the command of the sea and complete disaster. 

As for the opposed forces, since the surrender of Port Arthur it has been known that the 

Russian garrison, counting both army and navy, numbered over 50,000 men, of whom 12,000 were 

seamen and 38,000 soldiers. To the.se the Japanese as yet could only oppo.se 

Port Arthur. 4S>000 men on land, but reinforcements constantly arrived, and the total force 

available steadily ro.se. The advance to Port Arthur, which was distant 13 miles 

from the most foremost Japanese positions, had to be made through mountainous country, over a 



JAPAN'S GREAT GENERAL. 



725 




ivntiilry^)^ ., _— ' 



Vo. XXXI. 



GENERAL NOGi THE JAPANESE COMMANDER BEFORE PORT ARTHUR. 



726 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 26. 1904. 




series of ridges running 
at right angles to the 
line of march. The 
Russians, therefore, had 
great opportunities of 
delaying the advance be- 
holding these ridges in 
succession. But as there 
were many paths and 
passes over the heights, 
the Japanese in most 
cases were able to employ 
turning tactics and force 
their enemy to retire by 
threatening him with 
envelopment. 

Continuous skirmish- 
ing proceeded during 
early June 
be t w een 



The Attack 
on Kenshan. 



the ou t- 
posts of the two armies 
before, on June 26, General 
Nogi gave the order for a 
general attack, with the 
object of capturing the 
important height of Ken- 
shan. From this emi- 
nence the Russians were 
able to gain a perfect view 
of all that was happening 
within the Japanese lines 



IStcreogruph, copyriglit, Underwood & Underwood. 
GENERAL NOGl'S RIGHT-HAND MEN. 

and at Dalny. They could see what troops were 
being landed at that port, and what Japanese warships 
■were within its harbour, and thus gain the most 
valuable information. As secrecy is the first requisite 
of the successful prosecution of war, General Nogi 
determined to dislodge them at all costs, when 
he himself would reap all the advantages that 
had fallen to General Stoessel, would be able to 
see into the Russian lines, and even into the harbour 
of Port Arthur itself. Kenshan rises to over 1,200ft.. 
and on English maps is named Prominent Peak 
It throws out several spurs 800ft. to 900ft. high. 
It was held by two battalions of infantry with foui 
quick-firing naval guns; these during the fighting 
were reinforced with a detachment of troops from 
Port Arthur and two machine guns. 




JAl'ANhbli LA.MJl.NCJ PJ.ACK Ai LINSHLIU.N, NEAK 
DALNV. 



728 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



June 26, 1904. 



The iith Division was charged with 
the attack, and marching before daybreak 
on June 26, in three columns, carried 
three subsidiary heights to the east of 
kenshan ahnost without resistance. 
Behind these three rose Kenshan, grim, 
bare, and precipitous, in places covered 
with immense boulders piled up insecurely 
on its slopes, and giving at the fall of 
a human foot. The attack upon it began 
about 9 a.m., and was delivered by the 
43rd Japanese Regiment, supported by 
a battery of mountain artillery. The 
Russians were found upon the alert ; 
the Japanese movements had been 
signalled to Port Arthur, and, as the 
assaulting force deployed and advanced, 
four Russian cruisers and gunboats 
appeared upon the scene and opened a 
long-range fire, which greatly embarrassed 
the Japanese, until the Japanese armoured 
cruisers came up, drove the Russian 
ships back to harbour, and themselves co-operated with the attacking force. 

The Japanese artillery speedily obtained the upper hand, silenced the Russian quick-firers, and 
treated the Russian machine-guns in the same way when these were brought up to repel the 
advance. About 2 p.m. the Japanese were well up the slope, notwithstanding 
two Russian mines, which were exploded prematurely, and .so inflicted little loss. 
Before the final charge, however, the summit was thoroughly searched with 
shrapnel from the Japanese guns. For two hours a deliberate and well sustained fire was concentrated 
upon the bare stony crest, and then about 5 p.m. the Japanese infantry charged. The Russians, 
shaken by the shrapnel fire, made no determined stand, and half an hour later the mountain was 
in the hands of General Nogi's men. Thirty Russian dead and two 6-pounder quick-firers were found 
upon the height, in capturing which the total Japanese loss was only 1 50. General Nogi at once 
gave orders for Kenshan to be strongly fortified, and, notwithstanding the difficulty of excavating 
trenches and shelter positions in the rocky slopes, the work was immediately carried out, and bomb- 
proofs constructed on the very summit. 




I Photo by IJ.irry. 
ONE OF GENERAL NOGI'S HEADQUARTERS BEFORE PORT ARTHUR. 



Kenshan 
Captured. 




I l..\ hALNV ANU I'OKT ARTHUR. 



ARRIVAL OF THE MAIL. 



729 




THROWING THE PARCELS DOWN. THIi JAPANESE FIELD-POSTMAN'S TLME-SAVING METHOD. 

Tl,c Enjjlish w.;r correspo.,.l=nts had their headquarters in a donga before Port Arthur. Mr. VUliers has here sketched the arrival of the field-postman 

with the newspaper mail. 



730 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 3, 1904. 




A Night Attack. 



THE INTERIOR OF A RUSSIAN FORT. 

The Russian.s were not disposed tamely to accept the loss of the mountain, as day by day they 
experienced the inconvenience of complete ignorance of the Japanese movements. On July 3 General 
Stoessel ordered a general attack on the ridge, detailing for that purpose a whole 
division of about 12,000 men. He opened the attack with a terrific bombardment,. 
delivered by twelve quick-firing guns, but owing to the excellent works which the Japanese had 
constructed, ^he effect of this furious fire was insignificant. After a prolonged preparation, two Russian 
battalions advanced , to the assault with colours flying and bands playing stirring marches, evidently 
supposing that no Japanese could have been left alive after such a bombardment. Twice the 
Russians charged, and each time were beaten back by the rifle fire of the men holding the summit 
before they had covered more than a few hundred yards ; and darkness came down, leaving them still 
on the western slope of the mountain. A third attack was delivered during the night. The Japanese 
were on the alert, but they heard no sound from the mass of men below. Silently the Russians 
climbed up, picking their way among the loose boulders, and suddenly broke out of the obscurity upon 

the Japanese trenches. The men of the 
43rd Regiment were taken by surprise,, 
but they held their ground gallantly. A 
desperate hand-to-hand struggle began on 
the ridge, and raged for some fifteen 
minutes, when the Russians, exhausted 
by their long and difficult climb, and 
meeting with a far more determined 
resistance than they had expected, broke 
and fled down the slope, the Japanese 
rolling huge boulders after them, which, 
crushed many men to death and inflicted 
heavy los.ses upon the defeated foe. 
Day broke on the 4th, and the attack 

was renewed by the 

Nogi's Message. ,, -^u r 1 

Russians with fresh 

troops. About 7 a.m. three battalions 

advanced up the slopes, the Russian 

JAPANESE AT THEIR TOILET NEAR port"''a'rthur.""°" ''^'"°' artillery redoubling its fire, while heav>'- 




July 4. 1904. 



NOGI'S MESSAGE. 



73! 



reinforcements could be seen pouring up to the support of the Russians from the rear far below. 
Major-General Yamanaka, commanding the loth Brigade, sent orders to his men that they must hold 
the position at all cost, and himself proceeding to the summit he informed them that General Nogi 
expected them to die at their posts rather than surrender the height. They answered his stern address 




THE FIGHT ON TRUn.E PEAK. 
■ It was a nerve-shaking ordeal up impossible slopes under the fire of the Russian guns." 



732 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 4, 1904. 





JAPANESE LIGHT CARTS UKAWN UP IN ROWS FOUR MILES NORTH 
OF PORT ARTHUR. 



fStereograph, copyrij^Iit, UiiderwootI i'^; Underwood. 
A IJISTANT VIEW OF THE JAPANESE 3RI) 
DIVISIONAL CAMP BEFORE PORT ARTHUR. 
Tlie waters on the right are those of the Gulf of Pechih 

with cheers. Reinforcements from the 
iith Division were brought up, and all 
was made ready to beat back the next 
assault. Meantime the Russian bom- 
bardment of the hill rendered the 
position of the Japanese most difficult. 
The Russian guns, firing at a range of 
6,ooo yards, and timing their shells and 
shrapnel exactly, silenced the Japanese 
mountain guns of much weaker power 
and smaller range for the time being, 
and there were moments when it seemed 
almost impossible to hold the trenches 
on the summit. But the loth Brigade 
clung obstinately to the height and 
endured its terrible trial. 

It was now about 5.30 p.m., and the 
Russians, increased in strength to 10 
battalions, could be seen below, massed 
for the assault in great grey masses. At 
the same moment several of the Russian 
warships steamed out of Port Arthur 
and opened fire on Kenshan. The 



734 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 5, 1904. 



situation was extremely critical ; but 
the reserves were thrown into the 
fight, and just at this juncture three 
batteries of heavy guns opportunely 
joined the Japanese, and were at 
once brought into play, while the 
heavy naval guns on the Japanese 
left also opened fire. Night was 
fast approaching, and the question 
was whether the Japanese would be 
able to last until darkness came 
down. But the Russian assault 
was feebly delivered, and not pressed 
home. To the infinite relief of 
General Yamanaka, the Russian war- 
ships fell back ; and though during 
the night the Russian infantry 





CUi-LkKUL JAPANESE bUPPOklS ktsri.NG UNUKR COVER WITHIN A BATTERY 

BEFORE I'ORT ARTHUR. 
The dnitn is a Russian trophy. The Japanese do not use drums. 



JAPANESE SHIPPING HORSES 
AT UJINA. 



delivered a fresh attack 
on Kenshan, they were 
repulsed with compara- 
tive ease. The Japanese 
still held the mountain. 

The losses in this 
combat were considerable. 
The Russians had about 
700 men hors de combat ; 
while the Japanese 
casualties, mostly inflicted 
by artillery fire, numbered 
300. On the 5th the 
attack was again renewed, 
but with less energy, and 
as the morning advanced 
the Russians were seen 
to be in general retreat. 
They fell back to their 
next line of positions 
fronting Kenshan, and, 
having abandoned all idea 
of retaking the mountain, 
could be seen tlirowing 
up earthworks and con- 
structing shelter-trenches. 
They had been beaten 
back by an inferior force, 
skilfully used, and holding 
its positions with ad- 
mirable determination. 



July 22. 1904. 



ATTACK ON TRIPLE PEAK. 



735 



The Triple 
Peak Position. 



Another long pause in the operations continued from July 5 to July 26, during which time the 
clearance of Dalny Harbour was finally completed, though not without further loss to the Japanese, 
and a fresh division — the 9th — landed, with two reserve brigades, the 3rd Artillery 
Brigade, and a large number of siege guns and naval guns. With an army numbering 
65,000 combatants. General Nogi was now in a position to press his advance, and 
even to attempt the assault of Port Arthur. But during these weeks of respite the Russians had not 
been inactive. Under the direction of General Krondachenko the defences of Port Arthur itself had 
been greatly strengthened and improved, while a long line of semi-permanent works had been thrown 
up across the peninsula. The centre of the Russian defence rested upon the mountain known as 
Triple Peak, which rises to a height of nearly 1,400ft., and dominates the whole peninsula. Its rugged 
outlines stand out conspicuous against the sky ; from its sides, which in many directions fall almost 
vertically, jut forth a series of craggy spurs and dizzy pinnacles, to force a way up which would task 
even the skilled mountaineer, and might have been impossible for any infantry but the athletic 
Japanese. 

On July 22 orders were 
issued to the 3rd Japanese 
Army to prepare for the 

attack of 
The Attack ^^-^ f^^^jj, 
Begms. 

able posi- 
tion, the attack being fixed 
for the morning of the 
26th. The 1st Division 
was stationed on the right, 
with orders to march along 
the north road and railway, 
which hereabouts hug the 
northern coast of the 
peninsula; the 9th Division 
was in the centre, and was 
to move by the road which 
leads direct from Dalny to 
Port Arthur through the 
heart of the mountains ; 
the iith Division, on the 
left, was to follow a series 
of tracks alongthesouthern 
coast. The first positions 
to be carried were a series 
of works on the railway 
to the south of Wedge 
Head, the possession of 
which was essential for the 
attack on Triple Peak. 
The Japanese plans, how- 
ever, were deranged by a 
heavy fog, followed by 
intermittent showers of 
rain, which prevented the 
Japanese artillery from 




THE MOLE IN THE NIGHT. STEALTHY JAPANESE SAPPERS THROWING UP 
EARTHWORKS BEFORE PORT ARTHUR. 



736 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 27, 1904. 




4u A 




operating with great effect, 
or shaking the moral of 
the Russian infantry. All 
the morning a desultory 
combat proceeded, until 
about noon the infantry 
deployed and advanced in 
open order to the attack, 
encountering a stubborn 
resistance, and finally 
suffering a severe repulse. 
To weaken the Russians 
at this point, a general 
attack all along the line 
was ordered, and, thoucjh 
it was repulsed everywhere 
except on the right, the 
move had some effect. 
The Russians were obliged 
.. cin.NL.K JLOCL1.K i.x A .MANCHLKiAN TuwN. to Weaken their left in Order 

to reinforce in other quarters of the field, and the Japanese ist Division carried all the works between 
Shwantaikau and Militia Head. 

On the left, the Japanese attacked the heights to the west of Hwang-Ni River in the early afternoon 
and late evening of the 26th, but on each occasion were repulsed. A third attack was delivered early 
on the 27th, and, though the assaulting force was only 500 strong, it succeeded this time in planting 
the Japanese flag in the centre of the Russian position with but 70 casualties. The Russians, however, 
clung to a part of the ridge, and, being reinforced by a party of marines landed on the shore from 
the Russian destroyers, 
delivered a counter-attack. 
Indecisive fighting con- 
tinued to the morning of 
the 28th, with repeated 
hand-to-hand encounters, 
in which neither side could 
obtain a decisive success, 
and each retained its posi- 
tions ; but on the 28th 
the Ru.ssians retired by 
sea to Port Arthur. 

On the 27th the Japanese 
began their attack on 
Triple Peak in real earnest, 

A Nerve- employing 
shaking troops of 
Ordeal. , , , 

both the 1st 

and iith Divisions, and 
posting the 9th Division 
in reserve The Russians 
were strongly entrenched 
on the lower slopes and 




.NA\AI, 4 7-lX 



I.AM) CAKKIAI.IC, 




AN AMAZING INCIDENT. 
'* A Russian soldier on Triple Peak tried to Insso a Japanese. Then followed a grim struggle for life in mid-air." 



738 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 27, 1904. 




(From Sier*o- 

Siaph, cop>TiKlit, 

Un4lerwood & 

Underwood. 

WITHIN 
FOUR MILES 

OF PORT 

ARTHUR. 

SOME OF 
THE 

JAP.\NESE 
WHO TOOK 

P.\RT IN 
THE FIRST 

ASS.AULT. 

shelled by 
the J ap- 
anese, and, 
when the 
ar t ill ery 
preparation 
was thought 
to have been 
complete, 
the infantry 
were or- 
dered to 
advance to 
the assault 
— a nerve- 
shaking 
ordeal, up 
impossible 
slopes under 
the fire of 
the Russian 
guns and 
rifles. The 
Russians at 
first gave no 
sign of their 



summits, which are two in number, one 
of them shaped on the very top like 
a cup, so that it offered admirable 
natural protection, and could not be 
swept with shrapnel. On this height 
the Russians had mounted long-range 
quick-firers of small calibre and machine 
guns taken from their warships, which 
commanded the country round, but not 
the slopes immediately below, these being 
in the dead angle owing to the steepness 
of the mountain. So sheer, indeed, did 
the walls of rock rise that the Russians 
believed their positions impregnable. All 
the morning of the 27th the height was 




(i(C-£f PCAK 





f /'!<jftf^ by /ttuuifiti 









//M JUH 










pramentvry 



.\-t 



BIRD'S-EVE VIEW SHOWING THE JAPANESE ADVANCE TO PORT ARTHUR. 



740 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 27, 1904. 




[CopyriKlit photo by J. Rosenthal, of Urharor.i. 
WAR CORRESPONDENTS WATCHING A FIGHT NEAR PORT ARTHUR. 

presence on the summit and slopes. Either they did not see the Japanese owing to tlieir being in 
the dead angle, or they purposely held their fire and waited until their enemy should be within close 
range, for not until the head of the storming detachment was near the summit did they open. Then 
they poured into their assailants a crushing fire. 

The difficulties which the Japanese had to confront were terrific. They could be seen from afar 
slowly working their way up the precipices, clinging to rocks which looked vertical, walking like flies 
on the mountain side where it dropped sheer for hundreds of feet, but always advancing. Boulders 
were set rolling either by the stormers in their advance or by the Russians, and crashed down the 
echoing gorges, sweeping away men by the dozen ; yet the survivors ever pressed on. About 3 p.m. 
they carried the lower tier of Russian trenches just below the very steepest part of the mountain, but 
from this point they found further progress out of the question without scaling ladders, which had not 
as yet reached them. 

The rock rose straight, smooth, without handhold, and, though only some fifty feet parted them 

from the Russians, 
it was a gap that 
could not be 
passed. They had 
to stand with backs 
to the cliff to gain 
shelter, and to fire 
directly upwards 
at the Russians 
above. The Rus- 
sians on their part 
leant over the 
precipice and fired 
down or hurled 
stones down upon 
the heads of their 
fierce 
below. 




iLupyriyht pi 

JAPANESE WOUNDED AT DALNV. 



uto by J. Koscnthal, of Urbanora. 



In 



one 



July 27, 1904. 



THE LASSO IN WAR. 



741 




RUSSIAN BOM H-PROOF 
SHELTER. 

for dear life. So furious 
was the encounter that 
he had no time to call 
his comrades to his aid. 
The Russian hauled and 
strained, and so did the 
Japanese; then suddenl)-, 
seeing that there was no 
chance of strangling the 
Japanese, the Russian 
let go, and his antagonist 
overbalanced himself and 
rolled down the precipice 
with a heavy thud, break- 
ing his neck and losing 
his. life. 

Working round the 
mountain to less difficult 
points, 
parties of 
Japane.se 
succeeded in reaching 
the summit and pene- 
trating the Russian lines, 
but only with very heavy 
loss, and, arriving breath- 
less, they were beaten 
back by the Russians. 
The scene 
was an 
indescrib- 
ably pain- 
ful one for the hosts of 
Japanese who watched 



place a Russian soldier 

tried to lasso a Japanese. 

He flung 

with a noose 
and placed it over 
the Japanese soldier's 
shoulders. Then followed 
a grim struggle for life in 
mid-air. The Japanese 
snatched hold of the rope 
with both hands before the 
Russian could haul it 
tight, and tugged at it 



Japanese 
Driven Back 



JAPANESE 

SURGEON AT 

WORK IN A 

RAVINE BEFORE 

PORT ARTHUR. 




742 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 27. 1904. 



far away the combat as 
it swayed backwards and 
forwards on the slopes. 
At last the Japanese were 
completely repulsed and 
driven down the hill under 
a murderous fire from 
the Russian artillery, 
machine-guns and rifles, 
while the onlookers shed 
tears of fury at the 
spectacle. The precipices 
and eyries were covered 
with killed and wounded 
Japanese and with 
scattered bands of skir- 
mishers, on whom the 



I . 






JAPANESE WAR liALl.OON KEAUV FOR RECON- 
NCHTRING PORT ARTHUR. 



A MANCHURIAN OFFICIAL I'AK 1 V AT 1 1U-. KAILU.VV SIAlluX. 



Russians rolled down immense rocks which did dreadful 
execution. The attack had failed completely, and had 
caused the Japanese enormous loss. But strong parties 
still held their ground stubbornly on the slopes and 
bivouacked for the night on the wild ledges of the 
mountain. 

During the night of the 27-28th the iith Division sent 
in troops to attack the Russian positions once more. Two 

attacks were made without result, and 
C^P'"^|g°^™P^^ each time the Japanese were hurled 

back. But the Russian resistance 
gave signs of weakening, and General Nogi was not a 
soldier to yield before any sacrifices when he had been 
told that the speedy capture of Port Arthur was abso- 
lutely vital. A third assault was delivered as the night 
was verging to day. This time the Japanese were not to 
be denied. They fought their way into the Russian 
positions, gained a footing on the summit of Triple Peak, 
and as General Stoessel was growing alarmed at his 
losses in the fighting, and was afraid that his men might 
be cut off from Port Arthur, he ordered a retreat. Triple 
Peak was Japanese on the morning of the 28th, and the 
whole centre and north of the second Russian line had 
fallen into General Nogi's hands. To the south the 
Japanese left was equally successful. It drove the Russians 
back from the heights north of Takhe Bay with a loss of 
100 killed and wounded. 

The Japanese los.ses in this series of battles were 
exceedingly heavy. Four thousand men were killed or 
wounded, while the Russian loss in all probability did not 
exceed 1,500, as the Russians were acting on the defensive 



July 30, 1904. 



FENGHWANGSHAN CAPTURED. 



743 




[Kiuhliinaii Jolinsloil piiulo, 
PORT ARTHUR. 



and could mow down tlicir op- 
ponents with comparatively little 

danger to 
Japanese Losses. , , , 

themselves. 

So heavy were the Japanese losses 

that General Nogi determined to 

lose no time in pushing his attack 

home before the Russians could 

entrench themselves in the new 

line of positions which they had 

SOME WIRE ENTANGLEMENTS NEAR PORT ARTHUR. ^^^^^^ ^p_ ^,^^, ^.j^j^j^ ^^^ f^^,^ 

Xitautze on the north through two heights known as Kentashan and Langshan or Wolf Hill to the 
eminences of Takushan and Shahkushan on the south. Weary though his men were, with ranks 
depleted by their losses, 
he gave the order for the 
general attack all along 
the Russian line to be re- 
newed before dawn on 
July 30. The 1st Division 
again formed the right, and 
the I ith the left, while the 
9th was held in reserve. 
It was not to be brought 
into action until the hour 
came to storm Port Arthur. 
In front of Kentashan, 
and to the east of it, 
rose a subsidiary height 

Fenghwang- known as 
F e n g h - 



shan 
Captured. 



wangshan. 



Three columns were to 
attack this hill, one moving 
to the south of it, a second 
assailing it frontally, and 
the third marching to the 
north of it along the coast, 
assisted by the small craft 
of the Japanese navy. On 
Fenghwangshan was a 
Russian work, but of poor 
design, giving insufficient 
shelter against shrapnel 
fire. The Russians made 
no determined resistance. 
General Stoessel had de- 
cided against committing 
his force to any serious 
engagement outside the 
works of Port Arthur itself 




THE ATTACK. ON TAKUSHAN. 
This was one of the bloodiest and most terrible eiigagemenU of the war. 



744 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 31. 1904. 




A CAPTURED RUSSIAN HOWITZER BATTERY. 

for many reasons, perhaps the most important being that he had not enough men to hold a very 
extended line, and was in some fear of a sudden dash by the Japanese directed against his rear in 
the neighbfjurhood of Louisa Bay, where they could have landed without any great difificulty. 
Fenghvvangshan was taken before night of the 30th fell, and tiie Japanese artillery was brought up behind 
it to positions whence the guns could fire with effect upon Kentashan. Many of the Russian trenches were 
rushed before the Russians were on their guard, and the Japanese captured a large number of greatcoats 
and piled rifles in an earthwork which had been thrown up at Tuchentze. On the extreme right there was 
severe fighting in the valley to the west of Kentashan. Here the country was covered with millet fields, 
which offered admirable shelter for the Russian marksmen, who inflicted severe loss upon the advancing 
Japanese, and were only dislodged after a prolonged shelling of the ground where they had taken cover. 

By the morning of the 31st the Japanese left had reached the shore of Louisa Bay and rested upon 
the village of Lenkiatun. The bay itself is very shallow, and had been filled with Russian mines, so that 
the Japanese warships were not as )'et able to make their way into it with safety. Pending the co-operation 
of the ships, and while the mines on the coast were being cleared away, the Japanese troops in this quarter 
of the field entrenched themselves and constructed rifle pits. The advance ceased, and fierce skirmishing 

between the two armies 
proceeded daily until 
August 4, when 1,500 
Russians suddenly at- 
tacked the Japanese lines 
at the point of the bayonet. 
The)' were repulsed, but 
not without heavy loss to 
cither side. 

In this pause the Jap- 
anese heavy naval guns 
were brought up and 
posted on 

Shelling Port penghNxang- 
Arthur. *' " 

shan Hill 

behind strong works, 

but not before August 7 

were they ready to open 

fire on Port Arthur. On 

that day both 6-in. and 

47-in. naval guns began 

the bombardment which 




Hu.SOLk lu THE DEAD. 



(Copyriglit photo by J. KosL-mlial, of Urbaiiora. 
AN OFFICER'S FAREWELL. 



746 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 7. 1904. 




THE KEY TO THE INVESTMENT OF PORT ARTHUR. 



THE BIG ORPHAN MOUNTAIN, TAKUSHAN. 



Mr. VUliers, the artist, says : " This position was the first that it w.\s ahsolutely necessary to capture for the proper investment of Port Arthur. From 

the heights the Russians could see the Japanese advance for miles, so on ,\ugust 9 the nth and 9th Japanese Divisions gallantly carried it in face of the 

combined fire from all ihe forts and such Russian w.irships as remained. The weather was stormy and wet, bjt the Japanese infantry climbed up the slippery 

sides of the mountain like cats, and in a verjr few minutes ascended an elevation of nine hundred feet. This sketch well illustrates the difficult contour of the 

country. The position closely resembles Nanshan and other positions victoriously carried by the Japanese." 

thenceforward continued without intermission for five terrible months. A Japanese seaman prisonei 
within the city thus describes the opening of the bombardment: "All day the Japanese shells came 

crashing down, here and 
there. One struck near 
the prison door killing two 
men. Once I was looking 
from the window when a 
shell fell into the street 
and killed five Russian 
officers who were walking 
there. From that day o i 
the indirect fire was co.i- 
tinuous, sometimes 

stronger, sometimes 
weaker." Shells fell 
among the warships and 
upon their decks, and the 
danger run by the fleet was 
so great that a council was 
called to -determine what 
SHOEING A HORSE IN MANCHURIA. course was to be followed 




748 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM 



August 10, 1904. 



4%.^ 






Assault on 
Panlung-shan. 



On August lo the 
Japanese right received 
orders to deliver an assault 
upcn North 
P a n 1 u n g- 
shan, which 
must not be confused with 
the other Panlungshan on 
the inner line of defences 
at Port Arthur. Till this 
iieight had been taken it 
was impossible to assail 
Kentashan. Fortunately 



J!*ulla photo. 
SINGING CHORUS 
OF SIBERIAN 
COSSACKS. 

for the Japanese 
the Russian de- 
fences on Pan- 
lungshan were not 
of the most for- 
midable type, 
being merely 
earthworks with 
bad head - cover. 
There were, how- 
ever, a number 
of shelter trenches 
which caused 
great trouble and 
terrible loss before 
they could be 
rushed. The 

ground over which 
the Japanese 
would have to 
advance was 
swept by artillery 
and rifle fire from 
all directions. 
From the north- 
east Kentashan 
commanded it, 



IStcreogranh, copjriKhl, 
Underwood & Underwnxl 

SHKLTER TENTS A.NI< 

PICKETED HORSES 

BELONGING TO 

NOGIS 3RD ARMY 

DIVISION NORTH 

OF PORT ARTHUR. 





r m 






















t-^X 




t~x 




&»: 






^ta^fl 


^ to . 




= Z 




S 



750 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 



while to the south rose the rocky heights of Metre Range, gloomy and forbidding, and the massive works 
which crowned the Antzeshan ridge. The heaviest and most powerful weapons in the defences could be 
brought to play upon the advance, while the guns of the Russian fleet could also co-operate. Many of the 
lighter weapons — 6-in. and i2-pounder — had been landed from the warships and mounted in the Russian 
lines, as the officers of the army declared that the seamen did not know how to use them or dare to 
employ them upon the Japanese fleet. Therefore, as they themselves could make a better use of the guns, 
they took them away without much resistance on the part of the Russian admirals. 




[From stereograph taken by James Ricalton. Copyright, 1905, by Underwood & Underwood, London and New \'ork. 
A BROKEN RUSSIAN FIELD GUN ON THE TOP OF MOUNT TAKUSHAN. 

Of the attacks which followed no detailed accounts have as yet been published. An air of mystery 
broods over these preliminary movements, but the losses of the assailants are known to have been terrible. 
Over the open ground the Japanese moved in close formation, and were mowed down by the Russian fire. 
Heavy guns, machine-guns, and rifles played upon them, shattering their ranks, and they were unable to make 
any effective reply. Most troops would have recoiled under such a fire, but the Japanese went forward and 
finally Tushed the entrenchments at the close of the day and fought their way to the foot of Panlungshan 
and Kentashan. Here they bivouacked, still under a heavy fire. 

During the terrible night which followed rain fell in torrents, converting the Swishiying Valley into a 
perfect quagmire The rain continued all the following day, and so obscured the forts and Russian works from 
view that it was impossible for the gunboats and naval guns to bombard with effect. The valley 



752 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 12, 1904. 




A TAIL W I I H I \\u I.M>>. 
A Japanese spy disguised as a Chinese discovered. 



became a lake, in which the bodies of the dead Japanese floated hither and thither under their 

comrades' eyes as they stood waist-deep in the water. The sufferings of the assailants in these conditions 

were fearful, the more so as they were continuously under fire, in drippins? clothes 
Capture of -^ ,. •. r ,• w ,- , . . i ^^ & 

Panlungshan, ^^'"^ "° opportunity of lightmg fires and drymg or warmmg themselves. But when 

Kentashan. and the weather cleared, on August 12 or 13, the fight was renewed, the light-draught 
Wolf HilL T r it. . - - 

vessels ot the navy concentratmg a terrific fire upon the Russian positions from the 

north and west, while the naval guns on land also took up the attack. On August 13-14 the last advanced 

Russian positions in this quarter fell into the hands of the Japanese, and, after a bloody and protracted 

conflict, not only Panlungshan and Kentashan were carried, but also the important eminence of Wolf f fill, 




SOLLPlliKS AT DINNER DURING THE SIEGE OF 
PORT ARTHUR. 



SAPPERS AT WORK AT PORT ARTHUR DIGGING 
TRENCHES. 



August 7, 1904. 



ATTACK ON TAKUSHAN. 



753 



which rises due north of Swishiying, and from which a view of a part of the harbour of Port Arthur can 
be obtained. From the nature of the Russian works captured, it was clear that General Stoessel had 
not understood the full importance of Wolf Hill, since the fortifications there were of a weak nature. 

Four guns were captured on Wolf Hill and promptly put in good order and turned upon the Russians. 




[Irom .'I .sti.-rcuj4rapli t;ikon by J. Kic;ilton. Copyright, 1905, Underwood & Uilderwood, N.Y. 
GENERAL BARON XOGI AND OFFICERS OF THE FAMOUS THIRD IMPERIAL JAPANESE ARMY WHICH CAPTURED 

PORT ARTHUR. 

Meantime, upon the left flank an equally sanguinary struggle raged for the possession of Takushan and 

Shahkushan, two lofty heights which rise just to the east of Port Arthur, and from the 

Attack on summits of which it is possible to gain a good view of the interior of the defences, 

Shahkushan though the eastern port is not in sight. The attack upon them was delivered by the 

I ith Division under the command of General Tsuchiya. Takushan rises as " precipitous 

as Gibraltar," and almost as large, and on its crest were four Russian guns in a weak entrenchment. General 

Stoessel appears to have considered the position inaccessible on the Japanese side, and thus not to have 



754 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 7, 1904. 




A COSSACK REGIMENT. 



[Bullu plioto. 



A Ter rifle 
Bombardment. 



devoted any great attention to fortifying it. Tiie very steepness of the slope, however, here as at Triple 

Peak, enabled the Japanese to escalade without coming under the Russian rifle fire. 

The attack on Takushan began with a terrific bombardment delivered by three batteries of 47-in. naval 

guns and four batteries of 6-in. howitzers which had just been brought up from Dalny. Before the guns 

opened the Japanese infantry deployed. The 22nd and 44th Regiments formed the 

right and the 12th and famous 43rd the left. The 22nd and I2th were to attack 

Takushan, covered on their exposed flank by the 44th ; the 43rd, which had so 

distinguished itself in the Kenshan assault during July, was to move upon Shahkushan if a favourable 

opportunity offered. The advance opened late in the afternoon of August 7 in pouring torrents of rain, and 

was carried out without difficulty at first, as either the Russians held their fire or else they were unable to 

see .their enemies on the steep slopes below. The Russian artillery on the summit fired at a mountain 

battery which had showed 

itself east of Takushan, 

but could not locate the 

main Japanese batteries. 

These kept up a steady 

fire, and after a brief duel 

silenced the Russian 

weapons, hitting two of 

them and killing most of 

the gunners. 

As the evening advanced 

the rain descended in 

torrents and 
Driven Down .,-.„ „. 
the Slopes. ^"'^^ °b- 
scured the 

ridge from the Japanese 

gunners. At the same 

time the downpour made 

the rocks exceedingly 

slippery and rendered the 




ki;»IAN PRISONERS WAITING 



IT. Ruddim.in Johnston plioto. 
TRANSPORTATION TO MATSUVAiMA. 



□ 

(3 




X 
H 

O 

z 

2 

D 
Q 

CO . 

z u 
o 5 

p -J 



I 

H 

a 
z 

o 

X 

of 

X 
H 

< 

H 
a: 

o 

a. 

u. 
O 

> 

in 

CO 

b 

m 



756 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 7, 1904. 




(JENERAL NOGI. 
The Military Investor-ia-Chief of Port Arthur. 



climb doubly perilous. Just as night was falling, the I2th 
Regiment, which led in the assault, reached the ridge and 
emerged in full view of the Russian trenches. It was 
greeted with a terrific magazine fire that for the moment 
brought its advance to a complete standstill. Rut only for 
a moment. Supports arrived ; the officers called on their 
men to advance ; and by swift, short rushes the Japanese 
again went forward and reached the Russian lines, where 
they fought hand to hand with their enemy. The 22nd 
Regiment came to their aid, but even so they could not 
force back the Russians; and as the night advanced 
they were dri\en down the slopes, where they entrenched 
themselves and bivouacked. 

The combat upon Takushan was one of the bloodiest and 
most terrible 
of the whole 
war, though 
fought upon 
a small scale. 
Three hun- 
dred volun- 
teers were 
selected from 
six c o m - 

panics of the assaulting regiments to lead the way to the 

summit. Of those 300 men not one-fifth came back alive. 

The\' were shot to pieces by the Russian rifles and machine- 
guns, the 
latter, in 
particular, 
doing terrible 
execu tion 
and mowing 
the stormers 
down as they 
rushed for- 
ward. Wire 

entanglements were encountered at one of the steepest 

points of the slope, and through these the gallant infantry 

could not force a way. Parties of 

engineers were sent in to clear a gap 

but they, too, perished almost to a man 

with sublime devotion working at the cutting of the wires 

as though they had been on parade and not on the face oi 

a precipice under a murderous hail of bullets. Yet before 

they died they cleared a gap sufficient to admit the 

passage of two men abreast, so that their work was done. 

The shattered remnant of the forlorn hope was withdrawn 

and fresh troops poured into the fight. 

i.MXT..GENEkAL BARON Ni>:. -j-,^ Russians made determined efforts to dislodge the 

One of the Investors of Port Arthur. 





(;KM;kAi. siOKbSKi.'s wii-1'; 



Through Wire 
Entanglements. 



August 8, 1904. 



THE ATTACK ON TAKUSHAN. 



757 




[From stereograph taken by James Ricalton. Copyright, 1905, by Underwood & Underwood, London and New York. 
RUSSIAN SHELL BURSTING NEAR A JAPANESE BATTERY ON THE HILLTOP TO THE RIGHT 

Japanese, and concentrated upon their positions a galling fire. Star-shells, lighting up the night, were fired 
into the air from the forts, and in the glare which they cast over the scene of carnage and death the 

gunners were able to take good aim, pouring shrapnel upon the Japanese and 
bv Cruisers inflicting upon them serious loss. There were signs of wavering in the Japanese 

trenches, but a reserve battalion was sent to the aid of the hard-pressed troops, 
and they held their ground until daybreak, when the Japanese artillery re-opened fire and quickly 
beat down the Russian guns. Once more the infantry went forward and scaled the height, working 
from the east and south towards the summit, when suddenly a new embarrassment confronted the 
Japanese. Seven of the Russian cruisers, gunboats, and destroyers steamed out of the harbour, and coming 
close to the shore opened a heavy fire on the assaulting troops, driving back the I2th Regiment, and 
inflicting upon it great loss, while at the same time compelling a Japanese mountain battery to change its 
position. The Japanese destroyers and cruisers were called up by signals, and steamed swiftly towards the 




No XXXII. • 



[From sterc(':^ra])h lakeii Ijy Janics Rkaltun. Copyright, 1905, by Underwood & Underu 
A JAPANESE TRANSPORTATION TRAIN. 



.r. -New Vork. 



758 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 8, 1904. 




Takushan 
Abandoned. 



scene of action. The Japanese 6-in. howitzers also 
opened on the Russian craft, and, placing several 
shells near them, drove them back to harbour soon 
after noon. 

The iith Division now received orders to wait till 
the afternoon for the final assault, and General Nogi, 
visiting the batteries, gave orders 
for a vigorous bombardment to 
be opened 
on Taku- 
shan at 4.30. 

The infantry were not again to 
go forward until the shells and 
shrapnel had produced their 
full effect. Three regiments, 
the 44th, 1 2th, and 22nd, were 
then to advance simultaneously, 
moving, if possible, so as to 
intercept the Russian line of 
retreat to Port Arthur. The 
Russians made no reply to the bombardment, and as 
ni"ht came down abandoned the hill, which was 



DKTKCTING A 

JAPANKSK ADVANCE 

BY STAR-SHELLS. 

The Rus.smns h.ive made fre- 
c]uent .^nd eflFective use of star- 
shells during night attacks by 
the Japanese. The shell is 
thrown front an ordinary gun, 
but instead of being filled with 
a destructive bursting charge 
the main part of it is filled 
with lumps of magnesium com- 
position which burst out fiom 
the ^hell when it is high in 
the air above the spot_ which 
the captain of a fort wishes to 
light up. The stars hung for 
about a minute in the air, 
lighting up a large area with 
a brilliant white light. 1 he 
small section shows the con- 
struction of a star-shell. The 
body of the shell has a cylinder 
of iron closed at one end with 
a central tube with holes con- 
taining fine grain powder. Into 
the head of the tube is screwed 
;i 15-sec. wooden time fuse with 
special priming. 



promptly seized and entrenched by the Japanese infantry. Flushed with success, the 12th and 44th 




ll-'n,m slcrw)«r:.pli, copyriKbt, Underwood & Underwood. 
NEWSPAPER CORRESPONDENTS D.SCUSSl.NO TO.'O^KAl^HV^wm.^A ^JAPANESE OKKICEK ON A HEIGHT KOUR MILES 



August 9, 1904. 



CAPTURE OF SHAHKUSHAN. 



759 




Regiments turned south, and in the darkness 
delivered a fierce attack on Shahkushan, but 
here they were repulsed with heavy loss. 

Orders came up from below that Shahkushan 
must be taken at all costs, and with the Japanese 

such orders mean that the 
sSShan. troops charged with the duty 

will die to a man rather than 
fail. As the night verged to day, once more the 
troops of the iith Division went forward, and 
this time their determined onset was crowned 
\\ith complete success. With daybreak the 
Japanese flag floated over both hills, and the last 
positions before Port Arthur had been lost by wounded in port arthuk going to the hospital. 

the Russian army. General Stoesscl, however, was not inclined tamely to accept his defeat. On the 




[From stereograph taken by James Ricalton, Copyright, 1905, by Underwood & Underwood, London and New York. 
CHINESE SERVANT SERVING TEA TO A WOUNDED JAPANESE OFFICER. 



760 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 9, 1904. 




C^'^^bACKb I'AIKULLING A .MANCHURIAN VILLAGE. 



following night the 
Russians delivered a fierce 
counter-attack, the first of 
a long series, under cover 
of a bombardment with 
the heaviest guns in the 
main forts. These burst 
their huge shrapnel over 
the ridge, killing or 
wounding hundreds of 
Japanese, but the nth 
Division once more stood 
its ground. Though 
decimated it beat the 
Russians back, and as they 
retired they suffered a 
great disaster. The heavy 



.^'L.>.«.«.J>«.*.-^ 




(From stereograph taken by James kicalton. Copyright, 1905, by Underwood & Undi^rwood, London and New York. 
THE 8TH OSAKA REGI.VIENT TEMPORARILY ENCA.MPED. 



August 9. 1904. 



THE VLADIVOSTOCK CRUISERS. 



761 



GENERAL STOESSEL AND STAFF 



the truth lies between these figures, 
heroism of the assailants can be 
understood. The Russians probably 
lost about one-third as many men 
as the Japanese, but whereas the 
Japanese casualties could be speedily 
made good from the reserves, there 
was no means of replacing a single 
Russian soldier. By the middle of 
August the ground was clear for 
the general assault, which the 
Japanese hoped would prove the 
doom of Port Arthur, and set free 
General Nogi's army for the opera- 
tions against General Kuropatkin. 
But, meantime, at sea stirring events 
had happened. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

FOURTH RAID OF THE 

VLADIVOSTOCK CRUISERS. 

EMBOLDENED by the success 
of his three cruises, and, 
after the case of the 
Hipsang, believing that the British 



guns in Fort Kik- 
wan mistook them 
for Japanese, and 
opened on them a 
fearful fire, while 
the machine-guns 
also played upon 
their ranks. Their 
losses were enor- 
mous, depleting 
General Stoessel's 
force at a time 
when he wanted 
every man. 

The total loss of 
the Japanese in the 
capture of the out- 
lying positions is 
variously put at 
from 7,ooo to 
1 0,000 men, the 
Russian estimate 
being the higher 
one. Probably 

From the losses the extreme severity of the fighting and the 





EFFECT OF THE BOMBARDMENT ON A HOUSE IN I'OKT ARTHUR. 



762 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 20. 1904. 




JAPANliSE SULDlEKb WASHING IN A STREAM. 



SS^v^-i^^^F^ft^MftHH^^HM^r^^ Government would not 

'l v--*cs?'»<rAJL/Wt755Si^^^^^lMP_ lift a finger to protect its 

subjects and their shipping, 

late in 
Admiral Jessen's t , a , 
Instructions. J"'^ ^'^" 
m i r a 1 

Jessen left Vladivostock 

with the three armoured 

cruisers Gromoboi, Rossia, 

and Kiirik and one or two 

transports. His orders 

were to proceed through 

the Straits of Tsugaru,' 

which the Russians had 

good reason to know were 

not guarded by the 

Japanese, and then to 

steer boldly down the 

east coast of Japan and 

blockade Yokohama itself. 

He had instructions to 

treat all neutral shipping, 

and particularly British, 

with the extremest severity, and to sink any prizes that he could not carry off. The fact that the 

prize-money from captured vessels went to the Russian naval officers and the Grand Dukes at the head 

of affairs at St. Petersburg supplied a pecuniary incentive to fire the energy of his crews and guaranteed 

the support of his Government. 

On July 20 he passed the T'^irj^aru Straits unopposed, thouf^^h his movements were telegraphed to 

TokJo. He sjDeedily began 

his work of attacking un- 
armed mer- 

Russians Sink . . . ■ 
Ships. ^^^"^ ^^'P- 

ping. The 

small Japanese steamer 
Takashima Maru was 
sighted that same day at 
3 a.m. to the east of 
Hakodate, and almost at 
the same moment the 
British steamer Samara 
was seen. The Rossia 
and Rurik rushed upon 
the poor littleTAKASHl.viA, 
and sent two boats on 
board her with twenty 
armed seamen, who ex- 
amined her papers, ordered 
the crew at once to leave 
her, and then sank her. 
The Gromoboi meantime nui.hakv hospital at port arthur. 




July 30, 1904. 



RUSSIAN OUTRAGES AT SEA. 



763 




[From r.tereograph made by James Ricalton. Copyright, 1905, by Underwood & Underwood, Lonilon and N\^. . 
JAPANESE RESERVES AWAITING ORDERS TO ADVANCE DURING THE TAKING OF FORTS NEAR NAMAKOVAMA. 

1ST DIVISION OF THE ARMY. 

steamed after the Samara, fired two shots across her bows, and brought her to. Seventy Russian 
officers and seamen cHmbed on board her. She was British, and therefore a proper object for 
violence, and it was de- 
termined to seize her, 
though there was not the 
faintest justification for 
such an act. She had 
no cargo on board, and 
the worst that the 
Russians could allege 
against her was that she 
was on her way to the 
Japanese port of Muroran 
for coal, which was no 
offence at international 
law, and that she had at 
some time or other in 
the past carried contra- 
band, which again was 
no excuse for violence. cossack remounts. 




764 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 21, 1904. 




U-'rom blereosraph ukea by Jaiiies Kic;ill()ii. Copyright, 1905, by Underwood & Underwood, London and New York. 
JAPANESE MOVING UP SIEGE GUNS TO PORT ARTHUR. 

But on examining her condition the Russians found that she had no fuel on board, and so could not well 
accompany them or be sent back to Vladivostock to swell their gains. They, therefore, after some hours' 
detention, graciously permitted her to go on her way, and she steamed off to Muroran. 

A few hours later the Russian fleet met another small Japanese steamer. She had, however, fifty 
Japanese passengers on board, many of them women, and for this reason she was permitted to depart 
unmolested. On the 21st and 22nd the Russians captured and sank two small Japanese fishing schooners 
laden with .salt fish, after taking off their crews. On the 22nd the large German steamer ^ra/;/^ was sighted. 
She had on board, according to Russian accounts, an immense quantity of flour and railway material. She 
was therefore arrested, and sent in charge of a prize-crew to Vladivostock, where, on the immediate remon- 
strances of the German Government, she was released, though the foodstuffs and railway sleepers were 
confiscated. 

On July 23 the Russians sighted the large British steamer Knight Commander off the Izu Islands. The 
Knight Commander carried a cargo of railway material and food, according to the statements of the Russian 
officers, which are not to be accepted without great reservations, and which are expressly denied by the 
consignees of the cargo. The Russians invented a whole series of false charges against the captain and 

crew of the Knight Com- 
mander. They declared 

Case of that the 
the '-Knight ship refused 

Commander." 

to stop on 

being twice fired upon 
with blank shot, an asser- 
tion which the captain 
denied. They then said 
that, after heaving-to, the 
Knight Commander was 
inspected by a Russian 
search-party and was found 
to have no manifest — 
though in modern shipping 
business the manifest is 
frequently not on board 
iiANCHURiAN SUPPLIES FOR THE RUSSIAN AR.MV. the ship which Carries the 




I 



July 21, 1904. 



THE "KNIGHT COMMANDER." 



765 



cargo — and that 
an examination 
showed the vessel 
to be full of con- 
traband. As the 
examination lasted 
exactly ten 
minutes, and as 
none of the cargo 
in the hold was 
removed, this 
statement was 
without serious 
foundation. A 
further charge was 
trumped up 
against the captain 
of concealing 
documents and 




[Photo by De St. Fegcr. 
NEW RUSSI.\N MORTAR (OBUCHOFF PATTERN) FOR FIRING STAR-SHELL. 



papers. This also was false. Finally, the Russian admiral ordered the vessel to be sunk on the ground 
that there was not sufficient coal on board to permit her to be navigated to Vladivostock. Even this 




ttTwrn .sti-Ttugraph taken by James Ricalton. CopyTighl, 1905, by Underwood & Underwood, London and New York. 
TWO COMPANIES OF NOGI'S ARMY MANCEUVRING FOR POSITIONS TO ATTACK THE ENEMY. 



766 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 21. 1904. 




LPhoio, S. Cribb, Southsea. 



RUSiSIAN WARSHIP 



British Government's 
Negligence. 



statement was quite untrue. The crew were given ten minutes to collect tlieir belongings and were 
■bundled into a boat, and then this steamer, flying the British flag, was gleefully sent to the 
bottom. The vessel at the time of the outrage was on her way from San Francisco to Yokohama with 
a crew of Europeans and lascars. The Europeans were taken on board the Russian cruisers, where they 
were badly treated ; the lascars a few hours later were transferred to the British steamer Tsinatt, which hove 
in sight, was brought-to by shots across her bows, and was then compelled to take the lascars on board. 
The Russians announced that otherwise they would have sunk her, and made a great favour of sparing her. 

There is and could be no justification in international law for the sinking of a neutral ship which is not 
■engaged in the work of assisting a belligerent. The Knight Coiiiiitander was on a lawful voyage from one 
neutral port to a Japanese port, with articles on board which the British Government 
did not regard as contraband. Exception might be taken to the railway material in 
her, but before they had any right to punish her her captors ought to have taken her 
laack to one of their own ports and demonstrated her guilt before a legal tribunal. That is the universal 
procedure in the case of prizes. No neutral ship may be confiscated and destroyed without a trial. And 
an this case the Russians increased the enormity of their offence by refusing the Knight Commanders officers 
Jeave to telegraph to England. The outrage was no doubt intended by the Russians to exhibit England 

before the world as a weak and cowardly 
Power — to humiliate her in the very sight 
and presence of her gallant ally. The 
only action of the Ikitish Government 
was to present a mild remonstrance to 
Russia, and from that day to this ncj 
compensation for the destruction of the 
ship has been obtained. It should be 
observed that the Russian Government 
claimed that the fact that it had issued at 

RUSSIAN VOLUNTEER FLEET STEAMER " I'ETEKIiURG," WHICH 

CAPTURED THE P. & o. LINER "MALACCA." the Opening of the war a proclamation. 




July 21, 1904. 



THE CASE OF THE "THEA." 



767 




CAPTURf:D CHUNCHUSES TORTURED BY CHINESE TO MAKE THEM CONFp;S.S. 

ing to a German firm but 
chartered, as the Russian 
Government alleged, by 
the Japanese Government, 
was sighted by the Vladi- 
vostock fleet. She had 
on board a cargo of fish- 
manure. This cargo was 
gravely pronounced to be 
contraband by the Russian 
sea-lawyers, and the vessel 
was promptly sent to the 
bottom. But in singular 
contrast with the case of 
the Knight Commander, 
the German owners of the 
Thea were immediately 
compensated by Russia 
without any serious diffi- 
culty being made. This 
may have been due to the 
fact that the German 
Government is always 
ready to support its sub- 
jects, though it does not 
boast of commanding the 
sea, or again it may have 
been due to some secret 
understanding between the 

(Russian Government and 
Germany, by which Russia 
agreed to harry British 
shipping and spare German 



giving its captains powers 
to sink neutral ships where 
these could not readily be 
sent before a prize-court, 
justified the action of the 
Vladivostock fleet. The 
British Government cannot 
be acquitted of great 
negligence and want of 
foresight in not at once 
protesting against this 
proclamation, and in 
following its usual practice 
of letting things slide and 
' smoothing matters over." 
Later in the day another 
steamer, the I'hea, belong- 




RUSSIANS SINKING THE "KNIGHT CO.M.MANIJER. ' 



768 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 28, 1904. 



'"^ 







The ss. "Calehas." 



THE ARMOURED CRUISER, " GROMOBOl," 12,307 TONS. 
Launched 1899. 



vessels in return for German diplo- 
matic support — an understanding 
which, naturally, was not openly 
avowed, if it really existed, and of 
the existence of which it was im- 
possible to obtain proof. 

Yet a third seizure was accom- 
plished on the following day when 
the British 
steamer Calehas, 
of 6,700 tons, on a voyage from 
Puget Sound to Japan and Hong 
Kong, was sighted by the Russians, 
stopped, and seized. She carried 
Admiralty stores from Esquimalt to 
Hong Kong, flour for the same port, 
and the following consignments for 

Japan: 270 tons of flour which the British Government had declared not to be contraband ; 125 tons of 

machinery of a commercial and not military nature — wood-working tools, refrigerating plant, and a small 

boiler and engine ; 97 large and heavy logs of timber ; and nine tons of raw cotton. All these were 

articles in which trade could lawfully be carried on by neutral subjects between America and Japan. 

That the ship was not carrying 

contraband was further shown by , il 

the fact that she was not insured 

against war risk. But the men 

who saw guile in fish-manure were 

quite capable of discovering treason 

in machine tools. A prize-crew 

was sent on board, mines were 

placed ready to explode along the 

inside of her hold, in case the 

Japanese came up, and her officers 

and men were warned that they 

would have to sleep in lifebelts and 

be prepared to leave her at the 

shortest notice. All information as Russian volunteer fleet steamer •■ Smolensk.- 

to her seizure was withheld, and on her way to Vladivostock she was used as a transport and 
supply ship, and part of her cargo was landed in Saghalien. She reached Vladivostock safely, 
and was there kept till late in September, while the Russians made repeated attempts to bribe or 
compel her captain to sell her. In September the flour, timber, and cotton in her cargo were solemnly 
condemned as contrabaiiisl- ; the ship was pronounced free, but was to be detained three months to give her 

owners time to appeal. This extraordinary judgment was 
calmly accepted by the British Government, which had 
declared through the mouth of Mr. Balfour in August that 
" it would not be possible to sit down quietly under such a 
decision." 

The Russian fleet remained for two or three days longer 
i)ff Yokohama, but as the alarm had been given, without 
making any more captures or destro)ing any more neutrals. 
On July 28 it disappeared, showing itself to the south of 









1 








i : 


/ H 


4 


1 




-J^ 


^fiiilMB 




^^1 


■ 


■ 


t_ 


"^ 




1^1 


■ 


■ 




THE "KNIGHT COMMANDER,' SUNK BY THE^ 
RUSSIANS. 



July 30, 1904. 



ADMIRAL KAMIMURA. 



769 




^Ruddinian Johnston photo, 
JAPANESE FIELD GUN AT SUISIVENG HILL. 



Yokohama, and then standing out 
of sight of land it steamed 
swiftly north. On July 30 it 
neared the Tsugaru Straits, and, 
as it did so, sighted a small 
Japanese flotilla consisting of the 
old armour - clads Saiyen and 
Kongo, the ancient cruiser Takao, 
and four small torpedo-boats. The 
Russians showed no anxiety for 
battle, but steamed away at full 
speed from this weak little force, 
which could not manage more 
than at the most ten knots, and 



a few days later regained 
Vladivostock without 
further incident. 

The question may well 
be asked where in all this 

was Ad- 
«-^--'« miralKami- 

mura's fleet. 
That officer with his 
powerful armoured cruisers 
was chafing his heart out 
at his base on the Straits 
of Korea. By express 
orders given him he was 
not to leave the straits, 
though a very short run 
would have brought him 
face to face with the 
Russians, using as he 
could the waterway 
through the Inland Sea 
which was barred b>' 
fortifications to the 
Russians. When he got 
the order to move, it 
came some hours too late. 
He was instructed to 
proceed, not to the neigh- 
bourhood of Vladivostock, 
where he would have been 
certain of meeting the 
Russian ships, but towards 
Tokio. This was a great 
mistake, but for it the 
Naval Staff and not the 
Admiral must be blamed. 




RUSSIANS TRANSHIPPING MEN KRO.M THE ".MALACCA." 



770 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 6, 1904. 




IHE RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR. 

The " Malacca " incident led to 
many visits of Count Alexander 
Benckendorff. the Russian Ambas- 
sador, to the Foreign Office. He 
was bom in Berlin in 1840, and 
was educated in Paris ana Ger- 
many. He entered the Diplomatic 
Service in 1869, quitted^ it in 1876, 
but re-entered it. 



and blossomed forth into 
warships. The St. Peters- 
burg assumed the name 
of Peterburg, while the 
Smolensk kept her old 
designation. They then 
fell to the congenial work 
of molesting neutral ship- 
ping, though in view of 
the fact that they had 
come from the Black Sea, 
the exit from which is 
sealed to warships by in- 
ternational agreement, 
they could not claim the 
right of warships, and were 
mere pirates. Their pro- 
ceedings appear to have 
been dictated by two 
motives — firstly, by con- 
tempt for Great Britain 
and desire to injure her ; 
and secondly, by the wish 
to raise the Black Sea 
question and prepare the 
way for the e.xit of the 
powerful fleet which Russia 
maintained in its waters. 
The two cruisers seem 



Reaching the neighbourhood of Yokohama, he learnt that the Russian.*; 
had disappeared, and as nothing was now to bs gained by a stern 
chase of them he returned to his post in the Straits of Korea, with the 
blame of another failure upon his shoulders. 

While these events were happening in the Far East, further trouble 
had arisen between the British and Russian Government in the middle 

East as the result of the lawless action of the 

Lawless Russian -o ■ ■ /-, i i ^ ^u i^ • i ^ 

Cruisers Russian cruisers. On July 6 the Russian volunteer 

steamers, St. Petersburg and Smolensk, passed through 

the Dardanelles, on the Russian Ambassador's assurance to Turkey 

that they were under the commercial flag and were mere merchant ships. 

The Smolensk actually flew the Red Cross flag and affected to be a 

hospital ship, thus abusing that sacred emblem. They passed the Suez 

Canal a couple of days later, the Smolensk still flying the Red Cross flag. 

Once in the Red Sea the.se two vessels suddenly threw off their disguise 




THE p. & O. LINKR " MAL.-VCCA " SAILING UNDER THE RUSSIAN FLAG. 



to ha\e coaled on the 
Arabian coast. On 
July 12 they stopped 
two British steamers 



Seizure of 
the P. & 0. 
" Mdlaeea." 



the Crewe 
Hall and 
Menelaus 
off Jiddah, detaining 
them four hours for 
examination. On the 
news of this reaching 
England, the British 
Government did not 
even trouble to despatch 
a warship to protect 
its shipping, though 
there was a huge 
British fleet in the 
Mediterranean. On 
the following day, how- 
ever, the Peterbur^ 
seized the Peninsular 
and Oriental Company's 
steamer Malacca. The 
British vessel was 
signalled to stop, which 
she did at once ; she 
was then boarded and 
her papers examined. 
There was no contra- 
band of any kind on 
board, though there 
was a certain quantity 
of non-contraband cargo 
for Japan and some ex- 
plosives which were 
being conveyed for the 
British Government to 
Hong Kong. The ship 
was seized by the 
Russians as a prize ; 
five of her crew were 
arrested and taken on 
board the Peterburg, 
where they were offered 
a large .sum if they 
would swear that there 
was contraband on 
board the Malacca. The 
British flas? was hauled 



COUNT I.EO TOI-SrOV. 

The famous Ru«.sian novelist 
wlio opposed the war. 




772 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 22, 1904. 



down and the Russian ensign substituted. As a further violation of tlie law of nations, the Malacca 
was seized when within Turkish waters. 

This lawless deed of violence was followed by other reprehensible actions. When the Malacca reached 
Suez, after renewed attempts had been made without success to bribe her officers and men into admitting 
the presence of contraband on board, her officers were not allowed to communicate with the shore or to 
inform the British authorities. She was in charge of a Russian prize-crew, who permitted no one to 
approach. Meantime, the British Government had moved to set her free, but without any excessive display 
of energy. Its proper course would have been to insist on the instant restitution of the ship, with a plain 
intimation that, failing her restitution, she would be seized by the British Mediterranean fleet, which was 
meantime concentrating. A British cruiser was sent to Port Said, to lie alongside the prize, but was 
instructed to do nothing. 

Finally, a British Note was presented at St. Petersburg asking that the Malacca might be given up 




H.M.S. " I'EAkL," 



'FOKTE," AND " CRESCENT " BEAklNG THE CZAR'S INSTRUCTIONS TO THE RUSbl.\N 
VOLUNTEER FLEET. 



and the Russian cruisers recalled. It was couched in strong language (for threats cost nothing), but the 
Russian Government was quite unmoved and professed to know nothing of the Malaccas course. That 
ship proceeded without any sign of submission from Port Said to Algiers, passing on the way more British 
warships, which steamed alongside, but did not attempt her recapture. On July 22 the Russian Government 
at last undertook to give up the ship, but only after making a search of the cargo ; and on July 27 she arrived 
at Algiers, where at nightfall the Russian flag was hauled down. Even now the British representatives were 
induced to postpone the hoisting of the British flag till the next morning, on the absurd ground that it 
would be a humiliation for the Russian Government. The ship was formally searched by the Russians. 

Such was the weak action of the British Government in a case where the Russians were so glaringly in 
the wrong. The Ru.ssians had in the first place no right to arrest the Malacca, because the Peterburg could 



August. 1904. 



' RUSSIAN THEFTS AT SEA. 



773 




I 



THE RUSSIAN ADMIRALTY COURT AT ST. PETERSBURG SITTING AS THE SUPREME NAVAL PRIZE COURT. 

It decided the cases of the *' Calchas " and the " Knight Commander." 

not be considered a warship, after the manner in which she had passed the Dardanelles. In the second 
place, they had no right to seize her in territorial water, even supposing that the Peterburg had been a 
properly authorised and recognised warship. In the third place, the Malacca had no contraband on board 
and was not liable to seizure. In the fourth place, the unnecessary violence shown to her crew, and the 
attempt to induce them to commit perjury, were the offences 
of a barbarous people — not of a Power which pretended 
to be civilised. But the British Government was weak 
where it should have been firm, and showed a complete 
inability to understand the serious nature of the Russian 
attacks upon British commerce, which, perhaps, may be 
ascribed to the fact that most of the members of the Govern- 
ment had no knowledge of business or of the scanty margin 
of profit in the shipping trade. 

Meantime, the two cruisers continued their career. On 
the 15th they stopped and examined the British steamer 

Dragoman, but allowed her to proceed. 

The same day the Smolensk stopped 

the German mail-steamer Prinz Heinrich, 
and took out of her the mail-bags for Japan, which were 
returned in a very damaged condition two days later, 
and .sent on by the British steamer Persia, stopped for 
that purpose. The noble Russian officers and seamen 
helped themselves to the postal orders and cheques in the 
mail, though many of the.se were for British subjects in 

No. XXXIII. 



Russian Thefts at 
Sea. 




'liiK kl_;-MAN' KAIDKH ■■fKAL' 
liklXlSH STEA.MEK ■(jOOKKHA 



BOARDING THE 
ON AUGUST 11. 




774 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 22, 1904. 




THE QUAY AT PORT ARTHUR. 



Ilonj^ Kong and 
other parts of the 
I""ar East, and also 
appropriated man)' 
of the parcels - - 
conduct worthy of 
Captjiin Kidd. On 
the following days 
the British steamers 
Dalmatia, Ceylon, 
Masst/uj, and Citj' 
of A g r a w ere 
searched, but 
• illowe.l to proceed, 
while the British 
steamers Ardova 

and Formosa and the German steamers Scandia and Holsatia were seized. All these ships were released 
sooner or later. The Scandia, in fact, was set free at once, though she had a quantity of contraband 
<!argo on board for 
Japan which the 
Malacca had re- 
fused. 

Then these two 
cruisers disap- 
peared, and nothing 
was heard of them 
for some weeks, 
though it was sus- 
pected that they 
had proceeded to 
the South African 
coast. On August 
22 the Smolensk 

reappeared, on that day examining the papers of the British steamer Comedian off East London. But as 

the indignation in England was 
growing, and the Russian Govern- 
ment professed its an.xiety to 
give orders for the cruisers' 
return, the Britisli Government 
offered to instruct the British 
warships in the Indian Ocean 
to convey the news of their recall 
to the two " pirates." The offer 
was accepted, and the solemn 
farce of communicating the Czar's 
order to the Russian cruisers was 
rehearsed. They returned to the 
Baltic and no more harried 
British shipping. But, up to the 
date of writing, damages for the 





[Copyri.iilit l.y 
COAST-LINE TO THE WEST OF PORT ARTHUR. 
On the right is the lighthouse. 




mmkm 








"tmt*^' 



kii.l.liiMi 
RUSSIAN RED CROSS HOSPITAL AT PORT ARTHUR. 



776 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 16, 1904. 




TO REPAIR LAk(,K l!AITI.i;.SHll'.-> AT I'OKT AklllLk. 

than one occasion the Russian small craft or cruisers sallied 

from the harbour to co-operate with their land forces against 

the Japanese. On July i6 the Russians 
The"Hipsang" .,, ^ r l 

Sunk. g""ty of a fresh outrage upon 

British shipping. On that day the 

British steamer //j'/^jaw^, while on a voyage from Newchwang 

to Chifu and Shanghai with a general cargo containing no 

contraband of war, was sighted on 

her proper course to the south of 

Liaotishan by a Russian destroyer 

which bore the number 7, but which 

was actually the Rastoropny. She 

was hailed and called upon to stop 

by the commander of that vessel ; 

she immediately obeyed and showed 

her flag. 

The Ru.ssian action after this was characteristic. The 



GENERAL STOESSEL'S 
PLIGHT. 

This cartoon, the work of Mr. 
Sheldon Williams, the represen- 
tative (Jf "Tlie Sphere" with the 
Japanese, shows General .Stoessel in 
a cage. He is bomljarded on the 
one side by the Japanese fleet and 
on the other by the Japane.se 
army, while from China in the 
right-hand corner comes a shell 
described by .Mr. Williams as "a 
message from Ma." Gencr.'d 
S oes.sel is represented in the draw- 
ing as saying, "If Kuropatk:n 
does not come down soon I shall 
hrivc to." 



mischief done by them to British trade 
and for the loss cau.sed to the Peninsular 
and Oriental Company have not yet been 
[laid b\' the Russian Government. The 
British Government has followed its usual 
policy of letting matters slide. Such was 
the effect of the seizures and the failure 
of the British Navy to protect British 
shipping that two British lines ceased 
their service to Japan, and those which 
continued it refu.sed all dubious cargo. 
On the other hand, the German lines, 
which were given a monopoly of trade 
with Japan, were able to raise their rates, 
and made enormous profits out of the 
business. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

SECOND SORTIE OF THE PORT 

ARTHUR FLEET— OPENING OF 

THE BATTLE OF AUGUST 10. 

DURING the month of July skir- 
mishes between the Russian and 
Japane.se torpedo craft continued 
off Port Arthur, and, as has been men- 
tioned in the previous chapter, on more 



:4/^:'"^i 




■ l'*^ 







778 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 16, 1904. 




George Philip « Son L "■ ^ 
THK MU:.\ OK iHK NAVAL DATTLF. OF AUGUST 10. 

" No. 7 " opened fire upon her, killed four Chinamen, and wounded nine more on board the British steamer, 
winding up the proceedings by discharging a torpedo which sank her. The Russian commander was good 
enough to take the Hipsang's captain and the survivors of her passengers and crew on board his destroyer, 
and then steamed back to Port Arthur, falsely alleging that he had sighted the Hipsang at night, that 
she had showed no colours, that she had refused to heave-to when called upon to stop, and had then 
fired upon him. It was afterwards proved that this story was an impudent fabrication from beginning to 
end ; in fact, it anticipated the tale told by Admiral Rojdestvensky after he had steamed into a British 

fishing fleet, and in mucii 
the same manner opened 
a murderous fire upon 
unarmed men. There 

were no weapons on board 
the Hipsang, and, at a 
later date, to cover the 
outrage, the Russian officer 
concerned pretended that 
he had mistaken the 
I/ipsaiig for the " Times " 
wireless telegraphy boat. 
Such an e.xcuse made the 
affair even worse than it 
really was, though it was 
quite bad enough. 

The British Government 
again took no action what- 
ever to protect its subjects 

[UudJiinaii Julinslon photo. i i ■ i r i l 

JAPANESE WOUNDED BEING CARRIED TO STEAMER liY A JU.NK. ■'"" tllCir lawlul trade. 




June 23, 1904. 



THE "SEVASTOPOL" DAMAGED. 



779 




'I'HL '• OKOKO, " TOKPEUU-bOAT 
DESTROYER. 

The '■ Oboro," here pictured, with its 
sister ships, the *' Akebono " and " Ika- 
zuchi,'' on August 5 drovefourteen Russian 
destroyers into Fort Arthur. This feat 
is all the more remarkable, seeing that 
the Jap.inese destroyers had been in 
constant work for six months. The 
photograph was .supplied by the courtesy 
of Messrs. Yarrow & Co., Ltd., the 
builders of the Japanese destroyers in 
questi jn. 

anchorage after the un- 
succe.s.sful .sortie under 
Admiral Vitgeft, the 
Russian battleship Sevas- 
topol struck a Japanese 
mine. The shock was 
terrific, and for a few 
minutes panic reigned on 
board, as the crew, with 
the fearful fate of the J^c- 
tropavlovsk and HatsusE 
still fresh in their minds, 
imagined that their ship 
would go instantly to the 
bottom. But the discipline 
on board the ship was 
good, and Captain von 
Essen was a tried and 
trusted officer. He suc- 
ceeded in restoring order 
and confidence, and got 
colh'sion-mats over the 
immense breach that the 
mine had made in the 
hull. The injury was 
abaft the foremast, near 



It demanded no in- 
stant explanation, no 
immediate apology, no 
punishment of the 
offenders. The result 
of this apathy was that 
Russians came .sin- 
cerely to believe that 
any outrage on British 
shipping would be 
tolerated, and wer& 
encouraged to treat 
the will of the British 
nation as a negligible- 
quantity. 

On June 23-4, dur- 
ing the return of the 
Russian fleet to its 









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AU.Mn<AL VITGEFT,' IN CO.MMANU OF THE RUSSIAN PORT ARTHUR FLEET. 



780 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 23, 1904. 




(Photographed at Port Arthur by E. Ashmead lianlett. 
THE DECK OF THE " POBIEDA " AT CLOSE QUARTERS. 
The charlhouse is gone. 1 he starboard gunwale is only about two feet above water. The guns are hopelessly rusted. 



the centre of tlie 
ship, on the star- 
board or right side. 
The mine had torn 
a rent seven to ten 
feet deep and over 
thirty-five feet in 
length, blowing in 
and shattering ten 
of the frames. 
The vessel was 
taken into the har- 
bour and a caisson 
of wood was built 
over the gaping 
wound. The water 
was then pumpe<l 
out and the rent 
repaired with such 
remarkable speed 
that the ship wn^ 
ready for sea early 
in August, tliough 

the shock which she had sustained reduced her speed, and in some degree impaired her military value. 

On July 23 the Japanese patrol ship off Port Arthur ascertained that a number of Russian destroyers 

were lying in Takhe Bay, clcse inshore under cover of the batteries. Steps were at once taken to attack 
them. Lieutenant Kuwajaima with the 14th torpedo flotilla, two gunboats, and the 
picket-boats from the MiKAS.V and Fuji, steamed into the bay very early in the morning 
of the 24th, and, discovering the destroyers, fired a large number of torpedoes at them, 

set so as to run on the surface. There were three heavy explosions, which destroyed three of the destroyers. 

The damaged 

boats, which lay 

in the shallow 

water with their 

funnels just show- 
ing, were then 

cannonaded bj' 

the gunboats. 

The Lieutenant 

Burakoff was one 

of the Russian 

vessels sunk in 

this brilliant 

affair. 

Two days later, 

while two small 

Japanese gun- 
boats under Com- 
mander J. Hirose, 

brother of the 



A Brilliant 
Exploit. 




THE "POBIEDA" AGROUND 



lll..jl..i;..iplicd .,1 lu. I 

N PORT ARTHUR. 



.-\shniead Hartlcli. 



July 27, 1904. 



THE -'BAYAN" DAMAGED. 



781 



gallant officer who had given his life in the blocking of Port Arthur, were dragging in this same bay for 
Russian mines, the propeller of one of the gunboats became entangled in the drag-rope, and she slowly 
drifted inshore under the muzzles of the Russian batteries, which opened a heavy fire upon her. Hirose, 
however, went gallantly to her aid with the other boat, took her in tow, and carried her out of range. He 
was retreating, when several Russian destroyers appeared upon the scene and at once attacked. They did not 
come close enough to do any damage, but fired their torpedoes at long range, missing the Japanese vessels, 
which beat them off and escaped, though not without several casualties, three men being killed and 
Commander Hirose, one lieutenant, and nine men wounded. 

On July 27, the Russian armoured cruiser Bayan, with the Pallada, Askold, and three gunboats, left the 




THE '• BAYAN ' 



STRUCK. A JAPANESE .MINE, AND RECEIVED SUCH INJURY THAT SHE HAD TO RETURN TO 

PORT ARTHUR. 



harbour to attack the Japanese troops operating before Port Arthur, and at the same time the Novik, with a 

number of destroyers, proceeded to the south to prevent the Japanese torpedo craft from interfering with 

the Russian cruisers. On the return to Port Arthur the Bayan was so unfortunate as to strike a Japanese 

mine, which inflicted upon her terrible damage. She did not sink at once, but succeeded in regaining the 

harbour, yet the injury done to her hull and engines was such as to preclude speedy repair. Her loss was a 

great catastrophe to the Russians. She was much the best of their cruisers, and was the only one at Port 

Arthur that was protected by armour and carried heavy guns. Moreover, she had always steamed well, and 

had been brilliantly handled in action. 

On August S two Japane.se destroyers, the Akebono and Oboro, steamed in towards Port Arthur 

during the afternoon to reconnoitre the harbour. They must have been observed by the Russians, and as 

they drew near to the port fourteen Russian destroyers steamed out and, on nearing the 

A Japanese Japanese, formed up in three divisions. One division of three boats steered eastwards 

Reconnoitre. j r > r 

towards Takhe Bay ; a second of seven boats steamed south ; and the third, of four 

boats, headed south-westwards. But, notwithstanding their great superiority in force, they did not attack 

No. XXXIII- ^ 



782 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 7, 1904. 




THE KL'SSIAN CRUISER " ASKOLD." h.l:\KKl,L\ li\M\i,li) IN TllIC FIGHT OF AUGUST 
Tne photograph shows Admiral Skrydloff Koiiig on board at Port Arthur, 

the two Japanese boats. On the contrary, they quietly proceeded on their course, and left their active 
adversaries to take the initiative. The Akebono and Oboro therefore hurried after the division proceeding 
towards Takhe Bay, as it was important to prevent the Russian vessels from interfering with the military 
operations in this direction. Increasing speed, they placed themselves in the course of the three Russian 
boats and opened on them a heavy fire from their 1 2-pounders. The Russians appeared to have no stomach 
for a fight ; almost at once they turned and retreated towards the harbour. The two Japanese destroyers 
then turned to attack the other eleven Russian boats and, being joined by the Ikazuchi, opened fire upon 
them. Again the Russians retreated, possibly because the Japanese cruisers were coming up from the south. 
They regained the harbour about 6 p.m. 

On August 7, the first day of the bombardment, one of the 6-in. Japanese shells struck the Rctvisaii 

and exploded on board her, doing considerable damage and wounding 

her captain. On the 9th, another passed clean through her hull, 

perforating her armour deck and causing a serious 

leak. It became clear that if the ships were not 

passively to lie in harbour and be shot to pieces, 

At the same time the Russians learnt from their 

intelligence department, which for once was correctly informed, that the 

Japanese' had determined, at whatever cost, to storm Port Arthur in 

the closing days of August. No certainty of their' power to defeat such an 

assault was felt among the Russians, who saw their enemy ever drawing 

nearer, attacking day by day with increasing confidence, and recoiling before 

no losses. A Russian council of war was discussing the situation on the 8th, 

when a wireless message from Chifu brought orders from Admiral Alexeieff 

to Admiral Vitgeft, who now commanded the Russian fleet, to take his 

REAR-ADMIRAL MATUSSEVITCH. 

Wounded on board the " Tiarevitch " wHole flcct out and fight his Way through the Japanese to Vladivostock. 




The "Retvlsan" 
Damaged. 

they must go out. 



784 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August, 1904. 



A Council of 
War. 



A Sortie 
Ordered. 



Admiral Vitgeft was a naval officer with little or no experience of work at sea. He had been a 
professor in the Russian Naval College at St. Petersburg, and had originally been sent to the Far East as a 
comparatively junior officer to qualify for a command. The fortune of war, a series of 
catastrophes, had brought him to the supreme command of the Port Arthur fleet. He 
was a man of no ideas and little resource, though of great personal bravery. Under 
him was Rear-Admiral Prince Ukhtomsky, whose incapacity was notorious even in the Russian fleet, and 
who added to incapacity the military crime of irresolution. Both these prominent officers were strongly 
against a sortie in their heart of hearts, but thej' did not dare to disobey an order which was absolute and 
positive. 

Cries of dismay were raised at this sad council over the idea of taking the whole fleet out. It was 
pointed out to Vitgeft that many of the ships were in miserable condition. The Retvisan had some hundreds 
of tons of water in her ; the Sevastopol and Poltava had been so much damaged either by 
the enemy's mines or shells, or had their boilers so worn, that they could not be trusted 
to steam more than lO knots for long. If these lame ducks were left behind there 
might be a good chance of escape, the more so as the Japanese battleships were believed by the Russians to 

be foul and in bad 
condition ; if they 
were taken with 
the fleet, it must 
be outstcamed by 
the Japanese and 
its total destruc- 
tion would not 
improbably follow. 
A further source 
of difficulty was 
that 300 of the 
lighter guns, many 
of the torpedo- 
tubes, and large 
numbers of tor- 
pedoes had been 
landed for the use 
of the army in the 
land defences. 
But Admiral 
Vitgeft declared 
that he must obey, 
his orders left 
him no choice, and the captains were instructed that the sortie would take place on the loth. 

In the fleet, among the junior officers and seamen, there was no reluctance to face the Japanese in 
battle. The Russians were still under the impression that they were the better men. They were exasperated 
by the taunts of the soldiers, who asked them on every possible occasion why it was that they did not dare 
to go out and fight the Japanese. To a man they were determined to do or die, and against enemies of less 
formidable calibre or meaner skill their spirit might have been crowned with success. It was for success or 
defeat in the war that they were going to fight ; a Russian victory or even an indecisive battle would imperil 
the very existence of the Japanese army in Manchuria and ensure the complete failure of the Japanese 
campaign. The ships coaled to the very utmost, and took what precautions were possible against battle. 
Woodwork was removed, most of the boats were disembarked, and the injuries made good so far as the 
resources of the port allowed. 




[Photographed at I'ort Arthur by E. Ashniead Hartlett. 
THE RIDDLED RUSSIAN BATTLESHIPS '^ RETVISAN," "POLTAVA," AND " PERESVIET.' 

The " RetvUan " lies at right angles to the " Pobieda." Divers found four large holes in the starboard side. The " Poltava " 

lies fifty yards astern. 



THE "POBIEDA" DAMAGED. 



785 




A 12.1N bHKLL STRUCK THK FOREMAST OF THE "POBIEDA," A HUGE STEEL TOWER WITH TWO MILITARY 
TOPS UPON IT, AND BURST AT THE BASE WITH A TERRIBLE DIN. 



786 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10. 1904. 




IHt KUbblAN BATTLKSHIP "POBIEDA" 
ARTHUR. 
A photograph taken after its capture. 



IN PORT 



On the Japanese side Admiral Togo fully expected a 
.sortie, and was ready to meet his enemy when they 
came out. With the same ships which had encountered 
the Russians in June he held the 
^'^^Fleet"^^^ Yellow Sea. His fleet was divided 
into several squadrons. The main 
squadron was composed of the four battleships MiKASA, 
ASAHI, SiilKlsniMA, and Fuji, with the two new 
armoured cruisers NiSSHIN and K.ASUG.\. The second 
squadron consisted of the armoured cruiser YakUMO, 
with the protected cruisers T:vKAS.\GO, ClIITOSE, and 
Kasagi. The third was composed of the Matsushima, 
Akitsushima, H.ashidate, Itsukushima, and Idzumi, 
with a large number of destroyers and torpedo-boats, 
totalling between 40 and 50. The fourth was composed 
of the Chin Yen, a large ship which the Russians took 
to be the YasHIMA, but which was probably in reality 
the ASAMA, the two coast-defence ships Hei Yen and 
FUSOO, and some smaller craft. These squadrons were 
stationed at the various strategic points of the Yellow Sea, 
and were ordered to concentrate upon Port Arthur, in 
the event of the Russian fleet coming out. 

On August 9 the Japanese patrol-boats off" Port 
Arthur observed signs of an imminent sortie, and transmitted information to that effect to Admiral Togo. 
On the morning of the lOth the Russians were seen coming out. They had their battle-flags hoisted 
and as they passed out to sea great crowds of soldiers and spectators cheered them 
Sortie again and again. The Russian national anthem was sung ; the bands played martial 

airs, as, quitting the entrance one by one, battleships and cruisers formed up in a long 
line under the forts on the Tiger's Peninsula. 
Seven destroyers with the Novik and a number of 
tugs then proceeded seawards to clear the entrance 
of mines and to drive off" the Japanese torpedo- 
craft which were lurking at no great distance. 

The period spent in waiting for a passage to be 
cleared through the mine-field was occupied by 

Admiral Vitgeft in giving 
Vitgeft's Fear. , f . , 

orders as to the action to be 

adapted and the course to be followed in the 

now imminent battle. He instructed the fleet to 

make for Vladivostock and to follow the Tzarevitch, 

on which ship his flag was hoisted, and which 

was to lead the line. If possible, fighting was 

to be avoided, but should the Japanese force an 

engagement, the Russian ships were to do their 

best to close with their enemy and thus inflict 

vital injury on Admiral Togo's fleet. Admiral 

Vitgeft appeared to those about him nervous and 

listless, a man fey with his fate and under the 

numbing influence of fear of impending death. ii<udd„„a„ joh„.ton pi.o.o. 

He watched the horizon anxiously for signs of "'"'l^o.^^^L!, "ii^Z Aithii;-'"''"-" 




788 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 



the Japanese 
battleships, but in 
that briglit and 
still morning no 
smoke could be 
discerned and not 
a funnel made out, 
excepting only the 
destroyers and 
cruisers of the 
inshore detach- 
ment. The wire- 
less telegraphy 
instruments took 
in constant un- 
decipherable 
messages speed- 
ing through the 
air from invisible 
ships to invisible 

ships, but of Admiral Togo's dreaded presence there was no sign except the rapping of the instruments. 
Yet minute by minute news of every Russian movement was speeding through the air from the observing 
ships to Admiral Togo. Now it was " The enemy appear inclined to come out " ; then " The enemy 
are leaving harbour"; "The enemy are outside Port Arthur"; "The enemy are putting to sea"; "The 
enemy are steaming south." 

Thus, with the Russians, the greater part of the morning passed in the clearance of a passage and in 
beating off the Japanese destroyers which were a constant source of annoyance. At last, a few minutes 
after lo a.m., sufficient of the Japanese mines had been removed to permit the large ships to gain the open 
sea without misadventure. Led by the Novik and the mine-clearing tugs, the fleet in one long line headed 
at a speed of five knots slowly to the east, turning south a little later to avoid the mines which the Russians 
had themselves laid in wanton profusion off Takhe Bay. 

The spectacle as this great fleet steamed forth for the last time to battle was a majestic one. The 

great Tsarevitch led the line, as the Novik very 
quickly was ordered to drop back astern. With 




thh: uamaueu 



' PERESVIET' 



IN 



|t'l...l..;;r.i|)li by K. A>hi:i. 
PORT ARTHUR. 



• 


. 




;■ i\\ w. 



The Russian 
Fleet. 



her two high funnels, her tower- 



JAPANESlC 



IKuddillian jojnslon photu. 
RED CROSS HOSPITAL SHIP HAKUAI MARU 
CARRYING WOUNDED HOME. 



ing masts, and the series ot 
turrets from each of which 
protruded two heavy guns, she looked the embodi- 
ment of force and action. Behind her followed the 
Rctvisnn, somewhat battered and lacking many of 
her guns, but still an imposing ship. Next to the 
Retvisan came the Pobieda, with astern of her the 
Peresviet flying Rear-Admiral Prince Ukhtomsky's 
flag, both fine ships of the most formidable type. 
The two lame ducks, Sevastopol and Poltava, brought 
up the rear of the battleships. Behind them again 
were the cruisers Askold, Pallada, and Diana. The 
hospital ship Mongolia, flying the Red Cross flag, 
brought up the rear. On the port or left beam 
of the Russian battleships was a second line formed 



790 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 



of the Nai'ik and eight destroyers. One of these destroyers, the Reshitelnv, had orders, so soon as the fleet 
was clear of the Japanese, to proceed to Chifu and telegraph through the Russian Consul there an appeal to 
the Vladivostock ships to steam at once to the Straits of Korea and there meet the refugees from Port 
Arthur. Incredible as it may appear, the Russian authorities at Port Arthur and Vladivostock had not 
taken the trouble to concert operations, so as to ensure both fleets striking simultaneously. 

The Russian fleet, as it stood southwards, kept good order, but the speed was low since the engines of 
the Retvisan and Poltava gave trouble. Admiral Vitgeft was upon the Tzarevitcli s fore-bridge with Rear- 
.Admiral Matussevitch at his side ; as he looked back he could see the long line of black-painted battleships 
heaving and falling on the heavy swell of the Yellow Sea, and the Japanese light craft working to his rear. 
The course set was towards the Shantung promontory, distant 140 miles to the south-west; with favourable 
fortune the Russians would be out of the narrow waters by dawn of the 1 1 th. The gunboats, mine-craft,. 
and reserve destroyers were sent back to port about this time, leaving the nine large ships and eight 
destroyers and the Novik to face the onset of the Japanese. 

Admiral Togo had given orders forbidding any premature attack. His chief desire was to draw his 




Togo's Orders. 



[From a phyto supplied by General Stoessel. 
THK CRIPPLED " RETVISAN " IN PORT ARTHUR HARIiOUR. 

enemy as far out to sea as possible and then to make an end of the Russian fleet. In June he had failed 
to force on a battle because on that occasion the Russians had been attacked before they 
were out of reach of the shelter of Port Arthur and had retired the moment the 
Japanese attempted to close. The Japanese admiral was able to dictate the conditions under which the 
battle was to be fought, as his battle-squadron out-steamed the Russian fleet by at least three knots. He 
instructed his officers to avoid anything of the nature of a melee, which must be favourable to the more 
numerous but worse-trained battle-fleet. The action was to be fought at long range, to prevent the Russians 
from employing torpedoes or rams, and to husband as far as was possible Japan's precious battleships, on 
which her very existence depended. Notwithstanding the long months of trial at sea, the Japanese fleet 
presented a superb appearance, as, flying the great battle-flags which the hands of Japanese ladies had 
embroidered, the main squadron left its base, and with its six ships in perfect order steamed at 12 knots 
towards Flncounter Rock early in the morning. 

Off Encounter Rock it had waited for the Russians on their previous sortie. The rock lies directly 
upon the course steered by a fleet from Port Arthur to the mouth of the Yellow Sea, rising some eleven feet 
above the surface of the sea, a grave danger to navigation at night. The main fleet 
cautiously neared this position, approaching it somewhat from the south so as not to be 
seen from Port Arthur, about noon, at which hour Admiral Togo was seven miles to the south-east of the 



Vltgeft's Signal. 



August 10, 1904. 



THE FIGHT BEGINS. 



791 



rock. At the same time, in accordance with orders, Japanese ships appeared from almost every point of the 
compass hastening to join in the fraj'. A few minutes later each fleet sighted tlie other, and Admiral 
Vitgeft made the last signal to his crews : " This is your last fight ; men, be brave ! " 

The fleets were now approaching each other in this wise. The Japanese main fleet was on the Russian 
port bow, steaming so as to cross the Russian line of advance, ten miles or more away, and heading west- 
south-west. The Russian fleet was steering south-south-east, and by great exertions the speed of the line 
had risen to I2 knots, but even this pace tried the older and more damaged ships severely. Right ahead of 
the Russians were the Japanese protected cruisers, three of the Matsushima class, three of the Takasago 
class, and the armoured Yakumo, while others could be indistinctly made out a great distance away. The 
whole horizon was covered with warships converging on the same spot, so that the general formation of the 
Japanese appeared to the Russians to be an enormous semi-circle enclosing them. Closer in to the Russians 
were a number of Japanese torpedo-craft, which seemed to be firing torpedoes at extreme ranges. 

As the Russian fleet drew southwards it opened fire on the Japanese torpedo-craft and drove them 
back. About the same time Togo passed across the bows of the Russians, but still far beyond effective 
range. Since he did not intend as yet to close, but wished to work in between the Russians and their base, 
he continued some little distance to the west, passing away fron his enemy, and then hoisted the signal for 



" 


Po' 


iet 


a. 














*' I'eresviet." 






1 


L 


4 


b 








m 


w^B 


ii 






1 




^ 








1 


-^ 













liil, l:l.-.-l\\ \I.,,-1J,- !■ M;;i.li.\ ,\ND " PERESVIEX " SUNK IN PORT ARTHUR H.\RI!0UR. 
Photogiaplis taken a'ter their linal lishl in December, 1904, and supplied to ths " Illustrated London News " by General Stoessel. 

his six ships to pass from line-ahead to line-abreast. With exquisite precision his order was executed. The 
six ships each made a quarter-turn, and by so doing gained the new formation, at the same time altering 
course to .south-.south-west, so that they were still steaming away from the Russians. The sea was now 
beginning to rise, and after the perfect weather of the morning a rough afternoon threatened. 

The Japanese did not long keep on the southward course. They changed back from line-abreast to 
line-ahead, and stood south-west until close upon i p.m., when suddenly Togo made the order to turn once 
more, passing first to line-abreast and then to line-ahead, reversing the direction of his 
movement, and now at last proceeding to close with the Russians. The signal 



"Engage!" 



" ICngage ! " was made and answered with tremendous cheers from all the six vessels in the line, and then, 
steering straight for the Russians, Togo stood after them east-north-east. Admiral Vitgeft had watched 
the.se complicated manoeuvres without perhapa fully grasping their purpose; he had made no attempt to 
close, but as he saw the six ships heading in pursuit of him to his rear he slightly alteied his course till it 
was first due east and then east-north-east. The Japanese battle.ships came up rapidl}-, throwing up spray 
from their bows as they increased speed to overtake their enemy. At the same time all the Japanese ships 
within sight began to execute an inward movement upon the Russians ; the moment of battle was at hand. 
About I p.m. the first shots were fired from the Russian fleet at a range of about 12,000 yards. The 



792 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 



The First Shots. 



Tsamntfh's fore-turret l2-in. guns were trained on the MiKASA and vomited forth flame. But the 
projectiles fell short or passed over the Japanese. Amidst great excitement the other 
heavy guns in the Russian fleet took up the fire, as yet without effect. A minute or 
two later the first reply came from the Japanese. The MiKASA and ASAHI discharged a few ranging 
shots, and, finding the distance too great for effective action, suspended fire. But this brief interchange of 
shots had a marked effect upon the Russian admiral, who began to edge away northward, until the 
Japanese feared that he was, after all, bent on a return to port. It was necessary to draw him out \'et 
further, and, with that object in view, Admiral Togo deliberately turned and steered away, while at thc 
same time he worked to the Russian rear in the new position which Admiral Vitgeft was taking up, 
cutting off all possibility of retreat without a battle. On this the Russians changed their course and ran 
to the south-east, pressing their boilers so that columns of smoke poured from the funnels of all their ships. 




THE "PALLADA" AND 



" PalUda." ■■ I'ohieda 

' POBIF.DA." RUSSIAN VESSKLS BAT 1 KRED 
From photograph supplied by General -Stoessel. 



IN I'ORT ARTHUR HARBOUR. 



For half an hour the distance between the two fleets increased, Togo going south-west and Vitgeft 

south-east, until, judging that the hour of attack had come, Togo with the Japanese main fleet turned once 

more, and for the third time steered towards the Russians and rapidly closed them, till 

pjlg their ships came into plain view. Togo came up astern of them, which had this 

additional advantage that it enabled him to bring his heavy guns to bear upon the weak 

cruisers in the rear of the Russian line. A little after 2.30 p.m. the Japanese battleships were within long 

range of these ships, and opened on them a tremendous fire from their 12-in., lo-in., and 8-in. guns as they 

bore. The Japane.se gunners shot admirably, and on the rising .sea picked up the range at once. Their 

orders were to concentrate their fire upon the funnels of the enemy's ships, which would affect the speed of 

the Russians, and upon the conning towers, which would paralyse the ships temporarily at all events. From 



August 10, 1904. 



THE " ASKOLD " HIT. 



793 




THE RUSSIAN BATTLESHIP "POBIEDA" WAS REPEATEDLY STRUCK ON 
ARMOUR IN THE BATTLE OF AUGUST 10. 



TS 



the muzzles of 23 heavy 
Japanese guns ponderous 
projectiles sped towards 
the Russian ships, and 
ahnost at the same mo- 
ment the Russians re- 
turned the fire, directing 
their shells upon the 
MiKASA. 

The first important hit 
was scored by the Sni- 
KI.SIIIMA. A i2-in. shell 
from her fore-turret struck 
the Askold just abreast 
of the fore-bridge, passed 
through the side without 
e.xploding, and burst with 

a terrific report under the fore-funnel, tearing an immense hole in it, driving down some splinters to the 
forward boiler-room, and hurling fragments of steel in all directions over the bridge and charthouse on 
which the officers working the ship were standing. The vessel reeled under the blow ; the acrid fumes 
of Shimose powder stupefied many of the men near the scene of the explosion ; the decks were drenched 
with blood from the killed and wounded. The effect was terrifying and quite out of proportion to the 
actual loss inflicted by the shot, which was small. 

An instant later another heavy shell from one of the Japanese battleships hit the Askold on the water- 
line just at the base of the second funnel and burst with a violent report above the armour deck. The 
interior of the ship was filled with dense smoke ; the side was riddled with small holes 
^ „.^ ° like those made by machine-gun bullets ; a great aperture opened in the plating ; 

the funnel above tottered and was only held in position by the stays. The explosion 
caused a dangerous fire, setting the ammunition for the 12-pounder guns ablaze, though, fortunately, this 
ammunition did not do any damage but burnt quietly. The ship was now in great confusion, her 
gunners firing wildly with the 6-in. and 12-pounder guns, which had not sufficient power or range to hit the 
Japanese, at their six battleships and armoured cruisers. The din was terrific, and the loudest shouts were 

quite inaudible, while the 
telephones on board were 
useless. The crash and 
concussion of the guns 
firing, the roar and 
clangour of the shells, 
drowned alike the orders 
of the officers and the 
groans of the dying and 
wounded. 

The Diana and Pallada 
escaped with less punish- 
ment. They were struck 
by one or two shells, which 
pierced their sides and 
inflicted some loss upon 
their crew, but without 
wounding her captain. cloiiig any grave injury to 




A 6-iT 



THE " RETVISAN." 
Japanese shell exploded on board the " Retvisan,' 



794 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 




THE 



' POLTAVA,' 



AND 



' PERESVIET • 



li'hotograph by K. AsIiiiiuaJ Harllett. 
AGROUND IN PORT ARTHUR. 



the ships them- 
selves. Yet so 
serious was the 
danger run by 
these w e a k 
vessels that a 
little before 
three, after only 
enduring the 
Japanese fire for 
a brief time, 
Admiral Rcit- 
zenstein, whose 
flag was hoisted 
in the Askold, 
and who com- 




• RETVISAN," 

manded the Russian cruisers, ordered all three cruisers to move to the port beam of the Russian 

battleships and take shelter behind their line. The range had now diminished to 8,ooo yards, and the 

Japanese battleships were almost abreast of the Russian craft of their own class. 

The battle continued, battleship to battleship, and the Russians, imagining that their enemy were not 

gaining upon them, and supposing that 
the Japanese boilers and engines were 
worn and out of condition owing to 
the hard work of war, began to think 
escape or victory within their grasp. 
The speed had fallen while the Japanese 
were cannonading the cruisers ; now it 
was raised, and the Russian battleships 
by the incredible e.xertions of their 
stokers, who were plied with vodka, 
drew away. The forced-draught fans 
were running ; the stokeholds were 
closed down; men worked desperately 
in that atmosphere charged with coal 

dust to keep a head of steam and escape from the enemy, the Titanic hammering of whose shells they 

could hear overhead. For the best part of half an hour the Russians forged ahead, all the while concen- 
trating their fire on the MlK.-\S.\, but seldom hitting her. When the Russian shells did strike her side, they 

rebounded from the Krupp steel with a 

flash of flame like lightning and fell into 

the sea. The range was too great for 

perforation and the enemy's fire as yet 

did her little real harm, though it 

battered her unarmoured upper-works 

considerably. 

The Russian captains, for the most 

part, fought their ships from the bridges 

in the earlier period of the battle, before 

the Japanese 6-in. guns had opened fire. 

But when the smaller guns came into [s. smiih photc 

^. ^, ,• 1 , ,. • . JAPANESE GUNBOAT " AMAGI " GUARDING IN YOKOHAMA HARBOUR 

action, they retired to the conning- towers. the Russian ship "kotie" seized by the Japanese. 



RUSSIAN SHIP "KOTIE," SEIZED BV THE 



[S. Smith photo. 
JAPANESE. 




August 10, 1904. 



JAPANESE DAMAGES. 



795 



The "Pobieda" 
Damaged. 



The shock caused by the enemy's shell striking their ships was terrific ;' at each blow the vessel 

trembled from stem to stern, while the roar of the ship's own guns drowned every other sound and 

rendered telephones useless. As far as possible the men were kept under shelter of the armour, 

and this, undoubtedly, was the reason why the loss of life was so small. The appliances for signalling were 

put out of action early in the fight ; the wireless telegraphy installations, which had proved excellent up to 

the date of that terrible test, broke down under the supreme strain of action, and signals had to be 

passed along the line by hand from ship to ship, but even then they were made and read with great 

difficulty. 

On the Pobieda and Retvisan the Japanese fire inflicted serious injury in this first stage of the battle. 

The Japanese hit the funnels of both ships, reducing their speed, and repeatedly struck the Pobieda on her 
armour, but seemingly without perforating it. A i2-in. shell struck the foremast of the 
Pobieda, a huge steel tower with two military tops upon it, and burst at the base of it 
with a terrible din. The mast slowly inclined ; it tottered and finally bent over 

sternwards, overhanging and threatening the funnels. At each instant it seemed on the point of completely 

collapsing, since its metal supports had been cut through by the force of the explosion. Several of the 

smaller guns on 

board this ship 

were silenced, and 

a great fire broke 

out on board. 

Tongues of flame 

and columns of 

dense smoke could 

be seen from the 

Japanese fleet 

rising from her 

deck. Probably, 

only the fact that 

the Russian fleet, 

in its last spurt to 

gain safety, was 

now drawing 

away from the 

Japanese saved 

her from destruc- 
tion. Slowly the 

Russian line 

forged away from the Japanese, and the Pobieda's crew had a brief respite in which they were able to 

extinguish the fire. The Peresviet lost her mainmast, carried away by a Japanese shell, which ricochetted 

from the water and brought it down with a crash ; the Poltava and Sevastopol hoS\\ suffered minor injuries 

to funnels and upper-works. 

In the Japanese fleet the cruiser Nisshin was hit several times and suffered some slight damage. One 

heavy Russian shell struck her upper deck and, glancing off it without exploding, flew into the water. As 

it glanced off, however, it struck a seaman, Kimura, on the left foot, and carried the 

Japanese f^^^ away. With the instinct of battle upon him, Kimura, who had fallen to the deck 

D3.ni3.£r6S< 

under the tremendous shock of the blow, strove to rise and return to his station. He 

was lifted by loving hands and carried below to the operating station, where he begged his officers to avenge 

his injury upon the Russians. When told that the N1S.SHIN would make them pay very dearly for it, 

responded with a shout of " Banzai ! " and then fainted away. He did not survive the battle. Another 

shell struck warrant-officer Matsuaki, who had been for some days upon the sick list, but, hearing the crash 




THE PALLADA," WITH THE "POBIEDA" IN THE BACKGROUND, AGROUND IN PORT ARTHUR. 



7% 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 



A Delay. 



ol the guns, had insisted upon taking his share in the fight. He was torn to pieces by the Russian 
projectile and practically nothing of him was found. 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 
thp: battle of august- io.— the two fleets close. 

THE first phase of the battle was now over, and the Russians were rapidly passing out of range 
of the Japanese fleet. Why the Japanese permitted them to do so is not clear even now, but 
it is possible that there was a breakdown upon one or other of the Japanese ships, or else we 
must suppose that Admiral Togo was an.xious to delay his attack till all his reinforcements had 
arrived. The fight was broken off about 3.30 p.m., and two hours passed before it 
was resumed. In .those two hours two Japanese armoured cruisers, probably the 
As.\M.\ and Yaku.mo, were steaming hard for the scene of action, coming up from the west, where they 
had been stationed to deal with any Russian ships which might attempt to retreat to Port Arthur. 

As the Russians were 
now going well over 12 
knots, notwithstanding 

bat tered 

The Japanese r , , 

Speed. funnels and 

hulls and 
injured machinery. Ad- 
miral Togo gave orders 
for his own speed to be 
increased. The Japanese 
ships put on forced 
draught, and as the pace 
rose and the waves were 
thrown up high by the 
rams of the battleships 
and cruisers, they began 
perceptibly to gain on 
the Russian.s. The spurt, 
for it was nothing more, 
was dying away on board 
the Russian ships. The 
stokers were growing 
weary, and the hard- 
pressed engines and 
boilers were beginning to 
give trouble, especially on 
board the older ships and 
in the Retvisan, which 
had been so cruelly 
mauled by the Japane.se 
torpedoes. The gap be- 
tween the fleets steadily 
diminished ; frenzied ap- 
peals to the men in the 
stokeholds of the Russian 
ships were made in vain ; 

int STOKEk.S 0.\ TIIK KU.S.'-lAN IUTXI.KSHH'S WOKK UKSI'IlKAIKLV during a ,1 U ,1 ,!„,-,„ .,,1,1 „«ro 

FIGHT TO KEEP A HE.1D OF STEAM FOR ESCAPE. ♦ ^"^X "^^ OOne, aiKl were 





k 



798 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10. 1904. 




THt RUSSIAN " TZARKVITCH 



ADMIRAL VITGEFT'S FLAGSHIP, 



At this juncture 



doing, their best, but the 
effort demanded of them 
was beyond lumian en- 
durance or exertion. The 
Russians watched with 
grave alarm the Japanese 
fleet racing up astern, and 
saw behind it, approaching 
at full speed, the two big 
armoured cruisers. The 
other Japanese cruisers and 
torpedo-craft still followed, 
abreast of the Russians, but 
well out of range, hanging 
on the flank, and waiting 
an opportunity of attacking. 
At 5.15 the Japanese 
were within long range, 

but did not as yet open fire. This time they were determined to stand in to decisive range. The 

distance speedily decreased, and at 5.30 both fleets were abreast, steaming on parallel 

^Tire^ ^" ^'"^^' ^^^ Japanese very slightly in advance of the Russians. The distance from the 

Tzarevitch to the Japanese van-ship was 7,500 yards, and from the Poltava, the 

sternmost Russian ship, to the Kasuga, about 8,000. Both 'fleets were heading south-east. 

the Poltava opened fire with her 12-in. 

guns upon the MiKASA. The fire ran 

right down the Russian line from rear to 

van, every gun that would bear being 

trained upon the Japanese flagship. The 

din was terrific, and the sea about the 

MiKASA was lashed to foam by the falling- 
shells. 

The Japanese lost not a moment in 

replying. Their van concentrated its fire 
upon the Tzai-evitch ; 
their rear upon the 
Peresviet and Ret- 

vi'san, and their shells were truly aimed. 

Dense clouds of smoke from exploding 

shells hid the outlines of the Russian 

ships from moment to moment ; the 

MiKASA, too, was enveloped in clouds of 

smoke. The armour of the battleships 

rang under the blows of the shells ; their . 

decks were swept by a storm of splinters 

and shell fragments, but as the crews were 

kept under cover of the armour, the loss 

of life was not great. The Japanese 

steered so as constantly to close in upon 

the Russians, and as the distance between 

the two fleets diminished the fire grew 



The Japanese 
Fire. 




SHELL HOLE A130VE 



THE WATEULINK OK RUSSIAN CRUISER 
" ASKOLD." 



JAPANESE SIGNALLING THE RANGE. 



799 



more and more deadly. About a quarter to six, as the sun was sinking in the sky, the two armoured 
cruisers which had come up from the rear took up their position behind the Japanese h^ne. 




THE JAPANESE SIGNALLED THE RANGE FROM THE FIGHTING-TOPS. 



800 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 




DAMAGE WITHIN THK CABIN OF THE 
" ASKOLD." 



The Japanese had now in action sixteen i2-in., fourteen 
8-in., and one lo-in. guns, against the Russian sixteen i2-in. 
and eight lo-in. guns. The odds were not uneven on paper, 
but the superior accuracy and rapidity of the Japanese fire 
rendered them in real truth almost hopeless. The barbettes 
revolved, keeping the guns always trained on the enemy ; the 
range was signalled from the tops in the Japanese ships ; the 
gunners were so admirably drilled that they could discharge 
with ease three shots in two minutes from their big guns, while 
the Russian weapons were not capable of firing one in two 
minutes. 

With the diminishing range, shells struck the Tzarcvitch, 
making her heel under their terrific blows. A little before 
6 p.m., however, she hit the MiKASA 
heavily. One of her i2-in. shells struck 
that ship's fore-barbette on the port side 
and exploded, shaking the ship from stem to stern. The 
forepart of the great battleship was shrouded in dense clouds 
of smoke, and seemed 



The 



"Mlkasa" 
Hit. 




to be completely wrecked ; dead and dying lay upon her deck 
and it was found that the barbette, containing two i2-in. guns, 
had jammed and refused to move. Within the barbette a 
violent blow was felt, and splinters were driven in upon the 
gun crew, who stood within that reeking vault of steel. 
Lieutenant Prince Fushimi, of the Imperial House of 
Japan, the officer in command of the barbette, stag- 
gered, covered with blood ; the two enormous guns 
were useless and helpless, yet there was no confusion 
on board the ship. The crew set to work to clear 
the turntable on which the heavy guns revolve 
inside the barbette, and fifteen minutes later the 
ponderous platform answered the force of the 
turning engines. The guns revolved once 
more and could again fire upon the Russians. 
Astern in the Japanese line, Admiral Togo 
could see his ships following him, un- 
injured, through the haze of smoke from 
shells and cordite charges, all vomiting 
fire incessantly upon the Russian 
battle-line, which was now going 
slowly, and seemingly in great dis 
tress. A slight fire on board the 
Fuji, caused by a Russian shell, 
was extinguished without diffi- 
culty.and some of the Japanese 
ships had not been struck a 
single time. 

In the Russian fleet the 
Tzarevitch was . terribly 
battered by the converging 



THE FLIGHT OF THE RUSSIAN CRUISERS FROM 



G.PHILIP ^ SOI^. L^-" 

PORT ARTHUR. 



802- 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August (0, 1904. 




THE DAMAGED " ASKOLD " AT SHANGHAI. 
STARBOARD SIDE. 



GUN SPONSON ON 



fire of tlie Japanese shooting always at 

the conning-tower. She reeled under 

the impact of the i2-in. shells which 

from time to time 
The ".Tzarevitch " ^ i i -i . 
Battered. ^^'"""^ ^'^'' ^^"""S^ 

several which hit 

upon her Kruffp armour failed to per- 
forate it and fell with a tremendous 
splash 'into the sea. A i2-in. shell 
struck the forward i2-in. turret, shaking 
it severely and causing a small crack in 
the armour. A hail of splinters from 
this shell fell among the group of 
signalmen and officers standing abaut 
the conning-tower and working the ship^ 
and two or three of the group were 
torn to pieces, their flesh being thrown 
all over the bridges and deck ; the men in the top just above were injured by the violence of the blast of 
Shimose powder, which twisted the steelwork and tore it away as though it had been wet paper in a 
hurricane. An officer inside the 
conning-towerfjkvas stunned for a few 
seconds, but on the whole the damage 
done was surprisingly small. The 
great turret still revolved and did 
not jam ; the machinery within it 
remained intact ; the gun - crew, 
though badly shaken by the concus- 
sion, maintained their fire. A minute 
later another shell struck the very 
bow of the ship, blowing a huge hole 
ten feet square, cutting the two 
anchors away and shattering the 
massive hawse-pipes, but doing no 
vital injury. On the top of this 
came a third shell, which pierced 
the side just under the forward 
turret and, glancing off the armour at the base of the turret, exploded. There was a second 

violent shock and upheaval in the neighbourhood of the turret ; the deck erupted as if a volcano had 
burst forth under it ; yet once more the injuries were astonishingly small. The turret still worked.. 

and as the smoke subsided 
the guns turned towards, 
the Japanese and con- 
tinued their fire. 

Shells, i2-in., 8-in., and' 
even 6in., were now 
directed upon the Tzai-e- 
vitcli as the gap lessened^ 
and the whole structure 
THE RUSSIAN "ASKOLD" AS SHE LOOKED WHEN SHE ARRIVED AT SHANGHAI, of the Steel monster rockcd 

WITH HALF OF HER FIFTH FUNNEL AND THE STUMP OF HER SIXTH FUNNEL . i .. i u .i 

SHOWING. from end to end beneath 




SLINGING OUT A BOAT 1 UO.M TllL .\.-kuI,lJ AT SHANGHAI. 
There was not a boat or pinnace aboard which was fit for service, all being holed. 




THE "TZAREVITCH" BATTERED. 



803 




THK BATTERING OF THE ** TZAREVITCH." 

A hail of splinters from a shell fell among the group of signalmen and officers about the conning-tower. 



804 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 




;•■' 


/••■S "" 


1 
\ 


|cl j 


' 


t ^ i 




^fc ' ■'A 






lift 


ifll^H 


B 


|J^3 


m 


mi^^lll 



CHINESE MARINES FIRING 

SALUTE OVER GRAVE OF 

RUSSIAN SAILOR KILLED AT 

CHEFOO. 



their incessant pounding. But 

the armour protected her vitals 

and no grave damage was caused. 

The Japanese adjusted their aim 

and fired steadily at her conning-' 

tower to kill the brain which 

directed the Russian fleet ; the 

next shell from the Shikishima's 

forward turret hit it squarely with 

a fearful blow which wrecked the 

interior. The projectile did not ex- 
plode, but, with the peculiar devilishness 

of shells, glanced straight upwards off armour too 

thick to be perforated, caught against the projecting metal top 

which covered the tower, and, rebounding from it with fearful force, entered 

by the sighting aperture and passed across 
the top of the structure. Seven officers 

ahd men were within that narrow space. They had no means of escape 
as they heard the crash of the 850-lb. bolt of steel ; carrying with it a 
hail of bolts and splinters it killed on the spot, cutting them in two or 
tearing them to pieces, the navigating officer, a midshipman, the man 
at the wheel, and two messengers. Two officers survived ; they knew 
nothing, could think of nothing, and when they returned to consciousness 
all the roar of battle could not reach their clouded brains. They were 
deaf for days, and but slowly did coherent speech return. The projectile, 
having wrought this destruction, passed out through the sighting slit and 
fell forward on the bridge in front of the tower. The compass, previously 
damaged, was shivered to fragments ; the steering-wheel was driven hard 
over to port as the man who held it had his head torn off, but the 
steering-engine still remained intact. All the cables, which were as the 
nerves of the ship, were severed ; the connections between the steering- 
engine and tiller were destroyed, and by this terrible blow the 

conning-tower was isolated from the rest of the ship. 

It was some seconds before what had happened could be understood. Admiral Vitgeft and his staff 

had not yet suffered, but the heavy blow in their immediate neighbourhood, and the immense danger which 

they had run, appear to have 
shaken them, 
as well it 
might shake 

even the bravest of men. In 

those instants the Tzarevitch 

began to turn sharply from the 

line and to head away from the 

Japanese. The dying hand of the 

steersman or the violence of the 

projectile had put the helm over. 

The ship was listing over, sway- 
ing, it would seem, beneath the 

blow, when a second and yet more 

... ,, J ,., , Kl.lLRN TO JAPAN OK FRINGE FUSHIMI, WHO WAS WOUNDED SLIGHTLY 

ternDle diow seemea to ntt ner qn board the "mikasa" during the fight of august 10. 



PKINCl. 1 r^Iil.MI. WOIXDKU CM 
THE " mikasa." 



Vitgeft's 
Death. 




806 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 




bodily i 
base of 



THE FORE-DECK OF TOGO'S FLAGSHIP, THE " MIKASA.' 

n the air. A Japanese i2-in. shell, fired, it is believed, from the Mikasa, hit the Tzarevitch at the 
the forv/ard military mast. It passed through the stout steel tower, four feet in diameter, between 

the upper and the lower bridges, tearing its ste;l plating to 
ribands, and burst on the port side of the mast. The blast 
of fire and hail of fragments from it twisted the upper and 
lower bridges into fantastic shapes, and swept the lee side 
of the lower bridge, where stood Admiral Vitgeft and a 
group of officers and signalmen. The admiral was literally 
L. . L-....^^ ,... jr * blown to pieces— only a leg was afterwards found. Rear- 

l^Spt-ii : ».rr|C. Admiral Matussevitch, who was standing a short distance from 

\ L .jJL- him, was severely injured, hurled from his feet by the blast, 

and thrown prostrate on the bridge. The commander was 
terribly wounded, and his left arm almost blown off Captain 
Ivanoff was wounded, and five or six signalmen and messengers 
on the bridges were killed or received more or less serious 
injuries. The smoking ruins of the bridges were covered 
with human debris, stained a bright yellow by the picric acid 
of the Japanese explosive. The great mast tottered, but did 
not fall ; its entire weight rested upon the upper bridge, to 
which it was secured by strong stays. All the halyards and 
cables running up it to the tops were destroyed, and with 
them all means of making signals from the forward mast. 
TOGO -ON HIS QUARTER-DECK. Just before his death Admiral Vitgeft had ordered the signal 




August 10, 1904. 



TOGO'S POLICY. 



807 



to be made to the fleet 
that the ships were to 
remember the Czar's orders 
and on no account return 
to Port Arthur, but it is 
not certain whether it was 
actually hoisted. If it was, 
it was signally disobeyed. 

Just as this shell burst, 
three others in quick suc- 
cession 
struck the 
ship in her 
most vulnerable point, the 
funnels. The first hit the 
fore-funnel low down and 
burst to the port side as 
it passed out, tearing an 
immense hole and doing 
considerable damage to 



' Tzarevitch's " 

Funnels 

Destroyed. 




THE RUSSIAN CRUISER " D1AN.\." 
One of the fleet which escaped from Port .Arthur. 



the group of boilers below, so that for the moment the steam fell and the pace of the ship was perceptibly 
slowed. Volumes of smoke poured from the gaping rent and hampered the crews of the guns astern. The 
second and third shells struck the after-funnel, and both burst in it to th& port side, tearing two large gaps 
and causing it to totter, till it seemed in danger of collapsing. Notwithstanding these injuries, no vital hurt 
was inflicted upon the engines and boilers, and the engineers below escaped without casualties. But the 
shock and the loss of draught owing to the destruction of the funnels were such that for the moment the 
Tzarevitch was helpless. Attempts were made to connect up the steering position in the after conning- 
tower with the steering-engine, and to put the steering-engine, which had broken down, in order ; and as 
there was no senior officer left forward Midshipman Pilkin took command, though he had been wounded by 

the shell which killed the admiral. 

In this interval of confusion, the gun- 
crew in the turrets of 

PofHoifnc the Tzarevitch con- 

Battlssnlps. 

tinued their fire. They 
felt the shock of the great shells, and some 
of them supposed that the ship had been 
struck by a mine or torpedo ; when they 
marked the list, their belief that she was 
doomed was strengthened, but they stood 
bravely to their posts with the fatalism of 
their national temperament. The ship 
was now circling wildly. Her movements 
were such that she threw the entire line 
astern of her into confusion. Her head 
came completely round, and she presented 
her port side to the enemy, while her next 
astern, the Retvisan, was in grave danger 
of colliding with her. The Russian captains 
for the moment attempted to follow her 
Jill, DICK oi nil MiKASA." [Cribb photo. movcments as they had bccn Ordered, with 

A photograph taken at Portsmouth. ^ 




606 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 




DIAGRAM TO SHOW WHERE THE 

■TZAREVITCH" WAS HIT ON THE WATER. 

LINE. 



the result that all formation was lost. A mob of battleships steered 
this way and that way in the splash of shells, incommoding each 
other's fire, receiving the blast of friendly guns, and in the most 
imminent danger from each other. In the midst of the terrific 

uproar and disorder the Tzarevitch at last hoisted a signal : " The 

^v ' I Pl \M ( Admiral transfers the command." It was seen by Prince Ukhtom- 

sky, whose flagship, the Peresviei, found herself almost within 
shouting distance of the Tzarevitcli in the confusion. But he had 
no means of repeating the signal or recalling the rest of the battle- 
ships to their formation ; both his masts had been so shattered 
by the Japanese fire that no flags could be hoisted on them. He 
realised at once what had happened. Admiral Vitgeft was dead, 
and he, who most felt his own unfitness for the command, was in 
charge of that mob of beaten ships. 

In those brief moments — for the description covers many lines, 
but the actual events passed with amazing swiftness — the Japanese 
also had run grave risk. It is even said that a little before the 

series of hits on the Tzatevitch, Admiral Togo was in favour of drawing off and following the Russians at 

some distance till he could effect a junction with Admiral Kamimura's four armoured 

Fateful Moments, ^.^^jj-gr,^ feeling that such a course would have given his torpedo flotilla a chance of 

inflicting some damage during the night, and that the junction with Kamimura would have secured for 
'him an overwhelming superiority in force, 

which as yet he did not possess. He saw 

that the Russian ships could steam better 

than he had expected ; perhaps, also, he 

found their shooting better, since unques- 
tionably there were many hits on his 

flagship. Dwelling on this reported 

hesitation, the Russians have claimed that 

they were within an ace of success, and 

that their defeat was only caused by chance. 

But from the military point of view it 

might have been wisest for the Japanese 

to bring all possible force to bear on the 

Russians, and had the Russian fleet been 

compelled to fight in the Straits of Korea, 

probably not a ship would have escaped. 

Perhaps it was for moral reasons that 

Admiral Togo decided against postponing 

the action ; his crews must never for a 

moment imagine that a Japanese admiral 

was afraid to fight a Russian fleet, even 

in superior force. 

The admiral, about 6 p.m., was standing 

on the upper bridge, in full view of the 
enemy and of his own 
fleet. By his side were 
his chief of the staff, 

Rear-Admiral Shimamura, and his flag- 
captain, Ijichi. On the left or port side 



Togo on the 
Bridge. 




I'Kl.NCK UKHIOM.^KV, 
Who succeeded Admiral Vitgeft, in conim.-inJ of the Port Artliur Fleet. 




TOGO'S NARROW ESCAPE. 



810 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 



of the bridge stood Commander Uyeda, with a few feet behind him Sub.-Lieutenant Nakawaza. On 
the starboard or right side of the bridge was Commander Ogura. Over the heads of these distinguished 
officers half a dozen Russian shells had passed whirring and shrieking, causing great anxiety for Admiral 
Togo's life. But the admiral listened to no entreaties, though the Russian fire was unquestionably concen- 
trated upon him, as his upon Admiral Vitgeft, to kill him where he stood. At this moment the group of 
officers saw a shgll coming towards them. One of the group dragged the admiral aside ; the shell struck 
the fore-barbette just in front of the fore-bridge, and burst, wrapping the officers in a cloud of dense smoke. 
Had the explosive been good, that would have been the end of the great Japanese admiral. But as it was, 
the damage done was comparatively small. Fragments of the shell broke Commander Uyeda's right 
jaw-bone and shoulder-blade, shattered Lieutenant Nakawaza's right arm, and wounded Commander Ogura 
badly in the abdomen. In their flight the splinters seemed to the Japanese to avoid the admiral and, as if 
with conscious purpose, to spare his life while picking out for injury the officers at his side. The flag- 
captain was slightly wounded, and in the charthouse below the upper-bridge Lieutenant Shinagawa was 
killed, and the chief of the signalling staff' and two seamen were injured. 

The admiral escaped unscathed, though shaken by the explosion. His officers once more begged him 
to seek the shelter of the conning-tower, where his precious life would be safe, but once more he refused. In 
their pressing anxiety for the existence of a man on whom so much depended, his staff at last showed 

something approaching to 

insubordination. They 

almost 

dragged 




Togo's 
Gallantry. 



the 



him into 
conning - tower, de- 



THl- OUN-CKtWS IN THK TURRETS OK THE 

FIRE. 



TZAKEVrrCH- CONTINUED TIIEIK 



daring that he was con- 
fided to their charge, and 
that if he perished, if he 
kept his place on the 
bridge, where his death 
was morally certain, they 
would have no choice but 
to commit suicide. The 
Samurai instinct was 
strong in Admiral Togo, 
and though he had lived 
from childhood upwards 
by the rule that the only 
thing which might not be 
forgiven a Japanese soldier 
is the desertion of the post 
at which he should die, 
tiieir appeal to iiim to 
think first of Japan's 
victory, and only second 
of his own personal honour, 
touched him, and he stayed 
for the rest of the battle 
within the steel walls of 
the tower. 

He had just taken up 
his post inside when the 



August 10, 1904. 



DESPERATE RUSSIAN POSITION. 



611 



A Torrent ot 
Shells. 



TzarevitcJis movement was perceived. Had he fallen, his flag-captain would have completed his 
plans, and there would have been no such confusion as was caused in the Russian line by the 
attempt to follow the wild turns of the Russian flagship. But the cool and 
masterful conduct of the battle must have been suspended if only for a few 
moments, and in those moments much might have happened. As it was, he gave 
prompt orders for his fleet to circle around the Russians, concentrating upon them a heavy fire and slowly 
decreasing the range. The Russian fire had now grown very wild, and the guns in some of their ships were 
almost silent, suggesting either that they had been disabled or that their projectiles were exhausted. 
Encouraged by their clear sign of success, the Japanese redoubled their fire, and, as the distance lessened, 




THE RUSSIAN BATTLESHIP " TZAREVITCH " IN THE GERMAN HARBOUR OF KI.-iOCHAU. 
The dam.ige to the funnels is very noticeable in this photograph. 

poured upon the chaos of Russian ships a perfect torrent of shells of all calibres, from the i2-in. to the 
small i2-pounder. Just at this time the Chin Yen and the two coast-defence ships closed in upon the 
Russians from the north and opened on them a long-range fire, while the three cruisers of the MatsusHIM.\ 
class, which each carry one i2-in. gun of great range and power, also joined in the fray. The Japanese now 
had in action twenty-three i2-in., fourteen 8-in., and three lo-in. guns, while the Russian force remained the 

same. 

The position of the Russians was fast becoming desperate ; but night was falling and the sun was 
dropping in the sky, so that all chance of escape had not vanished. The Japanese were still interposed 



812 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 



between the Russian fleet 
and safety, when Admiral 
Ukhtomsl<y displayed the 



signal : 
"Follow 




HIL KUbSIAN CRUlbEK 



WHICH JiSCAPKD FKUM PUKT ARIllUk. 



" Follow 

Mel' 

me ! ■■ upon 

the bridge of the Peresviet-^ 
which was now scarcely 
capable of further fighting, 
much damaged in her 
upper works, with masts 
shot away, funnels bat- 
tered, and a great fire 
raging on board, and 
calmly turned the bows of 
his ship towards Port 
Arthur. On receiving the 
Tsarevitch's signal indica- 
ting Admiral Vitgeft's 
death, he had called a 
hurried conference of his 

chief officers to determine the course to be followed. The Tzarevitch had already parted company from 
the main bulk of the Russian fleet, and he found himself left with only five battleships. The damage 
which the Peresviet had sustained rendered it to his mind out of the question- to persist in the 
attempt to reach Vladivostock. There remained before him only two alternatives. He might steam 
back to Port Arthur, or he might make an effort to reach some neutral port — either Weihaiwei or 
Kiaochau. To continue the battle seemed impossible. The Russian stores of ammunition were running 
low, and night was at hand when the superior torpedo flotilla of the Japanese might be used with terrible 
effect against the Russian ships. After a few moments of debate the decision was reached to return to 
port, and this was the explanation of the Peresviefs signal. It was seen and obeyed by two ships 
astern of the Peresviet — the Sevastopol and Poltava — which also turned out of the line. 

About this time the Poltava was struck by a i2-in. shell on one of her 6-in. gun turrets. The two 6-in. 
guns were broken short off, the turret jammed, and several of the men inside it killed on the spot. Her 

upper works were com- 
pletely wrecked. The Po- 
bicda and Retvisan, which 
were nominally ahead, do 
not appear to have seen the 
signal ; they suddenly 
turned in the opposite 
direction and steered straight 
for the Japanese fleet as 
though intending to ram. 

At the same moment the 
Cruiser Division, led by 

the Askold, 
The Russian ^^-^^^ ^^^ 
Flight. 

Diana, Pal- 

lada, and Novik following 

her, made a bold break for 




IHK RfbSIA.V " liAYA.N" " WAS HAiMAGEU I 



il>E rOKT ARTHUR. 



August 10, 1904. 



ATTACK ON THE " RETVISAN. 



813 





f^^'^ 






1 uBl^' ' 

5>^ .-^ . 


p 


H 'lHii|:il|||' 




1 




< 


fsix . .. = =il:'^'^ - -"^ -"^""^^ "^r _"ll"'l|iife. — .--^:i_-~^^^ 


s^ 



freedom. Crowding on 

all steam they suddenly 

headed for the south-east 

and parted company from 

the battleships. The main 

Japanese battle fleet paid 

no attention to them, 

concentrating all its efforts 

on the destruction of the 

Russian battleships, but 

the armoured cruiser 

ASAMA was detached in 

pursuit with the three 

fast cruisers of the 

TakASAGO class, and the 

three slower cruisers of 

the Matsushima type. typks oi- Japanese makini.s. 

These seven ships, however, had been constantly at sea and their hulls were foul. They maintained a 

running fight with the Russian cruisers for some miles, and finally succeeded in heading off the Pallada, and 

driving her back ; but as night came down the rest of the Russian cruisers scattered, and escaped after 

some further fighting, which will be recounted hereafter. 

Meantime, the Japanese battleships received the Retvisan with a fire which can only be described as 

terrific. Supposing that the Russian admiral was on board, every gun was trained upon her or upon 
the Pobieda, and such a blast of steel swept her upper works that she had speedily to 
turn once more. Her funnels were shot through, her masts damaged, many heavy hits 
inflicted on her hull, one of which, below the armour-belt, admitted an immense quantity 

of water, and greatly endangered the ship. The neighbourhood of her conning-tower was battered till it 

was impossible to direct the vessel. A 6-in. shell burst just outside the conning-tower, and fragments 

entering through the sighting aperture wounded Captain Sonnevitch so severely in the stomach that he 

fainted. The man at the wheel instantly put the ship's head round away from the Japanese, and fled to 

Prince Ukhtomsky's division. As she turned and retreated, the Pobieda followed with her, and just as dark- 
ness was coming down 
succeeded in regaining the 
Russian line, which was 
now re-forming behind the 
Peresviet. The Japanese, 
the moment that night 
arrived, withdrew their 
heavy ships, not caring to 
risk a " mix-up " in the 
obscurity, when a chance 
torpedo or mine might in 
a moment have achieved 
what the Russian fire had 
failed to accomplish. The 
Russian destroyers were 
steaming to and fro in 
disorder, and they were 
sufficiently dangerous 
diagram of "tzarevitch." neighbours in the night. 



Terrlfle Fire on 
the " Retvisan." 




814 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 10, 1904. 



— ^ ^ 




- • K.V^A 








The last phase of the battle had 

not been clearly seen from the 

Japanese ships in the growing 

darkness, and 
Help for .. 

Kamimura. '^ '''^^ ^"P 

posed that the 

Tzarevitch had gone to the bottom, 

and that the Pallada and Diana 

had shared her fate. Admiral' 

" TZARK\ ITCH " (port side). Togo had fresh cares to occupy 

his mind. He summoned the torpedo officers of the Japanese flotillas to his flagship, and gave them 

orders to attack with all possible determination the remnants of the Russian fleet. His two cruiser 

squadrons were already steaming to the mouth of the Yellow Sea to intercept those Russian craft 

which had escaped from the battle, 

and to support them he sent a 

certain number of destroyers and 

one or two of his older ships, 

while he himself moved in the 

same direction, so as to be able 

to aid Admiral Kamimura, who 

was stationed in the Straits of 

Korea, in case, under cover of 

darkness, the Russians turned and 

attempted to slip through to Vladi- " tzarevitch ■• (starboard side). 

vostock. He may have been short of ammunition. The Russians hold that this was the case, as the- 
Japanese had fired much faster than the Russian guns, while the injuries to the Mikasa were such as to 
demand attention. Kamimura had been warned the moment the Russians came out, but as he had also 

to be on the look-out for the 
Vladivostock ships he might well 
need help. Togo, indeed, felt 
certain that most of the Russian 
vessels had suffered grave injury^ 
but it was just possible that one 
or two of their battleships might 
remain in a condition to cause 
trouble. 
"ASKOLD" (port side). ^\x(t\-\ the Japanese fleet drew 

off, the Tzarevitch separated from the rest of the Russian fleet in the confusion and darkness, and 
turned south-eastwards, making for Kiaochau, as the Japanese torpedo flotilla was between her and Port 
Arthur. She was in such a con- 
dition that her crew had no hope 

of fighting 

with success ; 

owing to the 
injury to the funnels, the coal 
consumption had risen enormously, 
and the stokers had their work cut 
out to maintain steam. Instead 
of burning 8o tons per day she "askold" (siarbo.ird side). 

... ,, , DIAGRAMS TO SHOW THE DAMAGE DONE TO THE 

consumed 470 tons, while all her "askolu.- 




^///////yy/>yy/y///y///y/y/y/^^ ^^^^^ 




"Tzarevitch" at 
Kiaochau. 




TZAREVITCH " AND 



August 10, 1904. 



FLIGHT OF DESTROYERS. 



815 




charts and compasses had 
been destroyed. Her sur- 
viving officers steered her 
by the stars. The Japanese 
torpado flotilla delivered 
repeated attacks upon her, 
but without success, as all 
their torpedoes went wide. 
She gained Kiaochau upon 
the evening of August 1 1, 
having seen nothing more 
of the Japanese fleet. 
The other Russian 
battleships 

?ci?t%'rttr P--eded 
very slowly 
to Port Arthur, continually 
attacked by the Japanese 
torpedo craft, which, how- 
ever, fired their torpedoes 
at too great a distance to 

inflict injury, and as the morning of the nth dawned the battered remnant of the fleet regained the 
harbour, where it was speedily joined by the Pallada. The battleships, with one or two exceptions, 
were so much damaged that it was out of the question for them again to put to sea ; they remained in the 
harbour huddled up together in the only places where shelter could be obtained from the shells of the 
Japanese siege guns, and though efforts were made to repair them, the resources of the dockyard, cut off 
from Russia, were not equal to the strain. 

Of the Russian destroyers, the Bestrachny, Bezposchadny^ and Beshumny parted from the Russian fleet 
as darkness came on, and steered towards the Hall Islands, on the coast of Korea, then, turning south, they 
kept close in to the Korean 



KUXNKI, OF THE " ASKOLD ' 

WHARF AT SHANGHAI. 
A man is to be seen working inside it. 



LANDED ON THE DOCK 



Destroyers at 
Kiaochau. 



coast. Dur- 
i n g the 



night the 
Bezhuinny parted from the 
other two, and steamed 
for Kiaochau direct. The 
others at daylight sighted 
a Japanese cruiser, and at 
once steamed back among 
the islands. Cautiously 
emerging an hour or two 
later, they suddenly sighted 
five Japanese cruisers, two 
of which, the Takasago 
and Kasagi, at once gave 
chase. The only possible 
course was to retire into 
the shallows, where these 
ships could not follow 
them. This they did ; and 




\bK.OLt)," SHOWING WHERE THE TOP OK THE FH'TH FUNNEL FELL 
WHEN KNOCKED OVER BY A 12-lN. SHELL. 



816 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 12. 1904. 




I'ORTIO-N UK THE KIFTH FUNNEL OK THE " ASKOl.lJ." 
A 1 2-in. shell penetrated it on the port side, and burst with result as shown. A shell entered by the hole through 

which daylight can be seen. 



then, to escape the vigilant 
quest of the Japanese ships 
which remained in the 
offing, l<eeping a sharp 
looi<-out, they turned north 
to the Seoul River and 
there waited till the after- 
noon, hoping that the 
watchers would tire and 
withdraw. Fortunately for 
them, the Japanese had 
none of their own torpedo 
craft \\ithin call, or it 
would ha\e gone very 
hard with these Russian 
boats. About 4 p.m. they 
came out again, and headed 
south, but at once found 
the Japanese cruisers in 
their path. A second 
time they retreated to the 

shallows, and after a short wait made a final attempt to escape, quitting their lurking-place about 5, and 

steering directly west. This time they saw no Japanese ships except a destroyer a long way off, and on 

the morning of the I2th reached Kiaochau. 

The Bezhumny, after parting from her two consorts, made for Chemulpo, but soon found the waters 

about that place unpleasantly dangerous, and received the unwelcome attentions of the Takasago and 

Kasagi. These two ships seemed to be preparing an attack upon her, and no course was open but to 

bolt for the open sea in broad daylight. Immediately she found the two cruisers following in pursuit. She 

gained some start of them at the outset, as her men pressed their engines desperately \vith the one desire to 

get away, but gradually the Japanese ships began to close on her. Renewed efforts in the destroyer's stokeholds 

increased the gap once more, and after about two hours' chase one of the Japanese (fruisers turned north. 

The other still continued her pursuit ; but when almost in sight of Kiaochau, she, too, turned aside and left 

the Russian vessel to continue her way unmolested. It was fortunate for the Bezhumny that the Japanese 

drew off, as immediately afterwards the stokers and 

engineers collapsed from e.xhaustion and the engines 

broke down. The Bezhumny stopped and effected 

repairs unmolested, and a few hours later steamed 

into Kiaochau, her crew declaring that the strain they 

had undergone had made them old men. 

As for the Askold, Diana, and Novik, in their 

retreat they picked up the Russian destroyer Grosovoi, 

which joined company with them. They were 

speedily engaged with the fast Japanese cruisers 

ASAMA, Takasago, Kasagi, and Chitose. The 

Askold was repeatedly hit by the Japanese 8-in. and 

6-in. shells, which damaged the funnels, blowing away 

the upper half of the sternmost of her five tall 

smoke-stacks, damaging her eighth boiler and 

fracturing seven of its water-tubes. Other shells 

, ^ . ^, _. , ^ • c J , -n- A SHELL HULL , O.N JUL vV.. 

burst m the officers quarters, causmg fires and killmg " askold." 





Drawn by Charles DJxon, R.I.] THE LAST SORTIE OF THE RUSSIAN FLEET FROM PORT ARTHUR. 
The hail of shot and shell was so terrific that tires constantly burst out on the RussLin vessels. 



[From a sketch. 



818 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 12. 1904. 




HARBOUR AX SHANGHAI WHERE THE RUSSIAN VESSELS " ASKOLU ' A.NU ■ GROSOVOl, DKIVKN 

TOOK SHELTER AMONG THE WARSHIPS OF THE OTHER POWERS. 



IKUiM FORT ARTHUR, 



two men on deck above, while four projectiles struck her close to the waterline or below it, tearing 
great rents and making the ship leak badly. But her enj^ines and most of her boilers remained 
intact, and though the damage to the funnels caused a loss of steam, she was able to escape from 
her assailants by raising her speed. As she drew off, four Japanese torpedo-boats attacked her. Their 
torpedoes passed close to her, but just failed to hit. She claims to have sunk one of the boats, but the 
claim does not appear to rest upon any solid foundation. During the fight she lost sight of the Diana and 
the Novik, which steered different courses and used their highest speed to get away from the Japanese. 

Finding that the Askold had drawn clear of the hostile cruisers, Admiral Reitzenstein, who commanded 

her, slowed down and examined the condition of his ship. His loss in men was small — only one officer and 

ten men were killed ; four officers and 1 5 men were severely wounded, and 29 officers 

^••^skold ' ^ ''"^ vn^n sh"ghtly wounded, a total of 59 out of a crew of about 500, or little more than 
ten per cent. But in view of the leaks and of the heavy coal consumption caused by the 
loss of the after-funnel, and damage to the first and second funnels, the admiral came to the conclusion that 
the only course open to him was to make for a neutral port and abandon all hope of reaching Vladivostock, 
though, had he been a determined officer, there was nothing to prevent him from at least attempting the 
passage of the Korean Straits. He therefore steamed for Shanghai, and arrived there on the 1 2th, on which 
day the Grosovoi also made her appearance at that neutral port. The Diana headed straight for Saigon, 
while the Novik entered Kiaochau, and coaled there under the German rule that a belligerent warship was 
to be allowed twenty-four hours' grace within a German port, after which, if she was not ready to put to sea, 
she must be disarmed. 

Of the other destroyers, the Burny was sighted by the Japanese battle-fleet and chased some distance 
in the direction of Weihaiwei. Despairing of escape, her commander ran her on the rocks on August 12, 




THE HARBOUR AT SHANGHAI. ANOTHER VIEW. 



August 12, 1904. 



THE "RESHITELNY" INCIDENT. 



819 



The "Burny' 
Stranded. 



N 


\ 




B 


/ 


/ 


■"/i^m- 


i?<?'^fe;:,.,i5l.,>^ 


x 


■ " -A 


^^Hb 


"■•«,;'■ - 


*"•• ■ - 




■ ._ . ■,.*■•, -. . -M 






PjRi 


r« 








I 


^ 


;^^| 


ysi 


fl 






■; 



and after destroying her hull with explosives, marched with his crew to Weihaiwei, 

where he surrendered to the British authorities, and was detained with his men, till the 

close of the war. The mistake of permitting the Russians to go upon parole, which 

had been committed by Captain Baily of the Talbot with the Chemulpo prisoners, was not repeated, perhaps 

because it was already known that these paroled men had been drafted on board the ships of the Baltic 

Fleet, though no protest against this breach of faith appears to have been made by England. 

Thus of the eight destroyers which accompanied Admiral Vitgeft five have been accounted for. Two 

more made their way back into Port Arthur with the defeated fleet, while the eighth — the Reshitelny—'m 

obedience to her orders steamed towards Chifu as night came down, carrying despatches 
The " Reshitelnv " <=, ^ o i 

from Admiral Vitgeft, the purport of which was to ask that the Vladivostock fleet 

might be ordered to put to sea and make for the Straits of Korea, to support the Port Arthur fleet. On her 
run towards Chifu she was chased, but, fortunately for the Japanese, without success, by the Japanese 
destroyers ASASHIO and Kasumi, under Commander Fujimoto. They followed her for some distance and 
then lost touch of her in the dark. During the night she entered Chifu harbour and handed over her 
despatches to the Russian 
Consul, and thus had a 
direct hand in bringing to 
pass the second great 
naval disaster which in 
August befel the Rus- 
sians. As an excuse for 
resorting to Chifu was 
needed, her captain, Lieu- 
tenant Rostchakovsky, 
spread the report that his 
engines had broken down 
and that he had been 
compelled to make for the 
harbour to effect repairs. 
Possibly he hoped that 
the Chinese authorities 
with their usual weakness 
would accord him time to 
effect repairs and depart. 
But a few hours after his 
arrival the Chinese 
Admiral Sah, command- 
ing the small Chinese 
squadron of cruisers, 
which had its headquarters 
at Chifu, called upon him, 
probably at the instance 
of the Japanese Consul at 
Chifu, who acted with the 
usual energy and dis- 
cretion of his countrymen, 
requiring the surrender of 
the destroyer's armament, 
ammunition, and certain 
parts of the machinery. 



<^ 



m 



'T'i 



11 



A 



f 



^, 



*» 






SERVICE ON BOARD THE DAMAGED RUSSIAN CRUISER '* ASKOLD ' AT .SHANGHAI. 



820 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 11, 1904. 




1 

! 


■ 


- 


F" '• 



THE RUSSIAN TORPEUO-BOAT DESTROYER 
SHANGHAI. 



' GROSOVOI " AT 



A Dramatic 
Incident. 



Lieutenant Rostchakovsky gave liis 
promise that these objects should be 
given up, and the late afternoon of the 
nth was fixed as the time at which the 
disarmament was to take place. The 
Russian flag was hauled down, the crew 
singing the National Anthem and shed- 
ding tears. There is reason to think 
that the Japanese doubted the com- 
pleteness of the disarmament, or the 
power of China to detain the destroyer, 
which might have become a very serious 
danger in the rear of their fleet. They 
knew that the Russian officers and crew 
remained on board, that the vessel was 
fully coaled, and that all the ammuni- 
tion, torpedoes, and explosives had lifot 
been removed. At the same time they had not forgotten the equivocal conduct of the Russians in 
the affair of the Mandjur earlier in the war, or the numerous breaches of parole committed by the 
Russian officers and men interned at neutral ports or liberated on their promise not to serve again. 

The Japanese Consul probably communicated his doubts to Commander Fujimoto, and that officer 
determined to take a bold course, the moment he was certain that his enemy was inside the port. 
Late in the night of the Ii-i2th he brought his two destroyers quietly into the 
harbour, with their crews at the guns and all prepared for battle. Lieutenant 
Terashima of the ASASHIO was ordered to row to the Reshitelny with ten petty 
officers and seamen bearing a challenge to the Russian commander. He was to call upon the Reshitelny to 
come out and fight, or take the choice of being attacked at the anchorage where she was lying. The 
lieutenant rowed off, while the two destroyers closed in slightly upon the Russian boat in order to give 
support in case it should be required. The Chinese admiral had meantime noticed the Japanese destroyers 
steaming quietly in, and had sent word to them that the Russian vessel had been disarmed and the crew 
paroled. According to the Chinese version. Commander Fujimoto thereupon stated that he was satisfied 
and would not molest the Reshitelny. It is, however, doubtful whether such a pledge was really given, for 
throughout the war no Jap- 
anese officer ever broke his 
word. 

The boat from the 
ASASHIO reached the Reshi- 
telny, and the party of Jap- 
anese climbed on deck. Ter- 
ashima and Rostchakovsky 
had a stormy interview, in 
which the Japanese called 
upon the Russian to come 
out and fight, and the Russian 
declined. Seeing that the 
two destroyers were closing 
in upon him, Rostchakovsky 
ordered one of his men in 
Russian to go below and ex- 
plode the magazine, so as to diagram of togos ship ■■ mikasa." 





THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN A RUSSIAN AND A JAPANESE OFFICER ABOARD THE " RESHITELNY. 



No. XXXV. 



822 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August IK 1904; 




destroy the Reshi- 
telny, and the others 
to be'ready to fight 
with their fists, since 
they had no other 
weapons. " I am 
unable to resist 
you," he told the 
Japanese officer, 
" but this is a gross 
breach of neutrality 
and of courtesy." 
The Japanese, un- 
moved, repeated his 
request, and added 
that, if the Russians 
surrendered, their 
lives would, of 
course, be spared. 
On this, Rostcha- 
kovsky sudden!)' 
grappled the 

Japanese officer and struck him a heavy blow, knocking 
however, he caught hold of Rostchakovsky and dragged his 

At the same 



RUSSIAN CRUISER " ASKOLD ' 



AS UAMA(.IU) l;\ 
PORT ARTHUR, 



I III. lAl'ANliSE AFTER 
AUGUST 10. 



THE FLIGHT FROM 




Terashima fell, 
into the water, 
fell upon the 



A Stormy 
Interview. 



THE "ASKOLD" AT SHANGHAI. 

As'soonas it was fast the cUing of haiTimers began. She looked like 
a fCrap.iron heap. Her funnels were like pepper-boxes. On the port 
side a d-in. pun had been blown off iu mountings and lay on deck. 
Without a double casing she would not have kept afloat. Holes 
below the water-line were plugged with canvas bags filled with cork- 
dust. 



him overboard. As 

enemy down with him 

instant the Russians 

armed party of the Japanese amid 
indescribable confusion, the Japanese 
using their rifles and bayonets. Some 
of them were forced overboard into the water, but as 
they fell they dragged Russians down with them. The 
two Japanese destroyers came close in, turned on their 
searchlights, and prepared to seize the Reshitelny, when 
there was a violent explosion in the magazine for- 
ward, which destroyed the bridge and killed a Japanese 
petty officer. On this the remaining Russians leapt 
into the sea and left the Japanese in possession of the 
destroyer. 

Rostchakovsky, freeing himself from the grip of 
Terashima, strove to swim back to his ship, but was at 
once fired at by the Japanese, and 
wounded. He was picked up, with 
a number of his men, by boats from 
neutral vessels and the Chinese cruiser Hai Yung, which 
remained inactive during the scuffle, and only steamed 
slowly to the Reshitelny when the fight had closed, 
flashing her searchlights upon the three destroyers. The 
A.s.-VSHIO instantly took the Reshitelny in tow and hoisted 
the Japanese flag upon her, sending on board a number 
of Japanese seamen. She then rapidly steamed out of 
the harbour with her prize, leaving the Kasumi behind. 



The "Reshitelny" 
Captured. 



August 11, 1904. 



THE " RESHITELNY " AFFAIR. 



823 




LIEUTENANT ROSTCHAKOVSKY WAS FIRED AT WHILE SWIMMING, AFTER THE STRUGGLE ON THE " RESHITELNY." 

The Kasumi steamed towards the Chinese warships, which cleared for action and ordered her to stop, 
demanding the return and surrender of the Reshitelny. Commander Fujimoto, according to the Chinese 
report, promised that the destroyer should be given up, and said that he would follow the ASASHIO and 
bring her back, giving his word of honour to that effect. On this he proceeded to sea, and nothing more 
was seen of him. It is, however, exceedingly doubtful if any such promise was really given. 

The Japanese loss in this affair was one man killed and 15 wounded. Of the Russian crew, 
numbering 47, 43 escaped, and the fate of the remainder is uncertain. They may have been drowned, 
or they may have been taken prisoners. The Reshitelny was added to the destroyer flotilla of the 

Japanese fleet after undergoing re- 
pairs. 

In this affair the Japanese un- 
questionably acted in defiance of 
Chinese neutrality, but their case 
was that the Chinese were unable 
to enforce upon the Russians proper 
respect for their neutrality, as in- 
cidents at Shanghai, Newchwang, 
and various other places had shown, 
and that the danger to the Japanese 
fleet from this Russian destroyer, so 
long as she remained at Chifu, was 
such that for their own preservation 
THE RUSSIAN DESTROVER "RESHITELNY.' they had no choice but to act as 




824 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 



1904. 



\ 



Scale of Milet 



— — Komimuras f/eet 
Naniwa K Jakuchiho 




ShE A 



I I Japanese sight the Russtans 
211 M«i*artS Sight fJie Japanese 

3 HL The Battle begins 

4 U Japanese cross the Russian bowt 







TSUSHIMA 
I. 



I' 



" ' CecrgePluJipiScnLtd. 

MAP SHOWING THE MOVEMENTS OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK FLEET. 



they did. The justification offered was not 
unreasonable, for in all times the rule has 
been " Sa/us populi suprema lex." On a 
careful examination of the destroyer after 
her capture it was found that she had not 
by any means been completely disarmed, 
and that she could without any great 
difficulty have been repaired and taken to 
sea. 

This episode closed the stirring inci- 
dents connected with the great battle in 

the Yellow Sea. The 
The Nett Result. , - ^, 

nett result from the 

Russian standpoint was that one battle- 
ship, two good cruisers, and six destroyers 
were lost to the Russian Navy for the 
continuance of the war, without any loss 
whatever having been inflicted upon the 
Japanese. At the same time the five 
remaining battleships and the solitary 
protected cruiser were so damaged by 
the Japanese shells that they never again 
attempted to meet the Japanese fleet 
in battle, but remained in Port Arthur 
till the close of the siege, to perish miserably there. If General Stoessel is to be believed, their officers 
made up their minds that they would not again go out until the Baltic fleet arrived. But General 
Stoessel's evidence, since the full history of the siege has been known, does not inspire extreme confidence. 
The Russians, however, felt themselves to be beaten men, and had ascertained that there was no real 
foundation for their last and only hope — that the speed of the Japanese fleet might have fallen owing to 
the continuous hard work of the blockade. 

The losses were insignificant in comparison 
with the immensity of the result obtained. 

It had been expected that 

Japanese Losses. ^ i . , , i r w 

a great naval battle fought 

with the modern implements of war would 
prove deadly beyond imagination to human 
life and to the complicated masses of 
machinery which make up the modern war- 
ship. But this expectation was not fulfilled. 
The Japanese loss was comparatively small. 
In all 205 officers and men were returned 
in the first report as having been killed and 
wounded throughout the fleet. The MlK.\SA 
suffered far the most, losing four officers and 
28 men killed, and 10 officers — among them 
Prince Fushimi, Captain Ijichi, and Com- 
mander Uyeda — with 78 men wounded. As 
her crew numbered 741, she had thus one- 
sixth of her personnel placed hors de combat, a 
fact which testified to the severity of the 




DIAGRAM TO ILLUSTRATE KAMIMURA'S 



George PhiJXp & SonLui 
CROSSING THE T-" 



826 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August II, 1904. 




THE RUSSIAN iji:.sxroyp;r "burn'V" ashore off shantung promoxtorv. 



Russian fire upon her. 
With all this heavy loss, 
and despite the fact that 
she looked a complete 
wreck, her structural in- 
juries were insignificant. 
Her heavy guns and ma- 
chinery worked as well at 
the close of the fight as 
at the opening, and all the 
injury done was to the 
unarmoured portion of the 
ship, which was badly 
battered. Next in losses 
came the NISSHIN, which 
fought magnificently, but 
only lost 1 6 killed and 30 
wounded. The Kasug.\ 
had 1 1 wounded, the 
Yakumo 12 killed and 10 

wounded, the Chin Yen six wounded, the Asahi two, and the Idzumi one. On board the Fuji and 
As.\MA not a man was touched. In the torpedo flotilla 10 men were killed and eight wounded. Twenty 
additional casualties were reported some days after the battle. 

The Russian losses, from the want of precise reports from all the ships, are not so clearly ascertained. 
The main portion of the fleet, which returned to Port Arthur, lost, according to one account, 38, according 
to another 98, killed and 21 officers and 286 men wounded. In the Askold, as we have seen, one officer and 

10 men were killed and 
four officers and 44 men 

w o u n d ed. 

Russian r„ .. ^ 

Losses. ^" th^ 

Tsarevitch 

only 12 officers and men 

were killed and 49 

wounded, if the official 

report can be believed ; 

but it is thought that 

actually the loss was 

much heavier. The 

Diana lost four killed 

and 23 wounded, and 

was twice struck by 

i2-in. shells. The 

casualties on board the 

Novik and the destroyers 

which escaped are not 

known, but are not 

believed to have been 

serious, and probably did 

INSIUE A BARBETTE, SHOWING PAIR OF r2-INCH GUNS. ,-,q^. gxCCcd all told 20 
^?^J^'***'"'*'**'' *° place ammunition in breech of gun. (2) Platform for gun-pointer, who .stands with head in > > - 

Hgbung-tower X- (3) Lever» for working gun machinery. (4) Breech mechanism. (5) Platform for gun-crew. mon Th»» Riiccian 

(6) Porthole. IIlcii. iiic i\.ussiaii 




August 11. 1904. 



DAMAGE DONE. 



827 



casualties in the battle were thus 
between 500 and 600, or rather 
more than double the Japanese ; 
but the total of the killed was 
very small. In the thickly 

armoured part of the battleships 
no man seems to have been 
seriously injured. 

The structural damage to the 
Russian ships was far greater 
than that to the Japanese, as the 
result of the splendid Japanese 
shooting. In almost every battle- 
ship the funnels were badly 
damasfed, and in the Retvisan 
they are said to have been actually 
shot away towards the close of 
the fight. In the Tzarevitck and 
the Askold they were also badly 
injured. The Peresviet lost both 
her masts, and the Pobieda had 
hers damaged. The Retvisan 
had 1 5 hits from guns of 8-in. 





BROADSIDE TURRET AND PAIR OF 6-INCH GUNS ON RUSSIAN BATTLESHIPS, 
SUCH AS "POLTAVA" AND "SEVASTOPOL." 

calibre and over, and was struck once below the 
water-line, as also was the Tzarevitch. Both ships 
leaked considerably in consequence. The Poltava 
and Sevastopol were much knocked about in their 
upper works. The hull of the Tzarevitch when 
examined showed 13 wounds inflicted by 12-in. 
shells and two hits with 8-in. shells. In no 
case was the armour pierced, and only two of 
the heavier guns were put out of action. The 
ship appeared to be terribly damaged, looking 
at her from the deck, and the injury to the 
great military mast was unquestionably serious, 
while she had 150 tons of water in her as the 
result of a big shell which struck her just below 
her belt. But, as a matter of fact, she had been 
put out of action by the concentration of fire 
upon her conning-tower, and not by the destruc- 
tion of her battery. The huge shells which burst 
on board her did not wreck her as it wa.*? 
anticipated that they would, though the shock and 
blast were terrifying for those who were near 
the scene of the explosion. 

On the Askold there were 15 hits — two from 

the 12-in. shells of the 
Damage to the Japanese, six by their 8-in. 

shells, five by their 6-in. 
^^g^(,, „ shells, and two hits from small shells. Four of 



[Cribb photo. 



828 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 



1904. 




the hits were on or below the water-line, tearing 
large holes and causing serious leakage. The 
armour deck was not, however, damaged, nor 
did the men in the engine and boiler-rooms 
suffer. The loss of life on deck was small, as 
the guns were protected by shields. Moreover, 
the Japanese do not appear to have aimed most 
of their fire af the Russian cruisers, but to have 
directed it upon the far more important 
battleships. 

No ship was sunk in the battle, and on the 
whole the soundness of modern naval construc- 
tion was vindicated. But 

T^t^^'if^oo fought at long range, as this 

Torpedoes. ^ & t> > 

fight was, the 6-in. guns 
carried by so manj' of the ships proved almost 
useless, and in some cases scarcely fired a round. 
The heavy weapons did all the work, and the 
officers on either side would have been glad to 
exchange their 12 or 14 6-in. guns for half as 
many 8-in. guns or for another pair of 12-in. ■ weapons. The value of armour was conspicuously 
demonstrated, and the brunt of the battle on either side was borne by the heavy armour-plated battle- 
ships and cruisers. On the other hand the torpedo conspicuously failed, and accounted for not one 
single ship. It is said that Admiral Togo was much distressed by the inability of his torpedo flotilla to 
get home, and that after the battle he severely censured his torpedo officers. 



DI.AGRAM TO SHOW HOW THE J.\PANESE STREWED FLOATING 

.MINES OUTSIDE PORT ARTHUR. VESSELS STRUCK ONE, AND 

THEN THE OTHERS SWUNG IN, AND EXPLOSIONS TOOK PL.\CE 

AT THREE POINTS. 




THE TRAPPING OK THE VLAUIVOSTOCK FLEET 
The '* Gromovoi." '* Rouia " (in the foreground), and the " Rurik " tried to circle past Admiral Kamimuia's squadron, and received a terrific fire. 



August 11, 1904. 



THE VLADIVOSTOCK CRUISERS. 



829 




THE " GROMOVOI." 
Showing the damage to the '* Gromovoi " at Vladivostock after the combat of August 13-14. 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

THE DEFEAT OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK CRUISERS. 

ADMIRAL TOGO'S cautious conduct of the battle in the Yellow Sea was probably in part dictated 
by the fear that the Vladivostock fleet might at any moment appear in his rear and attack 
his weaker ships, as it was only to be expected that the two Russian fleets which were playing for 
so high a stake would act in the closest possible concert. Though Togo had no misgivings as to 
Admiral Kamimura's ability to defeat the Vladivostock ships in case they were sighted, it yet remained 
possible that they might make their way through the Straits ot 

Korea under cover of the rains and fogs which 

Togo's Caution. • ^u ,. j u- u 

are so common m those waters, and which on 

two previous occasions had stood the Russians in such good stead. 

As a matter of fact, however, the Russians grossly mismanaged 

their naval movements. There was no combination between the 

two fleets, and the Vladivostock ships, which ought 

to have started on August 7 if they were to give 

effective support to Admiral Vitgeft, remained in 
port till, on the nth, the Resh'^e/uys appeal reached them from Chifu. 
Forthwith the three large cruisers Gromovoi, Rossta, and Runk, 
which were the only three serviceable ships in the harbour, received 
orders to put to sea under Admiral Jessen, and to proceed at full speed 
for the Straits of Korea, where, they were given to understand, they 
would meet the whole Port Arthur fleet. They knew from the 
Reshitelny's message that the entire Port Arthur fleet had succeeded 

No. XXXV. • 



The Fleet Sets 
Out. 




VICE-ADMIRAL KAMIMURA. 

Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Squadron 
which sunk the * Rurik." 



630 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 12, 1904. 



in escaping from port, and it does not appear that news of the defeat and return to harbour of the 
squadron had been telegraphed to Vladivostock. The three cruisers were not ready to go out till the 
morning of the I2th, on which date, fully coaled, they put to sea. 

At the hour of the Russian sortie Admiral Kamimura had been proceeding north with his four 
armoured cruisers, probably for the purpose of laying mines about Vladivostock. The moment it was 
known that the Russian fleet had steamed out of Port Arthur he was ordered to move southwards to 
the Straits of Korea, in order to prevent the passage of any of the remnants of Admiral Vitgeft's squadron. 
A little later he was instructed to detach the TSUSHIMA, which had hitherto been doing patrol work 
in the straits, and she was sent round towards the Straits of Tsugaru, and presently reinforced by the 
Chitose, which powerful cruiser Admiral Togo detached from his fleet to help in keeping a watch upon the 
Russian fugitives. Thus both the southern entrances to the Japan Sea were now closely watched, and only 
the Soya or La Perouse Strait, far to the north, remained open. 




Kamimura's Fleet. 



THE SINKING OF THE " RURIK." 

All the 1 2th and 13th the weather in the Straits of Korea continued thick and foggy, so that 
had the Russian fleets moved simultaneously their junction could scarcely have been prevented, and a 
grave disaster might even have overtaken Japan. But at this great crisis of her destiny 
fortune turned at last, and turned in her favour. As Admiral Kamimura was 
steaming slowly through the mist, late in the night of the I3-I4th, bewailing his evil fortune, 
a light' wind suddenly blew, the fog lifted, and the early day dawned brilliantly clear. He had with 
him the four excellent armoured cruisers IZUMO, AzuMA, ToKIWA, and IWATE, which even now, after 
months of cruising, were good for 18 knots, and which carried a far heavier armament than their 
Russian opposite numbers. He was off" Fusan, some 30 miles to the north of the northern end of 
the island of Tsushima, when, about 4.45 a.m., thCylook-out man suddenly reported three strange ships on 
the port beam, eight to ten miles away, proceeding, south-west upon a parallel course. In an instant 
the admiral realised that these were the long-soughtrfpi? Vladivostock ships, and that his day of reckoning 
with his enemy for the cruel destruction of so many Japanese and neutral ships was at hand. 



THE HORRORS OF WAR. 



831 




THE SINKING OF THE " RURIK.' 

The scene in the " flats * of a RuBsian battleship when slnlcing 



832 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 14. 1904. 



Kamimura's 
Action. 



The excitement on board his fleet was great, for officers and men alike were burning to get at the 
Russian ships. But he himself had determined that this time there should be no chance of his enemy's 
escape. Instead of ordering his engineers to increase speed he directed them to 
reduce it, and slightly altered course so as to permit the Russians to get much further 
to the south. The three Russians clearly failed to sight him ; they continued on 
their course tranquilly, and a few minutes later had placed themselves in a position where retreat without 
a battle was out of the question. During those minutes Kamimura called up all his reserves — the two old 
but powerful cruisers Naniwa and Takachiho, and his torpedo flotilla— and, as they took in his signals on 
their wireless instruments, they turned their bows to the scene of impending battle. Meantime Kamimura 
instructed his compact fleet of armoured cruisers to " prepare for battle," an order which was speedily 
executed, seeing that " Ready, ay, ready! " might be said to be the motto of the Japanese Navy. A minute 
or two later the battle-flags were hoisted, and the four cruisers altered course to close with the Russians. 




THli SINKING OF THE " RURIK." 

The Russian admiral was eight miles to the south of the Japanese squadron, steering south-westwards 
to make for the Yellow Sea, when he sighted this formidable force between him and the Korean coast 
steering a course which appeared to him to be generally parallel. He turned at once and steered north-east 
to regain safety, in the faint hope of escaping a battle, and then, as the Naniwa and Takachiho were 
coming up from the east, turned again alrpost due north. The engineers were ordered to press their 
boilers to the utmost, and the three great cruisers were speedily racing through the water. The Japanese 
had turned even as the Russians turned, and were now going on the same course, while their speed was 
such that it was clear a battle was inevitable. The Rossia led the Russian column ; the IZUMO, followed 
by the IWATE with Kamimura's flag, led the Japanese van. The two .squadrons slowly neared each other, 
and about 5.25 a.m. by Japanese time they were within long range. Already the Rurik was dropping to 
the rear, and her captain signalled that the speed was too hot for his ship to last long. 

Noting that the range was decreasing, Kamimura, who had worked well ahead of the Russians, slightly 



834 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 14, 1904. 




Crossing the T- 



CHINESE ARTIFICERS REPAIRING THK " ROSSIA." 

altered course and turned to stand at full speed right across the bows of his enemy. With his line he 
formed the head of the letter T) while the Russian ships formed the perpendicular 
shaft. This manoeuvre enabled him to bring the broadside batteries of all his four 

ships to bear upon the Rossia, the leading ship in the enemy's line, while the enemy could only fire the 

bow-chaser guns. It gave 
him no fewer than i6 8-in. 
long-range weapons 
against the Rossia's two 
— a crushing superiority in 
force — while every shot 
that the Japanese guns 
sent home would rake the 
Russian ship from end to 
end. It was the maturuvre 
which in modern war 
every admiral attempts to 
accomplish. The Japanese 
movement was not .seen 
in time from the Russian 
ships, and it succeeded. 
Kamimura passed across 
the Rossia's bows, pouring 
into her at 8,000 yards a 
terrible fire, which killed 
lier captain on the bridge, 

SUKVlVOKb OV IHt ■ kUKiK" AND THE JAPANESE VED CKO.SS NURSES AT SASEBO. hurlcd SplultCrS m Clouds 




»> 




836 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 14, 1904. 



from her bows .as the 8-in. shells went home, and seemed to set her ablaze. Finding himself in 

an almost desperate position, Admiral Jessen turned sharply away in a north-westerly direction, 

--leering towards the Korean coast and bringing his line roughly parallel to the Japanese. This 

manoeuvre succeeded, but it had the disastrous effect of making the Riirik, the 

"^Hk" weakest and slowest ship of the three, the target of the Japanese. A tempest 

,of projectiles descended upon her, enveloping her in dense black clouds of 

smoke. Her engine-room stafT were appealed to to press the engines to the utmost, her stokers 

were plied with (vodka, and for some few minutes she made 17 knots, and drew a very little away 




[Ruddiman Johnston photo. 
THE DAMAGED RUSSIAN WARSHIP "POBIEDA" IN PORT ARTHUR. 

Irom the Japanese. But, as on board the Russian ships in the great battle of August 10, the spurt 
soon died away. The Japanese gunners cheered each other as their shots went home ; they fired as 
steadily and rapidly as if at target practice. Every thirty seconds the guns in the two turrets of each ship 
launched a deadly bolt upon the Rurik, and the men who laid the guns remembered the fate of the Idzumi 
Mard, and of the Hitachi, and took their vengeance. A great fire could be seen blazing on board her. 
The Japanese heavy guns were turned on the scene of the conflagration, while the lighter weapons fired at 
the fore-.bridge and conning-tower. The captain, Trusofif, and the second-in-command, Commander 
Khlodovsky, were mortally wounded near the tower by shell splinters. An instant later the second 
comniander was hit by a projectile on the bridge, where he was standing, and was killed. Five or si.x shells 
struck the Rurik in the steering-engine compartment, and one damaged the rudder, twisting it badly, while 
another broke a huge hole in the compartment, admitting the sea and breaking the chains which connected 
the tidier with the engine. The Rurik signalled, " Steering gear has ceased to work," and broke away from 
the Kgssrari Ime frt the most dreadful disorder and confusion. 

.JH; this-irtibment other Japanese ships were seen far away fast coming up to the battle. Admiral 
Jesse^-sigrralleif td the damaged ship to steer with her engines alone — a difificult task, and still more difficult 
when the engines are being pressed to the utmost. She dropped more and more astern, and an immense 



August 14, 1904. 



THE "RURIK; 



837 




PRIN'CE HIGASHl FUSHIMA. 
1 second in command of the Japanese cruiser " Chitose,' 
and helped to capture the " Novil:." 



column of smoke rose from the fire on board lier, while 
the hail of Japanese shells upon her added to the troubles 

of her crew. The main steam-pipes 
Disabled were injured, but appear to have been 

hurriedly repaired. To give her some 
small chance of making good her injuries, Admiral Jessen 
turned with the Kossta and Gromovoi and circled in between 
her and the four Japanese cruisers, at the same time ordering 
her by signal to make for the Korean coast, which rose grey 
and sombre only a few miles distant. As the two big 
Russian cruisers turned and circled round their consort, the 
Japanese repeated their T manoeuvre, crossing the bows 
of the Rossia and Gromovoi and pouring into them a terrific 
fire which raked them from stem to stern. Fires- broke 
out on board the Rossia and Gromovoi; smoke, flame, and 
sparks poured out from their port-holes. 

Meanwhile the Rurilc described circles liked a winged 
rabbit, amidst clouds of smoke and steam. On all three 




<,.>»«>»A^ Sip ./ 






r-Jj 



BIRD'S-EYE MAP SHOWING THE DISPERSAL OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK SHIPS AND WHERE THE "RURIK" SANK. 



838 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 14, 1904. 




THE RUSSIAN CRUISER " NOVIK." 



Russian ships beat inces- 
santly a stream of Japanese 
shells, as 
^nrf' hoses might 
pour oil 
upon some great fire, 
adding fuel to the flames. 
The four Japanese cruisers 
suffered little, as the 
Russians shot wildly and 
had been caught in a 
formation which gave them 
no chance. .The distance 
between the two squadrons 
steadily diminished till it 
fell to under 5,000 yards, 

and all the Japanese guns, light as well as heavy, were in action, hurling tons of -metal upon their adversaries. 
Twice the Gromovoi and Rossia sheered off, leaving their unfortunate comrade, while they strove to effect 
repairs or to extinguish the fires which raged on board, and which distracted the attention of their crews. 
Officers and men could be seen running to and fro on board them ; the confusion in them was great, and was 
increased by the pitiless hail of shells exploding on the upper deck and between decks, flinging splinters 
in all directions, tearing great holes in the funnels, at which the Japanese constantly fired, wrecking boats 
and ventilators, and twisting the ironwork of the bridges into fantastic shapes. So grave was the injury 
inflicted on the Rossia and the Gromovoi, that soon after 8 a.m. Admiral Jessen came to the conclusion that 
the only course remaining for him was to retreat to Vladivostock and abandon the Rurik. 

The Rurik now showed a heavy list, 
and was down by the stern. To her he 
made the signal 
" Steer for Vladivos- 
tock," which she re- 
peated, and seemed to obey, though she 
was already some two miles off. A white 
wave showed under her bow, and on 
board the other Russian cruisers, as they 
raced away for dear life, this was taken 
to prove the fact that she could still 
steam and was following at high speed. 
The four Japanese armoured cruisers 
followed the Rossia and Gromovoi ; the 
Naniwa and Takachiiio, which were 
fast nearing the scene of action, steamed 
towards the Rurik to deal her the coup 
de grace. With them were five torpedo- 
boats, and, seeing their approach, the 
Russians determined to destroy their ship. 
In past wars it has been held that a 
defeated crew who wreck or sink their ship 
of deliberate purpose have no claim to 
quarter, and may be left to sink with 
her • but the Russians were perfectly 




/ Scale cT M.Im 



Blowing up the 
"Rurik." 



MAP ILLUSTRATING THE FLIGHT OF THE 



Gtargt PhxlXfi. Sor. Ud 

'NUVIK." 



August M, 1904. 



BLOWING UP THE " RURIK. 



839 



aware that the Japanese were not likely to act upon that 
stern law. They attempted first of all to blow up the 
Rtirik, but failed because she was making water fast, and 
her explosives were apparently damped by the inrush. Still 
she flew the Russian flag, and fired from time to time with 
her smaller guns, without causing the smallest injury or loss 
to the Naniwa and Takachiho. These took up positions 
where their heavy guns would bear with effect, while the 
Russian cruiser's heavy guns were helpless, as she now lay 
like a log on the water, slowly sinking by the stern. With 
their lo-in. weapons the Japanese ships pounded her steadily, 
riddling her sides and causing fresh fires. Her great 
battery amidships became a scene of terrible slaughter, and 
men could be seen every instant leaping through the port- 
holes into the water, in their desperate anxiety to escape 
from the simoom of death that beat upon her. Her 
aftermast had fallen, her funnels were so injured that they 
tottered, her loss in officers and men was very great. As 
a last effort, though the range was much too great for 
effective practice, the Russians fired a torpedo at the 
Naniw.\, which went wide of the mark. 

The limit of resistance had been reached. Of 820 
officers and men who formed the crew at the beginning 
of the battle — for she carried a strong crew, in order that she might be able to supply men for 
prizes which her officers expected to take from the Japanese and British — nearly 200 were slain. 




CAl'TAIN KS.SKN OF llli; 



the 
and 




840 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 14, 1904. 



every part of her decks was strewn with 

the ghastly wreckage of human forms. 

Another 200 men 
Opening the 1 

Valves. ^'^""^ '"^''^ °'' ^^^ 

seriously wounded, 

leaving only 400 men to fight the ship 

and work the engines or effect repairs 

and extinguish the fires which broke 

out every few minutes as the big Shimose 

shells exploded, staining everything in the 

neighbourhood of the explosion yellow, and 

tearing men in pieces by their terrific blast. 

The order was given to open the Kingston 

valves, which admit the sea, and thus to 

sink her where she lay in the trough of 

the waves. At the same time the wounded 

were brought on deck and placed on 

mattresses, so that they might float as the 

ship went down. The boats had been 

smashed or riddled, and were absolutely 

useless. Many of the crew seized spars 

and life-belts, and made ready for the end. 




' ASAHI 



ICriblj pliulu. 
AGROUND IN AN KNGLISH PORT. 



THE JAPANESE 

But two or three guns still continued their fire, though they 
did less harm to the Japanese than the discharge of pea-shooters, and only brought upon the Riirik's 
crew yet further punishment. 

The bow of the cruiser was now rising in the air. The Japanese fired at her bottom as it came 
up green and glistening ; the stern was sinking more and more. The water poured in through her open 
port-holes ; the slant of the deck grew till it verged upon the perpendicular, and 
wounded men went sliding down it, with the wreckage of wood and steel, into the 
water. The Russian flag still flew ; but, seeing that the end had come, the Japanese, 
with great humanity, ceased their fire. The bow now stood up almost straight, showing the cruiser's 
blood-stained, shell-torn deck, when the sea seemed to heave upwards to receive her, and, with a final 
rush of smoke and flame the Rurik went to the depths, leaving some 620 men in the water floating 

on hammocks, clinging to spars, 
or borne by life-belts. 

The Japanese were now to take 
their final and magnificent ven- 



The " Rupik " Goes 
Down. 




Japanese 
Humanity. 



tSyiiiunU.-* & Co. photo, PorlMnouth. 
. THE JIUSSIAN GUNBOAX. -" OXVAJNI," SUNK BV A MINE. 
About 1,090 yards from Liaoticsban the Russian gunboat " Otvajni " struck a mine and sank. 



geance upon 
the very men 
who had 
cruelly shot to death the survivors 
of the Hitachi and Sado Maru. 
They did not leave their defeated 
adversaries to drown, though such 
action would have been permissible 
under the laws of war, in view of 
the fact that the Russians them- 
selves admitted the sea to the 
Rurik, and thus robbed the Jap- 
anese of their lawful prize. Both 
the Naniwa and Takachiho 



August 14. 1904. THE " ROSSI A " AND " GROMOVOI." 



841 



lowered boats, which rowed to the place where the Riirik had gone down, and, not without 
considerable risk to the Japanese, saved almost all the men in the water, including even the pet animals of 
the Russian crew, which were floating on mattresses. In all, 613 officers and men were rescued, more 
than a third of whom were wounded, and several of whom afterwards died of their wounds. 

The Rtirik was sinking when Admiral Kamimura's four armoured cruisers hove in sight from the north 
and approached the scene of the conflict. They had pursued the Rossia and Groinovoi for some miles, pouring 
into them a terrific fire, and inflicting upon them heavy loss. The sides of the two 
Russian cruisers, where not protected by armour, were riddled with holes ; the funnels 
were perforated in numerous places. The Rossia had no fewer than eleven hits below the water-line, causing 
her to leak seriously. All her heavy guns but three were put out of action, and a Japanese 8-in. shell 
exploding close to the ammunition-room set fire to the ship. The flames spread with great rapidity, and, 
to heighten the confusion, a second 8-in. projectile crashed into the ammunition-room and exploded there. 



The "Rossia.' 








THI. iAI.\M-.-K CO.Ml'LETl.\(; THE LtbTRUCnON OF THE " NOVIK." 

causing fearful carnage among the men who were striving to extinguish the fire. A number of Russian 
shells were involved in the flames, and they also exploded in quick succession. A series of violent 
concussions, accompanied by vivid flashes of flame, filled the crew with fear that the fire would reach 
the powder in the magazines, when a fresh violent explosion threw the men who were working in the 
neighbourhood of the fire in all directions. Lieutenant Nicholas was on the upper deck at the time when 
this explosion occurred, and was hurled high in the air ; but, falling on a number of dead bodies, suffered 
little injury. The fire was finally got under with extreme difficulty, Lieutenant Nicholas distinguishing 
himself by .seizing several heavy shells close to the spot where the fire was raging and flinging them 
overboard at great personal risk. 

The Gromovoi sufi"ered almost as terribly. Six projectiles hit her below the water-line, causing 
bad fires in the lower part of the ship and greatly reducing her speed owing to the 
The "Gromovoi." q^^^itity of water which she took on board. A heavy shell burst in the ward- 
room and wrecked it completely, reducing the furniture to splinters, but; strangely enough, sparing a 



842 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 14, 1904. 



parrot in a cage which hung in the room. Another shell burst in an officer's cabin, tearing the 
uniforms in it to tatters and setting it on fire. 

In the neighbourhood of the bridge and conning-tower the Japanese made numerous hits. A heavy 
shell struck one of the ventilators close to the conning-tower and exploded with a tremendous crash, 
flinging splinters against the tower. A number of fragments entered the tower through the sighting 
apertures — which, in this ship, were of considerable size — and, ricochetting against the top and sides, killed 
Lieutenant Bolotnikoff and wounded Lieutenant Diatchkofif. The quartermaster and two seamen were 
wounded, while two more seamen were killed on the spot. A fragment of this same shell struck Captain 
Dabitch, who was standing on the upper bridge, and wounded him in the back and chest, so that he had to 

be taken below to have his wounds dressed. 
The steering appliances in the conning- 
tower were temporarily put out of action, 
and the news of the injury to the captain, 
spreading through the ship, caused great 
discouragement. But, with remarkable 
bravery. Captain Dabitch came on deck as 
soon as his wounds had received attention, 
and showed himself to his men, with the 
words, " You see that I am all right." 

Owing to holes in three of her four 
funnels, the speed of the Rossia had 
fallen so much that she was in danger 
of separating from her comrade. The 
order was given to place explosive 
charges in the bottom and prepare to 
sink her. The decks were slippery wi'th 
blood, and the crews of the guns which 
still continued firing had to be renewed 
again and again from the reserves below. 
The black paint of the ship had takfen 
on a dirty brown colour, in which gaped 
huge holes bordered with streaks of 
bright yellow, caused by the lyddite or 
Shimose powder of the Japanese shells. 
All the boats were shattered to fragments ; 
in the officers' quarters the cabins were 
hopelessly wrecked. " Wherever one 
looked were stains of blood. Every- 
where a faint odour of burning flesh 
could be perceived, and human fragments 
were strewn everywhere." 

Such was the position of the two remaining Russian ships, battered till they were mere wrecks 
and almost incapable of further fighting, when suddenly and mysteriously, to the immense surprise of the 
Russians, Admiral Kamimura turned his line of battle to starboard away from the 
Russian ships, and, with a final broadside from all his guns, steamed rapidly from 
the battle south, thus voluntarily abandoning the complete victory which seemed within his grasp. The 
reason for this extraordinary proceeding was not disclosed at the time, but has since been explained by 
Admiral Kamimura himself The Naniwa and Takaciiiho were small and old ships, displacing 
between them only 7,400 tons. The Rtirik was large and comparatively modern, displacing 10,940 tons. 
It seemed to him possible that she might effect repairs and overwhelm the two small ships, since there 




AnMIKAL JESSEN, 
In command of the Russian Vladivostock Fleet. 



Kamimura Turns. 



August 14, 1904. 



BATTLE LOSSES. 



843 




JAPANESE OFFICER INSPECTING THE NUMBER OF RUSSIAN 

PRISONERS FROM THE "RURIK" AFTER LANDING AT 

TUKAHAMA. 



was no precedent 
in naval history 
for the defeat of a 
large and modern 
vessel by such 
weak units. 
Therefore he de- 
cided to break ofif 
the battle and re- 
turn to the help of 
Iiis comrades, re- 
garding it as the 
lesser of two 
calamities that the 
Russian cruisers 
Gromovoi and 
Rossia should be 
permitted to es- 
cape. He knew 
that he had handled 
them so severely that there would be little future fight left in them or their crews. 
The losses of the two sides in the battle were heavy. The Japanese cruiser 
IWATE is known to have been considerably injured, though her injuries were 
very speedily repaired. Forty-four officers and men were killed, including one lieutenant and one 
sub-lieutenant, and 65 wounded, including two lieutenant-commanders, Nomura and Sugano, and six 
other officers. Most of the loss was on board the Iwate. The Russian loss 
was far heavier than the Japanese. The Rurik lost her captain and second in 
command with seven other officers and 100 men killed or drowned, and nine officers and 278 men 
wounded, a total loss of 396 officers and men. The Rossia lost her captain, Berlinsky, killed, 
and six officers wounded ; the Gromovoi her captain, Dabitch, wounded, and four officers killed, while . 
five besides the captain were wounded. The number of seamen killed on board the two ships was 
135, and wounded 307. The total Russian loss in the three vessels was thus 249 killed and 606 
wounded, or about one-third of the men on board the three Vladivostock cruisers. In addition to the loss 
of men was the loss of the cruiser Rurik, which, though not of the most modern type, was yet a fine and 
powerful ship, displacing 11,000 tons, and armed with four 8-in. and 16 6-in. guns, and capable, when she 
was new, of steaming nearly 19 knots an hour. 

In his report to the Japanese headquarters Admiral Kamimura stated that " our ships suffered 
somewhat, but nothing serious," and ascribed his success to the virtues of the Emperor. The Imperial 
message thanking him and his crews for their conduct in the battle emphasised the fact that his sole duty 
had previously been the guarding of the Korean Straits, which was unquestionably meant as an answer to 
his critics in Japan. The Japanese noted, not without great satisfaction, that the Rurik, the only Russian 
ship which up to that date had been sunk in battle between the two fleets, had been the flagship of the 
Russian squadron which seized Port Arthur in the winter of 1897-8, after Japan had been ejected from her 
lawful conquest on the excuse that its possession by a strong Power would be fatal to the integrity 
of China. 

As for the Gromovoi and Rossia, they regained Vladivostock in so battered a condition that they did 
not again put to sea for months, and thus Japan was relieved of the constant threat which the Russian 
cruiser squadron exerted at a very critical period of the war. 

The news of this victory was speedily followed by another success. Of the Russian ships which had 
escaped from Port Arthur, the Novik alone made anv determined attempt to reach Vladivostock. She 



The Losses. 



844 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 19. 1904. 



The "Novlk.' 



coaled hastily off Kiaochau, without remaining at that place more than 24 hours, and then, on August 11, 
steered for the east coast of Japan, up which she hoped to pass, eluding the older Japanese vessels 
stationed in that quarter, and expecting to rea -h Vladivostock by the Soya or Tsugaru ' 
Straits. She had her bunkers full, and under these conditions was capable of covering 
the whole distance at 19 knots. To husband her resources, however, her captain only steamed at 10 knots. 
On August 13 the Novik was sighted from one of the Japanese signal-stations passing through the Straits 
of Van Diemen, immediately to the south of the main archipelago of Japan. The news indicated to the 
Japanese strategists that she was making for Vladivostock from the east, and they at once ordered the 
TsuSHIM-\ and ChitoSE — to which ships had been assigned the task of watching the Tsugaru and 




.\ NAVAL BATTLE AS SEEN BY PASSENGERS AT SEA. 
Drawn by Mr. Frederick Villiers from the *' Manchu Maru." 

Soya Straits — to be on the alert. The two Japanese cruisers remained in perfect readiness in the former 
strait, and, to embarrass the Russian ship as much as possible, orders were issued that the lighthouses were 
not to show a light at night. 

The island of Yezo, to the north and south of which are the Soya and Tsugaru Straits, is general!}' 
triangularly shaped, with its angles pointing north, south, and east. From the eastern angle the Aleutian 
Archipelago runs northwards towards the Arctic Ocean — forlorn and dreary islets, rising with immense 
volcanoes from a tempestuous sea. To pass inside their barrier, a ship steers by the deep channel between 
the islands of Kunashiri and Yeterofu, and then has a run of about 200 miles to the Soya Strait, between 
Yezo and the Russian island of Saghalien, along the northern coast of Yezo. I'rom the Tsugaru Strait to 
the Soya Strait it is 300 miles along the western coast of Yezo. To the north-east of Soya Strait, 
on Saghalien, is the Russian town of Korsakovsk, a dismal military settlement, with an indifferent harbour. 

On August 19, at 8.30 a.m., news reached the CuiTOSE and Tsushima that the Novik had been sighted 
passing Kunashiri that same day, and steering for the Soya Strait. She had only 200 miles to go to their 300, 
but they instantly started at full speed for the Soya Strait by the western route. Had the Novik used her 



tt46 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 20, 1904. 



The "Novik's" 
Voyage. 



speed her escape was certain, since she was faster than either of the Japanese ships ; but, as a matter of 
fact, by an amazing error of judgment, the Russian captain proceeded cahnly on his way at lo knots, 
apparently unaware that he had been seen from two points, and confident that no 
pursuit would be attempted. Thus he plaj-ed into the hands of the Japanese. On 
nearing the Soya Strait he steamed into the harbour of Korsakovsk — though this 
was open and unprotected — to re-fill his bunkers, and set to work to coal as though there had been no 
Japanese fleet within a thousand miles of the place. This was early on the morning of the 20th. 

The same morning the Chitose and Tsushima reached the Soya Strait, but could discover no 
sign whatever of the Russian vessel. They were filled with fear that she had made good her escape 
and got away to the west, but before giving up the quest Captain Takagi of the CniTOSE, who was in 
command of the two ships, ordered the TSUSHIMA to proceed eastwards through the strait and search the 




GENERAL KUROKI AT HIS HOME IN TOKIO. 
Kuroki was in command at the battles of Towan and Vushuling Pass. 



[T. Kuddiman Johnston pholu. 



coast of Saghalien, while the ClIlTOSE remained on the watch, patrolling the strait, so tiiat nothing would 
be able to get past her. The TSUSHIMA was selected for the work of reconnoitring, as she greatly 
resembled the Bogatyr, and it was hoped that the Russians might mistake her for one of their own 
ships. The look of the Chitose was well known to the Russians, since she had formed part of the 
fleet blockading Port Arthur, and had frequently exchanged shots with the Novik. 

For some hours the TSUSHIMA continued her patient search without seeing any sign of tiie Novik. 
About 4.20 p.m., however, she approached Korsakovsk, and as she neared it saw within the bay three short 

funnels and the one tall mast which distinguished her quarry. She attempted to 
Sighted. inform the ClllTOSE by wireless telegraphy that the Novik had been found. 

Simultaneously, either because she had seen the TsuSHl.M.\, or because her wireless 
instruments took in the Japanese signals, the Novik got under way and came out of the harbour, heading 




THE JAPANESE FLEET IN PURSUIT OF THE VLADIVOSTOCK FLEET 



848 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 20, 1904. 




[Bolak photo. 
GENERAL KUROPATKIN ADVISING HIS OFFICERS. 

due south at full speed in an effort to reach the Soya Straits. The TSUSHIMA instantly manoeuvred so as 
to cut her off, and a naval engagement became inevitable. 

Both vessels were of much the same size and type — protected cruisers with armoured decks, carrying 
guns behind shields. The TSUSHIMA was of 3,470 tons, and had the more powerful battery — six 6-in. 
quick-firers and ten 12-pounders. The Novik was of 3,100 tons, and carried six 47-in. guns with six 
3-pounders. Her great advantage lay in her speed, which '^vas fully three knots greater than the 
Tsushima's, and in her battery of torpedo-tubes, of which she had no fewer than five to the Tsushima's 
none. .The conditions were therefore not altogether unfavourable to the Russians, but they were unable to 
avail themselves of their great advantage owing to the bad shooting of their crew. About 4.30 p.m. tlie 
two vessels were within range, when both opened fire, steering parallel courses, the Tsushima's port 
broadside engaging the Novik's starboard guns. The firing at first was very fierce, and there was little to 
choose between the two, except that the Novik's shells passed just over the Tsushima, missing her by a 

few feet. The TSUSHIMA 
~ "^^^^^^ ^ fired at the Novik's water- 

line, and quite early in 
the fight made two hits 
there, which admitted a 
good deal of water and 
slowed the Russian cruiser. 
Meantime the Russians, 
noticing that wireless 
signals were being made 
from the TSUSHIMA, set 
their instruments to work 
to confuse the messages. 
The Chitose'S crew in 
consequence had great 
difficulty in reading the 
signals from theTsuSHIMA 
as to the exact spot where 
the fighting was going on, 
but the word Korsakovsk, 
which could be deciphered, 
GENERAL KUROPATKIN USING A FIELD TELESCOPE. ' " ^t last revealed the Secret, 




[Victcr Bulla photo. 



850 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



August 20, 1904. 




The "Novik" 
on Fire. 



JAPANESE ARTILLERY IN ACTION. 



(Kudilinian Johnston photo. 



and the CiilTOSE started 
full speed from the Soya 
Strait to join in the battle. 
No very great damage 
had been done on either 
side by 30 
minutes of 
long - range 
firing, when in quick suc- 
cession the Tsushima 
burst two 6-in. shells on 
the Novik's deck. Their 
explosion wrecked the 
deck, caused great confu- 
sion, and set the Novik on 
fire. Another shell struck 
her about this time below 
the water-line and disabled 
six of her twelve boilers, 
while the steering-gear was 



hit and put out of action. With his ship ablaze, and smoke and steam pouring from her, the Novik's 
captain turned and ran for the shore, hotly pursued by the TsuSHLMA. The Russian ship was 
only saved from immediate destruction by a fortunate accident, which compelled the Tsushima to draw 
off. A 45-pound shell from one of the' Novik's guns, almost the last shot fired, ricochetted from the 
water some distance short of the TSUSHIMA and struck her on the water-line in the bows, causing 
her to leak badly. She was compelled to draw off and make repairs, which were easily effected, 
but by the time the work had been done it was too dark for further fighting. 

At this juncture the Chitose appeared on the scene. Captain Takagi ordered the TSUSHIMA to 
steam off to the Soya .Strait, in order to prevent the Novik from slipping through in the dark, and 
himself proceeded 
to Korsakovsk. 

The It ^^as, 
"Novik" h o w - 

Sunk. 

ever, 

too dark to make 
out the Novik 
clearly, and the 
large Japanese 
cruiser remained 
all the night oft 
the bar, using her 
searchlights to 
watch the harbour. 
Meanwhile the 
Novik's captain 
had endeavoured 
to effect repairs 
and put to sea in 
the hours of dark- 
ness, but found It JAPANESE ARTILLERY WAGGON. 




[Ruddiin.in Juliiibton pholo. 



A GREAT RUSSIAN GENERAL. 



851 




GliNKKAL KUKUI'ATKIN. 
The General was trained by Skobeleff, and was Russian Minister of War. 



852 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 30, 1904. 




9 Japanese 

„ line of advance 
^ Russians 

hjeaidxjuxxrters 
■.Batteries 



Geor^ Philip «t Son Ltd. 
OWAN AND 

Russian forces, placed at wide intervals, barring; his way. The 



MAP SHOWING THE JAPANESE ADVANCE ON TOWAN AND 
YUSHULING PASS. 



impossible to get the rudder in working 
trim. Seeing the flashing of the search- 
lights off" the harbour, and knowing that 
two Japanese warships, each superior in 
force to the Novik. were on the watch for 
him, he decided to sink the Novik in 
shallow water, and, with the crew, to retire 
inland. The town of Korsakovsk was 
evacuated during the night. 

At 6 a.m. the next day the Chitose 
steamed into the harbour, and found the 
place abandoned and the Novik sinking. 
She opened fire on the vessel to complete 
its destruction, using her powerful 8-in. 
guns. A very few rounds reduced the 
once proud Russian ship to a mass of 
steel wreckage, when, having brilliantly 
accomplished their task and destroyed 
the Novik, the two Japanese cruisers turned 
south. This was the eighth important 
vessel lost to the Russian Navy in the 
war, the others having been the Variag, 
Boyartn, Yenesei, Petropavlovsk, Tzare- 
vitch, Askold, and Diana. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

CLOSING IN ON LIAOYANG— 
BATTLE OF TOWAN. 

THE capture of Tashihchao by 
General Oku's army was the signal 
for a fresh advance all along the 
Japanese line. The centre at once attacked 
Simucheng, while on the right General 
Kuroki, on the afternoon of July 30th, 
gave instructions for his three divisions 
to push forward yet another stage upon 
the road to Liaoyang. There were two 
weaker was at the Yushuling Pass, to which 




;.^. 




SHOWING HOW THE HIGH MILLET WAS USED AS A SCUE 



[Ccpyright, 1904, by "Collier's Weekly.' 
"EEN. 



A JAPANESE DASH. 



853 




THE RUSH OF THE JAPANESE GUARDS AGAINST THE CONICAL HILL. 



No. XXXVI. 



854 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 30, 1904. 




RUSSIANS MAKING KORTIFICATIONS AX SIMUCHKNU. [Bulla photo. 

the Russian armies to the south off from their base. The second and stronger army under General Count 



it had retired after 
its severe defeat at 
Chautoa a fortnight 
earlier. Its mission 
was to pre\ent the 
Japanese from ad- 
vancing along the 
road through An- 
ping to Liaoyang 
(see map, p. 663), 
and thus cutting 



Kurokl's Dual 
Plan. 



The Russian 
Position at Towan. 



Keller was posted in the neighbourhood of Towan, covering the Yangtzuling Pass and menacing the 

Japanese positions in front of the Motien. It was General Kuroki's intention to 

attack both these forces simultaneously, and thus fight two battles on one and the 

same day. The operations against the two forces were quite distinct, and resulted in 

two distinct actions. The Japanese 12th Division and a small part of the 2nd Division was engaged at 

Yushuling, while at Towan the Guards and the other part of the 2nd Division conducted the fighting. 

The total Russian strength was placed at 60,000 to 
80,000 men, against 70,000 Japanese, as General Kuroki's 
divisions had now been reinforced by reserve brigades. 

At Towan the Russians held a very strong position, 
which had been improved by every art of the engineer. 
They occupied a chain of heights 
overlooking the broad, cultivated valley 
of the Lanho, and on the chief emi- 
nences had constructed skilfully concealed emplacements 
for batteries. Along the ridges 32 powerful quick-firing 
field-guns were mounted, and all the ranges had been 
measured and marked. Roads to move the guns back- 
wards and forwards had been carried up the steep slopes, 
and long lines of shelter-trenches had also been made 
facing the direction from which the Japanese advance 
would come. The trenches, unlike those at the Yalu, 
were deep and carefully excavated ; they gave complete 
shelter to marksmen, and were skilfully disguised, as 
boughs were placed in front of them, effectually concealing 
them from the Japanese gunner.s. There was no marked 
disparity in force between the two combatants. If the 
Japanese had many more guns, these were inferior in 
quality to the weapons which had just reached the Russians 
from Europe. The Russian positions were the best that 
could ha\e been discovered in Manchuria, and had been 
suitably prepared ; moreover, they dominated the ridges 
held by the Japanese. Of the Generals, Kuropatkin was 
supervising the operations on the Russian side, with 
General Keller under him. The only real difference 
between the two armies lay in the spiritual force which 
moved the Japanese— their passionate determination to 
.save their country from slavery. 




ANCIKNT PAGODA 



FinKlaM pagodas have seven, nine, or thirteen stories, while 

•ccood.claM ones have from three to five. Pagodas are still erecteti 

occxsionally — sometimes in iron. 



July 30, 1904. 



THE BATTLE OF TOWAN. 



855 



All the afternoon and night of the 30th 
the Japanese were moving forward through 

the bush-covered hills 
July 30th. ^ ^ , . . 

to take up their posi- 
tions for the trial of the next day. The 
plan of attack was for a small force to 
■demonstrate against the front of the 
Russian position at Towan, while the bulk 
■of the 2nd Division turned the Russian 
left, and the ist Brigade of Guards 
under General Asada turned the Russian 
right. If the Japanese troops were com- 
pletel}' successful, they might hope to 
destroy the whole Russian force. If 
they failed, the situation of the 12th 
Division, far to the north fighting the 
battle of Yushuling, would become one 
of extreme danger. But not for one 
single moment did any Japanese soldier 
■dream of failure. 

Before the Japanese took up their 
positions much pioneer work had to be 
accomplished. The tracks through the 
almost impenetrable brushwood which 
covers the Manchurian mountains had to 
be widened till they became roads. 
Boulders which would have obstructed 
the movements of the artillery had to 
be cleared away, and gun-positions pre- 
pared. The artillery officers, however, 
after a careful reconnaissance of the 
ground in the Japanese front, discovered 
that there were no good positions for the guns, while to reach the best sites available for batteries would 
mean hours of hard work, dragging the guns up the steep hills and passing ammunition up to 
them by hand. 

At two points there was some sharp fighting during the night. In front of the Japanese centre, late in 
the night of the 30th, a company of infantry was ordered to seize a steep hill held by the enemy. As the 
Japanese advanced they found their enemy on the alert, and were greeted with an avalanche of boulders 




[Photo Nouvelle«. 



GENERAL RENNENKAMPF IN HOSPITAL. 

He w,-\s in charge of Russian infantry at the battle of Yushuling, but was wounded in a 
later engagement. 




JAPANESE ENGINEERS BRIDGE CONSTRUCTING. 



tRuddinian Johnston photo. 



856 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 30. 1904. 




Colonel 

Ohara's 

Column. 



[Copyright by '* Collier's Weekly " in U.S.A. 
JAPANESE INFANTRY OF THE SECOND DIVISION ADVANCING ON LIAOVANG. 



which swept many ineiT 
away and wounded the 
com p a n y - 
commander. 
Their loss 
was 2 1, of whom several 
were killed, before posses- 
sion of the hill was secured. 
On the left Colonel Ohara's 
column of Guards, march- 
ing along a difficult, rock- 
strewn ridge, rushed with 
the bayonet two Russian 
outposts near Hanchia- 
put.se in the small hours 
of the morning, but then 
became the objects of a 
counter-attack, and were 
prevented from achieving 
any further advance till 
comparatively late in the 
day. In otherquartersmost 

of the night was spent in laborious efforts to get up the guns, without any serious molestation on the part oi 

the Russians, whose outposts had been forced to retire before strong Japanese advanced guards. Meanwhile, 

in stealth and absolute silence, the long columns of khaki-clad troops poured up through the passes, and as 

dawn broke were aligned along an amphitheatre of heights which curved about the Russian position. Far 

away to the south-west, and quite out of sight. General Asada with the Guards ist Brigade was marching 

to gain the Russian right flank and deliver the attack, which, it was hoped, would decide the fortune oi 

the day, and upon which everything depended. 

General Kuroki had his headquarters at one of the 

temples on the Motien, from which a magnificent view 
could be gained of the vast panorama 
of mountains that- spread before the 
Japanese. As the red fire of day 

glowed in the cast the tops of the great summits showed. 

Below them lay, like a sea, a dense cloud of mist 

shrouding the valleys and the lower slopes of the 

mountains from view. The fog was thickest along the 

course of the Lanho, and had it lasted it would have 

saved the lives of hundreds of Japanese. But as the hot 

summer sun rose swiftly in the sky the mist melted away, 

and the green depths of the mountain valleys were dis- 

clo.sed to view. On the crests the Japanese engineers and 

artillery were hard at work constructing hasty shelter for 

the batteries, which waited out of sight to come into action. 

A conspicuous object, gleaming white in the valley im- 
mediately below the Motien Pass, was a lofty tower built 

2,ooo years before.its sides decorated with images of Buddha 

and with delicate tracery, a landmark visible for many miles, 

standing just in front of the Russian left centre. 



Kuroki's 
Headquarters. 




iKudclira.-.H Jnluisl.Mi pholo. 
JAPANESE CAVALRY CROSSING A RIVER IN 
MANCHURIA. 



KELLER KILLED. 



857 




DEATH OF GENERAL KELLER. 
In his white tunic at the Battle of Toivan he was a conspicuous object. His aide-de-campi anJ officers warned him in vain of his danger. 



858 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 30. 1904. 




To the north of Towan, on a razorhke 
ridge, the 



Russian 
Emplacements. 



I<r>-IAN PRISONERS OK WAR Al MATSUYAMA. CAI'TLKEU Al 

TELlbSE. 

The officer with the white beaul is Colonel Metchersky. 



Russians had constructed 
elaborate emplace- 
ments for six guns. 
To the south of 
Towan were three other positions, one 
for eight, and two for four guns apiece, 
while another two positions each for four 
guns protected the right flank of the 
Russian army. It was from this series 
of batteries that the first shots of the 
battle were fired about 7. a.m., when 
the Russian gunners suddenly caught 
sight of the 2nd Guards Brigade at work 
entrenching itself in the neighbourhood 
of Makumentze. The very first shot 
from the Russian lines did great damage. 
It struck a gun in a Japanese battery 
which was but imperfectly protected, 
dismounted it, and killed the officer com- 
manding, at the same time wounding 
most of the gun-crew. The Japanese 
batteries at once replied, concentrating 
their shrapnel upon the batteries to the south of Towan, and directing no small part of their fire upon a 
number of dummy guns, which the Russians had placed in a conspicuous position near the white tower, 
manufacturing them of tree logs, painted black, mounted upon the wheels of Chinese carts. But when it 
was seen that the supposed guns made no sort of reply, the Japanese detected the stratagem, and left 
the dummy weapons in peace. 

The Russian gunners on this day surprised the Japanese by the rapidity and accuracy of their fire, 
Avhile the Japanese artillerymen 
found that the shrapnel which 

had been 
An Artillery Duel. , , 

brought up to 

their gun-positions was of little 
use at the extreme range at which 
the artillery fight was being con- 
ducted. They had to send to the 
rear for common shell, and these 
were brought up by hand by long 
-chains of men. A battery of the 
Japanese Guards Division at Sui- 
chantze was very roughly handled 
by the Russians, and its gunners 
were compelled to take shelter and 
Avait till the storm had passed, and 
till the slackening of the incessant 
■bursts of shrapnel around the aban- 
doned guns told that the Russians 
were receiving punishment in their 

. /. t T Li*.. [T. Rud.Iiman Juhnslon phutn 

turn from Other Japanese batteries. japane.se carrvinc; their wounded to hospital. 




July 30, 1904. 



MAP OF LIAOYANG DISTRICT. 



859 



The batteries to the south ot Towan were the first to feel the weight of the Japanese fire, as the guns 
on the Japanese centre and left concentrated their shells upon them, attacking them with indirect fire. The 
Russians could not locate the Japanese guns, and wasted an enormous quantity of ammunition in random 
shooting, deluging unoccupied fields with shrapnel. Incessant spurts of blue flame and rings of white 
smoke about the Russian guns told that the Japanese projectiles were bursting true, and slowly the Russian 




lilRD'S.EYE VIEW OF THE COUNTRV ROUND LIAOV.VNG. 



fire died down. The flashes from the Muscovite guns came at longer and longer intervals ; now they were 
one to the Japanese two shells, and now one to four. Finally the Russians suspended their fire, and waited 
till the Japanese infantry should advance. The Japanese guns now turned their shells upon the supposed 
position of the Russian trenches, but, as these could not be clearly made out, with but little effect. 
.'\t this point the powerful and well -protected Russian battery to the north of Towan intervened m the 
combat. On ths high ground it commanded the whole stretch of sloping mountain in its front, and with. 



860 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 30. 1904. 




[Copyriglu, 1904, by " Collier's Weekly." 
GENtKAL BARON KANJIRO NISHI, COMMANDER OF THE SECOND 
JAPANESE DIVISION. 



a tremendous hail of shrapnel it drove 
the Japanese gunners to cover. From 
time to time they darted back to fire a 
shot, but each shot brought three shells 
in reply from the Russian guns. 

More Japanese batteries arrived, and, 
taking up positions which the Russians 
could not locate, continued the duel, but 
as yet without any decisive result. For 
the greater part 01 the morning the 
artillery exchanged fire, the Japanese 
firing but slowly, and the Russians wasting 
much ammunition. The day was suffo- 
catingly hot, and as it advanced the 
trials of the Japanese troops were severe. 
Their water-bottles were soon emptied, 
and they had to work slowly forward over 
rough ground and through dense crops 
of kaoliang, higher than a man, with 
parched throats towards the Lanho, the 
river wdiich gurgled below between them 
and the Russian trenches. 

The infantry attack opened by a 

Japanese advance on the left near Makumentze, where the troops of the 2nd Guards Brigade were 

ordered to storm the Russian positions fronting them. To cover the advance the Japanese artillery 

redoubled its efforts and poured a torrent of projectiles upon the supposed 

Japan^se^I^nfantpy positions of the Russian lines. As in the battles of the Boer war, the feature 

of the fight was the strange emptiness of the landscape. The mountain slopes and 

valley bottoms gave little or no sign of human life. The brown of the Japanese khaki melted imperceptibly 

into the colour of the sun-scorched hills, and the Russian infantry and artillery lay perdu. Only the 

incessant flashes of the shells and their rings of smoke, only the terrific uproar which filled the air as a 

hundred guns exchanged fire and thousands of rifles rattled continuously, disclosed the fact that 

60,000 men were struggling for the mastery of Asia under the very eyes of the calm, pensive images of 

Buddha, which from the sides of Towan Pagoda looked forth upon this strange scene of turmoil and 

agony. 

About noon the Guards under 

General Watanabe began to move 

out from their 

deploy for the 
storming of a conical hill, on the 
face of which, as was afterwards 
known, the Russians had three 
tiers of shelter-trenches. These 
tiers were held by unshaken in- 
fantry who fired coolly and steadily 
the moment the Japanese came 
into view. As the Guards de- 
scended the slope of the ridge 

[Kuddiinari Johnston plioto. 

.fronting the Russian position a Russian rifles left in the tall millet. 




July 30, 1904. 



A HAIL OF SHRAPNEL 



661 



simoom of death beat upon tliem. A terrible hail of shrapnel and bullets lashed the dusty earth ; 
men fell in swathes, mowed down by waves of bullets which seemed to fill the air. Yet, preserving 
their order and courage, the Japanese pressed slowly forward, utilisinfj every advantage which the lie 
of the ground offered, and with indomitable perseverance worked their way to the foot of the slope, 
where they took shelter in a hollow only a few yards from the stream of the Lanho. Behind them 
the decline was covered with prostrate figures ; 400 of the Japanese casualties, or nearly half of 
General Kuroki's total losses on this day, were incurred in this advance. Further progress was out 
of the question. So furious, so well-directed was the Russian fire, that for an officer to rise was 
death ; for a man to show himself, mutilation. The hot earth simmered in the sun ; the air 
danced with heat-waves ; the sturdy Japanese infantry, under the twofold trial of the hail of bullets and 
the parching thirst, suffered grievously from exhaustion and sunstroke, and this with the cool water of the 



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A TRAC;EI)V on the TRANS-SIBERIAN RAIL\VA^■. THK IlKAIII dl A DESERTER. 

brook rippling only a few yards away. Again and again little sections made dashes for the stream, but only 
to be cruelly punished in so doing. As a hose plays on a fire, so did the stream of Russian bullets strike 
hissing wherever a brown khaki-clad infantryman showed himself, and the men who rushed to the brook did 
not return. 

The attack had come to a complete standstill. Had the Russians counter-attacked, the plight of the 
Japanese must have been serious indeed. But General Keller's men remained inactive ; motionless they 
lined the trenches, and did not dare to confront the odds which the Japanese had 
faced so cheerfully. Nothing could be done. The only course was to withdraw the 
2nd Guards Brigade from their perilous position, covering their retreat by attacks in 
other quarters and by a heavy artillery fire. They stole back behind the ridge from whose shelter they had 
moved forward, decimated, but still full of fighting spirit. The Japanese batteries in the centre accelerated 
their fire. Fresh ammunition had arrived, and they made prodigious efforts to silence the Russian artillery. 



The Guards 
Retire. 



862 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 30, 1904. 




IKuddimai) Johnston photo. 
JAPANESE SOLDIERS TAKING A MEAL ON A MARCH. 



One battery took up a 
position under the very 
muzzles of the Russian 
guns in the valley bottom, 
amidst the tall kaoliang, 
and fired thence for the 
greater part of the after- 

r'^^HA ^^^^^^^■^■■^^■■|^nH^^B|^^^H^^''X^H without the Russians 

> ^ ■,^B|r^|^j^^^^^j|^BP^^B^B&P*^™^^^^^^^^jr^'^ 0^ J being able to discover 
^K..<«EjH^^^B.^^HK!lMK^^^^^Br..^i^^^^^^^Ki-dk_^^^ ssB or to make anj' effective 

reply. The green crops 

hid not only the weapons 

but also their flashes, and 

under cover of the 

bombardment the Guards 

effected their retirement. 

Colonel Ohara's regiment, 

however, further to the 

south, clung obstinately 

to the position it had gained, though most of its officers were killed or wounded. Among the killed 

were Lieutenant Shirasawa, who had played a brilliant part in the battle of the Yalu, and Sub-Lieutenant 

Kiroke, who died with the cry on his lips, "Long live the Emperor!" It remained till the close ol 

the day facing the Russian trenches, but though it gained a little ground, it could not storm the Russian 

positions, from which it was distant only a few hundred yards. Never was the stopping power of the 

modem rifle more signally manifested ; it proved superior to all the valour of the Japanese and all their 

contempt of death. 

As the day advanced, and it became clear that the plan of turning both wings of the Russian line had 

failed, though as yet the Japanese force under General Asada, which was to move directly upon the 

Yangtzuling Pass and outflank the Russian right, had given no signs of its presence, the centre was ordered 

to begin its advance, 

probably to .anticipate a 

R u ss i a n 
Keller's . 

Death. counter- 

attack 
which was apprehended 
by General Kuroki. The 
artillery on both sides was 
now firing its fastest. The 
hills smoked and glowed 
with fire ; the fearful up- 
roar filled the air, echoing 
backwards and forwards 
in the eyries of the moun- 
tains, and a deluge of 
shells descended on the 
Russian \veapon.s. It was 
at this juncture that a 
great misfortune befell the 
Russian army. Count 
Keller had cone forward 

fa iv, iw. ivaiu JAPANESE AMMUNITION WAGGONS. 




[Kuddiman Johnston photo. 



864 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 30. 1904. 




JAPANESE AT TOWAN. 

to the advanced batteries, to encourage his gunners and watch more clearly the development of the battle. 
In his white tunic, with the cross of St. George upon it, attended by a large staff, he was a conspicuous 
object. His aide-de-camps and the officers about him warned him in vain of the danger. The Japanese 
gunners must have seen his movement, though, as it was the wise custom of their generals always to keep 
well to the rear, whence the battle could be better controlled without the disturbing influence of bullets 
and shell bursts, they can scarcely have guessed who was the centre of that brilliant retinue. But they 
poured shrapnel upon the group, and one of their projectiles burst just above the head of General Keller. 




RUSSIAN BIVOUAC AT SIMUCHENG. 



ILJulla pholo. 



866 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 30. 1904. 




[T. Ruddimati Johnston photo. 
RUSSIAN RED CROSS WAGGONS ABANDONED ON THE BATTLEFIELD. 



Russian Trenches 
Rushed. 



He fell dying, with two 
splinters in his head, three 
more in his shoulders, and 
thirty-two bullets in other 
parts of his body. His 
fall caused consternation 
among his men, b\' whom 
he was greatly beloved, 
and removed the control- 
ling hand just when its 
presence was most needed. 
Thejapanese infantry in 

the centre began their forward movement about 4 p.m. They rose and emerged from their shelter, in splendid 
order, the men of the 2nd Divi- 
sion, reputed the finest soldiers in 
the whole Japanese army. Like 
paladins they bore themselves in 
this fight. 
Their long 
lines gleam- 
ing with rifles and bayonets were 
perfectly led. They advanced, 
making use of every inch of cover 
and scarcely noticing the fire of 
the Russian guns. Just at that 
moment the Japanese artillery 
concentrated its whole fire upon 
the Russian battery on the crest, 
which earlier in the fight had 
done so much damage. So fast 
and furious did the Shimose shells 
come, so menacing did the position 
seem to the Russians, that at this 
critical moment they flinched 
Three shrapnels in quick succes- 
sion burst over three of their guns with terrible effect, and their fire almost ceased. Meantime the 

infantry had made their way to the 
tall millet at the foot of the slope 
fronting the Russian lines, and were 
closing in upon Towan with superb 
dash and resolution. They reached 
ground in the dead angle, where the 
Russian gunners could not see them, 
and swept rapidly forward, while to the 
south General Watanabe and Colonel 
Ohara renewed their attack. The Russian 
infantry did not stand about Towan. The 
pressure of General Asada's column was 
now beginning to be felt, its rolling fire 

IKu'Jdiinan Johnston photo. i i i i j r i. l a1 

PITFALLS FOR THE JAPANESE MADE BY THE RUSSIANS. could be heard far away towards the 




[T. Ruddiman Johnston photo. 



ABANDONED RUSSIAN CANNON. 




July 30. 1904. 



RUSSIAN GUNS LOST. 



867 



Lost Guns. 




[Ruddiman Johnston plioto. 
JAPANESE CONSTRUCTING A DUGOUT PROTECTED BY EARTH BAGS. 



Russian rear ; the enemy had no 

choice but to go. Evening was 

coming down when the Japanese 

rushed the Russian trenches near 

Towan with but Httle loss, though 

General VVatanabe's men could 

not push home or carry the conical 

hill which had before repelled 

their onset. 

The general advance of the 

Japanese imperilled the Russian 
battery on the 
hill-crest near 

Towan. A scurry of men about 

the guns there could be dimly seen 

through the smoke of bursting 

shrapnel, and a number of dark 

objects shot swiftly down the slope 

under a terrific fire from Japanese 

guns and rifles. One of the objects 

suddenly stopped ; then twenty mounted Russians rode back to it, and could be seen about it working 

at it under fire. It was a Russian gun which had overturned, with half its team killed. The efforts 

of the group were unavailing ; the gun could not be righted, and as the Japanese were fast coming 

up it was left lying where it was, one of the few trophies of the battle which fell into the hands 

of General Kuroki's men. Another Russian gun was found when at nightfall possession was taken 

of the battery. It had been struck by a Japanese shell and hurled backwards from its carriage 

down the hill. 

The final Japanese advance was checked by the stubborn defence of a strong Russian rear-guard, 

which effectually held off 
the eager pursuit, while 
General Asada, when he 
came into action, found 
that he was confronted by 
a large Russian force 
against which progress 
was slow and difficult. 
Thus he could not, as it 
had been intended that he 
should, convert the 
Russian defeat into a 
rout. The day closed in 
this quarter of the field 
with no decisive success. 
The enemy had been 
forced back another stage, 
but they had lost few 
guns, and not very 
many more men than the 
Japanese, though they had 

[T. Ruddiman Johnston plioto. 

JAPANESE FIELD SERVICE FOR THE DEAD. been Compelled to abandon 




868 



JAPAN'S FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



July 30, 1904. 



a position strong both by nature and by art. The pagoda at Towan was carried, and near it 269 
Russian prisoners were taken. Tiensuitien was in Japanese hands; the Yangtzuling Pass was now 
untenable by the Russians. But they fell back slowly and in good order, and not till the morning 
of the next day were the Japanese troops in actual possession of the pass for which they had fought 
so well. 

The Japanese \ casualties were 861 in this quarter of the field, of whom nine 

officers and 132 men \ were killed, and 33 officers and 687 men wounded. The Russians 

left a large number \ of dead upon the field, and must have lost about a thousand 

officers and men. \ They left behind them two guns and 1,500 greatcoats, while on 

the Japanese side one \ gun was destroyed by the Russian fire. 




JAPAN AT RUSSIA'S THROAT. 



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