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Materialien ZOF Kunde 

des alteren Englisehen Dramas 


J. Q. Adams, Jr.-lTMAfA, F. S. Boas-LoxDOX, A. Brandl-BERLIN, R. Brotanek- 
PRAG, F. I. Carpenter-CmcAOO, Ch. Crawford-Loxnox, G. B. Churchill- 
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SHEFFIELD, G. Gregory Smith-BiiLFAST, A. E. H. Swaen-AMSTLKDAM, A. H. 
Thorndike-NE\v-YoRK, f A. Wagner-HALLE A. S. 



o. 6. Professor der Englischon Philolo^ic an dor Universitat Louvain 

BAND XII : Jasper Hey wood and his Translations of Seneca s Troas, 
Thyestes and Hercules Furens, edited from the Octavos of 1559, 1560 
and 1561, by H. de Vocht. 





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Materialien zur Kunde 

alteren Englischen Dramas 

Iflaterialien w Kunde 

des alteren Englischen Dramas 


J. Q.Adams, Jr.-lTH.\CA, F. S. Boas-Loxoox, A. Brandl-BERLlN, R. Brotanek- 
PRAG, F. I. Carpenter-CniCAGO, Ch. Crawford-Loxoox, G. B. Churchill- 
AMHERST, W. Creizenach-KRAKAU, E. Eckhardt-pREiBURG I. B., A. Feuillerat- 
RI;NNES, R. Fischer-lNNSBRUCK, W. W. Greg-Loxnox, F. Holthausen-KiEL, 
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SIDXEY, H. Logeman-GENT, J. M. Manly-CniCAGO, G. Sarrazin-BRESLAU, 
,- L. Proescholdt-FRiEDRicusDORF, A. Schroer-CoLX, G. C. Moore Smith- 
SHEI ; FIELD, G. Gregory Smith-Bi-XFAST, A. E. H. Swaen-AMSTERDAM, A. H. 
Thorndike-NEW-YoRK, t A. Wagner-IlALLE A. S. 



o. 6. Professor der Englischon Philologie an der Universitat Lonvain 



























JASPER HEYWOOD ) (Ilaywood, Havvood, Hewood, Ayvo- 
dus), the younger son of John Heywood 2 ), born in London 

4 ) Biographical notices about Jasper Heywood are found in 
J. Bridgewater, Concertcttio Eccksiae Anglicae, Treves, i58g, p. 409; 
H. Morns, Ilistoria Missionis Anglicae S. J , S 1 Omer, 1660, pp. i32-5 ; 
A. Wood, Athenae Oxonienses. London, 1691, t. I. pp. 25i-2; M. Tan 
ner, Societas Jesn Apostolortim Imitatrix, Prague, 1694, p. 296 ff. : these 
notices were the sources for all subsequent biographies : J. Juven- 
cius, Historia Societatis Jesu, Rome, 1710, pars Y, t. II, p. 223; 
D. Bartoli, Istoria ddla Compagnia di Gesn : TInghilterra, libro IV, 
Torino, i825, pp. 48-9 ; 57-64 ; 98 ff. ; H. Pole} , Father Jasper Hey- 
wood, in Records of the English Province of the Sec. of Jesus, vol. I. 
London, 1877, pp. 388-405 ; Collectanea, in Records, vol. VII, London, 
1882, p. 35 1 ; J. Gillow, Bibliographical Dictionarv of the English 
Catholics, London, 1887, vol. Ill, pp. 296-9; Thompson Cooper, in 
Did. of National Biography, vol. XXVI ; &a. 

) Foley,in his second Appendix to the Collectanea (Records, vol.Vll*, 
London, i883) p. 1433, mentions a Father RICHARD HEYXVOOD, alias 
Aitglus, of London, admitted in to the Society of Jesus at S* Andrew s 
Rome, Sept. i, 1572, probably identical with F. Richard Anglus, 
who died at Loreto, Nov. :5, 1574. In the registers of the Society 
in Rome, where these entries are recorded, no mention is made of 
the family to whom this father belonged. Foley supposes that he 
was a younger brother of the Fathers Eliseus and Jasper Hey- 
<vood, but there is nothing but a similar name and birthplace to 
back this opinion. A Richard Hayn oodc is recorded in the Register of 
the University of Oxford (Boase, p. 2?6) : adm. B. A. i febr. i5&4/5 ; 


in i535, belonged to the family of Sir Thomas More through 
his mother Eliza, daughter of John Kastell ), and like his 
brother Ellis, he was nourished from his tenderest age with 
the sound principles and thorough learning that had been 
flourishing in the home-circle of the great Chancellor 2 ). He 
was for some time a page of honour to the princess Elisabeth, 
with whom his father was a favourite in those days 3 ). At the 
age of twelve he was sent to Oxford, where he went through 
the regular curriculum of Grammar and Logic, took the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in i553, and that of Master of Arts 
in i558 4 ). In i554 he was elected a Probationer-fellow of 
Mcrton s College r> ). He had inherited the literary bent and 
the quick, sprightly wit of his father ; no wonder that he was 

det. in Lent ; sup. for M. A. 5 July i56y ; lie. 9 July ; inc. 14 July ; of 
Christ Church . It may be that this Richard Hey wood went to Rome 
and entered the Society. But it does not seem probable that be was 
the son of Jobn Hey wood ; for Pitseus who writes a short biography 
of the latter in his Relationum Historicarum de Rebus Anglicis Tomus 
Primus, Paris, 1619, p. 753, says : Duos filios habuit Societatis Jesu 
presbyteros, ex quibus alterum nomine Gasparum Romae primum, 
deinde Neapoli familiariter noui. If a third son had entered the 
Society, he very probably would have known, and mentioned him. 
4 ) W. Bang, Ada Anglo-Lovaniensia (EngUsche Studien, 1907, t. 38, 
p. 284 ff.); T. S. Graves, The Heywood Circle and the Reformation (Mo 
dem Philology, vol. X, April igi3) ; A. Wood (Ath. Oxon., vol. I, p. 3 4 ) 
relates a legend about a tooth of Sir Thomas More, which belonged 
to both Ellis and Jasper ; as each of them was loth to part with it, 
tbe tooth fell asunder and divided itself. 

2 ) Ellis worked these family recollections into his 77 Moro, 
Firenze, i556. 

3 ) A gratuity of 3o shillings to John He} wood is recorded in the 
Household-book of the Princess Elisabeth, ed. Madden, p. 23g. 

4 ) Ath. Oxon., pp. 708, 715. C. W. Boase, Register of the University 
of Oxford (Ox. Hist. Soc.), Oxford, i885, vol. I, p. 221, records for 
Jasper Heywood : sup. for B. A. June i553 ; adm. i5 July ; det. i554 ; 
sup. for M. A. 23 May i558 ; lie. 10 June ; inc. u July ; disp. 28 Jan. 
i558/9 ; fellow of Merton ; fellow of All Souls . 

5 ) J. Foster, Alumni Oxonienses, vol. II, 1500-1714 ; s. v. 

famous as an able poet amongst his fellow-students, and 
bore the bell in all disputations at home and in the public 
schools M. But his father s staunch character and manly free 
dom from time-service, had devolved upon the son with an 
additional dose of wayward obstinacy and wild singularity, 
that was to paralyse his good qualities and bring him in after 
life from one failure to another. Nor were his college days 
quite cloudless. On April, 4, i558, he left Merton College 
after three admonitions from the Warden 2 ), but the reason 
of his departure has not been recorded. It may be that his 
recent election as Lord of Misrule or Rex nostri Regni Fabarum, 
about Christmas of 1 557, had some influence on his subsequent 
behaviour 3 ) ; for he seems to have acted his part of Christmas- 
King with an unprecedented popularity, as one of his college- 
fellows, David de la Hyde (who later on was also expelled 
from Merton), is recorded to have praised him as such before 
a considerable auditory in the Hall by a witty and ingenious 
discourse entitled de Ligno el Foeno , an allusion to the name 
of the hero of the season. The authorities of the College, 
however, were not so very enthusiastic, and Hey wood was 
the last King of that dynasty, which was as old as Merton 
itself 4 ). Owing to this resignation, and perhaps, to his unpo 
pularity in later years, some reports seem to have been cur 
rent about his waywardness as a boy : ), as is apparent from 

*) Ath. O.von., p. 2 5 1. 

2 ) Ath. Oxon , p. 25 1. G. C. Brodrick, Memorials of Merton College 
(Ox. Hist. Soc.J, Oxford, i885 ; pp. 46, 261. 

3 ) Th. Warton. History of English Poetry (ed. Price) 1840, vol. Ill, 
p. 3i2- 

4 ) J. Gutch, The History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford 
by A. Wood, Oxford, 1796, vol. II, p. 136-y : Anno D 1 i55y. 

5 ) Amongst He} 7 wood s poems in The Paradyse of Daynty Denises 
ed. 1600, one is inscribed : Alluding his State to the Prodigal Child 
(p. 1 1 5), in which in his poetical exaggeration he says : 

the prodigal sonne,... 
May now divide the burthen of his blame 
With me, whom wretchlesse thoughts enticed still 
To tread the tracts of his unrulv will. 

one of Harington s epigrams ) : 

Old Haywoods sons did wax so wild & youthfull, 
It made their aged father sad and wrathfull. 
A friend one day, the elder did admonish 
With threats, as did his courage halfe astonish, 
How that except he would begin to thnue 
His Sire of all his goods would him depriue. 
For whom, quoth he ? Eu n for your yonger brother. 
Nay then, said he, no feare, if it be none other. 
My brother s worse then I, and till he mends, 
I know my father no such wrong intends ; 

Sith both are bad, to shew so partiall wrath, 
To giue his yonger vnthrift that he hath. 
Still, whatever may be the truth or value of these reports, it 
is sure that Heywood was not guilty of any decidedly bad 
demeanour ; for, notwithstanding this compulsory leave of 
Merton, Jasper was recommended at once by Cardinal Pole 
to Sir Thomas Pope, who had just founded Trinity College, as 
a polite scholar, an able disputant and a steady catholic 2 ) . 
As this intervention did not prove successful, he was elected 
in the same year to a fellowship in All Souls College, where 
his brother had been from 1548 till the end of his studies 3 ). In 
this college he worked at the translation of the three Senecan 
tragedies : Troas written at the end of i558 4 ), edited in i55g ; 
Thyestes begun November 24, i55g r> ), edited March 26, i56o, 
and Hercules Furens published in i56i. In this year (:56i) he left 
the college, possibly on account of the change of religion in 

J ) Epigramm., lib. Ill, Ep. I. ; Ath. Oxon., p. a5i, Warton, op. cit., 
v. Ill, p. 3i2. Eliseus obtained the prebendary of Lichfield in 1554, 
and had left the University Ions before Jasper resigned his fellow 
ship of Merton : J. Foster, Al. Oxon., v. II, s. v. ; DNB. 

2 ) Warton, op. cit., vol. Ill, p. 3i2 ff. 

) J. Foster, Alumni Oxonienscs, vol. II s. v. ; Aih. Oxoit., vol. I, 
p. 406. 

") 77^, 1. 5i ff. 

5 ) TH, 1. 91 ff. 


the English Church ), and entered Gray s Inn *), to which 
move his literary achievements and acquaintances might 
have induced him. He did not spend a long time in Themis 
service, but like many of his countrymen in the beginning 
of Elisabeth s reign, he left England for religion s sake. 

He studied theology for a time, probably at S l Omer, and 
took orders. He travelled to Rome, and on May 21, i56a, he 
entered the Society of Jesus, already a priest. For two years 
he studied in Rome, after which he was sent to the Jesuit 
University of Dillingen in Bavaria, where he took the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity :! ) and became a professor of Mathema 
tics (i564-65), later on of Exegesis (i 565-67), of Moral Theo 
logy and Controversial Questions (i565-i577) ) I " 1 ^/o he 
pronounced his four vows and was finally admitted into 
the Society. He was a favourite with William V, the Duke of 
Bavaria, and Egolph, the bishop of Augsbourg, who honoured 
him with their intimate acquaintance and availed themselves 

4 ) T. S. Graves, in his The Heywood Circle and the Reformation 
(Modern Philol., vol. X, April igi3), p. 16, supposes that Heywood 
left All Souls in i55g ; but when his Hercules Furens was edited, in 
i56i, he was still in that college, as appears from the title and the 
preface. Cp. C. G. Robertson, All Souls College, London, 1899, p. 67. 

*} J. Foster. The Register of Admissions to Gray s Inn, 1521-1889, 
p. 29 : i56i, fol. 529, Jasper Heywood . 

3 ) I. Agricola, in his Historia Prov. Soc. Jesu Ger maniac Superioris, 
vol. I, p. 86, says that the degree of Bachelor of Theology was con 
ferred on J. Heywood at Dillingen on Sept. i, 1564 : the drgree of 
D. D. must have been obtained soon after, as in Nic. Samlerus 
De Visibili Monarch Ecclesiae, edited in iSyt, Jasper is recorded 
amongst the Doctores S. Theologiae oljidetn... exules (edit. Wiceburgi, 
i5g2, p. 676). In i56g he is called SS. Theologiae Doctor by one ot his 
students, whose notes of Heywood s lessons are preserved at 

4 ) B. Duhr, Die Deutschen Jesuiten im 5/o-Streit des 16. Jahrhunderts 
(Zeitschriftf. Kath. Theol., 1900, b. XXIV), p. 229 ; H. Morus, op. cit., 
p. i32 ; Th. Specht, Geschichte der ehemaligfn Universitat Dillingen, 
Freiburg i. B., 1902, pp. 284, 290. 


of his advice. Tie induced the latter to promulgate some very 
rigid regulations about usury, the so-called German Contract 
and the 5 /o interest, a subject that was then keeping univer 
sities and divines, lawyers and bankers in one of the most 
eager altercations that ever had place ). When Marquard 
succeeded Egolph on the episcopal see (i5y5), he at once 
revoked the declarations of his predecessor about the illicit- 
ness of the 5 () /o interest and made regulations more accommo 
dating to circumstances. The discussion grew hotter as Hey- 
wood, who was openly called the instigator of Egolph s strict 
prescriptions, and whose dismissal from the diocese had been 
requested by Marquard -), kept stubbornly to his opinions 
and managed to persuade Duke William to prepare a law 
prohibiting the German Contract. In the conflict he not only 
had as adversaries the greater part of the divines and clergy, 
but the members and superiors of his own Society. His prin 
cipal, Father Iloffaetis, wrote to the General complaining 
very bitterly about Heywood s obstinacy, the cause of their 
unpopulaiity in Germany, and even expressed misgivings 
about the soundness of his mind. Since i5ji Jasper pretended 
to be assaulted day and night by the devil, so that he had 
almost become unfit for any work ; he had been removed for 
a time to Augsburg, but without any good result ; in 1576 he 
had been sent to a spa, which had brought some relief. In a 
letter to the Vicar-General of the Society, Dec. 4, i58o, 
Hoffaeus states that Heywood s mind, which apart from 
these infernal assaults, did show dispositions to insanity, had 
become quite bewildered ; that for a long time he had been 

J ) Cp. the just mentioned article of B. Duhr (p. 223 if.), who has 
worked on unedited material ; F. Zech, Rigor Moderates Doctrinae 
Pontificiae circa Usuras : Diss. II, cap. II, sect. VIII : De Contraclu 
Germanico, 252-7 (Migne, ThecL Curs. Compl., t. XVI, p. 973-4) ; 
E. Van Roey, Le Contractus Gennanicus, ou les controverses sur le 5 \o 
au XVI e siecle en Alkmagne (Revue d Histoire Ecclesiastique, t. Ill), 1902, 
p. g32 ff. ; Agricola, op. cit., vol. I. p. 244. 

z ) He was sent to Munich : B. Duhr, art- cit., pp. 223, 238. 


obsessed with the idee fixe lhat the Society was soon to 
collapse on account of the theories and Scolastic Theology of 
the members. To make sure of this abnormal situation of mind 
and body, the Vicar-General or the Pope had only to lead 
Heywood up to this subject, and ask his opinion about the 
prospects of the Society, when he would certainly impart his 
phantastical prophecies with plenty of words and tears ) For 
notwithstanding Hoffaeus prohibition, Heywood had thought 
himself bound in conscience to go and ask the Pope s advice. 
Between November i58oand February i58i, -) he travelled to 
Rome with letters of recommendation from the Duke, but he 
was not well received, and in spite of his appeals to his 
acquaintances, like the cardinals Rorromeo and Madruz, he 
had to return to Bavaria with his disappointment and to try 
to make the best of circumstances that had become all but 

Fortunately Campian and Persons were just then in need 
of missionaries in England, and Pope Gregory XIII wrote to 
Duke William on May 27, i58i :i ), requesting Hey wood s 
services. He had been especially desired by those working in 
the English vineyard, as he was expected to be of great help 
on account of his renown and his authority, which was not 
small in his country. The duke granted the dismissal, and 
Heywood went to England to replace Father Persons, who 
from France sent him a letter appointing him as Vice-prefect 
of the English Mission ). He set foot on his native island 
soon after July i58i r> ) and with Father Holte, who had come 
with him, he started work at once. He was very successful : on 

*) B. Duhr, art. cit., pp. 23o, 287. 

2 ) Van Roey, art. cit., p. y3g. 

3 ) B. Duhr, art. cit., p. 239 ; Agricola, of>. cit., v. I, p. 244 ff., quotes 
a letter to the Pope from Campian requesting Heywood, whose 
acquaintance he hade made in Munich in i58o; Morns, <Y>. cit., 
pp. :32-3, reproduces the Pope s letter. 

4 ) John Morris, The Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, 2d series, 
London, 1876, p. 14 ff. 

5 ) Th. Fr. Knox, The first and second Diaries of the English College, 
Douay, London, 1878, p. 292. 


Nov. 17, i582,Walsingham was informed (hat with two helpers 
after a stay of three months, he had converted 228 persons 
in Staffordshire 1 ), and in a letter to D r Allen, April 16, :583, he 
congratulates himself as being the means of another miracu 
lous draught - ). Still he had not been long in England, when 
by his imprudence he raised another altercation which was 
at least as regrettable as that of the German Contract. Some 
fast-days, which were quite peculiar to England, and had 
been observed there from the earliest times, had been objected 
to by the Marian priests and those who had been trained in 
the seminaries abroad. They maintained that only those fast- 
days were obligatory, which were of the universal Roman 
observance. An agreement had been brought about by Cam- 
pian and Persons, stating that no general regulation should 
be made, but to every district should be left the liberty to 
adhere to the established customs. On the entreaty of the 
younger generation of the clergy, Hey wood called together 
a meeting in Norfolk, i58i, and, made wiser by his experiment 
in Bavaria he pronounced in favour of a more lenient mea 
sure 3 ). The assembly, for the greater part composed of 
Seminary priests , adopted these regulations, but the older 
members of the clergy throughout England protested ; a 
debate ensued that was feared to become a schism ; it para 
lysed the mission for several years 4 ), and was impaired by 

J ) Cal. of State Papers, Domestic, Elizabeth, i58i-go, p. 75. 

2 ) Knox, p. 35i ; Juvencius, v. V, t. I, p. 223 ; Foley, Records, I, 
p. 3 9 2 ff. 

3 ) Cp. The poynts agreed upon from Path. Heywood , in Knox, p. 354. 

4 ) Cp. about that controversy : Juvencius, v. V, t. II, p. 223 ; 
E. L. Taunton, History of the Jesuits in England, London, 1901, 
p. i55-7 ; Bartoli, 1. IV, pp. 57-64 ; Morris, Troubles, p. 22 ff. ; Records 
of the Engl. Prcv., vol. IV, p. 678-84 ; T. G. Law, Historical Sketch of 
the Conflicts between Jesuits and Seculars in the Reign of Queen Elisabeth, 
with a reprint oi Christopher Bagshaw s True Relation of the Faction 
begun at Wisbich (1601) and illustrative documents, London, 1889, 
pp. io5-6, 112, 121 ; J. H. Pollen, The Memoirs of Father Robert Per- 


personal attacks, to which Heywood exposed himself through 
imprudence and inconsideration ). In these critical circum 
stances he wrote for advice to Persons, Allen and his supe- 

SOHS [reprinting and commenting A Storie of Domesticall Difficulties, 
which the Englishe Catholike cause and promoters therof haue had in 
defendinge y same. Anno Jubilaei 1600. Authore Roberto Personio ], 
Cath. Rec. Soc. Miscellanea, vol. II, 1906, p. 176 ff. ; Important conside 
rations vvich ought to move all true and sound catholikes, who are not 
wholly Jesuited, to acknowledge... that the proceedings of her Maiesty, and 
of the state with them... haue bene bothe mild and mercifull. Published by 
sundry of vs the secular priestes. Newly imprinted. 1601, p. 19 ff., 
23 ; W. WjatsonJ, A Sparing Discover ie of our English Jesuits and of 
Fa. Parsons proceedings vnder pretence of promoting the Catholicke faith in 
England. Newly imprinted 1601 (lays all the blame of Heywood s 
failure on Persons), pp. 26, 46 ff. ; [R. Parsons], Apologia pro Hierar- 
chia Ecclesiastics, a S. D. N. Clemente PP. VIII. his aunts apud Anglos 
instituta, i6ui, p. 120 ff. ; [Humphrey Ely], Certaine Briefe Notes vpon 
a Brief Apologie [translation of the preceding] set out vnder the name of 
Priestes vnited to the Archpriest, Paris, [i6o3], p. 3o ff. This pamphlet 
was used by Bish. Kennet for his Additions to Mr. Wood s [Ath. 
Oxon.} Account of D r Jasper Heywood, Jesuit, Lansdowne MSS. 982 
(vol. XLV1II of his Biographical Memoranda), f" 266. Further : J..H. 
Pollen, The Notebook of John Southcote D.D., 1628-36, in Cath. Rec. Soc. 
Miscellanea, vol. I, London, igo5, p. in ff. 

4 ) Cp. D r R. Barret s statement in his letter to Agazarri, S. J., 
August ii, i583 : Pater Heywood non satis prudenter se gerit in 
Anglia. Nimis multas occasiones dat illis qui nullas omittunt, si 
quid possunt in aliquo vestrum reprehendere : Knox, p. 332; Morus, 
p. i33. Many bitter criticisms were made about his ambition, his 
mania of imposing himself as a legate a latere, about his expensive 
living (W. W[atson], A Sparing Discovery, p. 47), his coaches and 
carriages (Ath. Oxon., p. 252 ; Th. Bell, Anatomy of Popish Tyranny^ 
London, i6o3, lib. I, p. 9 ; lib. II, p. z5 ; T. G. Law, pp. xxii, 101), 
and his numerous menial (Jo. Smith, his servant called at the 
Douay College, June 14, 1584 : Knox, p. 201). It is evident that these 
charges have been exagerated ; even Persons and his partisans 
denied them (Apologia pro Hierarchia Ecclesiastica, p. 121 ff.). Nor is 
it conceivable that in a time of persecution, a man known as Hey- 


riors. No decisive answer came ! ). Finally in May i583, Per 
sons arrived from Spain in Paris, where he heard of the 
troubles of the English Province. After receiving Heywood s 
explanations he went to Rome to ask the General s decision. 
This decision was hastened by an appeal of the English 
catholics through Allen, Aug. 6, i583 2 ), and Heywood s own 
request ; for his missionary work, that had been impeded 
through the dispute, became almost impossible through the 
increasing attacks of gout, and his concealment was a growing 

At last, in October i583, Persons returned from Aquaviva 
with letters revoking Heywood and appointing Richard 
Weston as Vice-Prefect in England. These letters were to 
be handed to them in a meeting, to which both were sum 
moned in Rouen 3 ). Heywood managed to leave England 4 ), 
but when about to reach Dieppe, his vessel was caught in 
a storm and thrown back on the English coast. He at once 
was arrested on suspicion of being a priest. That suspicion 
soon became certainty and he was accordingly sent to Lon 
don and committed to the Clink, December 9, i583 5 ). When 
he was going to be examined before the Queen s Bench at 
Westminster with four or five other priests, he was separated 

wood was, could go about and be driving in a pompous coach, 
surrounded by servants and attendants like a papal legate ; indeed, 
other records show him as quite dependant on the mercy of those 
who invited him to their house (cp. the legendary episode related 
by Morus, p. i33, about his eating meat on a rogation day). 

*) Cp. Heywood s letter to D r William Allen, London, April 16, 
i583 : Knox, p. 35i. 

*) Bartoli, lib. IV, p. 60. 

3 ) Bartoli, lib. IV, p. 60 ff. ; Foley, Records, vol. I, pp. 3g6-8 ; 
Morris, p. 84 ff. ; Taunton, p. 104. 

4 ) J. H. Pollen, The Mem. ofF. R. Persons, p. 177. 

5 ) The official Lists of Catholic Prisoners during the Reign of Queen Elisa 
beth, Part II, 1581-1602, in Catholic Record Society Miscellanea, vol. II, 
p. 232 ; Cal. of State Papers, Domestic, Elizabeth, i58i-i5go, p. i65 : 
record 23, dated March 21, 1 583/4- 


from them and led to the Tower, February 8, i583/4 ). May 
be his judges wanted to save him from the fatal doom of his 
companions on account of his acquaintance with the Queen 
and some of her ministers ; maybe they feared the strength 
of his example and argumentation and wished to convey to 
the catholics the impression of his recantation. At any rate 
everything was tried to make him acquiesce to the desire of 
Elisabeth, whose page he had been. Sir Owen Hopton, the 
lieutenant of the Tower and some of the Queen s counsel 
lors, Cecil, Hatton and Walsingham, vainly endeavoured to 
make htm leave his prison for a place of honour, and even a 
bishopric ~). He persevered in his confession, and preferred to 
endure the horrors of imprisonment, which were made worse 
by continual attacks of gout 3 ). On January 21, 1 584/5, after 
Elisabeth s law by which every catholic priest became liable 
to death by the very fact that he was found in England, a 
great number of ecclesiastical prisoners were shipped and 
sent abroad by virtue of the Royal Commission of January 
i584/5 4 ). Amongst those was Hey wood : ) ; he was landed at 

l ) J. H. Pollen, Tower Bills (of Sir Owen Hopton, Knighte, Lev- 
tenant of the Q. her Maiesties Tower) iSyS-iSSg, n. 35 : in Catholic 
Record Society Miscellanea, vol III, 1906, p. 17- 

-) Morus, p. 184 ; Nicolaus Sanderus, De Originc ac Progressv Schis- 
matis Anglicani [augmented by Ed. Rishtou], Cologne, 1610, pp. 412. 

3 ) Cp. the relation of Father Weston s visit to Heywood : Mor 
ris, Life of Father Weston, in Troubles, ad series, pp. 68-9. 

4 ) State Papers, Domestic, Elisabeth, i58i-go. p. 223 ; Camden, Rerttm 
Anglicarum et tlibernicarum Annales regnante Elisabetha, Ludg. Bat., 
i63g, p. 3g6. Cp. H. N. Birt, The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, A Study 
of Contemporary Documents, London, 1907, passim. 

r ) J. H. Pollen, Tower Bills, n 36, p. 18. From these accounts of 
Sir Owen Hopton it appears that nine other priests, that had been 
imprisoned in the Tower, were dismissed at the same time as Hey 
wood, which impugns the statement that the latter was released 
through the intercession of Dudley, the Earl of Warwick : Warton, 
v. Ill, p. 3i2 ; J. H. Pollen, The Notebook of John Southcote, &a, p. 112. 
One of Harington s epigrams (lib. Ill, ep. I) alludes to the bounty 


Boulogne, notwithstanding his protestations, in the name of 
his twenty companions and his own, against being exiled, 
declaring that they preferred to be tried and put to death, 
rather than to be expelled from their country 1 ). 

He first went to Rheims to Dr W. Allen, and further to the 
College of D61e, where he remained as simple operarius of the 
Society and was again sorely afflicted by the imaginary appa 
ritions and infernal vexations 2 ). In i58g he proceeded to 
Rome, where he seems to have complained to the General 
Aquaviva about having been ill-used by Persons, and to have 
renewed his criticism and prophecies about the Society 3 ). But 
as Aquaviva did not attach much importance to the extrava 
ganza of the poor visionary, the latter applied to the Pope, 
who referred to the General, with the result that Heywood was 
sent to the south of Italy to prevent further trouble 4 ). In the 

of Heywood s protector, though it seems rather a reminiscence of 
David de la Hyde s Oratio de Ligno et Foeno : 

One neere of kinne to Heywood by his birth, 
And no lesse neere in name, and most in mirth, 
Was once for his Religion sake committed, 
Whose case a Noble Peere so lately pitied : 
He sent to know what things with him were scant, 
And offered frankely to supply his want. 

Thankes to that Lord, said he, that will me good, 
For I want all things saving Hay and Wood. 
J ) Sanderus, De Progr. Schism. Angl., pp. 433-7 ; ibidem : Rishton 
[one of the 21 exiles], Diarivm Rervm Gestarvm in Tvrri Londinensi, 
p. Ff 6, v ; Foley, Records, vol. II, pp. 106, i3i ff. ; Morris, Troubles, 
2nd series, p. 70 ff. ; Bartoli, 1. IV, p. 98 ff. 

2 ) Morus, p. 134. 

3 ) Morris, p. 72 ; Morus, pp. 184, i35 ; B. Duhr, pp. 23o, 237. 

4 ) W. \V[atson], A Sparing Discoverie &a, p. 47 (makes of Heywood 
a victim of Persons vindictiveness). J. H. Pollen, Mem. of F. R. 
Persons, p. 177, savs that there is a long set of Heywood s complaints 
in the Archives of the Soc. of Jesus : Anglia Historia, I, 118. R. Hos- 
pinianus, Historia Jesuitica [edited and continued by L. Lucius], 
Basle, j63z, p. 364, relates from hearsay that Heywood, who had 


retirement of the professed house of Naples ), Hey wood 
spent the last of his days ; here he was alternately troubled by 
bodily suffering and the never-ceasing imaginary apparitions, 
or gladdened by fits of unusual devotion and tears of unction. 
On January 9, 1597/8 the weary struggler closed his eyes in 
peace and was laid to rest in the Chapel of the College 2 ). 


Besides the translations of Troas, Thyestes andHercules Furens, 
Heywood wrote only very few literary works. Some poems 
ascribed to him were edited in The Paradyse of daynty deuises, 
aptlv furnished, with sundry pithie and learned inuentions : deuised 
and written for the most part by M. Edwards, sometimes of her 
Maiesties Chappel : the rest by sundry learned Gentlemen, both of 
honor, and woorshippe. viz. S. Barnarde. | E. O. | L. Vaux. | 
D. S. | lasper Heywood. | F. K. | M. Bevve. | R. Hill. | M. 
Yloop, with others. Imprinted at London by Henry Disle, i5y6. 
Three pieces are signed with J. Hey wood s full name : p. 5 : 
Easter Day ; p. 6 : Who mlndes to bring his shippe to happy shore, / 
Must care to knoh e the lawes of wysdomes lore ; p. 85 : Looke or you 
leape. One is signed I. H. 3 ): p. 85: Beyng troubled in mynde 
he(= the poet) writeth as follows. In the edition printed in i58o 
by Disle there is, amongst the additions, another piece by 

tried to bring about some improvements in the Society by pointing 
out fifty-two defects amongst the members, was not allowed to see 
his superiors about these complaints, and was at length sent off 
and confined to the professed house of Salerne, where he shortly 
afterwards was released by death. 

*) As already stated, Pitseus, Relaticmum Historicanim DC Rebus 
Auglicis Tomits Primus, Paris, ifiig, p. 753, in the biographical notice 
of De loanne Hayuodo, says that he knew Caspar quite familiarly 
first at Rome, and later on at Naples. 

~) Morns, p. 134 ; Annuae LitteraeSoc. Jesu,AnniMDXCIX, Lyons, 
1607, p. 85. 

3 ) The style and tone of the poems signed I. H. make it almost 
certain that they were written by J. Heywood. 


Heywood : p. 91 : Greatness is dangerous. In the edition of 1600 
printed by Ed. Allde for Edward White, three more poems 
by Heywood, were added : one is signed I. H. : A wittie and 
pleasaunt Conceit (p. 112) 1 ), and two with his full name : p. 114: 
The Complaint of a Sorrowful Soul, and p. 1 15 : Alluding his State to 
the Prodigal Child. These poems do not testify to great literary 
power, but to a patient effort of versification and imitation of 
the sententious, moralising, but often bombastic and tedious 
style of Seneca 2 ). 

Ritson, in his Bibliographia Poetica (London, 1802, p. 23o), 
assumes that Heywood is the author of Greene s Epitaph : Dis 
coursed Dialogue-wise between Life and Death, and he repeats 
A. Wood s supposition that he wrote some lines prefixed to 
Kyffm s Blessednes of Btytaine, i588. Ritson s conclusions, 
which have been quoted recently in the biography of the 
DNB, are based on the fact that these pieces are signed with 
the initials I. H. It is evident that these initials cannot be 
regarded as a positive proof. On the contrary it follows from 
every detail in these prefatory poems that Jasper Ileywood 
cannot have been their author. Indeed in i588, when appeared 
M. Kyffin s The Blessednes of Brytaine, Or Celebration of the 
Queenes Holyday (London), Heywood had left England. Even 
if he had been in England, he could not possibly have written 
these two eight-lined stanzas In commendation of this worke, 
and the writer (f. A 2 v); for in Kyffin s book Popes, Spa 
niards and Catholicks are treated as so many Cerberi, and 
Elisabeth is praised for her most happy regiment. It is not 

4 ) The style and tone of the poems signed I. H. make it almost 
certain that they were written by J. Heywood. 

2 ) Cp. Preface (p. xvil to The Paradise of Dainty Deidces, reprinted 
from a transcript of the first edition i5y6 with additional pieces 
from the editions of i58o and 1600 with introductory remarks &a, 
by Sir Egerton Brydges, London, 1810. Heywood s Poems were 
reprinted as well in J. P. Collier s Seven English Poetical Miscellanies, 
1867. Cp. Gillow, Bill. Diet, of Engl Cath., t. Ill, p. 299; Watt, 
Bibliographia Britaimica, vol. Ill, p. 493 ; C. Sommervogel, Biblio- 
theque de la Compagnie de Jesus, tome IV, s. v. ; &c. 


possible that after having been imprisoned a year, and sent 
forth from his country, Heywood should state in praise of the 
Queen that 

skilfull Muses notes come short to sound... 
Her Princely gifts, her lustice mylde, her Peacefull lasting 

[dayes . 

Neither is Heywood the editor of Greene s posthumous 
Groatsworth of Wiite (licensed Sept. 20, i5g2), and author of 
the prefatory letter To Wittic Poets, or Poeticall Wittes (f. A 2 r 
and 4 foil, pages in the edition of London, 1617) and Greenes 
Epitaph (f. G3 r and 2 ff. pages), both signed I. II . For it 
is certain that Henry Chettle was the editor of Groatsworth 
ofWitte; in the preface to his Kind-Hearts Dreame (licensed 
8 December, 1592) he states that the letter To Wittie Poets , 
which had offended some playwrights, was not his own 
but had been found by him amongst Greene s papers ). 
As to the Epitaph it is hardly possible that Hey wood, a stranger 
in the world of literators in England of the last decade of 
the XVI. century, should have been able to compose a poem 
that is full of allusions to the lives of the playwrights of those 

Thomas Tanner in his Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica (Lon 
don, i74<S, p. 401), conjectures that Heywood translated some 
parts of Virgil s poetical works, judging from a poem by 
T. B., prefixed to J. Studley s translation of Seneca s Agamem 
non, London, i566 (Cp. DNB.}. Still T. B only says that 
I ley wood has received for his translations from Seneca as 
high a praise and esteem as Virgil may have had or ever 
might have deserved 2 ). 

Heywood does not seem to have devoted any more time to 
English literature after he left his country. The poems of The 

J ) Kind-Hearts Dream, p. iv, ed. E. F. Rimbault, London, Percy 
Society, 1861. Preface, p. xm. Cp. P. Collier, History of English Dra 
matic Poetry and Annals of the Stage, i83i, v. Ill, p. 23o ff. ; Preface 
by Sir Egerton Bridges to Greene s GroatsivorthofWit, Lee Priory 
Press, i8i3 ; DNB, s. v. Green. 

J ) Ed. Spearing, p. 16. 


Paradyse of Daynty Deuises were probably written before he 
went abroad, and were kept by college-fellows and friends. 
He is said to have composed more works but they have not 
come to us ; a few of them are mentioned occasionally in his 
biographies or in the documents of his time. Morus, in his 
Historia Missionis Anglicae (p. 182), states that he was well 
versed in Hebrew, and that he composed, for his students, an 
easy method to learn that language by way of tables. From 
a letter from Hoffaeus, the German Provincial of the Jesuits, 
to the General in r58o or i5Si, we gather that long before the 
General-Congregation of the Society in i573, Heywood, who 
was then at Dillingen, and in the very brunt of the 5 /o inte 
rest controversy, wrote a kind of pamphlet about that ques 
tion. Unknown to his superiors he sent it to Basle to be 
printed. Still the pamphlet was never published : probably 
Hoffaeus got an inkling of what Ileywood was preparing and 
prohibited the edition ). 

When on June i5, 1667, Cardinal Otto Truchsess called 
together a Synod at Dillingen to propose to the clergy and 
people the ways of carrying out the decisions of the Council 
of Trent, Heywood was invited to address the meeting, and in 
the afternoon he delivered an allocution. At this Cardinal s 
death in i5j3, the Dillingen University held two funeral ser 
vices ; on the more solemn one, May 2, i5j3, Heywood pro 
nounced an oration during the Requiem Mass 2 ). 

In the Seminary of Eichstatt, Bavaria, is preserved in a 
manuscript (N. :35) one of the courses of Heywood at the 
Dillingen University. The title runs : De seplem Ecclesiae Sacra- 
mentis... a Rev^ 1 ... Duo Casparo Hayvodo, SS. Theologiae Doctor -e 
anno i56g mense odobris in academia Dilingana tradita et ad cala- 
mum dictata. Scripta Casparo Stattmiiller Oetingensi. (In 4, ff. i53). 
This concludes the bibliographical list of Heywood to which 

1 ) B. Duhr, Die Deutschen Jesuiten &a, p. 23y. 

2 ) Steiner, Synodi Dioecesis August., t. II, p. 323 ff.; Ada Utiivcrsilatis 
Dil. t I, p 80 ; Specht, Geschichte der Univcrsitat Dillingen. }>p. 
Agricola, op. cit., v. I, p. 244. 


should only be added an epistle of his, dated April 16, i583, 
to Doctor Allen, reprinted by Knox, who published as well 
the Points of Ecclesiastical discipline in England , sanctioned by 
Hey wood ) and, finally, a few more letters, which B. Duhr 
and J. H. Pollen used for their articles, and which are pre 
served in the archives of the Society -). 


From the middle of the XV th century, the influence of 
Seneca s tragedies had been growing rapidly on the stage- 
literature of western Europe. From Italy, where it had 
inspired several plays, and France, where the tragedies were 
first printed in 14^5, it gained England, where it was going to 
contribute to the development of the drama. This influence, 
which has been the object of many researches recently :! ), was 
making its way, when Ileyvvood was at the University. Either 
consciously, in imitation of some of the Italian translators of 
Seneca, or unconsciously, by the tendency of thought and 
literature, he undertook to render into English Troas, the tra 
gedy which pleased him best (TR, 1. 91). The work had been 

J ) The first and second Diaries &a, pp. 35i-2, 353-5. 

2 ) B. Duhr, art. cit., passim ; J. II. Pollen, Memoirs of F. R. Persons, 
Cath. Rec. Soc. Miscellanea, v. II, p. 177. 

:t ) Cp. Crcizenach, Gcschiclite des Netteren Dramas, Halle a. S., 1901, 
t. II. p. 462 ff. ; J. A. Symonds, Shakes/here s Predecessors (new 
edition), London, 1906, p. 174 ff. ; A. \Y. Ward, History of English 
Dramatic Literature, London, 1899, vol. I, p. 188 ff. ; J. W. Cunliffe, 
The Influence of Seneca on Elizabethan Tragedy,l*ondcm, i8g3 ; R. Fischer, 
Zur Kunstentwicklung der Englischen Tragodie, Strassburg, i8g3 ; 
J. M. Manly, The Influence of the Tragedies of Seneca upon Early Eng 
lish Drama (introductory essay to F. J. Miller, The Tragedies of 
Seneca), Chicago, 1907; J. W. Cunliffe, Early English Classical Tra- 
gedu s, Oxford, 1912, Introduction; A. D. Godley, Senecan Tragedy 
(in G. S. Gordon, English Literature and the Classics), Oxford, 1912. 


intended as a private exercise (TR, 1. 88) but, as was the case 
with every novice literator of his days, it was against his will 
extorted out of his hands by request and frendshyp of those, 
to whom he coulde deny nothing (TR, 1. 91 ff.). 

He dedicated this first literary achievement to Queen Eli 
sabeth, whose page he had been, and of whom he knew that 
the reading of Seneca delighted her greatly. She had herself 
translated into English part of these tragedies, and her ren 
dering from Hercules Octaeus is said to be extant in the Bodleian 
Library. In the next years he translated Thyestes and Hercules 
Furens, which he inscribed to two great men, whose sons he 
had known at Oxford, the Chancellor of the University Sir 
John Mason, who seems to have deserved his special grati 
tude O.arid Sir William Herbert of Cardiff, Earl of Pembroke. 
They were both members of the Privy Council of the Queen, 
and the fact that he dedicated his translations to them and 
their royal mistress, seems to imply that he had no special 
reasons to be displeased with the policy and measures of 
Elisabeth and her Council. Very probably his departure from 
All Souls in i56i, which has often been ascribed to molesta 
tions on account of his religious opinions, was not compulsory 
at all 2 ). 

Latin text. 

Heywood s translations bear witness of a careful study of 
Seneca s text. In Thvestes, and especially in Hercules Furens, he 
develops a keen insight in the sense of the Latin original and 
a nice eye for alterations and corruptions in the different 
editions :i ). Even in his preface to Troas he states that the tra- 

*) Cp. Dedicatory poem of Thyestes (TH, 1. 8 ff.). 

*) Cp. T. S. Graves, The Hcywood Circle and the Reformation, p. 16 
(Modern Philology, volume X, number 4 , Chicago, igi3. 

a ) When in the editions of Seneca s tragedies there are two or 
more variants, Heywoocl chooses generally that reading, to which 
preference is given in the editions of the present day : cp. Her. Fur., 


gedies are muche corrupt by the defaute of euill printed 
bookes (11. io5-6). In the prefatory poem to Thyestes, he makes 
Seneca complain that the Printers dyd him wrong (1. 704) 
and the Latin poet is even supposed to bring from Elysium 
a copy of his works written by Melpomene. He reads it to 
Heywood, who corrects his own books accordingly, and 
relates that 

Now Gryphyus, Colineus now, 
and now and then among 

He [i. e. Seneca] Aldus blamde, with all the rest 
that in his \voorks do mys 

Of sence or verse . (11. 705-710). 

In the third tragedy, Hercules Furens, he does not merely 
state his fastidiousness in reading the original, but edits side 
by side with his translation the Latin text, which, as he says 
on the titlepage, is nuper recognita, c~ ab omnibus mendis, quibus 
antea scatebat sedulo purgata. This text proves that, as can be 
guessed from the former declarations, Heywood does not fol 
low one edition, but selects his reading from the various edi 
tions that were published in his time, especially those by 
Isoarda de Saviliono )> Judocus Badius Ascensius - ), Aldus 
Manitius ;t ), Henricus Petrus 4 } and Gryphius r> ). Still not a 

1. 5 7 i : rcpeiit H & P ; HP : repetit reci/nt ; 1. 566 : tristibns inferis 
H & P ; IIP : tristis & inferis -- tristibus inferis ; 1. 769 : vacuam H & 
P ; HP : vacuus i-acuam ; &a. 

J ) Edition with the commentary of Gellius Bernardinus Marmita 
Parmensis, Venice, 1492, and following years (represented by BM 
in the Notes). 

2 ) Edition with the emendations of Erasmus : Paris, first issue 
i5i3 (represented by E) , second issue (represented by Asc) 1514. 

3 ) This edition, which appeared for the first time in iSiy, Venice, 
has been repiinted several times, and has been used for most of 
the subsequents editions. It is represented in Peiper-Richter s 
textual notes by a. 

4 ) First issue in 1529, Basle ; represented by HP. 

: i Lyons, 1541 and subsequent years ; marked by G. 

single one of them is identical with the text which Heywood 
reproduced ) Gryphius edition, for instance, which is more 
closely followed than any other, and was probably used for 
the summary of the tragedy and the list of personages, differs 
in many cases 2 ). I have collated Hey wood s text with that 
of the latest edition of Seneca s tragedies, by Rudolf Peiper 
and Gustave Richter :i ), and subjoin the list of variants 4 ). 
From this collation it results that Heywood s readings are 
generally similar to those of the interpolata recensio recentiorum 
codicum, as Peiper and Richter call it, and which they mark 
by A in their textual notes r> ). In some instances, however, 
Heywood has a variant that is not recorded amongst those 
quoted by Peiper-Richter. In the majority of such cases a 
similar reading is found in one or more of the XVI th century 
editions just referred to. In others, however, Heywood s 
variant differs and seems to be a correction entirely his own 6 ) ; 
it often corresponds to the reading and arrangement of text 
and speeches adopted in the editions of the present day 7 ), 
which shows that he possessed a sound critical sense. 

) Jorkers, p. 9, judges from the fact that 11. 129$ to i3i3 of Her 
cules Pur ens are spoken by Amphitryon alone in Heywood s trans 
lation and inLttcij Anuei Scnece ires Sdectiores Tragoediae. Nurnberg, 
1 52o (whereas this speech is divided in other editions between 
Amphitryon and Hercules), that this Nurnberg reprint was cer 
tainly used by Heywood. Still the same arrangement is found in 
A, BM and Asc. 

2 ) F. i., 11. 6i3, 684-7, 863, i295-i3o5, &a. 

:! ) Leipzig, 1902. Represented in the Notes by P. 

4 ) Cp. page 3og ft. 

5 ) Cp. their preface, p. xmff. 

r> ) They have been pointed out by a -j- in the list of variants. 

") Cp. f. i., 1. 76 H & P : if>sa dtiacera Ms; A, Asc, HP, &a : ifisa 
iam lacera tins ; 1 146 H & P : olerrat ocuhs... me is ; old texts : oberrat 
ratios... meos. LI. 634 b -636 (HF, 11. i295-i3oo) Hattc fer at virtus... inimi- 
cttm feror, are spoken by Theseus in A , BM, Asc, HP, G ; Heywood 
makes Hercules say these lines, which arrangement has been 
adopted by Peiper-Richter. 


The lists of his variants arc of the highest importance for 
the valuation of his translation ; I have recorded his punctua 
tion where it was of interest, for in Seneca s sententious 
poetry, a seemingly slight change often causes a complete 
reversal in the sense. 

What has been said about the original of Hercules Fur ens 
may be safely applied to the Latin text used for the translation 
of the two other tragedies. Their rendering, however, is com 
paratively free, especially in Troas, which makes it much more 
difficult to arrive at a decisive conclusion. As a rule and 
unless otherwise stated in the Notes the reading of the inter- 
polata recensio, A, is translated, though Hey wood probably 
used for these tragedies the editions which he utilised for 
Hercules Furens. At any rate there are several places in the 
English rendering that seem to imply that Heywood trans 
lated from the text of Henricus Petrus ) and of (iryphius - ), 
as is pointed out in the notes on these passages. 

Fidelity to original. 
The merits and detects of Hey wood s translations have been 

J ) Cp. f. i. 777, 11. 1196, 1223-5, 1266, a. 

2 ) Cp. TH. 11. 1018, 1046, &a. On 11. 1279-81 of Hey wood s trans 
lation, Thyestes says : 

The stomak of thy sonne 
o father thou enspyre. 
And syster eke, lyke is the cause : 

In the Latin original there are different variants, 11. 276-6 : 
P animum Daulis inspira parens / sororque ; causa est similis : 
A gnati parens / soror est ; causa est similis : 
DM agnati parens / soror est : en causa similis. 
Asc mi .gnatus : parens :/ sororque : causaque 

est similis. 

HP filii parens. / sororque causa est similis : 

G filio w parens, / sororque, causa est similis : 

From this comparison it appears that Gryphius text or one 
similar to it, was translated. 


examined lately in the different studies on the subject ). As 
literary works they can hardly have a claim on our attention, 
but as translations they are neither better nor worse than any 
of the similar achievements of his contemporaries. Preference 
is usually given to Troas : it has been praised as being more 
literary and less servile to Seneca s text than the two other 
tragedies. This freedom, however, may result from a less 
perfect knowledge of the Latin original than that which is 
evinced in the case of Thyestes and Hercules Furens. Indeed 
in several difficult places, Heywood does not seem to under 
stand the sense of the Latin text ; aiid whereas he in the two 
later translations struggles desperately to cram into a couple 
of lines all he can derive from the original, he often fakes it 
more leisurely in Troas. He translates only the general idea, 
omits the details, especially those that prove trying, and freely 
arranges what follows and precedes such a passage, so that it 
should not have the appearance of patchwork 2 ). In his preface 
he explains that he endeuored to kepe touche with the Lat- 
ten, not woorde for woorde or verse for verse as to expound e 
it, but neglecting the placing of the wordes obserued their 
sence (TR, 11. 147-50). It is worth noting, however, that in 
general the translation represents the original verse for verse 
and that the rendering is only more free where the sense of 
the Latin text is difficult, and does not seem to have been 
clear to Heywood. 

d ) Cp. Introduction to the Spenser Society Reprint of The Tetme 
Tragedies of Seneca, 1887, by J. Leigh (reproducing Th. Warton, The 
History oj English Poetry (ed. Hazlitt, 1871) vol. Ill, pp. 274-7); 
J. Cunliffe, The Influence of Seneca on Elizabethan Tragedy, London, 
1893, p. 3 ff. ; A. Ward, History of English Dramatic Literature, Lon 
don, 1899, t. I, p. 194 ff. ; E. M. Spearing, The Elizabethan Tame Tra 
gedies of Seneca (in Modern Language Review, vol. IV, n 4), Cambridge, 
1909, p. 437 ; E. Jockers, Die Englischen Seneca-Uebersetzer des 16. 
Jahrhunderts, Strassburg i/E, 1909 ; E. M. Spearing, The Elizabethan 
Translations of Seneca s Tragedies, Cambridge, 1912. 

2 ) Cp. f. i., 11. 3 4 i- 4 , 710-22, 972 ff-, i3 4 7-8, 1567-8, &a. 


Such places, where he swerued from the trew sence are 
rare in Thvestes and Hercules Furens. Whereas he added in 
Troas several scenes and choruses, he appends only one final 
soliloquy to Thyestes, and for the rest he keeps so closely to 
the original especially in Hercules Furens that he not only 
reproduces the Latin text verse for verse, but even in several 
instances the very order of the words in the verse ). It follows 
that the translation even that of Troas generally is 
remarkably faithful. The only change he allowed himself was 
the replacing of periphrastic and allusive appellations by the 
usual names - ). Hey wood indeed was so engrossed by his 
purpose to give an exact idea of his model that he worked 
himself quite into the core of his original. Not only did he 
anglicise the Latin words of Seneca where he did not find 
an English term that corresponded 3 ), but he adopted the 
sententious style and inversions and intricate constructions 
of Seneca. In consequence his two last translations suffer 
from obscurity and entanglement. 

Heywood s work had been judged with severity ; there 
are, however, many considerations that could plead for a 
more merciful sentence. Indeed he had no standard as to 
poetry, verse, or tragedy to guide him. His Latin text was 
thickset with misprints and difficulties. His own translation 
has been known hitherto only through Newton s careless 
reprint of i58i, in which wrong readings, misprints, and badly 
corrected blunders abound, and in which punctuation is 
little less than bewildering. Finally these translations were 
the achievement of his youth : it is to be regretted, that he 
had not like Neville 4 ) the advantage of revising in i58i the 
text of his rendering. Perhaps he was not aware that his 
three tragedies were going to be reprinted ; it he had known 

4 ) F. i., TH, 11. 1 138-9 ; HF, 11. 1421-2 (Seneca, 1. 697). 
z ) F. i., Troy is the translation of: Rhoetea litora (Troas, 1. 108), 
Sigea litora (1. 141), Dardana moeiiia, (1. i35), &a. 
3 ) Latinisms \\kejrete, roge, imperie, stadie, a, frequently occur. 
) Cp. Spearing, Eliz. Transl., p. 22 ff. 


and had leisure, he certainly would have availed himself of 
the experience gained, and of the recul from the work of 
his twenties, to rearrange it, and might have joined fluency 
and literary splendour to a faithfully accurate imitation of 
his original. 

Additions and Changes. 

This faithful accuracy of Heywood s translation does not 
imply enslavement, however. He made indeed one alteration 
and some additions to the original, which show that he thought 
for himself. One of these additions proves that he had some 
sense of what modern tragedy should be. As the plot of Tfoas 
is based on the apparition of Achilles Ghost, which has as 
necessary consequence the death of Polyxena and Astyanax, 
Hey wood felt that a relation of this vision through Talthybius 
was not sufficient to point out its importance in the play, and 
he makes the ghost appear in a new scene (act II, sc. i) ). 
As it was the translator s principle to give an intelligible text 
to the Knglish reader, he replaces the long enumeration of 
towns and regions of Greece, in the chorus of the third act of 
Troas, by a philosophical outburst on the vicissitudes of for 
tune, borrowed from the third act of Phaedra, which is much 
more effective to the impression of the tragedy. At the end of 
the first act of the same play, Hey wood adds a chorus in 
which he dwells on the shortness of life and the irresistible 
tyranny of the Fates, with the illustrative examples of Egeus, 
Pelias, Orpheus, Jason, Saturnus and Hercules. Probably 
because the chorus to the second act, the famous Verum esl ? 

] ) It may be, however, that by making Achilles ghost appear 
actually, he spoilt Seneca s design, who possibly wanted to let 
the responsibility of Astyanax and Polyxena s sentence weigh on 
Talthybius. From the general feeling of the tragedy (cp. Chorus to 
the 2d act, calling into question the very existence of ghosts), it 
seems as if Seneca wanted to impart the impression that Achilles 
apparition was a mere invention. 


an timidos fabula decipit , (S:a. is far too general and moreover too 
depressing, I fey wood augments it with three stanzas, in which 
he subdues the baffling effect of Seneca s chorus by rousing 
sympathy for the fate of Astyanax. In Thyestes a final soliloquy 
is added, evidently to take away the sad impression of the 
last scene and to balance the sense of wronged justice, at 
least by an imprecation and an urgent prayer for vengeance 
on Atreus. 

These additions show that Heywood had fully mastered 
the style and literary turn of Seneca, for if it were not for the 
author s statement or a comparison with the original, they 
could hardly be distinguished from the text translated. He 
writes the same sententious verse, pictures similar sensational 
scenes, alludes to the same torments and sufferers in hell, 
makes ghosts appear, and imparts even the same impression 
of fatalism as the Roman playwright ). So thorough is the 
intimacy with Seneca s terrifying apparitions and hellish 
visions, that when recalling the events in Hey wood s later 
career, the question rises in one s mind whether the study of 
the Latin terrorist has not had an influence on him that 
extended far beyond the period, in which he was so engrossed 
with the translation of these tragedies. 

Metrical Form. 

Heywood s versification is not very brilliant. His verse is 
uncouth, and especially in the two last tragedies, disfigured 
by ever recurring botches (as to see , in any whit , lyke 
wyse , &a.) and ungainly inversions -), that testify to a ser 
vility to the rhyming form, rather than to a mastery over it. 
He tries to give more freedom and variety to the monotonous 
fourteener, which he uses generally 3 ), by making the caesura 
occur at another place than after the fourth foot, which leads 

*) Cp. Cunliffe, Infl. of Sen., p. 27. 

*) Cp. TH, 11. 238o-83. 

:t ) Cp. Spearing, Eli:. Trans., p. 53 ff. ; Mod. Lang. Rev., IV, p. 4 5i. 


to frequent enjambment. As the long verse could not pos 
sibly be printed on one line in the small sized octavos, the 
printer divided them after the fourth foot. But as very often 
a word is not finished after the fourth foot, there are no end 
of quaint divisions, as, for instance : 

While thou to Aiax and vlis- 

ses, doost thy will commit 1 ). 

To realise the regular number of feet, Ileyvvood availed 
himself profusedly of all freedoms granted to poets, as apo 
cope and aphesis 2 ), hiatus 3 ) and eliding 4 ) ; he has a frequent 
recourse to slurring " ), which in some cases seems hardly 
possible and looks more like the use of anapassts instead of 
iambs t; ). Still notwithstanding these freedoms there are 
several verses reluctant to be scanned 7 ), some of which were 
corrected by Newton in his reprint of i58i 8 ). 


As to the rhymes, it is a rule with Hey wood to try and give 
them an identical orthography in addition to the identical 
sound ; these is spelt thease when it is a rhyme to disease (HF, 
1. 1418) ; were is written ware (TR, 1. 2000) when rhyming with 
care, and weare (TR, 11. 1284, 1682) when coupled with beare 
andfeare. Similar instances are : assignd = synde : mynde (TR, 
] . 874) ; bite = byght : syghl (TR, 1. 2417) ; about = abought : sought 
(TR, 1. 1266) ; &a. 

!) TR, 11. 979-80 ; cp. also TR, 11. 682, i 4 33, 1467, i6 4 5, a ; TH, 
1. 1283, &a. 

2 ) Hey wood makes a frequent use of aphetic forms as iayk,sygnde, 
byde, masde, &a. 

3)Cp. TR, 1901. 

4 ) Cp. TR, 2174 ; HF, 3ig (elision of final y). 

5 ) Cp. TR, 11. 972, 1954, 1971, 2269, 2270, 2469 ; HF, 11. 279, 2568. 

6 ) Cp. TR, 11. 972, i32o;J. Schipper, Grundriss der Englischen 
Metrik, Wien, i8g5, II, pp. 159-60. 

7 ) F. i., TR, 11. 596, 1107, 1721, 1 837. 

8 ) F. i., TR, 11. 596, 1721, iq5 4 , 2174 (?) 


Rhymes in [e :] and [aei], which Victor pronounces to be 
suspicious as Shakespearean rhymes ), are frequent : TR, 
11. 1064-6: agaitie(ll: ageane): meane ; TK, 11. 1634-6: death: savth; 
sea rhymes with staye (HF, 1. 23i5) and with day (written dea : 
TR, 11. 298-300, 2040-2) ; seaes with dayes (TR, 11. 21 36-8) and 
waves (seayes : TR, 11. 2567-9) -). 


In the first edition of Troas, punctuation is quite bewildering. 
A comma is used to mark an inversion or an emphasis, an 
opposition or a metrical pause, as was usual in his days 3 ). 
Hut in many cases where we should expect one, it is omit 
ted ) and frequently it is inserted in the wrong place, which 
causes obscurity. In the second edition of Troas and Hercules 
Furens, but especially in Thyestes, punctuation is marked with 
more regularity. 

Hey wood s Aim. 

It has been supposed that these three translations were 
originally intended for dramatic representation. There is, 
however, hardly any argument in favour of this hypothesis " ), 
whereas the absence of any hint in the prefaces seems to 
imply to the contrary. Moreover, if Hey wood had wanted to 
translate these tragedies for the set purpose of being acted on 

*) W. Vietor, A Shakespeare Phonology, Marburg, 1906, p. 42. 
-) Hair, written generally hear, rhymes regularly with words in 
[e :] : teare, chere. Cp. Vietor, p. 48. 

3 ) F. i., TR, 11. 2526, 2424, 2499, i65o. Cp. P. Simpson, Shakespea 
rian Punctuation, Oxford, 1911. 

4 ) This often occurs at the end of a line, of course : cp., f. i., TR, 
11. ig5i-2-3-5, 1967, 1976-8. 

r> ) Cunliffe, Infl. of Sen., p. 3. The apostrophe Good ladies on the 
last line of the chorus to act III of Troas, does not apply to the 
ladies of the audience, but probably to the ladies of Troy that form 
the chorus. Cp. Notes, TR, 1. n6o. 


the stage, as wore in his days the Latin plays of Seneca ), he 
probably would have adopted another treatment instead of 
the servile rendering. He would have endeavoured to make 
the sense of the original clearer, and would have appropriated 
it to an English audience, even though the latter were com 
posed of university men. 

It seems more probable that Hey wood undertook this trans 
lation, as Phaer, Golding, Googe, Hlundville and so many 
others of his contemporaries, because rendering from Latin 
and Greek models was at that time the choicest kind of lite 
rary productivity 2 ). If he had any practical purpose it must 
have been the one that prompted Erasmus to translate Hecuba 
and iphigenia into Latin 3 ), viz., to conduct to further vnder- 
standing the vnripened schollers and as it were tech the 
little children to goe that yet canne but creepe ) In this 
supposition we may find the explanation of the painful 
exactitude with which, as he states on the titlepage of Hercules 
Furens, for the profit of young schollers [he] so faithfully 
translated into English metre, that ye may se verse for verse 
tourned as farre as the phrase of the english permitteth . The 
reprint of the Latin text of this tragedy side by side with his 
translation was only to advance that purpose ; whereas it 
would have been superfluous if Heywood had actually 
intended to produce new plays for the stage. 


The fact that there were three editions of Troas within a 
few years, proves that it was favoured with popularity, and 
implies that Hey wood s work was useful to many of his con- 

4 ) Cp. about the tragedies of Seneca represented in Heywood s 
time at Cambridge, G. C. Moore Smith, Plays performed in Cambridge 
Colleges before i58S (in Fasciculus J. W. Clark dicatus), pp. 267-270. 

2 ) A. W. Ward, Engl. Dram. Lit., vol. I, p. 188. 

3 )HF, 1. ii ff. 

) HF, 1. 56 ff. ; 1. 77 ff- 


temporaries. The author of a poem in recommendation of 

Studley s Agamemnon ), praises his translations, and informs us 

I low wel did... hys freindes requite 

his travayle and hys payne, 
When vnto hym they haue (as due) 

ten thousand thankes agayne 

His verse may now be judged ungainly and intricate ; at 
that time it was admired as smooth and fyled . He himself 
was looked at as another Virgil ), and his works seem to have 
been a standard by which the authors that imitated him, were 
measured ii ). The long metrical preface to Thyestes probably 
inspired Googe s Preface to the Zodiake of Life ; the poet pic 
tures himself as having been blessed by an apparition similar 
to that of Hey wood ; the Muses order him to start the trans 
lation of the Zodiake; he, too pleads his incapacity, argues 
that there are abler poets in England, but finally accepts the 
task that is set to him :! ). 

Still the greatest proof of the seasonableness of Heywood s 
translations is the fact that his example was greedily fol 
lowed, and that within a few years six other tragedies of 
Seneca were anglicised by three young scholars, Neville, Nuce 
and Studley. Their work and that of Heywood was reprinted 
later on by Thomas Newton, who, rendering the tenth and 
last tragedy, published a complete edition of the translated 
plays of Seneca in i58i. Heywood has had an important 
influence on the English tragedy, through his own translation 
and through those which were made in imitation of his ; for 
it is evident that the English rendering was a help or even a 
revelation to many a playwright 4 ). It is an acknowledged 

*} Cp. Spearing s edition, p. 16. 

2 ) Cp. T. B. s poem on Studley, just mentioned; A. Hall s dedica 
tor} loiter to Sir Thomas Cecyl, in his Ten Books of Homers Iliades, 
London, i?8i. 

3 ) B. Googe, Eglogs, Epytaphes &> Soncties, i563, ed. Arbcr, Lon 
don, 1910, pp. 6, 7. 

4 ) Cp. Ward, Engl. Dram. Lit., p. 189 ff. 

fact that Seneca s influence was never so intense as during 
the years that followed either the first octavos, i56o-i565, or 
Newton s general edition. Moreover Nashe, in his famous 
letter To the Gentlemen Students of both Universities prefixed to 
Greene s Menaphon, (published in i58g), implies that the in 
fluence of the translations was conspicuous, when he writes 
that English Seneca read by candle light yeeldes manie good 
sentences . 

It is difficult to state in the cases where there is an influence 
of Seneca on the dramatic literature of Elisabeth s time, 
whether it has been caused by the Latin text or by the Eng 
lish rendering ; still there are some passages amongst those 
that are quoted by Cunliffe as having been inspired by the 
Roman playwright, that have a singular coincidence with 
Hey wood s translation. One of them is quoted from Mars- 
ton s Insaniate Countess (a. V. sc. i) J ) : 

What Tana is, Nilus, or what Tigris swift, 

What Rhenus ferier than the cataract, 

Although Neptolis cold, the waves of all the Northern Sea, 

Should flow for ever through these guilty hands, 

Yet the sanguine-lent stain would extant be ! 
This passage is inspired by Seneca s Hercules Furens, 
11. 1 3 2 3-i 329 : 

Quis Tanais aut quis Nilus, aut quis Persica 

violentus unda Tigris, aut Rhenus ferox 

Tagusve Hibera turbidus gaza fluens, 

abluere dextram poterit ? Arctoum licet 

Maeotis in me gelida transfundat mare 

et tota Tethys per meas currat manus, 

haerebit altum facinus. 

Especially in the translation of 11. 1326-7, there is a simi 
larity between Marston s text and that of Heywood s transla 
tion which can hardly be accounted for, unless by admitting 
that Marston used the English rendering. The latter runs (I 

l ) Cunliffe, Infl, oj Sen., pp. 106-7. 


put in Italics the words that seem identical with those of the 
passages quoted) : 

What Tanais, or what Nilus els, 

or with his persyan waue 
what Tigris violent of strearne, 

or what fierce Rhenus flood, 
Or Tagus troublesome that flowes 

with Jbers treasures good 
May my right hande now wash from gylt ? 

although Maeotis collde 
The wanes of all the Northen seae 

on me shed out now wollde, 
And all the water thereof shoolde 

now passe by my two handes, 

Yet will the mischiefe deepe remayne. (11. 2532-44). 
A passage in Gorboduc, V, i, 64, 65 l ) : 

So giddie are the common peoples mindes, 
So glad of chaunge, more wauering than the sea. 
may be translated from Hercules Furens, 1. 170 : 

fluctuque magis mobile vulgus, 
but may be inspired as well by Heywood s rendering 


And commons more vnconstant then the sea 2 }. 
Many of the passages, which Cunliffe quotes from the Mis- 
fortunes of Arthur as being tributary to Seneca, show an evi 
dent conformity with the English translation. I cite as instance 
(Dodsley, vol. IV, pp. 285-286) :! ) : 

CON. But whoso seeks true praise and just renown, 

Would rather seek their praising hearts than tongues. 
MOR. True praise may happen to. the basest groom : 
A forced praise to none but to a prince. 

*) Cunliffe, Infl. of Sen., p. 49. 

2 ) Cp. as well a passage from Greene s Selima, quoted by Cun 
liffe, Infl. of Sen., p. 64, with Thyestcs, 11. 204-218, and Heywood s 
translation, 11. n38-n66. 

3 ) Cunliffe, Infl. of Sen., p. 146. 


The original of this passage is Thyestes, 11. 209-212 : 
(SAT.) at qui favoris gloriam veri petit, 

animo magis quam voce laudari volet. 
ATR. Laus vera et humili saepe contingit vivo, 

non nisi potenti falsa. 

Heywood s translation corresponds almost literally with the 
text of the Misfortunes of Arthur ; moreover voce and animo are 
translated by the same concrete symbols, tongues and hearts, 
which cannot be a mere fortuity (11. 1147-53) : 
But who in deede the glory seekes 

of fauour true tobtayne, 
He rather wolde with harts of eche 
be pravsde, then tongues of all. 
Atre. The truer prayse full ofte hathe hapte 

to meaner men to fall : 
The false but vnto mightie man. 

It is worth while comparing the following passages of the 
same play, in which a similitude with the translation of Sene 
ca s tragedies is obvious ; from that comparison it ensues that 
the author of this tragedy used Heywood s translation along 
with, and maybe, instead of the Latin original : 

Cunlifle Dodsley First words Seneca Heywood 

pp.iSo 264 Let mischiefs &>a. T/iyestes, 11. 26-32 TH, 832-46 

(espec. 840-2; 

i3i 264 Go to, &>a. \ __._. 

265 Attempts*. 

1 37 270 Who then can 

ever &>a. Here. Fur., 865-8 HF, 1723-5 

i3g 2/3 Thine (death) (>. Here. Fur., 870-4 HF, 1728-32 

148 291 Yea, worse S-a. Tkyestes, 5j2 77/, 1791 

149 292 He either (>#. Thyestes, 2o3-4 TH,n35-j 
149 2g5 A troubled 

head c^a. Thyestes, 418-20 TH,i5o6-8 
149 299 XoplaceisleftcS fl. Troas, 433-4 TR, 1197-8 

Troas was imprinted in i55g in London by Richard Tottyll, 


the printer for the Lawcourts, at the sign of the Hand and 
Starre in Fleetstreet ). It was a small octavo, in five quires 
of eight leaves and one of four leaves, signatures [A] s B 8 C s 
D 8 E* F ; folio [A] i v and both sides of F, being blank. 
The text is printed in a small black-letter, the Dedicatory 
Epistle to Queen Elisabeth and the running titles in Italics ; 
the heading of the different acts and scenes in Roman types. 
The book cannot be called a model of care and accuracy, for 
there is neither regularity in the spelling, nor in the punc 
tuation, and the misprints are very numerous indeed. Pro 
bably the author was bitterly criticised on that account, as 
in his next literary achievement, Thyestes, he writes a long 
preface wherein he avails himself of the occasion to answer 
the charge and lay a great part of the blame on the printer, 
comparing himself to Seneca, whose tragedies also were 
wronged by the editors (TH, 11. 3i5-382). 

The only known copy of this edition belongs to the British 
Museum (press-mark: 238.1.27); it is bound in red leather 
and is one of the books of George III. s library. It has been 
reprinted in this volume, and it is represented in the Textual 
Notes by A. 

Richard Tottyll reprinted Troas a second time in i55g. 
Indeed in his Preface to Thyestes, written at the end of that 
year, Heywood states that, shortly after his Troas had been 
corrected by him and printed, Tottyll wanted to reprint it, 
and corrupted all ; so that he declared that never any work of 
his should come again to sygne of Hande and Starre . 
(TH, 11. 33y-358). From what Heywood says, it appears that 
this second edition was undertaken without the author s 
knowledge. That explains why the printer tried to make it as 
similar as possible to the first ; indeed it never was mentioned 
as a different edition. A copy of it is in the British Museum 
(no other is known to be extant) where it has the press-mark 

Ames, p. 8:3. 


G. 9440 ] )- It is represented here by B. Of course a collation 
of the two texts shows that there are numberless variants 
between them in spelling and punctuation (see Textual Notes, 
pp. 296-802), but though at first sight the print and disposition 
seems quite identical, we have not here two copies one 
corrected and one uncorrected of one edition, but two 
really distinct editions. Indeed the titles of A and B when 
compared show differences (cp. the reproduction on pp. L-LI : 
11. 1,6 and 8, and the kind of ornament under 1. 9 in B) ; the 
disposition of the lines of the letter to Elisabeth varies : 1. 12 
to 3o (one line more in B), 1. 66 to 70 ; the same has to be said 
of 1. i5o to 162 of l\\e Preface; there is a different syllabication in 
11. 100, 119, i32, 146 ; the word FINIS is added in B between 
11. 2569 and 2570 ; a different ornamental initial letter is used 
for lines 4i5 and 5i7 ; B makes a more frequent use of the 
sign CT , the running title varies constantly ; the capital letters 
indicating the names of the personages for scenical directions 
are generally spaced in B, very rarely in A ; the frequent use 
of w s of the lower case at the beginning of the odd verses on 
pp. 10, n, i3, 39 and 43, &a. in A shows a want of upper case 
types, whilst B has everywhere a capital W ; on the contrary 
on p. n, 5o &a. several small w s are used in B where A has 
capital letters ; further a lower case a is used about thirty 
times on pp. ig-So in A, where B has the upper case type. 
All these typographical differences in addition to Heywood s 
statement are sufficient proofs that A and B are indeed copies 
of two distinct editions. 

It is evident from a comparison of these texts that B is 
subsequent to A. Indeed a great number of evident misprints 
of A are corrected in B. This does not apply merely to 
mistakes of the printer, such as inverted letters and types 
that are arranged in a wrong order, or substituted for others, 
so that the words as they stand have no sense : f. i., 1. 270 
SFNECA A : SENECA B ; 3ii ftame A : flame B ; 419 Ana 

l ) This copy belonged to Hearne and Grenville. 


A : And B ; 594 rToiane A : Troianc B ; 976 gladdde A : 
gladde B ; &a. Many other mistakes, for which the author 
is responsible, have been corrected; such are, amongst others : 
1. 233 thrust A : thurst B ; 55y Frayltie A : Fraile B ; 642 we 
A : me B ; 860 Pryames A : Pyrrus B ; 2o32 honour hongur A : 
honour B ; 2042 by A : thy B ) Moreover the punctuation 
in B is much more accurate, so that it proves that B is 
almost a revised reprint of A. It is true that on the other hand 
amongst the variants, most of which are mere orthographical 
equivalents, there are some misprints of B. Still they are very- 
few ; about one dozen of them are evident mistakes of the 
printer 2 ). Apart from these unavoidable blunders, there are 
three more important and conscious alterations of the text of 
A that are not decided changes for the better ; they are : 
1. 1 1 56 stayne A : stray ne B ; 1610 been A : be B ; 2362 he A : 
be B. Still it may be questioned whether they are changes for 
the worse ; for the first and last of these three readings of B 
are as plausible as those of A, and the second merely substi 
tutes an older form to one that was more current in Hey wood s 

Now, in his preface to Thyestes, the translator owns that in 
Troas there were mo fautes, then lynes and accepts the blame 
on that head. But though he confesses that of some he was 
the author and fawtes to many made [himjselfe when [he] 
that booke lette pas Out of [his] handes , yet he excuses him 
self of other some . Indeed he says that when Tottyll 
renewed the print of Troas, the latter corrupted all , so 
that scant a sentence tie we Now flythe abroade as [he] it 
wrote and that he espyde... fowrescore greater fautes then 
[his own] in fortie leaues (TH, 11. 3i5-35o). All this savours 
much of a very clumsy apology. Indeed since Heywood him 
self admits that many faults escaped him the first time that 
Troas was printed, when he himself perused the proofs, it is 

J ) Cp. Textual Notes, pp. 295-302. 

2 ) Cp. 11. 42, 123, 197, 4i3, 811, 911, 919, 1107, 1720, 1768, 1781. 


evident that A, by far the more careless of the two issues, was 
the edition for which he was answerable. For if A had been 
the second and deteriorated edition of his tragedy, he cer 
tainly would have struck another tone, and would have come 
down without mercy on Tottyll for having edited a slovenly 
reprint, for which he would have declined all responsibility. 
The printer evidently touched a sore point by correcting the 
mistakes of A, and Hey wood feeling that the fault was entirely 
his own, was glad enough to find a few misprints in the 
second issue, and raised a pretended outcry probably against 
the orthographical alterations where he complained that scant 
a sentence trewe Now flythe abroade as [he] it wrote . 

A careful examination of the two copies A and B from a 
typographical point of view corroborates that plea for the 
precedence of A. It is quite evident that many pages of B 
have been printed from the forms that had been used for A, 
and of which the types had not been distributed, though the 
greater number of pages are of a different composition. Such 
identical forms were used for ff. Di v, Da r, D3 v, D^. r, D5 v, 
D6 r, D-J v, D8 r, and for most of the pages of quires E and 
F. Indeed a close comparison of f. i. pp. 54-55, 58,62, 70, 72-78, 
75, &a. in A and B, shows that there is in both the same dis 
position of the types and the same spacing between the words 
so that the lines have mathematically the same length ; the 
same forms of capital T (( and :) are used for the same 
words. Moreover some typographical irregularities occur in 
both A and B. For instance on page 55 a small w , that is 
different from the w of the ordinary type, and does not stand 
in a line with the other letters, is used in both copies for the 
same words ; on p. 58, 1. i683, the e of saued stands about 
two millimeters above the line in B and in A ; the full stop 
after fall of 1. 1740 is a little above the line in both copies, 
and the bottom dot of the colon after men on line 2o65 is 
equally badly printed. These and many more similar details 
prove that for several pages of B the form was utilised that 
had been set up for A ; several misprints of A were even 
reproduced in B : f. i. p. 62, 1. 1808 : rhyrde; p. 70, 1. 2067 : 
df ; p. 75, 1. 2227 : kiug; &a. Now, in many cases the faults of 


A are corrected in B, which evidently proves that B was the 
second and revised edition. A good instance may be de 
rived from fol. E :j r (p. 69) ) : from 1. 2011 to 2029 the compo 
sition in both copies is quite identical same spacing, same 
length of lines, same types, same disposition. But on 1. 2021 
Gresians of A is corrected into Grecians in B; should of 
line 2027 into shouldst ; Giecyan into Grecyan (1. ->o3i) ; 
honour hongur into honour (1. 2082); The into the 
(1. 2084) ; by into thy (1. 2042). In the last lines of this 
page a few e s. a stop and a colon were added, so that from 
line 2o3o to 2042 the composition is disarranged a little, though 
it evidently shows that (he form that was used for B, was ori 
ginally the same as that of A. These corrections and emenda 
tions are a conclusive proof of the precedence of that edition, 
which was thus rectified. (On p. 68, only the word policie 
of A is changed into pollecye in B, probably under the 
influence of its rhyme dye ). 

The fact that these forms of the first edition were still 
available, proves that the second issue was not edited long 
after the first ; which agrees with what Heywood says in his 
preface to Thyestes, that yet ere long the print of his Troas 
was renewed (TH, 1. 342). 

A third edition, C, of Troas was printed by Thomas Powell 
for G. Bucke. The title is set in a compartment, and is re 
produced on p. LII. The colophon is wanting ; the signa 
tures are A 8 B 8 C 8 D 8 E 8 and F 4 ; folios AI v and F 4 r and v 
are blank. The letter to the Queen and the running titles 
are printed in Italics, the names of the personages in Roman 
type, and the text itself in a black-letter of a smaller size 
than that of A 2 ). Line for line and page for page, the 

*) Cp. the reproduction of pp. 68 and 69 in A and B, at the end of 
this Introduction. 

2 ) Powell, who printed this Troas, was a kind of manager of Tho 
mas Berthelet before 1 555 and soems to have had a superintendency 
in his printing office after that date. Ames (pp. 465, 874), adds that 
some books were printed in Berthelet s house, with his types and 
marks. It is worth mentioning that many of the initial letters of this 


dispositions of Tottyll s editions are reproduced, with the 
only exception of the preface To the readers, in which the lines 
are differently arranged, so that the last words of a page in A 
are on the first line of the following page in C. The text of this 
third edition is evidently reprinted from the first ; indeed most 
of the mistakes of A, that are not mere misprints, have been 
reproduced, as appears from a collation, f. i., of 11. 233, 55y, 860, 
2021, 2027, 2o32 (honour hongur A, honour B, honour honger 
C) l ). The corrections of B were not made use of for this edi 
tion. To be true, some of the evident misprints of A, that 
had been rectified in B, are also corrected here (f. i. 11. 270, 
3ii, 327, 419, 493, &a), but these blunders were too obvious to 
escape notice, and even such iaults were put right, as occur 
on pages which were printed from the same forms in A and 
B, and were not corrected in the latter (f. i. 11. 1808: rhyrde 
AB : thirde C 2227, 2286, 2298, &a.). 

This third edition bears no date. The DNB ascribes it to 
i563. It is very probable that it was published soon after i56o. 
Bucke, for whom Powell printed it, took up his freedom in 
the Company of Stationers on September i3th, i56o and 
started printing in i562-i563. About that time he is mentioned 
in the Stationers Registers for being licensed to print The 
Historve of Leonerde Arytine, and he began taking apprentices 
in i563 2 ). It seems as if Bucke edited this Troas in the very 
beginning of his business career, otherwise he would not have 
had recourse to a printer. It is not likely that Heywood had 
a hand in it, for he certainly would have corrected many of 
the faults that had escaped him in his own edition. Probably 
he had left England when it appeared. 

One copy of this issue (C 1 ) belongs to the British Museum: 

edition of Troas are identical with those used for Thyestes, printed 
at the hous late Thomas Berthelettes (f. i., the I of TR, 1. 11 
and TH, 1. 91 ; W of TH, 1. i 7 65 and TR, 11. 2 7 3, 749). 

!) Cp. Textual Notes, pp. 296-302. 

z ) E. Arber, Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of 
London, 1554-1640, vol. I, pp. 197, 210 ; E. Arber, List of London 
Publishers, Birmingham, 1890, p. 8, McKerrow, A Dictionary of 


C. 84. a. 9. 2. It is bound in one volume with Neville s 
and Siudlcy s Medea and Agamemnon. Another copy (C 2 ) belongs 
to the Britwell Court Library : 36. A. 21 ) This copy was 
formerly bound in one volume with Hcyvvood s Hercules 
Furens (i) and Thyestes (2), Troas being the third ; as the cover 
had come off they were pulled apart. I have not found any 
discrepancies between these two copies. 

On the 26th of March i56o Thyestes came from the press that 
had belonged to Thomas Berthelet, and was possibly worked 
under the superintendence of Thomas Powell 2 ). It is printed 
in a small octavo size, comprising seven quires of four double 
leaves, signatures: * 8 W s A 8 B 8 C s D s E s . Fol. * i v and leaves 
E 7 and E 8 are blank. The dedicatory letter and prefaces as 
well as the text are printed in a small black-letter ; the 
running titles are in Italics ; the headings of acts and scenes 
and the names of the personages in the scenical directions, in 
Roman type. The title, reproduced on p. LIU, is adorned with 
a rich compartment having the date i534 in the bottom bor 
der, which compartment was used for several books printed 
by Berthelet, f. i. Elyot s Castle of Health (1542?) 3 ). The 
annoyance caused to Heywood by the two editions of Troas 
seems to have benefited him, for Thyestes is printed with very 
great care : misprints are comparatively scarce ; the ortho 
graphy is nearly uniform and the punctuation, which is in a 
bewildering state in Troas, is quite normal. 

Printers and Booksellers 1557-1640, London, 1910, p. 54. Bucke was 
a bookseller from i56o to 1567. 

*) My best thanks are due to Mr. S. R. Christie Miller who 
granted, and to his librarian Mr. H. Colman who obtained permis 
sion for me to collate my transcripts and reprints with the copies 
of the rich Library at Britwell Court. 

*) Ames, pp. 465, 874. 

3 ) The same compartment was used for Richard Taverner s 
Adagics, printed by Richard Kele in i552, at least the top border 
and the two side borders are identical. The bottom border with the 
date 1534 has been replaced by one bearing the printer s initials. 
Cp. Hand-lists of English Printers, London, 190$. 


One copy (A 1 ) of this edition, which is reproduced in this 
volume, is preserved in the British Museum : press-mark, 
C. 34. a. 8. 2 ; it is bound in red leather, together with Hercules 
Furens. Another copy (A 2 ) belongs to the same library : it is 
bound in green leather and was one of Grenville s books : 
press-mark, G. 9246. A third copy (A :! ) is in the Britwell Court 
collection : 36. A. 19. These three copies differ only in a very 
few details, recorded in the Textual Notes, 11. 747, ig58 and 235i. 

Hercules Fitrcus was printed in i56i by Henry Sutton, 
dwelling in paternoster rowe at the signe of the Blacke Boy , 
as appears from the colophon which is followed by the prin 
ter s mark two boys playing in a landscape. The title, 
reproduced on p. i.iv, is double, one in Latin and another in 
English. The size is a small octavo, and it contains one quire 
of four leaves A, and eleven of eight leaves : B C D E F 
G H I K L M. The title is on f. AI recto. On ff. AI v to A 4 v 
is printed a dedicatory epistle to Lord Herbert in a big black- 
letter ; on p. BI r is printed the Argument in a small black-let 
ter, and on f. M iS v the colophon with the printer s mark. 
The other leaves are taken up by the two texts of the tragedy, 
the Latin text being reprinted in Roman types on the verso 
sides. On the recto sides, and opposite to each line of the ori 
ginal, is Heyvvood s translation, set up in black-letter, the 
names of the personages and the titles of acts and scenes in 
Roman types. The printer has made a mistake in putting the 
form that should have been on f. D 4 recto on the place* of 
f. DO recto and vice versa, so that the English text has to be 
read in this order : D 3 r, D, ; r, D 5 r, D 4 r, D 7 r, &a. The Latin 
text follows quite regularly 1 ). This third tragedy is less care 
fully printed than Thyestes ; there are again many misprints 
and inaccuracies, nor is the Latin original without faults. 

The text in this volume is reprinted from a copy (A 1 ) pre- 

*) In the reprint of this volume these pages have been replaced 
in the regular order. 


served in the British Museum : press-mark, C. 84. a. 8.1 (n 2 
being Thyestes). A second copy (A 2 ) in the same library (press 
mark, a38. 1. 26) belonged to George III. and is rather dirty 
and badly cropped. A third copy (A :t ) is at Britwell Court, 
36. A. 18. The differences between these copies are merely 
typographical and are recorded in the Textual Notes (p. 3o5), 
11. 144, 1199, i327, 1708, 1712, 1964, 2002, 2325, 2553. 

Thomas Newton reprinted Hey wood s translations with 
those of the seven other tragedies by Seneca Oedipus by 
A. Neville, Hyppolytus, Medea, Agamemnon, and Hercules Oetacus 
by John Studley ). Octavia by T. Nuce, and Thebais by him 
self and edited them as Seneca His Tenne Tragedies, translated 
into Englysh. London, Thomas Marsh, i5Si. Troas was re 
printed from the third edition, C, as clearly appears from the 
variants recorded in the Textual Notes, p. 35o ff. (Newton s re 
prints = N). Indeed, though some of the evident misprints of 
C are corrected, all the readings and the punctuation that are 
special to this edition are found in Newton s Tenne Tragedies: 
cp. f. i., 11. 720, 1837, 2242, 2270, 2277, 2497. From the variants 
it appears that the text of Hey wood has been reproduced very 
carelessly. Passages that are difficult in the octavos of i55g-6i 
are quite incomprehensible in the quarto of i58i through 
bewildering misprints, words that were omitted, and an 
almost anarchical punctuation. Many of the inaccuracies and 
shortcomings with which Heywood has been charged are 
due without any doubt to Newton s negligence. 


The present reprint is intended to be as exact a reproduc 
tion of the texts of the octavos as was in the printer s power 
and in mine. 

*) Two of Studley s translations have been recently edited in these 
Materialist, v. XXXVIII, by M. E. Spearing. 


The black-letter had to be replaced by Roman type and the 
differences between long and short s, to be given up. Moreover 
some forms peculiar to the black-letter type (especially in 
Thyestes), as the two r s, the ligatures of oo, de and ct, and a 
special form of final s resembling the Greek , could not be 
kept. But for these exceptio ns, the three octavos have been 
reproduced exactly with their orthography, punctuation, 
running titles, signatures, catchwords, turned letters, &a. The 
different headings of prefaces, acts and scenes have been imi 
tated as closely as possible, and some black-letter types of 
a bigger size that occur in the text, have been replaced by a 
different Roman letter. 

I draw the attention to a few misprints in the text for which 
I humbly apologise. I detected them when comparing the 
present reprints with the original texts of London and of 
Britwell Court. 



1. 5o3 : ha.ndes,( comma doubtful) read handes, 

1248 : hcare, heare. 

i53o:trye. trye, 

1810: Astyanax. Astyanax 

2218: 1 haue J haue 


1. i83:his this 

1 517: whylt wylt 

1572: in is 
2191 \read : What causes haue from certaine 

race conspierde. 

23 14: about read about 

2424 : wyllyngy wyllyngly 


1. n57:y y 

i6oo:amonS among 


(p. 3o6) HF, 1. 1327: to tell, read to tell, 



die of the mo fl gram and prudent 
autbor Lucius, Anneus^Scncca, 
epttrulcD Croas,irtrb Diners ano 
fnn&jyc aODieions to rftc fame* 

Cngitfljc bp 

Dtcnt tn 

priutlegio *J imfti- 

Title-page of TROAS, first edition (A) 
(British Museum, 238. 1. 27) 

die of the moft gratte and prudent 
author Lucius, AnneuSjScncca, 
ciuuulco .roaa,tuttb Diuerr ano 
funDipe aoDtctons to tljf fame* 
j^etolp fct foztb tne 
jafpcr ^c 

f Ciw. 

Title-page of TROAS, second edition (B) 
(British Museum, G. 9440) 



ie oft be roq/l g 
flnfe pjutrru aatljo j Lucius 

Anneus, Seneca, 

Troaj , tdi(t) Oi tiers fans 

ctol^ Tct foojtt) in <nt 



Title-page of TROAS, third edition (C) 
(British Museum, C. 34. a. 9. 2). 



S>nma r ntitulrfi ^Thps 

C)eD bp llafprr tecps 

Trllotoc of 
* UI aifolne 


t onDon in ^Ittctttttt 
in ttjr houg 

tljt lettcB . 
Anno .1 f 6e. 

Title-page of THYESTES 
(British Museum, C. 34. a. 8. 2). 


ucii nnei 

necxTragcdiaprimaqua: infcti- 

bicurHcrcuus tuicnsmiperrccognita, & t> 

omnibus mendis,quibus antea fcarebar ledn 

lo purgata, & in (ludiofar luuentutit vtiliutr, 

ie Afiglicom metrum tanta fide conuc rfa, vt craeo 

fro carmine quoad Anglica lingua patiator 

prnc redditum videat. 

vodum Oxooiecfem. 


ftfOft Of Luc jus Anncus Seneca, 

ftlff tullD Hercules furcns,neto Ip pf rbfcD and 

of ail fciultes iu!;ef eo f it DD befo:e abounc Du 

ligerirflp coiricreD>3MD foi ti;e profit of poung 

fdjoHei0 fo fair^fullp rrandatrb into Gn^ 

giify merre,thac pe map fc Uer fc foi berfe 

foarneo as far re a* rfoc pU:afc of rtjccti 


* inlDjrfQjB. 

Title-page of HERCULES FURENS. 
(British Museum, C. 34. a. 8. i) 

L l 


die of the mostgraue and prudent 
author Lucius, Anneus, Seneca, 

entitulefc Gtoas, \vltb biuers anD 
aftfticions to tbe same. 

i) art tint I) in <jriiililjf I o 
Jasper f)fi;moob tu- 
iifHt in ^rrn- 

Anno domini. 
i 589. 

E C?^ priuilcgio ad impri- 
mcndum solum. 


and verteouse princesse, Elyzabeth by the grace 
of god Q uecne of England, Fraunce, and 

Ireland defender of the faith her highncs 
5 most humble and obedient subiecte 

Jasper Heywood studient in 
the vniucrsite of Ox 
ford wissheth helth 

welth, Jionour, 
10 6- felicitie. 

F cdsideration of your 
graces goodnes toward 
vs all your louing sub- 
iectes whych flytng 
i5 fame by mowthes oj 

men resowndes had not 
fully in me repressed a I 
drcade of reprehension 
(Most noble princesse and my drad soiieraigne 
20 Lady) If the ivisdome that God at these yeres in 
your highnes hath planted, had not seemde to 
me a strong defence against all byt of shameles 
arrogdce (reproche wherof flong with disdain - 
full ivordes from ireful togues, as adders stinges 


[4] The epistle. 

25 should strike me) fynally if the learning with 
which GOD hath endued your maiestye had 
not ben to me a comfortable persuasion of your 
gracious fanour towarde the simple gift and 
dntie of a scholer, I would not haue incurred 

3o so daungerous note of presumption, in attemp 
ting a subject to hys princesse, a simple scholer 
to so excellently learned, a rashe yong man to so 
noble a Q ueene by none other signe to signifie 
allegeance and dntie toward your highnes saue 

35 by writing : when oft times is the Pen the onely 
accuser in some pointes of hym that therwith 
doth endite. But now, to se (most gracious Lady) 
that thing come to passe which to the honour of 
him and for the welth of vs god hath ordained, 

40 a Princesse to raigne oner vs, such one, to whom 
great fredomc is for vs to serue, what ioy may 
serue to triumphe at that blissefull day, or what 
should we spare with pen to preacJie abrode that 
inward gladnes of hart that flowetJi from the 

45 brestcs of vs your most louing subiects ? beseching 
god that it may please hym to graunt your grace 
long and prosperous gouernance of the imperyal 
crowne of Englande.STlien well understanding 
how greatly your highnes is delighted in the 


The epistle. [5] 

5o swetc sappe of fine and pure, writers, I hanc 
here presumed to offer vuto you such a simple 
new \ercs gift as neitJicr presenteth golde nor 
perle, but dntie & good will of a scholler, a piece 
of Seneca translated into Englishe which I the 

55 rather enterprise to giuc to your highnes, as 
well for that I thought it should not be vnplea- 
sant for your grace to se some part of so excellent 
an author in your owne to;>g (the reading of 
whom in I a ten I vnderstande dcligJites greatly 

60 your maicsty) as also for that none may be a bet 
ter iudge of my doinges herein, then who best 
vnderstandeth my author : and the authorise 
of your graces fauour towarde thys my little 
worke, may be to me a sure defence and shielde 

65 against the sting of reprehending togues. Which 

I most humbly beseching your highnes cnde. 

with prayer to god to scnde vs long the 

fruition of so excellent 

and gracious a 

70 Ladie. 

C To the readers. 


Lthough (gentle Reader) thou 
mayst perhaps thinke me arro 
gant, for that J onely among so 
75 1V I many fine wittes, and towardly 

youth, (with which England this 
day florisheth) haue enterprised 
to set forth in englishe, thys present piece , of 
the flowre of all writers Seneca, as who saye 
80 not fearingwhat grauer heddes might iudge of 
me, in attepting so harde a thyng, yet vpon wel 
pondering what next ensueth, J trust both thy 
selfe shalt clere thyne owne suspicion, and thy 
chaunged opinion, shal iudge of me more right- 
85 full sentence. For neyther haue J taken thys 
worke first in hand, as once enteding it shoulde 
come to light (of well doing whereof J vtterly 
dispayred) and being done but for mine owne 
priuate excercyse, J am in mine opinion herein 
90 blameles, thoughe J haue (to proue my selfe) 
pryuatly taken y part which pleased me best, 
of so excellent an aucthor, for better is time spet 
in the best then other, and at first to attempt the 
hardest writers, shal make a man more prompt, 
96 to translate the easyer with more facilitie. But 
now sins by request, and frendshyp of those, to 
whom J coulde deny nothing, this woorke a- 
gainst my will, extorted is out of my handes, J 
nodes must craue thy pacience in reading, and 
TOO facilitie of iudgement : when thou shalt aparat- 
ly see, my witles lacke of learning, praying 
the to consyder. how harde a thyng it is for me, 
to touche at full in all poyntes, the aucthoures 


The preface, [7] 

minde, (being in many places very harde and 

io5 doubtfull and the worke muche corrupt by the 
defautc of euill printed bookes) and also how 
farre about) my powre, to keepe that grace, and 
maiestye of style, that Seneca doth, when both 
so excellent a writer, hath past the reache of all 

no imitacion, and also thys our englishe toong (as 
many thinke and J here fynde) is farre vn- 
able, to compare with the latten, but thou 
(good reader) if J in any place, haue swerued 
from the trew sence. or not kept the royaltie of 

Il5 speach, meetc for a tragedy, impute the tone to 
my youth : and lack of iugement, the other to my 
lacke of eloquence. Now as concerning sondry 
places augmented and some altered in thys my 
translacion. Fyrst forasmuch as thys worke se- 

120 med vnto me, in some places vnperfytte (whe 
ther left so of the authour or part of it lost as 
tyme deuoureth all thynges J wotte not) J 
haue (where J thought good,) wyth addicyon 
of mine owne pen, supplied the want of some 

125 thynges, as the fyrst Chorus, after the fyrst 
act beginning thus. O ye to whom &c. Also 
in the second acte. J haue added the speche of 
Achilles spright, rysing from hell to require the 
sacrifice of Polixena beginning in this wise, 

i3o Forsaking now &c. Againe the three last sta- 
ues of the Chorus after the same acte, and as 
for the third Chorus which in Seneca begyn- 
neth thus, Que vocal sedes ? For as much, as no 
thing is therin but a heaped nouinbre of farre & 

135 strange countreies, consydering with my selfe, y 


[d] The preface, 

the names of so many vnknowne countreyes, 
mountaines, desertes, and woodes should haue 
no grace in the englishe tonge, but be a straunge 
and vnpleasaunt thing to the readers, (except 
140 J should expounde the histories of eche one, 
which would be farre to tedious) J haue in the 
place therof. made a nother beginning in thys 
maner. O Joue that leadst &c. whych al- 
teracyon may be borne withall, seeing that the 
145 Corus is no part of the substance of the matter. 
Jn the rest J haue for my sclender learning, 
endeuored to kepe touche with the Latten, not 
woorde for woorde or verse for verse as to ex 
pounde it, but neglecting the placing of the 
i5o vvordes obserued their sence. Take ientle rea 
der this in good worth, wyth all hys fautes. 
fauour my first beginninges, and amende ra 
ther with good will, such thynges as herein are 
amis, then to depraue or discommende my la- 
i55 bour and paynes, for the fautes, seing that 
J haue herein, but onely made way to 
other that can farre better do thys 
or like, desyring them that as 

they can, so they woulde. 
160 Fare well getle reader, 

& accept my good 

The preface to the tragedye. 

, He ten yearcs siege of Troy , who list to here 
i65 I rr And of thafiaires, that there befell in fight 
Reacle ye the workes, y long sins written were 
Of all thassautes and of that latest night, 
When Turrets tops, in Troy they biased bright 
Good clerkes they were, that haue it written well 
170 As for thys worke, no worde therof doth tell. 

But dares Phrygian, well can all reporte 
With dictis eke of Crete in grekishe tong 
And Homere telles, to Troy the Greekes resort 
Jn scanned verse, and Maro hath it song 
175 Eche one in writ hath pend a story long 

Who doubles of ought, and casteth care to knowe 
These antique authors, shall the story showe. 

The ruines twaine of Troy, the cause of eche 
The glittering helmes, in fielde Ihe banners spred 
180 Achilles yres, and Hectors fightes they teache 
There may the iestes of many a knight be red, 
Patroclus, Pyrrhus, Aiax. Diomed, 
With Troylus, Parys, many other more, 
That day by day, there fought in field full sore. 

i85 And how the Grekes at ende an engine made 
A hugye horse where many a warlike knight. 
Enclosed was, the Troianes to inuade 
With Synons craft, when Greek es had fained flight 
while close they lay, at Tenedos from sight, 

190 Or how Eneas els as other say, 

and false Antenor did the towne betray. 


[ID] The preface. 

But as for me. J nought therof endight, 
Mine author hath not all that story pend, 
My pen hys wordes in englishe must resight, 
ig5 Of latest woes that fell on Troy at ende, 
what finall fates the cruell gods could sende. 
And how the Grekes when Troy was burnt, gan wreake 
Theyr ire on Troians, therof shall J speake. 

Not J with speare who pearced was in fielde, 
200 Whose throte there cut, or head ycorued was, 

Ne bloodshed blowes, that rent both targe and shielde 

Shall J resight. all that J ouer pas. 

The worke J wright, more wofull is alas, 

For J the mothers teares must here complaine, 
2o5 And blood of babes, that giltles haue been slaine. 

And such as yet, coulde neuer weapon wrest, 
But on the lappe are woont to dandled be, 
Ne yet forgotten had the mothers brest, 
How greekes them slew, alas here shall ye se, 
210 To make reporte therof, ay woe is me, 
My song is mischiefe, murder miserye. 
And hereof speakes, thys dolfull tragedye. 

Thou fury fell, that from thy deepest den 
Couldest cause thys wrath of hell, on Troy to lyght, 
2i5 That workest woe, guyde thou my hand and pen, 
Jn weepyng verse of sobbes and sighes to wright, 
As doth mine aucthor them bewaile aryght, 
Helpe wofull Muse for me besemeth well 
Of others teares, with weepyng iye to tell. 


The preface. [ll] 

220 When battred were to grounde the towres of Troye 
Jn writ as auncient authors do resight, 
And Greekes againe repayrde to seas with ioye, 
Up ryseth here from hell Achilles spright. 
Vengeance he craues with blood his death to quight. 

225 Whom Parys had in Phebus temple slaine, 
with guile betrapt for loue of Polyxeyne. 

And wrathe of hell there is none other price 
That may asswage : but blood of her alone 
Polyxena he craues for sacrifice, 
23o With threatninges on the grecians many one 
Except they shed her blood before they gone. 
The sprightes the hell, and depest pittes byneathe, 
O virgin dere, alas, do thrust thy deathe. 

And Hectors sonne, Astyanax, alas, 
235 Pore seely foole hys mothers onely ioye, 

Js iudge to die by sentense of Calchas 

Alas the while, to death is led the boye, 

And tumbled downe from Turrets tops in Troy. 

What ruthfull teares may serue to wayle the woe, 
240 Of Hectors wife that doth her childe forgoe 

Her pinching pang of harte, who may expresse, 
But such as of like woes, haue borne a parte ? 
Or who bewayle her ruthfull heuinesse 
That neuer yet hath felt therof the smart ? 
2^5 Full well they wote the woes of heauy hart. 
What is to leese a babe from mothers brest, 
They know that are in such a case distrest. 


[12] Troas 

Fyrst how the Quene lamentes the fall of Troy. 
As hath myne author done, J shall it wright 
25o Next how from Hectors wife they led the boy. 
To dye, and her complaintes J shall resight, 
The May dens death then must J last, endyght. 
Now who that list the Quenes complaint to heare. 
Jn following verse, it shall forthwith appeare. 

The speakers in this tragedie. 

Hecuba Queene of Troy. 

A company of women, 

The spright of Achilles. 

Talthybius, a Grecian. 
260 Agamemnon, Kyngof Grekes. 




265 An olde man Troian. 




The messenger. 


The first acte 


"| Ho so in pompe of prowde estate, 
or kingdome sets delight : 
275 ; Or who that ioyes in princes court 

to beare the sway of might. 
Ne dredes the fates which from aboue 

the wauering gods downe flingcs : 
But fast affiaunce fixed hath, 
280 in fraile and fickle thinges : 
Let him in me both see the face, 

of fortunes flattring ioye : 
And eke respect the ruthfull cnde, 

of the (O ruinous Troye) 
285 For neuer gaue she plainer proofe, 

then thys ye present se : 
How fraile and brittle is thestate, 

of pride and high degre. 
The flowre of flowring Asia, loe 
290 whose fame the heauens resounde, 
The worthy woorke of gods aboue, 

is batered downe to grounde. 
And whose assautes they sought afarre, 

from west with banners spredde, 
2g5 where Tanais colde her branches seuen. 

abrode the worlde doth shedde. 
With hugye host and from the east, 

where springes the newest dea, 
Where Luke warme Tygris chanell runs, 
3oo and metes the ruddy sea. 


[14] Troas 

And which from wandering lande of Scythe, 

the bande of widowes sought : 
with fire and sworde thus battred be, 

her turrets downe to nought. 
3o5 The walles but late of high renowne. 

loe here their ruinous fall : 
The buildings burne and flashing flame, 

sr/epes through the palays all. 
Thus euery house full hye it smokes, 
3io of olde Assaracks lande : 

Ne yet the ftame witholdes from spoyle, 

the gredy victours hande. 
The surging smoke the asure skye, 

and light hath hid away : 
3i5 And (as with clowde beset) troyes as- 

shes staynes the dusky day. 
Through pearst with ire and gredy of hart, 

the victor from a farre. 
Doth vewe the long assauted Troy, 
32O the gayne often yeres warre. 
And eke the miseries therof, 

abhorres to looke vpon, 
An though he see it yet scant himselfe, 

beleues it might be won, 
325 The spoyles therof wyth gredy hand. 

they snatche and beare away : 
A thousand shippes would not receine 

a boorde : so huge a pray. 
The yrefull might J doe protest, 
33o of goddes aduerse to me, 

My contries dust, and Troiane king, 
J call to witnes thee. 


of Seneca. [i5| 

Whom Troy now hides and vnderneth 

the stones, arte ouer trode : 
335 With all the gods that guyde thy ghost, 

and Troy that lately stode. 
And you also ye flocking ghostes, 

of all my children dere : 
Ye lesser sprightes : what euer ill, 
340 hath hapned to vs here. 

What euer Phebus waterishe face, 

in fury hath foresayde : 
At raging rise from seas, when erste, 

the monstres had him frayde. 
345 Jn childbed bandes J saw it yore, 

and wist it should be so : 
And J in vaine before Cassan 
dra tolde it long ago. 
Not false Ulysses kindled hath 
35o these fires, nor none of his : 
Not yet deceitfull Sinons craft, 

that hath byn cause of thys. 
My fire it is wherwith ye burne, 

and Parys is the brande : 
355 That smoketh in thy towres (O Troy) 

the flowre of Phrygian lande. 
But ay alas vnhappy age, 

why doste thou yet so sore, 
Bewaile thy contries fatallfall. 
36o thou knewest it long before. 
Beholde thy last calamites, 

and them bewayle with teares : 
Account as olde Troies oueiturne : 
and past by many yeares. 

J sawe 

[16] Troas 

365 J saw the slaughter of the king, 

and how he lost his life : 
By thawlters side (more mischief was) 

with stroke of Pyrrhus knife. 
When in his hand he wounde his lockes, 
370 and drew the king to grounde : 
And hid to hiltes his wicked sworde, 

in depe and dedly wownde. 
Which when the gored king had toke, 

as willing to be slayne, 
3y5 Out of the olde mans throte he drew, 

his bloody blade agayne. 
Not pitie of hys yeres, alas, 

in mans extremest age : 
From slaughter might hys hand withhold, 
38o ne yet his yre asswage. 

The gods are witnes of the same 

and eke the sacrifies, 
That in hys kingdome holden was, 

that flat on grounde now lies. 
385 The father of so many kinges 

Pryam ot auncient name, 
Untombed lieth and wants in blase 

of Troy : hys funerall flame. 
Ne yet the gods are wreakt, but loe 
3go hys sonnes and daughters all, 

Such lordes they serue as doth by chance 

of lot, to them befall. 
Whom shall J follow now lor pray ? 

or where shall J be led ? 
3g5 There is perhaps among the grekes, 
that Hectors wife will wed. 


of Seneca. [17] 

Some man desyres Helenus spouse 

some would Antcnors haue, 
And in the grekes there wantes not some 
400 that would Cassandra craue. 
But J alas most wofull wight, 

whom no man sekes to chusc, 
J am the onely refuge left, 

and me they cleane refuse, 
405 Ye carefull captiue company 

why stints your wofull crye ? 
Beate on your brestes and piteouslye 

complayne with voyce so hye, 
As mete may be for Troyes estate, 
410 let your complaintes rebounde 

Jn tops of treese : and cause the hils, 
to ring with terible sounde. 

The second sceane. 

The women. Hecuba 

4 i5 


Ot folke vnapt, nor new to wepe (o Queene) 
thouwilstto wayle, by practise are we taught 
For all these yerrs, in such case haue we bene 
since first the Troian guest, Amyclas sought : 
Ana saylde the seas, that ledde him on his way 
420 with sacred ship, to Cibell dedicate 

From whence he brought, his vnrepyning pray, 

the cause alas, of all this dyre debate 
Ten times now hid, the hils of Jdey bee, 

with snow of siluer hewe, all ouer layde. 
425 And bared is, for Troian roges eche tree, 

ten times in feelde, the haruest man afrayde, 

J3. I. The 

[l8] Troas 

The sp}^kes of corne hath reapt, since neuer day 

his wayling wantes, new cause renewes our \vo. 
Lift vp thy hand, (o Quene) crye well away : 
480 we follow thee, we are wel taught therto. 
HEC. Ye faithful fellowes of your casualtie 

Untye thattyre, that on your heades ye weare, 
And as behoueth state of misery, 

let fall about your woful neckes, your heare. 
435 In dust of Troy, rub al your armes about, 

in slacker wede, and let your brestes be tyde 
Downe to your bellies, let your limmes lye out, 

for what wedlocke should you your bosomes hyde ? 
Your garmentes loose, and haue in readines 
440 your furious handes, vpon your brestes to knocke 
This habite wel besemeth our distrcs 

it pleaseth me, J know the Troian flocke 
Renew agayn your long accustomed cryes 

and more then earst, lament your miseries. 
446 We bcwayle Hector. 

WO. C Our heare v/e haue vntide, now euery chone 
All rent for sorowes of our cursed cace 

our lockes out spreades, the knots we haue vndone 
And in these ashes stayned is our face. 
45o HEC. C Fil vp your handes & make therof no spare, 

for this yet lawfull is, from Troy to take, 
Let downe your garmentes from your shoulders bare 

and sufire not your clamour so to slake. 
Your naked breastes wait for your handes to smight 
455 now dolour depe, now sorow, shew thy might 
Make al the coastes that compas Troy about 
witnesse the sound, ofall your careful crye 
Cause from the caues, the Eccho to cast out 


of Seneca [19] 

Rebounding voyce of al your misery : 
4^0 not as she wontes, the latter woord to sound 
But al your woe, from farre let it rebounde 
Let al the seas it heare, and eke the land 
Spare not your brestes with heauy stroke to stryke 

beate ye your selues, eche one with cruel hand 
365 For yet your wonted cryc doth me not like 

We bewayle Hector. 
\VO. C Our naked armes, thus here we rent for thee, 

and bluddy shoulders, (Hector) thus we teare : 
Thus with our fistes, our heades lo beaten be 
470 and al for thee, behold we hale our heare. 
Our dugges alas, with mothers handes be tome 
and where the fleshe is wounded round about 
Which for thy sake, we rent thy death to morne 

the flowing streames of blud, they spring therout, 
475 Thy countreys shore, and destinies delaye, 

and thou to weeried Troians wast an ayde. 
A wall thou wast, and on thy shoulders Troy 
ten yeres it stode : on thee alone it stayde, 
With thee it fell : and fatall day alas 
480 of Hector both, and Troy but one there was. 

HEC. C Enough hath hector : turne your plaint & mone 

and shed your teares for Pryame euery chone. 
WO. f[ Receiue our plaintes, Olord of Phrigian land, 

and old twise captiue king, receiue our fcare, 
485 Whyle thou wert king, Troy hurtles then could stand 
though shaken twyse, with Grecian sword it weare, 
And twyse did shot of Hercles quyuer beare : 

at latter los of Hecubes sonnes all 
and roges for kinges, that high on pyles we reare : 
490 thou father shutst our latest funerall. 

. it. And 

[20] Troas 

And beaten downe, to Joue for sacrifies. 

like liueles blocke, in Troye thy carkas lies. 
HEC. C Yet turne ye once your treares, another way 

my Pryames death, should not lamented be 
4g5 O Troianes all, full happy is Pryame say, 

for free from bondage, downe descended he, 
To the lowest ghostes : and neuer shall sustayne 

his captiue necke, with Greekes to yoked be 
He neuer shall, beholde the Atrides twayne 
5oo nor false Ulysses euer shall he sec, 

Not he a pray, lor Grekes to tryumphe at 

his neck shall subiect, to their conquestes beare 
Ne gyue his handes, to tye behind his backe 

that to the rule of scepters wonted weare 
5o5 Nor folowing Agamemnons chare, in bande 

shall he be pompe, to proude Mycenas lande. 
WO. C Full happy Pryame is, eche one we say 

that tooke with him his kingdome, then that stoode 
Now safe in shade, he sekes the wandring w r ay 
5io and treades the pathes of all Elizius woode, 
And in the blessed sprites, full happie he, 

againe there sekes, to mete with Hectors ghoste, 
Happy Pryame, happy who so may see, 

his kingdome all, at ones with him be loste. 

5i5 ^.Chorus added to the tragedy 

by the translatour. 


Yeto whom, the lord of land and seas, 

of lyfe and death, hath grauted here the powre 

Lay down your lofty lookes, your pryde appeas 
the crowned k!ng, fleeth not his fatall howre. 


of Seneca. [21] 

Who so thou be, that leadst thy land alone 

thy life was limite, from thy mothers wombe, 
Not purple robe, not glorious glittring throne, 

ne crownc of golde, rcdemes the from the tombc 
525 A king he was, that wayting for the vayle, 
of him that slew, the Minotaure in fight : 
Begylde with blackenes, of the wonted sayle 

in seas him sonke, and of his name they hight. 
So he that \vilde, to win the golden spoyle 
53o and first with ship, by seas to scke rcnowne, 
Jn lesser wauc. at length to death gan boyle, 

and thus the daughters, brought their father downe, 
Whose songes, the woodes hath drawen, and riuersheld, 

and byrdes to heare his notes, did theyrs forsake, 
535 Jn peece meale throwne, amid the Thracian feelde, 

without rcturne hath sought the Stigiau lake. 
They sit aboue, that hold our life in line, 

and what we suffre, downe they fling from hye 
No carke, no care, that euer may vntwine 
540 the thrids, that wouen are aboue the skye, 
As witnest he, that somtime kyng of Greece, 

had Jason thought, in drenching sees to drowne 
Who scapte both death, and gaynde the golden fleece, 
whom fates aduaunce,ther may no povvre pluck downe 
545 Tne highest god, somtime that Saturne hight 

his fall him taught to credit their decryes 
The rule of heauens : he lost it by their might 

and Joue his sonne, now turnes the rolling skyes. 
Who weneth here to win eternall welth, 
55o let him behold this present perfit proofe, 

And learne, the secrete steppe, of chaunces stelth, 
most nere alas, when most it semes aloofe. 

S3. Hi. In 

[22] Troas 

Jn slipper ioy, let no man put his trust 

let none dispayre, that heauy happes hath past 
555 The swete with sowre, she mingleth as she lust 

whose doubtfull web, pretendeth nought to last. 
Frayltie is the thrid, that Clothoes rocke hath sponne, 
now from the distaffe drawne, now knapt in twayne 
With al the world, at length his e d he wonne, 
56o whose works haue wrought, his name sholdgret remain 
and he, whose trauelles, twelue, his name display, 

that feared nought, the force of worldly hurt, 
Jn fine alas hath found his fatall day, 

and dyed with smart of Dianyraes shurt, 
565 Jfprowes might eternitie procure, 

then Pryame yet should Hue in lyking lust 
Ay portly pompe of pride, thou art vnsure 

lo learne by him, o kinges ye are but dust, 
and Hecuba that waileth now in care, 
570 that was so late of high estate aQueene 
a mirrour is, to teache you what you are 

your wauering welth, o princes, here is scene. 
Whom dawne of day, hath seen in high estate 

before sonnes set, alas hath had his fall 
5y5 The cradelles rocke, apointes the lyfe his date 
from setled ioy, to sodayn funera.ll. 

The second acte. 

The sprite oj A chilles added to the tra- 
gedie by the translatour. 


The first sceane. [23] 

1 Orsaking now the places tenebrous, 
j and drpe dennes of thinfernal regione 
, From all the shadowes of elisions 

i That wander there the pathes full many one. 

585 Lo, here am J returned all alone, 

The same Achill whose feerce and heany hand 
Of all the world, no wight might yet withstand. 

What man so stout of all the Grecians host, 
That hath not somtime craued Achilles aide, 
5go and in the Troians, who of prowes most 

That hath not fearde to see my banners splayde 
Achilles lo, hath made them all afrayde. 
and in the Grekes hath been a piller post, 
That sturdy stode against the rToiane host. 

5g5 Where J haue lackte, the Grecians went to wracke 
Troy hath proude what Achilles sword could do 
Where J haue come the Troianes fled a backe, 
Retiring fast from field their walles vnto, 
No man that might Achilles stroke fordo, 

600 J dealt such stripes amid the Troian route, 

That with their blood J stainde the fieldes about. 

Mighty Memnon, that with his Persian bande, 
Would Pryames part with all his might mayntayne 
Lo now he lythe and knoweth Achilles hand 
6o5 amid the field is Troylus also slayne. 

Ye Hector great, whom Troy accounted playne 
The flowre of chiualry that might be found, 
all of Achilles had their mortall wound, 

X. Itfi. But 

[24] Troas 

But Paris lo, such was his false disceite, 

610 Pretending manage of Polyxeine, 
Behind the aulter lay for me in wayte 
Where J vnwares haue falne into the trayne 
And in Appolloes church he hath me slaine 
Wherof the hell will now iust vengeance haue, 

6i5 And here agayne, J come my right to craue. 

The depe Auerne my rage may not sustayne 
Nor beare the angers of Achilles spright 
From Acheront, J rent the soyle in twayne 
and through the ground, J grate again to sight 
620 Hell could not hide Achilles from the light, 
Vengeans and blood doth Orcus pit require, 
To quench the furies of Achilles yro. 

The hatefull land, that worse then Tartare is 
and burning thrust excedes of Tantalus, 
626 J here beholde againe, and Troye is this 
O, trauell worse, then stone of Sisyphus 
and paynes that passe the panges of Tityus 
To light more lothsome furie hath me sent 
Then hooked whele, that Jxions fleshe doth rent. 

63o Remembred is alowe where spretes do dwell 
The wicked slaughter wrought by wyly way, 
Not yet reuenged hath the depest hell, 
Achilles blood on them that did him slay 
But now of vengeans comes the yrefull day 

635 and darkest demies of Tartare from beneath 

Conspire the fates : of them that wrought my death. 


of Seneca. [28] 

Now mischief, murder, wrath ot" hell drawth nere 
and dyre Phlegethon flood doth blood require 
Achilles death shalbe reuenged here 
640 With slaughter such as Stygian lakes desyre 
Her daughters blood shall slake the sprites yre, 
Whose sonne we slew. wherof doth yet remayne, 
The wrath beneath, and hell shalbe theyr payne. 

From burning lakes the furies wrath J threate, 
646 and fyer that nought but streames of blood may slake 
The rage of wynde and seas these shippes shal beate, 
and Ditis depe on you shal vengeans take, 
The sprites crye out, the earth and seas do quake 
The poole of Styx, vngrateful Grckes it seath, 
65o With slaughtred blood reuenge Achilles death. 

The soile doth shake to beare my heauy foote 
and fearth agayn the sceptours of my hand 
The poales with stroke of thunderclap ring out 
The doubtful starres amid their course do stand, 
655 and fearful Phebus hides his biasing brand. 

The trembling lakes agaynst their course do flyte, 
For dreade and terrur of Achilles spryte. 

Great is the raunsom, ought of dewe to me, 
Wherwith ye must the sprites, and hell appease, 
660 Polyxena shal sacrifised be, 

Upon my tombe, their yreful wrath to please, 
and with her blood, ye shal asswage the sease 
Your ships may not returne to Greece againe 
Til on my tombe Polyxena be slayne. 


26] Troas 

665 And for that she should then haue been my wyfe, 
J will that Pyrrhus render her to me, 
and in such solemne sort byreeue her lyfe, 
as ye are wont the weddinges for to see, 
So shall the wrath of hell appeased be, 

670 Nought els but this may satisfye our yre, 
Her will J haue, and her J you require. 

The second sceane. 

Talthybiiis. Chorus. 
Las how long the lingring greekes 

6 7 5 

in heauen do make delay, 
^ When either war by seas they seeke 
or home to pas their way. 

CHO. C Why shew what cause doth hold your ships? 

and Grecian nauie stayes, 
680 Declare if any of the gods 

haue stopt your homeward wayes. 
TAL. C My mynd is masde my trembling sinnewes 

quake and are afearde, 
For straunger newes of trueth then these 
685 J thinke wer neuer hearde. 
Lo J my self haue plainly scene, 

in dawning of the day, 
When Phebus fyrst gan to approche, 

and dryue the starres away. 
690 The earth all shaken sodeynly 
and from the hollow ground, 
My thought J heard with roring crye 
a depe and dreadful sound. 


of Seneca. [27] 

That shoke the woods and all the treese 
695 rong out with thunder stroke, 

From Jda hilles downe fell the stones 

the mountayn tops wer broake. 
and not the earth hath only quakte 

but all the sea likewise, 
700 Achilles presence felt and knewe 

and high the surges ryse, 
The clouen ground Erebus pitts 

then shewed and depest dennes, 
That downe to Goddes that guyde beneath, 
7o5 the way appearde from hence. 

Then shoke the tombe from whence anon 

in flame of fyrie light, 
appeareth from the hollow caues 

Achilles noble spright. 
710 as wonted he his Thracian armes 

and banners to disploye 
and welde his weighty weapons well, 

against thassautes of Troye. 
The same Achilles semed he than 
7i5 that he was wont to be 

amid the hostes, and easely could 

J know, that this was he. 
With carkas slayne in furious fight 

that stopt and filde eche flood, 
720 and who by slaughter of his hand 

made Xanthus runne with blood 
as when in chariote high he sate 

with lofty stomacke stought. 
While Hector both and Troy at once 
725 he drew the walles abought. 


[28J Troas 

alowde he cryde and euery coaste, 

rang with Achilles sound 
and thus with hollow voyce he spake, 

from bottome of the ground. 
780 The grekes shal not with little price 

redeine Achilles yre, 
A princely raunsome must they geue, 

for so the fates require. 
Unto my ashes Polyxene, 
735 spoused shal here be slaine, 

By Pyrrhus hand, and all my tombe 

her blood shal ouerstayne. 
This sayd, he straight sanke downe agayne 

to Plutoes depe regione, 
740 The earth then closde the hollow caues 

were vanished and gone. 
Therwith the wether waxed clere, 

the raging windes did slake, 
The iombling seas began to rest, 
745 and al the tempest brake. 

The third sceane. 

Pyrrhus. Agamemnon. 

,Hattyme our sayles we should haue spred, 
75o J B B vpon Sygeon seas, 

With swift returne from long delay, 
to seke our homeward wayes. 



of Seneca [29] 

Achilles rose whose onely hand, 
hath geuen grekes the spoyle. 
755 Of Troia sore annoyde by him 

and leueld with the soyle. 
With spede requighting hys abode 

and former long delaye, 
At Scyros yle and Lesbos both, 
760 amid the Egeon sea. 

Till he came here in doubte it stoode, 

of fall or sure estate 
Then though ye hast to graunt his will 

ye shall it geue to late. 
765 Now haue the other captaynes all, 

the pryce of their manhood, 
What els rewarde for his prowes, 

then her all onely blood ? 
Are his desertes thinke you but light, 
770 that when he might haue fled, 
And passing Pelyus yeres in peace, 

a quyet life haue led. 
Detected yet his mothers craftes, 

forsooke his womans wede, 
775 And with his weapons proued himselfe, 

a manly man in dede ? 
The king of Mysya Tek-phus 

that would the grekes withstand, 
Coming to Troy forbidding vs, 
780 the passage of his land. 

To late repenting to have felt, 

Achilles heauy stroke, 
Was glad to craue his health agayne, 
where he his hurt had toke. 


[3o] Troas 

785 For when his sore might not be salued 

as tolde Appolo plaine, 
Except the speare that gaue the hurt 

restored helpe agayne. 
Achilles plasters cured his cuttes 
790 and saued the king aliue 

His hand both might and mercy knew 

to slay and then reuiue. 
When Thebes fell : Eetion saw it 

and might it not withstand, 
7Q5 The captiue king could nought redres 

the ruine of his land. 
Lyrnesus little likewyse felt 
his hand and downe it fill, 
With ruine ouerturned lyke 
800 from top of haughty hill, 
and taken Bryseis land it is 

and prisoner is she caught 
The cause of stryfe betwene the kinges 

is Chryses come to naught. 
8o5 Tenedos yle wel knowne by fame 

and fertile soyle he tooke 
That fostreth fatte the Thracian flockes 

and sacred Cilia shooke. 
What bootes to blase the brute of him 
810 whom trompe of fame doth shew, 

Through all the coastes where Caicus flood 

with swelling streame doth flow ? 
The ruthfull ruine of theese realmes 

so many townes bette downe, 
8l5 another man would glory count 
and worthy great renowne. 


ofSeneca [3iJ 

But thus my father made his way 

and these his iourneys are, 
And battayles many one he fought. 
820 whyle warre he doth prepare. 

As whisht J ma} r his merit( s more 
% shall yet not this remayne. 

Well knowen and counted prayse enoughe 

that he hath Hector slayne ? 
825 During whose life the Grecians all 

might neuer take the towne 
My father only vanquish! Troye 
and you haue pluckt it downe, 
Reioyse J may your parentes prayse 
83o and brute abrode his actes 
Jt semeth the soon to folow well 

his noble fathers actes, 
Jn sight of Pryame Hector slayne 

and Memnon both they laye. 
835 With heauy cheere his parentes waylde 

to mourne his dying day. 
Himselfe abhorde his handy vvorke 

in fight that had them slayne 
The sonnes of Coddcs Achilles knewe 
840 wer borne to dye agayne. 

The woman Quoene of Amasons 

that greeude the Greekes fnll sore 
Js turnde to flight then ceast out feare 

we drade their bowes no more. 
845 Jf ye well way his worthines 

Achilles ought to haue 
Though he from Argos or Myce- 
nas would a virgin craue. 


[32] Troas 

Doubte ye herein ? allow ye not 
85o that streight his will be doon. 
And count ye cruel Pryames blood 

to geue to Peleus sonne ? 
For Helens sake your own childes blood, 

appeasde Dyanaes yre, 
855 A wonted thing and done ere this, 

it is that J requyre. 
AG. C The onely faulte of youth it is 

not to refrayne his rage, 
The fathers blood already sturres, 
860 in Pryames wanton age 

Somtime Achilles grieuous checkes 

J bare with pacient hart, 
The more thou mayst the more thou oughtste, 

to suffre in good part. 
865 Whereto would ye with slaughtred blood 

a noble spirite stayne ? 
Thinke what is mete the grekes to doo 

and troians to sustayne. 
The pi oude estate of tiranye 
870 may neuer long endure. 

The king that rules with modest ineane 

of safetie may be sure. 
The higher steppe of princely state 

that fortune hath vs synde, 
875 The more behouthe a happy man 

humilitie of mynde, 
And dreade the chaunge that chauuce may bring 

whose gyftes so sone be loste 
And chiefly then to feare the gods, 
880 whyle they the fauour most. 

In bea- 

of Seneca. [33] 

Jn beating downe that warre hath wonne, 

by proofe J haue ben taught, 
What pompe and pride, in twinke of Jye, 

may fall and come to naught. 
885 Troye made me fierce and proude of minde, 

Troy makes me frayde with all : 
The Greekes now stande where Troy late foil, 

eche thing may haue his fall. 
Sometime J graunt J did my selfe, 
890 and sceptors proudly beare, 

The thing that might aduaunce my harte, 

makes me the more to feare. 
Thou Priame perfite proofe presentst, 

thou art to me eftsones : 
8g5 A cause of pride, a glas of feare, 

a mirrour for the nones. 
Should J account, the sceptors owght, 

but glorious vanitie? 
Much like the borowed brayded here, 
900 the face to bewtefie. 

One sodaine chaunce may turne to naught. 

and maime the might of men, 
With fewer then a thousande shippes, 

and yeres in les then ten. 
go5 Not she that guides the slipper whele, 

of fate : doth so delayc : 
That she to all possession grauntes, 

often yeres setled staye. 
With leaue of Greece J will confesse, 
910 J would haue wonne the towne, 
But not with ruine thus extreme, 
to se it beaten downe. 

C. f. But 

[34] Troas 

But loe the battel made by night 

and rage of feruent minde, 
9i5 Could not abyde the brideling bitte 

that reason had assinde. 
The happy sword once staynde with blood 

vnsacyable is, 

And in the darke the feruent rage 
920 doth strike the more amis. 

Now are we wreake on Troy to much 

let all that may remaine. 
A virgin borne of princes blood 

for offring to be slaine 
Q25 And geuen be, to staine the tombe 

and ashes of the (led, 
And vnder name of wedlocke se 

the giltles blood be shed, 
J will not graunt : for mine should bee 
93o therof both faute and blame, 
Who when he may forbiddeth not 

offence : doth will the same. 
PYR. CAnd shall hys sprightes haue no rewarde 

their angers to appayse ? 
g35 AG. Yes very great, for all the worlde 

shall celebrate hys prayse. 
And landes vnknowne that neuer saw 

the man so praisde by fame, 
Shall here and keepe for many yeres, 
940 the glory of his name. 

Jf bloodshed vayle hys ashes ought 

strike of an oxes hed, 
And let no blood that may be cause 
of mothers teares be shed 


of Seneca. [35] 

945 What furious fransye may this be 

that doth your wyll so leade, 
This earnest carefull sute to make 

in trauaile for the deade ? 
Let not such enuy towarde your fa- 
g5o ther in yeur hart remaine, 

That for hys sacrifice ye woulde 

procure an others payne. 
PYR. C Proude tyrant while prosperitie 

thy stomacke doth aduaunce, 
g55 And cowardly wretch that shrinks for fere 

in case of fearefull chaunce. 
Js yet againe thy brest enflamde, 

with brande of venus might? 
Wilt thou alone so oft depriue 
960 Achilles of hys right? 

Thys hand shall giue the sacrifice 

the which if thou withstande. 
A greater slaughter shall J make, 

and worthy Pyrrhus hande. 
965 And now to long from princes slaugh 
ter doth m} r hande abide, 
And meete it were that Polyxeine 

were layde by Priames syde. 
AG. J nought deny but Pyrrhus chiefe 
970 renowne : in warre is this, 

That Priam slaine wyth cruell sworde, 

to your father humbled is. 
PYR. C My fathers foes we haue them knowne, 

submit themselues humblye, 
975 And Pryam presently ye wotte, 
was gladdde to craue mercye. 

a. it. But 

[36] Tcoas 

But them for feare not stout to rule, 

lyest close from foes vp shit : 
While thou to Aiax and vlis- 
980 ses, dooste thy will commit. 

AG. C But nedes J must and will confesse 

your father dyd not feare : 
When burnt our fleete with Hectors brandes, 

and Greekes they slawghtred weare. 
g85 While loytring then a loofe he lay, 

vnmindefull of the fight. 
Jn steade of armes with scratche of quill, 

hys sownding harpe to smight. 
P Y R. C Great Hector then despising the 
990 Achilles songes dyd feare : 

And thessale shippes in greatest drede, 

in quiet peace yet weare. 
A G. C For why aloofe the thessale fleete, 

they lay from Troians handes, 
995 And well your father might haue rest, 

he felt not Hectors brandes, 
PYR. C Well semes a noble king to giue 

an other king reliefe, 

A G C Whie hast thou then a worthie king 
1000 berieued of hys lyefe ? 

PYR. [ A point of mercie sometime is, 

what Hues in care to kill. 
A G. C But now your mercie moueth you 

a virgins death to will. 
loo5 PYR. C Account ye cruell now her death 

whose sacrifice J craue. 
Your own dere daughter once ye know, 
your selfe to thaulters gaue. 


ofSeneneca. [3y] 

A G. Nought els could saue the Grekes from seas, 
1010 but thonlie blood of her : 

A king before his children ought, 

his countrey to prefer. 
PYR. C The law doth spare no captiues blood 

nor wilthe their death to staye. 
ioi5 A G. C That which the law doth not forbid, 

yet shame doth ofte say nay. 
PYR. E The conquerour what thing he lyst, 

may lawfully fulfill. 

A G. C So much the les he ought to lyst, 
1020 that may do what he will. 

PYR. E Thus boast ye these as though in all 

ye onely bare the stroke : 
When Pyrrhus loosed hath the greekes, 

from bonde of ten yeres yoke. 

IO25 AG. C Hath Scyros yle such stomaks bred ? 
PYR. C No bretherns wrath it knowes. 
AG. C Beset about it is with waue. 
PYR. L The seas : it do enclose. 
Thyestes noble stock J knowe, 
io2o and Atreus eke full well, 

And of the bretherns dire debate. 

perpetuall faine doth tell. 
AG. C And thou a bastarde of a mayde, 

deflowred priuely. 
lo35 Whom (then a boy) Achilles gate, 

in filthy letchery. 
PYR. C The same Achill that doth posses, 

the raigne of goddes aboue, 
With Thetys seas : with Eacus sprightes, 
1040 the starred heauen with Joue. 

C. ill. The 

[38] Troas 

AG. C The same Achilles that was slaine, 

by stroke of parys hande 
PYR. C The same Achilles, whom no god, 

durst euer yet withstande 
1045 AG C The stoutest man J rather would, 

hys chekes he should refraine, 
J could them tame, but all your bragges, 

J can full well sustaine. 
For euen the captiues spares my sworde : 
io5o let Calchas called be. 

Jf destenies require her blood, 

J wyll therto agre. 
Calchas whose counsell rulde our shippes, 

and nauy hyther brought, 
io55 Unlokst the poale and hast by arte, 

the secretes therof sought. 
To whom the bow r elles of the beast, 

to whom the thunder clap, 
And biasing starre with flaming traine, 
1060 betokeneth what shall hap. 

Whose wordes with deerest price J bought, 

now tell vs by what meane, 
The will of Gods agreeth that we 

returne to Greece againe. 
io65 CAL. C The fates apoint the Grekes to bye 

theyr waies with wonted price, 
And with what cost ye came to Troy, 

ye shall repayre to Greece 
With blood ye came, with blood ye must, 
1070 from hence returne againe, 
And where Achilles ashes lyeth, 
the virgin shall be slaine, 


of Seneca. [3gj 

Jn semely sort ot habite, such 

as maydens wont ye se, 
1075 Of Thessalie, or Mycenas els, 

what time they wedded be. 
With Pyrrhus hand she shall be slaine, 

of right it shalbe so. 
And meete it is that he the sonne, 
1080 his fathers right should do. 

But not this only stayeth our shippes, 

our sayles may not be spred, 
Before a worthier blood then thine, 

(Polixena) be shed. 

io85 which thirst the tates, for Priames ne 
phew, Hectors little boye : 
The grekes shall tumble hedlong downe, 

from hyghest towre in Troy. 
Let him there die, this only way 
1090 ye shall the gods appeas, 

Then spread your thousand sayles with ioy, 

ye nede not feare the seas. 


MAy thys be true or doth the fable fayne, 
When corps is dead the sprite to Hue as yet ? 
when death our iyes with heauy hand doth straine 
And fatall day our leames of light hath shet, 
And in the tombe, our ashes once be set, 
Hath not the soule likewise his funerall, 
iioo But still alas do wretches Hue in thrall ? 

Or els doth all at once together dye ? 
And may no part his fatall howre delay. 

C. till. But 

[40] Troas 

But with the breath the soule from hence doth flie ? 
Amid the cloudes to vanish quite away, 
no5 As dankye shade fleeth from the poale by day ? 
And may no iot.e escape from destenie, 
When once the brande hath burnde the bodye ? 

What euer then the ryse of some may see, 
And what the weste that setts the sonne doth knowe, 
i no Jn all Neptunus raigne what euer bee, 
That restles seas doe washe and ouer flow, 
with purple waues still tombling to and fro. 
Age shall consume : eche thing that liuthe shall die, 
With swifter race then Pegasus doth flie. 

in5 And with what whyrle, the twise sixe signes do flie, 
With course as swift, as rectoure of the spheares, 
Doth guide those glistring globes eternallie, 
And Hecate her chaunged homes repeares, 
So drauthe on deathe, and life of eche thing weares, 

1120 And neuer may the man, retourne to sight, 

That once hath felt the stroke of Parcas might. 

For as the fume that from the fire doth pas, 
With tourne of hande, doth vanishe out of sight 
And swifter then the northen boreas, 
1 125 With whirling blaste and storme of raging might, 
Driuthe far away and puttes the cloudes to flyght, 
So fleeth the spright that rules our life away, 
And nothing taryeih after dying day. 

Swift is the race we ronne, at hand the marke, 
n?o Laye downe your hope, that weight here ought to wyn, 


of Seneca. [41] 

And who dredes ought, cast of thy carefull carke, 
Wilt thou it wotte what state thou shalt be in, 
When deade thou arte ? as thou hadst neuer bin. 
For gredy time it doth deuour vs all, 
it35 The worlde it swayes to Chaos heape to fall. 

Death hurtes the corps and spareth not the spright, 
And as for all the dennes of Tenare deepe, 
With Cerberus kingdome darke that knowes no lyght, 
And streightest gates that he there sits to keepe, 
1140 They fansyes are, that followe folke by sleepe 
Such rumours vayne, but fayned lies they are, 
And fables, lyke the dreames in heauy care. 

These three staues following are 
added by the translatour. 

1145 O dreadfull day : alas the sory time, 

Js come of all the mothers ruthfull wo, 

Astianax, alas thy iatall line, 

Of life is worne, to death straight shalt thou go, 

The sisters haue decreed it should be so, 
Il5o There may no force alas escape their hande, 

The mighty Joue their will may not withstande. 

To see the mother, her tender childe forsake. 
What ientle hart that may from teares refraine, 
Or who so fierce that would not pittie take, 
Ii55 To see alas the giltles infant slaine. 

For sory hart the teares mine iyes do staine, 
To thinke what sorowe shall her hart oppresse, 
Her little chylde to leese remedylesse, 


[42] Troas 

The double cares of Hectors wife to wayle, 
1160 Good Ladies haue your teares in reddines, 

And you with whom should pitie most preuaile. 
Rue on her greefe : bewaile her heauines, 
With sobbing hart, lament her deepe distres 
When she with teares. shall take leaue of her soon, 
Ii65 And now (good ladies) here what shall be doon. 

The tMrde acte. 

Andromacha. Senex. 


Las ye carefull company 
1170 why hale ye thus your heares ? 

Why beate you so your boyling brestes 

and staine your iyes with teares ? 
The fall of Troy is new to you 

but vnto me not so, 
1175 J haue foresene this carefull case 

ere thys time long ago 
When fierce Achilles Hector slewe 

and drew the corps abought 
Then then me thought J wist it well, 
1180 that Troy should come to nought. 
Jn sorowes sonke, J sensles am 

and wrapt alas in woe, 
But soone except thys babe me helde, 

to Hector would J goe. 
Ii85 Thys seely foole my stomack tames 

amyd my miserye, 

And in the houre of heauiest happes, 
p ermittes me not to dye, 


of Seneca. [48] 

Thys onely cause constraynth me yet 
iigo the Gods for him to pray, 

with trackt of time prolonges my payne, 

delayes my dying daye. 
He takes fro me the lacke of feare 

the onely frute of yll. 
Iig5 For while he Hues yet haue J lefte 

wherol to feare me styll. 
No place is left for better chaunce, 

with woorse we are opprest : 
To feare alas and se no hope, 
1200 is worste of all the rest. 

SEN. C What sodaine feare thus moues your minde, 
and vexeth you so sore ? 

ANDR. C Still stil alas of one mishap 

there ryseth more and more. 
I2o5 Not yet the dolefull destenyes 

of Troy become to ende 
SEN. C And what more grieuous chaunces yet 

prepare the gods to sende ? 
SEN. C The caues and dens of hell be rent 
1210 for Troians greater feare, 

And from the bottomes of theyr tombes 

the hidden sprightes appeare. 
May none but Greekes alone from hell 

returne to lyfe agayne ? 
I2i5 Would god the fates would finishe soone 

the sorowes J sustaine. 
Death thankfull were, a common care 

The Troians all oppres, 
But me alas amaseth moste 
1220 the fearefull heauines. 


[44] Troas 

That all astonied am for dreade, 

and horrour of the sight : 
That in my sleepe appearde to me, 

by dreame this latter night. 
1225 SEN. Declare what sightes your dreame hath showed 

and tell what doth you feare. 
AX DR. C Two partes of all the silent night, 

almost then passed weare. 
And then the clere seuen clustred beames 
I23o of starres : were fallen to rest. 

And first the slepe so long vnknowne 

my weried iyes opprest. 
Jf this be slepe the astonied mase, 
t of minde in heauy moode, 
1235 When sodenly before mine iyes, 
the spright of Hector stoode. 
Not like as he the Greekes was wont 

to battaile to require 
Or when amid the Grecians shippes, 
1240 he threw the brandes of fyre. 

Nor such as raging on the Grekes, 

with slaughtring stroke had slaine, 
And bare in dede the spoiles of him 

that did Achilles fayne. 
1245 His countenance not now so bright. 

Nor of so liuely chere, 
But sad and heauy like to owres, 

and cladde with vglie heare, 
Jt did me good to se him though, 
I25o when shaking then his bed : 

Shake of thy slepe in hast he sayd, 
and quickly leaue thy bed. 


of Seneca. [48] 

Conuey into some secret place, 

our sonne, O faithfull wife, 
1255 Thys onely hope there is to helpe, 

finde meane to saue his life. 
Leaue of thy piteous teares he sayde 

doost thou yet waile for Troy ? 
Would god it lay on grownde full flatte, 
1260 so ye might saue the boy. 

Up stirre he sayd thy selfe in hast, 

conueye him priuelie, 
Saue if ye may the tender blood. 

of Hectors progenie. 
1265 Then straight in trembling feare J \vakte 

and roulde mine iyes abought 
Forgetting long my childe, pore wretche, 

and after Hector sought. 
But straight alas, J wist not how 
1270 the spright away did passe, 
And me forsoke before J coulde, 

my husbande once embrasse. 
O childe : O noble fathers broode 

and Troians only ioye, 
1275 O worthy seede of thauncient bloode. 

and beaten house of Troye. 
O ymage of thy father loe, 

thou liuely bearst his face, 
Thys countenance, loe my Hector had, 
1280 and euen such was his pace. 
The pitche of all his body such, 

his handes thus would he beare. 
His shoulders hygh, his thretning browes, 
eueu such as thine they weare. 

O sonne 

[46] Troas 

1285 O sonne : begotte to late for Troye 

but borne to soone for me, 
Shall euer tyme yet come againe 

and happy day may be, 
That thou mayst once reuenge, and builde 
1290 againe the towres of Troye, 

And to the towne and Troians bothe 

restore theyr name with ioye ? 
But why do], forgetting state 

of present desteny, 
I2g5 So great thinges wishe ? enough for cap- 

tiues is to liue onely. 
Alas what priuye place is left 

my little childe to hyde ? 
What seate so secret may be founde 
i3oo where thou mayste safely bide ? 

The towre that with the walles of gods 

so valiaunt was of might, 
Through all the worlde so notable 

so flourishing to sight, 
i3o5 Js turnde to dust : and fire hath all 

consumde that was in Troye, 
Of all the towne not so much now 

is left to hyde the boye. 
What place were best to choose for guyle 
i3io the holly tombe is heere, 

That thenmies sworde will spare to spoile 

where lythe my husbande deere. 
Which costly worke hys father buylte 

kyng Pryame lyberall, 
i3i5 And it vp raysde v/ith charges great, 
for Hectors funerall. 


of Seneca. [47] 

Herein the bones and ashes bothe 

of Hector loe they lye, 
Best is that J commit the sonne 
i32O to hys fathers custodye. 

A colde and fearefull swet doth ronne, 

through out my membres all, 
Alas J carefull wretche do feare, 

what chaunce may the befall. 
i3s5 SEN. L Hide him away : this onely way 

hath saued many more, 
To make the enmies to beleue, 
that they were deade before. 
He wilbe sought : scant any hope 
i33o remaineth of safenes, 

The payse of his nobilitie 
doth him so sore oppres, 
AN DR. C What way were best to worke : that none 

our doinges might bewray ? 
i335 SEN. C Let none beare witnes what ye doe 

remoue them all away. 
ANDR. C What if the enmies aske me : where 

Astianax doth remaine ? 

SEN. C Then shall ye boldely aunswere make 
1340 that he in Troy was slaine. 

ANDR. C What shall it helpe to haue him hyd? 

at length they will him finde. 
SEN. C At first the enmies rage is fierce 

delay doth slake hys minde. 
i3^5 ANDR. C But what preuailes, since free from feare 

we can him neuer hyde ? 

SEN. C Let yet the wretche take hys defence 
more careles there to byde. 


[48] Troas 

A N D R. C What lande vnkno wne out of the way 
i35o what vn frequented place, 

May kepe thee safe ? who aydes our feare ? 

who shall defende our case ? 
Hector Hector, that euermore 

thy frendes didst well defende, 
i355 Now chiefly ayde thy wife and childe 

and vs some succour sende. 
Take charge to kepe and couer close 

the treasures of thy wife, 
And in thy ashes hyde thy soon 
i36o preserue in tombe his life. 

Draw nere my childe vnto the tombe 

why fliest thou backward so ? 
Thou takest great scorne to lurke in dens 

thy noble hart J knowe. 
i365 J see thou art ashamde to feare 
shake of thy princely minde, 
And beare thy breste as thee behoues 

as chaunce hath thee assinde. 
Beholde our case : and see what flocke 
1370 remayneth now of Troy 

The tombe : J wofull captiue wretche 

and thou a sely boye. 
But yelde we must to sory fates 

thy chaunce must breake thy breste, 
l375 Go to : creepe vnderneath, thy fa 
thers holy seates to reste. 
Jf ought the fates, may wretches helpe 

thou hast thy sauegarde there. 
Jf not : all ready then pore foole 
i38o thou hast thy sepulchere. 


of Seneca [49] 

SEN. The tombc hym closely hydes : hut lest 

your feare should him betrayc, 
Let him here lye, and farre from hence, 

goe ye some other waye. 
1385 ANDR. C The les he feares that feares at hande 

and yet if nede be so, 
Jf ye thinke meete a little hens 

for safetie let vs go. 

SEN. C A little whyle kepe sylence now 
1390 refrayne your playnt and cryc, 

His cursed foote now hycher moues 

the lord of Cephalye. 
AN. C Now open earth, and thou my spouse 

from Styx rent vp the grounde, 
1395 Deepe in thy bosome hyde my sonne, 

that he may not be founde. 
Ulysses comes with doutfull pace 

and chaunged countenaunce 
He knittes in hart deceitfull craft 
1400 for some more greuous chaunce. 

ULY. C Though J be made the messenger 

of heauy newes to you, 
This one thing first J shall desyre 

that ye take thys for true. 
1405 That though the wordes come from my mouth, 

and J my message tell, 
Of trueth yet are they none of myne 

ye may beleue me well. 
Jt is ihe woorde of all the Greekes 
1410 and they the authors bee, 

Whom Hectors blood doth yet forbyd 
theyr countreys for to see. 

2>. i. Our 

[So] Troas 

Our carefull trust of peace vnsure 

doth styll the Grekes detayne , 
1415 And euermore our doutfull feare, 

yet draweth vs backe agayne. 
And suffreth not our weried handes, 

our weapons to forsake, 
Jn chylde yet of Andromacha, 
14:20 Whyle Troians comfort take, 

AN. C And sayth your Augure Calchas so ? 
ULYS. C Though Calchas nothyng sayde 
Yet Hector telles it vs hymselfe, 
Of whose seede are we frayde. 
1425 The woorthy blood of noble men 

oftimes we see it playne, 
Doth after in theyr heyres succede 

and quickely sprynges agayne. 
For so the horneles yongling yet, 
1480 of h} gh and sturdy beste, 

With lofty necke, and braunched browe, 

doth shortly rule the rest. 
The tender twig, that of the lop 
ped stocke doth yet rcmaync, 
1435 To matche the tree that bare the boughe, 

in tyme startes vp agayne. 
With equall toppe to former wood, 

the rowme it doth supplye, 
And spreddes on soyle alowe the shade, 
1440 to heauen hys braunches hye. 

Thus of one sparke by chaunce yet left 

it happeneth so full oft. 
The fyre hath quickely caught his force 
and rlamthe agayne aloft, 


of Seneca |5l] 

1445 So feare we yet least Hectors blood, 

might rise ere it be long, 
Feare castes in all thextremitie 

and oft interprets wrong. 
Jf ye respeckte our case, ye may 
I45o not blame these olde souldiars 

Though after yeres & monthes twise flue, 

they feare againe the wars. 
And other trauailes, dreading Troye, 

not yet to be well woon, 
1^55 A great thing doth the Grecians moue, 

the feare of Hectors soon. 
Ryd vs of feare, this stayeth our fleete, 

and pluckes them backe againe, 
And in the hauen our nauie stickes, 
1460 till Hectors blood be slaine. 

Count mee not feerce for that by fates 

J Hectors sonne require, 
For J as well if chaunce it woulde 

Orestes should desire. 
1465 But sins that nedes it must be so, 

beare it with pacient hart, 
And suffre that which Agamem 
non, suffred in good part. 

AN. E Alas my childe would god thou werte, 

1470 yet in thy mothers hande, 

And that J knewe what destenies, 

the helde, or in what lande. 
For neuer should the mothers faith, 

her tender childe forsake, 
1475 Though through my brest the enmies all, 
their cruell weapons strake. 

2>. ii. Nor 

[52] Troas 

Nor though the Greekes, with pinching bandes 

of yron : my handes had bounde, 
Or els in feruent flame of fyre 
1480 besette my body rounde. 

But now my little chylde (poore wretche) 

alas where might he bee ? 
Alas what cruell destenye, 

what chaunce hath hapt to thee ? 
1485 Art thou yet rangeing in the feeldes 

and wandrest there abrode ? 
Or smothered els in dusty smoke 

of Troy : or ouertrode ? 
Or haue the Greekes thee slayne alas 
1490 and laught to see thy blood ? 

Or tome art thou with Jawes ofbeastes 

or cast to fowles for foode ? 
ULY. C Dissemble not, hard is for thee 

Ulysses to disceiue, 
1495 J can full well the mothers craftes 

and subteltie perceiue. 
The policy of Goddesses, 

Ulysses hath vndoon, 
Set all these fayned woordes asyde, 
i5oo tell me where is thy soon ? 

AN DR. E Where is Hector : where all the rest ? 

that had with Troy their fall ? 
Where Pryamus ? you aske for one 

but J require of all. 
:5o5 ULY. C Thou shalt constrayned be to tell 

the thyng thou doost denye. 
AN. <L A happy chaunce wer death, to her 
that doth desyre to dye, 


of Seneca . [53] 

ULY. L Who most desyres to dye : would t ay- 
i5lo nest line when death drawthe on, 

These noble wordes with present feare 

of death : would soone be gon. 
ANDR C Ulysses if ye v/ill constrayne 

Andromacha with feare, 
i5i5 Threten my lyfe, for now to dye 

my chiefe desyre it weare 
ULY. C With strypes, with fyre, tormenting death 

we will the trueth out wrest, 
And dolour shall thee force, to tell 
i52O the secretes of thy brcst. 

And what thy hart hath deepest hyd 

for payne thou shalt expres 
Oftymcs thextremitie preuayles, 

much more then ientlenes. 
i525 ANDR. C Set me in midst of burning flame, 

with \voundes my body rent, 
Use all the meanes of crueltie, 

that ye may all inuent. 
Proue me with thyrst, and hunger both, 
i53o and euery torment trye. 

Pearce through my sides with burning yrons, 

in prison let me lye. 
Spare not the woorst ye can deuyse 

(if ought be worse then this) 
1 535 Yet neuer geat ye more of me 

J wot not where he is, 
ULY. C Jt is but vayne to hyde the thing 

that straight ye will deteckte, 
No feares may moue the mothers hart, 
1540 she doth them all neglecte. 

T5>. Hi. This 

[84] Troas 

This tender loue ye beare your childe, 

wherin ye stande so stoute, 
So muche more circumspectly warnthe, 

the Greekes to looke aboute. 
1545 Least after ten yeres trackte of time, 

and battaile borne so farre, 
Some one should liue that on our chil 
dren, might renew the warre. 
As for my selfe, what Calchas sayeth, 
i55o J would not feare at all. 

But on Telemachus J dreade, 

the smarte of warres woulde fall. 
AN. C Now will J make Ulysses gladde, 

and all the Greekes also, 
1 555 Needes must thou wofull wretch confesse, 

declare thy hidden wo. 
Reioyce ye sonnes of Atreus, 

there is no cause of dred. 
Be glad Ulysses tell the Greekes, 
]56o that Hectors sonne is ded. 

ULY. E By what assurance prouest thou that ? 

How shall we credite the ? 
AN. C What euer thing the enmies hand, 

may threaten, happe to me 
1 565 Let spedy fates me slaye forthwith, 

and earth me hide at ones, 
And after death from tombe againe, 

remoue yet Hectors bones, 
Except my soon already now, 
i5yo do rest among the ded, 
And that except Astyanax, 
into his tombe be led. 


of Seneca. [55] 

ULY. C Then fully are the fates fulfil do 

with Hectors childes disceace : 
i575 Now shall J beare the Grecians worde, 

of sure and ccrtaine peace. 
Ulysses why what doost thou now ? 

the Greekes will euery chone, 
Beleue thy wordes : whom creditste thou ? 
i58o the mothers tale alone. 

Thinkst thou for sauegarde ofher chylde 

the mother will not lie ? 
And dread the more the worse mischaunce, 

to gyue her sonne to dye ? 
i585 Her faith she bindes with bonde of othc, 

the trueth to verifie, 
What thing is more of weight to feare, 

then so to sweare and lye ? 
Now call thy craftes togither all, 
i5go bestirre thy wits and minde, 
And show thy selfe Ulysses now, 

the truthe herin to finde. 
Searche well the mothers minde : beholde 

she weepes and waileth out, 
i5g5 And here and there with doutlull pace, 

she rangeth all about. 
Her careful eares she doth applie, 

to harken what J say, 
More fraide she seemes then sorowfull, 
1600 Now worke some wilye way. 

For now most nede of wit there is, 

and crafty pollecie, 
Yet once againe by other meanes, 
J will the mother trie. 

S>. UK. Thou 

[56] Troas 

i6o5 Thou wretched woman mayst reioyce, 

that dead he is : alas 
More dolefull death by desteny 

for him decreed ther was. 
From Turrets top to haue been cast 
1610 and cruelly been slaync. 

Which only towre of all the rest, 

doth yet in Troy remayne. 
AN DR. C My spright failth me, my limmes do quake, 

feare doth my wittes confound, 
i6i5 And as the yce congeales with frost. 

my blood with colde is bound. 
ULYS. L She trembleth lo : this way, this way 

J will the trueth out wrest, 
The mothers feare detecteth all 
1620 the secretes of her brest. 

J will renew her feare : goe sears 

bestyrre ye spedely, 
To seke this enmy of the Grekes, 

where euer that he lye. 
l625 Well done, he will be found at length, 

go to, still seke hym out, 
Now shallhe dye : what dost thou feare ? 

why dost thou looke about? 

ANDR. C Would god that any cause ther were, 
i63o yet left that might me fray, 
My hart at last now all is lost, 

hath laycle all feare away. 
ULYS. C Sins that your chyld now hath ye say 

already suffred death, 

l635 And with his blood we may not pourge 
the hostes as Calchas sayth. 


of Seneca. [87] 

Our flele passe not (as well inspired, 

doth Calchas prophecy) 
Tyll Hectors ashes cast abrode, 
1640 The waues may pacify, 

And tombe be rent, now sins the boy 

hath scapt his desteny. 
Nedes must we breake this holy tombe 

where Hectors ashes lye. 

i6 4 5 AN DR. C What shall J do ? my mynd distrac 
ted, is with double feare, 
On thone my sonne, on thother syde 

my husbandes ashes deare. 
Alas which part, should moue me most, 
i65o the cruell goddes J call, 

To witnes with me in the truth, 

and ghostes that guyde thee all. 
Hector, that nothing in my soon 

is els that pleaseth me, 
i655 But thou alone, god graunt him lyfe, 

he might resemble the, 
Shall Hectors ashes drowned be ? 

byde J such cruelty, 
To see hys bones cast in the seas ? 
1660 yet let Astianax dye, 

And canst thou wretched mother byde, 

thine owne chyldes death to see ? 
And suffre from the hye towres top 

that hedlong throwne he be ? 
i665 J can, and will take in good part, 

his death and cruell payne, 
So that my Hector after death, 
be not remoued agayne. 


[58] Troas 

The boye that life and senses hathe 
1670 may feele hys payne and dye, 

But Hector loe hys deathe hathe plaste, 

at rest in tombe to lye. 
What doost thou stay ? determyne which 

thou wilt preserue of twayne. 
1675 Art thou in doubte ? saue thys : loe here 

thy Hector dothe remayne. 
Bothe Hectors be, thone quick of spright 

and drawing toward hys strengthe 
And one that may perhaps reuenge 
1680 hys fathers deathe at lengthe. 
Alas J can not saue them bothe 

J thinke that best it weare, 
That of the twayne J saued hym, 
that dothe the Grecyans feare. 
1685 U L Y. C Jt shalbe done that Calchas woordes 

to vs dothe Prophecye, 
And nowe shall all thys sumpteous woorke 

be throwne downe vtterlye. 

AN. C That once ye solde? U L. C J will it all 
1690 from toppe to bottom rende 

A N D R. C The fayth of Godds J call vppon 

Achilles vs defende. 
And Pyrrhus ayde thy fathers ryght 
U L Y. C Thys tombe abrode shall lye 
160,5 A N D R. CO mischiefe, neuer durst the Greekes 

showe yet suche crueltye. 
Ye strayne the Temples, and the Godds 

that moste haue fauorde you, 
The deade ye spare not, on theyr tombes 
1700 your furye rageth now. 

J will 

of Seneca. [89] 

J will theyr weapons all resist 
my selfe wyth naked h.inde, 
The yre of harte shall geeue me strength, 

theyr armoure to withstande. 
I7o5 As fierce as dyd the Amasones 

beate downe the Greekes in fight, 
And Menas once enspyrde with God, 

in sacryfice dothe smyght : 
With speare in hande, and while with iu- 
1710 rious pace she treades the grounde, 
And woode as one in rage : she strikes 

and feelythe not the wounde : 
So wyll J ronne on midste of them 

and on theyr weapons dye, 
1715 And in defence of Hectors tombe, 

among hys asshes lye. 
U L Y. C Cease ye ? dothe rage and fury vayne 

of woman moue ye ought, 
Dispatch with speede what J commaunde, 
1720 and plucke downe all to nought. 

A N D R. C Slay me rather here with swoorde 

ridde me out of the waye, 
Breake vp the deepe Auerne, and ryd 

my destenies delaye. 
1725 Ryse Hector and byset thy foes 

breake thou Ulysses yre, 
A spright arte good enough for hym, 

beholde he casteth fyre. 
And weapon shakes with mighty hande 
I73o do ye not Greekes hym see ? 

Or els dothe Hectors spright appeare 
but onely vnto me ? 


[60] Troas 

ULY. Down quight withall. AN. What wilt thou suf 
fer both thy sonne be slayne, 
1735 And after death thy husbandes bones 

to be remoued againe ? 
Perhaps thou mayst with prayer yet 

appease the Grecians all, 
Els down to ground the holly tombe 
1740 of Hector, straight shall fall. 

Let rather dye the chyld poore wretch 

and let the Grekes him kyll, 
Then father and the sonne should cause 

the tone the others yll. 
1745 Ulysses, at thy knees J fall, 
and humbly aske mercy, 
These handes that no mans feete els knew, 

fyrst at thy fete they lye, 
Take pitie on the mothers case, 
I75o and sorowes of my brest, 

Uouchsafe my prayers to receiue, 

and graunt me my request. 
And by how much the more the goddes 

haue the aduaunced hye, 
1755 More easely strike the poore estate, 

of wretched misery. 
God graunt the chast bed of thy god 
ly wyfe Penelope, 
May the receiue, and so agayne 
1760 Laerta may the see. 

And that thy sonne Telemachus, 

may mete thee ioyfully, 
His graundsers yeres, and fathers witte, 
to passe full happely. 


of Seneca [6ij 

1765 Take pittie on the mothers teares, 

her little child to saue, 
He is my onely comfort left 

and thonely ioy J haue. 
ULY. C Bring furth thy sonne and aske. 

1770 The second sceane. 


Ome hyther child out of thy dens to me 

thy wretched mothers lamentable store, 
This babe Ulysses, loe this babe is he, 
1775 |_ that stayeth your ships, & feareth you so sore. 

Submit thy self my soon with humble hand, 

and worship flatte on ground, thy maisters feete, 
Think it no shame, as now the case doth stand 
the thing that fortune wilth a wretch is mete. 
1780 Forget thy worthy stocke of kingly kynd. 

thinke not on Pryames great nobilite, 
And put thy fathet Hector from thy mynd, 

such as thy fortune let thy stomake be. 
Behaue thy selfe as captiue, bend thy knee, 
1785 and though thy grief pearce not thy tender yeares, 
Yet learne to wayle thy wretched state by me, 

and take ensample at thy mothers teares. 
Once Troye hath seen the weping of a chylde, 
When little Pryame turnde Alcides threates, 
1790 And he to whom all beastes in strength did yelde, 

that made hys way from hell, and brake theyr gates 
His little enmics teares yet ouercame, 
Pryame (he said) receiue thy liberty, 


[62] Troas 

Jn seate of honor keepe thy kingly name, 

1795 but yet thy sceptors rule more faythfullye. 

Loe such the conquest was of Hercules 

of him yet learne your hartes to mollifye. 
Do onely Hercles cruell weapons please 
and may no ende be of your crueltye ? 
1800 No lesse then Pryame kneeles to thee this boy 

that lyeth and asketh onely life of thee. 
As for the rule and gouernaunce of Troy 

where euer fortune will there let it bee. 

Take mercy on the mothers ruthfull teares 

i8o5 that with theyr streames my cheekes do ouerflowe 

And spare thys giltles infants tender yeares 

that humbly falleth at thy feete so lowe. 

The rhyrde sceane. 

Vlysses. Andromacha. 

1810 Astyanax. 

F treuthe the mothers greate sorow, 

dothe moue my hart full sore. 
I But yet the mothers of the Greekes, 

j of neede must moue me more. 

i8i5 To whom thys boye may cause in tyme 

a greate calamytie. 
ANDR. C may euer he the burnt ruynes 

of Troy reedifie ? 

And shall these handes in time to come, 
1820 ercckt the towne agayne ? 

Jf thys be thonely helpe we haue, 
there dothe no hope remayne 

For Troy 

of Seneca [63J 

For Troy, we stand not now in case 

to cause your feare of mynde, 
i825 Doth ought auaile hys fathers force, 

or stock of noble kinde ? 
Hys fathers harte abated was. 

he drawne the walles abought. 
Thus euell happs, the haughtiest hart 
i83o at length they bryng to nought. 

Jf ye will needes oppresse a wretche 
what thyng more greeuous weare. 
Then on hys noble necke he shoulde 

the yoke of bondage beare ? 
1835 To serue in life, doth any man 

thys to a king deny ? 
U L Y. C Not Ulysses wylth hys deathe 

but Calchas Prophecy 
A N D R. O false inuentor of disceyte 
1840 and heynous crueltye, 

By manhode of whose hand in warre, 

no man dyd euer dye. 
But by disceite and craltye trayne 
of mynde that mischefe seekes, 
1846 Before thys tyme full many one 

deade is : ye of the Greekes. 
The Prophets woordes and giltlesse gods 

sayste thou my sonne requyre ? 
Naye : mischiefe of thy breste it is 
i85o thou dooste hys death desyre. 

Thou night souldier, and stought of harte 

a little chylde to slaye, 
Thys enterpryse thou takste alone 
and that by open daye. 


[64] Troas 

i855 ULY. C Ulysses manhode well to Greekes 

to much to you is knowne, 
J may not spend the tyme in wordes, 

our nauy wil be gone. 
AN. C A little stay, while J my last 
1860 farewell geue to my chyld 

And haue with oft embracing him, 

my gredy sorowes filde. 
ULY. C Thy greuons sorowes to redresse, 

would god it lay in me, 
i865 But at thy will to take delaye 

of time, J graunt it thee. 
Now take thy last leaue of thy sonne, 

and fill thy self with teares, 
Oft tymes the weping of the eyes, 
1870 the inward grief out weares. 

AN DR. C O deere, o swete, thy mothers pledge, 

farewell my only ioy, 
Farewell the flowre of honour left 

of beaten house of Troy. 
1875 O Troians last calamitie 

and feare to Grecians part 
Farewell thy mothers only hope, 

and vayne comfort of hart. 
Oft wisht J thee thy fathers strength, 
1880 and half thy graundsyres yeres, 

But all for nought, the Goddes haue all 

dispoynted our desyres. 
Thou neuer shalt in regall court 

thy sceptors take in hand 
1885 Nor to thy people geue decreese 
nor leade with law thy land. 


of Seneca. [65] 

Nor yet thyne enmyes oucrcome 

by might of handy stroke, 
Nor sende the conquerd nacyons all 
1890 vnder thy seruyle yoke. 

Thou neuer shalt beate downe in fight 

and Grekes with sworde pursewe, 
Nor at thy Charyot Pyrrhus pluckc 

as Achylles Hector drcwe. 
lSg5 And neuer shall these tender handes 

thy weapons welde and wreste, 
Thou neuer shalte in woddes pursue 

the wylde and mighty beaste. 
Nor as accustomde is by guyse 
1900 and sacryfice in Trove, 

With measure swifte : bet\vene the aul- 

ters shalte thou dauncc with ioye. 
O greeuous kynde of cruell deathe 

that dothe remayne for thee, 
icp5 More wo full thyng then Hectors deathe 

the walles of Trove shall see. 
ULYS. C Now breake of all thy mothers teares 

J may no more tyme spende, 
The greuous sorowes of thy harte 
1910 will neuer make an ende. 

A N D R. f[ Ulysses spare as yet my teares 

and graunte a while delaye, 
To close hys eyes yet with my hands 

ere he departe awaye. 
igi5 Thou dyest but yong : yet fearde thou arte 

thy Troy doth wayte for thee, 
Goe noble hart thou shalt agayne 
the noble Troians sec. 

J6. i. ASTY. 

[66] Tcoas 

AS. C Helpe me mother PAN. C Alas my childe 
1920 why takste thou holde by me ? 

Jn vayne thou calste where helpe none is 

J can not succoure thee. 
As when the little tender beaste 

that heares the Lyon crye, 
IQ25 Strayght ibr defence he seekes hys dam 

and crowching downe dothe lye. 
The cruell beaste when once remo- 

ued is the dam awaye, 
Jn greedy iawe with rauening bit 
1980 doth snatch the tender praye. 

So straight the enmies will thee take 

and from my syde the Beare. 
Keceyue my kisse and teares poore chylde 

receyue my rented heare. 
ig35 Departe thou hence now full of me 

and to thy father goe, 
Salute my Hector in my name 

and tell him of my woe. 
Complayne thy mothers griefe to hym 
1940 if former cares may moue, 

The spryghtes : and that in funerall flame 

they leese not all theyr lone. 
O crewell Hector suffrest thou 

thy wife to be opprest ? 
1945 With bonde of Grecyans heauy yoke 

and lyest thou still at rest ? 
Achylles rose : take here agayne 

my teares and rented heare, 
And (all that J haue lefte to sende) 
ig5o thys kisse thy father beare. 


of Seneca. [67] 

Thy coate yet for my comfort leaue 

the tombe hath touched it 
Ji of hys ashes ought here lye 

J will seke it ciiery whit. 
ig55 U L Y. C There is no measure of thy teares 

J may no lenger staye 
Deferre no farder our returne 

breake of our shipps delaye. 

Chorus altered liy the translater. 

Joue thnt leadst the lampes of fyre 

and dekst with flamyng starres the sky 
Why is it euer thy desyre 

to care theyr course so orderly ? 
That now the frost the leaues hath worne 
icj65 and now the spryng dothe cloath the tree, 
Now fyry Leo rypes the Corne 

and still the soyle shoulde changed be ? 
But why arte thou that all dooste guide 

betwene whose handes the poales do swaye 
1970 And at whose v/ill the Orbes do slide 

careles of mans estate alwaye? 
Regarding not the good mans case, 

nor caring how to hurte the ill 
Chaunce beareth rule in euery place, 
1975 and turneth mans estate at will. 

She geues the wrong the vpper hande 

the better parte she dothe oppresse, 
She makes the highest lowe to stande 

her kyngdome all is orderlesse. 
1980 () parfitte proofe of her frayltie, 

the princely towres of Troye bet downe 

B. ii. The 



The flowre of Asya here ye see 

with turne of hande quight oucrthrowne 
The ruthfull ende of Hectors sonne 
1985 whome to his death the Greekes haue led 
Hys fatall howre is come and gonne 

and by thys tyme the childe is ded 
Yet still alas more cares encrease, 

o Troians dolefull destenye, 
1990 Fast dothe approche the maydes decease 

and now Polyxena shall dye. 

The fourth ackte. 

Helena. Andromacha. 

i 99 5 



Hat euer wofull wedding yet, 

were cause of funerall, 
Of wailing, teares, blood, slaughter els 

or other mischiefs all, 
A worthy matche for Helena, 

and meete for me it ware, 
My wedding torche hath byn the cause, 

of all the Troians care. 

J am constrainde to hurt them yet, 

after their ouerthrowe 
2Oo5 The false and fained manages, 

of Pyrrhus must J showe. 
And gene the maide the Greekes attire 

and by my policie, 
Shall Parys sister be betraide, 
2010 and by disceit shall dye. 


ofSeneneca. [69] 

But let her be beguiled thus, 
the les should be her paine 
If that vnware, without the feare 
of death : she myght be slaine. 
20i5 What ceasest thou the will of Greekes, 

and message to fulfill ? 
Of hurt constrainde the faute returnthe 

to thauthor of the ill. 
O noble virgin of the fa- 
2020 mous house : and stocke of Troy, 
To thee, the Gresians haue me sent 

I bring the newes of ioy. 
The gods rue on thy afflicted state, 

more mercifull they be, 
2025 A great and happy manage loe, 

they haue preparde for the. 
Thou neuer should if Troy had stoode, 

so nobly wedded be, 
Nor Priame neuer couldjpreferre, 
2o3o the to so hye degree. 

Whom flowre of all the Giecyan name, 

the prince of honour hongur hie, 
That beares the scepters ouer all, 

The lande of Thessalie, 
2O35 Doth in the law of wedlocke chose 

and for his wife require, 
To sacred rightes of lawfull bed, 

doth Pyrrhus thee desire 
Loe Thetys great with all the rest, 
2040 of gods that guide by sea, 

Eche one shall thee account as theyrs, 
and ioy by wedding dea. 

. iii. And 

[70] Troas 

And Pelcus shall thce daughter call, 

when thou arte Pyrrhus wife, 
2045 And Nereus shall account thee hys 

the space of all thy life. 
Put of thy mourning garment now, 

thys regall vesture weare 
Forget henceforth thy captiue state, 
2o5o and semely broyde thy hearc. 
Thy fall hath lift thee higher vp, 
and doth thee more aduauncc, 
Oft to be taken in the warre, 

doth bring the better chaunce. 
2055 AN. f[ This ill the Troians neuer knew 

in all their grieles and paine, 
Before this time ye neuer made, 

vs to reioyce in vaine. 
Troye towres geue light, o semely tyme 
2060 for mariage to be made 

\Yho woulde refuse the wedding daye 

that Helayne dothe perswade ? 
The Plague and Ruine of eche parte 

beholde doste thou not see, 
2o65 These tombes of noble men : and how 

theyr boanes here scattered bee ? 
Thy brydebed hath bene cause df thys 

for thee all these be ded, 
For thee the blood of Asya bothe 
2070 and Europe hath bene shed. 

When thou in ioy and pleasure bothe 

the righting folke from farre, 
Haste veude : in doubte to whom to wishe 
the glory of the warre. 


ofSenencca. [71] 

2075 Goe to prepare the maryages 

what neede the torrhis light ? 
Be holde the towres of Troy do shyne 

with brandes that blase full bright. 
O Troians all set to your handes, 
2080 thys wedlock celebrate : 

Lament thys day with wofull cry 

and teares in seemely rate. 
H E L E. C Though care do cause the want of wit 

and reasons rule denye, 
2085 And heauy hap dothe oftimes hate 

hys mates in myserye, 
Yet J before moste hatefull iudge 

dare well defende my parte, 
That J of all your grieuous cares 
2090 sustayne the greatest smarte. 
Andromacha for Hector weepes, 

for Priame Hecuba, 
For onely Parys priuely 

bewayleth Helena. 
2og5 A harde and grieuous thing it is 

captiuitie to beare, 
Jn Troy that yoke J suffred long 

a prisoner whole ten yeare. 
Turnde are the fates, Troy beaten downe, 
2100 to Greece J must repeare, 

The natiue countrey to haue loste 

is ill, but woorse to feare. 
For dreade thereof you neede not care 

your euilles all be paste, 
2lo5 On me both partes will vengeauce take 
all lightes to me at laste. 

. till. Whom 

[72] Troas 

Whom cche man prysoncr takes God wott 

she standes in slipper staye, 
And me not captiue made by lotte 
2 no yet Parys led awayc 

J haue bene cause of all these warres 
and then your woes were wrought, 
When fyrst your shippes the Spartane seas 

and land of Grecia sought. 
2li5 But if the Goddesse wilde it so 

that J theyr praye shoulde be, 
And for revvarde to her beautyes iudge 

she had appoynted me, 
Then pardon Parys : thinke thys thynge 
2120 in wrathfull iudge dothe lye, 
The sentence Menelaus geucs 

and he thys case shall (rye. 
Now turne thy plaintes Andromacha, 

and weepe for Polyxeyne, 
2125 mine iyes for sorowes of my hart, 

theyr teares may not refreyne. 
AN. C Alas what care makes Heleyne weepe ? 

What griefe doth she lament? 
Declare what craftcs Ulisses castes, 
2i3o what mischief hath he sent ? 

Shall she from heyght of Jdey hill 

be hedlong tombled downe ? 
Or els out of the turrets toppe 

in Troy, shall she be throwne ? 
2i35 Or will they cast her from the cliues, 

into Sygcon seaes ? 
In bottome of the surging waues, 
to ende her ruthfull dayes ? 


of Seneca. 

Show what thy countnance hides, & tell 
2140 the secretes of thy brest : 

Some woes in Pyrrhus wedding are 

farre woorse then all the rest. 
Goe to, geue sentense on the inayde, 

pronounce her destenye : 
2145 Delude no lenger our mishaps, 

we are preparde to dye. 
HEL. C Would god thexpounder of the gods 

would geue his dome so right : 
That J also on poynt of sworde 
2i5o myght leese the lothsome light. 
Or at Achilles tombe, with stroke 

of Pyrrhus hand be slayne : 
And beare a part of all thy fates 

O wretched Polyxcyne. 
2l55 Whom yet Achilles wooth to wed, 

and where his asshes lie, 
Requireth that thy blood be shed, 

and at his tombe to die. 
AN. C Beholde loe, how her noble minde 
2160 of death doth gladly heare, 

She decks her selfe : her regall weede, 

in semely wise to weare, 
And to her hed she settes her hande, 

the broyded heare to lay, 
2l65 To wed she thought it death : to dye, 

she thinkes a wedding day. 
But helpe, alas, my mother sowndes, 

to heare her daughters death, 
Arise : plucke vp your hart and take, 
2170 againe the panting breath. 


[74] Troas 

Alack good mother how slender stay, 

that doth thy life sustaine ? 
A little thing shall happye thee. 

thou arte almost past thy payne. 
2175 Her brethe returnes : she doth reuiue, 

her limmes their life do take. 
So se when wretches faine would die, 

how death doth them forsake. 
H E C. C Doth yet Achilles Hue alas, 
2180 to worke the Troians spight ? 
Doth he rebell agaynst vs yet ? 

O hande of Parys light. 
The very tombe and asshes loe, 

yet thirsteth lor our blood, 
2i85 A happy heape of childern late, 

on euery side me stood. 
Jt weried me to deale the mo 
thers kisse among them all 
The rest are lost and this alone, 
2190 now doth me mother call. 
Thou only childe of Hecuba, 

a comfort left to mee, 
A stayer of my sory state, 

and shall J row leese thee ? 
2ig5 Departe O wretched soule, and from 

this carefull carcas flye, 
And ease me of such ruthfull fates, 

to se my daughter dye. 
My weping wettes, alas my eyes, 
2200 and staines them ouer all, 

Aud down my cheekes the sodein streames 
and showres of tearesdofall. 


of Seneca. [7$] 

But thou dere doughter mayst be gladde 

Cassandra woulde reioyce, 
22o5 Or Hectors wife thus wed to bee 

if they might haue theyr choyce. 
A N. CWe are the wretchis Hecuba 

in cursed case we stande, 
Whom strayght the shippe shall tosse by seas 
2210 into a foreine lande. 

But as lor Heleyns grieues be gone 

and turned to the best, 
She shall agayne her natiue con- 
trey see : and Hue at rest. 
22i5 H E L E. CYe woulde the more enuy my state 

if ye might knowe your owne, 
A N. CAnd grouthe there yet more griefe to me 

that erste I haue not knowne ? 
H E L E. CSuch maisters must ye serue as doth 
2220 by chaunce of lotts befall 

AN DR. EWhose seruant am J then become 

whome shall J maister call ? 
H E L E. LBy lotte ye fall to Pyrrhus hands 

you are hys prysoner. 
2225 A N D R. CCassandra is happye : fury saues 

perhaps and Phebus her. 
H E L E. CChefe kiug of Greekes Cassandra keepes 

and hys captiue is shee 
H E C. CJs any one among them all 
223o that prysoner woulde haue me ? 

H E L E. CYou chaunsed to Ulysses are 

hys pray ye are become. 
H E C. CAlas what cruell, dyre and yre- 
full dealer of the dome. 


[76] Troas 

2235 what god vniust doth so deuide, 

the captiues to their lordes ? 
What greuous arbiter is he ? 

that to such choyse accordes, 
What cruell hand to wretched folke, 
2240 so euill fates hath caste ? 
who hath among Achilles ar 
mour, Hectors mother plaste ? 
Now am J captiue and beset, 

with all calamitee. 
2245 My bondage greeues me not, but him 

to serue it shameth mee. 
He that Achilles spoyles hath woon, 

shall Hectors also haue : 
Shall barraine lancle enclosde with seas, 
225o receyue my boanes in graue ? 

Leade me Ulysses where thou wilt, 

leade me, J make no stay, 
My maister J, and me my fates, 

shall follow euery way. 
2255 Let neuer calme come to the seas, 

but let them rage with winde, 
Come fire and sword, myne own mischauce 

and Priames let me finde. 
Jn meane time haps this deepe distres 
2260 my cares can know no calme : 
J ran the race with Priamus 

but he hath woon the Palme. 
But Pyrrhus comes with swiftened pace 

and thretning browes doth wrest. 
2265 What stayest thou Pyrrhus ? strike thy sworde 
now through this wofull brest. 


of Seneca. [77] 

And both at ones the parents of 

thy fathers wyfe now slay, 
Murderer of age, lykes thee her blood ? 
2270 he drawth my daughter awaye. 

Defile the gods and staine the sprightes, 

of hell with slaughtred blood, 
To aske your mercye what auayles ? 

our praiers do no good. 
2275 The vengeance aske J on your ships, 

that it the gods may pleas, 
According to this sacrifice. 

to guide you on the seas. 
This wishe J to your thousand sayles, 
2280 Gods wrath light on them all, 
Euen to the ship that beareth me, 

what euer maybefall. 


A Comfort is to mans calamitie 
A dolefull flocke of felowes in distres. 
And swete to him that morurnes in miseric, 
To heare them wayle whom sorowes like oppres 
Jn depest care his griefe him bytes the les, 
That his estate bewailes not all alone, 
2290 But seeth with him the teares of many one. 

For still it is the chefe delight in woe, 
And ioy ofthem that sonke in sorowes are, 
To see lyke fates by-fall to many moe, 
That may take parte of all their wofull fare. 
22g5 And not alone to be opprest with care. 

Ther is no wight : of woe that doth complayne, 
when al the rest do like mischaunce sustaine. 


[78] Troas 

Jn all this world it" happy man were none, 
None (though he were) would thinke hymself a wretche, 
23oo Let once the rytche with heapes of gold be gone, 
whose hundred hed his pastours ouerretche, 
Then would the poore mans hart begyn to stretche 
There is no wretche whose lyfe him doth displease 
But in respect of those that liue at ease. 

23o5 Swete is to hym that standes in depe distres, 
To see no man in ioyfull plight to be, 
Whose only vessell, wynd and vvaue oppres, 
Full sore hys chaunce bewayles and wepeth he, 
That with his owne none others wracke doth se 

23io When he alone makthe shipwrak on the sande 
And naked falles to long desyred lande. 

A thousand sayle who seeth to drenche in seas 
with better will the storme hath ouerpast 
His heauy hap doth him the lesse displease, 
23i5 When broken boardes abrode be many cast 

And shypwrackt shyppes to shore they flit full fast, 
With doubled waues when stopped is the flood, 
With heape of them that there haue lost theyr good. 

Full sore dyd Phryxus Hellens losse complayne, 
232O What tyme the leader of hys flocke of shepe, 
Upon hys backe alone he bare them twayne, 
And wet hys golden lockes amyd the depe. 
Jn piteous playnt alas he gan to wepe 
The death of her it dyd hym depe displease, 
2325 That shypwrak made amyd the drenchyng seas. 


of Seneca. [79] 

And piteous was the playnt and heauy moode 
Of wofull Pyrrha and eke Deucalion, 
That nought hehelde about them but the floode, 
When they of all mankynde were left alone 
233o Amyd the seas full sore they made theyr mone 
To see themselues thus left alyue in woe 
When neyther land they saw nor fellowes moe. 

Anon these plavnts, and Troianes teares shall quaile, 
And here and there the shyppe them tosse by seas 
2335 When trompets sounde shall warne to hoyse vp sayle 

And through the waues with wynd to seke theyr wayes : 

Then shall these captiues goe to ende theyr dayes 

Jn land vnknowne : when once with hasty ore 

The drenching depe they take and shonne the shore. 

2340 What state of mynde shall then in wretches be, 
\Vhen shore shall synke from syght and seas aryse ? 
When Jdey hyll to lurke aloofe they see ? 
Then poynt with hand from farre where Troia lyse, 
Shall chyld and mother : talking in thys wyse : 

2345 Loe yonder Troye, where smoke it fumeth hye, 
By this the Troianes, shall theyr countrey spye. 

The fifth acte. 


Messenger. Andromacha. 


Dyre, fierce, wretched, horrible, 
o cruel fates accurste, 

A o cruel lates accurste, 

I Of Mars hys ten yeres bloodshed blowes. 

the wofulst and the wurste. 
A las which should I fyrst bewayle ? 
2355 thy cares Andromacha ? 

Ore els 

[8o] Troas 

Or els lament the wretched age 

of wofull Hecuba ? 
HEC What euer mans calamities 

ye wayle, for mine it is 
23C.) J beare the smart of all their woes, 

eche other feeles but hys. 
Who euer he, J am the wretche 

all happes to me at last. 

M E S. Slaine is the mayde, and from the walles 
2365 of Troy : the childe is cast. 

But both, (as them became) they toke 

their death, with stomack stout. 
ANDR. Declare the double slaughters then, 

and tell the whole throughout. 
23;o M E S. C One towre of all the rest ye knowe, 

doth yet in Troy remaine, 
Where Pryam wonted was to sit, 

and vewe the armyes twaine. 
His little Nephew eke with him 
23y5 to leade and from a farre, 

His fathers fightes with fyre and swoorde 

to showe, and feates of warre. 
This towre, somtime well knowne by fame, 

and Troians honor most. 
238o Js now with captaines of the Greekes, 

beset on euery coaste. 
With swift recourse and from the shippes, 

in clustred heapes anone. 
Both tagge and ragge, they ronne to gase, 
2385 what thing should there be done. 

Some clime the hilles, to seeke a place, 
where they might see it best, 


of Seneca [8l] 

Some on the rockes a tiptoe stande, 

to ouerlooke the rest. 

23rp Some on theyr temples weare the Pyne, 
some beeche, some crownes of baye, 
For garlandes torne is euery tree, 

that standeth in theyr waye. 
Some from the highest mowntaynes top, 
23(j5 aloofe beholdeth all 

Some scale the buyldings halfe yburnte, 

and some the ruynous wall 
Ye some there weare (o mischiefe loe) 

that for the more despyght, 
2400 The tombe of Hector sitts vpon, 

beholders of the sight. 
With pryncely pace Ulysses then, 
past through the preasyd bande 
Of Greekes, kyng Pryames little Ne- 
2406 phew, leadyng by the handc. 
The chylde with vnrepining gate 

past through hys enmyes handes, 
Up toward the walles, and as anone 

in turretts top he standes, 
2410 From thence adowne, hys loftyc lookes 

he cast on euery parte, 
The neerer death more free from care 

he seemde, and fcare of harte. 
Amyd hys foes, hys stomake swelles, 

and fierce he was to syght, 
Like Tygers whelpe, that threats in vaine 

with toothlesse chap to byght. 
Alas, for pittye then eche one, 
rew on hys tender yeares, 

*. i. And 

[82] Troas 

2420 And all the rowte that present were, 

for him they shed theyr teares. 
Yea not Ulysses them restraynde, 

but tricklyng downe they fall, 
And onely he, wept not, (poore foole,) 
2425 whome they bewayled all. 

But whyle on Gods Ulysses callde, 

and Calchas woords expounde, 
Jn midste of Pryames land alas, 

the childe leapte downe to grounde. 
2430 AN. C What ere well Colchus coulde or scythe 

such slaughter take in hande ? 

Or by the shore of Caspyan sea, 

what barbarous lawles lande ? 

Busyrides to thaulters yet, 

2435 no infantes bloode hath shed : 

Nor neuer yet were children slayne, 

for feaste of Dyomed. 
Who shall alas in tombe thee laye, 

or hyde thy limmes againe ? 
2440 M E S. C What lymmes fro such a hecllong fall, 

coulde in a chylde remayne ? 
Hys bodyes payse, throwne downe to grounde, 

hathe battred all hys boanes, 
Hys face, hys noble fathers markes, 
2445 are spoylde agaynst the stoanes. 
Hys necke vnioynted is : hys hed 

so dashte with flint stone stroake, 
That scattred is the brayne aboute, 

the sculle is all to broake. 
245o Thus lieth he now dismembred corps, 
deiormde, and all to rent. 


of Seneca. [83 J 

A N D R. Loe herein doth he yet likewise, 

hys father represent. 

M E S. What tyme the chylde, had hedlong ialne 
2455 thus from the wallesof Troye, 

And all the Greekes them selues bewaylde, 

the slaughter of the boye, 
Yet streyght returne they backe, and at 

Achilles tombe agayne 
2460 The second mischiele goe to woorke, 

the deathe of Polyxeyne 
This tombe the waues of surging seas, 

beset the vtter syde, 
The other parte the feeldes encloase 
2465 aboute, and pastours wyde. 
Jn vale enuyroned with hilles, 
that rounde aboute do ryse, 
A sloape on heyght erected are 

the bankes, in theater wyse. 
2470 By all the shore then swarme the Greekes, 

and thyck on heapes they prease : 
Some hoape that by her death , they shall 

theyr shippes delay release. 
Some other ioye, theyr enmies stocke 
2475 thus beaten downe to bee : 

A greate parte of the people, bothe 

the slaughter hate and see. 
The Troians eke, no lesse frequent 

theyr owne calamyties, 
2480 And all aftrayde, behelde the last 

of all theyr myseryes. 
When fyrste proceedyd torches bryght 
as guise of wedlock is. 

f . It. And 

[84] Troas 

And author therof led the way 
2485 the lady Tyndaris. 

Such wedlocke (pray the Troians then) 

god send Hermyona* 
And would god to her husband so, 

restorde wcr Helena. 
2490 Feare masde eche parre, but Polyxene, 

her bashefull looke downe cast : 
And more then erste her glyttring eyes, 

and beawty shynde at last. 
As swetest seines then Phebus light, 
2495 when downe his beames do sway, 

When starres agayne, with night at hand, 

oppresse the doutfull day. 
Astonied much the people were, 

and all, they her commende. 
2600 And nowe much more then euer earst, 

they praysde her, at her ende. 
Some with her beauty moued were, 

some with her tender yeares : 
Some to behold the turnes of chaunce, 
25o5 and how eche thyng thus weares. 

But most them moues her valiant mynd, 

and lofty stomake hye, 
So strong, so stout, so ready of heart, 

and well preparde to dye. 
25io Thus passe they furth, and bolde, before 

kyng Pyrrhus gothe the mayde, 
They pittie her, they meruell her, 

theyr heartes wer all afrayde. 
As soone as then, the hard hyll top, 
25i5 (where dye she should) they trode, 


of Seneca. [85] 

And hye vppon his fathers tombe, 

the youthfull Pyrrhus stode. 
The manly mayde she neuer shronke, 

one foote, nor backwards drewe 
25ao But boldely turnes to meete the stroke, 

with stoute vnchanged hewe 
Her corage moues eerie one, and loe 

a strange thing monstrouse lyke, 
That Pyrrhus euen himself stoode styll, 
2525 for dreade, and durst not stryke. 
But as he had, his glittering sworde, 

in her to hilts vp doon, 
The purple blood, at mortall wounde, 

then gusshing out it spoon. 
253o Ne yet her corage her forsooke, 
when dyeng in that stownde, 
She fell as therthe should her reuenge, 

with Jreful rage to grownde. 
Echo people wept : the Troians fyrst, 
2535 with preuye fearefull crye, 

The Grecians eke, eche one bewaylde, 

her death, apparantly. 
This order had the sacrifice, 

her blood the tombe vp droonke, 
2540 No drop remaynth aboue the grounde, 

but downe forthwith it soonke. 
HEC. Now go, now go ye Grekes, & now, 

repayre ye safelie home, 
With careles ships, and hoysed sayles, 
2545 Now cut the sallt sea fome. 

The childe and virgin, both be slaine, 
your battelsfinysht are. 

r. Hi. Alas 

[86] Troas 

Alas where shall J end my age ? 

or whether beare my care ? 
255o Shall J my dawghter, or my ne 
phew ? or my husband mone ? 
My contrey els, or all at once ? 

or els my selfe alone ? 
My wishe is deathe, that children both 
2555 and virgins fiersly takes 

Where euer crewell death dothe haste 

to stryke, it me forsakes. 
Amyd the enmies weapons all, 

amyd bothe sworde and fyre, 
256o All night sought for, thou fleeste from me, 

that do thee moste desyre. 
Not flame of fyre, not fall of towre, 

nor cruell enmyes hande, 
Hath ryd my life : how neere alas, 
2565 coulde death to Pryame stande ? 

M E S. C Now captiues all, with swyft recourse 

repayre ye to the seayes, 
Now spreade the ships, theyr sayles abroade, 

and foorthe they seeke theyr wayes. 

2570 r Imprinted at London in Fletestrete 

within Temple barre, at the signe of the 
hand and starre, by Ri 
chard Tottyll. 

Cum priuilegio ad impri- 
mendum solum. 

$eneca entituleo b= 
eetes faftbfully 
sbeo bv Jasper 1F3e 
\vooD fellowe of 

in jforoc. 


Xonoon in 3Fletc0trctc 

in tbe bone late 


Anno, i 5 6 o . 
26. die Martij. 

To the right honorable syr 

John Mason knight one of the Queenes 

majesties priuie counsaile, his daily ora 
tor Jasper Hey wood wysheth 
5 health with encrease of 

honour and 

S bounden brest dothe beare the poorest wyght, 
A that dutie dothe in tryflyng token scndc, 
io /^JL As he that dothe with plenteous present quyght, 

Of prouder pryce, and glyttryng golde his frendc. 
\Yho so repaythe with moneys mightie masse, 

the good that he at others hands hath founde, 
Remembraunce of the benefyte dothe passe, 
1 5 he thynks him selfe to hym no longer bounde. 

The poore, whose powre may not with pryce repaye, 

the great good gyfts that he receyude before, 
With thankfull thought yet gogyn gyfte dothe swaye, 

aboue the payse of pearle and golde great store. 
20 Jf puisaunt prynce at poore mans hande onse tooke 

A radishe roote, and was therwith content, 
Your honor then J pray, this little booke 
to take in woorthe, that J to you present. 

* ii Whiche 

[92] The Epistle 

Whiche though it selfe a volume be but small, 

25 yet greater gyft it geues then weene ye myght, 

Though it a barrayne booke be throughout all 

full fruteles, yet not faythles sygne in syght 
Jt showes of him that for your honour prayes, 

(as deedes of yours of him deserued haue,) 
3o That god aboue prolong your happie dayes, 

and make the skyes your seate soone after graue. 


cThe translatour 

to the booke. 

IHou lytle booke my messenger must be, 
That must from me to wight of honour goe, 
Behaue thee humbly, bende to him thy knee, 
and thee to hym in lowly maner showe. 
But dooe thou not thy selfe to him present, 

When with afifayres thou shalt him troubled see, 
40 Thou shalt perhapps, so woorthely be shent, 

and with reproofe he thus will say to thee. 
So prowdly thus presume how darest thou, 

at suche a tyme so rashely to appeare ? 
With thyngs of waight thou scest me burdned nowe, 
46 J maie not yet to tryfles geue myne eare. 
Spie well thy tyme, when thou him seest alone, 

an ydle houre for the shalbe moste meete, 
Then steppe thou tborth, in sight of him anone, 

and as behoues, his honor humbly greete. 
5o But now take heede what J to the shall tell, 
and all by roate this lesson take with thee, 
Jn euery thyng thy selfe to order well 

in syght of hym, geeue eare and learne of mee. 
Fyrst, what or whence thou art if he woulde wyt, 
55 then see that thou thy tytle to him showe, 
Tell hym thy name is in thy forhed wryt, 

by whiche he shall bothe thee and me well knowe. 

* fit Then 

[94 1 The translatour 

Then when he hath once lookte vpon thy name, 

yf yet he shall neglect to reade the rest, 
fx> Or if he chyde and say thou arte to blame, 

with trifles suche to haue him so opprest : 
Beseche him yet therof to pardon thce, 

syns thou arte but thy masters messengere, 
Excuse thy selfe and laie the faute in mee, 
()5 at whose commaundment thus thou comste in there. 
Jf my presumpcion then accuse he do, 

if deede so rasshe of myne he do reproue, 
That J thee dare attempt to send him to, 

beware thou speake nothyng for my behoue. 
70 Nor do thou not excuse my faute in ought, 
but rather yet confesse to him the same, 
And saie there maie a fawte in me be thought, 
whiche to excuse it doubleth but the blame. 
Yet with my boldenes him beseche to beare, 
7? and pardon geue to this my enterpryse, 
A woorthy thyng in wight of honour weare, 
a present poore to take in thankfull wyse. 
For tell him though thou slender volume be, 
vngreeyng gyfte for state of honour guest, 
So Yet dooste thou signe of dutie bringe with the, 
and pledge thou arte of truly bounden brest. 
And thou for him arte come for to confesse, 
his headman bounde to be for his desart, 
And how to him he graunts he owthe no lesse, 
85 nor geeues no more, but note of thankfull hart. 


to the booke. [98] 

Jn all the rest that he to thee shall say, 
thy wyt shall serue an answere well to make. 

Thou hast thyne errande, get thee hens away, 
the gods thee speede, to them J thee betake. 


The preface. 

T was the i owre and twentith dale 

of latest monthe saue one 
Of all the yere : when flowre and frute 

from fielde and tree were gone, 
And sadder season suche ensewde 

as dulls the doleful! sprights 
And Muse of men that woonted were 

to wander in delights : 

And weather suche there was, as well 
100 became the pensyue pen 

With sory style of woes to wryte 

and eke of mischiefe, when 
Aurora blusht with ruddie checkes, 

to waile the death agayne 
io5 Of Phoebus soon : whom thunderbolt 

of mightie Joue had slayne : 
And cloudes from highe began to throwe 

their dreary teares adowne, 
And Uenus from the skyes aboue 
no on fryday fowle to frowne : 

When (as at booke with mased Muse 

J satte and pensiue thought 
Deepe drownde in dumps of drousines 
as chaunge of weather wrought,) 

J felt 

The Preface. [97] 

Il5 J felt howc Morpheus hound my browes 

and eke my Temples strooke, 
That downe J soonke my heauy head 

and sleapt vppon my booke. 
Then dreamde J thus, that by my syde 
120 me thought J sawe one stande 

That downe to grounde in scarlet gowne 

was dight, and in his hande 
A booke he bare : and on his head 

of Bayes a Garland greene : 
125 Full graue he was, well stept in yeres 

and comly to be scene. 
His eyes like Christall shiende : his breathe 

full sweete, his face full fyne, 
Jt seemde he had byn lodged long, 
i3o among the Muses nyne. 

Good syr (q; J) J you beseche 
(since that ye seeme to me 
By your attyre some worthie wight) 

it may your pleasure be, 
i35 To tell me what and whens ye are. 

wherat a whyle he stayde 
Beholdyng me : anone he spake, 

and thus (me thought) he sayde. 
Spayne was (q; he) my natiue soyle : 
140 a man of woorthie fame 

Sometime J was in former age, 
and Seneca my name. 

* v The 

[98] The Preface. 

The name of Senec when J hearde 

then scantly could J speake : 
145 J was so gladde that from mine eyes 

the teares began to breake 
For ioy : and with what wordes J shoulde 

salute him, J ne wyst. 
J him enbrast : his handes, his feete, 
i5o and face full ofte J kyst. 

And as at lengthe my tricklyng teares 

me thought J might refrayne, 
O blisfull daye (q; J,) wherin 

returned is agayne 
i55 So worthie wight : O happie houre, 

that liefer is to me 
Then life : wherin it happs me so, 

that J should Senec see. 
Arte thou the same, that whilom dydst 
160 thy Tragedies endight 

With woondrous wit and regall stile ? 

O long desyred sight. 
And lyuste thou yet (q; J) in deede ? 

and arte thou come agayne 
i65 To talke and dwell as thou wert wont 

with men ? and to remayne 
Jn this our age ? J lyue ( q; he ) 

and neuer shall J die : 
The woorks J wrote shall still preserue 
170 my name in memorie 


The Preface. [99] 

From age to age : and nowe agayne 

J will reuiue the same, 
And here J come to seeke some one 

that might renewe my name, 
175 And make me speake in straunger speeche 

and sette my woorks to sight, 
And skanne my verse in other tongue 

then J was woont to wright. 
A young man well J wotte there is 
1 80 in thyle of Brytannie, 

(That from the rest of all the \vorlde 

aloofe in seas doth lie) 
That once his labour tooke in hande : 

him wolde J meete full fayne, 
l85 To craue that in the rest of all 

my woorks he wolde take payne 
To toyle, as he in Troas did. 

is that your wyll (quoth J ? ) 
J blusht, and sayd the same you seeke, 
190 loe, here J stande you by. 

Ji thou (q; he) be whome J seeke, 

if glorie ought thee moue 
Of myne to come in after age, 

if Senecs name thou loue 
ig5 Aliue to keepe, J thee beseeche 

agayne to take thy pen, 
Jn miter of thy mother tongue 
to geue to sight of men 


tioo] The Preface. 

My other woorks : wherby thou shalt 
200 deserue of them and mee, 

No litle thancks : When they them selues 

my Tragedies shall see 
Jn Englishe verse, that neuer yet 

coulde latine vnderstande. 
205 With my renowne perhapps thy name 

shall flie throughout this lande, 
And those that yet thee neuer knewe 

shall thee bothe loue and prayse, 
And say God graunt this yong man well 
210 to lyue full many dayes, 

And many happy houres to see 

in life : and after graue, 
Rest, ioy, and blisse eternally 

aboue the skies to haue, 
2i5 That so translated hath these bookes. 

to him (quoth J) agayne 
(Jf any be that so with thanks 
accepts a yong mans payne) 
J wishe great good : but well J wotte 
220 the hatefull cursed broocle 

Farre greater is, that are long syns 

sproong vp of Zoylus bloode. 
That Red heard, black mouthd, squint eyed wretche 

hath cowched euery wheare, 
225 Jn corner close some Jmpe of his 
that sitts to see and heare 


The Preface. [101] 

What eche man clothe, and eche man blames. 

nor onse we may him see 
Come face to face, but we once gone 
23o then stoutly stepps out hee : 

And all he carpes that there he fyndes 

ere halfe he reade to ende, 
And what he vnderstandes not, blames, 

though nought he can amende. 
235 But were it so that suche were none, 

how may these youthfull dayes 
Of mine, in thyng so hard as this 

deserue of other prayse? 
A labour long (quoth J) it is 
240 that riper age doothe craue : 

And who shall trauaile in thy bookes, 

more Judgement ought to haue 
Then J : whose greener yeares therby 

no thanks may hope to wynne. 
246 Thou seest dame Nature yet hath sette 

No heares vppon my chynne. 
Craue this therfore of grauer age, 

and men of greater skill. 
Full many be that better can, 
25o and some perhapps that will. 
But yf thy will be rather bent, 

a yong mans witt to proue, 
And thinkst that elder lerned men 
perhaps it shall behoue, 


[io2] The Preface. 

255 Jn woorks of waight to spende theyr tyme, 

goe where Mineruaes men, 
And finest witts doe svvarme : whome she 

hath taught to passe with pen. 
Jn Lyncolnes Jnne and Temples twayne, 
260 Grayes Jnne and other mo, 

Thou shalt them fynde whose paynfull pen 

thy verse shall florishe so, 
That Melpomen thou wouldst well weene 

had taught them for to w r right, 
265 And all their woorks with stately style, 

and goodly grace t endight. 
There shalt thou se the selfe same Northe, 

whose woorke his witte displayes, 
And Dyall dothe of Princes paynte, 
270 and preache abroade his prayse. 

There Sackuyldes Sonetts sweetely sauste 

and featly fyned bee, 
There Nortons ditties do delight, 

there Yeluertons doo flee 
275 Well pewrde with pen : suche yong men three, 

as weene thou mightst agayne, 
To be begotte as Pallas was, 
of myghtie Joue his brayne. 
There heare thou shalt a great reporte, 
280 of Baldwyns worthie name, 

Whose Myrrour dothe of Magistrates, 
proclayme eternall fame. 


The Preface. [io3] 

And there the gentle Blunduille is 

by name and eke by k) nde, 
285 Of \vhome \ve K-arne by Plutarchcs lore, 

what frute by Foes to ivnde. 
There Bauande bydcs, that turnde his toyle 

a Common \velthe to frame, 
And greater grace in Englyshe geues, 
i>()0 to woorthy authors name. 

There Googe a gratefull gaynes hath gotte, 

reporte that runneth ryfe, 
\\ ho crooked Compasse clothe describe, 

and Zodiake of lyfe. 
295 And yet great nombre more, whose names 

yl J shoulde now resight, 
A ten tymes greater woorke then thine, 

J should be forste to wright. 
A prynccly place in Parnasse hill, 
3oo for these there is prepardc, 

\Yhere crowne ot glittryng glorie hangs, 

for them a ryght rewarde. 
Wheras the lappes of Ladies nyne, 

shall dewly them defende, 
3o5 That haue preparde the Lawrell leatc, 

about theyr hedds to bende. 
And where theyr Penns shall hang full hie, 

and fame that erst was hyd, 
Abrode in Brutus realme shall flie, 
3lo as late theyr volumes dyd. 


[104] The Preface. 

These are the witts that can display 

thy Tragedies all ten, 
Repleate with sugred sentence sweete, 

and practise of the pen. 
3i5 My selfe, J must confesse, J haue 

to muche alreadie doon 
Aboue my reache, when rashly one?. 

with Troas J begoon : 
And more presumtle to take in hande 
32O then well J brought to ende, 
And litle volume with mo fautes, 

then lynes abrode to sende. 
And of that woorke what men reporte, 

Jn faythe J neuer wist. 
3a5 But well J wotte, it may be thought 

so yll, that litle lyst 
J haue to dooe the like : Wherof 
though myne be all the blame, 
And all to me imputed is, 
33o that passeth in my name : 
Yet as of some J will confesse 

that J the author was, 
And fawtes to many made my selfe 

when J that booke lette pas 
335 Out of my handes : so must J me 

excuse, of other some. 
For when to sygne of Hande and Starre 
J chaunced fyrst to come, 


The Preface. [io5] 

To Printers hands J gauc the workc : 
340 by whome J had suchc wrong, 

That though my selfe perusde their prooues 

the fyrst tyme, yet ere long 
When J was gone, they wolde agayne 

the print therof renewe, 
345 Corrupted all : in suche a sorte, 

that scant a sentence tre\ve 
Now flythe abroade as J it wrote, 
which thyng when J had tryde, 
And fowrescore greater tautes then myne 
35o in fortie leaues espyde, 

Small thanks (q; J) for suche a woorke 

wolde Senec geue to me, 
Jf he were yet a lyue, and shoulde 

perhapps it chaunce to see. 
355 And to the printer thus J sayde : 

within these doores of thyne, 
J make a vowe shall neuer more 

come any worke of myne. 
My trend e (q; Senec therwithall) 
36o no meruayle therof ys : 

They haue my selfe so wronged ofte, 

And many things amys 
Are doon by them in all my woorks. 

suche fautes in euery booke 
365 Of myne they make, (as well he may 
it fynde that lyst to looke,) 

< That 

[io61 The Preface. 

That sense and latin, verse and all 

they violate and breake, 
And ofte what J yet neuer ment 
370 they me enforce to speake. 
Jt is the negligence of them, 

and partly lacke of skill 
That dooth the woorks with paynes well pend 

lull ofte disgrace and spill. 
3y5 But as for that be nought abasht : 

the wise will well it waye, 
And learned men shall soone discerne 

thy fautes from his, and saye, 
Loe here the Printer dooth him wrong, 
38o as easy is to trye : 

And slaunder dooth the authors name, 

and lewdly him belye. 
But w r here thy yeares thou sayst lacke sky 11, 

mysdoute thou not (quoth he.) 
385 J wil my selfe in these atiayres, 

a helper be to thee. 
Eche Poetts tale J will expounde 

and other places harde. 

Thou shalt (nodoubte) lynde some, that will 
3go thy labour w r ell regarde. 

And therwithall, oh lorde he sayde, 

now him J thinke vppone, 

That here but late to litle liude, 

and now from hens is gone. 


The Preface. [107] 

3g5 Whose vcrtues rare in age so grccne 

bewrayde a worthy wight, 
And towardnesse tryde of tender tymc, 

how louely lampe of light 
He woulde haue byn, if God had spaerde 
400 his dayes, tyll suche tyme, whan 
That elder age had abled him, 

by grouthe to grauer man. 
How thankfull thyng thinkst thou (quoth he) 

woulde this to him haue beene, 
4o5 Jf geuen to his name he might 

a woorke of thine haue seene, 
Whome duryng life he fauourde so ? 

but that may neuer be : 
For gone he is, (alas the while) 
410 thou shalt him neuer see, 

Where breathyng bodyes dwell agayne : 

nor neuer shalt thou more, 
Eftsones with him of learnyng talke, 

as thou werte woont before. 
4i5 Yet wayle no more for him (he sayde) 

for he farre better is. 
His seate he hath obtayned nowe, 

among the starrs in blis. 
And castyng brighter beanies about, 
420 then Phoebus golden glede, 

Aboue the skies he lyues with Joue, 
an other Ganymede : 

Ait Jn 

[io8] The Preface. 

Jn better place then Aquarie. 

suche grace did God him gyue. 
425 But though the sonne be gone, yet here 

dothe yet the father lyue. 
And long might he this lyfe enioye 

in helthe, and great encrease 
Of honour and of vertue bothe, 
480 Tyll God his soule release 

From corps to skyes : with right rewarde 

to recompense him there, 
For truthe and trusty seruice doon, 

to prince and contrey here. 
435 His goodnes loe thy selfe hast felte 

(q; he) and that of late, 
When he thee fayled not to helpe, 

and succour thyne estate. 
To him it shall beseeme thee well 
440 some token for to showe, 

That of thy dutie whiche thou dooste 

for his deserts him owe 
Thou myndfull arte, and how thou dooste 

thy diligence applie, 
445 To thanke as powre may serue, and with 

thy pen to sygnifie, 
A gratefull mynde. And though to light 

so litle trifle bee, 

To geue to him that hath so muche 
45o alredie doone for thee, 


The Preface. [109] 

Yet syns thou canst none otherwyse 

his honour yet requight, 
Nor yet thy yeares doe thee permit 
more waightie woorkes to wright, 
455 This Christmas tyme thou mayste doe well 

a peece therof to ende, 
And many thanks in volume small, 

as thee becomes to sende. 
And tell him how for his estate, 
460 thou dooste thy praiers make : 
And him in dayly vowes of thine, 

to God aboue betake. 
But for because the Prynters all 

haue greatly wronged mee, 
4&5 To ease thee of thy paynes therin, 

see what J bryng to thee. 
He sayde : and therwithall, began 

to ope the gylded booke 
Whiche erst J tolde he bare in hand 
470 and thervpon to looke. 

The leaues within were fyne to feele, 

and fayre to looke vppone, 
As they with syluer had byn sleaktc, 

full cleare to see they shone. 
475 Yet farre the letters did eche one 

exceede the leaues in sight, 
More glorious then the glittryng golde, 
and in the Jye more bright. 

A) iii The 

[no] The Preface. 

The featly framed lyncs throughout 
480 in meetest maner stando, 

More worthy worke it was, then might 

be made by mortall hande. 
Therwith me thought a sauour sweete 

J felt, so fresshc that was, 
4<S5 That bedds of purple vyoletts, 

and Roses farre did pas. 
No princes perfume like to it, 

in chamber of estate : 
J wistc it was some thyng diuine, 
490 did me so recreate. 

J felt my selfe refresshed muche, 
well quickned were my witts, 
And often tymes of pleasure great 

J had so ioyfull titts, 
4()5 That wakyng now J will confesse, 

you may beleeue me well, 
Great hoorde of golde J wolde refuse 

in suche delights to dwell, 
As in that dreame J had. anone, 
5oo me thought J asked him, 

What booke it was he bare in hand, 

that showde and smelde so trim. 
These are (q; he) the Tragedies 

in deede of Seneca, 

5o5 The Muse her selfe them truly writ, 
that hight Melpomena. 


The Preface. [in] 

Jn Parnase princely palaice highe, 

she garnisshed this booke, 
The Ladies haue of Helicon 
5io great ioy theron to looke : 

When walkyng in theyr aleys sweete 
the flowres so fresshe they treade, 
And in the midst of them me place, 

my Tragedies to reade. 
5i5 These leaues that iyne as veluet feele, 

and parchement like in sight, 
Of feate fyne Fawnes they are the skyns, 

suche as no mortall wight 
May come vnto : but with the which 
52O the muses woont to playe, 

Jn gardens still with grasse full greene, 

that garnisht are full gaye. 
There fostred are these litle beasts, 

and fed with Muses mylke, 
525 Their whitest hands and feete they lycke, 

with tongue as softe as sylke. 
Theyr heare not suche as haue the hearde, 

of other common Deare, 
But silken skyns of purple hewe, 
53o lyke veluet fyne they weare. 
With proper featly framed feete, 

about the arbours greene 
They trippe and daunce before these dames, 
full seemely to be scene : 

#> liii And 

ii2] The Preface. 

535 And then theyr golden homes adownc 

in Ladies lappes they la) , 
A Create delight those systers nyne, 
hauc with these Fawnes to play. 
Of skyns of them this parchment loe 
540 that shy nes so fay re they make, 

When ought they woulde with hande of theyrs, 

to written booke betake. 
This gorgeous glyttryng golden Jnke, 

so precious thyng to see, 
545 Geue eare and whcrof made it is, 

J shall declare to thee. 
Fayre trees amyd theyr Paradise, 

there are of euery kynde, 

Where euery frute that boughe bryngs foorthe, 
55o a man may euer fynde. 

And deynties suche as princes wont, 

with proudest price to bie, 
Great plentie therof may be scene, 

hang there on branches hie. 
555 The Plumme, the Peare, the Fygge, the Date, 

Powngarnet wants not theare, 
The Orynge and the Olyue tree, 

full plenteously dee beare. 
Ye there the golden Apples hang, 
56o whiche once a thyng muche worthe 
To ioye the weddyng day of Joue, 
the soyle it selfe brought forthe. 


Thepreiace. [n3] 

There Daphne stands transformde to tree, 

that greene is styll to sight, 
565 That was sometyme the loued Nymphe 

so fayre, of Phoebus bright. 
Not farre from frute so rytche, that once 

did wakyng dragon keepe 
Dothe Alyrrha stande, with wofull teares 
570 that yet dothe wayle and weepe. 
Her teares congealed hard to gumme, 

that sauour sweete dothe cast, 
Jt is that makes to leafe so fyne, 

this Jnke to cleaue so fast. 
5j5 But with what water is this Jnke 

thus made, now learne (quoth hee) 
The secrets of the sacred mounte, 

J wyll declare to thee. 
Aboue the rest a Cedre hyghe, 
58o of haughtie toppe there growes 

With bendyng braunches farre abrode, 

on soyle that shadowe showes. 
Jn toppe wherof do hang full hie, 

the pennes of poetts olde, 
585 And posyes purtred for theyr prayse, 

in letters all of golde. 
Jn shade wherof a banquet house 

there stands of great delight, 
For Muses ioyes, the walls are made 
5go of marble fayre in sight 

* V Foure 

[H4J The Preface. 

Fowre square : an Juery turret stands 

at euery corner hye, 
The nookes and toppes doth beaten golde, 

and amell ouerlye. 

5g5 Jn fulgent seate clothe fleeyng fame, 
there syt full hyghe from grounde, 
And prayse of Pallas poets sends 

to starres with trumpetts sounde. 
The gate therof so strong and sure, 
fxx> it neede no watche nor warde 
A woondrous woorke it is to see, 

of Adamant full harde. 
With nyne sure locks wherof of one 

eche ladye kepes the kaye, 
6o5 That none of them may come therin 

when other are awaye. 
The floore within with emrawds greene,, 

ys paued fayre and feate, 
The boorde and benches rovvnde about, 
610 are made of pure blacke geate. 
The lute, the harpe, the cytheron, 

the shaulme, the shagbut eke, 
The vyall and the vyrginall, 
no musyke there to seeke. 
6i5 About the walls more woorthy woorke 

then made by mortall hande, 
The poetts paynted pyctures all 
in seemely order stande : 


The preface. [nS] 

With colours suche so lyuely layde, 
620 that at that sight J weene, 

Apelles pensyle woulde beare backe, 

abashed to be scene. 
There Homere, Guide, Horace eke 

full featlye purtred bee, 
6a5 And there not in the lowest place, 

they haue described mee. 
There Virgyle, Lucane, Palingene, 

and rest of poetts all 

Do stande, and there from this daie foorthe, 
63o full many other shall. 

For now that house by manye yardes, 

enlarged out they haue, 
Wherby they myght in wyder wall 

the Jmages engraue, 
635 And paynte the pyctures more at large, 

of hundreds, englysshe men, 
That geeue theyr tongue a greatter grace, 

by pure and paynfull pen. 
Jn mydst of all this woorthy woorke, 
640 there runns a pleasant spryng, 
That is of all the paradyse, 
the most delycious thyng. 
That rounde about encloased is, 

with wall of Jasper stone : 
645 The ladies let no wight therin, 
but euen them selues alone, 


The Preface. 

The water shynes lyke golde in syght, 

and swetest is to smell, 
Full often tymes they bathe them selues, 
65o within that blysfull well. 

With water thereof they this Jnke 
haue made that wryt this booke, 
And lycenst me to bryng it downe, 

for thee theron to looke. 
655 Thou maist beleeue it trewly wrote, 

and trust in euery whit 
For here hathe neuer prynters presse 

made faute, nor neuer yet, 
Came errour here by mysse of man. 
660 in sacred seate on hye, 

They haue it wryt, in all whose woorks, 

theyr pen can make no lye. 
This booke shall greatly thee auayle, 

to see how Prynters mys, 
665 Jn all my woorkes, and all theyr fautes, 

thou mayste correcte by thys. 
And more then that, this golden spryng, 

with whiche J haue the tolde 
This ynke so bryght thus made to bee, 
670 suche propertee dothe holde, 
That who therof the sauour feeles, 

his wytts shall quickned bee, 
And spryghts reuyude in woondrous wyse, 
as now it happs to thee. 


The Preface. [117! 

675 Come on thertbre whyle helpe thou haste 

he sayde, and therwithall 
Euen at Thyestes chaunced fyrst, 

the leaues abrode to fall. 
Euen here (q; he) yf it the please 
680 begyn, now take thy pen 

Moste dyre debates descrybe, of all 

that euer chaunst to men. 
And whiche the godds abhorde to see. \ 

The summe of all the stryfe 
685 Nov/ harken to. Thyestes kepes 

his brother Atreus wyfe, 
And ramme with golden fleece : but yet 

dothe Atreus frendship fayne 
With him, tyll l.yme for fathers foode 
690 he hathe his children slayne, 

And dishes drest. he sayde, and then 

begun to reade the booke : 
J satte attent, and therupon 

J iyxed fast my looke. 
60,5 Fyrst how the furye draue the spryght 

of Tantalus from hell 
I^To styrre the stryfe, J harde hym reade, 

and all expounde full well. 
Full many pleasant poetts tales 
700 that dyd me please J harde, 
And euermore to booke so fayre, 
J had a great regarde. 


.ii 8] The Preface. 

Wherby J sawe how often tymes 

the Printers dyd him wrong. 
705 Now Gryphyus, Colineus now, 

and now and then among 
He Aldus blamde, with all the rest 

that in his woorks do rcys 
Of sence or verse : and styll my booke, 
710 J did correcte by hys. 

The god of sleepe had harde all this, 

when tyme for him it was, 
To denns of slumber whence he came, 

agayne awaie to pas. 
7i5 The kercher bounde about my browes, 

dypt all in Lymbo lake, 
He stray ght vnknyt, away he fleeth, 

and J begoon to wake. 
When rownde J rollde mine eyes about, 
720 and sawe my selfe alone, 

Jn vayne J Senec Senec cryde, 

the Poete now was gone. 
For woe wherof J gan to weepe, 

O godds (quoth J) vnkynde, 
725 Ye are to blame with shapes so vayne 

our mortall eyes to blynde. 
What goodly gaync get you therby, 

ye shoulde vs so beguvle, 
And fantsies feede with ioyes, that last 
73o alas to lyttle whyle ? 

J Mor- 

The Preface. [119] 

J Morpheus curst a thousandc tymes, 

that he had made me sleepe 
At all, or ells that he me wolde, 

in dreame no longer keepe. 
735 And neuer were my ioyes so greate, 

in sleepe so sweete before, 
But now as greeuous was my woe, 

alas and ten tymes more, 
My selfe without the poete there, 
740 thus lefte alone to see, 

And all delights of former dreame, 

thus vanysshed to bee. 
Somtyme J curst, somtyme J cryde, 

lyke wight that waxed woode, 
745 Or Panther of hir pray depryude, 

or Tygre of her broode. 
A thousande tymes my colour goes, 

and comes as ofte agayne, 
About J walkte, J might no where, 
760 in quyet rest remayne. 

Jn woondrous wyse J vexed was, 

that neuer man J weene 
So soone, might after late delights, 

in suche a pangue be scene. 
755 O thou Meg3era then J sayde, 

if might of thyne it bee, 

Wherwith thou Tantall droauste from hell, 
that thus dysturbeth mee, 


[i 20] The Preface. 

Enspyre my pen : with pensyuenes 
760 this Tragedie t endyght, 

And as so dredfull thyng beseemes, 

with dolefull style to wryght. 
This sayde, J felte the furies force 

enflame me more and more, 
765 And ten tymes more now chafte J was, 

then euer yet before. 
My heare stoode vp, J waxed woode, 

my synewes all dyd shake, 
And as the furye had me vext, 
770 my teethe began to ake. 

And thus enflamde with force of hir, 

J sayde it shoulde be doon, 
And downe J sate with pen in hande, 

and thus my verse begoon. 

775 The speakers. 

Tantalus. Megaera. 

Atreus. Seruant. 

Thyestes. Philistenes. 

Messenger. Chorus. 


The fyrst Acte. 

Tantalus. Megsera. 

7 85 



Hat furye fell enforceth me 

to flee thunhappie seate. 
That gape and gaspew greedy iawe, 

the fleeyng foode to eate ? 
What god to Tantalus the bowres 

where breathyng bodies dwell 
Doth showe agayne? is ought found 

then burning thurst of hell (worse 

Jn lakes alowe ? or yet worse plague 

then hunger is there one, 
Jn vayne that euer gapes for foode ? 
7g5 shall Sisyphus his stone, 

That slypper restles rollyng payse 

vpon my backe be borne ? 
Or shall my lymms with swyfter swynge 

of whirlyng wheele be torne ? 
800 Or shall my paynes be Tityus pangs 

thencreasyng lyuer styll, 
Whose growyng gutts the gnawyng grypes 
and fylthie foules doe fyll ? 

S That 

[122] llujestes 

That styll by night repayres the panche 
8o5 that was deuowrde by dale, 

And wondrows wombe vnwasted lythe 

a new prepared praie. 
What yll arn J appoynted for ? 

O cruell iudge of sprights, 
810 Who so thou be that torments newe 

among the soules delights 
Styll to dyspose, adde what thou canst 

to all my deadly woe, 
That keper euen of dungeon darke 
8i5 wolde sore abhorre to knoe, 
Or hell it selfe it quake to see : 
for dreade wherof lykewyse 
J tremble woulde, that plague seeke out : 

Loe nowe there dothe aryse 
820 My broode, that shall in mischiefe farre 

the grandsiers gylt out goe, 
And gyltles make : that fyrst shall dare 

vnuentred ylls to doe. 
What euer place remaineth yet 
826 of all this wycked lande, 
J will fyll vp : and neuer once 

while Pelops house dothe stande 
Shall Minos idle be. Meg. goe foorth 

thou detestable spright, 
83o And vexe the godds of wycked house 
with rage of furies might. 


of Seneca. fi23J 

Let them contende with all offence, 

by turnes and one by one 
Let swoordes be drawen : and meane of ire 
835 procure there maie be none, 

Nor shame : let furie blynde enflame 

their myndes and wrathfull wyll, 
Let yet the parents rage endure, 

and longer lastyng yll, 
840 Through childerns childern spreade : nor yet 

let any leysure be 
The former fawte to hate, but styll 

more mischiefe newe to see, 
Nor one in one : but ere the gylt 
845 with vengeance be acquyt, 

Encrease the cryme : from brethern proude 

let rule of kyngdome flyt, 
To runagates : and swaruyng state 

of all vnstable things, 
85o Let it by doubtfull dome be toste, 

betwene thuncertayne kyngs. 
Let mightie fall to miserie, 

and myser clymc to myght, 
Let chaunce turne thempyre vp so downe 
855 both geue and take the ryght. 
The banyshed for gylt, whan god 

restore theyr countrey shall, 
Let them to mischiefe fall a freshe : 
as hateiull then to all, 

a ii As 

[124] Vhyestes 

860 As to them selues : let Jre thinke nought 

vnlawfull to be doon. 
Let brother dreade the brothers wrathe, 

and father feare the soon, 
And eke the soon his parents powre. 
865 let babes be murdered yll, 

But woorse begotte : her spouse betrapt 

in treasons trayne to kyll, 
Let hatefull wyfe awayte. and let 

them beare through seas their warre, 
870 Let bloodshed lye the lands about 

and euery feelde afarre : 
And ouer conqueryng captaynes greate, 

of countreys farre to see, 
Let luste tryumphe : in vvycked house 
8;5 let whoordome counted be 

The lightst offense : let trust that in 

the breasts of brethern breedes, 
And truthe be gone : let not from sight 

of your so heynous deedes 
880 The heauens be hyd, about the poale 

when shyne the starres on hye, 
And flames with woonted beanies of light 

doe decke the paynted skye. 
Let darkest night be made, and let 
885 the daye the heauens forsake. 

Dysturbe the godds of wycked house, 
hate, slaughter, murder make. 


of Seneca. [126] 

Fyll up the house of Tantalus 

with mischieues and debates. 
890 Adorned be the pyllers hyghe, 

with baye and let the gates 
Be garnysht greene : and woorthie there 

for thy returne to syght, 
Be kyndled lyre : let myschicfe doone 
8()5 in Thracia onse, there lyght 

More manyfolde. wherfore dothe yet 

the vncles hande delaie ? 
Dothe yet Tyestes not bewayle 

his childerns fatall daye ? 
QUO Shall he not fynde them where with heate 

of tyres that vnder glowe 
The cawdern boyles ? their lymms eche one 

a peeces let them goe 
Dysperste : let fathers fires, with blood 
go5 of childern fvled bee : 

Let deynties suche be dreste : it is 

no myschiefe newe to thee, 
To banquet so : beholde, this daie 

we haue to the releaste, 
910 And hunger starued wombe of thyne 

we sende to suche a feaste. 
With fowlest foode thy famyne fyll, 

let bloode in wyne be drownde, 
And droonke in syght of thee : loe nowe 
gi5 suche dyshes haue J founde, 

a ifi As 

[126] Thyesles 

As thou wouldst shonne. stale whither doste 

thou hedlong waie no\vc take ? 
Tan. To pooles and floods of hell agayne, 

and styll declynyng lake, 
920 And flight of tree full fraight with fruite 

that from the lyppes dothe flee, 
To dungeon darke of hatefull hell 

Let leefull be for mee 
To goe : or if to light be thought 
Q25 the paynes that there J haue, 

Remoue me from those lakes agayne : 

in mydst of worser wane 
Of Phleghethon to stande, in seas 

of fyre besette to be. 
q3o Who so beneath thy poynted paynes 

by destenies decree 
Dooste styll endure, who so thou be 

that vnderliest alowe 
The hollowe dtnne, or ruyne who 
935 that fearcs and ouerthrowe 
Of fallyng hyil, or cruell cryes 
that sounde in caues of hell 
Of greedy roaryng lyons throates, 

or flocke of furies fell 
940 Who quakes to knowe, or who the brands 

of fyre, in dyrest payne 
Halfe burnte throwes of, harke to the voice 
of Tantalus : agayne 


of Seneca. L I2 7] 

That hastes to hell, and (whom the truthe 
945 hath taught) beleue well mee 

Loue well your paynes, they are but small. 

when shall my happe so bee 
To flee the lyght ? Meg. disturbe thou fyrst 

this house \\ith clyre discorde : 
g5o Debates and battels bryng with thee, 

and of th unhappie swoorde 
Jll loue to kynges : the cruell brest 

stryke through and hatefull harte, 
With tumulte madde. Tan. To suffre paynes 
g55 it seemeth well my parte, 

Not woes to woorke : J am sent foorth 

lyke vapour dyre to ryse, 
That breakes the ground, or poyson lyke 

the plague, in wondrowse wyse 
960 That slaughter makes, shall J to suche 

detested crymcs, applye 
My nephewes hartes ? o parents greate 

of godds aboue the skye, 
And myne, (though shamde J be to graunte,) 
965 although with greatter payne 

My tounge be vexte, yet this to speake 

J maie no whit refrayne, 
Nor holde my peace : J warne you this, 

leaste sacred hand with hloode 
970 Of slaughter dyre, or fransie fell 
of frantyke furie woode 

H Hit The 

[i28] Iliyestes 

The aulters stayne, J will resyste : 

And garde suche gylt awaye. 
With strypes why dooste thou me affryght ? 
t)/5 why threatst thou me to iraye 

Those crallyng snakes ? or famyne fyxt 

in emptie wombe, wherfore 
Dooste thou reuyue ? nowe fryes within 

with thyrst enkyndlcd sore 
980 My hart : and in the bowels burnte, 

the boylyng flames doe glowe. 
Meg. J followe thee : through all this house 

nowe rage and furie throwe. 
Let them be dryuen so, and so 
985 let eyther thyrst to see 

Eche others blood, full well hathe felte 

the cummyng in of thee 
This house : and all with wycked touche 

of the begun to quake. 
990 Enough it is. repayre agayne 
to denns and lothsome lake, 
Of floode well knowne. the sadder soyle 

with heauy foote of thyne 
Agreeued is. seeste thou from spryngs 
ggS howe waters doe decline 

And inwarde synke ? or howe the bankes 

lye voyde by droughtie heate ? 
And whotter blast of fyrie wynde 
the fewer cloudes dothe beate ? 


of Seneca. 

1000 The treese be spoyllde, and naked stande 

to sight in withred woodds, 
The barayne bowes whose frates are fled : 

the lande betweene the floodds, 
With surge of seas on either syde 
K>o5 that woonted to resounde, 
And neerer foordes to separate 
somtime with lesser grounde, 
Nowe broader spredde, it heareth howe 

aloofe the waters ryse. 
1010 Now Lerna turnes agaynst the streame, 

Phoronides lykewyse, 
His poares be stoppte. with customde course 

Alpheus driues not still, 
His hollie waues. the tremblyng topps 
ioi5 of highe Citrueron hill, 

They stande not sure : from height adowne 

they shake theyr sylucr snowe, 
And noble feeldes of Argos feare, 

theyr former drought to knowe. 
1020 Yea Titan doubles him selfe, to rolle 

the worlde his woonted waye, 

And driue by force to former course 

The backwarde drawyng daye. 

a v> Cho- 

[i3o] Thyestes 


IO25 f i ^His Argos towne if any God be founde, 

and Pisey bowres that famous yet remaine, 
Or kyngdomes els to loue of Corinths grounde, 
the double hauens, or soondred seas in twayne, 
Jf any loue Taygetus his snowes, 
io3o (by winter whiche when they on hills be cast, 
By Boreas blasts that from Sarmatia blowes, 

with yerely breathe the sommer melts as fast,) 
Where cleere Alpheus roons, with floude so colde, 
By plaies well knowne that there olimpiks hight : 
io35 Let pleasant powre of his from hense withholde 

suche turnes of strife, that here they may not light : 
Nor nephew woorse then grandsier spryng from vs, 

or dyrer deedes delight the yonger age. 
Let wicked stocke of thyrstie Tantalus, 
1040 at lengthe leaue of, and wery be of rage. 

Enoughe is doone, and nought preuailde the iust, 
or wrong : betrayde is Myrtilus and drownde, 
That did betray his dame : and with lyke trust 

borne as he bare, himselfe hath made renounde 
1045 With changed name the sea : and better knowne 

to mariners therof no fable is. 
On wicked swoorde the litle infant throwne, 
as ran the childe to take his fathers kis, 


of Seneca. fi3i] 

Unripe tor thaulters offryng fell downe deade : 
io5o and with thy hand (o Tantalus) was rent, 

With suche a meate for gods thy boordes to spreade. 

eternall famine for suche foode is sent, 
And thyrst : nor for those deyntie meates vnmilde, 

might meeter payne apoynted euer bee. 
io55 With emptie thronte stands Tantalus beguilde, 

aboue thy wicked hed there leanes to thee, 
Then Phineys fowles in flight a swifter praie. 
with burdned bowes declinde on euery syde, 
And of his fruites all bent to beare the swaie, 
1060 the tree deludes the gapes of hunger wyde. 

Though he full greedie, feede theron woulde faine, 

so ofte disceyude neglects to touche them yet : 
He turnes his eyes, his iawes he doth refrayne, 

and famine fixt in closed gumms doth shet. 
1065 But then eche branche his plenteous ritches all, 

letts lower downe : and apples from on hie 
With lyther leaues they flatter like to fall, 

and famine styrre : in vayne that bidds to trie 
His hands : whiche when he hathe rought foorthe anone 
1070 to be beguilde, in higher ayre agayne 

The haruest hangs, and fickle fruite is gone. 

then thirst him greeues no lesse then hungers payne : 
Wherwith when kindled is his boylyng blood 

lyke fyre, the wretche the waues to him dothe call, 
1075 That meete his mouthe : whiche straight the fleeyng flood 
withdrawes, and from the dried foorde doth fall : 


fi32] Thyestes 

And him forsakes that ibllowes them. He drinkes 
the duste so deepe of gulphe that from him shrinkes. 

The seconde Acte. 

1080 Atreus. Seruant. 


Dastarde, cowrde, o wretche, and (which( 

the greatest yet of all 
To tyrants checke, J counte that maye 

in waightie thyngs befall,) 
O vnreuenged : after gilts 

so greate, and brothers guyle, 
And truthe trode downe, dooste thou prouoke 

with vayne complaynts the whyle 
Thy wrathe ? alredie nowe to rage 
logo all Argos towne through out 
Jn armour ought of thine, and all 

the double seas about 
Thy fleete to ryde : nowe all the feeldes 

with feruent flames of thyne, 
log5 And townes to flasshe it well beseemde : 

and euery where to shyne, 
The bright drawne sworde : all vnder foote 

of horse let euerie syde 
Of Argos lande resounde : and let 
Iioo the woods not serue to hyde 


of Seneca. \ I 33] 

Our foes, nor yet in haughtie toppe 

of hills and mountaynes hie, 
The builded towres. The people all 

let them to battayle crie, 
Iio5 And cleere forsake Mycenas towne. 

who so his hatefull hed 
Hydes and defends, with slaughter dyre 

let bloud of him be shed. 
This pryncely Pelops palaice proudc 
Ilio and bowres of highe renowne, 
On me so on my brother too, 
let them be beaten downe. 
Goe to, do that whiche neuer shall 

no after age allowe, 
in5 Nor none it whisht : some mischefe greate 

there must be ventred nowe, 
Bothe fierce and bloudie : suche as woldc 

my brother rather long 
To haue byn his. Thou neuer dooste 
1 1 20 enoughe reuenge the wrong, 

Except thou passe. And feercer facte 

what may be doone so dyre, 
That his exceedes ? doothe euer he 

lay downe his hatefull yre ? 
1 125 Doothe euer he the modest meane 

in tyme of welthe regarde ? 
Or quiet in aduersitee ? 
J knowe his nature harde 


[134] Thyestes 

Untractable, that broke may be, 
n3o but neuer will it bende. 

For whiche ere he prepare him selfe, 

or force to fight entende, 
Set fyrst on him : least while J rest 

he should on me arise. 
Ii35 He will destroy or be destroyde, 

in midst the mischiefe lies, 
Preparde to him that takes it first. 

Ser. Doothe fame of people nought 
Aduerse thee feare ? Atre. The greatest good 
1140 of kyngdome may be thought, 

That still the people are constraynde 

theyr princes deedes as well 
To praise, as them to suffer all. 

Ser. Whome feare dothe so compell 
1146 To prayse, the same his foes to be, 

doothe feare enforce agayne : 
But who in deede the glory seekes 

of fauour true tobtayne, 
He rather wolde with harts of echc 
n5o be praysde, then tongues of all. 

Atre. The truer prayse full ofte hathe hapte 

to meaner men to fall : 
The false but vnto mightie man. 

what nill they, let them wyll. 
n55 Ser. Let first the kyng will honest thyngs, 
and none the same dare nyll. 


of Seneca. []35] 

Atre. Where leefull are to him that rules 

hut honest thyngs alone, 
There raygnes the kyng by others leaue. 
1160 Ser. And where that shame is none, 
Nor care of right, faythe, pietie, 

nor holmes none staythe, 
That kyngdome swarues. Atre. Suche holines, 

suche pietie, and faythe, 
Il65 Are priuate goods : let kyngs run on 

in that that likes their will. 
Ser. The brothers hurt a myschiefe counte, 

though he be neare so ill. 
Atre. Jt is but right to doe to him, 
1170 that wrong to brother were. 

What heynous hurt hathe his offense 

let passe to proue ? or where 
Relraynde the gilt ? my spouse he stale 

away for lecherie, 
1175 And raygne by stelthe : the auncient note 

and sygne of imperie, 
By fraude he gotte : my house by fraude 

to vexe he neuer ceaste. 
Jn Pelops house there fostred is 
ilcSo a noble worthy beaste, 

The close kept Ramme : the goodly guide 

of ritche and fayrest flockes. 
By whome through out on euery syde 
depend a downe the lockes 


[l36] ^hyestes 

n85 Of glittryng golde, with fleece of whiche 

the new kyngs woonted weare 
Of Tantalls stocke their sceptors guilt 

and mace of might to beare. 
Of this the owner raigneth he : 
1190 with him of house so gret 

The fortune fleethe : this sacred Rame 

a loofe in saftie shet, 
Jn secret meade is wonte to grase, 

whiche stone on euery syde 
ligS With rockie wall encloseth rounde 

the fatall beast to hyde. 
This beast (aduentryng mischiefe great; 

adioynyng yet for praie 
My spoused mate, the traytour false 
1200 hathe hens conuayde awaie. 

From hens the wrongs of mutuall hate, 

and mischefe all vp sprong : 
Jn exile wandred he, through out 

my kyngdomes all a long : 
I2o5 No parte of myne remayneth safe 

to me, from traynes of his. 
My feerce deflourde, and loyaltie 

of empyre broken is : 
My house all vext, my bloud in doubte, 
I2IO and nought that trust is in, 

But brother foe. What staiest thou yet ? 
at lengthe loe now begin. 


of Seneca. [187] 

Take hart of Tantalus to thee, 

to Pelops cast thine eye : 
I2T5 To suche examples well beseemes, 

J should my hands applye. 
Tell thou whiche way were best to bryng 

that cruell hed to deathe. 

Ser. Through perste with swoorde let him be slaine 
1220 and yelde his hatefull breathe. 

Atre. Thou speakst oi thende : but J him wolde 

oppressc with greter payne. 
Let tyrants vexe with torment more : 

shoulde eucr in my rayne 
1225 Be gentle deathe ? Ser. Dothe pietie 

in thee preuaile no whit ? 
Atre. Departe thou hens all pietie, 

if in this house as yet 
Thou euer werte : and no\v let all 
i23o the rlocke of furies dyre, 

And full of strife Erinnys come, 

and double brands of lyre 
Megaera shakyng : for not yet 

enough with furie greate 
1235 And rage dothe burne my boylyng brest : 

it ought to be repleate, 
With monster more. Ser. What mischefe new 

dooste thou in rage prouide ? 
Atre. Not suche a one as may the meane 
1240 of woonted greefe abide. 

X No 

[i38| Thyestes 

No gilt will J forbeare, nor none 

may be enoughe despight. 
Ser. What sworde ? Atr. To litle that. Ser. what fire ? 

Atre. And that is yet to light. 
1245 Ser. What weapon then shall sorow suche 

fynde fit to woorke thy wyll ? 
Atre. Thyestes selfe. Ser. Then yre it self 

yet thats a greater yll. 

Atr. J graunte : a tomblyng tumulte quakes, within 
1260 my bosomes loe, 

And rounde it rolles : J moued am 

and wote not whervnto. 
But drawcn J am : from botome deepe 

the roryng soyle dothe crie 
1255 The day so fayre with thounder soundes, 

and house as all from hie 
Were rent, from roofe, and rafters craks : 

and lares turnde abought 
Haue wryde theyr s}^ght : so beete, so beete, 
1260 let mischiefe suche be sought, 

As ye O gods wolde feare. Ser. What thyng 

seekste thou to bryng to pas ? 
J note what greater thyng my inynde, 

and more then woont it was 
1265 Aboue the reatche that men are woont 

to woorke, begyns to swell : 
And staythe with slouthfull hands. What thyng 
it is J can not tell : 


of Seneca. 

But great it is. Beete so, my mynde 
1270 now in this feate proceede, 
For Atreus and Thvestes bothe, 

it were a worthy deede. 
Let eche of vs the crime commit. 

The Thracian house did se 
12/5 Suche wicked tables once : J graunte 

the mischiefe great to be, 
But done ere this : some greater gilt 

and mischiefe more, let yre 
Fynde out. The stomak of thy sonne 
1280 o father thou enspyre, 

And syster eke, lyke is the cause : 

assist me with your powre, 
And dryue my hande : let gredy pa 
rents all his babes deuowre, 
1285 And glad to rent his children be : 

and on their lyms to feede. 
Enough, and well it is deuysde : 

this pleaseth me in deede. 
Jn meane time where is he ? so long 
1290 and innocent wherfore 

Dooth Atreus walke ? before myne eyes 

alredie more and more 
The shade of suche a slaughter walkes : 

the want of children cast, 
I2(j5 Jn lathers iawes. But why my mynde, 
yet dreadst thou so at last, 

33 ii And 

[140] T Yhyestes 

And fayntst before thou enterprise ? 

it must be doone, let be. 
That whiche in all this mischefe is 
l3oo the greatest gilt to se, 

Let him commit. Ser. but what disceyte 

may we for him prepare, 
Wherby betrapt he may be drawen, 

to fall into the snare ? 
i3o5 He wotes full well we are his foes. 

Atre. He coulde not taken be, 
Except him selfe woulde take : but now 

my kyngdomes hopeth he. 
For hope of this he wolde not feare 
i3io to meete the mightie Joue, 

Though him he thretned to destroy, 

with lightnyng from aboue. 
For hope of this to passe the threats 

of waues he will not fayle, 
i3i5 Nor dread no whit by doubteull shelues, 

of Lybike seas to sayle. 
For hope of this (whiche thyng he dothe 

the woorst of all beleeue,) 
He will his brother see. Ser. Who shall 
i32o of peace the promise geeue ? 

Whome wyll he trust ? Atre. His euill hope 

will soone beleue it well. 
Yet to my sons the charge which they 
shall to theyr vnkle tell, 


of Seneca. [141] 

i325 We will commit : that home he woulde 

from exyle come againe, 
And miseries for kyngdome chaunge, 

and ouer Argos raygne 
A kyng of halfe : and though to harde 
i33o of hart our prayers all 

Him self despise, his children yet 
nought wotyng what may fall, 
With trauels tierde, and apte to be 

entysde from miserie, 
i335 Requests will moue : on thone syde his 

desyre oi Jmperie, 
On thother syde his pouertie, 

and labour harde to see, 
Wyll him subdue and make to yelde, 
1340 although full stoute he bee. 

Ser. His trauells now the time hath made 

to seeme to him but small. 
Atre. Not so : lor day by day the greefe 

of yll encreaseth all. 
1345 Tys light to suffer miseries, 
but heuy them t endure. 
Ser. Yet other messengers to sende, 

in suche affayres procure. 
Atre. The yonger sorte the worse precepts 
l35o do easelie harken to. 

Ser. What thyng against their vnkle now, 
you them enstrukte to do, 

iii Perhaps 

[142] "Vhyestes 

Perhaps with you to worke the like, 

they will not be a dred. 
1 355 Suche mischieie wrought hath ofte returnde 

vpon the workers hed. 
Atre. Though neuer man to them the wayes 

of guile and gilt haue taught, 
Yet kyngdome will. Fearst thou they shoulde 
l36o be made by counscll naught ? 

They are so borne. That whiche thou calste 

a cruell enterpryse, 
And dyrely deemest doone to be, 

and wickedly likewyse, 
i365 Perhaps is wrought against me there. 

Ser. And shall your soons of this 
Disceyte beware that worke you will ? 

no secretnes there is 
Jn theyr so greene and tender yeres : 
1370 they will your traynes disclose. 

Atre. A priuie counsell cloase to keepe, 

is learnde with many woes. 
Ser. And will ye them, by whome ye woulde 

he shoulde beguiled bee, 
i375 Them selues beguilde ? At. Nay let the bothe 

from faute and blame be free. 
For what shall neede in mischiefes suche 

as J to woorke entende, 
To myngle them ? let all my hate 
i38o by me alone take ende. 


of Seneca. 

Thou leauste thy purpose yll my minde : 

yf thou thine owne forbeare, 
Thou sparest him. Wherfore of this 

let Agamemnon heare 
i385 Be minister : and client eke 
of mine for suche a deede, 
Let Menelaus present be : 

truthe of thuncertaine seede, 
By suche a pracktise may be tride : 
i3go if it refuse they shall, 

Nor of debate will bearers be, 

if the}" him vnkle call, 
He is their father : let them goe. 
but muche the fearfull face 
i3g5 Bewrayes it selfe : euen him that faynes 
the secret wayghtie case, 
Dothe ofte betray : let them therfore 

not know, how greate a guyle 
They goe about. And thou these thyngs 
1400 in secret keepe the whyle. 

Ser. J neede not warned be, for these 

within my bosome deepe, 
Bothe faythe, and feare, but chiefely faythe, 
dothe shet and closely keepe. 

X iiii Chorus 

[ 1 44-1 Yhyestes 

1405 ty Chorus. 

THe noble house at lengthe of highe renowne, 
the famous stocke of auncient Jnachus, 
Appeasde and layde the threats of brethern downe. 
but now what furie styrrs and dryues you thus, 
1410 Eche one to thyrst the others bloud agayne, 
or get by gylt the golden mace in hande ? 
Ye litle wote that so desyre to raygne, 

in what estate or place dothe kyngdome stande. 
Not ritches make a kyng or highe renowne, 
I4i5 not garnisht weede with purple Tyrian die, 

Not loftie lookes, or head encloasde with crowne, 
not glittryng beames with golde and turretts hie. 
A kyng he is, that feare hath layde asyde, 

and all affects that in the brest are bred : 
1420 Whome impotent ambition dothe not guyde, 

nor fickle fauour hathe of people led. 
Nor all that west in metalls mynes hath founde, 

or chanell cleere of golden Tagus showes, 
Nor all the grayne that thrasshed is on grounde, 
1425 that with the heate of libyk haruest glowes. 

Nor whome the flasshe of lightnyng flame shall beate, 

nor eastern wynde that smites vppon the seas, 
Nor swellyng surge with rage of wynde repleate, 
or greedie gulphe of Adria displease. 


of Seneca. 

1430 Whome not the pricke of souldiers sharpest speare, 

or poynted pyke in hand hath made to rue, 
Nor whome the glympse of swoorde myght cause to feare, 

or bright drawen blade of glyttryng steele subdue. 
Who in the seate of saftie setts his feete, 
1435 beholdes all happs how vnder him they lye, 
And gladlie runs his latall daie to mecte, 

nor ought complaynes or grudgeth for to dye. 
Though present were the prynces euery chone, 

the scattered Dakes to chase that woonted be, 
1440 That shynyng seas beset with precious stone, 

and red sea coastes doe holde, lyke bloude to see : 
Or they which els the Caspian mountaynes hye, 

from Sarmats strong with all theyr power withholde : 
Or he that on the floude of Danubye, 
1445 in frost a foote to trauayle dare be bolde : 
Or Seres in what euer place they lye, 

rcnounde with lleece that there of sylke dothe sprvng, 
They neuer myght the truthe hereof denye, 
it is the mynde that onely makes a kyng. 
I45o There is no neede of sturdie steedes in warre, 

no neede with armes or arrowes els to fyght, 
That Parthus woonts with bo we to fling from farre, 

while from the feelde he falsely fayneth flight. 
Nor yet to siege no neede it is to brynge, 
1455 great goons in carts to ouerthro we the wall, 
That from far of the yr battryng pellettes slyng. 
a kyng he is that feareth nought at all. 

JB v Eche 

[146] ^hyestes 

Eche man him selfe this kyngdome geeues at hande. 

let who so lyst with myghtie mace to raygne, 
1460 Jn tyckle toppe of court delyght to stande. 
let me the sweete and quiet rest obtayne. 
So sette in place obscure and lowe degree, 

of pleasaunt rest J shall the sweetnes knoe. 
My lyfe vnknowne to them that noble be, 
1465 shall in the steppe of secret sylence goe. 
Thus when my daies at length are ouerpast, 

and tyme without all troublous tumulte spent, 
An aged man J shall departe at last, 

Jn meane estate, to dye full well content. 
1470 But greuous is to him the deathe, that when 

so farre abrode the bruyte of him is blowne, 
That knowne he is to muche to other men : 
departeth yet vnto him selfe vnknowne. 

The thyrde Acte. 
1475 Thyestes. Phylisthenes. 


Y countrey bowres so long wysht for, 

and Argos rytches all, 
Cheefe good that vnto banysht men, 

and mysers maie befall, 

1480 The touche of soyle where borne J was, 

and godds of natyue lande, 
(Jf godds they be,) and sacred towres 
J see of Cyclops hande : 


of Seneca. t ! 4?] 

That represent then all mans woorke, 
1485 a greater maiestie. 

Renowned stadies to my youth, 

where noble sometytne J 
Haue not so seelde as onse, the palme 

in lathers charyot woon. 
1490 All Argos now to meete with me, 

and people fast will roon : 
But Atreus to. yet rather leade 

in woods agayne thy flight, 
And bushes thicke, and hyd among 
1493 the brutyshe beastes from sight, 

Lyke lyfe to theyrs : where splendent pompe 

of court and princely pryde, 
May not with flattryng fulgent face, 

allure thine eyes asyde. 
i5oo With whom the kyngdome geuen is, 

beholde, and well regarde, 
Beset but late with suche mishaps, 

as all men counte full harde, 
J stoute and ioyfull was : but now 
i5<>5 agayne thus into feare 

J am returnde. my mynde mysdoutes, 

and backeward seekes to beare 
My bodye hens : and forthe J drawe 

my pase agaynst my wyll. 

i5io Phy. With slouthfull steppe (what meaneth this ?) 
my father standeth still, 


[148] Thyestes 

And turnes his face and holdes him selfe, 

in doute what thyng to do. 

Thy. What thyng (my mynde) consyderst thou ? 
f 5i5 or els so long wherto 

Dooste thou so easy counsayle wrest ? 

whylt thou to thynges vnsure 
Thy brother and the kyngdome trust ? 

fearst thou those ils tendure 
i520 Now ouercome, and mielder made ? 

and trauayls dooste thou flee 
That well were plaste ? it the auayles, 

a myser now to bee. 
Turne hens thy pace while leefull is, 
i525 and keepe thee from his hande. 

Phyl. What cause the dryues (o father deere) 

thus from thy natiue lande, 
Now seene to shrynke ? what makes thee thus 

from thyngs so good at last 
i53o Withdrawe thy selfe ? thy brother comes 

whose ires be ouerpast, 
And halfe the kyngdome geues, and of 

the house Dylacerate, 
Repayres the partes : and thee restores 
i535 agayne to former state. 

Thyest. The cause of feare that J know not, 

thou dooste requyre to heare. 
J see nothyng that makes me dread, 
and yet J greatly feare. 

J woulde 

of Seneca. 

1640 J woulde goe on, but yet my lymms 

with weery leggs doe slacke : 
And other waie then J woulde passe, 

J am withholden backe. 
So ofte the shippe that driuen is 
1645 with winde and eke with ore, 

The swellyng surge resistyng bothe, 

beates backe vpon the shore. 
Phyl. Vet ouercome what euer stayes, 

and thus doth let your mynde, 
l55o And see what are at your returne, 

preparde for you to fynde. 
You may o father raigne. Thy. J male 

but then when die J mought. 

Ph. Cheefe thing is powre. Th. nought worth at all, 
i555 if thou desyre it nought. 

Phyl. You shall it to your children leaue. 
Thy. the kyngdome takes not twayne. 
Phy. Who maie be happie, rather wolde 

he myser yet remayne ? 
i56o Thy. Beleue me well, with titles false 

the greate thyngs vs delight : 
And heuye happs in vayne are fearde. 

while high J stoode in sight, 
J neuer stynted then to quake, 
i565 and selfe same swoorde to feare, 

That hanged by myne owne syde was. 
Oh how great good it were, 


[l5oj Vhyestes 

With none to striue, but careles foode 

to eate and rest to knowe ? 
i57o The greater gylts they enter not 

in cotage sette alowe : 
And safer foode in fed vpon, 

at narrowe boorcle alwaye, 
While droonke in golde the poyson is : 
l575 by proofe well taught J saye, 
That euyll happs before the good 

to loue it lykes my wyll. 
Of haughtie house that stands alofte 

in tickle toppe of hyll, 
i58o And swayes asyde, the citee lowe 

neede neuer be affryght : 
Nor in the toppe of roofe aboue, 

there shynes no Juery bright, 
Nor watcheman none defendes my sleepes 
1 585 by night, or gardes my rest : 

With fleete J fyshe not, nor the seas 

J haue not backwarde prest, 
Nor turnde to flight with builded wall : 

nor wicked belly J 
i5go With taxes of the people fedde : 

nor parcell none doth ly, 
Of grounde of mine beyonde the Getes : 

and Parthians farre about : 
Nor worshiped with francansence 
i5g5 J am, nor (Joue shette out) 


of Seneca. 

My Aulters decked are : nor none 

in toppe of house doth stande 
Jn garden treese, nor kyndled yet 
with helpe of eche mans hande, 
1600 The bathes dooe smoke : nor yet are dayes 

in slouthfnll slumbers led, 
Nor nightes paste loorth in watche and wine, 

without the rest of bed. 
We nothyng feare, the house is safe 
i6o5 without the hydden knyfe, 

And poore estate the sweetenes feeles, 

of rest and quyet lyfe. 
Create kyngdome is to be content, 

without the same to lyue. 
1610 Phy. Yet shoulde it not refused be, 

if god the kyngdome gyue. 
Thy. Not yet desyerd it ought to be. 

Phy. your brother bydds you rayne. 
Thy. Bydds he ? the more is to be fearde : 
:6l5 there lurketh there some trayne. 
Phy. From whens it fell, yet pietie 

is woonte to turne at lengthe : 
And loue vnfaynde, repayres agayne 

his erste omitted strengthe. 
1620 Thy. Dothe Atreus then his brother loue ? 

eche Ursa fyrst on hye, 
The seas shall washe, and swellyng surge 
of seas of Sicylye 


[i52J Thyestes 

Shall rest and all asswaged be, 
i()25 and corne to rypenes growe 
Jn botome of Jonian seas, 

and darkest night shall showe 
And spreade the light about the soyle : 

the waters with the fyre, 
i63o The lyfe with death, the wynde with seas, 

shall frendshyp fyrst requyre, 
And be at league. Pliy. of what deceite 

are you so dreadfull here ? 
Thy, Of euery chone : what ende at length 
i635 myght J prouide of feare ? 
Jn all he can he hateth me. 

Phy. to you what hurt can he ? 
Thy. As for my selfe J nothyng dread : 

you lyttle babes make me 
1(340 Afrayde of him. Pliy. dreadc ye to be 

beguylde when caught ye are ? 
To late it is to shoon the trayne 

in myddle of the snare. 
But goe we on, this (father) is 
1646 to you my last request. 

Thy. J followe you. J leade you not. 

Phy. god turne it to the best, 
That well deuysed is for good, 

passe foorth with cherefull pace. 


of Seneca. [i53] 

io5o The isecunde See a ne. 

Atreus. Thyesjes. 


Ntrapt in trayne the beast is caught 

and in the snare clothe fall : 
Bothe him, and eke of hated stocke 


ith him the ofspryng all, 

About the fathers syde J see : 
and now in safetie stands 

And surest ground my wrathfull hate: 
nowe comes into my hands 

1660 At length Thyestes : ye he comes 

and all at ones to me. 
J scant refrayne my selfe, and scant 

may anger brydled be. 

So when the bloodhounde seekes the beast, 
i665 by steppe and quycke of sent 

Drawes in the leame, and pace by pace 

to wynde the wayes he went, 
With nose to soyle dothe hunt, 

while he the boare aloofe hath founde 
1670 Far re of by sent, he yet refraynes 
and wanders throuh the grounde 

a With 

[184] ^hyestes 

With sylent mouth : but when at hand 

he once perceiues the praye, 
With al the strength he hath he striues, 
1675 with voyce and calls awaye 

His lyngring maister, and from him 

by force out breaketh he. 
W T hen Jre dothe hope the present blood, 

it may not hydden be. 
1680 Yet let it hydden be. beholde, 

with vglye heare to syght 
How yrkesomely defourmde with fylthe 

his fowlest face is dyght, 
How lothsome lyes his bearde vnkempt : 
i685 but let us frendship fayne. 

To see my brother me delights : 

geue now to me agayne 
Embrasyng long desyred for : 

what euer stryfe there was 
1690 Before this time betwene vs twayne, 

forget and let it pas : 
Fro this daie foorth let brothers loue, 

let blood, and lawe of kynde 
Regarded be, let all debate 
i6o,5 be slakte in eythers mynde. 

Thy. J coulde excuse my selfe, except 

thou werte as now thou arte. 
But ( Atreus ) now J graunte, the faute 
was myne in euery parte : 


of Seneca. 

1700 And J offended haue in all. 

my cause the worse to bee, 
Your this daies kindnes makes : in deede 

a gyltie wight is hoe, 
That wolde so good a brother hurt 
17^5 as you, in any whyt. 

But nowe with teares J must entrcate, 

and fyrst J me submit. 
These hands that at thy iecte doe lye, 

doe thee beseeche and praye, 
1710 That yre and hate be layde asyde, 

and from thy bosome maye 
Be scraped out : and cleere forgot. 

for pledges take thou theese 
O brother deere, these gyltles babes. 
1716 Atf. thy hands yet from my kneese 
Remoue, and rather me to take 

in armes, vppon me fall. 
And ye o aydes of elders age, 

ye lyttle infants all, 
1720 Me clyppe and colle about the neckc : 

this fowle attyre forsake, 
And spare myne eyes that pitie it, 

and fresher vesture take 
Lyke myne to see. and you with ioye, 
1725 the halfe of emperie 

Deere brother take : the greater prayse 
shall come to me therby, 

C it Our 

[i561 Vhyestes 

Our lathers seate to yelcle to you, 

and brother to releeuc. 
I73o To haue a k)-ngdome is but chaunce, 

but vertue it to geeuc. 
Thy. A iust rewarde for suche deserts, 

the godds (o brother deare) 
Repay e to the : but on my hed 
1735 a regall crowne to weare, 

My lothsome iyfe dcnyes : and farre 

dothe from the sceptor flee 
My hande vnhappie : in the mydst 

let leefull be for mee 
1740 Of men to lurke 1 Atre. this kindome can 

with twayne full well agree. 
Thy. What euer is (o brother) yours, 

J count it myne to bee. 

Atr. Who wolde dame fortunes gyfts refuse, 
1745 if she him rayse to raygne ? 

Thy. The gyfts of hir eche man it wotes, 

how soone they passe agayne. 
Atre. ye me depryue of glory greate, 

except ye th empyre take. 
1760 Thy. You haue your prayse in offryng it, 

and J it to forsake. 
And full perswaded to refuse 
the kyngdome, am J still. 
Atre. Except your part ye will susteine 
1755 myne owne forsake J will. 

J take 

of Seneca. [187] 

Thy. J take it then, and heart 1 J will 

the name thereof alone : 
The ryghts and armes, as well as myne 

they shall be yours eche one. 
1760 Atre. The regall crowne as you besemes 

vppon your hed then take : 
And J thappointed sacrifice 

for godds, will now goe make. 



1765 | Okie any man it weene ? that cruell wyght 

Atreus, of mynde so impotent to see 
Was soone astonied with his brothers syght. 

no greater force then pietee may be : 
Where kynred is not, lastcth euery threate, 
1770 whom true loue holdes, it holdes eternallye. 
The wrathe but late with causes kyndled greate 

all fauour brake, and dyd to battayle crye, 
Whan horsemen did resounde on euery syde, 

the swoordes eche where, then glystred more and more : 
1775 Which ragyng Mars with often stroke dyd guyde 
the fresher bloud to shedde yet thyrstyng sore. 
But loue the sworde agaynst theyr wills doth swage, 

and them to peace perswades with hand in hand. 
So sodeyne rest, amyd so greate a rage 
1780 what god hath made ? throughout Mycenas lande 

C lii The 

[i58] Thyestes 

The harnes clynkt, but late of cyuill stryfe : 

and for theyr babes dyd fcarefull mothers quake, 
Her armed spouse to lecse muche fearde the wyfe, 

when swoorde was made the scabberde to forsake, 
1785 That now by rest with rust was ouergrowne. 

some to repayre the walles that dyd decaye, 
And some to strength the towres halfe ouerthrowne, 

and some the gates wyth gyns of yrne to staye 
Full busie were, and dreadfull watche by nyght 
I7(X) from turret highe dyd ouerlooke the towne. 
Woorse is then warre it selfe the feare of fyght. 

now are the threats of cruell swoorde layde downe, 
And now the rumor whistts of battayles sowne, 

the noyse of crooked trumpet sylent lyes, 
I7q5 And quiete peace returnes to ioyfull towne. 

so when the waues of swelling surge aryse, 
While Corns wynde the Brutian seas doth smight, 

and Scylla soundes from hollowe caues within, 
And shipmen are with waftyng waues affryght, 
1800 Charybdis casts that erst it had droonke in : 
And Cyclops fierce his father yet dothe dred, 

in Aetna banke that feruent is with heates, 
Leste quenched be with waues that ouershed 

the lyre that from eternall fornace beates : 
i8o5 And poore Laertes thirkes his kyngdomes all 

may drowned be, and Jthaca doth quake : 
Jf once the force of wyndes begyn to fall, 
the sea lythe downe more mylde then standyng lake. 


of Seneca. 

The deepe, where shipps so wyde full dreadfull were 
1810 to passe, with sayles on eyther syde out spred 
Now fallne adowne, the lesser boate dothe beare : 

and leysure is to vewe the fyshes ded 
Euen there, where late with tempest bette vppone 

the shaken Cyclades were with seas agast. 
i8l5 No state endures, the payne and pleasure, one 

to other yeldes, and ioyes be sonest past. 
One howre setts vp the thynges that lowest bee. 
he that the crownes to prynces dothe deuyde, 
Whom people please with bendyng of the knee, 
1820 and at whose becke theyr battayles laye asyde 
The Meades, and Jndians eke to Phebus nye, 

and Dakes that Parthians doe with horsemen threate, 
Hym selfe yet holdes his sceptors doutfullye, 

and men of myght he feares and chaunces greate 
i825 (That eche estate may turne) and doutfull howre. 

o ye, whom lorde of lande and waters wyde, 
Of lyfe and death graunts here to haue the powre, 

laye ye your proude and lofty lookes asyde : 
What your inferiour feares of you amys, 
i83o that your superiour threats to you agayne. 
To greater kyng, eche kyng a subiect is. 

whom dawne of da} hath scene in pryde to raygne, 
Hym ouerthrowne hath scene the euenyng late, 
let none reioyce to muche that good hath got, 
l835 Let none dispaire of best in worst estate. 

for Clothoe myngles all, and sufireth not 

C tiii Fortune 


Fortune to stande : but fates about clothe dryue. 

suche friendship fynde with godds yet no man might, 
That he the morowe might be sure to lyue. 
1840 the god our things all tost and turned quight 
Holies with a whirl e wvnde. 

The fourth Acte. 

Messenger. Chorus. 

~! Hat whirhvinde mai me hedlong driue 

i8 4 5 

and vp in ayre me flyng, 

And wrappe in darkest cloude,wherby 
W it might so heynous thyng, 

Take from mine eyes? 6 wicked house 

that euen of Pclops ought 
i85o And Tantalus abhorred be. 

Gho. what new thing hast thou brought? 
Mess. What lande is this? lythe Sparta here, 

and Argos, that hath bred 
So wycked brethern ? and the grounde 
l855 of Corinth liyng spred 

Betwene the seas ? or Jster ells 

where woont to take their flight, 
Are people wylde ? or that whiche woonts 
with snowe to shyne so bright 


of Seneca. [161] 

1860 Hircana lande ? or els do here 

the wandryng Scythians dwell ? 
Gho. \Yhat monstrous mischofe is this place 

then giltie of? that tell, 
And this declare to vs at large 
i865 what euer be the ill. 

Mess Jf once my minde may stay it sell , 

and quakyng limms J will. 
But yet of suche a cruell deede 

before mine eyes the feare 
1870 And Jmage walkes : ye ragyng stormes 

now far from hens me beare 
And to that place me driue, to whiche 

now driuen is the day 

Thus drawen from hens. Gh. Our mindes ye holde 
1875 yet still in doubtfull stay. 
Tell what it is ye so abhorre. 

The author therof showe. 
J aske not who, but which of them : 

that quickly let vs knowe. 
1880 Mess. Jn Pelopps Turret highe, a parte 

there is of palaice wyde 
That towarde the southe erected leanes, 

of whiche the vtter syde 
With equall toppe to mountayne stands, 
1885 and on the citie lies, 

And people proude agaynst theyr prince 
yf once the traytours rise 

v Hath 

[162] Thyesies 

Hath vnderneathe his battryng stroke : 

there shines the place in sight 
1890 Where woont the people to frequent, 

whose golden beames so bright 
The noble spotted pillers graye, 

of marble dooe supporte. 
Within this place well knowen to men, 
i8g5 where they so ofte resorte, 
To many other roomes about 
the noble courte dothe goe. 
The priuie Palaice vnderlieth 

in secret place aloe, 
iqoo With ditche full deepe that dothe enclose 

the woode of priuetee, 
And hidden partes of kyngdome olde : 

where neuer grew no tree 
That cherefull bowes is woont to beare, 
iop5 with knife or lopped be, 

But Taxe, and Cypresse, and with tree 

of Holme full blacke to se 
Dothe becke and bende the woode so darke : 

alofte aboue all theese 
1910 The higher oke dothe ouerlooke, 

surmountyng all the treese. 
From hens with lucke the raygne to take, 

accustomde are the kyngs, 
From hens in danger ayde to aske, 
1915 and doome in doubt full thyngs. 


of Seneca. [i63| 

To this affixed are the gilts, 

the soundyng Trumpetts bright, 
The Chariots broke, and spoyles of sea 

that now Myrtoon hight, 
1920 There hang" the wheeles once won by crafte 

of falser axell tree, 
And euery other conquests note : 

here leefull is to see 
The Phrygyan tyre of Pelops hed : 
l<)25 the spoyle of enmies heere, 

And of Barbarian triumphe lefte, 

the paynted gorgeous geere. 
A lotlvsome spryng stands vnder shade, 

and slouthfull course dothe take, 
K)3o With water blacke : euen such as is, 

of Yrksome Stygian lake 
Tlie vgly waue, wherby are \voont, 

to sweare the goddes on hie. 
Here all the night the grisly ghosts 
IQ35 and gods of death to crie 

The fame reportes : with clinkvng chaynes 

resoundes the woode eche where, 
The sprights crie out : and euery thyng 

that dredfull is to heare, 
1940 May there be seene : of vgly shapes 

from olde Sepulchres sent 
A fearfull flocke dothe wander there, 
and in that place frequent 


[164] Thyestes 

Woorse thyngs then euer yet were knowne : 
1945 ye all the wood full ofte 

With flame is woont to flasshe, and all 

the higher trees alofte 
Without a fyre dooe burne : and ofte 

the wood besyde all this 
ig5o With triple barkyng roares at once : 

full ofte the palaice is 
Affright with shapes, nor light of day 

may once the terrour quell. 
Eternall night dothe holde the place, 
ig55 and darknes there of hell 

Jn mid day raignes : from hens to them 

that pray, out of the grounde 
The certayne answers geuen are, 
what time with dredfull sounde 
1960 From secret place the fates be tolde; 

and dongeon roares within 
While of the God breakes out the voice : 

wherto when entred in 
Fierce Atreus was, that did with him 
ig65 his brothers children trayle, 
Dekt are the aulters : who (alas) 

may it enoughe bewayle ? 
Behynde the infants backs anone 

he knyt their noble hands, 
1970 And eke their heauie heds about 
he bounde with purple bands : 


of Seneca. I i65J 

There wanted there no Frankensence, 

nor yet the holy wine, 
Nor knife to cut the sacrifice, 
1975 besprinkt with leuens fine. 
Kept is in all the order due, 

least suche a mischieie grette 
Should not be ordred well. Ghor. who dothe 

his hande on swoorde then sette ? 
1980 Mess. He is him selfe the preest, and he 

him selfe the dedly verse 
With praier dyre from feruent mouthe 

dothe syng and ofte reherse. 
And he at thaulters stands him selfe, 
1986 he them assygnde to die 

Dothe handle, and in order set, 

and to the knife applie, 
He lights the fyres, no rights were lefte 

of sacryfice vndone. 
1990 The woode then quakte, and all at ones 

from trembly ng grounde anone 
The Palaice beckte, in doubte whiche way 

the payse therof woulde fall, 
And shakyng as in waues it stood e : 
1995 from thayre and therwithall 

A blasyng starre that foulest trayne 

drewe after him dothe goe : 
The wynes that in the fyres were cast, 
with changed licour floe, 


I" 1 6 6] Thyestes 

2000 And turne to bloud : and twysc or thryse 

thattyre fell from his bed, 
The Juerie bright in Temples secmdc 

to wcepe and teares to shed. 
The sights amasdc all other men, 
2005 but stedfasl yet alway 

Of mynde, vnmoued Atreus stands, 

and euen the godds dothe fray 
That threaten him, and all delay 

forsaken by and bye 
2010 To thaulters turnes, and therwithall 

a syde he lookes awryc. 
As hungrie tygre woonts that dothc 

in gangey woods remayne 
With doubtfull pace to range and roaine 
20l5 betweene the bullocks twaync, 
Of eyther praye full couetous, 

and yet vncertayne where 
She fyrst may bite, and roryng throatc 

now turnes the tone to teare 
2020 And then to thother straight returnes, 

and doubtfull famine holdes : 
So Atreus dire, betwene the babes 

dothe stand and them beholdes 
On whome he poyntes to slake his yre : 
2025 fyrst slaughter where to make, 

He doubtes : or whome he shoulde agayne 
for seconde offryng take. 


of Seneca. [167] 

Yet skylls it nought, but yet he doubles, 

and suche a crueltie 
2o3o Jt him deligths to order well. 

Ghor. Whome take he fyrst to die ? 
Mess. First place, least in him thinke ye might 

no piete to remayne 
To grandsier dedicated is, 
2o35 iyrst Tantalus is slayne. 

Ghor. With what a minde and countnaunce, coulde 

the boye his death sustayne ? 
Mess. All careles of him selfe he stoode, 

nor once he woulde in vayne 
2040 His prayers leese. But Atreus fierce 

the swoorde in him at last 
Jn deepe and deadly wounde dothe hide 

to hilts, and gripyng fast 
His throate in hand, he thrust him throughe. 
2046 The swoorde then drawne awaye 
When long the body had vphelde 

it selfe in doubtfull staye, 
Whiche way to fall, at bngthe vppon 

the vnkle downe it falles. 
2o5o And then to thaulters cruellie 

Philisthenes he tralles, 
And on his brother throwes : and strayght 

his necke of cutteth hee. 
The carcase hedlong falles to grounde : 
2o55 apiteous thyng to see, 


[168] Tfiycstes 

The mournyng bed, with murmure yet 

vncertayne dothe complayne. 
Ghor. What after double deathe dothc he 

and slaughter then of twayne ? 
2060 Spares he the childe ? or gilt on gilt 

agayne yet heapeth he ? 
Mess. As long maend Lyon feerce amid 

the wood of Armenie, 
The droue pursues and conquest makes 
2o65 of slaughter many one, 

Though now defiled be his iav/es 
with bloude, and hunger gone 
Yet slaketh not his Jrefull rage, 
with bloud of bulles so greate, 
2070 But slouthfull now, with weery toothe 

the lesser calues dothe threate : 
None other wyse dothe Atreus rage, 

and swels with anger straynde, 
And holdyng now the sworde in hande 
2075 with double slaughter staynde, 
Regardyng not where fell his rage, 

with cursed hand vnmilde 
He strake it through his body quight : 

at bosome of the childe 
2080 The blade gothe in, and at the backe 

agayne out went the same. 
He falles, and quenchyng with his bloud 
the aulters sacred flame, 


of Seneca. [169! 

Of either wounde at lengthe he dieth. 
*#5 Glior. O heynous hatefull acte. 

Mess. Abhorre ye this ? ye heare not yet 

the ende of all the facte, 
There followes more. GllO. A fiercer thyng, 

or worse then this to see 
2090 Could nature beare ? Me. why thinke ye this 

of gilt the ende to bee ? 
Jt is but parte. Clio, what coulde he more ? 

to cruell beasts he cast 
Perhapps their bodies to be torne, 
2og5 and kept from lyres at last. 

Mess. Woulde god he had : that neuer tombe 

the deade might ouerhyde, 
Nor flames dissolue, though them for foode 

to fowles in pastures wyde 
2KX) He had out throwen, or them for pray 

to cruell beasts woulde flyng. 
That whiche the worste was wont to be, 

were heere a wisshed thyng, 
That them theyr father sawe vutombde. 
2lo5 but oh more cursed crime 
Uncredible, the whiche denie 

wyll men of after time : 
From bosomes yet alyue out drawne 

the tremblyng bowells shake, 
21 10 The vaynes yet breathe, the fearefull harte 
dothe yet bothe pante and quake : 

D But 

[170] Vhyestes 

But he the stryngs dothe turne in hande, 

and destenies beholde, 
And of the gutts the sygnes eche one 
2li5 dothe vewe not fully colde. 

When him the sacrifice had pleasde, 

his diligence he putts 
To dresse his brothers banquet now : 

and streyght a soonder cutts 
2120 The bodies into quarters all, 
and by the stoompes anone 
The shoulders wide, and brawnes of armes, 

he strikes of euery chone. 
He laies abrode theyr naked lymms, 
2125 and cutts away the bones : 

The only heds he keepes, and hands 

to him comitted ones. 
Some of the gutts are broachte, and in 

the fyres that burne ful sloe 
2l3o They droppe : the boylyng liccour some 

dothe tomble to and froe 
Jn moornyng cawdern : from the flesshe 

that ouerstands alofte 
The fyre dothe flie, and scatter out, 
2l35 and into chimney ofte 

Up heapt agayne, and there constraynde 

by force to tary yet 
Unwillyng burnes : the lyuer makes 
great noye vppon the spit, 


of Seneca. [171] 

2140 Nor easely \vote J, if the flcsshe, 

or flames they be that cry, 
But crie they doe : the lyre like pitche 

it fumeth by and by : 
Nor yet the smoke it selfe so sadde, 
2145 like filthy miste in sight 
Ascendeth vp as woont it is, 
nor takes his way vpright, 
But euen the Goddes and house it dothc 

with filthie fume defyle. 
2i5o O pacient Phoebus though from hence 

thou backward flee the whyle, 
And in the midst of heauen aboue 
dooste drowne the broken day, 
Thou fleeste to late : the father eates 
2i55 his children well away, 

And lymms to whiche he onse gaue lyfe, 

with cursed iawe dothe teare. 
He shynes with oyntment shed full sweete 

all rounde aboute his heare, 
2160 Replete with vvyne : and often times 

so cursed kynde of food 
His mouth hath helde that would not downe. 

but yet this one thyng good 
Jn all thy ylls (Thyestes) is, 
2105 that them thou dooste not knoe. 
And yet shall that not long endure, 
though Titan backward goe 

D ii And 

[172] ^hyestes. 

And chariots turne against him selfe, 

to meetc the waies he went, 
2170 And heauie night so heynous deede 

to keepe from sight be sent, 
And out of time from east arise, 

so foule a facte to hide, 
Yet shall the whole at lengthe be seene 
2175 thy ills shall all be spide. 

<# Chorus. 

Hiche way O prince of lands and godds on hie, 

Wat whose vprise eftsones of shadowde night 
All bcwtie flecthe, which way turnstthou awrie ? 
2180 and drawste y day in midst of heauen to flight? 

Why dooste thou (Phebus) hide from vs ihy sight ? 

not yet the watche that later howre bryngs in, 
Dothe Uesper warne the starrs to kindle light. 
not yet dothe turne of Hespers wheele begin 
2i85 To loase thy chare his well deserued way. 

the Trumpet thirde not yet hath blowen his blaste 
While towarde the night begins to yelde the day. 

great woonder hath of sodayne suppers haste 
The Ploweman, yet whose oxen are vntierde. 
2190 from woonted course of heauen what drawesthee backe? 
What causes haue from certainc race conspierde 
to turne thy horse ? do yet from dongeon blacke 


of Seneca. [178] 

Of hollowe Hell, the conquerde Gyants proue 

a fresshe assaute ? dothe Tityus yet assay 
2ig5 With trenched hart and wounded wombe to moue 

the former yrcs ? or from the hill away 
Hath now Typhoeus wounde his syde by might ? 

is vp to heauen the way erected hie 
Of phlegrey foes by mountaynes set vpright ? 
2200 and now dothe Ossa Pelion ouerlie ? 

The woonted turnes are gone of day and night. 

the rise of sun, nor fall shalbe no more. 
Aurora dewysh mother of the light 

that \\oonts to sendo the horses out before, 
22o5 Dothe wonder muche agayne returnde to see 

her dawnyng light : she wotts not how to ease 
The wery wheeles, nor manes that smokyng bee 
of horse with sweate, to bathe amyd the seas. 
Him selfe vnwoonted there to lodge lykewyse, 
2210 dothe settyng Sun againe the mornyng see, 
And now commaundes the darknes vp to ryse, 

before the night to come prepared bee. 
About the poale yet glowthe no fyre in sight : 

nor light of Moone the shades dothe comfort yet. 
22l5 What so it be, God graunt it be the night. 

our harts dooe quake with feare oppressed gret, 
And dredfull are least heauen and erthe and all 

with fatall mine shaken shall decay : 
And least on gods agayne, and men shall fall 
2220 disfigurde Chaos : and the land away 

T5> fit The 

[174] Thycstes 

The seas, and tyres, and of the glorious skise 

the wandryng lampes, least nature yet shall hide. 
Now shall no more with blase of his vprise, 

the lorde of starres that leades the worlde so wide, 
2225 Of Sommer bothe and winter gyue the markes. 

nor yet the Moone with Phaebus flames that burnes, 
Shall take from vs by night the dredfull carkes, 

with swyfter course or passe her brothers turnes, 
\Yhile compasse lesse she fetts in crooked race : 
223o the Gods on heapes shall out of order fall 
And eche with other myngled be in place. 

the wried way of holly planetts all, 
\Yith pathe a sloape that dothe deuide the Zones, 

that beares the sygnes and yeares in course dothe bryng, 
2235 Shall see the starres with him fall downe at ones. 

and he that fyrst not yet with gentle spryng, 
The temperate gale dothe geue to sayles, the Ramme 

shall hedlong fall a downe to seas agayne, 
Through whiche he once with fearfull hellen swamme. 
2240 next him the Bulle that dothe with home sustayne 
The systers seuen, with him shall ouerturne 

the twyns, and armes of crooked cancer all. 
The Lyon whot, (that woonts the soyle to burne) 

of Hercules, agayne from heauen shall fall. 
2245 To lands once lefte the virgin shalbe throwne, 

and leuelde payse of balance sway alowe, 
And draw r e with them the styngyng Scorpion downe. 
so likewyse he that holdes in Thessale bowe 


His swifte well fethred arrovves Chiron olde, 
225o shall breake the same and eke shall leese his shotte. 
And Capricorne that brynges the winter colde 
shall ouerturne, and breake thy water potte 
Who so thou be : and downe with thee to grounde, 

the last of all the signes shall Pisces fall. 
2255 And monsters eke in seas yet neuer drounde, 

the water gulphe shall ouer whelme them all. 
And he whiche dothe betwene eche Ursa glyde, 

lyke crooked floode, the slipper serpent twynde : 
And lesser Beare by greater Dragons syde, 
2260 full colde with frost congealed harde by kynde, 
And carter dulle that slosvlie guides his waync, 

vnstable shall bootes fall from hie. 
We are thought meete of all men whom agayne, 

should hugy heape of Chaos oner lie, 
2265 And worlde oppresse with ouer turned mas. 

the latest age now falleth vs vppon. 
With euill happe we are begotte alas, 

if wretches we haue lost the sight of son, 
Or him by faught enforced haue to rlie. 
2270 let our complaynts yet goe, and feare be past : 
He greedy is of lyfe, that will not die 
when all the worlde shall ende with him at last. 

5) iiit The 

[176] ^hyestes 

The fifth Acte. 
Atreus alone. 

2275 ! Owe equall with the starrs J goe, 

beyoncle eche other wight, 
with haughtie hed the heauens aboue, 


and highest Poale J smight. 
The kyngdome now & seate J holde, 

2280 where once my father raynde. 

J now let goe the godds : for all 

my will J haue obtaynde. 
Enoughe and well, ye euen enoughe 

for me J am acquit. 
2285 But whie enoughe ? J will proceede, 

and fyll the father yet 
With bloud of his : least any shame 

should me restrayne at all, 
The day is gone : goe to therfore, 
2290 while thee the heauen dothe call. 

Wolde god J coulde agaynst their wills 

yet holde the gods that flee, 
And of reuengyng disshe, constrayne 

them witnesses to be : 
2295 But yet fwhiche well enoughe is wrought,) 

let it the father see. 
Jn spight of all the drowned day, 
J wyll remoue from thee 


of Seneca. [177] 

The darkenes all, in shade whereof 
23oo doe lurkc thy myseries. 

And guest at suche a banquet now 

to long he careles lies, 
With mery face : now eate and dronkc 

enough he hath : at laste 
23o5 Tys best him selfe shoulde know his ylls. 

ye seruaunts all, in haste 
Undoe the temple doores : and let 

the house be open all : 
Fayne wolde J see, when looke vppon 
23io his childrens heds he shall 

What countenance he then wolde make. 

or in what woordes breake out 
Wolde fyrst his greefe, or how wolde quake 

his bodie rounde about 
23i5 With spright amased sore : of all 
my woorke the fruite were this. 
J wolde him not a myser see, 

but whyle so made he is. 
Beholde the temple opened now, 
2320 dothe shyne with many a lyght : 
Jn glyttryng gold and purple seate 

he sytts him selfe vpryght, 
And staiyng vp his heauy head 
with wine, vpon his hande, 
2325 He belcheth out. now cheefe of godds, 
in highest place J stande, 

T5> V And 

[i 7 8] Wiyesies 

And kyng of kyngs : J haue my wyshe 

and more then J coulde thynke : 
He fylled is, he nowe the wyne 
233o in syluer boll dothe drynke. 

And spare it not, there yet remaynes, 

a woorser draught for thee 
That sproong out of the bodyes late 

of sacrifyces three, 
2335 Whiche wyne shall hyde : let therwithall 

the boordes be taken vp. 
The father (myngled with the wyne) 

his childrens blood shall sup, 
That woulde haue droonke ofinyne. 
2340 beholde, he now begyns to strayne 
His voyce and syngs, nor yet for ioye 

his mynde he may refrayne. 

The seconde Sceane 
Thyestes alone 


2845 ^-^ beaten bosomes dullde so longe with woe, 

laie downe your cares, at length your greues relet : 
Let sorowe passe, and all your dreade let goe, 
and fellowe eke of fearefull banyshment, 
Sad pouertie, and yll in myserye 

235o the shame of cares, more whense thy fall thou haste, 
Then whether, skylls. greate happe to him, from hye 
that falles, it is in suretee to be plaste 


of Seneca. [1)9] 

Beneth. and great it is to him agayne 

that prest with storme, of euylls feeles the smart, 
2355 Of kyngdome loste the payses to sustayne 

with necke vnbowde : nor yet deiect of harte 
Nor ouercome, his heauy happs alwayes 

to beare vpryght. but now of carefull carkes 
Shake of the showres, and of thy wretched dayes 
236o awaye with all the myserable markes. 

To ioy full state returne thy cheerefull face. 

put fro thy mynde the olde Thyestes hence. 
Jt is the woont of wight in wofull case, 
in state of ioy to haue no confydence. 
2365 Though better happs to them returned be, 

thafflicted yet to ioy it yrketh sore. 
Why calste thou me abacke, and hyndrest me 

this happie daie to celebrate ? wherfore 
Bydst thou me (sorowe) weepe without a cause ? 
2370 who doth me let with flowers so freshe and gaye 
To decke my heares ? it letts, and me withdrawes. 

downe from my head the roses fall awaye : 
My moysted heare with oyntment ouer all, 

with sodeyne mase stands vp in woondrows wyse. 
23y5 From face that wolde not weepe the streames do fall. 

and howlyng cryes amyd my woordes aryse. 
My sorowe yet thaccustomde teares dothe loue. 
and \vretches styll delight to weepe and crye. 
Unpleasant playntes it pleaseth them to moue : 
238o and florysht faire it lykes with Tyrian dye 


[l8o] Vhyestes 

Theyr robes to rent : to wayle it lykes them styll. 

for sorowe, sends (in sygne that woes drawe nye) 
The minde, that wotts before of after yll. 

the sturdye stormes the shipmen ouerlye, 
2385 When voyde of wynde thasswaged seas doe rest. 

what tumult yet or countenaunce to see 
Makste thou mad man ? at lengthe a trustfull brest 

to brother geeue, what euer now it bee, 
Causeles, or ells to late thou arte a dred. 
23go J wretche woulde not so feare, but yet me drawes 
A tremblynge terrour : downe mync eyes do shed 

theyr sodeyne teares, and yet J know no cawse. 
Js it a greefe, or feare ? or ells hath teares 

great ioy it selfe ? 

The thyrde Sceane. 
Atreus. Thyestes. 

Et vs this daie with one consent 

(o brother) celebrate. 
This day my steptors may confyrme 
2400 ^ anc j stablyshe my estate, 

And faythfull bonde of peace and loue 

betwene vs ratyfye. 

Thy- Enough with meate and eke with wyne, 
now satysfyde am J. 


of Seneca. [181] 

2406 But yet of all my ioyes it were 

a greate encrease to mee, 
Jf now about my sydc J might 

my little children see. 

Atr. Beleue that here euen in thyne armes 
2410 thy children present bee. 

For here they are, and shalbe here, 

no parte of them fro thee 
Shall be withhelde : theyr loued lookes 

now geue to the J wyll, 
2415 And with the heape of all his babes, 

the father fully fyll. 
Thou shalt be glutted, feare thou not : 

they with my boyes as yet 
The ioytul sacrifyces make 
2420 at boorde where children sit. 

They shalbe calkle : the frendly cuppe 

nowe take of curtesy 
With wyne vptylde. Thy. of brothers feast 

J take full wyllyngy 
2425 The fynall gyfte, shed some to gods 

of this our fathers lande, 
Then let the rest be droonke. whats this ? 

in no wyse wyll my hande 
Obeye : the payse increaseth sore, 
2430 and downe n^ne arme dothe swaye. 
And from my lypps the waftyng wyne 
it selfe dothe flie awaie, 


fl82j Thyestes 

And in deceiued mouthe, about 
my iawes it runneth rounde : 
2435 The table to, it selfe dothe shake, 

and leape Irom tremblyng grounde. 
Scant burnes the lyre : the ayre it selie 

with heauy chere to sight 
Forsooke of sunne amased is 
2440 betwene the daye and night. 

What meaneth this ? yet more and more 

of backewarde beaten skye 
The compasse falles : and thicker myst 

the worlde doth ouerlye 
2445 Then blackest darkenes, and the night 

in night it selfe dothe hyde. 
All starrs be fledde : what so it bee, 

my brother god prouyde 
And soons to spare : the gods so graunte 
2460 that all this tempest fall 

On this vyle head, but now restore 

to me my children all. 
Atr. J will, and neuer daye agayne 

shall them from the withdrawe. 
2455 Thy. What tumulte tumbleth so my gutts, 

and dothe my bowells gnawe ? 
What quakes within ? with heauy payse 

J feele my selfe opprest, 
And with an other voyce then myne 
2460 bewayles my dolefull brest. 


of Seneca. [i83] 

Come neere my soons, for you now dooth 

th unhappie father call : 
Come neere, for you once seene, this greefe 

wolde soone asswage and fall. 
2465 Whence murmure they ? At. with fathers armes 

embrace them quickely nowe, 
For here they are loe come to thee : 
dooste thou thy children knowe ? 
Thy. J know my brother : suche a gylt 
2470 yet canst thou suffre well 

6 earth to beare ? nor yet from hens 

to Stygian lake of hell 
Dooste thou bothe drowne thy selfe and vs ? 

nor yet with broken grounde 
2475 Dooste thou these kyngdomes and theyr kyng 

with Chaos rude confounde ? 
Nor yet vprentyng from the soyle 

the bowres of wicked lande 
Dooste thou Mycenas ouerturne ? 
2480 with Tantalus to stande, 

And auncyters of ours, if there 

in hell be any one. 
Now ought we bothe. now from the frames 

on eyther syde anone 
2486 Of grounde, all here and there rent vp, 

out of thy bosome deepe 
Thy dens and dungeons set abrode, 
and vs enclosed keepe, 


[184] Thyestes 

Jn botome lowe of Acheront : 
2490 aboue our hedds alofte 

Let wander all the gyltie ghosts, 

with burnyng frete full oftc 
Let fyry Phlegethon that dryues 

his sands bothe to and froe, 
2495 To our confusion ouerroon, 

and vyolently floe. 
O slouthfull soyle vnshaken payse, 

vnmoued yet arte thou ? 
The gods are fled. Atr. but take to thee 
25oo with ioy thy chyldren now, 

And rather them embrace : at length 

thy chyldren all, of thee 
So long wysht for, (for no delaye 

there standeth now in mee,) 
25o5 Enioye and kysse, embracyng armes 

deuyde thou vnto three. 
Thv. Js this thy league ? may this thy loue 

and fayth of brother bee ? 
And dooste thou so repose thy hate ? 
2Dio the father dothe not crane 

His soons aliue (whiche might haue bene 

without the gylt.,) to haue : 
And eke without thy hate, but this 

dothe brother brother pray : 
25i5 That them he may entoombe, restore, 
whom see thou shalt straight way 


of Seneca. [i85| 

Be burnt : the father nought requyres, 

of the that haue he shall, 
But soone forgoe. Atr. what euer partc 
2520 yet of thy children all 

Kemaynes, here shalt them haue : and what 

remayneth not, thou haste. 
Thy. Lye they in feeldes, a ioode out floong 

for fleeyng foules to waste ? 
2525 Or are they kept a praye, for wylde 

and brutyshe beasts to eate ? 
Atr. Thou hast deuourde thy soons, and lyldc 

thy selfe with wicked meate. 
Thy. Oh this is it that shamde the godds : 
253o and day from hens dyd dryue 

Turnde backe to easte. alas J wretch 

what waylynges may J gyue ? 
Or what complayntes ? what wofull woordes 

may be enough for mee ? 
2535 Theyr heades cutte of, and hands of torne, 

J from their bodies see, 
And wrenched feete from broken thyghes, 

J here beholde agayne. 
Tys this that greedy father coulde 
2540 not suffrc to sustayne. 

Jn belly rolle my bowels rounde, 

and closed cryme so gret 
Without a passage stryucs within, 
and seekes awaye to get. 


[i86] Thyestes 

2645 Thy svvoorde (o brother) lende to me : 

muche of my blood alas 
Jt hathe : let vs therwith make way 

for all my soons to pas. 
Js yet the swoorcle fro me withhelde ? 
255o thy selfe thy bosom es teare. 

And let thy brests resounde with strokes : 

yet wretche thy hand forbeare, 
And spare the deade. who euer sawe 

suche mischiefe put in proofe ? 
2555 What rude Heniochus, that dwells 

by ragged coaste aloofe, 
Of Caucasus vnapt for men ? 

or feare to Athens, who 
Procustes wylde ? the father J 
256o oppresse my children do 

And am opprest, is any meane 

of gylt or mischiefe yet ? 
Atr. A meane in myschiefe ought to be, 

when gylt thou dooste commyt, 
2565 Not when thou quytst : for yet euen this, 

to lytle seemes to me. 
The blood yet warme euen from the wounde 

J shoulde in sight of thee 
Euen in thy iawes haue shed, that thou 
2570 the bloud of them mightst drynke 
That lyued yet : but whyle to muche 
to haste my hate J thynke, 


of Seneca. [187] 

My wrathe beguyled is. my selfe 

with swoorde the woundes them gaue, 
25y5 J strake them downe, the sacred fyres 

with slaughter vowde J haue 
Well pleasde, the carcase cuttyng then 

and lyueles lymms on grounde 
J haue in little parcelles chopt, 
258o and some of them J drownde 

Jn boylyng cawderns, some to fyres 

that burnte full slowe J putte, 
And made to droppe : their synewes all 

and lymms atoo J cutte 
2585 Euen yet alyue, and on the spytte 

that thrust was through the same 
J harde the lyuer wayle and crie, 

and with my hand the flame 
J ofte kept in : but euery whit 
25go the father might of this 

Haue better doone, but now my wrathe 

to lyghtly ended is. 
He rent his soons with wycked gumme, 

him selfe yet wotyng nought, 
25g5 Nor they therof. Thy. 6 ye, encloasde 

with bendyng banks abought 
All seas me heare, and to this gylt 

ye godds now harken well 
What euer place ye fledde are to : 
2600 heare all ye sprights of hell, 

(I And 

[i88J Thi/estes 

And here ye lands, and night so darke, 

that them dooste ouerlye 
With clowde so blacke, to my complaynts 

do thou thy selfe applye. 
26o5 To thee now lefte J am, thou dooste 

alone me myser see, 
And thou arte lefte without thy starres : 

J wyll not make for mee 
Peticions yet. nor ought for me 
2610 requyre, may ought yet bee 

That me shoulde vayle ? for you shall all 

my wyshes now foresee. 
Thou guyder great of skies aboue, 

and prynce of hyghest myght, 
26i5 Of heauenly place, now all with cloudes 

full horrible to syght, 
Enwrappe the worlde, and let the wyndes 

on euery syde breake out, 
And sende the dredfull thunder clappe, 
2620 through all the worlde about. 

Not with what hand thou gyltles house 

and vndeserued wall 
With lesser bolte arte wonte to beate, 

but with the whiche did fall 
2625 The three vpheaped mountaynes once, 

and whiche to hylls in height 
Stoode equall \ 7 p, the gyants huge : 
throwe out suche weapons streight, 


of Seneca. [189] 

And flyng thy fyres, and therwithall 
263o reuengc the drowned daye. 

Let flee thy flames, the lyght thus lost 

and hyd from heauen awaye, 
With flashes fyll : the cause, (least long 

thou shouldst doute whom to hit,) 
2635 Of eche of vs is yll : if not 

at least let myne be it, 
Mee stryke : with tryple edged toole 

thy brande of flamyng tyre 
Beate through this brest : if father J 
2640 my children do desyre 

To lay in lombe, or corpses cast 

to lyre as dothe behoue, 
J must be burnt : if nothyng now 
the gods to wrath maie moue, 
2645 Nor powre from skyes with thunder bolte 

none strykes the wycked men, 
Let yet eternall night remayne, 
and hyde with darkenes then 
The worlde about : J (Titan) nought 
2600 com play ne, as now it stands, 

Jf still thou hyde thee thus awaye. 

Atr. now prayse J well my handes, 
Now gotte J haue the palme : J had 

bene ouercome of thee, 
2655 Except thou sorowdst so : but now 
euen children borne to me 

[190] Thyestes 

J counte, and now of brydebed chaste 

the fayth J do repeare. 
Thy. Jn what offended haue my soons ? 
2660 Atr. Jn that, that thyne they weare. 

Thy. Setst thou the soons for fathers foode ? 

Atr. J doe, and (whiche is best) 
The certayne soons ? Thy. the gods that guyde 

all infantes, J protest. 
2665 Atr. what wedlocke gods? Til. who wolde the gylt 

with gylt so quyght agayne ? 
Atr. J knowe thy greefe, preuented now 
with wrong, thou dooste complayne : 
Nor this thee yrkes, that fedde thou arte 
2670 with foode of cursed kynde, 

But thnt thou hadst not it preparde : 

for so it was thy mynde, 
Suche meates as these to sette before 

thy brother wotyng naught, 
2675 And by the mothers helpe, to haue 

lykewyse my children caught, 
And them with suche lyke deathe to slave : 

this one thing letted thee, 

Thou thoughtst them thyne. Thy. the gods shall all 
2680 of this reuengers bee : 

And vnto them for vengeance due, 

my vowes thee render shall. 
Atr. But vext to be J thee the whyle, 
geeue to thy children all. 


of Seneca. [191] 

2685 The fourth Sceane, 

Added to the Tragedy 
by the Translatour. 

Thyestes alone. 


! Kyng of Dytis dungeon darke, 
~ and grysly ghosts of hell, 

I That in the deepe and dredfull denns, 
of blackest Tartare dwell, 

Where leane and pale diseases lye 

where feare and famyne are, 
26g5 Where discorde stands with bleedyng browes, 

where euery kynde of care, 
Where furies fight in bedds of steele, 

and heares of crallyng snakes, 
Where Gorgon grymme, where Harpies are, 
2700 and lothsome Lymbo lakes, 

Where most prodigious vglye thynges, 

the hollowe hell dothe hyde, 
Jf yet a monster more mysshapte 

then all that there doe byde, 
2705 That makes his broode his cursed foode, 

ye all abhorre to see, 
Nor yet the deepe Auerne it selfe, 
may byde to couer me, 

J6 ttti Nor 

[192] Thyestes 

Nor grysly gates of Plutoes place, 
2710 yet dare them selues to spredde, 

Nor gapyng grounde to swallowe him, 
whome godds and day haue fledde : 
Yet breake ye out from cursed seates, 

and here remayne with me, 
2715 Ye neede not now to be affrayde, 

the ayre and heauen to se. 
Nor tryple headid Cerberus, 
thou needst not be affright, 
The day vnknowne to thee to see, 
2720 or els the lothsome light. 

They bothe be fledde : and now clothe dwell 

none other countnaunce heere, 
Then dothe bencathe the fowlest face, 

of hatefull hell appeere. 
2725 Come see a meetest matche for thee, 

a more then monstrous wombe, 
That is of his vnhappie broode, 

become a cursed tombe. 
Flocke here ye fowlest feendes of hell, 
273o and thou O grandsier greate, 

Come see the glutted gutts of mine, 

with suche a kynde of meate, 
As thou didst once for godds prepare. 

let torments all of hell 
2735 Now fall vppon this hatefull hed, 
that hathe deserude them well. 


of Seneca. 

Ye all be plagued wrongfully, 
your gylts be small, in sight 
Of myne, and meete it were your pangs 
2740 on me alone should light. 

Now thou O grandsier giltles arte, 

and meeter were for me, 
With fleeyng floud to be beguilde, 

and frute of fickle tree. 
2745 Thou slewst thy son, but J my sons, 

alas haue made my meate. 
J coulde thy famyne better beare, 

my panche is now repleate 
With foode : and with my children three, 
2750 my belly is extent. 

O filthy fowles and gnawyng gripes, 

that Tityus bosome rent 
Beholde a fitter pray for you, 

to fill your selues vppone 
2755 Then are the growyng gutts of him : 

foure wombes enwrapt in one. 
This panche at ones shall fill you all : 

yf ye abhorre the foode, 
Nor may your selues abide to bathe, 
2760 in suche a cursed bloode : 

Yet lend to me your clinchyng clawes, 

your pray a while forbeare, 
And with your tallons suffer me, 
this monstrous mawe to teare. 

v Or 

[194] "Vhyestes 

2/65 Or whirlyng wheeles, with swynge of whiche 

Jxion still is rolde, 
Your hookes vppon this glutted gorge, 

woulde catche a surer holde. 
Thou filthy floud of Lymbo lake, 
277 and Stygian poole so dyre, 

From choaked chanell belche abrode. 

thou ferfull freate of fyre, 
Spue out thy flames O Phlegethon : 

and ouer shed the grounde. 
2775 With vomite of thy fyrye streame, 

let me and earth be drownde. 
Breake vp thou soyle from botome deepe, 

and geue thou roome to hell, 
That night, where day, that ghosts, were gods 
2780 were woont to raigne, may dwell. 

Why gapste thou not ? Why do you not 

O gates of hell vnfolde ? 
Why do ye thus thynfernall feendes, 

so long from hens withholde ? 
2785 Are 3 r ou likewyse affrayde to see, and 

knowe so wretched wight, 
From whome the godds haue wryde theyr lookes, 

and turned are to flight ? 
O hatefull hed, whom heauen and hell, 
2790 haue shoonde and lefte alone, 

The Sun, the Starrs, the light, the day, 
the Godds, the ghosts be gone. 


of Seneca. [198] 

Yet turnc agayne ye Skyes a whyle, 

ere quight ye goe fro me, 
2795 Take vengeance fyrst on him, whose faultc 

enforceth you to flee. 
Jf needes ye must your flight prepare, 

and may no lenger bydc, 
But rolle ye must with you foorthwith, 
2800 the Goddes and Sun a syde, 

Yet slowly flee : that J at lengthe, 

may you yet ouertake, 
While wandryng wayes J after you, 

and speedy iorney make. 
2806 By seas, by lands, by woods, by rocks, 

in darke J wander shall : 
And on your wrathe, for right rewardc 

to due deserts, wyll call, 
ye scape not fro me so ye Godds, 
2810 still after you J goe, 

And vengeance aske on wicked wight, 

your thunder bolte to throe. 




Xon&on in ffletestrete, in 

tbe bouse late Cbomag 


Cum priuilegio ad impri- 
mendum solum. 

ANNO. M. D. L X. 

Lucii Annei Se- 

necae Tragedia primaquae inscri- 

bitur Hercules iurcns nuper rccognita, & ab 

omnibus mendis, quibus antea scatebat sedu- 

lo purgata, & in studiosrr, iuuentutis vtilitate, 

in Anglicuin metrum tanta fide conuersa, vt carmen 

pro carmine quoad Anglica lingua patiatur 

pene redditum vidcas. 

Per lasperum Heyvvodum Oxoniensem. 

gedie of Lucius Anneus Seneca, 

intitulet) Hercules fur ens, nc\vlv> pervseO anO 

of all faultes wbereof it M& before abound bi= 

ligentlvi corrccte&, anb for tbc profit of eoun0 

ecbollers so faitbfullv? translated into J6n* 

0li0b metre, tbat se mav? se verse for verse 

tonrned as farre as tbe pbrase of tbc en 

flliab permittetb 

36g Jasper H^evwood studient 
in Ovford. 


honorable Syr William Harbert of the 

honorable order of the garter knight, 

Lorde Harbert of Cardyffe, Earle 

5 of Penbrocke & one of the Quee- 

nes maiesties most honorable Pry- 

uie councell, his daylye Oratour 

Jasper Heywood wissheth 

prosperous health with 

10 encrease of honour and 



He most excellent 
and famous lear 
ned clearke Eras 
mus of Roteroda 
among so many 

[earned volumes whiche he 


in hys lyfe tyme wrote, with 

such excellency, that they yet 

20 do and euer shal preserue the 

name and renowne of so wor- 


[" 991 

thye a man, ouen lor that ou- 
lye thyng woon not the least 
praise among learned m<\ nor 

25 deserued least thanke of poste- 
ritie, that he so well and true- 
lye translated onto of (Ireeke 
into latin two o tragedies of 
Euripides, whereof the one 

3o is named Hecuba, & the other 
Iplligillia. For as all men that 
can iudge of that work, must 
needes highly commend h m 
that hathe so lernedly done it 

35 so muste all studientes of the 
(ireeke tongue needes render 
him great thAkes, that hath 
opened the such a gate therto 
Whf 1 J therfore (most hono- 

40 rablc Karle) considered wyth 
A ii my 


my selfe that suche a man of 
whome the worlde yet after 
his deth resowndes, disdaind 
not sometyme to leaue euen 

45 the studye of the diuine scrip 
tures to turn his pen a while 
to the profite and furtherace 
of youth, J thought it not re- 
pugnitt to my duty if J shold 

5o also for a, time set a side y bo- 
kes of old Philosophers, Ari 
stotle and Plato, and once en- 
deuour to shew my selfe so lo- 
uing to my countreye, as to 

55 helpe for the small talet that 
god hath geue me, to conduct 
by som meanes to further vn 
derstfidig the vnripened schol 
lers of this realm, to whom J 



60 thought it shoulde be no lesse 
thankful for me to enterprete 
som latyn work into this our 
owne tongue, then for Eras 
mus in Latyn to expounde 

65 the Greeke, to them that are 
already good and perfite lati- 
nistes. Neither coulde J satis- 
fie my self, til J had through 
oute thys whole tragedye of 

70 Seneca a graue and wise wri 
ter so trauailed that J had in 
englysh geuen verse for verse, 
(as far as the englysh tongue 
permitts) and word for word 

75 wyth the latyn : whereby J 
might both make some tryal 
of my self, and as it were tech 
the little children to goe that 

A. iii 


yet canne but creepe. Whiche 

so tiling Avhen J had l)roughte 
to passe, \ fully finished thys 
little worke, J thought with 
my self how gretly it mighte 
auail me, to haue the author! 

85 tie of som noble ma, my shield 
against the sling of euil togs. 
\vherfore when J considered 
that your honor so gretly fa- 
uoured lerrrig, that ye vouch- 

()o safed to sod vnto the vnitiersi 
tic of oxford, of which J am a 
mf bre, your derest & eldest son 
my lord Henry whom J haue 
there well knowen, and so to 

()5 trade him in time of teder ye- 
res, that hys riper age, might 
hothe geue your honor cause 


to ioy i liirn & vs to thak your 
honor for him, J haue presu- 

100 mod vpu hope of pardo formi 
boldnesse, y rather for his sake 
to dedicate this simple worke 
vnto your honour, as well to 
signifie the poore good wyll 

io5 of a scholler, as also to render 
to your honor most huble tha 
kes, that it hath plesed so ho 
norable an Erie to honor our 
vniuersitie of Oxforde, with 

no the presece o f such a vug lord 
so worthye a Gentlema. The 
whiche my attempt J truste 
your honour wil for this the 
rather pardo, that although 

n5 this simple woorke, which J 
here offer he farre vn worthy 



to l)e of your honor receiued, 
yet is it a meete gift for me to 
present : who as J am a schol 

120 lor, so ca J geue nothing hut 
a schollcrs gifte, namelye the 
practise of my pen, the which 
hesechii g your honour none 
otherwise to accept the Christ 

125 accepted the two mites whi- 
che the poore woma oflfred in 
the teple, J end with praier to 
hym, for the prosperous con 
tinuance and encrease of your 

i3o lordshippes honorable estate 
and dignitic. 


[20$ I 

The Argument of this Tragedy. 

Uno the wife and sister of Jupiter, 
1 35 ^j| hatyng his bastarde broode, cometh 
down from heauen, complaining of 
all his iniuries done to her, deuising 
also by what despite she maye vexe his base 
sonne Hercules. And hauyng by experience 
140 proued, no toiles to be too hard for him, h n- 
deth the meanes to make his owne hand his 
owne vengeance. Hercules therfore retur 
ning now from hell (from whens he was en 
ioyned to fet Cerberus ) And findynge that 
145 the tyrant Lycus had inuaded his countrey, 
destroieth the tyrant. For the which victorie 
as he sacrinceth to his goddes, wrathefull 
Juno strikes him into a sodain fransy : wher 
with he beynge sore vexed, thynkyng to slea 
i5o the children and wife of Lycus, in stede of 
them, killeth his owne wife and children in 
his madnesse. This doone he sleapeth. Juno 
restoreth to hym agayne his wittes. He be- 
yng wakte, seing his wife and children slain 
i55 by his owne hande, at laste also woulde kyll 

C The speakers. 
J uno Lycus 

Chorus Hercules 

160 Megara Theseus 



[206] Hercul. fur. of Sen. 

Iimo alone. 

i65 A Syster of the thunderer, 

(for nowe that name alone 
remaynes to me) Joue euermore 
as though deuorste and gone, 
And temples of the hyghest ayre 
170 as wydowe shunned haue, 
And beaten out of skyes aboue 

the place to harlots gaue. 
J muste goe dwell beneathe on grounde, 

for hoores doo holde the skye. 
175 From hens the beare in parte aboue 

of ycye poale full hye, 
A haughty starre the greekysh shypps 

by seas dothe guyde about. 
Fro this way, whes at spryng tyme warme 
180 the daye is loased out, 

Europaes bearer through the waues 

of Tyria shynes full bright. 
From thens, their stormy fearefull flocke 
to shypps, and seas affright, 

36 2 The 

Hercul. Fur. of Sen. [207] 

185 The wandryng daughters here and there 

of Atlas vpwarde swaye. 
With staryng bushe of heare from hens 

Orion gods dothe fraye : 
And Perseus eke his glyttryng starres 
up of golden glosse hathe heere. 

From hens the twynns of Tyndars stocke 

doe shyne, a sygne fall clere : 
And at whos-2 byrth fyrst stoode the grounde 

that erste went too and fro. 
ig5 Nor onely Bacchus nowe hymselle, 

or Bacchus mother lo, 
Haue clymbde to gods : least any parte 

shoulde from rebuke be free, 
The skyes the Gnossian strumpets crounes 
200 doe beare in spight of mee. 

But J of ollde contempts complayne : 

me, one dire, fierce, and shrewde 
Thebana lande, with wicked broode 

of Joues base daughters strewde, 
2o5 Howe ofte hath it a stepdame made ? 

though vp to heauen shoulde rise, 
The conqueryng drabbe Alcmena nowe, 
and holde my place in skies, 
And eke her sonnc to promysde starres 
210 obtayne the woorthye waye, 

At byrthe of whome the staying worlde 
so long deferrde the daye, 

* 3 Aud 

[2o8] Hercul. Fur. of Sen. 

And Phoebus slowe from mornyng sea 

begoon to glyster bryght, 
2i5 Commaunded long in th ocean waues 

to hyde his drowned lyght : 
Yet shall my hates not leaue them so. 

a wrathfull kyndlyng rage 
His mynde in madnesse shall styrre vp, 
220 and yre that maye not swage 

Shall euermore (all peace layde dov/ne) 

wage warres eternally. 
What warrs ? what euer hydous thyng 

the earthe his ennemy 
225 Begetts, or what soeuer sea, 

or ayre hath brought to syght 
Bothe dredfull, dire, and pestylent, 

of cruell fiercest myght, 
Tis tierde, and taemde : he passeth all, 
23o and name by ylls dothe rayse, 

And all my wrathe he dothe enioye : 

and to his greatter prayse 
He turnes my hates : whyle tedyous toyles 

to muche J hym beehest, 
235 He proues what father hym begot, 
bothe thens, where lyght opprest 
Hath sea, and where it showde agayne, 

where Titan daye dothe trayne, 
And with his brande approchyng neere 
240 dothe dye those Aethiops twayne, 

4 his 

Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [209] 

His strengthe vntamde is honoured : 

and god eche where is he 
No\ve calde in world, and nowe more store 

of monsters want to me, 
240 And labour lesse to Hercles is 

t accomplyshe all my vvyll, 
Then me to bydde : at ease he doothe 

myne impedes fulfyll. 
What cruell hestes of tyraunt nowe 
25o so fierce a yong man mayo 

preuayle to hurte ? for loe he beares 

for weapons nowe awaye 
What once he fearde, and put to flyght : 

he armed comes at syde 
255 With lyon fierce, and Hydra bothe : 

nor lande sumseth wyde, 
But broake he hath the thresholde lo 

of that infernall Joue, 

And spoyles with hym of conquerde kyng 
260 he drawes to godds aboue. 

But thats but lyght, broke is the league 

of sprightes that there doo d\vell. 
J sawe my selfe, J sawe hym loe 

(the nyght nowe gone of hell, 
265 And Ditis taemde) throwe out abroade 

before his fathers syght 
His brothers spoyles. Why drawes he not 
oppreste and bounde by myght 

J3 5 hym 

[2ioJ Hercul. fur. oi Seneca. 

Hymselfe in chaynes that equall thynges 
270 to Joue by lotte dooth holde ? 
And beare the rule of captyue hell, 

and waye to Styx vnfolde ? 
Up opened is from lowest ghosts 
the backewarde waye to skye, 
275 And sacred secrets of dire deathe 

in open syght doo lye. 
But he (the dredfull denne of sprights 

broake vp) full fierce and stout 
Euen ouer me doothe triumphe lo, 
280 and with prowde hande about 

The foule black dogge by Grekishe townes 

he leades from hell a waye. 
When scene was vgly Cerberus 

J sawe the fadyng daye, 
285 And fearefull soon : euen me lykewyse 

a tremblyng dreade oppreste, 
And lookyng on the fylthy necks 

of conquerde monstrous beaste, 
J feared muche myne owne behests. 
290 but lyght thyngs J complayne, 

For heauen J maye be frayde, least he 

may get the hyghest rayne, 
That lowest woon. the sceptors Irom 
his father wyll he take, 
2g5 Nor he to starrs (as Bacchus dyd) 
his waye wyll gently make : 


Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [211] 

The wave with ruync wyll he seeke, 

and he in empty skyes 
\\ yll reygne alone, with force displayde 
3u> his haughtye harte doothe ryse, 
And he, that heauen it selfe, by force 

of his myght gotten bee, 
ft bearvng learnde : quight vndernethe 

the worlde his headsette he, 
3o5 Nor ones his shoulders bowde, the payse 

of suche a myghty mas : 
And mydst of heauen on Hercles necke 

alone lo settled was. 
His necke vnwryde the starrs aboue 
3io and skies dyd onelye stave : 

And me lykewyse oppressyng hym, 

to Gods he seekes the waye. 
Goe Jre, goe on, and beate hym downe 

that greate thyngts doothe inuent, 
3i5 Matche thou with hym, and with thy hands 

nowe thou thy selt e hym rent. 
Suche hates why dooste thou meditate? 

Lette all wylde beastes nowe go : 
And weary Eurystheus nowe be free 
320 from geeuyng charges mo. 

The Titans daryng once of Joue 

to breake the imperye 
Sende out : lette loase the dcnne abroade 
of mounte of Sicilye. 


[2i 2 1 Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

325 The Doricke lande that with the turne 

of gyant quakes afrayde, 
Let it bryng foorthe the dredefull neckes 

of monster vnderlayde. 
Let yet the haughty moone aboue 
33o some other beastes beeget. 

But these he ouercame. seekst thou 

a matche t Alcides yet ? 
Thers none, except hymselte : let hym 

agaynst hym selfe rebell. 
335 Let present bee from bottome deepe 

vpraysde of lowest hell 
Th Eumenides, let flamyng lockes 

of theyrs the fyres out flyng, 
And furious handes beestowe about 
340 the stroakes of vypers styng. 

Goe nowe full prowde, and skale the skyes 

to seates of godds make wave. 
Nowe must thy battels waged be, 
full cleere loe shynes the daye. 
345 Despise mas works : thinksty fierce wight 

that hell and soules alowe 
Thou haste escapte ? naye here J wyll 

an other hell the showe. 
Jn deepe myste hyd J wyll call vp 
35o frome bottome lowe of hell 

Beyonde the waves of gylty ghostes 
debatefull goddesse fell. 

Wher e 

Hercul. iur. of Sen. [21 3] 

where as the roaryng dredfull denne 

resoundes with cries about, 
355 From deepest bonde of Ditis raigne 

beneathe J will fette out, 
what so is lefte. Let hatefull hurte 

nowe come in anger woode, 
And fierce impietie embrewe 
36o hym selfe with his owne bloode, 
And errour eke, and fury armde 

agaynste it selfe to fyght. 
This meane, this meane, let wrath of myne 

nowe vse to shewe my myght. 
365 Begyn ye seruantes nowe of hell : 

the feruent burnyng tree 
Of pyne shake vp : and sette with snakes 

her dredfull flocke to see 
Lette nowe MegcGra bryng to syght : 
3yo and with her mournefull hande 
for burnyng roage bryng out of hell 

a huge and direfull brande. 
Doo this, require you vengeance due, 

and paynes of hell his spoyle, 
375 Stryke through his breaste : let fiercer flame 

within his bosome boyle, 
Then whiche in Aetna fornace beates 

so furiousely to see. 
That madde of mynde and witles may 
38o Alcides dryuen bee 

<I with 

[2i4l Hercul. fur. of Sen. 

With fury great through pearced quight, 

my selfe must fyrst of all 
Be madde. Wherfore dothe Juno yet 

not in to ragyng fall ? 
385 Mee, mee, ye Furies, systers three 

throwne quight out of my wyt 
Tosse fyrst, yf any thyng to doo 

J doo endeuour yet 

For stepdame meete : let now my hates 
390 be turnde an other way. 

Let hym (returnde) his babes beholde 

in safetie, J you praye, 
And strong of hande come home : J haue 

nowe found the day at length, 
3g5 Jn whiche may greatly me auayle 
the hated Hercles strengthe. 
Bothe me, and eke hym selfe let hym 

subdue, and wyshe to dye 
Returnde from hell, yea let it here 
400 be my commoditye, 

That he of Joue begotten is : 

here present wyll J stande, 
And that his shafts goe streight from bowe, 

J wyll directe his hande : 
4o5 The mad mans weapons wyll J guyde, 

Euen Hercles fyghtyng lo 
At length Jle ayde. This gylt once doone 
then leefull is that so 

-i C 2 his 

Hercul. Fur. of Sen. [2i5J 

His lather may admytte to skyes 
410 those gyltie handes of his. 


The fadig stars now shine but seeld in sight 
in stipye skye, night ouercome with day, 
Plucks T her fires, while sprog again is light 

4i5 y dai star draws y clere so beams their way. 
The ycye sygne of haughty poale agaync, 
with seue starrs markt y beares of Arcady, 
Do call the light with ouerturned wayne. 
with marble hors now drawn his way to hy 

420 Doth Titan toppe of Oetha ouerspred. 

the bushes bright that now with beries bee 
Of Thebes strewd, by day do blush full red. 
and to returne dothe Phoebus syster flee. 
Now labor hard begyns, and euery kynde 

426 of cares it stirrs, the shepeherd doth vnfolde 
His flocks vnped, do grase their fode to findc 
& nipps y grasse, with hoary frost ful colde. 
At will dothe play in open medowe fayre, 
y calfe, whose brow did dam yet neuer teare 

43o The empty kyne their vdders doo repayre. 
& light with course vncertayn, here & there, 
Jn grasse full soft the wanton kid he flyngs. 
in top of bow doth sit with chauntyng song, 
And to the son new rose to sprede her wyngs 

435 bcstirrs herself, her mournfull nests amog 

C 3 The 

[2 1 6] Hercul. Fur. of Sen. 

The nightingale : & doth with birdes about 
confuse resound, with murmure myxed rife 
To witnes day. his sailes to wynds sette out 
the shipman doth comit in doute of lyfe, 

440 While gale of wid y slack sails fils ful strait 
he leanyng ouer hollowe rocks dothe lye, 
And eyther his beegiled hookes dothe bayte, 
or els beholds and feeles the pray from hye 
with paysed hande. 

445 The treblyng fishe he feeles with lyne extet. 
this hope to them to whom of hurtlesse life, 
Js quiet rest, and with his owne content, 
and lytle, house, suche hope in fieldes is rife. 
The troublus hopes w rollig whirlwid gret 

460 & dredful feares, their waies in cities kepe. 
He proude repaire to prince in regall seate, 
& harde court gates without the rest of slepe 
Esteemes, and endles happynes to holde 
doth gather goods, for tresure gaping more, 

455 And is full poore amyd his heaped golde. 
the peoples fauour him (astonied sore) 
And comons more vnconstant then the sea, 
with blast of vain renoun lifts vp ful proud. 
He sellyng at the braulyng barre his plea, 

460 full wicked, setts his yres & scolldyng lowde 
And woords to sale . a fewe hath known of al 
the careles rest, who mindful how r doth flitte 
Swyft age away, the tyme that neuer shall 
returne again do hold . while fates permitte, 

C 4 At 

Hercul. lur. of Seneca. [217] 

465 At quiet lyue : the life ful quickly glides 

with hastned course, & with the winged day 
The whele is turnd of yere y hedlog slides, 
the sisters hard performe their tasks alway, 
Nor mai againvntwist their threds ons spo 

470 yet mankynde lo vnsure what waye to take 
To mete the greedy destenies dothe ron, 
and willyngly we seeke the Stygian lake. 
To muche Alcides thou with stomack stout 
the sory sprights of hell dooste haste to see. 

475 with course prefixt the fates ar broght about 
to none once warnd to come, may respyte be 
To none to passe their once appointed day. 
thetombe all people calde by death doth hide 
Let glory him by many landes away 

480 display, & fame throughout all cities \\ide 
Full bablyng praise, & cue with skye to stad 
auaunce, & Starrs : let hym in chariot bright 
Full haughty goe : let me my natiue land 
in safe & secret house kepe close fro sight. 

486 To restful men hoare age by cours doth fal, 
and lowe in place, yet safe, & sure doth lye 
The poore and base estate of cottage small : 
the prowder pope of mynd doth fall fro hye. 
But sad here comes with losed locks of hear 

490 loe Megara, with lyttle cumpanye, 

And slow by age draws Hercles father nere 


[2 1 8] Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 


A C T E . 

4<)5 Guyder great of heauen, and of 

the worlde o iudge full hye, 
Yet now at length apoynt a meane 

of carefull myserye, 
And ende of our calamitie. 
5oo to me yet neuer daye 

Hath carelesse shynde, the ende of one 

affliction paste awaye 
Begynnyng of an other is : 

an other ennemye 
5o5 Js foorthwith fownde, before that he 

his ioyfull famylye 
Retourne vnto, an other fyght 

he taketh by behest : 
Nor any respite gyuen ys 
5io to hym nor quiet rest, 

But whyle that he commaunded is : 

strayght hym pursueth shee 
The hatefull Juno. Was yet once 

from toyle and labour free 
5i5 His infantes age ? the monsters lo 
he vanquysht hathe and slayne, 
Before he knew what monsters ment. 
The skaled serpents twayne 


Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [219! 

Theyr double neckes drew on toward hym, 
52O agaynst the whyche to ryse, 

The infant crepte to meete with them, 

the serpentes glyttryng eyes 
Lyke fyre, with quiet carelesse brest 

he lookyng fast vppon, 
525 With coutnance cleere, hard wrested knots 

of them he caught anon : 
And stranglyng then the swellyng throates 

of them with tender hande, 
To Hydra prelude made, the beaste 
53o so swyfte of Maenale lande, 

That with muche golde bare vp fnll bryght 

his beautified heade, 
Js caught in course . of Nemey woode 

lykewyse the greatest dreade 
535 The lyon prest with Hercles armes 

hath roarde with dreadfull crye. 
What shoulde J speake of stables dyre 

of steedes oi Bystonye ? 
Or kyng caste out hym selfe for foode 
540 his horses fierce to fyll ? 

And bristled beast in thicke topps woont 

of Eryrnanthus hyll, 
The boare of M;enalye, the woodds 

of Arcady to shake ? 
545 And bull that dyd no lyttle dreade 
to hundred peoples make ? 


[22o] Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

Among the flocks of Hesper lande 

that hens farre distant bee, 
The shepherde of Cartesian coast 
55o of tryple shape to sec 

Js slayne, and dryuen is the praye 

from farthest parte of weaste, 
Cith86ron quakte when by hym past 

to sea the well knowne beast. 
555 He beeyng byd to make by coastes 

of sommer sonne his waye, 
And parched landes whche sore with heate 

dooth boyle the myddell daye, 
The mountayns brake on eyther syde 
5f>o and rampiers all vndoon, 

Euen vnto swyfte and ragyng sea 

hathe made a waye to roon. 
Then entryng in of plenteous wood 

the pleasant gardeyns gaye, 
565 The wakyng dragons golden spoyles 

with hym he brought awaj^e. 
The Lerna monsters numerous yll 

what neede to tell haue J ? 
Hath he not hym with fyre at lengthe 
570 subdewde, and taught to dye ? 

And which were woont with wyngs abrode 

to hyde the daye from syght, 
Kuen from the cloudes he sought and draue 
the Stymphale byrdes to flyght. 


Hercul. fur. of Sen. [221] 

575 Not hym subdewde who euer lyes 

in bedde vnmatcht at nyght 
The wyddowe queene of them that toke 

to Thermodont their flyght. 
Nor handes that well durst enterprise 
58o his noble trauayles all 

The fylthy labour made to shrynke 

of foule Augias hall. 
What vayle all these ? he wants the worlde 

whyche ofte defended he. 
585 And th erthe well knowes the woorker ol 

his quietnes to be 
Away from earthe : the prosperous gvlt 

that beareth happy swaye, 
Js vertue callde, and now the good 
5qo to wycked doo obaye. 

The ryght doth stande in myght of armes, 

feare treadeth downe the lawe. 
Before my face with cruell hande 

euen presently J sawe 
5g5 Reuengers of theyr fathers reygne 

the sonnes with swoorde downe cast, 
And of the noble Cadmus eke 

hymselfe the ofspryng last 
Then slayne : J sawe his regall crowne 
600 at once from hym awaye 

With head byreft. Who Thebes alas 
enough bewayle nowe maye ? 

I> The 

[22 2j Hercu. fur. of Sen. 

The fertile lande of godds, what lorde 

nowe quakes it for to knowe ? 
f>o5 Out of the fieldes of whiche somtyme, 

and fruitefull bosome lowe, 
The youth vpsprong with sworde in hand 

preparde to battell stoode : 
And walls of whiche Amphion one 
610 of myghty Joue his broode, 

Hath buylt with sowndyng melody 

in drawyng to the stones : 
To towne of whome the parent cheefe 

of Godds not onely ones 
6i5 Heauen beyng left hath come, this lande 

that godds aboue alway 
Receyude, & whiche hath made them godds, 

and (leefull beete to say) 

Perhapps shall make, with lothsome yoake 
620 of bondage is preste downe. 
O Cadmus stocke, and citezens 

of olde Amphions towne, 
Wherto are ye nowe fallne ? dreade ye 

a cowardly exul thus, 
625 His coastes to dwell in lackyng, and 

to ours iniurious ? 
Who through the worlde pursues the gyllts 

and wrong by sea and lande, 
And cruell sceptors broken hath 
63o with iuste and ryghtfull hande, 

2> 2 Nowe 

Hercul. Fur. of Sen. [223] 

Nowe absent serues, and what he easde 

in other doothe sustayne : 
And nowe doth bannysht Lycus holcle 

of Hercles Thebes the rayne. 
635 Yet shall he not : he shall come home, 
And hym with vengeaunce quight, 
And sodayne ryse to Starrs : he wyll 
Soone fynde the vvaye to lyght, 
Or make it ells, returne thou safe, 
640 repayre to thyne in haste : 

And conquerour to conquerde house 

yet come agayne at laste. 
Ryse vp my spouse, and darknesse deepe 

repellde of helly shade 
645 Breake vp with hande, yf no way may 

for thee kept backe bee made, 
And passage be shette vp, returne 

with worlde vprent by myght. 
And what soeuer lythe possest 
65o byneathe in darkest nyght, 

Sende out with thee. as when the topps 

of haughty hylles vndoon 
A hedlong passage makyng through 

for hasty floude to roon 
655 Thou somtyme stoodst, wha w great might 

of thyne asunder broake 
The Tempye woods wyde open laye : 
and beaten with thy stroake 

3> 3 The 

[224! Hercu. fur. of Sen. 

The mownt, now here, now ther fel downe : 
660 and rampier rente of staye, 
The ragyng brooke of Thessaly 

dyd roon a newe fownde waye. 
Thy parentes so, thy soons, thy lande 

repayryng home to see, 
665 Breake out, and lowest bonde of thyngs 

out bryngyng thens with thee, 
And what soeuer greedy age 

in all these long yeares race 
Hath hyd, shewe foorth, & ghosts that haue 
670 forgotte theyr former case, 

And people vp before thee dryue 

that fearefull are of lyght. 
Unworthy spoyles for thee they are, 

yf thou but bryng to syght 
675 What bydden is. great things, but farre 

to muche J speake for me, 
Unwotyng of myne owne estate. 

when shall J happe to see, 
The day when thee, and thy ryght hande, 
680 J maye embrace agayne, 

And slowe returnes, nor yet of me 

once myndefull, may complayne ? 
To thee for this O guyde of godds, 

vntamed bulls shall bryng 
685 Theyr hundred neckes : to thee O queene 
of frutes on earthe that spryng 


Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [228] 

Jle gyue the secret sacriiyce : 

to thee with muche fayth loe 
Long fyre brandes at Eleusis towne 
690 full sylent wyll J throe. 

Then to my brethern shall J thynke 

to bee restoarde agayne 
Theyr sowles, and eke hymselle alyue 

and guydyng of his rayne 
6g5 My father for to flouryshe yet. 

yf any greater myght 
Doo kepe thee shette, we followe thee : 

with thy returne to syght 
Defende vs all, or els to hell 
700 drawe downe vs all to thee. 

Thou shalt vs drawe, no god shall rayse 

vs vp that broken bee. 


M E G A R A . 


yo5 ^-^ Faythfull fellowe of our bloude, 

with chaste true faythfulnes 
The bridebed keeping, and the sonns 
of haughty Hercules, 
Conceyue in mynde some better thyngs, 
710 and take good harte to thee : 
He wyll come home, as after all 
his labours woonteth hee, 


[226] Hercu. sur. of Sen. 

Of more renowne. MEG. what wretches do 

moste chiefly wyshe of all, 
7i5 They soone beleue. AM Nay what thei feare 

to muche least it may fall, 
They thynke it neuer may bee shoonde, 

nor rydde by remedy. 
MEG. Beleefe is ready styll to dreade 
720 the woorser myserye. 

Depe drownde, & whellmde, & farthermore 

with all the worlde full lowe 
Oppressed downe, what waye hath he 

to lyght agayne to goe ? 
725 AM. What way J pray you had he then 

when through the burnyng coste, 
And tumblyng after maner of 
the troubled sea vp toste 
He went by sands : and freate that twysc 
73o with ebbe away doothe slyppe, 
And twyse vpflowe : and when alone 

with his forsaken shyppe, 
Fast caught he stucke in shallowe foordes 

of shelfye Syrtes sande, 
735 And (nowe his shyppe on grounde) dyd passe 

through seas a foote to lande? 
MEG. Jniurious fortune vertue most 

of men moste stoute and strong 
Doothe seldome spare : no man alyue 
740 Hymselfe in safetie long 


Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [227] 

To peryls great and daungers may 

so often tymes out caste. 
Whome chaunce doothe often ouerslippe, 

the same yt fyndes at laste. 
745 But cruell loe, and greeuous threats 

euen bearyng in his face, 
And suche as he of stomacke ys, 

doothe come euen suche of pace, 
Prowde Lycus who the sceptors shakes 
75o in hande of other kyng, 

The plentuous places of the towne 

of Thebes gouernyng, 
And euery thyng aboute the whyche 

with fertyle soyle dooth goe 
755 Sloape Phocis, and what euer doothe 

Jsmenus ouerfloe, 
What euer thyng Cithaeron seethe 

with haughty toppe and hye, 
And slender Jsthmos yle, the whyche 
760 betweene two seas dooth lye. 

Lycus , Megara , 

Ot J of natiue countrey bowres 

Possesse the auncient ryght 
765 Unworthy hey re, nor yet to me 

are noble men of myght, 


[228J Hercu. fur. oi Sen. 

The grandfathers, nor stocke renownde 

with titles hye of name, 
But noble vertue : who so boastes 
770 of kynred whence he came, 

Of others vertue makes his vawnte. 

but gotte with fearefull hande 
My sceptors are obtaynde : in swoorde 

dothe all my safety stande. 
775 What thee thou wottst agaynst the wyll 

of cytesyns to get, 
The bryght drawne sworde must it defende. 

in forayne countrey set 
No stable kyngdome is. But one 
780 my pompe and princely myght 
May ratifye, once ioynde to me 
with regall torche full bryght, 
And chambers Megara : of stocke 

of suche nobilitee 
785 Let vpstarte state of myne take shape. 

J doo not thynke that shee 
Refuse it wyll, or in the bedde 

with me despyse to lye. 
But yf with proude vnbrydled mynde 
790 shee stubberne doo denye, 

Then quyght J purpose to destroye 

the house of Hercules. 
The hate of men wyll then my pryde, 
and peoples speache oppres. 


Hercul. fur. of Sen. [229] 

7g5 Chicle knacke of kyngdome is to bearc 

Thy subiects hates eche one. 
Lets proue her then, chaunce gyuen hath 

To vs a place alone. 
For she her head in tblde of vayle 
800 full saddc and wo fully 

Enwrapt, the gods that are her guydes 

for succour stands faste by, 
And at the syde of her doothe leane 

Alcides father trewe. 
8o5 MEG. What thyng dothe this destroier of 

our stockc, agayne a ncwe 
Prepare? what proueth he ? LY. O queene 

That name renowned hye 
And title takste of regall stocke, 
810 full gentle and easyly 

A lyttle while receyue and heare 
my woords with pacient eare. 
Jf alwayes men eternall hates 

shoulde one to th other beare, 
8i5 And rage beegoon, out of the harte 

shoulde neuer fall awaye, 
But th happy still shoulde armour holde 

th unhappye styll obnye, 
Then shall the battayles nothyng leaue : 
820 with wyde fieldes then the lande 
Shall lye vntyllde, with vnderlayde 
to housen I yry brande 


[>3o] Hercul. fur. of Sen. 

Then ashes deepe shall oucrwhelme 

the buried people all. 
825 Expedient is to conquerour 

to wyshe that peace befall : 
To conquerde needefull. partener of 

the kyngdome come to me : 
Letts ioyn our mynds, take here this pledge 
83o of fay the and truthe to thee : 

My ryght hand touchc. Why whishtest thou 

with cruell face and moode ? 
MEG. Shoulde J abyde, that J the hande 

sprinkte with my fathers bloode, 
835 Shoulde touche and double death enbrewde 

of bothe my bretherne ? naye 
Fyrst shall sonne ryse extinguish* 1 quyght, 

And weste shall bryng the daye : 
Fyrst failhfull peace betweenc the snowes 
840 and fyres there shall bee tryde, 
And Scylla shall t Ausonius fyrste 

ioyne his Sicilyan syde, 
And fyrst, the flecyng floude that with 
swyfte turnes of course doothe flowe 
846 Euripus with Euboik waue 

shall stand full styll and slowe. 
My father th empire, brethern, howsc, 

Thou haste me cleare berefte 
My countrey to : what may bee more ? 
85o one thyng to me is lefte, 

J6 2 Then 

Hercul. Fur. of Sen. [281 

Then brother, lather, kyngdome, house, 

that deerer is to me 
The hate of thee : the whyche to me 

with people tor to bee 
855 Jn commune, woe J am : howe greate 

ys myne allonely parte ? 
Rule on lull proude, beare vp lull hyc 

thy sprights and haughty harte : 
Yet god the prowde behynde theyr backes 
860 dothe Ibllowe them to \vreake. 

J knoxve the Thebane kyngdomes. What 

shoulde J the mothers speake, 
Bothe suffryng, and aduentryng gylts ? 

what double myschefe donne ? 
865 And myxed name of spouse at once, 

of father and of sonne ? 
What bretherns double tents ? or what 

as many roages also ? 
The mother prowde of Tantalls broode 
870 congealde in mournyng lo, 

And sory stone yet flowes with teares 

in Phrygian Sipylye. 
Hymselfe lykewyse erectyng vp 

his skaled head awrye, 
875 Euen Cadmus measuryng throughout 

th JUyrian landes in flyght, 
Behynde hym lefte of body drawne 
long slymye marks in syght. 

J6 3 All 

[232] Hercul. Fur. of Sen. 

All these examples wayte for thee : 
880 rule thou as lykes thy wyll, 

Whyle thee our kyngdoms woonted fates 

doo call and ofte hapte yll. 
LY. Goe to, these fierce and furious woords 

thou woman madde refrayne : 
885 And imperies of princes learne 

of Hercles to sustayne. 
Though J the sceptors gotten by 

the force of warre doo beare 
Jn conquryng hande, and all doo rule 
890 without the lawe his feare 

Whiche armes subdue, a fewe words yet 

to thee nowe speake J shall 
For this my cause : thy father dyd 

in blouddy battayle fall : 
8g5 Thy bretherne fell : the weapons keepe 

no measurable staye. 
For neyther easyly tempred bee, 

nor yet repressed maye 

The drawne swoordes yre : the battels doth 
900 the bloude delyght out shed. 

But he yet for his kyngdome fought, 

we all togyther led 
With wycked luste : yet th ende of warre 

ys nowe compHiyned loe, 
cp5 And not the cawse. but nowe let all 
remembrance therof goe : 

4 when 

Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [233] 

When conquerour hath weapons left, 

the conquerds parte shoulde bee 
To leaue his hates. Not J that thou 
gio with lowly bended knee 

Me raignyng worshyp shouldst, require : 

Euen this dooth me delight, 
That thou thy myseries doost beare 
with mynde so stoute vpright. 
Ql5 Thou for a kyng a spouse arte meete, 

letts ioyne our bedds anone. 
MEG. A treblng cold doth run throughout 

my bloudlesse lyms eche one. 
What heinous thing comes to myne eares ? 
920 J fearde not then at all, 

When (all peace broake) the noyse of war re 

dyd by the citie wall 
Resounde about, J bare all that 

vnfearefully to see, 
925 J feare the weddyng chambers : nowe 

J captyue seeme to mee. 
Let heauy chaynes my body greeue, 

and eke with hunger long 
Let lyngryng death be slowly brought, 
g3o yet shall no force full strong 

My truthe subdue : for euen thyne owne 

Alcides wyll J dye. 

LY. Doth then thy husband drownd in hell 
geue thee this stomacke hye ? 


[234] Hercul. fur. of Soneca. 

g35 MEG. Thehells alowe he toucht, that he 

The heyght agayne myght get. 
LY. The heauy payse oppresseth hym 

Of all the earthe full great. 
MEG. He with no burdeyn shall be prest, 
940 that heauen it selfe sustaynde. 

LV. Thou shalt be forst. ME. He wots not how 

to dye, that is constraynde. 
LY. Speake, what may rather J prepare 

then weddyng newe for thee 

945 More royall gyft ? MEG. Thyne owne death 

or ells the death of mee. (els, 

LY. Thon shalt mad woman dye. MEG. J shal 

then to my husbande go. 
LY. More then my sceptors is to thee 
g5o a seruant loued so ? 

MEG. Howe many hath this seruant slayne 

of kyngs with handye stroake ? 
LY. Why dothe he yet a kyng then seme, 

and styll sustayne his yoake ? 
955 MEG. Take once away the harde behests, 

whats vertue then at laste ? 
LY. Dooste thou it vertue counte, to bee 

to beasts, and monsters caste ? 
MEG. Tis vertues part, to tame the thyngs, 
960 that all men quake to knowe. 

LY. Hym great thyngs braggyng, darknes 
of tartare presse full lowe. (deepe 


Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [235 1 

ME. There neuer may fro grownd to stars 

an easye passage be. 
g65 LY. Of whom begot, the housen then 

of godds through pearceth he ? 
AM. O wretched wyfe of Hercles great, 

thy woords a whyle now spare. 
My parte it is, the father of 
970 Alcides to declare, 

And his true stockc. yet after all 

of man so stoute as this 
So famous deedes, and after all 

Appeasde with hande of his 
975 What euer Titan rysen vp, 
Doothe see, orels at fall, 
And after all these monsters taemde, 

and Phlegrey sprynkled all 
With wycked blonde, and after godds 
980 defended all on hye, 

Js not his father yet well knowne ? 

Or Joue doo we beelye ? 
Beleeue it yet by Junoes hate. 

LY. why dooste thou sclawnder Joue ? 
985 No mortall kynred euer maye 

bee myxte with heauen aboue. 
AM. To many of the godds in skyes 

is this a common trade. 
LY. But were they euer seruantes yet, 
990 before they godds were made ? 


[23 6J Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

AM. Of Dclos yle the shepherde loe 

the flocks ofPhcrcy fed. 
LY. But through all coasts he wandred not 

abroade as banyshecl. 

Q()5 AM. \Vhome straying mother fyrst brought 
in wandryng lande to syght. (foorth 

LY. Yet Phoebus dyd no monsters feare, 

or beasts of cruell myght. 
AM. First dragon with his blood embrewde 
iom^ the shafts of Phoebus loe. 

Howe greeuous ylls cucn yet full yong 

he bare, doo vow not knoe ? 
Fro mothers wombe the babe out throwne 

with lyghtnyng flame from hye, 
ioo5 Fuen next his lyghtnyng father stoode 

foorthwith aboue in skye. 
What ? he hym selfe that guydes the starrs, 

and shakes the cloudcs at wyll, 
Dyd not that infant lurke in denne 
lolo of hollowe caued hyll ? 

The byrthes so great full troublous price 

to haue loe allways ought : 
And euer to be borne a God, 

with coste full greate is bought. 
ioi5 LY. Whome thou a myser seeste, thou mayst 

Knowe hym a man to bee. 
AM. A myser hym denye ye maye, 
whome stoute of harte ye see. 


Hercu. fur. of Sen. [287] 

Lv. Call we hym stoute, from shoulders hye 
1020 of whom the lyon throwne 

A gyfte for mayden made, and eke 

his clubbe from hande fell downe, 
And paynted syde with purple vveede 

dyd shyne that he dyd weare ? 
IO25 Or may we hym call stoute of harte, 

whose staryng lockes of heare 
\Yith ointmet flowde? who hfids renownde 

and knowne by prayses hye 
To sownde vnmeete for any man 
io3o of tymber dyd applye, 

With barbarous mytar cloasyng in 

his forhed rownde about ? 
AM The tender Bacchus dyd not blushe 

abroade to haue layde out 
lo35 His brayded heares, nor yet with hande 

full softe the Thyrsus lyght 
For to haue shooke, what tyme that he 

with pace vnstoute in syght 
His long traynde barbarous garmet drew 
1040 with golde full fayre to see. 
Styll vertue after many woorkes 
is woont releaste to bee. 
LY. Of this the house of Euritus 

destroyde doothe wytnesse beare, 
1046 And virgins flockes that brutyshly 
by hym oppressed weare. 

r NO 

[238] Hercul. fur. of Sen. 

No Juno dyd commawnde hym this, 

Nor none Eurystheus loe. 
But these in deede his owne woorks are. 
io5o AM. Yet all ye doo not knoe. 
His woorke it is with weapons of 

his owne hande vanquyshed 
Bothe Eryx, and to Eryx ioynde 

Anteus Lybian ded : 
io55 And aultars whiche with slaughter of 

the straungers flowyng fast, 
Busyris well deserued bloode 

lykewyse haue droonke at last. 
His deede it is, that he that met 
1060 the wownde, and swoorde is slayne 
Constraynde to suffre deathe before 

those other Geryons twayne. 
Nor one allonely Geryon dothe 

with one hande conquerde lye. 
io65 Thow shalt among these be : whych yet 

with none adulterye 
Haue wedlocke hurte. LY. What is to Joue 

to kyng is leefull thyng : 
To Joue thou gauste a wyfe, thou shalt 
1070 nowe geue one to a kyng. 

And euen of thee shee shall it learne 

to bee a thyng not newe, 
Her husband euen approuyng it 
the better man t ensewe. 

r 2 But 

Hercu. sur. of Sen. [289] 

1075 But yf she stubberne to be matcht 

with me denye it styll, 
Then euen by force a noble chylde 

Of her beget J wyll. 

MEG. O Creons ghosts, and all ye godds 
1080 ol th howse of Labdacus, 

And weddyng torches blasyng bryght, 

of wycked Oedipus, 
To this my weddyng geue ye nowe 

our woonted destenies. 
ioS5 Now, now ye bloody daughters all 

of Egyptes kyng lykewyse, 
Ree here whose hands defyled are 
with so muche bloude out spy It : 
One daughter lacks of Danaus, 
Kxp J wyll fyll vp the gylt. 

Lv. Because that stubburnely thou dooest 

refuse my weddyng so, 
And fearste a kyng, thou shalt know what 

the sceptors nowe maye do. 
logS Enbrace thyne aultars, yet no god 

shall euer take away 
Thee from my handes : no not although 

with worlde vpturned, may 
Alcides victor yet agayne 
1 100 to gods aboue returne. 

The woods on heapes togyther cast, 
let all their temples burne 

f 3 Euen 

[240) Hercul. Fur. of Sen. 

Kuen throwne vpon theyr heds : his wyfe, 

and all his flocke at laste 
no5 With vnderlayed fyre, let one 

wood pyle consume and waste. 
AM. This only bowne J father of 

Alcides aske of thee, 
Whiche well may me beseeme to crane, 
1 1 10 that J fyrst slayne may bee. 

LV. Who all appoynts with present deathe 

to haue theyr punyshment, 
He tyrant wotts not how to bee : 
more sundry greeues inuent. 
Hi5 Restrayne the wretched man from death, 

commaunde that th happy dye. 
J, whyle with beames preparde to burne 

the pyle encreaseth hye, 
Wyll hym with vowyng sacrifyce 
1 120 that rules the seas entreate. 

AM. Oh chiefest powre of godds, and oh 

of heauenly thyngs so great 
The guyde, and parent eke, with whose 

throwne thunderboltes doo shake 
1 125 All thyngs humane throughout the worlde, 

of kyng so cruell slake 
The wycked hande : but why doo J 

to godds in vayne thus cr} r e ? 
Where euer thou be heare me soon. 
Il3o why starte so sodaynlye 


Hercu. fur. of Sen. [241] 

The temples thus with mouyng shakte ? 

Why roareth out the grownde ? 
The noyse of hell from bottome deepe 

byneathe hath made a sownde : 
Ii35 We herde are, loe it is the sownde 

of Hercules his pace. 


Q fortune hatyng men of stoutest brest, 
howe yll rewards dost thou to good deuyde ? 

1140 Kurystheus raynes at home in easye rest, 
Alcmenaes sonne in euery battayle tryde, 
To mosters turns his hand y skies did stay : 
and cruell neckes cuts of of hydous snake, 
And apples bryngs fro systers mokt away, 

1145 whe once to slepe his watcheful eies betake, 
Did dragon set ryche fruite to ouersee. 
he past the Scythia bowres y stray abroade, 
And those that in their coutreis strangers be 
and hardened top of frosen freat he troade, 

il5o And sylent sea with banks ful dume about, 
the waters hard wat ther their floods to flo. 
And where before y ships full sails spred out 
is worne a pathe for Sarmates wyld to go. 
The sea doth stand to moue in course again, 

Ii55 now apt to beare the ship, now horsmen bold 
The quene y there doth oner wydows rayn, 
y girds her wobe \v girth of glittryng gold, 


[242] Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

Her noble spoile from body drawne hath she 
cSt shield, & bands of brest as white as snowe, 

1160 Acknowlegyng the conquerour with knee, 
w what hope drawne to hedlog hell alowe, 
So bolde to passe the vnreturned wayes 
sawst thou Proserpines rayne of Sicylye ? 
With southern wid, or western ther no seas 

n65 aryse with waue and swellyng surges hye. 
Not there of Tyndars stocke y double brood 
two Starrs the feareful ships do aide & guide, 
with gulph ful blak doth stad y slothful flood 
and whe pale deth with gredy teeth so wide 

1170 Unnubred natios hath set down to sprights 
with one boate man all ouer feryed bee. 
God graut thou maist of hel subdue y rights 
And vnreuoked webs of systers three. 
There kyng of many people raigneth hee, 

1175 who whe thou didst w Nestors Pylos fight, 
Pestiferous hads applide to matche w thee 
& weapon bare with triple mace of might : 
And prickt with litle wound he fled awaye, 
and lorde of death hymselfe did feare to dye. 

1180 Breake fate by force : &let the syght of daye 
to sory sprights of hell apparent lye, 
and porche vnpast shew way to gods aboue. 
the cruel lords of sprights with plesant song 
Andhuble bown ful wel could Orphe 9 moue 

n85 while he Eurydicen them craues among. 


Hercu. fur. of Sen. [243! 

The art y drew woods, byrds, & stones at wil 
which made delay to llouds of flitting flight 
At soud wherof the sauage beasts stood styll 
with tunes vnwot doth ghosts of hel delight 

1 190 And cleerer dothe resounde in darker place : 
iS: wepe with teares did gods of cruell brest : 
And they which fautes with to seuere a face 
do seeke, & former gylt of ghosts out wrest : 
The Thracian daughters wails Kurydice. 

Iiy5 for her the iudges weeping sitte also. 

We coquerd ar, chief kyng of death said the 
to godds (but vnder this codition) goe, 
Behynd thy husbands back kepe y thy way, 
looke thon not backe thy wyle before to see, 

1200 Tha the to sight of gods hath brought y day 
and gate of Spartane Tsenare present bee. 
Loue hates delay, nor coulde abyde so long, 
his gyfte, he loste, while he desires the syght. 
The place y coulde be thus subdewd w song 

I2o5 that place may soone be ouercom by myght. 


Comfortable guyde of lyght, 
1210 fflj]^ and honour of the skye, 

That copassyng both hemyspheres 
with flamyng charyot hye 


[244] Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

Thy radiant head to ioyfull landes 

about the worlde doste bryng, 

I2i5 Thou Phoebus pardon geue to me, 

yf any vnlawfull thyng 
Thyne eyes haue scene : (commanded) J 

haue here to lyght out fette 
The secretes of the worlde : and thow 
1220 of heauen o guyder grette, 

And parent eke, in flashe out throwne 

of lyghtnyng hyde thy syght. 
And thou that gouernest the seas 

with seconde sceptors myght, 
1225 To bottome synke of deepest waues : 

who so from hye dothe see, 
And dreadyng yet with cowntnance newe 

the erthe defylde to bee, 
Let hym from hens turne backe his syght, 
I23o and face to heauen vpholde, 

These mostrous syghts to shoon : let t\vain 

this mischiefe great beholde, 
He who it brought, and she that badde. 

for paynefull toyles to me, 
1235 And labours long, not all the earthe 

thowght wyde ynough may be 
For Junoes hate : thyngs vncome to 

of all men J dyd see, 
Unknowne to sonne, and spaces wyde 
1240 that darke and shadefull bee 


Hercu. fur. of Sen. [246! 

Whiche woorser poale geeues dyrer Joue 

to raigne and rule thervn. 
And yet } - f thyrde place pleasyd more 

for me to enter yn, 
J there coulde raigne. the Chaos of 

eternall nyght of hell, 
And woorse then nyght, the dole-full godds 

J haue that there doo dwell, 
And fates subdude, the deathe contcmnde 
i25o J am returnde to lyght. 

What yet remaynes ? J sawe and showde 

the spryghts of hell to syght : 
Appoynte, yf ought be more, doste thou 

my hands so long permyt 
1255 Juno to ceasse ? what thyng bydst thou 

to be subdued yet? 
But why doo cruell sowldyars holde 

the holy temples wvde ? 
And dreade of armour sac-red porche 
I2(x) beset on euery syde ? 

Amphitryon, Hercules, 

Oo eyther ells my great desyres 
I I delude and mocke myne eyes ? 
1265 Or hath the tamer of the worlde 
and greekes renowne lykewyse, 

<3 For 

[246] Hercul. fur. of Sen. 

Forsooke the silent howse, besette 

with cloude full sadde to see ? 
Js this my sonne ? my membres loe 
1270 for ioy amased bee. 

Oh sonne, the sure, and sauegarde late 

of Thebes in mysery, 
See J thy bodye true in deede ? 

or els deceyude am j 
1275 Mockt with thy spright ? art thou the same ? 

these brawnes of armes J knowe, 
And shoulders, and thy noble handes 

From body hye that growe. 
HER. Whens (father) happs this vglynes, 
1280 And why in mournyng cladde 

Js thus my wyfe ? ho we happs it that 

with fylthe so fowle bestadde 
My chyldren are ? what myserye 

doothe thus my howse oppresse ? 
1285 AM. Thy father in lawe is slayne : the kyng- 

clome Lycus doothe possesse. 
Thy sonnes, thy parent, and thy wyfe 

to deathe pursueth he. 

HER. Ungratefull land, clothe no man come 
1290 that will an ayder be 

Of Hercles howse ? and this behelde 

so greate and heynous wrong 
Hath th ayded worlde ? but why weare J 
the daye in playnt so long ? 

<B 2 Let 

Hercu. sur. of Sen. [247] 

I2g5 Let th enmy dye : and this renowne 

let strengthe obtayne in haste, 
And of Alcides enmyes all 
let Lycus be the laste. 
J dryuen am to goe to shedde 
i3oo the blood of enmye out. 

Watche Theseu, that no sodayne strength 

beeset vs heere about. 
Me warres requyre. enbracyng yet 

deferre O father deare, 
i3o5 And wyfe deferre them : Lycus shall 

to hell this message beare 
That] am no we returnde. THE. Shake of 

O queene out of thyne eyes 
This weepyng face, and thou sens that 
i3io thy sonne is safe lykewyse 

Thy droppyng teares refrayne : yf yet 

J Mercies euer knewe, 
Then Lycus shall for Creon pave 

the paynes to hym full dewe. 
i3i5 Tis lyght, he shall : he doothe : and thats 

to lyght, he hathe it doone. 
AM. Now god that can them bring to passe, 

speede well our wyshes soone, 
And come to helpe our weary woes. 
i32o C) noble harted mate 

Of my stoute sonne, of his renowne 
declare vs all the rate : 

<3 3 How 

[24.8J Hercul. Fur. of Sen. 

Howe long a waye doothe leade to place 

where sory sprights doo dwell, 
1325 And howe the harde and heauy bonds 

the dogge hathe borne of hell. 
THE. The deedes y doost constrayne to tell, 

that euen to mynde secure 
Are drcdfull yet and horryble, 
i33o scant yet the truste is sure 
Of vitall ayre, sore blunted is 
the sharpnesse of my syght, 
And dulled eyes doo scant sustayne 

to see th vnwoonted lyght. 
1 335 AM. Yet Theseus throwghly ouercome 

what euer feare remaynes 
Jn bosome ddepe, nor doo thou not 

of best frute of thy paynes 
Beguylde thy selfe. What thyng hath once 
1340 to surfre beene a care, 

To haue remembred it is sweete. 

those dredfull happs declare. 
THE. All ryght of worlde, and thee lykewise 

J pray that bearste the rayne 
13^5 Jn kyngdome wyde, and thee, for whoine 

All rownde about in vayne 
Thy mother throughout ^Etna sowght, 

that secret thyngs alowe 
And hydde in grownde, it freely may 
i35o bee lawfull for to showe. 

<3 4 The 

Hercu. fur. of Sen. [249! 

The Spartane lande a noble toppe 

of hyll aduaunceth hye, 
Where Taenarus with woodes full thycke 

the sea dootho ouerlvi . 
1 355 The house of hatefull Ditis here 

his mowthe doothe open sotte, 
And rocke of hyll aboue doothe gape, 

and with a dennc full grettc 
A huge and gapyng clefte of grownde 
i36o with iawes full wyde doothe lye, 
And way full broade to people all 

dothe spreddc to passe therby. 
Not straight with darkenes dothe bcgynnc 

The way that blyndes the syght. 
i365 A lyttle lyngiyng bryghtnes lo 

behynde of late lefte lyght, 
And doubtfull glyttryng yet of sonno 

afflicted falles alowe, 
And mocks the syght : suche lyght is \voont 

/ndoubtedly to showe 
The dawne of day, or twylyght els 

at edge of euenyng tyde. 
From hens to hollowe places voydc 

Are loaste the spaces wyde, 
To whiche needes peryshe must all kynde 

of men that once are throwne. 
Nor it a labour is to goe, 

the waye it selfe leades downe. 


[25o| Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

As ofte the shypps ngaynst theyr wyllos 
J.tfx> clothe tosse the swellyng surge, 

So downewarde dothe that hedlong way, 

and greedy Chaos vrge : 
And backe agayne to drawe thy pace 

thee neuer doo permytte 
i385 The sprights who what they catch hold fast. 

alowe within cloothe flytte 
Jn chcinell wyde with sylent foorde 

the quiet lake oflethe. 

And cares dothe rydde : and that there may 
i3o/> to scape agayne from deathe 

Xo meane be made, with many turnes 

and w r }*ndyngs eucry waye 
Isoldes in his floode. in suche sorte as 

with \\-aue vnsure doothe play 
i3g5 Marauder wandryng vp and downe, 

And yeldes hymselfe vnto, 
And dowbtfull stands, yf he toward banke, 

or backe to spryng may go. 
The foule and fylthy poole to see 
1400 of slowe Cocytus lyes. 

On th one the grype, on th other syde 

the mournefull howlet cryes, 
And sadde lucke of th unhappy Strix 

lykew} r se resoundeth there. 
1405 Full vglye lye in shady bowes 

blacke lockes of lothsome heare, 


Hercu. fur. of Sen. |25i~| 

Where Taxus tree dothe ouerlcane, 
whiche holdeth slouthfull sleepe, 
And hunger sadde \vith famysht iawe 
1410 that lyes his place to keepe, 

And shame to late doth hyde his face 

that knowes what crimes it hathe, 
Bothe feare, and quakyng, funerall, 

and frettyng ragyng wrathe, 
I4l5 And mournyng dyre dothe followe on, 

and tremblyng pale disease, 
And boystrous battailes set with swoordr : 

and hydde beyonde all theaso 
Dothe slouthfull age his lyngryng pace 
1420 healpe foorth with stafie in hande. 
AM. Of corne and wyne in hell alowe 

is any fertile lande ? 
THE No ioyful meades do there bring foorth 

with face so greene and fayre, 
1425 Nor yet with gentyll Zephyrus 

wagges ripened corne in th ayre. 
Nor any tree hath there suche bowes 

as doe bryng apples out. 
The barrayne compasse of deepe soyle 
I43o full fylthye lyes about, 

And withred with eternall drought 

the lothsome lande dothe waste 
And bonde full sadde of thyngs, and of 
the worllde the places laste : 


[252] Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

1435 The ay re vnmoued stands, and nyght 

sytts there full darke to see 
Jn slouthfull worlde, all thynges by dreade 

full horrible there bee. 
And euen farrc worse then deathe it selfe, 
1440 is place where deathe doothe byde. 

AM. "What? he that doth those places darke 

with regall sceptor gwyde, 
Jn what se:ite sette, dot he he dispose 

and rule those peoples light? 
1445 THE. A place there is in turnc obscure 

of Tartarus from syght, 
Which myst full thicke with feareful shade 

doothe holde and ouergoe. 
From hens a double parted streame 
1460 from one wellspryng doothe floe : 

The tone, muche lyke a standyng poole 

(by this the godds doo sweare) 
The whiche the sacred Stygian lake 

with silent floude doothe beare : 
1455 The tother fierce with tumulte great 

is dra wen hys course to goe, 
And Acheron with ragyng floode 

the stones dryues to and froe 
Unsaylable. with double foorde 
1460 is rounoe about besette 

Agaynst it Ditis palayce dyre, 
and mansyon howse full grctte 


Hercu. fur. of Sen. [253] 

Jn shadefull woode is couered : 

from wide denne here the posts 
1465 And thresholds of the tyrant hang, 

this is the walke of ghosts : 
This of his kyngdomeis the gate : 

a felde about it goes, 

\Yhere syttyng with a countnaunce proude 
1470 abroade he doothe dispose 
Newe sowles. a cruell maiestie 

is in the god to knowe : 
A frownyng forhead, whyche yet of 

his brethren beares the showe, 
1475 And so great stocke : there is in hym 

of Joue the very face, 
But when he lyghtens : and great parte 

of cruell kvngdomes place, 
Js he hymselfe the lorde therof : 
[480 the syght of who me dothe feare, 

What euer thyng is fearde. AM. Js fame 

in this poynt trewe, that there 
Suche rygours are, and gyltie ghosts 

of men that there remayne 
1485 Forgetfull of theyr former faute, 

haue their deserued payne ? 
Who is the rector there of ryght, 

and Judge of equitye ? 
THE. Not onely one extorter out 
1490 of fautes in seate sette hye 

t> The 

[2541 Hercu. fur. Sen. 

The iudgements late to tremblyng sowles 

doothe there by lotte awarde : 
Jn one appointed Judgement place 

is Gnossian Minos harde, 
1496 And in an other Radamanthe : 

This cryme doothe Aeac heare. 
What eche man ones hath doone, he feeles : 

and guylt to th author theare 
Returnes, and th hurtfull with their owne 
i5oo example punnysht bee. 

The bluddy cruell captaynes J 

in pryson shette dyd see, 
And backe of tyrant impotent 

euen with hys peoples hande 
i5o5 All torne and cutte. what man of myght 

with fauour leades his lande, 
And of his owne lyfe lorde reserues 

his hurtlesse handes to good, 
And gently doothe his empyre guyde 
i5lo without the thyrst of blood, 

And spares his sowle, he hauyng long 

ledde foorthe the lyngryng dayes 
Of happy age, at lengthe to heauen 
doothe eyther fynde the wayes, 
i5i5 Or ioyfull happy places ells 
of fayre Elysius woode. 
Thou then that here muste be a iudge 
abstayne from man his bloode, 

t) 2 Who 

Hercu. fur. of Sen. [255] 

Who so thou bee that raygnest kyng : 
i520 our gyltes are there acquytte 

Jn greater wyse. AM. Doothe any place 

prescript of lymite shytte 
The gyltie ghosts, and as the fame 

reportes, dothe cruell payne 
i525 The wycked men make tame that in 

eternall bondes remayne? 
THE. Jxion rollde on whyrlyng wheele 

is tost and turned hye : 
l. T ppon the necke of Sisyphus 
i53o the myghty stone dooth lye. 

Amyd the lake with thyrsty iawes 

ollde Tantalus theryn 
Pursues the waues, the water streame 

doothe wette and washe his chyn, 
1 535 And when to hym no we ofte deceyude 

it doothe yet promyse make, 
Straight flytts the Hood : the frute at mowth 

his famyne doothe forsake. 
Eternall foode to fleeyng fowle 
1540 doothe Tityus harte geue styll : 

And Danaus daughters doo in vayne 

theyr water vessells fyll. 
The wycked Cadmus daughters all 

go ragyng euery waye : 
And there doothe greedy rauenyng byrde 
the Phiney tables frlye. 

* 3 Am. 

[256] Hercul. Fur. of Sen. 

AM. Nowe of my sonne declare to me 

the noble woorthy fyght. 
Bryngs he his wyllyng vnkles gyfte, 
i55o or Plutoes spoyles to syght ? 

THE. A dyre and dredfull stone there ys 

the slouthfull foordes fast bye, 
Where sluggysh freate with waue astoond 

full dull and slowe doothe lye : 
1 555 This lake a dredfull fellowe keepes 

bothe of attyre and syght, 
And quakyng ghosts doothe ouer beare 

An aged vgly wyght : 
His bearde vnkempt, his bosome fowle 
i56o deformde in fylthy wyse 

A knotte byndes in, full lothesome stande 

in head his hollowe eyes : 
He fery man doothe steare aboute 

his boate with his long ore. 
i565 He dryuyng nowe his lyghtned shippe 

of burden towarde the shore, 
Repaires to waues : and then his way 

Alcides doothe requyre, 
The flocke of ghosts all geuyng place : 
1570 Alowde cries Charon dyre, 

What way attemptest thou so bolde ? 

thy hastenyng pace here staye. 
But natheles Alcmenaes sonne 
abydyng no delaye, 

t> 4 Euen 

Hercu. fur. of Sen. [267] 

Euen with his owne poale bette he doothe 

lull tame the shypman make, 
And clymes the shippe : the barke that could 

lull many peoples take, 
Dyd yelde to one : he satte, the boate 
i58o more heauy lyke to breake 

With shyueryng ioyntes on eythersyde 

the lethey floode doothe leake. 
Then tremble all the monsters huge, 

the Centaures fierce of myght, 
l5iS5 And Lapythes, kyndled with muche wyne 

to war res and blouddy fyght. 
The lowest chanelles seekyng out 

of Stygian poole a downe, 
His lerney labour sore affright 
l5go his fertyle heddes doothe drowne. 
Of greedy Ditis after this 

doothe then the house appere. 
The fierce and cruell Stygian dogge 

doothe fraye the spirites there, 
i5y5 The whiche with great and roaryng sounde 

his hedds vpshakyng three, 
The kyngdome keepes. his vgly head 

with fylthe full fowle to see 
The serpentes lycke : his heares be fowle 
1600 with vypers sette amonS, 

And at his crooked wrested tayle 
doothe hysse a dragon longe : 


[258] Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

Like yre to snape. when hym he wyst 

his pace that way to take, 
i(x>5 His bristle heares he lyfteth vp 
with fierce vp bended snake : 
And sownde sent out he soone perceyues 

in his applyed eare, 

Who euen the sprights is woont to sent. 
1610 as soone as stoode more neare 

The sonne of Joue, the doubtfull dogge 

strayte couched downe in denne, 
And eche of them dyd feare. beholde 

with dolefull barkyng then 
i6i5 The places dumme he makes a dred, 

the threatnyng serpent stoute 
Through all the fieldes aboute dooth hysse : 

the bawlyng noyse sent out 
Of dredfull voyce from triple mouthe, 
1620 euen spryghts that happy bee 

Dothe make afrayde. from lefte syde then 

strayte way vndoeth hee 
The cruell iawes, and lyons head 

once slayne in Cleon fielde 
i625 Agaynst hym setts, and couer doothe 

hymselfe with myghty shielde. 
And bearyng in his conqueryng hande 

a sturdy clubbe of oke, 
Nowe here, nowe there he rolleth hym 
i63o about with often stroke : 


Hercu. fur. of Sen. [289] 

His strypes he doubles : he subdewde 

his threatcs asswaged all, 
And all his heds the weery dogge 

at once full lovve lette tall, 
i635 And quight out of the denne he rledde. 

full greatly feared (sette 
Jn regall throne) bothe kyng and queene, 

and badde hym to bee fette. 
And me lykewyse they gaue for gytte 
1640 to Hercles crauyng me. 

The monsters heauy neckes with hande 

then stroakyng downe all three, 
Jn lynked chayne he byndeth faste : 

forgettyng then his strengthe 
1645 The dogge the watchefull keeper of 
the kyngdome darke, at lengthe 
Laythe downe his eares full sore arfrayde : 

and sut fryng to be ledde, 
And eke acknowleging his lorde, 
ib5o folowyng with lowly hedde, 

With tayle that snakes theron doothe beare 

he bothe his sydes doothe smyght. 
But after that to Tsenare mouthe 

we came, and clearenes bryght 
i655 Had strooke his eyes of lyght vnknowne, 

good stomacke yet agayne 
He takes althowgh onse ouercome, 
and now the heauye chayne 


l26o| Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

He ragyng shakes : he had almost 
1660 his leader pluckt from place, 

And hedlong backwarde drawne to hell, 

and moued from his pace. 
And euen to my handes Hercles then 

his eies dyd backewarde caste, 
1665 We bothe with double ioyned strengthe 

the dogge out drawne at laste 
For anger woode, and battells yet 

attemptyng all in vayne, 
Brought vp to worlde. as soone as he 
1670 the cleere ayre sawe agayne, 

And spaces pure of bryght fayre poale 

had once behelde with eye, 
The nyght arose : his syght to grownde 

he turned by and by, 
1675 Caste downe his eyes, and hatefull daye 

foorthwith he put to flyght, 
And backewarde turnde away his lookc, 

And streyght with all hys myght 
To th erthe he falles : and vnderneathe 
1680 the shade of Hercles then 

He hyd his head, therwith there came 

a great resorte of men 
With clamour gladde, that dyd the bay 

about theyr forhedds bryng : 
i685 And of the noble Hercules 
deserued prayses syng. 




Hercu. fur. of Sen. [261] 


Urysthe^born w swiftned birth in hast, 
did bid to bottom of the worlde to go : 

1690 I /This oncly lackte of labours all at last, 
to spoyle the kyng of thyrdc estate also. 
The dongeons darke to enter ventred he, 
wher as y way to sprights far of doth bryng 
Full sadde, & woode so blacke & feard to be : 

i6g5 but full with flock full great him followyng. 
As great a prease as flocke in cities streetes, 
to see the playes of Theatre newe wrought : 
As great as at Eleus thundrer meetes, 
whe somcr fift y sacred game hath brought : 

1700 As gret as whe comes houre of loger night, 
and willyng quiet sleepes to bee extent, 
Holds equal Libra Phoebus chariots light, 
a sorte the secrete Ceres doo frequent, 
And fro theyr howsen left doo hast to cum, 

I7o5 the Atticke priestes the nyght to celebrate : 
Such heape is chast beneth by fields so dum. 
with age ful slow som taking forth their gate 
Full sad, and fvlld with life so long now led : 
some yet do runne the race of better yeares, 

1710 The virgins yet vnioynde to spowses bed, 

& yonglings eke on who grow yet no heares 

3 And 

[262 j Hercul. fur. of Sen. 

And infat lately taught his mothers name. 
To these alone, (that thei y les might feare) 
Js granted night to ease w ibreborne flame. 

I7l5 the rest full sad by darke doo wander theare : 
As is our inynde, when ones away is fled 
the lyght, when eche man sory feeles to bee 
Depe ouerwhelmd with all the erth his hed. 
thyck Chaos stands, & darknes fowle to see, 

1720 And colour yll of nyght, and slouthfull state 
of silent world, and diuers clowdes abowt. 
Let hoary age vs thyther bryng full late, 
no ma comes late to that, whence neuer out, 
Who once he is come, turne agayn he may. 

1725 to hast the hard and heuy fate what vayles ? 
This wadring heape in wide lads far away, 
shall go to ghosts : & al shall geue their sayles 
To slowe Cocytus. all is to thee enclynde, 
both what the fall, and rise of sonne doth see : 
Spare vs that cum, to the we deth ar signde : 
though thou be slow, our selfs yet hast do we. 
Fyrst houre, y gaue the lyfe, it loast againe. 

|O Thebes is come the ioyfull daye, 
your aulters touche ye humbyllye, 
1735 The fatte fayre sacrifices slaye. 

may cles myxte with men in cumpanye 
Let them in solemne flocks goe royle : 
and nowe with yoake layde downe let cease 
The tyllcrs of the fertyle soyle. 

3 2 Mude 


Hercu. fur. of Sen. [263] 

1740 Made is with handc of Hercles peace 

betweene the morne and Hespers glade, 

And where sonne holdyng myddle seate, 

dothe make the bodyes caste no shade. 

What euer grownde is ouerweate 
1745 with compasse long of seas abowght, 

Alcides labour taemde full well. 

he ouer foordes of Tartare browght 

Returnde appeased beeyng hell. 

there is remaynyng nowe no feare, 
I75o Nought lyes beyonde the hell to see. 

O preest thy staryng lockes of heare 

wrappe in with loued poplar tree. 

V The fourthe Acte. 

Hercules, Theseus, Amphi- 
1755 try on, Megara, 

Jth my reuegyng right hand slayn 

nowe Lycus loe the grownde 
with groueling face hath smit : the 
soeuer fellow fownde (who 

1760 Of tyrant was, partaker of 

his pay nes dyd also lye. 
Nowe to my father sacryfyce 

and godds victor wyll J , 
And aulters that deserue it, with 
1765 slayne offryngs reuerence. 

Thee, thee O mate of all my toyles 
J praye and my defence 

$3 O 

[264] Hercul. Fur. of Sen. 

O warrefull Pallas, in whose lefte hande 

thy cleare shielde Aegis shakes 
1770 Fierce thretes, w head that eche thyng stone 

that lookes vpon it makes. 
Let tamer of Lycurgus nowe, 

and of redde sea be heare, 
That poynte of speare with yuye greene 
17/5 in hande doothe couerde beare : 

And two godds powre, bothe Phoebus, and 

his syster too J praye, 
The syster meeter for her shaftes, 

but he on th harpe to playe : 
1780 And what soeuer brother ells 

of myne doothe dwell in skye, 
Xot of my stepdame brother, bryng 

ye hyther by and by 
Your plentuous flockes, what euer haue 
1785 all th Jndians frutes browght owt, 
And what sweete odours th Arabickes 

doo gette in trees abowt, 
To th aultars bryng : lette vapour iatte 

and fume smoke vp full hye, 
1790 Let rownde abowt the poplar tree 

my heares nowe bewtifye. 
Let th olyue bowe thee hyde with braunche 

accustomde in our lande 
Theseu : for foorthwith reuerence 
1795 the thundrer, shall my hande. 

3 4 The- 

Hercu. fur. of Sen. [26SJ 

THE. O godds the buylders of the towne, 

and whiche of dragon fell, 
The wylde woods denns, and noble wanes 

lykewyse of Dirces well, 
1800 And Tyrian house enhabite eke 

of straunger wandryng kvng. 
HER. Caste into fyres the frankencense. 

AM. Sonne fyrste thy handes flowyng 
with blouddy slaughter, and the deathe 
i8o5 of enmye puryfye. 

HER. Would god the blood of hatefull hed 

Euen vnto godds on hye 
J myght out shedde, for lycour loe 

more acceptable none 
1810 Myght th aulters stayne : nor sacrifice 

more ample any one 
Nor yet more plentyfull may bee 
To Joue aboue downe caste, 
Then kyng vniust. AM. Desyre that nowe 
i8l5 thy father ende at laste 

Thy labours all : lette quyetnesse 

At lengthe yet gyuen bee, 
And rest to weery folke. HER. J wyll 

the prayers make, for mee 
1820 And Joue full meete. yn his due place 

Lette stande the haughty skye, 
And lande, and ayre, and lette the starres 
dryue foorthe eternallye 


[266 1 Hercul. fur. of SenecaL 

Their course vnstayde : let restfull peace 
1825 keepe nations quietlye, 

Let labour of the hurtlesse lande 

all yron nowe occupye, 
And swoordes lye hydde : let tempest none 

full vyolent and dyre 
l83o Disturbe the sea : let from the skyes 

no flashe of lyghtnyng tyre 
Fall downe whyle Joue full angry is : 

nor yet with wynter snowe 
Encreased floode the grownde vpturnde 
i835 and fieldes quight ouerthrowe. 

Let poysons cease : and from hensfoorth 

let vp from grownde aryse 
No greeuous herbe with hurtfull sappe : 

nor fierce and fell lykewyse 
1840 Let tyrantes raygne : but vf to syght 

some other mischiefe bryng 
The grownde yet shall, let it make haste : 

and any monstrous thyng 
Jf it prepare, let yt bee myne. 
1845 but what meanes this ? myd daye 
The darknes haue encloasde abowt, 

lo Phoebus gothe his waye 
With face obscure withowt a clowde. 

who dryues the daye to flyght, 
i85o And turnes to east ? from ^whence doth now 
his dusky hed the nyght 


Hercu. fur. of vSen. [267] 

Unknown bryng forth ? whece fyl the poale 

so many rownde about 
Of daytyme starres ? lo here beholde 
i855 my labour fyrst full stoute 

Not in the lowest parte of hoauen 

the lyon shyneth bryght, 
And leniently dothe rage with yre, 

And byttes prepares to fyght. 
1860 Euen now loe he some starre wyl take : 

with mouthe full wydc to see 
He thretnyng stands, and tyres out blowes 

and mane vp rustleth he 
Shakyng with necke. the haruest sadde 
1865 of shape, what euer thyng, 
And what soeuer wynter collde 
in frosen tyme doothe bryng, 
He with one rage wyll ouerpasse, 

of spryng tyme bull he wyll 
1870 Bothe seeke, and breake the neckes at once. 

A.M. What is this sodayne yll ? 
Thy cruell cowntnance whether sonne 

Doste thou caste here and there ? 
And seeste with troubled daselde syght 
l8/5 false shape of heauen appere ? 

HER. The land is taemde, the swellyng seas 

theyr surges dyd asswage, 
The kyngdomes lowe of hell lykewyse 
haue telte and knowne my rage, 


[268] Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

1880 Yet heauen is free, a labour meete 

for Hercules to prone. 
To spaces hygh J wyll bee borne 

of hawghty e skyes abdue : 
Let th ayre be skaelde, my father dooth 
i885 me promyse starrs t obtayne. 
What yf he it denyde ? all th earthe 

can Hercles not contayne, 
And geeues at length to godds. me calls 

of owne accorde beholde 
1890 The whole assembly of the godds, 

and dooth theyr gates vnfolde, 
Whyle one forbydds. receyuste thou me, 

and openest thou the skye, 
Or els the gate of stubborne heauen 
I8g5 drawe after me doo J ? 

Do J yet doubte ? J euen the bondes 

from Saturne wyll vndoe, 
And euen agaynst the kyngdome prowde 

of wycked father loe, 
1900 My grandsyre loase. let Titans nowe 

prepare agayne theyr fyght 
With me theyr captayne ragyng : stones 

with woodes J wyll downe smyght, 
And hye hylles topps with Centaures full 
igo5 in ryght hande wyll J take. 

With double mountayne nowe J wyll 
a stayre to godds vp make. 


Hercu. fur. of Sen. [269] 

Let Chiron vnder Ossa see 

his Pelion mowntayne grette : 
1910 Olympus vp to heauen aboue 
in thyrde degree then sette 
Shall come it selfe, or ells bee caste. 

AM. Put farre awaye from thee 
The thowghts that owght not to be spoake : 
iqi5 of mynde vnsownde to see, 

But yet full great, the furyows rage 

asswage and laye awaye. 
HER. What meaneth this ? the gyantes doe 

pestiferous annes assaye, 
K)20 And Tityus from the sprights is fledde, 

and bearyng torne to see 
And empty bosome, lo howe neere 

to heauen it selfe stoode nee ? 
Cythseron falles, the mountayne hye 
IQ25 Pallene shakes for feare, 

And torne are Tempe. he the toppes 

of Pindus cawght hathe here, 
And Oethen he, some dredfull thyng 

threatnyng doothe rage abowt 
ig3o Erinnys bryngyng flames : with strypes 

she soundes nowe shaken out, 
And burned brandes in funeralls, 

loe yet more neare and neare 
Throwes in my face : fearce Tisyphone 
1935 with head and vgly heare 

1C With 

[270] Hercu. fur. of Sen. 

With serpents sette, nowe after dogge 

fet owt with Hercles hande, 
That emptye gate she hathe shette vp, 

with bolte of fyry brande. 
1940 But loe the stocke of enmiows kyng 

doothe hydden yet remayne, 
The wycked Lycus seede : but to 

your hatefull father slayne 

Euen nowe this ryght hande shall you sende 
1945 let nowe his arrowes lyght 

My bowe owt shoote : it seemes the shaftes 

to goe with suche a flyght 
Of Hercles. AM. Whether doothe the rage 

and fury blynde yet goe ? 
ig5o His myghty bowe he drewe with homes 

togyther dryuen loe, 
And quyuer loaste : great noyese makes 

with vyolence sente owt 
The shafte, and quyght the weapon flewe 
ig55 his myddle necke throwghowt, 

The wownd yet left. HER. His other broode 

J ouerthrowe wyll quyght, 
And corners all. What stay J yet ? 

to me a greater lyght 
1960 Remaynes then all Mycenes loe, 
that rockye stones shoulde all 
Of Cyclops beeyng ouertnrnde 
with hande of myne, downe fall. 

* 2 Let 

Hercu. fur. of S>en. [271] 

Let shake bothe here: and there the house, 
iq65 with all stayes ouerthrowne, 

Let breake the poasts : and quight let shnnke 

the shaken pyller downe : 
Let all the palayce fall at once. 

J here yet hydden see 
1970 The sonne of wycked father. AM. Loe 

his flattryng handes to thee 
Applyeng to thy knees doothe craue 

his Me with pytcous mone. 
() wycked gylte, full sadde, and eke 
1975 abhorde to looke vppone, 

His humble ryght hande caught he hath, 

and ragyng rowndc abowt 
Him rolled twyse, or thryse hath cast. 

his head resoundeth owt, 
1980 The sprynkled howses with the brayne 

of hym throwne owt are wet. 
But shee poore wretche her lyttle sonne 

in bosome hydyng yet 
Loe Megara, lyke one in rage 
ig85 doothe from the corners flee. 

HER. Thowgh runnagate in bosome ol 

the thundrer hydde thou bee, 
This ryght hande shall from euery where 

Thee seeke, and bryng to syght. 
1990 AM. wher goest thow wretch ? what lurkyng 
seekste thou to take, or flyght ? Menns, 
* 3 No 

[272] Hercul. Fur. of Sen. 

No place of sauegarde ys yf once 

bee He rcles styrde with yre : 
But doo thou rather hym enbrace, 
irg5 and wi th thy meeke desyre 

Assaye t asswage hym. MEG. Husbande spare 

vs J beseeche thee nowe, 
And knowe thy Megara, this sonne 

thy cowntenaunce doothe showe, 
2000 And bodyes pytche : beholdst thow howe 

his hands vp lyfteth hee ? 
HER. J holde my stepdame : followe o n 

dewe penawnce paye to mee, 
And bownden Joue from fylthy bonde 
2oo5 delyuer free awaye : 

But J before the mother wyll 

this lyttell monster slaye. 
MEG. Thou mad man whither goest thow? 

wylte thou thyne owne bloode sheade ? 
2010 AM, Th infant with fathers fyry face 

astonnyde all for dreade, 
Dyed euen before the wownde : his feare 

hath tooke away his lyfe. 
And nowe lykewyse his heauy clubbe 
20 1 5 is shaken towarde his wyfe : 

He broaken hath the bones, her head 

from blocklyke bodye gone 
Js quight, nor any where it stayes. 
darste thow this looke vppone 

* 4 To 

Hercu. fur. of Sen. [273 J 

2020 To long lyude age ? yf mournyng doo 

thee greue, thou hast then loe 
The deathe preparde. Doo thou thy breast 

vppon his weapons throe, 
Or ells this clubbe with slaughter staynde 
^025 of monsters slayne that bee, 

Nowe hyther turne. thy parent i alse, 

vnfytte for name of thee 
Ryd hens away, least he shoulde be 

to thy renowne a let. 
2o3o THE. Which waie y father toward thy death 

dooste thow thy selfe caste yet ? 
Or whyther goest thou madde man ? flee, 

and lye thow cloasely hyd, 
And yet from handes of Hercules 
2035 this onely myschiefe ryd. 

HER. Tis well, the howse of shameful kyng 

ys nowe quyght ouerthrowne. 
To thee O spowse of greattest Joue 

J haue loe beaten downe 
2040 This offred rlocke : J gladly haue 

fulfyllde my wyshes all 
Full meete for thee, and Argos nowe 

geeue other offryngs shall. 
AM. Thow hast not sonne yet al performde, 
2045 fyll vp the sacrifyse. 

Loe th offryng doothe at th aultars stande, 
it waytes thy hande lykewyse 


[274] Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

With necke full prone : J gyue my selfe, 

J roon, J followe loe. 
2o5o Mee sacrifyce. what meaneth this ? 

his eyes rolle to and froe, 
And heauynesse doothe dull his syght. 

see J of Hercules 

The tremblyng hands ? down falles his face 
2o55 to sleepe and quietnes, 

And weery necke with bowed head 

full faste doothe downewarde shrynke, 
With bended knee : nowe all at once 

he downe to grownde doothe synke, 
2060 As in the woodes wylde asshe cut downe, 

or bulwarke for to make 
A hauen in seas. Lyuste thow ? or els 

to deathe doothe thee betake 
The selfe same rage, that hath sent all 
2065 thy famylye to deathe ? 

Jt is but sleepe, for to and froe 

doothe goe and come his breatbe. 
Let tyme bee had of quietnesse, 
that thus by sleepe and reste 
2070 Create force of his disease subdewde, 

may ease his greeued breste. 

Remoue his weapons seruantes, least 

he madde gette them agayne. 



Hercu. fur. of Sen. [278] 

2075 Y Et th ayre coplain, cS; eke y parent great 
J_Jot haughty sky, & fertile lad throughout, 
And wadryng waue of euer mouing treate. 
And thow before the all, which lands about 
And train of sea thy beams abroad dost throe 

2080 with glyttryng face, & makst y night to flee, 
O feruent Titan : bothe thy settyngs loe 
and rysyng, hath Alcides scene with thee : 
& known likewise he hath thy howse twayn. 
from so great yls release ye nowe his brest, 

2o85 O godds release : to better turne agayne 

his ryghter mynde. and thow O tamer best 
O sleepe of toyles, the quietnesse of mynde, 
of all the lyfe of man the better parte, 
O of thy mother astrey wynged kynde, 

2090 of hard and pinyng death that brother arte, 
With truth mingling the false, of after state 
The sure, but eke the worste foreteller yet : 
O father of all thynges, of lyfe the gate, 
Of light the rest, of nyght and felowe fytte, 

2og5 that comst to kyng, and seruant equallye, 
And gentlye cherysshest who weerye bee, 
All mankynde loe that dredfull is to dye, 
thou doost costrain log deth to learn by thee. 
keepe him fast bound w heauy slepe opprest, 

2100 Let slober depe his limmes vntamed bynde, 
Nor sooner leaue his vnryght ragyng brest, 
The former mid his course again may fynd. 


[276] Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 

Lo layd on groud w lull fierce hart yet styll 
His cruell sleepes he turnes : and not yet is 

2io5 The plague subdewde of so great raging yll : 
And on great clubbe the weery head of his 
He woont to lay, dothe seeke y staffe to fynde 
With empty hand, his armes ovvt castig yet 
withmouing vayn : nor yet all rage of mynde 

21 10 he hath laid down : but, as w southwind gret 
The waue once vext, yet after kepeth styll 
his ragyng long, & though the wind now be 
Asswaged, swells, shake of these madde & yll 
tossyngs of mynde, returne let pietee, 

2li5 And vertue to the man, ells let be so 

his mynd with mouing mad tost euery way : 
Let errour blynde, where it begoon hath, go. 
for nowght els now but only madnes may 
Thee gyltlesse make : in next estate it stands 

2120 to hurtles hands, thy mischief not to knowe. 
Now strooken let with Hercules his hands 
thy bosoms soud : thyne armes 3^ world alow 
wer wot to bear, let greuo9 strips now smite 
with coquryng had : & loude coplainig cries 

2125 Let th aire now here : let of dark pole & night 
the quene them heare, & who ful fiersely lyes 
That bears his necks in mighty chains fast 
low lurking Cerberus in depest caue. (boud, 
Let Chaos all with clamour sad resound, 

2i3o and of broade sea wide open wafting waue. 


Hercul. fur. of Sen. [277] 

And th ayre that felt thy weapos better yet, 
But felt them thowgh. 

The brestes with so greate yls as these beset, 
with litle stroake they must not beaten be. 

2i35 Let kyngdoms three soud \\ one plait & cry, 
and thow neckes honowr, cS; defence to se, 
His arrowe strong long hanged vp on hye, 
& quiuers light, y cruel strypes now smyght 
on his firce back, his shoulders strog & stowt 

2140 let oken clubbe now stryke, & poaste of might 
w knots full harde his brests loade al about, 
let eucn his weapos so greate woes coplain. 
Not you poore babes mates of your fathers 
w cruel woud reneging kings agai : (praise, 

2145 not you your lims in argos barriars plaies, 
Are taught to turn w wepo strog to smight, 
& strog of had : yet eue now daring loe 
the weapon of the Scythian quiucr light 
With steady hand to paise set out fro bowe, 

2i5o and stags td perse y saue the selues by flyght, 
and backes not yet full maend of cruel beast. 
To Stygia hauens goe ye of shade & night, 
goe hurtles souls, who mischief hath opprest 
Euen in first porche of lyfe but lately hadde, 

2l55 And fathers furye. goe vnhappy kynde 
O little chyldren, by the way full sadde 
Of iourneye knowne. 
Goe, see the angrye kyngs. 

1 The 


[278] Hercul. fur. of Sen. 

c The fyfthe Acte. 

2160 Hercules, Amphitryon, 

Hat place is this ? what region ? 

or of the worlde what coaste ? 
Where am J ? vnder ryse of sonne, 
2l65 or bonde els vttermoste 

Of th ycy beare ? or els doothe here 

of sea of Hesperye 
The fardest grownde appojaite a bonde 

for th ocean sea to lye ? 
2170 What ayre drawe we ? to weery wyght 

what grownde is vndersette ? 
Of truthe we are returnde from hell, 
whence in my howse downe bette 
vSee J these bloudy bodyes ? hath 
2175 not yet my mynde of cast 

Thinfernall shapes ? but after yet 

returne from hell at last 
Yet wander dooth that helly he ape 

before myne eyes to see ? 
2180 J am ashamde to grawnte, J quake, 

J knowe not what to mee, 
J can not tell what greuous yll 

my mynde before dooth knowe. 
Where is my parent ? where is shee 
_>i85 with goodly chyldrens showe 

TL 2 My 

Hercul. Fur. of Sen. [.279] 

My noble hartye stomakt spowse ? 
why dothe my lefte syde lacke 
The lyons spoyle ? whiche waye is gone 

the couer of my backe ? 
2190 And selfe same bed full softe for sleepe 

of Hercules also ? 
Where are my shaftes ? where ys my bo we ? 

Them from me lyuing who 
Cowlde plucke awaye ? who taken hathe 
2ig5 the spoyles so greate as thes ? 
And who was he that fearyd not 

euen sleepe of Hercules ? 
To see my conquerour me lykes, 

yt lykes me hym to knowe : 
2200 Ryse victor vp. what newe sonne hath 

my lather gotten nowe 
Heauen beeynge left ? at byrthe of whome 

myght euer stayed bee 
A longer nyght, then was in myne ? 
22o5 what myschiefe do J see ? 

My chyldren loe do lye on grownde 
with bloodie slawghter slayne : 
My wyfe is kyllde : what Lycus dothe 

the kyngedome yet obtayne ? 
22 10 Who durst so hey nous gyltes as these 

At Thebes take in hande 
When Hercles is returnde ? who so 
Jsmenus waters lande, 

3 Who 

[280] Hercul. fur. of Sen. 

Who so Acteons fieldes, or who 
22i5 with dowble seas beset 

The shaken Pelops kyngdomes doste 

of Dardan dwell on yet, 
Healpe me : of cruell slawghter showe 

who may the author bee. 
2220 Let rage my yre on all : my foe 

he ys, who so to mee 
Showes not my foe. doste thou yet hydd 

Alcides victour lye ? 

Come foorthe, euen whether thovv reuenge 
2225 the cruell chariots hye 

Of bloudy Thracian kyng, or yf 

thow Geryons catell quyght, 
Or lordes of Libya, no delaye 
there ys with thee to fyght. 
223o Beholde J naked stande, althowgh 

euen with wy weapons loe 
Thow me vnarmed sette vppon. 

wherfore fleeth Theseus soe 
And eke my father from my syght ? 
2235 theyr faces why hyde they ? 

Deferre your weepyngs, and who dyd 

my wyfe and chyldren sley 
Thus all at ones, me tell. Wherfore 
O father doest thow whushte ? 
2240 But tell thow Theseu, but Theseu 
with thy accustomde truste. 

% 4 Echc 

Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [2X1] 

Eche of them sylent hydes awaye 
their bashcfull cowntnawnces, 
And pryuelye they shedde their teares. 
2246 Jn so greatc yls as thes, 

Of what owghte we ashamde to bee ? 

dothe ruler yet of myght 
Of Argos towne, or hatefull bande 

Of sowldyars apte to fyght 
225o Of Lycus dyinge, vs oppresse 

with such calamytec ? 
By prayse of all my noble actes 

J do desyre of thee 
O father, and of thy great name 
2255 approude to me alwaye 

The prosperous powre, declare to me, 

who dyd my housholde slaye ? 
Whose praye laye J ? A. Let thus thync yls 

in sylence ouerpas. 
2260 HE. That J shoulde vnrcuenged bee ? 

AM. Reuenge ofte hurtfull was. 
HE. Dyd euer man so greuows ylles 

without reuenge sustayne ? 
A. Whos euer greater feard. H. Then these, 
2265 O father yet agayne 

May any greater thing, or els 

More greuows feared bee ? 
AM. How greate a parte is it thow wotst, 
Of thy calamitee ? 


[282] Hercul. fur. of Sen. 

2270 HER. Take mercy father, lo J lyfte 

to thee my humble handes. 
What meaneth this ? my hand fleeth backe, 

some priuye gylte here standes. 
Whece corns this blood ? or what doth mean 
2275 flowyng with deathe of chyllcle 

The shafte, enbrewde with slawghter once 

of Lerney monster kyllde ? 
J see my weapons nowe, the hande 

J seeke no more to wyt. 
2280 Whose hand could bend this bow but myne ? 

or what ryght arme but yt 
Coulde stryng the bowe, that vnto me 

Euen scantely doothe obaye ? 
To you J tourne : O father deere, 
2285 is thys my gylte J praye ? 

They healde theyr peace : it is myne owne. 

AM. Thy greeuous woe is there, 
The cryme thy stepdames : this myschawnce 

no fawte of thyne hath here. 
2290 HER. From euery part now father throwe 

in wrathe thy thunders myght, 
And of thy sonne forgetfull nowe, 

with cruell hande requyght 
At least thy nephewes : let the worlde 
22g5 that beares the starres sownde owt, 
And let bothe th one and th other poale, 
flyng downe thy flames abowt : 


Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [283J 

And let the bankes of Caspian sea 

my bownden bodye teare, 
23oo And greedye ibwle. Wherefore doe of 

Prometheus heare 
The rockes ? with huge and hawtyc toppe 

let now prepared bee, 

Bothe feedyng beastes and fowles, the syde 
23o5 Of Cawcas torne to see, 

And bare of woods, the yle that bryclge 

Of Scythe that thereby standes 
Symplegas ioynes, bothe here and there 

Let it my bounden handes 
23io Stretch out abroade : and when with course 

returnde accustomdlye 
They shall togyther dryue, and shall 

the rockes tosse vp to skyc 
With bankes togyther beyng thruste, 
23i5 and eke the myddle seaye, 

Let me betwene the mountaynes lye 

vnquiet restlesse staye. 
But buyldynge vp with woode throwen o i 

a heaped pyle on hye, 
232O My body thus with wycked bloude 

besprynkt, why burne not J ? 
So, so yt must bee doone : to hell 

J Hercles wyll restore. 
AM. Not yet his harte astonyde lackes 
2325 his ragyng tumulte sore, 

B u 

[284] Hercu.. fur. of Sen. 

But wraths hath turncle : and which of rage 

ys propertie and yrc 
Agaynst him sellfe he rageth now. 

HER. The furies places dyre 
233o And dongeon deepe of sprights yn hell 

and place of tormentrrye 
To gylty ghosts, and banishment 

yf any yet doo lye 
Beyonde Erebus, yet vnknowen 
2335 to Cerberus and mee, 

There hyde me grownde : to farthest bonde 

of Tartarus to see 
To tarye there Jle goe. O breste 

of iri3 7 ne to fierce and stowte : 
2340 Who vow my chyldren thus disperste 

through all my house abowte, 
Maye \vorthyly enowghe bewayle ? 

in all my euylls yet 

This countnaunce harde, can neuer wepe. 
2346 a swoorde nowe hyther set, 

My shaftes reatche hyther, hyther reatche 

my myghty clubbe also : 
To thee my weapons breake J will, 

to thee my sonne, atwo 
235o Jle knappe my bowes, and eke my clubbe 

this blocke of heauye wayght, 
Shall to thy spryghts bee burned loe : 
this selfe same quyuer frayght 


Hercul. fur. of Sen. [288] 

With Lernoy shaftes, to funerall 
2355 of thyne shall likewise go. 

Let all my weapons penawnce paye, 

and yow vnhappye to 
Euen with my weapons burne J wil, 

O stendames handes of myne. 
236o Th. who euer yet to Jgnorauncc 

hath geuen name of cryme ? 
Her Full oftentymes dyd errour greiitc 

the place of gylt obtayne. 
Th. Tys neede to be a Hercles nowe, 
2365 this heape of ill sustayne. 

Her. Not so hath shame yet geuen place 

with furyc drowned quight : 
But peoples all J rather shoulde 

dryue from my wycked sight. 
2370 My weapons, weapons Theseus, 

J quickly craue to mee 
withdrawen to be restoard agayne : 

if sownde my mynde now bee, 
Restore to me my weapons : if 
23;5 yet last my rage of mynde, 

Then father flee : for J the waye 
to death my selfe shall fynde. 
Am. By sacred hollye kynreds rights, 

by force and duetie all 
238o O f bothe my names, yf eyther mee 
thy brynger vp thou call, 

A Or 

[286] Her oil. fur. of Sen. 

Or parent ells, and Cwhiche of good 

men reuerenced are) 
By these hoare heares, J thee beseche 
2385 my desert age yet spare, 

Aud werye yeares : of howse falne downe 

the one alonely staye, 
One onely lyght to me, with ylles 

afflicted euery waye 
23go Reserue thy selfe : yet neuer hath 

there hapned once of thee 
Frute of thy toyles. : styll eyther J 

the dowtfull seae to see 
Or monsters fearde : who euer yet 
23g5 hathe bene a cruell kyng 

Jn all the worlde, to ghosts alowe, 

aud aulters both hurtyng, 
Of me ys fearde : the father of 

thee absent styll, to haue 
2400 The frute, the towching, and the sight, 

of thee at length J craue. 
He. wherfore J longer shoulde sustaine 

my lyfe yet in this lyght, 
And lynger here no cause there is : 
2406 all good lost haue J quight, 

My mynde, my weapons, my renowne, 

my wyfe, my sonnes, my handes, 
And furye to. no man may heale 
and loase from gyltye bandes 


Hercul. fur. of Sen. [287! 

2410 My mynde delyellde : needes must with deth, 

be healde so heinous yll. 
Th. wilt thou thy father slay ? He. Least J 

should doe it dye J will. 
Th. Before thy fathers face ? He. J taught 
2416 hym mischiefe for to se. 

Th. Thy deedes markyng rather that should 

of all remembred be, 
Of this one onely cryme J doe 

a pardon of thee craue. 
2420 Her. Shall he geue pardon to hym selfe, 

that to none els it gaue ? 
J beeyng bidden prayse deserud, 

this deede mine owne dothe proue. 
Helpe father now. if eyther els 
2425 thy pietye thee moue, 

Or els my heauy fate, or els 

the honour and renowne 
Of stained strength : my weapons bryng, 

let fortune be throwen downe 
2480 with my right hande. Th. The praiers which 

thy father makes to thee 
Are stronge enough, but yet likewise 

with wepyng loe of me 
Be moued yet : aryse thou vp, 
2435 and with thy wonted myght 

Subdue thyne yls : now suche a mynde 
vnmeete to beare vpright 


[288J Hercul. fur. of Sen. 

No euyll hap, receyue agayne : 
loe now with manhode gret 
2440 Thou must preuayle, euen Hercules 

sorbyd with yre to fret. 
HE. Alyue, J hurte : but yf J dye, 

J take the gylt also. 
J hast to rydde the worllde of cryme, 
2445 euen now before me lo 

A wycked monster, cruell, and 

vntamed, fierce and stoute 
Dothe wander : now with thy ryght hande 

begyn to goe aboute 
2460 A greate affayre, yea more then all 

thy twise syx labours long. 
Yet stayste thou wretche, that late agaynste 

the children waste so strong, 
And fearefull mother ? now excepte 
2455 restoarde my weapons be, 

Of Thracian Pindus eyther J 
wyll teare downe euery tree, 
and Bacchus hollye woods, and toppes 

of mount Cythaeron hye 
2460 Burne with my selfe. and all at once 

with all their housen J 
And with the Lordes thereof the roofes, 

with goddes of Thebes all 
The Thebane temples euen vppon 
2465 my bodye will lette fall : 


Hercul. fur. of Sen. [289] 

And wyll be hyd in towne vpturnde : 

if to my shoulders might 
The walles themselues all cast thereon 

shall fall a burden lyght, 
2470 And couerde with seuen gates J shall 

not be enough opprest, 
Then all the wayght whereon the worlde 

in middle parte doth rest, 
And partes the Gods, vpon my hed 
2475 Jle turne and ouerthroe. 

My weapons geeue. Am. This word is mete 

for Hercles father loe. 
With this same arrowe slayne beholde 

thy sonne is tomblcd downe, 
2480 This weapon cruell Juno lo 

from handes of thyne hath throwne, 
This same will J now vse. loe see 

how leapes with feare affright 
My wretched hart, and how it doth 
2485 my carefull body smight. 

The shafte is set there to, thou shalt 

a mischiefe loe do now 
Both willing it, and wotting : tell, 
what thing commaundest thou ? 
2490 J nothing craue, my dolour loe 

in safetie standeth now. 
To kepe my sonne aliue to me 
that onely do canst thou 

o Theseu, 

[290) Hercul. fur. of Sen. 

o Thcseu, yet J haue not scapte, 
2495 greatst feare that happen can. 
Thou canst me not a myser make, 

thou maist a happy man. 
So order euery thyng thou dooste, 

as all thy cause in hande, 
25oo And fame thou mayst well know in strayght 

and doutfull case to stande : 
Thou liust, or dyest : thys slender sowle 

that lyght is hense to flee, 
weryed with age, and no lesse bet 
25o5 with greuous yls to see, 

Jn mouthe J holde. so slowly e to 

a father with suche staye 
Dothe any man geue lyle ? J wyll 

no longer byde delaye, 
25io The dedlye sworde throughout my brest 

to stryke J will applye, 
Here, here the gylt of Hercules 

euen sownde of mynde shall lye. 
Her. Forbeare O father now, forbeare, 
25l5 withdrawe thy hande agayne. 

My manhode yeelde, thy fathers wyll, 

and Jmperye sustayne. 
To Hercles labours now lykewyse, 

let this one labour goe, 
252O Let me yet lyue. lyfte vp from grounde 
thafflicted lyinmes with woe, 

o Theseu 

Hercul. fur. of Sen. [291] 

o Theseu of my parent : for 

from godly touche doth fle 
My wicked hande. Am. J gladly doe 
25^5 this hande embrace to me. 

By this J beeyng stayed will goe, 

this mouing to my brest 
Jle slake my woes. Her. what place shal J 

seeke roonagate for rest ? 
253o Where shall J hyde my selfe ? or in 

what lande my selfe engraue ? 
What Tanais, or what Nilus els, 

or with his persyan waue 
what Tigris violent of streame, 
2535 or what fierce Rhenus flood, 

Or Tagus troublesome that flowes 

with Jbers treasures good 
May my right hande now wash from gylt ? 

although MiOotis collde 
2540 The wanes of all the Xorthen seae 

on me shed out now wollde, 
And al the water thereof shoolde 

now passe by my two handes, 
Yet will the mischiefe deepe remaync. 
2545 Alas into what landes 

wilt thou o wicked man resorte ? 

to East, or westerne coste ? 
Eche where well knowen, all place J haue 
of banishmente quight loste 


[292] Hercul. fur of Sen. 

255o Fro me the worlde doth flee abacke, 

the starres that sydelyng roon 
Do backwarde dryue their turned course, 

euen Cerberus the soon 
mith better countnaunce did beholde. 
2555 o faythfull frende J saye 

o Theseu, seeke some lurkyng place, 

farre hence, out of the waye. 
O thou awarder of mens gyltes 

what euer iudge thou be 
256o That hurtefull men doest loue, repaye 

a worthy thanke to me : 
And my desertes. J thee beseeche, 

to ghostes of hell agayne 
Sende me that ones escaped them : 
2565 and subiect to thy rayne 

Restore me yet to those thy bandes. 

that place shall me well hyde : 
And yet euen that place knowes me well. 

Th. Our lande for thee doth byde. 
2570 There Mars, his hand acquit agayne 

and made from slaughter free 
Restoarde to armour : loe that lande 

(Alcides) calles for thee, 
which wontes to quight the gods, and proue 
2575 them Jnnocent to be. 



London by Henrye Sutton 
dwelling in pater noster 
258o rovve at the signe of the 
blacxe Boy. 



For the copies referred to, see Introduction under Texts. 

The following notes give only those variant readings between the different 
editions, and the copies of one edition, which are of a certain importance, as 
otherwise the length of these lists would be little short of the texts them 
selves. In consequence I have not recorded any discrepancies between 
the text of the Quarto of 1581 (N) and that of the three octavos (A) which 
are reproduced here, except when they are interesting either for the spelling 
or the intelligence of the tragedy ; punctuation could not be taken into 
account as it would have led too far. In the collation of the octavo 
editions (A, B, C) and the various copies of one issue (A 1 , A-, A ;t a.), a 
different punctuation is recorded when it may lead to a different under 
standing. No notice is taken of running titles, nor of catchwords. As the 
discrepancies in the spelling are too numerous, I do not mention those that 
are of almost no importance, or those which recur indiscriminately in the 
various copies and are not carried through systematically in either of them ) 
Such are i y (which, whych) ; an = aun (allegiance, alkgeauncc) ; e = ee and 
o = oo in open syllables (mete, meete ; pore, foore) ; s = ce (.WHS, since) ; = ue, eu, 
ew (truth, trueth, treuth, tretvth) ; words with or without final e (whiche, which ; 
thre, three; onely, only); double consonants after closed syllable (fttl, full; 
wittes, wits; ackte, acte ; heddes, heds); y 1 for that and the ; au an>, sometimes 
aul (fautes, fawtes, faultes) ; contractions intended by the author, printed in 
full elsewhere (thassautes, shalbe) ; words with or without capital letters 
(jfreful, yreful). Moreover some forms that very often recur have been 
recorded once for all : son, soon, soone, sonne ; blood, blcud ; bewty, beawtie, 
beauwtie, beauty ; doutful, doubtful ; author, aucthor : iye, eye ; giue, 
geue ; hear, hayre, hair ; sodeyne, sodayne ; words, d oordes, and such like. 
Of the special spelling which is given to words when used for the rhyme, 
mention is made in the Introduction. Evident misprints in other texts than 
the three which are reprinted here, have not been taken notice of. 

For the editions A and B of Troas. a more detailed treatment has been 
adopted : misprints, catchwords and punctuation are recorded to bring 
out more clearly the relationship between them. 

For the first page of Trcas (1. 1-24) a nearly complete list ot differences 
between A,U and c has been given as a specimen. 

i) Should such a discrepancy occur in the reading of an edition, which for the point 
on which the attention is called, is identical with the variant quoted in these lists, the 
capital letter representing that edition is put within a parenthesis. 

29 6 


In N the title runs (fol. c>5 (d) recto) : 



& prudet Author LVCIVS ANNOYS SENECA, 

entituled TROAS, with diuers and 

sundrye Additions to the same, 



1. 1-70 wanting in x 


2 verteouse] AB : verteous c 

3 god] AC : God B 

5 subiectc] AC : subiect B 
8 wisshi th] AC : ivisheth B 

1 1 corideration] AC : cosideratio B 

12 tf0ttW6?] AB : towards c 
14 ivhych] AC : zc /MfA B 

flyeng} A :_/fog- B \fiiyng r 

1 6 resowndes] AB : resoundes c 

17 a/] AB : rt// c 

19 MosfJ AB : Moste c 

20 wisdome] AC : wisedome B 

23_/?0H] AC \Jlo01lg B 

24 >/"/] A : *>/// BC 

33 ^ ueene] ornamental form of 
capital Q ; hence the space. 

42 blissejull] AC : Mis full B 
49 greatly] AC : gretlye B 

52 yeres] AC : yeares B 

53 rfK/ftf] AB 

bo bet] read i^- 

, 7 i readers AC : Readers B ; Rea 
der x 

78 forth] AB : foorth c 

80 fearingwhat] A : fearing, what 
t B; fearjaige what c 

91 y] AB : the ex 
102 consyder.] A : consyder, B(C), 

which read 

io5 worke] AB : woorke c 
no toong] AB : tong c 
114 sence.] A : sence, BC, which read 
i:5 speach] AB : speche c 
1 16 iugement] A : iudgment B ; 

Judgement c 

119 forasmuch | A : for as much B 
123 thought] AC : thonght B 
127 acte.] A : ackt, B ; act c 
129 wise,] similar indentation in A & B 
1 38 the englishe] A(C) : thinglishe B 
140 expounde] ABN : eypounde c 

144 the] missing in c & N 

145 Corus] ABC : Chorus N 

146 sclender] ABC : slender x 
148 woorde] A : worde c 

i5o ientle] AC : Jentill B 

1. i5i worth] AB : woorth c 
160 Fare] AB : Farre c 
:63 The preface to the tragedye] 

A(Bc):The Argument \ 
164 yearesj A : yeres BC 

171 dares] ABC 

172 dictis] A : Dyctis B; dicties c 

(c doubtful in c 1 & c") 
179 fieldc the] Au:ficldes c (wthe) 
182 Pyrrhus] AC : Pirhus \\ 

Aiax.j A : Aiax, BC 
186 knight.] AB : knight, < 

188 Greek es] r. Greekes 

189 while] A : While BC 

191 and] AB : And c 

192 me.] AB : me, c 

194 wordes] AC : woordes B 

196 what] A : What BC 
gods] AB : god CN 
sende.] AC : send, B 

197 gan] AC : gau B 

199 fielde] AC : feelde B 

201 bloodshed] A : bloudshed BC 
c regularly writes bloud, where 
A, and generally B, has blood. 

2o3 worke] AC : woorke B 

211 mischiefe] AC : mischefe B 
miserye.] \(c) : myserye, B 

2i3 thy] ABC : the N 

219 iye] AC : eie B 

233 thrust] ACN : thurst B, which read 

236 iudge] A:iugde c:iudgde 3x,w.r. 

240 forgoe] A : . CN ; ? B, w. r. 
f. A G, v, runn. title : Troas] A : The 
Preface. BC 

248 Troy.] A : Troy, BC 

25o boy.] AC : boy B 

253 heare.j AB : heare, c 

255 The speakers ] ABC : The 
Speakers names. N 

258 The spright of Achilles] in x 
at the end of the list. 

1. 269 The messenger] \w : XVX- 


287 thestatej AB : the state ex 
292 batered] ACX : batred B 
295 seuen.] A : seuen, i 
299 Luke warm] AW : Lukewarm N 
chanell] A : chanel B : clianull 

c ; channoll N 

3o5 renowne.] AB : renowne c 
3n flame] A : flame BCX. u . r. 

317 pearst] AC : perst B 

318 a farre.] ABC : r. afarre 
323 An] ABC : And x 

323 The comma should be placed after 

it, instead of after himselfe : 
though he see it, yet scant 
himselfe beleues &-a. 

324 it] omitted in x 

325 hand.] A : , (B)C 

327 receine] A : receiue BCX. w. r. 

33i contries] AC : coutraies B 

335 thy] ABC : the N 

35g fatallfall] A : fatall fall BCX 

36i calamites] A : calamities BCX 

364 catchword sawe] ABC: 

372 dedly] A : deadly BC 

404 refuse,] AC : refuse. B 

4 05 company] AC : cumpany n 
407 brestesl AC : breastes B 

412 terible] ABCX 

4 13 second] A : scecond n 

414 women] ,\BC : Woman, \ 

416 taught] AC : toughte B 
419 Ana] A : And BCX, w. r. 
422 debate] ABC : read . 
425 roges] ABC : rages N 
432 heades] A< : heds B 

439 readines] AC : redines B 

440 knocke] AC : knock, n. w. r. 
445 Hector] AC : Hectour B 
447 cace] ABCN* 

1. 4 58 catchword Rebonn-j \ : Reboun- 


460 wontes] AC : woontes i; 
462 heare] AC : here n 

464 eche] AC : each is 

465 like] AC : like. B, u. r. 
468 bluddy] A(B) : blouddy CN 
4 83Olord] A : O lord (<) 

484 receiue] AC receaue r, 

feare] ACN : teare u,w. r. 
487 quyuer] A(CN) : quiuers B,W. r. 

(cf>. lat. pharetras) 
493 treares] A : teares BCN, w. r. 
497 ghostes] ABC : Ghoste x 
517 Veto] A : Ye to BCN 
524 tombe] A : . B ; : ex 
527 Begylde | A(C ) : Beguilde B 
537 aboue] AC : oboue u 

541 witnest] ABC : witnes N 

542 sees] AB : seas c 

548 sonne] AC : soone B (this diffe 
rence in reading in A < B very 
often recurs) 

55i steppe] ABC : stoppe N 
557 Frayltie] A CN) : fraile B, iv. r. 

thrid] AB : third c ; thride x 
564 shurt,] AC : shurte. B, m. r . 
571 are] read : 

5y5 apoint es] A : apointes BC, K. r. 
676 sodayn] AC : sodeyne B 
583 elisious] ABC : illusions N 
591 fearde] AB : ferde c 
594 rToiane 1 A : Troiane BCN 
596 hath provide] AB(C) : proued 

hath x 

Goo dealt] AC : delt B 
6o3 his] AB : omitted in c and x 

618 soyle] AB : spoyle ex 

619 through] ABC : though N 
grate] The e is not clearly printed. 

625 this] AC : this, B 

1. (3u spretesj A : sprites BC 
034 comes] AB : come CN 

636 fates] AB : fautes CN 

637 mischief] AC : mischefe B 
63g here] ACN : heare B 

642 we] ACX : me B, w. r. 

647 vengeans] A : vngeans B 

657 terrur] AB : terrour ex 

675 heauen] AC : hauen Bx.fc .f . (lat. 

692 My] r. Me 

heard] AC : herd B ; hard N 
6g5 stroke] AC : stroake B 
708 appeareth] ACN : Appeared B 

711 banners] AC : baners B 

712 weighty] AC : waightye B 
717 he.] AC : he, B, w. r. 

720 by] AB : omitted in c : replaced by 

with in N 

721 runne] AC : roon B 

723 stought. | AC : stought, B, w. r. 

740 closde] AC : cloasde B 

752 wayes.] AC : wayes, B, w. r. 

758 delaye] A(C) : deleae B 

772 led.] AB : led, c 

780 land.] read -, of : 

788 agayne.] A(C) : agayne, B 

810 shew] AC : showe BX 
8n Through] AC : Trough B 

811 Caicus] AC : Cayicus B 
819 fought.] AC : fought BN 

821 whisht] AB : wisht CN 

822 remayne.] AC : remayne, B (r. 

neither stop nor comma) 
832 actes] AC : factcs B(N), a , r. (lat. 


836 mourne] AC : moorne B 
83g Coddes] AC : Godds B(N), w. r. 

842 fnll] A : full c ; full B(N), u - r. 

843 out] A : our BCX, w. r. 
845 way] ABC : waigh N 


1. 85g already] AC : all ready n 
860 Pryames] ACN : Pyrrus B, w. r. 
863 oughtste,] AC : without comma in 

B, w. r. 

874 synde] AB(C) : signd N 
877 chauuce] read chaunce (HC) 
894 eftsones :] read without colon 
899 here] ABC : hayre x 
901 naught.] AC : naught, BX 
911 extreme] AC : exrreme B 
916 assinde] A(B)C : assignd x 
919 feruent] AC : fernent u 
921 wreakej AC : wreakt BN, w. r. 

to] ABC : so N 
944 shed] read shed. (N) 
948 trauaile] A(C) : traueill B 
g55 fere] AC : feare BN 
961 giue] AB : geue c 
967 were] AC : weare B 

969 nought] ABC : not x 

970 renowne :] read without colon 

976 gladdde] A : gladde B ; glad ex 
f. C. ii. v , Running title TcOdS] 

>. Troas 

977 thon] A : thou BCX, w. r. 

978 foes] the i is not clearly printed, 

985 a loofe] read aloofe. 

986 fight.] read fight, 

993 why] AC : why : B, which read 
996 brandes,] A : brandes. BCN 
998 reliefe.J AB : reliefe. ex 
f. C. iii. r : runn. tit. Seneneca] A : 

Seneca B. 

1009 Nought] AB : Naught ex 

1028 seas :] read without colon 

io3i debate.] AB = , CN ; prob. r. 

without stop or comma 
io3z faine] A : fame BCN, w. r. 
io3g Eacus] AB : Cacus c ; JEacus x 
1044 withstande] AB : . CN, w. r. 
1046 chekes] A:cheks B; checkes CN 

1. io55 Unlokst] .\B( : Unlookst N 

1064 againe] AC : ageane B (to rhyme 

with meane 

1065 bye] AB : bie c ; buy x 

1068 Greece] AC : Griece n (to rhyme 

with price) 

1084 shed.] ABC : shed, N, ?, . r. 
1 102 delay.] AC : delay, B 
1104 Amid] AB : And c ; And eke x 
quite] AC : quight B 

1 107 hath] AC : hah is 

1 108 some] A : sonne B (w.r.); sunne 


ii 1 1 restles] AC : reastles B 

1 1 12 fro.] AC : fro, B, w. r. 

1119 eche] AC : eache B 

1124 northen] ABC : northren x 

1128 taryeih] A : taryeth B(C)N, w. r. 

n3o \veight] ABC : wayte N 

11 36 Death ] in \ inverted stop, put in 
bv mistake 

1140 fansyes] A(C) : fantsyes B ; fan 
cies N 

n5i The] ABC : There N 

n52 forsake.] A : forsake, BC. w r. 

1 1 56 staine] ACN (w. r. : cp. I. 1172) : 
strayne B 

1 1 58 remedylesse,] read . 

1 1 60 reddines] AC : redines u ; rea- 

dines N 

1161 preuaile.] read , 

1164 teares.] A : teares, uc, w. r. 

1 166 acte] AC : ackte u 

1181 sonke] AC : soonke B 
1198 woorsel ABC : worst x 
1204 aud] A : read and (BCN) 
1206 become] AC : be come BN. w. r. 
1209 SEN.] A : ANDR. BCN, w. r. 
1212 appeare] AB : appere c 
1214 returne] AC : retourne B 
1218 The] A : read the (BC) 


1. 1220 heauines.J read , 
1246 Nor] AC : read nor (B) 
1248 heare,] AD : heare. c, w. r. 
1263 blood.] A : blood, B(C), ft , r. 
1275 bloode.] AB(CNJ : read , 
1282 beare.] AC : beare, B 
1284 eueu] A : euen BCX 
1 337 where] AC : wheare r. 
1348 more] ABC : me x 
1354 frendes] AC : freendes i: 
1 3yo Troy] read Troy : (cp. latin) 
1372 sely] AC : seely BX 
i38i lest] A : least BC 
i3g5 my] ABC : thy x 
1397 doutfull] AB : doubtfull CN 
1404 true.] r. prob. : or, (as in B) 
1409 ihe] A : read the (BCN) 
1420 Whyle] A : read whyle (BC) 

take,] A : take. BC, w. r. 
1424 Of] AB : of c 
1426 oftimes] AC : oftetirnes B 
1438 rowme] AC : rome B 
1442 oft.] ABCN : read oft, 
1444 aloft,] A : aloft. BCX, K. r. 
1452 wars.] ABCN : rairfwars, 

1468 them] ABC : vs x 

1469 werte,] ABC : prob. without com 

ma (x) 

1491 ofbeastes] AB : of beastes < 
1 5o i Hector :] AC : Hector ? BX, w. r. 

rest ?] AC : reste B(X), w. r. 
i5o8 dye,] A : dye. BC, w. r. 
i5io on,] AC : on. B, w. r. 
i5i3 ANDR l A : ANDR. B, w. r. 
i5i6 weare] A : weare. BC, w. r. 
1 522 expres]AC : expres. B, w- r. 

1 535 geat] A : get BCX 

1536 is,] AC : is. B, w. r. 

i538 deteckte,] AC : . B, w. r. 
i55g Ulysses] ABC : read : or, 
1 562 How] AB : how c 

1. i58i ofher] AB : of her c, w. r. 
1589 togither] AB : together c; to- 

geather x 
1600 Now] AB : now c, w> r. 

1609 been] A : byn B ; ben c 

1610 been] AC : be B 
slayne.] read slayne, 

160 frost.] AC : frost, B, w. r. 

1621 sears] AB : sirs ex 

1627 shallhe] A : shall he BC 

i636 sayth.] A(B)C : read sayth, 

1642 desteny.] A(C) : destenye.B, w.r. 

1649 most, | AC : most. B 

i652 all.] read -All, 

i656 the,] A : the. B ; thee : CN 

i658 byde] A(BC) : hide N 

1660 dye,] A(C) : dye. B 

1690 rende] AB : rende. C(N) 

1693 ryght] AB(C; : ryght. x, w. r. 

1694 lye] AB : lye : (C)N ; read . 

1 720 plucke] A : dlucke B (p upside 


1721 Slay] ABC : O slay x, w. prob. r. 

1722 of] ABC : missing in x 
1725 byset] AB : beset CN 

1734 sonne] AC : soon B : sonnes N 
1742 kyll,J AC : kill. B 
1748 lye,] A(C) : lie. u 
1763 graundsers] AC : grawndsers 
B ; graundsires N 

1768 and thonely] AC : aud th only B 

1769 furth] A : forth BCN 
1772 thy] AB : the ex 

1781 nobilite] AC : nobiltte B 

1782 fathet] A : father BCN, w. r. 
1785 yeares] AB : yeres c 

1789 When] A : when BC 
1791 gates] AC : gates : B 

1808 rhyrdej AB : thirde C(N), w. r. 
1817 may] AB : May c, w. r. 
1822 remayne! (no stop) AB(C)N 


1 1827 was.] AB : was, ex 

i832 weare.] prob. read without stop 

1837 wylthl AB : with CN 

1 838 Prophecy] AB : Prophecy, c, 

w. r. 

i85i stoughtl ABC : stout x 
i85 4 catchw. ULY] A : ULY. B 
i856 knowne,] AC : knone : n (to 

rhyme n-ith gone) 

1 86 1 embracing] AC : enbraryng B 

1880 graundsyresl A(C): gransyresn 

yeres] AC : yieres B (to rhyme 

with desyeres B) 
1905 thvng] ABC : thinges x 
igi5 arte] read prob. : 
f. E. i. i-, running title : TcOdS \ .\ : 

Troas B c 

ig3z Bearel ABC : read prob. beare x 

1934 hearel ABC : hayre x (which 
reading regularly occurs) 

1944 opprest ?] the ? should prob. be 
put at the end of the line follo 
wing : ...yoke ? 

1957 farderi ABC : further N 

i95g /0>) A : byvc, w. r. 

translater .\c : translator \>, 

iy65 cloath; ABC : close N 

1969 poales do] ABC : poale doth N 

f. E. ii. v, running title : Tcoas] A : 

Troas BC 

1987 ded] AB : ded : c : read prob. ded. 

1992 ackte] AB : acte c 

2000 ware,] ABC : read prob. ware. 

2008 policiel AC : pollecye B 

/. E. iii. r", runn. title :Senerteca] A : 

Seneca B 

2016 message] ABC : messuage N 
2018 thauthor] ABC : th auter N 

2021 Gresians] AC : Grecians BX 
sent] prob. read sent : 

2022 the] A : thee BCN 

2027 should] ACX : shouldst B, w. r. 

1. 2o3i Giecyan] A : Grecya 
2032 honour hongur] A : honour 
honger c ; honour [only] BN. 
w. r. 

2034 The] A : the BC, a 1 . ; . 
2o38 desire] AC : desire, n, ?.-. ;-. 
2042 by] ACN : thy B, w. r. 

deal ABC : day N 
2060 made] read . 
2o63 Ruine] AB : Rune c 

2066 boanesl ABC : bones N 

2067 df ] AB : of ex, w. r. 
2073 veude] ABC : viewde N 

f. E. iiii. r, running titl e Seneneca \ 

A : Seneca B 

2076 torchis] AB : torches c 

2077 Be holde] AB : Beholde c, iv. r. 
2o85 oftimes] ABC : ofttimes x 
2096 beare,] possibly beare ? (cp. latin) 
2io5 vengeaucel A:vengeance BCX, 

iv. r. 

21 10 awaye] AB : away, ex 
2125 mine] AB : Mine c, w. r. 
2145 lengerl ABC : longer N 
2i5i stroke] ABC : stroake x 
2160 heare,] read prob. ; or . 
2164 lay,] read prob. ; or . 
2174 thy] ABC : omitted in x 
2184 blood,] read prob. . 
2188 a\\]prob. read &\\ : 

2201 AudJ A : And BCX, w. r. 

2202 of] ABC : af x 

2210 foreine] ABC : forraine x 
2216 owne,] read . 

2220 befall] read . 

2221 become] read prob. ? 

2227 kiug] AB : king CN, w. r. 

2228 shee] AB : she. c, w. r. 

2237 he ?] the ? would be better placed 
at the end of line following : 

2242 mother] AB : mothers CN 


1. 2270 drawthj AB : draw CN 
2277 sacrifice.] AB : , CN, w. r. 
2282 maybefallj AB : may befall CN, 
w. r. 

2286 morurnes] AB : mournes CN, 

w. r. 

2287 oppres] prob. read . 

2286-7 the last e of "miserie and the s 
of oppres are not clearly 

2293 byfall] ABC : by fall N 

2294 fare.] AB : fare, ex, w. r. 
2296 Ther] AC : There B 
2298 this] AB : this ex. w. r. 
23oi hed] ABC : head x 

^302 stretche] prob. read . or : 
23o6 be,] prob. read ; or . 
23 10 makthe] ABC : makes N 
23i3 ouerpast] pynb. read ; or : 
23ig Phryxusl ABC : Pirrhus x 
2343 lyse] AB : lise c ; lies N 
J3 4 8 Messenger.] ABC : Nuncius, x 

(in follow, scene : Nun. instead 

235o Dyre,] comma not clearly printed 

in A, nor in B. 
^352 blowes.l AB : blowes, c, w. r. 

2353 wurste] ABC : worst x 

2354 A las] AB : Alas c 

2355 catcliK. Ore els] A : Or els B ; 

no catchw. in r 
2358 HEC] A : HEC. BC 
235g is] AB : is. c, w. r. 
2362 he] ACN : be B 
23y3 twaine.] prob. read : or, 
2379 most.] AC : moste, B, w. r. 
2383 anone.l AC : anone, B, w. r. 

2396 yburnte] AB : iburnt ex 

2395 aU \ u \ 

2397 wall] ) 

2398 weare] AB : were c 

1. 2403 preasyd] AB : preased CN 

2429 gro unde] A : grounde, BC, w. r. 

2430 Colchus] ABC : Calchas N 
scythe] AB : scithe c ; scith x 

2442 grou nde] A : grounde BC, w. r. 
2454 had] ABC : hath x 

falne] ABC 

2461 Polyxeyne] read prob. . 
2482 proceed3 d] AB : proceeded c 
2487 Hermyona 1 ] A : : B (iv. r.) ; 
. c 

2489 restorde] ABC : restoarde x 

2490 parre] A : parte BC(N), w. r. 

2492 ersteJ ABC : earste N (cp. I. 25oo) 

2493 last.] prob. read , or : 
2497 oppresse] AB : opprest CN 
2499 commende.] AC : no stop in B, 

w.prob. r. 
25o8 ready] AC : redy B 

heart] AC : hart BN (id. on L 25 1 3) 
25io furth] AC : forth it 
25 1 3 wer] AC : were BN 
2517 stode.] prob. read , 
252i hewe] ABC: , x. In A there is a 

little black mark after hewe ; 

still it does not seem to be a stop, 

though we should expect one here. 
2533 Jreful] ABC : ireful x, w. r. 
2536 eke, eche] ABC : eake, cache N 
2541 soonke] AB : sooke c ; sonke N 
2547 battelsfinysht] A : battels fi- 

nysht B(C). 

2555 takes] brob. read . 
2567 seayes] ABC (to rhyme with 

wayes) : saies x 
256g between this line and 2$ 70 : in B 

Finis (black-letter) 
2570-5 not in c : instead of these lines : 

FI N IS (Roman capital letters}; 

id. in N : p. 118 (Q 8 ) verso. 



In x the title runs (fol. 21 (D 5 ) recto) : 



tuled Thyestes, faithfully Englished 

by Jasper Heywood Felow 

of Alsolne Colledge in 


1. 1-744 n t n N : instead : 

The Argument of this Tragedie. 

Megaera one of the Hellish furies raising vp Tantalus fro Hell, incited 
him to set mortall hatred betwene his two nephewes Thiestes, & 
Atreus being brothers, and raining as Kinges ouer Mycenae by 
enterchangeable turnes, that is to witte Thiestes to raine the one 
yere, and Atreus the other. Now Atreus enraged with furie against 
his brother partly for defiling and deflouring his wife ^Erope by 
pollicie, and partly for taking from him a Ram with a golden fleese, 
practised with his seruftt how to be reueged of his brother. This 
Atreus therfore disseblig a reconciliation & inuiting Thyestes to 
Mycenae secretly & vnknowe to him, set before hi at a banquet the 
flesh of his own childre to eate. Afterward Atreus hauig also geue 
to his said brother y bloud of his childre in a goblet to drinke, did 
lastly comaiid the heads also to be brought in, at the doleful sight 
wherof Thiestes greatly lameting knowTg y he had eate his owne 
childre, was wonderfully anguished. But Atreus for that he had 
thusreuenged himselfe, toke therin great pleasure and delectation. 

201 Wheni r. when 1. 77 5 The speakers] A : The names 

3 99 spaerdei ,\ of the Speakers N 

4 3o Tyll] r. ty 11 778 Thyestes] A : in N, as often through- 
480 maner] r. miner (?) out the tragedy : Thiestes 

552 bie] i. e. buy (to rhyme with hie) 780-2 come before The names of the 
590 catchword Foure] /. 5gi : Fowre Speakers. &a in N (fol. 21 v) 

682 men.] r. men, 848 runagates] A : runnagates x 

745 hir] cp. /. 746 : her 854 vp so downe] A : vpsydowne N 

747 tymes] A J A 3 : Jymes A- 868 awayte.] A : awayte, N 

754 panguel A 898 Tyestesl A : Thyestes N 

3o 4 

1. 928 Phleghethon] A : Phlegethon N 
g5i unhappie] A : r. vnhappie. 
987 cumming] A : comming N 

997 droughtie] A : drughty N 

998 whottei ] A : hoatter x 
1006 separate] A : seperat x 
1028 soondred ; A : sundred x 

io33 roons] A : runnes N (these rea 
dings recur regularly) 

1048 childe] A : chide x 

1078 gulphe] A : gulfe x 

io83 counte] A : in N, as generally, 

1 100 woods] A : woundes N 

1149 harts] A : hates x 

1184 a downe] r. adowne 

1207 feerce] A feere N, w. prob. r. 

1249 within] this word should be placed 
on the following line, being part 
of the second half of the four 
teen er- 

1255 thounder] A : thunder N 

1237 craksl A : crakes N 

i->5g beete] A : bee te x; id, /.i26g,cSvi 

1265 Aboue] A : N puts here : Atre. 

1284 pa-rents | AN : read prob. : pa 
rent (cp. I. 1285 : his) 

1285 rent] AX : read prob. rend 
i3i5 doubteull] A : read doubtfull 


1 325 home] A : whom N 
1414 make] A : makes x 
1424 thrasshed] A : thresshed x 
1452 bo we] A : read bowe (x) 

1455 goons] A : Guns N 
ouerthro we] A : read ouer- 

throwe (N) 

1456 the yr] A : read theyr (N) 
1483 Cyclops] A : Cycolps N 
i5o6 returndel A : returne x 

i5og pase] A : pace x (/. 1524) (cp. 
plaste : /. i5z2). 

1. 1 533 Dylaceratel AX : r. dylacerate 
1 594 francansence] A : frankinsen- 

ce x 
i63 4 Thy,] r. Thy. 

1646 you.] the stop is not quite distinct in 
any of the three copies of A ; it 
might be a comma ; in x : you. 

i665 sent] AX (id. on line 1670) 

1671 throuh] A : r. through (x) 

1688 Embrasyng] A : embracing x 

1703 gyltiel A : guiltie x 

1708 feete] A : seete x 

1740 lurke ] A : r. lurke. 

kindome] A : r. kingdome (x) 

1748 ye] r. Ye 

1768 no] A : Mo x 

1782 mothers] A : mother N 

1801 Cyclops] A : Cyclpos x 

i8o5 Laertes] A 

181 1 bearej b not quite clearly printed 
in the copies of A. : x : beare 

1919 Myrtoon] A : Myrtoon x 

ig3i Yrksome] A : read yrksome (x) 

ig53 once] A : on x 

ig56 mid day] AN 

ig58 geuen] A 1 : in A- and A :! : geuer. 
This fault must have been cor 
rected during the printing pro 
cess : the n of A 1 is a little below 
the line, geuen and seems to 
have been shuffled in afterwards ; 
the r in \~ and A 3 is quite in a 
line with the other types, 

2oi3 gangey] AN 

2030 deligths] A : r. delights (x) 

2031 Whome] r. whome 
take] AN (r. takes ?) 

2o55 apiteous] A : r. a piteous (N) 

2062 maend] A : maynd x 

2104 vutombde] A : r. vntombde (N) 

2134 scatter] A : skatter x 

2199 phlegrey] AN 


1. 2233 a sloapeJ AN 

223g hellen] \ : Hellen x 

2243 whot] A : boat x 

2252 thy] A : the N 

2256 whelme] the first e is not clearly 
printed in A 1 nor in A - . 

2269 faught] A : fraught x 

2t5i wether, \the comma is not quite 
distinct in A 1 and \ A ; it is in 
A - . In N there is no comma. 

2356 delect] A : detect x 

238g a dred] AN 

2399 steptors] A : r. sceptors (x) 

2481 auncyters] AX 

2584 atoo] A : a two x 

2600 heare] A : here x 

. 2658 repearel A : repayre x 
2660 Jn] A : r. in 
2663 soons ?] A (N : sonne.) 
2677 deathe] A : omitted in x 
2691 denns] A (final s not quite dis 
tinct) : denne x 
2698 crallyng] A : craullng x 
2/o3 mysshapte] A : myshapte N 
2709 Plutoes] A : Putoes x 
2717 headid] A : headed x 
2739 pangs] A (final s not quite dis 
tinct) : pange x 
2772 ferfull] A : fearefull x 
2779 were] A : r. where (N) 
2813 FINIS] in x,/0/.39(F 7) verso : 
1. 2814-2820 arc omitted. 


1. i-i3a not in x, inhere // F. begins 
with I. 1 33 (fol. i (B 1 ) recto) : 
the title is put at the end of the 

57 vn] r. vn- 

58 schol] r. schol- 
70 wril r. wri- 

84 authoril r. authori- 
90 vniuersi] r. vniuersi- 

100 formi] r. for mi (r. my) 

106 tha] r. tha- 

no o f] r. of 

144 Cerberus] between this word and 
the bracket, there is a little black 
mark in A 1 and A : * (not in A. 2 ) ; 
possibly it is a badly printed stop, 
zvhich would account for the capi 
tal A of And : N has neither stop 
here, nor capital letter : and 

1. 147 goddes] A : goddesse x 
148 fransy] A : frensy N 
167 romaynes] r. Remaynes 
174 hoores] A : whoores x 
184 catchword The] e badly printed. 
192 mil] A : r. full (x) 
212 catchw. Aud] : r. And 
218 kyndlyng] A : kyndled x 
229 taemde] A : tarn d x 
25i preuaile] r. Preuaile 
262 sprightes] A : in x, as regularly, 

sprites (id. quight A : cjuite 

x : f. i. I. 3o3, c~rt.)- 
285 soon] A : in x, asgenerallv, sunne 
3o2 gotten] A : gotted x 
3o5 payse] A : prayse N 
3io s kies] A : r. skies 
33i seekst] A : Seekes x 
343 waged! A : wages N 


1. 352 catchw. Whcr e] : r. Where 
353 where! A : r. Where 
35y what] : r. What 
359 embrewe] A : imbrew N (variant 

recurring almost regularly) 
371 for] A : r. For 

roage] A : rage x 
4i5 clere so] A : cleresome N 
426 do grase] AN 
433 bow] A : boughe N 
438 wynds] A : wynde N 
441 rocks] A : rocke x 
448 lytle,] A : prob. read without com 

464 hold.] A : prob. read comma or co 

lon ; N : hold : 

465 lyue) A : the e is smudged. 

469 againvntwist] A : r. again vu- 

twist (N) 

spo] A : prob. read spo. (x) 
478 hide] A : read hide. 

490 cumpanye] A : company x 

491 nerel A : read nrre. (N. neare) 
497 apoynt] A : x, as generally, 


5i8 The] : r. the 
53 1 fnll] A : r. full (x) 
553 Cithaeron] A : Citheton x 
557 whche] A : r. whiche (x) 
588 beareth] A^V* : be areth A- 
625 in] AN : prob. read in, 
707 sonns] A : sonne x 
/". D6 r, running title SUF.J read fur. 
7i5 AM] A : r. AM. 
727 Aud] A : read And 
764 Possesse] A : read possesse 
790 stubberne] A : stuvburne x 
806 a newe] A : r. anewe (N) 
843 fleeyng] A : fleetyng N 
848 Thou] A : r. thou 
873 erect3 ng] A : erected x 
882 haptel A : hap N 

1. 889 conquryng] A : conquering x 
890 feare] A : feare. x, w. r. 
906 catch, when] A : r. When 
912 Euen] A : r. euen 
917 treblng] : A : r. trebling (x) 

935 Thehells] A : r. The hells (x) 

936 The] A : r. the 
938 Of] A : r. of 

947 Thon] A : r. Thou (x) 

999 AM.] the stop is clearly printed 

in A 1 , not in A", and faintly 

in A 3 . 

1016 Knowe] A : r. knowe 
io33 AM] A : r. AM. 
1060 this line should be indented. 
io63 allonely] A : all onely x 
/. F3, running title : SUr.J r. fur. 
1078 Of] A : r. of 
1129 be] A : r. prob. be, 
n5i flo] A : sloe x 
1180 1 etl A : r. let 
1186-7-8 Prob. want of space prevented 

a comma being put at the end 

of each of these lines, 
1199 thon] A 1 : in \ z and A 3 thou 
1236 thowght] A : thought x 
1238 of] A : missing in N 
1293 weare] A : were x 
f. G3 r, running title : SUf] r. fur. 
1 323 a waye] A : a wave x 
1327 to tell.] A>A 3 : in A.~ t o tell (no 


1405 vglye lye] A : vglily x 
1414 and] A : r. and 
i 42 3 THE] A : r. THE. 

1442 gwyde] A : guide x 

1443 dot he] A : r. dothe 
1460 rounoe] A : r. rounde 

1467 kyngdomeis] A : r. kyngdome 


1486 their] A : there x 
1504 peop les] A : r. peoples 

3o 7 

1. 1 523 shy tie] some dirt in the ligature 
sh almost gives it the appea 
rance o/ fh : N shit 

i563 fery] A : Feary x 

i5y3 natheles] A : in x : Nathales 
with capital N : this word is 
printed, in a black-letter text, 
with Roman types, like all pro per 
names, and must have been 
mistaken as such. 

1609 sent] AN : i. e. scent 

i633 weery] A : weary x 

1646 kyngdome] d is clearly printed 
in A , not in A~, nor in A 3 . 

i058 heauye] A : happy x 

1699 somer] AN 

1704 cum] A : comme N (similar 
variant in I. ij3o) 

1708 so] A 1 A 3 : s -indistinct in A 2 

1712 name.] A A 2 : name A :! 

1755 Megara,] r. Megara. 

1807 Euen] r. euen 

1819 the] A : thee x 

1820 yn his] A : in this N 
i835 fieldes] A : field x 
1871 What] r. what (?) 
1874 daselde] A : daseld N 
1879 catchw. yet ] A : r. Yet 

1 883 abdue] A : aboue N, w. r. 
1889 owne] A (lat- ultro) : one x 
1894 stubborne] A : stubburne N 
1940 enmiows] A enmious x 
1962 ouertnrnde] A : read ouerturn- 

de (x) 
1964 here : ] A 2 : here, A 1 here ; A :! 

here, x 
1986 runnagate] A : runagate x 

1989 Thee] r. thee 

1990 wher] r. Wher 

1993 He rclesl A : r. Hercles 

1. 1990 wi th] A : r. with 
2002 o n] A 1 : in A 2 and A 3 on, (the com 
ma must have fallen out during 
the printing process and the 
types separated) 

2010 Am,] r. Am. 

2o3o y] A : the x : read prob. y (?) 
2067 breatbe] A : Y. breathe (x) 
2089 astrey] A : Astrey x (lat- As- 

2096 weerye] A : wearye x (similar 

variant in L 2106, 2170, &>a) 
2io3 Lo] A (cp. catchw-) : Loe x 
2io5 subclewde] A : subdude x 

2108 hand] A : handes x 

2109 withmouing] A : r. withmouing 
2122 bosoms] : A : bosome N 

y] A : the N 
alow] A : allow x 
ji23 strips] A : strypes x 

2124 coquryng] A : r. coqueryng (x) 

2125 here] A : heare x 

2148 weapon] A : weapons x 

2149 set] A : set x 

2150 td] A : read to 

2177 returne] A : returnd N 

2ig3 Them] A : r. them (x : then) 

2196 fearyd] A : feared N 

2203 euer] AX : prob. read euen 

22 1 5 this line should have been indented. 

2222 hydd] A : hide x 

223i wy] A : read my (x) 

2284 tourne] A : turne x 

2286 healde] A : held x 

2289 fawte] A : fait x 

2302 hawtye] A : haughty x 

2303 pr epared] A : r. prepared 
23ii accustomdlye] A : accustomd 

23 1 4 togyther] A : togeather x 


1. 2325 catchw. B u] A 1 : Bu in .\" ; But 
in A 3 ( The types must have fal 
len out during the printing pro 

2326 wraths] : wrath N 

233 1 tormentrrye] A : r. tormentrye 

235i heauye] final e not very distinct 
in A 1 

236o who] A : r. Who 

2362 Her] A : r. Her. 

23y2 withdrawen] A : r- with capital 

W (Withdraw x) 
238o O f] A : read Of 
2386 Audi A : read And 
2390 hath] A 1 A :i : in \~ ha th 
2394 monsters] A : r. monsters 
23g6 alowe] A : allow x 
23gy aud] A : read and 
23g8 th el A : read the 
2402 wherfore] A : read with capital W 
2409 loase] A : lose x 

ratchet . : my] A : r, M\ 
. .411 heinous] A : hainous N 
2412 wiltl A : read with capital W 
2430 with] A : id. 

2438 euyll] e indistinct in A :I 
2441 sorbydl A : readfoibyd (x) 

1. 2457 euery] first e indistinct in A 1 and 

A :! , clear in A 2 
2458 and] A : read And 
2494 o Thcseu] A : read O Theseu 
25oo straight] A : st is smudged. 
25o2 thys] A : t rather faint in the 

three copies of A 
25og byde] : bid x 

25 1 3 euen] A : n is doubtful and might 

be a u. 

25 14 Her.] stop faint in A 1 and A 3 , 

clear in A 

2529 roonagate] A : ronnagate x 
2534 what] A : rend What 
2542 shoolde] A : shoulde x 

2553 soon] A 1 : A 2 and A :i have soona 

2554 mith] A : read With 
beholdel first e indistinct in the 

three copies of A : the same has to 
be said of the first e o/frende 
on the next line 2555. 
2565 t o] A : read to 
2568 Aud] A : read And 
2574 which] A : read Which 
2676 Instead of FINIS and the colo 
phon, N has the title : (folio 20 
(04) verso] : 

Tragedy e of Seneca, called Her 
cules furens, translated into En- 
glishe by lasper Heywood stu- 
dente in Oxenforde. 


As mentioned in the Introduction, Heywood published the 
Latin text of this tragedy opposite to his translation. This 
text enlightens us about the editions of Seneca he used, and 
the way he availed himself of them for his English rendering. 

The following list is the result of a collation of his text 
with that which appears in L. ANNAEI SENECAE TRA- 
GOEDIAE, recensuerunt Rudolphus Peiper et Gustavus 
Richter (Leipzig, MCMII). Mere differences in spellingare not 
recorded (f. i. harena, Hibera arena, Ibera ; caelum coelum ; 
incluta inclyta ; sue suae ; immo imo ; summissum sub- 
missum ; carus charus ; auctor author, &>a). Punctuation is 
not taken into account except when the difference involves 
a change in the sense. 

The first figures refer to the lines in Heywood s translation ; 
the second to those of Peiper-Richter s text. H denotes the 
Latin text given by Heywood ; P that by Peiper-Richter : 
Finally for every variant the signs of the different codices 
(A, E, ^, ", &a) have been added which, according to the 
textual notes in Peiper-Richter s edition (from which I quote 
them), have the same reading as Heywood s. When the lat- 
ter s variant is not recorded in their notes, I quote (within 
brackets) the XVI th century editions where it occurs : BM = 
edition with comment, of Gellius BernardinusMarmita, Venice, 
1492 ; E = Erasmus edition, Paris, i5i3 ; Asc. = Judocus Badius 
Asctnsius edition, Paris, :5i4 ; HP = Henricus Petrus edition, 
Basle, 1541 ; G = Gryphius edition, Lyons, 1541. (See Intro 
duction}. Readings which seem quite particular to Heywood 
have been pointed out by a + 

1. 162-3-4 i IVNOjP : ACTVS PRIMVS. IVNO. sola. 

Trimetri lambici. H 
187 12 ferro minax hinc terret]P : fera coma hinc 

exterret H A E- 


1. 190 


aureus] P : aureas H 




tellus nuribus a ! sparsa] P : 


sparsa tellus II 




escendat] P : ascendat H 


E 2 



ortus] P : ortu H 




Ouae] P : Quid H 




36-37 patrem probavi, gloriae feci 


qua Sol reducens quaque deponens diem] P 

Patrem probavit. inde, qua lucem 


A per it queTethys, qua ferens Titan diem H AE 3 



tinguit] P : tingit II 

E 1 



Aethiopas] P : Aethiopes H 





lovi] P : Ioui?H 



terna] P : tetra H 





experto] P : expense H 


3o 7 


meli usque] P : mediusque H 




tulit] P : tulit : H 



prementem :] P premente, H 


3 4 2 


pete,] P : pete- II 

3 4 3- 4 

between v. 89 and 90 : 

Mouenda iam suntbella,clarescit dies. H 




quam munit] P : qua mugit II 



36 7 


citae] P : incitae H 




vitiatae] P : violatae II 


38i- 2 


vobis] P : nobis H 




furis] P : furit H 




vota] P : iam odia H 




vicit :] P : pariter, H 




manu] P manum H 


123-4 P : 1. 123 is placed in H beti^een 89 and go; 

I. 124 is omitted. A 

411 CHORVS] P : CHORVS. Anapaestici et 

ultimus lambicus. H 
417 i3o Arcados] P : Arcades H ^ 

420 i33 summa... Oeta] P : summum ... Oethan H ^ 

421 i34 Bacchis] P : baccis H <J> 
426 i38 domos.] P : domes H 


425 i3g Pastor] P : Pastor, II 
480 143 reparant] P : reperant H (prob. misprint] 
436 i5o circa] P : circum II A 

From 1. \5oto i53, and further on lines 160-1-2, 
and 174/0 179, the disposition of the verses differs 
in P and H, the second half -verse of a line in P 
being the first half-verse of the following line in H . 
448 161 domus ; ] P : domus, H 
448-9 162 spes immanis] P : spes et in agris. 

Turbine magno spes sollicitae H ^A 

453 1 66 hie... beatas] P : ac... beatus H (HP, G) 

4 55 1 68 auroj P : auro est II (HP] 

475 1 88 tempore Parcae.] P : ordine Parcae, H AE :J 
492-4 betw. 204-205 AMPHITRYON MEGARA LY- 
GARA. Trimetri lambici. H (Asc, PIP, G) 
5oq 212 vacat] P : datur H A 
5 12 21 3 a primo] P : apprime II AE 2 
52i 218 reptabat] P : reptavit H A 
5^3 219 lumine] P : pectore H A 
535-6 225 pressus 1. gemuit] P : Gemuit 1. pressus H A 
538 226 gregis] P : gregis ? H E 
53g 227 datum,] P : datum ? H 

544 229 Arcadia] P : Arcadica II (HP) 

543 229 suem,] P : suem ? H 

549 232 Tartesii] P : Cartesii II A T 

55g-6o 237 ac rupto] P : abrupto H u> 

56i 238 latam] P : etiam H (et iam A) (Asc, HP) 

567-8 241 quid ?] P : quid H 

malum,] P : malum ? H 

570 242 mori,] P : mori ? H E 

571 243 pinnis] P : pennis H 
573-4 244 petit] P : petiit H 

Stymphalidas ?] P : Stymphalidas. H 

582 248 Augeil P : Augiae H 
587 2 5 1 tristes] P : telris II (evidently a misprint for 

terris (= EA) ; in transL : earthe) 
6o3-4 25g tremis] P : tremit H AE 3 


1. 621-2 268 atque Ophionium genus] P : ciuis 

atque Amphionis H (in EA cinis) (Asc) 

623 269 reccidistis] P : decidistis H <J/ 

626 270 gravem.] P : gravem ? H 

629 272 confringit] P : confregit H A 

63i-2 273 fieri] P : fern H ty 

640 277 precor] P : tuis H A 

643 279 MEG.] P : omitted in H where the preceding 

verses are spoken bv Megara (in P and in A by 
Amphitryon} (Asc, HP, G) 

644 dispulsas] P : depulsas H A 
645-6 280 retro] P : vetito H A 
647 281 clusum] P : clausum H A T 
666 290 efferens] P : afferens H (Asc, HP) 
685-6 3oo potens] P : parens H <\> 

688 3oi muta] P : multa H A 

689 3o2 Eleusin] P : Eleusi H (Asc, HP) 

690 iactabit] P : iactabo H A 
703-4 betw. 3o8- 9 AMPHITRYON. MEGARA. Tri- 

metri lambici. H 4 1 

717 3i5 moveri] P : amoveri H A 

719 3i6 prona &a.] P : Meg. Prona &*a. H A 

721 3i7 MEG.] P : omitted in H A 

729 32i adit] P : abiit H AE 2 

736 324 pedes.] P : pedes? H 

761 332 LYC.] P : omitted in H A 
756 334 Ismenos] P : Ismenus H 
761-2 betw. 336 & 337 LYCVS. MEGARA. AMPHI 
TRYON. Trimetri lambici. H A 
7g5-6 353 posse invidiam] P : posse te invidiam H fy 
797 354 fors] P : sors H + 
800 355 tristi] P : tristis H A^ 
8i3-4 362 gerant] P : agant H (Asc, HP] 

828 36g regno] P : regni H (Asc) 

829 370 sociemur] P : sociemus H AE 2 
847 38o patrium] P : patriam H to 
864 387 nefas] P : nefas? H 


866 388 nati patris] P : nati & patris H <HP) 

873 3ga subrigens] P : surrigens H 

880 3 9 5 libetj P : lubet H 

893-4 402 pater?] P : pater : H 

8g5 403 fratres?] P : fratres : H 

902-3 407 acti ?] P : acti : H 

918 414 exanguis] P : exangues H A 

925 418 tremesco] P : tremisco II A^E- 

943-4 427 Effarepotius,quodnovisthalamisparem] P : 

Effare, thalamis quod novis potius parem 1 1 to 
949-5o 43o Sceptrone nostro famulus estpotiortibi ?] P : 

Sceptroquenostropotiorest famulus tibi? H E^A 
g5i-2 43i neci.] P : neci ? H 

965-6 438 sperat] P : penetrat H A 

969-70 440 partes meae sunt] P : partes meae hae 

sunt H A 

982 446 lovem :] P : lovem ? H 
995-6 453 terra mater errante edidit ?] P : terrae 

mater erranti edidit. H -f- 

997-8 454 Num monstra saeva... feras ?] P : Non 

monstra, saevas... feras. H A 

iooz-5 456 LYC.] & /. 457 AMPH.] P : omitted in H to 

looi 456 mala ?] P : mala. H 

1009 460 non] P : Num H (HP) 

1010 Idaeae] P : exesae H A 
1027 469 nardo,] P : nardo ? H 

io5g-6o 485 invius] P : obvius H to 

1061-62 486 integer Cycnus] P : ante Geryonas H At 
1061 pati] P : pati. H 
1089 5oo dest] P : deest H 
1114 5i2 inroga] P : irroga H 

1 120 5i5 colam] P : rogem H A 

1 1 35 523 est estj P : en est H A 

1137 betw. 523-524 CHORVS] P : CHORVS. Chor- 

iambici seu asclepiadaei. H 

ii5a 538 tenderent] P : tenderant H A 

1168 554 pigro] P : nigro H <*> 

3i 4 

1. 1 177 -563 tergemina] P : ter gemina TI 

1194 577 placed in H after line 58o A 

1204 5go carmine] P : cantibus H A 

1206-8 betw. verses Sgi-2 HERCVLES] P : ACTVS 

TERTIVS. HERCVLES. Trimetri lam- 

bici. H 

!2i3-4 694 inlustre latis] P : illustre laetis H A 

1216 5g5 inlicitum] P : illicitum H 

1219 597 arcana] P : secreta H A 

1249 612 vidi] P : vici H w 

1253-4 614 iam diu] P : tarn diu H A 

1255 6i5 quae] P : quid H A 

1261-2 betw. 617-618 AMPHITRYON &c.] P : in H 

is added : Trimetri lambici. 

1266 622 at] P : & II to 

1273-4 623 teneone in auras editumanvanafruorJP: 

Verum ne cerno corpus? an fallor tua H A T 

1286 629 posseditLycus,]P:Lycuspossidet.H (Asc,HP) 

i3oo 634 nostia] P : hostis H (o 

i3i9 646 lassis] P : lapsis H ^ 

i337 654 a l to in pectore] P : alto pectore H A 

i33g 656 quae] P : quod II (Asc, HP) 

1346 65g inrita] P : irrita II 

1 347 660 Enna] P : Aetna H co 
1369-70 671 nocte sic mixta] P : tale non dubie H A 
i375 674 penetrat] P : pereat H w 
i38i-2 677 aer urguet] P : agger urget H (HP) 
1 387 679 immensi sinus] P : immenso sinu H A 

1 387 680 placido] P : Tacito H (BM) 

1 394 683 incertis] P : incerta H A 

1 394 684 undis] P : unda H A 

1410 691 iacet] P : iacens H co 

H3i 702 situ] P ; siti H + 

1441 707 Quid] P : Quid ? H 

1471 722 recentes] P : recentes. H 

1471-2 722 dei.] P : deo : H A 

1480 726 aspectus] P : aspectum II A 


1. 1483-4 728 sera] P : saeva H -f- 

1494 y33 aditur] P : auditur H A 

i5i5 744 loca,] P : loca. H 

i5i7 745 futurus.] P : futurus H 

1 520 747 vestra] P : nostra H 

i523 748 nocentes ?] P nocentes, H 

1 52Q 75 1 Sysiphia] P : Sysiphea H o> 

i53 4 753 alluit] P : abluit H AE 

i537-8 755 unda in ore ; p.] P : unda : in ore p. H + 

1540 756 Tityos] P : Tityus H A T 

1541-2 757 gerunt] P : ferunt H A 

i553-4 763 stupent ubi undae P : stupente ubi unda H A 

1 557 765 vectat] P : gestat H u> 

i56i-2 767 lucent] P : squalent H E 

i563-4 768 longo portitor conto] P : conto portitor 

longo H A 

1567 770 umbras] P : undas H A 

i58i-2 777 titubanti] P : titubante H (A : titubato) (HP) 

1 583 778 victa] P : vasta H A 

i586 779 in] P : ad H (omit, in A) (Asc) 

i5qg 786 colubrae,] P : colubri : H (Asc, HP) 

1607-8 790 subrecta] P : subiecta H A 

i6i3 793 leviterque] P : Et uterque II < 

i625-6 799 tegit,] P : clepit. H A 

1627-8 800 gerens.] P : gerens, H 

i656 814 novus] P : bonos H A 

1660 816 victorem] P : vectorem II (HP) 

1670 821 diem] P : aethera, H A 

1680 826 Herculeas] P : Herculea H A 

1680 827 umbras] P : umbra H A 

1687 betw.Bzg 83o CHORVS] P : in H is added : 

Sapphici Hendecasyllabi. 

1692 83 4 es] P : est H A 

1694 836 nigra metuenda silva,] P : sylva me- 

tuenda nigra : H A 

1698 840 ruit] P : coit H a 

1705 842 nocti] P : noctis, H A 


1. 1707 849 graditur] P : gradiens H A 

1716 858 vobis] P : nobis H AE 

1718 860 terra ?] P : terra. H 

1721 863 vacuaeque] P : variaeque H (HP, E) 

1732 874 carpit] P : carpsit H A 

betw. 1732-3 874-5 : in H is added : Choriambici Glyco- 

nii versus. 

1744 886 alluitur] P : abluitur H A 

i 7 53-5 betw- 894-895 HERC. &a.] P : in H : ACTVS 




1795 914 manus,] P : manus. H 

1796 gi5 tu conditores]P:Th[es].DiiconditoresH A 
1798 916 Zethi] P : Cethi H 

1798-9 916 nobilis Dircen aquae] P : nobiiis Dir- 

ces aquas H A 

1 800- 1 917 regisadvenae]P:regisquiadvenaeH (Asc,HP) 

1800 917 coles] P : colis H A 

1802 918 date] P : Here. Date H A 

:863 948 rutila] P : rutilat H A 

1864 949 iactans] P : iactans. H 

1873 953 refers] P : refers ? H 

1893 963 polum ?] P : polum, H 

1896 965 dubitatur etiam ? vincla] P : dubitatur ? 

etiam vincla H -f- 

1919 976 pestiferimovent.] P:pestiferamovent, H A 

1920 977 profugit umbras] P:profugit& umbras H (HP) 
1920 977 Tityos] P : Tityus H A 
1925 979 Pellene] P : Pallene H A 

1928 981 Oeten] P : Oethen H 

1929 981 Mimans.] P : minans H EA 
ig3o 982 Erinys] P : Erinnys : H 

1945 989 levis] P : leves H A 

1948-9 991 impegit] P : inuergit H A 

1962 997 Cyclopia] P : Cyclopea H AE 

1964-5 999 valva deiecto] P : aula, disiecto H wA 


1. 1967 iooo culmen] P : columen H A 

1968 looi perlucet] P : procumbat H A 

1976 ioo5 dextra] P : dextram H (Asc) 

1979 1007 sonuit] P : sonat H (Asa 

1980 1007 disperse] P : dispersa H (Asc) 
1990 1012 latebram] P : latebras H A 
2001 1017 tendat] P : tendit H -)- 
2006-7 1020 occidat] P : auferam H A 
2012-3 1023 eripuit] P : rapuit H A 
2024-5 1029 istuc caede nostrorum inlitumj P : istum 

caede monstrorum illitum H to 

2o3o io32 quo te ipse, senior, obvium &>a.} P : Th[esJ . 

Quo te ipse genitor obvium d^a. H A 

2o5a 1043 hebetat ?] P : hebetat. H 
2059 1045 labat ;] P : labat, H 

2061-2 1047 portum] P : portus H A 

2062 1048 vivis] P : vivis ? H 

2069 io5i gravi] P : gravis H A 

2074 betw. io53 and io54 CHORVS] P : in H is 

added : Anapaestici, Adonii duo. 
2077 io56 unda,] P : unda. H 
2087 1066 malorum] P : laborum H (HP, E) 

2089 1068 o matris] P : o omitted in H co 

2090 1069 languide] P : languidae H 

Lines io65-io66 ; 1086-1094; noo-no5; 
1116-1119; n33-ii34; i i35-n36 are divided 
otherwise in H : the second half-verse of 
a line in P being the first half -verse of 
the following line in H . The lines in H are 
not printed in the arrangement of the text 
in P, but in the order indicated by the 
figures placed by the side of the lines. 

After I. 1074 in H comes line 1077 : placidus fessurn &>a. A 
2098 1076 noctem :] P : mortem H to 

2096 1077 fove] P : foves H (HP) 

2109 1089 omnis] P : omnes H A 

2110-1 1090 vexata] P : vexato H + 


1. 2i3o 1109 lateque] P : latique H w 

2131 mo medius] P : melius H A 

2132 mi senserat aer.] P : senserat, aether. A 
2i38 1117 graves] P : leves H A 
2144 1 123 saevos] P : saevo H (Asc,HP) 
2148 1127 Scythicis leve corytis] P : Scythici leve 

coryti H A 

2i5i n3o iubatae] P : iubatae. H 

2i55 1134 furor,] P : furor. H 

2i56-7 n36 laboris,] P : laboris. H 

ai5g-6i behv. line 1187 & ii38 HERO. &>a\ P : ACTVS 
TRYON. THESEVS. Trimetri lam- 
bici. H 

2162 u38 locus,... regio,] P : locus ?... regio ?... H 

2173 1143 ad domum] P : domo H w 

2184 1149 es,] P : est H A 

2188-9 n5i abit... meum] P : abiit... meum? H 

2199 1 1 56 libet] P : libet : H 

2200 n57 virtus] P : victor. H A 
2202 n58 relicto,] P : relicto ? H 

2202 n58 cuius in fetu] P : cuius incestu H A 

2204 iiSg nostra.] P : nostra ? H 

2209 1161 obtinet] P : obtinet ? H 

2220 1167 omnis] P : omnes H A 

2227 1170 Geryonae] P : Geryonis H A 

2238 1176 omnis] P omnes H A 

2247 1 1 80 impotens] P : potens H A 

2256 1 1 85 fare.] P : fare, H 

2272 1193 refugit.] P : refugit, H 

2276-7 1195 leto?... nece] P : leto,... nece ? H 

2278-9 1196 nostra.] P : nostra, H 

2280 1197 quis] P : Quae H (Asc, HP) 

2280 1197 flectere] P : flectere ? H 

2282-3 1198 rite cedentem] P : vix recedentem H AE 

2286 1 200 tacuere ?] P : tacuere : H 

2292-3 I2o3 oblite nostri vindica sera manu] P : oblite 

nati, vindica saeva manu H + 

1. 23o2-3 1208 vacat cur] P : paretur H A 

23i5 1214 medium] P : & medium H (Asc) 

2324-5 1219 attonito carens] P : attonitum caret H A 

2336 1225 hoc] P : hue II A 

2345 1229 arcum] P : ensem H to 

235o 1232 at] P : ac H A 

2356 1235 poenas.] P : poenas, H 

236o i23y AMPH. ..usquam..]P:Th[es]. ..vnquam..H A 

236o-i 1237 addidit] P : indidit H (HP) 

236 4 i 2 3 9 AMI-H.] P : Th[es]. H A 

2394-5 1254 furit] P : fuit H (HP) 

2396-7 1255 aut] P : & H + 

2400 1267 f.tuitactumque] P :f. tui,contactum&H (Asc) 

2412 1263 parentem.] P : parentem ? H 

2412 1263 j A 

2414 1264 AMPH.] P : Th[es]. H A 

2416 1265 (Asc) 

2418-9 1266 pete] P : peto H A 

2428 1270 violatum] P : violatae H A 

2444 1279 propero-] P : propero, H 

2445 1279 iamdudum] P : iamque dudum H (Asc) 
2452 1283 ignava] P : ignave H to 

2454 1284 pavidasque matres] P : pavidamque 

matrem H E 

2455 1284 dantur] P : dentur H A 
2460-1 1287 cremabo, aut tota] P: cremabo. Tota H EA 
2466 1290 versa] P : eversa H E 
2472-3 1293 quod mundi sedet] P : qua mundus 

sedet H A 

2476 1295 AMPH. Reddo arma. HERC. Vox (S-a.] 

P : (Here.) Redde arma. Am. Vox &a. H A 

2480 1297 AMPH.] P : not in H, where the speech of 

Amphitryon continues (front I- I2Q5) to 

line 1314. A 

2481 1297 immisit tuis.] P : emisit tuis, H A 
2482-3 1298 HERC. AMPH.] P : omitted in H A^ 
2485 1299 pectusque] P : corpusque H to 


1. 2486-7 l3oo HERC. AMPH.] P : omitted in H A 

2488-9 i3oi HERC.] P : omitted in H Aw 

2490 i3o2 AMPH.] P : omitted in H A \> 

2494-5 i3o4 eripere nee tu ; maximum &>a,] P : 

Theseu, ipse necdum maximum &a. H A 

25O4-5 iSog fessam] P : quassam H A 

25io-i i3i2 laetare! ferropectusimpresso induam :] P 

letale ferrum pectus impressum induam, H Aw 

2526-7 i32o aegro] P : ergo H (ego A) (HP) 

2530 i322 recondam] P : recondam ? H 

2531 i322 obruar] P : obruam H A 
2558-9 i336 quoniamque] P : Quicunque H (Asc, HP) 
2566 1340 constitue] P : restitue H co 


To avoid confusion, the capital A is printed in Roman type 
in the following pages when it refers to the editions of the 
three tragedies translated by Heywood that are reproduced in 
this volume. When it represents the vulgaris lectio of the latin 
original (Peiper-Richter s A), it is printed in Italic type A . 


171-2. dares Phrygian... dictis of Crete] About these histori 
cal swindlers and their vogue in the Middle-ages, cp. J. Dun- 
lop, The Historv of Fiction, ch. vi (ed. Liebrecht, Berlin, i85i); 
Ebert, Geschichte der Literatur des Mittelalters im Abendlandc 
(Leipzig 1889), t. I, p. 609 ; Sandys, History of Classical Scholar 
ship, Cambridge 1906 t. I. p. 647 ; Collilieux, Dictys et Dares 
(Grenoble, 1886) ; &a. 

176. casteth care to know] to cast is probably used here in 
the same sense as in to cast love, favour, a fancy to &a. The 
expression is not mentioned in the NED. 

181. iestes] gestes, deeds, exploits. NED. 

186. hugye] obsolete form of huge ; NED. Cp. TH. 1. 2264. 

197. gan] aphetic form of began : cp. 1. 53i ; TH. 1. 723. 

200. ycorued] another past participle with the old prefix 
occurs on 1. 2896 : yburnte. 

221. resight] = recite, to relate, narrate, describe. NED. 

23i. they gone] 3 d pers. plur. of present tense in - of to go ; 
NED ; cp. The Enterlude of Youth, (edit. Bang-M Kerrow) v. 654. 

233. thrust] evidently a misprint for thurst, as B reads. - 
thurst is used here transitively ; cp. line io85. 

246. leese] = lose. NED. Cp. 1. 1942, 2i5o &a. 


293-4- And whose assautes they sought afarre &>a.} different 
from the Latin : ad cuius arma venit &a (1. 8). 

298. dea] this form of day is not recorded in NED. ; it shows 
the influence of the spelling of its rhyme sea (1. 3oo). Cp. 1. 2042. 

3oi-2. And which... sought :] Seneca writes : et quae [i. e., 
Penthesilea] vagosvicina prospiciens Scvthas / tip am catervis Ponti- 
cam viduisferit (1. 12, i3). 

3i6. troyes ashes staynes] staynes = plural form in -s of the 
3rd p. of the pres. tense. The plural form in -s or -th (Cp. 1. 533) 
often occurs here. Cp. J Knecht, Kongruenz zwischen Subject und 
Pradikat, 1911, p. 49 ff. 

341-4. What euer... frayde] Heywood does not seem to have 
understood the Latin (1. 34-5) : quaecumque Phoebas [i. e., Cassan 
dra] ore lymphato furens / credi deo [i. e. Phoebo] vetante praedixit 
mala, &c. He must have read Phoebus instead of Phcebas ; in 
that case ore lymphato had to be explained as through Cassan 
dra, as is clearly shown in 1. 347. Heywood probably added 
lines 343 and 344 to make up for the allusions of Seneca which 
he did not catch. 

35o. nor none of his] cp. Latin : aut Ithaci comes / nocturnus, i.e. 
Diomedes (1. 38-g). 

354. Parys is the brande :] Heywood s addition. 

3g3. Whom shall J &>a.] cp. lectio A : praeda quern vilis 
sequar?(\. 58). 

401-4. But] alas cS>0.] the Latin text is quite different : (1. 62) 
mea sors timetur, sola sum Danais metus. 

410-2. let your complaintes &#] the original has here : 
iamdudum sonet / fatalis Ide, iudicis diri domus (1. 65, 66), which 
allusion to Paris has been replaced by a poor development of 

425. roges] word formed evidenty from the Latin rogum = 
pyre. The oldest instance in NED. is from 1661 (Hickeringill). 
It is not impossible that roge should be a word of Heywood s 
coining. Newton spells rages. It occurs agam in HF, 1. 371 : 
for burnyng roage bryng out of hell &c. : (in X again rage) ; and 
1. 868 : roage (N). The Latin word rogus is further translated in 
HF by wood pyle on 11. 1106, 1118, and by funeral I on 11. ig32 
and 2354. 


426. in feelde] I. at. : Sigeis... campis (1. y5). 

435. In dust of Troy <sa.] Heyw. has read 1. 86-9 of the Latin 
with a punctuation altogether different from any of the copies : 
tepido Troiae pulvere turfies 
paret exertos turba lacertos 
veste remissa, substringe sinus 
liter oque tenus^ pateant artus^ &a. 

substringe sinus uteroque tenus = let your brestes be tyde Downe to 
your bellies] brtstes has probably the sense of breast-cloth, part of 
the dress that covers the chest, which, here, has to be let down 
and tied about the waist, instead of about the neck, so that 
the breast and shoulders should be bare : cp. 1. 462, 454. In 
NED. this sense is recorded : Breast = c) the part of a gar 
ment or a piece of armour covering the breast (one instance 
is quoted in the sense of garment i83o Beruffled breasts 
and wrists were the order of the day). Cp. Menard-Sauvageot, 
Vie privee des Anciens, vol. Ill, p. 148 ff. 

489. Your garmentes loose] Lat. : cingat tunicas palla solutas ( 

449. these ashes] Lat. (1. 102) : cinis fervidus (cp. Seneca, 1.86). 

453. And sufire not your clamour so to slake] quite different 
is the Latin : (var. A) utr unique tegat (in P : imumque tegit) suffulta 
latus(\. io5). 

457. careful] care (and its derivatives, careless, careful) is fre 
quently used in these tragedies, and has always the sense of 
trouble, anxiety, sorrow, mourning, grief. 

484. feare] read teare, as in B ; Lat. : fletus (\. i33). 

622. limite] obs. form of past part, of to limit. NED. 

533. whose songs... hath drawen] hath, plural form in -th : 
Cp. 1. 3i6. 

53g. carke] synonym of care ; cp. note on line 467. 

555. as she lust] Hey wood drops here the ending of the 3rd p. 
sing, probably to make the word rhyme with trust (1. 553). 
Cp. Knecht, p. 141. 

557. Frayltie is the thrid] B corrects : Fraile is the thrid (thread). 
. 5gi. splayde] aphetic form oi display de. 

599. fordo] = to render powerless, counteract, neutralize. 


619. I grate again to sight] I am at a loss to explain the word 
grate, which is reproduced in all the editions. I suppose that 
it is a misprint for gate, p. t. of to get (Cp. 1. io35) = to succeed 
in coming or going : / gate, I came again to sight, to the world. 

642. we] evidently misprint for me, as B reads. 

656. flyte] flyte = to flite, to contend, to wrangle, to strife 
against. NED. 

658. Great is the ransome ought of due to me] ought = owed. 
NED. Cp. Tho. Heywood, Pleasant Dialogues and Drammas, 
edit. W. Bang, v. 8227. 

684-5. For straunger &>a.\ cp. Latin (1- 169) : maiora veris mon- 
stra (vix capiuntfidem) vidi &a. None the old editions have the 
brackets, and all put a stop after fidem. 

704. to Goddes that guyde beneath] the original reads : ad 
superos, i. e., those who live on the earth above (1. 179). 

710-22. as wonted he &c.] this passage is a very defective 
rendering of lines 182-7 > Heywood did not understand these 
allusions to Achilles exploits. 

718. carkas slaine] the plural carkas (cp. Latin : corporibus, 
1. 1 86) has no ending, as the next word begins with 5. 

729. of the ground] the three lines quoting Achilles speech, 
(1. 191 -3) ite, ite inertes, &a., have not been translated. 

745. and al the tempest brake] Latin (1. 202) : 

Tritonum ab alto cecinit hymenaeum chorus- 

753. Achilles rose] the original has excidit Achilles (\. 204), 
which Heywood interpreted in the sense of the apparition of 
his ghost, prob. under the influence of the two preceding scenes. 

771. Pelyus yeres] cp. Latin : Pylii senis annos, viz. Nestor, 
King of Pylos. Heywood mistook the Pylian King for Peleus 
or Pelias. 

781-92. To late &>c.} These lines are a lengthened, but a very 
poor rendering of 1. 217-18 : rudem cruore regio dextram imbuit / 
fortemque eandem sensit et mitem manum. 

798. fill] = fell, p. t. of to fall. NED. 

799. Lyrnesus...fill / With ruine ouerturned lyke / from top 
of haughty hill] Lat. : clade subversa est pari / apposita celso . . . iugo 
(1. 220-221) : lyke should not be joined to what follows (as 

Jockers supposes, p. 3o), but to what precedes : with lyke ruine 
ouer turned &a. 

809-1 2. What bootes <.] in the original : quid quas alluit / verm s 
Caycus gurgitem attollens aquis ? (1. 227-8). 

814. bette] (occurring often : sometimes written bet] p. p. of 
to beat. NED. 

817-8. thus my father &a.] the contrast of the original 
between iter (1. 282) and gloria ac sutnmum decus (1. 23 1) has not 
been felt by the translator. 

821. whisht] to tvhisl or whisht to be silent (Nares], to silence 
(Hall) ; here probably used (as in TH, 1. iii5> in trans, sense 
of to conceal, to keep a thing a secret . In the other cases, 
whisht or whusht has the sense of to be silent : TH, 1. 1798 ; 
HF, 1.83i, 223 9 . 

829. Reioyse J may your parentes prayse] your is not to 
be taken here in the ordinary sense of tuus , (in this instance : 
Agamemnon s), for that would imply a contradiction, not only 
with the Latin, but even with the preceding and following 
lines ; your seems rather to be used here indefinitely : J may 
reioyse the prayse of your parent, i. e. one mav be proud of ones father ; 
cp. Latin : inclitas laudes iuvat I et facta magni clara genitoris sequi 
(1. 236-7) cp. Franz, Shakespeare-Grammatik, 2 d edit. 325. It may 
be a misprint as well for our. 

832. actes] veadfactes(B); cp. Latin facta ; besides the word 
has to be a rhyme to actes (1. 83o). 

845. way] i. e. weigh ; Lat. aestimas (\. 244). 

860. Pryames] evidently a mistake for Pvrr/ius, as B cor 
rected ; Lat. : Pyrrhum. The Latin text is not rendered accura 
tely : 1. 859-6o: The fathers blood already sturres, in [Pyrrhus] wan 
ton age : 1. 25 1-2 : aetatis alios fervor hie primus rapit, / Pyrrhum 

874. synde] aphetic form of assyndc, assigned. Cp. 1. 916, i368. 

896. a mirrour for the nones] not in Latin ;for the nones, i. e. 
nonce, particular purpose. NED. 

899-900. the borowed brayded here [* . e., hair], the face to 
bewtefie] Seneca s text reads : /also comam / vinclo decentem ? 
fy reads tegentem (1. 272-3). 


go5. slipper] = slippery, difficult to stand upon. NED. 
Cp. TH, 1. 796. 

913-920. But loe &>a.) Heywood has not kept quite close to 
the Latin (1. 280-285), though the general sense is adhered to. 

941. vayle] aphetic form of avayle. 

949. Let not such enuy towarde your father in your hart 
remaine] farfetched rendering for : detrahe invidiam tuo / odiumque 
patri (1. 299-300). 

965. princes slaughter] Seneca has : (l.Sog) caede...regia,\ \z.of 
Agamemnon himself, whom Pyrrhus threatens to slay, as he 
did Priam, who is said to crave for a companion : paremque 
[caedem] poscit Priamus, (\. 3io). Heywood thought that the 
threat was levelled at Priam s daughter : 1. 967-8 : And mcete it 
were that Polyxeine were layde by Priames syde. 

972. to your father humbled is] the translator does not seem 
to have understood the Latin text : Priamus... supplex pater nus 
(1. 3i3) : You have killed with cruel sword that Priam, who 
had been a suppliant of your father (when he came to request 
Hector s corpse), and had been spared by him ! What follows, 
suffers from that misunderstanding : 1. 973 : My fathers foes we 
have them knowne, submit themselves humbly e, Latin : Supplices 
nostri patris I hostesque eosdem novimus (1. 3i3-3i4) : viz., Achilles 
spared Priam as a suppliant, I slew him as a foe. L. 976-6 
And Pry am presently... was gladde to crave mercy e : Latin : Pria 
mus tamen / praesens rogavit (1. 3i4-i5) : Priam had the courage to 
come himself and ask, but you, Agamemnon, gravi pavidus 
metu, I nee ad rogandumfortis, Aiacipreces / Ithacoque mandas clausus 
atque hostem tremens. Which arguing loses all its strength in the 
rendering : 1. 977-80 : But thou for feare not stout to rule [nee ad 
rogandumfortis !] lyest close ft om foes [/] vp skit : While thou to Aiax 
and vlisses, dooste thy will commit. 

1007-10. Your own <~fl.] added by Heywood to make the 
allusion clearer. 

1028. the seas : it do enclose] the Latin text is totally 
different : (1. 340) : Nempe cognati maris : Thetis, namely, was 
Achilles mother. 

io35. then a boy] the Latin is much more pungent : nondum 


viro (1. 348) i. e. when Achilles was living as Pyrrha ad Lyco- 
medes court. gate] p. t. of to get, to beget, to procreate. NED. 

1045-8. The stoutest &a.} rather ambiguous rendering of 
1. 349-5o : Compescere equidem verba et audacem malo Ipoteram domare. 

1067-70. And with what cost &>c.] these three lines are added 
by Hey wood. 

io85. thirst] used transitively. Cp. 1. a33. 

1096. death our iyes... doth straine] in Latin : coniun.v oculis 
imposuit manum (1. 373). 

1097. leames] learn = light, ray, gleam of light, brightness, 
gleam ; also^. ; NED ; our leames of light, prob. has the sense 
of our lights, i. e., our power of vision, our eyes : cp. Latin : 
supremusque dies solibus obstitit (1. 374). 

no5. as dankye &>a.] added by Heyw. danky] = dankish, 
somewhat dank, dampish. The oldest instance of this word 
recorded in NED is from 1796. T. Nuce uses it in his Octauia : 
sooner shall... fyer drye With dankish pooles agree and watrye 
fenne (Newton, Tenne Tragedies, f. 1673, 1. 32). 

1 1 20-1. And neuer may &>a.] the Latin text which Hey wood 
used, had a stop after fata (as all the old editions) : 1. 3go : Hoc 
omnes petimus fata ; nee amplius / iuratos &a. Peiper-Richter has : 
hoc omnes petimus fata nee amplius, / iuratos &a. 

1124. northen] obsolete form of northern. NED. 

n3o. that weight here ought to wyn] weight = wait : that 
expect to win aught here : Lat. avidi. 

n32. Wilt thou it wotte &>a.] in the old editions (and Hey- 
wood s translation) lines 407 and 408, quaeris quo &a., are placed 
between lines 399 and 400. 

n56. staine] in A ; in B straine ; the reading of A is to be 
preferred : cp. 1. 1172 : Why... staine your iyes with teares ? 
Shak., Rich, the Sec., Ill, i, 14 : staind the beauty of a fair 
queen s cheeks With tears. 

1160. Good ladies] 1. n65. (good ladies) here &-a.} i. e. the 
Women of Troy, who sang the Chorus of the first Act, and 
now stimulate each other, especially the mothers (1. 1161), to 
sympathise with Andromacha, who addresses them in line 
1 169 : ye carefull company, &a. (Lat. : maesta Phrygiac turbo). Cun- 


liffe thinks that they are the ladies of the audience (Infl. p. 3). 

1172. with teares P] here the translation of a few words of the 
original is wanting : levia perpessae sumus, / siflenda patimur 1. 41 1- 
412) and the following lines (412-415) are shortened into the 
lines 1175-78 of the translation. 

i:85. Seely] -silly. NED. 

1194. yll] i, e. woe : Lat. : malorum. 

1217. Death thankfull were] the Latin : certe aequa mors est 
(1. 484), is a continuation of the parenthesis, in which Andro- 
macha asks why o\\\y Greeks can return from Hades to 
frighten their foes. Heywood took it as a wish for death from 
Andromacha, which necessitated the addition of the transi 
tional lines i2i5-6. 

1218. oppres] the subject is a common care. 

1272. embrasse] = embrase (the form with two ss is not 
recorded in NED). 

1284. ...they weare.] a line of the original has not been trans 
lated : cervice fusam dissipans iacta comam (1. 468). 

1324. chaunce] cp. Latin : omen... feralis loci (I. 488). 

1347-8. Let yet the wretche take hys defence more careles 
there to byde] is totally different from the original (1. 497) : 
Miser occupet praestdia, securus legat. Cp. Miller : In danger, haste 
to shelter where ye may; In safety, choose . In the preceding 
dialogue, lines 1325-48, Heywood follows the division of the 
text between Andromacha and the Old Man, as it is given in 
the old editions, and is indicated for A in Peiper s notes. 

i358. treasures] Latin \fmtum ;1. 5oi). 

1447. Feare castes in all thextremitie and oft interprets 
wrong] in the original : est quidem iniustus dolor jrerum aestimator 
(1. 5 4 5-6). 

1458. them] referring to fleete, considered as a plural : cp. 
1. 1637 : Our flete passe not &a. (N. changes them into vs). Knecht, 
Die Kongruenz, &a., pp. 36, 37, 41. 

i553. Xow will 6-a.] the word Invita of the original has not 
been translated (1. 594). 

i565-6. Let spedy &>a.] the original represents this death as 

32 9 

a boon : me fata mature exitu / facilique solvant ac tneo condant solo 

i567-68. And after death <sa.] the Latin text has a different 
meaning : et patria tellus Hectorem leviter premat (\. 602). In Seneca 
these two events, Andromacha s death and burial on Troyan 
ground, and Hector s rest in his grave, are made dependent 
on the truth of the assertion about the boy : ut luce cassus (in 
the old texts) inter extinctos iacet (1. 6o3) Heywood has quite mis 
understood this : he sees an imprecation in the two events, 
which he represents as calamitous, whilst they are intended 
as fortunate and wished for in the original. 

i58i-4. Thinkst thou <>#.] the original text has a wholly difte- 
rent purport : fingit an quisquam hoc parens ? / Nee abominandae 
mortis auspicium pavet ? / Auspicia metuunt qui nihil mains timent 
(1. 608-10). 

1587-8. What thing is &>a.] in consequence of the misunder 
standing of the preceding lines, the original has not been 
exactly rendered here : it runs : si peierat, timere quid gravius 
potestl (\. 612). 

i5o,2.thetruthe herin to finde] cp. Latin : veritas numquam latet 
(A and old texts ; Peiper : per it) 1. 614. 

1603-4. Yet once &a] judging by the succession of the ideas, 
these two lines have to serve as the translation of 1. 619 : Alios 
parentes alloqui in luctu deed; but in that case Heywood must 
have either totally misunderstood the original, or rendered 
a text with a different reading. In his translation these lines are 
not addressed to Andromacha, nor is there that opposition 
between them and the following verses : Thou wretched &a. 
(1. i6o5-6), which is found in the Latin tragedy. 

1621. sears] prob. sirs, used in addressing people below the 
degree of the speaker : Shak.-Lex., NED. The corresponding 
term is wanting in the original ; in the commentary of the old 
editions, terms like ministri, famuli, comiies are suggested. The 
edition C and Newton read sirs. Cp. 1. 1768 : graundsers ABC, 
graundsires N. 

i625. Well done, &#.] In the original Ulysses feigns to 
have found to boy to try the mother : bene est : tenetur. perge, 
festina, attrahe (1. 63o). 


1628. ...looke about ?] The original lays here one sentence 
more in Ulysses mouth to exasperate Andromacha : iam certe 
pent (I. 63i). 

i633. now hath ye say] possibly we should read as ye say, 
or it may be that the words ye say have to be joined to Sins : 
Sins ye say that &c. 

1687, Our flete passe not] cp. 1. 1458. 

1661. byde] = abyde (cp. TH, 1. 2708). 

1 685. Jt shalbe c^a.] Heywood omits the translation of : 
Responsa per again : (1. 663 J. 

1699-1700. The deade <~a] the original text says quite the 
opposite : busta transier at furor (1. 670). 

1723. Breake vpcB^a] Hey wood s original probably read here : 
reuelle Auemum, (cp. Asc, HP), instead of repellor, heu me, or 
rep elk Avernum; this reading is not recorded by Peiper (1. 681). 

1733. Down quight withall.] probably Heywood s text read 
like Ascensius : Eruite cuncta funditus (Peiper : Funditus cuncta 
eruain ; A : f. c. erne : 1. 685). 

1755. More easely strike,..] Seneca : [eo] mitius...preme (1. 696) ; 
easely = mildly, lightly, gently. NED. 

1756. ...misery.] Heywood leaves one line of the original 
untranslated : miser o datur quodciiinque, fortunae datur (1. 697). 

1759. and so agayne &a.] cp. Latin : annosque, dum te recipit, 
cxtendat suos / Laerta (1. 699-700). 

1773. store] in the original furtum. 

1775. feareth] to fear = (transit.) to frighten, to inflict fear to. 

1804-7. Take mercy &>a.] added by Heywood. 

i856. to you] in the original : Phry gibus 1. 758). 

1882. dispoynted] = disappoynted. 

1896. welde] = wield. 

igo3-4- O greeuous &=a.} cp. Latin : o morte dira tristius leti 
genus ! (var. w, Asc, HP, &a.) (1. 783). 

1945. ... Grecyans heavy yoke] Heywood s text read here 
Graio... iugo (as the variant } in Peiper, and HP : 1- 804). 

ig56. lenger] this older form of the comparative occurs again 
on line 2145. 


igSg. Chorus altered by the translater} Heywood does not trans 
late Seneca s Chorus to the third act of Troades, as nothing 
is therin but a heaped noumbre of farre & strange countreies 
which should only be a straunge and vnpleasaunt thing 
to the readers" as he explains in his Preface (1. i3i-i45). On 
lines 1960 to 1979 he has translated instead, the third Chorus 
of Seneca s Phaedra (lines g5g to 980), which, as it bemoans 
the blind ruling of Fortune, is much more in harmony with 
the general feeling of this tragedy : this altered chorus is 
indeed a fitter transition to the next scenes than the geo 
graphical digression; lines 1980 to 1991, of course, are added 
to the translation from Phaedra, to adapt the abstract philo 
sophical considerations to the present circumstances and 
prepare the opening of the fourth act. 

1963. to care theyr course] to care, trans. to take care of, 
to guard, to preserve their course. NED (the oldest quotation 
for this sense is from 1628). 

20i3. vnware] = vnwarily (Middle E.). 

2o32. honour hongur] probably the word hongur, which had to 
be corrected, was left by mistake in the printer s form after the 
right word honour had been put in. The edition C did not 
notice that mistake and merely corrected hongur into honger. 

2042. by] evidently a misprint for thy, as B reads. 

dea] = day, spelt that way under the influence of its rhyme 
sea (I. 2040). Cp.l. 298. 

2o5i. hath lift] p. part, without ending, as the verb ends in t. 
Cp. Franz, Shak.-Gram., p. i55. 

2057-8. ye neuer made, <>a.] the Latin gaudere (1. 889) has an 
abstract and general sense : Hitherto we were not compelled 
to pretend to be happy ; Heywood misunderstands it as being 
said only probably ironically of the joy that came to 
Troy through Helena. 

2103-4. For dreade c~a.] the Latin text is different : vos levat 
tanti mali / comitatus (1. 913-4). 

2107-10. Whome eche &>a.] the corresponding passage in 
Seneca, in which Helena alludes to the fate of the Troyan 
princesses and her own, evidently has not been understood 


at all : quani quisqne famulam traheret incerto diu / casu pependit : me 
meus traxit [E : trahit] statini / sine sorte dominus. (1. giS-iy). 

21 12. and then c^a.] here the translation of a few words of 
the original is wanting : tantaeque Teucris cladis ? (1. 918]. 

2116. theyr] = of the Troyans ; theyr refers to your shippes 
(\. 21 13) ; the Latin text is much clearer : sin rapta Phrvgiis praeda 
remigibus fui (1. 920). 

2119. Then pardon Parys] Cp. the variant of <> : ignosce 
Paridi (Peiper : ignosce raptae) 1. 922. 

2141. Some woes <>#.] the Latin is different : leviora malasunt 
cuncta, quam Priami gener \ Hecubaeque Pyrrhus. (1. 934-5). 

2i58. and at his tombe to die] (he original reads here : campo 
maritiis ut sit Elysio, iubet. (1. 944). 

2167. sowndes] to sound to swoon. Hall. 

2173-4. A little thing &a.] The Latin text speaks of Hecuba 
here in the third person : minimum est quod Hecubam facere 
felicem potest (1. g53). 

2211-4. But as for Heleyns &a.] the text of Seneca : hanc cara 
tellus scdibus patriis ieget (1. 971) refers evidently to Polyxena ; 
Heywood mistook it as said of Helena ; hence the want of 
contrast between these lines and the four that precede. In the 
next line, 

22i5. my (state)] should consequently be her indeed this 
line, as it stands, contradicts what Helena just has said on 
lines 2087 to 2122. 

223i-2. You chaunsed to Ulysses are / hys pray ye are 
become] the translation does not by tar exhaust the Latin : 
Ithaco obtigisti praeda nolenti brevis (1. 980} . 

2259-62. Jn meane time &a.] these verses are the translation 
of one of the most difficult passages of the tragedy : Peiper s 
text reads (1. 997) : Dumque ista [i. e. mala peroptata Ulyssi] 
veniant, interim hoc poenae [Ulyssi] loco est : (1. 998) sortem occupavi, 
praemium eripui tibi [i. e. loco pulchrae adolescentulae, vetula 
tibi sorte adjudicatur]. In the old editions (A, Asc, HP, &a.) 
haec poena of 1. 997 is taken in the sense of poena Hecubae : i. e. 
servitutis, and 1. 998 runs : sortem occupavi [i. e. praeveni sortem 
Ulyssi meis imprecationibus : sed ipse] praemium eripuit mihi 


[i. e., eripuit mini mortem quam vellem]. Many more explana 
tions have been given of this passage. Heywood has inter 
preted it in his own way : he has before his mind line 2258, 
where Hecuba wishes to Ulysses her own and Priam s mis 
chance : Dum ista veniant interim : In meane time haps this deepe 
distress : haec poena in loco est : my cares can know no calm : I am 
miserable, yes, as miserable as Priam ; indeed, sortem occupavit = 
I ran the race with Priamus for misery and misfortune : but he 
has won the palm, he died first : praemium eripuit mi/it. The words 
praemium and occupare must have brought I ley wood to this 
translation, the more so as Hecuba a few lines further beseeches 
Pyrrhus to kill her (1. 2265). 

2288. his griefe him bytes the les] the old editions (A, 
Asc, HP) read here lentius luctus lachrimaeque mordent (\. ion). 
Peiper has lenius luctus &a. Heywood translated lenius, which 
shows that he was judicious in reading his text. 

23oi. whose hundred hed &*a.} in the original : removete cen 
tum I rura qui scindunt opulenta bubus (1. 1020-1). 

2335. hoyse] obsolete form of hoist. NED. Cp. 1. 2544. 

2362. Whoeuer he, J am the wretche] prob. the reading of B : 
Whoeuer be, I am &c-, is to be preferred. Cp : Latin : quisquis est 
Hecubae est miser (1. 1062). 

2368. ...double slaughters then] between this verse and the 
next should have been translated these words of the original : 
gaudet magnus aerumnas dolor [in A and old editions gaudet animus 
aerunmas meas or meus] / tractare iotas (1. 1066-7). 

2390-4. Some on theyr (>#.] instead of carrying about bran 
ches otPyne and beeche and baye, Seneca makes them sit in these 
different trees : hunc pinus, ilium laurus, hunc fagus gerit / ei iota 
populo silva suspense tremit (1. io82-3). 

23g5. some... beholdeth] 1. 2400. some there weare... 
that... The tombe of Hector sitts vpon] on these lines occur 
the three different forms of the 3 d pers. plur. of the present 
tense after the same subject some. Cp. 11. 3i6 and 533. 

2403. preasyd] prease, obsol. form of press. NED (Cp. 1. 2471). 

2406. gate] = gait. NED. 

2430. scythe] in the original : sedis incertae Scytha (1. 1104). 

33 4 

2442. payse] =peise, obsol . for weight (vulg. Latin pesum).NED. 
Palsgrave : Peyce a weyght peys, s. m. (p. a53a). 

2449. all to broake] all to = entirely. NED. (Cp. 1. 2461). 

2490. masde] aphaetic form of amasde. 

2523. monstrouse lyke] monstrouse has here the sense of the 
Latin monstrum (1. 1154) = prodigious, wonderful. NED. 

2,5zg. out it spoon] to spin = to issue in a thread or small 
current : Cp : Henry 7, IV, II, 10 : That their hot blood may spin 
in English eyes. Shak.-Lex. 

2531. stowndej stound= moment, short time. Hall. Cp. Every 
man (ed. Greg, M aterialien , IV) 1. 633. 

2532. as therthe should her reuenge] cp. Latin : ut Achilli 
gravem j factura terram (1. n58-9). 

2537. apparantly] = evidently, conspicuously (NED) ; cp. 
Latin clarius (1. 1161). 

2540. remaynth] possibly intended as a p. t., as it stands 
between droonke and soonke. 

2544. careles] = free from anxiety, apprehension. NED. 
Lat. : secura (1. 1167). 

2549. care] = sadness : Latin : lacrimas(\. 1168). 

2564*5. how neere alas &>a.] cp. Latin : quam prope a Priamo steti 
(1. 1177); instead of reading steti, like Peiper and Asc, Hey wood 
read stetit ( }, HP). 


2. John Mason] Sir John Mason, i5o3-i566, was chancellor 
of the Oxford University when Heywood dedicated this 
volume to him. In the Preface a few grateful lines are conse 
crated to the memory of his son (11. 391-424). It appears from 
what is said, that this promising boy had been studying at 
Oxford l , and had been intimately acquainted with Heywood, 
who states that he dedicates his Thyestes to the father since 
he cannot inscribe it to the son (11. 425-6). Indeed his friend 
died very young (cp. in age so greene , tender tyme \\.3g5, 
Sgy) and, according to the bombastic verse, went to lyue with 
Joue, an other Ganymede Jn better place then Aquarie . He 
is not recorded in his father s biographies, except from the 
mention which is made of him in this Preface (Cp. DNB ; Cor- 
ser, Collectanea, IV, 2i3, 219). 

18. gogyn gyfte <>#.] gogyn, an obsolete form of gudgeon, 
NED, is probably used here as an adjective : a gift consist 
ing of a gudgeon, or that is not worth much more than a 

*) In the Register oj the University of Oxford, edited by C. W. Boase 
(Ox ford Hist. Soc., Oxford. i885, vol. I, p. 221), a certain John Mason 
is mentioned as having been admitted for the degree of BCL on 
January i6 th 1542/3. No mention is made of his family. It results, 
however, from a comparison with the events in Sir John Mason s 
life, that the latter could not have had a son who about 1543 was 
of age to be admitted to that degree. Moreover it would have been 
hardly likely that Heywood, who was not sent to Oxford before 
1547, should have known him. It is much more probable that the two 
youths were of an age or thereabout. Nor is it surprising that Sir 
John s son is not mentioned in the Registers of the Oxford Univer 
sity, for neither does Heywood s name appear before i553, 
though he had been studying there since 1547. 


dothe swaye] sway = to incline to one side, to weigh dowri 
(one of the scales of a balance) ; this word is used in the same 
sense on 1. 2246 : the virgin shalbe throwm, and leuelde payse of 
balance stvay alowe, And drawe with them the... Scorpion downe (Lat. 
iustaeque cadent ponder a Librae I secumque trahent Scorpion : 1. 858-g). 
Consequently the sense of this passage is : the poor man who 
has nothing to repay the great gifts bestowed on him, yet 
dothe swaye, gives weight to, a gudgeon given as a present, 
with (by) his thankfull thought, so that it surpasses the payse of 
pearle and golde (1. 19). 

20. Jf puisaunt prynce (>.] Heywood alludes to one of the 
jests of the Tales, and quicke answer es (i535) : Of kynge Lowes of 
France, and the husbandman, xxiij (Shakespeare Jest-books, I, p. 84), 
which is the translation of one of the anecdotes of Erasmus 
Colloquy Convivium Fabulosum (Opera Omnia, edit. Lugd., I, 
762, D). 

79. vngreeyng] composed of vn and the aphetic form of 

no. Uenus [began]., on fryday fowle to frowne] the 24 th of 
November i55g, when Heywood began his translation of 
Thyestes (cp. 11. 91-2), was a Friday ; from his preface we gather 
that it was in the morning when Aurora blusht with ruddie 
cheekes (1. io3) and that the weather was rainy : hence Venus, 
the morning star, is said to have begun to frowne fowle from the 
skyes aboue on fryday. Heywood in pointing out Venus sad 
influence on Friday, probably was inspired by a few verses 
of the Canterbury Tales. In TheNonne Preestes Tale, the slaughter 
of Chauntecleer is said to have happened on Venus day, 
whereas this goddess ought to have prevented every harm to 
her servant . Chaucer ridiculised in these mock-heroic verses 
the bombastic style of one of Geoffrey de Vinsauf s poems 
(Nova Poetria) on the death of Richard I, who also died on a 
Friday : 

O Veneris lacrimosa dies ! O sydus amarum ! 
Ilia dies tua nox fuit, et Venus ilia venenum, 
(Skeat, Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, v. V, p. 25y : 1. 4537). 

125. well stept in years] probably an English adaptation of 
the Latin progressus aetate. 

33 7 

127- shiende] another instance of this weak p. t. occurs in 
HF, 1. 5oi. Cp- Palsgrave : p. 703, b : His victoriouse actes 
shyned thorowe all the worlde. 

197. miter] = meter. NED. 

224. hath cowched] = has laid, placed, put. NED. 

258. passe] = to excel, to be very extraordinary. NED. 

25g. Jn Lyncolnes Jnne d>a.] Several of the prominent lite- 
rators about i56o were at the Inns of Court. Sir Thomas 
Sackville and Thomas Norton were barristers at the Inner 
Temple ; William Bavand was a student at the Middle Tem 
ple; Sir Thomas North at Lincolns Inn, and Sir Christopher 
Yelverton at Gray s Inn. Heywood entered the latter in i56i. 
Cp. J. W. Cunliffe, Early English Classical Tragedies, Oxford 
1912 ; p. Ixiii, ff. 

274. Yeluerton] though named in a breath with Sackville 
and Norton, Sir Christopher Yelverton (i535 ?-i6i2) is hardly 
known as a lilerator. DNB. From Cunliffe, E. E. Class. Trag., 
p. 169, it appears that he wrote the epilogue to Gasgoigne s 
Jocasta, which was acted at Gray s Inn, i566. 

275. pewred] = pured, refined. NED. 

280. Baldwyn] the editor of the Mirror of Magistrates. The 
first edition appeared in i559, and seems to have roused Iley- 
wood s admiration (Cp. Cambridge Hist, of Engl. Lit-, \. Ill, 
p. 192, ft). 

283. Blunduille] Thomas Blundeville (cp.DNB) wrote Three 
Treatises, no less pleasant than necessary for all men to reade ; whereof 
the one is called, The Learned Prince ; the other, The Fruites of Foes ; 
the thyrde, The Porte of Rest. London i56i, 40. (Cp. Watt, Bibl. 
Brit., I, p. 124). Heywood alludes to the second of these trea 
tises (1. 286), which seems to have been inspired by Plutarch s 
De Utilitate Capienda ex Inimicis. As this preface was .written at 
the latest in March i56o, Blundville s Fruites must have had an 
earlier edition than that of i56i, or have been in circulation in 

287. Bauande] William Bavand or Bavaund (fl. i55g : DNB) 
edited a Translation of the Work of Joannes Ferrarius Montanus, 
touchy nge the Good Orderynge of a Commonweale, &a. London, i55g, 
4*". Cp. Watt, Bibl. Brit., 1, p. 85. 


291. Googe] According to the Notes of the Life and Writings 
of Barnabe Googe, prefixed to his Eglogs, Epytaphes, and Sonettes, 
i563, edited by Edward Arber (London, 1910 : p. 6), there 
is an entry in the Stationers Registers (J. P. Collier, Extracts, 
&a, I. 26, Ed. 1848) of April or May i56o for the printing of 
a boke called pallengenius that is to say The First thre Bokes 
of the most Christian poet Marcellus Palingenius called THE ZODIAKE 
OF LIFE, translated out of Latin into Englysh by Barnabe Googe 
(In i56i appeared a second edition containing The firste syxe 
Bokes ; cp. Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1. 1, p. 426). It is said in 
this Preface to Thyestes, that Googe a gratefull gaynes hath 
gotte... Who crooked Compasse dothe describe ; that implies 
that The Zodiake of Life, which probably had not been printed 
when these lines were written, had been circulating in 
manuscript. It is not surprising that Heywood should know 
all the works in which the young literators of the Inns were 
engaged. Probably he was no stranger amongst them : nor 
will they have failed to welcome the son ot the favourite poet 
of kings and queens and the translator of Troas, who perhaps 
paid his footing by these laudatory verses. (Cp. similar com 
mendatory lines prefixed to Googe s Zodiake, in Eglogs &a., 
ed. Arber, p. 8, and to John Studley s Agamemnon by T. B. 
London i5j6, ed. Spearing, p. 16. 

291. a gratefull gaynes] probably read gayne. 

3:8. Troas &a] for the history of the two editions of this 
tragedy, see Introduction. 

420. glede] glede (or gleed) = a live coal ; spark of fire ; light. 

428. Aquarie] according to Eratosthenes and the Alexan 
drian Astronomers, Ganymede was placed amongst the con 
stellations, and became the Aquarius or Waterbearer of the 
Zodiac. Cp. Hyginus, Poeticon Astronomical, ed. Solingae, i53g, 
fol. d. iii verso ; Fabulae, cap. ccxxiv ; Palingenius, Zodiacus 
Vitae, Liber XL 

556. Powngarnet] pomegranate. NED. 

585. purtred] = purtreyed, portrayed, drawn. Cp. 1. 624. 

594. amell] aphetic form of enamel. 


606. other are] the verb is plural as the meaning of other is 
plural. Knecht, p. 3g ff. 

611. cytheron] = instrument of the guitar kind, but strung 
with wire and played with a quill. NED. 

612. shaulme] = shawme ; Old Fr. chalemie. NED. 
shagbut] = sackbut ; Old Fr. saquebute. NED. 

613. vyall] = viol. 

627. Palingene] Marcellus Palingenius, pseudonym of Pie- 
tro Angelo Manzolli, wrote the Zodiacus Vitae, hoc est de Homi- 
nis Vita, Studio ac Moribus (Venice c. i53i), which was highly 
popular in England. Cp. 1. 291. 

644. Jasper stone] perhaps this special stone was chosen to 
serve as a paronomasia on the translator s name. 

yo5. Gryphyus] Sebastian Gryphius [Grypheus], the famous 
Lyons printer, edited Seneca s tragedies in i536 and reprinted 
them many a time in the following years (Panzer, Annales 
Typogr aphid, Nuremberg, i8o3 : vol. VI, pp. 367,799). 

Colineus] Simon de Colines (Colinaeus) printer in Paris, 
edited in i534 Seneca s works after Erasmus emendations. 
(Bibliotheca Erasmiana, t. II, p. 5o). 

707. Aldus] Manitius, Venice, published the famous Aldine or 
Avantine edition of Seneca s tragedies (i5i7), which approaches 
nearesttothe genuinam recensionis uolgariscondicionem and 
was the foundation of most of the subsequent editions. (Cp. 
Peiper-Richter s edition of Seneca s Tragoediae, Leipzig 1867). 

801. thencreasyng lyuer styll] Heywood read like A (as 
generally) : semper accrescens iecur (P : specu vasto patens (1. 9). 

802. grypes] = vultures. NED. 

806-7. And wondrows c^a] Latin : plenum recenti pabulum 
monstro iacet (1. 12). 

823. vnuentred] = vnuentured. Cp. 1. 1116. 

834. meaneof ire] meatie moderation ; cp. Lat : ne sit irarum 
modus (1. 26). 

900. fynde] = go and fetch. 

where] has here the sense of when, now that : Lat. : iam.., 
spumante aeno (A : \. 59-60). 

9o5. fyled] aphetic form of defyled. 

920. fraight] = fraught. 


923. leefull] = lawfull, right, just. NED. This word often 
occurs in TH andHF. 

954-6. To sufire paynes &a.] the contrast of the original is 
lost : Me pati pcenas decet, / non essc pcenam (1. 86-7). 

962. parents] in the Latin text the singular is used : magne 
divorum parens (1. 90). 

976. crallyng snakes] Lat. : tortos... angues (1- 96) ; to crall = to 
bend, to twist, to curl. NED. Cp. 1. 2698. 

992. the sadder soyle] Latin : maestae ... terrae(\. 106). In this 
instance and many times in the next lines a Latin positive is 
rendered by an English comparative : 1. 998 : whotter = igneus; 
1.999 -fewer= raras ; 1. 1006 : neerer fonrdes = vicina... vada; 
1. 1007 : lesser grounde = gracili... terra ; &a. 

998. whotter] = hotter. NED. 

1006. foordes] this word has the sense of the Latin vada 
(1. 1 1 3), i. e. sea, main (in the NED this sense is recorded as 

1008. now broader spredde] Latin : latus A (P : tutus : 1. 114). 

1018. And noble feeldes of Argos feare, theyr former drought 
to knowe] the original reads in P, BM & HP : timentque 
veterem nobilis Argi sitim (1. 119) : in Asc it runs : timentque 
veterem nobiles agri sitim, though the notes to this passage explain 
the reading : Argi nobiles : famosi. Gryphius text has agri sitim, 
but gives as variant in the margin Argi sitim. Heyvvood has 
combined both readings Argi and agri, which seems to imply 
that he worked on Gryphius text, or at least compared it with 
other editions. 

io32. yerely breathe] Lat. : veliferis. . . Etesiis (G : veliferi : 1 . 129) 

1043. his dame] Heywood read here : deceptor dominae (A : 
domim) Myrtilus, whereas P has domini (1. 140). 

1046. mariners] Lat. : navibus (1. 143) ; G and Asc have the 
variant navitis, which Heywood adopted. 

1069. rought] obsolete p. p. of to reach. NED. 

1076. the dried foorde] foorde has again the sense of the 
Latin vadum (cp- 1- 1006 ; HF, 1. 1469) : in this instance it 
means, as in the original : sterili... vado (1. 173) the channel, 
the bottom of the water, the shoal , almost as much as 
beach (This sense is not recorded in the NED). 


1 1 14. allowe] = to laud, to praise; NED] Lat. :probet(\. 192). 

1 182. entende] = intend. NED. 

u38-g. Doothe fame of people nought / Aduerse thee feare?] 
may serve as an instance of Heywood s literal renderings : the 
original reads : Fama te populi nihil / adversa terret ? (1. 204-5). 

feare] evidently used in the sense of to frighten, to cast fear 
on (Lat. : terret). NED. 

1168. neare] = ne er, never. NED. 

1171-2. What heynous &>a.j Hcywood chose, instead of the 
usual reading (P, G, Asc, &a) : quid... crimine, one which is 
given in the margin of HP : quod... crimen (1. 221). 

H0. fatall beast] Hey wood read : fatale sa.veo pecus (HP], 
instead of fatale sacro (A ; in P : sax to) pascuum (1. 233). 

1197. aduentryng] = aduenturyng. NED. 

I2o3. wandred he] the old editions read : erravit; P : erravi 
(1. 2 3 7 ). 

1206. trayncs] (Lat. : insidiis : 1. a38^ = deceit, treachery, 
snare. Hall. Cp. 11. i3jo, i6i5, 1642, &a. 

1207. My feerce deflourde] Latin : corrupla lOtn uti.i (1. i3gi ; 
N reads feere ==- consort, spouse, husband or wife. The reading 
o f A, feerce, must be a misprint for feere. 

1223-5. Let tyrants c~>a.] Hey wood read and divided the cor 
responding lines of the original like HP : perimat tyranmis : lenis 
in regno meo / mors impetretur ? (1. 247-8). 

1263. ] note &>a.\ These words are spoken by Atreus and 
should be preceded by the scenical entry Atr., which was 
probably overlooked by the printer. N has put it before the 
first word of line 1265. 

] note] = I know not; cp. Chaucer, (f. i.) Legend of Good 
Women, 1. 2660 ; Palsgrave : I note, or I ne wote (Lydgate) Je tie 
scay (p. 645, a). 

my mynde] Hey wood read animus (HP, Asc, iS:a ; in P : 
aninto : 1. 267). 

1266. to swell] P : tumet ; A, Asc : timet. Hey wood read iumet ; 
both readings are recorded in HP (1. 268). 

1283. pa-rents] the corresponding word in the original is 
singular : in the old editions : parens : in P : pater (1.277). 

3 4 2 

1288-9. this pleaseth &a.] Heywood read according to the 
punctuation of the old editions : hie placet pcenae modus- / tantis- 
per ubinam est ? (1. 279-80). 

i333- trauels] = troubles, hardships : Lat. : malis(\. 3oi). Cp. 
line 1841 : trauells and 1. i52i : trauayls : Lat. : aerumnas (1. 3o5 
and 426). 

1335. Requests will moue] = Heywood read : preccs movebunt: 
a, Asc, HP (P : prece commovebunt ; A : precommov ebunt ; 1. 3o2). 

1336. Jmperie] = empery, authority, command, dominion, 
sovereignty. NED. Cp. HF, 1. aSiy. 

i36o. naught] (Lat. : mali) = bad. 

1367. beware] probably we should read be ware = be aware of 
this disceite, &a. ; Latin : scient (1. 3i6). Heywood follows 
A and the old editions, where lines 3i7 and 3i8 are spoken by 
SAT(elles), Atreus answer beginning with line 319. 

i383. him] Lat. : illi : A, Asc, HP, &a. ; P : Hits (1. 3a5). 

1414. not ritches make] niches is regularly followed by a 
plural verb in A ; N writes makes. Cp. Knecht, pp. 39-42. 

1419. affects] = disposition, temper, natural tendency. NED. 
Lat. : diri mala pectoris (1. 349). 

1444. the floude of Danubye] Lat. : Danubium licet : A, Asc, 
HP ; P : Danuvii vadum (1. 376;. 

1455. great goons (N Guns) in carts] Lat .admotis... machinis 
(1. 385-6). 

1460. tyckle] = unsteady, uncertain, inconstant : Palsgr. ; 
Hall. ; Shak.-Lcx. Cp. 1. 1579. 

1475. PHYLISTHENES] in A and the old editions, Phylistenes 
takes the part which in P is given to TANTALVS, whilst 
PLISTHENES is mentioned as [actor] TACITVS. 

1479. mysers] myser = miserable, wretched person ;NED; 
this word often occurs in Heywood s plays : cp. 11. i523, i55g 
2317 ; HF, 11. ioi5, 1017, &a. 

1486. stadies] a Latinism for racecourse ; Hall. In the 
original : stadia (1. 409). 

1488. seelde] = selde, seldom. NED. 

1498. flattryng fulgent face] fulgent : prob. a latinism of Hey 
wood s coining for glittering ; Lat. : ful gore... f also (\. 4i5). 

3 4 3 

iSocri. With whom ...regarde] probably Heyw r ood read : 
Cum quo (A~, Asc.} datur spectabis, (Asc : spcctabilis.} et tandem 
(A~, Asc.] aspice. In P : cum quod datur spectabis, ct dantem aspice. 
(1. 416 . 

i566. That hanged... was] weak the trans, sense. NED. 

1569-71- ... to knowe ? The greater &-a.] Heywood follows 
here Ascs reading, who has:... securas dapes ? I Humi jacentem 
scelera non intrant casam. (1. 45o-5i). P (as HP and other texts) 
reads :... securas dapes I Jiumi iacentcm: scelera non intrant casas, (HP : 
casam, ). 

1572. and safer foode] the Latin text has no comparative : 
tutusque... cibus (1. 452). 

1578-81. Of haughtic house c~.] Hey wood did not under 
stand in this passage (1. 455-6) Seneca s allusion to Valerius 

1641. when caught ye are] Heywood rend : captus, variant 
of Asc, HP, &a. (P : cautus : 1. 486). - In the old editions the 
next lines, 487-8 : Serum est... testor tamen, are spoken by 
Thyestes son. as in Hey wood s translation, 1. 1642-5. In P 
they are Thyestes part. 

1645. request] Heywood read : kcc Jiortamen est (cp. A, Asc, 
PIP, &a. J. P : hoc testor tamen (1. 488). 

1 660. leame] (Lat. loro) - lyam, lytne, a leash for hounds. NED. 

1720. clyppe and colle] - embrace, hug, kiss. NED. 

17240. Lyke myne cS-fl.] Hey wood read with A and the old 
texts : quales mei sunt : lactusque frater imperil (1- 526). 

1788. gyns of yrne] gyns, aphetic form of engyncs mechani 
cal contrivance or device ; NED ; Lat. :ferreis...clauslris(\- 56g). 

1793. battaylcs sowne] soun sound, noise. Hall Lat. : litui 
strepentis (1. 575). 

1824. and men of myght he feares diva.] probably Heywood 
read with Asc : &> moventes / Cuncta dynastas : mcluitquc casus &.c. 
P reads : cuncta divinat; A, HP : cuncta divitias il. 604-5). 

1 858. people wylde] Lat. : Alaais (1. 63o). 

1878. 1 aske not who] singular, as in the Latin text : non 
qnacro qiiis sit (1. 640). 

10,21. falser axell tree] Latin : falsisaxibus(\. 661) ; cp. 11.992, 

l5 7 2. 

3 4 4 

ig52. Affright] p. p. without ending : cp. TR. 1. 2o5i. 

1954. ...the place] Hey wood seems to have read loco instead 
of luco (1. 678) ; this reading is nowhere recorded. 

igSS. darknes.. of hell] Lat. superstitio inferum (1. 678). 

1975. besprinkt with leuens fine] leuens = leaven, ferment , 
is used here to render salsa... mola (1. 688), i. e., mola ex hordeo 
& sale confecta : qua frontem victimae, focum, & cultros 
aspergere mods erat ; hinc immolare l }. Possibly the fact that the 
mola was made of salted meal, induced Heywood to use the 
word leuens, which is not recorded in this special sense. 

1988. He lights the fyres] Heywood translated the variant of 
Asc, HP, &a. : accendit ipse (P : attendit ipse : 1. 6g5). 

2Oi3. in gangey woods] Latin : silvis... in Gangeticis (1. 707). 

2024. poyntes] apheticform of appoyntes , i.e. determines, 
intends. NED. 

2o3i. Whome take he] take, 3 d p. sing- of present tense with 
out ending ; cp. TR, 1. 555 ; Knecht, p. 141. 

2o5i. tralles] = trawls. 

2086-8- ye heare not yet... more] Heywood translated the 
reading of A hactenus non stat nefas, j plus est- (P : hactenus si 
stat nefas, / plus est 1. 744-5). 

2121. stoompes] stumps, rumps, trunks- 

2 1 35. chimney] = nreplace,hearth; NED; Lat.: focos (1. 768). 

2136. Up heapt] = accumulating ; Lat. : regestus (1. 769). 
2141. that cry] Heywood translated the variant of A : an 

flammat gemant (P : an flammae magis : 1. 771). 

2177. prince] Latin : parens (1. 789). 

2i85. chare] = chariot, car. NED. 

2ig5. trenched] = cut. Shak.-Lex., Hall. Latin : pectorejosso : 
Asc ; in P, A, HP, &a. :fesso (1. 807). 

2204. to sende the horses out] in the original : dec traders fre- 
nos (1. 816). 

2228. with swyfter course or passe her brothers turnes] or 
should be placed at the beginning of the verse ; cp. Latin : v in- 
ceique suifratris habenas, / curvo brevius limite currens (11. 841-2). 

d ) Cp. Th. Farnabius notes on Seneca s Tragoediae, edition of 
P. Scriverius & A. Thysius : Lugd. Batav., i65i. 

3 4 5 

2229. she fetts] = she fetches. NED. 

2a3o. the Gods] Seneca s text has : turba deorum (1. 848), i. e. 
the constellations. 

2260. by kyndej = by nature : these words are an unnecessary 
complement to harde : Latin \frigida duro Cynosura gelu (1. 872). 

2264. hugy] = obsolete form of huge ; cp. TR, 11. 186, 297. 

2269. faught] = fault. NED. 

23o5. Tys best &a.] Latin : sobrio tanla ad mala j opus est 
Thyeste (11. 900-1). 

2336. let... theboordes be taken vp] =let the feast be finis 
hed ; cp. Latin : mensa cludatur (1. 916). Cp. 1. 2420 : they... at 
boorde ... sit : Latin : iucunda mensae sacra... colunt (1. 981). 

a35i. whether] whither, where to. 

238o-i. and florysht &>a.] inversion for : it tykes [them} to 
rent theyr robes florysht faire with Tynan dye : cp. the Latin text : 
libet et Tyrio saturas ostro / rumpere vestes (11. g55-6). 

2382-3. for sorowe, &>a.} another inversion that makes the 
sense almost unintelligible :for the minde, that ivotts before of after 
yll, sends sorowe in sygne that woes draive nye. Nor is the original 
accurately rendered : Mitiii Indus signa futuri / mens, ante sui 
Praesaga mali (11. 957-8). 

2448. my brother &>a.] read : god prouyde to spare my brother 
and soons ; Lat. :fratn precor / gnatisque parcat(\. 995-6). 

2492. burnyng frete] this word, which in the NED is only 
recorded in the sense of strait (= fret, a breach or passage 
made by the sea), has evidently been anglicised (possibly by 
Hey wood himself) from the Latin f return in the sense of 
current, impetuous torrent ; cp. the original : ardenti freto 
(1. 1017). It is used in the same sense on 1. 2772 : thou ferfull 
freate offyre,... O Phlegethon. In HF it is used in the sense of 
sea, sound on 11. 729, 1149, 2077, and for the river Styx 
on 1. i553. 

25oi-2. And rather &>a.] these verses are the translation of a 
line which in A and the old texts comes between 11. 1021 and 
1022 of Peiper s edition : Recipe hosce citius : liberis tandem tuis / 
Diu expetitis, &a. 

^565. quytst] aphetic form ofrequyist : cp. 1. 2666 quyght ; HF, 
1. 2227 quyght. 


25y5. strake] one of the older forms ol the p. t. of to strike. 

2584. atoo] = away from each other, apart, asunder. NED. 
Newton reads a two. 

2649. The worldej Hey wood translated the variant of A and 
the old texts : secla or secula (P : scelera : \. 1095). 

2665. what wedlocke gods ?] i. e., why not call on the gods 
of wedlock, instead of on the gods of infancy (1. 2664) : 
Lat. : Quin coniugales ? (1. Tio3). 

2698. crallyng] = crawling (Cp. 1. 976]. 

2708. byde] aphetic form of abvde. 


2. Syr William Harbert, &>a.] Sir William Herbert, first 
Earl of Pembroke of the second creation (i5oi?-i5yo), one of 
the first and greatest supporters of Elisabeth, was most pow 
erful in the beginning of her reign. At the time this tragedy 
was dedicated to him, he was recovering from a disease at 
his house in Ilendon; he fell ill in July i56o and it was late 
in i56i before he attended again the Queen s Privy Council. 
Cp. DNB. 

29. Euripides &a.] Cp, Euripidis Hecuba et Iphigenia : latinae 
factae Erasmo Rot. inter prete. (Parisiis) ex offic. Ascensiana, 
id. sept. i5o6. Erasmi Op. Om., I, 1127. 

g3. my Lord Henry, &a] Henry Herbert, second Earl of 
Pembroke (i534?-i6oi), was the elder son of William Herbert, 
first Earl. Cp. DNB. He studied at Petei house, Cambridge, 
under Whitgift (DNB). Still from what is said here, and from 
Hey wood s statement that he had well known him at Oxford, 
where his father had sent him to be educated, it follows that 
he had been for some time at that University. There is, 
however, no mention of him in the records. On September 27, 
i5g2, while the queen was a guest of the University of Oxford, 
Henry Herbert was created Master of Arts 1 ). 

i33. THE ARGUMENT &a] This summary bears some resem 
blance with the Argttmcntum prefixed to this tragedy in 
H. Petrus and Gryphius editions. 

217. Yet shall my hates not leaue them so] them, i. e. Her 
cules and Alcmena ; the original does not make this distinct 
mention : non sic abibunt odia (1. 27). 

218-20. a wrathfull &a] In the Latin text it is not Hercules 

*) Cp. A Wood, Athen. Ox., p. 769. 

3 4 8 

but Juno herself, who is going to be stirred up by madness : 
vivaces aget j violentus iras animus &a (11. 27-8;. 

229. tierde] ^= tired, broken by fatigue, wearied out ; cp. 
Latin : fractum (1. 33). 

248. impedes] emperies, used in the sense of orders, behests, 
commands. According to the NED, this sense of impery is rare, 
and only this passage is quoted as instance. Evidently the 
word derived this meaning from the influence of the Latin 
iinperium: laetus imperia e.vcipit (\. 42). Cp. TH, 1. i336. 

271-2. And beare the rule &>a.] In the translation these 
words refer to Pluto ; in the original to Hercules : cur non... 
Ereboque capto potitur, et retegit Styga (1. 64). 

366-7- the feruent burnyng tree Of pyne] the Latin text 
reads : ardtniem... pinuin (11. 100-1) = torch of pine. 

368. her dredful flocke to see] the words to see are only used 
to make up the rhyme ; they occur very frequently in these 
tragedies : cp. 11. 378, 55o, &a. 

374. of hell his spoyle] cp. Latin : violatae Stvgis (1. 104). 

4i3. stipye] = steepy ; in the original : prono (\. 125). 

4i5. clere so beams] X writes cleresome beames, which is 
evidently a mistake, nor does any word like cleresome exist. 
Cp. Spearing, p. 71. 

419. hors] plural ; Lat. : eqttis (1. i32). NED. Franz, Shak.- 
Gramm., p. i83. 

419. marble] this marble is used as the translation of the 
Latin caeruleis (1. 182) : and consequently has the sense of 
dark green, dark or sombre blue . Cp. Spearing, p. 62 ; 
Shakespeare, Othello, Hi, 3, 461 ; Cymbeline, v. 4, 87 and 120. 
This sense is not recorded in the NED ; some of the instances 
quoted there under the sense of mottled, dappled , may 
possibly have to be explained in this meaning. 

426. His flocks vnped, do grase &>a,] between vnped and do, the 
relative has been omitted, hence the comma ; cp. P. Simpson, 
Shakespearian Punctuation, p. 54. 

427. nipps] this word refers to shepeherd and means cuts off . 
- The Latin text is somewhat different : aperitque domos / 

Pastor, gelida cana pruina / grege dimisso pabula carpit (1. i38-4o). 

3 4 Q 

Some editors have explained this passage in the sense which 
Hey wood has given to it : Dicit Seneca, pastorem grege in 
pascua jam dimisso, manu sua quoque pabula legisse, eidem 
pecori futura usui noctu : taie quid factitari solitum ostendit 
Longus Sophista in Pastoralibus (Janus Gruterus Notae, edit. 
Leyden 1620). 

429. whose brow did dam yet neuer teare] in the original : 
nondum rupta fronte iuvencus(\. 142). Heywood probably alludes 
to the habit of a calf, when it feels its horns growing, of rub 
bing its head against its dam, the mother cow, with which it 
is placed in the open medowe. 

45i-453. He proude &a] The opposition of the original be 
tween ille... and hie (1. 164-166) has not been rendered. 

577-8. of them &a] in Latin only gentis... Thermodoontiae 
(1. 246), which had to be spun out in the translation to fill 
up the verse and make a rhyme to nyght. 

583. vayle] aphetic form of avayle. 

612. in drawyng to the stones] Lat. trahens: 1. 263. 
To, adverb, has the sense of together, in order . 

644. helly] = of hell, infernal. This adjective occurs again 
on 1. 2178. NED. 

671. people] the Latin term is plural : populos (1. 2g3). 

681. nor yet of me once myndefull] these words apply to 
the returnes of Hercules, who does not seem to think of 
Megara : Lat. : reditusque lentos, nee mei memores, querar ? (1. 298). 

749. who the sceptors shakes in hande of other kyng] Hey 
wood seems to have imitated here even the inversions of the 
original : aliena dextra sceptra concutiens Lvcus (1. 33i). 

75i. plentuous] = plenteous. NED. 

759. slender Isthmos yle] Lat. : Isthmos exilis d. 336) Hey 
wood seems to have mistaken Isthmos for an island. 

778. in forayne countrey set] the Latin text is quite different : 
alieno in loco (1. 344), i. e., which has been usurped, is not held 
by the right possessor. 

793-4. The hate of men &>a.} rather ambiguous rendering of 
1. 352 : invidia factum ac sermo popularis premet ? = and what if 
(or : and let) the hate and the talk of the people reprove the 
fact ! (Heywood translated factum by my pryde). 


822. housen] (his plural form in en occurs again on lines g65, 
1704, 2o83 (howse) and 2461 ; Heywood makes use of the 
form in s as well : howses (1. 1980). 

875. measuryng throughout] literal translation of the Latin 
permensus(\. 3g3). 

890. without the lawe his feare] there are a few instances in 
these tragedies of this old form of the Sax. Gen., which was 
not uncommon in the xvi th century ; cp. 1. 374 : of hell his spoyle ; 
1. i5i8 .abstaynefrom man his bloode. Franz, Shak.-Gramm., p. 291. 

899-900. the battels doth the blonde delyght out shed] ob 
scure rendering of bella delectat cruor (1. 4o5), i.e. the outshed 
blonde doth delyght (= enjoys greatly, makes delightful) the 

936. The heyght] the Latin word is more definite : super a 
(1. 423) = the heavens. 

g52. slayne.. with handy e stroake] Lat. : tradidit... neci. 
(1. 4 3i). 

g56. vertue] has here the sense of the Latin virtus, valour 
courage, strength. 

961. darknes] seems to be plural : cp. line 962 : presse : Latin : 
Tenebrae... Tartareae(\. 436) Cp. carkas, TR, 718. 

988. a common trade] cp. Latin : causa, i. e. the origin, 
(1. 449)- 

io3o. tymber] = timbrel : Palsgrave, p. 65q, b ; Lat. : tym- 
pani (1. 470). 

io33. tender] = youthful : Lat. : tener (1. 472). 

1059. he that met &>a] one of the three Geryons : the original 
of this passage in the old texts and Heywood s, is quite dif 
ferent from the modern version. 

1129. soon] = son : cp. Lat. : nate(\. 620). 

1144. from systers mokt] mokt = deceived, deluded ; NED. 
Lat : deceptis(\. 53o). Cp. 1. 1264, 1275. 

1190. in darker place] cp. Latin : surdis... in locis (1. 576); 
dark seems to have here the sense of gloomy, silent. 

1237. thyngs vncome to] litteral translation of inaccessa (1. 606). 

1241. dyrer Joue] Lat. : diro... Jovi (1. 608). 

1255. ceasse] = cease from action, take rest : NED : in the 
Latin text the same word is used : cessare (1. 6i5). 


1282. bestadde] = beset ; NED ; Latin : obsiti l. 627). 

i3i5-6. Tis lyght, he shall : he cloothe : and thats to lyght, 
lie hathe it doonej in the original : lentum est, dabit : dat ; hoc 
(jnot/ue est lentum : dedit (1. 644^. Lyg/it ----- lite, obs. for delay, tar 
diness . NED. 

i33g. Beguylde] read Beguyle ; the form Beguylde is not 
recorded in NED, and must be an error of the author or the 

1343. All ryght of worlde] literal translation of : I^as omne 
mundi (1- 658). 

1374. Are loaste] = are loosed, are broadened : Lat. : laxan- 
tur d. 673). The same form occurs on 1. ig52 : loaste : Lat. 
solvit (1. gg3). 

1432. waste] (/ waste. Je gaste, je consume. Pals., 772, a) = to 
be wasting, waste itself : Lat. squalet (1. 701). 

1433. bonde] = bound, limit (this word often occurs in the 
following verses) ; Lat. finis (1. 708). 

1459. with double foorde] literal translation of duplici vado 
(1. 716). Here, as on 11. i552 and 1747, joorde has the sense of 
the Latin vaditm, i. e. shallow river, shoal . Cp. TH, 11. 1006, 

1477-9. and great parte of cruel! kyngdomes place Js he 
hymcelfe the lorde therof] ambiguous rendering of 11. 726-6 : 
magna pars regni trucis / est ipse dominus : i. e. he himself is the 
greatest terror of this place. 

1494. is harde] = is hearde : Lat. : auditur \\. 733). 

i5o2. shette] shet = shut (inf. : shytte : 1. 1622) ; NED ; this 
form often occurs in these tragedies. 

1607. of his owne lyfe lorde] Lat : dominusque vitae (1. 740). 
Many of the old commentators explained vitae, as vitae suae 
(Asc) ; it is nowadays only explained as vitae subditorum. 

075. bette] beaten. NED. 

i6o3. Like yre to shape] literally translated from : par ira 
formae (1. 788). 

1609. sent] = scent : cp. Lat. sentire (1. 791). 

1696. prease] (Palsgrave, p. 258, a) = press, throng, crowd. 
NED. Cp. TR, 1. 2 4 o3. 


lyoS. sorte] = set, crowd, company (not taken in a bad sense 
as it is in Shakespeare ; cp. Shak.-Lex.}. 

1782. it least againe] in Latin : carpit (1. 874;. 

1784. humbyllye] = humbly. 

1787. royle] = to go about, to roam or rove about, to play ; 
NED ; in Latin : agitent (1. 879). 

1940. enmiows] = hostile, unfriendly. NED. 

ig58. and corners all] cp. Latin : omnesque latebras (1. 996). 

2040-1. J gladly haue fulfyllde my wyshes all] Latin : vota 
persolvi libens (1. 1087) . 

2089. astrey] Lat : Astraeae (1. 1068). 

2123. strips] = stripes ; in the original : verbera (1. no3). Cp. 
1. 2i38. 

2145. argos barriars plaies] Lat : Argiva... palaestra (1. 1124). 

2149. paise] = peise, weigh : Latin : librare (1. 1128). 

2324. astonyde] = bewildered, dismayed. NED. 

235o. knappe] = break; cp. Latin : rumpemus (1. 1232). 

2436-8. a mynde vnmeete to beare vpright No euyll hap] 
literal rendering of the double negation of the original : nulli 
imparem / animum malo resume (1. 1275-6). 

253i. engraue] = bury, entomb. 


aduentryng : TH, 1 197 
affects : TH, 1419 
to allowe : TH, 1114 
all to : TR, 2449 
amell : TH, 594 
apparantly : TR, 253y 
astonyde : HF, 2824 
atoo : TH, 258 4 
bestadde : HF, 1282 
bette (p. p.] : TR, 814 
bonde : HF, i 4 33 
boordes : TH, 2336 
byde : TR, 1661 
care : TR, 467, 25 4 g 
to care : TR, ig63 
carke : TR, 53g 
to cast care : TR, 176 
to ceasse : HF, 1255 
chare : TH, 2186 
chimney : TH, 21 35 
to clyppe : TH, 1720 
to colle : TH, 1720 
cowched : TH, 224 
to crall : TH, 976 
cytheron : TH, 611 
dam : HF, 429 
dankye: TR, no5 
dark : HF, 1190 
dea : TR, 298 
dispoynted : TR, 1882 
easely : TR, ij55 
to embrasse : TR, 1272 
to engraue : HF, 253i 

enmiows : HF, 1940 

to entende : TH, n32 

faught : TH, 2269 

to fear : I\R, 1775 

feere (feerce) : TH, 1207 

to fett : TH, 2229 

fill (p. t.) : TR, 798 

flyte : TR, 656 

foorde : TH, 1006, 1076 ; HF, 1459 

fordo : TR, 5gg 

fraight : TH, 920 

frete : TH, 2492 

fulgent : TH, 1498 

fyled : TH, 9 o5 

gan (p. t.) : TR, 197 

gate (p. t.) : 77?, io35 

gate : TR, 2406 

glede : TH, 420 

gogyn : TH, 18 

gone (^r. t.) : TR, z3i 

grate (/>. /.) : 27?, 619 

grype : TH, 802 

gyns : TH, 1788 

handye : HF, g52 

helly : HF, 6 44 

housen (plur.) : HF, 822 

to hoyse : TR, 2 335 

hugye : TR, 186 

humbyllye : HF, 1734 

iestes : TR, 181 

yll: 77?, 1194 

imperie : TH, i336 ; HF, 248 

to knappe : HF, 235o 

35 4 

leame : TH, 1666 

leames : TR, 1097 

to leese : TR, 246 

leeful : TH, 9 23 

lenger : TR, i 9 56 

leuens : TH, ig;5 

loast (p. p.) : HF, 1374 

lyght : HF, i3i5 

marble : HF, 419 

masde (p. p.): TR, 2490 

meane : TH, 83 4 

miter : TH, 197 

mokt, mockt : HF, 1144 

monstrouse : 77?, 2523 

myser : TH, 1479 

naught : TH, i36o 

neare (never): TH, 1168 

nones : TR, 896 

northen : TR, 1124 

I note : TH, 1263 

ought : 77?, 658 

paise : TR, 2442 ; HF, 2149 

to passe : TH, 208 

pewred : TH, 2?5 

plentuous : HF, 751 

powngarnet : TH, 556 

poyntes : TH, 2024 

purtred (p. p.) : TH, 585 

prease: TR, 2 4 o3 ; HF, 1696 

to quyte, quyght : TH, 2565 

to rcsight: TR, 221 

roge : 77?, 4 25 

rought (p. p.) : TH, 1069 

to royle : HF, 1737 

sear : TR, 1621 

seelde : TH, 1488 

seely : TR, n85 

sent : HF, 1609 

shagbut: TH, 612 

shaulme : TH, 612 

shette (. />.) : HF, 002 
slipper : TR, 905 
sorte : .ffF, 1703 
to sownd : TR, 2167 
sowne : TH, 1793 
to spin : TR, 2529 
splayde : TR, 5gi 
stadies : TH, 1486 
stip) - e : HF, 413 
stoompe : TH, 2121 
stownde : TR, 253 1 
strake (p. t.) : TH, z5j5 
strips : HF, 212$ 
to sway : TH, 18 
synde (p.p.) : TR, 874 
tender : HF, io33 
to thirst : TR, 233 
tierde : HF, 229 
to trail : TH, 2o5i 
trauels: TH, i333 
trayne : TH, 1206 
trenched : TH, 219$ 
tyckle : TH, 1460 
tymber : HF, io3o 
vayle : Tfl, 941 
vertue : HF, g56 
vngreeyng : TH, 79 
vnuentred : TH, 823 
vnware : TR, 201 3 
vyall: TH, 6i3 
waste : HF, 1432 
way : TR, 845 
to weight: Tft, ii3o 
to welde: TR, 1896 
whether: TH, 235 1 
whisht, whist: 272, 821 
whotter : TH, 998 
yburnte : TR, 23g6 
ycorued : TR, 200 


A first edition respectively of the translations of Troas, 

Thyestes and Hercules Fur ens, reproduced in this volume. 

A Interpolata recensio recentiorum codicum of Seneca s Tra- 

goediae. Cp. Introduction. 

Asc Judocus Badius Ascensius edition of Seneca s Tra- 

goediae, Paris, 1514. 

B second edition of Heywood s Troas. 

BM Isoarda de Saviliono s edition of Seneca s Tragoediae, 

Venice, 1492. 

C third edition of Heywood s Troas. 

Cunliffe The Influence of Seneca on Elizabethan Tragedv, London, 

DNB Dictionary of National Biography. 

G Gryphius edition of Seneca s Tragoediae, Lyons, 1541. 

Hall. Halliwell, Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, 

London, 1901. 

Ill- Hercules Furens translated by Hey wood. 

HP Henricus Petrus edition of Seneca s Tragoediae, Basle, 

i5 4 i. 

Jockers Die Englischen Seneca-Uebersetzer des 16. Jahrhundcrts, 
Strassburg, 1909 

Knecht Kongruenz zwischen Subjekt und Pradikat, 1911. 

Materialien W. Bang s Materialien zur Kunde des aelteren Englischen 

Miller The tragedies of Seneca, Chicago, 1907. 

N Newton, Seneca his Tenne Tragedies, London, i58i. 

Nares Glossary, London, 1888. 

NED New English Dictionary. 

P, Peiper Peiper-Richter s edition of Seneca s Tragocdiae, Leip 
zig, 1902. 

Palsgrave L Eclair cissement de la Langue Fran false (Paris i852). 

Shak.-Lex. Schmidt, Shakespeare-Lexicon. 

Spearing The Elizabethan Translations of Seneca s Tragedies, Cam 
bridge, 1912. 

Til Heywood s translation of Thyestes. 

TR Troas. 

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edited by R. B. M c Kerrow. XIX, 70 pp. Preis frs 5,5o; fiir Subscribenten 

frs 4,5o. 

BAXD XXXIV ERSTER TEIL : The Marlowe Concordance by Charles Crawford. 
XX, 200 pp. Preis frs 25 ; fiir Subscribenten frs 20. ZWEITER TEIL : 160 pp. 
Preis frs 25 ; fiir Subscribenten frs 20. DRITTER TEIL : 160 pp. Preis frs 25 ; 
fiir Subscribenten frs 20. 

BAND XXXV : How a man may chuse a good wife from a bad, edited by 
A. E. H. Swaen. XLIII, i2opp. Preis frs 10.00 ; fiir Subscribenten frs 8,00. 

BAND XXXVI : Edward Sharphams The Fleire, nach der Quarto 1607 heraus- 
gegeben von Ilunold Nibbe. 47, 89 pp. Preis frs 10 : fiir Subscribenten frs 8. 

BAND XXXVII : John Mason s The Turke, edited from the Quartos of 1610 
and i632 by Joseph Q. Adams, Jr. XXV, 104 pp. Preis frs 10 ; iiir Subscri 
benten frs 8. 

BAND XXXVIII : Studley s Translations of Seneca s Agamemnon and Medea, edited 
from the Octavos of i566 by E. M. Spearing. XXIII, 2^2 pp. Preis frs 20,00; 
fur Subscribenten frs 16,00. . 

BAND XXXIX : A Tale of a Tub, nach dem Drucke von 1640 herausgegeben 
von Dr. Hans Scherer. XV, 90 pp. Preis frs 10,00 ; iiir Subscribenten 
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BAND XL : The Jewes Tragedy von William Hemings, nach der Quarto 1662 
herausgegeben von Heinrich A. Cohn. XI, 106, 91 pp. Preis frs 12, 5o ; fiir 
Subscribenten frs 10,00. 

Die Materialien zur Kunde des alteren Englischen Dramas 
erscheinen in zwanglosen, in sich abgeschlossenen Biinden. Der 
Subscriptionspreis betriigt ca j5 centimes fiir den Bogen im Format 
dieses Bandes, doch behiilt sich der Verleger cine angemcsscne 
Preiserhohung vor fiir die Bande, die mehrere Facsimiles u. s. w. 

Denjenigen Universitatslehrern, die einzelne Biinde der Mate 
rialien zuSeminar-Uebungen benutzen wollen.steht diegewiinschte 
Anzahl von Exemplaren zum Subscriptionspreis zur Verfugung. 

Zusendungen von Manuscripten (Text- und Quellen-Ausgaben 
fiir diplomauschen Xciulmck, kritische Ausgaben, Quellen-Stu- 
dien, Sprach-, Theater- uiul Litei atur-geschichtliche Arbeiten etc.) 

Iin Drnck befinden sich und verden bald erschewcv : 

J. LF. CJAY BRERETON, Lust s Dominion (1657). 

( . ( \< AWi OixD, A Concordance to the Works of Marlowe. 

F. E. SCHMID, The Tragedy of Julia Agrippa the Roman Empress : 
By Thomas May, i63g, 1654. 

J. Q. ADAMS, Adrasta, i635. 

A. WAGNER, Marlowe s 1 Massacre at Paris. 

W. BANG, Jonson s Dramen nach der Folio 1616 (Band VII, 3). 

W. BANG, Neudrucke der vor 1616 erschienenen Quartoausgaben 
von Jonson s Dramen. 

W. BANG, John Fordes Dramatische Werke nach den Original- 
quartos herausgegeben. 

Diefolgenden Bdnde vjenien u. a. enthalten : 

CH. CRAWFORD, A Concordance to the 1616 Folio of Jonson s Works. 
R. B. Me KERROW, A List of Modern Editions and Reprints of 

English Plays written before 1643. 

W.BANG,Udall-Studien (dariii u. a. seine Flouresfor LatineSpekynge, 
die Ubersetzung von Erasmi Rot. Apophthegmes, Versuch 
eines Nachweises, dass Udall die Respublica und die 
Historic of lacob and Esau geschrieben hat). 

R. BROTANEK, Die altesten Denkmaler der Schottischen Dramatik 

(Dunbar, Jakob VI., Philotus,W. Clarke s Marciano.etc.). 

A. DE MAN, Joannis Palsgravii Londoniensis Ecphrasis Anglica in 

*;. Comoediam Acolasti (1540). 
P.BURVENICH, Jonson s Barthol. Fair. 
A.BERtRANG/Terenz Andria in den Englischen Ubersetzungen des 

1 5. und 16. Jahrhunderts. 
E. SIEPER, Marlowe s Edward II. 

ARTHUR M. CHARLES, Brandon s Virtuous Octavia (i5g8). 
CH. BOLEN, Guy of Warwick (Q 1661). 

W. BANG und -R. BROTANEK, Die Maskenspiele des Thorn. Nabbes. 
J. RiTTER und J. ZUCK, H. Killigrew s The Conspiracy (Pallantus 

and Eudora). 

W. BA NG und W. W. GREG, Bale s Dram. Werke. 
A. FEUILLERAT, Everie Woman in her Humor (1609). 
M. ROSLER und R. BROTANEK, Nebuchadnezzars Fierie Furnace 

nach MS. Harl. 7578. 

E. BENSLY, Rob. Burton s Philosophaster (1606). 
W. W. GREG, Actor-Lists, i583-i642. 

W. W. GREG, Character Index to the English Drama to 1642. 
A. FEUILLERAT, Documents concerning the Revels at Court tei 
Edward VI and Mary, from the Loseley MSS iri- t 
possession of W. More Molyneux, Esq. 
J. LE GAY BRERETON, Marlowe : Notes for a Bibliography. 
J. VAN DE WYER, The Wisdome of Doctor Dodypoll ; The BlqQcli 
Banquet ; The Knave in Graine New Va/fipt 
The History of the Triall of Chevalry. 


Prix pour les souscripteurs .... *4.oo fr. 10.20 M. 
Prix pour les non souscripteurs . . . so.oo fr. *4.ooM. 

PR Seneca, Lucius Annaeus 
2294 Jasper Heywood and his 

H3Z8 translations of Seneca s 

1 559a Troas