Materialien ZOF Kunde
des alteren Englisehen Dramas
UNTER MITWIRKUNG DER HERREN
J. Q. Adams, Jr.-lTMAfA, F. S. Boas-LoxDOX, A. Brandl-BERLIN, R. Brotanek-
PRAG, F. I. Carpenter-CmcAOO, Ch. Crawford-Loxnox, G. B. Churchill-
AMIIKRST, W. Creizenach-KRAKAU, E. Eckhardt-FREiunu; I. B. ( A. Feuillerat-
RENNES, R. Fischer-IxxsBRUfK, W. W. Greg-Loxnox, F. Holthausen-Kn.i.,
J. Hoops-HEiDELBERG, W. Keller- MilNSTBR) R. B. Me Kerrow-LoxDON, G. L.
Kittredge-CAMURiDGE, MASS., E. Koeppel-SiKASsuiRG, J. Le Gay Brereton-
SIDXEY, H. Logeman-GENT, J. M. Manly-CniCAGO, G. Sarrazin-BRi;si \r,
f L. Proescholdt-pRiEDRiCHSPORF, A. Schroer-CoLX, G. C. Moore Smith-
SHEFFIELD, G. Gregory Smith-BiiLFAST, A. E. H. Swaen-AMSTLKDAM, A. H.
Thorndike-NE\v-YoRK, f A. Wagner-HALLE A. S.
BEGRUENDET UND HERAUSGEGEBEN
o. 6. Professor der Englischon Philolo^ic an dor Universitat Louvain
BAND XII : Jasper Hey wood and his Translations of Seneca s Troas,
Thyestes and Hercules Furens, edited from the Octavos of 1559, 1560
and 1561, by H. de Vocht.
O. HARRASSOWITZ DAVID NUTT
I 9 I3
jj\i.w v J.JL j_^i\oi Jin. x Ctiis . jjc/fr j UHdun o JUfTUrn&n, ill iNd
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Materialien zur Kunde
alteren Englischen Dramas
Iflaterialien w Kunde
des alteren Englischen Dramas
UNTER MITWIRKUNG DER HERREN
J. Q.Adams, Jr.-lTH.\CA, F. S. Boas-Loxoox, A. Brandl-BERLlN, R. Brotanek-
PRAG, F. I. Carpenter-CniCAGO, Ch. Crawford-Loxoox, G. B. Churchill-
AMHERST, W. Creizenach-KRAKAU, E. Eckhardt-pREiBURG I. B., A. Feuillerat-
RI;NNES, R. Fischer-lNNSBRUCK, W. W. Greg-Loxnox, F. Holthausen-KiEL,
J. Hoops-HiiiDELBERG, W. Keller-MuxsTER, R. B. Me Kerrow-LoxDON, G. L.
Kittredge-CAMBRiDGE, MASS., E. Koeppel-SxRASSBURG, J. Le Gay Brereton-
SIDXEY, H. Logeman-GENT, J. M. Manly-CniCAGO, G. Sarrazin-BRESLAU,
,- L. Proescholdt-FRiEDRicusDORF, A. Schroer-CoLX, G. C. Moore Smith-
SHEI ; FIELD, G. Gregory Smith-Bi-XFAST, A. E. H. Swaen-AMSTERDAM, A. H.
Thorndike-NEW-YoRK, t A. Wagner-IlALLE A. S.
BEGRUENDET UND HERAUSGEGEBEN
o. 6. Professor der Englischon Philologie an der Universitat Lonvain
EIN UND VIERZIGSTER BAND
O. IIARRASSOWITZ DAVID NUTT
TRANSLATIONS OF SENECA S
EDITED FROM THE OCTAVOS OF i55g, i56o AND i56i
H. DE VOCHT.
O. HARRASSOWITZ DAVID NUTT
IT IS WITH SINCERE PLEASURE THAT I HERE
EXPRESS MY WARMEST THANKS
TO MY FRIEND
F A PESSERS
WHO MOST DEVOTEDLY ASSISTED ME IN COR
RECTING AND IN READING THE PROOFS OF
THE INTRODUCTION AND THE NOTES : AND TO
WHOM I DEDICATE THIS VOLUME IN HAPPY
REMEMBRANCE OF THE HEARTY RECEPTION
THAT WELCOMED ME ON MY FIRST
VISIT : AND IN GRATEFUL ACKNOW
LEDGMENT OF THE GENIAL
KINDNESS AND AFFECTION
THAT BRIGHTENED ALL
BIOGRAPHY OF PI EY WOOD.
JASPER HEYWOOD ) (Ilaywood, Havvood, Hewood, Ayvo-
dus), the younger son of John Heywood 2 ), born in London
4 ) Biographical notices about Jasper Heywood are found in
J. Bridgewater, Concertcttio Eccksiae Anglicae, Treves, i58g, p. 409;
H. Morns, Ilistoria Missionis Anglicae S. J , S 1 Omer, 1660, pp. i32-5 ;
A. Wood, Athenae Oxonienses. London, 1691, t. I. pp. 25i-2; M. Tan
ner, Societas Jesn Apostolortim Imitatrix, Prague, 1694, p. 296 ff. : these
notices were the sources for all subsequent biographies : J. Juven-
cius, Historia Societatis Jesu, Rome, 1710, pars Y, t. II, p. 223;
D. Bartoli, Istoria ddla Compagnia di Gesn : TInghilterra, libro IV,
Torino, i825, pp. 48-9 ; 57-64 ; 98 ff. ; H. Pole} , Father Jasper Hey-
wood, in Records of the English Province of the Sec. of Jesus, vol. I.
London, 1877, pp. 388-405 ; Collectanea, in Records, vol. VII, London,
1882, p. 35 1 ; J. Gillow, Bibliographical Dictionarv of the English
Catholics, London, 1887, vol. Ill, pp. 296-9; Thompson Cooper, in
Did. of National Biography, vol. XXVI ; &a.
) Foley,in his second Appendix to the Collectanea (Records, vol.Vll*,
London, i883) p. 1433, mentions a Father RICHARD HEYXVOOD, alias
Aitglus, of London, admitted in to the Society of Jesus at S* Andrew s
Rome, Sept. i, 1572, probably identical with F. Richard Anglus,
who died at Loreto, Nov. :5, 1574. In the registers of the Society
in Rome, where these entries are recorded, no mention is made of
the family to whom this father belonged. Foley supposes that he
was a younger brother of the Fathers Eliseus and Jasper Hey-
<vood, but there is nothing but a similar name and birthplace to
back this opinion. A Richard Hayn oodc is recorded in the Register of
the University of Oxford (Boase, p. 2?6) : adm. B. A. i febr. i5&4/5 ;
in i535, belonged to the family of Sir Thomas More through
his mother Eliza, daughter of John Kastell ), and like his
brother Ellis, he was nourished from his tenderest age with
the sound principles and thorough learning that had been
flourishing in the home-circle of the great Chancellor 2 ). He
was for some time a page of honour to the princess Elisabeth,
with whom his father was a favourite in those days 3 ). At the
age of twelve he was sent to Oxford, where he went through
the regular curriculum of Grammar and Logic, took the
degree of Bachelor of Arts in i553, and that of Master of Arts
in i558 4 ). In i554 he was elected a Probationer-fellow of
Mcrton s College r> ). He had inherited the literary bent and
the quick, sprightly wit of his father ; no wonder that he was
det. in Lent ; sup. for M. A. 5 July i56y ; lie. 9 July ; inc. 14 July ; of
Christ Church . It may be that this Richard Hey wood went to Rome
and entered the Society. But it does not seem probable that be was
the son of Jobn Hey wood ; for Pitseus who writes a short biography
of the latter in his Relationum Historicarum de Rebus Anglicis Tomus
Primus, Paris, 1619, p. 753, says : Duos filios habuit Societatis Jesu
presbyteros, ex quibus alterum nomine Gasparum Romae primum,
deinde Neapoli familiariter noui. If a third son had entered the
Society, he very probably would have known, and mentioned him.
4 ) W. Bang, Ada Anglo-Lovaniensia (EngUsche Studien, 1907, t. 38,
p. 284 ff.); T. S. Graves, The Heywood Circle and the Reformation (Mo
dem Philology, vol. X, April igi3) ; A. Wood (Ath. Oxon., vol. I, p. 3 4 )
relates a legend about a tooth of Sir Thomas More, which belonged
to both Ellis and Jasper ; as each of them was loth to part with it,
tbe tooth fell asunder and divided itself.
2 ) Ellis worked these family recollections into his 77 Moro,
3 ) A gratuity of 3o shillings to John He} wood is recorded in the
Household-book of the Princess Elisabeth, ed. Madden, p. 23g.
4 ) Ath. Oxon., pp. 708, 715. C. W. Boase, Register of the University
of Oxford (Ox. Hist. Soc.), Oxford, i885, vol. I, p. 221, records for
Jasper Heywood : sup. for B. A. June i553 ; adm. i5 July ; det. i554 ;
sup. for M. A. 23 May i558 ; lie. 10 June ; inc. u July ; disp. 28 Jan.
i558/9 ; fellow of Merton ; fellow of All Souls .
5 ) J. Foster, Alumni Oxonienses, vol. II, 1500-1714 ; s. v.
famous as an able poet amongst his fellow-students, and
bore the bell in all disputations at home and in the public
schools M. But his father s staunch character and manly free
dom from time-service, had devolved upon the son with an
additional dose of wayward obstinacy and wild singularity,
that was to paralyse his good qualities and bring him in after
life from one failure to another. Nor were his college days
quite cloudless. On April, 4, i558, he left Merton College
after three admonitions from the Warden 2 ), but the reason
of his departure has not been recorded. It may be that his
recent election as Lord of Misrule or Rex nostri Regni Fabarum,
about Christmas of 1 557, had some influence on his subsequent
behaviour 3 ) ; for he seems to have acted his part of Christmas-
King with an unprecedented popularity, as one of his college-
fellows, David de la Hyde (who later on was also expelled
from Merton), is recorded to have praised him as such before
a considerable auditory in the Hall by a witty and ingenious
discourse entitled de Ligno el Foeno , an allusion to the name
of the hero of the season. The authorities of the College,
however, were not so very enthusiastic, and Hey wood was
the last King of that dynasty, which was as old as Merton
itself 4 ). Owing to this resignation, and perhaps, to his unpo
pularity in later years, some reports seem to have been cur
rent about his waywardness as a boy : ), as is apparent from
*) Ath. O.von., p. 2 5 1.
2 ) Ath. Oxon , p. 25 1. G. C. Brodrick, Memorials of Merton College
(Ox. Hist. Soc.J, Oxford, i885 ; pp. 46, 261.
3 ) Th. Warton. History of English Poetry (ed. Price) 1840, vol. Ill,
4 ) J. Gutch, The History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford
by A. Wood, Oxford, 1796, vol. II, p. 136-y : Anno D 1 i55y.
5 ) Amongst He} 7 wood s poems in The Paradyse of Daynty Denises
ed. 1600, one is inscribed : Alluding his State to the Prodigal Child
(p. 1 1 5), in which in his poetical exaggeration he says :
the prodigal sonne,...
May now divide the burthen of his blame
With me, whom wretchlesse thoughts enticed still
To tread the tracts of his unrulv will.
one of Harington s epigrams ) :
Old Haywoods sons did wax so wild & youthfull,
It made their aged father sad and wrathfull.
A friend one day, the elder did admonish
With threats, as did his courage halfe astonish,
How that except he would begin to thnue
His Sire of all his goods would him depriue.
For whom, quoth he ? Eu n for your yonger brother.
Nay then, said he, no feare, if it be none other.
My brother s worse then I, and till he mends,
I know my father no such wrong intends ;
Sith both are bad, to shew so partiall wrath,
To giue his yonger vnthrift that he hath.
Still, whatever may be the truth or value of these reports, it
is sure that Heywood was not guilty of any decidedly bad
demeanour ; for, notwithstanding this compulsory leave of
Merton, Jasper was recommended at once by Cardinal Pole
to Sir Thomas Pope, who had just founded Trinity College, as
a polite scholar, an able disputant and a steady catholic 2 ) .
As this intervention did not prove successful, he was elected
in the same year to a fellowship in All Souls College, where
his brother had been from 1548 till the end of his studies 3 ). In
this college he worked at the translation of the three Senecan
tragedies : Troas written at the end of i558 4 ), edited in i55g ;
Thyestes begun November 24, i55g r> ), edited March 26, i56o,
and Hercules Furens published in i56i. In this year (:56i) he left
the college, possibly on account of the change of religion in
J ) Epigramm., lib. Ill, Ep. I. ; Ath. Oxon., p. a5i, Warton, op. cit.,
v. Ill, p. 3i2. Eliseus obtained the prebendary of Lichfield in 1554,
and had left the University Ions before Jasper resigned his fellow
ship of Merton : J. Foster, Al. Oxon., v. II, s. v. ; DNB.
2 ) Warton, op. cit., vol. Ill, p. 3i2 ff.
) J. Foster, Alumni Oxonienscs, vol. II s. v. ; Aih. Oxoit., vol. I,
") 77^, 1. 5i ff.
5 ) TH, 1. 91 ff.
the English Church ), and entered Gray s Inn *), to which
move his literary achievements and acquaintances might
have induced him. He did not spend a long time in Themis
service, but like many of his countrymen in the beginning
of Elisabeth s reign, he left England for religion s sake.
He studied theology for a time, probably at S l Omer, and
took orders. He travelled to Rome, and on May 21, i56a, he
entered the Society of Jesus, already a priest. For two years
he studied in Rome, after which he was sent to the Jesuit
University of Dillingen in Bavaria, where he took the degree
of Doctor of Divinity :! ) and became a professor of Mathema
tics (i564-65), later on of Exegesis (i 565-67), of Moral Theo
logy and Controversial Questions (i565-i577) ) I " 1 ^/o he
pronounced his four vows and was finally admitted into
the Society. He was a favourite with William V, the Duke of
Bavaria, and Egolph, the bishop of Augsbourg, who honoured
him with their intimate acquaintance and availed themselves
4 ) T. S. Graves, in his The Heywood Circle and the Reformation
(Modern Philol., vol. X, April igi3), p. 16, supposes that Heywood
left All Souls in i55g ; but when his Hercules Furens was edited, in
i56i, he was still in that college, as appears from the title and the
preface. Cp. C. G. Robertson, All Souls College, London, 1899, p. 67.
*} J. Foster. The Register of Admissions to Gray s Inn, 1521-1889,
p. 29 : i56i, fol. 529, Jasper Heywood .
3 ) I. Agricola, in his Historia Prov. Soc. Jesu Ger maniac Superioris,
vol. I, p. 86, says that the degree of Bachelor of Theology was con
ferred on J. Heywood at Dillingen on Sept. i, 1564 : the drgree of
D. D. must have been obtained soon after, as in Nic. Samlerus
De Visibili Monarch Ecclesiae, edited in iSyt, Jasper is recorded
amongst the Doctores S. Theologiae oljidetn... exules (edit. Wiceburgi,
i5g2, p. 676). In i56g he is called SS. Theologiae Doctor by one ot his
students, whose notes of Heywood s lessons are preserved at
4 ) B. Duhr, Die Deutschen Jesuiten im 5/o-Streit des 16. Jahrhunderts
(Zeitschriftf. Kath. Theol., 1900, b. XXIV), p. 229 ; H. Morus, op. cit.,
p. i32 ; Th. Specht, Geschichte der ehemaligfn Universitat Dillingen,
Freiburg i. B., 1902, pp. 284, 290.
of his advice. Tie induced the latter to promulgate some very
rigid regulations about usury, the so-called German Contract
and the 5 /o interest, a subject that was then keeping univer
sities and divines, lawyers and bankers in one of the most
eager altercations that ever had place ). When Marquard
succeeded Egolph on the episcopal see (i5y5), he at once
revoked the declarations of his predecessor about the illicit-
ness of the 5 () /o interest and made regulations more accommo
dating to circumstances. The discussion grew hotter as Hey-
wood, who was openly called the instigator of Egolph s strict
prescriptions, and whose dismissal from the diocese had been
requested by Marquard -), kept stubbornly to his opinions
and managed to persuade Duke William to prepare a law
prohibiting the German Contract. In the conflict he not only
had as adversaries the greater part of the divines and clergy,
but the members and superiors of his own Society. His prin
cipal, Father Iloffaetis, wrote to the General complaining
very bitterly about Heywood s obstinacy, the cause of their
unpopulaiity in Germany, and even expressed misgivings
about the soundness of his mind. Since i5ji Jasper pretended
to be assaulted day and night by the devil, so that he had
almost become unfit for any work ; he had been removed for
a time to Augsburg, but without any good result ; in 1576 he
had been sent to a spa, which had brought some relief. In a
letter to the Vicar-General of the Society, Dec. 4, i58o,
Hoffaeus states that Heywood s mind, which apart from
these infernal assaults, did show dispositions to insanity, had
become quite bewildered ; that for a long time he had been
J ) Cp. the just mentioned article of B. Duhr (p. 223 if.), who has
worked on unedited material ; F. Zech, Rigor Moderates Doctrinae
Pontificiae circa Usuras : Diss. II, cap. II, sect. VIII : De Contraclu
Germanico, 252-7 (Migne, ThecL Curs. Compl., t. XVI, p. 973-4) ;
E. Van Roey, Le Contractus Gennanicus, ou les controverses sur le 5 \o
au XVI e siecle en Alkmagne (Revue d Histoire Ecclesiastique, t. Ill), 1902,
p. g32 ff. ; Agricola, op. cit., vol. I. p. 244.
z ) He was sent to Munich : B. Duhr, art- cit., pp. 223, 238.
obsessed with the idee fixe lhat the Society was soon to
collapse on account of the theories and Scolastic Theology of
the members. To make sure of this abnormal situation of mind
and body, the Vicar-General or the Pope had only to lead
Heywood up to this subject, and ask his opinion about the
prospects of the Society, when he would certainly impart his
phantastical prophecies with plenty of words and tears ) For
notwithstanding Hoffaeus prohibition, Heywood had thought
himself bound in conscience to go and ask the Pope s advice.
Between November i58oand February i58i, -) he travelled to
Rome with letters of recommendation from the Duke, but he
was not well received, and in spite of his appeals to his
acquaintances, like the cardinals Rorromeo and Madruz, he
had to return to Bavaria with his disappointment and to try
to make the best of circumstances that had become all but
Fortunately Campian and Persons were just then in need
of missionaries in England, and Pope Gregory XIII wrote to
Duke William on May 27, i58i :i ), requesting Hey wood s
services. He had been especially desired by those working in
the English vineyard, as he was expected to be of great help
on account of his renown and his authority, which was not
small in his country. The duke granted the dismissal, and
Heywood went to England to replace Father Persons, who
from France sent him a letter appointing him as Vice-prefect
of the English Mission ). He set foot on his native island
soon after July i58i r> ) and with Father Holte, who had come
with him, he started work at once. He was very successful : on
*) B. Duhr, art. cit., pp. 23o, 287.
2 ) Van Roey, art. cit., p. y3g.
3 ) B. Duhr, art. cit., p. 239 ; Agricola, of>. cit., v. I, p. 244 ff., quotes
a letter to the Pope from Campian requesting Heywood, whose
acquaintance he hade made in Munich in i58o; Morns, <Y>. cit.,
pp. :32-3, reproduces the Pope s letter.
4 ) John Morris, The Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, 2d series,
London, 1876, p. 14 ff.
5 ) Th. Fr. Knox, The first and second Diaries of the English College,
Douay, London, 1878, p. 292.
Nov. 17, i582,Walsingham was informed (hat with two helpers
after a stay of three months, he had converted 228 persons
in Staffordshire 1 ), and in a letter to D r Allen, April 16, :583, he
congratulates himself as being the means of another miracu
lous draught - ). Still he had not been long in England, when
by his imprudence he raised another altercation which was
at least as regrettable as that of the German Contract. Some
fast-days, which were quite peculiar to England, and had
been observed there from the earliest times, had been objected
to by the Marian priests and those who had been trained in
the seminaries abroad. They maintained that only those fast-
days were obligatory, which were of the universal Roman
observance. An agreement had been brought about by Cam-
pian and Persons, stating that no general regulation should
be made, but to every district should be left the liberty to
adhere to the established customs. On the entreaty of the
younger generation of the clergy, Hey wood called together
a meeting in Norfolk, i58i, and, made wiser by his experiment
in Bavaria he pronounced in favour of a more lenient mea
sure 3 ). The assembly, for the greater part composed of
Seminary priests , adopted these regulations, but the older
members of the clergy throughout England protested ; a
debate ensued that was feared to become a schism ; it para
lysed the mission for several years 4 ), and was impaired by
J ) Cal. of State Papers, Domestic, Elizabeth, i58i-go, p. 75.
2 ) Knox, p. 35i ; Juvencius, v. V, t. I, p. 223 ; Foley, Records, I,
p. 3 9 2 ff.
3 ) Cp. The poynts agreed upon from Path. Heywood , in Knox, p. 354.
4 ) Cp. about that controversy : Juvencius, v. V, t. II, p. 223 ;
E. L. Taunton, History of the Jesuits in England, London, 1901,
p. i55-7 ; Bartoli, 1. IV, pp. 57-64 ; Morris, Troubles, p. 22 ff. ; Records
of the Engl. Prcv., vol. IV, p. 678-84 ; T. G. Law, Historical Sketch of
the Conflicts between Jesuits and Seculars in the Reign of Queen Elisabeth,
with a reprint oi Christopher Bagshaw s True Relation of the Faction
begun at Wisbich (1601) and illustrative documents, London, 1889,
pp. io5-6, 112, 121 ; J. H. Pollen, The Memoirs of Father Robert Per-
personal attacks, to which Heywood exposed himself through
imprudence and inconsideration ). In these critical circum
stances he wrote for advice to Persons, Allen and his supe-
SOHS [reprinting and commenting A Storie of Domesticall Difficulties,
which the Englishe Catholike cause and promoters therof haue had in
defendinge y same. Anno Jubilaei 1600. Authore Roberto Personio ],
Cath. Rec. Soc. Miscellanea, vol. II, 1906, p. 176 ff. ; Important conside
rations vvich ought to move all true and sound catholikes, who are not
wholly Jesuited, to acknowledge... that the proceedings of her Maiesty, and
of the state with them... haue bene bothe mild and mercifull. Published by
sundry of vs the secular priestes. Newly imprinted. 1601, p. 19 ff.,
23 ; W. WjatsonJ, A Sparing Discover ie of our English Jesuits and of
Fa. Parsons proceedings vnder pretence of promoting the Catholicke faith in
England. Newly imprinted 1601 (lays all the blame of Heywood s
failure on Persons), pp. 26, 46 ff. ; [R. Parsons], Apologia pro Hierar-
chia Ecclesiastics, a S. D. N. Clemente PP. VIII. his aunts apud Anglos
instituta, i6ui, p. 120 ff. ; [Humphrey Ely], Certaine Briefe Notes vpon
a Brief Apologie [translation of the preceding] set out vnder the name of
Priestes vnited to the Archpriest, Paris, [i6o3], p. 3o ff. This pamphlet
was used by Bish. Kennet for his Additions to Mr. Wood s [Ath.
Oxon.} Account of D r Jasper Heywood, Jesuit, Lansdowne MSS. 982
(vol. XLV1II of his Biographical Memoranda), f" 266. Further : J..H.
Pollen, The Notebook of John Southcote D.D., 1628-36, in Cath. Rec. Soc.
Miscellanea, vol. I, London, igo5, p. in ff.
4 ) Cp. D r R. Barret s statement in his letter to Agazarri, S. J.,
August ii, i583 : Pater Heywood non satis prudenter se gerit in
Anglia. Nimis multas occasiones dat illis qui nullas omittunt, si
quid possunt in aliquo vestrum reprehendere : Knox, p. 332; Morus,
p. i33. Many bitter criticisms were made about his ambition, his
mania of imposing himself as a legate a latere, about his expensive
living (W. W[atson], A Sparing Discovery, p. 47), his coaches and
carriages (Ath. Oxon., p. 252 ; Th. Bell, Anatomy of Popish Tyranny^
London, i6o3, lib. I, p. 9 ; lib. II, p. z5 ; T. G. Law, pp. xxii, 101),
and his numerous menial (Jo. Smith, his servant called at the
Douay College, June 14, 1584 : Knox, p. 201). It is evident that these
charges have been exagerated ; even Persons and his partisans
denied them (Apologia pro Hierarchia Ecclesiastica, p. 121 ff.). Nor is
it conceivable that in a time of persecution, a man known as Hey-
riors. No decisive answer came ! ). Finally in May i583, Per
sons arrived from Spain in Paris, where he heard of the
troubles of the English Province. After receiving Heywood s
explanations he went to Rome to ask the General s decision.
This decision was hastened by an appeal of the English
catholics through Allen, Aug. 6, i583 2 ), and Heywood s own
request ; for his missionary work, that had been impeded
through the dispute, became almost impossible through the
increasing attacks of gout, and his concealment was a growing
At last, in October i583, Persons returned from Aquaviva
with letters revoking Heywood and appointing Richard
Weston as Vice-Prefect in England. These letters were to
be handed to them in a meeting, to which both were sum
moned in Rouen 3 ). Heywood managed to leave England 4 ),
but when about to reach Dieppe, his vessel was caught in
a storm and thrown back on the English coast. He at once
was arrested on suspicion of being a priest. That suspicion
soon became certainty and he was accordingly sent to Lon
don and committed to the Clink, December 9, i583 5 ). When
he was going to be examined before the Queen s Bench at
Westminster with four or five other priests, he was separated
wood was, could go about and be driving in a pompous coach,
surrounded by servants and attendants like a papal legate ; indeed,
other records show him as quite dependant on the mercy of those
who invited him to their house (cp. the legendary episode related
by Morus, p. i33, about his eating meat on a rogation day).
*) Cp. Heywood s letter to D r William Allen, London, April 16,
i583 : Knox, p. 35i.
*) Bartoli, lib. IV, p. 60.
3 ) Bartoli, lib. IV, p. 60 ff. ; Foley, Records, vol. I, pp. 3g6-8 ;
Morris, p. 84 ff. ; Taunton, p. 104.
4 ) J. H. Pollen, The Mem. ofF. R. Persons, p. 177.
5 ) The official Lists of Catholic Prisoners during the Reign of Queen Elisa
beth, Part II, 1581-1602, in Catholic Record Society Miscellanea, vol. II,
p. 232 ; Cal. of State Papers, Domestic, Elizabeth, i58i-i5go, p. i65 :
record 23, dated March 21, 1 583/4-
from them and led to the Tower, February 8, i583/4 ). May
be his judges wanted to save him from the fatal doom of his
companions on account of his acquaintance with the Queen
and some of her ministers ; maybe they feared the strength
of his example and argumentation and wished to convey to
the catholics the impression of his recantation. At any rate
everything was tried to make him acquiesce to the desire of
Elisabeth, whose page he had been. Sir Owen Hopton, the
lieutenant of the Tower and some of the Queen s counsel
lors, Cecil, Hatton and Walsingham, vainly endeavoured to
make htm leave his prison for a place of honour, and even a
bishopric ~). He persevered in his confession, and preferred to
endure the horrors of imprisonment, which were made worse
by continual attacks of gout 3 ). On January 21, 1 584/5, after
Elisabeth s law by which every catholic priest became liable
to death by the very fact that he was found in England, a
great number of ecclesiastical prisoners were shipped and
sent abroad by virtue of the Royal Commission of January
i584/5 4 ). Amongst those was Hey wood : ) ; he was landed at
l ) J. H. Pollen, Tower Bills (of Sir Owen Hopton, Knighte, Lev-
tenant of the Q. her Maiesties Tower) iSyS-iSSg, n. 35 : in Catholic
Record Society Miscellanea, vol III, 1906, p. 17-
-) Morus, p. 184 ; Nicolaus Sanderus, De Originc ac Progressv Schis-
matis Anglicani [augmented by Ed. Rishtou], Cologne, 1610, pp. 412.
3 ) Cp. the relation of Father Weston s visit to Heywood : Mor
ris, Life of Father Weston, in Troubles, ad series, pp. 68-9.
4 ) State Papers, Domestic, Elisabeth, i58i-go. p. 223 ; Camden, Rerttm
Anglicarum et tlibernicarum Annales regnante Elisabetha, Ludg. Bat.,
i63g, p. 3g6. Cp. H. N. Birt, The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, A Study
of Contemporary Documents, London, 1907, passim.
r ) J. H. Pollen, Tower Bills, n 36, p. 18. From these accounts of
Sir Owen Hopton it appears that nine other priests, that had been
imprisoned in the Tower, were dismissed at the same time as Hey
wood, which impugns the statement that the latter was released
through the intercession of Dudley, the Earl of Warwick : Warton,
v. Ill, p. 3i2 ; J. H. Pollen, The Notebook of John Southcote, &a, p. 112.
One of Harington s epigrams (lib. Ill, ep. I) alludes to the bounty
Boulogne, notwithstanding his protestations, in the name of
his twenty companions and his own, against being exiled,
declaring that they preferred to be tried and put to death,
rather than to be expelled from their country 1 ).
He first went to Rheims to Dr W. Allen, and further to the
College of D61e, where he remained as simple operarius of the
Society and was again sorely afflicted by the imaginary appa
ritions and infernal vexations 2 ). In i58g he proceeded to
Rome, where he seems to have complained to the General
Aquaviva about having been ill-used by Persons, and to have
renewed his criticism and prophecies about the Society 3 ). But
as Aquaviva did not attach much importance to the extrava
ganza of the poor visionary, the latter applied to the Pope,
who referred to the General, with the result that Heywood was
sent to the south of Italy to prevent further trouble 4 ). In the
of Heywood s protector, though it seems rather a reminiscence of
David de la Hyde s Oratio de Ligno et Foeno :
One neere of kinne to Heywood by his birth,
And no lesse neere in name, and most in mirth,
Was once for his Religion sake committed,
Whose case a Noble Peere so lately pitied :
He sent to know what things with him were scant,
And offered frankely to supply his want.
Thankes to that Lord, said he, that will me good,
For I want all things saving Hay and Wood.
J ) Sanderus, De Progr. Schism. Angl., pp. 433-7 ; ibidem : Rishton
[one of the 21 exiles], Diarivm Rervm Gestarvm in Tvrri Londinensi,
p. Ff 6, v ; Foley, Records, vol. II, pp. 106, i3i ff. ; Morris, Troubles,
2nd series, p. 70 ff. ; Bartoli, 1. IV, p. 98 ff.
2 ) Morus, p. 134.
3 ) Morris, p. 72 ; Morus, pp. 184, i35 ; B. Duhr, pp. 23o, 237.
4 ) W. \V[atson], A Sparing Discoverie &a, p. 47 (makes of Heywood
a victim of Persons vindictiveness). J. H. Pollen, Mem. of F. R.
Persons, p. 177, savs that there is a long set of Heywood s complaints
in the Archives of the Soc. of Jesus : Anglia Historia, I, 118. R. Hos-
pinianus, Historia Jesuitica [edited and continued by L. Lucius],
Basle, j63z, p. 364, relates from hearsay that Heywood, who had
retirement of the professed house of Naples ), Hey wood
spent the last of his days ; here he was alternately troubled by
bodily suffering and the never-ceasing imaginary apparitions,
or gladdened by fits of unusual devotion and tears of unction.
On January 9, 1597/8 the weary struggler closed his eyes in
peace and was laid to rest in the Chapel of the College 2 ).
Besides the translations of Troas, Thyestes andHercules Furens,
Heywood wrote only very few literary works. Some poems
ascribed to him were edited in The Paradyse of daynty deuises,
aptlv furnished, with sundry pithie and learned inuentions : deuised
and written for the most part by M. Edwards, sometimes of her
Maiesties Chappel : the rest by sundry learned Gentlemen, both of
honor, and woorshippe. viz. S. Barnarde. | E. O. | L. Vaux. |
D. S. | lasper Heywood. | F. K. | M. Bevve. | R. Hill. | M.
Yloop, with others. Imprinted at London by Henry Disle, i5y6.
Three pieces are signed with J. Hey wood s full name : p. 5 :
Easter Day ; p. 6 : Who mlndes to bring his shippe to happy shore, /
Must care to knoh e the lawes of wysdomes lore ; p. 85 : Looke or you
leape. One is signed I. H. 3 ): p. 85: Beyng troubled in mynde
he(= the poet) writeth as follows. In the edition printed in i58o
by Disle there is, amongst the additions, another piece by
tried to bring about some improvements in the Society by pointing
out fifty-two defects amongst the members, was not allowed to see
his superiors about these complaints, and was at length sent off
and confined to the professed house of Salerne, where he shortly
afterwards was released by death.
*) As already stated, Pitseus, Relaticmum Historicanim DC Rebus
Auglicis Tomits Primus, Paris, ifiig, p. 753, in the biographical notice
of De loanne Hayuodo, says that he knew Caspar quite familiarly
first at Rome, and later on at Naples.
~) Morns, p. 134 ; Annuae LitteraeSoc. Jesu,AnniMDXCIX, Lyons,
1607, p. 85.
3 ) The style and tone of the poems signed I. H. make it almost
certain that they were written by J. Heywood.
Heywood : p. 91 : Greatness is dangerous. In the edition of 1600
printed by Ed. Allde for Edward White, three more poems
by Heywood, were added : one is signed I. H. : A wittie and
pleasaunt Conceit (p. 112) 1 ), and two with his full name : p. 114:
The Complaint of a Sorrowful Soul, and p. 1 15 : Alluding his State to
the Prodigal Child. These poems do not testify to great literary
power, but to a patient effort of versification and imitation of
the sententious, moralising, but often bombastic and tedious
style of Seneca 2 ).
Ritson, in his Bibliographia Poetica (London, 1802, p. 23o),
assumes that Heywood is the author of Greene s Epitaph : Dis
coursed Dialogue-wise between Life and Death, and he repeats
A. Wood s supposition that he wrote some lines prefixed to
Kyffm s Blessednes of Btytaine, i588. Ritson s conclusions,
which have been quoted recently in the biography of the
DNB, are based on the fact that these pieces are signed with
the initials I. H. It is evident that these initials cannot be
regarded as a positive proof. On the contrary it follows from
every detail in these prefatory poems that Jasper Ileywood
cannot have been their author. Indeed in i588, when appeared
M. Kyffin s The Blessednes of Brytaine, Or Celebration of the
Queenes Holyday (London), Heywood had left England. Even
if he had been in England, he could not possibly have written
these two eight-lined stanzas In commendation of this worke,
and the writer (f. A 2 v); for in Kyffin s book Popes, Spa
niards and Catholicks are treated as so many Cerberi, and
Elisabeth is praised for her most happy regiment. It is not
4 ) The style and tone of the poems signed I. H. make it almost
certain that they were written by J. Heywood.
2 ) Cp. Preface (p. xvil to The Paradise of Dainty Deidces, reprinted
from a transcript of the first edition i5y6 with additional pieces
from the editions of i58o and 1600 with introductory remarks &a,
by Sir Egerton Brydges, London, 1810. Heywood s Poems were
reprinted as well in J. P. Collier s Seven English Poetical Miscellanies,
1867. Cp. Gillow, Bill. Diet, of Engl Cath., t. Ill, p. 299; Watt,
Bibliographia Britaimica, vol. Ill, p. 493 ; C. Sommervogel, Biblio-
theque de la Compagnie de Jesus, tome IV, s. v. ; &c.
possible that after having been imprisoned a year, and sent
forth from his country, Heywood should state in praise of the
skilfull Muses notes come short to sound...
Her Princely gifts, her lustice mylde, her Peacefull lasting
Neither is Heywood the editor of Greene s posthumous
Groatsworth of Wiite (licensed Sept. 20, i5g2), and author of
the prefatory letter To Wittic Poets, or Poeticall Wittes (f. A 2 r
and 4 foil, pages in the edition of London, 1617) and Greenes
Epitaph (f. G3 r and 2 ff. pages), both signed I. II . For it
is certain that Henry Chettle was the editor of Groatsworth
ofWitte; in the preface to his Kind-Hearts Dreame (licensed
8 December, 1592) he states that the letter To Wittie Poets ,
which had offended some playwrights, was not his own
but had been found by him amongst Greene s papers ).
As to the Epitaph it is hardly possible that Hey wood, a stranger
in the world of literators in England of the last decade of
the XVI. century, should have been able to compose a poem
that is full of allusions to the lives of the playwrights of those
Thomas Tanner in his Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica (Lon
don, i74<S, p. 401), conjectures that Heywood translated some
parts of Virgil s poetical works, judging from a poem by
T. B., prefixed to J. Studley s translation of Seneca s Agamem
non, London, i566 (Cp. DNB.}. Still T. B only says that
I ley wood has received for his translations from Seneca as
high a praise and esteem as Virgil may have had or ever
might have deserved 2 ).
Heywood does not seem to have devoted any more time to
English literature after he left his country. The poems of The
J ) Kind-Hearts Dream, p. iv, ed. E. F. Rimbault, London, Percy
Society, 1861. Preface, p. xm. Cp. P. Collier, History of English Dra
matic Poetry and Annals of the Stage, i83i, v. Ill, p. 23o ff. ; Preface
by Sir Egerton Bridges to Greene s GroatsivorthofWit, Lee Priory
Press, i8i3 ; DNB, s. v. Green.
J ) Ed. Spearing, p. 16.
Paradyse of Daynty Deuises were probably written before he
went abroad, and were kept by college-fellows and friends.
He is said to have composed more works but they have not
come to us ; a few of them are mentioned occasionally in his
biographies or in the documents of his time. Morus, in his
Historia Missionis Anglicae (p. 182), states that he was well
versed in Hebrew, and that he composed, for his students, an
easy method to learn that language by way of tables. From
a letter from Hoffaeus, the German Provincial of the Jesuits,
to the General in r58o or i5Si, we gather that long before the
General-Congregation of the Society in i573, Heywood, who
was then at Dillingen, and in the very brunt of the 5 /o inte
rest controversy, wrote a kind of pamphlet about that ques
tion. Unknown to his superiors he sent it to Basle to be
printed. Still the pamphlet was never published : probably
Hoffaeus got an inkling of what Ileywood was preparing and
prohibited the edition ).
When on June i5, 1667, Cardinal Otto Truchsess called
together a Synod at Dillingen to propose to the clergy and
people the ways of carrying out the decisions of the Council
of Trent, Heywood was invited to address the meeting, and in
the afternoon he delivered an allocution. At this Cardinal s
death in i5j3, the Dillingen University held two funeral ser
vices ; on the more solemn one, May 2, i5j3, Heywood pro
nounced an oration during the Requiem Mass 2 ).
In the Seminary of Eichstatt, Bavaria, is preserved in a
manuscript (N. :35) one of the courses of Heywood at the
Dillingen University. The title runs : De seplem Ecclesiae Sacra-
mentis... a Rev^ 1 ... Duo Casparo Hayvodo, SS. Theologiae Doctor -e
anno i56g mense odobris in academia Dilingana tradita et ad cala-
mum dictata. Scripta Casparo Stattmiiller Oetingensi. (In 4, ff. i53).
This concludes the bibliographical list of Heywood to which
1 ) B. Duhr, Die Deutschen Jesuiten &a, p. 23y.
2 ) Steiner, Synodi Dioecesis August., t. II, p. 323 ff.; Ada Utiivcrsilatis
Dil. t I, p 80 ; Specht, Geschichte der Univcrsitat Dillingen. }>p.
Agricola, op. cit., v. I, p. 244.
should only be added an epistle of his, dated April 16, i583,
to Doctor Allen, reprinted by Knox, who published as well
the Points of Ecclesiastical discipline in England , sanctioned by
Hey wood ) and, finally, a few more letters, which B. Duhr
and J. H. Pollen used for their articles, and which are pre
served in the archives of the Society -).
TRANSLATIONS OF SENECA S TRAGEDIES.
From the middle of the XV th century, the influence of
Seneca s tragedies had been growing rapidly on the stage-
literature of western Europe. From Italy, where it had
inspired several plays, and France, where the tragedies were
first printed in 14^5, it gained England, where it was going to
contribute to the development of the drama. This influence,
which has been the object of many researches recently :! ), was
making its way, when Ileyvvood was at the University. Either
consciously, in imitation of some of the Italian translators of
Seneca, or unconsciously, by the tendency of thought and
literature, he undertook to render into English Troas, the tra
gedy which pleased him best (TR, 1. 91). The work had been
J ) The first and second Diaries &a, pp. 35i-2, 353-5.
2 ) B. Duhr, art. cit., passim ; J. II. Pollen, Memoirs of F. R. Persons,
Cath. Rec. Soc. Miscellanea, v. II, p. 177.
:t ) Cp. Crcizenach, Gcschiclite des Netteren Dramas, Halle a. S., 1901,
t. II. p. 462 ff. ; J. A. Symonds, Shakes/here s Predecessors (new
edition), London, 1906, p. 174 ff. ; A. \Y. Ward, History of English
Dramatic Literature, London, 1899, vol. I, p. 188 ff. ; J. W. Cunliffe,
The Influence of Seneca on Elizabethan Tragedy,l*ondcm, i8g3 ; R. Fischer,
Zur Kunstentwicklung der Englischen Tragodie, Strassburg, i8g3 ;
J. M. Manly, The Influence of the Tragedies of Seneca upon Early Eng
lish Drama (introductory essay to F. J. Miller, The Tragedies of
Seneca), Chicago, 1907; J. W. Cunliffe, Early English Classical Tra-
gedu s, Oxford, 1912, Introduction; A. D. Godley, Senecan Tragedy
(in G. S. Gordon, English Literature and the Classics), Oxford, 1912.
intended as a private exercise (TR, 1. 88) but, as was the case
with every novice literator of his days, it was against his will
extorted out of his hands by request and frendshyp of those,
to whom he coulde deny nothing (TR, 1. 91 ff.).
He dedicated this first literary achievement to Queen Eli
sabeth, whose page he had been, and of whom he knew that
the reading of Seneca delighted her greatly. She had herself
translated into English part of these tragedies, and her ren
dering from Hercules Octaeus is said to be extant in the Bodleian
Library. In the next years he translated Thyestes and Hercules
Furens, which he inscribed to two great men, whose sons he
had known at Oxford, the Chancellor of the University Sir
John Mason, who seems to have deserved his special grati
tude O.arid Sir William Herbert of Cardiff, Earl of Pembroke.
They were both members of the Privy Council of the Queen,
and the fact that he dedicated his translations to them and
their royal mistress, seems to imply that he had no special
reasons to be displeased with the policy and measures of
Elisabeth and her Council. Very probably his departure from
All Souls in i56i, which has often been ascribed to molesta
tions on account of his religious opinions, was not compulsory
at all 2 ).
Heywood s translations bear witness of a careful study of
Seneca s text. In Thvestes, and especially in Hercules Furens, he
develops a keen insight in the sense of the Latin original and
a nice eye for alterations and corruptions in the different
editions :i ). Even in his preface to Troas he states that the tra-
*) Cp. Dedicatory poem of Thyestes (TH, 1. 8 ff.).
*) Cp. T. S. Graves, The Hcywood Circle and the Reformation, p. 16
(Modern Philology, volume X, number 4 , Chicago, igi3.
a ) When in the editions of Seneca s tragedies there are two or
more variants, Heywoocl chooses generally that reading, to which
preference is given in the editions of the present day : cp. Her. Fur.,
gedies are muche corrupt by the defaute of euill printed
bookes (11. io5-6). In the prefatory poem to Thyestes, he makes
Seneca complain that the Printers dyd him wrong (1. 704)
and the Latin poet is even supposed to bring from Elysium
a copy of his works written by Melpomene. He reads it to
Heywood, who corrects his own books accordingly, and
Now Gryphyus, Colineus now,
and now and then among
He [i. e. Seneca] Aldus blamde, with all the rest
that in his \voorks do mys
Of sence or verse . (11. 705-710).
In the third tragedy, Hercules Furens, he does not merely
state his fastidiousness in reading the original, but edits side
by side with his translation the Latin text, which, as he says
on the titlepage, is nuper recognita, c~ ab omnibus mendis, quibus
antea scatebat sedulo purgata. This text proves that, as can be
guessed from the former declarations, Heywood does not fol
low one edition, but selects his reading from the various edi
tions that were published in his time, especially those by
Isoarda de Saviliono )> Judocus Badius Ascensius - ), Aldus
Manitius ;t ), Henricus Petrus 4 } and Gryphius r> ). Still not a
1. 5 7 i : rcpeiit H & P ; HP : repetit reci/nt ; 1. 566 : tristibns inferis
H & P ; IIP : tristis & inferis -- tristibus inferis ; 1. 769 : vacuam H &
P ; HP : vacuus i-acuam ; &a.
J ) Edition with the commentary of Gellius Bernardinus Marmita
Parmensis, Venice, 1492, and following years (represented by BM
in the Notes).
2 ) Edition with the emendations of Erasmus : Paris, first issue
i5i3 (represented by E) , second issue (represented by Asc) 1514.
3 ) This edition, which appeared for the first time in iSiy, Venice,
has been repiinted several times, and has been used for most of
the subsequents editions. It is represented in Peiper-Richter s
textual notes by a.
4 ) First issue in 1529, Basle ; represented by HP.
: i Lyons, 1541 and subsequent years ; marked by G.
single one of them is identical with the text which Heywood
reproduced ) Gryphius edition, for instance, which is more
closely followed than any other, and was probably used for
the summary of the tragedy and the list of personages, differs
in many cases 2 ). I have collated Hey wood s text with that
of the latest edition of Seneca s tragedies, by Rudolf Peiper
and Gustave Richter :i ), and subjoin the list of variants 4 ).
From this collation it results that Heywood s readings are
generally similar to those of the interpolata recensio recentiorum
codicum, as Peiper and Richter call it, and which they mark
by A in their textual notes r> ). In some instances, however,
Heywood has a variant that is not recorded amongst those
quoted by Peiper-Richter. In the majority of such cases a
similar reading is found in one or more of the XVI th century
editions just referred to. In others, however, Heywood s
variant differs and seems to be a correction entirely his own 6 ) ;
it often corresponds to the reading and arrangement of text
and speeches adopted in the editions of the present day 7 ),
which shows that he possessed a sound critical sense.
) Jorkers, p. 9, judges from the fact that 11. 129$ to i3i3 of Her
cules Pur ens are spoken by Amphitryon alone in Heywood s trans
lation and inLttcij Anuei Scnece ires Sdectiores Tragoediae. Nurnberg,
1 52o (whereas this speech is divided in other editions between
Amphitryon and Hercules), that this Nurnberg reprint was cer
tainly used by Heywood. Still the same arrangement is found in
A, BM and Asc.
2 ) F. i., 11. 6i3, 684-7, 863, i295-i3o5, &a.
:! ) Leipzig, 1902. Represented in the Notes by P.
4 ) Cp. page 3og ft.
5 ) Cp. their preface, p. xmff.
r> ) They have been pointed out by a -j- in the list of variants.
") Cp. f. i., 1. 76 H & P : if>sa dtiacera Ms; A, Asc, HP, &a : ifisa
iam lacera tins ; 1 146 H & P : olerrat ocuhs... me is ; old texts : oberrat
ratios... meos. LI. 634 b -636 (HF, 11. i295-i3oo) Hattc fer at virtus... inimi-
cttm feror, are spoken by Theseus in A , BM, Asc, HP, G ; Heywood
makes Hercules say these lines, which arrangement has been
adopted by Peiper-Richter.
The lists of his variants arc of the highest importance for
the valuation of his translation ; I have recorded his punctua
tion where it was of interest, for in Seneca s sententious
poetry, a seemingly slight change often causes a complete
reversal in the sense.
What has been said about the original of Hercules Fur ens
may be safely applied to the Latin text used for the translation
of the two other tragedies. Their rendering, however, is com
paratively free, especially in Troas, which makes it much more
difficult to arrive at a decisive conclusion. As a rule and
unless otherwise stated in the Notes the reading of the inter-
polata recensio, A, is translated, though Hey wood probably
used for these tragedies the editions which he utilised for
Hercules Furens. At any rate there are several places in the
English rendering that seem to imply that Heywood trans
lated from the text of Henricus Petrus ) and of (iryphius - ),
as is pointed out in the notes on these passages.
Fidelity to original.
The merits and detects of Hey wood s translations have been
J ) Cp. f. i. 777, 11. 1196, 1223-5, 1266, a.
2 ) Cp. TH. 11. 1018, 1046, &a. On 11. 1279-81 of Hey wood s trans
lation, Thyestes says :
The stomak of thy sonne
o father thou enspyre.
And syster eke, lyke is the cause :
In the Latin original there are different variants, 11. 276-6 :
P animum Daulis inspira parens / sororque ; causa est similis :
A gnati parens / soror est ; causa est similis :
DM agnati parens / soror est : en causa similis.
Asc mi .gnatus : parens :/ sororque : causaque
HP filii parens. / sororque causa est similis :
G filio w parens, / sororque, causa est similis :
From this comparison it appears that Gryphius text or one
similar to it, was translated.
examined lately in the different studies on the subject ). As
literary works they can hardly have a claim on our attention,
but as translations they are neither better nor worse than any
of the similar achievements of his contemporaries. Preference
is usually given to Troas : it has been praised as being more
literary and less servile to Seneca s text than the two other
tragedies. This freedom, however, may result from a less
perfect knowledge of the Latin original than that which is
evinced in the case of Thyestes and Hercules Furens. Indeed
in several difficult places, Heywood does not seem to under
stand the sense of the Latin text ; aiid whereas he in the two
later translations struggles desperately to cram into a couple
of lines all he can derive from the original, he often fakes it
more leisurely in Troas. He translates only the general idea,
omits the details, especially those that prove trying, and freely
arranges what follows and precedes such a passage, so that it
should not have the appearance of patchwork 2 ). In his preface
he explains that he endeuored to kepe touche with the Lat-
ten, not woorde for woorde or verse for verse as to expound e
it, but neglecting the placing of the wordes obserued their
sence (TR, 11. 147-50). It is worth noting, however, that in
general the translation represents the original verse for verse
and that the rendering is only more free where the sense of
the Latin text is difficult, and does not seem to have been
clear to Heywood.
d ) Cp. Introduction to the Spenser Society Reprint of The Tetme
Tragedies of Seneca, 1887, by J. Leigh (reproducing Th. Warton, The
History oj English Poetry (ed. Hazlitt, 1871) vol. Ill, pp. 274-7);
J. Cunliffe, The Influence of Seneca on Elizabethan Tragedy, London,
1893, p. 3 ff. ; A. Ward, History of English Dramatic Literature, Lon
don, 1899, t. I, p. 194 ff. ; E. M. Spearing, The Elizabethan Tame Tra
gedies of Seneca (in Modern Language Review, vol. IV, n 4), Cambridge,
1909, p. 437 ; E. Jockers, Die Englischen Seneca-Uebersetzer des 16.
Jahrhunderts, Strassburg i/E, 1909 ; E. M. Spearing, The Elizabethan
Translations of Seneca s Tragedies, Cambridge, 1912.
2 ) Cp. f. i., 11. 3 4 i- 4 , 710-22, 972 ff-, i3 4 7-8, 1567-8, &a.
Such places, where he swerued from the trew sence are
rare in Thvestes and Hercules Furens. Whereas he added in
Troas several scenes and choruses, he appends only one final
soliloquy to Thyestes, and for the rest he keeps so closely to
the original especially in Hercules Furens that he not only
reproduces the Latin text verse for verse, but even in several
instances the very order of the words in the verse ). It follows
that the translation even that of Troas generally is
remarkably faithful. The only change he allowed himself was
the replacing of periphrastic and allusive appellations by the
usual names - ). Hey wood indeed was so engrossed by his
purpose to give an exact idea of his model that he worked
himself quite into the core of his original. Not only did he
anglicise the Latin words of Seneca where he did not find
an English term that corresponded 3 ), but he adopted the
sententious style and inversions and intricate constructions
of Seneca. In consequence his two last translations suffer
from obscurity and entanglement.
Heywood s work had been judged with severity ; there
are, however, many considerations that could plead for a
more merciful sentence. Indeed he had no standard as to
poetry, verse, or tragedy to guide him. His Latin text was
thickset with misprints and difficulties. His own translation
has been known hitherto only through Newton s careless
reprint of i58i, in which wrong readings, misprints, and badly
corrected blunders abound, and in which punctuation is
little less than bewildering. Finally these translations were
the achievement of his youth : it is to be regretted, that he
had not like Neville 4 ) the advantage of revising in i58i the
text of his rendering. Perhaps he was not aware that his
three tragedies were going to be reprinted ; it he had known
4 ) F. i., TH, 11. 1 138-9 ; HF, 11. 1421-2 (Seneca, 1. 697).
z ) F. i., Troy is the translation of: Rhoetea litora (Troas, 1. 108),
Sigea litora (1. 141), Dardana moeiiia, (1. i35), &a.
3 ) Latinisms \\kejrete, roge, imperie, stadie, a, frequently occur.
) Cp. Spearing, Eliz. Transl., p. 22 ff.
and had leisure, he certainly would have availed himself of
the experience gained, and of the recul from the work of
his twenties, to rearrange it, and might have joined fluency
and literary splendour to a faithfully accurate imitation of
Additions and Changes.
This faithful accuracy of Heywood s translation does not
imply enslavement, however. He made indeed one alteration
and some additions to the original, which show that he thought
for himself. One of these additions proves that he had some
sense of what modern tragedy should be. As the plot of Tfoas
is based on the apparition of Achilles Ghost, which has as
necessary consequence the death of Polyxena and Astyanax,
Hey wood felt that a relation of this vision through Talthybius
was not sufficient to point out its importance in the play, and
he makes the ghost appear in a new scene (act II, sc. i) ).
As it was the translator s principle to give an intelligible text
to the Knglish reader, he replaces the long enumeration of
towns and regions of Greece, in the chorus of the third act of
Troas, by a philosophical outburst on the vicissitudes of for
tune, borrowed from the third act of Phaedra, which is much
more effective to the impression of the tragedy. At the end of
the first act of the same play, Hey wood adds a chorus in
which he dwells on the shortness of life and the irresistible
tyranny of the Fates, with the illustrative examples of Egeus,
Pelias, Orpheus, Jason, Saturnus and Hercules. Probably
because the chorus to the second act, the famous Verum esl ?
] ) It may be, however, that by making Achilles ghost appear
actually, he spoilt Seneca s design, who possibly wanted to let
the responsibility of Astyanax and Polyxena s sentence weigh on
Talthybius. From the general feeling of the tragedy (cp. Chorus to
the 2d act, calling into question the very existence of ghosts), it
seems as if Seneca wanted to impart the impression that Achilles
apparition was a mere invention.
an timidos fabula decipit , (S:a. is far too general and moreover too
depressing, I fey wood augments it with three stanzas, in which
he subdues the baffling effect of Seneca s chorus by rousing
sympathy for the fate of Astyanax. In Thyestes a final soliloquy
is added, evidently to take away the sad impression of the
last scene and to balance the sense of wronged justice, at
least by an imprecation and an urgent prayer for vengeance
These additions show that Heywood had fully mastered
the style and literary turn of Seneca, for if it were not for the
author s statement or a comparison with the original, they
could hardly be distinguished from the text translated. He
writes the same sententious verse, pictures similar sensational
scenes, alludes to the same torments and sufferers in hell,
makes ghosts appear, and imparts even the same impression
of fatalism as the Roman playwright ). So thorough is the
intimacy with Seneca s terrifying apparitions and hellish
visions, that when recalling the events in Hey wood s later
career, the question rises in one s mind whether the study of
the Latin terrorist has not had an influence on him that
extended far beyond the period, in which he was so engrossed
with the translation of these tragedies.
Heywood s versification is not very brilliant. His verse is
uncouth, and especially in the two last tragedies, disfigured
by ever recurring botches (as to see , in any whit , lyke
wyse , &a.) and ungainly inversions -), that testify to a ser
vility to the rhyming form, rather than to a mastery over it.
He tries to give more freedom and variety to the monotonous
fourteener, which he uses generally 3 ), by making the caesura
occur at another place than after the fourth foot, which leads
*) Cp. Cunliffe, Infl. of Sen., p. 27.
*) Cp. TH, 11. 238o-83.
:t ) Cp. Spearing, Eli:. Trans., p. 53 ff. ; Mod. Lang. Rev., IV, p. 4 5i.
to frequent enjambment. As the long verse could not pos
sibly be printed on one line in the small sized octavos, the
printer divided them after the fourth foot. But as very often
a word is not finished after the fourth foot, there are no end
of quaint divisions, as, for instance :
While thou to Aiax and vlis-
ses, doost thy will commit 1 ).
To realise the regular number of feet, Ileyvvood availed
himself profusedly of all freedoms granted to poets, as apo
cope and aphesis 2 ), hiatus 3 ) and eliding 4 ) ; he has a frequent
recourse to slurring " ), which in some cases seems hardly
possible and looks more like the use of anapassts instead of
iambs t; ). Still notwithstanding these freedoms there are
several verses reluctant to be scanned 7 ), some of which were
corrected by Newton in his reprint of i58i 8 ).
As to the rhymes, it is a rule with Hey wood to try and give
them an identical orthography in addition to the identical
sound ; these is spelt thease when it is a rhyme to disease (HF,
1. 1418) ; were is written ware (TR, 1. 2000) when rhyming with
care, and weare (TR, 11. 1284, 1682) when coupled with beare
andfeare. Similar instances are : assignd = synde : mynde (TR,
] . 874) ; bite = byght : syghl (TR, 1. 2417) ; about = abought : sought
(TR, 1. 1266) ; &a.
!) TR, 11. 979-80 ; cp. also TR, 11. 682, i 4 33, 1467, i6 4 5, a ; TH,
1. 1283, &a.
2 ) Hey wood makes a frequent use of aphetic forms as iayk,sygnde,
byde, masde, &a.
3)Cp. TR, 1901.
4 ) Cp. TR, 2174 ; HF, 3ig (elision of final y).
5 ) Cp. TR, 11. 972, 1954, 1971, 2269, 2270, 2469 ; HF, 11. 279, 2568.
6 ) Cp. TR, 11. 972, i32o;J. Schipper, Grundriss der Englischen
Metrik, Wien, i8g5, II, pp. 159-60.
7 ) F. i., TR, 11. 596, 1107, 1721, 1 837.
8 ) F. i., TR, 11. 596, 1721, iq5 4 , 2174 (?)
Rhymes in [e :] and [aei], which Victor pronounces to be
suspicious as Shakespearean rhymes ), are frequent : TR,
11. 1064-6: agaitie(ll: ageane): meane ; TK, 11. 1634-6: death: savth;
sea rhymes with staye (HF, 1. 23i5) and with day (written dea :
TR, 11. 298-300, 2040-2) ; seaes with dayes (TR, 11. 21 36-8) and
waves (seayes : TR, 11. 2567-9) -).
In the first edition of Troas, punctuation is quite bewildering.
A comma is used to mark an inversion or an emphasis, an
opposition or a metrical pause, as was usual in his days 3 ).
Hut in many cases where we should expect one, it is omit
ted ) and frequently it is inserted in the wrong place, which
causes obscurity. In the second edition of Troas and Hercules
Furens, but especially in Thyestes, punctuation is marked with
Hey wood s Aim.
It has been supposed that these three translations were
originally intended for dramatic representation. There is,
however, hardly any argument in favour of this hypothesis " ),
whereas the absence of any hint in the prefaces seems to
imply to the contrary. Moreover, if Hey wood had wanted to
translate these tragedies for the set purpose of being acted on
*) W. Vietor, A Shakespeare Phonology, Marburg, 1906, p. 42.
-) Hair, written generally hear, rhymes regularly with words in
[e :] : teare, chere. Cp. Vietor, p. 48.
3 ) F. i., TR, 11. 2526, 2424, 2499, i65o. Cp. P. Simpson, Shakespea
rian Punctuation, Oxford, 1911.
4 ) This often occurs at the end of a line, of course : cp., f. i., TR,
11. ig5i-2-3-5, 1967, 1976-8.
r> ) Cunliffe, Infl. of Sen., p. 3. The apostrophe Good ladies on the
last line of the chorus to act III of Troas, does not apply to the
ladies of the audience, but probably to the ladies of Troy that form
the chorus. Cp. Notes, TR, 1. n6o.
the stage, as wore in his days the Latin plays of Seneca ), he
probably would have adopted another treatment instead of
the servile rendering. He would have endeavoured to make
the sense of the original clearer, and would have appropriated
it to an English audience, even though the latter were com
posed of university men.
It seems more probable that Hey wood undertook this trans
lation, as Phaer, Golding, Googe, Hlundville and so many
others of his contemporaries, because rendering from Latin
and Greek models was at that time the choicest kind of lite
rary productivity 2 ). If he had any practical purpose it must
have been the one that prompted Erasmus to translate Hecuba
and iphigenia into Latin 3 ), viz., to conduct to further vnder-
standing the vnripened schollers and as it were tech the
little children to goe that yet canne but creepe ) In this
supposition we may find the explanation of the painful
exactitude with which, as he states on the titlepage of Hercules
Furens, for the profit of young schollers [he] so faithfully
translated into English metre, that ye may se verse for verse
tourned as farre as the phrase of the english permitteth . The
reprint of the Latin text of this tragedy side by side with his
translation was only to advance that purpose ; whereas it
would have been superfluous if Heywood had actually
intended to produce new plays for the stage.
The fact that there were three editions of Troas within a
few years, proves that it was favoured with popularity, and
implies that Hey wood s work was useful to many of his con-
4 ) Cp. about the tragedies of Seneca represented in Heywood s
time at Cambridge, G. C. Moore Smith, Plays performed in Cambridge
Colleges before i58S (in Fasciculus J. W. Clark dicatus), pp. 267-270.
2 ) A. W. Ward, Engl. Dram. Lit., vol. I, p. 188.
3 )HF, 1. ii ff.
) HF, 1. 56 ff. ; 1. 77 ff-
temporaries. The author of a poem in recommendation of
Studley s Agamemnon ), praises his translations, and informs us
I low wel did... hys freindes requite
his travayle and hys payne,
When vnto hym they haue (as due)
ten thousand thankes agayne
His verse may now be judged ungainly and intricate ; at
that time it was admired as smooth and fyled . He himself
was looked at as another Virgil ), and his works seem to have
been a standard by which the authors that imitated him, were
measured ii ). The long metrical preface to Thyestes probably
inspired Googe s Preface to the Zodiake of Life ; the poet pic
tures himself as having been blessed by an apparition similar
to that of Hey wood ; the Muses order him to start the trans
lation of the Zodiake; he, too pleads his incapacity, argues
that there are abler poets in England, but finally accepts the
task that is set to him :! ).
Still the greatest proof of the seasonableness of Heywood s
translations is the fact that his example was greedily fol
lowed, and that within a few years six other tragedies of
Seneca were anglicised by three young scholars, Neville, Nuce
and Studley. Their work and that of Heywood was reprinted
later on by Thomas Newton, who, rendering the tenth and
last tragedy, published a complete edition of the translated
plays of Seneca in i58i. Heywood has had an important
influence on the English tragedy, through his own translation
and through those which were made in imitation of his ; for
it is evident that the English rendering was a help or even a
revelation to many a playwright 4 ). It is an acknowledged
*} Cp. Spearing s edition, p. 16.
2 ) Cp. T. B. s poem on Studley, just mentioned; A. Hall s dedica
tor} loiter to Sir Thomas Cecyl, in his Ten Books of Homers Iliades,
3 ) B. Googe, Eglogs, Epytaphes &&gt; Soncties, i563, ed. Arbcr, Lon
don, 1910, pp. 6, 7.
4 ) Cp. Ward, Engl. Dram. Lit., p. 189 ff.
fact that Seneca s influence was never so intense as during
the years that followed either the first octavos, i56o-i565, or
Newton s general edition. Moreover Nashe, in his famous
letter To the Gentlemen Students of both Universities prefixed to
Greene s Menaphon, (published in i58g), implies that the in
fluence of the translations was conspicuous, when he writes
that English Seneca read by candle light yeeldes manie good
It is difficult to state in the cases where there is an influence
of Seneca on the dramatic literature of Elisabeth s time,
whether it has been caused by the Latin text or by the Eng
lish rendering ; still there are some passages amongst those
that are quoted by Cunliffe as having been inspired by the
Roman playwright, that have a singular coincidence with
Hey wood s translation. One of them is quoted from Mars-
ton s Insaniate Countess (a. V. sc. i) J ) :
What Tana is, Nilus, or what Tigris swift,
What Rhenus ferier than the cataract,
Although Neptolis cold, the waves of all the Northern Sea,
Should flow for ever through these guilty hands,
Yet the sanguine-lent stain would extant be !
This passage is inspired by Seneca s Hercules Furens,
11. 1 3 2 3-i 329 :
Quis Tanais aut quis Nilus, aut quis Persica
violentus unda Tigris, aut Rhenus ferox
Tagusve Hibera turbidus gaza fluens,
abluere dextram poterit ? Arctoum licet
Maeotis in me gelida transfundat mare
et tota Tethys per meas currat manus,
haerebit altum facinus.
Especially in the translation of 11. 1326-7, there is a simi
larity between Marston s text and that of Heywood s transla
tion which can hardly be accounted for, unless by admitting
that Marston used the English rendering. The latter runs (I
l ) Cunliffe, Infl, oj Sen., pp. 106-7.
put in Italics the words that seem identical with those of the
passages quoted) :
What Tanais, or what Nilus els,
or with his persyan waue
what Tigris violent of strearne,
or what fierce Rhenus flood,
Or Tagus troublesome that flowes
with Jbers treasures good
May my right hande now wash from gylt ?
although Maeotis collde
The wanes of all the Northen seae
on me shed out now wollde,
And all the water thereof shoolde
now passe by my two handes,
Yet will the mischiefe deepe remayne. (11. 2532-44).
A passage in Gorboduc, V, i, 64, 65 l ) :
So giddie are the common peoples mindes,
So glad of chaunge, more wauering than the sea.
may be translated from Hercules Furens, 1. 170 :
fluctuque magis mobile vulgus,
but may be inspired as well by Heywood s rendering
And commons more vnconstant then the sea 2 }.
Many of the passages, which Cunliffe quotes from the Mis-
fortunes of Arthur as being tributary to Seneca, show an evi
dent conformity with the English translation. I cite as instance
(Dodsley, vol. IV, pp. 285-286) :! ) :
CON. But whoso seeks true praise and just renown,
Would rather seek their praising hearts than tongues.
MOR. True praise may happen to. the basest groom :
A forced praise to none but to a prince.
*) Cunliffe, Infl. of Sen., p. 49.
2 ) Cp. as well a passage from Greene s Selima, quoted by Cun
liffe, Infl. of Sen., p. 64, with Thyestcs, 11. 204-218, and Heywood s
translation, 11. n38-n66.
3 ) Cunliffe, Infl. of Sen., p. 146.
The original of this passage is Thyestes, 11. 209-212 :
(SAT.) at qui favoris gloriam veri petit,
animo magis quam voce laudari volet.
ATR. Laus vera et humili saepe contingit vivo,
non nisi potenti falsa.
Heywood s translation corresponds almost literally with the
text of the Misfortunes of Arthur ; moreover voce and animo are
translated by the same concrete symbols, tongues and hearts,
which cannot be a mere fortuity (11. 1147-53) :
But who in deede the glory seekes
of fauour true tobtayne,
He rather wolde with harts of eche
be pravsde, then tongues of all.
Atre. The truer prayse full ofte hathe hapte
to meaner men to fall :
The false but vnto mightie man.
It is worth while comparing the following passages of the
same play, in which a similitude with the translation of Sene
ca s tragedies is obvious ; from that comparison it ensues that
the author of this tragedy used Heywood s translation along
with, and maybe, instead of the Latin original :
Cunlifle Dodsley First words Seneca Heywood
pp.iSo 264 Let mischiefs &&gt;a. T/iyestes, 11. 26-32 TH, 832-46
i3i 264 Go to, &&gt;a. \ __._.
1 37 270 Who then can
ever &&gt;a. Here. Fur., 865-8 HF, 1723-5
i3g 2/3 Thine (death) (>. Here. Fur., 870-4 HF, 1728-32
148 291 Yea, worse S-a. Tkyestes, 5j2 77/, 1791
149 292 He either (>#. Thyestes, 2o3-4 TH,n35-j
149 2g5 A troubled
head c^a. Thyestes, 418-20 TH,i5o6-8
149 299 XoplaceisleftcS fl. Troas, 433-4 TR, 1197-8
EDITIONS AND TEXTS.
Troas was imprinted in i55g in London by Richard Tottyll,
the printer for the Lawcourts, at the sign of the Hand and
Starre in Fleetstreet ). It was a small octavo, in five quires
of eight leaves and one of four leaves, signatures [A] s B 8 C s
D 8 E* F ; folio [A] i v and both sides of F, being blank.
The text is printed in a small black-letter, the Dedicatory
Epistle to Queen Elisabeth and the running titles in Italics ;
the heading of the different acts and scenes in Roman types.
The book cannot be called a model of care and accuracy, for
there is neither regularity in the spelling, nor in the punc
tuation, and the misprints are very numerous indeed. Pro
bably the author was bitterly criticised on that account, as
in his next literary achievement, Thyestes, he writes a long
preface wherein he avails himself of the occasion to answer
the charge and lay a great part of the blame on the printer,
comparing himself to Seneca, whose tragedies also were
wronged by the editors (TH, 11. 3i5-382).
The only known copy of this edition belongs to the British
Museum (press-mark: 238.1.27); it is bound in red leather
and is one of the books of George III. s library. It has been
reprinted in this volume, and it is represented in the Textual
Notes by A.
Richard Tottyll reprinted Troas a second time in i55g.
Indeed in his Preface to Thyestes, written at the end of that
year, Heywood states that, shortly after his Troas had been
corrected by him and printed, Tottyll wanted to reprint it,
and corrupted all ; so that he declared that never any work of
his should come again to sygne of Hande and Starre .
(TH, 11. 33y-358). From what Heywood says, it appears that
this second edition was undertaken without the author s
knowledge. That explains why the printer tried to make it as
similar as possible to the first ; indeed it never was mentioned
as a different edition. A copy of it is in the British Museum
(no other is known to be extant) where it has the press-mark
Ames, p. 8:3.
G. 9440 ] )- It is represented here by B. Of course a collation
of the two texts shows that there are numberless variants
between them in spelling and punctuation (see Textual Notes,
pp. 296-802), but though at first sight the print and disposition
seems quite identical, we have not here two copies one
corrected and one uncorrected of one edition, but two
really distinct editions. Indeed the titles of A and B when
compared show differences (cp. the reproduction on pp. L-LI :
11. 1,6 and 8, and the kind of ornament under 1. 9 in B) ; the
disposition of the lines of the letter to Elisabeth varies : 1. 12
to 3o (one line more in B), 1. 66 to 70 ; the same has to be said
of 1. i5o to 162 of l\\e Preface; there is a different syllabication in
11. 100, 119, i32, 146 ; the word FINIS is added in B between
11. 2569 and 2570 ; a different ornamental initial letter is used
for lines 4i5 and 5i7 ; B makes a more frequent use of the
sign CT , the running title varies constantly ; the capital letters
indicating the names of the personages for scenical directions
are generally spaced in B, very rarely in A ; the frequent use
of w s of the lower case at the beginning of the odd verses on
pp. 10, n, i3, 39 and 43, &a. in A shows a want of upper case
types, whilst B has everywhere a capital W ; on the contrary
on p. n, 5o &a. several small w s are used in B where A has
capital letters ; further a lower case a is used about thirty
times on pp. ig-So in A, where B has the upper case type.
All these typographical differences in addition to Heywood s
statement are sufficient proofs that A and B are indeed copies
of two distinct editions.
It is evident from a comparison of these texts that B is
subsequent to A. Indeed a great number of evident misprints
of A are corrected in B. This does not apply merely to
mistakes of the printer, such as inverted letters and types
that are arranged in a wrong order, or substituted for others,
so that the words as they stand have no sense : f. i., 1. 270
SFNECA A : SENECA B ; 3ii ftame A : flame B ; 419 Ana
l ) This copy belonged to Hearne and Grenville.
A : And B ; 594 rToiane A : Troianc B ; 976 gladdde A :
gladde B ; &a. Many other mistakes, for which the author
is responsible, have been corrected; such are, amongst others :
1. 233 thrust A : thurst B ; 55y Frayltie A : Fraile B ; 642 we
A : me B ; 860 Pryames A : Pyrrus B ; 2o32 honour hongur A :
honour B ; 2042 by A : thy B ) Moreover the punctuation
in B is much more accurate, so that it proves that B is
almost a revised reprint of A. It is true that on the other hand
amongst the variants, most of which are mere orthographical
equivalents, there are some misprints of B. Still they are very-
few ; about one dozen of them are evident mistakes of the
printer 2 ). Apart from these unavoidable blunders, there are
three more important and conscious alterations of the text of
A that are not decided changes for the better ; they are :
1. 1 1 56 stayne A : stray ne B ; 1610 been A : be B ; 2362 he A :
be B. Still it may be questioned whether they are changes for
the worse ; for the first and last of these three readings of B
are as plausible as those of A, and the second merely substi
tutes an older form to one that was more current in Hey wood s
Now, in his preface to Thyestes, the translator owns that in
Troas there were mo fautes, then lynes and accepts the blame
on that head. But though he confesses that of some he was
the author and fawtes to many made [himjselfe when [he]
that booke lette pas Out of [his] handes , yet he excuses him
self of other some . Indeed he says that when Tottyll
renewed the print of Troas, the latter corrupted all , so
that scant a sentence tie we Now flythe abroade as [he] it
wrote and that he espyde... fowrescore greater fautes then
[his own] in fortie leaues (TH, 11. 3i5-35o). All this savours
much of a very clumsy apology. Indeed since Heywood him
self admits that many faults escaped him the first time that
Troas was printed, when he himself perused the proofs, it is
J ) Cp. Textual Notes, pp. 295-302.
2 ) Cp. 11. 42, 123, 197, 4i3, 811, 911, 919, 1107, 1720, 1768, 1781.
evident that A, by far the more careless of the two issues, was
the edition for which he was answerable. For if A had been
the second and deteriorated edition of his tragedy, he cer
tainly would have struck another tone, and would have come
down without mercy on Tottyll for having edited a slovenly
reprint, for which he would have declined all responsibility.
The printer evidently touched a sore point by correcting the
mistakes of A, and Hey wood feeling that the fault was entirely
his own, was glad enough to find a few misprints in the
second issue, and raised a pretended outcry probably against
the orthographical alterations where he complained that scant
a sentence trewe Now flythe abroade as [he] it wrote .
A careful examination of the two copies A and B from a
typographical point of view corroborates that plea for the
precedence of A. It is quite evident that many pages of B
have been printed from the forms that had been used for A,
and of which the types had not been distributed, though the
greater number of pages are of a different composition. Such
identical forms were used for ff. Di v, Da r, D3 v, D^. r, D5 v,
D6 r, D-J v, D8 r, and for most of the pages of quires E and
F. Indeed a close comparison of f. i. pp. 54-55, 58,62, 70, 72-78,
75, &a. in A and B, shows that there is in both the same dis
position of the types and the same spacing between the words
so that the lines have mathematically the same length ; the
same forms of capital T (( and :) are used for the same
words. Moreover some typographical irregularities occur in
both A and B. For instance on page 55 a small w , that is
different from the w of the ordinary type, and does not stand
in a line with the other letters, is used in both copies for the
same words ; on p. 58, 1. i683, the e of saued stands about
two millimeters above the line in B and in A ; the full stop
after fall of 1. 1740 is a little above the line in both copies,
and the bottom dot of the colon after men on line 2o65 is
equally badly printed. These and many more similar details
prove that for several pages of B the form was utilised that
had been set up for A ; several misprints of A were even
reproduced in B : f. i. p. 62, 1. 1808 : rhyrde; p. 70, 1. 2067 :
df ; p. 75, 1. 2227 : kiug; &a. Now, in many cases the faults of
A are corrected in B, which evidently proves that B was the
second and revised edition. A good instance may be de
rived from fol. E :j r (p. 69) ) : from 1. 2011 to 2029 the compo
sition in both copies is quite identical same spacing, same
length of lines, same types, same disposition. But on 1. 2021
Gresians of A is corrected into Grecians in B; should of
line 2027 into shouldst ; Giecyan into Grecyan (1. ->o3i) ;
honour hongur into honour (1. 2082); The into the
(1. 2084) ; by into thy (1. 2042). In the last lines of this
page a few e s. a stop and a colon were added, so that from
line 2o3o to 2042 the composition is disarranged a little, though
it evidently shows that (he form that was used for B, was ori
ginally the same as that of A. These corrections and emenda
tions are a conclusive proof of the precedence of that edition,
which was thus rectified. (On p. 68, only the word policie
of A is changed into pollecye in B, probably under the
influence of its rhyme dye ).
The fact that these forms of the first edition were still
available, proves that the second issue was not edited long
after the first ; which agrees with what Heywood says in his
preface to Thyestes, that yet ere long the print of his Troas
was renewed (TH, 1. 342).
A third edition, C, of Troas was printed by Thomas Powell
for G. Bucke. The title is set in a compartment, and is re
produced on p. LII. The colophon is wanting ; the signa
tures are A 8 B 8 C 8 D 8 E 8 and F 4 ; folios AI v and F 4 r and v
are blank. The letter to the Queen and the running titles
are printed in Italics, the names of the personages in Roman
type, and the text itself in a black-letter of a smaller size
than that of A 2 ). Line for line and page for page, the
*) Cp. the reproduction of pp. 68 and 69 in A and B, at the end of
2 ) Powell, who printed this Troas, was a kind of manager of Tho
mas Berthelet before 1 555 and soems to have had a superintendency
in his printing office after that date. Ames (pp. 465, 874), adds that
some books were printed in Berthelet s house, with his types and
marks. It is worth mentioning that many of the initial letters of this
dispositions of Tottyll s editions are reproduced, with the
only exception of the preface To the readers, in which the lines
are differently arranged, so that the last words of a page in A
are on the first line of the following page in C. The text of this
third edition is evidently reprinted from the first ; indeed most
of the mistakes of A, that are not mere misprints, have been
reproduced, as appears from a collation, f. i., of 11. 233, 55y, 860,
2021, 2027, 2o32 (honour hongur A, honour B, honour honger
C) l ). The corrections of B were not made use of for this edi
tion. To be true, some of the evident misprints of A, that
had been rectified in B, are also corrected here (f. i. 11. 270,
3ii, 327, 419, 493, &a), but these blunders were too obvious to
escape notice, and even such iaults were put right, as occur
on pages which were printed from the same forms in A and
B, and were not corrected in the latter (f. i. 11. 1808: rhyrde
AB : thirde C 2227, 2286, 2298, &a.).
This third edition bears no date. The DNB ascribes it to
i563. It is very probable that it was published soon after i56o.
Bucke, for whom Powell printed it, took up his freedom in
the Company of Stationers on September i3th, i56o and
started printing in i562-i563. About that time he is mentioned
in the Stationers Registers for being licensed to print The
Historve of Leonerde Arytine, and he began taking apprentices
in i563 2 ). It seems as if Bucke edited this Troas in the very
beginning of his business career, otherwise he would not have
had recourse to a printer. It is not likely that Heywood had
a hand in it, for he certainly would have corrected many of
the faults that had escaped him in his own edition. Probably
he had left England when it appeared.
One copy of this issue (C 1 ) belongs to the British Museum:
edition of Troas are identical with those used for Thyestes, printed
at the hous late Thomas Berthelettes (f. i., the I of TR, 1. 11
and TH, 1. 91 ; W of TH, 1. i 7 65 and TR, 11. 2 7 3, 749).
!) Cp. Textual Notes, pp. 296-302.
z ) E. Arber, Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of
London, 1554-1640, vol. I, pp. 197, 210 ; E. Arber, List of London
Publishers, Birmingham, 1890, p. 8, McKerrow, A Dictionary of
C. 84. a. 9. 2. It is bound in one volume with Neville s
and Siudlcy s Medea and Agamemnon. Another copy (C 2 ) belongs
to the Britwell Court Library : 36. A. 21 ) This copy was
formerly bound in one volume with Hcyvvood s Hercules
Furens (i) and Thyestes (2), Troas being the third ; as the cover
had come off they were pulled apart. I have not found any
discrepancies between these two copies.
On the 26th of March i56o Thyestes came from the press that
had belonged to Thomas Berthelet, and was possibly worked
under the superintendence of Thomas Powell 2 ). It is printed
in a small octavo size, comprising seven quires of four double
leaves, signatures: * 8 W s A 8 B 8 C s D s E s . Fol. * i v and leaves
E 7 and E 8 are blank. The dedicatory letter and prefaces as
well as the text are printed in a small black-letter ; the
running titles are in Italics ; the headings of acts and scenes
and the names of the personages in the scenical directions, in
Roman type. The title, reproduced on p. LIU, is adorned with
a rich compartment having the date i534 in the bottom bor
der, which compartment was used for several books printed
by Berthelet, f. i. Elyot s Castle of Health (1542?) 3 ). The
annoyance caused to Heywood by the two editions of Troas
seems to have benefited him, for Thyestes is printed with very
great care : misprints are comparatively scarce ; the ortho
graphy is nearly uniform and the punctuation, which is in a
bewildering state in Troas, is quite normal.
Printers and Booksellers 1557-1640, London, 1910, p. 54. Bucke was
a bookseller from i56o to 1567.
*) My best thanks are due to Mr. S. R. Christie Miller who
granted, and to his librarian Mr. H. Colman who obtained permis
sion for me to collate my transcripts and reprints with the copies
of the rich Library at Britwell Court.
*) Ames, pp. 465, 874.
3 ) The same compartment was used for Richard Taverner s
Adagics, printed by Richard Kele in i552, at least the top border
and the two side borders are identical. The bottom border with the
date 1534 has been replaced by one bearing the printer s initials.
Cp. Hand-lists of English Printers, London, 190$.
One copy (A 1 ) of this edition, which is reproduced in this
volume, is preserved in the British Museum : press-mark,
C. 34. a. 8. 2 ; it is bound in red leather, together with Hercules
Furens. Another copy (A 2 ) belongs to the same library : it is
bound in green leather and was one of Grenville s books :
press-mark, G. 9246. A third copy (A :! ) is in the Britwell Court
collection : 36. A. 19. These three copies differ only in a very
few details, recorded in the Textual Notes, 11. 747, ig58 and 235i.
Hercules Fitrcus was printed in i56i by Henry Sutton,
dwelling in paternoster rowe at the signe of the Blacke Boy ,
as appears from the colophon which is followed by the prin
ter s mark two boys playing in a landscape. The title,
reproduced on p. i.iv, is double, one in Latin and another in
English. The size is a small octavo, and it contains one quire
of four leaves A, and eleven of eight leaves : B C D E F
G H I K L M. The title is on f. AI recto. On ff. AI v to A 4 v
is printed a dedicatory epistle to Lord Herbert in a big black-
letter ; on p. BI r is printed the Argument in a small black-let
ter, and on f. M iS v the colophon with the printer s mark.
The other leaves are taken up by the two texts of the tragedy,
the Latin text being reprinted in Roman types on the verso
sides. On the recto sides, and opposite to each line of the ori
ginal, is Heyvvood s translation, set up in black-letter, the
names of the personages and the titles of acts and scenes in
Roman types. The printer has made a mistake in putting the
form that should have been on f. D 4 recto on the place* of
f. DO recto and vice versa, so that the English text has to be
read in this order : D 3 r, D, ; r, D 5 r, D 4 r, D 7 r, &a. The Latin
text follows quite regularly 1 ). This third tragedy is less care
fully printed than Thyestes ; there are again many misprints
and inaccuracies, nor is the Latin original without faults.
The text in this volume is reprinted from a copy (A 1 ) pre-
*) In the reprint of this volume these pages have been replaced
in the regular order.
served in the British Museum : press-mark, C. 84. a. 8.1 (n 2
being Thyestes). A second copy (A 2 ) in the same library (press
mark, a38. 1. 26) belonged to George III. and is rather dirty
and badly cropped. A third copy (A :t ) is at Britwell Court,
36. A. 18. The differences between these copies are merely
typographical and are recorded in the Textual Notes (p. 3o5),
11. 144, 1199, i327, 1708, 1712, 1964, 2002, 2325, 2553.
Thomas Newton reprinted Hey wood s translations with
those of the seven other tragedies by Seneca Oedipus by
A. Neville, Hyppolytus, Medea, Agamemnon, and Hercules Oetacus
by John Studley ). Octavia by T. Nuce, and Thebais by him
self and edited them as Seneca His Tenne Tragedies, translated
into Englysh. London, Thomas Marsh, i5Si. Troas was re
printed from the third edition, C, as clearly appears from the
variants recorded in the Textual Notes, p. 35o ff. (Newton s re
prints = N). Indeed, though some of the evident misprints of
C are corrected, all the readings and the punctuation that are
special to this edition are found in Newton s Tenne Tragedies:
cp. f. i., 11. 720, 1837, 2242, 2270, 2277, 2497. From the variants
it appears that the text of Hey wood has been reproduced very
carelessly. Passages that are difficult in the octavos of i55g-6i
are quite incomprehensible in the quarto of i58i through
bewildering misprints, words that were omitted, and an
almost anarchical punctuation. Many of the inaccuracies and
shortcomings with which Heywood has been charged are
due without any doubt to Newton s negligence.
The present reprint is intended to be as exact a reproduc
tion of the texts of the octavos as was in the printer s power
and in mine.
*) Two of Studley s translations have been recently edited in these
Materialist, v. XXXVIII, by M. E. Spearing.
The black-letter had to be replaced by Roman type and the
differences between long and short s, to be given up. Moreover
some forms peculiar to the black-letter type (especially in
Thyestes), as the two r s, the ligatures of oo, de and ct, and a
special form of final s resembling the Greek , could not be
kept. But for these exceptio ns, the three octavos have been
reproduced exactly with their orthography, punctuation,
running titles, signatures, catchwords, turned letters, &a. The
different headings of prefaces, acts and scenes have been imi
tated as closely as possible, and some black-letter types of
a bigger size that occur in the text, have been replaced by a
different Roman letter.
I draw the attention to a few misprints in the text for which
I humbly apologise. I detected them when comparing the
present reprints with the original texts of London and of
1. 5o3 : ha.ndes,( comma doubtful) read handes,
1248 : hcare, heare.
1810: Astyanax. Astyanax
2218: 1 haue J haue
1. i83:his this
1 517: whylt wylt
1572: in is
2191 \read : What causes haue from certaine
23 14: about read about
2424 : wyllyngy wyllyngly
1. n57:y y
(p. 3o6) HF, 1. 1327: to tell, read to tell,
LATIN TEXT OF HERCULES FURENS
die of the mo fl gram and prudent
autbor Lucius, Anneus^Scncca,
epttrulcD Croas,irtrb Diners ano
fnn&jyc aODieions to rftc fame*
priutlegio *J imfti-
Title-page of TROAS, first edition (A)
(British Museum, 238. 1. 27)
die of the moft gratte and prudent
author Lucius, AnneuSjScncca,
ciuuulco .roaa,tuttb Diuerr ano
funDipe aoDtctons to tljf fame*
j^etolp fct foztb tne
Title-page of TROAS, second edition (B)
(British Museum, G. 9440)
ie oft be roq/l g
flnfe pjutrru aatljo j Lucius
Troaj , tdi(t) Oi tiers fans
ctol^ Tct foojtt) in <nt
Title-page of TROAS, third edition (C)
(British Museum, C. 34. a. 9. 2).
S>nma r ntitulrfi ^Thps
C)eD bp llafprr tecps
* UI aifolne
t onDon in ^Ittctttttt
in ttjr houg
tljt lettcB .
Anno .1 f 6e.
Title-page of THYESTES
(British Museum, C. 34. a. 8. 2).
bicurHcrcuus tuicnsmiperrccognita, & t>
omnibus mendis,quibus antea fcarebar ledn
lo purgata, & in (ludiofar luuentutit vtiliutr,
ie Afiglicom metrum tanta fide conuc rfa, vt craeo
fro carmine quoad Anglica lingua patiator
prnc redditum videat.
ftfOft Of Luc jus Anncus Seneca,
ftlff tullD Hercules furcns,neto Ip pf rbfcD and
of ail fciultes iu!;ef eo f it DD befo:e abounc Du
ligerirflp coiricreD>3MD foi ti;e profit of poung
fdjoHei0 fo fair^fullp rrandatrb into Gn^
giify merre,thac pe map fc Uer fc foi berfe
foarneo as far re a* rfoc pU:afc of rtjccti
Title-page of HERCULES FURENS.
(British Museum, C. 34. a. 8. i)
e THE SI XT T<RA GE
die of the mostgraue and prudent
author Lucius, Anneus, Seneca,
entitulefc Gtoas, \vltb biuers anD
aftfticions to tbe same.
i) art tint I) in <jriiililjf I o
Jasper f)fi;moob tu-
iifHt in ^rrn-
E C?^ priuilcgio ad impri-
c TO THE MOST HIGH
and verteouse princesse, Elyzabeth by the grace
of god Q uecne of England, Fraunce, and
Ireland defender of the faith her highncs
5 most humble and obedient subiecte
Jasper Heywood studient in
the vniucrsite of Ox
ford wissheth helth
10 6- felicitie.
F cdsideration of your
graces goodnes toward
vs all your louing sub-
iectes whych flytng
i5 fame by mowthes oj
men resowndes had not
fully in me repressed a I
drcade of reprehension
(Most noble princesse and my drad soiieraigne
20 Lady) If the ivisdome that God at these yeres in
your highnes hath planted, had not seemde to
me a strong defence against all byt of shameles
arrogdce (reproche wherof flong with disdain -
full ivordes from ireful togues, as adders stinges
 The epistle.
25 should strike me) fynally if the learning with
which GOD hath endued your maiestye had
not ben to me a comfortable persuasion of your
gracious fanour towarde the simple gift and
dntie of a scholer, I would not haue incurred
3o so daungerous note of presumption, in attemp
ting a subject to hys princesse, a simple scholer
to so excellently learned, a rashe yong man to so
noble a Q ueene by none other signe to signifie
allegeance and dntie toward your highnes saue
35 by writing : when oft times is the Pen the onely
accuser in some pointes of hym that therwith
doth endite. But now, to se (most gracious Lady)
that thing come to passe which to the honour of
him and for the welth of vs god hath ordained,
40 a Princesse to raigne oner vs, such one, to whom
great fredomc is for vs to serue, what ioy may
serue to triumphe at that blissefull day, or what
should we spare with pen to preacJie abrode that
inward gladnes of hart that flowetJi from the
45 brestcs of vs your most louing subiects ? beseching
god that it may please hym to graunt your grace
long and prosperous gouernance of the imperyal
crowne of Englande.STlien well understanding
how greatly your highnes is delighted in the
The epistle. 
5o swetc sappe of fine and pure, writers, I hanc
here presumed to offer vuto you such a simple
new \ercs gift as neitJicr presenteth golde nor
perle, but dntie & good will of a scholler, a piece
of Seneca translated into Englishe which I the
55 rather enterprise to giuc to your highnes, as
well for that I thought it should not be vnplea-
sant for your grace to se some part of so excellent
an author in your owne to;>g (the reading of
whom in I a ten I vnderstande dcligJites greatly
60 your maicsty) as also for that none may be a bet
ter iudge of my doinges herein, then who best
vnderstandeth my author : and the authorise
of your graces fauour towarde thys my little
worke, may be to me a sure defence and shielde
65 against the sting of reprehending togues. Which
I most humbly beseching your highnes cnde.
with prayer to god to scnde vs long the
fruition of so excellent
and gracious a
C To the readers.
Lthough (gentle Reader) thou
mayst perhaps thinke me arro
gant, for that J onely among so
75 1V I many fine wittes, and towardly
youth, (with which England this
day florisheth) haue enterprised
to set forth in englishe, thys present piece , of
the flowre of all writers Seneca, as who saye
80 not fearingwhat grauer heddes might iudge of
me, in attepting so harde a thyng, yet vpon wel
pondering what next ensueth, J trust both thy
selfe shalt clere thyne owne suspicion, and thy
chaunged opinion, shal iudge of me more right-
85 full sentence. For neyther haue J taken thys
worke first in hand, as once enteding it shoulde
come to light (of well doing whereof J vtterly
dispayred) and being done but for mine owne
priuate excercyse, J am in mine opinion herein
90 blameles, thoughe J haue (to proue my selfe)
pryuatly taken y part which pleased me best,
of so excellent an aucthor, for better is time spet
in the best then other, and at first to attempt the
hardest writers, shal make a man more prompt,
96 to translate the easyer with more facilitie. But
now sins by request, and frendshyp of those, to
whom J coulde deny nothing, this woorke a-
gainst my will, extorted is out of my handes, J
nodes must craue thy pacience in reading, and
TOO facilitie of iudgement : when thou shalt aparat-
ly see, my witles lacke of learning, praying
the to consyder. how harde a thyng it is for me,
to touche at full in all poyntes, the aucthoures
The preface, 
minde, (being in many places very harde and
io5 doubtfull and the worke muche corrupt by the
defautc of euill printed bookes) and also how
farre about) my powre, to keepe that grace, and
maiestye of style, that Seneca doth, when both
so excellent a writer, hath past the reache of all
no imitacion, and also thys our englishe toong (as
many thinke and J here fynde) is farre vn-
able, to compare with the latten, but thou
(good reader) if J in any place, haue swerued
from the trew sence. or not kept the royaltie of
Il5 speach, meetc for a tragedy, impute the tone to
my youth : and lack of iugement, the other to my
lacke of eloquence. Now as concerning sondry
places augmented and some altered in thys my
translacion. Fyrst forasmuch as thys worke se-
120 med vnto me, in some places vnperfytte (whe
ther left so of the authour or part of it lost as
tyme deuoureth all thynges J wotte not) J
haue (where J thought good,) wyth addicyon
of mine owne pen, supplied the want of some
125 thynges, as the fyrst Chorus, after the fyrst
act beginning thus. O ye to whom &c. Also
in the second acte. J haue added the speche of
Achilles spright, rysing from hell to require the
sacrifice of Polixena beginning in this wise,
i3o Forsaking now &c. Againe the three last sta-
ues of the Chorus after the same acte, and as
for the third Chorus which in Seneca begyn-
neth thus, Que vocal sedes ? For as much, as no
thing is therin but a heaped nouinbre of farre &
135 strange countreies, consydering with my selfe, y
[d] The preface,
the names of so many vnknowne countreyes,
mountaines, desertes, and woodes should haue
no grace in the englishe tonge, but be a straunge
and vnpleasaunt thing to the readers, (except
140 J should expounde the histories of eche one,
which would be farre to tedious) J haue in the
place therof. made a nother beginning in thys
maner. O Joue that leadst &c. whych al-
teracyon may be borne withall, seeing that the
145 Corus is no part of the substance of the matter.
Jn the rest J haue for my sclender learning,
endeuored to kepe touche with the Latten, not
woorde for woorde or verse for verse as to ex
pounde it, but neglecting the placing of the
i5o vvordes obserued their sence. Take ientle rea
der this in good worth, wyth all hys fautes.
fauour my first beginninges, and amende ra
ther with good will, such thynges as herein are
amis, then to depraue or discommende my la-
i55 bour and paynes, for the fautes, seing that
J haue herein, but onely made way to
other that can farre better do thys
or like, desyring them that as
they can, so they woulde.
160 Fare well getle reader,
& accept my good
The preface to the tragedye.
, He ten yearcs siege of Troy , who list to here
i65 I rr And of thafiaires, that there befell in fight
Reacle ye the workes, y long sins written were
Of all thassautes and of that latest night,
When Turrets tops, in Troy they biased bright
Good clerkes they were, that haue it written well
170 As for thys worke, no worde therof doth tell.
But dares Phrygian, well can all reporte
With dictis eke of Crete in grekishe tong
And Homere telles, to Troy the Greekes resort
Jn scanned verse, and Maro hath it song
175 Eche one in writ hath pend a story long
Who doubles of ought, and casteth care to knowe
These antique authors, shall the story showe.
The ruines twaine of Troy, the cause of eche
The glittering helmes, in fielde Ihe banners spred
180 Achilles yres, and Hectors fightes they teache
There may the iestes of many a knight be red,
Patroclus, Pyrrhus, Aiax. Diomed,
With Troylus, Parys, many other more,
That day by day, there fought in field full sore.
i85 And how the Grekes at ende an engine made
A hugye horse where many a warlike knight.
Enclosed was, the Troianes to inuade
With Synons craft, when Greek es had fained flight
while close they lay, at Tenedos from sight,
190 Or how Eneas els as other say,
and false Antenor did the towne betray.
[ID] The preface.
But as for me. J nought therof endight,
Mine author hath not all that story pend,
My pen hys wordes in englishe must resight,
ig5 Of latest woes that fell on Troy at ende,
what finall fates the cruell gods could sende.
And how the Grekes when Troy was burnt, gan wreake
Theyr ire on Troians, therof shall J speake.
Not J with speare who pearced was in fielde,
200 Whose throte there cut, or head ycorued was,
Ne bloodshed blowes, that rent both targe and shielde
Shall J resight. all that J ouer pas.
The worke J wright, more wofull is alas,
For J the mothers teares must here complaine,
2o5 And blood of babes, that giltles haue been slaine.
And such as yet, coulde neuer weapon wrest,
But on the lappe are woont to dandled be,
Ne yet forgotten had the mothers brest,
How greekes them slew, alas here shall ye se,
210 To make reporte therof, ay woe is me,
My song is mischiefe, murder miserye.
And hereof speakes, thys dolfull tragedye.
Thou fury fell, that from thy deepest den
Couldest cause thys wrath of hell, on Troy to lyght,
2i5 That workest woe, guyde thou my hand and pen,
Jn weepyng verse of sobbes and sighes to wright,
As doth mine aucthor them bewaile aryght,
Helpe wofull Muse for me besemeth well
Of others teares, with weepyng iye to tell.
The preface. [ll]
220 When battred were to grounde the towres of Troye
Jn writ as auncient authors do resight,
And Greekes againe repayrde to seas with ioye,
Up ryseth here from hell Achilles spright.
Vengeance he craues with blood his death to quight.
225 Whom Parys had in Phebus temple slaine,
with guile betrapt for loue of Polyxeyne.
And wrathe of hell there is none other price
That may asswage : but blood of her alone
Polyxena he craues for sacrifice,
23o With threatninges on the grecians many one
Except they shed her blood before they gone.
The sprightes the hell, and depest pittes byneathe,
O virgin dere, alas, do thrust thy deathe.
And Hectors sonne, Astyanax, alas,
235 Pore seely foole hys mothers onely ioye,
Js iudge to die by sentense of Calchas
Alas the while, to death is led the boye,
And tumbled downe from Turrets tops in Troy.
What ruthfull teares may serue to wayle the woe,
240 Of Hectors wife that doth her childe forgoe
Her pinching pang of harte, who may expresse,
But such as of like woes, haue borne a parte ?
Or who bewayle her ruthfull heuinesse
That neuer yet hath felt therof the smart ?
2^5 Full well they wote the woes of heauy hart.
What is to leese a babe from mothers brest,
They know that are in such a case distrest.
Fyrst how the Quene lamentes the fall of Troy.
As hath myne author done, J shall it wright
25o Next how from Hectors wife they led the boy.
To dye, and her complaintes J shall resight,
The May dens death then must J last, endyght.
Now who that list the Quenes complaint to heare.
Jn following verse, it shall forthwith appeare.
The speakers in this tragedie.
Hecuba Queene of Troy.
A company of women,
The spright of Achilles.
Talthybius, a Grecian.
260 Agamemnon, Kyngof Grekes.
265 An olde man Troian.
270 TROAS OF SFNECA
The first acte
"| Ho so in pompe of prowde estate,
or kingdome sets delight :
275 ; Or who that ioyes in princes court
to beare the sway of might.
Ne dredes the fates which from aboue
the wauering gods downe flingcs :
But fast affiaunce fixed hath,
280 in fraile and fickle thinges :
Let him in me both see the face,
of fortunes flattring ioye :
And eke respect the ruthfull cnde,
of the (O ruinous Troye)
285 For neuer gaue she plainer proofe,
then thys ye present se :
How fraile and brittle is thestate,
of pride and high degre.
The flowre of flowring Asia, loe
290 whose fame the heauens resounde,
The worthy woorke of gods aboue,
is batered downe to grounde.
And whose assautes they sought afarre,
from west with banners spredde,
2g5 where Tanais colde her branches seuen.
abrode the worlde doth shedde.
With hugye host and from the east,
where springes the newest dea,
Where Luke warme Tygris chanell runs,
3oo and metes the ruddy sea.
And which from wandering lande of Scythe,
the bande of widowes sought :
with fire and sworde thus battred be,
her turrets downe to nought.
3o5 The walles but late of high renowne.
loe here their ruinous fall :
The buildings burne and flashing flame,
sr/epes through the palays all.
Thus euery house full hye it smokes,
3io of olde Assaracks lande :
Ne yet the ftame witholdes from spoyle,
the gredy victours hande.
The surging smoke the asure skye,
and light hath hid away :
3i5 And (as with clowde beset) troyes as-
shes staynes the dusky day.
Through pearst with ire and gredy of hart,
the victor from a farre.
Doth vewe the long assauted Troy,
32O the gayne often yeres warre.
And eke the miseries therof,
abhorres to looke vpon,
An though he see it yet scant himselfe,
beleues it might be won,
325 The spoyles therof wyth gredy hand.
they snatche and beare away :
A thousand shippes would not receine
a boorde : so huge a pray.
The yrefull might J doe protest,
33o of goddes aduerse to me,
My contries dust, and Troiane king,
J call to witnes thee.
of Seneca. [i5|
Whom Troy now hides and vnderneth
the stones, arte ouer trode :
335 With all the gods that guyde thy ghost,
and Troy that lately stode.
And you also ye flocking ghostes,
of all my children dere :
Ye lesser sprightes : what euer ill,
340 hath hapned to vs here.
What euer Phebus waterishe face,
in fury hath foresayde :
At raging rise from seas, when erste,
the monstres had him frayde.
345 Jn childbed bandes J saw it yore,
and wist it should be so :
And J in vaine before Cassan
dra tolde it long ago.
Not false Ulysses kindled hath
35o these fires, nor none of his :
Not yet deceitfull Sinons craft,
that hath byn cause of thys.
My fire it is wherwith ye burne,
and Parys is the brande :
355 That smoketh in thy towres (O Troy)
the flowre of Phrygian lande.
But ay alas vnhappy age,
why doste thou yet so sore,
Bewaile thy contries fatallfall.
36o thou knewest it long before.
Beholde thy last calamites,
and them bewayle with teares :
Account as olde Troies oueiturne :
and past by many yeares.
365 J saw the slaughter of the king,
and how he lost his life :
By thawlters side (more mischief was)
with stroke of Pyrrhus knife.
When in his hand he wounde his lockes,
370 and drew the king to grounde :
And hid to hiltes his wicked sworde,
in depe and dedly wownde.
Which when the gored king had toke,
as willing to be slayne,
3y5 Out of the olde mans throte he drew,
his bloody blade agayne.
Not pitie of hys yeres, alas,
in mans extremest age :
From slaughter might hys hand withhold,
38o ne yet his yre asswage.
The gods are witnes of the same
and eke the sacrifies,
That in hys kingdome holden was,
that flat on grounde now lies.
385 The father of so many kinges
Pryam ot auncient name,
Untombed lieth and wants in blase
of Troy : hys funerall flame.
Ne yet the gods are wreakt, but loe
3go hys sonnes and daughters all,
Such lordes they serue as doth by chance
of lot, to them befall.
Whom shall J follow now lor pray ?
or where shall J be led ?
3g5 There is perhaps among the grekes,
that Hectors wife will wed.
of Seneca. 
Some man desyres Helenus spouse
some would Antcnors haue,
And in the grekes there wantes not some
400 that would Cassandra craue.
But J alas most wofull wight,
whom no man sekes to chusc,
J am the onely refuge left,
and me they cleane refuse,
405 Ye carefull captiue company
why stints your wofull crye ?
Beate on your brestes and piteouslye
complayne with voyce so hye,
As mete may be for Troyes estate,
410 let your complaintes rebounde
Jn tops of treese : and cause the hils,
to ring with terible sounde.
The second sceane.
The women. Hecuba
Ot folke vnapt, nor new to wepe (o Queene)
thouwilstto wayle, by practise are we taught
For all these yerrs, in such case haue we bene
since first the Troian guest, Amyclas sought :
Ana saylde the seas, that ledde him on his way
420 with sacred ship, to Cibell dedicate
From whence he brought, his vnrepyning pray,
the cause alas, of all this dyre debate
Ten times now hid, the hils of Jdey bee,
with snow of siluer hewe, all ouer layde.
425 And bared is, for Troian roges eche tree,
ten times in feelde, the haruest man afrayde,
J3. I. The
The sp}^kes of corne hath reapt, since neuer day
his wayling wantes, new cause renewes our \vo.
Lift vp thy hand, (o Quene) crye well away :
480 we follow thee, we are wel taught therto.
HEC. Ye faithful fellowes of your casualtie
Untye thattyre, that on your heades ye weare,
And as behoueth state of misery,
let fall about your woful neckes, your heare.
435 In dust of Troy, rub al your armes about,
in slacker wede, and let your brestes be tyde
Downe to your bellies, let your limmes lye out,
for what wedlocke should you your bosomes hyde ?
Your garmentes loose, and haue in readines
440 your furious handes, vpon your brestes to knocke
This habite wel besemeth our distrcs
it pleaseth me, J know the Troian flocke
Renew agayn your long accustomed cryes
and more then earst, lament your miseries.
446 We bcwayle Hector.
WO. C Our heare v/e haue vntide, now euery chone
All rent for sorowes of our cursed cace
our lockes out spreades, the knots we haue vndone
And in these ashes stayned is our face.
45o HEC. C Fil vp your handes & make therof no spare,
for this yet lawfull is, from Troy to take,
Let downe your garmentes from your shoulders bare
and sufire not your clamour so to slake.
Your naked breastes wait for your handes to smight
455 now dolour depe, now sorow, shew thy might
Make al the coastes that compas Troy about
witnesse the sound, ofall your careful crye
Cause from the caues, the Eccho to cast out
of Seneca 
Rebounding voyce of al your misery :
4^0 not as she wontes, the latter woord to sound
But al your woe, from farre let it rebounde
Let al the seas it heare, and eke the land
Spare not your brestes with heauy stroke to stryke
beate ye your selues, eche one with cruel hand
365 For yet your wonted cryc doth me not like
We bewayle Hector.
\VO. C Our naked armes, thus here we rent for thee,
and bluddy shoulders, (Hector) thus we teare :
Thus with our fistes, our heades lo beaten be
470 and al for thee, behold we hale our heare.
Our dugges alas, with mothers handes be tome
and where the fleshe is wounded round about
Which for thy sake, we rent thy death to morne
the flowing streames of blud, they spring therout,
475 Thy countreys shore, and destinies delaye,
and thou to weeried Troians wast an ayde.
A wall thou wast, and on thy shoulders Troy
ten yeres it stode : on thee alone it stayde,
With thee it fell : and fatall day alas
480 of Hector both, and Troy but one there was.
HEC. C Enough hath hector : turne your plaint & mone
and shed your teares for Pryame euery chone.
WO. f[ Receiue our plaintes, Olord of Phrigian land,
and old twise captiue king, receiue our fcare,
485 Whyle thou wert king, Troy hurtles then could stand
though shaken twyse, with Grecian sword it weare,
And twyse did shot of Hercles quyuer beare :
at latter los of Hecubes sonnes all
and roges for kinges, that high on pyles we reare :
490 thou father shutst our latest funerall.
. it. And
And beaten downe, to Joue for sacrifies.
like liueles blocke, in Troye thy carkas lies.
HEC. C Yet turne ye once your treares, another way
my Pryames death, should not lamented be
4g5 O Troianes all, full happy is Pryame say,
for free from bondage, downe descended he,
To the lowest ghostes : and neuer shall sustayne
his captiue necke, with Greekes to yoked be
He neuer shall, beholde the Atrides twayne
5oo nor false Ulysses euer shall he sec,
Not he a pray, lor Grekes to tryumphe at
his neck shall subiect, to their conquestes beare
Ne gyue his handes, to tye behind his backe
that to the rule of scepters wonted weare
5o5 Nor folowing Agamemnons chare, in bande
shall he be pompe, to proude Mycenas lande.
WO. C Full happy Pryame is, eche one we say
that tooke with him his kingdome, then that stoode
Now safe in shade, he sekes the wandring w r ay
5io and treades the pathes of all Elizius woode,
And in the blessed sprites, full happie he,
againe there sekes, to mete with Hectors ghoste,
Happy Pryame, happy who so may see,
his kingdome all, at ones with him be loste.
5i5 ^.Chorus added to the tragedy
by the translatour.
Yeto whom, the lord of land and seas,
of lyfe and death, hath grauted here the powre
Lay down your lofty lookes, your pryde appeas
the crowned k!ng, fleeth not his fatall howre.
of Seneca. 
Who so thou be, that leadst thy land alone
thy life was limite, from thy mothers wombe,
Not purple robe, not glorious glittring throne,
ne crownc of golde, rcdemes the from the tombc
525 A king he was, that wayting for the vayle,
of him that slew, the Minotaure in fight :
Begylde with blackenes, of the wonted sayle
in seas him sonke, and of his name they hight.
So he that \vilde, to win the golden spoyle
53o and first with ship, by seas to scke rcnowne,
Jn lesser wauc. at length to death gan boyle,
and thus the daughters, brought their father downe,
Whose songes, the woodes hath drawen, and riuersheld,
and byrdes to heare his notes, did theyrs forsake,
535 Jn peece meale throwne, amid the Thracian feelde,
without rcturne hath sought the Stigiau lake.
They sit aboue, that hold our life in line,
and what we suffre, downe they fling from hye
No carke, no care, that euer may vntwine
540 the thrids, that wouen are aboue the skye,
As witnest he, that somtime kyng of Greece,
had Jason thought, in drenching sees to drowne
Who scapte both death, and gaynde the golden fleece,
whom fates aduaunce,ther may no povvre pluck downe
545 Tne highest god, somtime that Saturne hight
his fall him taught to credit their decryes
The rule of heauens : he lost it by their might
and Joue his sonne, now turnes the rolling skyes.
Who weneth here to win eternall welth,
55o let him behold this present perfit proofe,
And learne, the secrete steppe, of chaunces stelth,
most nere alas, when most it semes aloofe.
S3. Hi. In
Jn slipper ioy, let no man put his trust
let none dispayre, that heauy happes hath past
555 The swete with sowre, she mingleth as she lust
whose doubtfull web, pretendeth nought to last.
Frayltie is the thrid, that Clothoes rocke hath sponne,
now from the distaffe drawne, now knapt in twayne
With al the world, at length his e d he wonne,
56o whose works haue wrought, his name sholdgret remain
and he, whose trauelles, twelue, his name display,
that feared nought, the force of worldly hurt,
Jn fine alas hath found his fatall day,
and dyed with smart of Dianyraes shurt,
565 Jfprowes might eternitie procure,
then Pryame yet should Hue in lyking lust
Ay portly pompe of pride, thou art vnsure
lo learne by him, o kinges ye are but dust,
and Hecuba that waileth now in care,
570 that was so late of high estate aQueene
a mirrour is, to teache you what you are
your wauering welth, o princes, here is scene.
Whom dawne of day, hath seen in high estate
before sonnes set, alas hath had his fall
5y5 The cradelles rocke, apointes the lyfe his date
from setled ioy, to sodayn funera.ll.
The second acte.
The sprite oj A chilles added to the tra-
gedie by the translatour.
The first sceane. 
1 Orsaking now the places tenebrous,
j and drpe dennes of thinfernal regione
, From all the shadowes of elisions
i That wander there the pathes full many one.
585 Lo, here am J returned all alone,
The same Achill whose feerce and heany hand
Of all the world, no wight might yet withstand.
What man so stout of all the Grecians host,
That hath not somtime craued Achilles aide,
5go and in the Troians, who of prowes most
That hath not fearde to see my banners splayde
Achilles lo, hath made them all afrayde.
and in the Grekes hath been a piller post,
That sturdy stode against the rToiane host.
5g5 Where J haue lackte, the Grecians went to wracke
Troy hath proude what Achilles sword could do
Where J haue come the Troianes fled a backe,
Retiring fast from field their walles vnto,
No man that might Achilles stroke fordo,
600 J dealt such stripes amid the Troian route,
That with their blood J stainde the fieldes about.
Mighty Memnon, that with his Persian bande,
Would Pryames part with all his might mayntayne
Lo now he lythe and knoweth Achilles hand
6o5 amid the field is Troylus also slayne.
Ye Hector great, whom Troy accounted playne
The flowre of chiualry that might be found,
all of Achilles had their mortall wound,
X. Itfi. But
But Paris lo, such was his false disceite,
610 Pretending manage of Polyxeine,
Behind the aulter lay for me in wayte
Where J vnwares haue falne into the trayne
And in Appolloes church he hath me slaine
Wherof the hell will now iust vengeance haue,
6i5 And here agayne, J come my right to craue.
The depe Auerne my rage may not sustayne
Nor beare the angers of Achilles spright
From Acheront, J rent the soyle in twayne
and through the ground, J grate again to sight
620 Hell could not hide Achilles from the light,
Vengeans and blood doth Orcus pit require,
To quench the furies of Achilles yro.
The hatefull land, that worse then Tartare is
and burning thrust excedes of Tantalus,
626 J here beholde againe, and Troye is this
O, trauell worse, then stone of Sisyphus
and paynes that passe the panges of Tityus
To light more lothsome furie hath me sent
Then hooked whele, that Jxions fleshe doth rent.
63o Remembred is alowe where spretes do dwell
The wicked slaughter wrought by wyly way,
Not yet reuenged hath the depest hell,
Achilles blood on them that did him slay
But now of vengeans comes the yrefull day
635 and darkest demies of Tartare from beneath
Conspire the fates : of them that wrought my death.
of Seneca. 
Now mischief, murder, wrath ot" hell drawth nere
and dyre Phlegethon flood doth blood require
Achilles death shalbe reuenged here
640 With slaughter such as Stygian lakes desyre
Her daughters blood shall slake the sprites yre,
Whose sonne we slew. wherof doth yet remayne,
The wrath beneath, and hell shalbe theyr payne.
From burning lakes the furies wrath J threate,
646 and fyer that nought but streames of blood may slake
The rage of wynde and seas these shippes shal beate,
and Ditis depe on you shal vengeans take,
The sprites crye out, the earth and seas do quake
The poole of Styx, vngrateful Grckes it seath,
65o With slaughtred blood reuenge Achilles death.
The soile doth shake to beare my heauy foote
and fearth agayn the sceptours of my hand
The poales with stroke of thunderclap ring out
The doubtful starres amid their course do stand,
655 and fearful Phebus hides his biasing brand.
The trembling lakes agaynst their course do flyte,
For dreade and terrur of Achilles spryte.
Great is the raunsom, ought of dewe to me,
Wherwith ye must the sprites, and hell appease,
660 Polyxena shal sacrifised be,
Upon my tombe, their yreful wrath to please,
and with her blood, ye shal asswage the sease
Your ships may not returne to Greece againe
Til on my tombe Polyxena be slayne.
665 And for that she should then haue been my wyfe,
J will that Pyrrhus render her to me,
and in such solemne sort byreeue her lyfe,
as ye are wont the weddinges for to see,
So shall the wrath of hell appeased be,
670 Nought els but this may satisfye our yre,
Her will J haue, and her J you require.
The second sceane.
Las how long the lingring greekes
6 7 5
in heauen do make delay,
^ When either war by seas they seeke
or home to pas their way.
CHO. C Why shew what cause doth hold your ships?
and Grecian nauie stayes,
680 Declare if any of the gods
haue stopt your homeward wayes.
TAL. C My mynd is masde my trembling sinnewes
quake and are afearde,
For straunger newes of trueth then these
685 J thinke wer neuer hearde.
Lo J my self haue plainly scene,
in dawning of the day,
When Phebus fyrst gan to approche,
and dryue the starres away.
690 The earth all shaken sodeynly
and from the hollow ground,
My thought J heard with roring crye
a depe and dreadful sound.
of Seneca. 
That shoke the woods and all the treese
695 rong out with thunder stroke,
From Jda hilles downe fell the stones
the mountayn tops wer broake.
and not the earth hath only quakte
but all the sea likewise,
700 Achilles presence felt and knewe
and high the surges ryse,
The clouen ground Erebus pitts
then shewed and depest dennes,
That downe to Goddes that guyde beneath,
7o5 the way appearde from hence.
Then shoke the tombe from whence anon
in flame of fyrie light,
appeareth from the hollow caues
Achilles noble spright.
710 as wonted he his Thracian armes
and banners to disploye
and welde his weighty weapons well,
against thassautes of Troye.
The same Achilles semed he than
7i5 that he was wont to be
amid the hostes, and easely could
J know, that this was he.
With carkas slayne in furious fight
that stopt and filde eche flood,
720 and who by slaughter of his hand
made Xanthus runne with blood
as when in chariote high he sate
with lofty stomacke stought.
While Hector both and Troy at once
725 he drew the walles abought.
alowde he cryde and euery coaste,
rang with Achilles sound
and thus with hollow voyce he spake,
from bottome of the ground.
780 The grekes shal not with little price
redeine Achilles yre,
A princely raunsome must they geue,
for so the fates require.
Unto my ashes Polyxene,
735 spoused shal here be slaine,
By Pyrrhus hand, and all my tombe
her blood shal ouerstayne.
This sayd, he straight sanke downe agayne
to Plutoes depe regione,
740 The earth then closde the hollow caues
were vanished and gone.
Therwith the wether waxed clere,
the raging windes did slake,
The iombling seas began to rest,
745 and al the tempest brake.
The third sceane.
,Hattyme our sayles we should haue spred,
75o J B B vpon Sygeon seas,
With swift returne from long delay,
to seke our homeward wayes.
of Seneca 
Achilles rose whose onely hand,
hath geuen grekes the spoyle.
755 Of Troia sore annoyde by him
and leueld with the soyle.
With spede requighting hys abode
and former long delaye,
At Scyros yle and Lesbos both,
760 amid the Egeon sea.
Till he came here in doubte it stoode,
of fall or sure estate
Then though ye hast to graunt his will
ye shall it geue to late.
765 Now haue the other captaynes all,
the pryce of their manhood,
What els rewarde for his prowes,
then her all onely blood ?
Are his desertes thinke you but light,
770 that when he might haue fled,
And passing Pelyus yeres in peace,
a quyet life haue led.
Detected yet his mothers craftes,
forsooke his womans wede,
775 And with his weapons proued himselfe,
a manly man in dede ?
The king of Mysya Tek-phus
that would the grekes withstand,
Coming to Troy forbidding vs,
780 the passage of his land.
To late repenting to have felt,
Achilles heauy stroke,
Was glad to craue his health agayne,
where he his hurt had toke.
785 For when his sore might not be salued
as tolde Appolo plaine,
Except the speare that gaue the hurt
restored helpe agayne.
Achilles plasters cured his cuttes
790 and saued the king aliue
His hand both might and mercy knew
to slay and then reuiue.
When Thebes fell : Eetion saw it
and might it not withstand,
7Q5 The captiue king could nought redres
the ruine of his land.
Lyrnesus little likewyse felt
his hand and downe it fill,
With ruine ouerturned lyke
800 from top of haughty hill,
and taken Bryseis land it is
and prisoner is she caught
The cause of stryfe betwene the kinges
is Chryses come to naught.
8o5 Tenedos yle wel knowne by fame
and fertile soyle he tooke
That fostreth fatte the Thracian flockes
and sacred Cilia shooke.
What bootes to blase the brute of him
810 whom trompe of fame doth shew,
Through all the coastes where Caicus flood
with swelling streame doth flow ?
The ruthfull ruine of theese realmes
so many townes bette downe,
8l5 another man would glory count
and worthy great renowne.
But thus my father made his way
and these his iourneys are,
And battayles many one he fought.
820 whyle warre he doth prepare.
As whisht J ma} r his merit( s more
% shall yet not this remayne.
Well knowen and counted prayse enoughe
that he hath Hector slayne ?
825 During whose life the Grecians all
might neuer take the towne
My father only vanquish! Troye
and you haue pluckt it downe,
Reioyse J may your parentes prayse
83o and brute abrode his actes
Jt semeth the soon to folow well
his noble fathers actes,
Jn sight of Pryame Hector slayne
and Memnon both they laye.
835 With heauy cheere his parentes waylde
to mourne his dying day.
Himselfe abhorde his handy vvorke
in fight that had them slayne
The sonnes of Coddcs Achilles knewe
840 wer borne to dye agayne.
The woman Quoene of Amasons
that greeude the Greekes fnll sore
Js turnde to flight then ceast out feare
we drade their bowes no more.
845 Jf ye well way his worthines
Achilles ought to haue
Though he from Argos or Myce-
nas would a virgin craue.
Doubte ye herein ? allow ye not
85o that streight his will be doon.
And count ye cruel Pryames blood
to geue to Peleus sonne ?
For Helens sake your own childes blood,
appeasde Dyanaes yre,
855 A wonted thing and done ere this,
it is that J requyre.
AG. C The onely faulte of youth it is
not to refrayne his rage,
The fathers blood already sturres,
860 in Pryames wanton age
Somtime Achilles grieuous checkes
J bare with pacient hart,
The more thou mayst the more thou oughtste,
to suffre in good part.
865 Whereto would ye with slaughtred blood
a noble spirite stayne ?
Thinke what is mete the grekes to doo
and troians to sustayne.
The pi oude estate of tiranye
870 may neuer long endure.
The king that rules with modest ineane
of safetie may be sure.
The higher steppe of princely state
that fortune hath vs synde,
875 The more behouthe a happy man
humilitie of mynde,
And dreade the chaunge that chauuce may bring
whose gyftes so sone be loste
And chiefly then to feare the gods,
880 whyle they the fauour most.
of Seneca. 
Jn beating downe that warre hath wonne,
by proofe J haue ben taught,
What pompe and pride, in twinke of Jye,
may fall and come to naught.
885 Troye made me fierce and proude of minde,
Troy makes me frayde with all :
The Greekes now stande where Troy late foil,
eche thing may haue his fall.
Sometime J graunt J did my selfe,
890 and sceptors proudly beare,
The thing that might aduaunce my harte,
makes me the more to feare.
Thou Priame perfite proofe presentst,
thou art to me eftsones :
8g5 A cause of pride, a glas of feare,
a mirrour for the nones.
Should J account, the sceptors owght,
but glorious vanitie?
Much like the borowed brayded here,
900 the face to bewtefie.
One sodaine chaunce may turne to naught.
and maime the might of men,
With fewer then a thousande shippes,
and yeres in les then ten.
go5 Not she that guides the slipper whele,
of fate : doth so delayc :
That she to all possession grauntes,
often yeres setled staye.
With leaue of Greece J will confesse,
910 J would haue wonne the towne,
But not with ruine thus extreme,
to se it beaten downe.
C. f. But
But loe the battel made by night
and rage of feruent minde,
9i5 Could not abyde the brideling bitte
that reason had assinde.
The happy sword once staynde with blood
And in the darke the feruent rage
920 doth strike the more amis.
Now are we wreake on Troy to much
let all that may remaine.
A virgin borne of princes blood
for offring to be slaine
Q25 And geuen be, to staine the tombe
and ashes of the (led,
And vnder name of wedlocke se
the giltles blood be shed,
J will not graunt : for mine should bee
93o therof both faute and blame,
Who when he may forbiddeth not
offence : doth will the same.
PYR. CAnd shall hys sprightes haue no rewarde
their angers to appayse ?
g35 AG. Yes very great, for all the worlde
shall celebrate hys prayse.
And landes vnknowne that neuer saw
the man so praisde by fame,
Shall here and keepe for many yeres,
940 the glory of his name.
Jf bloodshed vayle hys ashes ought
strike of an oxes hed,
And let no blood that may be cause
of mothers teares be shed
of Seneca. 
945 What furious fransye may this be
that doth your wyll so leade,
This earnest carefull sute to make
in trauaile for the deade ?
Let not such enuy towarde your fa-
g5o ther in yeur hart remaine,
That for hys sacrifice ye woulde
procure an others payne.
PYR. C Proude tyrant while prosperitie
thy stomacke doth aduaunce,
g55 And cowardly wretch that shrinks for fere
in case of fearefull chaunce.
Js yet againe thy brest enflamde,
with brande of venus might?
Wilt thou alone so oft depriue
960 Achilles of hys right?
Thys hand shall giue the sacrifice
the which if thou withstande.
A greater slaughter shall J make,
and worthy Pyrrhus hande.
965 And now to long from princes slaugh
ter doth m} r hande abide,
And meete it were that Polyxeine
were layde by Priames syde.
AG. J nought deny but Pyrrhus chiefe
970 renowne : in warre is this,
That Priam slaine wyth cruell sworde,
to your father humbled is.
PYR. C My fathers foes we haue them knowne,
submit themselues humblye,
975 And Pryam presently ye wotte,
was gladdde to craue mercye.
a. it. But
But them for feare not stout to rule,
lyest close from foes vp shit :
While thou to Aiax and vlis-
980 ses, dooste thy will commit.
AG. C But nedes J must and will confesse
your father dyd not feare :
When burnt our fleete with Hectors brandes,
and Greekes they slawghtred weare.
g85 While loytring then a loofe he lay,
vnmindefull of the fight.
Jn steade of armes with scratche of quill,
hys sownding harpe to smight.
P Y R. C Great Hector then despising the
990 Achilles songes dyd feare :
And thessale shippes in greatest drede,
in quiet peace yet weare.
A G. C For why aloofe the thessale fleete,
they lay from Troians handes,
995 And well your father might haue rest,
he felt not Hectors brandes,
PYR. C Well semes a noble king to giue
an other king reliefe,
A G C Whie hast thou then a worthie king
1000 berieued of hys lyefe ?
PYR. [ A point of mercie sometime is,
what Hues in care to kill.
A G. C But now your mercie moueth you
a virgins death to will.
loo5 PYR. C Account ye cruell now her death
whose sacrifice J craue.
Your own dere daughter once ye know,
your selfe to thaulters gaue.
A G. Nought els could saue the Grekes from seas,
1010 but thonlie blood of her :
A king before his children ought,
his countrey to prefer.
PYR. C The law doth spare no captiues blood
nor wilthe their death to staye.
ioi5 A G. C That which the law doth not forbid,
yet shame doth ofte say nay.
PYR. E The conquerour what thing he lyst,
may lawfully fulfill.
A G. C So much the les he ought to lyst,
1020 that may do what he will.
PYR. E Thus boast ye these as though in all
ye onely bare the stroke :
When Pyrrhus loosed hath the greekes,
from bonde of ten yeres yoke.
IO25 AG. C Hath Scyros yle such stomaks bred ?
PYR. C No bretherns wrath it knowes.
AG. C Beset about it is with waue.
PYR. L The seas : it do enclose.
Thyestes noble stock J knowe,
io2o and Atreus eke full well,
And of the bretherns dire debate.
perpetuall faine doth tell.
AG. C And thou a bastarde of a mayde,
lo35 Whom (then a boy) Achilles gate,
in filthy letchery.
PYR. C The same Achill that doth posses,
the raigne of goddes aboue,
With Thetys seas : with Eacus sprightes,
1040 the starred heauen with Joue.
C. ill. The
AG. C The same Achilles that was slaine,
by stroke of parys hande
PYR. C The same Achilles, whom no god,
durst euer yet withstande
1045 AG C The stoutest man J rather would,
hys chekes he should refraine,
J could them tame, but all your bragges,
J can full well sustaine.
For euen the captiues spares my sworde :
io5o let Calchas called be.
Jf destenies require her blood,
J wyll therto agre.
Calchas whose counsell rulde our shippes,
and nauy hyther brought,
io55 Unlokst the poale and hast by arte,
the secretes therof sought.
To whom the bow r elles of the beast,
to whom the thunder clap,
And biasing starre with flaming traine,
1060 betokeneth what shall hap.
Whose wordes with deerest price J bought,
now tell vs by what meane,
The will of Gods agreeth that we
returne to Greece againe.
io65 CAL. C The fates apoint the Grekes to bye
theyr waies with wonted price,
And with what cost ye came to Troy,
ye shall repayre to Greece
With blood ye came, with blood ye must,
1070 from hence returne againe,
And where Achilles ashes lyeth,
the virgin shall be slaine,
of Seneca. [3gj
Jn semely sort ot habite, such
as maydens wont ye se,
1075 Of Thessalie, or Mycenas els,
what time they wedded be.
With Pyrrhus hand she shall be slaine,
of right it shalbe so.
And meete it is that he the sonne,
1080 his fathers right should do.
But not this only stayeth our shippes,
our sayles may not be spred,
Before a worthier blood then thine,
(Polixena) be shed.
io85 which thirst the tates, for Priames ne
phew, Hectors little boye :
The grekes shall tumble hedlong downe,
from hyghest towre in Troy.
Let him there die, this only way
1090 ye shall the gods appeas,
Then spread your thousand sayles with ioy,
ye nede not feare the seas.
MAy thys be true or doth the fable fayne,
When corps is dead the sprite to Hue as yet ?
when death our iyes with heauy hand doth straine
And fatall day our leames of light hath shet,
And in the tombe, our ashes once be set,
Hath not the soule likewise his funerall,
iioo But still alas do wretches Hue in thrall ?
Or els doth all at once together dye ?
And may no part his fatall howre delay.
C. till. But
But with the breath the soule from hence doth flie ?
Amid the cloudes to vanish quite away,
no5 As dankye shade fleeth from the poale by day ?
And may no iot.e escape from destenie,
When once the brande hath burnde the bodye ?
What euer then the ryse of some may see,
And what the weste that setts the sonne doth knowe,
i no Jn all Neptunus raigne what euer bee,
That restles seas doe washe and ouer flow,
with purple waues still tombling to and fro.
Age shall consume : eche thing that liuthe shall die,
With swifter race then Pegasus doth flie.
in5 And with what whyrle, the twise sixe signes do flie,
With course as swift, as rectoure of the spheares,
Doth guide those glistring globes eternallie,
And Hecate her chaunged homes repeares,
So drauthe on deathe, and life of eche thing weares,
1120 And neuer may the man, retourne to sight,
That once hath felt the stroke of Parcas might.
For as the fume that from the fire doth pas,
With tourne of hande, doth vanishe out of sight
And swifter then the northen boreas,
1 125 With whirling blaste and storme of raging might,
Driuthe far away and puttes the cloudes to flyght,
So fleeth the spright that rules our life away,
And nothing taryeih after dying day.
Swift is the race we ronne, at hand the marke,
n?o Laye downe your hope, that weight here ought to wyn,
of Seneca. 
And who dredes ought, cast of thy carefull carke,
Wilt thou it wotte what state thou shalt be in,
When deade thou arte ? as thou hadst neuer bin.
For gredy time it doth deuour vs all,
it35 The worlde it swayes to Chaos heape to fall.
Death hurtes the corps and spareth not the spright,
And as for all the dennes of Tenare deepe,
With Cerberus kingdome darke that knowes no lyght,
And streightest gates that he there sits to keepe,
1140 They fansyes are, that followe folke by sleepe
Such rumours vayne, but fayned lies they are,
And fables, lyke the dreames in heauy care.
These three staues following are
added by the translatour.
1145 O dreadfull day : alas the sory time,
Js come of all the mothers ruthfull wo,
Astianax, alas thy iatall line,
Of life is worne, to death straight shalt thou go,
The sisters haue decreed it should be so,
Il5o There may no force alas escape their hande,
The mighty Joue their will may not withstande.
To see the mother, her tender childe forsake.
What ientle hart that may from teares refraine,
Or who so fierce that would not pittie take,
Ii55 To see alas the giltles infant slaine.
For sory hart the teares mine iyes do staine,
To thinke what sorowe shall her hart oppresse,
Her little chylde to leese remedylesse,
The double cares of Hectors wife to wayle,
1160 Good Ladies haue your teares in reddines,
And you with whom should pitie most preuaile.
Rue on her greefe : bewaile her heauines,
With sobbing hart, lament her deepe distres
When she with teares. shall take leaue of her soon,
Ii65 And now (good ladies) here what shall be doon.
The tMrde acte.
Las ye carefull company
1170 why hale ye thus your heares ?
Why beate you so your boyling brestes
and staine your iyes with teares ?
The fall of Troy is new to you
but vnto me not so,
1175 J haue foresene this carefull case
ere thys time long ago
When fierce Achilles Hector slewe
and drew the corps abought
Then then me thought J wist it well,
1180 that Troy should come to nought.
Jn sorowes sonke, J sensles am
and wrapt alas in woe,
But soone except thys babe me helde,
to Hector would J goe.
Ii85 Thys seely foole my stomack tames
amyd my miserye,
And in the houre of heauiest happes,
p ermittes me not to dye,
of Seneca. 
Thys onely cause constraynth me yet
iigo the Gods for him to pray,
with trackt of time prolonges my payne,
delayes my dying daye.
He takes fro me the lacke of feare
the onely frute of yll.
Iig5 For while he Hues yet haue J lefte
wherol to feare me styll.
No place is left for better chaunce,
with woorse we are opprest :
To feare alas and se no hope,
1200 is worste of all the rest.
SEN. C What sodaine feare thus moues your minde,
and vexeth you so sore ?
ANDR. C Still stil alas of one mishap
there ryseth more and more.
I2o5 Not yet the dolefull destenyes
of Troy become to ende
SEN. C And what more grieuous chaunces yet
prepare the gods to sende ?
SEN. C The caues and dens of hell be rent
1210 for Troians greater feare,
And from the bottomes of theyr tombes
the hidden sprightes appeare.
May none but Greekes alone from hell
returne to lyfe agayne ?
I2i5 Would god the fates would finishe soone
the sorowes J sustaine.
Death thankfull were, a common care
The Troians all oppres,
But me alas amaseth moste
1220 the fearefull heauines.
That all astonied am for dreade,
and horrour of the sight :
That in my sleepe appearde to me,
by dreame this latter night.
1225 SEN. Declare what sightes your dreame hath showed
and tell what doth you feare.
AX DR. C Two partes of all the silent night,
almost then passed weare.
And then the clere seuen clustred beames
I23o of starres : were fallen to rest.
And first the slepe so long vnknowne
my weried iyes opprest.
Jf this be slepe the astonied mase,
t of minde in heauy moode,
1235 When sodenly before mine iyes,
the spright of Hector stoode.
Not like as he the Greekes was wont
to battaile to require
Or when amid the Grecians shippes,
1240 he threw the brandes of fyre.
Nor such as raging on the Grekes,
with slaughtring stroke had slaine,
And bare in dede the spoiles of him
that did Achilles fayne.
1245 His countenance not now so bright.
Nor of so liuely chere,
But sad and heauy like to owres,
and cladde with vglie heare,
Jt did me good to se him though,
I25o when shaking then his bed :
Shake of thy slepe in hast he sayd,
and quickly leaue thy bed.
of Seneca. 
Conuey into some secret place,
our sonne, O faithfull wife,
1255 Thys onely hope there is to helpe,
finde meane to saue his life.
Leaue of thy piteous teares he sayde
doost thou yet waile for Troy ?
Would god it lay on grownde full flatte,
1260 so ye might saue the boy.
Up stirre he sayd thy selfe in hast,
conueye him priuelie,
Saue if ye may the tender blood.
of Hectors progenie.
1265 Then straight in trembling feare J \vakte
and roulde mine iyes abought
Forgetting long my childe, pore wretche,
and after Hector sought.
But straight alas, J wist not how
1270 the spright away did passe,
And me forsoke before J coulde,
my husbande once embrasse.
O childe : O noble fathers broode
and Troians only ioye,
1275 O worthy seede of thauncient bloode.
and beaten house of Troye.
O ymage of thy father loe,
thou liuely bearst his face,
Thys countenance, loe my Hector had,
1280 and euen such was his pace.
The pitche of all his body such,
his handes thus would he beare.
His shoulders hygh, his thretning browes,
eueu such as thine they weare.
1285 O sonne : begotte to late for Troye
but borne to soone for me,
Shall euer tyme yet come againe
and happy day may be,
That thou mayst once reuenge, and builde
1290 againe the towres of Troye,
And to the towne and Troians bothe
restore theyr name with ioye ?
But why do], forgetting state
of present desteny,
I2g5 So great thinges wishe ? enough for cap-
tiues is to liue onely.
Alas what priuye place is left
my little childe to hyde ?
What seate so secret may be founde
i3oo where thou mayste safely bide ?
The towre that with the walles of gods
so valiaunt was of might,
Through all the worlde so notable
so flourishing to sight,
i3o5 Js turnde to dust : and fire hath all
consumde that was in Troye,
Of all the towne not so much now
is left to hyde the boye.
What place were best to choose for guyle
i3io the holly tombe is heere,
That thenmies sworde will spare to spoile
where lythe my husbande deere.
Which costly worke hys father buylte
kyng Pryame lyberall,
i3i5 And it vp raysde v/ith charges great,
for Hectors funerall.
of Seneca. 
Herein the bones and ashes bothe
of Hector loe they lye,
Best is that J commit the sonne
i32O to hys fathers custodye.
A colde and fearefull swet doth ronne,
through out my membres all,
Alas J carefull wretche do feare,
what chaunce may the befall.
i3s5 SEN. L Hide him away : this onely way
hath saued many more,
To make the enmies to beleue,
that they were deade before.
He wilbe sought : scant any hope
i33o remaineth of safenes,
The payse of his nobilitie
doth him so sore oppres,
AN DR. C What way were best to worke : that none
our doinges might bewray ?
i335 SEN. C Let none beare witnes what ye doe
remoue them all away.
ANDR. C What if the enmies aske me : where
Astianax doth remaine ?
SEN. C Then shall ye boldely aunswere make
1340 that he in Troy was slaine.
ANDR. C What shall it helpe to haue him hyd?
at length they will him finde.
SEN. C At first the enmies rage is fierce
delay doth slake hys minde.
i3^5 ANDR. C But what preuailes, since free from feare
we can him neuer hyde ?
SEN. C Let yet the wretche take hys defence
more careles there to byde.
A N D R. C What lande vnkno wne out of the way
i35o what vn frequented place,
May kepe thee safe ? who aydes our feare ?
who shall defende our case ?
Hector Hector, that euermore
thy frendes didst well defende,
i355 Now chiefly ayde thy wife and childe
and vs some succour sende.
Take charge to kepe and couer close
the treasures of thy wife,
And in thy ashes hyde thy soon
i36o preserue in tombe his life.
Draw nere my childe vnto the tombe
why fliest thou backward so ?
Thou takest great scorne to lurke in dens
thy noble hart J knowe.
i365 J see thou art ashamde to feare
shake of thy princely minde,
And beare thy breste as thee behoues
as chaunce hath thee assinde.
Beholde our case : and see what flocke
1370 remayneth now of Troy
The tombe : J wofull captiue wretche
and thou a sely boye.
But yelde we must to sory fates
thy chaunce must breake thy breste,
l375 Go to : creepe vnderneath, thy fa
thers holy seates to reste.
Jf ought the fates, may wretches helpe
thou hast thy sauegarde there.
Jf not : all ready then pore foole
i38o thou hast thy sepulchere.
of Seneca 
SEN. The tombc hym closely hydes : hut lest
your feare should him betrayc,
Let him here lye, and farre from hence,
goe ye some other waye.
1385 ANDR. C The les he feares that feares at hande
and yet if nede be so,
Jf ye thinke meete a little hens
for safetie let vs go.
SEN. C A little whyle kepe sylence now
1390 refrayne your playnt and cryc,
His cursed foote now hycher moues
the lord of Cephalye.
AN. C Now open earth, and thou my spouse
from Styx rent vp the grounde,
1395 Deepe in thy bosome hyde my sonne,
that he may not be founde.
Ulysses comes with doutfull pace
and chaunged countenaunce
He knittes in hart deceitfull craft
1400 for some more greuous chaunce.
ULY. C Though J be made the messenger
of heauy newes to you,
This one thing first J shall desyre
that ye take thys for true.
1405 That though the wordes come from my mouth,
and J my message tell,
Of trueth yet are they none of myne
ye may beleue me well.
Jt is ihe woorde of all the Greekes
1410 and they the authors bee,
Whom Hectors blood doth yet forbyd
theyr countreys for to see.
2>. i. Our
Our carefull trust of peace vnsure
doth styll the Grekes detayne ,
1415 And euermore our doutfull feare,
yet draweth vs backe agayne.
And suffreth not our weried handes,
our weapons to forsake,
Jn chylde yet of Andromacha,
14:20 Whyle Troians comfort take,
AN. C And sayth your Augure Calchas so ?
ULYS. C Though Calchas nothyng sayde
Yet Hector telles it vs hymselfe,
Of whose seede are we frayde.
1425 The woorthy blood of noble men
oftimes we see it playne,
Doth after in theyr heyres succede
and quickely sprynges agayne.
For so the horneles yongling yet,
1480 of h} gh and sturdy beste,
With lofty necke, and braunched browe,
doth shortly rule the rest.
The tender twig, that of the lop
ped stocke doth yet rcmaync,
1435 To matche the tree that bare the boughe,
in tyme startes vp agayne.
With equall toppe to former wood,
the rowme it doth supplye,
And spreddes on soyle alowe the shade,
1440 to heauen hys braunches hye.
Thus of one sparke by chaunce yet left
it happeneth so full oft.
The fyre hath quickely caught his force
and rlamthe agayne aloft,
of Seneca |5l]
1445 So feare we yet least Hectors blood,
might rise ere it be long,
Feare castes in all thextremitie
and oft interprets wrong.
Jf ye respeckte our case, ye may
I45o not blame these olde souldiars
Though after yeres & monthes twise flue,
they feare againe the wars.
And other trauailes, dreading Troye,
not yet to be well woon,
1^55 A great thing doth the Grecians moue,
the feare of Hectors soon.
Ryd vs of feare, this stayeth our fleete,
and pluckes them backe againe,
And in the hauen our nauie stickes,
1460 till Hectors blood be slaine.
Count mee not feerce for that by fates
J Hectors sonne require,
For J as well if chaunce it woulde
Orestes should desire.
1465 But sins that nedes it must be so,
beare it with pacient hart,
And suffre that which Agamem
non, suffred in good part.
AN. E Alas my childe would god thou werte,
1470 yet in thy mothers hande,
And that J knewe what destenies,
the helde, or in what lande.
For neuer should the mothers faith,
her tender childe forsake,
1475 Though through my brest the enmies all,
their cruell weapons strake.
2>. ii. Nor
Nor though the Greekes, with pinching bandes
of yron : my handes had bounde,
Or els in feruent flame of fyre
1480 besette my body rounde.
But now my little chylde (poore wretche)
alas where might he bee ?
Alas what cruell destenye,
what chaunce hath hapt to thee ?
1485 Art thou yet rangeing in the feeldes
and wandrest there abrode ?
Or smothered els in dusty smoke
of Troy : or ouertrode ?
Or haue the Greekes thee slayne alas
1490 and laught to see thy blood ?
Or tome art thou with Jawes ofbeastes
or cast to fowles for foode ?
ULY. C Dissemble not, hard is for thee
Ulysses to disceiue,
1495 J can full well the mothers craftes
and subteltie perceiue.
The policy of Goddesses,
Ulysses hath vndoon,
Set all these fayned woordes asyde,
i5oo tell me where is thy soon ?
AN DR. E Where is Hector : where all the rest ?
that had with Troy their fall ?
Where Pryamus ? you aske for one
but J require of all.
:5o5 ULY. C Thou shalt constrayned be to tell
the thyng thou doost denye.
AN. <L A happy chaunce wer death, to her
that doth desyre to dye,
of Seneca . 
ULY. L Who most desyres to dye : would t ay-
i5lo nest line when death drawthe on,
These noble wordes with present feare
of death : would soone be gon.
ANDR C Ulysses if ye v/ill constrayne
Andromacha with feare,
i5i5 Threten my lyfe, for now to dye
my chiefe desyre it weare
ULY. C With strypes, with fyre, tormenting death
we will the trueth out wrest,
And dolour shall thee force, to tell
i52O the secretes of thy brcst.
And what thy hart hath deepest hyd
for payne thou shalt expres
Oftymcs thextremitie preuayles,
much more then ientlenes.
i525 ANDR. C Set me in midst of burning flame,
with \voundes my body rent,
Use all the meanes of crueltie,
that ye may all inuent.
Proue me with thyrst, and hunger both,
i53o and euery torment trye.
Pearce through my sides with burning yrons,
in prison let me lye.
Spare not the woorst ye can deuyse
(if ought be worse then this)
1 535 Yet neuer geat ye more of me
J wot not where he is,
ULY. C Jt is but vayne to hyde the thing
that straight ye will deteckte,
No feares may moue the mothers hart,
1540 she doth them all neglecte.
T5>. Hi. This
This tender loue ye beare your childe,
wherin ye stande so stoute,
So muche more circumspectly warnthe,
the Greekes to looke aboute.
1545 Least after ten yeres trackte of time,
and battaile borne so farre,
Some one should liue that on our chil
dren, might renew the warre.
As for my selfe, what Calchas sayeth,
i55o J would not feare at all.
But on Telemachus J dreade,
the smarte of warres woulde fall.
AN. C Now will J make Ulysses gladde,
and all the Greekes also,
1 555 Needes must thou wofull wretch confesse,
declare thy hidden wo.
Reioyce ye sonnes of Atreus,
there is no cause of dred.
Be glad Ulysses tell the Greekes,
]56o that Hectors sonne is ded.
ULY. E By what assurance prouest thou that ?
How shall we credite the ?
AN. C What euer thing the enmies hand,
may threaten, happe to me
1 565 Let spedy fates me slaye forthwith,
and earth me hide at ones,
And after death from tombe againe,
remoue yet Hectors bones,
Except my soon already now,
i5yo do rest among the ded,
And that except Astyanax,
into his tombe be led.
of Seneca. 
ULY. C Then fully are the fates fulfil do
with Hectors childes disceace :
i575 Now shall J beare the Grecians worde,
of sure and ccrtaine peace.
Ulysses why what doost thou now ?
the Greekes will euery chone,
Beleue thy wordes : whom creditste thou ?
i58o the mothers tale alone.
Thinkst thou for sauegarde ofher chylde
the mother will not lie ?
And dread the more the worse mischaunce,
to gyue her sonne to dye ?
i585 Her faith she bindes with bonde of othc,
the trueth to verifie,
What thing is more of weight to feare,
then so to sweare and lye ?
Now call thy craftes togither all,
i5go bestirre thy wits and minde,
And show thy selfe Ulysses now,
the truthe herin to finde.
Searche well the mothers minde : beholde
she weepes and waileth out,
i5g5 And here and there with doutlull pace,
she rangeth all about.
Her careful eares she doth applie,
to harken what J say,
More fraide she seemes then sorowfull,
1600 Now worke some wilye way.
For now most nede of wit there is,
and crafty pollecie,
Yet once againe by other meanes,
J will the mother trie.
S>. UK. Thou
i6o5 Thou wretched woman mayst reioyce,
that dead he is : alas
More dolefull death by desteny
for him decreed ther was.
From Turrets top to haue been cast
1610 and cruelly been slaync.
Which only towre of all the rest,
doth yet in Troy remayne.
AN DR. C My spright failth me, my limmes do quake,
feare doth my wittes confound,
i6i5 And as the yce congeales with frost.
my blood with colde is bound.
ULYS. L She trembleth lo : this way, this way
J will the trueth out wrest,
The mothers feare detecteth all
1620 the secretes of her brest.
J will renew her feare : goe sears
bestyrre ye spedely,
To seke this enmy of the Grekes,
where euer that he lye.
l625 Well done, he will be found at length,
go to, still seke hym out,
Now shallhe dye : what dost thou feare ?
why dost thou looke about?
ANDR. C Would god that any cause ther were,
i63o yet left that might me fray,
My hart at last now all is lost,
hath laycle all feare away.
ULYS. C Sins that your chyld now hath ye say
already suffred death,
l635 And with his blood we may not pourge
the hostes as Calchas sayth.
of Seneca. 
Our flele passe not (as well inspired,
doth Calchas prophecy)
Tyll Hectors ashes cast abrode,
1640 The waues may pacify,
And tombe be rent, now sins the boy
hath scapt his desteny.
Nedes must we breake this holy tombe
where Hectors ashes lye.
i6 4 5 AN DR. C What shall J do ? my mynd distrac
ted, is with double feare,
On thone my sonne, on thother syde
my husbandes ashes deare.
Alas which part, should moue me most,
i65o the cruell goddes J call,
To witnes with me in the truth,
and ghostes that guyde thee all.
Hector, that nothing in my soon
is els that pleaseth me,
i655 But thou alone, god graunt him lyfe,
he might resemble the,
Shall Hectors ashes drowned be ?
byde J such cruelty,
To see hys bones cast in the seas ?
1660 yet let Astianax dye,
And canst thou wretched mother byde,
thine owne chyldes death to see ?
And suffre from the hye towres top
that hedlong throwne he be ?
i665 J can, and will take in good part,
his death and cruell payne,
So that my Hector after death,
be not remoued agayne.
The boye that life and senses hathe
1670 may feele hys payne and dye,
But Hector loe hys deathe hathe plaste,
at rest in tombe to lye.
What doost thou stay ? determyne which
thou wilt preserue of twayne.
1675 Art thou in doubte ? saue thys : loe here
thy Hector dothe remayne.
Bothe Hectors be, thone quick of spright
and drawing toward hys strengthe
And one that may perhaps reuenge
1680 hys fathers deathe at lengthe.
Alas J can not saue them bothe
J thinke that best it weare,
That of the twayne J saued hym,
that dothe the Grecyans feare.
1685 U L Y. C Jt shalbe done that Calchas woordes
to vs dothe Prophecye,
And nowe shall all thys sumpteous woorke
be throwne downe vtterlye.
AN. C That once ye solde? U L. C J will it all
1690 from toppe to bottom rende
A N D R. C The fayth of Godds J call vppon
Achilles vs defende.
And Pyrrhus ayde thy fathers ryght
U L Y. C Thys tombe abrode shall lye
160,5 A N D R. CO mischiefe, neuer durst the Greekes
showe yet suche crueltye.
Ye strayne the Temples, and the Godds
that moste haue fauorde you,
The deade ye spare not, on theyr tombes
1700 your furye rageth now.
of Seneca. 
J will theyr weapons all resist
my selfe wyth naked h.inde,
The yre of harte shall geeue me strength,
theyr armoure to withstande.
I7o5 As fierce as dyd the Amasones
beate downe the Greekes in fight,
And Menas once enspyrde with God,
in sacryfice dothe smyght :
With speare in hande, and while with iu-
1710 rious pace she treades the grounde,
And woode as one in rage : she strikes
and feelythe not the wounde :
So wyll J ronne on midste of them
and on theyr weapons dye,
1715 And in defence of Hectors tombe,
among hys asshes lye.
U L Y. C Cease ye ? dothe rage and fury vayne
of woman moue ye ought,
Dispatch with speede what J commaunde,
1720 and plucke downe all to nought.
A N D R. C Slay me rather here with swoorde
ridde me out of the waye,
Breake vp the deepe Auerne, and ryd
my destenies delaye.
1725 Ryse Hector and byset thy foes
breake thou Ulysses yre,
A spright arte good enough for hym,
beholde he casteth fyre.
And weapon shakes with mighty hande
I73o do ye not Greekes hym see ?
Or els dothe Hectors spright appeare
but onely vnto me ?
ULY. Down quight withall. AN. What wilt thou suf
fer both thy sonne be slayne,
1735 And after death thy husbandes bones
to be remoued againe ?
Perhaps thou mayst with prayer yet
appease the Grecians all,
Els down to ground the holly tombe
1740 of Hector, straight shall fall.
Let rather dye the chyld poore wretch
and let the Grekes him kyll,
Then father and the sonne should cause
the tone the others yll.
1745 Ulysses, at thy knees J fall,
and humbly aske mercy,
These handes that no mans feete els knew,
fyrst at thy fete they lye,
Take pitie on the mothers case,
I75o and sorowes of my brest,
Uouchsafe my prayers to receiue,
and graunt me my request.
And by how much the more the goddes
haue the aduaunced hye,
1755 More easely strike the poore estate,
of wretched misery.
God graunt the chast bed of thy god
ly wyfe Penelope,
May the receiue, and so agayne
1760 Laerta may the see.
And that thy sonne Telemachus,
may mete thee ioyfully,
His graundsers yeres, and fathers witte,
to passe full happely.
of Seneca [6ij
1765 Take pittie on the mothers teares,
her little child to saue,
He is my onely comfort left
and thonely ioy J haue.
ULY. C Bring furth thy sonne and aske.
1770 The second sceane.
Ome hyther child out of thy dens to me
thy wretched mothers lamentable store,
This babe Ulysses, loe this babe is he,
1775 |_ that stayeth your ships, & feareth you so sore.
Submit thy self my soon with humble hand,
and worship flatte on ground, thy maisters feete,
Think it no shame, as now the case doth stand
the thing that fortune wilth a wretch is mete.
1780 Forget thy worthy stocke of kingly kynd.
thinke not on Pryames great nobilite,
And put thy fathet Hector from thy mynd,
such as thy fortune let thy stomake be.
Behaue thy selfe as captiue, bend thy knee,
1785 and though thy grief pearce not thy tender yeares,
Yet learne to wayle thy wretched state by me,
and take ensample at thy mothers teares.
Once Troye hath seen the weping of a chylde,
When little Pryame turnde Alcides threates,
1790 And he to whom all beastes in strength did yelde,
that made hys way from hell, and brake theyr gates
His little enmics teares yet ouercame,
Pryame (he said) receiue thy liberty,
Jn seate of honor keepe thy kingly name,
1795 but yet thy sceptors rule more faythfullye.
Loe such the conquest was of Hercules
of him yet learne your hartes to mollifye.
Do onely Hercles cruell weapons please
and may no ende be of your crueltye ?
1800 No lesse then Pryame kneeles to thee this boy
that lyeth and asketh onely life of thee.
As for the rule and gouernaunce of Troy
where euer fortune will there let it bee.
Take mercy on the mothers ruthfull teares
i8o5 that with theyr streames my cheekes do ouerflowe
And spare thys giltles infants tender yeares
that humbly falleth at thy feete so lowe.
The rhyrde sceane.
F treuthe the mothers greate sorow,
dothe moue my hart full sore.
I But yet the mothers of the Greekes,
j of neede must moue me more.
i8i5 To whom thys boye may cause in tyme
a greate calamytie.
ANDR. C may euer he the burnt ruynes
of Troy reedifie ?
And shall these handes in time to come,
1820 ercckt the towne agayne ?
Jf thys be thonely helpe we haue,
there dothe no hope remayne
of Seneca [63J
For Troy, we stand not now in case
to cause your feare of mynde,
i825 Doth ought auaile hys fathers force,
or stock of noble kinde ?
Hys fathers harte abated was.
he drawne the walles abought.
Thus euell happs, the haughtiest hart
i83o at length they bryng to nought.
Jf ye will needes oppresse a wretche
what thyng more greeuous weare.
Then on hys noble necke he shoulde
the yoke of bondage beare ?
1835 To serue in life, doth any man
thys to a king deny ?
U L Y. C Not Ulysses wylth hys deathe
but Calchas Prophecy
A N D R. O false inuentor of disceyte
1840 and heynous crueltye,
By manhode of whose hand in warre,
no man dyd euer dye.
But by disceite and craltye trayne
of mynde that mischefe seekes,
1846 Before thys tyme full many one
deade is : ye of the Greekes.
The Prophets woordes and giltlesse gods
sayste thou my sonne requyre ?
Naye : mischiefe of thy breste it is
i85o thou dooste hys death desyre.
Thou night souldier, and stought of harte
a little chylde to slaye,
Thys enterpryse thou takste alone
and that by open daye.
i855 ULY. C Ulysses manhode well to Greekes
to much to you is knowne,
J may not spend the tyme in wordes,
our nauy wil be gone.
AN. C A little stay, while J my last
1860 farewell geue to my chyld
And haue with oft embracing him,
my gredy sorowes filde.
ULY. C Thy greuons sorowes to redresse,
would god it lay in me,
i865 But at thy will to take delaye
of time, J graunt it thee.
Now take thy last leaue of thy sonne,
and fill thy self with teares,
Oft tymes the weping of the eyes,
1870 the inward grief out weares.
AN DR. C O deere, o swete, thy mothers pledge,
farewell my only ioy,
Farewell the flowre of honour left
of beaten house of Troy.
1875 O Troians last calamitie
and feare to Grecians part
Farewell thy mothers only hope,
and vayne comfort of hart.
Oft wisht J thee thy fathers strength,
1880 and half thy graundsyres yeres,
But all for nought, the Goddes haue all
dispoynted our desyres.
Thou neuer shalt in regall court
thy sceptors take in hand
1885 Nor to thy people geue decreese
nor leade with law thy land.
of Seneca. 
Nor yet thyne enmyes oucrcome
by might of handy stroke,
Nor sende the conquerd nacyons all
1890 vnder thy seruyle yoke.
Thou neuer shalt beate downe in fight
and Grekes with sworde pursewe,
Nor at thy Charyot Pyrrhus pluckc
as Achylles Hector drcwe.
lSg5 And neuer shall these tender handes
thy weapons welde and wreste,
Thou neuer shalte in woddes pursue
the wylde and mighty beaste.
Nor as accustomde is by guyse
1900 and sacryfice in Trove,
With measure swifte : bet\vene the aul-
ters shalte thou dauncc with ioye.
O greeuous kynde of cruell deathe
that dothe remayne for thee,
icp5 More wo full thyng then Hectors deathe
the walles of Trove shall see.
ULYS. C Now breake of all thy mothers teares
J may no more tyme spende,
The greuous sorowes of thy harte
1910 will neuer make an ende.
A N D R. f[ Ulysses spare as yet my teares
and graunte a while delaye,
To close hys eyes yet with my hands
ere he departe awaye.
igi5 Thou dyest but yong : yet fearde thou arte
thy Troy doth wayte for thee,
Goe noble hart thou shalt agayne
the noble Troians sec.
J6. i. ASTY.
AS. C Helpe me mother PAN. C Alas my childe
1920 why takste thou holde by me ?
Jn vayne thou calste where helpe none is
J can not succoure thee.
As when the little tender beaste
that heares the Lyon crye,
IQ25 Strayght ibr defence he seekes hys dam
and crowching downe dothe lye.
The cruell beaste when once remo-
ued is the dam awaye,
Jn greedy iawe with rauening bit
1980 doth snatch the tender praye.
So straight the enmies will thee take
and from my syde the Beare.
Keceyue my kisse and teares poore chylde
receyue my rented heare.
ig35 Departe thou hence now full of me
and to thy father goe,
Salute my Hector in my name
and tell him of my woe.
Complayne thy mothers griefe to hym
1940 if former cares may moue,
The spryghtes : and that in funerall flame
they leese not all theyr lone.
O crewell Hector suffrest thou
thy wife to be opprest ?
1945 With bonde of Grecyans heauy yoke
and lyest thou still at rest ?
Achylles rose : take here agayne
my teares and rented heare,
And (all that J haue lefte to sende)
ig5o thys kisse thy father beare.
of Seneca. 
Thy coate yet for my comfort leaue
the tombe hath touched it
Ji of hys ashes ought here lye
J will seke it ciiery whit.
ig55 U L Y. C There is no measure of thy teares
J may no lenger staye
Deferre no farder our returne
breake of our shipps delaye.
Chorus altered liy the translater.
Joue thnt leadst the lampes of fyre
and dekst with flamyng starres the sky
Why is it euer thy desyre
to care theyr course so orderly ?
That now the frost the leaues hath worne
icj65 and now the spryng dothe cloath the tree,
Now fyry Leo rypes the Corne
and still the soyle shoulde changed be ?
But why arte thou that all dooste guide
betwene whose handes the poales do swaye
1970 And at whose v/ill the Orbes do slide
careles of mans estate alwaye?
Regarding not the good mans case,
nor caring how to hurte the ill
Chaunce beareth rule in euery place,
1975 and turneth mans estate at will.
She geues the wrong the vpper hande
the better parte she dothe oppresse,
She makes the highest lowe to stande
her kyngdome all is orderlesse.
1980 () parfitte proofe of her frayltie,
the princely towres of Troye bet downe
B. ii. The
The flowre of Asya here ye see
with turne of hande quight oucrthrowne
The ruthfull ende of Hectors sonne
1985 whome to his death the Greekes haue led
Hys fatall howre is come and gonne
and by thys tyme the childe is ded
Yet still alas more cares encrease,
o Troians dolefull destenye,
1990 Fast dothe approche the maydes decease
and now Polyxena shall dye.
The fourth ackte.
i 99 5
Hat euer wofull wedding yet,
were cause of funerall,
Of wailing, teares, blood, slaughter els
or other mischiefs all,
A worthy matche for Helena,
and meete for me it ware,
My wedding torche hath byn the cause,
of all the Troians care.
J am constrainde to hurt them yet,
after their ouerthrowe
2Oo5 The false and fained manages,
of Pyrrhus must J showe.
And gene the maide the Greekes attire
and by my policie,
Shall Parys sister be betraide,
2010 and by disceit shall dye.
But let her be beguiled thus,
the les should be her paine
If that vnware, without the feare
of death : she myght be slaine.
20i5 What ceasest thou the will of Greekes,
and message to fulfill ?
Of hurt constrainde the faute returnthe
to thauthor of the ill.
O noble virgin of the fa-
2020 mous house : and stocke of Troy,
To thee, the Gresians haue me sent
I bring the newes of ioy.
The gods rue on thy afflicted state,
more mercifull they be,
2025 A great and happy manage loe,
they haue preparde for the.
Thou neuer should if Troy had stoode,
so nobly wedded be,
Nor Priame neuer couldjpreferre,
2o3o the to so hye degree.
Whom flowre of all the Giecyan name,
the prince of honour hongur hie,
That beares the scepters ouer all,
The lande of Thessalie,
2O35 Doth in the law of wedlocke chose
and for his wife require,
To sacred rightes of lawfull bed,
doth Pyrrhus thee desire
Loe Thetys great with all the rest,
2040 of gods that guide by sea,
Eche one shall thee account as theyrs,
and ioy by wedding dea.
. iii. And
And Pelcus shall thce daughter call,
when thou arte Pyrrhus wife,
2045 And Nereus shall account thee hys
the space of all thy life.
Put of thy mourning garment now,
thys regall vesture weare
Forget henceforth thy captiue state,
2o5o and semely broyde thy hearc.
Thy fall hath lift thee higher vp,
and doth thee more aduauncc,
Oft to be taken in the warre,
doth bring the better chaunce.
2055 AN. f[ This ill the Troians neuer knew
in all their grieles and paine,
Before this time ye neuer made,
vs to reioyce in vaine.
Troye towres geue light, o semely tyme
2060 for mariage to be made
\Yho woulde refuse the wedding daye
that Helayne dothe perswade ?
The Plague and Ruine of eche parte
beholde doste thou not see,
2o65 These tombes of noble men : and how
theyr boanes here scattered bee ?
Thy brydebed hath bene cause df thys
for thee all these be ded,
For thee the blood of Asya bothe
2070 and Europe hath bene shed.
When thou in ioy and pleasure bothe
the righting folke from farre,
Haste veude : in doubte to whom to wishe
the glory of the warre.
2075 Goe to prepare the maryages
what neede the torrhis light ?
Be holde the towres of Troy do shyne
with brandes that blase full bright.
O Troians all set to your handes,
2080 thys wedlock celebrate :
Lament thys day with wofull cry
and teares in seemely rate.
H E L E. C Though care do cause the want of wit
and reasons rule denye,
2085 And heauy hap dothe oftimes hate
hys mates in myserye,
Yet J before moste hatefull iudge
dare well defende my parte,
That J of all your grieuous cares
2090 sustayne the greatest smarte.
Andromacha for Hector weepes,
for Priame Hecuba,
For onely Parys priuely
2og5 A harde and grieuous thing it is
captiuitie to beare,
Jn Troy that yoke J suffred long
a prisoner whole ten yeare.
Turnde are the fates, Troy beaten downe,
2100 to Greece J must repeare,
The natiue countrey to haue loste
is ill, but woorse to feare.
For dreade thereof you neede not care
your euilles all be paste,
2lo5 On me both partes will vengeauce take
all lightes to me at laste.
. till. Whom
Whom cche man prysoncr takes God wott
she standes in slipper staye,
And me not captiue made by lotte
2 no yet Parys led awayc
J haue bene cause of all these warres
and then your woes were wrought,
When fyrst your shippes the Spartane seas
and land of Grecia sought.
2li5 But if the Goddesse wilde it so
that J theyr praye shoulde be,
And for revvarde to her beautyes iudge
she had appoynted me,
Then pardon Parys : thinke thys thynge
2120 in wrathfull iudge dothe lye,
The sentence Menelaus geucs
and he thys case shall (rye.
Now turne thy plaintes Andromacha,
and weepe for Polyxeyne,
2125 mine iyes for sorowes of my hart,
theyr teares may not refreyne.
AN. C Alas what care makes Heleyne weepe ?
What griefe doth she lament?
Declare what craftcs Ulisses castes,
2i3o what mischief hath he sent ?
Shall she from heyght of Jdey hill
be hedlong tombled downe ?
Or els out of the turrets toppe
in Troy, shall she be throwne ?
2i35 Or will they cast her from the cliues,
into Sygcon seaes ?
In bottome of the surging waues,
to ende her ruthfull dayes ?
Show what thy countnance hides, & tell
2140 the secretes of thy brest :
Some woes in Pyrrhus wedding are
farre woorse then all the rest.
Goe to, geue sentense on the inayde,
pronounce her destenye :
2145 Delude no lenger our mishaps,
we are preparde to dye.
HEL. C Would god thexpounder of the gods
would geue his dome so right :
That J also on poynt of sworde
2i5o myght leese the lothsome light.
Or at Achilles tombe, with stroke
of Pyrrhus hand be slayne :
And beare a part of all thy fates
O wretched Polyxcyne.
2l55 Whom yet Achilles wooth to wed,
and where his asshes lie,
Requireth that thy blood be shed,
and at his tombe to die.
AN. C Beholde loe, how her noble minde
2160 of death doth gladly heare,
She decks her selfe : her regall weede,
in semely wise to weare,
And to her hed she settes her hande,
the broyded heare to lay,
2l65 To wed she thought it death : to dye,
she thinkes a wedding day.
But helpe, alas, my mother sowndes,
to heare her daughters death,
Arise : plucke vp your hart and take,
2170 againe the panting breath.
Alack good mother how slender stay,
that doth thy life sustaine ?
A little thing shall happye thee.
thou arte almost past thy payne.
2175 Her brethe returnes : she doth reuiue,
her limmes their life do take.
So se when wretches faine would die,
how death doth them forsake.
H E C. C Doth yet Achilles Hue alas,
2180 to worke the Troians spight ?
Doth he rebell agaynst vs yet ?
O hande of Parys light.
The very tombe and asshes loe,
yet thirsteth lor our blood,
2i85 A happy heape of childern late,
on euery side me stood.
Jt weried me to deale the mo
thers kisse among them all
The rest are lost and this alone,
2190 now doth me mother call.
Thou only childe of Hecuba,
a comfort left to mee,
A stayer of my sory state,
and shall J row leese thee ?
2ig5 Departe O wretched soule, and from
this carefull carcas flye,
And ease me of such ruthfull fates,
to se my daughter dye.
My weping wettes, alas my eyes,
2200 and staines them ouer all,
Aud down my cheekes the sodein streames
and showres of tearesdofall.
of Seneca. [7$]
But thou dere doughter mayst be gladde
Cassandra woulde reioyce,
22o5 Or Hectors wife thus wed to bee
if they might haue theyr choyce.
A N. CWe are the wretchis Hecuba
in cursed case we stande,
Whom strayght the shippe shall tosse by seas
2210 into a foreine lande.
But as lor Heleyns grieues be gone
and turned to the best,
She shall agayne her natiue con-
trey see : and Hue at rest.
22i5 H E L E. CYe woulde the more enuy my state
if ye might knowe your owne,
A N. CAnd grouthe there yet more griefe to me
that erste I haue not knowne ?
H E L E. CSuch maisters must ye serue as doth
2220 by chaunce of lotts befall
AN DR. EWhose seruant am J then become
whome shall J maister call ?
H E L E. LBy lotte ye fall to Pyrrhus hands
you are hys prysoner.
2225 A N D R. CCassandra is happye : fury saues
perhaps and Phebus her.
H E L E. CChefe kiug of Greekes Cassandra keepes
and hys captiue is shee
H E C. CJs any one among them all
223o that prysoner woulde haue me ?
H E L E. CYou chaunsed to Ulysses are
hys pray ye are become.
H E C. CAlas what cruell, dyre and yre-
full dealer of the dome.
2235 what god vniust doth so deuide,
the captiues to their lordes ?
What greuous arbiter is he ?
that to such choyse accordes,
What cruell hand to wretched folke,
2240 so euill fates hath caste ?
who hath among Achilles ar
mour, Hectors mother plaste ?
Now am J captiue and beset,
with all calamitee.
2245 My bondage greeues me not, but him
to serue it shameth mee.
He that Achilles spoyles hath woon,
shall Hectors also haue :
Shall barraine lancle enclosde with seas,
225o receyue my boanes in graue ?
Leade me Ulysses where thou wilt,
leade me, J make no stay,
My maister J, and me my fates,
shall follow euery way.
2255 Let neuer calme come to the seas,
but let them rage with winde,
Come fire and sword, myne own mischauce
and Priames let me finde.
Jn meane time haps this deepe distres
2260 my cares can know no calme :
J ran the race with Priamus
but he hath woon the Palme.
But Pyrrhus comes with swiftened pace
and thretning browes doth wrest.
2265 What stayest thou Pyrrhus ? strike thy sworde
now through this wofull brest.
of Seneca. 
And both at ones the parents of
thy fathers wyfe now slay,
Murderer of age, lykes thee her blood ?
2270 he drawth my daughter awaye.
Defile the gods and staine the sprightes,
of hell with slaughtred blood,
To aske your mercye what auayles ?
our praiers do no good.
2275 The vengeance aske J on your ships,
that it the gods may pleas,
According to this sacrifice.
to guide you on the seas.
This wishe J to your thousand sayles,
2280 Gods wrath light on them all,
Euen to the ship that beareth me,
what euer maybefall.
A Comfort is to mans calamitie
A dolefull flocke of felowes in distres.
And swete to him that morurnes in miseric,
To heare them wayle whom sorowes like oppres
Jn depest care his griefe him bytes the les,
That his estate bewailes not all alone,
2290 But seeth with him the teares of many one.
For still it is the chefe delight in woe,
And ioy ofthem that sonke in sorowes are,
To see lyke fates by-fall to many moe,
That may take parte of all their wofull fare.
22g5 And not alone to be opprest with care.
Ther is no wight : of woe that doth complayne,
when al the rest do like mischaunce sustaine.
Jn all this world it" happy man were none,
None (though he were) would thinke hymself a wretche,
23oo Let once the rytche with heapes of gold be gone,
whose hundred hed his pastours ouerretche,
Then would the poore mans hart begyn to stretche
There is no wretche whose lyfe him doth displease
But in respect of those that liue at ease.
23o5 Swete is to hym that standes in depe distres,
To see no man in ioyfull plight to be,
Whose only vessell, wynd and vvaue oppres,
Full sore hys chaunce bewayles and wepeth he,
That with his owne none others wracke doth se
23io When he alone makthe shipwrak on the sande
And naked falles to long desyred lande.
A thousand sayle who seeth to drenche in seas
with better will the storme hath ouerpast
His heauy hap doth him the lesse displease,
23i5 When broken boardes abrode be many cast
And shypwrackt shyppes to shore they flit full fast,
With doubled waues when stopped is the flood,
With heape of them that there haue lost theyr good.
Full sore dyd Phryxus Hellens losse complayne,
232O What tyme the leader of hys flocke of shepe,
Upon hys backe alone he bare them twayne,
And wet hys golden lockes amyd the depe.
Jn piteous playnt alas he gan to wepe
The death of her it dyd hym depe displease,
2325 That shypwrak made amyd the drenchyng seas.
of Seneca. 
And piteous was the playnt and heauy moode
Of wofull Pyrrha and eke Deucalion,
That nought hehelde about them but the floode,
When they of all mankynde were left alone
233o Amyd the seas full sore they made theyr mone
To see themselues thus left alyue in woe
When neyther land they saw nor fellowes moe.
Anon these plavnts, and Troianes teares shall quaile,
And here and there the shyppe them tosse by seas
2335 When trompets sounde shall warne to hoyse vp sayle
And through the waues with wynd to seke theyr wayes :
Then shall these captiues goe to ende theyr dayes
Jn land vnknowne : when once with hasty ore
The drenching depe they take and shonne the shore.
2340 What state of mynde shall then in wretches be,
\Vhen shore shall synke from syght and seas aryse ?
When Jdey hyll to lurke aloofe they see ?
Then poynt with hand from farre where Troia lyse,
Shall chyld and mother : talking in thys wyse :
2345 Loe yonder Troye, where smoke it fumeth hye,
By this the Troianes, shall theyr countrey spye.
The fifth acte.
Dyre, fierce, wretched, horrible,
o cruel fates accurste,
A o cruel lates accurste,
I Of Mars hys ten yeres bloodshed blowes.
the wofulst and the wurste.
A las which should I fyrst bewayle ?
2355 thy cares Andromacha ?
Or els lament the wretched age
of wofull Hecuba ?
HEC What euer mans calamities
ye wayle, for mine it is
23C.) J beare the smart of all their woes,
eche other feeles but hys.
Who euer he, J am the wretche
all happes to me at last.
M E S. Slaine is the mayde, and from the walles
2365 of Troy : the childe is cast.
But both, (as them became) they toke
their death, with stomack stout.
ANDR. Declare the double slaughters then,
and tell the whole throughout.
23;o M E S. C One towre of all the rest ye knowe,
doth yet in Troy remaine,
Where Pryam wonted was to sit,
and vewe the armyes twaine.
His little Nephew eke with him
23y5 to leade and from a farre,
His fathers fightes with fyre and swoorde
to showe, and feates of warre.
This towre, somtime well knowne by fame,
and Troians honor most.
238o Js now with captaines of the Greekes,
beset on euery coaste.
With swift recourse and from the shippes,
in clustred heapes anone.
Both tagge and ragge, they ronne to gase,
2385 what thing should there be done.
Some clime the hilles, to seeke a place,
where they might see it best,
of Seneca [8l]
Some on the rockes a tiptoe stande,
to ouerlooke the rest.
23rp Some on theyr temples weare the Pyne,
some beeche, some crownes of baye,
For garlandes torne is euery tree,
that standeth in theyr waye.
Some from the highest mowntaynes top,
23(j5 aloofe beholdeth all
Some scale the buyldings halfe yburnte,
and some the ruynous wall
Ye some there weare (o mischiefe loe)
that for the more despyght,
2400 The tombe of Hector sitts vpon,
beholders of the sight.
With pryncely pace Ulysses then,
past through the preasyd bande
Of Greekes, kyng Pryames little Ne-
2406 phew, leadyng by the handc.
The chylde with vnrepining gate
past through hys enmyes handes,
Up toward the walles, and as anone
in turretts top he standes,
2410 From thence adowne, hys loftyc lookes
he cast on euery parte,
The neerer death more free from care
he seemde, and fcare of harte.
Amyd hys foes, hys stomake swelles,
and fierce he was to syght,
Like Tygers whelpe, that threats in vaine
with toothlesse chap to byght.
Alas, for pittye then eche one,
rew on hys tender yeares,
*. i. And
2420 And all the rowte that present were,
for him they shed theyr teares.
Yea not Ulysses them restraynde,
but tricklyng downe they fall,
And onely he, wept not, (poore foole,)
2425 whome they bewayled all.
But whyle on Gods Ulysses callde,
and Calchas woords expounde,
Jn midste of Pryames land alas,
the childe leapte downe to grounde.
2430 AN. C What ere well Colchus coulde or scythe
such slaughter take in hande ?
Or by the shore of Caspyan sea,
what barbarous lawles lande ?
Busyrides to thaulters yet,
2435 no infantes bloode hath shed :
Nor neuer yet were children slayne,
for feaste of Dyomed.
Who shall alas in tombe thee laye,
or hyde thy limmes againe ?
2440 M E S. C What lymmes fro such a hecllong fall,
coulde in a chylde remayne ?
Hys bodyes payse, throwne downe to grounde,
hathe battred all hys boanes,
Hys face, hys noble fathers markes,
2445 are spoylde agaynst the stoanes.
Hys necke vnioynted is : hys hed
so dashte with flint stone stroake,
That scattred is the brayne aboute,
the sculle is all to broake.
245o Thus lieth he now dismembred corps,
deiormde, and all to rent.
of Seneca. [83 J
A N D R. Loe herein doth he yet likewise,
hys father represent.
M E S. What tyme the chylde, had hedlong ialne
2455 thus from the wallesof Troye,
And all the Greekes them selues bewaylde,
the slaughter of the boye,
Yet streyght returne they backe, and at
Achilles tombe agayne
2460 The second mischiele goe to woorke,
the deathe of Polyxeyne
This tombe the waues of surging seas,
beset the vtter syde,
The other parte the feeldes encloase
2465 aboute, and pastours wyde.
Jn vale enuyroned with hilles,
that rounde aboute do ryse,
A sloape on heyght erected are
the bankes, in theater wyse.
2470 By all the shore then swarme the Greekes,
and thyck on heapes they prease :
Some hoape that by her death , they shall
theyr shippes delay release.
Some other ioye, theyr enmies stocke
2475 thus beaten downe to bee :
A greate parte of the people, bothe
the slaughter hate and see.
The Troians eke, no lesse frequent
theyr owne calamyties,
2480 And all aftrayde, behelde the last
of all theyr myseryes.
When fyrste proceedyd torches bryght
as guise of wedlock is.
f . It. And
And author therof led the way
2485 the lady Tyndaris.
Such wedlocke (pray the Troians then)
god send Hermyona*
And would god to her husband so,
restorde wcr Helena.
2490 Feare masde eche parre, but Polyxene,
her bashefull looke downe cast :
And more then erste her glyttring eyes,
and beawty shynde at last.
As swetest seines then Phebus light,
2495 when downe his beames do sway,
When starres agayne, with night at hand,
oppresse the doutfull day.
Astonied much the people were,
and all, they her commende.
2600 And nowe much more then euer earst,
they praysde her, at her ende.
Some with her beauty moued were,
some with her tender yeares :
Some to behold the turnes of chaunce,
25o5 and how eche thyng thus weares.
But most them moues her valiant mynd,
and lofty stomake hye,
So strong, so stout, so ready of heart,
and well preparde to dye.
25io Thus passe they furth, and bolde, before
kyng Pyrrhus gothe the mayde,
They pittie her, they meruell her,
theyr heartes wer all afrayde.
As soone as then, the hard hyll top,
25i5 (where dye she should) they trode,
of Seneca. 
And hye vppon his fathers tombe,
the youthfull Pyrrhus stode.
The manly mayde she neuer shronke,
one foote, nor backwards drewe
25ao But boldely turnes to meete the stroke,
with stoute vnchanged hewe
Her corage moues eerie one, and loe
a strange thing monstrouse lyke,
That Pyrrhus euen himself stoode styll,
2525 for dreade, and durst not stryke.
But as he had, his glittering sworde,
in her to hilts vp doon,
The purple blood, at mortall wounde,
then gusshing out it spoon.
253o Ne yet her corage her forsooke,
when dyeng in that stownde,
She fell as therthe should her reuenge,
with Jreful rage to grownde.
Echo people wept : the Troians fyrst,
2535 with preuye fearefull crye,
The Grecians eke, eche one bewaylde,
her death, apparantly.
This order had the sacrifice,
her blood the tombe vp droonke,
2540 No drop remaynth aboue the grounde,
but downe forthwith it soonke.
HEC. Now go, now go ye Grekes, & now,
repayre ye safelie home,
With careles ships, and hoysed sayles,
2545 Now cut the sallt sea fome.
The childe and virgin, both be slaine,
your battelsfinysht are.
r. Hi. Alas
Alas where shall J end my age ?
or whether beare my care ?
255o Shall J my dawghter, or my ne
phew ? or my husband mone ?
My contrey els, or all at once ?
or els my selfe alone ?
My wishe is deathe, that children both
2555 and virgins fiersly takes
Where euer crewell death dothe haste
to stryke, it me forsakes.
Amyd the enmies weapons all,
amyd bothe sworde and fyre,
256o All night sought for, thou fleeste from me,
that do thee moste desyre.
Not flame of fyre, not fall of towre,
nor cruell enmyes hande,
Hath ryd my life : how neere alas,
2565 coulde death to Pryame stande ?
M E S. C Now captiues all, with swyft recourse
repayre ye to the seayes,
Now spreade the ships, theyr sayles abroade,
and foorthe they seeke theyr wayes.
2570 r Imprinted at London in Fletestrete
within Temple barre, at the signe of the
hand and starre, by Ri
Cum priuilegio ad impri-
T R A G E D I E OF
$eneca entituleo b=
sbeo bv Jasper 1F3e
\vooD fellowe of
IMPRINTED A T
Xonoon in 3Fletc0trctc
in tbe bone late
Anno, i 5 6 o .
26. die Martij.
To the right honorable syr
John Mason knight one of the Queenes
majesties priuie counsaile, his daily ora
tor Jasper Hey wood wysheth
5 health with encrease of
S bounden brest dothe beare the poorest wyght,
A that dutie dothe in tryflyng token scndc,
io /^JL As he that dothe with plenteous present quyght,
Of prouder pryce, and glyttryng golde his frendc.
\Yho so repaythe with moneys mightie masse,
the good that he at others hands hath founde,
Remembraunce of the benefyte dothe passe,
1 5 he thynks him selfe to hym no longer bounde.
The poore, whose powre may not with pryce repaye,
the great good gyfts that he receyude before,
With thankfull thought yet gogyn gyfte dothe swaye,
aboue the payse of pearle and golde great store.
20 Jf puisaunt prynce at poore mans hande onse tooke
A radishe roote, and was therwith content,
Your honor then J pray, this little booke
to take in woorthe, that J to you present.
* ii Whiche
 The Epistle
Whiche though it selfe a volume be but small,
25 yet greater gyft it geues then weene ye myght,
Though it a barrayne booke be throughout all
full fruteles, yet not faythles sygne in syght
Jt showes of him that for your honour prayes,
(as deedes of yours of him deserued haue,)
3o That god aboue prolong your happie dayes,
and make the skyes your seate soone after graue.
to the booke.
IHou lytle booke my messenger must be,
That must from me to wight of honour goe,
Behaue thee humbly, bende to him thy knee,
and thee to hym in lowly maner showe.
But dooe thou not thy selfe to him present,
When with afifayres thou shalt him troubled see,
40 Thou shalt perhapps, so woorthely be shent,
and with reproofe he thus will say to thee.
So prowdly thus presume how darest thou,
at suche a tyme so rashely to appeare ?
With thyngs of waight thou scest me burdned nowe,
46 J maie not yet to tryfles geue myne eare.
Spie well thy tyme, when thou him seest alone,
an ydle houre for the shalbe moste meete,
Then steppe thou tborth, in sight of him anone,
and as behoues, his honor humbly greete.
5o But now take heede what J to the shall tell,
and all by roate this lesson take with thee,
Jn euery thyng thy selfe to order well
in syght of hym, geeue eare and learne of mee.
Fyrst, what or whence thou art if he woulde wyt,
55 then see that thou thy tytle to him showe,
Tell hym thy name is in thy forhed wryt,
by whiche he shall bothe thee and me well knowe.
* fit Then
[94 1 The translatour
Then when he hath once lookte vpon thy name,
yf yet he shall neglect to reade the rest,
fx> Or if he chyde and say thou arte to blame,
with trifles suche to haue him so opprest :
Beseche him yet therof to pardon thce,
syns thou arte but thy masters messengere,
Excuse thy selfe and laie the faute in mee,
()5 at whose commaundment thus thou comste in there.
Jf my presumpcion then accuse he do,
if deede so rasshe of myne he do reproue,
That J thee dare attempt to send him to,
beware thou speake nothyng for my behoue.
70 Nor do thou not excuse my faute in ought,
but rather yet confesse to him the same,
And saie there maie a fawte in me be thought,
whiche to excuse it doubleth but the blame.
Yet with my boldenes him beseche to beare,
7? and pardon geue to this my enterpryse,
A woorthy thyng in wight of honour weare,
a present poore to take in thankfull wyse.
For tell him though thou slender volume be,
vngreeyng gyfte for state of honour guest,
So Yet dooste thou signe of dutie bringe with the,
and pledge thou arte of truly bounden brest.
And thou for him arte come for to confesse,
his headman bounde to be for his desart,
And how to him he graunts he owthe no lesse,
85 nor geeues no more, but note of thankfull hart.
to the booke. 
Jn all the rest that he to thee shall say,
thy wyt shall serue an answere well to make.
Thou hast thyne errande, get thee hens away,
the gods thee speede, to them J thee betake.
T was the i owre and twentith dale
of latest monthe saue one
Of all the yere : when flowre and frute
from fielde and tree were gone,
And sadder season suche ensewde
as dulls the doleful! sprights
And Muse of men that woonted were
to wander in delights :
And weather suche there was, as well
100 became the pensyue pen
With sory style of woes to wryte
and eke of mischiefe, when
Aurora blusht with ruddie checkes,
to waile the death agayne
io5 Of Phoebus soon : whom thunderbolt
of mightie Joue had slayne :
And cloudes from highe began to throwe
their dreary teares adowne,
And Uenus from the skyes aboue
no on fryday fowle to frowne :
When (as at booke with mased Muse
J satte and pensiue thought
Deepe drownde in dumps of drousines
as chaunge of weather wrought,)
The Preface. 
Il5 J felt howc Morpheus hound my browes
and eke my Temples strooke,
That downe J soonke my heauy head
and sleapt vppon my booke.
Then dreamde J thus, that by my syde
120 me thought J sawe one stande
That downe to grounde in scarlet gowne
was dight, and in his hande
A booke he bare : and on his head
of Bayes a Garland greene :
125 Full graue he was, well stept in yeres
and comly to be scene.
His eyes like Christall shiende : his breathe
full sweete, his face full fyne,
Jt seemde he had byn lodged long,
i3o among the Muses nyne.
Good syr (q; J) J you beseche
(since that ye seeme to me
By your attyre some worthie wight)
it may your pleasure be,
i35 To tell me what and whens ye are.
wherat a whyle he stayde
Beholdyng me : anone he spake,
and thus (me thought) he sayde.
Spayne was (q; he) my natiue soyle :
140 a man of woorthie fame
Sometime J was in former age,
and Seneca my name.
* v The
 The Preface.
The name of Senec when J hearde
then scantly could J speake :
145 J was so gladde that from mine eyes
the teares began to breake
For ioy : and with what wordes J shoulde
salute him, J ne wyst.
J him enbrast : his handes, his feete,
i5o and face full ofte J kyst.
And as at lengthe my tricklyng teares
me thought J might refrayne,
O blisfull daye (q; J,) wherin
returned is agayne
i55 So worthie wight : O happie houre,
that liefer is to me
Then life : wherin it happs me so,
that J should Senec see.
Arte thou the same, that whilom dydst
160 thy Tragedies endight
With woondrous wit and regall stile ?
O long desyred sight.
And lyuste thou yet (q; J) in deede ?
and arte thou come agayne
i65 To talke and dwell as thou wert wont
with men ? and to remayne
Jn this our age ? J lyue ( q; he )
and neuer shall J die :
The woorks J wrote shall still preserue
170 my name in memorie
The Preface. 
From age to age : and nowe agayne
J will reuiue the same,
And here J come to seeke some one
that might renewe my name,
175 And make me speake in straunger speeche
and sette my woorks to sight,
And skanne my verse in other tongue
then J was woont to wright.
A young man well J wotte there is
1 80 in thyle of Brytannie,
(That from the rest of all the \vorlde
aloofe in seas doth lie)
That once his labour tooke in hande :
him wolde J meete full fayne,
l85 To craue that in the rest of all
my woorks he wolde take payne
To toyle, as he in Troas did.
is that your wyll (quoth J ? )
J blusht, and sayd the same you seeke,
190 loe, here J stande you by.
Ji thou (q; he) be whome J seeke,
if glorie ought thee moue
Of myne to come in after age,
if Senecs name thou loue
ig5 Aliue to keepe, J thee beseeche
agayne to take thy pen,
Jn miter of thy mother tongue
to geue to sight of men
tioo] The Preface.
My other woorks : wherby thou shalt
200 deserue of them and mee,
No litle thancks : When they them selues
my Tragedies shall see
Jn Englishe verse, that neuer yet
coulde latine vnderstande.
205 With my renowne perhapps thy name
shall flie throughout this lande,
And those that yet thee neuer knewe
shall thee bothe loue and prayse,
And say God graunt this yong man well
210 to lyue full many dayes,
And many happy houres to see
in life : and after graue,
Rest, ioy, and blisse eternally
aboue the skies to haue,
2i5 That so translated hath these bookes.
to him (quoth J) agayne
(Jf any be that so with thanks
accepts a yong mans payne)
J wishe great good : but well J wotte
220 the hatefull cursed broocle
Farre greater is, that are long syns
sproong vp of Zoylus bloode.
That Red heard, black mouthd, squint eyed wretche
hath cowched euery wheare,
225 Jn corner close some Jmpe of his
that sitts to see and heare
The Preface. 
What eche man clothe, and eche man blames.
nor onse we may him see
Come face to face, but we once gone
23o then stoutly stepps out hee :
And all he carpes that there he fyndes
ere halfe he reade to ende,
And what he vnderstandes not, blames,
though nought he can amende.
235 But were it so that suche were none,
how may these youthfull dayes
Of mine, in thyng so hard as this
deserue of other prayse?
A labour long (quoth J) it is
240 that riper age doothe craue :
And who shall trauaile in thy bookes,
more Judgement ought to haue
Then J : whose greener yeares therby
no thanks may hope to wynne.
246 Thou seest dame Nature yet hath sette
No heares vppon my chynne.
Craue this therfore of grauer age,
and men of greater skill.
Full many be that better can,
25o and some perhapps that will.
But yf thy will be rather bent,
a yong mans witt to proue,
And thinkst that elder lerned men
perhaps it shall behoue,
[io2] The Preface.
255 Jn woorks of waight to spende theyr tyme,
goe where Mineruaes men,
And finest witts doe svvarme : whome she
hath taught to passe with pen.
Jn Lyncolnes Jnne and Temples twayne,
260 Grayes Jnne and other mo,
Thou shalt them fynde whose paynfull pen
thy verse shall florishe so,
That Melpomen thou wouldst well weene
had taught them for to w r right,
265 And all their woorks with stately style,
and goodly grace t endight.
There shalt thou se the selfe same Northe,
whose woorke his witte displayes,
And Dyall dothe of Princes paynte,
270 and preache abroade his prayse.
There Sackuyldes Sonetts sweetely sauste
and featly fyned bee,
There Nortons ditties do delight,
there Yeluertons doo flee
275 Well pewrde with pen : suche yong men three,
as weene thou mightst agayne,
To be begotte as Pallas was,
of myghtie Joue his brayne.
There heare thou shalt a great reporte,
280 of Baldwyns worthie name,
Whose Myrrour dothe of Magistrates,
proclayme eternall fame.
The Preface. [io3]
And there the gentle Blunduille is
by name and eke by k) nde,
285 Of \vhome \ve K-arne by Plutarchcs lore,
what frute by Foes to ivnde.
There Bauande bydcs, that turnde his toyle
a Common \velthe to frame,
And greater grace in Englyshe geues,
i>()0 to woorthy authors name.
There Googe a gratefull gaynes hath gotte,
reporte that runneth ryfe,
\\ ho crooked Compasse clothe describe,
and Zodiake of lyfe.
295 And yet great nombre more, whose names
yl J shoulde now resight,
A ten tymes greater woorke then thine,
J should be forste to wright.
A prynccly place in Parnasse hill,
3oo for these there is prepardc,
\Yhere crowne ot glittryng glorie hangs,
for them a ryght rewarde.
Wheras the lappes of Ladies nyne,
shall dewly them defende,
3o5 That haue preparde the Lawrell leatc,
about theyr hedds to bende.
And where theyr Penns shall hang full hie,
and fame that erst was hyd,
Abrode in Brutus realme shall flie,
3lo as late theyr volumes dyd.
 The Preface.
These are the witts that can display
thy Tragedies all ten,
Repleate with sugred sentence sweete,
and practise of the pen.
3i5 My selfe, J must confesse, J haue
to muche alreadie doon
Aboue my reache, when rashly one?.
with Troas J begoon :
And more presumtle to take in hande
32O then well J brought to ende,
And litle volume with mo fautes,
then lynes abrode to sende.
And of that woorke what men reporte,
Jn faythe J neuer wist.
3a5 But well J wotte, it may be thought
so yll, that litle lyst
J haue to dooe the like : Wherof
though myne be all the blame,
And all to me imputed is,
33o that passeth in my name :
Yet as of some J will confesse
that J the author was,
And fawtes to many made my selfe
when J that booke lette pas
335 Out of my handes : so must J me
excuse, of other some.
For when to sygne of Hande and Starre
J chaunced fyrst to come,
The Preface. [io5]
To Printers hands J gauc the workc :
340 by whome J had suchc wrong,
That though my selfe perusde their prooues
the fyrst tyme, yet ere long
When J was gone, they wolde agayne
the print therof renewe,
345 Corrupted all : in suche a sorte,
that scant a sentence tre\ve
Now flythe abroade as J it wrote,
which thyng when J had tryde,
And fowrescore greater tautes then myne
35o in fortie leaues espyde,
Small thanks (q; J) for suche a woorke
wolde Senec geue to me,
Jf he were yet a lyue, and shoulde
perhapps it chaunce to see.
355 And to the printer thus J sayde :
within these doores of thyne,
J make a vowe shall neuer more
come any worke of myne.
My trend e (q; Senec therwithall)
36o no meruayle therof ys :
They haue my selfe so wronged ofte,
And many things amys
Are doon by them in all my woorks.
suche fautes in euery booke
365 Of myne they make, (as well he may
it fynde that lyst to looke,)
[io61 The Preface.
That sense and latin, verse and all
they violate and breake,
And ofte what J yet neuer ment
370 they me enforce to speake.
Jt is the negligence of them,
and partly lacke of skill
That dooth the woorks with paynes well pend
lull ofte disgrace and spill.
3y5 But as for that be nought abasht :
the wise will well it waye,
And learned men shall soone discerne
thy fautes from his, and saye,
Loe here the Printer dooth him wrong,
38o as easy is to trye :
And slaunder dooth the authors name,
and lewdly him belye.
But w r here thy yeares thou sayst lacke sky 11,
mysdoute thou not (quoth he.)
385 J wil my selfe in these atiayres,
a helper be to thee.
Eche Poetts tale J will expounde
and other places harde.
Thou shalt (nodoubte) lynde some, that will
3go thy labour w r ell regarde.
And therwithall, oh lorde he sayde,
now him J thinke vppone,
That here but late to litle liude,
and now from hens is gone.
The Preface. 
3g5 Whose vcrtues rare in age so grccne
bewrayde a worthy wight,
And towardnesse tryde of tender tymc,
how louely lampe of light
He woulde haue byn, if God had spaerde
400 his dayes, tyll suche tyme, whan
That elder age had abled him,
by grouthe to grauer man.
How thankfull thyng thinkst thou (quoth he)
woulde this to him haue beene,
4o5 Jf geuen to his name he might
a woorke of thine haue seene,
Whome duryng life he fauourde so ?
but that may neuer be :
For gone he is, (alas the while)
410 thou shalt him neuer see,
Where breathyng bodyes dwell agayne :
nor neuer shalt thou more,
Eftsones with him of learnyng talke,
as thou werte woont before.
4i5 Yet wayle no more for him (he sayde)
for he farre better is.
His seate he hath obtayned nowe,
among the starrs in blis.
And castyng brighter beanies about,
420 then Phoebus golden glede,
Aboue the skies he lyues with Joue,
an other Ganymede :
[io8] The Preface.
Jn better place then Aquarie.
suche grace did God him gyue.
425 But though the sonne be gone, yet here
dothe yet the father lyue.
And long might he this lyfe enioye
in helthe, and great encrease
Of honour and of vertue bothe,
480 Tyll God his soule release
From corps to skyes : with right rewarde
to recompense him there,
For truthe and trusty seruice doon,
to prince and contrey here.
435 His goodnes loe thy selfe hast felte
(q; he) and that of late,
When he thee fayled not to helpe,
and succour thyne estate.
To him it shall beseeme thee well
440 some token for to showe,
That of thy dutie whiche thou dooste
for his deserts him owe
Thou myndfull arte, and how thou dooste
thy diligence applie,
445 To thanke as powre may serue, and with
thy pen to sygnifie,
A gratefull mynde. And though to light
so litle trifle bee,
To geue to him that hath so muche
45o alredie doone for thee,
The Preface. 
Yet syns thou canst none otherwyse
his honour yet requight,
Nor yet thy yeares doe thee permit
more waightie woorkes to wright,
455 This Christmas tyme thou mayste doe well
a peece therof to ende,
And many thanks in volume small,
as thee becomes to sende.
And tell him how for his estate,
460 thou dooste thy praiers make :
And him in dayly vowes of thine,
to God aboue betake.
But for because the Prynters all
haue greatly wronged mee,
4&5 To ease thee of thy paynes therin,
see what J bryng to thee.
He sayde : and therwithall, began
to ope the gylded booke
Whiche erst J tolde he bare in hand
470 and thervpon to looke.
The leaues within were fyne to feele,
and fayre to looke vppone,
As they with syluer had byn sleaktc,
full cleare to see they shone.
475 Yet farre the letters did eche one
exceede the leaues in sight,
More glorious then the glittryng golde,
and in the Jye more bright.
A) iii The
[no] The Preface.
The featly framed lyncs throughout
480 in meetest maner stando,
More worthy worke it was, then might
be made by mortall hande.
Therwith me thought a sauour sweete
J felt, so fresshc that was,
4<S5 That bedds of purple vyoletts,
and Roses farre did pas.
No princes perfume like to it,
in chamber of estate :
J wistc it was some thyng diuine,
490 did me so recreate.
J felt my selfe refresshed muche,
well quickned were my witts,
And often tymes of pleasure great
J had so ioyfull titts,
4()5 That wakyng now J will confesse,
you may beleeue me well,
Great hoorde of golde J wolde refuse
in suche delights to dwell,
As in that dreame J had. anone,
5oo me thought J asked him,
What booke it was he bare in hand,
that showde and smelde so trim.
These are (q; he) the Tragedies
in deede of Seneca,
5o5 The Muse her selfe them truly writ,
that hight Melpomena.
The Preface. [in]
Jn Parnase princely palaice highe,
she garnisshed this booke,
The Ladies haue of Helicon
5io great ioy theron to looke :
When walkyng in theyr aleys sweete
the flowres so fresshe they treade,
And in the midst of them me place,
my Tragedies to reade.
5i5 These leaues that iyne as veluet feele,
and parchement like in sight,
Of feate fyne Fawnes they are the skyns,
suche as no mortall wight
May come vnto : but with the which
52O the muses woont to playe,
Jn gardens still with grasse full greene,
that garnisht are full gaye.
There fostred are these litle beasts,
and fed with Muses mylke,
525 Their whitest hands and feete they lycke,
with tongue as softe as sylke.
Theyr heare not suche as haue the hearde,
of other common Deare,
But silken skyns of purple hewe,
53o lyke veluet fyne they weare.
With proper featly framed feete,
about the arbours greene
They trippe and daunce before these dames,
full seemely to be scene :
#> liii And
ii2] The Preface.
535 And then theyr golden homes adownc
in Ladies lappes they la) ,
A Create delight those systers nyne,
hauc with these Fawnes to play.
Of skyns of them this parchment loe
540 that shy nes so fay re they make,
When ought they woulde with hande of theyrs,
to written booke betake.
This gorgeous glyttryng golden Jnke,
so precious thyng to see,
545 Geue eare and whcrof made it is,
J shall declare to thee.
Fayre trees amyd theyr Paradise,
there are of euery kynde,
Where euery frute that boughe bryngs foorthe,
55o a man may euer fynde.
And deynties suche as princes wont,
with proudest price to bie,
Great plentie therof may be scene,
hang there on branches hie.
555 The Plumme, the Peare, the Fygge, the Date,
Powngarnet wants not theare,
The Orynge and the Olyue tree,
full plenteously dee beare.
Ye there the golden Apples hang,
56o whiche once a thyng muche worthe
To ioye the weddyng day of Joue,
the soyle it selfe brought forthe.
There Daphne stands transformde to tree,
that greene is styll to sight,
565 That was sometyme the loued Nymphe
so fayre, of Phoebus bright.
Not farre from frute so rytche, that once
did wakyng dragon keepe
Dothe Alyrrha stande, with wofull teares
570 that yet dothe wayle and weepe.
Her teares congealed hard to gumme,
that sauour sweete dothe cast,
Jt is that makes to leafe so fyne,
this Jnke to cleaue so fast.
5j5 But with what water is this Jnke
thus made, now learne (quoth hee)
The secrets of the sacred mounte,
J wyll declare to thee.
Aboue the rest a Cedre hyghe,
58o of haughtie toppe there growes
With bendyng braunches farre abrode,
on soyle that shadowe showes.
Jn toppe wherof do hang full hie,
the pennes of poetts olde,
585 And posyes purtred for theyr prayse,
in letters all of golde.
Jn shade wherof a banquet house
there stands of great delight,
For Muses ioyes, the walls are made
5go of marble fayre in sight
* V Foure
[H4J The Preface.
Fowre square : an Juery turret stands
at euery corner hye,
The nookes and toppes doth beaten golde,
and amell ouerlye.
5g5 Jn fulgent seate clothe fleeyng fame,
there syt full hyghe from grounde,
And prayse of Pallas poets sends
to starres with trumpetts sounde.
The gate therof so strong and sure,
fxx> it neede no watche nor warde
A woondrous woorke it is to see,
of Adamant full harde.
With nyne sure locks wherof of one
eche ladye kepes the kaye,
6o5 That none of them may come therin
when other are awaye.
The floore within with emrawds greene,,
ys paued fayre and feate,
The boorde and benches rovvnde about,
610 are made of pure blacke geate.
The lute, the harpe, the cytheron,
the shaulme, the shagbut eke,
The vyall and the vyrginall,
no musyke there to seeke.
6i5 About the walls more woorthy woorke
then made by mortall hande,
The poetts paynted pyctures all
in seemely order stande :
The preface. [nS]
With colours suche so lyuely layde,
620 that at that sight J weene,
Apelles pensyle woulde beare backe,
abashed to be scene.
There Homere, Guide, Horace eke
full featlye purtred bee,
6a5 And there not in the lowest place,
they haue described mee.
There Virgyle, Lucane, Palingene,
and rest of poetts all
Do stande, and there from this daie foorthe,
63o full many other shall.
For now that house by manye yardes,
enlarged out they haue,
Wherby they myght in wyder wall
the Jmages engraue,
635 And paynte the pyctures more at large,
of hundreds, englysshe men,
That geeue theyr tongue a greatter grace,
by pure and paynfull pen.
Jn mydst of all this woorthy woorke,
640 there runns a pleasant spryng,
That is of all the paradyse,
the most delycious thyng.
That rounde about encloased is,
with wall of Jasper stone :
645 The ladies let no wight therin,
but euen them selues alone,
The water shynes lyke golde in syght,
and swetest is to smell,
Full often tymes they bathe them selues,
65o within that blysfull well.
With water thereof they this Jnke
haue made that wryt this booke,
And lycenst me to bryng it downe,
for thee theron to looke.
655 Thou maist beleeue it trewly wrote,
and trust in euery whit
For here hathe neuer prynters presse
made faute, nor neuer yet,
Came errour here by mysse of man.
660 in sacred seate on hye,
They haue it wryt, in all whose woorks,
theyr pen can make no lye.
This booke shall greatly thee auayle,
to see how Prynters mys,
665 Jn all my woorkes, and all theyr fautes,
thou mayste correcte by thys.
And more then that, this golden spryng,
with whiche J haue the tolde
This ynke so bryght thus made to bee,
670 suche propertee dothe holde,
That who therof the sauour feeles,
his wytts shall quickned bee,
And spryghts reuyude in woondrous wyse,
as now it happs to thee.
The Preface. [117!
675 Come on thertbre whyle helpe thou haste
he sayde, and therwithall
Euen at Thyestes chaunced fyrst,
the leaues abrode to fall.
Euen here (q; he) yf it the please
680 begyn, now take thy pen
Moste dyre debates descrybe, of all
that euer chaunst to men.
And whiche the godds abhorde to see. \
The summe of all the stryfe
685 Nov/ harken to. Thyestes kepes
his brother Atreus wyfe,
And ramme with golden fleece : but yet
dothe Atreus frendship fayne
With him, tyll l.yme for fathers foode
690 he hathe his children slayne,
And dishes drest. he sayde, and then
begun to reade the booke :
J satte attent, and therupon
J iyxed fast my looke.
60,5 Fyrst how the furye draue the spryght
of Tantalus from hell
I^To styrre the stryfe, J harde hym reade,
and all expounde full well.
Full many pleasant poetts tales
700 that dyd me please J harde,
And euermore to booke so fayre,
J had a great regarde.
.ii 8] The Preface.
Wherby J sawe how often tymes
the Printers dyd him wrong.
705 Now Gryphyus, Colineus now,
and now and then among
He Aldus blamde, with all the rest
that in his woorks do rcys
Of sence or verse : and styll my booke,
710 J did correcte by hys.
The god of sleepe had harde all this,
when tyme for him it was,
To denns of slumber whence he came,
agayne awaie to pas.
7i5 The kercher bounde about my browes,
dypt all in Lymbo lake,
He stray ght vnknyt, away he fleeth,
and J begoon to wake.
When rownde J rollde mine eyes about,
720 and sawe my selfe alone,
Jn vayne J Senec Senec cryde,
the Poete now was gone.
For woe wherof J gan to weepe,
O godds (quoth J) vnkynde,
725 Ye are to blame with shapes so vayne
our mortall eyes to blynde.
What goodly gaync get you therby,
ye shoulde vs so beguvle,
And fantsies feede with ioyes, that last
73o alas to lyttle whyle ?
The Preface. 
J Morpheus curst a thousandc tymes,
that he had made me sleepe
At all, or ells that he me wolde,
in dreame no longer keepe.
735 And neuer were my ioyes so greate,
in sleepe so sweete before,
But now as greeuous was my woe,
alas and ten tymes more,
My selfe without the poete there,
740 thus lefte alone to see,
And all delights of former dreame,
thus vanysshed to bee.
Somtyme J curst, somtyme J cryde,
lyke wight that waxed woode,
745 Or Panther of hir pray depryude,
or Tygre of her broode.
A thousande tymes my colour goes,
and comes as ofte agayne,
About J walkte, J might no where,
760 in quyet rest remayne.
Jn woondrous wyse J vexed was,
that neuer man J weene
So soone, might after late delights,
in suche a pangue be scene.
755 O thou Meg3era then J sayde,
if might of thyne it bee,
Wherwith thou Tantall droauste from hell,
that thus dysturbeth mee,
[i 20] The Preface.
Enspyre my pen : with pensyuenes
760 this Tragedie t endyght,
And as so dredfull thyng beseemes,
with dolefull style to wryght.
This sayde, J felte the furies force
enflame me more and more,
765 And ten tymes more now chafte J was,
then euer yet before.
My heare stoode vp, J waxed woode,
my synewes all dyd shake,
And as the furye had me vext,
770 my teethe began to ake.
And thus enflamde with force of hir,
J sayde it shoulde be doon,
And downe J sate with pen in hande,
and thus my verse begoon.
775 The speakers.
7 8o THYESTES OF
The fyrst Acte.
Hat furye fell enforceth me
to flee thunhappie seate.
That gape and gaspew greedy iawe,
the fleeyng foode to eate ?
What god to Tantalus the bowres
where breathyng bodies dwell
Doth showe agayne? is ought found
then burning thurst of hell (worse
Jn lakes alowe ? or yet worse plague
then hunger is there one,
Jn vayne that euer gapes for foode ?
7g5 shall Sisyphus his stone,
That slypper restles rollyng payse
vpon my backe be borne ?
Or shall my lymms with swyfter swynge
of whirlyng wheele be torne ?
800 Or shall my paynes be Tityus pangs
thencreasyng lyuer styll,
Whose growyng gutts the gnawyng grypes
and fylthie foules doe fyll ?
That styll by night repayres the panche
8o5 that was deuowrde by dale,
And wondrows wombe vnwasted lythe
a new prepared praie.
What yll arn J appoynted for ?
O cruell iudge of sprights,
810 Who so thou be that torments newe
among the soules delights
Styll to dyspose, adde what thou canst
to all my deadly woe,
That keper euen of dungeon darke
8i5 wolde sore abhorre to knoe,
Or hell it selfe it quake to see :
for dreade wherof lykewyse
J tremble woulde, that plague seeke out :
Loe nowe there dothe aryse
820 My broode, that shall in mischiefe farre
the grandsiers gylt out goe,
And gyltles make : that fyrst shall dare
vnuentred ylls to doe.
What euer place remaineth yet
826 of all this wycked lande,
J will fyll vp : and neuer once
while Pelops house dothe stande
Shall Minos idle be. Meg. goe foorth
thou detestable spright,
83o And vexe the godds of wycked house
with rage of furies might.
of Seneca. fi23J
Let them contende with all offence,
by turnes and one by one
Let swoordes be drawen : and meane of ire
835 procure there maie be none,
Nor shame : let furie blynde enflame
their myndes and wrathfull wyll,
Let yet the parents rage endure,
and longer lastyng yll,
840 Through childerns childern spreade : nor yet
let any leysure be
The former fawte to hate, but styll
more mischiefe newe to see,
Nor one in one : but ere the gylt
845 with vengeance be acquyt,
Encrease the cryme : from brethern proude
let rule of kyngdome flyt,
To runagates : and swaruyng state
of all vnstable things,
85o Let it by doubtfull dome be toste,
betwene thuncertayne kyngs.
Let mightie fall to miserie,
and myser clymc to myght,
Let chaunce turne thempyre vp so downe
855 both geue and take the ryght.
The banyshed for gylt, whan god
restore theyr countrey shall,
Let them to mischiefe fall a freshe :
as hateiull then to all,
a ii As
860 As to them selues : let Jre thinke nought
vnlawfull to be doon.
Let brother dreade the brothers wrathe,
and father feare the soon,
And eke the soon his parents powre.
865 let babes be murdered yll,
But woorse begotte : her spouse betrapt
in treasons trayne to kyll,
Let hatefull wyfe awayte. and let
them beare through seas their warre,
870 Let bloodshed lye the lands about
and euery feelde afarre :
And ouer conqueryng captaynes greate,
of countreys farre to see,
Let luste tryumphe : in vvycked house
8;5 let whoordome counted be
The lightst offense : let trust that in
the breasts of brethern breedes,
And truthe be gone : let not from sight
of your so heynous deedes
880 The heauens be hyd, about the poale
when shyne the starres on hye,
And flames with woonted beanies of light
doe decke the paynted skye.
Let darkest night be made, and let
885 the daye the heauens forsake.
Dysturbe the godds of wycked house,
hate, slaughter, murder make.
of Seneca. 
Fyll up the house of Tantalus
with mischieues and debates.
890 Adorned be the pyllers hyghe,
with baye and let the gates
Be garnysht greene : and woorthie there
for thy returne to syght,
Be kyndled lyre : let myschicfe doone
8()5 in Thracia onse, there lyght
More manyfolde. wherfore dothe yet
the vncles hande delaie ?
Dothe yet Tyestes not bewayle
his childerns fatall daye ?
QUO Shall he not fynde them where with heate
of tyres that vnder glowe
The cawdern boyles ? their lymms eche one
a peeces let them goe
Dysperste : let fathers fires, with blood
go5 of childern fvled bee :
Let deynties suche be dreste : it is
no myschiefe newe to thee,
To banquet so : beholde, this daie
we haue to the releaste,
910 And hunger starued wombe of thyne
we sende to suche a feaste.
With fowlest foode thy famyne fyll,
let bloode in wyne be drownde,
And droonke in syght of thee : loe nowe
gi5 suche dyshes haue J founde,
a ifi As
As thou wouldst shonne. stale whither doste
thou hedlong waie no\vc take ?
Tan. To pooles and floods of hell agayne,
and styll declynyng lake,
920 And flight of tree full fraight with fruite
that from the lyppes dothe flee,
To dungeon darke of hatefull hell
Let leefull be for mee
To goe : or if to light be thought
Q25 the paynes that there J haue,
Remoue me from those lakes agayne :
in mydst of worser wane
Of Phleghethon to stande, in seas
of fyre besette to be.
q3o Who so beneath thy poynted paynes
by destenies decree
Dooste styll endure, who so thou be
that vnderliest alowe
The hollowe dtnne, or ruyne who
935 that fearcs and ouerthrowe
Of fallyng hyil, or cruell cryes
that sounde in caues of hell
Of greedy roaryng lyons throates,
or flocke of furies fell
940 Who quakes to knowe, or who the brands
of fyre, in dyrest payne
Halfe burnte throwes of, harke to the voice
of Tantalus : agayne
of Seneca. L I2 7]
That hastes to hell, and (whom the truthe
945 hath taught) beleue well mee
Loue well your paynes, they are but small.
when shall my happe so bee
To flee the lyght ? Meg. disturbe thou fyrst
this house \\ith clyre discorde :
g5o Debates and battels bryng with thee,
and of th unhappie swoorde
Jll loue to kynges : the cruell brest
stryke through and hatefull harte,
With tumulte madde. Tan. To suffre paynes
g55 it seemeth well my parte,
Not woes to woorke : J am sent foorth
lyke vapour dyre to ryse,
That breakes the ground, or poyson lyke
the plague, in wondrowse wyse
960 That slaughter makes, shall J to suche
detested crymcs, applye
My nephewes hartes ? o parents greate
of godds aboue the skye,
And myne, (though shamde J be to graunte,)
965 although with greatter payne
My tounge be vexte, yet this to speake
J maie no whit refrayne,
Nor holde my peace : J warne you this,
leaste sacred hand with hloode
970 Of slaughter dyre, or fransie fell
of frantyke furie woode
H Hit The
The aulters stayne, J will resyste :
And garde suche gylt awaye.
With strypes why dooste thou me affryght ?
t)/5 why threatst thou me to iraye
Those crallyng snakes ? or famyne fyxt
in emptie wombe, wherfore
Dooste thou reuyue ? nowe fryes within
with thyrst enkyndlcd sore
980 My hart : and in the bowels burnte,
the boylyng flames doe glowe.
Meg. J followe thee : through all this house
nowe rage and furie throwe.
Let them be dryuen so, and so
985 let eyther thyrst to see
Eche others blood, full well hathe felte
the cummyng in of thee
This house : and all with wycked touche
of the begun to quake.
990 Enough it is. repayre agayne
to denns and lothsome lake,
Of floode well knowne. the sadder soyle
with heauy foote of thyne
Agreeued is. seeste thou from spryngs
ggS howe waters doe decline
And inwarde synke ? or howe the bankes
lye voyde by droughtie heate ?
And whotter blast of fyrie wynde
the fewer cloudes dothe beate ?
1000 The treese be spoyllde, and naked stande
to sight in withred woodds,
The barayne bowes whose frates are fled :
the lande betweene the floodds,
With surge of seas on either syde
K>o5 that woonted to resounde,
And neerer foordes to separate
somtime with lesser grounde,
Nowe broader spredde, it heareth howe
aloofe the waters ryse.
1010 Now Lerna turnes agaynst the streame,
His poares be stoppte. with customde course
Alpheus driues not still,
His hollie waues. the tremblyng topps
ioi5 of highe Citrueron hill,
They stande not sure : from height adowne
they shake theyr sylucr snowe,
And noble feeldes of Argos feare,
theyr former drought to knowe.
1020 Yea Titan doubles him selfe, to rolle
the worlde his woonted waye,
And driue by force to former course
The backwarde drawyng daye.
a v> Cho-
IO25 f i ^His Argos towne if any God be founde,
and Pisey bowres that famous yet remaine,
Or kyngdomes els to loue of Corinths grounde,
the double hauens, or soondred seas in twayne,
Jf any loue Taygetus his snowes,
io3o (by winter whiche when they on hills be cast,
By Boreas blasts that from Sarmatia blowes,
with yerely breathe the sommer melts as fast,)
Where cleere Alpheus roons, with floude so colde,
By plaies well knowne that there olimpiks hight :
io35 Let pleasant powre of his from hense withholde
suche turnes of strife, that here they may not light :
Nor nephew woorse then grandsier spryng from vs,
or dyrer deedes delight the yonger age.
Let wicked stocke of thyrstie Tantalus,
1040 at lengthe leaue of, and wery be of rage.
Enoughe is doone, and nought preuailde the iust,
or wrong : betrayde is Myrtilus and drownde,
That did betray his dame : and with lyke trust
borne as he bare, himselfe hath made renounde
1045 With changed name the sea : and better knowne
to mariners therof no fable is.
On wicked swoorde the litle infant throwne,
as ran the childe to take his fathers kis,
of Seneca. fi3i]
Unripe tor thaulters offryng fell downe deade :
io5o and with thy hand (o Tantalus) was rent,
With suche a meate for gods thy boordes to spreade.
eternall famine for suche foode is sent,
And thyrst : nor for those deyntie meates vnmilde,
might meeter payne apoynted euer bee.
io55 With emptie thronte stands Tantalus beguilde,
aboue thy wicked hed there leanes to thee,
Then Phineys fowles in flight a swifter praie.
with burdned bowes declinde on euery syde,
And of his fruites all bent to beare the swaie,
1060 the tree deludes the gapes of hunger wyde.
Though he full greedie, feede theron woulde faine,
so ofte disceyude neglects to touche them yet :
He turnes his eyes, his iawes he doth refrayne,
and famine fixt in closed gumms doth shet.
1065 But then eche branche his plenteous ritches all,
letts lower downe : and apples from on hie
With lyther leaues they flatter like to fall,
and famine styrre : in vayne that bidds to trie
His hands : whiche when he hathe rought foorthe anone
1070 to be beguilde, in higher ayre agayne
The haruest hangs, and fickle fruite is gone.
then thirst him greeues no lesse then hungers payne :
Wherwith when kindled is his boylyng blood
lyke fyre, the wretche the waues to him dothe call,
1075 That meete his mouthe : whiche straight the fleeyng flood
withdrawes, and from the dried foorde doth fall :
And him forsakes that ibllowes them. He drinkes
the duste so deepe of gulphe that from him shrinkes.
The seconde Acte.
1080 Atreus. Seruant.
Dastarde, cowrde, o wretche, and (which(
the greatest yet of all
To tyrants checke, J counte that maye
in waightie thyngs befall,)
O vnreuenged : after gilts
so greate, and brothers guyle,
And truthe trode downe, dooste thou prouoke
with vayne complaynts the whyle
Thy wrathe ? alredie nowe to rage
logo all Argos towne through out
Jn armour ought of thine, and all
the double seas about
Thy fleete to ryde : nowe all the feeldes
with feruent flames of thyne,
log5 And townes to flasshe it well beseemde :
and euery where to shyne,
The bright drawne sworde : all vnder foote
of horse let euerie syde
Of Argos lande resounde : and let
Iioo the woods not serue to hyde
of Seneca. \ I 33]
Our foes, nor yet in haughtie toppe
of hills and mountaynes hie,
The builded towres. The people all
let them to battayle crie,
Iio5 And cleere forsake Mycenas towne.
who so his hatefull hed
Hydes and defends, with slaughter dyre
let bloud of him be shed.
This pryncely Pelops palaice proudc
Ilio and bowres of highe renowne,
On me so on my brother too,
let them be beaten downe.
Goe to, do that whiche neuer shall
no after age allowe,
in5 Nor none it whisht : some mischefe greate
there must be ventred nowe,
Bothe fierce and bloudie : suche as woldc
my brother rather long
To haue byn his. Thou neuer dooste
1 1 20 enoughe reuenge the wrong,
Except thou passe. And feercer facte
what may be doone so dyre,
That his exceedes ? doothe euer he
lay downe his hatefull yre ?
1 125 Doothe euer he the modest meane
in tyme of welthe regarde ?
Or quiet in aduersitee ?
J knowe his nature harde
Untractable, that broke may be,
n3o but neuer will it bende.
For whiche ere he prepare him selfe,
or force to fight entende,
Set fyrst on him : least while J rest
he should on me arise.
Ii35 He will destroy or be destroyde,
in midst the mischiefe lies,
Preparde to him that takes it first.
Ser. Doothe fame of people nought
Aduerse thee feare ? Atre. The greatest good
1140 of kyngdome may be thought,
That still the people are constraynde
theyr princes deedes as well
To praise, as them to suffer all.
Ser. Whome feare dothe so compell
1146 To prayse, the same his foes to be,
doothe feare enforce agayne :
But who in deede the glory seekes
of fauour true tobtayne,
He rather wolde with harts of echc
n5o be praysde, then tongues of all.
Atre. The truer prayse full ofte hathe hapte
to meaner men to fall :
The false but vnto mightie man.
what nill they, let them wyll.
n55 Ser. Let first the kyng will honest thyngs,
and none the same dare nyll.
of Seneca. 35]
Atre. Where leefull are to him that rules
hut honest thyngs alone,
There raygnes the kyng by others leaue.
1160 Ser. And where that shame is none,
Nor care of right, faythe, pietie,
nor holmes none staythe,
That kyngdome swarues. Atre. Suche holines,
suche pietie, and faythe,
Il65 Are priuate goods : let kyngs run on
in that that likes their will.
Ser. The brothers hurt a myschiefe counte,
though he be neare so ill.
Atre. Jt is but right to doe to him,
1170 that wrong to brother were.
What heynous hurt hathe his offense
let passe to proue ? or where
Relraynde the gilt ? my spouse he stale
away for lecherie,
1175 And raygne by stelthe : the auncient note
and sygne of imperie,
By fraude he gotte : my house by fraude
to vexe he neuer ceaste.
Jn Pelops house there fostred is
ilcSo a noble worthy beaste,
The close kept Ramme : the goodly guide
of ritche and fayrest flockes.
By whome through out on euery syde
depend a downe the lockes
n85 Of glittryng golde, with fleece of whiche
the new kyngs woonted weare
Of Tantalls stocke their sceptors guilt
and mace of might to beare.
Of this the owner raigneth he :
1190 with him of house so gret
The fortune fleethe : this sacred Rame
a loofe in saftie shet,
Jn secret meade is wonte to grase,
whiche stone on euery syde
ligS With rockie wall encloseth rounde
the fatall beast to hyde.
This beast (aduentryng mischiefe great;
adioynyng yet for praie
My spoused mate, the traytour false
1200 hathe hens conuayde awaie.
From hens the wrongs of mutuall hate,
and mischefe all vp sprong :
Jn exile wandred he, through out
my kyngdomes all a long :
I2o5 No parte of myne remayneth safe
to me, from traynes of his.
My feerce deflourde, and loyaltie
of empyre broken is :
My house all vext, my bloud in doubte,
I2IO and nought that trust is in,
But brother foe. What staiest thou yet ?
at lengthe loe now begin.
of Seneca. 
Take hart of Tantalus to thee,
to Pelops cast thine eye :
I2T5 To suche examples well beseemes,
J should my hands applye.
Tell thou whiche way were best to bryng
that cruell hed to deathe.
Ser. Through perste with swoorde let him be slaine
1220 and yelde his hatefull breathe.
Atre. Thou speakst oi thende : but J him wolde
oppressc with greter payne.
Let tyrants vexe with torment more :
shoulde eucr in my rayne
1225 Be gentle deathe ? Ser. Dothe pietie
in thee preuaile no whit ?
Atre. Departe thou hens all pietie,
if in this house as yet
Thou euer werte : and no\v let all
i23o the rlocke of furies dyre,
And full of strife Erinnys come,
and double brands of lyre
Megaera shakyng : for not yet
enough with furie greate
1235 And rage dothe burne my boylyng brest :
it ought to be repleate,
With monster more. Ser. What mischefe new
dooste thou in rage prouide ?
Atre. Not suche a one as may the meane
1240 of woonted greefe abide.
No gilt will J forbeare, nor none
may be enoughe despight.
Ser. What sworde ? Atr. To litle that. Ser. what fire ?
Atre. And that is yet to light.
1245 Ser. What weapon then shall sorow suche
fynde fit to woorke thy wyll ?
Atre. Thyestes selfe. Ser. Then yre it self
yet thats a greater yll.
Atr. J graunte : a tomblyng tumulte quakes, within
1260 my bosomes loe,
And rounde it rolles : J moued am
and wote not whervnto.
But drawcn J am : from botome deepe
the roryng soyle dothe crie
1255 The day so fayre with thounder soundes,
and house as all from hie
Were rent, from roofe, and rafters craks :
and lares turnde abought
Haue wryde theyr s}^ght : so beete, so beete,
1260 let mischiefe suche be sought,
As ye O gods wolde feare. Ser. What thyng
seekste thou to bryng to pas ?
J note what greater thyng my inynde,
and more then woont it was
1265 Aboue the reatche that men are woont
to woorke, begyns to swell :
And staythe with slouthfull hands. What thyng
it is J can not tell :
But great it is. Beete so, my mynde
1270 now in this feate proceede,
For Atreus and Thvestes bothe,
it were a worthy deede.
Let eche of vs the crime commit.
The Thracian house did se
12/5 Suche wicked tables once : J graunte
the mischiefe great to be,
But done ere this : some greater gilt
and mischiefe more, let yre
Fynde out. The stomak of thy sonne
1280 o father thou enspyre,
And syster eke, lyke is the cause :
assist me with your powre,
And dryue my hande : let gredy pa
rents all his babes deuowre,
1285 And glad to rent his children be :
and on their lyms to feede.
Enough, and well it is deuysde :
this pleaseth me in deede.
Jn meane time where is he ? so long
1290 and innocent wherfore
Dooth Atreus walke ? before myne eyes
alredie more and more
The shade of suche a slaughter walkes :
the want of children cast,
I2(j5 Jn lathers iawes. But why my mynde,
yet dreadst thou so at last,
33 ii And
 T Yhyestes
And fayntst before thou enterprise ?
it must be doone, let be.
That whiche in all this mischefe is
l3oo the greatest gilt to se,
Let him commit. Ser. but what disceyte
may we for him prepare,
Wherby betrapt he may be drawen,
to fall into the snare ?
i3o5 He wotes full well we are his foes.
Atre. He coulde not taken be,
Except him selfe woulde take : but now
my kyngdomes hopeth he.
For hope of this he wolde not feare
i3io to meete the mightie Joue,
Though him he thretned to destroy,
with lightnyng from aboue.
For hope of this to passe the threats
of waues he will not fayle,
i3i5 Nor dread no whit by doubteull shelues,
of Lybike seas to sayle.
For hope of this (whiche thyng he dothe
the woorst of all beleeue,)
He will his brother see. Ser. Who shall
i32o of peace the promise geeue ?
Whome wyll he trust ? Atre. His euill hope
will soone beleue it well.
Yet to my sons the charge which they
shall to theyr vnkle tell,
of Seneca. 
i325 We will commit : that home he woulde
from exyle come againe,
And miseries for kyngdome chaunge,
and ouer Argos raygne
A kyng of halfe : and though to harde
i33o of hart our prayers all
Him self despise, his children yet
nought wotyng what may fall,
With trauels tierde, and apte to be
entysde from miserie,
i335 Requests will moue : on thone syde his
desyre oi Jmperie,
On thother syde his pouertie,
and labour harde to see,
Wyll him subdue and make to yelde,
1340 although full stoute he bee.
Ser. His trauells now the time hath made
to seeme to him but small.
Atre. Not so : lor day by day the greefe
of yll encreaseth all.
1345 Tys light to suffer miseries,
but heuy them t endure.
Ser. Yet other messengers to sende,
in suche affayres procure.
Atre. The yonger sorte the worse precepts
l35o do easelie harken to.
Ser. What thyng against their vnkle now,
you them enstrukte to do,
Perhaps with you to worke the like,
they will not be a dred.
1 355 Suche mischieie wrought hath ofte returnde
vpon the workers hed.
Atre. Though neuer man to them the wayes
of guile and gilt haue taught,
Yet kyngdome will. Fearst thou they shoulde
l36o be made by counscll naught ?
They are so borne. That whiche thou calste
a cruell enterpryse,
And dyrely deemest doone to be,
and wickedly likewyse,
i365 Perhaps is wrought against me there.
Ser. And shall your soons of this
Disceyte beware that worke you will ?
no secretnes there is
Jn theyr so greene and tender yeres :
1370 they will your traynes disclose.
Atre. A priuie counsell cloase to keepe,
is learnde with many woes.
Ser. And will ye them, by whome ye woulde
he shoulde beguiled bee,
i375 Them selues beguilde ? At. Nay let the bothe
from faute and blame be free.
For what shall neede in mischiefes suche
as J to woorke entende,
To myngle them ? let all my hate
i38o by me alone take ende.
Thou leauste thy purpose yll my minde :
yf thou thine owne forbeare,
Thou sparest him. Wherfore of this
let Agamemnon heare
i385 Be minister : and client eke
of mine for suche a deede,
Let Menelaus present be :
truthe of thuncertaine seede,
By suche a pracktise may be tride :
i3go if it refuse they shall,
Nor of debate will bearers be,
if the}" him vnkle call,
He is their father : let them goe.
but muche the fearfull face
i3g5 Bewrayes it selfe : euen him that faynes
the secret wayghtie case,
Dothe ofte betray : let them therfore
not know, how greate a guyle
They goe about. And thou these thyngs
1400 in secret keepe the whyle.
Ser. J neede not warned be, for these
within my bosome deepe,
Bothe faythe, and feare, but chiefely faythe,
dothe shet and closely keepe.
X iiii Chorus
[ 1 44-1 Yhyestes
1405 ty Chorus.
THe noble house at lengthe of highe renowne,
the famous stocke of auncient Jnachus,
Appeasde and layde the threats of brethern downe.
but now what furie styrrs and dryues you thus,
1410 Eche one to thyrst the others bloud agayne,
or get by gylt the golden mace in hande ?
Ye litle wote that so desyre to raygne,
in what estate or place dothe kyngdome stande.
Not ritches make a kyng or highe renowne,
I4i5 not garnisht weede with purple Tyrian die,
Not loftie lookes, or head encloasde with crowne,
not glittryng beames with golde and turretts hie.
A kyng he is, that feare hath layde asyde,
and all affects that in the brest are bred :
1420 Whome impotent ambition dothe not guyde,
nor fickle fauour hathe of people led.
Nor all that west in metalls mynes hath founde,
or chanell cleere of golden Tagus showes,
Nor all the grayne that thrasshed is on grounde,
1425 that with the heate of libyk haruest glowes.
Nor whome the flasshe of lightnyng flame shall beate,
nor eastern wynde that smites vppon the seas,
Nor swellyng surge with rage of wynde repleate,
or greedie gulphe of Adria displease.
1430 Whome not the pricke of souldiers sharpest speare,
or poynted pyke in hand hath made to rue,
Nor whome the glympse of swoorde myght cause to feare,
or bright drawen blade of glyttryng steele subdue.
Who in the seate of saftie setts his feete,
1435 beholdes all happs how vnder him they lye,
And gladlie runs his latall daie to mecte,
nor ought complaynes or grudgeth for to dye.
Though present were the prynces euery chone,
the scattered Dakes to chase that woonted be,
1440 That shynyng seas beset with precious stone,
and red sea coastes doe holde, lyke bloude to see :
Or they which els the Caspian mountaynes hye,
from Sarmats strong with all theyr power withholde :
Or he that on the floude of Danubye,
1445 in frost a foote to trauayle dare be bolde :
Or Seres in what euer place they lye,
rcnounde with lleece that there of sylke dothe sprvng,
They neuer myght the truthe hereof denye,
it is the mynde that onely makes a kyng.
I45o There is no neede of sturdie steedes in warre,
no neede with armes or arrowes els to fyght,
That Parthus woonts with bo we to fling from farre,
while from the feelde he falsely fayneth flight.
Nor yet to siege no neede it is to brynge,
1455 great goons in carts to ouerthro we the wall,
That from far of the yr battryng pellettes slyng.
a kyng he is that feareth nought at all.
JB v Eche
Eche man him selfe this kyngdome geeues at hande.
let who so lyst with myghtie mace to raygne,
1460 Jn tyckle toppe of court delyght to stande.
let me the sweete and quiet rest obtayne.
So sette in place obscure and lowe degree,
of pleasaunt rest J shall the sweetnes knoe.
My lyfe vnknowne to them that noble be,
1465 shall in the steppe of secret sylence goe.
Thus when my daies at length are ouerpast,
and tyme without all troublous tumulte spent,
An aged man J shall departe at last,
Jn meane estate, to dye full well content.
1470 But greuous is to him the deathe, that when
so farre abrode the bruyte of him is blowne,
That knowne he is to muche to other men :
departeth yet vnto him selfe vnknowne.
The thyrde Acte.
1475 Thyestes. Phylisthenes.
Y countrey bowres so long wysht for,
and Argos rytches all,
Cheefe good that vnto banysht men,
and mysers maie befall,
1480 The touche of soyle where borne J was,
and godds of natyue lande,
(Jf godds they be,) and sacred towres
J see of Cyclops hande :
of Seneca. t ! 4?]
That represent then all mans woorke,
1485 a greater maiestie.
Renowned stadies to my youth,
where noble sometytne J
Haue not so seelde as onse, the palme
in lathers charyot woon.
1490 All Argos now to meete with me,
and people fast will roon :
But Atreus to. yet rather leade
in woods agayne thy flight,
And bushes thicke, and hyd among
1493 the brutyshe beastes from sight,
Lyke lyfe to theyrs : where splendent pompe
of court and princely pryde,
May not with flattryng fulgent face,
allure thine eyes asyde.
i5oo With whom the kyngdome geuen is,
beholde, and well regarde,
Beset but late with suche mishaps,
as all men counte full harde,
J stoute and ioyfull was : but now
i5<>5 agayne thus into feare
J am returnde. my mynde mysdoutes,
and backeward seekes to beare
My bodye hens : and forthe J drawe
my pase agaynst my wyll.
i5io Phy. With slouthfull steppe (what meaneth this ?)
my father standeth still,
And turnes his face and holdes him selfe,
in doute what thyng to do.
Thy. What thyng (my mynde) consyderst thou ?
f 5i5 or els so long wherto
Dooste thou so easy counsayle wrest ?
whylt thou to thynges vnsure
Thy brother and the kyngdome trust ?
fearst thou those ils tendure
i520 Now ouercome, and mielder made ?
and trauayls dooste thou flee
That well were plaste ? it the auayles,
a myser now to bee.
Turne hens thy pace while leefull is,
i525 and keepe thee from his hande.
Phyl. What cause the dryues (o father deere)
thus from thy natiue lande,
Now seene to shrynke ? what makes thee thus
from thyngs so good at last
i53o Withdrawe thy selfe ? thy brother comes
whose ires be ouerpast,
And halfe the kyngdome geues, and of
the house Dylacerate,
Repayres the partes : and thee restores
i535 agayne to former state.
Thyest. The cause of feare that J know not,
thou dooste requyre to heare.
J see nothyng that makes me dread,
and yet J greatly feare.
1640 J woulde goe on, but yet my lymms
with weery leggs doe slacke :
And other waie then J woulde passe,
J am withholden backe.
So ofte the shippe that driuen is
1645 with winde and eke with ore,
The swellyng surge resistyng bothe,
beates backe vpon the shore.
Phyl. Vet ouercome what euer stayes,
and thus doth let your mynde,
l55o And see what are at your returne,
preparde for you to fynde.
You may o father raigne. Thy. J male
but then when die J mought.
Ph. Cheefe thing is powre. Th. nought worth at all,
i555 if thou desyre it nought.
Phyl. You shall it to your children leaue.
Thy. the kyngdome takes not twayne.
Phy. Who maie be happie, rather wolde
he myser yet remayne ?
i56o Thy. Beleue me well, with titles false
the greate thyngs vs delight :
And heuye happs in vayne are fearde.
while high J stoode in sight,
J neuer stynted then to quake,
i565 and selfe same swoorde to feare,
That hanged by myne owne syde was.
Oh how great good it were,
With none to striue, but careles foode
to eate and rest to knowe ?
i57o The greater gylts they enter not
in cotage sette alowe :
And safer foode in fed vpon,
at narrowe boorcle alwaye,
While droonke in golde the poyson is :
l575 by proofe well taught J saye,
That euyll happs before the good
to loue it lykes my wyll.
Of haughtie house that stands alofte
in tickle toppe of hyll,
i58o And swayes asyde, the citee lowe
neede neuer be affryght :
Nor in the toppe of roofe aboue,
there shynes no Juery bright,
Nor watcheman none defendes my sleepes
1 585 by night, or gardes my rest :
With fleete J fyshe not, nor the seas
J haue not backwarde prest,
Nor turnde to flight with builded wall :
nor wicked belly J
i5go With taxes of the people fedde :
nor parcell none doth ly,
Of grounde of mine beyonde the Getes :
and Parthians farre about :
Nor worshiped with francansence
i5g5 J am, nor (Joue shette out)
My Aulters decked are : nor none
in toppe of house doth stande
Jn garden treese, nor kyndled yet
with helpe of eche mans hande,
1600 The bathes dooe smoke : nor yet are dayes
in slouthfnll slumbers led,
Nor nightes paste loorth in watche and wine,
without the rest of bed.
We nothyng feare, the house is safe
i6o5 without the hydden knyfe,
And poore estate the sweetenes feeles,
of rest and quyet lyfe.
Create kyngdome is to be content,
without the same to lyue.
1610 Phy. Yet shoulde it not refused be,
if god the kyngdome gyue.
Thy. Not yet desyerd it ought to be.
Phy. your brother bydds you rayne.
Thy. Bydds he ? the more is to be fearde :
:6l5 there lurketh there some trayne.
Phy. From whens it fell, yet pietie
is woonte to turne at lengthe :
And loue vnfaynde, repayres agayne
his erste omitted strengthe.
1620 Thy. Dothe Atreus then his brother loue ?
eche Ursa fyrst on hye,
The seas shall washe, and swellyng surge
of seas of Sicylye
Shall rest and all asswaged be,
i()25 and corne to rypenes growe
Jn botome of Jonian seas,
and darkest night shall showe
And spreade the light about the soyle :
the waters with the fyre,
i63o The lyfe with death, the wynde with seas,
shall frendshyp fyrst requyre,
And be at league. Pliy. of what deceite
are you so dreadfull here ?
Thy, Of euery chone : what ende at length
i635 myght J prouide of feare ?
Jn all he can he hateth me.
Phy. to you what hurt can he ?
Thy. As for my selfe J nothyng dread :
you lyttle babes make me
1(340 Afrayde of him. Pliy. dreadc ye to be
beguylde when caught ye are ?
To late it is to shoon the trayne
in myddle of the snare.
But goe we on, this (father) is
1646 to you my last request.
Thy. J followe you. J leade you not.
Phy. god turne it to the best,
That well deuysed is for good,
passe foorth with cherefull pace.
of Seneca. [i53]
io5o The isecunde See a ne.
Ntrapt in trayne the beast is caught
and in the snare clothe fall :
Bothe him, and eke of hated stocke
ith him the ofspryng all,
About the fathers syde J see :
and now in safetie stands
And surest ground my wrathfull hate:
nowe comes into my hands
1660 At length Thyestes : ye he comes
and all at ones to me.
J scant refrayne my selfe, and scant
may anger brydled be.
So when the bloodhounde seekes the beast,
i665 by steppe and quycke of sent
Drawes in the leame, and pace by pace
to wynde the wayes he went,
With nose to soyle dothe hunt,
while he the boare aloofe hath founde
1670 Far re of by sent, he yet refraynes
and wanders throuh the grounde
With sylent mouth : but when at hand
he once perceiues the praye,
With al the strength he hath he striues,
1675 with voyce and calls awaye
His lyngring maister, and from him
by force out breaketh he.
W T hen Jre dothe hope the present blood,
it may not hydden be.
1680 Yet let it hydden be. beholde,
with vglye heare to syght
How yrkesomely defourmde with fylthe
his fowlest face is dyght,
How lothsome lyes his bearde vnkempt :
i685 but let us frendship fayne.
To see my brother me delights :
geue now to me agayne
Embrasyng long desyred for :
what euer stryfe there was
1690 Before this time betwene vs twayne,
forget and let it pas :
Fro this daie foorth let brothers loue,
let blood, and lawe of kynde
Regarded be, let all debate
i6o,5 be slakte in eythers mynde.
Thy. J coulde excuse my selfe, except
thou werte as now thou arte.
But ( Atreus ) now J graunte, the faute
was myne in euery parte :
1700 And J offended haue in all.
my cause the worse to bee,
Your this daies kindnes makes : in deede
a gyltie wight is hoe,
That wolde so good a brother hurt
17^5 as you, in any whyt.
But nowe with teares J must entrcate,
and fyrst J me submit.
These hands that at thy iecte doe lye,
doe thee beseeche and praye,
1710 That yre and hate be layde asyde,
and from thy bosome maye
Be scraped out : and cleere forgot.
for pledges take thou theese
O brother deere, these gyltles babes.
1716 Atf. thy hands yet from my kneese
Remoue, and rather me to take
in armes, vppon me fall.
And ye o aydes of elders age,
ye lyttle infants all,
1720 Me clyppe and colle about the neckc :
this fowle attyre forsake,
And spare myne eyes that pitie it,
and fresher vesture take
Lyke myne to see. and you with ioye,
1725 the halfe of emperie
Deere brother take : the greater prayse
shall come to me therby,
C it Our
Our lathers seate to yelcle to you,
and brother to releeuc.
I73o To haue a k)-ngdome is but chaunce,
but vertue it to geeuc.
Thy. A iust rewarde for suche deserts,
the godds (o brother deare)
Repay e to the : but on my hed
1735 a regall crowne to weare,
My lothsome iyfe dcnyes : and farre
dothe from the sceptor flee
My hande vnhappie : in the mydst
let leefull be for mee
1740 Of men to lurke 1 Atre. this kindome can
with twayne full well agree.
Thy. What euer is (o brother) yours,
J count it myne to bee.
Atr. Who wolde dame fortunes gyfts refuse,
1745 if she him rayse to raygne ?
Thy. The gyfts of hir eche man it wotes,
how soone they passe agayne.
Atre. ye me depryue of glory greate,
except ye th empyre take.
1760 Thy. You haue your prayse in offryng it,
and J it to forsake.
And full perswaded to refuse
the kyngdome, am J still.
Atre. Except your part ye will susteine
1755 myne owne forsake J will.
of Seneca. 
Thy. J take it then, and heart 1 J will
the name thereof alone :
The ryghts and armes, as well as myne
they shall be yours eche one.
1760 Atre. The regall crowne as you besemes
vppon your hed then take :
And J thappointed sacrifice
for godds, will now goe make.
1765 | Okie any man it weene ? that cruell wyght
Atreus, of mynde so impotent to see
Was soone astonied with his brothers syght.
no greater force then pietee may be :
Where kynred is not, lastcth euery threate,
1770 whom true loue holdes, it holdes eternallye.
The wrathe but late with causes kyndled greate
all fauour brake, and dyd to battayle crye,
Whan horsemen did resounde on euery syde,
the swoordes eche where, then glystred more and more :
1775 Which ragyng Mars with often stroke dyd guyde
the fresher bloud to shedde yet thyrstyng sore.
But loue the sworde agaynst theyr wills doth swage,
and them to peace perswades with hand in hand.
So sodeyne rest, amyd so greate a rage
1780 what god hath made ? throughout Mycenas lande
C lii The
The harnes clynkt, but late of cyuill stryfe :
and for theyr babes dyd fcarefull mothers quake,
Her armed spouse to lecse muche fearde the wyfe,
when swoorde was made the scabberde to forsake,
1785 That now by rest with rust was ouergrowne.
some to repayre the walles that dyd decaye,
And some to strength the towres halfe ouerthrowne,
and some the gates wyth gyns of yrne to staye
Full busie were, and dreadfull watche by nyght
I7(X) from turret highe dyd ouerlooke the towne.
Woorse is then warre it selfe the feare of fyght.
now are the threats of cruell swoorde layde downe,
And now the rumor whistts of battayles sowne,
the noyse of crooked trumpet sylent lyes,
I7q5 And quiete peace returnes to ioyfull towne.
so when the waues of swelling surge aryse,
While Corns wynde the Brutian seas doth smight,
and Scylla soundes from hollowe caues within,
And shipmen are with waftyng waues affryght,
1800 Charybdis casts that erst it had droonke in :
And Cyclops fierce his father yet dothe dred,
in Aetna banke that feruent is with heates,
Leste quenched be with waues that ouershed
the lyre that from eternall fornace beates :
i8o5 And poore Laertes thirkes his kyngdomes all
may drowned be, and Jthaca doth quake :
Jf once the force of wyndes begyn to fall,
the sea lythe downe more mylde then standyng lake.
The deepe, where shipps so wyde full dreadfull were
1810 to passe, with sayles on eyther syde out spred
Now fallne adowne, the lesser boate dothe beare :
and leysure is to vewe the fyshes ded
Euen there, where late with tempest bette vppone
the shaken Cyclades were with seas agast.
i8l5 No state endures, the payne and pleasure, one
to other yeldes, and ioyes be sonest past.
One howre setts vp the thynges that lowest bee.
he that the crownes to prynces dothe deuyde,
Whom people please with bendyng of the knee,
1820 and at whose becke theyr battayles laye asyde
The Meades, and Jndians eke to Phebus nye,
and Dakes that Parthians doe with horsemen threate,
Hym selfe yet holdes his sceptors doutfullye,
and men of myght he feares and chaunces greate
i825 (That eche estate may turne) and doutfull howre.
o ye, whom lorde of lande and waters wyde,
Of lyfe and death graunts here to haue the powre,
laye ye your proude and lofty lookes asyde :
What your inferiour feares of you amys,
i83o that your superiour threats to you agayne.
To greater kyng, eche kyng a subiect is.
whom dawne of da} hath scene in pryde to raygne,
Hym ouerthrowne hath scene the euenyng late,
let none reioyce to muche that good hath got,
l835 Let none dispaire of best in worst estate.
for Clothoe myngles all, and sufireth not
C tiii Fortune
Fortune to stande : but fates about clothe dryue.
suche friendship fynde with godds yet no man might,
That he the morowe might be sure to lyue.
1840 the god our things all tost and turned quight
Holies with a whirl e wvnde.
The fourth Acte.
~! Hat whirhvinde mai me hedlong driue
i8 4 5
and vp in ayre me flyng,
And wrappe in darkest cloude,wherby
W it might so heynous thyng,
Take from mine eyes? 6 wicked house
that euen of Pclops ought
i85o And Tantalus abhorred be.
Gho. what new thing hast thou brought?
Mess. What lande is this? lythe Sparta here,
and Argos, that hath bred
So wycked brethern ? and the grounde
l855 of Corinth liyng spred
Betwene the seas ? or Jster ells
where woont to take their flight,
Are people wylde ? or that whiche woonts
with snowe to shyne so bright
of Seneca. 
1860 Hircana lande ? or els do here
the wandryng Scythians dwell ?
Gho. \Yhat monstrous mischofe is this place
then giltie of? that tell,
And this declare to vs at large
i865 what euer be the ill.
Mess Jf once my minde may stay it sell ,
and quakyng limms J will.
But yet of suche a cruell deede
before mine eyes the feare
1870 And Jmage walkes : ye ragyng stormes
now far from hens me beare
And to that place me driue, to whiche
now driuen is the day
Thus drawen from hens. Gh. Our mindes ye holde
1875 yet still in doubtfull stay.
Tell what it is ye so abhorre.
The author therof showe.
J aske not who, but which of them :
that quickly let vs knowe.
1880 Mess. Jn Pelopps Turret highe, a parte
there is of palaice wyde
That towarde the southe erected leanes,
of whiche the vtter syde
With equall toppe to mountayne stands,
1885 and on the citie lies,
And people proude agaynst theyr prince
yf once the traytours rise
Hath vnderneathe his battryng stroke :
there shines the place in sight
1890 Where woont the people to frequent,
whose golden beames so bright
The noble spotted pillers graye,
of marble dooe supporte.
Within this place well knowen to men,
i8g5 where they so ofte resorte,
To many other roomes about
the noble courte dothe goe.
The priuie Palaice vnderlieth
in secret place aloe,
iqoo With ditche full deepe that dothe enclose
the woode of priuetee,
And hidden partes of kyngdome olde :
where neuer grew no tree
That cherefull bowes is woont to beare,
iop5 with knife or lopped be,
But Taxe, and Cypresse, and with tree
of Holme full blacke to se
Dothe becke and bende the woode so darke :
alofte aboue all theese
1910 The higher oke dothe ouerlooke,
surmountyng all the treese.
From hens with lucke the raygne to take,
accustomde are the kyngs,
From hens in danger ayde to aske,
1915 and doome in doubt full thyngs.
of Seneca. [i63|
To this affixed are the gilts,
the soundyng Trumpetts bright,
The Chariots broke, and spoyles of sea
that now Myrtoon hight,
1920 There hang" the wheeles once won by crafte
of falser axell tree,
And euery other conquests note :
here leefull is to see
The Phrygyan tyre of Pelops hed :
l<)25 the spoyle of enmies heere,
And of Barbarian triumphe lefte,
the paynted gorgeous geere.
A lotlvsome spryng stands vnder shade,
and slouthfull course dothe take,
K)3o With water blacke : euen such as is,
of Yrksome Stygian lake
Tlie vgly waue, wherby are \voont,
to sweare the goddes on hie.
Here all the night the grisly ghosts
IQ35 and gods of death to crie
The fame reportes : with clinkvng chaynes
resoundes the woode eche where,
The sprights crie out : and euery thyng
that dredfull is to heare,
1940 May there be seene : of vgly shapes
from olde Sepulchres sent
A fearfull flocke dothe wander there,
and in that place frequent
Woorse thyngs then euer yet were knowne :
1945 ye all the wood full ofte
With flame is woont to flasshe, and all
the higher trees alofte
Without a fyre dooe burne : and ofte
the wood besyde all this
ig5o With triple barkyng roares at once :
full ofte the palaice is
Affright with shapes, nor light of day
may once the terrour quell.
Eternall night dothe holde the place,
ig55 and darknes there of hell
Jn mid day raignes : from hens to them
that pray, out of the grounde
The certayne answers geuen are,
what time with dredfull sounde
1960 From secret place the fates be tolde;
and dongeon roares within
While of the God breakes out the voice :
wherto when entred in
Fierce Atreus was, that did with him
ig65 his brothers children trayle,
Dekt are the aulters : who (alas)
may it enoughe bewayle ?
Behynde the infants backs anone
he knyt their noble hands,
1970 And eke their heauie heds about
he bounde with purple bands :
of Seneca. I i65J
There wanted there no Frankensence,
nor yet the holy wine,
Nor knife to cut the sacrifice,
1975 besprinkt with leuens fine.
Kept is in all the order due,
least suche a mischieie grette
Should not be ordred well. Ghor. who dothe
his hande on swoorde then sette ?
1980 Mess. He is him selfe the preest, and he
him selfe the dedly verse
With praier dyre from feruent mouthe
dothe syng and ofte reherse.
And he at thaulters stands him selfe,
1986 he them assygnde to die
Dothe handle, and in order set,
and to the knife applie,
He lights the fyres, no rights were lefte
of sacryfice vndone.
1990 The woode then quakte, and all at ones
from trembly ng grounde anone
The Palaice beckte, in doubte whiche way
the payse therof woulde fall,
And shakyng as in waues it stood e :
1995 from thayre and therwithall
A blasyng starre that foulest trayne
drewe after him dothe goe :
The wynes that in the fyres were cast,
with changed licour floe,
I" 1 6 6] Thyestes
2000 And turne to bloud : and twysc or thryse
thattyre fell from his bed,
The Juerie bright in Temples secmdc
to wcepe and teares to shed.
The sights amasdc all other men,
2005 but stedfasl yet alway
Of mynde, vnmoued Atreus stands,
and euen the godds dothe fray
That threaten him, and all delay
forsaken by and bye
2010 To thaulters turnes, and therwithall
a syde he lookes awryc.
As hungrie tygre woonts that dothc
in gangey woods remayne
With doubtfull pace to range and roaine
20l5 betweene the bullocks twaync,
Of eyther praye full couetous,
and yet vncertayne where
She fyrst may bite, and roryng throatc
now turnes the tone to teare
2020 And then to thother straight returnes,
and doubtfull famine holdes :
So Atreus dire, betwene the babes
dothe stand and them beholdes
On whome he poyntes to slake his yre :
2025 fyrst slaughter where to make,
He doubtes : or whome he shoulde agayne
for seconde offryng take.
of Seneca. 
Yet skylls it nought, but yet he doubles,
and suche a crueltie
2o3o Jt him deligths to order well.
Ghor. Whome take he fyrst to die ?
Mess. First place, least in him thinke ye might
no piete to remayne
To grandsier dedicated is,
2o35 iyrst Tantalus is slayne.
Ghor. With what a minde and countnaunce, coulde
the boye his death sustayne ?
Mess. All careles of him selfe he stoode,
nor once he woulde in vayne
2040 His prayers leese. But Atreus fierce
the swoorde in him at last
Jn deepe and deadly wounde dothe hide
to hilts, and gripyng fast
His throate in hand, he thrust him throughe.
2046 The swoorde then drawne awaye
When long the body had vphelde
it selfe in doubtfull staye,
Whiche way to fall, at bngthe vppon
the vnkle downe it falles.
2o5o And then to thaulters cruellie
Philisthenes he tralles,
And on his brother throwes : and strayght
his necke of cutteth hee.
The carcase hedlong falles to grounde :
2o55 apiteous thyng to see,
The mournyng bed, with murmure yet
vncertayne dothe complayne.
Ghor. What after double deathe dothc he
and slaughter then of twayne ?
2060 Spares he the childe ? or gilt on gilt
agayne yet heapeth he ?
Mess. As long maend Lyon feerce amid
the wood of Armenie,
The droue pursues and conquest makes
2o65 of slaughter many one,
Though now defiled be his iav/es
with bloude, and hunger gone
Yet slaketh not his Jrefull rage,
with bloud of bulles so greate,
2070 But slouthfull now, with weery toothe
the lesser calues dothe threate :
None other wyse dothe Atreus rage,
and swels with anger straynde,
And holdyng now the sworde in hande
2075 with double slaughter staynde,
Regardyng not where fell his rage,
with cursed hand vnmilde
He strake it through his body quight :
at bosome of the childe
2080 The blade gothe in, and at the backe
agayne out went the same.
He falles, and quenchyng with his bloud
the aulters sacred flame,
of Seneca. [169!
Of either wounde at lengthe he dieth.
*#5 Glior. O heynous hatefull acte.
Mess. Abhorre ye this ? ye heare not yet
the ende of all the facte,
There followes more. GllO. A fiercer thyng,
or worse then this to see
2090 Could nature beare ? Me. why thinke ye this
of gilt the ende to bee ?
Jt is but parte. Clio, what coulde he more ?
to cruell beasts he cast
Perhapps their bodies to be torne,
2og5 and kept from lyres at last.
Mess. Woulde god he had : that neuer tombe
the deade might ouerhyde,
Nor flames dissolue, though them for foode
to fowles in pastures wyde
2KX) He had out throwen, or them for pray
to cruell beasts woulde flyng.
That whiche the worste was wont to be,
were heere a wisshed thyng,
That them theyr father sawe vutombde.
2lo5 but oh more cursed crime
Uncredible, the whiche denie
wyll men of after time :
From bosomes yet alyue out drawne
the tremblyng bowells shake,
21 10 The vaynes yet breathe, the fearefull harte
dothe yet bothe pante and quake :
But he the stryngs dothe turne in hande,
and destenies beholde,
And of the gutts the sygnes eche one
2li5 dothe vewe not fully colde.
When him the sacrifice had pleasde,
his diligence he putts
To dresse his brothers banquet now :
and streyght a soonder cutts
2120 The bodies into quarters all,
and by the stoompes anone
The shoulders wide, and brawnes of armes,
he strikes of euery chone.
He laies abrode theyr naked lymms,
2125 and cutts away the bones :
The only heds he keepes, and hands
to him comitted ones.
Some of the gutts are broachte, and in
the fyres that burne ful sloe
2l3o They droppe : the boylyng liccour some
dothe tomble to and froe
Jn moornyng cawdern : from the flesshe
that ouerstands alofte
The fyre dothe flie, and scatter out,
2l35 and into chimney ofte
Up heapt agayne, and there constraynde
by force to tary yet
Unwillyng burnes : the lyuer makes
great noye vppon the spit,
of Seneca. 
2140 Nor easely \vote J, if the flcsshe,
or flames they be that cry,
But crie they doe : the lyre like pitche
it fumeth by and by :
Nor yet the smoke it selfe so sadde,
2145 like filthy miste in sight
Ascendeth vp as woont it is,
nor takes his way vpright,
But euen the Goddes and house it dothc
with filthie fume defyle.
2i5o O pacient Phoebus though from hence
thou backward flee the whyle,
And in the midst of heauen aboue
dooste drowne the broken day,
Thou fleeste to late : the father eates
2i55 his children well away,
And lymms to whiche he onse gaue lyfe,
with cursed iawe dothe teare.
He shynes with oyntment shed full sweete
all rounde aboute his heare,
2160 Replete with vvyne : and often times
so cursed kynde of food
His mouth hath helde that would not downe.
but yet this one thyng good
Jn all thy ylls (Thyestes) is,
2105 that them thou dooste not knoe.
And yet shall that not long endure,
though Titan backward goe
D ii And
And chariots turne against him selfe,
to meetc the waies he went,
2170 And heauie night so heynous deede
to keepe from sight be sent,
And out of time from east arise,
so foule a facte to hide,
Yet shall the whole at lengthe be seene
2175 thy ills shall all be spide.
Hiche way O prince of lands and godds on hie,
Wat whose vprise eftsones of shadowde night
All bcwtie flecthe, which way turnstthou awrie ?
2180 and drawste y day in midst of heauen to flight?
Why dooste thou (Phebus) hide from vs ihy sight ?
not yet the watche that later howre bryngs in,
Dothe Uesper warne the starrs to kindle light.
not yet dothe turne of Hespers wheele begin
2i85 To loase thy chare his well deserued way.
the Trumpet thirde not yet hath blowen his blaste
While towarde the night begins to yelde the day.
great woonder hath of sodayne suppers haste
The Ploweman, yet whose oxen are vntierde.
2190 from woonted course of heauen what drawesthee backe?
What causes haue from certainc race conspierde
to turne thy horse ? do yet from dongeon blacke
of Seneca. 
Of hollowe Hell, the conquerde Gyants proue
a fresshe assaute ? dothe Tityus yet assay
2ig5 With trenched hart and wounded wombe to moue
the former yrcs ? or from the hill away
Hath now Typhoeus wounde his syde by might ?
is vp to heauen the way erected hie
Of phlegrey foes by mountaynes set vpright ?
2200 and now dothe Ossa Pelion ouerlie ?
The woonted turnes are gone of day and night.
the rise of sun, nor fall shalbe no more.
Aurora dewysh mother of the light
that \\oonts to sendo the horses out before,
22o5 Dothe wonder muche agayne returnde to see
her dawnyng light : she wotts not how to ease
The wery wheeles, nor manes that smokyng bee
of horse with sweate, to bathe amyd the seas.
Him selfe vnwoonted there to lodge lykewyse,
2210 dothe settyng Sun againe the mornyng see,
And now commaundes the darknes vp to ryse,
before the night to come prepared bee.
About the poale yet glowthe no fyre in sight :
nor light of Moone the shades dothe comfort yet.
22l5 What so it be, God graunt it be the night.
our harts dooe quake with feare oppressed gret,
And dredfull are least heauen and erthe and all
with fatall mine shaken shall decay :
And least on gods agayne, and men shall fall
2220 disfigurde Chaos : and the land away
T5> fit The
The seas, and tyres, and of the glorious skise
the wandryng lampes, least nature yet shall hide.
Now shall no more with blase of his vprise,
the lorde of starres that leades the worlde so wide,
2225 Of Sommer bothe and winter gyue the markes.
nor yet the Moone with Phaebus flames that burnes,
Shall take from vs by night the dredfull carkes,
with swyfter course or passe her brothers turnes,
\Yhile compasse lesse she fetts in crooked race :
223o the Gods on heapes shall out of order fall
And eche with other myngled be in place.
the wried way of holly planetts all,
\Yith pathe a sloape that dothe deuide the Zones,
that beares the sygnes and yeares in course dothe bryng,
2235 Shall see the starres with him fall downe at ones.
and he that fyrst not yet with gentle spryng,
The temperate gale dothe geue to sayles, the Ramme
shall hedlong fall a downe to seas agayne,
Through whiche he once with fearfull hellen swamme.
2240 next him the Bulle that dothe with home sustayne
The systers seuen, with him shall ouerturne
the twyns, and armes of crooked cancer all.
The Lyon whot, (that woonts the soyle to burne)
of Hercules, agayne from heauen shall fall.
2245 To lands once lefte the virgin shalbe throwne,
and leuelde payse of balance sway alowe,
And draw r e with them the styngyng Scorpion downe.
so likewyse he that holdes in Thessale bowe
His swifte well fethred arrovves Chiron olde,
225o shall breake the same and eke shall leese his shotte.
And Capricorne that brynges the winter colde
shall ouerturne, and breake thy water potte
Who so thou be : and downe with thee to grounde,
the last of all the signes shall Pisces fall.
2255 And monsters eke in seas yet neuer drounde,
the water gulphe shall ouer whelme them all.
And he whiche dothe betwene eche Ursa glyde,
lyke crooked floode, the slipper serpent twynde :
And lesser Beare by greater Dragons syde,
2260 full colde with frost congealed harde by kynde,
And carter dulle that slosvlie guides his waync,
vnstable shall bootes fall from hie.
We are thought meete of all men whom agayne,
should hugy heape of Chaos oner lie,
2265 And worlde oppresse with ouer turned mas.
the latest age now falleth vs vppon.
With euill happe we are begotte alas,
if wretches we haue lost the sight of son,
Or him by faught enforced haue to rlie.
2270 let our complaynts yet goe, and feare be past :
He greedy is of lyfe, that will not die
when all the worlde shall ende with him at last.
5) iiit The
The fifth Acte.
2275 ! Owe equall with the starrs J goe,
beyoncle eche other wight,
with haughtie hed the heauens aboue,
and highest Poale J smight.
The kyngdome now & seate J holde,
2280 where once my father raynde.
J now let goe the godds : for all
my will J haue obtaynde.
Enoughe and well, ye euen enoughe
for me J am acquit.
2285 But whie enoughe ? J will proceede,
and fyll the father yet
With bloud of his : least any shame
should me restrayne at all,
The day is gone : goe to therfore,
2290 while thee the heauen dothe call.
Wolde god J coulde agaynst their wills
yet holde the gods that flee,
And of reuengyng disshe, constrayne
them witnesses to be :
2295 But yet fwhiche well enoughe is wrought,)
let it the father see.
Jn spight of all the drowned day,
J wyll remoue from thee
of Seneca. 
The darkenes all, in shade whereof
23oo doe lurkc thy myseries.
And guest at suche a banquet now
to long he careles lies,
With mery face : now eate and dronkc
enough he hath : at laste
23o5 Tys best him selfe shoulde know his ylls.
ye seruaunts all, in haste
Undoe the temple doores : and let
the house be open all :
Fayne wolde J see, when looke vppon
23io his childrens heds he shall
What countenance he then wolde make.
or in what woordes breake out
Wolde fyrst his greefe, or how wolde quake
his bodie rounde about
23i5 With spright amased sore : of all
my woorke the fruite were this.
J wolde him not a myser see,
but whyle so made he is.
Beholde the temple opened now,
2320 dothe shyne with many a lyght :
Jn glyttryng gold and purple seate
he sytts him selfe vpryght,
And staiyng vp his heauy head
with wine, vpon his hande,
2325 He belcheth out. now cheefe of godds,
in highest place J stande,
T5> V And
[i 7 8] Wiyesies
And kyng of kyngs : J haue my wyshe
and more then J coulde thynke :
He fylled is, he nowe the wyne
233o in syluer boll dothe drynke.
And spare it not, there yet remaynes,
a woorser draught for thee
That sproong out of the bodyes late
of sacrifyces three,
2335 Whiche wyne shall hyde : let therwithall
the boordes be taken vp.
The father (myngled with the wyne)
his childrens blood shall sup,
That woulde haue droonke ofinyne.
2340 beholde, he now begyns to strayne
His voyce and syngs, nor yet for ioye
his mynde he may refrayne.
The seconde Sceane
2845 ^-^ beaten bosomes dullde so longe with woe,
laie downe your cares, at length your greues relet :
Let sorowe passe, and all your dreade let goe,
and fellowe eke of fearefull banyshment,
Sad pouertie, and yll in myserye
235o the shame of cares, more whense thy fall thou haste,
Then whether, skylls. greate happe to him, from hye
that falles, it is in suretee to be plaste
of Seneca. [1)9]
Beneth. and great it is to him agayne
that prest with storme, of euylls feeles the smart,
2355 Of kyngdome loste the payses to sustayne
with necke vnbowde : nor yet deiect of harte
Nor ouercome, his heauy happs alwayes
to beare vpryght. but now of carefull carkes
Shake of the showres, and of thy wretched dayes
236o awaye with all the myserable markes.
To ioy full state returne thy cheerefull face.
put fro thy mynde the olde Thyestes hence.
Jt is the woont of wight in wofull case,
in state of ioy to haue no confydence.
2365 Though better happs to them returned be,
thafflicted yet to ioy it yrketh sore.
Why calste thou me abacke, and hyndrest me
this happie daie to celebrate ? wherfore
Bydst thou me (sorowe) weepe without a cause ?
2370 who doth me let with flowers so freshe and gaye
To decke my heares ? it letts, and me withdrawes.
downe from my head the roses fall awaye :
My moysted heare with oyntment ouer all,
with sodeyne mase stands vp in woondrows wyse.
23y5 From face that wolde not weepe the streames do fall.
and howlyng cryes amyd my woordes aryse.
My sorowe yet thaccustomde teares dothe loue.
and \vretches styll delight to weepe and crye.
Unpleasant playntes it pleaseth them to moue :
238o and florysht faire it lykes with Tyrian dye
Theyr robes to rent : to wayle it lykes them styll.
for sorowe, sends (in sygne that woes drawe nye)
The minde, that wotts before of after yll.
the sturdye stormes the shipmen ouerlye,
2385 When voyde of wynde thasswaged seas doe rest.
what tumult yet or countenaunce to see
Makste thou mad man ? at lengthe a trustfull brest
to brother geeue, what euer now it bee,
Causeles, or ells to late thou arte a dred.
23go J wretche woulde not so feare, but yet me drawes
A tremblynge terrour : downe mync eyes do shed
theyr sodeyne teares, and yet J know no cawse.
Js it a greefe, or feare ? or ells hath teares
great ioy it selfe ?
The thyrde Sceane.
Et vs this daie with one consent
(o brother) celebrate.
This day my steptors may confyrme
2400 ^ anc j stablyshe my estate,
And faythfull bonde of peace and loue
betwene vs ratyfye.
Thy- Enough with meate and eke with wyne,
now satysfyde am J.
of Seneca. 
2406 But yet of all my ioyes it were
a greate encrease to mee,
Jf now about my sydc J might
my little children see.
Atr. Beleue that here euen in thyne armes
2410 thy children present bee.
For here they are, and shalbe here,
no parte of them fro thee
Shall be withhelde : theyr loued lookes
now geue to the J wyll,
2415 And with the heape of all his babes,
the father fully fyll.
Thou shalt be glutted, feare thou not :
they with my boyes as yet
The ioytul sacrifyces make
2420 at boorde where children sit.
They shalbe calkle : the frendly cuppe
nowe take of curtesy
With wyne vptylde. Thy. of brothers feast
J take full wyllyngy
2425 The fynall gyfte, shed some to gods
of this our fathers lande,
Then let the rest be droonke. whats this ?
in no wyse wyll my hande
Obeye : the payse increaseth sore,
2430 and downe n^ne arme dothe swaye.
And from my lypps the waftyng wyne
it selfe dothe flie awaie,
And in deceiued mouthe, about
my iawes it runneth rounde :
2435 The table to, it selfe dothe shake,
and leape Irom tremblyng grounde.
Scant burnes the lyre : the ayre it selie
with heauy chere to sight
Forsooke of sunne amased is
2440 betwene the daye and night.
What meaneth this ? yet more and more
of backewarde beaten skye
The compasse falles : and thicker myst
the worlde doth ouerlye
2445 Then blackest darkenes, and the night
in night it selfe dothe hyde.
All starrs be fledde : what so it bee,
my brother god prouyde
And soons to spare : the gods so graunte
2460 that all this tempest fall
On this vyle head, but now restore
to me my children all.
Atr. J will, and neuer daye agayne
shall them from the withdrawe.
2455 Thy. What tumulte tumbleth so my gutts,
and dothe my bowells gnawe ?
What quakes within ? with heauy payse
J feele my selfe opprest,
And with an other voyce then myne
2460 bewayles my dolefull brest.
of Seneca. [i83]
Come neere my soons, for you now dooth
th unhappie father call :
Come neere, for you once seene, this greefe
wolde soone asswage and fall.
2465 Whence murmure they ? At. with fathers armes
embrace them quickely nowe,
For here they are loe come to thee :
dooste thou thy children knowe ?
Thy. J know my brother : suche a gylt
2470 yet canst thou suffre well
6 earth to beare ? nor yet from hens
to Stygian lake of hell
Dooste thou bothe drowne thy selfe and vs ?
nor yet with broken grounde
2475 Dooste thou these kyngdomes and theyr kyng
with Chaos rude confounde ?
Nor yet vprentyng from the soyle
the bowres of wicked lande
Dooste thou Mycenas ouerturne ?
2480 with Tantalus to stande,
And auncyters of ours, if there
in hell be any one.
Now ought we bothe. now from the frames
on eyther syde anone
2486 Of grounde, all here and there rent vp,
out of thy bosome deepe
Thy dens and dungeons set abrode,
and vs enclosed keepe,
Jn botome lowe of Acheront :
2490 aboue our hedds alofte
Let wander all the gyltie ghosts,
with burnyng frete full oftc
Let fyry Phlegethon that dryues
his sands bothe to and froe,
2495 To our confusion ouerroon,
and vyolently floe.
O slouthfull soyle vnshaken payse,
vnmoued yet arte thou ?
The gods are fled. Atr. but take to thee
25oo with ioy thy chyldren now,
And rather them embrace : at length
thy chyldren all, of thee
So long wysht for, (for no delaye
there standeth now in mee,)
25o5 Enioye and kysse, embracyng armes
deuyde thou vnto three.
Thv. Js this thy league ? may this thy loue
and fayth of brother bee ?
And dooste thou so repose thy hate ?
2Dio the father dothe not crane
His soons aliue (whiche might haue bene
without the gylt.,) to haue :
And eke without thy hate, but this
dothe brother brother pray :
25i5 That them he may entoombe, restore,
whom see thou shalt straight way
of Seneca. [i85|
Be burnt : the father nought requyres,
of the that haue he shall,
But soone forgoe. Atr. what euer partc
2520 yet of thy children all
Kemaynes, here shalt them haue : and what
remayneth not, thou haste.
Thy. Lye they in feeldes, a ioode out floong
for fleeyng foules to waste ?
2525 Or are they kept a praye, for wylde
and brutyshe beasts to eate ?
Atr. Thou hast deuourde thy soons, and lyldc
thy selfe with wicked meate.
Thy. Oh this is it that shamde the godds :
253o and day from hens dyd dryue
Turnde backe to easte. alas J wretch
what waylynges may J gyue ?
Or what complayntes ? what wofull woordes
may be enough for mee ?
2535 Theyr heades cutte of, and hands of torne,
J from their bodies see,
And wrenched feete from broken thyghes,
J here beholde agayne.
Tys this that greedy father coulde
2540 not suffrc to sustayne.
Jn belly rolle my bowels rounde,
and closed cryme so gret
Without a passage stryucs within,
and seekes awaye to get.
2645 Thy svvoorde (o brother) lende to me :
muche of my blood alas
Jt hathe : let vs therwith make way
for all my soons to pas.
Js yet the swoorcle fro me withhelde ?
255o thy selfe thy bosom es teare.
And let thy brests resounde with strokes :
yet wretche thy hand forbeare,
And spare the deade. who euer sawe
suche mischiefe put in proofe ?
2555 What rude Heniochus, that dwells
by ragged coaste aloofe,
Of Caucasus vnapt for men ?
or feare to Athens, who
Procustes wylde ? the father J
256o oppresse my children do
And am opprest, is any meane
of gylt or mischiefe yet ?
Atr. A meane in myschiefe ought to be,
when gylt thou dooste commyt,
2565 Not when thou quytst : for yet euen this,
to lytle seemes to me.
The blood yet warme euen from the wounde
J shoulde in sight of thee
Euen in thy iawes haue shed, that thou
2570 the bloud of them mightst drynke
That lyued yet : but whyle to muche
to haste my hate J thynke,
of Seneca. 
My wrathe beguyled is. my selfe
with swoorde the woundes them gaue,
25y5 J strake them downe, the sacred fyres
with slaughter vowde J haue
Well pleasde, the carcase cuttyng then
and lyueles lymms on grounde
J haue in little parcelles chopt,
258o and some of them J drownde
Jn boylyng cawderns, some to fyres
that burnte full slowe J putte,
And made to droppe : their synewes all
and lymms atoo J cutte
2585 Euen yet alyue, and on the spytte
that thrust was through the same
J harde the lyuer wayle and crie,
and with my hand the flame
J ofte kept in : but euery whit
25go the father might of this
Haue better doone, but now my wrathe
to lyghtly ended is.
He rent his soons with wycked gumme,
him selfe yet wotyng nought,
25g5 Nor they therof. Thy. 6 ye, encloasde
with bendyng banks abought
All seas me heare, and to this gylt
ye godds now harken well
What euer place ye fledde are to :
2600 heare all ye sprights of hell,
And here ye lands, and night so darke,
that them dooste ouerlye
With clowde so blacke, to my complaynts
do thou thy selfe applye.
26o5 To thee now lefte J am, thou dooste
alone me myser see,
And thou arte lefte without thy starres :
J wyll not make for mee
Peticions yet. nor ought for me
2610 requyre, may ought yet bee
That me shoulde vayle ? for you shall all
my wyshes now foresee.
Thou guyder great of skies aboue,
and prynce of hyghest myght,
26i5 Of heauenly place, now all with cloudes
full horrible to syght,
Enwrappe the worlde, and let the wyndes
on euery syde breake out,
And sende the dredfull thunder clappe,
2620 through all the worlde about.
Not with what hand thou gyltles house
and vndeserued wall
With lesser bolte arte wonte to beate,
but with the whiche did fall
2625 The three vpheaped mountaynes once,
and whiche to hylls in height
Stoode equall \ 7 p, the gyants huge :
throwe out suche weapons streight,
of Seneca. 
And flyng thy fyres, and therwithall
263o reuengc the drowned daye.
Let flee thy flames, the lyght thus lost
and hyd from heauen awaye,
With flashes fyll : the cause, (least long
thou shouldst doute whom to hit,)
2635 Of eche of vs is yll : if not
at least let myne be it,
Mee stryke : with tryple edged toole
thy brande of flamyng tyre
Beate through this brest : if father J
2640 my children do desyre
To lay in lombe, or corpses cast
to lyre as dothe behoue,
J must be burnt : if nothyng now
the gods to wrath maie moue,
2645 Nor powre from skyes with thunder bolte
none strykes the wycked men,
Let yet eternall night remayne,
and hyde with darkenes then
The worlde about : J (Titan) nought
2600 com play ne, as now it stands,
Jf still thou hyde thee thus awaye.
Atr. now prayse J well my handes,
Now gotte J haue the palme : J had
bene ouercome of thee,
2655 Except thou sorowdst so : but now
euen children borne to me
J counte, and now of brydebed chaste
the fayth J do repeare.
Thy. Jn what offended haue my soons ?
2660 Atr. Jn that, that thyne they weare.
Thy. Setst thou the soons for fathers foode ?
Atr. J doe, and (whiche is best)
The certayne soons ? Thy. the gods that guyde
all infantes, J protest.
2665 Atr. what wedlocke gods? Til. who wolde the gylt
with gylt so quyght agayne ?
Atr. J knowe thy greefe, preuented now
with wrong, thou dooste complayne :
Nor this thee yrkes, that fedde thou arte
2670 with foode of cursed kynde,
But thnt thou hadst not it preparde :
for so it was thy mynde,
Suche meates as these to sette before
thy brother wotyng naught,
2675 And by the mothers helpe, to haue
lykewyse my children caught,
And them with suche lyke deathe to slave :
this one thing letted thee,
Thou thoughtst them thyne. Thy. the gods shall all
2680 of this reuengers bee :
And vnto them for vengeance due,
my vowes thee render shall.
Atr. But vext to be J thee the whyle,
geeue to thy children all.
of Seneca. 
2685 The fourth Sceane,
Added to the Tragedy
by the Translatour.
! Kyng of Dytis dungeon darke,
~ and grysly ghosts of hell,
I That in the deepe and dredfull denns,
of blackest Tartare dwell,
Where leane and pale diseases lye
where feare and famyne are,
26g5 Where discorde stands with bleedyng browes,
where euery kynde of care,
Where furies fight in bedds of steele,
and heares of crallyng snakes,
Where Gorgon grymme, where Harpies are,
2700 and lothsome Lymbo lakes,
Where most prodigious vglye thynges,
the hollowe hell dothe hyde,
Jf yet a monster more mysshapte
then all that there doe byde,
2705 That makes his broode his cursed foode,
ye all abhorre to see,
Nor yet the deepe Auerne it selfe,
may byde to couer me,
J6 ttti Nor
Nor grysly gates of Plutoes place,
2710 yet dare them selues to spredde,
Nor gapyng grounde to swallowe him,
whome godds and day haue fledde :
Yet breake ye out from cursed seates,
and here remayne with me,
2715 Ye neede not now to be affrayde,
the ayre and heauen to se.
Nor tryple headid Cerberus,
thou needst not be affright,
The day vnknowne to thee to see,
2720 or els the lothsome light.
They bothe be fledde : and now clothe dwell
none other countnaunce heere,
Then dothe bencathe the fowlest face,
of hatefull hell appeere.
2725 Come see a meetest matche for thee,
a more then monstrous wombe,
That is of his vnhappie broode,
become a cursed tombe.
Flocke here ye fowlest feendes of hell,
273o and thou O grandsier greate,
Come see the glutted gutts of mine,
with suche a kynde of meate,
As thou didst once for godds prepare.
let torments all of hell
2735 Now fall vppon this hatefull hed,
that hathe deserude them well.
Ye all be plagued wrongfully,
your gylts be small, in sight
Of myne, and meete it were your pangs
2740 on me alone should light.
Now thou O grandsier giltles arte,
and meeter were for me,
With fleeyng floud to be beguilde,
and frute of fickle tree.
2745 Thou slewst thy son, but J my sons,
alas haue made my meate.
J coulde thy famyne better beare,
my panche is now repleate
With foode : and with my children three,
2750 my belly is extent.
O filthy fowles and gnawyng gripes,
that Tityus bosome rent
Beholde a fitter pray for you,
to fill your selues vppone
2755 Then are the growyng gutts of him :
foure wombes enwrapt in one.
This panche at ones shall fill you all :
yf ye abhorre the foode,
Nor may your selues abide to bathe,
2760 in suche a cursed bloode :
Yet lend to me your clinchyng clawes,
your pray a while forbeare,
And with your tallons suffer me,
this monstrous mawe to teare.
2/65 Or whirlyng wheeles, with swynge of whiche
Jxion still is rolde,
Your hookes vppon this glutted gorge,
woulde catche a surer holde.
Thou filthy floud of Lymbo lake,
277 and Stygian poole so dyre,
From choaked chanell belche abrode.
thou ferfull freate of fyre,
Spue out thy flames O Phlegethon :
and ouer shed the grounde.
2775 With vomite of thy fyrye streame,
let me and earth be drownde.
Breake vp thou soyle from botome deepe,
and geue thou roome to hell,
That night, where day, that ghosts, were gods
2780 were woont to raigne, may dwell.
Why gapste thou not ? Why do you not
O gates of hell vnfolde ?
Why do ye thus thynfernall feendes,
so long from hens withholde ?
2785 Are 3 r ou likewyse affrayde to see, and
knowe so wretched wight,
From whome the godds haue wryde theyr lookes,
and turned are to flight ?
O hatefull hed, whom heauen and hell,
2790 haue shoonde and lefte alone,
The Sun, the Starrs, the light, the day,
the Godds, the ghosts be gone.
of Seneca. 
Yet turnc agayne ye Skyes a whyle,
ere quight ye goe fro me,
2795 Take vengeance fyrst on him, whose faultc
enforceth you to flee.
Jf needes ye must your flight prepare,
and may no lenger bydc,
But rolle ye must with you foorthwith,
2800 the Goddes and Sun a syde,
Yet slowly flee : that J at lengthe,
may you yet ouertake,
While wandryng wayes J after you,
and speedy iorney make.
2806 By seas, by lands, by woods, by rocks,
in darke J wander shall :
And on your wrathe, for right rewardc
to due deserts, wyll call,
ye scape not fro me so ye Godds,
2810 still after you J goe,
And vengeance aske on wicked wight,
your thunder bolte to throe.
IMPRINTED A T
Xon&on in ffletestrete, in
tbe bouse late Cbomag
Cum priuilegio ad impri-
ANNO. M. D. L X.
Lucii Annei Se-
necae Tragedia primaquae inscri-
bitur Hercules iurcns nuper rccognita, & ab
omnibus mendis, quibus antea scatebat sedu-
lo purgata, & in studiosrr, iuuentutis vtilitate,
in Anglicuin metrum tanta fide conuersa, vt carmen
pro carmine quoad Anglica lingua patiatur
pene redditum vidcas.
Per lasperum Heyvvodum Oxoniensem.
gedie of Lucius Anneus Seneca,
intitulet) Hercules fur ens, nc\vlv> pervseO anO
of all faultes wbereof it M& before abound bi=
ligentlvi corrccte&, anb for tbc profit of eoun0
ecbollers so faitbfullv? translated into J6n*
0li0b metre, tbat se mav? se verse for verse
tonrned as farre as tbe pbrase of tbc en
36g Jasper H^evwood studient
TO THE RIGHTE
honorable Syr William Harbert of the
honorable order of the garter knight,
Lorde Harbert of Cardyffe, Earle
5 of Penbrocke & one of the Quee-
nes maiesties most honorable Pry-
uie councell, his daylye Oratour
Jasper Heywood wissheth
prosperous health with
10 encrease of honour and
He most excellent
and famous lear
ned clearke Eras
mus of Roteroda
among so many
[earned volumes whiche he
in hys lyfe tyme wrote, with
such excellency, that they yet
20 do and euer shal preserue the
name and renowne of so wor-
thye a man, ouen lor that ou-
lye thyng woon not the least
praise among learned m<\ nor
25 deserued least thanke of poste-
ritie, that he so well and true-
lye translated onto of (Ireeke
into latin two o tragedies of
Euripides, whereof the one
3o is named Hecuba, & the other
Iplligillia. For as all men that
can iudge of that work, must
needes highly commend h m
that hathe so lernedly done it
35 so muste all studientes of the
(ireeke tongue needes render
him great thAkes, that hath
opened the such a gate therto
Whf 1 J therfore (most hono-
40 rablc Karle) considered wyth
A ii my
my selfe that suche a man of
whome the worlde yet after
his deth resowndes, disdaind
not sometyme to leaue euen
45 the studye of the diuine scrip
tures to turn his pen a while
to the profite and furtherace
of youth, J thought it not re-
pugnitt to my duty if J shold
5o also for a, time set a side y bo-
kes of old Philosophers, Ari
stotle and Plato, and once en-
deuour to shew my selfe so lo-
uing to my countreye, as to
55 helpe for the small talet that
god hath geue me, to conduct
by som meanes to further vn
derstfidig the vnripened schol
lers of this realm, to whom J
60 thought it shoulde be no lesse
thankful for me to enterprete
som latyn work into this our
owne tongue, then for Eras
mus in Latyn to expounde
65 the Greeke, to them that are
already good and perfite lati-
nistes. Neither coulde J satis-
fie my self, til J had through
oute thys whole tragedye of
70 Seneca a graue and wise wri
ter so trauailed that J had in
englysh geuen verse for verse,
(as far as the englysh tongue
permitts) and word for word
75 wyth the latyn : whereby J
might both make some tryal
of my self, and as it were tech
the little children to goe that
yet canne but creepe. Whiche
so tiling Avhen J had l)roughte
to passe, \ fully finished thys
little worke, J thought with
my self how gretly it mighte
auail me, to haue the author!
85 tie of som noble ma, my shield
against the sling of euil togs.
\vherfore when J considered
that your honor so gretly fa-
uoured lerrrig, that ye vouch-
()o safed to sod vnto the vnitiersi
tic of oxford, of which J am a
mf bre, your derest & eldest son
my lord Henry whom J haue
there well knowen, and so to
()5 trade him in time of teder ye-
res, that hys riper age, might
hothe geue your honor cause
to ioy i liirn & vs to thak your
honor for him, J haue presu-
100 mod vpu hope of pardo formi
boldnesse, y rather for his sake
to dedicate this simple worke
vnto your honour, as well to
signifie the poore good wyll
io5 of a scholler, as also to render
to your honor most huble tha
kes, that it hath plesed so ho
norable an Erie to honor our
vniuersitie of Oxforde, with
no the presece o f such a vug lord
so worthye a Gentlema. The
whiche my attempt J truste
your honour wil for this the
rather pardo, that although
n5 this simple woorke, which J
here offer he farre vn worthy
to l)e of your honor receiued,
yet is it a meete gift for me to
present : who as J am a schol
120 lor, so ca J geue nothing hut
a schollcrs gifte, namelye the
practise of my pen, the which
hesechii g your honour none
otherwise to accept the Christ
125 accepted the two mites whi-
che the poore woma oflfred in
the teple, J end with praier to
hym, for the prosperous con
tinuance and encrease of your
i3o lordshippes honorable estate
The Argument of this Tragedy.
Uno the wife and sister of Jupiter,
1 35 ^j| hatyng his bastarde broode, cometh
down from heauen, complaining of
all his iniuries done to her, deuising
also by what despite she maye vexe his base
sonne Hercules. And hauyng by experience
140 proued, no toiles to be too hard for him, h n-
deth the meanes to make his owne hand his
owne vengeance. Hercules therfore retur
ning now from hell (from whens he was en
ioyned to fet Cerberus ) And findynge that
145 the tyrant Lycus had inuaded his countrey,
destroieth the tyrant. For the which victorie
as he sacrinceth to his goddes, wrathefull
Juno strikes him into a sodain fransy : wher
with he beynge sore vexed, thynkyng to slea
i5o the children and wife of Lycus, in stede of
them, killeth his owne wife and children in
his madnesse. This doone he sleapeth. Juno
restoreth to hym agayne his wittes. He be-
yng wakte, seing his wife and children slain
i55 by his owne hande, at laste also woulde kyll
C The speakers.
J uno Lycus
160 Megara Theseus
 Hercul. fur. of Sen.
i65 A Syster of the thunderer,
(for nowe that name alone
remaynes to me) Joue euermore
as though deuorste and gone,
And temples of the hyghest ayre
170 as wydowe shunned haue,
And beaten out of skyes aboue
the place to harlots gaue.
J muste goe dwell beneathe on grounde,
for hoores doo holde the skye.
175 From hens the beare in parte aboue
of ycye poale full hye,
A haughty starre the greekysh shypps
by seas dothe guyde about.
Fro this way, whes at spryng tyme warme
180 the daye is loased out,
Europaes bearer through the waues
of Tyria shynes full bright.
From thens, their stormy fearefull flocke
to shypps, and seas affright,
36 2 The
Hercul. Fur. of Sen. 
185 The wandryng daughters here and there
of Atlas vpwarde swaye.
With staryng bushe of heare from hens
Orion gods dothe fraye :
And Perseus eke his glyttryng starres
up of golden glosse hathe heere.
From hens the twynns of Tyndars stocke
doe shyne, a sygne fall clere :
And at whos-2 byrth fyrst stoode the grounde
that erste went too and fro.
ig5 Nor onely Bacchus nowe hymselle,
or Bacchus mother lo,
Haue clymbde to gods : least any parte
shoulde from rebuke be free,
The skyes the Gnossian strumpets crounes
200 doe beare in spight of mee.
But J of ollde contempts complayne :
me, one dire, fierce, and shrewde
Thebana lande, with wicked broode
of Joues base daughters strewde,
2o5 Howe ofte hath it a stepdame made ?
though vp to heauen shoulde rise,
The conqueryng drabbe Alcmena nowe,
and holde my place in skies,
And eke her sonnc to promysde starres
210 obtayne the woorthye waye,
At byrthe of whome the staying worlde
so long deferrde the daye,
* 3 Aud
[2o8] Hercul. Fur. of Sen.
And Phoebus slowe from mornyng sea
begoon to glyster bryght,
2i5 Commaunded long in th ocean waues
to hyde his drowned lyght :
Yet shall my hates not leaue them so.
a wrathfull kyndlyng rage
His mynde in madnesse shall styrre vp,
220 and yre that maye not swage
Shall euermore (all peace layde dov/ne)
wage warres eternally.
What warrs ? what euer hydous thyng
the earthe his ennemy
225 Begetts, or what soeuer sea,
or ayre hath brought to syght
Bothe dredfull, dire, and pestylent,
of cruell fiercest myght,
Tis tierde, and taemde : he passeth all,
23o and name by ylls dothe rayse,
And all my wrathe he dothe enioye :
and to his greatter prayse
He turnes my hates : whyle tedyous toyles
to muche J hym beehest,
235 He proues what father hym begot,
bothe thens, where lyght opprest
Hath sea, and where it showde agayne,
where Titan daye dothe trayne,
And with his brande approchyng neere
240 dothe dye those Aethiops twayne,
Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 
His strengthe vntamde is honoured :
and god eche where is he
No\ve calde in world, and nowe more store
of monsters want to me,
240 And labour lesse to Hercles is
t accomplyshe all my vvyll,
Then me to bydde : at ease he doothe
myne impedes fulfyll.
What cruell hestes of tyraunt nowe
25o so fierce a yong man mayo
preuayle to hurte ? for loe he beares
for weapons nowe awaye
What once he fearde, and put to flyght :
he armed comes at syde
255 With lyon fierce, and Hydra bothe :
nor lande sumseth wyde,
But broake he hath the thresholde lo
of that infernall Joue,
And spoyles with hym of conquerde kyng
260 he drawes to godds aboue.
But thats but lyght, broke is the league
of sprightes that there doo d\vell.
J sawe my selfe, J sawe hym loe
(the nyght nowe gone of hell,
265 And Ditis taemde) throwe out abroade
before his fathers syght
His brothers spoyles. Why drawes he not
oppreste and bounde by myght
J3 5 hym
[2ioJ Hercul. fur. oi Seneca.
Hymselfe in chaynes that equall thynges
270 to Joue by lotte dooth holde ?
And beare the rule of captyue hell,
and waye to Styx vnfolde ?
Up opened is from lowest ghosts
the backewarde waye to skye,
275 And sacred secrets of dire deathe
in open syght doo lye.
But he (the dredfull denne of sprights
broake vp) full fierce and stout
Euen ouer me doothe triumphe lo,
280 and with prowde hande about
The foule black dogge by Grekishe townes
he leades from hell a waye.
When scene was vgly Cerberus
J sawe the fadyng daye,
285 And fearefull soon : euen me lykewyse
a tremblyng dreade oppreste,
And lookyng on the fylthy necks
of conquerde monstrous beaste,
J feared muche myne owne behests.
290 but lyght thyngs J complayne,
For heauen J maye be frayde, least he
may get the hyghest rayne,
That lowest woon. the sceptors Irom
his father wyll he take,
2g5 Nor he to starrs (as Bacchus dyd)
his waye wyll gently make :
Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 
The wave with ruync wyll he seeke,
and he in empty skyes
\\ yll reygne alone, with force displayde
3u> his haughtye harte doothe ryse,
And he, that heauen it selfe, by force
of his myght gotten bee,
ft bearvng learnde : quight vndernethe
the worlde his headsette he,
3o5 Nor ones his shoulders bowde, the payse
of suche a myghty mas :
And mydst of heauen on Hercles necke
alone lo settled was.
His necke vnwryde the starrs aboue
3io and skies dyd onelye stave :
And me lykewyse oppressyng hym,
to Gods he seekes the waye.
Goe Jre, goe on, and beate hym downe
that greate thyngts doothe inuent,
3i5 Matche thou with hym, and with thy hands
nowe thou thy selt e hym rent.
Suche hates why dooste thou meditate?
Lette all wylde beastes nowe go :
And weary Eurystheus nowe be free
320 from geeuyng charges mo.
The Titans daryng once of Joue
to breake the imperye
Sende out : lette loase the dcnne abroade
of mounte of Sicilye.
[2i 2 1 Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
325 The Doricke lande that with the turne
of gyant quakes afrayde,
Let it bryng foorthe the dredefull neckes
of monster vnderlayde.
Let yet the haughty moone aboue
33o some other beastes beeget.
But these he ouercame. seekst thou
a matche t Alcides yet ?
Thers none, except hymselte : let hym
agaynst hym selfe rebell.
335 Let present bee from bottome deepe
vpraysde of lowest hell
Th Eumenides, let flamyng lockes
of theyrs the fyres out flyng,
And furious handes beestowe about
340 the stroakes of vypers styng.
Goe nowe full prowde, and skale the skyes
to seates of godds make wave.
Nowe must thy battels waged be,
full cleere loe shynes the daye.
345 Despise mas works : thinksty fierce wight
that hell and soules alowe
Thou haste escapte ? naye here J wyll
an other hell the showe.
Jn deepe myste hyd J wyll call vp
35o frome bottome lowe of hell
Beyonde the waves of gylty ghostes
debatefull goddesse fell.
Hercul. iur. of Sen. [21 3]
where as the roaryng dredfull denne
resoundes with cries about,
355 From deepest bonde of Ditis raigne
beneathe J will fette out,
what so is lefte. Let hatefull hurte
nowe come in anger woode,
And fierce impietie embrewe
36o hym selfe with his owne bloode,
And errour eke, and fury armde
agaynste it selfe to fyght.
This meane, this meane, let wrath of myne
nowe vse to shewe my myght.
365 Begyn ye seruantes nowe of hell :
the feruent burnyng tree
Of pyne shake vp : and sette with snakes
her dredfull flocke to see
Lette nowe MegcGra bryng to syght :
3yo and with her mournefull hande
for burnyng roage bryng out of hell
a huge and direfull brande.
Doo this, require you vengeance due,
and paynes of hell his spoyle,
375 Stryke through his breaste : let fiercer flame
within his bosome boyle,
Then whiche in Aetna fornace beates
so furiousely to see.
That madde of mynde and witles may
38o Alcides dryuen bee
[2i4l Hercul. fur. of Sen.
With fury great through pearced quight,
my selfe must fyrst of all
Be madde. Wherfore dothe Juno yet
not in to ragyng fall ?
385 Mee, mee, ye Furies, systers three
throwne quight out of my wyt
Tosse fyrst, yf any thyng to doo
J doo endeuour yet
For stepdame meete : let now my hates
390 be turnde an other way.
Let hym (returnde) his babes beholde
in safetie, J you praye,
And strong of hande come home : J haue
nowe found the day at length,
3g5 Jn whiche may greatly me auayle
the hated Hercles strengthe.
Bothe me, and eke hym selfe let hym
subdue, and wyshe to dye
Returnde from hell, yea let it here
400 be my commoditye,
That he of Joue begotten is :
here present wyll J stande,
And that his shafts goe streight from bowe,
J wyll directe his hande :
4o5 The mad mans weapons wyll J guyde,
Euen Hercles fyghtyng lo
At length Jle ayde. This gylt once doone
then leefull is that so
-i C 2 his
Hercul. Fur. of Sen. [2i5J
His lather may admytte to skyes
410 those gyltie handes of his.
The fadig stars now shine but seeld in sight
in stipye skye, night ouercome with day,
Plucks T her fires, while sprog again is light
4i5 y dai star draws y clere so beams their way.
The ycye sygne of haughty poale agaync,
with seue starrs markt y beares of Arcady,
Do call the light with ouerturned wayne.
with marble hors now drawn his way to hy
420 Doth Titan toppe of Oetha ouerspred.
the bushes bright that now with beries bee
Of Thebes strewd, by day do blush full red.
and to returne dothe Phoebus syster flee.
Now labor hard begyns, and euery kynde
426 of cares it stirrs, the shepeherd doth vnfolde
His flocks vnped, do grase their fode to findc
& nipps y grasse, with hoary frost ful colde.
At will dothe play in open medowe fayre,
y calfe, whose brow did dam yet neuer teare
43o The empty kyne their vdders doo repayre.
& light with course vncertayn, here & there,
Jn grasse full soft the wanton kid he flyngs.
in top of bow doth sit with chauntyng song,
And to the son new rose to sprede her wyngs
435 bcstirrs herself, her mournfull nests amog
C 3 The
[2 1 6] Hercul. Fur. of Sen.
The nightingale : & doth with birdes about
confuse resound, with murmure myxed rife
To witnes day. his sailes to wynds sette out
the shipman doth comit in doute of lyfe,
440 While gale of wid y slack sails fils ful strait
he leanyng ouer hollowe rocks dothe lye,
And eyther his beegiled hookes dothe bayte,
or els beholds and feeles the pray from hye
with paysed hande.
445 The treblyng fishe he feeles with lyne extet.
this hope to them to whom of hurtlesse life,
Js quiet rest, and with his owne content,
and lytle, house, suche hope in fieldes is rife.
The troublus hopes w rollig whirlwid gret
460 & dredful feares, their waies in cities kepe.
He proude repaire to prince in regall seate,
& harde court gates without the rest of slepe
Esteemes, and endles happynes to holde
doth gather goods, for tresure gaping more,
455 And is full poore amyd his heaped golde.
the peoples fauour him (astonied sore)
And comons more vnconstant then the sea,
with blast of vain renoun lifts vp ful proud.
He sellyng at the braulyng barre his plea,
460 full wicked, setts his yres & scolldyng lowde
And woords to sale . a fewe hath known of al
the careles rest, who mindful how r doth flitte
Swyft age away, the tyme that neuer shall
returne again do hold . while fates permitte,
C 4 At
Hercul. lur. of Seneca. 
465 At quiet lyue : the life ful quickly glides
with hastned course, & with the winged day
The whele is turnd of yere y hedlog slides,
the sisters hard performe their tasks alway,
Nor mai againvntwist their threds ons spo
470 yet mankynde lo vnsure what waye to take
To mete the greedy destenies dothe ron,
and willyngly we seeke the Stygian lake.
To muche Alcides thou with stomack stout
the sory sprights of hell dooste haste to see.
475 with course prefixt the fates ar broght about
to none once warnd to come, may respyte be
To none to passe their once appointed day.
thetombe all people calde by death doth hide
Let glory him by many landes away
480 display, & fame throughout all cities \\ide
Full bablyng praise, & cue with skye to stad
auaunce, & Starrs : let hym in chariot bright
Full haughty goe : let me my natiue land
in safe & secret house kepe close fro sight.
486 To restful men hoare age by cours doth fal,
and lowe in place, yet safe, & sure doth lye
The poore and base estate of cottage small :
the prowder pope of mynd doth fall fro hye.
But sad here comes with losed locks of hear
490 loe Megara, with lyttle cumpanye,
And slow by age draws Hercles father nere
[2 1 8] Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
A C T E .
4<)5 Guyder great of heauen, and of
the worlde o iudge full hye,
Yet now at length apoynt a meane
of carefull myserye,
And ende of our calamitie.
5oo to me yet neuer daye
Hath carelesse shynde, the ende of one
affliction paste awaye
Begynnyng of an other is :
an other ennemye
5o5 Js foorthwith fownde, before that he
his ioyfull famylye
Retourne vnto, an other fyght
he taketh by behest :
Nor any respite gyuen ys
5io to hym nor quiet rest,
But whyle that he commaunded is :
strayght hym pursueth shee
The hatefull Juno. Was yet once
from toyle and labour free
5i5 His infantes age ? the monsters lo
he vanquysht hathe and slayne,
Before he knew what monsters ment.
The skaled serpents twayne
Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [219!
Theyr double neckes drew on toward hym,
52O agaynst the whyche to ryse,
The infant crepte to meete with them,
the serpentes glyttryng eyes
Lyke fyre, with quiet carelesse brest
he lookyng fast vppon,
525 With coutnance cleere, hard wrested knots
of them he caught anon :
And stranglyng then the swellyng throates
of them with tender hande,
To Hydra prelude made, the beaste
53o so swyfte of Maenale lande,
That with muche golde bare vp fnll bryght
his beautified heade,
Js caught in course . of Nemey woode
lykewyse the greatest dreade
535 The lyon prest with Hercles armes
hath roarde with dreadfull crye.
What shoulde J speake of stables dyre
of steedes oi Bystonye ?
Or kyng caste out hym selfe for foode
540 his horses fierce to fyll ?
And bristled beast in thicke topps woont
of Eryrnanthus hyll,
The boare of M;enalye, the woodds
of Arcady to shake ?
545 And bull that dyd no lyttle dreade
to hundred peoples make ?
[22o] Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
Among the flocks of Hesper lande
that hens farre distant bee,
The shepherde of Cartesian coast
55o of tryple shape to sec
Js slayne, and dryuen is the praye
from farthest parte of weaste,
Cith86ron quakte when by hym past
to sea the well knowne beast.
555 He beeyng byd to make by coastes
of sommer sonne his waye,
And parched landes whche sore with heate
dooth boyle the myddell daye,
The mountayns brake on eyther syde
5f>o and rampiers all vndoon,
Euen vnto swyfte and ragyng sea
hathe made a waye to roon.
Then entryng in of plenteous wood
the pleasant gardeyns gaye,
565 The wakyng dragons golden spoyles
with hym he brought awaj^e.
The Lerna monsters numerous yll
what neede to tell haue J ?
Hath he not hym with fyre at lengthe
570 subdewde, and taught to dye ?
And which were woont with wyngs abrode
to hyde the daye from syght,
Kuen from the cloudes he sought and draue
the Stymphale byrdes to flyght.
Hercul. fur. of Sen. 
575 Not hym subdewde who euer lyes
in bedde vnmatcht at nyght
The wyddowe queene of them that toke
to Thermodont their flyght.
Nor handes that well durst enterprise
58o his noble trauayles all
The fylthy labour made to shrynke
of foule Augias hall.
What vayle all these ? he wants the worlde
whyche ofte defended he.
585 And th erthe well knowes the woorker ol
his quietnes to be
Away from earthe : the prosperous gvlt
that beareth happy swaye,
Js vertue callde, and now the good
5qo to wycked doo obaye.
The ryght doth stande in myght of armes,
feare treadeth downe the lawe.
Before my face with cruell hande
euen presently J sawe
5g5 Reuengers of theyr fathers reygne
the sonnes with swoorde downe cast,
And of the noble Cadmus eke
hymselfe the ofspryng last
Then slayne : J sawe his regall crowne
600 at once from hym awaye
With head byreft. Who Thebes alas
enough bewayle nowe maye ?
[22 2j Hercu. fur. of Sen.
The fertile lande of godds, what lorde
nowe quakes it for to knowe ?
f>o5 Out of the fieldes of whiche somtyme,
and fruitefull bosome lowe,
The youth vpsprong with sworde in hand
preparde to battell stoode :
And walls of whiche Amphion one
610 of myghty Joue his broode,
Hath buylt with sowndyng melody
in drawyng to the stones :
To towne of whome the parent cheefe
of Godds not onely ones
6i5 Heauen beyng left hath come, this lande
that godds aboue alway
Receyude, & whiche hath made them godds,
and (leefull beete to say)
Perhapps shall make, with lothsome yoake
620 of bondage is preste downe.
O Cadmus stocke, and citezens
of olde Amphions towne,
Wherto are ye nowe fallne ? dreade ye
a cowardly exul thus,
625 His coastes to dwell in lackyng, and
to ours iniurious ?
Who through the worlde pursues the gyllts
and wrong by sea and lande,
And cruell sceptors broken hath
63o with iuste and ryghtfull hande,
2> 2 Nowe
Hercul. Fur. of Sen. 
Nowe absent serues, and what he easde
in other doothe sustayne :
And nowe doth bannysht Lycus holcle
of Hercles Thebes the rayne.
635 Yet shall he not : he shall come home,
And hym with vengeaunce quight,
And sodayne ryse to Starrs : he wyll
Soone fynde the vvaye to lyght,
Or make it ells, returne thou safe,
640 repayre to thyne in haste :
And conquerour to conquerde house
yet come agayne at laste.
Ryse vp my spouse, and darknesse deepe
repellde of helly shade
645 Breake vp with hande, yf no way may
for thee kept backe bee made,
And passage be shette vp, returne
with worlde vprent by myght.
And what soeuer lythe possest
65o byneathe in darkest nyght,
Sende out with thee. as when the topps
of haughty hylles vndoon
A hedlong passage makyng through
for hasty floude to roon
655 Thou somtyme stoodst, wha w great might
of thyne asunder broake
The Tempye woods wyde open laye :
and beaten with thy stroake
3> 3 The
[224! Hercu. fur. of Sen.
The mownt, now here, now ther fel downe :
660 and rampier rente of staye,
The ragyng brooke of Thessaly
dyd roon a newe fownde waye.
Thy parentes so, thy soons, thy lande
repayryng home to see,
665 Breake out, and lowest bonde of thyngs
out bryngyng thens with thee,
And what soeuer greedy age
in all these long yeares race
Hath hyd, shewe foorth, & ghosts that haue
670 forgotte theyr former case,
And people vp before thee dryue
that fearefull are of lyght.
Unworthy spoyles for thee they are,
yf thou but bryng to syght
675 What bydden is. great things, but farre
to muche J speake for me,
Unwotyng of myne owne estate.
when shall J happe to see,
The day when thee, and thy ryght hande,
680 J maye embrace agayne,
And slowe returnes, nor yet of me
once myndefull, may complayne ?
To thee for this O guyde of godds,
vntamed bulls shall bryng
685 Theyr hundred neckes : to thee O queene
of frutes on earthe that spryng
Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 
Jle gyue the secret sacriiyce :
to thee with muche fayth loe
Long fyre brandes at Eleusis towne
690 full sylent wyll J throe.
Then to my brethern shall J thynke
to bee restoarde agayne
Theyr sowles, and eke hymselle alyue
and guydyng of his rayne
6g5 My father for to flouryshe yet.
yf any greater myght
Doo kepe thee shette, we followe thee :
with thy returne to syght
Defende vs all, or els to hell
700 drawe downe vs all to thee.
Thou shalt vs drawe, no god shall rayse
vs vp that broken bee.
M E G A R A .
yo5 ^-^ Faythfull fellowe of our bloude,
with chaste true faythfulnes
The bridebed keeping, and the sonns
of haughty Hercules,
Conceyue in mynde some better thyngs,
710 and take good harte to thee :
He wyll come home, as after all
his labours woonteth hee,
 Hercu. sur. of Sen.
Of more renowne. MEG. what wretches do
moste chiefly wyshe of all,
7i5 They soone beleue. AM Nay what thei feare
to muche least it may fall,
They thynke it neuer may bee shoonde,
nor rydde by remedy.
MEG. Beleefe is ready styll to dreade
720 the woorser myserye.
Depe drownde, & whellmde, & farthermore
with all the worlde full lowe
Oppressed downe, what waye hath he
to lyght agayne to goe ?
725 AM. What way J pray you had he then
when through the burnyng coste,
And tumblyng after maner of
the troubled sea vp toste
He went by sands : and freate that twysc
73o with ebbe away doothe slyppe,
And twyse vpflowe : and when alone
with his forsaken shyppe,
Fast caught he stucke in shallowe foordes
of shelfye Syrtes sande,
735 And (nowe his shyppe on grounde) dyd passe
through seas a foote to lande?
MEG. Jniurious fortune vertue most
of men moste stoute and strong
Doothe seldome spare : no man alyue
740 Hymselfe in safetie long
Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 
To peryls great and daungers may
so often tymes out caste.
Whome chaunce doothe often ouerslippe,
the same yt fyndes at laste.
745 But cruell loe, and greeuous threats
euen bearyng in his face,
And suche as he of stomacke ys,
doothe come euen suche of pace,
Prowde Lycus who the sceptors shakes
75o in hande of other kyng,
The plentuous places of the towne
of Thebes gouernyng,
And euery thyng aboute the whyche
with fertyle soyle dooth goe
755 Sloape Phocis, and what euer doothe
What euer thyng Cithaeron seethe
with haughty toppe and hye,
And slender Jsthmos yle, the whyche
760 betweene two seas dooth lye.
Lycus , Megara ,
Ot J of natiue countrey bowres
Possesse the auncient ryght
765 Unworthy hey re, nor yet to me
are noble men of myght,
[228J Hercu. fur. oi Sen.
The grandfathers, nor stocke renownde
with titles hye of name,
But noble vertue : who so boastes
770 of kynred whence he came,
Of others vertue makes his vawnte.
but gotte with fearefull hande
My sceptors are obtaynde : in swoorde
dothe all my safety stande.
775 What thee thou wottst agaynst the wyll
of cytesyns to get,
The bryght drawne sworde must it defende.
in forayne countrey set
No stable kyngdome is. But one
780 my pompe and princely myght
May ratifye, once ioynde to me
with regall torche full bryght,
And chambers Megara : of stocke
of suche nobilitee
785 Let vpstarte state of myne take shape.
J doo not thynke that shee
Refuse it wyll, or in the bedde
with me despyse to lye.
But yf with proude vnbrydled mynde
790 shee stubberne doo denye,
Then quyght J purpose to destroye
the house of Hercules.
The hate of men wyll then my pryde,
and peoples speache oppres.
Hercul. fur. of Sen. 
7g5 Chicle knacke of kyngdome is to bearc
Thy subiects hates eche one.
Lets proue her then, chaunce gyuen hath
To vs a place alone.
For she her head in tblde of vayle
800 full saddc and wo fully
Enwrapt, the gods that are her guydes
for succour stands faste by,
And at the syde of her doothe leane
Alcides father trewe.
8o5 MEG. What thyng dothe this destroier of
our stockc, agayne a ncwe
Prepare? what proueth he ? LY. O queene
That name renowned hye
And title takste of regall stocke,
810 full gentle and easyly
A lyttle while receyue and heare
my woords with pacient eare.
Jf alwayes men eternall hates
shoulde one to th other beare,
8i5 And rage beegoon, out of the harte
shoulde neuer fall awaye,
But th happy still shoulde armour holde
th unhappye styll obnye,
Then shall the battayles nothyng leaue :
820 with wyde fieldes then the lande
Shall lye vntyllde, with vnderlayde
to housen I yry brande
[>3o] Hercul. fur. of Sen.
Then ashes deepe shall oucrwhelme
the buried people all.
825 Expedient is to conquerour
to wyshe that peace befall :
To conquerde needefull. partener of
the kyngdome come to me :
Letts ioyn our mynds, take here this pledge
83o of fay the and truthe to thee :
My ryght hand touchc. Why whishtest thou
with cruell face and moode ?
MEG. Shoulde J abyde, that J the hande
sprinkte with my fathers bloode,
835 Shoulde touche and double death enbrewde
of bothe my bretherne ? naye
Fyrst shall sonne ryse extinguish* 1 quyght,
And weste shall bryng the daye :
Fyrst failhfull peace betweenc the snowes
840 and fyres there shall bee tryde,
And Scylla shall t Ausonius fyrste
ioyne his Sicilyan syde,
And fyrst, the flecyng floude that with
swyfte turnes of course doothe flowe
846 Euripus with Euboik waue
shall stand full styll and slowe.
My father th empire, brethern, howsc,
Thou haste me cleare berefte
My countrey to : what may bee more ?
85o one thyng to me is lefte,
J6 2 Then
Hercul. Fur. of Sen. [281
Then brother, lather, kyngdome, house,
that deerer is to me
The hate of thee : the whyche to me
with people tor to bee
855 Jn commune, woe J am : howe greate
ys myne allonely parte ?
Rule on lull proude, beare vp lull hyc
thy sprights and haughty harte :
Yet god the prowde behynde theyr backes
860 dothe Ibllowe them to \vreake.
J knoxve the Thebane kyngdomes. What
shoulde J the mothers speake,
Bothe suffryng, and aduentryng gylts ?
what double myschefe donne ?
865 And myxed name of spouse at once,
of father and of sonne ?
What bretherns double tents ? or what
as many roages also ?
The mother prowde of Tantalls broode
870 congealde in mournyng lo,
And sory stone yet flowes with teares
in Phrygian Sipylye.
Hymselfe lykewyse erectyng vp
his skaled head awrye,
875 Euen Cadmus measuryng throughout
th JUyrian landes in flyght,
Behynde hym lefte of body drawne
long slymye marks in syght.
J6 3 All
 Hercul. Fur. of Sen.
All these examples wayte for thee :
880 rule thou as lykes thy wyll,
Whyle thee our kyngdoms woonted fates
doo call and ofte hapte yll.
LY. Goe to, these fierce and furious woords
thou woman madde refrayne :
885 And imperies of princes learne
of Hercles to sustayne.
Though J the sceptors gotten by
the force of warre doo beare
Jn conquryng hande, and all doo rule
890 without the lawe his feare
Whiche armes subdue, a fewe words yet
to thee nowe speake J shall
For this my cause : thy father dyd
in blouddy battayle fall :
8g5 Thy bretherne fell : the weapons keepe
no measurable staye.
For neyther easyly tempred bee,
nor yet repressed maye
The drawne swoordes yre : the battels doth
900 the bloude delyght out shed.
But he yet for his kyngdome fought,
we all togyther led
With wycked luste : yet th ende of warre
ys nowe compHiyned loe,
cp5 And not the cawse. but nowe let all
remembrance therof goe :
Hercul. fur. of Seneca. 
When conquerour hath weapons left,
the conquerds parte shoulde bee
To leaue his hates. Not J that thou
gio with lowly bended knee
Me raignyng worshyp shouldst, require :
Euen this dooth me delight,
That thou thy myseries doost beare
with mynde so stoute vpright.
Ql5 Thou for a kyng a spouse arte meete,
letts ioyne our bedds anone.
MEG. A treblng cold doth run throughout
my bloudlesse lyms eche one.
What heinous thing comes to myne eares ?
920 J fearde not then at all,
When (all peace broake) the noyse of war re
dyd by the citie wall
Resounde about, J bare all that
vnfearefully to see,
925 J feare the weddyng chambers : nowe
J captyue seeme to mee.
Let heauy chaynes my body greeue,
and eke with hunger long
Let lyngryng death be slowly brought,
g3o yet shall no force full strong
My truthe subdue : for euen thyne owne
Alcides wyll J dye.
LY. Doth then thy husband drownd in hell
geue thee this stomacke hye ?
 Hercul. fur. of Soneca.
g35 MEG. Thehells alowe he toucht, that he
The heyght agayne myght get.
LY. The heauy payse oppresseth hym
Of all the earthe full great.
MEG. He with no burdeyn shall be prest,
940 that heauen it selfe sustaynde.
LV. Thou shalt be forst. ME. He wots not how
to dye, that is constraynde.
LY. Speake, what may rather J prepare
then weddyng newe for thee
945 More royall gyft ? MEG. Thyne owne death
or ells the death of mee. (els,
LY. Thon shalt mad woman dye. MEG. J shal
then to my husbande go.
LY. More then my sceptors is to thee
g5o a seruant loued so ?
MEG. Howe many hath this seruant slayne
of kyngs with handye stroake ?
LY. Why dothe he yet a kyng then seme,
and styll sustayne his yoake ?
955 MEG. Take once away the harde behests,
whats vertue then at laste ?
LY. Dooste thou it vertue counte, to bee
to beasts, and monsters caste ?
MEG. Tis vertues part, to tame the thyngs,
960 that all men quake to knowe.
LY. Hym great thyngs braggyng, darknes
of tartare presse full lowe. (deepe
Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [235 1
ME. There neuer may fro grownd to stars
an easye passage be.
g65 LY. Of whom begot, the housen then
of godds through pearceth he ?
AM. O wretched wyfe of Hercles great,
thy woords a whyle now spare.
My parte it is, the father of
970 Alcides to declare,
And his true stockc. yet after all
of man so stoute as this
So famous deedes, and after all
Appeasde with hande of his
975 What euer Titan rysen vp,
Doothe see, orels at fall,
And after all these monsters taemde,
and Phlegrey sprynkled all
With wycked blonde, and after godds
980 defended all on hye,
Js not his father yet well knowne ?
Or Joue doo we beelye ?
Beleeue it yet by Junoes hate.
LY. why dooste thou sclawnder Joue ?
985 No mortall kynred euer maye
bee myxte with heauen aboue.
AM. To many of the godds in skyes
is this a common trade.
LY. But were they euer seruantes yet,
990 before they godds were made ?
[23 6J Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
AM. Of Dclos yle the shepherde loe
the flocks ofPhcrcy fed.
LY. But through all coasts he wandred not
abroade as banyshecl.
Q()5 AM. \Vhome straying mother fyrst brought
in wandryng lande to syght. (foorth
LY. Yet Phoebus dyd no monsters feare,
or beasts of cruell myght.
AM. First dragon with his blood embrewde
iom^ the shafts of Phoebus loe.
Howe greeuous ylls cucn yet full yong
he bare, doo vow not knoe ?
Fro mothers wombe the babe out throwne
with lyghtnyng flame from hye,
ioo5 Fuen next his lyghtnyng father stoode
foorthwith aboue in skye.
What ? he hym selfe that guydes the starrs,
and shakes the cloudcs at wyll,
Dyd not that infant lurke in denne
lolo of hollowe caued hyll ?
The byrthes so great full troublous price
to haue loe allways ought :
And euer to be borne a God,
with coste full greate is bought.
ioi5 LY. Whome thou a myser seeste, thou mayst
Knowe hym a man to bee.
AM. A myser hym denye ye maye,
whome stoute of harte ye see.
Hercu. fur. of Sen. 
Lv. Call we hym stoute, from shoulders hye
1020 of whom the lyon throwne
A gyfte for mayden made, and eke
his clubbe from hande fell downe,
And paynted syde with purple vveede
dyd shyne that he dyd weare ?
IO25 Or may we hym call stoute of harte,
whose staryng lockes of heare
\Yith ointmet flowde? who hfids renownde
and knowne by prayses hye
To sownde vnmeete for any man
io3o of tymber dyd applye,
With barbarous mytar cloasyng in
his forhed rownde about ?
AM The tender Bacchus dyd not blushe
abroade to haue layde out
lo35 His brayded heares, nor yet with hande
full softe the Thyrsus lyght
For to haue shooke, what tyme that he
with pace vnstoute in syght
His long traynde barbarous garmet drew
1040 with golde full fayre to see.
Styll vertue after many woorkes
is woont releaste to bee.
LY. Of this the house of Euritus
destroyde doothe wytnesse beare,
1046 And virgins flockes that brutyshly
by hym oppressed weare.
 Hercul. fur. of Sen.
No Juno dyd commawnde hym this,
Nor none Eurystheus loe.
But these in deede his owne woorks are.
io5o AM. Yet all ye doo not knoe.
His woorke it is with weapons of
his owne hande vanquyshed
Bothe Eryx, and to Eryx ioynde
Anteus Lybian ded :
io55 And aultars whiche with slaughter of
the straungers flowyng fast,
Busyris well deserued bloode
lykewyse haue droonke at last.
His deede it is, that he that met
1060 the wownde, and swoorde is slayne
Constraynde to suffre deathe before
those other Geryons twayne.
Nor one allonely Geryon dothe
with one hande conquerde lye.
io65 Thow shalt among these be : whych yet
with none adulterye
Haue wedlocke hurte. LY. What is to Joue
to kyng is leefull thyng :
To Joue thou gauste a wyfe, thou shalt
1070 nowe geue one to a kyng.
And euen of thee shee shall it learne
to bee a thyng not newe,
Her husband euen approuyng it
the better man t ensewe.
r 2 But
Hercu. sur. of Sen. 
1075 But yf she stubberne to be matcht
with me denye it styll,
Then euen by force a noble chylde
Of her beget J wyll.
MEG. O Creons ghosts, and all ye godds
1080 ol th howse of Labdacus,
And weddyng torches blasyng bryght,
of wycked Oedipus,
To this my weddyng geue ye nowe
our woonted destenies.
ioS5 Now, now ye bloody daughters all
of Egyptes kyng lykewyse,
Ree here whose hands defyled are
with so muche bloude out spy It :
One daughter lacks of Danaus,
Kxp J wyll fyll vp the gylt.
Lv. Because that stubburnely thou dooest
refuse my weddyng so,
And fearste a kyng, thou shalt know what
the sceptors nowe maye do.
logS Enbrace thyne aultars, yet no god
shall euer take away
Thee from my handes : no not although
with worlde vpturned, may
Alcides victor yet agayne
1 100 to gods aboue returne.
The woods on heapes togyther cast,
let all their temples burne
f 3 Euen
[240) Hercul. Fur. of Sen.
Kuen throwne vpon theyr heds : his wyfe,
and all his flocke at laste
no5 With vnderlayed fyre, let one
wood pyle consume and waste.
AM. This only bowne J father of
Alcides aske of thee,
Whiche well may me beseeme to crane,
1 1 10 that J fyrst slayne may bee.
LV. Who all appoynts with present deathe
to haue theyr punyshment,
He tyrant wotts not how to bee :
more sundry greeues inuent.
Hi5 Restrayne the wretched man from death,
commaunde that th happy dye.
J, whyle with beames preparde to burne
the pyle encreaseth hye,
Wyll hym with vowyng sacrifyce
1 120 that rules the seas entreate.
AM. Oh chiefest powre of godds, and oh
of heauenly thyngs so great
The guyde, and parent eke, with whose
throwne thunderboltes doo shake
1 125 All thyngs humane throughout the worlde,
of kyng so cruell slake
The wycked hande : but why doo J
to godds in vayne thus cr} r e ?
Where euer thou be heare me soon.
Il3o why starte so sodaynlye
Hercu. fur. of Sen. 
The temples thus with mouyng shakte ?
Why roareth out the grownde ?
The noyse of hell from bottome deepe
byneathe hath made a sownde :
Ii35 We herde are, loe it is the sownde
of Hercules his pace.
Q fortune hatyng men of stoutest brest,
howe yll rewards dost thou to good deuyde ?
1140 Kurystheus raynes at home in easye rest,
Alcmenaes sonne in euery battayle tryde,
To mosters turns his hand y skies did stay :
and cruell neckes cuts of of hydous snake,
And apples bryngs fro systers mokt away,
1145 whe once to slepe his watcheful eies betake,
Did dragon set ryche fruite to ouersee.
he past the Scythia bowres y stray abroade,
And those that in their coutreis strangers be
and hardened top of frosen freat he troade,
il5o And sylent sea with banks ful dume about,
the waters hard wat ther their floods to flo.
And where before y ships full sails spred out
is worne a pathe for Sarmates wyld to go.
The sea doth stand to moue in course again,
Ii55 now apt to beare the ship, now horsmen bold
The quene y there doth oner wydows rayn,
y girds her wobe \v girth of glittryng gold,
 Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
Her noble spoile from body drawne hath she
cSt shield, & bands of brest as white as snowe,
1160 Acknowlegyng the conquerour with knee,
w what hope drawne to hedlog hell alowe,
So bolde to passe the vnreturned wayes
sawst thou Proserpines rayne of Sicylye ?
With southern wid, or western ther no seas
n65 aryse with waue and swellyng surges hye.
Not there of Tyndars stocke y double brood
two Starrs the feareful ships do aide & guide,
with gulph ful blak doth stad y slothful flood
and whe pale deth with gredy teeth so wide
1170 Unnubred natios hath set down to sprights
with one boate man all ouer feryed bee.
God graut thou maist of hel subdue y rights
And vnreuoked webs of systers three.
There kyng of many people raigneth hee,
1175 who whe thou didst w Nestors Pylos fight,
Pestiferous hads applide to matche w thee
& weapon bare with triple mace of might :
And prickt with litle wound he fled awaye,
and lorde of death hymselfe did feare to dye.
1180 Breake fate by force : &let the syght of daye
to sory sprights of hell apparent lye,
and porche vnpast shew way to gods aboue.
the cruel lords of sprights with plesant song
Andhuble bown ful wel could Orphe 9 moue
n85 while he Eurydicen them craues among.
Hercu. fur. of Sen. [243!
The art y drew woods, byrds, & stones at wil
which made delay to llouds of flitting flight
At soud wherof the sauage beasts stood styll
with tunes vnwot doth ghosts of hel delight
1 190 And cleerer dothe resounde in darker place :
iS: wepe with teares did gods of cruell brest :
And they which fautes with to seuere a face
do seeke, & former gylt of ghosts out wrest :
The Thracian daughters wails Kurydice.
Iiy5 for her the iudges weeping sitte also.
We coquerd ar, chief kyng of death said the
to godds (but vnder this codition) goe,
Behynd thy husbands back kepe y thy way,
looke thon not backe thy wyle before to see,
1200 Tha the to sight of gods hath brought y day
and gate of Spartane Tsenare present bee.
Loue hates delay, nor coulde abyde so long,
his gyfte, he loste, while he desires the syght.
The place y coulde be thus subdewd w song
I2o5 that place may soone be ouercom by myght.
Comfortable guyde of lyght,
1210 fflj]^ and honour of the skye,
That copassyng both hemyspheres
with flamyng charyot hye
 Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
Thy radiant head to ioyfull landes
about the worlde doste bryng,
I2i5 Thou Phoebus pardon geue to me,
yf any vnlawfull thyng
Thyne eyes haue scene : (commanded) J
haue here to lyght out fette
The secretes of the worlde : and thow
1220 of heauen o guyder grette,
And parent eke, in flashe out throwne
of lyghtnyng hyde thy syght.
And thou that gouernest the seas
with seconde sceptors myght,
1225 To bottome synke of deepest waues :
who so from hye dothe see,
And dreadyng yet with cowntnance newe
the erthe defylde to bee,
Let hym from hens turne backe his syght,
I23o and face to heauen vpholde,
These mostrous syghts to shoon : let t\vain
this mischiefe great beholde,
He who it brought, and she that badde.
for paynefull toyles to me,
1235 And labours long, not all the earthe
thowght wyde ynough may be
For Junoes hate : thyngs vncome to
of all men J dyd see,
Unknowne to sonne, and spaces wyde
1240 that darke and shadefull bee
Hercu. fur. of Sen. [246!
Whiche woorser poale geeues dyrer Joue
to raigne and rule thervn.
And yet } - f thyrde place pleasyd more
for me to enter yn,
J there coulde raigne. the Chaos of
eternall nyght of hell,
And woorse then nyght, the dole-full godds
J haue that there doo dwell,
And fates subdude, the deathe contcmnde
i25o J am returnde to lyght.
What yet remaynes ? J sawe and showde
the spryghts of hell to syght :
Appoynte, yf ought be more, doste thou
my hands so long permyt
1255 Juno to ceasse ? what thyng bydst thou
to be subdued yet?
But why doo cruell sowldyars holde
the holy temples wvde ?
And dreade of armour sac-red porche
I2(x) beset on euery syde ?
Oo eyther ells my great desyres
I I delude and mocke myne eyes ?
1265 Or hath the tamer of the worlde
and greekes renowne lykewyse,
 Hercul. fur. of Sen.
Forsooke the silent howse, besette
with cloude full sadde to see ?
Js this my sonne ? my membres loe
1270 for ioy amased bee.
Oh sonne, the sure, and sauegarde late
of Thebes in mysery,
See J thy bodye true in deede ?
or els deceyude am j
1275 Mockt with thy spright ? art thou the same ?
these brawnes of armes J knowe,
And shoulders, and thy noble handes
From body hye that growe.
HER. Whens (father) happs this vglynes,
1280 And why in mournyng cladde
Js thus my wyfe ? ho we happs it that
with fylthe so fowle bestadde
My chyldren are ? what myserye
doothe thus my howse oppresse ?
1285 AM. Thy father in lawe is slayne : the kyng-
clome Lycus doothe possesse.
Thy sonnes, thy parent, and thy wyfe
to deathe pursueth he.
HER. Ungratefull land, clothe no man come
1290 that will an ayder be
Of Hercles howse ? and this behelde
so greate and heynous wrong
Hath th ayded worlde ? but why weare J
the daye in playnt so long ?
<B 2 Let
Hercu. sur. of Sen. 
I2g5 Let th enmy dye : and this renowne
let strengthe obtayne in haste,
And of Alcides enmyes all
let Lycus be the laste.
J dryuen am to goe to shedde
i3oo the blood of enmye out.
Watche Theseu, that no sodayne strength
beeset vs heere about.
Me warres requyre. enbracyng yet
deferre O father deare,
i3o5 And wyfe deferre them : Lycus shall
to hell this message beare
That] am no we returnde. THE. Shake of
O queene out of thyne eyes
This weepyng face, and thou sens that
i3io thy sonne is safe lykewyse
Thy droppyng teares refrayne : yf yet
J Mercies euer knewe,
Then Lycus shall for Creon pave
the paynes to hym full dewe.
i3i5 Tis lyght, he shall : he doothe : and thats
to lyght, he hathe it doone.
AM. Now god that can them bring to passe,
speede well our wyshes soone,
And come to helpe our weary woes.
i32o C) noble harted mate
Of my stoute sonne, of his renowne
declare vs all the rate :
<3 3 How
[24.8J Hercul. Fur. of Sen.
Howe long a waye doothe leade to place
where sory sprights doo dwell,
1325 And howe the harde and heauy bonds
the dogge hathe borne of hell.
THE. The deedes y doost constrayne to tell,
that euen to mynde secure
Are drcdfull yet and horryble,
i33o scant yet the truste is sure
Of vitall ayre, sore blunted is
the sharpnesse of my syght,
And dulled eyes doo scant sustayne
to see th vnwoonted lyght.
1 335 AM. Yet Theseus throwghly ouercome
what euer feare remaynes
Jn bosome ddepe, nor doo thou not
of best frute of thy paynes
Beguylde thy selfe. What thyng hath once
1340 to surfre beene a care,
To haue remembred it is sweete.
those dredfull happs declare.
THE. All ryght of worlde, and thee lykewise
J pray that bearste the rayne
13^5 Jn kyngdome wyde, and thee, for whoine
All rownde about in vayne
Thy mother throughout ^Etna sowght,
that secret thyngs alowe
And hydde in grownde, it freely may
i35o bee lawfull for to showe.
<3 4 The
Hercu. fur. of Sen. [249!
The Spartane lande a noble toppe
of hyll aduaunceth hye,
Where Taenarus with woodes full thycke
the sea dootho ouerlvi .
1 355 The house of hatefull Ditis here
his mowthe doothe open sotte,
And rocke of hyll aboue doothe gape,
and with a dennc full grettc
A huge and gapyng clefte of grownde
i36o with iawes full wyde doothe lye,
And way full broade to people all
dothe spreddc to passe therby.
Not straight with darkenes dothe bcgynnc
The way that blyndes the syght.
i365 A lyttle lyngiyng bryghtnes lo
behynde of late lefte lyght,
And doubtfull glyttryng yet of sonno
afflicted falles alowe,
And mocks the syght : suche lyght is \voont
/ndoubtedly to showe
The dawne of day, or twylyght els
at edge of euenyng tyde.
From hens to hollowe places voydc
Are loaste the spaces wyde,
To whiche needes peryshe must all kynde
of men that once are throwne.
Nor it a labour is to goe,
the waye it selfe leades downe.
[25o| Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
As ofte the shypps ngaynst theyr wyllos
J.tfx> clothe tosse the swellyng surge,
So downewarde dothe that hedlong way,
and greedy Chaos vrge :
And backe agayne to drawe thy pace
thee neuer doo permytte
i385 The sprights who what they catch hold fast.
alowe within cloothe flytte
Jn chcinell wyde with sylent foorde
the quiet lake oflethe.
And cares dothe rydde : and that there may
i3o/> to scape agayne from deathe
Xo meane be made, with many turnes
and w r }*ndyngs eucry waye
Isoldes in his floode. in suche sorte as
with \\-aue vnsure doothe play
i3g5 Marauder wandryng vp and downe,
And yeldes hymselfe vnto,
And dowbtfull stands, yf he toward banke,
or backe to spryng may go.
The foule and fylthy poole to see
1400 of slowe Cocytus lyes.
On th one the grype, on th other syde
the mournefull howlet cryes,
And sadde lucke of th unhappy Strix
lykew} r se resoundeth there.
1405 Full vglye lye in shady bowes
blacke lockes of lothsome heare,
Hercu. fur. of Sen. |25i~|
Where Taxus tree dothe ouerlcane,
whiche holdeth slouthfull sleepe,
And hunger sadde \vith famysht iawe
1410 that lyes his place to keepe,
And shame to late doth hyde his face
that knowes what crimes it hathe,
Bothe feare, and quakyng, funerall,
and frettyng ragyng wrathe,
I4l5 And mournyng dyre dothe followe on,
and tremblyng pale disease,
And boystrous battailes set with swoordr :
and hydde beyonde all theaso
Dothe slouthfull age his lyngryng pace
1420 healpe foorth with stafie in hande.
AM. Of corne and wyne in hell alowe
is any fertile lande ?
THE No ioyful meades do there bring foorth
with face so greene and fayre,
1425 Nor yet with gentyll Zephyrus
wagges ripened corne in th ayre.
Nor any tree hath there suche bowes
as doe bryng apples out.
The barrayne compasse of deepe soyle
I43o full fylthye lyes about,
And withred with eternall drought
the lothsome lande dothe waste
And bonde full sadde of thyngs, and of
the worllde the places laste :
 Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
1435 The ay re vnmoued stands, and nyght
sytts there full darke to see
Jn slouthfull worlde, all thynges by dreade
full horrible there bee.
And euen farrc worse then deathe it selfe,
1440 is place where deathe doothe byde.
AM. "What? he that doth those places darke
with regall sceptor gwyde,
Jn what se:ite sette, dot he he dispose
and rule those peoples light?
1445 THE. A place there is in turnc obscure
of Tartarus from syght,
Which myst full thicke with feareful shade
doothe holde and ouergoe.
From hens a double parted streame
1460 from one wellspryng doothe floe :
The tone, muche lyke a standyng poole
(by this the godds doo sweare)
The whiche the sacred Stygian lake
with silent floude doothe beare :
1455 The tother fierce with tumulte great
is dra wen hys course to goe,
And Acheron with ragyng floode
the stones dryues to and froe
Unsaylable. with double foorde
1460 is rounoe about besette
Agaynst it Ditis palayce dyre,
and mansyon howse full grctte
Hercu. fur. of Sen. 
Jn shadefull woode is couered :
from wide denne here the posts
1465 And thresholds of the tyrant hang,
this is the walke of ghosts :
This of his kyngdomeis the gate :
a felde about it goes,
\Yhere syttyng with a countnaunce proude
1470 abroade he doothe dispose
Newe sowles. a cruell maiestie
is in the god to knowe :
A frownyng forhead, whyche yet of
his brethren beares the showe,
1475 And so great stocke : there is in hym
of Joue the very face,
But when he lyghtens : and great parte
of cruell kvngdomes place,
Js he hymselfe the lorde therof :
[480 the syght of who me dothe feare,
What euer thyng is fearde. AM. Js fame
in this poynt trewe, that there
Suche rygours are, and gyltie ghosts
of men that there remayne
1485 Forgetfull of theyr former faute,
haue their deserued payne ?
Who is the rector there of ryght,
and Judge of equitye ?
THE. Not onely one extorter out
1490 of fautes in seate sette hye
[2541 Hercu. fur. Sen.
The iudgements late to tremblyng sowles
doothe there by lotte awarde :
Jn one appointed Judgement place
is Gnossian Minos harde,
1496 And in an other Radamanthe :
This cryme doothe Aeac heare.
What eche man ones hath doone, he feeles :
and guylt to th author theare
Returnes, and th hurtfull with their owne
i5oo example punnysht bee.
The bluddy cruell captaynes J
in pryson shette dyd see,
And backe of tyrant impotent
euen with hys peoples hande
i5o5 All torne and cutte. what man of myght
with fauour leades his lande,
And of his owne lyfe lorde reserues
his hurtlesse handes to good,
And gently doothe his empyre guyde
i5lo without the thyrst of blood,
And spares his sowle, he hauyng long
ledde foorthe the lyngryng dayes
Of happy age, at lengthe to heauen
doothe eyther fynde the wayes,
i5i5 Or ioyfull happy places ells
of fayre Elysius woode.
Thou then that here muste be a iudge
abstayne from man his bloode,
t) 2 Who
Hercu. fur. of Sen. 
Who so thou bee that raygnest kyng :
i520 our gyltes are there acquytte
Jn greater wyse. AM. Doothe any place
prescript of lymite shytte
The gyltie ghosts, and as the fame
reportes, dothe cruell payne
i525 The wycked men make tame that in
eternall bondes remayne?
THE. Jxion rollde on whyrlyng wheele
is tost and turned hye :
l. T ppon the necke of Sisyphus
i53o the myghty stone dooth lye.
Amyd the lake with thyrsty iawes
ollde Tantalus theryn
Pursues the waues, the water streame
doothe wette and washe his chyn,
1 535 And when to hym no we ofte deceyude
it doothe yet promyse make,
Straight flytts the Hood : the frute at mowth
his famyne doothe forsake.
Eternall foode to fleeyng fowle
1540 doothe Tityus harte geue styll :
And Danaus daughters doo in vayne
theyr water vessells fyll.
The wycked Cadmus daughters all
go ragyng euery waye :
And there doothe greedy rauenyng byrde
the Phiney tables frlye.
* 3 Am.
 Hercul. Fur. of Sen.
AM. Nowe of my sonne declare to me
the noble woorthy fyght.
Bryngs he his wyllyng vnkles gyfte,
i55o or Plutoes spoyles to syght ?
THE. A dyre and dredfull stone there ys
the slouthfull foordes fast bye,
Where sluggysh freate with waue astoond
full dull and slowe doothe lye :
1 555 This lake a dredfull fellowe keepes
bothe of attyre and syght,
And quakyng ghosts doothe ouer beare
An aged vgly wyght :
His bearde vnkempt, his bosome fowle
i56o deformde in fylthy wyse
A knotte byndes in, full lothesome stande
in head his hollowe eyes :
He fery man doothe steare aboute
his boate with his long ore.
i565 He dryuyng nowe his lyghtned shippe
of burden towarde the shore,
Repaires to waues : and then his way
Alcides doothe requyre,
The flocke of ghosts all geuyng place :
1570 Alowde cries Charon dyre,
What way attemptest thou so bolde ?
thy hastenyng pace here staye.
But natheles Alcmenaes sonne
abydyng no delaye,
t> 4 Euen
Hercu. fur. of Sen. 
Euen with his owne poale bette he doothe
lull tame the shypman make,
And clymes the shippe : the barke that could
lull many peoples take,
Dyd yelde to one : he satte, the boate
i58o more heauy lyke to breake
With shyueryng ioyntes on eythersyde
the lethey floode doothe leake.
Then tremble all the monsters huge,
the Centaures fierce of myght,
l5iS5 And Lapythes, kyndled with muche wyne
to war res and blouddy fyght.
The lowest chanelles seekyng out
of Stygian poole a downe,
His lerney labour sore affright
l5go his fertyle heddes doothe drowne.
Of greedy Ditis after this
doothe then the house appere.
The fierce and cruell Stygian dogge
doothe fraye the spirites there,
i5y5 The whiche with great and roaryng sounde
his hedds vpshakyng three,
The kyngdome keepes. his vgly head
with fylthe full fowle to see
The serpentes lycke : his heares be fowle
1600 with vypers sette amonS,
And at his crooked wrested tayle
doothe hysse a dragon longe :
 Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
Like yre to snape. when hym he wyst
his pace that way to take,
i(x>5 His bristle heares he lyfteth vp
with fierce vp bended snake :
And sownde sent out he soone perceyues
in his applyed eare,
Who euen the sprights is woont to sent.
1610 as soone as stoode more neare
The sonne of Joue, the doubtfull dogge
strayte couched downe in denne,
And eche of them dyd feare. beholde
with dolefull barkyng then
i6i5 The places dumme he makes a dred,
the threatnyng serpent stoute
Through all the fieldes aboute dooth hysse :
the bawlyng noyse sent out
Of dredfull voyce from triple mouthe,
1620 euen spryghts that happy bee
Dothe make afrayde. from lefte syde then
strayte way vndoeth hee
The cruell iawes, and lyons head
once slayne in Cleon fielde
i625 Agaynst hym setts, and couer doothe
hymselfe with myghty shielde.
And bearyng in his conqueryng hande
a sturdy clubbe of oke,
Nowe here, nowe there he rolleth hym
i63o about with often stroke :
Hercu. fur. of Sen. 
His strypes he doubles : he subdewde
his threatcs asswaged all,
And all his heds the weery dogge
at once full lovve lette tall,
i635 And quight out of the denne he rledde.
full greatly feared (sette
Jn regall throne) bothe kyng and queene,
and badde hym to bee fette.
And me lykewyse they gaue for gytte
1640 to Hercles crauyng me.
The monsters heauy neckes with hande
then stroakyng downe all three,
Jn lynked chayne he byndeth faste :
forgettyng then his strengthe
1645 The dogge the watchefull keeper of
the kyngdome darke, at lengthe
Laythe downe his eares full sore arfrayde :
and sut fryng to be ledde,
And eke acknowleging his lorde,
ib5o folowyng with lowly hedde,
With tayle that snakes theron doothe beare
he bothe his sydes doothe smyght.
But after that to Tsenare mouthe
we came, and clearenes bryght
i655 Had strooke his eyes of lyght vnknowne,
good stomacke yet agayne
He takes althowgh onse ouercome,
and now the heauye chayne
l26o| Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
He ragyng shakes : he had almost
1660 his leader pluckt from place,
And hedlong backwarde drawne to hell,
and moued from his pace.
And euen to my handes Hercles then
his eies dyd backewarde caste,
1665 We bothe with double ioyned strengthe
the dogge out drawne at laste
For anger woode, and battells yet
attemptyng all in vayne,
Brought vp to worlde. as soone as he
1670 the cleere ayre sawe agayne,
And spaces pure of bryght fayre poale
had once behelde with eye,
The nyght arose : his syght to grownde
he turned by and by,
1675 Caste downe his eyes, and hatefull daye
foorthwith he put to flyght,
And backewarde turnde away his lookc,
And streyght with all hys myght
To th erthe he falles : and vnderneathe
1680 the shade of Hercles then
He hyd his head, therwith there came
a great resorte of men
With clamour gladde, that dyd the bay
about theyr forhedds bryng :
i685 And of the noble Hercules
deserued prayses syng.
Hercu. fur. of Sen. 
Urysthe^born w swiftned birth in hast,
did bid to bottom of the worlde to go :
1690 I /This oncly lackte of labours all at last,
to spoyle the kyng of thyrdc estate also.
The dongeons darke to enter ventred he,
wher as y way to sprights far of doth bryng
Full sadde, & woode so blacke & feard to be :
i6g5 but full with flock full great him followyng.
As great a prease as flocke in cities streetes,
to see the playes of Theatre newe wrought :
As great as at Eleus thundrer meetes,
whe somcr fift y sacred game hath brought :
1700 As gret as whe comes houre of loger night,
and willyng quiet sleepes to bee extent,
Holds equal Libra Phoebus chariots light,
a sorte the secrete Ceres doo frequent,
And fro theyr howsen left doo hast to cum,
I7o5 the Atticke priestes the nyght to celebrate :
Such heape is chast beneth by fields so dum.
with age ful slow som taking forth their gate
Full sad, and fvlld with life so long now led :
some yet do runne the race of better yeares,
1710 The virgins yet vnioynde to spowses bed,
& yonglings eke on who grow yet no heares
[262 j Hercul. fur. of Sen.
And infat lately taught his mothers name.
To these alone, (that thei y les might feare)
Js granted night to ease w ibreborne flame.
I7l5 the rest full sad by darke doo wander theare :
As is our inynde, when ones away is fled
the lyght, when eche man sory feeles to bee
Depe ouerwhelmd with all the erth his hed.
thyck Chaos stands, & darknes fowle to see,
1720 And colour yll of nyght, and slouthfull state
of silent world, and diuers clowdes abowt.
Let hoary age vs thyther bryng full late,
no ma comes late to that, whence neuer out,
Who once he is come, turne agayn he may.
1725 to hast the hard and heuy fate what vayles ?
This wadring heape in wide lads far away,
shall go to ghosts : & al shall geue their sayles
To slowe Cocytus. all is to thee enclynde,
both what the fall, and rise of sonne doth see :
Spare vs that cum, to the we deth ar signde :
though thou be slow, our selfs yet hast do we.
Fyrst houre, y gaue the lyfe, it loast againe.
|O Thebes is come the ioyfull daye,
your aulters touche ye humbyllye,
1735 The fatte fayre sacrifices slaye.
may cles myxte with men in cumpanye
Let them in solemne flocks goe royle :
and nowe with yoake layde downe let cease
The tyllcrs of the fertyle soyle.
3 2 Mude
Hercu. fur. of Sen. 
1740 Made is with handc of Hercles peace
betweene the morne and Hespers glade,
And where sonne holdyng myddle seate,
dothe make the bodyes caste no shade.
What euer grownde is ouerweate
1745 with compasse long of seas abowght,
Alcides labour taemde full well.
he ouer foordes of Tartare browght
Returnde appeased beeyng hell.
there is remaynyng nowe no feare,
I75o Nought lyes beyonde the hell to see.
O preest thy staryng lockes of heare
wrappe in with loued poplar tree.
V The fourthe Acte.
Hercules, Theseus, Amphi-
1755 try on, Megara,
Jth my reuegyng right hand slayn
nowe Lycus loe the grownde
with groueling face hath smit : the
soeuer fellow fownde (who
1760 Of tyrant was, partaker of
his pay nes dyd also lye.
Nowe to my father sacryfyce
and godds victor wyll J ,
And aulters that deserue it, with
1765 slayne offryngs reuerence.
Thee, thee O mate of all my toyles
J praye and my defence
 Hercul. Fur. of Sen.
O warrefull Pallas, in whose lefte hande
thy cleare shielde Aegis shakes
1770 Fierce thretes, w head that eche thyng stone
that lookes vpon it makes.
Let tamer of Lycurgus nowe,
and of redde sea be heare,
That poynte of speare with yuye greene
17/5 in hande doothe couerde beare :
And two godds powre, bothe Phoebus, and
his syster too J praye,
The syster meeter for her shaftes,
but he on th harpe to playe :
1780 And what soeuer brother ells
of myne doothe dwell in skye,
Xot of my stepdame brother, bryng
ye hyther by and by
Your plentuous flockes, what euer haue
1785 all th Jndians frutes browght owt,
And what sweete odours th Arabickes
doo gette in trees abowt,
To th aultars bryng : lette vapour iatte
and fume smoke vp full hye,
1790 Let rownde abowt the poplar tree
my heares nowe bewtifye.
Let th olyue bowe thee hyde with braunche
accustomde in our lande
Theseu : for foorthwith reuerence
1795 the thundrer, shall my hande.
3 4 The-
Hercu. fur. of Sen. [26SJ
THE. O godds the buylders of the towne,
and whiche of dragon fell,
The wylde woods denns, and noble wanes
lykewyse of Dirces well,
1800 And Tyrian house enhabite eke
of straunger wandryng kvng.
HER. Caste into fyres the frankencense.
AM. Sonne fyrste thy handes flowyng
with blouddy slaughter, and the deathe
i8o5 of enmye puryfye.
HER. Would god the blood of hatefull hed
Euen vnto godds on hye
J myght out shedde, for lycour loe
more acceptable none
1810 Myght th aulters stayne : nor sacrifice
more ample any one
Nor yet more plentyfull may bee
To Joue aboue downe caste,
Then kyng vniust. AM. Desyre that nowe
i8l5 thy father ende at laste
Thy labours all : lette quyetnesse
At lengthe yet gyuen bee,
And rest to weery folke. HER. J wyll
the prayers make, for mee
1820 And Joue full meete. yn his due place
Lette stande the haughty skye,
And lande, and ayre, and lette the starres
dryue foorthe eternallye
[266 1 Hercul. fur. of SenecaL
Their course vnstayde : let restfull peace
1825 keepe nations quietlye,
Let labour of the hurtlesse lande
all yron nowe occupye,
And swoordes lye hydde : let tempest none
full vyolent and dyre
l83o Disturbe the sea : let from the skyes
no flashe of lyghtnyng tyre
Fall downe whyle Joue full angry is :
nor yet with wynter snowe
Encreased floode the grownde vpturnde
i835 and fieldes quight ouerthrowe.
Let poysons cease : and from hensfoorth
let vp from grownde aryse
No greeuous herbe with hurtfull sappe :
nor fierce and fell lykewyse
1840 Let tyrantes raygne : but vf to syght
some other mischiefe bryng
The grownde yet shall, let it make haste :
and any monstrous thyng
Jf it prepare, let yt bee myne.
1845 but what meanes this ? myd daye
The darknes haue encloasde abowt,
lo Phoebus gothe his waye
With face obscure withowt a clowde.
who dryues the daye to flyght,
i85o And turnes to east ? from ^whence doth now
his dusky hed the nyght
Hercu. fur. of vSen. 
Unknown bryng forth ? whece fyl the poale
so many rownde about
Of daytyme starres ? lo here beholde
i855 my labour fyrst full stoute
Not in the lowest parte of hoauen
the lyon shyneth bryght,
And leniently dothe rage with yre,
And byttes prepares to fyght.
1860 Euen now loe he some starre wyl take :
with mouthe full wydc to see
He thretnyng stands, and tyres out blowes
and mane vp rustleth he
Shakyng with necke. the haruest sadde
1865 of shape, what euer thyng,
And what soeuer wynter collde
in frosen tyme doothe bryng,
He with one rage wyll ouerpasse,
of spryng tyme bull he wyll
1870 Bothe seeke, and breake the neckes at once.
A.M. What is this sodayne yll ?
Thy cruell cowntnance whether sonne
Doste thou caste here and there ?
And seeste with troubled daselde syght
l8/5 false shape of heauen appere ?
HER. The land is taemde, the swellyng seas
theyr surges dyd asswage,
The kyngdomes lowe of hell lykewyse
haue telte and knowne my rage,
 Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
1880 Yet heauen is free, a labour meete
for Hercules to prone.
To spaces hygh J wyll bee borne
of hawghty e skyes abdue :
Let th ayre be skaelde, my father dooth
i885 me promyse starrs t obtayne.
What yf he it denyde ? all th earthe
can Hercles not contayne,
And geeues at length to godds. me calls
of owne accorde beholde
1890 The whole assembly of the godds,
and dooth theyr gates vnfolde,
Whyle one forbydds. receyuste thou me,
and openest thou the skye,
Or els the gate of stubborne heauen
I8g5 drawe after me doo J ?
Do J yet doubte ? J euen the bondes
from Saturne wyll vndoe,
And euen agaynst the kyngdome prowde
of wycked father loe,
1900 My grandsyre loase. let Titans nowe
prepare agayne theyr fyght
With me theyr captayne ragyng : stones
with woodes J wyll downe smyght,
And hye hylles topps with Centaures full
igo5 in ryght hande wyll J take.
With double mountayne nowe J wyll
a stayre to godds vp make.
Hercu. fur. of Sen. 
Let Chiron vnder Ossa see
his Pelion mowntayne grette :
1910 Olympus vp to heauen aboue
in thyrde degree then sette
Shall come it selfe, or ells bee caste.
AM. Put farre awaye from thee
The thowghts that owght not to be spoake :
iqi5 of mynde vnsownde to see,
But yet full great, the furyows rage
asswage and laye awaye.
HER. What meaneth this ? the gyantes doe
pestiferous annes assaye,
K)20 And Tityus from the sprights is fledde,
and bearyng torne to see
And empty bosome, lo howe neere
to heauen it selfe stoode nee ?
Cythseron falles, the mountayne hye
IQ25 Pallene shakes for feare,
And torne are Tempe. he the toppes
of Pindus cawght hathe here,
And Oethen he, some dredfull thyng
threatnyng doothe rage abowt
ig3o Erinnys bryngyng flames : with strypes
she soundes nowe shaken out,
And burned brandes in funeralls,
loe yet more neare and neare
Throwes in my face : fearce Tisyphone
1935 with head and vgly heare
 Hercu. fur. of Sen.
With serpents sette, nowe after dogge
fet owt with Hercles hande,
That emptye gate she hathe shette vp,
with bolte of fyry brande.
1940 But loe the stocke of enmiows kyng
doothe hydden yet remayne,
The wycked Lycus seede : but to
your hatefull father slayne
Euen nowe this ryght hande shall you sende
1945 let nowe his arrowes lyght
My bowe owt shoote : it seemes the shaftes
to goe with suche a flyght
Of Hercles. AM. Whether doothe the rage
and fury blynde yet goe ?
ig5o His myghty bowe he drewe with homes
togyther dryuen loe,
And quyuer loaste : great noyese makes
with vyolence sente owt
The shafte, and quyght the weapon flewe
ig55 his myddle necke throwghowt,
The wownd yet left. HER. His other broode
J ouerthrowe wyll quyght,
And corners all. What stay J yet ?
to me a greater lyght
1960 Remaynes then all Mycenes loe,
that rockye stones shoulde all
Of Cyclops beeyng ouertnrnde
with hande of myne, downe fall.
* 2 Let
Hercu. fur. of S>en. 
Let shake bothe here: and there the house,
iq65 with all stayes ouerthrowne,
Let breake the poasts : and quight let shnnke
the shaken pyller downe :
Let all the palayce fall at once.
J here yet hydden see
1970 The sonne of wycked father. AM. Loe
his flattryng handes to thee
Applyeng to thy knees doothe craue
his Me with pytcous mone.
() wycked gylte, full sadde, and eke
1975 abhorde to looke vppone,
His humble ryght hande caught he hath,
and ragyng rowndc abowt
Him rolled twyse, or thryse hath cast.
his head resoundeth owt,
1980 The sprynkled howses with the brayne
of hym throwne owt are wet.
But shee poore wretche her lyttle sonne
in bosome hydyng yet
Loe Megara, lyke one in rage
ig85 doothe from the corners flee.
HER. Thowgh runnagate in bosome ol
the thundrer hydde thou bee,
This ryght hande shall from euery where
Thee seeke, and bryng to syght.
1990 AM. wher goest thow wretch ? what lurkyng
seekste thou to take, or flyght ? Menns,
* 3 No
 Hercul. Fur. of Sen.
No place of sauegarde ys yf once
bee He rcles styrde with yre :
But doo thou rather hym enbrace,
irg5 and wi th thy meeke desyre
Assaye t asswage hym. MEG. Husbande spare
vs J beseeche thee nowe,
And knowe thy Megara, this sonne
thy cowntenaunce doothe showe,
2000 And bodyes pytche : beholdst thow howe
his hands vp lyfteth hee ?
HER. J holde my stepdame : followe o n
dewe penawnce paye to mee,
And bownden Joue from fylthy bonde
2oo5 delyuer free awaye :
But J before the mother wyll
this lyttell monster slaye.
MEG. Thou mad man whither goest thow?
wylte thou thyne owne bloode sheade ?
2010 AM, Th infant with fathers fyry face
astonnyde all for dreade,
Dyed euen before the wownde : his feare
hath tooke away his lyfe.
And nowe lykewyse his heauy clubbe
20 1 5 is shaken towarde his wyfe :
He broaken hath the bones, her head
from blocklyke bodye gone
Js quight, nor any where it stayes.
darste thow this looke vppone
* 4 To
Hercu. fur. of Sen. [273 J
2020 To long lyude age ? yf mournyng doo
thee greue, thou hast then loe
The deathe preparde. Doo thou thy breast
vppon his weapons throe,
Or ells this clubbe with slaughter staynde
^025 of monsters slayne that bee,
Nowe hyther turne. thy parent i alse,
vnfytte for name of thee
Ryd hens away, least he shoulde be
to thy renowne a let.
2o3o THE. Which waie y father toward thy death
dooste thow thy selfe caste yet ?
Or whyther goest thou madde man ? flee,
and lye thow cloasely hyd,
And yet from handes of Hercules
2035 this onely myschiefe ryd.
HER. Tis well, the howse of shameful kyng
ys nowe quyght ouerthrowne.
To thee O spowse of greattest Joue
J haue loe beaten downe
2040 This offred rlocke : J gladly haue
fulfyllde my wyshes all
Full meete for thee, and Argos nowe
geeue other offryngs shall.
AM. Thow hast not sonne yet al performde,
2045 fyll vp the sacrifyse.
Loe th offryng doothe at th aultars stande,
it waytes thy hande lykewyse
 Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
With necke full prone : J gyue my selfe,
J roon, J followe loe.
2o5o Mee sacrifyce. what meaneth this ?
his eyes rolle to and froe,
And heauynesse doothe dull his syght.
see J of Hercules
The tremblyng hands ? down falles his face
2o55 to sleepe and quietnes,
And weery necke with bowed head
full faste doothe downewarde shrynke,
With bended knee : nowe all at once
he downe to grownde doothe synke,
2060 As in the woodes wylde asshe cut downe,
or bulwarke for to make
A hauen in seas. Lyuste thow ? or els
to deathe doothe thee betake
The selfe same rage, that hath sent all
2065 thy famylye to deathe ?
Jt is but sleepe, for to and froe
doothe goe and come his breatbe.
Let tyme bee had of quietnesse,
that thus by sleepe and reste
2070 Create force of his disease subdewde,
may ease his greeued breste.
Remoue his weapons seruantes, least
he madde gette them agayne.
Hercu. fur. of Sen. 
2075 Y Et th ayre coplain, cS; eke y parent great
J_Jot haughty sky, & fertile lad throughout,
And wadryng waue of euer mouing treate.
And thow before the all, which lands about
And train of sea thy beams abroad dost throe
2080 with glyttryng face, & makst y night to flee,
O feruent Titan : bothe thy settyngs loe
and rysyng, hath Alcides scene with thee :
& known likewise he hath thy howse twayn.
from so great yls release ye nowe his brest,
2o85 O godds release : to better turne agayne
his ryghter mynde. and thow O tamer best
O sleepe of toyles, the quietnesse of mynde,
of all the lyfe of man the better parte,
O of thy mother astrey wynged kynde,
2090 of hard and pinyng death that brother arte,
With truth mingling the false, of after state
The sure, but eke the worste foreteller yet :
O father of all thynges, of lyfe the gate,
Of light the rest, of nyght and felowe fytte,
2og5 that comst to kyng, and seruant equallye,
And gentlye cherysshest who weerye bee,
All mankynde loe that dredfull is to dye,
thou doost costrain log deth to learn by thee.
keepe him fast bound w heauy slepe opprest,
2100 Let slober depe his limmes vntamed bynde,
Nor sooner leaue his vnryght ragyng brest,
The former mid his course again may fynd.
 Hercul. fur. of Seneca.
Lo layd on groud w lull fierce hart yet styll
His cruell sleepes he turnes : and not yet is
2io5 The plague subdewde of so great raging yll :
And on great clubbe the weery head of his
He woont to lay, dothe seeke y staffe to fynde
With empty hand, his armes ovvt castig yet
withmouing vayn : nor yet all rage of mynde
21 10 he hath laid down : but, as w southwind gret
The waue once vext, yet after kepeth styll
his ragyng long, & though the wind now be
Asswaged, swells, shake of these madde & yll
tossyngs of mynde, returne let pietee,
2li5 And vertue to the man, ells let be so
his mynd with mouing mad tost euery way :
Let errour blynde, where it begoon hath, go.
for nowght els now but only madnes may
Thee gyltlesse make : in next estate it stands
2120 to hurtles hands, thy mischief not to knowe.
Now strooken let with Hercules his hands
thy bosoms soud : thyne armes 3^ world alow
wer wot to bear, let greuo9 strips now smite
with coquryng had : & loude coplainig cries
2125 Let th aire now here : let of dark pole & night
the quene them heare, & who ful fiersely lyes
That bears his necks in mighty chains fast
low lurking Cerberus in depest caue. (boud,
Let Chaos all with clamour sad resound,
2i3o and of broade sea wide open wafting waue.
Hercul. fur. of Sen. 
And th ayre that felt thy weapos better yet,
But felt them thowgh.
The brestes with so greate yls as these beset,
with litle stroake they must not beaten be.
2i35 Let kyngdoms three soud \\ one plait & cry,
and thow neckes honowr, cS; defence to se,
His arrowe strong long hanged vp on hye,
& quiuers light, y cruel strypes now smyght
on his firce back, his shoulders strog & stowt
2140 let oken clubbe now stryke, & poaste of might
w knots full harde his brests loade al about,
let eucn his weapos so greate woes coplain.
Not you poore babes mates of your fathers
w cruel woud reneging kings agai : (praise,
2145 not you your lims in argos barriars plaies,
Are taught to turn w wepo strog to smight,
& strog of had : yet eue now daring loe
the weapon of the Scythian quiucr light
With steady hand to paise set out fro bowe,
2i5o and stags td perse y saue the selues by flyght,
and backes not yet full maend of cruel beast.
To Stygia hauens goe ye of shade & night,
goe hurtles souls, who mischief hath opprest
Euen in first porche of lyfe but lately hadde,
2l55 And fathers furye. goe vnhappy kynde
O little chyldren, by the way full sadde
Of iourneye knowne.
Goe, see the angrye kyngs.
 Hercul. fur. of Sen.
c The fyfthe Acte.
2160 Hercules, Amphitryon,
Hat place is this ? what region ?
or of the worlde what coaste ?
Where am J ? vnder ryse of sonne,
2l65 or bonde els vttermoste
Of th ycy beare ? or els doothe here
of sea of Hesperye
The fardest grownde appojaite a bonde
for th ocean sea to lye ?
2170 What ayre drawe we ? to weery wyght
what grownde is vndersette ?
Of truthe we are returnde from hell,
whence in my howse downe bette
vSee J these bloudy bodyes ? hath
2175 not yet my mynde of cast
Thinfernall shapes ? but after yet
returne from hell at last
Yet wander dooth that helly he ape
before myne eyes to see ?
2180 J am ashamde to grawnte, J quake,
J knowe not what to mee,
J can not tell what greuous yll
my mynde before dooth knowe.
Where is my parent ? where is shee
_>i85 with goodly chyldrens showe
TL 2 My
Hercul. Fur. of Sen. [.279]
My noble hartye stomakt spowse ?
why dothe my lefte syde lacke
The lyons spoyle ? whiche waye is gone
the couer of my backe ?
2190 And selfe same bed full softe for sleepe
of Hercules also ?
Where are my shaftes ? where ys my bo we ?
Them from me lyuing who
Cowlde plucke awaye ? who taken hathe
2ig5 the spoyles so greate as thes ?
And who was he that fearyd not
euen sleepe of Hercules ?
To see my conquerour me lykes,
yt lykes me hym to knowe :
2200 Ryse victor vp. what newe sonne hath
my lather gotten nowe
Heauen beeynge left ? at byrthe of whome
myght euer stayed bee
A longer nyght, then was in myne ?
22o5 what myschiefe do J see ?
My chyldren loe do lye on grownde
with bloodie slawghter slayne :
My wyfe is kyllde : what Lycus dothe
the kyngedome yet obtayne ?
22 10 Who durst so hey nous gyltes as these
At Thebes take in hande
When Hercles is returnde ? who so
Jsmenus waters lande,
 Hercul. fur. of Sen.
Who so Acteons fieldes, or who
22i5 with dowble seas beset
The shaken Pelops kyngdomes doste
of Dardan dwell on yet,
Healpe me : of cruell slawghter showe
who may the author bee.
2220 Let rage my yre on all : my foe
he ys, who so to mee
Showes not my foe. doste thou yet hydd
Alcides victour lye ?
Come foorthe, euen whether thovv reuenge
2225 the cruell chariots hye
Of bloudy Thracian kyng, or yf
thow Geryons catell quyght,
Or lordes of Libya, no delaye
there ys with thee to fyght.
223o Beholde J naked stande, althowgh
euen with wy weapons loe
Thow me vnarmed sette vppon.
wherfore fleeth Theseus soe
And eke my father from my syght ?
2235 theyr faces why hyde they ?
Deferre your weepyngs, and who dyd
my wyfe and chyldren sley
Thus all at ones, me tell. Wherfore
O father doest thow whushte ?
2240 But tell thow Theseu, but Theseu
with thy accustomde truste.
% 4 Echc
Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [2X1]
Eche of them sylent hydes awaye
their bashcfull cowntnawnces,
And pryuelye they shedde their teares.
2246 Jn so greatc yls as thes,
Of what owghte we ashamde to bee ?
dothe ruler yet of myght
Of Argos towne, or hatefull bande
Of sowldyars apte to fyght
225o Of Lycus dyinge, vs oppresse
with such calamytec ?
By prayse of all my noble actes
J do desyre of thee
O father, and of thy great name
2255 approude to me alwaye
The prosperous powre, declare to me,
who dyd my housholde slaye ?
Whose praye laye J ? A. Let thus thync yls
in sylence ouerpas.
2260 HE. That J shoulde vnrcuenged bee ?
AM. Reuenge ofte hurtfull was.
HE. Dyd euer man so greuows ylles
without reuenge sustayne ?
A. Whos euer greater feard. H. Then these,
2265 O father yet agayne
May any greater thing, or els
More greuows feared bee ?
AM. How greate a parte is it thow wotst,
Of thy calamitee ?
 Hercul. fur. of Sen.
2270 HER. Take mercy father, lo J lyfte
to thee my humble handes.
What meaneth this ? my hand fleeth backe,
some priuye gylte here standes.
Whece corns this blood ? or what doth mean
2275 flowyng with deathe of chyllcle
The shafte, enbrewde with slawghter once
of Lerney monster kyllde ?
J see my weapons nowe, the hande
J seeke no more to wyt.
2280 Whose hand could bend this bow but myne ?
or what ryght arme but yt
Coulde stryng the bowe, that vnto me
Euen scantely doothe obaye ?
To you J tourne : O father deere,
2285 is thys my gylte J praye ?
They healde theyr peace : it is myne owne.
AM. Thy greeuous woe is there,
The cryme thy stepdames : this myschawnce
no fawte of thyne hath here.
2290 HER. From euery part now father throwe
in wrathe thy thunders myght,
And of thy sonne forgetfull nowe,
with cruell hande requyght
At least thy nephewes : let the worlde
22g5 that beares the starres sownde owt,
And let bothe th one and th other poale,
flyng downe thy flames abowt :
Hercul. fur. of Seneca. [283J
And let the bankes of Caspian sea
my bownden bodye teare,
23oo And greedye ibwle. Wherefore doe of
Prometheus lac.ke heare
The rockes ? with huge and hawtyc toppe
let now prepared bee,
Bothe feedyng beastes and fowles, the syde
23o5 Of Cawcas torne to see,
And bare of woods, the yle that bryclge
Of Scythe that thereby standes
Symplegas ioynes, bothe here and there
Let it my bounden handes
23io Stretch out abroade : and when with course
They shall togyther dryue, and shall
the rockes tosse vp to skyc
With bankes togyther beyng thruste,
23i5 and eke the myddle seaye,
Let me betwene the mountaynes lye
vnquiet restlesse staye.
But buyldynge vp with woode throwen o i
a heaped pyle on hye,
232O My body thus with wycked bloude
besprynkt, why burne not J ?
So, so yt must bee doone : to hell
J Hercles wyll restore.
AM. Not yet his harte astonyde lackes
2325 his ragyng tumulte sore,
 Hercu.. fur. of Sen.
But wraths hath turncle : and which of rage
ys propertie and yrc
Agaynst him sellfe he rageth now.
HER. The furies places dyre
233o And dongeon deepe of sprights yn hell
and place of tormentrrye
To gylty ghosts, and banishment
yf any yet doo lye
Beyonde Erebus, yet vnknowen
2335 to Cerberus and mee,
There hyde me grownde : to farthest bonde
of Tartarus to see
To tarye there Jle goe. O breste
of iri3 7 ne to fierce and stowte :
2340 Who vow my chyldren thus disperste
through all my house abowte,
Maye \vorthyly enowghe bewayle ?
in all my euylls yet
This countnaunce harde, can neuer wepe.
2346 a swoorde nowe hyther set,
My shaftes reatche hyther, hyther reatche
my myghty clubbe also :
To thee my weapons breake J will,
to thee my sonne, atwo
235o Jle knappe my bowes, and eke my clubbe
this blocke of heauye wayght,
Shall to thy spryghts bee burned loe :
this selfe same quyuer frayght
Hercul. fur. of Sen. 
With Lernoy shaftes, to funerall
2355 of thyne shall likewise go.
Let all my weapons penawnce paye,
and yow vnhappye to
Euen with my weapons burne J wil,
O stendames handes of myne.
236o Th. who euer yet to Jgnorauncc
hath geuen name of cryme ?
Her Full oftentymes dyd errour greiitc
the place of gylt obtayne.
Th. Tys neede to be a Hercles nowe,
2365 this heape of ill sustayne.
Her. Not so hath shame yet geuen place
with furyc drowned quight :
But peoples all J rather shoulde
dryue from my wycked sight.
2370 My weapons, weapons Theseus,
J quickly craue to mee
withdrawen to be restoard agayne :
if sownde my mynde now bee,
Restore to me my weapons : if
23;5 yet last my rage of mynde,
Then father flee : for J the waye
to death my selfe shall fynde.
Am. By sacred hollye kynreds rights,
by force and duetie all
238o O f bothe my names, yf eyther mee
thy brynger vp thou call,
 Her oil. fur. of Sen.
Or parent ells, and Cwhiche of good
men reuerenced are)
By these hoare heares, J thee beseche
2385 my desert age yet spare,
Aud werye yeares : of howse falne downe
the one alonely staye,
One onely lyght to me, with ylles
afflicted euery waye
23go Reserue thy selfe : yet neuer hath
there hapned once of thee
Frute of thy toyles. : styll eyther J
the dowtfull seae to see
Or monsters fearde : who euer yet
23g5 hathe bene a cruell kyng
Jn all the worlde, to ghosts alowe,
aud aulters both hurtyng,
Of me ys fearde : the father of
thee absent styll, to haue
2400 The frute, the towching, and the sight,
of thee at length J craue.
He. wherfore J longer shoulde sustaine
my lyfe yet in this lyght,
And lynger here no cause there is :
2406 all good lost haue J quight,
My mynde, my weapons, my renowne,
my wyfe, my sonnes, my handes,
And furye to. no man may heale
and loase from gyltye bandes
Hercul. fur. of Sen. [287!
2410 My mynde delyellde : needes must with deth,
be healde so heinous yll.
Th. wilt thou thy father slay ? He. Least J
should doe it dye J will.
Th. Before thy fathers face ? He. J taught
2416 hym mischiefe for to se.
Th. Thy deedes markyng rather that should
of all remembred be,
Of this one onely cryme J doe
a pardon of thee craue.
2420 Her. Shall he geue pardon to hym selfe,
that to none els it gaue ?
J beeyng bidden prayse deserud,
this deede mine owne dothe proue.
Helpe father now. if eyther els
2425 thy pietye thee moue,
Or els my heauy fate, or els
the honour and renowne
Of stained strength : my weapons bryng,
let fortune be throwen downe
2480 with my right hande. Th. The praiers which
thy father makes to thee
Are stronge enough, but yet likewise
with wepyng loe of me
Be moued yet : aryse thou vp,
2435 and with thy wonted myght
Subdue thyne yls : now suche a mynde
vnmeete to beare vpright
[288J Hercul. fur. of Sen.
No euyll hap, receyue agayne :
loe now with manhode gret
2440 Thou must preuayle, euen Hercules
sorbyd with yre to fret.
HE. Alyue, J hurte : but yf J dye,
J take the gylt also.
J hast to rydde the worllde of cryme,
2445 euen now before me lo
A wycked monster, cruell, and
vntamed, fierce and stoute
Dothe wander : now with thy ryght hande
begyn to goe aboute
2460 A greate affayre, yea more then all
thy twise syx labours long.
Yet stayste thou wretche, that late agaynste
the children waste so strong,
And fearefull mother ? now excepte
2455 restoarde my weapons be,
Of Thracian Pindus eyther J
wyll teare downe euery tree,
and Bacchus hollye woods, and toppes
of mount Cythaeron hye
2460 Burne with my selfe. and all at once
with all their housen J
And with the Lordes thereof the roofes,
with goddes of Thebes all
The Thebane temples euen vppon
2465 my bodye will lette fall :
Hercul. fur. of Sen. 
And wyll be hyd in towne vpturnde :
if to my shoulders might
The walles themselues all cast thereon
shall fall a burden lyght,
2470 And couerde with seuen gates J shall
not be enough opprest,
Then all the wayght whereon the worlde
in middle parte doth rest,
And partes the Gods, vpon my hed
2475 Jle turne and ouerthroe.
My weapons geeue. Am. This word is mete
for Hercles father loe.
With this same arrowe slayne beholde
thy sonne is tomblcd downe,
2480 This weapon cruell Juno lo
from handes of thyne hath throwne,
This same will J now vse. loe see
how leapes with feare affright
My wretched hart, and how it doth
2485 my carefull body smight.
The shafte is set there to, thou shalt
a mischiefe loe do now
Both willing it, and wotting : tell,
what thing commaundest thou ?
2490 J nothing craue, my dolour loe
in safetie standeth now.
To kepe my sonne aliue to me
that onely do canst thou
[290) Hercul. fur. of Sen.
o Thcseu, yet J haue not scapte,
2495 greatst feare that happen can.
Thou canst me not a myser make,
thou maist a happy man.
So order euery thyng thou dooste,
as all thy cause in hande,
25oo And fame thou mayst well know in strayght
and doutfull case to stande :
Thou liust, or dyest : thys slender sowle
that lyght is hense to flee,
weryed with age, and no lesse bet
25o5 with greuous yls to see,
Jn mouthe J holde. so slowly e to
a father with suche staye
Dothe any man geue lyle ? J wyll
no longer byde delaye,
25io The dedlye sworde throughout my brest
to stryke J will applye,
Here, here the gylt of Hercules
euen sownde of mynde shall lye.
Her. Forbeare O father now, forbeare,
25l5 withdrawe thy hande agayne.
My manhode yeelde, thy fathers wyll,
and Jmperye sustayne.
To Hercles labours now lykewyse,
let this one labour goe,
252O Let me yet lyue. lyfte vp from grounde
thafflicted lyinmes with woe,
Hercul. fur. of Sen. 
o Theseu of my parent : for
from godly touche doth fle
My wicked hande. Am. J gladly doe
25^5 this hande embrace to me.
By this J beeyng stayed will goe,
this mouing to my brest
Jle slake my woes. Her. what place shal J
seeke roonagate for rest ?
253o Where shall J hyde my selfe ? or in
what lande my selfe engraue ?
What Tanais, or what Nilus els,
or with his persyan waue
what Tigris violent of streame,
2535 or what fierce Rhenus flood,
Or Tagus troublesome that flowes
with Jbers treasures good
May my right hande now wash from gylt ?
although MiOotis collde
2540 The wanes of all the Xorthen seae
on me shed out now wollde,
And al the water thereof shoolde
now passe by my two handes,
Yet will the mischiefe deepe remaync.
2545 Alas into what landes
wilt thou o wicked man resorte ?
to East, or westerne coste ?
Eche where well knowen, all place J haue
of banishmente quight loste
 Hercul. fur of Sen.
255o Fro me the worlde doth flee abacke,
the starres that sydelyng roon
Do backwarde dryue their turned course,
euen Cerberus the soon
mith better countnaunce did beholde.
2555 o faythfull frende J saye
o Theseu, seeke some lurkyng place,
farre hence, out of the waye.
O thou awarder of mens gyltes
what euer iudge thou be
256o That hurtefull men doest loue, repaye
a worthy thanke to me :
And my desertes. J thee beseeche,
to ghostes of hell agayne
Sende me that ones escaped them :
2565 and subiect to thy rayne
Restore me yet to those thy bandes.
that place shall me well hyde :
And yet euen that place knowes me well.
Th. Our lande for thee doth byde.
2570 There Mars, his hand acquit agayne
and made from slaughter free
Restoarde to armour : loe that lande
(Alcides) calles for thee,
which wontes to quight the gods, and proue
2575 them Jnnocent to be.
London by Henrye Sutton
dwelling in pater noster
258o rovve at the signe of the
ANNO DOMINI. M. D. LXI.
For the copies referred to, see Introduction under Texts.
The following notes give only those variant readings between the different
editions, and the copies of one edition, which are of a certain importance, as
otherwise the length of these lists would be little short of the texts them
selves. In consequence I have not recorded any discrepancies between
the text of the Quarto of 1581 (N) and that of the three octavos (A) which
are reproduced here, except when they are interesting either for the spelling
or the intelligence of the tragedy ; punctuation could not be taken into
account as it would have led too far. In the collation of the octavo
editions (A, B, C) and the various copies of one issue (A 1 , A-, A ;t a.), a
different punctuation is recorded when it may lead to a different under
standing. No notice is taken of running titles, nor of catchwords. As the
discrepancies in the spelling are too numerous, I do not mention those that
are of almost no importance, or those which recur indiscriminately in the
various copies and are not carried through systematically in either of them )
Such are i y (which, whych) ; an = aun (allegiance, alkgeauncc) ; e = ee and
o = oo in open syllables (mete, meete ; pore, foore) ; s = ce (.WHS, since) ; = ue, eu,
ew (truth, trueth, treuth, tretvth) ; words with or without final e (whiche, which ;
thre, three; onely, only); double consonants after closed syllable (fttl, full;
wittes, wits; ackte, acte ; heddes, heds); y 1 for that and the ; au an>, sometimes
aul (fautes, fawtes, faultes) ; contractions intended by the author, printed in
full elsewhere (thassautes, shalbe) ; words with or without capital letters
(jfreful, yreful). Moreover some forms that very often recur have been
recorded once for all : son, soon, soone, sonne ; blood, blcud ; bewty, beawtie,
beauwtie, beauty ; doutful, doubtful ; author, aucthor : iye, eye ; giue,
geue ; hear, hayre, hair ; sodeyne, sodayne ; words, d oordes, and such like.
Of the special spelling which is given to words when used for the rhyme,
mention is made in the Introduction. Evident misprints in other texts than
the three which are reprinted here, have not been taken notice of.
For the editions A and B of Troas. a more detailed treatment has been
adopted : misprints, catchwords and punctuation are recorded to bring
out more clearly the relationship between them.
For the first page of Trcas (1. 1-24) a nearly complete list ot differences
between A,U and c has been given as a specimen.
i) Should such a discrepancy occur in the reading of an edition, which for the point
on which the attention is called, is identical with the variant quoted in these lists, the
capital letter representing that edition is put within a parenthesis.
In N the title runs (fol. c>5 (d) recto) :
TRAGEDIE OF THE MOST GRAVE
& prudet Author LVCIVS ANNOYS SENECA,
entituled TROAS, with diuers and
sundrye Additions to the same,
by IASPER HEY-
1. 1-70 wanting in x
1 MOST] AB : MOSTE c
2 verteouse] AB : verteous c
3 god] AC : God B
5 subiectc] AC : subiect B
8 wisshi th] AC : ivisheth B
1 1 corideration] AC : cosideratio B
12 tf0ttW6?] AB : towards c
14 ivhych] AC : zc /MfA B
flyeng} A :_/fog- B \fiiyng r
1 6 resowndes] AB : resoundes c
17 a/] AB : rt// c
19 MosfJ AB : Moste c
20 wisdome] AC : wisedome B
23_/?0H] AC \Jlo01lg B
24 >/"/] A : *>/// BC
33 ^ ueene] ornamental form of
capital Q ; hence the space.
42 blissejull] AC : Mis full B
49 greatly] AC : gretlye B
52 yeres] AC : yeares B
53 rfK/ftf] AB
bo bet] read i^-
, 7 i readers AC : Readers B ; Rea
78 forth] AB : foorth c
80 fearingwhat] A : fearing, what
t B; fearjaige what c
91 y] AB : the ex
102 consyder.] A : consyder, B(C),
io5 worke] AB : woorke c
no toong] AB : tong c
114 sence.] A : sence, BC, which read
i:5 speach] AB : speche c
1 16 iugement] A : iudgment B ;
119 forasmuch | A : for as much B
123 thought] AC : thonght B
127 acte.] A : ackt, B ; act c
129 wise,] similar indentation in A & B
1 38 the englishe] A(C) : thinglishe B
140 expounde] ABN : eypounde c
144 the] missing in c & N
145 Corus] ABC : Chorus N
146 sclender] ABC : slender x
148 woorde] A : worde c
i5o ientle] AC : Jentill B
1. i5i worth] AB : woorth c
160 Fare] AB : Farre c
:63 The preface to the tragedye]
A(Bc):The Argument \
164 yearesj A : yeres BC
171 dares] ABC
172 dictis] A : Dyctis B; dicties c
(c doubtful in c 1 & c")
179 fieldc the] Au:ficldes c (wthe)
182 Pyrrhus] AC : Pirhus \\
Aiax.j A : Aiax, BC
186 knight.] AB : knight, <
188 Greek es] r. Greekes
189 while] A : While BC
191 and] AB : And c
192 me.] AB : me, c
194 wordes] AC : woordes B
196 what] A : What BC
gods] AB : god CN
sende.] AC : send, B
197 gan] AC : gau B
199 fielde] AC : feelde B
201 bloodshed] A : bloudshed BC
c regularly writes bloud, where
A, and generally B, has blood.
2o3 worke] AC : woorke B
211 mischiefe] AC : mischefe B
miserye.] \(c) : myserye, B
2i3 thy] ABC : the N
219 iye] AC : eie B
233 thrust] ACN : thurst B, which read
236 iudge] A:iugde c:iudgde 3x,w.r.
240 forgoe] A : . CN ; ? B, w. r.
f. A G, v, runn. title : Troas] A : The
248 Troy.] A : Troy, BC
25o boy.] AC : boy B
253 heare.j AB : heare, c
255 The speakers ] ABC : The
Speakers names. N
258 The spright of Achilles] in x
at the end of the list.
1. 269 The messenger] \w : XVX-
270 SFNECA] A : SENECA BCN
287 thestatej AB : the state ex
292 batered] ACX : batred B
295 seuen.] A : seuen, i
299 Luke warm] AW : Lukewarm N
chanell] A : chanel B : clianull
c ; channoll N
3o5 renowne.] AB : renowne c
3n flame] A : flame BCX. u . r.
317 pearst] AC : perst B
318 a farre.] ABC : r. afarre
323 An] ABC : And x
323 The comma should be placed after
it, instead of after himselfe :
though he see it, yet scant
himselfe beleues &-a.
324 it] omitted in x
325 hand.] A : , (B)C
327 receine] A : receiue BCX. w. r.
33i contries] AC : coutraies B
335 thy] ABC : the N
35g fatallfall] A : fatall fall BCX
36i calamites] A : calamities BCX
364 catchword sawe] ABC:
372 dedly] A : deadly BC
404 refuse,] AC : refuse. B
4 05 company] AC : cumpany n
407 brestesl AC : breastes B
412 terible] ABCX
4 13 second] A : scecond n
414 women] ,\BC : Woman, \
416 taught] AC : toughte B
419 Ana] A : And BCX, w. r.
422 debate] ABC : read .
425 roges] ABC : rages N
432 heades] A< : heds B
439 readines] AC : redines B
440 knocke] AC : knock, n. w. r.
445 Hector] AC : Hectour B
447 cace] ABCN*
1. 4 58 catchword Rebonn-j \ : Reboun-
460 wontes] AC : woontes i;
462 heare] AC : here n
464 eche] AC : each is
465 like] AC : like. B, u. r.
468 bluddy] A(B) : blouddy CN
4 83Olord] A : O lord (<)
484 receiue] AC receaue r,
feare] ACN : teare u,w. r.
487 quyuer] A(CN) : quiuers B,W. r.
(cf>. lat. pharetras)
493 treares] A : teares BCN, w. r.
497 ghostes] ABC : Ghoste x
517 Veto] A : Ye to BCN
524 tombe] A : . B ; : ex
527 Begylde | A(C ) : Beguilde B
537 aboue] AC : oboue u
541 witnest] ABC : witnes N
542 sees] AB : seas c
548 sonne] AC : soone B (this diffe
rence in reading in A < B very
55i steppe] ABC : stoppe N
557 Frayltie] A CN) : fraile B, iv. r.
thrid] AB : third c ; thride x
564 shurt,] AC : shurte. B, m. r .
571 are] read :
5y5 apoint es] A : apointes BC, K. r.
676 sodayn] AC : sodeyne B
583 elisious] ABC : illusions N
591 fearde] AB : ferde c
594 rToiane 1 A : Troiane BCN
596 hath provide] AB(C) : proued
Goo dealt] AC : delt B
6o3 his] AB : omitted in c and x
618 soyle] AB : spoyle ex
619 through] ABC : though N
grate] The e is not clearly printed.
625 this] AC : this, B
1. (3u spretesj A : sprites BC
034 comes] AB : come CN
636 fates] AB : fautes CN
637 mischief] AC : mischefe B
63g here] ACN : heare B
642 we] ACX : me B, w. r.
647 vengeans] A : vngeans B
657 terrur] AB : terrour ex
675 heauen] AC : hauen Bx.fc .f . (lat.
692 My] r. Me
heard] AC : herd B ; hard N
6g5 stroke] AC : stroake B
708 appeareth] ACN : Appeared B
711 banners] AC : baners B
712 weighty] AC : waightye B
717 he.] AC : he, B, w. r.
720 by] AB : omitted in c : replaced by
with in N
721 runne] AC : roon B
723 stought. | AC : stought, B, w. r.
740 closde] AC : cloasde B
752 wayes.] AC : wayes, B, w. r.
758 delaye] A(C) : deleae B
772 led.] AB : led, c
780 land.] read -, of :
788 agayne.] A(C) : agayne, B
810 shew] AC : showe BX
8n Through] AC : Trough B
811 Caicus] AC : Cayicus B
819 fought.] AC : fought BN
821 whisht] AB : wisht CN
822 remayne.] AC : remayne, B (r.
neither stop nor comma)
832 actes] AC : factcs B(N), a , r. (lat.
836 mourne] AC : moorne B
83g Coddes] AC : Godds B(N), w. r.
842 fnll] A : full c ; full B(N), u - r.
843 out] A : our BCX, w. r.
845 way] ABC : waigh N
1. 85g already] AC : all ready n
860 Pryames] ACN : Pyrrus B, w. r.
863 oughtste,] AC : without comma in
B, w. r.
874 synde] AB(C) : signd N
877 chauuce] read chaunce (HC)
894 eftsones :] read without colon
899 here] ABC : hayre x
901 naught.] AC : naught, BX
911 extreme] AC : exrreme B
916 assinde] A(B)C : assignd x
919 feruent] AC : fernent u
921 wreakej AC : wreakt BN, w. r.
to] ABC : so N
944 shed] read shed. (N)
948 trauaile] A(C) : traueill B
g55 fere] AC : feare BN
961 giue] AB : geue c
967 were] AC : weare B
969 nought] ABC : not x
970 renowne :] read without colon
976 gladdde] A : gladde B ; glad ex
f. C. ii. v , Running title TcOdS]
977 thon] A : thou BCX, w. r.
978 foes] the i is not clearly printed,
985 a loofe] read aloofe.
986 fight.] read fight,
993 why] AC : why : B, which read
996 brandes,] A : brandes. BCN
998 reliefe.J AB : reliefe. ex
f. C. iii. r : runn. tit. Seneneca] A :
1009 Nought] AB : Naught ex
1028 seas :] read without colon
io3i debate.] AB = , CN ; prob. r.
without stop or comma
io3z faine] A : fame BCN, w. r.
io3g Eacus] AB : Cacus c ; JEacus x
1044 withstande] AB : . CN, w. r.
1046 chekes] A:cheks B; checkes CN
1. io55 Unlokst] .\B( : Unlookst N
1064 againe] AC : ageane B (to rhyme
1065 bye] AB : bie c ; buy x
1068 Greece] AC : Griece n (to rhyme
1084 shed.] ABC : shed, N, ?, . r.
1 102 delay.] AC : delay, B
1104 Amid] AB : And c ; And eke x
quite] AC : quight B
1 107 hath] AC : hah is
1 108 some] A : sonne B (w.r.); sunne
ii 1 1 restles] AC : reastles B
1 1 12 fro.] AC : fro, B, w. r.
1119 eche] AC : eache B
1124 northen] ABC : northren x
1128 taryeih] A : taryeth B(C)N, w. r.
n3o \veight] ABC : wayte N
11 36 Death ] in \ inverted stop, put in
1140 fansyes] A(C) : fantsyes B ; fan
n5i The] ABC : There N
n52 forsake.] A : forsake, BC. w r.
1 1 56 staine] ACN (w. r. : cp. I. 1172) :
1 1 58 remedylesse,] read .
1 1 60 reddines] AC : redines u ; rea-
1161 preuaile.] read ,
1164 teares.] A : teares, uc, w. r.
1 166 acte] AC : ackte u
1181 sonke] AC : soonke B
1198 woorsel ABC : worst x
1204 aud] A : read and (BCN)
1206 become] AC : be come BN. w. r.
1209 SEN.] A : ANDR. BCN, w. r.
1212 appeare] AB : appere c
1214 returne] AC : retourne B
1218 The] A : read the (BC)
1. 1220 heauines.J read ,
1246 Nor] AC : read nor (B)
1248 heare,] AD : heare. c, w. r.
1263 blood.] A : blood, B(C), ft , r.
1275 bloode.] AB(CNJ : read ,
1282 beare.] AC : beare, B
1284 eueu] A : euen BCX
1 337 where] AC : wheare r.
1348 more] ABC : me x
1354 frendes] AC : freendes i:
1 3yo Troy] read Troy : (cp. latin)
1372 sely] AC : seely BX
i38i lest] A : least BC
i3g5 my] ABC : thy x
1397 doutfull] AB : doubtfull CN
1404 true.] r. prob. : or, (as in B)
1409 ihe] A : read the (BCN)
1420 Whyle] A : read whyle (BC)
take,] A : take. BC, w. r.
1424 Of] AB : of c
1426 oftimes] AC : oftetirnes B
1438 rowme] AC : rome B
1442 oft.] ABCN : read oft,
1444 aloft,] A : aloft. BCX, K. r.
1452 wars.] ABCN : rairfwars,
1468 them] ABC : vs x
1469 werte,] ABC : prob. without com
1491 ofbeastes] AB : of beastes <
1 5o i Hector :] AC : Hector ? BX, w. r.
rest ?] AC : reste B(X), w. r.
i5o8 dye,] A : dye. BC, w. r.
i5io on,] AC : on. B, w. r.
i5i3 ANDR l A : ANDR. B, w. r.
i5i6 weare] A : weare. BC, w. r.
1 522 expres]AC : expres. B, w- r.
1 535 geat] A : get BCX
1536 is,] AC : is. B, w. r.
i538 deteckte,] AC : . B, w. r.
i55g Ulysses] ABC : read : or,
1 562 How] AB : how c
1. i58i ofher] AB : of her c, w. r.
1589 togither] AB : together c; to-
1600 Now] AB : now c, w> r.
1609 been] A : byn B ; ben c
1610 been] AC : be B
slayne.] read slayne,
160 frost.] AC : frost, B, w. r.
1621 sears] AB : sirs ex
1627 shallhe] A : shall he BC
i636 sayth.] A(B)C : read sayth,
1642 desteny.] A(C) : destenye.B, w.r.
1649 most, | AC : most. B
i652 all.] read -All,
i656 the,] A : the. B ; thee : CN
i658 byde] A(BC) : hide N
1660 dye,] A(C) : dye. B
1690 rende] AB : rende. C(N)
1693 ryght] AB(C; : ryght. x, w. r.
1694 lye] AB : lye : (C)N ; read .
1 720 plucke] A : dlucke B (p upside
1721 Slay] ABC : O slay x, w. prob. r.
1722 of] ABC : missing in x
1725 byset] AB : beset CN
1734 sonne] AC : soon B : sonnes N
1742 kyll,J AC : kill. B
1748 lye,] A(C) : lie. u
1763 graundsers] AC : grawndsers
B ; graundsires N
1768 and thonely] AC : aud th only B
1769 furth] A : forth BCN
1772 thy] AB : the ex
1781 nobilite] AC : nobiltte B
1782 fathet] A : father BCN, w. r.
1785 yeares] AB : yeres c
1789 When] A : when BC
1791 gates] AC : gates : B
1808 rhyrdej AB : thirde C(N), w. r.
1817 may] AB : May c, w. r.
1822 remayne! (no stop) AB(C)N
1 1827 was.] AB : was, ex
i832 weare.] prob. read without stop
1837 wylthl AB : with CN
1 838 Prophecy] AB : Prophecy, c,
i85i stoughtl ABC : stout x
i85 4 catchw. ULY] A : ULY. B
i856 knowne,] AC : knone : n (to
rhyme n-ith gone)
1 86 1 embracing] AC : enbraryng B
1880 graundsyresl A(C): gransyresn
yeres] AC : yieres B (to rhyme
with desyeres B)
1905 thvng] ABC : thinges x
igi5 arte] read prob. :
f. E. i. i-, running title : TcOdS \ .\ :
Troas B c
ig3z Bearel ABC : read prob. beare x
1934 hearel ABC : hayre x (which
reading regularly occurs)
1944 opprest ?] the ? should prob. be
put at the end of the line follo
wing : ...yoke ?
1957 farderi ABC : further N
i95g /0>) A : byvc, w. r.
translater .\c : translator \>,
iy65 cloath; ABC : close N
1969 poales do] ABC : poale doth N
f. E. ii. v, running title : Tcoas] A :
1987 ded] AB : ded : c : read prob. ded.
1992 ackte] AB : acte c
2000 ware,] ABC : read prob. ware.
2008 policiel AC : pollecye B
/. E. iii. r", runn. title :Senerteca] A :
2016 message] ABC : messuage N
2018 thauthor] ABC : th auter N
2021 Gresians] AC : Grecians BX
sent] prob. read sent :
2022 the] A : thee BCN
2027 should] ACX : shouldst B, w. r.
1. 2o3i Giecyan] A : Grecya
2032 honour hongur] A : honour
honger c ; honour [only] BN.
2034 The] A : the BC, a 1 . ; .
2o38 desire] AC : desire, n, ?.-. ;-.
2042 by] ACN : thy B, w. r.
deal ABC : day N
2060 made] read .
2o63 Ruine] AB : Rune c
2066 boanesl ABC : bones N
2067 df ] AB : of ex, w. r.
2073 veude] ABC : viewde N
f. E. iiii. r, running titl e Seneneca \
A : Seneca B
2076 torchis] AB : torches c
2077 Be holde] AB : Beholde c, iv. r.
2o85 oftimes] ABC : ofttimes x
2096 beare,] possibly beare ? (cp. latin)
2io5 vengeaucel A:vengeance BCX,
21 10 awaye] AB : away, ex
2125 mine] AB : Mine c, w. r.
2145 lengerl ABC : longer N
2i5i stroke] ABC : stroake x
2160 heare,] read prob. ; or .
2164 lay,] read prob. ; or .
2174 thy] ABC : omitted in x
2184 blood,] read prob. .
2188 a\\]prob. read &\\ :
2201 AudJ A : And BCX, w. r.
2202 of] ABC : af x
2210 foreine] ABC : forraine x
2216 owne,] read .
2220 befall] read .
2221 become] read prob. ?
2227 kiug] AB : king CN, w. r.
2228 shee] AB : she. c, w. r.
2237 he ?] the ? would be better placed
at the end of line following :
2242 mother] AB : mothers CN
1. 2270 drawthj AB : draw CN
2277 sacrifice.] AB : , CN, w. r.
2282 maybefallj AB : may befall CN,
2286 morurnes] AB : mournes CN,
2287 oppres] prob. read .
2286-7 the last e of "miserie and the s
of oppres are not clearly
2293 byfall] ABC : by fall N
2294 fare.] AB : fare, ex, w. r.
2296 Ther] AC : There B
2298 this] AB : this ex. w. r.
23oi hed] ABC : head x
^302 stretche] prob. read . or :
23o6 be,] prob. read ; or .
23 10 makthe] ABC : makes N
23i3 ouerpast] pynb. read ; or :
23ig Phryxusl ABC : Pirrhus x
2343 lyse] AB : lise c ; lies N
J3 4 8 Messenger.] ABC : Nuncius, x
(in follow, scene : Nun. instead
235o Dyre,] comma not clearly printed
in A, nor in B.
^352 blowes.l AB : blowes, c, w. r.
2353 wurste] ABC : worst x
2354 A las] AB : Alas c
2355 catcliK. Ore els] A : Or els B ;
no catchw. in r
2358 HEC] A : HEC. BC
235g is] AB : is. c, w. r.
2362 he] ACN : be B
23y3 twaine.] prob. read : or,
2379 most.] AC : moste, B, w. r.
2383 anone.l AC : anone, B, w. r.
2396 yburnte] AB : iburnt ex
2395 aU \ u \prob.read--or.
2397 wall] )
2398 weare] AB : were c
1. 2403 preasyd] AB : preased CN
2429 gro unde] A : grounde, BC, w. r.
2430 Colchus] ABC : Calchas N
scythe] AB : scithe c ; scith x
2442 grou nde] A : grounde BC, w. r.
2454 had] ABC : hath x
2461 Polyxeyne] read prob. .
2482 proceed3 d] AB : proceeded c
2487 Hermyona 1 ] A : : B (iv. r.) ;
2489 restorde] ABC : restoarde x
2490 parre] A : parte BC(N), w. r.
2492 ersteJ ABC : earste N (cp. I. 25oo)
2493 last.] prob. read , or :
2497 oppresse] AB : opprest CN
2499 commende.] AC : no stop in B,
25o8 ready] AC : redy B
heart] AC : hart BN (id. on L 25 1 3)
25io furth] AC : forth it
25 1 3 wer] AC : were BN
2517 stode.] prob. read ,
252i hewe] ABC: , x. In A there is a
little black mark after hewe ;
still it does not seem to be a stop,
though we should expect one here.
2533 Jreful] ABC : ireful x, w. r.
2536 eke, eche] ABC : eake, cache N
2541 soonke] AB : sooke c ; sonke N
2547 battelsfinysht] A : battels fi-
2555 takes] brob. read .
2567 seayes] ABC (to rhyme with
wayes) : saies x
256g between this line and 2$ 70 : in B
2570-5 not in c : instead of these lines :
FI N IS (Roman capital letters};
id. in N : p. 118 (Q 8 ) verso.
In x the title runs (fol. 21 (D 5 ) recto) :
TRAGEDIE OF SENECA ENTITY-
tuled Thyestes, faithfully Englished
by Jasper Heywood Felow
of Alsolne Colledge in
1. 1-744 n t n N : instead :
The Argument of this Tragedie.
Megaera one of the Hellish furies raising vp Tantalus fro Hell, incited
him to set mortall hatred betwene his two nephewes Thiestes, &
Atreus being brothers, and raining as Kinges ouer Mycenae by
enterchangeable turnes, that is to witte Thiestes to raine the one
yere, and Atreus the other. Now Atreus enraged with furie against
his brother partly for defiling and deflouring his wife ^Erope by
pollicie, and partly for taking from him a Ram with a golden fleese,
practised with his seruftt how to be reueged of his brother. This
Atreus therfore disseblig a reconciliation & inuiting Thyestes to
Mycenae secretly & vnknowe to him, set before hi at a banquet the
flesh of his own childre to eate. Afterward Atreus hauig also geue
to his said brother y bloud of his childre in a goblet to drinke, did
lastly comaiid the heads also to be brought in, at the doleful sight
wherof Thiestes greatly lameting knowTg y he had eate his owne
childre, was wonderfully anguished. But Atreus for that he had
thusreuenged himselfe, toke therin great pleasure and delectation.
201 Wheni r. when 1. 77 5 The speakers] A : The names
3 99 spaerdei ,\ of the Speakers N
4 3o Tyll] r. ty 11 778 Thyestes] A : in N, as often through-
480 maner] r. miner (?) out the tragedy : Thiestes
552 bie] i. e. buy (to rhyme with hie) 780-2 come before The names of the
590 catchword Foure] /. 5gi : Fowre Speakers. &a in N (fol. 21 v)
682 men.] r. men, 848 runagates] A : runnagates x
745 hir] cp. /. 746 : her 854 vp so downe] A : vpsydowne N
747 tymes] A J A 3 : Jymes A- 868 awayte.] A : awayte, N
754 panguel A 898 Tyestesl A : Thyestes N
1. 928 Phleghethon] A : Phlegethon N
g5i unhappie] A : r. vnhappie.
987 cumming] A : comming N
997 droughtie] A : drughty N
998 whottei ] A : hoatter x
1006 separate] A : seperat x
1028 soondred ; A : sundred x
io33 roons] A : runnes N (these rea
dings recur regularly)
1048 childe] A : chide x
1078 gulphe] A : gulfe x
io83 counte] A : in N, as generally,
1 100 woods] A : woundes N
1149 harts] A : hates x
1184 a downe] r. adowne
1207 feerce] A feere N, w. prob. r.
1249 within] this word should be placed
on the following line, being part
of the second half of the four
1255 thounder] A : thunder N
1237 craksl A : crakes N
i->5g beete] A : bee te x; id, /.i26g,cSvi
1265 Aboue] A : N puts here : Atre.
1284 pa-rents | AN : read prob. : pa
rent (cp. I. 1285 : his)
1285 rent] AX : read prob. rend
i3i5 doubteull] A : read doubtfull
1 325 home] A : whom N
1414 make] A : makes x
1424 thrasshed] A : thresshed x
1452 bo we] A : read bowe (x)
1455 goons] A : Guns N
ouerthro we] A : read ouer-
1456 the yr] A : read theyr (N)
1483 Cyclops] A : Cycolps N
i5o6 returndel A : returne x
i5og pase] A : pace x (/. 1524) (cp.
plaste : /. i5z2).
1. 1 533 Dylaceratel AX : r. dylacerate
1 594 francansence] A : frankinsen-
i63 4 Thy,] r. Thy.
1646 you.] the stop is not quite distinct in
any of the three copies of A ; it
might be a comma ; in x : you.
i665 sent] AX (id. on line 1670)
1671 throuh] A : r. through (x)
1688 Embrasyng] A : embracing x
1703 gyltiel A : guiltie x
1708 feete] A : seete x
1740 lurke ] A : r. lurke.
kindome] A : r. kingdome (x)
1748 ye] r. Ye
1768 no] A : Mo x
1782 mothers] A : mother N
1801 Cyclops] A : Cyclpos x
i8o5 Laertes] A
181 1 bearej b not quite clearly printed
in the copies of A. : x : beare
1919 Myrtoon] A : Myrtoon x
ig3i Yrksome] A : read yrksome (x)
ig53 once] A : on x
ig56 mid day] AN
ig58 geuen] A 1 : in A- and A :! : geuer.
This fault must have been cor
rected during the printing pro
cess : the n of A 1 is a little below
the line, geuen and seems to
have been shuffled in afterwards ;
the r in \~ and A 3 is quite in a
line with the other types,
2oi3 gangey] AN
2030 deligths] A : r. delights (x)
2031 Whome] r. whome
take] AN (r. takes ?)
2o55 apiteous] A : r. a piteous (N)
2062 maend] A : maynd x
2104 vutombde] A : r. vntombde (N)
2134 scatter] A : skatter x
2199 phlegrey] AN
1. 2233 a sloapeJ AN
223g hellen] \ : Hellen x
2243 whot] A : boat x
2252 thy] A : the N
2256 whelme] the first e is not clearly
printed in A 1 nor in A - .
2269 faught] A : fraught x
2t5i wether, \the comma is not quite
distinct in A 1 and \ A ; it is in
A - . In N there is no comma.
2356 delect] A : detect x
238g a dred] AN
2399 steptors] A : r. sceptors (x)
2481 auncyters] AX
2584 atoo] A : a two x
2600 heare] A : here x
. 2658 repearel A : repayre x
2660 Jn] A : r. in
2663 soons ?] A (N : sonne.)
2677 deathe] A : omitted in x
2691 denns] A (final s not quite dis
tinct) : denne x
2698 crallyng] A : craullng x
2/o3 mysshapte] A : myshapte N
2709 Plutoes] A : Putoes x
2717 headid] A : headed x
2739 pangs] A (final s not quite dis
tinct) : pange x
2772 ferfull] A : fearefull x
2779 were] A : r. where (N)
2813 FINIS] in x,/0/.39(F 7) verso :
1. 2814-2820 arc omitted.
1. i-i3a not in x, inhere // F. begins
with I. 1 33 (fol. i (B 1 ) recto) :
the title is put at the end of the
57 vn] r. vn-
58 schol] r. schol-
70 wril r. wri-
84 authoril r. authori-
90 vniuersi] r. vniuersi-
100 formi] r. for mi (r. my)
106 tha] r. tha-
no o f] r. of
144 Cerberus] between this word and
the bracket, there is a little black
mark in A 1 and A : * (not in A. 2 ) ;
possibly it is a badly printed stop,
zvhich would account for the capi
tal A of And : N has neither stop
here, nor capital letter : and
1. 147 goddes] A : goddesse x
148 fransy] A : frensy N
167 romaynes] r. Remaynes
174 hoores] A : whoores x
184 catchword The] e badly printed.
192 mil] A : r. full (x)
212 catchw. Aud] : r. And
218 kyndlyng] A : kyndled x
229 taemde] A : tarn d x
25i preuaile] r. Preuaile
262 sprightes] A : in x, as regularly,
sprites (id. quight A : cjuite
x : f. i. I. 3o3, c~rt.)-
285 soon] A : in x, asgenerallv, sunne
3o2 gotten] A : gotted x
3o5 payse] A : prayse N
3io s kies] A : r. skies
33i seekst] A : Seekes x
343 waged! A : wages N
1. 352 catchw. Whcr e] : r. Where
353 where! A : r. Where
35y what] : r. What
359 embrewe] A : imbrew N (variant
recurring almost regularly)
371 for] A : r. For
roage] A : rage x
4i5 clere so] A : cleresome N
426 do grase] AN
433 bow] A : boughe N
438 wynds] A : wynde N
441 rocks] A : rocke x
448 lytle,] A : prob. read without com
464 hold.] A : prob. read comma or co
lon ; N : hold :
465 lyue) A : the e is smudged.
469 againvntwist] A : r. again vu-
spo] A : prob. read spo. (x)
478 hide] A : read hide.
490 cumpanye] A : company x
491 nerel A : read nrre. (N. neare)
497 apoynt] A : x, as generally,
5i8 The] : r. the
53 1 fnll] A : r. full (x)
553 Cithaeron] A : Citheton x
557 whche] A : r. whiche (x)
588 beareth] A^V* : be areth A-
625 in] AN : prob. read in,
707 sonns] A : sonne x
/". D6 r, running title SUF.J read fur.
7i5 AM] A : r. AM.
727 Aud] A : read And
764 Possesse] A : read possesse
790 stubberne] A : stuvburne x
806 a newe] A : r. anewe (N)
843 fleeyng] A : fleetyng N
848 Thou] A : r. thou
873 erect3 ng] A : erected x
882 haptel A : hap N
1. 889 conquryng] A : conquering x
890 feare] A : feare. x, w. r.
906 catch, when] A : r. When
912 Euen] A : r. euen
917 treblng] : A : r. trebling (x)
935 Thehells] A : r. The hells (x)
936 The] A : r. the
938 Of] A : r. of
947 Thon] A : r. Thou (x)
999 AM.] the stop is clearly printed
in A 1 , not in A", and faintly
in A 3 .
1016 Knowe] A : r. knowe
io33 AM] A : r. AM.
1060 this line should be indented.
io63 allonely] A : all onely x
/. F3, running title : SUr.J r. fur.
1078 Of] A : r. of
1129 be] A : r. prob. be,
n5i flo] A : sloe x
1180 1 etl A : r. let
1186-7-8 Prob. want of space prevented
a comma being put at the end
of each of these lines,
1199 thon] A 1 : in \ z and A 3 thou
1236 thowght] A : thought x
1238 of] A : missing in N
1293 weare] A : were x
f. G3 r, running title : SUf] r. fur.
1 323 a waye] A : a wave x
1327 to tell.] A>A 3 : in A.~ t o tell (no
1405 vglye lye] A : vglily x
1414 and] A : r. and
i 42 3 THE] A : r. THE.
1442 gwyde] A : guide x
1443 dot he] A : r. dothe
1460 rounoe] A : r. rounde
1467 kyngdomeis] A : r. kyngdome
1486 their] A : there x
1504 peop les] A : r. peoples
1. 1 523 shy tie] some dirt in the ligature
sh almost gives it the appea
rance o/ fh : N shit
i563 fery] A : Feary x
i5y3 natheles] A : in x : Nathales
with capital N : this word is
printed, in a black-letter text,
with Roman types, like all pro per
names, and must have been
mistaken as such.
1609 sent] AN : i. e. scent
i633 weery] A : weary x
1646 kyngdome] d is clearly printed
in A , not in A~, nor in A 3 .
i058 heauye] A : happy x
1699 somer] AN
1704 cum] A : comme N (similar
variant in I. ij3o)
1708 so] A 1 A 3 : s -indistinct in A 2
1712 name.] A A 2 : name A :!
1755 Megara,] r. Megara.
1807 Euen] r. euen
1819 the] A : thee x
1820 yn his] A : in this N
i835 fieldes] A : field x
1871 What] r. what (?)
1874 daselde] A : daseld N
1879 catchw. yet ] A : r. Yet
1 883 abdue] A : aboue N, w. r.
1889 owne] A (lat- ultro) : one x
1894 stubborne] A : stubburne N
1940 enmiows] A enmious x
1962 ouertnrnde] A : read ouerturn-
1964 here : ] A 2 : here, A 1 here ; A :!
1986 runnagate] A : runagate x
1989 Thee] r. thee
1990 wher] r. Wher
1993 He rclesl A : r. Hercles
1. 1990 wi th] A : r. with
2002 o n] A 1 : in A 2 and A 3 on, (the com
ma must have fallen out during
the printing process and the
2010 Am,] r. Am.
2o3o y] A : the x : read prob. y (?)
2067 breatbe] A : Y. breathe (x)
2089 astrey] A : Astrey x (lat- As-
2096 weerye] A : wearye x (similar
variant in L 2106, 2170, &&gt;a)
2io3 Lo] A (cp. catchw-) : Loe x
2io5 subclewde] A : subdude x
2108 hand] A : handes x
2109 withmouing] A : r. withmouing
2122 bosoms] : A : bosome N
y] A : the N
alow] A : allow x
ji23 strips] A : strypes x
2124 coquryng] A : r. coqueryng (x)
2125 here] A : heare x
2148 weapon] A : weapons x
2149 set] A : set x
2150 td] A : read to
2177 returne] A : returnd N
2ig3 Them] A : r. them (x : then)
2196 fearyd] A : feared N
2203 euer] AX : prob. read euen
22 1 5 this line should have been indented.
2222 hydd] A : hide x
223i wy] A : read my (x)
2284 tourne] A : turne x
2286 healde] A : held x
2289 fawte] A : fait x
2302 hawtye] A : haughty x
2303 pr epared] A : r. prepared
23ii accustomdlye] A : accustomd
23 1 4 togyther] A : togeather x
1. 2325 catchw. B u] A 1 : Bu in .\" ; But
in A 3 ( The types must have fal
len out during the printing pro
2326 wraths] : wrath N
233 1 tormentrrye] A : r. tormentrye
235i heauye] final e not very distinct
in A 1
236o who] A : r. Who
2362 Her] A : r. Her.
23y2 withdrawen] A : r- with capital
W (Withdraw x)
238o O f] A : read Of
2386 Audi A : read And
2390 hath] A 1 A :i : in \~ ha th
2394 monsters] A : r. monsters
23g6 alowe] A : allow x
23gy aud] A : read and
23g8 th el A : read the
2402 wherfore] A : read with capital W
2409 loase] A : lose x
ratchet . : my] A : r, M\
. .411 heinous] A : hainous N
2412 wiltl A : read with capital W
2430 with] A : id.
2438 euyll] e indistinct in A :I
2441 sorbydl A : readfoibyd (x)
1. 2457 euery] first e indistinct in A 1 and
A :! , clear in A 2
2458 and] A : read And
2494 o Thcseu] A : read O Theseu
25oo straight] A : st is smudged.
25o2 thys] A : t rather faint in the
three copies of A
25og byde] : bid x
25 1 3 euen] A : n is doubtful and might
be a u.
25 14 Her.] stop faint in A 1 and A 3 ,
clear in A
2529 roonagate] A : ronnagate x
2534 what] A : rend What
2542 shoolde] A : shoulde x
2553 soon] A 1 : A 2 and A :i have soona
2554 mith] A : read With
beholdel first e indistinct in the
three copies of A : the same has to
be said of the first e o/frende
on the next line 2555.
2565 t o] A : read to
2568 Aud] A : read And
2574 which] A : read Which
2676 Instead of FINIS and the colo
phon, N has the title : (folio 20
(04) verso] :
HERE ENDETH THE FIRST
Tragedy e of Seneca, called Her
cules furens, translated into En-
glishe by lasper Heywood stu-
dente in Oxenforde.
THE TEXT OP HERCULES FURENS
USED BY HEYWOOD.
As mentioned in the Introduction, Heywood published the
Latin text of this tragedy opposite to his translation. This
text enlightens us about the editions of Seneca he used, and
the way he availed himself of them for his English rendering.
The following list is the result of a collation of his text
with that which appears in L. ANNAEI SENECAE TRA-
GOEDIAE, recensuerunt Rudolphus Peiper et Gustavus
Richter (Leipzig, MCMII). Mere differences in spellingare not
recorded (f. i. harena, Hibera arena, Ibera ; caelum coelum ;
incluta inclyta ; sue suae ; immo imo ; summissum sub-
missum ; carus charus ; auctor author, &&gt;a). Punctuation is
not taken into account except when the difference involves
a change in the sense.
The first figures refer to the lines in Heywood s translation ;
the second to those of Peiper-Richter s text. H denotes the
Latin text given by Heywood ; P that by Peiper-Richter :
Finally for every variant the signs of the different codices
(A, E, ^, ", &a) have been added which, according to the
textual notes in Peiper-Richter s edition (from which I quote
them), have the same reading as Heywood s. When the lat-
ter s variant is not recorded in their notes, I quote (within
brackets) the XVI th century editions where it occurs : BM =
edition with comment, of Gellius BernardinusMarmita, Venice,
1492 ; E = Erasmus edition, Paris, i5i3 ; Asc. = Judocus Badius
Asctnsius edition, Paris, :5i4 ; HP = Henricus Petrus edition,
Basle, 1541 ; G = Gryphius edition, Lyons, 1541. (See Intro
duction}. Readings which seem quite particular to Heywood
have been pointed out by a +
1. 162-3-4 i IVNOjP : ACTVS PRIMVS. IVNO. sola.
Trimetri lambici. H
187 12 ferro minax hinc terret]P : fera coma hinc
exterret H A E-
aureus] P : aureas H
tellus nuribus a ! sparsa] P :
sparsa tellus II
escendat] P : ascendat H
ortus] P : ortu H
Ouae] P : Quid H
36-37 patrem probavi, gloriae feci
qua Sol reducens quaque deponens diem] P
Patrem probavit. inde, qua lucem
A per it queTethys, qua ferens Titan diem H AE 3
tinguit] P : tingit II
Aethiopas] P : Aethiopes H
lovi] P : Ioui?H
terna] P : tetra H
experto] P : expense H
meli usque] P : mediusque H
tulit] P : tulit : H
prementem :] P premente, H
3 4 2
pete,] P : pete- II
3 4 3- 4
between v. 89 and 90 :
Mouenda iam suntbella,clarescit dies. H
quam munit] P : qua mugit II
citae] P : incitae H
vitiatae] P : violatae II
vobis] P : nobis H
furis] P : furit H
vota] P : iam odia H
vicit :] P : pariter, H
manu] P manum H
123-4 P : 1. 123 is placed in H beti^een 89 and go;
I. 124 is omitted. A
411 CHORVS] P : CHORVS. Anapaestici et
ultimus lambicus. H
417 i3o Arcados] P : Arcades H ^
420 i33 summa... Oeta] P : summum ... Oethan H ^
421 i34 Bacchis] P : baccis H <J>
426 i38 domos.] P : domes H
425 i3g Pastor] P : Pastor, II
480 143 reparant] P : reperant H (prob. misprint]
436 i5o circa] P : circum II A
From 1. \5oto i53, and further on lines 160-1-2,
and 174/0 179, the disposition of the verses differs
in P and H, the second half -verse of a line in P
being the first half-verse of the following line in H .
448 161 domus ; ] P : domus, H
448-9 162 spes immanis] P : spes et in agris.
Turbine magno spes sollicitae H ^A
453 1 66 hie... beatas] P : ac... beatus H (HP, G)
4 55 1 68 auroj P : auro est II (HP]
475 1 88 tempore Parcae.] P : ordine Parcae, H AE :J
492-4 betw. 204-205 AMPHITRYON MEGARA LY-
CVS] P : ACTVS SECVNDVS. ME
GARA. Trimetri lambici. H (Asc, PIP, G)
5oq 212 vacat] P : datur H A
5 12 21 3 a primo] P : apprime II AE 2
52i 218 reptabat] P : reptavit H A
5^3 219 lumine] P : pectore H A
535-6 225 pressus 1. gemuit] P : Gemuit 1. pressus H A
538 226 gregis] P : gregis ? H E
53g 227 datum,] P : datum ? H
544 229 Arcadia] P : Arcadica II (HP)
543 229 suem,] P : suem ? H
549 232 Tartesii] P : Cartesii II A T
55g-6o 237 ac rupto] P : abrupto H u>
56i 238 latam] P : etiam H (et iam A) (Asc, HP)
567-8 241 quid ?] P : quid H
malum,] P : malum ? H
570 242 mori,] P : mori ? H E
571 243 pinnis] P : pennis H
573-4 244 petit] P : petiit H
Stymphalidas ?] P : Stymphalidas. H
582 248 Augeil P : Augiae H
587 2 5 1 tristes] P : telris II (evidently a misprint for
terris (= EA) ; in transL : earthe)
6o3-4 25g tremis] P : tremit H AE 3
1. 621-2 268 atque Ophionium genus] P : ciuis
atque Amphionis H (in EA cinis) (Asc)
623 269 reccidistis] P : decidistis H <J/
626 270 gravem.] P : gravem ? H
629 272 confringit] P : confregit H A
63i-2 273 fieri] P : fern H ty
640 277 precor] P : tuis H A
643 279 MEG.] P : omitted in H where the preceding
verses are spoken bv Megara (in P and in A by
Amphitryon} (Asc, HP, G)
644 dispulsas] P : depulsas H A
645-6 280 retro] P : vetito H A
647 281 clusum] P : clausum H A T
666 290 efferens] P : afferens H (Asc, HP)
685-6 3oo potens] P : parens H <\>
688 3oi muta] P : multa H A
689 3o2 Eleusin] P : Eleusi H (Asc, HP)
690 iactabit] P : iactabo H A
703-4 betw. 3o8- 9 AMPHITRYON. MEGARA. Tri-
metri lambici. H 4 1
717 3i5 moveri] P : amoveri H A
719 3i6 prona &a.] P : Meg. Prona &*a. H A
721 3i7 MEG.] P : omitted in H A
729 32i adit] P : abiit H AE 2
736 324 pedes.] P : pedes? H
761 332 LYC.] P : omitted in H A
756 334 Ismenos] P : Ismenus H
761-2 betw. 336 & 337 LYCVS. MEGARA. AMPHI
TRYON. Trimetri lambici. H A
7g5-6 353 posse invidiam] P : posse te invidiam H fy
797 354 fors] P : sors H +
800 355 tristi] P : tristis H A^
8i3-4 362 gerant] P : agant H (Asc, HP]
828 36g regno] P : regni H (Asc)
829 370 sociemur] P : sociemus H AE 2
847 38o patrium] P : patriam H to
864 387 nefas] P : nefas? H
866 388 nati patris] P : nati & patris H <HP)
873 3ga subrigens] P : surrigens H
880 3 9 5 libetj P : lubet H
893-4 402 pater?] P : pater : H
8g5 403 fratres?] P : fratres : H
902-3 407 acti ?] P : acti : H
918 414 exanguis] P : exangues H A
925 418 tremesco] P : tremisco II A^E-
943-4 427 Effarepotius,quodnovisthalamisparem] P :
Effare, thalamis quod novis potius parem 1 1 to
949-5o 43o Sceptrone nostro famulus estpotiortibi ?] P :
Sceptroquenostropotiorest famulus tibi? H E^A
g5i-2 43i neci.] P : neci ? H
965-6 438 sperat] P : penetrat H A
969-70 440 partes meae sunt] P : partes meae hae
sunt H A
982 446 lovem :] P : lovem ? H
995-6 453 terra mater errante edidit ?] P : terrae
mater erranti edidit. H -f-
997-8 454 Num monstra saeva... feras ?] P : Non
monstra, saevas... feras. H A
iooz-5 456 LYC.] & /. 457 AMPH.] P : omitted in H to
looi 456 mala ?] P : mala. H
1009 460 non] P : Num H (HP)
1010 Idaeae] P : exesae H A
1027 469 nardo,] P : nardo ? H
io5g-6o 485 invius] P : obvius H to
1061-62 486 integer Cycnus] P : ante Geryonas H At
1061 pati] P : pati. H
1089 5oo dest] P : deest H
1114 5i2 inroga] P : irroga H
1 120 5i5 colam] P : rogem H A
1 1 35 523 est estj P : en est H A
1137 betw. 523-524 CHORVS] P : CHORVS. Chor-
iambici seu asclepiadaei. H
ii5a 538 tenderent] P : tenderant H A
1168 554 pigro] P : nigro H <*>
1. 1 177 -563 tergemina] P : ter gemina TI
1194 577 placed in H after line 58o A
1204 5go carmine] P : cantibus H A
1206-8 betw. verses Sgi-2 HERCVLES] P : ACTVS
TERTIVS. HERCVLES. Trimetri lam-
!2i3-4 694 inlustre latis] P : illustre laetis H A
1216 5g5 inlicitum] P : illicitum H
1219 597 arcana] P : secreta H A
1249 612 vidi] P : vici H w
1253-4 614 iam diu] P : tarn diu H A
1255 6i5 quae] P : quid H A
1261-2 betw. 617-618 AMPHITRYON &c.] P : in H
is added : Trimetri lambici.
1266 622 at] P : & II to
1273-4 623 teneone in auras editumanvanafruorJP:
Verum ne cerno corpus? an fallor tua H A T
1286 629 posseditLycus,]P:Lycuspossidet.H (Asc,HP)
i3oo 634 nostia] P : hostis H (o
i3i9 646 lassis] P : lapsis H ^
i337 654 a l to in pectore] P : alto pectore H A
i33g 656 quae] P : quod II (Asc, HP)
1346 65g inrita] P : irrita II
1 347 660 Enna] P : Aetna H co
1369-70 671 nocte sic mixta] P : tale non dubie H A
i375 674 penetrat] P : pereat H w
i38i-2 677 aer urguet] P : agger urget H (HP)
1 387 679 immensi sinus] P : immenso sinu H A
1 387 680 placido] P : Tacito H (BM)
1 394 683 incertis] P : incerta H A
1 394 684 undis] P : unda H A
1410 691 iacet] P : iacens H co
H3i 702 situ] P ; siti H +
1441 707 Quid] P : Quid ? H
1471 722 recentes] P : recentes. H
1471-2 722 dei.] P : deo : H A
1480 726 aspectus] P : aspectum II A
1. 1483-4 728 sera] P : saeva H -f-
1494 y33 aditur] P : auditur H A
i5i5 744 loca,] P : loca. H
i5i7 745 futurus.] P : futurus H
1 520 747 vestra] P : nostra H
i523 748 nocentes ?] P nocentes, H
1 52Q 75 1 Sysiphia] P : Sysiphea H o>
i53 4 753 alluit] P : abluit H AE
i537-8 755 unda in ore ; p.] P : unda : in ore p. H +
1540 756 Tityos] P : Tityus H A T
1541-2 757 gerunt] P : ferunt H A
i553-4 763 stupent ubi undae P : stupente ubi unda H A
1 557 765 vectat] P : gestat H u>
i56i-2 767 lucent] P : squalent H E
i563-4 768 longo portitor conto] P : conto portitor
longo H A
1567 770 umbras] P : undas H A
i58i-2 777 titubanti] P : titubante H (A : titubato) (HP)
1 583 778 victa] P : vasta H A
i586 779 in] P : ad H (omit, in A) (Asc)
i5qg 786 colubrae,] P : colubri : H (Asc, HP)
1607-8 790 subrecta] P : subiecta H A
i6i3 793 leviterque] P : Et uterque II <
i625-6 799 tegit,] P : clepit. H A
1627-8 800 gerens.] P : gerens, H
i656 814 novus] P : bonos H A
1660 816 victorem] P : vectorem II (HP)
1670 821 diem] P : aethera, H A
1680 826 Herculeas] P : Herculea H A
1680 827 umbras] P : umbra H A
1687 betw.Bzg 83o CHORVS] P : in H is added :
1692 83 4 es] P : est H A
1694 836 nigra metuenda silva,] P : sylva me-
tuenda nigra : H A
1698 840 ruit] P : coit H a
1705 842 nocti] P : noctis, H A
1. 1707 849 graditur] P : gradiens H A
1716 858 vobis] P : nobis H AE
1718 860 terra ?] P : terra. H
1721 863 vacuaeque] P : variaeque H (HP, E)
1732 874 carpit] P : carpsit H A
betw. 1732-3 874-5 : in H is added : Choriambici Glyco-
1744 886 alluitur] P : abluitur H A
i 7 53-5 betw- 894-895 HERC. &a.] P : in H : ACTVS
QVARTVS. HERCVLES. THESEVS.
AMPHITRYON. MEGARA. Trimetri
1795 914 manus,] P : manus. H
1796 gi5 tu conditores]P:Th[es].DiiconditoresH A
1798 916 Zethi] P : Cethi H
1798-9 916 nobilis Dircen aquae] P : nobiiis Dir-
ces aquas H A
1 800- 1 917 regisadvenae]P:regisquiadvenaeH (Asc,HP)
1800 917 coles] P : colis H A
1802 918 date] P : Here. Date H A
:863 948 rutila] P : rutilat H A
1864 949 iactans] P : iactans. H
1873 953 refers] P : refers ? H
1893 963 polum ?] P : polum, H
1896 965 dubitatur etiam ? vincla] P : dubitatur ?
etiam vincla H -f-
1919 976 pestiferimovent.] P:pestiferamovent, H A
1920 977 profugit umbras] P:profugit& umbras H (HP)
1920 977 Tityos] P : Tityus H A
1925 979 Pellene] P : Pallene H A
1928 981 Oeten] P : Oethen H
1929 981 Mimans.] P : minans H EA
ig3o 982 Erinys] P : Erinnys : H
1945 989 levis] P : leves H A
1948-9 991 impegit] P : inuergit H A
1962 997 Cyclopia] P : Cyclopea H AE
1964-5 999 valva deiecto] P : aula, disiecto H wA
1. 1967 iooo culmen] P : columen H A
1968 looi perlucet] P : procumbat H A
1976 ioo5 dextra] P : dextram H (Asc)
1979 1007 sonuit] P : sonat H (Asa
1980 1007 disperse] P : dispersa H (Asc)
1990 1012 latebram] P : latebras H A
2001 1017 tendat] P : tendit H -)-
2006-7 1020 occidat] P : auferam H A
2012-3 1023 eripuit] P : rapuit H A
2024-5 1029 istuc caede nostrorum inlitumj P : istum
caede monstrorum illitum H to
2o3o io32 quo te ipse, senior, obvium &&gt;a.} P : Th[esJ .
Quo te ipse genitor obvium d^a. H A
2o5a 1043 hebetat ?] P : hebetat. H
2059 1045 labat ;] P : labat, H
2061-2 1047 portum] P : portus H A
2062 1048 vivis] P : vivis ? H
2069 io5i gravi] P : gravis H A
2074 betw. io53 and io54 CHORVS] P : in H is
added : Anapaestici, Adonii duo.
2077 io56 unda,] P : unda. H
2087 1066 malorum] P : laborum H (HP, E)
2089 1068 o matris] P : o omitted in H co
2090 1069 languide] P : languidae H
Lines io65-io66 ; 1086-1094; noo-no5;
1116-1119; n33-ii34; i i35-n36 are divided
otherwise in H : the second half-verse of
a line in P being the first half -verse of
the following line in H . The lines in H are
not printed in the arrangement of the text
in P, but in the order indicated by the
figures placed by the side of the lines.
After I. 1074 in H comes line 1077 : placidus fessurn &&gt;a. A
2098 1076 noctem :] P : mortem H to
2096 1077 fove] P : foves H (HP)
2109 1089 omnis] P : omnes H A
2110-1 1090 vexata] P : vexato H +
1. 2i3o 1109 lateque] P : latique H w
2131 mo medius] P : melius H A
2132 mi senserat aer.] P : senserat, aether. A
2i38 1117 graves] P : leves H A
2144 1 123 saevos] P : saevo H (Asc,HP)
2148 1127 Scythicis leve corytis] P : Scythici leve
coryti H A
2i5i n3o iubatae] P : iubatae. H
2i55 1134 furor,] P : furor. H
2i56-7 n36 laboris,] P : laboris. H
ai5g-6i behv. line 1187 & ii38 HERO. &&gt;a\ P : ACTVS
QVINTVS. HERCVLES. AMPHI
TRYON. THESEVS. Trimetri lam-
2162 u38 locus,... regio,] P : locus ?... regio ?... H
2173 1143 ad domum] P : domo H w
2184 1149 es,] P : est H A
2188-9 n5i abit... meum] P : abiit... meum? H
2199 1 1 56 libet] P : libet : H
2200 n57 virtus] P : victor. H A
2202 n58 relicto,] P : relicto ? H
2202 n58 cuius in fetu] P : cuius incestu H A
2204 iiSg nostra.] P : nostra ? H
2209 1161 obtinet] P : obtinet ? H
2220 1167 omnis] P : omnes H A
2227 1170 Geryonae] P : Geryonis H A
2238 1176 omnis] P omnes H A
2247 1 1 80 impotens] P : potens H A
2256 1 1 85 fare.] P : fare, H
2272 1193 refugit.] P : refugit, H
2276-7 1195 leto?... nece] P : leto,... nece ? H
2278-9 1196 nostra.] P : nostra, H
2280 1197 quis] P : Quae H (Asc, HP)
2280 1197 flectere] P : flectere ? H
2282-3 1198 rite cedentem] P : vix recedentem H AE
2286 1 200 tacuere ?] P : tacuere : H
2292-3 I2o3 oblite nostri vindica sera manu] P : oblite
nati, vindica saeva manu H +
1. 23o2-3 1208 vacat cur] P : paretur H A
23i5 1214 medium] P : & medium H (Asc)
2324-5 1219 attonito carens] P : attonitum caret H A
2336 1225 hoc] P : hue II A
2345 1229 arcum] P : ensem H to
235o 1232 at] P : ac H A
2356 1235 poenas.] P : poenas, H
236o i23y AMPH. ..usquam..]P:Th[es]. ..vnquam..H A
236o-i 1237 addidit] P : indidit H (HP)
236 4 i 2 3 9 AMI-H.] P : Th[es]. H A
2394-5 1254 furit] P : fuit H (HP)
2396-7 1255 aut] P : & H +
2400 1267 f.tuitactumque] P :f. tui,contactum&H (Asc)
2412 1263 parentem.] P : parentem ? H
2412 1263 j A
2414 1264 AMPH.] P : Th[es]. H A
2416 1265 (Asc)
2418-9 1266 pete] P : peto H A
2428 1270 violatum] P : violatae H A
2444 1279 propero-] P : propero, H
2445 1279 iamdudum] P : iamque dudum H (Asc)
2452 1283 ignava] P : ignave H to
2454 1284 pavidasque matres] P : pavidamque
matrem H E
2455 1284 dantur] P : dentur H A
2460-1 1287 cremabo, aut tota] P: cremabo. Tota H EA
2466 1290 versa] P : eversa H E
2472-3 1293 quod mundi sedet] P : qua mundus
sedet H A
2476 1295 AMPH. Reddo arma. HERC. Vox (S-a.]
P : (Here.) Redde arma. Am. Vox &a. H A
2480 1297 AMPH.] P : not in H, where the speech of
Amphitryon continues (front I- I2Q5) to
line 1314. A
2481 1297 immisit tuis.] P : emisit tuis, H A
2482-3 1298 HERC. AMPH.] P : omitted in H A^
2485 1299 pectusque] P : corpusque H to
1. 2486-7 l3oo HERC. AMPH.] P : omitted in H A
2488-9 i3oi HERC.] P : omitted in H Aw
2490 i3o2 AMPH.] P : omitted in H A \>
2494-5 i3o4 eripere nee tu ; maximum &&gt;a,] P :
Theseu, ipse necdum maximum &a. H A
25O4-5 iSog fessam] P : quassam H A
25io-i i3i2 laetare! ferropectusimpresso induam :] P
letale ferrum pectus impressum induam, H Aw
2526-7 i32o aegro] P : ergo H (ego A) (HP)
2530 i322 recondam] P : recondam ? H
2531 i322 obruar] P : obruam H A
2558-9 i336 quoniamque] P : Quicunque H (Asc, HP)
2566 1340 constitue] P : restitue H co
To avoid confusion, the capital A is printed in Roman type
in the following pages when it refers to the editions of the
three tragedies translated by Heywood that are reproduced in
this volume. When it represents the vulgaris lectio of the latin
original (Peiper-Richter s A), it is printed in Italic type A .
171-2. dares Phrygian... dictis of Crete] About these histori
cal swindlers and their vogue in the Middle-ages, cp. J. Dun-
lop, The Historv of Fiction, ch. vi (ed. Liebrecht, Berlin, i85i);
Ebert, Geschichte der Literatur des Mittelalters im Abendlandc
(Leipzig 1889), t. I, p. 609 ; Sandys, History of Classical Scholar
ship, Cambridge 1906 t. I. p. 647 ; Collilieux, Dictys et Dares
(Grenoble, 1886) ; &a.
176. casteth care to know] to cast is probably used here in
the same sense as in to cast love, favour, a fancy to &a. The
expression is not mentioned in the NED.
181. iestes] gestes, deeds, exploits. NED.
186. hugye] obsolete form of huge ; NED. Cp. TH. 1. 2264.
197. gan] aphetic form of began : cp. 1. 53i ; TH. 1. 723.
200. ycorued] another past participle with the old prefix
occurs on 1. 2896 : yburnte.
221. resight] = recite, to relate, narrate, describe. NED.
23i. they gone] 3 d pers. plur. of present tense in - of to go ;
NED ; cp. The Enterlude of Youth, (edit. Bang-M Kerrow) v. 654.
233. thrust] evidently a misprint for thurst, as B reads. -
thurst is used here transitively ; cp. line io85.
246. leese] = lose. NED. Cp. 1. 1942, 2i5o &a.
293-4- And whose assautes they sought afarre &&gt;a.} different
from the Latin : ad cuius arma venit &a (1. 8).
298. dea] this form of day is not recorded in NED. ; it shows
the influence of the spelling of its rhyme sea (1. 3oo). Cp. 1. 2042.
3oi-2. And which... sought :] Seneca writes : et quae [i. e.,
Penthesilea] vagosvicina prospiciens Scvthas / tip am catervis Ponti-
cam viduisferit (1. 12, i3).
3i6. troyes ashes staynes] staynes = plural form in -s of the
3rd p. of the pres. tense. The plural form in -s or -th (Cp. 1. 533)
often occurs here. Cp. J Knecht, Kongruenz zwischen Subject und
Pradikat, 1911, p. 49 ff.
341-4. What euer... frayde] Heywood does not seem to have
understood the Latin (1. 34-5) : quaecumque Phoebas [i. e., Cassan
dra] ore lymphato furens / credi deo [i. e. Phoebo] vetante praedixit
mala, &c. He must have read Phoebus instead of Phcebas ; in
that case ore lymphato had to be explained as through Cassan
dra, as is clearly shown in 1. 347. Heywood probably added
lines 343 and 344 to make up for the allusions of Seneca which
he did not catch.
35o. nor none of his] cp. Latin : aut Ithaci comes / nocturnus, i.e.
Diomedes (1. 38-g).
354. Parys is the brande :] Heywood s addition.
3g3. Whom shall J &&gt;a.] cp. lectio A : praeda quern vilis
401-4. But] alas cS>0.] the Latin text is quite different : (1. 62)
mea sors timetur, sola sum Danais metus.
410-2. let your complaintes &#] the original has here :
iamdudum sonet / fatalis Ide, iudicis diri domus (1. 65, 66), which
allusion to Paris has been replaced by a poor development of
425. roges] word formed evidenty from the Latin rogum =
pyre. The oldest instance in NED. is from 1661 (Hickeringill).
It is not impossible that roge should be a word of Heywood s
coining. Newton spells rages. It occurs agam in HF, 1. 371 :
for burnyng roage bryng out of hell &c. : (in X again rage) ; and
1. 868 : roage (N). The Latin word rogus is further translated in
HF by wood pyle on 11. 1106, 1118, and by funeral I on 11. ig32
426. in feelde] I. at. : Sigeis... campis (1. y5).
435. In dust of Troy <sa.] Heyw. has read 1. 86-9 of the Latin
with a punctuation altogether different from any of the copies :
tepido Troiae pulvere turfies
paret exertos turba lacertos
veste remissa, substringe sinus
liter oque tenus^ pateant artus^ &a.
substringe sinus uteroque tenus = let your brestes be tyde Downe to
your bellies] brtstes has probably the sense of breast-cloth, part of
the dress that covers the chest, which, here, has to be let down
and tied about the waist, instead of about the neck, so that
the breast and shoulders should be bare : cp. 1. 462, 454. In
NED. this sense is recorded : Breast = c) the part of a gar
ment or a piece of armour covering the breast (one instance
is quoted in the sense of garment i83o Beruffled breasts
and wrists were the order of the day). Cp. Menard-Sauvageot,
Vie privee des Anciens, vol. Ill, p. 148 ff.
489. Your garmentes loose] Lat. : cingat tunicas palla solutas (l.ga).
449. these ashes] Lat. (1. 102) : cinis fervidus (cp. Seneca, 1.86).
453. And sufire not your clamour so to slake] quite different
is the Latin : (var. A) utr unique tegat (in P : imumque tegit) suffulta
457. careful] care (and its derivatives, careless, careful) is fre
quently used in these tragedies, and has always the sense of
trouble, anxiety, sorrow, mourning, grief.
484. feare] read teare, as in B ; Lat. : fletus (\. i33).
622. limite] obs. form of past part, of to limit. NED.
533. whose songs... hath drawen] hath, plural form in -th :
Cp. 1. 3i6.
53g. carke] synonym of care ; cp. note on line 467.
555. as she lust] Hey wood drops here the ending of the 3rd p.
sing, probably to make the word rhyme with trust (1. 553).
Cp. Knecht, p. 141.
557. Frayltie is the thrid] B corrects : Fraile is the thrid (thread).
. 5gi. splayde] aphetic form oi display de.
599. fordo] = to render powerless, counteract, neutralize.
619. I grate again to sight] I am at a loss to explain the word
grate, which is reproduced in all the editions. I suppose that
it is a misprint for gate, p. t. of to get (Cp. 1. io35) = to succeed
in coming or going : / gate, I came again to sight, to the world.
642. we] evidently misprint for me, as B reads.
656. flyte] flyte = to flite, to contend, to wrangle, to strife
658. Great is the ransome ought of due to me] ought = owed.
NED. Cp. Tho. Heywood, Pleasant Dialogues and Drammas,
edit. W. Bang, v. 8227.
684-5. For straunger &&gt;a.\ cp. Latin (1- 169) : maiora veris mon-
stra (vix capiuntfidem) vidi &a. None the old editions have the
brackets, and all put a stop after fidem.
704. to Goddes that guyde beneath] the original reads : ad
superos, i. e., those who live on the earth above (1. 179).
710-22. as wonted he &c.] this passage is a very defective
rendering of lines 182-7 > Heywood did not understand these
allusions to Achilles exploits.
718. carkas slaine] the plural carkas (cp. Latin : corporibus,
1. 1 86) has no ending, as the next word begins with 5.
729. of the ground] the three lines quoting Achilles speech,
(1. 191 -3) ite, ite inertes, &a., have not been translated.
745. and al the tempest brake] Latin (1. 202) :
Tritonum ab alto cecinit hymenaeum chorus-
753. Achilles rose] the original has excidit Achilles (\. 204),
which Heywood interpreted in the sense of the apparition of
his ghost, prob. under the influence of the two preceding scenes.
771. Pelyus yeres] cp. Latin : Pylii senis annos, viz. Nestor,
King of Pylos. Heywood mistook the Pylian King for Peleus
781-92. To late &&gt;c.} These lines are a lengthened, but a very
poor rendering of 1. 217-18 : rudem cruore regio dextram imbuit /
fortemque eandem sensit et mitem manum.
798. fill] = fell, p. t. of to fall. NED.
799. Lyrnesus...fill / With ruine ouerturned lyke / from top
of haughty hill] Lat. : clade subversa est pari / apposita celso . . . iugo
(1. 220-221) : lyke should not be joined to what follows (as
Jockers supposes, p. 3o), but to what precedes : with lyke ruine
ouer turned &a.
809-1 2. What bootes <.] in the original : quid quas alluit / verm s
Caycus gurgitem attollens aquis ? (1. 227-8).
814. bette] (occurring often : sometimes written bet] p. p. of
to beat. NED.
817-8. thus my father &a.] the contrast of the original
between iter (1. 282) and gloria ac sutnmum decus (1. 23 1) has not
been felt by the translator.
821. whisht] to tvhisl or whisht to be silent (Nares], to silence
(Hall) ; here probably used (as in TH, 1. iii5> in trans, sense
of to conceal, to keep a thing a secret . In the other cases,
whisht or whusht has the sense of to be silent : TH, 1. 1798 ;
HF, 1.83i, 223 9 .
829. Reioyse J may your parentes prayse] your is not to
be taken here in the ordinary sense of tuus , (in this instance :
Agamemnon s), for that would imply a contradiction, not only
with the Latin, but even with the preceding and following
lines ; your seems rather to be used here indefinitely : J may
reioyse the prayse of your parent, i. e. one mav be proud of ones father ;
cp. Latin : inclitas laudes iuvat I et facta magni clara genitoris sequi
(1. 236-7) cp. Franz, Shakespeare-Grammatik, 2 d edit. 325. It may
be a misprint as well for our.
832. actes] veadfactes(B); cp. Latin facta ; besides the word
has to be a rhyme to actes (1. 83o).
845. way] i. e. weigh ; Lat. aestimas (\. 244).
860. Pryames] evidently a mistake for Pvrr/ius, as B cor
rected ; Lat. : Pyrrhum. The Latin text is not rendered accura
tely : 1. 859-6o: The fathers blood already sturres, in [Pyrrhus] wan
ton age : 1. 25 1-2 : aetatis alios fervor hie primus rapit, / Pyrrhum
874. synde] aphetic form of assyndc, assigned. Cp. 1. 916, i368.
896. a mirrour for the nones] not in Latin ;for the nones, i. e.
nonce, particular purpose. NED.
899-900. the borowed brayded here [* . e., hair], the face to
bewtefie] Seneca s text reads : /also comam / vinclo decentem ?
fy reads tegentem (1. 272-3).
go5. slipper] = slippery, difficult to stand upon. NED.
Cp. TH, 1. 796.
913-920. But loe &&gt;a.) Heywood has not kept quite close to
the Latin (1. 280-285), though the general sense is adhered to.
941. vayle] aphetic form of avayle.
949. Let not such enuy towarde your father in your hart
remaine] farfetched rendering for : detrahe invidiam tuo / odiumque
patri (1. 299-300).
965. princes slaughter] Seneca has : (l.Sog) caede...regia,\ \z.of
Agamemnon himself, whom Pyrrhus threatens to slay, as he
did Priam, who is said to crave for a companion : paremque
[caedem] poscit Priamus, (\. 3io). Heywood thought that the
threat was levelled at Priam s daughter : 1. 967-8 : And mcete it
were that Polyxeine were layde by Priames syde.
972. to your father humbled is] the translator does not seem
to have understood the Latin text : Priamus... supplex pater nus
(1. 3i3) : You have killed with cruel sword that Priam, who
had been a suppliant of your father (when he came to request
Hector s corpse), and had been spared by him ! What follows,
suffers from that misunderstanding : 1. 973 : My fathers foes we
have them knowne, submit themselves humbly e, Latin : Supplices
nostri patris I hostesque eosdem novimus (1. 3i3-3i4) : viz., Achilles
spared Priam as a suppliant, I slew him as a foe. L. 976-6
And Pry am presently... was gladde to crave mercy e : Latin : Pria
mus tamen / praesens rogavit (1. 3i4-i5) : Priam had the courage to
come himself and ask, but you, Agamemnon, gravi pavidus
metu, I nee ad rogandumfortis, Aiacipreces / Ithacoque mandas clausus
atque hostem tremens. Which arguing loses all its strength in the
rendering : 1. 977-80 : But thou for feare not stout to rule [nee ad
rogandumfortis !] lyest close ft om foes [/] vp skit : While thou to Aiax
and vlisses, dooste thy will commit.
1007-10. Your own <~fl.] added by Heywood to make the
1028. the seas : it do enclose] the Latin text is totally
different : (1. 340) : Nempe cognati maris : Thetis, namely, was
io35. then a boy] the Latin is much more pungent : nondum
viro (1. 348) i. e. when Achilles was living as Pyrrha ad Lyco-
medes court. gate] p. t. of to get, to beget, to procreate. NED.
1045-8. The stoutest &a.} rather ambiguous rendering of
1. 349-5o : Compescere equidem verba et audacem malo Ipoteram domare.
1067-70. And with what cost &&gt;c.] these three lines are added
by Hey wood.
io85. thirst] used transitively. Cp. 1. a33.
1096. death our iyes... doth straine] in Latin : coniun.v oculis
imposuit manum (1. 373).
1097. leames] learn = light, ray, gleam of light, brightness,
gleam ; also^. ; NED ; our leames of light, prob. has the sense
of our lights, i. e., our power of vision, our eyes : cp. Latin :
supremusque dies solibus obstitit (1. 374).
no5. as dankye &&gt;a.] added by Heyw. danky] = dankish,
somewhat dank, dampish. The oldest instance of this word
recorded in NED is from 1796. T. Nuce uses it in his Octauia :
sooner shall... fyer drye With dankish pooles agree and watrye
fenne (Newton, Tenne Tragedies, f. 1673, 1. 32).
1 1 20-1. And neuer may &&gt;a.] the Latin text which Hey wood
used, had a stop after fata (as all the old editions) : 1. 3go : Hoc
omnes petimus fata ; nee amplius / iuratos &a. Peiper-Richter has :
hoc omnes petimus fata nee amplius, / iuratos &a.
1124. northen] obsolete form of northern. NED.
n3o. that weight here ought to wyn] weight = wait : that
expect to win aught here : Lat. avidi.
n32. Wilt thou it wotte &&gt;a.] in the old editions (and Hey-
wood s translation) lines 407 and 408, quaeris quo &a., are placed
between lines 399 and 400.
n56. staine] in A ; in B straine ; the reading of A is to be
preferred : cp. 1. 1172 : Why... staine your iyes with teares ?
Shak., Rich, the Sec., Ill, i, 14 : staind the beauty of a fair
queen s cheeks With tears.
1160. Good ladies] 1. n65. (good ladies) here &-a.} i. e. the
Women of Troy, who sang the Chorus of the first Act, and
now stimulate each other, especially the mothers (1. 1161), to
sympathise with Andromacha, who addresses them in line
1 169 : ye carefull company, &a. (Lat. : maesta Phrygiac turbo). Cun-
liffe thinks that they are the ladies of the audience (Infl. p. 3).
1172. with teares P] here the translation of a few words of the
original is wanting : levia perpessae sumus, / siflenda patimur 1. 41 1-
412) and the following lines (412-415) are shortened into the
lines 1175-78 of the translation.
i:85. Seely] -silly. NED.
1194. yll] i, e. woe : Lat. : malorum.
1217. Death thankfull were] the Latin : certe aequa mors est
(1. 484), is a continuation of the parenthesis, in which Andro-
macha asks why o\\\y Greeks can return from Hades to
frighten their foes. Heywood took it as a wish for death from
Andromacha, which necessitated the addition of the transi
tional lines i2i5-6.
1218. oppres] the subject is a common care.
1272. embrasse] = embrase (the form with two ss is not
recorded in NED).
1284. ...they weare.] a line of the original has not been trans
lated : cervice fusam dissipans iacta comam (1. 468).
1324. chaunce] cp. Latin : omen... feralis loci (I. 488).
1347-8. Let yet the wretche take hys defence more careles
there to byde] is totally different from the original (1. 497) :
Miser occupet praestdia, securus legat. Cp. Miller : In danger, haste
to shelter where ye may; In safety, choose . In the preceding
dialogue, lines 1325-48, Heywood follows the division of the
text between Andromacha and the Old Man, as it is given in
the old editions, and is indicated for A in Peiper s notes.
i358. treasures] Latin \fmtum ;1. 5oi).
1447. Feare castes in all thextremitie and oft interprets
wrong] in the original : est quidem iniustus dolor jrerum aestimator
(1. 5 4 5-6).
1458. them] referring to fleete, considered as a plural : cp.
1. 1637 : Our flete passe not &a. (N. changes them into vs). Knecht,
Die Kongruenz, &a., pp. 36, 37, 41.
i553. Xow will 6-a.] the word Invita of the original has not
been translated (1. 594).
i565-6. Let spedy &&gt;a.] the original represents this death as
a boon : me fata mature exitu / facilique solvant ac tneo condant solo
i567-68. And after death <sa.] the Latin text has a different
meaning : et patria tellus Hectorem leviter premat (\. 602). In Seneca
these two events, Andromacha s death and burial on Troyan
ground, and Hector s rest in his grave, are made dependent
on the truth of the assertion about the boy : ut luce cassus (in
the old texts) inter extinctos iacet (1. 6o3) Heywood has quite mis
understood this : he sees an imprecation in the two events,
which he represents as calamitous, whilst they are intended
as fortunate and wished for in the original.
i58i-4. Thinkst thou <>#.] the original text has a wholly difte-
rent purport : fingit an quisquam hoc parens ? / Nee abominandae
mortis auspicium pavet ? / Auspicia metuunt qui nihil mains timent
1587-8. What thing is &&gt;a.] in consequence of the misunder
standing of the preceding lines, the original has not been
exactly rendered here : it runs : si peierat, timere quid gravius
potestl (\. 612).
i5o,2.thetruthe herin to finde] cp. Latin : veritas numquam latet
(A and old texts ; Peiper : per it) 1. 614.
1603-4. Yet once &a] judging by the succession of the ideas,
these two lines have to serve as the translation of 1. 619 : Alios
parentes alloqui in luctu deed; but in that case Heywood must
have either totally misunderstood the original, or rendered
a text with a different reading. In his translation these lines are
not addressed to Andromacha, nor is there that opposition
between them and the following verses : Thou wretched &a.
(1. i6o5-6), which is found in the Latin tragedy.
1621. sears] prob. sirs, used in addressing people below the
degree of the speaker : Shak.-Lex., NED. The corresponding
term is wanting in the original ; in the commentary of the old
editions, terms like ministri, famuli, comiies are suggested. The
edition C and Newton read sirs. Cp. 1. 1768 : graundsers ABC,
i625. Well done, &#.] In the original Ulysses feigns to
have found to boy to try the mother : bene est : tenetur. perge,
festina, attrahe (1. 63o).
1628. ...looke about ?] The original lays here one sentence
more in Ulysses mouth to exasperate Andromacha : iam certe
pent (I. 63i).
i633. now hath ye say] possibly we should read as ye say,
or it may be that the words ye say have to be joined to Sins :
Sins ye say that &c.
1687, Our flete passe not] cp. 1. 1458.
1661. byde] = abyde (cp. TH, 1. 2708).
1 685. Jt shalbe c^a.] Heywood omits the translation of :
Responsa per again : (1. 663 J.
1699-1700. The deade <~a] the original text says quite the
opposite : busta transier at furor (1. 670).
1723. Breake vpcB^a] Hey wood s original probably read here :
reuelle Auemum, (cp. Asc, HP), instead of repellor, heu me, or
rep elk Avernum; this reading is not recorded by Peiper (1. 681).
1733. Down quight withall.] probably Heywood s text read
like Ascensius : Eruite cuncta funditus (Peiper : Funditus cuncta
eruain ; A : f. c. erne : 1. 685).
1755. More easely strike,..] Seneca : [eo] mitius...preme (1. 696) ;
easely = mildly, lightly, gently. NED.
1756. ...misery.] Heywood leaves one line of the original
untranslated : miser o datur quodciiinque, fortunae datur (1. 697).
1759. and so agayne &a.] cp. Latin : annosque, dum te recipit,
cxtendat suos / Laerta (1. 699-700).
1773. store] in the original furtum.
1775. feareth] to fear = (transit.) to frighten, to inflict fear to.
1804-7. Take mercy &&gt;a.] added by Heywood.
i856. to you] in the original : Phry gibus 1. 758).
1882. dispoynted] = disappoynted.
1896. welde] = wield.
igo3-4- O greeuous &=a.} cp. Latin : o morte dira tristius leti
genus ! (var. w, Asc, HP, &a.) (1. 783).
1945. ... Grecyans heavy yoke] Heywood s text read here
Graio... iugo (as the variant } in Peiper, and HP : 1- 804).
ig56. lenger] this older form of the comparative occurs again
on line 2145.
igSg. Chorus altered by the translater} Heywood does not trans
late Seneca s Chorus to the third act of Troades, as nothing
is therin but a heaped noumbre of farre & strange countreies
which should only be a straunge and vnpleasaunt thing
to the readers" as he explains in his Preface (1. i3i-i45). On
lines 1960 to 1979 he has translated instead, the third Chorus
of Seneca s Phaedra (lines g5g to 980), which, as it bemoans
the blind ruling of Fortune, is much more in harmony with
the general feeling of this tragedy : this altered chorus is
indeed a fitter transition to the next scenes than the geo
graphical digression; lines 1980 to 1991, of course, are added
to the translation from Phaedra, to adapt the abstract philo
sophical considerations to the present circumstances and
prepare the opening of the fourth act.
1963. to care theyr course] to care, trans. to take care of,
to guard, to preserve their course. NED (the oldest quotation
for this sense is from 1628).
20i3. vnware] = vnwarily (Middle E.).
2o32. honour hongur] probably the word hongur, which had to
be corrected, was left by mistake in the printer s form after the
right word honour had been put in. The edition C did not
notice that mistake and merely corrected hongur into honger.
2042. by] evidently a misprint for thy, as B reads.
dea] = day, spelt that way under the influence of its rhyme
sea (I. 2040). Cp.l. 298.
2o5i. hath lift] p. part, without ending, as the verb ends in t.
Cp. Franz, Shak.-Gram., p. i55.
2057-8. ye neuer made, <>a.] the Latin gaudere (1. 889) has an
abstract and general sense : Hitherto we were not compelled
to pretend to be happy ; Heywood misunderstands it as being
said only probably ironically of the joy that came to
Troy through Helena.
2103-4. For dreade c~a.] the Latin text is different : vos levat
tanti mali / comitatus (1. 913-4).
2107-10. Whome eche &&gt;a.] the corresponding passage in
Seneca, in which Helena alludes to the fate of the Troyan
princesses and her own, evidently has not been understood
at all : quani quisqne famulam traheret incerto diu / casu pependit : me
meus traxit [E : trahit] statini / sine sorte dominus. (1. giS-iy).
21 12. and then c^a.] here the translation of a few words of
the original is wanting : tantaeque Teucris cladis ? (1. 918].
2116. theyr] = of the Troyans ; theyr refers to your shippes
(\. 21 13) ; the Latin text is much clearer : sin rapta Phrvgiis praeda
remigibus fui (1. 920).
2119. Then pardon Parys] Cp. the variant of <> : ignosce
Paridi (Peiper : ignosce raptae) 1. 922.
2141. Some woes <>#.] the Latin is different : leviora malasunt
cuncta, quam Priami gener \ Hecubaeque Pyrrhus. (1. 934-5).
2i58. and at his tombe to die] (he original reads here : campo
maritiis ut sit Elysio, iubet. (1. 944).
2167. sowndes] to sound to swoon. Hall.
2173-4. A little thing &a.] The Latin text speaks of Hecuba
here in the third person : minimum est quod Hecubam facere
felicem potest (1. g53).
2211-4. But as for Heleyns &a.] the text of Seneca : hanc cara
tellus scdibus patriis ieget (1. 971) refers evidently to Polyxena ;
Heywood mistook it as said of Helena ; hence the want of
contrast between these lines and the four that precede. In the
22i5. my (state)] should consequently be her indeed this
line, as it stands, contradicts what Helena just has said on
lines 2087 to 2122.
223i-2. You chaunsed to Ulysses are / hys pray ye are
become] the translation does not by tar exhaust the Latin :
Ithaco obtigisti praeda nolenti brevis (1. 980} .
2259-62. Jn meane time &a.] these verses are the translation
of one of the most difficult passages of the tragedy : Peiper s
text reads (1. 997) : Dumque ista [i. e. mala peroptata Ulyssi]
veniant, interim hoc poenae [Ulyssi] loco est : (1. 998) sortem occupavi,
praemium eripui tibi [i. e. loco pulchrae adolescentulae, vetula
tibi sorte adjudicatur]. In the old editions (A, Asc, HP, &a.)
haec poena of 1. 997 is taken in the sense of poena Hecubae : i. e.
servitutis, and 1. 998 runs : sortem occupavi [i. e. praeveni sortem
Ulyssi meis imprecationibus : sed ipse] praemium eripuit mihi
[i. e., eripuit mini mortem quam vellem]. Many more explana
tions have been given of this passage. Heywood has inter
preted it in his own way : he has before his mind line 2258,
where Hecuba wishes to Ulysses her own and Priam s mis
chance : Dum ista veniant interim : In meane time haps this deepe
distress : haec poena in loco est : my cares can know no calm : I am
miserable, yes, as miserable as Priam ; indeed, sortem occupavit =
I ran the race with Priamus for misery and misfortune : but he
has won the palm, he died first : praemium eripuit mi/it. The words
praemium and occupare must have brought I ley wood to this
translation, the more so as Hecuba a few lines further beseeches
Pyrrhus to kill her (1. 2265).
2288. his griefe him bytes the les] the old editions (A,
Asc, HP) read here lentius luctus lachrimaeque mordent (\. ion).
Peiper has lenius luctus &a. Heywood translated lenius, which
shows that he was judicious in reading his text.
23oi. whose hundred hed &*a.} in the original : removete cen
tum I rura qui scindunt opulenta bubus (1. 1020-1).
2335. hoyse] obsolete form of hoist. NED. Cp. 1. 2544.
2362. Whoeuer he, J am the wretche] prob. the reading of B :
Whoeuer be, I am &c-, is to be preferred. Cp : Latin : quisquis est
Hecubae est miser (1. 1062).
2368. ...double slaughters then] between this verse and the
next should have been translated these words of the original :
gaudet magnus aerumnas dolor [in A and old editions gaudet animus
aerunmas meas or meus] / tractare iotas (1. 1066-7).
2390-4. Some on theyr (>#.] instead of carrying about bran
ches otPyne and beeche and baye, Seneca makes them sit in these
different trees : hunc pinus, ilium laurus, hunc fagus gerit / ei iota
populo silva suspense tremit (1. io82-3).
23g5. some... beholdeth] 1. 2400. some there weare...
that... The tombe of Hector sitts vpon] on these lines occur
the three different forms of the 3 d pers. plur. of the present
tense after the same subject some. Cp. 11. 3i6 and 533.
2403. preasyd] prease, obsol. form of press. NED (Cp. 1. 2471).
2406. gate] = gait. NED.
2430. scythe] in the original : sedis incertae Scytha (1. 1104).
2442. payse] =peise, obsol . for weight (vulg. Latin pesum).NED.
Palsgrave : Peyce a weyght peys, s. m. (p. a53a).
2449. all to broake] all to = entirely. NED. (Cp. 1. 2461).
2490. masde] aphaetic form of amasde.
2523. monstrouse lyke] monstrouse has here the sense of the
Latin monstrum (1. 1154) = prodigious, wonderful. NED.
2,5zg. out it spoon] to spin = to issue in a thread or small
current : Cp : Henry 7, IV, II, 10 : That their hot blood may spin
in English eyes. Shak.-Lex.
2531. stowndej stound= moment, short time. Hall. Cp. Every
man (ed. Greg, M aterialien , IV) 1. 633.
2532. as therthe should her reuenge] cp. Latin : ut Achilli
gravem j factura terram (1. n58-9).
2537. apparantly] = evidently, conspicuously (NED) ; cp.
Latin clarius (1. 1161).
2540. remaynth] possibly intended as a p. t., as it stands
between droonke and soonke.
2544. careles] = free from anxiety, apprehension. NED.
Lat. : secura (1. 1167).
2549. care] = sadness : Latin : lacrimas(\. 1168).
2564*5. how neere alas &&gt;a.] cp. Latin : quam prope a Priamo steti
(1. 1177); instead of reading steti, like Peiper and Asc, Hey wood
read stetit ( }, HP).
2. John Mason] Sir John Mason, i5o3-i566, was chancellor
of the Oxford University when Heywood dedicated this
volume to him. In the Preface a few grateful lines are conse
crated to the memory of his son (11. 391-424). It appears from
what is said, that this promising boy had been studying at
Oxford l , and had been intimately acquainted with Heywood,
who states that he dedicates his Thyestes to the father since
he cannot inscribe it to the son (11. 425-6). Indeed his friend
died very young (cp. in age so greene , tender tyme \\.3g5,
Sgy) and, according to the bombastic verse, went to lyue with
Joue, an other Ganymede Jn better place then Aquarie . He
is not recorded in his father s biographies, except from the
mention which is made of him in this Preface (Cp. DNB ; Cor-
ser, Collectanea, IV, 2i3, 219).
18. gogyn gyfte <>#.] gogyn, an obsolete form of gudgeon,
NED, is probably used here as an adjective : a gift consist
ing of a gudgeon, or that is not worth much more than a
*) In the Register oj the University of Oxford, edited by C. W. Boase
(Ox ford Hist. Soc., Oxford. i885, vol. I, p. 221), a certain John Mason
is mentioned as having been admitted for the degree of BCL on
January i6 th 1542/3. No mention is made of his family. It results,
however, from a comparison with the events in Sir John Mason s
life, that the latter could not have had a son who about 1543 was
of age to be admitted to that degree. Moreover it would have been
hardly likely that Heywood, who was not sent to Oxford before
1547, should have known him. It is much more probable that the two
youths were of an age or thereabout. Nor is it surprising that Sir
John s son is not mentioned in the Registers of the Oxford Univer
sity, for neither does Heywood s name appear before i553,
though he had been studying there since 1547.
dothe swaye] sway = to incline to one side, to weigh dowri
(one of the scales of a balance) ; this word is used in the same
sense on 1. 2246 : the virgin shalbe throwm, and leuelde payse of
balance stvay alowe, And drawe with them the... Scorpion downe (Lat.
iustaeque cadent ponder a Librae I secumque trahent Scorpion : 1. 858-g).
Consequently the sense of this passage is : the poor man who
has nothing to repay the great gifts bestowed on him, yet
dothe swaye, gives weight to, a gudgeon given as a present,
with (by) his thankfull thought, so that it surpasses the payse of
pearle and golde (1. 19).
20. Jf puisaunt prynce (>.] Heywood alludes to one of the
jests of the Tales, and quicke answer es (i535) : Of kynge Lowes of
France, and the husbandman, xxiij (Shakespeare Jest-books, I, p. 84),
which is the translation of one of the anecdotes of Erasmus
Colloquy Convivium Fabulosum (Opera Omnia, edit. Lugd., I,
79. vngreeyng] composed of vn and the aphetic form of
no. Uenus [began]., on fryday fowle to frowne] the 24 th of
November i55g, when Heywood began his translation of
Thyestes (cp. 11. 91-2), was a Friday ; from his preface we gather
that it was in the morning when Aurora blusht with ruddie
cheekes (1. io3) and that the weather was rainy : hence Venus,
the morning star, is said to have begun to frowne fowle from the
skyes aboue on fryday. Heywood in pointing out Venus sad
influence on Friday, probably was inspired by a few verses
of the Canterbury Tales. In TheNonne Preestes Tale, the slaughter
of Chauntecleer is said to have happened on Venus day,
whereas this goddess ought to have prevented every harm to
her servant . Chaucer ridiculised in these mock-heroic verses
the bombastic style of one of Geoffrey de Vinsauf s poems
(Nova Poetria) on the death of Richard I, who also died on a
O Veneris lacrimosa dies ! O sydus amarum !
Ilia dies tua nox fuit, et Venus ilia venenum,
(Skeat, Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, v. V, p. 25y : 1. 4537).
125. well stept in years] probably an English adaptation of
the Latin progressus aetate.
127- shiende] another instance of this weak p. t. occurs in
HF, 1. 5oi. Cp- Palsgrave : p. 703, b : His victoriouse actes
shyned thorowe all the worlde.
197. miter] = meter. NED.
224. hath cowched] = has laid, placed, put. NED.
258. passe] = to excel, to be very extraordinary. NED.
25g. Jn Lyncolnes Jnne d>a.] Several of the prominent lite-
rators about i56o were at the Inns of Court. Sir Thomas
Sackville and Thomas Norton were barristers at the Inner
Temple ; William Bavand was a student at the Middle Tem
ple; Sir Thomas North at Lincolns Inn, and Sir Christopher
Yelverton at Gray s Inn. Heywood entered the latter in i56i.
Cp. J. W. Cunliffe, Early English Classical Tragedies, Oxford
1912 ; p. Ixiii, ff.
274. Yeluerton] though named in a breath with Sackville
and Norton, Sir Christopher Yelverton (i535 ?-i6i2) is hardly
known as a lilerator. DNB. From Cunliffe, E. E. Class. Trag.,
p. 169, it appears that he wrote the epilogue to Gasgoigne s
Jocasta, which was acted at Gray s Inn, i566.
275. pewred] = pured, refined. NED.
280. Baldwyn] the editor of the Mirror of Magistrates. The
first edition appeared in i559, and seems to have roused Iley-
wood s admiration (Cp. Cambridge Hist, of Engl. Lit-, \. Ill,
p. 192, ft).
283. Blunduille] Thomas Blundeville (cp.DNB) wrote Three
Treatises, no less pleasant than necessary for all men to reade ; whereof
the one is called, The Learned Prince ; the other, The Fruites of Foes ;
the thyrde, The Porte of Rest. London i56i, 40. (Cp. Watt, Bibl.
Brit., I, p. 124). Heywood alludes to the second of these trea
tises (1. 286), which seems to have been inspired by Plutarch s
De Utilitate Capienda ex Inimicis. As this preface was .written at
the latest in March i56o, Blundville s Fruites must have had an
earlier edition than that of i56i, or have been in circulation in
287. Bauande] William Bavand or Bavaund (fl. i55g : DNB)
edited a Translation of the Work of Joannes Ferrarius Montanus,
touchy nge the Good Orderynge of a Commonweale, &a. London, i55g,
4*". Cp. Watt, Bibl. Brit., 1, p. 85.
291. Googe] According to the Notes of the Life and Writings
of Barnabe Googe, prefixed to his Eglogs, Epytaphes, and Sonettes,
i563, edited by Edward Arber (London, 1910 : p. 6), there
is an entry in the Stationers Registers (J. P. Collier, Extracts,
&a, I. 26, Ed. 1848) of April or May i56o for the printing of
a boke called pallengenius that is to say The First thre Bokes
of the most Christian poet Marcellus Palingenius called THE ZODIAKE
OF LIFE, translated out of Latin into Englysh by Barnabe Googe
(In i56i appeared a second edition containing The firste syxe
Bokes ; cp. Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1. 1, p. 426). It is said in
this Preface to Thyestes, that Googe a gratefull gaynes hath
gotte... Who crooked Compasse dothe describe ; that implies
that The Zodiake of Life, which probably had not been printed
when these lines were written, had been circulating in
manuscript. It is not surprising that Heywood should know
all the works in which the young literators of the Inns were
engaged. Probably he was no stranger amongst them : nor
will they have failed to welcome the son ot the favourite poet
of kings and queens and the translator of Troas, who perhaps
paid his footing by these laudatory verses. (Cp. similar com
mendatory lines prefixed to Googe s Zodiake, in Eglogs &a.,
ed. Arber, p. 8, and to John Studley s Agamemnon by T. B.
London i5j6, ed. Spearing, p. 16.
291. a gratefull gaynes] probably read gayne.
3:8. Troas &a] for the history of the two editions of this
tragedy, see Introduction.
420. glede] glede (or gleed) = a live coal ; spark of fire ; light.
428. Aquarie] according to Eratosthenes and the Alexan
drian Astronomers, Ganymede was placed amongst the con
stellations, and became the Aquarius or Waterbearer of the
Zodiac. Cp. Hyginus, Poeticon Astronomical, ed. Solingae, i53g,
fol. d. iii verso ; Fabulae, cap. ccxxiv ; Palingenius, Zodiacus
Vitae, Liber XL
556. Powngarnet] pomegranate. NED.
585. purtred] = purtreyed, portrayed, drawn. Cp. 1. 624.
594. amell] aphetic form of enamel.
606. other are] the verb is plural as the meaning of other is
plural. Knecht, p. 3g ff.
611. cytheron] = instrument of the guitar kind, but strung
with wire and played with a quill. NED.
612. shaulme] = shawme ; Old Fr. chalemie. NED.
shagbut] = sackbut ; Old Fr. saquebute. NED.
613. vyall] = viol.
627. Palingene] Marcellus Palingenius, pseudonym of Pie-
tro Angelo Manzolli, wrote the Zodiacus Vitae, hoc est de Homi-
nis Vita, Studio ac Moribus (Venice c. i53i), which was highly
popular in England. Cp. 1. 291.
644. Jasper stone] perhaps this special stone was chosen to
serve as a paronomasia on the translator s name.
yo5. Gryphyus] Sebastian Gryphius [Grypheus], the famous
Lyons printer, edited Seneca s tragedies in i536 and reprinted
them many a time in the following years (Panzer, Annales
Typogr aphid, Nuremberg, i8o3 : vol. VI, pp. 367,799).
Colineus] Simon de Colines (Colinaeus) printer in Paris,
edited in i534 Seneca s works after Erasmus emendations.
(Bibliotheca Erasmiana, t. II, p. 5o).
707. Aldus] Manitius, Venice, published the famous Aldine or
Avantine edition of Seneca s tragedies (i5i7), which approaches
nearesttothe genuinam recensionis uolgariscondicionem and
was the foundation of most of the subsequent editions. (Cp.
Peiper-Richter s edition of Seneca s Tragoediae, Leipzig 1867).
801. thencreasyng lyuer styll] Heywood read like A (as
generally) : semper accrescens iecur (P : specu vasto patens (1. 9).
802. grypes] = vultures. NED.
806-7. And wondrows c^a] Latin : plenum recenti pabulum
monstro iacet (1. 12).
823. vnuentred] = vnuentured. Cp. 1. 1116.
834. meaneof ire] meatie moderation ; cp. Lat : ne sit irarum
modus (1. 26).
900. fynde] = go and fetch.
where] has here the sense of when, now that : Lat. : iam..,
spumante aeno (A : \. 59-60).
9o5. fyled] aphetic form of defyled.
920. fraight] = fraught.
923. leefull] = lawfull, right, just. NED. This word often
occurs in TH andHF.
954-6. To sufire paynes &a.] the contrast of the original is
lost : Me pati pcenas decet, / non essc pcenam (1. 86-7).
962. parents] in the Latin text the singular is used : magne
divorum parens (1. 90).
976. crallyng snakes] Lat. : tortos... angues (1- 96) ; to crall = to
bend, to twist, to curl. NED. Cp. 1. 2698.
992. the sadder soyle] Latin : maestae ... terrae(\. 106). In this
instance and many times in the next lines a Latin positive is
rendered by an English comparative : 1. 998 : whotter = igneus;
1.999 -fewer= raras ; 1. 1006 : neerer fonrdes = vicina... vada;
1. 1007 : lesser grounde = gracili... terra ; &a.
998. whotter] = hotter. NED.
1006. foordes] this word has the sense of the Latin vada
(1. 1 1 3), i. e. sea, main (in the NED this sense is recorded as
1008. now broader spredde] Latin : latus A (P : tutus : 1. 114).
1018. And noble feeldes of Argos feare, theyr former drought
to knowe] the original reads in P, BM & HP : timentque
veterem nobilis Argi sitim (1. 119) : in Asc it runs : timentque
veterem nobiles agri sitim, though the notes to this passage explain
the reading : Argi nobiles : famosi. Gryphius text has agri sitim,
but gives as variant in the margin Argi sitim. Heyvvood has
combined both readings Argi and agri, which seems to imply
that he worked on Gryphius text, or at least compared it with
io32. yerely breathe] Lat. : veliferis. . . Etesiis (G : veliferi : 1 . 129)
1043. his dame] Heywood read here : deceptor dominae (A :
domim) Myrtilus, whereas P has domini (1. 140).
1046. mariners] Lat. : navibus (1. 143) ; G and Asc have the
variant navitis, which Heywood adopted.
1069. rought] obsolete p. p. of to reach. NED.
1076. the dried foorde] foorde has again the sense of the
Latin vadum (cp- 1- 1006 ; HF, 1. 1469) : in this instance it
means, as in the original : sterili... vado (1. 173) the channel,
the bottom of the water, the shoal , almost as much as
beach (This sense is not recorded in the NED).
1 1 14. allowe] = to laud, to praise; NED] Lat. :probet(\. 192).
1 182. entende] = intend. NED.
u38-g. Doothe fame of people nought / Aduerse thee feare?]
may serve as an instance of Heywood s literal renderings : the
original reads : Fama te populi nihil / adversa terret ? (1. 204-5).
feare] evidently used in the sense of to frighten, to cast fear
on (Lat. : terret). NED.
1168. neare] = ne er, never. NED.
1171-2. What heynous &&gt;a.j Hcywood chose, instead of the
usual reading (P, G, Asc, &a) : quid... crimine, one which is
given in the margin of HP : quod... crimen (1. 221).
H0. fatall beast] Hey wood read : fatale sa.veo pecus (HP],
instead of fatale sacro (A ; in P : sax to) pascuum (1. 233).
1197. aduentryng] = aduenturyng. NED.
I2o3. wandred he] the old editions read : erravit; P : erravi
(1. 2 3 7 ).
1206. trayncs] (Lat. : insidiis : 1. a38^ = deceit, treachery,
snare. Hall. Cp. 11. i3jo, i6i5, 1642, &a.
1207. My feerce deflourde] Latin : corrupla lOtn uti.i (1. i3gi ;
N reads feere ==- consort, spouse, husband or wife. The reading
o f A, feerce, must be a misprint for feere.
1223-5. Let tyrants c~>a.] Hey wood read and divided the cor
responding lines of the original like HP : perimat tyranmis : lenis
in regno meo / mors impetretur ? (1. 247-8).
1263. ] note &&gt;a.\ These words are spoken by Atreus and
should be preceded by the scenical entry Atr., which was
probably overlooked by the printer. N has put it before the
first word of line 1265.
] note] = I know not; cp. Chaucer, (f. i.) Legend of Good
Women, 1. 2660 ; Palsgrave : I note, or I ne wote (Lydgate) Je tie
scay (p. 645, a).
my mynde] Hey wood read animus (HP, Asc, iS:a ; in P :
aninto : 1. 267).
1266. to swell] P : tumet ; A, Asc : timet. Hey wood read iumet ;
both readings are recorded in HP (1. 268).
1283. pa-rents] the corresponding word in the original is
singular : in the old editions : parens : in P : pater (1.277).
3 4 2
1288-9. this pleaseth &a.] Heywood read according to the
punctuation of the old editions : hie placet pcenae modus- / tantis-
per ubinam est ? (1. 279-80).
i333- trauels] = troubles, hardships : Lat. : malis(\. 3oi). Cp.
line 1841 : trauells and 1. i52i : trauayls : Lat. : aerumnas (1. 3o5
1335. Requests will moue] = Heywood read : preccs movebunt:
a, Asc, HP (P : prece commovebunt ; A : precommov ebunt ; 1. 3o2).
1336. Jmperie] = empery, authority, command, dominion,
sovereignty. NED. Cp. HF, 1. aSiy.
i36o. naught] (Lat. : mali) = bad.
1367. beware] probably we should read be ware = be aware of
this disceite, &a. ; Latin : scient (1. 3i6). Heywood follows
A and the old editions, where lines 3i7 and 3i8 are spoken by
SAT(elles), Atreus answer beginning with line 319.
i383. him] Lat. : illi : A, Asc, HP, &a. ; P : Hits (1. 3a5).
1414. not ritches make] niches is regularly followed by a
plural verb in A ; N writes makes. Cp. Knecht, pp. 39-42.
1419. affects] = disposition, temper, natural tendency. NED.
Lat. : diri mala pectoris (1. 349).
1444. the floude of Danubye] Lat. : Danubium licet : A, Asc,
HP ; P : Danuvii vadum (1. 376;.
1455. great goons (N Guns) in carts] Lat .admotis... machinis
1460. tyckle] = unsteady, uncertain, inconstant : Palsgr. ;
Hall. ; Shak.-Lcx. Cp. 1. 1579.
1475. PHYLISTHENES] in A and the old editions, Phylistenes
takes the part which in P is given to TANTALVS, whilst
PLISTHENES is mentioned as [actor] TACITVS.
1479. mysers] myser = miserable, wretched person ;NED;
this word often occurs in Heywood s plays : cp. 11. i523, i55g
2317 ; HF, 11. ioi5, 1017, &a.
1486. stadies] a Latinism for racecourse ; Hall. In the
original : stadia (1. 409).
1488. seelde] = selde, seldom. NED.
1498. flattryng fulgent face] fulgent : prob. a latinism of Hey
wood s coining for glittering ; Lat. : ful gore... f also (\. 4i5).
3 4 3
iSocri. With whom ...regarde] probably Heyw r ood read :
Cum quo (A~, Asc.} datur spectabis, (Asc : spcctabilis.} et tandem
(A~, Asc.] aspice. In P : cum quod datur spectabis, ct dantem aspice.
(1. 416 .
i566. That hanged... was] weak p.t.in the trans, sense. NED.
1569-71- ... to knowe ? The greater &-a.] Heywood follows
here Ascs reading, who has:... securas dapes ? I Humi jacentem
scelera non intrant casam. (1. 45o-5i). P (as HP and other texts)
reads :... securas dapes I Jiumi iacentcm: scelera non intrant casas, (HP :
1572. and safer foode] the Latin text has no comparative :
tutusque... cibus (1. 452).
1578-81. Of haughtic house c~.] Hey wood did not under
stand in this passage (1. 455-6) Seneca s allusion to Valerius
1641. when caught ye are] Heywood rend : captus, variant
of Asc, HP, &a. (P : cautus : 1. 486). - In the old editions the
next lines, 487-8 : Serum est... testor tamen, are spoken by
Thyestes son. as in Hey wood s translation, 1. 1642-5. In P
they are Thyestes part.
1645. request] Heywood read : kcc Jiortamen est (cp. A, Asc,
PIP, &a. J. P : hoc testor tamen (1. 488).
1 660. leame] (Lat. loro) - lyam, lytne, a leash for hounds. NED.
1720. clyppe and colle] - embrace, hug, kiss. NED.
17240. Lyke myne cS-fl.] Hey wood read with A and the old
texts : quales mei sunt : lactusque frater imperil (1- 526).
1788. gyns of yrne] gyns, aphetic form of engyncs mechani
cal contrivance or device ; NED ; Lat. :ferreis...clauslris(\- 56g).
1793. battaylcs sowne] soun sound, noise. Hall Lat. : litui
strepentis (1. 575).
1824. and men of myght he feares diva.] probably Heywood
read with Asc : &&gt; moventes / Cuncta dynastas : mcluitquc casus &.c.
P reads : cuncta divinat; A, HP : cuncta divitias il. 604-5).
1 858. people wylde] Lat. : Alaais (1. 63o).
1878. 1 aske not who] singular, as in the Latin text : non
qnacro qiiis sit (1. 640).
10,21. falser axell tree] Latin : falsisaxibus(\. 661) ; cp. 11.992,
l5 7 2.
3 4 4
ig52. Affright] p. p. without ending : cp. TR. 1. 2o5i.
1954. ...the place] Hey wood seems to have read loco instead
of luco (1. 678) ; this reading is nowhere recorded.
igSS. darknes.. of hell] Lat. superstitio inferum (1. 678).
1975. besprinkt with leuens fine] leuens = leaven, ferment ,
is used here to render salsa... mola (1. 688), i. e., mola ex hordeo
& sale confecta : qua frontem victimae, focum, & cultros
aspergere mods erat ; hinc immolare l }. Possibly the fact that the
mola was made of salted meal, induced Heywood to use the
word leuens, which is not recorded in this special sense.
1988. He lights the fyres] Heywood translated the variant of
Asc, HP, &a. : accendit ipse (P : attendit ipse : 1. 6g5).
2Oi3. in gangey woods] Latin : silvis... in Gangeticis (1. 707).
2024. poyntes] apheticform of appoyntes , i.e. determines,
2o3i. Whome take he] take, 3 d p. sing- of present tense with
out ending ; cp. TR, 1. 555 ; Knecht, p. 141.
2o5i. tralles] = trawls.
2086-8- ye heare not yet... more] Heywood translated the
reading of A hactenus non stat nefas, j plus est- (P : hactenus si
stat nefas, / plus est 1. 744-5).
2121. stoompes] stumps, rumps, trunks-
2 1 35. chimney] = nreplace,hearth; NED; Lat.: focos (1. 768).
2136. Up heapt] = accumulating ; Lat. : regestus (1. 769).
2141. that cry] Heywood translated the variant of A : an
flammat gemant (P : an flammae magis : 1. 771).
2177. prince] Latin : parens (1. 789).
2i85. chare] = chariot, car. NED.
2ig5. trenched] = cut. Shak.-Lex., Hall. Latin : pectorejosso :
Asc ; in P, A, HP, &a. :fesso (1. 807).
2204. to sende the horses out] in the original : dec traders fre-
nos (1. 816).
2228. with swyfter course or passe her brothers turnes] or
should be placed at the beginning of the verse ; cp. Latin : v in-
ceique suifratris habenas, / curvo brevius limite currens (11. 841-2).
d ) Cp. Th. Farnabius notes on Seneca s Tragoediae, edition of
P. Scriverius & A. Thysius : Lugd. Batav., i65i.
3 4 5
2229. she fetts] = she fetches. NED.
2a3o. the Gods] Seneca s text has : turba deorum (1. 848), i. e.
2260. by kyndej = by nature : these words are an unnecessary
complement to harde : Latin \frigida duro Cynosura gelu (1. 872).
2264. hugy] = obsolete form of huge ; cp. TR, 11. 186, 297.
2269. faught] = fault. NED.
23o5. Tys best &a.] Latin : sobrio tanla ad mala j opus est
Thyeste (11. 900-1).
2336. let... theboordes be taken vp] =let the feast be finis
hed ; cp. Latin : mensa cludatur (1. 916). Cp. 1. 2420 : they... at
boorde ... sit : Latin : iucunda mensae sacra... colunt (1. 981).
a35i. whether] whither, where to.
238o-i. and florysht &&gt;a.] inversion for : it tykes [them} to
rent theyr robes florysht faire with Tynan dye : cp. the Latin text :
libet et Tyrio saturas ostro / rumpere vestes (11. g55-6).
2382-3. for sorowe, &&gt;a.} another inversion that makes the
sense almost unintelligible :for the minde, that ivotts before of after
yll, sends sorowe in sygne that woes draive nye. Nor is the original
accurately rendered : Mitiii Indus signa futuri / mens, ante sui
Praesaga mali (11. 957-8).
2448. my brother &&gt;a.] read : god prouyde to spare my brother
and soons ; Lat. :fratn precor / gnatisque parcat(\. 995-6).
2492. burnyng frete] this word, which in the NED is only
recorded in the sense of strait (= fret, a breach or passage
made by the sea), has evidently been anglicised (possibly by
Hey wood himself) from the Latin f return in the sense of
current, impetuous torrent ; cp. the original : ardenti freto
(1. 1017). It is used in the same sense on 1. 2772 : thou ferfull
freate offyre,... O Phlegethon. In HF it is used in the sense of
sea, sound on 11. 729, 1149, 2077, and for the river Styx
on 1. i553.
25oi-2. And rather &&gt;a.] these verses are the translation of a
line which in A and the old texts comes between 11. 1021 and
1022 of Peiper s edition : Recipe hosce citius : liberis tandem tuis /
Diu expetitis, &a.
^565. quytst] aphetic form ofrequyist : cp. 1. 2666 quyght ; HF,
1. 2227 quyght.
25y5. strake] one of the older forms ol the p. t. of to strike.
2584. atoo] = away from each other, apart, asunder. NED.
Newton reads a two.
2649. The worldej Hey wood translated the variant of A and
the old texts : secla or secula (P : scelera : \. 1095).
2665. what wedlocke gods ?] i. e., why not call on the gods
of wedlock, instead of on the gods of infancy (1. 2664) :
Lat. : Quin coniugales ? (1. Tio3).
2698. crallyng] = crawling (Cp. 1. 976].
2708. byde] aphetic form of abvde.
2. Syr William Harbert, &&gt;a.] Sir William Herbert, first
Earl of Pembroke of the second creation (i5oi?-i5yo), one of
the first and greatest supporters of Elisabeth, was most pow
erful in the beginning of her reign. At the time this tragedy
was dedicated to him, he was recovering from a disease at
his house in Ilendon; he fell ill in July i56o and it was late
in i56i before he attended again the Queen s Privy Council.
29. Euripides &a.] Cp, Euripidis Hecuba et Iphigenia : latinae
factae Erasmo Rot. inter prete. (Parisiis) ex offic. Ascensiana,
id. sept. i5o6. Erasmi Op. Om., I, 1127.
g3. my Lord Henry, &a] Henry Herbert, second Earl of
Pembroke (i534?-i6oi), was the elder son of William Herbert,
first Earl. Cp. DNB. He studied at Petei house, Cambridge,
under Whitgift (DNB). Still from what is said here, and from
Hey wood s statement that he had well known him at Oxford,
where his father had sent him to be educated, it follows that
he had been for some time at that University. There is,
however, no mention of him in the records. On September 27,
i5g2, while the queen was a guest of the University of Oxford,
Henry Herbert was created Master of Arts 1 ).
i33. THE ARGUMENT &a] This summary bears some resem
blance with the Argttmcntum prefixed to this tragedy in
H. Petrus and Gryphius editions.
217. Yet shall my hates not leaue them so] them, i. e. Her
cules and Alcmena ; the original does not make this distinct
mention : non sic abibunt odia (1. 27).
218-20. a wrathfull &a] In the Latin text it is not Hercules
*) Cp. A Wood, Athen. Ox., p. 769.
3 4 8
but Juno herself, who is going to be stirred up by madness :
vivaces aget j violentus iras animus &a (11. 27-8;.
229. tierde] ^= tired, broken by fatigue, wearied out ; cp.
Latin : fractum (1. 33).
248. impedes] emperies, used in the sense of orders, behests,
commands. According to the NED, this sense of impery is rare,
and only this passage is quoted as instance. Evidently the
word derived this meaning from the influence of the Latin
iinperium: laetus imperia e.vcipit (\. 42). Cp. TH, 1. i336.
271-2. And beare the rule &&gt;a.] In the translation these
words refer to Pluto ; in the original to Hercules : cur non...
Ereboque capto potitur, et retegit Styga (1. 64).
366-7- the feruent burnyng tree Of pyne] the Latin text
reads : ardtniem... pinuin (11. 100-1) = torch of pine.
368. her dredful flocke to see] the words to see are only used
to make up the rhyme ; they occur very frequently in these
tragedies : cp. 11. 378, 55o, &a.
374. of hell his spoyle] cp. Latin : violatae Stvgis (1. 104).
4i3. stipye] = steepy ; in the original : prono (\. 125).
4i5. clere so beams] X writes cleresome beames, which is
evidently a mistake, nor does any word like cleresome exist.
Cp. Spearing, p. 71.
419. hors] plural ; Lat. : eqttis (1. i32). NED. Franz, Shak.-
Gramm., p. i83.
419. marble] this marble is used as the translation of the
Latin caeruleis (1. 182) : and consequently has the sense of
dark green, dark or sombre blue . Cp. Spearing, p. 62 ;
Shakespeare, Othello, Hi, 3, 461 ; Cymbeline, v. 4, 87 and 120.
This sense is not recorded in the NED ; some of the instances
quoted there under the sense of mottled, dappled , may
possibly have to be explained in this meaning.
426. His flocks vnped, do grase &&gt;a,] between vnped and do, the
relative has been omitted, hence the comma ; cp. P. Simpson,
Shakespearian Punctuation, p. 54.
427. nipps] this word refers to shepeherd and means cuts off .
- The Latin text is somewhat different : aperitque domos /
Pastor, gelida cana pruina / grege dimisso pabula carpit (1. i38-4o).
3 4 Q
Some editors have explained this passage in the sense which
Hey wood has given to it : Dicit Seneca, pastorem grege in
pascua jam dimisso, manu sua quoque pabula legisse, eidem
pecori futura usui noctu : taie quid factitari solitum ostendit
Longus Sophista in Pastoralibus (Janus Gruterus Notae, edit.
429. whose brow did dam yet neuer teare] in the original :
nondum rupta fronte iuvencus(\. 142). Heywood probably alludes
to the habit of a calf, when it feels its horns growing, of rub
bing its head against its dam, the mother cow, with which it
is placed in the open medowe.
45i-453. He proude &a] The opposition of the original be
tween ille... and hie (1. 164-166) has not been rendered.
577-8. of them &a] in Latin only gentis... Thermodoontiae
(1. 246), which had to be spun out in the translation to fill
up the verse and make a rhyme to nyght.
583. vayle] aphetic form of avayle.
612. in drawyng to the stones] Lat. sa.va... trahens: 1. 263.
To, adverb, has the sense of together, in order .
644. helly] = of hell, infernal. This adjective occurs again
on 1. 2178. NED.
671. people] the Latin term is plural : populos (1. 2g3).
681. nor yet of me once myndefull] these words apply to
the returnes of Hercules, who does not seem to think of
Megara : Lat. : reditusque lentos, nee mei memores, querar ? (1. 298).
749. who the sceptors shakes in hande of other kyng] Hey
wood seems to have imitated here even the inversions of the
original : aliena dextra sceptra concutiens Lvcus (1. 33i).
75i. plentuous] = plenteous. NED.
759. slender Isthmos yle] Lat. : Isthmos exilis d. 336) Hey
wood seems to have mistaken Isthmos for an island.
778. in forayne countrey set] the Latin text is quite different :
alieno in loco (1. 344), i. e., which has been usurped, is not held
by the right possessor.
793-4. The hate of men &&gt;a.} rather ambiguous rendering of
1. 352 : invidia factum ac sermo popularis premet ? = and what if
(or : and let) the hate and the talk of the people reprove the
fact ! (Heywood translated factum by my pryde).
822. housen] (his plural form in en occurs again on lines g65,
1704, 2o83 (howse) and 2461 ; Heywood makes use of the
form in s as well : howses (1. 1980).
875. measuryng throughout] literal translation of the Latin
890. without the lawe his feare] there are a few instances in
these tragedies of this old form of the Sax. Gen., which was
not uncommon in the xvi th century ; cp. 1. 374 : of hell his spoyle ;
1. i5i8 .abstaynefrom man his bloode. Franz, Shak.-Gramm., p. 291.
899-900. the battels doth the blonde delyght out shed] ob
scure rendering of bella delectat cruor (1. 4o5), i.e. the outshed
blonde doth delyght (= enjoys greatly, makes delightful) the
936. The heyght] the Latin word is more definite : super a
(1. 423) = the heavens.
g52. slayne.. with handy e stroake] Lat. : tradidit... neci.
(1. 4 3i).
g56. vertue] has here the sense of the Latin virtus, valour
961. darknes] seems to be plural : cp. line 962 : presse : Latin :
Tenebrae... Tartareae(\. 436) Cp. carkas, TR, 718.
988. a common trade] cp. Latin : causa, i. e. the origin,
io3o. tymber] = timbrel : Palsgrave, p. 65q, b ; Lat. : tym-
pani (1. 470).
io33. tender] = youthful : Lat. : tener (1. 472).
1059. he that met &&gt;a] one of the three Geryons : the original
of this passage in the old texts and Heywood s, is quite dif
ferent from the modern version.
1129. soon] = son : cp. Lat. : nate(\. 620).
1144. from systers mokt] mokt = deceived, deluded ; NED.
Lat : deceptis(\. 53o). Cp. 1. 1264, 1275.
1190. in darker place] cp. Latin : surdis... in locis (1. 576);
dark seems to have here the sense of gloomy, silent.
1237. thyngs vncome to] litteral translation of inaccessa (1. 606).
1241. dyrer Joue] Lat. : diro... Jovi (1. 608).
1255. ceasse] = cease from action, take rest : NED : in the
Latin text the same word is used : cessare (1. 6i5).
1282. bestadde] = beset ; NED ; Latin : obsiti l. 627).
i3i5-6. Tis lyght, he shall : he cloothe : and thats to lyght,
lie hathe it doonej in the original : lentum est, dabit : dat ; hoc
(jnot/ue est lentum : dedit (1. 644^. Lyg/it ----- lite, obs. for delay, tar
diness . NED.
i33g. Beguylde] read Beguyle ; the form Beguylde is not
recorded in NED, and must be an error of the author or the
1343. All ryght of worlde] literal translation of : I^as omne
mundi (1- 658).
1374. Are loaste] = are loosed, are broadened : Lat. : laxan-
tur d. 673). The same form occurs on 1. ig52 : loaste : Lat.
solvit (1. gg3).
1432. waste] (/ waste. Je gaste, je consume. Pals., 772, a) = to
be wasting, waste itself : Lat. squalet (1. 701).
1433. bonde] = bound, limit (this word often occurs in the
following verses) ; Lat. finis (1. 708).
1459. with double foorde] literal translation of duplici vado
(1. 716). Here, as on 11. i552 and 1747, joorde has the sense of
the Latin vaditm, i. e. shallow river, shoal . Cp. TH, 11. 1006,
1477-9. and great parte of cruel! kyngdomes place Js he
hymcelfe the lorde therof] ambiguous rendering of 11. 726-6 :
magna pars regni trucis / est ipse dominus : i. e. he himself is the
greatest terror of this place.
1494. is harde] = is hearde : Lat. : auditur \\. 733).
i5o2. shette] shet = shut (inf. : shytte : 1. 1622) ; NED ; this
form often occurs in these tragedies.
1607. of his owne lyfe lorde] Lat : dominusque vitae (1. 740).
Many of the old commentators explained vitae, as vitae suae
(Asc) ; it is nowadays only explained as vitae subditorum.
075. bette] beaten. NED.
i6o3. Like yre to shape] literally translated from : par ira
formae (1. 788).
1609. sent] = scent : cp. Lat. sentire (1. 791).
1696. prease] (Palsgrave, p. 258, a) = press, throng, crowd.
NED. Cp. TR, 1. 2 4 o3.
lyoS. sorte] = set, crowd, company (not taken in a bad sense
as it is in Shakespeare ; cp. Shak.-Lex.}.
1782. it least againe] in Latin : carpit (1. 874;.
1784. humbyllye] = humbly.
1787. royle] = to go about, to roam or rove about, to play ;
NED ; in Latin : agitent (1. 879).
1940. enmiows] = hostile, unfriendly. NED.
ig58. and corners all] cp. Latin : omnesque latebras (1. 996).
2040-1. J gladly haue fulfyllde my wyshes all] Latin : vota
persolvi libens (1. 1087) .
2089. astrey] Lat : Astraeae (1. 1068).
2123. strips] = stripes ; in the original : verbera (1. no3). Cp.
2145. argos barriars plaies] Lat : Argiva... palaestra (1. 1124).
2149. paise] = peise, weigh : Latin : librare (1. 1128).
2324. astonyde] = bewildered, dismayed. NED.
235o. knappe] = break; cp. Latin : rumpemus (1. 1232).
2436-8. a mynde vnmeete to beare vpright No euyll hap]
literal rendering of the double negation of the original : nulli
imparem / animum malo resume (1. 1275-6).
253i. engraue] = bury, entomb.
INDEX TO THE NOTES
aduentryng : TH, 1 197
affects : TH, 1419
to allowe : TH, 1114
all to : TR, 2449
amell : TH, 594
apparantly : TR, 253y
astonyde : HF, 2824
atoo : TH, 258 4
bestadde : HF, 1282
bette (p. p.] : TR, 814
bonde : HF, i 4 33
boordes : TH, 2336
byde : TR, 1661
care : TR, 467, 25 4 g
to care : TR, ig63
carke : TR, 53g
to cast care : TR, 176
to ceasse : HF, 1255
chare : TH, 2186
chimney : TH, 21 35
to clyppe : TH, 1720
to colle : TH, 1720
cowched : TH, 224
to crall : TH, 976
cytheron : TH, 611
dam : HF, 429
dankye: TR, no5
dark : HF, 1190
dea : TR, 298
dispoynted : TR, 1882
easely : TR, ij55
to embrasse : TR, 1272
to engraue : HF, 253i
enmiows : HF, 1940
to entende : TH, n32
faught : TH, 2269
to fear : I\R, 1775
feere (feerce) : TH, 1207
to fett : TH, 2229
fill (p. t.) : TR, 798
flyte : TR, 656
foorde : TH, 1006, 1076 ; HF, 1459
fordo : TR, 5gg
fraight : TH, 920
frete : TH, 2492
fulgent : TH, 1498
fyled : TH, 9 o5
gan (p. t.) : TR, 197
gate (p. t.) : 77?, io35
gate : TR, 2406
glede : TH, 420
gogyn : TH, 18
gone (^r. t.) : TR, z3i
grate (/>. /.) : 27?, 619
grype : TH, 802
gyns : TH, 1788
handye : HF, g52
helly : HF, 6 44
housen (plur.) : HF, 822
to hoyse : TR, 2 335
hugye : TR, 186
humbyllye : HF, 1734
iestes : TR, 181
yll: 77?, 1194
imperie : TH, i336 ; HF, 248
to knappe : HF, 235o
leame : TH, 1666
leames : TR, 1097
to leese : TR, 246
leeful : TH, 9 23
lenger : TR, i 9 56
leuens : TH, ig;5
loast (p. p.) : HF, 1374
lyght : HF, i3i5
marble : HF, 419
masde (p. p.): TR, 2490
meane : TH, 83 4
miter : TH, 197
mokt, mockt : HF, 1144
monstrouse : 77?, 2523
myser : TH, 1479
naught : TH, i36o
neare (never): TH, 1168
nones : TR, 896
northen : TR, 1124
I note : TH, 1263
ought : 77?, 658
paise : TR, 2442 ; HF, 2149
to passe : TH, 208
pewred : TH, 2?5
plentuous : HF, 751
powngarnet : TH, 556
poyntes : TH, 2024
purtred (p. p.) : TH, 585
prease: TR, 2 4 o3 ; HF, 1696
to quyte, quyght : TH, 2565
to rcsight: TR, 221
roge : 77?, 4 25
rought (p. p.) : TH, 1069
to royle : HF, 1737
sear : TR, 1621
seelde : TH, 1488
seely : TR, n85
sent : HF, 1609
shagbut: TH, 612
shaulme : TH, 612
shette (. />.) : HF, 002
slipper : TR, 905
sorte : .ffF, 1703
to sownd : TR, 2167
sowne : TH, 1793
to spin : TR, 2529
splayde : TR, 5gi
stadies : TH, 1486
stip) - e : HF, 413
stoompe : TH, 2121
stownde : TR, 253 1
strake (p. t.) : TH, z5j5
strips : HF, 212$
to sway : TH, 18
synde (p.p.) : TR, 874
tender : HF, io33
to thirst : TR, 233
tierde : HF, 229
to trail : TH, 2o5i
trauels: TH, i333
trayne : TH, 1206
trenched : TH, 219$
tyckle : TH, 1460
tymber : HF, io3o
vayle : Tfl, 941
vertue : HF, g56
vngreeyng : TH, 79
vnuentred : TH, 823
vnware : TR, 201 3
vyall: TH, 6i3
waste : HF, 1432
way : TR, 845
to weight: Tft, ii3o
to welde: TR, 1896
whether: TH, 235 1
whisht, whist: 272, 821
whotter : TH, 998
yburnte : TR, 23g6
ycorued : TR, 200
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
A first edition respectively of the translations of Troas,
Thyestes and Hercules Fur ens, reproduced in this volume.
A Interpolata recensio recentiorum codicum of Seneca s Tra-
goediae. Cp. Introduction.
Asc Judocus Badius Ascensius edition of Seneca s Tra-
goediae, Paris, 1514.
B second edition of Heywood s Troas.
BM Isoarda de Saviliono s edition of Seneca s Tragoediae,
C third edition of Heywood s Troas.
Cunliffe The Influence of Seneca on Elizabethan Tragedv, London,
DNB Dictionary of National Biography.
G Gryphius edition of Seneca s Tragoediae, Lyons, 1541.
Hall. Halliwell, Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words,
Ill- Hercules Furens translated by Hey wood.
HP Henricus Petrus edition of Seneca s Tragoediae, Basle,
i5 4 i.
Jockers Die Englischen Seneca-Uebersetzer des 16. Jahrhundcrts,
Knecht Kongruenz zwischen Subjekt und Pradikat, 1911.
Materialien W. Bang s Materialien zur Kunde des aelteren Englischen
Miller The tragedies of Seneca, Chicago, 1907.
N Newton, Seneca his Tenne Tragedies, London, i58i.
Nares Glossary, London, 1888.
NED New English Dictionary.
P, Peiper Peiper-Richter s edition of Seneca s Tragocdiae, Leip
Palsgrave L Eclair cissement de la Langue Fran false (Paris i852).
Shak.-Lex. Schmidt, Shakespeare-Lexicon.
Spearing The Elizabethan Translations of Seneca s Tragedies, Cam
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